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The matter of metaphor and its importance for linguistics Wigod, Rebecca 1976

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THE MATTER OF METAPHOR AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR LINGUISTICS REBECCA WIGOD B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u n e , 1976 © R e b e c c a Wigod, 1976 y In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of E i n g a i s t i c s ( G r a d S t u d i e s ) The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date March 17 f lQ7fi ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s r e v i e w s t h e c u r r e n t s t y l i s t i c l i t e r a -t u r e t o g a i n s u p p o r t f o r a c l a i m t h a t f i g u r a t i v e meaning i n g e n e r a l and a n a l o g i c a l metaphor i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e i n t e g r a l p r o c e s s e s o f l a n g u a g e and, a s s u c h , a r e o f o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n t o l i n g u i s t s . The f i r s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s a r e d e v o t e d t o d e f i n i n g t h e t e r m 'metaphor' i n "both b r o a d and n a r r o w s e n s e s and t o l o c a t i n g f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e ( t h e b r o a d sense o f t h e term) w i t h i n t h e r u l e - g o v e r n e d scheme t h a t i s l a n g u a g e . The f o u r t h c h a p t e r adds t h e n o t i o n t h a t metaphor i s t h e l i n g u i s t i c s p h e r e ' s a n a l o g u e t o t h e dream as v i e w e d by F r e u d . The f i f t h c h a p t e r , " M e t a p h o r i c T e n s i o n , " s e e k s t o e x p l a i n how a metaphor o p e r a t e s . M o s t o f t h e w r i t e r s s u r v e y e d b e l i e v e t h a t a k i n d o f t e n s i o n i s o p e r a t i v e — a s o r t o f t u r g o r p r e s s u r e w h i c h k e e p s t h e f i g u r e a l i v e . T h i s t e n s i o n i n t u r n i s b e s t a n a l y s e d i n terms o f p a i r e d f o r c e s , whose i m p a c t i s c e n t r i p e t a l / c e n t r i f u g a l . W h i l e t h e two f o r c e s have been d e s c r i b e d i n v a r i o u s ways and u n d e r d i f f e r e n t names, one c a n be c h a r a c t e r i z e d , b r o a d l y as g e n e r a l i z i n g and t h e o t h e r a s p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g . That i s , e v e r y metaphor f o c u s s e s s h a r p l y on t h e c o m p a r i s o n i t i s m a k i n g and a t t h e same t i m e s u g g e s t s " w i d e r and w i d e r c o n t e x t s " t h r o u g h " s e m a n t i c p l e n i t u d e o f i m p l i c a t i o n . " i i . C h a p t e r S i x d i s c u s s e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l metaphor i s a work o f a r t . A r t - o b j e c t s t a t u s c a n be a c c o r d e d t o metaphors p a r t l y b ecause o f t h e q u a s i -v i s u a l i m a g e r y and t h e s y m b o l i s m t h a t goes i n t o t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n , and so i m a g e r y 1 s r o l e i n f i g u r a t i v e s p e e c h i s examined. -In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e new metaphors a r e c o n s c i o u s l y c r e a t e d by w r i t e r s ( a s opposed t o f r o z e n o r i n e r t m e t a p h o r s , w h i c h a r e u s e d u n w i t t i n g l y i n s p e e c h ) , t h e y a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e s t a n d a r d s t h a t judge any p r i v a t e a r t i s t i c e n t e r p r i s e . C h a p t e r Seven examines l o g i c i n metaphor, and f i n d s t h a t i t i s n o t a step-by/-step q u o t i d i a n l o g i c a t a l l . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t g r e a t e r c r e a t i v i t y i s p e r m i s s i b l e i n metaphor, t h e m a t t e r o f l o g i c i s r e l e g a t e d t o a s u b o r -d i n a t e p o s i t i o n . Thus, t h e words w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e metaphor's l o g i c , words l i k e 1 c o u n t e r l o g i c a l , 1 ' i n f r a -l o g i c a l , ' ' e x t r a - l o g i c a l , ' and, o f c o u r s e , ' a n a l o g i c a l , ' a l l c o n t a i n t h e element o f ' l o g i c , ' b u t i n bound f o r m . The m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r s F i v e , S i x and Seven has t o do w i t h t h e p a i r e d f o r c e s u n d e r l y i n g m e t a p h o r s , metaphors' i m a g e r y c o n t e n t and t h e i r e l l i p t i c a l l o g i c . These p e c u l i a r i t i e s and o t h e r s c o n s p i r e t o make metaphors most d i f f i c u l t t o p a r a p h r a s e i n d i s c u r s i v e l a n g u a g e . C h a p t e r E i g h t i s d e v o t e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f p a r a p h r a s e . i i i . Chapiter N i n e documents a d i v e r g e n t s t r a i n o f r e a s o n i n g , w h i c h c l a i m s t h a t metaphor i s a h e i g h t e n e d f o r m o f o r d i n a r y s p e e c h . T h i s p h i l o s o p h y h o l d s t h a t metaphor e x p l o i t s p r o p e r t i e s l a t e n t and u n t a p p e d i n t h e l i t e r a l t o n g u e . The t e n t h c h a p t e r c o n c e r n s metaphor's c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s , w h i c h , i t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d , a r e p r o d i g i o u s . I t i s shown t h a t t h e a n a l o g y / ( m e t a p h o r 1 s prime c o n s t i t u e n t ) i s man's c o g n i z i n g t o o l p a r e x c e l l e n c e , i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n b o t h s c i e n c e and a r t . The f i n a l c h a p t e r summarizes t h e f o r e g o i n g and adds a c a u t i o n a r y r i d e r i n d i c a t i n g t h e p o s s i b l e m i s u s e s o f metaphor. These d r a w b a c k s , i t i s c o n c l u d e d , a r e a l m o s t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e i n l i g h t o f t h e r i c h n e s s t h a t f i g u r a t i v e s p e e c h a d m i t s i n t o l a n g u a g e . i v TABLE OP CONTENTS I n t r o d u c t i o n i CHAPTER ONE: Meta p h o r i n t h e L i n g u i s t i c S phere IL The P r o b l e m o f U n i v o c a l R e f e r e n c e 2 CHAPTER TWO: What i s M e t a p h o r E x a c t l y ? 13 E q u i v o c a l R e f e r e n c e 13 CHAPTER THREE"::', M e t a p h o r Seen as U n o r t h o d o x P l a y W i t h i n t h e System 19 CHAPTER FOUR: Me t a p h o r and Dreams 27 "Rounded Sensuous O b j e c t " 29 S ound-L i n k s 30 Ambiguous S'ense-Links 30 Memory-Links 33 CHAPTER F I V E : M e t a p h o r i c T e n s i o n 36 D i s t a n c e 36 A b s t r a c t i o n v e r s u s D e t a i l 38 Economy 39 C r e a t i v e D e f i n i n g A b i l i t y 39 V CHAPTER S I X ; The R o l e o f Imagery 49 D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s and D i f f e r e n t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s 54 V e r i f i c a t i o n i s C e n t r i p e t a l 54 P r i v a c y 55 CHAPTER SEVEN; M e t a p h o r ' s P a r t i c u l a r L o g i c 57 ' L o g i c ' i n Bound Form 57 The C o u n t e r l o g i c a l i n M e t a p h o r 58 M e t a p h o r a s E x t r a - o r I n f r a l o g i c a l 61 M e t a p h o r a s A n a l o g i c a l 61 The T r u t h Q u e s t i o n 62 A P o e t i c Grammar? 65 CHAPTER EIGHT; The D i f f i c u l t y o f P a r a -p h r a s i n g M e t a p h o r 68 N o n - l i n e a r i t y 68 Economy 68 E q u i v o c a l R e f e r e n c e 69 CHAPTER NINE: M e t a p h o r Seen As a H e i g h t e n e d Form o f Language 74 A m b i g u i t y 76 T r a n s f e r e n c e 76 C o n t e x t 78 P r e d i c a t i n g a N o m i n a l 78 E t h n o c e n t r i c i t y 79 v i . CHAPTER TENs Metaphor and Cognition 81 Expressing the O r i g i n a l 8 H Defining-Inducing A b i l i t y 82 Analogizing the Known to the Unknown 83 A H e l p f u l Vagueness 854. De r i v i n g Hypotheses 84 The An a l o g i c a l Act 86 Poetry and Mathematics 87 Growth of Knowledge and Language 89 The Residuum i s Knowledge 9B CHAPTER ELEVEN:; Conclusion 94 A Warning on the Dangers of Metaphor's Misuse 94 E t h n o c e n t r i c i t y 96 Authoritativeness of the Copula-Link 97 A t t i t u d e - S h i f t i n g 9® Seeing Too Much A n a l o g i c a l l y 100 Footnotes 1 0 2 Bibliography 113 v i i . INTRODUCTION The English poet Shelley has written that "language i s v i t a l l y metaphorical." I have used this four-word opinion (umiturn:'.in parvo) as the springboard for my thesis, seeking to show: (1) that he i s right. Metaphor i s a v i t a l and indispensable process of language, and (2) why he i s right. Supposing that metaphor i s a necessary condition for language, how does i t work? Who, in particular, uses metaphors, or do we a l l ? How much do we use them? Knowingly or unknowingly? Where? Why?' How? In essence, then, my thesis i s a literature review* I have looked at roughly forty writers on figurative language and have found that, to a man, they agree that metaphor's role in language i s enormous, fundamental. Their view was new to me. Though I am a linguist on the one hand and an aspiring writer of prose on the other, I had never realized that metaphor had any sort of primacy in language. My private conception of metaphor, insofar as I had one, was of Renaissance vintage; I thought v i i i . t h a t metaphor and t h e o t h e r s o - c a l l e d f i g u r e s o f speech were e x t r i n s i c t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n and u s e d f i t f u l l y as ornaments t o one's l i t e r a r y s t y l e . The method and i n t e n t o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e s i m p l e i n t h e extreme. I have n o t t e s t e d V a n c o u v e r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s on t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o and r e c a l l o f v a r i o u s m e t a p h o r s , as one c o l l e a g u e * has done. I have made no p r e d i c t i o n s and t a b u l a t e d no r e s u l t s . I n s t e a d , my a i m was t o i n f o r m l i n g u i s t s t h a t metaphor i s a v i t a l p a r t o f t h e i r a r e a o f c o n c e r n . I f and when l i n g u i s t s do e n c o u n t e r metaphor, i t i s on t h e a l i e n ground o f l i t e r a t u r e o r i n t h e shadowy g r e y a r e a o f s t y l i s t i c s . I am s u g g e s t i n g , however, t h a t t h e y r e c o g n i z e metaphor as a l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon o f t h e f i r s t o r d e r . W a l t e r K e i t h W i l k i n s o n . " P s y c h o s e m a n t i c A s p e c t s o f F i g u r a t i v e Language." U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r -t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J a n u a r y , 1976. - 1 -CHAPTER ONE METAPHOR IN THE LINGUISTIC SYSTEM "a f l o w e r i n t h e c r a n n i e d w a l l " M e t a p h o r s and o t h e r t y p e s o f f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e l i v e s i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e l i t e r a l i n human s p e e c h . The f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s u n i v e r s a l f i g u r a t i v e c o n t e n t t o com-m u n i c a t i o n does n o t mean t h a t e v e r y s p e a k e r i s i m a g i n a -t i v e i n h i s u s e o f l a n g u a g e , s i n c e c l e a r l y most p e o p l e a r e n o t . The r e a l r e a s o n f o r t h e i n c i d e n c e o f metaphor . i n s p e e c h i s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f t h o u g h t i t s e l f i s i n a l i e n a b l y m e t a p h o r i c , and s p e e c h , i n e x p r e s s i n g t h o u g h t , c a n n o t h e l p b u t be so to®. I t seems t o me t h a t t h e l i n g u i s t , i n a p p r o a c h i n g t h i s a r e a so commonly deemed t o be an E n g l i s h - d e p a r t m e n t b a i l i w i c k , needs t o know t h e f o l l o w i n g s o r t s o f t h i n g s : 1. Where does t h e l i t e r a l i n s p e e c h l e a v e o f f and t h e f i g u r a t i v e b e g i n ? 2. I s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i t e r a l and f i g u r a t i v e use o f words f r o z e n o r does i t s h i f t ? 2 ( a ) . I f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o f a s h i f t i n g , c h a n g i n g n a t u r e , i s t h e m e t a p h o r i c - l i t e r a l change p a r t o f the o v e r a l l p r o c e s s o f l a n g u a g e growth? : 3. I f t h e p r o c e s s o f t h o u g h t i s m e t a p h o r i c and s p e e c h p r e s e n t s t h o u g h t , why i s metaphor n o t t h e norm and l i t e r a l r e f e r e n c e t h e e x c e p t i o n ? 3 ( a ) . Can t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n f a c t be c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n terms o f a norm' and an e x c e p t i o n ? ' The purpose o f t h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r i s t o p i n p o i n t -2-m e t a p h o r i c a l l a n g u a g e on t h e b r o a d map o f spe e c h . F i r s t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e f e r e n c e i n g e n e r a l ; t h a t i s , how a p a r t i c u l a r word comes t o r e f e r t o a p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g . T h i s q u e s t i o n i s d e e p l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and moreover i s f u n c t i o n a l l y i n e r t i n l i n g u i s t i c c i r c l e s . The e a r l i e s t l i n g u i s t s , de S a u s s u r e e s p e c i a l l y , d e a l t w i t h t h e m a t t e r , and t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s a r e embedded a t t h e base o f t h e f i e l d ' s l i t e r a t u r e . R o u g h l y , i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p between a word l i k e ' t a b l e ' and an a c t u a l p h y s i c a l t a b l e i s an a r b i t r a r y b u t f i x e d c o n v e n t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between word and t h i n g i n t h e o r d i n a r y s poken l a n g u a g e i s a more o r l e s s u n i v o c a l one. There i s one word p e r t h i n g , i n o t h e r words. The P r o b l e m o f U n i v o c a l R e f e r e n c e To g i v e a name i s an enormous m e t a p h y s i c a l t a s k b e cause a name i n i t i a t e s a f i x e d and b i n d i n g u n i v o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Once an o b j e c t o r phenomenon w i t h i n t h e human p u r v i e w i s named, i t i s t a g g e d f o r l i f e and, u n l e s s t h e name i s p a r t o f a s t r i c t s c i e n t i f i c taxonomy, i s t h e n c e f o r t h s u b j e c t t o d e p r e c i a t i o n f r o m c o n s t a n t a b r a s i o n and u s e . B e s t o w a l o f a n o u n - l a b e l i s e s p e c i a l l y presump-t u o u s because w i t h t h e noun, u n l i k e t h e v e r b and t h e a d j e c t i v e , a whole complex o f a t t r i b u t e s i s c o r r a l l e d w i l l y - n i l l y i n t o t h e chosen a r b i t r a r y l a b e l . T h u s , f o r example, u t t e r a n c e o f t h e word ' t r e e ' c o n j u r e s up images o f l e a f i n e s s , s h a d i n e s s , b r a n c h i n e s s , t a l l n e s s , s l i m n e s s and b a r k , a l l a t once and i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . A l l o f t h e s e q u a l i t i e s s p r i n g t o t h e mind u n b i d d e n ; even t h e most s t r i p p e d - d o w n m e n t a l t r e e i s bound t o have them. But once t h e word ' t r e e ' i s f o u n d i n a c o n t e x t and d e s c r i b e d , " h o w e v e r s l i g h t l y , t h e mind's a r c h e t y p a l t r e e b e g i n s t o t r a n s f o r m — t o d e c r e a s e i n l e a f i n e s s and wax i n t a l l n e s s i f t h e t r e e i n q u e s t i o n p r o v e s t o be an e v e r g r e e n , o r t o w h i t e n i n b a r k i f a b i r c h . To use a noun c l e a r l y and u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n any g i v e n s e n s e , t h e n , c e r t a i n o f i t s a t t r i b u t e s must be s t r e s s e d a t t h e expense o f o t h e r s . The s p e a k e r ' s s e l e c t i o n o f one p a r t i c u l a r sense o f a noun i s c o n t i n u a l l y r e a f f i r m e d , t o o , by c o n n e c t e d s p e e c h — t h e g r e a t e r c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e noun r e s i d e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e t a s k o f naming, t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f v e r b a l and a d j e c t i v a l c o n c e p t s i s n o t n e a r l y as monumen-t a l an u n d e r t a k i n g . The c o n c e p t s i n v o l v e d a r e s i m p l e r t h a n noun c o n c e p t s and do n o t decompose i n t o as many s h a r d s o f meaning. C e r t a i n l y , t h e v e r b 'jump' c o n j u r e s up t h e m e n t a l image o f a l e a p . I t may be a h i g h jump o r a l o w jump t h a t i s meant, a jump e n e r g e t i c a l l y e x e c u t e d o r n o t , b u t t h e s e q u a l i t i t e s c a n n o t be a b s t r a c t e d out o f t h e v e r b as l e a f i n e s s ; may f r o m t h e noun ' t r e e . ' I n f a c t , W.H. L e a t h e r d a l e has shown t h a t v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s a r e s u f f u s e d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l meaning f r o m t h e i r n e i g h b o u r i n g nouns. F o r nouns, i n t h e i r - 4 -p o l y m o r p h i s m , a c t u a l l y have a s u r f e i t o f , m e a n i n g , w h i c h o v e r f l o w s them and r u n s , p r o f i t a b l y , i n t o t h e v e r b s and a d j e c t i v e s , g i v i n g them shape and c o l o u r . Thus, i n ''He ground h i s t e e t h ' and 'He ground t h e c o r n , ' ^ t h e nouns • t e e t h ' and ' c o r n ' d e f i n e and d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e two s e n s e s o f 'ground, 1 a f e a t w h i c h t h e v e r b a l o n e i s p o w e r l e s s t o e f f e c t u a t e . As any l i n g u i s t knows, words a r e b u t a r b i t r a r y l a b e l s , w i t h no r e l a t i o n t o what t h e y s t a n d f o r o t h e r t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l : a t r e e i s a Baum i s an a r b r e . . M e a n i n g , o r s i g n i f i c a n c e , o n l y b e g i n s t o a c c r u e when words a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r , so t h a t c o n t e x t becomes t h e a l l L - i m p o r t a n t m u c i l a g e o f s p e e c h . As I see i t , t h e noun, i n subsuming a c o m p l i c a t e d G e s t a l t u n d e r a s i n g l e t e r m , i s t h e most ponderous o f t h e w o r d - c l a s s e s . Because c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e noun a r e emphasized by t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t o f s e n t e n c e o r p a r a g r a p h , t h e noun c a n be seen as b e i n g c l o s e s t t o t h e c o n t e x t , and t o t h e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f s p e e c h . The o t h e r w o r d - c l a s s e s ,are a r r a y e d i n s e r r i e d r a n k s b e n e a t h them. ( I t seems n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o have s u c h a h i e r a r c h y o f u n i v o c a l r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e word c l a s s e s . I f nouns a r e a t t h e t o p , p r e p o s i t i o n s w o u l d be n e a r t h e bottom and a r t i c l e s a t t h e b a s e ) . E a c h noun has a head-meaning (Empson's t e r m ) , ^ a s o r t o f a r c h e t y p a l sense i n w h i c h a l l o f t h e noun's -5-d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i a a r e f i l l e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f we a g r e e t h a t ' s c i e n c e ' a t i t s most a b s t r a c t i s e x p e r i m e n t a l , m a t h e m a t i c , s y s t e m a t i c and p a i n s t a k i n g , t h e n when we speak o f p h y s i c s as b e i n g a s c i e n c e , we a r e u s i n g t h e t e r m i n i t s head-meaning;; a l l o f t h e minimum b a s i c r e q u i r e -ments a r e s a t i s f i e d . Y e t , t h e r e i s a whole c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e word ' s c i e n c e ' t h a t a r e e q u a l l y l e g i t i m a t e , t h o u g h t h e y may s a t i s f y o n l y one, two o r t h r e e o f t h e r e q u i s i t e s . B o t a n y i s as p a l p a b l y ' s c i e n c e ' as p h y s i c s i s , d e s p i t e i t s l e s s mathematic c o n s t i t u t i o n ; a Manx c a t i s s t i l l a c a t f o r a l l t h a t v I n o t h e r w ords, e v e r y noun i s a c o v e r term. The one-to-one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t h a t we m i g h t hope t o e x i s t between word and t h i n g does n o t i n v a r i a b l y o c c u r . As I s a i d e a r l i e r , t h e r e f e r e n c e i n l i t e r a l meaning i s o n l y "more o r l e s s " u n i v o c a l , w h i c h means " l e s s ^ 1 more o f t e n t h a n n o t . E a c h n o u n - l a b e l — d e c e p t i v e l y b e n i g n — r e v e a l s a whole p a n o p l y o f s o c k e t s t o p l u g sense i n t o ( i t s b a s i c d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i a ) , and, due t o t h e number and v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b l e c o n t e x t s , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f sense r e - r o u t i n g a r e l e g i o n . ( T h i s l a c k o f s i m p l e u n i v o c a l r e f e r e n c e has g i v e n r i s e t o many, i f n o t most, m a j o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l arguments, c a u s i n g t h i n k e r s l i k e B e r g s o n and o t h e r s t o o v e r h a u l t h e i r t e r m i n o l o g y d r a s t i c a l l y t o a v o i d t h e a i l - t o o common d i s c l a i m e r t h a t " I t ' s a q u e s t i o n o f s e m a n t i c s [ s i c ] . " F r a n c i s Bacon i s an example o f a t h i n k e r who s e t o u t t o t a b u l a t e r e a l i t y as we know i t , t h e b e t t e r ( f o r ) ) f o r terms t o a p p l y and a n a l o g i e s t o be made. S e e k i n g t o p e r f e c t t h e somewhat a p p r o x i m a t e d o v e t a i l i n g o f words and p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y , he a r r i v e d a t a T a b l e o f E s s e n c e and P r e s e n c e ( a l i s t o f a l l s i m i l a r i t i e s ) , a T a b l e o f Degrees-( a s c a l a r v e r s i o n o f same), and a T a b l e o f D e v i a t i o n ( a l i s t o f a l l d i f f e r e n c e s ) . I t was a n o b l e , a t t e m p t , t h i s l o c k i n g o f h o r n s w i t h t h e / u n i v e r s e , t o p r e s e n t t h e p a n o p l y o f c o n n o t a t i o n s , . f o r e v e r y word. So u n i v o c a l meaning, o b v i o u s l y i s a t a l l . o r d e r . I t i s s i m p l i f y i n g i n o r d i n a t e l y t o e x p e c t t h a t " t h e r e i s a p r o -p e r t y o r s e t o f p r o p e r t i e s n e c e s s a r y t o a n y t h i n g t o e n t i t l e one t o a p p l y t h a t term." C e r t a i n l y on t h e f a c e o f i t some terms a r e b e t t e r s u i t e d t o u n i v o c a l d e f i n i t i o n t h a n o t h e r s : ' • b i c y c l e , ' ' b r o t h e r , ' 'cube' and ' m u l a t t o , ' t o name a few. B u t even where a r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d r e l a t i o n between 7 word and t h i n g seems t o e x i s t , p r o blems c r o p up, as Simon p o i n t s o u t : " I t i s t r u e t h a t b r o t h e r s have i n c:ommon t h a t t h e y a r e male s i b l i n g s , b u t t h e i r h a v i n g i n crommon t h a t t h e y a r e male s i b l i n g s i s t h e i r h a v i n g i n common t h a t t h e y a r e brothers;, and n o t t h e i r h a v i n g i n common s o m e t h i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r b e i n g b r o t h e r s . " Though he has d e l i b e -r a t e l y s e t up a s t r a w man o f a t a u t o l o g y t o make h i s p o i n t , Simon s u c c e e d s i n showing t h a t u n d e r t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s b u r n i n g g l a s s , l a n g u a g e i s q u i t e c a p a b l e o f d i s i n t e g r a t i n g i n t o a w e l t e r o f h o p e l e s s c o n f u s i o n . As W i t t g e n s t e i n has i n t i m a t e d , o s t e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n i s t h e l a s t r e s o r t o f meaning, i . e . t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f one's c o r p o r e a l b r o t h e r t o s u b s t a n t i a t e one's p o i n t . . S i n c e l i t e r a l l a n g u a g e p u r p o r t s t o d e s c r i b e r e a l i t y , i t i s t h e f a l l a c y o f t h a t l a n g u a g e t o i m p l y t h a t a s e t o f terms e x i s t t h a t i s adequate t o r e a l l y " c o v e r " r e a l i t y . ( " P l a i n s p e e c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n a c c u r a t e , " w r o t e Hulme). What i n f a c t happens i s t h a t t h e s e t o f terms becomes l i k e so many t o k e n s i n t h e Volksmund. Words a r e s e r i o u s l y v i t i a t e d f o r " h a v i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o f i t i n n u m e r a b l e more o r l e s s s i m i l a r * ( w h i c h r e a l l y means n e v e r e q u a l , o t h e r e f o r e a l t o g e t h e r u n e q u a l ) c a s e s . " B u t n o t t o panic*, t h i s i s as i t s h o u l d be. A f t e r a l l , e x i s t e n c e i s n o t a m a t t e r o f b l a c k and w h i t e , b u t o f s u b t l e g r a d a t i o n s . As Whitehe a d w r o t e , " t h e d i f f e r e n t modes o f n a t u r a l e x i s t e n c e shade o f f i n t o e a c h o t h e r . L a n g u a g e r e p r o d u c e s e x i s t e n c e , d e s c r i b e s i t , c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t , apes i t . So i f r e a l i t y p r o v e s p r o t e a n , i n t r a c t a b l e o r ambiguous, we c a n n o t l o o k t o l a n g u a g e t o u n t a n g l e i t because "language and e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r a c t and p r o v e f u n d a m e n t a l l y i m p l i c a t e d w i t h each o t h e r t o an e x t e n t t h a t makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n s i d e r them as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s . " 1 ^ As Empson has shown, a m b i g u i t y i s s i m p l y endemic i n l a n g u a g e . * V i d e Bacon's t a b l e s o f s i m i l a r i t y and d i f f e r e n c e . T h i s l o o s e n e s s o f t e r m i n o l o g y i s i n e v i t a b l e i n l a n g u a g e f o r a n o t h e r r e a s o n , t h i s one d e v e l o p m e n t a l . That i s , new terms t h a t a r i s e t e n d t o f a l l i n w i t h t h e p r e -e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n o f n o m e n c l a t u r e , r e s u l t i n g i n a c e r t a i n a r b i t r a r i n e s s . Wenerberg e x p l a i n s i t as f o l l o w s : When a new o b j e c t emerges t h a t has n o t y e t been subsumed u n d e r any t e r m , i t w i l l be subsumed u n d e r some term A because i t i s s i m i l a r t o some o f t h e o b j e c t s a l r e a d y subsumed u n d e r A. And i f s t i l l a n o t h e r o b j e c t emerges t h a t i s s i m i l a r t o t h e f o r m e r o b j e c t , i t m i g h t be subsumed u n d e r A as w e l l . B u t i t m i g h t v e r y w e l l be t h e c a s e t h a t i f t h e f o r m e r o b j e c t had n e v e r emerged, t h e l a t t e r m i g h t have been subsumed u n d e r some o t h e r term i n s t e a d o f A. (IU) There i s h i s t o r i c a l i n e v i t a b i l i t y t o t h i s p r o c e s s . F o r , i f c a p a b l e o f n o t h i n g e l s e l o g i c a l , man i s a c r e a t u r e who f u r t h e r s and expands c o n s t r u c t s once he has s t a r t e d them ( o f t e n t o t h e p o i n t o f f o l l y o r a b s u r d i t y ) . S t a n l e y E d g a r Hyman i n s t a n c e s t h e p r o c e s s n i c e l y , though h i s example i s n o t drawn f r o m t h e l i n g u i s t i c s p h e r e : Newton b a n i s h e d God f r o m n a t u r e , D a r w i n b a n i s h e d him f r o m l i f e , F r e u d d r o v e him f r o m t h e l a s t f a s t n e s s , t h e s o u l . I t was a l l l a t e n t i n Newton, i n D e s c a r t e s , i n G a l i l e o : mechanism wo u l d conquer a l l , once i t had conquered n a t u r e , f o r man's, body was s p r u n g f r o m n a t u r e and h i s mind f r o m h i s body.