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The adoption of recommended administrative practices by directors of public school adult education in… Anderson, Darrell V. 1975

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THE ADOPTION OF RECOMMENDED ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES BY DIRECTORS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by DARRELL V. ANDERSON B. A., University of British Columbia, 1955 M. A., University of British Columbia, 1968 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in the Faculty of Education We accept this dissertation as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JANUARY 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for s cho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada THE ADOPTION OF RECOMMENDED ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES BY THE DIRECTORS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e b e h a v i o r o f d i r e c t o r s of p u b l i c s c h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as a d o p t i n g a g e n t s w i t h i n a s t r u c t u r e d s o c i a l s y s tem. Thus b o t h p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s o f f i c i a l 'as s w e l l as s i t u a t i o n a l and s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s y s t e m were a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e impact o f t h e s e s e t s o f v a r i a b l e on h i s a d o p t i o n b e h a v i o r . A c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n t o be d e t e r m i n e d was whether t h e d i r e c t o r i s more i n f l u e n c e d i n h i s a d o p t i o n b e h a v i o r by systems f e a t u r e s o r by h i s own p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . She sample c o n s i s t e d o f t h e s i x t y - s i x d i r e c t o r s who h e l d t h a t p o s i t i o n d u r i n g 1969-70 t e r m . An a n a l y t i c a l s u r v e y method was u s e d , w i t h a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w employed.to g a t h e r d a t a f r o m each d i r e c t o r . I n i t i a l l y , t h i r t y - f o u r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d i r e c t o r and t h i r t y - s e v e n systems f a c t o r s were examined r e l a t i v e t o t h e a d o p t i o n of. t w e n t y - s i x a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s . The dependent v a r i a b l e o f t h e s t u d y was c o m p r i s e d o f a t o t a l a d o p t i o n s c o r e f o r each d i r e c t o r c a l c u l a t e d on t h e s t a g e o f t h e a d o p t i o n p r o c e s s r e a c h e d by t h e d i r e c t o r f o r each o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x p r a c t i c e s . A t f i r s t , f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e sample were examinedcanddthen t h e t - t e s t and F t e s t were employed t o d e t e r m i n e th e degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e mean a d o p t i o n s c o r e s among t h e d i r e c t o r s . M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used i n t h e second s t a g e o f t h e a n a l y s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a t i o n i n a d o p t i o n e x p l a i n e d by t h i r t y - f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . Throughout s e v e r a l phases o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , one f a c t o r c o n s i s t e n t l y a c c o u n t e d f o r 54.3 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n a d o p t i o n s c o r e s . That f a c t o r was t h e Amount o f Time t h e D i r e c t o r was O f f i c i a l l y Employed t o C a r r y Out H i s D u t i e s . Thus a w o r k - s i t u a t i o n a l element b a s i c a l l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s ystem emerged as t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e as f a r as t h e v a r i a n c e i n a d o p t i o n s c o r e s was c o n c e r n e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r i s more influenced i n his adoption behavior by a systems factor than by h i s own personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Two such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the di r e c t o r ' s professiona p a r t i c i p a t i o n score and work s a t i s f a c t i o n score together accounted f o r no more than seven per cent of the variance i n adoption scores.. The adoption of the recommended administrative practices investigated i n t h i s study was la r g e l y a r e f l e c t i o n of the dir e c t o r ' s administrative competence and professionalism. A necessary prerequisite to development i n these areas was provided by appointing the d i r e c t o r to a f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n and by supplying him with other organizational supports. i i i CONTENTS Page CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION I. Statement of Problem 1 II. Purpose of Study 3 III. Procedure 6 IV. Report of Findings 16 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I. The Adoption and Diffusion Process 17 II. The Adopter 43 III. The Social System 50 IV. The-,Social System of the School 58 V. Research Focus 69 CHAPTER THREE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DIRECTOR PERTAINING TO ADOPTION I. Personal Characteristics Related to Adoption 71 II. Personal Characteristics Not Related to 88 Adoption III. Summary of Adopter Profile 106 CHAPTER FOUR SYSTEMS FACTORS PERTAINING TO ADOPTION I. Significant Controllable Situational Factors 107 Related to Adoption II. Situational Factors Not Related to Adoption 159 III. Significant Structural Features Related to 162 Adoption IV. Structural Features Not Related to Adoption 173, V. Summary of Systems Factors 173 CHAPTER FIVE MAJOR COMPONENTS PERTAINING TO THE DIRECTOR*S ADOPTION SCORE I. Removal of Non-Significant Factors 176 II. Classification and Analysis of Significant 177 Factors III. Summary 206 CHAPTER SIX SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY I. Method and Procedure 210 II. Findings 212 III. Implications 226 BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX LIST OF TABLES Page Table I Significant Personal Characteristics 73 Table II Analysis of Professional Rating Categories 79 Table III Analysis of Career Commitment Categories 79 Table IV Analysis of Professional Participation Scores 83 Table V Analysis of Professional Adult Education Reading Scores 83 Table VI Analysis of the Origin of Information Sources at the Awareness Stage 87 Table VII Non-Significant Personal Characteristics 89-' Table VIII Types of Information Sources Used During Adoption Stages 99 Table IX Origin of Information Sources Used During Adoption Stages 101 Table X(a) Classification of Sources of Information and Their Use during the Stages of the Adoption Process 103 Table X(b) Comparison of Adoption Scores of Information Seeking Directors and Their Opinion Leaders 105 Table XI Significant Situational Factors 108-: Table XII Analysis of Origin of Appointment 114 Table XIII Analysis of Encouragement to Participate in In-Service Training 114 Table XIV Analysis of Amount of Time Director Officially Employed 117 Table XV Analysis of Amount of Salary from Other School Positions 121 Table XVI Analysis of Number of Tasks Involved in Directorship 123-: Table XVII Analysis of the Ranking of Work Not Related to Adult Education 126 LIST OF TABLES (continued) Table XVIII Table XIX Table XX Table XXI Table XXII Table XXIII Table XXIV Table XXV Table XXVI Table XXVII Table XXVIII Table XXIX Table XXX Table XXXI Table XXXII Table XXXIII Table XXXIV Table XXXV Table XXXVI Page Analysis of the Ranking of Routine 128 Administration Analysis of the Ranking of Consultation 130 and Counselling Analysis of the Ranking of Facilitating and 132-133 Service Work Analysis of the Ranking for Organization 134 and Supervision of Special Events Analysis of the Ranking of Professional 136-137 Development Analysis of the Ranking of Teaching and 139 Instructing Analysis of the Ranking of Information 139 Dissemination Analysis of the Ranking of Organization of 141 Groups Analysis of the Number of Adult Students 144 Analysis of Amount of Adult Education Revenues 146 Analysis of Amount of Adult Education 148 Expenditures Analysis of Amount of Profit/Loss on Adult 150 Education Analysis of Per Pupil Expenditure for Adult 152 Education Analysis of Percentage of Budget Allocated to 154 Adult Education Analysis of Designation of Immediate Superior 156 Non Significant Situational Factors and 160 Structural Features Significant Structural Features 163 Analysis of Number of Public School Students 165 Analysis of Per Pupil Expenditure in the 167 School System Table XXXVII Analysis of School District Assessment Base 170 -vx Table XXXVIII Table XXXIX(a) Table XXXIX(b) Table XL Table XLI Table XLII Table XLIII Table XLIV Table XLV Table XLVI Table XLVII LIST OF TABLES (continued) Page Analysis of Distance from Vancouver 172 Significant Factors Related to Adoption 178 Scores Significant Factors Related to Adoption 179 Scores Regression Analysis of Personal Quantitative 182 Variables Regression Analysis of Situational 186 Quantitative Variables Regression Analysis of Structural 189 Quantitative Variables Regression Analysis of Personal Qualitative 191 Variables Regression Analysis of Situational 194 Qualitative Variables Regression Analysis of Personal, 198 Situational, and Structural Quantitative Variables Regression Analysis of Personal and 201 Situational Qualitative Variables Regression Analysis of Quantitative and 204 Qualitative Variables LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 School Districts in British Columbia Included in the Study Paradigm of the Adoption of an Innovation by an Individual Within a Social System Paradigm of a Basic Communications System Schramm*s Communication Model v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the assistance of those who contributed in various ways to the completion of this study. First, there were the members of the dissertation committee who provided invaluable assistance in designing and planning of the study. Dr. Coolie Verner, the principal research adviser, was the main source of assiduous guidance throughout the various stages of development. Dr. John Niemi and Dr. Larry Moore gave uncounted hours of their time to the crit i c a l reading of drafts of the manuscript. Dr. Song Soo Lee must be credited generously for his immeasurable help in suggesting approaches to data analysis and reporting of the findings. The assistance of the directors of adult education was particularly important. In spite of busy schedules, they gave freely of their time to answer fully the many questions posed during somewhat lengthy interviews. Mr. Louis Monasch, as Secretary-Treasurer of the British Columbia Association of Adult Education Directors, was helpful in supplying historical information about his association, and in providing a letter of introduction for the author to Association members. Lastly, a word of thanks is in order to Mrs. Jean Wrinch who persevered through the typing of various drafts and the final copy. i x DEDICATION To my parents who have always considered formal education important, and have waited patiently for the completion of this work. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION We assume that a l l cultures are in a constant state of change. Yet people differ in terms,of their opportunity to become acquainted with new practices and also in their receptivity toward change. Moreover, whole societies differ in the efficiency and speed with which they change. 1 Thus, the need for a sophisticated understanding of the change process seems imperative in order to cope with an increasingly complex society. Changes in scientific knowledge and technology have increased the require-ments of personal competence and intensified the need for continually acquiring and developing knowledge and skills in a l l occupations and 2 professions. Furthermore, citizens require diverse social skills in order to live in a highly interdependent world society whose only certainty seems to be change. I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The educator is among those professionals who must know what such change involves. It is essential that he understand how new ideas spread and what factors influence their acceptance or rejection. The adoption-diffusion concept has provided a major framework within which sociologists have "conceptualized and studied instigated social change."-^  Moreover, "'•Alfredo Mendez D., "Social Structure and the Diffusion of Innovation" in Human Organization. 27: 241-249, Fall 1968, p. 241. 2Burton R. Clark, "Knowledge, Industry and Adults" in Sociological  Backgrounds of Adult Education. Robert W. Burns, editor, (Chicago: Centre for the Study for Liberal Education for Adults, 1964), p. 1. ^Joe M. Bohlen, "The Adoption and Diffusion of Ideas in Agriculture" in Our Changing Rural Society: Perspectives and Trends. James H. Copp, editor (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1964), p. 265. 2 although considerable emphasis has been placed on the individual as a decision maker (and i t i s he who generally provides the basis for measure-ments and comparisons) research has also examined and attempted to explain adoption behavior within the context of cultural, economic and other systems variables. While the f i e l d of education has produced many adoption and diffusion studies, i t has frequently paid scant attention to such research in other 4 f i e l d s , and contributed l i t t l e to the understanding of the change process. The dominant concern i n education has been the content of the change desired rather than the nature and consequences of the change processes. By contrast, Rogers believes i t is more important to know how new ideas spread from their source to potential receivers, and what factors affect the adoption of innovations, than to concentrate on the nature of those innova-tions. Further, there should be a continuing effort to explore the conver-gence that exists among the six major traditions in diffusion and adoption research stemming from anthropology, early sociology, education, industrial 6 and medical sociology. There i s also the need to close the gap between what i s known by current research and what i s readily put to use. Some of the educational research has indicated that the spread of an innovation proceeded at a pace measurable in decades; and as many as f i f t y years were required for %athew B. Miles, "Educational Innovation: the Nature cf the Problem" i n Innovation i n Education. Mathew B. Miles, editor, (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1964), pp. 399-424. c 'Everett M. Rogers and F. Floyd Shoemaker, "Diffusion of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach" (Unpublished manuscript material, 1968), p. 2. Everett M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1962, p. 6. 7 the complete diffusion of certain educational practices. j n o r c } e r to accelerate the rate of change, i t seems important to understand what factors contribute to f a c i l i t a t i n g or impeding the adoption-diffusion process. An understanding of the dynamics of that operation, according to Linton, can 8 be arrived at "...only by observing the process in actual operation." Because adoption research i n education to date has been chiefly con-cerhedJwith school systems, there remains a need to investigate the role of the individual educator as the adopting agent, while taking into account 9, 10 school or group norms concerning innovativeness. In addition, "the extent of adoption by a particular adopting unit has been over-shadowed by research into the extent of diffusion of an innovation among a particular population. Inquiry concerning the extent of adoption may well introduce an 11 added dimension to research on innovation." •II. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study i s to investigate the behavior of directors of public school adult education in British Columbia, as adopting agents within a structured social system. Specifically, the study analyzes personal characteristics of individual directors as well as situational ^Paul R. Mort, "Studies i n educational innovation from the Institute of Administrative Research: an overview" in Innovation i n Education. Mathew B. Miles, editor, (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1964, p. 318. % a l p h Linton, The Study of Man, New York: Appleton-Century Company, 1936, p. 328. 9 Gerhard Eichholz and Everett M. Rogers, "Resistance to the Adoption of Audio Visual Aids by Elementary School Teachers: Contrasts and Similarities to Agricultural Innovation" i n Innovation i n Education. Mathew B. Miles, Editor, (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, I964), p. 314* 10 E .A. Holdaway and John E. Seeger, "The Development of Indices of Innovativeness" i n Canadian Education and Research Digest. 8: 366-379, December 1968. H l b i d . , p. 377. factors affecting their role performance and structural features of the system in which such directors operate. Particular attention is focused on the role of the director in the adoption of certain recommended adminis-trative practices and his sources of information. Historical Development of Public School Adult Education in B. C. In order to study more fully the director's role, i t becomes necessary to examine some historical aspects of the growth of public school adult education in British Columbia. The development of public school adult education has proceeded intermittently in the province since the beginning of the century. The first public school adult classes were offered in Vancouver in 1909. Within a year, other classes were being given in New Westminster, Nanaimo, and Victoria; and the Public School Act was amended to provide night school classes for adults. In 1914, a l l such classes were placed under the responsibility of the Provincial Director of Technical 12 Education. By 1953, there were night school programs in forty-nine school districts, with a total of 19,969 enrollees in 842 different classes. A decade later sixty-eight districts were operating programs and enrollment had grown by over 350 per cent to 70,405 adults registered in 3,070 13 classes. Moreover, prior to the 1960?s, as l i t t l e as 25 per cent of the enrolment was outside the City of Vancouver.^ By 1963, fifty-nine per cent 1 2B. E. Wales, "The Development of Adult Education" in The Journal  of Education of the UBC Faculty of Education. 10: 5-16, April 1964, p. 6. ^A. L. Cartier, "Public School Adult Education" in The Journal of  Education of the UBC Faculty of Education. 10: 29-35, April 1964, p. 29. ^A. L. Cartier, "The Growth of Public School Adult Education" in The Journal of Education of the UBC Faculty of Education. Special Issue. 18: 75-81, Winter 1971, p. 75. of the adult students were:attending night schools outside the Vancouver system.^ Similarly, there was a rapid growth in the number of directors from three in 1953, to twenty-seven ten years l a t e r . ^ The number of directors had further increased to sixty-seven by the time this study was conducted in 1970. To cope with the rapid expansion and diffusion of public school adult education throughout the province during the decade of the 1960»s, the Provincial Department of Education created an Adult Education Division with-in the Community Programs Branch and appointed an Assistant Director of the Branch to take charge of the new Division. Since 1962, this provincial Co-ordinator of Adult Education has acted as a consultant to local school districts on adult education matters; he has also acted as an administrator of the financial assistance provided by the Department of Education to local programs. During this time period concurrent with the appointment of the Co-ordinator, the most rapid increase in both courses and enrolments occurred. A further impetus to the extension of public school adult education throughout the province was likely provided by a joint project of The University of British Columbia and the British Columbia School Trustees1 18 Association in "Developing Leadership for Public Responsibility." The purpose of this cooperative project supported by Funds for Adult Education (F.A.E.) was education for school trustees. During the years from 1962 to 1964, a total of twenty-six seminars were conducted throughout the province, with some 781 persons participating in the sessions. Included among the ^Cartier, "Public School Adult Education," p. 30. I6wales, op. c i t . . p. 15. 17cartier, "The Growth of Public School Adult Education." (Unpublished manuscript), p. 1. ^Developing Leadership for Public Responsibility. Extension Department: The University of British Columbia, January 1965. 6 general topics of discussion were matters related to Continuing Education, Vocational-Technical Training and Regional Colleges. P a r t i c i p a t i n g as re-source persons i n a considerable number of the seminars were prominent adult educators such as Dr. Coolie Verner, Dr. Bert Wales, Mr. Jack Dalgleish, and several members of the UBC Extension Department. Another milestone i n the development of public school adult education relates to the formation of the B r i t i s h Columbia Association of Adult Education Directors. During 1965, a preliminary discussion about the need fo r such an association was held at a C.A.A.E. meeting i n Vancouver, and arrangements were made for a founding convention to be held the following year. The Kamloops Convention which was held i n 1966, founded the Associa-t i o n and established f i v e chapters to serve the Lower Mainland, Vancouver Island, Kamloops-Okanagan area, the Kootenays, and Northern B. C. The Association selected as i t s f i r s t President, Mr. Jack Dalgleish. Since that founding conference, annual meetings have been held, and membership 19 i n the Association has grown to s i x t y - f i v e . 7 I I I . PROCEDURE The study used the a n a l y t i c a l survey method to examine the process of adoption as i t pertained to certain administrative practices accepted by public school adult education directors i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A structured interview was used to gather personal data from each d i r e c t o r ; various records and annual reports furnished other s t a t i s t i c a l data pertaining to the school d i s t r i c t . Whenever possible, the director was interviewed i n his own se t t i n g , but i n a few instances where a c c e s s i b i l i t y was a problem, he was interviewed i n Vancouver. The detailed procedure used i n the data c o l l e c t i o n , and the method of analysis are discussed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter under the headings, "data c o l l e c t i o n " and "data analysis." ^Personal Interview with Mr. Louis Monasch at King Edward Educational Center, Vancouver, B. C. on June 21, 1971. 7 Research Questions For purposes of statistical analysis the following research questions were investigated, using the .05 level as a test of significance. 1. Are there significant relationships between extent to which directors of public school adult education adopt new administrative practices and such personal characteristics as sex, marital status, age, years of school com-pleted at time of appointment, study in adult education prior to being appointed, study in adult education after being appointed, study in adminis-tration prior to being appointed, study in administration after being appointed, participation in professional training during 1969-70, number of previous jobs, number of years employed as director, number of years employed in present position, work satisfaction, reasons for accepting the position of director, rating of the position as a profession, career commitment to adult education, perception of a full-time or part-time salary, salary from out-side work, career plans within the school system, attitude toward change, social participation, and professional participation? 2. Are there significant relationships between the extent to which directors of public school adult education adopt new administrative practices and the directors* information sources such as professional education journals and adult education journals as well as persons they contact, materials they consult, and activities they engage in during the various stages of the adoption process? 3. Are there significant relationships between the extent which directors of public school adult education adopt new administrative practices and situational factors such as origin of appointment, school officials* support of training, full-time or part-time assignment, additional job responsi-bi l i t i e s , amount of salary as director, amount of salary from other positions held in school system, number of task priorities, ranking of task priorities, number of classes operated during 1969-70, number of adult students, number of instructors supervised, provision of full-time administrative assistants, provision of part-time administrative assistants, provision of secretarial personnel, amount of adult education revenues, amount of adult education expenditures, profit or loss from adult education activities, per pupil ex-penditure for adult education, percentage of budget allocated to adult education, involvement in budget presentation, and designated superior in the administrative system? 4. Are there significant relationships between the extent to which directors of public school adult education adopt new administrative practices and structural features such as the number of public school students, per pupil expenditures for public school students, district assessment base, education mill rate, distance from Vancouver? 8 Definition of Terms The following l i s t of definitions include those terms used most frequently i n the study, and is i n accordance with terminology cited by Rogers. Innovation: an idea, object, or practice perceived as new by the individual. Adoption: a decision to continue f u l l use of an innovation. Adoption Process: the mental process through which an individual passes from f i r s t hearing about an innovation to f i n a l adoption. Social System: a population of individuals who are functionally differen-tiated and engaged in collective problem-solving behavior. Opinion Leaders: those individuals from whom others seek information. Cosmopoliteness: the degree to which an individual's orientation is external to a particular social system. Change Agent: a professional person who attempts to influence adoption decisions i n a direction that he feels i s desirable. In addition, a number of other terms which require specific definition are used throughout the study: Administrative practices: are modes, methods, routines or procedures which a director employs in his organizational system to provide for the requirements of f a c i l i t i e s , programming, participants, and instructors. Personal Characteristics: are qualities or properties associated with the person of the director. Situational Factors: are work-situation elements basically attributable to the organizational system but over which the director may be able to exert a measure of control. Structural Features: are elements i n the organizational system over which the director has no control whatsoever. Systems Factors: are comprised of both the situational factors and struc-t u r a l features pertaining to the organizational system within which the director works. 2 0 E . M. Rogers, O D . c i t . , pp. 12-20, 120. 9 Administrative Practices A search of the literature was made to determine administrative practices appropriate for the study. Some forty practices which had been 21 22 recommended as early as 1951 were selected tentatively. ' These were 23 subsequently submitted to three experts in the field of adult education. ^  The Panel of Reviewers made a selection of twenty-six practices based on the following criteria: 1. The decision to adopt or not to adopt the administrative practice is primarily within the jurisdiction of the director. 2. The practice is sufficiently applicable to warrant its use by a l l directors included in the study. The recommended administrative practices studied were as follows: a. Administrative Practices re: Buildings, Equipment, Facilities, etc. 1) Extends use of school facilities and equipment to other persons and community agencies also involved in adult education activities. 2) Provides a central clearing house containing information files on adult education services and resources of the community. 3) Makes audio-visual equipment and other teaching devices available for instructors. 4) Uses locations other than the school in which to conduct adult education activities. 5) Makes school facilities, library resources, school equipment, etc. available to adults engaged in self-study activities. b. Administrative Practices re: Programming. l) In program planning employs systematic procedures for an over-all assessment of community needs. -^"•Paul L. Essert, Creative Leadership of Adult Education. New York: Prentice-Hall inc., 1951. ^Public School Adult Education: A Guide for Administrators. Washington: National Association of Public School Adult Educators, 1956. ^The panel of experts consisted of Dr. Coolie Verner, Dr. John Niemi, and Dr. Gary Dickinson of the Department of Adult Education, The University of British Columbia. 10 2) Makes surveys of participants to identify those adults not served by existing programs. 3) Conducts surveys and analyses of adults who have dropped out of programs. 4) Provides for consultation with a variety of individuals, community groups, and agencies in program planning (i.e., advisory councils, etc.). 5) Uses recruiting procedures other than the mass media to interest persons to enrol in adult education activities. 6) Employs persons other than day school teachers to conduct adult education activities. 7) Involves instructors in selecting and scheduling adult educational courses and programs. Administrative Practices re: Participants. 1) Arranges for day-time courses for adults who work afternoon and evening shifts. 2) Arranges for enrollment of adults in correspondence courses, programmed instruction, etc. when courses are not provided locally. 3) Eliminates fees for adult students enrolled in credit courses at the school. 4) Makes special arrangements for fee payments by Welfare and other Social Assistance Agencies. 5) Eliminates the payment of fees by Old Age Pensioners. 6) Arranges for varying course starting times in order to allow registration in courses more than once or twice during the year. 7) Provides adult guidance and counselling services. 8) Encourages the formation of an adult student association. Administrative Practices re: Instructors. 1) Provides continuing opportunities for the systematic in-service training of adult education instructors. 2) Provides instructors with incentives for participation in-service training programs. 3) Department subscribes to adult education journals and periodicals which are made available to instructors. 4) Assists instructors to develop their own curriculum and teaching materials. 11 5) Employs a system of supervision that includes a variety of techniques rather than consisting of a single procedure (i.e., visitation,or analysis of attendance figures). 6) Makes provision for instructors to participate in the co-operative planning of proposed annual budgets. The Population Because the number of directors in the province was relatively small, the total population was selected for the study. In this way, taking an entire population actually obviates the need for subjecting the data to statistical tests of significant differences and more complex analysis. If a time component is considered, however, one can view a l l the designated directors of public school adult education in British Columbia during any one year, as only a sample out of the total population of directors over a more extended period, like ten years, for example. This latter approach appropriately lends itself to more detailed statistical analysis, and was the one followed in this study. During early 1 9 7 0 , when the study was begun, there were seventy-nine school districts in the province. Directors of public school adult education were listed for seventy of the school districts but three persons designated as directors by the Provincial Co-ordinators 1969 Directory, indicated they served only as contacts for mailing purposes. Because the Vancouver School system operates under a special city charter and is therefore less subject to provincial regulation, the director of that system was excluded. Thus sixty-six directors were included as the sample in the survey. Data Collection The main data collection for the study was by personal interviews conducted with various directors from April to December 1 9 7 0 . The lengthy time period involved was largely because of the geographical size of the province and travelling distances involved (Figure l ) . Moreover, because of Figure 1 School Districts i n British Columbia Included i n the Study 1. Fernie 2. Cranbrook 3. Kimberley 4. Windermere 7. Nelson 14. 8. Sloean 9. Castlegar 15. 10. Arrow Lakes 17. 11. Trail-RosslandlS. 12. Grand Forks 19. 13. Kettle Valley 21. Prince Rupert Penticton Princeton Golden Reve1stoke Armstrong 28. Quesnel 47. 29- Lillooet 48. 32. Hope 49. 33. Chilliwack 52. 34. Abbotsford 54. 35- Langley 55. 36. Surrey 56. 37. Delta 57-38. Richmond 59. 40. New Westminster 60 41. Burnaby 61. 42. Maple Ridge 62. 43. Coquitlam 63. 44. N. Vancouver 64. 45. W. Vancouver 65. 46. Sechelt 66. 68. 70. 71. 72. 75. 77. 79. 80. 81. Powell River Howe Sound Ocean Fa l l s Prince Rupert Smithers Burns Lake : Vanderhoof Prince George Peace River S. Peace River N. Vi c t o r i a Sooke Saanich Saltspring Cowichan Lake Cowichan Nanaimo Alberni Courtenay Campbell River Mission Summerland Ucluelet-Toflno Kitimat Fort Nelson Vernon 23. Kelowna • VICYPFHA 24. Kamloops 27. Williams Lake 83. Portage Mountain 84. 86. Van. Is. West Creston-Kaslo M 87. Stikine N> 88. Skeena 89- Salmon Arm 13 the lengthy interview schedule the average time of the interview was slightly over two hours, i f there were no interruptions and minimal digressions. Under the circumstances, i t was difficult to conduct more than two inter-views on most days of the survey work. Access to the directors was greatly facilitated by a letter of introduction and support from the executive of the British Columbia Association of Adult Education Directors. A l l but one of the sixty-six directors were extremely co-operative in arranging interviews and in giving generously of their time, often during busy work schedules. In only a few instances was concern somewhat justifiably shown over the length of the interview schedule. On the other hand, a considerable number of the directors expressed an interest in the study and desired to have accessibility to its findings. The interview related specifically to the director, and the schedule included the following categories: 1. Personal characteristics of the directors related to the socio-economic measures found to be relevant to the adoption of innovations in other research studies. 2. Factors pertaining to the work situation of the director. 3 . Sources of information used by the directors at the different stages of the adoption process. 4. Adoption behaviors with regard to the twenty-six administrative practices studied. Tape recordings were made of each interview partly to save time and ensure that f u l l and accurate details could later be transcribed onto the interview form. This procedure also made possible a sound basis for determining the stage in the adoption process and for subsequently assigning an adoption score. A second section of the data related to the structural features of the school district in which the director was employed. These data were obtained mainly from annual reports of school district budgets, as well as from the Provincial Co-ordinator*s records. In some instances, i t was also necessary to contact the secretary-treasurers of school districts when information was not available elsewhere. Data Analysis A total adoption score was calculated for each director, based on the stage of the adoption process reached for each of the administrative practices studied. The following five questions were asked by the inter-viewer to determine which stage in the adoption process the director had reached for each of the administrative practices. 1. For awareness, Do you know about the following administrative practice? 2. For the interest stage, Have you sought any additional and more detailed information on the practice? 3- For evaluation, Have you given consideration as to whether you can apply the practice to your situation? 4. For t r i a l , Have you tried out the practice to see i f i t applies to your situation? 5. For adoption, Have you adopted the practice as a regular part of your operation? When i t was basically determined at what stage the director had reached in the adoption process by these five basic questions, he was encouraged to discuss in greater detail what he knew about the practice, to what extent he had considered i t , how he had tried i t , or how extensively, and when he had adopted the practice in his operation. This detailed information was noted on the interview schedule and also tape recorded for subsequent re-checking, assessment and scoring by the interviewer. The adoption score for each of the administrative practices was based on the following traditional scoring system: 0 for non-awareness; 1 for ^Research Report: Analysis of 1970 School District Budgets. Vancouver: B. C. School Trustees Association. awareness; 2 for interest; 3 for evaluation; 4 for t r i a l , and 5 for adoption. The total possible score a director could receive was 130 (5 x 26 practices) i f he had fully adopted a l l of the recommended practices. Whenever a practice was already in operation before the director assumed his position, that practice was not considered in the calculation of the director*s total score. The total adoption score for each director comprised the dependent variable in the study. Research suggests that adoption scales obtained from the stages are reasonably valid, reliable and internally consistent. Such scales might be improved, however, by increasing the number of items; not weighting scale items; correcting adopting scores for "don't apply" responses, and deter-mining when each practice was adopted in addition to whether i t was adopted 25 or not. In this study, a l l of the above suggestions were taken into account for computing the adoption score, except the time when each practice was adopted. Because directors were appointed at widely different times to their positions, that dimension could not usefully be applied. After completion of the field interviews and an immediate field check, the schedules were office coded and the data key punched on to IBM cards for use by the 360/67 Computer at The University of British Columbia Computing Centre. Standard computer programs in operation at this centre were used for programming the data. In addition, an Olivetti Underwood Programmed desk computer was used for performing some of the less complex statistical analyses. Tests of significance were made primarily at the .05 level, but the .01 level is reported where such a level of significance is indicated. 25E. M. Rogers and L. E. Rogers, "A Methodological Analysis of Adoption Scales" in Rural Sociology. 26: 325-36 (1961). Statistical procedures used include the following: 1) Simple frequency distribution was used to determine the general characteristics of the population. 2) Differences between means: The t-test was used to determine i f the difference between two sample means was significant, or whether i t might reasonably be attributed to chance. F-tests were used to assess differences among means when more than two samples were involved. 3) Multiple Regression analysis was used to determine the proportion of variation in adoption explained by the significant independent variables. IV. REPORT OF FINDINGS The study will be reported on in the following chapters: Chapter II will present the rationales on which various adoption studies have been based and their pertinent findings through a review of related literature. Chapter III will provide an analysis of the personal and communication characteristics of the director as they relate to his adoption behavior. Chapter IV will provide an analysis of the situational and structural factors of the directors.* organizational systems as they relate to his adoption behavior. Chapter V will report those personal characteristics of the directors and those systems factors of their work situation found to be the major components of their adoption scores. Chapter VI will present a final summary of the findings and discuss some implications of the study. 17 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE I. THE ADOPTION AND DIFFUSION PROCESS It now seems evident that the essential elements of the adoption-diffusion phenomenon f a l l within the larger content of communication and cultural change."'"' 2 Such change involves an alteration in the structure and function of a social system. Rogers and Shoemaker^ postulate three sequential stages in the process of social change: as l) invention, 2) diffusion, and 3) consequences. To the same authorities, social change is an effect of communication; and diffusion represents a special type of communication by which new ideas and practices are spread among members of a social system. Stated more operationally by Rogers,^ diffusion involves four main elements: l) the innovation, 2) which is communicated through channels, 3) over time, 4 ) among the members of a social system. The in-novation itself is defined as an idea, practice or object perceived as new by an individual; and i t is the perceived newness for the individual that is the important consideration because such perception determines his attitude 5 and behavior toward the innovation. ^Everett M. Rogers and F. Floyd Shoemaker, Communication of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach. New York: The Free Press, 1 9 7 1 . 2Coolie Verner. "Cultural Diffusion and Adult Education" in Adult  Leadership. 1 7 : 4 9 - 5 1 , June 1968 . ^Rogers and Shoemaker, op_. ci t . . p. 7 . 4Ibid., p. 1 8 . ?Ibid.. p. 1 9 . The adoption process, however, is more restricted to an individual 6 dimension than diffusion. Rogers defines .adoption as the mental process through which an individual passes from f i r s t hearing about an idea to i t s f i n a l adoption. Hence, the adoption period for individual adopters subsumes i t s e l f within the larger content of the diffusion period which i s measured from the date the f i r s t individual becomes aware of an innovation 7 u n t i l i t has reached complete adoption i n a given social system. Rapoport has looked upon the adoption period as the "private time" dimension for acceptance of an innovation, whereas the diffusion period i s the "public time" required for communication and acceptance of an innovation among members of a social system. 8 Kogers presents a paradigm of adoption which contains the three major divisions of 1) antecedents, 2) process, and 3) results (Figure 2). The antecedents consist of two essentials: 1) the actor's identity which is comprised of his sense of security, his dominant values, his mental a b i l i t y and conceptual s k i l l , his social status, and cosmopoliteness; as well as 2) the actor's perception of the situation affecting his adoption behavior such as the social system's norms, economic constraints and incentives, 9 and the characteristics of the unit..farm, school, business) he works within. Information sources are associated with the process and provide important stimuli to the individual in the adoption process. These sources generally vary as the individual passes through the stages from awareness to adoption. For example, i t i s at the evaluation stage that individual Everett M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1962, p. 118. ^Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, op. c i t . , p. 118. 8 I b i d . , pp. 305-306. 9 I b i d . , p. 307. ANTECEDENTS PROCESS RESULTS Information Sources Actor*s Identity Perceptions of the situation 1 . 2 , I I Cosmopoliteness Personal-impexsona I I • Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption T II TTT TV vr III IV ADOPTION PROCESS Adoption Perceived Characteristics of the Innovation 1 . Relative advantage 2 . Compatibility 3. Complexity 4. D i v i s i b i l i t y 5. Communicability Rejection Continued adoption -Later adoption-Discon-tinuance ... > Continued non-adoption Figure 2 Paradigm of the Adoption of an Innovation by an Individual Within a Social System (Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, p. 306) NO forms his perception of the characteristics of the innovation."^ The results of the adoption process culminate in either the acceptance or rejection of the innovation. Moreover, an adopted innovation may be l) used continuously or 2) discontinued at a later date. Discontinuance i s the decision to cease use of an innovation after previously adopting i t . On the other hand, the innovation rejected at the end of the adoption process may be adopted at a later date or continuously rejected. Time Element Time i s a central component in the complex adoption and diffusion 12 process. According to Rogers, there are at least three aspects of the time dimension: Time i s clearly involved in the adoption period which i s concerned with the individual's progression through the stages from f i r s t awareness of an innovation to i t s adoption or rejection. Secondly, there is the "innovativeness" of the individual which concerns the relative earliness or lateness with which he adopts as compared with other members of his social system. Finally, there is the rate of adoption of the  innovation i n the social system, usually measured by the length of time required for a certain percentage of members of a social system to adopt an innovation. The adoption period for an individual i s measured in days, months, or years and i s related to the stages of the adoption process. From his extensive review of the literature Rogers presents several conclusions concerning the amount of time required for adoption after an individual i s once aware of the new idea: Rogers, op., c i t . , p. 307. ^ I b i d . 1 2 !Rogers and Shoemaker, op. c i t . , pp.. 24-25. 21 1) There is l i t t l e evidence that lack of knowledge about innovations actually delays their adoptions. 2) It can be observed that awareness occurs at a more rapid rate than does adoption. 3) . . . the selectivity processes are probably one reason why a l l members of a social system do become aware of a new idea at the same time. 13 Moreover, researchers have been able to isolate two distinct time periods which compose the total adoption period: l) the awareness-to-trial period, and 2) the trial-to-adoption period. Further, there is evidence to support the generalization that for most innovations, the awareness-to-trial period is longer than the trial-to-adoption period.^4. It has also been found that the first individuals to adopt innovations require a shorter adoption period than do relatively later adopters, probably because such innovators use more technically accurate sources of information, and may be persons posses-sing a type of mental ability which better enables them to cope with abstractions.^ When the two subperiods of awareness-to-trial, and trial-to-adoption are considered by adopter category, Rogers suggests two additional generalizations: 1. The awareness-to-trial period is shorter for relatively earlier adopters than for later adopters, but 2. The trial-to-adoption period is longer for relatively earlier adopters than for later adopters. 16 It is probably because the first adopters take a relatively greater risk in adopting innovations than later adopters, which accounts for the earlier adopters requiring a longer trial-to-adoption period, as well as trying 17 out the idea on more installments and on a smaller scale. •^ Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, pp. 108-111. U I b i d . , p. 113. A^Ibid.. p. 111. l 6Ibid.. pp. 113-115. ^Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, op. cit . , pp. 115-116. The adoption of new ideas or practices within a social system follows a definite and predictable pattern and requires several years for comple-tion of the process. There is i n i t i a l l y a slow, early diffusion period during which the idea is tried out by a small group, followed by a period of rapid acceleration when there i s acceptance by the majority, culminated i n another slow period of time for the few remaining members of the system f i n a l l y to adopt. The diffusion curve often assumes a typical 'S' shape, when plotted on a cumulative basis, or the bell-shaped curve of normal distribution when done on a non-cumulative b a s i s . ^ * ^ In farming, relatively simple changes may take ten or twelve years from i n i t i a l introduction to t o t a l acceptance in a community.21 education, early studies revealed as much time as f i f t y years was required 22 for the complete diffusion of certain educational practices. 23 According to Rogers, c r i s i s may accelerate the diffusion process or retard i t ; and the appearance of the f i r s t Russian 'sputnik' i s credited with precipitating change in the American school system."24 change i s proceeding more rapidly i n education than would have been predicted on the ^Herbert F. Lionberger, Adoption of New Ideas and Practices. Ames: Iowa, Iowa State University Press, I960, pp. 33-36. •^•Frank 0 . Leuthold, Communication and Diffusion of Improved Farm  Practices in Two Northern Saskatchewan Communities. Saskatoon: Canadian Centre for Community Studies, 1966, p. 142. 2% 0gers, op. c i t . . p. 4 1 . ' ^Lionberger, op,, c i t . , p. 35. , 2 2Paul H. Mort, "Studies i n Educational Innovation from the Institute of Administrative Research: an Overview" i n Innovation in Education. Mathew Miles (ed.), New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, p. 318 23' "^•Rogers, op. c i t . , p. 125. 2^'Donald V/. Johnson, " T i t l e III and the Dynamics of Educational Change in California Schools," in (Miles, op. c i t . ) , p. 157. 23 basis of earlier studies; and Miles2-* cites as examples, the rapid prolifera-tion of programmed learning and language laboratories, as well as the increasing use of teacher aides and team teaching. Stages of Adoption Process Although no complete agreement exists as to the number of stages i n the adoption process, there i s general consensus that adoption involves more than a dichotomy of acceptance or rejection. Beal, Rogers and Bohlen2° have stated that for any individual the adoption of a complex new farm or home practice i s not a single act, and they compare the complexity between the adoption process as i t applies to farm practices with some of the 27 learning theories put forth by social psychologists. Moreover, Davis ' found that two collegiate institutions seemed to go through the same stages of adoption as reported by agricultural researchers. As early as 1943, Ryan and Gross2** used four stages as did Wilkening 2 9 ten years later. In the North Central Rural Sociology Sub-committee Review of 1955, five adoption stages were described. Subsequent researchers,^ 5 ^ used five stages i n their investigations during 1957 and 1958, while during ^Mathew B. Miles, "Educational innovation: the nature of the problem," in (Miles, op_. c i t . ) , p. 6. 2 6G. M. Beal, E. M. Rogers, and J. M. Bohlen, "Validity of the Concept of Stages i n the Adoption Process" i n Rural Sociology. 22: 166-168 (1957). 27R. H. Davis, Personal and Organizational Variables Related to the  Adoption of Educational Innovations i n Liberal Arts Colleges. Chicago: University of Chicago, I965. 2 6B. Ryan and N. C. Gross. "The Diffusion of Hybrid Seed Corn i n Two Iowa Communities" in Rural Sociology. 8: 15-24 (1943). 2?E. A. Wilkening, "Acceptance of Improved Farm Practices in Three Coastal Plain Counties," Test Bulletin No. 98. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station (May 1952). 3°Beal, Rogers and Bohlen, op_. c i t . . pp. 166-168. 31j. H. Copp et a l . "The Function of Information Sources i n the Farm Practice Adoption Process," i n Rural Sociology. 23: 146-157 U958). the same period other researchers, * used a three stage process, and •31 one team postulated as many as six stages. 35 From the five commonly used stages, operational definitions were created to serve as a research tool: 1. Awareness: The individual knows of the existence of an idea or practice, but lacks details concerning i t s in t r i n s i c nature and use. Awareness may begin as an involuntary act, a discovery by accident. 2. Information: The individual becomes interested i n the idea and seeks further basic information of a general nature. 3. Evaluation: The individual considers the knowledge he has about the idea and weighs the alternatives i n terms of his own use. 4- T r i a l : The individual has the empirical experience of observing the idea i n use. 5. Adoption: The individual uses the idea on a full-scale basis i n his operations and i s satisfied with i t . This traditional five-stage model i s not t o t a l l y adequate, however, for many of the decisions involved i n the adoption of innovations. 