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The great calming and contemplation of Chih-I, chapter one: the synopsis (translated, annotated and with… Donner, Neal Arvid 1976

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THE GREAT CALMING AND CONTEMPLATION OF CHIH-I CHAPTER ONE: THE SYNOPSIS (translated, annotated, and with an introduction) by NEAL ARVID DONNER B.A., Oberlin College, 1964 M.A., University of Michigan, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the Department of Asian Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1976 (c) Neal Arvid Dormer, 1976 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the require-ments for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that publica-tion, in part or in whole, or the copying of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. NEAL ARVID DONNER Department of Asian Studies The University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1W5 Date ?A 3~M+JL 1^1 (, i i ABSTRACT This thesis consists of an annotated translation, with introduction, of the f i r s t two of the ten ro l l s of the Mo-ho-chih-kuan -f^ J |f|L • The Mo-ho-chih-kuan is no. 1911 of the works contained in the Taisho edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon (Taisho-shinshu-daizokyo <^^f K^k M- ), in Vol. 46 from page 1 to page 140. The f i r s t two r o l l s , Chapter One of the whole work, run from page 1 to page 21. The Mo-ho-chih-kuan derives from a series of lectures given over the summer months of the year 594 A.D. by the founder of the T'ien-t'ai ^ £ school of Chinese Buddhism, Chih-i ^ jjjj (538-597). Kuan-ting 5^. ^ , a disciple of Chih-i, took notes on these lectures and subsequently revised and edited them until they reached approxi-mately the form in which the text is now available. The Mo-ho-chih-kuan is devoted to the elucidation of meditation techniques and their philosophical underpinnings. This is apparent from the t i t l e alone, which I have rendered "The Great Calming and Contemplation," and which represents the Sanskrit maha-samatha-vipasyana. Chih jk- and kuan are the two aspects of meditation for Chih-,i and the T'ien-t'ai school, signifying the negative and the positive approaches to religious practise: on the one hand the mental defile-ments, illusions and errors must be calmed, halted and eradicated {chih jX- ), and on the other hand the practitioner .views', contemplates and has insight into {kuan/$$, ) the nature of Ultimate Reality. "Calming" [ohih) is quieting the mind, contemplation [kuan) is making i t work properly. What I have undertaken to translate is the f i r s t chapter of the a reduced-size version of the whole, though i t also contains much material that is either not in the other chapters or is there presented in a different way. It is best known for i t s exposition of the "Four Kinds of Samadhi" or programs of religious practise: the constantly-sitting samadhi, the constantly-walking samadhi, the half-walking/half-sitting samadhi, and the neither-walking-nor-sitting samadhi. These involve respectively sitting quietly in the lotus posture, walking while reciting the name of the Buddha Amitabha, pronouncing dhavanls while alternating between sitting and walking, and using one's every thought and every act for contemplation. The author Chih-i classifies meditation (calming-and-contemplation) into three types: the gradual, the variable and the sudden. The Mo-ho- chih-kuan deals with the "sudden" variety, in which the practitioner's identity with Ultimate Reality is recognized from the very beginning of his religious practise. This form of meditation is consistent with the Mahayana Buddhist position that there is no ontological difference between the defilements of mind and enlightenment: there is nothing that does not enter into the nature of the Real. This chapter may be considered i v To Ccutoly iva TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 1 I. THE BACKGROUND OF THE Mo^ho-chih-kuan 1 II. THE STRUCTURE OF THE Mo-ho-chih-kuan 10 A. The Ten Chapters 10 B. The Synopsis 19 III. THE THREE TRUTHS AND THE THREE VIEWS 27 IV. TRANSLATION NOTES 30 KUAN-TING'S INTRODUCTION 36 I. LINEAGE OF THE TEACHING 36 II. THE THREE KINDS OF CALMING-AND-CONTEMPLATION 42 A. Gradual 42 B. Variable 43 C. Perfect and Sudden 45 III. SCRIPTURAL PROOF . 51 FOOTNOTES FOR KUAN-TING'S INTRODUCTION 60 CHIH-I'S INTRODUCTION 84 I. THE TEN GREATER CHAPTERS 84 V Page II. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 90 III. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SYNOPSIS 92 FOOTNOTES FOR CHIH-I'S INTRODUCTION 94 THE SYNOPSIS: GREATER CHAPTER ONE 101 LESSER CHAPTER ONE: AROUSING THE GREAT THOUGHT 101 I. BODHICITTA IN SANSKRIT AND CHINESE 101 II. EXCLUDING THE WRONG . 101 A. Detailed Discussion on Bodhicitta 102 B. General Discussion on Bodhicitta' 105 C. Receptivity and Response 113 III. REVEALING THE RIGHT 114 A. The Four Noble Truths 114 1. Arising and Perishing 115 2. Non-arising and Non-perishing 115 3. Innumerable 116 4. Actionless 118 B. Ten Occasions for the Bodhicitta 120 1. Inferring from Truth 121 2. Seeing the Marks of the Buddha 124 3. Seeing Magical Apparitions 126 4. Hearing Various Dharmas 127 5. The Gatha 132 6. Remaining Occasions for the Bodhicitta . . . . 135 7. The Three Kinds of Calming-and-Contemplation 135 vi Page 8. Questions and Answers 139 C. The Four Great Vows 140 1. Arising and Perishing 141 2. Non-arising and Non-perishing 143 3. Innumerable 146 4. Actionless 149 D. The Six Identities 163 1. Identity in Principle 164 2. Verbal Identity 165 3. Identity of Religious Practise 165 4. Identity of Resemblance 166 5. Identity of Partial Truth 167 6. Ultimate Identity 168 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER ONE 172 LESSER CHAPTER TWO: ENGAGING IN THE GREAT PRACTISE 231 I.. CONSTANTLY-SITTING SAMADHI 232 A. Method of the Practise 232 1. Body 232 2. Speech 233 3. Mind 234 (a) Empty 235 (b) Provisional 236 (c) Middle 236 (d) The three paths 237 v i i Page B. Exhortation to Practise 238 II. CONSTANTLY-WALKING SAMADHI 240 A. Method of the Practise 241 1. Body . 241 2. Speech 243 3. Mind 243 B. Exhortation to Practise 248 III. HALF-WALKING/HALF-SITTING SAMADHI 249 A. Vaipulya Samadhi 250 1. Method of the Practise 250 (a) Body 250 (b) Speech 251 (c) Mind 252 2. Exhortation to Practise 256 B. Lotus Samadhi 257 1. Method of the Practise 257 (a) Body 257 (b) Speech 258 (c) Mind . . 258 2. Exhortation to Practise 261 IV. NEITHER-WALKING-NOR-SITTING SAMADHI 262 A. The Different Names for Thought 264 B. Main Discussion 265 v i i i Page 1. The Physical and Vocal Aspects of the Practise 266 2. The Contemplation of the Good 271 (a) The four phases of thought 271 (b) The six senses and the perfection of giving . 274 (c) The six acts and the perfection of giving . 279 (d) The other five perfections in the six senses and the six acts 281 (e) The perfection of morality 285 (f) The perfection of forebearance 288 (g) The perfection of exertion 288 (h) The perfection of meditation 289 (i) The perfection of wisdom 290 3. The Contemplation of Evil 291 (a) On the mind which contemplates evil . . . 