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The chevalier de lat Tour Landry : an assessment of his "livre" with particular reverence to the education… Rumpf, Marcelle Irene 1966

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THE CHEVALIER DE LA TOUR LANDRY; AN ASSESSMENT OF HIS "LIVRE" WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN by MARCELLE IRENE RUMPF B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of Romance S t u d i e s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1966  ABSTRACT I.  Purpose To p l a c e t h e L i v r e and i t s a u t h o r i n t h e i r  historical  s e t t i n g , i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i d e a s on the education II.  o f women.  Development 1.  An o u t l i n e o f c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s i n M e d i a e v a l  2.  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t e x t s on t h e e d u c a t i o n  France. of g i r l s  and women p r i o r t o t h e t i m e o f t h e C h e v a l i e r de L a Tour L a n d r y , n o t i n g changes i n i d e a s . Vincent  C o n t r i b u t i o n s made by  de Beauvais and P i e r r e Dubois.  The i n f l u e n c e o f  t h e D i c t a C a t o n i s , a l i t t l e book o f maxims. 3.  The p o s i t i o n _ a n d c o n d i t i o n o f women o f n o b l e  f a m i l i e s as a r e s u l t o f c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s such as t h a t o f C o u r t l y Love. 4.  An a n a l y s i s o f t h e examples c o n t a i n e d  i n the  L i v r e , g i v i n g an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f t h e v i r t u e s w h i c h one c o u l d expect t o f i n d i n an h o n o u r a b l e woman w i t h a C h r i s tian  upbringing.  III.  Conclusion The  L i v r e and i t s a u t h o r i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n f l u -  ences o f t h e i r t i m e and p l a c e .  A defense a g a i n s t  later  critics. the  D e f i n i t i o n o f "enseignement,  u  and e v a l u a t i o n  L i v r e and i t s a u t h o r i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e meaning o f  t h i s term.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE PART I .  I. II.  INTRODUCTION  THE AUTHOR'S L I F E AND FAMILY BACKGROUND .  .  .  1  MANUSCRIPTS AND EARLY EDITIONS OF LE LIVRE .  .  4  E a r l y French M a n u s c r i p t s and T e x t s .  .  .  .  4  E a r l y E n g l i s h M a n u s c r i p t s and T e x t s  . . .  6  Modern E d i t i o n s III.  8  DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY OF WORK  12  IV.  THE STYLE OF THE LIVRE  17  V.  CONTEMPORARY REACTIONS  23  PART I I . THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN PRIOR TO THE APPEARANCE OF THE LIVRE (AND WITHIN THE MIDDLE AGES) I. II. III. IV.  AN OUTLINE OF CULTURAL INFLUENCES  28  FOUR GROUPS OF TEXTS ON THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN  33  CATO  41  WOMEN IN THE LATE MIDDLE AGES  44  PART I I I . I.  AN ANALYSIS OF HIS EXAMPLES  THE VIRTUE OF PIETY  50  II.  COURTESY AND HUMILITY  54  III.  CHARITY AND COMPASSION  60  LOYALTY AND OBEDIENCE  63  PATIENCE  70  IV. V.  V  CHAPTER VI. VII.  PAGE  CHASTITY  73  MODERATION  80 PART IV.  CONCLUSION  AN EVALUATION OF AUTHOR'S CONTRIBUTION  BIBLIOGRAPHY  91  101  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o thank my d i r e c t o r Dr. R. Holdaway f o r h i s f o r b e a r a n c e d u r i n g t h e s e p a s t few months, and e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h i s h e l p f u l tions.  My thanks a r e o f f e r e d  sugges-  a l s o t o Dr. McKay f o r  h i s a d v i c e , and t o t h e s t a f f o f t h e l i b r a r y o f t h e University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia  for their  courteous  c o - o p e r a t i o n , and i n p a r t i c u l a r t o Mrs. Horvath o f the Humanities D i v i s i o n f o r her e n t h u s i a s t i c t a n c e i n my e f f o r t s t o i d e n t i f y  n  l a royne  assis-  Prines."  