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An exploratory investigation toward the development of a research design for a study of youth work transition Charach, Larry 1977

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AN E X P L O R A T O R Y RESEARCH  INVESTIGATION  DESIGN  TOWARD  FOR A S T U D Y  T H E DEVELOPMENT OF A  O F Y O U T H WORK  TRANSITION  BY LARRY  CHARACH  B.A. (Honors), Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  in  The Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1977  ©  L a r r y Charach, 1977  In  presenting this  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  in p a r t i a l  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  representatives.  this  written  thesis  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  It  this  that  study. thesis  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  d o W\ (A I rC C  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  permission.  Department of  Wesbrook  V a n c o u v e r , V6T  for  I agree  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  fulfilment of  Columbia  P l a c e  Canada  1W5  C7ci  3/17  not be allowed without my  ii-  ABSTRACT  In t h i s study a research design f o r a study of youth work t r a n s i t i o n i s developed and pretested.  Available s t a t i s t i c s on the scope and  severity of youth unemployment are examined and i t i s concluded that the problems of unemployment are more severe f o r those under 25 than f o r any other age group and that the s i t u a t i o n i s l i k e l y to get worse as young people i n the next ten years w i l l encounter a s i t u a t i o n where ahead of them i n the occupational structure are a large number of older, but s t i l l young, workers. I t i s suggested that the problems faced by youth i n the work world could be a l l e v i a t e d i f more information were a v a i l a b l e on what variables determine job success and on what e f f e c t s various educational and t r a i n i n g programs have on youth's work t r a n s i t i o n .  However, such research i s a major  undertaking and much prelindnary work to s e l e c t e f f e c t i v e instruments f o r measuring work attitudes and f o r developing e f f e c t i v e methods of data gathering i s required. Preliminary work c a r r i e d out i n t h i s study includes determining an optimal sample s i z e , compiling a questionnaire composed of a number of tested a t t i t u d e scales, and the development of an optimal methodology f o r using mail questionnaires. questionnaire was  A pre-test was c a r r i e d out and the 24-page  sent out to 600 high school leavers.  A response rate  of 64% was obtained even though time and budget constraints meant only a portion of the mail questionnaire methodology could be used.  A multi-  v a r i a t e analysis of the r e s u l t s from the questionnaire showed the attitude  iii  scales had a s i g n i f i c a n t explanatory e f f e c t on a number o f variables related t o job success. I t i s hoped that t h i s study w i l l prove useful t o future r e searchers who plan t o study the problems o f youth work t r a n s i t i o n and that the excellent response t o the pre-test w i l l encourage government to grant the support and cxximitments such studies deserve.  iv  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES  v i i  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  DEDICATION  X  PROLOGUE  xi  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter  1  THE PROBLEM OF YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The C u r r e n t S i t u a t i o n  ;  6 6  The F u t u r e S i t u a t i o n  15  The C o s t  16  Summary  18  The Need f o r Research  19  U s e f u l n e s s o f Research R e s u l t s  20  Q u e s t i o n s t o be I n v e s t i g a t e d by t h e Proposed Study  21  'V  Chapter  Page  2  LITERATURE REVIEW  23  3  RESEARCH DESIGN  32  4  P i t f a l l s t o be Avoided  33  Population  38  Choosing the Sample Size  39  Method of Data C o l l e c t i o n  43  THE METHODOLOGY FOR MAIL QUESTIONNAIRES Advantages of Mail Questionnaires  45  Disadvantages of Mail Questionnaires  46  Increasing Mail Questionnaire Response Rates  48  The Covering Letter  48  Anonymity  50  The E f f e c t o f Questionnaire Length  53  Type o f Postage  55  Incentives  57  Followups  59  E f f e c t s of Non-response 5  45  67  SPECIFIC QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN AND ANALYTICAL STRATEGY FOR THE PROPOSED STUDY  76  Introduction  76  Questionnaire Design  76  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  78  Job Involvement  78  Work Attitudes  79  Self-esteem  80  Analysis of Data  81  vi  Chapter 6  Page AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION USING THE METHODOLOGY  85  Introduction  85  Testing the M a i l Questionnaire Methodology .  85  Introduction  85  The Situation  87  The Covering Letter  87  Followups  88  Weaknesses i n the Research Design  88  The Results  89  The Use of Computers with M a i l Questionnaires  89  Conclusion  90  Summary of Exploratory Findings  90  Introduction  90  Multivariate Analysis  91  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  95  REFERENCES  96  APPENDICES  101  I II III IV V  Covering Letter Sent with Questionnaire  102  Attachment t o Questionnaire  103  Followup Letter Sent t o Non-respondents  104  Questionnaire ............ .  c  . . . . . . . .  Summary Tables f o r Multiple Regression Analysis  *.  105 117  vii  LIST OF TABLES  Table  Page  1  Unemployment Rates, by Age and Sex Canada, 1966 and 1975  2  2  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Labour Force and Unemployed Canada, 1966 and 1975  7  3  Canada: Selected Labour Force S e r i e s , 14-24 Year Olds, 1953-75  8  4  Selected Unemployment Series f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966-75  5  Index of Unemployment S e v e r i t y , Selected Age-Sex Groups, 1966-73  13  6  Percentage of College Graduates and Dropouts Among Respondents to Each Success State of Prodding  36  7  Sample Size f o r Population of 20,000 Number of Subgroups  42  8  Questionnaire Returns by Mailer Type  9.  Percentage of Respodents to Each Stage of Prodding Whose Replies Were Found Discrepant  '  .  9  57  66  viii  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure 1  2  Page Canada: Ratio of youth unemployment rate to adult unemployment r a t e , 1969-74  10  Canada:  10  Live b i r t h s , 1945-75 (both sexes)  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e to acknowledge the support given to me by my thesis committee; Dr. L. Moore (Chairman), Dr. M. Ace and Dr. D. Rusnell.  In addition, Dr. Moore's suggestions and encouragement during  the prelimLnary stages o f my thesis were invaluable.  Special thanks  to my friends E l s i e Jang, Marvin Enkin, and Barry and Janice Stevenson f o r t h e i r concern and i n t e r e s t throughout my Thesis research and report writing.  This study was supported by funds from the I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l Relations a t the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia and the Educational Research I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  X  DEDICATION  to  David  Charach and  Max  "whose q u e s t reflected  Shore  f o r knowledge i s i n this  study"  xi  PROLOGUE  COMMENTS  FROM .RESPONDENTS  OF  YOUTH  WORK  TO A  STUDY  TRANSITION  I would l i k e a j o b w o r k i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n .  How would I go about f i n i s h i n g  my e d u c a t i o n because I always wanted t o be P.E. t e a c h e r f o r e l e m e n t e r (sic)  school.  I love a l l  sports.  I which ( s i c )  I had f i n i s h s e c . h i g h  s c h o o l now. Male, Dropout, Employed, 19  Can you h e l p me?  I would l i k e t o see more n i g h t - s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l  levels of University. my j o b and s t i l l  I would l o v e t o go back but cannot r e a l l y g i v e up  l i v e comfortably.  I f i t was e a s i e r t o go back and s t i l l  h o l d a t l e a s t a p a r t - t i m e j o b I would do i t f o r s u r e .  Money i s not too  good w i t h o u t u n i v e r s i t y , even i f you have a j o b , t h e y won't pay as w e l l . A degree i s l i k e a g o l d e n key, they never have t o prove themselves as much it  seems. Female, High School Graduate, Employed, 21  In are  my o p i n i o n , the young men t h a t have worked w i t h me i n the l a s t 4 y e a r s , too i n c o n s i d e r a t e .  By i n c o n s i d e r a t e I mean they seem not t o c a r e i f  xii  they stay at the job or not.  They don't come to work when they don't want  to and j u s t have no i n t e r e s t .  People of today don't want to work.  In  f a c t I think that some people work f o r a while j u s t so they can get the unemployment cheques, not many but some, these days even more. Male, High School Graduate, ..Employed,. 22  You should've elaborated on what type of work. been unenjoyable but necessary.  A l l the jobs I've  had have  However they have been stepping stones.  Male, Dropout, Employed, 20  I regret not g i v i n g an OK on contacting my present employer but they already feel my r e s t l e s s and bored a t t i t u d e discerning ( s i c ) and any form of questioning would only increase t h e i r doubts.  I would l i k e to keep the job  u n t i l February as the hours allow me to attend college mornings.  I'm  leaving f o r Europe i n February and hope to v i s i t deaf i n s t i t u t e s throughout, a f t e r which I ' l l  be returning to UBC as a f u l l - t i m e student. Female, High School Graduate, Employed, 18  I think that school counsellors are not worth a thing - - they are never r e a l l y interested and by the time you are able to see them a f t e r several requests i t i s j u s t not worth i t .  They don't CARE.  Female, High School Graduate, Student, 20  In past years I have known how d i s s a t i s f y i n g a job can be.  Fortunately  t h i s past summer I have had a challenging job which i s r e l a t e d to my  xiii  i n t e r e s t s and education.  I hope I answered t h i s questionnaire  satisfactorily. Female, High School Graduate, Employed, 21  I do f e e l my best teachers and classes I learned the most in were ones where the teachers were very f i r m (almost s t r i c t ) and believed in the older methods of teaching. up to the student. made to.  The rest of my teachers  l e f t everything  Kids won't learn (generally speaking) unless they are  Kids in school (even to Grade 12), d o n ' t know what's best f o r  them and most w i l l t r y everything to get out of doing too much. Female, High School Graduate, Employed, 19  Students should be warned on how much value i s placed on the c o l l e g e name t h e i r education has been derived from.  I w i l l not mention the name of  the college I attended but the coarse ( s i c ) was a s i x month course which cost close to f i f t e e n hundred d o l l a r s , the work was hard and time consuming ( u n i v e r s i t y graduates even attended the course). passed and graduated.  Out of 25 g i r l s 15  Luckly I was one who graduated, there was even a  suicide among us g i r l s and I'm sure i t was p a r t i a l l y due to the pressure from the course (the person in question was 23 and a graduate from UBC). Now when looking f o r a job the employer i s impressed u n t i l the name of the college i s mentioned. Female, High School Graduate, Employed, 21  1  I N T R O D U C T I O N  People i n the B r i t i s h Columbia labour force under twentyf i v e years of age s u f f e r an unemployment rate over twice as large as those over the age of twenty-four (Table 1, 1975 f i g u r e s : 5.9%).  15.1% vs.  In the prologue are examples of how B r i t i s h Columbia's youth  f e e l about t h e i r experiences i n the labour market.  The i n t e n t i o n of  t h i s study i s to lay the groundwork f o r research that w i l l give p o l i c y makers the information required to e s t a b l i s h programs to s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the d i f f i c u l t i e s expressed above.  The study w i l l provide evidence  of the need f o r comprehensive research into the problems of youth work t r a n s i t i o n , and set f o r t h and p r e - t e s t a research design f o r carrying out such research. While a number of studies have looked at various aspects of youth work t r a n s i t i o n (see Chapter 3 ) , these studies do not provide s u f f i c i e n t information to allow p o l i c y makers to improve the s i t u a t i o n . A study by the United Way of Greater Vancouver (Werker and Jones, 1975) demonstrates both the concern with the problems of youth i n the labour f o r c e , and the need f o r the comprehensive research design provided i n t h i s study.  Table 1 Unemployment Rates, by Age and Sex Canada, 1966 and 1975  1966 1973  1  Total  14-24 yrs  3.6  6.0  7.0  12.5  Female  Male  Both Sexes 25 yrs & over 2.9 4.9  Total  14-24 yrs  4.6  7.1  6.1  P  6  r 12.5  25 yrs & over 3.2  c e n t t  Latest 12-month period: January 1974 to December 1975. Source: S t a t i s t i c s , Catalogue 71-201, annual, S t a t i s t i c s Canada.  14-24 yrs  Total 2.6  25 yrs & over  4.3  1.7  12.4  6.6  >L,  4.1  8.5  Seasonally Adjusted Labour Force  3  In 1974, the United Way of Greater Vancouver's Social P o l i c y and Research Committee applied to the National Department of Welfare f o r a grant to undertake a study on the problems of unemployed youth.  Their  research design was addressed to the f o l l o w i n g s i x relevant issues: 1.  The number o f y o u n g e m p l o y a b l e p e o p l e Vancouver r e g i o n .  2.  Whether t h e e d u c a t i o n young p e o p l e r e c e i v e d i n s c h o o l p r e p a r e d them f o r t h e " w o r k w o r l d . "  3-  Whether l a b o u r u n i o n s were p r e v e n t i n g young people from e n t e r i n g c e r t a i n c a r e e r s .  4.  T h e e f f e c t s o f c u r r e n t C a n a d a Manpower a n d ' p r o v i n c i a l j o b development programs.  5-  The p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s f a c i n g m i n o r i t y g r o u p s in g e n e r a l and N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n p a r t i c u l a r .  6.  W h e t h e r t h e r e h a s been a c h a n g e eth ic.  i n the  i n t h e work  This a p p l i c a t i o n f o r grant support brought the response that (Werker and Jones, 1975): . . . the proposed scope of the study was too broad. . . that most of the six components proposed could be the subject matter of research projects on their own (J.  Evariste Theriault's letter,  O c t o b e r 2k,  1974).  Consequently, the study was re-examined and concentrated on three areas (Werker and Jones, 1975).  The researchers undertook a review  of the relevant l i t e r a t u r e and developed an annotated bibliography in the areas r e l a t i n g to youth unemployment.  They undertook to document the  number and socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of young people in the greater Vancouver area r e c e i v i n g welfare or unemployment insurance.  F i n a l l y they  4  gathered i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c data from interviews with young people seeking employment and informal discussions with counsellors, unemployment insurance o f f i c e r s , youth workers, teachers and union o f f i c i a l s . The importance and relevance of t h i s type of study w i l l be discussed in d e t a i l l a t e r in Chapter 1.  The above discussion supports the  need f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the components of youth unemployment. Both the United Way's and the National Department of Welfare's comments point to the need for research studies that examine youth unemployment. Thecresults from those studies would provide information so that changes could be made in order to improve the experience of young people in the "work w o r l d . " The present study i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with one of the above components; whether the education young people received in school prepared them f o r the "work world."  It i s that component which o f f e r s s i g -  n i f i c a n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s for change. Werker and Jones (1975) tackled that component to a small extent with t h e i r " i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c i n t e r v i e w s . "  Discussion with the d i r e c t o r  and comments in the report (p. i i ) i n d i c a t e that t h e i r e f f o r t s thus f a r in t h i s area have been l i m i t e d because of the cost of a f u l l tion.  investiga-  Even i n t h e i r l i m i t e d study the report states that "(they) often  encountered resistance in presenting t h i s 'perspective" ( r e f e r r i n g to the perspective of youth to work) and "For t h i s reason the report may s u f f e r from a lack of vividness and i n t e n s i t y in presenting the perspective of youth themselves as they view the perspective of work (p. i i i ) . " The comments of young people recorded in the Prologue i l l u s t r a t e a study that appears to have a great deal of vividness and i n t e n s i t y .  5  The purpose of t h i s report i s to discuss how that project was done, i t s methodology and r e s u l t s .  As w i l l be discussed in d e t a i l the high unemploy-  ment and underemployment of youth i s a major area of concern to our s o c i e t y . Sound research i s required to determine what variables contribute to the problem and in what areas the s o l u t i o n (or s o l u t i o n s ) l i e . This paper i s composed of four sections: 1.  A definition  o f the problem of youth  unemployment.  2.  D e v e l o p m e n t o f a m e t h o d o l o g y t o o b t a i n v a l i d and useful results.  3.  Development o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e work a d j u s t m e n t .  4.  T e s t o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e methodology.  t o examine youth  The r e s u l t w i l l be a document that can be used to support the p o t e n t i a l benefits from a study on youth work adjustment.  The report w i l l demon-  s t r a t e the extent of the problem and the v a l i d i t y of the research design.  6  Chapter 1  THE  PROBLEM  OF YOUTH  PURPOSE  OF  EMPLOYMENT  THE  AND  STUDY  The Current S i t u a t i o n People i n the labour force under twenty-five years of age s u f f e r an unemployment rate over twice as large as those over the age of twentyfour (Table 1, 1975 f i g u r e s :  12.5% vs. 5.9%).  The over-representation  of youth under twenty-five i s evident from the f a c t that while they compose only 27% of the labour f o r c e , they account f o r almost 50% of the unemployed. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the s i t u a t i o n i s even worse.  For instance, the 1975  unemployment rate f o r youth under 25 was 21% higher than the Canadian rate (15.1% vs. 12.5%; Tables 2 and 3 ) . Even though the above f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e a grave s i t u a t i o n , they probably understate the problem.  The unemployment figures include only  those who meet the dual conditions of a c t i v e l y looking f o r work and not being employed.  That f i g u r e does not take i n t o account a p o t e n t i a l l y  large number of poepole who have not adjusted to the work world. F i r s t of a l l , as young people experience lack of success i n f i n d i n g work (as r e f l e c t e d i n continued high unemployment) and as t h e i r share of t o t a l unemployment r i s e s  (Figures 1 and 2 ) , many youth become  Table 2 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Labour Force and Unemployed Canada, 1966 and 1975  1975  1966  1  Unemployed -  -  -  Labour Force ^  p e r  - Unemployed : e n t  Labour Force ^  Both Sexes: 14-24 years 25 years and over  48.6 51.4  27.2 72.8  40.0 60.3  24.3 75.8  Totals  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  27.2 27.8  15.2 48.9  28.1 50.6  14.3 55.8  21.3 23.6  12.0 24.8  11.9 9.7  10.0 20.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  Male: 14-24 years 25 years and over Female:  14r24 years  25 years and over Totals  The main message conveyed by Table 2 is that almost 50% of unemployment i s accounted f o r by teenagers and young a d u l t s , a group which makes up only 27% of the labour f o r c e . ^Latest 12-month period: January 1974 to December 1975. Note: Figures may not add to t o t a l s because of rounding. Source: Seasonally Adjusted Labour Force S t a t i s t i c s Catalogue 71-201, annual S t a t i s t i c s Canada.  Table Canada:  Working-Age (000)  Labour  Population  Year-to-Year Chanqe  {%)  (000)  Selected Labour  Series,  14-24  Year-to-Year {%)  (000)  Year-to-Year Chanqe  Year  Olds,  Unemployed  Employed  Force  Chanqe  Force  3  (%)  (000)  Unemployment  .  Year-to-Year Chanqe  (%)  Participation  Ratio  of  Rate  ('/.)  (%)  6.0  49.3  2.1  Adult  +4.9  1797  +7.4  1690  +8.0  107  -  1967  3826  +4.9  1886  +6.1  1776  +5.1  130  +21.5  6.8  49.8  2.1 •  1968  3995  +4 . 4  1998  +4.8  1835  +3.3  163  +25.4  8.2  50.0  2.2  1959  4152  +3.2  2000  +4.1  1914  +4.3  165  +  1.2  7.9  50.1  2.2  1970  4391  +3.6  2147  +3.2  1924  +0.5  224  +35.8  10.4  49.9  2.4  1971  4433  +3.1  2248  +4.7  1992  +3.5  256  +14.3  11.4  50.7  2.4  1972  4847  +2.6  2383  +4.9  2095  +5.2  263  +  2.7  11.1  1973  4658  +2.4  2518  +6.7  2268  +8.3  251  -  4.6  1.0.0  1974  4783  +2.7  2686  +4.7  2417  +6.6  258  +  2.8  1975  4905  +2.6  2786  +4.9  2419  +0.1  346  +34.1  Labour  Force  Survey,  Cat.  No.  71-001.  51.9  to  Unemployment  3648  '  Youth  Unemployment  Rate  1966  Source:  0.9  1953-75  2.4  54.1  2.5  9.6  55.9  2.5  12.5  56.4  2.5  oo  Table 4 Selected Unemployment Series f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966-75  (a) Unemployment Rate of 194-24 Year Olds  (b) Ratio of 14-24 Unemployment Rate to 25+ Unemployment Rate  (c) Ratio of Regional 14-24 Unemployment Rate to Canada 14-24 Unemployment Rate  1966  7.6  2.06  1.27  1967  8.8  2.17  1.28  1968  10.3  2.25  1.26  1969  8.5  2.23  1.07  1970  13.0  2.18  1.25  1971  12.7  2.41  1.11  1972  .3.1  2.34  1.17  1973  11.7  2.50  1.18  1974  11.6  2.83  1.19  1975  15.1  2.56  1.20  Source:  Labour Force Survey, Cat. No. 71-001.  10;  2.6,  I  6)  1 62  Source:  Figure 1.  . 63  . 64  -* 65  ' 67  66  S t a t i s t i s c Canada  Labour  • 6S Force  69  • 70  Survey,  1  1  >——' 73 74  71  72  Lat.  N O . 71 - L K J 1  Canada: Ratio of youth unemployment rate to adult unemployment r a t e , 1969-74.  (COO)  84-T04. p. 46.  Figure 2.  Canada:  Live b i r t h s , 1945-75 (both sexes).  11  "discouraged workers." force e n t i r e l y . than shown.  They q u i t looking f o r work and leave the work  Therefore, the l e v e l of youth unemployment i s much higher  A recent issue., of the Labour Research B u l l e t i n (February,  1975, p. 546) points out that . . . a d i s c o u r a g e d w o r k e r e f f e c t i s now t a k i n g p l a c e i n B.C. In f a c t , t h i r t e e n o f t h e s i x t e e n t h o u s a n d t h a t h a v e d r o p p e d o u t o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e a r e i n t h e 14-19 age b r a c k e t and a f u r t h e r t h r e e t h o u s a n d a r e i n t h e 2024 age g r o u p . . . . Age g r o u p b r e a k - d o w n s r e v e a l e m p l o y ment l o s s e s i n a l l g r o u p s w i t h e s p e c i a l l y h e a v y o n e s i n t h e 14-19 a n d 20-24 g r o u p s , w h e r e m o n t h l y d e c l i n e s a r e 13-7 p e r c e n t and 7.9 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . . . . T h i s l a r g e d e c r e a s e i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e a g e d 14-19 has s e r v e d t o k e e p t h e g r o u p ' s u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e down, p e r h a p s t o a d e c e p t i v e l y low l e v e l .  Not only do unemployment s t a t i s t i c s ignore the e f f e c t of " d i s couraged workers," but they do not take i n t o account u n d e r u t i l i z e d workers. When a chemical engineer graduate can only f i n d a job as a stock c l e r k , there i s an u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n of manpower.  S i m i l a r l y , people who work  part-time even f o r a few hours a week are counted as employed, even when they desire f u l l - t i m e work and therefore are r e a l l y underemployed (Knox, 1976). The problem of d i s s a t i s f i e d workers i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t t o u n d e r u t i l i z e d workers.  The e f f e c t s of d i s s a t i s f i e d workers can be examined  e i t h e r from the viewpoint of the employer or that of the workers. cost to the employer i s in terms of p r o d u c t i v i t y and q u a l i t y .  The  For the  worker i t can r e s u l t in lower self-esteem and other psychological e f f e c t s . While job d i s s a t i s f c a t i o n i s prevalent in a l l age groups, the a v a i l a b l e data i n d i c a t e s job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s much more prevalent f o r under 25 s. 1  Burstein et al. (1975), in t h e i r study of Canadian Work Values^  state that " t h i s ( d i s s a t i s f y i n g jobs) was e s p e c i a l l y true f o r 15 to 24 year olds (p. 49)."  12  It i s evident that a v a i l a b l e unemployment s t a t i s t i c s provide only a p a r t i a l p i c t u r e of the effectiveness of the labour market in u t i l i z i n g youth.  There i s a need f o r a measure of  "subemployment"  ( V i e t o r i s z , Mier and G i b l i n , 1975) that w i l l include discouraged workers and u n d e r u t i l i z e d workers.  However, even without such a scale there i s  a large amount of evidence that there i s a poor match between the current job structure and the a b i l i t i e s , needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of today's youth. As a measure of personal and f i n a n c i a l hardship the unemployment rates are a very gross i n d i c a t o r .  For instance, in a multi-earner family  the loss of a secondary earner would cause less hardship than the loss of employment f o r the earner in a one-earner f a m i l y .  The Economic Council  of Canada argues that i t i s long-term unemployment that i s of i n t e r e s t because of i t s serious economic and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s .  Accordingly,  the ECC has used an index of unemployment s e v e r i t y to take into account that the seriousness of unemployment of the i n d i v i d u a l may increase with the duration.  The index simply m u l t i p l i e s the unemployment rate by the  average duration of unemployment.  Table 5 provides c a l c u l a t i o n of the  index f o r the period 1966-1973. The index c l e a r l y shows that the problems of unemployment are much more severe f o r the under 25 age group.  In most cases, t h e i r severity,  indices are twice that of any other group. Another aspect of the current s i t u a t i o n which not only indicates the s e v e r i t y of the problem, but indicates one area where one should i n vestigate solutions (see Chapter 2) i s to examine the type of unemployment experienced by youth, i . e . whether the high youth unemployment i s  because  13  Table 5 Index of Unemployment S e v e r i t y , 14-24  A l l Ages  Total  Males Females  Total  1  Selected Age-Sex Groups, 1966-73 45 years and over  25-44 years  years  Males Females  Total  Males Females  Total  Mal'.-s Females  Unemployment rate 1966  3.6  4.0  2.6  6.0  7.1  4  2.6  2.9  1.9  3.1  3.7  1.6  1967  4.1  4.6  3.0  6.8  8.1  5.1  3.1  3.6  2.0  3.3  3.9  1.8  1968  4.8  5.5  3.4  8.2  9.7  6.0  3.7  4.2  2.3  3.7  4.4  2.0  4.2  2.3  -  3  1909  4.7  5.2  3.6  7.9  9.4  5.9  3.5  3.8  2.5  3.7  1970  5.9  6.6  4.5  10.4  12.4  7.7  4.4  5.0  3.1  4.3  4.9  2.6  1971  6.4  7.0  5.1  11.4  13.3  8.8  4.7  5.2  3.6  4.6  5.3  2.9  5.0  4.1  4.3  4.8  3.1  3.9  3.8  4.1  2.8  10.23  12.34  12.55  10.9Q  1972  6.3  6.8  5.3  11.1  13.0  8.6  4.8  1973  5.6  5.9  5.1  10.0  11.2  8.2  4.1  4.2  1966  10.34  10.52  9.66  9.00  9.97  9.89  1967  10.33  10.54  9.56  9.17  9.20  9.13  10.14  10.22  9.76  12.42  12.66  10.91  1968  11.35  11.60  10.44  10.31  10.46  10.00  11.26  11.44  10.18  13.21  13.20  12.22  11.76  12.07  10.SO  10.55  10.94  9.78  11.69  11.53  il Si  14.07  14.81  12.36 14.00  Average duration of unemployment 2  1969  9.21  9.28  1970  12.26  12.53  11.38  11.15  11.45  10.42  12.32  12.34  12.08  14.42  14.50  1971  13.64  13.85  13.05  12.73  12.91  12.38  13.78  13.78  13.52  15.33  15.59  14.12  1S72  13.19  13.45  12.51  12.01  12.18  11.62  13.54  13.61  13.39  15.33  15.74  13.89  13.27  14.S5  15.01  14.25  1972  12.74  12.91  12.39  11.58  11.69  11.37  13.18  13.16  ;x of severity' 1966  0.37  0.42  0.25  0.54  0.66  0.39  0.26  0.29  0.19  0.38  0.46  0.17  .1967  0.42  0.48  0.29  0.62  0.74  0.47  0.31  0.37  0.20  0.41  0.49  0.20  1968  0.54  0.64  0.36  0.85  1.01  0.60  0.42  0.48  0.23  0.49  0.59  0.25  0.60  0.30  1969  0.55  0.63  0.39  0.83  1.03  0.58  0.41  0.44  0.30  0.52  1970  0.72  0.83  0.51  1.16  1.42  0.80  0.54  0.62  0.37  0.62  0.71  0.36  1971  0.87  0.97  0.67  1.45  1.72  1.09  0.65  0.72  0.49  0.71  0.83  0.41  0.76  0.43  0.62  0.40  1972  0.83  0.91  0.66  1.33  1.58  1.00  0.65  0.63  0.55  0.66  1973  0.71  0.76  0.63  1.16  1.31  0.93  0.54  0.55  0.52  0.56  1 Unemployment rate multiplied by average duration of unemployment. 