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A generative study of certain prefixal variants in Contemporary Standard Russian Blazicevic, Branko M. 1976

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GENERATIVE STUDY OF CERTAIN PREFIXAL VARIANTS IN CONTEMPORARY STANDARD RUSSIAN by BRANKO M. BLAZICEVIC B.A. , University of Zagreb, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Slavonic Studies V7e accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Slavonic Studies Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 May 3, 1976 Date University of B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT A GENERATIVE STUDY OF CERTAIN PREFIXAL VARIANTS IN CONTEMPORARY STANDARD RUSSIAN by Branko M. B l a z i c e v i c Thesis supervisor: Dr. Alex P. Harshenin One of many language phenomena i n Contemporary Standard Russian i s the f a c t that besides the so- c a l l e d regular p r e f i x e s , which i n the process of Russian word-formation are the most common ones, there are also various p r e f i x a l variant forms used i n p a r t i c u l a r phonological environments, i n which the former do not occur. Alongside the regular p r e f i x e s , one of the largest groups of these variant forms i s , f o r instance, the group with variants V0-and SO- (alternating with V- and S-, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and other analogous forms with t h e i r d i s t i n c t f i n a l vowel segment. An examination of such corresponding p a i r s of vari a n t forms as S- and SO- leads to the conclusion that i n the course of the h i s t o r i c a l development of the Russian language system, certain a r c h i p r e f i x e s , or primary p r e f i x e s , underwent d i f f e r e n t phonological changes as the r e s u l t of s p e c i f i c governing p r i n c i p l e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p r e f i x a l i i i i i r e l a t e d forms, l i k e S- and SO-, provides evidence that i n some e a r l y phonological environments c e r t a i n primary prefixes developed i n t o s t r u c t u r a l l y more stable p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s , t h e i r f i n a l segment being r e a l i z e d as the vowel segment o. The object of t h i s study i s : . a) f i r s t l y , to i d e n t i f y the main categories of the Contemporary Standard Russian (CSR) p r e f i x a l v a r i a n t s with the f i n a l vowel segment o, and those p a r t i c u l a r root morpheme segments which provide the environment e s s e n t i a l f o r the r e s u l t i n g forms of the derivations of these p r e f i x e s ; b) secondly, to determine from the data c o l l e c t e d whether the i n i t i a l root morpheme segments, with regard to t h e i r synchronic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , are i n any way instrumental i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of p r e f i x a l variants with the f i n a l o segment; c) t h i r d l y , to systematize the s i g n i f i c a n t data of p r e f i x a l and root morphemes i n t o appropriate groups e x h i b i t -ing common features; and, d) f i n a l l y , by f i r s t p o s i t i n g the underlying repre-sentations of the p r e f i x a l variants with the f i n a l o segment and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i n g root morphemes, to generate the t y p i c a l group examples by means of the relevant phonological r u l e s and to derive t h e i r near-to-surface phonetic forms represent-ing the broad phonetic features, as they occur at the stage at which some of the very l a t e s t phonological rule s have not yet applied. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS . . . . . . . . i x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ,. . x i i CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . 1 1.0 Purpose of Study 1 1.1 D e f i n i t i o n of Prefixes 3 1.2 Function of Prefixes 4 1.3 Development of Prefixes 5 1.4 Structure of Prefixes . 8 1.5 The Problem and Its Proposed Solution . . . 9 1.6 Stress, Meaning and Style 12 1.7 Sources of Study 13 1.8 Notation 16 1.9 Key to Contemporary Russian Alphabet Order and T r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of C y r i l l i c Letters . 18 1.10 Representation of Underlying Phonological Segments i n Russian 18 1.11 Inventory of Russian Underlying Phonological Segments 20 NOTES TO CHAPTER I 21 i v V CHAPTER PAGE II . PRESENT STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF PREFIXES IN THE GRAMMAR — STATIC CHARACTERISTICS . . . 25 2.0 Introduction 25 2.1 O-Variants and Their Productive Root Morphemes 25 2.2 L i s t of Surface and Deep Forms of Representative Root Morphemes Taking O-Variant Prefixes 28 2.3 Mutual Combination Patterns of Russian P r e f i x a l Morphemes . . 41 2.4 D i s t r i b u t i o n Pattern of Two or More P r e f i x a l Morphemes 42 2.5 Summary of D i s t r i b u t i o n Patterns of O-Variant P r e f i x a l Morphemes Occurring with Other Prefixes 47 2.6 Phonological Processes of Lowering and Dropping i n P r e f i x a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Pattern 49 2.7 Phonological Processes of Lowering and Dropping i n P r e f i x a l Morphemes 50 2.8 D i s t r i b u t i o n of P r e f i x a l 0-Variants i n Formation of Different Parts of Speech . 53 2.9 P r e f i x a l O-Variants i n Relation to Current S t y l i s t i c Usage 56 v i CHAPTER PAGE 2.10 P r e f i x a l O-Variants and Aspect of Verbs . 57 2.11 P r e f i x a l O-Variants and Phonological Assimilation 58 2.12 P r e f i x a l O-Variants and I n i t i a l Root Morpheme Surface Segments 59 2.13 Inventory of I n i t i a l Root Morpheme Orthographic Segments . . . 61 2.14 Ratio of I n i t i a l Root Morpheme Segments P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n Formation of P r e f i x a l O-Variant Morphemes 62 2.15 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S y l l a b i c Versus Non-Syllabic I n i t i a l Consonant Clusters of Root Morphemes 62 2.16 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . 64 NOTES TO CHAPTER II 66 II I . PHONOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS AND DERIVATIVE PROCESSES DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS 71 3.0 Introduction . . . . . 71 3.1 The F i r s t Environment of the Lower Rule . 76 3.1.1 Summary of P r e f i x a l Variants 10 5 3.1.2 Perfective Verbs i n the F i r s t Environment Taking P r e f i x a l O-Variant Morpheme i n Conjugation 108 v i i CHAPTER PAGE 3.1.3 Summary of P r e f i x a l O-Variants i n Conjugated Perfective Verbs I l l 3.1.4 Double Prefixes Words of the F i r s t Environment I l l 3.1.5 Summary of Double Prefixes Words i n the F i r s t Environment 115 3.1.6 Concluding Remarks 115 3.2 The-Second Environment of the Lower Rule 117 3.2.1 The F i r s t Group 118 3.2.2 Summary of the F i r s t Group 12 6 3.2.3 Minor Exceptions to the F i r s t Group . . . 126 3.2.4 Summary of the Exceptions to the F i r s t Group 128 3.2.5 The Second Group 128 3.2.6 Summary of the Second Group 132 3.2.7 The Third Group 132 3.2.8 Summary of the Third Group 134 3.2.9 Concluding Remarks 13 4 NOTES TO CHAPTER III 136 IV. NONPHONOLOGICALLY MOTIVATED O-VARIANTS 139 4.0 Introduction 139 4.1 I n i t i a l CL Sequence i n Root Morphemes . . 141 4.2 Summary of P r e f i x a l Variants 159 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE 4.3 Concluding Remarks . . 161 4.4 Po s t - P r e f i x a l UR's with an I n i t i a l O-Segment 162 4.5 Summary of P r e f i x a l Variants 171 4.6 Concluding Remarks 172 4.7 Other Examples Lacking Phonological Motivation 173 4.8 Summary " 190 NOTES TO CHAPTER IV 193 V. CONCLUSION 19 4 BIBLIOGRAPHY 200 APPENDIX I: STRESSED PREFIXAL O-VARIANTS . . . . 204 APPENDIX I I : PHONOLOGICAL RULES 209 SUMMARY OF RULES 217 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS adj. — adjective adv. — adverb (BdC) — Baudouin de Courtenay (rule) bot. term. — botanical terminology C — any consonant C 1 — i d e n t i c a l consonant — one or more consonants chem. term. — chemical terminology c o l l . — c o l l o q u i a l CS — Church S l a v i c CSR — Contemporary Standard Russian DI — derived imperfective d i a l . — d i a l e c t a l f. — feminine gender G — g l i d e gram. term. — grammatical terminology impf. — imperfective verb i n f . — i n f i n i t i v e IR — intermediate representation L — any l i q u i d l i n g . term. — l i n g u i s t i c terminology m. — masculine gender math. term. — mathematical terminology i x X obs. — obsolete form OCS — Old Church Slavonic OR — Old Russian P. — person p.p.a. — present p a r t i c i p l e active p.p.p. — present p a r t i c i p l e passive pf. - — p e r f e c t i v e verb RDD — Russian Derivational Dictionary sg. — singular SRJ — Slovar' russkogo jazyka SSRLJ — Slovar 1 sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo jazyka theol. term. — the o l o g i c a l terminology UR — underlying representation V — any vowel V — long vowel V — short vowel V — front vowel V — long front vowel V — short front vowel vulg. — vulgar [-R] — non-Russian form [+R] — Russian form [-S] — non-Slavic form [+S] — S l a v i c form (as opposed to Russian form [+R]) x i morpheme boundary marker; also indicates forms belonging to [+R] or [+S] , and the presence of phonological features as a minus sign, i n d i c a t e s : a) forms not belonging to the o r i g i n a l stock of Russian or S l a v i c morphemes, b) absence of phonological features, and c) that no change has taken place; as a hyphen, signals the p o s i t i o n of a separately l i s t e d t r a n s l i t e r a t e d morpheme or incomplete word indicates the i d e n t i t y of two forms compared brackets enclose phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n ; also enclose a marker which indicates Russian, non-Russian, S l a v i c , and non-Slavic forms, word boundary marker; also the boundary marker of UR's of morphemes and segments derived from indicates ungrammatical, non-attested, hypothetical or reconstructed form indicates p a l a t a l i z a t i o n of the preceding consonant i n a transcribed form and stands for a soft sign i n a t r a n s l i t e r a t e d form stands for a hard sign i n a t r a n s l i t e r a t e d form develops in t o indicates a dropped segment ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It i s my sincere pleasure to thank my supervisor, Professor Alex P. Harshenin, for his constant guidance and constructive c r i t i c i s m throughout the course of t h i s research. I would also l i k e to thank Professor Nicholas Poppe' for reading t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n at the l a t t e r stages and making h e l p f u l comments and suggestions, and Professor R. J . Gregg for his c r i t i c a l assessment of the f i n a l manuscript. I want to thank Mrs. Ruby Toren for her capable typing of a very d i f f i c u l t manuscript and for her h e l p f u l suggestions. F i n a l l y , I wish to express my gratitude to my wife for her patience, understanding and good cheer. x i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.0 Purpose of Study The Russian grammatical system i s well known for the coexistence of two p r e f i x a l forms: a shorter form without an additional v o c a l i c segment, and a longer form, with an addi t i o n a l vowel segment o appended to the f i n a l consonant 1 2 of the p r e f i x a l morpheme. The existence of these longer 3 forms, or p r e f i x a l o-variants, i n the Russian language system has usually received e i t h e r sporadic or one-sided 4 treatment by a l i m i t e d number of authors. In the l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e at large, the presence of d i f f e r e n t p r e f i x a l morpheme variants, V- and VO-, S- and SO-, and so on, has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to one of the following causes: a) the dropping of the back j e r i n the p r e f i x , y i e l d -5 ing the regular variant; b) the lowering of the f i n a l strong j e r u i n the p r e f i x a l morpheme and the subsequent dropping of the weak jers i and u i n the i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e of the root morpheme;^ c) the p a r a l l e l existence of two i d e n t i c a l consonants at the morpheme boundary, the f i n a l one of the p r e f i x a l morpheme and the i n i t i a l one of the root morpheme, which necessitated the lowering of the p r e f i x a l j e r u for the sake 1 2 7 of easier pronunciation; d) the words with the p r e f i x a l o-variants being of Old Church Slavonic (OCS) o r i g i n which, v i a Church S l a v i c 8 (CS), made t h e i r way into the Russian vocabulary. In recent years a number of authors, among them Morris Halle, Theodore M. Lightner, and Herbert S. Coats being the most p r o l i f i c contributors, have proposed a generative approach to account f o r the existence of the p r e f i x a l o-variants i n Russian. Although i n t h e i r works the subject of p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes has been treated i n passing and with the use of l i m i t e d l i n g u i s t i c data, they have proposed the fundamental phonological rules for the deriva-q t i o n of these p r e f i x e s . Following the general t h e o r e t i c a l framework presented i n the works of the above authors, t h i s study e s s e n t i a l l y represents a preliminary attempt to analyze a l l available l i n g u i s t i c data of the p r e f i x a l and root morphemes involved i n the formation of the p r e f i x a l o-variants, and also to propose a de s c r i p t i v e environmental c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the existent, phonologically-divergent p r e f i x a l morphemes i n the Russian language system. This study does not pretend eit h e r to probe a l l aspects of the Russian prefixes or to present a comprehensive phonological analysis. I t i s simply an i n i t i a l inves-t i g a t i o n intended to examine and systematize those r e l a t i o n s 3 and factors which e x i s t between the i n i t i a l component parts of a given word and which are instrumental i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes. Therefore, the basic objective of the study i s to separate and define those groups of o-variant morphemes and those root morphemes which, taken together, undergo s i m i l a r phonological processes. Even though the subject matter of the present work has been l i m i t e d to the o-variant morphemes, the whole p r e f i x a l system of the Russian language w i l l be elaborated on, within the adopted framework i n those cases which are considered to be pertinent to the p r e f i x a l morphemes under in v e s t i g a t i o n , e i t h e r as a set of pre-derivative elements or as s p e c i f i c p r e f i x a l morphemes. 1.1 D e f i n i t i o n of Prefixes The d e f i n i t i o n of the term "p r e f i x " i n the Contempo-rary Standard Russian (CSR) l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e i s s t i l l to be more accurately formulated because i t i s self-evident that some l i n g u i s t i c units which, c l a s s i f i e d by d i f f e r e n t authors under the term " p r e f i x " , have nothing i n common. Thus some units i n numerous Russian compound words, such as POLU- 1 0 i n P 0 L U S 6 N "half asleep", are c a l l e d prefixes s o l e l y because of t h e i r corresponding p r e f i x a l functions. In the present study a d i v i d i n g l i n e w i l l be drawn between these p r e f i x - l i k e l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s , sometimes c a l l e d "semi-prefixes" or " p r e f i x o i d s " , ^ and those a u x i l i a r y 4 l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s , or true prefixes which, having l o s t t h e i r independent character, cannot stand by themselves and always need a following word to which they are attached. The f i n a l v o c a l i c segment o, which i n the formation of p r e f i x a l o-variants i s said to be "appended" to the p r e f i x a l morpheme, namely, between two morphemes i n word-formation, i n l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e has several designations, such as "connecting vowel", "inserted vowel", "mobile vowel", " f l e e t i n g vowel", "alternating vowel", and so on. In Russian l i n g u i s t i c terminology the expression used i s beglyj glasnyj. Since the above terms are generally used when r e f e r r i n g to other s i m i l a r cases of word-formation i n bringing together two l i n g u i s t i c elements, and considering that the v o c a l i c segment i n question has a s p e c i f i c role i n the present d e s c r i p t i o n , the more appropriate term " p r e f i x a l o-segment" or, for the sake of bre v i t y , "o-segment", w i l l be used i n th i s study. Likewise, the p r e f i x a l morpheme with the f i n a l o-segment attached to i t w i l l be termed the " p r e f i x a l o-variant morpheme" or, i n short, " p r e f i x a l o-variant". 1 . 2 Function of Prefixes The primary function of Russian prefixes i s generally to create words with new meaning. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case, both i n the CSR and i n the Old Russian (OR) grammatical system, i n the formation of verbs where Russian prefixes are highly productive. The secondary, aspectual function of the 5 prefixes i s , with some exceptions, to change the verb from 12 imperfective to p e r f e c t i v e . Thus prefixes either s l i g h t l y modify or completely change the meaning of the words being prefixed, or have an addit i o n a l function (in Russian as i n other S l a v i c languages) of expressing the perfective aspect of the verb. Prefixes, as far as the Russian language i s concerned, do not a l t e r the grammatical category of the prefixed words; each word remains i n that part of speech to which i t belonged before the p r e f i x was attached to i t . In general, p r e f i x a t i o n i s also grammatically neutral i n contrast to s u f f i x a t i o n . While the former merely serves as a modifier of the root morpheme, the l a t t e r i s instrumen-t a l i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of some d e f i n i t e grammatical category of a word. The process of s u f f i x a t i o n i s usually associated with the set of grammatical endings of a part of speech, while the process of p r e f i x a t i o n appears to be completely neutral i n t h i s respect. 1.3 Development of Prefixes The fundamental phonetic changes of the Russian p r e f i x a l morphemes under in v e s t i g a t i o n i n the present work 13 have developed gradually over many centuries, as speakers and scribes (the l a t t e r usually responsible for i d i o s y n c r a t i c p r e f i x a l forms) abandoned one grammatical structure i n preference for another. 6 The d u a l i t y of co-occurring p r e f i x a l forms has been explained h i s t o r i c a l l y by the fa c t that at one time a l l OR p r e f i x a l morphemes, which developed into the o-variant morphemes treated i n t h i s study, ended with the reduced high lax vowel u c a l l e d a "back j e r " (in contrast to the reduced high lax vowel i c a l l e d a "front j e r " ) . Thus f o r example, the prefixes V- and V0-, IZ- and IZO-, POD- and PODO-, 0T-and 0T0-, S- and SO-, show an i d e n t i t y i n underlying repre-sentation (UR) #vu#, #izu#, #podu#, #otu#, and #su#, i n that they have the back j e r u as t h e i r f i n a l segment. In the l a t e r stages of development of the Russian grammatical system and i n d i f f e r e n t environments, t h i s vowel either dropped out, i n which case the most prevalent "short" or "basic" form of the p r e f i x a l morpheme resulted, otherwise known as the regular p r e f i x , or the vowel segment u was lowered to o, and the morpheme was r e a l i z e d i n i t s longer, o-variant form, usually termed the i r r e g u l a r p r e f i x . In the majority of cases the p o l a r i z a t i o n of the primary p r e f i x a l morphemes (#vu#, #izu#, #su#, and so on) into two basic p o s i t i o n a l classes, with r e l a t i o n to the p a r t i c u l a r environment, has been e s s e n t i a l l y systematic. Thus, for example, the o-variant p r e f i x developed i n most of those cases where a j e r had dropped from the root morpheme (VOBRAT1, SOBRAT1, from #wu + b i r + ...#, #su + b i r + ...#; VOWS' from #wu + wun + ...#, and so on), while the regular p r e f i x developed i n those cases where the root morpheme retained a vowel other than j e r (SDAT' from #su + do + ...#). In these and s i m i l a r cases the derived p r e f i x a l variant forms can be substantiated by the h i s t o r i c a l evidence. However, there are some o-variant forms which are considered to have been developed by analogy with other o-variants (for example, the p r e f i x a l o-variant 0B0- i s often c i t e d as one which 14 developed by analogy, that i s , there i s no h i s t o r i c a l evidence for i t s UR #obu# form). Since such an analogical approach has l i t t l e to contribute within the framework of the present analysis, these products of "analogy" have been treated and developed here as the res t of the o-variant forms namely, with the lax, high, back segment u posited i n t h e i r underlying representations. Many phonological variants i n the contemporary Russian language system have become accepted as permanent forms, while others s t i l l a lternate, as i n the case of the prefixes S- and SO- i n SVERSAT'—SOVERSAT', or the p r e f i x a l variants 0T- and 0T0- i n OTDVINUT1—OTODVINUT'. These are cases i n which both p r e f i x a l variants are used with one and the same root morpheme. One of these variants (SVERSAT1, OTDVfNUT') has been phonologically motivated, while the other (SOVERSAT* OTODVINUT1) has been determined by s t y l i s t i c usage. A l l those p r e f i x a l variant forms which are not phonologically motivated seem to have a decreasing frequency of usage. The 8 point i n question can be i l l u s t r a t e d by the variants PROTIVU-and PROTIVO-. While the former was very much i n usage during the nineteenth century, i t i s now considered obsolete. 1.4 Structure of Prefixes The p r e f i x a l morpheme as a l i n g u i s t i c unit has essen-t i a l l y three major aspects: phonological, morphological, and l e x i c a l . In the course of h i s t o r i c a l development the phono-l o g i c a l component of the p r e f i x a l morpheme was subjected to various changes and the p r e f i x a l morpheme with the same l e x i c a l meaning developed into a number of s t r u c t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t p r e f i x a l v a r i a n t s . The f a c t that phonological re-structuring can be observed both i n the OR words and i n words borrowed from the stock of the OCS vocabulary provides an opportunity to analyze the p r e f i x a l morphemes even i n those l e x i c a l units which, on account pf t h e i r derived stems (by the addition of a p r e f i x or s u f f i x ) , would otherwise, i n the present Russian vocabulary, be obscured with regard to t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as separate morphemes. The l o c a t i o n of prefixes i n word-formation i s always p r e - p o s i t i o n a l , that i s , t h e i r place i s at the beginning of a word. On account of t h e i r i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n they have been denoted as "pre-derivatives" or, since prefixes are most active i n the formation of verbs as "pre-verbs". However, there are some exceptional cases i n which Russian prefixes do not i n the s t r i c t sense occur i n the i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n of 9 a word. As i t happens, there are cases of p r e f i x a l morphemes which, i n the formation of compound words, have supposedly acquired an " i n t e r n a l " p o s i t i o n . Such i s the case of the p r e f i x a l morpheme IS- i n the compound word VREMJAISCISLENIE, and numerous other examples of compound words i n which the second element of the word happened to be already prefixed and has been attached as the second element i n the process of word-compounding. The a l t e r n a t i o n of £ (zero) and the segment o i s not r e s t r i c t e d only to the p r e f i x a l morphemes or to the o seg-15 ment. I t also takes place i n root morphemes and s u f f i x e s where a wide var i e t y of v o c a l i c or consonantal segments alternate. In the case of p r e f i x a l morphemes i t can also involve the surface segment u as i n PROTIVU- and PROTIVO-, ME^DU- and ME^DO-. The a l t e r n a t i o n of segments i n Russian 16 i s , therefore, a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of word morphology. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of phonetic changes has i n many cases been extended beyond the l i m i t s of those cases which are required to be phonetically s p e c i f i e d i n order to conform to the Russian language system. Thus, i n a number of instances the p r e f i x a l o-variant morpheme has i t s explanation as being of CS o r i g i n or an analogical formation modelled a f t e r another o-variant morpheme. 1.5 The Problem and Its Proposed Solution Because of phonological changes i n the Russian 10 language, underlying representations of jers i and u are eliminated i n the generative process either by tensing (DI-TENSING), dropping (C-DROP), or lowering (V-LOWER). Jers are tensed i n roots of verbs of derived 17 ' imperfectives (DI's) as, for example, i n NAZYVAT1 "to name, c a l l up" (<UR #zuv#), UBIRAT' "to c o l l e c t , harvest" (<UR #bir#), VYZIDAT' "to wait f o r " (<UR #gid#). The correspond-ing p e r fective (pf.) pairs are NAZVAT', UBRAT', and VYZDAT1. Dropping of jers occurs i n the development of regular p r e f i x e s , that i s , those prefixes which have a f i n a l conso-18 nantal segment. These prefixes always have a corresponding p r e f i x a l o-variant. The p r e f i x a l jers are generally dropped when they occur i n one of the following p o s i t i o n s : a) before a root morpheme which has a vowel other than j e r , as i n SDAT1 "to d e l i v e r , give" (<UR #su + do + ...#), PODNOSIT1 "to bring, present" (<UR #podu + nos + ...#), and so on; b) before a root morpheme i n which one of the jers has been tensed., s.uch as PODZIGAT1 "to set f i r e to, to set on f i r e " (<UR #podu + gig + ...#), or lowered, such'as SGONJAT1 "to drive away" (<UR #su + gun + ...#). The t h i r d case i n which the underlying jers are eliminated i s i n the lowering of jers i and u to e and o. In o-variant p r e f i x e s , i t i s the back j e r u v/hich i s lowered to o. In general, t h i s j e r i s lowered whenever i t appears as the f i n a l segment of a p r e f i x a l morpheme occurring before a root morpheme which has a j e r in i t s i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e . The examples SOBRAT1 "to gather" (<UR #su + b i r + ...# > (V-LOWER), (V-DROP) > #so + br + #), IZOGNUT' "to bend/ curve" « U R #izu + gun + ...# > (V-LOWER), (V-DROP) > #izo + gn + ...#), and PODOGRET1 "to warm up" « U R #podu + gur + — > (V-LOWER, (V-DROP) — > #podo + gr + ...#) i l l u s t r a t e the lowering process. The problem of the analysis i s to f i n d the behavioral consistency of the back jers i n the above lowering pattern, and to e s t a b l i s h any other phonological motivations for the 19 lowering of back jers i n prefixes. The p r e f i x a l o-variants i n Russian cannot be i n t e r -preted u n t i l e i t h e r the vowel i n the f i r s t s y l l a b l e or the i n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r of the following root morpheme has been analyzed. Thus, for the correct i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and grouping of the o-variant morphemes, the right-hand environ-ment of each o-variant has to be scanned to determine the factor governing the p a r t i c u l a r type of the p r e f i x a l o-variant. I t follows that the phonological analysis of the Russian p r e f i x a l o-variants involves a systematic examination of the environment beyond t h e i r graphic morpheme-boundaries. These p r e f i x a l v a riants, therefore, require the analysis of longer phonological s t r i n g s . 