Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The matter of metaphor and its importance for linguistics Wigod, Rebecca 1976

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1976_A8 W53_9.pdf [ 6.37MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093895.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093895-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093895-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093895-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093895-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093895-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093895-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093895-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093895.ris

Full Text

THE MATTER OF METAPHOR AND I T S IMPORTANCE FOR L I N G U I S T I C S  REBECCA WIGOD B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1972  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s to  the required  as conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA June, ©  y  1976  R e b e c c a W i g o d , 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements f o r  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  this  written  representatives. thesis  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  not be allowed without my  permission.  Eingaistics  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  is understood that  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  Department of The  It  March 1 7  f  lQ7fi  (Grad  Columbia  Studies)  ABSTRACT This t h e s i s reviews the c u r r e n t s t y l i s t i c  litera-  ture to gain support f o r a claim that f i g u r a t i v e  meaning  in  are  g e n e r a l and  a n a l o g i c a l metaphor i n p a r t i c u l a r  i n t e g r a l processes of language  and, as such, a r e  o v e r r i d i n g concern to l i n g u i s t s . are  devoted  and narrow (the  t o d e f i n i n g the term s e n s e s and  broad sense  The  ' m e t a p h o r ' i n "both b r o a d  t h e dream as v i e w e d by fifth  e x p l a i n how  language  o f the term) w i t h i n the r u l e - g o v e r n e d The  f o u r t h c h a p t e r adds  n o t i o n t h a t metaphor i s the l i n g u i s t i c  The  three chapters  to l o c a t i n g f i g u r a t i v e  scheme t h a t i s l a n g u a g e .  to  first  of  sphere's  the  analogue  Freud.  c h a p t e r , "Metaphoric Tension," seeks  a metaphor o p e r a t e s .  surveyed believe that a kind  Most of the  to  writers  of t e n s i o n i s o p e r a t i v e — a  s o r t of t u r g o r pressure which keeps the f i g u r e a l i v e .  This  t e n s i o n i n t u r n i s b e s t a n a l y s e d i n terms  of paired  forces,  whose i m p a c t  While  two  i s centripetal/centrifugal.  f o r c e s have been d e s c r i b e d i n v a r i o u s ways and d i f f e r e n t names,  one  g e n e r a l i z i n g and  the o t h e r as p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g .  the under  c a n be c h a r a c t e r i z e d , b r o a d l y a s That i s ,  e v e r y m e t a p h o r f o c u s s e s s h a r p l y on t h e c o m p a r i s o n m a k i n g and  a t t h e same t i m e s u g g e s t s " w i d e r a n d  contexts" through "semantic  plenitude of  i t is  wider  implication."  i i .  Chapter S i x discusses individual can  be  visual  extent  metaphor i s a work of a r t .  to which  the  Art-object  status  accorded t o metaphors p a r t l y because of the i m a g e r y and  c o n s t r u c t i o n , and is  the  e x a m i n e d . -In  the so  symbolism t h a t goes i n t o  consciously created  their  imagery s role i n figurative  speech  1  a d d i t i o n , s i n c e new  quasi-  metaphors  are  by w r i t e r s ( a s o p p o s e d t o f r o z e n  or  i n e r t metaphors, which are used u n w i t t i n g l y i n speech), they are  subject  to the  artistic  enterprise.  standards that  Chapter Seven examines l o g i c t h a t i t i s not keeping with  a step-by/-step  the  The Seven has  'extra-logical,' element of  1  w i t h the  These p e c u l i a r i t i e s and  Chapter Eight  to a  of course,  ' l o g i c , ' but  1  In  and  others  subor-  'infra-  'analogical,'  i n bound  form.  i n Chapters F i v e , S i x  paired forces underlying  metaphors' imagery content  most d i f f i c u l t  finds  describe  counterlogical,  and,  m a t e r i a l presented t o do  i s relegated  Thus, the words which b e s t  metaphor's l o g i c , words l i k e  c o n t a i n the  i n metaphor, and  fact that greater c r e a t i v i t y i s permissible  dinate position.  all  private  quotidian logic at a l l .  i n metaphor, the matter of l o g i c  logical,'  judge any  their elliptical conspire  and  metaphors,  logic.  t o make m e t a p h o r s  to paraphrase i n d i s c u r s i v e language. i s devoted t o the q u e s t i o n  of  paraphrase.  iii.  Chapiter N i n e documents a d i v e r g e n t reasoning,  which claims  form of ordinary exploits  s t r a i n of  t h a t metaphor i s a h e i g h t e n e d  speech.  properties latent  T h i s p h i l o s o p h y h o l d s t h a t metaphor and u n t a p p e d  i n the  literal  tongue. The abilities, It  t e n t h c h a p t e r concerns metaphor's  cognitive  which, i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed, are  i s shown t h a t t h e a n a l o g y / ( m e t a p h o r s 1  prodigious.  prime  constituent)  i s man's c o g n i z i n g t o o l p a r e x c e l l e n c e , i n d i s p e n s a b l e both science The  and a r t .  final  adds a c a u t i o n a r y o f metaphor.  c h a p t e r summarizes  the foregoing  r i d e r i n d i c a t i n g the p o s s i b l e  These drawbacks,  almost inconsiderable figurative  in  in light  speech admits i n t o  and  misuses  i t i s concluded, are of the richness language.  that  iv  T A B L E OP CONTENTS Introduction  i  CHAPTER ONE: Sphere  Metaphor i n t h e L i n g u i s t i c IL  The P r o b l e m o f U n i v o c a l  CHAPTER TWO: Equivocal  Reference  What i s M e t a p h o r E x a c t l y ?  Reference  2  13 13  CHAPTER THREE": ', M e t a p h o r S e e n a s U n o r t h o d o x P l a y W i t h i n t h e System  19  CHAPTER FOUR:  27  :  "Rounded  M e t a p h o r a n d Dreams  Sensuous Object"  29  S ound-L i n k s  30  Ambiguous  30  S'ense-Links  Memory-Links  CHAPTER F I V E :  33  Metaphoric Tension  36  Distance  36  Abstraction versus Detail  38  Economy  39  Creative Defining A b i l i t y  39  V  CHAPTER S I X ;  49  The R o l e o f I m a g e r y  Different Levels  and  Different  Interpretations  54  Verification  54  i s Centripetal  55  Privacy CHAPTER SEVEN; 'Logic'  Metaphor's P a r t i c u l a r  Logic  57 57  i n Bound Form  The C o u n t e r l o g i c a l  i n Metaphor  58  Metaphor as E x t r a -  or Infralogical  61  Metaphor as A n a l o g i c a l  61  The T r u t h Q u e s t i o n  62  A Poetic  65  Grammar?  CHAPTER E I G H T ;  The D i f f i c u l t y  of Para-  phrasing Metaphor  68  Non-linearity  68  Economy  68  Equivocal  Reference  CHAPTER N I N E : Form  69  Metaphor Seen As a H e i g h t e n e d  o f Language  74  Ambiguity  76  Transference  76  Context  78  Predicating  a Nominal  Ethnocentricity  78 79  vi.  CHAPTER TENs Expressing  Metaphor and C o g n i t i o n  the O r i g i n a l  Defining-Inducing  Ability  81 8H 82  A n a l o g i z i n g t h e Known t o the Unknown  83  A H e l p f u l Vagueness  854.  D e r i v i n g Hypotheses  84  The A n a l o g i c a l A c t  86  Poetry  87  and Mathematics  Growth o f Knowledge and Language  89  The Residuum i s Knowledge  9B  CHAPTER ELEVEN:;  94  Conclusion  A Warning on the Dangers o f Metaphor's M i s u s e  94  Ethnocentricity  96  A u t h o r i t a t i v e n e s s o f the Copula-Link  97  Attitude-Shifting  9®  S e e i n g Too Much A n a l o g i c a l l y  100  Footnotes  102  Bibliography  113  vii.  INTRODUCTION The E n g l i s h poet Shelley has written that "language i s v i t a l l y metaphorical."  I have used t h i s four-word  opinion (umiturn:'.in parvo) as the springboard f o r my t h e s i s , seeking to show: (1)  that he i s r i g h t . Metaphor i s a v i t a l and indispensable process of language, and  (2)  why he i s r i g h t . Supposing that metaphor i s a necessary condition f o r language, how does i t work? Who, i n p a r t i c u l a r , uses metaphors, or do we a l l ? How much do we use them? Knowingly or unknowingly? Where? Why?' How?  In essence, then, my thesis i s a l i t e r a t u r e review* I have looked at roughly f o r t y w r i t e r s on f i g u r a t i v e language and have found that, to a man,  they agree that  metaphor's r o l e i n language i s enormous, fundamental. Their view was new to me.  Though I am a l i n g u i s t  on the one hand and an a s p i r i n g w r i t e r of prose on the other, I had never r e a l i z e d that metaphor had any sort of primacy i n language.  My private conception of metaphor,  i n s o f a r as I had one, was of Renaissance vintage; I thought  viii.  t h a t metaphor and t h e o t h e r s o - c a l l e d were e x t r i n s i c  t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n and u s e d f i t f u l l y as  ornaments t o one's l i t e r a r y  style.  The m e t h o d a n d i n t e n t o f t h i s the extreme.  f i g u r e s o f speech  thesis are simple i n  I have n o t t e s t e d Vancouver h i g h  school  s t u d e n t s on t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o and r e c a l l o f v a r i o u s m e t a p h o r s , a s one c o l l e a g u e * h a s d o n e . p r e d i c t i o n s a n d t a b u l a t e d no I n s t e a d , my is  a vital  I  results.  a i m was t o i n f o r m l i n g u i s t s  part of t h e i r area of concern.  l i n g u i s t s do e n c o u n t e r of  I h a v e made no  literature  t h a t metaphor  I f a n d when  m e t a p h o r , i t i s on t h e a l i e n  o r i n t h e shadowy g r e y a r e a o f  ground  stylistics.  am s u g g e s t i n g , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e y r e c o g n i z e m e t a p h o r  a s a l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon o f t h e f i r s t  order.  Walter K e i t h W i l k i n s o n . "Psychosemantic Aspects o f F i g u r a t i v e Language." U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J a n u a r y , 1976.  -1CHAPTER  ONE  METAPHOR I N THE L I N G U I S T I C  SYSTEM  "a f l o w e r i n t h e c r a n n i e d w a l l " M e t a p h o r s and o t h e r t y p e s o f f i g u r a t i v e live  s i d e by s i d e w i t h the l i t e r a l  fact  that there i s universal figurative  language  i n human s p e e c h .  The  c o n t e n t t o com-  m u n i c a t i o n d o e s n o t mean t h a t e v e r y s p e a k e r i s i m a g i n a tive  i n h i s use of language,  are  not.  in  speech  s i n c e c l e a r l y most  The r e a l r e a s o n f o r t h e i n c i d e n c e o f m e t a p h o r i s that the process of thought  i n a l i e n a b l y m e t a p h o r i c , and speech, c a n n o t h e l p b u t be so It  people  seems t o me  t h i s a r e a s o commonly  .  itself i s  i n expressing thought,  to®. that the l i n g u i s t ,  i n approaching  deemed t o be a n E n g l i s h - d e p a r t m e n t  b a i l i w i c k , n e e d s t o know t h e f o l l o w i n g s o r t s o f t h i n g s : 1.  Where d o e s t h e l i t e r a l i n s p e e c h l e a v e o f f and t h e f i g u r a t i v e b e g i n ?  2.  I s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i t e r a l and f i g u r a t i v e use o f words f r o z e n o r does i t shift?  2(a).  I f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s of a s h i f t i n g , changing nature, i s the m e t a p h o r i c - l i t e r a l change p a r t o f the o v e r a l l p r o c e s s o f language growth? :  3.  3(a).  I f t h e p r o c e s s o f t h o u g h t i s m e t a p h o r i c and s p e e c h p r e s e n t s t h o u g h t , why i s m e t a p h o r n o t t h e norm and l i t e r a l r e f e r e n c e t h e e x c e p t i o n ? C a n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n f a c t be c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t e r m s o f a norm' a n d a n e x c e p t i o n ? '  The p u r p o s e  of t h i s f i r s t  chapter i s to pinpoint  -2metaphorical it  l a n g u a g e o n t h e b r o a d map o f s p e e c h .  i snecessary  First,  to look a t the question of reference i n  g e n e r a l ; t h a t i s , how a p a r t i c u l a r w o r d comes t o r e f e r t o a particular thing. This question i s deeply is  functionally  linguists, and  inert  p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and moreover  i nlinguistic  circles.  The e a r l i e s t  de S a u s s u r e e s p e c i a l l y , d e a l t w i t h t h e m a t t e r ,  t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s a r e embedded a t t h e b a s e o f t h e f i e l d ' s  literature.  Roughly, i thas been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e l a -  t i o n s h i p between a word l i k e table  'table'  and an a c t u a l p h y s i c a l  i s an a r b i t r a r y but f i x e d convention.  Additionally,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between word and t h i n g i n t h e o r d i n a r y s p o k e n l a n g u a g e i s a more o r l e s s u n i v o c a l o n e . one  word p e r t h i n g , i n o t h e r  The  Problem o f Univocal  There i s  words.  Reference  To g i v e a name i s a n e n o r m o u s m e t a p h y s i c a l  task  b e c a u s e a name i n i t i a t e s a f i x e d a n d b i n d i n g u n i v o c a l relationship.  Once a n o b j e c t o r phenomenon w i t h i n t h e  human p u r v i e w i s named, i t i s t a g g e d f o r l i f e  and, unless  t h e name i s p a r t o f a s t r i c t s c i e n t i f i c t a x o n o m y , i s t h e n c e f o r t h subject t o d e p r e c i a t i o n from constant and  use.  Bestowal  of a noun-label  i s especially  tuous because w i t h t h e noun, u n l i k e t h e verb a d j e c t i v e , a whole complex o f a t t r i b u t e s willy-nilly  into  abrasion presump-  and t h e  i s corralled  the chosen a r b i t r a r y l a b e l . T h u s , f o r  example, u t t e r a n c e  o f t h e word  ' t r e e ' c o n j u r e s up images  of l e a f i n e s s , and b a r k ,  shadiness, branchiness, tallness,  a l l a t once a n d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y .  qualities  s p r i n g t o the mind unbidden;  stripped-down mental  described,"however  'tree'  slightly,  i s found  them.  i n a c o n t e x t and  t h e mind's a r c h e t y p a l t r e e  begins t o t r a n s f o r m — t o decrease tallness  A l l of these  even t h e most  t r e e i s bound t o have  But once t h e word  slimness  i n l e a f i n e s s a n d wax i n  i f the tree i n q u e s t i o n proves  or t o whiten i n bark i f a b i r c h .  t o be a n e v e r g r e e n ,  To u s e a n o u n c l e a r l y a n d  u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n any g i v e n sense, t h e n , c e r t a i n o f i t s a t t r i b u t e s must be s t r e s s e d a t t h e e x p e n s e o f o t h e r s . s p e a k e r ' s s e l e c t i o n o f one p a r t i c u l a r  sense  c o n t i n u a l l y r e a f f i r m e d , t o o , by connected context i n which  t h e noun  The  o f a noun i s  speech—the  greater  resides.  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e t a s k o f naming, the d e s i g n a t i o n of v e r b a l and a d j e c t i v a l tal  an u n d e r t a k i n g .  concepts  The c o n c e p t s  n o u n c o n c e p t s a n d do n o t d e c o m p o s e meaning.  C e r t a i n l y , the verb  image o f a l e a p .  i s n o t n e a r l y a s monumeninvolved are simpler than i n t o a s many s h a r d s o f  'jump' c o n j u r e s u p t h e m e n t a l  I t may b e a h i g h jump o r a l o w jump  i s m e a n t , a jump e n e r g e t i c a l l y e x e c u t e d qualitites  that  o r n o t , but these  c a n n o t be a b s t r a c t e d o u t o f t h e v e r b a s l e a f i n e s s ;  may f r o m t h e n o u n  'tree.'  I n f a c t , W.H.  Leatherdale has  shown t h a t v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s a r e s u f f u s e d w i t h meaning from t h e i r n e i g h b o u r i n g nouns.  additional  F o r nouns, i n t h e i r  -4polymorphism, a c t u a l l y have a s u r f e i t o v e r f l o w s them and r u n s , p r o f i t a b l y ,  of,meaning,  i n t o the verbs  a d j e c t i v e s , g i v i n g them s h a p e a n d c o l o u r . ground h i s t e e t h ' and • t e e t h ' and of  'ground,  'He  Thus,  and  i n ''He  ground the c o r n , ' ^ the nouns  'corn' d e f i n e and d i f f e r e n t i a t e 1  which  t h e two  senses  a f e a t which the verb alone i s powerless to  effectuate. As any l i n g u i s t knows, words a r e b u t  arbitrary  l a b e l s , w i t h no r e l a t i o n t o w h a t t h e y s t a n d f o r o t h e r t h a n the c o n v e n t i o n a l : or s i g n i f i c a n c e , linked  a t r e e i s a Baum i s a n a r b r e . .  Meaning,  o n l y b e g i n s t o a c c r u e when w o r d s a r e  t o g e t h e r , so t h a t c o n t e x t becomes t h e a l l L - i m p o r t a n t  mucilage of speech.  As I see i t ,  the noun, i n  a complicated G e s t a l t under a s i n g l e ponderous  of the w o r d - c l a s s e s .  subsuming  term, i s the most  Because  c e r t a i n aspects of  the noun a r e emphasized by the l a r g e r c o n t e x t o f sentence o r p a r a g r a p h , t h e n o u n c a n be c o n t e x t , and  seen as b e i n g c l o s e s t t o the  to the meaningfulness of speech.  w o r d - c l a s s e s ,are a r r a y e d i n s e r r i e d (It  The  ranks beneath  other them.  seems n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o h a v e s u c h a h i e r a r c h y  u n i v o c a l r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e word  classes.  of  I f nouns a r e a t  t h e t o p , p r e p o s i t i o n s w o u l d be n e a r t h e b o t t o m a n d  articles  at the base). E a c h noun has a head-meaning (Empson's t e r m ) , ^ a s o r t o f a r c h e t y p a l sense i n which a l l  o f the noun's  -5-  d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i a are that  'science'  filled.  For  i n s t a n c e , i f we  a t i t s most a b s t r a c t i s  mathematic, systematic speak of p h y s i c s  and  as b e i n g  agree  experimental,  p a i n s t a k i n g , t h e n when a s c i e n c e , we  we  are u s i n g  the  t e r m i n i t s head-meaning;; a l l o f t h e minimum b a s i c ments are other  satisfied.  t h o u g h t h e y may  the r e q u i s i t e s .  physics  is still  i s a whole c o n s t e l l a t i o n of 'science'  satisfy  only  a cat f o r a l l thatv The  As  deceptively benign—reveals plug  t h i n g does  the  possibilities of simple  Each  and,  has  given  legion. rise  most, major p h i l o s o p h i c a l arguments, causing to overhaul  to avoid  the  ail-too  question  of semantics  in  noun-label—  v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e contexts,  of sense r e - r o u t i n g are  others  that  a whole panoply of sockets  univocal reference  B e r g s o n and  every  not  reference  sense i n t o ( i t s b a s i c d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i a ) ,  t o t h e n u m b e r and  as  "more o r l e s s " u n i v o c a l , w h i c h  more o f t e n t h a n n o t .  1  'science'  three  one-to-one correspondence  I said earlier,  l i t e r a l meaning i s only means " l e s s ^  or  I n other words,  m i g h t hope t o e x i s t b e t w e e n word and occur.  two  equally  i t s l e s s mathematic c o n s t i t u t i o n ; a  noun i s a cover term.  invariably  t h a t are one,  B o t a n y i s as p a l p a b l y  i s , despite  Manx c a t  we  there  a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the word  legitimate, of  Yet,  require-  due  the (This  lack  t o many, i f n o t thinkers  t h e i r terminology  like  drastically  common d i s c l a i m e r t h a t " I t ' s a [sic]."  to  F r a n c i s Bacon i s an out  to tabulate r e a l i t y  f o r terms to apply p e r f e c t the  and  a s we  know i t ,  analogies  t o be made.  (a l i s t  of a l l s i m i l a r i t i e s ) ,  of a l l d i f f e r e n c e s ) .  of connotations,.for  I t was  to present  terms are  But  every word.  t h a t term."  'brother,'  'cube' and  face  'mulatto,'  to  brothers;, and  not  t h e i r having  a d d i t i o n to t h e i r being s e t up  brothers."  a s t r a w man  pro-  entitle  o f i t some others:  t o name a  as  few.  between 7 Simon  h a v e i n c:ommon t h a t  t h e i r having  t h e y are male s i b l i n g s i s t h e i r h a v i n g  It  is a  straightforward relation  " I t i s true that brothers  t h e y are male s i b l i n g s , but  rately  the  t h i n g seems t o e x i s t , p r o b l e m s c r o p u p ,  points out:  are  i s a tall.order.  C e r t a i n l y on  even where a r e l a t i v e l y  w o r d and  panoply  b e t t e r suited to univocal d e f i n i t i o n than  '•bicycle,'  (a  this  the  or set of p r o p e r t i e s necessary to anything  to apply  and  a T a b l e o f Degrees-  s i m p l i f y i n g i n o r d i n a t e l y to expect that "there  perty  to  and  a noble,attempt,  So u n i v o c a l m e a n i n g , o b v i o u s l y  one  Seeking  a Table of D e v i a t i o n  l o c k i n g of horns with the/universe,  is  the b e t t e r ( f o r ) )  a r r i v e d at a Table of Essence  ( a s c a l a r v e r s i o n o f same), and list  set  somewhat a p p r o x i m a t e d o v e t a i l i n g o f w o r d s  p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y , he Presence  e x a m p l e o f a t h i n k e r who  i n crommon t h a t  i n common t h a t  they  i n common s o m e t h i n g i n T h o u g h he  of a tautology  Simon succeeds i n showing t h a t under the  has  delibe-  t o make h i s  point,  philosopher's  burning  g l a s s , language i s quite capable  i n t o a welter of hopeless  confusion.  ofd i s i n t e g r a t i n g  As W i t t g e n s t e i n has  intimated, ostensive d e f i n i t i o n i s the l a s t resort of meaning, i . e . t h e p r o d u c t i o n  o f one's c o r p o r e a l  brother  t o s u b s t a n t i a t e one's p o i n t . . Since l i t e r a l it  i s the f a l l a c y  terms e x i s t  language purports  to describe  o f t h a t language t o imply  t h a t i s adequate t o r e a l l y  ( " P l a i n speech i s e s s e n t i a l l y  reality,  that a set of  "cover"  reality.  i n a c c u r a t e , " wrote Hulme).  What i n f a c t h a p p e n s i s t h a t t h e s e t o f t e r m s b e c o m e s l i k e s o many t o k e n s i n t h e V o l k s m u n d . vitiated  f o r "having  Words a r e s e r i o u s l y  simultaneously  more o r l e s s s i m i l a r * ( w h i c h  t o f i t innumerable  r e a l l y means n e v e r  equal,  o  therefore a l t o g e t h e r unequal) cases." this  i s as i t should  be.  After a l l ,  m a t t e r o f b l a c k and w h i t e ,  B u t n o t t o panic*, existence  i s not a  but of subtle gradations.  W h i t e h e a d w r o t e , " t h e d i f f e r e n t modes o f n a t u r a l shade o f f i n t o each o t h e r . L a n g u a g e describes  it,  characterizes i t ,  proves protean,  simply * Vide  existence,  So i f r e a l i t y  i t because "language and  i n t e r a c t and prove fundamentally  separate  apes i t .  existence  i n t r a c t a b l e o r a m b i g u o u s , we c a n n o t  to language t o untangle  to an extent  reproduces  1  look  experience  i m p l i c a t e d w i t h each  t h a t makes i t d i f f i c u l t  entities." ^  As  to consider  other  them a s  A s Empson h a s shown, a m b i g u i t y i s  endemic i n l a n g u a g e . Bacon's t a b l e s o f s i m i l a r i t y and d i f f e r e n c e .  This looseness of terminology i s inevitable i n language f o r another reason, t h i s is,  new t e r m s t h a t a r i s e  one d e v e l o p m e n t a l .  tend t o f a l l  i n with the pre-  e x i s t i n g pattern of nomenclature, r e s u l t i n g i n a arbitrariness.  That  certain  Wenerberg e x p l a i n s i t as f o l l o w s :  When a new o b j e c t e m e r g e s t h a t h a s n o t y e t b e e n subsumed u n d e r a n y t e r m , i t w i l l be subsumed u n d e r some t e r m A b e c a u s e i t i s s i m i l a r t o some o f t h e o b j e c t s a l r e a d y s u b s u m e d u n d e r A. A n d i f s t i l l a n o t h e r o b j e c t emerges t h a t i s s i m i l a r t o t h e f o r m e r o b j e c t , i t m i g h t be subsumed u n d e r A as w e l l . B u t i t m i g h t v e r y w e l l be t h e c a s e t h a t i f t h e f o r m e r o b j e c t had n e v e r emerged, t h e l a t t e r m i g h t h a v e b e e n s u b s u m e d u n d e r some o t h e r t e r m i n s t e a d o f A. ( I U ) There if  i shistorical  inevitability  to this process. For,  c a p a b l e o f n o t h i n g e l s e l o g i c a l , man i s a c r e a t u r e  f u r t h e r s and expands c o n s t r u c t s once he h a s s t a r t e d (often t o the point of f o l l y  or absurdity).  Hyman i n s t a n c e s t h e p r o c e s s n i c e l y , n o t drawn f r o m t h e l i n g u i s t i c  Stanley  who  them Edgar  though h i s example i s  sphere:  N e w t o n b a n i s h e d God f r o m n a t u r e , D a r w i n b a n i s h e d him from l i f e , Freud drove him from the l a s t fastness, the soul. I t was a l l l a t e n t i n N e w t o n , in Descartes, i n Galileo: mechanism would conquer a l l , o n c e i t h a d c o n q u e r e d n a t u r e , f o r man's, b o d y was s p r u n g f r o m n a t u r e a n d h i s m i n d f r o m h i s b o d y . ( 1 2 ) Another p o s s i b i l i t y nomenclature referred created.  i n a pre-existing pattern of  i s reorganization, the "re-routing"  t o above.  Rubrics f i l l  o f sense  u p a n d new o n e s a r e  T h i s c a n h a p p e n when w h a t h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a  -9-  s u b s i d i a r y a t t r i b u t e o f a t e r m , one o f i t s symptoms as its  i t were, begins t o serve as a d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i o n i n own r i g h t ( a h e a d - m e a n i n g ) .  A g a i n , Wenerberg e l u c i d a t e s : :  Phenomena p o s s e s s i n g a f e a t u r e A a r e subsumed u n d e r c o n c e p t X , w h o s e d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i o n i s A. I f a l l t h e s e phenomena a l s o h a v e t h e f e a t u r e B i n common, t h i s may c a u s e u s t o subsume u n d e r X a new phenomenon t h a t h a s t h e f e a t u r e B b u t l a c k s A. T h u s , B u s e d t o be a symptom b u t h a s become a criterion. (14) A c t u a l l y , Wenerberg's second growth p r o c e s s i s almost as p r e d i c t a b l e a s h i s f i r s t . furthered: deviated  yes.  But a construct,  once s t a r t e d , i s -  once s t a r t e d , i s a l s o  from p r e d i c t a b l y , i s taken issue with.  s u r r e a l i s m , dadaism, theater rest are very not  A construct,  much p a r t  Thus,  o f t h e a b s u r d , pop a r t and t h e  of the western t r a d i t i o n ;  they are  adventitious. U s i n g an approach t h a t d i f f e r e d from Bacon's b u t  w i t h not d i s s i m i l a r i n t e n t , Ludwig Wittgenstein examine language m i n u t e l y , Vagueness and A m b i g u i t y .  