293 (b) The arising of desire in the mind . . . . 296 4. The Contemplation of Neutral Dharmas 301 C. Caveats for the Practise of this Samadhi 304 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER TWO 320 LESSER CHAPTER THREE: EXPERIENCING THE GREAT EFFECTS . . . . 414 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER THREE . 416 LESSER CHAPTER FOUR: RENDING THE GREAT NET 419 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER FOUR 421 ix Page LESSER CHAPTER FIVE: RETURNING TO THE GREAT ABODE 422 I. THE THREE QUALITIES OF ULTIMATE REALITY 423 II. THE UNTHINKABILITY OF THE THREE QUALITIES 425 III. THE THREE QUALITIES AND THE THREE OBSTACLES 428 IV. THE MEANING OF "PURPORT" AND "RETURNING" 430 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER FIVE 432 APPENDIX - CHART I 439 CHART II 440 BIBLIOGRAPHY 441 POSTSCRIPT: THE MAHAYANIZATION OF THE CHINESE DHYANA TRADITION..460 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 - The Ten Greater Chapters and Their Characteristics 89 Figure 2 - The Effects of the Dharma (Religious Practise) and Moral Behavior 319 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Above a l l I am grateful to my teacher, my friend and my inspira-tion, Leon Hurvitz, for the indispensable guidance he has furnished me through the trackless vastness of Chinese Buddhism, and for the fascination he has given me for the phenomenon of language. Arthur Link and Shotaro Iida have each a special place in my heart for the knowledge they shared and the kindness they extended to me during my time at this University. Sekiguchi Shindai and Ocho Enichi opened many doors and displayed great generosity to me during my stay in Japan. Mrs. Maryse E l l i s and Winnie Leung have reshaped my pecks and scribbles with great precision and a fine sense of the esthetic. Alan Sponberg and Jean Pietarinen fed, housed and comforted me during the crucial last stages of composition. And my dear wife Carol and children Erich and Rebecca made a thousand sacrifices to free my time: every page of this is partly them. 1 TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND OF THE MO-HO-CHIH-KUAN This thesis is an annotated translation of the f i r s t chapter of (538-597), the monk who fi n a l l y knit together into a coherent unity the disparate fragments that Chinese Buddhism had become in the four hundred years since the last decades of the latter Han dynasty, when the f i r s t sutras become available to educated Chinese in the language which they could read. Not that there were in his day no other men devoted to this vast eclectic enterprise: i t is well known that Chih-i borrowed heavily from the "three southern and seven northern" However not only did his own scheme of doctrinal classification turn out to be more comprehensive and influential than those of his pre-decessors and competitors, but he also brought religious practise into his great synthesis so firmly that the T'ien-t'ai school which he founded was saved from the death-grip of ste r i l e scholasticism nearly until modern times. In short, he united practise with doctrine, and doctrine with practise, where his predecessors had attempted only to arrange the various doctrines in the sutras in an understandable and consistent whole. His role in uniting Chinese Buddhism has often been compared to the role of his patron, the teachers or sytems of doctrinal classification {p'an-chiao 2 f i r s t emperor of the Sui dynasty, in uniting the north and south of China for the f i r s t time since the Han. Indeed, the analogy is closer yet: before the Sui the north of China is said to have been oriented towards the practical side of Buddhism, just as it s leaders were men of action, often barbarian in ancestry—while the south tended towards the theoretical, the doctrinal, since its leaders and upper classes were aristocrats and scholar o f f i c i a l s . It is not my purpose to investigate the history of the period however, nor to analyze the relationship between Chih-i and his imperial patron. The only point which needs emphasis is the congruence between doctrine and practise in the philosophy of Chih-i. In his own words, they are like "the two wings of a bird" or "the two wheels of a cart." Most of Chih-i's works f a l l easily into the category of either doctrine or practise. What l i t t l e is known about his thought in the West derives mostly from the doctrinal side, and within that i t is primarily his system of doctrinal classification (not "sutra criticism") that is expounded in outline in Western sources. This is the so-called "Five Periods and Eight Teachings" j£- 8^ A. %JC. , a matter I shall also not touch upon here, except to mention that recently Professor Sekiguchi Shindai ^ j j t 7^ has thrown serious doubt on the received opinion that this represents correctly the thought of Chih-i. See for example his art i c l e : "Goji hakkyo-ron" Jk. ^ J $ L "f^ g" in the Tendai-gaku-ho ^ u ^ » 1 4 (November 1972), or "Goji hakkyo wa Tendai kyohan ni arazu" #f ;V A ^ %>LP] l~ ~$j in the Indo-gaku-Bukkyo-gaku-kenkyu £p J§^_ ^  / J ^ ^ L ; ^ %j , 21 , 1 (1973). Less known hitherto (though hardly much less, considering how l i t t l e is s t i l l known about his doctrine) is the side of his system dealing with religious practise. About half of the thirty-five of Chih-i's works s t i l l extant (there is a convenient l i s t i n g of these as well as his lost works in L. Hurvitz' Chih-i, p. 332) deal with practise, as can be immediately seen from their t i t l e s , which a l l contain words like ch 'an ^SJ^ , chih-kuan St- , san-mei . or kuan-hsin ^tfl • ^he three best-known works of Chih-i (and the longest with the exception of a commentary to the VimalakTrti) are the "Pro-found Meaning of the Lotus sutra" (Fa-hua-hsuan-i %l ), the "Words and Phrases of the Lotus sutra" (Fa-hua-wen-chu and the "Great Calming and Contemplation" (Mo-ho-chih-kuan j^, jfcJllL), the latter being the subject of this annotated translation. These are widely known as the "Three Great Texts of the Lotus" ('school or sutra) yk-^T 2~ , or simply as the "Three Great Texts" ^, y\. . The f i r s t two belong to the doctrinal part of Chih-i's works, as they are both commentaries to the Lotus sutra in their different ways. The third of the "Three Great Texts" is the Mo-ho-chih-kuan (to be abbreviated hereafter as MHCK), the only one of the three which deals with the religious practise "wing of the bird." Though by its in-clusion in the category of the "Three Great Works of the Lotus" one might expect i t to be primarily based on the Lotus sutra like the other two, in fact i t has very l i t t l e to do with that scripture, beyond an occasional vagrant quotation and the "Lotus samadhi" which is expounded in the Synopsis of the MHCK in the section on Half-Walking/ 4 Half-Sitting Samadhi. Even the Lotus samadhi is based for the most part not on the Lotus sutra i t s e l f but on the Kuan-p'u-hsien-ching *$j^J^ J/L^t' a brief sutra which is related, but not identical to, the last chapter of the Lotus (on the contemplation of the bodhisattva Samanta-bhadra). Professor