12 1.6 Stress, Meaning and Style In the present work the accentual properties of underlying representations i n the derivation of p r e f i x a l o-variants have not been indicated, except i n the ortho-graphic representations and i n the intermediate forms given. This does not imply that i n the formation of p r e f i x a l o-variants stress has an i n s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . As a supra-segmental feature, stress has a d i r e c t bearing: a) on the 20 lowering or dropping of lax, high vowels; b) i n the 21 formation of p e r f e c t i v e verbs with the p r e f i x VY-; and - 22 also c) i n the development of the p r e f i x a l o-variant ROZ-. Stress has been omitted because i t i s i r r e l e v a n t to the discussion of prefixes as presented here. In addition to the above-mentioned functions, stress i s important i n the reduction of vowels, changing the surface i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , that i s pronunciation, of the respective vowel segment, as i n SOBIRAT1—SOGNAT1—SOGNUTYJ, where the p r e f i x a l vowel segment o becomes surface [a] — [ A ] — [ 6 ] , respectively. However, t h i s stress factor goes beyond the fixed objectives of t h i s work. Besides bearing the primary s t r e s s , some prefixes i n double-stressed words i n Russian may also have a secondary s t r e s s . In the l a t t e r group are some native prefixes such as MEZ-, POSLE-, SVERX-, and also some prefixes of foreign 13 o r i g i n such as ANTI-, KONTR-, PRO- (excluding the orthograph-i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l p r e f i x PRO-, which i s of native o r i g i n ) , SUPER-, TRANS-, and ULTRA-. As f a r as the meaning of d i f f e r e n t p r e f i x a l o-variant 23 morphemes i s concerned, sporadic c i t a t i o n s are made only i n those pertinent cases which, on account of t h e i r phono-l o g i c a l aspect, require a d e f i n i t e statement. Some of the older p r e f i x a l o-variant forms are r e s t r i c t e d to ce r t a i n s t y l e s of expression. Most of these r e s t r i c t e d o-variant forms have been c l a s s i f i e d i n r e l a t i o n to d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s . There are, however, some o-variants which have been assigned by d i f f e r e n t authors to quite d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s . Thus the main sources used f o r present s t y l i s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , namely, Slovar' russkogo jazyka (SRJ) by S. I. Ozegov, Moscow, 1968, 7th ed., and Slovar' sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo jazyka, volumes 1-17, Akademija nauk SSSR, Moscow-Leningrad, 1950-1965, do not always agree as f a r as usage i s concerned. However, since Ozegov's Slovar' i s more up-to-date, i t has served as the decisive authority on usage. In some exceptional cases a t h i r d source, Russko-anglijskij slovar', by A. I. Smirnitsky et a l . , Moscow, 1961, has been consulted i n those few cases which required s t y l i s t i c c l a r i f i c a t i o n . 1.7 Sources of Study The e s s e n t i a l corpus of data of the p r e f i x a l o-variant 14 morphemes used i n t h i s thesis has been c o l l e c t e d from the Russian Derivational Dictionary (RDD) (by Dean S. Worth et a l . , American E l s e v i e r Publishing Co., New York, 1970), i n which the p r e f i x segmentation has been achieved by breaking down each l i n g u i s t i c u n i t i n t o i t s component parts, thus separating the p r e f i x a l morpheme from the p o s t - p r e f i x a l constituents. A l l the pre-root p r e f i x a l morphemes i n the RDD have been examined for the p r e f i x a l o-variant morpheme constituents, and each one has been recorded i n a l l the possible o-variant forms. In those cases i n which the root morpheme constituent has a set of p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes, that i s , where the p r e f i x a l o-variants p a r t i c i p a t e i n the formation of several parts of speech, the verbal form has been selected as the representative one. This has been done on the assumption that the verbs, with t h e i r aspectual opposition, would y i e l d more information concerning the phonological structure and derivation of the two d i f f e r e n t p r e f i x a l forms. In many cases, for the sake of i l l u s t r a t i o n , the substantival forms and other parts of speech have been added to the e x i s t i n g verbal form or, i n the absence of the l a t t e r , the nominal or any other forms found have been l i s t e d as examples. Adjectives have been recorded only i n sporadic cases to i l l u s t r a t e further the examples i n question. Neverthe-l e s s , there are many instances where only one part of speech, 15 for example, an adverb (VOVE'K, VOVNE, SOVSE*M, S6SLEPA) , has provided the only form with the p a r t i c u l a r p r e f i x a l o-variant morpheme. In conjunction with the segmentation outlined i n the RDD, there are some p r e f i x a l constituent forms of a disput-able nature. For example, such i s the case of some prefixes which have not been separated from the following inserted consonantal segment n, as ZAN-, NAN-, PON-, PRIN-, SN-, i n P E R E Z A N I M A T 1 , P O D N A N I M A T ' , P O N I M A T 1 , V O S P R I N I M A T * , S N I M A T 1 , 24 r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, such uncertainties, on account of t h e i r marginal importance and t h e i r irrelevance i n the t o t a l presentation of the data, have been simply recorded as they are given i n t h i s d i c t i o n a r y . The second main source of study, Slovar* sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo jazyka, has been instrumental i n checking the existence, usage, aspect, s t r e s s , and meaning of a l l words with the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes c o l l e c t e d from the RDD. In some cases the o r i g i n a l data c o l l e c t e d from the l a t t e r dictionary have been supplemented by addit i o n a l forms from the SSRLJ not previously recorded. It should be pointed out that the SSRLJ served as the main source f o r a l l sorts of addi t i o n a l information and corrections. Besides serving as a quick reference guide, Oz'egov's SRJ, as already mentioned, has been used primarily to deter-mine the s t y l i s t i c usage of doublets and exceptional forms. To selected examples from the body of data thus c o l l e c t e d , the basic phonological rules have been applied as outlined i n the works of Halle, Lightner, and Coats, that i s , in t h e i r respective works introducing a generative approach to the Russian language system. In view of the fact that the present analysis deals with the general behavior of the p r e f i x a l o-variants, many elaborate d e t a i l s of generative Russian phonology, discussed in the works of the above authors, have been excluded from the present study f o r the sake of brevity and because of the l i m i t e d objectives of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . 1.8 Notation Aft e r the Russian Orthographic Reform of 19 54, a l l i^'s following the p r e f i x a l morpheme segment ending i n a consonant were, according to t h e i r pronunciation, changed i n w r i t i n g to y_'s. This change did not take place a f t e r those p r e f i x a l morphemes ending i n z. or x as, for example, i n the words MEZINSTITUTSKIJ, SVERXIZYSKANNYJ, and a f t e r p r e f i x a l morphemes of foreign o r i g i n as i n KONTRIGRA. In the l a t t e r instance the presence of the l e t t e r i_ reveals the foreign 25 o r i g i n of the p r e f i x a l morpheme. E i s often a written a l t e r n a t i v e to e. Since fi has a p a l a t a l feature as the vowel l e t t e r corresponding to o, i t does not have an independent status i n dictionary 17 l i s t i n g s , although i t i s sometimes written as e for the sole purpose of avoiding ambiguity i n pronunciation. The l e t t e r J , of the digraphs JU and JA, indicates the p a l a t a l q u a l i t y of the immediately preceding consonant and j o t . Soft sign (') i s an orthographic feature which serves: f i r s t l y , as an in d i c a t o r of the p a l a t a l q u a l i t y of the preceding consonant; secondly, as an in d i c a t o r of the possible p a l a t a l q u a l i t y of the preceding consonant and, at the same time, as a separating sign when a vowel l e t t e r e, e, i _ , jju or j_a follows i t (in which case these vowels have the element j_, as i f following another vowel l e t t e r ) , as i n P'ET, P'JU^crJ, SUD ' jA ; and t h i r d l y , i n some f i n a l positions (after §, 2 , c, sc) and a f t e r r e f l e x i v e verbs (before the p a r t i c l e -SJA, as i n M^T'.SJA) the s o f t sign has l o s t i t s power to indicate the p a l a t a l i z e d preceding consonant and acquired a grammatical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Hard sign (") i s an orthographic device used between a consonant and a vowel to indicate that they are to be pronounced separately, i n which case the following vowels, • as i n the case of the so f t sign above, are preceded by j. (OT"JE*XAT' , POD"JEM, S " j£ST'). Any consonant, except the p a l a t a l s , the a f f r i c a t e c, and of course the purely orthographic symbols _^  and has a 18 p a l a t a l i z e d and a non-palatalized variant. Generally speak-ing, a consonant i s p a l a t a l i z e d i f the following segment i s e, i ^ , 2., or the symbol 1 . The p a l a t a l consonant £ has a v > long p a l a t a l i z e d variant [z':] i n geminates l i k e VOZZI, z'uz'z'AT', and also i f z_ i s preceded by z_, EZZU, POZZE. The p a l a t a l i z e d long [£':] i s r e a l i z e d i n words having consonant sequence sc or s_c as i n PLASC [plas 1 :] , SCET [s 1 :6t] . 1.9 Key to Contemporary Russian Alphabet Order and T r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of C y r i l l i c Letters A — A K K X — X E — B JI — L H — C B — V M — M q — . C r — G H — N HI —. •v s R — D 0 0 m — sc E — E n — P •b — II E — E p — R LI — Y )K : I C — S h — i 3 — z T — T 3 — E H — I y — U K) JU H — J F H — JA 1.10 Representation of Underlying Phonological Segments i n Russian In order to e s t a b l i s h the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between deep structure and surface structure, each phonological s t r i n g of 19 segments must be reconstructed i n i t s underlying, abstract form. This deeper l e v e l of structure must be posited i n order that one might be able to reduce the complicated variety of surface forms to more basic forms. In accordance with the s i m p l i c i t y requirements of the grammar, the development of surface forms through interme-diate forms must proceed along the most economical route. Besides, there must be a continuum between deep, intermediate, and surface representations. Any anomalies and i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the surface forms often have t h e i r explanation at the deeper, abstract l e v e l of representation. The following inventory of underlying (abstract) 2 6 phonological segments i n Russian i s the one used by Goats. In general, the same underlying segments were also used by 27 Lightner. The phonological features posited i n the rules 2 8 are those proposed by Chomsky and Halle. The reasons for adopting the following inventory of Russian underlying phonological segments are: 1) they represent an economical abstract substructure of segments; 2) there are established phonological rules which generate from them the required surface segments; and 3) they have already been attested i n l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e on Russian generative phonology. 20 1.11 Inventory of Russian Underlying Phonological Segments Sonorants: a l l s p e c i f i e d +sonorant, +voice, -low I u e o i u e o j w 1 r m n S y l l a b i c + + + + + + + + - - - -Consonantal - - - - - - - - - - + + + + Anterior - - - + + + + Coronal - - - + + + High + + - - + + - - + + - - - -Back - + - + - + - + - + - - - -Tense + + + + - - - - - - - - - -Continuant + + + + + + + +. + + + + - -L a t e r a l - - - - - - - - .-. - + - - -Obstruents; a l l s p e c i f i e d -sonorant, - s y l l a b i c , +consonantal, -low, -tense, - l a t e r a l , -nasal Labials D e n t a 1 s V e 1 a r s p b t d s z k g x Anterior + + + + + + _ _ _ Coronal + + + + _ _ _ High - _ _ _ _ + + + Back _ - _ _ _ _ + + + Continuant - - - - + + - - + Voice - + - + - + - + -Delayed release - - - .+. . .+ - - + Strident - - - - + + _ _ _ NOTES TO CHAPTER I The coexistence of two p r e f i x a l forms i s usually described as vowel-zero a l t e r n a t i o n . For works t r e a t i n g t h i s subject at large see, among others: I. I . Bukatevic et a l , Ocerki po sravnitel'noj grammatike vostocnoslavjanskix  jazykov (The Hague-Paris: Mouton, 1969) , pp. 53-56; LT L. Bulanin, Fonetika sovremennogo russkogo jazyka (Moskva: VisSaja Skola, 1970), pp. 128-148; L. A. Bulaxovskij, Isto-r i c e s k i j kommentarij k russkomu literaturnomu jazyku (Kiev: Radjans'ka gkola, 1958), pp. 107-110; Harold Leonard Klag-stad, J r . , Vowel-Zero Alternation i n Contemporary Standard  Russian, unpub. doctoral d i s s . (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 1954); Theodore M. Lightner, Problems i n the  Theory of Phonology, I, Russian and Turkish Phonology (Edmonton-Champaign: L i n g u i s t i c Research, Inc., 1972); pp. 38-39, par. 2; D. L. Olmstead, "The So-Called Inserted Vowels i n Russian," Language Learning, III (1950), pp. 93-98; Charles E. Townsend, Russian Word-Formation (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968), pp. 60-80. o In l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e two phonologically related p r e f i x a l variants are also known as p o s i t i o n a l variants and p r e f i x a l allomorphs. For a discussion of p r e f i x a l variants i n Russian, see: Z. A. Potixa, Sovremennoe russkoe slovo-obrazovanie (Moskva: Prosvescenie, 1970), pp. 54-55. 3 x In one of his works N. M. Sanskij c a l l s the longer form "open" (RAZORVAT'), and the shorter form "closed" (RAZRYT 1). N. M. Sanskij, Russian Word Formation, trans. B. S. Johnson (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1968), p. 115. 4 See the following works: Herbert Coats, Word Stress  Assignment i n a Generative Grammar of Russian, doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n (Urbana: University of I l l i n o i s , 1970), pp. 198-200, rules no. 35 and 36; A. N. Gvozdev, Sovremennyj  ru s s k i j l i t e r a t u r n y j jazyk, I, Fonetika i morfologlja, 3rd ed. (Moskva: Prosvescenie, 1967) , pp. 64-65; Morris Halle, The Sound Pattern of Russian (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 19 59), pp. 49-51, 65-66, 68-72; Lightner (1972), pp. 153-154, 239-240, 257, 371-373. 5 The h i s t o r i c a l background and development of jers has been treated i n most of the works dealing with the hi s t o r y of the Russian language. For a detailed d e s c r i p t i o n 21 22 see: Bukatevic" (1969), pp. 15, 40, 42-44; Bulaxovskij (1958), pp. 83-93; P. Ja. c'ernyx, Istoriceska j a grammatika russkogo  jazyka, 2nd ed. (Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe ucebno-pedagogices-koe i z d a t e l ' s t v o ministerstva prosvescenija RSFSR, 1954), pp. 105-111; V. V. Ivanov, I s t o r i c e s k a j a f o n o l o g i j a russkogo  jazyka (Moskva: Prosvegdenie"^ 1968) , pp. 289-297. H i s t o r i -c a l l y , the lowering and dropping of i and u i n Russian (which began ca. 1150) was one of the most important phonological changes, r e s u l t i n g i n s t r u c t u r a l changes of words, that i s , the beginning of the new closed s y l l a b l e s instead of open ones ( #muxu# > #mox#). Some l i n g u i s t s hold the view that even akan 1e (reduction of unstressed o and i t s consequent pronunciation s i m i l a r to a) probably began as the r e s u l t of changes of j e r s . g See, f o r example: Bukatevic (1969), pp. 42-44; I. I. Bukatevic et a l . , I s t o r i c e s k a j a grammatika russkogo jazyka (Kiev: VigSa s"kola, 1974) , pp. 80 -88; Bulaxovskij (1958) , pp. 83-93; C'ernyx (1954), pp. 105-111. 7 C f . Townsend (1968), p. 77. F. K. GuZva, Sovremennyj r u s s k i j l i t e r a t u r n y j jazyk (Kiev: Visca skola, 1973), p. 51; Townsend (1968), p. 77. 9 3 7 3 . See, f o r example: Lightner ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 1 5 3 - 1 5 4 , 3 7 1 -1 0Sanskij ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 1 2 3 . 11 X For more information see: N. M. Sanskij " A f f i k s o i d y v slovoobrazovatel 1noj sisteme sovremennogo russkogo l i t e r a -turnogo jazyka," Issledovanija po sovremennomu russkomu  jazyku (Moskva: Moskovskij u n i v e r s i t e t , 1970) , pp. 2 5 7 - 2 7 1 . 12 For aspect-formative prefixes see: V. A. Trofimov, Russkij l i t e r a t u r n y j jazyk, Morfologija (Leningrad: Lenin-gradskij u n i v e r s i t e t , 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 1 6 1 - 1 6 4 . 13 Prefixes o r i g i n a l l y developed from prepositions and p a r t i c l e s when these merged with the following word. The following quotation describes the process i n general terms: "Auxialiary [sic] words, l i k e post- and prepositions, pro-nouns and a u x i l i a r y verbs tend most r e a d i l y to agglutinate because they usually are weakly stressed and thus tend to form a common phonetic unity with the main verb...", and "... Prepositions also tend to agglutinate with the main word and to be transformed into p r e f i x e s . " V a l t e r T a u l i , S t r u c t u r a l Tendencies of Languages, I, General Tendencies 23 (Helsinki: Suomalaisen K i r j a l l i s u u d e n Kirjapaino Oy Helsin-s k i , 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 87, 89. 1 4 P o t i x a ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 54, footnote 2. 15 The al t e r n a t i o n i s further divided i n t o h i s t o r i c a l and phonetic a l t e r n a t i o n . The former represents changes of the past, and the l a t t e r changes due to reduction and assim-i l a t i o n . . For the h i s t o r i c a l background of a l t e r n a t i o n see: Akademija nauk SSSR, I n s t i t u t russkogo jazyka, Grammatika  sovremennogo russkogo jazyka (Moskva: Nauka, 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 462-4 85; P. S. Kuznecov, Is torigeskaj a grammatika russkogo  jazyka, Morfologij a (Moskva: Moskovskij u n i v e r s i t e t , 1 9 5 3 ) , pp. 17-29. 16 The contemporary state of a l t e r n a t i o n i n CSR has been presented i n Klagstad ( 1 9 5 4 ) . 17 Lightner ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 31-38, and footnote 1, Chap-ter I I . 18 In OR a l l prefixes were s y l l a b i c ending i n back j e r . Their consonantal ending i s the r e s u l t of dropping of the back j e r u. 19 There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g a r t i c l e about the h i s t o r i c a l development of the Ukrainian morphophonemic system, relevant for prefixes and prepositions and the change of morphophone-mic rules i n : Henning Andersen, "A Study of Diachronic Morphophonemics: The Ukrainian Prefixes," Language, 45 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , no. 4, pp. 807-830. 20 ^ A. A. Dement'ev, Sbornik zadac i upraznenij po ist o r i S e s k o j grammatike russkogo jazyka (Moskva: Prosvescenie, 1964) , p. 148, par. 77/2. 21 " . . . perfective verbs with the p r e f i x VY- are always stressed on t h i s p r e f i x (VYJTI, VYSTAVIT*, VYDAT1, etc.) . . . ," Dennis Ward, The Russian Language Today, System and Anomaly (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965) , pp. 48-49. 22 -* In those infrequent words with the p r e f i x ROZ-(R0S-) stress always f a l l s on t h i s p r e f i x R6 Z VAL'NI, R(5ZYSK, RdSPIS', RdSPUSK, e t c . ) . 23 For meanings of verb prefixes see: J . A. Forsyth, A Grammar of Aspect, Usage, and Meaning i n the Russian Verb (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1 9 7 0 ) ; Akademija nauk SSSR ( 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 254-275; a short outline of concrete 24 and abstract meanings of prefixes can also be found i n : A. A. Vilgelminina, The Russian Verb: Aspect and Voice (Moscow: Foreign Language Publishing House, 1963), pp. 22-32, tables 1, 2. 24 Consonantal segment n (in l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e also known as inserted n) was part of two prepositions i n OR: #wun# and #sun#. The same segment i s part of today's Russian prefixes V- and S- ( V N I M A T ' , S N I M A T ' ) . Other prefixes (DO-, ZA-, NA-, 0B-, 0T-, PERE-, P0-, POD-, PRI-, PRO-, RAZ-, U-) developed the segment n by analogy with the above two pre-fixes (OBNIMAT', PODNIMAT', e t c . ) . Cf. also Townsend (1968), p. 79, footnote 1: "The N i n NIM and NJA i s an external element which became part of these root variants and 'replaced' the i n i t i a l j o t . . . " 25 Akademija nauk SSSR, I n s t i t u t russkogo jazyka, Grammatika russkogo jazyka, I, Fonetika 1 morfoTogija (Moskva: Akademija nauk SSSR, 1960), pp. 84-85. 2 6 C o a t s (1970). 2 7 L i g h t n e r (1972). 2 8 Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle, The Sound Pattern of  English (New York: Harper & Row, 19 6 8). CHAPTER I I PRESENT STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF PREFIXES IN THE GRAMMAR STATIC CHARACTERISTICS 2.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n In t h i s c h a p t e r the p r e f i x a l o - v a r i a n t morphemes are s u b j e c t e d t o c r o s s - a n a l y s i s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r most impor-t a n t s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s as they e x i s t i n the CSR grammati-c a l sy s tem. The purpose o f the e x a m i n a t i o n i s t o e x p l i c a t e the d i s t i n c t i v e a s p e c t s o f the s i g n i f i c a n t morpheme r e g u l a r -i t i e s and arrangements , and the fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r e f i x a l and r o o t morpheme segments , as w e l l as t o e x e m p l i f y the p r e f i x a l u n i t s and t h e i r segments i n terms o f r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one another and t o o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c phenom-ena h a v i n g a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r f o r m a t i o n . 2 .1 O - V a r i a n t s and T h e i r P r o d u c t i v e Root Morphemes The p o s i t i n g o f the e x i s t i n g " o - v a r i a n t morpheme + r o o t morpheme" p a t t e r n s , e l a b o r a t e d on the f o l l o w i n g pages , p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l p o s s i b l e R u s s i a n r o o t morphemes which y i e l d p r e f i x a l o - v a r i a n t morphemes. In some cases the r o o t morpheme i s known t o e x i s t o n l y w i t h the p r e f i x a l o - v a r i a n t morpheme, t h a t i s , i n the R u s s i a n l e x i c o n no stem e x i s t s w i t h the u n p r e f i x e d r o o t 26 morpheme alone. For example, OBOMS"ET' , but not * M S £ T ' ; S O P E R N I K , but not * P E " R N I K . Under the sub-heading "Surface and Deep Forms of Representative Root Morphemes Taking O-Variant Prefixes" i n the following l i s t are given representative examples of a l l root morphemes preceded by o-variant p r e f i x e s . In those cases where the root morpheme and the o-variant morpheme are separated by an addit i o n a l p r e f i x , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r e f i x i s put i n parentheses immediately i n front of the root morpheme. Although i t i s the second, a d d i t i o n a l p r e f i x a l morpheme and not the root morpheme which i n most of these cases determines the structure of the i n i t i a l l y placed o-variant morpheme, the root morphemes i n question have been included as an i l l u s t r a t i v e , complementary part of the l i s t . Each p o s t - p r e f i x a l morpheme and i t s UR form i s followed by one or more p r e f i x a l o-variant examples from the CSR vocabulary, with an accompanying English gloss. The UR's of the root morphemes are the abstract forms posited for p a r t i c u l a r root morphemes, i n terms of the inventory of the underlying Russian segments described i n the corresponding table given at the end of the f i r s t chapter. There are cases where more than one root morpheme variant i n the examples i s prefixes by the o-variant. For example, there are SOOTVETSTVOVAT' and SOVESCANIE, with the root morphemes VET and VES"c:, resp e c t i v e l y . In cases l i k e 27 these the most basic s p e l l i n g form of the root morpheme, the one which underwent fewer phonological changes, i s chosen and l i s t e d as the representative form (VET instead of VE§S) . This s e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e applies throughout the e n t i r e l i s t i n g . Since the understanding of the subject matter treated i n t h i s thesis presupposes a f a i r knowledge of Russian, the l i s t i n g of root morphemes and the accompanying p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes follow the order of the C y r i l l i c alphabet. Some words l i s t e d on the following pages had to be translated because there was no avail a b l e English t r a n s l a t i o n i n any of the Russian-English d i c t i o n a r i e s consulted. Although some words have more than one meaning, the number of English glosses has been kept to the e s s e n t i a l minimum. At t h i s stage the words i n the examples have not been s p e c i f i e d (obs., pf., impf., etc.) because they w i l l be elaborated more f u l l y i n the t h i r d chapter. The verbs, whether of contemporary usage or obsolete, are generally stated without the p a r t i c l e -SJA. I f a verb i n the Russian vocabulary exists only as a r e f l e x i v e verb, then i t i s l i s t e d with the p a r t i c l e -SJA. 28 2 . 