To my Daughters and Grand Daughters  Pour c e , mes c h i e r e s f i l l e s , e s t - i l bon de ne se h a s t e r p o i n t et de t e n i r l e moyen e s t a t , c ' e s t a en f a i r e p l u s s u r l e moins que s u r l e p l u s . Le C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry  PART I INTRODUCTION  CHAPTER I THE AUTHOR'S L I F E AND FAMILY BACKGROUND The  c a s t l e and v i l l a g e o f La Tour-Landry a r e s i t u a t e d  i n t h e Canton o f Loroux, some f i f t e e n k i l o m e t e r s from Nantes. M o n t a i g l o n , i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s e d i t i o n o f Le L i v r e du C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry pour l'enseignement de s e s f i l l e s s t a t e s t h a t t h e c a s t l e , a l a r g e t o w e r , d a t e s from the 12th century.  There i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e La  Tour Landry f a m i l y were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e r e g i o n by t h a t time. Family  claims t o mythological  ancestors  d a t i n g back  t o t h e end o f t h e 5 t h c e n t u r y must remain open, and t h e f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l reference Latour  i s i n t h e y e a r 1220, when a Landry-  i s involved i n a lawsuit.  I n 1294, a G e o f f r o y  Tour i s l i s t e d among t h e k n i g h t s , s q u i r e s and a r c h e r s  de La i n the  s e r v i c e o f t h e Duke o f B r i t t a n y . I n 1336, a G e o f f r o y  de La Tour L a n d r y , under t h e ban-  ner o f A n j o u , fought g a l l a n t l y a g a i n s t t h e E n g l i s h . p e a r s t o have been t h e f a t h e r o f t h e a u t h o r .  He ap-  Following i n  t h e m i l i t a r y t r a d i t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y , t h i s La Tour L a n d r y , a l s o c h r i s t e n e d G e o f f r o y , was p r e s e n t a t t h e s e i g e o f A g u i l l o n i n 1346.  H i s name o c c u r s on v a r i o u s documents as  l a t e as 1389, when he m a r r i e d h i s second w i f e , M a r g u e r i t e  des Roches, a widow w i t h c h i l d r e n .  H i s f i r s t w i f e , Jeanne  de Rouge had d i e d some t i m e a f t e r 13#3.  From t h i s m a r r i a g e  t h e r e were two sons and p r o b a b l y t h r e e d a u g h t e r s .  For the  l a t t e r , he wrote h i s book c i r c a 1371.* General source of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s contained i n t h e P r e f a c e o f M o n t a i g l o n ' s e d i t i o n o f Le L i v r e du C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry pour l'enseignement de ses f i l l e s , p u b l i e d'apres l e s m a n u s c r i t s de P a r i s et de L o n d r e s , P a r i s (P. Jannet) 1854.  The author of t h i s t h e s i s v i s i t e d France i n the summer of 1966,  and found the v i l l a g e o f L a t o u r l a n d r y (pop. j u s t under 1,000)  about midway between Saumur and Nantes, kms  from Nantes, as n o t e d by M o n t a i g l o n . A good p o r t i o n of the w a l l  which surrounded two  south of the L o i r e , and not  square  the o r i g i n a l c a s t l e i s s t i l l  towers  i n the s t y l e of the 13th c e n t u r y . The c a s t l e  d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g the wars o f r e l i g i o n and built  standing, along with  the p r e s e n t chateau  i n the 18th c e n t u r y . I t i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t to the w a l l  was was and  towers. The remaining tower o f a church stands nearby, and shows p o s s i b l e Byzantine  influence.  15  CHAPTER I I MANUSCRIPTS AND EARLY EDITIONS OF LE LIVRE E a r l y French M a n u s c r i p t s and T e x t s The B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l e possesses seven m a n u s c r i p t s of t h e L i v r e .  M o n t a i g l o n l i s t s them as f o l l o w s , i n t h e o r d e r  of t i m e o f t h e i r t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,  and a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r  rela-  t i v e value. 1.  F. f r . 1190, on v e l l u m , i n f o l i o , and w r i t t e n i n two columns o f t h i r t y l i n e s i s t h e o l d e s t .  The f i r s t  i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h t y p i c a l ornaments o f t h e t i m e .  