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The chevalier de lat Tour Landry : an assessment of his "livre" with particular reverence to the education… Rumpf, Marcelle Irene 1966

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THE CHEVALIER DE LA TOUR LANDRY; AN ASSESSMENT OF HIS "LIVRE" WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN by MARCELLE IRENE RUMPF B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Romance Studies We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1966 ABSTRACT I. Purpose To place the L i v r e and i t s author i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g , i n order t o evaluate t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o ideas on the education of women. I I . Development 1. An o u t l i n e of c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s i n Mediaeval France. 2. A d e s c r i p t i o n of t e x t s on the education of g i r l s and women p r i o r t o the time of the Ch e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry, noting changes i n ideas. C o n t r i b u t i o n s made by Vincent de Beauvais and P i e r r e Dubois. The i n f l u e n c e of the D i c t a C a t o n i s , a l i t t l e book of maxims. 3. The pos i t i o n _ a n d c o n d i t i o n of women of noble f a m i l i e s as a r e s u l t of c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s such as that of Co u r t l y Love. 4. An a n a l y s i s of the examples contained i n the L i v r e , g i v i n g an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the v i r t u e s which one could expect t o f i n d i n an honourable woman wit h a C h r i s -t i a n upbringing. I I I . Conclusion The L i v r e and i t s author i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n f l u -ences of t h e i r time and place. A defense against l a t e r c r i t i c s . D e f i n i t i o n of "enseignement, u and e v a l u a t i o n the L i v r e and i t s author i n the l i g h t of the meaning of t h i s term. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE PART I . INTRODUCTION I. THE AUTHOR'S LIFE AND FAMILY BACKGROUND . . . 1 I I . MANUSCRIPTS AND EARLY EDITIONS OF LE LIVRE . . 4 E a r l y French Manuscripts and Texts . . . . 4 E a r l y E n g l i s h Manuscripts and Texts . . . 6 Modern E d i t i o n s 8 I I I . DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY OF WORK 12 IV. THE STYLE OF THE LIVRE 17 V. CONTEMPORARY REACTIONS 23 PART I I . THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN PRIOR TO THE APPEARANCE OF THE LIVRE (AND WITHIN THE MIDDLE AGES) I. AN OUTLINE OF CULTURAL INFLUENCES 28 I I . FOUR GROUPS OF TEXTS ON THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN 33 I I I . CATO 41 IV. WOMEN IN THE LATE MIDDLE AGES 44 PART I I I . AN ANALYSIS OF HIS EXAMPLES I. THE VIRTUE OF PIETY 50 I I . COURTESY AND HUMILITY 54 I I I . CHARITY AND COMPASSION 60 IV. LOYALTY AND OBEDIENCE 63 V. PATIENCE 70 V CHAPTER PAGE VI. CHASTITY 73 V I I . MODERATION 80 PART IV. CONCLUSION AN EVALUATION OF AUTHOR'S CONTRIBUTION 91 BIBLIOGRAPHY 101 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank my d i r e c t o r Dr. R. Holdaway f o r h i s forbearance during these past few months, and express my a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h i s h e l p f u l sugges-t i o n s . My thanks are o f f e r e d a l s o t o Dr. McKay f o r h i s a d vice, and t o the s t a f f of the l i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r courteous co-operation, and i n p a r t i c u l a r t o Mrs. Horvath of the Humanities D i v i s i o n f o r her e n t h u s i a s t i c a s s i s -tance i n my e f f o r t s t o i d e n t i f y n l a royne P r i n e s . " To my Daughters and Grand Daughters Pour ce, mes c h i e r e s f i l l e s , e s t - i l bon de ne se haster point et de t e n i r l e moyen e s t a t , c'est a en f a i r e plus sur l e moins que sur l e p l u s . Le C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry PART I INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I THE AUTHOR'S LIFE AND FAMILY BACKGROUND The c a s t l e and v i l l a g e of La Tour-Landry are s i t u a t e d i n the Canton of Loroux, some f i f t e e n k i l o m e t e r s from Nantes. Montaiglon, i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s e d i t i o n of Le L i v r e  du C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry pour l'enseignement de ses  f i l l e s s t a t e s that the c a s t l e , a l a r g e tower, dates from the 12th century. There i s reason t o b e l i e v e that the La Tour Landry f a m i l y were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the reg i o n by that time. Family claims t o mythol o g i c a l ancestors dating back t o the end of the 5th century must remain open, and the f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l reference i s i n the year 1220, when a Landry-Latour i s i n v o l v e d i n a l a w s u i t . In 1294, a Geoffroy de La Tour i s l i s t e d among the k n i g h t s , squires and archers i n the s e r v i c e of the Duke of B r i t t a n y . In 1336, a Geoffroy de La Tour Landry, under the ban-ner of Anjou, fought g a l l a n t l y against the E n g l i s h . He ap-pears t o have been the f a t h e r of the author. Following i n the m i l i t a r y t r a d i t i o n of the f a m i l y , t h i s La Tour Landry, a l s o c h r i s t e n e d Geoffroy, was present at the seige of A g u i l l o n i n 1346. His name occurs on various documents as l a t e as 1389, when he married h i s second w i f e , Marguerite des Roches, a widow wi t h c h i l d r e n . His f i r s t w i f e , Jeanne de Rouge had died some time a f t e r 13#3. From t h i s marriage there were two sons and probably three daughters. For the l a t t e r , he wrote h i s book c i r c a 1371.* General source of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s contained i n the Preface of Montaiglon's e d i t i o n of Le L i v r e du  Che v a l i e r de La Tour Landry pour l'enseignement de ses f i l l e s , p u b l i e d'apres l e s manuscrits de P a r i s et de Londres, P a r i s (P. Jannet) 1854. The author of t h i s thesis v i s i t e d France i n the summer of 1966, and found the v i l l a g e of Latourlandry (pop. j u s t under 1,000) about midway between Saumur and Nantes, south of the L o i r e , and not 15 kms from Nantes, as noted by Montaiglon. A good portion of the wall which surrounded the o r i g i n a l c a s t l e i s s t i l l standing, along with two square towers i n the s t y l e of the 13th century. The c a s t l e was destroyed during the wars of r e l i g i o n and the present chateau was b u i l t i n the 18th century. I t i s i n sharp contrast to the wall and towers. The remaining tower of a church stands nearby, and shows possible Byzantine influence. CHAPTER I I MANUSCRIPTS AND EARLY EDITIONS OF LE LIVRE E a r l y French Manuscripts and Texts The B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l e possesses seven manuscripts of the L i v r e . Montaiglon l i s t s them as f o l l o w s , i n the order of time of t h e i r t r a n s c r i p t i o n , and according t o t h e i r r e l a -t i v e value. 1. F. f r . 1190, on vellum, i n f o l i o , and w r i t t e n i n two columns of t h i r t y l i n e s i s the o l d e s t . The f i r s t page i s decorated w i t h t y p i c a l ornaments of the time. There i s a miniature of the C h e v a l i e r seated on a t u r f , and dressed i n a green doublet and l i l a c cap, i n the most extravagant s t y l e . Three daughters, i n long-sleeved dresses, are a l l standing. The MS. a l s o contains the G r i s e l i d i s s t o r y , which suggests i t i s a copy. I t i s t e n t a t i v e l y dated e a r l y 15th century. According t o Gertrude Burford Rawlings the«s« were 149 chapters i n the C h e v a l i e r ' s L i v r e ( e d i t o r i a l note p. 1 9 9 ) . 1 2. F. f r . 24397, a l s o on vellum, i n f o l i o , i s w r i t t e n i n two columns of t h i r t y - s i x l i n e s . I t a l s o contains the G r i s e l i d i s s t o r y . i s very i n a c c u r a t e , w i t h s e c t i o n s of s e v e r a l sentences missing. 3. F. f r . The t e x t 5. 4. F. f r . 24398, on vellum, has t h i r t y - s i x l i n e s a page w r i t t e n i n the l a r g e s c r i p t of the end of the 15th century. I t has a m i n i a t u r e , and the l a s t twelve pages con t a i n the s t o r y of G r i s e l i d i s . The spine bears the t i t l e " M i r o i r des femmes mariees." 5. F. f r . 1693 i s on vellum, w r i t t e n i n two narrow columns of t h i r t y l i n e s . The f i r s t s t o r i e s are m i s s i n g , and i t i s incomplete at the end. The eighteenth-century bind-ing appears to be German. 6. F. f r . 1505, on vellum, i s w r i t t e n i n long l i n e s i n the f r e e l y running s t y l e of the l a t e 15th century. I t was 2 once a part of the r o y a l l i b r a r y at B l o i s . F o l i o s 139 verso t o 144 contain "Le Debat du Corps et de l'Ame" i n 3 verse. 7. F. f r . 9628 i s a s m a l l i n - f o l i o on paper i n a very poor s c r i p t of the l a t e 15th century. The L i v r e f o l l o w s an i n t r o d u c t i o n which contains a t r e a t i s e on s i n s and on the commandments of God. I t i s incomplete. The f i r s t French t e x t appeared i n 1514, w i t h the f o l l o w i n g t i t l e : Le C h e v a l i e r de l a t o u r et l e guidon des guerres, Nouvellement imprime a P a r i s pour Guillaume Eustace, l i b r a i r e du roy, Cum p u i l l e g i o Regis. At the end of the book i s t h i s statement: Cy f i n e ce present volume i n t i t u l e l e c h e v a l i e r de l a t o u r et l e guidon des guerres. Imprime a P a r i s en m i l c i n q cens et quatorze l e neufiesme i o u r de novembre. Pour Guillaume Eustace, l i b r a i r e du roy et j u r e de l u n i v e r s i t e . . . . There are 95 numbered and 4 unnumbered f o l i o s of the l a t t e r , three are occupied by the t i t l e and the t a b l e f o l -l o w ing, and the other f o l l o w s the colophon, and contains the p r i n t e r ' s d e vice, which i s repeated on the verso of the t i t l e . The volume i s i l l u m i n a t e d throughout, and i s i n a very f i n e French binding of the f i r s t h a l f of the 16th century. In 1517 another e d i t i o n was published i n P a r i s (M. l e N o i r ) . E a r l y E n g l i s h Manuscripts and Texts An accurate t r a n s l a t i o n e x i s t s i n the H a r l e i a n MS. no. I764, which i s i n the possession of the B r i t i s h Museum. Wr i t t e n during the r e i g n of Henry V I , each f o l i o c o n s i s t s of two columns of 33 l i n e s . The work i s anonymous, and contemporary t o F. f r . no. 1190. According t o Montaiglon, i t i s even a b e t t e r copy. The L i v r e occupies f o l i o s 1-121; the book of Melibee"' by C h r i s t i n e de P i s a n , f o l i o s 122-146; the s t o r y of G r i s e l i d i s , f o l i o s 147-162. On the l a s t two f o l i o s , a l a t e r s c r i b e added "Le c o d i c i l i k e M Jehan de Meung. At the beginning of the t e x t there i s a miniature of the C h e v a l i e r dressed i n blue and seated on a green t u r f which ^The book of Melibee was copied s e v e r a l times u n t i l the 14th century. W r i t t e n w i t h the purpose of appeasing o v e r l y - w a r l i k e l o r d s , i t became an e d i f y i n g t r e a t i s e f o r women. This e x p l a i n s why u n t i l the 15th century i t was j o i n e d t o other manuscripts such as the G r i s e l i d i s , or the L i v r e .4 7 surrounds the base of a t r e e . In the background i s a t r e l l i s . The three daughters, a l l standing, are dressed i n the f a s h i o n of the day. Each chapter has a painted l e t t e r . On the second f o l i o are the signatures of two former owners of the MS.: Paulus Durant and David K e l l i e , w r i t t e n at the close of the 16th century, and at the beginning of the 17th. In England, the L i v r e was one of the f i r s t productions of the newly developing press outside of France. The work was undertaken by W i l l i a m Caxton, at the request of an un-named lady who had daughters. I t has the f o l l o w i n g t i t l e : The Booke Whiche the Knyght of the Toure Made t o the  Enseygnement & Teching of His Doughters I t was published at h i s press at Westminster i n 1484. In 1810, Ames l i s t s only three complete copies extant: one be-longing t o Lord Spencer, one t o the Marquis of Blandford, and a t h i r d t o h i s Majesty the King. The t r a n s l a t i o n i s of a remarkable f i d e l i t y . However, the too l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n causes the p u r i t y of Caxton's E n g l i s h to s u f f e r . According to Montaiglon, the H a r l e i a n t r a n s l a t i o n i s s u p e r i o r . There were e a r l y t r a n s l a t i o n s and p u b l i c a t i o n s of the L i v r e i n Germany. The f i r s t of these was published i n 1495 by M i c h e l F u r t e r i n Bale, and e n t i t l e d : Der R i t t e r vom Turn, von den Exempeln der Gotsforcht  vn e r b e r k e i t The volume was superbly done. A b e a u t i f u l copy i s now i n the B r i t i s h Museum. In the m i n i a t u r e , the C h e v a l i e r , armed from head t o t o e , i s represented i n a s l e e p i n g p o s i t i o n at 3 the f o o t of a t r e e . His daughters are standing beside him. The t r a n s l a t i o n i s by Marquard vom S t e i n . L a ter e d i t i o n s appeared i n 1498 at Augsburg (Schonsperger); i n 1513, again at Bale ( F u r t e r ) ; i n 1519 at Strasbourg (Knoblouch), and f i n a l l y i n 1538, at Strasbourg (Cammerlander). Modern E d i t i o n s 1. The Book of the Knight of the Tower, Landry. S e l e c t i o n s done i n t o E n g l i s h by A. Vance (Chapman & H a l l ) , London, 1862, 8V0. 2. The Book of the Knight of La Tour Landry. Compiled f o r  the I n s t r u c t i o n of h i s Daughters. Tr a n s l a t e d from the o r i g i n a l French i n t o E n g l i s h i n the r e i g n of Henry V I , and e d i t e d f o r the f i r s t time from the unique manuscript i n the B r i t i s h Museum, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Thomas Wright, London. Published f o r the E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y , 1868. 3. The Booke of Thenseygnementes and techynge that the  Knyght of the Towre made t o h i s Doughters by the  C h e v a l i e r Geoffroy De La Tour Landry. E d i t e d w i t h notes and a g l o s s a r y by Gertrude Burford Rawlings, London (George Newnes L t d . ) , 1902. This volume reproduces s l i g h t l y more than h a l f of Caxton's v e r s i o n of the Knight's book, o m i t t i n g the coarser and more tedious chapters, as the e d i t o r i s c a r e f u l t o e x p l a i n . 9 4. The Book of the Knight of La Tour Landry, E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y . Revised e d i t i o n , 1906, 8V0. 5. The Book of the Knight of La Tour Landry, e d i t e d by G.S. T a y l o r , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by D.B. Wyndham Lewis, London (John Hamilton L t d . ) . 6. Le L i v r e du C h e v a l i e r De La Tour Landry pour l'enserg-nement de ses f i l l e s , p u b l i e d'apres l e s manuscrits de P a r i s et de Londres par M. Anatole de Montaiglon, P a r i s (P. Jannet), 1854. 7. Peter Stolingwa, Zum l i v r e du C h e v a l i e r de La "Tour  Landry pour 1'enseignement de ses f i l l e s , B r e s l a u (Druck von Paul F o r s t e r ) , 1911. A comparative study of the t e x t s published f o r Montaiglon and f o r the E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y r e v e a l s a few i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . Montaiglon compiled h i s e d i t i o n from the London and P a r i s MSS. Thomas Wright, f o r the E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y , chose the H a r l e i a n MS. r a t h e r than Caxton's t e x t because i t i s a more elegant and i n t e r e s t i n g monument of the E n g l i s h language. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s an imperfect MS. w i t h one or two lacunae i n the body of the work, and i t i s truncated at the end by n e a r l y o n e - f i f t h of the whole. The e d i t o r ' s only resource was t o supply from Caxton's t e x t the parts which are wanting i n the i n e d i t e d MS. There are 144 chapters i n h i s e d i t i o n , compared t o 128 i n Montaiglon. The H a r l e i a n MS. ends before the end of chapter 120. The e x t r a 16 chapters can be accounted f o r by 10 the f a c t that no. 120 i s repeated, and nos. 124 and 128, which are long i n Montaiglon, are broken up i n t o s e v e r a l chapters. The S i r e de Beaumanoir, who must be the hero of the b a t t l e of the t h i r t y (1351), i n which 30 Bretons were measured against 30 E n g l i s h , i s c i t e d i n Montaiglon, chap-t e r 21, whereas, the name i s omitted i n the corresponding chapter i n Wright. 11' FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I I 1 The Booke of Thenseygnementes and Techynge th a t the  Knyght of the Towre Made t o His Doughters by the Ch e v a l i e r De La Tour LandryT Edited w i t h notes and a g l o s s a r y by Gertrude Burford Rawlings, London (George Newnes L t d . ) , 1902. 2 Montaiglon, Preface, p. x l i . 3 Loc. c i t . 