2 L i s t of Surface and Deep Forms of Representative  Root Morphemes Taking O-Variant Prefixes Orthographic Form of Root 1/ AVTOR 2 / BESED 3 / B I 4 / BLAZN 5 / BL JUD 6 / BOL 7 / BR 8 / BRAT 9 / BUTYL 1 0 / BY 1 1 / VEK 1 2 / VERS Underlying  Representa-t i o n of Root owtor besed b i j blozn bleud bol b i r br5t boutul bu wek wirx E x a m p l e s SOAVTOR "co-author" SOBESEDNIK "collocutor" VOB'JU "I s h a l l / w i l l d r i v e / hammer i n " SOBLAZNIT' "to entice, tempt" SOBLJUSTf "to observe, keep" S O B O L E Z N O V A T ' "to condole with" VOBRAT• OBOBRAT' PODOBRAT 1 RAZOBRAT' SOBRAT' "to absorb, drink, suck i n " "to pick, gather" "to pick up, s e l e c t " "to take, buy up, s t r i p " "to gather, c o l l e c t , assemble" V Z O B R A T ' S J A "to climb, climb up" SOBRAT "fellow (by profession), brother" SOBUTYL 1 N I K "boon companion" SOBYTIE "event" V O V E K "always, forever" SOVERSIT 1 "to accomplish, perform" Root 13/ VES 14/ VET UR wed wet E x a m p 1 e s SOVESTIT ' "to reproach" SOVET "advice, counsel" SOOTVE -TSTVOVAT' "to correspond (to/with), conform (to)" SOVEgCANIE3 "conference^ meeting 15/ V ' J wi j VOV'JU I s h a l l / w i l l weave/ twist" 16/ VLAD R _ R ] wold SOVLADAT' to c o n t r o l , conquer" 17/ V L E K R _ R ] we lk VOVLEKAT ' SOVLEC "to draw, involve" "to drag, p u l l o f f " 18/ VNE wun VOVNE "outside" 19/ (S) VOD wod SOSVODNI^AT' SOPROVODfT' "to pamper, pimp" "to accompany" 20/ ( I Z ) V O L wol SOIZV<5LIT' "to be pleased" 21/ VR wir I Z O V R A T ' S J A "to become a hard-ened l i a r " RAZOVRAT ' S JA "to be a passion-ate l i a r " SOVRAT' "to l i e " 22/ VRAT R _ R ] wort SOVRATIT ' "to seduce, pervert" 23/ VREMJA|._ Rj 4 werm + en V6VREMJA " i n time" 24/ VS wis VOVSE SOVS^M OTOVSJUDU "quite" "quite; e n t i r e l y " "from everywhere" 25/ VS" wux OBOVglVET' "to become lousy" 26/ GLAS R _ R ] gols SOGLASfT' "to co-ordinate" Root UR E x a m p 1 e s 2 7/ GLJAD 2 8/ GN glend gub SCGLJADATAJ "spy VOGNUT' 29/ GN gun 30 / GR gur IZOGNtJT1 NADOGNUT 1 OBOGN(JT 1 OTOGNtJT' PODOGNUT 1 RAZOGNUT' SOGNUT• VOGNAT 1 OBOGNAT' OTOGNAT * PODOGNAT• RAZOGNAT 1 SOGNAT' OBOGRET' OTOGRET' PODOGRET' RAZOGRfT' SOGR^T 1 "to curve/bend inwards". "to bend, curve" "to bend/curve s l i g h t l y " "to round, s k i r t " "to unbend, turn back" "to tuck i n , bend" "to unbend, straighten" "to bend, bow" "to drive i n " "to outrun, leave behind" "to drive away, f i g h t back" "to drive on, adjust" "to drive away, disperse" "to drive away/ together" "to warm oneself" "to warm" "to warm up" "to warm up" "to warm, heat" 31 Root 31/ GRA£D r_ R ] 32/ GRES" 33 33/ (IZ)DA 34/ (U)DAR 3 5/ DVI 36/ DVOR 37/ DE 38/ (PRE)DEL 39/ DERZ" 40/ DN 41/ DOLZ" 42/ DR 43/ DROG 44/ DRUZ 45/DRUZ UR gord + j grex do dor dwig dwor de del d i r g din dulg d i r drog droug drouz E x a m p l e s SOGRAZTJANIN "fellow c i t i z e n " S O G R E S I T 1 "to s i n , trespass against" S O I Z D A T E L 1 "co-publisher" SOUDARJAT'SJA "to c o l l i d e " OTODVINUT1 "to move aside" VODVORIT" "to i n s t a l l , s e t t l e " SODEJSTVOVAT' "to a s s i s t , help, contribute" SOPRED^L'NOST' "contiguity" S O D E R Z A T ' O B O D N J A T ' S O D O L Z N I K V Z O D R A T 1 "to maintain, support, keep" "to dawn" "co-debtor" "to r a i s e / l i f t up with e f f o r t " I Z O D R A T ' "to rend, tear (in several places to pieces)" N A D O D R A T 1 O B O D R A T • O T O D R A T • R A Z O D R A T ' S O D R A T • "to tear s l i g h t l y " "to tear, skin, peel" "to t e a r / r i p o f f " "to tear up" "to s t r i p , skin" S O D R O G N U T 1 S J A "to shudder" S O D R U Z E S T V O "concord, co-operation" V O D R U Z I T ' "to erect, h o i s t " 32 Root 46/ D U S 47/ E D I N T _ R ] 48/ Z A L 49/ 50/ ZZ" 51/ 2l 52/ Z M 53/ Z M U R 54/ Z N 55/ 2R U R doux jedin gel gid gig giw gxm gim gin gir S O E D I N I T ' S O Z A L E T • O B O Z D A T ' S .O .Z*ZENIE E x a m p 1 e s V O O D U § E V I T ' "to inspire" V O E D I N O "together" "to join, unite" "to regret, deplore" "to wait for a while" "burning, cremation" I Z . Q Z ' Z E N N Y J "burnt a l l over" S O z" I T E L 1 "roommate" S O P E R E ^ I V A T ' "to co-experience, co-survive" I s h a l l / w i l l squeeze" " I s h a l l / w i l l squeeze from a l l sides" " I s h a l l / w i l l s i t crossing my legs" " I s h a l l / w i l l unclench/open" " I s h a l l / w i l l press/ V O Z M U O B O Z M U P O D O Z " M U R A Z O Z M U S O Z M U S O Z M U R I T 1 O B O Z N U O T O Z N U S O Z N C O B O ^ R A T ' S O 2 R A T ' squeeze "to blink" " I s h a l l / w i l l reap to the end" " I s h a l l / w i l l finish reaping" " I s h a l l / w i l l cut with a sickle" "to guzzle, overeat" "to gorge, guzzle" Root 56/ ZV 57/ ZVEZD 58/ ZVON 59/ ZVUC" 60/ ZD 61/ ZL 62/ ZNA 63/ ZR 64/ ZR 65/ (NA) (N) IM 66/ IMEN 6 7/ ISK 68/ 1ST 69/ J 70/ KVARTIR 71/ (DO)KLAD 72/ (PRI)KOS UR zuw zwezd zwon zwon zi d zul zno z i r z i r Im Im + en Isk 1st j i d kwSrtir klod kos E x a m p 1 e s OBOZVAT1 "to c a l l , name" SOZVAT SOZVEZDIE "to i n v i t e , c a l l , summon' "c o n s t e l l a t i o n " S O Z V O N I T ' S J A "to ta l k over ( c a l l up by) telephone" SOZVUCAT' SOZDAT 1 OBOZLIT* SOZNAT' SOOZNACAT' OBOZRET' "to make consonant" "to create, o r i g i n a t e , e s t a b l i s h " "to embitter" "to be conscious, r e a l i z e " "to s i g n i f y " "to survey, view, look around" SOZERCAT 1 SOZR^T' "to contemplate" "to ripen, mature" S O N A N I M A T E L 1 "co-tenant" S O I M E N N I K "namesake" "competitor" " i n truth" "to mount, ascend" "to enter" S O K V A R T I R A N T "co-tenant" S O D O K L A D "co-lecture, co-report" S O P R I K O S N U T ' S J A "to be contig-uous, adjoin" SOISKATEL ' VOfSTINU VZOJTI 5 VOJTI Root UR - E x a m p 1 e s 7 3 / KRAS kr5d OBOKRAST1 "to rob" 7 4 / KRAT f_ R ] kort SOKRATIT * "to shorten, abbreviate 1 7 5 / KREDIT kr e d l t SOKREDITOR "co-creditor" 7 6 / KRUG kroug VOKRUG "round, around" 7 7 / KRUS* kroux SOKRUS"f T * "to smash, shatter" 7 8 / KRY kru SOKRfT* "to hide, conceal" 7 9 / (VO)KUP koup SOVOKUPIT 1 "to unite, combine" 8 0 / KURS kours SOKURSNIK "classmate" 8 1 / ( S )KU£ kouk S O S K U C 1 T 1 "to be bored, weary' 8 2 / LG lug I Z O L G A T ' S J A "to become an i n v e t e r a t e / i n c o r r i g i b l e / hardened l i a r ' 8 3 / ( S ) — L U P loup SKOLUPAT• "to tear o f f by scratching 1 8 4 / L*G l i g VOL'G6TNOST * "freedom" 8 5 / L'J l i j VOL ' J(J " I s h a l l / w i l l pour i] 8 6 / L'ST l i s t OBOL 1STfT 1 "to seduce" 8 7 / MER mer SORAZMERIT' SOIZMERJAT 1 "to commensurate, proportion "to commensurate, proportion 8 8 / (V)MEST mest SOVMESTIT ' "to combine" 8 9 / MK muk OTOMKNUT' "to unlock, unbolt" 9 0 / ML mul OBOMLflT' "to be stupefied, frozen with t e r r o r 9 1 / MN min SOMNENIE "doubt" VOZOMNIT' "to become conceited" Root UR E x a m p 1 e s 9 2 / MN min 9 3 / MNOZ' munog 9 4 / MR mir 9 5 / MST mist 9 6 / MC muk 9 7 / M§ mux 9 8 / (U)MYSL muxil 9 9 / (OT)NES nes 1 0 0 / NZ n i z 1 0 1 / NOC" nokt 1 0 2 / NRAV nurow 1 0 3 / OBS"c!6r_Rj ob+i+t+j VOMNU " I s h a l l / w i l l push/ squeeze' 1 0 4 / OTEC: 1 0 5 / OC" 1 0 6 / (V)PAD 1 0 7 / (O)PEK 10 8 / PER 1 0 9 / PLEK o t i k ok pod pek p i r plek SOMNOZITEL1 "factor" OBOMRU " I s h a l l / w i l l f a i n t " O T O M S T I T ' "to revenge oneself, take vengeance" VOMC^AT' "to drive/run up with speed" OBOMSET1 "to get covered with moss" SOUMYSLENNIK "accomplice" SOOTNESTI "to cor r e l a t e " VONZIT' "to s t i c k , pierce, thrust" SONOCXEZNIK "co-lodger i n a tavern" RAZONRAviT 'SJA "to stop l i k i n g / pleasing" VOOBS'CE " i n general, generally" S O O B S C I T 1 "to report, inform" SOOTECESTVENNIK "compatriot" V 0 6 c i J U "with one's own eyes" SOVPAST* "to coincide, concur" SOOPEKUN "co-guardian" SOPERNIK " r i v a l " PODOPLEKA "the r e a l state of a f f a i r s , behind the scene" PODOPLfCNYJ " l i n i n g " 36 Root 110/ PLEMEN 111/ PLOD 112/ PLOT 113/ PN 114/ PR 115/ PRAV 116/ PREKj_ Rj 117/ PROS 118/ PROTIV 119/ P'J 120/ PRJAG 121/ PUT 122/ (OB)RAZ 123/ RAT 12 4/ RV UR plem + en plod p l o t pin p i r E x a m p l e s SOPLEMENNIK "tribesman" SOPL6DIE " c o l l e c t i v e f r u i t " pr<5w perk pros protlw Pi3 preng pout roz r6t ruw VOPLOTIT' VOPNUT' VZOPRET' OTOPRET' RAZOPRET' "to incarnate, embody" "to kick" "to get covered with p e r s p i r a t i o n " "to peel o f f on account of dampness" "to swell from moisture" SOPRET1 "to rot" SOPRAVITEL' "co-ruler" VOPREKI " i n sp i t e of, despite" VOPROSIT' "to inquire, question" SOPROTIVLJAT'SJA "to oppose, r e s i s t " SOPROTIVLENIE "resistance, opposition" VOP'JIJ "I s h a l l / w i l l absorb/ suck i n " SOPRJAGAT1 "to j o i n , unite" SOPUTSTVOVAT1 "to accompany" SOPUTNIK "fellow t r a v e l e r " SOOBRAZfT1 "to consider, ponder" SORATNIK "companion-in-arms" VZORVAT' "to blow" 37 Root 125/ REV 126/ RT 127/ RUB 12 8/ (O)RUD 129/ (O)RUZ 130/ SVAT 131/ SVO 132/ SED 133/ SKOB 134/ SKOL'Z 135/ SKOC! 136/ SKREB 137/ SL 13 8/ SLED 139/ SLEP 140/ SLOV 141/ SOB UR riw rut roub roud roug swot swo sSd skob s k u l i z skok skreb s u l sled sl€p slow sob E x a m p 1 e s SOREVNOVAT1 "to compete" "amalgam" SORTUCKA SORUBEZNYJ " p a r a l l e l to bound-ary/border l i n e " SOORUDIT" VOORUZIT ' SOSVATAT' VOSVOJASI SOSETJIT 1 "to b u i l d , erect" "to arm" "to propose smb. to smb. as a wife/husband" "to go back where one came from" "to l i v e i n neighbourhood" SOSETJ SOSKOBLIT' "neighbour" "to scrape/shave o f f " SOSKOL'ZNUT* "to s l i d e down/off" SOSKOCfT1 "to jump off/down, spring" "to scrape o f f " "to send away" "to send" "to e x i l e , banish" SOSKREBAT 1 OTOSLAT * PODOSLAT" SOSLAT 1 VOSL£D SONASLEDOVAT' "to c o - i n h e r i t " SOSLEPA "owing to poor sight" SOSLOVNOST" "class d i s t i n c t i o n " OBOSOBIT ' "to i s o l a t e " 38 Root 142/ SP 143/ SP 144/ SRED r_ R ] 145/ STAR 146/ STAV 147/ STEG 148/ STL 149/ STRAD 150/ STRIG 151/ STROJ 152/ SUD 153/ SUT 154/ TVOR 155/ TIR 156/ TK 157/ TL UR sup sup serd stor st5 + w steg s t i l strod s t r i g s t r o + j soud sout twor t i r tuk t i l E x a m p l e s O T O S P A T 1 "to sleep, have a long sleep" PODOSPET1 "to arrive/come on time" SOSREDOTOClT' "to concentrate" SOSREDOTOCENIE "concentration" SOSTARIT1 "to make old/older" SOSTAVIT' "to put together, compose" S O S T E G A T 1 "to q u i l t " IZOSTLAT' "to s t r e t c h , lay" PODOSTLAT' "to str e t c h / l a y under" R A Z O S T L A T ' "to spread out" SOSTRADAT1 "to be compassionate" S O S T R I G A T ' "to she a r / c l i p o f f " SOSTROIT1 "to b u i l d , construct" SOStJD "vessel" SOPRISUTSTVOVAT' "to be co-present" S O S U S C E S T V O V A T 1 "to co-exist" SOTVORIT* "to create, make" SOSTIRAT' "to wash/wipe o f f / away " V O T K A T ' "to interweave" V O T K N U T " "to s t i c k / d r i v e i n " S O T L E T 1 "to r o t , decay" 39 Root UR E x a m p 1 e s 158/ T O V A R towor SOTOVAR IS'c' "associate, partner" 159/ T R t i r V O T R U "I s h a l l / w i l l rub i n / i n t o " 160/ TRAPEZ tropez SOTRAPfZNIK "table companion" 161/ TRUD troud SOTRUDNIK "collaborator" 162/ TRJAS trens SOTRJASTI "to shake, tremble" 163/ tusk V O T S C E " i n vain" 164/ ( S ) T Y K tuk S O S T Y K A T ' "to j o i n , connect, l i n k " 165/ ( S ) T J A Z teng S O S T J A Z A T 1 S J A "to compete" 166/ UZ ouz SOUZNIK "fellow prisoner" 167/ U L oul ZAKOtJLOK "back s t r e e t " 168/ UM oum N A D O C M I T ' "to suggest an idea, advise" 169/ UC" ouk SOUCENfK "schoolmate" 170/ XOZJA xozen + j SOXOZJAIN "co-owner" 171/ X RAN[-R] xorn SOXRANIT1 "to keep, preserve, r e t a i n " 172/ CAR koi r VOCARfT * "to e s t a b l i s h supremacy" 173/ C V E T kwet S O C V ^ T I E " f l o s c u l e , raceme" 174/ (u) C A S T kes S O U C A S T V O V A T . 1 1 "to p a r t i c i p a t e " SOPRlCASTNOST' "complicity, p a r t i c i p a t i o n " 175/ C E L O V E C * kelowek V O C E L O V E * £lT 1 SJA "to take human likeness" 176/ £ E T ket S O C E T A T • "to combine" 40 Root 177/ CIN 178/ CT 179/ (PRI)CES 180/ (PRI)CIS 181/ CLEN [-R] 182/ CUV 183/ SV 184/ gj. 185/ S E D UR kin k i t ket k i s keln keuw xiw x i j x i d SOCJ-NlV E x a m p 1 e s 1 "to write, compose, invent" S O P O D C ' I N J - T 1 "to subordinate, co-ordinate" R A Z O C T E N N Y J "premeditated" S O P R I C E S T ' "to add, attach" S O P R I C I S L I T ' "to add, attach" S O C L E N I T ' "to j o i n " S O C U V S T V O V A T ' "to sympathize (with), f e e l ( f o r ) " P O D 6 S V A VOS*JtJ S O S J U V O S ' E ' D S ' I J V Z O S ' ^ D S'lJ I Z O S E * D S'lJ "sole" " I s h a l l / w i l l sew i n " " I s h a l l / w i l l sew together" "having come i n " "having ascended" "having walked a l l 186/ S C I P skip over" S N I Z O S ' E ' D S ' I J "having descended" OBOS'E'DS'IJ "having circumnavigated" O T O S ' E ' D S ' I J "having departed" PODOS'^DS'lJ "having approached" RAZOS ' EDS'lJSJA "having departed/ separated" SOS'E'STVIE "descent, comedown" SOg^IPAT' "to pluck" 41 Root UR E x a m p 1 e s 187/ SCUR skeur SOSCURIT1 "to screw up one's eyes" 2.3 Mutual Combination Patterns of Russian P r e f i x a l Morphemes In the following section an analysis has been done to f i n d out the combinations and arrangements of a l l Russian p r e f i x a l morphemes with regard to the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes. The area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n undertaken concerns the pre-root segmentation of pre f i x e s , revealing the struc-t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and combinative p o s s i b i l i t i e s of Russian prefixes among themselves, as left-hand components of the word, removed from the stem. In other words, the prefixes i n question have been analyzed as separate e n t i t i e s with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r e x i s t i n g combinations. There may appear to be some inconsistencies i n the treatment and s e l e c t i o n of the p r e f i x a l morphemes under analysis because of the fac t that by using a synchronic approach some of the Russian p r e f i x a l morphemes.can no longer be separated from t h e i r stems, since these prefixes and stems have formed l e x i c a l and grammatical e n t i t i e s with no observ-able segmental boundaries. Consequently, the p r e f i x a l data for the analysis following t h i s section c o l l e c t e d from the RDD have been presented i n such a way that the separation of the various p r e f i x a l morpheme constituents i s ca r r i e d out according to the Dictionary. Although the main i n t e r e s t here i s i n the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes (in each case underlined), the i n v e s t i g a t i o n also includes other prefixes and t h e i r variants to i l l u s t r a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern i n i t s t o t a l i t y . 2.4 D i s t r i b u t i o n Pattern of Two or More P r e f i x a l Morphemes" In the two-morpheme pattern the f i r s t and second p r e f i x a l morpheme are followed by a dash (-); i n the three-and four-morpheme patterns a plus sign (+) i s inserted between the second, t h i r d , and fourth p r e f i x a l morphemes. The underlined p r e f i x a l morphemes represent o-variants, Each pattern which includes an o-variant i s followed by an example i n parenthesis. ANTI- 9 r_ Rj : NA- 0- 0B-ARXI- r _ R ] : NE- IS- 0-BEZ- 1 0: V- VOZ- VY- DO- ZA- YZ- YS- NA- NAD- 0-0T- RAZ- RAS- U-BES- : PA- 1 1 PERE- P0- POD- PRE- PRED- PRI- PRO-S' SO- (BESSOZNATEL1NOST *) V- : DO- ZA- N- NA- NI- PERE- P0- PRI- PRO-RAZ- RAS- R6S-V0- 1 2 : 0- (VOODUS'EVIT' ) 1 3 OB- (VOOBRAZIT' ) VZ- : N-VNE- : 0- P0- S-V N U T R I -V O Z -V O S -V S -V S E -V Y -V Y S * E -D O -ZA-I Z - 1 6 I S -K -K O N T R -ME2- : M E Z D - 1 7 M E Z " D O -M E £ D U -[-R] 14 : OT- SU-NA- NE- OB-NE+NA-PO- PRE- PRI- PRIN- SO- ( V O S S O Z D A V A T 1 ) PRO+IZ-KO- (VSKOLUPNUT') PO-PRE+O-Z- K O - (VYKOLUPAT') PO- PRO- S-IZ- NA- 0- OT- PERE- PO- S- U-U+PO-VZ- VO- (DOVOORUZ'AT' ) VY- Z- ZA- NE- O- OB-PO- PRI- PRO- RAS- RE- t_ R ] S- SO- (DOSOCINIT1) U-BES- VZ- DE-r K O - (ZAKOtJLOK) N- NA- NE-OB- PO- POD- PODA-15 PODO- (ZAPODOZRfT') PRE-PRI- PRO- S- SN- SO- (ZAS6VESTIT'SJA) SU-S"- U-BEZ- ZA- NA- NE- NI- OB- RAZ- RAS- U-KO- (ISKOLUPAT') PO- POD-NA-: PRI- PRED-ZA- OB- OT- PO- POD"- SU-: U-: U-: NA-44 NA-NAD-NAI-NE-18 V- VZ- VS- VY- DO- IZ- IS- KO- (NAKOLUPAT') O- OB- OT- PERE- PO- POD- PRI- PRIN- PRO-RAS- S- SN- SO- (NASOVSEM) SU- U-BEZ+OB- IZ+NA-OB- PA- PERE- PO-VY-BEZ- BES- V- VZ- VN- VP- (NEVOORUZ"ENNYJ) VOZ-VOS- VS- VY- DO- ZA- ZAN- IZ- IZ"- IS- K-NA- NAD- 0- OB- OBO- (NEOBOZRIMOST *) OB"- OT-OT"- PERE- PO- POD- PON- PRE- PRED- PRI-PRO- RAZ- RAS- S- SO- (NESOMNE*NNOST' ) SU- S"-BEZ+VY- BEZ+ZA- BEZ+NA- BEZ+O- BEZ+OB-BEZ+RAZ- BEZ+RAS- BEZ+U- BEZ+YZ- BES+PO-BES+PRI- BES+S- 1 9 V+DO- V+PO- V+PRO- V+RAZ-VZ+NA-VOZ+NA-VOS+PRI-20 DO+OB- DO+PO- DO+PON- DO+RAZ- DO+S-DO+Z-DO+U-ZA+PRI- ZA+U-IZ+RAS- IZ+OB-IS+PO-O+BES- O+PO- O+PRE- O+PRO- O+S-21 PO+Z-45 N I -N I S -NIZE-0-0B-OT-PERE -P R E + O - PRE+VZO- (NEPREVZOJDENNOST') PRED+U-PRO+IZ-RAS+PO- RAS+S-S+PO- S+POD-S O + V - (NESOVPADENIE) SO+IZ- (NESOIZMERIMOST' ) SO+OB- ( N E S O O B R A Z N O S T ' ) SO+OT- ( N E S O O T V ^ T S T V I E ) SO+RAZ - (NESORAZMERNOST') U+DO- U+PO- u+so- (NEUSOVERS'ENSTVOVANNOST ' ) DO+PRO+IZ-PRI+S+PO-K - OT- PO - S -P R O -I Z - 0- PO - POD- S - U -U+PO-B E Z - B E S - ZA- I S - P A - PO - P R E - P R I - PRO-S - SO- (OSOVREM^NIT 1) BEZ+ZA- BEZ+NA- BEZ+OB-BES+S-ZA- NA- RAZ - U -K O - (OTKOLUPAT ' ) N - 0- OB- PO- S - S N -SO- (OTS OVETOVAT*) S U-A D ~ [-R] Y£.~ (PEREVOORU^AT') VOS - V Y - D I S - J _ R J DO- ZA- ZAN- I Z - NA- 0- OB- PO- POD- P R I -PRO- RAS - S - S N - SO- (PERESOSTAVIT•) S U - S " -46 U-PRO+IZ- RAS+PRE- S+NA-PO- 2 2 : BEZ- BES- V- VZ- VOZ- VY- DO- Z- ZA- ZAN-IZ- IZO- (POIZORVAT'SJA) KO- (POKOLUPAT') N-NA- NE- O- OB- OT- PERE- PO- 2 3 PRI- PRO-RAZ- RAZ"- RAS- RE- r_ R ] ROS- S- SN-SO- (POSOVESTIT'SJA) SU- U-POD- : VZ- VY- ZA- ZAN- KO- (PODKOLUPYVAT') NA- NAD-NAN- NE- O- OB- OT- PERE- PO- PRA- 2 4 RAZ-S- SO- (PODSOKRATIT') U-POSLE-: OB- PO- U-PRA- : PRA- 2 5 PRE- 2 6: VZO- (PREVZOJTI) VOZ- VOS- ZA- IZ- IS- NE-0- OB- PO- PRO- S- U-PRED- : V- VZ- VOZ- . VOS- VY- DO- ZA- YZ- NA- 0-OB- OT- PO- PRI- PRIN- RAS- S- S"- U-O+PRE- RAS+PO-PRE^DE- 2 7 : NA-PRI- 2 8: V- ZA- ZAN- NA- NAD- NAN- NE- 0- OB- OT-PO- POD- PODN- S- SO- (PRISOSEDIT'SJA) SU- U-S+PO- SO+VO- (PRISOVOKUPfT1) PRO- : VZO- (PROVZOJTI) VOZ- DE- r_ R ] DO- ZA- IZ-IZO- (PROIZOJTf) IS- KO- (PROKOLUPAT1) OB- PO-S- SO- (PROSOBIRAT') SU-ME2+U-PROTIVO- : VOZ- VOS- IZ- OB- OT- PO- U-S+NA-RAZ- 2 9: DO- ZA- N- NA- NE- 0- OB- OT- RE-, U-L - K J RAS- : KO- (RASKOLUPAT') PA- PO- PRE- PRO- S-SO- (RASSOVETOVAT') PRED+U-* 30 ROS- : S-S- : VERX"- YZ- YS- 3 1 KO- (SKOLUPAT*) NA- NIZO-(SNIZOJTf) NIS- PO- POD- PRO- RAZ- SU-VERX+IZ- VERX+S- VERX+U-PO+ZA-SO- 3 2 : V- VO- (SOVOKUPIT') ZA- IZ- DO- NA- NAN- 0-OB- OT- PERE- PO- POD- PRE- PRI- PRO- RAZ-S- U-NE+OB-33 SU- : PO-SUB-r y - . i : POD- 3 4 [-R] U- : DO- NA-' NI- PO- RAZ- S- SO- (US6vESTIT') SU-SUPER- r _ R j : OB-2.5 Summary of D i s t r i b u t i o n Patterns of O-Variant P r e f i x a l Morphemes Occurring with Other Prefixes 1) BES+SO-2) VO+0- VO+OB-3) VOS+SO-48 4) VS+KO-5) VY+KO-6) DO+VO- DO+SO-7) ZA+KO- ZA+PODO- ZA+SO-8) IS+KO-9) NA+KO- NA+SO-10) NE+VO- NE+OBO- NE+SO-NE+PRE+VZO- NE+SO+V- NE+SO+IZ- NE+SO+OB- NE+SO+OT-NE+SO+RAZ- NE+U+SO-11) O+SO-12) OT+KO- OT+SO-13) PERE+VO- PERE+SO-14) PO+IZO- PO+KO- PO+SO-15) POD+KO- POD+SO-16) PRE+VZO-17) PRI+SO-18) PRI+SO+VO-19) PRO+VZO- PRO+IZO- PRO+KO- PRO+SO-20) RAS+KO- RAS+SO-21) S+KO- S+NIZO-22) SO+VO-23) U+SO-49 2 . 6 Phonological Processes of Lowering and Dropping in P r e f i x a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Pattern Regular Irregular Lowering Rule Applies Lowering Rule Does Not Apply. NE + SO + V- BEZ + V-PROTIVO + S + NA- OT + S-SO + V- OT + SN-SO + S- POD + VZ-POD + S-Dropping Rule Applies BEZ + VOZ-OT + K0-OT + O-OT + 0B-OT + SO-POD + KO-POD + SO-S + K0-Note: Lowering and Dropping occur i n the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme except when preceded by NE- (Regular Lowering). 50 2.7 Phonological Processes of Lowering and Dropping in P r e f i x a l Morphemes Some t y p i c a l derivations of the lowering rule (V-LOWER) and the dropping rule (V-DROP) are given i n the following examples. The underlying u i n the p r e f i x a l morpheme i s usually lowered to o i f the following p r e f i x a l morpheme has an underlying segment u which subsequently drops. 1) SOVPAST' "to coincide", pf.; SOVPADAT', impf. UR: # su + wu +. pod + ... # (UNROUND) : a (w >v) : v (V-LOWER) : o (V-DROP): 0 IR: # so + v + pad + ... # The consonant d i n #pad# undergoes a s s i b i l a t i o n , becoming t , and then undergoes voicing a s s i m i l a t i o n (before the i n f i n i t i v e ending #t*i#) to be f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d as s_ (# so + v + pas + t' #) . 51 2) SOSVODNICAT1 "to pamper, pimp", pf., c o l l . ; SVODNICAT1, impf. UR: # su + su + wod + V ... # (w > v) : v (C > C* ) : d' (V-LOWER) : o -(V-DROP): 0 IR: # so + s + vod' + ... # 3) SOVMESTIT' "to combine", pf.; SOVMESCAT', impf. UR: # su + wu + mest + V ... # (w > v) : v (C > C 1) : m' t ' (V-LOWER) : o (V-DROP) : - ft (CC > C'C1 ) : s' IR: # so + v + m'es't 1 + ... # In the above three examples the underlying u i n the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme i s lowered to o, because the follow-ing p r e f i x a l morpheme also contains an underlying segment u, This l a t t e r u i s subsequently dropped by the app l i c a t i o n of the (V-DROP) r u l e . In the example below (OTSCITAT 1), the lowering r u l e does not apply as expected. Instead, the (V-DROP) rul e deletes the underlying segment u i n both p r e f i x a l morphemes. 52 I n t h i s i r r e g u l a r e x a m p l e t h e f i r s t u s h o u l d b e l o w e r e d t o o , and o n l y t h e s e c o n d s e g m e n t u d r o p p e d . Thu s t h e c o r r e c t f o r m w o u l d b e * O T O S C I T A T ' . 4) O T S C I T A T 1 " t o c o u n t o f f , c o u n t o u t " , p f . ; O T S C I T Y V A T 1 , . i m p f . UR: # o t u + s u + k i t + . . . # (K > C) : c (C > C ) : c 1 ( V - D R O P ) : 0 0 I R : # o t + s + c ' l t + . . . # 2.8 D i s t r i b u t i o n of P r e f i x a l O-Variants i n Formation of D i f f e r e n t Parts of Speech In comparison with the p r e f i x a t i o n process considered 35 i n i t s t o t a l i t y i n word-formation, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes i n the formation of a p a r t i c u l a r part of speech has been found to have the following numerical d i s t r i b u t i o n : Noun Verb Adverb Total V0- : 6 29 15 50 VZO- - 8 - 8 VOZO- - 1 - 1 IZO- - 10 - 10 KO- 1 1 - 2 NADO- - 4 - 4 NIZO- - 1 - 1 OBO- 1 24 - 25 OTO- - 21 1 22 PODO- 1 . 22 - 23 RAZO- - 20 - 20 SO- 107 135 3 245 T o t a l : 116 276 19 411 In % : 28.4% 67.0% 4.6% 100% The above d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes i l l u s t r a t e s that they are the most active i n the 3 6 formation of verbs; however, the p r e f i x a l o-variant SO-i s also extensively used i n the formation of nouns. In i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern, the p r e f i x a l o-variant VO- i s also widely used, being productive i n verbs, adverbs, and nouns. The r e l a t i v e frequency of the above parts of speech i s : 1) verbs 276 2) nouns 116 3) adverbs 19 T o t a l : 411 The r e l a t i v e order of frequency of the p a r t i c u l a r • p r e f i x a l o-variant i s : 1) S0- 245 2) V0- 50 3) 0B0- 25 4) PODO- 23 5) 0T0- 22 6) RAZO- 20 7) IZO- 10 8) VZO- 8 9) NADO- 4 55 10) KO- 2 11) VOZO- 1 12) NIZO- 1 To t a l : 411 The above d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p r e f i x a l o-variants represents an approximation from the data examples. Adjec-tives and p a r t i c i p l e s have not been included i n the present analysis because of the l i m i t e d objectives of t h i s paper and avoidance of unnecessary d u p l i c a t i o n . Note also the following marginal examples of those root morphemes preceded by the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes VOZO-, NIZO-, and K O - . The f i r s t two are CS borrowings and are unproductive i n the contemporary Russian language system. The t h i r d , the p r e f i x a l o-variant K O - , i s a " f o s s i l i z e d " r e l i c of what used to be the e x i s t i n g p r e f i x . Both K- and i t s o-variant K O - are no longer productive. The former i s found i n a few adverbial formations, such as KVfRXU, KNARUZI, KNIZU, KNUTRI, KSTATI, and the l a t t e r only i n S K O L U P A T 1 , and derived forms having the same root morpheme. 37 • The productivity of the p r e f i x a t i o n process i s i n 3 8 general a widespread feature i n the formation of verbs, but has very moderate productivity i n the formation of nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. As can be seen from the preceding tables, the p r e f i x a l o-variants follow the above process. 2.9 P r e f i x a l O-Variants in Relation to Current  S t y l i s t i c Usage The following numerical representation demonstrates the current s t y l i s t i c usage of p r e f i x a l o-variants (attached to words), as l i s t e d i n SSRLJ. The figures represent only approximate frequencies, because only the main l e x i c a l entries from the above dic t i o n a r y have been c i t e d . O-Variant C o l l o - Popular Obso- Provin-P r e f i x Standard q u i a l Speech let e c i a l V0-VZO-VOZO-IZO--K0-NADO-NIZO-0B0-0T0-PODO-RAZO-S0-32 2 1 12 1 6 44 31 40 26 462 4 1 2 13 4 4 5 51 1 2 1 2 6 2 1 . 1 1 1 1 6 1 2 149 TOTAL 35 5 2 18 2 9 1 72 36 47 33 668 TOTAL: 657 84 17 165 928 57 2.10 P r e f i x a l O-Variants and Aspect of Verbs 39 In the aspectual formation of verbs, Russian pre-fixes can be divided into two groups, one group frequently deprived of l e x i c a l meaning, as ZA-, O- (OB-, OBO-), PO-, S- (SO-), and the other, IZ- (IZO-, IS-), PRI-, U-, less frequently. The f i r s t group, purely aspect-formative pre-f i x e s , also c a l l e d "empty" pre f i x e s , l i m i t the action of the verb without changing i t s l e x i c a l meaning. The numerical representation of p r e f i x a l o-variants, found to be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the formation of the aspectual opposition, i s summarized below. P r e f i x a l A s p e c t O-Variant Imperfective Perfective Total V 0 -VZO-VOZO-IZO-KO-NADO-NIZO-OBO-OTO-PODO-RAZO-5 1 1 1 1 6 4 7 5 15 5 1 9 4 1 21 17 17 18 20 6 2 10 5 1 27 21 24 23 58 SO- 89 86 175 Total: 120 194 314 In %: 38.2% 61.8% . 100% As can be seen from the comparative data, i n the majority of cases p r e f i x a l o-variants have numerical superi-o r i t y i n the formation of the perfective aspect, with the single exception of the p r e f i x a l o-variant SO-, where the imperfective aspect examples (89) outnumber the per f e c t i v e (86). Thet above aspectual representation does not portray the true picture of any one verb and i t s aspectual p a i r s , but rather i t portrays a comprehensive a p p l i c a b i l i t y of p r e f i x a l o-variants functioning i n the formation of the imperfective and perfective aspect i n the i n f i n i t i v e forms noted i n the data. Consequently, no conjugated aspectual examples have been included i n the above summary. 2.11 P r e f i x a l O-Variants and Phonological A s s i m i l a t i o n The observation of some o-variant prefixes suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y that i n some instances the phonological process of assim i l a t i o n functions as the instrumental factor i n the development of ce r t a i n p r e f i x a l o-variant forms. The underlying root morphemes i n such cases are s y l l a b i c (no dropping of jers has taken place), and under such s t r u c t u r a l conditions words are normally formed with regular p r e f i x a l 59 morphemes. It cannot be ruled out that these occurrences of o-variant forms are perhaps established because the corres-ponding regular p r e f i x a l morphemes would a l t e r or block the intended meaning of the utterances and make i t ambiguous. A few selected forms below i l l u s t r a t e the i r r e g u l a r i t y as a possible a l t e r n a t i v e to avoid ambiguity. For instance, there i s , 1) OTOS*EL, but not *OTgEL, which would be r e a l i z e d as [A561] ; 2) PODOSEL, " *POD§flL, " " " [pAc6l]: 3) S02ITIE, " *SZ"i.TIE, " " " [ z z ' l t 1 j a ] ; 4) SOZOVU, " *SZOVU, " " [ z z A v d ] ; 5) SOV^T (# su + wet #), instead of SVET (# sw§t #). 2.12 P r e f i x a l 0-Variants and I n i t i a l Root Morpheme Surface Segments In the following section the i n i t i a l root morpheme consonants, vowels, and consonant clus t e r s are subjected to a synchronic analysis to determine the r o l e of the i n i t i a l 40 . root morpheme surface segments i n the s e l e c t i o n of the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes. The numerous d e t a i l s found i n the various l i n g u i s t i c works concerning the s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n i t i a l consonant clus t e r s of the root morpheme are usually l i m i t e d to the most obvious examples. The main purpose of t h i s 60 p a r t i c u l a r analysis i s to present the complete segmental composition found at the beginning of those root morphemes having o-variant p r e f i x e s , which, i n the l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a -ture checked, has never been presented i n i t s t o t a l i t y . I t may come as a surprise that, of the t o t a l number of i n i t i a l consonant clusters of the root morphemes, there i s more than one surface environment of the i n i t i a l conso-nants and vowels which, on the synchronic l e v e l , appear to be d i r e c t l y involved as factors governing the phonological structure of the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes. This environ-mental factor w i l l become clearer i n the second stage of the analysis, when the p o s i t i n g of the deep structure (UR's) of root morphemes w i l l considerably l i m i t and group together various surface consonant c l u s t e r s . 2.13 Inventory df I n i t i a l Root Morpheme Orthographic P r e f i x a l Vowel o-variant morpheme V0-V Z O -VOZO-I Z O -K0-NADO-NIZO-OBO-OTO-PODO-RAZO-S0-E , I , 0 U U E , I , 0,U one B , V , J , £,2 V , J , S J,S~ J,S,§ J , § G,J B,V,D, % ,Z ,J, K,N,P, R , S , T , x,6,S Segments o n s n n w B 1 J , B R , V L , V N , V R , V S ,GN,DR, D V ^ M ^ T ^ R ^ ' G ^ i N ^ M C ^ N Z , P L , P N , P R , R V , S L , S V , T K B R , V J , D R , J T , P R , R V MN B R , V R , G N , D R , J T , L G , M N , P ' J , RV,TK GN,DR,RV J T BR,VS%GN,GR,DN,DR,ZD,ZM, Z N , Z R , Z V , Z L , Z N , Z R , J T , K R , L G ^ L ^ ^ M R ^ S ^ P R ^ V BR, VS ,GN,GR,DV,DR,ZM, ZN , Z V , J T , L G , P R , R V , S L , S P B R ^ N ^ R ^ D V ^ D ^ M ^ V , Z R F J T ^ ^ L ^ R ^ V ^ L ^ T K ^ V B R , V R , G N , G R , D R , Z M , Z L , J T , LG,ML,MN,NR,PR,RV,SL,SP, T K , C T B L , B R , V L , V M , V P , V R , R S , GB , G L ^ t ^ G R ^ R ^ V ^ M ^ N ^ R , Z D , Z V , Z N , Z R , J T , K R , L G , M L , MN,MC\PL,PR,RV,RT,SV,SK, S L , S N , S R , S T , T V , T K , T L , T R , X R ^ V ^ L ^ T ^ ' J ,$£ three T K ( N ) , S T L L ' S T M K (N) , MST, T K ( N ) L ' S T , S T L , MS"c",TK(N) MK(N) , S T L M K ( N ) , SKR, S T R , T K ( N ) The following table i s a numerical summary of the preceding i n i t i a l root morpheme segmental inventory. 2.14 Ratio of I n i t i a l Root Morpheme Segments P a r t i c i p a t i n g in Formation of P r e f i x a l O-Variant Morphemes P r e f i x a l o-variant V 0 -VZO-VOZO-IZO-K 0 -NADO-NIZO-0 B 0 -0 T 0 -PODO-RAZO-SO-Tot a l : One l e t t e r Two-letter Three-letter vowel consonant consonant consonant Total 1 1 6 3 3 1 2 3 2 2 3 15 40 23 6 1 10 3 1 23 15 16 19 .46 163 1 3 4 2 .. 