page There  i s a m i n i a t u r e o f t h e C h e v a l i e r s e a t e d on a t u r f , and d r e s s e d i n a green d o u b l e t and l i l a c c a p , i n t h e most extravagant s t y l e .  Three d a u g h t e r s , i n l o n g - s l e e v e d  dresses, are a l l standing.  The MS. a l s o c o n t a i n s t h e  G r i s e l i d i s s t o r y , which s u g g e s t s i t i s a copy. tentatively  dated e a r l y 1 5 t h c e n t u r y .  It i s  According t o  G e r t r u d e B u r f o r d Rawlings the«s« were 149 c h a p t e r s i n t h e C h e v a l i e r ' s L i v r e ( e d i t o r i a l note p. 1 9 9 ) . 2.  F. f r . 24397, a l s o on v e l l u m , i n f o l i o , i s w r i t t e n i n two columns o f t h i r t y - s i x l i n e s . Griselidis  3.  1  F. f r .  I t also contains the  story. The  text  i s v e r y i n a c c u r a t e , w i t h s e c t i o n s o f s e v e r a l sentences missing.  5.  4.  F. f r . 24398, on v e l l u m , has t h i r t y - s i x l i n e s a page w r i t t e n i n the l a r g e s c r i p t o f t h e end o f t h e century.  15th  I t has a m i n i a t u r e , and t h e l a s t t w e l v e pages  c o n t a i n t h e s t o r y of G r i s e l i d i s .  The  s p i n e bears  the  t i t l e " M i r o i r des femmes m a r i e e s . " 5.  F. f r . 1693  i s on v e l l u m , w r i t t e n i n two narrow columns  of t h i r t y l i n e s .  The f i r s t s t o r i e s a r e m i s s i n g , and i t  i s i n c o m p l e t e a t t h e end. ing 6.  The  eighteenth-century bind-  appears t o be German.  F. f r . 1505,  on v e l l u m , i s w r i t t e n i n l o n g l i n e s i n t h e  f r e e l y r u n n i n g s t y l e o f t h e l a t e 15th  century.  I t was  2 once a p a r t o f t h e r o y a l l i b r a r y a t B l o i s . F o l i o s 139 v e r s o t o 144 c o n t a i n "Le Debat du Corps et de l'Ame" i n  3 verse. 7.  F. f r . 9628 i s a s m a l l i n - f o l i o on paper i n a v e r y poor s c r i p t of t h e l a t e 15th  century.  The L i v r e f o l l o w s an  i n t r o d u c t i o n which c o n t a i n s a t r e a t i s e on s i n s and t h e commandments o f God.  on  I t i s incomplete.  The f i r s t French t e x t appeared i n 1514,  w i t h the  following t i t l e : Le C h e v a l i e r de l a t o u r et l e guidon des g u e r r e s , Nouvellement imprime a P a r i s pour G u i l l a u m e E u s t a c e , l i b r a i r e du r o y , Cum p u i l l e g i o R e g i s . At t h e end o f t h e book i s t h i s s t a t e m e n t : Cy f i n e ce p r e s e n t volume i n t i t u l e l e c h e v a l i e r de l a t o u r et l e g u i d o n des g u e r r e s . Imprime a P a r i s en m i l c i n q cens et q u a t o r z e l e neufiesme i o u r de novembre. Pour G u i l l a u m e E u s t a c e , l i b r a i r e du r o y et j u r e de luniversite....  There a r e 95 numbered and 4 unnumbered f o l i o s o f t h e l a t t e r , t h r e e a r e o c c u p i e d by t h e t i t l e and t h e t a b l e  fol-  l o w i n g , and t h e o t h e r f o l l o w s t h e c o l o p h o n , and c o n t a i n s t h e p r i n t e r ' s d e v i c e , which i s r e p e a t e d on t h e v e r s o o f t h e title.  The volume i s i l l u m i n a t e d t h r o u g h o u t , and i s i n a  v e r y f i n e French b i n d i n g o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 16th century. In 1517 le  another e d i t i o n was  published i n Paris  (M.  Noir).  E a r l y E n g l i s h M a n u s c r i p t s and  Texts  An a c c u r a t e t r a n s l a t i o n e x i s t s i n t h e H a r l e i a n MS. no. I764, which i s i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n of t h e B r i t i s h Museum. W r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f Henry V I , each f o l i o c o n s i s t s of two  columns o f 33 l i n e s .  The work i s anonymous, and  contemporary t o F. f r . no. 1190. i t i s even a b e t t e r copy.  According to Montaiglon,  The L i v r e o c c u p i e s f o l i o s 1-121;  t h e book o f Melibee"' by C h r i s t i n e de P i s a n , f o l i o s 122-146; t h e s t o r y o f G r i s e l i d i s , f o l i o s 147-162.  