4 G. Lanson, H i s t o i r e de l a L i t t e r a t u r e F r a n c a i s e . P a r i s Hachette. CHAPTER I I I DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY OF WORK The L i v r e has a prologue i n which the C h e v a l i e r s t a t e s h i s reasons f o r w r i t i n g . He t e l l s of h i s y o u t h f u l experience w i t h l o v e , which caused him t o be a l t e r n a t e l y happy or sad, as i t does every l o v e r . More than twenty years a f t e r her death, the n o s t a l g i c remembrance of the i d e a l lady who had i n s p i r e d him t o compose b a l l a d s , songs and v i r e l a y s , prompts him to t h i n k of h i s own daughters, now at the t h r e s h o l d of l i f e . Because they are young and a r t l e s s , i t i s h i s wish to i n s t r u c t them w i t h a book i n the same g e n t l e way t h a t queen Prin e s of Hungary i n s t r u c t e d her g i r l s . To accomplish h i s ^Montaiglon, i n Notes et V a r i a n t e s , says: Ce q u ' i l f a u t entendre par c e t t e r e i n e P r i n e s ou P r i v e s de Hongrie et par son l i v r e me p a r o i t f o r t douteux. Legrand d'Aussy propose d'y v o i r " E l i s a b e t h de Bosnie, femme de Louis l e I * ... et mere de t r o i s f i l l e s ... a prendre une r e i n e contem-poraine, i l v a u d r a i t mieux y v o i r Jeanne de Boheme 1 ' a l l u s i o n de ce passage r e s t e mysterieux. Thomas Wright, f o r the E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y , notes: Who was the queen of Hungary here r e f e r r e d t o as having w r i t t e n a book f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n of her daughters appears t o be q u i t e unknown. . . . p. 206. A l i c e Hentsch l i s t s E l i s a b e t h de Bosnie, author of a Manuel d'education  pour ses f i l l e s , i n her t e x t , De l a L i t t e r a t u r e d i d a c t i q u e du Moyen Age. She notes t h a t a copy of the work was given t o Louis of France, comte de V a l o i s , i n 1374^  Further research has uncovered more clues t o the i d e n t i t y of t h i s mysterious queen: Revai: Nagy Lexikona V. 15, p. 479, says t h a t Queen Pri n e s of Hungary was P i r o s k a , daughter of Saint L a s z l o , and r e f e r s the reader t o I r e n , V o l . 10, p. 633, which says that I r e n Duca, or queen P r i n e s , or P i r i s k a 13 purpose, he w i l l r e l a t e s t o r i e s not only about good women and t h e i r rewards, but a l s o about e v i l and dishonest women and t h e i r punishment. By l e a r n i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h good from e v i l , he hopes h i s daughters w i l l avoid f a l l i n g i n t o e r r o r . The world i s f u l l of h y p o c r i t e s , and young women should acquire a w o r l d l y wisdom so as t o be able t o cope w i t h the problems of l i f e . Above a l l , he wishes t o show h i s daughters the t r u e path t o f o l l o w , so they may serve God, who rewards good deeds a hundredfold. I t f o l l o w s that they w i l l a l s o enjoy the love and g o o d w i l l of t h e i r neighbors and the world. In the f i r s t chapter the Ch e v a l i e r t e l l s h i s daughters i t i s a good t h i n g t o see oneself i n the m i r r o r of one's anc e s t o r s , and i n the s t o r i e s w r i t t e n about them. L a t e r , i n chapter 117, he lends support t o h i s e a r l i e r statement w i t h these words: (archaic form of Piroska) was born i n 1088, the daughter of Saint L a s z l o and a German p r i n c e s s , and died i n 1134 i n a monastery f o r women which she her-s e l f had e s t a b l i s h e d , and t o which she r e t i r e d a f t e r the death of her husband, A l e x i s Comnenos, Emperor of Byzantium. Zedler Grosses U n i v e r s a l Lexikon Band 14, column 1255, notes that P i r o s k a , or Irene, was the author of a book en-t i t l e d Typicum, r u l e s of conduct, or a c o n s t i t u t i o n of a monastery f o r young g i r l s , which she wrote i n Greek. This MS. was found and e d i t e d by Montfaucon (1655-1741) at one time procureur-general de S a i n t -Maur and i t i s contained i n h i s Analecta graeca. This work i s l i s t e d i n the B r i t i s h Museum Catalogue of P r i n t e d Books, V o l . 163, p. 234-Since intermarriage between the r o y a l houses of Hungary and France i s an h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , i t i s very probable t h a t the work of the c o l o u r f u l queen P r i n e s was known i n France. Another point i n favour of Irene f o r P r i n e s , i s that the C h e v a l i e r uses the past imperfect tense i n r e f e r r i n g t o her. E l i z a b e t h of Bosnia was contemporary t o h i s time, and died i n 1387. 14 Car touz juennes hommes et jeunes femmes qui c r o i e n t c o n s e i l et ne c o n t r a r i e n t mie l e d i t des anciens ne peuvent f a i l l i r de v e n i r a honneur.l However, he has h i s doubts and r e s e r v a t i o n s about young people who refuse t o p r o f i t from the example of t h e i r e l -ders and ancestors, and who object t o being c o r r e c t e d . these young people t h i n k they are wiser than t h e i r parents who have seen more of l i f e . I t i s a great p i t y . A w e l l brought up young man or lady should thank the person who c o r r e c t s him of h i s f o l l y . One can detect a c e r t a i n w i s t -f u l n e s s i n the author's determination t o preserve h i s daughters from causing unnecessary s u f f e r i n g t o themselves and t o others. The m a j o r i t y of the 128 chapters are one or two pages i n l e n g t h . Each one contains a s t o r y . Seventy-two of them are from contemporary sources, f i f t y - s i x are b i b l i c a l s t o r i e s , and one chapter i s based on the work of Cato, the Roman c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r . One might suggest that the r a t h e r l a r g e s e l e c t i o n of r e l i g i o u s themes can be t r a c e d t o the i n f l u e n c e of two p r i e s t s and two c l e r k s who helped the Ch e v a l i e r e x t r a c t 2 examples from h i s c o l l e c t i o n of books. On the other hand, s t o r i e s from the B i b l e , the l i v e s of Sa i n t s and other r e l i -gious works were too much part of the mediaeval environment f o r the author t o escape e n t i r e l y . Montaiglon suggests that the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of the c l e r k s i n compiling the work may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o r i g i n a l p l a n — h e r e only suggested 15 3 — n o t being f o l l o w e d i n a r e g u l a r way. In s e v e r a l places the n a r r a t i v e wanders from one type of example t o another, and at the end, the L i v r e r e t r a c e s i t s steps t o take up again a s e c t i o n which had seemed complete. For example, chapters 1 2 , 13 and 1 2 0 are about women who l o s t t h e i r chance of being married because of t h e i r coyness. Peter Stolingwa groups the examples contained i n the L i v r e i n the f o l l o w i n g d i v i s i o n s : 1. Examples which are drawn from the author's own e x p e r i -ence. To t h i s group are a l s o added anecdotes which, judging by t h e i r contents are taken from r e a l l i f e , although the author does not imply whether he has experienced them h i m s e l f or has learned of them by word of mouth. 2 . Examples which o r i g i n a t e i n the f o l k t a l e and show the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of F a b l i a u x . 3 . Examples which are taken from the B i b l e . 4. Examples which o r i g i n a t e from legends and m i r a c l e l i t e r a t u r e . 5 . Examples of h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n s . ^ " On the other hand, A l i c e Hentsch presents the f o l l o w -in g d i v i s i o n s : 1. C o n s e i l s d'ordre r e l i g i e u x — ... chatiments t e r r i b l e s sur ceux qui n'observent pas ces r e g i e s de conduite. Les femmes pieuses sont benies a jamais. 2. C o n s e i l s moraux sur l a conduite en g e n e r a l , s'adressant a toutes l e s femmes sans d i s t i n c t i o n d'age. 3 . C o n s e i l s s'adressant plus specialement aux jeunes f i l l e s . 4. C o n s e i l s s'adressant plus specialement aux femmes mariees. 5 . C o n s e i l s s'adressant aux veuves. 6 . C o n s e i l s sur 1 'education des enfants. 7. Relativement aux servantes. 8. Sur l a femme amoureuse. 9. Tableau de l a 'dame honnourable i d e a l e ' . ^ 16-By presenting h i s chapters i n a haphazard arrange-ment , the author of the L i v r e u n w i t t i n g l y gave much scope t o f u t u r e c r i t i c s . 17' FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I I I 1 Montaiglon, ch. 117, p. 228. 2 I b i d . , p. 4. 3 I b i d . , P reface, p. x x x i i . 4 Peter Stolingwa, Zum l i v r e du Ch e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry  pour l 1enseignement de ses f i l l e s (Druck von Paul F o r s t e r ) B r e s l a u , 1911, p. 88. 5 A l i c e Hentsch, De l a L i t t e r a t u r e d i d a c t i q u e Du Moyen Age, s'adressant specialement aux femmes, H a l l e A.S., 1903, pp. 128-134. CHAPTER IV THE STYLE OF THE LIVRE One can say tha t u n t i l the 14th century, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l works w r i t t e n i n the vernacular were composed i n verse. Since rhythm and rhyme exert t h e i r f u l l e s t e f f e c t s only when presented t o the ear, e p i c , l y r i c and dramatic forms had appealed t o l i s t e n i n g audiences which were l a r g e l y i l l i t e r a t e . During the 14th century, however, s e v e r a l prose adaptations of verse n a r r a t i v e s were already being enjoyed by a s l o w l y expanding reading p u b l i c . Georges Doutremont l i s t s some 55 epic poems and some 18 adventure romances that were r e v i s e d i n t h i s manner."*" One such romance was Berinus. As f o r the works of c h r o n i c l e r s , a few had been w r i t t e n i n prose as e a r l y as the 13th century by such well-known w r i t e r s as V i l l e h a r d o u i n and J o i n v i l l e . L i t e r a t u r e which d e a l t w i t h r e a l l i f e n a t u r a l l y had t o adopt a mode of expression i n harmony w i t h r e a l i t y , that i s , o r d i n a r y language, or prose which i s o b j e c t i v e r a t h e r than s u b j e c t i v e . The simple and d i r e c t s t y l e of these w r i t e r s s a i d what i t wished t o say because events take precedence over s t y l i s t i c form. The 14th century c h r o n i c l e r Jean Le B e l (-1370), i r r i t a t e d by the la c k of t r u t h i n works h i t h e r t o composed i n verse, undertook h i s e n t e r p r i s e i n prose, j u s t i f y i n g h i s 19 choice by h i s love of t r u t h and h i s s c r u p l e s as an h i s t o r i -an. At the beginning of h i s Vrayes Chroniques, he ex p l a i n s h i s motives c l e a r l y : Qui v e u l t l i r e et o u i r l a vraye h i s t o i r e du preu et g e n t i l roy Edowart s i l i s e ce p e t i t l i v r e que j'ay commence a f a i r e , et l a i s s e ung grand l i v r e rime que j'ay veu et l e u , l e q u e l aucun controuveur a mis en rime par grandes f a i n t e s et bourdes controu-vees, duquel l e commencement est tout f a u l x , et p l a i n de menchongnes jusques au commencement de l a guerre ... et de l a en avant peut a v o i r assez de substance de v e r i t e et assez de bourdes, et sy y a grand plente de p a r o l l e s controuvees et de r e d i c t e s pour e m b e l l i r l a rime et grand f o i s o n de s i grands proesses racontees sur aucuns c h e v a l i e r s et aucunes personnes q u ' e l l e s debveroient sembler mal creables et ains y comme im-p o s s i b l e s . ... Car l ' i s t o i r e est s i noble, ce m'est a d v i s , et de s i g e n t i l e proesse, q u ' e l l e est bien digne et merite d'estre mise en e s c r i p t pour l e en memoire r e t e n i r au plus prez de l a v e r i t e . . . . 2 Jean F r o i s s a r t l a t e r borrowed h e a v i l y from Jean Le Bel who had been h i s good teacher. Since the C h e v a l i e r ' s s t o r i e s o s t e n s i b l y deal w i t h r e a l l i f e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that he should have chosen prose as h i s medium of expression. Yet, as w i t h F r o i s s a r t , h i s o r i g i n a l choice was verse. A t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the f i r s t few l i n e s of h i s Prologue, w i t h only minor changes, r e v e a l s a r e g u l a r meter and ne a r l y a l l the rhyme r e q u i r e d i n verse: Prose L'an m i l t r o i s cens soixante et onze, en un j a r d i n estoye sous 1'ombre, comme a 1'issue d ' a v r i l , tout morne et tout pensi z : mais un pou me resjouy du son et du chant que j e ouy de ces o y s i l l o n s sauvaiges q u i chantoyent en l e u r s langaiges. Verse L'an m i l t r o i s cens soixante et onze En un j a r d i n estoys sous 1'ombre Comme a 1'issue du mois d ' a v r i l , Tout morne, dolent et p e n s i f ; Mais un peu j e me resjouy Du son et du chant que j e ouy De ces gents o y s i l l o n s sauvaiges Qui chantoient dans l e u r s langaiges.3 20 The author c l e a r l y s t a t e s h i s reasons f o r w r i t i n g h i s L i v r e i n prose: ... que j e ne veulx point mettre en rime, aincoys l e , v e u l x mettre en prose, pour l'abreger et mieux entendre According t o Rasmussen, i t i s probable t h a t the i d e a l of b r e v i t y was formed on the b a s i s of the r h e t o r i c a l w r i t -ings of Cicero and the Rhetorica ad Herenium, which teach 5 t h a t n a r r a t i o n should be b r i e f , c l e a r and convincing. I t i s evident t h a t the C h e v a l i e r ' s i n t e n t i o n was t o produce a book w i t h these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In more than one place he r e f e r s t o i t by the diminutive un l i v r e t , probably one of the f i r s t w r i t e r s t o use the word i n t h i s sense. One may assume that he was an understanding f a t h e r and teacher who r e a l i z e d that young g i r l s l e a r n i n g t o read would soon be bored and dismayed i f he were t o present them w i t h a l a r g e and ponderous book. His choice of vocabulary i s simple and d i r e c t . U n l i k e the c u r i a l or l e g a l s t y l e which c h a r a c t e r i z e s n a r r a t i v e prose u n t i l the 15th century, the author's expression i s i n t i m a t e r a t h e r than f o r m a l , and he o f t e n addresses h i s daughters d i r e c t l y , as Mes c h i e r e s  f i l l e s , and B e l l e s f i l l e s . The modern w r i t e r favours a s u b j e c t i v e approach i n t e l l i n g h i s s t o r i e s . He was there. The mediaeval author, on the other hand, p r e f e r r e d t o have a crutch t o lean on, so t o speak. Someone e l s e had t o l d him the s t o r y , as i n Chapter 30: "J'ay ouy compter l e compte d'un c h e v a l i e r . ..." 21 A l i c e Hentsch f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o n c i l e the s t o r i e s about lecherous monks i n the L i v r e w i t h the f a c t that the author says he asked two p r i e s t s and two c l e r k s t o help him.^ The t r u t h i s that because of t h e i r h e l p , the s t o r i e s are so much more s i g n i f i c a n t . In presenting h i s examples, the Che v a l i e r demonstrates h i s awareness of the value of l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s , such as unity, coherence and emphasis. Chapter XV i s a good sample. The author begins by warning h i s daughters against d i s p u t i n g w i t h hot-headed f o o l s , male or female. Then he s k i l l f u l l y develops h i s theme w i t h two examples. In the f i r s t , a woman who goes too f a r i n a dispute w i t h a c h o l e r i c man i s f i n a l l y h u m i l i a t e d by him. In the second, a wise man knows when t o cut short a q u a r r e l w i t h a hot-headed woman, t o h i s advantage. The l a s t two sentences sum up and emphasize the l e s s o n of the s t o r y : Et a i n s i l e d r o i t l ' e n f a i r e , car l'en ne d o i t mie e s t r i v e r a f o l , ne a gens tenseurs, ne que ayent male t e s t e . Ains l e s d o i t - e n eschever, comme f i s t l e c h e v a l i e r a l a dame, comme oy avez.7 Although they do not f o l l o w an o r d e r l y p l a n , the s t o r i e s themselves are w e l l - c o n s t r u c t e d , and w r i t t e n i n an unaffected s t y l e , s u i t e d t o the readers f o r whom they were intended. 22 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER IV 1 Les Mises en prose des epopees et des romans chevaleres-ques^du XIV f a au XVI^ s p e c i e , B r u x e l l e s : P a l a i s des Academies, 1939, i n -8 (Memoires de l'Academie Royale de Belgique, Classe des L e t t r e s , X L ) , pp. 5-9. Quoted by R.G.C. Holdaway i n h i s a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Verse t o prose: a l i t e r a r y f a s h i o n . " 2 H i s t o i r e L i t t e r a i r e de l a France, ouvrage commence par  des r e l i g i e u x b e n e d i c t i n s de l a Congregation de Saint  Maur^ et continue' par des membres de l ' I n s t i t u t (Academie des i n s c r i p t i o n s et b e l l e s l e t t r e s ) , P a r i s , Imprimerie n a t i o n a l e , Tome 38, p. 247-3 Montaiglon, Preface, p. x x i x , and p. 1. 4 I b i d . , p. 4. 5 Rasmussen (Jens), La Prose N a r r a t i v e Francaise au XV e  S i e c l e , p. 23. 6 A l i c e A. Hentsch, De l a L i t t e r a t u r e d i d a c t i q u e du Moyen  Age, p. 133. 