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A structural analysis of Gottfried Von Strassburg’s "Tristan" based on the structural markers of extant… Woods, Gurli Aagaard 1975

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A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF GOTTFRIED VON STRASSBURG'S TRISTAN BASED ON THE STRUCTURAL MARKERS OF EXTANT MANUSCRIPTS. by GURLI AAGAARD WOODS A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR OF PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of German We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1975 In presenting t h i s thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make i t f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for s cho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of th i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permiss ion. Department of German The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e A p r i l 30, 1975 Abstract The purpose of t h i s study i s to analyse the s t r u c t u r e of G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg's T r i s t a n and to base such an analysis on the s t r u c t u r a l markers i n the extant MSS of the romance. Before embarking on the s t r u c t u r a l analysis we discuss various approaches to analysing the structure of a given work; we thereby touch upon problems such as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and content and the importance of consulting the MSS of the work concerned f o r possible i n -d i c a t i o n s of structure. In order to have an objective basis to work from,we e s t a b l i s h s t a -t i s t i c a l l y a model MS which represents the average of the t o t a l number of s t r u c t u r a l markers ( i n i t i a l s ) i n the extant T r i s t a n MSS. Our approach i s based on the assumption that most of the o r i g i n a l s tructure markers f i l t e r e d through to the various MSS and that they can be r e s t o r e d — a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y — b y focusing on an average representation of the i n i t i a l s i n the MSS. The MSS are then placed on an evaluation scale according to the degree to which t h e i r i n i t i a l s coincide with those of the model MS. During the subsequent s t r u c t u r a l analysis t h i s evaluation scale helps to determine which paragraph d i v i s i o n s are "weak." Our s t r u c t u r a l analysis i s i n two parts; the f i r s t part i s a de-t a i l e d a n alysis of the Vorgeschichte based on the paragraph d i v i s i o n s ( i n i t i a l s ) of the model MS. The Vorgeschichte has been chosen as the object f o r the s t r u c t u r a l analysis p a r t l y because i t forms the smallest n a r r a t i v e complex within the epic while at the same time containing enough n a r r a t i v e units to enable us to detect possible numerical struc-i i i tures within t h i s complex and p a r t l y on the assumption that the scribes most l i k e l y copied the f i r s t portions of the epic more accurately than l a t e r sections, thus also following the s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t i o n s of t h e i r source more f a i t h f u l l y . In the second part of our s t r u c t u r a l analysis we deal with the a c r o s t i c s . By examining i n d e t a i l the large i n i t i a l s i n the MSS, we obtain an accurate p i c t u r e of the three a c r o s t i c s i n T r i s t a n , and we proceed to discuss the possible s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l s f o r the o v e r - a l l structure of the romance. Our s t r u c t u r a l analysis of the Vorgeschichte, based on the para-graph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS, shows that G o t t f r i e d s i n g l e s out spe-c i f i c points i n the n a r r a t i v e (the well documented paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS) both by i n i t i a l s and by accompanying recurrent s t y l i s t i c features and that h i s reason for doing so i s to structure h i s work accord-ing to numerical symmetrical patterns. The f a c t that such patterns emerge when we group the paragraphs of the model MS of the Vorgeschichte accord-ing to content indicates that further study of other parts of T r i s t a n based on the s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t i o n s i n the MSS would provide us with more information about Gottfried's technique of s t r u c t u r i n g h i s n a r r a t i v e . i v Table of Contents Chapter I Introduction. 1 Footnotes, 6 Chapter II Various Views on the Relationship between Form and Content. 7 Footnotes, 24 Chapter I I I The Importance of Consulting the MSS with Regard to the S t r u c t u r a l Markers; Hans-jUrgen Linke's Approach to Selecting and Evaluating the S t r u c t u r a l Markers i n the MSS of Hartmann's Epics. 26 Footnotes, 43 Chapter IV A S t a t i s t i c a l Approach to Selec t i n g I n i t i a l s from the T r i s t a n MSS f o r a "Model MS," and an Evaluation of the MSS i n t h e i r Relation to t h i s Model MS. 44 Footnotes, 70 Chapter V A S t r u c t u r a l Analysis of the Vorgeschichte of T r i s t a n Based on the Paragraph Div i s i o n s of the Model MS. 73 Footnotes, 102 Chapter VI Numerical Structure Patterns i n the Vorgeschichte Based on the Paragraph D i v i s i o n s of the Model MS. 106 Footnotes, 122 Chapter VII An Examination of the Large I n i t i a l s i n the T r i s t a n MSS. 125 Footnotes, 139 Chapter VIII Various Interpretations of the Large I n i t i a l s (the A c r o s t i c s ) . 143 Footnotes, 162 Chapter IX The Over-All Structure of T r i s t a n Based on the A c r o s t i c I n i t i a l s . 168 Footnotes, 183 Chapter X Conclusion. 185 Footnotes, 192 L i s t of Works Consulted. 193 Appendix (the Model MS). 202 Acknowledgement wish to express my sincere thanks to my thesis supervisor Professor Michael S. Batts. Preface The aim of t h i s study i s to base a s t r u c t u r a l analysis of G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg's T r i s t a n und I s o l d on the s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t i o n s i n a l l extant MSS of the romance, complete ones as well as fragmentary ones. The analysis i s i n two parts: (1) a d e t a i l e d analysis of the structure of the Vorgeschichte based on a model MS containing i n i t i a l s selected s t a t i s t i c a l l y from the T r i s t a n MSS, and (2) an analysis of the o v e r - a l l structure of the romance based on a thorough examination of the large i n i t i a l s i n the MSS and t h e i r meaning, i . e . the a c r o s t i c s . Assuming that G o t t f r i e d did i n fact intend to i n d i c a t e the structure of h i s work by means of i n i t i a l s , we have devised a method by which we attempt to bring these s t r u c t u r a l markers to the surface by s t a t i s t i c a l l y s e l e c t i n g an average representation of a l l i n i t i a l s i n a l l extant T r i s t a n MSS for a "model MS." The method was devised also on the assumption that the o r i g i n a l i n i t i a l s f i l t e r e d through to the various MSS and could be restored to a c e r t a i n degree through such a s t a t i s t i c a l approach. Before we o u t l i n e our actual approach to s e l e c t i n g the i n i t i a l s f o r the model MS, we s h a l l discuss various approaches to analysing the structure of a given work and thereby touch upon problems such as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and content as well as the importance of consulting the MSS f o r information pertaining to the formal aspects-of the work concerned. We s h a l l also discuss i n some d e t a i l HansjUrgen Linke's method of evaluating the i n i t i a l s i n the MSS of Hartmann's epics, as our approach i s i n some ways s i m i l a r to h i s , i n that we are i n t e r e s t e d i n r e s t o r i n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y the " o r i g i n a l " s t r u c t u r a l markers f o r our model MS. Our model MS does not claim to be an exact duplicate of the o r i g i n a l structure markers as intended by G o t t f r i e d ; there are some weakly documented paragraph d i v i s i o n s ( i n i t i a l s ) i n i t , which we s h a l l consider i n our s t r u c t u r a l analysis only with caution, and our evaluation of the MSS i n r e l a t i o n to the model MS w i l l help us to determine which paragraph d i v i s i o n s are "weak." We bel i e v e , however, that the model MS provides us with a reasonably r e l i a b l e basis on which to conduct our s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t part of our s t r u c t u r a l analysis i s a close study of the Vorgeschichte. Here we s h a l l attempt to show how the paragraphs of the model MS break up the narr a t i v e and whether s t y l i s t i c features and the d i v i s i o n of the content support these paragraph d i v i s i o n s . I f such support i s i n evidence we s h a l l attempt to determine whether numerical patterns and/or symmetric patterns can be established when the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS are grouped according to content. Our model MS does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between ordinary and large i n i t i a l s or between ornamented and p l a i n ones, nor does i t in d i c a t e which l e t t e r s of the alphabet make up i t s paragraph d i v i s i o n s . We s h a l l therefore turn to the MSS themselves f o r the second part of our study: the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the large i n i t i a l s i n the MSS, t h e i r meaning (the a c r o s t i c s ) , and t h e i r p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e for the o v e r - a l l structure of T r i s t a n . F i n a l l y we s h a l l discuss whether our examination of the T r i s t a n MSS yielded the desired r e s u l t s , i . e . whether our model MS, based on the s t r u c t u r a l markers i n the T r i s t a n MSS led to a better understanding of Gottfried's technique of s t r u c t u r i n g the nar r a t i v e of the Vorgeschichte, and whether we have obtained a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of the a c r o s t i c s and of the o v e r - a l l structure of the romance. 1 Chapter I Introduction In the l a s t few years inquiry into a r i t h m e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n the construction of medieval books and poems long and short has come to a head. It i s , so to speak, i n the a i r . This statement i s taken from Arthur T. Hatto's introductory remarks to h i s and Ronald J . Taylor's a r t i c l e "Recent Work on the Arithmetical P r i n c i p l e i n Medieval Poetry" published i n 1951.''" Since then the number of studies i n t h i s vein has r a p i d l y increased and w i l l presumably continue to do so as many questions concerning t h i s " a r i t h m e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e " have yet to be answered. It i s a well known fac t that the main impetus to studies dealing with the subject matter of a r i t h m e t i c a l s t r u c t u r a l patterns i n l i t e r a r y works of older periods was given by the respective findings of Max Ittenbach i n h i s book Deutsche Dichtungen der salischen 2 K a i s e r z e i t und verwandte DenkmMler i n 1937 and of Ernst R. Curtius i n the b r i e f f i f t e e n t h excursus to his book Europa*ische L i t e r a t u r 3 und l a t e i n i s c h e s M i t t e l a l t e r i n 1948. In these two books examples are given of l i t e r a r y works that appear to have been designed by the poet to have a s p e c i f i c a r i t h m e t i c a l l y proportioned and/or symbolically meaningful number of books, chapters, stanzas, l i n e s , etc. The s t r u c t u r a l patterns may have been constructed oh the basis of 4 symbolically s i g n i f i c a n t numbers, such as, for instance, the 1 * 33 + 33 + 33 cantos i n Dante's Divine Comedy, the 49 stanzas of the Anno l i e d , the 34 paragraphs of Per Ackermann aus Bb'hmen; or they may have been constructed on purely a e s t h e t i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g 2 numbers—the so - c a l l e d "round" numbers—that need not have any symbolical s i g n i f i c a n c e at a l l ; or they may have been structured as a combination of both, such as the Heliand, at l e a s t according to Johannes Rathofer."' Curtius i s convinced that such patterns are indeed present i n various r e l i g i o u s and secular medieval works of l i t e r a t u r e . This point of view i s shared by most scholars today, among them Michael S. Batts who, i n h i s a r t i c l e "Numerical Structure i n Medieval L i t e r a t u r e " states that " . . . there would seem to be overwhelming evidence for the existence of numerical s t r u c t u r a l patterns and of highly involved 6 play on numbers i n various cultures throughout the Middle Ages . . . " and Heinz Rupp who i n h i s a r t i c l e "Uber den Bau epischer Dichtungen des M i t t e l a l t e r s " writes: " . . . besitzen wir doch greifbare Beweise dafilr, dass sowohl Symbolzahlen, wie das Bauen nach bestimmten Proportionen und Symmetrien im Denken des m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n Menschen und Kunstlers eine bedeutende Rolle g e s p i e l t und s i c h nicht nur i n der Dichtung, sondern auch i n der bildenden Kunst man i f e s t i e r t haben."^ It i s quite j u s t i f i a b l e to expect medieval (and older) r e l i g i o u s and secular works of l i t e r a t u r e to be organized and structured according to c e r t a i n numerical plans and patterns when one bears i n mind how deeply the concept of a numerically ordered universe penetrated medieval thinking. It i s not f o r nothing that the words from the Book of Wisdom of Solomon: "omnia i n mensura et numero et pondere d i s p o s u i s t i " (11: 21) are among the more commonly quoted b i b l i c a l phrases throughout the Middle Ages. 3 One must also remember that the e n t i r e quadrivium of the seven artes l i b e r a l e s , arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy, was based on numerical r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f o r , as Curtius states i n the above mentioned excursus, "Die Symmetrien und Entsprechungen der Grundzahlen tSuschen eine Scheinordnung vor, die a l s h e i l i g ge-glaubt wird. A l l e artes stammen zwar aus Gott, sind also gut. Dennoch i s t die Wissenschaft von der Zahl ihnen a l i e n Viberlegen. Denn das Schbpfungswerk, der Rhythmus der Z e i t , der Kalender, die Gestirne sind i n der Zahl begrlindet" (p.493). By s t r u c t u r i n g h i s work according to numerically proportioned patterns the medieval a r t i s t would thus r e f l e c t the order and harmony of the universe i n h i s work: "Kunst i s t nicht Nachahmung der z u f a l l i g e n ausseren Gestalt, sondern der geheimen Ordnung. . . . Numerous s i m i l a r quotations by various prominent scholars could be c i t e d . From those already quoted i t can be seen, however, that i t i s generally believed that, on the one hand, one may expect numerically structured patterns to be present i n medieval works of l i t e r a t u r e on the background of medieval thinking and that, on the other hand, evidence for the presence of such pr a c t i c e s has indeed been found. The f a c t that a s t r u c t u r a l pattern may be expected does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that i t can be e a s i l y uncovered, as the con-f l i c t i n g suggestions concerning the structure of such works as the Ludwigslied or Hartmann's Armer Heinrich c l e a r l y demonstrate. Occasionally a scholar i s even forced to admit that the s t r u c t u r a l 4 pattern he had hoped to uncover e i t h e r was not there or had not revealed i t s e l f . Rather than forcing t h e i r ideas onto the works by manipulating the text, Maria Therese Sllnger and Wolfgang Brandt thus had to conclude t h e i r studies with negative r e s u l t s . Slinger states: "Die Suche nach dem fllr die Wiener und M i l l s t a t t e r Genesis massgebenden Kompositionsprinzip b l i e b zwar e r f o l g l o s , so dass diese Studien uber die Struktur der Genesisdichtungen keine l e t z t e K l a r h e i t 9 zu geben vermochten," and having examined Heinrich von .Veldeke's Eneide Brandt concludes that " e i n konsequent durchgefuhrter Struktur-plan""'"^ could not be detected. The medieval poet did not go out of h i s way to make the under-l y i n g s t r u c t u r a l pattern e a s i l y accessible to h i s audience; h i s e f f o r t was directed towards God: "Wie Gott a l s Deus a r t i f e x die Welt nach Mass, Gewicht und Zahl geordnet hat, so hat auch der homo a r t i f e x , ' der Dichter, die P f l i c h t , s e i n Werk zu ordnen und zu glie d e r n , g l e i c h -g U l t i g , ob dies erkannt wird oder n i c h t . Er tut es, w e i l es der Kunst angemessen i s t , und er tut es ad maiorem Dei gloriam; denn Einer, namlich Gott, erkennt sicher, was HOrer und Leser nicht erkennen. Das genifgt und r e c h t f e r t i g t v B l l i g des Dichters Bemuhen. In t h i s the poet i s l i k e the medieval sculptor or painter who "bei der Gestaltung seiner steinernen Figuren, seiner Wand- und Deckengemalde i n den Domen und Pfalzen auf keinen Beschauer RUcksicht nimmt, w e i l er gar nicht an ihn denkt, uberhaupt ftlr k ein menschliches Auge sc h a f f t , sondern der a l l dies mit der Hingabe seines Herzens und seines Kdnnens a l l e i n ftfr das Auge des ewigen Gottes t u t — w i e die Kunstwissenschaft schon s e i t langem weiss. Hence one must not , nec e s s a r i l y assume the non-existence of a numerical structure pattern i n cases where s a t i s f y i n g analyses have yet to appear. I t i s quite p o s s i b l e that the correct key to sol v i n g the r i d d l e s t i l l remains to be found. 6 Chapter I: Footnotes •hsLR, 46 0-951), 396. 2(Wtlrzburg, Aumtihle, 1937). 3(4th Ed.; Bern, Mttnchen, 1963), p. 491-98. . 4 See articles, such as "SchlUsselzahlen: Studie zur geistigen Durchdringung der Form in der deutschen Dichtung des Mittelalters," and "33/34 als Symbolzahlen Christi i n Leben, Literatur und Kunst-des Mittel-alters,"by Fritz" Tschirch in his book Spiegelungen. Untersuchungen vom  Grenzrain zwischen Germanistik und Theplogie (Berlin, 1966), p. 188-211 and 167-87. "* Johannes Rathofer, Der Heliand: Theologischer Sinn als tektonische  Form (KHln, Graz, 1962). Michael S. Batts, "Numerical Structure i n Medieval Literature," Formal Aspects of Medieval German Poetry. A Symposium (Austin, Texas/ London, 1969), p. 102. This ar t i c l e contains a valuable bibliography on works dealing with numerical composition i n Old and Middle High German literature, p. 113-121. ^Die Wissenschaft von deutscher Sprache und Dichtung: Methoden.  Probleme. Aufgaben. (Festschrift fur Friedrich Maurer zum 65. Geburtstag  am 5. Januar 1963, edited by Siegfried Gutenbrunner, Hugo Moser, Walther Rehm, Heinz Rupp) (Stuttgart, 1963), p. 367. Max Wehrli, "Strukturprobleme des mittelalterlichen Romans," Wirkendes Wort, 10 (1960), 341. 9 Maria Th. Sunger, Studien zur Struktur der Wiener und MillstHtter  Genesis (Klagenfurt, 1964), p. 109. "^Wolfgang Brandt, Die ErzMhlkonzeption Heinrichs von Veldeke i n der  'Eneide.' Ein Vergleich mit Vergils 'Aeneis' (Marburg, 1969), p. 191. "'""'"Rupp, "Uber den Bau epischer Dichtungen des Mittelalters," Festschrift Maurer, p. 368. 12 Tschirch, "Schlusselzahlen," Spiegelungen, p. 203/4. .7 Chapter II Various Views on the Relationship between Form and Content. Before we make any attempt at fi n d i n g numerical structure patterns i n T r i s t a n , i t should prove valuable to discuss various kinds of s t r u c t u r a l analyses and deal more extensively with some of these. There are b a s i c a l l y 3 main types of s t r u c t u r a l analyses: I Analyses which deal e x c l u s i v e l y with the content without regard to compositional elements such as d i v i s i o n s into f i t s , paragraphs, number of l i n e s , etc. II Analyses which are based on the premise that there i s a c e r t a i n i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and correspondence between form and content. I l l Analyses which deal e x c l u s i v e l y with formal c r i t e r i a , disregarding the content. As a representative of the f i r s t group we have chosen Walter Johannes Schroder. This c r i t i c p o s i t s that the form of a l i t e r a r y work can only be established.by i n t e r p r e t i n g the content: "Das formale Gesetz der epischen Dichtung kann nur durch eine Untersuchung der Handlung und der handelnden Personen aufgezeigt werden. Bestimmend fur die Handlung sind die Motive, die Beweggrunde. Wesen und Bedeutung der Personen und der e i g e n t l i c h e Grund ihres Tuns mussen an Hand des Textes . . . f e s t g e s t e l l t und damit der Sinnzusammenhang des Ganzen erkannt werden. Nur auf diese 8 Weise l&sst s i c h Uberhaupt e i n konkretes, b e g r i f f l i c h k l a r benenn-bares Strukturgerilst h e r s t e l l e n . H a v i n g interpreted the content of P a r z i v a l SchrOder structures the 2 parts of the P a r z i v a l p l o t ("A. Urstand. 'Entwicklung• zum R i t t e r ( I I I . und IV. Buch), B, Bekehrung zum Christen. Aufstieg (V., VI., IX., XIV.-XVI. Buch)" (p. 171)) as follows " (p. 179): A. Zustand der Bewegung — — 7 Zustand der tumphei.t wisheit Natur Irrtum Belehrung Bewahrung R i t t e r Mi nne Gurne- Minne Kbnig von (Jeschute) . manz (Konduira- Pe l r a p e i r e Kampf murs) (Ither) Kampf (Klamide) B. Zustand der Bewegung — 1 — > Zustand der tumpheit wisheit Schuld Irrtum Belehrung BewaVhrung Rechtfertigung Minne Trevrizent Minne Gralskttnig (Jeschute) (Gral) Kampf Kampf (Ither) (Gawan und F e i r e f i z ) SchrOder uses Lachmann's d i v i s i o n of P a r z i v a l i n t o 16 books, but he i s not concerned with these d i v i s i o n s as such. On the contrary, he establishes symmetrical correspondences i n terms of content i n the two parts of the P a r z i v a l p l o t (books I I I - VI, IX, and XIV - XVI) and i s not interested i n r e l a t i n g or comparing these correspondences to the devision into books, to the number of paragraphs, or to the number of l i n e s . Unlike Schrttder, Peter Wapnewski wants to see correspondences i n 2 3 content r e f l e c t e d i n the outer framework of P a r z i v a l , and he proposes the following compositional, pattern: Buch III IV V VI (Parzival) Buch VII VIII (Gawan) Buch IX (Trevrizent) Buch X XI XII XIII . (Gawan) Buch XIV XV (Parzival) Buch XVI (Gral) There i s thus a "symmetrischer Rhythmus"(p.124)in the d i v i s i o n of the epic into books: 4 - 2 - 1 : 4 - 2 - 1 Most c r i t i c s seem to c a l l f o r a "unltosbare^n-^J E i n h e i t der i n h a l t l i c h e n und formalen Erscheinung des Sprachkunstwerkes. . .. . In t h e i r Nibelungenlied studies F r i e d r i c h Mauref and Michael S. Batts fo r instance, point to symmetrically structured portions of the Nibelungenlied. In so doing they not only divide the text i n such a manner that the consent appears i n separate u n i t s , each u n i t being . a unity i n i t s e l f with regard to the content, but also so that there i s a d e f i n i t e correspondence between the inner form, i . e . the units based on the content, and the outer framework, i . e . the units seen as symmetrically proportioned numbers of l i n e s . I t i s correspondences of t h i s nature that scholars l i k e Rupp, Rathofer, Eggers, and many others seek to e s t a b l i s h i n t h e i r . r e s p e c t i v e studies. Rupp strongly supports the point of view: " . . . dass s i c h i n einer gelungenen Mchtung Form und Inhalt decken und deshalb auch gegenseitig e r h e l l e n mu'ssen."0 He thus takes Bodo Mergell to task for a l l e g e d l y breaking up the content of the Annolied i n such a manner "dass Form und Inhalt v t i l l i g unabhUngig nebeneinander stehen, was i c h fttr unmHglich halte." 1 <" > I t i s not Mergell's i n t e n t i o n to V i o l a t e the content, however. What he seems to be doing i s the following. He- s t a r t s with the preconceived idea that the Annolied i s composed i n heptads i n the shape of a cross. Motivated by a desire to see t h i s outer framework confirmed i n the inner form he proceeds, for example, to regard the 15th stanza, which i s normally associated with the Alexandrian empire 1 1 as part of the three s o - c a l l e d "Rom-Heptaden" (stanza 15-35) (p. 136f.), f o r "mit der zweiten Alexanderstrophe (^Strophe 15] t r i t t . e i n neuer Gedanke—die Idee des Weltimperiums—in den Bereich der Dichtung ei n . . . " (p. 129). From Mergell's point of view the correspondence between form and content has been preserved, but Rupp f e e l s that Mergell has forced the content into an unsuitable outer framework. In h i s own analysis of Deutsche r e l i g i o s e Dichtungen des 11; und 12. 12 Jahrhunderts, Rupp analyses the content and then draws conclusions about the form of the work concerned: "Der Thematik des Gedichts 13 entspricht auch die Form" and "Damit ergibt s i c h aus der gedank-l i c h e n Gliederung ein symmetrischer Aufbau. . . . m 1 ^ Most c r i t i c s profess to a d e f i n i t e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between, and unity of, content and form, and most scholars p r e f e r to approach a given work of l i t e r a t u r e from the reference point of content and from there draw conclusions about form. This " t r a d i t i o n a l " approach does not, however, meet with t o t a l approval by c e r t a i n scholars. In h i s somewhat disputed book Symmetrie und Proportion epischen ErzHhlens"*"^ Hans Eggers stresses: "Wir kommen nicht zu unserem Z i e l , wenn wir a l l e i n vom Inhalt her, den wir j a immer nur mit unseren modernen Augen sehen und e i n t e i l e n k8rinen, den zahlengesetzlichen Aufbau m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e r Dichtungen erkennen wollen" (p. 5), for "gehen wir a l l e i n vom Inhalt aus, so g l i e d e r n wir ihn immer, wie es unseren heutigen Auffassungen entspricht. Wir tun dann so, a l s handle es s i c h dabei um unverbrtlchliche, ewig gtlltige Normen, obwohl kaum zwei moderne Literaturgeschichten zu v H l l i g Ubereinstimmenden Inhaltsgliederungen m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e r Dichtungen gelangen. Nichts, w i r k l i c h gar nichts gibt uns die Gewiss-h e i t , dass das M i t t e l a l t e r ebenso gedacht und gegliedert habe wie wir. Im Gegenteil: A l l e s s p r i c h t dafllr, dass damals ganz andere, uns fremd gewordene Denkformen auch i n v t i l l i g anderen Gestaltuhgen und Gliederungen ih r e angemessene Ausdrucksform. fanden " (p. 7). Rupp r i g h t l y finds t h i s statement exaggerated: " . . . s o skeptisch wie Eggers muss man aber nicht sein. Wir besitzen genUgend objektive K r i t e r i e n daftlr, wie die Dichter des M i t t e l a l t e r s gegliedert haben und wie s i e den Inhalt i h r e r Dichtungen verstanden haben wollen; man denke nur an Gliederungen i n BUcher und Leseabschnitte e i n e r s e i t s , an Prologe, Epiloge und Exkurse anderseits, die j a vom Dichter selbst stammen und uns zum rechten Verstehen verhelfen" ("Neue Forschung," p. 121), and Eggers himself r e l i e s on h i s "modern" judgment of content i n h i s own analyses. In 16 the Ludwigslied he separates, f o r example, an exordium from the narratio purely on the basis of content. In p r i n c i p l e , however, Eggers considers form to be the appropriate s t a r t i n g point for a s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s . He chooses form because medieval poetry i n his view i s structured according to "Symmetrie und Proportion, die s i c h i n Zahlen ausdrllcken lassen . . . " (Sym. , 3) and the advantage i s i n h i s opinion that numbers constitute an objective basis for s t r u c t u r a l analyses, for "Zahlen mit ihren Summen, Proportionen, Symmetrien und sonstigen Inhalten lassen s i c h nicht fHlschen; s i e lassen s i c h auch nicht subjektiv verbiegen" (Sym., 9). What Eggers does not seem to acknowledge i s the f a c t that he himself subjective-l y manipulates numbers f o r h i s own ends. In h i s study of the Li'ebesmonolog i n E i l h a r t ' s T r i s t r a n t , ^ f or example, he interpolates 2, 12 and 6 verses i n paragraphs I I , .III and IV r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n order to a r r i v e at numbers which demonstrate symmetrical proportions i n these paragraphs. In h i s book Symmetrie und Proportion epischen Erz&hlens Eggers postulates that two major numerical patterns, the Fittensystem  (l i n e a r e Strukturen) and the Symmetrieblocksystem (statische Strukturen, are present i n most longer works of medieval l i t e r a t u r e . He i s so convinced of the actual presence of h i s preconceived patterns that he does not shy away from manipulating the text now and then to make the numbers coincide with h i s theory. Eggers finds the f i t s (groups of 120 l i n e s or a multiple thereof) by counting the l i n e s of the epic concerned from beginning to end. Where the end of a paragraph occurs a f t e r a number of 120, 240, 360 . . . l i n e s there i s a f i t . What makes t h i s pattern work at a l l i s the fact that Eggers allows so-called Moventien, i . e . groups of any number of l i n e s , between the f i t s . In s p i t e of t h i s b u i l t - i n f l e x i b i l i t y , Eggers must, contrary to the manuscripts, bring the number of l i n e s of, for example^ the Armer Heinrich up to 1540 and, also, assume the end of a paragraph at l i n e 1070. As mentioned above i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Eggers' approach that he manipulates the text i n order to prove the presence of h i s pre-conceived patterns. Not only does he manipulate the number of l i n e s and paragraphs, he also t r i e s to force h i s numerical patterns onto the content. Eggers i s convinced of a d e f i n i t e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and content, but he i s equally convinced that t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p has to be approached by way of the outer framework, fo r , "Die feste, k l a r e Form muss s i c h nachweisen lassen, und stimmen Form und Inhalt w i r k l i c h Uberein, woran wir so wenig zweifeln wie diejenigen, die den &lteren Weg beschreiten, so mtlssen s i c h die i n h a l t l i c h e n Gliederungsvorstellungen, die den m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n Dichter b e i seinem Schaffen l e i t e t e n , aus der Form ob j e k t i v erkennen lassen" (Sym., p. 8). In the f i t system Eggers maintains that the function of a Moyens i s .to contain a motif that influences or t r i g g e r s the action of the following f i t . (Sym.,p. 73) To adhere to t h i s postulate i s even f o r Eggers an impossible task. He admits that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p l o t within the f i t pattern i s "f{lr moderne Leser . . . fast unverstandlich" (Sym., p. 29) and statements l i k e the following occur r e l a t i v e l y frequently: "Er [[the poet] kann sehr wohl Motive, die fifr e i n Movens geeignet wHren, auch i n einer F i t t e behandeln . . . " (Sym., p. 31). Reluctantly he i s forced to conclude "Die innere Form des ErzHhlens wire demnach auch ohne die E i n t e i l u n g i n F i t t e n und Moventien denkbar" (Sym., p. 73), and he continues, "lm Formalen wird also l e t z t l i c h die Funktion des Movens doch zu suchen s e i n " (Sym., p. 73). The second major numerical pattern, the Symmetrieblocksystem, i s established by Eggers i n the following manner: he counts simultaneously the l i n e s from the beginning and from the end of the epic i n question. When he encounters new paragraphs on the same count he assumes t h i s to be a d i v i s i o n l i n e between two symmetrical blocks. Here too c e r t a i n " a l t e r a t i o n s " of the textual evidence are necessary. Having examined the manuscripts thoroughly, HansjUrgen Linke points out the discrepancies between Egger's paragraphs and the ones i n the manuscripts of, for example, Gregorius: "Eine solche Missachtung i h r e r h a n d s c h r i f t l i c h e n Uberlieferung b l e i b t n i c h t ohne Folgen fur die Versuche zur Gliederung m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e r Epen. Drei der von Eggers angesetzten Absatzgrenzen des "Gregorius" haben gar keinen, zwei weitere nur einen ungenugenden RUckhalt i n der TextUberlieferung und kommen fUr eine k r i t i s c h e Formrekonstruktion nicht i n Betracht. Es verschwinden so die Eggersschen Abschnitte 3 + 17, 4 + 16, 7 und 12 und—da i n Eggers' Symmetrieschema jeder Absatz (mit Ausnahme des 10.) zugleich sein GegenUber a f f i z i e r t — d e r dem 7. korrespondierende 13. und der dem 12. korrespondierende 8. Abschnitt. Von 18 SymmetrieblHcken des 15 Eggersschen Bauplans lilsen s i c h also acht auf, und damit wird dieser 18 selbst hinfHllig'. 1 Also i n t h i s pattern the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and content has to be brought forward by Eggers. He p o s i t s that the centre of each symmetry block contains the most important statement i n r e l a t i o n to the Gehalt of the epic concerned. Nevertheless he i s unable to f i n d any s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the Gehalt i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of Enite's horse i n the centre of the fourth symmetry block i n Erec (v.l824ff)—presumably because there i s none—to mention j u s t one example. Yet he i s s a t i s f i e d when he sees evidence of Leits&tze i n the centre of the symmetry blocks " i n f a s t a l i e n Fallen"(Sym., p. 60). One has the impression that Eggers simply gives whatever statement occurs i n the centre of the symmetry blocks the required importance, i f at a l l possible. In the introductory remarks to iSymmetrie und Proportion  epischeri ErzHhlens Eggers has no doubt about a t h e o r e t i c a l correspondence between form and content (p. 8). In p r a c t i c e , however, he often has to admit to discrepancies between the two, e s p e c i a l l y with regard to the f i t s t r u c t u r e . But t h i s i s no i n d i c a t i o n to Eggers that h i s preconceived patterns might be f a u l t y ; on the contrary, the discrepancies are blamed on the modern reader who has no true appreciation of the intentions of the medieval poet, and these same discrepancies are even considered to be "proof" by Eggers that h i s patterns are cor r e c t : " ^ "Unsere Methode hat, so scheint es mir, ihre BewMhrungsprobe berei t s bestanden. Wir haben zunHchst i n einem r e i n arithmetischen Verfahren f d r zwei grosse Werke zwei geradezu besttirzehd g l a t t aufgehende, von Symmetrien und Proportionen im Gleichgewicht gehaltene Strukturformeln gefunden und haben dann s o r g f H l t i g geprUft, ob die Ordnung der Inhalte diesen Formen entspricht. Es sind uns dabei andere Einteilungen entgegen-getreten, als sie von einem modernen Dichter zu erwarten wHren. . . . Dass Form und Inhalt einander entsprechen, haben wir nachweisen kHnnen, wenn wir uns dabei auch von heutigen Auffassungen lHsen mussten. Aber gerade das bedeutet die Ausschaltung vieler Irrtums-myglichkeiten" (p. 39).- If a correspondence between form and content is indeed immanent in a given work of literature, one should surely expect such an interrelationship to manifest i t s e l f i n a more convincing manner than through the method presented by Eggers. Another more recent attempt to analyse and interpret a literary work with emphasis on formal c r i t e r i a has been undertaken by Johannes Rathofer in his study of the Heliand. His approach has been influenced by Eggers which becomes apparent i n certain statements throughout his book. He i s , for example, convinced "dass wir a l l e i n vom Inhalt her, den wir ja immer nur mit unseren modernen Augen sehen und einteilen kOnnen, niemals zur Erkenntnis des Aufbaus unserer Dichtung gelangen" (p. 227). Like Eggers, he gives numbers too much credit when he refers to the "weder subjektiv zu verbiegenden noch Uberhaupt subjektiv zu findenden Zahlen . . ."(p. 541). Whereas Eggers considered i t impossible, however, to conceive of longer literary works being based upon number symbolism (Sym., p. 3), Rathofer integrates number symbolism i n the numerical structure of the Heliand. The point of departure is for Rathofer the number 4 that occurs four times, twice in the 9th(3^)line and twice in the 16th(4^)line. In this he sees a symbolic reference to the Trinity (the numbers 3 and 9) and to the 4 evangelists (the numbers 4 and 16). The connection between the two he finds established i n the f a c t that the number 4 occurs i n l i n e 9, and he subsequently considers the numbers 4 and 3 to be the key numbers of Book I of the Heliand. The poet thereby stresses "sowohl v e r b a l i t e r a l s auch for m a l i t e r mit H i l f e s t i l i s t i s c h e r und tektonischer M i t t e l die V i e r z a h l und—wenn auch weniger stark und versteckter—-die D r e i z a h l " (p. 317). Rathofer f e e l s that the r e a l i z a t i o n of the law of the Old Testament through the gospel i s expressed symbolically because the "key word'1 denoting "erfUllende K r a f t : " the "godspell that guod(a)" £sic] occurs i n exactly the 25th (5 2) l i n e . The number 25 i s of importance "denn 25 entsteht durch M u l t i p l i k a t i o n der Zahl 5 mit s i c h s e l b s t . Die Fttnfzahl aber i s t dem alttestamentlichen Gesetz zugeordnet: ' i p s i sunt quinque l i b r i Moysi.' Also v e r s i n n b i l d e t 25 ursprttnglich das Gesetz"(p. 321); and the number 25 gains s p e c i a l symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n connection with the number 4 which Rathofer has already established as a key number "denn s i e [[die V i e r z a h l ] b i l d e t j a nicht nur gleichsam aus s i c h selbst heraus, d.h. durch die Summe der Zahlen von 1 b i s 4, die Zehn, sondern e r r e i c h t a l s M u l t i p l i k a t o r von 25 auch die Hundert. Hundert i s t die Quadratzahl von Zehn und bezeichnet eine 'magna p e r f e c t i o , nklmlich das ewige Leben, den b i b l i s c h e n Denar, als Lohn fUr die E r f i l l l u n g der zehn Gebote" (p. 322). However.