Sekiguchi has used this fact in his criticism of the "five periods and eight teachings" summation of T'ien-t'ai doctrinal classification. For i f we accept that the Lotus sutra is the summation of the Perfect Teaching, superior to a l l other sutras, and we accept that doctrine and practise must be congruent, as Chih-i states so often and so forcefully, then how is i t that the Lotus plays such a small part in Chih-i's single most important text on religious practise? (For Sekiguchi's arguments, see his article "Shishu-zammai" K2? in the Tendai gakuho, No. 15, 1972, pp. 11-18). In fact i t seems that for Chih-i the Perfect Teaching is not the monopoly of any one sutra, but can be found in a great variety of scriptures, including a l l those (and they are many) drawn upon for the MHCK. The reason that Chih-i set the Lotus sutra above a l l the rest in his evaluation of Buddhist scriptures is that i t is so comprehensive: according to i t , every animate being, without exception, will achieve supreme, perfect enlightenment, not even excepting the Buddhist Judas, Devadatta, nor even women (though they have to change into men on the way). No animate being is outside the fold, nor a fovteviovi any Buddhist scripture, for a l l are the word of the Buddha. The later sectarian emphasis of the T'ien-t'ai and particularly the Japanese Nichiren school on the Lotus as superior to a l l other scriptures has veiled the catholicity of Chih-i's original thought. Within the category of Chih-i's works on practise there is a group of three texts each of which is regarded as representative of one of the three kinds of calming-and-contemplation jS- 4f[ St-as expounded by Chih-i. (Kuan-ting mentions this trio in his intro-duction to the Synopsis, but I will briefly repeat.) The Shih-ch'an-po- lo-mi-tz'u-ti-fa-men ^ >^ § | % >K ^ ^ (also known as the Tz'u-ti-ch'an-men ^ ^ ^ ?^ , in ten (or twelve) r o l l s , represents his systematization of the gradual calming-and-contemplation. This work he delivered in lecture form in 571 A.D.; i t was taken down by his disciple Fa-shen >^ "Ejr and afterwards edited by his greatest disciple Kuan-ting >Jj|. :f|| . The Liu-miao- fa-men WJT >£. ?^ , in only one r o l l , represents his "systematiz-ation" (though i t is not an independent system) of the variable ^ calming-and-contemplation. And the MHCK i t s e l f , in ten r o l l s , a series of lectures delivered in 594 A.D., is the summation of the "sudden" 4 ^ calming-and-contemplation. This was taken down by Kuan-ting and edited several times after Chih-i's death before i t reached the form in which i t is known to us today in the Taisho canon of Chinese Buddhist scripture 2- &( ^ flfa $k . The "variable" calming-and-contemplation is merely an alternation between the different stages of the "gradual," as occasion demands and conditions permit, and the text which represents this form of practise is a mere seven pages in the Taisho canon, so i t does not occupy a large place in the corpus of Chih-i's works. Several of his lesser-known works on practise are longer than this one. There remain 6 the Tz'u-ti-ch'an-men (seventy-five Taisho pages) and the MHCK (one hundred forty Taisho pages) as Chih-i's principle works on religious practise. The Tz'u-ti-ch'an-men was by far the most comprehensive system-atization of Buddhist practise to date. It stands near the beginning of Chih-i's career just as the MHCK stands near the end, and is comparable to the later work in many ways. The structure of the two works is very similar, down to the number of the chapters and even their names. It is of great interest, however, that while Chih-i MHCK and others of the master's later opera, so that since that time, i t has been the term ohih-kuan which has signified religious practise appropriated for i t s e l f the term which Chih-i had already discarded as not comprehensive enough. It is well.known that oh'an represents the Indie word dhyana and chih-kuan represents samatha-vipasyana, but as Chih-i used the two terms, they have several levels of meaning not included in the Indian originals. Each represents for him the whole of religious practise, not merely the "meditation" aspect which is one of the Three Knowledges {sila3 samddhi, prajnd). Morality {sila) and wisdom {prajna) are also included in the meaning of them both. But in his later years Chih-i grew to regard religious practise as fundamentally composed of two elements, the static and the dynamic, the negative and the positive, so that ohih-kuan became a more in the in the T'ien-t'ai (and Tendai) school, while the Ch'an school suitable term for him than ch'an (which has a connotation of quietism and is skewed toward the negative side of the duality). For additional remarks on chih-kuan see part IV of this introduction. One of Chih-i's meditation works has been translated into English by Goddard and Wai-tao, in A Buddhist Bible. This is the Hsiao-chih-kuan <h -it- /JJI|L > known more formally as the Hsiu-hsi-chih-kuan-tso- ch'an-fa-yao ^ ^ J £ - | | ^ , j^jl and occupying about twelve pages in the Taisho canon. Inadequately annotated as the translation i s , i t is s t i l l the only one of Chih-i's many works to have appeared in a Western language. (L. Hurvitz, however, has published a translation of a brief fragment of the MHCK, a key passage from Ch. 7 on the famous doctrine of "the macrocosm in a moment of thought" in Sources of Chinese Tradition, ed. Wm. Theodore de Bary, Vol pp. 322-328. Much of this fragment has been republished in The  Buddhist Tradition, also edited by de Bary). Because of its t i t l e , the Hsiao-chih-kuan is often mistakenly regarded as a synopsis of the MHCK (since the names of the two works mean respectively "the small samatha-vipasyana" and "the great samatha-vipasyana." In fact this work can be regarded rather as a synopsis of the Tz'u-ti-ch'an-men, the text on gradual practise; i t is only indirectly related to the MHCK i t s e l f . In the gradual practise, one moves from level to level, up the ladder of the fifty-two stages as enunciated by the Ying-1uo-ching 3-% ~$a~ ( a Chinese forgery) and in the doctrine of Chih-i. From shallow to deep, from low to high, the degree of one's insight 8 increases until the final attainment of Buddhahood. This is not yet the Perfect Calming-and-Contemplation, the Sudden Calming-and-Contem-plation which is expounded by the MHCK. As the Synopsis of the MHCK explains repeatedly (and most concisely in the "core" statement in the introduction by Kuan-ting), Ultimate Reality is seen here to be present at the very start of one's practise. The doctrine of the Six Identities, original with Chih-i, is a more suitable means to express the stages of this kind of calming-and-contemplation than the fifty-two stages, for in the Six Identities i t is emphasized at every stage that the practitioner is identical with his goal. The two schemes may be compared, however, and in Chart I of the Appendix,I have arranged them in parallel for easy reference. In the Perfect Teaching (and calming-and-contemplation) there is nothing which is excluded (just as the Lotus