7 Montaiglon, op. c i t . , p. 34. CHAPTER V CONTEMPORARY REACTIONS The author of t h i s t h e s i s has not been able t o f i n d much supporting m a t e r i a l f o r the development of t h i s t o p i c . However, t o judge by the number of French MS. copies extant, one can assume th a t the L i v r e became a great favour-i t e i n i t s own country. In England and i n Germany, a f t e r i t s t r a n s l a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n , i t r e t a i n e d i t s p o p u l a r i t y f o r a long time. Mediaeval works which remained i n manu-s c r i p t form were t e m p o r a r i l y f o r g o t t e n or abo l i s h e d ; only those which were s e l e c t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n continued t o c i r -c u l a t e and t o i n f l u e n c e the minds of t h e i r readers. The esteem i n which the L i v r e was h e l d i s w e l l expressed by Caxton himself i n the preface t o h i s 11*84 e d i t i o n , which i s here reproduced i n p a r t . Emonge a l other t h i s book i s a s p e c i a l doctryne & techyng, by which a l yong g e n t y l wymen s p e c i a l l y may l e r n e to bihaue them s e l f v e r t u o u s l y , as wel i n t h e i r vyrgynyte as i n t h e i r wedlok & wedowhede, . . . . i n whiche werk j fynd many vertuous good enseygnementis & lernynges, by euydent h i s t o r i e s of a u c t o r i t e & good ensaples f o r a l maner peple i n g e n e r a l l y , but i n e s p e c i a l f o r ladyes & gentilwymen, douzters t o lor d e s & gentilmen: f o r whiche book a l the gentilwymen now lyuyng & h e r a f t e r t o come or s h a l be, arn bounde t o gyue laude, praysying, & thankynges to the auctor of t h i s book, . . . . Thene, f o as moche as t h i s book i s necessary t o euery gentilwoman, of what estate she be, j aduyse euery gentilman or woman, hauyng such c h i l d r e n , desyryng them t o be v e r t u o u s l y brouzt f o r t h , to gete & haue t h i s book, t o thende that they may l e r n e hou they ouzt t o gouerne them v e r t u o u s l y i n t h i s present l y f , by whiche they may the b e t t e r & h a s t l y e r come t o worship and good renommee. And I desyre a l l them th a t s h a l l l e r n e or see ony thynge i n t h i s sayd book, by whiche they s h a l ben the wyser & b e t t e r . . . .1 F i f t y years l a t e r the r e p u t a t i o n of the book had be-come c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n England. S i r A. F i t z - H e r b e r t , i n h i s work e n t i t l e d The Book of Husbandry (1534), expresses an o p i n i o n on the L i v r e which i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to that of Caxton's: I coulde peraduenture shewe the housbandes dyuerse poyntes t h a t the wyues deceyue them i n : and i n l y k e maner, howe husbandes deceyue theyr wyues: but i f I shulde do so, I shulde shewe mo s u b t y l l poyntes of deceypt, than eyther of them knewe of before. And t h e r f o r e me semeth beste t o holde my peace, l e a s t I shoulde do as the knyght of the toure dyd, the whiche had many f a y r e doughters, and of f a t h e r l y loue t h a t he oughte to them, he made a boke, to a good entente, th a t they myghte eschewe and f l e e from vyces, and folowe vertues. In the whiche boke he shewed, that i f they were wowed, moued, or s t y r e d by any man, a f t e r suche a maner as he there shewed, th a t they shulde withstande i t . In the whiche boke he shewed so many wayes, howe a man shoulde atteyne t o h i s purpose, t o brynge a woman to v i c e , the whiche wayes were so n a t u r a l l , and the wayes t o come to t h e y r purpose were soo s u b t y l l y contryued, and c r a f t e l y shewed, th a t harde i t wold be f o r any woman t o r e s y s t e or deny theyr desyre. And by the sayd boke hath made bothe the men and the women t o knowe more vyces, s u b t y l t y e , and c r a f t e , than euer they shulde haue knowen, i f the goke had not ben made: i n the whiche boke he named hym-selfe the knight of the towre . 2 U n t i l the appearance of the L i v r e , d i d a c t i c works were mainly c o l l e c t i o n s of masculine s t o r i e s , which are hetero-geneous. A reason f o r the p o p u l a r i t y and long l a s t i n g suc-cess of the C h e v a l i e r ' s work was that i t c o n s i s t e d of en-t i r e l y feminine s t o r i e s , something r a r e , and a q u i t e new departure. In h i s e d i t i o n of the book, the P a r i s i a n p r i n t e r 25 Eustace added the already w e l l known H i s t o i r e de M e l l i b e e et de Prudence and G r i s e l i d i s , p u t t i n g the n a r r a t i v e i n t o 3 the mouth of the author of the L i v r e , a t r i b u t e t o h i s p o p u l a r i t y . 26 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER V 1 The Booke of Thenseygnementes and Techynge t h a t the  Knight of the Towre Made t o h i s Dqughters by the Che v a l i e r  Geoffroy de l a Tour Landry, e d i t e d w i t h notes and a g l o s -sary by Gertrude Burford Rawlings, London (George Newnes L t d . ) , 1902, pp. 5-6. 2 S i r A. F i t z - H e r b e r t , The Book of Husbandry, published f o r the E h g l i s h D i a l e c t S o c i e t y , London, 1882, V o l . 13, p. 98. 3 H i s t o i r e L i t t e r a i r e de l a France, Tome 37, p. 503. < PART I I THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN PRIOR TO THE APPEARANCE OF THE LIVRE (AND WITHIN THE MIDDLE AGES) CHAPTER I AN OUTLINE OF CULTURAL INFLUENCES Today we tend t o define a w e l l educated person as being one who has a t t a i n e d a c e r t a i n s c h o l a s t i c l e v e l . In r e a l i t y , education i s broader than the i n s t r u c t i o n o f f e r e d i n schools. I t i s the t o t a l process of t r a i n i n g whereby the i n d i v i d u a l a s s i m i l a t e s h i s own c u l t u r e , and l e a r n s t o repress h i s e g o t i s t i c a l i n s t i n c t s . Nevertheless, schools do p l a y , and have always played an e f f e c t i v e and important r o l e . U n t i l the i n f l u e n c e of C h r i s t i a n i t y became almost t o t a l , Gallo-Roman c u l t u r e had provided i n s t r u c t i o n f o r g i r l s as w e l l as boys i n i t s c i v i l schools."*" From the 6th century onward however, these democratic centers disappeared, and were replaced by monastic or e p i s c o p a l schools. During the 7th century, profane l i t e r a t u r e almost disappeared, and there was no other i n s t r u c t i o n except t h a t given by the Church, and i n i t s name. Monastic schools t r a i n e d those female students who were dedicated t o monastic l i f e , or who were placed at the summit of the s o c i a l s c a l e . Teachers were always male. A notable exception i s t o be found i n the daughters of the philosopher Manegold, who s u c c e s s f u l l y conducted a l a y school at Lutenbach i n the diocese of 2 Strasbourg. I f there were a few teaching masters employed 29 by c e r t a i n f a m i l i e s , they became more and more r a r e , and were rep l a c e d by c l e r i c s . In the 8th century, Charlemagne's own female r e l a t i v e s were i n s t r u c t e d at court by A l c u i n , who admired t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p so much that he dedicated h i s T r e a t i s e on the Nature of the Soul to one of them.^ Abelard, who taught H e l o i s e i n the 12th century, was one of the l a s t of the l a y teachers.^" The i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of women i n monasteries i n -cluded t r a i n i n g i n reading, w r i t i n g , s i n g i n g , a r i t h m e t i c , grammar, Holy W r i t , medicine and surgery: the l a s t two i n order t o avoid the i n t e r v e n t i o n of male doctors. Their main occupation was the copying and i l l u m i n a t i n g of manu-s c r i p t s , and u n t i l the 12th century, the study of L a t i n . With the establishment of u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the 13th century, even the monks deserted t h e i r schools f o r P a r i s and Oxford. Monastic schools then s u f f e r e d a lowering of standards, and there was nothing t o supplement the l o s s t o women, who were not admitted t o the u n i v e r s i t i e s . C h r i s t i a n i t y had emancipated woman by separating her from man, not by p l a c i n g her beside him. Already i n the 6th century, the Rule of the monastery f o r women which had been founded by Ce s a i r e , Bishop of A r i e s , recommended that no c h i l d r e n under f i v e or s i x years of age be admitted, and 5 a b s o l u t e l y no g i r l s of noble f a m i l i e s . Towards the clo s e of the ®in century, the dying Roland has no thought f o r h i s f i a n c e e , Aude. And she can only p r o t e s t t e a r f u l l y when the 30 well-meaning though r a t h e r t a c t l e s s Charlemagne o f f e r s her another husband so soon a f t e r her l o s s . -The author—of the •influenced by t h e o r i e s ^ of romant-i-c-love whieh—p^gfflea-feedMzhe theme of an epic t a l e , e s p e c i a l l y one which belonged t o the 8th century. A century l a t e r , bishops forbade t h e i r p r i e s t s t o admit g i r l s along w i t h the boys i n t h e i r schools. Women apparently d i d not count as s o c i a l beings. 12th century, C e l t i c i n f l u e n c e had replaced the C a r o l i n g i a n . In the North, where i t was most s t r o n g , l o r d s and l a d i e s sat down at the same banquet t a b l e s , and a f t e r the meal, l i s t e n e d t o the songs of t r o u v e r e s , a d e l i c a t e pleasure, already a t t e s t i n g a c u l t i v a t e d c i v i l i z a t i o n . Then, during the d i f f i c u l t years of the Crusades, the women who stayed at home assumed i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and more respect was accorded t o them. In the South, songs of the Troubadours i d e a l i z e d a l o v e r ' s passion f o r h i s l a d y , which approached the c u l t of the V i r g i n Mary. These e a r l y poets c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d love and sex. Love was t o them a yearning f o r a psychic g r a t i f i c a t i o n which the l o v e r f e e l s only the beloved can g i v e ; sex, an impersonal d e s i r e which can be g r a t i f i e d by anyone possessing c e r t a i n f a i r l y common p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . They f r e t t e d l e s t sex abate the f e r v o r of love's l o n g i n g , and they never f u l l y r e s o l v e d the Honour and p a t r i o t i s m formed the However, c u l t u r a l changes were t a k i n g p l a c e . By the contest between love and sex. The r e l i g i o u s perpetuated longing by p l a c i n g the beloved a l t o g e t h e r out of p h y s i c a l reach: "the Bride of C h r i s t . " On the other hand, proponents of the more w o r l d l y C o u r t l y Lovem assuming that marriage, as a s o c i a l c o n t r a c t , precluded the n e c e s s i t y of the existence of l o v e between the p a r t n e r s — i n f a c t some went as f a r as t o say t h a t such love was w e l l nigh u n d e s i r a b l e — d r e w up an elaborate set of r u l e s by which the a s p i r i n g l o v e r of a noble married lady should govern h i m s e l f . These r u l e s , d e r i v e d from Ovid's Ars Amandi had been r e - c o d i f i e d by Andreas Capellanus i n the 12th century. What ennobling e f f e c t , i f any, they may have had on the woman i s not known. At any r a t e , the l a d i e s were placed on a p e d e s t a l , so t o speak. But no matter how noble and l o f t y the means employed i n winning t h e i r l o v e , a d u l t e r y was always the f i n a l g o a l . The Troubadour i d e a l soon gave way t o the more pragmatic approach of C o u r t l y Love, which was adopted as the theme of t h e i r poetry by w r i t e r s such as Chretien de Troyes. Other w r i t e r s , notably Marie de France, although not n e g l e c t i n g t h i s theme, seemed t o p r e f e r love i n the C e l t i c t r a d i t i o n , where i t was o f t e n l i n k e d w i t h death. I f one d i e s before i t does, love indeed i s the end. -JL, '^Ernest Van Haag, "Love or Marriage," i n Harper's  Magazine, May, 1962. 32 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I 1 Paul Rousselot, H i s t o i r e d e l ' e d u c a t i o n des femmes en  France, P a r i s ( D i d i e r ) , p. 18. 2 I b i d . , p. 18. 3 H i s t o i r e l i t t e r a i r e de l a France, Tome IV, p. 310. 4 Rousselot, op. c i t . , p. 18. 5 I b i d . , p. 22. CHAPTER I I FOUR GROUPS OF TEXTS ON THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN A l i c e Hentsch d i v i d e s the t e x t s which were w r i t t e n f o r and about women, and which i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r education i n the Middle Ages, i n t o three groups: A. The t e x t s of the Church Fathers which are of a s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s order, w i t h the dominant note an ex-h o r t a t i o n t o v i r g i n i t y and i t s g l o r i f i c a t i o n . A l l were w r i t t e n i n L a t i n , and i n some cases i n Greek. Saint Cyprian i n De c u l t u feminarum, blames Eve f o r the e v i l i n the world, and i n h i s De h a b i t u virginum, he says t h a t a woman should not t r y t o make h e r s e l f more b e a u t i f u l than she r e a l l y i s , f o r t h i s i s t r i c k e r y . Saint Ambrose's Ad virginem devotam  e x h o r t a t i o advises women t o f l e e from men. Saint Jerome, author of the Vulgate had many fervent d i s c i p l e s and f r i e n d s among the l a d i e s of Roman s o c i e t y i n the 4th century. He p r a i s e s widows who do not remarry i n h i s t e x t e n t i t l e d Ad  Furiam de V i d u i t a t e Servanda. Parents are advised t o choose t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s books w i t h care i n Ad Laetam de i n s t i t u t i o n e  f i l i a - P . They should be given a w e l l educated t u t o r who leads an exemplary l i f e , and they should not be t o l d t h i n g s which w i l l have t o be r e t r a c t e d l a t e r on when they are discovered t o be l i e s . i> 34 Saint Augustine, i n De sancta v i r g i n i t a t e i n s i s t s t hat the f e c u n d i t y of a married woman i s never worthy t o be compared t o the excellence of a v i r g i n . V i r g i n i t y i s honoured because i t i s consecrated t o God. This author i s more l e n i e n t when he deals w i t h the question of a widow's remarriage. In the 6th century, F u l g e n t i u s recommends continence i n marriage, and i n s i s t s on f a i t h f u l n e s s on the part of the husband as w e l l as of the w i f e . The couple are thus placed on equal f o o t i n g . Aldhelm of Wessex, known as a Greek s c h o l a r , p r a i s e s v i r g i n i t y , but he says t h a t one must not despise marriage. B. A second group of w r i t e r s gave advice of a super -f i c i a l nature. For them the woman i s always an object of l u x u r y , and her f i r s t duty i s t o please; her most i n d i s p e n -sable q u a l i t y i s beauty. They never address themselves t o women who are good, but p l a i n , and the p o p u l a r i t y of t h e i r works c o i n c i d e s w i t h the f l o u r i s h i n g age of c h i v a l r y . Rules of conduct advocated by poets such as Etienne de Fougeres have no other aim than t o make a person an agreeable com-panion, without any preoccupation f o r moral betterment. Garin l o Brun deplores the decadence i n t o which the c u l t of love has f a l l e n . A woman, he says, should know how t o make h e r s e l f an object of d e s i r e : she should be gay, cour-teous, and s e n s i b l e . And f o r poets l i k e Jacques d TAmiens women are p l a y t h i n g s , e x i s t i n g s o l e l y f o r the pleasure of men. 35 C. The t h i r d group contains teachings of a moral order, and c o n s t i t u t e the cr a d l e of modern pedagogy. With P h i l i p p e de Novaire, convention i s no longer a f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . R e l i g i o n develops, deepens, and p u r i f i e s i t s e l f . P r a c t i c a l l i v i n g regains i t s r i g h t s , and ignorance takes a backward step. Women are considered the companions of men. His La c l e f d'amour i s a v i o l e n t a t t a c k against marriage, a woman's p r i s o n . Another poet, Robert de B l o i s , b e l i e v e s t h a t women are not j u s t simply d o l l s , but l i v i n g beings. G e n e r a l l y , w r i t e r s i n t h i s group are i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a l i t y , and i n women i n a l l s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . ' D. To these groups, the author of t h i s t h e s i s would l i k e t o add a f o u r t h , c o n s i s t i n g of two 12th century w r i t e r s whose ideas on the education of women were advanced f o r t h e i r time. The f i r s t of these was the Dominican monk, Vincent de Beauvais. At the request of Queen Marguerite, w i f e of Louis X I , he wrote a t r e a t i s e e n t i t l e d De e r u d i t i o n e f i l i o -rum nobilium. The most extensive precursor of the Humanist t r a c t s on education, i t i s a k i n d of anthology of s e l e c t e d passages from c l a s s i c a l and B i b l i c a l authors. The l a s t nine chapters, based almost e n t i r e l y on the l e t t e r s of Saint Jerome, are devoted t o the education of g i r l s . He i n s i s t s ^ D e t a i l s of authors and t h e i r t e x t s described i n t h i s s e c t i o n have been taken from De l a L i t t e r a t u r e d i d a c t i q u e du  Moyen Age, s'adressant specialement aux femmes, by A l i c e A. Hentsch. 