to corner  s e t out t o  and c a p t u r e t h e b e a s t s  H i s attempt i s deeply r e f l e c t i v e and  a c h i e v e s a m e a s u r e o f s u c c e s s on t h e d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l . of h i s theories is  i s c a l l e d "meaning-as-use."  point  t h a t meaning i s i n e x t r i c a b l y context-bound, something I  have argued  above.  The s e c o n d c o n c e i t and  I t smain  One  i t i s so p e r c e p t i v e  language that  i s h i s Family  Resemblance  i n describing the vagaries  i tbears reproducing  here:  theory, of  -10-  C o n s i d e r f o r e x a m p l e t h e p r o c e e d i n g s t h a t we c a l l games..' I mean h o a r d - g a m e s , c a r d - g a m e s , ©lympic games, a n d s o o n . What i s common t o t h e m a l l ? . . . i f y o u l o o k a t them y o u w i l l n o t s e e s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s common t o a l l , h u t s i m i l a r i t i e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d a w h o l e s e r i e s o f them a t t h a t . ...Are t h e y a l l 'amusing?' Compare c h e s s w i t h naughts and c r o s s e s . Or i s t h e r e a l w a y s w i n n i n g and l o s i n g , o r c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n p l a y e r s ? Think of patience. I n b a l l games, t h e r e i s w i n n i n g and l o s i n g ; b u t when a c h i l d t h r o w s h i s b a l l a t t h e w a l l and c a t c h e s i t a g a i n , t h i s f e a t u r e has d i s appeared. Look a t t h e p a r t s p l a y e d by s k i l l and l u c k ; a n d a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s k i l l i n chess^ a n d s k i l l i n t e n n i s . T h i n k now o f games l i k e r i n g a - r i n g - a - r o s e s ; h e r e i s t h e e l e m e n t o f amusement, b u t how many o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s h a v e disappeared!....the r e s u l t of t h i s examination i s : we s e e a c o m p l i c a t e d n e t w o r k o f s i m i l a r i t i e s o v e r l a p p i n g and c r i s s c r o s s i n g : sometimes o v e r a l l s i m i l a r i t i e s , sometimes s i m i l a r i t i e s o f d e t a i l . I c a n t h i n k o f no b e t t e r e x p r e s s i o n t o c h a r a c t e r i z e these s i m i l a r i t i e s than 'family resemblances;* f o r t h e v a r i o u s r e s e m b l a n c e s b e t w e e n members o f a family: b u i l d , f e a t u r e s , c o l o u r o f eyes, g a i t , temperament, e t c . , e t c . o v e r l a p and c r i s s - c r o s s i n t h e same way. (15) 1  This analogy,  though v a s t l y a p p e a l i n g , i s h a r d l y  ( o r only  16 minimally)  a "theory,"  as Michael  Simon has p o i n t e d o u t .  T h i s b e c a u s e i t h a s no e x p l a n a t o r y it and  c a n n o t e x p l a i n why t a g a n d b o b b i n g f o r a p p l e s running  When i t i s t h u s language begins  i t can  r e a d i n g o r w a s h i n g a game."  scrutinized,  t h e whole f a b r i c o f  t o look q u i t e diaphanous ( t h a t i s n o t t o  "moth-eaten," f o r t h e gau.ziness  throughout).  a r e games  a r a c e a n d f i s h i n g a r e n o t a n y more t h a n  e x p l a i n why "we do n o t c a l l  say  o r p r e d i c t i v e power:  I t i s this  i s even-textured  f i l m i n e s s w h i c h makes l a n g u a g e  a n a t u r a l medium f o r p o e t r y :  i t p o s i t i v e l y breeds  )  evocation.  -11-  F i g u r a t i v e language  t a k e s up t h e s l a c k i n p l a i n  speech,  17  and a s M a r c u s H e s t e r shows, up.  t h e r e i s ample s l a c k t o t a k e  He a r g u e s t h a t n o t e v e r y t h i n g i n l a n g u a g e  g o v e r n e d , and compares t h e r u l e s o f language  i s rule-  to tennis  r u l e s , w h e r e i n one i s n o t t o l d how h i g h t o t h r o w t h e h a l l when s e r v i n g .  Wild  excesses i n throwing the h a l l , are both  c o n c e i v a b l e and p e r m i s s i b l e i n t e n n i s . linguistic  So l a n g u a g e  of  its  language.  i sr i d d l e d with areas of imprecision,  " f i g u r a t i v e language")  grows,  a flower i n the crannied  I t n o t o n l y grows b u t i t l u x u r i a t e s , a c h i e v i n g , i n  a r e t h r e e ways i n w h i c h t h i s  which prefigure  i s accomplished, a l l of  s u c c e e d i n g s t a g e s o f my a r g u m e n t , s o l e t  be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t I w i l l d e v e l o p them f u r t h e r  on. F i r s t , . H e s t e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t f i g u r a t i v e " a c c e p t s a l l d a t a on a n e q u a l f o o t i n g . " of  that  i m p r e c i s e d e m e s n e , a c e r t a i n p r e c i s i o n o f i t s own.  There  it  or figurative  i t i s here t h a t metaphor ( i n i t s broadest sense,  wall..  i n the  system t o t h i s freedom w i t h i n a r u l e - g o v e r n e d  game i s m e t a p h o r ,  and  The a n a l o g u e  symptoms a n d c r i t e r i a  (note:  •  later  language  The h i e r a r c h i e s  see t h e Wenerberg quote,  p . 9) t h a t o b t a i n i n t h e r u l e - g o v e r n e d p a r t o f l a n g u a g e do n o t a p p l y h e r e ; a n u m b r e l l a a n d a s e w i n g m a c h i n e c a n v e r y w e l l come t o g e t h e r a n d m i s c e g e n a t e table.  on a n o p e r a t i n g  When a p a r t i c u l a r m e t a p h o r c o m p a r e s A a n d B,  -12-  A a n d B c a n be a s d i f f e r e n t a s n i g h t a n d d a y .  In  a d i f f e r e n c e o f t h a t m a g n i t u d e w o u l d be p i t i a b l y the  realm of  fact, tame i n  metaphor.  S e c o n d , W e l l e r E m b l e r makes t h e p o i n t t h a t a r e more e x a c t t h a n w o r d s .  (Here the r e a d e r w i l l  symbols have  to  t a k e i t o n f a i t h f o r t h e moment t h a t s y m b o l s a r e somehow part of metaphor). is  He w r i t e s t h a t "we  s l a v e r y , b u t we may  full  may s a y t h a t r  freedom  n o t u s e t h e image o f a s e a g u l l i n  c a r e e r a s a n emblem o f i m p r i s o n m e n t . " ^ ^  The k e y  h e r e i s t h a t f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e h a s i t s own l o g i c .  notion The  terms o f i t s a c c u r a c y , i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and i t s b e a u t y are  judged by c r i t e r i a  t h a t are not those which judge  dis-  cursive language. Finally,  S c o t t Buchanan  and M a r t i n P o s s , w o r k i n g  s e p a r a t e l y , r e a c h t h e p o i n t where t h e y c a n r e l a t e p o e t r y and m a t h e m a t i c s .  profitably  I f figurative  language  a d m i t s a l l d a t a o n a n e q u a l f o o t i n g , t h e s e d a t a c a n be t o f u n c t i o n a s n u m b e r s do i n m a t h e m a t i c s . the  p o e t i c a r e a o f l a n g u a g e l i c e n s e s any  w o r d s , s o t h a t w o r d s come t o h a v e lities  of union,  principle  In other  words,  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of  enormous l a t e n t p o s s i b i -  j u s t a s a number "has as i t s i n t r i n s i c  the c a p a c i t y o f s t r e t c h i n g beyond  u n i t i n g with- others,  seen  tending toward a  sum."  itself 20  and  -13-  CHAPTER  TWO  WHAT I S METAPHOR E X A C T L Y ? Equivocal  Reference  It  i s imperative  metaphor p r o v i s i o n a l l y ,  t o stop  a t t h i s p o i n t and d e f i n e  t o g e t down some k i n d  of skeletal  d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h c a n be f l e s h e d o u t a n d c l o t h e d ceeding paragraphs. differentiate  To b e g i n w i t h , I w o u l d l i k e t o  metaphor-the-trope from t h e sense o f  t h a t means " f i g u r a t i v e fusion, I w i l l latter  language  use a c a p i t a l  i n general."  example,  To a v o i d  classic  :  quadripartite definition, f o r  narrow  s e n s e , comes u n r e m a r k e d  typology  of h i sdefinition.  lists  these tropes:  Small-"m"  (He d i d n o t e x p l i c i t l y and metaphor).  (a) t r o p e  (b) trope  i t s species,  compared w i t h  one o f i t s g e n e r a , ( c ) t r o p e  an analogy.  His  i n w h i c h a genus i s  compared w i t h  compared w i t h a n o t h e r s p e c i e s ,  metaphor,  i n t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h  make a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n M e t a p h o r  i n which  a. s p e c i e s i s  i n which a  and (d) a trope  T y p e s ( a ) a n d ( b ) a r e metonymy a n d  to the kind  of prodigiousness  species  t h a t makes synecdoche  r e s p e c t i v e l y , whose w o r k i n g s a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n g e n u o u s  The  con-'  "M" w h e n e v e r I i n t e n d t h e  concerns c a p i t a l - " M " Metaphor.  sub-categories  is  'metaphor'  sense. Aristotle's  the  i n suc-  next  t h a t metaphor i s capable o f .  scope o f t h i s paper, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l  not include  them.  -14-  The  narrow sense of the  term, small-"m" metaphor,  r e f e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r f i g u r e o f s p e e c h , so dual "the"  instances or "a."  of t h i s usage are Simpler,  often  less masterful  that A r i s t o t l e describes  as b e i n g  that  indivi-  found prefaced  with  metaphors are  those,  species-to-species  c:om-  21 parisons. tive  As H e n l e e x p l a i n s ,  s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n two  thing."  As  an  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  i l l u s t r a t i o n , Henle gives  t o a s l y p e r s o n as an this  t h e y r e m a r k "mere q u a l i t a -  "old fox."  type of metaphor as  the  act  of r e f e r r i n g  (Some w r i t e r s r e f e r  elided simile since  comparison stated i m p l i c i t l y w i t h  same  the  i t is a  e x c l u s i v e l y concerned) comprise a l i n g u i s t i c  worthy of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . tropes,  and  of great  are  They a r e  c a p a b l e , w i t h i n the  c o g n i t i v e c o u p s and  the  distinct  terms of the  other.  situations, with His  cloak  one  nose.  Yet  I.A.  This  Richards  those  example, from K e a t s ,  r e m a r k e d on  in  is  i n gloom,... i n terms of  i s done r i g h t u n d e r t h e has  words,  that  understood  poet develops " h a t e f u l thoughts"  or blanket.  the  bouleversements.  When b y my s o l i t a r y h e a r t h I s i t , And h a t e f u l t h o u g h t s e n w r a p my s o u l where the  of  compass o f a few  intellectual  study  phenomenon  virtuosos  H e n l e c h a r a c t e r i z e s a n a l o g i c a l m e t a p h o r s as p r e s e n t two  simple  copula).  Metaphors i n v o l v i n g analogy (with which t h i s is  to  a  reader's '2.c  the " s u r r e p t i t i o u s " '  -15-  nature  o f such a metaphor, because  syntactically quite  ( a ) i t i s i n n o way  d e v i a n t , and (b) t h e mechanics o f i t s a r e  subtle.  Cloaks  or blankets  a r e n o t even mentioned,  23 enabling a conceptual  dislodgement  a f e a t o f legerdemain.  t o be p e r p e t r a t e d  Metaphors o f t h i s type  like  fairly  24 reverberate  with the tension of t h e i r  a c h i e v e m e n t , o f w h i c h more l a t e r .  stereoscopic;  (Note:  See C h a p t e r  Five). W.H.  Leatherdale  observed that the j u x t a p o s i t i o n  o f two s i t u a t i o n s i n a m e t a p h o r i s e s s e n t i a l l y a 25 of contexts, of the f i e l d  a n o t i o n t h a t seems v e r y of connotations  each term b r i n g s w i t h i t .  mixing  reasonable  ( f a m i l y resemblances)  i n light that  What t h e m e t a p h o r d o e s i s t o  26 s e l e c t the relevant aspects  o f t h e two terms b e i n g  com-  p a r e d , s o t h a t two v a s t a n d m u l t i p l e x i d e a s a r e m o m e n t a r i l y w e d d e d * a t one p o i n t . capture  this  A Venn d i a g r a m would  t a n g e n t i a l meeting:  The  B a s i s f o ra Metaphor  T h u s , when a p o e t e x a l t s t h e r o s e s roses  schematically  i n h i slady's  are being understood i n t h e i r "fragrance,  *One w r i t e r c a l l s  cheeks^ pinkness  t h e e n c o u n t e r a " g l a n c i n g o s c u l a t i o n . „ 27  -16-  and  softness;"  28  t h e i r t h o r n i n e s s , l e a f i n e s s and  are d e c i d e d l y not r e l e v a n t  yellowness  aspects.  Imagery, t h e n , i s a p a r t o f metaphor, though j u s t how  much o f i t i s p u r e l y v i s u a l i s a bone o f  among p h i l o s o p h e r s , as W i l k i n s o n has The  s e l e c t i o n of r e l e v a n t aspects  contention 29  demonstrated.  t o be compared seems t o  hone the vague and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d m e n t a l image, l i k e t h e metamorphic t r e e o f page ( 2 ) .  W h i l e most w r i t e r s on  metaphor p r e f e r t o s u p p r e s s i n t i m a t i o n s t h a t i t s i m a g i s t i c p a r t i s v i s u a l , Marcus H e s t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t even a comparison l i k e v i s u a l element.  simple  ' I wandered l o n e l y as a c l o u d ' has a q u a s i He  s a y s t h a t "one has 30  w a n d e r i n g as a c l o u d ' s  journey."'  He  t o see the  poet's  goes on t o show t h a t  s e e i n g - a s i s an a b i l i t y t h a t i s t o l i t e r a t u r e as  ordinary  s e e i n g i s t o the n a t u r a l w o r l d , s o m e t h i n g t h a t one has be f i t t e d out w i t h t o make one's way. dity—like  a t i n ear i n m u s i c — h e c a l l s  A l a c k o f the commo"aspect b l i n d n e s s . "  There i s good sense i n t h i s v i e w o f H e s t e r ' s , as L e o n a r d A n g e l has  to  shown i n h i s " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  since, Analysis  o f Metaphor," metaphors a r e r a r e l y marked by s p e c i a l ( o r deviant)  syntax.  l i t e r a l falseness. read r i g h t , unless  Rather, they are recognized 31  o n l y by  their  That i s , i f a p h r a s e does n o t seem t o i t i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y a b s u r d , one  f a i r l y s u r e t h a t i t i s a metaphor, and  i s n o t t o be  can  be  decoded  -17-  literally  by t h e reader.  . A f i g u r a t i v e r e a d i n g means, t o o ,  t h a t t h e m e t a p h o r i s t o be j u d g e d " o n i t s own g r o u n d s a n d i s n o t t o be v e r i f i e d e x t e r n a l l y . I n t h i s way, t h e o n u s i s o n t h e r e a d e r to discover  of literature  the metaphors t h a t are bivouacked i n the l i t e r a l  language and t o m o b i l i z e h i s s e e i n g - a s f a c u l t y f o r t h e i r apprehension.*  A s t u t e n e s s on h i s p a r t  because as L e a t h e r d a l e by  r i g h t l y points  t h e i r nature are not l i k e l y 32  i s a prerequisite, out, "analogical acts  t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h  obvious  t o the. p o s i t i o n t h a t  there  resemblances." T h i s b r i n g s , me d i r e c t l y are  good and b a d m e t a p h o r s .  In fact,  the l e s s obvious the  resemblances that are brought t o l i g h t , and  " b e t t e r " the metaphor.  term's s t a p l e connotations of  'tree,' f o r instance)  with  t h e more  masterful  M e t a p h o r s t h a t a r e based on a (leafiness,  will  shadiness: and t a l l n e s s  be l a c k l u s t r e i n c o m p a r i s o n  t h o s e t h a t e x p l o i t i t s more r e c h e r c h e s e n s e s .  f o r m e r m e t a p h o r s seem b l a n d  and d a n g e r o u s l y  'moon p e e p i n g f r o m b e h i n d a c l o u d '  The  near-literal—  i s t h e example g i v e n  by  33 Beardsley.  G o o d m e t a p h o r s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , seem t o s a y  m o r e a b o u t t h e i r o b j e c t s a n d t o s a y i t more p r e c i s e l y : Beardsley  gives  ' i n c o n s t a n t moon' a s a n e x a m p l e .  What i s  m o r e , t h e more " s u r r e p t i t i o u s " t h e a n a l o g i c a l c o u p , t h e b e t t e r  34 the metaphor, w r i t e s C h r i s t i n e Brooke-Rose, as exemplary Shakespeare's metaphor * s t a l k i n g the w i l y metaphor?  who  'Thy l u s t r e  submits  thickens'  -18-  a n d D y l a n T h o m a s ' s *The w a g g i n g  clock.'  as e s p e c i a l l y  they t r a n s f e r meaning from  one  e f f e c t i v e because  sphere to another s w i f t l y ,  poet's agency  their unconventionality.  The  stated,  difference  the  t h e m s e l v e s c a n be v i e w e d a s e p h e m e r a w h o s e I n the f i r s t  s t a g e , they shock  double-barrelled  smarts w i t h newness.  f i r s t u s e d , had  a c c e p t e d , and  them  c o m p l e t e l y and w i t h  l i v e s have t h r e e s t a g e s .  w h e n i t was  sees  nowhere i n e v i d e n c e .  Metaphors  baldly  She  this  (The w o r d  effect.)  image,  with  so  'skyscraper,'  Second,  they are  t h e c o m p a r i s o n has a momentary t r i u m p h .  The  i n kind which they present ( l i k e Descartes'  body-machine a n a l o g y ) i s b a n d i e d a b o u t and g l o r i e d i n . Moribundity i s the t h i r d fades from a d i f f e r e n c e for  s t a g e , where t h e image's f r e s h n e s s i n k i n d t o one  of degree.  i n s t a n c e , h e a r t h a t " t h e body i s m e r e l y a  Descartes' 35 value. -  f i g u r e h e r e i s a t a l o w ebb, v o i d Henle  e x p l a i n s a metaphor's  One  might,  machine." of a l l  shock  slow death i n t h i s  ...where m e t a p h o r i s u s e d t o e x t e n d l a n g u a g e [e.g. • s k y s c r a p e r ' J , the disappearance of the primary c l a s h o f senses produces a l i t e r a l sense [as i n ' t a b l e - l e g J . I n m e t a p h o r s o f t h e more p o e t i c t y p e , s o m e t h i n g o f t h e same s o r t may go o n , r e s u l t i n g i n a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d f i g u r a t i v e sfense of a t e r m and a t r i t e metaphor. (36) 1  way:  -19-  CHAPTER THREE METAPHOR SEEN AS UNORTHODOX PLAY WITHIN THE N o r t h r o p F r y e has w r i t t e n t h a t standards to d i s t i n g u i s h a verbal  "we  SYSTEM  h a v e no  structure  real  that i s  37  literary about  f r o m 6he  that i s not."  I c a n be l e s s  t h e m a t t e r , I t h i n k , by e m p l o y i n g H e s t e r ' s a p p e a l i n g  analogy of the t e n n i s - s e r v e .  P o r i n l a n g u a g e , as i n t e n n i s ,  there i s a certain a r e a — t h e l i t e r a r y obligatory rules  obtain.  or p o e t i c — w h e r e  L a c k o f r u l e s , a s was  a l m o s t i n v i t e s w i l d abandon i n the use rules  diffident  of language, l i k e  implicitly  noted - e a r l i e r ,  of a system.  those of most systems, are  r i f e w i t h l o o p h o l e s and C a t c h - 2 2 ' s .  Their very  As W h e e l w r i g h t  put i t ,  literal  The floutable,  existence  c o n d o n e s u n o r t h o d o x p l a y b y a n y o n e who  them c r e a t i v e l y .  no  would  use  language TO  is  a "must," w h i l e M e t a p h o r  i s a " c a n " a n d a "may."  The  l o o p h o l e s i n l a n g u a g e r u l e s — w h e t h e r t h e s e r u l e s be c o n c e i v e d as p r e s c r i p t i v e , s t r u c t u r a l haven  or generative e n t i t i e s — f o r m  f o r f i g u r a t i v e language.  o f l a n g u a g e h a v e no  On t h e one h a n d , t h e  j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r word c h o i c e i n  a  rules metaphor,  b u t on t h e o t h e r , m e t a p h o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e s r a r e l y v i o l a t e rules  the  of syntax. The  inviolability  affords i n i t s literary  of the freedom  that  language  sphere i s analogous to the  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s dreams and  jokes.  P r e u d showed t h a t t h o u g h l i f e  i s supposed  freedom  W r i t i n g on humour, t o be  serious  •  -20-  business,  dreams and  jokes  I n dreams, images and joke  e x i s t t o g i v e v e n t t o our  situations happily  i s a similar kind  run r i o t ,  fancy.  and  the  of sanctum, where w o r d - p l a y can  be 39  indulged  without/fear  Metaphor can  be  of  "being  added t o the  done away b y  d r e a m and  a n o t h e r f r e e - z o n e o f human e x i s t e n c e , use  joke  criticism." phenomena  a pocket i n language  where o u t r a g e o u s n e s s i n encouraged w i t h o u t f e a r  reprisals. Brooke-Rose acknowledges t h i s p o e t i c says,  " P o e t i c a l l y , anything  may  be  as  of  f i a t when  c a l l e d any  number  she of  40 different things."  !  u n o r t h o d o x p l a y , and  There i s pleasure i t i s a temptation  t o be not  g r a n d i o s e e f f e c t s when p l a y i n g w i t h w o r d s . says,  f o r instance,  even b r i n g t h i n g s loathesome could and  vice versa."  B u r k e goes on M o u n t , was  that  "one  might, without  had  i n such  to t r y f o r Kenneth Burke 'demoralization,'  t o a p o i n t where, i n e f f e c t , terms f o r be  a p p l i e d t o a most a d m i r a b l e  With i n s i g h t that i s t r u l y  person,  wonderful,  t o show t h a t C h r i s t , , i n h i s S e r m o n on  past master of t h i s  s o r t of l i c e n s e d  the  trans-  s u b s t a n t i a t i o n :: He o f f e r s a b a s i c c o n v e r s i o n c o n c e p t f o r a t o t a l t r a n s v a l u a t i o n of v a l u e s whereby the s i g n s o f p o v e r t y were r e i n t e r p r e t e d as the s i g n s o f w e a l t h , the s i g n s o f hunger as the s i g n s o f f u l l n e s s , and p r e s e n t w e e p i n g was c h a r a c t e r i z e d u n m i s t a k a b l y a s t h e f i r s t symptom • of subsequent delight., (41)  the  -21-  Conceptual in literature speech.  dislodgement,  then,  i s highly valued  even as i t i s under opprobrium i n p l a i n  S a m u e l L e v i n , who t o o k  on t h e t h a n k l e s s and f r u i t 42  less  t a s k o f w r i t i n g a grammar f o r p o e t r y  t h a t p o e t r y c a n and must f r u s t r a t e (The  constant  had t o admit  the reader's  expectations.  s u r p r i s e s i n p o e t r y make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o  w r i t e a p r e d i c t i v e grammar).  I t i s this foiling  of expec-  t a t i o n s t h a t saves poetry from the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f advertising The everyday  jingles,  i n fact.  e x i s t e n c e o f a s y s t e m a t i c and  rule-governed  l a n g u a g e i s w h a t makes p o e t r y p o s s i b l e , a s Owen  Thomas n o t e d  when h e w r o t e ,  l a n g u a g e were m e r e l y  "...if  c h a o t i c , then  t h e r e were no s y s t e m , i f t h e r e c o u l d be n o n o v e l t y . "  Thomas g o e s on t o show t h a t M e t a p h o r i s , i n f a c t , a d e l i b e r a t e f l o u t i n g of language r u l e s , an i n t e n t i o n a l  violation  of the system.  that of  Such v i o l a t i o n s  formal v i o l a t i o n  take  ("paradigmatic"  two f o r m s ,  error,  i nLevin's  l o g y ) and c o n t e x t u a l "mistakes" i..(.,"syntagmatic.") ;  violation  termino-  Formal  i s t h e s t o c k - i n - t r a d e o f Metaphor, and i n v o l v e s  the d e l i b e r a t e d i s r e g a r d i n g o f a noun's taxonomic f e a t u r e s . T h u s , a n o u n t h a t i s m a r k e d [j-an:Lma"fce3 it  were a n i m a t e i n p o e t r y .  by  the fact  literal  m  a  v  D Q  t r e a t e d as i f  The v i o l a t i o n c r e a t e d i s m a s k e d  t h a t the metaphor otherwise l o o k s l i k e  statement  a  o f t h e f o r m "A i s B," w h i c h m a k e s t h e  i n t e n t i o n a l m i s u s e a l l t h e more j a r r i n g .  Thomas g i v e s a s  -22-  an  example E m i l y D i c k i n s o n ' s  of Pink.  (The  1  nature  figure  a s p e c t s — i t s enveloping  are passed over. sentence is  He  a s h a w l o n l y i n one  aspect—and  i t s other  g i v e s f o r comparison the  ' J o h n JJones i s a f i s h e r m a n , '  complete... 'John Jones' 1 1  of  where  p r e s u m a b l y has  " a more s u b t l e way  e.e.  cummings' l i n e  did'  shows two  In  of  features  literal  transference a l l the  features  'fisherman.'") Deliberate contextual violation,  is  Shawl  of the comparison i s , a g a i n ,  t a n g e n t i a l . ; t h a t i s , shame i s l i k e its  'Shame i s t h e  the f i r s t  other  of t r a n s f e r r i n g incompatible 'he  s a n g h i s d i d n ' t and  degrees of L e v i n ' s  place,  on t h e  'sang' and  where i n t r a n s i t i v e use  he  contextual  'danced  i s much more common.  features.  danced h i s  violation.  are used  1  hand,  transitively  Thomas  charac-  44 terizes The  t h i s as a " v i o l a t i o n  of sub-category  i n t r u s i o n o f t h e w o r d s ' d i d n ' t ' and  more f l a g r a n t , and category  he  features.  'did' i s altogether  considers i t to v i o l a t e  The  poet,  features."  major-  i n effect, forsakes  the  p a r a d i g m s o f a d m i s s i b l e w o r d s f o r t h e two d i r e c t - o b j e c t s l o t s , and Although  The  different  disregard f o r conventional language-rules  dant here, closer  chooses words from a t o t a l l y  Thomas i n s i s t s  formal  does i n f a c t scan v e r y  Small-"m" metaphor, t h e n , existing linguistic  i s abun-  that "contextual v i o l a t i o n i s  to complete grammaticality than  cummings l i n e  paradigm.  structures.  violation-.."  well.  i s a great exploiter Formal v i o l a t i o n s  of  allow  -23-  it  t o expand  phenomenally  f l a n k t h e v e r b " t o be," to  the types of nominals t h a t i s B"  comes  have an i n f i n i t e number o f p o s s i b l e r e a l i z a t i o n s .  Con-  textual violations, fabric  so t h a t t h e f o m u l a  "A  can  i n t h a t t h e y can o c c u r anywhere i n the  o f l a n g u a g e , a d m i t a n e v e n g r e a t e r amount o f n o v e l t y . I.A. R i c h a r d s t r i e d  r a t i v e language, because  to correct  o f t h e way  a "deviant" case of language use.  the view t h a t  figu-  i t violates rules, i s He  suggested that  s p e e c h c o u l d e q u a l l y w e l l be v i e w e d a s d e v i a n t a n d  plain  Metaphor  45 as the s t a n d a r d . egg paradox the  (There i s always such a  cliicken-and-  p r e s e n t when t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a l  figurative  on p a g e (11)  are considered.  t h a t Metaphor  For although I  t a k e s up  and  suggested  the s l a c k i n l i t e r a l  l a n g u a g e , t h e r e v e r s e c o u l d be a r g u e d c o n v i n c i n g l y , t o o ) . But I p r e f e r the i d e a t h a t Metaphor  i s a sort of  protec-  t o r a t e w i t h i n language where u n o r t h o d o x c o n d u c t i s p e r m i s s i b l e , if  o n l y f o r the r e a s o n t h a t o r i g i n a l metaphors  and  second phases  of t h e i r l i f e - c y c l e  are rare  and  speech i s the l i n g u i s t ' s main concern.  The  i n the  i n speech, novel  metaphor r e s i d e s i n l i t e r a t u r e , which i s , a f t e r a l l , special  i n s t a n c e o f l a n g u a g e u s e , one w h e r e w o r d s a r e  plastic  and m a l l e a b l e f o r t h e c a u s e  f i g u r a t i v e and l i t e r a l  of a r t .  m e a n i n g , i f one  advantage  to view the l i t e r a l  as secondary.  