2 Average number of weeks per unemployed person. 3 Average number of weeks per person in labour force. SOURCE Eased on d3ta from Statistics C a n a d a .  SOURCE:  People  and Jobs  3  Economic Council of Canada, 1975, p. 209.  14  of o v e r a l l d e f i c i e n c i e s in aggregate demand or because young people are not w i l l i n g or able to f i l l  the jobs that do e x i s t .  Canada Manpower  studies have found the l a t t e r to be the case. Among these Departmental s t u d i e s , f o r example, one researcher (Knowles, 1973) found that: The p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f s h o r t t e r m u n e m p l o y m e n t i m p l i e s an a c t i v e m a r k e t w h e r e t h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m a p p e a r s t o be j o b - m a t c h i n g and j o b i n s t a b i l i t y as o p p o s e d t o demand d e f i c i e n c y .  and . . . changes i n employment c o n d i t i o n s a c c o u n t f o r a r e l a t i v e l y small p r o p o r t i o n o f the changes i n the teenage unemployment r a t e .  The problem of job-matching, which i s r e f l e c t e d in the high turnover of under 25's  (Economic Council of Canada, 1976, p. 90), can be explained  by the f a c t that many young people enter the world of work with l i m i t e d knowledge of how t h e i r education i s r e l a t e d to job o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  This  problem i s e s p e c i a l l y acute f o r those youth seeking b l u e - c o l l a r jobs, as education i s p r i m a r i l y oriented towards w h i t e - c o l l a r jobs. A Canada Manpower study by Li (1975) estimates that factors r e l a t e d to job turnover and job matching in 1974 account f o r 63 per cent of the unemployment rate experienced by teenage males.  These figures  and both L i ' s and Knowles' f i n d i n g that t h i s component of unemployment i s p a r t i c u l a r l y prevalent f o r youth unemployment i n d i c a t e that high youth unemployment i s not something that w i l l vanish when the economy improves. The problem i s an inherent part of our economic and social s t r u c t u r e .  15  The Future S i t u a t i o n The above discussion shows there i s a major problem in youth work t r a n s i t i o n as shown by high rates of unemployment and underemployment in youth catagories.  As stated e a r l i e r , t h i s problem w i l l not be  a l l e v i a t e d s o l e l y by growth i n our economy.  Rather, i t w i l l require  p o s i t i v e measures by various government agencies.  It i s possible some  p o l i c y makers may feel that the problem i s a r e s u l t of the 'baby boom' of the l a t e 1940's and 1950's, and as the youth population declines i n the  1980's (see Figure 2 ) , the youth unemployment problem w i l l not be  of the current s e v e r i t y and w i l l no longer be of serious public concern. The f a l s i t y of that b e l i e f and the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the future are well presented by the Research Projects Group of Canada Manpower (1976) in t h e i r study, Youth Unemployment in Canada: A Detailed  Analysis.  They  stated: T h i s b e l i e f i s e x t r e m e l y n a i v e b e c a u s e i t does n o t t a k e i n t o account f a c t o r s o t h e r than demographic p r e s s u r e w h i c h c a u s e d t h e gap t o e x i s t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t o w i d e n i n t h e l a s t 10 y e a r s , and w h i c h w i l l l i k e l y w o r k a g a i n s t a c l o s i n g o f t h e gap i n t h e n e x t 10 y e a r s .  Their statement i s strongly supported by demographic projections for  the labour f o r c e .  Even though the population of 14-24 year-olds w i l l  be some 150,000 smaller in 1985, the youth labour force w i l l be 169,000 (6 per cent) l a r g e r .  In a d d i t i o n , while the 14-19 year-old labour force  w i l l probably peak at the same time as t h e i r population (1978), the 20-24 year-old labour force w i l l l i k e l y show continued growth over nearly a l l of the  next ten years. Thus, the increasing magnitude of future youth unemployment i s  supported not only by a projected increase in labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  16  but also by the projected changing age-composition of the population. youth enter the labour force in the next ten years, they w i l l  As  encounter  the s i t u a t i o n , where ahead of them in the occupational structure is a large number of o l d e r , but s t i l l young, workers. w i l l have the competitive advantage of experience.  However, these workers This w i l l mean young  people might be l e f t with the r o l e of "marginal" workers with increased problems of unemployment and job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The evidence strongly indicates that given the current economic and s o c i a l structure that youth w i l l continue to s u f f e r high unemployment f o r at least the next 10 years.  However, the root causes w i l l be the  same as b r i e f l y discussed previously.  The problem w i l l not be due to a  lack of jobs, but a lack of s u i t a b l e jobs o r a l a c k o f s u i t a b l e t r a i n i n g .  The Cost What i s the cost of the above s i t u a t i o n ?  D i r e c t costs include  the payment of welfare and unemployment insurance to youth to under  25's.  In i n d i v i d u a l terms the costs are l a r g e l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l , for instance low self-esteem that can accrue from f a i l u r e to f i n d employment. No one has s u c c e s s f u l l y attempted to determine the cost of high youth unemployment, but needless to say, i t i s s u b s t a n t i a l .  For instance,  a report on youth and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e (Canada Council of Social  Development,  1972) reported that welfare payments to under 25's were increasing much f a s t e r than e i t h e r t h e i r population growth or any other age group.  In  Toronto, s o c i a l assistance cases climbed by 22 per cent between September, 1970, and September 1971.  Within t h i s group youth between 16 and 24 i n -  creased by 94% representing 44% of the e n t i r e increase.  17  We also f i n d that youth under 2 5 constitutes over one-third of all  UIC claimants  (1974:  33.8%)J  Breaking t h i s f i g u r e down f u r t h e r i n  1974 they constituted 4 9 . 5 per cent of a l l claimants with less than twenty insurable weeks and 2 7 . 8 per-cent of claimants with twenty insurable weeks or more.  This i s consistent with the e a r l i e r findings that those under  25 are characterized by shorter attachments to the labour force than those 25 and over. Two major facts emerge from t h i s information on UIC claims. F i r s t of a l l , there would be a major e f f e c t on UIC claims i f youth unemployment was reduced.  Secondly, the shorter attachment of youth to the labour  force means they are p r i m a r i l y affected by any changes i n UIC e l i g i b i l i t y requirements. Some people believe that young people compose a large number of s o c i a l assistance and unemployment insurance r e c i p i e n t s because they are lazy and do not want to work.  I f that were t r u e , then we could not con-  s i d e r a high portion of the cost of s o c i a l assistance or unemployment insurance being a r e s u l t of high youth unemployment. t o Opportunity  However, the Right  (Canada C o u n c i l , 1 9 7 2 )  /study found that 93% of the r e c i p i e n t s rejected s o c i a l  assistance as a way of l i f e and that 87% per cent had t r i e d other a l t e r natives before applying f o r s o c i a l assistance.  In a d d i t i o n , i t i s probable  that some youth has l o s t t h e i r motivation to work as a r e s u l t of poor • success i n the job market. U.S.  This l a t t e r point i s p a r t l y supported by a  study (iGoodwin, 1 9 7 2 ) which found that poor people a t t r i b u t e d l i t t l e  Whe i n f o r m a t i o n o n u n e m p l o y m e n t i n s u r a n c e c l a i m a n t s was o b t a i n e d t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f Dr. S t e v e n M. H i l l s , F a c u l t y o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S i m i l a r data i s r e p o r t e d by t h e E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f Canada ( 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 153-  with  18  s e l f importance to work as a r e s u l t of t h e i r having c o n t i n u a l l y f a i l e d in the world of work. Yet, i f steps are to be taken to reduce the extent of youth unemployment, there i s a need to have information a v a i l a b l e to evaluate the p o t e n t i a l benefits from any step.  This includes the intangibles of  higher self-esteem as well as the t a n g i b l e s , such as lower unemployment insurance and s o c i a l assistance  payouts.  Summary An examination of the s i t u a t i o n of youth in the world of work found high unemployment and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the a v a i l a b l e type of work.  T h i s . s i t u a t i o n i s not s o l e l y due to o v e r a l l d e f i c i e n c i e s in aggre-  gate demand.  A large part of the unemployment i s due to a mismatch of  a v a i l a b l e jobs with a v a i l a b l e s k i l l s .  Unless that mismatch i s reduced  the degree of youth unemployment w i l l not f a l l in the future even though t h e i r proportion in the population f a l l s .  Instead, i t l i k e l y w i l l  rise  as the current large number of employable youth get established in jobs and more women enter the work f o r c e . While the cost of t h i s problem cannot be determined with a v a i l able data, i t i s very large.  It includes t r a n s f e r payments, such as  unemployment insurance and s o c i a l assistance, in addition to psychological e f f e c t s on those unable to f i n d s a t i s f a c t o r y jobs. The purpose of t h i s study i s to develop and p r e - t e s t a methodology to determine the causes and costs of the problem.  That information  w i l l allow p o l i c y makers to take p o s i t i v e steps to a l l e v i a t e the problem. In a d d i t i o n , information on the nature of the world of work w i l l allow  19  students and t h e i r counsellors to make decisions about t h e i r t r a i n i n g so they w i l l enter the world of work prepared and aware.  The Need f o r Research The previous discussion makes i t evident that w i t h i n youth categories there i s a serious problem of high unemployment and poor work adjustment.  While there i s evidence that the cause i s a lack of s u i t a b l e  jobs, that in i t s e l f i s a cursory answer. what are s u i t a b l e jobs f o r youth.  Information i s s t i l l needed on  This must be answered from both the  standpoint of youth's needs and s k i l l requirements of employers. Do the problems of young people in the world of work r e s u l t from our educational system not meeting the s k i l l requirements of employers, as well as not adapting to the a b i l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l ?  Does our educa-  t i o n a l system not prepare youth f o r the jobs they w i l l f i n d a v a i l a b l e ? Many knowledgeable people in the f i e l d of education and labour answer these questions in the a f f i r m a t i v e (Ginzberg, 1972; W i r t z , 1968, Hodgson, 1972; Davenport, 1972).  S i m i l a r l y , some follow-up studies have found that work-  ing adults a t t r i b u t e much of t h e i r problems in f i n d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y jobs to inappropriate c u r r i c u l a and inadequate educational and vocational guidance (Flanagan and Russ-Eft,  1975).  Information i s needed as to what extent the above problem i s true f o r youth in B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada.  It i s also important to  f i n d out what e f f e c t s various education programs and courses w i l l have on youth t r a n s i t i o n from school to work.  20  Thus, i t i s necessary to study what a f f e c t s work adjustment of youth, the problems and e f f e c t s of t h i s work adjustment and how the t r a n s i t i o n from school to work can be improved.  Usefulness of Research Results The study w i l l provide useful information to educators, Government (Department of Manpower and Immigration, B.C. Department of Education), and youth themselves.  It w i l l provide educators with an i n d i c a t o r of how  important t h e i r influence i s on the future adjustment of youth.  The impor-  tance of t h i s i s apparent from the findings of a study on Vancouver educat i o n needs (Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B.C., 1975) where the p u b l i c and students ranked the educational goal of developing one's career or personal i n t e r e s t through f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and education as being the seventh and s i x t h most important goals r e s p e c t i v e l y .  In c o n t r a s t , the  Teachers and School Administrators ranked that goal twenty-third and twentyseventh r e s p e c t i v e l y .  There i s a question of whether the p u b l i c and students  overvalue the r o l e of education in preparing youth f o r work, or teachers and administrators undervalue i t .  The B.C. a t t i t u d e i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  contrast to the United States s i t u a t i o n where 45 states have as one of t h e i r educational goals that each i n d i v i d u a l must prepare f o r a career (Flanagan and Russ-Eft,  1975).  Information on the nature and problems of youth unemployment and d e t a i l s on what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s influence job success w i l l aid school and manpower counsellers.  It would also be used in the formation of courses  that w i l l prepare youth f o r work.  21  S i m i l a r l y , the information w i l l aid Canada Manpower and P r o v i n c i a l Departments of Labour in determining problem p r i o r i t i e s and needs.  For  instance, what emphasis should be given to academic versus technical programs, or what t r a i n i n g programs should be supported. For instance, in Vancouver, Canada Manpower and the l o c a l  school  board r e c e n t l y set up the Career Action Youth (CAY) Centre whose objectives include a i d i n g in the preparation f o r eventual employment and obtaining r e a l i s t i c career goals and attached.  Not only w i l l the proposed study  aid the CAY centre in meeting that g o a l , i t w i l l also i n d i c a t e what other steps are required to meet that goal.  The study may f i n d that vocational  preparation i n school i s a major f a c t o r in job success.  If so, there are  a number of steps that could be taken to implement i t .  Q u e s t i o n s t o _be I n v e s t i g a t e d by t h e Proposed Study  The proposed research w i l l examine the f o l l o w i n g questions r e l a t e d to youth employment.  S p e c i f i c variables used are discussed in Chapter 3.  1.  Which young p e o p l e a r e s u c c e s s f u l i n the w o r l d o f work? - this w i l l include job satisfaction, job s e a r c h a c t i v i t y s i n c e l e a v i n g s c h o o l and job characteristics.  2.  Which p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i f any, d i f f e r e n t i a t e y o u t h s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e w o r k w o r l d f r o m t h o s e who are not? - t h i s w i l l i n c l u d e f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d and o t h e r demographic data  3-  What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p job success?  between work a t t i t u d e  with  22  h.  How w e l l d i d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m p r e p a r e y o u t h f o r work? - t h i s w i l l be l o o k e d a t b o t h f r o m t h e s t a n d point of youth with respect to t h e i r course c o n t e n t a n d v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , and f r o m the e m p l o y e r ' s r e q u i r e m e n t s .  The purpose of t h i s study i s not to answer those questions, but to provide a research design so they can be answered.  In Chapter 2, a  number of studies and reports that i d e n t i f y some of the problems young people face i n the work force are reviewed.  Also, i n that chapter, studies  that have gathered data on youth's work experience are examined to determine what components of t h e i r research design might be included i n the proposed study. In the remaining chapters a research design i s developed a f t e r investigating some of the p i t f a l l s to be avoided i n t h i s type of study (Chapter 3).  A key component of the research design i s the development of  a methodology f o r obtaining a high response rate to mail questionnaires (Chapter 4).  Using portions of t h i s methodology with a questionnaire  developed f o r the proposed study (Chapter 5) the recommended research design i s tested on a sample of over 600 high school graduates and dropouts (Chapter 6) and recommendations are f o r more use of the research design. The r e s u l t of t h i s study w i l l be a tested and validated research design, including a comprehensive questionnaire, f o r the study of the problems faced by youth i n the world of work.  23  Chapter 2  LITERATURE  A number o f s t u d i e s  REVIEW  done i n both Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s  were very v a l u a b l e i n d e s i g n i n g  the s t u d y ,  i n i d e n t i f y i n g some o f the p r o b -  lems of youth work adjustment, and i n p r o v i d i n g a p o t e n t i a l for  cross-cultural  source o f data  comparisons o f Canadian and American Youth.  The paper, Youth Unemployment in Canada: A Detailed  Analysis  (Department o f Manpower and Immigration, 1976) p r o v i d e s a wealth of macroeconomic data t h a t are i n v a l u a b l e i n any study o f youth unemployment. begins with an h i s t o r i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e of youth unemployment i n c l u d i n g an  a n a l y s i s of r e c e n t youth l a b o u r f o r c e and unemployment t r e n d s . examines the e x t e n t to which the school l a b o u r market.  It  It  then  system prepares youth f o r the  A review i s made o f y o u t h ' s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n employer-  sponsored t r a i n i n g and i n Department o f Manpower's  programs.  Finally,  p r o j e c t i o n s are made of the f u t u r e youth labour market s i t u a t i o n . The  major f i n d i n g s  viewed i n Chapter 1 . p r e s e n t study i s  and c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s  One f i n d i n g t h a t i s  that schooling  ment and t u r n o v e r .  is  study have been r e -  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to the  the key f a c t o r i n y o u t h ' s  As s t a t e d i n the r e p o r t :  high unemploy-  24  H i g h t u r n o v e r i s most m a r k e d among t e e n a g e r s whose r e l a t i v e l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g and s h o r t a g e o f e x p e r i e n c e r e l e g a t e s them a l m o s t i n e v i t ably to the least d e s i r a b l e occupations, recurrent u n e m p l o y m e n t a n d , l i t t l e hope f o r f u t u r e a d v a n c e m e n t , (p. i i )  The report follows with the conclusion that young people get inadequate help i n school to prepare them f o r entry into the labour market. The researchers found t h i s true both in terms of vocational t r a i n i n g and vocational c o u n s e l l i n g . A United States nationwide study of youth, Project  Talent  (Flanagan and Cooley, 1966) i s c e r t a i n l y the most ambitious l o n g i t u d i n a l study of youth to date.  Based on the c l a s s i c a l t r a i t - a n d - f a c t o r approach,  i t tested a s t r a t i f i e d random sample composed of 400,000 secondary  students  in 1960 and followed them up one, f i v e and eleven years a f t e r completing high school.  An a d d i t i o n a l followup i s to begin in 1980, twenty years  a f t e r the graduation of the f i r s t c l a s s .  The project had four main goals:  (1) to develop,an inventory of human resources, (2) to develop a set of standards f o r educational-psychological measurement, (3) to prepare a comprehensive counselling guide i n d i c a t i n g the patterns of aptitude and a b i l i t y which are p r e d i c t i v e of success and s a t i s f a c t i o n in various  careers,  and (4) to provide a better understanding of the educational experiences which prepare students f o r t h e i r l i f e work. The r e s u l t s of the study have been made a v a i l a b l e in a series of reports.  Some of the findings are p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to our examina-  t i o n of youth work t r a n s i t i o n .  For instance, 44% of the students reported  that at l e a s t 50% of the time, "I  f e e l that I am taking courses that w i l l  not help me much in an occupation a f t e r I leave school."  That f i n d i n g  25  demonstrates the inadequacy of the curriculum in meeting the students' perceived needs. However, even though Project  Talent  has been of great value to  educators, i t only looked at what students have learned, and did not i n v e s t i gate how useful t h e i r learning has been i n achieving t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . A recent study that followed up a random s t r a t i f i e d sample of Project  Talent  p a r t i c i p a n t s (Flanagan and Russ-Eft, 1975) looked at how  the s u b j e c t s ' education contributed or detracted from t h e i r q u a l i t y of life."  This study i s useful as a guide to the e f f e c t of various parts of  the school curriculum on job success.  Two of the study's findings are  extremely relevant to the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  F i r s t , over 86% of the  males and 66% of the females stated that inadequate vocational and educat i o n a l guidance i n h i b i t e d t h e i r personal development.  Their lack of know-  ledge about how t h e i r personal i n t e r e s t s , values and a b i l i t i e s prepared them f o r work resulted i n wasted time, personal f r u s t r a t i o n and lack of motivation when looking f o r and adjusting to an s u i t a b l e career. The other area of concern that emerged from that study i s that 64% of males and 78% of the females f e l t they would have benefited from s p e c i f i c a d d i t i o n a l courses.  The courses indicated included business  education f o r women, and technical courses f o r the men. The problem of inappropriate c u r r i c u l a i s due to some degree to d i f f e r i n g p r i o r i t i e s between the educators and the students. The conclusion of the report gives an important reason why a study should be undertaken to-examine how school prepares youth f o r work. T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , some a r e a s i n w h i c h e d u c a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e i n a d d e d ways t o t h e l i v e s o f t h e s e people. . . . t h e d a t a on o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s  26  and o u t c o m e s i n d i c a t e d a need f o r some a d d i t i o n a l programs i n t h e s c h o o l s . O n l y a b o u t 15% o f t h e men a r e i n o n e o f t h e c a r e e r g r o u p s t h e y c h o s e a s 15year-olds. A b o u t \3% o f t h e women a r e i n t h e same c a r e e r g r o u p t h a t t h e y e x p e c t e d i n i960. . . . i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s e p e o p l e now r e p o r t t h a t , a s a t e e n a g e r , t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a j o b and t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s ' o n l y s l i g h t l y w e l l ' o r ' n o t w e l l a t a l l . ' Improved p r o g r a m s i n t h e s c h o o l s w o u l d have e n a b l e d t h o s e s t u d e n t s t o f o r m u l a t e more r e a l i s t i c g o a l s f o r t h e i r f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n s , ( p . 59)  The desire to have more vocational r e l a t e d education i s also found in the "Vancouver Educational Needs Assessment Study" Research of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975).  (Educational  The study reported on the assessment  by four groups of the importance of various educational goals.  The groups  were the students, the community at l a r g e , educational administrators, and teachers. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s that while the students and the general community ranked the need f o r students to have the s k i l l s , knowledge and a t t i t u d e necessary to develop one's career and i n t e r e s t s as the s i x t h and seventh most important need, the teachers and administrators rated i t twenty-third and twenty-seventh r e s p e c t i v e l y .  When the researchers  inves-  t i g a t e d the reason f o r t h i s d i s p a r i t y they found that the teachers i n t e r viewed believed that education should be subject-oriented rather than career oriented.  A problem may occur when that a t t i t u d e r e s u l t s in the  exclusion of any career o r i e n t a t i o n in courses or programs.  That t h i s  may indeed be the s i t u a t i o n i s indicated by the f a c t that the students i n t e r viewed were unanimous in t h e i r conviction that students do not get much help in school in c l a r i f y i n g t h e i r career needs.  The study does not resolve  the question of whether the p u b l i c and students overvalue the r o l e of  27  education in preparing youth f o r work or whether those in the school  system  undervalue i t s importance. "Obstacles to the Employment of Youth" (Werker and Jones, 1975), was  discussed e a r l i e r .  I t was  useful  to -this  s t u d y as i t  gave an overview of youth unemployment in B r i t i s h Columbia.  The researchers  recognized and i d e n t i f i e d the need f o r an examination of the d i f f i c u l t i e s youth f i n d in t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n from school to work.  While they did not  attempt to determine the causes or f i n d the solutions to youth unemployment, they did endeavor to i d e n t i f y the extent of the problem. the  They reviewed  l i t e r a t u r e in areas r e l a t e d to youth unemployment, and attempted to  document the number and socio-demographic p r o f i l e of youths r e c e i v i n g welfare and unemployment insurance, and to gather i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c data based on interviews.  Their presentation of s t a t i s t i c s on youth unemploy-  ment and e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r i n c l u s i o n of an annotated bibliography provides a useful reference to researchers in t h i s f i e l d .  As w e l l , an inventory of  services a v a i l a b l e to youth i n the Greater Vancouver area provided as an appendix to the report i s useful as an i n d i c a t o r of what was being done to a l l e v i a t e the problem of youth unemployment. The researchers were unable to obtain unemployment s t a t i s t i c s in s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to allow any conclusions. study does have d e t a i l e d breakdowns.  Chapter 1 of the present  The data was obtained from sources  possibly not a v a i l a b l e at the time of Werker and Jones (1975) study. The researchers also did not f u l l y meet t h e i r goal in gathering i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c data.  As was discussed above, that area of t h e i r study  suffered from a " l a c k of v i v i d n e s s . "  Again, that problem has been overcome  in the present study as indicated by the comments of young people in the Prologue.  