(12) A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i n a p r e - e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n o f n o m e n c l a t u r e i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e " r e - r o u t i n g " o f sense r e f e r r e d t o above. R u b r i c s f i l l up and new ones a r e c r e a t e d . T h i s can happen when what had p r e v i o u s l y been a -9-s u b s i d i a r y a t t r i b u t e o f a term, one o f i t s symptoms as i t were, b e g i n s t o s e r v e as a d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i o n i n i t s own r i g h t ( a head-meaning). A g a i n , Wenerberg e l u c i d a t e s : : Phenomena p o s s e s s i n g a f e a t u r e A a r e subsumed u n d e r c o n c e p t X, whose d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i o n i s A. I f a l l t h e s e phenomena a l s o have t h e f e a t u r e B i n common, t h i s may cause u s t o subsume u n d e r X a new phenomenon t h a t has t h e f e a t u r e B b u t l a c k s A. Thus, B u s e d t o be a symptom b u t has become a c r i t e r i o n . (14) A c t u a l l y , Wenerberg's second g r o w t h p r o c e s s i s a l m o s t as p r e d i c t a b l e a s h i s f i r s t . A c o n s t r u c t , once s t a r t e d , i s -f u r t h e r e d : y e s . B u t a c o n s t r u c t , once s t a r t e d , i s a l s o d e v i a t e d f r o m p r e d i c t a b l y , i s t a k e n i s s u e w i t h . Thus, s u r r e a l i s m , d a d a i s m , t h e a t e r o f t h e a b s u r d , pop a r t and t h e r e s t a r e v e r y much p a r t o f the w e s t e r n t r a d i t i o n ; t h e y a r e n o t a d v e n t i t i o u s . U s i n g an a p p r o a c h t h a t d i f f e r e d f r o m Bacon's b u t w i t h n o t d i s s i m i l a r i n t e n t , L u d w i g W i t t g e n s t e i n s e t out t o examine l a n g u a g e m i n u t e l y , t o c o r n e r and c a p t u r e t h e b e a s t s Vagueness and A m b i g u i t y . H i s a t t e m p t i s d e e p l y r e f l e c t i v e and a c h i e v e s a measure o f s u c c e s s on t h e d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l . One o f h i s t h e o r i e s i s c a l l e d "meaning-as-use." I t s m a i n p o i n t i s t h a t meaning i s i n e x t r i c a b l y c o n t e x t - b o u n d , s o m e t h i n g I have a r g u e d above. The second c o n c e i t i s h i s F a m i l y Resemblance t h e o r y , and i t i s so p e r c e p t i v e i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e v a g a r i e s o f l a n g u a g e t h a t i t b e a r s r e p r o d u c i n g h e r e : -10-C o n s i d e r f o r example t h e p r o c e e d i n g s t h a t we c a l l 1 games..' I mean hoard-games, card-games, ©lympic games, and so on. What i s common t o them a l l ? . . . i f y o u l o o k a t them y o u w i l l n o t see s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s common t o a l l , h u t s i m i l a r i t i e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and a whole s e r i e s o f them a t t h a t . ...Are t h e y a l l 'amusing?' Compare c h e s s w i t h n a u g h t s and c r o s s e s . Or i s t h e r e a l w a y s w i n n i n g and l o s i n g , o r c o m p e t i t i o n between p l a y e r s ? T h i n k o f p a t i e n c e . I n b a l l games, t h e r e i s w i n n i n g and l o s i n g ; b u t when a c h i l d t hrows h i s b a l l a t t h e w a l l and c a t c h e s i t a g a i n , t h i s f e a t u r e has d i s -a p p e a r e d . Look a t t h e p a r t s p l a y e d by s k i l l and l u c k ; and a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between s k i l l i n chess^ and s k i l l i n t e n n i s . T h i n k now o f games l i k e r i n g -a - r i n g - a - r o s e s ; h e r e i s t h e element o f amusement, bu t how many o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s have d i s a p p e a r e d ! . . . . t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n i s : we see a c o m p l i c a t e d n e t w o r k o f s i m i l a r i t i e s o v e r -l a p p i n g and c r i s s c r o s s i n g : sometimes o v e r a l l s i m i l a r i t i e s , sometimes s i m i l a r i t i e s o f d e t a i l . I c a n t h i n k o f no b e t t e r e x p r e s s i o n t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a n ' f a m i l y r e s e m b l a n c e s ; * f o r th e v a r i o u s r e s e m b l a n c e s between members o f a f a m i l y : b u i l d , f e a t u r e s , c o l o u r o f e y e s , g a i t , temperament, e t c . , e t c . o v e r l a p and c r i s s - c r o s s i n the same way. (15) T h i s a n a l o g y , though v a s t l y a p p e a l i n g , i s h a r d l y ( o r o n l y 16 m i n i m a l l y ) a " t h e o r y , " as M i c h a e l Simon has p o i n t e d o u t . T h i s because i t has no e x p l a n a t o r y o r p r e d i c t i v e power: i t c a n n o t e x p l a i n why t a g and b o b b i n g f o r a p p l e s a r e games and r u n n i n g a r a c e and f i s h i n g a r e n o t any more t h a n i t c a n e x p l a i n why "we do n o t c a l l r e a d i n g o r w a s h i n g a game." When i t i s t h u s s c r u t i n i z e d , t h e whole f a b r i c o f l a n g u a g e b e g i n s t o l o o k q u i t e d i a p h a n o u s ( t h a t i s n o t t o say "moth-eaten," f o r t h e gau.ziness i s e v e n - t e x t u r e d t h r o u g h o u t ) . I t i s t h i s f i l m i n e s s w h i c h makes l a n g u a g e a n a t u r a l medium f o r p o e t r y : i t p o s i t i v e l y b r e e d s e v o c a t i o n . ) - 1 1 -F i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e t a k e s up t h e s l a c k i n p l a i n s p e e c h , 17 and as Marcus H e s t e r shows, t h e r e i s ample s l a c k t o t a k e up. He a r g u e s t h a t n o t e v e r y t h i n g i n l a n g u a g e i s r u l e -g o v e r n e d , and compares t h e r u l e s o f l a n g u a g e t o t e n n i s r u l e s , w h e r e i n one i s n o t t o l d how h i g h t o t h r o w t h e h a l l when s e r v i n g . W i l d e x c e s s e s i n t h r o w i n g t h e h a l l , a r e b o t h c o n c e i v a b l e and p e r m i s s i b l e i n t e n n i s . The a n a l o g u e i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c s y s t e m t o t h i s freedom w i t h i n a r u l e - g o v e r n e d game i s metaphor, o r f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e . So l a n g u a g e i s r i d d l e d w i t h a r e a s o f i m p r e c i s i o n , and i t i s h e r e t h a t metaphor ( i n i t s b r o a d e s t s e n s e , t h a t o f " f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e " ) grows, a f l o w e r i n t h e c r a n n i e d w a l l . . I t n o t o n l y grows b u t i t l u x u r i a t e s , a c h i e v i n g , i n i t s i m p r e c i s e demesne, a c e r t a i n p r e c i s i o n o f i t s own. There a r e t h r e e ways i n w h i c h t h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d , a l l o f w h i c h p r e f i g u r e s u c c e e d i n g s t a g e s o f my argument, so l e t i t be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t I w i l l d e v e l o p them f u r t h e r l a t e r on. F i r s t , . H e s t e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e " a c c e p t s a l l d a t a on an e q u a l f o o t i n g . " • The h i e r a r c h i e s o f symptoms and c r i t e r i a ( n o t e : see t h e Wenerberg q u o t e , p. 9) t h a t o b t a i n i n t h e r u l e - g o v e r n e d p a r t o f l a n g u a g e do n o t a p p l y h e r e ; an u m b r e l l a and a s e w i n g machine c a n v e r y w e l l come t o g e t h e r and m i s c e g e n a t e on an o p e r a t i n g t a b l e . When a p a r t i c u l a r metaphor compares A and B, -12-A and B c a n be as d i f f e r e n t as n i g h t and day. I n f a c t , a d i f f e r e n c e o f t h a t magnitude would be p i t i a b l y tame i n t h e r e a l m o f metaphor. Second, W e l l e r E m b l e r makes t h e p o i n t t h a t symbols a r e more e x a c t t h a n words. (Here t h e r e a d e r w i l l have t o t a k e i t on f a i t h f o r t h e moment t h a t symbols a r e somehow p a r t o f m e t a p h o r ) . He w r i t e s t h a t "we mayr say t h a t freedom i s s l a v e r y , b u t we may n o t u s e t h e image o f a s e a g u l l i n f u l l c a r e e r a s an emblem o f i m p r i s o n m e n t . " ^ ^ The k e y n o t i o n h e r e i s t h a t f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e has i t s own l o g i c . The terms o f i t s a c c u r a c y , i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and i t s b e a u t y a r e j u d g e d by c r i t e r i a t h a t a r e n o t t h o s e w h i c h judge d i s -c u r s i v e l a n g u a g e . F i n a l l y , S c o t t Buchanan and M a r t i n P o s s , w o r k i n g s e p a r a t e l y , r e a c h t h e p o i n t where t h e y c a n p r o f i t a b l y r e l a t e p o e t r y and m a t h e m a t i c s . I f f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e a d m i t s a l l d a t a on an e q u a l f o o t i n g , t h e s e d a t a c a n be seen t o f u n c t i o n as numbers do i n m a t h e m a t i c s . I n o t h e r words, t h e p o e t i c a r e a o f l a n g u a g e l i c e n s e s any j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f w o r d s , so t h a t words come t o have enormous l a t e n t p o s s i b i -l i t i e s o f u n i o n , j u s t as a number "has as i t s i n t r i n s i c p r i n c i p l e t h e c a p a c i t y o f s t r e t c h i n g beyond i t s e l f and 20 u n i t i n g w i t h - o t h e r s , t e n d i n g t o w a r d a sum." -13-CHAPTER TWO  WHAT IS METAPHOR EXACTLY? E q u i v o c a l R e f e r e n c e I t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o s t o p a t t h i s p o i n t and d e f i n e metaphor p r o v i s i o n a l l y , t o g e t down some k i n d o f s k e l e t a l d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h c a n be f l e s h e d o u t and c l o t h e d i n s u c -c e e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s . To b e g i n w i t h , I wo u l d l i k e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e m e t a p h o r - t h e - t r o p e f r o m t h e sense o f 'metaphor' t h a t means " f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e i n g e n e r a l . " To a v o i d con-': f u s i o n , I w i l l u s e a c a p i t a l "M" whenever I i n t e n d t h e l a t t e r s e n s e . A r i s t o t l e ' s c l a s s i c q u a d r i p a r t i t e d e f i n i t i o n , f o r example, c o n c e r n s c a p i t a l - " M " M e t a p h o r . Small-"m" metaphor, t h e narrow s e n s e , comes unremarked i n t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h s u b - c a t e g o r i e s o f h i s d e f i n i t i o n . (He d i d n o t e x p l i c i t l y make a d i s t i n c t i o n between Met a p h o r and m e t a p h o r ) . H i s t y p o l o g y l i s t s t h e s e t r o p e s : (a) t r o p e i n w h i c h a genus i s compared w i t h i t s s p e c i e s , (b) t r o p e i n w h i c h a. s p e c i e s i s compared w i t h one o f i t s g e n e r a , (c) t r o p e i n w h i c h a s p e c i e s i s compared w i t h a n o t h e r s p e c i e s , and (d) a t r o p e t h a t makes an a n a l o g y . Types (a) and (b) a r e metonymy and synecdoche r e s p e c t i v e l y , whose w o r k i n g s a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n g e n u o u s n e x t t o t h e k i n d o f p r o d i g i o u s n e s s t h a t metaphor i s c a p a b l e o f . The scope o f t h i s p a p e r , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l n o t i n c l u d e them. -14-The n a r r o w sense o f t h e t e r m , small-"m" metaphor, r e f e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r f i g u r e o f s p e e c h , so t h a t i n d i v i -d u a l i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s usage a r e o f t e n f o u n d p r e f a c e d w i t h " t h e " o r " a . " S i m p l e r , l e s s m a s t e r f u l metaphors a r e t h o s e , t h a t A r i s t o t l e d e s c r i b e s a s b e i n g s p e c i e s - t o - s p e c i e s c:om-21 p a r i s o n s . As H e n l e e x p l a i n s , t h e y remark "mere q u a l i t a -t i v e s i m i l a r i t y between two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e same t h i n g . " As an i l l u s t r a t i o n , H e n l e g i v e s t h e a c t o f r e f e r r i n g t o a s l y p e r s o n as an " o l d f o x . " (Some w r i t e r s r e f e r t o t h i s t y p e o f metaphor as e l i d e d s i m i l e s i n c e i t i s a s i m p l e c o m p a r i s o n s t a t e d i m p l i c i t l y w i t h t h e c o p u l a ) . M e t a p h o r s i n v o l v i n g a n a l o g y ( w i t h w h i c h t h i s s t u d y i s e x c l u s i v e l y c o n c e r n e d ) c o m p r i s e a l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon w o r t h y o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . They a r e t h e v i r t u o s o s o f t h e t r o p e s , and a r e c a p a b l e , w i t h i n t h e compass o f a few w ords, o f g r e a t c o g n i t i v e coups and i n t e l l e c t u a l b o u l e v e r s e m e n t s . H e n l e c h a r a c t e r i z e s a n a l o g i c a l metaphors as t h o s e t h a t p r e s e n t two d i s t i n c t s i t u a t i o n s , w i t h one u n d e r s t o o d i n t e r m s o f t h e o t h e r . H i s example, f r o m K e a t s , i s When by my s o l i t a r y h e a r t h I s i t , And h a t e f u l t h o u g h t s enwrap my s o u l i n gloom,... where t h e p o e t d e v e l o p s " h a t e f u l t h o u g h t s " i n terms o f a c l o a k o r b l a n k e t . T h i s i s done r i g h t u n d e r the r e a d e r ' s '2.c n o s e . Y e t I.A. R i c h a r d s has remarked on t h e " s u r r e p t i t i o u s " ' -15-n a t u r e o f s u c h a metaphor, because (a) i t i s i n no way s y n t a c t i c a l l y d e v i a n t , and (b) t h e m e c h a n i c s o f i t s a r e q u i t e s u b t l e . C l o a k s o r b l a n k e t s a r e n o t even m e n t i o n e d , 23 e n a b l i n g a c o n c e p t u a l d i s l o d g e m e n t t o be p e r p e t r a t e d l i k e a f e a t o f l e g e r d e m a i n . M e t a p h o r s o f t h i s t y p e f a i r l y 24 r e v e r b e r a t e w i t h t h e t e n s i o n o f t h e i r s t e r e o s c o p i c ; a c h i e v e m e n t , o f w h i c h more l a t e r . ( N o t e : See C h a p t e r F i v e ) . W.H. L e a t h e r d a l e o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f two s i t u a t i o n s i n a metaphor i s e s s e n t i a l l y a m i x i n g 25 o f c o n t e x t s , a n o t i o n t h a t seems v e r y r e a s o n a b l e i n l i g h t o f t h e f i e l d o f c o n n o t a t i o n s ( f a m i l y r e s e m b l a n c e s ) t h a t e a c h term b r i n g s w i t h i t . What t h e metaphor does i s t o 26 s e l e c t t h e r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e two terms b e i n g com-p a r e d , so t h a t two v a s t and m u l t i p l e x i d e a s a r e m o m e n t a r i l y wedded* a t one p o i n t . A Venn d i a g r a m w o u l d s c h e m a t i c a l l y c a p t u r e t h i s t a n g e n t i a l m e e t i n g : The B a s i s f o r a M e t a p h o r Thus, when a p o e t e x a l t s t h e r o s e s i n h i s l a d y ' s c h e eks^ r o s e s a r e b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e i r " f r a g r a n c e , p i n k n e s s *One w r i t e r c a l l s t h e e n c o u n t e r a " g l a n c i n g o s c u l a t i o n . „ 27 -16-28 and s o f t n e s s ; " t h e i r t h o r n i n e s s , l e a f i n e s s and yellowness are d e c i d e d l y not r e l e v a n t aspects. Imagery, then, i s a p a r t of metaphor, though j u s t how much of i t i s p u r e l y v i s u a l i s a bone of c o n t e n t i o n 29 among p h i l o s o p h e r s , as W i l k i n s o n has demonstrated. The s e l e c t i o n of r e l e v a n t aspects t o be compared seems to hone the vague and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d mental image, l i k e the metamorphic t r e e of page ( 2 ) . While most w r i t e r s on metaphor p r e f e r to suppress i n t i m a t i o n s t h a t i t s i m a g i s t i c p a r t i s v i s u a l , Marcus Hester b e l i e v e s t h a t even a simple comparison l i k e 'I wandered l o n e l y as a c l o u d ' has a q u a s i -v i s u a l element. He says t h a t "one has to see the poet's 30 wandering as a cloud's journey."' He goes on to show t h a t seeing-as i s an a b i l i t y t h a t i s to l i t e r a t u r e as o r d i n a r y s e e i n g i s to the n a t u r a l w o r l d , something t h a t one has to be f i t t e d out w i t h to make one's way. A l a c k of the commo-d i t y — l i k e a t i n ear i n m u s i c — h e c a l l s "aspect b l i n d n e s s . " There i s good sense i n t h i s view of H e s t e r ' s , s i n c e , as Leonard Angel has shown i n h i s " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s of Metaphor," metaphors are r a r e l y marked by s p e c i a l ( o r deviant) syntax. Rather, they are recognized only by t h e i r 31 l i t e r a l f a l s e n e s s . That i s , i f a phrase does not seem to read r i g h t , u n l e s s i t i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y absurd, one can be f a i r l y sure t h a t i t i s a metaphor, and i s not to be decoded -17-l i t e r a l l y by t h e r e a d e r . . A f i g u r a t i v e r e a d i n g means, t o o , t h a t t h e metaphor i s t o be judged" on i t s own grounds and i s n o t t o be v e r i f i e d e x t e r n a l l y . I n t h i s way, t h e onus i s on t h e r e a d e r o f l i t e r a t u r e t o d i s c o v e r t h e metaphors t h a t a r e b i v o u a c k e d i n t h e l i t e r a l l a n g u a g e and t o m o b i l i z e h i s s e e i n g - a s f a c u l t y f o r t h e i r a p p r e h e n s i o n . * A s t u t e n e s s on h i s p a r t i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e , b ecause as L e a t h e r d a l e r i g h t l y p o i n t s o u t , " a n a l o g i c a l a c t s by t h e i r n a t u r e a r e n o t l i k e l y t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h o b v i o u s 32 r e s e m b l a n c e s . " T h i s b r i n g s , me d i r e c t l y t o the. p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e good and bad m e t a p h o r s . I n f a c t , t h e l e s s o b v i o u s t h e r e s e m b l a n c e s t h a t a r e b r o u g h t t o l i g h t , t he more m a s t e r f u l and " b e t t e r " t h e metaphor. M e t a p h o r s t h a t a r e b a s e d on a te r m ' s s t a p l e c o n n o t a t i o n s ( l e a f i n e s s , s h a d i n e s s : and t a l l n e s s o f ' t r e e , ' f o r i n s t a n c e ) w i l l be l a c k l u s t r e i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h o s e t h a t e x p l o i t i t s more r e c h e r c h e s e n s e s . The f o r m e r metaphors seem b l a n d and d a n g e r o u s l y n e a r - l i t e r a l — 'moon p e e p i n g f r o m b e h i n d a c l o u d ' i s t h e example g i v e n by 33 B e a r d s l e y . Good m e t a p h o r s , on t h e o t h e r hand, seem t o s a y more about t h e i r o b j e c t s and t o s a y i t more p r e c i s e l y : B e a r d s l e y g i v e s ' i n c o n s t a n t moon' as an example. What i s more, the more " s u r r e p t i t i o u s " t h e a n a l o g i c a l coup, t h e b e t t e r 34 t h e metaphor, w r i t e s C h r i s t i n e B r o o k e - R o s e , who s u b m i t s as e x e m p l a r y S h a k e s p e a r e ' s metaphor 'Thy l u s t r e t h i c k e n s ' * s t a l k i n g t h e w i l y metaphor? -18-and D y l a n Thomas's *The wagging c l o c k . ' She s e e s them as e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e because t h e y t r a n s f e r meaning f r o m one s p h e r e t o a n o t h e r s w i f t l y , c o m p l e t e l y and w i t h t h e p o e t ' s agency nowhere i n e v i d e n c e . M e t a p h o r s t h e m s e l v e s c a n be v i e w e d as ephemera whose l i v e s have t h r e e s t a g e s . I n t h e f i r s t s t a g e , t h e y shock w i t h t h e i r u n c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y . The d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d image, so b a l d l y s t a t e d , smarts w i t h newness. (The word ' s k y s c r a p e r , ' when i t was f i r s t u s e d , had t h i s e f f e c t . ) Second, t h e y a r e a c c e p t e d , and t h e c o m p a r i s o n has a momentary t r i u m p h . The d i f f e r e n c e i n k i n d w h i c h t h e y p r e s e n t ( l i k e D e s c a r t e s ' body-machine a n a l o g y ) i s b a n d i e d about and g l o r i e d i n . M o r i b u n d i t y i s t h e t h i r d s t a g e , where t h e image's f r e s h n e s s f a d e s f r o m a d i f f e r e n c e i n k i n d t o one o f d e g r e e . One m i g h t , f o r i n s t a n c e , h e a r t h a t " t h e body i s m e r e l y a machine." D e s c a r t e s ' f i g u r e h e r e i s a t a l o w ebb, v o i d o f a l l shock 35 v a l u e . - H e n l e e x p l a i n s a metaphor's s l o w d e a t h i n t h i s way: ...where metaphor i s u s e d t o e x t e n d l a n g u a g e [ e . g . • s k y s c r a p e r ' J , t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p r i m a r y c l a s h o f s e n s e s p r o d u c e s a l i t e r a l sense [as i n ' t a b l e - l e g 1 J . I n metaphors o f t h e more p o e t i c t y p e , s o m e t h i n g o f t h e same s o r t may go on, r e s u l t i n g i n a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d f i g u r a t i v e sfense o f a t e r m and a t r i t e metaphor. (36) -19 -CHAPTER THREE  METAPHOR SEEN AS UNORTHODOX PLAY WITHIN THE SYSTEM N o r t h r o p F r y e has w r i t t e n t h a t "we have no r e a l s t a n d a r d s t o d i s t i n g u i s h a v e r b a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s 3 7 l i t e r a r y f r o m 6he t h a t i s n o t . " I c a n be l e s s d i f f i d e n t a b out t h e m a t t e r , I t h i n k , by e m p l o y i n g H e s t e r ' s a p p e a l i n g a n a l o g y o f t h e t e n n i s - s e r v e . P o r i n l a n g u a g e , as i n t e n n i s , t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n a r e a — t h e l i t e r a r y o r p o e t i c — w h e r e no o b l i g a t o r y r u l e s o b t a i n . L a c k o f r u l e s , as was n o t e d - e a r l i e r , a l m o s t i n v i t e s w i l d abandon i n t h e use o f a s y s t e m . The r u l e s o f l a n g u a g e , l i k e t h o s e o f most s y s t e m s , a r e f l o u t a b l e , r i f e w i t h l o o p h o l e s and C a t c h - 2 2 ' s . T h e i r v e r y e x i s t e n c e i m p l i c i t l y condones u n o r t h o d o x p l a y by anyone who would use them c r e a t i v e l y . As W h e e l w r i g h t p u t i t , l i t e r a l l a n g u a g e TO i s a "must," w h i l e M e t a p h o r i s a "can" and a "may." The l o o p h o l e s i n l a n g u a g e r u l e s — w h e t h e r t h e s e r u l e s be c o n c e i v e d a s p r e s c r i p t i v e , s t r u c t u r a l o r g e n e r a t i v e e n t i t i e s — f o r m a h a v e n f o r f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e . On t h e one hand, t h e r u l e s o f l a n g u a g e have no j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r word c h o i c e i n metaphor, b u t on t h e o t h e r , m e t a p h o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e s r a r e l y v i o l a t e t h e r u l e s o f s y n t a x . The i n v i o l a b i l i t y o f t h e freedom t h a t l a n g u a g e a f f o r d s i n i t s l i t e r a r y s p h e r e i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e freedom t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s dreams and j o k e s . W r i t i n g on humour, P r e u d showed t h a t though l i f e i s supposed t o be s e r i o u s • -20-b u s i n e s s , dreams and j o k e s e x i s t t o g i v e v e n t t o our f a n c y . I n dreams, images and s i t u a t i o n s h a p p i l y r u n r i o t , and t h e j o k e i s a s i m i l a r k i n d o f sanctum, where w o r d - p l a y c a n be 3 9 i n d u l g e d w i t h o u t / f e a r o f " b e i n g done away by c r i t i c i s m . " M e t a p h o r c a n be added t o t h e dream and j o k e phenomena as a n o t h e r f r e e - z o n e o f human e x i s t e n c e , a p o c k e t i n l a n g u a g e us e where o u t r a g e o u s n e s s i n e ncouraged w i t h o u t f e a r o f r e p r i s a l s . Brooke-Rose acknowledges t h i s p o e t i c f i a t when she s a y s , " P o e t i c a l l y , a n y t h i n g may be c a l l e d any number o f 40 d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . " ! There i s p l e a s u r e t o be had i n s u c h u n o r t h o d o x p l a y , and i t i s a t e m p t a t i o n n o t t o t r y f o r g r a n d i o s e e f f e c t s when p l a y i n g w i t h w ords. K e n n e t h Burke s a y s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t "one m i g h t , w i t h o u t ' d e m o r a l i z a t i o n , ' even b r i n g t h i n g s t o a p o i n t where, i n e f f e c t , terms f o r t h e l o a t h e s o m e c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o a most a d m i r a b l e p e r s o n , and v i c e v e r s a . " W i t h i n s i g h t t h a t i s t r u l y w o n d e r f u l , B u rke goes on t o show t h a t C h r i s t , , i n h i s Sermon on t h e Mount, was p a s t m a s t e r o f t h i s s o r t o f l i c e n s e d t r a n s -s u b s t a n t i a t i o n :: He o f f e r s a b a s i c c o n v e r s i o n c o n c e p t f o r a t o t a l t r a n s v a l u a t i o n o f v a l u e s whereby t h e s i g n s o f p o v e r t y were r e i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e s i g n s o f w e a l t h , t h e s i g n s o f hunger as t h e s i g n s o f f u l l n e s s , and p r e s e n t w e e p i n g was c h a r a c t e r i z e d u n m i s t a k a b l y as t h e f i r s t symptom • o f subsequent d e l i g h t . , (41) -21-C o n c e p t u a l d i s l o d g e m e n t , t h e n , i s h i g h l y v a l u e d i n l i t e r a t u r e even as i t i s u n d e r o p p r o b r i u m i n p l a i n s p e e c h . Samuel L e v i n , who t o o k on t h e t h a n k l e s s and f r u i t -42 l e s s t a s k o f w r i t i n g a grammar f o r p o e t r y had t o a d m i t t h a t p o e t r y c a n and must f r u s t r a t e t h e r e a d e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . (The c o n s t a n t s u r p r i s e s i n p o e t r y make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e a p r e d i c t i v e grammar). I t i s t h i s f o i l i n g o f e x p e c -t a t i o n s t h a t s a v e s p o e t r y f r o m t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f a d v e r t i s i n g j i n g l e s , i n f a c t . The e x i s t e n c e o f a s y s t e m a t i c and r u l e - g o v e r n e d e v e r y d a y l a n g u a g e i s what makes p o e t r y p o s s i b l e , a s Owen Thomas n o t e d when he w r o t e , " . . . i f t h e r e were no s y s t e m , i f l a n g u a g e were m e r e l y c h a o t i c , t h e n t h e r e c o u l d be no n o v e l t y . " Thomas goes on t o show t h a t M e t a p h o r i s , i n f a c t , a d e l i b e -r a t e f l o u t i n g o f l a n g u a g e r u l e s , an i n t e n t i o n a l v i o l a t i o n o f t h e system. Such v i o l a t i o n s t a k e two f o r m s , t h a t o f f o r m a l v i o l a t i o n ( " p a r a d i g m a t i c " e r r o r , i n L e v i n ' s t e r m i n o -l o g y ) and c o n t e x t u a l "mistakes" ;i..(.,"syntagmatic.") F o r m a l v i o l a t i o n i s t h e s t o c k - i n - t r a d e o f M e t a p h o r , and i n v o l v e s t h e d e l i b e r a t e d i s r e g a r d i n g o f a noun's taxonomic f e a t u r e s . Thus, a noun t h a t i s marked [j-an:Lma"fce3 m a v D Q t r e a t e d as i f i t were animate i n p o e t r y . The v i o l a t i o n c r e a t e d i s masked by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e metaphor o t h e r w i s e l o o k s l i k e a l i t e r a l s t a t e m e n t o f the f o r m "A i s B," w h i c h makes t h e i n t e n t i o n a l m i s u s e a l l t h e more j a r r i n g . Thomas g i v e s as -22-an example E m i l y D i c k i n s o n ' s f i g u r e 'Shame i s t h e Shawl o f P i n k . 1 (The n a t u r e o f t h e c o m p a r i s o n i s , a g a i n , t a n g e n t i a l . ; t h a t i s , shame i s l i k e a s h a w l o n l y i n one o f i t s a s p e c t s — i t s e n v e l o p i n g a s p e c t — a n d i t s o t h e r f e a t u r e s a r e p a s s e d o v e r . He g i v e s f o r c o m p a r i s o n t h e l i t e r a l s e n t e n c e 'John JJones i s a f i s h e r m a n , ' where t r a n s f e r e n c e i s c o m p l e t e . . . 