36 Campbell presents a paradigm of individual decision making and adoption constructed around two dichotomies, rational or non-rational, and innovation "?*iF. E. Emery and 0. A. Oeser, Information. Decision and Action: A  Study of the Psychological Determinants of Change i n Farming Techniques. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1958. 33E. A. Wilkening, "Roles of Communicating Agents in Technological Change in Agriculture" i n Social Forces. 34: 361-367 (1956). 3%. J. Lavidge and G. A. Steiner, "A Model for Predicting Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness" in Journal of Marketing. 25: 59-62 (1961). M. Bohlen, "Research Needed on Adoption Models" in Diffusion  Research Needs, North Central Research Bulletin 186, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Missouri, n.d., pp. 15-21. 36R ex R. Campbell, "A Suggested Paradigm of the Individual Adoption Process" i n Rural Sociology, 31: 458-466, (December 1966). 25 or problem-oriented decisions. Thus four "ideal type" processes are possible when the two dimensions are combined in alternative arrangements. 37 Moreover Campbell questions the traditional assumption that adoption i s the "natural result" or rational outcome of evaluation. In his opinion, the rejection of an innovation may also be the result of a rational decision, and the "rational-traditional" model does not allow for rational and non-rational behavior i n terms of both adoption and non-adoption. 38 Verner and Gubbels have also indicated that the traditional five stage procedure i s inadequate as the sole measure of adoption behavior. They have identified reasons for delay, rejection or discontinuance and have brought into question the implicit assumption of the "rational traditional" model that "only adoption i s the rational response to an innovation." For purposes of analysis, these researchers have established five innovation response states: unawareness; continuation in the adoption process; 39 rejection; adoption; and discontinuance. Subsequent research has sub-stantiated this refined analysis of adoption behavior. Recently, Rogers^ has chosen to use the term "innovation-decision" to describe the mental process through which an individual passes from f i r s t knowledge of an innovation to a decision to adopt or reject, and f i n a l l y to a confirmation of this decision. The four main functions i n the process Rex R. Campbell, "A Suggested Paradigm of the Individual Adoption Process" i n Rural Sociology. 31: 458-466, (December 1966). •^C. Verner and P. M. Gubbels, The Adoption or Rejection of Innova- tions by Dairy Farm Operators i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada (1967). P. Alleyne and C. Verner. Personal Contacts and the Adoption of  Innovations. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of British Columbia (1969). Rogers and Shoemaker, op_. c i t . , p. 25. 26 are now theoretically postulated as knowledge, persuasion (attitude formation and change), decision (adoption or rejection), and confirmation; but as yet 41 these stages have not been used extensively as a research tool. Operationally, a recent study of the collective adoption process, as i t related to Development Associations i n Eastern Nigeria, employed six stages. These were subsequently reduced to introduction, legitimation, and implementation, however, because fewer stages seemed more applicable i n less developed countries where there was less differentiation of social roles. Another stage process analysis of innovational programs in secondary schools^ found that four stages of the adoption process were commonly i n evidence i n the majority of the eighty-seven programs investigated. In the five stage model, the t r i a l stage was the one most l i k e l y to be by-passed by the schools. Adoption Scales and Scores Although very l i t t l e evidence exists as to the number of stages i n the adoption process, there i s evidence that the concept of stages has v a l i d i t y . ^ ' ^ * ^ Similarly research suggests that adoption scales ^Rogers and Shoemaker, op_. c i t . . p. 34. ^2Graham B. Kerr, "Leadership and Communication i n the Collective Adoption Process of Development Associations in Eastern Nigeria" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1970). ^3j o s eph V. Medeiros, "A Stage-Process Analysis of the Adoption of Innovational Programs in Selected Public Secondary Schools. (Unpublished Ed. D., Boston University School of Education, 1967). ^G. M. Beal and E. M. Rogers, The Adoption of Two Farm Practices i n  A Central" Iowa Community. Special Report 26. Ames: Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station (i960). ^^Beal, Rogers and Bohlen, op_. c i t . , pp. 166-168. ^6Copp et a l . , op,, c i t . , pp. 146-157. ^Medeiros, op_. c i t . ^Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, pp. 95-98. 2 7 obtained from the stages are reasonably valid, reliable, and internally consistent. Nevertheless, such scales might be improved by increasing the number of items; not weighting scale items; correcting adopting scores for "don't apply" responses; and determining when each practice was adopted, i n addition to whether i t was adopted or n o t . ^ One common method for calculating such a score i s to assign numerical values to each stage: 1 for awareness, 2 for interest, 3 for evaluation, 4 for t r i a l , and 5 for adoption.' 5 0' - 5 2' -*3 Another method of scoring i s on the basis of relative time-of Adoption across several practices and the calculation of sten scores?^' ^ M. Rogers and L. E. Rogers, "A Methodological Analysis of Adoption Scales" i n Rural Sociology. 26: 3 2 5 - 3 3 6 ( 1 9 6 1 ) . Alleyne, "Interpersonal Communication and the Adoption of Innovations Among Strawberry Growers i n the Lower Fraser Valley" (Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, The University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 8 ) . ^B. W. Du Gas "An Analysis of Certain Factors i n the Diffusion of Innovations i n Nursing Practice i n Public General Hospitals of the Province of Bri t i s h Columbia" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, The University of British Columbia, 1 9 6 9 ) . co J C. Verner and P. M. Gubbels, Adult Education and the Adoption or  Rejection of Innovations by Dairy Farm Operators i n the Lower Fraser  Valley. Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada ( 1 9 6 7 ) . 5 3 C . Verner and F. W. Millerd, Adult Education and the Adoption of  Innovations by Orchardists i n the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of Br i t i s h Columbia ( 1 9 6 6 ) . ^Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, pp. 1 6 0 - 1 6 4 . 5 5 E. M. Rogers, A. E. Havens, and D. G. Cartano, "The Construction of Innovativeness Scales." Mimeo Bulletin A.E. 3 3 0 . Columbus: Ohio Agricultural Experiment. Station. (February, 1 9 6 2 ) . 28 Adopter Categories Adoption scores of individuals may be used as a basis for establishing categories which identify the individual's rate of response to innovation, ranging from those who first adopt an idea or practice to those who are 56 last or who never adopt. Rogers' has divided adopters into five categories identified as: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. Such categories provide a useful tool for making gross dif-ferentiations with respect to the time of adoption, among subjects studied. Further, Rogers suggests that any given group of adopters wil l approximate the distribution of the normal curve and this pattern has been borne out in 57 58 various studies. ' The general procedure in many of the previous studies has been to use the Mean of the 'adoption scores* obtained by a population (or sample of a population) and Standard Deviations from the Mean in order to divide adopters into the five respective categories.^ More recently, Rogers^ has expressed the view that the division should be on a percentile basis with the innovators and early adopters compressed into one group, comprising the top sixteen per cent of the scores. The following thirty-four per cent would constitute the early majority, while the next thirty-four per cent would consist of the late majority, and the remaining sixteen per cent would be the laggards. 5^ E. M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, pp. 159-166. 5?Verner and Gubbels, op_. c i t . ^Alleyne and Verner, op., c i t . ^Rogers, ojo. cit., pp. 159-164-^Statement by Dr. Everett M. Rogers in personal correspondence with Mrs. B. W. Du Gas, dated March 9, 1969. 29 Characteristics of the Innovation Another important consideration in the adoption and diffusion process relates to the characteristics of the innovations themselves. A number of researchers have tended to regard innovations as equivalent units for purposes of analysis, but this empirically equivalent unit approach is inconsistent with r e a l i t y . ^ The idea that the innovation itself constitutes a variable and that a classification of innovations on the basis of common characteristics should 62 be considered, was recommended by Ogburn. As early as 1922, he divided inventions into the two categories of material and non-material. Closely related to this early classification system is another approach concerning whether or not the innovation has two components: l) an idea component, and 2) an object component, that i s , the material or physical product aspect of the idea. The adoption of innovations with only an idea component involves essentially a symbolic decision which may not be physically observed, whereas innovations that have an object component invoke an action adoption which can be seen.^ As yet, most of the research has focused on innovations..." of a material, technological variety, consisting of both an object, as well as an idea."^ Camaren, "Innovation As a Factor Influencing the Diffusion and Adoption Process." (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1966). ^ 2F. C. FLiegel and J. E. Kivlin, "Attributes of Innovations as Factors in Diffusion," in The American Journal of Sociology, 72: 235-7 (November, 1966). ^Rogers and Shoemaker, Diffusion of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural  Approach, p. 27. 6 4Ibid.. p. 28. 65jMd., p. 27. 30 Other classification schemes have subsequently been developed. K a t z ^ classified items on the basis of their attributes of communicability, pervasiveness, risks involved and re v e r s i b i l i t y . Moreover several charac-t e r i s t i c s or qualities of the innovation have been considered important i n 67 contributing to i t s di f f e r e n t i a l rate of acceptance. Rogers and Shoemaker define the five most important characteristics i n this regard as: relative advantage over previously used practices; compatability with existing values and experience; complexity of the idea; i t s t r i a l a b i l i t y and i t s observability. Between sixteen and sixty per cent of variation i n adoption has been explained by these various factors either singly or i n combination.^ 69 Additional characteristics concerning other researchers pertain to mechanical attraction, i n i t i a l and continuing cost, saving of time, and the saving of physical discomfort. In studying the effect of congruence (or similarity) with other 70 practices previously adopted on the rate of adoption, Brander: and Kearl found that farmers who had previously adopted hybrid seed com adopted hybrid sorghum more rapidly than those who had not. In a study to correlate the rate of adoption of modern farm practices with the farmers* perception O D E . Katz, "Diffusion of Innovations," i n The Obstinate Audience. Ann Arbor: . Brown and Broomfield Inc., 1965, pp. 25-29. ^Rogers and Shoemaker, op_. c i t . . pp. 28-31. ^Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, pp. 135-136. ^9p. c. F i l e g e l and J. E. Kivlin, Differences Among Improved Farm  Practices as Related to Rates of. Adoption. Bulletin 691. College of Agriculture, Pennsylvania State University, 1962. ^°L. Brander and B. Kearl, "Evaluation for Congruence as a Factor in Adoption-rate of Innovations," i n Rural Sociology. 29: 288-303 (1964). of innovation, F l i e g a l and K i v l i n ' x found that innovations which r^fere most rewarding and least risky were adopted most rapidly and that a direct contribution of the innovation to the major occupational interest of the individual enhanced adoption. High costs were not an impediment to adoption in the relatively high income community studied, nor were the complexity of the practice or pervasiveness of consequences significant factors. In a study of farmers' perceptions of innovations as related to self-72. concept and adoption, E l l i o t has examined three attributes of innovations. Factor one which was concerned with a "certainty" dimension and a possible congruence with past experience accounted for forty-five to sixty per cent of the explained variance over other factors. The second factor involved the "psychic reward" dimension related to the pleasure of the psychological comfort of the practice and along with the third factor representing the "pay off" dimension/ in terms of social status and economic return accounted for from eight to twenty-four per cent of the explained variance. In investigating reasons for rejection and discontinuance among dairy-men in terms of both adopter categories and stages in the adoption process, 73 Verner and Gubbels found that about two-thirds of the reasons given related to characteristics of the innovation, while the remaining one-third concerned situational factors. 71'Fliegel and Kivlin, "Attributes of Innovations as Factors i n Diffusion," pp. 2 3 5 - 2 3 7 . 72 ' J. G. E l l i o t , "Farmers' Perceptions of Innovations as Related to Self-Concept and Adoption." (Unpublished- Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1 9 6 9 ) . ^Verner and Gubbels, op. c i t . , p. 5 6 . 32 Among r e t a i l merchants, the greater the perceived risk attached to an •71 innovation, the slower the adoption process. Moreover, innovativeness was related to the executives' perception of the innovations probability of success,and executives were significantly more innovative for new operating 75 methods than for new institutional forms or new products. In the evaluation of an innovation, factors of relative advantage were found to be 76 different for innovators who were problem-oriented, and those who were not. In investigating the attributes of innovations as variables influencing 77 the diffusion and adoption of new practices i n education, Camaren found the diffusion of innovations to be the result of a complex set of elements, one of which was the nature of the innovation and i t s attributes with regard to costs, d i v i s i b i l i t y , i n t r i n s i c and extrinsic rewards, as well as i t s pervasiveness, compatability and legitimacy. In general, more rapid acceptance was accorded those innovations whose consequences of adoption were insular rather than pervasive, and those which focused on improving process rather than products, as well as innovations with overt rather than 78 ideological acts of adoption. Kohl found that educational innovations had perceivable characteristics, and those dealing with relative advantage, (l*F. D. Reynolds, "An Analysis of the Adoption Process of Retail Merchants for a Bank Charge Account Plan." (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alabama, 1970). *^A. D. Star, "Adoption of Innovations by Large Retail Firms." (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 1969). "^Reynolds, O J J . c i t . 77camaren, op., c i t . 7 8J. W. Kohl, "Adoption Stages and Perceptions of Characteristics of Educational Innovations." (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, 1966). divisibility and compatability were perceived more often than communica-bility or complexity. Moreover, compatability was significantly related to the adoption stage as had been hypothesized by the study. As yet, there is a lack of research on the variability of the innova-79 tion and according to Fliegel and Kivlin such a lack constitutes one of the weaknesses in the majority of diffusion studies. These researchers have emphasized that differences in the item which is being transmitted are important variables to be considered. Communication A basic communications model involves a source transmitting a message or new idea over a communications channel to a receiver (Figure 3)• The obvious deficiency of such a model is the lack of provision for the value systems of both the sender and the receiver of the message, as well as the societal context within which the message is communicated. Within such a 80 , . model developed by Schramm such elements are included (Figure 4)• Moreover, as early as the 1940*3, Lazarsfeld identified sources he termed 'opinion leaders' and a 'Two-Step Flow of Communication* which hypothesized that: Influences stemming from the mass media first reach opinion leaders who, in turn, pass on what they read and heard to those of their everyday associates for whom they are influential. 81 ' 7Fliegel and Kivlin, "Attributes of Innovations as Factors in Diffusion," p. 235. **°W. Schramm, "Procedures and Effects of Mass Communications" in Mass Media and Education: The Fifty-third Yearbook of the National Society  For the Study of Education. Henry, Nelson B (ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954, p. 116. 81p. Lazarsfeld, B. Berelson and H. Gaudet, The People*s Choice. 4th ed., New York: Columbia University Press, 1954, p. 151. Figure 3 Paradigm of a Basic Communications System (from Schramm - "Procedures and Effects of Mass Communications," p. 113)* . Figure 4 Schramm's Communication Model (from Schramm - "Procedures and Effects of Mass Communication," p. 116). 35 Such a hypothesis has provided the basic framework f o r considerable research i n widely d i f f e r i n g f i e l d s such as agriculture, medicine and marketing; and reports from such studies have indicated that interpersonal r e l a t i o n -ships and the personal communications a r i s i n g from them are more important 82, 83, 84 than any other items i n influencing decision-making. I t i s now evident that although there are two steps involved i n 85 information transmission at any one point i n the d i f f u s i o n process com-munication can no longer be considered a simple two-step transfer of information. Troldahl suggests there i s a one-step flow of information and a two-step flow of influence. He believes there are two groups i n any community, the followers and the leaders; and that the followers seek advice from people l i k e themselves. However, such leaders tend to seek te c h n i c a l l y 86 accurate information sources such as professional intermediaries. 87 Moreover on the basis of his 'balance 1 theory, Troldahl suggests that i f new information i s inconsistent with previous knowledge, an upset occurs i n the i n t e r n a l balance of a person's attitudes and behavioral patterns. Thus, i n an attempt to restore balance, the i n d i v i d u a l seeks the ^ 2F.O. Leuthold, Communication and D i f f u s i o n of Improved Farm  Practices i n Two Northern Saskatchewan Farm Communities. Saskatoon: Canadian Centre f o r Community Studies, 1966, p.146. 83 Rogers, D i f f u s i o n of Innovations, pp. 213-217. 8^P. .iLazarsfeld,':B.Berelson, and H. Gaudet, The People's Choice. 2nd ed., New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1948. 8 % ogers, op. c i t . , p. 214. 8 6 V . C. T r oldahl, "A F i e l d Test of a Modified 'Two-Step Flow of Communications' Model," Public Opinion Quarterly. 30: 609-623 (Winter 1966/67), p.-613. 8 7 I b i d . 36 opinions of others to help him either to f i t the new information into his existing behavior and value systems or tc reject i t . It i s also necessary 88 89 that the source of information be considered both credible and reliable. f 90 Wolpert suggests that the process of communication involves not only the simple transmission of message units but also the social interaction between members of a population, and uses a 'multi-step process of diffusion' hypothesis to explain the process. In tracing the flow of information on new farm practices over a relatively large area, Wolpert found there were five steps involved. On this basis, he suggested a modified version of the Two-Step Flow model which provided for both the external flow of information from the experts to the farmers, and the internal flow of information through 91 the farmers. Rogers also indicates that there are two processes involved in the transfer of information and the spread of influence. Attention has been given to both the concepts of heterophily and homo-92 phily. The more effective communication occurs when the source and receiver are homophilous because they are .likely to l i v e near each other, belong to the same groups, be alike i n personal and social characteristics, 93 and to share common meanings. Yet, diffusion demands some degree of ^Leuthold, ojg. ext., p. 55. 8?C. I. Hovland, I. L. Janis and H. H. Kelly, Communication and  Persuasion. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953), p. 19. Wolpert, "A Regional Simulation Model of Information Diffusion," Public Opinion Quarterly. 30: 597-608 (Winter 1966/67), p. 604. 9 1Ro gers, Diffusion of Innovations, pp. 211-214. op rlogers and Shoemaker, op_. c i t . , p. 20. 9 3 I b i d . 37 heterophily because the source i s required to be more technically competent than the receiver. Thus the change agent and his clientele very l i k e l y do not talk the same language. 9^ According to Rogers,^ "...one of the most distinctive problems that characterizes the communication of innovations 96 is that the source is usually quite heterophilous to the receiver." Mort early pointed out the lack of effective communication within the educational r system, and subsequently efforts have been made to develop improved methods of communicating research findings, by designing a numbercdf periodicals and scholarly educational research journals for this purpose. Fox and 97 Lippitt have also observed that within most actual school situations channels of communication whereby successful innovations can be shared are so poorly developed that l i t t l e sharing takes place. On the other hand, 98 Arnold found that among vocational educational teachers, the source of introduction of the selected practices was most l i k e l y to be from within their own vocational system. 99 G r i f f i t h s points out a further problem of"Feed-back communications loops" which keep permanent systems i n a steady state, but r e s t r i c t Q JL 7 HRogers and Shoemaker, op,, c i t . , p. 15 9 5 I b i d . 96 7 P. R. Mort, "Studies in Educational Innovation from the Institute of Administrative Research: an Overview" in Innovation i n Education. M. Miles (ed.) New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964, p. 321 . 9^R.S. Fox and R. Lippitt, "The innovation of classroom mental health practices" i n Innovation in Education. M. Miles (ed.) New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964, p. 296. 98 7 D . S. Arnold, "The Relation of Source of Introduction to the Adoption of Selected Educational Practices- by Vocational Education Teachers" (Unpublished Ed. D . dissertation, University of Tennessee, 1968). 9 9 D . E . G r i f f i t h s , "Administrative theory and change in organizations" in Innovations in Education. M. Miles (ed.), New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964, pp. 430-436. 38 communication, partly to maintain existing status relationships. An unfortunate consequence of the restricted communication i s that different parts of the system have incomplete and distorted ideas of what i s occurring. Sources of Information In research of the adoption-diffusion tradition, there ha3 been almost 100 an excessive emphasis on channels of communication. Generally, attention has been focused on determining and classifying information sources which vary on the basis of stage i n the adoption process, the characteristic of the innovation, and the adopter category. Information sources have been classified i n a variety of ways. An early system included impersonal, personal, and self-categories which were later expanded into four categories of mass media, peers, oral extension and commercial sources."^ 2 More recently Verner and others'^* -^ 4 have developed classification systems encompassing the various subtitles found i n 105 the literature. These researchers have presented a two-way alternative 1 0 0 E . Katz, M. L. Levin, and H. Hamilton, "Traditions of Research on the Diffusion of Innovations," i n American Sociological Review. 28: 237-252, April, 1963, p. 245. 1 0 1Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, p. 178. * 0 2R. G. Mason, "The Use of Information Sources i n the Process of Adoption" i n Rural Sociology. 29: 40-52 (March 1964). 1 0 3Verner and Millerd, op_. c i t . , pp. 32-36. 1 0^Verner and Gubbels, op_. c i t . , pp. 29-39. 1 Q5lbid. 39 system which provides for the classification of a source either i n terms of i t s origin or the nature of i t s activity. Classified by source of origin, information about innovations is assembled with the sub-categories of government, commercial, farm organizations, and personal sources. This system resembles the traditional classification models which include mass media, commercial, neighbours and friends, and agricultural agencies. Classified by the nature of the activity, which differentiates between the mass dissemination of information and the specific instructional situation, the sources are organized within personal, mass, instructional group, and individual instructional categories. This second alternative introduces a new dimension relevant to the directed behavioral change. Moreover informa-tion sources can be classified on a number of other bases such as cosmo-politeness and personal-impersonal dimensions. 107 In considering various information channels Mason found that such information resources as mass media, authoritative, peer and commercial sources were related to stages of the adoption process. Although the rate of use differed for the various sources, the use of information from a l l sources increased as both high and low influence farmers passed through the various stages of the adoption process. Mass media was the most highly used source at the awareness stage, except for the peer source by influentials. The use of authoritative, peer, and commercial sources increased as the 108 farmer passed through the stages of the adoption process. Wilkening found 1 0^Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, p. 182. 1 0 7Mason, op. c i t . 1 0 8 I b i d . that mass media was used as a source of f i r s t knowledge, whereas agricul-t u r a l agencies were used for detailed instructions on putting a practice into effect and for helping i n decision making. Further, i t should be realized that in congruence with the cognitive dissonance phenomenon, information seeking does not stop with adoption as there remains a need for consummatory support. In summary, mass media-impersonal information sources are more commonly used at the information stage, whereas inter-personal face-to-fac personal sources are more involved at the evaluation and decision stages o 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117 adoption. 1 0 9 J. M. Bohlen, "The Adoption and Diffusion of Ideas i n Agriculture, i n Our Changing Rural Society: Perspectives and Trends, J. H. Copp (ed.), Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1964, p. 282. 1 1 0Du,Gas„ op. c i t . W. Ekwall, "An Examination of Factors Contributing to the Adoption of the Nebraska English Curriculum i n Selected Nebraska Schools" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Nebraska, 1970). 112 M.C.M. Kuhonta, "An Analysis of the Communications Process in the Adoption of Farm Innovations (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of I l l i n o i s , 1969). ll^i^zarsfe'ld^erelson and Gaudet, The People's Choice (2nd ed.). 114T. F. Marx, "A Factor Analytic Study of Educational Innovations and Aspects of the Adoption Process" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1970). ^Aj. A. Pastre "Adoption of Innovations: Sources and Channels of Information Used by Elementary School Principals" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1968). ^-^Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, pp. 99-102. l-^Verner and Gubbels, pp. ext., pp. 33-39. 41 Moreover, cosmopolite information sources are most important at the 118,119,120 awareness stage; and localite sources, at the evaluation stage. More commonly, however, communication behavior has been considered on the 121 basis of adopter category. When such categories are introduced, the analysis of sources of information becomes more specific and significant 122 differences in communication behavior are established. From a considerable 123 body of research, Rogers, has provided a number'of generalizations i n this regard. Earlier adopters employ information sources which are more impersonal and cosmopolitan than later adopters. Moreover, earlier adopters u t i l i z e information sources closer to the origin of new ideas and make use of a greater number of information sources than later categories. On the other hand, later adopters place greater reliance on personal sources than earlier categories. Among educators, the experienced professionals in the more innovative categories were l i k e l y to have access to and make greater use of impersonal-118 V. P. Benito-Samonte, "An Application of the Campbell Paradigm to the Adoption Process of Farmers in Selected Areas i n the Philippines" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia, 1970). 119 7 J . V. Medeiros, "A Stage-Process Analysis of the Adoption of Innovational Programs i n Selected Public Secondary Schools" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Boston University School of Education, 1967). 1 2 0Rogers, p_p_. ext., pp. 99-102. 1 2 1 I b i d . , p. 178. 1 2 2Bohlen, "The Adoption and Diffusion of Ideas i n Agriculture," p. 282. 123R ogers, pp_. c i t . . pp. 178-182. ^ I b i d . , p. 220. cosmopolite sources of information and professional literature than J . . . . . . . . 125, 126, 127, 128, 129 educators xn the less innovative categories. ' Moreover, high adoption scorers used the least number of personal-localite 130 sources, when evaluating whether or not to adopt an innovation. On the other hand, there was evidence to indicate that interpersonal communication had a considerable bearing on adoption among educators. Regular attendance at workshops and involvement in in-service training were 131, 132, 133 associated with a high rate of innovation. Similarly, the informal contact among educators at professional meetings and conferences 5j. E. Christiansen, "The Adoption of Educational Innovations Among Teachers of Vocational Agriculture" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1965). 12^tv"/. T. E l l i s , "The Adoption of Educational Innovations Among Experienced Teachers of Vocational Agriculture in Predominantly Negro Schools i n North Carolina" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1968). D. Kensley, "A Study of Factors Related to the Acceptance and Adoption of a Co-operative Supplementary Educational Service Centre Authorized Under T i t l e III of P.L. 89-10" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Southern I l l i n o i s University, 1968). 128^ B > Miles, "On temporary systems" in Innovation i n Education, M. M. Miles (ed.), New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964, p. 475. W. Nicholson, "Selected School District and Administrative Variables Related to the Adoption of Instructional Television" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1965). ^ E l l i s , op. c i t . " ^ E l l i s , op., c i t . ^ 2 F o x and Lippitt, op. c i t . . p. 296. 133 Nicholson, op., c i t . 134, 135, was considered an important factor i n regard to adoption response. 136 137 ^ ' V i s i t a t i o n to demonstration centres and other schools has also 138, 139, 140, 141 been i d e n t i f i e d as an important influence on adoption, although program v i s i t a t i o n as a means of a s s i s t i n g elementary school principals to become involved i n the innovative process was reported as a 142 very i n e f f e c t i v e technique. II. THE ADOPTER From the extensive research concerning the adoption and d i f f u s i o n of innovations, "...one can conceptualize an individual's innovative behavior as explained by two types of variables: 1) the individual's personality, M. B r i c k n e l l , "State organization for educational change: a case study and a proposal" i n Innovation i n Education. M. B. Miles (ed.), New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964, p. 509. 135 Christiansen, pp. c i t . "^piensley, op. c i t . " ^ N i c h o l s o n , °E» £3£* 138]3ricknell, pp. c i t . ^ ^ C h r i s t i a n s e n , op. c i t . •^°Ellis, pp. c i t . "U+"1T. E. Knauer, "A Study of V i s i t s to Two I l l i n o i s Demonstration Centres as Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Team Teaching" (Unpublished Ed.D. di s s e r t a t i o n , University of Colorado, 1970). • ^ 2 J . A. Pastre, "Adoption of Innovations: Sources and Channels of Information Used by Elementary School P r i n c i p a l s " (Unpublished Ed.D. di s s e r t a t i o n , Cornell University, 1968) . 44 communication behavior, attitudes, etc., and 2) the nature of his social s y s t e m . j n b r i e f , decision-making individuals can be seen to act i n response to individual needs, interpersonal group norms, and institutional role expectations as well as to their perception of a variety of situational f actors. Personal and Socio-economic Characteristics As yet, a large proportion of the research has been concerned with the relationship that exists between a number of common personal and socio-economic characteristics of the individual and the way i n which he responds to a particular innovation or set of innovations. Further, the characteris-t i c s of individual farmers pertaining to their classification i n adopter categories have been continuously and extensively investigated. Although the research in regard to various aspects of socio-economic variables has not been i n t o t a l agreement , 148, 149 R0gers^Q n a s formulated a number of generalizations related to adopter categories. When ^Rogers and Shoemaker, op., c i t . , p. 29. 1 /^T. Sobol, "Rockwood Adopts a Dial - Select Television System: A Study of Educational Decision - Making Roles and Progresses in a Sub-urban Community" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1969). 12t-5Rogers, op,, c i t . , pp. 148-192. 1 4 6 E L L I S J 2 E # c i t . •^A. E. Havens, "Increasing the Effectiveness of Predicting Innovativeness," i n Rural Sociology. 30: 150-165, (June, 1965). -^Lionberger, op., c i t . , pp. 96-106. ^• 9Verner and Gubbels, p_p_. c i t . , pp. 6-7. 1 5°Rogers, op., c i t . , pp. 171-178. 45 compared with l a t e r adopter categories, the early adopters tend to be younger, possess higher s o c i a l status, engage i n a higher degree of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , display a more cosmopolitan attitude, and have a d i f f e r e n t 151 type of mental a b i l i t y . More recently Bohlen, has indicated that by contrast with l a t e adopters, the innovators and early adopters are charac-terized by t h e i r greater willingness to take r i s k s , shorter adoption periods, greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Gesellschaft as d i s t i n c t from Gemeinschaft systems, and higher professional orientation towards farming, as w e l l as a greater emphasis on economic p r o f i t naximization. As a general r u l e , however, i t i s the economic situ a t i o n of the farmer 152 153 which tends to exert a major influence on his adoption behavior. ' In regard to economic-structural factors, the early adopters are i n a more favorable f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n , have larger farms, conduct more specialized 154 155 operations and make more use of hired labor than the l a t e adopters. ' n !56 157 In regard to education, both *--oughenour and Photiadas have indicated that when s o c i a l and economic variables were controlled, educational 158 l e v e l was not related to adoption tendency, and Lionberger has suggested 1 5 1 B o h l e n , op_. c i t . , pp. 279-280. 1 ^ 2 A l l e y n e , op., c i t . , pp. 6 6 - 6 7 . -^vemer and Gubbels, pp. ext., pp. 12-21. •'"^Lionberger, pp. c i t . , pp. 9 6 - 1 0 6 . 1 5 % ogers, op. c i t . , pp. 172-178. "^C. M. Coughenour, "The Functioning of Farmers' Characteristics i n Relation to Contact with Media and Practice Adoption" i n Rural Sociology. 25: 283-297, (June, i960). •'•57j# D # Photiadas, "Motivation, Contacts and Technological Change" i n Rural Sociology. 27: 316-326, (September, 1962). ^-^Lionberger, pp. c i t . . pp. 17, 97. 1 that i t i s the kind of schooling x^hich i s more important than the amount. 159 Verner and Millerd found that the recency of the educational experience and the relevance of the content were the important attributes of education. Similar personal and socio-economic characteristics are associated with early adoption among other groups. In regard to physicians, early adoption i s positively correlated with financial status as well as membership i n 160 professional organizations. In considering other health professionals, .161 Du/Gas found that among Directors of Nursing, the earlier adopters were associated with a younger age, longer uninterrupted professional nursing experience, single status, higher educational attainment, more participation in continuing education of a more cosmopolitan extent, greater participation in their professional organizations, and more intensive professional reading habits than the late adopter categories. The positively related characteris-ti c s associated with adoption i n regard to Hospital Administrators included specific preparation for his work, as well as a f f i l i a t i o n with a professional . X . 162 N 163 association. Reeves found that adoption of electronic data processing in hospitals was related to administrators who were well educated and enjoyed long tenure. Among nurses, only age showed a significant relationship, with 159Verner and Millerd, op., c i t . , pp. 7 3 - 7 4 . l 6 o J . Coleman, H. Menzel, and E. Katz, "The Diffusion of an Innovation among Physicians," Sociometry. 2 0 : 2 5 3 - 2 7 0 , (December, 1 9 5 7 ) . 163,, u Gas, OJD. c i t . , pp. 273—280. l 6 2 i b i d . ^ p . N. Reeves, "A Study of Adoption of Electronic Data Processing i n the Hospital Industry" (Unpublished D.B.A., George Washington University, 1 9 7 0 ) . 47 a f a i r l y mixed age group being more adaptable to changing nursing practices I64 than either a predominantly younger or older nursing s t a f f . 165 Among consumers, Boone found that i n comparison with l a t e r adopters innovators possessed the following socio-economic characteristics of higher incomes, higher s o c i a l status, greater house, and l o t valuations, a larger percentage of household heads employed as managers, o f f i c i a l s and proprietors, greater occupational mobility, and higher educational l e v e l s . On s o c i a l -psychological considerations, the consumer innovator exhibited more leader-ship potential, was more s o c i a l l y mobile, possessed more self-confidence, and displayed a greater acceptance of newness and higher achievement than l a t e r adopters. In education, a number of personal and s o c i a l characteristics have been associated with innovative personnel. Compared with t h e i r non-innovative counterparts, adopters were more commonly i n the younger age cate-•,• * *. ±. , l 6 7 , 168 I69 170 gories as applied to teachers, department heads, p r i n c i p a l s . Gas, op_. c i t . . pp. 95-96. •^ ->L. E . Boone, "The Dif f u s i o n of an Innovation: A Socio-Economic and Personality T r a i t Analysis of Adopters of Community Antenna Television Service" (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Arkansas, 1969). 16%. L. Marcum, "Organizational Climate and Adoption of Educational Innovations," (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Utah State University, 1968). "*"^ R. T. M i l l e r , Teacher Adoption of a Mew Concept of a Supervised  Practice i n Agriculture. Educational Research Series 4, Raleigh: North Carolina State University, I965. B. R. Wygal, "Personal Characteristics and S i t u a t i o n a l Perceptions of Junior College Instructors as Related t o Innovativeness" (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Texas, Austin, 1966). l 6 9D. K. L e s l i e , "A Study of Factors Which F a c i l i t a t e or Inhibit Adoption of Innovative Practices i n Boys Physical Education i n Secondary Schools" (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Iowa, 1970). . 1 > 7 0D. E. Lambert, "The Relationship of Abstractness of the Adoption of Educational Innovations," (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Univ. of Utah, 1970). 171 and superintendents. In regard to experience, however, the pattern i s not cl e a r , with some studies i n d i c a t i n g that the innovators possessed shorter 172 173 174 length of service i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s ; ' i n t h e i r schools; i n t h e i r 175 176, 177 school d i s t r i c t ; and i n t h e i r profession, than the l e s s innovative educators. On the other hand, high adoption scores have been associated with , x u • • l r ? 8 > 179, 180 educators having lengthy experience, as w e l l as with high 181 l e v e l s of education, and the holding of a high number of expert leadership 182 p o s i t i o n s . Jensen, " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Superintendents i n Innovative and Non Innovative School Systems and Interaction with the Iowa Department of Public I n s t r u c t i o n , " (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1967). 1 7 2 I b i d . V/. Peach, "Relationship Between C e r t a i n Factors i n the Role of the School P r i n c i p a l and the Adoption of Innovative I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r a c t i c e s , " (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1967). 3-%-Marcum, c i t . l^Lambert, op. c i t . l ? A j . E. A l l e n , "The Adoption of Innovations and the P e r s o n a l i t y of the Superintendent of Schools," (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio State University, 1967). 1 7 7J.V.R. M i l l e r , "A Study of Factors Related t o the Adoption of Innovations by Counselor Educators and Counselor Education Departments," (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1970). " ^ E l l i s , ojo. c i t . 179 f 7 E . A. Holdaway and J . E. Seger, "The Development of Indices of Innovativeness," i n Canadian Education and Research Digest. 8: 366-379 (December, 1968). ISO J . L. Roosa, "A Study of Organizational Climate, Leader Behavior, and Their R e l a t i o n to the Rate of Adoption i n Selected School D i s t r i c t s , " (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , State U n i v e r s i t y of New York, Albany, 1968) -"^E. N. Spencer, "Variables A f f e c t i n g the Adoption of Educational Innovations i n Selected School D i s t r i c t s of Oakland County, Michigan," (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Wayne State University, 1967). "^J.V.R. M i l l e r , op. c i t . 49 Social-Psychological Characteristics A number of studies have also been concerned with identifying a number of social-psychological characteristics of innovative school personnel. Among counsellor educators, innovativeness was related to favorable attitudes 183 towards the innovations. J By contrast, teachers who had negative attitudes toward recommended practices and f e l t pressure to follow a prescribed curriculum were less open to adoption than those who did not have such attitudes and feelings. Among elementary and secondary administrators, there was no strong relationship between the attitude of the administrators towards the innovations and the extent to which they were adopted. On another personality dimension, teachers who scored high on dogma-186 18V tism scales were l i k e l y to score low on innovation scales. ' Similarly, the greater the authoritarianism of the teacher, the less l i k e l y 188 he was to adopt trusting attitudes and to participate i n decision-making. On the other hand, teachers who enjoyed considerable role satisfaction and 1 8 3J.V.R. Miller, op_. c i t . 1 8 % \ R. Smith, "The Influences Which Teachers Identified as Affecting Their Adoption of Recommended Teaching Practices," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Denver, 1963). "^C. J. Mims, "Attitudes of Arkansas School Administrators Toward the Adoption or Rejection i n Education," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Arkansas, 1968). 186g. chamblias, "Attitudes of Teachers Toward Adopting Innovations and the Relationship of These Attitudes to Other Variables," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Texas Technological College, 1968). 1 8 7K. R. Mechling, "The Differential Adoption and Diffusion of Selected Elementary Science Curriculum Innovations Among Elementary School Teachers," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1970). 1 8 % . H. Unger, "A Study of the Relationship of Selected Organizational Climate Variables and Personal Background Variables to the Expressed Willingness of Teachers to Adopt Trusting Attitudes," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, State University of New York, Buffalo, 1970). 50 indicated a self-perceived change orientation, as well as a perception of student benefit and the position of their own opinion leadership v/ere l i k e l y 189 to adopt innovations. Further research has indicated that cosmopolitan-ism, perception of innovativeness, and opinion leadership explained as much 190 as 29 per cent of the variation in individual teacher innovativeness. Among junior college instructors, the innovators perceived themselves as deviants from the innovativeness norms of their social system whereas the 191 non-innovators did not. The superintendent's perception of his own d i s t r i c t ' s innovativeness 192 was also related to adoption. Moreover, superintendents with an emergent outlook tended to adopt innovations whereas those with a traditional orientation tended to retard adoption. In addition, the superintendents i n the adopter group tended to reflect a more child-oriented, philosophy, while 193 the non-adopters were more subject-oriented. III. THE SOCIAL SYSTEM According to Katz, "It i s as unthinkable to study diffusion without some knowledge of the social structures in which potential adopters are 189 A. K. Khan, "Adoption and Internalization of Educational Innovation Among Teachers i n the Pilot Secondary Schools of West Pakistan," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1968). 1 9°B. A. Peterson, "Adoption of Educational Innovations: A Social System Approach," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1969). gal, op_. c i t . •^Spencer, pp_. c i t . 193 '^Nicholson, op_. c i t . 51 located as i t i s to study blood circulation without adequate knowledge of 194 the structure of veins and arteries." Clearly the social system pres-cribes boundaries for diffusion and influences the innovation's diffusion 195 patterns i n several ways. Important considerations of norms, social statuses, and position in a social or organizational hierarchy affect the behavior of individual members of the social system, and act to impede or 196 f a c i l i t a t e the rate of diffusion and adoption of new ideas and practices. 7 Moreover, such 'system' effects may be more influential i n explaining individual innovativeness than the extensively studied individual charac-197 t e r i s t i c s previously mentioned. Connected with the individual's integration into the social system are the different roles that he may assume i n the social structure. Two roles are particularly relevant to the adoption-diffusion process i n the persons of opinion leaders and change agents. Because the most innovative member is frequently perceived as a deviant from the social system and accorded low credi b i l i t y , his role i n convincing others of the value of the innovation 1 9 S i s l i k e l y to be limited. Opinion leaders, by contrast, are usually those people of the social system who frequently provide information and informally 1 V 4Rogers and Shoemaker, pp.. c i t . , p« 30.. 1 9 5 I b i d . , p. 39. 1 9 6 I b i d . , p. 55. 1 9 ? I b i d . 1 9 % o g e r s and Shoemaker, pp. c i t . , p. 34. 52 influence attitudes and behavior. Their informal leadership is based on technical competence, social accessibility, and conformity to system norms x, - J . - x x • 4.u x 199, 200, 201 rather than formal position or status in the system. * * Research has indicated that such leaders are found on every level of society and are 202 very much like the people whom they influence. In comparison v/ith their followers, opinion leaders are generally l) more exposed to a l l forms of communication, 2) more cosmopolite, 3) have higher social status, and are 4) more innovative, although the innovativeness depends in part on the 203 norms of the system. It is also well known that opinion leaders are exposed to the mass media generally and more specifically exposed to con-tent related to their particular sphere of influence than the people whom they influence. 2 0 4 ' 2 0 5 > 2 0 6 > 2 0 7 -'-"Rogers and Shoemaker, pp. c i t . , p. 3 5 . 2 0 0 E . Katz, "The Two-3tep Flow of Communication: An Up-to-Date Report on Hypotheses," in Public Opinion Quarterly, 21: 61-78 (Spring, 1957), p. 77. 2 0 1 R . H. Wilcox, "Some Neglected Areas of Research on Scientific and Technical Communicat ions."in Communications, L. Thayer (ed.), Washington: Spartan Books, 1966, pp. 361-372. 2 0 2 E . Katz, op., c i t . •^Rogers and Shoemaker, op. c i t . , p. 35'. 2 0 / t E . Katz, pp. c i t . 2 0^H. F. Lionberger and R. R. Campbell, The Potential of Interpersonal  Communicative Networks for Message Transfer from Outside Information  Sources, Research Bulletin 482, Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri College of Agriculture, 1963. 2°%ernard Berelson and Morris Janowitz, Reader in Public Opinion  and Communication. 2nd ed. New York: The Free Press, 1966. 207 D. N. Trivedi, "Opinion Leadership and Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Eight Indian Villages" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1969). 53 The change agent i s a professional usually representing a change agency external to the social system, who seeks to influence innovation decisions deemed desirable by an agency. But he may also attempt to slow down and 208 prevent the adoption of undesirable innovations. In his work of planned change, he may often enlist the aid of opinion leaders but these can be worn . . 209 out by over-use. Another important role i s that of a referent, which i s a term describing the person(s) to whom an individual refers i n his decision making. Such referents or reference groups provide i n effect a comparative function by which there can be evaluation of self and others, as well as a normative function of conformity, and the referents vary with the values or norms of *u + 210 the system. Interpersonal Communications Networks Also related to the social system are elements of inter-personal com-211 munications networks. One of the elemental social structures through which inter-personal communication occurs in the information seeker-sought 212 communications relationship. Moreover, such inter-personal relationships serve as sources of pressure to conformity, 2^ and are more effective than 2 0 % o g e r s and Shoemaker, OJD. c i t . , p. 35. 2°9lbid. 2 1 0G. M. Beal and E. M. Rogers, "The Scientist as a Referent i n the Communication of New Technology" i n Public Opinion Quarterly. 22: 555-563 (Winter 1958/59). 21lc. Winick, "The Diffusion of an Innovation among Physicians i n a Large City," in Sociometry. 24: 384-396 (1961). 2-*-2Lionberger, Adoption of New Ideas and Practices, p. 10. 213Lazarsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet, op_. c i t . 54 2XA- 215 216 mass media in influencing decisions. ' ' Hence, i t is advantageous for any change agent to know which farmers comprise particular friendship or 217 neighborhood groups. ' Community educational, recreational, and social institutions may also facilitate such interaction process and provide linkage with outside change-oriented organizations. 2^ 8 Role in Decision-making Another important influence as i t relates to the social system i s con-210 cerned with various types of innovation decisions. Rogers and Shoemaker consider four such types as being: l) optional decisions made by an indivi-dual, regardless of decision of other members of the social system; 2) contingent decisions made by individuals, but only after the social system has made a prior innovation decision; 3) collective decisions, made by con-sensus of the individuals concerned in the social system, and 4) authority decisions made by someone in a superordinate .. power position and enforceable on others. A sizeable body of literature dealing with the implementation of new knowledge indicates that employees of organizations are more willing to use new knowledge i f they participate to some degree in the decision making 220 process. v 21ZfRogers, Diffusion of Innovations, pp. 213-217. 215Lazarsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet, op., c i t . 2 1^Leuthold, op., cit., p. 87. 2 1 7 I b i d . , p. 146. 218rbid., p. 173. 219p.0gers and Shoemaker, op. cit., pp. 36-38. 2 2 ^ J . L. Price, "Use of New Knowledge in Organizations" in Human  Organization. 23: 224-234, (Fall 1964). 55 Social Norms An early study i n rural sociology analyzed the relation of social factors to the success of agricultural extension work in four Michigan communities, and found that no single factor or circumstance i n a community situation determined the responsiveness of farmers to agricultural exten-sion programs. Responsiveness was determined by a network of social influences and circumstances associated with leadership organizations and 221 group morale, which i n turn were affected by economic conditions. 222 Subsequent research by Lionberger i n the area of social and cultural values as they related to adoption, emphasized the need to detect values that operate within a given community as influences i n both the attitude toward change and the integration of a new idea or practice into the existing patterns of l i f e . In a study of the effects of traditional and modern norms on the 223 innovativeness of farmers i n various Wisconsin townships, Van deri Ban found that such characteristics as a farmer's education, size and net worth were positively related to his innovativeness but the township norms were even better predictors. A farmer with a high level of education, on a large farm, with a high net worth, but residing i n a township with tradi-tional norms was l i k e l y to adopt fewer farm innovations than i f he were C. R.. Hoffer and D. L. Gibson, The Community Situation as i t Affects Agricultural Extension Work. Special Bulletin 312, East Lansing: Michigan State College'Agricultural Experiment Station, (October, 1941), p. 34. 222 "•Lionberger, pp. c i t . , pp. 67-95. 223 A. W. Van den Ban, "Locality Group Differences in the Adoption of New Farm Practices," i n Rural Sociology. 25: 308-320, (September, i960). 56 farming i n a township with modern norms. S i m i l a r l y , a study of twenty-s i x F i l i p p i n o r u r a l neighborhoods indicated that even i n d i v i d u a l s lacking much education, mass media exposure, or a modern o r i e n t a t i o n acted i n an innovative manner i f they resided within a s o c i a l climate favourable to 224 the adoption of innovations. i n the case of two Netherland farm communities located only f i v e miles apart, farmers i n the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e had net adopted a g r i c u l t u r a l innovations used s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r 225 twenty years i n the more modern community. When the d i f f u s i o n process was studied i n several communities located i n Saskatchewan, the d i f f e r e n c e s between communities such as the degree of t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement, e t h n i c i t y and time of settlement, the educational l e v e l of the community and opportunity for contact with communications media,largely emerged as f a c t o r s having important influence on the r a p i d i t y with which new ideas 226 were d i f f u s e d and adopted. Previous adoption studies have revealed d i s t i n c t d ifferences i n adoption or communication behavior between s p e c i f i c ethnic groups. In 227 a study of Danish and P o l i s h subcultures i n a s i n g l e region, Pedersen found that d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l adjustments ei t h e r f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered the acceptance of new ideas. The Danish group c o n s i s t e n t l y showed a higher l e v e l of performance f o r a l l p r a c t i c e s and adopted recommended 224^  ogers and Shoemaker, op. c i t . . p.29-« 2 25ibid., p. 47. 2 2 6 L e u t h o l d , op. c i t . , pp. 87-89. 2 2 ^ ¥ i . A. Pedersen, " C u l t u r a l Differences i n the Acceptance of Recommended Pr a c t i c e s , " i n Rural Sociology. 16: 37-49, (March, 1951). 57 practices to a significantly greater extent than the Polish group. 228 Van den Ban investigated differences in adoption behavior in terms of variation in "ethnic cohesiveness between Calvinistic Dutch and Norwegian-German Lutheran farmers. Since there were significant differences between township quartiles regardless of individual farmer prediction scores based on major socio-economic variables, he concluded that the influence of social structures was more important than values directly related to adoption. 229 In examining ethnic influence among dairy operators, Verner and Gubbels found no significant difference among Canadian born, Dutch, and others with respect to adoption score, but did find minor differences in certain socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. Status Among physicians, early adoption of innovations was positively associated with system variables of social status and wealthy patients. Moreover, the innovators were those doctors emancipated from the local 230 norms of their medical community. Yet another medical study indicated that the degree of a physician's integration among his colleagues was 231 positively related to his acceptance of a new proprietory drug. 232 In nursing, Coe and Barnhill J found that the disturbance in the social structure of a nursing unit caused by the introduction of a new '^Van den Ban, op. cit. 2 2 < 7Verner and Gubbels, op. ci t . 230Coleman, Menzel and Katz, op. ci t . 2 3 1Winick, op., ci t . 2 3 2R. M. Coe and E., A. Barnhill, "Social Dimensions of a Failure in Innovation" in Human Organization. 2 6 : 149-156, (Fall, 1 9 6 7 ) . 58 method for ordering and dispensing medications was a major factor contri-buting to the failure of personnel to accept the new practice. In regard to hospitals, teaching status of the institution as well as accessibility to information sources and government accredition were positively related 233 system factors. ^ IV. THE SOCIAL SYSTEM OF THE SCHOOL \ Educational research on adoption and diffusion has been frequently concerned with social systems rather than with individuals. 2^' 2^5 Moreover, attention has been focused largely on identifying economic and structural features of the social system within which other subsystems and complex organizations operate. The implicit assumption of such studies posited that school officials were merely victims of the local school budget. 2^ Since they were not relevant as an explanatory element in the adoption process, there seemed l i t t l e value in studying the characteristics of these individual adopters. Hence, most of the research conducted by the late Paul Mort and his students at Columbia consisted of system studies, with the unit of adoption being the formal organization of a particular school or school system.237> 2 3 8 2 3 3Du Gas, op. cit., pp. 270-273-23^Eichholz and Rogers, "Resistance to the adoption of audio-visual aids by elementary school teachers: contrasts and similarities to agricultural innovation," in Innovation in Education. M. Miles (ed.), p. 3U. 235Mort, "Studies in educational innovation from the Institute of Administrative Research: an overview," in Innovation in Education. M. Miles (ed.), pp. 317-318. 236R. 0. Carlson "Barriers to Change in Public Schools" in Change  Processes in the Public Schools. Eugene: The Center for Advanced Study of Educational Administration, 1965• 23?Mort, op., cit. 238carlson, op., cit. 59 239 According to Miles permanent systems such as schools frequently find i t d i f f i c u l t to change themselves because they expend a major portion of their energy l) carrying out routine goal-directed operations and 2) maintaining existing relationships within the system. As a consequence, there is l i t t l e energy remaining for matters of diagnosis, planning, innovation, deliberate change and growth. A variety of other factors impede the progress of innovation within the educational system. Fi r s t , educators frequently work within a system which i s designed by provincial or state departments of education. Such government bureaus commonly have a pre-occupation with "prudential 240, 241 functions and therefore are unlikely sources of innovations. Secondly, within educational institutions themselves, there often exists a complex authority structure which not only impedes the diffusion p i p of innovations, but also prescribes the role of the educator as that of p i *5 a bureaucratic functionary. Such a person is unlikely to regard him-self as a change agent. On the other hand, an administrator in the hierarchy of the educational system may promote or prevent innovations, 239 ^ 7Miles, "On Temporary Systems," in Innovation in Education. M. Miles (ed.), p. 443. 2 ^ B r i c k n e l l , "State organization for educational change: a case study and a proposal," i n Innovations in Education, M. Miles (ed.), p. 512. 2 4 1 E i c h h o l z and Rogers, op_. c i t . , p. 315. 2^ 2D. E. G r i f f i t h s , "Administrative theory and change in organiza-tions" in Innovations in Education, M. Miles (ed.), New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964, pp. 435-436. pi o M. B. Miles, "Innovation i n Education: Some Generalizations" in Innovations in Education. M. Miles (ed.), New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964, p. 634. 244 Eichholz and Rogers, op. c i t . . p. 315« 60 because he i s frequently vested with the authority to precipitate a d e c i s i o n . 2 4 5 ' 2 4 6> ^ 2 4 8> 2 4 9 Differences between Educational and Agricultural Change In considering the differences between diffusion and adoption rates 250 i n educational systems and agriculture, Eichholz and Rogers noted at least three distinctive differences: the absence of sci e n t i f i c sources of information such as drug laboratories or agricultural experimental stations; the lack of change agents to promote new educational ideas; and the lack of personal economic incentive for administrators to adopt educational innovations. Although the school principal may be akin to the county agricultural agent as a communications link between two social systems, i t was found that only one out of five principals actually acted as a change agent. Eichholz and Rogers p also pointed out that i n agricultural experimentation, there i s ready access to such relevant material as land, plants, and livestock which may be bought and experimen-ted with freely; and any such innovations have direct consequences only ^ B r i e k n e l l , op., c i t . , p. 503. 246 R. 0. Carlson, Adoption of Educational Innovations. Eugene: The Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration, 1965-2 4 7Holdaway and Seger, op. c i t . , p. 366. 2 4 % . N. Mackenzie, "Curricular change: participants, power, and process" i n Innovations i n Education, M. Miles (ed.), New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964, p. 411. 2 4 9Rogers and Shoemaker, op. c i t . , p. 36. 25°Eichholz and Rogers, pp. c i t . , p. 315. 2 5 1 J b i d . , p. 315-2 5 2 I b i d . , p. 315. 61 for the adoptor. Social Systems Studies of the School During the late 1930*s, a number of studies were conducted"...to identify agents of innovation and factors of community, legal structure, and administrative organization affecting the adaptability of school 253 systems." Community size and wealth emerged as important underlying factors of high adaptability. The phenomenon was also associated with highly trained teachers who were more accepting of modern educational practices, with administrators who provided active support for adaptations, rather than remaining neutral, and with a public which displayed a more 254 favorable attitude toward modern practices. During the decades of the 1940*s and the 1950*s, there was continued exploration of community factors and of financial and administrative policy, as well as of school personnel in order to obtain clues to improve 255 the adaptability of school systems. ^ Of the 150 studies analyzed by 256 Ross in 1958, one-third dealt with the community; another third was concerned with administrative mechanisms and arrangements; and a final third was divided about equally among staff characteristics, expenditure analysis, and administrative setting. It was also found that the more innovative school systems were located in communities with higher than average personal incomes and greater tax support. 2 5 % o r t , op., cit., p. 317. 254jbid., p. 318. 255Mort, op. cit., pp. 320-322. 25 6ibid., p. 322. 62 The tradition of the systems studies in education has continued 257, largely throughout the 1960's to the present time. Community size 258 259 , 26o, 26l, 262 ' and wealth represented by high property valuations s t i l l remain as important factors related to high adaptability. More-263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268 over, higher pupil enrollment, and larger 2 5 7 j . c. LaPlant, "School District Innovativeness and Expectations for the School Board Role" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, I966). Lawrence, "Personality Characteristics of School Superin-tendents Who Implement Innovation in the Public Schools," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Utah State University, 1968). 2 5 9 s p e n c e r j op_. c i t . 2 6°R. L. Mertz, "The Relationship of Selected Variables to the Adoption and Implementation of Recommendations of Educational Surveys of Public School Corporations," (Unpublished Ph.D., Purdue University, 1965). 0/-1 Nicholson, op. c i t . 262 c . , Spencer, op. c i t . •^J. E. Allen, "The Adoption of Innovations and the Personality of the Superintendent of Schools," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, I967). 26i*W. F. Breivogel, "The Relationship of Selected Variables to the Introduction of Educational Innovations i n New Jersey Public School Districts," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J., 1967). 265 J. W. Kohl, "Adoption Stages and Perceptions of Characteristics of Educational Innovations," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University or Oregon, I966). 266T , . Leslie, op. c i t . 2 6 7J.V.R. Miller, op. c i t . 268Q Spencer, op. c i t . 63 expenditures per pupil, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275 as well as 280, 281 higher salaries for teachers,*' ' ' ' 1 7 and superintendents*' emerge quite consistently as variables significantly associated with adoption and innovativeness. Community-Characteristics Within the social system of the community, educational adaptability has been related to various occupational categories as well. In a com-munity where a larger proportion of persons were employed in professional, 2 ^ 9 J . 0. Hanson, "A Descriptive Study of Basic Data and the Education; Innovations Found in 22 Selected North Dakota Small Schools," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, 1966). 270L# W. Hughes, "The Organizational Climate Found in Central Administrative Offices of Selected Highly Innovative and Non-Innovative School Districts in the State of Ohio," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1965). 271, La Plant, op_. cit. 273. Nicholson, op. cit. 276 Ibid. 277, Breivogel, op_. c i t . Leslie, op_. cit. 279Nicholson, op., c i t . 2^^Breivogel, op. c i t . 281, Spencer, pp. c i t . 64 semi-professional, and management positions, there was a greater likelihood for educational change than when the greater proportion of the population 282 was employed in agricultural activities. Similarly, there was a significant relationship between the rural-urban character of communities and educational change, with adoption more likely to occur in predomin-283 antly urban communities than rural ones. Organizational Climate and Belief Systems within the social system of the school, adaptability has been recently studied in relationship to organizational climate. In regard to open and closed climates, the findings s t i l l remain somewhat inconclusive. Open climates were more likely to be associated with a greater number of innovations than closed climates. 2 8 4 , 2 8 5 * 2 8 6 ' 2 8 V 2 8 8 Yet, other studies have indicated no significant relationship between innovativeness 2 8 2Mertz, op. cit. 2 8 3 I b i d . 2 8 4R. E. Bennett, "An Analysis of the Relationship of Organizational Climate to Innovations in Selected Secondary Schools of Pennsylvania and New York," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1968). 285W. J. Genova, "A Study of Relationships Among Selected School System Characteristics and Types of Innovations Adopted by that School System," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Boston University School of Education, 1970). 286 Hughes, op., c i t . 287 Marcum, op. cit. 288 S. T. Wilkes, "A Study to Determine the Relationship Between Selected School Organizational Climates and the Adoption of Innovations," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Auburn University, 1969). 289 290, 291 and climate, particularly with regard to rate of adoption. There was, however, a positive relationship between the open minded-292 ness of faculty belief systems and rate of adoption. Similarly, in innovative school systems, there was a greater number of teachers with 293 open belief systems than could be found in non-innovative systems. Autonomous climates have also been more significantly related to adoption 294 295 than paternalistic ones. ' Moreover, i n innovative schools, there 296 was more willingness of the staff to suggest changes; a n c j a n internal combination of teacher and principal leadership produced more adoption 297 than outside leadership. 289 G. P. La Mantia, "Innovation Adoption and Organizational Climate Their Relationship to the Job Satisfaction of High School Teachers," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, New York University, 1969). 2 9°R. E. Bamberger, "A Study of Organizational Climate, Faculty Belief Systems and Their Relations to the Rate of Adoption of Educational Innovations in Selected School Districts," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, State University of New York, Albany, 1970). 291 ' Roosa, op. c i t . 292 Bamberger, op. c i t . 2 9 ^ j . w. Childs, "A Study of the Belief Systems of Administrators and Teachers i n Innovative and Non-Innovative School Districts," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1965). 2</>^Bennett, op. c i t . 29 5 y >S. W. Peach, "Relationship Between Certain Factors in the Role of the School Principal and the Adoption of Innovative Instructional Practices," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1967). 2 < 7 ^ L e s l i e , op. c i t . 2 9 7 J . J. Reynolds, "A Study of Factors Affecting the Adoption of Educational Innovations i n Selected Secondary Schools," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1970). 66 Adoption among counsellor educators was associated with the number of laissez-faire decisions i n the department, less cohesive staff groups, the number of motivations for change, and the involvement of students i n 298 decision making. Among elementary teachers, a high self-perceived conformity to norms governing inter-personal relations among adults i n the school system was related to the adoption of classroom innovations, where-as low conformity was significantly associated with the adoption of 299 "system-wide" innovations. Position and Status i n the Organization Generally teaching staff members have not been identified as 300, 301, 302, 303 ... . . , . innovators, although their supportive role i s recog-n i z e d , 3 0 4 , 3 0 5 » 3 ° 6 , 3 0 7 as well as that of the school board. 3 0 8 On the 2 9 8J.V.R. Miller, op., c i t . 2 9 < 7Genova, pp. c i t . 3 0 0 B r i c k n e l l , op. c i t . 3 0 1 D a v i s , op. c i t . 3 0 2Mims, pp. c i t . 3 0 3 w i l k e s , pp. c i t . 3 0 4A. J. Klingenberg, "A Study of Selected Administrative Behavior Among Administrators from Innovative and Non-Innovative Public School D i s t r i c t s , " (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1966). 305W. B. Lee, "A Study of the Educational Opinions of Selected Teachers and Administrators," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 1967). 3°^Leslie, op. c i t . 3 0 7R. T. Miller, op, 3 0 8 L e s l i e , op. c i t . other hand, principals and college administrators are accorded positions of power309 and frequently regarded as influentials in the initiation of innovations.^1 0> 3 1 1 , 3 1 2 , 3 1 3 , 3 H , 3 1 5 In regard to innovativeness among principals, his own perception of self-innovativeness, as well as the perception of his innovativeness by 3 1 6 others were both significant variables to be considered. Moreover, innovative principals perceived their staffs as being more willing to in-3 1 7 novate than non-innovative administrators. The superintendent of schools emerged as a key factor in influencing change in the school system, because in many instances, his approval is 3 9C. H. Marks, "Factors Influencing the Adoption of Early School Administration Policies and Practices for Mentally Advanced Children," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation. University of Pittsburgh, 1 9 6 5 ) . 3 1 0Bricknell, op., cit. 311chamblis, op., c i t . 312C. H. Currie, "Secondary School Principals* Assessment of the Importance of Personal and Situational Factors in the Adoption of Innovations," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, 1 9 6 6 ) . 313 ^ ^Davis, op_. cit. 31^Mims, op. c i t . 3 1 5Wilkes, op. c i t . 31^Holdaway and Seger, op., cit., p. 3 7 7 . ^^Lambert, op. c i t . 68 318, 319, 320, 321 r e q u i r e d before a new p r a c t i c e can be adopted. 322, 323, l e a d e r s h i p was s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o adoption i n t h r e e studies^ 324 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he was " . . . n e i t h e r a h e l p l e s s v i c t i m of h i s l o c a l s c h o o l budget, nor a powerless o f f i c e holder dominated by a superordinate 325 s c h o o l board," whereas there was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a t e o f adoption and the l e a d e r s h i p behavior of the c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r 326 i n another i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S o c i a l s t r u c t u r e v a r i a b l e s such as s o c i a l network involvement and status w i t h regard to other superintendents as evidenced by p r e s t i g e and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h 327, 328 the r a p i d i t y of adoption. Other s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g adoptiveness were the superintendent's involvement of s t a f f members i n 329 d e c i s i o n making as w e l l as h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. 318 B r i c k n e l l , pp.. c i t . , p. 503. 3 1 9 H . 0. Carlson, "School ^ f f l n Z ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ' 1964, pp. 340-341. 3 2 0 J e n s e n , pp. c i t . 3 2 1 M a c k e n z i e , pp. c i t . , p. 411. 3 2 2 H u g h e s , pp.. c i t . 3 2%ims, pp. c i t . 3 2 4Spencer, pp. c i t . 325carlson, pp. e x t . , P« 341. 3 2^Roosa, pp. c i t . 3 2 7 C a r l s o n , pp. c i t . , P« 339. 3 2 8 J e n s e n , pp. c i t . 329j e n s e n, pp. c i t . 69 V. RESEARCH FOCUS In reviewing the literature, this researcher found no study in which directors of public school adult education were studied in relationship to the adoption process. It would be of some interest to know how this o f f i c i a l compares with other adopters in relationship to common personal and socio-economic characteristics. Additionally, i t seems of some importance to compare the directors** adoption behavior with that of other educators in relationship to a variety of systems and organizational features. Research on rural sociology has explored extensively the characteristics of the individual who is most likely to be an adopter of new practices. By contrast, educational research has been chiefly "institution-centred," focusing on the kind of system most adaptable to change. As yet, there has been limited investigation of the individual as an adopting agent within the structure of a social system. The vast majority of the studies describe either a multiplicity of personal variables, a lengthy number of organiza-tional variables, or a combination of both. In reviewing the literature, this researcher found no study in education which attempted to determine the relationship of various sets of variables such as personal characteristics and systems factors on adoption behavior. Agricultural research throughout the world has given some attention to this matter, however, and has used multiple regression analysis as a statistical procedure to disclose the degree to which each independent variable is related to a dependent variable such as innovativeness or adoption. Moreover, in such studies, there is a growing number of independent variables being included to explore economic 330 and social psychological dimensions, and social structural features. 33°Rogers and Shoemaker, op_. c i t . . pp. 192-193. 70 In keeping with the tradition of rural sociology, the unit of analysis in this study wil l be the individual director as he works within his local school system. Hence, i t seems necessary to investigate both personal characteristics of this o f f i c i a l and structural features of the social systems in which he works, in order to determine the relative impact of these sets of variables on his adoption behavior. A crucial question seems to be whether the director is more influenced in his adoption behavior by systems features or by his own personal characteristics. 71 CHAPTER III PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DIRECTOR PERTAINING TO ADOPTION Although the general situation i s s t i l l indeterminate, a number of previous studies have indicated a relationship between certain personal, socio-economic characteristics and the adoption of innovations. Thus, i t seems important to examine some of these characteristics i n relation to the adoption behavior of directors of public school adult education. In this chapter, emphasis w i l l be placed on investigating twenty-four personal characteristics of the director. These pertain to qualities, attitudes, or a c t i v i t i e s associated closely with the person of the director and his own decision making (Table I, p. 7 3 ; Table VII, p. 8 9 ) . In addition there are ten communication factors (Table VIII, p. 99 j Table IX, p. 1Q1) which relate to personal choice largely exercised by the director as to information sources he uses at various stages of the adoption process. For th i s reason, these communication factors have been included within the broad category of personal characteristics. Thus, there are thirty-four characteristics to be associated with the person of the director. These characteristics comprise one set of independent variables. Each i n turn i s examined i n relationship to the dependent variable of the study, the director*s adoption score. The characteristics are discussed i n d e t a i l under the two broad categories of related and non-related factors. I. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS RELATED TO ADOPTION Of the thirty-four personal and communications characteristics studied, eleven yielded significant differences when considered i n relationship to the adoption scores of the directors. These significant characteristics 72 grouped mainly under the categories of education, experience, work satis-faction, professionalism (Table I, p. 73 ) and communication behavior (Table IX, p. 101). Education Since most adoption studies consider education an important factor, six aspects of education were examined in this study. These included the number of years of school completed at the time of appointment as director, study in adult education prior to appointment, study in adult education since appointment, study in administration prior to appointment, study in administration since appointment, and professional training during 1969-70, the year prior to the survey. Only two of these showed any significant relationship with adoption scores. Study in Adult Education Since Appointment as Director A sizeable proportion of the directors (72.7 per cent) had engaged in some systematic study in adult education after being appointed. The mean adoption score of these forty-eight directors was 54.1 compared with 38.1 for the eighteen respondents (27.3 per cent) who had not attended any organized learning activities since their appointment (t «• 4.226; d.f. = 64; p<.0l). Such data indicate that high adoption scores among directors were significantly associated with the director having studied about adult education since his appointment to the position (Table I, p. 73 )• The most common forms of learning activities were conferences and workshops or some combination thereof. Professional Study in Adult Education During Previous Tear Similarly, the directors* participation in professional training in adult education during the year prior to the survey was significantly TABLE I SIGNIFICANT PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS C haracteristic 1 . Study i n adult education after appointment 2 . Professional training during 1 9 6 9 / 7 0 3. No. of yrs. employed as director 4 . No. of yrs. employed i n present position 5. Work satisfaction score 6 . Rating of position as a profession 7 . Career commitment to adult education 8 . Perception of f u l l or part-time salary 9 . Professional participation score 10. Reading score of professional adult education journals No. of Directors Formal study No. study Training No training 5 yrs. or less More than 5 yrs. 5 yrs. or less More than 5 yrs. High to moderate Neutral to dis-satisfied Highly profes-sional Professional Semi-professional Didn't know Career Undecided Not a career Full-time salary Part-time salary 9 or less 1 0 to 1 5 More than 1 5 0 score 1 to 5 6 to 1 0 More than 1 0 Involved Mean Adoption Score 4 8 ( 7 2 . 7 * ) 54.1 18(27 .350 3 8 . 1 29(43 .95?) 59.7 3 7 ( 5 6 . 1 5 0 4 1 . 9 4 6 ( 6 9 - 7 ^ ) 45.2 20(30.350 60.1 4 9 ( 7 4 . 3 5 0 45.4 17(25.75?) 62.2 52 (78.8^) 52.3 1 4 ( 2 1 . 2 5 0 3 9 . 4 1 4 ( 2 1 . 2 5 0 58.1 27(40 .950 52.5 21(31.85?) 4 3 . 2 4 ( 6.15?) 36.0 31(46.95?) 58.9 13(19.75?) 42.9 2 2 ( 3 3 . 3 5 0 40.3 26 (39.450 6 2 . 3 40(60.650 4 1 . 6 36(54 .55?) 45-0 15(22.75?) 48.0 15(22.75?) 6 1 . 9 3 5 ( 5 3 . 0 5 0 4 1 . 8 15(22.75?) 5 1 . 2 9 (13 .65?) 6 4 . 6 7 (10 .65?) 6 7 . 1 t t t t Test 4.226; d.f. 5.223; d.f. 3.791; d.f. 4,159; d.f. t = 2 . 9 3 8 ; d.f. = 6 4 ; p < . 0 1 = 6 4 ; p < . 0 1 - 6 4 ; p < . 0 1 = 6 4 ; p < . 0 1 - 6 4 ; P < 0 1 F = 4.010; d.f. - 3/62; p«<.01 F = 14.262; d.f. = 2 / 6 3 ; p < . 0 1 t - 6 . 6 4 2 ; d.f. = 6 4 ; p * * . 0 1 F - 4 - 4 8 7 ; d.f. - 3 / 6 2 ; p < . 0 1 F = 1 1 . 8 9 6 ; d.f. = 3 / 6 2 ; p < . 0 1 74 related to adoption score,. The mean adoption score was 59.7 for those twenty-nine directors (43.9 per cent) participating i n professional training during 1969-70, compared with a score of 41.9 for the thirty-seven directors (56.1 per cent) not engaged i n such training (t = 5.223; d.f. = 64; p ^ . O l ) . These data indicate that high adoption scores among the directors were associated"significantly, with the director having participated i n professional training i n adult education during the year previous to the survey (Table I, p. 73). Such findings i n regard to education are consistent with those reported i n the literature which have indicated that the recency of the educational 1, 2 experience and the relevance of the content are more important a t t r i -butes of education related to adoption than the formal level of education achieved. 3 , ^ When the thirty-seven directors who did not participate i n any formal professional development during the previous year were asked to state a reason for their non involvement, as many as twenty-two f e l t there had been Verner and F. W. Millerd, Adult Education and the Adoption of  Innovations by Orchardists i n the Okanagan Valley of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1966, pp. 12-19. % . A. Straus and A. J. Estys, Education for Technological Change  Among Wisconsin Farmers. Research Bulletin 214, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Wisconsin (August 1959). 3B. P. Alleyne and C. Verner, The Adoption and Rejection of Innovations  by Strawberry Growers i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of Bri t i s h Columbia, 1969, p. 9. ^C. Verner and P. M. Gubbels, The Adoption or Rejection of Innovations  by Dairy Farm Operators i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Ottawa: The Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada, 1967, p. 10. 75 some definite impediment barring their participation. One director indicated that he had been i l l during the previous year, and was therefore unable to attend such a c t i v i t i e s . Another director f e l t hampered by the expense, while six stated there had been no opportunity readily available to them the previous year, and fourteen indicated they were restricted from participation by time. Experience Three aspects of the directors* work experience were studied i n relationship to adoption including number of previous jobs, number of years employed as a director, and the number of years employed i n the present position. Of these, only the two latter characteristics revealed a s i g n i f i -cant relationship to adoption. Number of Years Employed as a Director More than two-thirds of the directors (69.7 per cent) had been employed i n the position for five years or less. This relatively short tenure of the preponderance of directors i s some indication of the recent establishment of the position by many of the school d i s t r i c t s . The mean adoption score for the forty-six directors who had been employed five years or less was 45.2 compared with 60.1 for the twenty respondents (30.3 per cent) who were more experienced (t « 3.791} d.f. » 64; p<.01). These data indicate that high adoption scores were associated significantly with the director having had more than five years experience i n his work (Table I, p. 73). Moreover, there i s the likelihood of growing professional and administrative competence as a result of such work experience. Number of Years Employed i n Present Position Similarly, there was a significant relationship between adoption and the number of years the respondent had been employed in his present position 76 of director. The mean adoption score for the forty-nine directors (-74.3 per cent) employed i n their present positions for five years or less was 45.4 compared with 62.2 for seventeen directors (25.7 per cent) who had been longer term employees i n their present positions (t = 4-159; d.f. = 64; p*£.Ol). Accordingly, these data suggest thatJiigh adoption scores among directors were .associated -significantly with the director having been employed in his present position for five years or more (Table I, p.73 ). Whether this finding i s related mainly to the growing competence of the individual as the result of his more lengthy work experience i n the position or to his more complete integration into the organizational system i n which he works has yet to be determined. Although the pattern i s not firmly extablished i n regard to the relationship of work experience to adoption, there i s some evidence to suggest that among educators high adoption scores are associated with lengthy work 5 6 7 experience. ' ' Similarly, among health professionals, adoption has been 8, 9 found to be related, to the length of*professional experience. ''w. T. E l l i s , "The Adoption of Educational Innovations Among Experienced Teachers of Vocational Agriculture i n Predominantly Negro Schools i n North Carolina" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1968). ^E. A. Holdaway and J. E. Seger, "The Development of Indices of Innovativeness," i n Canadian Education and Research Digest, 8: 366-379 (December, 1968). 7 j . L. Roosa, "A Study of Organizational Climate, Leader Behavior, and their Relation to the Rate of Adoption i n Selected School D i s t r i c t s " (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of New York, Albany, 1968). 8B. W. Du Gas, "An Analysis of Certain Factors i n the Diffusion of Innovations i n Nursing Practice i n Public General Hospitals of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969). 9p. N. Reeves, "A Study of Adoption of Electronic Data Processing i n the Hospital Industry." (Unpublished D.B.A.., George Washington University, 1970). 77 Work Satisfaction Since an individual 1s satisfaction with his work should affect his relationship to i t , such satisfaction might well influence his decision-making concerning adoption. The work satisfaction of each respondent was rated by use of the 10 Morse Intrinsic Job Satisfaction Index. On a five-point scale, the director was required to indicate how well he liked the sort of work he was doing; express the degree to which he f e l t the work gave him a chance to do the things he f e l t he did best; indicate the feeling of accomplishment he re-ceived from his work, and rate the importance of the work to himself. By the design of the instrument, the highest degree of satisfaction would be i n d i -cated by a t o t a l score of four, whereas the highest degree of dissatisfaction would be registered by a t o t a l score of twenty. Fifty-two of the directors (78.8 per cent) indicated either a high or moderate level of satisfaction with scores of eight points or less. The remaining fourteen directors (21.2 per cent) expressed neutral to highly dissatisfied feelings about their work with scores of more than eight. The mean adoption score for directors who were satisfied with their work was 52.3, whereas the neutral and dissatisfied respondents achieved a score of 39.4. A significant relationship existed between the work satisfaction scores of directors and adoption scores (t = 2.938; d.f. = 64; p^ . O l ) . Moreover, these data indicate that high adoption scores were achieved by those directors having expressed satisfaction with their work (Table I, p. 73). •*-°Delbert C. Miller. Handbook of Research Design and Social Measure- ment. (2nd ed.). New York: Daniel McKay Company Inc., 1970, p. 264-78 Similarly among other occupational groups such as teachers, dairy farm operators and orchardists, work satisfaction has been found to be 11 12 13 related to adoption. ' ' Professionalism Professionalism has been among the personal characteristics found to be related to adoption i n a number of previous studies. At least six aspects of professionalism are examined here including the director's rating of his position as a profession, his career commitment to adult education, his per-ception of receiving a f u l l or part-time salary for his work as director, his participation i n the a c t i v i t i e s of professional adult education associations, and the reading of professional adult education periodicals. Rating of the Position of Director as a Profession The director's own perception of the status level of his work might be expected to exert some influence on his adoption response. The mean adoption score was 58.1 for the fourteen directors (21.2 per cent) who regarded their position as a highly professional one, and 52.5 for the twenty-seven directors (40.9 per cent) who thought of their positions as professional. By contrast, twenty-one directors (31.8 per cent) with an adoption score of 43.2 cate-gorized their work as semi-professional. The remaining four directors with 1 1A. K. Khan, "Adoption and Internalization of Educational Innovation Among Teachers i n the Pilot Secondary Schools of West Pakistan." (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1968). 12 G. Verner and P. M. Gubbels, dp_. c i t . . pp. 10, 26. Werner and Millerd, oj>. c i t . . p. 19. TABLE II ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL RATING CATEGORIES Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Scores Test Significance Highly professional Professional Highly professional Semi-professional Highly professional Non-professional Professional Semi-professional Professional Non-professional Semi-profe s siona1 Non-profe s sional 14 58.1 F - 1.230; d.f. = 1/62; P = 0.266 Not significant 27 52.1 14 58.1 F - 7.892; d.f. = 1/62; P - 0.005 Significant 21 42.3 14 58.1 F = 6.472; d.f. - 1/62; P = 0.010 Significant 4 36.0 27 52.1 F = 4.310; d.f. = 1/62; P - 0.036 Significant 21 42.3 27 52.1 F = 4.041; d.f. - 1/62; P = 0.042 Significant 4 36.0 21 42.3 F = 0.752; d.f. - 1/62; P = 0.390 Not significant 4 36.0 TABLE III ANALYSIS OF CAREER COMMITMENT CATEGORIES Categories Compared Career commitment No commitment Career commitment Undecided No commitment Undecided Numbers 31 22 31 13 22 13 Mean Adoption Scores 58.9 40.3 58.9 42.9 40.3 42.9 Test Significance F • 24.569; d.f. = 1/63; p = 0.000 Significant F - 12.953; d.f. = 1/63; p - 0.000 Significant F - 0.303; d.f. = 1/63; p = 0.589 Not significant 80 a mean adoption score of 36.0 stated that they could not cl a s s i f y their work i n professional terms (P «• 4.011; d.f. <• 3/62; p<.01). Such data indicate a significant relationship existed between the rating of the position of director as a profession and adoption scores (Table I, p. 73). More detailed analysis of the data (Table II, p. 79) indicated there was no significant difference i n adoption scores between directors who regarded their position as highly professional and those who regarded i t as profes-sional. Similarly, there was no significant difference between directors who designated their position as semi-professional and those who classified i t as non-professional. Clearly the significant differences i n adoption scores occurred between those directors who regarded their positions as professional ones, and those who did not. Moreover, the significantly high adoption scores were indicated by those directors who rated their work i n the two professional categories. Career Commitment to Adult Education Career commitment seems a l i k e l y component of professionalism and one which may have some bearing on adoption. Thirty-one of the directors (46.9 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 58.9 perceived adult education as their career. By contrast, thirteen directors (19.7 per cent) who were unde-cided had an adoption score of 42.9; and the twenty-two (33.3 per cent) who did not perceive adult adult education as their career had a score of 40.3 (F «• 14.263; d.f. -» 2/63; p-<.01). Such data indicate that the director's career commitment was significantly related to adoption scores (Table I, p. 73). Further analysis (Table III, p. 79) indicated there was no significant difference i n adoption scores between those directors who were undecided and those who did not perceive adult education as their career. On the other hand, there was a significant difference between directors who perceived 81 adult education as a career and those who did not. Similarly, there was a significant difference between the adoption scores of career committed directors and those who were undecided. Such data revealed that the s i g n i -ficantly high adoption scores were achieved by those directors who expressed a career commitment to adult education. Perception of a Pull or Part-time Salary Likely to be inter-related to the matter of career commitment and professionalism i s the director's perception of whether or not he receives a f u l l or part-time salary for his employment i n adult education. Although only twenty-five of the directors (37.8 per cent) indicated that they were o f f i c i a l l y employed on a full-time basis, twenty-six (39.4 per cent) of them perceived themselves as receiving a fall-time salary for their work as director. The mean adoption score was 41.6 for the forty respondents (60.6 per cent) who did not perceive th e i r income from the directorship as a f u l l -time salary compared with 62.3 for the twenty-six directors (39.4 per cent) who regarded such income as a full-time salary (t = 6.642; d.f. - 64; p ^ . O l ) . These data reveal that significantly high adoption scores were indicated by those directors who perceived they received a full-time salary from their employment i n adult education (Table I, p. 73). Participation i n Activities of Professional Associations Certainly one aspect of professionalism would be reflected i n participation i n the a c t i v i t i e s of professional associations. A composite score was derived from the director's membership i n , and attendance at meetings of, as well as positions held i n professional adult education associations. More than helf of the directors (54.5 per cent) had professional participation scores of 9 or less, and these t h i r t y - s i x respondents achieved 82 a mean adoption score of 45*0. Another fifteen directors (22.7 per cent) had professional scores i n the 10 to 15 range and an adoption score of 48.8. The remaining fifteen directors (22.7 per cent) who indicated professional participation scores of 16 or more, had a mean adoption score of 61.9 (F <=» 6.705; d.f. «• 2/63; p*Coi). These data indicate that a significant relationship existed between the professional participation scores of directors and their adoption scores (Table I, p. 73). A more detailed analysis (Table IV, p. 83) indicated that no s i g n i f i -cant difference existed between the adoption scores of those directors scoring 9 or less i n professional participation with those i n the 10 to 15 category. There was, however, a significant difference between directors scoring 9 or less and those who achieved scores of 16 or more. Similarly, there was a significant difference between directors who scored i n the 10 to 15 category with those registering 16 or more as their professional score. Such data as these reveal that the significantly high adoption scores were obtained by those directors who had professional participation scores of 16 or more. Similar findings are reported by research i n the fie l d s of agriculture and the health sciences.* 4 , ^ Reading of Professional Adult Education Journals Another feature of the director's commitment to professionalism was his reading of adult education periodicals. Whereas the reading of other educational journals and professional periodicals was not related to adoption (Table VII, p. 91) the reading of adult education periodicals was s i g n i f i -cantly related to adoption scores (Table I, p. 73). •"M. M. Bohlen, "The Adoption and Diffusion of Ideas i n Agriculture" i n Our Changing Rural Society. J . H. Gopp (ed.), Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1964, pp. 279-280. 'Du Gas, op., c i t . . pp. 277, 279. TABLE IV ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL PARTICIPATION SCORES Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Scores Test Significance 1. Scores of 9 or less 36 45.0 F = 0.664; d.f. = 1/63; p - 0.420 Not significant Scores of 10 to 15 15 48.8 2. Scores of 9 or less 36 45.0 F = 13.337; d.f. = 1/63; p -= 0.000 Significant Scores of 16 or more 15 61.9 3. Scores of 10 to 15 15 48.8 F = 5.701; d.f. = 1/63; p = 0.016 Significant Scores of 16 or more 15 61.9 TABLE V ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL ADULT EDUCATION READING- SCORES Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Scores Test Significance 1. No reading score 35 41.8 F = 5-228; d.f. = l/62; p - 0.021 Significant Scores of 1 to 5 15 51.2 2. No reading score 35 41.8 F = 20.888; d.f. = 1/62; p • = 0.000 Significant Scores of 6 to 10 9 64.6 3- No reading score 35 41.8 F - 21.110; d.f. = 1/62; p « = 0.000 Significant More than 10 7 67.1 4. Scores of 1 to 5 15 51.2 F - 5.654; d.f. = 1/62; p = 0.017 Significant Scores of 6 to 10 9 64.6 5. Scores of 1 to 5 15 51.2 F = 6.836; d.f. = l/62; p = 0.009 Significant More than 10 7 67.1 6. Scores of 6 to 10 9 64.6 F = 0.149; d.f. - 1/62; p = 0.701 Not significant More than 10 7 67.1 84 Some seven titles constituted the major portion of the adult education periodicals listed by the directors. Continuous Learning, a publication of the Canadian Association of Adult Education, was read by twenty-four of the directors, while publications such as Pulse. Accent, and Swap of the National Association of Public School Adult Educators were read by fifteen directors. Other journals such as Convergence. Adult Leadership, and the Adult Education Journal were each named by five directors as sources of information. The mean adoption score was 41.8 for the thirty-five directors (53.0 per cent) who read no adult education journals and periodicals. By contrast, fifteen directors (22.7 per cent) with reading scores in the 1 to 5 range had a mean adoption score of 51.2, while nine (13.6 per cent) with reading scores of 6 to 10 registered an adoption score of 64.6, and the seven (10.6 per cent) remaining directors who scored more than 10 on reading frequency achieved a mean adoption score of 67.1 points (F •» 11.897, d.f. « 3/62; p*£.01). As the data indicate, there i s increasing progression of mean adoption scores as the reading scores for professional adult education periodicals increase (Table I, p. 73). Additional analysis (Table V, p. 83) indicates there was a significant difference in the adoption scores between directors reading no adult education journals and directors with reading scores in the 1 to 5 category. Likewise, significant differences existed in adoption scores among directors who read no adult education journals and those respondents with reading scores of 6 to 10, as well as with directors having reading scores of more than 10. There were also significant differences between the adoption scores of directors having reading scores in the 1 to 5 category, and directors having reading scores of more than 10. 85 There was, however, no significant difference in adoption scores between directors having reading scores in the 6 to 10 range and respondents with reading scores of more than 10. Such data indicate that those directors who read no adult education journals or periodicals had significantly lower adoption scores than directors who did such reading. Moreover, directors who had achieved professional reading scores of 6 or more had significantly higher adoption scores than directors with reading scores below six. These findings with regard to professional reading and adoption are supported by studies in both education and »e41cine.16' » • 1 8 ' 1 9 ' » ' 2 1 Sources of Information The directors were asked to recall whom they consulted and what sources of information they used during the various stages of the adoption process. These information sources were then classified according to their type and origin. The type of information sources f e l l within the three divisions of x J. E. Christiansen, "The Adoption of Educational Innovation Among Teachers of Vocational Agriculture" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1965). l 7Du Gas, cj>. c i t . . p. 278. op. c i t . ^C. D. Hens ley, "A Study of Pactors Related to the Acceptance and Adoption of a Co-operative Supplementary Educational Service Centre Authorised Under Title III of P.L. 89-10" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 1968). 2%. B. Miles, "On temporary systems" in Innovation in Education. M. M. Miles (ed.), New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964, p. 475. 2%. W. Nicholson, "Selected School District and Administrative Variables Related to the Adoption of Instructional Television" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1965). 