4 17 34 9 1 14 2 4 3 27 20 22 24 69 229 2.15 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S y l l a b i c Versus Non-syllabic  I n i t i a l Consonant Clusters of Root Morphemes The s y l l a b i c root morpheme has a vowel (deleted i n 41 the l i s t below) following the i n i t i a l consonant or conso-nant c l u s t e r , 4 2 such as BOL i n SOBOLEZNOVAT', VEK i n VOVEK, 63 and belonging to that root morpheme. The non-syllabic root morpheme has l o s t the o r i g i n a l vowel segment i n the root morpheme and, consequently, the root morpheme consists only of a consonant c l u s t e r , such as BR i n VOBRAT', GR i n SOGRET1. I n i t i a l S y l l a b i c N o n - s y 1 1 a b i c l e t t e r two-letter t h r e e - l e t t e r two-letter t h r e e - l e t t e r c l u s t e r c l u s t e r c l u s t e r c l u s t e r B B L , B R - B ' J , B R V V L , V R - V ' J , V N , V R , VS,VS" G G L , G R - GB,GN,GR D DV,DT - DN,DR Z 2M - 2D,22,2M, 2N,2R Z Z V , Z N - Z V , Z D , Z L , Z R K KV,KR - -L - L G , L ' J M MN - MK,ML,MN, MST,MSC MR,MC,M§ . N N R - NZ P P L , P R - P ' J , P N , P R R - RV,RT S S V , S K , S L , S K R , S T R S L , S P S T L S P , S R , S T T T V , T R - T K , T L TSc 64 I n i t i a l S y l l a b i c N o n - s y l l a b i c l e t t e r two-letter t h r e e - l e t t e r two-letter t h r e e - l e t t e r c l u s t e r c l u s t e r c l u s t e r c l u s t e r X XR C CV -C CL - CT S - - SJ SC SC 2.16 Concluding Remarks In t h i s chapter an attempt has been made to account for the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes at t h e i r present syn-chronic l e v e l . A relevant description of the en t i r e corpus of Russian p r e f i x a l morphemes has been presented i n connec-t i o n with o-variant morphemes and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s . The various approaches employed deal with the problem of the existence of established regular and i d i o s y n c r a t i c p r e f i x a l o-variants and t h e i r configurations interpreted i n terms of the s t a t i c s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the root morpheme following them. A p r a c t i c a l problem connected with the corpus of data has been to obtain possible confirmation or some d e f i n i t e s t a t i s t i c a l evidence which would, within a s t r i c t l y syn-chronic context, dis c l o s e the co-occurrence of p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes with cert a i n l i n g u i s t i c forms. The o-variants have been s c r u t i n i z e d and appropriate groupings 65 formed i n r e l a t i o n to parts of speech, aspects of the Russian verb, s y l l a b i c i t y , and other l i n g u i s t i c phenomena believed to be relevant for c l a s s i f y i n g the o-variants into a d i s -t i n c t , f i n i t e number of types. However, the evidence f a i l s to demonstrate such i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e c i s e l y because the above morphological, s y n t a c t i c , and other phenomena are e s s e n t i a l l y surface structure categories. The root morpheme associated with p r e f i x a l o-variants, the former being the key s t r u c t u r a l elements i n the o-variant formation process., have been further analyzed by examining the phonological properties of t h e i r i n i t i a l segments to e s t a b l i s h any common features r e l a t i n g to o-variants. In other words, the root morphemes have been subdivided into elementary l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s , i n the hope that the l a t t e r would y i e l d c l o s e l y - k n i t classes having' some common phonolog-i c a l properties. Such classes, however, did not materialize. The s t a t i s t i c a l facts contained i n t h i s study demon-strate that, although a c e r t a i n number of p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes occur within c e r t a i n groups, such evidence does not account for differences associated with the s t r u c t u r a l aspect of p r e f i x a l o-variants. The advantage i n looking at these s t a t i c constructions was to eliminate i n advance any doubt that the phenomenon of o-variants could be adequately explained at the surface l e v e l . NOTES TO CHAPTER I I 1 F o r an a n a l y s i s o f p r e f i x e s as p r e d e r i v a t i v e s i n the main S l a v i c l anguage s , s e e : K r i s t i n e H e l t b e r g , " C o m b i n a t i v e R e l a t i o n s o f P r e d e r i v a t i v e s , " S t u d i e s on S l a v i c D e r i v a t i o n (Odense: Odense U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970) , p p . 100-124. 2 . . . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f a wide v a r i e t y o f i n i t i a l c o n s o -nants i n Rus s i an s e e : T . P . Lomtev " P r e v o k a l ' n y e s o g l a s n y e fonemy i i x gruppy , j a v l j a j u s f c i e s j a i n i c i j a l a m i , " F o n o l o g i j a  sovremennogo russkogo j a z y k a (Moskva: V y s s a j a skola~| 1972) , p p . 203-212. See a l s o : N . I . F e d o r o v a " K v o p r o s u s o c e t a e -m o s t i s o g l a s n y x v sovremennom russkom j a z y k e , " V e s t n i k  moskovskogo u n i v e r s i t e t a , No. 1 (1969) , S e r i j a X , F i l o l o g i j a (Moskva: I z d a t e l ' s t v o moskovskogo u n i v e r s i t e t a , 1969) , p p . 62-70. The i n v e n t o r y o f the i n i t i a l r o o t morpheme segments d e s c r i b e d a t the end o f C h a p t e r II had been done b e f o r e the above two works were o b t a i n e d f o r the a n a l y s i s . 3 • The most b a s i c form o f s p e l l i n g i s chosen as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r o o t form i n a l l those cases when more than one form i s l i s t e d i n the examples . 4 • • In cases l i k e t h e s e , the a t t a c h e d s u f f i x e s i n " f o s s i l i z e d " r o o t s were a l s o l i s t e d under UR t o show the o r i g i n o f the fo rm. C f . a l s o examples No. 66, 103, 110, 146, 151, and 170. 5 • • Consonant c l u s t e r s v z j , v j t , and s j t do no t e x i s t i n the R u s s i a n language sy s t em. F o r p r o b a b l e e t y m o l o g y v o f t h i s r o o t morpheme s e e , f o r example , G. P . Cyganenko, E t i m o l o g i c e s k i j s l o v a r 1 r u s -skogo j a z y k a ( K i e v : I z d a t e l ' s t v o r a d j a n s ' k a s k o l a , 1970) , p . 306. 7 The o r i g i n o f t h i s r o o t i s i n the p r e f i x a l form #protiwu#. 8 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f S l a v i c p r e f i x e s s e e : H e l t b e r t (1970) , " M u t u a l Combinat ions o f P r e d e r i v a t i v e s , " p p . 125-136. 9 . . . . I t s synonymic p a i r o f Rus s i an o r i g i n i n PROTIV-(PROTIVO-) ; c f . ANTIOBSCESTVENNYJ and PROTIVOOBSCESTVENNYJ. 66 67 The p r e f i x ANTI- belongs to the group of prefixes of Greek o r i g i n (A-, AN-, ANTI-, ARXI-, PAN-, EV-, GIPER-, and GIPO-). "^One of the basic orthographic rules i n Russian i s that a written form i s independent of pronunciation (morpho-l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e ) . There are exceptions concerning prefixes ending i n £ (BEZ -, VOZ-, IZ-, NIZ-, RAZ-, ROZ-, CREZ-, and CEREZ-), which are governed by the phonetic p r i n c i p l e : i n front of vowels and voiced consonants these prefixes end i n the l e t t e r z_, i n front of voiceless consonants i n s_. " ^ P r e f i x a l morpheme PA- has been found i n the words PALUBIT 1, BESPALUBNYJ, and some other p r e f i x a l derivations with the same root morpheme. I t i s usually considered that t h i s p r e f i x i s a " f o s s i l i z e d " variant of the p r e f i x P0-. 1 2V0-, V O Z - ( V O S - ) , IZ- (IS-), NIZ- (NIS-) , PRE-, PRED-, SO-, and CREZ- are usually l i s t e d as prefixes of OCS o r i g i n . 13 Note the sequence of two i d e n t i c a l vowels, not uncommon at the boundary of two morphemes but of li m i t e d occurrence within a root morpheme (PAUK, NAtJKA, e t c . ) . See discussion of such examples i n Halle ( 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 3 0 . 14 Prefix SU-, a " f o s s i l i z e d " unproductive r e l i c i n CS, was eventually replaced by SO-. 15 The only case of the p r e f i x a l variant P O D A - has been found i n the word Z A P O D A Z R I V A T 1 "to suspect," impf. I t i s l i s t e d i n Ozegov: ZAPOD(5ZRIT 1 , pf. — Z A P O D A Z R I V A T • , impf. In O r f o g r a f i c e s k i j slovar' russkogo jazyka i t i s l i s t e d as: ZAPOD6ZRIT1 , pf. — a) Z A P O D A Z R I V A T 1 , impf., and b) ZAPOD6-Z R I V A T ' , impf. In the SSRLJ^both aspects are l i s t e d with an o: Z A P O D 6 Z R I T ' , pf. — Z A P O D O Z R E V A T 1 , impf. Note i n the l a t t e r form the s u f f i x - E V A - . The p r e f i x P O D A - i s s t i l l another " f o s s i l i z e d " variant developed from UR #podu#, i t s function being taken over by the p r e f i x P O D O - . "^The p r e f i x IZ-, of OCS o r i g i n , i s a synonym of the Russian p r e f i x VY-; the former i s generally associated with abstract words of d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c usage. 17 The consonantal clu s t e r zcl s i g n i f i e s that this, p a r t i c u l a r p r e f i x i s of OCS o r i g i n . Its Russian synonym i s MEZ-. 18 This p r e f i x i s of limited usage i n adjectives and adverbs, i n the formation of the superlative degree. 68 19 The NE + BEZ- combination i s the most numerous group of t h r e e - p r e f i x a l morpheme formations. 20 It i s generally believed that the g r e f i x Z- i s perhaps a P o l i s h borrowing (DOZVOLIT1, POZVOLIT'). Cf. M. Vasmer, Etimologiceskij slovar' russkogo jazyka, trans, from the German (Moskva: Progress, 1964). 2 1 C f . Note 12 above. 2 2PO- i n the adverbs PO-DETSKI, PO-LfSTNEMU, etc., i s also considered to be a p r e f i x . 23 The p r e f i x a l reduplication of the p r e f i x PO- has been found i n the word POP6MNIT' "to remember", pf., c o l l . , which i s synonymous with both P6MNIT' and VSP6MNIT1. Another word i s POPOTCEVAT1 "to entertain, t r e a t " , pf,, c o l l . , where the a d d i t i o n a l ^ p r e f i x PO- serves as a formant of the perfec-t i v e aspect, POTCEVAT1 being the impf. form. A t h i r d word i s POP6STOVAT', pf., c o l l . , a synonym of POP6TCEVAT'. Compare the following i n t e r e s t i n g comment regarding reduplication i n a language system: "Reduplication, i . e . r e p e t i t i o n of the whole lexeme, or part of i t , belongs among the most p r i m i t i v e morphemes. . . . "Reduplication as a l e x i c a l or s t y l i s t i c instrument (cf. e.g. words l i k e p a p a , t i c k - t a c k , . . .) occurs to a smaller or greater extent i n a l l languages. . ." Valter T a u l i , S t r u c t u r a l Tendencies of Languages. I. General Tendencies (Hels i n k i : Suomalaisen K i r j a l l i s u u d e n Kirjapaino Oy H e l s i n k i , 1958), p. 137. 2 4 V. V. Lopatin "Ob lmennom prefixe PRA- v russkom jazyke," Issledovanija po i s t o r i c e s k o j l e k s i k o l o g i j i drevne- russkogo jazyka (Moskva: Nauka, 1964) , pp. 245-259. 25 Cf. Note 23 above. When not stressed, both prefixes PRE- and PRI- are pronounced the same [ p r ' i ] . The above prefixes have t h e i r orthographic equivalents i n foreign [-R] prefixes or words: PRESTIZ, PREZIDIUM, PREZIDENT, PRIORITET, PRIVILEGIJA, PRIMAD&NNA, etc. 27 Cf. Note 17 above. 2 8 C f . Note 26 above. 2 9 The p r e f i x ROZ- (ROs-) i s of OR o r i g i n , while RAZ-(RAS-) i s of OCS o r i g i n . The former i s always stressed while the l a t t e r i s never stressed. 69 3 0 C f . Note 29 above. 31 The p r e f i x a l form YS- represents the case where the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme's hard vowel and the a s s i m i l a t i o n process have changed both segments of the o r i g i n a l p r e f i x a l morpheme IZ-. 32 . . . For pronunciation of o-variant SO- i n some noun formations see: E. I. Golanova " 0 foneticeskoj x a r a k t e r i s t i k e p r i s t a v k i so-," Razvitie f o n e t i k i sovremennogo russkogo  jazyka (Moskva: Nauka, 1971), pp. 236-242. 3 3 C f . Note 14 above. 34 . . The Latin p r e f i x SUB- and the Russian p r e f i x POD-have the same meaning "under, below." This d u p l i c a t i o n of meaning i s found i n the following two words: SUBPODRJADNYJ, SUBPODRJADCIK. 35 . . . . P r e f i x a l word-formation i s elaborated i n : Akademija nauk SSSR, I n s t i t u t russkogo jazyka, Grammatika russkogo  jazyka, Tom I, Fonetika i morfologija (Moskva: Akademija nauk SSSR, 1960), pp. 235-249, 354-361, 433-434. 36 — Cf. A. N. Barykina, et a l . , Sbornik upraznenij po glagol'nym pristavkam (Moskva: Izdatel'stvo modkovskogo u n i v e r s i t e t a , 1969). Potixa (1970), " P r i s t a v k i v imenax s u s c e s t v i t e l 1 n y x , " pp. 260-265; " P r i s t a v k i imen prilagatel'nyx," pp. 310-320; "Glagol'nye p r i s t a v k i , " pp. 333-343. 37 P r e f i x a t i o n i s also used i n the formation of place names l i k e PODMOSKOVJE, Z A M 0 S K 6 V J E , e t c . , and i n the formation of Russian surnames such as BEZUXIJ, BEZtJXOV, OBDIRANSKIJ, PODDtJBENSKIJ, PRIEZZ'EV, etc. 3 8 V Potixa (1970), p. 38, writes: "Zameceno, cto naj-bolee aktivno prinimajut pristavku iskonno glagol'nye osnovy. Glagoly ze, obrazovannye ot suscestvitel'nyx i p r i l a g a t e l 1 -nyx, znacitel'no bolee 'sderzany* v p r i s o j e d i n e n i i k sebe pristavok." 39 For a discussion of aspect-formation and aspect-formative prefixes see the following works: V. V. Vinogradov, Russkij jazyk — Grammaticeskoe ucenie o slove (Moskva: VysSaja Skola, 1972), pp. 419-424; E. A. Zamskaja, "Tipy odnovidnyx pristavocnyx glagolov v sovremennom russkom jazyke," — Issledovanija po grammatike russkogo l i t e r a t u r - nogo jazyka. Sbornik s t a t e j (Moskva: Akademija nauk SSSR, 70 1955), pp. 5-41; Akademija nauk SSSR (1960), pp. 253-292; A. A. Vilgelminina (1963), pp. 33-40, 44-49, and 52-71, gives the basic d e s c r i p t i o n of aspect-formative p r e f i x e s . 4 0 I n the case of double p r e f i x a t i o n ( i . e . when there i s a lowering involved i n the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme as i n UR #su+otu+nes+ti# > IR #so+ot+nes+ti#) , the inventory includes the vowel, consonant or consonant c l u s t e r of the following p r e f i x a l morpheme ( i . e . o from #otu#), instead of the root morpheme (n from #nes#). The segment i n the parenthesis belongs to the follow-ing s u f f i x a l morpheme. See also Note 2 above. 41 This procedure, of l i s t i n g s y l l a b i c root morphemes without i n d i c a t i n g the vowel involved or some sort of vowel deletion sign, follows the practice of presentation i n Russian l i n g u i s t i c works. 42 For root morpheme examples regarding the p a r t i c u l a r i n i t i a l consonant or consonant cl u s t e r see section 2.2 i n th i s chapter. 71 CHAPTER III PHONOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS AND DERIVATIONAL PROCESSES DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS 3.0 Introduction Word-formation involving prefixes i s one of the areas of l i n g u i s t i c research where the app l i c a t i o n of the l a t e s t methods from the f i e l d of generative grammar can provide the framework necessary for y i e l d i n g a d d i t i o n a l information concerning the phonological structure of the various p r e f i x a l variant forms. In the following phonological analysis of Russian p r e f i x e s , the relevant data have been presented as sequences of the e s s e n t i a l p r e f i x a l o-variant and root morpheme segments, fundamental to the analysis of p r e f i x a l patterns and derivations. A p r i n c i p a l objective of t h i s analysis has been to i d e n t i f y a l l those p a r t i c u l a r underlying root morpheme structures, namely, the i n i t i a l consonant clu s t e r s and the i n t e r n a l vowel segments of the root morpheme, which bring about the lowering of the f i n a l p r e f i x a l underlying segment u to o. In other words, the purpose i s to e s t a b l i s h those segments of the root morpheme which, on the assumption that the underlying structure of the roots has a major role i n creating the phonetic forms of the p r e f i x a l morpheme 72 constituents, determine the phonetic structuring of the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes. To account for the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes i t i s necessary to apply the (V-LOWER) r u l e / within the phonologi-c a l environments established, to each o-variant form i n each p a r t i c u l a r environmental group. The phonological analysis of the p r e f i x a l and root morpheme data has been car r i e d out i n three stages: 1) In the selected representative morphemic construc-tions the most suitable UR's have been posited for both p r e f i x a l and root morphemes; 2) The data of the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes have been subdivided into appropriate environmental groups according to the underlying s t r u c t u r a l features of the root morphemes, that i s , those features which determine the phonological structure of each environmental group; and, 3) In each environmental group, the UR's of the p r e f i x a l o-variants and t h e i r corresponding roots have been made to undergo the appropriate phonological r u l e s , including the (V-LOWER) r u l e , u n t i l the f i n a l IR of each p r e f i x a l and root morpheme has been derived. It w i l l be shown that i n each environmental group the lowering of u to o i n the p r e f i x a l morpheme has been triggered by d i f f e r e n t post-p r e f i x a l phonological environments. By the application of the relevant phonological r u l e s , UR's of p r e f i x a l and root morpheme constituents have been gradually modified u n t i l the near-to-surface (or very broad) representations (IR's) have 2 been produced. The underlying representations posited i n t h i s study are abstract forms of p r e f i x a l and root morphemes posited as the phonological components of the words under analysis. As can be seen from the inventory of underlying segments, hard (non-palatalized) consonants have been posited as the basic ones, while the softened (palatalized) conso-nantal segments have been derived by the. a p p l i c a t i o n of the phonological p a l a t a l i z a t i o n rules (C > C ) and (CC1 > C ' C ) . In UR's the symbols of a front vowel (V) and j o t (j_) have been given i n the p o s i t i o n following the roots, to show where the softening of the preceding consonants ori g i n a t e s . As used here, the IR shows the f i n a l form i n the d e r i v a t i o n a l process to which the appropriate l a t e r r u l e s , 3 such as fxnal devoicing, voicing a s s i m i l a t i o n , akan'e, ikan'e, and other rules e s s e n t i a l for the derivation of the narrow phonetic form, have not yet applied. Furthermore, the d i s t i n c t i o n between short and long v o c a l i c features i n the IR's has not been eliminated. The i n i t i a l s u f f i x a l segments, following the root morpheme, have been incorporated only i n those cases where they have a d i r e c t bearing on the phono-l o g i c a l changes in the root morpheme. 74 In s p i t e of the large number of p r e f i x a l o-variants which follow a s p e c i f i c environmental pattern, there are also some variants with idiosyncracies which, i n a completely i d e n t i c a l environment, drop the f i n a l p r e f i x a l segment u instead of lowering i t . There are also many exceptional p r e f i x a l o-variant forms i n which the p r e f i x a l j e r has been lowered, although, in the majority of cases and i n the same environment, the same j e r has been regu l a r l y dropped. In the above excep-t i o n a l cases the environment represents such a vari e t y of root segments that i t i s impossible to generalize t h e i r environment. Therefore, they are l i s t e d separately i n Chapter IV. The general environments are further subdivided and 4 each p a r t i c u l a r environment (or i t s subgroups ) of the root morpheme i s formally described. With the exclusion of those exceptional cases, lacking some sort of common denominator, the d e s c r i p t i o n of the main body of data w i l l involve a f i n i t e number of environments. These environments are 5 designated as F i r s t Environment and Second Environment. In addition to these two environments, there i s also a substan-t i a l number of i r r e g u l a r forms recorded as a group of non-phonologically motivated o-variants. In the introductory statement regarding each set of data sharing the same environment, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c segment 75 or s t r i n g of segments has been expressed i n feature notation. At the beginning of each environmental group, the f i r s t few forms are usually f u l l y derived by the a p p l i c a t i o n of the appropriate phonological r u l e s . The derivations of the remaining examples sharing the same environment are stated i n an abbreviated fashion by p o s i t i n g only t h e i r 7 UR's and the r e s u l t i n g IR's. In each example i t i s always the f i r s t Russian word given that has been derived, f u l l y or i n an abbreviated form. Following each representative example thus derived, there i s a summary of a l l p r e f i x a l variants under considera-tion (starting with the o-variants) attested i n the sources of t h i s study as prefixes attached to the same root morpheme. In the OCS, OR, and CS examples c i t e d , jers ( i , u) and j a t ' .(e) have been i d e n t i f i e d with d i a c r i t i c a l marks, while the other vowels have been l e f t unmarked. Wherever possible, a d d i t i o n a l r e l a t e d words, with or without a p r e f i x (OTGORET*, GORET'), are given to supplement the examples considered (OTOGRET'). Such comparison of words shows the dropping of the vowel i n the root morpheme of one word and lowering i n the other. As a r e s u l t , the alternating pairs are usually r e a l i z e d as £ ~ o, 0 ~ e, £ ~ i , and £ ~ a (OTOGRET' ~ OTGORET', SOZRET' ~ ZERNO, VZODRAT' ~ VZDIRAT', OBOZNU ~ 2AT'). 3.1 The F i r s t Environment of the Lower Rule In the F i r s t Environment the Lower Rule applies i n a l l those situations i n which the underlying representation of the root morpheme contains the i n i t i a l sequence: consonant-short vowel-consonant, the vowel being one of the two high, lax segments, that i s , back u or front i. The o-variant p r e f i x a l morphemes preceding the above root morphemes require the applica tion of the (V-LOWER) r u l e , which lowers the f i n a l back vowel i n the p r e f i x a l morpheme and subsequently provides the s t r u c t u r a l environment for the application of the (V-DROP) rule i n the root morpheme. The group of words, to which the Lower Rule i n the F i r s t Environment i s applied, i s numerically the largest as far as the derivation of the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes i s concerned. The F i r s t Environment, of the Lower Rule i s formulated as follows: (V-LOWER) u > o / C + C 1 V The corresponding feature s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the above rule are: (V-LOWER) V -tense +high -> [-high] / [+C] _ _ + [+C]1 V -tense +high [_-long _ The derivations of the p r e f i x a l o-variant forms belonging to t h i s environment are i l l u s t r a t e d , developed and commented on i n the examples which follow. 1) VOB RAT1 "to absorb, drink, suck i n " , pf.; VBIRAT 1, 8 impf. cf . OR: beremja "burden", noun; OCS: b l r a t i 9 "to gather" pe r f e c t i v e imperfective UR: # wu + b i r + V . . . # # wu + b i r + V . . . # (DI-TENSING): - I (w > v) : v v (C > C ) : b' b» (V-LOWER) : o -(V-DROP): 0 0 (C'C > CC) : b -IR: # vo + b r + ... # # v + b ' l r + ... # 10 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- VZO- OBO- OTP- PODO-RAZO- SO-b) *V + BR- 1 1 form not l i s t e d Other p r e f i x a l variants l i s t e d under a) are developed and discussed below. 2) OBOBRAT* "to pick, gather", p f . , c o l l . ; OBIRAT1, impf. 7 8 p e r f e c t i v e imperfective U R : # obu + b i r + V ... # # o + b i r + V ... # (D I -TENS ING) : - I (C > C ) : b' b' ( V - L O W E R ) : o -( V - D R O P ) : 0T (C'C > CC) : b -I R : # obo + b r + ... # # o + b ' l r + ... # Summary: a) o-variant l i s t same as under 1/a b) *0B + B R - form not l i s t e d 3) O T O B R A T " "to take away, s e l e c t " , pf.; O T B I R A T ' , impf. U R : # otu + b i r + V ... # > I R : # oto + br + ... # U R : # otu + b i r + ... # > I R : # ot + b ' l r + ... # 1 2 Summary: a) l i s t same as under 1/a b) *0T + B R - (< #bir#) form not l i s t e d 4) P O D O B R A T ' "to pick up, s e l e c t " , pf. ; P O D B I R A T ' , impf. U R : # podu + b i r + V ... # > I R : # podo + br + ... # U R : # podu + b i r + ... # —> I R : # pod + b ' l r + ... # 1 3 Summary: a) l i s t same as under 1/a 79 b) *POD + BR- (<#bir#) form not l i s t e d 5) RAZOBRAT1 "to take, buy up, s t r i p " , pf.: RAZBIRAT', impf. perfective imperfect ive UR: # orzu + b i r + V ... # # orzu + b i r + V ... # (V-GEM) : oo oo (W > V) [ - R ] : 5 o (METATH) r_R-| : ro ro (DI-TENSING): - I (UNROUND) : a a (C > C ) : b 1 b' (V-LOWER) : o -(V-DROP): 0 0 (C'C > CC) : b -(CC1 > C ' C ) : - z ' IR: # razo + b r + ... # # raz* + b ' l r + ... # Summary: a) l i s t same as under 1/a b) *RAZ + BR- (< #bir#) form not l i s t e d 80 6) SOBRAT ' " t o g a t h e r , c o l l e c t " , p f . : S B I R A T ' , p f . , o b s . a n d c o l l . , a l s o S O B I R A T ' , i m p f . , m o d e r n u s a g e , i d i o s y n c r a t i c f o r m p e r f e c t i v e i m p f . - o b s . i m p f . - i d i o s y n . UR: # s u + b i r + V . . . # # s u + b i r + V . . . # # s u + b i r + V . . . # ( D I - T E N S I N G ) : - I I (C > C ) : b ' b» b ' (V-LOWER) : o - o ( V - D R O P ) : 0 0 ( C ' C > CC) : b - -( C C 1 > C ' C 1 ) ; — s ' -I R : # s o + b r + . . . # #s '+b'Ir+. . .# #so+b'Ir+...# Summary : a) l i s t same a s u n d e r 1 /a b) *S +' B R - (< # b i r # ) f o r m n o t l i s t e d I d i o s y n c r a t i c f o r m s : S O B I R A T 1 , SOBOR, SOBOROVAT ' . SBOR " c o l l e c t i o n , t a x , d u t y " — S O B O R 1 4 " c a t h e d r a l , c o u n c i l , s y n o d " ; t h e t w o f o r m s c o e x i s t o n a c c o u n t o f d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g . 15 81 7) VZOBRAT'SJA "to climb, climb up", pf.; VZBIRAT'SJA, impf. per f e c t i v e imperfective UR: # wuzu + b i r + V ... # # wuzu + b i r + V ... # (DI-TENSING) - I (w > v) : v v (C > C') : b' b* (V-LOWER) : o -(V-DROP): 0 P 0 0 (C'C > CC) : b -IR: # vzo + br ... # # vz' + b ' l r + ... # Summary: a) l i s t same as under 1/a *VZ '+• BR- ( < #bir#) .form not l i s t e d ; however, cf. IZ- (-BRAT')16 8) VOVNE 1 7 "outside", adv. UR: # wu + wun + V ... # > IR: # vo + vn' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other l i s t e d variants IZ-82 9) IZOVRAT'SJA "to become a hardened l i a r " , pf., c o l l . c f . IZVRATIT' "to pervert, misinterpret", pf.; IZVRAS'c'AT 1 , impf.; RAZVRAT "corruption, p e r v e r s i t y " , noun UR: fizu + wir + V # > IR: # Izo + vr + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: IZO- RAZO- S 0 -b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : IZ- RAZ-10) RAZOVRAT'SJA "to be a passionate l i a r " , pf., c o l l . ; RAZVIRAT1SJA, impf. c f . RAZVRATIT' "to corrupt", pf.: RAZVRASCAT', impf.; RAZVRATNIK "debauchee, l i b e r t i n e " , noun UR: # orzu + wir + V ... # > IR: # razo + vr + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: IZO- RAZO- SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : IZ- RAZ-Note the differences between p r e f i x a l variants i n IZOVRAT'SJA - RAZOVRAT'SJA and IZVRATIT' - RAZVRATIT1, which are apparently due to d i f f e r e n t underlying root morphemes: the f i r s t root morpheme (IZOVRAT'SJA) with the underlying j e r i , and the second form (IZVRATIT 1) of OCS o r i g i n . 11) SOVRAT' "to l i e " , pf.; VRAT', impf. UR: # su + wir + V ... # > IR: # so + vr + ... # 83 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: IZO- RAZO- S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : IZ- RAZ-12) VOVSE "quite", adv., c o l l . VOVSJU "to the utmost extent", adv., c o l l . UR: # wu + wis + V # > IR: # vo + v's* + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- OTP- S0-b) other varients not l i s t e d P r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes i n the forms VOVNE and VOVSE may also be derived by the app l i c a t i o n of the Lower Rule i n the environment of two i d e n t i c a l i n i t i a l consonants, that i s , i n a l l those examples i n which the root morpheme begins with a c l u s t e r of two consonants of which the i n i t i a l one i s i d e n t i c a l with the p r e f i x a l morpheme-initial consonant. I t seems that i n t h i s way two i d e n t i c a l consonants are kept apart whenever there i s a sequence of three consonants, the f i r s t two being i d e n t i c a l . 13) SOVSEM "quite, e n t i r e l y " , adv. UR: # su + wis + V ... # > IR: # so + v's 1 + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- 0T0- SO-84 b) other variants not l i s t e d 14) OTOVSJUDU "from everywhere", adv. UR: # otu + wis + V # > IR: # oto + v's' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- OTP- S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 15) OBOVS'IVET1 "to become lousy", pf; VSIVET', impf. UR: # obu + wux + V ... # > IR: # obo + vs + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: 0B0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 16) VOGNAT* "to drive i n " , pf.; VGONJ&T', impf. UR: # wu + gun + V ... # > IR: # vo + gn + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- OBO- OTO- PODO- RAZO- S0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: VOZ- IZ-This pattern of behavior also applies to the following pairs of verbs: 17) OBOGNAT* "to outrun, leave behind", pf.; OBGONJAT*, impf. UR: # obu + gun + V ... # > IR: # obo + gn + ... # 85 18) OTOGNAT * "to drive away, f i g h t back", pf. ; OTGONJAT', impf. UR: # otu + gun + V* ... # > IR: # oto + gn + ... # 19) PODOGNAT1 "to drive on, adjust", pf.; PODGONjAT1, impf. UR: # podu + gun + V ... # > IR: # podo + gn + ... # 20) R A Z O G N A T ' "to drive away, disperse", pf. ; R A Z G O N J A T ' , impf. UR: # orzu + gun + V # > IR: # razo + gn + # 21) SOGNAT* "to drive away/together", pf. ; S G O N J A T ' , impf. UR: # su + gun + V # > IR: # so + gn + # 22) VOGNUT" "to curve/bend inwards", pf. ; V G I B A T 1 , impf. UR: #wu + gub + n + ou + . . . # > IR: # vo +. g + n + u + ...