1 1 ' J o h n J o n e s ' p r e s u m a b l y has a l l t h e f e a t u r e s o f ' f i s h e r m a n . ' " ) D e l i b e r a t e c o n t e x t u a l v i o l a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s "a more s u b t l e way o f t r a n s f e r r i n g i n c o m p a t i b l e f e a t u r e s . e.e. cummings' l i n e 'he sang h i s d i d n ' t and he danced h i s d i d ' shows two d e g r e e s o f L e v i n ' s c o n t e x t u a l v i o l a t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , 'sang' and 'danced 1 a r e u s e d t r a n s i t i v e l y where i n t r a n s i t i v e use i s much more common. Thomas c h a r a c -44 t e r i z e s t h i s as a " v i o l a t i o n o f s u b - c a t e g o r y f e a t u r e s . " The i n t r u s i o n o f t h e words ' d i d n ' t ' and ' d i d ' i s a l t o g e t h e r more f l a g r a n t , and he c o n s i d e r s i t t o v i o l a t e m a j o r -c a t e g o r y f e a t u r e s . The p o e t , i n e f f e c t , f o r s a k e s t h e p a r a digms o f a d m i s s i b l e words f o r t h e two d i r e c t - o b j e c t s l o t s , and chooses words f r o m a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p a r a d i g m . A l t h o u g h d i s r e g a r d f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l l a n g u a g e - r u l e s i s abun-d a n t h e r e , Thomas i n s i s t s t h a t " c o n t e x t u a l v i o l a t i o n i s c l o s e r t o c o m p l e t e g r a m m a t i c a l i t y t h a n f o r m a l v i o l a t i o n - . . " The cummings l i n e does i n f a c t s c a n v e r y w e l l . Small-"m" metaphor, t h e n , i s a g r e a t e x p l o i t e r o f e x i s t i n g l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s . F o r m a l v i o l a t i o n s a l l o w -23-i t t o expand p h e n o m e n a l l y t h e t y p e s o f n o m i n a l s t h a t c a n f l a n k t h e v e r b " t o be," so t h a t t h e f o m u l a "A i s B" comes t o have an i n f i n i t e number o f p o s s i b l e r e a l i z a t i o n s . Con-t e x t u a l v i o l a t i o n s , i n t h a t t h e y c a n o c c u r anywhere i n t h e f a b r i c o f l a n g u a g e , a d m i t an even g r e a t e r amount o f n o v e l t y . I.A. R i c h a r d s t r i e d t o c o r r e c t t h e v i e w t h a t f i g u -r a t i v e l a n g u a g e , because o f t h e way i t v i o l a t e s r u l e s , i s a " d e v i a n t " c a s e o f l a n g u a g e u s e . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t p l a i n s p e e c h c o u l d e q u a l l y w e l l be v i e w e d as d e v i a n t and M e t a p h o r 45 as t h e s t a n d a r d . (There i s a l w a y s s u c h a c l i i c k e n - a n d -egg paradox p r e s e n t when t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a l and t h e f i g u r a t i v e a r e c o n s i d e r e d . F o r a l t h o u g h I s u g g e s t e d on page (11) t h a t M e t a p h o r t a k e s up t h e s l a c k i n l i t e r a l l a n g u a g e , t h e r e v e r s e c o u l d be a r g u e d c o n v i n c i n g l y , t o o ) . B u t I p r e f e r t h e i d e a t h a t M e t a p h o r i s a s o r t o f p r o t e c -t o r a t e w i t h i n l a n g u a g e where u n o r t h o d o x c o n d u c t i s p e r m i s s i b l e , i f o n l y f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t o r i g i n a l metaphors i n t h e f i r s t and second phases o f t h e i r l i f e - c y c l e a r e r a r e i n s p e e c h , and s p e e c h i s t h e l i n g u i s t ' s main c o n c e r n . The n o v e l metaphor r e s i d e s i n l i t e r a t u r e , w h i c h i s , a f t e r a l l , a s p e c i a l i n s t a n c e o f l a n g u a g e u s e , one where words a r e p l a s t i c and m a l l e a b l e f o r t h e cause o f a r t . G i v e n f i g u r a t i v e and l i t e r a l meaning, i f one c a n be v i e w e d as an epiphenomenon o f t h e o t h e r , i t i s t o t h e l i n g u i s t ' s a d v a ntage t o v i e w t h e l i t e r a l as p r i m a r y and t h e m e t a p h o r i c a s s e c o n d a r y . I do n o t mean t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s i s any-t h i n g more t h a n e x p e d i e n t , however. -24-D i s c u r s i v e l a n g u a g e i s a g i v e n s y s t e m . B u r k e shows t h a t one c a n a t t e m p t u n o r t h o d o x p l a y w i t h i n t h e s ystem by p r a c t i s i n g e i t h e r f u s i o n ("the m e t h o d i c merger o f p a r -t i c l e s t h a t had been c o n s i d e r e d m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e " ) o r f i s s i o n ("the m e t h o d i c b l a s t i n g a p a r t o f . . v e r b a l p a r t i c l e s t h a t had been c o n s i d e r e d i n s e p a r a b l e . " ) \ - M e t a p h o r d e l i g h t s i n f u s i o n , b u t Brooke-Rose shows t h a t i t i s a l s o c a p a b l e o f f i s s i o n . I n h e r e x h a u s t i v e t y p o l o g y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t gram-m a t i c a l shapes metaphors c a n t a k e , she i s o l a t e s ; ' a t y p e w h i c h she c a l l s P u r e A t t r i b u t i o n . A P u r e A t t r i b u t i o n metaphor " e x p r e s s e s a somewhat a r t i f i c i a l s p l i t o f one 47 i d e a i n t o two terms w h i c h a r e b a s i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l . " Thus, a metaphor l i k e 'the eyes o f t h e h e a r t ' does n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e h e a r t has e y e s , b u t t h a t i t j l s e y e s , eyes and h e a r t b e i n g two m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f a g e n e r a l i z e d s e e i n g a b i l i t y . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , t h e two terms o f t h e metaphor a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a t a l i t e r a l r e a d i n g w o u l d produce an a b s u r d i t y . M e t a p h o r s o f f u s i o n f a r outnumber t h o s e o f f i s s i o n and s u c c e e d i n m e r g i n g m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e p a r t i c l e s , a phenomenon B r i t i s h l i n g u i s t s have named C o l l o c a t i o n . T h e i r n o t i o n i s t h a t words l i k e ' w h i t e ' and 'snow* have a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o l l o c a t i o n . S i n c e t h e i r g o a l i s t o f r u s -t r a t e t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s , p o e t s t e n d t o merge words whose c o l l o c a t i o n p o t e n t i a l i s l o w , l i k e ' p u g i l i s t ' and ' b i c y c l e . ' W i t h s h o r t , commonly u s e d words, the p r o b i t y o f p o e t s i s d i s a r m i n g , as E m b l e r p o i n t s o u t : - 2 5 -P o e t s seldom...use s u c h words as ' h i g h , 1 'low,' 'up,' 'down,' ' s m a l l , ' ' s t r o n g , ' 'weak, 1 e t c . i n t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l s e n s e s we have been d i s -c u s s i n g . They m o s t l y use t h e s e words o n l y i n t h e i r l i t e r a l s e n s e , as t h o u g h t h a t were t h e o n l y p r o p e r way t o use them;;; as metaphors t h e y a r e e i t h e r t o o vague o r empty o r u n c o m m u n i c a t i v e on t h e p o e t i c l e v e l . I n d e e d , t h e p o e t ' s s t r e n g t h comes f r o m h i s v e r y c a r e f u l and e x a c t use o f t h e l i t e r a l and c o n c r e t e meanings o f words... ($8-.) C o l l o c a t i o n p o t e n t i a l c a n , i n a d d i t i o n , he v i e w e d as a c o n t i n u u m , w i t h some forms more "normal"-'and o t h e r s more 49 " d e v i a n t . " An example i s t h e a r r a y b r o a d s m i l e f r e e s m i l e damp s m i l e h i g h s m i l e where 'broad s m i l e ' r e p r e s e n t s t h e most n o r m a l c o l l o c a t i o n and ' h i g h s m i l e ' t h e most d e v i a n t . T h i s c h a p t e r about u n o r t h o d o x p l a y has f i n a l l y t o a s k t h e q u e s t i o n , " I s t h e r e any p l a y w i t h l a n g u a g e t h a t i s t o o u n o r t h o d o x ? " I t h i n k n o t . F o r p r o v i d e d a metaphor co n f o r m s t o t h e s y n t a c t i c r u l e s o f a l a n g u a g e , w h a t e v e r two c o n c e p t s i t chooses t o c o l l o c a t e a r e a d m i s s i b l e . That i s , any n o m i n a l - c o p u l a - n o m i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a l l o w e d once i t i s known t o be a metaphor. The w r i t e r s I examined d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h i s , b u t r a t h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e was some s o r t o f a c u t - o f f p o i n t a t w h i c h metaphors c e a s e d t o be a c c e p t a b l e and became p r e p o s t e r o u s . Thomas, f o r i n s t a n c e , c i t e d 'The Grand Canyon i s a saxophone' as a p r e p o s t e r o u s metaphor, and f e l t i t t o be o u t r e because t h e b a s i s f o r t h e a n a l o g y made i s v e r y s l i g h t . I t ought t o be p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t - 2 6 -t h e r e i s a l w a y s some b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i n g two t h i n g s , even i f , as i n t h i s c a s e , a l l t h a t i m m e d i a t e l y meets t h e eye i s t h a t t h e t h i n g s a r e [- a n i m a t e ] . I n metaphor, t h i s i s enough. Any w r i t e r who f e e l s t h e r e t o be s u c h a s i m i l a r i t y c a n i n s t a n t l y c r e a t e a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h a s e e m i n g l y p r e -p o s t e r o u s c o m p a r i s o n becomes p l a u s i b l e . O t h e r a u t h o r s e x p r e s s e d f e a r s t h a t metaphor c o u l d go t o o f a r , b u t t h e s e f e a r s c a n a l s o be d i s m i s s e d as bogus. H e s t e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t metaphor c o u l d p o s s i b l e l i c e n s e 50 " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n , " b u t he added t h a t " o n l y an e x t r e m e l y vague' o r nonsense metaphor w i l l a l l o w f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n . " A c c o r d i n g t o my argument, a metaphor i s o n l y vague when t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o n t e x t i s i n a d e q u a t e t o s u p p o r t i t . G i v e n an a p p r o p r i a t e l y r i c h c o n t e x t , no metaphor i s n o n s e n s i c a l . CHAPTER FOUR METAPHOR AND DREAMS I have made t h e c l a i m t h a t f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e and dreams have s o m e t h i n g i n common i n b e i n g p r e s e r v e s f r o m t h e m e a t - a n d - p o t a t o e s w o r l d where l i f e i s s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s . I have a r g u e d t h a t t h e dream, t h e metaphor and t h e j o k e l e n d l e g i t i m a c y t o b e h a v i o u r t h a t i s n o t r u l e - g o v e r n e d . Whatever i s n o t a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e " r e a l " w o r l d i s p r o t e c t e d , f r o m c r i t i c i s m t h e r e , as F r e u d w r o t e . So i f s o c i e t y i s k e p t i n l i n e by t h e t i m e - s p a c e c o n t i n u u m , dreams and j o k e s a r e l i k e warps where t h e r e i s n e i t h e r t i m e n o r sp a c e . I t f o l l o w s t h a t dream and j o k e l o g i c i s s o m e t h i n g u n t o i t s e l f , and i s n o t t h e t e m p o r a l , s p a t i a l l o g i c o f q u o t i d i a n r e a l i t y . ( T h i n k o f t h e f r e q u e n t u n e x p l a i n e d changes o f scene t h a t o c c u r i n dreams a b r u p t l y o r even v i o l e n t l y w h i l e t h e a c t i o n p l a c i d l y c o n t i n u e s t o u n r o l l ) . M e t a p h o r i s a s i m i l a r p r o t e c t o r a t e — n o t s t r i c t l y f r o m t h e t i m e - s p a c e c o n t i n u u m , b u t f r o m t h e i n e x o r a b l e w o r k i n g s o f l a n g u a g e — a mechanism w h i c h i s n o r m a l l y as p r e d i c t a b l e as c l o c k w o r k . F o r g e n e r a t i v e t h e o r y has shown t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g a r c a n e a b o u t l a n g u a g e ; i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e f a c t , t h a t i t o p e r a t e s by r u l e . E v e n i f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l model o f l a n g u a g e does n o t d u p l i c a t e t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e b r a i n , i t i s so e x p l a n a t o r y o f the p r o c e s s o f s p e a k i n g t h a t i t m i g h t as w e l l be t h e t r u t h . ( I n t h e same way, sound i s -28-more t h a n a d e q u a t e l y v i s u a l i z a b l e i n terms o f v i b r a t i o n s . Though sound' i s i n f a c t n o t a m a t t e r o f v i b r a t i o n s , t h e • metaphor commonly u s e d i s so c o m p e l l i n g t h a t i t s u p p l a n t s 51. t h e r e a l i t y . ) G r a n t e d , metaphors and j o k e s a r e more l a n g u a g e -bound t h a n dreams, b u t i t must be remembered t h a t r e a l i t y i s l i k e an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b o l u s o f e x p e r i e n c e ; t h e l i n g u i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e c a n n o t be c l e a n l y winnowed o u t f r o m t h e n o n - l i n g u i s t i c . As I q u o t e d Terence Hawkes e a r l i e r , i t must be remembered t h a t "language and e x p e r i e n c e " a r e " f u n d a m e n t a l l y i m p l i c a t e d w i t h each o t h e r t o an e x t e n t t h a t makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n s i d e r them as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s . " A l s o , Edward S a p i r has s a i d t h a t r e a l i t y i s " s a t u r a t e d w i t h 52 v e r b a l i s m . " - ' I adduce t h i s e v i d e n c e t o c l a i m t h a t what i s t r u e f o r dreams (-that i s , s u s p e n s i o n o f the t i m e - s p a c e continuum) can v e r y w e l l be t r u e f o r m e t a p h o r s , even though dreams a r e p r i m a r i l y v i s u a l and metaphors p r i m a r i l y v e r b a l . F o r one t h i n g , t h e dream i s n o t e n t i r e l y a m a t t e r o f i magery. I t i s v e r b a l as w e l l , w i t h dream words o r s e n t e n c e s b e i n g e v e r y b i t as skewed f r o m t h e Normal as the v i s u a l imagery i s . By t h e same t o k e n , t h e n , I s u b m i t t h a t i n M e t a p h o r t h e t i m e - s p a c e c o n t i n u u m i s as d y s f u n c t i o n a l as i t i s i n dreams and j o k e s , and t h a t a metaphor i n t h i s sense works l i k e a dream. A metaphor's l o g i c need n o t be a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m A t o B t o C, b u t i s r a t h e r a random d i p -29-i n t o a " s t r e a m o f e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h i s u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d as t o w h e t h e r i t s c o n t e n t s a r e p e r c e i v e d o r i m a g i n e d , f a c t o r 53 f a n c y . , : ( T h i s c a l l ' s hack t o mind the s t a t e m e n t t h a t i n m e t a p h o r i c a l l a n g u a g e , a l l d a t a a r e a c c e p t e d on an e q u a l f o o t i n g ) . N o r t h r o p F r y e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e o f p o e t r y r e s e m b l e d t h e dream i n more ways t h a n one, t h a t t h e r e i s more t h e r e t h a n i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o c r i t i c i s m . He d e s c r i b e d t h e poem as a "rounded sensuous o b j e c t . . . h a v i n g s o u n d - l i n k s , ambiguous s e n s e - l i n k s and m e m o r y - l i n k s v e r y much l i k e t h a t 54 o f t h e dream." Whether one d e a l s w i t h poems, w i t h f i g u r a -t i v e l a n g u a g e i n g e n e r a l o r w i t h small-^m" metaphor, th e sensuous r o u n d n e s s , s o u n d - l i n k s , s e n s e - l i n k s and memory-l i n k s so g l i b l y enumerated a r e w o r l d s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e m s e l v e s . I w i l l d i s c u s s t h e i t e m s s e p a r a t e l y and a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h . "Rounded Sensuous O b j e c t " : A l t h o u g h t h e purpose o f l a n -guage i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s n o t t h e avowed p r i m a r y g o a l o f M e t aphor. I t i s p l a i n s peech ( o r , d i s c u r -s i v e l a n g u a g e ) t h a t t e l l s p e r s o n X what p e r s o n Y had f o r b r e a k f a s t t h i s m o r n i n g , and t h e u t t e r a n c e — t h e C o m m u n i c a t i o n -i s dead as soon as spoke. As V a l e r y has w r i t t e n , " l i t e r a l 55 l a n g u a g e i s happy t o d i e a f t e r i t s sense i s t r a n s m i t t e d . " M e t a p h o r , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s s l o w e r t o d i e . S i n c e i t i s a more " a r t i s t i c " u se o f l a n g u a g e , w i t h a -30-component o f imagery ("sensuous") and even o f s y m b o l i s m , i t i s t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l ("rounded") and l i v e s on. So a l t h o u g h M e t a p h o r communicates, t h e meaning i t p a c k s i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f p l a i n s p e e c h , b e i n g a more p e r s o n a l s o r t o f s u p e r - c h a r g e d meaning. S o u n d - l i n k s : The sound l i n k s i n f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e a r e a f u n c t i o n o f t h e freedom o f w o r d - s e l e c t i o n t h a t i s a l l o w e d i n t h e p o e t i c p r o t e c t o r a t e . Language c a n be u s e d much more c a p r i c i o u s l y when one i s s p e a k i n g f i g u r a t i v e l y , and t h e sounds o f t h e words t h e m s e l v e s c a n be d e l i g h t e d i n and p l a y e d w i t h . (One t h i n k s o f Henry M i l l e r i n t h i s r e g a r d , and h i s d e l i g h t i n words l i k e ' o r g a n z a ' and 'bombazine'. S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , t h e words d e s c r i b e women's d r e s s - y a r d a g e , b u t t o h i m t h e y sound o r g i a s t i c and b o m b a s t i c ) . Sound c a n even be more i m p o r t a n t t h a n sense i n t h e w o r d - s e l e c t i o n . What r e s u l t s i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t s t r i c t l i t e r a l meaning, bu t c l e a r l y , l i t e r a l meaning i s n o t what i s wanted i n Me t a p h o r . Ambiguous S e n s e - L i n k s : The l i n k s i n a metaphor's s e n s e — i t s l o g i c , t h a t i s - - a r e ambiguous f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , metaphors compare two t h i n g s o r s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r e o n l y d i m l y f e l t t o be s i m i l a r . O f t e n t h e p o i n t s o f l i k e n e s s a r e p r e c i p i t o u s l y n arrow ( a s i n Thomas's " p r e p o s t e r o u s " metaphor) and t h e f i g u r e t h r e a t e n s t o t o p p l e f r o m s h e e r t e n u o u s n e s s . The b a s i s f o r f e l t s i m i l a r i t y c a n be h i g h l y p e r s o n a l , r e s i d i n g i n one 56 p e r s o n ' s p r i v a t e code o f e x p e r i e n c e . D o u g l a s B e r g g r e n n o t e d t h i s p r i v a t e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e when he w r o t e about the " p e r s o n a l image o f a g i v e n p o e t o r a r t i s t , " c i t i n g t he e l o n g a t e d f i g u r e s o f E l G-reco as an example o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r i z e d f o r m an a r t i s t ' s e x p r e s s i o n may t a k e . ( I would add t h e d e a t h - b i a s o f S y l v i a P l a t h as a l i t e r a r y example. I n h e r p o e t r y and h e r p r o s e , she saw even t h e most l i f e - i m b u e d r e a l i t y as h o p e l e s s l y d e a t h l y ) . B u t even as t h e " v i v i d l y s t r e a m i n g p r e s e n t " t h a t e a c h w r i t e r i n t e r r o g a t e s i s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d , so i s i t g e n e r a l — t h e r e i s " c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s , " as J u n g has shown. The r e a d e r s o f t h e w o r l d a l w a y s have some ground on w h i c h t o i n t e r p r e t what i t s a u t h o r s w r i t e . F o r c o l l e c -t i v e e x p e r i e n c e hasv.a c o m m u n a l i t y "that i s h a r d t o g a i n s a y ; however d i f f e r e n t o u r i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s , we manage t o u n d e r s t a n d e ach o t h e r . R a r e l y i s a w r i t e r so a b s t r u s e t h a t h i s meaning c a n n o t be g r a s p e d , and even i f P l a t h ' s v i s i o n i s n o t s h a r e d by h e r r e a d e r s h i p , t h e y u n d e r s t a n d i t v i v i d l y enough. S e n s e - l i n k s i n M e t a p h o r a r e a l s o ambiguous because t h e a n a l o g y b e i n g made i n v o l v e s a l e a p f r o m one sphere o f phenomena t o a n o t h e r , and an i n t u i t i v e l e a p a t t h a t . L e a t h e r d a l e d e s c r i b e s t h e sudden f l a s h o f i n s i g h t t h a t -32-c o n s t i t u t e s t h e a n a l o g i c a l a c t , and he q uotes t h e Duke o f W e l l i n g t o n , who w r o t e : There i s a s t r a n g e t h i n g one sometimes n o t i c e s ; when one i s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n s i d e r i n g - a q u e s t i o n , a whole s e r i e s o f i d e a s comes t o t h e mind i n a f l a s h : you p e r c e i v e them a l l h u t i t m i g h t t a k e two h o u r s t o p u t on p a per a l l t h a t c r o s s e d y o u r mind i n one i n s t a n t . (.5.7) T h i s s o r t o f f l a s h i n s i g h t has an element o f i n t u i t i o n i n i t t h a t p l a c e s i t beyond t h e s p h e r e o f s i m p l e s c i e n t i f i c method; i t i s t h e f a b l e d moment o f A r c h i m e d e s i n h i s b a t h o r Newton and t h e a p p l e . S i n c e th e i n t u i t i v e l e a p r e a l l y comes i n t o i t s own i n s c i e n t i f i c m e t a p h o r s , I w i l l t r e a t i t f u r t h e r l a t e r when I p r e s e n t t h e c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s o f M e t a p h o r . However, the a n a l o g i c a l a c t does c h a r a c t e r i z e l i t e r a r y metaphor, t o o , because t o d e s c r i b e one s i t u a t i o n i n terms o f a n o t h e r i n t h e s u b t l e e l i d e d f o rm o f a metaphor i n v o l v e s a c e r t a i n jump. Burke n o t e d t h i s when he w r o t e , " I n d e e d , t h e metaphor a l w a y s has a bout i t p r e c i s e l y t h i s r e v e a l i n g o f h i t h e r t o u n e x p e c t e d c o n n e c t i o n s w h i c h one may 58 n o t i c e i n t h e p r o g r e s s i o n s o f a dream. I ! M e t a p h o r , t h e r e f o r e , has a s o r t o f economy about i t s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h F r e u d f o u n d c h a r a c t e r i z e d dreams. A c c o r d i n g l y , i t has an a i r o f b e i n g p r e - d i g e s t e d , i n t h a t i t i s t h e w r i t t e n r e c o r d o f one p e r s o n 1 s - a n a l o g i c a l l e a p s — t h e w r i t e r ' s . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d a metaphor's a p t n e s s , th e r e a d e r i s f o r c e d t o s o r t out t h e jumps t h a t -33-have been made by w o r k i n g back i n r e v e r s e o r d e r f r o m t h e f a i t a c c o m p l i o f t h e f i n i s h e d metaphor t o t h e o r i -g i n a l i n s i g h t . _ ( L e o n a r d A n g e l c a l l s t h e p r o c e s s " u n p a c k i n g 59 a metaphor.") " The way i n w h i c h a r e a d e r u n r a v e l s a w r i t e r ' s meaning has been b e a u t i f u l l y d e s c r i b e d by K e n n e t h B u r k e : To make us weep c o n t e n t e d l y a t t h e f i n a l r e u n i o n o f b r o t h e r and s i s t e r , t h e p o e t hangs t e l l t a l e l o c k e t s about t h e ne c k s o f t h e l i t t l e v / a i f s l o s t i n C h a p t e r One. When r e a d i n g we a c c e p t t h e f i n a l r e u n i o n as t h e l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e t e l l t a l e l o c k e t s p l a n t e d i n C h a p t e r O n e — b u t t h e o r d e r was e x a c t l y t h e r e v e r s e , t h e l o c k e t s i n C h a p t e r One b e i n g t h e l o g i c a l consequence o f t h e r e u n i o n i n c h a p t e r l a s t . (60) Mem o r y - L i n k s : The m e m o r y - l i n k s i n p o e t r y c a n n a t u r a l l y i n v o l v e e i t h e r p e r s o n a l / i n d i v i d u a l o r t r i b a l / c o l l e c t i v e memory. B e r g g r e n , t h o u g h , has d e s c r i b e d a more e l a b o r a t e t y p o l o g y i n f i v e l e v e l s o f p o e t r y ' s memory-content. H i s scheme c a n be v i s u a l i z e d as f i v e c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s . The i n n e r m o s t c i r c l e he c a l l s t h e " p r e s i d i n g schema o f a poem." I t i s e q u i v a l e n t t o one i t e m o f a p a r t i c u l a r p o e t ' s v o c a b u l a r y , l i k e t he word ' a n g e l ' i n R i l k e , ' The second c i r c l e i s t h e " p e r s o n a l image o f a g i v e n p o e t o r a r t i s t , " w h i c h has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d ; t h i s l e v e l c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e whole o f a p o e t ' s v o c a b u l a r y o r d i c t i o n . N e xt i s t h e "schema t h a t a c h i e v e s a n c e s t r a l v i t a l i t y , " f o r w h i c h he g i v e s the j o u r n e y — i n D a n t e , i n C e r v a n t e s , i n K a f k a , e t c . — a s an example. T h i s - 3 4 -l e v e l i s t h a t o f t h e p e r v a s i v e l e i t m o t i v . F o u r t h i s t h e "schema whose c u l t u r a l range e x t e n d s o u t s i d e t h e l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , " a s , f o r example, B i b l i c a l symbols:, and f i f t h a r e a r c h e t y p e s , whose i m p o r t i s t r a n s c u l t u r a l . F o r examples o f t h e s e , B e r g g r e n g i v e s b l o o d , w a t e r , l i g h t / d a r k n e s s and up/down. B e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e f o r e g o i n g taxonomy, B e r g g r e n o f f e r e d "tne i n s i g h t t h a t t h e p o e t i c schema whose f i v e sub-t y p e s he was about t o d e l i n e a t e i s "a v i s u a l i z a b l e pheno-menon w h i c h s e r v e s as a v e h i c l e f o r e x p r e s s i n g s o m e t h i n g about t h e i n n e r l i f e o f man, o r n o n - s p a t i a l r e a l i t y i n 6 1 -j g e n e r a l • " [ i t a l i c s mine.] I f i n d t h i s i n s i g h t p a r t i c u -l a r l y a p p e a l i n g i n t h a t i t c o r r o b o r a t e s t h e argument advanced e a r l i e r , where I .claimed t h a t m e t a p h o r i c a l l a n g u a g e has a s o r t o f p r e c i s e i m p r e c i s i o n , a c o n t r o l l e d v a g u e n e s s , w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e s u b t l y shaded w o r l d i t d e s * • c r i b e s . B e r g g r e n 1 s t h o u g h t s u b s t a n t i a t e s my p o i n t , because i f p o e t i c l a n g u a g e i s t o d e s c r i b e " t h e i n n e r l i f e o f man . . . n o n - s p a t i a l r e a l i t y , " i t must n e c e s s a r i l y be d i t h y r a m b i c and n o n - l i n e a r i n i t s p r o g r e s s . There i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e same l i n e o f t h o u g h t i n The M e a n i n g o f P o e t i c M e t a p h o r , where H e s t e r p o s i t s on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e a d e r o f l i t e r a t u r e 6 2 a " s u s p e n s i o n o f judgments o f p e r c e p t i o n and v a l u e . " What he i s recommending, i n o t h e r w ords, i s a s o r t o f w ide-open c r e d u l o u s s t a n c e ( H u s s e r l c a l l e d i t "epoche") f o r one t o a d o p t , t h e b e t t e r t o f o l l o w and be r e c e p t i v e t o t h e d i t h y r a m b i c , n o n - s p a t i a l l o g i c o f M e t a p h o r . He goes on t o s a y t h a t t h e r e s i d u u m o f t h e p r o c e s s i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . As t h e r e a d e r unpacks t h e w r i t e r ' s meaning, he i s t o t h i n k b l i n d l y t h r o u g h h i s u n c o n s c i o u s m ind. What b e t t e r way i s t h e r e t o decode t h e f a i t s -a c c o m p l i s o f a n o t h e r ' s u n c o n s c i o u s , and what b e t t e r r o u t e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g l i t e r a t u r e ? y - 3 6 -CHAPTER FIVE  METAPHORIC TENSION A l l . a n a l o g i c a l metaphors c a n he c o n c e i v e d o f as h a v i n g two p a r t s , a t e n o r and a v e h i c l e . ( I . A . R i c h a r d s i s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e t e r m i n o l o g y . ) There i s a main i d e a , t h e t e n o r , w h i c h i s b e i n g e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f a s e c o n d a r y i d e a , t h e v e h i c l e . Hence S t a n f o r d ' s e x p r e s s i o n " s t e r e o -s c o p i c v i s i o n , " w h i c h f i r s t a p p e a r e d on page (15), i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f metaphor's o p e r a t i o n . I n The Me a n i n g o f P o e t i c M e t a p h o r , Marcus H e s t e r p r o d u c e s a t one p o i n t an ex t e n d e d metaphor from S h a k e s p e a r e , one i n w h i c h t h e t e n o r Time i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n terms o f a b e g g a r , t h e v e h i c l e . Time h a t h , my l o r d , a w a l l e t a t h i s back W h e r e i n he p u t alms f o r o b l i v i o n A g r e a t - s i z e d m o n s t e r o f i n g r a t i t u d e . Those s c r a p s a r e good deeds p a s t , w h i c h a r e d e v o u r e d As f a s t as t h e y a r e made, f o r g o t as soon As done. (63) T