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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An exploratory investigation toward the development of a research design for a study of youth work transition Charach, Larry 1977

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AN EXPLORATORY I N V E S T I G A T I O N TOWARD T H E DEVELOPMENT OF A RESEARCH DES IGN FOR A STUDY OF YOUTH WORK T R A N S I T I O N BY LARRY CHARACH B.A. (Honors), Simon Fraser Univers i ty, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION in The Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1977 © Larry Charach, 1977 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of d o W\ (A I rC C The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1 W 5 C 7 c i 3 / 1 7 i i -ABSTRACT In this study a research design for a study of youth work transi-tion i s developed and pretested. Available s t a t i s t i c s on the scope and severity of youth unemployment are examined and i t i s concluded that the problems of unemployment are more severe for those under 25 than for any other age group and that the situation i s l i k e l y to get worse as young people i n the next ten years w i l l encounter a situation where ahead of them in the occupational structure are a large number of older, but s t i l l young, workers. It i s suggested that the problems faced by youth in the work world could be alleviated i f more information were available on what variables determine job success and on what effects various educational and training programs have on youth's work transition. However, such research i s a major undertaking and much prelindnary work to select effective instruments for measuring work attitudes and for developing effective methods of data gathering i s required. Preliminary work carried out i n this study includes determining an optimal sample size, compiling a questionnaire composed of a number of tested attitude scales, and the development of an optimal methodology for using mail questionnaires. A pre-test was carried out and the 24-page questionnaire was sent out to 600 high school leavers. A response rate of 64% was obtained even though time and budget constraints meant only a portion of the mail questionnaire methodology could be used. A multi-variate analysis of the results from the questionnaire showed the attitude i i i scales had a significant explanatory effect on a number of variables related to job success. It i s hoped that this study w i l l prove useful to future re-searchers who plan to study the problems of youth work transition and that the excellent response to the pre-test w i l l encourage government to grant the support and cxximitments such studies deserve. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i ; LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x DEDICATION X PROLOGUE x i INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM OF YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 6 The Current S i t u a t i o n 6 The Future S i t u a t i o n 15 The Cost 16 Summary 18 The Need f o r Research 19 Usefulness of Research Results 20 Questions to be Investigated by the Proposed Study 21 ' V Chapter Page 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 23 3 RESEARCH DESIGN 32 P i t f a l l s to be Avoided 33 Population 38 Choosing the Sample Size 39 Method of Data Collection 43 4 THE METHODOLOGY FOR MAIL QUESTIONNAIRES 45 Advantages of Mail Questionnaires 45 Disadvantages of Mail Questionnaires 46 Increasing Mail Questionnaire Response Rates 48 The Covering Letter 48 Anonymity 50 The Effect of Questionnaire Length 53 Type of Postage 55 Incentives 57 Followups 59 Effects of Non-response 67 5 SPECIFIC QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN AND ANALYTICAL STRATEGY FOR THE PROPOSED STUDY 76 Introduction 76 Questionnaire Design 76 Job Satisfaction 78 Job Involvement 78 Work Attitudes 79 Self-esteem 80 Analysis of Data 81 v i Chapter Page 6 AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION USING THE METHODOLOGY 85 Introduction 85 Testing the Mail Questionnaire Methodology . 85 Introduction 85 The Situation 87 The Covering Letter 87 Followups 88 Weaknesses i n the Research Design 88 The Results 89 The Use of Computers with Mail Questionnaires 89 Conclusion 90 Summary of Exploratory Findings 90 Introduction 90 Multivariate Analysis 91 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 95 REFERENCES 96 APPENDICES 101 I Covering Letter Sent with Questionnaire 102 II Attachment to Questionnaire 103 III Followup Letter Sent to Non-respondents 104 IV Questionnaire ............ . c . . . . . . . . *. 105 V Summary Tables for Multiple Regression Analysis 117 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Unemployment Rates, by Age and Sex Canada, 1966 and 1975 2 2 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Labour Force and Unemployed Canada, 1966 and 1975 7 3 Canada: Selected Labour Force Series, 14-24 Year Olds, 1953-75 ' 8 4 Selected Unemployment Series for B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966-75 9 5 Index of Unemployment Severity, Selected Age-Sex Groups, 1966-73 13 6 Percentage of College Graduates and Dropouts Among Respondents to Each Success State of Prodding 36 7 Sample Size for Population of 20,000 Number of Subgroups 42 8 Questionnaire Returns by Mailer Type . 57 9. Percentage of Respodents to Each Stage of Prodding Whose Replies Were Found Discrepant 66 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Canada: Ratio of youth unemployment rate to adult unemployment rate, 1969-74 10 2 Canada: Live b i r th s , 1945-75 (both sexes) 10 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would lik e to acknowledge the support given to me by my thesis committee; Dr. L. Moore (Chairman), Dr. M. Ace and Dr. D. Rusnell. In addition, Dr. Moore's suggestions and encouragement during the prelimLnary stages of my thesis were invaluable. Special thanks to my friends E l s i e Jang, Marvin Enkin, and Barry and Janice Stevenson for their concern and interest throughout my Thesis research and report writing. This study was supported by funds from the Institute of Industrial Relations at the University of Bri t i s h Columbia and the Educational Research Institute of Bri t i s h Columbia. X DEDICATION t o D a v i d C h a r a c h and Max S h o r e "whose q u e s t f o r knowledge i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y " x i PROLOGUE COMMENTS FROM .RESPONDENTS TO A STUDY OF YOUTH WORK TRANSITION I would l i k e a job working with c h i l d r e n . How would I go about f i n i s h i n g my education because I always wanted to be P.E. teacher f o r elementer ( s i c ) school. I love a l l s p o r t s . I which ( s i c ) I had f i n i s h sec. high school now. Male, Dropout, Employed, 19 Can you help me? I would l i k e to see more night-school f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l l e v e l s of U n i v e r s i t y . I would love to go back but cannot r e a l l y give up my job and s t i l l l i v e comfortably. I f i t was e a s i e r to go back and s t i l l hold a t l e a s t a part-time job I would do i t f o r sure. Money i s not too good without u n i v e r s i t y , even i f you have a j o b , they won't pay as w e l l . A degree i s l i k e a golden key, they never have to prove themselves as much i t seems. Female, High School Graduate, Employed, 21 In my o p i n i o n , the young men tha t have worked with me i n the l a s t 4 year s , are too i n c o n s i d e r a t e . By inc o n s i d e r a t e I mean they seem not to care i f x i i they stay at the job or not. They don't come to work when they don't want to and just have no in teres t . People of today don't want to work. In fact I think that some people work for a while ju s t so they can get the unemployment cheques, not many but some, these days even more. Male, High School Graduate, ..Employed,. 22 You should've elaborated on what type of work. A l l the jobs I've had have been unenjoyable but necessary. However they have been stepping stones. Male, Dropout, Employed, 20 I regret not giving an OK on contacting my present employer but they already feel my rest less and bored att i tude discerning (s ic) and any form of questioning would only increase the i r doubts. I would l i k e to keep the job unt i l February as the hours allow me to attend college mornings. I'm leaving for Europe in February and hope to v i s i t deaf i n s t i t u te s throughout, a f te r which I ' l l be returning to UBC as a f u l l - t ime student. Female, High School Graduate, Employed, 18 I think that school counsellors are not worth a thing - - they are never r ea l l y interested and by the time you are able to see them after several requests i t i s ju s t not worth i t . They don't CARE. Female, High School Graduate, Student, 20 In past years I have known how d i s sa t i s f y i ng a job can be. Fortunately th i s past summer I have had a challenging job which i s related to my x i i i interests and education. I hope I answered th i s questionnaire s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Female, High School Graduate, Employed, 21 I do feel my best teachers and classes I learned the most in were ones where the teachers were very f i rm (almost s t r i c t ) and believed in the older methods of teaching. The rest of my teachers l e f t everything up to the student. Kids won't learn (generally speaking) unless they are made to. Kids in school (even to Grade 12), don 't know what's best for them and most w i l l t ry everything to get out of doing too much. Female, High School Graduate, Employed, 19 Students should be warned on how much value is placed on the college name the i r education has been derived from. I w i l l not mention the name of the college I attended but the coarse (s ic) was a s ix month course which cost close to f i f t een hundred do l l a r s , the work was hard and time consuming (univers i ty graduates even attended the course). Out of 25 g i r l s 15 passed and graduated. Luckly I was one who graduated, there was even a suicide among us g i r l s and I'm sure i t was p a r t i a l l y due to the pressure from the course (the person in question was 23 and a graduate from UBC). Now when looking for a job the employer i s impressed un t i l the name of the college i s mentioned. Female, High School Graduate, Employed, 21 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N People in the B r i t i s h Columbia labour force under twenty-f i ve years of age suffer an unemployment rate over twice as large as those over the age of twenty-four (Table 1, 1975 f igures: 15.1% vs. 5.9%). In the prologue are examples of how B r i t i s h Columbia's youth feel about the i r experiences in the labour market. The intent ion of th i s study i s to lay the groundwork for research that w i l l give pol icy makers the information required to establ i sh programs to substant ia l ly reduce the d i f f i c u l t i e s expressed above. The study w i l l provide evidence of the need for comprehensive research into the problems of youth work t r an s i t i on , and set forth and pre-test a research design for carrying out such research. While a number of studies have looked at various aspects of youth work t rans i t i on (see Chapter 3), these studies do not provide s u f f i c i en t information to allow pol icy makers to improve the s i tuat ion . A study by the United Way of Greater Vancouver (Werker and Jones, 1975) demonstrates both the concern with the problems of youth in the labour force, and the need for the comprehensive research design provided in th i s study. Table 1 Unemployment Rates, by Age and Sex Canada, 1966 and 1975 Both Sexes Male Female Total 14-24 yrs 25 yrs & over Total 14-24 yrs 25 yrs & over Total 14-24 yrs 25 yrs & over 1966 3.6 6.0 2.9 4.6 7.1 3.2 2.6 4.3 1.7 r c e n t > L, 19731 P 6 t 7.0 12.5 4.9 6.1 12.5 4.1 8.5 12.4 6.6 Latest 12-month period: January 1974 to December 1975. Source: Seasonally Adjusted Labour Force S t a t i s t i c s , Catalogue 71-201, annual, S t a t i s t i c s Canada. 3 In 1974, the United Way of Greater Vancouver's Social Pol icy and Research Committee applied to the National Department of Welfare for a grant to undertake a study on the problems of unemployed youth. Their research design was addressed to the fol lowing s ix relevant issues: 1 . The number o f young e m p l o y a b l e p e o p l e i n the Vancouver r e g i o n . 2. Whether the e d u c a t i o n young p e o p l e r e c e i v e d i n s c h o o l p r e p a r e d them f o r the "work w o r l d . " 3- Whether l a b o u r u n i o n s were p r e v e n t i n g young people from e n t e r i n g c e r t a i n c a r e e r s . 4. The e f f e c t s o f c u r r e n t Canada Manpower and ' p r o v i n c i a l j o b development programs. 5- The p a r t i c u l a r problems f a c i n g m i n o r i t y groups in g e n e r a l and N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n p a r t i c u l a r . 6. Whether t h e r e has been a change i n t h e work e t h i c . This appl icat ion for grant support brought the response that (Werker and Jones, 1975): . . . the proposed scope of the study was too broad. . . that most of the six components proposed could be the subject matter of research projects on their own ( J . E v a r i s t e T h e r i a u l t ' s l e t t e r , O c t ober 2k, 1 9 7 4 ) . Consequently, the study was re-examined and concentrated on three areas (Werker and Jones, 1975). The researchers undertook a review of the relevant l i t e r a tu re and developed an annotated bibliography in the areas re la t ing to youth unemployment. They undertook to document the number and socio-demographic character i s t i c s of young people in the greater Vancouver area receiving welfare or unemployment insurance. F i na l l y they 4 gathered impress ionist ic data from interviews with young people seeking employment and informal discussions with counsellors, unemployment insurance o f f i c e r s , youth workers, teachers and union o f f i c i a l s . The importance and relevance of th i s type of study w i l l be discussed in deta i l l a te r in Chapter 1. The above discussion supports the need for an invest igat ion into the components of youth unemployment. Both the United Way's and the National Department of Welfare's comments point to the need for research studies that examine youth unemployment. Thecresults from those studies would provide information so that changes could be made in order to improve the experience of young people in the "work world." The present study i s pr imar i ly concerned with one of the above components; whether the education young people received in school pre-pared them for the "work world." It i s that component which offers s i g -n i f i c an t p o s s i b i l i t i e s for change. Werker and Jones (1975) tackled that component to a small extent with the i r " impress ion ist ic interviews." Discussion with the d i rector and comments in the report (p. i i ) indicate that the i r e f fo r t s thus far in th i s area have been l imited because of the cost of a f u l l invest iga-t i on . Even in the i r l imited study the report states that "(they) often encountered resistance in presenting th i s 'perspective" ( referr ing to the perspective of youth to work) and "For th i s reason the report may suffer from a lack of vividness and intens i ty in presenting the perspective of youth themselves as they view the perspective of work (p. i i i ) . " The comments of young people recorded in the Prologue i l l u s t r a t e a study that appears to have a great deal of vividness and in tens i ty . 5 The purpose of th is report i s to discuss how that project was done, i t s methodology and resu l t s . As w i l l be discussed in deta i l the high unemploy-ment and underemployment of youth is a major area of concern to our society. Sound research i s required to determine what variables contribute to the problem and in what areas the solut ion (or solut ions) l i e . This paper i s composed of four sections: 1. A d e f i n i t i o n o f the problem o f y o u t h unemployment. 2. Development o f a methodology t o o b t a i n v a l i d and u s e f u l r e s u l t s . 3. Development o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o examine yo u t h work a d j u s t m e n t . 4. T e s t o f the v a l i d i t y o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e methodology. The resu l t w i l l be a document that can be used to support the potential benefits from a study on youth work adjustment. The report w i l l demon-strate the extent of the problem and the v a l i d i t y of the research design. 6 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM OF YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The Current S ituat ion People in the labour force under twenty-five years of age suffer an unemployment rate over twice as large as those over the age of twenty-four (Table 1, 1975 f igures: 12.5% vs. 5.9%). The over-representation of youth under twenty-five i s evident from the fact that while they compose only 27% of the labour force, they account for almost 50% of the unemployed. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the s i tuat ion i s even worse. For instance, the 1975 unemployment rate for youth under 25 was 21% higher than the Canadian rate (15.1% vs. 12.5%; Tables 2 and 3). Even though the above f igures indicate a grave s i tua t i on , they probably understate the problem. The unemployment f igures include only those who meet the dual conditions of act i ve ly looking for work and not being employed. That f igure does not take into account a potent ia l l y large number of poepole who have not adjusted to the work world. F i r s t of a l l , as young people experience lack of success in f inding work (as ref lected in continued high unemployment) and as the i r share of tota l unemployment r i ses (Figures 1 and 2), many youth become Table 2 Percentage Distr ibut ion of Labour Force and Unemployed Canada, 1966 and 1975 19751 1966 - - -Unemployed Labour Force ^ p e r - Unemployed : e n t ^ Labour Force Both Sexes: 14-24 years 48.6 27.2 40.0 24.3 25 years and over 51.4 72.8 60.3 75.8 Totals 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Male: 14-24 years 27.2 15.2 28.1 14.3 25 years and over 27.8 48.9 50.6 55.8 Female: 14r24 years 21.3 12.0 11.9 10.0 25 years and over 23.6 24.8 9.7 20.0 Totals 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 The main message conveyed by Table 2 is that almost 50% of unemployment i s accounted for by teenagers and young adults, a group which makes up only 27% of the labour force. ^Latest 12-month period: January 1974 to December 1975. Note: Figures may not add to tota l s because of rounding. Source: Seasonally Adjusted Labour Force S t a t i s t i c s Catalogue 71-201, annual S t a t i s t i c s Canada. T a b l e 3 C a n a d a : S e l e c t e d L a b o u r F o r c e S e r i e s , 1 4 - 2 4 Y e a r O l d s , 1 9 5 3 - 7 5 W o r k i n g - A g e P o p u l a t i o n L a b o u r F o r c e E m p l o y e d U n e m p l o y e d . U n e m p l o y m e n t R a t e ('/.) P a r t i c i p a t i o n R a t e (%) R a t i o o f Y o u t h U n e m p l o y m e n t t o A d u l t U n e m p l o y m e n t ( 0 0 0 ) Y e a r - t o - Y e a r C h a n q e {%) ( 0 0 0 ) Y e a r - t o - Y e a r C h a n q e {%) ( 0 0 0 ) Y e a r - t o - Y e a r C h a n q e (%) ( 0 0 0 ) Y e a r - t o - Y e a r C h a n q e (%) 1 9 6 6 3 6 4 8 + 4 . 9 1 7 9 7 + 7 . 4 1 6 9 0 + 8 . 0 1 0 7 - 0 . 9 6 . 0 4 9 . 3 2 . 1 1 9 6 7 3 8 2 6 + 4 . 9 1 8 8 6 + 6 . 1 1 7 7 6 + 5 . 1 1 3 0 + 2 1 . 5 6 . 8 4 9 . 8 2 . 1 • 1 9 6 8 3 9 9 5 +4 . 4 1 9 9 8 + 4 . 8 1 8 3 5 + 3 . 3 1 6 3 + 2 5 . 4 8 . 2 5 0 . 0 2 . 2 1 9 5 9 4 1 5 2 + 3 . 2 2 0 0 0 + 4 . 1 1 9 1 4 + 4 . 3 1 6 5 + 1 . 2 7 . 9 5 0 . 1 2 . 2 1 9 7 0 4 3 9 1 + 3 . 6 2 1 4 7 + 3 . 2 1 9 2 4 + 0 . 5 2 2 4 + 3 5 . 8 1 0 . 4 4 9 . 9 2 . 4 1 9 7 1 4 4 3 3 + 3 . 1 2 2 4 8 + 4 . 7 1 9 9 2 + 3 . 5 2 5 6 + 1 4 . 3 1 1 . 4 5 0 . 7 2 . 4 1 9 7 2 4 8 4 7 + 2 . 6 2 3 8 3 + 4 . 9 2 0 9 5 + 5 . 2 2 6 3 + 2 . 7 1 1 . 1 ' 5 1 . 9 2 . 4 1 9 7 3 4 6 5 8 + 2 . 4 2 5 1 8 + 6 . 7 2 2 6 8 + 8 . 3 2 5 1 - 4 . 6 1 . 0 . 0 5 4 . 1 2 . 5 1 9 7 4 4 7 8 3 + 2 . 7 2 6 8 6 + 4 . 7 2 4 1 7 + 6 . 6 2 5 8 + 2 . 8 9 . 6 5 5 . 9 2 . 5 oo 1 9 7 5 4 9 0 5 + 2 . 6 2 7 8 6 + 4 . 9 2 4 1 9 + 0 . 1 3 4 6 + 3 4 . 1 1 2 . 5 5 6 . 4 2 . 5 S o u r c e : L a b o u r F o r c e S u r v e y , C a t . N o . 7 1 - 0 0 1 . Table 4 Selected Unemployment Series for B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966-75 (a) Unemployment Rate of 194-24 Year Olds (b) Ratio of 14-24 Unemployment Rate to 25+ Unemployment Rate (c) Ratio of Regional 14-24 Unemployment Rate to Canada 14-24 Unemployment Rate 1966 7.6 2.06 1.27 1967 8.8 2.17 1.28 1968 10.3 2.25 1.26 1969 8.5 2.23 1.07 1970 13.0 2.18 1.25 1971 12.7 2.41 1.11 1972 .3.1 2.34 1.17 1973 11.7 2.50 1.18 1974 11.6 2.83 1.19 1975 15.1 2.56 1.20 Source: Labour Force Survey, Cat. No. 71-001. 10; 2.6, I 1 . . -* ' • • 1 1 >——' 6) 62 63 64 65 66 67 6S 69 70 71 72 73 74 S o u r c e : S t a t i s t i s c Canada Labou r F o r c e S u r v e y , L a t . N O . 71 - L K J 1 Figure 1. Canada: Ratio of youth unemployment rate to adult unemploy-ment ra te , 1969-74. (COO) 84-T04. p. 46. Figure 2. Canada: Live b i r th s , 1945-75 (both sexes). 11 "discouraged workers." They quit looking for work and leave the work force en t i r e l y . Therefore, the level of youth unemployment is much higher than shown. A recent issue., of the Labour Research Bu l le t in (February, 1975, p. 546) points out that . . . a d i s c o u r a g e d worker e f f e c t i s now t a k i n g p l a c e i n B.C. In f a c t , t h i r t e e n o f the s i x t e e n thousand t h a t have dropped o u t o f the l a b o u r f o r c e a r e i n the 14-19 age b r a c k e t and a f u r t h e r t h r e e thousand a r e i n the 20-24 age group. . . . Age group break-downs r e v e a l employ-ment l o s s e s i n a l l groups w i t h e s p e c i a l l y heavy ones i n the 14-19 and 20-24 g r o u p s , where monthly d e c l i n e s a r e 13-7 per c e n t and 7.9 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . . . . T h i s l a r g e d e c r e a s e i n the l a b o u r f o r c e aged 14-19 has s e r v e d to keep the group's unemployment r a t e down, perhaps t o a d e c e p t i v e l y low l e v e l . Not only do unemployment s t a t i s t i c s ignore the e f fect of " d i s -couraged workers," but they do not take into account underut i l ized workers. When a chemical engineer graduate can only f ind a job as a stock c le rk , there is an underut i l i zat ion of manpower. S im i l a r l y , people who work part-time even for a few hours a week are counted as employed, even when they desire f u l l - t i m e work and therefore are rea l l y underemployed (Knox, 1976). The problem of d i s s a t i s f i ed workers is d i r e c t l y re latedtto underut i l ized workers. The ef fects of d i s s a t i s f i ed workers can be examined e i ther from the viewpoint of the employer or that of the workers. The cost to the employer i s in terms of product iv i ty and qua l i t y . For the worker i t can resu l t in lower self-esteem and other psychological e f fec t s . While job d i s sa t i s f ca t i on i s prevalent in a l l age groups, the avai lable data indicates job d i s s a t i s f ac t i on is much more prevalent for under 25 1s. Burstein et al. (1975), in the i r study of Canadian Work Values^ state that " t h i s (d i s sat i s fy ing jobs) was espec ia l ly true for 15 to 24 year olds (p. 49)." 12 It i s evident that ava i lable unemployment s t a t i s t i c s provide only a pa r t i a l picture of the effectiveness of the labour market in u t i l i z i n g youth. There i s a need for a measure of "subemployment" (V ie to r i s z , Mier and G i b l i n , 1975) that w i l l include discouraged workers and underut i l ized workers. However, even without such a scale there i s a large amount of evidence that there is a poor match between the current job structure and the a b i l i t i e s , needs and aspirations of today's youth. As a measure of personal and f inanc ia l hardship the unemployment rates are a very gross ind icator . For instance, in a multi-earner family the loss of a secondary earner would cause less hardship than the loss of employment for the earner in a one-earner family. The Economic Council of Canada argues that i t i s long-term unemployment that i s of interest because of i t s serious economic and social impl icat ions. Accordingly, the ECC has used an index of unemployment severity to take into account that the seriousness of unemployment of the indiv idual may increase with the duration. The index simply mul t ip l ie s the unemployment rate by the average duration of unemployment. Table 5 provides ca lcu lat ion of the index for the period 1966-1973. The index c lea r l y shows that the problems of unemployment are much more severe for the under 25 age group. In most cases, the i r severity, indices are twice that of any other group. Another aspect of the current s i tuat ion which not only indicates the sever ity of the problem, but indicates one area where one should i n -vestigate solutions (see Chapter 2) i s to examine the type of unemployment experienced by youth, i . e . whether the high youth unemployment i s because 13 Table 5 Index of Unemployment Sever i ty , 1 Selected Age-Sex Groups, 1966-73 A l l Ages 14-24 years 25-44 years 45 years and over Total Males Females Total Males Females Total Males Females Total Mal'.-s Females Unemployment rate 1966 3.6 4.0 2.6 6.0 7.1 1967 4.1 4.6 3.0 6.8 8.1 1968 4.8 5.5 3.4 8.2 9.7 1909 4.7 5.2 3.6 7.9 9.4 1970 5.9 6.6 4.5 10.4 12.4 1971 6.4 7.0 5.1 11.4 13.3 1972 6.3 6.8 5.3 11.1 13.0 1973 5.6 5.9 5.1 10.0 11.2 Average duration of unemployment2 1966 10.34 10.52 9.66 9.21 9.28 1967 10.33 10.54 9.56 9.17 9.20 1968 11.35 11.60 10.44 10.31 10.46 1969 11.76 12.07 10.SO 10.55 10.94 1970 12.26 12.53 11.38 11.15 11.45 1971 13.64 13.85 13.05 12.73 12.91 1S72 13.19 13.45 12.51 12.01 12.18 1972 12.74 12.91 12.39 11.58 11.69 ;x of severity' 1966 0.37 0.42 0.25 0.54 0.66 .1967 0.42 0.48 0.29 0.62 0.74 1968 0.54 0.64 0.36 0.85 1.01 1969 0.55 0.63 0.39 0.83 1.03 1970 0.72 0.83 0.51 1.16 1.42 1971 0.87 0.97 0.67 1.45 1.72 1972 0.83 0.91 0.66 1.33 1.58 1973 0.71 0.76 0.63 1.16 1.31 1 Unemployment rate multiplied by average duration of unemployment. 2 Average number of weeks per unemployed person. 3 Average number of weeks per person in labour force. SOURCE Eased on d3ta from Statistics Canada. 4 - 3 2.6 2.9 1.9 3.1 3.7 1.6 5.1 3.1 3.6 2.0 3.3 3.9 1.8 6.0 3.7 4.2 2.3 3.7 4.4 2.0 5.9 3.5 3.8 2.5 3.7 4.2 2.3 7.7 4.4 5.0 3.1 4.3 4.9 2.6 8.8 4.7 5.2 3.6 4.6 5.3 2.9 8.6 4.8 5.0 4.1 4.3 4.8 3.1 8.2 4.1 4.2 3.9 3.8 4.1 2.8 9.00 9.97 9.89 10.23 12.34 12.55 10.9Q 9.13 10.14 10.22 9.76 12.42 12.66 10.91 10.00 11.26 11.44 10.18 13.21 13.20 12.22 9.78 11.69 11.53 il Si 14.07 14.81 12.36 10.42 12.32 12.34 12.08 14.42 14.50 14.00 12.38 13.78 13.78 13.52 15.33 15.59 14.12 11.62 13.54 13.61 13.39 15.33 15.74 13.89 11.37 13.18 13.16 13.27 14.S5 15.01 14.25 0.39 0.26 0.29 0.19 0.38 0.46 0.17 0.47 0.31 0.37 0.20 0.41 0.49 0.20 0.60 0.42 0.48 0.23 0.49 0.59 0.25 0.58 0.41 0.44 0.30 0.52 0.60 0.30 0.80 0.54 0.62 0.37 0.62 0.71 0.36 1.09 0.65 0.72 0.49 0.71 0.83 0.41 1.00 0.65 0.63 0.55 0.66 0.76 0.43 0.93 0.54 0.55 0.52 0.56 0.62 0.40 SOURCE: People and Jobs3 Economic Council of Canada, 1975, p. 209. 14 of overal l def ic ienc ies in aggregate demand or because young people are not w i l l i n g or able to f i l l the jobs that do ex i s t . Canada Manpower studies have found the l a t t e r to be the case. Among these Departmental studies, for example, one researcher (Knowles, 1973) found that: The p reponderance o f s h o r t term unemployment i m p l i e s an a c t i v e market where the c e n t r a l problem appears t o be j o b - m a t c h i n g and j o b i n s t a b i l i t y as opposed t o demand d e f i c i e n c y . and . . . changes i n employment c o n d i t i o n s a c c o u n t f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the changes i n the teenage unemployment r a t e . The problem of job-matching, which is ref lected in the high turnover of under 25's (Economic Council of Canada, 1976, p. 90), can be explained by the fact that many young people enter the world of work with l imited knowledge of how the i r education i s related to job opportunit ies. This problem i s espec ia l l y acute for those youth seeking b lue -co l l a r jobs, as education is pr imar i ly oriented towards wh i te -co l la r jobs. A Canada Manpower study by Li (1975) estimates that factors related to job turnover and job matching in 1974 account for 63 per cent of the unemployment rate experienced by teenage males. These figures and both L i ' s and Knowles' f inding that th i s component of unemployment i s pa r t i cu l a r l y prevalent for youth unemployment indicate that high youth unemployment i s not something that w i l l vanish when the economy improves. The problem i s an inherent part of our economic and social structure. 