On t h e l a s t  two  f o l i o s , a l a t e r s c r i b e added "Le c o d i c i l i k e M Jehan de Meung. At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t e x t t h e r e i s a m i n i a t u r e o f t h e C h e v a l i e r d r e s s e d i n b l u e and s e a t e d on a green t u r f  which  ^The book of M e l i b e e was c o p i e d s e v e r a l t i m e s u n t i l t h e 14th c e n t u r y . W r i t t e n w i t h t h e purpose of appeasing o v e r l y - w a r l i k e l o r d s , i t became an e d i f y i n g t r e a t i s e f o r women. T h i s e x p l a i n s why u n t i l t h e 15th c e n t u r y i t was j o i n e d t o o t h e r m a n u s c r i p t s such as t h e G r i s e l i d i s , o r t h e L i v r e .4  7 surrounds  t h e base o f a t r e e .  The t h r e e d a u g h t e r s ,  I n t h e background i s a t r e l l i s .  a l l standing, are dressed i n t h e f a s h i o n  o f t h e day. Each c h a p t e r has a p a i n t e d l e t t e r .  On t h e  second f o l i o a r e t h e s i g n a t u r e s o f two f o r m e r owners o f t h e MS.: P a u l u s Durant and David K e l l i e , w r i t t e n a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e 1 6 t h c e n t u r y , and a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 17th. In E n g l a n d , t h e L i v r e was one o f t h e f i r s t o f t h e newly d e v e l o p i n g p r e s s o u t s i d e o f France. was  productions The work  u n d e r t a k e n by W i l l i a m Caxton, a t t h e r e q u e s t o f an un-  named l a d y who had daughters.  I t has t h e f o l l o w i n g t i t l e :  The Booke Whiche t h e Knyght o f t h e Toure Made t o t h e Enseygnement & Teching o f H i s Doughters I t was p u b l i s h e d a t h i s p r e s s a t Westminster i n 1484. I n 1810,  Ames l i s t s o n l y t h r e e complete c o p i e s e x t a n t : one be-  l o n g i n g t o L o r d Spencer, one t o t h e M a r q u i s o f B l a n d f o r d , and a t h i r d t o h i s M a j e s t y t h e K i n g . a remarkable f i d e l i t y .  The t r a n s l a t i o n i s o f  However, t h e t o o l i t e r a l  causes t h e p u r i t y o f Caxton's E n g l i s h t o s u f f e r .  translation According  to Montaiglon, the H a r l e i a n t r a n s l a t i o n i s s u p e r i o r . There were e a r l y t r a n s l a t i o n s and p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e L i v r e i n Germany.  The f i r s t o f t h e s e was p u b l i s h e d i n 1495  by M i c h e l F u r t e r i n B a l e , and e n t i t l e d : Der R i t t e r vom Turn, von den Exempeln d e r G o t s f o r c h t vn e r b e r k e i t The volume was s u p e r b l y done. t h e B r i t i s h Museum.  A b e a u t i f u l copy i s now i n  I n t h e m i n i a t u r e , t h e C h e v a l i e r , armed  from head t o t o e , i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a s l e e p i n g p o s i t i o n a t  3  the  f o o t of a t r e e .  H i s daughters a r e s t a n d i n g b e s i d e him.  The t r a n s l a t i o n i s by Marquard vom S t e i n . appeared i n 1498 a t Augsburg  Later editions  ( S c h o n s p e r g e r ) ; i n 1513, a g a i n  at B a l e ( F u r t e r ) ; i n 1519 a t S t r a s b o u r g ( K n o b l o u c h ) , and f i n a l l y i n 1538, a t S t r a s b o u r g  (Cammerlander).  Modern E d i t i o n s 1.  The Book o f t h e K n i g h t o f t h e Tower, Landry.  Selections  done i n t o E n g l i s h by A. Vance (Chapman & H a l l ) , 1862, 2.  8V0.  The Book o f t h e K n i g h t o f La Tour Landry. the  London,  I n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s Daughters.  Compiled f o r  T r a n s l a t e d from t h e  o r i g i n a l French i n t o E n g l i s h i n t h e r e i g n o f Henry V I , and e d i t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e from t h e unique m a n u s c r i p t i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and n o t e s by Thomas W r i g h t , London. Text S o c i e t y , 3.  Published f o r the E a r l y E n g l i s h  1868.  The Booke o f Thenseygnementes and techynge t h a t t h e Knyght o f t h e Towre made t o h i s Doughters by t h e C h e v a l i e r G e o f f r o y De La Tour Landry.  