h i s e x c e l l e n t metaphor prompts me t o make s e v e r a l o b s e r -v a t i o n s on m e t a p h o r i c a l t e n o r and v e h i c l e . D i s t a n c e • H e s t e r has p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e i s g r e a t c o n c e p t u a l d i s t a n c e between t e n o r and v e h i c l e i n Shake-s p e a r e ' s f i g u r e . F o r Time i s an e n t i t y so a b s t r a c t t h a t i t w o uld s c a r c e l y e x i s t i n the minds o f men i f t h e r e -37-were n o t a name f o r i t . (As B e n j a m i n Lee Whorf has i n t i m a t e d , t i m e i s p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e d e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e and c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e 64 t e n s e system i n each l a n g u a g e - f a m i l y . T i m e - c o n c e p t i o n s c a n he seen t o v a r y f r o m t h e highljr segmented w e s t e r n v e r s i o n , m a n i f e s t i n d a t e b o o k s , c a l e n d a r s , i t i n e r a r i e s , e t c . t o t h e p u r p o r t e d l y more h o l i s t i c and i n t e g r a t e d t i m e -n o t i o n o f the A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s o f t h e s o u t h w e s t ) . A b e g g a r , on t h e o t h e r hand, p r e s e n t s q u i t e a f l e s h l y r e a l i t y , t h e noun c o n j u r i n g up s t a p l e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f p o v e r t y , t a t t e r e d c l o t h e s and o u t s t r e t c h e d hands as minimum d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i a . However, i n t h a t t i m e i s c l a s s i c a l l y e q u a t e d w i t h a d o d d e r i n g g r e y b e a r d i n t h e w e s t e r n mind, S h a k e s p e a r e ' s metaphor does n o t a t t e m p t a n y t h i n g to©; recherche'. I n s t e a d , i t m e r e l y f i r m s up t h e e x i s t i n g s t o c k metaphor, w h i c h i n i t s m o r i b u n d i t y was l o s i n g t h e t e n s i o n o f i t s o r i g i n a l i m p a c t . W i t h t h i s , we s t r i k e the mother l o d e o f t h e t e n o r -a n d - v e h i c l e c o n c e p t i o n : namely, t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t e n o r and v e h i c l e p r o d u c e s t e n s i o n . New m e t a p h o r s — t h o s e a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e i r l i f e - s p a n — v i b r a t e a l m o s t p a l p a b l y f r o m the t e n s i o n i n h e r e n t i n two s i m u l t a n e o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s . ( F o r i n s t a n c e , as n o t e d , s e v e r a l w r i t e r s have commented on t h e g a l v a n i c e f f e c t t h e word ' s k y s c r a p e r ' had on them when -38-t h e y f i r s t h e a r d i t as c h i l d r e n . The i d e a o f t h e E m p i r e S t a t e B u i l d i n g s c r a t c h i n g a t t h e heavens was t h e n a l m o s t t o o a p t f o r w o r d s ) . The f a c t t h a t metaphors l o s e t h e i r shock v a l u e w h i l e we g r a d u a l l y become i n u r e d t o t h e i r charm i s a r e s u l t o f t h e s l a c k e n i n g o f t e n s i o n between t e n o r and v e h i c l e : t h e i d e a o f a s k y s c r a p e r becomes commonplace and u n r e m a r k a b l e . ( T h i s may a c t u a l l y have t o do w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s k y s c r a p e r phenomenon i t s e l f has become h y p o s t a t i z e d . Once e x t r a - t a l l b u i l d i n g s f a i l t o s h o c k, so t o o t h e i r d e s c r i p t i v e l a b e l b e g i n s t o p a l l ) . A b s t r a c t i o n v e r s u s D e t a i l . A n o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n o f H e s t e r ' s i s t h a t i n S h a k e s p e a r e ' s metaphor t h e t e n o r Time r e m a i n s a b s t r a c t and vague. I t i s t h e v e h i c l e "beggar" w h i c h b e a r s t h e b r u n t o f t h e i m a g i s t i c f u l l n e s s . The p o e t d e v e l o p s th e i d e a o f t i m e as w i l f u l and r a p a c i o u s i n s u c c e s s i v e p h r a s e s , g o i n g f r o m t h e n o t i o n o f " o b l i v i o n " t o one o f a "monster o f i n g r a t i t u d e " t o t h a t o f d e v o u r i n g . T h i s i s , i n f a c t , a n i n s t a n c e o f p o e t i c f i s s i o n s u c h as C h r i s t i n e Brooke-Rose n o t e d i n 'the eyes o f the h e a r t . ' v l h a t S hakespeare u n d e r -t a k e s i s t o t a k e t h e c o n c e i t o f t i m e as beggar and ream i t out i n a l l p o s s i b l e ways. The e n s i l i n g bombardment o f images, each o n l y s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f rom th e n e x t , i s what makes the metaphor so r i c h . - 3 9 -Economy/. I s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t m e t a p h o r s , l i k e dreams, a r e e c o n o m i c a l . The t e n o r - v e h i c l e n o t i o n e x p l a i n s how a n a l o g i c a l metaphor comes t o be a h i g h l y e c o n o m i c a l mode o f e x p r e s s i o n . I n s t e a d o f d e s c r i b i n g t i m e and t h e n d e s c r i b i n g a b e g g a r and p o i n t i n g out t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between them, t h e metaphor subsumes t h e two d e s c r i p t i o n s i n t o one s u p e r - c h a r g e d c a p s u l e . I t does t h i s by d e s c r i b i n g i t s t e n o r w h o l l y i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f i t s v e h i c l e , an arrangement as n e a t as i t i s e l l i p t i c a l . K a r l U i t t i n o t e d t h i s f e a t when he w r o t e , "Through metaphor t h e dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n n a t u r e may be c o n c e i v e d and conveyed i n 66 d i s c o u r s e w i t h t h e s m a l l e s t d e f o r m a t i o n . . . " C r e a t i v e D e f i n i n g A b i l i t y . There i s , t h e n , s o m e t h i n g i n a l i e n a b l y c r e a t i v e about metaphor. When Shakespeare g i v e s u s t h e ready-made ( e a r l i e r I u s e d t h e term ' p r e - d i g e s t e d ' ) f i g u r e o f t i m e - a s - a - b e g g a r , we a r e b e i n g p r e s e n t e d w i t h a new p e r s p e c t i v e on t i m e , w i t h a new b i t o f wisdom o r i n t e l l i g e n c e . Some w r i t e r s argue t h a t t h e w r i t e r t h u s d e f i n e s s i m i l a r i t y f o r u s , ( e . g . H e s t e r : "s:eeing-as 67\ d e f i n e s s i m i l a r i t y , n o t v i c e v e r s a . " ) , w h i l e o t h e r s more p r u d e n t l y t h i n k t h a t t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t e n o r and v e h i c l e e x i s t a l l a l o n g and t h a t t h e w r i t e r , w i t h h i s e x t r a - s e n s t i v : e p a l p s , m e r e l y f o r e g r o u n d s * them i n our * a t e r m o f J a n Mu k a r o v s k y ' s u s e d t o mean ' d e - a u t o m a t i z e ' o r 'make c o n s c i o u s ' i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . -40-c o n s c i o u s n e s s . N a t u r a l l y , the g r e a t e r the c o n c e p t u a l d i s t i n c t n e s s o f t e n o r and v e h i c l e , t h e more p r o d i g i o u s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t , because " o n l y a t r i t e metaphor y o k e s a t e n o r 68 and v e h i c l e w h i c h we a l l know t o be s i m i l a r . " ' H e s t e r i s v e r y a s t u t e i n s t a t i n g t h i s d e f i n i n g c a p a b i l i t y o f metaphor ( h i s ' s e e i n g - a s ' n o t i o n ) and i n c o m p a r i n g i t a g a i n s t o r d i n a r y p e r c e p t u a l s e e i n g : "The metaphor s t a t e s t h e a s p e c t s and t h e p r o b l e m i s t o see t h e common f o r m , w h i l e i n v i s u a l s e e i n g - a s , t h e common element i s g i v e n and t h e p r o b l e m i s 69 t o see t h e a s p e c t s . " ' W.H. L e a t h e r d a l e , who has w r i t t e n about t h e r o l e o f metaphor i n s c i e n c e , t a k e s c o g n i z a n c e o f the c r e a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f metaphor i n d e f i n i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and a l t e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s . I t i s r e a l l y o n l y t h i s a s p e c t w h i c h i n t e r e s t s h i m , i n d e e d , s i n c e t h e e m o t i v e o r " t e x t u r a l " s i d e , so c o n s i d e r a b l e i n l i t e r a t u r e , i s i r r e l e v a n t i n s c i e n c e . He has t h e h i g h e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f metaphor's a b i l i t y t o d e f i n e , as shown i n t h i s s e n t e n c e : "Sometimes t h e t o p i c a n a l o g u e [ t h e t e n o r J c a n h a r d l y be s a i d t o e x i s t b e f o r e i t i s , as i t w e r e , p u l l e d t o g e t h e r by t h e i m p o r t e d a n a l o g u e [ v e h i c l e ] . " ^ H i s e x p o s i t i o n o f f i g u r a t i v e t h o u g h t ' s c o u n t e r p a r t i n s c i e n c e — s o m e t h i n g he terms t h e a n a l o g i c a l a c t — i s u s e f u l f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n h e r e . He s a y s t h a t a s c i e n t i s t i s f a m i l i a r w i t h a c e r t a i n a r e a o f phenomena and w i t h a l l i t s a t t e n d a n t c o n c e p t s , t h e o r i e s and i n s t a n c e s . The whole o f i t i s so w e l l known t o him t h a t i f he f o c u s s e s on one a s p e c t , t h e r e s t i s s t i l l f l o a t i n g i n h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , o u t o f f o c u s h u t c o n s t a n t l y a c c e s s i b l e i f needed. S u d d e n l y , he s e e s th e f i e l d o f phenomena' i n a new way, w h i c h s t r i k i n g l y r e o r g a n i z e s i t . E i t h e r t h e e n t i t i e s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a r e d i f f e r e n t somehow t h a n he t h o u g h t , o r t h e y a r e r e l a t e d d i f f e -r e n t l y t h a n he t h o u g h t , o r t h e y a r e amenable t o d i f f e r e n t m a t h e m a t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t h a n he p r e v i o u s l y supposed a p p l i -c a b l e . W h i c h e v e r i s t h e c a s e , he imposes h i s f l a s h i n s i g h t (sometimes so m a s t e r f u l as t o be an "epoch-making g r e a t s t r o k e o f s y n t h e s i s , " ) on t h e o r i g i n a l f i e l d o f phenomena. L e a t h e r d a l e a l s o m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e more complex t h e t o p i c a n a l o g u e i s , t h e more i m p r e s s i v e t h e s c i e n t i s t ' s a n a l o g i c a l a c t . He adds t h a t • . . t h e t o p i c a n a l o g u e i s i t s e l f an amorphous e n t i t y , e v e r g r o w i n g and c h a n g i n g , sometimes c r y s t a l l i z i n g o u t o n l y t o d i s s o l v e a g a i n u n d e r the p r e s s u r e o f d i s c o r d a n t f a c t s drawn f r o m o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e t o p i c a n a l o g u e . I m p o r t e d a n a l o g u e s b r e e d and i n t e r b r e e d w i t h e a ch o t h e r . (72) T e r ence Hawkes has p u t f o r w a r d t h e i m p o r t a n t i n s i g h t t h a t t h e u n i t o f t e n o r - p l u s - v e h i c l e i s g r e a t e r t h a n th e sum o f i t s p a r t s . That i s , the t e n o r and v e h i c l e seem t o r u b t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f on e a ch o t h e r , g i v i n g t h e r e s u l t i n g image a l m o s t an overabundance o f meaning. He g i v e s an -42-example f r o m Matthew A r n o l d , a metaphor t h a t compares t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y t o an i s l a n d i n t h e s e a : Y e s : i n t h e s e a o f l i f e e n i s l ' d W i t h e c h o i n g s t r a i t s between us t h r o w n , D o t t i n g the s h o r e l e s s w a t e r y w i l d , We m o r t a l s l i v e a l o n e . (73) I n d e e d , t h e r e i s a r i c h n e s s h e r e e x c e e d i n g b o t h i s l a n d s a t s e a o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y . P h i l i p W h e e l w r i g h t als.o has an example, t h i s t i m e f r o m H a m l e t , t o prove t h e same p o i n t . Nay, b u t t o l i v e I n t h e r a n k sweat o f an enseamed bed Stew'd i n c o r r u p t i o n , h o n e y i n g and making l o v e Over t h e n a s t y s t y . (74) He i s r i g h t : t h e whole has f i e l d s o f i m p l i c a t i o n i n i t g r e a t e r t h a n t h e p a r t s , w h i c h a t f a c e v a l u e make an odd compote o f honey, stew and r a n k sweat. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s p o i n t about t h e t e n o r - v e h i c l e u n i t b e i n g g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum o f i t s p a r t s , a n o t h e r u s e f u l i n s i g h t about m e t a p h o r i c t e n s i o n i s f o u n d i n Wheel-w r i g h t . He e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e ways i n w h i c h t e n o r s a r e p a i r e d w i t h v e h i c l e s . A l l t h r e e a r e p r o c e s s e s o f l a n g u a g e , t h o u g h t h e t h i r d , e p i t o m i z e d by metaphor, i s by f a r t h e most c r e a t i v e . I n t h e c a s e o f p a s s i v e h a b i t u a t i o n , an u t t e r a n c e o r v e h i c l e i s a c c i d e n t a l l y p a i r e d w i t h a t h o u g h t . P o r example, t h e s t a t e m e n t " I f e l t a w f u l l y bad 75 a b o u t what happened" p o i n t s " w i t h o u t e n f o r c e d e x a c t i t u d e " t o a f e e l i n g . The vagueness i n h e r e n t i n s u c h s t a t e m e n t s i s - 4 3 -what r e c a l l s Hulme's remark t h a t p l a i n s p e e c h i s i n a c c u r a t e . A t a n o t h e r l e v e l , t h e r e i s t h e c a s e o f s t i p u l a t i o n , where a s i g n i s p a i r e d w i t h a s i g n i f i e d w i t h i n a c u l t u r e , and t h e p a i r i n g " i s a c h i e v e d and m a i n t a i n e d "by f i a t . " W h e e l w r i g h t f e e l s t h a t t h e symbols t h a t o c c u r i n o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e a r e o f t h i s s e c ond r a n k : an example w o u l d be t h e image o f t i m e as an o l d man. The t h i r d t y p e o f v e h i c l e - t e n o r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t w h i c h i s c r e a t e d t h r o u g h t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , l i k e t h e l i n k i n g o f "beggar" w i t h t i m e . These W h e e l w r i g h t c a l l s t h e " d e p t h - s y m b o l s " o f l a n g u a g e . I n B l a c k ' s v i e w , t h e v e h i c l e a c t s as a f i l t e r - f o r t h e t e n o r : " i t s e l e c t s , e m p h a s i z e s , s u p p r e s s e s and o r g a n i z e s £cf. L e a t h e r d a l e ' s comment, page (40)J f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r i n -c i p a l s u b j e c t by i m p l y i n g s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t i t t h a t n o r m a l l y 76 a p p l y t o t h e s u b s i d i a r y s u b j e c t . " ' ' I n t h i s way, one c a n d e s c r i b e a b a t t l e i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f a game o f c h e s s . Chess t h e n a c t s as a f i l t e r t o o r g a n i z e t h e m a n i f o l d t o p i c o f w a r f a r e i n t o an u n d e r s t a n d a b l e complex o f s t r a t e g e m s , c h e c k mates, e t c . A c c o r d i n g t o P a u l H e n l e , t h i s f i l t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s h i g h l y c r e a t i v e i n n e t e f f e c t . E v e r y a n a l o g i c a l metaphor does two t h i n g s : on one hand, i t remarks on an a n t e c e d e n t r e s e m b l a n c e between t h i n g s and on t h e o t h e r , i t i n d u c e s a f u r t h e r r e s e m b l a n c e o f i t s own. M e t a p h o r , i n o t h e r words, has a d e f i n i n g c a p a b i l i t y , e x p r e s s e d by Hawkes i n t h i s -44-fashion: "the act of unifying, of inculcated 'sameness' which i s metaphor's stock-in-trade, both stimulates and 77 manifests the imagination."- Apropos of the same idea, he quotes Coleridge as writing: "You feel him £ShakespearejJ to: be a poet inasmuch as for a time he has made you one—an 78 active creative being." As a reader, one i s made aware of new resemblances, not to mention new relationships and r e a l i t i e s , (the much-vaunted broadened horizons that reading i s said to produce). It i s essential to remember, though, that however happy the marriage of the two components, tenor and vehicle 79 always remain conceptually disti n c t . They must do so i f there i s to be tension for the metaphor's continued vibra-tion. "Conceptual distinctness" means, of course, that the two things are in different l i n g u i s t i c and cognitive areas. 80 To mate them, one crosses sorts, i n Turbayne's terminology. But for the match to be f e l i c i t o u s , the tenor and the vehicle must be only a certain distance apart and no further; too vast a difference i s characterized by Turbayne as sort-trespassing;; the resultant tenuous metaphor w i l l need much bolstering from context in order to be effective. In a good match, then, with topic and imported analogues just the right distance apart, the sum comes out to greater than the parts. For instance, one can speak of 'rubber joy," a 'rubber melody,' or a 'rubber soul' and the word 'rubber' adds something to our understanding of melodies, souls, .and -45-j o y . On t h e o t h e r hand, ' r u b b e r cube r o o t * . c o u l d be c o n c e i v e d a s o r t - t r e s p a s s i n g because t h e a p p o s i t i o n o f r u b b e r does n o t h i n g t o i n f o r m o u r p e r s p e c t i v e on cube r o o t s . 82 G e o f f r e y L e e c h , however, n o t e s t h a t t h e s u p e r -i m p o s i t i o n o f two p e r s p e c t i v e s r e s u l t s i n a s o r t o f vague-n e s s ( d i f f e r e n t f r o m vagueness i n d i s c u r s i v e l a n g u a g e ) , b o t h as t o t h e grounds o f c o m p a r i s o n and t h e t h i n g s compared. T h i s , I t h i n k , has t o be a d m i t t e d . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , we have s e e n how a c o n c e i t l i k e 'the r o s e s o f h e r ch e e k s ' does n o t a c t u a l l y s p e c i f y w h e t her t h e l a d y ' s cheeks a r e p i n k and so:ft o r y e l l o w and t h o r n y . The b a s i s f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n i s l e f t t o t h e r e a d e r t o work o u t . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e may be doubt as t o what i s b e i n g compared w i t h what.. As an example, L e e c h g i v e s f o u r p o s s i b l e r e a d i n g s f o r ' t h i s s e a t h a t b a r e s h e r bosom t o t h e moon,' namely: 1. The s e a r e f l e c t s t h e image o f t h e moon. 2. The s e a i s s p r e a d o ut u n d e r n e a t h t h e moon. 3. The s e a i s made v i s i b l e by t h e moon. 4. The s e a i s t i d a l l y a f f e c t e d by t h e moon. L i k e many a s t u d e n t o f l i t e r a t u r e , he has g l o s s e d o v e r t h e p o e t ' s meaning, w h i c h i s n e a r - l i t e r a l , and advanced a l l k i n d s o f f a n c i f u l u n r a v e l l i n g s f o r the image. I n any c a s e , sxxch 'ambiguity i s a d m i r a b l y s u i t e d t o l i t e r a t u r e ( l e s s so t o s c i e n c e ) , where t h e r e a d e r c a n s p i n o u t an ambiguous 83 image a l o n g m u l t i p l e l i n e s , so t h a t t h e c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t i s a b e a u t i f u l l y - t e x t u r e d f a b r i c r i c h i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . M e t a p h o r can a d d i t i o n a l l y be c o n c e i v e d i n terms o f two o t h e r s e t s o f p a i r e d f o r c e s , a n a l o g o u s i n t h e i r t e n s i o n - p r o d u c i n g i m p a c t t o t e n o r / v e h i c l e . W h e e l w r i g h t , who has been so a s t u t e on t h e s u b j e c t o f t e n s i o n , d e f i n e s a t y p e o f t u r g o r a r i s i n g f r o m th e i n t e r a c t i o n o f what he c a l l s " e p i p h o r " and " d i a p h o r . " E p i p h o r i s t h e s o r t o f o u t r e a c h and e x t e n s i o n o f meaning t h r o u g h c o m p a r i s o n t h a t was h i n t e d a t i n the t e rm ' i n d u c e d c o n t e n t . ' I n o t h e r words "metaphors a r e c o n t a g i o u s . They t e n d t o i m p l i c a t e w i d e r and w i d e r c o n t e x t s i n t h e i r s e m a n t i c p l e n t i t u d e o f i m p l i c a t i o n . " D i a p h o r , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s "a t y p e o f i n w a r d f o c u s , an i n t e r n a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f q u a l i t i e s w h i c h g i v e s t h e poem t h e c o n c r e t e s t a t u s o f a p r e s e n t e d o b j e c t . " ( T h i s q u a l i t y -has been p r e f i g u r e d by my u s e o f t h e terms • p r e - d i g e s t e d , • ' f a i t a c c o m p l i , 1 and ' a n t e c e d e n t r e s e m b l a n c e . ' ) The i n t e r -a c t i o n o f t h e two f o r c e s keeps metaphor a f l o a t , s i n c e one i s c e n t r i p e t a l i n e f f e c t and t h e o t h e r c e n t r i f u g a l . The e f f e c t i s t h e l i n g u i s t i c e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e f o r c e s t h a t keep 85 a p l a n e t i n i t s o r b i t , as B u rke has s u g g e s t e d . Or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e f o r c e s c a n be v i s u a l i z e d a s " i n s e p a r a b l e as t h e convex and concave s i d e s o f a s i n g l e g e o m e t r i c c u r v e . A n o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e d u a l i t y i n metaphor i s c a p t u r e d by t h e terms " c o n c r e t e / u n i v e r s a l . " A l t h o u g h th e words seem p a r a d o x i c a l and s e l f - c a n c e l l i n g , e l e m e n t s o f c o n c r e t e n e s s and u n i v e r s a l i t y can be s e e n t o c o - e x i s t i n metaphor. F o r i n s t a n c e , H e s t e r p o i n t s out t h a t S h a k s p e a r e ' s -47-character Falstaff has both particular fullness of detail and universal significance at the same time. So ooncrete-ness corresponds to diaphor, or the particularizing tendency. This Wheelwright has styled as a writer's "confrontative imagination"—his a b i l i t y to particularize and intensify his object and thus get at i t s quiddity. "tPoetryJ evokes something of the very quality, tone and flavor of the concrete...with a directness and a f u l l experiential relevance that [jplain speech] cannot do." There i s a corresponding tendency to universalize that i s embodied i n a writer's "archetypal imagination," his a b i l i t y to see r e a l i t y as symbolic. (Wheelwright sees Goethe as being past master of the art, with the "depth dimension" stronger in Faust than in Egmont, more insistent i n Faust Part II than Faust Part I ) . Hawkes summarizes by saying that " a l l good poetry contains a feeling of generalization 88 from a case which has been presented definitely." A case i n point would be William Carlos Williams' poem If the Muses Choose the young ewe You shall receive A s t a l l - f e d lamb As your reward But i f They prefer the lamb You shall have the ewe for Second prize. (89) I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e " s e m a n t i c p l e n i t u d e o f i m p l i c a t i o n " t h e r e i s w i d e r and more g e n e r a l t h a n t h e p a r t i c u l a r f o l d where muses and s t a l l - f e d lambs a r e s e q u e s t e r e d . W i t h t h i s , I t h i n k t h a t I have s t a t e d t h e c a s e f o r t h e d u a l i t i e s t h a t most w r i t e r s see as p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n M e t a p h o r . The y i n - y a n g two-pronged a p p r o a c h i s one t h a t i s h i g h l y e x p l a n a t o r y o f n e a r l y any phenomenon. ( W i t n e s s J a k o b s o n ' s b i n a r y s ystem o f p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s ) . As E r n e s t J o n e s has n o t e d , i t was a d e v i c e t h a t was u s e d e x h a u s t i v e l y by P r e u d i n h i s work. M o s t s t u d e n t s o f P r e u d have been s t r u c k by what has been c a l l e d h i s o b s t i n a t e d u a l i s m . R u n n i n g a l l t h r o u g h h i s work t h e r e i s what H e i n z Hartmann has c a l l e d 'a v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c k i n d o f d i a l e c -t i c a l t h i n k i n g t h a t t e n d s t o base t h e o r i e s on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f two o p p o s i t e p o w e rs. 1 T h i s was; o f c o u r s e most pronounced i n h i s b a s i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : l o v e - h u n g e r ; e g o - s e x u a l i t y ; ; a u t o - e r o t i c i s m - h e t e r o -e r o t i c i s m ; E r o s - T h a n a t o s ; l i f e - d e a t h , and so on. I t i s as i f P r e u d had a d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n t e m p l a t i n g any t o p i c u n l e s s he c o u l d d i v i d e i t i n t o two o p p o s i t e s , and n e v e r more t h a n two. (90) - 4 9 -CHAPTER SIX THE ROLE OP IMAGERY I have a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t M e t a p h o r amounts t o an " a r t i s t i c " use o f l a n g u a g e , one where words a r e n o t u s e d f o r o r d i n a r y c o m m u n i c a t i o n s o f a f a c t u a l n a t u r e . No, i n s t e a d words a r e u s e d by a p o e t t h e same way a s c u l p t o r u s e s m a r b l e o r a p a i n t e r u s e s p a i n t . E a c h o f t h e s e a r t i s t s aims t o i m m o r t a l i z e h i s m a t e r i a l : t h e p a i n t e r must p a i n t p i c t u r e s and n o t h o u s e s , t h e s c u l p t o r s c u l p t P i e t a s and n o t c o f f e e t a b l e s and t h e p o e t w r i t e , n o t speak. V a l e r y r e c o g n i z e d j u s t how c o n s c i o u s t h i s i m m o r t a l i z i n g t e n d e n c y i s when he w r o t e t h a t " P o e t r y i m p l i e s a d e c i s i o n 91 t o change t h e f u n c t i o n o f lan g u a g e . " - ' D e c i s i o n * i s t h e ke y word h e r e . H e s t e r f o r m u l a t e d t h e same s t a t e m e n t i n s l i g h t l y l e s s a p h o r i s t i c f a s h i o n : " I n p o e t r y , t h e r e i s t h e p a r t i c L i l a r p r o b l e m o f t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e n o r m a l , p r a c t i c a l 92 f u n c t i o n o f l a n g u a g e i n t o a p r e s e n t a t i o n a l symbol." By what p r o c e s s e s do*, t h e words t h a t s e r v e so s t a l -w a r t l y i n o r d i n a r y s p e e c h become p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ? As shown i n C h a p t e r One, words were o r i g i n a l l y a p p l i e d t o t h i n g s o r i d e a s a r b i t r a r i l y , so t h a t what r e s u l t s i s a l a n g u a g e t h a t i s au f o n d n o t h i n g more t h a n a s e t o f c o n v e n t i o n s . To make t h i s random s e t o f bywords i n any way p r e s e n t a t i o n a l im i m p a c t , p a t t e r n must somehow be imposed on i t . - 5 0 -Roger F o w l e r w r o t e t h a t p a t t e r n emerges o n l y c o -i n c i d e n t a l l y i n c a s u a l u t t e r a n c e s , b u t i s t h e norm i n 93 t h e n o n - c a s u a l u s e o f language.,- Because j u s t as s u r e l y a s d i s c u r s i v e meaning r e s i d e s i n a r b i t r a r i n e s s , s y m b o l i c meaning r e s i d e s i n p a t t e r n i n g . An u t t e r a n c e i n p l a i n s p e e c h , l i k e * I f e l t a w f u l l y bad about what happened' im-p a r t s o n l y t h e most vague, random k i n d o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n . B u t i f s u c h a s e n t e n c e were t o be v i e w e d as p a t t e r n e d due t o i t s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , - t h i s w o u l d s e t up a f a l s e p a r a d o x . I n p o i n t o f f a c t , t h e d i s c u r s i v e s e n t e n c e l.s h i g h l y p r e d i c -t a b l e . However, by t r u e p a t t e r n i n g , I mean t h e i m p r e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r on t h e p a l i m p s e s t o f l a n g u a g e . A Tom W o l f e s e n t e n c e i s n e v e r as p r e d i c t a b l e as one f r o m p l a i n s p e e c h , b u t w i t h o u t a doubt i t i s p r e d i c t a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m one by Thomas W o l f e . . . H e s t e r w r i t e s t h a t p i c t u r e s 94 a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l because o f t h e i r arrangement. I n t e n t i o n a l arrangement makes spe e c h p r e s e n t a t i o n a l as w e l l . P a t t e r n i n p r o s e o r p o e t r y i s a c o m p l i c a t e d t e x t u r a l web o r m a t r i x i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l t r o p e i s embedded, a web w i t h b o t h s y n c h r o n i c and d i a c h r o n i c dimensions?. I n an e s s a y t i t l e d "Imagery: From S e n s a t i o n 95 t o S y m b o l , N o r m a n F r i e d m a n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b o t h t h e warp and woof o f t h e f a b r i c I am p o s i t i n g h e r e when he e x p l a i n e d how an image ( t h e i n d i v i d u a l t r o p e , i n o t h e r words) a c h i e v e s s y m b o l i c v a l u e . F i r s t i t must be r e a d f o r i t s e l f , i . e . a t -51-f a c e v a l u e . Then, i t c a n he r e a d i n v i e w o f i t s h e r e d i t y , o r d i a c h r o n i c d i m e n s i o n . That i s , s i n c e t h e image has been u s e d o v e r t i m e by a l l t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e g i v e n l a n g u a g e , i t has a c q u i r e d b o t h a h i s t o r y o f i t s own and an a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n o f r e c u r r e n c e i n t h e l a n g u a g e . C o r r e s p o n d i n g e x a c t l y t o t h i s second l e v e l i s t h e t h i r d , w h i c h i s c o n t e x t u a l o r s y n c h r o n i c . Here t h e image has a c e r t a i n f r e q u e n c y o f r e c u r r e n c e i n t h e work o f a g i v e n a u t h o r , as w e l l as a r e l a t i o n t o the o t h e r images p o p u l a t i n g t h e work o f t h a t w r i t e r . I n t h i s c o m p l i c a t e d f a s h i o n , t h e n , a g r i d o f p a t t e r n i s s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e f u n c t i o n i n g a r b i t r a r i n e s s t h a t i s l a n g u a g e . B e s i d e s p a t t e r n i n g , t h o u g h , t h e r e i s s t i l l a n o t h e r way f o r l a n g u a g e t o become p r e s e n t a t i o n a l , and t h a t i s . . t h r o u g h " s i m i l a r i t y . " H e n l e e x p l i c a t e s t h i s n o t i o n i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f ' i c o n , 1 ( w h i c h speaks r i g h t t o my p o i n t i n t h a t ' i c r o n i c 1 i s more o r l e s s synonymous w i t h 'pre s e n t a - , t i o n a l . " ) He s a y s : A s i g n i s a symbol i n s o f a r as i t s i g n i f i e s a c c o r d i n g t o an a r b i t r a r y r u l e , i n s o f a r as i t i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l s i g n . A s i g n i s an i c o n t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t s i g n i f i e s i n v i r t u e o f s i m i l a r i t y . * Thus, o r d i n a r y wortls a r e sym E o l s , b u t onomatopoeic words c o n t a i n an i c o n i c element as w e l l . (9$) I n t h e l a s t s e n t e n c e , H e n l e chooses t o c o n s t r u e ' s i m i l a r i t y ' i n ' terms o f sound i m a g e r y , o f w h i c h t h e r e i s no d e a r t h i n p o e t r y ; i t i s c l e a r t h a t s o u n d - e f f e c t s c a n o v e r r i d e sense * I t a l i c s mine - 5 2 -i n w o r d - s e l e c t i o n . However, I c a n see no r e a s o n why t h e s i m i l a r i t y he s t i p u l a t e s c a n n o t a p p l y t o t h e a n a l o g y t h a t i s a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r a l l metaphors o f A r i s t o t l e ' s f o u r t h t y p e . I f t h i s i s r e a s o n a b l e , t h e n i t w i l l sub-s t a n t i a t e 1 t h e i n t i m a t i o n I v o i c e d e a r l i e r t h a t imagery f i g u r e s i n metaphor. The s i m i l a r i t y o r c o m p a r i s o n p r e -s e n t e d by metaphor's a n a l o g y l e n d s t o t h e whole f i g u r e an i c o n i c i t y o r p r e s e n t a t i o n a l q u a l i t y . Of c o u r s e , w h a t e v e r sound-imagery t h e r e i s i n M e t a p h o r adds t o t h i s t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l e f f e c t , and g i v e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e a n e x t r a gout o f meaning. Thus t h e on o m a t o p o e t i c t e r m (and t h e a n a l o g i c a l metaphor, as I am a r g u i n g by e x t e n s i o n ) has s u r p l u s c o n t e n t i n t h a t i t 97 u n i t e s c o n c e p t and p e r c e p t . S c h e m a t i c a l l y , sense (CONCEPT) + sound (PERCEPT) = SURPLUS CONTENT The s u p e r c h a r g e o f f i g u r a t i v e s p e e c h , m e n t i o n e d above as coming f r o m t h e sum o f t e n o r p l u s v e h i c l e , i s t h e r e f o r e t r a c e a b l e t o a second s o u r c e . What r e s u l t s i s a " m u l t i p l e i c o n i c i t y " on t h e p a r t o f the f i g u r e , t h e a b i l i t y , c i t e d 98 , by H e n l e y - ' o f metaphors t o "be spun o u t , f o l l o w i n g a l i n e - 5 3 -o f a n a l o g y o r even s e v e r a l l i n e s a t once, c a r r y i n g i t q u i t e f a r . " T h i s c a p a b i l i t y has been i n s t a n c e d by B r o o k e - R o s e , who shows t h a t t h e metaphor 'the s h i p p l o u g h s t h e waves' c a n be spun o u t i n t o a s i x - w a y r e l a t i o n , i n v o l v i n g : t h e p l o u g h t h e s h i p t h e ground t h e waves t h e a c t i o n o f p l o u g h i n g , and t h e a c t i o n o f s a i l i n g . (99) K e n n e t h Burke adds t o our i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t when he c l a i m s t h a t p r o v e r b s a l s o have s u c h a s u r f e i t . Of t h e saw, 'Among b l i n d men t h e one-eyed i s k i n g , ' he o b s e r v e s t h a t I t t e a c h e s t h e r e l a t i v i t y and d e f i c i e n c y o f a l l w o r l d l y power and t h i s wisdom, w i t h o u t b e i n g e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d , r i s e s above t h e t r a n s i e n t a n a l o g y and i t s i n a d e q u a t e f o r m u l a . (100) As we s h a l l see l a t e r , t h e f a c t t h a t p r o v e r b s and metaphors c o n t a i n t h i s g l u t o f power i n a b e n i g n l i t e r a l - l o o k i n g c a s i n g ( t h e " i n a d e q u a t e f o r m u l a " mentioned) makes them n e x t t o i m p o s s i b l e t o p a r a p h r a s e a c c u r a t e l y i n p l a i n s p e e c h . ?/orking f r o m t h e domain o f s c i e n c e , L e a t h e r d a l e has a l s o f o u n d t h e s u p e r c h a r g e c o n c e p t u s e f u l , and he has f i l e d u n d e r t h e r u b r i c o f s u r p l u s c o n n o t a t i o n s t h o s e terms t h a t do d o u b l e d u t y , h a v i n g enough meaning t o f u n c t i o n i m p o r t a n t l y i n s c i e n t i f i c and n o n - s c i e n t i f i c c o n t e x t s , - 5 4 -s u c h a s : c o r p u s c l e v o r t e x e q u i l i b r i u m d i s c h a r g e p o l a r i t y -f i e l d s t r e s s e n e r g y o r b i t r e p r e s s i o n (101) So s i m i l a r i t y and p a t t e r n i n c o n c e r t make o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l . Once t h e y have done t h i s , t h e p r o d u c t — M e t a p h o r — i s encoded; i t has " t h e c o n c r e t e s t a t u s o f p r e s e n t e d o b j e c t . " As s u c h , l i t e r a r y o u t p u t i s s u b j e c t t o t h e same c o n d i t i o n s t h a t g o v e r n o t h e r i c o n s / w o r k s o f a r t , namely t h e s e : D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s and D i f f e r e n t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The work o f a r t i s b o t h what i t i s and what i t seems t o be. (The two l e v e l s a r e n e a t l y r e c a p i t u l a t e d i n l a n g u a g e as l i t e r a l a s p e c t and f i g u r a t i v e a s p e c t ) . Any good p a i n t i n g — l e t us choose P i c a s s o ' s L e s D e m o i s e l l e s d ' A v i g n o n — w i l l s e r v e as a n example: t h a t w h i c h meets t h e eye has meaning, b u t t h e r e i s a w e a l t h o f e x t r a meaning t h a t o n l y e x t r a s p e l u n k i n g i n t o a r t h i s t o r y and P i c a s s o w i l l d i s c l o s e . V e r i f i c a t i o n i s C e n t r i p e t a l . James J a r r e t w r o t e t h a t . . . t h e r e a l i s m demanded i n p o e t r y i s t h a t t h e p o e t ' s assumed p r e m i s e s d e t e r m i n e h i s poem's c o n t e n t . Thus the v e r i f i c a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o a poem i s an i n t e r n a l o r c e n t r i p e t a l v e r i f i c a t i o n . S t r i c t e x t e r n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n i s n o t e s s e n t i a l l y a e s t h e t i c . (102.) T h i s amounts t o t h e f a c t t h a t each work of a r t (and t h e r e -f o r e each metaphor) p r e s e n t s ; a t r u t h b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y -55-t h e t r u t h . E a c h one i s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a p r i v a t e r e a l i t y and as s u c h c a n n o t he judged by any one e x t e r n a l s t a n d a r d . P r i v a c y . I n t h a t i t a r i s e s f r o m one p e r s o n ' s cosmography, t h e work o f a r t i s n o t f u l l y p u b l i c . Our c r i t i c a l f a c u l t y i s t h e r e f o r e a t an arm's-length'.remove f r o m t h e c r e a t e d o b j e c t . H e s t e r e x p l a i n s : " C r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f m e t a p h o r i c a l meaning p r e s u p p o s e t h a t a metaphor i s s h a r e d i n some sense though i t i s n o t f u l l y p u b l i c . . . t h e metaphor 103 i s i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e b u t n o t p u b l i c l y o b s e r v a b l e . " • C o l e r i d g e g i v e s an a p p e a l i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l p r o c e s s o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . He w r i t e s , " F o r f r om my c h i l d h o o d I have been accustomed t o a b s t r a c t , and as i t were, t o u n r e a l i z e w h a t e v e r o f more t h a n common i n t e r e s t my eyes d w e l t on by a s o r t o f t r a n s f u s i o n o f my c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o i d e n t i f y m y s e l f w i t h t h e o b j e c t . " ^ ^ And i n h e r Grammar o f M e t a p h o r , Brooke-Rose n o t e s t h a t metaphors formed w i t h t h e d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e ( l i k e D i c k i n s o n ' s 'Shame i s t h e Shawl o f P i n k ' ) have an ''''element 105 o f assumed r e c o g n i t i o n , " a p r i v a c y o f e x p r e s s i o n t h a t g i v e s t h e r e a d e r a " f e e l i n g o f m i s s e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ; " t h e p o e t has a "you-know-what-I-jrtean" t o n e . As f i n a l a t t e s t a t i o n t o M e t a p h o r ' s s t a t u s as a 106 p r e s e n t a t i o n a l o b j e c t , I w i l l c i t e K a r l U i t t i ' s scheme, -56-w h i c h l o c a t e s metaphor mid-way between two p o l e s . A t t h e b o t t o m i s raw m a t e r i a l , a s t o c k p i l e o f a l l t h e images t h a t c a n p o s s i b l y be u s e d i n w r i t i n g . . A t t h e t o p i s myth, a f u l l y f a b r i c a t e d t i s s u e o f words t h a t has been a c c e p t e d and i s b e l i e v e d by an a u d i e n c e o r r e a d i n g p u b l i c . S i n c e U i t t i p l a c e s metaphor a t a c e n t r a l p o i n t between t h e s e two s t a t e s , I i n f e r t h a t t h i s means t h a t i n metaphor, t h e raw m a t e r i a l o f images has been o r g a n i z e d and shaped i n t o an o b j e t r e a d y f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n b u t n o t y e t a c c e p t e d o r t a k e n t o h e a r t as myth. - 5 7 -CHAPTER SEVEN  METAPHOR'S PARTICULAR LOGIC f L o g i c ' i n Bound Porm I c l a i m e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g c h a p t e r t h a t " s t r i c t e x t e r n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n ' i s n o t e x p e c t e d o f a work o f a r t o r o f a metaphor. The c r i t e r i a t h a t d e t e r m i n e h o t h a metaphor's meaning and i t s w o r t h — a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a , I have a r g u e d — a r e n o t t h o s e u s e d t o judge o r d i n a r y r e p o r t o r i a l s p eech. I n e f f e c t , e a c h work o f a r t a c t s as i t s own r e f e r e n t , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t the s t a n d a r d s u s e d t o i n t e r p r e t P i c a s s o ' s D e m o i s e l l e s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e one w o u l d a p p l y t o DeKooning's p o r t r a i t s o f women. The same D i n g - a n - s i c h q u a l i t y o b t a i n s i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c s p h e r e , where the l i t e r a r y o b j e t d ' a r t i s j u s t as much a s p e c i a l i n s t a n c e and a p a r t i c u l a r i z e d e n t i t y . Thus, i f you a r e i n doubt about t h e meaning o f a l i t e r a l s e n t e n c e , you c a n ask f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n . However, i f i n doubt about t h e meaning o f a 107 poem, y o u r o n l y r e c o u r s e i s t o r e a d t h e poem a g a i n . I n t h a t c a s e , one wonders i f f i g u r a t i v e s p e e c h i s l o g i c a l a t a l l i n t h e o r d i n a r y s e n s e . How does the f a c t thg,t each metaphor has i t s own l o g i c work i n p r a c t i c e , and how does t h i s e l a s t i c custom-made l o g i c s t a c k up a g a i n s t o r d i n a r y i n f l e x i b l e l o g i c ? I w i l l argue t h a t l o g i c p e r se does n o t f i g u r e i n M e t aphor. R a t h e r , th e words b e s t u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e w o r k i n g s o f f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e a r e -58-1 c o u n t e r l o g i c a l , 1 1 e x t r a l o g i c a l , ' ' i n f r a - ' and ' a n a l o g i c a l , ' a l l o f w h i c h c o n t a i n t h e element o f ' l o g i c ' c e r t a i n l y , h u t i n bound, submerged f o r m . The C o u n t e r l o g i c a l i n M e t a p h o r As H e s t e r p u t i t , t h e r e i s an open-door p o l i c y on t h e k i n d s o f d a t a t h a t a r e a d m i s s i b l e i n a f i g u r e of. s p e e c h : a l l a r e a d m i t t e d on an e q u a l f o o t i n g . C e r t a i n words e n t e r i n t o p o e t i c d i c t i o n j u s t f o r t h e j o y o f t h e i r sound ( p e r c e p t ) w i t h no c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t a l l b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e i r meaning ( c o n c e p t ) . A c c o r d i n g t o H e s t e r , b o t h t h e l o g i c a l ( m e a n i n g f u l ) and c o u n t e r l o g i c a l ( a u d i t o r y , rhyme, m e t e r , a l l i t e r a t i o n ) e l e m e n t s f u n c t i o n i c o n i c a l l y i n t h e 108 poem. I n t h i s way, t h e canons o f n o r m a l l o g i c a r e evaded ( t h r o u g h " p o e t i c l i c e n s e " ) , f o r s a k e n i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a whole t h a t i s n o t s t a n d a r d - i s s u e E n g l i s h . B u t i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e l i t e r a r y work o f a r t i s a whole above a l l . , where the c o u n t e r l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s chime i n w i t h t h e l o g i c a l , b r i n g i n g a bout a u n i t y t h a t makes i t no l e s s t h a n a m i c r o -cosm. I n t h i s way, W i l l i a m 1 poem about s t a l l - f e d lambs i s a p r e s e r v e u n t o i t s e l f . The l o g i c t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t i s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e l o g i c o f o r d i n a r y s p e e c h and d i s t a n t a g a i n f r o m t h e l o g i c o f o t h e r poems. I f you want i t e x p l a i n e d a f t e r t h e f i r s t r e a d i n g , a second r e a d i n g i s t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n . -59-( F o r c o m p a r i s o n , n o t e t h a t t h e c o u n t e r l o g i c a l i s e q u a l l y and c o m p a r a b l y p r e s e n t i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s , where i t a l s o t o n e s i n t o p r o v i d e an e f f e c t o f u n i t y and oneness. F o r i n s t a n c e , a p o i n t i l l i s t p a i n t i n g by S e u r a t may seem t o have an u n t o w a r d amount o f , s a y , g r e e n i n i t when examined c l o s e up. However, f r o m n o r m a l v i e w i n g d i s t a n c e , t h e g r e e n w i l l r e s o l v e i n t o an e f f e c t t h a t i n u n d e n i a b l y th e r i g h t e f f e c t . The same open-door p o l i c y o f a e s t h e t i c s a l l o w s H e n r y M i l l e r t o i n c l u d e "a g o l d e n marshmallow o a t o p u s w i t h r u b b e r h i n g e s and m o l t e n h o o f s . . . o y s t e r s . . . d o i n g t h e St., V i t u s dance, some w i t h l o c k j a w , some w i t h d o u b l e - j o i n t e d 10Q k n e e s . . . " ^ i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a b a c c h a n a l i a n dance h a l l . Read s e r i a t i m , t h e b i z a r r e images c o a g u l a t e i n t o an e f f e c t t h a t i s e x a c t l y M i l l e r and e x a c t l y a p p r o p r i a t e . I n j a z z , t o o , one f i n d s t h e p l e a s i n g whole d e r i v i n g f r o m a s l i g h t l y d i s c o r d a n t a d m i x t u r e o f e l e m e n t s ) . As s e v e r a l a u t h o r s have p o i n t e d o u t , t h e c r e a t i v e d o o r i s w i d e r open now t h a n i t has e v e r been. I mean t o s a y , t h e g r o w i n g s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f l i f e o v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s has d e s t r o y e d m o r a l a b s o l u t e s t h a t c o u l d once be a p p e a l e d t o f o r g u i d a n c e as t o what i s a d m i s s i b l e i n t o a r t . B r o o k e -Rose has shown^"*"^ t h a t i n l o v e p o e t r y by Donne and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , Love i s t h e c r i t e r i o n t h a t i s a p p e a l e d t o . O n l y t h o s e images t h a t h a r m o n i z e d w i t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g l o v e - i d e a l were a d m i t t e d i n t o t h e metaphors o f t h o s e p o e t s . -60-L i k e w i s e , God was t h e a r b i t e r i n p o e t r y by M i l t o n , s u c h t h a t h i s f i g u r e 'the Foe' c o u l d o n l y be one f o e — S a t a n ; t h a t i s , God's f o e . Rosamond Tuve came t o a c o n c l u s i o n s i m i l a r t o B r o o l e - R o s e ' s when she w r o t e t h a t t h e imagery o f R e n a i s s a n c e and m e t a p h y s i c a l w r i t e r s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i r b e l i e f i n a b s o l u t e v a l u e s , w h i l e t h e moderns, d o u b t i n g t h e s e a b s o l u t e s , " r e l y more h e a v i l y upon th e s e n s o r y 111 t e x t u r e s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f . " H e s t e r c o n c l u d e s h i s l o n g and t h o u g h t f u l book on metaphor v / i t h an apercu. p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e a d m i x t u r e o f l o g i c a l and c o u n t e r l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s . H i s remark i s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t i f metaphor w i l l a d m i t and marry d a t a t h a t i n th e d i s c u r s i v e l a n g u a g e a r e t h o u g h t t o be i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l y opposed, ( c f . K e n n e t h B u r k e ' s p h r a s e ' l i c e n s e d t r a n s s u b -s t a n t i a t i o n ' ) , t h e n p e r h a p s o u r " i r r e d u c i b l e p o l a r i t i e s " 112 i n g e n e r a l need o v e r h a u l i n g . ' There i s t h e s.eed o f a t r u t h i n h i s i n t i m a t i o n w h i c h f a r exceeds t h e scope o f t h i s p a p e r — t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i n a l l t h e t w o - s i d e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s t h a t have been r a g i n g i n c e s s a n t l y t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , t h e r e i s no r e a l d u a l i t y a t s t a k e . R a t h e r , a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s have a c o r n e r on t h e t r u t h ; o r , as t h e C e r t s ad g o e s , ' I t ' s a b r e a t h m i n t . ' ' I t ' s a candy m i n t . ' 'You're b o t h r i g h t . I t ' s two.. .-two... two m i n t s i n one. 1 -61-M e t a p h o r as E x t r a - o r I n f r a l o g i c a l L e a t h e r d a l e q u i t e j u s t i f i a b l y adds t h e n o t i o n 113 t h a t metaphor i s e x t r a l o g i c a l . ' Erom h i s s c i e n t i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e , he see s t h a t the k i n e t i c t h e o r y o f ga s e s has been e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f b i l l i a r d b a l l s i n m o t i o n , and t h a t t h i s d i t h y r a m b i c a n a l o g y , w h i c h caroms w i l d l y f r o m one s p h e r e o f phenomena t o e x p l a i n a n o t h e r , i s n o t h i n g i f n o t e x t r a l o g i c a l . Thomas, t o o , i s c o r r e c t i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g metaphor as i n f r a l o g i c a l , s a y i n g t h a t metaphor " h i s t o r i c a l l y o r l o g i c a l l y p r e c e d e s t h e s o l i d i f i e d meanings o f c o n c e p t u a l 114 language."' H e s t e r as w e l l r e c o g n i z e d metaphor t o be t h e p r e c u r s o r o f l i t e r a l l a n g u a g e , and w r o t e "...metaphor i n any c r e a t i v e f i e l d , w h e t h e r l i t e r a t u r e o r p h y s i c s , i s 115 a l w a y s on t h e c u t t i n g e dge."- ( H e s t e r ' s f o r m u l a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y t h e s a f e r o f t h e two s i n c e he d o e s . n o t speak d i r e c t l y t o t h e p r o b l e m o f whether f i g u r a t i v e o r l i t e r a l r e f e r e n c e i s more b a s i c ) . E l e t a p h o r as A n a l o g i c a l ' A n a l o g i c a l ' , t h o u g h , i s f a r and away t h e b e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f metaphor's p r o c e s s . The p r e f i x 'ana-' means 'up,' ' t h r o u g h o u t , ' ' a g a i n , ' and 'back' and s e r v e s t o c h a r t t h e e r r a t i c c o u r s e o f metaphor's p a r t i c u l a r l o g i c . A c c o r d i n g t o K e n n e t h B u r k e , a n a l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e a l i t y t h a n i t s l o g i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t . - 6 2 -Our n o t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y as a s u c c e s s i o n o f pushes f r o m b e h i n d i s . . . a d i s g u i s e d way o f i n s i s t i n g t h a t e x p e r i e n c e a b i d e by t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f a good argument...I do n o t see why t h e u n i v e r s e s h o u l d accommodate i t s e l f t o a man-made medium o f communis c a t i o n when t h e r e i s so s t r o n g l y a c r e a t i v e o r p o i e t i c q u a l i t y about i t s g o i n g s on...{116} M o r e o v e r , he adduces t h a t t h e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o a n a l o g i z i n g — t o s e e i n g p a r a l l e l s i n everythings-is n a t u r a l i n a c u l t u r e where S c i e n c e i s t h e incumbent d e i t y . F o r s c i e n c e , u n l i k e r e l i g i o n , i n s i s t s on a u n i v e r s a l r e g u l a r i t y where no Sudden s a l v a t i o n s o r r e t r i b u t i o n s a r e e n a c t e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t p r o -117 v i d e s a framework o f " u n i v e r s a l r e g u l a r i t y , : w i t h i n w h i c h t h e a n a l o g i c a l a c t p r o c e e d s as t h e main mode o f d i v i n a t i o n . The T r u t h Q u e s t i o n As f o r t r u t h i n M e t a p h o r , I have a l r e a d y h i n t e d t h a t metaphors r e f l e c t i n d i v i d u a l s m a l l t r u t h s r a t h e r t h a n a s i n g l e l a r g e one. The l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t t e n d s t o f a v o u r t h i s v i e w , w i t h H e s t e r , f o r one, c l a i m i n g t h a t " P o e t r y , t h u s m e t a p h o r i c a l images, do n o t r e f e r t o t h e 118 n a t u r a l w o r l d , b u t do r e f e r t o r e a l i t y . ' " 1 He means t h a t t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d i s c o n s t i t u t e d o f numerous i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i t i e s . I n i t s e n t i r e t y , n a t u r e i s too v a s t t o m i r r o r a c c u r a t e l y , so what t h e i n d i v i d u a l metaphor (poem, n o v e l , e t c . ) p r e s e n t s i s a s m a l l r e f r a c t i o n o f one o f t h e component t r u t h s . T h i s v i e w i s a l s o h e l d by Owen Thomas, who p o i n t s tt) t h e g r e a t number o f d i f f e r e n t metaphors on t h e s u b j e c t o f l o v e , t i m e , d e a t h , e t c , as p r o o f t h a t v e r i s i m i l i t u d e 119 c a n h e — a n d i s — a c h i e v e d v a r i o u s l y . C o l i n Turbayne's v i e w i s t h a t t h e metaphor-maker i s i n e f f e c t a g e n u i n e m e t a p h y s i c i a n , i n t h a t he knows h i s a l l o c a t i o n o f f a c t s t o he a r b i t r a r y and o n l y a t r u t h . He s u g g e s t s t h a t 120 l i t e r a l - m i n d e d t h i n k e r s a r e much l e s s e r m e t a p h y s i c i a n s b ecause t h e y a c c e p t h o l u s b o l u s t h e s o r t i n g and b u n d l i n g o f c o n c e p t s t h a t l i t e r a l l a n g u a g e g i v e s them p r e - p a c k a g e d . * I t i s e v i d e n t , however, t h a t t h e f r a g m e n t a r y t r u t h and i n s i g h t o f f e r e d by a metaphor can be g e n e r a l i z e d on t o t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d a t l a r g e , w i t h r e s u l t s t h a t a r e sometimes 122 good and sometimes bad. B u r k e , f o r one, f e e l s t h a t when D a r w i n ' s t h i n k i n g p l a c e d man i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f ape, meta-p h o r i c a l i n s i g h t was a t work t h e r e . Once t h e metaphor was e x p l o d e d t o c o s m i c p r o p o r t i o n s , i t p r o v e d t o have cosmic 123 r e v e r b e r a t i o n s . B u t S t e p h e n P e p p e r , c o n t r a r i w i s e , b e l i e v e s t h a t t o map one metaphor (he c a l l s i t a " r o o t metaphor") on t o a r e a l i t y l a r g e r t h a n t h e one f o r w h i c h i t was * I am s u g g e s i n g h e r e a trimm d-down v e r s o n o f B.L. Whorf's h y p o t h e s i s o f l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i v i s m : .