„ convincingly Rathofer puts forward his theory, one cannot exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y that he has indeed su b j e c t i v e l y found c e r t a i n important numbers. He himself states.that. "der Dichter macht es uns nicht so l e i c h t " (p. 314) to l e t us f i n d the number 4 i n the line that would correspond to i t s numerical value, line 4, but the poet postpones the introduction of this number to the. 9th line., Furthermore, the 4 evangelists are mentioned by name in the lines following line 16 (line 18f.). Although Rathofer himself believes i t to be impossible, one can indeed raise the question whether he has not subjectively found numbers in the outer framework (lines 9, 16 and 25) the symbolic meaning of which f i t s into his interpretation of the Heliand. With Gottfried's uncompleted Tristan i n mind, i t should prove interesting to observe how Rathofer extrapolates the structure of the whole of the Heliand on the basis of what exists of this work today. In the extant portion Rathofer discovers a numerically composed section which, because of i t s symmetrically proportioned structure, he considers to be the original Kernstdck of the Heliand (p. 331). This Kernstflck consists of 13 f i t s , the f i t s 32-44: Total number of f i t s 13 Distribution of the f i t s 6 1 6 The 13 f i t s 32 33 34 35 36: 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Distribution of lines 501 48 501 Total number of lines 1050 The same number of lines and f i t s which precedes this Kernsttlck must also follow i t , for "wenn nun der Dichter die 13er-Gruppe auf den Vers • genau als eine symmetrische Zentralkomposition gestaltet hat, dann gibt es fdr uns nicht den leisesten Zweifel mehr, dass er diese Gfuppe selbst als das Zentrum des Werkes konz i p i e r t hat, d.h. dass er dem voran-gehenden T e i l der 31 F i t t e n einen ebenso grossen folgen l i e s s " (p. 544). This argument i s based on Augustine's words: "Wenn nHmlich bei Werken von Menschenhand ohne zwingende Notwendigkeit die Symmetrie nicht gewahrt i s t , so wird gewissermassen das Auge selb s t irgendwie 20 b e l e i d i g t . " The extrapolated t o t a l number of f i t s and l i n e s of the Heliand i s thus i n Rathofer's estimation 75 and 6290 r e s p e c t i v e l y (p. 545): .^ Number of f i t s 31 + 13 + 31 = 75 Number of l i n e s : 2620 + 1050 + 2620 = 6290 Rathofer proceeds to discuss the symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e of these numbers at great length (p. 546ff.). Rathofer's approach to analysing the Heliand i s s i m i l a r to that of Eggers i n that he also bases his study on the formal c r i t e r i o n of paragraphs, the s o - c a l l e d f i t s , and also i n the f a c t that he extrapolates the t o t a l number of f i t s and l i n e s of the Heliand by working out from the Kerns t(lck, i . e . a s e c t i o n which he considers to c o n s t i t u t e the centre of the Heliand because of i t s numerical and symmetrical composition. In contrast to Eggers, however, Rathofer integrates t e x t u a l evidence into hi s study, such as "versteckte Schlusselzahlen," 2! and s t y l i s t i c c r i t e r i a . The l a t t e r form part of h i s argument f o r d i v i d i n g the Heliand into four books (see below), and the "versteckte SchlUsselzahlen" eventually lead up to h i s concept of the Heliand as being structured symbolically as a f igura crucis (p. 561): [Books] I + II [Book] III 15 f i t s the 16th f i t 22 f i t s 22 f i t s -_3< '£}Bo( 15 f i t s ok] IV 3l[ f i t s ] These numbers are a l l symbolically s i g n i f i c a n t but they stand i n a disproportionate r e l a t i o n s h i p to the outer framework established around the 13 centre f i t s of the KernstUck and the d i v i s i o n into four books: F i t s Books Figura Crucis 31 F i t s 1-31 Book I F i t s 1-12 1 r F i t s 1-15 16 th F i t s 32-44 v-Bo|ok II 13-31 17-31 13 (Kernstuck) Book III F i t s 32-53 F i t s 32-53 31 F i t s 45! h75 Book IV F i t s 54-75 F i t s 54-75 These patterns only p a r t i a l l y coincide. I t seems that the "unlHsbare Einheit der i n h a l t l i c h e n und formalen Erscheinungen des Sprachkunstwerkes" (Hel., p. 201) which also Rathofer advocates i s established i n each of 22 the three structures only when considered separately. So f a r we have dealt almost e x c l u s i v e l y with s t r u c t u r a l analyses which profess to show a d e f i n i t e correspondence and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between content and form. We should not exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y , however, that there might not be any such connection between form and content of a given work. Examples of t h i s are given by J.A. Huisman 23 i n h i s highly praised study Neue Wege zur dichterischen und 24 musikalischen Technik Walthers von der Vogelweide. Huisman consults the manuscript of, f o r example, the Ludwigslied, and he notes that each h a l f l i n e begins with a c a p i t a l l e t t e r and i s followed by a point. In t h i s he finds support for his theory that the h a l f l i n e s are to be considered the basic compositional elements of t h i s l e i c h . The d i v i s i o n of the l e i c h into 27 stanzas i s also c l e a r l y marked i n the MS. The length of a stanza v a r i e s from 2 to 3 l i n e s , or 4 to 6 h a l f l i n e s : 444444444444444466644444646 = 118 h a l f l i n e s It i s Huisman's contention that these stanzas may be regarded as seven groups (p. 81): 4444 4444 4444 44446 664 4444 646 16 16 16 22 16 16 16 v _v  118 Huisman points out that the square of 4 i s 16, and he claims that i t i s not an uncommon phenomenon i n medieval poetry that the beginning and the end of a poem are marked by a square number. The number 22 i n the centre of the le i c h . also plays a considerable r o l e i n medieval poetic structures, Huisman argues. Huisman i s not at a l l concerned about the content. It does not disturb him that the centre group of 22 h a l f l i n e s s t a r t s with King Ludwig's speech (stanza 13) but ends i n the middle of i t (stanza 17), 22 or that the following group of 16 h a l f l i n e s (stanzas 18-20) contains the remaining part of t h i s speech plus 4 more h a l f l i n e s , and so f o r t h . Neither does he attempt to shed further l i g h t on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the poem. Form and content are unrelated separate e n t i t i e s : "die arithmetische D i s p o s i t i o n [^ist] p r i n z i p i e l l unabhHngig . . . von der 26 i n h a l t l i c h e n Gruppierung. We have dealt i n t h i s chapter with three main types of form analyses: W.J. SchrBder was our representative of the f i r s t group. He makes no attempt to e s t a b l i s h a correspondence between his concept of how the motifs of the P a r z i v a l p l o t are structured and the d i v i s i o n of the work into books, paragraphs, number of l i n e s , etc. His concern i s the "Sinnzusammenhang" ("Der d i c h t e r i s c h e Plan," p. 163). < The c r i t i c s Rupp, Mergell, Maurer, Batts, Eggers and Rathofer belong to the second group. Although they profess to a c e r t a i n i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and correspondence between form and content, t h i s i s as f a r as agreement among them goes. The method of e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p v aries from c r i t i c to c r i t i c . Despite these differences two main approaches can be recognized: one which draws conclusions about the structure of a given work on the basis of content (Rupp), and one which draws conclusions about the structure on the basis of external c r i t e r i a , such as number of l i n e s of paragraphs, f i t s , etc. (Eggers, Rathofer). Quite often the two approaches merge, for example i n Batts^t-Study of the Nibelungenlied. This study i s based on the manuscript d i v i s i o n s into aventiuren and stanzas, but the numerical structures w i t h i n these aventiuren are established with due regard to the content. The t h i r d group i s represented by Huisman, whose analysis of the Ludwigslied i s based e x c l u s i v e l y on the manuscript d i v i s i o n of t h i s l e i c h into stanzas of 4 and 6 h a l f l i n e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Content plays no part i n his analysis. In his opinion form and content are two separate e n t i t i e s . Bearing these d i f f e r e n t points of view i n mind we intend to approach the analysis of T r i s t a n with due regard to content as w e l l as to form without, however, presupposing a d e f i n i t e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. Our study w i l l attempt to show whether there i s a correspondence between form and content i n T r i s t a n when information concerning the form i s taken from the s t r u c t u r a l markers i n the transmitted MSS. 24 Chapter I I : Footnotes Walter Johannes SchrHder, "Der dic h t e r i s c h e Plan des Parzivalromans," B e l t r . (Halle), 74 (1952), 163. 2 III-VI: 4 BUcher Berufung ohne GralbewHhrung: Tumpheit (Der junge P a r z i v a l ) . VII-VIII: 2 Bucher Bew&hrung ausserhalb der Gralberufung: Zwivel (Gawan-P a r z i v a l ) . IX: 1 Buch Erweckung und Verheissung: Gnade.und Auftrag (Trevrizent-P a r z i v a l ) . X-XIII: 4 BUcher BewUhrung auf die Berufung hin: Ergebung (Gawan-Parzival). XIV-XV: 2 BUcher Bewahrung und Berufung: Uberwindung und Gnade (Parz.-Gaw.-Feirefiz). XVI: 1 Buch ErfUllung: Berufung ( P a r z i v a l GralkHnig). Peter Wapnewski, Wolframs P a r z i v a l (Heidelberg, 1955), p. 129. 3 Wapnewski bases his pattern on Lachmann's book d i v i s i o n s no doubt assuming that they r e f l e c t Wolfram's int e n t i o n s . However i n her study , Untersuchungen zur Uberlieferung des P a r z i v a l Wolframs von Eschenbach (LUbeck und Hamburg, 1970), Vol. T Gesa Bonath comments on Lachmann's d i v i s i o n of P a r z i v a l into 16 books: "LACHMANN hat bei der E i n t e i l u n g des P a r z i v a l i n 16 BUcher 8 von den fUr den At" [Archetypus] i n f rage kommenden gr[ossen] I n i t i a l e n Ubergangen, von denen 4 sicherer bezeugt sind a l s der Beginn der BUcher I I I . IV, XII. XIII. So Uberzeugend seine Bucheinteilung . . . i s t , s i e darf—wie_ihreKonfrontierung mit der Uberlieferung z e i g t — k e i n e s f a l l s als objektive Gegebenheit hingenommen werden" (p. 114). 4 p . 124: 4+2+1+4+2+1 = 14 books + 2 books (I and I I : Vorgeschichte) 16 books 5Johannes Rathofer, Der Heliand (Ktiln, Graz, 1962), 201. Rathofer i s here r e f e r r i n g to Heliand. F r i e d r i c h Maurer, "Uber den Bau der Aventiuren des Nibelungenliedes," F e s t s c h r i f t fUr D i e t r i c h K r a l i k (Horn/NiederHsterreich, 1954), p. 93-98 and "Uber die Formkunst des Dichters unseres Nibelungenliedes," DU 6 (1954), p. 77-83. ^Michael S. Batts, Die Form der Aventiuren im Nibelungenlied (Giessen, 1961) and "Poetic Form as a C r i t e r i o n i n Manuscript C r i t i c i s m , " MLR, 55 (1960), 543-52. Heinz Rupp, "Neue Forschung zu Form und Bau m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e r Dichtung," DU, 11 (1959), 119. Bodo Mergell, "Annolied und Kaiserchronik," B e i t r . (Halle),77 (1955), 124-146. 25 "^Rupp, "Neue Forschung," p. 119. 1 : L B a t t s , "On the Form of the 'Annolied'," Monatshefte, 52 (I960), 180. 12 2nd e d i t i o n (Bern, Munchen, 1971). 13 p. 64 (about the E z z o l i e d ) . 14 p. 117 (about the Summa theologiae). 15 (Stuttgart, 1956). 16 Hans Eggers, "Der Goldene Schnitt im Aufbau a l t - und mittelhoch-deutscher Epen, Wirkendes Wort, 10 (1960) , 195f.f. "^Hans Eggers, "Der Liebesmonolog i n E i l h a r t s T r i s t a n t , " Euphofion, 45 (1950), 275-304. •j g 1 Hansjtlrgen Linke, Epische Strukturen i n der Dichtung Hartmanns von Aue (Munchen,1968), p. 45'. 19 In h i s review of Eggers' book Joachim Bumke also points t h i s out: "Man s o l l t e denken, damit s e i der Beweis erbracht, dass das Fittensyst'em nicht zum Inhalt passt. Aber das Gegenteil i s t der F a l l " (Euphofion, 51 (1957), 225). 20 Quoted a f t e r Hel., p. 544. 21 Cf. Tschirch, Spiegelungen, p. 188-211. 22 Rathofer sees the connection between his 3 patterns i n their, key number 4 which forms "die Grundlage des Heliand" (p. 558). This number i s the number of the cross;, i t appears as Quersumme (of 13, 31, 22 i n the f i t and book s t r u c t u r e ) , as a square number (4^ = 16, the centre f i t i n the f i g u r a crucis), .as the number of books, etc. (p. 558ff.). 23 A.T. Hatto and R.J. Taylor, "Recent Work on the A r i t h m e t i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n Medieval Poetry," MLR, 46 (1951), 396-403. 24 (Utrecht, 1950). 25 Cf. Curtius, p. 495. 26 Huisman, Neue Wege, p. 4. Other s t r u c t u r a l analyses of the Ludwigslied include, for example, the ones by M. Ittenbach, Deutsche Dichtungen, 19-27, and F. Maurer "Hildebrandslied und Ludwigslied," DU, 9 (1957), 11-15, both of which are based e n t i r e l y on content. H. Eggers considers the n a r r a t i o of the poem ( l i n e s 13-57) to be divided according to the Golden Section: Wirkendes Wort, 10 (1960), p. 195ff. Cf. also, M.S. Batts, "Numerical Structure i n Medieval L i t e r a t u r e " i n Formal Aspects of Medieval German Poetry: A Symposium (Austin,Texas/ London, 1969), p. 108ff. Chapter III The Importance of Consulting the MSS with Regard to the S t r u c t u r a l Markers; HansjUrgen Linke's Approach to Selecting and Evaluating the S t r u c t u r a l Markers i n the MSS of Hartmann's Epics. '  Eggers and Rathofer both based t h e i r studies on editions of the works concerned. Linke takes Eggers severely to task f o r t h i s (see above) and Rathofer t r i e s to f i n d a d d i t i o n a l support i n the MSS for h i s f i n d i n g a f t e r h i s theory of the Kernst{lck and h i s d i v i s i o n of the Heliand i n t o four books were questioned by W i l l y Krogmann.1 The l a t t e r i s rather c r i t i c a l of Rathofer's approach. He does not agree with the alleged symmetry of the Kerns ttlck for the reason that, unless one v i o l a t e s the sentence structure, the f i t s 32-37 and 39-44 must be said to comprise 501 1/2 and 500 1/2 l i n e s r e s p e c t i v e l y (p. 48ff.). Rathofer r e l i e s on manuscript C which shows f i t d i v i s i o n s a f t e r the 501 l i n e s regardless of the sentence structure. He says i n t h i s regard: "Ich vermute, dass s i c h der Schreiber von C ebenso wie der Dichter fUr die i h r e r Intention ad^quatere LiJsung entschieden haben. Mir scheint, dass es ihnen zunHchst darum ging, unter a l i e n Umsta'nden an diesen Nahtstellen die Verseinheit-auch o p t i s c h — z u wahren. Unlike Krogmann, Rathofer allows discrepancies between form and content i n cases where such discrepancies are demanded by i n d i c a t i o n s i n the manuscripts: "Das Urgernis, das der modern'e Betrachter an der Fittenbezeichnung i n C (und nun auch fUr den l e t z t e n T e i l des Werkes i n M) nimmt, beruht e i n z i g darauf, dass i n h a l t l i c h zum vorangehenden Abschnitt GehBriges dem folgenden z u g e t e i l t wird. Ehe man solches Vorgehen al s schlechthin unsinnig bezeichnet, s o l l t e man es nicht unterlassen, die Frage nach den milglichen GrUnden ftlr diese fremd anmutende Eigenart zu s t e l l e n " ("Zum Aufbau," p..248). Krogmann also expresses h i s reservations with regard to Rathofer's d i v i s i o n of the Heliand into four books. Rathofer breaks down the proposed 75 f i t s i n the following manner: Book I: f i t s 1 - 1 2 12 f i t s Book I I : f i t s 13 - 31 . 19 f i t s Book I I I : f i t s 32 - 53 22 f i t s Book IV: f i t s 54 - 75 22 f i t s 75 f i t s and he j u s t i f i e s these d i v i s i o n s mainly by r e f e r r i n g to the f a c t that the phrase "so gifragn i k " introduces the books I I , I I I and I V 4 and by pointing out that the L a t i n words passio domino and passio are w r i t t e n above the text ( i n C) and i n the margin ( i n M) at f i t 54.^ Krogmann claims that these L a t i n phrases need not i n d i c a t e the beginning of a book. They are "kein Hinweis auf eine Bucheinteilung, sondern zeigen nur an, dass mit dieser F i t t e die Passion Jesu beginnt" (p. 8 4 ) — i n other words, the passio ("domini") might not be an i n d i c a t i o n of the form but only of the content. Rathofer had based his study on SieverSfe Heliand e d i t i o n , and, only a f t e r Krogmann's c r i t i c i s m he decided to consult the manuscripts themselves (microfilm copies) i n order to f i n d a d d i t i o n a l proof of h i s theories i n i n d i c a t i o n s of structure, there, such as i n t e r v a l s between the f i t s , the s i z e and decoration of the i n i t i a l s , etc. It appears that only the S - i n i t i a l s of the 13th and 54th f i t s , i . e . those at the 28 beginning of the Books II and IV—and not the one of f i t 32 which supposedly introduces Book I I I — a r e l a r g e r and more decorated than a normal i n i t i a l would be. A l l the same Rathofer considers i t to be enough evidence that "die Absetzung von F i t t e 31 optisch besonders d e u t l i c h akzentuiert erscheint"("Zum Aufbau," p. 255), and on the whole he finds no reason to change h i s i n i t i a l l y proposed s t r u c t u r a l patterns: "Nach Befragung der Hss. sehe i c h mich nicht gezwungen, meine Auffassung Uber den Aufbau des Hel., s p e z i e l l der von mir a l s KernstUck betrachteten 13er-Gruppe, zu r e v i d i e r e n " ("Zum Aufbau," p. 256). Rathofer f e e l s that his study of the MSS confirmed h i s analysis which was based on an e d i t i o n . Eggers would not be able to draw the same conclusion with regard to h i s patterns; Linke, f o r example, shows the (sometimes) considerable degree of discrepancy between the edited versions of Hartmann's works and the actual occurrence i n the MSS* . Also Jean Fourquet discusses the r e l a t i v e u n r e l i a b i l i t y of the edited versions of medieval l i t e r a r y works: "Die r i c h t i g e Wiederherstellung der Abschnitte i s t wie die des Wortlauts des O r i g i n a l s problematisch: innerhalb gewisser Grenzen haben wir es mit einer subjektiven Ent-scheidung des Herausgebers zu tun."^ In addition to t h i s the e d i t o r s , who c a r e f u l l y i n d i c a t e the variants of the text i n the d i f f e r e n t manuscripts i n t h e i r c r i t i c a l apparatus, mostly f a i l to inform the reader about the i n d i c a t i o n s of paragraphs i n the various manuscripts. Nor do they inform the reader when they i n s e r t extra paragraph d i v i s i o n s i n the text contrary to the evidence i n the manuscripts. Fourquet deplores \ this attitude on the part of the editors pointing to the fact that formal factors such as paragraphs are " . . . eine vom Dichter selbst erkannte Gr8sse, die im Original schon da war und durch ein Uusseres Mittel, meistens durch eine I n i t i a l e , bewusst kenntlich gemacht war" (p. 16)-. Although the original MS i s most often lost, the extant MSS of medieval works most lik e l y reflect—more or less f a i t h f u l l y — the structural indications of the original. It is therefore to be recommended that a structural analysis be based on the structure g markers of the MSS of a given work, Tristan included. It is only in relatively recent years, however, that a number of structural analyses have been based on the MSS rather than on edited versions. Stinger (1964) and Linke (1968) are examples of this. As the structural indications often vary from MS to MS of the same work, i t is necessary to develop some method of evaluating and selecting the transmitted information. Linke attempts to do this, and we shall therefore discuss in some detail his book Epische Strukturen in der Dichtung Hartmanns  yon Aue before we procede with our approach to evaluating the para-graph divis ions in the Tristan MSS. "In turning to the MSS he [Linke] has sought an objective criterion with which subjective evaluations must be harmonized before he w i l l accept them, and i t need hardly be said how sadly novel such g methodical caution is in this particular f i e l d . " With these words Dennis H. Green welcomes Hansjdrgen Linke's work. What distinguishes Linke's book from previous structural analyses of Hartmann's works is mainly his conviction that r e s u l t s can be achieved only by basing a s t r u c t u r a l analysis on the s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t i o n s i n the MSS: "Wenn s i c h Erkenntnisse gewinnen lassen, die durch ihn [den Befund der Formllberlieferung durch die Handschriften] gesichert sind, dann mag es ferner mBglich werden, i n h a l t l i c h e und v i e l l e i c h t auch zahlenkompositorische Bauelemente der Dichtung zu ermitteln, die vom Makel der SubjektivitMt und B e l i e b i g k e i t f r e i sind" (p. 15). The f i r s t step i n Linke's approach i s to record a l l s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t i o n s In the MSS: i n i t i a l s , paragraph signs, a l i n e a , etc. Linke i s aware of the fact that not a l l such i n d i c a t i o n s are of equal value. Gregorius would contain about 400 s t r u c t u r a l markers at various l i n e s of the text whereas each i n d i v i d u a l MS only r e g i s t e r s between 105 (E) and 275 (K). This raises a rather d i f f i c u l t question: i t i s obvious that Some of these 400 markers must be ignored—but which ones, and according to what c r i t e r i a ? In order to evaluate these s t r u c t u r a l data as o b j e c t i v e l y as possible Linke developed a mathematical formula, the purpose of which i s twofold: f i r s t to e s t a b l i s h a mathematically based evaluation of each MS, and secondly to produce a s e r i e s of paragraph d i v i s i o n s which comes as close to the o r i g i n a l one as possible. Linke thereby bases his theory on the assumption that a close examination and c o l l a t i o n of the MS evidence can indeed f u r n i s h us with valuable information as to "wenn nicht Uberhaupt der Absicht des Dichters, so doch zum mindesten den Anschauungen des M i t t e l a l t e r s " Cp. 18). The point of departure i s the c a l c u l a t i o n of the s o - c a l l e d Fehler- quote, a percentage which represents the amount of what Linke considers to be errors i n the s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t i o n s of the MSS. Linke i s c a r e f u l to point out that the Fehlerquote of each MS i s based on an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of subdividing the n a r r a t i v e i n the Hartmann MSS i n general and i n the i n d i v i d u a l MS concerned i n p a r t i c u l a r . Three types of v i o l a t i o n s of the general p r i n c i p l e s of subdividing the text occur according to Linke: (1) the j o i n i n g together of separate n a r r a t i v e units into one paragraph; (2) the d i v i s i o n of one n a r r a t i v e u n i t into two or more paragraphs; (3) v i o l a t i o n of the syntax and of the meaning of a sentence (p. 18). These points can hardly be said to exclude the subjective f e e l i n g s of the scholar, and Linke i s aware of the subjective f a c t o r : "Das subjektive Moment, das s i c h unvermeidbar e i n s t e l l t , wenn man diesen Masstab anlegt, lHsst s i c h zwar nicht v H l l i g ausschalten, aber doch wesentli.ch dadurch verringern, dass man s i c h zuvor an Hand derjenigen Abschnittsgrenzen, die a l l e Handschriften U b e r l i e f e r n , einen B e g r i f f von den Gliederungseigenarten b i l d e t , die ihnen a l i e n gemein sind . . (p. 18). Having counted "missing," superfluous, and s y n t a x - v i o l a t i n g s t r u c t u r a l markers as e r r o r s , Linke proceeds to c a l c u l a t e the Fehlerquote, i . e . the percentage of " i n c o r r e c t " paragraph d i v i s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l number of paragraph d i v i s i o n s i n each MS. The MSS are then placed on a scale, the lowest percentage appearing at the top and the highest ones at the bottom. There are other factors than the Fehlerquote, however, which enable Linke to place the MSS on the f i r s t evaluation scale. He ignores a l l fragments and codices d e s c i s s i i from the outset. Furthermore, he eliminates MSS which r e g i s t e r too few paragraph d i v i s i o n s from the analysis and pushes MSS i n which an abundance of paragraph d i v i s i o n s are attested to the bottom of the scale regardless of t h e i r Fehlerquote.By S O doing, he f a i l s to c l a r i f y exactly when a MS r e g i s t e r s too few or too many paragraph d i v i s i o n s . MSS showing a Fehlerquote exceeding 25% (Linke nowhere gives the precise c u t - o f f point) are likewise disregarded at the preliminary stages but taken into account again l a t e r i n the process. Having thus established the f i r s t evaluation scale, or QualitMts-Reihe as Linke c a l l s i t , the process of s e l e c t i n g the paragraph d i v i s i o n s which he considers to have a hight p r o b a b i l i t y of representing the o r i g i n a l ones can commence. In order to f a c i l i t a t e t h i s process, Linke gives each MS on the evaluation scale a number which i s to express i t s value i n r e l a t i o n to the other MSS. The aim of t h i s i s also to make the process le s s prone to be influenced by the subjective f e e l i n g s of the scholar: "Urn beim Gegeneinander-AbwUgen der zahlreichen Handschriften, wie es bei gespaltener Uberlieferung e r f o r d e r l i c h i s t , das Eindringen subjektiver,Momente auszuschliess en, versieht man am besten jede Handschriftensigle derart mit einem Zahlenwert, dass der besten L e i t h a n d s c h r i f t der htfchste und der schlechtesten der geringste e n t s p r i c h t " (p. 21). Whether or not to accept a paragraph d i v i s i o n now depends on the accumulated numerical value of a l l the. MSS which a t t e s t the paragraph d i v i s i o n compared with the value of the MSS which do not r e g i s t e r a paragraph d i v i s i o n at the point i n question. " D e r V o r t e i l dieses mathematischen Verfahrens l i e g t darin, dass beim Vergleich der 33 verschiedenen Gliederungen V o r - U r t e i l e , die aus der Rtlcksicht auf den Inhalt der ErzRhlung erwachsen kHnnten, j e t z t absolut ausgeschlossen s i n d " (p. 22). I t i s true that subjective content considerations are avoided through such a mathematical process. It must be borne i n mind, however, that such considerations influenced the decisions which l e d to the e s t a b l i s h i n g of t h i s numerical value; and using a numerical evaluation system does not render the r e s u l t s of a process objective i f t h i s numerical value was established by means of subjective c r i t e r i a . What follows now i s an elaborate system of c a l c u l a t i n g the value of each MS, s e l e c t i n g the paragraph d i v i s i o n s which can be accepted according to the value of the MSS i n which they are attested, r e -evaluating the MSS on the basis of these accepted paragraph d i v i s i o n s , accepting or discarding other MSS according to t h i s new value, and re-evaluating again u n t i l the q u a l i t y scale remains constant. The more MSS there are and the more d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s e x i s t among them, the more r e p e t i t i o n s of t h i s procedure are necessary. In the case of Gregorius the procedure i s r e l a t i v e l y simple because only three of the eleven MSS, in c l u d i n g fragments, have been provided with a numerical value by Linke f o r reasons given above. But i n the case of Iwein, where more than a dozen MSS fi g u r e on the evaluation-scales, the process becomes complicated. Not only do we work through three evaluation s c a l e s , but we are also faced with three s o - c a l l e d Quantit&ts-Reihen, i . e . three separate suggestions as to the t o t a l number of possibly o r i g i n a l paragraph d i v i s i o n s , before a proposal of the s t r u c t u r a l pattern of the work can be put forward. I t l i e s beyond the scope of t h i s chapter to deal with the d e t a i l s of t h i s involved method. We s h a l l , however, discuss Linke's choice of figures to represent the value of each MS, taking the t h i r d q u a l i t y scale as an example. In Iwein 189 paragraph d i v i s i o n s are considered "gesichert" by Linke at t h i s stage. In MS A 143 paragraph d i v i s i o n s are attested. 130, or 90.9% of these are "gesichert" according to Linke's c a l c u l a t i o n s . But these 130 only constitute 68.8% out of a t o t a l of 189 accepted paragraph d i v i s i o n s . The Formwert of the MS A at t h i s point i s therefore h a l f of the sum of these two percentages 90.9 + 68.8 = 7 9 < 9 % < 1 0 L i s t i n g fch£ F o r m w e r t o f e a c h M s the t h i r d q u a l i t y scale looks l i k e t h i s (p. 59 Table 15): D : 83.6% A : 79.9% d : 78.5% B : 78.4% c : 73.7% z : 71.8% r : 71.4% b •: 71.3% 1 : 69.1% J : 65.3% E : 64.2% f : 59.4% P : 55.6% a : 36.3% Instead of working d i r e c t l y with these percentages, however, Linke chooses to use them only to e s t a b l i s h the order of the MSS on the scale, w i t h i n the range of the number of MSS, i n t h i s case between 1 and 14: D:> 14 A: 13 d: 12 B: 11 c: 10 z: 9 r: 8 b: 7 1: 6 J: 5 E: 4 f : 3 p: 2 a : 1 In h i s review of Linke's book Thomas Cramer points to the weaknesses of simply using the numbers i n t h i s progressive order: "Habe i c h fttnf Hss, so bekommen s i e nach i h r e r S t e l l e i n der Wert-skala die Wer'te 5,4,3,2,1. Das bedeutet: stimmen die ersten beiden . Hss. zusammen, so kBnnen die nMchsten d r e i kein Gegengewicht b i l d e n (5+4=9> 3+2+1=6); habe i c h 9 Hss., so h e i s s t die Reihe 9,8,7,6,5 . . . Stimmen die ersten beiden Hss. zusammen, so k8nnen s i e j e t z t durch die 1folgenden d r e i k o r r i g i e r t werden (9+8=17< 7+6+5=18). Im zweiten B e i s p i e l erhalten damit die Hss. auf der 3.-5. P o s i t i o n der Wertskala zusammen ein Ubergewicht Uber die Hss. auf der 1. und 2. P o s i t i o n nur, weil die Gesamtzahl der Hss. grosser i s t . . . . " Cramer suggests an evaluation scale using the numbers 100+1, 100+2, 100+3, et c . , i n order to reduce the importance of the o r d i n a l scale. But t h i s would also reduce the purpose of having a numerical evaluation system. I f Cramer's suggestion were adhered to, the simple majority of the MSS would decide whether or not to accept a paragraph d i v i s i o n . The opposite r e s u l t would thus be produced i n the example quoted above (5+4=9 > 3+2+1=6) because 3 MSS i n v a r i a b l y would score a higher number than 2 MSS: 105+104=209< 103+102+101=306. Only where two groups of equal s i z e were to compete would Cramer's proposal work, and then i t would produce exactly the same e f f e c t as does Linke's method; Cramer: 104 + 103 = 207 > 102 + 101 =203 Linke: 4 + 3 = 7. > 2 + 1 = 3 In an o r d i n a l scale the differ e n c e of value between the best MSS increases the fewer MSS we are dealing with—and v i c e versa. I f we have 6 MSS i n Linke's evaluation order of 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1, the fourth MS i n the row i s worth only h a l f (3) of the value of the f i r s t one (6). In the case of 20 MSS, however, the dif f e r e n c e i n value between the f i r s t and the fourth MSS would be i n the r e l a t i o n of 20 to 17, a hardly noticeable diff e r e n c e compared to the example of 6 MSS; .The f i r s t 4 MSS i n the row of 6 i n our t h e o r e t i c a l example might even show l i t t l e d ifference i n the percentages which led to the scale. The actual number of MSS gains too much importance when the evaluation scale based on the value of a given MS i n percentages i s reduced to an. ordi n a l scale. Why not make use of the percentages which form the basis of the q u a l i t y scales? In borderline cases ( i . e . those cases where paragraph d i v i s i o n s are attested i n so few MSS that the question r e a l l y a rises whether or not to accept them as possibly o r i g i n a l ones) i t makes a difference which numbers are being employed i n the evaluation scale. We s h a l l i l l u s t r a t e our point by taking a random example from Iwein of such a borderline case. A paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e 4593 Is attested i n the MSS A, D, E, J , d, and z. According to L'inke's t h i r d q u a l i t y scale mentioned above, these MSS represent a value of 13+14+4+5+12+9=57. This paragraph d i v i s i o n thus finds acceptance by Linke because the sum of 57 exceeds that of the remaining MSS which do not r e g i s t e r a paragraph d i v i s i o n at t h i s point: B, a, b, c, f, 1, p, and r or 11+1+7+10+3+6+2+8=48. I f , however, we employ the actual values of the MSS i n percentages, the Formwert, we would a r r i v e at the opposite r e s u l t : Numerical Value Formwert A : 13 79.9% D : 14 83.6% E : 4 64.2% J : 5 • " 65.3% d : 12 78.5% z : 9 71.8% 57 443.3% B : 11 78.4% a : 1 36.3% b : 7 71.3% c : 10 73.7% f : 3 59A% 1 : 6 69.1% p : 2 55.6% r : 8 71.4% 48 515.2% Linke intends to f a c i l i t a t e h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s by exchanging the i n t e r v a l scale f o r an o r d i n a l one. But, unless Linke s p e c i f i c a l l y wants to accept fewer of the weaker paragraph d i v i s i o n s , there i s r e a l l y no reason why he could not have reduced the percentages to a 1-10 scale, thus l e t t i n g i t remain an i n t e r v a l scale: A : 79.9% > 8 D : 83.6% > 8 E : 64.2% 6 J : 65.3% > 7 d : 78.5% 8 z : 71.8% > 7 443.3% 44 True, the 3 MSS A, D, and d now a l l have the same value which was not the case i n the o r d i n a l s c a l e . But there i s a f t e r a l l only 5.1% (83.6-78.5) di f f e r e n c e between D and d i n Linke's i n t e r v a l scale of percentages. Having reached the stage where a renewed comparison of the MSS no longer leads to a s h i f t i n g of pos i t i o n s among the MSS on the evaluation scale (the t h i r d q u a l i t y scale i n Iwein), Linke proceeds to amend the MS evidence i n c e r t a i n cases. A paragraph d i v i s i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y occur at exactly the same l i n e i n each MS, Linke states. He therefore allows f o r divergencies of up to several l i n e s , and he adds up the t o t a l of the numerical value of a l l the l i n e s which he considers to r e g i s t e r b a s i c a l l y the same paragraph d i v i s i o n . Three major reasons for such divergencies are l i s t e d (p. 60): 1. Obvious s c r i b a l e r r o r s . 2. "Graphischer zwang," i . e . due to the indentation of every other l i n e i n some MSS i n i t i a l s occur only where there i s room. 3. S h i f t i n g of border l i n e s i n the narrative.. 40 Again subjective decisions have entered the p i c t u r e . Sixteen a d d i t i o n a l paragraph d i v i s i o n s are accepted i n Iwein through the amendments of the above mentioned Korruptel. In Gregorius no such amendments are necessary. There s t i l l are not enough paragraph divisions, Linke f e e l s . In order to bring up the number of accepted paragraph d i v i s i o n s to a f a i r l y average l e v e l , Linke has b u i l t a f l e x i b i l i t y clause into h i s formula: "Stehen s i c h g l e i c h gute Handschrif ten (oder Handschrif tengruppen) gegentlber, so bedarf es zur Entscheidung fur die eine oder die•andere des Hinzutretens weiterer formaler und/oder i n h a l t l i c h e r Grunde" (p. 21). J u s t i f i e d by t h i s clause, Linke accepts another 22 paragraph d i v i s i o n s i n Iwein and as many as 33 i n Gregorius. Although Linke plays down the s i z e of t h i s amount i n Gregorius by c a l l i n g i t "knapp ein V i e r t e l " (p. 34: 33 out of 137 paragraph d i v i s i o n s ) , i t does give r i s e to a suspicion that Linke accepts the paragraph d i v i s i o n s which he wants to accept. I f they are not mathematically acceptable, he finds s u f f i c i e n t "weitere formale und/oder i n h a l t l i c h e Grttnde" to j u s t i f y them. Admittedly, he never i n t e r p o l a t e s paragraph d i v i s i o n s . He makes c e r t a i n that the d i v i s i o n i s always re g i s t e r e d i n at least one MS. This i s not as d i f f i c u l t a task as i t may sound, however, for about 400 paragraph d i v i s i o n s are attested i n Gregorius, of which only 137 f i n d acceptance with Linke. Linke does not stop here. The paragraph d i v i s i o n s which have been accumulated up to t h i s point must be f i n a l l y secured. The r e l a t i v e and the absolute percentages must again be calcu l a t e d , and a new evaluation scale emerges; t h i s process i s continued u n t i l the scale again remains constant. In addition to t h i s the r e l a t i v e and the absolute percentages of each MS with regard to the preservation of the two s t r u c t u r a l patterns (the n a r r a t i v e and the r e c i t a t i v e structure) must be calculated i n the same manner, and yet a further evaluation scale emerges. There are now three evaluation scales: 1. The scale dealing with the t o t a l number of accepted paragraph d i v i s i o n s . 