as p r i m a r y and  as  linguist's the metaphoric  I do n o t mean t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s  t h i n g more t h a n e x p e d i e n t , h o w e v e r .  a  Given  c a n be v i e w e d  an epiphenomenon o f the o t h e r , i t i s t o the  first  i s any-  -24-  D i s c u r s i v e language i s a given shows t h a t by  can  t h a t had  fission  ("the  t h a t had  been considered  fission. matical  been considered  mutually  typology  shapes metaphors can  take,  c a l l s Pure A t t r i b u t i o n .  par-  exclusive")  inseparable.")\-  exhaustive  system  or  of..verbal p a r t i c l e s  B r o o k e - R o s e shows t h a t  In her  w h i c h she  methodic merger of  methodic b l a s t i n g apart  f u s i o n , but  Burke  attempt unorthodox p l a y w i t h i n the  p r a c t i s i n g e i t h e r f u s i o n ("the  ticles  in  one  system.  Metaphor d e l i g h t s  i t i s also capable of the  she  of  d i f f e r e n t gram-  isolates;'a type  A Pure A t t r i b u t i o n  m e t a p h o r " e x p r e s s e s a somewhat a r t i f i c i a l  split  of  one 47  i d e a i n t o two  terms which are b a s i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l . "  a metaphor l i k e the h e a r t has being As  two  eyes of the h e a r t '  eyes, but  noted e a r l i e r ,  the  does n o t  imply  t h a t i t j l s e y e s , e y e s and  manifestations  sufficiently an  'the  of a g e n e r a l i z e d  two  different that a l i t e r a l  reading  ability. are  would  produce  absurdity. M e t a p h o r s of f u s i o n f a r outnumber those of  and  that  heart  seeing  terms of the metaphor  Thus,  succeed i n merging mutually  fission  exclusive particles,  phenomenon B r i t i s h l i n g u i s t s h a v e named C o l l o c a t i o n . notion  i s t h a t words l i k e  probability trate  the  'white'  of c o l l o c a t i o n .  expectations,  Since  and  t h e i r goal  Their high  i s to f r u s -  p o e t s t e n d t o merge w o r d s whose  c o l l o c a t i o n p o t e n t i a l i s low,  like  'pugilist'  W i t h s h o r t , commonly u s e d w o r d s , t h e disarming,  'snow* h a v e a  a  as E m b l e r p o i n t s  out:  and  'bicycle.'  p r o b i t y of poets i s  -25-  P o e t s seldom...use s u c h words as ' h i g h , 'low,' 'up,' 'down,' ' s m a l l , ' ' s t r o n g , ' 'weak, e t c . i n t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l s e n s e s we h a v e b e e n d i s cussing. They m o s t l y use t h e s e words o n l y i n t h e i r l i t e r a l sense, as though t h a t were the o n l y p r o p e r way t o u s e them;;; a s m e t a p h o r s t h e y a r e e i t h e r t o o vague o r empty o r u n c o m m u n i c a t i v e on t h e p o e t i c l e v e l . Indeed, the poet's s t r e n g t h comes f r o m h i s v e r y c a r e f u l a n d e x a c t u s e o f t h e l i t e r a l a n d c o n c r e t e m e a n i n g s o f w o r d s . . . ($8.) 1  1  -  C o l l o c a t i o n p o t e n t i a l can,  i n a d d i t i o n , he  v i e w e d as  c o n t i n u u m , w i t h some f o r m s more "normal"-'and o t h e r s  a more  49 "deviant."  An  example i s the  array  broad smile free smile damp s m i l e high smile where and  'broad s m i l e ' r e p r e s e n t s  'high s m i l e ' the most This chapter  ask  the  question,  too unorthodox?" conforms to the  the most normal  deviant.  about u n o r t h o d o x p l a y has  "Is there  any  I t h i n k not.  is  For  provided  k n o w n t o be  s y n t a c t i c r u l e s of a language, w h a t e v e r admissible.  r a t h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e was a t w h i c h m e t a p h o r s c e a s e d t o be  recognize  That i s ,  very  once i t  this,  but  some s o r t o f a c u t - o f f p o i n t acceptable  Thomas, f o r i n s t a n c e , c i t e d  Canyon i s a saxophone' as a p r e p o s t e r o u s t o be  two  a metaphor.  w r i t e r s I examined d i d not  preposterous.  to  a metaphor  nominal-copula-nominal construction i s allowed  The  it  finally  p l a y w i t h language that i s  concepts i t chooses to c o l l o c a t e are any  collocation  and 'The  became Grand  m e t a p h o r , and  felt  o u t r e b e c a u s e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e a n a l o g y made i s  slight.  I t o u g h t t o be  pointed  out, however,  that  -26-  there if, is  i s a l w a y s some b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i n g two t h i n g s , e v e n  as i n t h i s case,  t h a t the t h i n g s are [-animate].  enough. can  a l l that immediately  A n y w r i t e r who f e e l s t h e r e  i n s t a n t l y create a context  posterous  f a r , but these  Hester  I n metaphor, t h i s i s t o be s u c h a  similarity  i n which a seemingly  pre-  c o m p a r i s o n becomes p l a u s i b l e .  Other authors too  meets t h e eye  expressed  f e a r s t h a t m e t a p h o r c o u l d go  f e a r s c a n a l s o be d i s m i s s e d  as bogus.  suggested t h a t metaphor c o u l d p o s s i b l e l i c e n s e 50  "free association,"  b u t he a d d e d t h a t " o n l y a n  vague' o r n o n s e n s e m e t a p h o r w i l l According  extremely  allow free association."  t o my a r g u m e n t , a m e t a p h o r i s o n l y v a g u e when t h e  surrounding  context  i s inadequate t o support  it.  Given  a p p r o p r i a t e l y r i c h c o n t e x t , no metaphor i s n o n s e n s i c a l .  an  CHAPTER FOUR METAPHOR AND DREAMS I h a v e made t h e c l a i m t h a t f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e a n d d r e a m s h a v e s o m e t h i n g i n common i n b e i n g p r e s e r v e s f r o m the meat-and-potatoes  w o r l d where l i f e  i sserious business.  I have argued t h a t t h e dream, t h e metaphor and t h e j o k e lend legitimacy t o behaviour that i snotrule-governed. Whatever i s n o t a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e " r e a l " w o r l d i s p r o t e c t e d , from c r i t i c i s m  there, as Freud wrote.  i n l i n e by t h e time-space continuum,  So i f s o c i e t y  dreams a n d j o k e s a r e  l i k e warps where t h e r e i s n e i t h e r t i m e n o r space. f o l l o w s t h a t dream and j o k e l o g i c and  of quotidian  ( T h i n k o f t h e f r e q u e n t u n e x p l a i n e d changes  o f scene  o c c u r i n dreams a b r u p t l y o r even v i o l e n t l y w h i l e  protectorate—not  strictly  I t  i s something unto  i snot the temporal, spatial l o g i c  placidly continues to u n r o l l ) .  i s kept  Metaphor  i sa  reality. that  the action  similar  from the time-space  continuum,  but from the inexorable workings o f l a n g u a g e — a which i s n o r m a l l y as p r e d i c t a b l e as clockwork.  itself,  mechanism For  g e n e r a t i v e t h e o r y h a s shown t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g a r c a n e about language; i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y f a c t , t h a t i t o p e r a t e s by r u l e . model o f language brain,  i sa t t r i b u t a b l e  t othe  Even i f the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  does n o t d u p l i c a t e t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e  i t i s so e x p l a n a t o r y o f t h e p r o c e s s o f s p e a k i n g t h a t  i t might  a s w e l l be t h e t r u t h .  ( I n t h e same w a y , s o u n d i s  -28-  more t h a n a d e q u a t e l y v i s u a l i z a b l e i n terms o f v i b r a t i o n s . Though sound' i s i n f a c t n o t  a m a t t e r of v i b r a t i o n s , the •  m e t a p h o r commonly u s e d i s s o c o m p e l l i n g  that i t  supplants  51. the  reality.  )  G r a n t e d , m e t a p h o r s and bound t h a n dreams, but is like  i t m u s t be  a r e more l a n g u a g e -  remembered t h a t  an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b o l u s of e x p e r i e n c e ;  linguistic  e x p e r i e n c e c a n n o t be  the n o n - l i n g u i s t i c . it  jokes  m u s t be  As  " l a n g u a g e and  "fundamentally implicated with  each other  makes i t d i f f i c u l t  them as  to consider  A l s o , Edward S a p i r has  the  c l e a n l y winnowed out  I q u o t e d T e r e n c e Hawkes  remembered t h a t  reality  earlier,  experience" t o an  separate  said that r e a l i t y  from  are  extent  that  entities."  i s "saturated  with  52 verbalism." true  ' I adduce t h i s e v i d e n c e t o c l a i m t h a t what i s  -  f o r d r e a m s (-that i s , s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e  continuum) can dreams a r e For It  one  very  w e l l be  dream i s n o t  i s v e r b a l as w e l l , w i t h  e v e r y b i t as By the  e n t i r e l y a matter of  dream words o r s e n t e n c e s  j o k e s , and  a dream.  A metaphor's l o g i c need not but  being  i n Metaphor  d y s f u n c t i o n a l as  t h a t a metaphor i n t h i s  f r o m A t o B t o C,  imagery.  the v i s u a l imagery i s .  same t o k e n , t h e n , I s u b m i t t h a t  t i m e - s p a c e continuum i s as  progression  metaphors p r i m a r i l y v e r b a l .  skewed f r o m the Normal as  the  d r e a m s and like  true f o r metaphors, even though  p r i m a r i l y v i s u a l and  t h i n g , the  time-space  be  i t is in  sense works a  linear  i s r a t h e r a random  dip  -29into a  "stream of experience  to whether i t s contents  which i s u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  are perceived  as  or imagined, f a c t  or  53 fancy.  ( T h i s call's hack to mind the  , :  metaphorical  statement that i n  language, a l l data are accepted  on a n  equal  footing). Northrop Frye understood t h a t the language of r e s e m b l e d t h e dream i n more ways t h a n one, there  than i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y  to c r i t i c i s m .  that there He  poem a s a " r o u n d e d s e n s u o u s o b j e c t . . . h a v i n g a m b i g u o u s s e n s e - l i n k s and  poetry i s more  described  the  sound-links,  m e m o r y - l i n k s v e r y much l i k e  that  54 o f t h e dream."  W h e t h e r one  t i v e language i n general  d e a l s w i t h poems, w i t h  or w i t h small-^m" metaphor,  sensuous roundness, s o u n d - l i n k s , links  so g l i b l y  themselves. greater  s e n s e - l i n k s and  I will  d i s c u s s the  items  memory-  s e p a r a t e l y and  in at  length. Although  the purpose of  guage i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s n o t goal  of Metaphor.  s i v e language) t h a t t e l l s  dead as  soon as  spoke.  the  lan-  avowed  I t i s p l a i n speech ( o r ,  discur-  p e r s o n X what p e r s o n Y had  for  b r e a k f a s t t h i s m o r n i n g , and is  the  enumerated are w o r l d s of s i g n i f i c a n c e  "Rounded S e n s u o u s O b j e c t " :  primary  figura-  the u t t e r a n c e — t h e As  V a l e r y has  Communication-  written,  "literal 55  language i s happy to d i e a f t e r i t s sense i s t r a n s m i t t e d . " M e t a p h o r , on Since  the  o t h e r hand, i s slower  i t i s a more " a r t i s t i c " u s e  to die.  of language, w i t h  a  -30-  component it  o f imagery ("sensuous") and even o f s y m b o l i s m ,  i s three-dimensional  ("rounded")  and l i v e s  on.  So  a l t h o u g h Metaphor communicates, t h e meaning i t packs i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f p l a i n s p e e c h , b e i n g a more s o r t of super-charged Sound-links:  personal  meaning.  The s o u n d l i n k s  i n f i g u r a t i v e language are  a f u n c t i o n o f the freedom o f w o r d - s e l e c t i o n t h a t i s allowed in  the poetic  protectorate.  Language  c a n be u s e d much more  c a p r i c i o u s l y when one i s s p e a k i n g f i g u r a t i v e l y , a n d t h e s o u n d s o f t h e w o r d s t h e m s e l v e s c a n be d e l i g h t e d played with.  (One t h i n k s o f H e n r y M i l l e r  and h i s d e l i g h t Strictly but  i n words l i k e  i n and  i n this  regard,  'organza' and 'bombazine'.  s p e a k i n g , t h e w o r d s d e s c r i b e women's d r e s s - y a r d a g e ,  t o h i m t h e y sound o r g i a s t i c  and b o m b a s t i c ) .  Sound c a n  e v e n b e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n s e n s e i n t h e w o r d - s e l e c t i o n . What r e s u l t s but  i s , of course, not s t r i c t l i t e r a l  clearly, literal  meaning,  meaning i s n o t what i s wanted i n  Metaphor. Ambiguous its In  logic,  Sense-Links:  The l i n k s  i n a metaphor's s e n s e —  t h a t i s - - a r e ambiguous f o r s e v e r a l  the f i r s t  p l a c e , m e t a p h o r s compare  reasons.  two t h i n g s o r  s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r e o n l y d i m l y f e l t t o be s i m i l a r . the  points  Often  of l i k e n e s s a r e p r e c i p i t o u s l y narrow (as i n  Thomas's " p r e p o s t e r o u s " m e t a p h o r ) and t h e f i g u r e  threatens  to topple from sheer tenuousness. similarity  The b a s i s f o r f e l t  c a n be h i g h l y p e r s o n a l , r e s i d i n g i n one  p e r s o n ' s p r i v a t e code o f e x p e r i e n c e . noted t h i s privateness he  of the i n d i v i d u a l  wrote about the "personal  artist,"  citing  experience  56  when  image o f a g i v e n p o e t o r  the elongated  example o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r i z e d  f i g u r e s o f E l G-reco a s a n form an a r t i s t ' s  may t a k e .  ( I would add t h e d e a t h - b i a s  a literary  example.  I n her poetry  even t h e most l i f e - i m b u e d r e a l i t y But  Douglas Berggren  even as t h e " v i v i d l y  expression  o f S y l v i a P l a t h as  and h e r p r o s e , as h o p e l e s s l y  streaming  s h e saw  deathly).  present"  that  each w r i t e r i n t e r r o g a t e s i s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d , so i s i t general—there shown.  i s " c o l l e c t i v e unconscious,"  The r e a d e r s  of the world  a l w a y s h a v e some g r o u n d  on w h i c h t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t i t s a u t h o r s tive  experience  as Jung has  write.  hasv.a c o m m u n a l i t y " t h a t i s h a r d  however d i f f e r e n t  For collecto gainsay;  o u r i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s , we manage t o  understand each other.  Rarely  i s a w r i t e r so  abstruse  t h a t h i s m e a n i n g c a n n o t be g r a s p e d , a n d e v e n i f P l a t h ' s v i s i o n i s n o t shared vividly  they understand i t  enough. Sense-links  the  by h e r r e a d e r s h i p ,  i n Metaphor a r e a l s o ambiguous because  a n a l o g y b e i n g made i n v o l v e s a l e a p f r o m one s p h e r e o f  phenomena t o a n o t h e r ,  and an i n t u i t i v e l e a p a t t h a t .  Leatherdale  t h e sudden f l a s h  describes  of insight  that  -32-  constitutes  the  of Wellington,  analogical who  a c t , and  he  quotes the  Duke  wrote:  T h e r e i s a s t r a n g e t h i n g one s o m e t i m e s n o t i c e s ; when one i s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f considering-a q u e s t i o n , a w h o l e s e r i e s o f i d e a s comes t o t h e m i n d i n a f l a s h : y o u p e r c e i v e them a l l h u t i t m i g h t t a k e two h o u r s t o p u t on p a p e r a l l t h a t c r o s s e d y o u r m i n d i n one i n s t a n t . (.5.7) T h i s s o r t o f f l a s h i n s i g h t has it  that places  i t beyond the  an  element of i n t u i t i o n  sphere of simple  scientific  method; i t i s the  f a b l e d moment o f A r c h i m e d e s i n h i s  o r N e w t o n and  apple.  the  comes i n t o i t s own it  S i n c e the  Metaphor.  i n t u i t i v e leap  However, the  analogical  cognitive act  does  l i t e r a r y metaphor, too, because to describe i n terms of a n o t h e r i n the involves  a c e r t a i n jump.  subtle  revealing  treat  aspects  of  characterize one  situation  e l i d e d form of a metaphor  B u r k e n o t e d t h i s when he  " I n d e e d , the metaphor a l w a y s has  bath  really  i n s c i e n t i f i c metaphors, I w i l l  f u r t h e r l a t e r when I p r e s e n t t h e  in  wrote,  about i t p r e c i s e l y t h i s  o f h i t h e r t o u n e x p e c t e d c o n n e c t i o n s w h i c h one  may  58 notice  i n the  p r o g r e s s i o n s of a  Metaphor, therefore,  has  dream.  I!  a s o r t o f economy a b o u t i t  s i m i l a r to that which Freud found c h a r a c t e r i z e d Accordingly, it  i t has  an  a i r of being pre-digested,  i s the w r i t t e n record  —the  writer's.  a p t n e s s , the  dreams.  o f one  in  person s-analogical 1  that leaps  In order to understand a metaphor's  reader i s forced  t o s o r t out  the  jumps  that  -33-  h a v e b e e n made b y w o r k i n g the f a i t ginal  accompli  insight._  back i n reverse order  from  o f the f i n i s h e d metaphor t o the o r i -  (Leonard  Angel  c a l l s the process  "unpacking  59 a metaphor.") writer's  " The way i n w h i c h a r e a d e r u n r a v e l s  meaning has been b e a u t i f u l l y  a  d e s c r i b e d by Kenneth  Burke: To make u s weep c o n t e n t e d l y a t t h e f i n a l r e u n i o n o f b r o t h e r and s i s t e r , t h e p o e t hangs t e l l t a l e l o c k e t s about the necks o f t h e l i t t l e v/aifs l o s t i n C h a p t e r One. When r e a d i n g we a c c e p t t h e f i n a l r e u n i o n as the l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e t e l l t a l e l o c k e t s p l a n t e d i n C h a p t e r O n e — b u t t h e o r d e r was e x a c t l y t h e r e v e r s e , t h e l o c k e t s i n C h a p t e r One b e i n g the l o g i c a l consequence o f t h e r e u n i o n i n chapter l a s t . (60) Memory-Links:  The m e m o r y - l i n k s i n p o e t r y c a n n a t u r a l l y  involve  personal/individual  either  memory.  Berggren,  typology  i n five levels  t h o u g h , h a s d e s c r i b e d a more e l a b o r a t e  scheme c a n b e v i s u a l i z e d  o f p o e t r y ' s memory-content. as f i v e c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s  according t o comprehensiveness. calls to  or t r i b a l / c o l l e c t i v e  the "presiding  The i n n e r m o s t  s c h e m a o f a poem."  one i t e m o f a p a r t i c u l a r p o e t ' s  word  'angel' i n Rilke,'  His arranged  c i r c l e he  I t i s equivalent  vocabulary, l i k e the  The s e c o n d c i r c l e i s t h e " p e r s o n a l  image o f a g i v e n p o e t o r a r t i s t , "  w h i c h has a l r e a d y been  mentioned; t h i s l e v e l corresponds  t o t h e whole o f a  vocabulary ancestral  or diction. vitality,"  Dante, i n Cervantes,  N e x t i s t h e "schema t h a t  poet's  achieves  f o r w h i c h he g i v e s t h e j o u r n e y — i n i n Kafka,  etc.—as  an example.  This  -34-  level the  i s t h a t of the  pervasive  "schema w h o s e c u l t u r a l  literary  tradition,"  as,  and  f i f t h are  For  examples of these, and  range extends outside  the  inner l i f e  larly  poetic  o f man,  s c h e m a whose f i v e  or n o n - s p a t i a l  [ i t a l i c s mine.] I f i n d  l a n g u a g e has  this  sub-  something  reality  in  insight particu-  i n that i t corroborates  a s o r t of p r e c i s e  vagueness, w e l l s u i t e d to the  if  taxonomy, B e r g g r e n  -j  appealing  cribes.  water,  i s "a v i s u a l i z a b l e pheno-  advanced e a r l i e r , where I .claimed  •  symbols:,  a vehicle f o r expressing  61  general•"  blood,  foregoing  about to d e l i n e a t e  menon w h i c h s e r v e s a s about the  the  up/down.  o f f e r e d "tne i n s i g h t t h a t t h e was  is  whose i m p o r t i s t r a n s c u l t u r a l .  Berggren gives  Before presenting  t y p e s he  Fourth  f o r example, B i b l i c a l  archetypes,  light/darkness  leitmotiv.  the  that  argument  metaphorical  imprecision, a controlled s u b t l y shaded w o r l d  B e r g g r e n s t h o u g h t s u b s t a n t i a t e s my 1  p o e t i c language i s to describe  ...non-spatial  reality,"  and  non-linear  i n i t s progress.  the  same l i n e  point,  inner l i f e  i t m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y be  o f t h o u g h t i n The  w h e r e H e s t e r p o s i t s on  "the  the  part  i t des*  of  man  dithyrambic  There i s evidence Meaning of P o e t i c of the  because  reader of  of Metaphor,  literature 6 2  a  " s u s p e n s i o n of judgments of p e r c e p t i o n  What he  i s recommending, i n o t h e r  wide-open credulous stance for  one  to adopt, the  and  value."  words, i s a s o r t  (Husserl  of  c a l l e d i t "epoche")  b e t t e r t o f o l l o w and  be  receptive  to  the dithyrambic, n o n - s p a t i a l  logic  of Metaphor.  He  g o e s on t o s a y t h a t t h e r e s i d u u m o f t h e p r o c e s s i s consciousness.  As the r e a d e r unpacks the w r i t e r ' s  m e a n i n g , he i s t o t h i n k b l i n d l y mind.  What b e t t e r way  through h i s unconscious  i s t h e r e t o decode the f a i t s -  a c c o m p l i s o f a n o t h e r ' s u n c o n s c i o u s , and what route to understanding  y  literature?  better  -36-  CHAPTER F I V E METAPHORIC TENSION A l l . a n a l o g i c a l m e t a p h o r s c a n he c o n c e i v e d having is the  two p a r t s , a t e n o r a n d a v e h i c l e .  the source  of the terminology.)  tenor, which i s being expressed  idea, the vehicle.  Hence S t a n f o r d ' s  scopic v i s i o n , " which f i r s t particularly  (I.A.  Richards  There i s a main i d e a , i n terms o f a  secondary  expression "stereo-  a p p e a r e d o n p a g e (15),  i sa  a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f metaphor's o p e r a t i o n .  I n The M e a n i n g o f P o e t i c M e t a p h o r , M a r c u s p r o d u c e s a t one p o i n t a n e x t e n d e d m e t a p h o r f r o m one  o f as  Hester Shakespeare,  i n w h i c h t h e t e n o r Time i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n t e r m s o f a  beggar, the v e h i c l e . Time h a t h , my l o r d , a w a l l e t a t h i s b a c k W h e r e i n he p u t a l m s f o r o b l i v i o n A g r e a t - s i z e d monster of i n g r a t i t u d e . Those s c r a p s a r e good deeds p a s t , which are devoured As f a s t a s t h e y a r e made, f o r g o t a s s o o n As d o n e . (63) T h i s e x c e l l e n t m e t a p h o r p r o m p t s me t o make s e v e r a l v a t i o n s on m e t a p h o r i c a l  obser-  t e n o r and v e h i c l e .  Distance•  Hester has pointed out t h a t there i s great  conceptual  d i s t a n c e between t e n o r and v e h i c l e i n Shake-  speare's it  figure.  F o r Time i s a n e n t i t y  would s c a r c e l y e x i s t  so a b s t r a c t t h a t  i n t h e m i n d s o f men i f t h e r e  -37-  w e r e n o t a name f o r i t . i n t i m a t e d , time  (As B e n j a m i n Lee  i s perceived differently  c u l t u r e d e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e a n d  Whorf  has  from c u l t u r e  complexity of  to  the  64 tense  system  c a n he  i n each l a n g u a g e - f a m i l y .  seen t o v a r y from  version, manifest etc.  Time-conceptions  t h e highljr s e g m e n t e d  i n datebooks,  calendars,  t o t h e p u r p o r t e d l y more h o l i s t i c  and  western  itineraries, integrated time-  n o t i o n of the American I n d i a n s of the southwest).  A  b e g g a r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , p r e s e n t s q u i t e a f l e s h l y t h e n o u n c o n j u r i n g up  s t a p l e connotations of  tattered clothes  o u t s t r e t c h e d h a n d s as minimum  criteria.  and  However, i n t h a t time  a doddering  greybeard  metaphor does not attempt i t merely  f i r m s up  poverty,  i s classically  i n the western mind,  reality,  defining  equated  Shakespeare's  a n y t h i n g to©; r e c h e r c h e ' .  Instead,  the e x i s t i n g s t o c k metaphor, which  i t s m o r i b u n d i t y was  with  in  l o s i n g the t e n s i o n of i t s o r i g i n a l  impact. With  t h i s , we  strike  and-vehicle conception: t e n o r and  the mother l o d e of the  namely, t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n  v e h i c l e produces t e n s i o n .  New  at the h e i g h t of t h e i r l i f e - s p a n — v i b r a t e from  t h e t e n s i o n i n h e r e n t i n two  ( F o r i n s t a n c e , as n o t e d ,  tenorof  metaphors—those almost  palpably  simultaneous perspectives.  s e v e r a l w r i t e r s h a v e commented  the g a l v a n i c e f f e c t the word  ' s k y s c r a p e r ' had  on  on t h e m when  -38-  t h e y f i r s t h e a r d i t as Empire State almost too their  children.  apt  f o r words).  shock value  and  vehicle:  and  unremarkable. t h a t the  g r a d u a l l y become i n u r e d  slackening  ( T h i s may  skyscraper  imagistic fullness.  going  and  from the n o t i o n of  "oblivion"  an  instance  of p o e t i c f i s s i o n  n o t e d i n 'the takes it  out  the  conceit  i n a l l p o s s i b l e ways.  images, each only  slightly  m a k e s t h e m e t a p h o r so  Time r e m a i n s  rich.  This  of a  bears the  phrases,  "monster  is, in  fact,  C h r i s t i n e Brooke-Rose  v l h a t Shakespeare under-  o f t i m e as b e g g a r and The  so  Hester's  poet develops  t o one  s u c h as  eyes of the h e a r t . '  i s to take  tenor  of  i n successive  of i n g r a t i t u d e " to that of devouring.  the  pall).  The  rapacious  tenor  to shock,  I t i s the v e h i c l e "beggar" which  i d e a o f t i m e as w i l f u l  their  become  Another observation  t h a t i n Shakespeare's metaphor the  brunt of the  to  a c t u a l l y h a v e t o do w i t h  Once e x t r a - t a l l b u i l d i n g s f a i l  vague.  lose  becomes commonplace  phenomenon i t s e l f h a s  Detail.  then  of t e n s i o n between  t h e i r d e s c r i p t i v e l a b e l begins to  a b s t r a c t and the  the  f a c t t h a t metaphors  idea of a skyscraper  A b s t r a c t i o n versus is  The  w h i l e we  the  hypostatized. too  idea of  B u i l d i n g s c r a t c h i n g a t t h e h e a v e n s was  charm i s a r e s u l t o f the  fact  The  ream  e n s i l i n g bombardment  d i f f e r e n t from the next,  of  i s what  -39-  Economy/. are  I s t a t e d e a r l i e r that metaphors, l i k e  economical.  dreams,  The t e n o r - v e h i c l e n o t i o n e x p l a i n s how  a n a l o g i c a l m e t a p h o r comes t o b e a h i g h l y e c o n o m i c a l mode of expression.  Instead  o f d e s c r i b i n g time and then  d e s c r i b i n g a beggar and p o i n t i n g out t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e m , t h e m e t a p h o r s u b s u m e s t h e two d e s c r i p t i o n s into its  one s u p e r - c h a r g e d c a p s u l e . tenor wholly  I t does t h i s by d e s c r i b i n g  i n the vocabulary  o f i t s v e h i c l e , an  arrangement as neat as i t i s e l l i p t i c a l .  Karl Uitti  noted  t h i s f e a t when h e w r o t e , " T h r o u g h m e t a p h o r t h e d y n a m i c relationships  i n nature  may be c o n c e i v e d  discourse with the smallest Creative Defining A b i l i t y .  