^namely, t h a t t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r i e s i n e v e r y l a n g u a g e a r e d i f f e r e n t and t h a t " l a n g u a g e s a r e o r g a n i z e d a l o n g d i f f e r e n t l i n e s . . . T h e r e a r e L a t i n words w h i c h have no e q u i v a l e n t i n Greek and Hebrew words w h i c h have no e q u i v a l e n t i n e i t h e r L a t i n o r Greek. And t h e s e a r e n o t i s o l a t e d words a l o n e : e n t i r e s e c t i o n s o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y a r e o r g a n i z e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways i n d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s . " (.121) These p r e - o r d a i n e d c a t e g o r i e s , l i k e t h e i n n a t e m e n t a l c a t e g o r i e s p o s i t e d by K a n t , cannot h e l p b u t have a m i n d - b e n d i n g i n f l u e n c e , though t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s f a r f r o m p r o v a b l e as y e t . - 6 4 -o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d i s dangerous., T h i s s t r u c t u r e * i s t h e n e l e v a t e d i n t o a h y p o t h e s i s f o r t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f o t h e r u n c r i t i c i z e d f a c t s , as a r e s u l t o f w h i c h t h e s e become c r i t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f t h e r o o t metaphor. I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e r o o t metaphor i t s e l f may undergo c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s and r e f i n e m e n t w h i c h r e c i p r o c a l l y i n c r e a s e s i t s range and power o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Y/hen i t assumes u n l i m i t e d r a n g e , o r w o r l d - w i d e s c o p e , t h e n i t i s a m e t a p h y s i c a l h y p o t h e s i s , and a c a t a -l o g u e o f i t s p r i n c i p a l d e s c r i p t i v e c o n c e p t s i s a s e t o f m e t a p h y s i c a l c a t e g o r i e s . . . He i l l u s t r a t e s w i t h a number o f c o s m i c - s c a l e d p h i l o s o p h i e s , a l l o f w h i c h c a n be seen t o stem f r o m a r a t h e r l i m i t e d o r i g i n a l metaphor, and s u g g e s t s t h a t when' so b l o w n up, t h e r e s u l t a n t t h e o r i e s a l w a y s p r o v e t o c o n t a i n "some i n -.124 t e r n a l u l c e r o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n . " ' One c a n n o t h e l p b u t t h i n k back t o H e s t e r ' s i d e a t h a t t h e r e a r e no i r r e d u c i b l e p o l a r i t i e s and t o Whitehead's v i e w t h a t t h e r e i s no b l a c k o r w h i t e b u t o n l y shades o f g r e y . I f l i f e were a b l a c k - a n d -w h i t e m a t t e r , an expanded r o o t metaphor m i g h t be a b l e t o s e r v e as an adequate summary o f r e a l i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o N i e t z s c h e , man goes h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l way w i t h j u s t t h i s t e n d e r m i s c o n c e p t i o n i n tow, f e e l i n g - t h a t t h e a n a l o g i e s he makes a r e adequate t o t h e w o r l d t h a t c o n f r o n t s him. What t h e r e f o r e i s t r u t h ? A m o b i l e army o f m e t a p h o r s , metonymies, anthropomorphisms: i n s h o r t a sum o f human r e l a t i o n s w h i c h became p o e t i c a l l y and r h e t o r i c a l l y i n t e n s i f i e d , meta-morphosed, adorned and a f t e r l o n g usage seem-t o a n a t i o n f i x e d , c a n o n i c and b i n d i n g . (125) * ( t h e o r i g i n a l r o o t metaphor, w h i c h i s "framed f i r s t on t h e b a s i s o f a r a t h e r s m a l l s e t o f f a c t s " ) -65-A P o e t i c Grammar? I t w o u l d seem t o o t h a t t h e freedom l e t i n by M e t a p h o r ' s open-door p o l i c y i s s u c h t h a t l i n g u i s t s c a n n o t w r i t e a grammar f o r M e t a p h o r i n t h e way t h a t t h e y c a n w r i t e a grammar f o r a l a n g u a g e . Samuel L e v i n , i n L i n g u i s t i c S t r u c t u r e s i n P o e t r y , a p p e a r s t o have made t h e f u l l e s t a t t e m p t a t r u l e - w r i t i n g . H i s p r e m i s e i s t h a t i f t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e s i s r u l e - g o v e r n e d , t h e n t h e s e r u l e s s h o u l d he a b l e t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a g e n e r a t e d 126 s t r u c t u r e i s d e v i a n t . . B u t h i s s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h i s r e g a r d a r e s p o t t y , and a r e adequate o n l y as d e s c r i p t i v e ( n o t as e x p l a n a t o r y ) t h e o r y . I n sum, he n o t e s t h a t : (a) s t r u c t u r e s c a l l e d " c o u p l i n g s " a r e p e c u l i a r t o p o e t r y and e x p l a i n " t h e f a c t t h a t p o e t r y t e n d s t o r e m a i n i n one's mind;" (b) i t i s p r o b a b l y b e t t e r t o e x t e n d t h e e x i s t i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar t o c o v e r p o e t r y r a t h e r t h a n t o c l a s s p o e t r y as d e v i a n t ; ( c ) t h e p o e t o p e r a t e s w i t h an a l t e r e d l e x i c o n ; and (d) as m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , p o e t i c v i o l a t i o n s can.be viev/ed as e i t h e r s y n t a g m a t i c o r p a r a d i g m a t i c i n n a t u r e . But o t h e r l i n g u i s t s a r e l e s s o p t i m i s t i c t h a n L e v i n 127 i n o u t l o o k . A.L. B i n n s , f o r i n s t a n c e , d e s p a i r s o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f w r i t i n g a grammar f o r Metaphor f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , he e x p l a i n s t h a t st i c h an a m b i t i o n would i n v o l v e -66-. . . t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r e s c r i b e i n l i n g u i s t i c terms a l o n e t h e s u f f i c i e n t and n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a l l t h e s e n t e n c e s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . o f t h e p a s t , as w e l l as t h o s e o f . . . t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f the f u t u r e . (128) I n t h a t l i n g u i s t i c s has y e t tor : s t u d y - e x t e n s i v e l y u n i t s o f s p e e c h t h a t a r e l o n g e r t h a n s e n t e n c e - l e n g t h , he i s c o r r e c t f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g . H i s o t h e r p o i n t i s a l s o good. I t i s t h a t e v e r y d a y s p e e c h i s p u r p o s i v e ( e x c e p t f o r what S a p i r c a l l e d " p h a t i c " o r c o m f o r t i n g speech)'-, w i t h , l a n g u a g e - u s e t h a t i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s i t u a t i o n and what i s t o be communicated. " I n l i t e r a t u r e on t h e o t h e r hand we know n o t h i n g o f t h e i m a g i n e d s i t u a t i o n u n t i l t h e auifchor has t o l d u s ; o u r knowledge o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s d e r i v e d f r o m 12Q t h e l a n g u a g e . . . " J I n o t h e r w ords, the i n d i v i d u a l work o f l i t e r a t u r e i s s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l , and t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d i n i t i s h i g h l y s p e c i f i c , d e t e r m i n e d by a p o s t e r i o r i s o r t s o f d i c t a t e s . * 130 A n o t h e r w r i t e r , James P e t e r Thorne, ' " i s as c h a r y -as B i n n s about t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p o e t i c grammar. He s a y s t h a t t h e r e i s no way t o e l a s t i c i z e t h e f i x e d r u l e s o f E n g l i s h w i t h o u t i n c r e a s i n g t h e b u r d e n on E n g l i s h grammar u n t h i n k a b l y . That i s , t h e r e i s no r e a d y way to. g e t our grammar t o g e n e r a t e a s t r u c t u r e l i k e r h e danced h i s d i d ' amd a t t h e same t i m e t o e x c l u d e s o m e t h i n g l i k e 'we thumped t h e i r hads.' B e t t e r , he s a y s , t o w r i t e a grammar f o r each poem on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t each poem i s a c t u a l l y a * R e c a l l B u r k e ' s passage about t h e t e l l - t a l e l o c k e t s . The w r i t e r has a f u l l - b l o w n l i t e r a r y c o n c e p t i o n i n mind and l e t s t h e r e a d e r i n t o i t by s p o o n - f e e d i n g him a b i t a t a t i m e . - 6 7 -sample o f a d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e . As s u c h , each p o e t i c grammar c a n have a f i n i t e l e x i c o n , e n a b l i n g i t t o produce t h e p r o p e r f o r m s , e l i m i n a t e s t a r r e d forms and "show how c e r t a i n i r r e g u l a r i t i e s a r e r e g u l a r i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e poem i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r . " J -68-CHAPTER EIGHT  THE DIFFICULTY OF PARAPHRASING METAPHOR N o n - l i n e a r i t y I have e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t _ p o e t i c l a n g u a g e d e s c r i b e s a " n o n - s p a t i a l r e a l i t y . . . t h e - i n n e r l i f e o f man," and t h a t i n d o i n g s o , i t s own p r o c e s s e s a r e n o n - l i n e a r . Monroe B e a r d s l e y ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h i s n o n -l i n e a r n a t u r e i s t o p o i n t out t h a t t h e a n a l o g y e x p r e s s e d by a metaphor i s n o t a r e v e r s i b l e two-way a n a l o g y . H i s example i s 'The man i s a l i o n ; ' i t s o b v e r s e i s a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t i n meaning: 'the l i o n i s a man.' J Thus the A : B r e l a t i o n i n metaphor i s n o t e q u a l t o B : A. Economy I f n o n - l i n e a r i t y s e r v e s t o make metaphors d i f f i c u l t t o p a r a p h r a s e , t h e i r e c o n o m i c a l n a t u r e has the same e f f e c t . A n g e l , f o r i n s t a n c e , d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t ' N e c e s s i t y i s t h e m other o f i n v e n t i o n ' r e a d s as f o l l o w s i n p a r a p h r a s e : "The r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e c e s s i t y and i n v e n t i o n i s l i k e the r e l a t i o n between a mother and h e r o f f s p r i n g . " -*-33 l o n g e r v e r s i o n i s i n f i n i t e l y more u n g a i n l y . Not o n l y t h a t , b u t t h e l o n g e r more " e x p l a n a t o r y " p e r i p h r a s i s a c t u a l l y seems t o e x p l a i n l e s s , t o t a k e away f r o m the c l a r i t y o f t h e s h o r t e r v e r s i o n . ( c f . B u r k e ' s a t t e m p t e d p a r a p h r a s e o f 'Among b l i n d men t h e one-eyed i s k i n g ' ) . .Note t h a t -69-t h e same p r i n c i p l e seems t o h o l d t r u e i n " o r d i n a r y " l a n g u a g e : w h e r e v e r a t h o u g h t c a n be e x p r e s s e d w i t h concisi.om.and c l a r i t y , t h e s h o r t e r v e r s i o n i s a t a premium o v e r t h e l o n g e r . Thus, t h e I t a l i a n p r o v e r b ' D e t t o , f a t t o ' e x p r e s s e s e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i t s E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t 'no s o o n e r s a i d than: done 1 does. A c t u a l l y , i t e x p r e s s e s more because i t s t e r s e n e s s i s p e r f e c t l y c o n s o n a n t w i t h i t s theme, . E q u i v o c a l R e f e r e n c e M e t a p h o r s a r e a d d i t i o n a l l y h a r d t o r e p r o d u c e i n d i s c u r s i v e s p e e c h because t h e y a r e u n d e r s t o o d " i n t u i t i v e l y r a t h e r t h a n e x p l i c i t l y " a c c o r d i n g t o C h r i s t i n e B r o o k e -134 Rose.' I t i s by i n t u i t i o n t h a t t h e r e a d e r i n t e r p r e t s a metaphor ... l i k e 'the meadows l a u g h ' as meaning 'the meadows a r e f u l l o f flowers'-..without b e i n g t o l d . T h i s b e i n g t r u e , we r e c o g n i z e metaphors i n o u r r e a d i n g r a t h e r t h a n s t r i c t l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g them. Turbayne i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n g i v e s t h e t h r e e s t a g e s o f r e c o g n i t i o n . (These a r e c o t e r m i n o u s w i t h o n l y t h e f i r s t and second s t a g e s o f t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l l i f e - s p a n , s i n c e Turbayne does n o t a c c o u n t f o r m o r i b u n d i t y i n metaphor.) They a r e : (a) d e t e c t i o n . The r e a d e r becomes aware t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s a m i s s i n t h e t e x t and t h a t a l t h o u g h what he i s r e a d i n g i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o r m o f a l i t e r a l t r u t h , i t i s meant t o be r e a d -70-o t h e r w i s e . B u r ke c a l l s t h i s metaphor's " p e r s p e c t i v e by i n c o n g r u i t y . '^"35 (b) a t t e m p t t o u n d r e s s i t . The r e a d e r r e f e r s t o t h e l i t e r a l meaning o f the word a t i s s u e . F o r example, when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h s o m e t h i n g l i k e 'the meadows l a u g h , ' he r e f e r s t o what he knows about " r e g u l a r " l a u g h i n g . ( c ) r e s t o r a t i o n . The r e a d e r r e s t o r e s t h e metaphor t o i t s p l a c e i n t h e t e x t , h a v i n g a s s i m i l a t e d the f a c t t h a t i t i s d i f f e r e n t and the r e a s o n why. P a r a p h r a s i n g c a n a l s o y i e l d an embarras: de. r i c h e s s e , a s L e e c h d e m o n s t r a t e d when ..he . t r i e d t o r e - w o r d 'the s e a t h a t b a r e s h e r bosom t o t h e moon.' T h i s p r o -f u s i o n o f p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e s u l t s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h t e n o r and v e h i c l e t r a i l w i t h them a co v e y o f c o n n o t a t i o n s , many o f w h i c h appear f e a s i b l e as f a r as t h e r e a d e r c a n s e e . L e o n a r d A n g e l adds t o o t h a t t h e more o r i g i n a l a metaphor, t h e more d i f f i c u l t i t i s t o p r y i t f r o m c o n t e x t . F o r i n d i v i d u a l images a r e t i g h t l y w elded 137 t o t h e metaphor-systems o f whole poems, - t o t h e g r e a t e r t e x t u r e t h a t e x i s t s . When one a t t e m p t s t o " s p i n them out a l o n g m u l t i p l e l i n e s " as L e e c h d i d , t h e r e s u l t i s the one documented by A n g e l : t h e p o s s i b l e number o f p e r i p h r a s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n s i s e q u a l t o t h e p o s s i b l e number o f " f o u r t h t e r m s . " i . e . " t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e c e s s i t y and i n v e n t i o n i s l i k e t he r e l a t i o n between a mother Einci I T - G X 1 * " 'POSSIBLE FOURTH TERMS o f f s p r i n g baby progeny c h i l d -71-The m a t t e r o f t e x t u r e j u s t m e n t i o n e d f i n d s i t s p l a c e i n a t h r e e - f o l d t y p o l o g y t h a t B e r g g r e n has made o f m e t a p h o r s . I t b e a r s r e p r o d u c i n g h e r e : 1. i s o l a t e d p i c t o r i a l m e t a p h o r s . These a r e metaphors as the C l a s s i c i s t s u n d e r s t o o d them, 1. e. r h e t o r i c a l n i c e t i e s t o a d o r n more s u b s t a n t i v e d i s c o u r s e . — A P P E A L TO EMPRISICAL INTUITION 2. s t r u c t u r a l m e t a p h o r s . These a r e t h e a n a l o g i c a l t y p e . S c i e n t i f i c metaphors a r e e x c l u s i v e l y s t r u c t u r a l i n n a t u r e ; many ( t h o u g h n o t a l l ) l i t e r a r y metaphors a r e s t r u c t u r a l a l s o . — A P P E A L TO INTELLECTUAL INTUITION 3. t e x t u r a l m e t a p h o r s . These a r e "based on an T ? Q e m o t i o n a l i n t u i t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t y o r d i s p a r i t y . " — A P P E A L TO LYRICAL INTUITION. L e v i n h i n t e d a t a l i n g u i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s t e x t u r e o f l y r i c i s m , w h i c h i s i p s o f a c t o a u t h o r - s p e c i f i c . He showed t h a t l a n g u a g e c o n s i s t s o f a framework w h e r e i n a r e s i t u a t e d 140 p o s i t i o n - s l o t s ; t h e w r i t e r has an o p t i o n t o f i l l t he s l o t s w i t h one o f a number o f words ( s e l e c t i o n f r o m a p a r a d i g m ) , so t h a t one w r i t e r ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n t o c e r t a i n t y p e s o f words may p r o v i d e an e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s s t y l e o r d i c t i o n . ( W h i l e t h i s v i e w o f L e v i n ' s i s p l a u s i b l e , I f i n d i t t o o i n s u b s t a n t i a l t o be v e r y u s e f u l ) . The p o i n t i s , though, t h a t each w r i t e r maps h i s i n n e r l a n d s c a p e on t o t h e o u t e r ; t h i s i s t h e a l l u s i o n i n M i d d l e t o n H u r r y ' s t i t l e C o u n t r i e s o f t h e M i n d . F o r one -72-man w i l l w r i t e o f ' b r o o d i n g m o u n t a i n s . 1 F o r him, t h e n e u t r a l m o u n t a i n s a r e se e n t o b r o o d . * B u t ' l a u g h i n g mountains'' a r e e q u a l l y p e r m i s s i b l e i n a n o t h e r w r i t e r ' s cosmography. S t a n l e y E d g a r Hyman has i d e n t i f i e d t h i s a l l - t o o n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y t o p r o j e c t . (He c a r r i e s i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f u r t h e r t h a n I wo u l d f e e l s a f e d o i n g , however) : The i d e a s o f D a r w i n , Marx, F r a z e r and F r e u d a r e t h e n as t r u e as any i d e a s t h a t e x p l a i n o ur w o r l d t o o u r s a t i s f a c t i o n . I f t h e y a r o s e out o f t h e t h i n k e r ' s own n a t u r e , i f D a r w i n p r o j e c t e d h i s s l o w - a n d - s t e a d y p e r s o n a l i t y on n a t u r e o r F r e u d h i s w i s h f u l c h i l d h o o d , we c a n be s u r e o f s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g even E u c l i d ' s geometry o r Newton's m e c h a n i c s . I d e a s come from minds and minds a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s n a t u r e and e x p e r i e n c e . (3-41) F r e u d i s i n d e e d a most l i k e l y c a s e - i n - p o i n t f o r t h i s k i n d o f t h i n k i n g . Hyman, f o r one, e x p l a i n s F r e u d ' s many metaphors o f w a r f a r e ( i n v o l v i n g f o r t r e s s e s , s a l l y - p o r t s , watchmen and b e s i e g e r s ) as a p r o j e c t i o n o f h i s own i n n e r s t a t e : " F o r a d i v i d e d p e r s o n a l i t y d e a l i n g w i t h an ambi-14 v a l e n t s u b j e c t m a t t e r , what b e t t e r metaphor t h a n w a r f a r e ? " E r n e s t J o n e s i s e q u a l l y aware o f t h i s l i n e o f t h o u g h t . When he p r e s e n t e d the p a r a g r a p h on F r e u d ' s c o n c e i v i n g h i s g r e a t e s t i d e a s i n d u a l i t y - f o r m ( q u o t e d a t t h e end o f C h a p t e r F i v e ) , he f o l l o w e d i t w i t h t h i s : One i s n a t u r a l l y tempted t o c o r r e l a t e t h i s t e n d e n c y w i t h i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n F r e u d ' s own p e r s o n a l i t y . There was t h e f i g h t between s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e and p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n ; h i s p a s s i o n a t e l o v e u r g e and h i s u n u s u a l l y g r e a t s e x u a l r e p r e s s i o n ; * e.g. f o r T.S. E l i o t , ' A p r i l i s t h e c r u e l l e s t month, b r e e d i n g " L i l a c s out o f t h e dead ground.' -73-h i s v i g o r o u s m a s c u l i n i t y , w h i c h s h i n e s t h r o u g h a l l h i s w r i t i n g s , and h i s f e m i n i n e needs; h i s d e s i r e t o c r e a t e e v e r y t h i n g h i m s e l f and h i s l o n g i n g t o r e c e i v e s t i m u l a t i o n f r o m a n o t h e r ; h i s l o v e o f independence and h i s needs o f dependence. (143) More p r u d e n t t h a n Hyman, Jones adds a c a u t i o n a r y r i d e r : "But s u c h t h o u g h t s a s s u r e d l y b r i n g t h e r i s k o f f a l s i f i -144 c a t i o n f r o m t h e l u r e o f s i m p l i s t i c s o l u t i o n s . " A f i n a l a s p e c t o f metaphor's i n t r a c t a b i l i t y t o p a r a p h r a s e i s i t s a l l - a r o u n d i n e l u c t a b i l i t y . E ven t h o s e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t e r s who r a i l e d a g a i n s t m e t a p h y s i c a l metaphors u n w i t t i n g l y peppered [ s i c ] t h e i r own i n v e c t i v e w i t h m e t a p h o r s . The f o l l o w i n g example f r o m Samuel J o h n s o n (1779) i s i l l u s t r a t i v e . (The a c c u r s e d metaphors a r e u n d e r -s c o r e d ) . The m o s t " h e t e r o g e n e o u s i d e a s a r e yoked by v i o l e n c e t o g e t h e r ; n a t u r e and a r t a r e r a n s a c k e d f o r i l l u s -t r a t i o n s ; t h e i r l e a r n i n g i n s t r u c t s and t h e i r s e n s i b i l i t y s u r p r i s e s ; b u t t h e r e a d e r commonly t h i n k s h i s improvement d e a r l y bought and, though he sometimes a d m i r e s , i s seldom p l e a s e d . (145) CHAPTER NINE METAPHOR' SEEN AS A HEIGHTENED FORM OF LANGUAGE Up t o t h i s p o i n t , I have d e s c r i b e d M etaphor as a s p e c i a l p r o t e c t o r a t e e x i s t i n g , as i t were, i n t h e t e n e b r o u s u n p o l i c e d a r e a s o f a r u l e - g o v e r n e d o v e r - l a n g u a g e . Thus f a r , t h i s c o n c e p t i o n has been w o r k a b l e and f r u i t f u l . However, t h e r e i s a c o m p l i m e n t a r y s t r a i n o f r e a s o n i n g t h a t advances a n o t h e r v i e w — t h a t metaphor i s b u t a h e i g h t e n e d f o r m o f t h e o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e . L e t us u n d e r s t a n d " h e i g h t e n e d " t h r o u g h an a n a l o g y t o h i s t o l o g y : a c e l l dye b r i n g s out i n t o s h a r p r e l i e f t h e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e c y t o p l a s m . M e t a p h o r v i e w e d as a h e i g h t e n e d v e r s i o n o f o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e i s s i m i l a r l y t i n c t u r e d , w i t h t h e m a j o r f e a t u r e s o f l a n g u a g e s h o w i n g up s h a r p e r and b r i g h t e r . 146 Terence Hawkes most c l e a r l y p r e s e n t s t h e case f o r t h i s l i n e o f t h o u g h t when he s a y s t h a t p o e t i c l a n g u a g e d i f f e r s i n d e g r e e , n o t i n k i n d , f r o m the d i s c u r s i v e tongue. To s u p p o r t t h i s c r e d o , he q u o t e s W i n i f r e d Nowottny t o t h e 147 e f f e c t t h a t "metaphor i s a l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon; "'<>• ' t h e l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s u s e d by p o e t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y an e x p l o r a t i o n and an e x p a n s i o n o f p o t e n t i a l i t i e s l a t e n t i n t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d by e v e r y b o d y . ( B e f o r e Wordsworth's c l a i m i n t h e " P r e f a c e t o L y r i c a l B a l l a d s " t h a t p o e t s ' l a n g u a g e s h o u l d be no d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e words o f e v e r y d a y s p e e c h , a s p e c i a l p o e t i c v o c a b u l a r y was t h o u g h t t o be n e c e s s a r y ) . W h e e l w r i g h t b o l s t e r e d the v i e w w i t h h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e i s a 'must' w h i l e t h e p o e t i c i s a 'can' and a 'may,' t h e r e b y i m p l y i n g t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i s one o f d e g r e e . He c a u t i o n e d t h a t t h e r e i s no " c o n c e p t u a l ' chasm"' s e p a r a t i n g l i t e r a l and f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e . Three o t h e r w r i t e r s w o r k i n g s e p a r a t e l y s i n g t h e same tune i n a d i f f e r e n t k e y . T h e i r c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t t h e v e r y f i x i t y o f the s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e i n v i t e s m e t a p h o r i c h e i g h t e n i n g and p r o v i d e s a s t a b l e p l a s m i c m a t r i x o r bac k -d r o p a g a i n s t w h i c h e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . Owen Thomas, f o r example, w r o t e t h a t metaphor i s made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s y s t e m a t i c l a n g u a g e ; t h e c o r o l l a r y i s t h a t a c h a o t i c non-system o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w o u l d produce no p o e t r y . Edward S t a n k i e w i c z a g r e e d t h a t " p o e t i c l a n g u a g e t a k e s f u l l c o g n i z a n c e o f the r u l e s o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c s y s t e m , and i f i t a d m i t s T d e v i a t i o n s , 1 t h e y t h e m s e l v e s a r e • c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e l a n g u a g e o r t h e g i v e n 150 p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n . " ' - • • Muk a r o v s k y c a r r i e d t h e c o n c l u s i o n f u r t h e s t , g o i n g out on a t h e o r e t i c a l l i m b as he o p i n e d : "The more t h e norm o f t h e s t a n d a r d i s s t a b i l i z e d i n a g i v e n l a n g u a g e , t h e more v a r i e d c a n be i t s v i o l a t i o n and t h e r e -i n -f o r e t h e more p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r p o e t r y i n t h a t l a n g u a g e . " -/" ( A c t u a l l y , he has s a i d n o t h i n g t h a t wasn't i m p l i c i t i n the o t h e r s ' t h o u g h t s . I t i s j u s t t h a t one wants p r o o f o f su c h a b o l d s t a t e m e n t . ) -76-Y/hat f e a t u r e s , t h e n , does metaphor h i g h l i g h t i n t h e s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e ? I have t h i s f i v e - i t e m l i s t : (1) A m b i g u i t y Empson, doyen and c h i e f l i t i g a n t o f a m b i g u i t y , must n e c e s s a r i l y be c o n s u l t e d i n t h i s r e g a r d . He s e e s a m b i g u i t y as an i n a l i e n a b l e f e a t u r e o f a l l l a n g u a g e , and d e f i n e s i t t h i s way: "any v e r b a l nuance, however s l i g h t , w h i c h g i v e s room f o r a l t e r n a t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o t h e same p i e c e o f l a n g u a g e . . . I n a s u f f i c i e n t l y e x t e n d e d sense any 152 p r o s e s t a t e m e n t c o u l d be c a l l e d ambiguous." v~ Q u i t e e x p l i c i t l y he r e c o g n i z e s t h a t metaphor h e i g h t e n s t h i s t e n d e n c y t o nuance. F i r s t , he a c c o r d s i t a m a j o r r o l e i n l a n g u a g e ("metaphor i s t h e normal mode o f development o f 151 a l a n g u a g e " • ) and t h e n he a l l o w s how a m b i g u i t y i s i t s modus o p e r a n d i ("the m a c h i n a t i o n s o f a m b i g u i t y a r e among .154 t h e v e r y r o o t s o f p o e t r y . " ) T e r e n c e Hawkes sums up v / i t h t h i s : " i n t h e use i t makes o f metaphor's m u l t i p l e ' a m b i g u i t i e s , ' p o e t r y i n f a c t e x p l o i t s t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c -155 t e r i s t i c o f l a n g u a g e i t s e l f . " • (2) T r a n s f e r e n c e S e v e r a l w r i t e r s have c o n c l u d e d t h a t p o e t i c l a n g u a g e c a p i t a l i z e s on the " t r a n s f e r e n c e " t h a t t h e y see as b e i n g i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n s o f t r a n s f e r e n c e a r e somewhat f o g - s h r o u d e d , as i s the e x a c t -77-h e i g h t e n i n g e f f e c t t h a t M e t a p h o r i s t h o u g h t t o have. However, I t h i n k t h a t I c a n a p p r o p r i a t e t h e i r v i e w i n t o my argument w i t h o u t b e i n g t o o P r o c r u s t e a n i n e f f e c t . ¥/heelwright d e f i n e s t r a n s f e r e n c e t h u s : " t o d e s i g n a t e any e l e m e n t i n human e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h i s n o t m e r e l y contem-p l a t e d f o r i t s own sake a l o n e , b u t i s employed t o mean, 1 5 6 t o i n t e n d , t o s t a n d p r o x y f o r s o m e t h i n g beyond i t s e l f . " -I t seems t h a t he i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e q u i t e commonplace way i n w h i c h an a r b i t r a r y s i g n i s a g r e e d t o s t a n d f o r a c o n c e p t , i d e a o r o b j e c t . As I showed a t t h e o u t s e t , s u c h naming i s a ponderous p r o c e s s , w i t h t h e a r b i t r a r y l a b e l " s t a n d i n g p r o x y f o r " a whole r a f t o f i n t e r l o c k e d conno-t a t i o n s . Nowottny and Brooke-Rose seem t o b e l i e v e t h a t when one w r i t e s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , one c a n e x p l o i t t h e n o r m a l t r a n s f e r e n c e r e l a t i o n . The f o r m e r w r i t e s t h a t M e t a p h o r i s t h e b e s t means f o r u s i n g l a n g u a g e t o c o v e r t h e u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n and t h e unnamed phenomenon f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t metaphor f r e e s him (Tthe p o e t ] f r o m t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e f e r r i n g v i a c o n -v e n t i o n s o f r e f e r e n c e . . . M e t a p h o r p e r m i t s him t o u s e , i f n o t any, t h e n a l m o s t any a r e a o f t h e whole s y s t e m o f our l a n g u a g e . (157) Brooke-Rose s i m i l a r l y b e l i e v e s t h a t p o e t i c l i c e n s e a l l o w s t r a n s f e r e n c e t o go f r o m c o n t e x t t o c o n t e x t so t h a t " i n s t e a d o f a ready-made p h r a s e o r p r o v e r b , we have t h e e c h o i n g p h r a s e o l o g y f r o m a d i f f e r e n t r e a l m o f t h o u g h t o r 158 f r o m a d i f f e r e n t g e n r e . " W h i l e t h i s i s a l l v e r y w e l l , t h o u g h , I t h i n k Owen Thomas i s t h e most a s t u t e on t h e s u b j e c t . As I q u o t e d him e a r l i e r , he b e l i e v e s t h a t i n -78-M e t a p h o r t r a n s f e r e n c e i s i n c o m p l e t e , whe reas i t i s c o m p l e t e i n d i s c u r s i v e l a n g u a g e . T h e r e f o r e , i n a l i t e r a l s e n t e n c e l i k e ' J o h n J o n e s i s a f i s h e r m a n , ' t r a n s f e r e n c e i s c o m p l e t e ; ; " J o h n J o n e s p r e s u m a b l y has a l l t h e f e a t u r e s o f 159 ' f i s h e r m a n . ' " B u t i n E m i l y D i c k i n s o n ' s f i g u r a t i v e s t a t e m e n t 'Shame i s t h e S h a w l o f P i n k , ' shame h a s o n l y one o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f a s h a w l . The p o e t , t h e n , i s v i o l a t i n g 160 " l a n g u a g e ' s t a x o n o m i c s y s t e m , " - w h i c h assumes t h a t t r a n s -f e r e n c e s h a l l be c o m p l e t e . (3) C o n t e x t I f c o n t e x t f i g u r e s i n p l a i n s p e e c h , i t i s even more p r o m i n e n t i n p o e t i c l a n g u a g e , w h i c h i s ( a s L e a t h e r d a l e 161 w r o t e ) " a m i x i n g o f c o n t e x t s . " I n h i s Symbol and M e t a p h o r i n Human E x p e r i e n c e , M a r t i n P o s s s u m m a r i z e s t h e n o t i o n i n t h i s f a s h i o n : " c o n n e c t e d s p e e c h i s m e t a p h o r i c a l i n t h a t i t g i v e s e a c h w o r d c o n t e x t u a l m e a n i n g b e y o n d i t s o r d i n a r y 162 s e n s e . " ' •". He means t h a t c o n t e x t i s so s i g n a l i n M e t a p h o r ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n t h a t c o n n e c t e d s p e e c h c a n be c a l l e d " m e t a -p h o r i c a l " i n s o f a r as i t i n v o l v e s c o n t e x t . N o w o t t n y — a b o v e , u n d e r ( 2 ) - - s h o w s how t h e c r e a t i v e w r i t e r i s a b l e t o t i n k e r ad l i b i t u m w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . (4) P r e d i c a t i n g a N o m i n a l T h e r e i s a f o u r t h e x c e l l e n t " c a s e m a d e - f o r t h e v i e w t h a t M e t a p h o r i s a h e i g h t e n e d v e r s i o n o f l a n g u a g e , Thomas b e i n g i t s m a i n p r o p o n e n t . He s a y s t h a t " t h e most - 7 9 -f u n d a m e n t a l p r o c e s s i n l a n g u a g e c o n s i s t s o f p r e d i c a t i n g a n o m i n a l , a n d l i s t s as most b a s i c t h e s t r u c t u r e s ' s o m e t h i n g i s s o m e t h i n g , ' 'something has s o m e t h i n g ' and ' s o m e t h i n g does something* 1' (The f a c t t h a t ' t o be,' ' t o have,' and 'to make' a r e i n v a r i a b l y the most i r r e g u l a r v e r b s i n a l a n g u a g e a t t e s t s t o t h e i n o r d i n a t e l y heavy f u n c t i o n a l l o a d t h e y c a r r y ) . He o b s e r v e s t h a t metaphor, w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e framework o f 'something i s s o m e t h i n g 1 "makes a more, c o m p l e t e u s e o f l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s t h a n o t h e r k i n d s o f f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e . B r o o k e - R o s e c a l l s t h i s k i n d o f,metaphor t h e " c o p u l a l i n k , " n o t i n g a t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e 'A i s B' a l l o w s f o r metaphors t h a t a r e a u t h o r i t a t i v e , d i d a c t i c , h i g h l y o r i g i n a l a n d/or p a r a -, . ,.165 d o x i c a l ; ( 5 ) E t h n o c e n t r i c i t y The f a c t t h a t a c u l t u r e ' s metaphors a r e e t h n o c e n t r i c o r p e c u l i a r t o t h a t one c u l t u r e w i l l be t o u c h e d on h e r e and d e a l t w i t h i n f u l l l a t e r . I t i s o n l y i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e h e r e , w h i l e on t h e t o p i c o f h e i g h t e n e d l a n g u a g e , t h a t e v e r y _ 166 l a n g u a g e " ^ c o n t a i n s . . . o v e r t 'ways o f p u t t i n g ' t h i n g s " -( s e e my m o d i f i e d s t a t e m e n t o f the l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i v i s m h y p o t h e s i s , page ( 6 3 ) , f o o t n o t e ) , " c o v e r t . . . p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s 167 about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e ' r e a l i t y ' o u t s i d e u s . " I f t h i s -80-i s s o , M e t a p h o r h e i g h t e n s t h i s c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f l a n g u a g e . As Hawkes p u t s i t , '/That t h i s means f i n a l l y i s t h a t metaphor i n a l l s o c i e t i e s w i l l have a ' n o r m a t i v e ' and r e i n f o r c i n g a s p e c t , as w e l l as an e x p l o r a t o r y o n e . . . I t w i l l r e t r e n c h and c o r r o b o r a t e as.much as i t w i l l expand our v i s i o n . . . (168*) and t h e n l a t e r : " L i k e l a n g u a g e i t s e l f , metaphor t h u s b i n d s t h e c u l t u r e t o g e t h e r i n a rough, unity/of.experience.