28  Despite the above two problems the "Obstacles to the Employment of Youth" provides an useful reference guide to researchers of youth unemployment. A study that was p a r t i c u l a r l y useful both as a source of a t t i t u d e scales and as supporting evidence towards the v a l i d i t y of t h i s proposal was done by the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota's I n d u s t r i a l Relations Center. The study, "Youth Unemployment:  F r i c t i o n s in the Threshold of the Work  Career - An Exploratory Probe" (Heneman and Dawis, 1968) measured t h i r t y dimensions of work a t t i t u d e s .  This Youth Opinion Questionnaire (described  by Graen and Dawis, 1966) was f i r s t pre-tested and refined using a sample of 5,000 high school students.  It was then used to produce normative data  on a s t r a t i f i e d random sample of over 9,000 students in Grades 9 through 12.  In the f i n a l stage, graduates and dropouts from the school providing  normative data were followed up.  A h i g h l y - s t r u c t u r e d interview covering  work experience, job s a t i s f a c t i o n , s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n and biographic data were completed on 183 graduates and 90 dropouts. A number of t h e i r r e s u l t s and conclusions were p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy.  They developed r e l i a b l e scales to measure work a t t i t u d e s of  threshold workers, and found t h a t : 1.  V a r i a n c e i n t h e work e x p e r i e n c e o f t h r e s h o l d workers w h i c h a r e n o t e x p l a i n e d by d e m o g r a p h i c and b i o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r by m e a s u r e d w o r k a t t i t u d e s .  2.  The b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i o n o f e g o - s t r e n g t h was a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t s u c c e s s r a t e s e n j o y e d by t h e g r a d u a t e s a n d d r o p o u t s i n t h e i r b e g i n n i n g w o r k e x p e r i e n c e . The d a t a s u g g e s t e d t h a t the d r o p o u t s were i n f e r i o r t o g r a d u a t e s on t h i s d i m e n s i o n .  3.  A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n be f o u n d b e t w e e n m e a s u r e d work a t t i t u d e s and b e g i n n i n g employment e x p e r i e n c e s .  29  As the report s t a t e d , these findings are of an exploratory and t e n t a t i v e nature because of the small s i z e and unknown representativeness of the co-operating group of dropouts and graduates.  If the f i n d i n g s  could be v a l i d a t e d f o r a representative sample of B.C. threshold workers they might have some important i m p l i c a t i o n s to B.C. educators.  For instance,  i f lower self-esteem of dropouts a f f e c t t h e i r work experience, i t i s possible that by o f f e r i n g an option other than Grade 12 graduation the dysfunctional a f f e c t s of dropping out discussed below could be reduced. The I n s t i t u t e of Survey Research conducted a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of over 2,500 students (Bachman, 1967; Bachman et al., 1972; Davidson,  1972)  which focused on major changes in adolescent boys during the high school years and how these changes are affected by aspects of the immediate s o c i a l environment. Some of t h e i r findings on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and smooth t r a n s i t i o n from school to work are i n t e r e s t i n g .  One part of the  project (Bachman et al.. 1972) looked at differences between high school graduates and dropouts in the work world.  The findings showed t h a t , while  high school students have a higher employment rate than dropouts, there i s no d i f f e r e n c e when socio-economic status and i n t e l l i g e n c e i s c o n t r o l l e d f o r . They also found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in job s a t i s f a c t i o n and earnings. The authors questioned whether the " a n t i - d r o p o u t " campaigns r e s u l t s in a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy.  The report i n d i c a t e s that emphasizing twelve  years of education as the status quo may be i n c o r r e c t .  This i s one area  that the proposed research w i l l examine c l o s e l y . The above studies support the need f o r the major research which t h i s study p r o p o s e s .  F o r example,, t h e Dept.. o f Manpower and• T j m i g r a t i o n  (1976)  p r e s e n t e d macro-economic d a t a t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y  30  vocational counselling and t r a i n i n g , had a major impact on the job success of young people.  That viewpoint was also expressed in Flanagen and C o o l e y ' s  (1966) l o n g i t u d i n a l study of youth which found that a large proportion of students f e l t t h e i r courses would not help them much in an occupation. A followup of that study (Flanagen and Russ-Eft, 1975) found that over 80% of the males and 65% of the females surveyed ten years a f t e r leaving high school f e l t inadequate vocational and personal quidance i n h i b i t e d t h e i r personal growth.  These studies a l l discuss the problems faced by young  people in making the t r a n s i t i o n from school to work, and i n d i c a t e that school inadequately prepares youth f o r work.  The above studies also indicated some questions that need invest i g a t i n g and provided tested a t t i t u d e scales that could be used.  Werker  and Jones (1975) attempted to determine the costs of youth unemployment in terms of t h e i r demands on unemployment insurance and s o c i a l welfare, but were unable to obtain s u f f i c i e n t data.  This study has i d e n t i f i e d data  sources that could be used to obtain that information.  Bachman et al.  i d e n t i f i e d the importance of examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of education and job success.  The proposed study w i l l examine t h i s d e t a i l ,  as well as how the type of education and v o c i a t i o n a l counselling a f f e c t s job success.  The importance of work a t t i t u d e s in explaining job success  was shown by Heneman and Dawes (1968).  They also provided v a l i d a t e d  scales to measure a number of work a t t i t u d e s .  By using the information  obtained in the above studies, the research design of the proposed study i s comprehensive and w i l l require a minimum amount of v a l i d a t i o n .  31  While the above studies provided some important insights i n t o the problems youth face i n the t r a n s i t i o n from school to work, they have presented very few conclusive findings.  For example, Heneman and Dawes'  (1968) research was of an exploratory and tentative nature.  Also, i t i s  questionable whether the above findings can be generalized to apply to B r i t i s h Columbia with i t s own p a r t i c u l a r economic structure ( i . e . resource based industry and Public School System) . F i n a l l y , a number of changes have occurred i n attitudes towards work since many of the above studies have taken place. For those reasons the proposed research i s of major s i g n i f icance.  As w e l l , our emphasis on youth who  are now out of school i s a  relevant contribution when considering that the University of Minnesota study only followed up 183 of the 18,000 high school students i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l sample and that Project Talent's i n t e r e s t i n working youth was mainly i n what jobs they held, and i n t h e i r future career plans rather than i n job search a c t i v i t y and job s a t i s f a c t i o n .  32  Chapter 3  RESEARCH  DESIGN  I t i s important that the r e s u l t s of the proposed study are accepted with confidence i f i t i s to have a major impact on planning and decisions made about programs r e l a t e d to youth in the labour market.  For  that reason, a review was made o f . t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g . s a m p l e s i z e , and the sampling design w i l l consider those f a c t o r s .  S i m i l a r l y , the method  of data c o l l e c t i o n was d e v e l o p e d a f t e r a thorough r e v i e w o f - the :  literature  on:the s u b j e c t .  The questionnaire i s an important influence on v a l i d i t y of the results.  Therefore, a l l a t t i t u d e scales used must be chosen from those  that have substantiated v a l i d i t y , and care must be taken to avoid biases because of question content or wording. A major part of t h i s paper i s the pretest of the research design with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis being placed on the methods of data c o l l e c t i o n and the v a l i d i t y of the scales used.  Because of the potential importance of  the proposed study, the pretest (while exploratory) was done on a l a r g e scale and in many ways represents a major study in i t s e l f .  Its main con-  s t r a i n t i s t h a t , because of time and budget l i m i t a t i o n s , i t was n o t concerned with developing any conclusions r e l a t e d to the area of  33  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , r a t h e r emphasis i s p l a c e d on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s . o f t h e method in e l i c i t i n g useful  e  responses.  P i t f a l l s to be Avoided In designing a study, care must be taken to ensure that the r e s u l t s obtained are v a l i d .  This p a r t i c u l a r l y applies to the sampling  design, and methods of data c o l l e c t i o n .  An e x c e l l e n t example of common  errors made in studies based on data c o l l e c t i o n by interview or survey i s provided in a major study done in B r i t i s h Columbia in the Impact of Community Colleges  (Dennison, Tunner, Jones and Forrester (1975)).  The o v e r a l l  study took over three years and cost in excess of $250,000.  Yet i t had  major weaknesses in the methodology that may have biased the r e s u l t s .  A  d e t a i l e d c r i t i q u e of t h i s study i s useful as i t w i l l bring out the major problems in sampling design and survey techniques. e s p e c i a l l y worth  examining  The Impact Study i s  as i t was based on a s i m i l a r population to that  examined in the proposed study. The Impact Study i s based on sixteen studies done over a four year period.  The method of data c o l l e c t i o n used most extensively was that  of surveys by questionnaire. The Impact Study examined three broad impact areas; the student, the educational system and the community (p. 8).  Surveys of the student  were f o r the most part done on the e n t i r e population. "the  The report s t a t e s ,  response rates were generally very good, with about 60% of the students  completing the surveys.  . . ."  The report continues:  W i t h r e s p o n s e r a t e s so h i g h , t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r a s t u d y i s 'random' becomes r a t h e r a c a d e m i c . In a d d i t i o n , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l observed d i f f e r e n c e s in the r e s u l t s of  34  the s u r v e y a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e such a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a s been m e a s u r e d . Thus t h e m a i n p r o b l e m i s o n e o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e findings. ( p . \kk)  The purpose of s c i e n t i f i c sampling i s to ensure that the sample being studied has the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the population that i t i s taken from.  The r e p o r t ' s reference to a high response rate r e f e r s to the large  number of respondents.  T y p i c a l l y there were over 10,000 respondents to  each survey conducted.  For each of the Grade 12 surveys the response was  close to 20,000.  Unfortunately they have committed the c l a s s i c e r r o r  of s e l f - s e l e c t i o n t h a t i s w e l l documented i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s u r v e y research.  Perhaps the best example (Hansen et al., 1953, pp. 68-71) occurred in 1937 when a "census of unemployment" was authorized by the United States Congress.  The provisions f o r the census s p e c i f i e d that i t should be a  voluntary r e g i s t r a t i o n , and the method of carrying i t out was through a mail questionnaire.  A nation-wide p u b l i c i t y campaign attempted to achieve  f u l l co-operation, and the President appealed to a l l unemployed and p a r t i a l l y unemployed to respond.  The post o f f i c e then l e f t a form at every  door in the United States that received postal s e r v i c e . The technicians responsible f o r the 'census' were aware of the d i f f i c u l t i e s in i n t e r p r e t i n g voluntary survey r e s u l t s and undertook, immediately a f t e r the mail canvass, to take a s c i e n t i f i c sample of the population and cover i t completely with an enumerative survey in order to provide a basis f o r evaluating the v a l i d i t y of the much more widespread mail returns. As a r e s u l t of the tremendous campaign, the survey achieved a very high response.  Based on the check sample, 67 per cent of those who  35  should have responded a c t u a l l y d i d .  The mail survey in t h i s instance was  tremendous in s i z e , with more than 11,000,000 responses.  S t i l l , the check  sample showed that t h i s 67 per cent who r e s p o n d e d were an unrepresentative sample of the unemployed and p a r t i a l l y unemployed population.  It showed  that the summary figures from the mail survey were s u b s t a n t i a l l y biased and had errors that were many times as large as the possible sampling errors of a reasonably well-designed sample that would be only a small f r a c t i o n of t h i s s i z e .  In f a c t , the check survey which covered only 2% of the popula-  t i o n was done at a f r a c t i o n of the cost of carrying out and evaluating the large survey and i t not only gave r e s u l t s of greater p r e c i s i o n but in addit i o n the p r e c i s i o n could be o b j e c t i v e l y evaluated. As the above example i l l u s t r a t e , the Impact Study's main problem was not "one of i n t e r p r e t i n g the f i n d i n g s , " but of determining the p o t e n t i a l biases of the f i n d i n g s . The importance of a high response rate depends on the group being studied.  When the group i s a student population a response rate of  even 70% i s not always high enough to preclude s e l f - s e l e c t i o n bias.  Other  researchers have found c o n c l u s i v e l y that those with higher education and i n t e l l i g e n c e are more l i k e l y to respond to voluntary surveys. (1967)  Eckland's  study where he achieved a 94% response rate from 1255 former college  students i s one example.  As Table 6 i l l u s t r a t e s , dropouts required the  most prodding to respond to the survey.  I t i s important to note, however,  that the dropouts did respond when prodded s u f f i c i e n t l y .  If Eckland had  been s a t i s f i e d with a 67% response rate then u n i v e r s i t y dropouts would have composed 23.4% of the sample rather than t h e i r true representation of probably over 30%.  The i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the Impact Study i s that the  36  respondents to the survey would probably represent the more educationally oriented students who would be most l i k e l y to achieve a u n i v e r s i t y degree or c o l l e g e diploma.  Macek and M i l e s '  0975) study in IQ score and response  r a t e , which found that respondents had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher IQ than non-respondents  (101.73 vs. 91.52) also indicates that the Impact Study  may have been biased i n favor of higher education.  Table 6 Percentage of College Graduates and Dropouts Among Respondents to Each Successive Stage of Prodding  Graduate Statue  First Wave (n=510)  Second and Third Waves (n = 334)  Telephone or Certified (n = 268)  Telepone and Certified (n = 68)  All Returns (n=l,180)  U n i v e r s i t y Graduate  63.1  50.0  35.8  23.5  50.9  Transfer Graduate  17.8  19.8  18.3  11.8  18.1  Dropout  19.0  30.2  45.9  64.7  30.9  99.9  100.0  100.0  100.0  99.9  40.6  67.0  90.2  94.0  --  TOTAL Cumulative Response Rate SOURCE:  " E f f e c t s of Prodding  to Increasing  (Journal of Applied Psychology,  Mail-Back  1965,  V o l . kS,  Returns,"  No. 3,  Bruce  Eckland,  165-169.  The l i k l i h o o d that the r e s u l t s were biased because of an unrepresentative sample i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true f o r the portion of the Impact Study based on mail surveys of the community (Chapter 10).  Samples  were taken of 1% of a l l households in the C i t y of Vancouver and of  1,500  members of the Board of Trade.  The response rates in both cases were  extremely low; 13.6% and 20% r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Donald's  (1960) i n v e s t i g a t i o n  37  of 'The Implication on Nonresponse f o r the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Mail Questionnaire Data' found that "The (Less complete the data are, the more l i k e l y that they are biased in favor of that section of the sample more a c t i v e l y involved in the subject matter under consideration and more l i k e l y to give favorable r e s u l t s (p. 122)." The above statement applies also to the Impact Study student surveys.  The Grade 12 surveys, which were a l l completed in the classroom,  would be biased by incomplete data in two ways.  F i r s t of a l l , those not  present f o r the surveys would by d e f i n i t i o n include students with poor attendance at high school.  Secondly, the poorer and less interested  students could be more l i k e l y t o f i l l i n t h e ' o p t i c a l - m a r k cards i n c o r r e c t l y or spuriously.  1  coirputer  . ~  This, in addition to the previous d i s -  cussion, indicates that the student surveys would be biased in favor of higher education. This c r i t i q u e i n d i c a t e s areas of concern about the v a l i d i t y of the Impact Study.  Further analyses of the differences between the respon-  dents and nonrespondents are i n d i c a t e d .  As stated previously (Charach,  1976), "In a l l cases i t i s worthwhile f o r researchers to compare respondents with nonrespondents in order to determine l i k e l y areas of b i a s . . . . As w e l l , an intensive e f f o r t should be made to contact some of the nonrespondents. . .to f i n d out the reason f o r nonresponse and to receive supplementary data f o r comparison with respondents."  The Impact Study,  while providing much useful information in some areas, should be used w a r i l y as the data are based s o l e l y on surveys. The research design f o r a study on youth work t r a n s i t i o n was- developed with these p i t f a l l s in mind.  For example, one o b j e c t i v e  of the study w i l l be to obtain a high response rate of sample subjects.  38  Population While the study i s structured around the problems of youth under 25 in the labour f o r c e , i t s goals can best be met by looking at a populat i o n that i s a subset of that population.  The population to be studied  i s that group of i n d i v i d u a l s , who l e f t the B.C. Public School System one year and three years ago (.1971 and 1973).  These years were selected in  order to provide a look at the t r a n s i t i o n ' period from school to work, as well as allowing a period of "adjustment to work" f o r the population in order to make the a t t i t u d e measure of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n and Job A t t r a c t i o n stable i n d i c a t o r s . The population choice was also influenced by the findings of Blau and Duncan (1967) and Ginzberg (1966) that the path of one's career development i s a f f e c t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s previous h i s t o r y , with the conditions i n f l u e n c i n g the beginning of career development having a d i m i n i s h ing e f f e c t the f u r t h e r a person moves away from that s t a r t i n g point.  A  s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n from t h e i r r e s u l t s i s that in order to account f o r the  progression of one's career considerable a t t e n t i o n must be paid to the  circumstances and institutions  that provide the contingencies f o r subsequent  career development (Breton, 1972).  Among the i n s t i t u t i o n s that influence  youth's career development the public school system i s of primary importance for  two reasons.  F i r s t of a l l , because in our s o c i a l system i t has become  the main a l l o c a t i o n agency f o r the occuaptional and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n system (Breton, 1972).  A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t i s possible to change the p u b l i c school  system through the action of government agencies, professional educators and students.  associations,  39  Choosing the Sample Size In each of the years chosen there were over 20,000 school leavers. The cost of reaching the e n t i r e population i s both quite high and unnecessary. A more v a l i d sample can be obtained from s c i e n t i f i c sampling than from a study of the e n t i r e population.  Even though we do not plan to survey the  e n t i r e population, the question remains:  what sample s i z e i s  necessary.  The choice of sample s i z e depends on: 1.  time and money a v a i l a b l e  2.  the o b j e c t i v e s o f the survey  3.  a v a i l a b l e knowledge of the p o p u l a t i o n  The time and money constraints determine the maximum sample that can be obtained.  If the sample s i z e required to meet the objectives of the  study requires more resources than are a v a i l a b l e , there are only three choices. obtained.  E i t h e r the objectives can be modified or more resources must be Or, the method of obtaining the desired sample can be structured  to reduce the cost of data gathering.  As w i l l be discussed l a t e r , one  technique, the mail questionnaire i s well suited to surveying large samples at a minimal c o s t . An o b j e c t i v e of the study w i l l determine, f o r any population, the appropriate sample s i z e of the study.  The two primary things to ascer-  t a i n are the l e v e l of accuracy (sampling e r r o r ) required and the number of intragroup comparisons to be made. It i s i n t u i t i v e l y obvious that i f e i t h e r the e n t i r e population i s studied or i f only the member of a (completely homogeneous) population (i.e.  the population of water molecules) i s surveyed that a l l measurements  w i l l represent the population with no sampling e r r o r .  As the proportion  40  of the population examined decreases, the sampling error increases. S i m i l a r l y , the more homogeneous the population, the smaller the sample required to achieve a s p e c i f i c sampling e r r o r . However, the homogeneity or variance w i t h i n a population i s a f i x e d v a r i a b l e which i s usually unknown.  This means that the sample s i z e  i s the main v a r i a b l e that can be manipulated to a f f e c t the sampling e r r o r . When a sample i s very small, the probable sampling e r r o r i s so large that the data are worthless (WFS Central S t a f f , 1975). important when considering subgroups of the population.  This  is  For instance,  while our study w i l l be looking at high school leavers, much of the  analysis  w i l l break down the population into subgroups of various high school programs.  If the sample in the subgroup i s too small that analysis w i l l be  of no value.  The f a c t o r that most influences sample s i z e i s the amount of  d e t a i l e d breakdown required by the planned a n a l y s i s . The e f f e c t of homogeneity of the population has been discussed previously.  While i t has an important e f f e c t on determining sample s i z e ,  there i s not enough a p r i o r i information on i t to j u s t i f y taking i t into account.  This i s so, even though there has been a large number of studies  on youth (see L i t e r a t u r e Review).  Sampling errors computed from survey  samples are themselves usually subject to great sampling v a r a b i l i t y . Sampling theory, and the reported experience of many computations  (cf.  K i s h , Grove and K r o k t i , 1976), emphasize the importance of not r e l y i n g on the p r e c i s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s regardless of the s i z e of the sample. Our problem i s to determine the sample s i z e f o r a population with unknown c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that w i l l give r e s u l t s with an allowable p r e c i s i o n and w i l l enable an analysis to be performed on a given number  41  of subgroups.  An i n d i c a t o r of the potential sample s i z e i s a v a i l a b l e when  we consider other studies of youth.  A study by Breton 0 9 6 8 ) , surveyed  13% of a l l secondary students in Canada using a s t r a t i f i e d p r o b a b i l i t y sample design. B.C.  1  Based on an estimated " l e a v e r " population of 20,000 in  t h i s w i l l require a sample of 2,600 f o r each student population  surveyed.  However, t h i s f i g u r e seems somewhat i n f l a t e d when we consider  that a longitudinal study of a l l Grade 10 students in the United States conducted by the I n s t i t u t e f o r Social Research 0969) considered subjects adequate,based on a multi-stage p r o b a b i l i t y sample.  2,200  I t seems  reasonable to state at t h i s stage that the maximum s i z e of the sample w i l l be 2,200 with the optimal s i z e to be determined. The remainder of t h i s section w i l l discuss a formula that w i l l provide a sample s i z e that w i l l meet s p e c i f i c conditions of sampling e r r o r and subgroup comparisons, and w i l l use that formula to determine the optimum sample s i z e . Dr. Jim Zidek of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's  Mathematics  Department used a Bayesian approach to develop a formula f o r determining sample sizes f o r unknown populations (.1974).  Without delving into the  mathematics involved, the basic approach attempted to make the l i k e l y error of the smallest possible magnitude when computed over the t o t a l i t y of a l l conceivable samples f o r p o t e n t i a l values of any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  This  approach eliminates uncertainty both due to sampling v a r i a t i o n s and d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  If  'p  1  represents the number of subgroups,  e . i s the sampling e r r o r and N i s the population s i z e , then the sample s i z e required to meet those conditions ''Source: Branch.  B.C. D e p a r t m e n t  is: of Educational  R e s e a r c h and S t a n d a r d s  42  sample s i z e * J ^ p - l / l - l 1  The f o l l o w i n g table i n d i c a t e s f o r the population of 20,000 the sample sizes required f o r various combinations of subgroups and e r r o r s :  Table 7 Sample Size f o r Population of 20,000 Number of Subgroups  2  .05  770  2146  3325  .10  198  583  952  .15  88  263  435  .20  50  149  247  From t h e t a b l e i t appears t h a t  4  6  ERROR  a sample s i z e o f 1,000 i n each year would  a l l o w a r e a s o n a b l e l e v e l o f a c c u r a c y and a l l o w a s u f f i c i e n t l e v e l o f b r e a k downs.- T h i s f i g u r e would a l l o w 6-way breakdowns w i t h a 10% e r r o r e x p e c t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , when we a r e comparing t h e 1971 .leavers w i t h t h e 1973 '  leavers the sample s i z e w i l l , of course, be two thousand.  When populations  exceed around 15,000 the sampling e r r o r depends on the sample s i z e rather than the sampling f r a c t i o n s .  That w i l l mean those r e s u l t s w i l l have less  error due to sampling than w i t h i n group analyses.  For instance, when the  population i s 40,000 and the sample s i z e i s 2,000 the sampling e r r o r f o r four-way breakdowns i s less than .06 per cent. In conclusion, i t appears that a sample s i z e of 1,000 f o r each of the population years w i l l give us a highly v a l i d sample.  1  The formula assumes randomized sampling.  The cost of  43  such a sample w i l l be discussed l a t e r (see Cost of Mail Surveys) but i t i s reasonable to say at t h i s stage i t would not be excessive.  Method of Data C o l l e c t i o n A key part of any research design i s the method of data gathering. In t h i s case the method used must e l i c i t youth's school and work experience and a t t i t u d e s .  A secondary requirement i s f o r a method that can be imple-  mented at a reasonable cost.  