sutra and the Nirvana sutra exclude no beings from Buddhahood): every defilement in the mind and behavior of the ordinary person is just as much Ultimate Truth as the most enlightened thought of the most elevated saint. The difference between the two lies in the fact that the ordinary person is not yet aware of this. There is no lower reality, no nescience, no samsara, transcending which we might enter into a higher reality, enlightenment or nirvana. Since there is no lower, there is also no higher (which can be postulated only by comparison with the lower): i t is only in the way we think about these things that nescience or enlightenment can be present. But i f we inquire into the nature of our thinking as well, we see that i t is as Ultimate as any other phenomenon, both as empty and as real as the Buddha himself. The MHCK is the summation of this monistic approach to religious practise in the East Asian Buddhist tradition. It drew together nearly a l l in the realm of practise that preceded i t and influenced nearly a l l that followed i t , and so formed one of the crucial nodes in the history of Chinese Buddhism. It is so comprehensive that i t came to be regarded in the Nichiren sect of Japanese Buddhism as the second Lotus sutra, and i t s author as the Buddha of the period of the reflected Dharma 'jf^L y & . (Nichiren himself is regarded in his school or sect as the Buddha of the period of the decay of the Dharma 'Ak > while the daimoku yj^L $ or invocation of the t i t l e of the Lotus sutra—namu myoho renge kyo Jfe- J$y ^ - - i s looked upon as the third Lotus). The T'ien-t'ai school ranks with the Ch'an as one of the two great systems of religious practise in East Asia, but there exists no single work of this scale on practise in the Ch'an school, for the adherents of the latter made a virtue of the avoidance of written texts: pu-li-wen-tzu yf-v J L i L ^ r » ohiao-wai-pieh-dhuxm (no dependence on texts or words, a special transmission outside the--written--teachings); the bulk of Ch'an texts are therefore anecdotal, and T'ien-t'ai monks never tired of denouncing their rivals for this one-sided adherence to unlettered practise. But while the MHCK is a text on practise, i t is founded firmly in the scriptures, as quotations from the latter are advanced to corroborate nearly every assertion made in the body of the text. Therefore i t singles i t s e l f out as at neither the extreme of "practise 10 without doctrine" JjSjfc nor the extreme of "doctrine without practise" jj^ ^_i^jfi_ , both of these being misshapen forms of Buddhism which Chih-i characterized as pertaining on the one hand to the teachings of the "a%arca-masters of benighted illumination ^% $P a n c* o n ^ e o t n e r to the "Dharma-masters of texts and words" % >£. V? . These two kinds of distortions of Buddhism were later to be represented, in the minds of T'ien-t'ai adherents (certainly by the time of Chan-jan y§r sixth patriarch of the T'ien-t'ai and a contemporary of Hui-neng ^g, ^ jtL; » sixth patriarch of the Ch'an), respectively by the Ch'an and the Hua-yen schools. So commanding is the eminence of the MHCK in East Asian Buddhism that the expression ohih-kuan (samatha-vipasyana) i t s e l f is often used without ambiguity to refer to i t . II. THE STRUCTURE OF THE MHCK A. The Ten Chapters The MHCK is found in volume 46 of the Taisho canon, pp. 1-140. It is in theory made up of ten chapters of which I have translated the f i r s t , The Ta-i 7^"^,. or Synopsis (T46.1-21). This Synopsis occupies two of the ten r o l l s of the MHCK, or in terms of Taish5 pages, about one-seventh of the whole. Though this is the longest segment of Chih-i's works yet to appear in a Western language, i t is a mere fragment of the whole corpus which he has l e f t behind (and much of 11 his work has been lost as well, in particular a twenty-roll commentary of the Taisho canon are occupied by Chih-i's works (either dictated or written by himself), approximately 285 of these belonging to texts devoted to the elucidation of practise. Even i f we ignore those of his works contained only in Zokuzokyo (these being a l l quite brief one-r o l l items) what has been here translated comprises less than ten percent of his work on practise, and about two percent of his entire body of lectures and writings. The Synopsis i s , as the name implies, an outline or compendium of the whole MHCK, and as such, is self-contained. In fact, in form i t is less truncated than the MHCK i t s e l f , since the last three of the originally projected ten chapters of the whole work were never delivered, nor were the last three of the ten sections in Chapter Seven. As the text i t s e l f explains (T46.5b), the five chapters of the Synopsis (which we shall call the Lesser Chapters) may be correlated to the ten chapters of the whole (which we call the Greater Chapters), according to the following scheme: ). About one thousand pages 12 Ten Greater Chapters Five Lesser Chapters 1. Synopsis 2. Explanation of Terms 3. Characteristics of the Essence of the Teaching 4. Inclusion of All Dharmas 5. One-sided versus Perfect Calming-and-Contemplation 6. 25 Preparatory Expedients 7. Right Contemplation 8. Fruits and Recompense 9. Starting the Teaching 10. Returning of the Purport 1. Arousing the Great Thought Arousing the Great Thought Arousing the Great Thought Arousing the Great Thought Arousing the Great Thought 2. Engaging in the Great Practise Engaging in the Great Practise 3. Experiencing the Great Effects 4. Rending the Great Net 5. Returning to the Great Abode As we see from the chart, the f i r s t five Greater Chapters correspond to Lesser Chapter One; Greater Chapters Six and Seven correspond to Lesser Chapter Two; and the last three chapters of each l i s t correspond., one-to-one. It is clearer from the l i s t of-Lesser Chapters than the l i s t of Greater Chapters, yet true of them both, that their sequence contains an inner logic: namely that they represent the progress of the religious practitioner from the f i r s t arising of the thought of enlighten-ment (bodhicitta)--viher) he realizes the possibility of Buddhahood within himself--to the final absorption into the indescribable Ultimate Reality, 13 beyond a l l teaching, beyond a l l thought. Between the two events are the religious practise i t s e l f which he will engage in as a consequence of his bodhicitta; the karmic rewards which he earns as a consequence of his practise; and his teaching of others which in the Mahayana arises as a natural consequence of his own attainment: for he has at this stage transcended the self-other distinction and is incapable of concentrating only on his own realization. In fact the practitioner goes "up" and "down" at the same time at every stage, both seeking upwards and transforming downwards from the time of his f i r s t vows. Yet the "downward" activity is also separable from the "upward" in a sense, and in that case follows naturally upon the attainment of the practitioner, while preceding his final absorption in the realm about which nothing can be said. Greater Chapters Two through