«"^^ : F i n a l l y , the s u g g e s t i o n i s o f f e r e d by W h e e l w r i g h t t h a t p a t t e r n ( t h e same p a t t e r n i n g d e a l t w i t h i n t h e i c o n i c i t y c h a p t e r ) i s t h e c e l l d y e — t h e o u t s i d e agent t h a t c a u s e s t h e f i v e above-named l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s to. s t a n d out so c l e a r l y . He d e f i n e s p a t t e r n i n g as a p r o c e s s t h a t h i g h l i g h t s ? w h a t i s a l r e a d y t h e r e . "The s t y l i z a t i o n o f p o e t i c l a n g u a g e i s an i m a g i n a t i v e e m p h a s i z i n g o f c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s and t o n i n g down o f o t h e r s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e 170 r h y t h m i c l i f e o f l a n g u a g e i t s e l f L e a t h e r d a l e warns a g a i n s t f l o o d i n g t h e c e l l s t r u c t u r e w i t h t h e dye; he c a u t i o n s t h a t M etaphor s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o t a k e o v e r . " W h i l e t h e c l a i m t h a t a l l l a n g u a g e i s m e t a p h o r i c a l , " he s a y s , " i s t o be r e j e c t e d , the s a l i e n t r o l e o f metaphor i n t h e g r o w t h o f l a n g u a g e and p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s i s l a g e , ,,172 171 a c c e p t e d . . . " ' M e t a p h o r i s n o t e v e r y t h i n g i n l a n g u a g e , b u t i n S h e l l e y ' s words, "language i s v i t a l l y m e t a p h o r i c a l -81-CHAPTER TEN  METAPHOR AND COGNITION As a s u b t o p i c o f t h e s u b j e c t M e t a p h o r , t h e q u e s t i o n o f c o g n i t i o n i s h ydra-headed i n i t s c o m p l e x i t y . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h o u g h , t h e r e i s much m a t e r i a l i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , , i f n o t an' e x c e s s o f sweeping e p i g r a m m a t i c s t a t e m e n t s on t h e s u b -j e c t , w h i c h I s h o u l d l i k e t o k n i t t o g e t h e r h e r e . I w i l l u s e t h e n e c e s s a r y e v i l o f s u b j e c t h e a d i n g s t o keep t h e a s p e c t s and r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f M e t a p h o r ' s c o g n i t i v e s i d e d i s c r e t e . E x p r e s s i n g t h e O r i g i n a l There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t metaphor i s an i d e a l l i n g u i s t i c t o o l f o r e x p r e s s i n g o r i g i n a l t h o u g h t s . As W a l l a c e S t e v e n s p u t s i t , " R e a l i t y i s a c l i c h e ' f r o m w h i c h 173 we escape by metaphor."" Hyman came t o t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a f t e r h i s i n - d e p t h s t u d y o f t h e p r o s e s t y l e s o f the f o u r g r e a t o r i g i n a l t h i n k e r s D a r w i n , Marx, F r a z e r and F r e u d . He f o u n d t h a t t h e i r w r i t i n g was i n t e r l a r d e d w i t h m e t a p hors, so much so t h a t o r i g i n a l i d e a s s c a r c e l y seemed e x p r e s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e d e v i c e . * C e r t a i n o f h i s s u b j e c t s d e p r e c a t e d t h i s t e n d e n c y , F r e u d , f o r i n s t a n c e d e n y i n g t h a t h i s meta-^ p h o r s were i n any way i n t e g r a l t o h i s i d e a s t h e m s e l v e s . * M a u r i c e C o r n f o r t h , i n a M a r x i s t c r i t i q u e o f t h e modern " l i n g u i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y , " somewhat t e s t i l y a l l u d e s t o t h e m e t a p h o r i c i z i n g i n W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s p r o s e : "He was a man w i t h a p a s s i o n f o r p i c t u r e s q u e a n a l o g i e s . B e g i n n i n g w i t h p i c t u r e s , he t h e n s u b s t i t u t e d a t o o l box, t h e n got on t o games, and t h e t r e a t m e n t o f i l l n e s s , and f i n i s h e d up w i t h f l i e s i n a f l y - b o t t l e . " (174) -82-B u t Hyman b r u s h e s F r e u d ' s d i s c l a i m e r a s i d e , and a s s e r t s t h a t "Any book o f i d e a s i s t o some degree metaphorical;:, a g r e a t book o f i d e a s c o n s i s t s o f p r o f o u n d metaphors i n a 1 7 5 r e a l i z e d form..."' - L e a t h e r d a l e a g r e e s , and f u r t h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t n o v e l t y and t h e a b i l i t y t o embody n o v e l t y i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f metaphor t h a t i t c a n be u s e d t o d e f i n e i t , t h e p r e s e n c e o f o r i g i n a l i t y s e r v i n g t o d i s t i n -g u i s h t r u e metaphor f r o m f a l s e . I f one c a n s u b s t i t u t e a s i m i l e f o r a s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e o f l i k e n e s s t h e n t h e s i m i l e i s m e r e l y an ornament. S i m i l a r l y , even though a word may be u s e d q u a s i - m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , i f i t amounts t o a mere s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r a n o t h e r word o r words which" have been l e a r n e d o s t e n s i v e l y t h e n i t i s n o t r e a l l y m e t a p h o r i c a l b u t o n l y p s e u d o - m e t a p h o r i c a l . ( 176 ) D e f i n i n g - I n d u c i n g A b i l i t y One-way i n w h i c h metaphors e x p r e s s t h e o r i g i n a l i s f o u n d i n t h e i r manner o f d e f i n i n g s i m i l a r i t y . As B l a c k s u c c i n c t l y and somewhat t o o s w e e p i n g l y p u t i t , " t h e metaphor c r e a t e s the s i m i l a r i t y £rather t h a n f o r m u l a t i n g ] 177 some s i m i l a r i t y a n t e c e d e n t l y e x i s t i n g . " ( I n c o n c e n -t r a t i n g on metaphor's a b i l i t y t o i n d u c e a r e s e m b l a n c e he i s e x a g g e r a t i n g , and f a l s i f i e s t h e s i t u a t i o n somewhat by o m i t t i n g m e n t i o n o f t h e a n t e c e d e n t r e s e m b l a n c e t h a t e x i s t s b e f o r e t h e p o e t o r t h e o r i g i n a l mind r e i f i e s i t . B ecause even i n a f a r - f e t c h e d c o m p a r i s o n l i k e E l i o t ' s -83-L e t us go t h e n , y o u and I N Where t h e e v e n i n g i s s p r e a d o u t a g a i n s t t h e s k y L i k e a p a t i e n t e t h e r i z e d on a t a b l e , t h e r e i s a p o i n t where p a t i e n t and e v e n i n g , l i k e Grand Canyon and saxophone, a r e and a l w a y s have been c o n g r u e n t . * I t p r e - d a t e s E l i o t ' s a c h i e v e m e n t o f r e c o g n i z i n g i t . ) J o h n M i d d l e t o n M u r r y c a p t u r e d t h e c r e a t i v e / d e f i n i n g a s p e c t , s a y i n g t h a t i n a t r u e metaphor, i . t r u e s i m i l a r i t y i s p e r c e i v e d , i i . t h e s i m i l a r i t y was h i t h e r t o u n p e r c e i v e d o r o n l y r a r e l y p e r c e i v e d , and i i i . t h e p e r c e p t i o n a f f e c t s t h e r e a d e r l i k e a r e v e l a t i o n . (178) A p h o r i s t i c a l l y , P a r k h u r s t c o n c u r s . He w r i t e s : "Any/ supreme i n s i g h t i s a metaphor. '^79-A n a l o g i z i n g t h e Enown t o t h e Unknown To many, t h i s i s t h e human mode o f c o g n i t i o n i n a n u t s h e l l ; ; w i t h o u t a d o u b t , i t i s t h e one and o n l y method o f s c i e n c e t o d a y . I n E m b l e r ' s w o r d s , "we a r e c o n s t a n t l y a t work t r a n s m u t i n g t h e i n c o n g r u o u s i n t h o u g h t and 180 e x p e r i e n c e i n t o t h e congruous."" P o r t h i s f u n c t i o n , metaphor i s i d e a l l y s u i t e d . I t " c o n s t i t u t e s t h e i n d i s -p e n s a b l e p r i n c i p l e f o r i n t e g r a t i n g d i v e r s e phenomena and 181 p e r s p e c t i v e s w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c i n g t h e i r d i v e r s i t y . " ' * t h e c o n g r u i t y would be r e v e a l e d i n a s e m a n t i c f e a t u r e o f t h e two i t e m ' s l e x i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . -84-A H e l p f u l Vagueness F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s a s e m a n t i c haze i n metaphor, w h i c h has been v a r i o u s l y c a l l e d " c o n t r o l l e d v a g u e n e s s " o r s o f t f o c u s . I t stems f r o m t h e f a c t d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r t h a t m e t a phors s t a t e a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o u t d e f i n i n g t h e b a s i s f o r t h a t c o m p a r i s o n . We p r o f i t f r o m t h e v a g u e n e s s , b o t h i n l i t e r a t u r e ( W h e e l w r i g h t ' s example) E x p r e s s i v e l a n g u a g e has i t s s u p e r i o r i t y t o s t e n o -l a n g u a g e [ i . e . , , I i t e r a l s p e e c h j p r i n c i p a l l y i n i t s a b i l i t y t o s u g g e s t . . . s o m e t h i n g o f t h a t i n e l u c t i b l y l i m i n a l c h a r a c t e r o f human e x p e r i e n c e . (182) and i n s c i e n c e ( L e a t h e r d a l e ) : F o r s c i e n c e needs t h e i n o c u l a t i o n o f a m b i g u i t y and t h e s e m a n t i c haze t h a t s u r r o u n d s t h e n e u t r a l a n a l o g y o f a model o r t h e u n e x p l o r e d r e s o u r c e s o f a metaphor i f i t i s t o m a r s h a l i t s r e s o u r c e s f o r s u r v i v a l and g r o w t h . Too d o c t r i n a i r e an a x i o m a -t i z a t i o n , o r l i t e r a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , even s u p p o s i n g t h i s were p o s s i b l e i n any n e u t r a l u n t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n f e c t e d way, m i g h t f r e e s c i e n c e f r o m t h e i n f e c t i o n o f e r r o r due t o u n c r i t i c a l r e l i a n c e on a model o r metaphor, b u t i t w o u l d k i l l s c i e n c e i n t h e p r o c e s s . (183) D e r i v i n g H y p o t h e s e s B e s i d e s a l l o w i n g i t t o c a p t u r e "the o r i g i n a l t h o u g h t e l e g a n t l y , " t h e n o n - 1 i t e r a l n e s s o f metaphor makes 184 i t i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r p o s i t i n g hypotheses."' - The word • i n d i s p e n s a b l e ' s t a n d s out i n t h i s opinioro. o f L e a t h e r d a l e ' S 3 b e c a u s e , as I have shown above, i t i s c l e a r t h a t metaphor is-man's c o g n i z i n g t o o l p a r e x c e l l e n c e , and q u i t e p o s s i b l y h i s o n l y s u c h . N i e t z s c h e has w r i t t e n a w o n d e r f u l e s s a y -85 -a b o u t t h i s p r i m a c y o f metaphor, where he l i k e n s metaphor-making i n man and t h e c e a s e l e s s k n o w l e d g e - q u e s t t o t h e o t h e r c o m p u l s i v e o r d e r i n g / p a t t e r n i n g phenomena t h a t e x i s t i n t h e a n i m a l w o r l d . J u s t as t h e bee works a t t h e same t i m e a t t h e c e l l s and f i l l s them w i t h honey, t h u s s c i e n c e works i r r e s i s t i b l y a t t h e g r e a t c o l u m b a r i u m o f i d e a s , t h e c e m e t e r y o f p e r c e p t i o n s , b u i l d s e v e r newer and h i g h e r s t o r e y s ; s u p p o r t s , p u r i f i e s , renews the o l d c e l l s . (185) M u r r y i s o f t h e same mind: 1 1.. .metaphor app e a r s as t h e i n s t i n c t i v e and n e c e s s a r y a c t o f t h e mind e x p l o r i n g and o r d e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e . As S t e p h e n P e p p e r p o i n t e d o u t , t h e r e i s an i r r e s i s r t i b l e u r g e t o g e n e r a l i z e a good metaphor, t o make i t a p p l i c a b l e t o a g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r number o f i n s t a n c e s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i z i n g i s h e a l t h y i f i t i s n o t o verdone. ( P e p p e r t h i n k s t h a t , i n m e t a p h y s i c s a t l e a s t , i t i s t h e o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e t o d o g m a — n a t u r a l l y t h e b e t t e r c h o i c e ) . P o r one t h i n g , "whole works o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , even e n t i r e s c h o o l s , a r e h a r d l y more t h a n t h e p a t i e n t r e p e -t i t i o n , i n a l l i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s , o f a f e r t i l e metaphor.""*' P o r a n o t h e r , Turbayne has shown t h a t we speak a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n metaphors i n some d i s c i p l i n e s j u s t because o f t h e n a t u r e o f the m a t e r i a l i n v o l v e d : r e l i g i o n and p s y c h o l o g y come t o mind. T h e r e f o r e , i n these, f i e l d s , -86-i n n o v a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f n o t h i n g h u t t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f new metaphors f o r o l d . The A n a l o g i c a l A c t The c o g n i t i v e c a p a b i l i t y o f metaphor l i e s i n t h e a n a l o g y t h a t i t makes. (Whatever p a r t o f metaphor i s n o t a n a l o g i c a l - c o g n i t i v e b e l o n g s t o i t s e m o t i v e - t e x t u r a l s i d e ) In s c i e n c e ^ p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e a c t o f a n a l o g i z i n g new phenomena t o o l d i s a b o l d p r e h e n s i l e g e s t u r e w i t h a good p a r t o f i n t u i t i o n m i x e d i n . I t goes f a r beyond mere method, so t h a t "What i m p o r t e d a n a l o g y and t h e a n a l o g i c a l a c t l e a d t o i s n o t a l i m i t e d i n f e r e n c e t o such-and-such a p r o p e r t y o r p r o p e r t i e s b u t a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l , g e s t a l t -l i k e i n s i g h t i n t o new ways o f l o o k i n g a t phenomena."^^^ As s u c h , a n a l o g i z i n g i s t h e g i f t o f c e r t a i n p e o p l e o n l y . L o g i c i a n s who a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d i n s t e p - b y - s t e p r e a s o n i n g r a r e l y have t h i s s p a r k , w h i l e t h o s e t h a t do a r e r a r e l y l o g i c i a n s as w e l l . W i l l i a m James has a s k e d ( r h e t o r i -c a l l y ) : "Why c a n n o t anyone r e a s o n as w e l l as anyone e l s e ? Why does i t need a Newton t o n o t i c e t h e l a w o f s q u a r e s , i q O a D a r w i n t o n o t i c e t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e f i t t e s t ? " ' -Mary Hesse has shown t h a t a n a l o g i e s i n s c i e n c e a r e o f two k i n d s : d i s p o s a b l e and permanent. A sample o f t h e f o r m e r i s t h e one K e p l e r made c o m p a r i n g t h e sun -87 -and p l a n e t s t o t h e huh and spokes o f a w h e e l . The metaphor had a h e u r i s t i c u s e b u t p r o v e d d i s p e n s a b l e a s th e s o l a r s y s t e m n o t i o n began t o s u s t a i n i t s e l f u n a i d e d . I n o t h e r c a s e s , however, t h e i m p o r t e d a n a l o g u e i n s c i e n t i f i c metaphors h a s i n f i l t r a t e d i t s t o p i c a n a l o g u e , m i n g l e d w i t h i t , and f i n a l l y p r o v e d an u n d e t a c h a b l e p a r t o f t h e whole c o n c e p t . Hesse s t a t e s i t t h u s : A t t h e o t h e r extreme t h e r e a r e a n a l o g i e s w h i c h a r e i m p l i e d i n t h e whole way i n w h i c h phenomena a r e o b s e r v e d and i n t h e l a n g u a g e i n w h i c h t h e o r i e s a r e e x p r e s s e d . The p a r t i c l e t h e o r y has p r o v i d e d s u c h an a n a l o g y e v e r s i n c e Demo-c r i t u s d e v e l o p e d h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f atomism. (191;') L a s t l y , L e a t h e r d a l e c i t e s a n o t h e r t w o - f o l d c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n o f a n a l o g i e s . The f i r s t t y p e i s the o b s e r v a t i o n o f a s i m p l e r e s e m b l a n c e , w h i c h i s b a s i c a l l y t r a n s p a r e n t common-sense c o g n i z i n g . The o t h e r t y p e i s more p r o d i g i o u s , and compares one r e l a t i o n ( i n t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l sense) t o a n o t h e r . He g i v e s many examples o f s u c h a n a l o g i e s f r o m s c i e n c e , h u t t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g one ( t o me) works b o t h ways. That i s , an o r g a n i s m c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n te r m s o f a s o c i e t y ; l i k e w i s e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e x p l a i n a s o c i e t y a s i f i t were an o r g a n i s m . P o e t r y and M a t h e m a t i c s The f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n on a n a l o g y i l l u m i n e s t h e w e l l - h i d d e n f a c t t h a t a n a l o g i c a l t h o u g h t i s common t o -88-b o t h s c i e n c e / m a t h e m a t i c s and p o e t r y / l i t e r a t u r e . Or as Thomas e x p r e s s e s i t , " I n d i s c u s s i n g a b s t r a c t i o n s , b o t h i n s c i e n c e and i n t h e a r t s , we must see one t h i n g i n terms 192 o f another.." C u r i o u s l y , t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h i s common eleme n t d i s s o l v e s t h e i r o n - c l a d d i c h o t o m y t h e two d i s c i -p l i n e s have a l w a y s been t h o u g h t t o embody. I f we i n d e e d u n d e r s t a n d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l mode o f c o g n i t i o n i n each c a s e t o be a n a l o g i z i n g , t h e n d i f f e r e n c e s c o a l e s c e and f u s e . I t becomes h a r d e r t o t e l l one f r o m t h e o t h e r . V e r y s i m p l y , p o e t r y and ma t h e m a t i c s a r e two v e r y s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h i d e a s . . . B o t h employ s e t s o f symbols and systems o f n o t a t i o n ...They exchange d i s g u i s e s , so t h a t m a t h e m a t i c s , commonly a c c e p t e d , f o r i t s h a r d h e a d e d n e s s , r i g o r and a c c u r a c y i s o f t e n p o e t r y c r e a t i n g a w o r l d o f f a n c y ; and p o e t r y , commonly l o v e d f o r i t s p l a y f u l s p o n t a n e i t y and u t t e r i n e f f e c t u a l n e s s , becomes t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l d e m i u r g e , j o i n i n g words-images i n t o a word o f h a r d p e r s u a s i v e f a c t . (193') Of c o u r s e , t h e d i s c i p l i n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t , even i f a t t i m e s t h e y seem t o exchange d i s g u i s e s . '3)he m ain d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e f i e l d s r e s i d e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r u s e s ( g o a l s o r f u n c t i o n s , a l t e r n a t i v e l y ) a r e d i f f e r e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a s L e a t h e r d a l e a s t u t e l y shows, a metaphor i n s c i e n c e s e r v e s a d i f f e r e n t e n d - i n - v i e w from, l i t e r a r y m e taphor - 8 9 -I n g e n e r a l , t h e n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between l i t e r a r y and s c i e n t i f i c m etaphors depend on t h e i r u s e s . I n b o t h l i t e r a t u r e and s c i e n c e , metaphor i s a means t o an u n f o l d i n g , a r e v e l a t i o n , a new p e r s p e c t i v e o r f o c u s , b u t w h i l e i n l i t e r a t u r e metaphor s e e k s t o shake o f f t h e r o u t i n e and f a m i l i a r and r e f l e c t and r e f r a c t i n new l i g h t s so as t o u n i f y and c o l o u r a w o r l d grown g r e y and f e a t u r e l e s s f r o m t o o much f a m i l i a r i t y , i n s c i e n c e metaphor s e e k s t o i d e n t i f y , t o make t h e s t r a n g e and unknown f a m i l i a r , t h e complex and a n a r c h i c s i m p l e and o r d e r e d , and by c o n t r a s t w i t h l i t e r a t u r e and a r t , t o d i s e n c u m b e r ou r e x p e r i e n c e f r o m t h e s e n s u a l and t h e c o n c r e t e and t h e p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t i m e and p l a c e . ' ) N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g d i v e r g e n t u s e s , however, b o t h d i s c i p l i n e s r e l y on f o r m u l a , symbol and p a t t e r n , a system w h i c h p r o v e s e x t e n s i b l e i n each f i e l d , s h o u l d t h e mind d e s i r e s u c h an e f f e c t , ( c f . S t e p h e n P e p p e r and t h e l a r g e w o r l d - h y p o t h e s i s d e r i v e d f r o m a r o o t m e t a p h o r ) • Buchanan h as s a i d a s much — t h a t i n each f i e l d , a p l e a s i n g metaphor c a n be b l o w n up i n t o an a l l e g o r y . "An a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n i s a complex p a t t e r n o f r a t i o s , and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o e t i c f o r m s a r e 195 expanded metaphors. | ; Growth o f Knowledge and Language There i s a f u r t h e r c o n c l u s i o n , v i r t u a l l y i r r e f u t a b l e and o f s u r p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t t o l i n g u i s t s , t o be drawn a b o u t metaphor's r o l e i n c o g n i t i o n : f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e i s u n d e n i a b l y a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t o r t o l a n g u a g e g r o w t h . H e s t e r n o t e s , f o r example, t h a t " a l m o s t any word w i l l show a 196 m e t a p h o r i c a l o r i g i n i f i t s e t y m o l o g y i s s t u d i e d . " I n - 9 0 -point of f a c t , a backward glance i n t o the h i s t o r y of any word w i l l reveal that the f i g u r a t i v e and l i t e r a l senses are i n a precarious balance which i s subject to change. The word ' s p i r i t ' represents a metaphorical use of the idea of breath ( L a t i n : s p i r o ) ; s i m i l a r l y , 'foot* (as i n 'foot of the mountain') i s a hypostatized metaphor that has l o s t i t s tension. But there i s debate as to which sense came f i r s t , the f i g u r a t i v e or the l i t e r a l . Some of the writers studied believe that o r i g i n a l l y a l l words were l i t e r a l and that usage l a t e r became extended metaphorically. I t i s also conceivable that l i t e r a l language emerged from the n o n - l i t e r a l . Leatherdale a r b i t r a t e s the d e l i c a t e conclusion, pleasing to a l l , that words were o r i g i n a l l y ores or amalgams from which purely l i t e r a l meanings have since been r e f i n e d . "The e a r l y vocabulary of mankind was 1 0 7 both a - l i t e r a l and a-metaphorical." I f t h i s i s true, both of Leonard Bloomfield's formulations (breath mint and candy mint) are c o r r e c t : "Language i s a book of faded metaphors": f i n e . But equally w e l l , "Poetry i s a blazoned book of language. As language grows, the l i t e r a l and figuratve senses i n t e r a c t with each other to good e f f e c t . The f a n c i -f u l use of a word can only extend language, and the matephor that i s born i n one poet's mind can l i v e happily ever a f t e r i n the Volksmund. In short, "What today counts as an - 9 1 -o b s e r v e d c o n c o m i t a n t o f a phenomenon w i l l tomorrow be 199 u s e d t o d e f i n e i t . " J ^ B e a r d s l e y 1 s n o t i o n o f a good n o v e l metaphor i s t h a t " t h e metaphor t r a n s f o r m s a p r o p e r t y i n t o a s e n s e , a c t u a l i z e s p o t e n t i a l c o n n o t a t i o n s ; e s t a b l i s h e s s t a p l e c o n n o t a t i o n s . " ^ ^ I t s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d , however, t h a t w h a t e v e r f u s i o n s metaphor works i n l a n g u a g e , t h e y . a r e n o t b i n d i n g . They a r e s u b j e c t t o s u b s e q u e n t f i s s i o n and f u s i o n w i l l l a t e r o c c u r between d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f phenomena. As N i e t z s c h e h as w r i t t e n , " t h e c o n g e l a t i o n and c o a g u l a t i o n o f a metaphor does n o t a t a l l g u a r a n t e e t h e n e c e s s i t y and 2oi e x c l u s i v e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h a t metaphor." H i s image o f t h e b e e - b u i l t honeycomb i n a p t : we t o o make honeycomb-l i k e m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t s , w h i c h a r e e v e r s u p e r s e d e d and d i s c a r d e d . As I have shown more t h a n once, t h e f i r s t t i m e a metaphor f u s e s a t e n o r and a v e h i c l e , t h e c o n t a c t i s b r i e f , f l e e t i n g . A and B meet o n l y t a n g e n t i a l l y , t o u c h i n g a t 202 two c o i n c i d e n t p o i n t s . B u t once t h e image a c h i e v e s a measure o f s u c c e s s — i f i t p r o v e s a p p l i c a b l e t o a d d i t i o n a l phenomena t h a n t h o s e f i r s t o b s e r v e d — i t can s t i c k . ( T h i s i s what N i e t z s c h e means by ' c o n g e l a t i o n , ' ' c o a g u l a t i o n . ' ) B o t h l i t e r a t u r e and s c i e n c e a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e c o h e s i o n e f f e c t , w h i c h B e r g g r e n d e s c r i b e s a s f o l l o w s : - 9 2 -Having been t o l d f o r so long that heaven i s up, the C h r i s t i a n — e v e n i n t h i s day of a s t r o n a u t s -confuses the t e x t u r a l import of such a s p a t i a l schema with the a c t u a l or physical s p a t i a l i t y of the schema i t s e l f . A believed but distanced and exalted absurdity r e s u l t s analogously. When any s c i e n t i f i c schema acquires s u f f i c i e n t s c i e n t i f i c r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , i t too tends to be transposed into the domain of ' sacred play.1!' ( 2 0 3 ) Science i s -perhaps more prone to have i t s metaphors s t i c k than poetry because theories that seem explanatory are so h i g h l y p r i z e d . According to Hesse, there i s enormous vested i n t e r e s t i n theories "and therefore they can never e a s i l y be abandoned when new f a c t s do not appear to f i t i n with the system of explanation which the analogies 204 presuppose." To Burke, the adhesion of the two points i n a metaphor i s due to p i e t y , a word which he uses i n the extended sense of "to conform with the 'sources of one's b e i n g . 