2. ' The scale evaluating each MS according to the degree i n which the Werkstruktur (narrative structure) i s preserved) 3. The scale evaluating each MS according to the degree i n which the Vortragsgliederung ( r e c i t a t i v e structure) i s preserved. The Kritikwerfe-of each i n d i v i d u a l MS i s now the sum of the three d i f f e r e n t evaluation f i g u r e s . The e n t i r e bulk of paragraph d i v i s i o n s again have to be measured according to t h i s newly established q u a l i t y scale (the fourth such for Iwein). I f changes occur, the process must be repeated u n t i l the scale remains constant. The f i f t h q u a l i t y scale i s the f i n a l one i n the case of Iwein ( i n Gregorius only one q u a l i t y scale i s needed). The minor changes i n the bulk of accepted paragraph d i v i s i o n s no longer influence the evaluation s c a l e . "Hartmanns "Iwein' enthHlt also endgUltig insgesamt 226 Abschnittsgrenzen," Linke concludes (p. 95). But—and t h i s must be considered a major weakness i n Linke's m e t h o d — s t i l l only 187 of these (about 82%) can be accepted d i r e c t l y on 12 the basis of the mathematical formula. To be sure, 20 Korruptel which were amended are now mathematically "gedeckt" according to the , f i f t h q u a l i t y scale; t h i s i s only the case, however, provided Linke was r i g h t i n assuming the presence of b a s i c a l l y the same paragraph d i v i s i o n where s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t o r s did not occur at exactly the same l i n e . Had he 42. started out amending these Korruptel they would have been "gedeckt" already i n the f i r s t q u a l i t y scale. Another 19 paragraph d i v i s i o n s s t i l l need help "aus formalen und i n h a l t l i c h e n Ursachen"Xp. 95) and are therefore s t i l l not covered by the f i f t h and f i n a l q u a l i t y scale. Although a t t e n t i o n has been drawn to c e r t a i n weaknesses i n Linke's approach, the p o s i t i v e aspects should not be overlooked. The merit of Linke's book l i e s i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of the importance of the s t r u c t u r a l markers i n the MSS themselves and i n the subsequent u t i l i z a t i o n of the MS evidence. As stated by Green at the beginning of t h i s chapter, the "novelty of Linke's methodical caution" (MLR, p. 671) i s welcome. Green i s r e f e r r i n g to the fact that Linke i n s i s t s that the s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s — which he also establishes with due regard to the content—must be supported by the s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t i o n s i n the MSS. Future scholars might disagree with Linke's evaluation procedure, but h i s attempt to e s t a b l i s h an objective c r i t i q u e of form per se w i l l remain v a l i d . Cramer, who severely c r i t i c i z e s Linke's approach, also r e a l i z e s t h i s : "wohl aber wird nach Linkes A r b e i t niemand mehr ein Strukturschema a u f s t e l l e n kilmnen, ohne s i c h (mit form-k r i t i s c h e n Methoden) seines Fundaments, seiner BegrUndung und BestHtigung i n der h a n d s c h r i f t l i c h e n Uberlieferung zu versichern" (Euph, p. 122). Chapter I I I : Footnotes "'"Absicht oder Willkttr im Aufbau des Heliand (Hamburg, 1964). 2 Rathofer bases h i s study on Eduard Sievers" e d i t i o n of the Heliand (Halle, 1878) i n which the two complete MSS C and M appear side by side. 3Rathofer, "Zum Aufbau des Heliand," ZfdA, 93 (1964), 242. 4 Rathofer, Heliand, p. 260. The eighth f i t also s t a r t s with t h i s formula, however. ^Rathofer, "Zum Aufbau,"plate I I , i l l u s t r a t i o n 9; plate I, i l l u s t r a t i o n 7, between p. 254/5. 6 Rathofer, "Zum Aufbau," the i l l u s t r a t i o n s between pp. 254/5. ^Jean Fourquet, "Zum Aufbau des Armen Hei n r i c h , " Wirkendes Wort, 11 (1961), 3rd Sonderheft, p. 16. 8 In the early s i x t i e s Batts drew attention to the importance of the " t e c h n i c a l apparatus" i n the MSS f o r the study of s t r u c t u r a l patterns: "Poetic Form and Medieval German S c r i b a l P r a c t i c e , " JEGP, 62 (1963), 702. 9 Dennis H. Green, Review of Hansjtirgen Linke: Epische Striikturen, MLR, 65(1970), 671. 1 0 p . 59, 90.9%' " r e l a t i v e r A n t e i l " 68.8% "absoluter Anteil," 1:LThomas Cramer, Euphorion, 64 (1970>, 120. 12 According to the 3rd q u a l i t y scale, 189 paragraph d i v i s i o n s could become accepted mathematically. Chapter IV A S t a t i s t i c a l Approach to Selec t i n g I n i t i a l s from the T r i s t a n MSS f o r a "Model MS," and an Evaluation of the MSS i n t h e i r Relation to t h i s Model MS. Our c r i t i c i s m of Linke's approach i s not aimed at- discouraging c r i t i q u e of form based on MS evidence. On the contrary a c r i t i q u e of form i s not only desirable, but should be an e s s e n t i a l part of a s t r u c t u r a l analysis of a medieval work of l i t e r a t u r e . We are of the opinion, however, that Linke has complicated the mathematical evaluation unduly. In t h i s chapter an attempt w i l l be made to evaluate the s t a t i s t i c a l data gathered from an examination of the T r i s t a n MSS i n a l e s s involved fashion. Unlike Linke we are concerned not so much with the correct acceptance of each i n d i v i d u a l paragraph d i v i s i o n , but with the r e l i a b i l i t y of the bulk of accepted paragraph d i v i s i o n s as a whole. A s t a t i s t i c a l approach cannot—by i t s very n a t u r e — c l a i m a 100% correctness i n i t s r e s u l t s , but neither can Linke's s e m i - s t a t i s t i c a l method. I t can, however, provide us with a r e l a t i v e l y r e l i a b l e basis from which to work. Our approach i s based on the assumption that the majority of the o r i g i n a l structure markers f i l t e r e d through to the various MSS and that part of these o r i g i n a l structure markers can be brought to the surface by focusing on the average representation of the s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t o r s of a l l the MSS. The aim of our s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s i s twofold. F i r s t , we wish to e s t a b l i s h a s e r i e s of paragraph d i v i s i o n s , a model MS, as i t were, which represents the average of the t o t a l number of s t r u c t u r a l markers ( i n i t i a l s ) i n the Tristan-MSS. Secondly, we intend to evaluate the MSS i n r e l a t i o n to one another according to the degree i n which they correspond to t h i s "model MS." In contrast to Linke we s h a l l exclude a l l content considerations, a l l speculations as to errors or w i l f u l changes on the part of the scr i b e s , etc.. I t i s our. i n t e n t i o n to evaluate the s t r u c t u r a l data i n the MSS j u s t as they were handed down to us i n • the 10 complete and 12 fragmentary fMSS which e x i s t , today. Copies were put at our disp o s a l by various European l i b r a r i e s , museums, and archives. This i s a l i s t of the MSS, and t h e i r present l o c a t i o n : ^ M: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Munchen, Cod. germ. 51. H: Uni v e r s i t H t s b i b l i o t h e k Heidelberg, Cod. p a l . germ. 360. F: B i b l i o t e c a Nazionale Centrale Firenze, ms. B.R. 226. Formerly: Cod. magliabechianus germ. VII (9) 33. W: Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek Wien, Cod. vindob. 2707, 3. Formerly: P h i l o l . 216, Ms. Ambras. 424. B: Historisches Archiv der Stadt Ktiln, Nr. 88 (W.k.f.° 88. Blankenheim). N: Staatsbibliothek Preussischer K u l t u r b e s i t z B e r l i n , ms. germ.qu.284. 0: Historisches Archiv der Stadt KtJln, Nr. 87 (Oberlinsche Handschrif t) . E: B i b l i o t e c a Estense Modena, Ms. Est. 57. Formerly:C<.R. 8. 16. R: Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique (Bruxelles), M.S. 14697. P: Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz B e r l i n , ms.germ.foi.640-a: T i r o l e r Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum Innsbruck, FB'1519/III. Formerly: Front page of Sign. XXIX f. 6. b: Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek Wien, Cod. vindob. 15340. Formerly: Suppl. 2717. f: Historisches Archiv der Stadt Ktfln, Fragmentenkapsel I Nr. XLIV. g: Archiv der Stadt Grein, Obertfsterreich. 1: Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz B e r l i n , ms.germ.fol. 923, Nr. 5. m: Staatsbibliothek Preussischer K u l t u r b e s i t z B e r l i n , ms.ger.fol. 923, Nr. 4 [oberlinsches BruchstUck]. 2 q: Sammlung E i s , Hs. 63. s: Bibliotheque Nationale et U n i v e r s i t a i r e Strasbourg, Ms. 2280. Formerly: A l l . 321. t: U n i v e r s i t H t s b i b l i o t h e k Tdbingen, Md. 671. w: Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek Wien, Cod. vindob. 2707, 1. Formerly: P h i l o l . 216, Ms. Ambras, 424. z and Staatsarchiv Zttrich, Sammelmappe C Vl/1, Mappe VI, Nr. 5. A l l MSSiy which are now lost, complete ones as well as fragments, (S, e, h, n,and r),are excluded from our present study, even though some 3 information and ( p a r t i a l ) r e p r i n t s e x i s t . Furthermore, we intend to combine a l l the MSS into one composite group, no matter how many or how few s t r u c t u r a l markers are to be found i n any i n d i v i d u a l MS. This i s contrary.to Linke who sets up d i f f e r e n t rules f o r MSS containing too few or too many, paragraph d i v i s i o n s , and f o r fragments, even to the point of discarding the s t r u c t u r a l evidence i n h i s evaluation process. In our study the fragments w i l l have an equal s t a t i s t i c a l weight within the passages contained i n the.fragments with the complete manuscripts. I t i s our opinion that fragments can y i e l d valuable information concerning the p a r t i c u l a r portion(s) of the text which they do carry. Also missing f o l i o s of the nevertheless so-called complete MSS w i l l be taken into consideration. In order to do t h i s , we s h a l l d i v i d e the text into sections according to which po r t i o n of the T r i s t a n text i s present i n how many MSS. A new section s t a r t s at the precise l i n e where the number of MSS (including fragments) relevant to the portion of text i n question changes. The f i r s t 102 l i n e s of T r i s t a n e x i s t , f o r example, i n 8 MSS only: M, H, W, N, E, R, and P. A change occurs at l i n e 103 where the MS F commences. This w i l l become the f i r s t s o - c a l l e d " l i n e group." The second " l i n e group" then s t a r t s at l i n e 103, and continues to l i n e 524, because the MS 0 takes up the text at l i n e 525, etc. In t h i s manner the text i s devided into 49 " l i n e groups." A minimum of 8 and a maximum of 12 MSS cover these 49 " l i n e groups." Each l i n e group i s numbered i n Arabic numerals, and the l i n e groups which are contained i n a given number of MSS are grouped under Roman numerals ("MS-number groups")as follows: 48 MS-Number Group: I II III IV V ,8 MSS .9 MSS 10 MSS 11 MSS 12 MSS Line Group: 1. Lines 1 - 102 are i n 8 MSS 2. - 103 - 524 i n 9 MSS 3. - 525 - 2028 i n 10 MSS 4. - 2029 - 2104 i n 11 MSS 5. - 2105 - 2208 i n . 10 MSS 6. - 2209 - 2348 i n 11 MSS 7. - 2349 - 2484 i n 12 MSS 8. - 2485 - 2508 i n 11 MSS 9. - 2509 - 3036 i n 10 MSS 10. - 3037 - 3314 i n 11 MSS 11. - 3315 - 3453 i n 10 MSS 12. - 3454 - 3613 i n 11 MSS 13. - 3614 - 3866 i n 10 MSS 14. - 3867 - 4142 i n 11 MSS 15. - 4143 - 4695 i n 10 MSS 16. - 4696 - 4972 i n 11 MSS 17. - 4973 - 8322 i n 10 MSS 18. - 8323 - 8452 i n 11 MSS 19. - 8453 - 9780 i n 10 MSS 20. - 9781 - 9821 i n 11 MSS 21. - 9822 - 9902 i n 10 MSS 22. - 9903 - 9943 i n 11 MSS 23. - 9944 - 10609 i n 10 MSS 8 MSS 9 MSS 10 MSS .11 MSS 12 MSS 24. Lines 10610-10772 are i n 11 MSS 25. - 10773-11428 i n 10 MSS 26. - 11429-11592 i n 11 MSS 27. - 11593-11597 i n 10 MSS 28. - 11598-12558 i n 9 MSS 29. - 12559-12708 i n 10 MSS 30. - 12709-12788 i n 9 MSS 31. - 12789-12934 i n 10 MSS 32. - 12935-13352 i n 9 MSS 33. - 13353-13512 i n 10 MSS 34. - 13513-13575 i n 9 MSS 35. - -1-3576-13598 i n 10 MSS 36. - 13599-13734 i n 1 11 MSS ' 37. - 13735-13832 i n 10 MSS 38. - 13833-13996 i n 11 MSS ' 39. - 13997-14368 i n 10 MSS 40. - 14369-14924 i n 11 MSS 41. - . 14925-15735 i n 10 MSS 42.. - 15736-15899 i n 11 MSS 43. - 15900-16557 i n 10 MSS 44. - 16558-16721 i n 11 MSS 45. - 16722-18095 i n 10 MSS 46. - 18096-18125 i n 11 MSS 47. - 18126-18138 i n 10 MSS 48. - 18139-18172 i n 11 MSS 49. - 18173-19548 i n 10 MSS 5 23 19 1 = 49 5,0 Before beginning the analysis we must define the term " s t r u c t u r a l marker." These markers are for the most part i n i t i a l s , but some MSS also contain a number of paragraph signs: i orJl . Since these l a t t e r occur only i n MSS which also have i n i t i a l s (H, B, N, 0, R), they are omitted at t h i s point (Linke does1 l i k e w i s e ) . The s t r u c t u r a l markers which enter into our c a l c u l a t i o n s are thus a l l the i n i t i a l s i n a l l the'MSS, including those which were not a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d out by the r u b r i c a t o r but were c l e a r l y indicated by means of a space i n the text'' and often also by means of a small l e t t e r i n the margin showing which i n i t i a l was meant to appear at the point i n question. Only the r e l a t i v e l y small i n i t i a l s which form the DIETERICH-acrostic at the beginning l i n e s of the text i n the MS H ( l i n e s 5-37) are l e f t out of our c a l c u l a t i o n . Our immediate aim i s to e s t a b l i s h s t a t i s t i c a l l y a s e r i e s of average paragraph d i v i s i o n s f o r our "model" MS. The f i r s t step towards this goal i s to record and count a l l the i n i t i a l s i n a l l the MSS; each i n i t i a l i n d i c a t e s for the purpose of our method a paragraph d i v i s i o n . The T r i s t a n MSS r e g i s t e r the following numbers of i n i t i a l s : 51 M H F' W B N 0 E n p 3476 I n i t i a l s a : 6 I n i t i a l s b : 6 -f : 2 -g : 1 1 : 2 -m : 1 q : 1 -s : 0 -t : 8 w : 1 -z : 5 z 1 : - r 6 - 39 I n i t i a l s tso miciais 198 474 191 517 638 180 426 171 186 3515 I n i t i a l s These 3515 i n i t i a l s are d i s t r i b u t e d as follows over the 5 "MS-number groups" and 49 " l i n e groups:" MS-No. Group I II III IV V (8 MSS) (9 MSS) (10 MSS) (11 MSS) (12 MSS) Line Group 1. 21 2. 64 3. 297 4. 17 5. 23 6. 21 7. 30 8. 4 9. 88 10. 70 11. . 32 12. . 47 13. 52 14. 63 15. 106 16. 47 17. 640 18. 31 19. 267 20. ' 7 21. 12 22. 3 23. 120 MS-No. Group I I I I I I IV V (8 MSS) (9 MSS) (10 MSS) (11 MSS) (12 MSS) Line Group 24. 36 25. 133 - - 26. 20 - - 27. 0 - ' 28. 146 - • 2 9 . 31 30. 9 31. 20 32. 62 33. 30 • - - 34. 13 35. 1 36. 33 37. 15 38. 30 39. 61 40. 101 41. 145, - . 42. 26 43. 118 44. 27 45. 186 46. 11 - - 47. 2 48. 5 - 49. ' 192 T o t a l : 21 294 2571 599 30 = 3515 The next step i s to cal c u l a t e the s t a t i s t i c a l average of each of these 5 MS-number groups i n order to be able to s e l e c t f o r our model MS the number of i n i t i a l s which most accurately represents the s t a t i s t i c a l average. The average number of i n i t i a l s i n each of these 5 MS-number groups i s : I (8 MSS): 21 i n i t i a l s divided by 8 = 2.6 II (9 MSS): 294 - 9 = 32.7 III (10 MSS): 2571 - - 10 = 257.1 IV (11 MSS): 599 - - 1 1 = 54.5 V (12 MSS): 30 - 12 = 2.5 349.4 We s h a l l i l l u s t r a t e by the example of the f i r s t MS-number group how the i n i t i a l s f o r the model MS are a c t u a l l y selected. This group consists of one l i n e group only i n which 21 i n i t i a l s are attested: M H F W B N O E R P F r a f ~ ments Line 1 G G - G G G - G G G - 8 i n i t i a l s 5 - D - - 1 41 T T - T T - T T - 6 45 I - 1 -74 I - - 1 -97 - E - - 1 -101 N - N — N - 3 Tota l : 4 2 - 3 3 3 - 3 1 2 - = 2 1 i n i t i a l s The t h e o r e t i c a l number of average i n i t i a l s from the MS-number group i s 2.6. The i n i t i a l s which are to be c l a s s i f i e d as "average i n i t i a l s ' w i l l be the ones which are attested i n the highest number of MSS. In t h i s case the i n i t i a l . , at l i n e 1 i s registered i n the highest number of MSS; t h i s i n i t i a l therefore constitutes the f i r s t average i n i t i a l i n our model MS. The next average i n i t i a l w i l l be the one which i s attested i n the second highest number of MSS, i n our example the i n i t i a l at l i n e 41. In order to come as close as pos s i b l e to the s t a t i s t i c a l average (2.6) we s h a l l s e l e c t a t h i r d average i n i t i a l . This w i l l be the one which i s registered i n the t h i r d highest number of MSS: the one at l i n e 101. There are now 3 average i n i t i a l s i n our model MS at l i n e 1, 41, and 101, but .only the MSS M and E a c t u a l l y contain a l l three of them: M H F W B N O E R P Frag-ments Model ' MS Line 1: G G - G G G - G G G X Line 5: - D - . -Line 41: T T - T T - T T X Line 45: - I - - , Line 74: I - - -Line 97: - E - -Line 101: N N - N X 3 2 0 2 2 . 2 0 3 1 , 2 0 - 3 Had there been more than one i n i t i a l registered in 3 MSS we would have had to cease selection after the f i r s t 2 average i n i t i a l s as the number 4 would be further away from 2.6 than i s the number 2. It should be pointed out that the entire number of i n i t i a l s i n the same number of MSS has to be either accepted or not accepted. In each one of the 5 MS-number groups, the cut-off point w i l l thus be at the number of i n i t i a l s which most nearly approximates the st a t i s t i c a l average.. MS-number group II which comprises 5 line groups has a total of 294 i n i t i a l s : M • H F W B N 0 E R P Line Group 2 11 5 11 5 9 8 8 3 4 64 i n i t i a l s _ 28 12 21 9 32 33 9 13 8 9 146 30 0 2 0 4 2 0 0 1 0 9 32 3 11 3 14 13 3 8. 4 3 62 34 . 1 2 1 ' 2 3 1 2 0 1 13 11 21 47 i a 61 59 13 31 16 17 = 294 i n i t i a l s The s t a t i s t i c a l average of this group being 32.7, the nearest approximation to this figure i s 34 by taking 3 as the lowest common Q occurrence in the MSS. 57 The number of average i n i t i a l s accepted f o r the model MS from the : q l i n e groups of MS-number group II i s as follows: Line Group 2 : 9 28 : 15 30 : 1 32 : , 7 34 : 2 = 34 average i n i t i a l s accepted f o r the model MS Each i n d i v i d u a l MS contains the following number of "average" i n i t i a l s : Line Group M H F- W B N 0 E R P 2 8 5 5 5 8 4 8 3 4 28 10 11 8 13 14 9 5 7 9 30 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 32 3 6 3 7 6 3 3 4 3 34 1 1 1 2 2 1 .2 .0 1 8 19 24 17 31 27 13 18 14 17 In the t h i r d MS-number group, a t o t a l of 2571 i n i t i a l s were recorded i n 23 l i n e groups: 58 M H F W B . M 0 E R P b t Line Group 3 : 42 26 37 25 26 42 25 36 15 23 =297 5 : 4 2 3 2 3 4 1 3 0 1 = 23 9 : 18 2 16 3 9 16 3 13 5 3 = 88 11 : 5 3 . 4 2 2 6 3 ' 3 1 3 ' = 3 2 1 3 : 9 3 8 3 7 9 3 6 1 3 = 52 15 : i s 6 13. 9 15 14 6 13 5 7 = 106 17 :111 35 96 32 95 93 29 83 34 32 = 640 19 : 43 11 38 9 47 48 11 34 14 12 = 267 2 1 : 0 1 3 1 0 4 1 0 1 1 = 1 2 23 : 18 2 22 2 25 29 2 14 5 1 = 120 25 : 15 9 19 8 21 25 10 13 6 7 = 133 2 7 : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 0' 29 : 2 2 2 7 5 2 4 1 2 4 = 31 31 : 0 3 0 6 5 0 1 1 0 4 = 20 3 3 : 1 4 2 7 6 2 2 2 2 2 = 3 0 3 5 : 1 0 , 0 P 0 0 0 0 ' 0 0 = 1 3 7 : 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 = 1 5 39 : 8 3 8 3 12 9 3 9 3 3 = 6 1 41 : 21 5 17 5: 24, 36 5 21 6 5 = 145 43 : 17 6 14 6 19 22 6 16 5 7 = 118 45 : 27 13 21 12 20 41 12 21 9 10 = 186 4 7 : 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0. 0 0 = 2 49 : 26 12 22 12 24 43 12 19 11 11 = 192 386 143 351 139 370 461 137 314 126 134 2 8 = 2571 i n i t i a l s From this MS-number group(Hl),a total of 234 i n i t i a l s appear in our model MS. This i s 23 short of the s t a t i s t i c a l average 257.1. From each line group the following number of i n i t i a l s can be accepted for the model MS by taking 3 as the lowest common occurrence at the same , . 11 line. 3: 30 5: 3 9: 9 11: 3 13: 4 15: 14 17: 55 19: 28 21: 1 23: 12 25: 13 27: 0 29: 2 31: 1 33: 3 35: 0 37: 1 39: 4 41: 13 43: 9 45: 16 47: 0 49: 13 234 average initials.accepted for the model MS In each i n d i v i d u a l MS the following number of i n i t i a l s are i d e n t i c a l with the average i n i t i a l s selected f o r the model MS: 60 Line group 3 5 9 11 13 15 17 M H F W B N O E R 21 25 26 25 22 22 24 24 15 22 1 4 0 1 4 2 2 3 3 6 3 5 2 3 7 2 3 2 3 3 5 2 2 9 11 2 5 3 3 9 1 3 3 3 6 2 5 0 1 7 0 3 1 1 4 12 31 46 30 46 46 29 14 26 30 19: 6 11 19 9 24 23 11 7 11 12 21: 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 23: 3 2 10 2 l l 10 2 3 2 1 25: 3 9 10 8 10 11 10 3 6 7 27: 0 0 0 0 0 0 ' 0 0 0 0 29: 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 31: 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 33: 1 2 2 3 3 2 . 2 2 . 2 35: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37: 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 39: 0 3 3 3 4 4 3 0 3 3 41: 6 5 10 5 10 10 5 6 3 5 43: 1 6 7 6 9 8 6 4 4 7 45: 2 13 14 12 9 13 12 2 9 10 47: 0 0 o 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 49: 2 12 11 12 12 12 11 . 1 11 11 66 138 182 137 187 189 135 84 103 131 2 1 2 3 out of 234 12 61 • The fourth MS-number group has a t o t a l of 599 i n i t i a l s : Line M H F W B N 0 E R P a b f g 1 m q s w z 1 z Group 4 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 = 17 6 5 0 3 0 2 6 0 4 1 0 0 = 21 8 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 = 4 10 9 6 7 5 4 16 5 7 2 5 4 = 70 12 5 4 5 4 3 7 4 4 3 4 4 = 47 14 9 4 8 4 8 12 4 6 2 4 2 = 63 16 10 3 7 3 3 4 0 10 1 4 2 = 47 18 4 1 5 1 5 5 1 4 2 1 2 = 31 20 1 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 = 7 22 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 = 3 24 4 1 6 1 9 7 1 .3 2 1 1 = 36 26 4 0 2 0 7 3 0 3 1 0 0 = 20 36 4 2 4 2 6 6 ,2 4 1 1 1 , = 33 28 3 1 3 1 4 6 1 4 2 1 4 = 30 40 17 5 11 4 15 18 5 13 6 5 2 • = 101 42 5 1 3 1 4 4 1 4 1 1 1 = 26 44 4 1 3 1 4 6 2 2 1 2 1 >• = 27 46 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 11 48 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 o 5 90 31 72 29 81 109 28 74 28 31 4 4 2 1 2 1 1 0 1 4 6 = 599 62 The s t a t i s t i c a l average of t h i s group was 54.5."1""" We come very close to t h i s f i g u r e : a t o t a l of 53 i n i t i a l s are accepted i n the model MS, again by taking the number 3 as the lowest common occurrence: From l i n e group 4: 1 6: 1 8 : 1 10: 6 12: 4 14: 4 16: 5 18: 3 20: 1 22: 0 24: 3 26: 1 36: 3 38: 2 40: 9 42: 3 44: 4 46: -1 48: 1 53 average i n i t i a l s f o r the model MS, 63 Each i n d i v i d u a l MS contains the following number of i n i t i a l s which are i d e n t i c a l with the ones selected f o r the model MS: Line Group M H F W B N 0 E R P a b f g 1 m q • s w z z 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 8 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 1 5 5 5 2 6 5 1 2 5 4 12 0 4 4 4 3 3 4 0 3 4 4 14 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 2 16 2 3 3 3 3 2 0 2 1 3 2 18 0 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 1 2 20 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 0 1 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 26 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 36 0 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 l 1 38 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 l 2 40 • 1 5 7 4 8 8 5 1 5 5 2 42 1 1 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 44 1 1 3 1 4 4 2 0 1 2 1 46 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 l 48 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 9 30 40 29 42 45 28 16 22 30 4 2 2 1 2 1 1 0 1 4 6 out of 53 14 64 The f i f t h MS-number group consists of one l i n e group only. In thi s l i n e group a t o t a l of 30 i n i t i a l s appear: M H F W B N 0 E R , P a z Line Group 7: 4 1 4 2 2 6 2 4 0 2 2 1 = 30 i n i t i a l s The s t a t i s t i c a l average of t h i s group was 2.5.'*'"' Again 3, i s the lowest common occurence. A cut-off point at 2 i n i t i a l s at the same l i n e would have meant the acceptance of an a d d i t i o n a l 3 (= t o t a l of 6) i n i t i a l s which would by f a r exceed 2.5. Of the 3 accepted i n i t i a l s , each MS has: M H F W B N 0 E R P a z Line Group 7: 0 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 0 2 2 1 out of 3 Summing up the t o t a l number of i n i t i a l s i n a l l 5 MS-number groups i s 3515: M H F W B . N 0 E R P a b f g l m q s t w z z 1 4 2 3 3 3 3 1 2 II 11 21 47 18 61 59 13 31 16 17 III 386 143 351 139 370 461 137 314 126 134 2 8 IV 90 31 72 29 81 109 28 74 28 31 4 4 2 1 2 1 1 0 1 4 6 V 4 1 4 2 2 6 2. 4 0 2 2 1 495 198 474 191 517 638 180 426 171 186 6 6 2 1 2 1 1 0 8 1 5 6 =3515 i n i t i a l s = 21 = 294 =2571 = 599 = 30 The t h e o r e t i c a l number of average i n i t i a l s was 3.49.4 , but i n actual f a c t we were only able to designate 327 for our constructed MS: I : 3 II : 34 III : 234 IV : 53 V : 3_ 327_ Of these 327 average i n i t i a l s , each i n d i v i d u a l MS contributed: M H F W B N ' 0 E ••• R p a b f 1 m s t w 2 1 z I 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 II 8 19 24 . 17 31 27 i 13 18 14 17 III 66 138 182 137 187 189 135 84 103 131 2 3 IV 9 30 40 29 42 45 28 16 22 30 4 2 2 1 2 1 l 0 1 4 6 V 0 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 0 2 2 1 86 190 247 187 263 265 178 122 140 182 6 4 2 1 2 1 l 0 3 1. 5 6 The r e s u l t of our method of s e l e c t i o n turned out to be that i f 3 MSS contain the. same i n i t i a l , then t h i s i n i t i a l i s accepted as an average i n i t i a l i n our model MS. Not once i s i t necessary, to accept an i n i t i a l which occurs i n 2 MSS only or to discard an i n i t i a l which i s attested i n 17 3 or more MSS. If the 49 l i n e groups were to be considered separately, however, only a t o t a l of 313 as opposed to 327 average i n i t i a l s would f i n d t h e i r way into the model MS. Admittedly, the r e s u l t would be more accurate within each i n d i v i d u a l l i n e group i f t h i s group were to be regarded as a separate e n t i t y . Seen i n the larger perspective, however, the o v e r - a l l r e s u l t i s more r e l i a b l e when a l l l i n e groups i n one MS-number group are treated as one composite group. Treated separately, only the small l i n e groups (of a couple of 100 l i n e s or less) would show a d i f f e r e n t 18 r e s u l t . This would give these smaller groups too much importance. We have now completed the f i r s t step of our s t a t i s t i c a l approach: a seri e s of s t a t i s t i c a l l y based "average i n i t i a l s " has been established (our model MS). Furthermore, we have shown how many of these average i n i t i a l s are represented i n each i n d i v i d u a l MS. The next step i s to evaluate the MSS i n r e l a t i o n to th i s model MS. Like Linke we s h a l l a t t r i b u t e a numerical value to each MS; unlike Linke, however, we intend to r e t a i n the value of the MSS as i t i s expressed i n percentage points rather than replacing i t by the numbers of an o r d i n a l scale. Our choice of evaluation c r i t e r i a w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d on a t h e o r e t i c a l example: 7 MSS r e g i s t e r a t o t a l number of 350 i n i t i a l s d i s t r i b u t e d as follows: A B C D E F G 100 100 50 ' 50 10 20 20 = 350 The following number of average i n i t i a l s are a c t u a l l y i n evidence i n each 19 MS out of a t o t a l of the s t a t i s t i c a l average of 50: A B C D E F G 10 50 10 50 10 20 10 I f we c a l c u l a t e the percentage of the number of average i n i t i a l s i n r e l a t i o n to the number of s t a t i s t i c a l ones (50) the 4 MSS A, C, E, and G w i l l come out even: A B C D E F G 10 50 10 50 10 20 10 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 20% 100% 20% 100% 20% 40% 20% I f , on the other hand, we take into consideration as w e l l that 100 i n i t i a l s are attested, f o r example, i n A, and only 10 of these can be c l a s s i f i e d as average i n i t i a l s whereas E indicates only 10 i n i t i a l s , a l l of which are average i n i t i a l s , we obtain a more accurate p i c t u r e of the r e l i a b i l i t y , of each MS—at le a s t as f a r as our c r i t e r i a are concerned. The percentages which a r i s e from t h i s second c r i t e r i o n are the following: A B C D E F G 10 50 10 50 10 20 10 100 100 50 50 10 20 20 10% 50% 20% 100% 100% 100% 50% Averaging the two percentages produces the f i n a l yalue of, each. MS; A B C D E F G 20+10 100+50 20+20 100+100 20+100 40+100 '20+50 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = I 5 % = = = 5 % = = 2 0 % = =100% = = | 0 % = = 7 0 | = = 3 5 % = According to our evaluation the MSS of our example now appear i n the following order, the most r e l i a b l e one—as f a r as our c r i t e r i a are concerned ( i . e . the one showing the highest percentage) being at the top of the l i s t : D B F E G C A 100% 75% 70% 60% 35% 20% 15% 68! I t should be pointed out that our c r i t e r i a "reward" the MS which r e g i s t e r s r e l a t i v e l y few i n i t i a l s i f a high percentage of these i n i t i a l s can be c l a s s i f i e d as average i n i t i a l s ( c f . the MSS A and E). Before-we employ the c r i t e r i a described i n our t h e o r e t i c a l example, attention should be drawn to the f a c t that only MSS without any gaps (H, W, B, N, E, R,and P) can a c t u a l l y correspond to the 327 i n i t i a l s of the model MS. In the case of MS M, the t o t a l number of average i n i t i a l s can not be 327, but only 296, since M has a gap from 11598-13575 (7 l i n e groups). The 31 average i n i t i a l s p e rtaining to t h i s group of l i n e s must therefore be disregarded i n t h i s MS. Likewise, the MSS F and 0, plus a l l fragments have t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l number of possible average i n i t i a l s : M F 0 a b f etc 296 average i n i t i a l s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e 324 - - -315 8 -5 r . Evaluating the Tristan-MSS according to the c r i t e r i a described i n our example, we a r r i v e at the following percentages: M: 86 average i n i t i a l s out of 495 i n i t i a l s ( t o t a l ) = 17% 86 H:190 190 - - 296 t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e i n i t i a l s = 29% - - ' .198 i - i i i t i a j s v - ^ a f .= 96% - - 327 - = 58% 17+29 96+58 23% = 77% F: 247 - - - - - 474 - = 52% 52+76 247 - - - - - - 324 = 76% 2 W: 187 - - - - 191 - = 98% = 64% 187 - - - - - - 327 - = 57% 2 B: 263 - - - - - 517 - = 51% 9 8 + 5 7 = 7 7 . 5 % 51+80 =65.5% 263 - - - - - 327 - = 80% 2 N: 265 - - - - - 638 - = 42% 4 2 + 8 1 =61.5% 265 - _ _ _ _ _ 327 - = 81% 2 0: 178 - - - - - 180 - = 99% 99+57 178 - _ _ _ _ - 315 - =57% 2 = 78% E: 122 - - - - - 426 - = 29% 29+37 = 33% 122 - - - - - 327 - = 37% 2 R: 140 - 171 - = 82% 82+43 _ , 140 - - - - - - 327 - = 43% 2 P: 182 - - - - - 186 - = 98% 98+56-. _ 7 7 » 182 - - - - - 327 = 56% 2 ==i According to these percentages, the Tristan-MSS (excluding the fragments) appear in.the following order, the MS scoring the highest percentage being at the top of the scale: 20 O W H P B F R N E M 78% 77.5% 77% 77% 65.5% 64% 62.5% 61.5% 33% 23% 70 Chapter IV: Footnotes This l i s t i s based on information compiled by Hans-Hugo Steinhoff i n G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg: T r i s t a n : herausgegeben von K a r l Marold:  D r i t t e r Abdruck mit einem durch F. Rankes Kollationen erweiterten und  verbesserten Apparat besorgt und mit einem Nachwort versehen von Werner  Schroder ( B e r l i n , 1969), 284ff. 2 A microfilm of t h i s fragment could not be obtained.. In h i s reply to our request, however, Professor E i s wrote: "Meine Angaben Uber das Fragment (Idg. Forsch.,60, 1949-1952, S.91-94) sind vollstHndig und genau; Randbemerkungen oder sonstige Angaben Uber Abschnitte sind nicht vorhanden." (Letter of October 21, 1970) Professor E i s ' a r t i c l e together with h i s l e t t e r thus yielded enough information about t h i s fragment for us to accept i t i n our study. 3 "S": Staats- und U n i v e r s i t S t s b i b i l i o t h e k Hamburg, Cod.ms.ger.12. Described very b r i e f l y by Hermann Paul T r i s t a n a l s MHnch, deutsches Gedicht  aus dem 13. Jahrhundert, Sitzungsberichte Akad. MUnchen, P h i l . - h i s t . C l . , Jg. 1895 (MUnchen, 1896), 319f. "e": Staats- und U n i v e r s i t H t s b i b l i o t h e k Hamburg? According to Hans Hugo Steinhoff, t h i s fragment i s "nicht nachweisbar:" G o t t f r i e d von  Strassburg: T r i s t a n . Erster T e i l . Text, ed. Karl Marold Teutonia 6 ( L e i p z i g , 1906), reprinted and augmented by Werner SchrBder ( B e r l i n , 1969), p. 287. "h": Formerly p r i v a t e l y owned. Now l o s t . P a r t i a l r e p r i n t i n Alemannia, 15 (1887), 146-150 by Anton B i r l i n g e r "BruchstUcke einer Handschrift von G o t t f r i e d s T r i s t a n XIII Jarhundert [ s i c ] ] " . B i r l i n g e r r e f e r s to " d r e i einfache[n] I n i t i a l e n i n rot und blau," but he does not i n d i c a t e whether they are the three c a p i t a l l e t t e r s i n his p a r t i a l p r i n t . "n": Stadtarchiv Scheinfeld/Franken. In his c o l l a t i o n of t h i s Fragment "Fragmente einer T r i s t a n h a n d s c h r i f t , " ZfdA,19 (1876), 76-88, Gregor Kutschera quotes from a l e t t e r by Anton MBrath, an a r c h i v i s t at the Castle Schwarzenberg i n Bavaria, who found t h i s fragment, "fttr i n i t i a l e n i s t an einigen s t e l l e n l e e r e r raum gelassen, doch sind d i e -selben nirgends ausgefUhrt," p. 76/7. Kutschera's c o l l a t i o n and information i s thus based on second-hand evidence, we f e l t that t h i s fragment could not be considered f o r our study. ( " r " : Stadtarchiv Frankfurt am Main. Burnt during WWII. This very short fragment i s reprinted by F r i e d r i c h P f a f f i n : " E i n Tristanfragment," Germania,25 (N.F.13) (1880), 192. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n of i n i t i a l s i n the r e p r i n t . Ranke,Gottfried von Strassburg: T r i s t a n und I s o l d . Text, 13th Ed. (Dublin, Zurich 1968). 71 5 I n some cases we assume a missing I i n i t i a l i f the sc r i b e l e f t out t h i s l e t t e r at the beginning of a/l i n e without leaving a space, as t h i s i n i t i a l i s often w r i t t e n alongside the text rather than within the frame of the text (W l i n e 587 and 681). 6II:32.7; I I I : 257.1; IV: 54.5; and V: 2.5. 7294 — g — =32.7. • Only 9 MSS have the l i n e i n question of MS-number group I I . (See above-) g If we cut o f f at 4 i n i t i a l s at the same l i n e , the number of i n i t i a l s f o r our model MS would be only 21. This would be further away from the desired "average" of 32.7 than i s 34. 9 The method of s e l e c t i n g the i n i t i a l s f o r the model MS was i l l u s t r a t e d i n MS-number group I, above. 1 (^In MS-number group II MS B i s thus the one which contains most i n i t i a l s which can be c l a s s i f i e d as "average" i n i t i a l s , and MS M contains the smallest number. 1 1 By taking the number 2 as the lowest common occurrence the number of average i n i t i a l s would by f a r exceed the t h e o r e t i c a l average of 257.1; the opposite would be the case i f we cut o f f s e l e c t i o n at 4 i n i t i a l s at the same l i n e . \ 12 | Unlike i n the case of MS-number group II the MS N contains the largest number of average i n i t i a l s i n MS number group I I I . 13 599 —-Q- = 54.5 (See above). 14 As was the case i n MS number group III MS N has the largest number of average i n i t i a l s . -j^ - = 2.5 (see above). 1 62.6 + 32.7 + 257.1 + 54.5 +' 2.5 = 349.4 (see above). 1 7 I n other words 3 i s the lowest common occurrence at the same l i n e i n the en t i r e epic. 72 3 i n i t i a l s attested i n 3 MSS would not be accepted from l i n e group 2 1 - 4 _ _ _ _ - - - 5 1 - 3 - - - - _ . _ _ 8 5 - 3 - - - - - - - 15 2 - . 3 - - - - - - - 16 1 - 3 _ _ _ - - - 34 2 - 3 - - - - - - 44 1 3-_ J - _ - - - 48 and 2 i n i t i a l s attested i n 2 MSS only^would be accepted from l i n e group 29. 19 350 i n i t i a l s divided by 7 MSS equals 50. When c a l c u l a t i n g to the nearest one hundredth of a percentage point the order of the top four MSS i s : 0: 77.70%, W: 77.55%, H: 77.03%, and P: 76.76%. Chapter V A S t r u c t u r a l Analysis of the Vorgeschichte of T r i s t a n Based on the Paragraph Div i s i o n s of the Model MS. In the previous chapter a serie s of paragraph d i v i s i o n s (a model MS) was established which w i l l be the point of departure for a s t r u c t u r a l analysis of l i n e s 245-1750 (the Vorgeschichte). These l i n e s were chosen p a r t l y because they form the smallest narrative complex wit h i n the e p i c , 1 while s t i l l containing a s u f f i c i e n t number of na r r a t i v e units to enable us to detect possible s t r u c t u r a l patterns w i t h i n the e n t i r e complex, and p a r t l y on the assumption that the f i r s t portions of the epic were 2 probably copied more accurately by the scribes than were l a t e r sections. In t h i s chapter we s h a l l examine how the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS divide the content of the Vorgeschichte, whether a new paragraph d i v i s i o n coincides with a new narrative u n i t , whether one can speak of narrative units within the framework of these paragraphs, etc. Further-more i t w i l l be shown how the paragraphs of the model MS are linked s t y l i s t i c a l l y with the preceding nar r a t i v e , how strongly or weakly the d i v i s i o n s are documented i n the MSS, and at which points i n the text there are other d i v i s i o n s i n the MSS which were not accepted i n the model MS because they did not meet our c r i t e r i a (same occurrence i n at l e a s t 3 MSS). MS.