Five are relatively short, occupy-ing in sum only fourteen pages (one r o l l ) of Taisho text; Lesser Chapter One i t s e l f is ten pages long (one r o l l ) , barely shorter than these four Greater Chapters, though i t purports to be an outline of them (excluding the possibility that i t outlines i t s e l f ) . This leaves Chapter Six and Chapter Seven as the principle chapters in the MHCK aside from the Synopsis. Chapter Six is likewise one roll in length, or about thirteen Taisho pages, and Chapter Seven, incomplete though i t i s , takes up a l l the rest of the MHCK as we have i t today. The content of Chapter Six is the twenty-five preparatory "expedients" j) . These are arranged in five groups of five 14 members each: (a) the five conditions: keeping the disciplinary code, having sufficient clothing and food, situating oneself in a quiet place, halting one's worldly affai r s , acquiring worthy friends; (b) suppressing the desires for the five objects of the five senses; (c) discarding the five hindrances of craving, anger, sleepiness, restlessness and doubt; (d) regulating the diet, sleep, body, breath and mind; and (e) the practise of aspiration, exertion, mindfulness, discrimination (between the lesser joys of the mundane world and the greater joys of samadhi and prajna) and concentration of mind. Half of the above-mentioned Hsiao-chih-kuan >)> St- of Chih-i is occupied in the explanation of these twenty-five items, and they may be found in the Goddard/Wai-tao translation of this work in A Buddhist Bible, as well as in the much earlier (1870) partial translation by S. Beal of the same work in A Catena of Chinese Buddhist Scripture. In 1951 G. Constant Lounsbery published a French translation (Dhydna pour les debutants) of the Goddard/ Wai-tao rendition, and since then a German translation of the same work has been made from the French. Primarily derived' from the Ta-chih-tu-lun, these twenty-five preparations for the practise proper also appear in the Tz'u-ti-ch'an-men where the explanation of them is con-siderably more detailed (twenty-five Taisho pages) than that in the MHCK or the Hsiao-chih-kuan. Thus they run through the work of Chih-i from the early days to the very end, and clearly were regarded by him as an indispensable part of the practise. They are not mentioned in the Synopsis of the MHCK as a group of twenty-five, but have been partially represented by a somewhat different analysis: that of the Three Acts (body, speech and mind). 15 Chapter Seven of the MHCK expounds the famous Ten Modes of Con-templation ^ and the Ten Realms or objects of Contem-plation - j " ifyj . This presentation corresponds to the Four Kinds of Samadhi t- which are contained in Lesser Chapter Two of the Synopsis, the main difference (apart from length) being that the classification in Chapter Seven is made on the basis of mental c r i t e r i a , while in the Synopsis i t is made on physical c r i t e r i a . Ten objects of contemplation are postulated, and each is to be contemplated in ten different ways. The f i r s t of the ten realms or objects is skandhas/ ayatanas/dhabus, amounting more or less to the physical world (though the dhatus do include the consciousnesses generated by the interaction of senses and their objects). One is then to apply as necessary the ten Modes of Contemplation to objects f a l l i n g in this category: these Modes include (1) viewing i t as unthinkable, (2) arousing the true and proper thought of enlightenment, (3) s k i l l f u l l y calming the mind, (4) destroying everywhere (impure) dharmas, (5) distinguishing between impediments and aids, (6) cultivating the (thirty-seven) Parts of the Way, (7) employing auxiliary methods to suppress (defilements), (8) knowing (one's own) stage of advancement, (9) cultivating forebear-ance, and (10) dispensing with one's attachment to the Dharma. The f i f t h , sixth and seventh r o l l s of the (ten-roll) MHCK are entirely taken up by the exposition of the ten Modes of contemplating the f i r s t Realm. L. Hurvitz's translation from MHCK (in Sources of Chinese  Tradition, Vol. I, pp. 322-328) is taken from this section. In the remaining three ro l l s of the whole MHCK are discussed the second through the seventh objects of contemplation, each in ten modes as above, 16 but the last three objects of contemplation are l e f t untreated. The rest of the objects (Realms) of contemplation are then (2) the defile-ments, (3) illness, (4) the features of karma, (5) evil s p i r i t s , (6) meditation i t s e l f , (7)(wrong) views, (8) arrogance, (9) the Two Vehicles, and (10) bodhisattvas. There is a logic to the arrangement of both the Ten Modes and the Ten Realms of contemplation, but i t would take us too far afield to discuss these in detail. To my knowledge there is nothing in Western languages on this subject, but among many Japanese books, the recent (1968) Tendai-gaku ^ ^ v by Ando Toshio 4r #f< has rather a detailed treatment, pp. 217-264. That is a l l that exists of the MHCK. The last three Realms, and following them, the last three chapters of the work, were never expounded at a l l by Chih-i, according to tradition, a fact that has created a great deal of discomfort among Buddhists in East Asia for the thousand or so years. Music-lovers in the West are similarly irked by the unfinished state of Bach's Art of the Fugue. Why should this summa have been l e f t incomplete? Chanjan's explanation has become the traditional one: the end of the summer varsa retreat caused the termina-tion of the lectures. In other words the lecturer ran out of time. Recently Professor Sekiguchi has proferred another explanation (found e.g. in his Tendai Shikan no Kenkyu Xl$b(7)Pft^fu PP- 54-64). To begin with he notes that after the-end of that summer three years s t i l l remained of Chih'i's l i f e in which he s t i l l had the chance to complete the work. Moreover, the Tz'u-ti-ch'an-men, Chih-i's early summation of the gradualistic approach to meditation, not only has a 17 similar ten-chapter structure (with each chapter in the earlier work corresponding precisely to the same chapter in the MHCK), but is marked by exactly the same e l l i p s i s : the last part of chapter seven is missing along with chapters eight, nine and ten. In addition, the last three Lesser Chapters (in the Synopsis) of the MHCK are exceedingly brief, though clearly Chih-i s t i l l had plenty of time to expound on these subjects at greater length i f he had wanted to as i t was s t i l l the beginning of the summer. The explanation is rather, Sekiguchi feels, in the fact that Chih-i wanted to direct his teaching to the beginner on the path, and did not want to waste words describing i t s furthest reaches. In his Ssu-chiao-i- \JP J^- , at T46.752b, Chih-i states clearly that "what is necessary is to make the doctrine and the practise clear to beginners; i t is f u t i l e and meaningless to expound about saints, bodhisattvas and Buddhas," while at T46.739a of the same work, he says he will "only indicate the chapters for the upper stages." Having himself no false illusions that he was a