15 The Future S ituat ion The above discussion shows there i s a major problem in youth work t rans i t i on as shown by high rates of unemployment and underemployment in youth catagories. As stated e a r l i e r , th i s problem w i l l not be a l l ev i a ted so le ly by growth in our economy. Rather, i t w i l l require pos it ive measures by various government agencies. It i s possible some pol icy makers may feel that the problem i s a resu l t of the 'baby boom' of the late 1940's and 1950's, and as the youth population declines in the 1980's (see Figure 2), the youth unemployment problem w i l l not be of the current sever ity and w i l l no longer be of serious public concern. The f a l s i t y of that be l i e f and the implications for the future are well presented by the Research Projects Group of Canada Manpower (1976) in the i r study, Youth Unemployment in Canada: A Detailed Analysis. They stated: T h i s b e l i e f i s e x t r e m e l y n a i v e because i t does not t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t f a c t o r s o t h e r than demographic p r e s s u r e w h i c h caused the gap t o e x i s t i n the f i r s t p l a c e , t o widen i n the l a s t 10 y e a r s , and which w i l l l i k e l y work a g a i n s t a c l o s i n g o f the gap i n the next 10 y e a r s . Their statement i s strongly supported by demographic projections for the labour force. Even though the population of 14-24 year-olds w i l l be some 150,000 smaller in 1985, the youth labour force w i l l be 169,000 (6 per cent) larger. In addit ion, while the 14-19 year-old labour force w i l l probably peak at the same time as the i r population (1978), the 20-24 year-old labour force w i l l l i k e l y show continued growth over nearly a l l of the next ten years. Thus, the increasing magnitude of future youth unemployment i s supported not only by a projected increase in labour force pa r t i c i pa t i on , 16 but also by the projected changing age-composition of the population. As youth enter the labour force in the next ten years, they w i l l encounter the s i tua t i on , where ahead of them in the occupational structure is a large number of o lder, but s t i l l young, workers. However, these workers w i l l have the competitive advantage of experience. This w i l l mean young people might be l e f t with the role of "marginal" workers with increased problems of unemployment and job d i s s a t i s f a c t i on . The evidence strongly indicates that given the current economic and socia l structure that youth w i l l continue to suffer high unemployment for at least the next 10 years. However, the root causes w i l l be the same as b r i e f l y discussed previously. The problem w i l l not be due to a lack of jobs, but a lack of suitable jobs o r a l a c k o f s u i t a b l e t r a i n i n g . The Cost What i s the cost of the above s ituation? Direct costs include the payment of welfare and unemployment insurance to youth to under 25's. In indiv idual terms the costs are largely psychological, for instance low self-esteem that can accrue from f a i l u r e to f i nd employment. No one has successful ly attempted to determine the cost of high youth unemployment, but needless to say, i t i s substant ia l . For instance, a report on youth and social a s s i s t a n c e (Canada Council of Social Development, 1972) reported that welfare payments to under 25's were increasing much fas ter than e i ther the i r population growth or any other age group. In Toronto, socia l assistance cases climbed by 22 per cent between September, 1970, and September 1971. Within th i s group youth between 16 and 24 i n -creased by 94% representing 44% of the ent ire increase. 17 We also f ind that youth under 25 constitutes over one-third of a l l UIC claimants ( 1 9 7 4 : 3 3 . 8 % ) J Breaking th i s f igure down further in 1 9 7 4 they constituted 4 9 . 5 per cent of a l l claimants with less than twenty insurable weeks and 2 7 . 8 per-cent of claimants with twenty insurable weeks or more. This i s consistent with the e a r l i e r findings that those under 25 are characterized by shorter attachments to the labour force than those 25 and over. Two major facts emerge from th i s information on UIC claims. F i r s t of a l l , there would be a major e f fec t on UIC claims i f youth unemploy-ment was reduced. Secondly, the shorter attachment of youth to the labour force means they are pr imar i ly affected by any changes in UIC e l i g i b i l i t y requirements. Some people believe that young people compose a large number of socia l assistance and unemployment insurance rec ip ients because they are lazy and do not want to work. I f that were true, then we could not con-sider a high portion of the cost of socia l assistance or unemployment insurance being a resu l t of high youth unemployment. However, the Right (Canada Council, 1972) to Opportunity /study found that 93% of the recip ients rejected social assistance as a way of l i f e and that 87% per cent had t r i ed other a l t e r -natives before applying for social assistance. In addit ion, i t i s probable that some youth has lo s t the i r motivation to work as a resu l t of poor • success in the job market. This l a t t e r point i s part ly supported by a U.S. study (iGoodwin, 1 9 7 2 ) which found that poor people attr ibuted l i t t l e Whe i n f o r m a t i o n on unemployment i n s u r a n c e c l a i m a n t s was o b t a i n e d with the a s s i s t a n c e o f Dr. Steven M. H i l l s , F a c u l t y o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. S i m i l a r d a t a i s r e p o r t e d by the Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada ( 1 976 ) , p. 153-18 se l f importance to work as a resu l t of the i r having cont inual ly f a i l e d in the world of work. Yet, i f steps are to be taken to reduce the extent of youth unemployment, there i s a need to have information ava i lable to evaluate the potential benefits from any step. This includes the intangibles of higher self-esteem as well as the tangibles, such as lower unemployment insurance and social assistance payouts. Summary An examination of the s i tuat ion of youth in the world of work found high unemployment and d i s sa t i s f ac t i on with the avai lable type of work. Th i s . s i tuat ion i s not so le ly due to overal l def ic ienc ies in aggre-gate demand. A large part of the unemployment i s due to a mismatch of avai lable jobs with avai lable s k i l l s . Unless that mismatch is reduced the degree of youth unemployment w i l l not f a l l in the future even though the i r proportion in the population f a l l s . Instead, i t l i k e l y w i l l r i se as the current large number of employable youth get established in jobs and more women enter the work force. While the cost of th i s problem cannot be determined with a v a i l -able data, i t i s very large. It includes transfer payments, such as unemployment insurance and social assistance, in addition to psychological ef fects on those unable to f ind sat i s factory jobs. The purpose of th i s study is to develop and pre-test a method-ology to determine the causes and costs of the problem. That information w i l l allow pol icy makers to take pos i t ive steps to a l l e v i a te the problem. In add i t ion, information on the nature of the world of work w i l l allow 19 students and the i r counsellors to make decisions about the i r t ra in ing so they w i l l enter the world of work prepared and aware. The Need for Research The previous discussion makes i t evident that within youth categories there i s a serious problem of high unemployment and poor work adjustment. While there i s evidence that the cause i s a lack of suitable jobs, that in i t s e l f i s a cursory answer. Information i s s t i l l needed on what are suitable jobs for youth. This must be answered from both the standpoint of youth's needs and s k i l l requirements of employers. Do the problems of young people in the world of work resu l t from our educational system not meeting the s k i l l requirements of employers, as well as not adapting to the a b i l i t i e s of the indiv idual? Does our educa-t iona l system not prepare youth for the jobs they w i l l f ind avai lable? Many knowledgeable people in the f i e l d of education and labour answer these questions in the af f i rmat ive (Ginzberg, 1972; Wirtz, 1968, Hodgson, 1972; Davenport, 1972). S im i l a r l y , some follow-up studies have found that work-ing adults a t t r ibute much of the i r problems in f inding sat i s factory jobs to inappropriate cu r r i cu la and inadequate educational and vocational guidance (Flanagan and Russ-Eft, 1975). Information i s needed as to what extent the above problem i s true for youth in B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada. It i s also important to f ind out what ef fects various education programs and courses w i l l have on youth t rans i t i on from school to work. 20 Thus, i t i s necessary to study what af fects work adjustment of youth, the problems and effects of th i s work adjustment and how the t r a n s i -t ion from school to work can be improved. Usefulness of Research Results The study w i l l provide useful information to educators, Government (Department of Manpower and Immigration, B.C. Department of Education), and youth themselves. It w i l l provide educators with an indicator of how important the i r influence is on the future adjustment of youth. The impor-tance of th i s i s apparent from the findings of a study on Vancouver educa-t ion needs (Educational Research Inst i tute of B.C., 1975) where the public and students ranked the educational goal of developing one's career or personal interest through further t ra in ing and education as being the seventh and s ixth most important goals respectively. In contrast, the Teachers and School Administrators ranked that goal twenty-third and twenty-seventh respect ively. There i s a question of whether the public and students overvalue the ro le of education in preparing youth for work, or teachers and administrators undervalue i t . The B.C. att i tude i s an interest ing contrast to the United States s i tuat ion where 45 states have as one of the i r educational goals that each indiv idual must prepare for a career (Flanagan and Russ-Eft, 1975). Information on the nature and problems of youth unemployment and deta i l s on what character i s t i c s influence job success w i l l aid school and manpower counsellers. It would also be used in the formation of courses that w i l l prepare youth for work. 21 S im i l a r l y , the information w i l l aid Canada Manpower and Provincial Departments of Labour in determining problem p r i o r i t i e s and needs. For instance, what emphasis should be given to academic versus technical pro-grams, or what t ra in ing programs should be supported. For instance, in Vancouver, Canada Manpower and the local school board recently set up the Career Action Youth (CAY) Centre whose objectives include aiding in the preparation for eventual employment and obtaining r e a l i s t i c career goals and attached. Not only w i l l the proposed study aid the CAY centre in meeting that goal, i t w i l l also indicate what other steps are required to meet that goal. The study may f ind that vocational preparation in school i s a major factor in job success. If so, there are a number of steps that could be taken to implement i t . Questions to _be Investigated by the Proposed Study The proposed research w i l l examine the fol lowing questions related to youth employment. Spec i f ic variables used are discussed in Chapter 3. 1. Which young p e o p l e a r e s u c c e s s f u l i n the w o r l d o f work? - t h i s w i l l i n c l u d e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , j o b s e a r c h a c t i v i t y s i n c e l e a v i n g s c h o o l and j o b c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2. Which p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i f any, d i f f e r e n t i a t e y o u t h s u c c e s s f u l i n the work w o r l d from t h o s e who a r e not? - t h i s w i l l i n c l u d e f a m i l y background and o t h e r demographic d a t a 3- What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between work a t t i t u d e w i t h j o b s u c c e s s ? 22 h. How w e l l d i d the e d u c a t i o n a l system p r e p a r e y o u t h f o r work? - t h i s w i l l be l o o k e d a t both from the s t a n d -p o i n t o f y o u t h w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r c o u r s e c o n t e n t and v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , and from the employer's r e q u i r e m e n t s . The purpose of this study i s not to answer those questions, but to provide a research design so they can be answered. In Chapter 2, a number of studies and reports that identify some of the problems young people face i n the work force are reviewed. Also, i n that chapter, studies that have gathered data on youth's work experience are examined to determine what components of their research design might be included i n the proposed study. In the remaining chapters a research design i s developed after investigating some of the p i t f a l l s to be avoided i n this type of study (Chapter 3). A key component of the research design i s the development of a methodology for obtaining a high response rate to mail questionnaires (Chapter 4). Using portions of this methodology with a questionnaire developed for the proposed study (Chapter 5) the recommended research design i s tested on a sample of over 600 high school graduates and dropouts (Chapter 6) and recommendations are for more use of the research design. The result of this study w i l l be a tested and validated research design, including a comprehensive questionnaire, for the study of the problems faced by youth i n the world of work. 23 Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW A number of studies done in both Canada and the United States were very valuable in designing the study, in i den t i f y i n g some of the prob-lems of youth work adjustment, and in providing a potent ia l source of data fo r c r o s s - cu l t u r a l comparisons of Canadian and American Youth. The paper, Youth Unemployment in Canada: A Detailed Analysis (Department of Manpower and Immigration, 1976) provides a wealth of macro-economic data that are invaluable in any study of youth unemployment. It begins with an h i s t o r i c a l perspect ive of youth unemployment inc lud ing an ana lys i s of recent youth labour force and unemployment trends. It then examines the extent to which the school system prepares youth f o r the labour market. A review i s made of youth ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n in employer-sponsored t r a i n i ng and in Department of Manpower's programs. F i n a l l y , project ions are made of the future youth labour market s i t u a t i o n . The major f ind ings and conclusions of th i s study have been r e -viewed in Chapter 1. One f i nd ing that i s p a r t i c u l a r l y re levant to the present study i s that school ing i s the key f ac to r in youth ' s high unemploy-ment and turnover. As stated in the repor t : 24 High t u r n o v e r i s most marked among t e e n a g e r s whose r e l a t i v e l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g and s h o r t a g e o f e x p e r i e n c e r e l e g a t e s them a l m o s t i n e v i t -a b l y t o the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e o c c u p a t i o n s , r e c u r r e n t unemployment and, l i t t l e hope f o r f u t u r e advancement, (p. i i ) The report follows with the conclusion that young people get inadequate help in school to prepare them for entry into the labour market. The researchers found th i s true both in terms of vocational t ra in ing and vocational counsel l ing. A United States nationwide study of youth, Project Talent (Flanagan and Cooley, 1966) i s ce r ta in l y the most ambitious longitudinal study of youth to date. Based on the c l a s s i ca l t ra i t -and- fac to r approach, i t tested a s t r a t i f i e d random sample composed of 400,000 secondary students in 1960 and followed them up one, f i ve and eleven years a f ter completing high school. An addit ional followup i s to begin in 1980, twenty years a f te r the graduation of the f i r s t c lass . The project had four main goals: (1) to develop,an inventory of human resources, (2) to develop a set of standards for educational-psychological measurement, (3) to prepare a comprehensive counsell ing guide ind icat ing the patterns of aptitude and a b i l i t y which are predict ive of success and sa t i s fac t ion in various careers, and (4) to provide a better understanding of the educational experiences which prepare students for the i r l i f e work. The results of the study have been made avai lable in a series of reports. Some of the findings are pa r t i cu l a r l y relevant to our examina-t ion of youth work t r an s i t i on . For instance, 44% of the students reported that at least 50% of the time, "I feel that I am taking courses that w i l l not help me much in an occupation a f te r I leave school." That f inding 25 demonstrates the inadequacy of the curriculum in meeting the students' perceived needs. However, even though Project Talent has been of great value to educators, i t only looked at what students have learned, and did not i n ve s t i -gate how useful the i r learning has been in achieving the i r object ives. A recent study that followed up a random s t r a t i f i e d sample of Project Talent part ic ipants (Flanagan and Russ-Eft, 1975) looked at how the subjects ' education contributed or detracted from the i r qua l i ty of l i f e . " This study i s useful as a guide to the ef fect of various parts of the school curriculum on job success. Two of the study's f indings are extremely relevant to the present invest igat ion. F i r s t , over 86% of the males and 66% of the females stated that inadequate vocational and educa-t ional guidance inh ib i ted the i r personal development. Their lack of know-ledge about how the i r personal in teres t s , values and a b i l i t i e s prepared them for work resulted in wasted time, personal f ru s t ra t ion and lack of motivation when looking for and adjusting to an suitable career. The other area of concern that emerged from that study is that 64% of males and 78% of the females f e l t they would have benefited from spec i f i c addit ional courses. The courses indicated included business education for women, and technical courses for the men. The problem of inappropriate cu r r i cu la i s due to some degree to d i f f e r i n g p r i o r i t i e s between the educators and the students. The conclusion of the report gives an important reason why a study should be undertaken to-examine how school prepares youth for work. There a r e , however, some a r e a s i n whi c h e d u c a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e i n added ways t o t h e l i v e s o f t h e s e p e o p l e . . . . t h e d a t a on o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 26 and outcomes i n d i c a t e d a need f o r some a d d i t i o n a l programs i n the s c h o o l s . Only about 15% o f the men a r e i n one o f the c a r e e r groups they chose as 15-y e a r - o l d s . About \3% o f the women a r e i n the same c a r e e r group t h a t they e x p e c t e d i n i960. . . . i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s e p e o p l e now r e p o r t t h a t , as a t e e n a g e r , they under-s t o o d the e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a j o b and t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s ' o n l y s l i g h t l y w e l l ' o r 'not w e l l a t a l l . ' Improved programs i n the s c h o o l s would have e n a b l e d t h o s e s t u d e n t s t o f o r m u l a t e more r e a l i s t i c g o a l s f o r t h e i r f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n s , (p. 59) The desire to have more vocational related education i s also found in the "Vancouver Educational Needs Assessment Study" (Educational Research of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975). The study reported on the assessment by four groups of the importance of various educational goals. The groups were the students, the community at large, educational administrators, and teachers. Of par t i cu la r interest is that while the students and the general community ranked the need for students to have the s k i l l s , knowledge and att i tude necessary to develop one's career and interests as the s ixth and seventh most important need, the teachers and administrators rated i t twenty-third and twenty-seventh respect ively. When the researchers inves-t igated the reason for th i s d i spar i ty they found that the teachers i n t e r -viewed believed that education should be subject-oriented rather than career oriented. A problem may occur when that att i tude results in the exclusion of any career or ientat ion in courses or programs. That th i s may indeed be the s i tuat ion i s indicated by the fact that the students i n t e r -viewed were unanimous in the i r conviction that students do not get much help in school in c l a r i f y i n g the i r career needs. The study does not resolve the question of whether the public and students overvalue the role of 27 education in preparing youth for work or whether those in the school system undervalue i t s importance. "Obstacles to the Employment of Youth" (Werker and Jones, 1975), was discussed e a r l i e r . I t was u s e f u l t o - t h i s s t u d y as i t gave an overview of youth unemployment in B r i t i s h Columbia. The researchers recognized and i den t i f i ed the need for an examination of the d i f f i c u l t i e s youth f ind in the i r t rans i t i on from school to work. While they did not attempt to determine the causes or f ind the solutions to youth unemployment, they did endeavor to ident i f y the extent of the problem. They reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e in areas related to youth unemployment, and attempted to document the number and socio-demographic p r o f i l e of youths receiving welfare and unemployment insurance, and to gather impress ionist ic data based on interviews. Their presentation of s t a t i s t i c s on youth unemploy-ment and espec ia l l y t he i r inc lus ion of an annotated bibliography provides a useful reference to researchers in th i s f i e l d . As w e l l , an inventory of services avai lable to youth in the Greater Vancouver area provided as an appendix to the report i s useful as an indicator of what was being done to a l l e v i a te the problem of youth unemployment. The researchers were unable to obtain unemployment s t a t i s t i c s in s u f f i c i en t deta i l to allow any conclusions. Chapter 1 of the present study does have detai led breakdowns. The data was obtained from sources possibly not avai lable at the time of Werker and Jones (1975) study. The researchers also did not f u l l y meet the i r goal in gathering impress ionist ic data. As was discussed above, that area of the i r study suffered from a " lack of v iv idness." Again, that problem has been overcome in the present study as indicated by the comments of young people in the Prologue. 28 Despite the above two problems the "Obstacles to the Employment of Youth" provides an useful reference guide to researchers of youth unemployment. A study that was pa r t i cu l a r l y useful both as a source of att i tude scales and as supporting evidence towards the v a l i d i t y of th i s proposal was done by the Univers ity of Minnesota's Industrial Relations Center. The study, "Youth Unemployment: F r i c t ions in the Threshold of the Work Career - An Exploratory Probe" (Heneman and Dawis, 1968) measured t h i r t y dimensions of work att i tudes. This Youth Opinion Questionnaire (described by Graen and Dawis, 1966) was f i r s t pre-tested and refined using a sample of 5,000 high school students. It was then used to produce normative data on a s t r a t i f i e d random sample of over 9,000 students in Grades 9 through 12. In the f i n a l stage, graduates and dropouts from the school providing normative data were followed up. A highly-structured interview covering work experience, job s a t i s f a c t i on , se l f -evaluat ion and biographic data were completed on 183 graduates and 90 dropouts. A number of the i r results and conclusions were pa r t i cu l a r l y noteworthy. They developed r e l i ab l e scales to measure work att i tudes of threshold workers, and found that: 1. V a r i a n c e i n the work e x p e r i e n c e o f t h r e s h o l d w o r k e r s which a r e not e x p l a i n e d by demographic and b i o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r by measured work a t t i t u d e s . 2. The b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n o f e g o - s t r e n g t h was a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i f f e r e n t s u c c e s s r a t e s e n j o y e d by t h e g r a d u a t e s and d r o p o u t s i n t h e i r b e g i n n i n g work e x p e r i e n c e . The d a t a s u g g e s t e d t h a t the d r o p o u t s were i n f e r i o r t o g r a d u a t e s on t h i s d i m e n s i o n . 3. A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p can be found work a t t i t u d e s and b e g i n n i n g employment between measured exper i ences. 29 As the report stated, these findings are of an exploratory and tentative nature because of the small s ize and unknown representativeness of the co-operating group of dropouts and graduates. If the f indings could be val idated for a representative sample of B.C. threshold workers they might have some important implications to B.C. educators. For instance, i f lower self-esteem of dropouts a f fect the i r work experience, i t i s possible that by of fer ing an option other than Grade 12 graduation the dysfunctional affects of dropping out discussed below could be reduced. The Inst i tute of Survey Research conducted a longitudinal study of over 2,500 students (Bachman, 1967; Bachman et al., 1972; Davidson, 1972) which focused on major changes in adolescent boys during the high school years and how these changes are affected by aspects of the immediate social environment. Some of the i r f indings on the re lat ionship between education and smooth t rans i t i on from school to work are in teres t ing . One part of the project (Bachman et al.. 1972) looked at differences between high school graduates and dropouts in the work world. The findings showed that, while high school students have a higher employment rate than dropouts, there i s no difference when socio-economic status and in te l l i gence i s control led fo r . They also found no s i gn i f i can t difference in job sa t i s fac t ion and earnings. The authors questioned whether the "anti-dropout" campaigns results in a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy. The report indicates that emphasizing twelve years of education as the status quo may be incorrect. This i s one area that the proposed research w i l l examine c lose ly . The above studies support the need for the major research which t h i s study proposes. For example,, the Dept.. of Manpower and• Tjmigration (1976) presented macro-economic data that indicated that education, e s p e c i a l l y 30 vocational counsell ing and t ra in ing , had a major impact on the job success of young people. That viewpoint was also expressed in Flanagen and Cooley's (1966) longitudinal study of youth which found that a large proportion of students f e l t the i r courses would not help them much in an occupation. A followup of that study (Flanagen and Russ-Eft, 1975) found that over 80% of the males and 65% of the females surveyed ten years a f te r leaving high school f e l t inadequate vocational and personal quidance inh ib i ted the i r personal growth. These studies a l l discuss the problems faced by young people in making the t rans i t i on from school to work, and indicate that school inadequately prepares youth f o r work. The above studies also indicated some questions that need inves-t i gat ing and provided tested att i tude scales that could be used. Werker and Jones (1975) attempted to determine the costs of youth unemployment in terms of the i r demands on unemployment insurance and social welfare, but were unable to obtain s u f f i c i en t data. This study has i den t i f i ed data sources that could be used to obtain that information. Bachman et al. i den t i f i ed the importance of examining the re lat ionship between the amount of education and job success. The proposed study w i l l examine th i s d e t a i l , as well as how the type of education and vociat ional counsell ing af fects job success. The importance of work att i tudes in explaining job success was shown by Heneman and Dawes (1968). They also provided val idated scales to measure a number of work at t i tudes . By using the information obtained in the above studies, the research design of the proposed study i s comprehensive and w i l l require a minimum amount of va l ida t ion . 