This i s e s p e c i a l l y important when, as d i s -  cussed previously, a sample s i z e of 2,000 i s required to achieve useful and valid results. The two methods that are most l i k e l y to be of use are personal interviews or mail questionnaires.  The personal interview has the advantage  t h a t , in most cases, studies based on interviews have had a very high response r a t e , usually over seventy-five per cent.  In a d d i t i o n , the  interviewer can explain the meaning of unclear questions and delve i n t o areas of i n t e r e s t . There are two main areas where the interview method has d i s advantages. responses.  The f i r s t i s that there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of biased or i n c o r r e c t The phenomenon of interview demand i s well documented  et al.. 1961).  (Lansing  Responses may be biased in the d i r e c t i o n of s o c i a l d e s i r -  a b i l i t y of what the respondent f e e l s i s the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s opinion. t h i s bias may also occur i n mail questionnaires, i t i s much less  While  likely  because the subject has a greater sense of anonymity and questions are in a uniform form. An even l a r g e r disadvantage i s that of cost.  Lansing and Morgan  (1971) examined the costs of a number of l a r g e - s c a l e interview surveys.  44  They found f i e l d costs in 1968 varied from f i f t e e n d o l l a r s per interview up to f o r t y - e i g h t d o l l a r s per interview, depending on the nature of the study. In c o n t r a s t , Dillman (.1974) reported on the costs of four l a r g e scale studies that used mail questionnaires.  A f t e r considering a l l costs,  including preparing data to the point of a n a l y s i s , he found that in no case did the cost per completed questionnaire exceed three d o l l a r s . Therefore, when considering the cost f a c t o r , the mail questionnaire i s the best method to use f o r data gathering in t h i s study.  Chapter 4  review the disadvantages and advantages of the mail questionnaire, and develop a methodology that w i l l overcome the main disadvantages of mail questionnaires.  w  ill  as  CHAPTEE 4  121  METHODOLOGY FOR  MAIL QUESTION  MUM  i * . INTRODUCTION In  t h i s s e c t i o n a methodology  i s d e v e l o p e d . The questionnaires, disadvantages  accepted and  can  a d v a n t a g e s and  of  the  computer,  be o v e r c o m e a r e  methodology  surveys;  Hail  for  a r e a number o f advantages  major  over  prime  public  areas  other The  geographic  area,  or  where  major  chapter  which  used of a  followinq  minimal  addition  a l a r g e r and allowing  of  television  and  questionnaires  have  interviews  non-  as  advantages  when  be  expense. people  and  considered  very u s e f u l .  mail questionnaires  interview. This greater through  types  there  questionnaires  of  may  many  T h i s i s because  mail  such  for reachinq who  in  opinion surveys,  methods  advantage  useful  used  science research.  a wide c o v e r a q e a t  particularly  In  the  h e r e i n , i n c l u d i n g t h e use  widely  as a package make m a i l  The  validity  mail  the n e x t  page m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e  are  social  o b t r u s i v e methods.  personal  o f how  of  Questionnaire  instance  r a t i n q s and  permit  disadvantages  d i s c u s s e d . In  advised  Mail questionnaires  toqether  questionnaires  i s given. ,  A d v a n t a g e s Of  radio  mail  examples i n the l i t e r a t u r e  an example o f a t w e n t y - f o u r most  for using  This  i s that advantage  s c a t t e r e d over  difficult c o v e r a q e may  to  they  a  locate  result  is  larqe for  a  i n greater  more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e . , the  subject  to  respond  to  the  46  questionnaire advantageous As  well  on  his  own  when  the  respondent  the  respondent  anonymity;  for  admit  being  to  information  instance  interviewer  the of  due  an is  to  attractive  minimal  a  answers  his  sense  and  i s  information. of  may  be  more  does  not  have  privacy  and  willing  to  to  give  that  can  control and  i t is  larger,  have  and  this  more  i s  uniformity  will  i s not be  to  say  eliminated,  through  the  that in  the  that a l l but  that  construction  letter.  apparent for  This  effect  covering  advantage  there  posed.  demand"  the  that  the  gathering  mail  data.  dispersed  questionnaire  The  sample  main  can  i s  advantage  be  reached  at  cost.  The low  differ  when he  are  "interviewer  instrument  Disadvantages  is  respondent  questions  summary,  that  check  greater  i s lessened,  questionnaire  In  to  questionnaires  effect  researcher the  a  has a  unemployed  mail  i n which  biasing  has  more c o n s i d e r e d  verbally.„  Finally,  manner  permits  Of  major  Mail  weakness  response from  many u s e r s (Wallace,  Questionnaires  the  rate.  cited  in  Those  nonrespondents  feel  that  the who  use  answer  qivinq  i s necessary  of  to  a  mail the  biased  have  a  questionnaires  questionnaire sample.  short  may  Therefore  questionnaire  1954).  However,  there  are  many  questionnaires  have  obtained  methods,  with  questionnaires  even  Eckland,1969;  Champion  results  common  the  and  cases  response  where  rates  comparable  exceeding  Sear,  characteristic  users  fifteen  1969).  In  was  that  of to  pages  achieving they  took  mail other (e.g. those into  47  account  the  send  out  this  paper  nature  of  mail  questionnaires.  questionnaires  and  hope  for  discusses  what  has  been  found  responses  to  questionnaires,  factors  questionnaire  as  As of  i s apparent  mail  need  mail  the  a  short  disadvantages  should  be  to  account A  take (as  major  and  of  answers.  missinq  answers  it  is  of  letters  will  a l l self-report in  a  with  that  the  respondent.  in  the  s e c t i o n on  not  major  just  part  achievinq effects  of  high  of  such  mail  disadvantage namely,  there  s t i l l  be  later  are  aware  of.  response  in  of  misinterpret  problem  confronting which  f o r data  may  are  point  some  well, i t  rate  i t  i s  nonresponses  i s  the  question, or  researchers  i s  invalidate this  designed  so  the  other reason  that  Furthermore out  the  questions  a n a l y s i s . For  questions.  the  detail).  misunderstood  should  As  questionnaires  may  on  the  cited  discounted,  larqe  questionnaires  a l l  the  covering  necessity  of  questions.  questionnaires  direction  or  a  questionnaires  data,  A  biasing effects  respondent  a l l applicable mail  the  often  should  of  respondent  see  most  discussed  instructions  Finally,  answers  even  important  to  that  and  answering  to  An  and  largely  possible  be  the  important  respondent  the  best, about  However,  follow-through  evasive  responses  be  one  disadvantage that  lack  that  will  possibility the  and  can  that  emphasized  necessary into  first  questionnaire.  other  the  did  length.  questionnaires  for  They  namely,  s u f f e r from the  favorable  Solutions Covering  to  assumed  to the  this  on  problem  tendency  sponsor  problem  L e t t e r s and  a  will  of be  Anomynity.  common  to  distort  the  survey,  discussed  us  INCREASING SAIL QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE HATES This  section discusses  r a t e s and response  The  these  f a c t o r s can  be  influence  manipulated  to  response  achieve  high  Letter  covering  letter  major p u r p o s e o f  respondent this  f a c t o r s that  rates.  Covering A  The  how  the  to  reason  take the  should  accompany any  the  covering  the  time to  wording  of  letter fill  the  mail  is  out  to  the  letter  questionnaire.. convince  the  questionnaire. is  of  For  paramount  importance. The  letter  researcher  to  answering  the  serves  the  subject  e n c o u r a g e the  C o n v e n i e n c e can pointing  out  included.  Also,  that by  willing  to t r a n s m i t  should  be  be  the  purposes.  asks It  the  should  subject's  It introduces  subject's enhance  emphasized  in  a  * pre-paid  self-addressed  information and  the  anonymity about  emphasized  time r e q u i r e d t o  fill  the  help  by  factors  of  letter  by  envelope*  is  committment.  be  assuring  covered  of  and  questionnaire.  c o n v e n i e n c e and  estimate  a number o f  coverinq  the  user  himself. i n the out  will  more  Both t h e s e  letter.  the  be  As  points  well,  questionnaire  an may  beneficial. Dillman  imaqe o f  (1972)  social  utility  individual  response  independent  surveys  ensuring being  that  found  the  and  a  stressed  received of  4 500  appeal  covering  over  letter  the a  that conveyed  importance  75%  response  r e s p o n d e n t s e a c h . The of  the  s t u d i e d i s shown i n r e s e a r c h  letter  each  from  two  importance  of  i s fitted  by Champion and  of  an  to Sear  the  group  (1969).  49 These  researchers  first  was  egoistic,  respondents type  was  research  such  that  a t two  is  types of c o v e r i n g l e t t e r .  emphasizing  emphasizing  organization.  found t h a t  status  received  the  benefits  as t h e c h a n c e t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s .  more a l t r u i s t i c ,  economic who  looked  He  that the response  the  egoistic  letter  the d i r e c t f o r those  r a t e was  to  The  the  second  benefits to  with  lower  o v e r 60.5%  v e r s u s 33.2%  The  f o r the  the  socio-  f o r those altruistic  letter. The to  o t h e r major use  the  subjects  overcome any lumbers .  feeling The  1  the  of the c o v e r i n g l e t t e r value  that  b e s t way  the covering l e t t e r of the respondent  and  of  they  to  their individual  will  be  j u s t one  to accomplish t h i s  thereby encouraging  t h a t he  is  i s receiving  response  of  i s by  transmit  a  and  thousand  personalizing  a b e l i e f on  the  part  the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l  attention. Matteson receiving  (1974) used  a  form  personal  letter.  personal  letter  letter. partly with each  The  letter,  He  found  was  s t u d y by  and  that  31.9% Dillman  names and with  The  street  matching  to  as  group  opposed  rate  group  receiving a for  t o 22.0%  (1972) a t t r i b u t e s  semi-  the  semi-  f o r the  form  the high  response  having a p e r s o n a l i z e d appearance,  addresses t y p e and  being  individually  the p r o j e c t  to  demonstrate  a high-response  not determine  contributed  the t e s t  control  placed  on  d i r e c t o r ' s name b e i n g  signed.  above s t u d i e s  contribute  design with a  the return  t o the c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s  individually  did  a survey  the extent the  high  to  rate.  that  does  However, t h o s e r e s e a r c h e r s  which,  response.  personalization  personalization  Dillman  and  Frey  alone (1974)  50  carried  out  an  personalization alumni  experiment  was m a n i p u l a t e d .  were s e n t  followup  in  postcard  which  only  Basically,  the  two random  and a s e c o n d  followup  letter.  name and a d d r e s s  letter  was  matching  i n k , and  d i r e c t o r ' s s i g n a t u r e , while of  the other  researchers  technique  301)." T h e r e f o r e , any  research  However,  one  placed  on e a c h  the  project  with  any  showed t h a t t h e  (p<.01) e f f e c t  o f nearly  nine  'Personalization effects  have  (77.1% v s . 68.7%). concluded,  substantial significance viable  groups o f  was n o p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n on  made a s i g n i f i c a n t  percentage points The  there  signed  group's c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . The r e s u l t s  personalization  of  8-page q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . B o t h g r o u p s were s e n t a  group's c o r r e s p o n d e n c e had t h e i r in  variable  f o r making  the  f o rthe collection  f o r mail  questionnaire  of social  p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n should  desiqn  mail  form  questionnaire  a  a  s c i e n c e d a t a (p. major  part  of  surveys.  Anonymity In be  examininq  considered;  effect mind  that  identifyinq  who  f o r followups  most  perceive format  on r e s p o n s e  rate  confidentiality research).  Klein,  i t should  two, t h e be k e p t i n  t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s  identifying  of results  as t h r e a t e n e d .  and q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Maher and D u n n i n q t o n  respondents  (a b a s i c e t h i c a l  What i s o f c o n c e r n  h i s anonymity  of t h e l e t t e r  responded  and  and t o d e t e r m i n e where p o s s i b l e a r e a s o f  may show up. Of c o u r s e ,  preclude in  one, t h e e f f e c t  on r e s p o n s e b i a s . I n l o o k i n g a t t h i s  important bias  t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a n o n y m i t y two f a c t o r s must  does  not  requirement  i s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t may  I t i s important reduce t h i s  that  the  effect.,  (1967) examined t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  51 between  identified  industrial  opinion  questionnaire biasing  groups that  by no  Klein random  while  would the  identifying  number  Therefore,  though  anonymity  placed  in  what and  does  of  in  favor  dealing  effects with  the  assured  completely  asked  place  to for  through they  have  group  the  further  personal purposes  was  assured  were  further  process  were  on  a  research  confidentiality  questionnaire.  effects  were  two  were  on  identified  into  responses  them  the  of  management.  identified  situation  show  to  The  of  their  place  question  responses  to  increased  the  conclusively that  firm)  that  took  under  upon  with  the  an  now  a  is  survey,  throuqh  the  even  under  conditions  implications of  type  Klein  whereas  manager  et  of A  et  top  ajU's  al.  T  of  identified  situation  items  the  found  that  question.  Items  management  resulted  high  distortion  both  threat'  Klein  the  positive  under  r a t i n g s of  respondent's  a  'high  greater.  depended  s a l a r y and  place  the  positive distortion,  and  distortion The  Half  significantly  consistent pressure  of  and  was  biasing  cases  mail  to  questionnaire  anyone  an  possible  sample  subjects  telling  biasing  results  conditions, effect  not.  was  a  perception  their  identify  to  identification.  The (i.e.  group  using  subject's  a l l cases to  not  in demonstrating  broke  group's  their  beinq  are  made  threat*  number  In  in responding  were  the  first  their  in  personally  secondly  method  on  was  'high  effect  from  first  second  only.  identifying  be  they  is useful  assignment.  the  manager  study  et.. a l . .  anonymous,  a  While  resulting  attempt  However,  anonymous s u b j e c t s  survey.  their  effects  anonymity.  and  dealing  produced with  in l i t t l e  or  work no  stress. research  are  two-fold.  52  First,  care  must  minimal  distortion  identification important  of  subjects  the  Fuller return  respondent.  and r e s p o n s e  on t h i s  well  the research  divided  to  place  and  more  into  the  confidiality  of  of anonymity  provided  o f 13,000  two  their  identifying  staff.  survey  sample  perhaps  to assure  on t h e e f f e c t  Fuller's  assure with  when  the  to  associated  endeaver  as  i n a mail  were  instructed  Secondly,  should  study  bias  subject. men  as  outside a  threat  questionnaires;  letter  anonymity,  i n  questionnaires  perceived  of mail  to those  enlisted  being  the  (1974)  rate  findings 32,500  to  coverinq  of t h e i r  responses  i n designing  due  f o r the user  respondents,  their  be t a k e n  groups,  service  on  further  officers  with  one  number  and  group  on  the  questionnaire. With  respect  t o response  officers  had  hiqher  anonymous  officers,  differed  less  response Fuller was  rate  to  anonymous  either  the who  support  letter  i t  anonymity.  i s  should aimed.  two were  feel reduced  value  to the to  be  men higher  365S-p<.01). officers  among  of t h e  explanation  specific equally  i s  and t h e  pressure.  statement  the  specific  t o respond  perceived  to the e a r l i e r  appears  vs  motivation  pressure  this  structured  This  (39%  than  enlisted  a slighter  an a l t e r n a t e  some  identified  for identified  percieved  to  be  rate  the  with  anonymous  reduced,  i s given  of  response  the  that  {51% v s 4 0 ; - p < . 0 1 )  qroups  was  instructions  found  response  of  because  tend  rate  response  dampening  response  case  covering which  a  officers  anonymity  the  the higher  group  individual's  while  f o r those  Fuller  response  between  stated  due  that  a  rate  In  that the group true  at for  53 However, high  the  response  validity  rate.  If  the  response  i s spurious because  a  that  answers  to  between  attitude  all  differences  None  of  the  were  practical  importance.  research  i s  but  the  i n the  The  there  where  questionnaire  magnitude  the  Fuller  the  of  anonymous  of  enough  i n the  However  for to  from  direction  effect  in  desirability.  differences  gathered  found  group  small.  social  larqe  this  this  status..Fuller  and  group  effect  the  use  i n f r e q u e n t and  conclusion  identified  may their  were  a  whether  direction  i s an  being  as  considered  identified were  important  the  be  of  Fuller's of  social  i s i n most  cases  ajL  (1967)  significant. Looking  papers  at  together  researcher the  to  The  receive  of  on  the  value  the rate.  and  i t  of  having the  was  Many have  et..  i t i s important of  means  under  Klein  the  of  of  for  the  responses,  but  identifying  the  study  the  and  the  study.,  Length mail  q u e s t i o n n a i r e would  limited  response  shorter the  a  nature  population  the  the  confidentiality  Questionnaire  i f  questionnaires  the  actually  a reasonable  that  response  Of  data  restricted  of  (1974)  conclusion i s that  depends  characteristics  Effect  the  stress  effect  respondent  many  improve  questionnaires  that  desirability,  The  be  subjects  to  i s as  occur  anonymous-identified  men's  that  results  must  questions  enlisted  not  i t  M a c h i a v e l l i a n attempt differences  the  cases  increases  in  response,  of  to, say,  rate.  four  Common  accepted  lookinq this  at  belief  pages  sense  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the  people  be  more  the without  somewhat  i n order dictates  likely  use  a  of  tryinq  to to  high Mail  to  find  54  evidence the  to  support  empirical  length  has  In and  and  63%  sample  evidence  only  of  questionnaire. i n the  the  study  both of  a  other  cases,  68%,  stratified  60%  random  two-page  while  response  there for  and was  a  a  lonqer  siqnificant.  length  i t was  and  desiqned  response  weaknesses i n  possible  10-page,25-  r a t e s of a  on  rate.,  sent  one-page,  because  methodological  were  based  questionnaire  response  sent  a lower  between  cases  response  statistically  relationship avoided  solely  rate,  and,  previous studies  confounding  variables  (e.g.  1965).  increasing  and  the  These  reducing  that than  the the  the  Increasinq  of  (1965) pages  researchers  returned Thus  Sear  number  questionnaires  miqht  not  on  (1973)  i s important  were l o o k i n g a t  reduce  In  direction  i t was  Champion  were  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s with  university  i n most  subjects  professers  therefore  same.  the  108  Berdie's  Eobin,  study  Surprisingly,  effect  Berdie  questionnaire,  that  i f any,  respectively.  relationship  test  1973).  available,  small, (1940)  35-page  four-page  to  a  Sletto's  page  i t {Berdie,  actually  found  three-page  number  of  the  the  three,  effect  content  s i x and  more n i n e - p a g e  f i l l  but  paqes  increase  keepinq  usinq  suggests,  rate  examined  nine  of the  paqe  questionnaires  questionnaires.  required to  response the  while  significantly  evidence  time  also  the  not  but out as  does the  much  without response  not  prove,  questionnaire as  one  chanqinq rate  that may  miqht  expect.  the  content  i f i t improves  the  format. Obviously questions  and  the  questionnaire should  i t should  be  as  easy  to  not f i l l  contain out  as  unnecessary possible,  but  55  the  amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n  reduced be  merely  achieved  f o rt h e sake  f o r long  qood  methodology  Type  Of  considered  a  returns  science,  used,  both  bulk  third  mail  are that  benefits  a n d more and  The  postaqe, 383  be  rates can ones i f  419 b e i n g  Special  Delivery  regular  postage  have When  resulted (p<.001).  using  first as  i n  the  between  using  whether and  regular  On t h e i r  followup  returns  the  mail  first  or  class  i t , and i t  that  more  class  mail  a  a  meter  increase  i n  the additional Sear  found  postage  and  postaqe they  versus  on r e s p o n s e  to  send  i n general, the  greater  effect  opposed  class  regular  I t appears  of  envelope  first  with  90  type  to  to forward  Champion  returned  The  used  out that  remains  cost.  postaqe.  an i n c r e m e n t a l  stamp  s t i l l  necessary t o  times.  point  used  (p<.Q5)  f o r  attempt  delivery  postaqe  the extra  bulk  will  be  manipulated.  between  reasons  can  and return  postage  choice  i s  response.  envelope  of  (1969)  question  with  a  office  Sear  i t  c a n be e a s i l y  T h e main  difference  with  that  reliable  the  warrants  significant  postage  response  questionnaires  can influence  i s  mail.  expensive  response.  does  necessarily  as f o rshort  accordingly,  the type  t h e post  Champion  mail  on t h e m a i l i n g  there  class  shorter  and  variable  questionnaire,  only  High  as well  from  that  When c o n s i d e r i n g  more  not  i s used.  high  an i m p o r t a n t  has  of brevity.  questionnaires  a l l variables  postaqe is  should  Postage  Getting  examine  requested  61  expensive  bulk  versus  found  only  a  using for  postage  rate.  consideration stamp  i s that  increases  a  the  56 personalization Dillman,  of  the  using  two  step experiment  on  half  the  These  samples  half  the  follows: of  the  a  using  second  area  mailing  cost  a  the  stamp.  of  i f  The  The  system, the  were  was  independent  were  per  cent  of  very  were and  as 30%  from  the  extra  of  hand-  effect  consideration. concern,  i t s h o u l d be  the  gain  personalization  i s of  to  the o l d .  little  important  metered.  effects  p e r c e n t stamped  a  used  applied  24.2  postage  to  remainder  postmark  The  performed  e c o l o g y stamps  the  new  thousand,  vs.  a l l cases  the extra  respondent.  envelopes,  respond  the  o t h e r hand labor  method,  postage  (1974)  the  increase  cost,  felt sent  relates  to  pre-addressed However,  the  and  there  enclosed postage  three  but  of  cost and  an  could  be  to the the  cost  no  is  a  stamps  of  subject  price  sender  of  increases  nonreturned  associated  result  the  the  avoiding  interplant  the  expense  with  (in-house)  in biasinq  junk mail  effects  threatened.  managers a  types of  of  i s out  while  anonymity  hundred  different  results.,  the  might  that  obligation  sender  envelope,  their one  the  involved  questionnaires,  third  these  may  not  respondents  outlines  an  business reply  saves  Veiga using  In  stamp  On  unreturned  mail.  be  where  does  of the  stamps.,  to  one  methods.  i f he  because  a  The  business reply  postage  because  and  indicates  should f a l l  between  other  31.1  stamps.  not  envelope.  or  vs.  results  return  choice  mailing and  over  issued  followups.  postmarks  appears  of  newly  p e r c e n t metered  from  stamping  where  were d i v i d e d  23.8  package.  sample  initial  Dillman»s labour  a  postcard  new  total  mail  return  guestionnaire  methods.  Table  8  57 The  results  interplant  indicate that  mail  system  economical, while  the  on  provides  business  T  f  returns  the  r e s u l t s and i s most  envelope  i s  much  less  Type -  T  - - • - -i  |  R e t u r n R a t e | L e n g t h Of R e t u r n  |  Type  of  Questionnaire Returns  | Mailer  basis  the best  reply  Table 8 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e t u r n s By M a i l e r  I  the  \  J Interplant  1 82%  } 13 Days  |  I  1 80%  | 17 Days  i  Stamped  1 57% | 25 Days | J Business Reply « , .. „ . a . i. ,,, i S o u r c e : V e i g a , J o h n , " G e t t i n g The M a i l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e t u r n e d : Some P r a c t i c a l R e s e a r c h C o n s i d e r a t i o n s " , JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY No. 2, 1974, page 217 effective. However, t h e v a l u e o f t h i s s t u d y i s l e s s e n e d b e c a u s e of the  the small  sample s i z e  questionnaire  envelope  has  only  34 f o r e a c h g r o u p ) .  13 q u e s t i o n s  was a major p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l  contribution greater  had  (less than  than  gone  to  into  the  package. T h e r e f o r e  implies  p r o j e c t . The c o v e r i n g  well  which meant t h a t t h e  t h e imaqe o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  when t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  As  i t s  as junk m a i l i s  that letter  some  expense  enhances  this  impression. In o r d e r questionnaires  to obtain  the relative  of postage should in  than  accordingly.  Incentives  costs  be c o n s i d e r e d .  mind t h a t o t h e r  effect  t h e maximum  f a c t o r s such  postage,  and  possible  return  for  and e f f e c t s  of different  In a l l c a s e s ,  i tshould  as f o l l o w u p s  resources  mail types  be k e p t  may have a g r e a t e r  should  be  allocated  58  Using  incentives  questionnaire considered that  a  sort  mail  or  offering  qood of  way  to  determine  the  what  users  of  Huck  and  MONETARY  device  use  mail  of  demonstrated  effective  in raising  that  while  rate  (70%  the  Huck  and  monetary quarter  on  to  be  fifty  selected  an  i t  mailing, question  first  the  second  group group  mailing  can  in  (25  look  at  effective. cents)  to  stamps  aspects the  be and  than  sent  total out  into  i n c e n t i v e on the and  a  using  value  of  was  sent  the  would out  cost. to  four  200  randomly  groups,  the  first  third  group  the  of  secondly,  the  followup)  had  (6 8 % ) .  reducing  mailing,  USING MAILED  effective  1950*s and,  down  of  response  thereby  ( i . e . second  to  i n c r e a s i n g the  inducement  second  order  concluded  more up  be  monetary  the  i t  (1958)  caused  broken  using  research  postaqe  inflation  was  In  FROM  previous  two  survey  of  makinq  to  RATES  Bressler  no  late  use  of  result  i f the  students  the  the  explored  the  and  cases.  quarter  and  follow  has  receiving on  a  was  (1974)  lessened  that  effective  since  at  r a t e s , while  ordinary  Gleason  university  the  third  5 2%) ,  depreciate  followup A  was  often  the  value  the  found.  inducement  Kephart  i n c e n t i v e s . One,  effects a  not.  of  RESPONSE  found  response  quarter  with  costs  looked  monetary  the  necessary  have  found  i s  However,  of  number  INCREASE  (1951)  were  versus  questionnaire  (1974)  TO  Agism  much the  large  with  respondents  incentives i t i s  a  and  coins  offsets  researchers  Robinson  lesser  a  enclosed  responses.  questionnaires  that  to  increasing  Gleason  These  cash  prizes  often  with  value  as  increase  by  INDUCEMENTS  SURVEYS.  the  to  questionnaires  difficult  such  with  mailing,  fourth  on  the group  59  receiving  no  The  incentive.  researchers  questionnaire (i.e.  a l l  groups. versus The  After 85%  71%  did  for  group  feel  but  rather A  possible  while  for  differ  or  4  a  on  be  1  had 65$  point  with  have  a  the  cost  for  of  did  the  response  rate  the  other were  two  94%,  groups. 92%,  Chi-sguare  differ  this  nor  78% tests  significantly,  a  effect  It  should  and  fifty  guestionnaire value,  but  be (p.  to  increase well  questions).  