highly realized being, Chih-i ', knew i t was a waste of time to expound to beginners on stages which he himself had yet to reach. Nevertheless the Synopsis of the MHCK does contain comments on these upper reaches in outline, since the last three Lesser Chapters correspond to the last three Greater Chapters, and through the centuries the disappointment of the T'ien-t'ai community has been assuaged by the presence of these three Lesser Chapters in the Synopsis. In fact, of the three i t is only Lesser Chapter Five which has anything 18 of substance to say that has not already been said elsewhere in the Synopsis: Lesser Chapters Three and Four are so short as to be practically nonexistent. B. The Synopsis Lesser Chapter One is preceded by two introductions, the f i r s t by Kuan-ting (occupying about two Taisho pages) and the (rather brief) second one by Chih-i himself. S t r i c t l y speaking these both f a l l out-side the Synopsis, but in a broader sense they may be included, since the MHCK is traditionally regarded as an integral work and these intro-ductions are not separated from the main text. The MHCK is famous for beginning with the words chih-kuan ming-standing and tranquility). These are the words of Kuan-ting, not Chih-i, but for anyone at a l l conversant with the T'ien-t'ai (or Tendai) tradition they immediately call to mind the whole work. Perhaps equally famous and also by Kuan-ting is the "core" statement at T46.1c23-2a2, identified as such in my translation. This is a concise and eloquent characterization of the "sudden" method of calming-and-contemplation which the entire MHCK is devoted to expounding. In addition, Kuan-ting presents the lineage of the teaching, seeking to give the MHCK authenticity. Beginning with the Dharma i t s e l f , which is eternal, he traces the"golden-mouth" ^ <2 transmission through twenty-four patriarchs from the Buddha through Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu to one Simha. At this point the transmission is broken, ching (Calming-and-contemplation means luminous under-19 and Kuan-ting starts again with Chih-i and works backwards to Hui-ssu ^ & (515-577) and the latter's teacher Hui-wen %• SL (dates in doubt). He discourses then at some length on the merit of the Dharma, as revealed in numerous scriptural quotations. Kuan-ting's introduction is known to be a good deal longer than i t was in his earlier editions of the MHCK. The text as we have i t today is the third of the three versions he made, but the earlier two are no longer extant. Both of these were entitled the Yuan-tun-chih-kuan 1^ 1 $H ^-^L) » but differed in that the f i r s t was twenty ro l l s and the second reduced to ten. Even the f i r s t version was preceded by Kuan-ting's lecture notes, so that we are at four removes from the actual words spoken by Chih-i that summer in the year 594. Professor Sato Tetsuei in his definitive Tendai Daishi no Kenkyu %. & /\. fyp (7) Iffi (1961) ha s sai d nearly al 1 there i s to say about the differences between these three versions (see pp. 370-379). Apparently one of the two earlier versions reached Japan, for one of the Japanese commentators, Shoshin "i^ L _jfL (2nd half of the 12th century, dates unknown) uses i t in his commentary, the Shiki Chan-jan too mentions fourteen places where the text of the f i r s t version differed from the third, and eleven places where the second differed from the third. The f i r s t of the three versions was longer in the main text, but Kuan-ting's introduction was shorter, containing only the section on the three kinds of calming-and-contemplation (which includes the core statement). 20 Kuan-ting's introduction is followed by Chih-i's own brief introduction, which presents the structure of the whole and the Synopsis as I have outlined them above. Then the MHCK proper begins, Lesser Chapter One and Greater Chapter One. Lesser Chapter One is entirely devoted to the bodhioitta, the arising of the f i r s t thought of enlightenment, which signals the beginning of the religious quest for a bodhisattva. This is when he (or she) f i r s t conceives the two impulses, the downward as well as the upward one. Inasmuch as the older Chinese translation for the word bodhi was too Chih-i understands the bodhioitta as "the Way followed by the mind," and proceeds to discuss ten false Ways or Paths (actually more correctly rendered by the Sanskrit word gati or mavga for "destinies," as in the Ten Destinies from hell to Buddhahood). He then presents ten right Ways. The "right" bodhicittas are arranged according to how the practitioner can be inspired to seek enlighten-ment for himself and others, whether by inferring from Truth, or by hearing the Dharma expounded, or by seeking the Buddha and his characteristic marks, or by seeing the magical powers of the Buddha, etc. The last six of these ten "kinds of bodhioitta" he leaves unexplained, though Chan-jan f i l l s in some of the gaps. Key elements of the doctrine of Chih-i appear in this Lesser Chapter One. Perhaps most important for the comprehension of the text is the concept of the Four Kinds of Four Noble Truths. Here Chih-i arranges the Four according to four kinds of exposition, corresponding to four degrees of receptivity in the listener: arising-and-perishing, 21 neither-arising-nor-perishing, the innumerable, and the actionless. It is this scheme rather than the better-known one of the Four Teachings (Tripitika, Shared, Separate and Perfect 2^. ^ ' j ) that is employed in the MHCK to classify the different degrees of teach-ing, but in his commentary, Chan-jan refers repeatedly to the so-called Four Teachings to assist the reader in determining the level at which Chih-i is discoursing at any given time. It is not the case that Chih-i does not resort to the Four Teachings terminology at a l l , and in the other Greater Chapters more use is made of these terms than in the Synopsis, but there are in the Synopsis only a few passing references to them. Actually the two schemes are for Chih-i only two ways of referring to the same thing. Later in the T'ien-t'ai tradition the interpretation of the Four Teachings came to diverge rather markedly from Chih-i's intent, as i t came to denote a system of scjn^tural c l a s s i f i -cation, implying that any given sutra must belong to one or another of the four. Each of the ten kinds of bodhicittas can result from Truth transmitted in any one of four ways, and any one of these four ways can be understood again in four ways, so there are theoretically a total of 160 kinds of bodhicitta that are implied by the analysis in Lesser Chapter One. Other concepts presented in this chapter include the Four Vows, the Six Identities, receptivity-and-response, the Four siddhantas and the four bodies of the Buddha (the lowest of the traditional three is here subdivided into two). For the explanation of these terms and 22 concepts I refer the reader to the main text and my own commentary in the footnotes. Lesser Chapter Two is perhaps the most famous part of the whole MHCK in that i t contains the exposition of the well-known Four Kinds of Samadhi. These