E d i t e d w i t h notes  and a g l o s s a r y by G e r t r u d e B u r f o r d R a w l i n g s , London (George Newnes L t d . ) ,  1902.  T h i s volume r e p r o d u c e s s l i g h t l y more t h a n h a l f of Caxton's v e r s i o n o f t h e K n i g h t ' s book, o m i t t i n g t h e c o a r s e r and more t e d i o u s c h a p t e r s , as t h e e d i t o r i s careful to explain.  9 4.  The Book o f t h e K n i g h t o f La Tour Landry, E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y .  5.  R e v i s e d e d i t i o n , 1906, 8V0.  The Book o f t h e K n i g h t o f La Tour Landry, e d i t e d by G.S. T a y l o r , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by D.B. Wyndham L e w i s , London (John H a m i l t o n  6.  Ltd.).  Le L i v r e du C h e v a l i e r De La Tour Landry pour l ' e n s e r g nement de s e s f i l l e s , p u b l i e d'apres l e s m a n u s c r i t s de P a r i s e t de Londres p a r M. A n a t o l e de M o n t a i g l o n , P a r i s (P.  7.  J a n n e t ) , 1854.  P e t e r S t o l i n g w a , Zum l i v r e du C h e v a l i e r de La "Tour Landry pour 1'enseignement de s e s f i l l e s , B r e s l a u  (Druck  von P a u l F o r s t e r ) , 1911. A comparative s t u d y o f t h e t e x t s p u b l i s h e d f o r M o n t a i g l o n and f o r t h e E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y r e v e a l s a few i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . from t h e London and P a r i s MSS.  Montaiglon compiled h i s e d i t i o n Thomas W r i g h t , f o r t h e E a r l y  E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y , chose t h e H a r l e i a n MS. r a t h e r t h a n Caxton's t e x t because i t i s a more e l e g a n t and i n t e r e s t i n g monument o f t h e E n g l i s h language.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s an  i m p e r f e c t MS. w i t h one o r two l a c u n a e i n t h e body o f t h e work, and i t i s t r u n c a t e d a t t h e end by n e a r l y o n e - f i f t h o f t h e whole.  The e d i t o r ' s o n l y r e s o u r c e was t o s u p p l y from  Caxton's t e x t t h e p a r t s which a r e wanting MS.  i n the inedited  There a r e 144 c h a p t e r s i n h i s e d i t i o n , compared t o 128  i n Montaiglon. c h a p t e r 120.  The H a r l e i a n MS. ends b e f o r e t h e end o f The e x t r a 16 c h a p t e r s can be accounted f o r by  10 t h e f a c t t h a t no. 120 i s r e p e a t e d , and nos. 124 and 128, which a r e l o n g i n M o n t a i g l o n , a r e broken up i n t o s e v e r a l chapters.  The S i r e de Beaumanoir, who must be t h e hero o f  the b a t t l e of the t h i r t y  (1351), i n which 30 B r e t o n s were  measured a g a i n s t 30 E n g l i s h , i s c i t e d i n M o n t a i g l o n , chapt e r 21, whereas, t h e name i s o m i t t e d i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g chapter i n Wright.  11' FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I I 1  The Booke o f Thenseygnementes and Techynge t h a t t h e Knyght o f t h e Towre Made t o H i s Doughters by t h e C h e v a l i e r De L a Tour LandryT E d i t e d w i t h n o t e s and a g l o s s a r y by G e r t r u d e B u r f o r d R a w l i n g s , London (George Newnes L t d . ) , 1902.  2  Montaiglon,  3  Loc. c i t .  4  G. Lanson, H i s t o i r e de l a L i t t e r a t u r e F r a n c a i s e . Hachette.  P r e f a c e , p. x l i .  Paris  CHAPTER I I I DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY OF WORK The his  L i v r e has a p r o l o g u e i n which t h e C h e v a l i e r  reasons f o r w r i t i n g .  He t e l l s of h i s y o u t h f u l e x p e r i e n c e  w i t h l o v e , w h i c h caused him t o be a l t e r n a t e l y happy or as i t does e v e r y l o v e r .  states  sad,  More t h a n twenty y e a r s a f t e r her  d e a t h , the n o s t a l g i c remembrance of t h e i d e a l l a d y who  had  i n s p i r e d him t o compose b a l l a d s , songs and v i r e l a y s , prompts him t o t h i n k of h i s own life.  d a u g h t e r s , now  at t h e t h r e s h o l d  of  Because t h e y are young and a r t l e s s , i t i s h i s w i s h t o  i n s t r u c t them w i t h a book i n the same g e n t l e way P r i n e s of Hungary i n s t r u c t e d h e r g i r l s .  