36 t h a t g i r l s of noble parents be i n s t r u c t e d i n l e t t e r s and good morals. I f i n t e r e s t e d i n reading and w r i t i n g , they w i l l escape harmful thoughts and the pleasures and v a n i t i e s of the f l e s h . N a t u r a l l y he would expect the parents and teachers t o provide s u i t a b l e s t u d i e s . He advises parents to keep a c l o s e watch on t h e i r daughters, and the c h i e f method he advises f o r keeping them chaste i s keeping them at home."'" Of course the woman i n the Middle Ages was ne a r l y always at home, i n her f a t h e r ' s or i n her husband's. In expressing concern about the success and happi-ness of a g i r l ' s marriage, Vincent de Beauvais l i s t s f i v e p r i n c i p l e s i n which she should be i n s t r u c t e d before l e a v i n g her parents: 1. She must love and honour her husband's r e l a t i v e s w i t h h u m i l i t y and patience. 2. She must love her husband w i t h voluntary submission. She must care f o r the house, and be h o s p i t a b l e . She should support her husband's defects p a t i e n t l y and sweetly. S i x hundred years l a t e r , although women have become emancipated t o a gr e a t e r or l e s s e r degree, young g i r l s s t i l l need the p r o t e c t i o n of t h e i r homes. According t o A r a b e l l a Kenealy: The higher the organism, the more and f o r the longer p e r i o d i t s infancy exacts i n c r e a s i n g devotion and nur-t u r e . Among the poor c l a s s e s , the c h i l d depends upon i t s hard working parents f o r a period v a r y i n g between 12 and 16 years. In p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s e s , the young sons and daughters are not f u l l y q u a l i f i e d f o r indepen-dent existence before the ages of 23 or 25. 37 3. She should beware of jealousy which destroys f a m i l y u n i t y . 4. She should r e f r a i n from dying her h a i r , and using other s i m i l a r means t o please her husband. 5. She must love and teach her sons and daughters and domestics according t o the law of God and t h e r e f o r e should a l l o w nothing o f f e n s i v e t o f a i t h or morals t o 3 remain i n the home. To the husband he says: " V i r caput est m u l i e r i s , " but he warns him that the w i f e i s the heart of the f a m i l y . She i s n e i t h e r m i s t r e s s or servant; she i s h i s companion: nec domina debet esse, nec a n c i l l a seajsocia.^ (Yet she must love her husband w i t h v o l u n t a r y submission.) Vincent de Beauvais i s a worthy forerunner of C h r i s t i n e de Pisan i n pleading f o r the broadening of the scope of a woman's l i f e . However, i t i s t o P i e r r e Dubois t h a t reference must be made t o f i n d a r a d i c a l change i n ideas. P i e r r e would admit g i r l s t o the schools at the age of f o u r . He would provide them w i t h the same basic education as boys, namely, w i t h L a t i n and one other language, grammar, l o g i c , r e l i g i o n , and a p o l o g e t i c s , the rudiments of n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , and sur-gery and m e d i c i n e — n o t t o avoid the i n t e r v e n t i o n of male docto r s , but t o take t h e i r part i n the conquest and main-tenance of the Holy Land. Some g i r l s would marry p h y s i c i a n s and surgeons, and through t h e i r education would be of 38 g r e a t e r a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e i r husbands i n the care of the s i c k . The w e l l i n s t r u c t e d and good l o o k i n g a l s o might be married t o worthy O r i e n t a l s (Moslems) t o le a d these men t o the t r u e f a i t h . They would be i n s t r u c t e d i n order t o pos-sess a basic understanding of Greek, Hebrew and Ara b i c . Learning t h e r e f o r e became i n h i s view a p r a c t i c a l means f o r C h r i s t i a n women t o a t t r a c t and capture those who admire these q u a l i t i e s . At home, or i n her own country, the w e l l educated woman could have taken her place i n academic l i f e , as she had already done i n I t a l y . The s u b o r d i n a t i o n of the study of L a t i n t o that of l i v i n g languages, i n c l u d i n g o r i e n t a l languages, the t r a n s -formation of convents i n t o teaching establishments, the assignment of a s o c i a l r o l e t o women, wh i l e g i v i n g the im-portance of a s o c i a l f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r education, a l l these new and bold ideas expressed by P i e r r e Dubois i n h i s De 5 recuperatione Terre. Sancte were being heard by the Middle Ages i n France f o r the f i r s t time. And apart from such i s o l a t e d e f f o r t s such as the establishment by Saint Louis i n the 13th century of schools at Pontoise and elsewhere f o r the education of orphaned daughters of knights k i l l e d i n the Holy Land, these ideas would not be understood f o r a long time. Although women had been t r i e d and not found wanting i n the attainment of s c h o l a s t i c achievement as long before as during the time of Charlemagne, t h e i r l i v e s would continue t o be very much r e s t r i c t e d t o the domestic p a t t e r n approved by conservative C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . T h e i r models would be Our Lady and the p a t i e n t G r i s e l i d i s 40 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I I 1 A s t r i k L. G a b r i e l , The E d u c a t i o n a l Ideas of Vincent of  Beauyais, the U n i v e r s i t y of Notre Dame Press, 1962, p. 20. 2 A r a b e l l a Kenealy, Feminism and Sex E x t i n c t i o n , London Unwin, 1920, p. 17. 3 Quoted i n G a b r i e l , op. c i t . , p. 41. 4 I b i d . , p. 16. 5 I b i d . , p. 39. CHAPTER I I I CATO Throughout the Middle Ages an i n t e r e s t i n g l i t t l e textbook s u r v i v e d a l l c u l t u r a l changes. This was the D i c t a  Catonis or "Cato" as i t was c a l l e d , the "vade mecum" of every student. According t o J.W. and A.M. Duff, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t an unknown author gave t o h i s c o l l e c t i o n of wise saws the t i t l e as an echo of the moral i n s t r u c t i o n addressed generations e a r l i e r by Cato the Censor (234-149 B.C. ) t o h i s son, and contained i n h i s Carmen de Moribus."^ In the 4th century t h i s book enjoyed an extensive vogue. At the t u r n of the 6th century, Columbanus, the I r i s h monk, added many l i n e s from C h r i s t i a n sources, and i t i s not un-reasonable t o suppose that the book was re-worked i n the C a r o l i n g i a n era. At any r a t e "Cato" was one of the books, along w i t h the L i v r e of the C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry which were s e l e c t e d by Caxton f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the e a r l y years of h i s press at Westminster. I t appeared i n 1483 as 2 a prose v e r s i o n . However, t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of maxims was known long before then i n England, s i n c e Chaucer accounts f o r the f o o l i s h marriage of the carpenter i n the " M i l l e r ' s T a le" by remarking t h a t "he knew not Catoun, f o r h i s w i t 3 was rude." 42 As l a t e as 1784, the l i t t l e book was in c l u d e d among the Prima Morum et P i e t a s Praeeepta, p r i n t e d as a school book at Edinburgh.^ In France, from the 12th century on-wards, Cato was t r a n s l a t e d s e v e r a l times. And sin c e the Ch e v a l i e r composed h i s book f o r h i s daughters t o "aprendre a roumancier," that i s , t o read i n French, one might specu-l a t e on the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t Cato, e s p e c i a l l y the D i s t i q u e s  de Caton of Jean L e f e v r e , ^ was in c l u d e d among the books i n h i s l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . However, f o l l o w i n g i n the t r a d i t i o n of the B i b l e as d i d the l a t e r C h r i s t i n e de P i s a n , he pre-f e r r e d the use of examples f o r the teaching of h i s daughters, although h i s L i v r e contains a l a r g e number of maxims. '""Jean Lefevre was Procureur au Parlement around 1328. 43 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I I I 1 M a r t i n Schanz, Geschichte Der Romischen L i t t e r a t u r , D r i t t e r T e i l . ( C H . Beck sache Verlagsbuchhandlung) Munchen, 1959, p. 34. 2 I b i d . , p. 39. 3 The Cambridge MS. of Chaucer's Canterbury T a l e s , pub-l i s h e d f o r the Chaucer S o c i e t y by Kegan P a u l , Trench, Trubner and Co., 1902, p. 93, 1. 3227-4 J.W. and A.M. Duff, Minor L a t i n Poets, London, W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . ) , 1934, p. 589. CHAPTER IV WOMEN IN THE LATE MIDDLE AGES As we have noted n e a r l y a l l of the t e x t s w r i t t e n on the subject of the education of women were intended f o r the daughters of noble f a m i l i e s . Since the menial work was done by servants, the g i r l s could be faced w i t h the problem of how t o use t h e i r l e i s u r e time p r o f i t a b l y . However, i f they were brought up i n the s t r i c t C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n , t h e i r l i v e s could be expected t o be w e l l f i l l e d . But one gathers that such was c e r t a i n l y not always the case, or there would not have been so many exhortations t o conserve t h e i r v i r g i n i t y , and t o car r y out t h e i r r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s . A few well-educated women were t o be found at the summit of the s o c i a l s c a l e or i n the monasteries and abbeys. I f a g i r l d i d not marry, she u s u a l l y entered a convent. Vincent de Beauvais had f e l t t hat parents should not f o r c e marriage on a g i r l who wishes t o consecrate her v i r g i n i t y to God, but should r a t h e r encourage such a noble r e s o l u t i o n . G i r l s were educated i n monastic schools or i n t h e i r homes i f t h e i r parents were able t o acquire a t u t o r . The c l e r k s who helped the Ch e v a l i e r w r i t e h i s L i v r e might have a l s o been employed t o teach h i s daughters. The w i f e was expected t o be completely devoted t o her husband. However, there was not too much o p p o s i t i o n 45 against her attempts t o impose her w i l l on him, and she often asserted her i n f l u e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n P a r i s . Of course, she might and ofte n d i d u t i l i z e her a u t h o r i t y by means of coquettishness, s i n c e courtesy d i d not f o r b i d 2 such t a c t i c s . And so i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o l e a r n t h a t more and more a t t e n t i o n was l a v i s h e d on a i d s t o beauty, such as c l o t h e s , head dresses and make up. From the 13th century onwards, women p r i z e d such t h i n g s as h a i r dyes, cosmetics, tooth powders, perfumes and pastes f o r removing the h a i r , e s p e c i a l l y along the forehead, t o make i t appear hi g h e r , as a mark of beauty. H a i r was dyed f a i r or dark, but never r e d , which was considered t o i n d i c a t e an un-a t t r a c t i v e temperament. There was a f a d f o r daubing the face w i t h white, r e d , and e s p e c i a l l y yellow powder, w i t h s a f f r o n reserved f o r the t r u l y elegant. Lavender and v i o l e t scents were the f a v o u r i t e s of high s o c i e t y i n the 14th century. Women c a r r i e d w i t h them small containers of scent i n the form of b i r d s , o f t e n covered w i t h f e a t h e r s t o b e t t e r i m i t a t e nature. Sometimes these were placed i n r i c h l y ornate cages, and hung from the c e i l i n g t o perfume the apartment. By t h i s time a l s o , a s l i m waist and an ample bosom were considered b e a u t i f u l , and head dresses had become q u i t e elaborate. But young g i r l s continued t o l e t t h e i r h a i r hang as a s i g n of t h e i r v i r g i n i t y . Forgotten were the exhortations of Pseudo-Thomas, 3 who i n h i s De e r u d i t i o n e principum l i k e n e d the beauty of 46 a woman t o a t r e a s u r e , which i f c a r r i e d i n p u b l i c places and exposed openly t o danger, w i l l be enrapturing. A g i r l should p r e f e r goodness t o c o r p o r a l beauty. I f she i s not blessed by nature she i s f o o l i s h t o want t o embellish her-s e l f by a r t i f i c i a l means. The woman who makes every pos-s i b l e e f f o r t t o become a t t r a c t i v e i n s t e a d of good i s pur-suing someone e l s e ' s i n t e r e s t , not her own, f o r i f she becomes b e a u t i f u l , she a c t u a l l y g r a t i f i e s someone e l s e . But i f she becomes good, she h e r s e l f w i l l enjoy the per f e c t s t a t e of her s o u l . She should l e a r n t o read and w r i t e : Quod valde u t i l e est f i l i a s n o b i l i u m , dum sunt i n custodias l i t t e r i s imbui, et semper a l i q u o opere o c c u p a r i . ^ Poets and w r i t e r s of f a b l i a u x took tu r n s i n e x t o l l -i n g or denouncing the woman who was such a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e product of her time, and i n t u r n , o s c i l l a t e d p e r p e t u a l l y between the coarsest r e a l i t y and an i d e a l of p u r i t y . In s p i t e j o f the i n f l u e n c e of C e l t i c c u l t u r e i n the North, where women were considered more as the companions of men, and of i d e a l s of C o u r t l y Love which spread from the South, the p o s i t i o n of women i n the face of i n c r e a s i n g l y b i t t e r a t t a c k s , e s p e c i a l l y from the c l e r g y , was becoming uncom-f o r t a b l e t o say the l e a s t . In the 13th century, Guillaume de L o r r i s , author of the f i r s t part of Le Roman de l a Rose, advises gentlemen t o serve the l a d i e s . His successor, Jean de Meung, who completed the work, persuades them t o 5 escape from the yoke imposed by the women. 47 Towards the end of the 13th century, c o u r t l y i n f l u -ences, w i t h t h e i r v a r n i s h and a r t i f i c e , began t o gi v e way i n the face of competition from the more p r a c t i c a l ideas of wealthy and c u l t u r e d bourgeois s o c i e t y i n the growing c i t i e s . A generation a f t e r the appearance of the L i v r e the e l d e r l y husband of a young w i f e wrote h i s Menagier de  P a r i s t o i n s t r u c t her so th a t i n case of h i s death, she would be a b e t t e r w i f e f o r her second husband. The nobleman or k n i g h t , however, was s t i l l a country gentleman who t r i e d t o manage h i s esta t e s s u c c e s s f u l l y . I f he went o f f t o the wars h i s w i f e was expected t o ca r r y on. And i f he died she managed her l i f e and that of her c h i l d r e n t o the best of her a b i l i t y , and p r e f e r a b l y i n a contin u i n g s t a t e of widowhood. I t was f o r young g i r l s of t h i s s o c i a l l e v e l , h i s own daughters, r a i s e d i n the f a m i l y chateau on the f a m i l y estate t h a t the C h e v a l i e r wrote h i s L i v r e . 48 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER IV 1 A s t r i k L. G a b r i e l , The Ed u c a t i o n a l Ideas of Vincent of  Beauvais, U n i v e r s i t y of Notre Dame Press, 19'6%. 2 A l f r e d F r a n k l i n , La C i v i l i t e , 1 ' E t i q u e t t e , La Mode, Le  Bon Ton, Du X l i e au XIX H s i e c l e , P a r i s , Emile P a u l , 1908, Tome I , p. 1. 3 Quoted i n i b i d . , p. 38. 4 Loc. c i t . 