that  have  the  followups,  worked  i n s e r t i o n of  insulting  would  send  Gleason  tool  strategy  than  of  to  replace  another  above  case  Huck  questionnaire  inducements have  short  other  92%  should  (i.e. less  mail  a l l the  in  mailing.  as  inducements  group  the  the  other.  writer  negative  first  groups.  in  inducement  longer  a  not  each  the  in  mailouts  second  i s that  mailing  50%  for  four  considered  first  subjects  appears  this  monetary  monetary  certain  from  the  versus  and  two  the  neither  more p r o p o r t i o n a l  conclusion  and  questionnaire  that  the  of  the  strategy  final  would  raising  more  (p>.05)  3  should  short  quarter  2  one  that  responses.  78%  group  groups  that  224)  is  group  incentive  emphasized  a  mailings  optimal  monetary  by  on  r e s u l t s a f t e r a l l three  that  The  for  two  that  incentives),  respectively  revealed nor  returned  received  combined  and  was  found  the  the  It a  subject,  effect  of  s u b s t a n t i a l l y . In that  value  is  followups  was  questionnaires.  Followups  The  Need  For  Followups  Increasinq  response  rates  throuqh  the  use  of  60  discussed  earlier.  demonstrated  that  questionnaires. maximum high  returns  concluded effort  While  from  who  do s u g q e s t crucial"  stages  alone  Droege  and  assertion.  alone  "Althouqh  that  packaging  Crambert were  kept  school  using  relying  mostly  on  o f over  was t h a t ,  on  -  mail the  i n achieving  12,615  i n  this  important,  good  -  i s  technigues a t  pays o f f . "  support  Dillman's  of techniques  individuals  postal  letters,  most  (> 7 5 % )  persistence  a multitude  cases  rate  how w e l l t h e r e s e a r c h e r  further  eight-seven  " I n most  as three  were  on t h e s u c c e s s  high  a s many  has  in  possible  Persistence  (1965)  leaving  send  factor  a r e n o t enough.  after  conclusion  result  response  and d e l i v e r i n g ,  information  rate  a hiqh  no m a t t e r  followup  response  not  i ti s not  one  and " t h a t  Records  a l l cases  will  of the technigues  obtain  in  literature  a r e t h e b a s i c rudiment  achieved  which  the preparing,  these  the  mail questionnaires.  isolate  especially  of  a r e a n e c e s s i t y i n any use o f  followups  ( p . 257) t h a t ,  to  review  followups  (1972)  results  does  thorough  p o s s i b l e return they  Dillman  the  A  An  over-all  was o b t a i n e d .  i t would  i f needed,  years  of technigues, but  followups.  per cent  two  to  be  before  Their  worthwhile trying  to  another  technique." Robin be  obtained  based ten a  (1965)  on  from  response  of  five  i s used. who  Robin  responded  completely 86.8% with  (1965)  that  questionnaires  samples  r a t e was  Robin's  demonstrated  mail  followups  independent total  also  results  are  i f  response  a  sound  presented t o mail  separate  only  high  data  particularly  methodology derived  from  questionnaires  studies.  one s u r v e y  rates can  falling  The below  interesting  i n  average 81%. when  61  considering gained  by  the  delivery stamped high  that,  envelopes  contacts  followups  a  i s the  form  (1965)  his  example  in  of  questionnaires Project  sample  of  cognitive Flanagan success  and i  L  _  1960  a  and  of  with  which  infeasible  for  on  final mail  study year  by after  battery  (discussed  by  i s  their  over  a  wide  scope  of  this  The  the  of  study  subjects 1965).  based  using  two-day  interests this  Neyman,  As  representative  inventories  the  but  goal. ,  The  one a  that  increased  followup  a  five Again,  was  surveys  tested  students  and  contact  of  his  response,  33)."  (p.  in  of  this  graduates,  What  (Orr  high  letter  responses  tests  a  to  emphasize  system  covered  school in  to  his  led  26)."  of  results  88,000  (p.  Only  collection  of  data. Talent's  required  answer  over  region  questionnaire  formatted  part  special  maximum  to  the  1962).  a  that  stone  followups  9-12  and  achieve  of  Talent  surveying  Project  an  J  made p e r s o n a l  followup  time  i  to  responses  responding.  aspect  important  major  high  grade  two  stepping  non-cognitive  et _al in  on  440,000  is  subject  from  Project  geographical task  comes  for  One  were  telegrams,  respondent  personalized  values  Talent  graduation.  a  eliciting  the  of  enough or  calls,  28)."  minimum  not  out,  and  (p.  It  basis  points  "success  used  researches  reward  potential  are  well-worded  monetary  key.  the  these  telephone  "a  the  alone  they  or  was  with  none o f  of  were  rates  persistence  Robin  use  letters,  return  that  "In  so box.  was to  designed  complete  i t was A  method  short  included to  maximize  i t to  necessary theme,  four  a  twenty for  waves o f  response minutes.  the  covering  by  The  limiting  the  Questions  respondent letter  mailing.  and  to  just a  were check  pre-paid  6 2  mailer that,  were "the  somewhat  included  higher  The  than  and  relatively  can  be  a  and  stronq  m e t h o d o l o g y . The  cost  of  Given  and  the  decision  as  mailings.  Two  should  be  is  replacement  the  the  research,  postcard  which  is  addition  the  provided  be  mailing  biasing effects  are  mail  seemed  to  that  for  gathering  obtained  now  be  mail  through  discussed  of  a  are  questionnaires,  an  the  'prodding'.  time  interval  at  play  the  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to  subject  from  the  avoid who  Nichols in  a  to  there  the stems  One,  respond  and  Meyer  the  time  period  have  little  m a i l i n q . In  can  from the  (1970)  this  without  a  reasonably  questionnaire  without  mail-questionnaire  remains  successive  reminder  reminders  will  achieving  still  would  optimize  sending  in  between  researcher  retains  wants  fact  previous  just  consideration  t o those  followups  i f  here.  subject  send  still  should  by  important  questionnaires  that  researcher  he  study  that  for  are  long  second  questionnaires A  will  the  feasible  The  assuming  In  instrument  guestions  questionnaire  assume t h a t earlier.  to  factors so  of  i t  reported  percent  indicates  can  followups  r e s p o n s e r a t e s from  regard  strongly  response rates  the  high  cognizance  (1965)  Followups  that  not  70  expected."  reliable  time-periods  followups  IIJL T i m i n g Of  valid  high  optimal  over  information  evidence  data,  of  of the  Neyman  (p. 378) . **  empirical  that  and  slightly  ordinarily  accuracy  high  questionnaires  those  w e l l . Orr  r e s p o n s e r a t e was  completeness be  as  sent  this.  Namely,  cost  of  or  his  replacement  r e c e i v i n g them. examined  surveys.  timing  They  were  63  interested  i n t h e optimum  nonrespondents. college  A  students,  twelve-page with  postcards  three  additional  followup  after  mailing  group  days  all  groups,  After  the  days  when  versus  postcard induced  responses  for  second  followup  3-day  followup.  people  who  In most  would  there  In have  of  out  followup  a greater words,  a  followup mailed.  sixteen half  days  o f each  3-day  the results  were  s t i l l  group  (88.5  postcard  response  induced  on  were  i t  between  followup. with  secured  The no from  followup. t o be  with an  early  the time  appears  the  the best  i s especially saves  n o t be  307)."  the group  found  of  could  (p.  120  t h e 3-day  difference  questionnaires.  followups  "that who  time.  the study,  postcard  from  After  responses  was  After  guestionnaire.  and t h e 27-day effect  An  t h e p o s t c a r d s had  to conclude,  a combination  duplicate  1,600  (p < . 0 1 ) .  t o t h e 3-day  in  post-card  group  no s i g n i f i c a n t  followup  additional  receiving  at a later  postcard  since  to  to  responses  the  some s u b j e c t s  t h e 3-day  a  of  ceased  from  responded  Sending  success  was  other  followup.  sending  group  to obtain  f o r t h e 3-day  by f o l l o w u p s  from  of  made  the authors  obtained  each  mailed  of each  mailing  have  ( p <.05)  d i d have  summary,  being  were  of the group  t h e 16-day  effective  rate  5 8%  a response  45 d a y s  being  sent  mailing the guestionnaires.  a second  leads  t o respond  After  to half  efforts  higher  produced  postcard  g u e s t i o n n a i r e was  37% o f t h e n o - c a r d s  84%) . T h i s  reminder  g u e s t i o n n a i r e was  the  after  a l l followups  significantly  a  g u e s t i o n n a i r e and t o t h e o t h e r  including  versus  sent  days  s i x t e e n days  of  the group  after  was  additional  responded  half  days  twenty-seven  45  timing  Given users  single response  and  late  beneficial and the of  cost proven mail  64  questionnaires The  should  Orr  followups  and  and  effect  as  where  there a  new  questionnaire,  replacement  Meyer's  studies (1972)  additonal  data  questionnaire Nichols postcard  a  number  of  this  procedure that  in  but  what  reviewed  i s  that  second  which  not  after  being  The sent  increasing  Robin  (1965)  followup was to  sent  expect  the that  and  the  included was This the  that,  (p.28)."  of  would  one have  mailing.  two  period  original  It  used  "In  a  by  light  between  The  strongly  additional  sent time  mailings  interval  duration  an  for  followups?  day  of  the  duplicate  i s optimal  who  and  Rather  3-days  between  cost  the  period.  concluded  those  As  initial  indicates  to  a  Nichols  a  of  has  percent).  sendinq  response  short  which out.  of  a  inclusion  contradicted.  seven  results  effective. are  a  maximum  Robin's  22.4  that  sending  mailinq  additional  27-28)  and  effective.  the  followup,  interval  i t seems t h a t  that  the  discernible  more  third  are  found  little  i s  Talent's  after  difference in  versus  about  {p.  promote  of  the  3-day  the  had  found  importance  have  reminders  latter  a  followups  researchers  questionnaire one  the  Meyer  thereby  mentioned the  any  and  followups  anyway,  in  on  would  discussion  use  cost  he  percent  not  confirms  research,  mailings  as  Project  questionnaires  the  in  conclusions  (1965)  of  this,  .{32  did  reminder,  Robin  little  questionnaire  effect  new  usaqe.  on  that  questionnaires  mailing  supports  their  report  found  relatively  (1972)  two  they  is  Dillman  substantial  that  with  consider  (1965)  wave o f  compared  or  above  out  second  reminder  a  Neyman  pointed  first  strongly  earlier  that week  his means  responded should  be  questionnaire  weeks seems a  after  the  reasonable  guestionnaire  to  be  65 misplaced. .  (1972)  Dillman three-week in  their  certified results of  letter  mail,  certified  contrasted  informing  the  more  after  postcard  as  well,  subsequent  questionnaire  at  misplace  initial  received  a  Due  from  second  no  through  more  major  a  first  used  empirical  week  of  sent  His  may  that  initial  that  be  Robin.  evidence,  the  the  the  by  effects  This  a  survey  questionnaire,  include  Perhaps goads  by  the to  i t appears  the  slightly of  extent  group  telephone  of the  calls  than  respect  by  a  many fact  second  recipients of  recipient  to  to  to  which  prodding  returns.  Table  9  having respond.  gave  proportion  groups  who  from  discrepancies  of  the  were  among  failure.  when  prodded  letter,  the  respondonts  answers  However,  certified  respondents  academic  presents  discrepant  respondents.  and  lowers  Eckland:  higher  prodding  between  discrepant  with  as  performed  d i f f e r e n c e between  occurred  followups  a  sent  guestionnaire.  should  respondent's  stage  discrepencies  times  questioned  checks  the  the  point,  not  letter  results.  response  followups  week,  (1965). However t h e  the  eliciting  have  Dillman's  one  one  P r odd i ng  late  general,  to  within  questionnaires  To  In  opposed at  of  at  questionnaires.  has  v e r a c i t y of  in  seven-week  Robin's in  after  they  replacement  looking  some  second  Eckland  types  a  frequent  mailed  effective  four  a  factor  a  highly  the  and  mail  with  Bi§§es  respondent  with  was  postcard  each  comparable  is  III-.  reminder  containing  appears  followup  a  guestionnaire,  were  It  sent  initial the  This  three appear  stage.  three may  looking  over  they  when  be  The  qroups somewhat  66  artifactual  as  university on  Eckland  was  l e a v e r s , and  a l l indices the  late  a  dealing  major  with  finding  respondents  Table 9 P e r c e n t a g e Of R e s p o n d e n t s In Each P r o d d i n g Whose R e p l i e s Were F o u n d  of  were  populations  his research  the  least  i s  that  successful  Stage Of Discrepant  ~t  •i  I  1 Telephone/ Cert. Letter  I  Item  of  \ Wave  Wave  1  F a t h e r s O c c u p a t i o n sI 15.7 City/farm Residence 8. 4 Academic F a i l u r e | 25.0 Earned Degree 1 0.0  2/3|  20.4 8.4 35,4 4. 0  22.6 6.5 24.6 0.6  I ;  ;  •„,  I  E c k l a n d , Bruce, " t h e E f f e c t s Of P r o d d i n g To Increase M a i l - b a c k R e t u r n s . " JOURNAL OF A P P L I E D P S Y C H O L O G Y , 1965, v o l . 49, no. 3 p. 167 s t u d e n t s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e r e w e r e p o t e n t i a l l y more d i s c r e p a n t answers  during  later  However, prodding  on  research as  of  IV_j_ T h e The when is the  is  Cost cost  dependent study.  Orr Talent  is a  earlier,  Of  The  of  study.  that  valid  the  one,  question and  potential  i s one  stage  the  that  survey  an  bias  every  of  the  area  effect  of  where  more  in self-report  data,  researcher  should  be  research.  Followups  of  undertaking  the on  of  appear  necessary.  i n every  taking  specific  i t does  veracity  discussed  aware  stages  necessary  the  However,  research steps  resources  to  using  a  mail  questionnaire  assure  a  high  response  available,  i t i s useful  to  as  discuss  well the  as  rate  the  scope  of  mailing  costs  of  studies. and  Neyman  followup  (196 5)  averaged  reported 58.6  the  cents  cost per  for  the  respondent.  Project While  the  67  c o s t s would be be  guite  substantially  favorably  higher today  compared  with  that  figure  the c o s t s  can  still  of i n t e r v i e w s i n  1965. P o s s i b l y , more r e l e v a n t  {1972)  who  found  questionnaires, fraction  47  and  questionnaire).  for  cost  each  Even  response  suqqests  that  rate of ninety  data  a  cents  collection The  ($1.46  respondent  one  can  usually  percent. This  factor  One  d a t a on  expect  a  i s one  that  the data  maximum should  obtained  from  step a researcher should take i s to the nonrespondents  respondents  and compare  i n o r d e r t o narrow down  i t  where  occur.  (I960)  Donald  in  a  implications  of  questionnaire  d a t a . Her  interest  involvement  in  for  to  (68  respondent  per p o t e n t i a l  considered i n interpreting  similar  b i a s e s may  that  amounted  of  methodology w i t h m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h e  mail questionnaire.  particular  printing  c e n t s per p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t .  examine t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e on with  potential  Dillman  guestionnaire).  u s i n g a sound  carefully  the  and  letters  Labor c o s t s  $1.01  to  paper  from  Nonresjspnse  literature  be  worked o u t  completed  E f f e c t s Of  cover  c e n t s f o r each  amounted t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 54 total  are a v a i l a b l e  c o s t s of postage,  envelopes  over  per c o m p l e t e d  direct  figures  or  nonresponse  comparing  methodical  for  approach  investigation.  procedures that  sound  the was  way  examined  interpretation based  of respondents  and  on  high l e v e l s  rates  of interest  to  of m a i l  assessing  the  nonrespondents  in a  In r e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e  response  the  she  successive  or involvement  found  followup are  more  68  characteristic This one  or  i s  examines  that  people  extrinsic  research A  of early  not surprising  theories  may  similar miss  This i s  for  data.  Donald those would  have  within  that  moved  were  rates  others,  functioning  There  was  The t r e n d  successive less  involved  of  Donald's  belief of  empirically. nonreturns I n many  degree  f o r purposes  o f data  most  as  well  and  a r e made  found  o f nonresponse  as  that  i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n to items  Furthermore would  their  well  statistical  adjustments  o f nonresponse about  that the missing  of  when  i s cases  questionnaires.  questions  {p.  s o . The v a l u e  or interest  own  about  she  increase behavior  less  as to  visible  {p. 1 0 7 ) .  107-108) little  strongly  nonresponse  b e h a v i o r , but nonresponse  behavior. each  from  results  hypotheses. current  the  about  organizational The  completed  idea  intrinsic  area as  higher  the  get  reduced  this  on  i f they  validity  involvement  a significantly  judqements  a r e based  guestionnaire  the  explored  less  hypothesized  doing  that  substantially  otherwise  members  that  of the questions.  because  (1960)  with  some  to  the entire  i s  techniques missing  from  i t supports that  invalidate  analysis.  and i s a r e a s o n a b l e s u p p o s i t i o n i f  of motivation  satisfaction  problem  answers  (p. 1 0 0 ) .  a r e m o t i v a t e d t o do s o m e t h i n g  i s that  respondent  respondents  was  f o r nonresponse  to items  greater  increased  wave o f f o l l o w u p s , or interested  supported  who  both  her  dealing  with  i n areas of  future  substantially  as her research  i n the subject  matter  for  showed, of  the  made  from  questionnaire. The  question  now  i s  what  implications  c a n be  69  Donald's  (1960)  should  endeaver  guestionnaire or  r e s u l t s ? One to  so that  implication i s that  structure the intended  interested i n the subject  likely  to respond.  the  This  i s an a r e a  researcher  covering  recipient  matter  the  will  letter  feel  and, t h e r e f o r e , discussed  and  involved  will  be  more  repeatedly  in  this  paper. The  second  interpreting more  likely  sample  the r e s u l t s that  more  This  various those  The many (p.  and  are biased  likely  as those  third  who  should  in  be  the  a more  done.  case valid  o f more  a  ninety  percent  response  rate  members.  The  involved  between  guestionnaire nonresponse response The that  under  give  favorable  there  i s  t o miss  results  (p.  nonresponse  to  a given  a favorable  (1960) the  by  and v a r i o u s  be b e t t e r  able  points  than  of  achieving  prodding  within  the  an  say,  the weightings  t o determine  how out  considering items  t o judge  and  through,  continual  are  response.  members  a c t i v e members,  able  item  t o followups  be o b t a i n e d  researcher  be b e t t e r  and as w e l l  may  through  involvement  should  of the the of  desired  level. conclusion  i n analysing  researcher  matter  sample  response  relationship  subject  the  surveying  percent  less  in  F o r as Donald  fifty  a r e , the of the  to give  a  the data  section  to  of  herself i n  of that  are likely  be e x p e c t e d  makes  i n favor  implication relates directly  followups  organization,  involved  Donald  complete  i s c o m p o u n d e d when  can least  113)  i s "The l e s s  more  effect  items  who  they  actively  consideration 112)".  i m p l i c a t i o n and one t h a t  should  data  reached obtained  be a w a r e  from  Donald's  from  o f two  mail  possible  (1960)  research i s  guestionnaires biasing  effects.  the The  70  first  i s because  specific  of a  questions  )  low r e s p o n s e a potential  rate  area  of bias  respondents  c o n s i s t o f those  more  particular  subject  A converse  researchers  i s that  may  lead  are  given  interest could  matter. a high  to bias, equal in  weighting  the  The  above  the  potential  under  when  effects  rate  often  obtained with  respondents This  a t members  of  or  have  group l i t t l e  f o r example  volunteer  carefully  by  prodding  a cause  problem,  the  ignored  by  who  or  because the  or i n t e r e s t e d i n  involved  be c o n s i d e r e d  from  occurs  problem  study.  looking  should  effects  more  t o those  area  be r e l e v a n t  involved  response  as those  (to the questionnaire  when  groups.  looking at  nonresponse.  SUMMARY The  proposed  interests people. the  study  will  and e x p e r i e n c e s  As t h e summary  below  f o r obtaining  The  mail  questionnaire  scattered difficult subject permits  over  to  a large  respond  on  and  willingness  to  a  respond  to  also  poses  potential  from  "interviewer  problem  with  personal  area,  h a s a number  will  guestions  interviews.  of  o r people  interview.  personal  questionnaire bias  way  gathering  a  may  be the  sense  the  guestions.  demand",  who  Allowing  in  increase  uniformly.  people  of advantages. I t  and i t r e s u l t s  This  young  useful f o r reaching  personal  answers  of  questionnaire i s  i s an e c o n o m i c a l  h i s own  anonymity.  sample  information.  geographical  for  more c o n s i d e r e d  privacy  this  It i s particularly  t o locate  on t h e a t t i t u d e s ,  indicates the mail  method  data.  data  of a representative  best  self-report  gather  This  which  of  subject's The  mail  reduces the i s  a  major  71  The  main  response  rates  questionnaire in  this  with  criticism  i s poorly i s used  i t i s not true  s t i l l  is  necessary  some  to  this  reason,  Finally, distort  as  potential validity  most  misinterpret a i s  there  ratei t  important.  i s an tendency  of the survey,  researcher  of  guestion.  very  or  to the  awareness  to  determine  to the  major  purpose  of the  i s t o persuade the  questionnaire.  o f t h e study,  The  a n d more  letter  effect  should  personalization.  The l e t t e r  should  n o t have  and should of  the  t o t h e group b e i n g the  first  the resources  letter  with  necessary of  by a n o f f i c e r i s important  surveyed,  contact  and m i n i m i z i n g cases,  be s i g n e d  as the  i s  the potential  i t i s necessary  be  of the  enhanced  t h e image o f  of the project. and i t s h o u l d  covering  letter  t h e s u b j e c t i t i s worthwhile  t o meet  results  should  importantly  The l a t t e r  Confidentiality  In  even  effects  contribution.  composition  response  response  questionnaires  the  letter's  t o respond  letter  usually  may  data,  mail  enable  the importance  through  devote  will  coverinq  recipients  geared  using  developed  of the results.  recipient  form  When  mail  be l o w , t h e r e  biasing  f a v o r a b l y t o the sponsor  biases  The  stress  a large  possible  a l l self-report  the  c a n be e x p e c t e d ,  r a t e s must  with  t h e respondent  that  pages.  response Even  when  t h e methodoloqy  questionnaire composition  with  answers  respondent.  that  occurs  rates  fifteen  consider  also  only  When  response  disadvantages.  nonresponses.  The  high  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s has been  this  designed.  questionnaires exceeding  are  a  mail  a r e low. In f a c t ,  paper  While  For  of  t h e above important bias  to identify  i s to  criteria. f o r  inducing  i n self-report the  be  respondents  data. to  72 allow  followups  respondents aware  of  and  and  nonrespondents.  the  reason, f o r  research  use  only.  depends  on  the  the  population While  response length  nature  a  guestionnaire.  and  to  It  accuarately. with  the  in  the  This the  be  letters. enable  higher  business The  so  reply  response  to  the that  followup  addressed and  this  rather  for  the  respondent of  unnecessary a  high  guestionnaire  long  envelope may  on be  than  less  than  twenty-five longer  a  but  fifty  cents  in  make  reply  included  i s  that usinq  a the  envelope.  the  effect  of  less.  increase some  more  specifically  from  where  some  minimized  be  enclosing  However,  i s  timed  be  accrue  the  project  be be  package by  the  indicates  business  total  out  will  will  should  will  increased  cost.  the  should  questionnaires the  sending  to  Research  rate  extra  With  fact  letter.  the  worthwhile.  made  i t i s for  achieve  post-office  envelope  worth  of  to  that  letters  may  incentive  the  when  d e l i v e r y time  response  rate  with  i s used,  the  questionnaire,  that  that  contain  impression  the  found  be  the  characteristics  short  used  with  be  and  the  not be  be  incentive not  and  should  The  covering  less  study  should  return envelope,  may  should  identifying  methodology  means  R stamped  substantially stamped  of  have  questionnaire  mentioned  identification  the  enhances  also  will  recipient  between  factor.,  mail  forward  this  not  major  This  differences  study.  When g o o d  First-class  effort  of  of  The  effect  does  rate.  worthwhile.  any  guestionnaire  i t  i s not  The  under  the  questions,  examination  a  monetary  in  response  research  has  questions,  enclosing  an  the  followup  i s  questionnaires  first a  more  effective  73  incentive study. for  would  This  their  that  serves  by  case  offer the  as  the is a  subjects  dual  well  promising  when t h e y  concluded  to  time,  involvment respond  be  are  purpose as  of  feedback.  opportunity  summary  to  positive  out  inducement  the  the  to  the  respondent  more  with  what  of  respondent's  are  involved  find  the  the  People  or  report  repaying  increasing  interested  strong  a  likely  to  topic.  In  researcher  has  respond  to  the  questionnaire. While followup  the  good  i s the  techniques  key  to  questionnaire.  As  to  response  optimize  mail  the  many  questionnaire  self-report An  of  followup  i s  after  initial  should those  a  simply who  immediately.  response letters  Through  one  the  of  are  rate  should  the  the  literature  use  best  yet A  to  on  when  be of  important,  from  a  mail  sent  in  order  followups  tools  for  and  out.  i s worthwhile  the  gathering  nonrespondents  three  most days  already  The  should  be  a  to  be wait drop  two  off  report  another  one  week  do  so  lost  or  three  the weeks  substantially.  reminder after  ask  After  to  questionnaire should  send  week  and  to  included. of  one  postcard  responded  s u b j e c t s can  also  important to  questionnaires  where  replacement to  have  start  the  questionnaire.  should  responses  letter  sent  their  number  there  second  who  return  questionnaires  depending  the  those  phone  shows  postcard  mailing of  reminder  remaining  rate.  reminder  postcard  It  three  become  thank  have  unreceived  as  high  above  data.  analysis  the  a  discussed  the  then  postcard second  A  be  sent  to  the  letter  and  f a r and  the  questionnaire. At  this  stage  depending  on  the  response  rate  so  74  needs o f the study followups  or  the researcher  use  nonresponders  other  such  may  methods  decide  found  a s phone c a l l s  and  to send  effective  additional  f o r persistent  certified  or  registered  mail. One  keep  in  dysfunctional  effects  as  preponderence  of discrepant  have  should  t o be p r o d d e d  strong should  some  guestions  falsity  respondents The  with  that  of  a  This  high  guestionnaire.  For  instance,  organization only  respond  academic  less  from  some  higher those  who  to  known  be data  t o determine the of  comparing  i t  in  as  will  a  study  research  records  be  are  of  t o respond  that  likely  are the  prodding.  with  the  respond  or  On  a  withdrew  those  a  people  t o prod  who  to  of  interested  minimal  important  or  to the  members  These  students  h a s shown  less  with  on t h e  interested  o f those  be s o u g h t .  more  depends  less  surveying  to the guestionnaire  hand,  rate  likely  the opinions  who  university,  from  a means  those  when  i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n may  rate  be used  response  are  involved  response  may  i s because  subject  other  verified  and p r o v i d e  a  methodology  be  questions  the  the  For t h e  can  have  found  answers i n responses  with  will  have  may  nonrespondents.  