t h a t queen  To a c c o m p l i s h h i s  ^ M o n t a i g l o n , i n Notes et V a r i a n t e s , s a y s : Ce q u ' i l f a u t entendre par c e t t e r e i n e P r i n e s ou P r i v e s de H o n g r i e et par son l i v r e me p a r o i t f o r t douteux. Legrand d'Aussy propose d'y v o i r " E l i s a b e t h de B o s n i e , femme de L o u i s l * ... et mere de t r o i s f i l l e s ... a prendre une r e i n e contemp o r a i n e , i l v a u d r a i t mieux y v o i r Jeanne de Boheme 1 ' a l l u s i o n de ce passage r e s t e m y s t e r i e u x . Thomas W r i g h t , f o r the E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y , n o t e s : Who was the queen of Hungary here r e f e r r e d t o as h a v i n g w r i t t e n a book f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n of her daughters appears t o be q u i t e unknown. . . . p. 206. A l i c e Hentsch l i s t s E l i s a b e t h de B o s n i e , a u t h o r of a Manuel d ' e d u c a t i o n pour ses f i l l e s , i n her t e x t , De l a L i t t e r a t u r e d i d a c t i q u e du Moyen Age. She n o t e s t h a t a copy of t h e work was g i v e n t o L o u i s of F r a n c e , comte de V a l o i s , i n 1374^ F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h has uncovered more c l u e s t o the i d e n t i t y of t h i s m y s t e r i o u s queen: R e v a i : Nagy L e x i k o n a V. 15, p. 479, says t h a t Queen P r i n e s of Hungary was P i r o s k a , daughter of S a i n t L a s z l o , and r e f e r s the r e a d e r t o I r e n , V o l . 10, p. 633, which says t h a t I r e n Duca, or queen P r i n e s , or P i r i s k a e I  13 p u r p o s e , he w i l l r e l a t e s t o r i e s n o t o n l y about good women and t h e i r rewards,  but a l s o about e v i l and d i s h o n e s t women  and t h e i r punishment.  By l e a r n i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h good from  e v i l , he hopes h i s daughters w i l l a v o i d f a l l i n g  into  error.  The w o r l d i s f u l l o f h y p o c r i t e s , and young women s h o u l d a c q u i r e a w o r l d l y wisdom so as t o be a b l e t o cope w i t h t h e problems o f l i f e .  Above a l l , he wishes t o show h i s  daughters  t h e t r u e path t o f o l l o w , so they may s e r v e God, who rewards good deeds a h u n d r e d f o l d .  I t f o l l o w s t h a t they w i l l a l s o  enjoy t h e l o v e and g o o d w i l l o f t h e i r n e i g h b o r s and t h e w o r l d . In t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r t h e C h e v a l i e r t e l l s h i s it  daughters  i s a good t h i n g t o see o n e s e l f i n t h e m i r r o r o f one's  a n c e s t o r s , and i n t h e s t o r i e s w r i t t e n about them.  Later, i n  c h a p t e r 117, he l e n d s support t o h i s e a r l i e r statement  with  t h e s e words: ( a r c h a i c form o f P i r o s k a ) was born i n 1088, t h e daughter o f S a i n t L a s z l o and a German p r i n c e s s , and d i e d i n 1134 i n a monastery f o r women which she h e r s e l f had e s t a b l i s h e d , and t o w h i c h she r e t i r e d a f t e r t h e death o f h e r husband, A l e x i s Comnenos, Emperor o f Byzantium. Z e d l e r Grosses U n i v e r s a l L e x i k o n Band 14, column 1255, notes t h a t P i r o s k a , o r I r e n e , was t h e a u t h o r o f a book ent i t l e d Typicum, r u l e s o f conduct, o r a c o n s t i t u t i o n o f a monastery f o r young g i r l s , which she wrote i n Greek. T h i s MS. was found and e d i t e d by Montfaucon (1655-1741) a t one time p r o c u r e u r - g e n e r a l de S a i n t Maur and i t i s c o n t a i n e d i n h i s A n a l e c t a g r a e c a . T h i s work i s l i s t e d i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum Catalogue o f P r i n t e d Books, V o l . 