are a classification of a l l methods of religious practise on the basis of the tetralemma ( i s , is not, both, neither) as applied to the alternatives of "si t t i n g " and "walking." Hence we have the four: "constantly s i t t i n g , " "constantly walking," "half-walking and half-sitting," and "neither walking nor s i t t i n g . " The third of these is divided into two, so that in fact there are five methods outlined in this chapter. Each of these is based on at least one scripture, which is li b e r a l l y cited in the text, with or without attribution. The Ta-chih- tu-lun and the Nirvana sutra are quoted throughout this chapter but are not the basis for any specific practises. The Ta-chih-tu-lun however is without any question the most frequently cited text in the whole Synopsis. Chih-i classifies the practise into what to do and what not to do with the body, voice and mind, with the section on mind occupying a good deal more space than the others, particularly for the final kind of Samadhi, the "neither walking nor sitting." It is therefore un-just to say, as some have, that the Four Samadhis deal only with the physical aspects of the practise, that i t is only in Chapter Seven that the mental discipline is expounded. Following the presentation of the method of the practise, there is an exhortation for each of the kinds of samadhi ( i t must be under-23 stood that "samadhi" here means "method of religious discipline" in addition to i t s usual sense), encouraging the practitioner to engage in i t and describing the benefits derived from i t . The only exception is the "neither walking nor sit t i n g " samadhi, which since i t involves the contemplation of evil is uniquely dangerous and requires words of caution rather than of exhortation. Although in late T'ang and after there arose a tendency to view the constantly-walking samadhi as that to which Chih-i attributed the greatest importance, i t is clear that this is a distortion that arose as a result of Pure Land influence, for the walking samadhi is that in which the recitation of the name of the Buddha Amitabha is practised. As Ando Toshio states in his Tendai Shiso-shi j f ^ ^  & (1959, pp. 380-387), i t was rather the sitting samadhi and the neither-walking-nor-sitting samadhi which had the highest place in Chih-i's mind, inasmuch as they represent the fundamental practise of sitting meditation on the one hand, and meditation practised in a l l aspects of daily l i f e on the other. Here Chih-i would have no quarrel with the Ch'an school. The Constantly-Sitting Samadhi is based on two "ManjusrT sutras" the Hen-shu-shih-li-so-shuo-ching 5 ^ %fy ty\ ?f\ ^  $k and the Wen-shu-shih-li-wen-ching ^ $fy flij $k . It is also known as the One-Practise ^ Samadhi, and permits the use of the voice to recite the Buddha's name (in this case the identity of the Buddha is not specified) i f necessary to dispel sleepiness or other mental obstructions. 24 The Constantly-Walking Samadhi is based on the Pratyutpanna-samadhi-sutra (Pan-chou-san-mei -chi ng -j^ _$f" j s - ^^^b in i t s three-roll translation by Lokaksema of the Latter Han dynasty, as well as on a treatise attributed to Nagarjuna, the Dasabhumi-vibhasa-sastra-(Shih- chu-p'i-p'o-sha-lun -\ ^ i - $L ! ^ '^%^ ). It is also known as the Buddha-standing JL samadhi, since aside from the recitation of the Buddha Amitabha's name, the practise involves the visualization of the Buddha as i f he were standing before the practitioner. This is said (by Professor Fukushima ^ of Otani University, Kyoto) to be one of the only two of the Four (or Five) Kinds of Samadhi practised today in Japan, the other being the Lotus samadhi that is one of the two half-walking, half-sitting methods of practise. The reason that this is s t i l l practised is clearly that i t approaches Pure Land meditative techniques. Each of these f i r s t two kinds of practise is to be engaged in for ninety days. Half-Walking/Half-Sitting Samadhi is divided into two kinds, the Vaipulya samadhi and the Lotus samadhi. "Half-walking and half-sitting" means that the practitioner alternates between walking and sit t i n g . Both of these methods of practise contain esoteric elements, meaning principally the use of dharanis. The Vaipulya samadhi is so called because the scripture upon which i t is based is the Ta-fang-teng-t'o- lo-ni-ching ^ ffy, ^ i ^ ^ » sanskritizable as the *Maha-vaipulya-dharam-sutra. This is a practise which laypeople may also engage in, and the period of the practise is only seven days (compared to the rigorous ninety days required by the previous two). 25 The Lotus samadhi i s , contrary to i t s name, not based primarily on the Lotus sutra, but on the Kuan-p'u-hsien-ching ^ ^ / - ^ ' $k the "sutra expounding the method of contemplating the bodhisattva Samantabhadra." However this sutra is closely related to the Lotus i t s e l f and may be considered an expansion of i t s last chapter. This method of religious practise involves a complex visualization of the bodhisattva Samantabhadra appearing before the practitioner mounted on a white elephant with six tusks. It is said to be the practise of this "Lotus samadhi" which enlightened Chih-i's teacher, Hui-ssu. Last of the Four Kinds of Samadhi is the Neither-Walking-nor-Sitting Samadhi, also known as the "Samadhi of Following One's Own Thought" ^ "j§£. ^ and the "Samadhi of Awakening to (the nature of) Mind" ^- • ^ a r m o r e space is devoted to this than to any of the others in the Synopsis. The scripture upon which i t is based is the Ch'ing-kuan-yin-ching " f ^ |§jL"'fj"' » and liberal citations are made, a l l unattributed, from Hui-ssu's Sui-tzu-i-san-mei ^fizj^ JE) ^- • The sutra is used primarily to buttress the physical and vocal aspects of the practise, while the mental aspect is expounded in great detail without much reference to the sutras. It involves practising contemplation in a l l aspects of behavior, whether walking, standing, s i t t i n g , lying down, speaking or being silent, and for a l l the six kinds of sense-activity (including as usual the mind i t s e l f as a sense). Each of these twelve categories of experience is analyzed into four phases of origination and disappear-ance, and i t is shown how the transition from one phase to the next 26 is in every case incapable of being apprehended by the mind. In addition, thought i t s e l f is classified into good, evil or neutral thought, and the contemplation of each of these is described. Portions of the exposition approach a Yogacara analysis of mind. The contempla-tion of evil is perhaps the most interesting of a l l the methods expounded in this Lesser Chapter Two on the Four Samadhis. All the objects of contemplation in Greater Chapter Seven are also " e v i l , " so that i t is possible to say i t is this "Samadhi" which most closely summarizes the contemplations in Chapter Seven. The guiding principle here is "Do not try to suppress the evil thought, but dispassionately watch i t arise." The practise is compared to landing a large and " e v i l " fish: one must play out the line and let him surface and submerge freely until he is worn out and can be pulled in by the slender, weak line (of meditation). Lesser Chapters Three and Four are so short that no more needs to be said about them than already has been. The discussion on the final absorption of the practitioner, and of the purport of a l l the teachings, into the Secret Treasury, the Great Abode, is of quite some interest. I have provided a chart in the Appendix (Chart II) which illustrates the ideas employed in this chapter. Here I will mention only that the discussion turns on the Three Qualities of Ultimate Reality—the Dharma-body, Wisdom, and Liberation—and the way in which they relate to each other. 