1 " In other words, he f e e l s there i s a vested i n t e r e s t i n any formulation, be i t l i t e r a r y or s c i e n t i f i c . Correspondingly, he p o s i t s the phenomenon of "logonomical p u r g a t o r y " — t h i s i s the "rending and t e a r i n g " that occurs every time a successful o s c u l a t i o n i s sundered. He believes that f u sion and f i s s i o n occur ceaselessly i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l h i s t o r y . This being true, "even the most conscientious of the new doctrines n e c e s s a r i l y contains an element of impiety, with a corresponding sense of g u i l t (though the doctrine may l a t e r become an orthodoxy, with i t s generally v 205 accepted code of p r o p r i e t i e s and improprieties). 1' - 9 3 -The Residuum i s Knowledge The leftovers of the thinking process (which Nietzsche characterized as superseded "hexahedral" constructions) con-stitute a body of knowledge. The dead and dormant metaphors l i t t e r i n g the l i n g u i s t i c b a t t l e f i e l d are, as Middleton 206 Murry suggested, "the record of past cognitive exploration." Schon expanded this idea when he wrote that "our language, at any given time, gives us a cross-section of our pro-cesses of concept formation or discovery. The metaphors i n language are to be explained as signs of concepts at various stages of displacement, just as f o s s i l s are to be explained as signs of l i v i n g things at various stages of develop-ment.- 2 0 7 Lastly, i f one's turn of mind i s to favour any version of the l i n g u i s t i c relativism hypothesis, i t should be noted that each language's repository of knowledge—its discarded "columbarium" or spider-web, as Nietzsche visualized i t — i s singular. The result i s that words are not exactly the pat nomenclature that i s popularly supposed. One cannot truly translate those of language A into language B without some loss of depth. Because, as T u l l i o de Mauro observed, "Eor the f i r s t time i t became absolutely clear that languages are not transcriptions of...universally equal and predefined concepts, but rather £are] h i s t o r i c a l l y d i v e r s i f i e d bashes upon which notions and concepts are . 208 b u i l t . " -94-CHAPTER E L E V M  CONCLUSION A W a r n i n g on t h e Dangers o f M e t a p h o r ' s M i s u s e The p o s t - A r i s t o t e l i a n c l a s s i c i s t s r e g a r d e d metaphor a s an i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l f i g u r e o f s p e e c h — o n e o f a r o s t e r o f t r o p e s whose purpose was n o t h i n g more t h a n t o ornament, f r i v o l o u s l y , t h e s e r i o u s s t u f f o f d i s c o u r s e . C u r i o u s l y , however, t h e c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s v i e w e d metaphor s i m u l t a -n e o u s l y a s a t h r e a t t o p u r p o s i v e w r i t i n g . Thus t h e r e e x i s t e d a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g a bout f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e . On t h e one hand, i t was nugatory^, f r i v o l o u s and t r i f l i n g . But metaphor, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l v a r i e t y , was a l s o f e l t t o be p e r n i c i o u s ; i t s f a n c i f u l n e s s seemed c a p a b l e o f i n f e c t i n g l i t e r a l w r i t i n g . I t was w i d e l y t h o u g h t t h a t m etaphor had "no r e a l c l a i m t o p o s i t i v e 'meaning' i n i t s own r i g h t , s i n c e i t works n e g a t i v e l y 209 by s u b v e r t i n g t h e ' p r o p e r meanings o f words." There was, i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a v i r u l e n t d e s i r e t o c l e a r l a n g u a g e o f metaphors and t o r e t u r n t o s i m p l e u n e m b r o i d e r e d s p e e c h . The metaphors o f t h e p e r i o d engendered t h i s r e a c t i o n , because t h e y were i n f a c t o f t e n e x t r i n s i c t o t h e w r i t e r ' s i n t e n t , a s w e l l as b e i n g o v e r -wrought i n t h e i r s t r i v i n g a f t e r f a n c i f u l e f f e c t s . P o r i n s t a n c e , D ryden's b a t h e t i c metaphor about t h e p u s t u l e s o f - 95 -s m a l l p o x drew e x a c e r b a t e d r a i l l e r y f r o m c r i t i c s o f meta-p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n : L i k e Rose-bud, s t u c k i ' t h 1 L i l y - s k i n about E a c h l i t t l e P i m p l e had a T e a r i n i t . (210) Samuel J o h n s o n ' s i n d i c t m e n t o f t h e y o k i n g t o g e t h e r o f h e t e r o g e n e o u s i d e a s by v i o l e n c e i s i n t h i s c r i t i c a l v e i n , a s was Samuel P a r k e r ' s s t a t e m e n t (1670) t h a t " f u l s o m e and l u s c i o u s " m etaphors d e s e r v e d t o be o u t l a w e d by an a c t o f 211 P a r l i a m e n t . " • As I have c l a i m e d i n t h i s p a p e r , t h e t w e n t i e t h -c e n t u r y c o n c e p t i o n o f metaphor i s a much more p o s i t i v e one. The d e v i c e i s u n d e r s t o o d t o be one t h a t i s i n t r i n s i c t o l a n g u a g e and i n v a l u a b l e t o l a n g u a g e g r o w t h and t h e p u r s u i t o f knowledge. As a l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon, i t i s i n some ways a h e i g h t e n e d , s h a r p e n e d v e r s i o n o f t h e l i t e r a l t o n g u e ; however, i t s s t a t u s a s q u a s i - a r t f o r m i s due t o i n f i l t r a t i o n o f i c o n i c - i m a g i s t i c e l e m e n t s i n t o t h e l a n g u a g e , f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e r e g u l a r l y d e b a r r e d e n t r a n c e i n t o l i t e r a l s p e e c h . As s u c h , the metaphor i s a r a t h e r u n o r t h o d o x phenomenon l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , and i s beyond t h e r e a c h o f t h e g e n e r a t i v e grammars t h a t a r e o t h e r w i s e so e x p l a n a t o r y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . There a r e , n a t u r a l l y enough,, c e r t a i n d a n g e r s i n h e r e n t i n t h e u s e o f metaphor. These a r e p r o b l e m s d e v o l v i n g f r o m t h e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c o n c e p t i o n , however, and a r e n o t h i n g l i k e t h e r a b i d f e a r s e x p r e s s e d by P a r k e r and J o h n s o n . (1) E t h n o c e n t r i e i t y I f i r s t t o u c h e d on t h i s t o p i c i n C h a p t e r N i n e , t h e i s s u e b e i n g a t t h a t t i m e t h a t j u s t a s e a ch l a n g u a g e i s a " h i s t o r i c a l l y d i v e r s i f i e d b a s e " o f i t s own, so t o o a r e e a c h p e o p l e ' s metaphors l a n g u a g e - and c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c . Of a l l t h e modern w r i t e r s on m e t a p h o r i c a l l a n g u a g e , T e r e n c e Hawkes seems t h e most k e e n l y aware t h a t metaphor t e n d s t o '212 " r e t r e n c h and c o r r o b o r a t e " t h e " c o v e r t . . . p r e s u p p o s i -t i o n s " ' " * v t h a t e v e r y l a n g u a g e h a r b o r s . M a r g a r e t Mead has a l s o spoken d i r e c t l y t o t h i s p o i n t : " t h e metaphor we may embody i n t h e s t a t e m e n t 'Love w i l l f i n d a way' may s i m p l y n o t e x i s t i n some c o u n t r i e s , o r may have an u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t r o l e ( a n d so c a l l f o r t h a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s ) i n o t h e r s . ""^"^ Of t h e c o v e r t p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s i n l a n g u a g e , one o f t h e most p r e v a l e n t i n E n g l i s h i s t h e s p a t i a l / t e m p o r a l ^ Whorf n o t e d t h a t s p a t i a l a s s u m p t i o n s a r e i m p l i c i t i n many E n g l i s h e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t need n o t have any s p a t i a l c o n t e n t -at a l l : ' t o r e a c h a p o i n t , ' ' t o come t o a c o n c l u s i o n , 1 215 and ' h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , ' f o r e x a m p l e . C o g n a t e w i t h t h i s t e n d e n c y i s t h e w i d e l y - b e l i e v e d n o t i o n t h a t heaven and God a r e "up," c i t e d by B e r g g r e n on page (92). As E m b l e r has s t a t e d , t h e n , "Our t h i n k i n g and o u r s p e e c h a r e s t i l l v e r y much bound by t h e C a r t e s i a n c o o r d i n a t e s o f h e i g h t , d e p t h , 216 l e n g t h and b r e a d t h . " -97-I f t h i s i s t r u e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e r e a r e i n n a t e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o v e r and above f s i c } t h e s p a t i a l and 217 t e m p o r a l , i n o u r l a n g u a g e , f o r m i n g a " c u l t u r a l r e s e r v o i r " upon w h i c h we draw. Our w r i t e r s d i p i n t o t h i s common p o o l ( c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s ) f o r t h e i r m a t e r i a l , whereas r e a d e r s r e f e r t o i t t o i n t e r p r e t t h e images and metaphors t h e y r e a d . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n o u r c u l t u r e , t h e word ' e a g l e ' b r i n g s t o mind ' h i g h - f l y i n g ' and ' f a s t ' as s t a p l e conno-t a t i o n s ; l i k e w i s e , ' s n a i l ' c o n j u r e s up 'grounded' and •slow' r i g h t away. B u t i n o t h e r l a n g u a g e s , ' e a g l e ' and ' s n a i l ' w o u l d n o t be t h u s c o u n t e r p o i s e d . T h a t i s , ' e a g l e ' c o u l d j u s t as w e l l be u n d e r s t o o d p r i m a r i l y a s b e i n g ; ' f e a t h e r e d , ' so t h a t i t s o p p o s i t e i n t h e n a t i o n a l mind w o u l d be a n o n - f e a t h e r e d a n i m a l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a s n a i l . I m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h i s t y p e abound i n e v e r y c u l t u r e , and t h e y a c t t o i n f o r m t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n on e v e r y l e v e l . (2) A u t h o r i t a t i v e n e s s o f t h e C o p u l a - L i n k As V i r g i l A l d r i c h h e l d i n h i s e s s a y " A r t and t h e Human Form," t h e r e i s a danger i n h e r e n t i n t h e "A i s B" f o r m o f a metaphor, a f o r m w h i c h i s f a r more a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n t o ne t h a n t h e "A i s l i k e B" t h a t announces a s i m i l e . T here i s a t e m p t a t i o n , as N i e t z s c h e n o t e d , t o f o r g e t 218 " t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l m etaphors o f p e r c e p t i o n a r e metaphors."' Th/e n a t u r e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m i s t a k e i s t h a t what was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d a s a metaphor becomes a myth ( s e e U i t t i ' s scheme a t t h e end o f C h a p t e r S i x ) . The o r i g i n a l metaphor p r e s e n t s a t r u t h , and t h i s t r u t h c a n be so w e l l -r e c e i v e d ( " l i k e a r e v e l a t i o n , " as M u r r y e x p r e s s e d i t ) t h a t i t comes t o be t a k e n f o r t h e t r u t h . Theodore S a r b i n has shown t h a t m y t h o l o g i z i n g - a - m e t a p h o r i s a t b o t t o m r e s p o n -21Q s i b l e f o r t h e c u r r e n t m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m e n t a l i l l n e s s . -He c l a i m s t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l metaphor was t h a t o f demonic p o s s e s s i o n , and i t s a m p l i f i c a t i o n i s t o blame f o r t h e -modern "myth o f m e n t a l i l l n e s s " so w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d by Thomas S z a s z . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e o r i g i n a l metaphor has been p e r n i c i o u s i n e f f e c t , w i t h i t s a n a l o g y s e r v i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e phenomenon u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Brooke-Rose i s o l a t e s a n o t h e r r e p e r c u s s i o n o f t h e c o p u l a ' s a u t h o r i t a t i v e n e s s . She s a y s t h a t once A i s s a i d t o be B, i t i s dangerous t o t r y and equate A w i t h a n o t h e r B i n t h e same poem. T h i s i s t h e "one p u r e l y l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e v e r y s t r e n g t h o f t h e c o p u l a ; " i t i s so " d i d a c t i c i n t o n e , and so s t r o n g and d i r e c t t h a t i f one t e r m i s e q u a t e d w i t h two d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , we may be more 220 aware o f t h e i n c o n g r u i t y . " She s a y s t h a t p o e t s f i n d i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n e i t h e r a t t e m p t t o t o n e down t h e i n c o n g r u i t y ( f o r example, by l i s t i n g t h e metaphors one a f t e r t h e o t h e r , i n c a n t a t i o n - s t y l e , so t h a t t h e d i s p a r a t e images seem t o f l o w i n t o one. She q u o t e s W i l l i a m o f Shoreham 1s Our L a d y i s t h e dove o f Noah, t h e h u sh o f S i n a i , t h e r o d o f Aaron) o r t o b r a z e n o u t t h e i n c o n g r u i t y i n p a r a d o x ( e . g . C h a u c e r : "And y e , t h a t ben o f b e a u t e c r o p and r o o t e . " ) (3) A t t i t u d e - S h i f t i n g C l e a r l y , t h e n , a metaphor i s c a p a b l e o f i n d u c i n g a t t i t u d e - s h i f t s i n a r e a d e r s h i p . Turbayne e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e - s h i f t s p r o d u c e d by an e f f e c t i v e m etaphor p o i n t t o a l a t e r s t a g e o f i t s l i f e . A s t o r y o f t e n t o l d — l i k e a d v e r t i s i n g and p r o -p a g a n d a —comes t o be b e l i e v e d more s e r i o u s l y . Those d e t a i l s s t r e s s e d t e n d t o s t a y s t r e s s e d w h i l e t h o s e s u p p r e s s e d t e n d t o s t a y s u p p r e s s e d u n t i l a n o t h e r e f f e c t i v e metaphor r e s t o r e s them. (221) He s e e s t h i s c o n g e l a t i o n o r " s t i c k i n g " as e v e n t u a l l y r e d u c -t i v e i n e f f e c t ; i t c a n o b s t r u c t t h o u g h t as e a s i l y a s i t c a n be m i n d - e x p a n d i n g . Thus, he s a y s t h a t The l o n g c o n t i n u e d a s s o c i a t i o n o f two i d e a s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e a s s o c i a t i o m has t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t , t e n d s t o r e s u l t i n o u r c o n f u s i n g them...In th e sense o f metaphor, t h e c o n f u s i o n i s a i d e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : f i r s t , t h e two i d e a s a l r e a d y s h a r e t h e same name, a f a c t o r o f g r e a t power i n p r o d u c i n g t h e b e l i e f i n i d e n t i t y . Second, we a r e n o t a l w a y s t o l d t h a t t h e two i d e a s a r e r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t . (222) A s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e , w h e t h e r a c t i v a t e d by a metaphor o r n o t , i s p o t e n t i a l l y a dangerous e n t i t y . I t wears b u i l t - i n -100-b l i n k e r s , and t e n d s t o want t o a p o t h e o s i z e i t s e l f . "The e r r o r i s exposed i n i t s f u l l e s t p a r o c h i a l i s m , " w r o t e B u r k e , when t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y e p i g o n e s o f p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s s e t a b o u t t o i n t e r p r e t f o r u s t h e h i d d e n s e x u a l m o t i v e s a t t h e r o o t s o f s u c h i n t e n s e and b r i l l i a n t t h e o l o g i a n s as S t . A u g u s t i n e . The e n t i r e m o t i v a -t i o n by w h i c h A u g u s t i n e l i v e d and w r o t e i s c a t e g o r i c a l l y d i s c a r d e d i n f a v o r o f a few s e x u a l i m p u l s e s , w h i c h c a n , a t b e s t , be shown t o have been an i n g r e d i e n t i n h i s m o t i v a t i o n . By what a u t h o r i t y c a n one c a l l them t h e e s s e n c e o f h i s m o t i v a t i o n ? N o n - s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s may be i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e s y m b o l i z a t i o n o f s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s ; b u t t h e n a g a i n , s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s may t h e m s e l v e s be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e s y m b o l i z a t i o n o f n o n - s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s . . . W h a t , e x c e p t t h e s t r o n g s e x u a l o r i e n -t a t i o n o f o u r s o c i e t y i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n o f S t . A u g u s t i n e ' s s o c i e t y , d e t e r m i n e s w h i c h s h a l l be c a l l e d t h e t r u e m o t i v e and w h i c h t h e s y m b o l i c a c c r e t i o n ? " (223') B u r k e a l s o n o t e s t h a t m y t h o l o g i z i n g o r a n a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d f i r s t by o v e r - s i m p l i f y i n g e v e n t s and t h e n by a b s t r a c t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s f r o m t h e r e d u c e d i n v e n t o r y . I n t h i s f a s h i o n , a c e r t a i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s t o r y — w h a t e v e r i t may b e — s e e s c e r t a i n e v e n t s a s r e c u r r i n g i n p a t t e r n s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r e v e n t s p e r h a p s e q u a l l y p r e v a l e n t . (4-) S e e i n g Too Much A n a l o g i c a l l y The o v e r - s i m p l i f y i n g t e n d e n c y i s a k i n t o one m e n t i o n e d by W i t t g e n s t e i n , t h a t o f s e e i n g t o o much a n a l o g i c a l l y . He c l a i m e d t h a t p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r p l e x i t y -101-i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n , and t h a t " D e c e i v e d by s i m i l a r i t i e s o f form; and n e g l e c t f u l o f d i f f e r e n c e s o f f u n c t i o n , we i n t e r p r e t one p a r t o f o u r l i n g u i s t i c s y s t e m 224-on t h e f a l s e a n a l o g y o f some o t h e r . " A l l i n a l l , t h o u g h , t h e s e f o u r d a n g e r s amount t o n o t h i n g more t h a n a t o k e n c a v e a t w h i c h w i l l s e r v e as a coda t o my e x p o s i t i o n o f a p r o d i g i o u s l i n g u i s t i c / l i t e r a r y d e v i c e . I t i s a s m a l l p r i c e t o pay f o r t h e abundance o f r i c h e s a f f o r d e d by metaphor. - 1 0 2 -P 0 0 I H 0 T E S 2 . C h r i s t i n e Brooke-Rose. A Grammar of Metaphor. (London: Seeker & Warburg, 1958) , p;. ~ZW. 2 . Monroe C. Beardsley. "The Metaphorical Twist," i n Shibles (ed.), Essays on Metaphor. (Whitewater, Wisconsin: The Language Press, 1 9 Y 2 ) , p. 8®. 3. W.H. Leatherdale. The Role of Analogy, Model and Metaphor  i n Science. (Amsterdam!! North-Holland Publishing Company, J-974), P. 97. 4 . William Empson. Seven Types of Ambiguity. (London: Chatto & Windus, 19477^ 5 . J.E. Llewelyn. -"Family Resemblances," Philosophical' Quarterly XVIII ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 3 4 4 . 6 . Michael A. Simon. "When i s a Resemblance a Family Resemblance?" MinffiLXXVIII ( I 9 6 9 ) , p. 4 0 9 . 7. Loc. c i t . 8 . F r i e d r i c h Nietzsche. "On Truth and F a l s i t y i n Their Extramoral Sense," i n Shibles (ed.) Essays on Me-taphor, p. 5 . 9 . A l f r e d North Whitehead. Quoted i n Kenneth Burke. Permanence and Change. (Los A l t o s , C a l i f o r n i a : Hermes Pu b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 3 5 ) ^ Opening epigram. 1 0 . Terence Hawkes. Metaphor. (London: Methuen Company, 1972), p. 5 9 . 1 1 . Hjalmar Wenerberg. "The Concept of Family Relationships i n Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy," Theoria XXXIII, (1962), p. 117. 1 2 . Gerald Heard. Quoted i n Stanley Edgar Hyman. The  Tangled Bank;; Darwin, Marx, grazer and Freud as Creative  Writers^ (New York: Atheneum, 1 9 7 4 ), p. 4 3 1 . 1 3 . Wenerberg, op_. c i t . , p. 1 2 0 . 1 4 . I b i d . , p. 118. 1 5 . Timothy Binkley. Wittgenstein's Language. (The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f , 1 9 7 3 ) , PpT o 2 - 3 . -103 -16. Simon, op_. c i t . , p. 411. 17. Marcus B. Hester. The Meaning of Poetic Metaphor. An A n a l y s i s i n the L i g h t of Wittgenstein's Claim that  Meaning i s Use7 (The Hague: Mouton, 1967), p'Si 55. 18. I b i d . V P . H 8 . 19. Weller Emhler.-- Metaphor and Meaning. (Deland, F l o r i d a : Everett/Edwards, 1966), p. 46. 20. Martin Foss. Symbol and Metaphor i n Human Experience. (Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949) > p. l b . S i m i l a r ideas are explored i n : Scott Buchanan. Poetry  and Mathematics. (New York: The John Day Company, 1929) » pp. 1 9 - 2 0 . 21. Paul Henle. "Metaphor," i n Henle (ed.). Language, Thought and Culture. (Ann Arbor, Michigan: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1 9 5 8 ) . 22. I.A. Richards. Quoted i n Hester, op_. c i t . , p. 15. 23. Leatherdale, op. c i t . , pS 134. 24. Bedell Stanford. Quoted i n C o l i n M. Turbayne. The Myth of Metaphor. (Columbia, South C a r o l i n a : U n i v e r s i t y of South C a r o l i n a Press, 1962), p.- 21. 25. Leatherdale, _oj>. c i t . , p. 9 8 . 26. Hester, ££. c i t . , p. 180. 27. Leatherdale, op. c i t . , p. 93. 28. Brooke-Rose, op_. c i t . , p. 12. 29. Walter K e i t h Wilkinson. "Psychosemantic Aspects of F i g u r a t i v e Language." Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, January, 1976. 30. Hester, op_. c i t . , pp. 60-61. 31. Leonard J . Angel. "A Transformational A n a l y s i s of Metaphor." Master's T h e s i s , ; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Philosophy, 1967, 32. Leatherdale, og. c i t . , p. 26. -104-33. Beardsley, op. c i t . , p. 81. 34. Brooke-Rose, c_p_. c i t . , p. 267. 35. Turbayne, op_. c i t . , pp. 13-14. 36. Henle, ap_. c i t . , p. 145. 37. Northorp Frye. Quoted i n Winifred Nowottny. The Language  Poets Use. (London: Athlone Press, 1962), p. 2. 38. P h i l i p Wheelwright. The T i m i n g Fountain; A Study i n  the Language of Symbolism. (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, I9bo), p. 17. 39. Sigmund Freud. Jokes and Their R e l a t i o n to the Unconscious. (New York: W.W. Norton and Company J. James Strachey, t r . 40. Brooke-Rose, op. c i t . , p. 113. 41. Burke, op_. c i t . , p. 155. 42. Samuel R. Lev i n . L i n g u i s t i c Structures i n Poetry. (The Hague: Mouton, 19"O"9TT 43. Owen Thomas* Metaphor and Related Subjects. (New York: Random House, 1969)» p. 35. 44. I b i d . , p. 40. 45. I.A. Richards. Quoted i n i b i d . , pp. 61-2. 46. Burke, og. c i t . , p. Iv. (prologue). 47. Brooke-Rose, ag. c i t . , p. 161. 48. Embler, op.; p i t . , p. 33. 49. Geoffrey N. Leech. " L i n g u i s t i c s and the Figures of Rhetoric," i n R. Fowler (ed.), Essays on Style and Language. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966), p. 143. 50. Hester, op_. c i t . , p. 142. 51. Leatherdale, OJD. c i t . , p. 51. 52. Edward Sapir. "Language," i n Sap i r . Language, Culture  and P e r s o n a l i t y . (Berkeley and Los Angeles"! U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1956), p. 9. - 1 0 5 -5 3 . Hester, _op_. c i t . , p:. 1 1 8 . 5 4 . Northrop Frye. Quoted i n i b i d . , p. 8 6 . 5 5 . Paul Valery. Quoted i n i b i d . , p. 9 5 . 56. Douglas Berggren. "The Use and Abuse of Metaphor," The  Review of Metaphysics XVI, 1 , p. 2 4 8 . 5 7 . Duke of Wellington. Quoted i n Leatherdale, op. c i t . , p. 2 2 . 58. Burke, op. c i t . , p . - 9 0 . 5 9 . Angel, og. c i t . , p. 5 3 . 60. Burke, op_. c i t . , pp. 9 8 - 9 . 61. Berggren, l o c . c i t . 62. Hester, op_. c i t . , p. 1 1 8 . 6 3 . William Shakespeare. Quoted i n i b i d . , p. 164. 6 4 . Benjamin Lee Whorf. "An American Indian Model of the Universe," i n Whorf. Language. Thought and R e a l i t y . (Cambridge, Massachusetts/: MIT Press, 1 9 5 o ) . 6 5 . P h i l i p Wheelwright. Quoted i n Leatherdale, _og. c i t . , p. 1 1 0 . 6 6 . K a r l D. U i t t i . L i n g u i s t i c s and L i t e r a r y S t y l e . (Engle-wood C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 9 6 9 )» P« 2 5 . 6 7 . Hester, og. c i t . , p. 1 8 3 . 6 8 . Loc. c i t . 6 9 . Marcus B. Hester. "Metaphor and Aspeet Seeing," i n Shibles (ed.). Essays on Metaphor, p. 1 2 2 . 7 0 . Leatherdale, og. c i t . , p. 1 8 . 7 1 . Loc. c i t . 72. I b i d . , p. 1 7 . 7 3 . Matthew Arnold. Quoted i n Hawkes, og. c i t . , p. 61. -106-74. W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e . Quoted i n W h e e l w r i g h t , ag. c i t . , p. 48. 75. I b i d . , p. 12 . 76. Max B l a c k . Quoted i n L e a t h e r d a l e , on. c i t . , p. 146. 77. Hawkes, op. c i t . , p. 37. 78. Samuel T a y l o r C o l e r i d g e . Quoted i n i b i d . , p. 49* 79* L e a t h e r d a l e , ag. c i t . , p. 93. 80. Turbayne. Quoted i n B e r g g r e n , on. c i t . , p. 240. 81. I b i d . , p. 242. 82. G e o f f r e y N. L e e c h . K L i n g u i s t i c G u i d e t o E n g l i s h P o e t r y . (London: Longmans, Green & Co., L t d . , 1969). 83. H e n l e , ag. c i t . , pp. 180-181. 84. W h e e l w r i g h t . Quoted i n H e s t e r , The Me a n i n g o f P o e t i c  M e t a p h o r , p. 16. 85. B u r k e , ag. c i t . , p. 92. 86. H e s t e r , ag. c i t . , p. 75. 87. W h e e l w r i g h t , ag. c i t . , p. 35. 88. W i l l i a m Empson. Quoted i n Hawkes, ag. c i t . , p. 64. 89. W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s . Quoted i n L e v i n , ag. c i t . , p>. 34. 90. E r n e s t J o n e s . The L i f e and Work o f Sigmund F r e u d . (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1974) , p. 475. 91 . P a u l V a l e r y . Quoted i n H e s t e r , ag. c i t . , p. 85 . 92. I b i d . , p. 69. 93. R o g e r F o w l e r , " L i n g u i s t i c T h e o r y and t h e S t u d y o f L i t e r a t u r e , " i n " F o w l e r ( e d . ) . E s s a y s on S t y l e and Language. (Lo n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1966) , p. 20. -107-94. Hester, op. c i t . , p. 77. 95. Norman Friedman, "Imagery: From Sensation to Symbol," i n S h i b l e s , (ed.). Essays on Metaphor., p. 41. 96. Henle, og. c i t . , p:. 177. 97. Hester, ap_. c i t . , p. 84. 98. Henle, op. c i t . , pp. 180-181. 99. Brooke-Rose, op. c i t . , p. 206. 100. Burke, _og. c i t . , p. 56. 101. Leatherdale, op. c i t . , pp. 212-213. 102. James J a r r e t . Quoted i n Hester, op. c i t . , p:. 165. 103. I b i d . , p. 164. 104. Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Quoted "in Wheelwright, op. c i t . , p. 37. 105. Brooke-Rose, op. C i t . , p. 33. 106. U i t t i , op. c i t . 107. Hester, op. c i t . , p. 94. 108. I b i d . , p. 81. 109. Henry M i l l e r . -Tropic of Capricorn. (New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1961), p. lOY. 110. Brooke-Rose, _op. c i t . , p. 22. 111. Rosamond Tuve. Quoted i n Friedman, op. c i t . , p. 48. 112. Hester, op. c i t . , p. 218. 113. Leatherdale, op. c i t . , p. 21. 114. Thomas, op. c i t . , p. 25. 115. Hester, op. c i t . , p;. 184. -108-116. Burke, op. c i t . , p. 99. 117. I b i d . , p. 60. 118. Hester, op. c i t . , p. 167. 119. Thomas, op. c i t . , p. 75. 120. Turbayne, _op. c i t . , p. 27. 121. T u l l i o de Mauro. Ludwig Wittgenstein: His Place i n the  Development of Semantics^ (Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel P u b l i s h i n g Co., 19&7), p. 10. 122. Burke, op* £it., p. 90. 123. Stephen C. Pepper. "The Root Metaphor Theory of Meta-physics," i n Shibles (ed.). Essays on Metaphor, p. 19. 124. 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