86 materials, a c t i v i t i e s , and individuals; while the sources of origin included adult education, "other education" and "other" categories. The f i r s t source of information that the director named for each stage of the adoption process was the one selected for s t a t i s t i c a l analysis under the above classification system. Origin of Sources ^of Information at Awareness Stage of Adoption Of the ten aspects of the directors' communication behavior examined, only one was significantly related to adoption scores. That was the origin of information sources at the awareness stage of adoption. Atlthe awareness stage, thirty-six information sources originated from adult education, and the mean adoption score of the directors using these sources was 53-8. Another twenty-three sources used by directors having a mean adoption score of 43.9 originated i n the "other education" category. The remaining seven sources consulted were from the "other" category, and the mean adoption score of the directors employing these was 56.6 (P «• 5.433; d.f. = 2/63; p ^ . O l ) . These data indicate there was a significant difference between the origins of information sources at the awareness stage and adoption scores„(Table IX, p. 1 0 1 ) . Further analysis (Table VI, p. 87) revealed that a significant difference existed between the adoption scores of directors who used adult education information sources at the awareness stage and those directors who used "other education" and those who used "other" sources of information. There was, however, no significant difference between the adoption scores of directors who relied upon adult education Information sources, and those who depended upon "other" sources at the awareness stage of adoption. Moreover, the date indicate that the significantly high adoption scores were obtained by those directors who used either adult education or "other" information sources. At thi s i n i t i a l stage of adoption, high scoring directors sought their ideas about new practices to a large extent from printed material i n the form of brochures and bulletins originating from fellow directors. In addition, they had considerable personal contact with fellow directors at chapter meetings, TABLE VI ANALYSIS OF THE ORIGIN OP INFORMATION SOURCES AT THE AWARENESS STAGE Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Scores Test 1. Adult education sources 36 Other education sources 23 2. Adult education sources 36 Other sources 7 3. Other education sources 23 Other sources 7 53.8 41.3 53.8 56.7 41.3 56.7 Significance Significant P - 9.303; d.f. - 1/63; p » 0.003 P - 0.195; d.f. - 1/63? P - 0.664 Not significant P - 5.329; d.f. - 1/63; p - 0.023 Significant -a 88 workshops, and conferences, as well as frequently conversing with one and another by telephone. Otherwise, the directors went outside the educational system as such for an awareness about new practices and procedures. Moreover, i t should be noted that i t was these directors, seeking completely outside sources of information at the awareness stage, who had the highest mean adoption scores. In a l l likelihood, they might well be the very persons who in i t i a l l y introduce new ideas and practices into the relatively narrow and confined communication system of the directors. II. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS NOT-RELATED TO ADOPTION Of the thirty-four personal and communications characteristics studied, a preponderent number failed to indicate any significant relationship to adoption (Table VII, p. 89; Table VIII, p. 99; Table IX, p. 101). Neverthe-less, the twenty-three non-related characteristics are discussed in some detail and wherever possible reference i s made to the findings of other adop-tion research. Sex Oh the basis of sex, the sample consisted predominately of males. Fifty-seven of the directors (86.4 per cent) were male and nine (13.6 per cent) were female. Since the sex of the director was not related to adoption (Table VII, p. 89), there was no significant difference between-the: mean adoption scores of directors by sex. Marital Status Almost a l l of the directors were married. Sixty-one directors (94.4 per cent) were married, two (3.0 per cent) were single, and three (4*5 per cent) were widowed, divorced, or separated. Marital status had no significant relationship to adoption scores. (Table VII, p. 89). TABLE V/II Characteristic 1. Sex of the director 2. Marital status 3- Age 4- Years of schooling completed at appoint. 5. Study i n A.E. prior to appointment 6. Study im admin, prior to appointment 7. Study i n administration after appointment 8. Number of previous jobs prior to appointment NON-SIGNIFICANT PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS No. of Directors Involved Mean Adopti< Male 57(86.4!?) 49.3 Female 9(13.658) 52.2 Married 61(92.45?) 49.8 Unmarried 5( 7.650 48.6 Under 45 yrs. 28(42.45?) 46.1 45 to 54 yrs. 26(39.450 54.7 More than 54 yrs. 12(18.25?) 47.2 No college grad. 24(36.45?) 46.0 College grad. 42(63.65?) 51.9 Formal study 17(25.85?) 51.1 No study 49(74.25?) 49.3 Formal study 29(43.95?) 53.1 No study 37(56.15?) 47.1 Formal study 15(22.750 54.1 No study 51(77.35?) 48.5 1 previous job 5( 7.656) 33.2 2 jobs 11(16.75?) 53.4 3 jobs 15(22.75?) 51.1 4 jobs 18(27.35?) 51.3 5 jobs 17(25.85?) 49.3 Test t - 0.485; d.f. - 64; p>.05 t = 0.093; d.f. = 64; p>.05 F = 1.604; d.f. - 2/63; P>.05 t = 1.414; d.f. = 64; p>.05 t - .415; d.f. = 64; p>.05 t - 1.508; d.f. - 64; p>.05 t - 0.879; d.f. - 64; p>.05 F - 1.540; d.f. - 4/61; p>.05 ax TABLE VII (continued) NON-SIGNIFICANT PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Characteristic 9. Reason for accepting position 10. Income from outside work 11. Career plans within school system 12. Attitude toward change score 13- Social participation score No. of Directors Involved Mean Adoption Score Test Interest i n A.E. 25(37.9*) 50.7 F - 1.637; d.f. To experiment 10(15.2*) 59.9 Other admin. 10(15.2*) 45.2 Scope for admin. 5( 7.6*) 45.2 ability-5( 7.6*) 52.8 Advancement Other reasons 11(16.7*) 43.6 Outside income 16(24.2*) 50.7 t » 0.299; d.f. No outside income 50(75.8*) 49.4 Seek other 15(22.7*) 43.3 F - 1.561; d.f. positions 3( 4.5*) Undecided 50.0 No such plans 48(72.7*) 51.7 Less than 4 6( 9.1*) 53-7 F = 2.079; d.f. Score of 5 13(19.7*) 53.1 Score of 6 23(34.9*) 53-6 Score of 7 24(36.4*) 43-3 0 score 6( 9.1*) 46.8 F - 1.214; d.f. 1 to 5 2( 3.0*) 54-5 6 to 10 21(31.8*) 45.6 11 to 15 10(15.2*) 53.6 16 to 20 7(10.6*) 38.3 21 to 25 5( 7-6*) 49.6 26 to 30 4( 6.3#) 56.5 More than 30 11(16.7*) 57.5 = 6/59; P>.05 64; p>.05 2/63; p>.05 3/62; p>.05 7/58; p>.05 TABLE VII (continued) Characteristic 14. Reading score of professional journals (other than adult education) NON-SIGNIFICANT PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS No. of Directors Involved Mean Adoption Score 0 score 1 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 More than 15 20(30.350 15(22.7*) 903.6*) 14(21.2*) 8(12.1*) 51.6 47.7 50.1 50.1 48.0 Test F = 0.139; d.f. - 4/61; p>.05 92 Age The age of the directors ranged frost twenty-seven to sixty-one years. Twenty-eight directors (42.4 per cent) were below the age of 45, and twenty-six (39.4 per cent) were i n the median category 45 to 54 years of age. The remaining twelve directors (18.2 per cent) were 55 years of age or over. Although higher adoption scores were obtained by the middle-aged and older directors, age i t s e l f was not significantly related to adoption (Table VII, p. 89). Among other educators, adoption has generally been associated with 22 23 p/. 25 26 27 the younger age categories. ' '» » Similarly, amongst other 28 occupational groups, the early adopter has tended to be younger, although 29, 30 some researchers have found no such relationship. 22R. L. Marcum, "Organizational Climate and Adoption of Educational Innovations, n (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Utah State University, 1968). 2 3 R . T . Miller, Teacher Adoption of a New Concept of a Supervised  Practice i n Agriculture. Educational Research Series 4 , Raleigh: North Carolina State University, 1965. 2 4 B. R. Wygal, "Personal Characteristics and Situational Perceptions of Junior College Instructors as Related to Innovativeness" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, 1966). 25D. K. Leslie, "A Study of Factors Which Facilitate ortInhibit Adoption of Innovative Practices i n Boys* Physical Education i n Secondary Schools" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1970). Lambert, "The Relationship of Abstractness of the Adoption of Educational Innovations," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utah, 1970). Jensen, '•Characteristics of Superintendents i n Innovative and Non-Innovative School Systems and Interaction with the Iowa Department of Public Instruction," (Unpublished Ed[.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1967). 28E. M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1962, p. 172. 29verner and F. W. Millerd, Adult Education and the Adoption of  Innovations by Orchardlsts i n the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of British Columbia, 1966, p. 12. 30c. Verner and P.M. Gubbels, The Adoption or Rejection of Innovations by Dairy Farm Operators to'the lower Fraser Valley. Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada, 1967, p. 9. Years of Schooling Completed at Time of Appointment The median level of education completed by the respondents atthetime .they were employed as directors was college graduation with more than one-third (34.9 per cent) in this category. By contrast, the lowest level of educational attainment reported by one director was grade nine. Of the nineteen directors (28.8 per cent) reporting graduate work, eleven respondents held less than a master's degree; seven had earned a master's; and one had done work beyond that degree, but had not yet received his doctorate. Educational level as such was not related to adoption (Table VII, p. 89). 31 This finding is consistent with that reported by both Coughenour and 32 Photiadas who indicated that when social and economic variables were controlled, educational level was not related to adoption. Study in Adult Education Prior to Appointment Few of the directors had participated in any systematic study in adult education prior to being appointed. Only seventeen directors (25.8 per cent) had engaged in some type of organized learning." . „ Nine of these had taken formal course work, five had engaged in workshop seminars, and the remaining three had participated in combinations of conferences, workshops, .. and courses. By contrast, forty-nine directors (74.2 per cent) had engaged in no systematic study in adult education prior to being appointed. There was, however, no relationship between prior study in adult education and adoption scores (Table VII, p. 89). M. Coughenour, "The Functioning of Farmers' Characteristics in Relation to Contact with Media and Practice Adoption" in Rural Sociology. 25: 283-297, (June, i960). 3 2J. D. Photiadas, "Motivation, Contacts and Technological Change" in Rural Sociology. 27: 316-326, (September, 1962). 94 Study I J I Administration Prior to Appointment Fewer than one half the directors (43.9 per cent) had taken any previous training i n administration prior to being appointed. Of these, twenty-four had taken courses, three had participated i n workshops and courses, and two had attended meetings and seminars. Thirty-seven directors (56.1 per cent) had undertaken no systematic study i n administration prior to their appointment. There was no relationship between prior study i n administration and adoption (Table VII, p. 89). Study i n Administration After Appointment A very sizeable proportion of the directors (79.3 per cent) have not participated i n any formal training i n administration since being appointed. By contrast with these fifty-one directors, fifteen (22.7 per cent) had undertaken such training mainly i n the form of workshops and seminars. No significant relationship existed between adoption and the director having studied administration after his appointment (Table VII, p. 89). Number of Previous Jobs Over half the directors (53.1 per cent) had held four or more previous jobs, while another twenty-six respondents (39.3 per cent) had been employed i n two to three previous jobs. The remaining five directors (7.6 per cent) had held only one job prior to becoming director. The number of previous jobs held by the director was not related to adoption (Table VII, p. 89). Reason for Accepting Position of Director The directors were questioned as to the reason for accepting the position of director. Twenty-five of the respondents (37.9 per cent) indicated that i t was an interest i n the f i e l d of adult education which attracted them to the position. Ten directors (15.2 per cent) stated i t was their desire to experiment i n order to bring about change that motivated 95 their acceptance; while an equal number (15-2 per cent) said they had been encouraged by other administrative o f f i c i a l s to take the position. Moreover, five directors (7.6 per cent) viewed the directorship as providing scope for administrative a b i l i t y , while another five believed the position provided opportunity for training and advancement. The remaining eleven directors (16.7 per cent) offered a number of other reasons. No significant relation-ship existed between the director's reason for accepting his position and adoption scores (Table VII, p.9P»). Income from Work Outside the School System Although almost one-half of the directors had perceived adult education as their career during the year previous to the investigation, sixteen of them (24.2 per cent) earned income from other work not connected i n any way with the directorship, or any other position i n the school system. The amount of salary from other work ranged from $300 to $20,000, with a mean income of $1341.06 from outside work. The median category was i n the less than $500 range. Of the directors earning outside income, one respondent (1.5 per cent) reported $20,000 from outside work; ten directors (15.1 per cent) earned less than $6000, while the remaining five (7.6 per cent) earned amounts between $6000 to $14,000 from such work. No relationship was established between the director earning income from outside work and adoption scores (Table VII, p. 90). Career Plans Within the School System As far as career plans which involved moving on to some other position i n the school system, only fifteen directors (22.7 per cent) replied that they had such intentions, while another three were undecided. On the other hand, forty-eight of the directors (72.7 per cent) indicated they had no such interest. This high proportion i s consistent with the previously 96 expressed views on adult education as a career commitment. Whether or not the director had career plans to move on to some other position i n the school system bore no relationship to adoption (Table VII, p. 90). Attitude Toward Change An effort was made to assess attitudes toward change by using a previously constructed s c a l e d Appendix 1, p. 10). Twenty-four directors (36.4 per cent) achieved the highest possible change scale score of seven. Another twenty-three respondents (34-9 per cent) scored as high as six points, while thirteen directors (19-7 per cent) recorded five points on the scale. The remaining six directors (9.1 per cent) scored four or fewer points. There was no relationship between the director's attitude toward change and his adoption score (Table VII, p. (99). Social Participation 34 The Chapin Social Participation Scale (Appendix 1, p. 11 ) measure the degree of the director's social participation during 1969-70. Six of the directors (9.1 per cent) had belonged to no community organizations the previous year, while another two (3.0 per cent) indicated social participation scores i n the 1 to 5 category. In the mid range categories of participation, twenty-one directors (31.8 per cent) registered social participation scores i n the 6 to 10 range; ten respondents (15.2 per cent) were i n the 11 to 15 3 3 C . Verner, G. Dickinson, and B. Kloosterman. A Socio-Economic  Survey of the Peace River Area i n British Columbia. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia, September 1968, p. 34. Also see Louis Guttman, "The Basis for Scalogram Analysis" i n Studies i n Social Psychology i n World War II: Measurement Prediction. Vol. IV. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1966, pp. 60-90. 3^F. Stuart Chapin, Experimental Designs i n Sociological Research. (New York: Harper Brothers, 1955), pp. 276-278. range, and seven directors (10.6 per cent), i n the 16 to 20 category. In the high range categories, five directors (7.6 per cent) indicated participation scores i n the 21 to 25 range; four (6.1 per cent) were in the 26 to 30 range; and the remaining eleven directors (l6.7 per cent) scored more than 30 on the social participation scale. When directors of adult education were considered as a group, the mean scale score of social participation was 16.59 which f a l l s just slightly short of the score of 18 necessary to represent t i t u l a r leader achievement. This score also f e l l below the mean score of 20 usually achieved by professional, managerial, and proprietory groups and more closely approximated the social score of 16 earned by c l e r i c a l groups. Further, i t should be noted that the median category of social participation for the directors f e l l within the 11 to 15 range which more closely approximates scores for c l e r i c a l and skilled groups and indicates a f a i r l y low level of participation on the part of the directors. No relationship existed between the director's social participation and adoption (Table VII, p.>90). This finding i s at variance with that reported 35 by Alleyne and Verner, who found that among a number of personal charac-t e r i s t i c s studied, social participation showed the highest positive correla-36 tion. Similarly, Verner and Gubbels found social participation was one of two significant personal characteristics positively related to adoption, out of several investigated. 35E. P. Alleyne and C. Verner, The Adoption and Rejection of Innova- tions by Strawberry Growers. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of British Columbia, 1969, p- lh. 3^Verner and Gubbels, op., c i t . , p. 51. 98 Reading of Educational Periodicals When directors were questioned as to which "other" educational journals and periodicals they regularly read beyond those considered under adult education, twenty respondents (30.3 per cent) read none. On the other hand, fifteen directors (22.7 per cent) had reading scores i n the 1 to 5 category; nine (13-6 per cent) registered journal scores from 6 to 10; fourteen (21.6 per cent) were i n the 11 to 15 range; and the remaining eight directors (12.1 per cent) had journal reading scores of 16 or more. No significant relationship existed between the director's reading of "other" educational periodicals "and adoption (Table;VII, p. 91'!). There were forty-six t i t l e s identifying "other" educational journals and periodicals read by the directors. The most common of these was the B. C. Teacher, with thirty-three of the directors (50.0 per cent) indicating they read this monthly publication of the British Columbia Teacherts Federation. By contrast, the B. C. School Trustee, a publication of the B. C. School Trustees Association, was read by only six directors (9-1 per cent). Various educational administration journals such as the High School  Administrator. the Canadian Administrator, and the B. C. Principals' and  Vice-Principals' Bulletin were l i s ted by thirteen respondents (19.7 per cent). Next i n importance was the Canadian Vocational Association Journal which was read by six directors (9-1 per cent). The other journals and periodicals identified were read by a negligible number of directors. Information Sources Used During the Adoption Process As previously described, the twenty-three sources which were named i n addition to that of personal experience were organized as to their type and origin. The types of information source included the three categories of materials, organized a c t i v i t i e s , and individuals (Table VIII, p. 99). TABLE VIII COMMUNICATION FACTORS TYPES OF INFORMATION SOURCES . Adoption Stage ..No. of Directors Involved Awareness stage Materials 38(57-6$) Organized act i v i t i e s 9(13-6$) Individual personnel 19(28.8$) Interest stage Materials 3( 4-5$) Organized activities 4( 6.1$) Individual personnel 59(89-4$) Evaluation stage Materials 2( 3-0$) Organized activities 0( 0.0$) Individual personnel 64(97-0$) T r i a l stage None >' 3(4-5$) Materials 6( 9-1$) Individual personnel 57(86.4$) Adoption stage Individual personnel 66(100.0$) ) DURING ADOPTION STAGES Mean Adoption Score Test 46.0 F - 2-452; d.f. - 2/63; p> -05 55-6 Not significant 54-2 53-3 F = 0.104; d.f. - 2/63; p>-05 51-5 Not significant 49-4 54-5 t - 0.460; d.f. = 64; p>.05 - Not significant 49-6 39-3 -F = 6.704; d.f," - 2/63; P>.05 52.7 Not significant 49-9 49-7 No differences - a l l directors used same type of information source. 100 The origin of the sources was comprised of adult education, "other" education, and "other" categories (Table IX, p. 101). When these two dimensions, type and origin of information source, were considered i n relationship to the various stages of adoption, nine of the ten factors investigated failed to yield any significant differences (Table VIII, p. 99; Table IX, p. 101). Thus, i t would appear that as far as these aspects of communication behavior are concerned, the directors are a relatively homogeneous group with l i t t l e differences among them. Although there was no relationship between the communications factors studied and adoption scores, i t seems at least of passing interest to note the main sources of information used by the directors at each stage of the adoption process. Texts, materials, and periodicals were used most frequently at the awareness stage. These were comprised mainly of B. C. Department of Education publications, circulars, and bulletins, professional adult education journals and periodicals, as well as reports, brochures, and advertising from other directors. Besides these materials, however, there was considerable con-sultation with adult education personnel, particularly fellow directors at this i n i t i a l stage of the adoption process. Individuals were consulted largely at the interest stage. Fellow directors of adult education were named most frequently, followed by the Provincial Co-ordinator, and District Superintendents. Secretary-treasurers, other school board personnel, government o f f i c i a l s , adult education instructors, assistant directors and night school principals were among others consulted. Individuals were also used almost exclusively for consultation during the evaluation stage. These persons were mainly other educational person-nel such as the District Superintendent, or his assistant, day school TABLE IX;-COMMUNICATION FACTORS ORIGIN OF INFORMATION SOURCES USED DURING ADOPTION STAGES Adoption Stage 1. Awareness stage Interest stage 3. Evaluation stage 4. T r i a l stage 5. Adoption stage No. of Directors Involved Mean Adoption Score .Test Adult ed. sources 36(54.5*) 53.8 F = 5.432; d.f. « 2/63; P<-01 Other ed. sources 23(34.9*) 41.3 Significant Other sources 7(10.6*) 56.6 Adult ed. sources 55(83.3*) 47.9 F - 2.2L4; d.f. = 2/63; P>-05 Other ed. sources 8(12.2*) 60.5 Not significant Other sources 3( 4.5*) 53.3 Adult ed. sources 48(72.8*) 49.5 F = 1.387; d.f. - 2/63; p>.05 Other ed. sources 9(13-6*) 56.7 Not significant Other sources 9(13.6*) 44.0 None 3( 4.5*) 39-3 F = 0.969; d.f. = 3/62; p>.05 Adult ed. sources 55(83.4*) 51.2 Not significant Other ed. sources 5( 7.6*) 42.2 Other sources 3( 4.5*) 45.6 Adult ed. sources 58(87.8*) 50.9 F = 2.320; d.f. - 3/62; p>.05 Other ed. sources 4( 6.1*) 48.0 Not significant Other sources 4( 6.1*) 33-3 102 administrators, the secretary-treasurer and other school board personnel. Frequently, the director relied upon his own judgment at this point, but sometimes he also consulted other adult education directors, and adult education instructors. At the t r i a l stage, adult education personnel were reported as the most common sources of information and advice. They were fellow directors, the Provincial Co-ordinator of Adult Education, adult education instructors, university professors of adult education, assistant directors and night school principals. Similarly at the adoption stage, adult education personnel played an important role i n consultation. These persons were, however, mainly adult education instructors and the clientele. Personal Sources of Information During Adoption Process A descriptive analysis of the personal information sources generally used throughout the entire adoption process indicated fellow directors of adult education were consulted very frequently even at the i n i t i a l stages of awareness and interest, and particularly at the t r i a l and adoption stages (Table X a , tp. 103). Thus, i t appears that fellow directors constituted a major proportion of the opinion leaders. Another important source of informationiwas the Provincial Co-ordinator of Adult Education who was .consulted primarily at the awareness, interest, and t r i a l stages. He might best be designated as the change agent provided by the provincial government. School superintendents, adult education instructors, secretary-treasurers and school board personnel were important conferees at the evaluation and adoption stages. Opinions of the adult education clientele were most commonly sought at the adoption stage. Hence, i t was lo c a l sources that constituted the most important referents for the director at the evaluation and adoption stages. TABLE X(a) GLASSIPICATION OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND THEIR USE DURING THE STAGES OF THE ADOPTION PROCESS Number of Sources Used During the Stages of the Adoption Process Sources of Information Awareness No. % Interest No. % Evaluation No. % T r i a l No. % Adoption No. % Adult Education Materials 21 174 5 4.7 1 .8 5 5.0 0 0.0 Adult Education Activities 11 9.1 8 7.5 0 0.0 3 2.9 0 0.0 Adult Education Personnel 36 29.8 67 63.2 29 22.1 6? 68.3 91 56.5 Other Educational Materials 29 2?.9 2 1.9 0 0.0 4 3.9 17 10.6 Other Educational Activities 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0, 0.0 0 0.0 Other Educational Personnel 4 3.3 13 12.3 38 2?-0 4 3.9 17 10.6 Other Materials 9 7.4 0 0.0 1 .8 0 0.0 1 .6 Other Ac t i v i t i e s 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Other Personnel 5 4.1 10 9.4 26 19.8 8 8.0 12 7.5 Personal Experience 3 2.5 1 .9 36 27-5 8 8.0 40 24.8 Total 121 100.0 106 100.0 131 100.0 101 100.0 161 100.0 Totals are more than 66 for each stage of adoption because directors could name more than one source. 104 Interpersonal Communications Networks In seeking data on information sources used at the various stages of the adoption process, there was no attempt to e l i c i t the names of specific persons involved i n interpersonal communications networks. In a number of situations, however, unsolicited information of this nature was provided during the course of the interview. Some fifteen directors specifically named eighteen directors whom they had occasion to consult during the adoption process. Twelve directors named one opinion leader each, whereas one director regularly consulted two of his colleagues, and another frequently sought out the opinions of three (Table Xb, p. 105). In one situation, the dyad was such that the communication regularly flowed both ways. The information seeker sought information from the opinion leader who i n turn sought advice from the information seeker from time to time. Thirteen of the seventeen directors identified as opinion leaders had higher adoption scores than the information seeker involved i n each 37 situation. Moreover, two directors with the highest adoption scores were each identifledtwice as opinion leaders. The difference i n the scores be-tween the opinion leader and the information seeker ranged from a low of 8 to a high of 70 points. In three cases, the information seekers had higher adoption scores than the opinion leaders whom they sought out. Another aspect of the interpersonal communication meriting attention arises from the fact that a l l of the dyads existed within a relatively con-fined geographic setting. Each information seeker had convenient access to his opinion leader through short travelling distances, and both invariably-lived within the same Chapter area of the B r i t i s h Columbia Association of cf. E. P. Alleyne and C. Verner, Interpersonal Communications and the Adoption of Innovations. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1969. 105 TABLE X(b) COMPARISON OP ADOPTION SCORES OP INFORMATION SEEKDMG DIRECTORS AND THEIR OPINION LEADERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15 Information-Seeker B C Adoption Score D E F 6 H I J J K L M N 34 08 51 55 31 42 40 56 44 45 74 21 60 49 54 Opinion Adoption tader Score A 31 B 78 B 78 C 78 D 55 D 55 E 53 F 55 G 65 H 47 I 52 J 74 J 45 J 45 K 84 L 78 K 84 Vancouver source Not calculated i n the study 106 Adult Education Directors. Moreover, the information seekers mentioned that they frequently consulted the opinion leaders by telephone. In spite of the limited data, i t seems safe to assume that as far as interpersonal communications networks are concerned, directors are confined largely to the same social system provided by their chapter a f f i l i a t i o n . Moreover, the identifiable lines of communication rarely, i f ever, extended beyond an adjacent school d i s t r i c t . III. SUMMARY OF ADOPTER PROFILE From the foregoing analysis of the data pertaining to significant personal characteristics of the director, there emerges an adopter profile. Higher adoption scores were associated with directors who had taken studies i n adult education since their appointment and had participated i n profes-sional training during the previous year. In addition, the highest scores were achieved by those directors having more than five years work experience and those employed i n their present positions for five years or more. More-over, the directors with the highest adoption scores expressed satisfaction with their work, rated i t i n a professional category, expressed a career commit-ment to adult education, and perceived that they received a full-time salary as directors i n adult education. In other aspects of professionalism, directors with the highest adoption scores had achieved the highest professional participation scores indicating attendance at professional meetings, and offices held i n professional associations. The highest scoring adopters were those directors with the highest reading score for professional adult education periodicals. As far as other communication behavior i s concerned, directors with high adoption scores rely chiefly upon organized a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v i -duals- of their own professional organization for the main informational input at the awareness stage of adoption. 107 CHAPTER IV SYSTEMS FACTORS PERTAINING TO ADOPTION Systems factors, by contrast to personal characteristics of the director pertained to elements i n the work situation of the director as well as struc-t u r a l features of his organizational system. Although there were t h i r t y -seven factors associated with the organizational system of the director, these were grouped into two distinct subsets. Thirty-two factors were basically attributable to the organizational system over which the director might be able to exert a measure of control (Table XI, p. 108j Table XXXIII, p. 160) and five factors pertained to the organizational system over which the director had no control whatsoever (Table XXXIII, p. 160; Table XXXIV, p. 163). Each subset of systems factors were analysed i n turn. By contrast with the relatively few personal characteristics of the director which were found to be related to adoption, thirty-three of the thirty-seven factors associated with the organizational system showed a significant relationship to adoption. I. SIGNIFICANT CONTROLLABLE SITUATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO ADOPTION Although the situational factors are work-situation components basically attributable to the organizational system, they are, nevertheless, elements over which the director might exert some measure of influence because of an interactional effect between the person of the director and aspects of his employment. Situational factors include origin of appointment, encouragement to participate i n adult education training, amount of time o f f i c i a l l y employed as director, additional job responsibilities, amount of salary, amount of TABLE XI SIGNIFICANT SITUATIONAL FACTORS Situational Factor 1. Origin of appointment 2. Encouragement to participate i n A.E. training 3. Proportion of time spent on adult education assignment 4. Additional job re sponsibilitie s 5- Amount of salary as director 6. Amount of salary from other positions i n school system 7- Number of task pri o r i t i e s involved i n regular work as director No. of Directors Involved Mean Adoption Within school system 41(62.1$ Another school system 08(12.1$ Outside school system 17(25.8$ Frequently 15(22.7$ Occasionally 32(48.5$ Never 19(28.8$ Less than 25$ 17(25.8$ 25 to 49$ 13(19.7$ 50 to 74$ 10(15.2$ 75 to 99$ K 1.4$ Full-time (100$) 25(37.8$ Have some 44(66.7$ Have none 22(33-3$ Less than $8,000 40(60.6$ $8,000 or more 26(39-4$ No salary 39(59.1$ Less than $8,000 7(10.6$ $8,000 or more 20(30.3$ 3 or fewer tasks 3( 4.6$ 4 tasks 8(12.1$ 5 tasks 7(10.6$ 6 tasks 11(16.7$ 7 tasks 17(25.8$ 8 tasks 12(18.1$ 9 or more tasks 8(12.1$ Test 6.141; d.f. =2/63; p<-01 3.149; d.f. - 2/63; •01<p<.05 22.749; d.f. - 3/62; p ^ . O l 3.646; d.f. =64; p<.01 5.707; d.f. - 64; p<.01 15.184; d.f. - 2/63; p<-01 5.184; d.f. - 6/59; p<.01 TABLE XI (continued) SIGNIFICANT SITUATIONAL FACTORS Situational Factor No. of Directors Involved Mean Adoption Score Test 8. Ranking of time spent First place 30(45.5*) 41.2 F - 7-034; d.f. = 3/62; on work not related to 2nd to 5th place 4( 6.1$) 50.5 adult education 6th to 9th place 9(13.6*) 62.1 No ranking 23(34.8*) 55.8 9. Ranking of time spent First place 5( 7.6*) 71.6 F = 2.784; d.f. = 4/61; on routine administration 2nd place 27(40.9*) 47.8 .01<p <.05 3rd place 19(28.8*) 47.9 4th place 6( 9.1*) 45.2 5th place 9(13.6*) 50.1 10. Ranking of time spent 1st to 2nd place 6( 9.1*) 65.3 F = 3-484; d.f. = 4/61; on consultation and 3rd place 24(36.4*) 53.6 .01<p<.05 counselling 4th place 13(19.7*) 46.0 5th to 9th place 10(15.2*) 48.5 No ranking 13(19.7*) 40.1 11. Ranking of time spent 2nd to 4th place 11(16.7*) 60.7 F = 2.804; d.f. = 5/60; on f a c i l i t a t i n g for 5th place 11(16.7*) 40.3 .01<p<.05 individuals 6th place 11(16.7*) 52.8 7th place 13(19.7*) 54.2 8th to 9th place 4( 6.1$) 42.3 No ranking 16(24.2*) 44.8 12. Ranking of organization 2nd to 3rd place 6( 9.1*) 58.7 F = 3.246; d.f. = 4/61; and supervision of 4th place 13(19.7*) 55.1 .01< p <.05 special events 5th place 15(22.7*) 54.1 6th to 9th place 11(16.7*) 50.6 No ranking 21(31.8*) 40.2 o NO TABLE XI (continued) Situational Factor 13. Ranking of time spent on professional development 14. Ranking of time spent on teaching and instructing 15. Ranking of time spent on information dis-semination of research 16. Ranking of time spent on organization of groups 17. No. of adult classes during 1969/70 18. No. of adult students enrolled during 1969/70 SIGNIFICANT SITUATIONAL FACTORS No. of Directors Involved Mean Adoption 3rd to 4th place 5( 7.6*) 40.0 5th place 11(16.7*) 60.1 6th place 21(31.8*) 45.1 7th place 9(13-6*) 54.9 8th place 9(13-6*) 55.6 9th place 4( 6.1*) 64.3 No ranking 7(10.6*) 31.7 No ranking 45(68.2*) 48.8 2nd to 5th place 10(15.2*) 42.5 6th to 9th place 11(16.7*) 60.3 No ranking 42(63.6*) 47.4 3rd to 5th place 13(19.7*) 47.6 6th to 9th place 11(16.7*) 61.2 No ranking 35(53-0*) 42.6 2nd to 4th place 7(10.6*) 49.0 5th to 6th place 16(24.2*) 64.5 7th to 9th place 8(12.1*) 50.9 Less than 100 46(69-7*) 44.6 100 or more 20(30.3*) 61.5 Less than 1000 35(53.0*) 40.0 1000 to 1499 9(13.6*) 57.0 1500 to 1999 6( 9-1*) 66.2 2000 to 3499 6( 9.1%) 50.1 3500 or more 10(15.2*) 67.1 Score Test F - 4-914; d.f. - 6/59; p<.01 F = 3.622; d.f. = 2/63; .01<p,<.05 F = 3-497; d.f. = 2/63; .01<p<.05 F = 8.752; d.f. = 3/62; p<.01 t - 4.578; d.f. - 64; p< .01 F * 14.361; d.f. * 4/61; p<.01 TABLE XI (continued) SIGNIFICANT SITUATIONAL FACTORS Situational Factor 19- No. of instructors supervised 1969/70 20. Amount of adult education revenues during 1969/70 21. Amount of adult education expenditures during 1969/70 22. Amount of profit or loss from adult education activities 23. Per pupil expenditure for adult education 24. Percentage of school d i s t r i c t budget allocated to adult education a c t i v i t i e s No. of Directors Involved Mean Adoption Score 49 or fewer 50 or more Less than $5,000 $5,000 to $14,999 $15,000 to $24,999 $25,000 to $34,999 More than $35,000 Less than $5,000 $5,000 to $14,999 $15,000 to $24,999 $25,000 to $34,999 More than $35,000 37(56.1$) 29(43.9$) 22(33.3$) 11(16.7$) 11(16.7$) 8(12.1$) 14(21.2$) 23(34.9$) 11(16.7$) 7(10.6$) 6( 9.1$) 19(28.8$) Loss of $5,000/more 20(30.3$) Loss of $2,500/less 20(30.3$) No profit or loss 5( 7.6$) Profit of $2,500Aess 14(21.2$) Profit more than $2,500 7(10.6$) 41.1 60.7 36.0 52.6 48.4 58.3 65.2 37.2 48.3 52.6 48.7 65.O 60.7 45.5 30.4 46.2 48.7 Test t - 6.042; d.f. = 64; p<.01 F = 13.680; d.f. = 4/6l; p<.01 F = 13.428; d.f. = 4/61; p<.01 F » 5-587; d.f. = 4/61; p<.01 $5.00 to $14.99 25(37.9$) 45.6 F = 3-628; d.f. - 3/62; .01<p<.05 $15.00 to $24.99 27(40.9$) 50.1 $25.00 to $29.99 7(10.6$) 45.9 $30.00 or more 7(10.6$) 66.9 Less than .5$ 33(50.0$) 40.6 F = 9.757; d.f. = 3/62; P<.01 .5 to .9$ 15(22.7$) 57.5 1.0 to 1.4$ 14(21.2$) 59.4 1.5 to 3.3$ 4( 6.1$) 62.0 TABLE XI (continued) SIGNIFICANT SITUATIONAL FACTORS 25-Situational Factor Designated adminis-trative superior No. of Directors Involvedl Mean Adoption Score 26. Involvement i n budget presentation 27. Provision of full-time admin, assistants 28. Provision of part-time admin, assistants 29. Provision of secretarial staff Dist. supt. 43(65.2$) Secretary-treasurer 9(13.6$) Other arrangement 14(21.2$) Involvement No involvement Have assistants No assistants Have assistants No assistants Have secretaries No secretaries 25(37.9$) 41(62.1$) 7(10.6$) 59(89.4$) 21(31.8$) 45(68.2$) 39(59.1$) 27(40.9$) 55.3 36.9 40.7 56.O 45.6 66.9 47.7 56.0 46.8 56.1 40.6 F = Test 9.385; d.f. = 2/63; p<.01 t - 2.537; d.f. = 64; .01<p<.05 t = 3.529; d.f. - 64; P<«01 t - 2.145; d.f. - 64; .01<p<.05 t = 4.162; d.f. = 64; p<-01 M 113 salary from other positions i n the school system, number of task p r i o r i t i e s , ranking of time spent on various tasks, size of the adult education operation, financial aspects of the operation, and certain administrative features of the organizational system. Origin of Appointment When considering situational factors, i t seemed important to investigate the director's origin of appointment for i t s relationship to adoption. For those forty-one directors (62.1 per cent) who were appointed to their position from within their own school d i s t r i c t , the mean adoption score was 44.8. By contrast, eight directors (12.1 per cent) who were appointed from another school d i s t r i c t had an adoption score of 61.8, and the remaining seventeen (25.8 per cent) who received appointments from outside the school system a l -together indicated a score of 56.Q (F « 6.141; d.f. • 2/63; p 8 8 0.002). Thus, there was a significant relationship between adoption scores and the origin of the director (Table JCtV p. 108). More detailed analysis (Table XII, p. 114) indicated no significant difference between the directors who were appointed from another school system and those who were appointed from completely outside the system. There were, however, differences i n adoption scores between those directors who were appoin-ted-.frbml^within the system, those from another system, and directors from outside the school system. Such findings reveal that those directors appointed from outside had significantly higher adoption scores than directors appointed from within their own school d i s t r i c t . It would seem then that an outsider coming into a new organization i s more l i k e l y to adopt the recommended administrative practices than a director who has already been integrated into the organizational system from which he received the appointment. This latter TABLE XII ANALYSIS OF ORIGIN OF APPOINTMENT Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Scores Test Significance 1. Another school system Outside school system 8 17 61.8 56.0 F = 0.781; d.f. - 1/63; P = 0.381 Not significant 2. Within school system Another school system 41 8 44.8 61.8 F = 8.370; d.f. - 1/63; P = 0.004 Significant 3. Within school system Outside school system 41 17 44.8 56.0 F = 6.569; d.f. - V63; P = 0.010 Significant TABLE XIII ANALYSIS OF ENCOURAGEMENT TO PARTICIPATE IN IN-SERVICE TRAINING Numbers Categories Compared 1. Frequently encouraged 15 Occasionally encouraged 32 2. . Occasionally encouraged 32 Never encouraged 19 3. Frequently encouraged 15 Mean Adoption Scores Test 56.1 F = 1.087; d.f. - 1/63; p - 0.298 50.9 50.9 28.8 56.1 F - 3.180; d.f. = 1/63; p = 0.071 F = 5.953; d.f. = 1/63; p = 0.014 Significance Not significant Not significant Significant 115 director would probably f i t into the category of a "local" who would not be as change-oriented as the more "cosmopolitan" outside appointee.* Encouragement to Participate in In-Service Training If a school district is one which is supportative of change, such support may be reflected in o f f i c i a l encouragement for the directors to participate in in-service training in adult education. The nineteen directors (28.8 per cent) who were never encouraged to participate had a mean adoption score of 42.7, whereas the fifteen directors (22.7 per cent) who were frequently encouraged had a score of 56.1, and the thirty-two (48.5 per cent) who were occasionally encouraged achieved a mean adoption score of 50.9 (F «= 3.14924; d.f. «• 2/63; p = 0.04176). Such data indicate a significant relationship between adoption and the director's being encouraged to participate in in-service training (Table XI, p. 108). Further analysis (Table XIII, p. 11$) indicated no significant difference between directors who were frequently encouraged and those who were occasion-ally encouraged to participate in in-service training. Similarly, there was no significant difference between the scores of directors who were occasion-ally encouraged to participate and those never encouraged. On the other hand, there was a significant difference between directors who were frequently encouraged and those directors never encouraged by school officials. More-over, the highest adoption scores were registered by directors who were frequently encouraged to participate, although such scores were not signifi-cantly higher than those achieved by directors who were occasionally i encouraged. A. W. Gouldner, "Cosmopolitans and Locals: Towards An Analysis of Latent Social Roles - I" in Administrative Science Quarterly. 2: 281-306, 1957. 116 Amount of Time the Director is Officially Employed The amount of time the director was officially employed in his position seemed an essential situational factor to be considered. There emerged a progression of mean adoption scores as the time the director was officially employed increased from less than ten hours to a full-time assignment of forty, or more hours a week. The mean adoption score was 35.1 for the seventeen directors (25.8 per cent) employed less than ten hours a week; 41.4 for the thirteen (19.7 per cent) employed 10 to 19 hours; 51.6 for the eleven (16.6 per cent) employed 20 to 39 hours, and 62.3 for the remaining twenty-five directors (37.8 per cent) employed on a full-time basis of 40 or more hours a week (P - 22.749? d.f. «• 3/62; p « -0.0). This indicates that there i s a significant relationship between adoption and the amount of time the director was officially employed (Table XI, p. 108). Additional analysis (Table XIV, p.117) indicated that there was no significant difference between directors who were employed less than ten hours and those employed 10 to 19 hours a week. There were, however, signi-ficant differences i n adoption scores between directors employed from 20 to 39 hours a week and those working less than ten hours, or 10 to 19 hours. Similarly, there were significant differences between directors officially employed on a full-time basis of 40 hours or more a week and those working less than 10 hours a week, 10 to 19 hours, or 20 to 39 hours a week. Thus, directors who are employed full-time had significantly higher adoption scores than those who were employed part-time. Similarly, those who were employed from 20 to 39 hours had significantly higher scores than the directors employed on even less than a half-time basis. These findings on the relationship between adoption and employment on a full-time basis are TABLE XIV ANALYSIS OF AMOUNT OF TIME DIRECTOR OFFICIALLY EMPLOYED Categories Compared Numbers v-- .Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Less than 10 hrs. per week 10 to 19 hrs. per week 17 13 35-1 41.4 F = 2.174; d.f. = 1/62; p = 0.136 Not significant 2. Less than 10 hrs. per week 20 to 39 hrs. per week 17 11 35.1 51.6 F «= 13-691; d.f. = 1/62; p = = 0.000 Significant 3. Less than 10 hrs. per week 40 hrs. or more per week 17 25 35.1 63.2 F = 59-781; d.f. = 1/62; p -= -0.000 Significant 4. 10 to 19 hrs. per week 20 to 39 hrs. per week 13 11 41.4 51.6 F = 4.705; d.f. = 1/62; p = 0.028 Significant 5. 10 hrs. to 19 hrs. per week 40 hrs. or more per week 13 25 41.4 63.2 F = 30.467; d.f. = 1/62; p = = 0.000 Significant 6. 20 to 39 hrs. per week 40 hours or more per week 11 25 51.6 63.2 F = 7.621; d.f. «= 1/62; p = 0.006 Significant 118 2 supported by research i n the f i e l d of agriculture. Additional Job RegponsjbiliUea Additional job responsibilities are another situational dimension of the director 1s time involvement. The mean adoption score was 45.5 for the forty-four directors (66.7 per cent) who had additional job responsibi-l i t i e s compared with a score of 58.6 for the twenty-two directors (33.3 per cent) without such duties and their attendant time commitments (t •* 3.646; d.f. » 64; p^.01). Moreover, i t was those directors without additional job responsibilities who had the significantly higher adoption scores than directors assigned extra duties (Table XI, p.108). Amount of Salary as Director The amount of salary paid to the director i s a situational component that i s l i k e l y to be related to the amount of time the director spends on adult education. There was a wide variation i n the amount of salary earned as director during 1969-70. Salaries ranged from no payment to $20,000 with a mean salary of $6,967.89 for the position, and the median category i n the $2,000 to $3,999 range. Six persons indicated that they received no remuneration for their work as director, while another six reported salaries of less than $500. Forty of the directors (60.6 per cent), having a mean adoption score of 42.2, earned less than $8,000 salary, whereas twenty-six respondents (39.4 per cent) with an adoption score of 61.3 earned a salary of $8,000 or more (t• «• 5.707; d.f. <= 64; p<.0l). Moreover, significantly higher adoption scores were recorded by directors earning a salary of $8,000 or more annually than those earning less (Table XI, p.108). C. Verner and F. W. Millerd, Adult Education and the Adoption of Innovations by Orchardists i n the Okanagan Valley of Bri t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia (1966), p. 23. 119 Among other educational professionals such as teachers and superinten-dents, higher salaries have emerged quite consistently as variables 3 4 5 6 associated with adoption and innovativeness. ' ' ' Amount of Salary from other Positions in the School System Less than one half of the directors (40.9 per cent) earned income from other positions in the school system. This "other" school salary ranged from $350 to $19,500, with a mean salary of $4,639.91 for such work. The median category for the directors was in the less than $500 range. Thirty-nine of the directors (59.1 per cent) earned no salary from other positions in the school system, and the mean adoption score for these respondents was 57.4. Of the twenty-seven directors who had such income, seven (10.6 per cent) earned less than $8,000, whereas the remaining twenty respondents (30.3 per cent) earned more than that amount. The mean adoption scores for these two categories were 35.3 and 39.9 respectively (P » 15.420; d.f. «= 2/63; p * 0.000). Clearly, a significant relationship existed between the amount of salary earned from other positions in the school system and adoption scores (Table XI, p.108). hf. F. Breivogel, "The Relationship of Selected Variables to the Introduction of Educational Innovations in New Jersey Public School Districts," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N. J., 1967). K. Leslie, "A Study of Factors Which Facilitate or Inhibit Adoption of Innovative Practices in Boys* Physical Education in Secondary Schools," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1970). 5E. W. Nicholson, "Selected School District and Administrative Variables Related to the Adoption of Instructional Television," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1965). N. Spencer, "Variables Affecting the Adoption of Educational Innovations in Selected School Districts of Oakland County, Michigan," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Wayne State University, 1967). 120 Farther analysis (Table XV, p.121) indicated that there were s i g n i f i -cant differences between those directors who earned no salary whatsoever and those earning less than $8,000, or more than $8,000 but there was no significant difference i n the adoption scores of directors earning less than $8,000 and those earning more. Thus, significantly high adoption scores were reported by those directors who received no salary from other positions i n the school system. Hence the significantly high scoring adopter was o f f i c i a l l y employed on a full-time basis, had no additional job responsi-b i l i t i e s , and earned $8,000 or more annually from the position of director. Analysis of the Work Activities of the Director An analysis of the director*s work was made both i n terms of the t o t a l number of tasks he was regularly required to perform and the relative time spent on each activity. Directors were asked to rank their various a c t i v i t i e s according to the amount of time involved. Although ten suggestive headings were provided on the interview schedule (Appendix I, p. 8 ), provision was made for including any additional a c t i v i t i e s which the directors wished to l i s t . There was, however, no expectation that each director would be involved i n a l l the a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d . Hence, the directors were instructed to rank order only the ac t i v i t i e s relevant to their work situation. Number of Tasks Involved i n the Work of the Directorship The director's work was examined i n terms of the number of tasks he performed routinely. Only eighteen respondents (27.3 per cent) indicated that they were regularly involved i n five or less tasks. Of these, three having a mean adoption score of 25.7 regularly performed three or less duties, while eight with an adoption score of 42.3 li s t e d four, and seven directors with a score of 42.0 reported five work a c t i v i t i e s . TABLE XV ANALYSIS OF AMOUNT OF SALARY FROM OTHER SCHOOL POSITIONS Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. No salary- 39 57.4 F = 15.688; d.f. = l/63; p = 0.000 Significant Less than $8000 7 35.3 2. No salary 39 57.4 F » 22.015; d.f. = 1/63; p « 0.000 Significant More than $8000 20 39.9 3. Less than $8000 7 35.3 F = 0.585; d.f. = 1/63; P = = 0.457 Not significant More than $8000 20 39.9 122 On the other hand, almost three-fourths of the directors (72.7 per cent) indicated that they regularly performed more than five tasks. Of these, eleven with an adoption score of 44.2 were involved i n six a c t i v i t i e s ; seventeen with a score of 52.1 li s t e d seven tasks; twelve with a score of 54.8 performed eight tasks; and the remaining eight directors with a mean adoption score of 67.9 were regularly engaged i n nine tasks (P «• 5-184; d.f. » 5/59; p *• 0.000). These data indicate that a relationship existed between the adoption score of the director and the number of tasks per-formed by him, and i n a l l but one category, the mean adoption score increased as the number of tasks regularly performed by the director increased (Table XI, p. 108). Further examination of the data (Table XVI, p. 123) clearly reveal that those directors who performed nine tasks or more i n their regular work had significantly higher adoption scores than those directors who performed fewer. Thus, the highest adoption scores were indicated by those directors who had the greatest job complexity i n terms of number and variety of task involvements. Ranking of the Work Tasks Directors were also asked to rank i n descending order the various a c t i v i t i e s involved i n their work according to the amount of time spent on the task. Thus a rank of 1 or 2 would indicate high time pr i o r i t y given to the task while an 8 or 9 score would indicate a relatively low time commit-ment. Of the ten a c t i v i t i e s ranked, nine indicated significant differences on the basis of the adoption scores and these nine a c t i v i t i e s are analyzed below. The f i r s t a c t i v i t i e s considered are those which were ranked i n f i r s t and second place by the directors, followed by those a c t i v i t i e s which were of less importance to those which received no consideration by a major proportion of the directors. TABLE XVI ANALYSIS OF NUMBER OF TASKS INVOLVED IN DIRECTORSHIP Categories Compared Number Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Three or fewer tasks 3 25.7 F - 3.118; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.074 Not significant Four tasks 8 42.3 2. Three or fewer tasks 3 25.7 F = 2.912; d.f. = 1/59; P = 0.084 Not significant Five tasks 7 42.0 3. Three or fewer tasks 3 25.7 F = 4.200; d.f. = 1/59; P = 0.038 Significant Six tasks 11 44.2 4. Three or fewer tasks 3 25.7 F = 9.273; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.003 Significant Seven tasks 17 52.1 5. Three or fewer tasks 3 25.7 F = 10.611; d.f. = 1/59; p = = 0.001 Significant Eight tasks 12 54.8 6. Three or fewer tasks 3 25.7 F = 20.202; d.f. = l/59; p * = 0.000 Significant Nine tasks 8 67.9 7. Four tasks 8 42.3 F = 0.001; d.f. = 1/59; P = 0.923 Not significant Five tasks 7 42.0 8. Four tasks 8 42.3 F = 0.090; d.f. = 1/59; P = 0.758 Not significant Six tasks 11 44.2 9. Four tasks 8 42.3 F = 2.753; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.093 Not significant Seven tasks 17 52.1 10. Four tasks 8 42.3 F = 3.950; d.f. = 1/59; P = 0.044 Significant Eight tasks 12 54.8 11. Four tasks 8 42.3 F = 13.651; d.f. = 1/59; P = " 0.000 Significant Nine tasks 8 67.9 TABLE XVI (continued) ANALYSIS OF NUMBER OF TASKS INVOLVED IN DIRECTORSHIP Categories Compared Number Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 12. Five tasks 7 42.0 F - 0.106; d.f. - 1/59; p = 0.741 Not significant Six tasks 11 44.2 13. Five tasks 7 42.0 F = 2.638; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.100 Not significant Seven tasks 17 52.1 14- Five tasks 7 42.0 F = 3-784; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.049 Significant Eight tasks 12 54.8 15. Five tasks 7 42.0 F = 12.990; d.f. = 1/59; p -= 0.000 Significant Nine tasks 8 67.9 16. Six tasks 11 44.2 F = 2.186; d.f. - 1/59; p - 0.135 Not significant Seven tasks 17 52.1 17. Six tasks 11 44.2 F = 3-384; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.062 Not significant Eight tasks 12 54.8 18. Six tasks 11 44.2 F = 13.513; d.f. = 1/59; P -= 0.000 Significant Nine tasks 8 67.9 19. Seven tasks 17 52.1 F = 0.270; d.f. = 1/59; P = 0.610 Not significant Eight tasks 12 54.8 20. Seven tasks 17 52.1 F = 7.020; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.008 Significant Nine tasks 8 67.9 21. Eight tasks 12 54.8 F = 4.243; d.f. - 1/59; p = 0.037 Significant Nine tasks 8 67.9 125 1. Work Not Related to Adult Education Work not related to adult education was the activity ranked most frequently in first place by a large proportion of the directors. Thirty directors (45.5 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 41.2 ranked work other than adult education as their most important activity. On the other hand, as many as twenty-three directors (34.8 per cent) having an adoption score of 55.8 indicated that no time at a l l was expended on other work. This number approximates the twenty-five directors who were officially employed on a full-time basis. Four directors (6.1 per cent) having an adoption score of 50.5 ranked this activity from second to fifth place while the remaining nine directors (13.6 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 62.1 ranked this from sixth to ninth place in importance (F « 7.034} d.f. • 3/62; p «• 0.000). Thus, a significant relationship existed between the ranking of time spent in work not related to adult education and adoption scores (Table XI, p. 109). Further analysis (Table XVII, p. 126) suggests that the lew adoption scores were associated with those directors who gave a high priority ranking and thus a high time commitment to work not related to adult education. Moreover, these findings are consistent with previous data indicating that significantly high adoption scores were associated with those directors being officially employed on a full-time basis in adult education and having no additional job responsibilities. 