5 Gerard Pare, Les idees et l e s l e t t r e s au X I I I e s i e c l e , Le Roman de l a Rose, e d i t i o n Le Centre de Psychologie et de Pedagogie, Montreal, 1947, p. 29. PART I I I AN ANALYSIS OF HIS EXAMPLES CHAPTER I THE VIRTUE OF PIETY In the s t o r i e s the C h e v a l i e r r e l a t e s f o r the i n s t r u c -t i o n of h i s daughters, he r e v e a l s the general v i r t u e s con-s i d e r e d t o be d e s i r a b l e i n the i d e a l woman. These are: p i e t y , h u m i l i t y , courtesy, p i t y , c h a r i t y , obedience, l o y a l t y , p a t i e n c e , c h a s t i t y and moderation. P i e t y c o n s i s t s of devotion t o r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s and p r a c t i c e s . When she a r i s e s i n the morning, the f i r s t t h i n g a good woman should do i s giv e p r a i s e t o God by saying a prayer such as: Laudate Dominum, omnes gentes, benedicamus  patrem et f i l i u m . I t i s b e t t e r t o thank God f o r h i s g i f t s than t o ask Him f o r favours (chapter 2). A short s i n c e r e prayer i s b e t t e r than a long one i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h thoughts on other matters, car vous ne po u r r i e z a l e r deux chemins a  un coup, ou vous yrez l ' u n , ou vous yrez 1'autre (chapter 5). One should always pray f o r the dead, who r e t u r n such prayers. I t i s important t o attend Mass r e g u l a r l y and as often as p o s s i b l e . Behaviour i n Church or on a pilgrimage should always be exemplary; the journey f o r the l a t t e r should be undertaken f o r no other reason than f o r r e l i g i o u s devotion. Impiety i s punished, as i n the f o l l o w i n g examples: Ch.3 Of two s i s t e r s who f a l l i n love w i t h two bro t h e r s , the e l d e r who has mocked the p i e t y of the younger, i s drowned w i t h her l o v e r who has made her pregnant. Ch.6 A young lady l o s e s the love of her husband when through an accident which i s allowed t o happen because of her impie t y , she l o s e s her beauty. Ch.9 Another lady who was renowned f o r her apparently pious l i f e , was damned f o r e v e r because she had not confessed her mortal s i n t o the p r i e s t : et c r a i g n o i e plus l e  bobant du monde que l a vengeance e s p i r i t u e l l e , et pour  c u i d i e r e f f a c i e r mon pechie j e jeunoie et donnoye l e mien pour Dieu, j e ouoye l e s messes. ... Ch.28 Men and women who kept on t a l k i n g and laughing during the sermon given by a p a t i e n t and holy hermit were made t o cry out and bray l i k e demons when he c a l l e d on God t o make them keep q u i e t . A f t e r much s u f f e r i n g , the more l a v i s h l y dressed among the women, having learned t h e i r l e s s o n , disposed of t h e i r o s t e n t a t i o u s f i n e r y . Ch.26 A v a i n woman who refused t o wear her best garments t o a Church s e r v i c e on a f e a s t day because she thought no one of consequence would be there t o see them was t r a n s f i x e d t o the spot where she stood i n her defiance. A hot wind s t r u c k her so tha t she could not move, and she began t o s w e l l . Ch.3P^ A knight and h i s w i f e who sleep i n l a t e on Sunday 52 mornings, thereby causing inconvenience t o the other p a r i s h i o n e r s , are punished by having t o do penance before them on three consecutive Sundays. Here the idea of p i e t y i s not f o r one's own sake, but as an example t o others , the s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the high born. Ch.34 Another example t e l l s of a w o r l d l y young w i f e who goes on a pilgrimage t o be w i t h her l o v e r . During the s e r -v i c e she becomes gra v e l y i l l , and i n a v i s i o n , her r e c e n t l y deceased parents rebuke her. Ch.35 Nor i s a church a place f o r s i n f u l behaviour. At Notre Dame de Bea u l i e u , a man and a woman commit f o r n i c a t i o n on the a l t a r . By a m i r a c l e which works t o r e v e a l t h e i r s i n , they are locked together l i k e dogs, and become the object of c u r i o s i t y f o r the v i l l a g e r s who form a pro-cession around them. Ch.36 A monk, caught i n the same s i t u a t i o n by h i s uncle and f r i e n d s , i s so overcome w i t h shame th a t he leaves the abbey. A l l s u f f e r the punishment of shame. Ch. 3 On the other hand, p i e t y i s always rewarded. The young s i s t e r of the g i r l who was punished f o r mocking her p i e t y , i s given i n marriage t o a great k i n g of Greece, a f i t t i n g reward f o r the daughter of an emperor who d i d not f o r g e t the dead i n her prayers. Ch.6 The pious h a l f s i s t e r of the woman who l o s t her hus-band's love because of her impiety i s rewarded i n a 53 happy marriage t o a r i c h and powerful husband. Ch.32 God comes t o the help of f a i t h f u l women who attend Ch.33 mass r e g u l a r l y . When t h e i r p r i e s t s become i l l , He sends an angel i n d i s g u i s e t o replace them, thus rewarding the women who take more d e l i g h t i n p l e a s i n g God than i n p l e a s i n g the worlk and the f l e s h . I t i s evident from these examples t h a t the l i f e of a pious woman w i l l be b e t t e r r e g u l a t e d . She w i l l have l e s s time f o r f r i v o l o u s a c t i v i t i e s , and the t r a i n i n g , i f acquired i n youth, w i l l be a l l the more valuable i n l a t e r l i f e . Furthermore, she w i l l set a good example f o r others t o f o l -low. But, as the Ch e v a l i e r e x p l a i n s , p i e t y should be s i n -c e re, and not an attempt t o compensate f o r e v i l done. CHAPTER I I COURTESY AND HUMILITY There are s e v e r a l examples i l l u s t r a t i n g h u m i l i t y and courtesy. The former, which i s the outstanding C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e r e s u l t s from a f e e l i n g and acknowledgement of one's own weakness and i n s u f f i c i e n c y . Courtesy expresses i t s e l f i n p o l i t e n e s s , kindness and c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n manner or ad-dress. The author t e l l s h i s g i r l s that t h i s v i r t u e i s the f i r s t road which leads t o f r i e n d s h i p . He says he knows a great nobleman who wins everyone by h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r o t h e r s , so that they always serve him w i t h pleasure (chap-t e r 10). Kindness shown t o humble f o l k w i l l b r i n g g r e a t e r p r a i s e and renown than w i l l courtesy t o great people who take i t as t h e i r due. Lesser f o l k are honoured when they are addressed p o l i t e l y . I t i s discourteous t o always t u r n one's head from si d e t o s i d e . The daughters are advised t o t u r n body and head t o g e t h e r , and avoid l o o k i n g f l i g h t y . Many g i r l s l o s e t h e i r chance of marriage because of t h i s f a u l t , as i n the f o l l o w i n g examples: Ch.13 Two Danish princesses were ignored i n favour of t h e i r courteous young s i s t e r when the King of England was l o o k i n g f o r a w i f e . The e l d e s t appeared light-headed, and the second i n t e r r u p t e d people a l l the time. 55 Ch.14 The e l d e r of two Aragonese s i s t e r s l o s t her chance t o become queen of Spain because she was discourteous. Wives who are discourteous t o t h e i r husbands, expeci-a l l y i n the presence of others can expect t r o u b l e . A querulous w i f e drove her husband t o a f i t of anger, during which he broke her nose. Since the nose was considered t o be the most b e a u t i f u l part of the face (chapter 17), the punishment was indeed severe. Ch.22 The daughters are warned against v e r b a l exchanges w i t h persons who are easy t a l k e r s . A woman who reproached the M a r s h a l l of Clermont f o r h i s worst f a u l t i n the presence of l o r d s and l a d i e s was h u m i l i a t e d by him be-f o r e the others. I t i s best t o keep one's peace. Ch.23 Three women, who t r i e d t o shame the dashing Bouciquant because they had reason t o b e l i e v e that he was f i c k l e and a cheater, were rendered powerless by the d e x t e r i t y of h i s v e r b a l defense. On the other hand, the courteous g i r l or woman w i l l be rewarded. Ch.12 When the King of England chooses the youngest of three Danish s i s t e r s as h i s w i f e because of her good manners, he observes: ^A maxim expressing t h i s advice i s found i n Cato: Contra verbosos n o l i contendere v e r b i s ; sermo datur c u n c t i s , animi s a p i e n t i a p a u c i s . l . . . n u l l e beaute ne noblesce ne s ' a p a r e i l l e , ne passe bonnes moeurs, et n'est ou monde grant a a i s e comme de a v o i r femme seure et ferme d'estat et de bonne maniere, ne n'est plus b e l l e noblesce.2 Ch.13 The author himself refused t o marry a b e a u t i f u l noble woman because " E l l e a v o i t assez de langaige ... et s i a v o i t l ' u e i l bien v i f et l e g i e r ... car e l l e me p r i a 11 f o i z ou 111. ..." Her manner was too f r e e and open w i t h him too soon. Ch.97 The wise Hester g e n t l y c o r r e c t e d her husband i n the pr i v a c y of t h e i r home, f o r which he loved her de a r l y . Courtesy softens anger, and leads to domestic equa-n i m i t y , f o r the courteous person always avoids doing or saying anything t o d i s p l e a s e one she loves and honours. (Cato advises one not t o q u a r r e l w i t h one "clos e l i n k e d t o thee./Anger breeds hate, love feeds on harmony."' Humble women never question the ways of the Almighty. Ch.69 Of two wives, one was c h i l d l e s s . The other who had s e v e r a l b e a u t i f u l c h i l d r e n shamed her w i t h d i s d a i n . God punished the proud woman by having her l o s e a l l her c h i l d r e n , and rewarded the humble one by g i v i n g her s e v e r a l who l i v e d . Ch.105 The humble Rebecca, c h i l d l e s s f o r many years, was r e -warded w i t h handsome t w i n sons. In B i b l i c a l times, twins were considered a b l e s s i n g and a reward. But rLitem i n f e r r e cave, cum quo t i b i g r a t i a i u n c t a i r a odium generat, concordia n u t r i t amorem.3 i n the Middle Ages, on the c o n t r a r y , they were the cause of much shame and s u f f e r i n g f o r the mother who was blamed f o r having had r e l a t i o n s w i t h two men, as i n the case of the s t o r y t o l d by Jean Renart i n Galeran de Bretagne^" i n the 13th century. The i n c l u -s i o n of the s t o r y of Rebecca i n the L i v r e , and t o l d i n such a sympathetic way, must have reassured the women of the C h e v a l i e r ' s time. Ch.100 Because of the s i n c e r e h u m i l i t y w i t h which she cleansed her s o u l r of s i n by bathing the f e e t of C h r i s t w i t h her t e a r s and drying them w i t h her h a i r , Mary Magdalen was pardoned. People who d i s c a r d t h e i r h u m i l i t y i n favour of pri d e are punished. Ch.83 A worthy man and h i s w i f e , a l s o c h i l d l e s s f o r many years promised t h e i r f i r s t born t o the s e r v i c e of the Church. They were given two sons. When they saw how much more handsome was the f i r s t one, they decided t o make him t h e i r h e i r , and giv e the second one t o the Church. God punished t h e i r p r i d e by ending t h e i r l i n e a g e . Ch.105 The niece who made her much t r a v e l l e d uncle wait i n order t o b e a u t i f y h e r s e l f when he came t o see her, l o s t her chance of r e c e i v i n g the g i f t of a b e a u t i f u l dress, which he had brought back f o r her. The author of the L i v r e p r a i s e s the two v i r t u e s of courtesy and h u m i l i t y . Indeed, he considers them t o be so 53 c l o s e l y l i n k e d t h a t he t r e a t s them as one: Apres, mes b e l l e s f i l l e s , gardez que vous s o i e z cour-t o i s e s et humbles, car i l n'est n u l l e plus b e l l e v e r t u , ne qui t a n t a t t r a i t e a a v o i r l a grace de Dieu et l'hon-neur de toutes gens, que e s t r e humbleset c o u r t o i s e s . ... (chapter 10) 59 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I I 1 J.W. and A.M. Duff, Minor L a t i n Poets, "Cato," p. 10, 11. 598-99. 2 Montaiglon, p. 26. 3 Duff, op. c i t . , p. 36, 11. 602-603. 4 Jean Renart, Galeran de Bretagne, roman du X I I I e s i e c l e e d i t e par Lucien F o u l e t , P a r i s (Champion), 1925. CHAPTER I I I CHARITY AND COMPASSION The f i r s t q u a l i t y of the v i r t u e of c h a r i t y i s the love of man f o r h i s f e l l o w men. I t i s expressed by an act of g o o d w i l l or a f f e c t i o n or compassion. I t i s a l s o the q u a l i t y of being k i n d or l e n i e n t i n judging others. Moved by compassion a c h a r i t a b l e person f e e l s sorrow f o r the suf-f e r i n g s or t r o u b l e of another person or persons, and i s s e i z e d w i t h the urge t o help. Again these v i r t u e s have t h e i r rewards, while punishment l i e s i n s t o r e f o r those persons who are p i t i l e s s and u n c h a r i t a b l e . Wise men say th a t woman i s by nature more g e n t l e and compassionate than man. I f a woman's heart i s hard, she i s mannish. A t r u e woman need not be ashamed t o cry from a humble heart which i s f i l l e d w i t h p i t y f o r the unfortunate (chapter 103). The author of the L i v r e o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g examples i n which the u n c h a r i t a b l e are punished. Ch.20 Women who pamper t h e i r f a t l i t t l e dogs w i t h good care and food w h i l e God's poor go hungry can expect small black dogs t o make t h e i r mouths c o a l black from t h e i r l i c k i n g when they are on t h e i r death bed. Ch . l 6 Jezebel hated hermits and the poor, and the people of the Church so much tha t she f o r c e d them t o f l e e from the realm. When she d i e d , she was denied a sepulcher, and was devoured by dogs. Ch. 67 Breneheust, a queen of France, at that time known as Gaul, was so c r u e l and p i t i l e s s t h a t she was quartered on the advice of one of her grandsons who escaped her rampage of slaughter. Compassionate and c h a r i t a b l e women, on the other hand, have t h e i r rewards: Ch.8l The two v i r t u e s were combined i n Pharaoh's daughter who found the h e l p l e s s babe Moses and r a i s e d him as her own son. She was rewarded by seeing him grow i n wisdom and power. Ch. 88 When her c i t y was att a c k e d , Raab and her f a m i l y were saved because she had given s h e l t e r t o God's messen-ge r s , and had t r i e d t o protect them. In the same chapter the author t e l l s of Saint Anastasia who was d e l i v e r e d from imprisonment because God knew that she had helped w i t h her own goods the unfortunate i n s i m i -l a r circumstances. He reminds h i s daughters t h a t ac-cording t o the Gospel, Jesus C h r i s t on the l a s t day of judgement w i l l have mercy on those who v i s i t e d the s i c k and the p r i s o n e r s . Saintffec!©gonde, a queen of France, f e l t t hat she was s t i l l not doing enough f o r the unfortunate. So she l e f t her husband and a l l the honour and g l o r y of the kingdom and w o r l d l y pleasures to enter a convent at P o i t i e r s . In her honour, God 62 worked a miracle by making a dry o l d t r e e which shaded the courtyard t o renew i t s e l f , so t h a t i t bore leaves again, much against the course of nature. Ch.102 Because of her holy l i f e , her c h a r i t y and compassion Jesus C h r i s t Himself stayed i n the home of Martha, the s i s t e r of Mary Magdalen. The author of the L i v r e could h a r d l y have chosen a b e t t e r example than t h i s one t o impress h i s daughters w i t h the q u a l i t y of these v i r t u e s . Ch.106 The v i r t u e of compassion i s not confined t o women alone. A young knight once came t o the rescue of a g i r l un-j u s t l y accused of a h e a r t l e s s crime. He challenged her f a l s e accuser t o a duel and overcame h i m — b u t not w i t h -out r e c e i v i n g f i v e mortal wounds, as d i d C h r i s t before he died t o save mankind. The author t e l l s about s e v e r a l g e n t l e and compassion-ate women, such as those who fo l l o w e d C h r i s t and wept t o see him c a r r y h i s heavy cross. Then there were the three Marys who rose e a r l y on Easter morning t o anoint His body w i t h precious ointments. During Nero's c r u e l years, the k i n d l y women of Rome, prepared the bodies of the martyrs f o r b u r i a l . The C h e v a l i e r deplores the f a c t t h a t i n h i s own day so many women set t h e i r hearts on w o r l d l y t h i n g s , and on the a t t e n -t i o n they r e c e i v e from others. CHAPTER IV LOYALTY AND OBEDIENCE I f she i s a l o y a l person, a w i f e w i l l be t r u e and f a i t h f u l t o duty, love and o b l i g a t i o n s . In Mediaeval times, she was expected t o be completely devoted t o her husband, and t o comply w i t h her commands, i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r nature. And always, a wi f e should be worthy of her husband's t r u s t , as he should be of hers. Ch.58 The f i r s t example of l o y a l t y i n the L i v r e i s i n the s t o r y of Joseph who was s o l d t o Pharaoh by h i s brothers. The queen f e l l madly i n love w i t h him, r but he refused to comply w i t h her wishes because of h i s devotion t o her husband. In a f i t of anger, she f a l s e l y accused him of t r y i n g t o seduce her, and he was thrown i n t o p r i s o n . Remembering h i s goodness, God had him delivered, I t i s t o be noted t h a t the author i d e n t i f i e s Potiphar's w i f e w i t h Pharaoh's queen. The Vulgate, Genesis, chapter 39, verse 1, reads: I g i t u r Joseph ductus est i n Aegyptum, emit-que eum Potiphar eunuchus Pharaonis, princeps e x e r c i t u s , v i r Aegyptius, de manu Ismaelitarum, a quibus perductus e r a t . Later t r a n s l a t i o n s of the B i b l e f o l l o w d i f f e r e n t ver-sions of the s t o r y , based on J or E accounts which were con-temporaneous. Both groups drew from m a t e r i a l f a r o l d e r than t h e i r own day, sometimes older than I s r a e l i t s e l f . 