# UR: # wu + gub + V ... # >IR: # v + g'lb + ... # In the pe r f e c t i v e form, f i r s t example, the (C — > 0) and (V-DROP) rules reduce the root morpheme i n the IR to a single segment # g #. Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- IZO- NADO- OBO- OTP- PODO-RAZO- SO-b) other l i s t e d variants: SU- (-GUBYJ) The above summary also applies to the following r e l a t e d underlying representations of the root morpheme: 23) IZOGNUT1 "to bend, curve", pf.; IZGIBAT', impf. UR: #Izu + gub + n + ou + ...# > IR: #Izo + g + n + u+...# 86 24) N A D O G N U T ' "to bend/curve s l i g h t l y " , p f . ; N A D G I B A T ' , impf. UR: #nodu + gub + n + ou +...# > IR: #nado + g + n + u +...# 25) OBOGNUT' "to round, s k i r t " , pf.; OGIBAT1, impf. UR: #obu + gub + n + ou +...# > IR: #obo + g + n + u+...# 26) OTOGNUT' "to unbend, turn back", pf.; OTGIBAT', impf. UR: #otu + gub + n + ou +...# >IR: #oto + g + n + u + # 27) PODOGNUT" "to tuck i n , bend", pf.; PODGIBAT', impf. UR: #podu + gub + n + ou +...# >IR: #podo + g + n + u + . . . # 28) RAZOGNUT" "to unbend, straighten", pf. ; RAZ GI BAT' , impf. UR: #orzu + gub + n + ou +...# > IR: #razo + g + n + u +...# 29) SOGNUT1 "to bend, bow", pf.; SGIBAT', impf. UR: #su + gub + n + ou + ...# >IR: #so + g + n + u + ...# 30) OBOGRET*19 "to warm oneself", pf. ; O B O G R E V A T ' , impf. c f . GORET' "to burn" OBGORET* "to be scorched, burned around", pf.; OBGORAT', impf. UR: # obu + gur + V ... # >IR: # obo + gr' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO- OTP- PODO- RAZO- SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V Z -Other t y p i c a l p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes of t h i s root morpheme include: 31) OTOGRET' "to warm oneself", pf.; OTOGREVAT1, impf c f . OTGORET1 "to burn out", pf.; OTGORAT', impf. UR: # otu + gur + V ... # > IR: # oto + gr 1 + .. 32) PODOGRET1 "to warm up", pf.; PODOGREVAT•, impf. cf. PODGORET' "to be a l i t t l e burnt", pf.; PODGORAT', impf. UR: # podu + gur + v ... # > IR: # podo + gr' + 33) RAZOGRET' "to warm up", pf.; RAZOGREVAT1, impf. c f . RAZGORET 1SJA "to flame/flare up", pf.; RAZGORAT'SJA, impf. UR: # orzu + gur + V ... # > IR: # razo + gr' + 34) SOGRET' "to warm, heat", pf.; SOGREVAT', impf. cf . SGORET' "to burn down", pf.; SGORAT', impf. UR: # su + gur + V ... # >IR: # so + gr' + ... 35) OBODNJAT* "to dawn", pf.; OBODNEVAT', impf. UR: # obu + din + V ... # > IR: # obo + d'n' + . Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: 0B0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OT- (-DNEVAT1) 36) VZODRAT1 "to r a i s e , l i f t up with e f f o r t " , pf., c o l l . ; VZDIRAT1, impf. UR: # wuzu + d i r + V # > IR: # vzo + dr + # UR: # wuzu + d i r + V ... # > IR: # vz' + d 1 I r + . . . # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VZO- IZO- NADO- 0B0- 0T0-RAZO- S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d A d ditional examples of p r e f i x a l o-variants l i s t e d i n the above summary are developed below: 37) IZODRAT' "to rend, tear (in several places, to pieces)", pf.; IZDIRAT 1, impf. UR: # I z u + d i r + V ... # > IR: # I z o + dr + ... # UR: # I z u + d i r + V ... # > IR: # I z 1 + d ' l r + . . . # 38) NADODRAT' "to tear s l i g h t l y " , pf.; NADDIRAT', impf. UR: # nodu + d i r + V ... # > IR: # nado + dr + ... # UR: # nodu + d i r + V ... # > IR: # nad + d ' l r + . . . # 39) OBODRAT" "to tear, s k i n , peel", pf.; OBDIRAT1, impf. UR: # obu + d i r + V ... # > IR: # obo + dr. + ... # 40) OTODRAT' "to t e a r / r i p o f f " , pf.; OTDIRAT" , impf. UR: # otu + d i r + V ... # > IR: # oto + dr + ... # 41) RAZODRAT" "to tear up", pf. ; RAZDIRAT" ., impf. UR: # orzu + d i r + V # > IR: # razo + dr + ... # 89 4 2 ) SODRAT' "to s t r i p , s k i n " , pf.; SDIRAT *, impf. UR: # su + d i r + V ... # > IR: # so + dr + ... # UR: # su + d i r + V ... # > IR: # s 1 + d ' l r + ... # 4 3 ) OBOZDAT' "to wait (for a w h i l e ) " , pf., c o l l . (=PODOZDAT') PODOZDAT" "to wait (for a w h i l e ) " , pf.; PODZIDAT" , impf. UR: # obu + gid + V ... # > IR: # obo + zd + ... # UR: # podu + gid + V ... # > IR: # podo + zd + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO- PODO-b) other l i s t e d variants: P O D -4 4 ) S O Z E E N I E "burning, cremation", noun IZOZ'z'ENNYJ "burnt a l l over", p.p.p.; IZZEGSIJ, p.p.a. cf . also i d i o s y n c r a t i c form SOZIGAT" , impf., obs., and SZIGAT*, impf. modern usage; SZEC', pf. (<SOZGU, 1st P. sg.) UR: # su + gig + V ... # > IR: # so + 22 + . . . # UR: # Izu + gig + V ... # > IR: # Izo + Z2. .+ . . . # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: IZO- OBO- OTP- PODO- RAZO- S 0 -b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : VOZ- (-ZZENNYJ) 90 45) VPZMU, present, 1st p. sg. (< VZAT" "press/drive i n " , pf. ; VZIMAT', impf.) UR: # wu + gim + V ... # > IR: # vo + 2m + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- OBO- OTP- PODO- RAZO- SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d The i n f i n i t i v e forms are: VZAT', OB ZAT', PTZAT', PODZAT', RAZZAT1, and SZAT'. 46) SPZMURIT' "to b l i n k " , pf.; SPZMURIVAT', impf. c f . MIGNUT1, pf.; MIGAT', impf. cf . also SMEZIT' "close one's eyes", pf., obs.; SMEZAT', impf. UR: # su + gim + our + ... # ——>IR: # so + zm + ur + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 47) OBOZNU, present, 1st p. sg. (<PBZAT' "to reap cereals a l l over/around", pf.; PBZINAT', impf.) ZAT' "to reap, harvest", i n f . UR: # obu + gin + V ... # > IR: # obo + zn + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: PBP- PTP- SP-91 b) other variants not l i s t e d 48) OBOZRAT1 "to guzzle, overeat", pf. , vulg. ; OBZ'lRAT1, impf. UR: # obu + g i r + V ... # > IR: # obo + Zr + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO- S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 49) OBOZV&T' "to call/name", pf., c o l l . ; OBZYVAT1, impf. UR: # obu + zuw + V ... # > IR: # obo + zv + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO- OTP- PODO- SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : VOZ-Idiosy n c r a t i c forms: SO- (-ZYVAT1), SO- (-ZYV) 50) SOZVAT' "to i n v i t e , c a l l , summon", pf.; SZYVAT" and SOZYVAT1, impf. cf . OBOZVAL, m., past tense (< OBOZVAT'; c f . example No. 49), but OBZOVU, 1st p. sg. of the pf. future tense UR: # su + zuw + V # > IR: # so + zv + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d variants: VOZ- (-ZVAT 1) 92 51) SOZDAT1 "to create", pf.; SOZDAVAT' and SOZIDAT1 (high s t y l e ) , impf. c f . also SOZDANIE and SOZfDANIE (high s t y l e ) , nouns UR: # su + z i d + V ... # > IR: # so + zd + ... # UR: # su + z i d + V ... # > IR: # so + z'l d + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 52) OBOZLJJT * "to embitter" , pf. cf . Z6L "wicked", adj., short form UR: # obu + z u l + V ... # > IR: # obo + z ' l ' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO- RAZO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ- (-ZLOBIE) 53) OBOZRET' "to survey, look around", pf.; OBOZREVAT*, impf., and also OBZIRAT", impf., obs. PODOZREVAT1 "to suspect", impf. UR: # obu + z i r + V ... # > IR: # obo + z'r' +... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO- PODO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : VOZ- (-ZRET1) 54) SOZRET* " t o r i p e n , m a t u r e " , p f . ; SOZREVAT ' ( = Z R E T I ) , i m p f . c f . ZERNO " g r a i n " , n o u n UR: # s u + z i r + V . . . # > I R : # s o + z ' r 1 +. . . . # Summary : a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : S 0 -b) o t h e r v a r i a n t s n o t l i s t e d The p r e f i x a l h i g h , l a x , b a c k v o w e l u i n t h e d e r i v e d f o r m s o f t h e r o o t morpheme J (UR: # j i d # ) , i n t h e i n f i n i t i v e f o r m s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r b , a l s o l o w e r s t o o b y t h e a p p l i c a -t i o n o f t h e a b o v e r u l e . 55) V O J T I " t o e n t e r " , p f . OR: i t i , ( 1 s t p . s g . : i d u ) " t o g o " UR : # wu + j i d + t l # (w > v ) : v (C > C ) : t ' (C >0) : 0 (V-LOWER) : o ( V - D R O P ) : 0 I R : # v o + j + t ' l # Summary : a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : V O - V Z O - I Z O - N I Z O - OBO- 0 T 0 -PODO- RAZO- S 0 -b) o t h e r v a r i a n t s n o t l i s t e d Cf. also SOSLA, pf. tense, 3rd p. sg., f . , and i d i o -s y ncratic form SOSEL, pf. tense, 3rd p. sg., m. Note the i n s e r t i o n of the segment n or hard sign (") in the remaining cases where the segment j_ follows the p r e f i x a l morpheme, such as OBNJAT', OTNJAT1, IZ'^AT 1, and RAZ " J AT1 . 56) VOL'GOTNOST' "freedom", noun, c o l l . c f . L'GOTA "advantage, p r i v i l e g e " , noun POLEGCAT1 "to abate", pf., c o l l . UR: # wu + l i g + V # > IR: # vo + l ' g + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VQ-b) other variants not l i s t e d 57) OBOLGAT1 "to slander", pf.; OBLYGAT•, impf. IZOLGAT'SJA "to become an i n v e t e r a t e / i n c o r r i g i b l e / hardened l i a r " , pf. UR: # obu + lug + V ... # > IR: # obo + l g + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: IZO- OBO- OTP- RAZO- S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 95 OBOL'STIT' "to seduce", pf.; OBOL'SCAT', impf. cf . LEST 1 " f l a t t e r y " , noun #obu + l i s t + V ... # > IR: # obo + l ' s ' t ' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO- PODO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 59) OTOMKNUT' "to unlock, unbolt", pf.; OTMYKAT *, impf. UR: #otu + muk + n + ou + . .. # 5> #oto + mk + n + u + . ..#' Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OTP- RAZO- SO- VO- (-MCAT1) b) other variants not l i s t e d 60) OBOMLET1 "to be stupefied/frozen with t e r r o r " , pf., c o l l . ; OBOMLEVAT', impf. c f . MOLNIJA " l i g h t n i n g " , noun UR: # obu + mul + V ... # > IR: # obo + ml' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO- RAZO- SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 58) UR: noun # su + min + V .. 61) VOZOMNIT1 "to become conceited", pf.; VOZOMNJAT" , impf cf. SOMNENIE "doubt", noun perfective verb UR: # wuzu + min + V ... # (w >v) : v (C > C ) : , m'n' (V-LOWER) : o o (V-DROP): 0 IR: # vozo + m'n' + ... # 0 # so + m'n* + Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VOZO- S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 62) VOMNU "I s h a l l / w i l l push/squeeze", present, 1st p. sg. (< MJAT', impf.) UR: # wu + min + V ... # > IR: # vo + mn + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- IZO- 0B0- PODO- RAZO- S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 63) SOMNOZITEL' "fact o r " , noun, math, term UR: # su + munog + V ... # > IR: # so + mnoz + ... # 97 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : RAZ- (-MNOZAT1) 64) OBOMRU, present, 1st p. sg. ( < OBMERET' "to f a i n t " , pf. , c o l l . ) ; OTOMRET, present, 1st p. sg. (< OTMERET1 "to die o f f " , pf.) UR: # obu + mir + V ... # > IR: # obo + mr + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO- 0T0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 65) OTOMSTIT1 "to revenge oneself, take vengeance", pf.; MSTIT*, impf. O T M S T I T 1 p f . , obs. i s also found as a coexistent pf. form; c f . MEST1 "vengeance, revenge", noun UR: # otu + mist + V ... # > IR: # oto + m's't' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: 0T0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OT- (-MSTIT1, - M S C A T ' ) 66) OBOMSET1 "to get.covered with moss", pf. cf . MOX "moss", noun UR: # obu + mux + V # > IR: # obo + m§ + ... # 98 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: 0B0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 67) VOMCAT1 "to drive/run up with speed", pf.; MCAT', impf. c f . MY/KAT'SJA "to wander, stray", impf. UR: # wu + muk + V ... # > IR: I vo + mc1 + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d See also OTOMKNUT" , example No. 59) above 68) VONZIT' "to s t i c k , pierce, thrust", pf.; VONZAT', impf. c f . ZANOZA " s p l i n t e r " ; NOZ "knife", nouns UR: # wu + n i z + V ... # > IR: #vo + n'z' + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 69) RAZONRAVIT'SJA "to stop l i k i n g / p l e a s i n g " , impf. NOROV "habit", noun, obs. OR: nGravu " d i s p o s i t i o n , habit", noun UR: # orzu + nurow + V ... # >IR: # razo + nrav* + ... # 99 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: RAZO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ- (-NRAVSTVENNPST') 70) VPPNUT' "to shove/push i n " , pf., c o l l . ; VPINAT1 , impf. UR: # wu + p i n + ou + ... # — > IR: # vo + pn + u + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 71) VPPRU, present, 1st p. sg. (<VPERET 1 "to push with d i f f i c u l t y " , pf.) UR: # wu + p i r + V ... # > IR: # vo + pr + ... # a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- OBO- OTP- PODO- RAZO- SO-(-PRU, -PERNICAT1) b) other variants not l i s t e d 72) PODOPRET' "to begin to r o t " , pf.; PODOPREVAT' and also PODPREVAT', impf. c f . PAR "steam", noun UR: # podu + p i r + V ... # > IR: # podo + p*r' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VZO- OTP- PPDP- RAZP- SP-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : PPD- (-PREVAT1) 100 73) IZORVAT1 "to tear to pieces", pf.; IZRYVAT1, impf. UR: # Izu + ruw + V ... # > IR: # Izo + rv + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VZO- VO- IZO- NADO- OBO- OTO-PODO- RAZO- SO- . b) other variants not l i s t e d 74) SORTUCKA "amalgam", noun UR: # su + rut + V ... # > IR: # so + r t + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 75) OTOSLAT' "to send away/off", pf.; OTSYLAT1, impf. UR: # otu + s u l + V ... # — > IR: # oto + s i + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OTP- PODO- RAZO- SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 76) OTOSPAT' "to sleep, have a long sleep", pf.; OTSYPAT1, impf. RAZOSPAT'SJA "to be f a s t asleep, oversleep", pf., c o l l . SOSNUT' "to take/have a nap", pf., c o l l . UR: # otu + sup + V ... # > IR: # oto + sp + ... # 101 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OTO- RAZO- SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 77) PODOSPET1 "to arrive/come i n time", pf., c o l l . UR: # podu + sup + V . ; . # > IR: # podo + s'p" + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: PODO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 78) PODOSTLAT1 "to.stretch/lay under", pf.; PODSTILAT1 and PODSTELIT•, impf. c f . STIL'SCIK "laborer who spreads out something", noun UR: # podu + s t i l + V ... # > IR: # podo + s t l + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: IZO- PODO- RAZO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 79) VOTKAT' "to interweave", pf. cf. OCS, OR: tuk a t i "to weave" UR: # su + tuk + V ... # > IR: # vo + tk + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- IZO- PODO- RAZO- SO-102 b) other variants not l i s t e d 80) VPTKNUT1 "to s t i c k / d r i v e i n " , pf.; VTYKAT1, impf. c f . PCS, OR: tttkati "to weave" UR: #wu + tuk + n + ou + ...# > IR: #vo + tk + n + u ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- OTO- PODO- SO-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: SU- (-TKI) 81) SOTLET1 "to rot, decay", pf.; SPTLEVAT1, impf. OR: t i l e t i ; OCS: t u l e t i "to decay" UR: # su + t i l + V ... # > IR: # so + t ' l ' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : IS- RAS-,. 82) VOTRU, present, 1st p. sg. ( <VTERET1 "to rub i n / i n t o " , pf.; VTIRAT', impf.) UR: # wu + t i r + V ... # > IR: # vo + t r + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- IZO- OBO- OTP- PODO- RAZO-SP-b) other variants not l i s t e d 103 83) VOTSCE " i n vain, adv., poet., obs. cf. TSCETA "vanity", noun, obs. T6SCIJ "empty, skinny", adj. OR: t u s c i ; OCS: t u s t l "empty", adj. UR: # wu + tusk + V + ... # > IR: # vo + t's'c" + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 84) RAZOCTU, present, 1st p. sg. (< RASCEST' "to c a l c u l a t e , estimate", pf., c o l l . ) OBOCTU, present, 1st p. sg. (< OBCEST" "to miscalculate", pf., c o l l . ) SOCLA, f. , past sg.; SOCL.6, n. , past sg. (<SCEST' "to count", pf.) UR: # orzu + k i t + V ... # > IR: # razo + c't + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO- RAZO- SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d c f . also SOSCITAT', SOPRICEST1 104 85) PODOSVA "sole", noun cf. PODSIT' "to sew underneath, to sole", pf.; PODSIVAT1, impf.; and SOV " s t i t c h , seam", SVEJA "seamstress", nouns UR: # podu + xiw + V ... # > IR: # podo + sv + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: PODO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 105 3.1.1 Summary of P r e f i x a l Variants a) l i s t e d o-variants 1-7) VO- VZO- OBO- OTO- PODO-RAZO- SO-8) VO-9-11) IZO- RAZO- SO-12-14) VO- OTO- SO-15) OBO-16-21) VO- OBO- OTO- PODO- RAZO-SO-22-29) VO- IZO- NADO- OBO- OTO-PODO- RAZO- SO-30-34) OBO- OTO- PODO- RAZO- SO-35) OBO-36-42) VZO- IZO- NADO- OBO- OTO-RAZO- SO-43) OBO- PODO-44) IZO- OBO- OTO- PODO- RAZO SO-45) VO- OBO- OTO- PODO- RAZO-SO-46) SO-47) OBO- OTO- SO-48) OBO- SO-b) other l i s t e d variants IZ-IZ-IZ- RAZ-VOZ- IZ-SU-VZ-OT-POD-VOZ-106 49) OBO- OTO- PODO- SO- VOZ-50) SO- VOZ-51) SO-52) OBO- RAZO- BEZ-53) OBO- PODO- VOZ-54) SO-55) VO- VZO- IZO- NIZO- OBO-OTO- PODO- RAZO- SO-56) VO-57) IZO- OBO- OTO- RAZO- SO-58) OBO- PODO-59) VO- OTO- RAZO- SO-60) OBO- RAZO- SO-61) VOZO- SO-62) VO- IZO- OBO- PODO- RAZO-SO-63) SO- RAZ-64) OBO- OTO-65) OTO- OT-66) OBO-67) VO- SO-68) VO-69) RAZO- BEZ-70) VO-107 71) VO- OBO- OTO- PODO- RAZO-SO-72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 VZO- OTO- PODO- RAZO- SO- POD-VZO- VO- IZO- NADO- OBO-OTO- PODO- RAZO- SO-SO-OTO- PODO-. RAZO- SO-OTO- RAZO- SO-PODO-IZO- PODO- RAZO-VO- IZO- PODO- RAZO- SO-VO- OTO- PODO- SO- SU-SO- IS- RAS-VO- IZO- OBO- OTO- PODO-RAZO- SO-VO-OBO- RAZO- SO-PODO-108 3.1.2 Perfective Verbs i n F i r s t Environment Taking  P r e f i x a l O-Variant Morpheme i n Conjugation There are several prefixed perfective verbs i n the Russian vocabulary which, when conjugated i n both the singular and p l u r a l , take the p r e f i x a l o-variant morpheme. The following verbs belong to the above group: Root morpheme I n f i n i t i v e 1st p. sg. B l - VBIT 1 VOB'JU VI- VZVIT' VZOV'JtJ LI- VLIT* VOL'JU PI- ISPIT' IZOP'JU SI- VSIT 1 VOSJU The rule for lowering lax, high, back vowel u i n the p r e f i x a l morphemes attached to the conjugated forms, i n the singular and p l u r a l , i s exactly the same as for the preceding group. Some examples belonging to the present group are given i n the derivations below. 109 1) VOB'JU, 1st p. sg. (<VBIT* "to drive/hammer i n " , pf.) UR: # wu + b i j + ou # (w >v) : v (C >C') : b« (MONOPH): u (V-LOWER) : o (V-DROP) : 0 IR: # v o + b ' j + u # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- VZO- IZO- NADO- OBO- OTO-PODO- RAZO- SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 2) IZOV'JU, 1st p. sg. (<IZVIT" "to weave, twist", pf.) UR: # I z u + wij + ou # > IR: # I z o + v'j + u # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- VZO- IZO- OBO- PODO- RAZO-SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 3) VOL'JU, 1st p. sg. (< VLIT* "to pour i n " , pf.) UR: # wu + l i j + ou # > IR: # v o + l ' j + u# 110 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- VOZO- IZO- OBO- OTP- PODO-RAZP- SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 4) IZPP'JU, 1st p. sg. (<ISPIT' "to drink some quantity; to drink to the end", pf.) UR: # I z u + p i j + ou # > IR: # I z o + p'j + u # Summary: . a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- VOZO- IZO- OBO- OTP- PPDP-RAZP- SP-b) other variants not l i s t e d 5) SPS'JU, 1st p. sg. (<SSIT' "to sew together", pf.) UR: # su + x i j + ou # > IR: # so + Sj. + u # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VP- PBP- RAZP- SP-b) other variants not l i s t e d I l l 3.1.3 Summary of P r e f i x a l O-Variants i n Conjugated  Perfective Verbs a) l i s t e d o-variants b) other l i s t e d variants 1) VO- VZO- IZO- NADO- OBO-0T0- PODO- RAZO- S0-2) VO- VZO- IZO- OBO- PODO-RAZO- SO-3) VO- VOZO- IZO- OBO- OTO-PODO- RAZO- SO-4) VO- VOZO- IZO- OBQ- OTO-PODO- RAZO- SO-5) VO- OBO- RAZO- SO- -3.1.4 Double Prefixed Words of the F i r s t Environment Double prefixed words of the F i r s t Environment are found i n the case of three successive morphemes — two p r e f i x a l morphemes and a root morpheme following them. Both p r e f i x a l morphemes end i n a lax, high, underlying vowel segment u. This i s the case i n which the root morpheme i s too f a r removed from the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme to influence i t s phonological r e s t r u c t u r i n g . Instead, i t i s the under-l y i n g structure of the second p r e f i x a l morpheme which creates the basic environment for lowering i n the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme. 112 The underlying segment u i n the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme i s lowered to o, while the segment u i n the second p r e f i x a l morpheme i s dropped, that i s , the rule i s the same as for the F i r s t Environment. The t y p i c a l derivations, i n f u l l or abbreviated, of the above-described variants are developed below. 1) SOSVODNICAT* "to pamper, pimp", pf. , c o l l . ; SV6DNICAT1, impf. UR: # su + su + wod + V ... # (w >v) : v (C > C ) : d' (V-LOWER): o -(V-DROP): - 0 IR: # so + s + vod' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 2) SOSKUCIT1 "to be bored, weary", pf., obs.: SKUCAT1, impf. c f . SKUKA "boredom", noun UR: #su + su + kouk + V ...# >IR: #so + s + ku£' + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 113 3) SOVMESTIT1 "to combine", pf.; SOVMESCAT1, impf. c f . SMESTIT 1, pf.; SMESCAT1, impf. VMESTIT1, pf.; VMESCAT', impf. SOVMESTIT * SMESTIT' UR: #su + wu + mest + V ...# #su + mest + V ...# (w >v) : v (C > C ) : m' t 1 m' t ' (V-LOWER) : o -(V-DROP)i - 0 0 (CC —> C'C) : - s • s' s' IR: #so + v + m'es't' + ...# #s1 + m'es't' + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 4) SOVPAST1 "to coincide, concur", pf.; SOVPADAT', impf. UR: #su + wu + pod + tV + ...# >IR: tso + v + pas't 1 +...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 5) SOSTIRAT' "to wash/wipe off/away", pf., c o l l . ; SOSTIRYVAT', impf. cf . VOTRU, present, 1st p. sg. (< VTERET1 "to rub i n / in t o " , pf.) 114 IZOTRU, present, 1st p. sg. (<ISTERET 1 "to grate", pf.) TERET' "to rub, p o l i s h " , impf. UR: #su + su + t l r 2 1 + ...# ——> IR: #so + s' + t ' l r +...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OB- OT- (-STIRAT1) 6) SOSTYKAT*22 "to j o i n , connect", pf.; SOSTYKOVAT1, impf. c f . RASTYKAT' "to disconnect", pf. and impf. UR: #su + su + tuk 2 3+ V # > IR: #so + s + tyk + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : RAS-7) SOSTJAZAT1SJA "to compete", impf. c f . TJANUT' "to p u l l , s t r i v e a f t e r " , pf.; TJAGAT', impf. UR: #su + su + teng + V ...# > IR: #so + s + t'az • + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 8) SOSCITAT' (=SCEST') "to count", pf. ; SCTTAT', impf. c f . SOPRICEST1 (=SOPRICISLIT') "to add to", pf. ,• obs. 115 OCS, OR: c i t i c i " l e c t o r " , noun UR: #su + su + k i t 2 4 + ...# —> IR: #so + s + c ' l t + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OB- OT- POD- RAS-Cf. also OBOCTU, RAZOCTU, SOCTU 3.1.5 Summary of Double Prefixed Words i n the F i r s t Environment a) l i s t e d o-variants b) other l i s t e d variants 1) S0- — 2) S0- -3) SO- -4) S0- -5) S0- OB- 0T-6) s o - RAS-7) s o - -8) s o - OB- OT-3.1.6 Concluding Remarks The above summary of p r e f i x a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n front of root morphemes which dropped either front or back j e r demonstrates the dominant pattern of p r e f i x a l o-variants i n 116 the e n t i r e F i r s t Environment. Within the corpus data of ninety-eight root morphemes presented, there i s a t o t a l of 247 p r e f i x a l variants found to be attached to the l i s t e d root morphemes. From the above number of p r e f i x a l v ariants, 210 represent p r e f i x a l o-variants. Such a predominant number of i d e n t i f i e d o-variants i n t h i s environment confirms that the underlying representations of the root morphemes are well within the expected range for v a l i d p r e d i c t i o n . The summary indicates minimal overlapping of regular p r e f i x a l v ariants, e i t h e r as a d d i t i o n a l p a r a l l e l forms, such as OT-, POD-, and RAZ-, or as i d i o s y n c r a t i c forms, such as BEZ-, VZ-, VOZ-, IZ- (IS-), OB-, OT-, POD-, RAZ- (RAS-). The most " c o n s i s t e n t " p r e f i x a l o-variant i s SO-, without a si n g l e case of regular (that i s synonymous) doublet. As regards the anticipated phonological behavior i n the F i r s t Environment, the most uniform subclass i s the group of conjugated p e r f e c t i v e verbs. The p r e f i x a l o-variants i n front of the above verbs are a l l r e g u l a r l y developed without a single anomaly. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r e f i x a l o-variants i n the above summary provides an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l , namely, the predom-inance of SO- p r e f i x a l o-variant and the almost complete unproductivity of other o-variants. The above statement can also be applied to the group of morphemes which, on account of a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t 117 environment, are termed as the Double Prefixed Words i n the F i r s t Environment. 3.2 The Second Environment of the Lower Rule The Second Environment of the Lower Rule includes a l l those cases i n which the lowering of u to o i s attr i b u t e d to the i d e n t i t y of consonants in the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme and the following root morpheme. This phonblogical environment has been subdivided into the following three groups: 1) The i n i t i a l consonant of the p r e f i x a l morpheme i s i d e n t i c a l to the i n i t i a l consonant of the root morpheme: C 1 + c^-c, where t h i s i d e n t i t y of consonants may d i f f e r i n the voicing feature, that i s , the i n i t i a l root consonant i s ei t h e r voiced or voiceless with respect to the f i r s t p r e f i x a l consonant; 2) The i n i t i a l consonant of the p r e f i x a l morpheme i s i d e n t i c a l to the i n i t i a l consonant of the root morpheme with an add i t i o n a l intervening p r e f i x a l morpheme: C 1 + (CV) c . + C 1C; and, 'pre f i x ' ' 3) The i n i t i a l consonant of the p r e f i x a l morpheme i s i d e n t i c a l with the second consonant of the root morpheme: C 1 + CC 1. 118 The above three group environments can be expressed as one general environment representing and incorporating a l l three environments into one: C 1 + (CV) + (C) C 1 (C) . pr e f i x v ' The r e s t r i c t i o n i s that one of the optional segments i n the root (in the case of the second group also the additi o n a l intervening p r e f i x a l morpheme) has to be present in a l l of the above three group environments. A discussion of each of the three groups of t h i s environment follows. 3.2.1 The F i r s t Group In the F i r s t Group of t h i s environment the morpheme f i n a l , lax, high vowel u i n the p r e f i x a l morpheme i s lowered to o, i f the following root morpheme begins with a consonant s_ which i s i d e n t i c a l to the consonant preceding the lax, high vowel u i n the p r e f i x a l morpheme. For t h i s group the rule i s : (V-LOWER) u >o / C 1 + C 1C, where the superscript i indicates the i d e n t i t y of consonantal segments. In terms of phonetic feature s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , the above rule may be stated as follows: 119 (V-LOWER) V +high -tense [-high]/ C -voice +strident + C cCvoice +strident C, where the i n i t i a l consonants of the p r e f i x a l morpheme and the root morpheme are i d e n t i c a l . It seems reasonable to assume that i n t h i s way the language provides a way to keep two p o t e n t i a l l y i n i t i a l i d e n t i c a l consonants (at the beginning of a word) apart. This applies i n a l l instance i n which two such consonants are followed by a t h i r d consonant. In other words, a p o t e n t i a l *C 1 + C 1C consonant c l u s t e r w o r d - i n i t i a l l y always develops as C 1V + C 1C sequence. Two such i d e n t i c a l consonants are permitted i n the grammar only i f the t h i r d segment i s a vowel (C 1 + C 1V, as in WESTI, SSELIT', e t c . ) . The following examples i l l u s t r a t e the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes found i n t h i s group: 1) SOZVONIT'SJA "to t a l k over ( c a l l up by) telephone", pf., c o l l . ; SOZVANIVAT'SJA, impf. UR: (DI-TENSING) (UNROUND) : (w > v) : (C >C') : (V-LOWER) : IR: # su + zwon + V # # su + zwon + V o V n n # so + zvon 1 + # # so + zvan" + ... # 120 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: OB- OT- RAZ-It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to observe that i n the case of the i n i t i a l l y voiced root consonant, combinations consisting of consonant c l u s t e r sequences *szv and *szn do not e x i s t i n the Russian language system and even the consonant sequence s_z i s very rare (SZADI, SZYVAT'). The lowering of u to o i n the above rule environment has been necessitated to ease the pronunciation. 