and conveyed i n 66 deformation..."  There i s , then,  i n a l i e n a b l y c r e a t i v e about metaphor. us  new  When S h a k e s p e a r e  t h e ready-made ( e a r l i e r I u s e d t h e term  figure  o f t i m e - a s - a - b e g g a r , we a r e b e i n g  perspective  intelligence.  'pre-digested')  presented  with a  Some w r i t e r s a r g u e t h a t t h e w r i t e r t h u s (e.g. Hester: 67\  defines s i m i l a r i t y , not vice versa."  vehicle  gives  o n t i m e , w i t h a new b i t o f w i s d o m o r  defines s i m i l a r i t y f o r us,  prudently  something  "s:eeing-as  ), while  others  more  t h i n k t h a t t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t e n o r and  e x i s t a l l a l o n g and t h a t t h e w r i t e r , w i t h  extra-senstiv:e  palps, merely foregrounds*  * a t e r m o f J a n M u k a r o v s k y ' s u s e d t o mean o r 'make c o n s c i o u s ' i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n .  his  them i n o u r 'de-automatize'  -40consciousness. distinctness  N a t u r a l l y , the greater the conceptual  o f t e n o r a n d v e h i c l e , t h e more p r o d i g i o u s t h e  achievement, because " o n l y a t r i t e  metaphor yokes a  tenor  68 and  v e h i c l e w h i c h we a l l know t o b e s i m i l a r . " '  very  astute  (his  'seeing-as'  perceptual  i nstating this notion)  seeing:  defining capability  o f metaphor  and i n comparing i t a g a i n s t  ordinary  "The m e t a p h o r s t a t e s t h e a s p e c t s a n d  t h e p r o b l e m i s t o s e e t h e common f o r m , w h i l e seeing-as,  Hester i s  i n visual  t h e common e l e m e n t i s g i v e n a n d t h e p r o b l e m i s 69  to see t h e aspects."' W.H. L e a t h e r d a l e ,  who h a s w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e r o l e o f  metaphor i n s c i e n c e , takes possibilities  cognizance  of the c r e a t i v e  o f metaphor i n d e f i n i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and  altering perspectives. i n t e r e s t s him, indeed, so c o n s i d e r a b l e  I t i sreally  only t h i s aspect  s i n c e the emotive o r " t e x t u r a l "  i nliterature,  i sirrelevant  which side,  i n science.  He h a s t h e h i g h e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f m e t a p h o r ' s a b i l i t y t o d e f i n e , a s shown i n t h i s analogue is,  sentence:  "Sometimes t h e t o p i c  [ t h e t e n o r J c a n h a r d l y be s a i d t o e x i s t b e f o r e i t  as i t were, p u l l e d t o g e t h e r by t h e imported  analogue  [vehicle]."^ His  exposition of figurative  science—something  thought's counterpart i n  he t e r m s t h e a n a l o g i c a l a c t — i s  f o r the d i s c u s s i o n here.  useful  He s a y s t h a t a s c i e n t i s t i s  f a m i l i a r with a c e r t a i n area  o f phenomena a n d w i t h a l l i t s  a t t e n d a n t c o n c e p t s , t h e o r i e s and it  i s so w e l l k n o w n t o h i m  aspect, out he  the  rest i s s t i l l  of focus hut sees the  reorganizes different  t h a t i f he  somehow t h a n he  r e n t l y t h a n he  accessible  ( s o m e t i m e s so m a s t e r f u l stroke  of synthesis,"  Leatherdale  He  way,  Suddenly,  which  strikingly  c a s e , he as  t o be  ) on  the  related  imposes h i s f l a s h an  diffe-  "epoch-making  original  field  of  appliinsight  great phenomena.  a l s o m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e more c o m p l e x t h e  adds  are  amenable t o d i f f e r e n t  p r e v i o u s l y supposed  a n a l o g u e i s , t h e more i m p r e s s i v e act.  one  consciousness,  thought, or they are  thought, or they are  Whichever i s the  on  of  e n t i t i e s under consideration  m a t h e m a t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t h a n he cable.  whole  i f needed.  o f phenomena' i n a new  i t . E i t h e r the  The  focusses  floating in his  constantly  field  instances.  the  scientist's  topic  analogical  that  • . . t h e t o p i c a n a l o g u e i s i t s e l f an amorphous e n t i t y , e v e r g r o w i n g and c h a n g i n g , s o m e t i m e s c r y s t a l l i z i n g out o n l y t o d i s s o l v e a g a i n under the p r e s s u r e of d i s c o r d a n t f a c t s drawn from o t h e r a r e a s of the t o p i c analogue. I m p o r t e d a n a l o g u e s b r e e d and i n t e r b r e e d w i t h each other. (72) T e r e n c e Hawkes h a s  put  forward the  t h a t the u n i t of t e n o r - p l u s - v e h i c l e of i t s p a r t s .  That i s , the  t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f on image a l m o s t an  tenor  important i n s i g h t  i s greater  and  each other,  t h a n the  v e h i c l e seem t o  sum rub  g i v i n g the r e s u l t i n g  overabundance of meaning.  He  gives  an  -42example from Matthew A r n o l d , a metaphor t h a t compares the individual  i n s o c i e t y t o an i s l a n d  i n the sea:  Yes: i n the sea of l i f e e n i s l ' d W i t h e c h o i n g s t r a i t s between us thrown, D o t t i n g the s h o r e l e s s watery w i l d , We m o r t a l s l i v e a l o n e . (73) Indeed, there i s a r i c h n e s s here exceeding both i s l a n d s sea or i n d i v i d u a l s an example,  this  i n society.  P h i l i p Wheelwright  time from Hamlet,  i s right:  the whole  has f i e l d s  als.o h a s  t o p r o v e t h e same p o i n t .  Nay, b u t t o l i v e I n t h e r a n k sweat o f an enseamed bed Stew'd i n c o r r u p t i o n , h o n e y i n g and making Over the n a s t y s t y . (74) He  love  of implication i n i t  g r e a t e r t h a n t h e p a r t s , w h i c h a t f a c e v a l u e make a n compote o f h o n e y , stew and r a n k  odd  sweat.  I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s p o i n t about u n i t b e i n g g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum useful  at  of i t s  the  tenor-vehicle  parts,  another  i n s i g h t about metaphoric t e n s i o n i s found i n Wheel-  wright.  He  e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e ways i n w h i c h  tenors are paired with v e h i c l e s . of language, though the t h i r d , by f a r t h e most c r e a t i v e . an u t t e r a n c e o r v e h i c l e thought.  P o r example,  A l l three are processes  e p i t o m i z e d by metaphor,  is  I n the case of p a s s i v e h a b i t u a t i o n ,  i s accidentally paired with the statement " I f e l t  awfully  a bad 75  about what happened" p o i n t s to a f e e l i n g .  The v a g u e n e s s  "without enforced exactitude" inherent i n such statements i s  -43-  what r e c a l l s Hulme's remark t h a t p l a i n speech i s i n a c c u r a t e . At  another l e v e l ,  there  i s the  c a s e o f s t i p u l a t i o n , where  s i g n i s p a i r e d w i t h a s i g n i f i e d w i t h i n a c u l t u r e , and pairing  " i s achieved  f e e l s t h a t the  and  maintained  symbols t h a t occur  of t h i s second rank: o l d man.  The  an  as  an  is  that which i s created  third  type  "depth-symbols" of  the  tenor:  £cf. cipal  s u b j e c t by  are  image o f  time  through the  imagination, l i k e  These W h e e l w r i g h t  the  calls  language.  " i tselects,  Leatherdale's  Wheelwright  of v e h i c l e - t e n o r r e l a t i o n s h i p  I n B l a c k ' s v i e w , the v e h i c l e a c t s as a the  the  i n ordinary language  e x a m p l e w o u l d be  l i n k i n g of "beggar" w i t h time. the  "by f i a t . "  a  filter for -  e m p h a s i z e s , s u p p r e s s e s and  comment, p a g e (40)J  organizes  f e a t u r e s of the  i m p l y i n g statements about i t that  prin-  normally  76 apply  to the  describe  s u b s i d i a r y subject."''  a battle  i n the vocabulary  Chess t h e n a c t s as a f i l t e r of warfare checkmates,  chess.  the m a n i f o l d  complex of  can  topic  strategems,  etc. to Paul H e n l e , t h i s  i s h i g h l y c r e a t i v e i n net things:  on  one  effect.  filtering relationship  E v e r y a n a l o g i c a l metaphor  h a n d , i t r e m a r k s on a n  r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n t h i n g s and f u r t h e r r e s e m b l a n c e o f i t s own. has  one  o f a game o f  to organize  i n t o an u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  According  d o e s two  I n t h i s way,  a defining capability,  on t h e  other,  antecedent  i t induces  Metaphor, i n other  expressed  b y Hawkes i n  a  words,  this  -44fashion:  "the act of u n i f y i n g , of inculcated 'sameness'  which i s metaphor's stock-in-trade, both stimulates  and  77 manifests the imagination."quotes Coleridge as w r i t i n g :  Apropos of the same idea, he "You f e e l him £ShakespearejJ to:  be a poet inasmuch as f o r a time he has made you  one—an  78 a c t i v e c r e a t i v e being." new  As a reader,  resemblances, not to mention new  one i s made aware of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  r e a l i t i e s , (the much-vaunted broadened horizons  that  reading  i s said to produce). I t i s e s s e n t i a l to remember, though, that however happy the marriage of the two components, tenor and v e h i c l e 79  always remain conceptually d i s t i n c t .  They must do so i f  there i s to be tension f o r the metaphor's continued tion. two  vibra-  "Conceptual d i s t i n c t n e s s " means, of course, that the  things are i n d i f f e r e n t l i n g u i s t i c and cognitive areas. 80  To mate them, one crosses s o r t s , i n Turbayne's terminology. But f o r the match to be f e l i c i t o u s , the tenor and the v e h i c l e must be only a c e r t a i n distance apart and no f u r t h e r ; too vast a d i f f e r e n c e i s characterized by Turbayne as s o r t trespassing;; the r e s u l t a n t tenuous metaphor w i l l need much b o l s t e r i n g from context  i n order to be e f f e c t i v e .  In a  good match, then, with topic and imported analogues just the r i g h t distance apart, the sum the parts.  comes out to greater than  For instance, one can speak of 'rubber joy," a  'rubber melody,' or a 'rubber soul' and the word 'rubber' adds something to our understanding of melodies, souls, .and  -45-  joy.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  ' r u b b e r cube r o o t *  . could  be  conceived a s o r t - t r e s p a s s i n g because t h e a p p o s i t i o n o f r u b b e r does n o t h i n g  to inform  our perspective  on cube  roots.  82 Geoffrey Leech, imposition ness as  however, n o t e s t h a t  o f two p e r s p e c t i v e s  r e s u l t s i n a s o r t o f vague-  ( d i f f e r e n t from vagueness i n d i s c u r s i v e language),  t o t h e grounds o f comparison and t h e t h i n g s  This,  I t h i n k , h a s t o be a d m i t t e d .  we h a v e s e e n how a c o n c e i t  like  pink  and so:ft o r y e l l o w  comparison i s l e f t there  sea  place,  'the r o s e s o f h e r cheeks'  and thorny.  cheeks a r e  The b a s i s  t o t h e r e a d e r t o work out.  for the Moreover,  may b e d o u b t a s t o w h a t i s b e i n g c o m p a r e d w i t h  an example, Leech gives that bares 1. The 2. The 3. The 4. The  her sea sea sea sea  four possible  what..  readings f o r 'this  bosom t o t h e moon,' n a m e l y : r e f l e c t s t h e i m a g e o f t h e moon. i s s p r e a d o u t u n d e r n e a t h t h e moon. i s made v i s i b l e b y t h e moon. i s t i d a l l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e moon.  L i k e many a s t u d e n t o f l i t e r a t u r e , h e h a s g l o s s e d the  poet's meaning, which i s n e a r - l i t e r a l ,  all  kinds  of fanciful unravellings  over  and advanced  f o r t h e image.  I n any  c a s e , sxxch ' a m b i g u i t y i s a d m i r a b l y s u i t e d t o l i t e r a t u r e so  both  compared.  I n the f i r s t  does n o t a c t u a l l y s p e c i f y whether t h e l a d y ' s  As  the super-  (less  t o s c i e n c e ) , where t h e r e a d e r c a n s p i n o u t a n ambiguous 83  image a l o n g m u l t i p l e l i n e s , is  so t h a t  a beautifully-textured fabric rich  the cumulative  effect  i nsignificance.  Metaphor can two  other  sets  a  has  impact to t e n o r / v e h i c l e .  b e e n so a s t u t e  on  the  subject  type of t u r g o r a r i s i n g from the  calls  "epiphor"  outreach was  and  conceived  i n terms  of p a i r e d f o r c e s , analogous i n  tension-producing who  a d d i t i o n a l l y be  and  "diaphor."  extension  h i n t e d a t i n the  their  Wheelwright,  of t e n s i o n ,  defines  i n t e r a c t i o n o f what  Epiphor i s the  sort  'induced content.'  that  In other  words  "metaphors are  contagious.  wider contexts  i n t h e i r semantic p l e n t i t u d e of i m p l i c a t i o n . "  D i a p h o r , on internal  the  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of q u a l i t i e s which gives  concrete  has  b e e n p r e f i g u r e d b y my  s t a t u s of a presented  ' f a i t accompli, a c t i o n of the  and  1  two  use  i s the  object."  of the  terms  linguistic  other  equivalent  an  poem  •pre-digested,•  f o r c e s keeps metaphor a f l o a t , the  the  and  (This quality-  'antecedent resemblance.')  c e n t r i p e t a l i n e f f e c t and  effect  to implicate wider  o t h e r hand, i s "a t y p e o f i n w a r d f o c u s ,  the  is  They t e n d  he  of  of meaning through comparison  term  of  The  inter-  since  one  centrifugal.  The  of the f o r c e s t h a t keep 85  a planet  i n i t s o r b i t , as Burke has  alternatively, as  the  the  c o n v e x and  f o r c e s can  by  the  c o n c r e t e n e s s and For  "inseparable  and  curve.  of the d u a l i t y i n metaphor i s  terms " c o n c r e t e / u n i v e r s a l . "  w o r d s seem p a r a d o x i c a l  metaphor.  be v i s u a l i z e d a s  Or  concave s i d e s of a s i n g l e geometric  Another expression captured  suggested.  self-cancelling,  u n i v e r s a l i t y can  be  Although elements  the of  seen to c o - e x i s t i n  instance, Hester points  out  that  Shakspeare's  -47-  character F a l s t a f f has both p a r t i c u l a r f u l l n e s s of d e t a i l and u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e at the same time.  So ooncrete-  ness corresponds to diaphor, or the p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g tendency.  This Wheelwright has s t y l e d as a w r i t e r ' s  "confrontative i m a g i n a t i o n " — h i s a b i l i t y to p a r t i c u l a r i z e and i n t e n s i f y h i s object and thus get at i t s q u i d d i t y . "tPoetryJ evokes something of the very q u a l i t y , tone and f l a v o r of the concrete...with a directness and a f u l l e x p e r i e n t i a l relevance that [jplain speech] cannot  do."  There i s a corresponding tendency to u n i v e r s a l i z e that i s embodied i n a w r i t e r ' s "archetypal imagination," h i s a b i l i t y to see r e a l i t y as symbolic.  (Wheelwright  sees Goethe as  being past master of the a r t , with the "depth  dimension"  stronger i n Faust than i n Egmont, more i n s i s t e n t i n Faust Part II than Faust Part I ) .  Hawkes summarizes by saying  that " a l l good poetry contains a f e e l i n g of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  88 from a case which has been presented d e f i n i t e l y . " A case i n point would be William Carlos Williams' poem I f the Muses  Choose the young ewe You s h a l l receive  A s t a l l - f e d lamb As your reward  But i f  They p r e f e r the lamb You s h a l l have the ewe f o r Second p r i z e . (89)  It  i s obvious t h a t the  "semantic p l e n i t u d e  of i m p l i c a t i o n "  t  h e r e i s w i d e r and w h e r e muses and  more g e n e r a l  s t a l l - f e d lambs are  With t h i s , the  dualities  Metaphor.  t h a t most w r i t e r s see  The  Jones has  o f n e a r l y any  case  as p a r t i c i p a t i n g  phenomenon.  system of p h o n o l o g i c a l n o t e d , i t was  fold  sequestered.  y i n - y a n g t w o - p r o n g e d a p p r o a c h i s one  Jakobson's b i n a r y  e x h a u s t i v e l y by  particular  I t h i n k t h a t I have s t a t e d the  highly explanatory  Ernest  than the  a device  for in  that i s  (Witness  features). t h a t was  As  used  P r e u d i n h i s work.  M o s t s t u d e n t s o f P r e u d have been s t r u c k by what has b e e n c a l l e d h i s o b s t i n a t e d u a l i s m . Running a l l t h r o u g h h i s work t h e r e i s what H e i n z Hartmann h a s c a l l e d 'a v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c k i n d o f d i a l e c t i c a l t h i n k i n g t h a t t e n d s t o b a s e t h e o r i e s on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f two o p p o s i t e p o w e r s . T h i s was; o f c o u r s e most pronounced i n h i s b a s i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : love-hunger; ego-sexuality;; auto-eroticism-heteroe r o t i c i s m ; E r o s - T h a n a t o s ; l i f e - d e a t h , and s o on. I t i s as i f P r e u d had a d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n t e m p l a t i n g a n y t o p i c u n l e s s he c o u l d d i v i d e i t i n t o two o p p o s i t e s , and n e v e r more t h a n t w o . (90) 1  -49-  CHAPTER S I X THE ROLE OP IMAGERY I have a l r e a d y an  "artistic"  s u g g e s t e d t h a t M e t a p h o r amounts t o  u s e o f l a n g u a g e , one w h e r e w o r d s a r e n o t  used f o r ordinary  communications o f a f a c t u a l  nature.  N o , i n s t e a d w o r d s a r e u s e d b y a p o e t t h e same way a s c u l p t o r uses marble or a p a i n t e r uses p a i n t . these a r t i s t s must p a i n t  aims t o i m m o r t a l i z e  h i smaterial:  recognized  j u s t how c o n s c i o u s t h i s "Poetry 91  Hester formulated  immortalizing  implies a decision  t o change t h e f u n c t i o n o f language."word h e r e .  sculpt  t a b l e s and t h e poet w r i t e , n o t speak.  t e n d e n c y i s when he w r o t e t h a t  key  the painter  p i c t u r e s and n o t houses, t h e s c u l p t o r  P i e t a s and n o t c o f f e e Valery  Each of  'Decision*  i s the  t h e same s t a t e m e n t i n  slightly less aphoristic fashion:  " I n poetry,  there  i s the  p a r t i c L i l a r problem of transforming  the normal,  practical  92 f u n c t i o n of language i n t o a p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  symbol."  By w h a t p r o c e s s e s do*, t h e w o r d s t h a t s e r v e s o s t a l wartly  i n ordinary  s p e e c h become p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ?  i n C h a p t e r One, w o r d s w e r e o r i g i n a l l y ideas is  arbitrarily,  au fond nothing  applied  so t h a t what r e s u l t s  As shown  to things or  i s a language  more t h a n a s e t o f c o n v e n t i o n s .  that  To make  t h i s r a n d o m s e t o f b y w o r d s i n a n y way p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i m i m p a c t , p a t t e r n m u s t somehow b e i m p o s e d o n i t .  -50-  Roger Fowler wrote that p a t t e r n incidentally  i n casual utterances,  emerges o n l y c o -  b u t i s t h e norm i n  93 the as  n o n - c a s u a l u s e o f language.,d i s c u r s i v e meaning r e s i d e s  meaning r e s i d e s speech, l i k e parts But to  only  An u t t e r a n c e  i n plain  a w f u l l y bad a b o u t what happened' i m -  t h e most v a g u e , random k i n d  of signification.  i f s u c h a s e n t e n c e w e r e t o be v i e w e d a s p a t t e r n e d  due  i t s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , - t h i s w o u l d s e t up a f a l s e paradox.  In point table. the  i n a r b i t r a r i n e s s , symbolic  i n patterning.  *I f e l t  Because j u s t as s u r e l y  of fact,  t h e d i s c u r s i v e s e n t e n c e l.s h i g h l y  However, by t r u e p a t t e r n i n g ,  predic-  I mean t h e i m p r e s s o f  i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r on t h e p a l i m p s e s t  of language.  A  Tom W o l f e s e n t e n c e i s n e v e r a s p r e d i c t a b l e a s one f r o m p l a i n speech, but w i t h o u t a doubt i t i s p r e d i c t a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m one b y Thomas W o l f e . . . H e s t e r w r i t e s t h a t  pictures  94 are  p r e s e n t a t i o n a l because of t h e i r  arrangement.  I n t e n t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t makes s p e e c h p r e s e n t a t i o n a l Pattern t e x t u r a l web  i n prose or poetry  or matrix  is a  complicated  i n which the i n d i v i d u a l trope i s  e m b e d d e d , a web w i t h b o t h s y n c h r o n i c dimensions?.  as w e l l .  I n an essay t i t l e d  and  "Imagery:  diachronic From  Sensation  95 to S y m b o l , N o r m a n and  F r i e d m a n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b o t h t h e warp  w o o f o f t h e f a b r i c I am p o s i t i n g h e r e when h e  how a n i m a g e ( t h e i n d i v i d u a l t r o p e , symbolic value.  First  explained  i n other words) a c h i e v e s  i t m u s t be r e a d f o r i t s e l f ,  i.e. at  -51-  face value.  T h e n , i t c a n he r e a d  or diachronic used it  dimension.  i n view of i t s heredity,  T h a t i s , s i n c e t h e image h a s b e e n  over time by a l l t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e g i v e n  has acquired  b o t h a h i s t o r y o f i t s own a n d a n  pattern of recurrence exactly to this contextual  language,  i n the language.  second l e v e l  or synchronic.  frequency of recurrence  Corresponding  i s the t h i r d , which i s  Here t h e image h a s a c e r t a i n  i n t h e work o f a g i v e n  w e l l as a r e l a t i o n t o the other of that w r i t e r .  archetypal  author,  images p o p u l a t i n g  I n t h i s complicated  as  t h e work  fashion, then,  a grid  o f p a t t e r n i s s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e f u n c t i o n i n g a r b i t r a r i n e s s that i s language. Besides  p a t t e r n i n g , though, there  i s still  another  way f o r l a n g u a g e t o become p r e s e n t a t i o n a l , a n d t h a t i s . . through " s i m i l a r i t y . " definition that  of 'icon,  ' icronic  tional.")  1  He  1  Henle e x p l i c a t e s t h i s n o t i o n  in his  ( w h i c h s p e a k s r i g h t t o my p o i n t i n  i s more o r l e s s s y n o n y m o u s w i t h  'pre s e n t a - ,  says:  A s i g n i s a symbol i n s o f a r as i t s i g n i f i e s a c c o r d i n g t o an a r b i t r a r y r u l e , i n s o f a r as i t i s a conventional s i g n . A s i g n i s an i c o n to the extent that i t s i g n i f i e s i n v i r t u e of similarity.* Thus, o r d i n a r y wortls a r e s y m E o l s , but onomatopoeic words c o n t a i n an i c o n i c element as w e l l . (9$) In the l a s t  sentence, Henle chooses t o construe  i n ' terms o f sound imagery, o f w h i c h t h e r e poetry;  i t i s c l e a r that sound-effects  *Italics  mine  'similarity'  i s no d e a r t h i n  can override  sense  -52-  in word-selection.  H o w e v e r , I c a n s e e n o r e a s o n why t h e  s i m i l a r i t y he s t i p u l a t e s c a n n o t a p p l y t o t h e a n a l o g y is  that  a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r a l l metaphors o f A r i s t o t l e ' s  f o u r t h type. stantiate  I f this  then i t w i l l  the intimation I voiced e a r l i e r that  1  f i g u r e s i n metaphor. sented  i s reasonable,  The s i m i l a r i t y  by metaphor's analogy  iconicity  sub-  imagery  o r comparison  pre-  l e n d s t o t h e whole f i g u r e an  or presentational quality.  Of c o u r s e , w h a t e v e r s o u n d - i m a g e r y t h e r e i s i n Metaphor adds t o t h i s t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l the  e f f e c t , and g i v e s  i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e an e x t r a gout o f meaning.  onomatopoetic term  ( a n d t h e a n a l o g i c a l m e t a p h o r , a s I am  a r g u i n g by extension) u n i t e s concept  Thus t h e  has surplus content  and p e r c e p t .  97  i n that i t  Schematically,  s e n s e (CONCEPT) + sound  (PERCEPT)  = SURPLUS CONTENT The  supercharge  of figurative  speech, mentioned above as  c o m i n g f r o m t h e sum o f t e n o r p l u s v e h i c l e , t r a c e a b l e t o a second source. iconicity"  98  What r e s u l t s  on t h e p a r t o f t h e f i g u r e ,  i s therefore i s a "multiple  the a b i l i t y ,  cited  , b y H e n l e y - ' o f m e t a p h o r s t o "be s p u n o u t , f o l l o w i n g a l i n e  -53-  o f a n a l o g y o r even s e v e r a l l i n e s a t once, c a r r y i n g i t q u i t e f a r . " T h i s c a p a b i l i t y has been i n s t a n c e d by Brooke-Rose,  who  shows t h a t t h e m e t a p h o r ' t h e s h i p  t h e w a v e s ' c a n be s p u n o u t i n t o a s i x - w a y  ploughs  relation,  involving: the plough the s h i p the ground t h e waves t h e a c t i o n o f p l o u g h i n g , and the a c t i o n of s a i l i n g . (99) Kenneth  B u r k e a d d s t o o u r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t  w h e n he c l a i m s t h a t p r o v e r b s a l s o h a v e s u c h a s u r f e i t . t h e saw,  'Among b l i n d men  t h e one-eyed i s k i n g , ' he  Of  observes  that I t t e a c h e s t h e r e l a t i v i t y and d e f i c i e n c y o f a l l w o r l d l y power and t h i s wisdom, w i t h o u t b e i n g e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d , r i s e s above the t r a n s i e n t a n a l o g y and i t s i n a d e q u a t e f o r m u l a . (100) A s we  shall  see l a t e r ,  contain this glut  t h e f a c t t h a t p r o v e r b s and  o f power i n a b e n i g n  metaphors  literal-looking  c a s i n g (the "inadequate f o r m u l a " mentioned)  makes them n e x t  to impossible to paraphrase a c c u r a t e l y i n p l a i n  speech.  ?/orking from the domain of s c i e n c e , L e a t h e r d a l e has a l s o found the supercharge concept u s e f u l , f i l e d under  the r u b r i c  a n d he  of surplus connotations those  t h a t do d o u b l e d u t y , h a v i n g e n o u g h m e a n i n g t o importantly i n s c i e n t i f i c  has terms  function  and n o n - s c i e n t i f i c c o n t e x t s ,  -54-  such  as: equilibrium stress energy orbit repression  corpuscle vortex field discharge polaritySo  s i m i l a r i t y and  language p r e s e n t a t i o n a l .  (101)  pattern i n concert  to the art,  object."  As  such, l i t e r a r y  and  status  output i s  subject  icons/works  w h a t i t seems t o b e .  figurative aspect).  example:  there  of  The  Demoiselles  t h a t which meets the  i s a wealth  literal  good p a i n t i n g — l e t us  d'Avignon—will eye  has  serve  meaning,  of e x t r a meaning t h a t only e x t r a  i n t o a r t h i s t o r y and Verification  Any  work (The  l e v e l s are n e a t l y r e c a p i t u l a t e d i n language as  choose P i c a s s o ' s Les an  concrete  Different Interpretations.  o f a r t i s b o t h what i t i s and  a s p e c t and  the  these:  Different Levels  two  "the  same c o n d i t i o n s t h a t g o v e r n o t h e r  namely  ordinary  Once t h e y h a v e d o n e t h i s ,  p r o d u c t — M e t a p h o r — i s encoded; i t has of presented  make  as  but spelunking  Picasso w i l l disclose.  