2. Routine Administration A second item ranked was the time spent on administration involving regular organizational routines and paper work. This task was ranked as first in order of importance by only five directors (7.6 per cent) who had a mean adoption score of 71.6. Nevertheless, a high proportion of the res-pondents (40.9 per cent) placed the activity in second position. The TABLE XVII ANALYSIS OF THE RANKING OF WORK NOT RELATED TO ADULT EDUCATION Categories Compared Number Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. No ranking assigned Ranked in 1st place 23 30 55.8 41.2 F = 13-289; d.f. = 1/62; p -= 0.000 Significant 2. No ranking assigned Ranked 2nd to 5th place 23 4 55.8 50.5 F = 0.463; d.f. = 1/62; p = 0.503 Not significant 3. No ranking assigned Ranked 6th to 9th place 23 9 55.8 62.1 F = 1.224; d.f. = 1/62; p - 0.268 Not significant 4. Ranked i n 1st place Ranked 2nd to 5th place 30 4 41.2 50.9 F = 1.453; d.f. = 1/62; p = 0.226 Not significant 5. Ranked i n 1st place Ranked 6th to 9th place 30 9 41.2 62.1 F = 14.465; d.f. = • 1/62; p -= 0.000 Significant 6. Ranked 2nd to 5th place Ranked 6th to 9th place 4 9 50.5 62.1 F = 1.790; d.f. = 1/62; p = 0.177 Not significant lo ON 127 adoption score of these twenty-seven directors was 47.8 compared with 47.9 for the nineteen directors (28.8 per cent) who rated the acti v i t y as thi r d i n importance. Another six directors (9.1 per cent) with an adoption score of 45.2 designated the acti v i t y i n fourth place, while the remaining nine respondents (13.6 per cent) having an adoption score of 50.1 ranked the a c t i v i t y i n f i f t h position as far as their work was concerned (F «= 2.784; d.f. «• 4/61; p « 0.025). Such data indicate a significant relationship between the ranking of time spent on routine administration and adoption (Table XI, p. 109). Further analysis (Table XVIII, p. 128) indicated there were s i g n i f i -cant differences among the scores of directors who ranked routine adminis-tration i n f i r s t place and those who ranked the acti v i t y second, third, fourth, or i n f i f t h place. Such data indicate that significantly high adoption scores were regis-tered by those directors who ranked routine administration i n f i r s t place as far as time spent on various work a c t i v i t i e s . Thus, the significantly high scoring director was one who placed a high p r i o r i t y on completing administrative tasks which involved regular routine and paper work. 3. Consultation and Counselling Consultation and counselling was one of the work ac t i v i t i e s which f e l l into the mid range i n rank. This ac t i v i t y was ranked i n f i r s t place i n order of time spent by only two directors (3.0 per cent) and i n second place by another four (6.1 per cent). These six respondents had a mean adoption score of 65.3; however, twenty-four directors (36.4 per cent) with an adoption score of 53.6 ranked the ac t i v i t y i n third place; thirteen (19.7 per cent) having an adoption score of 46.0 ranked i t fourth; and ten directors (15*2 per cent) with a score of 48.5 ranked this a c t i v i t y from f i f t h to ninth place. TABLE XVIII ANALYSIS OF.THE RANKING OF ROUTINE ADMINISTRATION Categories Compared Number Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Ranked i n 1st place 5 71.6 F = 9.931; d.f. = 1/61; p = p.002 Significant Ranked i n 2nd place 27 47.8 2. Ranked i n 1st place 5 71.6 F = 9-214; d.f. - i / 6 i ; p = 0.003 Significant Ranked in 3rd place 19 47.9 3. Ranked i n 1st place 5 71.6 F = 7.929; d.f. = 1/61; p = 0.004 Significant Ranked in 4th place 6 45.2 4. Ranked in 1st place 5 71.6 F = 6.176; d.f. = 1/61; p = 0.012 Significant Ranked in 5th place 9 50.1 5. Ranked i n 2nd place 27 47.8 F = 0.001; d.f. = 1/61; p = 0.927 Not significant Ranked i n 3rd place 19 47.9 6. Ranked i n 2nd place 27 47.8 F = 0.143; d.f. = 1/61; p = 0.705 Not significant Ranked in 4th place 6 45.2 7/ Ranked in 2nd place 27 47.8 F » 0.148; d.f. - 1/61; p = 0.701 Not significant Ranked i n 5th place 9 50.1 8. Ranked i n 3rd place 19 47-9 F « 0.147; d.f. - 1/61; p = 0.702 Not significant Ranked in 4th place 6 45.2 9. Ranked i n 3rd place 19 47.9 F = 0.119; d.f. = 1/61; p = 0.728 Not significant Ranked i n 5th place 9 50.1 10. Ranked in 4th place 6 45,2 F = 0.366; d.f. = 1/61; P = 0.553 Not significant Ranked i n 5th place 9 50.1 JO CO 129 Moreover, thirteen directors (19.7 per cent) having a mean score of 40.1 indicated that they did not spend any time involved in this activity (P «= 3.484; d.f. - 4/61; p « 0.007). These data reveal a significant re-lationship existed between the ranking of time spent in consultation/ counselling and adoption scores (Table XI, p. 109)• More detailed analysis (Table XIX, p. 130)) indicated there were significant differences among directors who assigned no ranking to time spent on consultation and counselling and those who ranked the activity in first or second place, or in third place. There were also significant differences among those directors who ranked consultation and counselling in first or second place and those who ranked the activity fourth, or those who ranked i t from fi f t h to ninth place. These data indicate that those directors who ranked consultation and counselling from first to third place in their order of time priorities had significantly higher adoption scores than the directors who devoted no time to the activity and thus assigned no ranking to i t . Moreover, those directors who assigned from first to second place in time priority to con-sultation and counselling had significantly higher scores than those directors who ranked the activity fourth, or in fi f t h to ninth position. 4. Facilitating and Service Work Directors also ranked the time spent on facilitating and expediting in the form of service work done for individuals in the community. There was an adoption score of 44.8 for the sixteen directors (24.2 per cent) who assigned no ranking to the activity; 60.7 for the eleven (16.7 per cent) ranking the activity from second to fourth place; 40.3 for the eleven ranking the activity in f i f t h place; 52.8 for the eleven ranking the activity in sixth place; 54.2 for the thirteen (19.7 per cent) ranking the activity in TABLE XIX ANALYSIS OF THE RANKING OF CONSULTATION AND COUNSELLING Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. No ranking assigned Ranked 1st to 2nd place 13 6 40.1 65.3 F = 11.319; d.f - 1/61; P " = 0.000 Significant 2. No ranking assigned Ranked i n 3rd place 13 24 40.1 53.6 F = 6.649; d.f. = 1/61; P " 0.010 Significant 3. No ranking assigned Ranked i n 4th place 13 13 40.1 46.0 F = 0.986; d.f. = 1/61; P = 0.322 Not significant 4. No ranking assigned Ranked 5th to 9th place 13 10 40.1 48.5 F = 1.733; d.f. = 1/61; P = 0.185 Not significant 5. Ranked 1st to 2nd place Ranked i n 3rd place 6 24 65.3 53.6 F = 2.864; d.f. - i / 6 i ; P - 0.086 Not significant 6. Ranked 1st to 2nd place Ranked i n 4th place 6 13 65.3 46.0 F = 6.632; d.f. = 1/61; P - 0.010 Significant 7. Ranked 1st to 2nd place Ranked 5th to 9th place 6 10 65.3 48.5 F = 4.593; d.f. = 1/61; P = 0.030 Significant 8. Ranked i n 3rd place Ranked i n 4th place 24 13 53.6 46.0 F = 2.096; d.f. = 1/61; P = 0.143 Not significant 9. Ranked i n 3rd place Ranked 5th to 9th place 24 10 53.6 48.5 F = 0.788; d.f. = 1/61; P = 0.378 Not significant 10. Ranked in 4th place Ranked 5th to 9th place 13 10 46.0 48.5 F = 0.153; d.f. = 1/61; P = 0.697 Not significant o 131 seventh place; and 42.3 for the four directors (6.1 per cent) ranking the activ i t y from eighth to ninth place (F •» 2.804; d.f. = 5/60; p - 0.016). Such data indicate that a significant difference existed among the directors i n the ranking of time spent on f a c i l i t a t i n g and expediting service a c t i v i t i e s (Table XI, p.109). Further analysis (Table XX, p.132) indicated that directors ranked time spent on f a c i l i t a t i n g and expediting a c t i v i t i e s for individuals i n second to fourth place had significantly higher adoption scores than directors who assigned no ranking to the activity, those who ranked i t i n f i f t h place, or those who ranked the acti v i t y i n eighth to ninth position. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between the adoption scores of those directors who ranked f a c i l i t a t i n g and expediting from second to fourth place and those who ranked the ac t i v i t y i n sixth or seventh place. 5. Organizing and Supervising Special Events The organization and supervision of special events was another work acti v i t y f a l l i n g mainly into the mid range of the ranking categories. There was an adoption score of 58.7 for the six directors (9.1 per cent) ranking the a c t i v i t y from second to third place; 55-1 for the thirteen (19.7 per cent) ranking the activity fourth; 54.1 for the fifteen (22.7 per cent) ranking i t f i f t h ; and 50.6 for the eleven directors (16.7 per cent) placing the a c t i v i t y i n sixth to ninth position. The remaining twenty-one directors (31.8 per cent) who had an adoption score of 40.2 did not regard the activity as a part of their work and therefore did not assign a rank to i t (F • 3.246; d.f. = 4/61; p = 0.011). The data indicate that there was a significant difference among the directors i n the ranking of time spent on special events and adoption scores (Table XI, p.109). TABLE XX ANALYSIS OF THE RANKING OF FACILITATING AND SERVICE WORK Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. No ranking assigned Ranked 2nd to 4th place 16 11 44-8 60.7 F = 7.049; d.f. = 1/60; p = 0.008 Significant 2. No ranking assigned Ranked i n 5th place 16 11 44.8 40.3 F = 0.574; d.f. 1/60; p = 0.455 Not significant 3. No ranking assigned Ranked i n 6th place 16 11 44.8 52.8 F - 1.784; d.f. ~ 1/60; p = 0.178 Not significant 4. No ranking assigned Ranked i n 7th place 16 13 44.8 54.2 F = 2.672; d.f. a s 1/60; p = 0.098 Not significant 5. No ranking assigned Ranked 8th to 9th place 11 4 44.8 42.3 F = 0.089; d.f. ss 1/60; p = 0.758 Not significant 6. Ranked 2nd to 4th place Ranked i n 5th place 11 11 60.7 40.3 F = 7.049; d.f. ss 1/60; p = 0.008 Significant 7. Ranked 2nd to 4th place Ranked i n 6th place 11 11 60.7 52.8 F = 1.469; d.f. ss 1/60; p = 0.223 Not significant 8. Ranked 2nd to 4th place Ranked i n 7th place 11 13 60.7 54.2 F = 1.099; d.f. ss 1/60; p = 0.295 Not significant 9. Ranked 2nd to 4th place Ranked 8th to 9th place 11 4 60.7 42.3 F = 4.276; d.f. sc 1/60; p = 0.036 Significant 10. Ranked i n 5th place Ranked i n 6th place 11 11 40.3 52.8 F = 3.696; d.f. ss 1/60; p = 0.052 Not significant 11. Ranked i n 5th place Ranked i n 7th place 11 13 40.3 54.2 F = 4-902; d.f. ss 1/60; p = 0.025 Significant 12. Ranked i n 5th place Ranked 8th to 9th place 11 4 40.3 42.3 F = 0.049; d.f. ss 1/60; p = 0.801 Not significant TABLE XX (continued) ANALYSIS OF THE RANKING OF FACILITATING AND SERVICE WORK Categories Compared 13. Ranked i n 6th place Ranked i n 7th place 14. Ranked i n 6th place Ranked 8th to 9th place Numbers 11 13 15. Ranked i n 7th place Ranked 8th to 9th place 11 4 13 4 Mean Adoption Score 52.8 54.2 52.8 42.3 54.2 42.3 Test 0.045; d.f. = 1/60; p = 0.814 1.399; d.f. - 1/60; p = 0.235 1.850; d.f. = 1/60; p - 0.170 Significance Not significant Not significant Not significant TABLE XXI ANALYSIS OF THE RANKING FOR ORGANIZATION AND SUPERVISION OF SPECIAL EVENTS Categories Compared ' Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. No ranking assigned 21 40.2 F = 6.763; d.f. = 1/61; p = 0.009 Significant Ranked 2nd to 3rd place 6 58.7 2. No ranking assigned 21 40.2 F - 7.545; d.f. - V61; p = 0.006 Significant Ranked i n 4th place 13 55.1 3. No ranking assigned 21 40.2 F - 7.210; d.f. = 1/61; p = 0.007 Significant Ranked i n 5th place 15 54-1 4. No ranking assigned 21 40.2 F - 3-330; d.f. - 1/61; p = 0.064 Not significant Ranked 6th to 9th place 11 50.6 5. Ranked 2nd to 3rd place 6 58.7 F - 0.226; d.f. - 1/61; p = 0.640 Not significant Ranked i n 4th place 13 55.1 6. Ranked 2nd to 3rd place 6 58.7 F = 0.376; d.f. - 1/61J p » 0.548 Not significant Ranked i n 5th place 15 54.1 7. Ranked 2nd to 3rd place 6 58.7 F » 1.068; d.f. = 1/61; p = 0.302 Not significant Ranked 6th to 9th place 11 50.6 8. Ranked i n 4th place 13 55.1 F - 0.026; d.f. - 1/61; p = 0.846 Not significant Ranked i n 5th place 15 54.1 9. Ranked i n 4th place 13 55.1 F - 0.501; d.f. - 1/61; p = 0.486 Not significant Ranked 6th to 9th place 11 50.6 10. Ranked i n 5th place 15 54.1 F = 0.331; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.572 Not significant Ranked 6th to 9th place 11 50.9 •p-135 More detailed analysis (Table XXI, p.134) revealed that those directors who assigned no ranking to time spent on the organization and supervision of special events had significantly lower adoption scores than a l l the other directors except those who ranked the activity from sixth to ninth place. 6. Professional Development Professional development was a work activity falling into the mid range of the ranking categories. There was an adoption score of 31.7 for the seven directors (10.6 per cent) who gave the activity no ranking; 40.0 for the five (7.6 per cent) ranking the activity in third or fourth place; 60.1 for the eleven (16.7 per cent) ranking the activity fifth; 45.1 for the twenty-one (31.8 per cent) ranking the activity sixth; 54.9 for the nine (13.6 per cent) ranking the activity seventh; 55.6 for the nine ranking the activity seventh; 55.6 for the nine ranking the activity eighth; and 64.3 for the four directors (6.1 per cent) ranking the activity in ninth place (F - 4.914; d.f. = 6/59; p • 0.000). The data reveal that a significant difference existed among directors in ranking of time spent on professional development (Table XI, p. 110). Further analysis (Table XXII, p. 136) indicated that low adoption scores are significantly associated with those directors who assigned no ranking to time spent on professional development. Moreover such evidence supports previous findings of this study associating high adoption with the personal characteristics of the director and his in-service training, his reading of professional adult education journals, and participation in his professional association. TABLE XXII ANALYSIS OF THE RANKING OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. No ranking assigned 7 31.7 F - 1.022; d.f. - 1/59; P -0.313 Not significant Ranked 3rd to 4th place 5 40.0 2. No ranking assigned 7 31.7 F - 17-581; d.f. » • 1/59; P - 0.000 Significant Ranked i n 5th place 11 60.1 3. No ranking assigned 7 31.7 F - 4.798; d.f. - 1/59; P = 0.027 Significant Ranked i n 6th place 21 45.1 4. No ranking assigned 7 31.7 F = 10.793; d.f. -= 1/59; P = = 0.001 Significant Ranked i n 7th place 9 54.9 5. . No ranking assigned 7 31.7 F = 11.530; d.f. » = 1/59; P = = 0.000 Significant Ranked i n 8th place 9 55.6 6. No ranking assigned 7 31.7 F = 13-753; d.f. = = 1/59; P • = 0.000 Significant Ranked i n 9th place 4 64.3 7. Ranked 3rd to 4th place 5 40.0 F = 7.082; d.f. - 1/59; P = 0.008 Significant Ranked i n 5th place 11 60.1 8. Ranked 3rd to 4th place 5 40.0 F = 0.535; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.471 Not significant Ranked i n 6th place 21 45.1 9. Ranked 3rd to 4th place 5 40.0 F = 3.637; d.f. = 1/59; P = 0.053 Not significant Ranked i n 7th place 9 54.9 10. Ranked 3rd to 4th place 5 40.0 F = 4.027; d.f. = 1/59; P = 0.042 Significant Ranked i n 8th place 9 55.6 11. Ranked 3rd to 4th place 5 40.0 F = 6.670; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.009 Significant Ranked i n 9th place 4 64.3 12. Ranked i n 5th place 11 60.1 F = 8.285; d.f. = 1/59; P = 0.004 Significant Ranked i n 6th place 21 45.1 TABLE XXII (continued) ANALYSIS OF THE RANKING OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 13. Ranked in 5th place 11 60.1 F = 0.495; d.f. 1/59; p = 0.489 Not significant Ranked i n 7th place 9 54.9 14. Ranked i n 5th place 11 60.1 F = 0.684; d.f. = 1/59; P = 0.413 Not significant Ranked i n 8th place 9 55-6 15. Ranked i n 5th place 11 60.1 F = 0.259; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.617 Not significant Ranked i h 9th place 4 64.3 1 6 . Ranked i n 6th place 21 45.1 F = 3.084; d.f. 1/59; p = 0.075 Not significant Ranked i n 7th place 9 54.9 17. Ranked i n 6th place 21 45.1 F = 3-593; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.055 Not significant Ranked i n 8th place 9 55.6 18. Ranked i n 6th place 21 45.1 F = 6.292; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.011 Significant Ranked in 9th place 4 64.3 1 9 . Ranked i n 7th place 9 54.9 F = 0.014; d.f. 1/59; P = 0.873 Not significant Ranked i n 8th place 9 55-6 20. Ranked i n 7th place 9 54.9 F = 1.239; d.f. = 1/59; p = 0.265 Not significant Ranked i n 9th place 4 64.3 21. Ranked in 8th place 9 55.6 F = 1.041; d.f. 1/59; p = 0.308 Not significant Ranked i n 9th place 4 64.3 -v3 138 7. Teaching and Instructing As many as forty-five directors (68.2 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 48.8 indicated that they spent no time on formal teaching and instructing. On the other hand, ten directors (15*2 per cent) having an adoption score of 42.5 ranked this activity from second to fi f t h place in order of time spent. The remaining eleven directors (16.7 per cent) with a score of 60.3 indicated that they ranked the activity from sixth to ninth place (P - 3.622; d.f. « 2/63; p » 0.026). These data indicate a significant relationship existed between ranking of time spent on formal teaching/instructing and adoption scores (Table XI, p.110). Directors who ranked the activity of teaching and instructing from sixth to ninth position in time priority had significantly higher adoption scores than those directors assigning no ranking or placing the activity in another category (Table XXIII, p.139). 8. Information Dissemination The dissemination of the latest research findings was considered an unimportant activity by almost two-thirds of the directors (63.6 per cent). The forty-two who indicated that they spent no time on this activity had a mean adoption score of 47.4. Similarly, the thirteen directors (19.7 per cent) ranking the activity from third to fif t h place in importance had only a slightly higher adoption score of 47.6. By contrast, the remaining eleven directors (16.7 per cent) who ranked information dissemination from sixth to ninth place had an adoption score of 61.2 (F *= 3.497; d.f. •» 2/63; p » 0.029. These data reveal a significant difference existed among the directors be-tween the ranking of time spent on information dissemination and adoption (Table XI, p.110). TABLE XXIII ANALYSIS OF THE RANKING- OF TEACHING AND INSTRUCTING Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption^ Score Test Significance 1. No ranking assigned 45 48.8 F - 1.297} d.f. - 1/63; p - 0.253 Not significant Ranked 2nd to 5th place 10 42.5 2. No ranking assigned 45 48.8 F - 4.751} d.f. - 1/63} p - 0.028 Significant Ranked 6th to 9th place 11 60.3 3. Ranked 2nd to 5th place 10 42.5 "P - 6.704; d.f. - 1/63} p «= 0.009 Significant Ranked 6th to 9th place 11 60.3 TABLE XXIV ANALYSIS OF THE RANKING OF INFORMATION DISSEMINATION Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. No ranking assigned 42 47.4 F = 0.002; d.f. - 1/63; p - 0.915 Not significant Ranked 3rd to 5th place 13 47.6 2. No ranking assigned 42 47.4 F <= 6.703} d.f. » 1/63} p » 0.009 Significant Ranked 6th to 9th place 11 61.2 3. Ranked 3rd to 5th place 13 47.6 F - 4.427} d.f. - 1/63; p = 0.033 Significant Ranked 6th to 9th place 11 61.2 • vO 140 Those directors who ranked Information dissemination from sixth to ninth place had significantly higher adoption scores than directors who assigned no ranking or placed the act i v i t y i n third to f i f t h position (Table XXIV, p. 139). 9'.. Organization of Groups The organization of groups was rated as an unimportant activity by sl i g h t l y more than one-half of the directors (53.0 per cent). The mean adoption score of these thirty-five respondents who indicated that they spent no time on the a c t i v i t y was 42.6. By contrast, seven directors (10.6 per cent) having an adoption score of 49.0 ranked the act i v i t y from second to fourth place, while another sixteen (24.2 per cent) having a score of 64.5 placed the activity i n f i f t h and sixth position. The remaining eight directors (12.1 per cent) with an adoption score of 50.9 ranked the activity from seventh to ninth i n importance. Such data reveal a significant relationship between ranking of time spent on the organization of groups and adoption (P = 8.752; d.f. - 3/62; p - 0.000". Table XI, p. 110). Further analysis (Table XXV, p.141) indicated that directors who ranked time spent on the organization of groups from fourth to sixth place had significantly higher adoption scores than those directors who assigned no ranking or some other position. Size of the Adult Education Operation A number of the situational factors to be examined with regard to adop-tion pertained to the size of the adult education operation in which the director was involved. The size of the operation was considered i n terms of number of adult classes operated during 1969-70, the number of adult students enrolled and the number of instructional personnel supervised. TABLE XXV ANALYSIS OP THE RANKING OF ORGANIZATION OP GROUPS Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. No ranking assigned 35 42.6 F -'1.121; d.f. - 1/62; p = 0.289 Not significant Ranked 2nd to 3rd place 7 49.0 2. No ranking assigned 35 42.6 P - 26.183; d.f. - 1/62; p - 0.000 Significant Ranked 4th to 6th place 16 64.5 3. No ranking assigned 35 42.6 F - 2.131; d.f. - 1/62; p = 0.140 Not significant Ranked 7th to 9th place 8 50.9 4. Ranked 2nd to 3rd place 7 49.0 F - 5.956; d.f. - 1/62; p = 0.014 Significant Ranked 4th to 6th place 16 64.5 5. Ranked 2nd to 3rd place 7 49.0 F - 0.067; d.f. - 1/62; p 0.785 Not significant Ranked 7th to 9th place 8 50.9 6. Ranked 4th to 6th place 16 64.5 F - 5.040; d.f. * 1/62; p as 0.023 Significant Ranked 7th to 9th place 8 50.9 142 Number of Adult Classes The number of adult classes under the administration of the directors during 1969-70 ranged from 1 to 697, with a mean of 92 classes, and a median in the 25 to 99 category. As many as twenty-one directors indicated they had less than 25 adult classes operating during this period, with a preponderance of the directors (69.7 per cent) having less than 100 classes, and only twenty directors (30.3 per cent) with a larger number. The mean adoption score for the forty-six directors with less than 100 classes was 44.6 compared with 61.5 for those respondents operating more (t - 4.578* d.f. = 64; p<.01). Moreover, the data reveal that a significant relation-ship existed between the number of classes operated during 1969-70 and adoption scores. The significantly high adoption scores were achieved by those directors who supervised operations involving more than one hundred adult classes (Table XI, p.110). Number of Adult Students Another aspect of the operational size which was related to adoption pertained to the number of adult students enrolled during the 1969-70 term. The total number of adults enrolled under various directors ranged from 30 to 11,716 students, with a mean 1746 students and a median in the 500 to 999 category. Twenty-eight of the directors (42.4 per cent) were in charge of programs which enrolled less than 500 adult students, and another seven of the respondents (10.6 per cent) had between 500 and 999 adult students in their programs. The mean adoption score for these thirty-five directors was 40.0 compared with 57.0 for the nine directors (13.6 per cent) having 1000 to 1499 adult students. Six directors (9.1 per cent) with an adoption score of 66.2 had adult student enrollments between 1500 and 1999, while another six respondents having a mean score of 50.0 enrolled between 2000 143 to 3499 adults. The remaining ten directors (15.2 per cent) had large adult student enrollments of 3500 or more and an adoption score of 67.1 (F «• 14.361; d.f. «= 4/61; p • 0.000). These data indicate a significant relationship existed between number of adult students enrolled and adoption (Table XI, p. 110). Further analysis of the data (Table XXVI, p. 144) revealed that the lowest adoption scores were recorded by those directors who enrolled less than 1000 students in their adult programs. Moreover, their score was significantly lower than for a l l other categories except with the scores of directors who enrolled 2000 to 3499 students. The scores of this latter category Just f e l l short of the required .05 level of significance. With this exception then, the significantly low adoption scores were registered by directors enrolling less than 1000 students in their programs during the 1969-70 term. Number of Instructional Personnel The number of instructional personnel supervised by directors during 1969-70 ranged from 1 to 436, with a mean of 67, and a median in the 25 to 49 category. Slightly more than one-third of the respondents (37.9 per cent) had twenty-four or fewer instructional personnel under their directorship. On a cumulative basis, thirty-seven respondents (56.1 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 41.1, had forty-nine or fewer instructors under their direction. The remaining twenty-nine directors (43.9 per cent) having an adoption score of 60.7 supervised fif t y or more instructors (t « 6.042; d.f. « 64; p^.Ol). The data reveal a significant relationship between the total number of instructional personnel supervised and adoption scores. Moreover, significantly high adoption scores were achieved by those directors who supervised fif t y or more instructors (Table XI, p. 111). TABLE XXVI ANALYSIS OF THE NUMBER OF ADULT STUDENTS Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Less than 1000 adults 35 40.0 F - 14.088; d.f. - l / 6 l ; p - 0.000 Significant 1000 to 1499 adults 9 57.0 2. Less than 1000 adults 35 40.0 F - 23.907? d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.000 Significant 1500 to 1999 adults 6 66.2 3 . Less than 1000 adults 35 40.0 F - 3.479; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.059 Not significant 2000 to 3499 adults 6 50.0 4. Less than 1000 adults 35 40.0 F » 38.942; d.f. - l / 6 l ; p - -0.000 Significant 3500 or more adults 10 67.1 5. 1000 to 1499 adults 9 57.0 F - 2.067; d.f. - l / 6 l ; p - 0.146 Not significant 1500 to 1999 adults 6 66.2 6. 1000 to 1499 adults 9 57.0 F - 1.205; d.f. - l / 6 l ; p « 0.271 Not significant 2000 to 3499 adults 6 50.0 7. 1000 to 1499 adults 9 57.0 F - 3.301? d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.066 Not significant 3500 or more adults 10 67.1 8. 1500 to 1999 adults 6 66.2 F m 5.357; d.f. » 1/61; p » 0.020 Significant 2000 to 3499 adults 6 .50.0 9. 1500 to 1999 adults 6 66.2 F - 0.022; d.f. - l / 6 l ; p » 0.854 Not significant 3500 or more adults 10 67.1 10. 2000 to 3499 adults 6 50.0 F « 7.491; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.006 Significant 3500 or more adults 10 67.1 145 Financial Aspects of the Operation Another feature relating to the size of an operation pertains to i t s financial aspects. These are considered i n terms of amount of adult educa-tion revenues, amount of adult education expenditures, amount of profit or loss on adult education activities,: per pupil expenditure for adult education, and percentage of the school d i s t r i c t budget allocated to adult education. Each of these financial aspects i s investigated to determine i t s relationship to the adoption scores of the director supervising the operation. Amount of Adult Education Revenues The amount of revenue collected for adult education a c t i v i t i e s during 1969-70 ranged from $286.00 to $634,343.00 with a mean of $37,050.40 and the median i n the $5000 to $14,999 category. As many as one-third of the directors (33.3 per cent) were employed by school d i s t r i c t s which collected less than $5000 i n revenues. There was an adoption score of 36.0 for these twenty-two directors; 52.6 for the eleven directors (16.7 per cent) collecting from $5000 to $14,999; 48.4 for the eleven directors collecting $15,000 to $24,999; 58.3 for the eight directors (12.1 per cent) collecting $25,000 to $34,999; and 65.2 for the fourteen directors (21.2 per cent) collecting $35,000 or more i n adult education revenues (F « 13.680; d.f. •* 4/61; p «s -0.000). These data indicate a significant relationship between the adoption scores of directors and the amount of revenues collected for their adult education programs (Table XI, p.111). More detailed analysis (Table XXVII, p.146) revealed that significantly low adoption scores were indicated by those directors who supervised operations which collected less than $5000 i n revenues during the 1969-70 term. Thus directors i n the smaller operations i n terms of revenues had lower adoption scores than the directors operating programs with a larger revenue base. TABLE XXVII ANALYSIS OF AMOUNT OF ADULT EDUCATION REVENUES Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Less than $5000 $5000 to $14,999 22 11 36.0 52.6 F « 13.547,- d.f. « 1/61; p » 0.000 Significant 2. Less than $5000 $15,000 to $24,999 22 11 36.0 48.4 F » 7-482} d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.006 Significant 3. Less than $5000 $25,000 to $34,999 22 8 36.0 58.3 F - 19-386} d.f. » 1/61} P - 0.000 Significant 4. Less than $5000 $35,000 or more 22 14 36.0 65.2 F - 48.739} d.f. - 1/61; p » -0.000 Significant 5. $5000 to $14,999 $15,000 to $24,999 11 11 52.6 48.4 F - 0.670; d.f. - 1/61} P * 0.418 Not significant 6. $5000 to $14,999 $25,000 to $34,999 11 8 52.6 58.3 F » 0.974} d.f. « 1/61} P - 0.325 Not significant 7. $5000 tot $34,999 $35,000 or more 11 14 52.6 65.2 F - 6.505} d.f. » l/6lj p m 0.010 Significant 8. $15,000 to $24,999 $25,000 to $34,999 11 8 48.4 58.3 F - 3.022} d.f. » 1/61} p - 0.078 Not siginficant 9. $15,000 to $24,999 $35,000 or more 11 14 48.4 65.2 F - 11.675} d.f. - 1/61} P " 0.000 Significant 10. $25,000 to $34,999 $35,000 or more 8 14 58.3 65.2 F - 1.648} d.f. - 3/61; p - 0.196 Not significant 147 Amount of Adult Education Expenditures The amount of expenditure for adult education a c t i v i t i e s during 1969-70 ranged from $286.00 to $634,343.00,with a mean expenditure of $41,097.30 and the median i n the $5000 to $14,999 category. Slightly more than one-third of the directors (34-9 per cent) were employed by school d i s t r i c t s having expenditures of less than $5000 on adult education during 1969-70. There was an adoption score of 37.2 for the twenty-three directors i n operations expending less than $5000; 48.3 for the eleven (16.7 per cent) spending from $5000 to $14,999; 52.6 for the seven (19.6 per cent) spending from $15,000 to $24,999; 48.7 for the six (9.1 per cent) spending from $25,000 to $34,999; and 65.0 for the remaining nineteen directors (28.8 per cent) making expenditures of $35,000 or more during 1969-70 (F = 13.428; d.f. = 4/61; p = -0.000). Such data reveal a significant relationship be-tween the adoption scores of the directors and the amount of expenditures for their adult education programs (Table XI, p. 111). Further analysis (Table XXVIII, p.148) indicated directors i n the smaller operations i n terms of expenditures had significantly low adoption scores, whereas the directors with the highest expenditures had the highest adoption scores. Amount of Profit or Loss The amount of loss on the operation of adult education a c t i v i t i e s during 1969-70 ranged from $25-00 to $74,237-00, with a mean loss of $4,046.90 and a median loss i n the category of less than $2500. Almost one-third of the directors (30.3 per cent) were employed i n school d i s t r i c t s which indicated a loss of $2500 or more on their adult programs. There was an adoption score of 60.7 for these twenty directors who indicated they had operated their a c t i v i t i e s at a loss of $2500 or more; 45-5 for another twenty operating at a loss of less than $2500; and 30.4 for the five directors (7-6 per cent) reporting neither a profit or loss on their operation. By contrast, twenty-one directors (31-8 per cent) worked i n school d i s t r i c t s which showed profits on their adult education a c t i v i t i e s ranging from $112 TABLE XXVIII ANALYSIS OP AMOUNT OF ADULT EDUCATION EXPENDITURES Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Less than $5000 23 37.2 P - 6.018; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.014 Significant $5000 to $14,999 11 48.3 2. Less than $5000 23 37.2 P - 8.371; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.004 Significant $15,000 to $24,999 7 52.6 3. Less than $5000 23 37.2 P - 4.127; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.039 Significant $25,000 to $34,999 6 48.7 4. Less than $5000 23 37.2 P - 53-140? d.f. - 1/61; p - -0.000 Significant $35,000 or more 19 65.0 5. $5000 to $14,999 11 48.3 P m 0.523; d.f. - 1/61; P •» 0.476 Not significant $15,000 to $24,000 7 52.6 6. $5000 to $14,999 11 48.3 F - 0.004; d.f. « 1/61; p - 0.906 Not significant $25,000 to $34,999 6 48.7 7. $5000 to $14,999 11 48.3 P - 12.898; d.f. - l/6lj P - 0.000 Significant $35,000 or more 19 65.O 8. $15,000 to $24,999 7 52.6 P « 0.326; d.f. - 1/61; P - 0.575 Not significant $25,000 to $34,999 6 48.7 9. $15,000 to $24,999 7 52.6 P - 5.228; d.f. « l/6lj P « 0.021 Significant $35,000 or more 19 65.O 10. $25,000 to $34,999 6 48.7 P - 8.049; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.004 Significant $35,000 or more 19 65.O 149 to $15,000. The fourteen directors (21.2 per cent) working in districts with a profit of less than $2500 had a mean adoption score of 46.2, while the remaining seven directors (10.6 per cent) having an adoption score of 48.7 indicated that they were employed in districts showing a margin of more than $2500 profit on their adult education operation (P « 5.587; d.f. » 4/61; p = 0.000). Such data indicate a significant relationship existed between the amount of profit or loss on adult education activities and adoption scores (Table XI, p. 111). Additional analysis (Table XXIX, p.150) indicated that significantly low adoption scores were associated with directors who supervised operations which showed neither a profit or loss on their adult education activities during the 1969-70 term. The high adoption scores Were associated with directors who operated at a loss of $2500 or more, but these scores were not significantly different from those of directors indicating a profit of $2500 or more from adult education activities. Thus, the high adopting directors supervised operations which registered either large deficits or large surpluses. On the other hand, low adopting directors managed the break-even operations which might be some indication that their organizations did not have the financial resources at hand to enable or encourage risk-taking on the part of the director, and thus he assumed a prudential role. Per Pupil Expenditure for Adult Education A per pupil expenditure for adults was calculated for each district. This amount was obtained by dividing the total district expenditure for adults by the total number of adults enrolled in classes during the 1969-70 session. The per pupil expenditure ranged from $6.15 to $54.14, with a mean expenditure of $19.27 per pupil and the median in the $15.00 to $19.99 category. More than one-third of the directors (37.9 per cent) were TABLE XXIX ANALYSIS OF AMOUNT OF PROFIT/LOSS ON ADULT EDUCATION Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Loss of $2500 or more Loss of less than $2500 20 20 60.7 45.5 F - 9.694; d.f. » 1/61; 0.002 Significant 2. Loss of $2500 or more Neither profit or loss 20 5 60.7 30.4 F - 17.596; d.f. - l/6lj ; p - 0.000 Significant 3. Loss of $2500 or more Profit of less than $2500 20 14 60.7 46.2 F - 8.250; d.f. - 1/61; p = 0.004 Significant 4. Loss of $2500 or more Profit of $2500 or more 20 7 -60.7 48.7 P - 3.551} d.f. - 1/61; p =» 0.056 Not significant 5. Loss of less than $2500 Neither profit or loss 20 5 45.5 30.4 P = 4.954; d.f. -1/61; P *» 0.024 Significant 6. Loss of less than $2500 Profit of less than $2500 20 14 45.5 46.2 P - 0.002; d.f. - 1/61; P as 0.915 Rot significant 7. Loss of less than $2500 Profit of more than $2500 20 7 45.5 48.7 P - 0.127; d.f. - 1/61; P •» 0.719 Not significant 8. Neither profit or loss Profit of less than $2500 5 14 30.4 46.2 P - 4.429; d.f. - 1/61; P = 0.033 Significant 9. Neither profit or loss Profit of $2500 or more 5 7 30.4 48.7 P - 4.703; d.f. - 1/61; P « 0.028 Significant 10. Profit of less than $2500 Profit of more than $2500 14 7 46.2 48.7 P « 0.140; d.f. - 1/61; P n» 0.708 Not significant o 151 employed by districts which spent between $5.00 to $14.99 per adult student, and these twenty-five directors had a mean adoption score of 45.6. Another twenty-seven respondents (40.9 per cent) with an adoption score of 50.1 were employed by districts spending between $15.00 to $24.99 per adult student, while another seven directors (10.6 per cent) having an adoption score of 45.9, worked in districts where the expenditure was $25-00 to $29.99 per pupil. The remaining seven directors (10.6 per cent) who had an adoption score of 66.9 were employed by districts spending $30.00 or more on each adult student. (P •> 3.628} d.f. «* 3/62} p » 0.012). These data indicate a significant relationship between per pupil expenditure for adult programs and adoption scores (Table XI, p.111). Further analysis (Table XXX, p.152) revealed that significantly high adoption scores were indicated by those directors reporting a per pupil expenditure of $30.00 or more on adult education activities during the 1969-70 term. Thus, i t was the high adopting directors who were prepared to make the highest per pupil expenditure on their adult education programs. The fact that such high expenditures could be made i s a likely indication of the directors* access to ample financial resources. Percentage of School District Budget A calculation was made of the percentage of the school district operating budget allocated to adult education activities during 1969-70, by dividing the total expenditures on adult education by the total school district operating budget. The expenditure ranged from .05 per cent to 3.29 per cent, with a mean expenditure of .7 per cent, and the median in the less than .5 per cent category. Exactly one-half of the directors (50.0' per cent) with a mean adoption score of 40.6 were employed by districts allocating less than .5 per cent of their operating budgets to adult education, while an additional fifteen respondents (22.7 per cent) having an adoption TABLE XXX ANALYSIS OF PER PUPIL EXPENDITURE FOR ADULT EDUCATION Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. $5COOto $14:991" , $15.00 to $24.99 25 27 45.6 50.1 F -1.110; d.f. « 1/62; p - 0.292 Not significant 2. $5.00 to $14.99 $25.00 to $29-99 25 7 45.6 45.9 F - 0.001; d.f. - 1/62; p - 0.920 Not significant 3. $5.00 to $14-99 $30.00 or more 25 7 45.6 66.9 F - 10.388; d.f. - 1/62; p - 0.001 Significant 4. $15.00 to $24.99 $25.00 to $29.99 27 7 50.1 45.9 F - 0.423J d.f. - 1/62; p - 0.523 Not significant 5. $15.00 to $24.99 $30.00 or more 27 7 50.1 66.9 P - 6.553; d.f. - 1/62; p - 0.010 Significant 6. $25.00 to $29.99 $30.00 or more 7 7 45.9 66.9 F - 6.489; d.f. - 1/62; p - 0.010 Significant (—1 153 score of 57.5 work for school d i s t r i c t s expending between .5 to .9 per cent of their budget for this purpose. For the fourteen directors (21.2 per cent) working in d i s t r i c t s allocating from 1 to 1.4 per cent of their budget on adult education, the adoption score was 59.4. The remaining four directors (6.1 per cent) with an adoption score of 62.0 were employed by d i s t r i c t s expending from 1.5 to 3.3 per cent of their t o t a l operating budget to adult education a c t i v i t i e s (F « 9-757; d.f. « 3/62; p » 0.000). These data reveal a significant relationship between the percentage of the school operating budget allocated to adult education programs and adoption scores (Table XI, p. 111). Additional analysis (Table XXXI, p.154) indicated that significantly low adoption scores were indicated by those directors who were employed i n d i s t r i c t s which allocated less than .5 of 1 per cent of their budgets to adult education a c t i v i t i e s . Minimal budget allocations very probably reflect the low priority which a school d i s t r i c t assigns to adult education a c t i v i t i e s . Moreover, i n the situation of limited financial resources, the director's position i n i t s e l f i s l i k e l y to be a marginal one. Taking these factors into account, such a director i s l i k e l y to perform a pruden-t i a l rather than a risk-taking function. Administrative Features Another set of situational characteristics pertain to certain adminis-trative features of the director's work including the designation of his immediate superior, Involvement i n the budget process, and provisions for administrative and secretarial assistants. Designation of Immediate Superior An important aspect of the director's work situation pertains to the structure of the administrative hierarchy i n which he works. The directors were asked to designate their immediate superior i n the organization of TABLE XXXI ANALYSIS OF PERCENTAGE OF BUDGET ALLOCATED TO ADULT EDUCATION Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test 1. Less than .5 per cent 33 40.6 F « 15.556; d.f. » 1/62; p » 0.000 .5 to .9 per cent 15 57.5 2. Less than .5 per cent 33 40.6 F - 18.195; d.f. « 1/62; p » 0.000 1.0 to 1.4 per cent 14 59.4 3. Less than .5 per cent 33 40.6 F - 8.596; d.f. « 1/62; p « 0.003 1.5 per cent or more 4 62.0 4. .5 to .9 per cent 15 57.5 F » 0.127; d.f. = 1/62; p - 0.720 1.0 to 1.4 per cent 14 59.4 5. .5 to .9 per cent 15 57.5 F « 0.332; d.f. - 1/62; p - 0.512 1.5 per cent or more 4 62.0 6. 1.0 to 1.4 per cent 14 59.4 F « 0.114; d.f. » 1/62; p - 0.732 1.5 per cent or more 4 62.0 Significance Significant Significant Significant Not significant Rot significant Not significant VJ1 155 their school district. Although the administration structure was officially defined by departmental regulations of the provincial government which specified that superintendents should be regarded as the immediate superiors of the directors,''' there were at least twenty-three directors (36.4 per cent) who worked under some other arrangement. Of these, nine (13.6 per cent), with a mean adoption score of 36.9 regarded the secretary-treasurer as their chief executive officer. Another fourteen directors (21.2 per cent), with a mean adoption score of 40.7 operated under an arrangement which involved responsibility to some type of committee or board rather than to a single o f f i c i a l . This arrangement occurred most commonly when the director was also involved in recreational programs. The preponderance of the directors (65.2 per cent) identified the district superintendent as their immediate superior and these forty-three directors achieved an adoption score of 55.3 (P - 9.385; d.f. - 2/63; p « 0.000 - - Table XI, p. 112). Further analysis (Table XXXII, p?r156) indicated that significant dif-ferences existed among the adoption scores of directors who designated the District Superintendent of Education as their immediate superior and those who named the Secretary-Treasurer of the School Board, or with those directors accountable to some other arrangement. There was, however, no significant difference between the adoption scores of directors who named the secretary-treasurer as their immediate superior and those under some other arrangement. Thus, significantly high adoption scores were indicated by those directors with the district superintendent as their immediate superior. This designation of a professional educator as a superior might well be an 'Adult Education (Sections 163 (j) and I65) Rules of the Council of Public Instruction for the Government of Public Schools in the Province of British Columbia, 1969, pp. 18-19. TABLE XXXII ANALYSIS OF DESIGNATION OF IMMEDIATE SUPERIOR Categories Compared District Superintendent 43 Secretary-Treasurer 9 District Superintendent 43 Committee arrangement 14 Secretary-Treasurer 9 Committee arrangement 14 Numbers Mean Adoption Score 55.3 36.9 55.3 40.7 36.9 40.7 Test F - 11.961; d.f. » 1/63; p « 0.000 F - 10.668; d.f. -1/63; p - 0.000 F « 0.378; d.f. - 1/63; p - 0.546 Significance Significant Significant Not significant 157 indication of a greater degree of professional emphasis i n the adult education operation than would be possible under alternative arrangements. At least for consultation on educational matters, there i s a greater l i k e l i -hood that the d i s t r i c t superintendent would be able to provide a higher le v e l of professional expertise than either the secretary-treasurer or other non-professionals. Involvement i n the Budget Process The director's degree of administrative responsibility i n the organiasisBtional: system might well be revealed by his participation i n the preparation and presentation of an annual budget to the school board. The directors were questioned as to whether they were directly involved i n presenting a proposed budget to the school board or to some committee of i t . Slightly more than one-third of the directors (37.9 per cent) followed such a procedure, and these respondents had a mean adoption score of 56.0 points. On the other hand, forty-one directors (62.1 per cent), with an adoption score of 45*6, made no such presentation to the Board (t =• 2.537; d.f. a 63; .01<p<.05). These data indicate a significant relationship between the director's presentation of a budget to the school board and adoption scores. Moreover, i t was those directors preparing and presenting an annual budget who had the highest adoption scores (Table XI, p.112). Thus, adoption i s associated with the director's degree of administrative responsibility as represented by his involvement i n the budgeting process. Provision for Assistance to the Director Another aspect of the administrative structure was concerned with whether or not the director was provided with some form of administrative assistance i n his work. The help provided varied from full-time adminis-trative assistants, part-time assistants, and secretarial personnel or combinations thereof. 