31 While the above studies provided some important insights into the problems youth face i n the transition from school to work, they have presented very few conclusive findings. For example, Heneman and Dawes' (1968) research was of an exploratory and tentative nature. Also, i t i s questionable whether the above findings can be generalized to apply to Br i t i s h Columbia with i t s own particular economic structure (i.e. resource based industry and Public School System) . Finally, a number of changes have occurred i n attitudes towards work since many of the above studies have taken place. For those reasons the proposed research i s of major signif-icance. As well, our emphasis on youth who are now out of school i s a relevant contribution when considering that the University of Minnesota study only followed up 183 of the 18,000 high school students in their original sample and that Project Talent's interest i n working youth was mainly i n what jobs they held, and i n their future career plans rather than in job search activity and job satisfaction. 32 Chapter 3 RESEARCH DESIGN I t i s important that the results of the proposed study are accepted with confidence i f i t i s to have a major impact on planning and decisions made about programs related to youth in the labour market. For that reason, a review was made of.the f a c t o r s influencing.sample s i z e , and the sampling design w i l l consider those factors. S im i l a r l y , the method of data co l l ec t i on was developed :after a thorough review of - the l i t e r a t u r e on:the subject. The questionnaire i s an important influence on v a l i d i t y of the resu l t s . Therefore, a l l att i tude scales used must be chosen from those that have substantiated v a l i d i t y , and care must be taken to avoid biases because of question content or wording. A major part of th i s paper i s the pretest of the research design with par t i cu la r emphasis being placed on the methods of data co l l ec t i on and the v a l i d i t y of the scales used. Because of the potential importance of the proposed study, the pretest (while exploratory) was done on a large scale and in many ways represents a major study in i t s e l f . Its main con-s t r a i n t i s that, because of time and budget l imi tat ions , i t was not concerned with developing any conclusions related to the area of 33 invest igat ions, rather emphasis i s placed on the effectiveness.of the e method in e l i c i t i n g useful responses. P i t f a l l s to be Avoided In designing a study, care must be taken to ensure that the results obtained are v a l i d . This pa r t i cu l a r l y applies to the sampling design, and methods of data co l l e c t i on . An excel lent example of common errors made in studies based on data co l l ec t i on by interview or survey i s provided in a major study done in B r i t i s h Columbia in the Impact of Community Colleges (Dennison, Tunner, Jones and Forrester (1975)). The overal l study took over three years and cost in excess of $250,000. Yet i t had major weaknesses in the methodology that may have biased the re su l t s . A detai led c r i t i que of th i s study i s useful as i t w i l l bring out the major problems in sampling design and survey techniques. The Impact Study i s espec ia l ly worth examining as i t was based on a s imi la r population to that examined in the proposed study. The Impact Study i s based on sixteen studies done over a four year period. The method of data co l l ec t i on used most extensively was that of surveys by questionnaire. The Impact Study examined three broad impact areas; the student, the educational system and the community (p. 8). Surveys of the student were for the most part done on the ent i re population. The report states, "the response rates were generally very good, with about 60% of the students completing the surveys. . . ." The report continues: With response r a t e s so h i g h , the q u e s t i o n o f whether a s t u d y i s 'random' becomes r a t h e r academic. In a d d i t i o n , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e s u l t s o f 34 the s u r v e y a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e such a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f the p o p u l a t i o n has been measured. Thus t h e main problem i s one o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t he f i n d i n g s . (p. \kk) The purpose of s c i e n t i f i c sampling i s to ensure that the sample being studied has the same character i s t i c s as the population that i t i s taken from. The report ' s reference to a high response rate refers to the large number of respondents. Typ ica l ly there were over 10,000 respondents to each survey conducted. For each of the Grade 12 surveys the response was close to 20,000. Unfortunately they have committed the c la s s i c error of s e l f - se l ec t i on that i s w e l l documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e on survey research. Perhaps the best example (Hansen et al., 1953, pp. 68-71) occurred in 1937 when a "census of unemployment" was authorized by the United States Congress. The provisions for the census spec i f ied that i t should be a voluntary reg i s t r a t i on , and the method of carrying i t out was through a mail questionnaire. A nation-wide pub l i c i t y campaign attempted to achieve f u l l co-operation, and the President appealed to a l l unemployed and p a r t i a l l y unemployed to respond. The post o f f i ce then l e f t a form at every door in the United States that received postal service. The technicians responsible for the 'census' were aware of the d i f f i c u l t i e s in interpret ing voluntary survey results and undertook, immediately a f ter the mail canvass, to take a s c i e n t i f i c sample of the population and cover i t completely with an enumerative survey in order to provide a basis for evaluating the v a l i d i t y of the much more widespread mail returns. As a resu l t of the tremendous campaign, the survey achieved a very high response. Based on the check sample, 67 per cent of those who 35 should have responded actua l ly d id. The mail survey in th i s instance was tremendous in s i ze , with more than 11,000,000 responses. S t i l l , the check sample showed that th i s 67 per cent who r e s p o n d e d were an unrepresentative sample of the unemployed and p a r t i a l l y unemployed population. It showed that the summary figures from the mail survey were substant ia l ly biased and had errors that were many times as large as the possible sampling errors of a reasonably well-designed sample that would be only a small f ract ion of th i s s i ze . In f ac t , the check survey which covered only 2% of the popula-t ion was done at a f ract ion of the cost of carrying out and evaluating the large survey and i t not only gave results of greater precis ion but in addi-t ion the precis ion could be object ive ly evaluated. As the above example i l l u s t r a t e , the Impact Study's main problem was not "one of interpret ing the f ind ings, " but of determining the potential biases of the f indings. The importance of a high response rate depends on the group being studied. When the group i s a student population a response rate of even 70% i s not always high enough to preclude se l f - se l ec t i on bias. Other researchers have found conclusively that those with higher education and in te l l i gence are more l i k e l y to respond to voluntary surveys. Eckland's (1967) study where he achieved a 94% response rate from 1255 former college students i s one example. As Table 6 i l l u s t r a t e s , dropouts required the most prodding to respond to the survey. It i s important to note, however, that the dropouts did respond when prodded s u f f i c i e n t l y . If Eckland had been sa t i s f i ed with a 67% response rate then univers i ty dropouts would have composed 23.4% of the sample rather than the i r true representation of probably over 30%. The impl icat ion for the Impact Study i s that the 36 respondents to the survey would probably represent the more educationally oriented students who would be most l i k e l y to achieve a univers i ty degree or col lege diploma. Macek and Mi les ' 0975) study in IQ score and response rate, which found that respondents had a s i g n i f i c an t l y higher IQ than non-respondents (101.73 vs. 91.52) also indicates that the Impact Study may have been biased in favor of higher education. Table 6 Percentage of College Graduates and Dropouts Among Respondents to Each Successive Stage of Prodding Graduate Statue F i r s t Wave (n=510) Second and Third Waves (n = 334) Telephone or Ce r t i f i ed (n = 268) Telepone and Ce r t i f i ed (n = 68) A l l Returns (n=l,180) Univers ity Graduate 63.1 50.0 35.8 23.5 50.9 Transfer Graduate 17.8 19.8 18.3 11.8 18.1 Dropout 19.0 30.2 45.9 64.7 30.9 TOTAL 99.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.9 Cumulative Response Rate 40.6 67.0 90.2 94.0 --SOURCE: " E f f e c t s o f P r o d d i n g t o I n c r e a s i n g M a i l - B a c k R e t u r n s , " Bruce E c k l a n d , (Journal of Applied Psychology, 1965, V o l . kS, No. 3, 165-169. The l i k l i hood that the resu lts were biased because of an unrepresentative sample i s pa r t i cu l a r l y true for the portion of the Impact Study based on mail surveys of the community (Chapter 10). Samples were taken of 1% of a l l households in the C i ty of Vancouver and of 1,500 members of the Board of Trade. The response rates in both cases were extremely low; 13.6% and 20% respect ively. Donald's (1960) invest igat ion 37 of 'The Implication on Nonresponse for the Interpretation of Mail Question-naire Data' found that "The (Less complete the data are, the more l i k e l y that they are biased in favor of that section of the sample more act i ve ly involved in the subject matter under consideration and more l i k e l y to give favorable results (p. 122)." The above statement applies also to the Impact Study student surveys. The Grade 12 surveys, which were a l l completed in the classroom, would be biased by incomplete data in two ways. F i r s t of a l l , those not present for the surveys would by de f i n i t i on include students with poor attendance at high school. Secondly, the poorer and less interested students could be more l i k e l y to f i l l i n the 'optical-mark 1 coirputer . ~ cards incor rect l y or spuriously. This, in addition to the previous d i s -cussion, indicates that the student surveys would be biased in favor of higher education. This c r i t i que indicates areas of concern about the v a l i d i t y of the Impact Study. Further analyses of the differences between the respon-dents and nonrespondents are indicated. As stated previously (Charach, 1976), "In a l l cases i t i s worthwhile for researchers to compare respon-dents with nonrespondents in order to determine l i k e l y areas of bias. . . . As w e l l , an intensive e f f o r t should be made to contact some of the non-respondents. . .to f ind out the reason for nonresponse and to receive supplementary data for comparison with respondents." The Impact Study, while providing much useful information in some areas, should be used war i ly as the data are based so le ly on surveys. The research design for a study on youth work t rans i t i on was- developed with these p i t f a l l s in mind. For example, one objective of the study w i l l be to obtain a high response rate of sample subjects. 38 Population While the study i s structured around the problems of youth under 25 in the labour force, i t s goals can best be met by looking at a popula-t ion that i s a subset of that population. The population to be studied i s that group of ind iv idua l s , who l e f t the B.C. Public School System one year and three years ago (.1971 and 1973). These years were selected in order to provide a look at the t r a n s i t i o n ' period from school to work, as well as allowing a period of "adjustment to work" for the population in order to make the att i tude measure of Job Sat i s fact ion and Job Att ract ion stable ind icators . The population choice was also influenced by the findings of Blau and Duncan (1967) and Ginzberg (1966) that the path of one's career development i s affected by the i nd i v i dua l ' s previous h i story, with the conditions inf luencing the beginning of career development having a diminish-ing e f fect the further a person moves away from that s tar t ing point. A s i gn i f i can t impl icat ion from the i r results i s that in order to account for the progression of one's career considerable attention must be paid to the circumstances and institutions that provide the contingencies for subsequent career development (Breton, 1972). Among the i n s t i tu t i on s that influence youth's career development the public school system i s of primary importance for two reasons. F i r s t of a l l , because in our social system i t has become the main a l l ocat ion agency for the occuaptional and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n system (Breton, 1972). Add i t i ona l l y , i t i s possible to change the public school system through the action of government agencies, professional associat ions, educators and students. 3 9 Choosing the Sample Size In each of the years chosen there were over 20,000 school leavers. The cost of reaching the ent i re population i s both quite high and unnecessary. A more va l id sample can be obtained from s c i e n t i f i c sampling than from a study of the ent i re population. Even though we do not plan to survey the ent i re population, the question remains: what sample s ize i s necessary. The choice of sample s ize depends on: 1 . time and money av a i l a b l e 2. the objectives of the survey 3. a v a i l a b l e knowledge of the population The time and money constraints determine the maximum sample that can be obtained. If the sample s ize required to meet the objectives of the study requires more resources than are ava i lab le , there are only three choices. E ither the objectives can be modified or more resources must be obtained. Or, the method of obtaining the desired sample can be structured to reduce the cost of data gathering. As w i l l be discussed l a t e r , one technique, the mail questionnaire i s well suited to surveying large samples at a minimal cost. An objective of the study w i l l determine, for any population, the appropriate sample s ize of the study. The two primary things to ascer-ta in are the level of accuracy (sampling error) required and the number of intragroup comparisons to be made. It i s i n t u i t i v e l y obvious that i f e i ther the ent i re population i s studied or i f only the member of a (completely homogeneous) population ( i . e . the population of water molecules) i s surveyed that a l l measurements w i l l represent the population with no sampling error . As the proportion 40 of the population examined decreases, the sampling error increases. S im i l a r l y , the more homogeneous the population, the smaller the sample required to achieve a spec i f i c sampling error. However, the homogeneity or variance within a population i s a f ixed var iable which i s usually unknown. This means that the sample s ize i s the main var iable that can be manipulated to a f fect the sampling error. When a sample i s very small, the probable sampling error i s so large that the data are worthless (WFS Central S ta f f , 1975). This i s important when considering subgroups of the population. For instance, while our study w i l l be looking at high school leavers, much of the analysis w i l l break down the population into subgroups of various high school pro-grams. If the sample in the subgroup is too small that analysis w i l l be of no value. The factor that most influences sample s ize is the amount of detai led breakdown required by the planned analys is . The e f fec t of homogeneity of the population has been discussed previously. While i t has an important e f fect on determining sample s i ze , there is not enough a p r i o r i information on i t to j u s t i f y taking i t into account. This i s so, even though there has been a large number of studies on youth (see L i terature Review). Sampling errors computed from survey samples are themselves usually subject to great sampling v a r a b i l i t y . Sampling theory, and the reported experience of many computations ( c f . Kish, Grove and Krokt i , 1976), emphasize the importance of not re ly ing on the precis ion of indiv idual results regardless of the s ize of the sample. Our problem i s to determine the sample s ize for a population with unknown character i s t i c s that w i l l give results with an allowable precis ion and w i l l enable an analysis to be performed on a given number 41 of subgroups. An indicator of the potential sample s ize i s avai lable when we consider other studies of youth. A study by Breton 0968), surveyed 13% of a l l secondary students in Canada using a s t r a t i f i e d probab i l i ty sample design. Based on an estimated " leaver" population of 20,000 in B.C.1 th i s w i l l require a sample of 2,600 for each student population surveyed. However, th i s f igure seems somewhat in f l a ted when we consider that a longitudinal study of a l l Grade 10 students in the United States conducted by the Inst i tute for Social Research 0969) considered 2,200 subjects adequate,based on a multi-stage probab i l i ty sample. It seems reasonable to state at th i s stage that the maximum size of the sample w i l l be 2,200 with the optimal s ize to be determined. The remainder of th i s section w i l l discuss a formula that w i l l provide a sample s ize that w i l l meet spec i f i c conditions of sampling error and subgroup comparisons, and w i l l use that formula to determine the optimum sample s i ze. Dr. Jim Zidek of The Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia's Mathematics Department used a Bayesian approach to develop a formula for determining sample sizes for unknown populations (.1974). Without delving into the mathematics involved, the basic approach attempted to make the l i k e l y error of the smallest possible magnitude when computed over the t o t a l i t y of a l l conceivable samples for potential values of any cha rac te r i s t i c . This approach eliminates uncertainty both due to sampling var iat ions and d i f fe rent d i s t r ibut ions of charac te r i s t i c s . If ' p 1 represents the number of subgroups, e. i s the sampling error and N i s the population s i ze , then the sample s ize required to meet those conditions i s : ''Source: B.C. Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h and S t a n d a r d s Branch. 42 sample s i z e 1 * J ^ p - l / l - l The fol lowing table indicates for the population of 20,000 the sample sizes required for various combinations of subgroups and errors: Table 7 Sample Size for Population of 20,000 Number of Subgroups ERROR 2 4 6 .05 770 2146 3325 .10 198 583 952 .15 88 263 435 .20 50 149 247 From the t a b l e i t appears that a sample s i z e of 1,000 i n each year would allow a reasonable l e v e l of accuracy and allow a s u f f i c i e n t l e v e l of break-downs.- This f i g u r e would allow 6-way breakdowns with a 10% e r r o r expected. In a d d i t i o n , when we are comparing the 1971 .leavers with the 1973 ' leavers the sample s ize w i l l , of course, be two thousand. When populations exceed around 15,000 the sampling error depends on the sample s ize rather than the sampling f ract ions . That w i l l mean those results w i l l have less error due to sampling than within group analyses. For instance, when the population i s 40,000 and the sample s ize i s 2,000 the sampling error for four-way breakdowns i s less than .06 per cent. In conclusion, i t appears that a sample s ize of 1,000 for each of the population years w i l l give us a highly va l id sample. The cost of 1 The formula assumes randomized sampling. 43 such a sample w i l l be discussed l a te r (see Cost of Mail Surveys) but i t i s reasonable to say at th i s stage i t would not be excessive. Method of Data Co l lect ion A key part of any research design i s the method of data gathering. In th i s case the method used must e l i c i t youth's school and work experience and at t i tudes . A secondary requirement i s for a method that can be imple-mented at a reasonable cost. This i s especia l ly important when, as d i s -cussed previously, a sample s ize of 2,000 is required to achieve useful and va l i d resu l t s . The two methods that are most l i k e l y to be of use are personal interviews or mail questionnaires. The personal interview has the advantage that, in most cases, studies based on interviews have had a very high response rate, usually over seventy-five per cent. In addit ion, the interviewer can explain the meaning of unclear questions and delve into areas of in teres t . There are two main areas where the interview method has d i s -advantages. The f i r s t i s that there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of biased or incorrect responses. The phenomenon of interview demand i s well documented (Lansing et al.. 1961). Responses may be biased in the d i rect ion of socia l des i r -a b i l i t y of what the respondent feels i s the interv iewer ' s opinion. While th i s bias may also occur in mail questionnaires, i t i s much less l i k e l y because the subject has a greater sense of anonymity and questions are in a uniform form. An even larger disadvantage is that of cost. Lansing and Morgan (1971) examined the costs of a number of large-scale interview surveys. 44 They found f i e l d costs in 1968 varied from f i f t een do l lars per interview up to forty-e ight do l lars per interview, depending on the nature of the study. In contrast, Dillman (.1974) reported on the costs of four large-scale studies that used mail questionnaires. After considering a l l costs, including preparing data to the point of analys is , he found that in no case did the cost per completed questionnaire exceed three do l l a r s . Therefore, when considering the cost factor , the mail questionnaire i s the best method to use for data gathering in th i s study. Chapter 4 w i l l review the disadvantages and advantages of the mail questionnaire, and develop a methodology that w i l l overcome the main disadvantages of mail questionnaires. as CHAPTEE 4 1 2 1 METHODOLOGY FOR MAIL QUESTION MUM i * . INTRODUCTION In t h i s s e c t i o n a methodology f o r using m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s developed. The accepted advantages and disadvantages of mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and examples i n the l i t e r a t u r e of how the major disadvantages can be overcome are d i s c u s s e d . In the next chapter an example of a twenty-four page mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e which used most of the methodology advised h e r e i n , i n c l u d i n g the use of a computer, i s given. , Advantages Of H a i l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e M a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are widely used i n many types o f surveys; f o r i n s t a n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n surveys, t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o r a t i n q s and s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h . T h i s i s because t h e r e are a number of major areas where mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have advantages over other methods such as i n t e r v i e w s and non-o b t r u s i v e methods. The f o l l o w i n q advantages when co n s i d e r e d toqether as a package make mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e s very u s e f u l . The prime advantage o f m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s t h a t they permit a wide coveraqe a t minimal expense. T h i s advantage i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r r e a c h i n q people s c a t t e r e d over a l a r q e geographic area, or who may be d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e f o r a personal i n t e r v i e w . T h i s g r e a t e r coveraqe may r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r v a l i d i t y through a l a r g e r and more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample., In a d d i t i o n a l l o w i n g the s u b j e c t to respond to the 46 q u e s t i o n n a i r e on h i s own p e r m i t s more c o n s i d e r e d a n s wers and i s a d v a n t a g e o u s when t h e r e s p o n d e n t has t o c h e c k h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . As w e l l t h e r e s p o n d e n t has a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f p r i v a c y and a n o n y m i t y ; f o r i n s t a n c e a r e s p o n d e n t may be more w i l l i n g t o a d m i t t o b e i n g unemployed when he does n o t have t o g i v e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n verbally.„ F i n a l l y , m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have t h e a d v a n t a g e t h a t i n t e r v i e w e r e f f e c t i s l e s s e n e d , and t h e r e i s u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e manner i n which q u e s t i o n s a r e p o s e d . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t a l l b i a s i n g due t o " i n t e r v i e w e r demand" w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d , b u t t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r c a n c o n t r o l t h i s e f f e c t t h r o u g h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and c o v e r i n g l e t t e r . I n summary, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s an a t t r a c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t f o r g a t h e r i n g d a t a . The main a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t a l a r g e r , more d i s p e r s e d sample c a n be r e a c h e d a t m i n i m a l c o s t . D i s a d v a n t a g e s Of M a i l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s The major weakness c i t e d i n t h e use o f m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s low r e s p o n s e r a t e . T h o s e who answer t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e may d i f f e r f r o m t h e n o n r e s p o n d e n t s q i v i n q a b i a s e d s a m p l e . T h e r e f o r e many u s e r s f e e l t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( W a l l a c e , 1954). However, t h e r e a r e many c a s e s where u s e r s o f m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have o b t a i n e d r e s p o n s e r a t e s c o m p a r a b l e t o o t h e r methods, even w i t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e x c e e d i n g f i f t e e n pages ( e . g . E c k l a n d , 1 9 6 9 ; Champion and S e a r , 1969). I n a c h i e v i n g t h o s e r e s u l t s t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was t h a t t h e y t o o k i n t o 47 a c c o u n t t h e n a t u r e o f m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . They d i d n o t j u s t s end o u t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and hope f o r t h e b e s t , A m a j o r p a r t o f t h i s p a p e r d i s c u s s e s what has been f o u n d a b o u t a c h i e v i n q h i g h r e s p o n s e s t o m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and t h e e f f e c t s o f s u c h f a c t o r s as q u e s t i o n n a i r e l e n g t h . As i s a p p a r e n t t h e f i r s t and most o f t e n c i t e d d i s a d v a n t a g e o f m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a n be l a r g e l y d i s c o u n t e d , namely, t h e need f o r a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, t h e r e a r e s t i l l some o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e s t h a t one s h o u l d be aware o f . As w e l l , i t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t even w i t h a l a r q e r e s p o n s e r a t e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e t h e p o s s i b l e b i a s i n g e f f e c t s o f n o n r e s p o n s e s i n t o a c c o u n t (as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n d e t a i l ) . A major d i s a d v a n t a g e o f m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t may m i s i n t e r p r e t t h e q u e s t i o n , and t h e l a c k o f f o l l o w - t h r o u g h on m i s u n d e r s t o o d q u e s t i o n s o r e v a s i v e a n s w e r s . An i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m c o n f r o n t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s i s m i s s i n q answers t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which may i n v a l i d a t e o t h e r r e s p o n s e s of t h a t r e s p o n d e n t f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e d e s i g n e d s o t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i l l s e e a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s and i n s t r u c t i o n s s h o u l d p o i n t o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a n s w e r i n g a l l a p p l i c a b l e q u e s t i o n s . F i n a l l y , m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s u f f e r from a p r o b l e m common t o a l l s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a , namely, the assumed t e n d e n c y t o d i s t o r t a n s w e rs i n a d i r e c t i o n f a v o r a b l e t o t h e s p o n s o r o f t h e s u r v e y , o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t . S o l u t i o n s t o t h i s p r o b l e m w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c t i o n on C o v e r i n g L e t t e r s and on A n o m y n i t y . us INCREASING SAIL QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE HATES T h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s the f a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e response r a t e s and how these f a c t o r s can be manipulated to achieve high response r a t e s . The Covering L e t t e r A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r should accompany any mail questionnaire.. The major purpose of the c o v e r i n g l e t t e r i s to convince the respondent to take the time t o f i l l out the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . For t h i s reason the wording of the l e t t e r i s of paramount importance. The l e t t e r serves a number o f purposes. I t i n t r o d u c e s the r e s e a r c h e r to the s u b j e c t and asks the s u b j e c t ' s h e l p by answering the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t should enhance f a c t o r s of convenience and encourage the s u b j e c t ' s committment. Convenience can be emphasized i n the c o v e r i n q l e t t e r by p o i n t i n g out t h a t a * p r e - p a i d s e l f - a d d r e s s e d envelope* i s i n c l u d e d . A l s o , by a s s u r i n g anonymity the user w i l l be more w i l l i n g to t r a n s m i t i n f o r m a t i o n about h i m s e l f . Both these p o i n t s should be covered and emphasized i n the l e t t e r . As w e l l , an estimate of the time r e q u i r e d t o f i l l out the q u e s t i o n n a i r e may be b e n e f i c i a l . Dillman (1972) found a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r t h a t conveyed an imaqe of s o c i a l u t i l i t y and s t r e s s e d the importance of each i n d i v i d u a l response r e c e i v e d over a 75% response from two independent surveys of 4 500 respondents each. The importance of e n s u r i n g that the appeal of the l e t t e r i s f i t t e d to the group being s t u d i e d i s shown i n r e s e a r c h by Champion and Sear (1969). 