is Centripetal.  James J a r r e t w r o t e  that  . . . t h e r e a l i s m demanded i n p o e t r y i s t h a t t h e p o e t ' s a s s u m e d p r e m i s e s d e t e r m i n e h i s poem's content. Thus the v e r i f i c a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o a poem i s a n i n t e r n a l o r c e n t r i p e t a l v e r i f i c a t i o n . S t r i c t e x t e r n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n i s not e s s e n t i a l l y aesthetic. (102.) This  amounts t o the  f a c t t h a t each work of a r t (and  fore  each metaphor) presents; a t r u t h but not  there-  necessarily  -55-  the  truth.  E a c h one i s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of a private  r e a l i t y a n d a s s u c h c a n n o t h e j u d g e d b y a n y one e x t e r n a l standard. Privacy.  I n t h a t i t a r i s e s f r o m one p e r s o n ' s  the work o f a r t i s n o t f u l l y is  therefore  object.  in  Our c r i t i c a l f a c u l t y  a t an arm's-length'.remove f r o m t h e c r e a t e d  Hester explains:  metaphorical  public.  cosmography,  "Critical  discussions  of  meaning presuppose t h a t a metaphor i s shared  some s e n s e t h o u g h i t i s n o t f u l l y  public...the  metaphor  103 is  i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e but not p u b l i c l y observable." Coleridge  gives  intensely personal "For and  an appealing  d e s c r i p t i o n of the  process of a r t i s t i c  f r o m my c h i l d h o o d  •  creation.  He w r i t e s ,  I have been accustomed t o a b s t r a c t ,  a s i t w e r e , t o u n r e a l i z e w h a t e v e r o f more t h a n common  i n t e r e s t my e y e s d w e l t o n b y a s o r t o f t r a n s f u s i o n o f my consciousness to i d e n t i f y myself with And  i n h e r Grammar o f M e t a p h o r , B r o o k e - R o s e n o t e s  t h a t metaphors formed w i t h Dickinson's  the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e  (like  'Shame i s t h e S h a w l o f P i n k ' ) h a v e a n ''''element 105  o f assumed r e c o g n i t i o n , " gives  the o b j e c t . " ^ ^  a privacy  of expression  that  the reader a " f e e l i n g of missed s i g n i f i c a n c e ; " the  p o e t h a s a "you-know-what-I-jrtean"  tone.  p r e s e n t Aa st i of ni an la l o ba jt et ce ts,t a It iwoinl lt oc Mi et te a Kp h a or rl ' Us i ts tt ia 't su s sac s h ea me,  106  -56-  w h i c h l o c a t e s m e t a p h o r m i d - w a y b e t w e e n two p o l e s . the  At  bottom i s raw m a t e r i a l , a s t o c k p i l e o f a l l t h e images  t h a t c a n p o s s i b l y be u s e d i n w r i t i n g . . A t t h e t o p i s m y t h , a fully and  f a b r i c a t e d t i s s u e o f words t h a t has been  i s believed  Uitti  places  by an a u d i e n c e o r r e a d i n g  metaphor a t a c e n t r a l p o i n t between  two s t a t e s , I i n f e r t h a t raw m a t e r i a l an o b j e t  public.  ready f o r presentation as myth.  Since these  t h i s means t h a t i n m e t a p h o r , t h e  o f images has been o r g a n i z e d  taken to heart  accepted  and shaped i n t o  but not y e t accepted or  -57-  CHAPTER SEVEN METAPHOR'S PARTICULAR LOGIC f  Logic'  i n Bound Porm I claimed  i n the  foregoing  e x t e r n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n ' i s not of a metaphor. m e a n i n g and are  not  The  chapter  that  "strict  expected of a work of a r t  c r i t e r i a t h a t determine hoth a metaphor's  i t s worth—aesthetic  criteria,  I have  those used to judge o r d i n a r y r e p o r t o r i a l  In effect,  e a c h work o f a r t a c t s as  the  t h a t the  result  Demoiselles  are  obtains  objet d'art  different  f r o m t h o s e one  o f women.  The  argued— speech.  referent,  interpret  with  Picasso's  would apply  same  to  Ding-an-sich  i n the l i n g u i s t i c s p h e r e , where the l i t e r a r y  i s j u s t a s much a s p e c i a l  particularized  entity.  Thus, i f you  the meaning of a l i t e r a l explanation.  i t s own  standards used to  DeKooning's p o r t r a i t s quality  or  instance  are  s e n t e n c e , you  and  i n doubt  can  ask  a  about  for  an  However, i f i n doubt about the meaning of  a  107 poem, y o u r o n l y r e c o u r s e I n t h a t c a s e , one logical  a t a l l i n the  thg,t e a c h m e t a p h o r h a s how  i s to read  the  again.  wonders i f f i g u r a t i v e  ordinary i t s own  sense.  ordinary  inflexible logic?  does not  figure  i n Metaphor.  How  speech i s  does the  fact  l o g i c work i n p r a c t i c e ,  d o e s t h i s e l a s t i c custom-made l o g i c  to describe  poem  I will  s t a c k up  against  argue that l o g i c per  R a t h e r , the words b e s t  the workings of f i g u r a t i v e language  and  are  se  used  -58-  1  counterlogical,  all in The  1  1  extralogical,'  of which c o n t a i n the bound, submerged  'infra-'  element of  and  'logic'  'analogical,'  certainly,  hut  form.  C o u n t e r l o g i c a l i n Metaphor As H e s t e r  the kinds speech:  put  of data a l l are  words enter  i t , there  that are admitted  w i t h no  on a n  (meaningful)  and  meter, a l l i t e r a t i o n )  equal  footing.  j u s t f o r the  According  on  i n a f i g u r e of. Certain  joy of  consideration at a l l being  t h e i r meaning (concept). logical  open-door p o l i c y  admissible  into poetic diction  sound (percept)  i s an  to Hester,  their given  both  to  the  c o u n t e r l o g i c a l ( a u d i t o r y , rhyme,  elements f u n c t i o n i c o n i c a l l y  in  the  108 poem.  I n t h i s way,  evaded (through  the  canons of normal l o g i c  "poetic l i c e n s e " ) , forsaken  c r e a t e a whole t h a t i s not  standard-issue  are  i n order  English.  to But  i m p o r t a n t l y , the l i t e r a r y work of a r t i s a whole above a l l . , where the c o u n t e r l o g i c a l elements chime i n w i t h the  logical,  b r i n g i n g a b o u t a u n i t y t h a t m a k e s i t no  micro-  cosm.  I n t h i s way,  a preserve distinct  unto i t s e l f .  from the l o g i c  from the l o g i c a f t e r the solution.  William  first  1  The  l e s s than a  poem a b o u t s t a l l - f e d l a m b s i s logic  that characterizes i t i s  o f o r d i n a r y s p e e c h and  o f o t h e r poems.  distant  again  I f you want i t e x p l a i n e d  r e a d i n g , a second r e a d i n g  i s the  only  -59-  (For comparison, note t h a t the e q u a l l y and it  c o m p a r a b l y p r e s e n t i n the v i s u a l a r t s , where  a l s o tones i n to provide  For  instance,  an  e f f e c t o f u n i t y and  will  effect.  The  i n t o an  seem  effect that  distance,  the  i n u n d e n i a b l y the  same o p e n - d o o r p o l i c y o f a e s t h e t i c s  Henry M i l l e r to  include  r u b b e r h i n g e s and  green  right allows  "a g o l d e n m a r s h m a l l o w o a t o p u s  molten hoofs...oysters...doing  V i t u s d a n c e , some w i t h l o c k j a w ,  to  g r e e n i n i t when e x a m i n e d  However, from normal v i e w i n g  resolve  oneness.  a p o i n t i l l i s t p a i n t i n g b y S e u r a t may  h a v e a n u n t o w a r d amount o f , s a y , c l o s e up.  counterlogical i s  some w i t h  the  with St.,  double-jointed  10Q knees..." hall.  ^  i n the  d e s c r i p t i o n of a bacchanalian  Read s e r i a t i m , the  b i z a r r e images c o a g u l a t e  e f f e c t t h a t i s e x a c t l y M i l l e r and jazz, too,  one  f i n d s the  s l i g h t l y discordant As  say, has  the  Rose has  out,  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , Love i s the  a  that could  poetry  I mean t o  o n c e be  centuries appealed  into art.  b y Donne a n d  c r i t e r i o n that  Only those images t h a t harmonized w i t h  creative  over the  t o what i s a d m i s s i b l e  shown^"*"^ t h a t i n l o v e  the  e v e r been.  growing s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of l i f e  t o f o r g u i d a n c e as  In  elements).  t h a n i t has  moral absolutes  an  exactly appropriate.  s e v e r a l a u t h o r s have p o i n t e d  destroyed  into  p l e a s i n g whole d e r i v i n g from  admixture of  d o o r i s w i d e r o p e n now  dance  Brookehis  i s appealed  to.  the p r e v a i l i n g  l o v e - i d e a l were a d m i t t e d i n t o the metaphors o f t h o s e  poets.  -60-  L i k e w i s e , God  was  that his figure that  'the Foe'  i s , God's f o e .  similar of  the a r b i t e r  i n p o e t r y by M i l t o n ,  c o u l d o n l y be  one  foe—Satan;  Rosamond T u v e came t o a  t o B r o o l e - R o s e ' s when she w r o t e  such  conclusion  that the  imagery  R e n a i s s a n c e and m e t a p h y s i c a l w r i t e r s d e r i v e d f r o m  belief  their  i n a b s o l u t e v a l u e s , w h i l e the moderns, d o u b t i n g  t h e s e a b s o l u t e s , " r e l y more h e a v i l y u p o n t h e s e n s o r y 111 textures of t h e i r experience  itself."  H e s t e r c o n c l u d e s h i s l o n g and  t h o u g h t f u l book  metaphor v/ith an apercu. p e r t a i n i n g t o the a d m i x t u r e logical effect the  and  counterlogical  t h a t i f metaphor w i l l  d i s c u r s i v e language  opposed,  ( c f . Kenneth  stantiation'), in  elements.  Burke's phrase  then perhaps  t o be  'licensed transsub-  There  polarities"  i s t h e s.eed o f a  t r u t h i n h i s i n t i m a t i o n which f a r exceeds paper—the  data that i n  incontrovertibly  our " i r r e d u c i b l e 112  g e n e r a l need overhauling.'  the scope  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i n a l l the two-sided  c o n t r o v e r s i e s t h a t have been r a g i n g i n c e s s a n t l y h i s t o r y , t h e r e i s no r e a l  duality  at stake.  p a r t i c i p a n t s h a v e a c o r n e r on t h e t r u t h ; ad goes, 'You're  ' I t ' s a breath mint.' both r i g h t .  of  H i s remark i s to the  admit and marry  are thought  on  of  this  philosophical throughout  Rather, a l l  o r , as the C e r t s  ' I t ' s a candy  mint.'  I t ' s t w o . . .-two... two m i n t s i n  one.  1  -61-  Metaphor as E x t r a - o r I n f r a l o g i c a l Leatherdale  q u i t e j u s t i f i a b l y adds t h e n o t i o n 113  t h a t metaphor i s e x t r a l o g i c a l . '  Erom h i s s c i e n t i f i c  p e r s p e c t i v e , he s e e s t h a t t h e k i n e t i c  theory  has  been e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f b i l l i a r d  and  that t h i s dithyrambic analogy,  of gases  balls  i n motion,  w h i c h caroms w i l d l y  f r o m one s p h e r e o f p h e n o m e n a t o e x p l a i n a n o t h e r , if  i s nothing  not extralogical. Thomas, t o o , i s c o r r e c t i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g m e t a p h o r  as  infralogical,  s a y i n g t h a t metaphor " h i s t o r i c a l l y o r  l o g i c a l l y precedes t h e s o l i d i f i e d meanings o f c o n c e p t u a l 114 language."'  Hester  a s w e l l r e c o g n i z e d m e t a p h o r t o be  the precursor o f l i t e r a l in  any c r e a t i v e f i e l d ,  language,  whether l i t e r a t u r e 115  a l w a y s on t h e c u t t i n g e d g e . " is  probably  directly  and wrote  "...metaphor  or physics, i s  (Hester's formulation  t h e s a f e r o f t h e two s i n c e h e d o e s . n o t  t o the problem of whether f i g u r a t i v e  r e f e r e n c e i s more  speak  or l i t e r a l  basic).  Eletaphor as A n a l o g i c a l ' A n a l o g i c a l ' , t h o u g h , i s f a r a n d away t h e b e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f metaphor's process. means 'up,' ' t h r o u g h o u t , ' to  chart the e r r a t i c  The p r e f i x  'ana-'  ' a g a i n , ' and 'back' and  course  serves  o f metaphor's p a r t i c u l a r  logic.  According t o Kenneth Burke, a n a l o g i c a l reasoning provides a better description of r e a l i t y counterpart.  than  i t s logical  -62-  Our n o t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y a s a s u c c e s s i o n o f p u s h e s f r o m b e h i n d i s . . . a d i s g u i s e d way o f i n s i s t i n g t h a t e x p e r i e n c e a b i d e by t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f a good a r g u m e n t . . . I do n o t s e e why t h e u n i v e r s e should a c c o m m o d a t e i t s e l f t o a man-made medium o f c o m m u n i s c a t i o n when t h e r e i s s o s t r o n g l y a c r e a t i v e o r p o i e t i c q u a l i t y a b o u t i t s g o i n g s on...{116} M o r e o v e r , he a d d u c e s t h a t t h e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o a n a l o g i z i n g — to seeing  parallels  where S c i e n c e religion,  i n everythings-is n a t u r a l i n a c u l t u r e  i s t h e incumbent d e i t y .  insists  For science,  unlike  o n a u n i v e r s a l r e g u l a r i t y w h e r e no S u d d e n  s a l v a t i o n s o r r e t r i b u t i o n s are enacted.  Therefore,  i t pro-  117 vides  a framework o f " u n i v e r s a l r e g u l a r i t y  w i t h i n which  , :  the  a n a l o g i c a l a c t p r o c e e d s a s t h e m a i n mode o f d i v i n a t i o n .  The  Truth  Question  As  f o r t r u t h i n Metaphor, I have a l r e a d y  metaphors r e f l e c t s i n g l e l a r g e one. favour  that  i n d i v i d u a l small t r u t h s rather than a The l i t e r a t u r e  this view, with Hester,  "Poetry,  hinted  thus metaphorical  on t h e s u b j e c t  f o r one, c l a i m i n g  tends t o that  i m a g e s , do n o t r e f e r t o t h e  118 natural world,  b u t do r e f e r t o r e a l i t y . ' "  the n a t u r a l world realities.  1  He means  i s c o n s t i t u t e d o f numerous i n d i v i d u a l  I n i t s e n t i r e t y , nature i s too vast  to mirror  a c c u r a t e l y , s o w h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l m e t a p h o r (poem, etc.)  presents  truths.  that  novel,  i s a s m a l l r e f r a c t i o n o f one o f t h e c o m p o n e n t  T h i s v i e w i s a l s o h e l d b y Owen Thomas, who p o i n t s  tt) t h e g r e a t  number o f d i f f e r e n t m e t a p h o r s on t h e s u b j e c t  of l o v e , time,  d e a t h , e t c , as p r o o f  that  verisimilitude  119 can  he—and  is—achieved variously.  C o l i n Turbayne's  v i e w i s t h a t the metaphor-maker i s i n e f f e c t a metaphysician, t o he  i n t h a t he  a r b i t r a r y and  genuine  knows h i s a l l o c a t i o n o f  only a t r u t h .  He  suggests  facts  that  120 literal-minded  t h i n k e r s a r e much l e s s e r m e t a p h y s i c i a n s  because they accept holus of concepts that l i t e r a l It and  bolus  the  s o r t i n g and  language gives  i s e v i d e n t , however, t h a t the  i n s i g h t o f f e r e d by  the n a t u r a l world  a metaphor can  be  bundling  them p r e - p a c k a g e d . * fragmentary t r u t h generalized  at l a r g e , w i t h r e s u l t s t h a t are  on  to  sometimes  122 g o o d and  sometimes bad.  Burke,  D a r w i n ' s t h i n k i n g p l a c e d man phorical  i n s i g h t was  f o r one,  i n the  category  a t work t h e r e .  exploded to cosmic p r o p o r t i o n s ,  f e e l s t h a t when of ape,  meta-  Once t h e m e t a p h o r  i t proved to have  was  cosmic  123 reverberations. t h a t t o map  one  But  Stephen Pepper,  m e t a p h o r (he  calls  contrariwise, believes  i t a "root  metaphor")  down on* I t oam a s ur ge ga el si tt iy n gl a hr eg re er at h at nr i m t hmee d one f o vr e wr hs i co hn io ft B.L. was W h o r f ' s h y p o t h e s i s o f l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i v i s m : .^namely, t h a t t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s i n e v e r y l a n g u a g e a r e d i f f e r e n t and t h a t "languages are organized along d i f f e r e n t l i n e s . . . T h e r e a r e L a t i n w o r d s w h i c h h a v e no e q u i v a l e n t i n G r e e k a n d H e b r e w w o r d s w h i c h h a v e no e q u i v a l e n t i n e i t h e r L a t i n o r G r e e k . And t h e s e a r e n o t i s o l a t e d words a l o n e : e n t i r e sections of t h e v o c a b u l a r y a r e o r g a n i z e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways i n d i f f e r e n t languages." (.121) T h e s e p r e - o r d a i n e d c a t e g o r i e s , l i k e t h e i n n a t e m e n t a l c a t e g o r i e s p o s i t e d by K a n t , cannot h e l p but have a mind-bending i n f l u e n c e , though t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s f a r f r o m p r o v a b l e as y e t .  -64-  originally  intended  i s dangerous.,  This s t r u c t u r e * i s then elevated into a hypothesis f o r the e x p l a n a t i o n o f o t h e r u n c r i t i c i z e d f a c t s , as a r e s u l t o f w h i c h t h e s e become c r i t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of the r o o t metaphor. In the course of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e r o o t m e t a p h o r i t s e l f may u n d e r g o c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s and r e f i n e m e n t w h i c h r e c i p r o c a l l y i n c r e a s e s i t s r a n g e and power o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Y/hen i t a s s u m e s u n l i m i t e d r a n g e , o r w o r l d - w i d e s c o p e , t h e n i t i s a m e t a p h y s i c a l h y p o t h e s i s , and a c a t a logue of i t s p r i n c i p a l d e s c r i p t i v e concepts i s a set of metaphysical c a t e g o r i e s . . . He all  i l l u s t r a t e s w i t h a number o f c o s m i c - s c a l e d of which can  be  philosophies,  seen t o stem from a r a t h e r  o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r , and  limited  s u g g e s t s t h a t when' s o b l o w n  up,  t h e r e s u l t a n t t h e o r i e s a l w a y s p r o v e t o c o n t a i n "some i n .124 t e r n a l u l c e r of contradiction."' t h i n k back to Hester's polarities or white  and  but  matter,  serve  as an  to Whitehead's view t h a t there  an  If life  g o e s h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l way  tender misconception  i n tow,  i s no  black  were a  black-andable  to  According  to  with  this  f e e l i n g - t h a t the  makes a r e a d e q u a t e t o t h e w o r l d  but  irreducible  e x p a n d e d r o o t m e t a p h o r m i g h t be  a d e q u a t e summary o f r e a l i t y .  N i e t z s c h e , man  he  cannot help  i d e a t h a t t h e r e a r e no  o n l y shades of grey.  white  One  just  analogies  that confronts  him.  What t h e r e f o r e i s t r u t h ? A m o b i l e army o f metaphors, metonymies, anthropomorphisms: in s h o r t a sum o f human r e l a t i o n s w h i c h became p o e t i c a l l y and r h e t o r i c a l l y i n t e n s i f i e d , m e t a m o r p h o s e d , a d o r n e d and a f t e r l o n g u s a g e seemto a n a t i o n f i x e d , c a n o n i c and b i n d i n g . (125)  * (the o r i g i n a l r o o t metaphor, w h i c h i s "framed f i r s t the b a s i s of a r a t h e r s m a l l s e t of f a c t s " )  on  -65-  A P o e t i c Grammar? I t w o u l d seem t o o t h a t t h e f r e e d o m l e t i n b y Metaphor's open-door p o l i c y  i s such  that linguists  cannot  w r i t e a grammar f o r M e t a p h o r i n t h e way t h a t t h e y c a n w r i t e a grammar f o r a l a n g u a g e .  Samuel L e v i n , i n L i n g u i s t i c  S t r u c t u r e s i n P o e t r y , a p p e a r s t o h a v e made t h e f u l l e s t attempt  at rule-writing.  H i s premise i s that i f the  generation of structures i s rule-governed, s h o u l d he a b l e t o a s s e s s  then these  the extent t o which a  rules  generated  126 structure are  i s deviant. .  But h i s suggestions  s p o t t y , and a r e adequate o n l y as d e s c r i p t i v e  explanatory) called  theory.  I n sum, h e n o t e s  probably  deviant;  b e t t e r t o extend  (a) s t r u c t u r e s  (b) i t i s  the existing transformational  (c) the poet operates  t o c l a s s poetry as  w i t h an a l t e r e d  lexicon;  (d) as m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , p o e t i c v i o l a t i o n s can.be viev/ed e i t h e r syntagmatic But  in  ( n o t as  t o r e m a i n i n one's mind;"  grammar t o c o v e r p o e t r y r a t h e r t h a n  as  that:  regard  " c o u p l i n g s " a r e p e c u l i a r t o p o e t r y and e x p l a i n " t h e  f a c t t h a t p o e t r y tends  and  i n this  other l i n g u i s t s are less 127  outlook.  possibility reasons. involve  or paradigmatic  A.L. B i n n s ,  i n nature.  optimistic  than  Levin  f o r instance, despairs of the  o f w r i t i n g a grammar f o r M e t a p h o r f o r t w o  F i r s t , he e x p l a i n s t h a t stich an a m b i t i o n  would  -66-  ...the assumption t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to p r e s c r i b e i n l i n g u i s t i c t e r m s a l o n e t h e s u f f i c i e n t and n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of a l l the s e n t e n c e s of the l i t e r a t u r e . o f the p a s t , as w e l l as t h o s e o f . . . t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f the f u t u r e . (128) I n t h a t l i n g u i s t i c s has speech that are f o r the  longer  time being.  yet  tor : s t u d y - e x t e n s i v e l y  than sentence-length,  His  other  point  t h a t everyday speech i s purposive called that  "phatic"  or comforting  i s d e t e r m i n e d by  the  (except  s i t u a t i o n and  nothing  imagined s i t u a t i o n u n t i l  our  f o r what  It is Sapir  speech)'-, w i t h , l a n g u a g e - u s e  "In l i t e r a t u r e  t o l d us;  of  i s correct  i s a l s o good.  communicated. of the  he  units  on  knowledge of the  the  what i s t o  o t h e r h a n d we the  auifchor  s i t u a t i o n i s derived  be know has from  12Q the  language..."  of l i t e r a t u r e in  I n o t h e r words, the  J  is self-referential,  i t i s highly specific,  and  d e t e r m i n e d by  i n d i v i d u a l work the language used a posteriori sorts  of d i c t a t e s . *  130 A n o t h e r w r i t e r , James P e t e r as B i n n s about the says that  there  possibility  i s no  way  Thorne,  ' " i s as  of a p o e t i c  grammar.  to e l a s t i c i z e  of E n g l i s h w i t h o u t i n c r e a s i n g the unthinkably.  That i s , there  i s no  r e a d y way  a t the  he  B e t t e r , he  says,  grammar  to. g e t  our  danced h i s  did'  same t i m e t o e x c l u d e s o m e t h i n g l i k e  thumped t h e i r h a d s . ' for * The and at  r  He  fixed rules  b u r d e n on E n g l i s h  grammar t o g e n e r a t e a s t r u c t u r e l i k e amd  the  chary -  'we  t o w r i t e a grammar  e a c h poem on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t e a c h poem i s a c t u a l l y a R e c a l l Burke's passage about the t e l l - t a l e l o c k e t s . w r i t e r has a f u l l - b l o w n l i t e r a r y c o n c e p t i o n i n mind l e t s the r e a d e r i n t o i t by s p o o n - f e e d i n g him a b i t a time.  -67-  sample o f a d i f f e r e n t language. grammar c a n h a v e a f i n i t e the  lexicon,  proper forms, eliminate  certain  irregularities  As such, each  starred  are regular  poem i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r . "  J  poetic  e n a b l i n g i t t o produce f o r m s a n d "show how i n the context of the  -68-  CHAPTER EIGHT THE  D I F F I C U L T Y OF  PARAPHRASING METAPHOR  Non-linearity I have expressed the v i e w t h a t _ p o e t i c  language  describes  a "non-spatial reality...the-innerl i f e  man,"  that i n doing  and  non-linear.  i s to p o i n t out  a metaphor i s not  e x a m p l e i s 'The different A  i t s own  Monroe B e a r d s l e y ' s  l i n e a r nature by  so,  man  processes  are  approach to t h i s t h a t the  of  analogy  non-  expressed  a r e v e r s i b l e two-way a n a l o g y . is a lion;'  i n meaning:  His  i t s obverse i s a l t o g e t h e r  'the l i o n  i s a man.'  : B r e l a t i o n i n metaphor i s not  equal  Thus  J  to B  the  : A.  Economy I f n o n - l i n e a r i t y serves  t o make m e t a p h o r s  to paraphrase, t h e i r economical nature  has  Angel,  'Necessity  f o r instance, demonstrates t h a t  mother of i n v e n t i o n ' r e a d s as  the  her  the of  shorter version. 'Among b l i n d men  to take  the "The the  Not  only  periphrasis actually  away f r o m t h e  ( c f . Burke's attempted the  is  o f f s p r i n g . " -*-33  l o n g e r more " e x p l a n a t o r y "  seems t o e x p l a i n l e s s ,  effect.  invention i s like  l o n g e r v e r s i o n i s i n f i n i t e l y more u n g a i n l y . t h a t , but  same  follows i n paraphrase:  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n e c e s s i t y and r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a m o t h e r and  the  difficult  one-eyed i s k i n g ' ) .  clarity  of  paraphrase .Note  that  -69t h e same p r i n c i p l e language:  seems t o h o l d t r u e i n " o r d i n a r y "  wherever a thought  concisi.om.and  clarity,  'Detto, f a t t o '  expresses  equivalent  sooner  it  expressed  with  the s h o r t e r v e r s i o n i s a t  premium over the l o n g e r .  'no  c a n be  Thus, the I t a l i a n  a  proverb  everything that i t s English  said  than: d o n e  1  does.  Actually,  e x p r e s s e s more b e c a u s e i t s t e r s e n e s s i s p e r f e c t l y  consonant  w i t h i t s theme, .  Equivocal  Reference  Metaphors are a d d i t i o n a l l y hard to reproduce discursive  speech because they are understood  r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t l y "  in  "intuitively  according to Christine  Brooke-  134 Rose.'  I t i s by  i n t u i t i o n t h a t the reader  interprets  a m e t a p h o r ... l i k e  ' t h e meadows l a u g h ' a s m e a n i n g  meadows a r e f u l l  o f flowers'-..without b e i n g t o l d .  b e i n g t r u e , we  'the This  r e c o g n i z e metaphors i n our r e a d i n g r a t h e r  t h a n s t r i c t l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g them.  Turbayne i n t h i s  c o n n e c t i o n g i v e s the three stages of r e c o g n i t i o n . are coterminous  w i t h only the f i r s t  the metaphorical l i f e - s p a n ,  and  m o r i b u n d i t y i n metaphor.)  The  r e a d e r becomes aware t h a t s o m e t h i n g  in  t h a t a l t h o u g h w h a t he  the form  of a l i t e r a l  stages  s i n c e Turbayne does n o t  for  t e x t and  second  (These  truth,  They a r e :  (a)  of  account  detection.  i s amiss  i n the  i s reading i s expressed i t i s m e a n t t o be  read  -70-  otherwise. by  Burke c a l l s  i n c o n g r u i t y . '^"35  t h i s metaphor's  "perspective  (b) attempt t o u n d r e s s i t .  The  reader r e f e r s to the l i t e r a l  meaning o f t h e word a t i s s u e .  For  with  e x a m p l e , when c o n f r o n t e d  something l i k e 'the  meadows l a u g h , ' he r e f e r s t o w h a t he k n o w s a b o u t laughing.  (c) r e s t o r a t i o n .  