158 a. Pull-time Administrative Assistants Only seven directors (10.6 per cent) reported having the assistance of full-time administrative and supervisory personnel during the 1969-70 term. On the other hand, fifty-nine respondents (89-4 per cent) reported no such assistance. The mean adoption score for those directors with f u l l -time assistants was 66.9 compared with 47*7 for those lacking this type of assistance (t = 3*529; d.f. = 64; p^.01). These data reveal a significant relationship between the provision of full-time administrative supervisory personnel to assist the director and adoption scores. Further, i t was the directors with full-time administrative assistants who had the high adop-tion scores (Table XI, p. 112). b. Part-time Administrative Assistants A somewhat larger number of directors had part-time administrative assistance than had full-time help. Almost one-third of the respondents (31.8 per cent) reported having part-time assistants, whereas the remaining forty-fives directors (68.2 per cent) had none. The twenty-one directors with part-time assistants had a mean adoption score of 56.0 compared with 46.8 for those directors without such assistance (t •» 2.145; d.f. «• 64; .01<p<.05). These data indicate a significant relationship between the provision of part-time administrative or supervisory personnel to assist the director and his adoption score. It was the directors with part-time assis-tants, who had the higher adoption scores (Table XI, p. 112). c. Secretarial Assistants Considerably more than one-half of the directors (59.1 per cent) were provided with secretarial assistants. Frequently, however, this assistance was minimal with thirteen directors (19.7 per cent) having less than half-time secretarial help, while another 16 (24.2 per cent) reported half to 159 full-time secretarial assistance. The remaining ten directors (15.1 per cent) with such help indicated they had the services of more than one f u l l -time secretary at their disposal. The mean adoption score of the twenty-seven directors with no secretarial help was 40.6 compared with a mean score of 56.1 for the thirty-nine directors having some assistance (t » 4.162; d.f. •» 64; p^.01). These data indicate a significant relationship between the provision of secretarial help to the director and his adoption score. Those directors with secretarial assistants had the high adoption scores (Table XI, p. 112). With respect to the provision for assistance to the director, the data reveal that significantly high adoption scores were indicated by directors working within an administrative system which provided such assisting per-sonnel. The assistance might be obtained from full-time administrative assistants, part-time administrative assistants, secretaries, or a l l of these combined. II. SITUATIONAL FACTORS NOT RELATED TO ADOPTION Three of the thirty-two situational factors selected for study failed to indicate any significant relationship to adoption (Table XXXIII, p. 160). Nevertheless, these three factors are presented b r i e f l y for consideration. Provision of Funds for Adult Education Training The directors were questioned as to whether they were provided with funds by the school d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s for participation i n adult education training. Eighteen of the directors (27.3 per cent) with an adoption score of 55.2 reported they frequently received funds for such training, while another thirty-eight (57.6 per cent) having an adoption score of 49.6 reported occasionally receiving such support. The remaining ten directors (15.2 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 40.2 indicated that they never TABLE XXXIII Situational Factor A.v NON SIGNIFICANT SITUATIONAL FACTORS No. of Directors Involved Mean Adoption Score 1. Provision of funds for Provided frequently 18(27.3$) 55.2 adult education Provided occasionally 38(57.6$) 49.6 training Not provided 10(15.1$) 40.2 2. Administrative leave Provided frequently 17(25.8$) 55-9 for adult education Provided occasionally 30(45.4$) 50.8 training Not provided 9(13.6$) 43.0 Not applicable 10(15.2$) 42.0 3. Ranking of time spent Fir s t place 29(43.9$) 53.5 on supervisory 2nd place 27(40.9$) 48.4 administration 3rd to 6th place 10(15.2$) 41.2 F = Test 2.878; d.f. - 2/63; p>.05 F - 2.225; d.f. - 3/62; p> .05 F = 2.170; d.f. « 2/63; p>.05 Structural Feature 1. Education m i l l rate of school d i s t r i c t B. NON SIGNIFICANT STRUCTURAL FEATURES No. of Directors Involved Mean Adoption Score Less than 29 mills 30 to 34 mills 35 to 39 mills 40 mills or more 16(24.2$) 30(45.4$) 17(25.8$) 3( 4.6$) 47.4 53.4 48.7 31.7 Test 1.945; d.f. - 3/62; p>.05 ON o 161 received any such financial assistance. Clearly, those directors who had frequently or occasionally received funds had the high mean adoption scores but these were not significantly higher than the scores of the directors who never received such support (Table XXXIII, p. 160). Granting of Administrative Leave Seventeen directors (25.7 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 55.9 reported they were frequently granted administrative leave to attend adult education training, thirty (45.5 per cent) having an adoption score of 50.8 said they had leave occasionally; nine directors (13.6 per cent) indicated they were never granted such leave and the remaining ten (15.2 per cent) said the situation did not apply to them. The adoption scores for these two latter categories was 43.0 and 42.0 respectively. Obviously, those directors who had been granted administrative leave frequently or occasionally had higher mean adoption scores, but the differences were not significantly different from those directors who had never received leave, or for whom the situation did not apply (Table XXXIII, p. 160). Time Spent on Supervisory Administration Administration involving the organization of classes and supervision of programs was one of the ten work activities ranked by the directors. This type of administration was ranked in first place according to time spent by twenty-nine directors (43.9 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 53.5, while another twenty-seven (40.9 per cent) with an adoption score of 48.4 indicated they ranked such administration second in importance. The remaining nine directors (13.6 per cent) who ranked the activity from third to sixth in place of importance had an adoption score of 41.2. Although the highest adoption scores were obtained by those directors who ranked super-visory administration in first place, these scores were not significantly 162 different from those of directors ranking the a c t i v i t y i n the other cate-gories (Table XXXIII, p.l6o). It seems then that this type of supervisory ac t i v i t y i s a very central part of the directors* work and there i s l i t t l e difference i f any among them i n relation to adoption on this criterion. III. SIGNIFICANT STRUCTURAL FEATURES RELATED TO ADOPTION Another set of systems characteristics were those described as struc-t u r a l features and included items which are not directly a part of the director's work situation i n adult education. These structural features include: number of students i n the school d i s t r i c t , per pupil expenditure i n the school system, d i s t r i c t assessment base, and the distance of the school d i s t r i c t from Vancouver. In effect, they are elements i n the organiza-tional system over which the director has no real direct influence or control. Nevertheless, because these features are a part of the larger educational system within which the director works, they might reasonably be considered to exert indirect influence on adoption behavior. Number of Public School Students The number of elementary and secondary students enrolled i n the various d i s t r i c t s employing directors during the 1969-70 term ranged from 458 to 31,004, with a mean of 6176 students and the median i n the 3000 to 5999 category. More than one-third of the directors (40.9 per cent) worked i n school d i s t r i c t s where the t o t a l enrollment of both elementary and secondary schools was less than 300 students. These twenty-seven directors had a mean adoption score of 40.6, while eighteen respondents (27.3 per cent) employed i n d i s t r i c t s with 3000 to 5999 school students achieved an adoption score of 49.9. The nine directors (13.6 per cent) working i n di s t r i c t s with 6000 to 8999 students had an adoption score of 54.8 compared with 66.3 for the four TABLE;XXXIV SIGNIFICANT STRUCTURAL FEATURES Structural Feature No. of Directors Involved Mean Adoption Score Test No. of public school Less than 3000 27(40.9*) 40.6 F - 7.477; d.f. - 4/61; p<.01 students 3000 to 5999 18(27.3*) 49.9 6000 to 8999 9(13.6*) 54.8 9000 to 11,999 4( 6.1*) 66.3 12,000 or more 8(12.1*) 66.0 Per pupil expenditure Less than $700 51(77.3*) 52.6 F - 5.818; d.f. - 2/63; p4.01 i n the school system $700 to $799 8(12.1*) 47.1 $800 or more 7(10.6*) 31.9 School d i s t r i c t Less than $25 million 18(27.3*) 36.6 F «= 8.849; d.f. - 4/61; p< .01 assessment base $25M to $49,999,999 13(19.7*) 54.0 $50M to $99,999,999 20(30.3*) 48.8 $100M to $149,999,999 8(12.1*) 58.8 $15Q000,000 or more 7(10.6*) 68.0 Distance of the Less than 50 miles 17(25.7*) 61.5 F • 3.760; d.f. - 4/61; p< .01 school d i s t r i c t from 50 to 149 miles 10(15.2*) 49.0 Vancouver 150 to 299 miles 10(15.2*) 45.6 300 to 499 miles 14(21.2*) 46.2 500 miles or more 15(22.7*) 42.8 M ON directors (6.1 per cent) employed by d i s t r i c t s with 9000 to 11,999 school students. The remaining eight directors (12.1 per cent) having an adoption score of 66.0 worked i n the larger d i s t r i c t s with more than 12,000 school students (P = 7.477; d.f. » 4/61; p - 0.000). Such data indicate a significant relationship between the adoption score of the director and the t o t a l number of public school students enrolled i n his school d i s t r i c t (Table XXXIV, p.163). Further analysis (Table XXXV, p.165) indicated that significantly low adoption scores were indicated by those directors who were employed i n di s t r i c t s which enrolled fewer than 3000 public school students. Such low school enrollments would be indicative of a smaller sized educational unit. Hence, these findings are consistent with other data showing adoption to be related to the size of the operation in terms of number of public school students enrolled. In several studies i n education, higher pupil enrollment has frequently emerged as a factor significantly associated with adoption 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and innovativeness. a J. E. Allen, "The Adoption of Innovations and the Personality of the Superintendent of Schools," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1967). <c,' ^Breivogel, pj>. c i t . *°J. W. Kohl, "Adoption Stages and Perceptions of the Characteristics of Educational Innovations," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, 1966). "^Leslie, op_. c i t . 1 2J.V.R. Miller, "A Study of Factors Related to the Adoption of Innovations by Counselor Educators and Counselor Education Departments," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1970). ^Spencer, op., c i t . TABLE XXXV ANALYSIS OF NUMBER OF PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Less than 3000 students 27 40.6 F - 4.953; d.f. = 1/61; p - 0.025 Significant 3000 to 5999 students 18 49.9 2. Less than 3000 students 27 40.6 F - 7.234; d.f. - 1/61; P - 0.007 Significant 6000 to 8999 students 9 54.8 3. Less than 3000 students 27 40.6 F « 12.026; d.f. - l/6l; p « 0.000 Significant 9000 to 11,999 students 4 66.3 4. Less than 3000 students 27 40.6 F » 20.890; d.f. « l/6l; p » 0.000 Significant 12,000 or more students 8 66.0 5. 3000 to 5999 students 18 49.9 F m 0.769; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.385 Not significant 6000 to 8999 students 9 54.8 6. 3000 to 5999 students 18 49.9 F = 4.563; d. f. « l/6 l ; p - 0.031 Significant 9000 to 11,999 students 4 66.3 7. 3000 to 5999 students 18 49.9 F - 7.486; d.f. - 1/61; p » 0.006 Significant 12,000 or more students 8 66.0 8. 6000 to 8999-students 9 54.8- F - 1.874; d.f. » i/6i; p « 0.167 Not significant 9000 to 11,999 students 4 66.3 -9. 6000 to 8999 students 9 54.8 F - 2.742; d.f. « l/6lj p - 0.094 Not significant 12,000 or more students 8 66.0 10. 9000 to 11,999 students 4 66.3 F - 0.001; d.f. » 1/61; p « 0.926 Not significant 12,000 or more students 8 66.0 ON vn 166 Per Pupil Expenditure In the School District The per pupil expenditure ranged from $571 to $1024 with a mean expen-diture of $672.27, and the median i n the $600 to $699 category. Eight of the school d i s t r i c t s (12.1 per cent) had a school operating expenditure of less than $600 per pupil, while forty-three (65.2 per cent) indicated such an expenditure of $600 to $699 per pupil. The mean adoption score for the directors i n these 51 d i s t r i c t s was 52.6 compared with 47.1 for directors i n the eight d i s t r i c t s (12.1 per cent) spending $700 to $799 per pupil. The seven remaining directors (10.6 per cent) who had a mean adoption score of 31.9 worked i n d i s t r i c t s which spent from $800 to $1099 per school student (F «* 5.828; d.f. «• 2/63; p•«• 0.003). These data reveal a s i g n i f i -cant relationship between per pupil expenditure i n the school system and the adoption scores of the directors (Table XXXIV, p. 163). Additional analysis (Table XXXVI, p.167) indicated that significantly lower adoption scores were associated with those directors who were employed i n d i s t r i c t s with a per pupil expenditure of $800 or more i n the school system. This finding i s also consistent with the previous data associating low adoption with low enrollments of public school students because i t i s the smaller school d i s t r i c t s of British Columbia which show high per pupil costs. Previous research i n education, however, has frequently associated the high adaptability of a school d i s t r i c t with larger expenditures per TABLE XXXVI ANALYSIS OP PER PUPIL EXPENDITURE IN THE SCHOOL SYSTEM Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Less than $700 51 52.6 F = 0.888; d.f. - 1/63; p - 0.348 Not significant $700 to $799 8 47.1 2. Less than $700 51 52.6 P - 11.391; d.f. » 1/63; P - 0.001 Significant $800 or more 7 31.9 3. $700 to $799 8 47.1 F - 3.748; d.f. - 1/63; p - 0.049 Significant $800 or more 7 31.9 0> 168 H, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 pupil, but these studies applied to the United States where there are different arrangements for financing education than occur i n the more centralized system of B r i t i s h Columbia. In order to provide a more uniform standard of education on a province-wide basis, larger provincial grants are made available to poorer and smaller d i s t r i c t s i n enrollment. These need to spend more on a per pupil basis to furnish a level of education somewhat comparable to that of the wealthier, more populated d i s t r i c t s . School District Assessment Base The school d i s t r i c t assessment base was another of the structural features considered to determine the relationship of wealth to adoption. J. 0. Hanson, "A Descriptive Study of Basic Data and the Educational Innovations Found i n 22 Selected Small Schools," (Unpublished Ed. D. dissertation, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, 1966). W. Hughes, "The Organizational Climate Found i n Central Adminis-trative Offices i n Selected Highly Innovative and Non-Innovative School Districts i n the State of Ohio," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1965). * ^ J . C. LaPlant, "School District Innovativeness and Expectations for the School Board Role," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1966). 1 7R. L. Marcum, "Organizational Climate and Adoption of Educational Innovations," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Utah State University, 1968). ^Nicholson, oj). c i t . *9j. L. Roosa, "A Study of Organizational Climate, Leader Behavior, and Their Relation to the Rate of Adoption i n Selected School Di s t r i c t s , " (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, State University of New York, Albany, 1968). Spencer, og. c i t . 169 The tax assessment base of the various d i s t r i c t s employing directors during 1969-1970 ranged from $6,079,691 to $388,348,198. Eighteen directors (27-3 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 36.6 worked i n school d i s t r i c t s with assessment bases of less than $25,000,000. Thirteen directors (19.7 per cent) having an adoption score of 54.0 were employed by d i s t r i c t s having assessment bases of $25,000,000 to $49,999,999 while another twenty respon-dents (30.3 per cent) with an adoption score of 48.8 held positions i n di s -t r i c t s with assessment bases from $50,000,000 to $99,999,999. On the other hand, eight directors (12.1 per cent) having an adoption score of 58.8 worked i n d i s t r i c t s with assessment bases of $100,000,000 to $149,000,000. The remaining seven respondents (9.1 per cent) with an adoption score of 68.0 were employed by d i s t r i c t s having an assessment base of $150,000,000 or more (P • 8.849; d.f. •» 4/61; p » 0.000). These data reveal that there was a significant relationship between the adoption scores of the directors and the school d i s t r i c t s * wealth as represented by an assessment base (Table XXXIV, p. 163). Further analysis (Table XXXVII, p.170) revealed that significantly low adoption scores were reported by those directors i n d i s t r i c t s with an assess-ment base of less than $25,000,000. Thus, i f assessment base can be con-sidered as a measure of a d i s t r i c t * s potential wealth, then this finding associating adoption and assessment base i s consistent with previous research 21 22 23 in education linking high adoption with wealthier units or operations. * ' 2 1R. L. Mertz, "The Relationship of Selected Variables to the Adoption and Implementation of Recommendations of Educational Surveys of Public School Corporations," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1965). 2 2Nicholson, op_. c i t . ^Spencer, OJD. c i t . TABLE XXXVII ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL DISTRICT ASSESSMENT BASE Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Less than $25 million 18 36.6 F « 32.771; d.f. « l/6 l ; p - 0.000 Significant $25 M. to $49,999,999 33 54.0 2. Less than $25 million 38 36.6 F « 7.897; d.f. •- 3/61; P - 0.005 Significant $50 M. to $99,999,999 20 48.8 3. Less than $25 million 38 36.6 F - 15.169; d.f. 1/61; p - 0.000 Significant $100 M. to $149,999,999 8 58.8 4. Less than $25 million 38 36.6 F - 27.707; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.000 Significant $150 M. or more 7 68.0 5. $25 M. to $49,999,999 33 54.0 F - 1.185; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.276 Not significant $50 M. to $99,999,999 20 48.8 6. $25 M. to $49,999,999 33 54.0 F » 0.621; d.f. » l/6 l ; p - 0.436 Not significant $100 M. to $149,999,999 8 58.8 7. $25 M. to $49,999,999 33 54.0 F - 4.958; d.f. » 3/61; P - 0.025 Significant $150 M. or more 7 68.0 8. $50 M. to $99,999,999 20 48.8 F » 3.345? d.f. « 1/61; p - 0.072 Not significant $100 M. to $149,999,999 8 58.8 9. $50 M. to $99,999,999 20 48.8 F - 10.628; d.f. - 3/6l; P - 0.001 Significant $150 M. or more 7 68.0 10. $100 M. to $149,999,999 8 58.8 F - 1.776; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.179 Not significant $150 M. or more 7 68.0 3 171 Distance from Vancouver The distance of the school d i s t r i c t from Vancouver was considered be-cause Vancouver i s the chief metropolitan centre of the province, and has the majority of post-secondary educational institutions such as colleges and universities. Distances from Vancouver ranged from 7 to 1032 miles, with slightly more than one-fourth of the directors (25.8 per cent) l i v i n g within less than 50 miles of Vancouver. These seventeen directors had a mean adoption score of 61.5 compared with 49.0 for ten directors (15.2 per cent) l i v i n g within 50 to 149 miles of Vancouver. Another ten respondents having an adoption score of 45.6 resided within 150 to 299 miles from the urban centre, and fourteen directors (21.2 per cent) with an adoption score of 46.2 were from 300 to 499 miles from Vancouver. The remaining fifteen directors (22.7 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 42.8 lived 500 miles or more from the large metropolitan centre (P « 3-760; d.f. •» 4/61; p = 0.005). Such data reveal a significant relationship between the distance the director lived from Vancouver and his adoption score (Table XXXIV, p. 163). More detailed analysis (Table XXXVIII, p. 172) indicated that s i g n i f i -cantly high adoption scores were indicated by those directors who were employed i n d i s t r i c t s which were less than 50 miles from Vancouver. The bulk of Br i t i s h Columbia's population and thus the largest school d i s t r i c t s as far as population i s concerned f a l l within this distance. The rur a l -urban character of communities has been considered with regard to educa-tional change, with adoption more l i k e l y to occur i n predominantly urban 24 communities than rural ones. 'Sfertz, pja. cit. TABLE XXXVIII ANALYSIS OF DISTANCE FROM VANCOUVER Categories Compared Numbers Mean Adoption Score Test Significance 1. Less than 50 miles 17 61.5 F - 4.335; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.035 Significant 50 miles to 149 miles 10 49.0 2. Less than 50 miles 17 61.5 F « 7.007; d.f. •» 1/61; p «» 0.007 Significant 150 miles to 299 miles 10 45.6 3. Less than 50 miles 17 61.5 F - 7.825; d.f. » 1/61; p » 0.005 Significant 300 miles to 499 miles 14 46.2 4. Less than 50 miles 17 61.5 F - 12.260; d.f. « l/6lj ! p •» 0.001 Significant 500 miles or more 15 42.8 5. 50 miles to 149 miles 10 49.0 F - 0.254; d.f. - 1/61; p •» 0.621 Not significant 150 miles to 299 miles 10 45.6 6. 50 miles to 149 miles 10 49.0 F - 0.188; d.f. - l / 6 l ; p « 0.668 Not significant 300 miles to 499 miles 14 46.2 7. 50 miles to 149 miles 10 49.0 F - 1.011; d.f. - 1/61; p - 0.316 Not significant 500 miles or more 15 42.8 8. 150 miles to 299 miles 10 45.6 F - 0.012; d.f. « 1/61; p » 0.878 Not significant 300 miles to 499 miles 14 46.2 9. 150 miles to 299 miles 10 45.6 F « 0.206; d.f. « 1/61; p « 0.654 Not significant 500 miles or more 15 42.8 10. 300 miles to 499 miles 14 46.2 F - 0.386; d.f. - l / 6 l ; p - 0.542 Not significant 500 miles or more 15 42.8 I—1 173 IV. STRUCTURAL FEATURES NOT RELATED TO ADOPTION One of the five structural features of the school d i s t r i c t failed to indicate any significant relationship to adoption (Table XXXIII, p.160). Education M i l l Rate for the School District The education m i l l rate i s a tax levy whereby local d i s t r i c t s raise their share of monies for the establishment and operation of educational institutions. The m i l l rate for those d i s t r i c t s employing directors during 1969-70 ranged from 15.1 to 41.9 mills. Sixteen of the directors (24.2 per cent) with a mean adoption score of 47.4 were employed by school d i s t r i c t s with an education m i l l rate of 29 mills or less. On the other hand, almost one-half of the directors (45.5 per cent) worked i n d i s t r i c t s having rates from 30 to 34 mills, and these t h i r t y respondents had an adoption score of 53.4. Another seventeen directors (25.7 per cent) who had an adoption score of 48.6 indicated that they were employed by d i s t r i c t s levying from 35 to 39 mills for school purposes. The remaining three directors (4.6 per cent) with an adoption score of 31.7, worked i n d i s t r i c t s with an educational levy of 40 mills or more (F «= 1.945; d.f. = 3/62; p> .05). These data reveal no significant relationship between the adoption scores of the directors and the education m i l l rate of their school d i s t r i c t s (Table XXXIII, p. 160). Hence, this factor i s not considered further. V. SUMMARY OF SYSTEMS FACTORS Significant Situational Factors An investigation of the work situation elements of the directors i n -dicated that high scoring adopters were those who were appointed to their position from outside their own school d i s t r i c t . They were employed on a 174 full-time basis of forty or more hours a week, had no additional job responsibilities, earned a salary of $8000 or more annually from the directorship, received no salary from other positions i n the school system, and received encouragement by school o f f i c i a l s to participate i n in-service training i n adult education. High scoring adopters were also those who had the greatest job com-plexity i n terms of number and variety of task involvements, indicating that they performed nine tasks or more i n their regular work. In ranking the tasks according to time commitment, high adopting directors ranked adminis-tration involving regular routine and paper work i n f i r s t place. Consul-tation and counselling were ranked from f i r s t to third position i n time com-mitment by high adopters, while f a c i l i t a t i n g and expediting i n the form of service work done for individuals was ranked from second to fourth place. The organization of groups was ranked from fourth to sixth position by high scoring directors, while both teaching and the dissemination of research were placed from sixth to ninth position by the high scorers. By contrast, the low adopting directors were those who indicated they spent no time on professional development, they did not involve themselves i n the organization or supervision of special events, and assigned the high time p r i o r i t y of f i r s t to f i f t h place to work not related to adult education. As far as the size of the operation was concerned, high adoption scores were associated with those directors who supervised large operations of more than one hundred classes and more than f i f t y instructors, whereas low scores were associated with directors who enrolled less .than one thousand students i n their adult education a c t i v i t i e s . In terms of financial operations, high adopting directors supervised adult education a c t i v i t i e s involving a per pupil expenditure of $30 or more 175 and a total expenditure of $35,000 or more during the 1969-70 term. As far as profit or loss was concerned, high adoption was associated with either a loss of $2500 or more; or a profit of $2500 or more but not a break-even position. On the other hand, low adopting directors supervised operations collecting less than $5000 in revenues during the 1969-70 term. They made expenditures of less than $5000 on adult education activities and hence reported neither a profit or loss on their operations. Moreover, the low adopters were employed in districts which allocated less than .5 of 1 per cent of their budgets to adult education activities. With regard to certain administrative features, the high adopters among directors designated the district superintendent as their immediate superior in the administrative hierarchy, indicated their involvement in the preparation and presentation of an annual budget to the school board, and reported that they were provided with administrative assistants and secretarial help. Significant Structural Features As far as structural features of the school district were concerned, the following profile emerges with regard to adoption. Low adopting directors were employed in the smaller and poorer school districts which enrolled fewer than 3000 public school students, had a district assessment base of less than $25,000,000, and made expenditures of $800 or more per pupil. On the other hand, high adopting directors were employed in those school districts which are within a f i f t y mile radius of Vancouver and contain the bulk of provincial population. 176 CHAPTER V: MAJOR COMPONENTS PERTAINING TO THE DIRECTOR'S ADOPTION SCORE A number of the studies concerning innovativeness among farmers have been concerned with analyzing the percentage of variance of innovativeness attributable to each independent variable selected for investigation.^ The multiple regression approach is the statistical procedure used to unravel the complex interrelationships among the independent variables and to indicate the contribution of each toward the variance in a dependent variable. This chapter wil l analyze the percentage of variance in adoption scores of directors attributable to each independent variable in i t i a l l y found significant by the study. The study was first concerned with a total of seventy-one indepen-dent variables as they related to an adoption score. These were comprised of thirty-four personal and communications characteristics of the director along with thirty-seven situational and structural features of his work situation. I. REMOVAL OF THE NON-SIGNIFICANT FACTORS As a first step in analyzing and explaining the variance among the adoption scores of the directors, the non-significant factors were deter-mined by R (coefficient of determination) analysis and eliminated from xEverett M. Rogers and F. Floyd Shoemaker, Communication of Innova- tions; A Cross Cultural Approach. New York: The Free Press, 1971, pp. 192-193. 1 7 7 further consideration. Of the thirty-four personal and communications characteristics originally selected for study, twenty-three were found to be non-significant as far as adoption was concerned and were thus eliminated from further analysis. Of the thirty-seven situational and structural features, only four were eliminated as non-significant components. Thus, of the seventy-one variables originally posited for analysis, twenty-seven were identified as non-significant by this i n i t i a l screening and dropped from further consideration (Appendix I I ) . In addition, there were nine significant situational variables involving the rank ordering of tasks which the director was regularly involved i n , and one communications variable not included for further investigation. These did not lend themselves readily to further analysis because the particular items were not answered consis-tently by a l l the respondents, thus causing discrepancies i n the resulting data (See Appendix III). Consequently more than one-half ( 3 7 out of 7 1 ) of the original variables were excluded at this i n i t i a l stage from further consideration i n explaining the variance among adoption scores of the directors. II. CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF SIGNIFICANT FACTORS As a second step i n the analysis, the remaining thirty-four s i g n i f i -cant variables were again organized as personal, situational, and structural variables and further classified into quantitative or qualitative categories according to the nature of the data (Table XXXIX(a) and XXXIX(b), pp. 178 and 1 7 9 ) . In the quantitative category, the five personal variables were com-prised of the number of years employed as a director, the number of years employed i n the present position of director, a work satisfaction score, a professional participation score, and a journal reading score. The fifteen situational quantitative variables consisted of the amount of time TABLE XXXIX(a) SIGNIFICANT FACTORS RELATED TO ADOPTION SCORES CATEGORY OF VARIABLE Type of Variable Quantitative Qualitative Total Personal 5 5 10 Situational 15 5 20 Structural 4 0 4 Totals 24 10 34 DESCRIPTION OF VARIABLES IN THE QUANTITATIVE CATEGORIES Personal Quantitative 1. Number of Years Employed as a Director 2. Number of Years Employed i n Present Position as Director 3. Work Satisfaction Score 4. Professional Participation score 5. Journal Reading Score Situational Quantitative 1. Amount of Time O f f i c i a l l y Employed as Director 2. Amount of Salary from Directorship 3. Amount of salary from Other Positions i n the School System 4. Number of Tasks Regularly Engaged i n as Director 5. Number of Adult Classes 6. Number of Adult Education Students 7. Number of Instructors Supervised 8. Number of Full-time Administrative Assistants 9. Number of Part-tima Administrative Assistants 10. Number of Secretarial Personnel 11. Amount of Adult Education Revenues 12. Amount of Adult Education Expenditures 13. Amount of Profit or Loss on Operations 14. Amount of Per Pupil Expenditure on Adult Education 15. Percentage of School Budget Allocated to Adult Education Structural Quantitative 1. Number of Public School Students 2. Amount of Per Pupil Expenditure i n School System 3. School District Assessment Base 4. The Distance of School District from Vancouver Area TABLE XXXIX(b) SIGNIFICANT FACTORS RELATED TO ADOPTION SCORES CATEGORY OF VARIABLE Type of Variable Quantitative Qualitative Total Personal 5 5 10 Situational 15 5 20 Structural 4 0 4 Totals 24 10 34 J3ESCRIPTI0N OF VARIABLES IN THE QUALITATIVE CATEGORIES Personal Qualitative 1. Training i n Adult Education After Appointment 2. Participation i n Professional Training i n Adult Education During Previous Year 3. Rating of Position as a Profession 4' Career Commitment to Adult Education 5. Perception of Receiving a Full-time Salary From the Position of Director Situational Qualitative 1. Origin of the Director 1s Appointment 2. Encouragement to Participate i n Adult Education Activities by School District O f f i c i a l s 3. Additional Job Responsibilities 4* Involvement i n Presentation of a Budget 5. Designation of Director's Immediate Superior Structural Qualitative None 180 o f f i c i a l l y employed as director, the amount of salary from the directorship, the amount of salary from other positions i n the school system, the number of tasks regularly engaged i n , the number of adult classes, the number of adult education students, the number of instructors supervised, the number of full-time administrative assistants, the number of part-time adminis-trative assistants, the number of secretarial personnel, the amount of adult education revenues, the amount of adult education expenditures, the amount of profit or loss, the amount of per pupil expenditure on adult education,and the percentage of the t o t a l school budget devoted t o adult education. The four structural quantitative variables were number of public school students, amount of per pupil expenditure, the school d i s t r i c t assessment base, and the distance of the school d i s t r i c t from Vancouver. In the qualitative category, the five personal variables were com-prised of training i n adult education after being appointed director, participation i n professional training i n adult education during the previous year, rating of the position as a profession, career commitment to adult education, and perception of receiving a full-time salary from the position of director. The five situational qualitative variables were the origin of the director's appointment, encouragement to participate i n adult education a c t i v i t i e s by school d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s , additional job responsibilities to the directorship, involvement i n the presentation of a budget, and designa-tion of the director's immediate superior. There were no variables i d e n t i -fied as structural qualitative components examined i n this study. For computer analysis, the qualitative data was entered by a binary coding system. Thus, i f two categories of qualitative data were to be included the coding for the two categories would be designated 01 and 10; i f three categories, the coding would be 001, 010, and 100; i f four cate-gories, 0001, 0010, 0100, 1000 and so on. The quantitative data was 181 entered directly for analysis without the necessity of such coding. Stepwise regression analysis was then performed on the adoption scores for each of the five c e l l s into which the variables had been cate-gorized. As a result of this third step, the following factors were identified as significant contributors to the variance i n adoption scores. Significant Quantitative Factors Personal Quantitative When the five personal quantitative variables were analyzed, three were significant contributors to the variance i n adoption scores. The professional participation score of the director accounted for almost half of the variance (4-6.4 P® r cent) while the work satisfaction score accounted for another eight per cent (8.0 per cent); and the number of years the director had been employed i n his present position contributed almost two and one half per cent (2.5 per cent) to the variance (Table XL, p. 182). When personal quantitative variables are analyzed as such, i t does not seem surprising that the director 1s professional participation score accounts for as much as 46.4 per cent of the variance i n adoption scores. Previous research has already indicated a relationship between professional 3, 4 participation and adoption. Among directors of Adult Basic Education programs, the professionalism of the director was the single most important correlate i n "explaining" 3j. M. Bohlen, "The Adoption and Diffusion of Ideas i n Agriculture" i n Our Changing Rural Society. J. H. Copp (ed.), Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1964, pp. 279-280. ^B. W. Du Gas, "An Analysis of Certain Factors i n the Diffusion of Innovations i n Nursing Practice i n Public General Hospitals of the Province of Bri t i s h Columbia. (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, The University of British Columbia, 1969). .SUMMARY TABLE XL REGRESSION ANALYSIS OP PERSONAL QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES Number of Independent Step Variable Multiple Increase F Value Variables Number Entered Removed R RSQ In RSQ Enter or Remove Significance Included 1 P Score 7 0.6814 0.4643 0.4643 55-4803 d.f. -» 1/64j p^.01 1 2 W Score 4 0.7378 0.5443 0.0800 11.0590 d.f. - 2/63; p<..01 2 3 Y r S o P o s 3 0.7544 0.5691 0.0248 3.5691 d.f. - 3/62; .01<p<.05 3 4 J Score 8 0.7609 0.5789 0.0098 1.4212 d.f. - 4/61; p>.05 4 5 Attend 5 0.7619 0.5805 0.0016 0.2291 d.f. - 5/60; p>.05 5 CO NJ 183 innovativeness, having about four times the impact of any of the other 5 variables examined. Moreover, the analysis i n earlier chapters of this study have indicated that we might expect the director's participation i n ac t i v i t i e s of his professional association to have considerable impact on his adoption scores. It would seem l i k e l y that those directors who attend meetings and hold office i n their professional association are the ones most exposed to interpersonal information about new ideas and practices, and most apt to be influenced by their fellow directors to t r y new practices. The regression analysis further substantiates the significance of work satisfaction and i t s relationship to adoption, described previously 6, 7, 8 i n this study and by the findings of others. Psychologically, i t would seem reasonable to expect that directors who were satisfied with their work might also be the ones who f e l t assured enough that they were doing their job well to take the risk of adopting new practices. Certainly, such risk taking i s one of the prerequisites of adoption. In the regression analysis, the number of years the director had been employed i n his present position emerges as a significant contributor to ?G. G. Darkenwald, H. W. Beder, and A. K. Adelman, Problems of  Dissemination and Use of Innovations i n Adult Basic Education: Selected  Research Findings and Recommendations. New York: Center for Adult Education Teachers College, Columbia University, 1974, pp. 33-36. ^A. K. Khan, "Adoption and Internalization of Educational Innovation Among Teachers i n the P i l o t Secondary Schools of West Pakistan." (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1968). 7C. Verner and P. M. Gubbels, Adult Education and the Adoption or  Rejection of Innovations by Dairy Farm Operators i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada (1967), pp. 10, 26. 0 C. Verner and F. Millerd, Adult Education and the Adoption of  Innovations by Orchardists i n the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1966, p. 19. 184 the variance i n adoption scores. Besides the analysis i n an earlier chapter, there i s evidence associating high adoption scores with lengthy work 9 10 11 12 13 experience. * * » * This factor may also be related to the director's sense of security. As he becomes more integrated into his organizational system, he may feel more secure about risk taking. Once he has had the time to establish himself both as a credible and creditable person within the organization, he can afford the risk of at least some failures. By contrast, early failures i n most organizations are l i k e l y to have serious consequences for the new comer. Moreover, i n this study, the directors who have been employed i n their present position for a lengthy period are the ones who have had a greater opportunity to increase their administrative competence and efficiency by adopting more recommended administrative practices than those with short term tenure. Situational Quantitative Of the fifteen situational quantitative variables analyzed by step-wise regression, only two were significant contributors to the variance i n E l l i s , "The Adoption of Educational Innovations Among Experienced Teachers of Vocational Agriculture i n Predominantly Negro Schools i n North Carolina" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1968). *®E. A. Holdaway and J. E. Seger, "The Development of Indices of Innovativeness," i n Canadian Education and Research Digest. 8: 366-379 (December, 1968). U j . L. Roosa, "A Study of Organizational Climate, Leader Behavior, and their Relation to the Rate of Adoption i n Selected School D i s t r i c t s " (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of New York, Albany, 1968). •^B. W. Du Gas, "An Analysis of Certain Factors i n the Diffusion of Innovations i n Nursing Practice i n Public General Hospitals of the Province of Br i t i s h Columbia. (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969). *3p. N. Reeves, "A Study of Adoption of Electronic Data Processing i n the Hospital Industry." (Unpublished D.B.A., George Washington University, 1970). 185 adoption scores. The amount of time the director was officially employed to carry out his work contributed to over one half of the variance in adoption scores (54.3 per cent); while the revenue variable accounted for another one and a half per cent (1.6 per cent) of the variance (Table XLI, p. 186). Among the situational quantitative variables, the amount of time the director was officially employed emerged as a major component of the adop-tion score, accounting for almost fifty-five per cent of the variance. This finding is supported by prior research indicating a significant relation-14, 15 ship between adoption and employment on a full-time basis. What seems likely is that with adequate time support provided by school officials, the director has the opportunity to seek out new practices, consider them, and put them to t r i a l for acceptance or rejection as one would expect of a director f u l f i l l i n g the role of an efficient, full-time administrator. One must also not forget that the time element i s a central component of the adoption process and i s involved with the individuals progression through the various stages of the process. It seems more likely that inter-ruptions in that progression could occur with the director's having only a part-time involvement with his work, and other interests impinging upon him. Another aspect to be considered pertains to role expectation and performance. If a director has been assigned to a full-time position, his own expectation of his performance as well as that of school officials will W C . Verner and F. W. Millerd, Adult Education and the Adoption of  Innovations by Orchardists in the Okanaean Valley of British Columbia. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of British Columbia (1966), p. 23. ^Darkenwald, Beder, and Adelman, pjo. c i t . , p. 33. SUMMARY TABLE XLI REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF SITUATIONAL QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES .Number of Independent Step Number Variable Entered Removed Multiple R ' RSQ Increase ' In RSQ F Value Enter or Remove Significance Variables Included 1 Timemp 2 0.7366 0.5426 0.5426 75.9262 d.f. « 1/64j p<.01 1 2 Prtlos 14 0.7501 0.5627 0.0201 2.8955 d.f. - 2/63j p>-05 2 3 Admpep 9 0.7620 0.5806 0.0179 2.6420 d.f. - 3/62j p>.05 3 4 Notask 5 0.7710 0.5944 0.0138 2.0812 d.f. - 4/61; p> .05 4 5 Salary J3 0.7800 0.6084 0.0140 2.1447 d.f. - 5/60j p>.05 5 6 Schsal 4 0.7882 0.6213 0.0129 2.0108 d.f. - V59; p>.05 6 7 Ptadmn 10 0.7917 0.6268 0.0055 0.8477 d.f. - 7/58j p>.05 7 8 Aestud 7 0.7948 0.6317 0.0049 0.7559 d.f. - 8/57; p>.05 8 9 Aepexp 15 0.7991 0.6386 0.0069 1.0686 d.f. « 9/56; p>.05 9 10 Revnae 12 0.8089 0.6544 0.0158 2.5178 d.f. - 10/55; .01<p<.05 10 11 Scpers U 0.8139 0.6624 0.0081 1.2879 d.f. - 11/54; p>.05 11 12 Noclas 6 0.8160 0.6659 0.0035 0.5479 d.f. - 12/53; P>.05 12 13 Nolnst 8 0.8171 0.6676 0.0017 0.2635 d.f. - 13/52; p>.05 13 14 Persob 16 0.8177 0.6686 0.0010 0.1544 d.f. - 14/51; P>.05 14 CO O N 187 probably be greater than what would be expected of a part-time employee. One demonstration of performance would be the extensive adoption of efficient administrative practices. To a much more modest degree, revenue was a significant situational component of adoption, accounting for 1.6 per cent of the variance i n scores. In previous research various measurements of income have shown a relation-16, 17, 18, 19, 20 T ^ A _._ -„_, ^ M J ship to adoption. It i s not starjbling to find revenue as an important element of adoption i n this study. As many as twenty of the twenty-six recommended administrative practices would l i k e l y require at least a modest expenditure for their implementation. Certainly, i t would be those directors with adequate revenues of their own who could make such expenditures. This situation seems especially relevant for those d i s t r i c t s where the adult education i s expected to be a self-sistaining or even a profit making activity. Structural Quantitative When the four structural quantitative variables had undergone stepwise regression analysis, two of the variables were significant contributors to E. P. Alleyne and C. Verner, The Adoption and Rejection of Innova- tions by Strawberry Growers i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Vancouver: Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of Bri t i s h Columbia, 1969, p. 17. * 7L.E. Boone, "The Diffusion of an Innovation: A Socio-Economic and Personality Trait Analysis of Adopters of Community Antenna Television Service" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arkansas, 1969). 1 8R. R. Mort, "Studies i n Educational Innovation from the Institute of Administrative Research: an Overview" i n Innovation i n Education. M. Miles (ed.) New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University 1964, p. 322. C. Verner and P. M. Gubbels, The Adoption or Rejection of Innovations  by Dairy Farm Operators i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Ottawa: The Agricul-t u r a l Economics Research Council of Canada, 1967, p. 14. 'C. Verner and Millerd, oj>. c i t . , p. 24. 188 the variance i n adoption scores. The number of students i n the school d i s t r i c t accounted for more than one quarter of the variance i n adoption scores (26.4 per cent), while the distance of the school d i s t r i c t from Vancouver accounted for just s l i g h t l y over three per cent (3.3 per cent) of the variance (Table XLII, p. 189). These data indicate that when the structural quantitative variables were considered as a separate group, the number of students accounted for 26.4 per cent of the variance i n adoption scores. Similarly other research has shown the relationship between the number of public school students and 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 adoption. One finds the larger d i s t r i c t s i n terms of school population i n urban settings with densely concentrated residential and commercial properties. These i n turn constitute the assessment base on which money for educational purposes can be raised by a tax levy. J. E. Allen, "The Adoption of Innovations and the Personality of the Superintendent of Schools," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1967). 22W. F. Breivogel, "The Relationship of Selected Variables i n the Introduction of Educational Innovations i n New Jersey Public School D i s t r i c t s , " (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N. J., 1967). 23 yJ.W. Kohl, "Adoption Stages and Perceptions of Characteristics of Educational Innovations," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, 1966). ^D. K. Leslie, "A Study of Factors Which Facilitate or Inhibit Adoption of Innovative Practices i n Boys* Physical Education i n Secondary Schools" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1970). 25j.V.R. Miller, "A Study of Factors Related to the Adoption of Innovations by Counselor Educators and Counselor Education Departments," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1970). 2^E. N. Spencer, "Variables Affecting the Adoption of Educational Innovations i n Selected School Districts of Oakland County, Michigan," (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Wayne State University, 1967). SUMMARY TABLE XLII REGRESSION ANALYSIS OP STRUCTURAL QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES Number of Independent Step Number Variable Entered Removed Multiple R. ' RSQ Increase In RSQ P Value Enter or Remove Significance Variables Included 1 Shstud 2 0.5134 0.2636 0.2636 22.9088 d.f. - 1/64; p^.01 1 2 Pupexp 3 0.5443 0.2963 0.0327 2.9279 d.f. - 2/63; p>.05 2 3 Dfvanc 5 0.5740 0.3295 0.0332 3.0707 d.f. « 3/62; .01<p<.05 3 4 Dabase 4 0.5817 0.3384 0.0088 0.8159 d.f. - 4/61; p>.05 4 OCt 190 The distance of the school district from Vancouver was the other significant structural quantitative variable, accounting for 3.3 per cent of the variance in adoption scores. Proximity to the largest urban centre in the province seems important, i f one is to consider the likely impact on adoption of universities, colleges, and other large educational institutions. Moreover, in the urban settings, one expects to find extensively developed, formal information networks and a heterogeneous, cosmopolitan population. More new ideas are likely to originate from a metropolitan centre such as Vancouver than could be expected from smaller, rural, and isolated settings. With regard to educational change, adoption is more likely to occur in 27 predominantly urban communities than rural ones. Significant Qualitative Factors Personal Qualitative When the five personal qualitative variables were analyzed, three were identified as significant contributors to the variance in adoption scores. The perception of receiving a full-time salary accounted for more than one third (38.9 per cent) of the variance in adoption scores; participation in training in adult education after being appointed director accounted for an additional six per cent (6.3 per cent) and participation in professional adult education training activities during the previous year, a further two and one half per cent (2.5 per cent) of the variance (Table XLIII, p. 191). These data indicate that among the personal qualitative variables, the perception of receiving a full-time salary comprises an important component 2?R. L. Mertz, "The Relationship of Selected Variables to the Adoption and Implementation of Recommendations of Educational Surveys of Public School Corporations," (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1965). SUMMARY TABLE XLIII REGRESSION ANALYSIS OP PERSONAL QUALITATIVE VARIABLES Variable Multiple Increase F Value Number of Independent Variables Number Entered Removed R RSQ In RSQ Enter or Remove SigMficance I - Included 1 Ftsal 2 0.6239 0.3892 0.3892 40.7861 d.f. - 1/64; p<.01 1 2 Pstae 1 0.6725 0.4523 0.0631 7.2556 d.f. - 2/63; p<.01 2 3 Prtrn 1 0.6909 0.4774 0.0251 2.9752 d.f. » 3/62; .01<p<.05 3 4 Prrat 4 0.7029 0.4940 0.0166 2.0041 d.f. « 4/61; P> .05 4 5 Prrat 3 0.7124 0.5075 0.0135 1.6434 d.f. » 5/60; p>.05 5 6 Creer 1 0.7190 0.5170 0.0094 1.1542 d.f. - 6/59; p>.05 ;>y 6 7 Creer 2 0.7224 0.5219 0.0049 0.5998 d.f. = 7/58; P>-05 7 8 Creer 3 0.7232 0.5230 0.0011 0.0011 d.f. « 8/57; p>.05 8 vO 192 of adoption scores, constituting 36.9 per cent of the variance. It seems very l i k e l y that the director who perceived himself as receiving a f u l l -time salary would i n fact be employed on a full-time basis. That factor was previously found to be the leading component of the variance i n adop-tion scores among the situational quantitative variables. However, i n this analysis of personal qualitative variables we are probably investigating a very similar influence on the adoption score as that of full-time employ-ment, but viewing the same basic phenomenon from a sli g h t l y different perspective, and arbitrarilyFclassifying" i t under, a different label. At any rate, i t seems probable that i f a director perceived he were receiving a full-time salary, he would l i k e l y devote close to a full-time commitment to his job. Moreover, with a f u l l time commitment the director might be more persistent i n seeking out new practices for t r i a l and adoption than a person who perceives he i s merely earning a part-time salary from the position, and thus allocates time and interest accordingly. The director's participation i n training i n adult education after being appointed, as well as his participation i n professional adult education training a c t i v i t i e s during the previous year were other important personal qualitative components of adoption, accounting for 6.3 and 2.5 per cent of the variance respectively. The relationship of both relevance and recency 28 of education to adoption has already been indicated by other researchers * 29 30 31 32 ' ' ' and further validated by analysis i n ear l i e r chapters of 28 Alleyne and Verner, op., c i t . . p. 9. 2%.A. Straus and A. J. Estys, Education for Technological Change  Among Wisconsin Farmers. Research Bulletin 214, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Wisconsin (August 1959). 3°Verner and Gubbels, oj>. c i t . , p. 10. 3 1Verner and Millerd, op., c i t . , pp. 12-19. 32Darkenwald, Beder, and Adelman, op. c i t . . p. 33 193 t h i s study. It does not seem surprising then that i n the regression analysis that these two educational factors re-emerge as significant variables. It seems probable that i f the director has had formal training i n adult educa-tion since his appointment, he would have been exposed i n some systematic way to the recommended administrative practices of that f i e l d . If his participation i n adult education training a c t i v i t i e s has been during the previous year, he i s l i k e l y to have been exposed to some of the most recently developed administrative practices i n adult education. Moreover, the director's involvement i n adult education a c t i v i t i e s i n a continuing manner might be an indication of his serious commitment to be an effici e n t , up-to-date administrator. Such factors as discussed above have been demonstrated as significant prerequisites to adoption. Situational Qualitative When the five situational qualitative variables were analyzed, three were found to<be significant contributors to the variance i n adoption scores. The designation of the d i s t r i c t superintendent as the immediate superior of the director accounted for almost one-fourth of the variance i n adoption scores (22.9 per cent); whereas having no additional job responsi-b i l i t y accounted for another ten and one half per cent (10.5 per cent); and the origin of appointment outside the school system, a further three and one half per cent (3-5 per cent) of the variance (Table XLIV, p. 194). Of the situational qualitative variables, a feature of the director's organizational system was the: most significant contributor to the variance i n adoption scores. The designation of the d i s t r i c t superintendent as the immediate superior accounted for 22.9 per cent of the variance. This factor i s probably indicative of the size of the school d i s t r i c t and the size of the director's operation. In the larger school d i s t r i c t s both i n terms of Step SUMMARY TABLE XLIV REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF SITUATIONAL QUALITATIVE VARIABLES Variable Multiple Increase F Value Number of Independent , Variables Number Entered Removed R RSQ In RSQ Enter or Remove Significance v . i i ; Included 1 Imsup 1 13 0.4790 0.2294 0.2294 19.0516 d.f. - 1/64; p<.01 1 2 Ajres 1 8 0.5779 0.3340 0.1046 9.8971 d.f. - 2/63; p<.01 2 3 Orapp 3 4 0.6077 0.3693 0.0353 3.4709 d.f. - 3/62; .0l<p<.Q5 .