-.IW,_s_ the only one which does not mark where the prologue ends and the Vorgeschichte commences. In 5 other MSS t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i s indicated by large i n i t i a l s : M H F W B N O E R P Line 245 E 3E E 4E E E / 5E E - 74 In the f i r s t paragraph o f the Vorgeschichte G o t t f r i e d describes a ce r t a i n l o r d i n Parmenie who has only one flaw: he i s "u'bermu'etec," i . e . he pays back each wrong which he su f f e r s . G o t t f r i e d warns that such a l i f e - s t y l e i s f a t a l . Only the MSS F and N mark the beginning of the passage containing t h i s warning by an i n i t i a l ( l i n e 275-) . The second paragraph according to our model MS begins at l i n e 287. This i s a rather weak paragraph d i v i s i o n , however, as i t i s recorded i n only 3 MSS, 2 of which (M and E) figur e at the bottom of our evaluation scale: M H ' F W B M O E R P Line 287 I [ i ] 6 / I From a . s t y l i s t i c point of view there seems to be l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n for t h i s d i v i s i o n . G o t t f r i e d plays on the word schade from l i n e 280 to 292, i . e . past the d i v i s i o n at l i n e 287. Within t h i s passage the word occurs 8 times. Furthermore, the two paragraphs are linked by means of an uninterrupted usage of pronouns: hie vahet man den bern mite: der r i c h e t einzele schaden, unz er mit schaden wirt beladen. "Jen waene, ouch ime alsam geschach, wan er s i c h a l s e v i i gerach, b i z er den schaden dar an genam. C284ff.) In the paragraph 287-318 we are t o l d that the fa c t that this, l o r d i n Parmenie always returned e v i l with e v i l brought about h i s downfall at a very young age. Up u n t i l now G o t t f r i e d has not properly i d e n t i f i e d the l o r d whom he has described i n the f i r s t 74 l i n e s of the Vorgeschichte. This he does i n the paragraph 319-334, the beginning of which is marked by the same MSS as the previous paragraph division, however, with the added support from a paragraph sign in H: M H F W . B N O E R P Line 319 W (d8 W / W These 16 lines form a separate unit in the narrative structure which separates the paragraph describing the "Ubermifetic" lord in Parmenie in more general terms (245-318) from the paragraph in which concrete examples are given of the now identified lord's "flbermuot" (319-334). S t y l i s t i c a l l y the short paragraph (319-334) is a continuation of the preceding one with i t s uninterrupted sequence of pronouns: do v i e l sin gaeher abent an, der ime vor was verborgen und laschte im sinen morgen. ^0^ier aber genennet waere, daz kUndet uns diz maere; sin aventiure tuot es schin: sin.rehter name was Riwalin, sin anam was Canelengres. (316ff.) We have thus become properly introduced to Riwalin and his overlord Morgan, before the account of the s t r i f e between them commences at the paragraph division at line 335: M H F W B N O E R P Line 335 0 N N N / N N N St y l i s t i c a l l y there is no connection between this paragraph and the preceding one. A new narrative unit commences, and the sequence of pronouns is interrupted: 76 der selbe hiez l i due Morgan. jSju daz der herre Riwalin wol und nach grozen eren s i n wol.driu j a r r i t t e r was gewesen . . . (334ff.) - In t h i s paragraph (335-408) Riwalin attacks, Morgan and su f f e r s counter-attacks (347ff.), one year of truce i s agreed upon (392ff.), and Riwalin returns home and rewards his men (402ff.). Only 2 l i n e s are marked by i n i t i a l s i n the MSS within t h i s paragraph: l i n e s 353 and 385, both i n M and B. 1^ Line 353 begins i n the middle of a sentence, and l i n e 385 marks the beginning of Riwalin's surrounding Morgan's best strongholds: unz er i n brahte uf daz z i l , daz er s i c h nihtes kunde erwern noch s i c h niender trute ernern ' niwan i n sinen vesten, den sterkesten, (unde) den besten. die selben besaz Riwalin . . . (380ff.) It i s noteworthy that the sequence of pronouns ( r e l a t i n g to Riwalin) i s interrupted at t h i s l i n e , whereas the l i n k with the preceding i s established with the words "die selben." There i s a short lapse of time between the paragraph ending at l i n e 408 and the following one: er l i e s i v r o l i c h e und wol nach sinen eren wider z i r heimilete keren. {\Ju daz Canele alsus gelanc, nu was dar nach v i i harte unlanc unz . . . (406ff.) The flow of pronouns i s interrupted, and Riwalin's successful enterprise i s r e f e r r e d to b r i e f l y with the words "alsus gelanc." This paragraph d i v i s i o n is indicated by an i n i t i a l in a l l MSS which carry these lines: M H F W B N O E R P Line 409 NsfN"4r N N N / N N N The next paragraph division does not occur un t i l line 509. Within the 100 lines of this paragraph Riwalin decides to spend the year of truce at King Mark's court; we are given some background information on the history of England and Cornwall in relation to Mark (427ff.); Riwalin entrusts his land to Rual (464ff.) and sails off to Cornwall (470ff.); he arrives in Cornwall (474ff.); and is received by Mark (484ff.). A number of separate narrative units have thus been crammed into one single paragraph. Of the above subdivisions only line 474 is marked by an i n i t i a l (in F only); there is a paragraph sign in H at line 464. F and N share an i n i t i a l at line 437 which f a l l s within the account of the history of England. No MS has an i n i t i a l at lines 427, 464, 470, 12 or 484. In order to underline further the absence of structural dividers at points in the narrative where one might have expected them, Gottfried makes the new beginnings at the second line of a couplet, something which does not happen where the majority of the MSS show a paragraph division: 464: Mit disen sinnen huob er an: er bevalch sin l i u t und sin lant 470: sus kerte Riwalin zehant mit zwelf gesellen Uber se; 474: nu sich diu z i t also getruoc, daz er ze Curnewale kam 484: nu daz er do ze hove kam, Marke der tugende riche Riwalin i s welcomed by Mark before the new paragraph begins at l i n e 509: er [Mark] sprach: 'got und mir willekomen! l i p unde guot und swaz i c h han, daz s o l ziuwerem gebote stan,' ^ a n e l e n g r e s der was da wol des hoves, der hof der was s i n v o l : . . . (506ff.) As was the case at l i n e 409 a short period of time has elapsed between the 2 paragraphs. The flow of pronouns i s interrupted at the d i v i s i o n , and the notion of the good and f r i e n d l y atmosphere at Mark's court i s c a r r i e d over from the "welcoming" passage of the preceding paragraph. The d i v i s i o n i s marked i n 7 MSS: M H F W B N O E R P Line 509 K K K C K K / K The content of the paragraph 509-586 does not form a s i n g l e u n i t but rather 3 smaller ones: 509-524: Riwalin's high esteem at court up to the time of the hohgezit. 525-535: Explanation of what t h i s hohgezit i s (an annual event, e t c . ) . 536-586: Description of the s e t t i n g (locus amoenus). The 2 "good" MSS 0 and P l 3 r e c o r d an i n i t i a l at l i n e 525, but since they are not supported by any other MSS, t h i s d i v i s i o n was not accepted i n the model MS. F and B have an i n i t i a l , and H has a paragraph sign at line-536. M and E mark line 555, and N line 549, both of which are subdivisions within the locus amoenus description. The guests are introduced into the i d y l l i c scenery in the new , paragraph (587ff.). S t y l i s t i c a l l y the paragraph division is indicated by the usage of the word "geselleschaft" rather than the indefinite pronoun "man," and at the beginning of the new paragraph the same joyous atmosphere is being alluded to which had been described toward the end of the preceding one: daz da mane edele herze van vrHude unde hohen muot gewan. _Qa haete diu geselleschaft vro unde sere vrifudehaft . . . (585ff.) In contrast to this paragraph division which is attested i n a l l but one MS M II F W B N 0 E R P Line 587 D D DJlfjD D D S±5 D the next one—according to the model MS—is indicated in only 3 MSS1, 2 of which (M and E) figure at the bottom of the evaluation scale: M H F W B NO E R P Line 617 D D D As was the case at line 287, there seems to be l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n for a division at this point. There is no interruption i n the sequence of pronouns, and the word "sehen" is being played on from line 613 to 620, i.e. past the paragraph division at line 617: und swes der gerne sehende man ze sehende guoten muot gewan, daz l i e diu state da wol geschehen; man sach da, swaz man wolte sehen: dise vuoren sehen vrouwen, . . . (613ff.) This i s not the same thing as when a si n g l e word or concept from the clos i n g l i n e s of a paragraph i s taken up again at the beginning of the following one' such as at l i n e 587. Everyone does whatever he pleases we are t o l d i n l i n e s 587-626. In the last.passage of the paragraph (627ff.) we learn that Mark plays the perfect host, and h i s s i s t e r Blanscheflur i s introduced to the reader/audience. This introduction of Blanscheflur i s marked i n H only, not by an i n i t i a l , but by a paragraph sign. Blanscheflur i s introduced i n very general terms: ein maget, daz da noch anderswa schoener wip nie wart gesehen. wir hoeren von i r schoene jehen, s i n gesaehe nie kein lebende man mit inneclichen ougen an, ern minnete da nach iemer me wip und tugende baz dan e. (634ff.) The following paragraph d i v i s i o n i s marked by an i n i t i a l i n a l l MSS but one: M H F W B N O E R P Line 641 D D D D ^ D D D D D Aft e r t h i s paragraph d i v i s i o n G o t t f r i e d describes the e f f e c t of Blanscheflur's presence on the guests at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r hohgezit. The flow of pronouns.is interrupted and the word ougenweide alludes to the 81 l a s t 4 l i n e s of the preceding paragraph: ^ i u saelige ougenweide diu machete uf der heide v i i manegen man vrech unde vruot, mane edele herze hohgemuot. (641ff.) The term "diu sae l i g e ougenweide" f o r Blanscheflur should probably be seen i n the same l i g h t as the usage of "Canele" or "Canelengres" f or Riwalin (409, 509). The bohort begins at l i n e 652. None of the MSS have an i n i t i a l or a paragraph sign at t h i s point, and also here, G o t t f r i e d stresses the absence of a d i v i s i o n by having the new section of the nar r a t i v e begin at the second l i n e of a couplet: 652: hie mite huob s i c h der buhurt do von gesinde und ouch von gesten: The bohort continues into the next paragraph, the beginning of which i s documented i n 6 MSS: M H F W B N 0 E R P . 16 r-J-7 Line 681 I I I (TjI / I G o t t f r i e d further indicates the d i v i s i o n by r e f e r r i n g to the summer and the knights of the previous passage i n a summarizing fashion: ouch l i e der sumer wol schouwen, daz er da mit Marke wolte s i n : mane wunneclich schapelekin von bluomen sach man an der schar, diu erm ze s t i u r e brahte dar. "T*n d i r r e stiezen sumercraft nuop s i c h e i n sdeziu r i t t e r s c h a f t : . . . (676ff.) The r e a c t i o n of the l a d i e s , including Blanscheflur, to the knights i n general and to Riwalin i n p a r t i c u l a r i s dealt with i n the paragraph 681-732. Within t h i s paragraph only N shows a subdivision: at l i n e 699 where the l a d i e s ' reaction to Riwalin commences: "ouch namen s i n die vrouwen war / und jahen.,, . . . " None of the MSS mark the beginning of the passage i n which Riwalin finds acceptance i n Blanscheflur's thoughts and heart: "nu marcte i r a l l e r maere wol / Blanscheflur diu g u o t e " (720ff.). A l l 10 MSS.have an i n i t i a l at l i n e 733: This paragraph d i v i s i o n marks a break i n the flow of the n a r r a t i v e . The l a s t l i n e s of the preceding paragraph describe how Blanscheflur pays very close attention to the l a d i e s ' praise of Riwalin, keeping i t to h e r s e l f that Riwalin has entered her heart, whereas the new paragraph begins rather abruptly by s t a t i n g that the bohort i s now M H F W B N O E R P 18 N N N N N D N N N N over: er truoc gewaltecliche i n i r herzen kUnicriche den cepter und die crone: daz s i doch also schone. und also tougenlichen h a l , daz s i z i n a l i e n vor v e r s t a l . (727ff.) There i s an i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the sequence of pronouns at t h i s paragraph d i v i s i o n . The word " r i t t e r s c h a f t " comprises a l l the knights, including 83 Riwalin, who took part i n the bohort. Riwalin and Blanscheflur are both referred to by name the f i r s t time they are mentioned in the new paragraph (738f). After the bohort is over, Riwalin rides over to Blanscheflur and greets her (740ff.); she, i n turn, accuses him of having annoyed a dear friend of hers (her heart). The paragraph ends at the close of their conversation but before their words of farewell: '. . ich wil iuch versuochen baz, wie i r mir ze buoze wellet stan umb daz, daz i r mir habet getan.' C^us neiger i r und wolte dan, und s i diu schoene ersufte in an v i i tougenlichen unde sprach . . . (782ff.) This paragraph division i s attested i n a l l MSS but one: M H F W B N O E R P Line 785 S S S S.S S S S S Having taken leave of Blanscheflur Riwalin ponders over her accusation (792ff.). They both crown each other i n their hearts, but neither of them 19 knows of the other's feelings (813ff. ). Now Riwalin suffers the same kind of pangs as Blanscheflur had complained about (824ff.), and he does not know whether she loves or hates him (828ff.)« The passage starting at line 792 begins in a manner which could lead us to expect a new paragraph division. Riwalin leaves Blanscheflur after their conversation, the sequence of pronouns is discontinued, and the word "trahte" (793, 794) alludes to the "gedanken" immediately prior to the "new" passage (791): do a l e r s t e huob ez s i c h mit gedanken under i n . Canelengres der kerte h i n i n maneger slahte trahte: er trahte maneger slahte, waz Bl a n s c h e f l i u r e swaere und d i r r e maere waere. (790ff.) However, none of the MSS r e g i s t e r an i n i t i a l or a paragraph sign at l i n e 792. This shows that i t would be wrong to assume the beginning of a new paragraph whenever the fLow of pronouns, i s interrupted, or when a new narr a t i v e unit commences. The same features which occur at the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of our model MS also occur wi t h i n the frame of a paragraph. I t i s noteworthy that we do not encounter any of the above features i n the paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e 785. Likewise i t deserves mentioning that l i n e 7 9 2 — i n spite of a l l the features of a . paragraph d i v i s i o n — b e g i n s at the second l i n e of a couplet. At l i n e 828 the section of the narrative begins i n which Riwalin has to come to terms with the question of whether Blanscheflur loves 20 or hates him. None.of the MSS r e g i s t e r anything at t h i s l i n e , and Go t t f r i e d connects i t to the preceding passage, f i r s t by having i t begin at the second l i n e of a couplet, and secondly by introducing the l i n e with an "und." The minne versus haz question continues into the next paragraph which begins at l i n e 841: M H F W B N O E R P D D D D D D D D D D The connection between the two paragraphs i s established by means of the choice of words: er wancte mit gedanken wilent abe und wilent an. iezuo wolt er benamen dan und a l zehant so wolte er dar, unz er s i c h also gar verwar i n den s t r i c k e n siner trahte, daz er dannen niene mahte. ^ ^ e r gedanchafte Riwalin der tet wol . . . reht a l s e der v r i e vogel tuot (834ff.) The fa c t that Riwalin i s caught i n "den s t r i c k e n s i n e r trahte" points to the s o - c a l l e d "lime-allegory" i n which he i s "caught" by minne j u s t as the b i r d i s caught on the lime twig. The image of the st r u g g l i n g b i r d i s developed i n the f i r s t p o rtion of the paragraph (844-870)and i t i s applied to Riwalin i n the remainder of the paragraph (871-914). Only 21 N and E show t h i s subdivision. The l a s t l i n e s of the paragraph 841-914 i n which Riwalin f i n a l l y succumbs to minne are recapitulated at the beginning of the following paragraph: und Riwalin gewis b e l e i p , s i n Blanscheflur diu minnet i n : des was s i n herze und a l s i n s i n einbaereliche an s i g e l e i t , daz nieman do da wider s t r e i t . f^u daz diu sUeze minne s i n herze und sine sinne a l nach i r w i l l e n haete braht . . . (91-0ff.) Riwalin and Blanscheflur are mentioned by name before (910/11), rather than at the beginning of the new paragraph. A l l 10 MSS agree on t h i s paragraph d i v i s i o n : M H F W B N 0 E R P Line 915 N N N N N D 2 § N N N ,86. Riwalin's love-sickness i s described from l i n e 937 to the end of the paragraph. This l i n e i s not marked i n any MS; i n f a c t there are" no s t r u c t u r a l markers i n any of the MSS between the paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e 915 and the one at l i n e 957 which i s r e g i s t e r e d i n a l l but 3 MSS: M H F W B N O E R P Line 957 I 0 0 T , A O A 2 3 This paragraph d i v i s i o n occurs at the change-over to the d e s c r i p t i o n of Blanscheflur's love-sickness. The word "senede" i n l i n e 955 i s taken up again i n the. new paragraph: wan e l l i u s i n gemuotheit was gar i n senede not g e l e i t . O^ch vergie s i n senelich geschiht die seneden Bla n s c h e f l i u r e n i h t : . . . (955ff.) As was the case at l i n e 915, the pronouns r e f e r r i n g to Riwalin continue into the new paragraph. One might have expected that Riwalin's and Blanscheflur's love-sickness Would have been dealt with w i t h i n the same paragraph rather than having one d e s c r i p t i o n i n the second h a l f of a paragraph (937-956) and the other d e s c r i p t i o n i n the f i r s t h a l f of the following one (957-980). Not only that, the second portion of the paragraph 957-1016 i s taken up with the f i r s t s e c tion of Blanscheflur's inner monologue i i i which she reproaches Riwalin fo r her s u f f e r i n g . The beginning l i n e of t h i s monologue (981) i s marked by an i n i t i a l i n N and by a paragraph d i v i s i o n i n H. The paragraph d i v i s i o n within the monologue occurs at a turning point: Blanscheflur ceases to reproach Riwalin and begins to r e a l i z e that her s u f f e r i n g i s due to love: 87 wa mite mag i c h geschulden daz, daz mir von ieman l e i t gescheher, den i c h mit vriundes ougen sehe? \^az wize i c h aber dem guoten man? er i s t hie l i h t e unschuldic an. (1014ff.) 7 MSS show t h i s paragraph d i v i s i o n : M H F W B N O E R P Line 1017 W W W W WWW The e n t i r e paragraph 1017-1076 comprises the second part of the monologue. 24 In contrast to the paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e 1017 there i s an i n t e r -ruption i n the sequence of pronouns at the next d i v i s i o n : der sUeze herzesmerze, der v i i manic edele herze quelt mit sUezem smerzen, der liget in minem herzen.' daz diu hBfsche guote mit ganzlichem muote sich in i r herzen des enstuont, . . . (1073ff.) The beginning of the paragraph summarizes the conclusion which Blanscheflur drew i n her monologue. The word "herzen" (1079) alludes to "herzen" i n the last, l i n e of the previous paragraph. This paragraph (1077-1118) concludes the Kohgezit episode. A l l 10 MSS agree that there are no subdivisions i n the concluding paragraph, and they a l l mark the 2 surrounding paragraph d i v i s i o n s : M H F W B N O E R P Line 1077 N N N N N D 2NN N N Line 1119 N N N N N N N 88: There i s no connection between the paragraph discussed above and the one beginning at l i n e 1119. The f i r s t 2 l i n e s of the new paragraph r e f e r to the e n t i r e group of paragraphs dealing with the hohgezit rather 26 than to the immediately preceding l i n e s : ez ergienc i n [Riw. and B l . ] rehte, als man g i h t : swa l i e p i n l i e b e s ouge s i h t , daz 1st der minnen v i u r e ein wahsendiu s t i u r e J^ju Markes hohgezit ergie und s i c h diu herschaft gar z e r l i e , do kamen Marke maere, daz e i n s i n vient waere . . . (1115ff.) A new nar r a t i v e unit begins with the paragraph 1119-1198; G o t t f r i e d hastens to provide the s e t t i n g for the conception of T r i s t a n . Within 22 l i n e s (1121-1142) Cornwall i s invaded, the enemy's forces are crushed, and Riwalin i s s e r i o u s l y wounded and c a r r i e d back to T i n t a j e l . N marks the place by an i n i t i a l where news of Riwalin's wound i s spread: "zehant erschullen maere, / Canelengres der waere / totwunt und i n dem s t r i t e erslagen" (1143ff.). Line 1163 where Blanscheflur's laments commence i s marked by an i n i t i a l i n F and by a paragraph sign i n H. N also has an i n i t i a l at l i n e 1179 where the passage leading up to the following paragraph begins: "Sus quelte daz v i i sUeze wip / i r . . . l i p . . . / und waere iedoch verdorben / und i n dem l e i d e erstorben,' / wan daz s i der tros t labete I ... I daz s i n binamen wolte sehen, / swie soz mtihte geschehen." Blanscheflur does not give up; she conceives a means of seeing Riwalin at the end of the paragraph, and at the beginning of the next paragraph we are t o l d exactly what she has i n mind: hie v r i s t e s i daz leben mite, b i z daz s i wider ze sinnen kam und i n i r trahte,do genam, wie s i n gesehen mtfhte, als ez i r l e i d e tBhte. ^ u s kam i r i n i r sinne umb eine i r meisterinne, . . . (1194ff.) There i s no break i n the narr a t i v e at t h i s paragraph d i v i s i o n . The pronouns even continue from the previous paragraph which—judging from 27 the paragraph d i v i s i o n s dealt with thus f a r — i s rather unusual. The Word "sinne" l i n e 1195 i s repeated i n the f i r s t l i n e of the new paragraph. A l l 10 MSS r e g i s t e r t h i s paragraph d i v i s i o n : M H F W B N . O E R P 28 Line 1199 S S N S S S S S S S Blanscheflur takes aside her "meisterinne" and t e l l s her (1204ff.) that she would l i k e to see Riwalin before he dies. None of the MSS mark t h i s l i n e , but B marks various stages of the conversation between the two lad i e s by a paragraph sign (1209 and 1215). The dialogue begins at l i n e 1215 and continues u n t i l approximately h a l f way through the following paragraph. The paragraph d i v i s i o n occurs immediately a f t e r Blanscheflur has expressed her wish to see Riwalin, and before the governess agree! to help her. The d i v i s i o n i s also i n d i c a t e d by an i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the sequence of pronouns: "Diu meisterinne gedahte do" (1239). This paragraph d i v i s i o n . i s , attested i n a l l but 2 MSS: M H F W B N O E R P Line 1239 D D D D D D D D D At l i n e 1258, the governess begins to carry out her plan: "Sus kams In den gebaerden dar. . . ."• There i s no s u b d i v i s i o n at t h i s l i n e i n any of the MSS;: neither i s there one at l i n e 1266 where she dresses Blanscheflur as a beggar-woman. There i s not a paragraph d i v i s i o n — according to our constructed M S — u n t i l at l i n e 1281 where the governess encourages Blanscheflur to walk up to Riwalin a f t e r having bolted the door to h i s room: "daz sloz s i vUr die tlir do s t i e z : / 'nu vrouwe' sprach s i 'sehet i n . " (1280f.). Only the MSS M, B, and E have an i n i t i a l at l i n e 1281. N has one at l i n e 1283 and none at l i n e 1287 where 6 MSS agree on a paragraph d i v i s i o n : M H F W B N O E R P A A A W A A S 2 9 By i n s e r t i n g a colon a f t e r l i n e 1280, Ranke shows 'that he considers t h i s l i n e to be a kind of an i n q u i t to the governess' ensuing remark. If l i n e 1280 i s not to be regarded as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the d i r e c t discourse, i t w i l l have to be the c l o s i n g l i n e , standing alone, of the preceding paragraph: ouch jach diu meisterinne, s i braehte ein arzaetinne, und erwarp, daz man s i zuo zim l i e z . daz s l o z s i vllr d i e t l l r do s t i e z : 'INP^ U v r o u w e ' s P r a c n s i 'sehet i n ! ' und s i , diu schoene, diu gie h i n und do sim under ougen sach, 'ach' sprach s i 'hiute und iemer ach! owe daz i c h i e wart geborn: wie i s t min t r o s t alsus verlorn." ^ l s u s n e i g i r do Riwalin v i i kume, als ez do mohte s i n von eime totsiechen man. (1277ff.) In contrast to l i n e 1281, the usage of pronouns i s interrupted at l i n e 1287 . ( i n the case of Riwalin), i n l i n e with most of the beginning l i n e s of new paragraphs dealt with thus f a r . The fac t that Blanscheflur .gains access to Riwalin's chambers before the new paragraph begins no longer surprises us. The scene i s often set before the new paragraph unfolds. At l i n e 1308 the passage begins i n which Blanscheflur arouses Riwalin's desire. This i s marked by a paragraph sign i n H. At the end of the paragraph we are again prepared f o r the following one: ouch was er von dem wibe und von der minne v i i nach tot; wan daz im got h a l f uz der not, son kunder niemer s i n genesen: sus genas er, wan ez s o l t e wesen. £5 us was, daz Riwalin genas und Blanscheflur diu schoene was von i m e ent laden (1326ff.) Nine out of the 10 MSS have t h i s paragraph d i v i s i o n : M H F W B N O E R P Line 1331 N S S S N N S N S 3 1 Also here Riwalin and Blanscheflur are ref e r r e d to by name at the beginning of the new paragraph'. We are t o l d that Blanscheflur contracted death when she conceived the c h i l d , but she does not know t h i s and concentrates a l l her e f f o r t s on Riwalin. Both have but one desire: "sus was er s i und s i was er" (1358). Line 1359 i s entered as a paragraph d i v i s i o n i n the model MS because i t i s marked by an i n i t i a l i n 3 MSS (M, F; and E). Line 1359 continues the c h i a s t i c word play: "er was i r und s i was s i n ; / da Blanscheflur, da Riwalin, / da Riwalin, da Blanscheflur. . . . " I n the Ranke e d i t i o n there i s a comma a f t e r l i n e 1358 thus i n d i c a t i n g that Ranke considered the l i n e to be p a r a t a c t i c a l l y connected to the following l i n e . It need not be, however. Line 1358 could be the end of a paragraph i n the same manner as l i n e 1330 i s the end of the paragraph 1287-1330: "sus genas er, wan ez s o l t e wesen. /£^us was, daz Riwalin genas. . . ." s i haeten i n i r sinnen beid eine l i e b e und eine ger: sus was er s i und s i was er. C*32 r w a s £ r u n ( j s-£ w a s s i n ; da* Blanscheflur, da Riwalin, da Riwalin, da Blanscheflur, da beide, da l e a l amur. (1356ff.) Since the MSS M and E are rather poor s o u r c e s — a t l e a s t according to our evaluation s c a l e — t h e paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e 1359 should perhaps be disregarded. I t should also be noted that the usage of pronouns continues into the f i r s t l i n e of the "new" paragraph and then ceases. Lines 1358-62 33 should possibly be regarded as a c l i m a c t i c end of a passage s i m i l a r to the end of the paragraph between the f i r s t two p a i r s of TRISTAN/ISOLDE a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l s : i c h w i l . i n wol bemaeren von edelen senedaeren, die r e i n e r sene wol taten schin: ei h senedaer und ein senedaerin, ein man ein wip, e i n wip ein man, T r i s t a n I s o l t , I s o l t , T r i s t a n . (125ff.) Riwalin and Blanscheflur l i v e i n a state of b l i s s ; but before the paragraph i s over the scene i s set f o r the next group of paragraphs: Morgan invades Parmenie, and Riwalin prepares to return home without delay. H marks the beginning l i n e of t h i s new development by a paragraph 93 sign (1373). There i s a change of scene at the paragraph d i v i s i o n which follows upon the d e s c r i p t i o n of Riwalin's preparations to leave Cornwall. The new paragraph begins with Blanscheflur's r e a c t i o n to the news: mit disem maere und a l zehant wart Riwaline e i n s c h i f b e r e i t und a l s i n dine dar an g e l e i t ; spis unde ros, daz a l l e z wart zehant b e r e i t e t an die vart. 3_)iu minnecliche Blanschefluor, do s i diu le i d e n maere ervuor This paragraph d i v i s i o n i s marked by an i n i t i a l i n 6 MSS and by. a paragraph sign i n one: M ;H F W B N 0 E R P In a monologue beginning at l i n e 1396 which i s not marked i n any MS, Blanscheflur reproaches minne for her "unstaete" and for her "gespenstigiu trUgeheit" ( l i n e s 1402 and 1410 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . While she i s lamenting, Riwalin enters to bid her farewell. This entrance a f t e r the inner monologue i s marked by several MSS, but not at the same l i n e : (1380ff.) Line 1385 D E 3_ D D £ D Kit N B: £ M E F daz a l min vrBude s o l t e s i n , da von han i c h nu niht mere wan t o t l i c h herzesere: min t r o s t vert h i n und l a t mich h i e ! i n disem clagemaere gie i r t r u t g e s e l l e Riwalin mit weinendem herzen i n und wolte nemen urloup von i r . 'vrouwe' sprach er 'gebietet mir, i c h s o l und muoz ze lande varn; t i (1414ff.) Because of t h i s divergence i n the manuscript t r a d i t i o n there i s no 35 paragraph d i v i s i o n i n our model MS . I t w i l l be noted, too, that none of the MSS at the top of the evaluation scale (0, W, H, P) have an i n i t i a l at t h i s point, i n the nar r a t i v e . H has a paragraph sign only. 36 H and E are quite u n r e l i a b l e as f a r as t h e i r i n i t i a l s are concerned. Aft e r the f i r s t 1200 l i n e s t h e i r i n i t i a l s r a r e l y occur at the same l i n e s as i n the other MSS. Their presence here, one l i n e before a po s s i b l e d i v i s i o n , i s therefore not of great s i g n i f i c a n c e . Some of the recurrent features of the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS can be found at l i n e 1418 ( i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the sequence of pronouns, r e p e t i t i o n of the word herz), but i t begins at the second l i n e of a couplet, an i n d i c a t i o n that i t was not meant to be a " f u l l " paragraph d i v i s i o n . Blanscheflur f a i n t s (1426ff.) and i s brought back to consciousness again by Riwalin before the end of the paragraph. The new paragraph which 37 i s attested by an i n i t i a l i n 7 MSS begins i n the usual manner: by r e f e r r i n g to the person by name rather than by a pronoun and by repeating some of the words from the preceding paragraph: und trute s i sus unde so, b i z s i ze jungeste do z i r selber kam baz unde baz und ufreht von.ir selber saz. ^ u Blanscheflur z i r selber kam und aber i r vriundes war genam . . . (1447ff.) Blanscheflur t e l l s Riwalin about her predicament i n a long speech from the fourth l i n e of the paragraph (1454) to the end of i t (1510). The MSS H and N mark various stages of the d i r e c t discourse,but never at the same 38 l i n e . The paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e 1511 occurs immediately a f t e r 95 Blanscheflur's speech, and Riwalin's reply takes up the e n t i r e paragraph 1511-1544: herre, iuwer h e l f e diu netuoz und got envilegez danne al s o , son wirde i c h niemer mere vro.' '"ytut vrouwe' sprach er do [zuoj z i r 'habet i r dekeine not von mir, . . (1508ff.) This paragraph d i v i s i o n i s well documented. Seven out of the 10 MSS r e g i s t e r an i n i t i a l : M H F W B N O E R P 40 D T T L L T T ; there i s therefore not much reason to doubt i t s v a l i d i t y even though i t does not follow the pattern of i n t e r r u p t i n g the flow of pronouns. On the other hand i t follows a pattern of "paragraph d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n dialogues." At such places there i s no i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the flow of pronouns, and no r e p e t i t i o n of words from the end of the preceding paragraph. A p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s at l i n e 1545 which occurs immediately a f t e r Riwalin's response where Blanscheflur speaks again: swes i u nu s i ze muote, vrouwe, des bewiset mich, wan swaz i r w e l l e t , daz w i l i c h . ' '^yenade herre' sprach s i do ' i r redet . . . ' (1542-ff.) This paragraph d i v i s i o n i s attested i n the same MSS as was the one at l i n e 1511: Line 1545 M H F W B N O E R P G G G G G G G The dialogue between the two lovers ends i n the middle of the paragraph 1545-1584 at l i n e 1565. Riwalin appears before Mark and 41 takes leave of him. Only N marks t h i s t r a n s i t i o n . G o t t f r i e d has 42 Riwalin and Blanscheflur elope at the end of the paragraph (1578ff.), so that the next paragraph can s t a r t i n Parmenie: alsus so vuoren s i von dan. J\ju Riwalin ze lande kam und die v i i groze not vernam, die Morgan . . . (1584ff.) There i s a change of l o c a t i o n i n the narr a t i v e at t h i s paragraph d i v i s i o n . The en t i r e ship voyage takes place between the two paragraphs. The d i v i s i o n i s documented i n 9 MSS: M H E W B N O E R P 41 Line 1585 N N N N D D N N D Line 1585 introduces a r e l a t i v e l y long paragraph: 118 l i n e s . In t h i s paragraph Riwalin and Blanscheflur a r r i v e i n Parmenie, Rual advises Riwalin to marry Blanscheflur i n church r i g h t away; he takes Blanscheflur to Riwalin's c a s t l e (1638ff.), returns to Riwalin who then leads the attacks against Morgan's forces and i s k i l l e d i n combat (1656ff.). One cannot speak of a unit i n the narrative i n t h i s paragraph. On the contrary a number of happenings are crammed together i n one. As was the case before Riwalin was wounded—which was necessary for the conception of T r i s t a n — G o t t f r i e d hastens to more important matters: Riwalin's being k i l l e d so that T r i s t a n can be born an orphan out of wedlock. Various MSS i n d i c a t e sub-d i v i s i o n s : Line 1608ff. where Riwalin t e l l s Rual about Blanscheflur' i s marked by a paragraph sign i n both H and B. H, and 0 have a paragraph sign at l i n e 1638 and N has an i n i t i a l at l i n e 1639, the 45 f i r s t l i n e of the next couplet. There are paragraph signs again i n H and B at l i n e 1656. None of the MSS mark the beginning l i n e (1664) of the passage i n which Riwalin i s k i l l e d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that there i s no paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e 1681 where there could have been one according to the usual pattern established throughout t h i s chapter. Riwalin's death i s mentioned j u s t p r i o r to the l i n e i n which he i s referred to as "Canelengres der guote" (1681). In the passage introduced by t h i s l i n e , Riwalin's death i s taken up again: an d i r r e veigen lantwer wart der v i i clagebaere erslagen, den a l diu werlt wol s o l t e clagen, ob c l e g e l i c h i u swaere nach tode ntttze waere. Canelengres- der guote, der l a c da jaemerlichen t o t . ( 1676ff.) N i s the only MS which has an i n i t i a l at l i n e 1681. N j o i n s 6 other MSS i n having a new paragraph d i v i s i o n — a c c o r d i n g to the model MS—at l i n e 1703 M H F W B N O E R P D D D E4B Here again Riwalin's being dead p r e f e r r e d to. At the end of the preceding paragraph Blanscheflur's laments are being prepared by the b r i e f mentioning of the lamentation i n general caused by Riwalin's death: daz i c h nu v i i von ungehabe. und von i r jamer sagete, waz i e g e l i c h e r clagete, waz s o l t e daz? es waere unnot. s i e waren a l l e mit im tot an eren unde an guote, an allem dem muote, der guoten l i u t e n s o l t e geben saelde und s a e l e c l i c h e z leben. ^ i z i s t geschehen, ez muoz nu s i n : erst t o t der guote Riwalin; und s u i wir sprechen vurbaz, wiez umbe Blan s c h e f l i u r e kam: (1694ff.) (1712ff.) None of the MSS mark the l i n e at which G o t t f r i e d concentrates, h i s e f f o r t s on Blanscheflur (1712). The model MS has a paragraph d i v i s i o n only 16 l i n e s from the preceding, one: at l i n e 1719. However, only 4 MSS,none of which f i g u r e s among the best ones on the evaluation scale, a c t u a l l y r e g i s t e r one here: M H F W B N O E R.P I I I I There would seem to be more reason to have an ordinary s u b d i v i s i o n at t h i s point than a paragraph d i v i s i o n ; there i s no i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the sequence of pronouns, but the word herz i s on both sides of the d i v i s i o n (1716 and 1721/2): 99 do diu v i i schoene vernam diu clagebaeren maere, wie do i r herzen waere, got herre, daz s o l t du bewarn, daz wir daz iemer ervarn! ichn han da keinen zwivel an, gewan i e wip durch lieben man t o t l i c h e n herzesmerzen, dern waere ouch i n i r herzen. (1714ff.) The remainder of the paragraph deals with Blanscheflur's r e a c t i o n to Riwalin's death. In l i n e s 1741ff she goes into labour and gives b i r t h to a son. None of the MSS show a subdivision at t h i s point. The e n t i r e Vorgeschichte ends at l i n e 1750 immediately before the quatrain i n i t i a l at l i n e 1751: s i want s i c h unde brach i r l i p sus unde so, her unde dar und t r e i p daz an, b i z s i gebar e i n s i l n e l i n mit maneger not. seht, daz genas und l a c s i tot. we der ougenweide, da man nach leidem l e i d e mit leiderem l e i d e s i h t l e i d e r ougenweide! | ^ er ere an Riwaline l a c , o (1746ff.) The statement that the c h i l d survived ("genas") a f t e r the d i f f i c u l t b i r t h points to the n a r r a t i v e block which describes i t s (Tristan's) childhood. The quatrain i n t e r r u p t s the flow of the narrative at l i n e 1751. We are back to the lamentation over Riwalin's death with the added laments because of Blanscheflur's death. This lamentation i s described i n the e n t i r e next paragraph apart from the l a s t 3 l i n e s which point to the following: 100 und sagen wir umb daz k i n d e l i n , daz vater noch muoter haete, waz got mit deme getaete. Riuwe unde s t a e t i u triuwe nach vriundes tode i e niuwe, st der v r i u n t i e niuwe: daz i s t diu meiste triuwe, C w e r nach dem vriunde riuwe hat, T . . (1788ff.) Certain recurrent features could be observed at the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS. An i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the sequence of pronouns could be noticed at-most of.the paragraph d i v i s i o n s . Often the preceding a c t i o n — o r sometimes only the general atmosphere of the concluding passage of the preceding paragraph—was alluded to at the beginning of a new paragraph. A le s s obvious s t y l i s t i c device of b a s i c a l l y the same nature i s the r e p e t i t i o n of one or more words across the paragraph d i v i s i o n . I t should be pointed out, however, that the above features also occur at d i v i s i o n s i n the text which are not i n the model MS. Furthermore.it was observed that several smaller narrative units can be crammed into one s i n g l e paragraph, and that a l a r g e r n a r r a t i v e unit does not n e c e s s a r i l y commence at the beginning of a new paragraph. The hohgezit begins, f o r example, 17 l i n e s into a paragraph; news that Morgan i s attacking "Parmenie reaches Riwalin 12 l i n e s p r i o r to a paragraph d i v i s i o n , thus jumping very abruptly from a d e s c r i p t i o n of the state of b l i s s i n which Riwalin and Blanscheflur are l i v i n g to the harsh r e a l i t i e s of l i f e . Dialogues and monologues are not necessarily/ confined w i t h i n the r e s t r i c t i o n s of a paragraph d i v i s i o n . On the contrary Blanscheflur's farewell words a f t e r her f i r s t conversation with Riwalin occur at the beginning of a new paragraph. Her inner monologue commences h a l f way through a paragraph (981) and ceases at the end of the following one. The e f f e c t that Blanscheflur has on the opposite sex i n general i s described toward the end of a paragraph,, and the e f f e c t of her presence on the knights at the hohgezit i s described at the beginning of the following one, at which point the focus suddenly changes to the bohort and i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s C652). F i n a l l y i t seems that the weakly documented paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS (287, 319, 617, 1281, and 1359) should be regarded as paragraph d i v i s i o n s only with reservation. 