of the study.  volunteer  prodding  studies  i n the data  importance  involved  that  to respond.  be i n c l u d e d . T h e s e  potential  nature  most  mind  high from  poorest  to  mail  guestionnaires. A study.  high A s was  response education  response  rate  discussed  i n chapter  rate than  the the  sample  i s  very 3,  important unless  is likely  population  being  t o have  i n our  there  i s  a higher  studied.  This  proposed a  high  level  of  would  75  significantly education In  all,  i s one  major  nonrespondents  of  bias.  This  information  is  often  nonrespondents. some  As  of  the  well,  as  the  an  p o s s i b l e areas  the  steps  be  used  cost.  for  validity  conclusion, instrument  the for  recommended to  obtain  his  in  high  of  two  be  as  marital  bias  a  of  a l l the and  respondents  with  be the  and  made  to  phone,  to  to  receive  respondents.  Through  researcher  i s  able  to  substantially. is a  self-report  chapter,  response  First  status  should  guestionnaire  gathering  to  determine  a v a i l a b l e on  p o s s i b l y over  with  to  ways.  nonresponse  study  mail  this  study  researchers  order  comparing  comparison  of  in  age,  for  their  being  research  sex,  nonrespondents, for  in  for  intensive effort  data  the  done  usually  available  reason  of  be  will  supplementary aware  worthwhile  can  information  proposed  variables.  with  education  In  the  respondents  Such  increase  of  be  subjects.  out  the  validity  will  areas  contact  the  i t  some  find  of  a l l cases  compare likely  reduce  rates  mail with  very  data.  By  effective following  questionnaires good  validity  at  can low  76  Chapter 5  SPECIFIC  QUESTIONNAIRE  STRATEGY  FOR  THE  D E S I G N AND PROPOSED  ANALYTICAL STUDY  Introduction This chapter discusses two major components of the proposed study. The questionnaire w i l l provide the data necessary to answer the questions that w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d , and the strategy f o r the analysis of data w i l l present the s t a t i s t i c a l tools that w i l l answer the questions.  Questionnaire Design In conducting any survey research a .major determinant of ultimate success i s the design of the questionnaire.  This i s even more important  in the case where a t t i t u d e s are being measured.  In constructing the ques-  t i o n n a i r e f o r t h i s project the following four c r i t e r i a were considered necessary f o r a t t i t u d e scales that are included. 1.  Validity - does t h e i n s t r u m e n t measure t h e a t t i t u d e o r t r a i t i t p u r p o r t s t o measure. This i s determined by l o o k i n g a t how t h e t e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d ( c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y ) i t ' s c o r r e l a t i o n with other instruments t h a t p u r p o r t t o m e a s u r e t h e same t h i n g (where a p p l i c a b l e ) and whether i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t with the theory regarding the t r a i t i t i s measuring ( p r e d i c t i v e o r concurrent val i d i t y ) .  77  2.  Is t h e i n s t r u m e n t TeHabte? - B a s i c a l l y , t h i s a s k s can o n e be c o n f i d e n t t h a t i f two i n d i v i d u a l s have d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s on a t e s t , t h a t t h i s i s a t r u e d i f f e r e n c e and n o t due t o measurement e r r o r s .  3'.  Is t h e i n s t r u m e n t suitable f o r u s e by o u r p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n o f y o u t h one and t h r e e y e a r s o u t o f h i g h school? T h i s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by e x a m i n i n g what s t u d i e s t h e i n s t r u m e n t h a s been u s e d f o r a n d t h e v a l i d i t y o f ther e s u l t s . As w e l l , we w i l l be c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t does n o t r e q u i r e a l e v e l o f v e r b a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t h a t w i l l e x c l u d e p a r t o f t h e sample.  4.  W i l l we be a b l e t o l o o k a t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s by e x a m i n i n g o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t u s e d t h e same i n s t r u ment? This requirement i s included so o u r data w i l l be o f m a x i m a l u t i 1 i t y , e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n Canada's French and E n g l i s h background.  The  remainder of t h i s  section discusses  the instruments  t h e i r s o u r c e s , and evidence of how they meet the above f o u r As i s for  apparent from the d i s c u s s i o n  investigation  used,  criteria.  on what q u e s t i o n s suggested  (Chapter 1)> t h e m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e has t o i n c l u d e  measures of the f o l l o w i n g : 1.  Work  2.  Educational  3.  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  4.  Job Involvement  5.  Individual Self  6.  A t t i t u d e t o work as measured by:  History H i s t o r y and P l a n s  Development  a.  Meaning of work  b.  The Work E t h i c  7.  Self Sufficiency  8.  Self  Esteem  78  In measuring the f i r s t two items an important c r i t e r i o n was to design these questions so that answering them could be accomplished simply by checking the appropriate answer in order to reduce the respondent's time to answer these questions and to s i m p l i f y coding.  Job Satisfaction  (see Appendix A, pages 15 to 19) Job S a t i s f a c t i o n can be considered to be a c o l l e c t i o n of  f e e l i n g or a f f e c t i v e responses associated with the job s i t u a t i o n 1972).  (Imparato,  In t h i s study, job s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be measured by the J.D.I.  (Job Description Index) constructed during the course of the Cornell studies of job s a t i s f a c t i o n (Smith et al., 1969).  This instrument has shown high  r e l i a b i l i t y , as well as discriminant and convergent v a l i d i t y with interviews and other r a t i n g methods (Robinson, Athanasiou and Head, 1969).  A major  advantage of t h i s instrument opposed to other r e l i a b l e and v a l i d instruments ( c f . Porter Need S a t i s f a c t i o n Questionnaire) i s that a high l e v e l of verbal s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i s not required by t h i s t e s t as i t j u s t requires simple yes-no answers to a series of a d j e c t i v e s .  Job Involvement (see Appendix A, page 14) Job involvement has been taken to be the psychological ident i f i c a t i o n with work, and work as contributory to one's self-esteem (Lawler and H a l l , 1970; Lodahl and Kejner, 1965).  I t w i l l be measured using the  6-item, shortened version of the Lodahl and Kejner instrument (Lodahl and Kejner, 1965).  This was derived from t h e i r o r i g i n a l 20-item s c a l e .  The  s p l i t - h a l f c o r r e l a t i o n of the 6-item scale was found to be .57 and the  79  r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was reported to be .73.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between  the shortened version and the o r i g i n a l instrument was found to be .87. Evidence f o r the convergent and discriminant v a l i d i t y of the Lodahl and Kenjer instrument was supported by Goodman, Furcon and Rose (1969).  The  responses were obtained i n the form of a seven-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e . all  In  but one of the questions (item 6) answers, which r e f l e c t e d strong agree-  ment were interpreted as i n d i c a t i n g high il'.  This i s a departure from the  negative scoring used by Lodahl and Kejner in t h e i r instrument (1965). The p o s i t i v e scoring was adopted f o r ease of a n a l y s i s .  The d i r e c t i o n of  scoring was reversed f o r the negatively worded item 6.  Work Attitudes Individual  self-development, self-sufficiency,  meaning of  work and the work ethic w i l l be measured by scales from the Youth Opinion Questionnaire (YOQ) used in the study "Youth Employment:  F r i c t i o n s in  the Threshold of the Work Career - An Exploratory probe."  The YOQ was  developed through an extensive process by which 467 items designed to sample a wide range of work a t t i t u d e s was administered to more than 5,000 high school students in Minnesota, and was f a c t o r analysed to y i e l d 30 a t t i t u d e scales. Scoring f o r the self-development, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , and meaning of work scales i s scored 1 to 4, with a high score i n d i c a t i n g a favourable a t t i t u d e to work, and a low score an unfavourable a t t i t u d e .  The p a i r -  comparison scales were scored employing weights of 1 and 0 with the response a l t e r n a t i v e i n each pair which defined the scale weighed 1 and the other 0.  80  The i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the scales are shown in Table 8.  The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s show high i n t e r n a l consistency  reliabi1ity.  Table 8  Scale  Location in Appendix A  Reliability  Self-sufficiency  page 2 to 4; questions 3, 6, 10, 13, 15  .80  The Work Ethic  page 2 to 4; questions 2, 5, 7, 9, 12  .71  Self-development  page 1  .85  Meaning of Work  page 2 to 4; questions 1, 4, 8, 11, 14  .80  Self-esteem  (see Appendix A, pages 5 to 6) Self-esteem w i l l be measured by the self-esteem scale developed  by Rosenberg (1965) f o r a large scale survey of high school students.  As  w e l l , the Survey Research I n s t i t u t e used t h i s instrument in adult surveys and found i t was adequate f o r that purpose (Robinson, 1969). designed the Self-Esteem Scale with several c r i t e r i a in mind.  Rosenberg One was  his conception of self-esteem. . . . When we s p e a k o f h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m . . .we s h a l l s i m p l y mean t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l respects himself, c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f w o r t h y , he d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r s , b u t he d e f i n i t e l y d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f w o r s e , he d o e s n o t f e e l t h a t he i s t h e u l t i m a t e i n p e r f e c t i o n b u t , on t h e c o n t r a r y , r e c o g n i z e s h i s l i m i t a t i o n s and e x p e c t s t o g r o w and improve. . . .  81  Another c r i t e r i o n was ease of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Since the scale  had to be completed along with several other scales in one class period, i t was held to 10 items.  The other c r i t e r i o n , unidimensionality  and v a l i d i t y are discussed below.  (Guttman)  Using the Guttman procedure, the repor-  d u c i b i l i t y of t h i s scale was 92% and i t s s c a l a b i l i t y was 72% f o r Rosenberg's sample of 5,034 students.  He also mentions in a footnote (p. 30) that a  study by Earle S i l b e r and Jean S. Tippett showed a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of .85 f o r a group of college students retested a f t e r two weeks. V a l i d i t y was determined by examining c o r r e l a t i o n s of a number of d i f f e r e n t samples of self-esteem with depression, psychosomatic and choice as a c l a s s - l e a d e r r e s p e c t i v e l y .  symptoms  In each case the c o r r e l a t i o n •  was consonant with what theory would p r e d i c t .  As w e l l , scores on s e l f -  esteem were compared with ratings by judges f a m i l i a r with the subjects and were found in agreement.  Analysis of Data In designing a general purpose study of t h i s nature, the plethora of variables to be analysed means that i t i s not f e a s i b l e or optimal to spend the amount of time necessary to b u i l d an analysis sequence cont a i n i n g a large number of hypotheses.  Rather, i t i s more relevant to t h i s  proposed study to point out what questions should be i n v e s t i g a t e d (Cuba; 1971). As discussed in Chapter 1 the f o l l o w i n g types of questions should be i n v e s t i g a t e d : 1.  What is the employment experience of youth? H e r e we w i l l be l o o k i n g a t n o t o n l y y o u t h ' s j o b h i s t o r y , but t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h work, and t h e r o l e o f w o r k i n t h e i r l i f e ( j o b i nvolvement).  82  2.  What personal characteristics and attitudes are related to satisfactory employment expediences, and which one's are related 'to unsatisfactory experiences?: Self-esteem, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , s e l f d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e meaning o f work, t h e work e t h i c w i l l be e x a m i n e d f o r o u r s a m p l e a s w e l l a s t h e i r background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  3.  What role does the educational system play in preparing  youth for work?: T h i s  examining the youthis school experiences.  school  will  involve  programme and  The a n a l y t i c a l framework used w i l l be structured with the intent of developing data to enable us to develop answers to the questions, to propose how a better f i t can be made among the needs of youth, and the educational system.  Independent (i)  Variables  "work a t t i t u d e s " as defined by four scales of the Youth Opinion Questionnaire: Self-sufficiency The Work Ethic Meaning of Work Self-development  (ii) (iii)  industry  Data c o l l e c t e d w i l l include the following  variables:  (a)  and  "Self-esteem" as defined by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Educational History and Plans which w i l l High School Programe Whether high school graduate Educational plans Post-secondary education High school counselling Reasons f o r dropping out  include:  83  (b)  Dependent Variables (i)  "Patterns of work experience" which w i l l the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s :  include  Number of jobs held Average tenure on jobs held Average time to f i n d jobs Average pay on past jobs Present pay rate Ratio of employed to unemployed time (ii) (iii)  "Job Involvement" as defined by the Lodahl and Kajner Job Involvement instrument. "Work s a t i s f a c t i o n " which w i l l be measured by the Job Description Index along f i v e dimensions: Work Supervision People Pay Promotions  (c)  Control Variables Data w i l l also be c o l l e c t e d on c e r t a i n control v a r i a b l e s , which  w i l l include the f o l l o w i n g : Sex Urban vs. r u r a l Age Marital  background  status  The f o l l o w i n g analyses are planned: 1.  Cluster analysis - Analysis of the variables r e l a t i n g t o w o r k e x p e r i e n c e w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n w i t h t h e aim o f d e f i n i n g p a t t e r n s o f employment e x p e r i e n c e common t o numbers o f w o r k e r s . C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s w i l l be u s e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s o b j e c t i v e . Scale scores on t h e J o b D e s c r i p t i o n I n d e x w i l l be u s e d a s t h e work s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s .  2.  Single  variable  analysis  - The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  of v a r i a b l e s and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f each v a r i a b l e w i t h w o r k e x p e r i e n c e p a t t e r n s w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n two w a y s :  84  (i)  (ii)  3.  by c o r r e l a t i o n a l m e t h o d s , a n a l y s i s , and  including  factor  by t e s t s o f mean d i f f e r e n c e s Ct- o r F - t e s t s ) on t h e v a r i a b l e s o t h e r t h a n w o r k e x p e r i e n c e when i n d i v i d u a l s a r e g r o u p e d by w o r k e x p e r i e n c e patterns. When e x a m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f each v a r i a b l e with- t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s , t h e same two m e t h o d s w i l l be u s e d e x c e p t t h a t t e s t s o f mean d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be made on t h e satisfaction variables.  Multivariate analysis - The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t independent v a r i a b l e s i n determining the work s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s and j o b e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n two w a y s : (i)  (ii)  by t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n m e t h o d , t a k i n g e a c h d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s e p a r a t e l y (.i.e., o n e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s w i l l be u n d e r taken f o r each dependent v a r i a b l e ) , and by t h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n m e t h o d , i n w h i c h the e n t i r e s e t o f independent v a r i a b l e s i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the e n t i r e s e t o f dependent variables. In b o t h c a s e s , w e i g h t s ( r e g r e s s i o n or c a n o n i c a l ) w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i v e importance o f the independent v a r i a b l e s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l a l s o be e x a m i n e d when i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e been s u b g r o u p e d on t h e b a s i s o f work e x p e r i e n c e p a t t e r n s and b a c k g r o u n d characteristics. As w e l l , t h e a b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h o s e who h a v e s u c c e s s f u l l y made t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m s c h o o l t o w o r k w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d by: t a k i n g each o f s e l f - e s t e e m s c o r e s , s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e s , work e x p e r i e n c e as dependent v a r i a b l e s , performing a step-wise m u l t i p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s on them.  85  Chapter 6  AN  EXPLORATORY  INVESTIGATION  USING THE METHODOLOGY  Introduction Testing the Mail Questionnaire Methodology Introduction In t h i s study the s i t u a t i o n that young people face i n the world of work has been i d e n t i f i e d .  Namely, d i f f i c u l t i e s i n finding  employment  i n general, and, s p e c i f i c a l l y i n f i n d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y employment.  While  a number o f questions have been posed (see Introduction, p.l) whose answers would l i k e l y help a l l e v i a t e the problem, the main objective of t h i s study was t o develop a research design that would enable future researchers to answer the questions i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study and other relevant questions with high v a l i d i t y a t a reasonable cost. The research design includes a.recommended sample s i z e , the development of a questionnaire that includes validated scales t o measure many of the attitudes possibly related to work t r a n s i t i o n , a recommended a n a l y t i c a l framework and the development of a methodology f o r obtaining a high response rate to mail questionnaires.  However, a pre-test i s required t o determine  whether the questionnaire could obtain useful information f o r a population of B.C. high school leavers, and whether using the mail questionnaire methodology would r e s u l t i n the high response rate predicted.  86  Therefore, a second part of t h i s study involved sending out the questionnaire developed herein t o a sample of over 600 high school leavers. The main objectives i n t h i s pre-test were t o ascertain i f high school leavers, p a r t i c u l a r l y dropouts, would complete and return the questionnaire and i f some meaningful r e s u l t s could be obtained even when the f u l l research design was not used.  The f u l l research design was not c a r r i e d  out because of i n s u f f i c i e n t time and funds that would be required f o r such an undertaking.  I t i s hoped that t h i s study w i l l be an a i d t o future  researchers who attempt t o obtain the support required f o r the major study recommended i n t h i s study. In the remainder o f t h i s chapter the r e s u l t s of the pre-test are discussed.  In the pre-test the questionnaire was sent out with a person-  a l i z e d l e t t e r and a followup as recommended i n chapter 4.  However, the  budget was not s u f f i c i e n t t o allow the sending of a followup postcard and a d d i t i o n a l followups, which i s part o f the recommended strategy and would have increased the response r a t e .  Also, i t was not an objective of the  pre-test to detentdne i f the recommended sample s i z e was adequate.  This  was not f e a s i b l e because o f the cost involved, and would have been of l i t t l e a d d i t i o n a l value t o the sampling strategy as i t i s based on sound mathematical and sample theory. In the period from September, 1974 to December, 1974 as part o f t h i s exploratory study, mail questionnaires were sent out t o over s i x hundred subjects.  Most o f the guidelines recommended above were followed.  One weakness of the research design was that f u l l use was not made of followups.  Nevertheless, the r e s u l t s are strong evidence of the value of  the methodology recommended i n t h i s study.  87  Use o f the computer was an important aspect of the pre-test. The computer was used f o r preparing personalized l e t t e r s (this i s not the contradiction i n terms which i t seems), preparing mailing labels, i d e n t i f y i n g the questionnaires and a s s i s t i n g i n keeping track o f followup and returns.  This i s i n addition to the basic use of the computer f o r com-  p i l i n g the data received. The S i t u a t i o n The research design was influenced by the following factors.  First  of a l l , the population consisted o f youth age 18 to 20 who l e f t high school i n 1971 o r 1973.  Secondly, the a v a i l a b l e addresses were one and three  years o l d respectively.  The questionnaires had twenty-one pages, and  required, a t a inunimum, t h i r t y minutes t o f i l l out.  Also, i t was necessary  to i d e n t i f y the respondents to allow followups, as w e l l as f o r l a t e r examination o f possible areas o f bias.  F i n a l l y , the sample consisted of  over ten percent dropouts, a group l e s s l i k e l y t o respond t o questionnaires. The Covering Letter The covering l e t t e r was believed to be of paramount importance, and accordingly much time was spent developing i t .  The covering l e t t e r (see 1  appendix) was designed f i r s t o f a l l to give the respondent a sense o f involvement  i n the research project.  The subject's personal experience  with school and work was emphasized, as was the value o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the project.  Through use of a computer program each subject received  an o r i g i n a l l e t t e r with t h e i r name and address typed on the l e t t e r .  As  w e l l a point was made of p l a c i n g t h e i r name in«'the body o f the l e t t e r to increase the degree of personalization.  Parts of the covering and followup l e t t e r s were based on l e t t e r s used by Project Talent, the University o f Michigan's Youth i n T r a n s i t i o n Study, and the University o f Minnesota's Youth Opinion Survey.  88  Also t o improve t h e i r coirmtment t o the project, the subjects, were given the opportunity t o submit t h e i r questions and suggestions on a separate form, and asked i f they wanted a summary o f the r e s u l t s . The covering l e t t e r a l s o emphasized the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of r e s ponses.  As the questionnaire was i d e n t i f i e d by attaching to i t a form which  indicated'whether  the respondent wanted a copy of the f i n a l r e s u l t s t h i s  attachment was c l e a r l y marked "to be detached by research s t a f f " (see appendix II). I t was f e l t that t h i s combination would minimize any fears the subjects had. with respect t o the anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of t h e i r responses. Another important point mentioned i n the covering l e t t e r was that an envelope was enclosed t o enable the questionnaire to be mailed back a t no cost t o the respondent.  Given the s i z e o f the questionnaire and the  personalization of the covering l e t t e r i t was f e l t that a business r e p l y envelope would not be detrimental t o the response rate (as opposed t o a stamped return envelope). Followups One followup was sent out three t o four weeks a f t e r the f i r s t mailing. This followup included a questionnaire, business reply envelope, and a new covering l e t t e r (see appendix III)  The covering,: l e t t e r was personalized i n the  same way as the f i r s t covering l e t t e r , and covered the same points with respect t o c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y .  The main difference was that t h i s l e t t e r empha-  sized the f a c t that the r e c i p i e n t had not been heard from yet and that t h i s was the second attempt t o do so. Weaknesses i n the Research Design Given the previous review o f the l i t e r a t u r e on mail questionnaires, the research design i s optimal i n a l l respects except one.  A followup  89  postcard should have been sent out a f t e r both mailings of the questionnaire. one.  This would, i n essence, have meant three followups rather than only However, the incremental cost of the two a d d i t i o n a l followups would  have been itLinimal because t h e i r postage rate i s l e s s , and because the i n creased response accruing from the f i r s t postcard reminder would reduce the s i z e of subsequent mailings. The Results The r e s u l t s were extremely g r a t i f y i n g . were sent out.  Over 635  questionnaires  Out of those, 85 were returned as unforwardable (13%) or  i n c o r r e c t l y addressed.  Over 350 responses were obtained from the remainder  g i v i n g a response rate of 64%.  Given the s i z e and d i s p e r s i t y of the popu-  l a t i o n these r e s u l t s are at l e a s t comparable v/ith that obtainable by other means, such as interviews.  As w e l l , t h i s return rate would have been higher  i f postcard followups had been used. The Use of Computers with M a i l Questionnaires A major cost i n any large-scale research i s incurred i n the production, sending and r e c e i v i n g of p o s t a l material.  By using computers the  time required to produce personalized covering l e t t e r s , mailing labels, and to maintain records of returns and followups i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced. One master l i s t was made of a l l subjects' names, addresses, phone numbers. puter cards.  This information was  and  simply typed i n a free format on com-  From t h i s l i s t using programs written by the author and  programs supplied by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, a l l the items referred to i n the preceding paragraph were produced. The costs f o r using the computer i n t h i s respect were minimal, the major portion of the cost being that of paper (note that s p e c i a l forms were used to produce l a b e l s and 8-1/2  x 11 l e t t e r s ) .  The cost of each covering  90  l e t t e r including computer time was under three cents per l e t t e r . Thus, through the use of a computer, i t was possible to produce personalized covering l e t t e r s and mailing labels at a cost comparable with that of producing a standard form l e t t e r .  As w e l l , the computer was  used to keep track of respondents and produce from i t s master l i s t ,  new  mailing l i s t s f o r followups. Conclusion Mail questionnaires have been shown to be e f f e c t i v e . three page questionnaire was  A twenty-  sent out to a sample of high school graduates  and dropouts using most, of the methodology recxatimended i n t h i s study. sixty-four percent response rate was achieved.  Use of postcard followups  would have increased t h i s reponse rate substantially. was used to f a c i l i t a t e the implementation incremental cost was ininimal.  A  Computer technology  of the methodology and the  The mail questionnaire has been shown to  be an excellent t o o l f o r gathering s e l f - r e p o r t data.  