-. -f • i *v t y 3 4 Budps 2 11 0.6247 0.3902 0.0209 2.0924 d.f. - 4/61; p> .05 4 5 Eprae 1 5 0.6280 0.3944 0.0041 0.4080 d.f. - 5/60; p>.05 5 6 Budps 1 10 0.6310 0.3982 0.0038 0.3769 d.f. - 6/59; P>.05 6 7 Eprae 2 6 0.6334 0.4012 0.0030 0.2862 d.f. - 7/58; p>.05 7 8 Drapp 1 2 0.6351 0.4033 0.0022 0.2074 d.f. - 8/57; p>.05 8 9 Imsup 2 14 0.6357 0.4041 0.0008 0.0722 d.f. - 9/56; p>.05 9 195 school population, and the size of the adult education operation, the d i s t r i c t superintendent i s frequently designated as the immediate superior of a director having a full-time assignment. The administrative structure i s of such a nature that a professionally trained educator holds the main degreei- of authority over the other professionals i n the organization, and they i n turn are responsible i n their actions to him. Within such an organizational arrangement, the director has accessibility to greater expertise on matters pertaining to education than could be expected of a non-professional such as the secretary-treasurer of the school board. The professional expertise possessed by the superintendent can serve to f a c i l i -tate both consultation and subsequent adoption. Among the situational qualitative variables, having no additional job responsibilities accounted for as much as 10.5 per cent of the variance i n adoption scores. It seems f a i r l y obvious that this factor would be an important component of adoption. With no additional job responsibilities assigned to him by the organizational system, the director i s free to give his undivided attention or at least to focus the major portion of his interest on the directorship. With such a commitment, he seems a l i k e l y person to keep abreast of developments i n his f i e l d and to investigate new practices. Moreover, i f the director i s assigned additional job respon-s i b i l i t i e s , his position i n effect becomes very similar to a part-time one, although he may be o f f i c i a l l y employed as director by the school board for forty or more hours a week, the similarity being that the director has other areas of responsibility competing for his interest and attention. The director's origin of appointment from outside the school was a situational qualitative factor accounting for 3.5 per cent of the variance i n adoption scores. Such data may indicate that when insiders are appointed 196 to the directorship they may already be well integrated into the organiza-tion a l system from which they received the appointment. In order to main-tain a type of pattern maintenance, these same directors may be somewhat loath to experiment with practices which could unsettle the homeostasis of their organizations even for a brief period. The t r i e d and true insider i s one usually not expected to upset the organizational apple cart by intro-ducing a l l manner of new ideas, practices and procedures. By contrast, such behavior might be expected from a new comer from the outside, and frequently he seems to f u l f i l that expectation. Moreover, to this end an organization i t s e l f might purposefully go outside i t s own ranks to recruit an outsider with new ideas and a fresh approach. Such an appointee would then be granted the opportunity for change and indeed i t would very l i k e l y be ex-pected of him. Composite Analysis of Significant Variables i n Quantitative Category A fourth step i n the analysis involved combining a l l the significant quantitative variables which had been previously identified as major components of adoption into a composite group. This included three personal, two situational, and two structural variables. These were number of years the director had been i n his present position, his work satisfaction score, his professional participation score, the amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed by the school board, amount of adult education revenues, the number of public school students enrolled i n the school d i s t r i c t , and the distance of the director's school d i s t r i c t from Vancouver. After these quantitative factors had been analyzed by stepwise regres-sion, three remained as significant contributors to the variance i n adoption scores. The amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his work s t i l l accounted for over one half of the variance i n adoption 197 scores (54.3 per cent); while the director's professional participation score accounted for almost five per cent (4.9 per cent); and the director's work satisfaction score accounted for almost two per cent (1.8 per cent) of the variance (Table XLV, p. 198). These data indicate the very important contribution made to the variance by the amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his work. When the three categories of quantitative variables are analyzed as a composite group, this factor s t i l l accounts for 54-3 per cent of the variance i n adoption scores (Table XLV, p. 198). Moreover, this i s the same percentage contribution for this component as was indicated when i t was analyzed i n the situational quantitative category (Table XLI, p. 186). The director's professional participation score also continued to emerge as a significant component of variance, but i t s percentage contri-bution was greatly diminished when this factor was analyzed in the composite group of quantitative variables. The professional participation score had previously accounted for 46.4 per cent of the variance when i t was considered i n the category of personal quantitative variables (Table XL, p. 182). By contrast, this professional score accounted for only 4.9 per cent of the variance when this variable was included i n the composite quantitative analysis (Table XLV, p. 198). Similarly, the director's work satisfaction score which had previously accounted for 8.0 per cent of the variance (Table XL, p. 182) now amounted to 1.8 per cent (Table XLV, p. 198).in the composite analysis. This consider-able diminution of the impact of professional participation and work satis-faction scores on adoption, i n the composite analysis of quantitative variables may well be some indication of their inter-relationship with the amount of time the director i s o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his work. It seems highly probable that professional participation would be considerably ..SUMMARY TABLE XLV REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL, SITUATIONAL, AND STRUCTURAL QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES Step Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Increase F Value Number of Independent -Variables Entered Removed R RSQ In RSQ Enter or Remove Significance' Included Timemp 7 0.7366 0.5426 0.5426 75.9262 d.f. » 1/64; p<.01 1 P Score 4 0.7691 0.5915 0.0489 7.5432 d.f. - 2/63; p<.01 2 W Score 3 0.7808 0.6096 0.0181 2.8764 d.f. - 3/62; .01<p<.05 3 Yrs Pos 2 0.7891 0.6227 0.0131 2.1171 d.f. - 4/61; p>.05 4 Shstud 5 0.7906 0.6250 0.0023 0.3683 d.f. - 5/60; p> .05 5 Dfvanc 6 0.7907 0.6252 0.0002 0.0316 d.f. - 6/59; P>.05 00 199 f a c i l i t a t e d i f the director i s employed on a full-time basis. Furthermore school o f f i c i a l s would more than l i k e l y expect such participation from a full-time appointee than from someone on a part-time assignment. It also seems probable that the director's work satisfaction score would be enhanced i f his job were t; full-time rather than one where his motivation, interests and efforts were divided and distracted. In this composite analysis of the quantitative variables, a situational factor has clearly emerged as the most significant component of the variance i n adoption scores. Further, this situational variable of the amount of time the director i s o f f i c i a l l y employed seems to have had a mediating influence on two personal factors of professional participation and work satisfaction. These two variables remained as significant ones, but their impact on the variance i n adoption scores was greatly diminished i n the composite analysis. The relationship of these three factors to adoption has already been discussed i n detail i n earlier sections of this chapter. Their importance as contributors to the variance i s further substantiated here. Composite Analysis of Significant Variables i n Qualitative Category Similarly, a l l the significant qualitative variables were combined into a composite group. This included three personal and three situational variables. These were the director having received training i n adult education after his appointment to the position, the director having p a r t i c i -pated i n professional training i n adult education during the previous year, the director perceiving he received a full-time salary from the position, the origin of his appointment being outside his school system, the director's having no additional job responsibilities assigned to him, and the d i s t r i c t superintendent of education being designated as the director's immediate superior i n the administrative system. 200 After these qualitative factors had been analyzed by stepwise regres-sion, four remained as significant contributors to the variance i n adoption scores. The director's perception that he received a full-time salary from the position accounted for almost forty per cent of the variance i n adoption scores (38.9 per cent); while his participation i n adult education training after his appointment accounted for another six per cent (6.3 per cent). Two other variables, the director's origin of appointment being from outside his own school system accounted for three per cent of the variance (3.1 per cent), and his participation i n professional training i n adult education during the previous year another three per cent (2.9 per cent) of the variance (Table XLVI, p. 201). These data indicate that the director's perception of receiving a f u l l -time salary continued to account for as much as 38.9 per cent of the variance 33 i n adoption scores (Table XLVI, p. 201). Such a finding seems consistent with previous quantitative data i f one considers that this personal factor may merely represent a qualitative aspect of the amount of time the director i s o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his work. It seems highly probable that a director who perceives himself as receiving a full-time salary from his work w i l l be one who i n fact i s devoting full-time to his work. Two other personal qualitative variables remained as significant com-ponents of adoption with essentially the same degree of impact on the variance i n adoption scores as indicated previously. Participation i n adult education training after being appointed director continued to account for 6.3 per cent of the variance, while participation i n professional training i n adult 'Cf., Table XLIII, p. 191. SUMMARY TABLE XLVI REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL AND SITUATIONAL QUALITATIVE VARIABLES Number of Independent .Step Variable Multiple Increase F Value Variables Number Entered Removed R RSQ In RSQ Enter or Remove Significance Included 1 Ftsal 1 4 0.6239 0.3892 0.3892 40.7861 d.f. - 1/64; p<.01 1 2 Pstae 1 2 0.6725 0.4523 0.0631 7.2556 d.f. - 2/63; p<.01 2 3 Orapp 3 5 0.6953 0.4835 0.0312 3-7414 d.f. - 3/62; .01<p<.05 3 4 Prtrn 1 3 0.7158 0.5123 0.0289 3.6088 d.f. - 4/61; .01<p<.05 4 5 Imsup 1 7 0.7250 0.5257 0.0133 1.6873 d.f. - 5/60; p>.05 5 6 Ajres 1 6 0.7251 0.5258 0.0001 0.0133 d.f. - 6/59; p>.05 6 O 202 education during the previous year increased sl i g h t l y to 2.9 per cent 34 (Table XLVI, p.201). The important relationship of both these educational factors to adoption has already been discussed previously. However, the findings here give further emphasis to the importance of the relevance and recency of the educational experience with regard to adoption. When entered into this composite analysis, only one of the three situational qualitative variables remained as a significant contributor to the variance, and that was the origin of the director 1s appointment being from outside his own school system. This situational factor s t i l l accounted for 3.1 per cent of the variance (Table XLVI, p.201) which was slightly less than i t s previous contribution of 3-5 per cent (Table XLIV, p. 194). The other two situational qualitative variables pertaining to the designation of the director's immediate superior, and having additional job responsibilities dwindled to insignificant factors with regard to variance i n adoption scores. Composite Analysis of Significant Quantitative and Qualitative Variables The f i f t h and f i n a l step i n the analysis involved combining both the significant quantitative and qualitative variables identified i n previous steps into a composite group. It was comprised of three quantitative and four qualitative factors. These were the amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed, the professional participation score of the director, the work satisfaction score of the director, the director's perception of receiving a full-time salary from his position, the director having received training i n adult education after his appointment, the origin of appointment being within the school d i s t r i c t , and the director having participated i n professional training i n adult education during the previous year. 3^Cf., Table XLIII, p. 191. 203 After these seven key variables had been analyzed by stepwise regression, three remained as significant contributors to the variance i n adoption scores. The amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his duties s t i l l accounted for more than one half (54-3 per cent) of the variance i n adoption scores. The director's professional participation score accounted for almost five per cent (4-9 per cent)} and his work satisfaction score, almost two per cent (1.8 per cent) of the variance (Table XLVII, p. 204). These findings indicate that throughout the various stages of treating the data by regression analysis one variable, a situational factor, persis-tently emerged as a significantly high contributor to the variance i n adoption scores. The amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed consistently accounted for almost f i f t y - f i v e per cent (54.3 per cent) of the variance (Table XLI, p.186. Table XLV, p.198} Table XLVII, p.204). Clearly then, a systems variable comprised of a work situational element basically attributable to the organizational system revealed i t s e l f as the most significant component as far as variance i n adoption scores was concerned. Whether the director i s employed on a full-time or part-time assign-ment i s certainly a central consideration to be examined with regard to adoption. It seems rather obvious that with more time at his disposal i n a full-time position, the director has a greater opportunity than a part-time employee to seek out new practices for consideration, t r i a l , and adoption or rejection. Further, his progression through the various stages of the adoption process i s less l i k e l y to be interrupted and delayed by other com-mitments and distractions. In addition, both the director's own expectation and that of school o f f i c i a l s , for effective performance of his duties i s l i k e l y to be greater for the full-time than part-time employee. One means of demonstrating that SUMMARY TABLE XLVII REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE VARIABLES Number of Independent Step Variable Multiple Increase F Value Variables Number Entered Removed R RSQ "In RSQ Enter or Remove Significance Included 1 Timemp 1 7 0.7366 0.5426 0.5426 75.9262 d.f. S3 1/64; p<.01 1 2 P Score . 4 0.7691 0.5915 0.0489 7.5432 d.f. S3 2/63; p<.01 2 3 W Score ' 3 0.7808 0.6096 0.0181 2.8764 d.f. - 3/62; .01<p<.05 3 4 Pstae 1 2 0.7839 0.6145 0.0049 0.7778 d.f. SB 4/61; p>.05 4 5 Ftsal 1 5 0.7858 0.6175 0.0029 0.4580 d.f. - 5/60; p>.05 5 6 Imsup 1 8 0.7869 0.6192 0.0018 0.2750 d.f. SB 6/59; p>.05 6 7 Prtm 1 6 0.7871 0.6195 0.0002 0.0364 d.f. - 7/58; p>.05 7 to O 205 effective performance would be the adoption of effective administrative practices. The full-time directors of this study have demonstrated just that. In other aspects of role performance, i t also seems probable that i t would be the full-time directors who would be more predisposed, or at least have more time at their disposal to seek formal training i n adult education, to participate i n the a c t i v i t i e s of their professional association, and to read their professional adult education journals and periodicals. With these considerations taken into account, there emerges a f a i r l y substantial case for the organizational system to provide adequate time supports, i f i t expects him to play out the role of an efficient and f u l l committed director. It seems clearly an application of the adage of "the t a i l o r cutting the coat to the measure of his cloth." For the directors, time i s by and large "the measure of the cloth" for fashioning adoption. One of the two personal characteristics which s t i l l remained as a significant factor at this f i n a l stage of the analysis was the director's professional participation score, continuing to account for almost five per 35 cent (4-9 per cent) of the variance (Table XLVII, p.204). This finding should not be surprising i f one considers that when directors regularly attend meetings of and hold office i n their association, they are exposed to a considerable amount of professional information especially from colleagues. From such meetings, directors are l i k e l y to f e e l some type of collective support to try new ideas from their professional colleagues. As has been indicated previously i n this study, sthe organizational system can f a c i l i t a t e the director's participation i n professional a c t i v i t i e s by supplying him with both adequate time and encouragement to participate. Cf., Table XLV, p. 198. 206 In the composite analysis of qualitative and quantitative variables, work satisfaction remained as the third factor significantly contributing to the variance i n adoption scores. This component accounted for almost two 36 per cent (1.8 per cent) of the variance (Table XLVII, p.204). It seems very probable that work satisfaction would i n some measure be derived from the feeling of doing your job well and being "on top" of i t . The fact that you have employed the latest and most efficient practices i n your work could well contribute to that sense of satisfaction. Another act i v i t y from which one might derive work satisfaction i s involvement i n decision making. When a director i s directly involved i n the decision making implicit i n the adoption process, there seems a l i k e l i -hood of his perceiving the a c t i v i t y both as important" and satisfying. Much of the routine work done by a mere administrative functionary i n an organiza-tion i s unlikely to offer such satisfaction. Moreover, i t might well be the director with the feeling that his job i s important and well done who has the necessary personal assurance to engage i n the risk-taking inherent i n the adoption process. Summary In order to analyze the percentage of variance i n the adoption scores attributable to each independent variable selected for study, the data were treated to several steps. After the non-significant variables had been identified, by R (coefficient of determination) analysis, they were dropped from further consideration. The thirty-four: remaining variables were com-prised of ten personal, twenty situational, and four structural factors. For further analysis these were also divided into two main categories of Cf., Table XLV, p. 198. 207 quantitative and qualitative data. The resulting classification was five personal quantitative, five personal qualitative, fifteen situational quantitative, five situational qualitative, four structural quantitative and no structural qualitative items. As a third step, regression analysis was performed on the adoption scores for the variables i n each of the five c e l l s into which the items had been categorized. As far as personal quantitative variables were concerned the profes-sional participation score, the work satisfaction score and the number of years the director had been employed i n his present position were the three significant variables emerging. With regard to the personal qualitative category, the director's perception of receiving a full-time salary from his position, his participation i n training i n adult education after being appointed, and his participation i n professional adult education training a c t i v i t i e s during the previous year emerged as three significant variables. In the situational quantitative category, the two variables identified as significant were the amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his work, and the amount of revenue from adult education a c t i v i t i e s . As far as the situational qualitative category was concerned three variables were found significant contributors to the variance i n adop-tion scores. These were the perception of the d i s t r i c t superintendent as the immediate superior of the director, the director's having no additional job responsibility, and director's being appointed from within the school system. In the structural quantitative category, the two variables identified as significant contributors to variance i n adoption scores were the number of school students i n the d i s t r i c t , and the distance of the school d i s t r i c t 208 from Vancouver. There were ho structural qualitative variables to be considered. The fourth step i n the analysis involved examining a l l the s i g n i f i -cant quantitative variables as a group. This included the three personal, two situational, and two structural factors identified during step three. After regression analysis of these items, the significant variables were comprised of the amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed, his professional participation score, and his work satisfaction score. Similarly at this fourth step, a l l the significant qualitative variables were examined as a group. This included three personal qualitative and three situational qualitative variables identified during step three. After regression analysis of these items, the significant variables were comprised of the director perceiving that he received a full-time salary from his position, the director having participated i n training i n adult education after receiving his appointment, the director having been appointed from within his own school d i s t r i c t and the director having participated i n pro-fessional training i n adult education during the previous year. The f i f t h and f i n a l step i n the analysis was to combine both the significant quantitative and qualitative variables identified so far into one group. It was comprised of three quantitative and four qualitative factors. These were the amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed, the director's professional participation score, the director's work satisfaction score, the director's perception of receiving a full-time salary from his position, the director having participated i n training i n adult education after his appointment, the director having been appointed ffrom outside his own school d i s t r i c t , and the director having participated i n professional training i n adult education during the previous year. 209 After regression analysis of these seven items, three key variables emerged as significant factors i n contributing to the variance i n adoption scores. The amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his duties accounted for almost f i f t y - f i v e per cent of the variance i n adoption scores, while his professional participation score contributed some five per cent and his work satisfaction score some two per cent. Thus of the thirty-four variables selected for the regression analysis, three accounted for sixty-one per cent of the variance. The major element was a work situational factor, while the other two with more modest impact per-tained to personal characteristics of the director himself. Throughout the various stages of submitting the data to regression analysis, one variable emerged as a major contributor to the variance i n adoption scores. This component revealed i t s e l f both i n the quantitative form of the amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his duties, and the qualitative form of the director perceiving that he received a full-time salary from his position. This time factor indicating a full-time position was essentially a work situational element attributable to the organizational system. Hence, the data from the regression analysis i n this study indicate that the director i s more influenced i n his adoption behavior by systems features than by his own personal characteristics. 210 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS By the nature of his work, the educator i s among those professionals who must understand clearly what i s involved i n the change process. He should therefore know what factors contribute to f a c i l i t a t i n g or impeding the adoption of new practices and behaviors. . Further, he should understand his own role as a potential change agent within the structured social system of a school organization and a school d i s t r i c t . Accordingly, i f one i s to discern the dynamics of change within an educational system, i t seems necessary to investigate both factors pertaining directly to the person of the educator and features pertaining to his work situation determined largely by the school organization and d i s t r i c t . Literature on adoption so far has indicated that the dominant concern i n education has been the content of the change desired rather than the nature and consequences of the change process. Moreover, such research has been chiefly concerned with school systems rather than the individual educator as the adopting agent, or with his interactions within his organiza-tional setting. These, however, have been identified as areas worthy of inquiry. I. METHOD AND PROCEDURE This study established as i t s purpose the investigation of adoption behavior among directors of public school adult education i n British Columbia. Accordingly, the sixty-six persons who held the position of director during 211 the 1969-70 term were interviewed to determine the extent to which they had adopted twenty-six administrative practices commonly recommended i n the literature of adult education. Particular attention was focused on the role of the director as an adopting agent within the structured social system of a school organization and a school d i s t r i c t setting. Hence, besides analyzing thirty-four personal characteristics of the individual director i n relation to adoption, attention was also given to examining thirty-two work-situational elements of his position and five structural features of his school d i s t r i c t . These seventy-one independent variables were subsequently considered i n relationship to each director's adoption score. The dependent variable was the adoption score obtained from a commonly used scoring system in rural sociology: 0 for non awareness of the adminis-trative practice; 1 for awareness; 2 for interest and information seeking; 3 for evaluation; 4 for t r i a l , and 5 for adoption. The t o t a l possible adop-tion score for each director was 130 (5 x 26 practices) i f he had f u l l y adopted a l l of the recommended practices. The data was f i r s t presented i n a descriptive fashion to outline the general characteristics of the directors and their working environments. This data consisted of both percentage distributions and comparisons of mean adoption scores, with the t-test being used to determine i f the difference between two sample means was significant, and the F-test when more than two samples were involved. Secondly, there was a detailed analysis of the significant personal characteristics of the director, situational factors of the position, and structural features of the school d i s t r i c t . In this process, an analysis of variance of the mean adoption scores was undertaken by a program (UBC BMDX64) which employs a general linear model. Finally, there was an analysis of the percentage of variance i n 212 adoption scores of directors attributable to each independent variable found significant i n the i n i t i a l stages of the investigation. Stepwise regression analysis by UBC BMD02R program was used for this purpose. II. FINDINGS The results of this study are consistent with many of the findings of research i n other disciplines on the adoption of innovations. The findings w i l l be reported on under seven headings: (l) Personal Characteristics of the Director Related to Adoption; (2) Non-Related Personal Characteristics; (3) Situational Factors of the Position of Director Pertaining to Adoption; (4) Non-Related Situational Factors; (5) Structural Features of the School District Associated with Adoption; (6) Non-Related Structural Features; and (7) The Major Components Related to the Adoption Score. Personal Characteristics of the Director Related to Adoption Of the thirty-four characteristics associated with the person of the director, eleven yielded significant differences when considered i n relation-ship to the adoption scores of directors. These significant personal characteristics were grouped mainly under the categories of education, ex-perience, work satisfaction, professionalism, and communication behavior. Education Of the six educational variables originally selected for investigation, only two indicated significant relationships with adoption scores. High adoption scores were associated with the director having studied adult education since his appointment and having participated i n professional adult education training during the previous year. Thus the recency of the educational experience and the relevance of i t s content emerged as the significant attributes of education associated with adoption among the 213 directors. These findings are consistent with previous research. Experience Of the three aspects of work experience investigated, two were found to be significantly related to adoption. High adoption scores were associated with the director having had more than five years of experience i n his work, and also with having been employed i n his present position for five years or more. The f i r s t of these may indicate that high adoption i s associated with the director's growing professional competence as a result of work experience; the second may indicate both the relationship to growing competence as a result of work experience, and the more complete integration of the director into the organizational system i n which he works. These findings are supported by other studies. Work Satisfaction The job satisfaction of the director was assessed by the Morse Intrinsic Job Satisfaction Index. Significantly high adoption scores were associated with those directors having expressed either a high or moderate level of satisfaction with their work. The low adoption scores were indicated by directors who expressed neutral to highly dissatisfied feelings about their work. Among other occupational groups, work satisfaction has also been related to adoption. Professionalism In examining several dimensions of professionalism i t was found that significantly high adoption scores were indicated by those directors who rated their work as professional i n contrast with those who classified their position as semi-professional, not at a l l professional, or didn't know. Similarly, with regard to their career, the directors who expressed a commit-ment to adult education had significantly higher adoption scores than the 214 directors who were undecided or did not perceive adult education as their career. In addition, significantly high adoption scores were indicated by directors who perceived they received a full-time salary from their employ-ment in adult education rather than part-time earnings. An investigation of the director's participation i n the a c t i v i t i e s of his professional associations indicated a significant relationship between adoption and attendance at meetings and office holdings i n the British Columbia Associa-tion of Adult Education Directors. These were the components of a profes-sional participation score, and high adoption scores were significantly associated with high professional participation scores. The other aspect of professionalism associated with adoption was the director's reading of professional adult education journals. Whereas the reading of other educa-tiona l journals and other professional periodicals was not related to adoption, the reading of adult education periodicals was. Those directors who read no adult education journals had significantly lower adoption than directors who did such reading. These findings relating adoption to various aspects of professionalism are supported by previous research. Communication As far as communication behavior i s concerned, the highest adopting directors relied chiefly upon organized a c t i v i t i e s of their own professional association for the main informational input at the awareness stage of adoption. Directors mainly sought out colleagues at these a c t i v i t i e s to seek information and exchange ideas. These colleagues were more frequently mentioned as sources of ideas than the outside experts often present at such a c t i v i t i e s . Moreover, information seekers almost invariably lived within the same chapter area of the opinion leader and there was frequent consul-tation by telephone. The identifiable lines of interpersonal 215 communication only once extended beyond an adjacent school d i s t r i c t . Hence, as far as interpersonal communication networks were concerned, directors were largely confined to the social system provided by the chapter a f f i l i a -tion of their professional organization. These findings with regard to adoption and the communication behavior of directors are at variance with what i s generally reported i n research. Among various occupations, early adopters have chiefly relied upon impersonal sources and mass media for informational input at the awareness and interest stages of the adoption process, and have been cosmopolitan rather than local i n their contacts and a f f i l i a t i o n s . Non-Related Personal Characteristics There were some twenty-three characteristics pertaining to the person of the director which failed to indicate any significant relationship to adoption. These were: Sex of the Director, Marital Status, Age, Years of Schooling Completed, Study i n Adult Education Prior to Appointment, Study i n Administration Prior to Appointment, Study i n Administration Since Appointment, Number of Previous Jobs, Reasons for Accepting Position of Director, Salary from Outside Work, Career Plans Within School System, Attitude Toward Change Score, Social Participation Score, Use of Professional Education Journals, Types of Information Sources at Awareness Stage, Types of Information Sources at the Interest Stage, Types of Information Sources at Evaluation Stage, Types of Information Sources at T r i a l Stage, Types of Information Sources at Adoption Stage, Origin of Information Sources at Interest Stage; Origin of Information at Evaluation Stage; Origin of Information Sources at T r i a l Stage, and Origin of Information at Adoption Stage. 216 Situational Factors Pertaining to Adoption Of the thirty-two factors which related mainly to work situation elements of the director's position, twenty-nine yielded significant differences when considered i n relationship to adoption by directors. These factors included origin of appointment, encouragement to participate i n adult education training, amount of time o f f i c i a l l y employed as director, additional job responsibilities, amount of salary, amount of salary from other positions i n the school system, number of task p r i o r i t i e s , ranking of time spent on various tasks, size of the adult education operation, financial aspects of the operation and certain administrative features of the organizational system. Origin of Appointment Directors who were appointed from another school system as well as those who were appointed from outside the school system altogether had significantly higher adoption scores than directors appointed from within their own school d i s t r i c t systems. Thus an outsider coming into a new organizational system i s more l i k e l y to adopt the recommended administrative practices than a director who has already been too well socialized and integrated into the organizational system from which he received the appoint-ment. This finding i s consistent with sociological research pertaining to the roles of "locals" and "cosmopolitans." Encouragement to Participate i n In-Service Training As for the school o f f i c i a l s * encouragement for directors to p a r t i c i -pate i n in-service training i n adult education, there was a significant difference between those directors who were frequently encouraged to p a r t i c i -pate and those who were never encouraged. The high adoption scores were indicated by those directors who had received such encouragement by school o f f i c i a l s . 217 Amount of Time the Director i s O f f i c i a l l y Employed The directors who were employed full-time of 40 or more hours a week had significantly higher adoption scores than those directors who were employed fewer hours each week. Similarly, those directors who were employed from 20 to 39 hours had significantly higher adoption scores than the directors employed on less than a half-time basis. Thus the highest adoption scores were associated with employment on a full-time basis, while the lowest ones were related to less than half time employment. Such findings on the relationship between adoption and employment on a full-time basis have some substantiation from research i n agriculture, and emerged as one of the major correlates of innovativeness among directors of adult basic education. Additional Job Responsibilities With regard to job responsibilities i n addition to the position of director, those directors without such additional job responsibilities had significantly higher adoption scores than directors who were assigned extra duties. Amount of Salary Earned as Director A significant relationship existed between adoption and the amount of salary earned by the director for his work. The significantly high adoption scores were indicated by those directors earning a salary of $8,000 or more annually for their positions. Research indicates that among other educa-tiona l professionals, high salaries have quite consistently been associated with adoption and innovativeness. Amount of Salary from Other Positions i n the School System As far as salary from other positions i n the school system was con-cerned, the significantly high adoption scores were indicated by those 218 directors receiving no such salary. This finding seems consistent with previous data indicating that high adopting directors had no additional job responsibilities to the directorship and were employed on a full-time basis. Number of Tasks Involved i n the Work of the Directorship When the director's work was examined i n terms of the number of tasks he routinely performed during the course of his a c t i v i t i e s , the data re-vealed that those directors who performed nine tasks or more i n their regular work had significantly higher adoption scores than those directors who performed fewer. Thus, high adoption among the directors was related to a high degree of job complexity i n terms of both the number and the variety of tasks involvements. Ranking of the Work Tasks When directors were asked to rank i n descending order the amount of time spent on various tasks regularly performed i n their work, nine out of the ten acti v i t i e s so ranked indicated significant differences on the basis of adoption scores. The significantly high adopting directors ranked administration i n -volving regular routine and paper work f i r s t i n time prior i t y . Consultation and counselling were also ranked from f i r s t to third position i n time commit-ment by high adopters, while f a c i l i t a t i n g and expediting i n the form of service work done for individuals was ranked from second to fourth place. The organization of groups was ranked from fourth to sixth position by high scoring directors, while both teaching and the dissemination of research findings were placed from sixth to ninth position by high scoring adopters. The significantly low adopting directors, by contrast, were those who indicated they spent no time on professional development. Similarly, they indicated no involvement i n the organization or supervision of special events, 219 or they ranked the ac t i v i t y from sixth to ninth. In addition, low adopting directors were those who assigned the high time priority of f i r s t to f i f t h place to work not i n any way related to adult education. Size of the Adult Education Operation When adoption scores of the directors were considered i n relation to the size of the adult education operation, there was a significant relation-ship to the three factors studied. Significantly high adoption scores were indicated by directors who supervised operations involving more than one hundred adult classes. Similarly, significantly high adoption scores were by those directors supervising operations which involved 50 or more instruc-t i o n a l personnel. As might be expected from the foregoing data, s i g n i f i -cantly low adoption scores were registered by directors enrolling less than 1000 students i n their programs during the 1969-70 term. These findings, especially with regard to adoption and size, have support i n other educa-tiona l research, especially among directors of adult basic education. Financial Aspects of the Operation Adoption was also considered i n relationship to several aspects of the financial operation of the adult education program. With regard to revenues, significantly low adoption scores were indicated by those directors who supervised operations collecting less than $5,000 i n revenue during the 1969-70 term. Similarly, significantly low adoption scores were associated with expenditures of $5,000 on adult education a c t i v i t i e s during that same term. By contrast, the significantly high adoption scores were indicated by directors supervising operations with expenditures of $35,000 or more on adult education. In terms of profit or loss, the significantly low adoption scores were associated with directors who supervised operations which showed neither a profit or loss on their adult education a c t i v i t i e s . When 220 expenditures were considered on a per pupil basis, significantly high adop-tion scores were indicated by those directors reporting an expenditure of $30.00 or more on each adult student. Moreover, significantly low adoption scores were indicated by those directors employed i n d i s t r i c t s which allocated less than .5 of 1 per cent of their t o t a l budget to adult education a c t i v i t i e s . Administrative Features When adoption scores of directors were considered i n relation to certain administrative arrangements under which the director worked, there was a significant relationship to the three features studied. With regard to the director*s immediate superior i n the administrative hierarchy, significantly high adoption scores were indicated by those directors designating the Dist r i c t Superintendent as such an o f f i c i a l . With regard to involvement i n the budgeting process, significantly high adoption scores were achieved by those directors who participated directly i n the preparation and presentation of an annual budget to the school board. As for provision of assistance to the director, significantly high adoption scores were indicated by those directors with assisting personnel including full-time and part-time administrative assistants, and secretarial help. Non-Related Situational Factors Of the situational factors of the position selected for study, only three failed to indicate any significant relationship to adoption. These were: Provision of Funds for Adult Education Training, Administrative Leave for Adult Education Training, and Ranking of Time Spent on Supervisory Administration. 221 Structural Features of the School District Associated with Adoption Of the five characteristics which related mainly to structural features of the school d i s t r i c t i n which the director worked, four yielded significant differences when considered i n relation to adoption. These included number of public school students enrolled i n the d i s t r i c t , per pupil expenditure i n the school system, d i s t r i c t assessment base, and the distance of the school d i s t r i c t from Vancouver. Number of Public School Students With regard to the number of public school students enrolled i n the d i s t r i c t , significantly low adoption scores were indicated by directors employed i n d i s t r i c t s with fewer than 3000 students. This finding i s supported by a considerable number of studies i n education associating adoption and innovativeness with high pupil enrollment. Per Pupil Expenditure i n the School District With respect to per pupil expenditure i n the school d i s t r i c t , s i g n i f i -cantly low adoption scores were associated with directors employed i n d i s t r i c t s with per pupil expenditures of $800 or more. This finding i s con-sistent with previous data associating low adoption with low enrollments of public school students because i n Bri t i s h Columbia, i t i s the smaller school d i s t r i c t s which generally show high per pupil costs. District Assessment Base I f the d i s t r i c t assessment base i s considered to determine the relation-ship of wealth to adoption, the significantly low adoption scores were i n -dicated by directors i n d i s t r i c t s with an assessment base of less than $25,000,000. This finding i s consistent with previous research i n education linking high adoption with wealthier units of operation. 