102 Chapter V: Footnotes The term "narrative complex" i n t h i s context ref e r s to the portion of the narr a t i v e between the a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l s (see chapter IX); i n the case of the f i r s t complex i t i s the portion between the prologue and the ORS i n i t i a l s (1751, 1791, 1865). 2 While examining each i n d i v i d u a l MS i t could be observed how some scribes would omit more and more l i n e s as t h e i r copying a c t i v i t y progressed, thus possibly d i s t o r t i n g , to some degree, the s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t i o n s of t h e i r source. 3 An underlined c a p i t a l l e t t e r denotes a large i n i t i a l i n the MS. 4 An ordinary i n i t i a l . "'There i s a gap i n the MS at the l i n e i n question. An i n i t i a l was intended by the s c r i b e but not c a r r i e d out by the rubricat o r . ^There i s no i n i t i a l i n Ranke's e d i t i o n at t h i s l i n e . = paragraph sign. 9 There i s no i n i t i a l i n Ranke's e d i t i o n at t h i s l i n e . 1 ( \ i n e 385 i s marked by a paragraph sign i n B rather than by an i n i t i a l . "^The e n t i r e paragraph sign i s not v i s i b l e on our mic r o f i l m copy. 12 M has an i n i t i a l at l i n e 487, 13 Both MSS figu r e at the top of our evaluation scale. 14 There i s no space l e f t for the i n i t i a l , but i t i s obvious from the l e f t out f i r s t l e t t e r that there was supposed to be an i n i t i a l at t h i s l i n e . 1 5 E begins the l i n e with "So" rather than with "Da." 16 This i s a large i n i t i a l i n H. (cf. chapter VII). ^No space i s l e f t f o r the i n i t i a l , but the f i r s t l e t t e r of the word i s l e f t out. 1 8N: "Do." 103 19 B has a paragraph sign at t h i s l i n e . F has an i n i t i a l at l i n e 821. Apart from these 2 in d i c a t i o n s there are no subdivisions of t h i s paragraph i n the MSS. 20 Scholte also considers t h i s question to begin at 1. 828 rather than at the paragraph d i v i s i o n at 1. 841, however he regards 1. 880 to be the clos i n g l i n e of the u n i t although the minne versus haz question i s not solved u n t i l at the end of the paragraph. "Symmetrie i n Gottfrieds T r i s t a n , " Festgabe Ehrismann, p. 78. 21 F has an i n i t i a l at l i n e 883, the t h i r d l i n e i n the de s c r i p t i o n of the t r o s t versus zwivel c o n f l i c t . 22 In N t h i s begins with "Do" rather than "Nu." 23 M writes "Ich" which i s an obvious e r r o r . W has "Tuch" which i s also an obvious error on the part of the rub r i c a t o r . 0 and P write "Auch" which i s a d i a l e c t a l d i f f e r e n c e . 24 One could perhaps say that the term "dem guoten man" (1017) constitutes an i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the sequence of pronouns, as the f i r s t person pronoun " i c h " can hardly be avoided i n a monologue of t h i s nature. 2 5 N has "Do," B has "Du." 26 This i s p a r a l l e l to the paragraph beginning at l i n e 733, where the bohort mentioned i n the f i r s t l i n e of the new paragraph r e f e r s back to the ent i r e bohort scene (652-732). 27 ' Of the strongly documented paragraph d i v i s i o n s only 785 and to some degree 1017 show no i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the sequence of personal pronouns. 28 The N i s an obvious error on the part of the r u b r i c a t o r . The res t of the f i r s t words reads "us" as i n the other MSS. 29 P writes "Sus" rather than "Alsus" 30 No " i n i t i a l " at t h i s l i n e i n Ranke's e d i t i o n . 3 1 N i n "Nu(n);' S i n "Sus." 32 Line 1358 ends with a comma and E i s not an " i n i t i a l " i n Ranke's e d l t l ° n MHFWBNOERP• E E E 33 Mohr's concept of a "syntaktisches Werbe- und L i e b e s s p i e l " with i t s "Schema des Subjektwechsels"would support such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , "Syntaktisches Werbe- und L i e b e s s p i e l , " B e i t r . (TUb.), 81 (1959), 168. 104 34 F writes " E i minnecliche F l a n s c h i f l u r . " 35 It w i l l be remembered that no paragraph d i v i s i o n was accepted f o r our model MS unless i t was indicated i n at l e a s t 3 MSS' at the same l i n e . 36 I f i s a wellknown fac t that the i n i t i a l s i n M are arranged according to v i s u a l patterns, such as e.g.: x x x x x x x x x etc. E follows M to a large extent, but the number of l i n e s per column being d i f f e r e n t , there are no v i s u a l patterns i n E. Concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between E, B, and M, K a r l Marold writes: "In E. zeigt s i c h h i e r d i e merk-wtlrdige Erscheinung, dass diese Hs. [ H a n d s c h r i f t ] aus denselben Vorlagen • wie 13 kontaminiert i s t , aber i n etwas anderem VerhMltnis. Da nun trotzdem nicht wenige Sonderlesarten und TextHnderungen von 13 s i c h i n 15 wieder-finden, so i s t jene Erscheinung wohl so zu erklHren, dass die wesentlich jUngere Hs. E. auf eine Vorlage zurUckgeht; die i n derselben Schreibschule oder gar von demselben Schreiber zu verschiedenen Zeiten g e f e r t i g t wurde. Im ganzen l i e g t die Sache so, dass zuerst der Anschluss von E an M ein l o s e r e r i s t . . . gegen das Ende aber genauer wird, wHhrend b e i B_ eher das Umgekehrte der F a l l i s t , " G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg: T r i s t a n : E f s t e r  T e i l : Text: Mit zwei Tafeln ( L e i p z i g , 1906), LX ( i n t r o d u c t i o n ) . 37 Line 1451 MHFWBNOERP NR: "Do;" P:"Die." NNNj^ DN DD 38 N has an i n i t i a l at the l i n e s 1463 and 1499, and H has a paragraph sign at l i n e 1487. M and E share an i n i t i a l at l i n e 1467 and 1503 where no subdivision i s c a l l e d f o r . 39 40. The square brackets are i n Ranke's e d i t i o n . H: "Drut;"B and N: "Liebe" and "Leue." N has the i n i t i a l at l i n e 1565 ( l a s t l i n e of the dialogue) rather than at l i n e 1566. This i s due to the f a c t that N as a matter of p r i n c i p l e never has an i n i t i a l at the second l i n e of a couplet. In cases such as the above, N w i l l be o f f by one l i n e ; t h i s also happens at l i n e s 1638 (N:1639), 1926 (N: 1927), 7438 (N: 7437), 9044 (N: 9045), etc. 42 43 B has a paragraph sign here. D i n "Do." T r i s t a n was born out of wedlock because h i s parents had not been married " o f f e n l i c h e vor magen und vor mannen" (1628f.). The church wedding alone was not enough confirmation of the marriage, at l e a s t as f a r as Morgan was concerned. 105 See footnote 41 at page 104.B also has a paragraph sign at l i n e 1639 which i s rather puzzling since the rule that applies to N generally does not apply to B. 46 R writes "Es i s t geschehen. . . . " 106 Chapter VI Numerical Structure Patterns i n the Vorgeschichte  Based on the Paragraph Div i s i o n s of the Model MS. The analysis of the manner i n which the model MS divides the content of the Vorgeschichte shows that there are not infrequent changes of 1 2 scene, l o c a t i o n , or na r r a t i v e aspect wi t h i n the framework of a,paragraph rather than at the beginning of i t . Because of this, one might doubt the r e l i a b i l i t y of the i n i t i a l s i n the MSS as a basis f o r a s t r u c t u r a l a n a lysis. However the fact that these paragraph d i v i s i o n s are f o r the most part 3 accompanied by c e r t a i n recurrent s t y l i s t i c features seems to stress further the l i k e l i h o o d of Gottf r i e d ' s wanting to s i n g l e out these s p e c i f i c places i n the flow of the narrative. In t h i s chapter we s h a l l therefore attempt to show that, i n s p i t e of the apparent a r b i t r a r i n e s s , the paragraph d i v i s i o n s which were accepted i n the model MS do i n fa c t "make sense" both i n terms of content and i n terms of form. The f i r s t four paragraphs of the model MS can be grouped together under the heading "Riwalin i n Parmenie:" Line 245 - 286 = 42 l i n e s Line 287 4- 318 =. 32 l i n e s Line 319 4- 334 = 16 l i n e s 16 Line 335 - 408 = 74 l i n e s 74 164 The c e n t r a l passage of 16 l i n e s i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l one, i n which G o t t f r i e d i d e n t i f i e s by name the "herre i n Parmenie (245), "' whose l i f e w i l l end-rso abruptly because of h i s (Jbermuot. The f i r s t group of 74 l i n e s describes Riwalin and h i s f a t a l l i f e s t y l e (that he always avenged the smallest wrongdoing), and the second group of 74 l i n e s depicts the Ubermfletec 107 Riwalin i n a c t i o n (the b a t t l e s between him and h i s l i e g e l o r d Morgan)V In the following paragraph, which i s 100 l i n e s long, Riwalin leaves Parmenie and a r r i v e s at Mark's court. This paragraph can thus be Viewed as a t r a n s i t i o n a l paragraph between the n a r r a t i v e blocks "Riwalin i n Parmenie" and "Riwalin at Mark's court." The hohgezit comprises the 12 paragraphs between l i n e s 509 and 1118: Line 509 - 586 = 78 l i n e s Line 587 - 616 = 30 Line 617 5- 640 24 -Line 641 ~ 680 = 40 -Line 681 - 732 = 52 -Line • 733 - 784 = 52 -Line 785 - 840 = 56 - ' Line 841 - 914 74 Line 915 - 956 = 42 -Line 957 - 1016 = 60 -Line 1017 - 1076 = 60 -Line 1077 - 1118 = 42 -610 l i n e s The f i r s t 132 l i n e s can be viewed as providing the background f o r the love story to come: Line 509 - 586 = 78 D e f i n i t i o n of hohgezit (annual event, e t c . ) , d e s c r i p t i o n of s e t t i n g (locus  amoenus). Line 587 - 616 = 30 Line 617 5- 640 = 24 ,_2 The guests and t h e i r hosts (Mark and h i s s i s t e r Blanscheflur) 132 108 The following 478 l i n e s depict the developing romance between Riwalin and Blanscheflur: 641 - 680 = 40 The l a d i e s ' e f f e c t on the knights-,. The.splendour of.the knights. 681 - 732 = 52 The bohort. Blanscheflur's... r e a c t i o n . to the l a d i e s ' praise of .Riwalin. 733 - 784 = 52 The conversation between Riwalin,.and, Blanscheflur. 785 - 840 = 56 Riwalin's r e a c t i o n to the conversation. 841 - 914 = 74 The lime-allegory.and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to Riwalin. 915 - 956 = 42 Riwalin's love-sickness. 957 - 1016 = 60 Blanscheflur's love-sickness. 1017 - 1076 = 60 Blanscheflur r e a l i z e s that.she loves Riwalin. 1077 - 1118 = 42 478 Blanscheflur r e a l i z e s that Riwalin loves her. Each of them i s now c e r t a i n of the other's love. It i s d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the f i r s t paragraph (641-680) should be included among the preceding ones (the more general d e s c r i p t i o n of the hohgezit), or whether i t should be regarded as belonging to a group of paragraphs i n which G o t t f r i e d provides Blanscheflur with an opportunity to f a l l i n love with Riwalin. While i n the tournament Riwalin i s "exposed," so to speak, to Blanscheflur and Blanscheflur's as well as other b e a u t i f u l l a d i e s ' presence "uf der heide" (642) and " i n der ouwe" (645) i s indicated j u s t p r i o r to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the knights, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the bohort (652ff.).When included, t h i s problematic paragraph (641-80) makes possible a c e r t a i n symmetry of content within the falling-in-love-paragraphs: 109 641 - 680 Riwalin "exposed" to Blanscheflur. 681 - 732 Blanscheflur f a l l s i n love. 733 - 784 Blanscheflur "exposed" to Riwalin. 785 - 840 Riwalin f a l l s i n love. Blanscheflur f a l l s i n love. Riwalin f a l l s i n love. Another problematic paragraph i s the one containing the lime-allegory (841-914). The symmetrical grouping 42 + 6 0 + 6 0 + 4 2 l i n e s suggests that these paragraphs form a s t r u c t u r a l u n i t , and the f a c t that t h i s unit i s mirrored i n a group of almost the same s i z e immediately preceding the lime-allegory paragraph fur t h e r supports a s t r u c t u r a l o u t l i n e i n the centre of which t h i s paragraph occurs. 40 52 52 56_ 74 42" 60 60 42 200 74 204 Riwalin and Blanscheflur f a l l i n love. Lime-allegory. They r e a l i z e that t h e i r f e e l i n g s are mutual In terms of content the centre group of 74 l i n e s would seem to be more c l o s e l y t i e d to the second group (204 l i n e s ) than to the f i r s t (200 l i n e s ) . Riwalin i s caught by the gelimetiu minne ( i . e . he succumbs to minne), which points to the preceding. Furthermore the haz versus minne question begins 6 just, p r i o r to the lime-allegory paragraph. However.,, the f a c t that Riwalin r e a l i z e s i n t h i s paragraph that Blanscheflur loves him connects i t with the following paragraphs', e s p e c i a l l y with the l a s t two (1017-1076 and 1077-1118). The model MS divides the n a r r a t i v e block i n which T r i s t a n i s conceived (1119 - 1384) as follows: 1119 - 1198 = 80 Cornwall i s invaded and Riwalin rides out to defend Mark's lands. Riwalin i s wounded. 1199 - 1238 = 40 Blanscheflur wants.to see Riwalin and asks. . her meisterinne f o r help. . 1239 - 1280 = 42 The meisterinne agrees to help and makes i t possible f o r Blanscheflur to gain access to Riwalin's quarters. 1281 7- 1286 = 6 Blanscheflur walks up to Riwalin. 1287 - 1330 = 44 T r i s t a n i s conceived. 1331 -1359 7-1358 = 28 Riwalin's and Blanscheflur's happy l i f e together a f t e r Riwalin's recovery. 1384 = 26 i Riwalin's and Blanscheflur's happy l i f e together Parmenie i s invaded and Riwalin prepares to return home. The paragraph i n which T r i s t a n i s conceived (1287-1330) i s exactly h a l f the s i z e (44 l i n e s ) of those which prepared t h i s scene (1199-1286 = 88 l i n e s ) . The two paragraphs 1119-1198 and 1331-1384 frame the ones which involve the meisterinne and which contain the conception of T r i s t a n . There i s a c e r t a i n correspondence i n content between these two framing paragraphs: 80 80 —=-! Riwalin i s c a l l e d upon to defend Mark's lands. He i s wounded. With the help of the meisterinne 88 -j | Blanscheflur manages to see, Riwalin. 44 4 I T r i s t a n i s conceived. 54 ! Blanscheflur i s "wounded" (she contracted death at Tristan's conception). Riwalin's and Blanscheflur's happiness. Riwalin i s c a l l e d upon to defend Parmenie. I l l In a d d i t i o n to the correspondence i n content the two framing u n i t s are connected i n that t h e i r t o t a l number of l i n e s i s almost equal to that of the framed ones: • 134 The above s t r u c t u r a l o u t l i n e i s also supported by the fa c t that the scene for the following paragraph i s set at the end of each of these groups whereas i t i s not set towards the end of the paragraph 1199^-1238: 1119 - 1198 = 80 1199 - 1286 .88 1287 - 1330 = 44 1331 - 1384 =54 1. Riwalin i s wounded. 2. Blanscheflur thinks of a means of seeing him. 1. With the help of the meisterinne Blanscheflur gains access to Riwalin's room. 2. Blanscheflur walks up to Riwalin, 1. Blanscheflur arouses Riwalin's desire; T r i s t a n i s conceived. 2. Riwalin recovers. 1. Riwalin's and Blanscheflur's happiness (she knows nothing of her "wound"). 2. It does not l a s t long: Morgan invades Parmenie and Riwalin prepares to leave Cornwall. The model MS has 4 paragraphs between news of Morgan's attack on Parmenie reaching Cornwall and Riwalin's a r r i v a l i n Parmenie: / 1385 - 1450 = 66 Blanscheflur's r e a c t i o n to the news that Riwalin has to leave Cornwall. 1451 - 1510 = 60 Blanscheflur t e l l s Riwalin about her being with c h i l d . 1511 - 1544 = 34 Riwalin's answer. 1545 - 1584 = 40 Riwalin and Blanscheflur leave Mark's court and s a i l o f f to Parmenie. 200 The 200 l i n e s of these 4 paragraphs thus contain Riwalin's preparations to leave Mark's court (among these his farewell v i s i t to Blanscheflur). In-exactly h a l f t h i s number of l i n e s (100) Riwalin prepared to leave Parmenie, and he a r r i v e d at Mark's court (409-508). The l a s t 166 l i n e s of the Vorgeschichte take place i n Parmenie: 1585 - 1702 = 118, Riwalin and Blanscheflur welcomed i n Parmenie by Rual. Their wedding. Riwalin f i g h t s Morgan and i s k i l l e d i n combat. 1703 - 1718 = 16 Lamenting over Riwalin's death. 1719 8- 1750 =, 32 Blanscheflur's g r i e f . T r i s t a n i s born, but Blanscheflur dies. The f i r s t and the l a s t n arrative block i n the Vorgeschichte complex thus both take place i n Parmenie, and they are of roughly the same length: 164 and 166 l i n e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 113 In summary the composition of the Vorgeschichte can be viewed as follows: 245 -Q 286 = « 1 7 4 " 287 -q 318 = 32 _ - 164 319 - 334 = 16 16 335, - 408 = 74 74 409 - 508 = 100 100 100 509 - 586 = 78 _ 587 - 616 = 30 • 132 , 132 617 9- 640 = 24 V 1 1585 - 1702 = 118 1703 - 1718 = 16 1719 9- 1750 = 32 Y 166 166 Riwalin i n Parmenie. Riwalin prepares to leave Parmenie and a r r i v e s at Mark's court. J Ideal s e t t i n g and atmosphere fo r f a l l i n g i n love (hohgezit) Riwalin and Blanscheflur f a l l i n love. Lime-allegory. Love-sickness. Riwalin and Blanscheflur each r e a l i z e that they love and are loved i n return. " i d e a l " circumstances provided (Riwalin wounded) fo r conception of T r i s t a n . T r i s t a n conceived. Riwalin prepares to leave Mark's court (farewell v i s i t tp B lanscheflur). They elope to Parmenie. Riwalin and Blanscheflur i n Parmenie. 114' In the above s t r u c t u r a l o u t l i n e there i s some degree of symmetry of content between groups of re l a t e d s i z e s . The f i r s t group of 164 l i n e s which describes Riwalin i n Parmenie i s "mirrored" i n the l a s t group of 166 l i n e s i n which both Riwalin and Blanscheflur are i n Parmenie. The group of 100 l i n e s i n which Riwalin prepares to leave Parmenie and a r r i v e s at Mark's court i s "mirrored" i n a group exactly twice the s i z e (200 l i n e s ) i n which Riwalin makes preparations to leave Mark's court and elopes with Blanscheflur to Parmenie. The 132 l i n e s which provide the i d e a l background f o r a developing love story (the locus amoenus scenery, the joyous atmosphere, at the hohgezit, the distinguished guests enjoying themselves, etc.) i s "mirrored" by two groups of 132 and 134 l i n e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . In terms of content one can perhaps speak of a c e r t a i n symmetry i n that, i n the second group, " i d e a l " circumstances f o r the conception of T r i s t a n are provided by Riwalin's becoming so s e r i o u s l y wounded that i t i s possible f o r Blanscheflur to persuade her meisterinne to help her gain access to h i s chambers. The c e n t r a l group i s thus the one, i n which the two protagonists f a l l i n love and become aware that they share the same f e e l i n g s . S t r u c t u r a l l y the lime-all e g o r y stands i n the centre, but thematically i t belongs to the two surrounding groups of 20Q and 204 l i n e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , e s p e c i a l l y to the l a t t e r . The numerical symmetry can be c a r r i e d one step further. If we group the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS immediately following the Vor- geschichte, we f i n d the following groups of l i n e s : 0 1751 - 1790 = 40 40 Laments over the deaths of Riw. and B l R 1791 - 1864 = 74" 1 164 Rual and F l . spread f a l s e rumours S 1865 - 1954 = 90_ about the orphan (Floraete's simulated b i r t h of T r i s t a n ) . 1955 - 1982 = 28" From the time when T r i s t a n i s 6 weeks 1983 - 2042 = 60 194 old u n t i l he i s 14 years of age. 2043 - 2130 = 88 2131 - 2148 = 18 A numerical symmetric pattern surrounding the quatrain i n i t i a l s has thus emerged: 1385 1585 0 1751 R/S 1791' 1955 2149 1584 1750 1790 1954 2148 200 166 . 40 164 194 Riw. and B l . elope to Parmenie. Death of Riw. and B l . T r i s t a n born. Lamentations* Floraete's simulated b i r t h of T r i s t a n . T ristan's childhood. He i s educated abroad and returns to Parmenie. Tristan's abduction. The sum of the l i n e s of the two groups 1751-1790 + 1791-1954 equals 204 which places them i n a numerical r e l a t i o n s h i p with the 204 l i n e s of the prologue between the T quatrain i n i t i a l (41) and the beginning of the Vorgeschichte: 116 G T 204 40 The " s t r o p h i c " portion of the prologue. Prologue. 164 100 132 , 200 -, 74 Vorgeschichte. 204 J 132/134-i 200 166 0 204 T r i s t a n ' s childhood.. As indicated above i t i s only with some d i f f i c u l t y that the c e n t r a l group of 74 l i n e s i s established. S i m i l a r l y i t i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r whether the paragraph 641-680 should indeed be grouped within the n a r r a t i v e block "Riwalin and Blanscheflur f a l l i n love," whether i t should be regarded as a prelude to the falling-in-love-paragraphs (681-840) s t i l l w i t h i n the 12 group of 200 l i n e s , or whether i t should be taken out of the 200 group altogether and placed i n the preceding group, i . e . be included among the paragraphs containing a more general d e s c r i p t i o n of the hohgezit. A survey of d i f f e r e n t views of, f o r instance, the structure of the Literaturschau, within the s w e r t l e i t e episode of T r i s t a n may help to i l l u s t r a t e the extent to which opinions vary i n determining the border-l i n e s of n a r r a t i v e blocks. Louis Gravigny considers the episode of the swertleite to comprise l i n e s 4489 to 5068, interrupted by the 13 Literaturschau, whereas Ursula Schulze regards the Literaturschau "mit ihren mehr a l s 200 [ ? s i c ] Versen" as "das Kernsttlck des gesamten 1 1 7 Exkurses, which i n her view contains the intr o d u c t i o n to the Literaturschau as w e l l as the subsequent B e s c h e i d e n h e l t s . t o p o s i . e . l i n e s 4 5 8 9 - 4 9 7 4 . Petrus Tax concerns himself with the symmetrical 1 6 numerical structure of the Literaturschau i t s e l f , to which Ute Schwab objects as she wants to see the introductory l i n e s ( 4 5 8 9 - 4 6 2 0 ) incorporated into the numerical s t r u c t u r e . 1 7 Bearing t h i s i n mind, we s h a l l return to our problem of defi n i n g the borderlines of some of the proposed groupings, or, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , our problem of plac i n g the two paragraphs 6 4 1 - 6 8 0 and 8 4 1 - 9 1 4 i n t h e i r "proper" surroundings. A s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t b u t — i n terms, of c o n t e n t -more s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n would be to include the paragraph 6 4 1 - 8 0 i n the preceding group and the paragraph 8 4 1 - 9 1 4 i n the group which follows: 118 245 -28718-319 1-286 318 334 = 42 " 32 _ 16 •<• 74 16 r- 164 335 - 408 74 74 , 409 - 508 -- 100 100 100 509 - 586 = 78 " 587 - 616 = 30 - 132 617 1 8- 640 = 24 _ * 172 641 - 680 = 40 40 1 681 - 732 = 52 " • 733 - 784 = 52 r 160 785 - 840 = 56 ; 272 841 - 914 = 74 ^ 915 - 956 = 4 2 ] 957 - 1016 = 60 J 1017 - 1076 = 60 ". -1077 - 1118 = 42 _ 1119 - 1198 = 80 1199 - 1238 = 40 " 1239 - 1280 = 42 • 1281 ^ 1286 = 6 _ 1287 - 1330 = 44 1331 - 1358 = 28 1 1359 ^ 1384 26 J. 1385 - 1450 = 66 ] 1451 - 1510 = 60 1511 - 1544 34 1545 - 1584 7 40 1585 - 1702 = 118 " 1703 - 1718 = 16 • 1719 1 8- 1750 = 32 102 / 176 > 88 132 >134 544 (= 272 x 2) S 200 166 119 We now have a rather large block (841-1384) con s i s t i n g of two smaller ones (841-1118 + 1119-1384). This large block i s twice the s i z e of the block leading up to the love story proper (409-680): 1 9 245 - 408 = 164 409 - 680 = 272 681 - 840 = 160 841 - 1384 = 544 1385 - 1584 = 200 1585 - 1750 = 166 Riwalin i n Parmenie. ^"Prelude to the love story: Riwalin i s welcomed at Mark's court and general d e s c r i p t i o n of the hohgezit. Riwalin arid Blanscheflur f a l l i n loye. R e a l i z a t i o n that t h e i r f e e l i n g s are mutual. Consummation of t h e i r love ( T r i s t a n conceived). Riwalin arid Blanscheflur elope to Parmenie. Riwalin and Blanscheflur i n Parmenie. A l l the paragraphs between l i n e s 409 and 681 are here considered as a "prelude" to the love story which commences at l i n e 681: 409 -509 -587 -641 -508 586 640 680 100 Riwalin leaves Parmenie and i s welcomed at Mark's court. 78 54 40 172 Description of the hohgezit (annual event, locus amoenus). The guests and t h e i r hosts (Blanscheflur introduced to the reader/audience). The splendour of the knights p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the bohort. A f t e r l i n e 681 the ladies watching the bohort s i n g l e out Riwalin as the most distinguished knight, and Blanscheflur i s l i s t e n i n g c l o s e l y to t h e i r p r a i s e . The falling-in-love-paragraphs are now l i m i t e d to 3: 120 681 - 732 = 52 733 -785 -784 = 840 = 52 .56 Riw. "exposed" to B l . (bohort, the l a d l e s ' p r a i s e ) . B l . f a l l s i n love. 160 B l . "exposed" to Riw. (conversation) Riwalin f a l l s i n love. The lime-allegory i s now viewed as belonging to the two paragraphs 1017-76 and 1077-1118: 841 - 914 = 74. 915 - 956 = 42-1 957 - 1016 = 60J 1017 - 1076 = 60 _ 1077 - 1118 = 42 f ~-176 ]102; i 102 Riw. r e a l i z e s that B l . loves him. Riwalin's loye^-sickness. Blanscheflur's love-sickness. B l . r e a l i z e s she loves Riw. B l . r e a l i z e s Riw. loves her. Both r e a l i z e that t h e i r f e e l i n g s are mutual. The remaining groups are unchanged from the pattern suggested previously, but the numerical r e l a t i o n s h i p between 272 and 544 can only be established i f the l i n e s between 409 and 680, and 841 and 1384 are regarded as two blocks o n l y . 2 0 If we add the surrounding groups of l i n e s to the above pattern, as we did i n our f i r s t s t r u c t u r a l outline,; the following structure emerges: / 40 364 — — 1 1 - 40 = 40 1 41 - 244 = 204 "| 245 - 408 = 164 J 409 - 508 = 100 "] 509 - 680 = 172 J 681 - 840 = 160 841 -1118 = 176+102=278' 1119 -1384 = 132+134=266 1385 -1584 = 200 1585 -1750 = 166 0 1751 -1790 = 40 R 1791 272 =544 i 2 1 6 0 : 544 = 272 x 2 366 40 121 Seen i n t h i s l i g h t the paragraphs i n which Riwalin and Blanscheflur f a l l i n love have moved to the centre of the composition, replacing the one containing the lime-allegory, as proposed i n our f i r s t s t r u c t u r a l pattern. Furthermore the l a t t e r p o r t i o n of the prologue (41-244) has s t r u c t u r a l l y become part of the Vorgeschichte, something which i s . d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y i n terms of content, but which i s possible considering the f a c t that the TRISTAN/ISOLDE a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l s (cf. Chapter VIII) begin at l i n e 41 and not at the beginning of the Vorgeschichte (245). This would support theories i n which the o v e r - a l l structure of T r i s t a n i s based on the a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l s (see Chapter IX). On the other hand the correspondence i n content between groups of re l a t e d sizes has been v i r t u a l l y l o s t i n t h i s composition. In deciding which of the two s t r u c t u r a l patterns i s more l i k e l y to have been intended by G o t t f r i e d — t h e one i n which symmetries of content as well as structure could be established with c a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of one problematic paragraph i n p a r t i c u l a r (641-80), or one i n which there are numerical correspondences but only s l i g h t correspondence i n contents-the model MS can be of no further assistance. Apart from the f a c t that the paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e 681 was used instead of the one at l i n e 641, b a s i c a l l y the same paragraph d i v i s i o n s make up the two d i f f e r e n t patterns. The same s t y l i s t i c features are present at the paragraph d i v i s i o n s at l i n e 641 and 681. However, i f we again examine the MSS we (re)discover that 21 the i n i t i a l at l i n e 681 i s a large one i n the MS H, one of the 4 MSS at the top of our evaluation scale. Is t h i s perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n that a n a r r a t i v e block of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (such as the centre paragraphs 22 of the Vorgeschichte) was to commence at t h i s l i n e ? 122 Chapter VI: Footnotes ''"The haz versus minne question begins, f o r example, 13 l i n e s (828) before a paragraph d i v i s i o n (841), etc. 2 Such new beginnings frequently happen at the second l i n e of a couplet, perhaps a further i n d i c a t i o n that they occur at subdivisions. 3 These features are not present at the weak paragraph d i v i s i o n s : 287, 319, 1281, 1359, and 1719. Apart from t h i s they are lacking i n only three 5 4 instances: 785,. 1511, and 1545 a l l of which are i n dialogue scenes. There i s no i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the sequence of pronouns at l i n e 1199, but a new f i g u r e , diu meisterinne, i s introduced by t h i s term i n the second l i n e (1200), and the words i n l i n e 1199 are repeated almost verbatim from l i n e 1195, thus c l e a r l y r e i n f o r c i n g the paragraph d i v i s i o n . HThe paragraph d i v i s i o n w i t h i n Blanscheflur's monologue (1017) should perhaps be counted among these. There i s no r e p e t i t i o n or r e -ca p i t u l a t i o n , and the i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the flow of pronouns i s only p a r t i a l : "Was wize i c h aber dem guoten man?" 4 Weak paragraph d i v i s i o n (see above, chapter V). 5Weak paragraph d i v i s i o n (see above, chapter V). This need not be of any s p e c i f i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . G o t t f r i e d r e l a t i v e l y frequently begins a new narr a t i v e u n i t p r i o r to a paragraph d i v i s i o n . 7 Weak paragraph d i v i s i o n (see above, chapter V). 8 Weak paragraph d i v i s i o n (see above, chapter V). 9 Weak paragraph d i v i s i o n s which should perhaps be disregarded and which—aside from the one at l i n e 319—add nothing to the s t r u c t u r a l o u t l i n e . See below. ^ T h e model MS allows f o r s i m i l a r symmetrical patterns to be found around the TIO (4589-5546: 32+200+38+210+30+210+28+200+10) and ESL (11875-12674: 154+154+96+152+96+148) quatrain i n i t i a l s . 123 12 Numerically the two groups of 160/162 lines would, justify this as well as the 74 line.- paragraph being viewed i n isolation: 641 - 680 = 40 681 - 732 52 733 - 784 52 785 - 840 56 841 - 914 74 915 - 956 42 957 - 1016 60 1017 - 1076 60 1077 - 1118 42 160 162 13 vers 4489-4621:" Preparation de l'adoubement vers 4621-4821: Revue l i t t e r a i r e . vers 4821-5069:•Quete de 1'inspiration et adoubement... i 132 vers. 580 -{ 200 vers. vers, i „ / Q 248 vers. Louis Gravigny, "Les Interventions Mrectes de Gottfried de Strasbourg dans 'Tristan'" (Diss. Paris, 1968). 14 Ursula Schulze, "Literarkritische Xusserungen im Tristan Gottfrieds von Strassburg," Beitr. (TUb.), 88 (1967), 305.' 15 Schulze regards the two passages immediately surrounding the Literaturschau (4589-4620 and 4821-4974) as Bescheidenheitstopoi. See Curtius, p. 93ff. 1 f\ "Diese 200 Verse [4621-4820] sind i n zwei 'Flllgel' und ein Mittel-stilck genau symmetrisch gegliedert: 4621-90 (70 Verse, deren Anfang die Init i a l e H bezeichnet) befassen sich mit Hartmann und dem ungenannten Wolfram, in dem MittelstUck 4691-4750 (genau 60 Verse—beginnend mit der Initiale N—) werden Bliker und Heinrich von Veldeke gewtlrdigt, und 4751-4820 (wieder 70 Verse—Anfang I n i t i a l e D—) b'ehandeln die nahtegalen, besonders Reinmar und Walther," Petrus W. Tax, Wort, Sdmnbild,- Zahl im  Tristanroman (Berlin, 1971), p. 31, footnote 23. 1 7Ute Schwab, Lex et Gratia -(Messina, 1967), p. 7: [4589] T4620J 32 17 53 32 28 23 24 -23 j 32 70 32 28 70 ~232 124 18 Weak paragraph d i v i s i o n s (see above, chapter V). 19 This i s only the case when the 100 l i n e s i n which Riwalin leaves Parmenie and a r r i v e s at Mark's court are included. In terms of content t h i s seems to be quite j u s t i f i a b l e ; Riwalin a r r i v e s i n Cornwall 35 l i n e s p r i o r to the paragraph d i v i s i o n , and the d e s c r i p t i o n of the hohgezit does not commence u n t i l 17 l i n e s a f t e r t h i s d i v i s i o n . 20 Our model MS allows f o r an equally s t r i k i n g numerical pattern to be found between the (TI)0 and ;E(SL) quatrain i n i t i a l s , l i n e s 5177-12183: 0 5177 - 5866 = 690 5867 - 7910 = 2044 2. 1/2 x 820 (2050) 7911 - 8600 = 690 8601 - 9982 = 1382 = 2 x 691 9983 - 10802 = 820 2044 4- 2 1/2 (approx.) 10803 - 12182 = 1380 = 2 x 690 E 12183 . . . 21 This i n i t i a l , has been three more (ORP): p a r t i a l l y l o s t i n one MS (W) and t o t a l l y M H F W B N 0 E R P Line 681 I I l [ l ] l / i I i i . a phenomenon which w i l l be discussed i n chapter VII. In addition we notice that there are paragraph signs of a shape (£) d i f f e r e n t from the ordinary ones ( J>7~) i n front of the i n i t i a l s at l i n e s 335, 409, .681, 1119, 1287, 1385, and 1585; most of these paragraph d i v i s i o n s are of major s i g n i f i c a n c e i n our s t r u c t u r a l patterns. These a d d i t i o n a l paragraph signs are also p e c u l i a r to H. The paragraph signs at l i n e s 409 and 1287 are not shown i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y on our microfilm copy. Only the rig h t most l i n e s are v i s i b l e . 22 This i s perhaps another case which would support m o d i f i c a t i o n of Ranke's stemma as suggested i n chapter VIII, p. 165 footnote 45 where we consider H alone to go back to a copy i n which t h i s I i n i t i a l was c a p i t a l i z e d and M together with the other MSS to go back to a copy i n which t h i s i n i t i a l appeared as an ordinary one (*V). 125 Chapter VII An Examination of the Large I n i t i a l s i n the T r i s t a n MSS. On the basis of the s e l e c t i o n method outlined i n chapter IV, 327 i n i t i a l s were accepted f o r the model MS. At f i r s t sight no s p e c i f i c pattern emerges from the order i n which these i n i t i a l s appear, 1 and our model MS i t s e l f does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between ordinary and large i n i t i a l s , between ornamented and p l a i n ones, nor does i t i n d i c a t e which l e t t e r s of the alphabet make up i t s paragraph d i v i s i o n s ; we s h a l l therefore turn to the MSS themselves f o r information of t h i s type. When considering factors such as s i z e and at times also ornamentation of the i n i t i a l s i n the transmitted MSS, some,clearly stand out. Such i n i t i a l s (large i n i t i a l s ) are present at the following l i n e s : Line 1 G M H w B N E R P CP 0 lacking) Line 41 T H (F.O - ) Line 131 I M H CO - ) Line 245 E M H w B E (0 - ) Line 681 I H Line 1751 0/A M H 0 Line 1791 T/R M H 0 Line 1865 s : M H B 0 Line 3379 N 0 Line 5069" T/D M H 0 Line 5177 0 M B 0 Line 12183 E H 0 CM lacking) Line 12431 S H 0 (M - ). Line 12503 L H 0 CM - ) Line 186862 N 0 In h i s a r t i c l e "La composition de T r i s t a n de G o t t f r i e d de. Strasbourg M3 et l e s i n i t i a l e s dans les principaux manuscrits et fragments, Louis Grayigny 126 examined the MSS5 M, H, F, W, B, 0, and R plus the fragments a, b, f, t, w, and z i n order to determine where large i n i t i a l s occur. Gravigny's concept of a large i n i t i a l i s based on the s i z e i n millimetres of each i n i t i a l without r e l a t i n g i t to the context. To be sure the s i z e of the i n i t i a l i s of prime importance when an attempt i s made to determine whether or not to designate i t as an ordinary one or as a large, one. However, other factors should be taken into consideration, too, such as the s i z e r e l a t i v e to the s i z e of the surrounding i n i t i a l s as w e l l as the s i z e r e l a t i v e to the space l e f t f o r the i n i t i a l by the s c r i b e . This d i s t i n c t i o n r a i s e s a number of questions with regard to Gravigny's l i s t of large i n i t i a l s i n the various T r i s t a n MSS, and i n the following the cases where our findings do not concur w i l l be discussed i n some d e t a i l . Gfavigny distinguishes two types of i n i t i a l s i n the MS H: " i l e x i s t e dans l e manuscrit de Heidelberg Q H J deux categories d ' i n i t i a l e s nettement d i s t i n c t e s : l e s grandes i n i t i a l e s qui ont plus d'un centimetre de hauteur et l e s i n i t i a l e s de paragraphe^ qui ont un centimetre de hauteur au moins " (EG, p. 5). Nevertheless, he does not consider the i n i t i a l I at l i n e 681 as a large i n i t i a l although i t i s "exceptionnelement [ s i c ] haute (20 mm)." (Diss., p. 208). He regards a l l other i n i t i a l s i n H which reach a height of 15 millimetres or more as large i n i t i a l s . This i n i t i a l covers 3 l i n e s , thus being larger than the surrounding ordinary i n i t i a l s which cover only 2 l i n e s . One h a l f of the large i n i t i a l s i n H cover 3 l i n e s , the other h a l f 4-6 l i n e s . The reason why the I - i n i t i a l at l i n e 681 i s "only" 3 l i n e s t a l l , as opposed to the I - i n i t i a l at l i n e 131 which covers 6 l i n e s , i s presumably 127 that the former has the shape of a Roman letter " I " whereas the latter i s an enlarged capital "J."' 7 An i n i t i a l of the "J-category" is usually(not only, in H) longer than the average i n i t i a l without necessarily being a "large" i n i t i a l . The i n i t i a l at line 681 should be considered as a large i n i t i a l for the following reasons: It .has the thickness and the stature of the i n i t i a l of line 245, for example, the designation of which as a large i n i t i a l Gravigny does not question (EG, p. 5). The only difference between the two is really that the I takes up a l i t t l e less room than" does the E, the latter by i t s very nature requiring more room than a thinner letter such as an I. Further-more i f we compare the I - i n i t i a l at line 681 with the one at line 2149, for example, a significant difference i s apparent. Both i n i t i a l s are of the "Roman let t e r " type, but the i n i t i a l at line 2149 covers 2 lines and i s written i n exactly the same manner as the other ordinary i n i t i a l s whereas the I i n i t i a l at line 681 is considerably thicker and t a l l e r (3 lines). Gravigny regards the I - i n i t i a l at line 5099 in H as a large i n i t i a l . This is a somewhat problematic case as this i n i t i a l appears on the bottom line of a column (34 v ^ ) . Like the I i n i t i a l at line 131, the one at line 5099 is " J " shaped, but unlike the i n i t i a l at line 131, i t does not take up room within the frame of the written text, other than a small portion 8 of the bottom line. Since i t would have been pointless to indent the lines at the top of the following column, the indentation criterion for deter-mining the nature of this i n i t i a l i s therefore eliminated. This i n i t i a l should be counted among the ordinary i n i t i a l s for a number of reasons: f i r s t , i n the MS H i t i s not unusual that i n i t i a l s occur at the bottom l i n e of a column. When compared to other places where t h i s i s the case, such as the i n i t i a l D at l i n e 1385 ( l l r a ) , the N at l i n e 3609 ( 2 5 r b ) , the N at l i n e 4283 ( 2 9 v a ) , the 0 at l i n e 5177 ( 3 5 r b ) , the M at l i n e 6389 ( 4 3 r a ) , the H at l i n e 10875 ( 7 1 V b ) , and the N at l i n e 16773 ( 1 1 0 r b ) , i t seems quite p l a u s i b l e that the I at l i n e 5099 could be simply an ordinary i n i t i a l . In s p i t e of the fact that they cover only one l i n e a l l of these i n i t i a l s have the shape and s i z e of the surrounding ordinary i n i t i a l s which do not occur on the bottom l i n e . The only difference i s that part of the i n i t i a l reaches downward, outside the frame of the written text. Secondly, the fa c t that the i n i t i a l at l i n e 5099 and the one at l i n e 131 are the only ones shaped l i k e an enlarged c a p i t a l l e t t e r 9 " j , " the other I - i n i t i a l s i n H being shaped l i k e the Roman l e t t e r " i , " i s not s u f f i c i e n t reason to designate them both as large i n i t i a l s , f o r when compared with each other a marked differ e n c e i n appearance can be noted. The I i n i t i a l at l i n e 131 covers 6 l i n e s i n s i d e the frame of the written text i n contrast to the one at l i n e 5099. Furthermore, i t i s noticeably t h i c k e r and s l i g h t l y ornamented, none.of which could be claimed f o r the i n i t i a l at l i n e 5099. The i n i t i a l 0 at l i n e 5177 i n H also appears at the bottom l i n e of a column (35 ), and l i k e Gravigny, we consider t h i s i n i t i a l to be an ordinary i n i t i a l . Unlike Gravigny, however, we regard the i n i t i a l at l i n e 5099 as being no less an ordinary i n i t i a l than the i n i t i a l at l i n e 5177. As was the case at l i n e 5099, the s c r i b e could not 129 possibly i n d i c a t e by way of indentation that he wanted the r u b r i c a t o r to write a large i n i t i a l . Again i t would have made no sense to indent the following l i n e s i n the next column. Since we do not know the MS(S) Which served as the source f o r the s c r i b e of Hi, i t i s impossible to determine whether or not these two i n i t i a l s were supposed to have been of the large type .had they not happened to be required at bottom l i n e s . They should b o t h 1 1 be regarded as e i t h e r ordinary i n i t i a l s , or as large i n i t i a l s which were wr i t t e n as ordinary ones because of t h e i r p o s i t i o n at bottom l i n e s . A d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s at l i n e 12503 i n H.