2) SOZVEZDIE " c o n s t e l l a t i o n " , noun UR: # su + zwezd + V ... # > IR:, # so + z'v'ez'd* +...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ- NAD- (-ZVEZDNYJ) 3) SOZVUCAT1 "to make consonant", impf. SOZVUCIE "accord, consonance", noun UR: #su + zwon + k + V ...# > IR: #so + zvu + £' + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ- OT-4) SOZNAT1 "to be conscious, to r e a l i z e " , pf.; SOZNAVAT', impf. SOZNANIE "consciousness", noun UR: # su + zno + ... # > IR: # so + zna + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants : OBO- SO_-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : RAZ- (-ZNAKOMIT1) PRED-(-ZNAMENOVAT1) OBO- p r e f i x a l o-variant l i s t e d under a) i s found i n OBOZNAT'SJA, pf.; OBOZNAVAT*SJA, impf. The remaining two root morphemes i n the Russian vocab-ulary which begin with the consonantal sequence zri are ZNO (in ZNOJ "intense heat") and ZNOB (in ZNOBIT* "to f e e l fever-i s h , s h i v e r " ) . There i s only one case of the p r e f i x a l mor-pheme BEZ- appended to the ZNO root morpheme (BEZZN6JNYJ). 5) SOSVATAT' "to propose smb. to smb. as a wife/husband", pf. SVATAT1, impf.. UR: # su + swot + ... # (UNROUND): a (w > v) : v (V-LOWER) : o IR: # so + svat + ... # 122 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 6) SOSKOBLIT* "to scrape off", pf.; SOSKABLIVAT1, impf. UR: # su + skob + ... # — > IR: # so'+ skob + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OT- POD- (OTSKOBLIT*, PODSKOBLIT') In t h i s and other s i m i l a r examples, the segment a i n the imperfective aspects of the verbs i s derived by the (DI-TENSING) r u l e , by which the underlying segment o i n DI' s changes to a. 7) SOSKOCIT' "to jump off/down", pf.; SOSKAKIVAT1, impf. UR: # su + skok + V ...# > IR: # so + skoc 1 + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- OB- OT- POD-8) SOSKOL'ZNUT' "to s l i d e down/off", pf.; SOSKAL1ZYVAT1, impf. UR: #su + s k u l i z + n + ou +...# >IR: Iso + skol'z + n + u +...# 123 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- (VSKOL'ZNUT') 9) SOSKREBAT1 "to scrape o f f " , impf.; SOSKRESTI, pf. UR: # su + skreb + ... # > IR: # so + skr'eb + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OT- POD-10) SOSLEPA 2 5 "owing to poor s i g h t " , adv.; also: s6sLEPU c f . OCS and OR: slepu " b l i n d " , adj. UR: # su + s l i p + # > IR: # so + s'l'ep + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- (VSLEPUJU) 11) SOSLOVIE "estate", noun SOSLOVNOST' "class d i s t i n c t i o n " , noun UR: # su + slow + ... # > IR: # so + slov + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 124 12) SOSTAVIT1 "to put together, compose", pf.; SOSTAVLJAT1, impf. SOSTAV "composition", noun cf. OR: sustavu "composition, structure", noun UR: # su + sto + w + ... # > IR: # so + sta + v + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- OB- 0T-13) SOSTARIT1 "to make/look o l d , age", pf.; STARIT*, impf. UR: # su + stor + V ... # —~> IR: # so + star' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S 0 -b) other l i s t e d v ariants: V- IS- POD- RAS-14) SOSTEGAT * "to q u i l t " , pf.; SOSTEGIVAT1, impf. OR: t j a g a t i "to p u l l " UR: # su + steg + V ... # > IR: # so + s't'eg + ... # S ummary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d variants: OT- POD-15) SOSTRADAT' "to be compassionate", impf. UR: # su + strod + ... # -—> IR: # so + strad + ... # Summary: 125 a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BES- IS- 0T-16) SOSTRIGAT1 "to shear/clip o f f " , impf. SOSTRIC', pf. UR: # su + s t r i g + V ... # > IR: # so + s t r ' i g + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d variants: OB- OT- POD-17) SOSTROIT1 "to b u i l d , construct", pf.; STROIT 1, impf. UR: # su + s t r o + j + ...# > IR: # so + stro + j + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- NAD- OB- OT- POD- RAS-18) SOSCIPAT' "to pluck", pf., c o l l . ; SOSCIPYVAT1, impf. UR: # su + skip + ... # > IR: # so + s'c ' I p + . . . # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OB- OT- POD-19) SOSCURIT1 "to screw up one's eyes", pf.; SOSCURIVAT1, impf., also SCURIT', impf. (etymology not known) UR: # su + skeur + V ... # > IR: # so + s'c'ur' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 126 3.2.2 Summary of the F i r s t Group a) l i s t e d o-variants b) other l i s t e d variants 1) SO- OB- OT- RAZ-2) SO- BEZ- NAD-3) SO- BEZ- OT-4) OBO- SO- PRED- RAZ-5) SO- -6) SO- OT- POD-7) SO- V- OB- OT- POD-8) SO- V-9) so- OT- POD-10) s6- V-11) so- -12) so- V- OB- OT-13) so- V- IS- POD- RAS-14) so- OT- POD-15) so- BES- IS- OT-16) so- OB- OT- POD-17) so- V- NAD- OB- OT- POD- RAS-18) so- OB- OT- POD-19) so- — 3.2.3 Minor Exceptions to the F i r s t Group There are some apparent exceptions of p r e f i x a l o-variant forms which also lower the f i n a l , high, lax, back 127 vowel u ( i f the i n i t i a l root morpheme consonant i s i d e n t i c a l with the i n i t i a l consonant of the p r e f i x a l morpheme), although the second segment of the root morpheme i s a vowel rather than a consonant. s t r u c t u r a l pattern, i l l u s t r a t e the derivation of p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes which must be regarded as being d i f f e r e n t from the f i r s t group i n not having the consonantal c l u s t e r at the beginning of the root. These two examples could be considered to be s p e c i a l l y marked to undergo the (V-LOWER) rul e . Otherwise, they could be grouped with the nonphono-l o g i c a l l y motivated examples given i n Chapter IV. 1) SOSEDIT* "to l i v e i n neighbourhood", pf., obs.; SOSEDSTVOVAT', impf. UR: # su + sed + V ... # The following two examples, e x h i b i t i n g the C 1VC 1V s'd' (V-LOWER) : o IR: f so + s ' i d ' + V ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : VOS- OB- OT- (-SEDAT1) POD-(-SEST') NAD- RAS- S- (-SEDAT1SJA) 2) SOSUDISTYJ "vascular", adj. SOSUD "vessel", noun OR: susudu "vessel II noun 128 UR: # su + soud + V ... # > IR: # so + sud 1 + V # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d Basic variant S_- has also been found with the root morpheme SUD^, which has a d i f f e r e n t meaning from the above root morpheme SUD2 contained i n SOSUDISTYJ, SOSUD. 3.2.4 Summary of the Exceptions to the F i r s t Group a) l i s t e d o-variants b) other l i s t e d variants 1) SO- VOS- NAD- OB- 0T-POD- RAS- S-2) SO- -3.2.5 The Second Group The main components of t h i s group consist of three morphemes — two p r e f i x a l and a root morpheme. The f i r s t ( w o r d - i n i t i a l or o-variant) p r e f i x a l morpheme contains a lax, high, back vowel u i n the UR, while the second has a non-high, back vowel. The i n i t i a l consonant of the root morpheme i s i d e n t i c a l with the i n i t i a l consonant of the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme. (V-LOWER) u > o / C 1 + (CV) .. + C XC v • ' ' p r e f i x The phonetic feature s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the lowering rule with the above environment are the following: (V-LOWER) V +high -tense -> [-high] / C -voice +-s t r i d e n t ('-^  p r e f i x + C -voice +strident where the i n i t i a l consonants of the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme and the root morpheme are i d e n t i c a l . 2 6 In the above group, s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n structure from the f i r s t group because of an intervening p r e f i x , the p r e f i x a l jers are lowered on account of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the i d e n t i c a l consonants i n the f i r s t p r e f i x a l and root morpheme. Although the i d e n t i c a l consonants are separated by another p r e f i x a l morpheme and two morpheme boundaries, the lowering of the high, lax, back vowel u appears to be triggered by the i n i t i a l consonantal root morpheme segment, which i s i d e n t i c a l with the consonant i n the f i r s t p r e f i x . The derivations of the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes having the above phonological environment are developed below, 130 1) SOPOSTAVIT1 "to compare", pf.; SOPOSTAVLJAT1, impf. UR: # su + po + sto + w + V ... # (UNROUND) : a (w > v) : v (C > C 1) : v 1 (V-LOWER) : o IR: # so + po + s t a + v' ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d variants: V- OB- OT- (-STAVIT1) *S+PO+S... form has not been found and impf. #so + na + s'l'ed + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO- VO- (-SLED) b) other l i s t e d variants: V- (-SLED) OB- (-SLEDOVAT1) *S+NA+S... form not l i s t e d 3) SOZASTROJSCIK "partner of one who builds a house on his own", noun "UR: #su + zo + st r o + j +...# —> IR: #so + za + s t r o j + ...# 2) SONASLEDOVAT' "to c o i n h e r i t " , pf. SONASLEDNIK "coheir", noun UR: #su + no + sle d + # > IR: 131 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: V- OB- OT- RAS- (-STROIT1 ) *S+ZA+S... form not l i s t e d The above p r e f i x a l o-variant forms are few in number and peripheral to the general phonological patterning of o-variant p r e f i x a l morphemes. Nevertheless, although few i n number, these examples i l l u s t r a t e the dominant influence of the i n i t i a l or (in the case of VODVORIT', VOSVOJ&SI, see p. 133) the second i n i t i a l consonantal segment i n the root morpheme, i n the formation of p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes. In spite of an intervening p r e f i x , the s t r u c t u r a l patterning of o-variant, such as above, has been dictate d by the nature of the i n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r of the root morpheme operating across two morpheme boundaries. In contrast to the above examples, some examples may be c i t e d where the lax, high, back vowel u has been dropped, on account of the f a c t that the i n i t i a l consonantal segment of the f i r s t p r e f i x a l morpheme has no i d e n t i c a l counterpart in the root morpheme: SPODOBIT', SNABDIT1, SPODVIZNIK, SNABZENIE, and so on. 3.2.6 Summary of the Second Group 132 a) l i s t e d o-variants b) other l i s t e d variants 1) S0-2) SO- V0-3) S0-V- OB- OT-V- 0B-V- OB- OT- RAS-3.2.7 The Third Group In t h i s group the f i n a l , lax, high, back vowel u i n the p r e f i x a l morpheme i s lowered, i f the following root morpheme begins with two consonants the second of which i s i d e n t i c a l with the consonant i n the p r e f i x a l morpheme preceding the lax, high, back vowel u. (V-LOWER) : u ->o / C 1 + CC" The rule feature s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of t h i s environment are (V-LOWER) V +high -tense [-high]/ -consonant +back + C -consonant +back Only the two examples below were found to undergo vowel lowering i n t h i s s p e c i f i c environment. 133 1) VODVORIT' "to i n s t a l l , s e t t l e " , pf.; VODVORJAT1, impf. UR: # wu + dwor + V ... # (w > v) : v v (C > C* ) : r ' (V-LOWER) : o IR: # vo + dvor' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other variants not l i s t e d The VO- variant i s l i s t e d only i n connection with the root morpheme DVOR, while V- variant (V+DV...) i s l i s t e d i n VDVINUT1, VDVIGAT1, and VDVOE. 2 7 2) VOSVOJASI "home, back where one came from", adv., c o l l . and i r o n i c a l term UR: # wu + swoj + ... # (w > v) : v v (V-LOWER): o IR: # vo + svoj + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other variants not l i s t e d *V+SV... has not been found to ex i s t i n Russian dictionary l i s t i n g s . 134 3.2.8 Summary of the Third Group a) l i s t e d o-variants b) other l i s t e d variants 1) V0-2) V0-3.2.9 Concluding Remarks The d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r e f i x a l o-variants i n the e n t i r e Second Environment reveals that most p r e f i x a l constructions are r e a l i z e d as the p r e f i x a l o-variant SO-. In some examples, however, there are also a few VO- forms, and also one OBO- o-variant. Among the twenty-six p r e f i x a l o-variants present, there i s only one word i n which the regular p r e f i x a l form S-alternates with SO-. This apparent exception, when compared with almost uniform p o l a r i z a t i o n into regular and o-variant p r e f i x a l outputs, may be considered as immaterial since a l l other SO-, VO-, and OBO- o-variant forms s a t i s f y the struc-t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s environment. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the above p r e f i x a l o-variants seems to indicate that the phonological process of lowering in t h i s environment i s applicable only to s p e c i f i c p r e f i x a l morphemes, while the UR's of a l l other p r e f i x a l morphemes undergo the jer-dropping rule and develop as regular p r e f i x a l morphemes. 135 In t h i s environment a number of p r e f i x a l forms develop contrary to the rule for no obvious phonological reason. Such cases again demonstrate how d i f f i c u l t i t i s to f i t a l l i n t e r r e l a t e d l i n g u i s t i c phenomena into well-defined patterns. NOTES TO CHAPTER III x I n the following analysis the (V-LOWER) rule i s applied f i r s t and the d i r e c t i o n of application i s from r i g h t to l e f t . For a more de t a i l e d analysis regarding the p r i o r i t y of order and d i r e c t i o n of application see, for example, a) Stephen R. Anderson, The Organization of Phonology (New York: Academic Press, 1974), pp. 242-247; b) Aleksandr V. Isacenko, "East S l a v i c morphophonemics and the treatment of the jers i n Russian: a r e v i s i o n of Havlik's Law", International Journal of S l a v i c L i n g u i s t i c s  and Poetics, XIII (1970), pp. 73-124; c) Lightner, 1972, pp. 368-369. 2 The rules i n each case specify the p a r t i c u l a r r e l a -tion which exists between an underlying representation of a morpheme constituent and the more or less s p e c i f i c form of an intermediate representation of the same constituent. 3 Akan'e i s usually connected with the reduction of unstressed sounds and, consequently, i t s development comes after that of the lowering and dropping of j e r s . 4 See, for example, the Second Environment of the Lower Rule. 5 P a r a l l e l environments as i n prefixes can also be found among pr e p o s i t i o n a l o-variants and the following i n i t i a l consonant clusters or morphemes from which a j e r has been^dropped. For example: SO STRAXU and SO STRAXA, SO STOLA, SO VSEM, KO MNE, KO SNU, SO SNU, VO SNE, SO DNJA, and so on. Sporadically, a few forms are afterward f u l l y derived to show the a p p l i c a t i o n of c e r t a i n phonological r u l e s . 7 Nevertheless, i n each case the abbreviated IR's in question were separately generated by the appropriate rules and only then stated i n t h e i r present form. 8 T In t h i s and other s i m i l a r examples the long segment I i n the imperfective aspect of verbs i s derived by the (DI-TENSING) rule_£ by which the underlying short segment i_ i n Dl's^changes to l . See also o ~ a (SOSKOCIT', pf. ~ SOSKAKIVAT', impf.). 136 137 9 >-In OCS, OR, and CS examples i and u stand f o r short vowels (front and back j e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . "^Note that the segment v i n | v + b ' l r + ... # has been described as hard according to current Russian l i t e r a r y pronunciation, although i n the Old Moscow pronunciation i t i s supposed to be softened to a degree by the following s o f t consonant; c f . R. I. Avanesov, Russkoe l i t e r a t u r n o e p r o i z -nosenie (Moskva: Prosvescenie, 1968), p. 113. "^Nonexistent forms, such as t h i s , are indicated by an aste r i s k . 12 T The f i n a l p r e f i x a l segment t i n # ot + b 1 l r + ... # before the so f t dentals i s , i n the present Russian l i t e r a r y norms, pronounced hard. The softening of the segment t , the pronunciation of the Old Moscow norm, i s today considered c o l l o q u i a l ; c f . Avanesov (1968), p. 116. 13 The above note also applies i n the case of the f i n a l p r e f i x a l segment d i n I pod + b ' l r + ... #. 14 Lowering of jers i n OCS (SOBOR) developed, e a r l i e r (about X-XI c.) than i n OR (SBOR). The above OCS o-variants were borrowed by scribes and subsequently included i n the Russian vocabulary. ~^*As regards the pronunciation of the f i n a l p r e f i x a l segment z i n # vz + b ' l r + ... #, see Avanesov (1968), p. 116. 16 The p r e f i x a l morpheme IZ- from UR #izu# i n the prefective form of the verb IZBRAT' stands as an exception to the F i r s t Environment of the Lower Rule. In being dropped, the p r e f i x a l j e r u behaves contrary to other p a r a l l e l p e r fective forms, i n s p i t e of the fac t that i t i s i n the "strong" p o s i t i o n and the jer i n the root morpheme i n the "weak" p o s i t i o n i s dropped as expected (#bir# >#br#). In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h i s i s a CS borrowing, therefore a [-R] form. 17 In t h i s expression the p r e f i x a l o-variant (V0-) repeats the meaning already expressed by the word (VNE) without the p r e f i x . 18 The function of stress i n the formation of p r e f i x a l o-variants i s elaborated i n Appendix I. 19 In t h i s and s i m i l a r examples with the same root morpheme, only one p r e f i x a l o-variant (the f i r s t one l i s t e d i n the summary, for example, 0B0-) i s traced from UR to IR. 138 Other p r e f i x a l variants, i f any, are added without being elaborated. 20 Note i n t h i s i r r e g u l a r l y developed form the four-consonant sequence tmst, also contributing to the term's gradual obsolescence. 21 The root i n t h i s verb seems to be one from DI verb stem, hence the long vowel (I) posited i n t h i s root morpheme. The d e r i v a t i o n a l processes seem to be too complex to consider here. 22 - . . The form SOSTYKAT', astronomical term, i s a recent a c q u i s i t i o n of the Russian vocabulary. 23 See note 21, above. 24 See note 21, above. 25 See note 18, above. 2 6 Notice that t h i s group i s s t r u c t u r a l l y almost iden-t i c a l with the previous group. 27 VDVOE may we l l be considered as an i d i o s y n c r a t i c form. If i t s UR i s posited as # wu + duw + ... #, i t w i l l give *VODVOE. CHAPTER IV NONPHONOLOGICALLY MOTIVATED O-VARIANTS 4.0 Introduction There i s a diverse group of various root morphemes which defy c l a s s i f i c a t i o n with regard to any regular pattern-ing i n the derivation of p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes."'" As a group the o-variants associated with these root morphemes seem to have no phonological environmental motivation. Instead, the motivation appears to be l e x i c a l or s t y l i s t i c . In some cases both p r e f i x a l variants (S- and SO-, and the like) are used before the same root morpheme — i n one variant the lax, high, back vowel u i s dropped; i n the other variant i t i s lowered. These two co-existing variants having one and the same root morpheme r e s u l t i n words which are: a) of d i f f e r e n t meaning; b) contemporary or obsolete; c) of high, o f f i c i a l s t y l e versus c o l l o q u i a l ; d) of Church S l a v i c o r i g i n ; and, e) analogical i n patterning. Some of the above terms are nouns which, by t h e i r p r e f i x a l o-variant morpheme, express the meaning of companion-ship, e i t h e r i n time or in space, as i n the examples: SOBESEDNIK, SODOKLADCIK, SOZITEL 1, and SOXOZJAIN. 139 140 From the examples that follow, i t i s clear that the relationships between some words are varied and often compli-cated. Thus many words i n the following section have two s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t forms — one constructed of Russian elements, the other of Church S l a v i c elements. The discrimination between the [-R] versus [+R] forms l i s t e d has been made generally on the basis of the following pairs of related i n d i c a t o r s : [-R] features [+R] features LV (GRAD, PRE-) VLV (GOROD, PERE-) e (EDINYJ) o (ODIN) sc < t+j. (VOZVRASCEN) £ < t+j_ (VOROCEN) zd < d+2 (GRAZDANIN) z < d+j_ (GOROZANIN) Despite the above r e s t r i c t i o n s there seems to be some overlap of [-R] and [+R] forms which cannot be s p e c i f i e d . I t i s not claimed that some of the following unmarked root morphemes should be marked [-R], although i n some cases the ent i r e expressions are either borrowed from, or patterned a f t e r Church Slavonicisms. Since some root morphemes i n t h i s group exhi b i t observable common features, the words with p r e f i x a l o-variants are c l a s s i f i e d and presented according to root morpheme features. 141 4.1 I n i t i a l CL Sequence i n Root Morphemes In t h i s section a l l those root morphemes which have been confirmed to have Church S l a v i c o r i g i n are marked [-R] . In many cases the same word has i t s corresponding [+R] polno-gla s i e doublet form. In cases l i k e these, the f i r s t root morpheme i s of CS o r i g i n , while the second originates i n OR. A l l CS words l i s t e d i n the Nonphonologically Motivated group are considered to have entered the Russian language as borrowings, therefore the o-variant prefixes have been posited with the already developed v i n a l segment o. This has also been done with some forms which pattern l i k e CS words. The following examples represent the words with p r e f i x a l o-variants found i n t h i s group: 1) SOBLAZNIT' "to entice, tempt", [-R][+S], pf. ; SOBLAZNJAT', impf. OCS, CS: sublaznu "temptation", noun UR: # so + blozn + V ... # (UNROUND) : a (C > C 1) : n' IR: # so + blazn 1 + .. . # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d BLAZN as a root morpheme has not an independent status; 142 i t i s always prefixed by the morpheme SO- and no other p r e f i x . 2) SOBLJUSTI "to observe, keep", pf.; SOBLJUDAT•, impf. UR: # so + bleud + t l # > IR: # so + bl'us' + t ' I . # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 3) SOBRAT "fellow (by profession), brother", noun UR: # so + brot + ... # > ' IR: # so + brat # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 4) SOVLADAT1 "to c o n t r o l " , [ - R ] [ + S ] , pf., c o l l . SOVLADET1 "to c o n t r o l " , [-R][+S], pf., c o l l . and obs. SOVLADELEC " j o i n t owner", noun OR: volod e t i "to r u l e " , [+R] UR: # so + wold + .. . # (V-GEM) : oo (W > V) r _ R ] : 5 (METATH) r _ R j : l o (UNROUND) : a (w > v) : v IR: # so + vlad + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ- (-VLASTIE) POD- (-VLASTNOST') Note also OB- (-LADAT1) where the segment v has been deleted. 5) VOVLEKAT' "to draw, involve", impf.; VOVLEC' , [-R][+S], pf. [+R] variant: VOLOC' "to draw, drag" (=VOLOCIT'), impf., c o l l . UR: # wo + welk + ... # (V-GEM) : ee (W _ > V ) f _ R ] : i (METATH) t _ R ] : l e (w > v) : v v (C > C ) : 1' IR: # vo + vl'ek + ... # Summary of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l l p r e f i x a l morpheme variants patterning i n regard to the root morpheme VLEK: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : IZ- OT- RAZ- (IZVLEKAT', OTVLEKAT', RAZVLEKAT') V- and S- p r e f i x a l variant morphemes are found i n the 144 corresponding [+R] polnoglasie forms WOLAKIVAT', and SVOLAKIVAT1. 6 ) SOVLEC' "to drag/pull o f f " , [-R] [+S] , pf.; SOVLEKAT', impf, SVOLOC' "to drag/pull o f f " , [+R][+S], pf.; SVOLAKIVAT', impf. [-R] form [+R] form UR: # so + welk + V ... # # su + welk + V ... # (K —->C) : c 5" (el — > o l ) [ + R ] : - o (V-GEM): ee oo (VV > V) j : e (METATH): l e olo (w > v ) : v v (C > C ) : l ' c ' c ' (V-DROP): 0 IR: # so + vl'.ec' + ... # # s + voloc' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO- V 0 -b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : IZ- OT- RAZ-Cf. also VOVLEC1 and related forms derived within the F i r s t Environment. 145 7) SOPROVODIT' "to accompany", pf.; SOPROVOZDAT1 , [-R] [+S] , impf. SPROVADIT1 "to shov; out", pf. , c o l l . ; SPROVAZIVAT', impf. UR: #so + pro + wod + V ...# > IR: #so + pro + vod' + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + PRO-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: S + PRO- (-VODIT1) Cf. also VOS + PRO + IZ- (-VODIT'), S- (-VODIT') This example stands as an exception, since i t has a p r e f i x a l morpheme which follows the o-variant morpheme (other exceptions are examples 15, 19, 36, 41 and 42 below). 8) SOVRATIT' "to seduce, pervert", [-R][+S], pf.; SOVRASCAT', impf. SOVRASCENIE "seduction", noun SVOROTIT1 "to displ a c e , turn", [+R], pf., c o l l . ; SVORACIVAT', impf. UR: # so + wort + V ... # > IR: # so + vra t ' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: VOZ- IZ- OT- RAZ-Cf. the deletion of the segment v in the root morpheme form of the word OB RATIT 1. 9) VOVREMJA " i n time", [-R][+S], adv. [+R] variant: VEREMJA "time, season", noun, d i a l e c t a l UR: # wo + werm + en # (V-GEM): ee (VV >V) r _ R ] : e (METATH) r _ R j : re ( W > v) : v v (C > C') : r ' m' (V-NASAL) : a (C# > £#) : 0 ' IR: ! vo + vr'em* + a # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V 0 -b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ- (-VREMENNOST1) 10) S0VREMENNOST1 "contemporaneity", [-R][+S], noun OR: veremja "time", [+R], noun, at present s t i l l used d i a l e c t a l l y UR: #so + werm + en + ...# >IR: #so + vr'em' + en + . Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO- VO-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: BEZ- (-VREMENNOST') 11) SOGLASOVAT' "to co-ordinate", [-R][+S], pf.; SOGLASOVYVAT1, impf. 147 SOGLASIT' "to consent", [-R] [+S], pf.; SOGLASAT', impf. SOGLASIE "consent", noun; [+R] form: GOLOS "voice", noun UR: # so + gols + # > IR: # so + glas + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SQ-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ- VOZ- RAZ-12) SOGLJADATAJSTVOVAT* "to spy", impf. SOGLJADATAJ "spy", noun, obs. UR: # so + glend + ... # > IR: # so + gl'ad + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OB- POD- RAZ- (-GLJADET1), VZ- (-GLJANUT1), V- (-GLJADET'SJA) 13) SOGRAZ'DANIN "fellow c i t i z e n " , [-R] [+S] , noun cf.- GOROZANIN " c i t i z e n " , [+R] , noun UR: # so + gord + j + ... # > # so + gra2d + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 14) SOGRESfT1 "to s i n against", pf., obs.; SOGRESAT *, impf. UR: # so + grex + V ... # -—> IR: # so + gr'eS + # 148 Summary: • a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ- (-GRESNOST1) 15) SOPREDEL' NOST' "contiguity", [-R][+S], noun cf. OR: pere-; OCS,CS: pre-UR: # so + per + del + V ... # > IR: # so + pr'e + d'el* + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + PRE-b) other variants not l i s t e d Cf. also: BEZ + RAZ- OT- POD- S- (-DEL'NOST') 16) SODROGNUT'SJA "to shudder", pf.; SODROGAT1SJA, impf. c f . SUDOROGA "cramp", [+R], noun UR: # so + drog + ... # > IR: # so + drog + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : VZ- IZ-17) SODRUZ'ESTVO "concord, co-operation", noun (root morpheme: DRUG) UR: # so + droug + V # > IR: # so + druZ + # 149 . Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d variants: S- RAZ- (-DRUZIT') 18) VODRUZIT1 "to erect, h o i s t " , pf.; VODRUZAT', impf. UR: # wo + drouz + V # > IR: # vo + druz' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other variants not l i s t e d The root morpheme DRUZ does not e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n and no prefixes other than VO- are attached to i t . Cf. also root morpheme DRUG, above 19) SOPRIKOSNUT'SJA "to be contiguous to, adjoin", pf.; SOPRIKASAT'SJA, impf.; KOSNUT'SJA, [-R][+S] SOPRIKOSNOVENIE "contiguity", noun (=SOPRIKOSNOVENNOST1) UR: # so + p r l + kos + ... # (C > C ) r' IR: # so + pr'I + kos + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + PRI-b) other variants not l i s t e d 150 20) OBOKRAST1 "to rob", pf.; OBKRADYVAT1, impf. OBOKRADENNYJ, p.p.p., and also OBKRADENNYJ UR: # obo + krod + t l # > IR: # obo + kras 1 + t' # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OBO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OB- RAS- S -; also POD-(-KRAST'SJA) , V- OB- POD- (-KRADYVAT1SJA) 21) SOKRATIT1 "to shorten", [-R][+S], pf.; SOKRASCAT', impf. KOROTKIJ "short", [+R], adj. SKOROTAT* "to while away", [+R], pf., c o l l . ; KOROTAT', impf. UR: # so + kort + V ... # > IR: # so + k r a t 1 + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- (-KRATCE) 22) SOKREDITOR "co-creditor", [-R][-S], noun UR: # so + k r e d l t + ... # > IR: # so + k r e d l t + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d With foreign prefixes PIS- RE- (-KREDIT) 23) VOKRUG "round, around", adv., modern usage; VKRUG, obs. UR: # wo + kroug + ... # > IR: # vo + krug + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V-; POD- S- (-KRUGLIT1), VS- (-KRUZIT') With other root morphemes having CL sequence, only V-has been found l i s t e d : V- (-KROIT1, -KRUTIT1, and so on) "to smash, shatter", pf.; SOKRUS&T•, impf. # so + krbux + V ... # S s' u s # so + krus + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 25) SOKRYT1 "to hide", pf., obs.; SOKRYVAT', impf., obs. SKRYT' "to hide", pf.; SKRYVAT1, impf. UR: # so + kru + ... # > IR: # so + kry + # 2 4) SOKRUSIT' UR: (K > C) : (C > C ) : (MONOPH) : (s-» >s) : IR: 152 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : S- 0T-26) S O P L E M E N N I K "tribesman", noun, obs. cf . P L E M J A " t r i b e " , noun P L E M J A N N I K "nephew", noun U R : # so + plem + en + V ... # > IR: # so + pl'em 1 + en' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 27) P O D O P L E C N Y J " l i n i n g " , adj.; also P O D P L E C N Y J P O D O P L E K A "the r e a l state of a f f a i r s , behind the scene", noun U R : # podo + plek + V ... # > I R : # podo + pl'eg ,+ # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: P O D O -b) other l i s t e d variants: P O D - P R E D - ; also S- (-PLECA) 28) UR: S O P L O D I E " c o l l e c t i v e f r u i t " , noun, bot. term # so + plod + V ... # > I R : # so + plod 1 + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BES-; RAS- (-PLODIT') MEZ- (-PLODNIK) 29) VOPLOTIT' "to incarnate, embody", [ - R ] [ + S ] , pf.; VOPLOSCAT 1, impf. UR: # wo + p l o t + V ... # > IR: # vo + p l o t 1 + . Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: V- (-PLOT 1) 30) SOPRAVITEL' "co-ruler", noun UR: # so + prow + V ... # > IR: # so + prav 1 + . Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other" l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : I S - OT-; also V- I S -POD- s- (-PRAVIT') 31) V O P R E K I " i n s p i t e of, despite", [ - R ] [+S], adv. cf. P E R E C I T 1 "to contradict", [ + R ] , impf. P O P E R E K "across", [ + R ] , adv. and preposition U R : # wo + perk + V . . . # > I R : # vo + pr'ek' + 154 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 32) SOPRJAGAT' "to j o i n , unite", impf., obs.; SOPRJAC', pf. SPRJAGAT1 "to harness/yoke oxen; to j o i n , unite", impf., obs.; SPRJAC*, pf. SPRJAGAT' "to conjugate", l i n g , term, impf. UR: # so + preng + ... # > IR: # so + pr'ag + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- S- OT- POD-; also SU-(-PRtJG) 33) VOPROSIT* "to inquire, question", [-R] [+S] , pf. , obs.; VOPROSAT' , impf. UR: # wo + pros + V ... # > IR: # vo + pros' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : IS- OT- S-34) SOPROTIVLJAT'SJA "to oppose, r e s i s t " , impf. SOPROTIVLENIE "resistance", noun SOPROTIVNIK "opponent", noun; c f . OR: p i r i c l "opponent" 155 SOPROTIV "opposite", adv., obs. (=SUPROTIV, adv., obs.) UR: #so + protlw + V ...# > IR: #so + p r o t ' I v l ' + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : SU- (-PROTIVNIK, -PROTIV, -PROTIWICAT1 ) 35) VOSLED (ZA) " a f t e r , following", adv., obs. (=VSLED, modern usage) OCS, OR: sledu "to follow" VOSLED [-R] VSLED [+R] UR: # wo + sled +.'..# # wu + sled + ... # (w >v) : v v (C > C ) : 1 ' 1' (V-DROP): 0 (CC' > C I C ) : s 1 s' IR: # vo + s'l'ed + ... # # v + s'l'ed + ... .# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V-; IS- (-SLEDIT'), 0B-(-SLED0VAT') Cf..also SO + NA- (-SL^DNIK) 36) SOPRISUTSTVOVAT* "to be co-present", pf., obs. SOPRISUTSTVIE "co-presence", noun, obs. PRISUSCIJ "inherent ( i n ) " , [-R][+S], adj. UR: #so + p r l + sout + # 5> IR: #so + p'r'I + sut + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + PRI-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: OT- (-SUTSTVOVAT') *S+PRI+S... form not l i s t e d 37) SOTRAPEZNIK "table-companion", noun, obs. SOTRAPEZNICAT' "to eat at the same table", impf., obs. OR, OCS: trapeza "table", noun UR: # so + tropez + # > IR: # so + trap'ez + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 38) SOTRJASTI "to shake", pf., obs.; SOTRJASAT', impf. STRJASTI "to shed, throw o f f " , pf.; STRJASAT1, impf. UR: # so + trens + t l # > IR: # so + t ' r ' a s 1 + t ' l # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: OT- S-39) SOTRUDNIK "collaborator", noun SOTRUDNICAT1 "to collaborate", impf. OR: trudu; OCS: troudu "weariness, exhaustion", noun UR: # so + troud + # > IR: # so + trud + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OT- (-TRUDIT 1 SJA), BES-(-TRUDOVOJ) 40) SOXRANIT' "to keep, preserve", [-R][+S], pf.; SOXRANJAT*, impf. SXORONIT1 "to bury, hide", [+R], pf. OCS: x r a n i t i "to protect, guard over" UR: # so + xorn + V ... # > IR: # so + xran 1 + ... Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 41) SOPRICASTNOST* "complicity, p a r t i c i p a t i o n " , noun OR: c a s t i ; OCS: SenstI "part", noun UR: #so + p r l + kes + # >IR: #so + p ' r ' I + 5' as + Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + PRI- SO + U-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ + U-42) SOPRICEST1 "to add, attach", pf. , obs. (=SOPRIC'lSLIT •) SOPRlClSLJAT 1, impf. OCS, OR:, c i s t i "to count, add" UR: # so + p r l + kes + V # > IR: # so + p ' r ' I + c'es't' + .. Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + PRI-b) other variants not l i s t e d Note also: PREP + PO- OB- S- (-CEST'), OT- S-(-cfSLIT 1) 43) SOCLENIT' "to j o i n " , [-R] [+S] , pf.; SOCLENJAT *, impf. OR:, celenuku "member", [+R] , noun; c f . also SOCLEN UR: # so + keln + V ... # > IR: # so + c'l'en 1 + ... Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BES- RAS-159 4.2 Summary of P r e f i x a l Variants a) l i s t e d o-variants 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 b) other l i s t e d variants SO-SO-SO-SO-VO-VO- SO-SO-SO-VO-VO- SO-SO-so-SO-SO-so-so-so-vo-so-OBO-so-so-BEZ- POD-IZ- OT- RAZ-IZ- OT- RAZ-S-VOZ- IZ- OT- RAZ-BEZ-BEZ-BEZ- VOZ- RAZ-V- VZ- OB- POD- RAZ-BEZ-VZ- IZ-RAZ- S-V- OB- POD- RAS- S-V-160 23) VO- V - V S - POD- S -2 4) SO-25) SO - OT- S -26) SO - -27) PODO- POD- PRED- S -28) SO - B E S - MEZ"-. RAS -29) VO - V -30) SO - V - I S - OT- POD- S-31 ) SO-32) SO - V - OT- POD- S - SU-33) VO- I S - OT- S -34) SO - S U -35) VO - V - I S - OB-36) SO - OT-37) SO -3 8) SO - OT- S -39) SO - B E S - OT-40) SO -41) SO- B E Z -42) SO -43) SO- B E S - RAS -161 4 . 3 C o n c l u d i n g R e m a r k s The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s p r e f i x a l o - v a r i a n t s i n t h e f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n w i t h i n i t i a l C L s e q u e n c e i n r o o t morphemes h a s b e e n i n t e r m s o f f a i r l y n a r r o w s e l e c t i o n . The t w o w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s a r e t h e p r e f i x a l o - v a r i a n t s S O -a n d V O - , t h e f o r m e r d e f i n i t e l y a s t h e m a j o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e CL s e q u e n c e g r o u p . C o n t r a r y t o t h e F i r s t E n v i r o n m e n t , t h i s r e s t r i c t e d s e t o f o n l y t w o p r e f i x a l o - v a r i a n t s ( SO - a n d V 0 - ) , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f o n l y o ne OBO- a n d one PODO- f o r m , s u g g e s t s t h e h i g h g e n e r a t i v e p o t e n t i a l o u t p u t o f SO - a n d V O - v a r i a n t s i n w o r d s o f C h u r c h S l a v i c o r i g i n . O f t h e t o t a l o f t h i r t y - f o u r S O - p r e f i x a l o - v a r i a n t s , t h e r e a r e o n l y s i x e x a m p l e s i n w h i c h S O - o v e r l a p s w i t h t h e S -p r e f i x a l v a r i a n t . A c o m p a r i s o n o f V O - a n d V - i n d i c a t e s o n l y a f r a g m e n t a r y o v e r l a p p i n g . To e x p l o r e f u r t h e r i n t h i s a r e a , t h a t i s , t o e x p l a i n t h e phenomenon o f t h e d r o p p i n g o f j e r s i n a l l o t h e r p r e f i x e s , t h e a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l e x t e n s i v e l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 162 4.4 Po s t - P r e f i x a l UR's with an I n i t i a l O-Segment In the following examples the root and p r e f i x a l morphemes coming a f t e r p r e f i x a l o-variants have i n t h e i r UR's 2 • an i n i t i a l o-segment. The phonetic VV sequence at the f i r s t morpheme boundary i s always r e a l i z e d as surface o or u segment, the r e s u l t being one of the rare cases of vowel sequence at the morpheme boundary. The derivations of some t y p i c a l forms and abbreviated p a r a l l e l forms having the above environment and undergoing the Lower Rule are as follows: 1) SOAVTOR3 "co-author", [-R] [-S] , noun UR: # so + owtor # (UNROUND) : a (w > v) : v IR: # so + avtor # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 2) SOOTVETSTVOVAT' "to correspond to/with", impf. SOOTVETSTVIE "accordance, conformity", noun c f . SOVET "advice, c o u n c i l " , noun OTVET "answer", [-R]f+S] UR: #so + otu + wet + ...# > IR: #so + ot + v'et + ...# 163 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ + OT- (-V&TNOST') , POD + OT- (-VETNYJ) Cf. OBET (< OB + VET) where v has been deleted. 3) SOUDARJAT'SJA "to c o l l i d e " , impf. « DAF^) UR: #so + ou + dor + V ...# > IR: #so + u + dar' + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: BEZ + U- PREP + U- (-DARNYJ) 4) VOODU^EVIT1 "to i n s p i r e " , pf.; VOODUgEVLJAT•, impf. UR: # wo + o + doux + V ... # (K > C) : s (w > v) : v (C > C ) : s 1 (MONOPH): u . (s« > s) : s IR: # vo + o + dus + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 5) SOOZNACAT' "to s i g n i f y " , impf. c f . ZNAK "sign", noun UR: # so + o + zno + ... # > IR: # so + o + zna + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S 0 -b) other variants not l i s t e d Cf. also SOZNAT", OSOZNAT', POPSOZNATEL'NOST' 6) SORAZMERIT' "to proportion", pf.; SORAZMERJAT', [-R][+S], impf. UR: # so + orz + mer + I +. . . . # > IR: # so + raz + m'er' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S 0 -b) other variants not l i s t e d . Cf. also SO + IZ- (-MERJAT'), but IZ- S- (-MERIT') 7) SOUMYgLENNIK "accomplice", noun cf . MYSL1 "thought", noun UR: #so + ou + musl + V >IR: #so + u + mysl' + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S 0 -b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : PREP + U- (-MYSLENNOST') 165 H o w e v e r , w i t h o u t an i n t e r v e n i n g s e g m e n t o , p r e f i x e s a r e r e a l i z e d a s I Z - RAZ - S - ( - M Y S L I T 1 ) 8) SOOTNESTI " t o c o r r e l a t e " , p f . ; S O O T N O S I T ' , i m p f . SOOTNOSENIE " c o r r e l a t i o n " , n o u n UR: #so + o t u + n e s + t l # > I R : #so + o t + n * e s ' + . . . # Summa r y : a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : S 0 -b) o t h e r v a r i a n t s n o t l i s t e d N o t e a l s o V - V Z - OB - OT - POD- R A Z - S - ( - N E S T I ) , S - ( - N O S I T ' ) 9) VOOBSCE " i n g e n e r a l , g e n e r a l l y " , [ -R] [+S] , a d v . c f . O B S C I J " g e n e r a l , c ommon " , a d j . OCS : o b i s t i , " c o m m o n " , a d j . ; OR: o b i c e , " c o m m o n l y " , a d v . UR : # wo + o b i + t + j + V . . . # (T > C) : s c (w > v ) : v (C > C ) : b ' c ' ( j >?) : 0 ( V - D R O P ) : 0 (CC 1 $>C*C' ) : s ' I R : | v o + o b ' + s ' c ' + . . . | Summary : a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : V O - SO -166 b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OB- RAZ-10) SOOBSCIT* "to report", [-R][+S]f pf.; SOOBSCAT1, impf. SOOBSCENIE "report, information", noun UR: # so + obi + t + j + V ... # > IR: # s o + o b ' + I I c ' +...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- £0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : O B - RAZ-11) VOOCIJU "with one's own eyes", adv. cf. OR: oko "eye", noun UR: # wo + ok + V ... # > IR: # vo + o5'.+ ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ-12) SOOTECESTVENNIK "compatriot", noun SOOTCIC" "compatriot", noun, obs. UR: # so + otik + V ... # > IR: # so + ot'ec' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: BEZ- (-0Tc6vSciNA), V- (-0TCIM) 167 The form V O T C I M and other related constructions are the only exceptions to the above environment i n v/hich the underlying p r e f i x a l segment u drops instead of being lowered. 13) SOOPEKUN "co-guardian", noun c f . OPEKA "guardianship", [-R] (< P o l i s h : OPIEKA), noun UR: # so + o + pek + ... # > IR: # so + o + p 1ek + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : P O D - (-0+PECNYJ) 14) SOOBRAZIT' "to consider", pf.; SOOBRAZAT1, [-R] , impf. VOOBRAZIT1 "to imagine", pf.; VOOBRAZAT', impf. UR: #so + obu + roz + V ...# > IR: #so + ob + raz' + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : B E Z - IZ- OT-Note also OT- R A Z - S- ( - R A Z I T ' ) , and NE + SU-(-RAZNOST' ) 15) S O O R U D I T ' "to b u i l d , erect", pf. ; S O O R U Z A T ' , impf. UR: #so + o + roud + V ...# > IR: #so + o + rud 1 + ...# • 168 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SQ-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: 0B-16) VOORUZIT1 "to arm", pf.; VOORUZAT", impf-cf . RUZJE "gun", noun UR: # wo + o + roug + V ...# > IR: # vo + o + ruz + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : 0 + BEZ- RAZ-17) SOUZNIK "fellow prisoner" (< UZ), [-R][+S], noun cf. UZY "bonds", UZEL "knot", nouns SUZIT 1 "to narrow, pf.; SUZIVAT 1, impf. OR: uziniku, CS: juzi n i k u "(chained) prisoner", nouns UR: # so + ouz + V ... # > IR: # so + uz• + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: OB- (-UZIT1) 18 ) ZAKOULOK "back s t r e e t " , noun c f . ULICA "s t r e e t " , noun UR: # za + ko + oul + ... # > IR: #za + ko + u l + ...# 169 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: ZA + K0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 19) NADOUMIT' "to suggest an idea", pf.; NADOUMLIVAT', impf. UR: # nado + oum + V ... # > IR: # nado + urn' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: NADO-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: IZ- (-UMIT1) 20) SOUCASTVOVAT' "to p a r t i c i p a t e " , impf. SOUCASTNIK "pa r t i c i p a n t , accomplice", noun SOUCASTIE " p a r t i c i p a t i o n " , noun cf. C&ST1 "part, share", noun UR: # so + ou + kes + ...# > IR: # so + u + c'as + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d However, note also S- (-CASTIE) SOUCENIK "schoolmate", noun cf . NAfJKA "study, science, knowledge", noun NEUK "ignoramus", noun # so + ouk + V ... # > IR: # so + uc' + ... Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : POD- RAZ- (-.UCENNYJ) 171 4.5 Summary of P r e f i x a l Variants a) l i s t e d o-variants. 1) S0-2) S0-3) SO-4) V0-5) SO-6) S0-7) SO-8) SO-9-10) VO- SO-11) VO-12) SO-13) SO-14) VO- SO-15) SO-16) VO- SO-17) SO-18) (ZA-) -KO-19) NADO-20) SO-21) SO-fa) other variants l i s t e d BEZ-BEZ- PRED-P RED-OB- RAZ-BEZ-BEZ-POD-BEZ- IZ- OT-OB-(0-) -BEZ- RAZ-OB-IZ-POD- RAZ-172 4.6 C o n c l u d i n g Remarks I n t h e f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n i t was p o s s i b l e t o e x a m i n e t h e p r e f i x e s f o l l o w e d by morphemes t h a t b e g i n w i t h an u n d e r l y i n g v o w e l o o r o. The f o r m s i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e t h e v a r i e t y o f c l a s s i f i c a t o r y r o o t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e o t h e r two s e c t i o n s ( e x c e p t f o r a few morphemes b e g i n n i n g w i t h i ) a r e r o o t morphemes b e g i n n i n g w i t h a t l e a s t a c o n s o n a n t o r a c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r f o l l o w e d b y a v o w e l . From t h e above summary i t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t i n t h i s s e c t i o n , as i n t h o s e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g , t h e s u r f a c e p r e f i x a l morphemes a r e a g a i n l i m i t e d t o t h e o - v a r i a n t SO-, w i t h a h a n d f u l o f VO- p r e f i x a l v a r i a n t s . T h e r e i s a l s o one example e a c h o f t h e KO- and NADO- v a r i a n t s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t h e r e a l l UR's o f t h e p r e f i x a l morpheme a r e #so#, t h a t i s , t h e r e i s n o t a s i n g l e example o f S- o r V- p r e f i x a l o u t p u t s . The p r e f i x a l e x a m p l e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e UR's o f p r e f i x a l morphemes i n t h e C h u r c h S l a v i c words p r e s e n t e d w e r e , i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i n g a t e r m i n a l f o r m , l i m i t e d t o g e n e r a t e i n one d i r e c t i o n o n l y , as e i t h e r o - v a r i a n t s o r r e g u l a r v a r i a n t s . The d a t a on t h e p r e f i x a l o u t p u t s r e v e a l no e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , r e g u l a r and o - v a r i a n t s n e i t h e r a l t e r n a t e n o r d u p l i c a t e . 173 4.7 Other Examples Lacking Phonological Motivation 1) SOBOLEZNOVAT' "to condole (with)", impf. SOBOLEZNOVANIE "condolence", noun UR: # so + b o l + V # > IR: # so + b o l ' + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d variants BEZ- (-BOLE*ZNENNOST') IZ- OT- (BOLET') RAZ- (BOLET'SJA) 2) SOBUTYL1 NIK "boon companion", [-R] [-S] , noun (< P o l i s h : BUTELKA < French: BOUTEILLE) SOBUTYL1NICAT* "to drink i n company", impf., c o l l . UR: # so + boutul + V + ...# > IR: # so + buty l ' + ...# S ummary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 3) SOBYTIE "event", noun SBYT'SJA "come true", pf.; SBYVAT'SJA, impf. UR: # so + bu + t + V ...# > IR: # so + by + t* + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: IZ- OT- S- (-BYT'SJA) 174 4) VOVEK "always, forever", adv., high s t y l e WEK (NE) "never", adv., c o l l . UR: # wo + wek + # -> IR: | vo + v'ek + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V-Cf. also CC sequence i n WALIT 1 , WERIT' , WIDC, WOZIT", where the regular p r e f i x a l variant i s the form used. 5) SOVERSIT' "to accomplish, perform", [-R] [+S] , pf., bookish and o f f i c i a l ; SOVERSAT', impf. SVERSIT' "to accomplish, perform", pf., high s t y l e ; SVERSAT', impf. s t a n d a r d u s a g e [ -R] UR : # s o + w i r x + V . . . # (K > C) : s (w > v ) : v (C > C ) : v ' . s 1 (V-LOWER) : e ( V - D R O P ) : ( s ' > s ) : s (CC* > C ' C ) : I R : # s o + v ' e r s + . . . # Summary : a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : S O -4 b) o t h e r l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : S_-6) SOVEST IT " " t o r e p r o a c h " , i m p f . , c o l l . ; U S t f V E S T I T ' , p f . SOVESCAT ' " t o c o n s u l t w i t h " , i m p f . , o b s . c f . OCS s u v e s t i " c o n s c i e n c e " , n o u n UR: #so + wed + t l + . . . # > I R : #so + v ' e s ' + t ' l + . . . # Summary : a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : S 0 -b ) o t h e r l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : VOZ - I Z - ( -VEST- IT ' , - V E S C A T ' ) P R E P - ( - V E S T I E ) B E Z - ( - V E S T N O S T ' ) BEZ + Y Z - 5 ( - V E S T N O S T ' ) P R E P - ( - V E S C A T ' ) C f . a l s o I Z - OT- R A Z - S - ( - V E D A T ' ) 175 h i g h s t y l e [+R] # s u + w i r x + V . . . # v ' s ' # s 1 + v ' e r s + . . . # 176 7) SOVETOVAT* "to advise, counsel", impf. SOVET "advice", [-R][+S], noun (CS suvetu) UR: # so + wet + ... # > IR: # so + v'et + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d variants: IZ- OT- (-VET) b, and SO + OT (-VETSTVOVAT') 8) SOIZVOLIT' "to be pleased", [-R][+S], pf., obs.; SOIZVOLJAT', impf. SOIZVOLENIE "assent, approbation", noun, obs. UR: #so + I z + wol + V ...# $> IR: # so + I z + v o l ' + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + IZ-b) other variants not l i s t e d 9) SOIZDATEL1 "co-publisher", noun UR: # so + I z + do + # > IR: # so + I z + da + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + IZ-b) other l i s t e d variants: VOZ- IZ- NAD- OB- OT- POD-Note also OB- (-ET) , where v segment i s dropped a f t e r RAZ- S- (-DAT') 10) OTODVINUT1 "to move aside", pf.; OTODVIGAT1, impf. OTDVINUT1 "to move aside", pf. (also OTDVIGAT1, pf.) OTDVIGAT', impf. UR: #oto + dwlg + nou + ...# >IR: #oto + d'v'I + nu + Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: OTO- PODO- SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- VOZ- OT- POD- RAZ- S-11) SODEJSTVOVAT1 "to a s s i s t , contribute", pf. and impf. SODEJSTVIE "assistance", noun UR: # so + de + # > IR: # so + d'e + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ- (-DEJSTVOVAT1) V- VZ POD- RAZ- S- (-DEVAT') 12) SODERZAT1 "to maintain, support", impf. SODERZATEL1 "landlord", noun, obs. cf . SDERZAT' "to keep back", pf. ; SDERZIVAT', impf. UR: # so + d i r g + V ... # > IR: # so + d'erz + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : S_-The derivation of two d i f f e r e n t p r e f i x a l morpheme 178 forms, developed from the same underlying morpheme, i s probably due to the d i f f e r e n t meaning expressed by each verb, that i s , to the [-R] or [+R] o r i g i n of the p r e f i x a l morpheme. 13) SODOLZNIK "co-debtor", noun UR: # so + dulug + V ... # > IR: # so + dolz + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 14) SOEDINIT* "to j o i n " , pf.; SOEDINJAT1, [-R][+S], impf. cf . CS: edinyj " s i n g l e " , adj. UR: # so + jedln + V # > IR: I so + jed'in* + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-; VO- (-EDINO) b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OB"- RAZ"- (-EDINIT1) 15) VOEDINO "together", [-R], adv., high s t y l e cf. ODIN "one", t+R], noun OCS: edinu "one", numeral UR: # wo + jedln + # > IR: # vo + jed'in + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO-; SO- (-EDINIT') b) other l i s t e d v ariants: OB"- RAZ"- (-EDINIT1) 179 16) SOZALET' "to regret, deplore", impf. SOZALENIE "regret", noun UR: # so + gel + V ... # > IR: # so + z a l 1 + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : S- (.-ZALIT1SJA) BEZ-(-ZALOSNOST ' ) RAZ- (.- ZALOVAT ' ) 17) SOZITEL'STVOVAT1 "to l i v e together, cohabit", impf. SOZITEL' "roommate, lover", noun UR: # so + glw + # > IR: # so + z l + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : IZ- OB- OT- POD- S- (-ZIT1) V- RAZ- (-ZIT'SJA) 18) SOPEREZIVAT1 "co-experience, co-survive", impf. SOPEREZIVANIE. "co-experience, c o - s u r v i v a l " , noun UR: #so + per + glw + ...# > IR: #so + p'er'e + z l v +'...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + PERE-b) other variants not l i s t e d With regard to the sequence per, S- variant i s found only i n the words SPEREDI, SPERET 1, and SPERVA. 180 19) SOZERCAT 1 " t o c o n t e m p l a t e " , i m p f . SOZERCATEL 1, SOZERCANIE, nouns UR: # s o + z i r + V ... # > IR: # s o + z ' e r + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : SO-b) o t h e r v a r i a n t s n o t l i s t e d O t h e r r e l a t e d f o r m s a r e ZRET 1 " t o l o o k " , i m p f . , o b s . , ZRENIE " s i g h t " , noun, and ZORKIJ " s h a r p - s i g h t e d " , a d j . , w h i c h , w i t h t h e f o r m i n t h e example g i v e n ( S O Z E R C A T 1 ) , make t h e e~0~o a l t e r n a t i o n s e q u e n c e . 20) SONANIMATEL 1 " c o - t e n a n t " , noun UR: # s o + no + n + Im + . . . # > IR: # s o + n a + n' + Im + . . . # Summary: a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : SO + NA-b) o t h e r v a r i a n t s n o t l i s t e d However, c f . VZ- (-IMAT 1), V- OB- POD- RAZ- S-(-N+IMAT 1) 21) SOIMENNIK "namesake", n o u n , o b s . UR: #so + Im + en + V ...# > IR: #so + Ln1 + en' + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : SO-181 b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BEZ- OT- (-YMENNYJ) 22) SOISKATEL1 "competitor", noun, o f f i c i a l term UR: # so + I s k + ... # > IR: # so + I s k + . . . # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO- , b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : S- VZ- IZ- OB- OT- POD- RAZ-(-YSKAT' ) ; S + N- (-ISPCAT') Note that morpheme-initial i. changes to y only when preceded by a p r e f i x : S+YSKAT1, but S+N+ISKAT1. 23) VOISTINU " i n t r u t h " , adv., obs. ISTINA "truth", noun UR: # wo + 1 s t + V ... # > IR: # vo + I s ' t 1 + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 2 4) SODOKLAD "co-lecture, co-report", noun SODOKLADCIK "co-lecturer", noun DOKLAD "lect u r e , report", noun UR: #so + do + klod + # > IR: #so + do + klad + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + DO-182 b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- S- (-KLAD) OP- POP- RAZ-(-KLADCIK) 25) SOVOKUPIT' "to unite, combine", [-R][+S], pf., obs . ; SOVOKUPLJAT1, impf. PRISOVOKUPIT* "to add", pf.; PRISOVOKUPLJAT', impf. UR: #so + wo + koup + V # > IR: #so + vo + kup + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other variants not l i s t e d 26) SOKURSNIK "classmate", [-R] [-S] , noun UR: # so + kours + V ... # > IR: # so + kurs * + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : only the foreign p r e f i x EKS-in EKSKURSANT 27) SOKVARTIRANT "co-tenant", [-R] [-S] , noun UR: # so + kwortlr + ... # > IR: # so + k v a r t l r + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : RAS- (-KVARTIROVAT1) ME2-(-KVARTIRNYJ) 183 28) SKOLUPAT1 "to tear o f f by scratching", pf.; SKOLUPYVAT1, impf. UR: # so + ko + loup + ...# > IR: # s + ko + lup + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S + KO- IS + KO- OT + K0-POD + K0-b) other variants not l i s t e d Cf. also VZ- IZ- OB- OT- POD- S- (-LUPIT') 29) SOIZMERIT' "to proportion", pf. ; SOIZMERJAT', impf. UR: #so + I z + mer + V # > IR: #so + I z + m'er' + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + IZ- SO + RAZ-b) other variants not l i s t e d Cf. also IZ- OB- OT- RAZ- S- (-MERIT') 30) SONOCLEZNIK "co-lodger i n tavern", noun UR: #so + nokt + V ...# > IR: #so + noc\ + 1'eZ + ...# Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OT- (-NOCEVAT1) 31) SOPERNICAT1 "to r i v a l " , impf. SOPERNIK " r i v a l " , noun 184 UR: # so + p i r + V # > IR: # so + p'er + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 32) SOPUTNIK " f e l l o w - t r a v e l l e r " , noun SPUTNIK " f e l l o w - t r a v e l l e r , s a t e l l i t e " , noun cf. also SOPUTSTVOVAT' "to accompany", impf. UR: # so + pout + # > IR: # so + put + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : S_-33) SORATNIK "companion-in-arms", noun UR: # so + rot + ... # > IR: # so + r a t + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d Perhaps SORATNIK instead of *SRATNIK to d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from the taboo word SRAT1 34) SOREVNOVAT1 "to compete", impf., obs. c f . SRAVNIT1 "to l e v e l , make even", pf. ROVNJAT' "to (make) even, a l i g n " , impf. 185 UR: # so + riw + V ... # > IR: # so + r'ev + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : VOZ- VZ-35) SORUBEZMYJ ualongside/near to boundary l i n e " , adj. UR: # so + roub + V # > IR: # so + rub 1 + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- IZ- NAD- OT- POD- RAZ-S- (-RUB AT 1 ) 36) SOBESEDNIK "c o l l o c u t o r " , noun SOBESEDOVANIE "colloquy", noun UR: #so + bez + sed + ...# > IR: . #so + b'e + s'ed' + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OT- (-BESEDOVAT1) 37) OBOSOBIT* "to i s o l a t e " , pf.; OBOSOBLJAT1, impf. OBOSOBLENIE " i s o l a t i o n " , noun UR: # obo + sob + V ... # > IR: # obo + sob' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: 0B0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : POD-3 8) SOTOVARISC "associate, partner", noun UR: # so + towor + V ... # > IR: # so + tovar* + . Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S_0 b) other variants not l i s t e d The root morpheme TOVAR2, which i n the CS has a d i f f e r e n t meaning from TOVAR1 i n SOTOVARISC, has p r e f i x a morphemes BES- POD- (-TOV&R1JE). 39) SOTVORIT1 "to create, make", pf.; TVORIT1, impf. Root morpheme: TVOR^ UR: # so + twor + V ... # >'IR: # so + tvor' + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : POD- RAS-The root morpheme TVOR2 has the form STVORIT1 "to close, shut", pf., obs.; STVORJAT1, impf. 40) SOXOZJAIN "co-owner", [-R][-S], noun cf. OR: xozja "gentleman", noun (Turkish borrowing) U R : # s o + x o z e n + j ... # > IR: # s o + x o z ' a + ... Summary: a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : S0-b) o t h e r l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : BES- (-XOZJAJSTVENNOST•) 41) VOCARIT'SJA " t o a s c e n d t h e t h r o n e , s e t i n " , p f . , o b s . ; VOCARJAT'SJA, i m p f . VOCARIT" " t o e s t a b l i s h s u p r e m a c y " , p f . , o b s . VOCARENIE " a c c e s s i o n t o t h e t h r o n e " , noun OCS; c e s a r i , OR: c i s a r i , "emperor", and c a r i " l o r d , s o v e r e i g n " , nouns LB.s # wo + k o i r + V ... # > IR: # v o + c a r ' + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : V0-b) o t h e r l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OT- (-cARSTVOVAT•), ME2DU (-CARS TV IE) 42) SOCVETIE " f l o s c u l e , r a c e m e " , noun, b o t . t e r m O C S : c v e t i , OR: c v e t u " f l o w e r " , nouns UR: # s o + kwet + V # > IR: # s o + c v ' e t 1 + Summary: a) l i s t e d o - v a r i a n t s : S0-b) o t h e r l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : OT- (-CVESTI) POD- RAS-(-CVETIT ' ) 188 43) VOCELOVECIT'SJA "to take human likeness", pf., the o l o g i c a l term; VOCELOYECIVAT1SJA, impf. VOCELOVECENIE "human likeness", noun UR: two + kelowek + V ...