Summary of Exploratory Findings Introduction The purpose of the exploratory study was to develop and t e s t a research design that would obtain s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e information on how  school prepares youth f o r the work world and provide an i n d i c a t i o n of  how that preparation could be improved.  While the project d i d include  sending a rather extensive mail questionnaire to a sample of high school leavers, t h i s was mainly to check the v a l i d i t y of the research design. The high response to the mail questionnaire and the reaction of the subjects  91  (see Prologue) showed the value of the research design.  However, as  we  have emphasized throughout t h i s paper, the pre-test i t s e l f was not done on a representative sample.  The pre-testes main objective was  to show  that i t was possible to obtain a high response rate from a sample of high school leavers, including dropouts. Even though the responses to the questionnaire are not from a representative sample, a multivariate analysis of the r e s u l t s w i l l be valuable as an i n d i c a t o r of the explanatory  power of the a t t i t u d e scales,  and as a guide to further research.  Multivariate Analysis A multiple regression was done with each of the s a t i s f a c t i o n components of the Job Description Index (JDI) as the dependent v a r i a b l e . Independent variables included the following:  A.  B.  Work Attitudes 1.  Meaning o f work (MEANWK)  2.  Self-development (SELFDV)  3.  S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y (SELFSUF)  4.  Job involvement (TOTJOBIN)  5.  Work e t h i c (WORKETHC)  Job Experience 1.  Number of d i f f e r e n t f u l l - t i m e jobs since high school (EDUC07)  92  C.  D.  E.  2.  Time to f i n d f i r s t f u l l - t i m e job (EDUC08)  3.  Would you not work i f given ' s u f f i c i e n t ' income (GENERO7)  Educational Background 1.  How well did you do at school (SCHEXP01)  2.  Last grade completed (GRADE)  3.  S a t i s f a c t i o n with high school education (SCHEXP04)  Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1.  Age  2.  Sex  3.  Marital status (MARRIED)  Self-Esteem 1.  Self-esteem (RSLFESTM)  The S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the Social Sciences (SPSS), forward stepwise procedure was used.  Independent variables are included in the  regressions equation only i f they meet c e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l c r i t e r i a .  The  order of i n c l u s i o n i s determined by the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n each v a r i a b l e makes to the explined variance. For the purposes of t h i s exploratory study, the s t a t i s t i c a l c r i t e r i a was set so that variables were included only i f the F r a t i o that would be obtained f o r that variable i f i t was brought into the equation exceeds 3.7.  At that level the c o n t r i b u t i o n that each v a r i a b l e made to the  explained variance i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l (d.f. = 160).  93  The objectives of the regression analyses were two f o l d .  First,  to examine whether the variables studied accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of the variance in the job s a t i s f a c t i o n measures.  Second, to  determine what c o n t r i b u t i o n the work a t t i t u d e , school experience and work experience variables made to the variance accounted f o r . Summaries of each of the regressions  are included in the appendix.  In a l l cases the M u l t i p l e R was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 95% confidence l e v e l and some of the a t t i t u d e and work experience variables made a s i g n i f i c a n t (sig > .05) c o n t r i b u t i o n to the o v e r a l l variance. For d i s c u s s i o n , i t may be useful to look at the r e s u l t s of the regression analysis with work s a t i s f a c t i o n as the dependent v a r i a b l e . The variables that have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the regression  equation  account f o r over 23% (sig > .01) of the v a r i a t i o n in s a t i s f a c t i o n with work. Job involvement contributes the largest proportion of t h i s v a r i a t i o n with higher job involvement being r e l a t e d to a higher l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n with work.  The work a t t i t u d e variable "meaning of work" which includes  statements such as "work i s e s s e n t i a l l y hard and boring," with a higher score i n d i c a t i n g the respondent disagreed with that statement, was the next most important v a r i a b l e .  In t h i s case the more the p o s i t i v e the a t t i t u d e  was to work, the lower was the s a t i s f a c t i o n with work.  This may imply that  while one has a p o s i t i v e expectation of work, t h e i r current jobs was not meeting that expectation.  The r e s u l t s also show that the longer i t took  to f i n d a f i r s t f u l l - t i m e job the greater was the s a t i s f a c t i o n with work. Two possible i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s can be made of t h i s f i n d i n g .  Possibly,  those  with a longer search period were more s e l e c t i v e and were able to chose a job that meet t h e i r expectations.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , those who had a long  94  search period may have lowered t h e i r job expectations. or a n a l y s i s could pursue t h i s question f u r t h e r .  Further research  The r e s u l t s also i n d i c a t e  that the better one did at school, the higher t h e i r work s a t i s f a c t i o n . P o s s i b l y , those with better grades had more options in the job market and were able to chose more s a t i s f y i n g jobs. work than females.  Males are less s a t i s f i e d with  This may be due to work playing a more central part in  a male's l i f e (on the average) and therefore they have a higher l e v e l of expectations from the j o b .  The discussion of these r e s u l t s are s o l e l y to  give a rough i n d i c a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of c e r t a i n variables on job s a t i s faction.  Further analysis and research, which i s beyond the scope of t h i s  exploratory study, i s required to give more d e f i n i t i v e information.  How-  ever, t h i s i n i t i a l - ' d i s c u s s i o n shows the p o t e n t i a l information that could be obtained from the research proposed in t h i s  study.  While i t would be possible to discuss the r e s u l t s in greater d e t a i l , i t would be a misuse of them. value of the proposed research.  The only purpose was to show the  They may also a i d future researchers but  only as a guide to what questions should be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  95  CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  The objectives of t h i s study were t o i d e n t i f y the need f o r research i n t o youth work t r a n s i t i o n , t o develop a research design f o r carrying out that research and t o t e s t the effectiveness o f the research design.  Now that those objectives have been met,  the next step i s f o r the  research design to be used i n a study that w i l l investigate the problems of youth work t r a n s i t i o n and provide some o f the information required by government and educators i f they hope t o solve t h i s major s o c i a l problem. The pre-test indicated that, a high response rate t o a mail questionnaire can be obtained.  I t i s therefore recommended that the mail questionnaire  be used i n future studies o f youth work t r a n s i t i o n where i t i s necessary t o reach youth over a large geographical region.  When sending the mail question-  naire a personalized approach and followups, including a reminder postcard, should be used.  The r e s u l t w i l l be a high response rate a t a cost sub-  s t a n t i a l l y l e s s than would have resulted from the use o f personal interviews. F i n a l l y , i t i s hoped that with the groundwork l a i d by t h i s study, future researchers w i l l be able to obtain the funds and support that the problems o f youth work t r a n s i t i o n warrant.  Perhaps when these researchers  present t h e i r reasons f o r support they should not stress what t h e i r research w i l l accomplish, but ask what w i l l happen i f the research i s not done.  96  R E F E R E N C E S  A l d e r f e r , C. and Dave Brown, "Desiqninq an 'Emphatic Questionnaire' f o r Organizational Research," Journal of Avvlied  1972, No. 6, 456-460.  Psychology.  Bachman, J.G.et al., Youth in Transitron, Volume 1: Blueprvnt for a longitudinal Study of Adolescent Bosy, I n s t i t u t e f o r Social  Research, 1967.  Bachman, J . G . , et al., Youth in Transition,  Volume III:  Dropping Out -  Problem or Symptom, I n s t i t u t e f o r Social Research, 1972.  Berdie, Douglas R.,  "Questionnaire Length and Response Rate," Journal of  Applied Psychology, V o l . 58, No. 2, 278-280. Breton, Raymond,' Social  and Academic Factors  in the Career Decisions  Canadian Youth, Information Canada, 1972.  of  Buckley, Helen, Recent Canadian Experiences with Unemployment, Canada  S t a t i s t i c a l Review, February, 1974.  Burstein, M. et al., Canadian Work Values, department of Manpower and Immigration, 1975. Canadian Council of Social Development, A Right to Opportunity,  1972.  Champion, Dean and A l l a n M. Sear, "Questionnaire Response Rate: A Methodol o g i c a l A n a l y s i s , " Social Forces, 1969, V o l . 47, 335-339. Charach, Larry, "Using Mail Questionnaires: Edge, Jan.-Feb., 1976, 4-5. Davenport, Lawrence, "Career Guidance: November, 1972.  The Optimal Methodology,"  A C a l l f o r Change, Manpower,  97  Davidson, Terrence, N., Youth in Transition. Strategy for Longitudinal Analysis  Volume 4: Evolution of a of Survey Panel Data.  I n s t i t u t e f o r Social Research, 1972.  Dennison, John D., A. Turner, G. Jones, G. F o r r e s t e r , The Impact of Community Colleges:  1975.  a Study of the College Concept in British  Columbia.  Department of Manpower and Immigration, Youth Unemployment in Canada: A Detailed  Analysis.  1975.  Dillman, Don A., "Increasing Mail Questionnaire Response in Large Samples of the General P u b l i c , " Public Opinion Quarterly. 1972, 254-257. Dillman, Don A., and James H. Frey, "Contribution of P e r s o n a l i z a t i o n to Mail Questionnaire Response as an Element of a Previously Tested Method," Journal of Applied Psychology. 1974,  297-301.  V o l . 59, No.  3,  Dillman, Don A., and James A. Christenson, "Increasing Mail Questionnaire Response: A Four State Comparison," American Sociological Review. 1974, V o l . 39, 744-756. Donald, Marjorie N., " I m p l i c a t i o n of Nonresponse f o r the Interpretation of Mail Questionnaire Data," Public Opinion Quarterly. 1960, V o l . 24, 99-114. Droege, Robert C. and A l b e r t Crambert, "Followup Techniques in a Largescale Test V a l i d a t i o n Study," Journal of-Applied Psychology. Vol. 49, No. 4, 253^256, 1965. Eckland, Bruce K., " E f f e c t s of Prodding to Increase Mail Back Returns," Journal of Applied Psychology. 1965,  V o l . 49, No. 3, 165-169.  Economic Council of Canada, People and Job. 1976. Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia, School Goal Study. 1975. Flanagan, J . C , Dai l e y , J.T. and Orr, D.B., The Talents of American Youth: Design for a Study of American Youth, V o l . 1 (Boston: Houghton  Mifflin,  1962).  Flanagan, John C , and William Cooley, Project Talent: Studies. U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h , 1966.  One Year Follow-up  98  Flanagan, John C. and D. Russ-Eft, An Empirical Study to Aid in Formulating Educational Goals, American I n s t i t u t e s f o r Research, 1975. F u l l e r , C a r o l , " E f f e c t of Anonymity on Return and Response Bias in a Mail Survey," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1974,  V o l . 59, No.  292-296. Hansen, M.H.,  3,  W.N. Horwitz and W.G. Madow, Sample Survey Methods and Theory,  New York:  John Wiley and Sons, Vols. 1 and 11, 1953.  Ginzberg, E l i , The Development of Human Resources, N.Y.:  McGraw-Hill,  1966.  Ginzberg, E l i , " L e t ' s Cure Job Unreadiness," Manpower, February 1972. Goodman, P.S., J.R. Rose and J.E. Furcon, "Comparison of Motivational Antecedents of the Work Performance of S c i e n t i s t s and Engineers," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1970,  V o l . 54, No. 6, pp. 491-495.  Graen, George B. and Rene Dawis, Minnesota Studies in Work Attitudes, Technical Report No. 2, Development and Administration Youth Opinion Questionnaire.  Guba, Egon G., Educational  Research, New Prospectives,  of the  1971.  Heneman, Herbert G. and Rene Dawis, Youth Unemployment: Frictions in the Threshold of the Work Career, Final Report, I n d u s t r i a l Relation Center, U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, 1968. Herman, M.,,S. Sadofsky and B. Rosenberg, Work, Youth and Unemployment, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1968. Hodgson, J.D., "Speech before NAB National Youth Conference," 1972. Huck, Scuyler and Edwin Gleason, "Using Monetary Inducements to Increase ^Response'Rates from'Mailed'Surveys: A Replicationand Extension of Previous Research," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1973, 223-225. Imparato, Nicholas, "Relationship Between P o r t e r ' s Need S a t i s f a c t i o n Quest i o n n a i r e and the Job Description Index," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1972, V o l . 56, 397-405. Kephart, W. and Bessler, M., "Increasing the Response to Mail Questionnaires: A Research Study," Public Opinion Quarterly, 1958, 22, 123-132. Kish, L e s l i e , Survey Sampling, John Wiley & Sons, L t d . , 1965.  99  Kish, L e s l i e , R. Groves and D. K r o t k i , Sampling Errors International S t a t i s t i c a l I n s t i t u t e , 1976.  in Fertility  Survey,  K l e i n , S.M. and John Maher, "Differences between I d e n t i f i e d and Anonymous Subjects i n Responding to an I n d u s t r i a l Opinion Survey," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1967, V o l . 51, No. 2, 152-165.  Knowles, R., Unemployment in Canada - A Structural  Manpower and Immigration, 1973.  Problem, Department of  Lansing, John B., G. Ginsberg and K. Broolm, An Investigation Errors, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1961.  of Response  Lansing, John B. and James Morgan, Economic Survey Methods, Ann Arbor, Surrey Research Center, 1971. Lawler, E.E. I l l and D.T. H a l l , "Relationship of Job C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to Job Involvement, S a t i s f a c t i o n and I n t r i n s i c M o t i v a t i o n , " Journal of Applied Psychology, 1970, 54, 305-312. Li,  f  L.V., Causal Disaggregation of Unemployment: A Feasibility  Department of Manpower and Immigration, 1973.  Study,  Lodahl, T.M. and M. Kejner, "The D e f i n i t i o n and Measurement of Job Involve, ment," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1965, 49, 24033.  Maceh, A l b e r t and G. M i l e s , "IQ Survey and Mailed Questionnaire Response," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1975, V o l . 60, No. 2., 258-259.  Matteson, Michael T., "Type of Transmittal L e t t e r and Questionnaire Color as Two Variables Influencing Response Rates i n a Mail Survey," Journal of Applied Psychology, 1973, No. 4, 535-536. •  M i t c h e l l , V.F. and V. Baba, "Job Involvement and Central L i f e I n t e r e s t , " Unpublished manuscript, 1974. N i c h o l s , R.C. and M. Meyer, "Timing Post Card Followups i n Mail-Questionnaire Surveys," Public  Opinion Quarterly, 306-307.  Orr, D.B. and C. Neyman, "Considerations, Costs, and Returns i n a Largescale Followup Study," The Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 58, No. 8, 1965, 373-378. Parton, M., Surveys, Polls and Samples, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1950.  100  Robin, Stanley, F., "A Procedure f o r Securing Returns to Mail Questionn a i r e s , " Sociology  and Social Research. 1965,  V o l . 50,  24-35.  Robinson, John B., Athanasiou, Robert and Kendra B. Head, Measurement of Occupation Attitudes  and Occupational Characteristics,  Research Center, 1969.  Survey  Robinson, R. and Agism, P., "Making Mail Surveys More R e l i a b l e , " Journal of Marketing, 1951, 15, 415-424. Rosenberg, M., Society and the Adolescent Self-image, Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965. Smith, P . C , L.M. Kendall and C. H u l i n , The Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1969. Veiga, John F., "Getting the Mail Questionnaire Returns:  Some P r a c t i c a l  Research C o n s i d e r a t i o n s , " Journal of Applied Psychology, No.  1974, 217-218.  V i e t o r i s z , T., R. Mier and T. G i b l i n , "Subemployment:  2,  Exclusion and  Inadequacy Indexes," Monthly Labour Review, May,  1975.  Wallace, David, "A Case f o r and Against Mail Questionnaires," Public Quarterly, Spring, 1954, 123-132.  Opinion  Werker, J . and Ray Jones, Obstacles to the Employment of Youth, United Way of Vancouver, 1975. Wirtz, W., "Introduction by the Secretary of S t a t e , " Manpower Report of the President, 1968, U.S. Department of Labour. World F e r t i l i t y Survey, Manual on Sample Design, International S t a t i s t i c a l I n s t i t u t e , 1975.  101  APPENDICES  I II III IV V  Covering Letter Sent with Questionnaire Attachment to Questionnaire Followup Letter Sent to Non-respondents Questionnaire Summary Tables f o r Multiple Regression Analysis  102 * * * ** * *  ***** *  APPENDIX  iSAHPLE COVERING 1JTTHF OCCUPATIONAL~RESEA EC H EFCJECT F a c u l t y Of E u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y Cf E r i t i s h Columbia V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  I  i 4< * * * * ** ***  >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>  Dear  Jimmy  Cricket  April  30,  1975  Jimmy:  D i d y c u f i n d h i g h s c h c o l a t t i m e s a waste o f t i m e ? When y c u l e f t s c h o o l d i d you f e e l t h a t p e r h a p s ycu wculd have been b e t t e r o f f w i t h mere job related subjects i n school? tew a r e ycu finding work now? Co you f e e l cur s c c i e t y e f f e r s wcrk p o s i t i o n s t h a t ycu a r e q u a l i f i e d f o r and o f f e r you an i n t e r e s t i n g cereer? T h e s e and s i m i l i a r q u e s t i o n s a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i r g e>anined a t t h e University cf British Columbia. Eart o f the p u r p o s e c f t h i s s t u d y i s t o f i n d out what d i f f i c u l t i e s p e c p l e under 25 have ' i n fir-ding jebs, and hew s a t i s f y i n g o r d i s s a t i s f y i n g t h e s e j e t s a r e . Many p e o p l e t h i n k t h e y knew the answer, b u t s c a r c e l y anyone has b o t h e r e d t o ask p e c p l e who a t e p a r t o f t h e under 25 ace group. I t i s my hepe t h a t with y c u r h e l p we w i l l t e a t l e t o answer t h e above q u e s t i o n s , and make seme s u g g e s t i e n s f c r i i r p r c v i n g t h e situation. The e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e which i s e a s i l y completed i n l e s s t h a n 30 m i n u t e s i s aimed a t f i n d i n g c u t j u s t what your work e x p e r i e n c e has b e e n , your o p i n i o n s a t o u t work anc w c r k i n c , and s o m e t h i n g about you and y o u r e d u c a t i c n a l b a c k g r o u n d . Jimiry, i t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t ever_y p e r s o n mailed this questionnaire help u s , because t h e r e a r e r c e t h e r s whe knew sc w e l l t h e problems p e c p l e y c u r age must f a c e .  used will  You c a n t e a s s u r e d t h a t a l l i n f c r i r a t i c n cbtained w i l l be cnl_y f ° r e s e a r c h and h e l d i n the s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e . Ycu n o t be i d e n t i f i e d i n any way when we p u b l i s h cur f i n d i n g s . r  Attached t c t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a form t h a t w i l l l e t us know i f you would l i k e a sumirary c f cur f i r . d i r . g s . I f y c c wish a copy w i l l be s e n t t c you a t c u r e x p e n s e . Perhaps i n t h e y e a r s t c ccite, t h r o u g h can make i t p c s s i b l e f c r p e o p l e t o e n t e r the less difficulty. For  the  y c u r a s s i s t a n c e , we w o r l d o f wcrk with  research  L a r r y Charach Eirector  staff,  APPENDIX I I  ^"£11  to be detached by research staff  AI1ACHPENT  TC QU E S T I C S N A I F J  RETURN I R I S PAGE WITH CCF.ELET I E QU E S T I O N AIR E IN THE PRE-ADRE S SED ENVELOPE (NC E C S T A G F Slt.f.I FICUIFIE)  i  If you wculd l i k e a cctnpliinentary f i n d i n g s place a 'X' i n the box.  ccpy  cf  cur  research t  l  L J  correct  raire  I J i ITm y C r i c k e t 1234 Fantasy Land Disneyland, Calif.  Suggestions  And  and  address  belci»  I ~_Z dill  Questions  I  1U4 ]?Z  ^.SAMPLE  ***** *** *  FCLLOWUj? L E T T EE O C C U P A T I O N A L BB SEA EC H E F C J B C T F a c u l t y Of B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n T h e U n i v e r s i t y Cf E r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Vancouver, B.C.  APPENDIX  III  ***>»* x * ***** *** *  <<«<<«<<<«<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>  Dear  Jiirny  Cricket  April  30,  1975  Jimmy:  L a s t month q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t t o a s e l e c t e d s a m p l e cf p e o p l e who w e r e a s k e d t o a s s i s t in the Q c c u j a t i ciia 1 Re s e a r c h P r o j e c t being undertaken at the U n i v e r s i t y of E r i t i s h C c l u r r t i a . As you r e c a l l p a r t c f the purpose cf cur study i s tc find o u t what d i f f i c u l t i e s p e o p l e u n d e r 25 h a v e i n f i n d i r g j c b s , and how satisfying or dissatisfying these jots are. It i s c u r f e e l i n g t h a t t h e t e s t way t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a b c v e situation is t o a s k p e c p l e who a r e p a r t o f t h e u n d e r 25 age g r o u p . To date we h a v e n e t h e a r d f r e i r yen. J i n n y . A i r a j c r f a c t o r in determining the effectiveness of this project is ycur i n v o l v e m e n t t h r o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e we ser.t yen. While a large majority o f t h e p e o p l e a s k e d t o a s s i s t ' us have r e s p o n d e d , y o u r r e s p o n s e i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t and v a l u a b l e to us. Fcr cur results to be accepted w i t h c o n f i d e n c e ty t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G o v e r n m e n t and c u r e t h e r s p o n s o r i n g a g e n c i e s i t is necessary that most cf the people approached agree tc cooperate in the r e s e a r c h . If ycu would f i l l c u t t h e e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e you would be m a k i n g a v a l u e d c o n t r i b u t i o n t c this research and towards lessening some c f t h e p r o b l e m s y o u t h f a c e i n t h e w o r l d o f w c r k . I f t h e r e i s some r e a s o n why y c u prefer ret tc f i l l cut the questionnaire would you then l i s t on t h e t a c k o f t h i s letter y o u r r e a s o n s and s e n d i t t a c k t c us in the prepaid envelope e n c l o s e d with t h i s l e t t e r .  used will  You can be a s s u r e d t h a t a l l i n f e r n a t i c r . o b t a i n e d v i l l be cnl_y f o r r e s e a r c h a n d h e l d i n t h e s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e . Y c u n o t be i d e n t i f i e d i n any way when we p u b l i s h c u r findings.  know ccpy  A t t a c h e d to the g u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a form t h a t i f you would l i k e a sunmary cf c u r f i r . d i r g s . w i l l be s e n t t c y o u a t c u r e x p e n s e .  can less  Perhaps i n the years make i t p o s s i b l e f o r difficulty.  to c c n e , t h r o u g h ycur assistance, p e o p l e t o e n t e r t h e w o r l d o f work  Eor the r e s e a r c h Larry Charach Director T.r /fm t  will let us I f ycu wish a  staff,  ve with  105  APPENDIX  Questionnaire  Used  in  IV  Pre-Test  - 2 -  - I F i r s t , we would l i k e t o know how  you f e e l  about work and  4.  jobs.  DIRECTIONS For  L  each statement do the  strongly agree  following:  - Read the statement  5.  carefully.  - Decide whether you agree or d i s a g r e e w i t h i t . - Decide how  sure you are o f y o u r  t f you agree w i t h the statement and c i r c l e the p o i n t " S t r o n g l y Agree".  f ^ e l s u r e o f your  Give your o p i n i o n about each  s u r e o f your  7.  opinion,  8.  strongly agree 2.  I'd  3.  disagree  strongly disagree 10.  1  agree  1  disagree  Working i n u n f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s wouldn't me a t a l l i strongly agree  i agree  i  disagree  (9)  strongly disagree  bother I strongly disagree  i  agree  disagree  i  agree  N o t h i n g would make me day's work.  (10)  strongly disagree  strongly disagree  1  (11)  disagree  strongly disagree  I  (12)  f e e l b e t t e r than a good h a r d  i  agree  i  disagree  strongly disagree  l (13)  I wouldn't mind working i n a company where I d i d n ' t know anybody. strongly agree  11.  disagree  Work i s seldom e n j o y a b l e .  1  1  strongly disagree  agree  i  strongly agree  i  r a t h e r work than do almost any o t h e r t h i n g .  strongly agree  (6)  agree  I  1  1  i  (5)  (7)  Work i s u s u a l l y h a r d and borinc,. I  7T —' disagree  agree  life,  strongly agree  statement. 9.  1.  disagree  Work i s the most important p a r t o f strongly agree  The o n l y " r i g h t " answers a r e  Don't spend t o o much time on any one  _ l _  agree  [PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS (COLUMN. s t r o n g l y (8) disagree  t h i n g s can be more i m p o r t a n t than work  strongly agree  statement.  P l e a s e g i v e us your honest o p i n i o n s . your honest o p i n i o n s . Work as r a p i d l y as you can.  feel  j o b you have.  I wouldn't mind t a k i n g a j o b f a r away from home, i n a p l a c e I d i d n ' t know.  opinion,  I f you d i s a g r e e w i t h the statement more than you agree w i t h i t and f e e l somewhat unsure of your answer, c i r c l e the p o i n t " D i s a g r e e " . I f you d i s a g r e e w i t h the statement and c i r c l e the p o i n t " S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e " .  Few  strongly agree  opinion.  I f you agree w i t h the statement more than you d i s a g r e e w i t h i t and f e e l somewhat unsure o f your o p i n i o n , c i r c l e t h e p o i n t "Agree".  PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN.  Work i s the same hard g r i n d whatever  i  agree  i  disagree  strongly disagree  l (14)  Work i s u s u a l l y u n p l e a s a n t 1  strongly agree  i  agree  I disagree  strongly disagree  1 (15)  - 3 PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN.  12.  strongly agree Working  (17)  strongly agree 14.  (18)  ~1 agree  disagree  \  strongly disagree  4.  OR .  w i t h s t r a n g e r s doesn't b o t h e r me. disagree  agree  strongly disagree  a.  5.  disagree  agree  strongly disagree  Working i n a company where I d i d n ' t know anyone would be okay with me.  A j o b where I c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n t h e r e s t of my l i f e . A j o b where I c o u l d s o l v e problems no one e l s e can.  a. OR .  Work i s r a r e l y f u n . strongly agree  15.  PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN.  N o t h i n g i s more important t o me than work  (16) 13.  - 4 -  A j o b where I c o u l d n o t be f i r e d  disagree  agree  Now, t h i s s e c t i o n i s i n t e r e s t e d  f o l l o w i n g a r e p a i r s o f statements about work and j o b s .  For  each p a i r o f statements do t h e f o l l o w i n g : Read each statement i n the p a i r -  For  e a c h statement d o t h e f o l l o w i n g :  strongly disagree  PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. (20)  Mark your c h o i c e by c i r c l i n g your c h o i c e . IF 1. 0  (21)  2.  R  (22)  3.  t h e l e t t e r next t o  I f y o u d i s a g r e e w i t h the statement and f e e l s u r e o f your o p i n i o n , c i r c l e the point "Strongly Disagree". G i v e your o p i n i o n about each  b.  A j o b which r e q u i r e s l i t t l e  a.  A j o b where I c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n the r e s t o f my l i f e .  strongly agree  A j o b w i t h s h o r t working  I  OR .  1.  statement.  I f e e l t h a t I'm a person o f worth, a t l e a s t an e q u a l with others.  PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN.  thinking.  hours.  