metaphor t o i t s place fact  that  The r e a d e r r e s t o r e s t h e  i n the t e x t , having a s s i m i l a t e d the  i t i s d i f f e r e n t a n d t h e r e a s o n why.  Paraphrasing can also y i e l d  a n e m b a r r a s : de.  r i c h e s s e , a s L e e c h d e m o n s t r a t e d when ..he . t r i e d 'the  "regular"  s e a t h a t b a r e s h e r bosom t o t h e moon.'  fusion of possible  This  pro-  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e s u l t s from the f a c t  t h a t b o t h t e n o r and v e h i c l e connotations,  t o re-word  trail  with  them a c o v e y o f  many o f w h i c h a p p e a r f e a s i b l e a s f a r a s t h e  reader can see.  L e o n a r d A n g e l a d d s t o o t h a t t h e more  o r i g i n a l a m e t a p h o r , t h e more d i f f i c u l t from context.  i ti s to pry i t  F o r i n d i v i d u a l images a r e t i g h t l y  welded  137 to  t h e m e t a p h o r - s y s t e m s o f w h o l e poems,  texture  that  - to the greater  exists.  When one a t t e m p t s t o " s p i n t h e m o u t  along multiple lines"  a s L e e c h d i d , t h e r e s u l t i s t h e one  documented by A n g e l : constructions  t h e p o s s i b l e number o f p e r i p h r a s t i c  i s equal to the possible  number o f " f o u r t h  terms." i . e . " t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e c e s s i t y and i n v e n t i o n i s l i k e the r e l a t i o n between a mother Einci  IT-GX * 1  "  'POSSIBLE FOURTH TERMS offspring baby progeny child  -71-  The place  matter of texture  j u s t mentioned f i n d s i t s  i n a three-fold typology  of metaphors.  t h a t B e r g g r e n h a s made  I t bears reproducing  here:  1. i s o l a t e d p i c t o r i a l m e t a p h o r s . These a r e m e t a p h o r s a s t h e C l a s s i c i s t s u n d e r s t o o d them, 1. e. r h e t o r i c a l n i c e t i e s t o a d o r n more substantive discourse. —APPEAL  TO E M P R I S I C A L  INTUITION  2. s t r u c t u r a l metaphors. These a r e t h e a n a l o g i c a l type. S c i e n t i f i c metaphors a r e e x c l u s i v e l y s t r u c t u r a l i n n a t u r e ; many (though n o t a l l ) l i t e r a r y metaphors a r e structural also. — A P P E A L TO I N T E L L E C T U A L I N T U I T I O N 3. t e x t u r a l m e t a p h o r s . These a r e "based on a n T ? Q emotional i n t u i t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t y o r d i s p a r i t y . " — A P P E A L TO L Y R I C A L  INTUITION.  Levin hinted at a linguistic  explanation  of this  l y r i c i s m , which i s ipso facto author-specific.  texture of He showed  t h a t language c o n s i s t s o f a framework wherein a r e s i t u a t e d 140 position-slots; slots with  the w r i t e r has an o p t i o n t o f i l l the  one o f a n u m b e r o f w o r d s ( s e l e c t i o n f r o m a  p a r a d i g m ) , s o t h a t one w r i t e r ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n t o c e r t a i n t y p e s o f w o r d s may p r o v i d e diction. find  (While  an explanation  t h i s view of Levin's  of his style or  i s plausible, I  i t to o i n s u b s t a n t i a l t o be v e r y u s e f u l ) . The  point  i s , t h o u g h , t h a t e a c h w r i t e r maps h i s  i n n e r l a n d s c a p e on t o t h e o u t e r ; Middleton  Hurry's t i t l e  Countries  this  i s the a l l u s i o n i n  of the Mind.  F o r one  -72-  man w i l l w r i t e  of 'brooding mountains.  n e u t r a l mountains a r e seen t o brood.* mountains'' a r e e q u a l l y cosmography.  Stanley  all-too natural  permissible  1  F o r him,the But  'laughing  i n another  writer's  E d g a r Hyman h a s i d e n t i f i e d  tendency t o p r o j e c t .  i m p l i c a t i o n s f u r t h e r than I would f e e l  this  (He c a r r i e s i t s safe  d o i n g , however) :  The i d e a s o f D a r w i n , M a r x , F r a z e r a n d F r e u d a r e then as t r u e as any ideas t h a t e x p l a i n our w o r l d to our s a t i s f a c t i o n . I f they arose out of the t h i n k e r ' s own n a t u r e , i f D a r w i n p r o j e c t e d h i s s l o w - a n d - s t e a d y p e r s o n a l i t y on n a t u r e o r F r e u d h i s w i s h f u l c h i l d h o o d , we c a n b e s u r e o f s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g even E u c l i d ' s geometry o r Newton's m e c h a n i c s . I d e a s come f r o m minds and minds a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s n a t u r e and e x p e r i e n c e . (3-41) F r e u d i s indeed a most l i k e l y of t h i n k i n g .  case-in-point  Hyman, f o r o n e , e x p l a i n s  metaphors o f warfare  f o rt h i s  F r e u d ' s many  (involving fortresses, sally-ports,  w a t c h m e n a n d b e s i e g e r s ) a s a p r o j e c t i o n o f h i s own state:  kind  "For a divided personality dealing with  inner  an ambi-  14 valent  subject  m a t t e r , what b e t t e r metaphor t h a n w a r f a r e ? "  E r n e s t Jones i s e q u a l l y  aware o f t h i s l i n e  When h e p r e s e n t e d t h e p a r a g r a p h o n F r e u d ' s his  greatest  ideas  i n duality-form  o f thought. conceiving  (quoted a t t h e end  o f C h a p t e r F i v e ) , he f o l l o w e d i t w i t h t h i s : One i s n a t u r a l l y t e m p t e d t o c o r r e l a t e t h i s t e n d e n c y w i t h i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n F r e u d ' s own p e r s o n a l i t y . T h e r e was t h e f i g h t b e t w e e n s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e and p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n ; h i s p a s s i o n a t e l o v e urge and h i s u n u s u a l l y g r e a t s e x u a l repression; * e . g . f o r T.S. E l i o t , ' A p r i l i s t h e c r u e l l e s t month, b r e e d i n g " L i l a c s out o f t h e dead ground.'  -73-  h i s vigorous masculinity, which shines through a l l h i sw r i t i n g s , and h i s f e m i n i n e needs; h i s d e s i r e t o c r e a t e e v e r y t h i n g h i m s e l f and h i s l o n g i n g t o receive s t i m u l a t i o n from another; h i s l o v e o f independence and h i s needs o f dependence. (143) M o r e p r u d e n t t h a n Hyman, J o n e s a d d s a c a u t i o n a r y  rider:  "But such t h o u g h t s a s s u r e d l y b r i n g t h e r i s k o f f a l s i f i 144 c a t i o n from the l u r e A final  of simplistic  a s p e c t o f metaphor's  paraphrase i s i t s all-around  solutions." intractability to  ineluctability.  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t e r s who r a i l e d metaphors u n w i t t i n g l y peppered w i t h metaphors.  those  against metaphysical  [ s i c ] t h e i r own  The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e  (1779) i s i l l u s t r a t i v e .  Even  invective  f r o m Samuel  (The a c c u r s e d metaphors  Johnson  are under-  scored) . The m o s t " h e t e r o g e n e o u s i d e a s a r e y o k e d b y v i o l e n c e t o g e t h e r ; n a t u r e and a r t a r e ransacked f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s ; t h e i r l e a r n i n g i n s t r u c t s and t h e i r s e n s i b i l i t y s u r p r i s e s ; b u t t h e r e a d e r commonly t h i n k s h i s improvement d e a r l y bought and, though he s o m e t i m e s a d m i r e s , i s s e l d o m p l e a s e d . ( 1 4 5 )  CHAPTER NINE METAPHOR' SEEN AS A HEIGHTENED FORM OF LANGUAGE Up  t o t h i s p o i n t , I have d e s c r i b e d Metaphor as  s p e c i a l p r o t e c t o r a t e e x i s t i n g , as i t were, i n the  tenebrous  unpoliced areas of a rule-governed over-language. far,  t h i s c o n c e p t i o n has been w o r k a b l e and  a  Thus  fruitful.  However, t h e r e i s a c o m p l i m e n t a r y s t r a i n o f r e a s o n i n g t h a t advances another v i e w — t h a t metaphor i s but a heightened form of the o r d i n a r y language.  L e t us understand  "heightened" t h r o u g h an a n a l o g y t o h i s t o l o g y : b r i n g s out i n t o sharp r e l i e f the  cytoplasm.  a cell  the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s  dye  of  Metaphor viewed as a h e i g h t e n e d v e r s i o n  o r d i n a r y language  i s similarly  f e a t u r e s o f language  t i n c t u r e d , w i t h the  s h o w i n g up s h a r p e r and  of  major  brighter.  146  T e r e n c e Hawkes for  this line  differs To  most c l e a r l y  presents the  o f t h o u g h t w h e n he s a y s t h a t p o e t i c  case language  i n degree, not i n k i n d , from the d i s c u r s i v e  tongue.  s u p p o r t t h i s c r e d o , he q u o t e s W i n i f r e d N o w o t t n y t o t h e  147 effect  t h a t "metaphor i s a l i n g u i s t i c  linguistic  phenomenon; "'<>• ' t h e  d e v i c e s used by poets a r e e s s e n t i a l l y  an  e x p l o r a t i o n and an e x p a n s i o n o f p o t e n t i a l i t i e s l a t e n t i n the in  language u s e d by everybody.  ( B e f o r e Wordsworth's  the "Preface to L y r i c a l B a l l a d s "  that poets'  language  s h o u l d be no d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e w o r d s o f e v e r y d a y a s p e c i a l p o e t i c v o c a b u l a r y was Wheelwright  bolstered  claim  speech,  t h o u g h t t o be n e c e s s a r y ) .  the view w i t h h i s statement t h a t  the  o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e i s a 'must' w h i l e t h e p o e t i c i s a ' c a n ' and  a 'may,' t h e r e b y  of degree. ' chasm"'  i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s one  He c a u t i o n e d  t h a t t h e r e i s no  separating l i t e r a l  and f i g u r a t i v e  Three o t h e r w r i t e r s working same t u n e i n a d i f f e r e n t k e y . the very f i x i t y  "conceptual language.  separately sing the  Their contention i s that  o f the standard language i n v i t e s  metaphoric  h e i g h t e n i n g and p r o v i d e s a s t a b l e p l a s m i c m a t r i x o r backdrop against which experimentation Thomas,  i spossible.  Owen  f o r e x a m p l e , w r o t e t h a t m e t a p h o r i s made  possible through the c o r o l l a r y  the existence of a systematic  language;  i s t h a t a c h a o t i c non-system o f communication  w o u l d p r o d u c e no p o e t r y .  Edward S t a n k i e w i c z agreed  "poetic language takes f u l l  cognizance  of the r u l e s  ofthe  linguistic  system, and i f i t admits  themselves  a r e • c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e language o r t h e g i v e n  T  deviations,  that  1  they  150 poetic  tradition."'-•  •  Mukarovsky c a r r i e d  the conclusion  f u r t h e s t , g o i n g o u t on a t h e o r e t i c a l l i m b a s he  opined:  "The more t h e n o r m o f t h e s t a n d a r d i s s t a b i l i z e d i n a g i v e n l a n g u a g e , t h e more v a r i e d c a n be i t s v i o l a t i o n a n d t h e r e inf o r e t h e m o r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r p o e t r y i n t h a t l a n g u a g e . " -" /  ( A c t u a l l y , he h a s s a i d n o t h i n g t h a t w a s n ' t i m p l i c i t others'  thoughts.  a bold  statement.)  i n the  I t i s j u s t t h a t one w a n t s p r o o f o f s u c h  -76-  Y/hat f e a t u r e s , t h e n , d o e s m e t a p h o r h i g h l i g h t the standard language? (1)  I have t h i s f i v e - i t e m  in  list:  Ambiguity E m p s o n , d o y e n and  chief litigant  of  ambiguity,  m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y be c o n s u l t e d i n t h i s r e g a r d .  He  sees  a m b i g u i t y as an i n a l i e n a b l e f e a t u r e o f a l l l a n g u a g e , d e f i n e s i t t h i s way:  "any  v e r b a l nuance, however  which  g i v e s room f o r a l t e r n a t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o t h e  piece  of language...In  a sufficiently  extended  and  slight, same  sense  any  152  prose  statement  e x p l i c i t l y he  c o u l d be  c a l l e d ambiguous." ~  Quite  v  r e c o g n i z e s t h a t metaphor heightens  tendency  to nuance.  First,  he  accords  language  ("metaphor i s the normal  this  i t a major r o l e  mode o f d e v e l o p m e n t  in of  151 a language" • ) a n d t h e n he a l l o w s how a m b i g u i t y i s i t s modus o p e r a n d i ( " t h e m a c h i n a t i o n s o f a m b i g u i t y a r e among  .154 the very roots of poetry.") this:  " i n the use  Terence  (2)  of language  the c e n t r a l  charac-  155  itself." •  Transference S e v e r a l w r i t e r s have c o n c l u d e d  capitalizes  that poetic  on t h e " t r a n s f e r e n c e " t h a t t h e y s e e a s  i n s e p a r a b l e from the process of  v/ith  i t makes o f m e t a p h o r ' s m u l t i p l e  'ambiguities,' poetry i n fact exploits teristic  Hawkes sums up  of communication.  t r a n s f e r e n c e a r e somewhat f o g - s h r o u d e d ,  as  language being  Definitions i s the  exact  -77-  heightening  e f f e c t that Metaphor i s thought to  However, I t h i n k t h a t I can my  argument w i t h o u t  being  appropriate  e l e m e n t i n human e x p e r i e n c e plated  f o r i t s own  t h e i r view  too P r o c r u s t e a n  ¥/heelwright d e f i n e s t r a n s f e r e n c e  thus:  have.  in  effect.  "to designate  which i s not merely  sake a l o n e , but  into  any  contem-  i s e m p l o y e d t o mean, 156  t o i n t e n d , t o s t a n d proxy f o r something beyond i t s e l f . " It way  seems t h a t he  i s r e f e r r i n g to the  i n w h i c h an a r b i t r a r y  concept, idea or object.  As  I showed a t t h e w i t h the  " s t a n d i n g proxy f o r " a whole r a f t  w h e n one  N o w o t t n y and  commonplace  s i g n i s agreed to stand  naming i s a ponderous p r o c e s s ,  tations.  quite  for a  outset,  arbitrary  of i n t e r l o c k e d  label conno-  B r o o k e - R o s e seem t o b e l i e v e  writes metaphorically,  one  can  exploit  such  that  the  normal  transference relation. The f o r m e r w r i t e s t h a t M e t a p h o r i s t h e b e s t means f o r u s i n g l a n g u a g e t o c o v e r t h e u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n a n d t h e unnamed phenomenon f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t m e t a p h o r f r e e s h i m (Tthe p o e t ] from the n e c e s s i t y of r e f e r r i n g v i a conv e n t i o n s of r e f e r e n c e . . . M e t a p h o r p e r m i t s him t o u s e , i f n o t a n y , t h e n a l m o s t any a r e a o f t h e whole system o f our language. (157) Brooke-Rose s i m i l a r l y b e l i e v e s t h a t p o e t i c l i c e n s e transference "instead echoing  t o go  from context  to context  of a ready-made p h r a s e o r p r o v e r b , phraseology  from a d i f f e r e n t realm  so we  allows  that have  the  of thought  or  158 from a d i f f e r e n t genre."  While t h i s  i s a l l very  t h o u g h , I t h i n k Owen Thomas i s t h e m o s t a s t u t e subject.  As  I quoted him  e a r l i e r , he  on  well,  the  believes that  in  -78-  Metaphor transference  is  i n c o m p l e t e , whereas  complete  i n d i s c u r s i v e language.  sentence  like  'John Jones  complete;; "John Jones  it  Therefore,  i s a fisherman,'  presumably has  is  in a  literal  transference  a l l the  features  is  of  159 'fisherman.'" statement  But i n Emily D i c k i n s o n ' s f i g u r a t i v e  'Shame i s t h e  one o f t h e  features  Shawl o f P i n k , '  of a shawl.  shame h a s  The p o e t ,  then,  only is  violating  that  trans-  160 "language's ference (3)  shall  prominent wrote)  complete.  context figures  in plain  i n poetic language,  speech,  which i s 161  "a mixing of contexts."  it  (as  is  e v e n more  Leatherdale  I n h i s Symbol and Metaphor  Human E x p e r i e n c e , M a r t i n P o s s s u m m a r i z e s t h e n o t i o n i n  this it  be  - w h i c h assumes  Context If  in  taxonomic system,"  fashion:  "connected  speech i s m e t a p h o r i c a l i n  g i v e s each word c o n t e x t u a l meaning beyond i t s  that  ordinary  162 s e n s e . " ' •".  He means  constitution phorical" under  that context  that connected  i n s o f a r as  it  ( 2 ) - - s h o w s how t h e  is  so s i g n a l i n M e t a p h o r ' s  s p e e c h c a n be c a l l e d  involves context.  Nowottny—above,  creative w r i t e r i s able  t i n k e r ad l i b i t u m w i t h d i f f e r e n t (4) P r e d i c a t i n g a Nominal  to  contexts.  There i s a f o u r t h e x c e l l e n t " c a s e m a d e f o r -  t h a t Metaphor i s a heightened v e r s i o n of Thomas b e i n g i t s m a i n p r o p o n e n t .  "meta-  He s a y s  the  view  language, that  "the  most  -79-  fundamental process i n language a n o m i n a l , a n d  lists  as most b a s i c  'something i s something,'  structures  something'  (The f a c t t h a t  1  and  the  'something has  ' something does something* ' 'to have,'  c o n s i s t s of p r e d i c a t i n g  and  'to be,'  ' t o make' a r e i n v a r i a b l y t h e m o s t i r r e g u l a r  v e r b s i n a language a t t e s t s t o the i n o r d i n a t e l y heavy functional load  they c a r r y ) .  w o r k i n g w i t h i n the framework "makes a more, c o m p l e t e u s e other  kinds  this kind  He  observes that  metaphor,  of 'something i s something  of l i n g u i s t i c  structures  than  of f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e . B r o o k e - R o s e  of,metaphor  the "copula  time that the s t r u c t u r e  link,"  'A i s B' a l l o w s  noting  1  calls  a t t h e same  f o r metaphors  are  a u t h o r i t a t i v e , d i d a c t i c , h i g h l y o r i g i n a l and/or  ,  .  that para-  ,.165  doxical; (5)  Ethnocentricity The  f a c t t h a t a c u l t u r e ' s metaphors  or p e c u l i a r to that dealt with while  in full  one c u l t u r e w i l l later.  I t i s only  are  ethnocentric  be t o u c h e d on h e r e  and  important to note here,  on t h e t o p i c o f h e i g h t e n e d l a n g u a g e , t h a t  every_  166 language ( s e e my  "^contains.. .overt modified  hypothesis, about  'ways o f p u t t i n g '  things"-  statement of the l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i v i s m  page ( 6 3 ) ,  the nature of the  footnote), 'reality'  "covert...presuppositions outside  us."  167  I f this  -80-  is  so, Metaphor heightens  of language.  this culture-specific  nature  A s Hawkes p u t s i t ,  '/That t h i s means f i n a l l y i s t h a t m e t a p h o r i n a l l s o c i e t i e s w i l l h a v e a ' n o r m a t i v e ' and r e i n f o r c i n g a s p e c t , as w e l l as an e x p l o r a t o r y o n e . . . I t w i l l r e t r e n c h and c o r r o b o r a t e a s . m u c h a s i t w i l l e x p a n d  o u r v i s i o n . . . (168*)  and  then l a t e r :  binds  " L i k e language i t s e l f , metaphor  the c u l t u r e t o g e t h e r Finally,  the  thus  i n a r o u g h , unity/of.experience.«"^^  suggestion  i s o f f e r e d by  Wheelwright  t h a t p a t t e r n ( t h e same p a t t e r n i n g d e a l t w i t h i n  the  i c o n i c i t y chapter)  agent  t h a t causes the stand  out  i s the  five  so c l e a r l y .  that highlights?what  dye—the  outside  above-named l i n g u i s t i c He  features  d e f i n e s p a t t e r n i n g as a  i s already  o f p o e t i c l a n g u a g e i s an f e a t u r e s and  cell  there.  imaginative  t o n i n g down o f o t h e r s  "The  to.  process  stylization  emphasizing of c e r t a i n  i n accordance w i t h  the  170 rhythmic  life  of language i t s e l f L e a t h e r d a l e warns  a g a i n s t f l o o d i n g the c e l l cautions  s t r u c t u r e w i t h the dye;  t h a t Metaphor should  "While the  not  be  allowed  he  to take  c l a i m that a l l language i s metaphorical,"  " i s t o be r e j e c t e d , t h e s a l i e n t r o l e o f m e t a p h o r i n g r o w t h o f l a n g u a g e and p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s i s accepted..."' but  171  Metaphor i s not  over. he  says,  the  lage, everything i n language,  i n S h e l l e y ' s words, "language i s v i t a l l y  metaphorical  ,,172  :  -81-  CHAPTER METAPHOR AND As  a subtopic  of the  TEN COGNITION  subject Metaphor, the  of c o g n i t i o n i s hydra-headed i n i t s complexity. though, there  question Fortunately,  i s much m a t e r i a l i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , , i f n o t  an' e x c e s s o f s w e e p i n g e p i g r a m m a t i c s t a t e m e n t s on t h e j e c t , which I should use  the necessary  aspects  and  like  evil  to k n i t  together here.  sub-  I will  of s u b j e c t headings to keep  the  r a m i f i c a t i o n s of Metaphor's c o g n i t i v e side  discrete. Expressing  the O r i g i n a l  There i s l i t t l e linguistic  doubt t h a t metaphor i s an  tool f o r expressing  Wallace Stevens puts  original  ideal  thoughts.  As  i t , " R e a l i t y i s a c l i c h e ' from which  173 we  escape by metaphor.""  a f t e r h i s in-depth great He  original  study  Hyman came t o t h i s of the prose s t y l e s  s o much so t h a t o r i g i n a l  this  the  of the  t h i n k e r s D a r w i n , M a r x , F r a z e r and  f o u n d t h a t t h e i r w r i t i n g was  without  conclusion  device.*  ideas  four  Freud.  i n t e r l a r d e d w i t h metaphors, s c a r c e l y seemed e x p r e s s i b l e  C e r t a i n of h i s subjects  deprecated  t e n d e n c y , F r e u d , f o r i n s t a n c e d e n y i n g t h a t h i s meta-^  p h o r s were i n any  way  integral  to h i s ideas  themselves.  * M a u r i c e C o r n f o r t h , i n a M a r x i s t c r i t i q u e o f the modern " l i n g u i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y , " somewhat t e s t i l y a l l u d e s t o the m e t a p h o r i c i z i n g i n W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s prose: "He was a man w i t h a p a s s i o n f o r p i c t u r e s q u e a n a l o g i e s . Beginning w i t h p i c t u r e s , he t h e n s u b s t i t u t e d a t o o l b o x , t h e n g o t on t o games, a n d t h e t r e a t m e n t o f i l l n e s s , a n d f i n i s h e d u p with f l i e s i n a fly-bottle." (174)  -82-  B u t Hyman b r u s h e s F r e u d ' s d i s c l a i m e r a s i d e , a n d t h a t "Any  asserts  b o o k o f i d e a s i s t o some d e g r e e m e t a p h o r i c a l ; : , a  g r e a t book o f i d e a s c o n s i s t s o f p r o f o u n d metaphors  in a  175  realized  form..."'  -  L e a t h e r d a l e a g r e e s , and  b e l i e v e s t h a t n o v e l t y and is  so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  define i t ,  the a b i l i t y  further  t o embody n o v e l t y  o f m e t a p h o r t h a t i t c a n be u s e d  the presence of o r i g i n a l i t y  g u i s h t r u e metaphor from  serving to  to  distin-  false.  I f one c a n s u b s t i t u t e a s i m i l e f o r a s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e of l i k e n e s s then the s i m i l e i s merely an ornament. S i m i l a r l y , e v e n t h o u g h a w o r d may be u s e d q u a s i - m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , i f i t a m o u n t s t o a m e r e s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r a n o t h e r w o r d o r w o r d s which" have been l e a r n e d o s t e n s i v e l y t h e n i t i s n o t r e a l l y metaphorical but only pseudo-metaphorical. (176) Defining-Inducing  Ability  One-way i n w h i c h m e t a p h o r s  express the o r i g i n a l i s  f o u n d i n t h e i r manner o f d e f i n i n g s i m i l a r i t y .  As B l a c k  s u c c i n c t l y and  "the  somewhat t o o s w e e p i n g l y p u t i t ,  m e t a p h o r c r e a t e s t h e s i m i l a r i t y £rather t h a n  formulating]  177 some s i m i l a r i t y  antecedently existing."  t r a t i n g on m e t a p h o r ' s he  ability  to induce a  i s e x a g g e r a t i n g , and f a l s i f i e s  ( I n concenresemblance  the s i t u a t i o n  somewhat  by o m i t t i n g m e n t i o n o f t h e a n t e c e d e n t resemblance  that  e x i s t s b e f o r e the poet or the o r i g i n a l mind r e i f i e s Because  even i n a f a r - f e t c h e d comparison l i k e  it.  Eliot's  -83-  L e t u s go t h e n , y o u a n d I Where t h e e v e n i n g i s s p r e a d o u t a g a i n s t L i k e a p a t i e n t e t h e r i z e d on a t a b l e ,  N  there  the sky  i s a p o i n t where p a t i e n t and e v e n i n g , l i k e  Grand  Canyon and saxophone, a r e and always have been c o n g r u e n t . * It  pre-dates E l i o t ' s  Middleton saying  achievement of r e c o g n i z i n g i t . )  Murry captured  that i n a true  John  the c r e a t i v e / d e f i n i n g aspect,  metaphor,  i. true s i m i l a r i t y i s perceived, i i . t h e s i m i l a r i t y was h i t h e r t o u n p e r c e i v e d or only r a r e l y p e r c e i v e d , and i i i . the perception a f f e c t s the reader l i k e a revelation. (178) A p h o r i s t i c a l l y , Parkhurst  concurs.  He w r i t e s :  "Any/  s u p r e m e i n s i g h t i s a m e t a p h o r . '^79A n a l o g i z i n g t h e Enown t o t h e Unknown To many, t h i s i s t h e human mode o f c o g n i t i o n i n a nutshell;; without of science  a d o u b t , i t i s t h e one a n d o n l y  today.  method  I n E m b l e r ' s w o r d s , "we a r e c o n s t a n t l y  a t work t r a n s m u t i n g  t h e i n c o n g r u o u s i n thought and  180 experience  i n t o t h e congruous.""  metaphor i s i d e a l l y  suited.  Por this  function,  I t "constitutes the i n d i s -  p e n s a b l e p r i n c i p l e f o r i n t e g r a t i n g d i v e r s e phenomena and perspectives  without  sacrificing their  diversity."'  * t h e c o n g r u i t y w o u l d be r e v e a l e d i n a s e m a n t i c o f t h e two i t e m ' s l e x i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .  181  feature  -84-  A Helpful  Vagueness  Furthermore, there w h i c h has  i s a semantic haze i n metaphor,  been v a r i o u s l y c a l l e d  soft focus.  I t stems f r o m the  " c o n t r o l l e d vagueness" fact discussed  metaphors s t a t e a comparison without f o r that comparison. in literature  We  profit  (Wheelwright's  earlier  d e f i n i n g the  or that  basis  from the vagueness,  both  example)  E x p r e s s i v e language has i t s s u p e r i o r i t y to stenolanguage [ i . e . , , I i t e r a l speechj p r i n c i p a l l y i n i t s a b i l i t y to suggest...something of that i n e l u c t i b l y l i m i n a l c h a r a c t e r o f human e x p e r i e n c e . (182) and  i n science  (Leatherdale):  F o r s c i e n c e needs the i n o c u l a t i o n of a m b i g u i t y and t h e s e m a n t i c h a z e t h a t s u r r o u n d s t h e n e u t r a l analogy of a model or the u n e x p l o r e d r e s o u r c e s of a metaphor i f i t i s to marshal i t s resources f o r s u r v i v a l and g r o w t h . Too d o c t r i n a i r e a n a x i o m a t i z a t i o n , or l i t e r a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , even s u p p o s i n g t h i s were p o s s i b l e i n any n e u t r a l u n t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n f e c t e d way, m i g h t f r e e s c i e n c e f r o m t h e i n f e c t i o n o f e r r o r due t o u n c r i t i c a l r e l i a n c e on a m o d e l or metaphor, but i t would k i l l s c i e n c e i n the process. (183) Deriving  Hypotheses  B e s i d e s a l l o w i n g i t t o c a p t u r e "the thought e l e g a n t l y , "the it  indispensable  •indispensable' b e c a u s e , as  only  o f m e t a p h o r makes 184  f o r p o s i t i n g hypotheses."' stands out  in this  The  opinioro. of  such.  t o o l par  Nietzsche  excellence,  has  and  word  Leatherdale'S3  I h a v e shown a b o v e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t  is-man's c o g n i z i n g his  non-1iteralness  original  quite  w r i t t e n a wonderful  metaphor possibly essay  -85-  a b o u t t h i s p r i m a c y o f m e t a p h o r , w h e r e he l i k e n s m e t a p h o r - m a k i n g i n man to  the  exist  and  the  ceaseless  knowledge-quest  o t h e r c o m p u l s i v e o r d e r i n g / p a t t e r n i n g phenomena t h a t i n the animal  world.  