- The i n i t i a l L at thi s l i n e does not f i g u r e among, Gravigny's large i n i t i a l s (EG, p. 5), presumably because i t i s of the same height and appearance as an ordinary i n i t i a l . However, the s c r i b e l e f t room i n a t o t a l of 6 l i n e s f o r the two i n i t i a l s L (12503) and W (12507). I f we look at the i n i t i a l s surrounding the quatrain at the l i n e s 12431/5 we see how the sc r i b e intended these i n i t i a l s to be written. Here he made i t quite obvious to the r u b r i c a t o r which type of i n i t i a l s he wanted him to f i l l i n , by leaving room i n 3 l i n e s f o r the f i r s t i n i t i a l (S, 12431) and i n 2 l i n e s only f o r the second i n i t i a l (L, 12435). By leaving one f u l l l i n e between the two empty spaces, he c l e a r l y showed that the f i r s t i n i t i a l was supposed to be of the large category (covering 3 l i n e s ) , and the second one of the ordinary kind (covering 2 lines)-. No doubt the s c r i b e intended the same arrangement f o r the i n i t i a l s around the quatrain 12503/7, but he f a i l e d to make i t c l e a r enough f o r the r u b r i c a t o r to understand h i s "instruction."*Instead of drawing a large L and then an ordinary W, the l a t t e r drew 2 ordinary i n i t i a l s . Moreover, by leaving much less room sideways f o r the L (12503) than he had l e f t f o r the S (12431), the scrib e gave the 12 rub r i c a t o r even more chance for misunderstanding. Summing up then, the ordinary i n i t i a l s cover 2 l i n e s i n H throughout the e n t i r e MS. The following i n i t i a l s can be regarded as large ones: G Line 1 covering 6 l i n e s i n the written text T 41 4 - - -I 131 6 - - -E 245 3 - - -I 681 3 - , - -0 1751 3 - - -T 1791 3 . - - -S 1865 4 - - -T 5069 4 - - -E 12183 3 - - -S . - 12431 3 _ _ _ M - 12503 2 - - -Regarding MS F, Gravigny writes i n h i s a r t i c l e : "Toutes l e s i n i t i a l e s (rouge et bleu alternativement) de ce manuscrit ont un aspect s i v o i s i n q u ' i l ne nous est pas possible de di s t i n g u e r nettement des grandes i n i t i a l e s et des i n i t i a l e s . de paragraphe. . . . Seule 1 ' i n i t i a l e E du vers 245 (p. 3, l r e colonne. de vers) est nette-ment plus grande que l e s autres (14 x 13 mm)."(EG, 7). The f i r s t part of t h i s statement i s correct; h i s contention, however, that the i n i t i a l E at l i n e 245 i s of the large type i s not acceptable. This i n i t i a l i s not l a r g e r than the W at l i n e 201 ( 3 b ) , the A at l i n e 155 (2 b) or the 131 I at l i n e 131 ( 2 D ) , to mention only a few examples. Granted the E (245) does appear to be s l i g h t l y l a r g e r than the rest of the i n i t i a l s 13 which can be seen at the same time, but i t i s the N's on the pages 4, 5, and 6 of the MS which are s l i g h t l y smaller than the rest of the i n i t i a l s i n the e n t i r e MS. From l i n e 474 on, the i n i t i a l s have the same s i z e and 14 appearance as i n i t i a l s p r i o r to the smaller ones. Apart from these Smaller i n i t i a l s on the pages 4, 5, and 6 which are 2 l i n e s t a l l , a l l the i n i t i a l s up to page 48 of the MS cover 3 l i n e s . A f t e r t h i s page, the i n i t i a l s a l l cover 4 l i n e s without being l a r g e r , the reason being that there are approximately 40 l i n e s i n a column p r i o r to page.49, but approximately 48 l i n e s go to a column a f t e r t h i s page. An a d d i t i o n a l l i n e thus had to be squeezed i n beside the i n i t i a l , , as i t were. The conclusion to be drawn i s therefore that there are no large i n i t i a l s i n MS F . 1 5 In MS W, Gravigny considers 3 i n i t i a l s as large: the G at l i n e 1, the I at l i n e 131, and the E at l i n e 245 (EG, 7). We are of the same opinion with regard to the i n i t i a l s G and E. The I, however, should 16 be included among the ordinary i n i t i a l s . Being shaped l i k e the c a p i t a l l e t t e r " j y " t h i s i n i t i a l i s longer than the surrounding ones, but, i n i t i a l s of t h i s shape tend to be longer than the other i n i t i a l s without being " l a r g e . " The I - i n i t i a l at l i n e 131 as well as the other I - i n i t i a l s i n W which are shaped l i k e a " j " " ' " 7 are a l l 6-7 l i n e s t a l l , and they are a l l printed i n the margin outside the frame of the text. In h i s T r i s t a n excerpts Ranke considers the L at l i n e 12503 i n W as . a large i n i t i a l : "Besonders grosse I n i t . HFW, I n i t . NP" (Auswahl, p. 40), but i n W, the L s t a r t s two l i n e s above (12501), outside the frame of the written text: m X X X 3 • X X X X 12501 Mxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx i Ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx This i s not at a l l an unusual s i t u a t i o n i n W. A l l l e t t e r s with a long 18 l i n e such as H, I, and Y reach outside the frame of the wr i t t e n text without being large i n i t i a l s . Besides, the amount of space l e f t by the scribe f o r th i s i n i t i a l i s the same as for any other ordinary i n i t i a l . Apart from the G at l i n e 1, there i s thus only one other large i n i t i a l i n the e n t i r e MS: G Line 1 covering 6 l i n e s i n the wr i t t e n text E - 245 - 4 _ - _ _ The i n i t i a l s at l i n e s 3379 and 18686 i n 0 do not f i g u r e among the large i n i t i a l s according to Gravigny (EG, p. 8). They should be included, 19 f o r , l i k e a l l the other large i n i t i a l s i n t h i s MS they are 3 l i n e s t a l l i n contrast to the ordinary i n i t i a l s which c o n s i s t e n t l y cover only 2 l i n e s throughout the MS. Gravigny l i s t s the i n i t i a l W at l i n e 3751 i n B as a large i n i t i a l together with G (1), E (245), S (1865), and 0 (5177). An ordinary i n i t i a l covers 1 l i n e i n t h i s MS., and the i n i t i a l s at l i n e s 245, 1865, and 5177 20 a l l cover 2 lines., The scri b e l e f t room i n 2 l i n e s beneath an i l l u s t r a t i o n for the W at l i n e 3751, and the i n i t i a l does appear to be.twice as large as the surrounding ones. However W's tend to be s l i g h t l y l arger than, f o r 133 example, N's or T's, and the general appearance of t h i s i n i t i a l (3751) i s exactly the same as that of any of the ordinary i n i t i a l s . In contrast to the W at l i n e 3751 the large i n i t i a l s at l i n e s 1, 245,. 1865, and 5177 are very ornamented both i n the l e t t e r i t s e l f and i n the l i n e s drawn upward and downward from i t , f o r example: 0 Line 5177: Mxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx i n MS B (ji xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 6 5 a fl xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx ' xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx \ xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx .xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx fxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx ^xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Because of t h i s t o t a l lack of ornamentation we draw the conclusion that the i n i t i a l at l i n e 3751-should not be included among the large ones. 21 In MS M the large i n i t i a l s cease a f t e r the one at l i n e 5177. 22 They vary i n s i z e from 6 to 11 l i n e s as the s i z e of the ordinary i n i t i a l s gradually grows from 2 l i n e s at the beginning of the MS to 5 l i n e s l a t e r on. 23 Apart from the G in,the f i r s t l i n e there are no large i n i t i a l s 24 i n the 3 MSS N, R, and P. In R the i n i t i a l s vary between 2 and 5 l i n e s whereas they are a regular 2 l i n e s i n N and P. 25 Like W the MS E has only one large i n i t i a l aside from the G at l i n e 1 one,(E) at l i n e 245. They are 8 and 6 l i n e s t a l l r e s p e c t i v e l y whereas the ordinary i n i t i a l s take up space i n 3 l i n e s of the written text. None of the extant fragments has large i n i t i a l s , and none of them has preserved the l i n e s i n which the large i n i t i a l s occur i n the complete MSS. In summary, an examination of the Tristan-manuscripts shows evidence of large i n i t i a l s at the following l i n e s : M H F W- B N 0 E R P Line 1 G G /' G G G / G G G Line 41 - T / - . - - / - - -Line 131 I I - - - - / - - -Line 245 E E - E E - / E - -Line 681 - I - - - / - - -Line 1751 0 0 - - - - A . - - -Line 17.91 T T - - - - R - - -Line 1865 S S - - S - S - - -Line 3379 - - - - - - N - - -Line 5069 T T - - - - D - - -Line 5177 0 - - - 0 - 0 - - -Line 12183 / E - - - - E - - -Line 12431 / S - - - - S - - -l i n e 12503 / L - - - - L - - -Line 18686 — - — — — — N _ _ _ I t seems that there are r e a l l y only 3 MSS M, H, and 0 which with any degree of consistency have large i n i t i a l s . Unfortunately the po r t i o n i n 0 i s lacking where the i n i t i a l s at the l i n e s 1, 41, 131, and 245 would presumably be, and the same i s the case i n M as f a r as the section containing the l i n e s 12183, 12431, and 12503 i s concerned. If we look at the text of the Tristan-romance i t becomes obvious that by f a r the majority of the large i n i t i a l s are printed at those points i n the text where there i s a quatrain, i . e . a 4 l i n e stanza rhymed eit h e r a a b b or a b a b. In the text, we f i n d the quatrains at the following l i n e s : Line 1 - 4 28 MHFWBN0ERP Line 5 - 8 - ' Line 9 - 12 - . Line 13 - 16 -Line 17 - 20 Line 21 - 24 - -Line 25 - 28 -Line 29 - 32 -Line 33 - 36 -Line 37 - 40 -Line 41 - 44 -Line 131 - 134 MHFWBN0ERP Line 233 - 236 -Line 237 - 240 - , Line 1751 - 1754 MHFWBNOERP Line 1791 - 1794 -Line 1865 - 1868 -Line 5069 5072 -Line 5099 - 5102 -Line - 5177 - 5180 -Line 11871 11874 jteFWBNOERP Line 12183 - 12186 -Line 12431 - 12434 Line 12503 - 12506 — — If compared to the table on page 134 , i t can be seen that the MSS do not r e g i s t e r large i n i t i a l s at every quatrain. There i s a minimum of one MS containing a large i n i t i a l at the following quatrains: Line 1, 41, 131, 1751, 179.1, 1865, 5069, 5177, .12183, 12431, and 12503. A comparison w i l l also show that no MS r e g i s t e r s a large i n i t i a l at the l i n e immediately following a quatrain. In h i s T r i s t a n e d i t i o n F r i e d r i c h Ranke places a large i n i t i a l at every quatrain whether or not these i n i t i a l s are a c t u a l l y supported by the MSS. Not only does Ranke p r i n t a large i n i t i a l at the beginning of a quatrain,he also p r i n t s one at the l i n e immediately following the 29 quatrain. There i s absolutely no evidence to be found i n the MSS f o r t h i s . The following table shows the large i n i t i a l s i n Ranke's e d i t i o n together with a l i s t i n g of how these i n i t i a l s are represented i n the MSS; i t also shows the l i n e s where some MSS have a large i n i t i a l i n contrast to Ranke's e d i t i o n (245, 681, 3379, 18686): Legend: G_: Large i n i t i a l ; G: Ordinary i n i t i a l . /: Gap i n the MS or l i n e l a c k i n g . d: Normal handwriting, be i t a c a p i t a l l e t t e r or a small l e t t e r . S: Small i n i t i a l (occurs i n H only). i: paragraph sign. An i n i t i a l was intended by the scribe but never c a r r i e d out by the ru b r i c a t o r . Ranke M H F W B N 0 E R P G Line 1 G G. / G G G / G G G D Line 5 d ^> / d d d / d d d I Line 9 i X / i i i / i i i E Line 13 e E / e e i / e • e e T Line 17 t 3 / d d d / t d t E Line 21 e e / e e e / e e e R Line 25 r H / r r r / r r r I Line 29 i I / i i • d / i i i C Line 33 c / c k c / k k k 137 H Line 37 h H 1 h h e / . t h h T Line 41 T T 1 T d D / T T I Line 45 i i 1 i I i / i i i I'_ Line 131 I I I I I / I i i 1 Line 135. t s t t d d ' / t d t D Line 233 d d d d d d / d d d I Line 237 / i / i / / / / i i U Line 2413°s u u u s i / / w u E Line 245 E E E E E E / E e E I Line 681 I I M 3 1i / i I i i 0 Line 1751 0 0 0 0 0 0 A 3 2 0 o 0 D Line 1755 d d d d d d d d d d R Line 33 1791 T T R R T R R T R T S_ • Line 34 1795 s s s s s w w w w w S_ Line 1865 S_ S_ S S S_ S S_ S S S R Line 1869 r . R r r r r r r r r N Line 3379 n N N N N N • n T 3 i N T Line 5069 T T T T D D D T T T A Line 5073 a A a a a a a a a a _I Line 5099 i I i 36 a i i i i i i 0 Line 5103 0 0 o o o o / 0 o / 0 Line 5177 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I Line 5181 i fll i .37 i / i i i i , i : i — L. —1 / l s_ Line 11871 / S s s s s s s s s D Line 11875 / D D D D D D D D D Ev Line 12183 3 8/ E E E 3 9 E L E a e [A ] S_ Line 12187 4 0/ w s s s w w w V w S_ Line 12431 4 1/ S_ s S s S S_ s D Cs] L Line 12435 / L 1 1 L 1 1 L 1 1 L . Line 12503 / L_ 4 2 L L 1 L L 1 1 M S_ \ Line 12507 4 3/ W s s w •*w w w w w n Line 18686 n *n n n N n N - 4 4 t n n The E i n i t i a l at l i n e 12183! i n W i s a c t u a l l y printed at l i n e 12182, but i t should r i g h t l y be counted among the i n i t i a l s at l i n e 12183. This becomes e s p e c i a l l y evident when we look closely, at the written text of those l i n e s ; l i n e 12182 i n W.reads:"Ein a l i e n i r n iaren"instead of " i n a l i e n i r n i a r e n . " I t seems that the s c r i b e was somewhat confused as to where to leave room for an i n i t i a l , and he chose the wrong " i n : " 12181 £fV daz s i unerloeset waren ' ^ J j l i n a l i e n i r n ia r e n Ein langu rede von minhen It i s noteworthy that most MSS (MHWBE, 0 has a gap) have a large i n i t i a l at l i n e 245 whereas Ranke does hot, presumably because there, i s no quatrain preceding or following t h i s l e t t e r . Ranke i s consistent i n p r i n t i n g large i n i t i a l s only at the beginning of and immediately following a quatrain. 139 Chapter VII: Footnotes The l e t t e r s N, D, and S occur the most often as i n i t i a l s i n the MSS: 83, 62, and 40 times r e s p e c t i v e l y , as the most common .beginnings of new paragraphs are "Nu," "Do," and "Sus." 2 This i n i t i a l i s not i n the model MS as i t did not meet our c r i t e r i o n for s e l e c t i o n , i . e . the common occurrence at thi s l i n e was less than three. 3 Etudes Germaniques, 26 (1971), 1-17. 4 There are three types of i n i t i a l s i n H: the two types recognized by Gravigny plus a li m i t e d number of quite small i n i t i a l s (approx. 5 millimetres t a l l ) which are to be found i n the prologue only, at the l i n e s 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, 33, 37, 45, 55, and 135. ~*These are the ordinary i n i t i a l s . 6 Gravigny regards the following i n i t i a l s i n H as large i n i t i a l s : G l i n e 1, T l i n e 41, I Line 131, E l i n e 245, 0 l i n e 1751, T l i n e 1791, S l i n e 1865, T l i n e 5069, I l i n e 5099, E l i n e 12183, and S l i n e 12431, EG, p. 5. 7 Roman l e t t e r : Y versus enlarged c a p i t a l l e t t e r : g The I - i n i t i a l at l i n e 131:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx and 5099: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx ixxxxxxxxxxxxxx ""Ixxxxxxxxxxxxxx Ixxxxxxxxxxxxxx Ixxxxxxxxxxxxxx J xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx Ixxxxxxxxxxxxxx X xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx In view of t h i s i t i s puzzling that Ranke i n h i s G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg: T r i s t a n und Is o l d , i n Auswahl herausgegeben (Bern, 194.6) r e f e r s to the i n i t i a l at l i n e 131 i n H as an ordinary i n i t i a l : " i n i t . HMFWE" (p. 7). 9 L i n e s 681, 2149, 5181, 8535, 15117, and 15047. 1 0 I t was probably more important to use up every l i n e on the c o s t l y parchment than to preserve a large i n i t i a l by t r a n s f e r r i n g i t to the top of the next column (leaving the bottom l i n e blank). 140 "^Because of t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the TRISTAN/ISOLDE a c r o s t i c s (see below, chapter V I I I ) . 12 T, Lines 12501ff: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Lines 12429ff: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx L* xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx v \ * xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx \ ' xxxxxxxxxxxxxx .xxxxxxxxxxxxxx AAAAAAA s Ranke also i n t e r p r e t s . the i n i t i a l at l i n e 12503 as being a large one: "Besonders grosse I n i t . HFW, I n i t . NP" (Auswahl,p. 40). 13 14 N l i n e 275, N l i n e ; 3 1 1 , N l i n e 335. N l i n e 275, N l i n e 311, N l i n e 335, N l i n e 409, and N l i n e 437. 1 5We therefore consider Ranke to be wrong when he regards the i n i t i a l s i n F at l i n e 12503 and 12183 as large: 12503: "Besonders grosse I n i t . HFW . {Auswahl, p. 40), and 12183: "Besonders grosse I n i t . HF . . ." (Auswahl, p. 36). 16 Ranke does likewise: " I n i t . HMFWE" (Auswahl, p. 7). 1 7 L i n e s 2149, 2401, and 15047. Only at l i n e 5179 i s the I of the Roman l e t t e r type ("I"). This i n i t i a l i s therefore only 2 l i n e s t a l l as are the other ordinary i n i t i a l s . A t l i n e 681 the I was never printed. Since the s c r i b e l e f t no room f o r i t within the frame of the text, i t was presumably meant to be of the " J " -shape. The i n i t i a l i s indicated by a " j " i n the margin. 18 For example: Line 11645, 75rb | X X X } • XXXJ h • xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx I xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Lxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Line 15047 9 7 v b xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Line 15469 100Y a *xxx IXXX xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 19, E (12183), of t h i s MS are 'A (1751), R (1791), S (1865), D (5069), 0 (5177), S (12431), L (12503). Unfortunately the f i r s t 524 l i n e s lacking. Ranke f a i l s to mention the i n i t i a l at l i n e 12183: "Besonders grosse I n i t . HF, I n i t . auch BNP" (Auswahl, p. 36), and he includes the one at l i n e 12431 among the ordinary ones: "GrBssere I n i t . H, I n i t . WN0PRS" (Auswahl, p. 39). 20 G ( l i n e 1) covers 5 l i n e s i n the w r i t t e n text. 21 Unfortunately there i s a major gap i n M: from l i n e 11598 to 13575, i . e . the l i n e s containing the large i n i t i a l s at l i n e s 12183, 12431, and 12503 i n H and 0. 22 As i s the case i n the other MSS the G i n the f i r s t l i n e i s considerably l a r g e r than the rest of the large i n i t i a l s . In M i t i s 16 l i n e s t a l l . The sizes of the other large i n i t i a l s are I (131) 6 l i n e s , E (245) 11. l i n e s , 0 (1751) 7 l i n e s , T (1791) 7 l i n e s , S (1865) 8 l i n e s , T (5069) 10 l i n e s , and 0 (5177) 9 l i n e s t a l l . 2 3 G (1) i s 3 l i n e s t a l l i n both N and P. In R t h i s l e t t e r i s very ornamented and covers the e n t i r e front of. a f o l i o . 24 In R the i n i t i a l s are mostly 3 to 4 l i n e s t a l l i n connection with the (164) chapter headings. The 7 i n i t i a l s without head l i n e s are u s u a l l y somewhat smaller. However there are enough exceptions to t h i s rule that there i s no doubt that a l l the i n i t i a l s should be c l a s s i f i e d as belonging to the same kind. 25 Ranke regards the i n i t i a l at l i n e 41 as large: "Besonders grosse I n i t . HME" (Auswahl, p. 5). 26 Legend: / : This p a r t i c u l a r l i n e i s lacking i n the MS. - : No large i n i t i a l r egistered. 27 Where large i n i t i a l s and quatrains coincide: G l i n e 1, T l i n e 41, I l i n e 131, 0 l i n e 1751, R l i n e 1791, S l i n e 1865, T l i n e 5069, 0 l i n e 5177, E l i n e 12183, S l i n e 12431, and L l i n e 12503., 28 f, 0 and # r e f e r to the fact that the l i n e s are lacking i n these MSS. 29 Unfortunately Ranke never published h i s reason for doing so. 30 s: Beginning of the word "swer;" u: Beginning of the word "und;" w: Beginning of the word "wer;" i : Beginning of the word "inde" = "unde. 31 There i s no space l e f t f o r t h i s i n i t i a l , but the " I " l e t t e r i s l e f t out. Perhaps i t was meant to be written alongside the frame of the text ("J") l i k e at l i n e s 131, 2149, and 2401. 32 A: Beginning of the word "auch," instead of "ouch." 33 T: i n "triuwe;" R: i n "riuwe." s: i n "swer;" W: i n "wer." 35 T: i n "tristan." The other MSS begin this line with "nu." a: i n , " a l l e r . " The other MSS begin this line with " i r a l l e r . " 37 The i n i t i a l I was mistakenly printed at line 5179 instead of 5181. 38 E: i n "ein;" A: i n "ain;" MS N starts the line with "Lange," and H starts with "Edele rede." 39 The E-I n i t i a l i n W i s actually printed at line 12182 but i t obviously belongs to line 12183 (see below). 40 s: i n "swie;" w: in "wie;" MS R starts the line with " v i i lUtzel 41 MS R starts the line with "do," H with "swer" and the rest of th MSS with "so." 42 1 Cf. p. I29f. 43 . t i * II • II • II s: i n swie; w: in wie. 44 t: in"Tristan." Chapter VIII Various Interpretations of the. Large I n i t i a l s (the A c r o s t i c s ) .  The fact that there are (indications of) large i n i t i a l s i n the MSS plus the fact that these i n i t i a l s are somehow re l a t e d to the quatrains made scholars wonder whether or not they had any s p e c i f i c meaning. The most obviously meaningful set of i n i t i a l s i s the one which forms the name D i e t r i c h . 1 That the beginning l e t t e r s of the nine quatrains between l i n e s 5 and 40 form t h i s name has been clear to scholars and c r i t i c s for a long time. The d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n making sense of the i n i t i a l s preceding the remaining quatrains of the' poem. In his 1823 e d i t i o n of G o t t f r i e d ' s romance F r i e d r i c h Heinrich von der Hagen writes: Endlich hat G o t t f r i e d seinen T r i s t a n einem D i e t r i c h zugeeignet, welcher also wohl auch selber e i n Dichter oder doch ein Freund derselben war. . . . G o t t f r i e d s p r i c h t die Zueignung zwar nicht eben so d e u t l i c h aus []as Konrad von WUrzburg i n the Trojanischer Krieg ~] , sondern nennt den 2 D i e t r i c h bloss i n den Anfangsbuchstaben der acht Eingangsstrophen, nach der ersten. . . . Sehr wahrschein-l i c h i s t jedoch, dass das G und T des Anfanges der ersten und zehnten Strophe Gottfried's Namen i n seiner a l t e n Schreibart G o t f r i t andeuten; wenn man nicht das T l i e b e r auf seinen T r i s t a n , dessen e i g e n t l i c h e r Eingang damit anhebt, deuten w i l l , wie.in dem Gedichte selber T r i s t a n seinen und Isoldens Namen so durch c^ie^Anfangs-buchstaben auf die StEbe schreibt (V. 14430 ). Decades l a t e r i n his chapter on "Meister G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg" i n his Minnesinger-edition, von der Hagen leans more towards the idea of considering the T at l i n e 41 to be r e f e r r i n g to T r i s t a n rather than regarding i t as the l a s t l e t t e r of the name of the poet: . . . es i s t sehr wahrscheinlich, dass das Anfangs-G der ersten Stanze Gottfrieds Namen andeutet. Das T aber der zehnten Stanze i s t nicht so wohl der Schluss des Namens G o t v r i t , als der Anfang des Namen T r i s t a n , zu dessen Geschichte s i e den Uebergang macht. . . . Und es i s t g l a u b l i c h , dass b e i G o t t f r i e d auch das I, womit die Reimpaare einschreiten, den Namen I s o l d bezeichnet, und dass ebenso das Anfangs-I und -T der nHchsten Stanze und des Absatzes den s i e b i l d e t (Z. 31^), dieselben Namen i n umgekehrter Folge an-deutet; ganz entsprechend der dicht vorhergehenden Reimzeile: " T r i s t a n I s o l d , I s o l d T r i s t a n " , auch dadurch die Unzertrennlichkeit der beiden Liebenden ankUndigend; um so eher, als weiterhin (14,430^) T r i s t a n selber seinen und Isoldens Namen so durch die Anfangsbuch-staben auf die StHbe schreibt.? The most i n t e r e s t i n g statement, however, i s to be found i n the footnote which von der Hagen attached to t h i s passage. Here he ventures the idea of a TRISTAN/ISOLD a c r o s t i c being woven into the romance: "Ja es scheint dieses Buchstabenspiel durch das ganze Gedicht f o r t g e s e t z t , indem die Anfangsbuchstaben der Ubrigen einzelnen, ganz i n der Weise des Einganges verfassten Stanzen und der AbsHtze Uber welchen s i e stehen schwerlich z u f a i l i g , die folgenden Buchstaben beider Namen RISTAN und SOLDE b i l d e n , zweimal, meist auch abwechselnd, namlich OD, RS, SR (S. 27, 28), TA, 01 CS. 71), ES, SL (S. 165), LS (S. 172). Die noch fehlenden Buchstaben N, TAN, DE wUrde das vollendete Gedicht enthalten, und ein UberzHhliges S •8 b e r i c h t i g t haben." Graphically, von der Hagenk suggestion looks as f o l l o w s : 9 95. 5s. SR TA 01 ES SL L S 1 0 C TT .) RR II SS TT AA NN ( II ) SS 00 LL DD. EE . 145 The l e t t e r s that are not underlined i n the a c r o s t i c s are the ones which the unfinished part of T r i s t a n would probably have contained, according to von der Hagen. They are the l e t t e r s N, TAN, DE (see above quotation) plus an I i n the T r i s t a n - a c r o s t i c which von der Hagen seems to have over-looked. In the l i n e l i s t i n g the q u a t r a i n - i n i t i a l s , one S i s not underlined; t h i s means that there i s no need f o r i t - i n the two a c r o s t i c s . Von der Hagen refer s to an "uberzShliges S" but he does not say exactly which S he thinks i t i s . Presumably, i t ' i s not one which obviously occurs "zweimal" und "abwechselnd" (see above) such as the S's i n RS SR or SL LS. Neither does he explain how the completed poem was to " r e c t i f y " t h i s unused S. Ca r l von Kraus sees i n t h i s "Uberzihliges S" the main reason why von der Hagen's observation remained l a r g e l y unnoticed: "Dass s i c h das akrostichon durch das gedicht h i n z i e h t , hat schon vdHagen gesehen: aber er hatte von den i n i t i a l e n 233, 237, 241 sowie 11187, 1 1 11879 nicht notiz genommen [von ersteren, w e i l 235-(40) i n MB fehlen?] , dachte daher nur daran den namen der liebenden zu suchen, und muste so, neben anderen unwahrscheinlichkeiten, annehmen dass e i n S UberschUssig s e i , i n f o l g e dessen i s t seine beobachtung, s o v i e l i c h sehen kann, i n neuerer z e i t nicht 12 weiter beachtet worden." Von Kraus takes von der Hagen to task f o r having looked f o r the names only of the two protagonists, and not also f o r the name of the poet., Von der Hagen only found an a l l u s i o n to the name G o t t f r i e d i n the G of the f i r s t l i n e of the e n t i r e romance, but von Kraus thinks that von der Hagen's unused S i s a c t u a l l y part of a l a t i n i z e d version of Gottfr i e d ' s name: GODEFRIDUS. He arr i v e s at t h i s conclusion after having supplemented von der Hagen's l i s t of l e t t e r s by f i v e : the l e t t e r s around the quatrains 233-236, 237-240, and 11871-11875. D at l i n e 233 (Introducing a quatrain) I at l i n e 237 (- - - - - ) U at l i n e 241 (Following - - ) S at l i n e 11871 (Introducing - - ] D at l i n e 11875 (Following - - ) From t h i s supplemented l i s t : G T U T D I U O D R S S R T - A O I U S D E S S L L S von Kraus constructs the following a c r o s t i c s : T R I S ,T A und T R S I S 0 L und I S L G O D E I D U S und D S 1 5 and he states: "Letzteres kann nichts anderes s e i n als unvollendetes Gode[fr]idus" (ZfdA, 50 (1908), 220). Von Kraus i s not disturbed by the fact that the l e t t e r s of the name of the poet jump from one end of the poem to the other i n the following order: G D I U O S D E ( F R ) N G 0 D E (F R) I D U S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ' 1 5 2 8 9 10 3 7 4 6 Also von Kraus has to j u s t i f y some unused l e t t e r s : the l a s t D of the DIUOD-group and the l a s t S of the SDES-group,"^ and.he explains: Man s i e h t , die Buchstaben schliessen s i c h zu gruppen zusammen,. der name des dichters 1st i n 3, der des liebespaares i n 4 gruppen v e r t e i l t ; die abgrenzung e r f o l g t i n sinniger weise dadurch, dass 5 mal der anfangsbuchstabe der gruppe an ihrem ende wi d e r k e h r t : ^ eine ausnahme macht nur das e i n l e i t e n d e G, da es einer besonderen abtrennung nicht bedarf ( f o l g t j a doch der durchsichtige name D i e t e r i c h darauf.') , und die 5 gruppe, i n der G o t t f r i e d die innenvocale der namen seiner helden nebst dem T, um das T r i s t a n gegenUber I s o l t l i n g e r i s t , v e r e i n i g t hat. das DS seines eigenen namens i s t also wol nur jener abgrenzung zuliebe doppelt gesetzt und darf daher vernachlHssigt werden (ZfdA, 50 (1908), 220).-147 Von der Hagen was l e f t with an "Uberzaliliges S (12187), and von Kraus "vernachlSssigt" the same S plus one more l e t t e r : D at l i n e 1755. Von Kraus believed that the unfinished portion of T r i s t a n was to have contained 4 more quatrains with the remaining i n i t i a l s : FRRF and NTTN, belonging to the names Godefridus and T r i s t a n / l s o l t r e s p e c t i v e l y . The l e t t e r s NTTN would not have s u f f i c e d , however. An a d d i t i o n a l ITA and 19 0 would have been needed for the names T r i s t a n and I s o l t to occur twice i n f u l l . Von Kraus does not comment.on t h i s ; he only states: "dagegen deuten die buchstaben Trs and I s l darauf, dass der dichter diese namen doppelt gelesen wissen w o l l t e " (ZfdA, 50 (1908), 220). The next c r i t i c to make a s i g n i f i c a n t step towards a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the a c r o s t i c problem i s Jan Hendrik Scholte to whom Jean Fourquet 20 gives the honour of having found " l a c l e f " to "ce mysterieux cryptogramme." Already i n 1925, i n h i s a r t i c l e "Symmetrie i n Gottfrieds T r i s t a n , " Scholte mentions that G o t t f r i e d " f l i c h t . . . T und I und I und T, dann auch R und S und S und R, I und 0 und 0 und, I, S und L und L und S runenhaft durch s e i n 21 Gedicht," but he does not in d i c a t e that the considers these i n i t i a l s to be part of an a c r o s t i c u n t i l i n his a r t i c l e "Gottfrieds ' T r i s t a n ' - E i n l e i t u n g . " Here he refer s to T R I S . as being "Tristanbuchstaben" and I S 0 L as being "Isoldenbuchstaben". Scholte's a r t i c l e of 1942, e n t i t l e d "Gottfrieds 23 von Strassburg I n i t i a l e n s p i e l " i s the one most often referred to with regard to the a c r o s t i c s . In t h i s a r t i c l e he shows g r a p h i c a l l y how "mit dem T, dem R, dem I, dem S e i n e r s e i t s , dem I, dem S, dem 0, dem L anderseits das S p i e l getrieben wird, wobei die Buchstaben des mHnnlichen Namens die des weiblichen umschliessen" (p. 285). 148 This i s how he shows a l l the i n i t i a l s to which he can attach any s i g n i f i c a n c e ( B e i t r . , p. 284): 1 G 2 4 5 D 9 I 13 E 17 T 21 E 25 R 29 I 33 C 37 H 2 4 41 T 45 I 131 I 135 T 1791 R 1795 S 1865 S 1869 R 5099 I f 5103 0 5177 0 5181 I 12431 S 12435 L 12503 L 12507 S 149 Scholte deplores not being able to decipher s t i l l more i n i t i a l s . He knows that there are more quatrains i n the romance than the ones which he deciphered, and he draws the a t t e n t i o n to these "incomprehensible" q u a t r a i n - i n i t i a l s : D (233), I (237), U (241), 0 (1751), D (1755), T (5069), A (5073), S (11871), and D (11875) ( B e i t r . , p.