1 Volume I I I , p. 819, of A D i c t i o n a r y of the B i b l e s t a t e s : The long and elaborate s t o r y of Joseph presents some very i n t e r e s t i n g data f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , but they are not favourable t o the view that i t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y t r u e . and the queen was punished w i t h a sudden and e v i l death. Ch.83 A f t e r a barren p e r i o d that l a s t e d more than one hun-dred years, Sara was rewarded f o r her l o y a l t y t o her 2 husband Abraham, by g i v i n g b i r t h t o Isaac. Rebecca, f o r her l o y a l t y t o her husband, r e c e i v e d a s i m i l a r reward i n her sons Esau the hunter and Jacob, the provident one, favoured by h i s mother. In t h i s con-t e x t the author compares Rebecca t o the l i o n e s s and the she-wolf who p r e f e r the cub best able t o fend f o r i t s e l f . Ch.92 The w i f e of a Roman senator i s p r a i s e d f o r her l o y a l t y t o her husband who was jealous without cause and c r u e l to her. Committed t o f i g h t i n g a d u e l , he obtained a proxy because he was too much of a coward. When the man became i l l , and no replacement could be found, h i s w i f e , r e a l i z i n g the great dishonour that would b e f a l l her husband, went t o her room and had h e r s e l f armed and d i s g u i s e d . God saw th a t she was rendering good f o r e v i l , and gave her the courage and s t r e n g t h needed f o r v i c t o r y . When her i d e n t i t y was revealed everyone was impressed, and she r e c e i v e d even greater honour from the c i t y . Ch.98 A noble example of l o y a l t y i s contained i n the s t o r y of the b e a u t i f u l Suzanne. Two p r i e s t s who were tempted one day when they saw her combing her h a i r i n the or-65 chard, threatened t o witness i n court that they had seen her wit h another man i f she d i d not comply w i t h t h e i r wishes. Death would have been her f a t e , s i n c e two witnesses were b e l i e v e d at that time. Rather than be untrue t o her vows, she chose death. To the great amazement of everyone, she was rescued by the f o u r year o l d prophet D a n i e l who d i r e c t e d the c l e v e r ques-t i o n i n g which uncovered the p e r f i d y of the two p r i e s t s , 5 on whom the death sentence was passed. Ch.94 Here we have an example of l o y a l t y i n f r i e n d s h i p . F l a t t e r i n g f r i e n d s gathered around the death bed of a Roman emperor, and concerned only w i t h the s t a t e of h i s p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , kept t e l l i n g him he would recover. But a f a i t h f u l o l d chamberlain who had served him since h i s childhood, advised him t o giv e t o the poor the wealth of w o r l d l y goods God had seen f i t t o bestow on him during h i s long l i f e . The emperor accepted the wise advice, saying: Plus v a u l t amy qui point que f l a t -t e u r qui o i n t . ^ More valuable i s the l o y a l f r i e n d who values the s a l v a t i o n of the s o u l , f o r he who loves the body must a l s o love the s o u l , and he must never conceal from h i s f r i e n d anything t h a t w i l l b r i n g him p r o f i t or honour. D i s l o y a l t y i s the theme of three e n t e r t a i n i n g chapters. Ch.62 This i s a contemporary example i n which a f o o l i s h rope maker's w i f e (her husband should have t i e d her.') f i n a l l y 66 drove her honest husband t o i n f l i c t i n g the e f f e c t i v e , i f severe punishment of breaking her l e g s when she p e r s i s t e d i n v i s i t i n g a r i c h and l u s t f u l p r i o r . Her downfall began w i t h her greed, f o r she accepted l i t t l e jewels from the man, and as the author remarks: femme qui prent se vent.^ Ch.128 A d i s l o y a l w i f e who i s unworthy of her husband's con-fi d e n c e can cause a great deal of m i s c h i e f . On h i s deathbed, Cato the Censor advised h i s son t o t e s t h i s wife's l o y a l t y and d i s c r e t i o n . In time the young hus-band confided t o her that he had k i l l e d the emperor's son, removed h i s heart and sent i t t o h i s parents who ate i t i n i t s s p i c y sauce. The w i f e soon betrayed the secret t o a f r i e n d who went d i r e c t l y t o the emperor's wi f e w i t h i t , hoping to g a i n favour. As a r e s u l t of t h i s i n d i s c r e e t g o s s i p , Cathonet was almost hanged. One should always weigh the p o s s i b l e consequences of one's words and a c t i o n s , says the author. Ch.74 Yet, i n s p i t e of the advice of the sages, wives w i l l go on r e v e a l i n g t h e i r husbands! s e c r e t s . In t h i s ex-ample, the husband who confides t o having l a i d two eggs i s f i n a l l y reported t o have l a i d one hundred. Ch.39 I f a wife i s d i s l o y a l , i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r her t o be obedient. Because of her disobedience, Eve has been blamed f o r a l l the woes of mankind. The C h e v a l i e r de Latour Landry devotes nine chapters t o . a ^ a l y s t i ^ h i s - 46 67 complicated and portentous s i n . I f the Middle Ages have been accused of i n a b i l i t y t o analyse, the author's e f f o r t s here c e r t a i n l y prove the contrary. In the end, the daughters—and f u t u r e r e a d e r s — a r e l e f t t o specu-l a t e on what the h i s t o r y of mankind might have been i f Eve had been obedient. Ch.64 The author advises h i s g i r l s t o obey t h e i r husbands e s p e c i a l l y before company, i f they wish t o be honored. Queen V a s t i s , who disobeyed her husband, was banished by him f o r seven years, and placed on a se v e r e l y r e -s t r i c t e d d i e t . Ch.72 A w i f e who would not obey her husband's command t o come to the dinner t a b l e was made t o s i t w i t h an ugly v i l e lackey at another t a b l e spread w i t h a d i r t y c l o t h . A good deal of humour i s contained i n a s t o r y about a wife who does obey her husband. Ch.19 Three c l o t h merchants made a wager as t o which of t h e i r wives w i l l prove most obedient. The f i r s t two wives refuse t o obey, and are st r u c k by t h e i r husbands. The t h i r d one however, has the meal ready when the men a r r i v e , and l a t e r even jumps on the t a b l e at her hus-band's command: Femme, s a u l sur table.' The s i t u a t i o n and the lady's honour are saved by the husband's expla-n a t i o n of a c l e v e r play on words. He had s a i d : S e i sur t a b l e . The daughters l e a r n that common people c h a s t i s e t h e i r women w i t h blows. But a gentlewoman should be rebuked courteously. The more gen t l e she i s , the more j o y f u l l y she w i l l c a rry out her husband's wishes. A f t e r reading t h i s s t o r y the g i r l s would be deterred from marrying a man of the c l a s s of "gens v o i t t u r i e r s , " although they would l i k e l y admire the s p i r i t of the f i r s t two wives who wished t o know why they were being asked t o jump i n t o a basin.' The author concludes h i s chapter i n p r a i s e of the obedient w i f e by saying: . . . et a i n s i d o i t toute bonne femme f e r e , c r a i n d r e et o b e i r a son seigneur, et f a i r e son commandement, s o i t t o r t , s o i t d r o i t , se l e commandement n'est t r o p oultrageux, et se i l y a v i c e , e l l e en est desblamee, et demoure l e blasme, se blasme y a, a son seigneur. 69 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER IV 1 A D i c t i o n a r y of the B i b l e , V o l . IV, p. 23. 2 Genesis 21 (2, 3). 3 I b i d . , 25 (25:26). 4 I b i d . , 25:28. 5 The Apocrypha. Revised Standard V e r s i o n , "Susanna," pp. 184-186. 6 V g l . Godefroy V, 583 (quoted i n Zum l i v r e du C h e v a l i e r . . . . by Peter Stolingwa, p. 159). 7 Proverbes f r a n c a i s a n t e r i e u r s au 1 5 e s i e c l e . e d i t e s par Joseph Morawski, P a r i s , L i b r a i r i e Ancienne Edouard Champion, 1925, p. 27, no. 738. CHAPTER V PATIENCE Although the G r i s e l i d i s was a popular model of calm endurance f o r women i n the l a t e Middle Ages,^ and the p a t i e n t and f o r e b e a r i n g w i f e i s ofte n met i n the L i v r e , a c t u a l l y only one chapter emphasizes t h i s v i r t u e , w i t h s t o r i e s taken from Tobit I I I of the Apocrypha.'*" Ch.80 The f i r s t s t o r y t e l l s how God rewarded the p a t i e n t Tobias the e l d e r w i t h the r e t u r n of h i s s i g h t , w h i l e h i s nagging w i f e Anna was punished w i t h i l l n e s s f o r questioning God's ways. With uncomplaining patience, Sarah, daughter of the wealthy Raguel, bore the t r i a l of l o s i n g seven husbands one a f t e r the other. The author e x p l a i n s t h a t a l l were k i l l e d by the demon Asmodeus "pour ce q u ' i l s v o u l i u e n t  user d'un t r o p v i l l a i n f a i t que j a ne f a i t a nommer." G r i s e l i d i s was the heroine of a legend t o l d f o r the f i r s t time by Boccacio (Decameron, X, 10). The s t o r y was made i n t o a drama by an unknown French author at the c l o s e of the 14th century.1 """"included i n the L a t i n Vulgate, though not i n the Hebrew Canon of Holy S c r i p t u r e , the Apocrypha had a place i n a l l 16th century E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of the B i b l e , and i n the King James Version (1611). "And the other books (as Jerome s a i t h ) the Church doth read f o r example of l i f e , and i n s t r u c t i o n of manners, but yet doth i t not apply them t o e s t a b l i s h any doctrine."2 71 Further on, r e f e r r i n g again t o Sarah i n Chapter 96, he adds "pour ce q u ' i l s ne v o u l i u e n t pas user de l o y a l  mariage." In Chapter 54, r e f e r r i n g t o the seven c i t i e s burned by the wrath of God, the author c i t e s " l e v i l  pechie de l u x u r e " as the s i n "que j a ne f a i t a nommer." For her long s u f f e r i n g patience Sarah was rewarded w i t h the g e n t l e Tobias the younger as her eighth hus-band. They had b e a u t i f u l c h i l d r e n and prospered honorably. The author's daughters might not have read the G r i s e - l i d i s legend, but on the other hand, Cato's maxim could have been f a m i l i a r t o them."* Resignation t o God's w i l l as the crowning jewel of patience i s emphasized i n these examples. The author con-cludes by saying: ... nul ne d o i t despire l e mehaing ne l e mal d'autruy, car n u l ne scet q ui a l ' u e i l l u i peut, ne n u l ne d o i t e s m e r v e i l l i e r ne esmaier des fortunes ne des t r i b u -l a c i o n s a soy ne a ses v o y s i n s , et d o i t l'en du tout mercier Dieu. ... Quern superare potes interdum vinco ferendo; Maxima enim est hominum semper p a t i e n t i a v i r t u s . 3 72 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER V 1 La~rousse du X X i e m e s i e c l e , p. 886. 2 The Apocrypha, Revised Standard V e r s i o n , New York (Thomas Nelson and Sons), 1$57, Preface. 3 J.W. and A.M. Duff, Minor L a t i n Poets, "Cato," p. 36. CHAPTER VI CHASTITY This v i r t u e has always been praiseworthy, from B i b l i -c a l times and from e a r l i e s t C h r i s t i a n days when members of the s e c ret s o c i e t y pledged themselves not t o commit adulteryT A chaste person abstains from i n d u l g i n g i n forbidden pl e a s -ures of the f l e s h , and p r a c t i s e s continence i n marriage. The C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry i s very much aware of the p i t f a l l s of temptation, and he o f f e r s s e v e r a l examples to show how the unchaste are punished. Ch .55 The daughters of Loth gave b i r t h t o an accursed l i n e a g e when they conceived from t h e i r f a t h e r whom they had rendered i n e b r i a t e w i t h wine. Ch . 5 6 Jacob's daughter caused so much carnage by her f a l l from the grace of c h a s t i t y that her uncle remarked t o her f a t h e r : I I vous v a u l s i s t t r o p mieulx que e l l e n'eust  oncques este nee. She was cut up i n t o s m a l l pieces. Ch . 5 9 The daughters of Moab, who h i m s e l f had been conceived against the law, went i n t o Hebrew country t o seduce "\ . . quod essent s o l i t i s t a t o die ante lucem conue-n i r e , carmenque C h r i s t o quasi deo d i c e r e secum inuicem seque Sacramento non i n s c e l u s a l i q u o d o b s t r i n g e r e , sed ne f u r t a ne l a t r o c i n i a ne a d u l t e r i a committerent. . . . 1 74 the men so tha t the wrath of God would f a l l upon them. Many t r i b u l a t i o n s r e s u l t e d from t h i s piece of s k u l -duggery. The author remarks: et v o u l e n t i e r s de mauvais  f r u i t . 2 Ch.6l Thamar, daughter of King David was made pregnant by her brother Amon who was then k i l l e d by t h e i r brother Absalom. Gay young f l e s h i s e a s i l y tempted, say the Ch e v a l i e r . He warns h i s daughters never t o be alone w i t h any man, not even w i t h a close r e l a t i v e . But a f t e r t e l l i n g h i s harrowing t a l e s he i n d i c a t e s h i s acknowledge-ment of the i n f l u e n c e of C h r i s t i a n teaching by a l l o w i n g that a g i r l may be alone w i t h her f a t h e r or her brother. The chaste w i f e i s rewarded, as i n the next example. Ch.125 A holy hermit questions h i s own worthiness before God. He i s t o l d i n a v i s i o n t o v i s i t the Provost of A c q u i l l e e and h i s w i f e . In the absence of her husband the good lady s e v e r e l y t e s t s the moral f i b r e of her guest who had never learned t o be moderate, because he had never faced such temptations. He returned t o h i s hermitage, f u l l of p r a i s e f o r the chaste w i f e . Although the author h i m s e l f married t w i c e , and h i s second w i f e was a widow w i t h c h i l d r e n , he does not ad-v i s e a woman t o remarry. Rather, she should l i v e i n clean widowhood, and r e a r her c h i l d r e n t o the best of her a b i l i t y . Philosophers and S a i n t s have expressed the same c o n v i c t i o n : 75 Tous l e s auteurs anciens se prononcent contre un deuxieme marriage: Saint Jerome ( P a t r o l , l a t . , XXII, c o l . 289-290, et c o l . 29D; Saint ^ Amboise, Saint Paul; exemples de Socrate, de Ciceron. Le  Roman de l a Rose (1, 136-137) et Eustache Deschamps, dans toutes ses b a l l a d e s et dans son M i r o i r , sont fortement convaincus de l a sagesse de s'en t e n i r a une premiere epreuve.3 Several widows are c i t e d by the C h e v a l i e r as ex-amples f o r h i s daughters to consider. Ch.114 The f i r s t , a b e a u t i f u l w i f e who l o s t her husband at the b a t t l e of Crecy, continued t o l i v e a blameless l i f e , and was p r a i s e d more than ever before. Another a t t r a c t i v e young w i f e cared f o r her d i f f i -c u l t and s e n i l e o l d husband throughout h i s long i l l n e s s and continued t o behave impeccably i n her widowhood. Queen Jeanne of France i s e q u a l l y p r a i s e d . The author advises widows against remarrying f o r pleasure or l i g h t l o v e . I f they must marry, they should seek the advice of t h e i r parents and wise f r i e n d s . Further on i n h i s t e x t , the author handles the ever f a s c i n a t i n g and c o n t r o v e r s i a l subject of l o v e w i t h analy-t i c a l d e x e r i t y where he records a debate between h i s w i f e and h i m s e l f . Their arguments may be summarized as f o l l o w s : The C h e v a l i e r : A f t e r a l l o w i n g t h a t a woman or a young lady may love because of honour i n c e r t a i n cases, as i n the hope of marriage, he f e e l s that she could love simply f o r the sake of l o v i n g . Her l o v e r , whether a knight or s q u i r e , would become a more worthy person, gayer, 76 b e t t e r dressed, and ambitious f o r honour i n order t o please the woman he l o v e s . Here the author expresses ideas which had been enunciated much e a r l i e r by poets such as Drouart l a Vache, who based h i s work on th a t of Capellanus. He b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s daughters should not be r e -s t r a i n e d t o the point where they would be unable t o love one man more than another. And again he argues i n favour of a l l o w i n g them t o love f o r the sake of l o v i n g , at l e a s t once they are married. And i f they marry a man of lowly p o s i t i o n , i t w i l l be t o t h e i r c r e d i t t o increase h i s esteem, so that he may be ac-cepted among the worthy. As f o r a l l o w i n g them t o k i s s and embrace, he exclaims: Avoy, dame, e t , se i l l a r e q u i e r t d'acoler et de b a i s i e r , ce n'est mie grant chose; car autant en porte l e vent.