J u s t a s t h e bee w o r k s a t t h e same t i m e a t t h e c e l l s and f i l l s them w i t h h o n e y , t h u s s c i e n c e works i r r e s i s t i b l y a t the great columbarium of i d e a s , the cemetery of p e r c e p t i o n s , b u i l d s ever n e w e r and h i g h e r s t o r e y s ; s u p p o r t s , p u r i f i e s , renews the o l d c e l l s . (185) Murry i s of the  same m i n d :  instinctive  necessary  ordering  .. . m e t a p h o r a p p e a r s a s  the  a c t of the mind e x p l o r i n g  and  experience.  As tible  and  11  Stephen Pepper pointed  out,  there  i s an  irresisr  u r g e t o g e n e r a l i z e a g o o d m e t a p h o r , t o make i t  a p p l i c a b l e t o a g r e a t e r and This hypothesizing  g r e a t e r number o f  i s healthy  i f i t i s not  instances.  overdone.  (Pepper t h i n k s t h a t , i n metaphysics a t l e a s t ,  i t is  the  o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e to d o g m a — n a t u r a l l y the b e t t e r c h o i c e ) . Por  one  entire tition, Por  t h i n g , "whole works o f s c i e n t i f i c  research,  s c h o o l s , a r e h a r d l y more t h a n t h e p a t i e n t  even  repe-  i n a l l i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s , o f a f e r t i l e metaphor.""*'  another,  exclusively  Turbayne has  s h o w n t h a t we  speak a l m o s t  i n m e t a p h o r s i n some d i s c i p l i n e s  of the nature  of the m a t e r i a l i n v o l v e d :  p s y c h o l o g y come t o m i n d .  Therefore,  just  religion  i n these,  because and  fields,  -86-  innovation consists of nothing  hut the s u b s t i t u t i o n of  new m e t a p h o r s f o r o l d . The A n a l o g i c a l A c t The c o g n i t i v e c a p a b i l i t y o f m e t a p h o r l i e s a n a l o g y t h a t i t makes.  i n the  (Whatever p a r t o f metaphor i s n o t  analogical-cognitive belongs to i t semotive-textural In s c i e n c e ^ p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  the a c t of analogizing  phenomena t o o l d i s a b o l d p r e h e n s i l e part  w i t h a good  s o t h a t "What i m p o r t e d a n a l o g y a n d t h e a n a l o g i c a l  act lead to i s not a limited property  inference  t o such-and-such a  or properties but a multi-dimensional,  gestalt-  i n s i g h t i n t o new w a y s o f l o o k i n g a t phenomena."^^^  As such, a n a l o g i z i n g i s the g i f t L o g i c i a n s who  spark,  l o g i c i a n s as w e l l . cally) :  "Why  of c e r t a i n people  are accomplished i n step-by-step  r a r e l y have t h i s  Why  new  o f i n t u i t i o n m i x e d i n . I t goes f a r beyond mere  method,  like  gesture  side)  while  only.  reasoning  t h o s e t h a t do a r e r a r e l y  W i l l i a m James h a s a s k e d  (rhetori-  c a n n o t anyone r e a s o n as w e l l as anyone  does i t need a Newton  else?  to notice the law of squares, iqO  a Darwin t o n o t i c e the s u r v i v a l of the f i t t e s t ? " ' M a r y H e s s e h a s shown t h a t a n a l o g i e s are  o f two k i n d s :  disposable  i n science  and permanent.  A  sample  o f t h e f o r m e r i s t h e one K e p l e r made c o m p a r i n g t h e s u n  -87-  and  p l a n e t s t o t h e huh and spokes  o f a wheel.  The  metaphor had a h e u r i s t i c use b u t proved d i s p e n s a b l e as the In  s o l a r system n o t i o n began t o s u s t a i n i t s e l f  o t h e r c a s e s , however, t h e imported analogue i n  scientific  metaphors has i n f i l t r a t e d  m i n g l e d w i t h i t , and f i n a l l y of  unaided.  t h e whole concept.  i t s topic  analogue,  proved an undetachable  part  Hesse s t a t e s i t thus:  A t t h e o t h e r extreme t h e r e a r e a n a l o g i e s which a r e i m p l i e d i n t h e w h o l e way i n w h i c h phenomena are observed and i n t h e language i n which t h e o r i e s a r e e x p r e s s e d . The p a r t i c l e t h e o r y h a s p r o v i d e d s u c h a n a n a l o g y e v e r s i n c e Democ r i t u s developed h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f atomism. (191;') L a s t l y , Leatherdale c i t e s another two-fold fication of  of analogies.  The f i r s t  type i s theo b s e r v a t i o n  a simple resemblance, which i sb a s i c a l l y transparent  common-sense c o g n i z i n g . and  classi-  compares one r e l a t i o n  another.  T h e o t h e r t y p e i s more  prodigious,  ( i n t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l sense) t o  He g i v e s many e x a m p l e s o f s u c h a n a l o g i e s f r o m  s c i e n c e , h u t t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g one ( t o me) w o r k s b o t h ways.  That  i s , an o r g a n i s m c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f a  society; likewise i t i spossible t o explain a society as if  i t were a n o r g a n i s m .  P o e t r y and Mathematics The  f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n on a n a l o g y i l l u m i n e s t h e  w e l l - h i d d e n f a c t t h a t a n a l o g i c a l t h o u g h t i s common t o  -88-  both science/mathematics Thomas e x p r e s s e s i t ,  and p o e t r y / l i t e r a t u r e .  Or as  " I ndiscussing abstractions, both i n  s c i e n c e a n d i n t h e a r t s , we m u s t s e e o n e t h i n g i n t e r m s 192 o f another.." element  Curiously, the discovery of this  d i s s o l v e s t h e i r o n - c l a d dichotomy  p l i n e s have always been thought understand  t h e fundamental  t o embody.  common  t h e two d i s c i I f we  indeed  mode o f c o g n i t i o n i n e a c h  case  t o be a n a l o g i z i n g , t h e n d i f f e r e n c e s c o a l e s c e a n d f u s e . I t becomes h a r d e r t o t e l l  one f r o m t h e o t h e r .  V e r y s i m p l y , p o e t r y and mathematics a r e two v e r y successful attempts t o deal w i t h ideas...Both employ s e t s o f symbols and systems o f n o t a t i o n ...They exchange d i s g u i s e s , s o t h a t m a t h e m a t i c s , commonly a c c e p t e d , f o r i t s h a r d h e a d e d n e s s , rigor and a c c u r a c y i s o f t e n p o e t r y c r e a t i n g a w o r l d o f f a n c y ; a n d p o e t r y , commonly l o v e d f o r i t s p l a y f u l s p o n t a n e i t y and u t t e r i n e f f e c t u a l n e s s , becomes t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l d e m i u r g e , j o i n i n g words-images i n t o a word o f h a r d p e r s u a s i v e f a c t .  (193') Of c o u r s e , t h e d i s c i p l i n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t , t h e y seem t o e x c h a n g e d i s g u i s e s .  '3)he m a i n  even i f a t times distinction  between t h e f i e l d s r e s i d e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r  uses  (goals or functions, alternatively) are different. Consequently, in  a s L e a t h e r d a l e a s t u t e l y shows, a metaphor  science serves a d i f f e r e n t  metaphor  e n d - i n - v i e w from, l i t e r a r y  -89-  I n g e n e r a l , t h e n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between l i t e r a r y and s c i e n t i f i c m e t a p h o r s depend on t h e i r u s e s . I n b o t h l i t e r a t u r e a n d s c i e n c e , m e t a p h o r i s a means t o a n u n f o l d i n g , a r e v e l a t i o n , a new p e r s p e c t i v e or f o c u s , but w h i l e i n l i t e r a t u r e metaphor seeks to shake o f ft h e r o u t i n e and f a m i l i a r and r e f l e c t and r e f r a c t i n new l i g h t s s o a s t o u n i f y a n d c o l o u r a w o r l d grown g r e y and f e a t u r e l e s s from t o o much f a m i l i a r i t y , i n s c i e n c e m e t a p h o r s e e k s t o i d e n t i f y , t o make t h e s t r a n g e a n d u n k n o w n f a m i l i a r , the complex and a n a r c h i c simple and o r d e r e d , and by c o n t r a s t w i t h l i t e r a t u r e a n d a r t , t o d i s e n c u m b e r our e x p e r i e n c e from t h e s e n s u a l and t h e concrete and t h e p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t i m e and p l a c e . ' ) Notwithstanding rely  divergent  on f o r m u l a ,  extensible effect, derived —that  u s e s , however, b o t h  symbol and p a t t e r n , a system w h i c h proves  i n each f i e l d ,  should  t h e mind d e s i r e  ( c f . Stephen Pepper and t h e l a r g e from a root metaphor)• i n each f i e l d ,  i n t o an a l l e g o r y .  disciplines  such an  world-hypothesis  B u c h a n a n h a s s a i d a s much  a p l e a s i n g m e t a p h o r c a n be b l o w n u p  "An a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n  i s a complex  pattern  o f r a t i o s , and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o e t i c forms a r e 195 expanded metaphors. | ;  Growth o f Knowledge and Language There i s a f u r t h e r c o n c l u s i o n , v i r t u a l l y i r r e f u t a b l e and  of surpassing  interest to linguists,  metaphor's r o l e i n c o g n i t i o n :  t o be drawn a b o u t  f i g u r a t i v e language i s  undeniably a major c o n t r i b u t o r t o language growth. n o t e s , f o r example, t h a t metaphorical  "almost any word w i l l  Hester  show a  o r i g i n i f i t s etymology i s s t u d i e d . "  196  In  -90-  p o i n t o f f a c t , a backward g l a n c e i n t o the h i s t o r y o f word w i l l r e v e a l t h a t the are  i n a precarious  The  word ' s p i r i t '  of breath  f i g u r a t i v e and  a m e t a p h o r i c a l use  spiro); similarly,  o f the mountain') i s a h y p o s t a t i z e d its  tension.  first,  the  But  there  'foot*  It  metaphor t h a t has  t h a t usage l a t e r became extended  the n o n - l i t e r a l .  idea  lost  i s debate as t o which sense came  f i g u r a t i v e o r the l i t e r a l .  i s also conceivable  o f the  (as i n ' f o o t  Some o f the  s t u d i e d b e l i e v e t h a t o r i g i n a l l y a l l words were and  senses  b a l a n c e which i s s u b j e c t to change.  represents  (Latin:  literal  any  writers  literal  metaphorically.  t h a t l i t e r a l language emerged from  Leatherdale  a r b i t r a t e s the d e l i c a t e  c o n c l u s i o n , p l e a s i n g to a l l , t h a t words were o r i g i n a l l y o r e s or amalgams from which p u r e l y l i t e r a l meanings have s i n c e been r e f i n e d .  "The  e a r l y v o c a b u l a r y o f mankind  was  107  b o t h a - l i t e r a l and  a-metaphorical."  both of Leonard Bloomfield's candy mint) are c o r r e c t : metaphors":  fine.  But  I f t h i s i s true,  formulations  ( b r e a t h mint  and  "Language i s a book o f faded e q u a l l y w e l l , "Poetry i s a blazoned  book o f language. As language grows, the l i t e r a l  and  figuratve  senses i n t e r a c t w i t h each o t h e r t o good e f f e c t . f u l use  o f a word can o n l y extend language, and  t h a t i s born i n one in  the Volksmund.  The  fanci-  the matephor  p o e t ' s mind can l i v e h a p p i l y e v e r a f t e r I n s h o r t , "What today counts as  an  -91-  o b s e r v e d c o n c o m i t a n t o f a phenomenon w i l l  tomorrow  be  199 used to define i t . " ^ J  Beardsley s 1  n o t i o n o f a good  n o v e l metaphor i s t h a t "the metaphor transforms property  a  i n t o a sense, a c t u a l i z e s p o t e n t i a l connotations;  establishes staple It  should  connotations."^^  be u n d e r s t o o d , h o w e v e r , t h a t w h a t e v e r  f u s i o n s metaphor works i n language, they.are  not binding.  They a r e s u b j e c t t o subsequent f i s s i o n and f u s i o n  will  later  As  occur  Nietzsche  between d i f f e r e n t  s e t s o f phenomena.  h a s w r i t t e n , " t h e c o n g e l a t i o n and  coagulation  o f a metaphor does n o t a t a l l guarantee the n e c e s s i t y and 2oi exclusive  j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h a t metaphor."  o f t h e b e e - b u i l t honeycomb i n a p t :  we  l i k e mental c o n s t r u c t s , which are ever  H i s image  t o o make h o n e y c o m b superseded  and  discarded. A s I h a v e shown m o r e t h a n o n c e , t h e f i r s t  time  m e t a p h o r f u s e s a t e n o r and a v e h i c l e , t h e c o n t a c t fleeting.  measure  i s brief,  A and B meet o n l y t a n g e n t i a l l y , t o u c h i n g 202  two c o i n c i d e n t p o i n t s .  a  at  B u t once t h e image a c h i e v e s  a  o f s u c c e s s — i f i t proves a p p l i c a b l e to a d d i t i o n a l  phenomena t h a n t h o s e i s what N i e t z s c h e Both l i t e r a t u r e  first  observed—it  can s t i c k .  means b y ' c o n g e l a t i o n , '  and s c i e n c e  (This  'coagulation.')  are s u s c e p t i b l e to the  e f f e c t , which Berggren describes as f o l l o w s :  cohesion  - 9 2 -  H a v i n g been t o l d f o r so l o n g t h a t heaven i s up, the C h r i s t i a n — e v e n i n t h i s day o f a s t r o n a u t s c o n f u s e s the t e x t u r a l import o f such a s p a t i a l schema w i t h the a c t u a l o r p h y s i c a l s p a t i a l i t y o f the schema i t s e l f . A b e l i e v e d but d i s t a n c e d and e x a l t e d a b s u r d i t y r e s u l t s a n a l o g o u s l y . When any s c i e n t i f i c schema a c q u i r e s s u f f i c i e n t s c i e n t i f i c r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , i t too tends to be t r a n s p o s e d i n t o the domain o f ' s a c r e d play. !' ( 2 0 3 ) 1  S c i e n c e i s -perhaps more prone t o have i t s metaphors  stick  than p o e t r y because t h e o r i e s t h a t seem e x p l a n a t o r y are highly prized.  A c c o r d i n g to Hesse, t h e r e i s enormous  v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e o r i e s "and e a s i l y be abandoned when new i n with  so  t h e r e f o r e they can n e v e r  f a c t s do n o t appear t o f i t  the system o f e x p l a n a t i o n which the a n a l o g i e s 204  presuppose."  To Burke, the adhesion  i n a metaphor i s due  o f the two  points  to p i e t y , a word which he u s e s i n  the extended sense o f " t o conform w i t h the 'sources being. "  I n o t h e r words, he f e e l s t h e r e i s a v e s t e d  1  i n t e r e s t i n any  f o r m u l a t i o n , be i t l i t e r a r y o r  C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , he p o s i t s the phenomenon o f  scientific.  "logonomical  p u r g a t o r y " — t h i s i s the " r e n d i n g and t e a r i n g " t h a t e v e r y time a s u c c e s s f u l o s c u l a t i o n i s sundered. t h a t f u s i o n and history.  occurs  He b e l i e v e s  f i s s i o n occur c e a s e l e s s l y i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l  T h i s b e i n g t r u e , "even the most c o n s c i e n t i o u s  o f the new  d o c t r i n e s n e c e s s a r i l y c o n t a i n s an element o f  impiety, with a corresponding d o c t r i n e may accepted  o f one's  sense o f g u i l t  (though  l a t e r become an orthodoxy,  the  with i t s generally v 205 code o f p r o p r i e t i e s and i m p r o p r i e t i e s ) . ' 1  -93-  The Residuum i s Knowledge The l e f t o v e r s of the thinking process (which Nietzsche characterized as superseded "hexahedral" constructions) cons t i t u t e a body of knowledge.  The dead and dormant metaphors  l i t t e r i n g the l i n g u i s t i c b a t t l e f i e l d are, as Middleton 206 Murry suggested, "the record of past cognitive exploration." Schon expanded t h i s idea when he wrote that "our language, at any given time, gives us a cross-section of our processes of concept formation or discovery. The metaphors i n language are to be explained as signs of concepts at various stages of displacement, just as f o s s i l s are to be explained as signs of l i v i n g things at various stages of development.-  207  L a s t l y , i f one's turn of mind i s to favour any v e r s i o n of the l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i v i s m hypothesis, i t should be noted that each language's r e p o s i t o r y of knowledge—its discarded "columbarium" or spider-web, as Nietzsche visualized i t — i s  singular.  The r e s u l t i s that words are  not exactly the pat nomenclature  that i s popularly supposed.  One cannot t r u l y t r a n s l a t e those of language A into language B without some l o s s of depth.  Because, as T u l l i o  de Mauro observed, "Eor the f i r s t time i t became absolutely c l e a r that languages are not t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f . . . u n i v e r s a l l y equal and predefined concepts, but rather £are] h i s t o r i c a l l y d i v e r s i f i e d bashes upon which notions and concepts are . 208 built."  -94-  CHAPTER E L E V M CONCLUSION A W a r n i n g on t h e D a n g e r s o f M e t a p h o r ' s M i s u s e The p o s t - A r i s t o t e l i a n c l a s s i c i s t s r e g a r d e d as  an i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l  of tropes  figure of speech—one of a roster  w h o s e p u r p o s e was n o t h i n g  frivolously,  the serious  however, the c l a s s i c a l  metaphor  more t h a n t o ornament,  stuff of discourse.  Curiously,  s c h o l a r s viewed metaphor  neously as a threat to purposive w r i t i n g .  Thus  simultathere  e x i s t e d a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g about f i g u r a t i v e language.  On t h e one h a n d , i t was n u g a t o r y ^ , f r i v o l o u s  and t r i f l i n g .  But metaphor, p a r t i c u l a r l y the m e t a p h y s i c a l  v a r i e t y , was a l s o f e l t  t o be p e r n i c i o u s ; i t s f a n c i f u l n e s s  seemed c a p a b l e o f i n f e c t i n g l i t e r a l  writing.  I t was  widely  t h o u g h t t h a t m e t a p h o r h a d "no r e a l c l a i m t o p o s i t i v e ' m e a n i n g ' i n i t s own r i g h t ,  since  i t works  negatively 209  by s u b v e r t i n g  t h e 'proper meanings o f words."  There was, i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h  century,  a virulent  d e s i r e t o c l e a r language o f metaphors and t o r e t u r n t o simple  unembroidered speech.  The m e t a p h o r s o f t h e p e r i o d  engendered t h i s r e a c t i o n , because t h e y were i n f a c t  often  extrinsic  over-  t o the w r i t e r ' s i n t e n t , as w e l l as being  wrought i n t h e i r  striving after fanciful  effects.  Por  i n s t a n c e , Dryden's b a t h e t i c metaphor about the p u s t u l e s  of  -95-  smallpox  drew e x a c e r b a t e d  phorical  expression:  raillery  from c r i t i c s  L i k e Rose-bud, stuck i ' t h L i l y - s k i n E a c h l i t t l e P i m p l e had a T e a r i n i t .  about (210)  1  Samuel Johnson's i n d i c t m e n t  of the y o k i n g  of meta-  together  of  h e t e r o g e n e o u s i d e a s by v i o l e n c e i s i n t h i s c r i t i c a l a s was  Samuel P a r k e r ' s  vein,  statement (1670) t h a t "fulsome  l u s c i o u s " metaphors deserved  t o be  outlawed  by  an a c t  and of  211 Parliament."• As century one. to  conception  The  device  l a n g u a g e and  pursuit in  I have c l a i m e d  i n t h i s paper, the  o f m e t a p h o r i s a much more  i s understood  due  t o be  one  positive  that i s  of knowledge.  As  a linguistic  phenomenon, i t i s  sharpened v e r s i o n of  of iconic-imagistic  into l i t e r a l  speech.  As  such,  entrance  and  i s beyond  the  o f t h e g e n e r a t i v e grammars t h a t a r e  otherwise  so  explanatory  of  communication.  There a r e , n a t u r a l l y the use  like  the  the metaphor i s a r a t h e r  u n o r t h o d o x phenomenon l i n g u i s t i c a l l y ,  the  the  elements i n t o  language, f e a t u r e s that are r e g u l a r l y debarred  in  the  tongue; however, i t s s t a t u s as q u a s i - a r t f o r m i s  to i n f i l t r a t i o n  reach  intrinsic  i n v a l u a b l e t o l a n g u a g e g r o w t h and  some w a y s a h e i g h t e n e d ,  literal  twentieth-  of metaphor.  twentieth-century  enough,, c e r t a i n d a n g e r s  inherent  These are problems d e v o l v i n g  c o n c e p t i o n , h o w e v e r , and  the r a b i d f e a r s expressed  by P a r k e r and  are  from  nothing  Johnson.  (1)  Ethnocentrieity I  first  issue being  t o u c h e d on  t h i s t o p i c i n Chapter Nine,  at t h a t time t h a t  "historically  just  as  each language i s a  d i v e r s i f i e d b a s e " o f i t s own,  e a c h p e o p l e ' s m e t a p h o r s l a n g u a g e - and Of  so t o o  are  culture-specific.  a l l t h e m o d e r n w r i t e r s on m e t a p h o r i c a l  H a w k e s seems t h e m o s t k e e n l y  the  language, Terence  aware t h a t metaphor t e n d s  to  '212 " r e t r e n c h and tions"'"* has we  corroborate"  "covert...presupposi-  that every language harbors.  v  a l s o spoken d i r e c t l y may  the  embody i n t h e  simply not different  exist role  the  to t h i s point:  statement  "the  'Love w i l l  (and  so c a l l  forth  -at a l l : and  'to reach  'higher  "up,"  i n E n g l i s h i s the  t h a t need not a point,'  education,'  cited  stated, then, much bound by l e n g t h and  different  i m p l i c i t i n many  have any  ' t o come t o a 215  spatial  our  with  t h a t h e a v e n and As Embler  speech are  the C a r t e s i a n c o o r d i n a t e s 216 breadth."  content  conclusion,  for e x a m p l e . C o g n a t e  t h i n k i n g and  of  spatial/temporal^  by B e r g g r e n on p a g e (92).  "Our  utterly  i n l a n g u a g e , one  tendency i s the w i d e l y - b e l i e v e d n o t i o n are  may  ""^"^  Whorf noted t h a t s p a t i a l assumptions are English expressions  have an  appropriately  covert presuppositions  the most p r e v a l e n t  metaphor  f i n d a way'  i n some c o u n t r i e s , o r may  responses) i n others. Of  M a r g a r e t Mead  still  of height,  1  this God has very  depth,  -97If  this  i s true, i t f o l l o w s that there a r e innate  p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s over and above temporal,  i n our language,  u p o n w h i c h we d r a w .  fsic}  t h e s p a t i a l and  forming a " c u l t u r a l  Our w r i t e r s d i p i n t o  ( c o l l e c t i v e unconscious)  reservoir"  217  t h i s common p o o l  f o r t h e i r m a t e r i a l , whereas  r e a d e r s r e f e r t o i t t o i n t e r p r e t t h e images and metaphors they read.  F o r i n s t a n c e , i n o u r c u l t u r e , t h e word  b r i n g s t o mind  'high-flying'  tations; likewise, •slow'  r i g h t away.  'snail' could ;  'snail'  and ' f a s t '  as s t a p l e conno-  c o n j u r e s up 'grounded' and  But i n other languages,  w o u l d n o t be t h u s c o u n t e r p o i s e d .  j u s t a s w e l l be u n d e r s t o o d  animal  'eagle' and  That i s , 'eagle'  p r i m a r i l y as being  'feathered,' so t h a t i t s opposite w o u l d be a n o n - f e a t h e r e d  i n t h e n a t i o n a l mind  not necessarily a  I m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h i s type abound i n e v e r y and  'eagle'  snail. culture,  t h e y a c t t o i n f o r m t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n on  every  level.  (2) A u t h o r i t a t i v e n e s s o f t h e C o p u l a - L i n k As V i r g i l A l d r i c h h e l d i n h i s essay  " A r t and t h e  Human F o r m , " t h e r e i s a d a n g e r i n h e r e n t i n t h e "A i s B" f o r m o f a m e t a p h o r , a f o r m w h i c h i s f a r more in  tone  authoritative  t h a n t h e "A i s l i k e B" t h a t a n n o u n c e s a  There i s a t e m p t a t i o n , as N i e t z s c h e noted,  simile.  to forget  218 " t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l metaphors o f p e r c e p t i o n a r e metaphors."'  Th/e n a t u r e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m i s t a k e i s t h a t w h a t originally Uitti's  intended  received it  a s a m e t a p h o r becomes a myth ( s e e  scheme a t t h e e n d  metaphor presents  of Chapter S i x ) .  The  original  a t r u t h , a n d t h i s t r u t h c a n be  ( " l i k e a r e v e l a t i o n , " as M u r r y  comes t o be  was  taken f o r the t r u t h .  so  expressed i t ) that  Theodore S a r b i n  shown t h a t m y t h o l o g i z i n g - a - m e t a p h o r  well-  i s a t bottom  has  respon21Q  sible He  f o r the current misunderstanding of mental  claims  t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r was  possession,  and  "myth o f m e n t a l  illness.  -  t h a t o f demonic  i t s a m p l i f i c a t i o n i s t o b l a m e f o r t h e -modern illness"  so w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d  b y Thomas S z a s z .  I n t h i s c a s e , the o r i g i n a l metaphor has been p e r n i c i o u s i n effect, with under  i t s analogy s e r v i n g to determine  consideration. Brooke-Rose  i s o l a t e s another repercussion  copula's authoritativeness. t o be B, B  i t i s dangerous  i n t h e same poem.  i n the very  "didactic  i n t o n e , and  term i s equated w i t h  so s t r o n g a n d  purely  She  another  logical i t i s so  d i r e c t t h a t i f one  d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , we may 220  be more  says that poets f i n d i n g  i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n e i t h e r attempt to tone  i n c o n g r u i t y ( f o r example,  after  equate A w i t h  strength of the copula;"  two  of the  s a y s t h a t once A i s s a i d  i s t h e "one  aware o f the i n c o n g r u i t y . " themselves  She  t o t r y and  This  difficulty  the  t h e phenomenon  the o t h e r ,  by l i s t i n g  down  the metaphors  i n c a n t a t i o n - s t y l e , so t h a t t h e  one  disparate  i m a g e s seem t o f l o w i n t o  one.  She  quotes W i l l i a m  of  Shoreham s 1  Our L a d y i s t h e dove o f Noah, the hush of S i n a i , the rod of Aaron) o r to brazen out "And (3)  ye,  the  t h a t ben  i n c o n g r u i t y i n paradox (e.g.  of beaute crop  and  Chaucer:  roote.")  Attitude-Shifting Clearly,  attitude-shifts  then,  a metaphor i s capable  i n a readership.  