A j o b where I c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n t h e r e s t o f my l i f e . A j o b which does n o t t i e me down.  O  I f y o u d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e statement more t h a n you agree w i t h i t and f e e l somewhat unsure o f your answer, c i r c l e the p o i n t " D i s a g r e e "  A j o b where I c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n the r e s t o f my l i f e .  a.  opinion,  If you agree w i t h t h e statement more than you d i s a g r e e w i t h i t and f e e l somewhat unsure o f your o p i n i o n , c i r c l e t h e p o i n t "Agree".  a.  OR , b.  D e c i d e how s u r e you a r e o f your o p i n i o n .  I f y o u agree w i t h the statement and f e e l s u r e o f your c i r c l e t h e p o i n t " S t r o n g l y Agree".  statement  YOU HAD THE CHOICE OF JOBS, WHICH WOULD YOU PREFER?  carefully.  Decide whether you agree o r d i s a g r e e w i t h i t .  carefully.  Decide which o f the p a i r you p r e f e r ; a or b.  i n how you see y o u r s e l f  DIRECTIONS  The  (24)  A j o b where I c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n t h e r e s t of my l i f e .  Read t h e statement strongly agree  (19)  (23)  agree  disagree  strongly disagree  (25)  f e e l t h a t I have a number o f good q u a l i t i e s  strongly agree  _1_  agree  disagree  strongly disagree  (26)  - 6 DIRECTIONS:  A l l in a l l , a failure.  I am  strongly agree I am  inclined  to f e e l that I  am  a g r e e d i s a g r e e  a b l e t o do  strongly agree  t h i n g s as w e l l as most o t h e r disagree  agree  strongly disagree  I f e e l I do not have much t o be proud o f . _l_ agree  strongly agree  lisagree  1 take a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards I  strongly agree On  the whole, I am  strongly agree  lisagree  s a t i s f i e d with  I wish I c o u l d have more r e s p e c t f o r strongly agree  agree  I certainly strongly agree At times strongly agree  agree I t h i n k I am no I  agree  strongly disagree  myself.  disagree  f e e l useless at  strongly disagree  myself.  disagree  agree  strongly disagree  myself. •  agree  strongly disagree  times. disagree  PART 1  strongly disagree  g r a d u a t e from h i g h 1. Yes 2. No  school"  Have you  attended c o l l e g e since l e a v i n g high school? 1. Yes, as a f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t . 2. Yes, as a p a r t - t i m e student 3. Yes, I e n t e r e d but have dropped o u t temporarily. 4. Yes, I e n t e r e d but dropped o u t and do not plan to r e t u r n . 5. No, but I p l a n to e n t e r c o l l e g e w i t h i n a y e a r o r two. 6. No, but I p l a n to e n t e r c o l l e g e e v e n t u a l l y ; I have no i d e a when. No, and I have no p l a n s to do so.  (35)  S i n c e l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l have you a t t e n d e d a s c h o o l o t h e r than a c o l l e g e ? 1. Yes, as a f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t . 2. Yes, as a p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t . 3. No, and I have no p l a n s t o do so. 4. No, but I p l a n to get some more noncollege schooling. Which o f the f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of s c h o o l d i p l o m a o r c e r t i f i c a t e do you p l a n t o o b t a i n ? (Mark as many as apply.) 1. No f u r t h e r s c h o o l i n g planned. 2. A c o l l e g e degree ( 4 y e a r s or more o f college). 3. A j u n i o r c o l l e g e diploma or degree. 4. R.N. ( R e g i s t e r e d Nurse C e r t i f i c a t e ) 5. A b u s i n e s s s c h o o l or s e c r e t a r i a l d i p l o m a . 6. Diploma o r c e r t i f i c a t e based upon apprenticeship t r a i n i n g , on-the-job t r a i n i n g , or t e c h n i c a l or t r a d e s c h o o l . Please describe.  good a t a l l .  ,i  disagree  strongly disagree Question  PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN.  EDUCATION  Did you  people. strongly disagree  P l e a s e be sure t o answer every q u e s t i o n below. Most o f the q u e s t i o n s can be answered by j u s t c i r c l i n g the number t o the l e f t o f the answer you choose. Do not s k i p any q u e s t i o n s . Mark o n l y one answer t o each q u e s t i o n e x c e p t where i n s t r u c t e d t o mark more than one.  4 continued  on f o l l o w i n g page.  (36) O CO  (37)  PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. 7. 8.  CGA, CA or RIA diploma Other. Please Specify:  7.  How many d i f f e r e n t f u l l - t i m e j o b s (35 hours per week) have you had s i n c e you l e f t h i g h s c h o o l ? 1. 2. 3. 4.  5. What k i n d s o f s c h o o l have you attended s i n c e l e a v i n g high school? (Mark as many as a p p l y ) . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  None A c o l l e g e o f f e r i n g b a c h e l o r ' s degree or higher. A j u n i o r or community c o l l e g e . A technical institute. A business school. Other. Please specify.  . Answer t h i s q u e s t i o n i f you have never attended college. D i d you WANT t o go to c o l l e g e ? NO  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  YES  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  (41)  * * * * * i f y o u r answer t o the above q u e s t i o n was "None" p l e a s e s k i p t o Q u e s t i o n 12, o t h e r w i s e answer Q u e s t i o n s 8 - JL1. * * * * * Q u e s t i o n s 8-11 r e f e r to the FIRST f u l l - t i m e j o b you had a f t e r l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l . I n c l u d e summer j o b s or o t h e r temporary j o b s you had a f t e r l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l , i f they were f u l l - t i m e . * * * * * 8.  How l o n g d i d i t take you t o f i n d the f i r s t you had s i n c e h i g h s c h o o l ?  No, I had no i n t e r e s t i n r e c e i v i n g f u r t h e r education. No, I wanted t o earn money. No, I wanted t o get m a r r i e d . No, I was more i n t e r e s t e d i n going t o some other k i n d o f s c h o o l . No, f o r some reason o t h e r than above. Please specify:  Yes, but I c o u l d n ' t a f f o r d i t . Yes, but I c o u l d n ' t because of a f a m i l y emergency. Yes, but I c o u l d n ' t because I was m a r r i e d . Yes, but I wasn't q u a l i f i e d because I hadn't taken c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s required f o r admission. Yes, but I d i d n ' t a p p l y because my grades weren't good enough. Yes, I a p p l i e d but wasn't a c c e p t e d . Yes, but I d i d n ' t go f o r some o t h e r reason; Please specify:  None One Two Three o r more.  8.  I found i t b e f o r e I l e f t L e s s than a week. t o 2 weeks. t o 4 weeks. to 2 months. t o 4 months. t o 6 months. Longer than 6 months.  full-time  job I—' O  high school.  (42)  What was your s t a r t i n g pay ( b e f o r e d e d u c t i o n s ) , on your FIRST f u l l - t i m e job? F i l l i n ONE of the l i n e s below. per week (43)  OR per month 10.  What was  your j o b c a l l e d ? (44)  11.  What d i d you do on t h i s job? P l e a s e be s p e c i f i c :  (45)  - 10 PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN. 12.  D i d you have a p a i d j o b i n May, 1974? 1. Yes, a f u l l - t i m e j o b (35 hours p e r week or more). 2. Yes, p a r t - t i m e work ( l e s s than 35 h r s . p e r week). 3. No, b u t I was l o o k i n g f o r a f u l l - t i m e j o b . 4. No, b u t I was l o o k i n g f o r p a r t - t i m e work. (Did n o t want a f u l l - t i m e j o b ) . 5. No, I was g o i n g t o s c h o o l , and d i d n o t want a job. 6. No, I am a housewife, and was n o t l o o k i n g f o r an o u t s i d e j o b . 7. No, I was n o t l o o k i n g f o r a j o b f o r r e a s o n s o t h e r than t h o s e l i s t e d above.  18.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 19.  *****Answer Q u e s t i o n s 13 - 17 ONLY i f you had a f u l l time j o b i n May, 1974. O t h e r w i s e s k i p t o Q u e s t i o n 18.**** 13.  What o c c u p a t i o n do you expect P l e a s e be s p e c i f i c :  $  p e r month  $  p e r hour  20.  What do you w i s h you had done d i f f e r e n t l y school? Mark as many as a p p l y . 1. 2.  What i s the j o b c a l l e d ?  T e l l what you do (or d i d ) on t h i s j o b . P l e a s e be s p e c i f i c :  21.  Are you  How w e l l do 1. 2. 3. 4.  17.  How  (or d i d ) you l i k e t h i s  type o f work?  Very w e l l . Fairly well. Not v e r y w e l l . Not a t a l l .  l o n g do you p l a n t o s t a y i n t h e same type o f work? 1. 2. 3. 4.  I p l a n t o make i t my c a r e e r . A t p r e s e n t I have no p l a n s t o change. P r o b a b l y a few y e a r s . I p l a n t o change soon.  career?  If  I wish I I wish I paratory I wish I I wish I  I- 1 O  i n high  had s t u d i e d more. had taken more c o l l e g e p r e courses. had taken more v o c a t i o n a l work. had had more s o c i a l l i f e .  (53)  married? 1. 2. 3.  16.  t o make y o u r  (52)  PART I I I - GENERAL QUESTIONS  3. 4. 15.  I d i d n o t want a f u l l - t i m e j o b . Not at a l l . . L e s s than a week. 1 t o 2 weeks. 2 t o 4 weeks. 1 t o 2 months. 2 t o 4 months. 4 t o 6 months. More than 6 months.  What was your pay ( b e f o r e d e d u c t i o n s ) , on t h i s f u l l - t i m e job? P l e a s e f i l l i n ONE of t h e l i n e s below. OR  14.  About how l o n g were you unemployed (and l o o k i n g f o r a f u l l - t i m e j o b ) between June 1» 1973 and June 1, 1974?  Yes, I m a r r i e d w h i l e s t i l l i n h i g h s c h o o l . Yes, I m a r r i e d a f t e r l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l . No.  n o t , how soon do you expect 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  I I I I I  p l a n t o marry p l a n t o marry p l a n t o marry p l a n t o marry do not e x p e c t  t o marry?  t h i s year. next y e a r . within 3 years. sometime i n t h e f u t u r e . t o marry.  (54)  -  12  P L E A S E DO NOT WRITE I N T H I S COLUMN.  If you dropped out of h i g h s c h o o l w i t h o u t w h a t was t h e r e a s o n ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  To g e t a j o b . I became i l l . I was n e e d e d a t home. I got married. I d i d not l i k e school. I had f a i l i n g g r a d e s . I was a s k e d t o l e a v e . I l e f t f o r some o t h e r r e a s o n . explain:  Where a r e y o u 1. 2.  living  at the present  A t home w i t h my p a r e n t s Some o t h e r p l a c e .  or  graduating,  4.  28.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  o n when y o u  $  per  30.  Did you  1,  1974.  Male Female.  decided 31.  32.  of these  the  (62)  tests?  Yes. No. C a n ' t remember. Tests not given i n the  (63)  school.  Yes. No. C a n ' t remember. Have n o t t a k e n s u c h  (64)  tests.  D i d y o u r s c h o o l have a p l a c e where s t u d e n t s c o u l d f i n d b o o k s , m a g a z i n e s , and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t d i f f e r e n t occupations? 1. 2.  33.  t a k e any  counsellor in  I f you have taken such a t e s t , d i d t h e guidance c o u n s e l l o r d i s c u s s the r e s u l t s w i t h you a f t e r w a r d s ? 1. 2. 3. 4.  (after  (61)  Yes. No. D o n ' t know. T h e r e was no g u i d a n c e school.  ever 1. 2. 3. 4.  high-school?  c o n s i d e r adequate week.  on May  C o u l d s t u d e n t s take t e s t s from the g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r to h e l p f i n d o u t what j o b s t h e y were s u i t e d f o r ?  guardian.  No Yes much w o u l d y o u  1. 2.  1. 2. 3. 4.  Academic-Technical Commercial Industrial Community S e r v i c e s V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s Other programs. Please specify:  I f y e s , how taxes)?  Sex:  time?  finished  age  PART I V - HIGH SCHOOL C O U N S E L L I N G 29.  G i v e n the k i n d o f work a v a i l a b l e t o you, would you c o n s i d e r n o t w o r k i n g a t a l l i f g i v e n b y some means a n a d e q u a t e sum o f money e a c h w e e k ? 1. 2.  your  Please  I am s o r r y I d i d n ' t go t o c o l l e g e . I am s o r r y I s t a r t e d c o l l e g e . I am s o r r y a b o u t t h e k i n d o f w o r k I t o do. None o f t h e a b o v e .  What p r o g r a m w e r e y o u  What was  (60)  Have y o u made a n y i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s t h a t y o u a r e s o r r y a b o u t now? (Mark a s many a s a p p l y ) . 1. 2. 3.  27.  How  Yes. No.  o f t e n d i d you 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  (65) look a t such m a t e r i a l ?  Never. Once. Twice. Three times. F o u r o r more t i m e s . T h e r e was no s u c h p l a c e i n t h e  (66) school.  - 14 P L E A S E DO NOT WRITE I N T H I S COLUMN. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  D i d y o u e v e r , o n y o u r own i n i t i a t i v e , g o t o s e e t h e g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r t o t a l k a b o u t any o f t h e following topics? (Mark a s many s p a c e s a s a p p l y ) . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  S c h o o l marks o r grades. J o b p l a n s when y o u f i n i s h y o u r e d u c a t i o n . Attending university. Attending a post-secondary t e c h n i c a l institute. Attending business c o l l e g e . P l a n n i n g your h i g h s c h o o l program. Leaving high school before f i n i s h i n g . Some o t h e r - t o p i c . N e v e r w e n t t o g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r o n my own i n i t i a t i v e . T h e r e was no g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r i n t h e school. D o n ' t remember.  10. 37.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  S c h o o l marks o r grades. Discipline. J o b p l a n s when y o u f i n i s h e d y o u r e d u c a t i o n . Attending university. Attending post-secondary t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e . Attending business c o l l e g e . P l a n n i n g y o u r h i g h s c h o o l programme. Leaving high school before f i n i s h i n g . Some o t h e r t o p i c . N e v e r c a l l e d i n by g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r o r t h e r e was no g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r i n the school. C a n ' t remember.  4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  D i d y o u e v e r , o n y o u r own i n i t i a t i v e , go t o s e e a teacher o r p r i n c i p a l a t the school (other than a g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r ) t o t a l k about any o f t h e following topics? ( M a r k a s many s p a c e s a s a p p l y ) . 1. 2. 3. 4.  S c h o o l marks o r g r a d e s . J o b p l a n s when y o u f i n i s h e d y o u r e d u c a t i o n . Attending university. Attending post-secondary t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e .  11. 38.  (69)  Where y o u e v e r c a l l e d i n b y a t e a c h e r o r p r i n c i p a l at t h e s c h o o l (other than a g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r ) t o d i s c u s s any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s ? (Mark a s many s p a c e s a s a p p l y ) . 1. 2. 3.  Were y o u e v e r c a l l e d i n b y t h e g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r to d i s c u s s any o f the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s ? (Mark a s many s p a c e s a s a p p l y ) .  Attending business college. P l a n n i n g y o u r h i g h s c h o o l programme. Leaving high school before f i n i s h i n g . Some o t h e r t o p i c . Never went t o see a t e a c h e r o r p r i n c i p a l on my own i n i t i a t i v e . C a n ' t remember.  School marks o r grades. Discipline. J o b p l a n s when y o u f i n i s h e d y o u r education. Attending university. Attending post-secondary t e c h n i c a l institute. Attending business c o l l e g e . P l a n n i n g y o u r h i g h s c h o o l programme. Leaving high school before f i n i s h i n g . Some o t h e r t o p i c . Never c a l l e d i n by a teacher o r principal. C a n ' t remember.  What was y o u r l a s t g r a d e  completed?  (70)  (71)  P L E A S E DO NOT WRITE I N T H I S COLUMN.  - 15 16 PART V - The E x p e r i e n c e o f S c h o o l  (1) (2) " (3) "  Now, c a n y o u t e l l me a b o u t y o u r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n school? How w e l l h a v e y o u d o n e a t s c h o o l ?  (4) (5)'  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  I n most s u b j e c t s y o u I n most s u b j e c t s you I n most s u b j e c t s you You u s u a l l y d i d w e l l periods of time N/A  were average o r above were always average were average o r below b u t t h e r e w e r e some b a d  IF  ALWAYS AVERAGE OR ABOVE:  Now, we w o u l d l i k e t o know how y o u f e e l a b o u t y o u r p r e s e n t job. P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e p o i n t on each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g scales that best represents your f e e l i n g . 1.  BELOW AVERAGE OR BAD PERIODS OF TIME:  1. 2. 3^  strongly disagree  I am r e a l l y concerned.  I  live,  Not s a t i s f i e d Satisfied Very s a t i s f i e d  5.  strongly disagree  I F YOU ARE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED P L E A S E COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SECTION, OTHERWISE GO TO PAGE 2 2 .  strongly disagree  I am v e r y much p e r s o n a l l y  involved  7.  1  (9)  i n my w o r k . strongly disagree  Most t h i n g s i n l i f e strongly agree  (8)  e a t , a n d b r e a t h e my j o b .  strongly agree 6.  (7)  a p e r f e c t i o n i s t a s f a r a s my w o r k i s  strongly agree school  :e)  my  strongly disagree  strongly agree  Some o f t h e t e a c h e r s The e d u c a t i o n a l system The f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n Influence o f your f r i e n d s Yourself Other reasons  How s a t i s f i e d d o y o u f e e l w i t h t h e h i g h education you r e c e i v e d ?  c o m e s f r o m my j o b .  strongly agree  In y o u r o p i n i o n , what c o n t r i b u t e d most t o y o u r u s u a l o r temporary poor r e c o r d a t s c h o o l ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  i n my l i f e  The m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t h a t h a p p e n t o me i n v o l v e work.  Some o f t h e t e a c h e r s The e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m The f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n I n f l u e n c e o f your f r i e n d s Other reasons 3.  IF  satisfaction  strongly agree  In y o u r o p i n i o n , w h a t h e l p e d y o u m o s t i n k e e p i n g a good r e c o r d a t s c h o o l ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  The m a j o r  (10)  a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n w o r k . 1  I  strongly disagree  (11)  G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I am v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h my j o b . strongly agree  strongly disagree  (12)  -  17  -  -  18  -  Think of the k i n d of s u p e r v i s i o n t h a t you get on y o u r Job. How w e l l does each of the f o l l o w i n g words d e s c r i b e your supervisor? PLEASE DO ROT WRITE IH THIS COLUMN.  To get i n t o somewhat more d e t a i l , p l e a s e t h i n k of your p r e s e n t work. What i s i t l i k e most of the time? In the b l a n k b e s i d e each word given below, w r i t e : Y  f o r "yes" i f i t d e s c r i b e s your work  N  f o r " n o " ' i f i t does NOT  ?  i f you cannot decide  UORK OH PRESENT JOB <13)_  describe i t  (14) _  routine satisfying  (16) _  boring  (17) _  good  Y  I f i t d e s c r i b e s the s u p e r v i s i o n you get on your job  H  i f I t does NOT  ?  I f you cannot decide  describe i t  SUPERVISION ON PRESENT JOB  —  asks my  fascinating  (15) _  In the blank beside each work below, put:  —  advice  hard to please impolite p r a i s e s good work tactful influential  (18) _  creative  (19 )_  respected  (20 )_  hot  doesn't s u p e r v i s e enough  tip-to-date  (21)_  pleasant  quick tempered  (22 )_  useful  (23) _  tiresome  t e l l s me where I stand  (24) _  healthful  annoying  (25) _  challenging  stubborn  (26 )_  on y o u r f e e t  knows job w e l l bad  (27) _  frustrating  (28) _  simple  (29 )_  endless  leaves me on my  g i v e s a sense of accomplishment  around when needed  (30)_  ___  intelligent  lazy  own  1 9  -  -  T h i n k o f t h e p a y y o u y e t now. How w e l l d o e s e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g words d e s c r i b e y o u r p r e s e n t pay? In tiie b l a n k b e s i d e each w o r d , p u t : Y  if  i t describes your  N  if  i t does NOT  ?  i f you cannot  PRESENT PAY  describe  it  decide  Y  i f i t describes  the people you work w i t h  N  i f i t does NOT d e s c r i b e  ?  i f you cannot  them  decide  —  pay a d e q u a t e satisfactory barely  live  f o r normal expenses p r o f i t sharing on pay  bad  PEOPLE ON YOUR PRESENT JOB  --  stimulating boring  slow  pay p r o v i d e s  luxuries  insecure less  pay  T h i n k o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e t h a t y o u w o r k w i t h now o r t h e p e o p l e y o u meet i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h y o u r w o r k . How w e l l does each o f tiie f o l l o w i n g w o r d s d e s c r i b e t h e s e p e o p l e I n t h e b l a n k b e s i d e each word b e l o w , p u t :  than I deserve  highly  paid  underpaid  ambitious stupid responsible fast intelligent easy  t o make e n e m i e s  t a l k t o o much smart  lazy unpleasant no p r i v a c y active narrow i n t e r e s t s  loyal h a r d t o meet  _.  -  21  22  -  -  Think o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r promotion that you have now. How w e l l does each of the f o l l o w i n g words d e s c r i b e these? I n the b l a n k b e s i d e each word, p u t : Y  f o r "yes" i f i t d e s c r i b e s your o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r promotion  N  f o r "no" i f i t does NOT d e s c r i b e them  ?  i f you cannot decide  Thank you f o r t a k i n g the t i n e t o f u r t h e r t h i s study of youth.  Your h e l j  i s g r e a t l y appreciated and I would be pleased t o answer any questions yc have about t h i s p r o j e c t and I t s r e s u l t s .  There i s one f i n a l request I have o f you that w i l l help i n c r e a s e the v a l of t h i s study. WILL YOU ALLOW ME TO CONTACT YOUR PRESENT OR LAST EMPLOYER AND ASK THEM  OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROMOTION — good o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r promotion o p p o r t u n i t y somewhat l i m i t e d promotion on a b i l i t y dead-end Job good chance f o r promotion u n f a i r promotion  FOR AN EVALUATION OF YOUR PERFORMANCE? Again, l e t me emphasize that a l l Information r e c e i v e d w i l l be kept completely c o n f i d e n t i a l . Thank you f o r your c o - o p e r a t i o n .  policy  Infrequent promotions  |  r e g u l a r promotions f a i r l y good chance f o r promotion  |  I No, I would p r e f e r you not t o contact my employer. 1 Yes, you can contact my employer. Name of Employer Address City My Supervisor  M CTi  117  APPENDIX V  Summary T a b l e s f o r M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n  Analysis  JDl FILE  S A T I S F A C T I O N WITH WORK THESIS ( C R E A T I O N DATE  * * * * * * * * * * * DEPENDENT  =  06/13/77)  * * * * * * * * * * * *  VARIABLE..  M U L T I P L E  R E G R E S S I O N  TJDIWK SUMMARY  V ARIABL E  MULTIPLE  TOTJuRIN MEANnK  JCP, INVOLVEMENT SCORE ON T H E MEANING OS WORK S C A L E TIME TO F I N D F I R S T F U L L - T I M E J O B LOWER S C O R E S I N D I C A T E HIGHER S E L F S U F F I C HOW WF L L D I D YOU DO AT SCHOO L  E DUC US SELFiUF SCHEAPOI  SEX (CONSTANT)  R  0. 347 l > 0.41190 0.43452 0.44883 0.46052 0.47977  TABLE  R SQUARE  RSQ CHANGE  1 20 51 16966 10881 20145 2 1208 0.23018  r  C. 12051 0.04915 0.01915 0. 0 1 2 6 4 0.01063 0. 01 810  *  *  *  *  *  DEPENDENT  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  VARIABLE..  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  M U L T  SIMPLE R 0. 34 715 - 0. 29 042 0. 1 8 2 2 3 - 0 . 03697 0. 14904 -0.03530  B 0.4702658 -1.2344H0 0.8669557 -0.3929626 1.479013 -3.526933 30.58984  BETA 0.27205 -0.26131 0. 1 6 0 6 1 -0.09408 0. 1 4 6 7 5 -0. 1 4 8 1 4  06/29/77  MULTIPLE STEPWISE REGRESSIONS-SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTORS J D I S A T I S F A C T I O N WITH COWORKERS FILE THESIS ( C R E A T I O N DATE = 0 6 / 1 3 / 7 7 ) *  * * * * * * * * * * * * *  I P L E  R E G R E S S  I O N  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Fr—  TJDICCW  1  00  SUMMARY MULTIPLE  VARIABLE HIGHER SCUKES I N D I C A T E HIGHER S E L F D E V E L LOWER SCORES I N D I C A T E HIGHER S E L F S U F F I C D I F F E R E N T F U L L - T I M E J O B S S I N C E . H I G H SCHO HOW WELL D I D YOU DO AT SCHOO L .JOB INVOLVEMENT  SELFuV SELFiUF ED'JCu7 SCHExPOl TOTJUBIN (CONSTANT) MULTIPLE  STEPWISE  REGRESSIONS-SIGNIFICANT  R  C.16006 0.22663 -0.25474 0.27958 0.30130  TABLE  R SQUARE  RSO CHANGE  0.02562 0.05136 0.06489 • 0.07816 0.09078  0.02562 0.02574 0.01353 0.01327 0.01262  SIMPLE R 0. 16006 0. 14574 -0.15025 0.07527 -0.10270  BETA 1.2161)1 0.4437256 -1 . 1 5 0 9 1 5 0.8063350 -0. 1 2 3 9 2 6 1 22.81660  0. 1 6 4 4 7 0. 16839 -0.1244 7 0 - J 268 I -0.11364  06/29/77  CONTRIBUTORS  J O i S A T I S F A C T I O N WITH SUPERVISORS FILE . THESIS ( C R E A T I O N DATE = 0 6 / 1 3 / 7 7 ) *  *  *  *  *  DEPENDENT  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  VARIABLE..  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  M U L T I P L E  R  MULTIPLE  VAR I A B L E TIME  TO. F I N D  E  S S  I 0 N  * * * * * * * *  TJDISLP SUMMARY  EDUCj8 DROPOUT E DUC07 TOTJJBIN RSLFcSTM ( CONSTANT J  E G  FIRST  F U L L - T I M E JOB  D I F F E R E N T F U L L - T I M E JOBS S I N C E JOB INVOLVEMENT ROSENBERG S E L F ESTEEM SCALE  HIGH  SCHO  R  TABLE  R SQUARE  0.22217 0.26462  0.04936 0.07002  0.31738 0.34028 0.35979  0.10073 0.11579 0.12945  RSQ CHANGE 0.04936 0. 02 066 0. 0 3 0 7 1 0.01506 0.01366  SIMPLE R 0.22217 - 0 . 13360 0. 15985 0. 13605• 0. 14042  B 0.65209H -5.191760 1 . 726784 0. 1 4 5 1 7 5 7 0.7564761 10.33720  B F TA 0. 1 7985 -0.20769 0.17541 0. 1 2 5 0 4 0.11387  1  FiLE  THESIS  (CREATION  DATE  =  06/13/77) * * * * * *  DEPENDE NT  VARIABLE..  M U L T I P L E  T JO I PAY SUMMARY MULTIPLE  VARI A B L E EDUC08 GENEKOT GRACr. SCHEXPOl MEANrfK DROP JUT {CONSTANT)  R  R SQUARE  RSO CHANGE  0.06 26 6  25032 30366 33059 35765 37549  .TIME TO F I N D F I R S T F U L L - T I M E JOB WOULD Y C U NOT WORK GIVEjN AOEO INCOME-NO L A S T GRADE C O M P L E T E D HOW WELL D I D YOU DO AT SCHOO L SCORE ON T H E MEANING OF WORK S C A L E  TABLE  0.06266 0. 0 2 9 5 5 0.01 70S 0.01862 0.01303  0.09221 0. 109 29 0. 12792 0. 1 4 1 0 0 0. 15437  0.39290  0.05417  06/29/77  R  M U L T I P L E VARIA8LE..  E  MULTIPLE  VARIARLE TIME  TO F I N D  G  R  E  S  S  I  O  N  *  F I R S T F U L L - T I M E JOB  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * VARIABLE..  R  R SOUARE  0.17709  RSO CHANGE  0.03136  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  M U L  BETA  SIMPLE R  0.03136  -0.17709  -0.3680037 16.12420  -0.17709  06/29/77  I  P  L  R  E  E  G  R  E  S  S  I  O  N  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  * *  TOTJDl SUMMARY  VAR  *  TABLE  MULT 1 PL F S T E P W I S E R E G R E S S I O N S - S I G N I F I C A N T CONTRIBUTORS TO I AL J O I S A T I S F A C T I O N FILE THESIS ( C R E A T I O N GATE •= 0 6 / 1 3 / 7 7 )  DEPENDENT  *  TJDIPRG SUMMARY  E0UCw8 (CONSTANT)  0.18)83 - 0 . 1 1436 -0.30482 -0.15361 -0.13853 -0.17596  0.bl3H337 -1.773058 -5.539464 -0.9633390 -0.4093421 -4.095906 85.60964  0.25032 -0.20507 -0.17432 -0.10297 -0.18755  0.01337  BETA  B  SIMPLE R  MULTIPLE STEPWISE R E G R E S S I O N S - S I G N I F I C A N T CONTRIBUTORS J C i S A T I S F A C T I O N WITH PROMOTION FILE THESIS ( C R E A T I O N DATE = C 6 / 1 3 / 7 7 )  DEPENDENT  * **  0 N  R E G R E S S  URLE  TIME TO F I N D F I R S T F U L L - T I M E J O B EDUCES SCORE ON THE MEANING OF WORK S C A L E MEAN«»K T O T J U S I N • JOB INVOLVEMENT SEX HCW WELL DID YOU DC AT SCHOO L SCHEXP01 (CONSTANT)  MULTIPLE  0. 2 6 2 0 3 0.33497 0.37343 0.40324 0.41639  R  R  TABLE  SQUARE  0.06866 0. 1 1 2 2 0 0. 13948 0.16260 0.17338  RSO CHANGE  0.06866 0.0^3 54 0. 02 72 8 0.02312 0.01078  SIMPLE  BETA  R  0,26203 -0.23 106 0. 2 2 5 6 2 -0.03926 0.07756  2.2 83 646 - 1 . 9 14941 0.4554301 • a . 195693 1.968425 109.6513  0.23674 -0.22633 0 . 14744 - 0 . 19263 0.10929  

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