* The Lady of La Tour Landry maintains t h a t a l l such t a l k about l o v i n g f o r the sake of l o v i n g i s simply the com-mon pastime of gentlemen and t h e i r f r i e n d s . In t r u t h , a man wishes to impress the world around him only t o r e c e i v e honours f o r h i m s e l f . She advises her daughters t o keep t h e i r honour clean and blameless before the world. They should avoid f a l l i n g i n love t o the point of being mastered by the emotion, which o f t e n leads i t s v i c t i m s a s t r a y . There ""This proverb appears i n V i l l o n ' s poem e n t i t l e d "Ballade en V i e i l Langage Francois."4 77 are always p l e n t y of sla n d e r e r s and b a c k - b i t e r s who d e l i g h t i n spreading e v i l s t o r i e s which defame the honour of a good woman. This emphasis on the n o b i l i t y of honour, e x t o l l e d by the epic poets of the Northern school appears t o place the Lady of La Tour Landry i n o p p o s i t i o n t o her husband who seems t o support the ideas of the Southern Troubadours who sang the p r a i s e s of Women and " l a j o i e d Tamour." She ex-presses concern about the bad e f f e c t s of an engrossing love which would prevent them from s e r v i n g God w i t h as good a heart as before, and she c i t e s the example of the a r t f u l goddess Venus who advised the Trojans t o send P a r i s t o Greece to seek the most b e a u t i f u l woman i n the kingdom. This was Helen, w i f e of King Menelaux. As a r e s u l t of t h i s expedition, f o r t y kings d i e d , and more than one hundred thousand men. She i s convinced t h a t no love s i c k woman w i l l ever be i n a s t a t e t o love God p e r f e c t l y , and she w i l l be tempted more s o r e l y i n church than elsewhere. She i s not i n favour of a l l o w i n g her g i r l s t o love a man of lower rank. Nor should they set t h e i r hearts on men of high p o s i t i o n , f o r great l o r d s w i l l not marry them. Rather, they w i l l only deceive them t o obtai n t h e i r own f a l s e pleasure. As f o r women who have a f f a i r s w i t h married men, p r i e s t s or monks, w i t h servants or others of low degree, they are worse h a r l o t s than those unfortunate women i n b r o t h e l s . These poor creatures f a l l i n t o the s i n of le c h e r y only because of need 78 or poverty, or because they have been deceived i n t o that k i n d of l i f e . She expects her daughters t o be gay wi t h a l l s o r t s of honourable people, and more so w i t h c e r t a i n ones than w i t h others. I t i s t r u e , however, th a t no woman can have two h e a r t s , no more than a greyhound can run a f t e r two beasts at one time. The best k i n d of love i s the one tha t makes no de-mands. Wise women of o l d maintained t h a t as soon as g i r l s a l l o w themselves t o be k i s s e d they put themselves i n t o the hands of the d e v i l who i s very s u b t l e . The mother warns her g i r l s not t o accept any g i f t s , f o r many a woman has placed h e r s e l f i n s u b j e c t i o n , simply because of covetousness. The C h e v a l i e r does not r e p l y t o h i s wi f e ' s l a s t argu-ment, and so ends the debate. In the preceding chapter, how-ever, he i n s i s t s t h a t a woman of q u a l i t y and honour should take good care t o keep h e r s e l f that way. She should always be on guard against f a l s e pretenders, long and t h o u g h t f u l l o o k s , l i t t l e s i g h s , and a f f e c t e d countenances. Women who stand f i r m i n the face of a l l these ruses should be p r a i s e d . However, i n c r i t i c i z i n g the Dame de V i l l o n ' s suggestion that a l o v e r should be t e s t e d by h i s lady f o r a peri o d of seven years ( t h i s c r u e l t y on the part of the lady was one of the obstacles t o be overcome by the C o u r t l y Lover) the Che v a l i e r says t h a t seven years i s too long f o r a man t o wait f o r an embrace. 79 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER VI 1 C. P l i n i C a e c i l i Secundi: Epistularum L i b r i Decern, p. 339. 2 Sain t Matthew, 7:18. 3 Mathilde L a i g l e , Le L i v r e des T r o i s Vertus de C h r i s t i n e de P i s a n , et son M i l i e u H i s t o r i q u e et L i t t e r a i r e , P a r i s (Honore Champion), 1912, p. 98. 4 Francois V i l l o n , Poesies, B a l l a d e s , E d i t i o n s Broceliande, Strasbourg, 1958, p. 79. CHAPTER V I I MODERATION There are many examples throughout the L i v r e that encourage the c u l t i v a t i o n of the v i r t u e of moderation... the sophrosyne of Greek philosophy. A moderate person who avoids extremes, and i s temperate i n conduct or ex-pr e s s i o n i s rewarded. On the other hand, v i o l a t i o n s of the golden mean may and do cause complications w i t h vary-ing degrees of seriousness. In the guise of h i s e x c e l -l e n t examples, the author teaches moderation i n e a t i n g , d r i n k i n g , i n c l o t h i n g and i n one's h a b i t s and personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Ch.l6 Greed i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of immoderation. In the absence of her husband a w i f e eats a t a s t y e e l without t e l l i n g him. The household magpie catches her i n the act and t e l l s on her. In a f i t of anger the wi f e plucks a l l of i t s f e a t h e r s , and t h e r e a f t e r when b a l d -headed v i s i t o r s come t o the house, and others w i t h l a r g e foreheads (a d i g at women who pluck t h e i r h a i r t o heighten t h e i r foreheads as a mark of beauty), the b i r d c r i e s out "Vous en p a r l a t e s de l ' a n g u i l l e , " an embarrassing punishment f o r a greedy w i f e who i s im-moderately v a i n and bad-tempered. Ch.17 Jealousy i s intemperate. A wi f e gets i n t o a f i g h t w i t h "the other woman," who breaks her nose. Ch.68 Mary, the s i s t e r of Moses, envied her brother so much th a t God punished her w i t h an i l l n e s s which f o r c e d her t o l i v e away from everyone. Ch.70 Sampson's w i f e betrayed her husband t o the enemy f o r a p r i c e . When she remarried he came t o the f e a s t and pushed the house down on the newly-weds, thus k i l l i n g the pagan and the covetous w i f e . Ch.71 Anger i s an expression of immoderation. A wi f e ' s r e -c u r r i n g f i t s of anger over small i s s u e s f i n a l l y cause the death of t h i r t y - t h r e e thousand persons. Ch.73 There i s no moderation i n f l a t t e r y . Therefore i t i s a bad t h i n g t o have f l a t t e r e r s around one, f o r they never dare t e l l the t r u t h nor giv e l o y a l a d v i c e , and people are thus often d etracted from the r i g h t road. Ch.52 A woman who p e r s i s t e d i n t r y i n g t o b e a u t i f y h e r s e l f by removing the h a i r from her forehead was f i n a l l y aban-doned by her desperate husband who then donned a h a i r s h i r t and took up f a s t i n g on Wednesday (the day C h r i s t was sold) and on F r i d a y , as the l e s s e r of two e v i l s . Ch.89 For t h e i r moderation i n eating and d r i n k i n g , Sampson's parents were rewarded i n t h e i r strong son who upheld the law of God. At the end of t h i s chapter the author says: Pourquoi mes ch i e r e s f i l l e z , gardes-vous de c e l l u i mauvais v i c e de t r o p b o i r e , ne gourmender, ne mengier 82 f o r s aux d r o i t e s heures, comme a di s n e r et a soupper. Car une f o i s mengier est v i e d'ange, et deux f o i z est d r o i t e v i e d'homme et de femme, et p l u s i e u r s f o i s mengier est v i e de beste. ... Before c o n s i d e r i n g the author's examples which teach moderation i n dress, a short account of the s t y l e s i n Mediaeval France up t o h i s time w i l l r e v e a l c e r t a i n trends. At the beginning of the 12th century, long garments replaced the short ones which had been worn f o r centuries."^ Frankish costume had been simple. But w i t h an increase i n the number of p r i n c e l y c o u r t s , and r e s u l t i n g competition, dress became more ela b o r a t e . I t was h i g h l y s t y l i z e d , b r i l -l i a n t i n c o l o u r , w i t h strange and of t e n b e a u t i f u l shapes. A f a i t h f u l m i r r o r of i t s time, i t recognized d i s t i n c t i o n s of c l a s s and vo c a t i o n as being at l e a s t as important as the d i s t i n c t i o n between the sexes. And i t r a r e l y lacked i n 2 d i g n i t y . The 13th century became the most b r i l l i a n t of the age. A l l c l a s s e s went f o r t h , resplendant i n pu r p l e , even the peasant. As Quicherat w r i t e s : Le paysan enivre de se v o i r dans l a tenue d'un empereur, se juge l ' e g a l de 3 toutes puissances. However, by t h i s time, the costumes of men and women were so much a l i k e that a n t i q u a r i a n s have ofte n confused the sexes on monuments. Emblems or badges were worn f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . By-the end of the century, unforeseen d i f f i c u l t i e s n e c e s s i t a t e d the i n s t i t u t i o n of sumptuary laws. Slavishness t o elaborate s t y l e prompted the abstemious Saint Louis t o enunciate a d o c t r i n e on matters of dress, which appealed t o 83 the good sense of the people, and approved of those who observed moderation. Yet people continued i n t h e i r e x t r a -vagant ways as long as they could. Costumes became more d a r i n g , and i n the case of female dress, s l i t s i n the bodices went so f a r as t o r e v e a l the f l e s h beneath. P r e d i c a t o r s c a l l e d these openings "fenetres de l'enfer."^" Extravagance i n dress i s a s i g n of uneasy times and impending catastrophe, says the author of the L i v r e . He c i t e s the B i b l i c a l deluge as an example (ch. 47)• The g i r l s are urged not t o be f i r s t i n adopting new s t y l e s , e s p e c i a l l y those from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s (ch. 21). The best course t o take i s t o f o l l o w the example set by the good women of one's own country. He reminds them that " e s t - i l bon de ne se  haster point et de t e n i r l e moyen e s t a t , c'est en f a i r e plus  sur l e moins que sur l e p l u s . " And he deplores the f a c t that servants and chamber maids put f u r s on t h e i r backs and hee l s . Since they do not r i d e i n c a r r i a g e s , t h e i r f e e t be-come caked w i t h mud and they resemble the backs of sheep. In w i n t e r these women die of c o l d because the f u r i s not on t h e i r breasts and stomachs, and i n summer f l e a s and l i c e get i n t o i t . Ch.49 A young woman who i s not very wise becomes the object of c u r i o s i t y f o r her f r i e n d s who come t o see her new head dress, c a l l e d "Du g i b e t " (cassete*te). The author's daughters may w e l l wince at the mere thought of sup-p o r t i n g such a c o n t r a p t i o n , which was anchored t o the 84 h a i r w i t h s i l v e r p i n s . Ch.50 A woman who had an extravagant wardrobe goes t o h e l l when she dies and i s made t o s u f f e r more by having t o wear a flaming dress. Ch.52 A woman who had been immoderate i n a l t e r i n g the f a c i a l a t t r i b u t e s God had given her was tormented by many d e v i l s i n h e l l when she die d . Ch.27 Saint Bernard's s i s t e r , over-dressed i n her f i n e r y , was put t o shame by her brother. He reminded her tha t one ten t h of her f i n e r y would c l o t h e more than f o r t y un-fo r t u n a t e s against the c o l d . Ch.31 An i n o r d i n a t e l y v a i n and s e l f i s h woman who caused i n -convenience t o the other p a r i s h i o n e r s by t a k i n g one quarter of the day t o arrange h e r s e l f , was punished by being made t o see the ugly back s i d e of the d e v i l when she looked i n t o her m i r r o r l a t e one Sunday morning Good h a b i t s of moderation manifest c o n s i d e r a t i o n and respect f o r other people. Extravagance i s never a v i r t u e , more e s p e c i a l l y when people s u f f e r as a consequence of i t . One long dress, two short ones and two cott e s hardies (a ki n d of overcoat w i t h long sleeves) should s u f f i c e any woman, says the author i n chapter 50. And he echoes the thought expressed i n Cato: Pleased w i t h small s t o r e , take care t o avoid the extreme Safer the c r a f t that s a i l s a moderate stream. 5? "'Quod nimium est f u g i t o parvo gaudere memento; t u t a mage est puppis modico quae flumine f e r t u r . 5 85 The Middle Ages enjoyed great freedom of word and a c t i o n , and the crudest expression f r i g h t e n e d no one. Ch.54 Yet when the C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry w r i t e s on the subject of l u s t he uses a c i r c u m l o c u t i o n t o r e f e r t o the s i n against nature: "que j a ne f a i t a nommer." I t s t i n k s so badly t h a t the stench r i s e s t o the sky and upsets a l l heaven and nature. In the days of Sodom and Gomorrah, whoever could indulge i n i t d i d so, f o r c -ing h i m s e l f t o do i t , u n b r i d l e d , without rime or reason. Because t h e i r hearts had become overheated w i t h l u s t , God punished the i n h a b i t a n t s of these c i t i e s by making them p e r i s h i n sulphurous flames, which smell h o r r i b l y . Ch.122 "But f o r d e s t r u c t i o n ' s sake, i c e i s a l s o g r e a t , " says the poet Robert F r o s t . And i n a s i n g u l a r t a l e which r e v e a l s the easy morals of h i s own day, the author g i v e s an example of what happens when people i n t e r f e r e w i t h the balance of nature. Several knights and l a d i e s made an ordinance by which they were to dress and l i v e i n w i n t e r as i f i t were sum-mer, and v i c e versa. When a married man, a Galoys, v i s i t e d a married woman, a Galoyse, i t was understood t h a t her husband would take h i s horse and v i s i t another Galoyse, whose husband would be expected t o depart, or s u f f e r shame. This l i f e of promiscuous behaviour l a s t e d some time, u n t i l most of the proponents died s t i f f of c o l d beside each other. One might say they were martyrs 86 of l o v e , remarks the author, and he adds: Ce est l e s i e c l e f o r t a connoistre et moult m e r v e i l l e u x t e l s et t e l l e s l e cuident bien connoistre qui en sont deceus, et s i connaissent moins que i l s ne cuident. The C h e v a l i e r ' s daughters are l e f t t o consider the ef-f e c t s of two extremes: that of a s i n g l e overpowering passion which can consume i t s v i c t i m s (as i n the t a l e of La Chate-l a i n e de Vergy mentioned by t h e i r mother i n chapter 124), and the eq u a l l y f a t a l consequences of the creeping c o l d which r e s u l t s from the s c a t t e r i n g and re d u c t i o n of the flame of Venus i n t o weak l i t t l e f i r e s which e v e n t u a l l y die out."' In the s e l e c t i o n of these examples, the author's i n -t e n t i o n appears t o be the teaching of moderation and decorum i n l o v e , as i n every other f a c e t of l i f e . The g i r l s are reminded never t o fo r g e t that God p r a i s e s the good woman through h i s Son, who s a i d long ago: Una '^A modern i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s very o l d problem i s contained i n the I n t e r p r e t e r ' s B i b l e : Miscellaneous sex r e -l a t i o n s h i p s ; i l l i c i t s o - c a l l e d love a f f a i r s are not l o v e ; they are only l u s t . Sex i s part of the d i v i n e o r d a i n i n g , and i n i t s r i g h t use i s s a n c t i f i e d . But sex impulses, un-d i s c i p l i n e d , degrade the p e r s o n a l i t y i n t o an instrument of low passion. I t has no l o y a l t y , and t h e r e f o r e i t s "romance" i s r ottenness. . . . Those who have l e t themselves go i n sexual l i c e n s e can become so c a r n a l , c y n i c a l and c a l l o u s that i t w i l l be hard f o r them t o love one woman t r u l y , or to b r i n g t o marriage a whole h e a r t . 6 When sexual objects are e a s i l y and g u i l t l e s s l y ac-c e s s i b l e , i n a s o c i e t y that does not object t o pro m i s c u i t y , romantic love seldom prospers. Love i s u n l i k e l y t o arouse the heart of someone brought up i n a harem, where the idea of uniqueness has a hard time. Romans sometimes wondered i f love would not blunt and tame t h e i r sexual pleasures, whereas the troubadours f r e t t e d l e s t sex abate the fe r v o u r of love's l o n g i n g . 87 pr e c i o s a margarita comparavit earn, which means that she i s l i k e a l a r g e round p e a r l 1 , clean and white, whether she i s a v i r g i n , or a chaste w i f e who keeps clean the sacrament of marriage. As the f i n e s t example of the woman h i s daughters should have as t h e i r model, the author of course s e l e c t s the Mother of C h r i s t . She has no equal, f o r i n her were combined a l l of the v i r t u e s i n t h e i r noblest degree: She was alone i n pious prayer when the Angel appeared to her, and announced the forthcoming b i r t h of her son. She asked him how i t was that she should be w i t h c h i l d , s i n c e she had had no c a r n a l knowledge of man. The Ch e v a l i e r p r a i s e s her f o r wanting t o know about these t h i n g s , and con-t r a s t s her t o our f i r s t mother Eve, who d i d not look or t h i n k ahead, nor enquire where her a c t i o n s might l e a d her. Holy S c r i p t u r e p r a i s e s her f o r her h u m i l i t y when she s a i d t o the Angel: Behold the handmaid of the Lord, be i t done according t o thy word. Mary was courteous t o everyone, and took the t r o u b l e t o v i s i t people i n need of counsel or co n s o l a t i o n . She i s a l s o p r a i s e d f o r her compassion at the mar-r i a g e f e a s t i n G a l i l e e . When the supply of wine f a i l e d , she asked her son Jesus t o help. Mary always obeyed her husband Joseph, and i t was w i t h uncomplaining r e s i g n a t i o n and patience t h a t she s u f f e r e d the t r i a l of seeing her Son's holy passion. 88 So humble and c h a r i t a b l e , she i s indeed the f i n e s t model a g i r l or woman could have. The author r e g r e t s t h a t there are so many v a i n and proud women i n h i s day. They want t o be f i r s t i n everything i n order t o have more of the usele s s g l o r y of the world. He reminds h i s daughters t h a t the humblest w i l l be the most e x a l t e d . And i f woman must s u f f e r , they should not wonder or f r e t , f o r not even the Mother of C h r i s t was spared. 89 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER VII 1 Joan Evans, Dress i n Mediaeval France (Oxford at the Clarendon Press), 1952, p. 202. 2 Jules E. Quicherat, H i s t o i r e du Costume en France, Paris ( L i b r a i r i e Hachette), 1877, p. 143. 