222 Distance from Vancouver When distance from Vancouver was considered as a factor related to adoption, i t was found that significantly high adoption scores were indicated by directors employed i n d i s t r i c t s less than 50 miles from Vancouver, the largest urban centre of the province. This finding i s supported by research indicating that adoption i s more l i k e l y to occur i n predominantly urban communities rather than i n rural-i-.ones. Non-Related Structural Features There was one structural feature of the school d i s t r i c t which failed to indicate any significant relationship to adoption. There was no significant relationship between adoption and the education m i l l rate levied by the school d i s t r i c t . Major Correlates of the Adoption Score The f i n a l analysis of the data was concerned with determining the per-centage of variance i n adoption scores of directors attributable to each independent variable. As a f i r s t step i n explaining the variance among the adoption scores, the non-significant characteristics and factors were deter-mined by R (coefficient of determination) analysis and eliminated from further consideration. Of the thirty-four personal and communication charac-t e r i s t i c s originally selected for study, twenty-three were found non-signifi-cant as far as adoption was concerned. Of the thirty-seven situational and structural features, only four were identified as non-significant elements. There were, however, an additional nine situational variables involving the rank ordering of tasks which the director was regularly involved i n and one communications variable not included for further investigation. These were ex-cluded because they did not lend themselves readily to further analysis because particular items were not answered consistently by a l l respondents. Thus there 223 were discrepancies i n the resulting data. Consequently, more than one half (37 out of 71) of the original variables were excluded at this i n i t i a l stage from further consideration i n explaining the variance among adoption scores of the directors. As a second step i n the analysis, the remaining thirty-four s i g n i f i -cant variables were again organized as personal, situational, and structural variables and further classified into quantitative or qualitative cate-gories according to the nature of the data. As i t happened, there were no variables identified as structural qualitative components so the various variables were cla s s i f i e d within five c e l l s . The categorization was as follows: five personal quantitative, fifteen situational quantitative, four structural quantitative, five personal qualitative, and five situa-tional qualitative variables. As a third step i n the procedure, stepwise regression analysis was performed on the adoption scores for each of the five c e l l s into which the variables had been categorized. When the five personal quantitative variables were analyzed, three emerged as significant elements i n the variance of adoption scores. These were the professional participation score of the director (46.4$ of the variance); the work satisfaction score (8.0$ of the variance); and the number of years the director had been employed i n his present position (2.5$ of the variance). When the fifteen situational quantitative variables were analyzed by stepwise regression, two emerged as significant contributors to the variance i n adoption scores. These were the amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his work (54.3$ of the variance); and the amount of revenue he had at his d i s -posal (1.6$ of the variance). When the four structural quantitative variables had undergone stepwise regression analysis, the two factors which 224 emerged as significant contributors to the variance i n adoption scores were the number of school students in the school d i s t r i c t (26.4* of the variance); and the distance of the school d i s t r i c t from Vancouver (3.3* of the variance). Of the five personal qualitative variables analyzed, three were identified as significant. The perception of receiving a full-time salary accounted for more than one third of the variance i n adoption scores (38-9* of the variance); participation i n adult education after being appointed (6.3* of the variance); and participation i n professional adult education training a c t i v i t i e s during the previous years (2.5* of the variance). Upon examining the five situational qualitative variables, the three found to be s i g n i f i -cant were: the perception of the d i s t r i c t superintendent as the immediate superior (22.9* of the variance); the director having no additional jnb responsibility (10.5* of the variance); and the director's origin of appoin-tment (3«5* of the variance). As a fourth step i n the analysis, a l l the significant quantitative variables were examined as a composite group. This included the three per-sonal,,, two situational, and two structural features which had been identi-fied i n step three of the analysis. After these seven quantitative factors underwent stepwise regression analysis, three remained as significant con-tributors to the variance in adoption scores. These were the amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his work (54.3* of the variance); the director's professional participation score (4-9* of the variance); and the director's work satisfaction score (1.8* of the variance). Similarly, the six significant qualitative factors previously identified were combined into a composite group for further analysis by stepwise re-gression. Of these four remained as significant contributors to the variance i n adoption scores. They were the director's perception that he received a full-time salary from his position (38.9* of the variance); his participation 225 i n adult education training after his appointment (6.3$ of the variance); his origin of appointment being from putsidp his own school system (3.1$ of the variance), and his participation i n professional training i n adult education during the previous year (2.9$ of the variance). As the f i f t h or f i n a l step i n the analysis, both significant quan-t i t a t i v e and qualitative variables, identified i n the previous steps, were combined into a composite group. This was comprised of three quantitative and four qualitative factors. After these seven variables had been analyzed by stepwise regression, three emerged as significant contributors to the variance i n adoption scores. The amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his duties s t i l l accounted for more than one half of the variance i n adoption scores (54«3$ of the variance). The director's professional participation score accounted for almost five per cent (4.9$ of the variance); and his work satisfaction score almost two per cent (1.8$ of the variance). Thus, these three key variables accounted for sl i g h t l y more than sixty per cent (61.0$) of the variance i n adoption scores. It i s important to note that throughout several phases of the regres-sion analysis, one factor consistently accounted for more than fifty-four per cent (54.3$) of the variance i n adoption scores. The amount of time the director was o f f i c i a l l y employed to carry out his duties was the single most important variable i n explaining adoption. It seems rather obvious that i f a director has a full-time position, he has more time at his disposal than a part-time employee to seek out new practices for consideration, t r i a l , and adoption or rejection. In addition, his progression through the various stages of the adoption process i s less l i k e l y to be interrupted and delayed by other commitments and distractions. Also the director's own expectation and that of school o f f i c i a l s , for effective performance i s l i k e l y to be greater for the full-time employee. One way of demonstrating effective 226 performance would be the adoption of effective administrative practices. Moreover, i t seems l i k e l y that i t would be the full-time directors who would be more predisposed, or at least have the more time at their disposal to seek formal training i n adult education, to participate i n the a c t i v i t i e s of their professional association, and to read their professional adult education journals and periodicals. Thus, a work-situational element, basically attributable to the organizational system, emerged as the most significant factor as far as variance i n adoption scores was concerned. By contrast, characteristics associated with the person of the director i n -dicated a much more modest influence on adoption. Both the professional participation score and the work satisfaction score of the director to-gether accounted for no more than seven per cent of the variance i n adoption scores. III. IMPLICATIONS From the various findings pertaining to characteristics associated with the person of the director, i t was apparent that high adoption was associated largely with several aspects of professionalism. This includes study in adult education since receiving the appointment as director, par-ticipation i n professional training i n adult education during the previous year, the perception of the position of director as a professional one, the perception of adult education as a career, the perception of receiving a full-time salary from the directorship, attendance at adult education association meetings, office holding i n the British Columbia Association of Adult Education Directors, the reading of adult education journals and periodicals, and involvement i n inter-personal communication with colleagues on professional matters. Further, the two remaining personal characteristics of experience and job satisfaction which were associated with adoption would seem at least peripherally related to other aspects of professionalism too. 227 Increased professional competence i s l i k e l y to develop with experience, and increased job satisfaction might well occur in work of a more professional nature requiring both the exercise of judgment and participation i n decision making. Thus, i t seems that high adoption i s inter-related with the profes-sionalism of the director to a very considerable degree. Since v i r t u a l l y a l l the personal characteristics which were found significantly related to adoption clustered around the professionalism of the director, i t would seem prudent for a school system, desiring the exten-sive adoption of administrative practices by i t s director, to support certain measures conducive to his professionalization. There were at least several significant work situational factors of the organizational system which could be viewed from this perspective. Whether the director i s employed on a full-time or part-time assign-ment i s a central consideration and emerged as the key variable contributing to more than one half of the variance (54.3*) i n adoption scores. Moreover, the data indicated that the significantly high adoption scores were achieved by those directors who had been employed on a full-time basis. It also seems l i k e l y that i f school d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s deem the position of director sufficiently important to grant him full-time for his work and attach no additional job responsibilities then such a director i s l i k e l y to have time at his disposal to develop and pursue his professional interests as well as to be regularly engaged in a wide variety of other tasks i n his work as director. These would probably include searching out and trying new practices. Similarly, i t seems important that school d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s encourage the director to participate in adult education training, provide him with per-sonnel to assist him i n his work, and pay an adequate full-time salary for the position. Such provisions seem to obviate the need to provide either funds or o f f i c i a l administrative leave for the director to attend adult 228 education training. Another organizational factor related to adoption i s whether or not the director i s involved i n the preparation and presentation of an annual budget to the school board. Significantly high adopting directors performed such a task while low adopters did not. This same activity might be examined within a professional context. Thus, i f school d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s are v desirous of involving their director i n a greater degree of professional responsibility, then they might require his participation i n the budgeting process as one of his designated duties. The choice of the director's immediate superior i n the administrative hierarchy i s an important matter for consideration i n regard to both adop-tion and professionalism. The data i n this study indicated that high adop-tion was related to the director having a professional educator i n the person of the District Superintendent of Education as his immediate superior rather than a non-professional such as the Secretary-Treasurer or some other school board member. Considered from the viewpoint of professionalism, i t seems probable that a greater degree of professional inter-change and com-munication would be facili t a t e d i f both the director and his immediate superior were both professional educators. This point would seem to merit attention especially when organizational hierarchies are being designed or when a director i s f i r s t appointed to a school d i s t r i c t . With regard to other communication behavior, i t seemed apparent that high adopting directors relied chiefly upon professional colleagues of the local chapter of their professional association for informational input, particularly at the awareness stage of adoption. Thus, i t i s at the local chapter level that opinion leaders should be identified and change strategies developed. Within the confined social system of the chapter, the opinion leaders are sought out and consulted on a person-to-person basis directly at meetings and by 2 2 9 telephone. It appears largely a f u t i l e effort to rely to any extent upon impersonal materials and the mass media to promote change among the directors when they reject these as information sources even at the i n i t i a l stages of the adoption process. In summary, i t seems that the adoption of recommended administrative practices investigated i n this study was largely a Reflection of the director's administrative competence and professionalism. Development i n these areas was certainly f a c i l i t a t e d by appointing the director to a f u l l -time position, and by supplying him with other organizational supports. 230 BIBLIOGRAPHY A-. Books and General Works Berelson, Bernard and Morris Janowitz. Reader i n Public Opinion  and Communication. 2nd ed. New York: The Free Press, 1966. Bohlen, Joe M. "The Adoption and Diffusion of Ideas in Agriculture" i n Our Changing Rural Society: Perspectives and Trends. Copp, Hames H . ( e d . ) . Ames, Iowa:Iowa State University Press, 1964. Bricknell, Henry M. "State Organization for Educational Change: A Case Study on a Proposal" in Innovation in Education. Miles, M.B. (ed.). New York: Teachers' College Press, Columbia University, I964. Carlson, Richard 0. "School Superintendents and the Adoption of Modern Math: A Social Structure Profile" in Innovations i n  Education. Miles M. (ed.). New York: Teachers' College Press, Columbia University, 1964. Chapin, F. Stuart. Experimental Designs in Sociological Research. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1955 (Revised Edition). Eichholz, Gerard and Everett M. Rogers. "Resistance to the Adoption of Audio-Visual Aids by Elementary School Teachers: Contrasts and Similarities tc Agricultural Innovation i n Innovation in  Education. Miles, Mathew B. (ed.). New York: Teachers' College PresSj Columbia University, 1964. Emery, F. E. and 0 . A. Oeser. Information. Decision and Action: A Study of the Psychological Determinants of Change in  Farming Techniques. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1958. Essert, Paul L.. Creative Leadership of Adult Education. New York: Prentice-Hall Inc., 195.1. Fox, Robert S. and Ronald Lippitt. "The Innovation of Classroom Mental Health Practices" i n Innovation in Education. Miles, M. (ed.), New York: Teachers' College Press, Columbia University, I964. G r i f f i t h s , Daniel E. "Administrative Theory and Change in Organizations" in Innovations i n Education. Miles, M. (ed.). New York: Teachers' College Press, Columbia University, I964. Hovland, C. I., Janis I. L.!and H. H. Kelly. Communication and  Persuasion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953. 231 Johnson, Donald W. "T i t l e III and the Dynamics of Educational Change" i n Innovation i n Education, Miles, Mathew B. (ed.). New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1966. Katz, Elihu. "Diffusion of Innovations," i n The Obstinate Audience. Ann Arbor: Brown and Broomfield Inc., 1965. Lazarfeld, Paul and Berelson B. and H. Gaudet. The People's Choice. 2nd ed., New York: Columbia University Press, 1948. Linton, Ralph. The Study of Man. New York: Appleton-Century Company, 1936. Lionberger, Herbert F. Adoption of New Ideas and Practices. Ames: Iowa State University Press, I960. Mackenzie, Gordon N. "Curricular Change: Participants, Power and Process" i n Innovation i n Education. Miles, M. (ed.). New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964. Miles, Mathew B. "Educational Innovation: the Nature of the Problem," i n Innovation i n Education. Miles, Mathew B. (ed.). New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1966. . "Innovation in Educatikn: Some Generalizations" i n Innovation i n Education. Miles, Mathew B. (ed.). New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964. . "On Temporary Systems" i n Innovation i n Education. Miles, Mathew B. (ed.). New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964. Mort, Paul R. "Studies i n Educational Innovation from the Institute of Administrative Research: an Overview" in Innovation i n Education. Miles, Mathew B. (ed.). New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1964. Public School Adult Education: A Guide for Administrators. Washington: National Association of Public School Adult Educators, 1956. Rogers, Everett M. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1962. Rogers, Everett M. and F. Floyd Shoemaker. Communication of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach. New York: The Free Press, 1971. Schramm, Wilbur. "Procedures and Effects of Mass Communications" i n Mass Media and Education: The f i f t y - t h i r d Yearbook of the  National Society for the Study of Education. Henry, Nelson B. (ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954. Wilcox, R. H. "Some Neglected Areas of Research on Scientific and Technical Communications" in Communications. Thayer L. (ed.). Washington: Spartan Books, 1966. 232 B. Publications of the Government, Learned Societies, and Other Organizations Alleyne, E. Patrick and Coolie Verner. Personal Contacts and the  Adoption of Innovations. Vancouver: Department of Agricul-t u r a l Economics, The University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1969. Beal G. M. and E. M. Rogers. The Adoption of Two Farm Practices i n  a Central Iowa Community. Special Report 26. Ames: Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station, I960. Bohlen, Joe M. "Research Needed on Adoption Models" i n Diffusion  Research Needs. North Central Research Bulletin 186. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Missouri, n.d. Carlson, Richard 0 . Adoption of Educational Innovations. Eugene: The Centre for Advanced Study of Educational Administration. 1965. . MBarriers to Change i n Public Schools" i n Change Processes i n the Public Schools" i n Change Processes i n  the Public Schools. Eugene: The Centre for Advanced Study of Educational Administration, 1965. Clark, Burton R. "Knowledge, Industry and Adults" in Sociological  Backgrounds of Adult Education. Burns, Robert W. (ed.). Chicago: Centre for the Study for Liberal Education for Adults, 1964. Darkenwald, G. G., Beder, H. W. and A. K. Adelman. Problems of  Dissemination and Use of Innovations i n Adult Basic Education:  Selected Research Findings and Recommendations. New York: Center for Adult Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1974-Davis, R. H. Personal and Organizational Variables Related to the  Adoption of Educational Innovations i n Liberal Arts Colleges. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1965. Developing Leadership for Public Responsibility. Extension Department: The University of Br i t i s h Columbia, January 1965• F l i e g e l , F. C. and J. E. Kivlin. Differences Among Improved Farm  Practices as Related to Rates of Adoption. Bulletin 691. College of Agriculture, Pennsylvania State University, 1962. Hoffer, C. R. and D. L. Gibson. The Community Situation as i t Affects Agricultural Extension Work. Special Bulletin 312. East Lansing: Michigan State College Agricultural Experiment Station, October 1941. Leuthold, Frank 0 . 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The Adoption or Rejection of  Innovations by Dairy Farm Operators i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Ottawa: A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics Research Council of Canada, 1967. Verner, Coolie and Frank W. M i l l e r d . Adult Education and the Adoption of Innovations by Orchardists i n the Okanagan Valley  of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966. Wilkening, E. A. "Acceptance of Improved Farm Practices i n Three Coastal P l a i n Counties"in Test B u l l e t i n No. 98. North Carolina A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment Station, May 1952. C. Periodicals Beal, G. M. and E. M. Rogers. "The S c i e n t i s t as a Referent i n the Communication of New Technology" i n Public Opinion Quarterly. 22: 555-563, Winter 1958-59. Beal, G. M., Rogers, E.M. and J . M. Bohlen. " V a l i d i t y of the Concept of Stages i n the Adoption Process" i n Rural Sociology. 22: 166-168, 1957. Brander, L. and B. Kearl. 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"The Functioning of Farmers' Characteristics in Relation to Contact with Media and Practice Adoption" i n Rural  Sociology. 2 5 : 2 8 3 - 2 9 7 , June I 9 6 0 . Fliegel, F. C. and J. E. Kiv l i n . "Attributes of Innovations as Factors i n Diffusion" in The American Journal of Sociology. 7 2 : 2 3 5 - 7 , November 1 9 6 6 . Havens, A. E. "Increasing the Effectiveness of Predicting Innovativeness" in Rural Sociology. 3 0 : 1 5 0 - 1 6 5 , June I 9 6 5 . Holdaway, E. A. and John E. Seeger. "The Development of Indices of Innovativeness" in Canadian Education and Research Digest. 8 : 3 6 6 - 3 9 7 , December 1968. Katz, E. "The Two-Step Flow of Communication: An Up-to-Date Report on Hypotheses" in Public Opinion Quarterly. 2 1 : 6 7 - 7 8 , Spring 1 9 5 7 . Katz, E., Levin, M.L. and H. Hamilton. "Traditions of Research on the Diffusion of Innovations" i n American Sociological Review. 28: 2 3 7 - 2 5 2 , A p r i l 1 9 6 3 . Lavidge, R. J. and G. A. Steiner. "A Model for Predicting Measure-ments of Advertising Effectiveness" in Journal of Marketing. 2 5 : 5 9 - 6 2 , 1 9 6 1 . Mason, R. G. "The Use of Information Sources in the Process of Adoption" in Rural Sociology. 2 9 : 40 -52 , March 1 9 6 4 . Mendez, D. Alfredo. "Social Structure and the Diffusion of Innovation" in Human Organization. 2 7 : 2 4 1 - 2 4 9 , F a l l 1 9 6 8 . Pedersen, H. A. "Cultural Differences in the Acceptance of Recommended Practices" i n Rural Sociology. 1 6 : 3 7 - 4 9 , March 1 9 5 1 . Photiadas, J . D. "Motivation, Contacts and Technological Change in Rural Sociology. 2 7 : 316 -326, September 1 9 6 2 . Price, J. L. "Use of New Knowledge in Organizations" in Human  Organization. 23: 224-234, F a l l I964. 235 Rogers, E. M. and L. E. Rogers. "A Methodological Analysis of Adoption Scales" i n Rural Sociology. 2 6 : 3 2 5 - 3 3 6 ( 1 9 6 1 ) . Ryan, B. and N. C. Gross. "The D i f f u s i o n of Hybrid Seed Corn i n Two Iowa Communities" i n Rural Sociology. 8: 1 5 - 2 4 , 1 9 4 3 . Troldahl, Verling C. "A F i e l d Test of a Modified 'Two-Step Flow of Communications' Model" i n Public Opinion Quarterly. 3 0 : 6 0 9 - 6 2 3 , Winter I 9 6 6 - 6 7 . Van den Ban, A. W. " L o c a l i t y Group Differences i n the Adoption of New Farm Practices," i n Rural Sociology. 2 5 : 3 0 8 - 3 2 0 , September 1 9 6 0 . Verner, Coolie "Cultural D i f f u s i o n and Adult Education" i n Adult  Leadership. : 4 9 - 5 1 , June I 9 6 S . Wales, B. E. "The Development of Adult Education" i n The Journal  of Education of the UBC Faculty of Education. 1 0 : 5-16, A p r i l 1 9 6 4 . Wilkening, E. A. "Roles of Communicating Agents i n Technological Change i n Agriculture" i n S o c i a l Forces. 3 4 : 3 6 I - 3 6 7 , 1 9 5 6 . Winick, C. "The Diffusion of an Innovation among Physicians i n a Large Ci t y " i n Spciometry. 2 4 : 3 8 4 - 3 9 6 , 1 9 6 1 . Wolpert, J . 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"A Study of Organizational Climate, Faculty B e l i e f Systems and Their Relations to the Rate of Adoption of Educational Innovations i n Selected School D i s t r i c t s " (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , State U n i v e r s i t y of New York at Albany, 1970). Benito-Samonte, V i r g i n i a P. "An A p p l i c a t i o n of the Campbell Paradigm to the Adoption of Process of Farmers i n Selected Areas i n the P h i l i p p i n e s " (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Missouri - Columbia, 1970). Bennett, Robert E. "An Analysis of the Relationship of Organizational Climate to Innovations i n Selected Secondary Schools of Pennsylvania and New York" (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , 1968). Boone, Louis E. "The D i f f u s i o n c f An Innovation: A Socio-Economic and P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t Analysis c f Adopters of Community Antenna T e l e v i s i o n Service" (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Arkansas, 1969). Breivogel, William F. "The Relationship of Selected Variables to the Introduction of Educational Innovations i n New Jersey Public School D i s t r i c t s " (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N. J . , I 9 6 7 ) . Camaren, Reuben J . "Innovation As A Factor Influencing the D i f f u s i o n and Adoption Process" (Unpublished Ed.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1966). C a r t i e r , A l . "The Growth of Public School Adult Education" (manuscript submitted for p u b l i c a t i o n i n The Journal of Education of the UBC Faculty of Education, S p e c i a l Issue, November 1971). Chamblias, E. J . "Attitudes of Teachers Toward Adopting Innovations and the Relationship of These Attitudes to Other Variables" (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Texas Technological College, 1968). Childs, John W. "A Study of the B e l i e f Systems of Administrators and Teachers i n Innovative and Non-Innovative School D i s t r i c t s " (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Michigan State University, 19&5) Christiansen, James E. "The Adoption of Educational Innovations Among Teachers of Vocational A g r i c u l t u r e " (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio State University, 1965). C u r r i e , C raig H. "Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s ' Assessment of the Importance of Personal and S i t u a t i o n a l Factors i n the Adoption of Innovations" (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1966). 237 Du Gas, Beverly W. "An Analysis of Certain Factors i n the Diffusion of Innovations in Nursing Practice in Public General Hospitals of the Province of British Columbia" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, The University of Bri t i s h Columbia, 1969). Ekwall, Ralph W. "An Examination of Factors Contributing to the Adoption of the Nebraska English Curriculum i n Selected Nebraska Schools" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Nebraska, 1970). E l l i o t , John G. "Farmers' Perceptions of Innovations as Related to Self-Concept and Adoption" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1969). E l l i s , W i l l i e T. "The Adoption of Educational Innovations Among Experienced Teachers of Vocational Agriculture in Predominantly Negro Schools i n North Carolina" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1968). Fulks, Danny G. "The Utilization of Periodical Literature by Selected ' - ••-Public. School •Superintendents'.1" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee at Memphis, 1968). Genova, William J. "A Study of Relationships Among Selected School System Characteristics and Types of Innovations Adopted by that School System" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Boston University School of Education, 1970). Hanson, John 0. "A Descriptive Study of Basic Data and Educational Innovations Found i n 22 Selected North Dakota Small Schools" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of North Dakota, 1966). Hensley, Oliver D. "A Study of Factors Related to the Acceptance and Adoption of a Cooperative Supplementary Education Service Centre Authorized Under T i t l e III of P.L. 89-10" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Southern I l l i n o i s University, 1968). Hughes, Larry W. "The Organizational Climate Found in Central Administrative Offices of Selected Highly Innovative and Non-Innovative School Districts i n the State of Ohio" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1965). Jacobs, Jan W. "Leadership, Size, and Wealth as Related to Curricular Innovations i n the Junior High School" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1965). Jensen, Le Roy. "Characteristics of Superintendents in Innovative and Non-Innovative School Systems and Interaction with the Iowa Department of Public Instruction" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1967). 238 Kerr, Graham B. "Leadership and Communications i n the Collective Adoption Process of Development Associations i n Eastern Nigeria." (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1970). Khan, Anwar K. "Adoption and Internationalization of Educational Innovation Among Teachers i n the Pilot Secondary Schools of West Pakistan." (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1968). Klingenberg, Allen J. "A Study of Selected Administrative Behavior Among Administrators from Innovative and Non-Innovative Public School Dist r i c t s . " (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1966). Knauer, Thomas E. "A Study of Visits; to Two I l l i n o i s Demonstration Centres as Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Team Teaching." (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, 1970). Kohl, John W. "Adoption Stages and Perceptions of Characteristics of Educational Innovations." (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, 1966). Kuhonta, Maria CM. "An Analysis of the Communications Process i n the Adoption of Farm Innovations." (Unpublished Ph.D. disserta-tion, University of I l l i n o i s , 1969). Lambert, Delbert E. "The Relationship of Abstractness of the Adoption of Educational Innovations" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utah, 1970). La Mantia, Gerald P. "Innovation Adoption and Organizational Climate: Their Relationship to the Job Satisfaction of High School Teachers" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, New York University, 1969). La Plant, James C. "School District Innovativeness and Expectations for the School Board Role" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1966). Lawrence, Clif f o r d J . "Personality Characteristics of School Superintendents Who Implement Innovation in the Public Schools" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Utah State University, 1968). Lee, William B. "A Study of the Educational Opinions of Selected Teachers and Administrators" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, I 967 ) . Leslie, David Knowles. "A Study of Factors Which Facilitate or Inhibit Adoption of Innovative Practices i n Boys' Physical Education i n Secondary Schools" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1970). 239 Marcum, Reigo L. "Organizational Climate and Adoption of Educational Innovations" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Utah State University, 1968). Marks, Claude H. "Factors Influencing the Adoption of Early School Administration Policies and Practices for Mentally Advanced Children" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, I965). Marx, Thomas F. "A Factor Analytic Study of Educational Innovations and Aspects of the Adoption Process" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1970). Meehling, Kenneth R. "The Differential Adoption and Diffusion of Selected Elementary Science Curriculum Innovations Among Elementary School Teachers" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1970). Medeiros, Joseph V. "A Stage-Process Analysis of the Adoption of Innovational Programs in Selected Public Secondary Schools" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Boston University School of Education, I967). Mertz, Robert L. "The Relationship of Selected Variables to the Adoption and Implementation of Recommendations of Educational Surveys of Public School Corporations" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1965). Miller, Juliet V.R. "A Study of Factors Related to the Adoption of Innovations by Counselor Educators and Counselor Education Departments" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1970). Mims, Crawford J. "Attitudes of Arkansas School Administrators Toward the Adoption or Rejection i n Education" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Arkansas, I968). Nicholson, Everett W. "Selected School District and Administrative Variables Related to the Adoption of Instructional Television" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Furdue University, I965). Pastre, John A. "Adoption of Innovations: Sources and Channels of Information Used by Elementary School Principals" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1968). Peach, Samuel W. "Relationship Between Certain Factors in the Role of the School Principal and the Adoption of Innovative Instructional Practices" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1967). Peterman, Lloyd E. "The Relationship of In-Service Education to the Innovativeness of the Classroom Teacher in Selected Public Secondary Schools i n Michigan" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1966). 240 Peterson, Barbara A. "Adoption of E d u c a t i o n a l Innovations: A S o c i a l System Approach" (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1 9 6 9 ) . Peterson, I r v i n g M. " R e l a t i o n s h i p between School Superintendents' P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n s , Perceived S i t u a t i o n a l Pressures and Innovativeness" (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Rutgers: S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , New Brunswick, N. J . , 1 9 6 8 ) . Reeves, F h i l l i p N. "A Study of Adoption of E l e c t r o n i c Data Processing i n the H o s p i t a l Industry" (Unpublished D.B.A., George Washington U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 0 ) . Reynolds, Fred D. "An A n a l y s i s of the Adoption Process of R e t a i l Merchants f o r a Bank Charge Account P l a n " (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama, 1 9 7 0 ) . Reynolds, James J . "A Study of Factors A f f e c t i n g the Adoption of E d u c a t i o n a l Innovations i n S e l e c t e d Secondary Schools" (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 0 ) . Rogers, E v e r e t t M. and F. Floyd Shoemaker. " D i f f u s i o n of Innovations: A C r o s s-Cultural Approach" (Unpublished manuscript m a t e r i a l , 1 9 6 8 ) . Roosa, Jack L # "A Study of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Climate, Leader Behavior, and t h e i r R e l a t i o n t o the Rate of Adoption of E d u c a t i o n a l Innovations i n S e l e c t e d School D i s t r i c t s " (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York at Albany, 1 9 6 8 ) . Smith, Duane R. "A Study of Elementary Teachers, A t t i t u d e s toward B e l i e f s about the Use of Newer I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s " (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h , 1 9 6 6 ) . Smith, P r i s c i l l a R. "The Influences Which Teachers I d e n t i f i e d As A f f e c t i n g T h e i r Adoption of Recommended Teaching P r a c t i c e s " (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Denver, 1 9 6 3 ) . Sohol, Thomas. "Rockwood Adopts a D i a l - S e l e c t T e l e v i s i o n System: A Study of Education Decision-Making Roles and Progresses i n a Suburban Community" (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 9 ) . Spencer, Eugene N. " V a r i a b l e s A f f e c t i n g the Adoption of E d u c a t i o n a l Innovations i n S e l e c t e d School D i s t r i c t s of Oakland County, Michigan" (Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Wayne Sta t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 7 ) . Starr, A l v i n D. "Adoption of Innovations by Large R e t a i l Merchants f o r a Bank Charge Account P l a n . " (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama, 1 9 7 0 ) . 241 Trivedi, Devinder N. "Opinion Leadership and Adoption of Agricultural Innovations i n Eight Indian Villages" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1969). Unger, Marvin H. "A Study of the Relationship of Selected Organizational Climate Variables and Personal Background Variables to the Expressed Willingness of Teachers to Adopt Trusting Attitudes" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1970). Wilkes, Sam T. "A Study to Determine the Relationship Between Selected School Organizational Climates and the Adoption of Innovations" (Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Auburn University, 1969). Wygal, Benjamin R. "Personal Characteristics and Situational Perceptions of Junior College Instructors as Related to Innovativeness" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, 1966). 242 U. B.C. /DEPARTMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION/70 Respondent's; Number School Di strict INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Respondent's Name Location Record of Interview: Date Time Comments Interview and Field check Office Coding Final Check 243 1 Identification Data Respondent's Number Card Number PART A FOR USE WITH DIRECTORS START INTERVIEW HERE 1. Sex of respondent 1. Male 4. 1 2. Female 2 2. What is your marital status ? 1. Single 5. 1 2. Married 2 3. Widowed, divorced or separated 3 3. What is your age? 6,7. 1. Below 25 8. 1 2. 25 - 34 2 3. 35 - 44 3 4. 45 - 54 4 5. 55-64 - 5 6. 65 or over 6 4. How many years of schooling had you completed when you were employed as director? 9, 10. 1. Less than high school graduation 11. 1 2. High school graduation 2 3. Post secondary education other than university 3 4. 1-3 years university 4 5. College graduation 5 6. Graduate work (less than masters) 6 7. Masters degree 7 8. Graduate work beyond masters but less than doctorate 8 9. Doctorate or beyond • 9 5. If you had post secondary training other than university, in what were you trained? 12,14. 1,2. 3. 1 15. 244 2 6. What systematic study in adult education had you completed before your appointment as director? (describe) 16,18. 19. 7. What systematic study in adult education have you completed since your appointment as director? 20,22. 23. 8. What systematic study in administration had you completed before your appointment as director? 24,26. 27. 9. What systematic study in administration have you completed since your appointment as director? 28, 30. 31. 10. During 1969-70, have you participated in any kinds of professional training? (List) 32,34. 35. 245 3 11. If you have not participated in any formal professional development in adult education, please state the answer that best indicates your reason: 1. Do not feel a need 36. 1 2. Insufficient time 2 3. Too late in career 3 4. Too expensive 4 5. No opportunity available 5 6. Already have training 6 7. Have plans to begin in future 7 8. Present position doesn't require it 8 9. Other (describe) 9 12. Do your school officials actively encourage you to participate in in-service training in adult education? 1. Frequently 37. 1 2. Occasionally 2 3. Never 3 13. Are funds made available regularly by your school officials in order that you may attend adult education training activities ? 1. Frequently 38. 1 2. Occasionally 2 3. Never 3 14. Are you regularly granted administrative leave by your school officials in order to attend adult education training activities ? 1. Frequently 2. Occasionally 3. Never 15. Prior to your appointment as director, list the specific jobs which you held for more than six months, beginning with the most recent one. Length Previous Job 1 of time 40, 41. Length Previous Job 2 of time 43, 44. 39. 1 2 3 45. 246 Length Previous Job 3 of time 46, 47. 48-Length Previous Job 4 of time _____ 49,50. 51. Length Previous Job 5 of time 52, 53. 54. 16. Amount of time officially employed as Director: 55, 56. 1. Less than 25% of total time (less than 10 hours/week) 57. 1 2. 25 - 49% (10 - 19 hrs) 2 3. 50 - 74% (20 - 29 hrs) 3 4. 75 - 99% (30 - 39 hrs) 4 5. Full-time (no other position and works 40 hours or more a week) 5 17. Do you have job responsibilities in addition to those involved with adult education? 1. Yes 58. 1 2. No 2 If yes, describe the additional job responsibilities you have. 59,60. 61. 18. If you had a choice, would you prefer to devote full-time to adult education work? 1. Yes 62. 1 ,2. Undecided 2 3. No 3 19. Were you appointed to your position as director from: 1. Within the school system 63. 1 2. Another school system 2 3. Other (specify) 3 247 5 20. How many years have you been employed as a director of adult education? 64,65. 1. 2 or less 66. 1 2 . 3 - 5 2 3. 6-10 3 4. 11 - 15 4 5. 16 - 20 5 6. 21-25 6 7. 26 and over 7 21. How many years have you been employed as director in your present position? 67,68. 1. 2 or less 69. 1 2 . 3 - 5 2 3. 6 - 10 3 4. 11-15 4 5. 16-20 5 6. 21-25 6 7. 26 and over 7 22. Total number of adult classes operated under your direction during the 1969-70 school term. 70, 72. 1. Less than 25 73. 1 2. 25 - 99 2 3. 100 - 149 3 4. 150 - 199 4 5. 200 - 249 5 6. 250 - 299 6 7. 300 - 349 7 8. 350 - 399 8 9. 400 or more 9 23. Total number of instructional personnel under your direction during the 1969-70 school term. 74,76. 1. Less than 5 77. 1 2. 5 - 24 2 3. 25 - 49 3 4. 50 - 74 4 5. 75 - 99 5 6. 100 - 124 6 7. 125 - 149 7 8. 150 - 174 8 9. 175 or more 9 24. Total number of full-time administrative and supervisory personnel under your direction during the 1969-70 term (i.e., assistant directors, night school principals, supervisors, etc.) 25. Total number of part-time administrative and supervisory personnel under your direction during the 1969-70 term. 26. Total number of secretarial personnel under your direction during the 1969-70 term. ,  START DATA CARD 2 Respondent's Number Card Number 27. Income: Do you receive a full-time salary for your work as director of adult education? 28. What is your total (gross) salary from your position as Director of Adult Education ? 1. Yes 2. No 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Less than $500 500 - 1,999 2,000 - 3,999 4,000 - 5,999 6,000 - 7,999 8,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 11,999 12,000 - 13,999 14,000 - 15,999 16, 000 or more 249 7 29. What is your total (gross) salary from other positions in the school system ? 11,15. 0. Less than $500 16. 0 1. 500 - 1,999 1 2. 2,000 - 3,999 2 3. 4,000 - 5,999 3 4. 6,000 - 7,999 4 5. 8,000 - 9,999 5 6. 10,000 - 11,999 6 7. 12,000 - 13,999 7 8. 14,000 - 15,999 8 9. 16, 000 or more 9 30. What is your total (gross) salary from other work? 17,21. 0. Less than $500 22. 0 1. 500 - 1,999 1 2. 2,000 - 3,999 2 3. 4,000 - 5,999 3 4. 6,000 - 7,999 4 5. 8,000 - 9,999 5 6. 10,000 - 11,999 6 7. 12,000 - 13,999 7 8. 14,000 - 15,999 8 9. 16, 000 or more 9 The following section contains questions which relate to how you view certain aspects of your work'as Director, as well as to your participation in professional and community organizations. 31. Which statement clearly describes your reason for accepting the position of director ? 23,24. Encouragement from administrative officials 25. 0 Opportunity for advancement 1 More attractive working conditions 2 . Position provided scope for administrative ability 3 Increase in salary 4 Interest in the field of adult education 5 Desire for change for purely personal reasons 6 Increased job status 7 Opportunity for further training 8 Desire to experiment in order to bring about change 9 Other (i.e., location of community, etc.)Describe. A B 250 32. In what order of time spent would you rank the following activities as far as your own work as director is involved? 1. Professional Development (attending conferences, workshops, meetings, reading'journals and literature, etc.) 26,27. 2. Administration (involving regular administrative routine) 28,29. 3. Administration (organizing classes and super-vising the program) 30,31. 4. Consultation and Counselling (giving advice, making recommendations and counselling with individuals or groups) 32,33. 5. Information and Dissemination (provision of latest research findings in adult education to individuals, groups and the mass media) 34,35. 6. Organization and Supervision of special events (promoting, arranging, and supervising meetings, demonstrations, tours and field trips) 36,37.. 7. Organization of Groups (helping people organize themselves into groups, elect officers, draft constitutions, etc.) 38,39. 8. Teaching and Instructing (formally conducting classes and groups) 40,41. 9. Facilitating and Expediting (service work done for individuals in the community) 42,43. 10. Time spent in work not related to adult education. 44,45. 11. Other (describe) 46,47. 33. I will now read you four statements that may express how you feel about your work as director. Please select the answer which best fits your situation. a) How well do you like the sort of work you are doing? (a) very satisfied 48. 1 (b) moderately satisfied 2 (c) neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 3 (d) moderately dissatisfied 4 (e) very dissatisfied 5 251 9 (b) Does your job give you a change to do the things you feel you do best ? (a) very frequently 49. 1 (b) frequently 2 (c) occasionally 3 (d) rarely 4 (e) never 5 (c) Do you get any feeling of accomplishment from the work you are doing ? (a) very frequently 50. 1 (b) frequently 2 (c) occasionally 3 (d) rarely 4 (e) never 5 (d) How do you feel about your work, i.e., does it rate as an important job with you? (a) very important 51. 1 (b) important 2 (c) neither important nor unimportant 3 (d) hardly any importance 4 (e) no importance 5 Total Score 52,53. 34. In general, how do you regard your position as 54. director of adult education? 1. Highly professional 55. 1 2. Professional 2 3. Semi-professional 3 4. Not at all professional 4 5. Don't know 5 35. Do you perceive adult education as your career? 1. Yes 56. 1 2. Undecided 2 3. No 3 36. Do you plan to move on to some other position in the school system? 1. Yes 57. 1 2. Undecided 2 3. No 3 252 10 37. I will now read you six statements about changes that could occur in your future. Please say whether you agree or disagree with each statement. a. I would not mind leaving here in order to make a substantial advance in my occupation 58. b. I do not want any new job which involves more responsibility 59. c. I would not leave this area under any circumstances 60. d. Learning a new routine would be very difficult for me 61. e. I would find it very difficult to go to school (or university) to learn new skills 62. f. I have no desire to learn a new trade (or line of work) 63. Agree Undecided Disagree Total Score Add 1 Scale Score = +1 64. 253 11 38. (CHAPIN SCALE) Would you please try to recall the names of all the community organizations that you have belonged to in the past year. (Do not include attendance at church.) Total Score 65,66. Name of Organiza-tion Atten-dance Finan-cial contr. Member of Com-mittee Offices Held 1. 2. 3. 4. . 5. 6. 7. 8. Total (XI) (X2) (X3) (X4) (X5) Score 0 I - 5 6 - 10 II - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 31 - 35 Over 35 67. 39. Would you please try to recall all the professional activities (adult education) you have engaged in during 1969-70. Total score (attendance) 68,69. Total score (office holding) 70, 71, (Name Them) Pd. Membership in Prof. Assn. Attends local meetings, work shops, etc. Attends region-al meetings, workshops, etc. Attends Prov. meetings, work shops, etc. Attends national international meetings, work shops, etc. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Total (XI) (X2) (X3) (X4) (X5) Total Score Code 72,73. 74. Score attendance-0 1 - 9 10 - 19 20 - 29 30 - 39 40 - 49 50 - 59 60 - 69 Over 69 75. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 254 12 (Name Them) P.D. Membership in Prof. Assn. Holds office, local association Holds office, regionally Holds office, provincially Holds national or internationa office 1. 2-. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Total (XI) (X2) (X3) (X4) (X5) Score office holding 0 76. 1 1-9 2 10-19 3 20 - 29 4 30 - 39 5 40 - 49 6 50-59 7 60 - 69 8 Over 69 9 40. What journals and periodicals do you read? Total score 77,78. Name of Journal or Periodical Rea & a U <D ix, O ding Fre i " .2 = i O S rt quency • CD fH ai >, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Totals (XI) (X3) <X2) (XI) Score 0 I - 5 6 - 10 II - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 31 - 35 Over 35 79. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 START DATA CARD 3 Respondent's Number Card Number -1,2. 3. 41. Recommended Practice and Sources of Information I will now list a number of administrative practices. I want you to tell me if you are aware of these practices and what progress, if any, you have made towards their adoption. Also what sources of information you have used in working towards adoption of each of these practices. (In space provided enter brief description to identify appropriate adoption stage and enter the numbers of the sources of information. Hand information card to respondent.) A. Administrative Practices, re: buildings, equipment facilities etc. 1. Extends use of school facilities and equipment to other persons and community agencies also involved in adult education activities. (Describe) Sources of Information: Year Adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 4. 5,6. 7,8. 9, 10. 11,12. M4i*jT<£Mwc& ere-Provides a central clearing house containing information files on adult education services and resources of the community. Year Adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 13. 14,15. 16, 17. 18,19. 20,21. Sources of Information: 14 3. Makes audio-visual equipment and other teaching devices available for instructors. Sources of Information: 4. Uses locations other than the school in which to conduct adult education activities. Sources of Information: 5. Makes school facilities, library resources school equipment, etc. available to adults engaged in self-study activities. Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 22. 23,24. 25,26. 27,28. 29,30. Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted Sources of Information: Year adopted Doesn't apply INever adopted 31. 32,33. 34, 35. 36,37. 38,39. 40. 41,42. 43,44. 45,46. 47,48. B. Administrative Practice, re; Programming 1. In program planning employs systematic procedures for an over-all assessment of community needs. Year adopted Doesn't apply INever adopted 49. 50,51. 52,53. 54,55. 56,57. Sources of Information: 15 257 Makes surveys of participants to identify those adults not served by existing programs. Sources of Information: Conducts surveys and analyses of adults who have dropped out of programs. Sources of Information: Year adopted Doesn't apply Never 'adopted Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 58. 59,60. 61,62. 63,64. 65,66. 67. 68,69. 70,71. 72,73. 74,75. START DATA CARD 4 Respondent's Number Card Number 4. Provides for consultation with a variety of individuals, community groups, and agencies in program planning (i.e. advisory councils, etc.) Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 1,2. 3. 4. 5,6. 7,8. 9, 10. 11, 12. Sources of Information: 16 Uses recruiting procedures other than the mass media to interest persons to enrol in adult education activities. Sources of Information: 6. Employs persons other than day school teachers to conduct adult education activities. Sources of Information: 7. Involves instructors in selecting and scheduling adult educational courses and programs. Sources of Information: Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 13. 14,15. 16,17. 18,19. 20,21. Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 22. 23,24. 25,26. 27,28. 29,30. Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 31. 32,33. 34,35. 36,37. 38,39. C. Administrative Practice, re: Participants 1. Arrange for day-time courses for adults who work afternoon and evening shifts. Sources of Information: Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 40. 41,42. 43,44. 45,46. 47,48. 17 Arranges for enrollment of adults in correspondence courses, programmed instruction, etc. when courses are not provided locally. Sources of Information: 3. Eliminates fees for adult students enrolled in credit courses at the school Sources of Information: Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 4. Makes special arrangements for fee payments by Welfare and other Social Assistance Agencies. Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 49. 50,51. 52,53. 54,55. 56,57. 58. 59,60. 61,62. 63,64. 65,66. 67. 68,69. 70,71. 72,73. 74,75. Sources of Information: START DATA CARD 5 Respondent's Number Card Number 1,2. 3. 18 5. Eliminates the payment of fees by Old Age Pensioners. Sources of Information: 6. Arranges for varying course starting times in order to allow registration in courses more than once or twice during the year. Sources of Information: 7. Provides adult guidance and counselling services. Sources of Information: Encourages the formation of an adult student association. Sources of Information: Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 4. 5,6. 7,8. 9,10. 11,12. 13. 14,15. 16,17. 18,19. 20,21. 22. 23,24. 25,26. 27,28. 29,30. 31. 32,33. 34,35. 36,37. 38,39. 19 D. Administrative Practice, re: Instructors 1. Provides continuing opportunities for the systematic in-service training of adult education instructors. Sources of Information: Provides instructors with incentives for participation in in-service training programs. Sources of Information: Department subscribes to adult education journals and periodicals which are made available to instructors. Sources of Information: Assists instructors to develop their own curriculum and teaching materials. Sources of Information: Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 40. 41,42. 43,44. 45,46. 47,48. 49. 50,51. 52,53. 54,55. 56,57. 58. 59,60. 61,62. 63,64. 65,66. 67. 68,69. 70,71. 72,73. 74,75. 20 START DATA CARD 6 Respondent's Number Card Number 1,2. 3. 5. Employs a system of supervision that includes a variety of techniques rather than consisting of a single procedure (i.e. visitation or analysis of attendance figures). Sources of Information: Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 4. 5,6. 7,8. 9,10. 11,12. 6. Makes provision for instructors to participate in the co-operative planning of proposed annual budgets. Sources of Information: Year adopted Doesn't apply Never adopted 13. 14,15. 16, 17. 18,19. 20,21. Total score 23. Coded score 24,26. 1 263 START DATA CARD 7 Respondent's Number 1,2. Card Number 3. PART B INFORMATION FROM SCHOOL BOARD RECORDS 1. Total number of elementary and high school students presently enrolled in district schools. 4,9. 1. Less than 3,000 10. 1 2. 3,000 - 5,999 2 3. 6,000 - 8,999 3 4. 9,000 - 11,999 4 5. 12,000 - 14,999 5 6. 15,000 - 17,999 6 7. 18,000 - 20,999 7 8. 21,000 - 23,999 8 9. 24, 000 or more 9 2. Total number of adult students presently enrolled in programs. 11,15. 1. Less than 100 16. I 2. 100 - 499 .2 3. 500 - 999 3 4. 1,000 - 1,499 4 5. 1,500 - 1,999 5 6. 2,000 - 2,499 6 7. 2,500 - 2,999 7 8. 3,000 - 3,499 8 9. 3, 500 or more 9 Expenditure per Pupil Basis (non-capital costs) 3. Per pupil expenditure in school system. 17,20. 1. Less than 500 21. 1 2. 500 - 599 ' 2 3. 600 - 699 3 4. 700 - 799 4 5. 800 - 899 5 6. 900 - 999 6 7. 1,000 - 1,099 - 7 8. 1,100 - 1,199 8 9. 1,2 00 or more 9 4. Per pupil expenditure for adults. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Less than 100 100 - 199 200 - 299 300 - 399 400 - 499 500 - 599 600 - 699 700 - 799 800 or more 5. Revenues collected for adult education during 1968-69. 6. Expenditures for adult education during 1968-69. 7. Profit or loss on Programs 1968-69. 1. Profit 2. Loss 8. Revenues collected for adult education during 1969-70. 9. Expenditures budgeted for adult education during 1969-70. START DATA CARD 8 Respondent's Number Card Number 10. Profit or loss on Programs 1969-70. 1. Profit 2. Loss Amount Amount 265 3 11. Percentage of School Operating Budget Allocated to Adult Education during 1969-70. 14,17. 1. Less than . 005 18. 1 2. . 005 - . 009 2 3. .010 - .014 3 4. .015 - .019 4 5. .020 - .024 5 6. .025 - .029 6 7. .030 - .034 7 8. .035 - .039 8 9. . 04 or more 9 12. D i s t r i c t Assessment Base. - 19,28. 1. Less than 25,000,000 29. 1 2. 25,000,000 - 49,999,999 2 3. 50,000,000 - 74,999,999 3 4. 75,000,000 - 99,999,999 4 5. 100,000,000 - 124,999,999 5 6. 125,000,000-149,999,999 6 7. 150,000,000-174,999,999 7 8. 175,000,000 - 199,999,999 8 9. 200, 000, 000 or more 9 13. Education M i l l rate for school d i s t r i c t . • ' 30,33. 1. Less than 10 34. 1 2. 10 - 14 2 3. 1 5 - 1 9 3 4. 20 - 24 4 5. 25 - 29 5 6. 30 - 34 6 7. 35 - 39 7 8. 40 - 44 8 9. 45 or more 9 14. Distance from Vancouver. 35,38. 1. Less than 50 39. 1 2. 50 - 99 2 3. 100 - 149 3 4. 150 - 199 4 5. 200 - 299 5 6. 300 - 399 6 7. 400 - 499 7 8. 500 - 599 8 9. 600 or more 9 266 4 15. Type of administrative organization. 1. district superintendent as chief executive officer 40. 1 2 . secretary-treasurer as chief executive officer 2 3. Other (describe) 3 267 APPENDIX II TWENTY SEVEN NON SIGNIFICANT VARIABLES IDENTIFIED BY R 2 (COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION) PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. Sex 2. Marital Status 3. Age 4. Years of Schooling Completed 5. Study i n Adult Education Prior to Appointment 6. Study i n Administration Prior to Appointment 7. Study i n Administration Since Appointment 8. Number of Previous Jobs 9. Reason For Accepting Position 10. Salary From Outside Work 11. Career Plans Within School System 12. Attitude Toward Change Score 13. Social Participation Score COMMUNICATION FACTORS 1. Use of Professional Education Journals 2. Types of Information Sources at Awareness Stage 3. Type8 of Information Sources at Interest Stage 4. Types of Information Sources at Evaluation Stage 5. Types of Information Sources at T r i a l Stage 6. Types of Information Sources at Adoption Stage 7. Origin of Information Sources at Interest Stage 8. Origin of Information Sources at Evaluation Stage 9. Origin of Information Sources at T r i a l Stage 10. Origin of Information Sources at Adoption stage SITUATIONAL FACTORS 1. Provision of Funds For Adult Education Training 2. Provision of Administrative Leave For Adult Education Training 3. Ranking of Time Spent on Supervisory Administration STRUCTURAL FEATURES 1. Education M i l l Rate of School Dis t r i c t APPENDIX III TEN SIGNIFICANT VARIABLES NOT INCLUDED IN REGRESSION ANALYSIS COMMUNICATION FACTORS 1. Origin of Information Sources at the Awareness Stage SITUATIONAL FACTORS 1. Ranking of Time Spent on Professional Development 2. Ranking of Time Spent on Routine Administration 3. Ranking of Time Spent on Consultation and Counselling 4. Ranking of Time Spent on Information Dissemination 5. Ranking of Time Spent on Organization of Special Events 6. Ranking of Time Spent on Organization of Groups 7. Ranking of Time Spent on Teaching 8. Ranking of Time Spent on Facilitating For Individuals 9 . Ranking of Time Spent on Work Not Related to Adult Education 

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