of  inducing  Turbayne e x p l a i n s  that  t h e a t t i t u d e - s h i f t s p r o d u c e d by an e f f e c t i v e metaphor p o i n t to a l a t e r stage of i t s l i f e . A s t o r y o f t e n t o l d — l i k e a d v e r t i s i n g and p r o p a g a n d a — c o m e s t o be b e l i e v e d m o r e s e r i o u s l y . Those d e t a i l s s t r e s s e d tend t o s t a y s t r e s s e d while those suppressed tend to stay suppressed u n t i l a n o t h e r e f f e c t i v e m e t a p h o r r e s t o r e s them. He  sees t h i s c o n g e l a t i o n o r " s t i c k i n g "  tive  in effect;  i t can  be m i n d - e x p a n d i n g .  (221)  as e v e n t u a l l y  reduc-  o b s t r u c t t h o u g h t as e a s i l y as  i t can  T h u s , he  says  that  The l o n g c o n t i n u e d a s s o c i a t i o n o f two i d e a s , e s p e c i a l l y i f the a s s o c i a t i o m has t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t , t e n d s t o r e s u l t i n o u r c o n f u s i n g them...In the sense o f metaphor, the c o n f u s i o n i s a i d e d by the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : f i r s t , t h e two i d e a s a l r e a d y s h a r e t h e same name, a f a c t o r o f g r e a t p o w e r i n p r o d u c i n g t h e belief in identity. S e c o n d , we a r e n o t a l w a y s t o l d t h a t t h e two i d e a s a r e r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t .  (222)  A  shift  not,  i n a t t i t u d e , w h e t h e r a c t i v a t e d by a m e t a p h o r  i s p o t e n t i a l l y a dangerous e n t i t y .  I t wears  or  built-in  -100-  b l i n k e r s , and t e n d s t o want t o a p o t h e o s i z e  itself.  "The e r r o r i s e x p o s e d i n i t s f u l l e s t p a r o c h i a l i s m , "  wrote  Burke, when t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y e p i g o n e s o f p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s set about t o i n t e r p r e t f o r us the hidden sexual m o t i v e s a t t h e r o o t s o f such i n t e n s e and b r i l l i a n t t h e o l o g i a n s as S t . Augustine. The e n t i r e m o t i v a t i o n by w h i c h A u g u s t i n e l i v e d and w r o t e i s c a t e g o r i c a l l y d i s c a r d e d i n f a v o r o f a few s e x u a l i m p u l s e s , w h i c h c a n , a t b e s t , be shown t o h a v e been an i n g r e d i e n t i n h i s m o t i v a t i o n . B y w h a t a u t h o r i t y c a n one c a l l t h e m t h e e s s e n c e of h i s motivation? N o n - s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as the symbolization o f sexual i n t e r e s t s ; b u t t h e n a g a i n , s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s may t h e m s e l v e s be considered as the s y m b o l i z a t i o n o f non-sexual interests...What, except the strong sexual o r i e n t a t i o n o f our s o c i e t y i n contrast with the strong r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n of S t . Augustine's s o c i e t y , d e t e r m i n e s w h i c h s h a l l be c a l l e d t h e t r u e m o t i v e a n d w h i c h t h e s y m b o l i c a c c r e t i o n ? " (223') Burke a l s o notes that mythologizing  or analogical  extension  i s a c c o m p l i s h e d f i r s t by o v e r - s i m p l i f y i n g e v e n t s and t h e n by  a b s t r a c t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s from the reduced  inventory.  In this fashion, a certain interpretation of h i s t o r y — w h a t e v e r i t may b e — s e e s c e r t a i n e v e n t s a s r e c u r r i n g i n patterns  to the exclusion of other  events perhaps e q u a l l y  prevalent. (4-) S e e i n g  Too Much A n a l o g i c a l l y  The o v e r - s i m p l i f y i n g t e n d e n c y i s a k i n t o one mentioned by W i t t g e n s t e i n , t h a t o f s e e i n g analogically.  He c l a i m e d  t o o much  that philosophical perplexity  -101-  i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n , and t h a t by  similarities  "Deceived  o f form; a n d n e g l e c t f u l o f d i f f e r e n c e s o f  f u n c t i o n , we i n t e r p r e t one p a r t o f o u r l i n g u i s t i c  system  224-  o n t h e f a l s e a n a l o g y o f some All  i n a l l , though,  other."  these f o u r dangers  n o t h i n g more t h a n a t o k e n c a v e a t w h i c h w i l l coda  t o my e x p o s i t i o n o f a p r o d i g i o u s  device.  amount t o  serve as a  linguistic/literary  I t i s a s m a l l p r i c e t o pay f o r t h e abundance o f  riches afforded  by metaphor.  -102-  P 0 0 I H 0 T E S 2. C h r i s t i n e Brooke-Rose. A Grammar o f Metaphor. S e e k e r & Warburg, 1 9 5 8 ) , p;. ~ZW.  (London:  2. Monroe C. B e a r d s l e y . "The M e t a p h o r i c a l T w i s t , " i n S h i b l e s ( e d . ) , E s s a y s on Metaphor. (Whitewater, W i s c o n s i n : The Language P r e s s , 1 9 Y 2 ) , p. 8®. 3. W.H. L e a t h e r d a l e . The R o l e o f A n a l o g y , Model and Metaphor i n Science. (Amsterdam!! N o r t h - H o l l a n d P u b l i s h i n g Company, J-974), P. 97. 4. W i l l i a m Empson. Seven Types o f A m b i g u i t y . C h a t t o & Windus, 19477^  (London:  5. J . E . L l e w e l y n . - " F a m i l y Resemblances," P h i l o s o p h i c a l ' Q u a r t e r l y X V I I I ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 3 4 4 . 6 . M i c h a e l A. Simon. "When i s a Resemblance a F a m i l y Resemblance?" MinffiLXXVIII ( I 9 6 9 ) , p. 4 0 9 . 7.  Loc. c i t .  8. Friedrich Nietzsche. "On T r u t h and F a l s i t y i n T h e i r E x t r a m o r a l Sense," i n S h i b l e s (ed.) E s s a y s on Me-taphor, p. 5 . 9. A l f r e d N o r t h Whitehead. Quoted i n Kenneth B u r k e . Permanence and Change. (Los A l t o s , C a l i f o r n i a : Hermes P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 3 5 ) ^ Opening epigram. 10. Terence Hawkes. 1972), p. 5 9 .  Metaphor.  (London:  Methuen Company,  11. H j a l m a r Wenerberg. "The Concept o f F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s L a t e r P h i l o s o p h y , " T h e o r i a X X X I I I , (1962), p. 117. 12. G e r a l d Heard. Quoted i n S t a n l e y E d g a r Hyman. The T a n g l e d Bank;; Darwin, Marx, g r a z e r and Freud as C r e a t i v e Writers^ (New Y o r k : Atheneum, 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 4 3 1 . 13.  Wenerberg, op_. c i t . , p. 1 2 0 .  14.  I b i d . , p. 118.  15. Timothy B i n k l e y . W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s Language. M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1 9 7 3 ) , PpT o 2 - 3 .  (The Hague:  -103-  16.  Simon, op_. c i t . , p.  411.  17. Marcus B. H e s t e r . The Meaning o f P o e t i c Metaphor. An A n a l y s i s i n the L i g h t o f W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s C l a i m t h a t Meaning i s Use7 (The Hague: Mouton, 1967), p'Si 55. 18.  Ibid.VP.  H8.  19. W e l l e r Emhler.-- Metaphor and Meaning. E v e r e t t / E d w a r d s , 1966), p. 46.  (Deland,  Florida:  20. M a r t i n F o s s . Symbol and Metaphor i n Human E x p e r i e n c e . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949) > p. l b . S i m i l a r i d e a s are e x p l o r e d i n : S c o t t Buchanan. Poetry and M a t h e m a t i c s . (New Y o r k : The John Day Company, 1929) »  pp. 1 9 - 2 0 .  21. Paul Henle. "Metaphor," i n Henle ( e d . ) . Language, Thought and C u l t u r e . (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1958). 22.  I.A. R i c h a r d s .  Quoted i n H e s t e r ,  23.  L e a t h e r d a l e , op. c i t . , pS  op_. c i t . , p.  15.  134.  24. B e d e l l S t a n f o r d . Quoted i n C o l i n M. Turbayne. The Myth o f Metaphor. (Columbia, South C a r o l i n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1962), p.- 21. 98.  25.  L e a t h e r d a l e , _oj>. c i t . , p.  26.  H e s t e r , £ £ . c i t . , p.  27.  L e a t h e r d a l e , op. c i t . , p.  93.  28.  Brooke-Rose, op_. c i t . , p.  12.  180.  29. Walter K e i t h Wilkinson. "Psychosemantic A s p e c t s o f F i g u r a t i v e Language." U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, January, 1976. 30.  H e s t e r , op_. c i t . , pp.  60-61.  31. Leonard J . A n g e l . "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f Metaphor." M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f P h i l o s o p h y , 1967, ;  32.  L e a t h e r d a l e , og. c i t . , p.  26.  -104-  33.  B e a r d s l e y , op. c i t . , p. 81.  34.  Brooke-Rose,  35.  Turbayne, op_. c i t . , pp. 13-14.  36.  H e n l e , ap_. c i t . , p. 145.  c_p_. c i t . , p.  267.  37. N o r t h o r p F r y e . Quoted i n W i n i f r e d Nowottny. P o e t s Use. (London: A t h l o n e P r e s s , 1962), p. 2.  The Language  38. P h i l i p Wheelwright. The T i m i n g F o u n t a i n ; A Study i n the Language o f Symbolism. (Bloomington, I n d i a n a : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I 9 b o ) , p. 17. 39. Sigmund F r e u d . Jokes and T h e i r R e l a t i o n t o the U n c o n s c i o u s . (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n and Company J . James S t r a c h e y , t r . 40.  Brooke-Rose,  op. c i t . , p. 113.  41.  Burke, op_. c i t . , p. 155.  42. Samuel R. L e v i n . L i n g u i s t i c S t r u c t u r e s i n P o e t r y . (The Hague: Mouton, 19"O"9TT 43. Owen Thomas* Metaphor and R e l a t e d S u b j e c t s . Random House, 1969)» p. 35. 44.  I b i d . , p. 40.  45.  I.A. R i c h a r d s .  46.  Burke, og. c i t . , p. I v . ( p r o l o g u e ) .  47.  Brooke-Rose,  48.  Embler, op. p i t . , p. 33.  Quoted i n i b i d . , pp.  (New  York:  61-2.  ag. c i t . , p. 161.  ;  49. G e o f f r e y N. L e e c h . " L i n g u i s t i c s and the F i g u r e s o f R h e t o r i c , " i n R. Fowler ( e d . ) , E s s a y s on S t y l e and Language. (London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1966), p. 143. 50.  H e s t e r , op_. c i t . , p. 142.  51.  L e a t h e r d a l e , OJD. c i t . , p. 51.  52. Edward S a p i r . "Language," i n S a p i r . Language, C u l t u r e and P e r s o n a l i t y . ( B e r k e l e y and L o s Angeles"! U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1956), p. 9.  -105-  53.  H e s t e r , _op_. c i t . , p:. 1 1 8 .  54.  Northrop Frye.  55.  Paul Valery.  Quoted i n i b i d . , Quoted i n i b i d . ,  p. 8 6 .  p. 9 5 .  56. Douglas B e r g g r e n . "The Use and Abuse Review o f M e t a p h y s i c s XVI, 1 , p. 2 4 8 . 57.  Duke o f W e l l i n g t o n .  58.  Burke, op. c i t . , p . - 9 0 .  59.  A n g e l , og. c i t . , p. 5 3 .  60.  Burke, op_. c i t . , pp. 9 8 - 9 .  61.  Berggren, l o c . c i t .  62.  H e s t e r , op_. c i t . , p. 1 1 8 .  63.  W i l l i a m Shakespeare.  o f Metaphor,"  The  Quoted i n L e a t h e r d a l e , op. c i t . , p. 2 2 .  Quoted i n i b i d . ,  p. 164.  64. Benjamin Lee Whorf. "An American I n d i a n Model o f the U n i v e r s e , " i n Whorf. Language. Thought and R e a l i t y . (Cambridge, Massachusetts/: MIT P r e s s , 1 9 5 o ) . 65.  P h i l i p Wheelwright.  Quoted i n L e a t h e r d a l e , _og. c i t . , p. 1 1 0 .  66. K a r l D. U i t t i . L i n g u i s t i c s and L i t e r a r y S t y l e . (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 9 6 9 ) » P« 2 5 . 67.  H e s t e r , og. c i t . , p. 1 8 3 .  68.  Loc. c i t .  69. Marcus B. H e s t e r . "Metaphor and A s p e e t S e e i n g , " i n S h i b l e s ( e d . ) . E s s a y s on Metaphor, p. 1 2 2 . 70.  L e a t h e r d a l e , og. c i t . , p. 1 8 .  71.  Loc. c i t .  72.  I b i d . , p. 1 7 .  73.  Matthew A r n o l d .  Quoted i n Hawkes, og. c i t . , p. 61.  -10674. W i l l i a m Shakespeare. p. 48.  Quoted  75.  I b i d . , p. 12.  76.  Max B l a c k .  77.  Hawkes, o p . c i t . , p. 37.  78.  Samuel T a y l o r C o l e r i d g e .  79*  L e a t h e r d a l e , ag.  80.  Turbayne.  81.  Ibid.,  Quoted  Quoted  i n W h e e l w r i g h t , ag. c i t . ,  i n L e a t h e r d a l e , on. c i t . , p. 146.  Quoted  i nibid.,  p . 49*  c i t . , p. 93. i n B e r g g r e n , o n . c i t . , p . 240.  p.242.  82. G e o f f r e y N. Leech. K L i n g u i s t i c Guide t o E n g l i s h P o e t r y . (London: Longmans, G r e e n & Co., L t d . , 1969). 83.  H e n l e , ag.  c i t . , pp. 180-181.  84. W h e e l w r i g h t . M e t a p h o r , p . 16.  Quoted  i n H e s t e r , The M e a n i n g  85.  B u r k e , ag.  86.  H e s t e r , ag.  87.  W h e e l w r i g h t , ag.  c i t . , p. 35.  88.  W i l l i a m Empson.  Quoted  89.  William Carlos Williams.  of Poetic  c i t . , p. 92. c i t . , p. 75.  i n H a w k e s , ag. Quoted  c i t . , p . 64.  i n L e v i n , ag.  c i t . , p>. 3 4 .  90. E r n e s t J o n e s . The L i f e a n d Work o f Sigmund F r e u d . (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books, 1974), p. 475. 91.  Paul Valery.  92.  Ibid.,  Quoted  i n H e s t e r , ag.  c i t . , p. 85.  p. 69.  93. Roger F o w l e r , " L i n g u i s t i c Theory and t h e Study o f L i t e r a t u r e , " i n " F o w l e r ( e d . ) . E s s a y s on S t y l e and Language. (London: R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n P a u l , 1966), p. 20.  -107-  94.  H e s t e r , op. c i t . , p. 77.  95. Norman Friedman, "Imagery: From S e n s a t i o n t o i n S h i b l e s , ( e d . ) . E s s a y s on Metaphor., p. 4 1 . 96.  H e n l e , og. c i t . , p:. 177.  97.  H e s t e r , ap_. c i t . ,  98.  H e n l e , op. c i t . ,  99.  Brooke-Rose, op. c i t . , p . 206.  Symbol,"  p. 84. pp. 180-181.  100.  Burke, _og. c i t . , p. 56.  101.  L e a t h e r d a l e , op. c i t . , pp. 212-213.  102.  James J a r r e t .  103.  I b i d . , p. 164.  Quoted i n H e s t e r , op. c i t . , p:. 165.  104. Samuel T a y l o r C o l e r i d g e . p. 37.  Quoted "in Wheelwright, op. c i t . ,  105.  Brooke-Rose, op. C i t . , p. 3 3 .  106.  Uitti,  107.  H e s t e r , op. c i t . ,  108.  I b i d . , p. 81.  op. c i t . p. 94.  109. Henry M i l l e r . - T r o p i c o f C a p r i c o r n . B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1961), p. l O Y . 110.  Brooke-Rose, _op. c i t . ,  111.  Rosamond Tuve.  112.  H e s t e r , op. c i t . ,  113.  L e a t h e r d a l e , op. c i t . , p. 21.  114.  Thomas, op. c i t . ,  115.  H e s t e r , op. c i t . , p;. 184.  (New Y o r k :  p. 22.  Quoted i n Friedman, op. c i t . , p. 48. p. 218.  p. 25.  -108-  99.  116.  Burke, op. c i t . , p.  117.  I b i d . , p. 60.  118.  H e s t e r , op. c i t . , p.  167.  119.  Thomas, op. c i t . , p.  75.  120.  Turbayne, _op. c i t . , p. 27.  121. T u l l i o de Mauro. Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n : H i s P l a c e i n the Development o f Semantics^ ( D o r d r e c h t , H o l l a n d : D. R e i d e l  P u b l i s h i n g Co., 19&7), p. 10. 122.  Burke, op* £it., p.  90.  123. Stephen C. Pepper. "The Root Metaphor Theory o f Metap h y s i c s , " i n S h i b l e s ( e d . ) . E s s a y s on Metaphor, p. 19. 21.  124.  I b i d . , p.  125.  N i e t z s c h e , op. c i t . , p.  126.  L e v i n , ag. C i t . , p.  5.  15.  127. A.L. B i n n s . " ' L i n g u i s t i c ' Reading: Two S u g g e s t i o n s o f the Q u a l i t y o f L i t e r a t u r e , " i n Powler (ed.) E s s a y s on S t y l e and Language. 128.  I b i d . , p.  120."  129.  I b i d . , p.  122.  130. James P e t e r Thorne. " S t y l i s t i c s and G e n e r a t i v e Grammars," i n Donald C. Freeman ( e d . ) . L i n g u i s t i c s and L i t e r a r y S t y l e . (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston, 1970). 131.  Ibid.  132.  B e a r d s l e y , op. c i t . , p.  133.  A n g e l , op. c i t . , p. 26.  134.  Brooke-Rose, og. c i t . , p .  135.  Burke, op. c i t . , p. 71.  136.  Turbayne, op. c i t . , pp. 56-60.  78.  1  211.  -109-  137.  A n g e l , op. c i t . , p. 29.  138.  Ibid.,-p.  139.  Berggren, op_. c i t . , p. 248.  140.  L e v i n , op_. c i t . , p. 21.  141.  Hyman, o n . c i t . , p* 447.  142.  I b i d . , p . 335.  143.  J o n e s , On. b i t . , p . 475.  144.  Loc. c i t .  145.  Samuel J o h n s o n .  146.  H a w k e s , op_. c i t . , p p . 72-73.  147.  W i n i f r e d Nowottoy.'  148.  W h e e l w r i g h t , o p . c i t . , p . 16.  149.  T h o m a s , a g . c i t . , p . 35.  76.  Q u o t e d i n H a w k e s , o n . c i t . , p . 31  Quoted i n i b i d . ,  p . 71.'  150. E d w a r d S t a n k i e w i c z . " L i n g u i s t i c s and t h e Study o f P o e t i c L a n g u a g e , " i n F o w l e r ( e d . ) , E s s a y s o n S t y l e a n d L a n g u a g e , p . 70. 151. J a n M u k a r o v s k y . " S t a n d a r d Language and P o e t i c Language," i n Freeman ( e d . ) . L i n g u i s t i c s a n d L i t e r a r y S t y l e , p . 42. 152.  E m p s o n , op_. c i t . , p . 1.  153.  I b i d . , p . 3.  154.  Loc. citl?  155?  H a w k e s , o g . c i t . , p . 64.  156.  Wheelwright.  Quoted i n Hawkes, i b i d . ,  157. W i n i f r e d N o w o t t n y . The L a n g u a g e A t h l o n e P r e s s , 1962) , p . ST. 158.  B r o o k e - R o s e , o_p_. c i t . , p . 261.  p . 65.  Poets Use.  (London:  -110-  159.  Thomas, op. o i t . , p:. 42.  160.  Lob. c i t .  161.  L e a t h e r d a l e , <op. c i t . , p.  162.  F o s s , op. c i t . , p. 61.  163.  Thomas, og. c i t . , p. 42.  164.  I b i d . , p. 60.  165.  Brooke-Rose, £ p . c i t . , p. 261.'  166.  Hawkes, op. c i t . pp.- 81-82.  167.  Loc. c i t .  168.  ibid.,  169.  I b i d . , p>  170.  Wheelwright, op. c i t . , p. 44.  171 i*  L e a t h e r d a l e , op. c i t . , p. 120.  p. 88. 89.  172. P e r c y Bysshe S h e l l e y . opening epigram. 173.  98.  Wallace Stevens.  Quoted i n S h i b l e s (ed.) op. c i t . ,  Quoted i n Hawkes, op. c i t . , p. 57.  174. M a u r i c e C o r n f o r t h . Marxism and the L i n g u i s t i c (London: Lawrence & W i s h a r t , 1965), p. 135. 175.  Hyman, _op. c i t . , pp. 446-7.  176.  L e a t h e r d a l e , _op. c i t . , p. 104.  177.  Max  Black.  Quoted i n L e a t h e r d a l e , i b i d . ,  p. 99»  178. John M i d d l e t o n Murry, "Metaphor," i n S h i b l e s I s s a y s on Metaphor, p. 3 1 . 179.  H. P a r k h u r s t .  180.  Embler, _op. c i t . , p. 95.  181.  B e r g g r e n , op. c i t . , p. 237.  Philosophy.  (ed.).  Quoted i n S h i b l e s , aibjLd., opening epigram.  -111-  182.  W h e e l w r i g h t , ag. c i t . , p .  272.  183.  Leatherdale,  184.  Ibid.,  185.  N i e t z s c h e , ag. c i t . , p . 10.  186.  M u r r y , o g . c i t . , p . 28.  ag. c i t . , p . 201.'  p . 133.  187. K e n n e t h B u r k e . epigram.  Quoted i n S h i b l e s , i b i d . ,  opening  188.  Leatherdale,  189.  I b i d . , -.p... 214.  - - •'-  190.  W i l l i a m James.  Quoted i n L e a t h e r d a l e , i b i d . ,  191. Mary Hesse. c i t . , p . 214.  o g . c i t . , p . 22. ,  j  /  -  ^ p . 13.  " S c i e n t i f i c M o d e l s , " i n S h i b l e s ( e d . ) , ag.  192.  T h o m a s , ag. c i t . , p . 30.  193.  B u c h a n a n , a g . c i t . , pp> 1-9-20.  194.  Leatherdale,  195.  B u c h a n a n , ojo. c i t . , p . 110.  196.  H e s t e r , oj>. c i t . , p . 146.  197.  Leatherdale,  198.  Leonard Bloomfield.  199.  Wenerfejerg, ag. c i t . , p . 121.'  200).  Beardsley,  ag. c i t . , p . 82.  201.  Nietzsche,  ag. c i t . , p . 82.  op. c i t . , p.  207.  OJD. c i t . , p . 108.  202. I a n T. R a m s e y . o p . c i t . , p . 163.  Q u o t e d i n H e s t e r , o n . c i t . , p . 28.  " M o d e l s a n d M y s t e r y , " i n S h i b l e s (ed).,  203.  B e r g g r e n , o g . c i t . , p . 456.  204.  H e s s e , ag. c i t . , p . 174.  -112-  205.  Burke, op. c i t . , p. 6 9 .  206.  Murry, op. c i t . , p. 28.  207.  D.A. Schttn.  208.  De Mauro, op. c i t . , p. 12.  209.  Hawkes, erg. c i t . , p. 12.  210.  I b i d . , p. 24.  211.  Samuel P a r k e r .  212.  I b i d . , p. 8 8 .  213.  I b i d . , pp. 8 1 - 2 .  214.  M a r g a r e t Mead.  215.  Ibid.", p. 82.  216.  Embler, _op. c i t . , p. 29.  217.  Leatherdale,  218.  Nietzsche,  Quoted i n L e a t h e r d a l e ,  op. c i t ,. p. 133.  Quoted i n Hawkes, i b i d . , p. 31.  Quoted i n Hawkes, l o c . c i t .  op. c i t . , p.  110.  op. c i t . , p. 7.  219. Theodore R. S a r b i n . "Anxiety: i n S h i b l e s , (ed..), ;6p» c i t . , p. 125.  220.  Brooke-Rose,  221.  Turbayne, op. c i t . , p. 21.  222.  I b i d . , p;. 26.  223.  Burke, crp. c i t . , p. 27.  224.  Hester,  op. c i t . , p. 113.  op. c i t . , p. 3 5 .  R e i f i c a t i o n o f a Metaphor, . '  -113-  B I B L  I O G R A P H Y  BOOKS B i n k l e y , Timothy. W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s Language. M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1973).  ( T h e Hague::  Brooke-Rose, C h r i s t i n e . A Grammar o f M e t a p h o r . Seeker & Warburg, l95o). Buchanan, S c o t t . P o e t r y and Mathematics. J o h n D a y Company, 1929). B u r k e , K e n n e t h . Permanence and Change. H e r m e s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1935).  (London:  (New Y o r k :  (Los A l t o s ,  C o r n f o r t h , M a u r i c e . Marxism and the L i n g u i s t i c ( L o n d o n : L a w r e n c e & W i s h a r t , 1965).  The California:  Philosophy.  de M a u r o , T u l l i o . Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n : H i s Place i n the D e v e l o p m e n t of" S e m a n t i c s . (Dordrecht, Holland: D". R e i d e l P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1967). Embler, W e l l e r . Metaphor and Meaning. E v e r e t t / E d w a r d s , 1966). Empson, W i l l i a m . & Windus,  (DeLand, F l o r i d a : :  Seven Types o f A m b i g u i t y . 1947).  (London:  Chatto  Foss, Martin. S y m b o l a n d M e t a p h o r i n Human E x p e r i e n c e . ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : Princeton University Press, 1949). F r e u d , Sigmund. J o k e s and t h e i r R e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e U n c o n s c i o u s . (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n & Co.) Hawkes, Terence.  Metaphor.  (London:  M e t h u e n C o . , 1972^.  H e s t e r , M a r c u s B. The M e a n i n g o f P o e t i c M e t a p h o r . A n A n a l y s i s i n the L i g h t o f Wittgenstein's Claim that Meaning i sUse. ( T h e H a g u e : M o u t o n , 1967). Hyman, S t a n l e y E d g a r . The T a n g l e d B a n k : D a r w i n , M a r x , F r a z e r and F r e u d a s C r e a t i v e W r i t e r s . (New Y o r k : Atheneum, 1974) . Jones, Ernest. The L i f e a n d Works o f Sigmund F r e u d . (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : Penguin Books, 1974).  -114L e a t h e r d a l e , W.H. i n Science* Co.,  The R o l e o f A n a l o g y , M o d e l a n d M e t a p h o r (Amsterdam: N o r t h - H o l l a n d P u b l i s h i n g  1974).  L e e c h , G e o f f r e y N. A L i n g u i s t i c Guide to E n g l i s h Poetry. ( L o n d o n : LongmansV G r e e n & Co., L t d . , 1 9 6 9 ) • L e v i n , S a m u e l R. L i n g u i s t i c Structures/ i n Poetry. Hague: Mouton, 1 9 6 9 ) . N o w o t t n y , W i n i f r e d . The L a n g u a g e P o e t s Athlone Press, 1962).  Use.  (The  (London:  T h o m a s , Owen. M e t a p h o r - a n d R e l a t e d S u b j e c t s . Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 9 ) •  (New  York:  T u r b a y n e , C o l i n M. The M y t h o f M e t a p h o r . (Columbia, Carolina: U n i v e r s i t y of South C a r o l i n a Press,  South 1962).  U i t t i , K a r l D. L i n g u i s t i c s and L i t e r a r y S t y l e . (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , ±969). Wheelwright, P h i l i p . The B u r n i n g F o u n t a i n ; A S t u d y i n Language o f Symbolism. (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1968). COLLECTIONS OP Powler,  the  ESSAYS  R o g e r ( e d . ) . E s s a y s on S t y l e a n d L a n g u a g e . Routledge & Kegan P a u l , 1966).  F r e e m a n , D o n a l d C. ( e d . ) . L i n g u i s t i c s a n d L i t e r a r y (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1970).  (London: Style.  H e n l e , P a u l ( e d . ) . Language, Thought and C u l t u r e . (Ann Michigan: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1968). S e b e o k , Thomas A. ( I d . ) . S t y l e i n Language. Massachusetts: MIT P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ) .  Arbor,  (Cambridge,  S h i b l e s , W a r r e n ( e d . ) . E s s a y s on M e t a p h o r . (Whitewater, Wisconsin: The L a n g u a g e P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) . E S S A Y S APPEARING I N  COLLECTIONS  Aldrich, Virgil  " A r t and  t h e Human F o r m , " i n S h i b l e s .  "The  Twist,"  C.  B e a r d s l e y , M o n r o e C.  Metaphorical  in Shibles.  -115-  B i n n s , A . L . ""• L i n g u i s t i c ' R e a d i n g : Two S u g g e s t i o n s o f the Q u a l i t y o f L i t e r a t u r e , " i n Fowler. F o w l e r , Roger. "Linguistic ture," i n Fowler.  Theory and t h e Study o f L i t e r a -  Henle, Paul.  "Metaphor,"  Hesse, Mary.  " S c i e n t i f i c Models,"  H e s t e r , M a r c u s B.  i n Henle.  "Metaphor  L e e c h , G e o f f r e y N. i n Fowler.  i n Shibles.  and Aspect Seeing," i n S h i b l e s .  "Linguistics  and t h e F i g u r e s  of Rhetoric,"  Mukarovsky, J a n . "Standard Language and P o e t i c Language," i n Freeman. Murry, John M i d d l e t o n .  "Metaphor,"  i n Shibles.  Nietzsche, Friedrich. "On T r u t h a n d F a l s i t y i n t h e i r moral Sense," i n S h i b l e s . P e p p e r , S t e p h e n C. in Shibles. R a m s e y , I a n T.  "The R o o t M e t a p h o r  "Models  S a r b i n , T h e o d o r e R. in Shibles.  Extra-  Theory o f M e t a p h y s i c s , "  and M y s t e r y , " i n S h i b l e s .  "Anxiety:  Reification  S t a n k i e w i c z , Edward. "Linguistics Language," i n Sebeok.  of a  Metaphor,"  and t h e Study o f P o e t i c  T h o m e , James P e t e r . " S t y l i s t i c s and t h e Study o f P o e t i c Language," i n Ereeman. Wheelwright, P h i l i p .  "Semantics and Ontology," i n S h i b l e s .  A R T I C L E S APPEARING I N JOURNALS Berggren, Douglas. "The U s e a n d A b u s e o f M e t a p h o r , " o f M e t a p h y s i c s X V I , 1, p p . 237-58.  The  Review  J a k o b s o n , Roman. "On t h e V e r b a l A r t o f W i l l i a m B l a k e a n d O t h e r P o e t - P a i n t e r s , " L i n g u i s t i c I n q u i r y I , 1 (1970), pp.- 3-17.  -116-  Leondar, B a r b a r a .  "Metaphor and I n f a n t C o g n i t i o n , "  IV/, 2/3 (1975), pp. 273-287.  Poetics  Llewelyn, J.E.  " F a m i l y Resemblances,"  Mack, D o r o t h y .  "Metaphoring as Speech A c t , " P o e t i c s IV, 2/3  XVIII (1968), pp. 344-46.  Philosophical' Quarterly  (1975), pp. 221-256.  M o o i j , J.J.A.  "Tenor, V e h i c l e and R e f e r e n c e , " P o e t i c s IV, 2/3  (1975), PP. 257-272.  Simon, M i c h a e l , A . "When i s a Resemblance Mind LXXVIII (1969), pp. 408-16.  a F a m i l y Resemblance?"  Van D i j k , Teun A. "Formal Semantics o f M e t a p h o r i c a l D i s c o u r s e . " P o e t i c s IV, 2/3 (1975), pp. 173-197~ Wenerberg, H j a l m a r . "The Concept o f F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s L a t e r P h i l o s o p h y , " T h e o r i a XXXIII ( 1 9 6 2 ) ,  pp. 107-32.  THESES A n g e l , Leonard J . "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f Metaphor'.." M a t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia D e p a r t ment o f P h i l o s o p h y , 1967. Wilkinson, Walter K e i t h . "Psychosemantic A s p e c t s o f F i g u r a t i v e Language^" I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093895/manifest

Comment

Related Items