3 Ibid., p. 177. 4 Loc. c i t . 5 J.W. and A.M. Duff, Minor Latin Poets, "Cato," Book I I , maxim 6. 6 The Interpreter's Bible, New York (Abingdon-Cokesbury Press), 1952, p. 766. PART IV CONCLUSION AN EVALUATION OF THE AUTHOR'S CONTRIBUTION In order t o assess the C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry and h i s L i v r e , i t i s necessary t o i d e n t i f y him i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n f l u e n c e s of h i s time and place. His r e l a t i v e l y long l i f e extended through the b e t t e r part of the 14th century, and perhaps i n t o the 15th, i n other words, the cl o s e of the Middle Ages. At tha t time, the Byzantine Empire was waging a l o s i n g s t r u g g l e w i t h the Mohammedans, who f i n a l l y conquered Constantinople i n 1453• In France, the millenium had seen the f u s i o n of Roman, Germanic and C h r i s t i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , and the subjugation of Feudal barons by powerful kings who were then t o dispute among themselves the domination of the world. The Renaissance, w i t h i t s " l i b r e a r b i t r e " was s t i l l t o f i n d i t s way northward from i t s home i n I t a l y . As f o r the success of democratic ideas and i n s t i t u t i o n s , that i s a f a c t of contemporary times. Throughout the c e n t u r i e s , the age was concerned w i t h conduct more than w i t h conversation. I t s d i d a c t i c r e a l i s m made i t s e l f the a u x i l i a r y of C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y and w o r l d l y m o r a l i t y at the same time.^ The Church elevated the i d e a l of v i r g i n i t y t o a dogma of e x c e l l e n c e , and i t s d o c t r i n e on marriage was r e l e g a t e d t o the rank of a p a l l i a t i v e , destined f o r those who could not be chaste, thus g i v i n g the impression 92 of l e s s e n i n g the d i g n i t y of marriage t o the p r o f i t of c e l i b a c y . As we have seen, education was i n the hands of the Church, and i f t h e i r parents so d e s i r e d , g i r l s of noble f a m i l i e s might be sent t o convents or monasteries f o r i n -s t r u c t i o n . These were the only schools a v a i l a b l e t o them, even as l a t e as the time of Fenelon. In most cases they were educated at home. Marriages were g e n e r a l l y arranged by the parents, and although l o v e might play a p a r t , i t was not considered necessary t o t h e i r success. Perhaps be-cause of t h i s s i t u a t i o n , e x t r a - m a r i t a l a f f a i r s were not un-common, i f one can judge by the l i t e r a t u r e of the time. A code of manners such as the one compiled by Andreas Capel-lanus, and the ideas and advice contained i n the l y r i c poetry of the per i o d served t o g i v e a p o l i s h e d veneer t o what might otherwise have been a r a t h e r rapacious s o c i e t y . In the second h a l f of the 13th century, t h i s c o u r t l y c i v i l i z a t i o n l o s t i t s b r i l l i a n c e . The r i s e of an i n c r e a s -i n g l y wealthy and c u l t i v a t e d middle c l a s s i n the growing towns d e a l t a s e r i o u s blow t o a r t i f i c i a l p r a c t i c e s of which i t sensed the f u t i l i t y . This new bourgeois s o c i e t y turned s e r i o u s l y t o the B i b l e as i t s guide. The C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry, a member of the l e s -ser n o b i l i t y , took part i n the defense of h i s country, and, as has been noted, he d i d so w i t h d i s t i n c t i o n i n 1346. At that time he must have been around twenty years o l d . He 93 was i n h i s f o r t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s man of the world who had seen a good deal of l i f e , when he decided t o i n s t r u c t h i s daughters by w r i t i n g a book f o r them. I t i s p l a i n from i t s pages th a t h i s l i b r a r y was of respectable p r o p o r t i o n s , c o n t a i n i n g many c l a s s i c s , ancient and modern. H i s t o r i c a l references i n the anecdotes, names such as Bruneheust, and l a royne de Chippre, help form a l i n k between the remote B i b l i c a l past of many of the s t o r i e s and the author's own time, i n which Bouciquattt, Fouques de L a v a l , l a dame de L a n g u i l l i e r , l e s i r e de Beaumanoir were w e l l known person-a l i t i e s . Some of the s t o r i e s he i n c l u d e d i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n would h a r d l y have been the choice of h i s w i f e , but he knew perhaps b e t t e r than? she d i d , the k i n d of temptations and s i t u a t i o n s t h e i r daughters might have t o f a c e . Since they were young and b e a u t i f u l , and would l i k e l y be married, h i s main concern appears t o have been t h e i r happiness as wives and mothers, and even as widows, because widowhood was a l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t y . Not one chapter of the L i v r e suggests the g i r l s might enter a convent. On the c o n t r a r y , the author wants them t o be prepared t o face the world around them, where r e a l i t y i s of t e n d i s c o n c e r t i n g . They must l e a r n t o govern themselves, t o be d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n t h e i r c h o i c e s , and t o set a good example. C r i t i c s of the L i v r e begin w i t h Caxton, who has nothing but p r a i s e f o r i t i n the preface t o the 12*84 e d i t i o n 94 of h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . In the 16th century S i r A. F i t z - H e r b e r t f e e l s t h a t the book has a c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e w i t h i t s examples of y i c e , s u b t l e t y and c r a f t . The E n g l i s h gentleman was cer-t a i n l y f o r g e t t i n g or simply d i s r e g a r d i n g the B i b l e from which the author s e l e c t e d n e a r l y one h a l f of h i s s t o r i e s . And as f a r as o f f e r i n g the e v i l as w e l l as the good f o r h i s daughters t o consider, he was simply f o l l o w i n g the l e a d set by B i b l i c a l w r i t e r s , and he would have r e c e i v e d the u n q u a l i -f i e d support of l a t e r c r i t i c s such as John M i l t o n who wrote: Since t h e r e f o r e the knowledge and survey of v i c e i s i n t h i s world so necessary t o the c o n s t i t u t i n g of human v i r t u e , and the scanning of e r r o r t o the con f i r m a t i o n of t r u t h , how can we more s a f e l y and w i t h l e s s danger scout i n t o the regions of s i n and f a l s i t y than by read-in g a l l manner of t r a c t a t e s , and hearing a l l manner of reason? And t h i s i s the b e n e f i t which may be had of books promiscuously read.2 In h i s preface Montaiglon notes t h a t Gudin and Legrand D'Aussy are of the opin i o n t h a t the L i v r e i s f i l l e d w i t h ob-s c e n i t i e s . He disag r e e s , but allows that the book would 3 have been improved by a sma l l e r c o n t r i b u t i o n from the B i b l e . The charge of obscenity i s founded on the two s t o r i e s which t e l l about f o r n i c a t i o n i n a church. However, such instances of misbehaviour must have been common enough, or the author would have ignored them. Later w r i t e r s sharply censure lecherous monks. In Antoine De La S a l l e ' s Le P e t i t  Jehan De S a i n t r e , the flower of c h i v a l r y i s b a f f l e d and beaten by a cursed monk before the very eyes of h i s former 95 4 5 p r o t e c t r e s s . L'Heptameron of Marguerite de Navarre con-t a i n s no fewer than 16 nouvelles which c r i t i c i z e c e r t a i n l a s c i v i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Church-. As f o r the c r i t i c i s m against the number of B i b l i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , one might suggest that s i n c e the author t e l l s h i s daughters that i t i s a good t h i n g t o see oneself i n the m i r r o r of one's ancestors, these s t o r i e s would g i v e them an oppor-t u n i t y t o consider improvements, i f any, made by l a t e r generations. The book has three d i s t i n c t notes: 1. Deep, but not dark p i e t y . The s i n c e r i t y of the C h r i s -t i a n author i s never i n doubt, and when he r e s o r t s t o s a t i r e t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t , i t i s never r e l i g i o n t hat he a t t a c k s , only the people who shame i t . 2. A charming tenderness which i s manifest i n constant references t o h i s dear daughters, and i n h i s concern f o r t h e i r p h y s i c a l and moral, as w e l l as t h e i r s p i r i t -u a l w e l l - b e i n g . 3. The calm disarming frankness of the C a t h o l i c Middle Ages which evokes such h o r r i f i e d censure from p u r i t a n c r i t i c s . Gertrude Burford Rawlings says t h a t the e t h i c a l s t a n -dard of the book f r e q u e n t l y f a l l s somewhat low, inasmuch as i t makes expediency and hope of reward loom very l a r g e on the moral h o r i z o n . ^ Again, one must keep i n mind th a t the L i v r e was w r i t t e n f o r adolescents, perhaps not q u i t e ready 96 f o r what Lessing c a l l s the r i p e age when people do good f o r i t s own sake. Vincent de Beauvais thought of education as a com-p l e t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a d u l t l i f e . His system i n c l u d e s t r a i n i n g not only i n v i r t u e s but i n p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s as w e l l , and he i n s i s t s t hat v i r t u e cannot be taught through the teaching of e t h i c a l systems, but r a t h e r w i t h p r a c t i c a l advice and h e l p f u l suggestions. In the l i g h t of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , one can under-stand why the author of the L i v r e added "pour 1'enseignement  de ses f i l l e s " t o the t i t l e . The word "enseignement" meant "connaissance, a v i s , c o n s e i l " i n o l d French, and "une per-sonne enseignee" was "une personne bien elevee" t h a t i s , w e l l brought up. E v i d e n t l y he has no c r i t i c i s m t o make of t h e i r e a r l y up-bringing. What concerns him now are the problems they must face as young a d u l t s . But i n order t o reap the b e n e f i t s contained i n the lessons of h i s book, they must f i r s t l e a r n t o read, or "aprendre a roumancier" as t h e i r f a t h e r expresses i t . And because c e r t a i n people do not wish t o have t h e i r wives and daughters l e a r n t o read and w r i t e , he makes h i s own a t t i t u d e on the subject q u i t e p l a i n : Je dy a i n s i que quant d ' e s c r i p r e , n Ty a f o r c e que femme en saiche r i e n s , mais quant a l i r e , toute femme en v a u l t mieulx de l e s c a v o i r , et cognoist mieulx l a foy et l e s p e r i l s de l Tame et son saulvement, et n'en est pas de cent une qui n'en v a i l l e mieulx, car c'est chose esprouvee.7 97 I f a woman cannot l e a r n t o w r i t e , at l e a s t she should l e a r n t o read. A f t e r a l l , the advice i s very s e n s i b l e . Much has sinc e been w r i t t e n on the b e n e f i t s of reading , but l i t t l e has been s a i d about the p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s of w r i t i n g . To h i s daughters, he says i t i s a good t h i n g t o send one's c h i l d r e n t o school t o l e a r n from books of wisdom, where they may l e a r n how t o save t h e i r bodies and souls (ch. 90). The l i v e s of the Church Fathers and the S a i n t s are more pro-f i t a b l e reading m a t e r i a l than the study of f a b l e s and l i e s . References t o animals i n the L i v r e are u s u a l l y made t o i l -l u s t r a t e a lesson i n a humorous way, and they i n d i c a t e t h a t the author appears t o have been a most observant country gentleman. There i s a great change i n t h i s book from those th a t preceded i t . The general tone i s not the same; woman i s no longer considered i n the l i g h t of C o u r t l y Love. The idea of the f a m i l y acquires a much gre a t e r importance, and con-j u g a l happiness i s the most d e s i r a b l e g o a l . For the g i r l s , the book i s a guide f o r t h e i r conduct through l i f e . How-ever, the gen t l e moral philosopher who was i t s author, d i d not attempt any r e v o l u t i o n i n the p o s i t i o n of women. But n e i t h e r d i d the e a r l y humanists of h a l f a century l a t e r . V i t t o r i n o da F e l t r e , who founded a famous school at Mantua g i n 1424, s t i l l considered home, s o c i a l l i f e , the r e a r i n g of c h i l d r e n , the p r a c t i c e of c h a r i t y and r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a -t i o n t o be the f i r s t d u t i e s of a woman. 98 According t o A. David-Sauvageot, people i n the Middle Ages d i d not know how t o analyse. Unlike the Greeks who o wanted t o understand, they were s a t i s f i e d only t o see. The Ch e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry i s an exception. By s e l e c t i n g examples i l l u s t r a t i n g the s o c i a l behaviour of f o u r p e r i o d s , i n c l u d i n g h i s own, by h i s e x c e l l e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n of the de-bate on l o v e , and the astute a n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t s of mother love or the l a c k of i t on c h i l d r e n , he proved that he was not only an observer, but a s e r i o u s t h i n k e r as w e l l . Although i n matters of dress he advises h i s daughters not t o copy the s t y l e s of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , he encourages them t o be r e s p e c t f u l of a u t h o r i t y , f o r e i g n as w e l l as domes-t i c , by h i s p r a i s e of k i n g s , i n c l u d i n g the wise E n g l i s h k i n g , although France and England had been at war f o r so many de-cades. And i t i s always w i t h sympathy th a t he r e f e r s t o Constantinople, which was then the beleaguered b a s t i o n of Christendom. I t i s i n a C h r i s t i a n marriage blessed w i t h monogamous l o v e , w i t h passion reserved only f o r the transcendent wor-ship of God, and i n a v i r t u o u s l i f e devoted t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n and t o c h a r i t a b l e deeds th a t the f a t h e r hopes h i s daughters w i l l f i n d f u l f i l m e n t . Then, as i n the case of the dame O l i v e de B e l l e V i l l e , " ^ m i n s t r e l s may s i n g t h e i r p r a i s e s when they have l e f t t h i s e a r t h . From the study of h i s L i v r e we may conclude that the Ch e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry was a p r o g r e s s i v e l y conservative 99 gentleman, and a C h r i s t i a n Humanist of the l a t e Middle Ages. In the outspoken expression of h i s language, he i s t y p i c a l of h i s time. The r a t h e r l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of B i b l i c a l s e l e c -t i o n s i n h i s manuel would appear t o be i n keeping w i t h bourgeois i n f l u e n c e which was already g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h . He was o r i g i n a l i n h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of a book e x c l u s i v e l y f o r g i r l s , and w r i t t e n i n prose r a t h e r than i n poetry. His views encouraging the formal education of c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e he was pro g r e s s i v e . On the other hand he could be c o n s i -dered r e t r o g r e s s i v e i n a d v i s i n g women to wear h a i r s h i r t s . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o understand why the L i v r e en-joyed great p o p u l a r i t y f o r a good two hundred years. The p e r e n n i a l character of many of i t s ideas make i t i n t e r e s t -ing t o read even today. 100 FOOTNOTES FOR CONCLUSION 1 A. David-Sauvageot, Le Realisme et l e Naturalisme dans,  l a L i t t e r a t u r e et dans l ' A r t , P a r i s (Caiman-Levy, e d i t e u r a l a L i b r a i r i e N o u v e l l e ) , 1889, p. 87-2 John M i l t o n , A r e o p a g i t i c a , and of Education, e d i t e d by George H. Sabine (Appleton-Century-Crofts, I n c . ) , New York, 1951, pp. 18-19-3 Montaiglon, Preface, p. x x x i i i . 4 Antoine de l a S a l l e , Le P e t i t Jehan de Saintre,Ldndres (J.M. Dent & Sons). 5 Marguerite d'Angouleme, Reine de Navarre, L'Heptameron  des Nouvelles, P a r i s ( L i b r a i r i e des B i b l i o p h i l e s ) , 1879, V o l s . 1 and 2. 6 Gertrude Burford Rawlings,(ed.), The Booke of Thensey-gnementes and Techynge th a t the Knyght of the Towre Made to h i s Doughters by the Ch e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry, p. 202. 7 Montaiglon, p. 178. 8 W i l l i a m H a r r i s o n Woodward, V i t t o r i n o da F e l t r e and other  Humanist Educators, New York (Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers' C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ) , 1964, quoted i n the foreword by Eugene F. Rice J r . 9 A. David-Sauvageot, op. c i t . , p. 85. 10. Montaiglon, op. c i t . , p. 276. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY I. TEXTS OF THE LIVRE La Tour Landry, l e C h e v a l i e r de. L i v r e , e d i t e par M.A. de  Montaiglon. P a r i s : Jannet, 1854. Stolingwa, Peter. 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