- 285), overlooking the i n i t i a l s surrounding the quatrain at l i n e 12183-7 (ES).. Although he does not s p e c i f i c a l l y say so, Scholte did not consult the MSS p r i o r to w r i t i n g h i s a r t i c l e . This i s evident when he states i n regard to the l e t t e r s D (233),. I(237), and U (241) that, "die Uberlieferung h i e r unsicher i s t undder Wert der I n i t i a l e n deswegen f r a g l i c h " ( B e i t r . , p. 285), and when he wonders why there i s no i n i t i a l at l i n e 245, "Verwunderlich i s t es, dass der Einsatz 245 Ein herre i n Parmenien was keine I n i t i a l e aufweist" ( B e i t r . , p. 285). Both statements agree e n t i r e l y with .Ranke's e d i t i o n but 25 are contrary to the actual evidence i n the MSS. In the 1960's Louis Gravigny studied von Kraus', Scholte's and other 26 critics'works-on the a c r o s t i c s and reached the conclusion that much more was intended on GottfriedVs-part then these c r i t i c s had found. In fact he i s convinced that G o t t f r i e d not only stopped the romance at a precalculated point, but that he also l e f t information about the would-be length of the poem: " . . . G o t t f r i e d n'est pas mort de mort v i o l e n t e ; i l a l a i s s e son oeuvre inachevee, sans pour autant l'abanddnner a un point quelconque: avant de mourir, G o t t f r i e d a p r i s soin de terminer l a p a r t i e de 1'oeuvre q u ' i l avait entreprise" (Diss., p. 160). Gravigny claims to have found evidence of t h i s i n the s o - c a l l e d "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s , " a term he probably borrowed from Scholte's " I n i t i a l e n s p i e l " but with quite a d i f f e r e n t 150 meaning. One chapter of h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n "Les Interventions Directes de G o t t f r i e d de Strasbourg dans 'Tri s t a n ' " i s devoted to demonstrating 27 t h i s "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s . " Gravigny works from the premise that i f the large i n i t i a l s i n Ranke's e d i t i o n a c t u a l l y form meaningful c l u s t e r s of words or sentences, then Ranke was r i g h t i n placing large i n i t i a l s i n front of and immediately following a quatrain, regardless of the MS evidence: "Cette hypothese sera v e r i f i e e , s i nous parvenons a demontrer que l a d i s p o s i t i o n des i n i t i a l e s retenue par F. RANKE permet de construire des groupes de mots ou phrases, qui ont un sens, correspondent au theme p r i n c i p a l de 1'oeuvre et sont l i b e l l e s dans une langue qui puisse avoir ete c e l l e de G o t t f r i e d " (Diss., p. 174). This i n turn would then i n d i c a t e — i n Gravigny's e s t i m a t i o n — t h a t Ranke's choice very l i k e l y coincides With G o t t f r i e d ' s i n t e n t i o n , F i r s t of a l l , Gravigny places the large i n i t i a l s of Ranke's e d i t i o n i n a c e r t a i n order so that there i s a l e f t and a r i g h t hand side of the 28 TRISTAN/ISOLDE a c r o s t i c s with the remaining large i n i t i a l s i n the centre: G Lines 1 D I E T E R - I C H 5 9 13 17 21 .25 29 33 37 T I I T 41-45 131-135 D I U 233-237-241 0 D 1751-1755 R S S R 1791-1795 1865-1869 T A 5069-5073 1 0 0 1 5099-5103 5177-5181 S D E S 11871-11875 12183-12187 S L L S 12431-12435 12503-12507 151 In h i s "playing" with these i n i t i a l s , Gravigny does not mix the TRISTAN/ISOLDE a c r o s t i c s on e i t h e r side of the centre i n i t i a l s (G DIETERICH DIU OD TA SDES). The centre i n i t i a l s , however, can be used whenever necessary f o r both l e f t and r i g h t hand combinations. By combining these i n i t i a l s i n whichever order he pleases (without crossing from the l e f t to the r i g h t hand side of the t a b l e ) , Gravigny finds eight d i f f e r e n t ways of s p e l l i n g the name Isolde. An important aspect of Gravigny's "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s " i s to e s t a b l i s h the number of l i n e s between the l e t t e r s of the words that are produced and adding them up i n the end. I t should be noted that Gravigny only counts forward, i . e . every time he goes against the natural order of the i n i t i a l s (e.g. from L (12435) to D (1755)) these l i n e s do not count. The eight t o t a l s of the eight d i f f e r e n t ISOLDE combinations are of major s i g n i f i c a n c e . Combining the large i n i t i a l s of h i s "Ranke-table" (see above, p. 150), Gravigny finds c l u s t e r s of words which—when added i n the manner described—amount to the same number of l i n e s as 29 s i x out of eight of h i s ISOLDE combinations. These c l u s t e r s are: T R I S T A E S T O I R E I S O T D I U E S T O I R E D E R S T A E T E I S O T D I U E S T O I R E D E R S A E L D E This encourages him to conclude: "Enfin, nous voudrions i n s i s t e r sur l e f a i t que l e sens du jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s correspond parfaitement et exclusivement aux grands themes de l'oeuvre. ISOT, DIU ESTOIRE DER STAETEj ISOT, DIU ESTOIRE DER SAELDE est uniquement un tres grand poeme d'Amour. Ce poeme d'Amour se s u f f i t a lui-meme dans l e cadre que G o t t f r i e d l u i a donne. Comme nous 1'avons vu dans l e s t r o i s premieres p a r t i e s de cette etude, G o t t f r i e d t r a i t e d'autres sujets que 1'Amour, mais l e theme p r i n c i p a l de 1'oeuvre est 1'Amour" (Diss., 203). Gravigny has thus returned to the premise of h i s hypothesis: the large i n i t i a l s i n Ranke's e d i t i o n would be j u s t i f i e d i f he could e s t a b l i s h that groups of words or phrases corresponding to the c e n t r a l theme of the romance were to be found i n G o t t f r i e d ' s presumed "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s . " Furthermore, i t w i l l be remembered that the premise c a l l e d for, such words or phrases to be spelled "dans une langue.qui puisse avoir ete c e l l e de G o t t f r i e d " Cp. 174). The c i r c l e i s closed; Gravigny has j u s t i f i e d the French 30 31 words ESTOIRE and TRISTA, and he has declared that the phrases ISOT DIU ESTOIRE DER STAETE and ISOTDIU ESTOIRE DER' SAELBE correspond 32 to the c e n t r a l theme of the romance: 1'Amour. The "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s " also provides p r o o f — a t l e a s t i n Gravigny's own v i e w — o f h i s concept of the composition and the would-be length of the romance. Combining the large i n i t i a l s to form the, two sentences DIETERICH GOTFRID GIT DIR DIE ESTOIRE ISOLDE DIETERICH GOTFRID GIT DIR DIE ESTOIRE TRISTANDES, and counting the l i n e s i n the fashion indicated above, he a r r i v e s at a t o t a l of 24616 l i n e s f o r each of the sentences. The.fact that t h i s f i g u r e i s i d e n t i c a l with h i s estimation (cf. below) of the length of the completed poem "prouve definitivement 1'exactitude de l a nouvelle conception de l a composition . . ." (Diss., p. 197). This "new" concept of the structure of T r i s t a n i s based on the large i n i t i a l s at the l i n e s 1751, 5069, 12187, 153 : •« • I... 12431, and—although i t i s not printed as a large i n i t i a l i n Ranke's e d i t i o n — l i n e 245. The c e n t r a l section of the poem (12187-12430) i s thus of exactly the same length as the prologue, and the nar r a t i v e blocks 5069-12186 and 12431-19548 (the end of the extant v e r s i o n of Tristan) comprise the same number of l i n e s (7118). Having established the beginning of a mirror pattern before the poem breaks o f f , Gravigny deduces that the completed poem was to have comprised exactly 24616 l i n e s (Diss., p. 163): Prologue F i r s t Main Section Central Section Second Main Section 1- 244 244 245- 1750 1506 1751- 5068 3318 5069-12186 7118 12187-12430 244 12431vl9548 7118 244 11942 244 Epilogue (19549-22866) 3318. (22867-24372) 1506 (24373-24616) 244 11942 244 24616 Gravigny's pattern i s based e n t i r e l y on numerical considerations. Very l i t t l e regard i s paid to the content; he thus takes no cognizance of the f a c t that the quatrain introducing the Minneexkurs (12183-7) i s l e f t as an appendix to the portion of n a r r a t i v e preceding the c e n t r a l section. In order to make his "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s " work Gravigny has to perform c e r t a i n manipulations. F i r s t of a l l , since there i s no "F" among the large i n i t i a l s Gravigny ignores t h i s l e t t e r i n the word GOTFRID; likewise, he ignores the l e t t e r "N" of TRISTANDES as t h i s l e t t e r does not f i g u r e among the large i n i t i a l s . Secondly, h i s ca l c u l a t i o n s only hold true when he 33 considers the diphthong "AE" to be two separate vowels "A" and "E", something which i s by no means congruent with medieval p r a c t i c e . Also i t i s not very l i k e l y that the word GOTFRID would have ended i n a "D." Another " f l e x i b i l i t y clause" i n Gravigny's method i s that he can jump back and for t h among the 37 large i n i t i a l s as long as he does not mix the i n i t i a l s at the l e f t and the ri g h t hand side of the table. In the word GOTFRID, for example, he goes backwards twice, therefore not counting those p a r t i c u l a r l i n e s : G Line 1 0 1751 = 1750 Lines T 41 0 (Regression) F 0 0 (No such i n i t i a l ) R 25 0 (Regression) I 237 212 -D 1755 1543 - -3480 Lines Thus only the l i n e s from the l e t t e r s G to 0, and R to I to D are counted, i.e.. about h a l f . Furthermore, Gravigny uses an i n i t i a l as many times as he deems necessary i n order to achieve the desired t o t a l of l i n e s . Four JJ's, 7 I's, 3 E's, 4 T ; ' S , 3 R's, 3 0's, 6 S_'s, 2 J L's, and one each of the l e t t e r s G_, C_, H, U, and A make up the 37 large i n i t i a l s ; and yet the i n i t i a l s T (17), I (29), £ (33), and H (37) of the DIETERICH a c r o s t i c are not being used at a l l i n any of Gravigny's sentences, whereas the E at l i n e 21 i n the centre of the DIETERICH a c r o s t i c i s used i n almost 155 a l l h i s sentences. The 1 at l i n e 237 i s used four times i n the sentence GOTFRID GIT DIR DIE ESTOIRE TRISTANDES alone, the Vs at l i n e s 9 and 45 each only once, and the Vs at the l i n e s 29, 131, 5099, and 5181 not at a l l . In t h i s way, Gravigny i s almost bound to come up with words or phrases of a desired number of l i n e s . Even with the s t i p u l a t i o n that the 37 large i n i t i a l s have to be combined i n such a way that they form c l u s t e r s of words r e l a t i n g to the "love-theme" of the romance, the number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s of combinations i s s t i l l quite large. Gravigny studied the Heidelberg MS i n order to f i n d support for h i s view of the structure of T r i s t a n . The fa c t that H, contrary to Ranke's e d i t i o n , has a large i n i t i a l at l i n e 245 confirms his s t r u c t u r a l o u t l i n e i n which the f i r s t d i v i s i o n occurs a f t e r the f i r s t 244 l i n e s (the prologue). The remaining d i v i s i o n s are also indicated by large i n i t i a l s i n H apart from the "W" at l i n e 12187. That the l a t t e r i n i t i a l i s an ordinary one i s due to "des raisons techniques," Gravigny explains i n his a r t i c l e (EG, p. 5), and he continues: " i l e t a i t tres d i f f i c i l e de f a i r e f i g u r e r deux grandes i n i t i a l e s de s u i t e sur des f e u i l l e s de parchemin ayant 15 x 22,8 cm de hauteur et recevant deux colonnes de vers. A i n s i l a deuxieme i n f t i a l e d'un groupe a ete s o i t supprimee s o i t reduite a plus f a i b l e s proportions" (EG, p. 5). Gravigny thus finds that, on the one hand, " l e s grandes i n i t i a l e s du manuscrit de Heidelberg confirmaient l a nouvelle composition decouverte" (Diss., p. 174). On the other hand, he finds that the i n i t i a l s of h i s "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s " are not at a l l supported by the MS H: "par contre nous devons, a l a suite, de 1'etude du meme manuscrit, admettre que l e caractere de grandes 15,6 i n i t i a l e s donne par F. RANKE aux 37 grandes i n i t i a l e s figurant dans son e d i t i o n de l'oeuvre, n'est pas nettement prouve pour toutes ces i n i t i a l e s " (Diss., p.- 174). The examination of the MS H did not a l t e r Gravigny's concept of the "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s , " however. He maintained that using Ranke's 37 large i n i t i a l s f o r the "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s " would be p e r f e c t l y j u s t i f i e d i f he was able to construct "des groupes de mots ou phrases, qui ont un sens, correspondent au.theme p r i n c i p a l de l'oeuvre et sont l i b e l l e s dans une langue qui puisse avoir ete c e l l e de G o t t f r i e d " (Diss., p. 174). Jean Fourquet i s among the c r i t i c s whom Gravigny mentions i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . However, Gravigny r e f e r s only to Fourquet's a r t i c l e i n 34 B u l l e t i n de l a Faculte des Lettres de Strasbourg from 1953, not being aware of the f a c t that IFourquet i n 1963 published another a r t i c l e i n which 35 he r e j e c t s h i s e a r l i e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n i t i a l s i n T r i s t a n . In / h i s B u l l e t i n - a r t i c l e , Fourquet works with the i n i t i a l s surrounding the 36 quatrains as established by von Kraus: G D I U - O D - R S S R T A - I O O I - S D E S - S L L S Fourquet finds von Kraus' GODE(FR)IDUS "moins s a t i s f a i s a n t " ( B u l l , p. 199), and he suggests a d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n : He takes the f i r s t eight quatrain i n i t i a l s (GDIUODRS), apart from the, DIETERICH i n i t i a l s , and uses them to s p e l l the name G O D V R I D S whereby he suggests that the f i n a l S could be viewed as either a genetive ending:"GODVRIDS_ . T 3 7 ( r i s t a n ) & I 3 7 ( s o l t ) " ( B u l l , p. 198) or as the f i r s t l e t t e r of the second part of the name of the poet. ( B u l l , p. 199): 157 G 0 D V R I D (von) S(trazburc). 38 Von Kraus saw part of the name T r i s t a n : (TRIS)TA(N) i n the quatrain i n i t i a l s TA (5069/5073), but Fourquet suggests i n h i s B u l l e t i n - a r t i c l e that these quatrain i n i t i a l s mean eit h e r (p. 199) T ( r i s t a n ) A(ime) ISOLDE or (p. 198) ' T ( r i s t a n ) A(n) ISOLDE. The name ISOLDE he builds from the l e t t e r s of the groups 1001, SDES, and SLLS and he finds support for using the D (11875) and E (12183) from the 39 fac t that almost a l l the MSS have i n i t i a l s at these l i n e s . 40 Having read Scholte's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the quatrain i n i t i a l s , Fourquet had a closer look at Ranke's Variantenapparat, and from the l i m i t e d material there he concluded that "en dehors des i n i t i a l e s embrassees, re s t e r a i e n t done s i g n i f i c a t i v e s seulement l e s i n i t i a l e s 0, T, E (1751, 5069, 12183)" (EG, p. 273), and he continues " s i nous ajoutons devant 0TE l e G qui r e s t a i t i s o l e devant DIETERICH, nous obtenons G0TE . . .""-.(EG, p. 273). However, since Ranke's excerpts of T r i s t a n do not include the passages containing the l i n e s 1751 and 5069, Fourquet expresses, caution i n a footnote: h i s suggestion i s only v a l i d "sous reserve q u ' i l se confirme que 0 et T sont signales" par des i n i t i a l e s dans l e s manuscrits " (EG, p. 273, footnote 5.). These i n i t i a l s are very well supported by the MSS. The MSS M, H, and 0 a l l r e g i s t e r large i n i t i a l s at the l i n e s 1751 and 5069, and the other MSS (FWBNERP) show at l e a s t an ordinary i n i t i a l , except f o r R which s t a r t s the quatrain at l i n e 1751 with a c a p i t a l l e t t e r . 158 Fourquet eliminates a l l unsupported i n i t i a l s , i . e . , the ones which Ranke placed at the l i n e s following the quatrains plus the ones at the 41 quatrains beginning at the l i n e s 233, 237, and I I87I. He suggests that G o t t f r i e d employed a "technique de b r o u i l l a g e " (EG, p. 273) by placing the s i g n i f i c a n t (large) i n i t i a l s i n the following order 42 G T I O R S T I O E S L ( V T D R A E I N T) When deciphered, the following pattern emerges: 43 I S 0 , L D E T R I S T A N G 0 T E V R I T In t h i s connection, i t deserves mentioning that Heinz S t o l t e i n 1941 wrote that there i n T r i s t a n are " d r e i zusammerigehBrige v i e r z e i l i g e Strophen, deren I n i t i a l e n Trager eines Akrostichons sind, die einander i n einem bestimmten Abstand folgen . . . " (p. 139). He i s here r e f e r r i n g to G 4 4 ( 1) T ( 41) I ( 131) 0 ( 1751) R ( 1791) S ( 1865) T ( 5069) I ( 5099) 0 ( 5177) E ( 12183) S ( 12431) L ( 12503) but he does not draw the conclusion that Fourquet does. He gives Scholte c r e d i t f o r having discovered the TRISTAN-ISOLDEN a c r o s t i c s , but with regard to the " t h i r d " row'of i n i t i a l s (GOTE), he remarks, "UnmBglich aber war.es bisher, die d r i t t e der vom Dichter beabsichtigten Akrostichonreihe be-friedigend zu deuten. Man muss mit Entstellungen durch die Handschriften rechnen" (p. 140). Summing up, the examination of the MSS showed that a l l the l e t t e r s of the (incomplete) a c r o s t i c s occur as large i n i t i a l s i n the MSS except for the 159 I of (TR) I(STAN) at l i n e 5099 which has become almost t o t a l l y l o s t : Line 1 G M H W B N E R P (F 0 lacking) Line 41 T H (F.O - ) Line 131 I M H (0 - ) Line 1751 0 M H 0 Line 1791 R M H 0 Line 1865 S M H B 0 Line 5069 T M H 0 Line 5099 Line 5177 0 M B 0 Line 12183 E . H 0 (M - ) Line 12431 S H 0 (M - ) Line 12503 L Dy 0 (M - ) Apart from above i n d i c a t i o n s there are also large i n i t i a l s i n the MSS at Line 245 E M Line 681 I H Line 3379 . N 0 Line 18686 N' 0 H W B E (0 lacking) Line 245 marks the beginning of the story proper a f t e r the prologue. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that there i s an i n i t i a l at t h i s point, but i t does not belong to any of the a c r o s t i c s . MS 0 which i n i t s extant p o r t i o n has preserved the large i n i t i a l s of the three a c r o s t i c s (apart from the one at l i n e 5099) also marks the beginning of Tristan's l i f e at Mark's court ("Nu T r i s t a n derst ze huse komen," 3379) and the beginning of Tristan's l i f e at Arundel ("Nu was ein herzentuom gelegen/zwischen B r i t a n j e und Engelant,/daz was Arundel genant, . . ." 18686) by means of a large i n i t i a l . The i n i t i a l •! at l i n e 681 i n H i s 3 l i n e s t a l l and thus of the same height as most of the 46 other large i n i t i a l s i n t h i s MS, but i t does not occur at a point of a c r o s t i c significance.,Furthermore, there i s absolutely no sign of large i n i t i a l s surrounding the quatrain at l i n e s 118,71-74. The beginning j> at l i n e 11871 appears i n the normal handwriting i n a l l the MSS (M has a gap), and the beginning I) at l i n e 11875 i s marked by an ordinary i n i t i a l i n a l l MSS (except M which has a gap h e r e ) . 4 7 In Ranke's e d i t i o n , large i n i t i a l s appear introducing and following each quatrain. Our study shows, however, that support f o r t h i s i s lacking i n the MSS; only the l e t t e r which introduces the quatrain i s marked by a large i n i t i a l , and only H has any i n i t i a l s immediately 48 following the quatrains. There seems to be l i t t l e doubt, however, that there i s a c e r t a i n Umarmungsspiel i n the TRISTAN/ISOLDE a c r o s t i c s : TUT, RSSR, 1001, and SLLS whether or not a l l of these l e t t e r s actually, appear as large i n i t i a l s i n the MSS. I t i s also obvious that the scribes were not always aware of the a c r o s t i c s , judging from t h e i r s p e l l i n g of the words concerned: Ranke M H F W B N 0 E . R p49 41 T T T / T d D / T K T " t r i b e / d r i b e " 45 I i I / i I i / i i i 131 I , I. I I I I h "/ I i i 135 T t t t d d / t d t "tuon/duon" 1791 R T T R R T R, R T R T "triuwe/riuwe" 1795 S_ s - s s s s w w w w w "swer/wer" 1865 S_ S_ S. S S S S S. S S S 1869 R r R r r r r r r r r 161 Ranke M H F W B N 0 E R P 5099 I i I i a i i i i i i " i r a l l e r / a l l e r 5103 0 0 0 o o o o / 0 o / 5177 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5181 I_ i [ I ] i I 5 0 i i i i i i 12431 s_ / S. s S s S _S s D lis] "swer/so/do" 12435 L / L 1 1 L 1 1 L 1 1 12503 L / L L 1 L L 1 1 M 12507 S / W s s w ; W w w w w "swie/wie" Already von der Hagen was aware of the TRISTAN/ISOLDE a c r o s t i c s . But because analogies were drawn from these a c r o s t i c s to the l e t t e r s surrounding the other quatrains, a great many i n i t i a l s appeared which f a i l e d to "make sense" (von Kraus, Fourquet's B u l l e t i n - a r t i c l e ) . Ranke's e d i t i o n only added to the confusion by allowing scholars such as Scholte to believe that a l l the quatrain i n i t i a l s were well founded i n the MSS ( B e i t r . , p. 285). I t was not u n t i l Fourquet discovered from Ranke's Auswahl that there are discrepancies between the MS t r a d i t i o n and the large i n i t i a l s of Ranke's 52 e d i t i o n that the pieces f e l l i nto place. Fourquet's own two a r t i c l e s on 53 the a c r o s t i c s are a prime example of how important i t i s to consult the MSS i n order to obtain an accurate p i c t u r e of these a c r o s t i c s . 162 Chapter VIII : Footnotes The beginning l e t t e r s of the Dietrich-quatrains (5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, 33, and 37) are not marked by large i n i t i a l s i n any MS. Only i n the MS H are they marked i n a s p e c i a l way: by i n i t i a l s which are h a l f the s i z e of the ordinary i n i t i a l s i n that MS (see above, p. 136f.) 2 There are eight l e t t e r s i n the name D i e t r i c h , but G o t t f r i e d made the name t r i s y l l a b i c over nine quatrains: DIEDERICH. 3 Line 14426ff., according to Ranke's edition., 4 : Gottfrieds von Strassburg Werke aus den bessten Handschriften  mit E i n l e i t u n g und WBrterbuch, ed. F.H. von der Hagen (Breslau, 1823), Vol. I, p. VIII of the introduction. ^Misprint, should read l i n e 131. Ranke, l i n e s 14426ff. ^Minnesinger: Deutsche Llederdichter des zwBlften, dreizehnten  und vierzehnten Jahrhunderts, aus a l i e n bekannten Handschriften und  frUheren Drucken gesammelt und b e r i c h t i g t , 5 Vols ( L e i p z i g , 1838-1856 Reprint Aalen, 1963), Vol. IV, p.,561, 2nd column. g Minnesinger, v o l . IV, p. 561, footnote 5. 9 Von der Hagen does not attempt to explain h i s theory g r a p h i c a l l y . 1 0 T h e q u a t r a i n - i n i t i a l s referred to by von der Hagen i n the above quotation. n M i s p r i n t , should be 11875 (Ranke: 11871). 1 2 | IDas Akrostichon i n G o t t f r i e d s T r i s t a n , " ZfdA, 50 (1908), 221. 13 Like von der Hagen, von Kraus overlooks the quatrain at the l i n e s 5099-5103. He points to t h i s error i n the following year's issue of ZfdA, 51 (1909): "Wort und Vers i n G o t t f r i e d s T r i s t a n , " p. 373-74. 14 In h i s 1909 a r t i c l e von Kraus adds the previously overlooked 10: G DIETERICH T U T DIU0D RSSR TA 1001 SDES SLLS (ZfdA, 51 (1909), 374). 163 1 5 G = G(ODEFRIDUS) TI-IT = T(RISTAN) I(SOLT) I(SOLT) T(RISTAN) DIUOD = (G)OD(EFR)I(D)U(S) RSSR = (T)R(ISTAN) (I)S(OLT) (I)S(OLT) (T)R(ISTAN) TAOI = (TR)I(S)TA(N) , (IS)O(LT) SDES = (GOD)E(FRI)D(U)S SLLS = (TRI)S(TAN) (ISO)L(T) (ISO)L(T) (TRI.)S(TAN).. 16 These two l e t t e r s are not underlined, i . e . not used i n the footnote above.. The S i s von der Hagen's "UberzHhliges S" (see above). 1 7 T I I T DIUOD RSSR SDES SLIS 1 8TAOI 19 JTA = (TR)I(S)TA(N) 0 = (IS)O(LT) Having added the previously overlooked 10, von Kraus writes i n 1909: "er [ t h e quatrain 5099-5102] l i e f e r t die beiden Buchstaben 10, und damit zugleich eine weitere abrundung deir symmetrischen anlage, denn nunmehr sind sHmmtliche buchstaben des namen I s o l ( t ) von solchen des namens T r i s t a ( n ) umgeben. . . ." (ZfdA, 51 (1909), 373/4). 20 "Le. Cryptogramme du T r i s t a n et l a Composition du Poeme," EG, 18 (1963), 271. 21 Vom Werden des deitschen Geistes: Festgabe Gustav Ehrismann  zum 8. Oktober 1925 dargebracht von Freunden und SchUlern, ed. Paul Merker and Wolfgang Stammler ( B e r l i n , L e i p z i g , 1925), p. 79. 2 2ZfdA, 57 (1932), 25-32. 2 3 B e i t r . , 65 (1942), 280-302. With regard to these i n i t i a l s Scholte writes, "Es l i e g t auf der Hand, i n dem G die I n i t i a l e des Dichters ( G o t t f r i e d ) , i n den neun weiteren der strophischen E i n l e i t u n g den Namen eines GBnners (Dieterich) zu e r b l i c k e n . . . " B e i t r . , p. 284-5. 25 None of the MSS have an i n i t i a l at the l i n e s 233, 237, and 241, whereas v i r t u a l l y a l l (apart from RO, the l a t t e r presumably because ,of a gap i n the MS) show'an i n i t i a l at l i n e 245, 5 MSS even a. large one. 164 26 Gravigny also r e f e r s to an early a r t i c l e by Jean Fourquet: "Sur l ' a c r o s t i c h e du T r i s t a n , " B u l l e t i n de l a Faculte des Lettres • de Strasbourg, 31 (1952/3), 197-200, an a r t i c l e which Fourquet himself r e j e c t s i n a l a t e r a r t i c l e ("Le Cryptogramme du T r i s t a n et l a Composition du poeme," EG, 18 (1963), 271 footnote 2) because i t was based on von Kraus' findings rather then on Scholte's. Gravigny apparently does not know Fourquet's a r t i c l e i n Etudes Germaniques. 2 7 P . 183-204 (Annexe 1). 28 The table i s reproduced from Gravigny's table (Diss., p. 187) i n a s l i g h t l y s i m p l i f i e d form. 29 The i n i t i a l s from the following l i n e s were used: L e f t hand side of the table (above, p. 150): T (41), R (1791), I (5099), S (1795), T (5069), A (5073); E (21), S (1795), T (5069), 0 (5103), I (237), R (1791), E (21). When added i n the manner described above, the t o t a l number of l i n e s f o r t h i s sentence i s 14972* the same as for one of the ISOLDE combinations: I (5099), S(12431), 0 (5103), L (12435), D(11875), E.(12183) (Diss., p. 188). 30 According to Melvin Valk's Word-index to G o t t f r i e d ' s " T r i s t a n " (Madison, Wis., 1958), the French word estoTre does not occur once i n the e n t i r e text proper. The word i s t o r j e occurs 4 times (p. 37), and the words aventiure and maere occur 50 and 229 times r e s p e c t i v e l y (p. 3 and 43 resp.). It i s thus questionable whether the old French word " e s t o i r e " can be considered to q u a l i f y as a word G o t t f r i e d might have used. 31 T r i s t a stands for the French adj. t r i s t e . The reason why i t ends i n an "a" rather than i n an "e" i s , Gravigny argues, that the "a" ( l i n e 5073) i s also used i n the words staete and saelde (Diss. p. 190, footnote 103).. 32 Gravigny maintains that t h i s sentences are correct because they r e l a t e to the main theme of the work: 1'Amour; and yet the words minne and l i e p do not f i g u r e among the words i n h i s sentences; neither do such important thematic words or phrases as staete triuwe, l e i t , ere, t r i u r e , edele herzen, etc. although most of them could be composed by means of the large i n i t i a l s just- as e a s i l y as could G0T(F)RID or TRISTA(N)DES (cf. below). 33 This diphthong i s used i n h i s two sentences: ISOT DIU ESTOIRE DER STAETE and ISOT DIU ESTOIRE DER SAELDE. 34 "Stir l ' A c r o s t i c h e du T r i s t a n , " B u l l e t i n de l a Faculte des Lettres  de Strasbourg, 31 (1952/3), p. 197-200. 165 35 "Le Cryptogramme du T r i s t a n et l a Composition du Poeme;" Etudes Germaniques, 18 (1963), p. 271 footnote 2. 36 With the add i t i o n of the i n i t i a l s 10 to which von Kraus r e f e r s i n his a r t i c l e "Wort und Vers i n G o t t f r i e d s T r i s t a n , " ZfdA, 51 (1909), p. 373. 37 From the T U T group. Fourquet never s p e c i f i e s exactly which two i n i t i a l s from a group of four he uses except i n the case of the SDES group. ZfdA, 50 (1908), p. 220. 39 Fourquet did not have the MSS at h i s d i s p o s a l , only the information which he could derive from Ranke's incomplete "Varianten-apparat" i n G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg: T r i s t a n und I s o l d , i n Auswahl  herausgegeben (Bern, 1946). • 40 "Gottfrieds von Strassburg I n i t i a l e n s p i e l , " Beitr-. , 65 (1942), p. 280-302. In t h i s regard Fourquet states, "Cet a r t i c l e nous avait echappe, du f a i t de l a guerre; nos considerations parues au B u l l e t i n de l a Faculte des Lettres de Strasbourg ( f e v r i e r 1953) n'ont plus d' i n t e r e t , cette decouverte | the Umarmungsspiel"] une f o i s connue " (EG, p. 271,footnote 2 ). 41 Heinz St o l t e considers the quatrain at l i n e s 11871/4 to be "eine gottfriedelnde ZufUgung der Handschriften" which, being merely a "Breitw^lzung" of the l i n e s 11857f., "eine Sinneinheit unorganisch unt e r b r i c h t : " E i l h a r t und G o t t f r i e d (Halle/Saale, 1941), p. 135. 42 The l e t t e r s i n parenthesis are not i n the f i n i s h e d p o r t i o n of T r i s t a n . 43 Fourquet points out that the s p e l l i n g Isolde i s not a nominative form but he does not go further into the question. (EG, p. 273, footnote 6). 44 S t o l t e does not say d i r e c t l y whether it, i s the G at l i n e 1; he merely r e f e r s to "das erste System d r e i e r Strophen []das~l zur Vorrede selbst gehtfrt" (p. 140). 45 Of a l l the MSS only H has an i n i t i a l at a l l at t h i s l i n e . The other MSS s t a r t the l i n e i n the same manner as any other ordinary l i n e . Does t h i s perhaps i n d i c a t e that H goes back to a d i f f e r e n t source than M? In h i s study "Die Uberlieferung von Gottfrieds T r i s t a n , " ZfdA, 55 (1917) Ranke draws the conclusion that M and H are both copies of KX ( s i m p l i f i e d version of stemma on p. 404) : loo .Orig. . ' I *X *Y M | | H X 54 BEN FWRSOP etc. As discussed e a r l i e r , an i n i t i a l of the " J " shape was' prone to become l o s t since i t most often would be written i n the margin rather than i n a preempted space i n the text. I t seems rather u n l i k e l y , however, that the scribes of both the -yX and the branch, except f o r H, would independently have "overlooked" the I - i n i t i a l i n t h e i r source. Perhaps Ranke's stemma should be modified so that H goes back to a copy i n which the I - i n i t i a l appeared ( Z) , and M plus the other MSS go back to a copy i n which t h e . i n i t i a l had already been l o s t ( KV): Orig. BEN FWRSOP This would also further support Ranke's contention that H did not serve as source material f o r any of the remaining MSS. 46 E l i n e 245, 0 l i n e 1751, T l i n e 1791, E l i n e 12183, and S l i n e 12431. 47 It i s Stolt e ' s contention that t h i s quatrain be regarded as "eine gottfriedelnde ZufUgung der Handschriften," (p. 135); however, these l i n e s are preserved i n both the X and *Y branches of Ranke's stemma. I f the li n e s 11871-74 were not i n the o r i g i n a l , yet another copy would have to be assumed between X and *Y and the o r i g i n a l i n which these l i n e s were added. Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s to group the l i n e s 11871-74 with formations such as 1393-96, 3157-60, and 8407-10 where the rhyme i s abab. 48 There are some i n t e r e s t i n g exceptions. Some MSS have " l o s t ? " the i n i t i a l introducing the quatrain and have the i n i t i a l immediately following i t instead: MS B MS M,E MS B, E 41 d 5099 i 12431 s 45.1 5103 0 12435 L They could be the remains of an older " f u l l e r " s e r i e s of i n i t i a l s : TUT, RSSR, etc. H i s the only MS which has preserved the large and the following ordinary i n i t i a l r e l a t i v e l y w e l l , whereas the scribes of M and probably also c{ and ^ r e s i s t e d w r i t i n g two i n t i t i a l s i n a row. The same legend employed as on p.136. "'"This i n i t i a l was mistakenly w r i t t e n at l i n e 5179 "Ich sage, . . ." and i t i s obviously a s c r i b a l error; Lines 5179 and 5181 both s t a r t with an x. 5'''An ordinary i n i t i a l appears, but space was l e f t f o r a large one. 52 Stol t e referred to the " d r e i zusammengehBrige v i e r z e i l i g e Strophen" (p. 139) i n 1941; however, without consulting the MSS. His observation was based on content: "Die erste solcher Akrostichonstrophen [haben wir j e w e i l s ] als, Anfang eines neue Handlungsabschnittes zu werten"(p. 139). 5 3 I n B u l l e t i n (1952/3) and Etudes Germaniques (1963). Chapter IX The Over-All Structure of T r i s t a n Based on the Ac r o s t i c I n i t i a l s . What i s quite c e r t a i n i s that the quatrains have no function as d i v i d e r s of nar r a t i v e blocks, and the only reason which can be advanced to explain t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the text i s the subjective argument that they occur at points of emotional c r i s i s . 1 William T. H. Jackson, w r i t i n g i n 1971, i s here r e f e r r i n g to the TRISTAN/ISOLDE quatrains only; but also the remaining quatrains (1751ff, 5069ff, 11871ff, 12183ff) " s t i l l have no s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e " (p. 196). 2 Thirty, years before, S t o l t e had written quite the opposite: Gottfrieds Dichfung weist eine Erscheinung auf, mit deren H i l f e es mBglich i s t , etwas von der bewussten kompositionellen Absicht des Dichters zu erkennen: die gliedernden Akrostichonstrophen. Jeweils d r e i zusammengeho'rige v i e r z e i l i g e Strophen, deren I n i t i a l e n TrHger eines Akrostichons sind, die einander i n einem bestimmten Abstand folgen, bezeichnen ganz offenbar wichtige Gliederungspunkte des Epos. Und zwar. haben wir jeweils die erste solcher Akrostichonstrophen als Anfang eines neuen Hahdlungsabschnittes zu werten, denn s i e s t e l l e n stets einen Abschnitt r h e t o r i s c h -didaktischen Inhaltes dar, der zu dem Folgenden im gleichen VerhHltniss steht, wie die Vorrede von i n s -gesamt 244 Versen zum Gesamt der Dichtung. (P. 139) These quotations represent two opposing points of view i n s t r u c t u r a l studies of T r i s t a n . Some c r i t i c s would agree with Jackson that the quatrains play 3 no r o l e i n the composition of the poem; others would support S t o l t e i n h i s view that the a c r o s t i c s mark "wichtige Gliederungspunkte" (p. 139). However, Sto l t e divides the poem i n many more sections than the " t h i r d s e r i e s " [ G (1)? 0 (1751), T (5069), and E (12183)] would allow f o r (p. 139): 169 Vorrede (1-244) £ G . . . J Vorgeschichte (245-1750) ERSTER HAUPTTEIL A. T r i s t a n und Isolde verlieben s i c h ineinander LP'"0 I. T e i l : T ristans erste Fahrt (1751-5068) I I . T e i l : a) Tristans zweite Fahrt (5069-5866) CT,,0 b) Tristans d r i t t e Fahrt (5867-8300) I I I . T e i l : Tristans v i e r t e Fahrt (8301-12182) B. Kampf der Liebenden an Markes Hof CE**-] I. T e i l : E r f o l g r e i c h e Abwehr a) Episoden: Brangaene (12183-13096) Gandin (13097-13450) b) Kampf der Liebenden I: Marjodo (13451-14234) c) Kampf der Liebenden I I : Melot (14235-15266) d) Kampf der Liebenden I I I : Marke (15267-15765) I I . T e i l : E r f o l g l o s e Abwehr a) T r i s t a n verlEsst den Hof I (15766-16402) b) Das Waldleben (16403-17722) c) T r i s t a n verlHsst den Hof II (17723-18466) ZWEITER HAUPTTEIL (18467-19548) Within t h i s l a t t e r group of c r i t i c s some base t h e i r e n t i r e s t r u c t u r a l analysis on the a c r o s t i c quatrains. Approaches vary however. S t r u c t u r a l compositions can be found based on the G0TEVRIT a c r o s t i c , the TRISTAN/ISOLDE 4 a c r o s t i c s , or a mixture of both. Gravigny belongs to the l a t t e r category; he not only mixes the quatrain i n i t i a l s introducing the quatrains, but he also uses an i n i t i a l which follows upon a quatrain: the S_ at l i n e 12187. I t does not disturb him that, by having a d i v i s i o n at l i n e 12187 rather 170 I than at l i n e 12183, he makes the introductory remarks to the Minneexkurs a pendant to the preceding s e c t i o n of the narrative (the phys i c a l union of the l o v e r s ) . Gravigny thus produces an a t t r a c t i v e symmetrical pattern, but i n terms of the a c r o s t i c s a rather confused one (EG, p. 4): Prologue - vers 1 - 245 Premiere p a r t i e principale, - vers 245 - 1751 - vers 1751 - 5069 - vers 5069 - 12187 P a r t i e Centrale - vers 12187 - 12431 Deuxieme p a r t i e p r i n c i p a l e - vers 12431 - 19549 - vers 19549 - 22867 - vers 22867 - 24373 Epilogue - vers 24373 - 24616 (inclus) 244 244 vers {~G(0TEVRIT)3 1506 3318 7118_ 244 7118" 3318 1506 11942 [(G)0(TEVRIT)J [(GO)T(EVRIT)] [S ?] [(TRI)S(TAN)] 11942 £ ? ] [ * ] C ? ] The TRISTAN/ISOLDE a c r o s t i c s serve as material for Scholte's concept of the structure of T r i s t a n . He too noticed that the quatrain i n i t i a l s (of the TRISTAN/ISOLDE a c r o s t i c s ) occur at "wichtige EinsHtze" (ZfdPh, p. 30), but unlike S t o l t e he does not add s t r u c t u r a l d i v i s i o n s which are not based on the a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l s : 171 T U T RSSR IOOI SLLS TDDT AEEA NNNN 1 - 40 Strophische Einleitung"' E r s t e r Hauptabschnitt 41 - 130 Lebensbekenntnis 131 — 1790 Vorgeschichte des Helden Zweiter Hauptabschnitt 1791 - 5098 Jugenderziehung b i s zur ersten Waffentat D r i t t e r Hauptabschnitt 5099 - 12430 Der Moroltkampf mit seiner Vorstufe der Vaterrache und die daraus resultierende Beziehung zur blonden I s o l t V i e r t e r Hauptabschnitt 12431 -(18423) [ T r i s t a n and I s o l d ] (FUnfter Hauptabschnitt) (18423)- +3200 [ T r i s t a n and Iso l d WhitehandJ (Sechster Hauptabschnitt) +1600 Scholte's discovery of the Umarmungsspiel served as an i n s p i r a t i o n to l a t e r c r i t i c s , such as for example F r i e d r i c h Maurer. Retaining Scholte's ve r s i o n of the complete TRISTAN/ISOLDE a c r o s t i c s , Maurer speaks of these a c r o s t i c s only, but r e a l l y includes the G0TEVRIT one as well (Leid, p. 213): Prolog Vorgeschichte 41 -1751 -244 1868 T I I T R S S R 5069 - ' 5180 1 0 0 1 (11871) - 12510 S L L S Etwa 18419ff. T D D T Beginn des Epilogs Ende A E E A ' • TT N N N N Ei n l e i t u n g der Hauptgeschichte I. Hauptteil der Hauptgeschichte I I . Hauptteil der Hauptgeschichte S c h l u s s t e i l der Hauptgeschichte Epilog Petrus Tax.is r i g h t only i n a l i m i t e d sense, when he " c o r r e c t s " Maurer' figures to T U T 41/5 - 131/5, RSSR 1791/5 - 1865/9, 1001 5099/103 -5177/81, and SLLS 12431/5 - 12503 / 7 - 8 Instead, he should perhaps have included the GOTEVRIT i n i t i a l s i n Maurer's ta b l e , f or "what Maurer says i s i n f a c t the following (Leid, p. 211f.): Die erste Stufe b i l d e t der P r o l o g . Die Vierreime des Anfangs auf der einen, die i n den Versen 233 b i s 40 auf der andern Seite rahmen ihn e i n . . . . Die zweite Stufe b i l d e t die V o r g e s c h i c h t e . Die Vierreime 233-40 auf der einen und die zwischen 1751-54 und 1865-68 auf der anderen Seite rahmen s i e ein. . . Die d r i t t e Stufe b i l d e t . die -E i n 1 e i t u n g d e r H a u p t g e s c h i c h t e . Die Vierreime zwischen 1751 und 1868 auf der einen und die zwischen 5069 und 5180 auf der andern Seite rahmen s i e e i n . . . . Das v i e r t e Stiick i s t der e r s . t e H a u p t -t e i l d e r H a u p t g e s c h i c h t e . Die Vierreime zwischen 5069 und 5180 auf der einen und die zwischen 11871 und 12506 auf der anderen Seite rahmen ihn e i n . . . . Prolog Vorgeschichte E i n l e i t u n g der Hauptgeschichte I. H a u p t t e i l der I I . S c h l u s s t e i l - -Epilog [G - DIU] [DIU - 0D/(RS)SR] [0D/(RS)SR - TA/(10)01] [TA/(I0)0I - SD?(ES/SL)LS] |~SD?(ES/SL)LS - ?(TD)DT] f?(TD)DT - ?(AE)EA] [?(AE)EA - ?(NN)NN] Each group of quatrains i s thus associated with both the preceding and the following n a r r a t i v e block. A much more precise o u t l i n e of the structure of T r i s t a n , s t i l l based on the quatrain i n i t i a l s , was advanced by Fourquet i n conjunction with h i s discovery of the GOTEVRIT a c r o s t i c . According to Fourquet the GGTE(VRIT) i n i t i a l s " c l o s e " the p r i n c i p a l sections of the n a r r a t i v e whereas the (T)RIS(TAN) i n i t i a l s mark the beginning of them (EG, p. 273) 1., C * ' . ' " D La Vorgeschichte, l ' h i s t o i r e des C , , ,0I1 parents. 2. C R , ' - J ! kes "Enfances", jusqu'au moment ou l e C ' - ' T ] heros est arme chevalier. 3. C 1 * * ' ] L e s e x p l o i t s de T r i s t a n , jusqu'a l a C ' , , E 3 catastrophe ( i c i 1 'union des amants). 