27 III. THE THREE TRUTHS AND THE THREE VIEWS Chih-i drew from two sources to arrive at his tri p l e view of the nature of things: a passage from the Ying-1uo-ching ife- ^ §(T24.1014b) a n d a passage from the Madhyamika-karikas (Ch. 24, verse 17 of KumarajTva's Chinese version,the ChUng-lun ^ z&ff T30.33b; verse 18 of the same chapter in the Sanskrit'). The passage in the Ying-luo-ching speaks of the Three Views: the View which enters into emptiness from the provisional the View which enters into the provisional from emptiness ^ x iJtfL/|HL and the View of the Middle Way and Ultimate Truth ^2^$p ~~ Ijfo ^ $JL The third of these takes alternate forms: neither empty nor provisional $L and both empty and provisional ^ . The f i r s t two Views are also simply known as the View of Emptiness and the View of Provisionality: both are considered expedients ~j) compared to the ultimate perspective represented by the third. The Three Truths are in contrast drawn from the verse ("the gccthd") in the Karikas which was said to have catalyzed the enlightenment of Hui-wen, the teacher of Chih-i's teacher Hui-ssu. This verse is quoted in the text of the Synopsis of the MHCK at T46.5c28-29. Modern scholars agree that Nagarjuna had in mind no other truth besides the Two Truths which permeate the Madhyamika dialectic, Ultimate and Provisional {paramartha-satya, samvvti-satya), but Chih-i and the T'ien-t'ai school accept that verse 24.17 expounds not two Truths but Three. As Walleser (Die Mitt!ere Lehre Nagarjunas) translates the passage from the Chinese, "Was abhangiges Entstehen ist,/Das nennen 28 wir Leerheit;/Diese wird abhangig erkannt,/Das i s t der mittlere Weg." I would render i t , "We call empty that which has arisen through causes and conditions, fa t3 ^ % fi[ tL^,\.4k yet i t is also a provisional designation qh This, again, is the meaning of the Middle Way rjJV ^ • " (Chih-i quotes the verse in a slight variation that does no harm to the sense: his f i r s t line is and the last character of his second line is ^ )• The form of the Chinese does suggest that three names are being given to the same dharmas, particularly with the character jjf> beginning both the third and fourth line. However, as Streng (Emptiness- p. 213) renders the passage from the Sanskrit, there is no suggestion at a l l of Three rather than Two Truths: "The 'origin-ating dependently' we call 'emptiness1;/This apprehension, i.e., taking into account (all other things), is the understanding of the middle way." The Sanskrit for the passage runs: Yah pratTtya-samutpadah  sunyatam tarn pracaksmahe/Sa prajnaptir upadaya pratipat saiva madhyama "We call dependent origination 'emptiness.' In association i t is (conventional) designation. This is the Middle Way." The Three Truths represent the inherent nature of things while the Three Views represent the wisdom which is acquired by the practitioner . The Three Views may be aligned with the Three Wisdoms or kinds of omniscience, spoken of at length in Lesser Chapter Five and mentioned in numerous other places in the Synopsis. For Chih-i the Three Truths/Three Views represent the completion of a tetralemma: once both extremes have been stated (and unlike Nagarjuna, but like the Yogacara branch of Mahayana Buddhism, he understood emptiness as an extreme, the simultaneous 29 d e n i a l and the s i m u l t a n e o u s a f f i r m a t i o n o f both extremes must a l s o be proposed. The view o f emptiness c u t s our attachments t o what we t h i n k to be r e a l i t y : t h i s view i s f o r C h i h - i f i r s t t h e view o f the HTnayana Mahayana ( " s u b s t a n t i a l e m p t i n e s s " 'ffft ). In the f o r m e r case t h i n g s a r e a n a l y z e d down to t h e i r components ( t h e s e l f i s broken down i n t o skandhas, f o r example) to show t h e i r e m p t i n e s s , w h i l e i n the l a t t e r case t h i n g s a r e seen as empty j u s t as t h e y a r e : not o n l y can r e a l i t y be broken down i n t o dharmas, but the dharmas the m s e l v e s have no r e a l i t y , no autonomy, no own-being, p r e c i s e l y because t h e y a r i s e from causes and c o n d i t i o n s . The f i r s t c ase c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e Four Noble T r u t h s o f a r i s i n g - a n d - p e r i s h i n g , the second t o the Four Noble T r u t h s o f n o n - a r i s i n g - a n d - n o n - p e r i s h i n g . The view o f p r o v i s i o n a l i t y , second o f the t h r e e moments i n C h i h - i ' s d i a l e c t i c , a s s e r t s t h a t d e s p i t e t h e i r e m p t i n e s s , t h i n g s s t i l l e x i s t i n a c o n d i t i o n a l way. T h i s view i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the h i g h e r Mahayana, o f b o d h i s a t t v a s , who r e - e n t e r t he w o r l d t o h e l p u p l i f t the animate b e i n g s i n i t , and who t h e r e f o r e must p r o v i s i o n a l l y r e g a r d as r e a l both the b e i n g s whom the y save and the s u f f e r i n g they a r e saved from. S t i l l t h e y know t h a t emptiness i s the U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y , and so i n g o i n g both "up" and "down" a t t h e same time t h e y t r e a d t he M i d d l e Way. T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o the Four Noble T r u t h s a t the l e v e l o f the Innumerable. Here the Three T r u t h s ( n o t t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h the Four Noble T r u t h s ) a r e u n d e r s t o o d s e q u e n t i a l l y . The h i g h e s t degree o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s when the p r a c t i t i o n e r can r e c o g n i z e a l l o f the Three T r u t h s i n any one o f them, and when he ) and second t he view o f the lower 30 has attained for himself to the Three Views as simultaneous and completely present in every thought. This is synonymous with the Perfect and Sudden Teaching (from the standpoint of doctrine) and with the Perfect and Sudden Calming-and-Contemplation (from the standpoint of practise )• It is the view of the Buddhas. IV. TRANSLATION NOTES The word ohih-kuan jfc- presents quite a problem when one must render i t in English. Although i t is well known that i t corres-ponds to the Sanskrit samatha-vipasyana, i t has taken on a number of other meanings in the Chinese which are not present in the Sanskrit. Kuan jjfjj)^  alone can mean practise as opposed to doctrin