49 These r e s e a r c h e r s looked at two types of c o v e r i n g l e t t e r . The f i r s t was e g o i s t i c , t h a t i s emphasizing the b e n e f i t s t o the respondents such as the chance to express themselves. The second type was more a l t r u i s t i c , emphasizing the d i r e c t b e n e f i t s t o the r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n . He found t h a t f o r those with lower s o c i o -economic s t a t u s that the response r a t e was over 60.5% f o r those who r e c e i v e d the e g o i s t i c l e t t e r versus 33.2% f o r the a l t r u i s t i c l e t t e r . The other major use of the c o v e r i n g l e t t e r i s t o t r a n s m i t to the s u b j e c t s the value of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l response and overcome any f e e l i n g t h a t they w i l l be j u s t one of a thousand l u m b e r s 1 . The best way t o accomplish t h i s i s by p e r s o n a l i z i n g the c o v e r i n g l e t t e r and thereby encouraging a b e l i e f on the p a r t of the respondent t h a t he i s r e c e i v i n g the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n . Matteson (1974) used a survey design with a c o n t r o l group r e c e i v i n g a form l e t t e r , and the t e s t group r e c e i v i n g a semi-personal l e t t e r . He found t h a t the r e t u r n r a t e f o r the semi-personal l e t t e r was 31.9% as opposed to 22.0% f o r the form l e t t e r . The study by Dillman (1972) a t t r i b u t e s the high response p a r t l y t o the c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s having a p e r s o n a l i z e d appearance, with names and s t r e e t addresses being i n d i v i d u a l l y p l a c e d on each with matching type and the p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r ' s name being i n d i v i d u a l l y signed. The above s t u d i e s demonstrate t h a t p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n does c o n t r i b u t e t o a high-response r a t e . However, those r e s e a r c h e r s d i d not determine the extent to which, p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n alone c o n t r i b u t e d t o the high response. Dillman and Frey (1974) 50 c a r r i e d out an experiment i n which only the v a r i a b l e of p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n was manipulated. B a s i c a l l y , two random groups of alumni were sent 8-page q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Both groups were sent a followup postcard and a second followup l e t t e r . However, one group's correspondence had t h e i r name and address placed on each l e t t e r i n matching i n k , and was si g n e d with the p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r ' s s i g n a t u r e , while t h e r e was no p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n on any of the other group's correspondence. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n made a s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.01) e f f e c t o f n e a r l y nine percentage p o i n t s (77.1% vs. 68.7%). The r e s e a r c h e r s concluded, ' P e r s o n a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t s have s u b s t a n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r making the mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e a v i a b l e technique f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e data (p. 301)." T h e r e f o r e , p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n should form a major p a r t o f any r e s e a r c h desiqn f o r mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e surveys. Anonymity In examininq the importance o f anonymity two f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d ; one, the e f f e c t on response r a t e and two, the e f f e c t on response b i a s . In l o o k i n g at t h i s i t should be kept i n mind t h a t i d e n t i f y i n q who responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s important f o r followups and t o determine where p o s s i b l e areas of bias may show up. Of course, i d e n t i f y i n g respondents does not preclude c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f r e s u l t s (a b a s i c e t h i c a l requirement i n most r e s e a r c h ) . What i s of concern i s t h a t the s u b j e c t may p e r c e i v e h i s anonymity as thre a t e n e d . I t i s important t h a t the format of the l e t t e r and q u e s t i o n n a i r e reduce t h i s e f f e c t . , K l e i n , Maher and Dunninqton (1967) examined the d i f f e r e n c e s 51 between i d e n t i f i e d and anonymous s u b j e c t s i n r e s p o n d i n g t o an i n d u s t r i a l o p i n i o n s u r v e y . W h i l e t h e y were n o t u s i n g a m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e i r s t u d y i s u s e f u l i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g p o s s i b l e b i a s i n g e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f a n o n y m i t y . K l e i n et.. a l . . f i r s t b r o k e t h e i r sample i n t o two g r o u p s by random a s s i g n m e n t . In a l l c a s e s s u b j e c t s were a s s u r e d t h a t no a t t e m p t would be made t o i d e n t i f y anyone t o management. However, w h i l e t h e f i r s t g r o u p ' s r e s p o n s e s were c o m p l e t e l y anonymous, t h e s e c o n d g r o u p was a s k e d t o p l a c e a p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f y i n g number on t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h e i r c a s e s c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y was a s s u r e d t h o u g h a n o n y m i t y was n o t . H a l f t h e i d e n t i f i e d g r o u p were f u r t h e r p l a c e d i n a ' h i g h t h r e a t * s i t u a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e i r manager p e r s o n a l l y t e l l i n g them t h e y were t o p l a c e an i d e n t i f y i n g number on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The q u e s t i o n now i s what e f f e c t does b e i n q i d e n t i f i e d have on r e s p o n s e s t o a s u r v e y , and s e c o n d l y a r e b i a s i n g e f f e c t s f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d t h r o u q h t h e method o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s show c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t a p o s i t i v e d i s t o r t i o n ( i . e . i n f a v o r o f t h e f i r m ) t o o k p l a c e under b o t h i d e n t i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s , and t h a t under t h e ' h i g h t h r e a t ' s i t u a t i o n t h e e f f e c t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r . K l e i n e t T a l . f o u n d t h a t b i a s i n g e f f e c t s depended upon t h e t y p e o f q u e s t i o n . I tems d e a l i n g w i t h s a l a r y and w i t h r a t i n g s o f t o p management p r o d u c e d c o n s i s t e n t p o s i t i v e d i s t o r t i o n , whereas i t e m s d e a l i n g w i t h work p r e s s u r e and t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s manager r e s u l t e d i n l i t t l e o r no d i s t o r t i o n e ven under c o n d i t i o n s o f h i g h s t r e s s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f K l e i n e t A ajU's r e s e a r c h a r e t w o - f o l d . 52 F i r s t , c a r e must be t a k e n i n d e s i g n i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o a s s u r e m i n i m a l d i s t o r t i o n due t o p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t . S e c o n d l y , and p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e u s e r o f m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; when i d e n t i f y i n g r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e c o v e r i n q l e t t e r s h o u l d e n d e a v e r t o a s s u r e t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e i r a n o n y m i t y , as w e l l as t h e c o n f i d i a l i t y o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h o s e o u t s i d e t h e r e s e a r c h s t a f f . F u l l e r (1974) i n a s t u d y on t h e e f f e c t o f a n o n y m i t y on r e t u r n r a t e and r e s p o n s e b i a s i n a m a i l s u r v e y p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r f i n d i n g s on t h i s s u b j e c t . F u l l e r ' s sample o f 13,000 o f f i c e r s and 32,500 e n l i s t e d men were d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s , w i t h one gr o u p b e i n g i n s t r u c t e d t o p l a c e t h e i r s e r v i c e number on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . W i t h r e s p e c t t o r e s p o n s e r a t e F u l l e r f o u n d t h a t i d e n t i f i e d o f f i c e r s had a h i q h e r r e s p o n s e r a t e {51% v s 40;-p<.01) t h a n anonymous o f f i c e r s , w h i l e t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e e n l i s t e d men d i f f e r e d l e s s between t h e two q r o u p s w i t h a s l i g h t e r h i g h e r r e s p o n s e r a t e f o r t h o s e who were anonymous (39% vs 365S-p<.01). F u l l e r s t a t e d t h e h i g h e r r e s p o n s e r a t e f o r i d e n t i f i e d o f f i c e r s was due t o a dampening o f r e s p o n s e m o t i v a t i o n among t h e anonymous group b e c a u s e t h e p e r c i e v e d v a l u e of t h e s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s e was r e d u c e d , an a l t e r n a t e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t o f f i c e r s t e n d t o f e e l some p r e s s u r e t o r e s p o n d and t h e a n o n y m i t y i n s t r u c t i o n s r e d u c e d t h i s p e r c e i v e d p r e s s u r e . I n e i t h e r c a s e s u p p o r t i s g i v e n t o the e a r l i e r s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s h o u l d be s t r u c t u r e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c g r o u p a t which i t i s aimed. T h i s a p p e a r s t o be e q u a l l y t r u e f o r a n o n y m i t y . 53 However, t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s i s as i m p o r t a n t a s a h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e . I f c a s e s o c c u r where b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d i n c r e a s e s t h e r e s p o n s e , i t must be c o n s i d e r e d whether t h i s r e s p o n s e i s s p u r i o u s b e c a u s e s u b j e c t s may use t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n a M a c h i a v e l l i a n a t t e m p t t o i m p r o v e t h e i r s t a t u s . . F u l l e r f o u n d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i d e n t i f i e d and anonymous g r o u p i n a n s w e r s t o a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n s were i n f r e q u e n t and s m a l l . However a l l d i f f e r e n c e s were i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . None o f t h e a n o n y m o u s - i d e n t i f i e d group d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e e n l i s t e d men's q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were l a r q e enough t o be o f p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . The c o n c l u s i o n g a t h e r e d f r o m F u l l e r ' s r e s e a r c h i s t h a t t h e r e i s an e f f e c t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y , b u t t h e magnitude o f t h i s e f f e c t i s i n most c a s e s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . L o o k i n g a t t h e F u l l e r (1974) and t h e K l e i n et.. ajL (1967) p a p e r s t o g e t h e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o s t r e s s t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t h e r e s p o n s e s , b u t t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f a c t u a l l y h a v i n g a means o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t depends on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n under s t u d y . , The E f f e c t Of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e L e n g t h The d a t a v a l u e o f t h e m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e would be somewhat r e s t r i c t e d i f i t was l i m i t e d t o , s a y , f o u r pages i n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e a r e a s o n a b l e r e s p o n s e r a t e . Common s e n s e d i c t a t e s t o many t h a t t h e s h o r t e r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e more l i k e l y a h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e . Many p e o p l e l o o k i n q a t t h e use o f M a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h a v e a c c e p t e d t h i s b e l i e f w i t h o u t t r y i n q t o f i n d 54 e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t i t { B e r d i e , 1973). S u r p r i s i n g l y , b a s e d on t h e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e , i n most c a s e s q u e s t i o n n a i r e l e n g t h has o n l y a s m a l l , i f any, e f f e c t on r e s p o n s e r a t e . , In S l e t t o ' s (1940) s t u d y t h e s u b j e c t s were s e n t 10-page,25-page and 35-page q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h r e s p o n s e r a t e s o f 68%, 60% and 63% r e s p e c t i v e l y . B e r d i e (1973) s e n t a s t r a t i f i e d random sample o f 108 u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s e r s a o n e - p age, two-page and f o u r - p a g e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n b o t h c a s e s , w h i l e t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a l o w e r r e s p o n s e f o r a l o n q e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i q n i f i c a n t . B e r d i e ' s s t u d y i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e i t was d e s i q n e d s o l e l y t o t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e n g t h and r e s p o n s e r a t e , a n d, t h e r e f o r e a v o i d e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l w e a k n e s s e s i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s t h a t were l o o k i n g a t o t h e r p o s s i b l e c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s ( e . g . E o b i n , 1965). Champion and S e a r (1965) a l s o e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f pages w h i l e k e e p i n q t h e c o n t e n t t h e same. T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d u s i n q t h r e e , s i x and n i n e paqe q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more n i n e - p a g e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d t h a n t h r e e - p a g e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Thus t h e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s , b u t does not p r o v e , t h a t r e d u c i n g t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o f i l l o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e may r e d u c e t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e b u t n o t as much a s one miqht e x p e c t . I n c r e a s i n q t h e number o f paqes w i t h o u t c h a n q i n q t h e c o n t e n t m iqht a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e i f i t i m p r o v e s t h e f o r m a t . O b v i o u s l y t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d n o t c o n t a i n u n n e c e s s a r y q u e s t i o n s and i t s h o u l d be as easy t o f i l l o u t a s p o s s i b l e , b u t 55 t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d s h o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be r e d u c e d m e r e l y f o r t h e s a k e o f b r e v i t y . H i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e s c a n be a c h i e v e d f o r l o n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as w e l l a s f o r s h o r t ones i f qood methodology i s u s e d . Type Of P o s t a g e G e t t i n g h i g h r e t u r n s from m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a s c i e n c e , and a c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine a l l v a r i a b l e s t h a t c an i n f l u e n c e r e s p o n s e . The t y p e o f p o s t a q e u s e d , b o t h on t h e m a i l i n g e n v e l o p e and r e t u r n e n v e l o p e i s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e t h a t c an be e a s i l y m a n i p u l a t e d . When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t y p e o f p o s t a g e u s e d t o se n d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e r e i s a c h o i c e between f i r s t c l a s s m a i l o r b u l k t h i r d c l a s s m a i l . The main r e a s o n s f o r u s i n g f i r s t c l a s s m a i l a r e t h a t t h e p o s t o f f i c e w i l l a t t e m p t t o f o r w a r d i t , and i t has s h o r t e r and more r e l i a b l e d e l i v e r y t i m e s . Champion and S e a r (1969) p o i n t o u t t h a t i n g e n e r a l , t h e more e x p e n s i v e t h e p o s t a q e u s e d t h e g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n r e s p o n s e . The q u e s t i o n s t i l l r e m a i n s whether t h e a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s w a r r a n t s t h e e x t r a c o s t . Champion and S e a r f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p<.Q5) between r e g u l a r p o s t a g e and b u l k p o s t a q e , w i t h 419 b e i n g r e t u r n e d w i t h r e g u l a r p o s t a q e v e r s u s o n l y 383 w i t h b u l k p o s t a q e . On t h e i r f o l l o w u p t h e y f o u n d u s i n g S p e c i a l D e l i v e r y r e s u l t e d i n 90 r e t u r n s v e r s u s o n l y 61 f o r r e g u l a r p o s t a g e (p<.001). I t a p p e a r s t h a t more e x p e n s i v e p o s t a g e does have an i n c r e m e n t a l e f f e c t on r e s p o n s e r a t e . When u s i n g f i r s t c l a s s m a i l a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t a p o s t a g e stamp a s o p p o s e d t o a meter stamp i n c r e a s e s t h e 56 p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l p a c k a g e . D i l l m a n , u s i n g a sample o f o v e r one t h o u s a n d , p e r f o r m e d a two s t e p e x p e r i m e n t where newly i s s u e d e c o l o g y stamps were used on h a l f t h e i n i t i a l m a i l i n g and t h e r e m a i n d e r were m e t e r e d . T h e s e s a m p l e s were d i v i d e d and a new p o s t m a r k was a p p l i e d t o h a l f t h e p o s t c a r d f o l l o w u p s . The i n d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t s were a s f o l l o w s : 23.8 p e r c e n t m e t e r e d v s . 24.2 p e r c e n t stamped and 30% o f t h e new p o s t m a r k s v s . 31.1 p e r c e n t o f t h e o l d . D i l l m a n » s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s v e r y l i t t l e g a i n from t h e e x t r a l a b o u r from u s i n g stamps. The p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t o f hand-s t a m p i n g a p p e a r s n o t t o be an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . a s e c o n d a r e a where p o s t a g e i s o f c o n c e r n , r e l a t e s t o t h e r e t u r n e n v e l o p e . I n a l l c a s e s i t s h o u l d be p r e - a d d r e s s e d and no m a i l i n g c o s t s h o u l d f a l l t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t . However, t h e r e i s a c h o i c e between b u s i n e s s r e p l y e n v e l o p e s , e n c l o s e d p o s t a g e stamps o r o t h e r methods. a p o s t a g e stamp may i n c r e a s e t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t b e c a u s e i f he d o e s n o t r e s p o n d t h e s e n d e r i s o u t t h e p r i c e o f t h e stamp. On t h e o t h e r hand t h e c o s t t o t h e s e n d e r i n c r e a s e s b e c a u s e o f t h e e x t r a l a b o r i n v o l v e d and t h e c o s t o f n o n r e t u r n e d stamps., The b u s i n e s s r e p l y e n v e l o p e , w h i l e a v o i d i n g t h e e x p e n s e o f u n r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , might be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h junk m a i l . The t h i r d method, t h a t o f an i n t e r p l a n t ( i n - h o u s e ) m a i l s y s t e m , s a v e s p o s t a g e c o s t , b u t c o u l d r e s u l t i n b i a s i n q e f f e c t s i f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h e i r a n o n y m i t y t h r e a t e n e d . V e i g a (1974) s e n t one h u n d r e d managers a m a i l g u e s t i o n n a i r e u s i n g t h e s e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r e t u r n methods. T a b l e 8 o u t l i n e s t h e r e s u l t s . , 57 The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t on the b a s i s of r e t u r n s the i n t e r p l a n t mail system pro v i d e s the bes t r e s u l t s and i s most economical, while the business r e p l y envelope i s much l e s s Table 8 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Returns By Mailer Type f T T | Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - - - • - - i Returns | I M a i l e r Type | Return Rate | Length Of Return \ J I n t e r p l a n t 1 82% } 13 Days | I Stamped 1 80% | 17 Days i J Business Reply « , .. „ . 1 57% | a . i. 25 Days | ,,, i Source: Veiga, John, " G e t t i n g The M a i l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Returned: Some P r a c t i c a l Research C o n s i d e r a t i o n s " , JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY No. 2, 1974, page 217 e f f e c t i v e . However, the value of t h i s study i s l e s s e n e d because of the s m a l l sample s i z e ( l e s s than 34 f o r each group). As w e l l the q u e s t i o n n a i r e had only 13 questions which meant t h a t the envelope was a major p a r t of the o v e r a l l package. T h e r e f o r e i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the imaqe of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e as junk mail i s gre a t e r than when the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i m p l i e s that some expense has gone i n t o the p r o j e c t . The c o v e r i n g l e t t e r enhances t h i s impression. In order to o b t a i n the maximum p o s s i b l e r e t u r n f o r mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e s the r e l a t i v e c o s t s and e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t types of postage should be co n s i d e r e d . In a l l cases, i t should be kept i n mind t h a t other f a c t o r s such as followups may have a g r e a t e r e f f e c t than postage, and resources should be a l l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . I n c e n t i v e s 58 U s i n g i n c e n t i v e s s u c h as c a s h e n c l o s e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r o f f e r i n g p r i z e s t o r e s p o n d e n t s i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a qood way t o i n c r e a s e r e s p o n s e s . However, t h e u s e o f t h a t s o r t o f d e v i c e o f t e n o f f s e t s much o f t h e v a l u e o f u s i n g m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o s t s and makinq i t d i f f i c u l t t o u s e w i t h a l a r g e number o f c a s e s . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l u e o f i n c e n t i v e s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t what u s e r s o f m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have f o u n d . Huck and G l e a s o n (1974) l o o k e d a t t h e r e s u l t o f USING MONETARY INDUCEMENTS TO INCREASE RESPONSE RATES FROM MAILED SURVEYS. T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h had d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a monetary inducement c a n be e f f e c t i v e . R o b i n s o n and Agism (1951) f o u n d a q u a r t e r (25 c e n t s ) t o be e f f e c t i v e i n r a i s i n g r e s p o n s e r a t e s , w h i l e p o s t a q e stamps and l e s s e r c o i n s were n o t . K e p h a r t and B r e s s l e r (1958) c o n c l u d e d t h a t w h i l e t h e q u a r t e r was e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e (70% v e r s u s 5 2%) , i t was no more e f f e c t i v e t h a n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h an o r d i n a r y f o l l o w up (6 8 % ) . Huck and G l e a s o n (1974) e x p l o r e d two a s p e c t s o f u s i n g monetary i n c e n t i v e s . One, has i n f l a t i o n c a u s e d t h e v a l u e o f t h e q u a r t e r t o d e p r e c i a t e s i n c e t h e l a t e 1950*s a n d , s e c o n d l y , would t h e e f f e c t s be l e s s e n e d i f t h e monetary i n d u c e m e n t was s e n t o u t on a f o l l o w u p m a i l i n g , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g t h e t o t a l c o s t . A f i f t y q u e s t i o n s u r v e y was s e n t o u t t o 200 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s b r o k e n down i n t o f o u r g r o u p s , w i t h t h e f i r s t g r o u p r e c e i v i n g t h e i n c e n t i v e on t h e f i r s t m a i l i n g , t h e s e c o n d g r o u p on t h e s e c o n d m a i l i n g , t h e t h i r d g r o u p on t h e t h i r d m a i l i n g ( i . e . s e c o n d f o l l o w u p ) and t h e f o u r t h g r o u p 59 r e c e i v i n g no i n c e n t i v e . The r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t on t h e f i r s t m a i l i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e t u r n e d by 78% o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e f i r s t g r o u p ( i . e . a l l r e c e i v e d i n c e n t i v e s ) , v e r s u s 50% i n a l l t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . A f t e r two m a i l i n g s g r o u p 1 had a 92% r e s p o n s e r a t e v e r s u s 85% f o r g r o u p 2 (p>.05) and 65$ f o r t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s . The combined r e s u l t s a f t e r a l l t h r e e m a i l o u t s were 94%, 92%, 78% and 7 1 % r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e f o u r g r o u p s . C h i - s g u a r e t e s t s r e v e a l e d t h a t g r o u p s one and two d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y , n o r d i d g r o u p 3 o r 4 d i f f e r f r o m e a c h o t h e r . The o p t i m a l s t r a t e g y a p p e a r s i n t h i s c a s e t o s e n d t h e monetary i n c e n t i v e on t h e s e c o n d m a i l i n g . I t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t n e i t h e r t h i s w r i t e r n o r Huck and G l e a s o n (p. 224) f e e l t h a t a monetary i n d u c e m e n t s h o u l d r e p l a c e f o l l o w u p s , but r a t h e r s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a a n o t h e r t o o l t o i n c r e a s e r e s p o n s e s . A f i n a l p o i n t i s t h a t t h e above s t r a t e g y worked w e l l f o r a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( i . e . l e s s t h a n f i f t y q u e s t i o n s ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h a l o n g e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t i n s e r t i o n o f a q u a r t e r would have t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o f i n s u l t i n g t h e s u b j e c t , w h i l e more p r o p o r t i o n a l i n d u c e m e n t s would have t h e e f f e c t o f r a i s i n g t h e c o s t o f t h e m a i l g u e s t i o n n a i r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y . I n c o n c l u s i o n monetary i n d u c e m e n t s h a v e v a l u e , b u t t h a t v a l u e i s more c e r t a i n f o r s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F o l l o w u p s The Need F o r F o l l o w u p s I n c r e a s i n q r e s p o n s e r a t e s t h r o u q h t h e u s e o f f o l l o w u p s was 60 d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . A t h o r o u g h r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t f o l l o w u p s a r e a n e c e s s i t y i n any u s e o f m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . W h i l e f o l l o w u p s a l o n e w i l l n o t r e s u l t i n t h e maximum p o s s i b l e r e t u r n t h e y a r e t h e b a s i c r u d i m e n t i n a c h i e v i n g h i g h r e t u r n s from m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . D i l l m a n (1972) who a c h i e v e d a h i q h r e s p o n s e r a t e (> 75%) c o n c l u d e d (p. 257) t h a t , " A l t h o u q h i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e i n t h i s e f f o r t t o i s o l a t e w h i c h o f t h e t e c h n i g u e s were most i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e s u l t s do s u g q e s t t h a t one f a c t o r - p e r s i s t e n c e - i s e s p e c i a l l y c r u c i a l " and " t h a t no m a t t e r how w e l l t h e r e s e a r c h e r does t h e p r e p a r i n g , p a c k a g i n g and d e l i v e r i n g , good t e c h n i g u e s a t t h e s e s t a g e s a l o n e a r e n o t enough. P e r s i s t e n c e pays o f f . " Droege and C r a m b e r t (1965) f u r t h e r s u p p o r t D i l l m a n ' s a s s e r t i o n . R e c o r d s were k e p t on t h e s u c c e s s o f t e c h n i q u e s t o o b t a i n f o l l o w u p i n f o r m a t i o n on 12,615 i n d i v i d u a l s two y e a r s a f t e r l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l u s i n g a m u l t i t u d e o f t e c h n i g u e s , b u t i n a l l c a s e s r e l y i n g m o s t l y on p o s t a l f o l l o w u p s . An o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s e r a t e o f o v e r e i g h t - s e v e n p e r c e n t was o b t a i n e d . T h e i r c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t , " I n most c a s e s i t wo u l d be w o r t h w h i l e t o se n d as many a s t h r e e l e t t e r s , i f needed, b e f o r e t r y i n g a n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e . " R o b i n (1965) a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e s c a n be o b t a i n e d from m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i f a sound m e t h o d o l o g y b a s e d on f o l l o w u p s i s u s e d . R o b i n p r e s e n t e d d a t a d e r i v e d f r o m t e n i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s who r e s p o n d e d t o m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n a t o t a l o f f i v e c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s . The a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e r a t e was 86.8% w i t h o n l y one s u r v e y f a l l i n g below 81%. R o b i n ' s (1965) r e s u l t s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g when 61 c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t , " I n none o f t h e s e r e s e a r c h e s were r e s p o n s e s g a i n e d by t h e use o f t e l e p h o n e c a l l s , t e l e g r a m s , s p e c i a l d e l i v e r y l e t t e r s , o r monetary r e w a r d f o r r e s p o n d i n g . O n l y stamped e n v e l o p e s were u s e d (p. 2 8 ) . " One a s p e c t t h a t l e d t o h i s h i g h r e t u r n r a t e s was "a minimum o f two and a maximum o f f i v e c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t (p. 2 6 ) . " A g a i n , p e r s i s t e n c e i s t h e key. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e m p h a s i z e t h a t f o l l o w u p s a l o n e a r e n o t enough t o a c h i e v e a h i g h r e s p o n s e , but t h a t t h e y f o r m t h e b a s i s o r s t e p p i n g s t o n e t o t h i s g o a l . , As R o b i n (1965) p o i n t s o u t , a m a j o r p a r t o f h i s s y s t e m was b a s e d on a w e l l - w o r d e d and p e r s o n a l i z e d c o v e r e d l e t t e r which i n c r e a s e d h i s " s u c c e s s i n e l i c i t i n g s u b j e c t r e s p o n s e s (p. 3 3 )." The f i n a l example o f t h e v a l u e s o f f o l l o w u p s i n s u r v e y s u s i n g m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s comes from t h e r e s u l t s o f a f o l l o w u p s t u d y by P r o j e c t T a l e n t on h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s , one y e a r a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n . P r o j e c t T a l e n t i n 1960 t e s t e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ample o f 440,000 g r a d e 9-12 s t u d e n t s w i t h a two-day b a t t e r y o f c o g n i t i v e and n o n - c o g n i t i v e t e s t s and i n v e n t o r i e s ( d i s c u s s e d by F l a n a g a n e t i _ a l i J L _ 1962). What i n t e r e s t s t h i s s t u d y i s t h e i r s u c c e s s i n s u r v e y i n g o v e r 88,000 o f t h e s u b j e c t s o v e r a wide g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n ( O r r and Neyman, 1965). The s c o p e o f t h i s t a s k made p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t i n f e a s i b l e f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f f o l l o w u p d a t a . P r o j e c t T a l e n t ' s method i n c l u d e d f o u r waves o f m a i l i n g . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o maximize r e s p o n s e by l i m i t i n g t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e i t t o t w e n t y m i n u t e s . Q u e s t i o n s were f o r m a t t e d so i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o j u s t c h e c k an answer box. A s h o r t theme, a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r and a p r e - p a i d 6 2 m a i l e r were i n c l u d e d as w e l l . Orr and Neyman (1965) r e p o r t e d t h a t , "the response r a t e was s l i g h t l y over 70 percent which i s somewhat higher than o r d i n a r i l y expected." In a d d i t i o n the completeness and accuracy o f the i n f o r m a t i o n provided seemed to be r e l a t i v e l y high (p. 378) . ** The e m p i r i c a l evidence s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e s can be a v a l i d r e l i a b l e instrument f o r g a t h e r i n g data, and t h a t high response r a t e s can be obtained through a s t r o n q methodology. The guestions that w i l l now be d i s c u s s e d are those of optimal time-periods f o r m a i l i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , the c o s t of followups and the b i a s i n g e f f e c t s of 'prodding'. IIJL Timing Of Followups Given t h a t followups are an important f a c t i n a c h i e v i n g high response r a t e s from mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e s there s t i l l remains the d e c i s i o n as to the time i n t e r v a l between s u c c e s s i v e m a i l i n g s . Two f a c t o r s are at play here. One, the time p e r i o d should not be so long t h a t the s u b j e c t would have l i t t l e cognizance of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e from previous m a i l i n q . In t h i s regard i t i s f e a s i b l e t o send j u s t a reminder without a replacement q u e s t i o n n a i r e i f the researcher can reasonably assume t h a t the s u b j e c t s t i l l r e t a i n s the q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent e a r l i e r . The second c o n s i d e r a t i o n stems from t h i s . Namely, assuming the r e s e a r c h e r wants t o o p t i m i z e the c o s t of h i s r e s e a r c h , he should a v o i d sending reminders o r replacement q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o those who w i l l respond without r e c e i v i n g them. A study by N i c h o l s and Meyer (1970) examined t i m i n g postcard followups i n m a i l - q u e s t i o n n a i r e surveys. They were 63 i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e optimum t i m i n g o f a r e m i n d e r p o s t c a r d t o n o n r e s p o n d e n t s . A t w e l v e - p a g e g u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t t o 1,600 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , w i t h h a l f t h e g r o u p b e i n g m a i l e d a f o l l o w u p p o s t c a r d s t h r e e d a y s a f t e r t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e was m a i l e d . An a d d i t i o n a l f o l l o w u p was s e n t t o h a l f o f e a c h g r o u p s i x t e e n d a ys a f t e r m a i l i n g t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e and t o t h e o t h e r h a l f o f e a c h g r o u p t w e n t y - s e v e n days a f t e r m a i l i n g t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A f t e r 45 days a d d i t i o n a l e f f o r t s were made t o o b t a i n r e s p o n s e s from a l l g r o u p s , i n c l u d i n g a s e c o n d m a i l i n g o f t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e . A f t e r s i x t e e n d a y s 5 8% o f t h e g r o u p r e c e i v i n g t h e p o s t c a r d s had r e s p o n d e d v e r s u s 37% o f t h e n o - c a r d s g r o u p (p <.01). A f t e r 120 days when a l l f o l l o w u p s h a v e c e a s e d t h e r e s u l t s were s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r (p <.05) f o r t h e 3-day p o s t c a r d g r o u p (88.5 v e r s u s 84%) . T h i s l e a d s t h e a u t h o r s t o c o n c l u d e , " t h a t t h e 3-day p o s t c a r d p r o d u c e d a r e s p o n s e from some s u b j e c t s who c o u l d n o t be i n d u c e d t o r e s p o n d by f o l l o w u p s a t a l a t e r t i m e . (p. 3 0 7 ) . " A f t e r 45 days t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between r e s p o n s e s f o r t h e 16-day f o l l o w u p and t h e 27-day f o l l o w u p . The s e c o n d f o l l o w u p d i d h a v e a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on t h e g r o u p w i t h no 3-day f o l l o w u p . I n o t h e r words, r e s p o n s e s were s e c u r e d from p e o p l e who would have r e s p o n d e d t o t h e 3-day f o l l o w u p . I n summary, t h e 3-day p o s t c a r d was f o u n d t o be t h e s i n g l e most e f f e c t i v e f o l l o w u p i n t h e s t u d y , w i t h t h e b e s t r e s p o n s e r a t e b e i n g o b t a i n e d from a c o m b i n a t i o n o f an e a r l y and l a t e f o l l o w u p . S e n d i n g a 3-day p o s t c a r d i s e s p e c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l s i n c e e a c h a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s e i n d u c e d s a v e s t h e t i m e and c o s t o f s e n d i n g o u t d u p l i c a t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . G i v e n t h e p r o v e n s u c c e s s o f p o s t - c a r d f o l l o w u p s i t a p p e a r s u s e r s o f m a i l 64 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s h o u l d s t r o n g l y c o n s i d e r t h e i r u s a q e . The O r r and Neyman (1965) r e p o r t on P r o j e c t T a l e n t ' s f o l l o w u p s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e y f o u n d t h a t r e m i n d e r s a f t e r t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d wave o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had l i t t l e d i s c e r n i b l e e f f e c t as compared w i t h m a i l i n g new q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h a t where t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c o s t d i f f e r e n c e i n s e n d i n g a r e m i n d e r o r a new q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e l a t t e r i s more e f f e c t i v e . D i l l m a n (1972) s u p p o r t s t h i s , as he f o u n d t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a r e p l a c e m e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e t h i r d m a i l i n q h a s a s u b s t a n t i a l e f f e c t .{32 p e r c e n t v e r s u s 22.4 p e r c e n t ) . As t h e a b o v e two s t u d i e s d i d n o t u s e a 3-day f o l l o w u p , N i c h o l s and Meyer's (1972) c o n c l u s i o n s a r e n o t c o n t r a d i c t e d . R a t h e r t h e a d d i t o n a l d a t a c o n f i r m s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s e n d i n q a d u p l i c a t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on any f o l l o w u p s a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d . N i c h o l s and Meyer have f o u n d t h a t 3-days i s o p t i m a l f o r a p o s t c a r d r e m i n d e r , but what about a d d i t i o n a l f o l l o w u p s ? R o b i n (1965) r e v i e w e d t h e i n t e r v a l between m a i l i n g s u s e d by a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s {p. 27-28) and c o n c l u d e d t h a t , " I n l i g h t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t seems t h a t a s e v e n day i n t e r v a l between m a i l i n g s would promote maximum r e s p o n s e ( p . 2 8 ) . " The e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n o f R o b i n ' s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s s t r o n g l y t h a t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s e f f e c t i v e . The s h o r t d u r a t i o n o f one week means t h a t f o l l o w u p s a r e b e i n g s e n t t o t h o s e who would have r e s p o n d e d anyway, t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o s t o f m a i l i n g . I t s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d t h a t R o b i n (1965) i n c l u d e d an a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e s e c o n d f o l l o w u p which was s e n t two weeks a f t e r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t o u t . T h i s t i m e p e r i o d seems a r e a s o n a b l e one i n which t o e x p e c t t h e o r i g i n a l g u e s t i o n n a i r e t o be 65 m i s p l a c e d . . D i l l m a n (1972) s e n t a r e m i n d e r p o s t c a r d a f t e r one week, a t h r e e - w e e k l e t t e r i n f o r m i n g e a c h r e s p o n d e n t t h e y have n o t s e n t i n t h e i r g u e s t i o n n a i r e , and a seven-week l e t t e r s e n t by c e r t i f i e d m a i l , c o n t a i n i n g a r e p l a c e m e n t g u e s t i o n n a i r e . H i s r e s u l t s were c o m p a r a b l e w i t h R o b i n ' s ( 1965 ) . However t h e e f f e c t s o f c e r t i f i e d m a i l was a f a c t o r i n D i l l m a n ' s r e s u l t s . T h i s may be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e more f r e q u e n t f o l l o w u p s u s e d by R o b i n . I t a p p e a r s a f t e r l o o k i n g a t t h e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , t h a t a f o l l o w u p p o s t c a r d m a i l e d w i t h i n one week o f t h e i n i t i a l s u r v e y i s h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e i n e l i c i t i n g r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , as w e l l , s u b s e q u e n t f o l l o w u p s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t some p o i n t , a s i t a p p e a r s t h a t many r e c i p i e n t s m i s p l a c e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . P e r h a p s t h e f a c t o f h a v i n g r e c e i v e d a s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s goads the r e c i p i e n t t o r e s p o n d . III-. Bi§§es Due To Pr odd i ng E c k l a n d has q u e s t i o n e d t h e e x t e n t t o which p r o d d i n g l o w e r s t h e v e r a c i t y o f l a t e r e s p o n d e n t ' s r e t u r n s . T a b l e 9 p r e s e n t s t h e f o u r t y p e s o f c h e c k s p e r f o r m e d by E c k l a n d : In g e n e r a l , a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f r e s p o n d o n t s from t h e s e c o n d s t a g e o f p r o d d i n g gave d i s c r e p a n t answers when op p o s e d t o t h e f i r s t g r o u p o f r e s p o n d e n t s . However, when l o o k i n g a t d i s c r e p e n c i e s between t h e g r o u p s who were pr o d d e d o v e r t h r e e t i m e s t h r o u g h t e l e p h o n e c a l l s and c e r t i f i e d l e t t e r , t h e y a p p e a r no more d i s c r e p a n t t h a n r e s p o n d e n t s from th e i n i t i a l s t a g e . The m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e between d i s c r e p a n c i e s among t h e t h r e e q r o u p s o c c u r r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c a d e m i c f a i l u r e . T h i s may be somewhat 66 a r t i f a c t u a l as E c k l a n d was d e a l i n g w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s o f u n i v e r s i t y l e a v e r s , and a m a j o r f i n d i n g o f h i s r e s e a r c h i s t h a t on a l l i n d i c e s t h e l a t e r e s p o n d e n t s were t h e l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l T a b l e 9 P e r c e n t a g e Of R e s p o n d e n t s In Each S t a g e Of P r o d d i n g Whose R e p l i e s Were Found D i s c r e p a n t Item ~t I I \ Wave 1 I •i 1 T e l e p h o n e / C e r t . Wave 2/3| L e t t e r F a t h e r s O c c u p a t i o n s 15.7 C i t y / f a r m R e s i d e n c e 8. 4 A cademic F a i l u r e | 25.0 E a r n e d Degree 1 0.0 I ; •„, ; I 20.4 8.4 35,4 4. 0 22.6 6.5 24.6 0.6 E c k l a n d , B r u c e , " t h e E f f e c t s O f P r o d d i n g To I n c r e a s e M a i l - b a c k R e t u r n s . " JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, 1965, v o l . 49, no. 3 p. 167 s t u d e n t s . I n o t h e r words, t h e r e were p o t e n t i a l l y more d i s c r e p a n t answers d u r i n g l a t e r s t a g e s o f t h e s t u d y . However, i t does a p p e a r t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f p r o d d i n g on v e r a c i t y i s a v a l i d one, and an a r e a where more r e s e a r c h i s n e c e s s a r y . The p o t e n t i a l b i a s i n s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a , as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i s one t h a t e v e r y r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d be aware o f i n e v e r y s t a g e o f s u r v e y r e s e a r c h . IV_j_ The C o s t Of F o l l o w u p s The c o s t o f u n d e r t a k i n g r e s e a r c h u s i n g a m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e when t a k i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s t o a s s u r e a h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , as w e l l as t h e s c o p e o f t h e s t u d y . However, i t i s u s e f u l t o d i s c u s s t h e m a i l i n g c o s t s o f s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s . O r r and Neyman (196 5) r e p o r t e d t h e c o s t f o r t h e P r o j e c t T a l e n t f o l l o w u p a v e r a g e d 58.6 c e n t s per r e s p o n d e n t . W h i l e t h e 67 c o s t s would be s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher today t h a t f i g u r e can s t i l l be g u i t e f a v o r a b l y compared with the c o s t s of i n t e r v i e w s i n 1965. P o s s i b l y , more r e l e v a n t f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e from Dillman {1972) who found d i r e c t c o s t s of postage, paper and p r i n t i n g of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , envelopes and cover l e t t e r s amounted to a f r a c t i o n over 47 cents f o r each p o t e n t i a l respondent (68 c e n t s per completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . Labor c o s t s f o r data c o l l e c t i o n amounted to approximately 54 cents per p o t e n t i a l respondent. The t o t a l c o s t worked out to $1.01 per p o t e n t i a l respondent ($1.46 f o r each completed g u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . E f f e c t s Of Nonresjspnse Even using a sound methodology with mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e s the l i t e r a t u r e suqqests t h a t one can u s u a l l y expect a maximum response r a t e of n i n e t y percent. T h i s f a c t o r i s one t h a t should be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the data obtained from the mail q u e s t i o n n a i r e . One step a r e s e a r c h e r should take i s to examine the data a v a i l a b l e on the nonrespondents and compare i t with s i m i l a r data on respondents i n order to narrow down where b i a s e s may occur. Donald (I960) i n a sound methodical way examined the i m p l i c a t i o n s of nonresponse f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e data. Her approach was based on a s s e s s i n g the i n t e r e s t or involvement of respondents and nonrespondents i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e she found t h a t i n comparing response r a t e s to s u c c e s s i v e f o l l o w u p procedures t h a t high l e v e l s of i n t e r e s t or involvement are more 68 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f e a r l y r e s p o n d e n t s (p. 100). T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g and i s a r e a s o n a b l e s u p p o s i t i o n i f one examines t h e o r i e s o f m o t i v a t i o n t h a t a r e b a s e d on t h e i d e a t h a t p e o p l e a r e m o t i v a t e d t o do s o m e t h i n g i f t h e y g e t i n t r i n s i c o r e x t r i n s i c s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m d o i n g s o . The v a l u e o f D o n a l d ' s r e s e a r c h i s t h a t i t s u p p o r t s t h a t b e l i e f e m p i r i c a l l y . A p r o b l e m s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f n o n r e t u r n s i s t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t may m i s s some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s . In many c a s e s m i s s i n g a n s w e r s i n v a l i d a t e t h e e n t i r e g u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r p u r p o s e s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e v a l i d i t y of most s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e d when a d j u s t m e n t s a r e made f o r m i s s i n g d a t a . D o n a l d (1960) e x p l o r e d t h i s a r e a a s w e l l and f o u n d t h a t t h o s e w i t h l e s s i n v o l v e m e n t o r i n t e r e s t i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n w ould have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r d e g r e e o f n o n r e s p o n s e t o i t e m s w i t h i n o t h e r w i s e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F u r t h e r m o r e s h e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r a t e s o f n o n r e s p o n s e would i n c r e a s e a s members moved from q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r own b e h a v i o r t o judqements a b o u t o t h e r s , a s w e l l a s a b o u t l e s s v i s i b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g {p. 107). The r e s u l t s {p. 107-108) s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d b o t h h e r h y p o t h e s e s . T h e r e was l i t t l e n o n r e s p o n s e t o i t e m s d e a l i n g w i t h c u r r e n t b e h a v i o r , but n o n r e s p o n s e was g r e a t e r i n a r e a s o f f u t u r e b e h a v i o r . The t r e n d f o r n o n r e s p o n s e i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y f o r each s u c c e s s i v e wave o f f o l l o w u p s , who as h e r r e s e a r c h showed, were l e s s i n v o l v e d o r i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The q u e s t i o n now i s what i m p l i c a t i o n s c a n be made from 69 D o n a l d ' s (1960) r e s u l t s ? One i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d e n d e a v e r t o s t r u c t u r e t h e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r and g u e s t i o n n a i r e s o t h a t t h e i n t e n d e d r e c i p i e n t w i l l f e e l i n v o l v e d o r i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r and, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be more l i k e l y t o r e s p o n d . T h i s i s an a r e a d i s c u s s e d r e p e a t e d l y i n t h i s p a p e r . The s e c o n d i m p l i c a t i o n and one t h a t D o n a l d makes h e r s e l f i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s i s "The l e s s c o m p l e t e t h e d a t a a r e , t h e more l i k e l y t h a t t h e y a r e b i a s e d i n f a v o r o f t h a t s e c t i o n o f t h e sample more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r under c o n s i d e r a t i o n and more l i k e l y t o g i v e f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s (p. 112)" . T h i s e f f e c t i s compounded when t h e r e i s n o n r e s p o n s e t o v a r i o u s i t e m s a s t h o s e who a r e l i k e l y t o miss a g i v e n i t e m a r e t h o s e who c a n l e a s t be e x p e c t e d t o g i v e a f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e . The t h i r d i m p l i c a t i o n r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o f o l l o w u p s a n d how many f o l l o w u p s s h o u l d be done. F o r as D o n a l d (1960) p o i n t s o u t (p. 113) i n t h e c a s e o f s u r v e y i n g t h e members o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n , a more v a l i d sample may be o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h , s a y , a f i f t y p e r c e n t r e s p o n s e o f more a c t i v e members, t h a n a c h i e v i n g a n i n e t y p e r c e n t r e s p o n s e r a t e t h r o u g h c o n t i n u a l p r o d d i n g o f l e s s i n v o l v e d members. The r e s e a r c h e r b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n v o l v e m e n t and v a r i o u s i t e m s w i t h i n t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d be b e t t e r a b l e t o j u d g e t h e w e i g h t i n g s o f n o n r e s p o n s e and as w e l l be b e t t e r a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e s i r e d r e s p o n s e l e v e l . The c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d f r om D o n a l d ' s (1960) r e s e a r c h i s t h a t i n a n a l y s i n g d a t a o b t a i n e d from m a i l g u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d be aware o f two p o s s i b l e b i a s i n g e f f e c t s . The 70 f i r s t i s b e c a u s e o f a low r e s p o n s e r a t e ( t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s ) a p o t e n t i a l a r e a o f b i a s o c c u r s b e c a u s e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i s t o f t h o s e more i n v o l v e d o r i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t m a t t e r . A c o n v e r s e p r o b l e m o f t e n i g n o r e d by r e s e a r c h e r s i s t h a t a h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e o b t a i n e d by p r o d d i n g may l e a d t o b i a s , a s t h o s e more i n v o l v e d w i t h a c a u s e o r g r o u p a r e g i v e n e q u a l w e i g h t i n g t o t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s who have l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r e a under s t u d y . T h i s p r o b l e m , f o r example c o u l d be r e l e v a n t when l o o k i n g a t members o f v o l u n t e e r g r o u p s . The above e f f e c t s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d c a r e f u l l y when l o o k i n g a t t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s f r o m n o n r e s p o n s e . SUMMARY The p r o p o s e d s t u d y w i l l g a t h e r d a t a on t h e a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f young p e o p l e . As t h e summary below i n d i c a t e s t h e m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t h e b e s t method f o r o b t a i n i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . The m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s an e c o n o m i c a l way o f g a t h e r i n g s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r r e a c h i n g p e o p l e s c a t t e r e d o v e r a l a r g e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , o r p e o p l e who may be d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e f o r a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . A l l o w i n g t h e s u b j e c t t o r e s p o n d on h i s own has a number o f a d v a n t a g e s . I t p e r m i t s more c o n s i d e r e d answers and i t r e s u l t s i n a s e n s e o f p r i v a c y and a n o n y m i t y . T h i s w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e s u b j e c t ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e s p o n d t o p e r s o n a l g u e s t i o n s . The m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l s o p o s e s g u e s t i o n s u n i f o r m l y . T h i s r e d u c e s t h e p o t e n t i a l b i a s f r o m " i n t e r v i e w e r demand", which i s a major p r o b l e m w i t h p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . 71 The main c r i t i c i s m o f m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s has been t h a t r e s p o n s e r a t e s a r e l o w . I n f a c t , t h i s o n l y o c c u r s when t h e m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s p o o r l y d e s i g n e d . When t h e methodoloqy d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s p a p e r i s use d h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e s c a n be e x p e c t e d , e v e n w i t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e x c e e d i n g f i f t e e n pages. W h i l e i t i s n o t t r u e t h a t r e s p o n s e r a t e s must be low, t h e r e a r e s t i l l some d i s a d v a n t a g e s . E v e n w i t h a l a r g e r e s p o n s e r a t e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r p o s s i b l e b i a s i n g e f f e c t s o f n o n r e s p o n s e s . a l s o t h e r e s p o n d e n t may m i s i n t e r p r e t a g u e s t i o n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o m p o s i t i o n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . F i n a l l y , a s w i t h a l l s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a , t h e r e i s an t e n d e n c y t o d i s t o r t a n s w ers f a v o r a b l y t o t h e s p o n s o r o f t h e s u r v e y , o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t . When u s i n g m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a w a r e n e s s o f p o t e n t i a l b i a s e s w i l l e n a b l e t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s . The c o v e r i n q l e t t e r ' s major p u r p o s e i s t o p e r s u a d e t h e r e c i p i e n t t o r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The l e t t e r s h o u l d s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s t u d y , and more i m p o r t a n t l y o f t h e r e c i p i e n t s c o n t r i b u t i o n . The l a t t e r e f f e c t s h o u l d be e n h a n c e d t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n . The l e t t e r s h o u l d n o t have t h e image o f a f o r m l e t t e r and s h o u l d be s i g n e d by an o f f i c e r o f t h e p r o j e c t . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l e t t e r i s i m p o r t a n t and i t s h o u l d be g e a r e d t o t h e g r o u p b e i n g s u r v e y e d , as t h e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r i s u s u a l l y t h e f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o d e v o t e t h e r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h e above c r i t e r i a . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f r e s u l t s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r i n d u c i n g r e s p o n s e and m i n i m i z i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l b i a s i n s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a . I n most c a s e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o 72 a l l o w f o l l o w u p s and e x a m i n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e r e s p o n d e n t s and n o n r e s p o n d e n t s . The r e c i p i e n t s h o u l d be made aware o f t h e reason, f o r any i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and t h a t i t i s f o r r e s e a r c h use o n l y . The e f f e c t o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t depends on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n u n d e r s t u d y . W h i l e t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d not c o n t a i n u n n e c e s s a r y q u e s t i o n s , i t does n o t h a v e t o be s h o r t t o a c h i e v e a h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e . When good m e t h o d o l o g y i s u s e d , t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e l e n g t h i s n o t a major f a c t o r . , F i r s t - c l a s s m a i l s h o u l d be u s e d when s e n d i n g o u t t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s e n h a n c e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e p r o j e c t i s w o r t h w h i l e . I t a l s o means t h a t t h e p o s t - o f f i c e w i l l make some e f f o r t t o f o r w a r d l e t t e r s . The d e l i v e r y t i m e w i l l be m i n i m i z e d and t h i s w i l l e n a b l e f o l l o w u p l e t t e r s t o be t i m e d more a c c u a r a t e l y . R stamped a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h i s f a c t s h o u l d be s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r . R e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r r e s p o n s e r a t e w i l l a c c r u e f r o m u s i n q t h e stamped r e t u r n e n v e l o p e , r a t h e r t h a n a b u s i n e s s r e p l y e n v e l o p e . T h i s may be l e s s so f o r l o n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s where t h e e f f e c t o f t h e b u s i n e s s r e p l y e n v e l o p e on t h e t o t a l p a c kage i s l e s s . The r e s p o n s e r a t e may be i n c r e a s e d by e n c l o s i n g a m onetary i n c e n t i v e w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , but t h e i n c r e a s e i n r e s p o n s e may n o t be w o r t h t h e e x t r a c o s t . However, some r e s e a r c h has f o u n d t h a t w i t h l e s s t h a n f i f t y q u e s t i o n s , e n c l o s i n g an i n c e n t i v e o f t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s i n t h e f i r s t f o l l o w u p i s w o r t h w h i l e . With l o n g e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a more e f f e c t i v e 73 i n c e n t i v e would be t o o f f e r s u b j e c t s a summary r e p o r t o f t h e s t u d y . T h i s s e r v e s t h e d u a l p u r p o s e o f r e p a y i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t f o r t h e i r t i m e , a s w e l l as i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s i n v o l v m e n t by p r o m i s i n g f e e d b a c k . P e o p l e a r e more l i k e l y t o r e s p o n d when t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d or i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e t o p i c . I n t h a t c a s e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o f i n d o u t what t h e r e s e a r c h e r has c o n c l u d e d i s a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e i n d u c e m e n t t o r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . W h i l e t h e good t e c h n i q u e s d i s c u s s e d above a r e i m p o r t a n t , f o l l o w u p i s t h e key t o a h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e f r o m a m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . As many a s t h r e e l e t t e r s s h o u l d be s e n t i n o r d e r t o o p t i m i z e t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e . T h r o u g h t h e use o f f o l l o w u p s t h e m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e become one o f t h e b e s t t o o l s f o r g a t h e r i n g s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e shows t h e most i m p o r t a n t f o l l o w u p i s a r e m i n d e r p o s t c a r d s e n t t h r e e d a y s t o one week a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l m a i l i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The p o s t c a r d s h o u l d s i m p l y t h ank t h o s e who have a l r e a d y r e s p o n d e d and a s k t h o s e who have y e t t o r e t u r n t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o do s o i m m e d i a t e l y . A phone number where s u b j e c t s c a n r e p o r t l o s t o r u n r e c e i v e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s h o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d . A f t e r t h e p o s t c a r d r e m i n d e r t h e r e s h o u l d be a w a i t o f two t o t h r e e weeks d e p e n d i n g on when r e s p o n s e s s t a r t t o d r o p o f f s u b s t a n t i a l l y . A s e c o n d l e t t e r and r e p l a c e m e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d t h e n be s e n t o u t . I t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o send a n o t h e r r e m i n d e r p o s t c a r d t o t h e r e m a i n i n g n o n r e s p o n d e n t s one week a f t e r t h e s e c o n d l e t t e r and q u e s t i o n n a i r e . At t h i s s t a g e d e p e n d i n g on t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e s o f a r and t h e 74 n e e d s o f t h e s t u d y t h e r e s e a r c h e r may d e c i d e t o s e n d a d d i t i o n a l f o l l o w u p s o r u s e o t h e r methods f o u n d e f f e c t i v e f o r p e r s i s t e n t n o n r e s p o n d e r s s u c h a s phone c a l l s and c e r t i f i e d o r r e g i s t e r e d m a i l . One s h o u l d keep i n mind t h a t p r o d d i n g may have some d y s f u n c t i o n a l e f f e c t s as s t u d i e s have f o u n d a h i g h e r p r e p o n d e r e n c e o f d i s c r e p a n t a n s w e r s i n r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h o s e who have t o be p r o d d e d most t o r e s p o n d . F o r t h e m e t h o d o l o g y t o be s t r o n g some g u e s t i o n s t h a t c a n be v e r i f i e d f r o m known d a t a s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s may be used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o t e n t i a l f a l s i t y i n t h e d a t a and p r o v i d e a means o f c o m p a r i n g r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h n o n r e s p o n d e n t s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e depends on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h o s e l e s s i n t e r e s t e d o r i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o r e s p o n d t o t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e . F o r i n s t a n c e , when s u r v e y i n g members o f a v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n o n l y t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d o r i n v o l v e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n may be s o u g h t . T h e s e a r e t h e p e o p l e who w i l l r e s p o n d t o t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h m i n i m a l p r o d d i n g . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t w i l l be more i m p o r t a n t t o p r o d a h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e i n a s t u d y o f s t u d e n t s who withdrew from u n i v e r s i t y , as r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t t h o s e w i t h t h e p o o r e s t a c a d e m i c r e c o r d s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o r e s p o n d t o m a i l g u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n o u r p r o p o s e d s t u d y . As was d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r 3, u n l e s s t h e r e i s a h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e t h e sample i s l i k e l y t o have a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n t h a n t h e p o p u l a t i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d . T h i s would 75 s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e p r o p o s e d s t u d y a s e d u c a t i o n i s one o f t h e major v a r i a b l e s . I n a l l c a s e s i t w i l l be w o r t h w h i l e f o r r e s e a r c h e r s t o compare r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h n o n r e s p o n d e n t s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e l i k e l y a r e a s o f b i a s . T h i s c a n be done i n two ways. F i r s t o f a l l , some i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l u s u a l l y be a v a i l a b l e on a l l t h e s u b j e c t s . Such i n f o r m a t i o n as s e x , age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and e d u c a t i o n i s o f t e n a v a i l a b l e f o r c o m p a r i n g r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h n o n r e s p o n d e n t s . As w e l l , an i n t e n s i v e e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o c o n t a c t some of t h e n o n r e s p o n d e n t s , p o s s i b l y o v e r t h e phone, t o f i n d out t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e i r n o n r e s p o n s e and t o r e c e i v e s u p p l e m e n t a r y d a t a f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h r e s p o n d e n t s . T h r o u g h b e i n g aware o f p o s s i b l e a r e a s o f b i a s a r e s e a r c h e r i s a b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e v a l i d i t y o f h i s s t u d y s u b s t a n t i a l l y . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e m a i l g u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t f o r g a t h e r i n g s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a . By f o l l o w i n g t h e s t e p s recommended i n t h i s c h a p t e r , m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a n be used t o o b t a i n h i g h r e s p o n s e r a t e s w i t h good v a l i d i t y a t low c o s t . 76 Chapter 5 S P E C I F I C QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN AND ANALYTICAL STRATEGY FOR THE PROPOSED STUDY Introduction This chapter discusses two major components of the proposed study. The questionnaire w i l l provide the data necessary to answer the questions that w i l l be invest igated, and the strategy for the analysis of data w i l l present the s t a t i s t i c a l tools that w i l l answer the questions. Questionnaire Design In conducting any survey research a .major determinant of ultimate success i s the design of the questionnaire. This i s even more important in the case where att i tudes are being measured. In constructing the ques-t ionnaire for th i s project the fol lowing four c r i t e r i a were considered necessary for att i tude scales that are included. 1. Validity - does the i n s t r u m e n t measure the a t t i t u d e o r t r a i t i t p u r p o r t s t o measure. T h i s i s d e t e r m i n e d by l o o k i n g a t how t h e t e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d ( c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y ) i t ' s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t p u r p o r t t o measure the same t h i n g (where a p p l i c a b l e ) and whether i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g the t r a i t i t i s measuring ( p r e d i c t i v e o r c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y ) . 77 2. Is the i n s t r u m e n t TeHabte? - B a s i c a l l y , t h i s a s k s can one be c o n f i d e n t t h a t i f two i n d i v i d u a l s have d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s on a t e s t , t h a t t h i s i s a t r u e d i f f e r e n c e and not due t o measurement e r r o r s . 3'. Is t h e i n s t r u m e n t suitable f o r use by our p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n o f y o u t h one and t h r e e y e a r s out o f h i g h s c h o o l ? T h i s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by e x a m i n i n g what s t u d i e s t he i n s t r u m e n t has been used f o r and the v a l i d i t y o f the r e s u l t s . As w e l l , we w i l l be concerned t h a t t he i n s t r u m e n t does not r e q u i r e a l e v e l o f v e r b a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t h a t w i l l e x c l u d e p a r t o f the sample. 4. W i l l we be a b l e t o l o o k a t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s by e x a m i n i n g o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t used t h e same i n s t r u -ment? T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t i s i n c l u d e d so o u r data w i l l be o f maximal u t i 1 i t y , e s p e c i a l l y given Canada's French and English background. The remainder of th i s sect ion discusses the instruments used, t h e i r sources, and evidence of how they meet the above four c r i t e r i a . As i s apparent from the d iscuss ion on what questions suggested f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n (Chapter 1)> the mail questionnaire has to include measures of the fo l l owing : 1. Work H i s t o r y 2. E d u c a t i o n a l H i s t o r y and P l a n s 3. Job S a t i s f a c t i o n 4. Job Involvement 5. I n d i v i d u a l S e l f Development 6. A t t i t u d e t o work as measured by: a. Meaning of work b. The Work E t h i c 7. S e l f S u f f i c i e n c y 8 . S e l f Esteem 78 In measuring the f i r s t two items an important c r i t e r i on was to design these questions so that answering them could be accomplished simply by checking the appropriate answer in order to reduce the respondent's time to answer these questions and to s impl i fy coding. Job Satisfaction (see Appendix A, pages 15 to 19) Job Sat i s fact ion can be considered to be a co l l e c t i on of fee l ing or a f fect i ve responses associated with the job s i tuat ion (Imparato, 1972). In th i s study, job sa t i s fac t ion w i l l be measured by the J.D.I. (Job Description Index) constructed during the course of the Cornell studies of job sa t i s fac t i on (Smith et al., 1969). This instrument has shown high r e l i a b i l i t y , as well as discriminant and convergent v a l i d i t y with interviews and other rat ing methods (Robinson, Athanasiou and Head, 1969). A major advantage of th i s instrument opposed to other r e l i ab l e and va l id instruments ( c f . Porter Need Sat i s fact ion Questionnaire) i s that a high level of verbal sophist icat ion is not required by th i s test as i t just requires simple yes-no answers to a series of adject ives. Job Involvement (see Appendix A, page 14) Job involvement has been taken to be the psychological iden-t i f i c a t i o n with work, and work as contributory to one's self-esteem (Lawler and H a l l , 1970; Lodahl and Kejner, 1965). I t w i l l be measured using the 6-item, shortened version of the Lodahl and Kejner instrument (Lodahl and Kejner, 1965). This was derived from the i r o r ig ina l 20-item scale. The s p l i t - h a l f cor re lat ion of the 6-item scale was found to be .57 and the 79 r e l i a b i l i t y coe f f i c i en t was reported to be .73. The corre lat ion between the shortened version and the or ig ina l instrument was found to be .87. Evidence for the convergent and discriminant v a l i d i t y of the Lodahl and Kenjer instrument was supported by Goodman, Furcon and Rose (1969). The responses were obtained in the form of a seven-point L ikert - type scale. In a l l but one of the questions (item 6) answers, which ref lected strong agree-ment were interpreted as ind icat ing high il '. This i s a departure from the negative scoring used by Lodahl and Kejner in the i r instrument (1965). The pos it ive scoring was adopted for ease of analys i s . The d i rect ion of scoring was reversed for the negatively worded item 6. Work Attitudes Individual self-development, self-sufficiency, meaning of work and the work ethic w i l l be measured by scales from the Youth Opinion Questionnaire (YOQ) used in the study "Youth Employment: F r i c t ions in the Threshold of the Work Career - An Exploratory probe." The YOQ was developed through an extensive process by which 467 items designed to sample a wide range of work att i tudes was administered to more than 5,000 high school students in Minnesota, and was factor analysed to y i e l d 30 att i tude scales. Scoring for the self-development, s e l f - s u f f i c i ency , and mean-ing of work scales i s scored 1 to 4, with a high score ind icat ing a favour-able att i tude to work, and a low score an unfavourable a t t i tude. The pa i r -comparison scales were scored employing weights of 1 and 0 with the response a l ternat ive in each pair which defined the scale weighed 1 and the other 0. 80 The internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t y for the scales are shown in Table 8. The r e l i a b i l i t y coef f i c ient s show high internal consistency r e l i a b i 1 i t y . Table 8 Scale Location in Appendix A R e l i a b i l i t y Se l f - su f f i c i ency page 2 to 4; questions 3, 6, 10, 13, 15 .80 The Work Ethic page 2 to 4; questions 2, 5, 7, 9, 12 .71 Self-development page 1 .85 Meaning of Work page 2 to 4; questions 1, 4, 8, 11, 14 .80 Self-esteem (see Appendix A, pages 5 to 6) Self-esteem w i l l be measured by the self-esteem scale developed by Rosenberg (1965) for a large scale survey of high school students. As w e l l , the Survey Research Inst i tute used th i s instrument in adult surveys and found i t was adequate for that purpose (Robinson, 1969). Rosenberg designed the Self-Esteem Scale with several c r i t e r i a in mind. One was his conception of self-esteem. . . . When we speak o f h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m . . .we s h a l l s i m p l y mean t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l r e s p e c t s h i m s e l f , c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f w o r t h y , he does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f b e t t e r than o t h e r s , but he d e f i n i t e l y does not c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f worse, he does not f e e l t h a t he i s the u l t i m a t e i n p e r f e c t i o n b u t , on t h e c o n t r a r y , r e c o g n i z e s h i s l i m i t a t i o n s and e x p e c t s t o grow and improve. . . . 81 Another c r i t e r i on was ease of administration. Since the scale had to be completed along with several other scales in one class period, i t was held to 10 items. The other c r i t e r i o n , unidimensionality (Guttman) and v a l i d i t y are discussed below. Using the Guttman procedure, the repor-d u c i b i l i t y of th i s scale was 92% and i t s s c a l a b i l i t y was 72% for Rosenberg's sample of 5,034 students. He also mentions in a footnote (p. 30) that a study by Earle S i lber and Jean S. Tippett showed a tes t - re tes t r e l i a b i l i t y of .85 for a group of college students retested a f te r two weeks. Va l i d i t y was determined by examining correlat ions of a number of d i f fe rent samples of self-esteem with depression, psychosomatic symptoms and choice as a c lass- leader respect ively. In each case the corre lat ion • was consonant with what theory would predict. As we l l , scores on s e l f -esteem were compared with ratings by judges f ami l i a r with the subjects and were found in agreement. Analysis of Data In designing a general purpose study of th i s nature, the plethora of variables to be analysed means that i t i s not feas ib le or optimal to spend the amount of time necessary to bui ld an analysis sequence con-ta in ing a large number of hypotheses. Rather, i t i s more relevant to th i s proposed study to point out what questions should be investigated (Cuba; 1971). As discussed in Chapter 1 the fol lowing types of questions should be invest igated: 1 . What is the employment experience of youth? Here we w i l l be l o o k i n g a t not o n l y y o u t h ' s j o b h i s t o r y , but t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h work, and the r o l e o f work i n t h e i r l i f e ( j o b i n v o l v e m e n t ) . 82 2. What personal characteristics and attitudes are  related to satisfactory employment expediences,  and which one's are related 'to unsatisfactory  experiences?: S e l f - e s t e e m , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , s e l f -development, the meaning o f work, the work e t h i c w i l l be examined f o r o u r sample as w e l l as t h e i r b ackground c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 3. What role does the educational system play in  preparing youth for work?: T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e e x a m i n i n g the y o u t h i s s c h o o l programme and s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s . The ana lyt ica l framework used w i l l be structured with the intent of developing data to enable us to develop answers to the questions, and to propose how a better f i t can be made among the needs of youth, industry and the educational system. Data co l lected w i l l include the fol lowing var iables: (a) Independent Variables ( i ) "work at t i tudes " as defined by four scales of the Youth Opinion Questionnaire: Se l f - su f f i c i ency The Work Ethic Meaning of Work Self-development ( i i ) "Self-esteem" as defined by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. ( i i i ) Educational History and Plans which w i l l include: High School Programe Whether high school graduate Educational plans Post-secondary education High school counsell ing Reasons for dropping out 83 (b) Dependent Variables ( i ) "Patterns of work experience" which w i l l include the fol lowing var iables: Number of jobs held Average tenure on jobs held Average time to f ind jobs Average pay on past jobs Present pay rate Ratio of employed to unemployed time ( i i ) "Job Involvement" as defined by the Lodahl and Kajner Job Involvement instrument. ( i i i ) "Work sa t i s f ac t i on " which w i l l be measured by the Job Description Index along f i ve dimensions: Work Supervision People Pay Promotions (c) Control Variables Data w i l l also be co l lected on certa in control var iables, which w i l l include the fol lowing: Sex Urban vs. rural background Age Marital status The fol lowing analyses are planned: 1. Cluster analysis - A n a l y s i s o f the v a r i a b l e s r e l a t -ing t o work e x p e r i e n c e w i l l be undertaken w i t h the aim o f d e f i n i n g p a t t e r n s o f employment e x p e r i e n c e common t o numbers o f w o r k e r s . C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s w i l l be used t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s o b j e c t i v e . S c a l e s c o r e s on the Job D e s c r i p t i o n Index w i l l be used as the work s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s . 2. Single variable analysis - The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f v a r i a b l e s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f each v a r i a b l e w i t h work e x p e r i e n c e p a t t e r n s w i l l be examined i n two ways: 84 ( i ) by c o r r e l a t i o n a l methods, i n c l u d i n g f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , and ( i i ) by t e s t s o f mean d i f f e r e n c e s Ct- o r F - t e s t s ) on t h e v a r i a b l e s o t h e r than work e x p e r i e n c e when i n d i v i d u a l s a r e grouped by work e x p e r i e n c e p a t t e r n s . When e x a m i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f each v a r i a b l e with- t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s , t h e same two methods w i l l be used e x c e p t t h a t t e s t s o f mean d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be made on the s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s . 