4. [S...] Les epreuves des amants . . . (partie [•••V] inachevee). Also S t o l t e had noticed that "die Verteilung der Akrostichonstrophen . . so erkennen [ l M s s t ] , dass wir den Beginn neuer Sinnesabschnitte ansetzen mUssen i n den Versen: 1751 [o ] (Beginn der ersten Abteilung A), 5069 £ T ] (Beginn der ErzHhlung von der zweiten Abenteuerfahrt), 12183 [ E ] (Beginn der Abteilung B), wHhrend das erste System d r e i e r Strophen [~G?Tl] zur Vorrede selbst gehbrt und damit die Gesamtheit der Dichtung e i n l e i t e n h i l f t " (p. 139/40), b u t — a s mentioned p r e v i o u s l y — h i s s t r u c t u r a l pattern contains many more d i v i s i o n s than the quatrains quoted above suggest. In contrast to Stol t e Fourquet divides the romance s t r i c t l y according 9 to the quatrain i n i t i a l s , and he sees i n the passages introduced by 0, T, and E "un developpement qui c l o t l e r e c i t precedent, et une 174 i n d i c a t i o n d i s c r e t e sur ce qui va su i v r e " (EG, p. 274). Fourquet thus considers the passages.between the GOTEVRIT quatrains and the TRISTAN q u a t r a i n s ^ to be t r a n s i t i o n a l i n nature, pointing backwards and forwards. The f a c t that there i s something which leads to the following i n a passage i s a true c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Go t t f r i e d ' s s t y l e , a phenomenon which we encounter over and over again, i n smaller u n i t s (paragraphs) as well as i n l a r g e r ones (narrative blocks such as the four suggested by Fourquet). Instead of saying, as Fourquet does, that the GOTEVRIT i n i t i a l s mark the end of a nar r a t i v e block, we could add, however, that toward the end of these blocks (1) there i s an event (2) which i s a more or les s " d i s c r e e t i n d i c a t i o n " of the a c t i o n i n the following n a r r a t i v e block: ...0 1. End of the story of Tristan's parents. 2. T r i s t a n i s born. ...T 1. End of Tri s t a n ' s childhood. 2. T r i s t a n i s knighted. ...E" 1. End of Tri s t a n ' s knightly endeavours. 2. T r i s t a n and Isolde consummate t h e i r love. It would make sense to continue: ...V 1. End of Tristan's l i f e as a lover at Mark's court. 2. Discovery and parting i n the boumgarten. ...R 1. End of Tri s t a n ' s l i f e as a lover i n e x i l e (marriage to Isolde Whitehands, return v i s i t s ) . 2. Tristan's f a t a l wound. ...I,T End of Tristan's and Isolde's l i v e s . This, of course, r a i s e s the question of where to expect, the VTD i n i t i a l s . The above suggestion (...V: End of T r i s t a n ' s l i f e as a lover at Mark's court) i s not supported by the MSS, f o r there are no large i n i t i a l s or quatrains i n any. of the extant MSS at the point of T r i s t a n ' s f l e e i n g Mark's court. Even so, a number of c r i t i c s f e e l that the next group of quatrains ( i n i t i a l s ) ought to have occurred at the parting of the lovers, i . e . i n the extant p o r t i o n of T r i s t a n . In h i s a r t i c l e of 1932, Scholte writes, "Nur wichtige EinsHtze sind es, die der Dichter durch seine schmdckenden V i e r z e i l e r betont" (ZfdPh, p. 30), and "es lHsst s i c h . kaum vermeiden an der S t e l l e , wo T r i s t a n die Sphere der blondhaarigen Is o l d verlHsst um i n der NHhe i h r e r weisshHndigen Namensschwester neue Herzens-wirren, neue Liebe und neues Leid zu erleben, einen Einsatz zu vermuten" (ZfdPh, p. 32); he therefore asks, "KMnnte es nicht das T der Strophen-i n i t i a l e 18 423 sein?" and he adds, "Die F o r t s e t z u n g s i n i t i a l e 18 427 ergHbe das D. Auch eine Gegenstrophe fi n d e t s i c h i n entsprechender Entfernung: 18 467 D, mit der F o r t s e t z u n g s i n i t i a l e T" (ZfdPh,. p. 32). Without making any reference to Scholte's observation, Maurer considers almost the same l i n e s 1 1 because of "einige auffallende Vierreime oder yi e r r e i m a r t i g e Gebilde" (Leid, p. 213) at the l i n e s 18435-38 and 18419-22. The reason why the TDDT are not to be found exactly where the "vierreim-a r t i g e Gebilde" occur could be, Maurer contends, that "gegen das Ende h i n die l e t z t e Formung noch [ f e h l t ] , die der p l t f t z l i c h e Ab.bruch bald darauf verhindert hat" (Leid, p. 213). Also Batts points to the f a c t that"the f i n a l passages i n the poem as we have i t cannot be i n ' f i n i s h e d ' f o r m — 12 there i s some confusion i n the order of the narrative. . . ." -176 Furthermore Batts considers i t to be "highly improbable that the development of the.relationship between T r i s t a n and Isolde Whitehand and t h e i r marriage would have been included i n the s e c t i o n which began with the love of T r i s t a n and Isolde" (GvS, p. 88). A closer examination of the content between the quatrain i n i t i a l s could perhaps i n d i c a t e which type of textual material to expect surrounding the VTD i n i t i a l s . As the' GTI group (1, 41, and 131) of quatrains f a l l s within the prologue i t w i l l not be considered. The content surrounding the ORS (1751, 1791, and 1865), TIO' (5069, 5099, and 5177), and ESL (12183, 12431, and 12503) quatrains i s as follows: 1. 2. End of Vor- geschichte .. Deaths of Riw./Bl. T r i s t a n born. R 1. 2. End of Tr.'s childhood. Investiture. 1. Laments over and thoughts on.their deaths, 2. "Let's hear about what happened to the orphan." Rual's and Floraete's . l o y a l t y . False rumours. Laments Fear of Morgan, "Let's hear about what happened to the orphan." Settlement with Morgan. F l . simulates b i r t h of T r i s t a n . Tr. ' s i n f ancy and childhood. 1. Tr.'s l e i t (Riw.'s death) and ljnge (true i d e n t i t y r e -vealed) . 2. Tr.'s s u f f e r -ing because of Riw.'s- death. 0. Tr.'s suffer-ing because Riw. i s dead and Morgan a-l i v e (=plans of revenge). Tr. and Rual of f to Parmenie. Reception i n Parmenie. Tr.'s knightly endeavours. 1. End of T r.'s knightly enterprises. 2. Tr. & I s . f a l l i n love. They consummate th e i r love. 1. G o t t f r . ap-proves of the consummation (Minneexkurs). 2. They worry about. Is.'s wipheit, but Is. con-ceives of a plan. Is .'s plan to have Br. sub-s t i t u t e f or her. Tr.'s r e a c t i o n to the t r u t h about the potion. Reception i n Cornwall. Is.'s plan c a r r i e d out. The t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s of the lovers at Mark's court. A narrative block ends immediately p r i o r to the GOTEVRIT quatrains. Then follow two more t r a n s i t i o n a l passages surrounding the TRISTAN quatrains. The new narrative blocks do not r e a l l y s t a r t u n t i l a f t e r the ISOLDE quatrains: the t e l l i n g of Tristan's childhood gets, under way only a f t e r Blanscheflur's funeral and a f t e r the lamentations over what i s believed to be a threefold tragedy (the deaths of Riwalin, Blanscheflur, and the unborn c h i l d ) have been s u f f i c i e n t l y described. A f t e r the ISOLDE i n i t i a l s the Vorgeschichte i s no longer alluded to. S i m i l a r l y T r i s t a n s e c r e t l y thinks of revenge i n the two t r a n s i t i o n a l passages surrounding the (TR)I(STAN) quatrain, and he sets o f f with Rual for Parmenie at the end of the 1-0 passage, but he does not a r r i v e i n Parmenie, i . e . resume f u l l and active r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as the l o r d of h i s country u n t i l a f t e r the (IS)O(LDE) quatrain. Isolde conceives the plan to have Brangaene s u b s t i -tute f o r her on her wedding night during the two t r a n s i t i o n a l passages around the (TRI)S(TAN) quatrain. The plan i s alluded to at the end of the E-S passage, and i t i s described i n d e t a i l i n the second t r a n s i t i o n a l passage (S-L), but' i t i s not u n t i l a f t e r the (ISO)L(DE) quatrain that the ship a r r i v e s i n Cornwall and the plan i s c a r r i e d out. Assuming that Batts, Maurer und Scholte are right i n t h e i r notion that the next group of quatrains, ought to have occurred a f t e r the parting of the lovers and before the Isolde Whitehand episode $ a n arrative structure s i m i l a r to the one described above could be found between the l i n e s 18359. and 18601: 18359 18467 .V 1. End of Tr.'s 1. Mark has no l i f e at Mark's court. proof of adultery. Mark discovers 2. Tr. f l e e s to Tr. and Is. i n the bOumgaften. Parting. Normandie and then to A l -manj e. 1. Isolde's monologue when Tr. s a i l s o f f . Is. reproaches Tr. f o r leav-ing her. She r e a l i z e s that Tr. i s only safe away from Mark's domaine. 18601 - D . . . Tr.'s l i f e i n e x i l e . A There i s no i n d i c a t i o n i h the M S S of large i n i t i a l s or quatrains at the l i n e s 18359, 18467, or 18601, but they are a l l w e l l supported as ordinary i n i t i a l s : M H ; F W B N . O E R P 18359 N N D N N N [ N ] 18467 / T T T T T T T [ T ] 18601 D D D D D D D [ D ] MS 0 r e g i s t e r s a large i n i t i a l at l i n e 18686, i . e . where the reader/ audience i s introduced to Arundel (where Isolde Whitehands l i v e s ) f o r the f i r s t time. The s c r i b e (?) of t h i s MS evidently f e l t . t h a t l i n e 18686 was the beginning of a new n a r r a t i v e block. But since B i s 14 the only other MS to have an i n i t i a l at t h i s l i n e , there i s not much reason to assume that G o t t f r i e d intended t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l i n e to be a c a r r i e r of an a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l . I t i s noteworthy, perhaps,-that l i n e 18467 s t a r t s with a T [(TRIS)T?(AN)] and l i n e 18601 with a I) [(ISOL)D?(E)] although one cannot speak of even "vierreimartige Gebilde" at these l i n e s . Another method of determining the possible l o c a t i o n of the VTD i n i t i a l s could be provided by the numerical structure of the romance. An obvious point of departure i s to e s t a b l i s h the number of l i n e s between the quatrain i n i t i a l s . Scholte, f o r example, sees two p o s s i b i l i t i e s : e i t h e r one i n which the number of l i n e s increases progressively whereby the "Buchstabenspiel" would lead "ad absurdum" (B e i t r . , p. 2 8 8 ) 1 5 or one i n which a recessed pattern i s present ( B e i t r . , p. 288): T R I S T A N gut gut gut gut gut gut 1600 3200 7000 7000 3200 1600 Z e i l e n Z e i l e n Z e i l e n Z e i l e n Z e i l e n Zeilen I S 0 L D E N He does stress however that "die vorliegenden Zahlen . . . i n s i c h kein einziges Anzeichen [haben], dass da wo das Buchstabenspiel abbricht, die Fortsetzung i n entgegengesetztem Sinne, also i n symmetrischem Aufbau, gedacht und beabsichtigt war" ( B e i t r . , p. 288), and he adds, "Wir wissen j a ni.cht einmal, ob der Dichter eine Fortsetzung . . . im Sinne hatte" ( B e i t r . , p. 288). Scholte's figures, only roughly correspond to the number of l i n e s between the TRISTAN quatrain i n i t i a l s i n Ranke's e d i t i o n ; they are between approximately 100 and 300 l i n e s short of the actual number of l i n e s between these i n i t i a l s . Batts suggest (GvS, p. 88): T R I S T A . N 1750 3500 7000 7000 [3500 1750] and Fourquet puts forward the figures (EG, p. 276): T R I S T A N 1710 3348 7432 [7400 3300 1700] These figures are i n c o r r e c t . I t i s the number of l i n e s between the T(RISTAN) (41) and the (G)O(TEVRIT) (1751) i n i t i a l s which amounts to 1710. S i m i l a r l y , 3348 i s the number of l i n e s between the (G)O(TEVRIT) (1751) and the (TR)I(STAN) (5099) i n i t i a l s . The f i g u r e 7432 should 16 read 7332. The above suggestions a l l constitute an attempt to f i n d a symmetrical pattern of the type which Fourquet advances (EG, p. 276) 1 2 - 4 + 4 - 2 - 1 T R I S T A N -However, the actual figures contradict such a proposal to a c e r t a i n extent. Only the second group i s roughly twice the s i z e of the f i r s t one; the t h i r d group of l i n e s i s almost 2„l/4 times l a r g e r than the second one: 1 R I S T A N 1750 . 3308 7332 The (TRIS)T(AN) i n i t i a l should thus occur at l i n e 19763 (12431+7332), i . e . a f t e r the poem breaks o f f , the A and N TRISTAN i n i t i a l s at l i n e s 23071 and 24821 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f e e l i n g shared by a number of c r i t i c s that the next group of quatrain i n i t i a l s (TD or VTD, depending on whether or not the c r i t i c i s aware of the GOTEVRIT a c r o s t i c ) ought to have occurred at the parting of the lovers thus finds no support i n a symmetrical pattern based on the TRISTAN i n i t i a l s . 1 7 There are only 6036 l i n e s between the (TRI)S(TAN) (12431) and the (TRIS)T(AN) (18467) i n i t i a l s ; t h i s i s almost 1300 l i n e s short of the 7332 l i n e s which are required i n a t r u l y symmetrical pattern. Fourquet r e a l i z e s t h i s , and he therefore suggests " q u ' i l a u r a i t eu encore quelques centaines de vers jusqu'au mariage avec l a secondeIseut, et que l a p a r t i e comprise entre S et T au r a i t ete de meme grandeur que l a p a r t i e comprise entre I et S" (EG, p. 276). Using Thomas' text as our reference point f o r the unfinished part of G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n and applying i t to Fourquet's symmetrical pattern, we could imagine the following table of content: 182 40 F i r s t part of the prologue. 41 1791 5099 12431 S L V (19763) T" D R 1750 3308 7332 (7332) (3308) (23071) A" E }• (1750) I (24821) Second part of the prologue. 1. Vorgeschichte 2. T r i s t a n conceived and born. 1. Tri s t a n ' s childhood. — 2. T r i s t a n knighted. 1. Tristan's knighthood. T r i s t a n Isolde's teacher. — 2. Tr. & Is. consummate t h e i r love. 1. The consummated love of T r i s t a n and Isolde. 2. T r i s t a n meets Isolde WH. 1. The unconsummated marriage of T r i s t a n and Isolde WH. 2. T r i s t a n i s f a t a l l y wounded. The deaths of T r i s t a n and Isolde. (40) Epilogue. (24860) 183 Chapter IX: Footnotes William T.H. Jackson, The Anatomy of Love (New York, London, 1971), p. 195. 2 Of Jackson's 14 na r r a t i v e blocks 3 s t a r t at a quatrain: Block I I , 1791ff (Education of the Hero), Block IV, 5069ff (Revenge on Duke Morgan), and Block VIII, 12431ff (The Abuse of Brangaene). 3 Arthur Witte, "Der Aufbau der Hltesten Tristandichtungen," ZfdA, 70 (1933) 174ff; Bodo Mergell, T r i s t a n und Isolde: Ursprung und Entwicklung  der Tristansage des M i t t e l a l t e r s (Mainz, 1949), p. 153; Luise Lerner, Studien zur Komposition de_s__h|jfischen Romans im 13. Jahrhundert (Monster, 1936), p. 14; some of her d i v i s i o n s s t a r t at a c r o s t i c quatrains: 1791 (T)R(ISTAN), 5069 (GO)T(EVRIT), and 12503 (ISO)L(DE). 4 Gravigny regards the f i r s t 244 l i n e s as a unit (prologue) although there i s no quatrain i n i t i a l at l i n e 245. Five out of the 8 MSS which r e g i s t e r an i n i t i a l here a c t u a l l y show a large i n i t i a l , whereas none of them have any i n i t i a l s at a l l at the preceding quatrains. In t h i s regard Gravigny writes about the s c r i b e of H that the l a t t e r who "vraisemblablement n'avait pas connaissance de l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n du jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s , a parfaitement compris que l e Prologue se terminait au vers 244 et a, par f a c i l i t e , remplaee les t r o i s i n i t i a l e s DIU (v. 233, 237 et 241 . . .) par une seule i n i t i a l e , placee au debut du v e r i t a b l e r e c i t , " (EG, p. 5). 5The table i s not printed i n t h i s form i n Scholte's a r t i c l e . Rather, i t was put together on the basis of Scholte's text i n ZfdPh, p. 30ff. and B e i t r . , p. 287f. 6 L e i d (Bern, Mtfnchen, 1951). 'In a footnote, Maurer himself disregards l i n e 11871 as being the beginning of the SLLS i n i t i a l s , however without suggesting an a l t e r n a t i v e (Leid, p. 214, footnote 161a). g Petrus W. Tax, Wort, Sinnbild, Zahl im Tristanroman. ( B e r l i n , 1961 : 2. durchgesehene und erweiterte Auflage 1971), p. 169. 9 Fourquet does have the Vorgeschichte commence at l i n e 245, however, i . e . a f t e r the prologue. ^ O n l y two of Fourquet's t r a n s i t i o n a l passages are between the GOTEVRIT and the TRISTAN quatrains: the ones l i n e s 1755-1790 [ O - R ] and 12187-12430 [ E - S ] . The t h i r d one i s a c t u a l l y , according to Fourquet's f i g u r e s , between a GOTEVRIT and an ISOLDE quatrain: l i n e s 5073-5176 [T-0] (EG, 274). As there are a number of i n c o r r e c t figures i n Fourquet's a r t i c l e , the l a t t e r passage could be erroneous for 5073-5098 ( c f . , p. 180). 1 : L L i n e s 18419-22 instead of 18423-27 (Leid, p. 213). 12 Michael S. Batts, G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg (New York, 1971), p. 88. 13 Only t h i s MS also marks the beginning of Tristan's l i f e at Mark's court by means of a large i n i t i a l (3379). 14 There i s a paragraph sign at t h i s l i n e i n H. 1 5 A t o t a l of over 100,000 l i n e s . 16 In the German version of, Fourquet's a r t i c l e "Das Kryptbgramm des 'Tristan' und der Aufbau des Epos" i n G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg, A l o i s Wolf (Darmstadt, 1973), these figures have been corrected (1750, 3308, 7332, p. 369). 1 7However, a symmetrical pattern i n which the VTD group of i n i t i a l s would occur before the Isolde Whitehands episode would be pos s i b l e within the GOTEVRIT i n i t i a l s : 18359 G O T E V R I T 1750 3308 7114 6176 7100 3300 . 1750 This would, of course, increase the t o t a l number of l i n e s from the 25000 which i s usually" suggested on the basis of the TRISTAN i n i t i a l s , to approximately 30500 l i n e s . In addition, the GOTEVRIT.pattern would ra i s e the question of how to integrate the two (or three) a c r o s t i c s when one of them c a l l s for approximately 25000 l i n e s and the other fo r approximately 30500 l i n e s and when one i s one l e t t e r (or two i n the case of ISOLDE) longer than the other. Chapter X Conclusion In t h i s study an attempt has been made to base a s t r u c t u r a l analysis of T r i s t a n on the s t r u c t u r a l markers i n a l l extant T r i s t a n MSS, complete ones as w e l l as fragmentary ones. In order to have an objective basis to work from, we constructed a "model MS" by s e l e c t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y an average representation of the i n i t i a l s i n the MSS. Each MS was then evaluated according to the degree to which i t s i n i t i a l s corresponded to those of the model MS. Our approach to s e t t i n g up a model MS was based on the assumption that the o r i g i n a l structure markers f i l t e r e d through to the MSS and could be r e s t o r e d — a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y — b y means of a s t a t i s t i c a l s e l e c t i o n procedure which, contrary to Linke's approach, excludes any i n i t i a l subjective evaluation of i n d i v i d u a l paragraphs. The paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS provided the. basis for our analysis of the Vorgeschichte. This analysis showed that i n some cases several smaller narrative units were apparently included within one paragraph of the model MS, e s p e c i a l l y where G o t t f r i e d was moving on to more important matters, such as. the scenes leading up to Riwalin's leaving Parmenie, h i s being wounded and l a t e r k i l l e d , etc. Furthermore i t could be observed that a l a r g e r narrative unit did not n e c e s s a r i l y commence at the beginning of a paragraph. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the hohgezit begins 17 l i n e s into a paragraph and news of Morgan's attack on Parmenie reaches Riwalin 12 l i n e s before the n a r r a t i v e block begins which depicts h i s preparations (including h i s farewell v i s i t to Blansche-f l u r ) to leave Mark's court. S i m i l a r l y Blanscheflur gains access to Riwalin's chambers just p r i o r to the paragraph i n which T r i s t a n i s 186 conceived. The haz versus minne question which i s dealt with i n the lime-allegory paragraph 841-914 r e a l l y commences as early as l i n e 828. The fact that the beginning of a new n a r r a t i v e unit occurs toward the end of the preceding unit seems to be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of G o t t f r i e d ' s s t y l e , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which could also be observed during our discussion of the manner i n which the a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l s divide the content of T r i s t a n . T r i s t a n i s born at the end of the n a r r a t i v e complex describing the love story of h i s parents rather than at the beginning of the one describing h i s childhood. He i s knighted i n the n a r r a t i v e complex depicting h i s childhood and not at the beginning of the one i n which we l e a r n about h i s knightly enterprises, and T r i s t a n and Isolde consummate t h e i r love toward the end of the n a r r a t i v e complex preceding the one i n which t h e i r t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s as lovers at Mark's court are described. Dialogues and monologues also cross paragraph d i v i s i o n s . Blanscheflur's words of farewell to Riwalin a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t conversation occur immediately following a new paragraph d i v i s i o n (785) and her inner monologue begins h a l f way through a paragraph (981). It appears however that G o t t f r i e d deals whenever pos s i b l e with a s p e c i f i c narrative theme i n each paragraph. Each new step i n the development of Riwalin's and Blanscheflur's f a l l i n g i n love i s indicated by a paragraph d i v i s i o n . Blanscheflur's monologue i s therefore divided by a paragraph d i v i s i o n into two parts: one which describes her l o v e - s i c k n e s s 1 and one i n which she r e a l i z e s that she loves Riwalin. But a n a r r a t i v e theme does not n e c e s s a r i l y consist of only one narrative u n i t ; several smaller units can be contained i n one s i n g l e paragraph and treated as part of one n a r r a t i v e theme: Riwalin's preparing to leave Parmenie, h i s a r r i v a l i n Cornwall, and h i s being welcomed at Mark's court can for example be viewed as a t r a n s i t i o n from one na r r a t i v e block to the next or from one stage i n h i s l i f e to the next. Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Vorgeschichte showed that the strongly. 2 documented paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS were i n most cases also 3 accompanied by c e r t a i n recurrent s t y l i s t i c features, such as i n t e r -ruption i n the sequence of personal pronouns, r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the preceding action,,or r e p e t i t i o n of one or more words or of a concept across the paragraph d i v i s i o n . This does not exclude the presence of the same kind of s t y l i s t i c features where new narrative units begin i n s i d e the paragraphs, but most often there are no i n i t i a l s i n any of the MSS at such l i n e s , and i t seems as i f G o t t f r i e d wanted to underline further the absence of s t r u c t u r a l d i v i d e r s by having such new na r r a t i v e units begin at the second l i n e of a couplet, something which does not happen at w e l l documented paragraph d i v i s i o n s . The above factors led us to search for further reasons why G o t t f r i e d would have wanted to sin g l e out p a r t i c u l a r points i n the na r r a t i v e both by means of i n i t i a l s and by means of c e r t a i n recurrent s t y l i s t i c features and we found that the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS lent themselves to numerical symmetrical patterns when grouped according to content. Thes patterns would not have emerged without the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS; true, without them we would have e s s e n t i a l l y 188 the same groupings of the n a r r a t i v e , but the border l i n e s of these groupings would have been d i f f e r e n t i n some i n s t a n c e s . 4 I t i s noteworthy that i n both suggested numerical patterns of the Vorgeschichte s i g n i f i c a n t paragraphs of the hohgezit complex are i n the centre of the composition. In each pattern t h i s i s due to the fac t that one or two n a r r a t i v e blocks p r i o r to the centre group are mirrored by one or two twice t h e i r s i z e following the c e n t r e . 5 In our f i r s t s t r u c t u r a l pattern there i s some degree of symmetry of content between groups of r e l a t e d s i z e s . The f i r s t group (164 l i n e s ) and the l a s t group (166 l i n e s ) of the Vorgeschichte both take place i n Parmenie. The group of 200'lines i n which Riwalin prepares to leave Mark's court and elopes with Blanscheflur i s "mirrored" i n a group exactly h a l f the s i z e i n which Riwalin makes preparations to leave Parmenie and a r r i v e s at Mark's court. One group of 132 l i n e s before the centre i s "mirrored" by two groups of 132 and 134 l i n e s a f t e r the centre, etc. However there were some problematic paragraphs: I t was d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the f a l l i n g - i n - l o v e paragraphs begin at l i n e 641 or 681. The centre of the f i r s t s t r u c t u r a l o u t l i n e (841-914) also presented some d i f f i c u l t i e s as the theme of i t seemed to l i n k i t with the following paragraphs. In our second pattern these problematic paragraphs were placed i n a d i f f e r e n t manner. S t r i k i n g numerical patterns also emerged i n our second suggestion but the symmetry of content between groups of re l a t e d s i z e s became v i r t u a l l y l o s t . Our second suggestion i s however supported by H, the only MS which has a large i n i t i a l at l i n e 681, the beginning l i n e of the centre group i n the second proposal. Considering the fact that numerical symmetries emerged i n the Vorgeschichte whichever way we interpreted the problematic paragraph d i v i s i o n s (641-80 and 841-914) i t seems l i k e l y that G o t t f r i e d planned to structure the e n t i r e work according to numerical symmetries around the a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l s . The content seemed to provide a s u i t a b l e background for the ending of one narrative complex and the beginning of a new one at the parting of the lovers, but there was no i n d i c a t i o n i n the MSS of large i n i t i a l s or quatrains at the l i n e s i n question and a TRISTAN i n i t i a l at t h i s point would come approximately 1300 l i n e s short of the number of l i n e s required for the symmetry. By consulting the MSS we obtained a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of the a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l s . There was r e a l l y only evidence of large i n i t i a l s i n the f i r s t l i n e s of quatrains and not immediately following them. Furthermore there were no large i n i t i a l s at the quatrains at the end of the prologue or at l i n e 11871. The three incomplete a c r o s t i c s (GOTEVRIT, TRISTAN, and ISOLDE) suggested by Fourquet are w e l l documented, ( i . e . indicated by large i n i t i a l s ) i n M, H, and 0. I t i s noteworthy that M has preserved them so well despite i t s p o s i t i o n at 6 the bottom of our evaluation scale. None of the MSS have preserved a l l the a c r o s t i c s with correct s p e l l i n g 7 and they have a l l l o s t the large (TR)I(STAN) i n i t i a l at l i n e 5099. Our i n v e s t i g a t i o n showed that the I i n i t i a l s presented a s p e c i a l problem. When such an i n i t i a l was written as a c a p i t a l " J " i t was most often written alongside the frame 190 of the text and extended downwards further than other i n i t i a l s without being " l a r g e . " The fact that such i n i t i a l s were to be written i n the margin very l i k e l y contributes to the fac t that a number of I i n i t i a l s g seems to be "missing:" the a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l I at l i n e 5099 has been l o s t i n a l l MSS but H where i t appears as an ordinary i n i t i a l at the bottom l i n e of the f o l i o . With respect to the large i n i t i a l s i n the MSS, our findings did"not concur, with those of other scholars i n some important instances. Gravigny considered the L at l i n e 12503 for example to be an ordinary i n i t i a l because the s i z e of the i n i t i a l i t s e l f was the same as that of the ordinary i n i t i a l s i n t h i s MS. A closer look at the surroundings revealed however that the scri b e had l e f t room i n a t o t a l of 6 l i n e s f o r the two a c r o s t i c i n i t i a l s L and W, presumably intending them to be written as a large i n i t i a l followed by an ordinary one i n the same manner as he had indicated i t f o r l i n e s 12431 and 12435. The ru b r i c a t o r however misunderstood h i s " i n s t r u c t i o n . 1 1 Although no d e f i n i t e answer was found concerning the o v e r - a l l s tructure of T r i s t a n we draw the conclusion that our consulting the extant MSS nevertheless y i e l d e d r e s u l t s . We obtained an accurate p i c t u r e of the transmitted a c r o s t i c s and even though our model MS also contains 9 a number of weak paragraph d i v i s i o n s i t proved i t s e l f to be a valuable t o o l i n reaching a better understanding of Gottfr i e d ' s technique of struc t u r i n g the Vorgeschichte. By using the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS as a basis f o r the s t r u c t u r a l analysis of the Vorgeschichte we found that G o t t f r i e d seems to have singled out c e r t a i n points i n the n a r r a t i v e both by i n i t i a l s and, by accompanying recurrent s t y l i s t i c features and that h i s reason for doing so was to create elaborate numerical patterns. Preliminary i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of other parts of T r i s t a n i n d i c a t e that s i m i l a r numerical patterns may be f o u n d ; ^ however further study of the epic based on the s t r u c t u r a l i n d i c a t i o n s i n the MSS i s needed i n order to determine the degree to which G o t t f r i e d structured h i s e n t i r e work according to numerical symmetries. 192 Chapter X: Footnotes The paragraph describing Blanscheflur's love-sickness commences before her monologue. Presumably there i s no paragraph d i v i s i o n at the beginning of the monologue as t h i s i s a continuation of the love-sickness theme. 2 These are most often paragraph d i v i s i o n s documented i n h a l f of the MSS. When i n i t i a l s occurred i n 3 or 4 MSS only, these MSS f o r the most part figured at the bottom or around the centre of our evaluation scale. 3 These features are not present at the "weak" paragraph d i v i s i o n s (287, 319, 617, 1281,,and 1359). S i m i l a r l y they are lacking i n dialogues, and monologues. 4 The nar r a t i v e block the hohgezit would presumably begin at l i n e 525 and thus cover 594 l i n e s . The block containing Riwalin's being wounded and the conception of T r i s t a n would end at l i n e 1372 instead of 1384, etc. 5When disregarding, our numerical patterns, the centre of the Vorgeschichte i s at l i n e 998 (1751-245 .... . . 5 v r + 245), i . e . xn the f x r s t part of Blanscheflur's inner monologue. It w i l l be remembered that the i n i t i a l s i n M form v i s u a l patterns and that the i n i t i a l s therefore do not occur at the same l i n e s as i n the other MSS. 7H s p e l l s TRISTAN: H I S , 0 spells. GOTEVRIT: (G?) A D E, etc. 8 This most l i k e l y happened i n W at l i n e s 587 and 681. 9 The weak paragraphs of the Vorgeschichte played no r o l e i n the s t r u c t u r a l patterns. 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Appendix This i s a complete l i s t of the i n i t i a l s which make up the constructed "model MS." The l i s t includes the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these "average i n i t i a l s " i n the i n d i v i d u a l MSS. Legend 1), 2), 3) ... r e f e r to the s o - c a l l e d " l i n e groups"- They are not relevant to the l i s t as such. x : Normal s i z e i n i t i a l s X : Large i n i t i a l . C l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from "x" i n s i z e and ornamentation. x : I n i t i a l which occurs a f t e r a head l i n e (only i n R). "x : MS H. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the l i n e s v i s i b l e i n fr o n t of the i n i t i a l on the mic r o f i l m are part of a paragraph sign. (x) : Space l e f t , f o r an i n i t i a l . ( ) : No space l e f t f o r an i n i t i a l , but the scrib e indicated the i n i t i a l by not w r i t i n g the l e t t e r concerned ( I ) . : Paragraph signs 4 orJ>7~". : We do not know whether or not there was an i n i t i a l at these places because the pages involved are l o s t . A 1 z : z and z . Line M H F W B N O E R P a b f g l m q s t w z 1) 1 x x - x x x - x x x 41 x X - x x - x . x 101 x - x - x . 2) 131 X X X X X • - X 167 X X - X 211 X X - X X 245 X X X X X X - X X 287 X (x) - X -319 X • X - X 335 .X X X X - X X X 409 X *x X X X X - X X X 509 X X X X X X — X 3) 587 X X X ( ) X X X X X 617 X X X 641 X X X X • X X X X X 681 X .X X ( ) X - X 733 X X X X X X X X X X 785 X X X X X X X X X 841 X X X X X X X X X X 915 X X X X X X X X X X 957 X X X X X X X 1017 X X X X X X X 1077 X X X X X X X X X X 1119 X .X X X X X X X X X 1199 X X X X X X X X X X 1239 X X X X X X X X 1281 X X X 1287 X X X X X X 1331 X X X X X X X X X 204 Line M H F W B N O E R P a b f g l m q s t 1359 X X X 1385 • X X X X X • X 1451 • X X X X X X X 1511 X X X X X X X 1545 X X X X X X X 1585 X .X X X X X X X X 1703 X X X X X X X 1719 X X X X 1751 X X X X X X X X X 1791 X .X X X X X X X X X 1865 X X X X X X X X X X 1955 X X X X X X X X 1983 X X X 4) 2043 X X X X X X X X X X 5) 2131 X X X X X X X X 2149 • X X X X X 2203 X X X X 6) 2291 X X X 7) 2351 X X X X X X 2381 (x) X X 2401 • X • X X 8) 2503 X X X 9) 2533 X X X X X X X 205 Line M H F w B • N 0 E R p a b f g l m q s t w z 2557 X X X 2629 X X X 2665 X X X 2731 X X X X X X X 2759 • • X X X X X 2823 X X X 2927 X X X 2989 X X X X 10) 3043 X X X • • X X X X X 3081 X X X X X X X X 3121 X X X 3207 .X X X . X X X X X 3223 X X X X X X X 3273 X X X • X X X X 11) 3351 X X X X X X . X 3365 X X X X 3379 • x X X X X X X X 12) 3459 X X X X X X X X 3505 X X X X X X X X X 3547 X X X . X X X X 3609 X X X X X X X X X 13) 3675 X X X 3721 X X X . X X X X 3757 . X X X X X (x) 3859 X X X X X X X 206 Line M H F W B N O E R P a b f g l m q s t w z 14) 3925 .? X X X X X X X X 3993 X X X X X X X X 4051 X X X X X X X 4095 .? X X X X X X X X 15) 4153 X X X 4171 X X X • X X X X 4191 X X X 4233 X X X X X X X X 4283 X X X X X X X X X 4333 .X X X X X 4353 X X X 4391 X X X 4489 X X X X 4537 X X X X 4555 . 1 *x X X X X X 4589 X X X X X X 4621 • X X X 4691 X X X • X • X X L6) 4723 X X X X X 4751 X X X X 4795 X X X 4821 X X X X X X X 4859 X • X X L7) 4975 X X X X X X X 5019 X X X 5069 X X X X X X X X X X 5103 X X X X X X X 207 Line. M H F w B N 0 E R p 5119 X X X 5177 X X X X X X X X X X 5227 X X X X X X X X 5267 X X X X X X X X 5309 X X X X X X X 5337 X X X 5373 X X X 5445 X X X . 5459 X X X X X (x) 5475 X X X X 5537 X . X X 5547 X X X X 5609 X X X X X X X X X 5647 X X X 5681 X X X X X X X X X X 5713 X X X X X X X X X X 5845 X X X X X X . ' X5867 X X X (x) X X X 6007 X. X X X X X X X (x) 6193 • X X X 6221 X X X X X X X (x) 6253 X X X 6333 X X X X X X X X 6389 X X X X X X X X 6407 X X X X X X . X 6429 X X X X X X X X 6493 • X X X X X X X 6521 X X X . X X X 6639 X X X 6683 X X X X X X (x) 6721 X X X X X X X X 6753 X X X X X X 6893 X X X (x) 6977 X X X X b f g l m q s t w z ^ 208 Line M H F W B N O E R P a b f g l m q s t w z 7143 X X X X X X X 7231 .X X X X X X X X 7323 X X X 7363 X X X 7443 X X X 7607 • X X X X (x) 7665 X X X X X 7741 X X X X X 7767 X X X X 7839 X X X X 7860 X X X 7881 X X X 7911 X X X X X X (x) 7935 • X X X X X (x) 7973 X X X 8027 • X X X 8301 . ? "x X X X X X X (x) L8) 8337 X X X 8365 • X X 8433 X X X X X X X (x) L9) 8523 X X X X X X X X 8535 X X X X 8545 X (x) X 8601 X X X X X X X X 8629 X X X X X X X 8675 X. X X X X X (x) 8691 X X X 8729 X X X X X X X (x) 8795 X X X 8827 X X X 209 iine M H F w B N 0 E R p 8897 X X X X X X X (x) 8939 X X X 8963 X X X X 9093 *x X X X X X X (x) 9247 X X X X 9273 X X X 9283 X X X 9369 X . X X 9399 X X X 9419 X X X 9447 X X X 9493 X X X 9507 X X X (x) 9517 X X X 9613 X X X . X X (x) 9637 X X X 9699 X. X X X X X X (x) 9771 X X X X X X (x) b f g l m q s t w z ^ 20) 9791 x x x 21) 9897 "X, x x x x x (x) 22) 23) 9965 x x x 9983 x x x x x x x 10057 x . x x 10191 x x x 10217 x x x 10345 x x x 210 Line M H F w B N 0 E R P a b f g 1 m 10371 X X X 10459 X X X 10473 X X X 10485 X X X 10515 X X X X X 10537 X X X X X X • (x) 24) 10623 X X X X 10691 X X X X X X X (x) X 10765 X X X 25) 10779 X X X X X X X 10803 . ? 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X X X 13275 - X X X X X X X X (x) 13341 - X X X X me M H F W B N O E R P a b f g l m q s t w z 13423 - X X X X X X X X X 13451 - X X X X X X X 13505 - X X X 34) 13537 - X X X X X X X X 13573 - X X X 35) 36) 13637 X X X X X X X X X X 13683 X X X 13723 X X X X X X 37) 13749 X X X X X X X (x) 38) 13853 X X X X X X X X (x) 13903 X X 39) 14027 x" X X X X X (x) 14139 X X X X X X X (x) 14235 X X X X X X X (x) 14361 X X X 40) 14461 X X X X 14521 X X X X X X (x) . ? 14583 *x X X X X X X 14613. X X X X X X X X Line M H F w B N 0 E R p 14657 X X X X X X X 14669 X X X X 14793 (x) X X X (x) 14861 X X X 14907 X X X X 41) 14969 X . X X X X 15047 X X X X (x) 15117 .X X X X X X X (x) 15145 X X X X 15205 . X X X 15267 X .X X X X X X X . (x) 15295 X X X X 15325 X X X X X X X (x) 15419 . X X X 15469 X X X X X X (x) 15565 X X X 15681 • X X X 15721 X X X 42) 15765 .X X X X X X X (x) 15795 X X X 15891 • X X X 43) 15915 "x X X X X X X X (x) 16175 X X X X (x) X X X (x) 16211 X X X X X X (x) 16263 *x X X X X X X X (x) 16301 X X X 16333 .? X X X X X X X (x) 16403 X X X X X X (x) a b f g l m q s t w z 214 Line M H F w B N 0 E R p 16431 X X X 16455 X (x) X • (x) 44) 16587 . ? "x X X X 16621 X X X X X X X (x) 16661 X X X 16679 • X X X (x) 45) 16769 X X X 16773 X X X . X X X (x) 16807 X X (x) X X X X (x) 16871 X X X 16909 X X X X X . (x) 16923 X X X X (x) 17139 X X X X X X (x) . 9 17275 X X X X X . ? X (x) 17283 X X X 17327 X X X X X X 17347 X X X X X 17417 X X X X X X (x) 17627 X X X X X X . (x) 17659 # ? *x X X X X X X (x) 17723 X X X X X X X (x) 17817 X X X X X X 46) 18115 x x x x x x x (x) x 47) 48) 18159 x 215 Line M H F w B N 0 E R p j 49) 18215 X X X X X X X O ) 18245 X X X X X X X (x) 18359 X X X X X X (x) 18367 X . ? *x X . 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