# > IR: #vo + c'elov'.ec 1 + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: V0-b) other l i s t e d v ariants: BES- (-CELOVEC^NOST') 44) SOCETAT1 "to combine", pf. and impf. OCS: suceta t i "to bind, j o i n " c f . CETA "couple" (in OR = "detachment"), noun UR: # so + ket + # > IR: # so + c'et + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: RAZO- S0-b) other variants not l i s t e d 45) SOPODCINIT1 "to co-ordinate", pf.; SOPODCINJAT 1, impf. SOPODCINENIE "co-ordination", noun, gram, term UR: # so + pod + kin + V ... # > IR: # so + pod + c ' l n ' + # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO + POD-b) other variants not l i s t e d However, c f . V- OB- POD- (-CINIT') 189 S + POD- form has been found i n one word only, SPOPRUCNIK "helper", noun, c o l l . 46) SOCINIT' "to write, invent", pf., obs. and c o l l . ; SOCINJAT1, impf. UR: # so + kin + V # > IR: # so + c 1 i n ' + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : V- OB- POD-Note also DOSOCINIT', NASOCINIT1, PERESOCINIT* 47) SOCUVSTVOVAT' "to sympathize (with), f e e l ( f o r ) " , impf. SOCUVSTVIE "sympathy (with)", noun CS: cuvistvo UR: # so + keuw + ... # > IR: # so + c'uv + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: S0-b) .other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : PREP- (-CUVSTVOVAT1) V- (-CUVSTVOVANIE) 48) SOSUSCEVSTVOVAT' "co-exist", impf. SOSUSCESTVOVANIE "co-existence", noun cf . SUSCESTVO "being", noun (< OCS) UR: # so + sout + j + ... # > IR: # so + sus'c' + ... # 190 Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: SO-b) other l i s t e d variants: OT- i n OTSUTSTVOVAT', which has the same underlying root morpheme 49) VOSEDSIJ "having come i n " , p.p.a. UR: # wo + xid + V # > IR: # vo + sed + ... # Summary: a) l i s t e d o-variants: VO- VZO- IZO- (S-)-NTZO- OBO-OTO- PODO- RAZO- SO-b) other l i s t e d v a r i a n t s : IS- NIS- OT- S-Note p a r a l l e l forms: SOSEDSIJ — S S E D S I J "having come down", p.p.a., and SOSESTVIE — S S E S T V I E "descent, comedown", nouns. 4.8 Summary a) l i s t e d o-variants b) other l i s t e d variants 1) SO-2) SO-3) SO-4) VO-5) SO-6) SO-BEZ- IZ- OT- RAZ-IZ- OT- S-V-S-BEZ- BEZ+YZ- VOZ-IZ- PRED-191 7) SO- IZ- OT-8) SO+IZ-9) SO+IZ- VOZ- IZ- NAD- OB- OT-POD- RAZ- S-10) OTO- PODO- SO- V- VOZ- OT- POD- RAZ- S-11) SO- BEZ- V- VZ- POD- RAZ- S-12) SO- S-13) SO-14) VO- SO- OB"- RAZ"-15) VO- SO- OB"- RAZ"-16) SO- BEZ- RAZ- S-17) SO- V- IZ- OB- OT- POD-RAZ- S-18) SO+PERE-19) SO-20) SO+NA- . -21) SO- BEZ- OT-22) SO- VZ- IZ- OB- OT- POD-RAZ- S- S+N-23) VO-2 4) SO+DO- V- OD- POD- RAZ- S-25) SO+VO-26) SO- EKS-27) SO- MEZ- RAS-2 8) IS+KO- OT+KO-POD+KO- S+KO-19 2 29) SO+IZ- SO+RAZ-30) SO-31) SO-32) SO-33) SO-34) SO-35) SO-36) SO-3 7) OBO-38) SO-39) SO-40) SO-41) VO-42) SO-43) VO-44) RAZO- SO-45) SO+POD-46) SO-47) SO-48) SO-49) VO- VZO- IZO-(S-)-NIZO- OBO- OTO-PODO- RAZO- SO-OT-S-VZ- VOZ-V- IZ- NAD- OT- POD-RAZ- S-OT-POD-POD- RAS-BES-MEZDU- OT-OT- POD- RAS-BES-V- OB- POD-V- PRED-OT-IS- NIS- OT- S-NOTES TO CHAPTER IV The changes described i n t h i s group represent those spontaneous changes for which no reason can be detected from t h e i r immediate phonetic environment. 2 It seems that t h i s type of derivation patterned a f t e r CS words i s s t i l l productive. See, for example, Ludmilla Ignatiev Callaham, Russian-English Chemical and Polytechnical  Dictionary (New York: Wiley Interscience, 1975), w h i c h . l i s t s the following new formations: SOOSADITEL1 "coprecipitator", SOOSAZDAT1 "coprecipitate", SOOSAZDENIE " c o p r e c i p i t a t i o n " , and the compound word SOOSNO-VINTOVOJ. It may be noted that stress i n the above Dictionary has not been assigned. 3 Cyganenko considers i t as a possible borrowing from the Polish AUTOR, which, i n turn, has i t s o r i g i n i n the Lat i n AUTOR; c f . G. P. Cyganenko, Etimologiceskij s l o v a r 1 russkogo  jazyka (Kiev: Radjans'ka skola, 1970), p. 16. 4 S t y l i s t i c usage governs whether SO- (SOVERSiT*, bookish and o f f i c i a l terminology), or S- (SVERSIT', used on solemn occasions) i s going to be used. 5 There are no.*BEZ+IZ, *S+IZ, and s i m i l a r forms with the vowel .i following another morpheme ending i n a consonant. These forms are absent i n Russian dictionary l i s t i n g s since the vowel i^ i n th i s phonetic environment changes to y, and the form i s r e a l i z e d as BEZ+YZ-, S+YZ- (BEZYZVESTNOST1, SYZMALA, SYZNOVA, and so on). 193 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION The object of t h i s study was to observe and describe an extensive corpus of data i n terms of p r e f i x a l o-variants, together with the root morpheme following them, at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of analysis, along with t h e i r modes of combination. A t r a d i t i o n a l approach presented i n Chapter II turned out to be unsatisfactory because the a n a l y t i c procedure employed does not reach the necessary depth required to bring out the underlying phonological i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of the constituents involved. In order to e s t a b l i s h phonological i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of the morpheme constituents i t was necessary to reconstruct the underlying structures (Chapters III and IV) i n which the phonological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each i n d i v i d u a l constituent were c l e a r l y defined. The most e f f e c t i v e grammatical description of the structure of Russian p r e f i x a l o-variants seems to be the one which accounts for t h e i r surface phonetic forms; namely, one which w i l l use phonological rules for generating o-variant prefixes from t h e i r deep abstract forms to the e x i s t i n g patterns they have in the language system at the present time. Consequently, the deep and surface structure morphemes i n this study have been represented at t h e i r i n i t i a l and near 194 195 f i n a l stage, respectively, and the re l a t i o n s h i p between these two stages i s expressed by phonological generative r u l e s . The deep representations are generally very d i s t i n c t from the surface structure forms, the l a t t e r being unable to indicate s i g n i f i c a n t early grammatical r e l a t i o n s and subsequent phono-l o g i c a l changes. The underlying representations of root morphemes i n the preceding chapters are given i n terms of f a i r l y general phonological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and processes involved; there-fore, no doubt some of the representations could be further refined to correspond to more abstract or s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t underlying segments, which have been proposed and argued i n various works and a r t i c l e s dealing with t h i s problem. The summaries presented at the end of each environment group, or subgroup, are divided into two columns, the variant prefixes and the regular p r e f i x e s . The columns thus show at a glance whether and to what extent c e r t a i n p r e f i x a l o-variants have i r r e g u l a r l y derived corresponding regular variants. The Russian p r e f i x a l underlying morphemes treated i n t h i s paper developed into three main variant s : a) the p r e f i x a l variant with a voiced consonantal segment at the morpheme boundary (VOZ-, OB-, IZ-, NAD-, RAZ-); b) the variant with a voiceless segment at the morpheme boundary (VOS-, IS-, OT-, RAS-, S-); and, 196 c) the p r e f i x a l o-variant (IZO-, OTO-, RAZO-, SO-, and so on) . In the f i r s t two cases the high, lax, back segment u is dropped out by the app l i c a t i o n of the phonological rule (V-DROP), while i n the t h i r d instance the p r e f i x a l o-yariant morpheme, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and derivation of which has been the subject under consideration i n t h i s paper, i s developed by the application of the phonological rule (V-LOWER) through which u becomes o. The change of u to o i s the d i r e c t r e s u l t of the phonological changes and s h i f t i n s t r u c t u r a l pattern of the following root morpheme. As already outlined i n Chapter III above, there are two main environmental factors which t r i g g e r the lowering of u to o i n the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes: 1) the presence of a j e r i n the root morpheme; and, 2) the i d e n t i t y of the i n i t i a l consonant of the root morpheme and the i n i t i a l consonant of the p r e f i x a l morpheme. There i s also an ad d i t i o n a l group (Chapter IV) encompassing a l l those p r e f i x a l variants which do not seem to be phonologically motivated, that i s , the environmental factor i s not obvious. Most of the derived p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes can be attributed to one of the environments applied, according to the s t r u c t u r a l features of the root morpheme which repre-sent that environment type. The description of underlying 197 patterns of p r e f i x a l o-variants i n Chapter III shows t h e i r corresponding to the d i v i s i o n into two environment types. The above chapter contains the enti r e corpus of o-variant morphemes arranged i n types and subtypes i n accordance with the environment-dependent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The study confirms that the two environment indicators do represent reasonably accurate coverage of the p r e f i x a l o-variants. However, no matter how much one would l i k e to f i t the corpus-data into neat environmental compartments, there are always cases i n which th i s does not seem to be possible . Thus, although the presentation of o-variant data follows the arrangement of the various environment types, i n addition to some environments there are certa i n subgroups dealing with s l i g h t l y changed combinations which are related to the e x i s t i n g main environment patterns. Although the p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes have been conveniently grouped with respect to the p a r t i c u l a r root morpheme features, almost every such morpheme group has i d i o s y n c r a t i c p r e f i x a l examples which f a i l to undergo the expected lowering process. While lowering i s generally consistent for most p r e f i x a l morphemes throughout the two environments, there are also p r e f i x a l morphemes whose under-lyi n g f i n a l segment u (as i s the case with U.R. # i z u #) almost regularly f a i l s to undergo the (V-LOWER) rule and, instead, drops the segment u. Cases l i k e these are considered 198 to be exceptions to the phonological rule (V-LOWER) generally associated with the root morpheme i n question. Most of the p r e f i x a l o-variants can be at t r i b u t e d to one of the environments applied according to the s t r u c t u r a l features of the root morpheme of the same group. Neverthe-less , there i s a considerable number of p r e f i x a l o-variants which cannot be c l a s s i f i e d , or grouped together, with respect to a common root morpheme s t r u c t u r a l pattern. These o-variants have developed regardless of the phonological structure of the root morpheme and, therefore, they are considered to have no phonological motivation. A l l p r e f i x a l o-variant morphemes thus developed represent exceptions associated with words of CS o r i g i n , high s t y l e usage, analogical formations, and so on. Some of these o-variants are found only with p a r t i c u l a r l i n g u i s t i c forms. While a large number of examples were predicted on the basis of a t h e o r e t i c a l framework, developed and elaborated i n Chapter III, c l e a r l y a number of examples were not. Some root morphemes present instances of actual ambiguity, as they seem open to both regular and o-variant p r e f i x a l v a r i a n t s . Nevertheless, the t h e o r e t i c a l framework of generative grammar applied to Russian prefixes fared reasonably w e l l , permitting a s u r p r i s i n g amount of i n s i g h t into the data, despite a large number of idiosyncracies of one kind or another. Those p r e f i x a l o-variants which occur r e l a t i v e l y 199 frequently i n each of the two environments constitute evidence of established d i s t r i b u t i o n within each p a r t i c u l a r environment. It i s encouraging that at l e a s t one set of UR's (that i s , #su#) has produced re s u l t s which are generally consistent with the phonological rules throughout these two environments. In the generative framework, which derives o-variants from the assumed UR's, many constituent forms exhibit varying degrees of idiosyncrasy; nonetheless, the surface structure ambiguity can be accounted for only by po s i t i n g a common underlying representation. A l l the words l i s t e d i n the Nonphonologically Motivated group (Chapter IV) could also be handled i n a d i f f e r e n t way. They could a l l be marked with the s p e c i a l feature [-R] and made to undergo the (V-LOWER) rule to lower the f i n a l u to o i n every p r e f i x . The representation of the various environment patterns has been i n terms of f a i r l y broad s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and, no doubt, the description of some of the patterns could be refined further. Moreover, i t must be remembered that, despite the substantial number of p r e f i x a l o-variants presented, t h i s analysis treats just one aspect of the vowel lowering processes coexistent i n Russian words. BIBLIOGRAPHY Akademija nauk SSSR, I n s t i t u t russkogo jazyka. Grammatika  sovremennogo russkogo jazyka (Moskva: Nauka, 1970). . Grammatika•russkogo jazyka. I, Fonetika i morfo-l o g i j a (Moskva: Akademija nauk SSSR, 1960). . Slovar' sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo jazyka, volsT 1-17 (Moskva-Leningrad: Akademija nauk SSSR, 1950-1965). Andersen, Henning. "A Study of Diachronic Morphophonemics: The Ukrainian Prefixes," Language, 45 (1969), no. 4, pp. 807-830. Anderson, Stephen R. The Organization of Phonology (New York: Academic Press, 1974). Avanesov, R. I. Russkoe literaturnoe proiznosenie (Moskva: Prosvescenie, 1968). Barykina, A. N., et a l . Sbornik upraznenij po glagol'nym pristavkam (Moskva: Izdatel'stvo moskovskogo univer-s i t e t a , 1969) . Bukatevic, I. I., et a l . I s t o r i c e s k a j a grammatika russkogo  jazyka (Kiev: Visca skola, 1974). . Ocerki po sr a v n i t e l ' n o j grammatike vostocnoslavjan-skix jazykov (The Hague-Paris: Mouton, 1969). Bulanin, L. L. Fonetika sovremennogo russkogo jazyka (Moskva: Vyssaja skola, 1970). Bulaxovskij, L. A. I s t o r i C e s k i j kommentarij k russkomu literaturnbmu jazyku (Kiev: Radjans'ka Skola, 1~95 8) . Callaham, Ludmilla Ignatiev. Russian-English Chemical and  Polytechnical Dictionary" (New York: Wiley Inter-science, 1975). Cernyx, P. Ja. Is t o r i c e s k a j a grammatika russkogo jazyka, 2nd ed. (Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe ucebno-pedagogiceskoe i z d a t e l ' s t v o ministerstva prosvegcenija RSFSR, 1954). 200 201 Chomsky, Noam, and Morris Halle. The Sound Pattern of  English (New York: Harper & Row, 1968). Coats, Herbert. Word Stress Assignment i n a Generative Grammar of Russian, doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n (Urbana: University of I l l i n o i s , 1970). Cyganenko, G. P. Etimologiceskij slovar' russkogo jazyka (Kiev: Izdatel'stvo radjans'ka skola, 1970). — Dement'ev, A. A. Sbornik zadac i upraznenij po i s t o r i c e s k o j  grammatike russkogo jazyka" (Moskva: ProsveSSenie, 1964). Fedorova, N. I . "K voprosu socetaemosti soglasnyx v sovre-mennom russkom jazyke," Vestnik moskovskogo u n i v e r s i -t e t a , No. 1 (1969), S e r i j a X, F i l o l o g i j a (Moskva: Izdatel'stvo moskovskogo u n i v e r s i t e t a , 1969), pp. 62-70. Forsyth, J . A. A Grammar of Aspect, Usage, and Meaning in the Russian Verb (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970). Golanova, E. I . "O foneticeskoj x a r a k t e r i s t i k e p r i s t a v k i so-," Razvitie f o n e t i k i sovremennogo russkogo jazyka (Moskva: Nauka, 1971) , pp. 236-242. Guzva, F. K. Sovremennyj ru s s k i j l i t e r a t u r n y j jazyk (Kiev: Visca skola, 1973). : Gvozdev, A. N. Sovremennyj r u s s k i j l i t e r a t u r n y j jazyk, I , Fonetika i morfologija, 3rd ed. (Moskva: Prosvescenie, 1967) . Halle, Morris. The Sound Pattern of Russian (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 19 59). Heltberg, K r i s t i n e . "Combinative Relations of Prederiva-t i v e s , " Studies on S l a v i c Derivation (Odense: Odense University Press, 1970), pp. 100-124. . "Mutual Combinations pf Prederivatives" (1970), pp. 125-136. Isacenko, Aleksandr V. "East S l a v i c morphophonemics and the treatment of the jers in Russian: a r e v i s i o n of Havlik's Law," International Journal of S l a v i c L i n g u i s t i c s and Poetics, X I I I (1970) , pp. 73-124. 202 Ivanov, V. V. I s t o r i c e s k a j a fonologija russkogo jazyka (Moskva: Prosvescenie, 1968). Klagstad, Harold Leonard, J r . Vowel-Zero A l t e r n a t i o n i n Contemporary Standard Russian, unpub. doctoral d i s s e r -t a t i o n (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ e r s i t y , 1954) . Kuznecov, P. S. I s t o r i c e s k a j a grammatika russkogo jazyka, Morfologija (Moskva: Moskovskij u n i v e r s i t e t , 1953). Lightner, Theodore M. Problems in the Theory of Phonology, Russian and Turkish Phonology (Edmonton-Champaign: Linguxstic Research, Inc., 1972). Lomtev, T. P. "Prevokal'nye soglasnye fonemy i ix gruppy, j a v l j a j u s c i e s j a i n i c i j a l a m i , " Fonologija sovremennogo  russkogo jazyka (Moskva: Vyssaja skola, 1972) , pp. 203-212. Lopatin, V. V. "Ob imennom prefikse PRA- v russkom jazyke," Issledovanija po i s t o r i c e s k o j l e k s i k o l o g i j i drevne-russkogo jazyka (Moskva: Nauka, 1964), pp. 254-259. Nandris, Grigore. Old Church Slavonic Grammar (London: University of London Press, 1969). Olmstead, D. L. "The So-Called Inserted Vowels i n Russian," Language Learning, III (1950), pp. 93-98. Ozegov, S. I. Slovar' russkogo jazyka, 5th ed. (Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe i z d a t e l ' s t v o inostrannyx i nacional'-nyx s l o v a r e j , 1963). Potixa, Z. A. Sovremennoe russkoe slovoobrazovanie (Moskva: Prosvescenie, 1970) . Rozental', D. E. ,Prakticeskaja s t i l i s t i k a russkogo jazyka (Moskva: Vyssaja skola, 1965) . '. Sanskij, N. M. "Affiksoidy v slovoobrazovatel'noj sisteme sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo jazyka," Issledo-vanija po sovremennomu russkomu jazyku (Moskva: Moskovskij u n i v e r s i t e t , 1970), p. 123. , et a l . K r a t k i j ^timologiceskij slovar' russkogo jazyka, 3rd ed. (Moskva: Prosvescenie, 1975). Russian Word Formation, trans. (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1968). B. S. Johnson 203 Townsend, Charles E. Russian Word-Formation (New York: McGraw-Hill, 19"68K Trofimov, V. A. Russkij l i t e r a t u r n i j jazyk, Morfologija (Leningrad: Leningradskij u n i v e r s i t e t , 1957). Vasmer, M. Etiitiologiceskij slovar' russkogo jazyka, trans. from the German, vo l s . 1-4 (Moskva: Progress, 1964). Vilgelminina, A. A. The Russian Verb: Aspect and Voice (Moscow: Foreign Language Publishing House, 1963)„ Vinogradov, V. V. Russkij jazyk — Grammaticeskoe ucenie o  slove (Moskva: Vyslaja Skola, 1972). Ward, Dennis. The Russian Language Today, System and Anomaly (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965). Worth, Dean S., et a l . Russian Derivational Dictionary (New York: American E l s e v i e r Publishing Co., 1970). Zamskaja, E. A. "Tipy odnovidnyx pristavocnyx glagolov v sovremennom russkom jazyke," Issledovanija po gramma-ti k e russkogo literaturnogo jazyka. Sbornik s t a t e j (Moskva: Akademija nauk SSSR, 1955), pp. 5-41. APPENDIX I STRESSED PREFIXAL O-VARIANTS It has already been mentioned that, i n the present analysis of p r e f i x a l o-variants, stress has no s i g n i f i c a n t a p p l i c a t i o n . Nevertheless, since a number of o-variant examples have been found to bear stress i n t h e i r surface representation, these examples w i l l be l i s t e d here. These o-variants are a l l derived by the regular lov/ering r u l e . A l l the stressed examples belonging to the same root morpheme are l i s t e d following the relevant UR of the root. a) Words correlated to the F i r s t Environment: #bir# VOBRANNYJ OBOBRANNYJ OTOBRANNYJ PODOBRANNYJ PODOBRANNOST1 RAZOBRANNYJ RAZOBRAN SOBRANNYJ SOBRANNOST1 (cf. VOB RAT * ) (cf. OBOBRAT1) (cf. OTOBRAT') (cf. PODOBRAT') (cf. RAZOBRAT') (cf. SOBRAT') #wir# SOVRANNYJ (cf. SOVRAT1) 204 #wis# : VOVSE #gun# : v6GNANNYJ' OBOGNANNYJ OTOGNANNYJ PODOGNANNYJ RAZ OGNANNYJ SOGNANNYJ #gun# : V6GNUTYJ V6GNUTOST' IZOGNUTYJ IZOGNUTOST* NADOGNUTYJ OBOGNUTYJ OTOGNUTYJ PODOGNUTYJ RAZOGNUTYJ SOGNUTYJ #dir# : IZODRANNYJ NADODRANNYJ OBODRANNYJ OTODRANNYJ RAZ6DRANNYJ SODRANNYJ (cf. VOGNAT ' ) (cf. OBOGNAT 1 ) (cf. OTOGNAT') (cf. PODOGNAT') (cf. RAZOGNAT 1 ) (cf. SOGNAT ' ) (cf. VOGNUT') (cf. IZOGNUT ' ) (cf. NADOGNUT') (cf. OBOGNUT 1) (cf. OTOGNUT 1) (cf. PODOGNUT 1) (cf. RAZOGNUT') (cf. SOGNUT') (cf. I ZODRAT ' ) (cf. NADODRAT 1) (cf. OBODRAT') (cf. OTODRAT') (cf. RAZODRAT') (cf. SODRAT 1 ) #gir# #zuw# #zid# #lug# #muk# #ruw# SOZRANNYJ OBOZVANNYJ OTOZVANNYJ PODOZVANNYJ S O Z V A N N Y J SOZDANNYJ SOLGANNYJ OTOMKNUTYJ RAZOMKNUTYJ SOMKNUTYJ SOI4KNUTOST' VZORVANNYJ I Z O R V A N N Y J NADORVANNYJ OBORVANNYJ OBORVYS OTORVANNYJ OTORVANNOST 1 PODORVANNYJ RAZ 6 RVANNY J SORV/iNNY J (cf. SOZRAT ' ) (cf. OBOZVAT' ) (cf. OTOZVAT' ) (cf. PODOZVAT') (cf. SOZVAT") (cf. SOZDAT ' ) (cf. SOLGAT ' ) (cf. OTOMKNUT 1) (cf. RAZOMKNUT') (cf. SOMKNUT 1) (cf. VZORVAT") (cf. I ZORVAT ' ) (cf. NADORVAT') (cf. OBORVAT') (cf. OTORVAT 1 ) (cf. PODORVAT") (cf. RAZORVAT 1 ) (cf. SORVAT ' ) #sul# OTOSLANNYJ (cf. OTOSLAT ' ) PODOSLANNYJ (cf. PODOSLAT ' ) RAZOSLANNYJ (cf. RAZOSLAT ' ) s 6 S L i \NNYJ (cf. SOSLAT 1 ) #stil# : PODOSTLANNYJ (cf. PODOSTLAT ' ) RAZ6STLANNYJ (cf. RAZOSTLAT•) #tuk : V6TKANNYJ (cf. VOTKAT ' ) IZOTKANNYJ (cf. I ZOTKAT 1 ) PODOTKANNYJ (cf. PODGTKAT 1 ) RAZOTKANNYJ (cf. RAZOTKAT ' ) SOTKANNYJ (cf. SOTKAT 1 ) VOTKNUTYJ (cf. VOTKNUT 1 ) OTOTKNUTYJ (cf. OTOTKNUT 1 ) PODOTKNUTYJ (cf. PODOTKNUT') SOTKNUTYJ (cf. SOTKNUT 1 ) #xiw# : PODOSVA PODOSVENNYJ b) Words correlated with the Second #zno# : SOZNANNYJ (cf. SOZNAT 1 ) #slep# : SOSLEPA 208 c) Words belonging to the Nonphonologically Motivated group: #werm+en# : VOVREMJA #wed# : 50VEST" S6VESTIT' SOVESTLIVOST' SOVESTNO APPENDIX II PHONOLOGICAL RULES The phonological rules given below generally apply i n the order i n which they are l i s t e d . However, some of the rules may need to be re-ordered to operate e f f e c t i v e l y with respect to c e r t a i n derivations. 1) (TT > ST) La b i a l and dental obstruents a s s i b i l a t e to dental f r i c a t i v e s before an obstruent. Example: MESTI, SOSKRESTI # su + skreb + t l # -—> # su + skrez + t l # 2) (K >C) Velars k, g, x, before a front vowel or gl i d e j , s h i f t # met + t i # mes + t l # to p a l a t a l s c, z, s. Example: SVOLOC # su + welk + V ...# > # su + welc + ...# 209 210 3) (T > C) [+R] : ^ t , d, s, z^ > > <^c, z, s, z ^> / j a) [-R] : <(t, d } > <J^ sc, zd} / j b) a) Dental obstruents t , d, s_, z_, i n [+R] morphemes, followed by _ j , s h i f t to c, z_, i , z_. Example: OTVECAT1 # otu + wet + j + ... # > # otu + wee + ... # b) Dental obstruents t , d, i n [-R] morphemes, followed by _ j , s h i f t to sc, zd, respe c t i v e l y . Example: OBSCIJ # obi + t + j + ... # > # obi + sc + ... # 4) (BdC) <^ k, g, x~y > <(c, z, s} / # (w) V Velars k, g, x s h i f t to c, z, s before a front vowel, which may be preceded by a w segment. Example: SOSTJAZAT 1SJA # su + su + teng + V # —-> # su + su + tenz + V ... # 5, ( e l o i l [ + R ] {e} _ » / _ L C In [+R] morphemes e s h i f t s to o, before a l i q u i d _1 followed by another consonant. 2 1 1 Example: SVOLOC1 i. # su + welc + ... # > # su + wolc + ... # 6) (V-GEMIN) (e, o} >.{ee, o o j / > C The short vowels e and o geminate to ee and oo, before l i q u i d 1 or r followed by a consonant. Example: SVOLOC * # su + wolc + ... # > # su + woolc + ... # 7) ( w > V) f _ R ] ree \ l e K.00J \.° In a sequence of two i d e n t i c a l short vowels ee, oo, the f i r s t vowel i s dropped and the second tensed. Example: RAZOB RAT' # oorzu + b i r + V ... # > # orzu + b i r + V # 8) (METATH) [+R] : <^eeL, ooL^ > <^eLe, oLo^> / C a) [-R] : <f eL, oL^> > <f Le, Lo^V / C b) a) A sequence of two i d e n t i c a l short vowels ee, oo in [+R] morphemes, before a l i q u i d 1 or r followed by a 212 consonant, metathesizes. Example: SVOLOC1 # su + woolc + ... # > # su + woloc + ... # b) In [-R] morphemes, e, o, before a l i q u i d 1 or r followed by a consonant, metathesize into l e , l o , re, ro. Example: RAZOBRAT' # orzu + b i r + V # > # roz + b i r + V ... # 9) (DI-TENSING) {i, u, o} > <^I, u, o~y i n inner stems of DI's (derived imperfectives). Jers i . , u, and short vowel o are tensed i n root morphemes of DI 1s . Example: VBIRAT1 # wu + b i r + V # > # wu + b i r + V ... # 10) (UNROUND) a u J VY Labials o and u d e l a b i a l i z e to a and y, respectively, Example: RAZOBRAT' # rozu + b i r + V # > # razu + b i r + V ... # 213 11) ( W > V ) 0 -> 0 The gli d e w s h i f t s to v. Example: VOB RAT * # wu + b i r + V ... # > # vu + b i r + V ... # 12) (y — > I ) (f) >{}"} 7 *} Any y, a f t e r velars k , g, x, i s s h i f t e d to I . Example: IZGIBAT1 # I z u + gyb + . . . # > # I z u + gib + ... # 13) (C > C ) C > C / V Any consonant before a front vowel i s p a l a t a l i z e d . Example: VBIRAT* # vu + b i r + V ... # > #vu + b ' I r + V... # 14) (MONOPH) v x v 2 _ > 0 v 2 A sequence of two short vowels eu and ou i s monoph-thongized by dropping the f i r s t vowel and tensing the second. 15) (V-NASAL) V V u N A front vowel before a nasal s h i f t s to a, and any other vowel s h i f t s to u. Examples: SOSTJAZAT" S JA, SOZVUCAT' # su + su + teng + V ... # > # su + su + t'az + ... # su + zvon + c' + ... # > # su + zvu + c' + ... 16) ( G , N >0) { ^ G , N } > 0 / A glide or a nasal drops before another consonant, Example: SZAT' # su + z'am + t ' l # > # s u + z ' a + t ' I # 17) (j >0) { j } > 0 / C A gli d e following a consonant i s dropped. Example: OBSCIJ # obi + s ' c ' + j + V . . . # > # obi + s'c' + 18) (C > J2f) . # r c i |_-contJ +dental -cont 215 i A dental drops before another dental. Example: VOJTI # vu + j i d + t*I # > # vu + j i + t ' l # 19) (C# >0#) { c } > "0 / # Any consonant drops i n a word-final p o s i t i o n before a word boundary. Example: VOVREMJA # vo + vr'em' + an # > # vo + vr'em' + a # 20) (V-LOWER) _ + C 1 a) , > , cT}> / + (CV) ' . +(C)C 1(C) b) pre f i x Jers i. and u are lowered to e and o i f : a) the following s y l l a b l e of the root morpheme (or another intervening p r e f i x a l morpheme) contains a j e r ; b) the following root morpheme (or intervening p r e f i x a l morpheme with a jer) begins with a c l u s t e r of two or more consonants, and i f the i n i t i a l consonant of the c l u s t e r i s i d e n t i c a l with the i n i t i a l p r e f i x a l consonant; condition for b ) : one of the optional root segments (including i n t e r -vening p r e f i x a l morpheme where applicable) must be present (cf. p. 118). 216 Examples: VOBRAT1, SOSKOCIT* # vu + b ' i r + V ... # > # vo + b ' i r + V ... # # su + skoc* + V ... # > # so + skoc 1 + V ... # 21) (V-DROP) -> 9 Remaining jers are dropped. Example: VOBRAT' # vo + b 1 i r + V ... # > # vo + b 1 r + V . # 22) (s* >s) { s 1 , z ^ } — > <p, iy Soft continuants s' and z 1 change to hard s, z, Example: SOKRUS'lT' # so + krus* + ... # > # so + krus + ... # 23) (C'C >CC) r c i [_-lateralJ -> C C / +anterior +coronal This rule hardens previously p a l a t a l i z e d consonants, Example: VOBRAT* #vo + b'r + V... # -> # vo + br + ... # 24) (CC* >C'C*) CC* C'C* / 217 A consonant before a soft consonant i s p a l a t a l i z e d . There are ce r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s to thi s r u l e , depending on the kind of consonant that softens; e.g., a velar w i l l not soften before any consonant, and l a b i a l s soften only before l a b i a l s . Example: RAZBIRAT' # raz + b ' l r + ... # > # raz' + b ' l r + ... # SUMMARY OF RULES 1) (TT > ST) 13) (C > C') 2) ( K >C) 14) (MONOPH) 3) (T — > C ) 15) (V-NASAL) 4) (BdC) 16) (G,N > 0) 5) (el > o l ) [ + R ] 17) (j >0) 6) (V-GEMIN) 18) (C >0) 7) ( w - ^ v ) ^ 19) (C# >##) 8) (METATH) 20) (V-LOWER) 9) (DI-TENSING) 21) (V-DROP) 10) (UNROUND) 22) (s * > S ) 11) (w >v) 23) (C'C >CC) 12) (y > I ) 24) (CC * > C'C ) 

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