3. Multivariate analysis - The r e l a t i v e i mportance o f d i f f e r e n t independent v a r i a b l e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the work s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s and j o b e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n two ways: ( i ) by the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n method, t a k i n g each dependent v a r i a b l e s e p a r a t e l y (.i.e., one m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s w i l l be under-taken f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e ) , and ( i i ) by t h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n method, i n w h i c h the e n t i r e s e t o f independent v a r i a b l e s i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the e n t i r e s e t o f dependent v a r i a b l e s . In both c a s e s , w e i g h t s ( r e g r e s s i o n o r c a n o n i c a l ) w i l l i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e impor-t a n c e o f the independent v a r i a b l e s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l a l s o be examined when i n d i v i d u a l s have been subgrouped on the b a s i s o f work e x p e r i e n c e p a t t e r n s and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As w e l l , the a b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h o s e who have s u c c e s s f u l l y made the t r a n s i t i o n from s c h o o l t o work w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d by: t a k i n g each o f s e l f - e s t e e m s c o r e s , s a t i s f a c -t i o n s c a l e s , work e x p e r i e n c e as dependent v a r i a b l e s , p e r f o r m i n g a s t e p - w i s e m u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s on them. 85 Chapter 6 AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION USING THE METHODOLOGY Introduction Testing the Mail Questionnaire Methodology  Introduction In this study the situation that young people face i n the world of work has been identified. Namely, d i f f i c u l t i e s i n finding employment in general, and, specifically i n finding satisfactory employment. While a number of questions have been posed (see Introduction, p.l) whose answers would l i k e l y help alleviate the problem, the main objective of this study was to develop a research design that would enable future researchers to answer the questions identified i n this study and other relevant questions with high v a l i d i t y at a reasonable cost. The research design includes a.recommended sample size, the develop-ment of a questionnaire that includes validated scales to measure many of the attitudes possibly related to work transition, a recommended analytical framework and the development of a methodology for obtaining a high response rate to mail questionnaires. However, a pre-test i s required to determine whether the questionnaire could obtain useful information for a population of B.C. high school leavers, and whether using the mail questionnaire methodology would result i n the high response rate predicted. 86 Therefore, a second part of this study involved sending out the questionnaire developed herein to a sample of over 600 high school leavers. The main objectives i n this pre-test were to ascertain i f high school leavers, particularly dropouts, would complete and return the questionnaire and i f some meaningful results could be obtained even when the f u l l research design was not used. The f u l l research design was not carried out because of insufficient time and funds that would be required for such an undertaking. I t i s hoped that this study w i l l be an aid to future researchers who attempt to obtain the support required for the major study recommended i n this study. In the remainder of this chapter the results of the pre-test are discussed. In the pre-test the questionnaire was sent out with a person-alized letter and a followup as recommended i n chapter 4. However, the budget was not sufficient to allow the sending of a followup postcard and additional followups, which i s part of the recommended strategy and would have increased the response rate. Also, i t was not an objective of the pre-test to detentdne i f the recommended sample size was adequate. This was not feasible because of the cost involved, and would have been of l i t t l e additional value to the sampling strategy as i t i s based on sound mathe-matical and sample theory. In the period from September, 1974 to December, 1974 as part of this exploratory study, mail questionnaires were sent out to over six hundred subjects. Most of the guidelines recommended above were followed. One weakness of the research design was that f u l l use was not made of followups. Nevertheless, the results are strong evidence of the value of the methodology recommended in this study. 87 Use of the computer was an important aspect of the pre-test. The computer was used for preparing personalized letters (this i s not the contradiction i n terms which i t seems), preparing mailing labels, identi-fying the questionnaires and assisting i n keeping track of followup and returns. This i s i n addition to the basic use of the computer for com-pi l i n g the data received. The Situation The research design was influenced by the following factors. F i r s t of a l l , the population consisted of youth age 18 to 20 who l e f t high school i n 1971 or 1973. Secondly, the available addresses were one and three years old respectively. The questionnaires had twenty-one pages, and required, at a inunimum, thirty minutes to f i l l out. Also, i t was necessary to identify the respondents to allow followups, as well as for later examination of possible areas of bias. Finally, the sample consisted of over ten percent dropouts, a group less l i k e l y to respond to questionnaires. The Covering Letter The covering letter was believed to be of paramount importance, and accordingly much time was spent developing i t . The covering l e t t e r 1 (see appendix) was designed f i r s t of a l l to give the respondent a sense of involvement i n the research project. The subject's personal experience with school and work was emphasized, as was the value of their participation i n the project. Through use of a computer program each subject received an original letter with their name and address typed on the letter. As well a point was made of placing their name in«'the body of the letter to increase the degree of personalization. Parts of the covering and followup letters were based on letters used by Project Talent, the University of Michigan's Youth in Transition Study, and the University of Minnesota's Youth Opinion Survey. 88 Also to improve their coirmtment to the project, the subjects, were given the opportunity to submit their questions and suggestions on a sep-arate form, and asked i f they wanted a summary of the results. The covering letter also emphasized the confidentiality of res-ponses. As the questionnaire was identified by attaching to i t a form which indicated'whether the respondent wanted a copy of the f i n a l results this attachment was clearly marked "to be detached by research staff" (see appendix II). It was f e l t that this combination would minimize any fears the subjects had. with respect to the anonymity and confidentiality of their responses. Another important point mentioned i n the covering letter was that an envelope was enclosed to enable the questionnaire to be mailed back at no cost to the respondent. Given the size of the questionnaire and the personalization of the covering letter i t was f e l t that a business reply envelope would not be detrimental to the response rate (as opposed to a stamped return envelope). Followups One followup was sent out three to four weeks after the f i r s t mailing. This followup included a questionnaire, business reply envelope, and a new covering letter (see appendix III) The covering,: letter was personalized i n the same way as the f i r s t covering letter, and covered the same points with respect to confidentiality. The main difference was that this letter empha-sized the fact that the recipient had not been heard from yet and that this was the second attempt to do so. Weaknesses i n the Research Design Given the previous review of the literature on mail questionnaires, the research design i s optimal i n a l l respects except one. A followup 89 postcard should have been sent out after both mailings of the question-naire. This would, in essence, have meant three followups rather than only one. However, the incremental cost of the two additional followups would have been itLinimal because their postage rate i s less, and because the i n -creased response accruing from the f i r s t postcard reminder would reduce the size of subsequent mailings. The Results The results were extremely gratifying. Over 635 questionnaires were sent out. Out of those, 85 were returned as unforwardable (13%) or incorrectly addressed. Over 350 responses were obtained from the remainder giving a response rate of 64%. Given the size and dispersity of the popu-lation these results are at least comparable v/ith that obtainable by other means, such as interviews. As well, this return rate would have been higher i f postcard followups had been used. The Use of Computers with Mail Questionnaires A major cost i n any large-scale research i s incurred i n the pro-duction, sending and receiving of postal material. By using computers the time required to produce personalized covering letters, mailing labels, and to maintain records of returns and followups i s substantially reduced. One master l i s t was made of a l l subjects' names, addresses, and phone numbers. This information was simply typed i n a free format on com-puter cards. From this l i s t using programs written by the author and programs supplied by the University of Br i t i s h Columbia, a l l the items referred to i n the preceding paragraph were produced. The costs for using the computer i n this respect were minimal, the major portion of the cost being that of paper (note that special forms were used to produce labels and 8-1/2 x 11 letters). The cost of each covering 90 letter including computer time was under three cents per letter. Thus, through the use of a computer, i t was possible to produce personalized covering letters and mailing labels at a cost comparable with that of producing a standard form letter. As well, the computer was used to keep track of respondents and produce from i t s master l i s t , new mailing l i s t s for followups. Conclusion Mail questionnaires have been shown to be effective. A twenty-three page questionnaire was sent out to a sample of high school graduates and dropouts using most, of the methodology recxatimended in this study. A sixty-four percent response rate was achieved. Use of postcard followups would have increased this reponse rate substantially. Computer technology was used to f a c i l i t a t e the implementation of the methodology and the incremental cost was ininimal. The mail questionnaire has been shown to be an excellent tool for gathering self-report data. Summary of Exploratory Findings  Introduction The purpose of the exploratory study was to develop and test a research design that would obtain s t a t i s t i c a l l y reliable information on how school prepares youth for the work world and provide an indication of how that preparation could be improved. While the project did include sending a rather extensive mail questionnaire to a sample of high school leavers, this was mainly to check the val i d i t y of the research design. The high response to the mail questionnaire and the reaction of the subjects 91 (see Prologue) showed the value of the research design. However, as we have emphasized throughout this paper, the pre-test i t s e l f was not done on a representative sample. The pre-testes main objective was to show that i t was possible to obtain a high response rate from a sample of high school leavers, including dropouts. Even though the responses to the questionnaire are not from a representative sample, a multivariate analysis of the results w i l l be valuable as an indicator of the explanatory power of the attitude scales, and as a guide to further research. Multivariate Analysis A multiple regression was done with each of the satisfaction components of the Job Description Index (JDI) as the dependent variable. Independent variables included the following: A. Work Attitudes 1. Meaning of work (MEANWK) 2. Self-development (SELFDV) 3. Self-sufficiency (SELFSUF) 4. Job involvement (TOTJOBIN) 5. Work ethic (WORKETHC) B. Job Experience 1. Number of different full-time jobs since high school (EDUC07) 92 2. Time to f ind f i r s t f u l l - t ime job (EDUC08) 3. Would you not work i f given ' s u f f i c i e n t ' income (GENERO7) C. Educational Background 1. How well did you do at school (SCHEXP01) 2. Last grade completed (GRADE) 3. Sat i s fact ion with high school education (SCHEXP04) D. Demographic Character i s t ics 1. Age 2. Sex 3. Marital status (MARRIED) E. Self-Esteem 1. Self-esteem (RSLFESTM) The S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), forward stepwise procedure was used. Independent variables are included in the regressions equation only i f they meet certa in s t a t i s t i c a l c r i t e r i a . The order of inclus ion is determined by the re l a t i ve contr ibution each variable makes to the explined variance. For the purposes of th is exploratory study, the s t a t i s t i c a l c r i t e r i a was set so that variables were included only i f the F ra t io that would be obtained for that variable i f i t was brought into the equation exceeds 3.7. At that level the contribution that each variable made to the explained variance i s s i gn i f i cant at the .05 level (d.f. = 160). 93 The objectives of the regression analyses were two f o l d . F i r s t , to examine whether the variables studied accounted for a s i gn i f i cant pro-portion of the variance in the job sa t i s fac t ion measures. Second, to determine what contr ibution the work a t t i tude, school experience and work experience variables made to the variance accounted fo r . Summaries of each of the regressions are included in the appendix. In a l l cases the Mult ip le R was s i gn i f i can t at the 95% confidence level and some of the att i tude and work experience variables made a s i gn i f i cant (sig > .05) contr ibution to the overal l variance. For discussion, i t may be useful to look at the resu lts of the regression analysis with work sa t i s fac t ion as the dependent var iable. The variables that have a s i gn i f i can t e f fec t on the regression equation account for over 23% (sig > .01) of the var iat ion in sa t i s fac t ion with work. Job involvement contributes the largest proportion of th i s var iat ion with higher job involvement being related to a higher level of sa t i s fact ion with work. The work att i tude variable "meaning of work" which includes statements such as "work i s e s sent ia l l y hard and boring," with a higher score ind icat ing the respondent disagreed with that statement, was the next most important var iable. In th i s case the more the pos it ive the att i tude was to work, the lower was the sa t i s fac t ion with work. This may imply that while one has a pos i t ive expectation of work, the i r current jobs was not meeting that expectation. The results also show that the longer i t took to f ind a f i r s t f u l l - t ime job the greater was the sa t i s fac t ion with work. Two possible interpretat ions can be made of th i s f ind ing. Possibly, those with a longer search period were more se lect ive and were able to chose a job that meet the i r expectations. A l te rna t i ve l y , those who had a long 94 search period may have lowered the i r job expectations. Further research or analysis could pursue th i s question further. The results also indicate that the better one did at school, the higher the i r work sa t i s f ac t i on . Possibly, those with better grades had more options in the job market and were able to chose more sat i s fy ing jobs. Males are less s a t i s f i ed with work than females. This may be due to work playing a more central part in a male's l i f e (on the average) and therefore they have a higher level of expectations from the job. The discussion of these resu lts are so le ly to give a rough ind icat ion of the ef fects of certa in variables on job s a t i s -fac t i on . Further analysis and research, which i s beyond the scope of th i s exploratory study, is required to give more de f i n i t i v e information. How-ever, th i s i n i t i a l - ' d i s cus s ion shows the potential information that could be obtained from the research proposed in th i s study. While i t would be possible to discuss the results in greater d e t a i l , i t would be a misuse of them. The only purpose was to show the value of the proposed research. They may also aid future researchers but only as a guide to what questions should be investigated. 95 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The objectives of this study were to identify the need for research into youth work transition, to develop a research design for carrying out that research and to test the effectiveness of the research design. Now that those objectives have been met, the next step i s for the research design to be used in a study that w i l l investigate the problems of youth work transition and provide some of the information required by govern-ment and educators i f they hope to solve this major social problem. The pre-test indicated that, a high response rate to a mail question-naire can be obtained. I t i s therefore recommended that the mail questionnaire be used i n future studies of youth work transition where i t i s necessary to reach youth over a large geographical region. When sending the mail question-naire a personalized approach and followups, including a reminder postcard, should be used. The result w i l l be a high response rate at a cost sub-stantially less than would have resulted from the use of personal interviews. Finally, i t i s hoped that with the groundwork l a i d by this study, future researchers w i l l be able to obtain the funds and support that the problems of youth work transition warrant. 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Lansing, John B. and James Morgan, Economic Survey Methods, Ann Arbor, Surrey Research Center, 1971. Lawler, E.E. I l l and D.T. Ha l l , "Relationship of Job Character ist ics to Job Involvement, Sat i s fact ion and In t r in s i c Motivat ion," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1970, 54, 305-312. L i , L.V., Causal Disaggregation of Unemployment: A Feasibility Study, f Department of Manpower and Immigration, 1973. Lodahl, T.M. and M. Kejner, "The Def in i t ion and Measurement of Job Involve, ment," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1965, 49, 24033. Maceh, Albert and G. Miles, "IQ Survey and Mailed Questionnaire Response," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1975, Vol. 60, No. 2., 258-259. Matteson, Michael T., "Type of Transmittal Letter and Questionnaire Color as Two Variables Influencing Response Rates in a Mail Survey," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1973, No. 4, 535-536. • Mi t che l l , V.F. and V. Baba, "Job Involvement and Central L i f e Interest, " Unpublished manuscript, 1974. Nichols, R.C. and M. Meyer, "Timing Post Card Followups in Mail-Questionnaire Surveys," Public Opinion Quarterly, 306-307. Orr, D.B. and C. Neyman, "Considerations, Costs, and Returns in a Large-scale Followup Study," The Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 58, No. 8, 1965, 373-378. Parton, M., Surveys, Polls and Samples, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1950. 100 Robin, Stanley, F., "A Procedure for Securing Returns to Mail Question-naires, " Sociology and Social Research. 1965, Vol. 50, 24-35. Robinson, John B., Athanasiou, Robert and Kendra B. Head, Measurement of Occupation Attitudes and Occupational Characteristics, Survey Research Center, 1969. Robinson, R. and Agism, P., "Making Mail Surveys More Re l iab le , " Journal of Marketing, 1951, 15, 415-424. Rosenberg, M., Society and the Adolescent Self-image, Princeton Univers ity Press, 1965. Smith, P .C , L.M. Kendall and C. Hul in, The Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1969. Veiga, John F., "Getting the Mail Questionnaire Returns: Some Pract ica l Research Considerations," Journal of Applied Psychology, No. 2, 1974, 217-218. V i e to r i s z , T., R. Mier and T. G i b l i n , "Subemployment: Exclusion and Inadequacy Indexes," Monthly Labour Review, May, 1975. Wallace, David, "A Case for and Against Mail Questionnaires," Public Opinion Quarterly, Spring, 1954, 123-132. Werker, J . and Ray Jones, Obstacles to the Employment of Youth, United Way of Vancouver, 1975. Wirtz, W., " Introduction by the Secretary of State," Manpower Report of the President, 1968, U.S. Department of Labour. World F e r t i l i t y Survey, Manual on Sample Design, International S t a t i s t i c a l I n s t i tu te , 1975. 101 APPENDICES I Covering Letter Sent with Questionnaire II Attachment to Questionnaire III Followup Letter Sent to Non-respondents IV Questionnaire V Summary Tables for Multiple Regression Analysis 102 A P P E N D I X I * * * ** * * ***** * iSAHPLE COVERING 1JTTHF OCCUPATIONAL~RESEA EC H EFCJECT F a c u l t y Of Eusiness A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y Cf E r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B.C. i 4 < * * * * ** *** >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Jimmy C r i c k e t A p r i l 30, 1975 Dear Jimmy: Did ycu f i n d high s c h c o l at times a waste of time? When ycu l e f t s c h o o l did you f e e l that perhaps ycu wculd have been b e t t e r o f f with mere job r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s i n school? tew are ycu f i n d i n g work now? Co you f e e l cur s c c i e t y e f f e r s wcrk p o s i t i o n s t h a t ycu are q u a l i f i e d f o r and o f f e r you an i n t e r e s t i n g cereer? These and s i m i l i a r questions are c u r r e n t l y b e i r g e>anined at the U n i v e r s i t y cf B r i t i s h Columbia. Eart of the purpose c f t h i s study i s to f i n d out what d i f f i c u l t i e s pecple under 25 have ' i n fir-d i n g jebs, and hew s a t i s f y i n g or d i s s a t i s f y i n g these j e t s are. Many people t h i n k they knew the answer, but s c a r c e l y anyone has bothered to ask pecple who ate part of the under 25 ace group. I t i s my hepe that with ycur help we w i l l te a t l e to answer the above questions, and make seme suggestiens f c r i i r p r c v i n g the s i t u a t i o n . The enclosed q u e s t i o n n a i r e which i s e a s i l y completed i n l e s s than 30 minutes i s aimed at f i n d i n g cut j u s t what your work experience has been, your o p i n i o n s atout work anc wcrkinc, and something about you and your e d u c a t i c n a l background. Jimiry, i t i s very important that ever_y person mailed t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e help us, because there are rc ethers whe knew sc we l l the problems pecple ycur age must fac e . You can te assured that a l l i n f cr iraticn cbtained w i l l be used cnl_y f ° r research and held i n the s t r i c t e s t confidence. Ycu w i l l not be i d e n t i f i e d i n any way when we pub l i s h cur f i n d i n g s . Attached tc the qu e s t i o n n a i r e i s a form that w i l l l e t us know i f you would l i k e a sumirary cf cur fir.dir.gs. I f ycc wish a copy w i l l be sent t c you at cur expense. Perhaps i n the years tc ccite, through ycur a s s i s t a n c e , we can make i t p c s s i b l e f c r people to enter the world of wcrk with l e s s d i f f i c u l t y . For the r e s e a r c h s t a f f , L a r r y Charach E i r e c t o r APPENDIX I I ^"£11 AI1ACHPENT TC QU ESTICS N A I FJ t o be d e t a -c hed by r e s e a r c h s t a f f RETURN IRIS PAGE WITH CCF.ELET I E QU ESTION AIR E IN THE PRE-ADRE S SED ENVELOPE (NC ECSTAGF Slt.f.I F I C U I F I E ) i I f you wcu ld l i k e a c c t n p l i i n e n t a r y c c p y c f c u r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s p l a c e a ' X ' i n t he b o x . t l L J c o r r e c t raire and a d d r e s s b e l c i » I I J i ITm y C r i c k e t 1234 F a n t a s y Land ~_Z D i s n e y l a n d , C a l i f . d i l l S u g g e s t i o n s And Q u e s t i o n s I 1U4 A P P E N D I X I I I ]?Z ^.SAMPLE FCLLOWUj? LETT EE OCCUPATIONAL BB SEA EC H EFCJBCT * * * > » * x * * * * * * F a c u l t y Of B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n * * * * * * * * The U n i v e r s i t y Cf E r i t i s h C o l u m b i a * * * * V a n c o u v e r , B . C . * <<«<<«<<<«<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> J i i r n y C r i c k e t A p r i l 30, 1975 Dear Jimmy: L a s t month q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t t o a s e l e c t e d samp le c f p e o p l e who were a s k e d t o a s s i s t i n the Q c c u j a t i ciia 1 Re sea r c h P r o j e c t b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f E r i t i s h C c l u r r t i a . As you r e c a l l p a r t c f t h e p u r p o s e c f c u r s t u d y i s t c f i n d o u t what d i f f i c u l t i e s p e o p l e under 25 have i n f i n d i r g j c b s , and how s a t i s f y i n g or d i s s a t i s f y i n g t h e s e j o t s a r e . It i s c u r f e e l i n g t h a t t he t e s t way t o u n d e r s t a n d the a b c v e s i t u a t i o n i s t o a sk p e c p l e who a r e p a r t of t h e unde r 25 age g r o u p . To d a t e we have n e t h e a r d f re i r yen. J i n n y . A i r a j c r f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s p r o j e c t i s y c u r i n v o l v e m e n t t h r o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e we ser.t yen. W h i l e a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of t h e p e o p l e a s k e d to a s s i s t ' us have r e s p o n d e d , y o u r r e s p o n s e i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t and v a l u a b l e to u s . F c r c u r r e s u l t s to be a c c e p t e d w i t h c o n f i d e n c e ty t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government and c u r e t h e r s p o n s o r i n g a g e n c i e s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t most cf t he p e o p l e a p p r o a c h e d ag ree t c c o o p e r a t e i n t h e r e s e a r c h . I f y cu would f i l l c u t t he e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e you wou ld be mak ing a v a l u e d c o n t r i b u t i o n t c t h i s r e s e a r c h and t o w a r d s l e s s e n i n g some cf the p r o b l e m s y o u t h f a c e i n t h e w o r l d of w c r k . I f t h e r e i s some r e a s o n why y c u p r e f e r ret tc f i l l c u t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e would you t h e n l i s t on t h e t a c k o f t h i s l e t t e r y o u r r e a s o n s and s e n d i t t a c k tc us in t he p r e p a i d e n v e l o p e e n c l o s e d w i t h t h i s l e t t e r . You can be a s s u r e d that a l l i n f e r n a t i c r . o b t a i n e d v i l l be u s e d cnl_y f o r r e s e a r c h and h e l d i n t h e s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e . Ycu w i l l n o t be i d e n t i f i e d i n any way when we p u b l i s h c u r f i n d i n g s . A t t a c h e d to t he g u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a fo rm t h a t w i l l l e t us know i f you wou ld l i k e a sunmary cf c u r f i r . d i r g s . I f ycu wish a c c p y w i l l be s e n t t c you a t c u r e x p e n s e . P e r h a p s i n t h e y e a r s to c c n e , t h r o u g h y c u r a s s i s t a n c e , ve c a n make i t p o s s i b l e f o r p e o p l e to e n t e r the w o r l d o f work w i t h l e s s d i f f i c u l t y . Eor t he r e s e a r c h s t a f f , L a r r y C h a r a c h D i r e c t o r T.r /fm t 105 APPENDIX IV Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Used i n P r e - T e s t - I -F i r s t , we would l i k e to know how you f e e l about work and jobs. DIRECTIONS For each statement do the f o l l o w i n g : - Read the statement c a r e f u l l y . - Decide whether you agree or disagree with i t . - Decide how sure you are of your opinion. t f you agree with the statement and f ^ e l sure of your opinion, c i r c l e the point "Strongly Agree". I f you agree with the statement more than you disagree with i t and f e e l somewhat unsure of your opinion, c i r c l e the point "Agree". I f you disagree with the statement more than you agree with i t and f e e l somewhat unsure of your answer, c i r c l e the point "Disagree". If you disagree with the statement and f e e l sure of your opinion, c i r c l e the point "Strongly Disagree". Give your opinion about each statement. Please give us your honest opinions. The only " r i g h t " answers are your honest opinions. Work as r a p i d l y as you can. Don't spend too much time on any one statement. PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. 1. Work i s u s u a l l y hard and borinc,. I I i (5) strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree 2. I'd rather work than do almost any other thing . 1 1 1 (6 ) strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree 3. Working i n me at a l l i u n f a m i l i a r surroundings wouldn't bother i i I (7) strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree - 2 -4. Work i s the same hard g r i n d whatever job you have. L strongly agree _ l _ agree disagree 5. Few things can be more important than work 7T1—' disagree s t r o n g l y disagree strongly agree agree s t r o n g l y disagree [PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS (COLUMN. (8) (9) I wouldn't mind taking a job f a r away from home, i n a place I didn't know. strongly agree agree disagree s t r o n g l y disagree 7. Work i s the most important 1 i part of l i f e , i 1 strongly agree agree disagree s t r o n g l y disagree 8. Work i s seldom enjoyable. i I strongly agree agree disagree s t r o n g l y disagree 9. Nothing would make me f e e l day's work. i i better than a good i hard l s t r ongly agree agree disagree s t r o n g l y disagree 10. I wouldn't mind working i n know anybody. 1 i a company where I i d i d n ' t l s t rongly agree agree disagree s t r o n g l y disagree 11. Work i s u s u a l l y unpleasant 1 i I 1 strongly agree agree disagree s t r o n g l y disagree (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) - 3 -PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. (16) (17) (18) (19) 12. Nothing i s more important to me than work ~1 strongly agree disagree strongly agree \ disagree 13. Working with strangers doesn't bother me. strongly agree agree disagree 14. Work i s r a r e l y fun. strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree strongly disagree 15. Working i n a company where I didn't know anyone would be okay with me. strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree The following are p a i r s of statements about work and jobs. For each p a i r of statements do the following: Read each statement i n the p a i r c a r e f u l l y . - Decide which of the p a i r you prefer; statement a or b. PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. (20) (21) Mark your choice by c i r c l i n g the l e t t e r next to your choice. (22) IF YOU HAD THE CHOICE OF JOBS, WHICH WOULD YOU PREFER? 1. a. A job where I could continue to learn the res t of my l i f e . 0 R b. 2. a. OR , b. 3. a. OR . A job which requires l i t t l e thinking. A job where I could continue to learn the re s t of my l i f e . A job with short working hours. A job where I could continue to learn the re s t of my l i f e . A job which does not t i e me down. - 4 -4. a. OR . 5. a. OR . PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. (23) (24) A job where I could continue to learn the r e s t of my l i f e . A job where I could solve problems no one el s e can. A job where I could not be f i r e d A job where I could continue to learn the r e s t of my l i f e . Now, t h i s section i s interested i n how you see you r s e l f DIRECTIONS For each statement do the fo l l o w i n g : Read the statement c a r e f u l l y . Decide whether you agree or disagree with i t . - Decide how sure you are of your opinion. If you agree with the statement and f e e l sure of your opinion, c i r c l e the point "Strongly Agree". If you agree with the statement more than you disagree with i t and f e e l somewhat unsure of your opinion, c i r c l e the point "Agree". If you disagree with the statement more than you agree with i t and f e e l somewhat unsure of your answer, c i r c l e the point "Disagree" If you disagree with the statement and f e e l sure of your opinion, c i r c l e the point "Strongly Disagree". O Give your opinion about each statement. 1. I f e e l that I'm a person of worth, at le a s t an equal with others. strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree I f e e l that I have a number of good q u a l i t i e s strongly agree _ 1 _ agree disagree strongly disagree PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. (25) (26) A l l i n a l l , I am i n c l i n e d to f e e l that I am a f a i l u r e . strongly agree a g r e e d i s a g r e e I am able to do things as well as most other people. strongly disagree strongly agree agree disagree I f e e l I do not have much to be proud of. _ l _ s trongly agree agree lisagree 1 take a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards myself. I •  strongly agree agree l i s a g r e e On the whole, I am s a t i s f i e d with myself. strongly agree agree disagree I wish I could have more respect f o r myself. strongly agree agree disagree I c e r t a i n l y f e e l useless at times. strongly agree strongly disagree strongly disagree strongly disagree strongly disagree s t r o n g l y disagree agree disagree At times I think I am no good at a l l . strongly disagree strongly agree I agree , i disagree strongly disagree - 6 -DIRECTIONS: Please be sure to answer every question below. Most of the questions can be answered by j u s t c i r c l i n g the number to the l e f t of the answer you choose. Do not skip any questions. Mark only one answer to each question except where in s t r u c t e d to mark more than one. PART 1 EDUCATION Did you graduate from high school" 1. Yes 2. No Have you attended college since leaving high school? 1. Yes, as a f u l l - t i m e student. 2. Yes, as a part-time student 3. Yes, I entered but have dropped out temporarily. 4 . Yes, I entered but dropped out and do not plan to return. No, but I plan to enter c o l l e g e w i t h i n a year or two. No, but I plan to enter c o l l e g e e v e n t u a l l y ; I have no idea when. No, and I have no plans to do so. 5. 6. Since leaving high school have you attended a school other than a college? 1. Yes, as a f u l l - t i m e student. 2. Yes, as a part-time student. 3. No, and I have no plans to do so. 4 . No, but I plan to get some more non-c o l l e g e schooling. Which of the following kinds of school diploma or c e r t i f i c a t e do you plan to obtain? (Mark as many as apply.) 1. No further schooling planned. 2. A college degree ( 4 years or more of c o l l e g e ) . 3. A junior c o l l e g e diploma or degree. 4 . R.N. (Registered Nurse C e r t i f i c a t e ) 5. A business school or s e c r e t a r i a l diploma. 6. Diploma or c e r t i f i c a t e based upon apprenticeship t r a i n i n g , on-the-job t r a i n i n g , or t e c h n i c a l or trade school. Please describe. PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. (35) (36) O CO (37) Question 4 continued on following page. 7. CGA, CA or RIA diploma 8. Other. Please Specify: 5. What kinds of school have you attended since leaving high school? (Mark as many as apply). 1. None 2. A college o f f e r i n g bachelor's degree or higher. 3. A junior or community college. 4. A technical i n s t i t u t e . 5. A business school. 6. Other. Please specify. . Answer t h i s question i f you have never attended c o l l e g e . Did you WANT to go to college? NO 1. No, I had no i n t e r e s t i n r e c e i v i n g further education. 2. No, I wanted to earn money. 3. No, I wanted to get married. 4. No, I was more interested i n going to some other kind of school. 5. No, for some reason other than above. Please s p e c i f y : YES 1. Yes, but I couldn't a f f o r d i t . 2. Yes, but I couldn't because of a family emergency. 3. Yes, but I couldn't because I was married. 4. Yes, but I wasn't q u a l i f i e d because I hadn't taken college preparatory courses required for admission. 5. Yes, but I didn't apply because my grades weren't good enough. 6. Yes, I applied but wasn't accepted. 7. Yes, but I didn't go f o r some other reason; Please s p e c i f y : PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. 7. How many d i f f e r e n t f u l l - t i m e jobs (35 hours per week) have you had since you l e f t high school? 1. None 2. One 3. Two (41) 4. Three or more. * * * * * i f your answer to the above question was "None" please skip to Question 12, otherwise answer Questions 8 - JL1. *****Questions 8-11 r e f e r to the FIRST f u l l - t i m e job you had a f t e r leaving high school. Include summer jobs or other temporary jobs you had a f t e r leaving high school, i f they were f u l l - t i m e . * * * * * 8. How long d i d i t take you to f i n d the f i r s t f u l l - t i m e job you had since high school? 11. I found i t before I l e f t high school. Less than a week. to to to to to 2 weeks. 4 weeks. 2 months. 4 months. 6 months. 8. Longer than 6 months. What was your s t a r t i n g pay (before deductions), on your FIRST f u l l - t i m e job? F i l l i n ONE of the l i n e s below. OR per week per month 10. What was your job called? I—' O (42) (43) (44) What d i d you do on t h i s job? Please be s p e c i f i c : (45) 12. Did you have a paid job i n May, 1974? 1. Yes, a f u l l - t i m e job (35 hours per week or more). 2. Yes, part-time work (less than 35 hrs. per week). 3. No, but I was looking f o r a f u l l - t i m e job. 4. No, but I was looking for part-time work. (Did not want a f u l l - t i m e j o b ) . 5. No, I was going to school, and d i d not want a job. 6. No, I am a housewife, and was not looking for an outside job. 7. No, I was not looking for a job f o r reasons other than those l i s t e d above. *****Answer Questions 13 - 17 ONLY i f you had a f u l l -time job i n May, 1974. Otherwise skip to Question 18.**** 13. What was your pay (before deductions), on t h i s f u l l - t i m e job? Please f i l l i n ONE of the l i n e s below. $ per month OR $ per hour 14. What i s the job c a l l e d ? 15. T e l l what you do (or did) on t h i s job. Please be s p e c i f i c : 16. How well do (or did) you l i k e t h i s type of work? 1. Very w e l l . 2. F a i r l y w e l l . 3. Not very w e l l . 4. Not at a l l . 17. How long do you plan to stay i n the same type of work? 1. I plan to make i t my career. 2. At present I have no plans to change. 3. Probably a few years. 4. I plan to change soon. - 10 -PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. 18. About how long were you unemployed (and looking f o r a f u l l - t i m e job) between June 1» 1973 and June 1, 1974? 1. I d i d not want a f u l l - t i m e job. 2. Not at a l l . . 3. Less than a week. 4. 1 to 2 weeks. 5. 2 to 4 weeks. 6. 1 to 2 months. 7. 2 to 4 months. 8. 4 to 6 months. (52) 9. More than 6 months. 19. What occupation do you expect to make your career? Please be s p e c i f i c : 20. PART I I I - GENERAL QUESTIONS What do you wish you had done d i f f e r e n t l y i n high school? Mark as many as apply. I - 1 O 1. I wish I had studied more. 2. I wish I had taken more c o l l e g e pre-paratory courses. 3. I wish I had taken more v o c a t i o n a l work. 4. I wish I had had more s o c i a l l i f e . (53) 21. Are you married? 1. Yes, I married while s t i l l i n high school. 2. Yes, I married a f t e r leaving high school. 3. No. If not, how soon do you expect to marry? 1. I plan to marry t h i s year. 2. I plan to marry next year. 3. I plan to marry within 3 years. 4. I plan to marry sometime i n the f u t u r e . 5. I do not expect to marry. (54) I f y o u d r o p p e d o u t o f h i g h s c h o o l w i t h o u t g r a d u a t i n g , what was the r e a s o n ? 1. To g e t a j o b . 2. I became i l l . 3. I was needed a t home. 4. I g o t m a r r i e d . 5. I d i d n o t l i k e s c h o o l . 6. I had f a i l i n g g r a d e s . 7. I was a s k e d t o l e a v e . 8. I l e f t f o r some o t h e r r e a s o n . P l e a s e e x p l a i n : Where a r e you l i v i n g a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e ? 1. A t home w i t h my p a r e n t s o r g u a r d i a n . 2. Some o t h e r p l a c e . Have you made any i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s t h a t you a r e s o r r y a b o u t now? (Mark a s many as a p p l y ) . 1. I am s o r r y I d i d n ' t go t o c o l l e g e . 2. I am s o r r y I s t a r t e d c o l l e g e . 3. I am s o r r y about t h e k i n d o f work I d e c i d e d t o do. 4. None o f t h e above. What program were you on when you f i n i s h e d h i g h - s c h o o l ? 1. A c a d e m i c - T e c h n i c a l 2. C o m m e r c i a l 3. I n d u s t r i a l 4. Community S e r v i c e s 5. V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s 6. O t h e r programs. P l e a s e s p e c i f y : G i v e n t h e k i n d o f work a v a i l a b l e t o y o u , w o u l d you c o n s i d e r n o t w o r k i n g a t a l l i f g i v e n by some means an a d equate sum o f money e a c h week? 1. No 2. Yes I f y e s , how much w o u l d you c o n s i d e r a d e q u a t e ( a f t e r t a x e s ) ? $ p e r week. - 12 -27. What was y o u r age on May 1, 1974. 28. 29. Sex: 1. Male 2. Female. PART IV - HIGH SCHOOL COUNSELLING C o u l d s t u d e n t s t a k e t e s t s from t h e g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r h e l p f i n d o u t what j o b s t h e y were s u i t e d f o r ? 1. Y e s . 2. No. 3. Don't know. 4. There was no g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r i n t h e s c h o o l . 30. D i d y o u e v e r t a k e any of t h e s e t e s t s ? 1. Yes. 2. No. 3. C a n ' t remember. 4. T e s t s n o t g i v e n i n t h e s c h o o l . 31. I f y o u have t a k e n s u c h a t e s t , d i d t h e g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r d i s c u s s the r e s u l t s w i t h you a f t e r w a r d s ? 1. Yes. 2. No. 3. C a n ' t remember. 4. Have not t a k e n such t e s t s . 32. D i d y o u r s c h o o l have a p l a c e where s t u d e n t s c o u l d f i n d b o o k s , m a g a z i n e s , and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ? PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. (60) (61) 1. 2. Yes. No. 33. How o f t e n d i d you l o o k a t s u c h m a t e r i a l ? 1. Never. 2. Once. 3. Twic e . 4. Three t i m e s . 5. F o u r o r more t i m e s . 6. There was no such p l a c e i n t h e s c h o o l . t o (62) (63) (64) (65) (66) D i d you e v e r , on your own i n i t i a t i v e , go t o see t h e g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r t o t a l k a b o u t any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s ? (Mark as many spaces as a p p l y ) . 1. S c h o o l marks o r g r a d e s . 2. J o b p l a n s when you f i n i s h y o u r e d u c a t i o n . 3. A t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y . 4. A t t e n d i n g a p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e . 5. A t t e n d i n g b u s i n e s s c o l l e g e . 6. P l a n n i n g your h i g h s c h o o l program. 7. L e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l b e f o r e f i n i s h i n g . 8. Some other- t o p i c . 9. Never went t o g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r on my own i n i t i a t i v e . 10. T h e r e was no g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r i n t h e s c h o o l . 11. Don't remember. Were you e v e r c a l l e d i n by the g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r t o d i s c u s s any o f the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s ? (Mark as many spaces as a p p l y ) . 1. S c h o o l marks o r g r a d e s . 2. D i s c i p l i n e . 3. J o b p l a n s when you f i n i s h e d y o u r e d u c a t i o n . 4. A t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y . 5. A t t e n d i n g p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e . 6. A t t e n d i n g b u s i n e s s c o l l e g e . 7. P l a n n i n g your h i g h s c h o o l programme. 8. L e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l b e f o r e f i n i s h i n g . 9. Some o t h e r t o p i c . 10. Never c a l l e d i n by g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r o r t h e r e was no g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r i n t h e s c h o o l . 11. C a n ' t remember. D i d you e v e r , on your own i n i t i a t i v e , go t o see a t e a c h e r o r p r i n c i p a l a t t h e s c h o o l ( o t h e r t h a n a g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r ) t o t a l k a b o u t any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s ? (Mark a s many spaces as a p p l y ) . 1. S c h o o l marks o r g r a d e s . 2. J o b p l a n s when you f i n i s h e d y o u r e d u c a t i o n . 3. A t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y . 4. A t t e n d i n g p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e . - 14 -PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. 5. A t t e n d i n g b u s i n e s s c o l l e g e . 6. P l a n n i n g y o u r h i g h s c h o o l programme. 7. L e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l b e f o r e f i n i s h i n g . 8. Some o t h e r t o p i c . 9. N e v e r went t o see a t e a c h e r o r p r i n c i p a l on my own i n i t i a t i v e . 10. C a n ' t remember. (69) 37. Where you e v e r c a l l e d i n by a t e a c h e r o r p r i n c i p a l a t t h e s c h o o l ( o t h e r t h a n a g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r ) t o d i s c u s s any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s ? (Mark as many s p a c e s a s a p p l y ) . 1. S c h o o l marks o r g r a d e s . 2. D i s c i p l i n e . 3. J o b p l a n s when you f i n i s h e d y o u r e d u c a t i o n . 4. A t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y . 5. A t t e n d i n g p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e . 6. A t t e n d i n g b u s i n e s s c o l l e g e . 7. P l a n n i n g y o u r h i g h s c h o o l programme. 8. L e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l b e f o r e f i n i s h i n g . 9. Some o t h e r t o p i c . 10. N e v e r c a l l e d i n by a t e a c h e r o r p r i n c i p a l . 11. C a n ' t remember. (70) 38. What was y o u r l a s t g r a d e c o m p l e t e d ? (71) - 15 -PART V - The E x p e r i e n c e o f S c h o o l Now, c a n you t e l l me about y o u r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n s c h o o l ? How w e l l have you done a t s c h o o l ? 1. I n most s u b j e c t s you were av e r a g e o r above 2. I n most s u b j e c t s you were a l w a y s a v e r a g e 3. I n most s u b j e c t s you were average o r below 4. You u s u a l l y d i d w e l l b u t t h e r e were some bad p e r i o d s o f t i m e 5. N/A IF ALWAYS AVERAGE OR ABOVE: In y o u r o p i n i o n , what h e l p e d you most i n k e e p i n g a good r e c o r d a t s c h o o l ? 1. Some o f t h e t e a c h e r s 2. The e d u c a t i o n a l system 3. The f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n 4. I n f l u e n c e o f y o u r f r i e n d s 5. O t h e r r e a s o n s I F BELOW AVERAGE OR BAD PERIODS OF TIME: I n y o u r o p i n i o n , what c o n t r i b u t e d most t o y o u r u s u a l o r t e m p o r a r y poor r e c o r d a t s c h o o l ? 1. Some o f t h e t e a c h e r s 2. The e d u c a t i o n a l system 3. The f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n 4. I n f l u e n c e o f y o u r f r i e n d s 5. Y o u r s e l f 6. O t h e r r e a s o n s How s a t i s f i e d do you f e e l w i t h t h e h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n you r e c e i v e d ? 1 . Not s a t i s f i e d 2. S a t i s f i e d 3^ V e r y s a t i s f i e d IF YOU ARE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED PLEASE COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SECTION, OTHERWISE GO TO PAGE 22. 16 Now, we would l i k e t o know how you f e e l about y o u r p r e s e n t j o b . P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e p o i n t on each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s t h a t b e s t r e p r e s e n t s y o u r f e e l i n g . 1. The m a j o r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n my l i f e comes from my j o b . s t r o n g l y a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e The most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t h a t happen t o me i n v o l v e my work. s t r o n g l y a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 3. I am r e a l l y a p e r f e c t i o n i s t as f a r as my work i s c o n c e r n e d . s t r o n g l y a g r e e I l i v e , e a t , and b r e a t h e my j o b . s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y s t r o n g l y a g r e e d i s a g r e e 5. I am v e r y much p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n my work. s t r o n g l y a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 6. Most t h i n g s i n l i f e a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n work. 1 1 I s t r o n g l y a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 7. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I am v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h my j o b . s t r o n g l y a g r e e s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. (1) (2) " (3) " (4) ( 5 ) ' :e) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) - 17 -PLEASE DO ROT WRITE IH THIS COLUMN. <13)_ (14) _ (15) _ (16) _ (17) _ (18) _ (19 )_ (20 )_ (21)_ (22 )_ (23) _ (24) _ (25) _ (26 )_ (27) _ (28) _ (29 )_ (30)_ To get i n t o somewhat more d e t a i l , please think of your present work. What i s i t l i k e most of the time? In the blank beside each word given below, w r i t e : Y f o r "yes" i f i t describes your work N for " n o " ' i f i t does NOT describe i t ? i f you cannot decide UORK OH PRESENT JOB — f a s c i n a t i n g routine s a t i s f y i n g boring good cr e a t i v e respected hot pleasant u s e f u l tiresome h e a l t h f u l challenging on your feet f r u s t r a t i n g s i m p l e _ _ _ endless gives a sense of accomplishment - 18 -Think of the kind of supervision that you get on your Job. How w e l l does each of the f o l l o w i n g words describe your supervisor? In the blank beside each work below, put: Y I f i t describes the s u p e r v i s i o n you get on your job H i f I t does NOT describe i t ? I f you cannot decide SUPERVISION ON PRESENT JOB — asks my advice hard to please impolite praises good work t a c t f u l i n f l u e n t i a l tip-to-date doesn't supervise enough quick tempered t e l l s me where I stand annoying stubborn knows job w e l l bad i n t e l l i g e n t leaves me on my own around when needed lazy - 1 9 -T h i n k o f t h e pay y o u y e t now. How w e l l does each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g words d e s c r i b e y o u r p r e s e n t pay? In t i i e b l a n k b e s i d e each w o r d , p u t : Y i f i t d e s c r i b e s y o u r pay N i f i t does NOT d e s c r i b e i t ? i f y o u cannot d e c i d e PRESENT PAY — pay a d e q u a t e f o r n o r m a l expense s s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o f i t s h a r i n g b a r e l y l i v e on pay b a d pay p r o v i d e s l u x u r i e s i n s e c u r e l e s s t h a n I d e s e r v e h i g h l y p a i d u n d e r p a i d T h i n k o f the m a j o r i t y o f t he p e o p l e t h a t y o u work w i t h now o r t h e p e o p l e you meet i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h y o u r w o r k . How w e l l does each o f t i ie f o l l o w i n g words d e s c r i b e t h e s e p e o p l e I n t h e b l a n k b e s i d e each word b e l o w , p u t : Y i f i t d e s c r i b e s t he p e o p l e y o u work w i t h N i f i t does NOT d e s c r i b e them ? i f y o u cannot d e c i d e PEOPLE ON YOUR PRESENT JOB - -s t i m u l a t i n g _. b o r i n g slow a m b i t i o u s s t u p i d r e s p o n s i b l e f a s t i n t e l l i g e n t easy t o make enemies t a l k too much smart lazy u n p l e a s a n t no p r i v a c y a c t i v e nar row i n t e r e s t s l o y a l h a r d t o meet - 2 1 -Think of the opportunities for promotion that you have now. How w e l l does each of the following words describe these? In the blank beside each word, put: Y for "yes" i f i t describes your opportunities f o r promotion N f o r "no" i f i t does NOT describe them ? i f you cannot decide OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROMOTION — good opportunities for promotion opportunity somewhat l i m i t e d promotion on a b i l i t y dead-end Job good chance for promotion unf a i r promotion p o l i c y Infrequent promotions regular promotions f a i r l y good chance f o r promotion - 22 -Thank you for taking the t i n e to further t h i s study of youth. Your helj i s greatly appreciated and I would be pleased to answer any questions yc have about t h i s project and I t s r e s u l t s . There i s one f i n a l request I have of you that w i l l help increase the val of t h i s study. WILL YOU ALLOW ME TO CONTACT YOUR PRESENT OR LAST EMPLOYER AND ASK THEM FOR AN EVALUATION OF YOUR PERFORMANCE? Again, l e t me emphasize that a l l Information received w i l l be kept completely c o n f i d e n t i a l . Thank you for your co-operation. | I No, I would prefer you not to contact my employer. M | 1 Yes, you can contact my employer. CTi Name of Employer Address C i t y My Supervisor 117 APPENDIX V Summary Tables f o r M u l t i p l e Regression Analysis J D l SATISFACTION WITH WORK F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE = 06/13/77) * * * * * * * * * * * DEPENDENT VARIABLE.. * * * * * * * * * * * * M U L T I P L E TJDIWK R E G R E S S I O N * * * * * * * * * * * * * V A R I A B L E TOTJuRIN MEANnK E DUC US SELFiUF S C H E A P O I SEX (CONSTANT) SUMMARY TABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSQ CHANGE JCP, INVOLVEMENT SCORE ON THE MEANING OS WORK SCALE TIME TO FIND FIRST FULL-TIME JOB LOWER SCORES INDICATE HIGHER SELF SUFFIC HOW WF LL DID YOU DO AT SCHOO L 0. 347 l r > 0.41190 0.43452 0.44883 0.46052 0.47977 1 20 51 16966 10881 20145 2 1208 0.23018 C. 12051 0.04915 0.01915 0. 01264 0.01063 0. 01 810 SIMPLE R 0. 34 715 - 0. 29 042 0. 18223 -0. 03697 0. 14904 -0.03530 B 0.4702658 -1.2344H0 0.8669557 -0.3929626 1.479013 -3.526933 30.58984 BETA 0.27205 -0.26131 0. 16061 -0.09408 0. 14675 - 0 . 1 4 8 1 4 MULTIPLE STEPWISE REGRESSIONS-SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTORS JDI SATISFACTION WITH COWORKERS F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE = 06/13/77) 06/29/77 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * DEPENDENT VARIABLE.. TJDICCW M U L T I P L E R E G R E S S I O N VARIABLE SELFuV S E L F i U F ED'JCu7 SCHExPOl TOTJUBIN (CONSTANT) SUMMARY TABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSO CHANGE HIGHER SCUKES INDICATE HIGHER SELF DEVEL C.16006 0.02562 0.02562 LOWER SCORES INDICATE HIGHER SELF SUFFIC 0.22663 0.05136 0.02574 DIFFERENT FULL-TIME JOBS SINCE.HIGH SCHO -0.25474 0.06489 0.01353 HOW WELL DID YOU DO AT SCHOO L . - 0.27958 • 0.07816 0.01327 JOB INVOLVEMENT 0.30130 0.09078 0.01262 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * SIMPLE R 0. 16006 0. 14574 -0.15025 0.07527 -0.10270 1.2161)1 0.4437256 -1 . 150915 0.8063350 -0. 1239261 22.81660 BETA 0. 16447 0. 16839 -0.1244 7 0-J 268 I -0.11364 F - 1 r—1 00 MULTIPLE STEPWISE REGRESSIONS-SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTORS J O i SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISORS F I L E . THESIS (CREATION DATE = 06/13/77) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * M U L T I P L E DEPENDENT VARIABLE.. TJDISLP 06/29/77 R E G E S S I 0 N VAR IABLE EDUCj8 DROPOUT E DUC07 TOTJJBIN RSLFcSTM ( CONSTANT J SUMMARY TABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSQ CHANGE TIME TO. FIND FIRST FULL-TIME JOB 0.22217 0.04936 0.26462 0.07002 DIFFERENT FULL-TIME JOBS SINCE HIGH SCHO 0.31738 0.10073 JOB INVOLVEMENT 0.34028 0.11579 ROSENBERG SELF ESTEEM SCALE 0.35979 0.12945 0.04936 0. 02 066 0. 03071 0.01506 0.01366 * * * * * * * * SIMPLE R 0.22217 -0. 13360 0. 15985 0. 13605• 0. 14042 B 0 . 6 5 2 0 9 H -5.191760 1 . 726784 0. 1451757 0.7564761 10.33720 B F TA 0. 1 7985 -0.20769 0.17541 0. 12504 0.11387 F i L E THESIS (CREATION DATE = 06/13/77) * * * * * * M U L T I P L E R E G R E S S 0 N * * * DEPENDE NT VARIABLE.. T JO I PAY VARI ABLE E D U C 0 8 G E N E K O T GRACr. SCHEXPOl MEANrfK DROP JUT {CONSTANT) SUMMARY TABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSO CHANGE SIMPLE R .TIME TO FIND FIRST FULL-TIME JOB WOULD YCU NOT WORK GIVEjN AOEO INCOME-NO LAST GRADE COMPLETED HOW WELL DID YOU DO AT SCHOO L SCORE ON THE MEANING OF WORK SCALE 25032 30366 33059 35765 37549 0.39290 0.06 26 6 0.09221 0. 109 29 0. 12792 0. 14100 0. 15437 0.06266 0. 02955 0.01 70S 0.01862 0.01303 0.01337 0.25032 -0.20507 -0.17432 -0.10297 -0.18755 0.05417 B 0.bl3H337 -1.773058 -5.539464 -0.9633390 -0.4093421 -4.095906 85.60964 BETA 0.18)83 - 0 . 1 1436 -0.30482 -0.15361 -0.13853 - 0 . 1 7 5 9 6 MULTIPLE STEPWISE REGRESSIONS-SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTORS J C i SATISFACTION WITH PROMOTION F I L E THESIS (CREATION DATE = C6/13/77) DEPENDENT VARIA8LE.. TJDIPRG VARIARLE E0UCw8 TIME TO FIND FIRST FULL-TIME JOB (CONSTANT) M U L T I P L E 06/29/77 R E G R E S S I O N * * * * * * * * * * * * * SUMMARY TABLE MULTIPLE R R SOUARE RSO CHANGE SIMPLE R 0.17709 0.03136 0.03136 -0.17709 -0.3680037 16.12420 BETA - 0 . 1 7 7 0 9 MULT 1 PL F STEPWISE REGRESSIONS-SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTORS TO I AL JOI SATISFACTION F I L E THESIS (CREATION GATE •= 06/13/77) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * DEPENDENT VARIABLE.. T O T J D l VAR U R L E EDUCES MEAN«»K TOTJUSIN • SEX SCHEXP01 (CONSTANT) TIME TO FIND FIRST FULL-TIME JOB SCORE ON THE MEANING OF WORK SCALE JOB INVOLVEMENT HCW WELL DID YOU DC AT SCHOO L M U L I P L E 06/29/77 R E G R E S S I O N * * * * * * * * * SUMMARY TABLE M U L T I P L E R R S Q U A R E R S O C H A N G E S I M P L E R 0. 26203 0.33497 0.37343 0.40324 0.41639 0.06866 0. 11220 0. 13948 0.16260 0.17338 0.06866 0.0^3 54 0. 02 72 8 0.02312 0.01078 0,26203 -0.23 106 0. 22562 -0.03926 0.07756 2.2 83 646 -1.9 14941 0.4554301 BETA 0.23674 -0.22633 0. 14744 • a . 195693 -0 . 19263 1.968425 0.10929 109.6513 

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