163, p. 234S i n c e i n t e r m a r r i a g e between t h e r o y a l houses o f Hungary and France i s an h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , i t i s v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e work o f t h e c o l o u r f u l queen P r i n e s was known i n France. Another p o i n t i n f a v o u r o f I r e n e f o r P r i n e s , i s t h a t t h e C h e v a l i e r uses t h e past i m p e r f e c t t e n s e i n r e f e r r i n g t o h e r . E l i z a b e t h o f B o s n i a was contemporary t o h i s t i m e , and d i e d i n 1387.  14  Car t o u z juennes hommes e t jeunes femmes q u i c r o i e n t c o n s e i l et ne c o n t r a r i e n t mie l e d i t des a n c i e n s ne peuvent f a i l l i r de v e n i r a h o n n e u r . l However, he has h i s doubts and r e s e r v a t i o n s about young people who r e f u s e t o p r o f i t from t h e example o f t h e i r e l d e r s and a n c e s t o r s , and who o b j e c t t o b e i n g c o r r e c t e d . t h e s e young people t h i n k t h e y a r e w i s e r t h a n t h e i r p a r e n t s who have seen more o f l i f e .  I t i s a great p i t y .  A well  brought up young man o r l a d y s h o u l d thank t h e person who c o r r e c t s him o f h i s f o l l y .  One can d e t e c t a c e r t a i n w i s t -  f u l n e s s i n the author's determination t o preserve h i s daughters from c a u s i n g unnecessary s u f f e r i n g t o themselves and t o o t h e r s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e 128 c h a p t e r s a r e one o r two pages in length.  Each one c o n t a i n s a s t o r y .  a r e from contemporary  Seventy-two o f them  sources, f i f t y - s i x are b i b l i c a l  s t o r i e s , and one c h a p t e r i s based on t h e work o f C a t o , t h e Roman c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r . One might suggest t h a t t h e r a t h e r l a r g e s e l e c t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s themes can be t r a c e d t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f two p r i e s t s and two c l e r k s who h e l p e d t h e C h e v a l i e r e x t r a c t 2 examples from h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f books.  On t h e o t h e r hand,  s t o r i e s from t h e B i b l e , t h e l i v e s o f S a i n t s and o t h e r r e l i g i o u s works were t o o much p a r t o f t h e m e d i a e v a l f o r t h e a u t h o r t o escape e n t i r e l y .  Montaiglon  environment suggests  t h a t t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e c l e r k s i n c o m p i l i n g t h e work may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e o r i g i n a l p l a n — h e r e o n l y suggested  15  —not  b e i n g f o l l o w e d i n a r e g u l a r way.  3  In several places  t h e n a r r a t i v e wanders from one t y p e of example t o a n o t h e r , and a t t h e end, t h e L i v r e r e t r a c e s i t s s t e p s t o t a k e up a g a i n a s e c t i o n w h i c h had seemed complete.  F o r example,  c h a p t e r s 1 2 , 13 and 1 2 0 a r e about women who  lost  chance o f b e i n g m a r r i e d because of t h e i r  their  coyness.  P e t e r S t o l i n g w a groups t h e examples c o n t a i n e d i n t h e L i v r e i n the f o l l o w i n g  divisions:  1.  Examples w h i c h a r e drawn from t h e a u t h o r ' s own e x p e r i ence. To t h i s group a r e a l s o added anecdotes w h i c h , j u d g i n g by t h e i r c o n t e n t s a r e t a k e n from r e a l l i f e , a l t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r does not i m p l y whether he has e x p e r i e n c e d them h i m s e l f or has l e a r n e d o f them by word o f mouth.  2.  Examples which o r i g i n a t e i n t h e f o l k t a l e and show t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of F a b l i a u x .  3.  Examples w h i c h a r e t a k e n from t h e B i b l e .  4.  Examples which o r i g i n a t e from l e g e n d s and m i r a c l e literature.  5.  Examples o f h i s t o r i c a l  origins.^"  On t h e o t h e r hand, A l i c e Hentsch p r e s e n t s t h e f o l l o w ing  divisions:  1.  C o n s e i l s d ' o r d r e r e l i g i e u x — ... c h a t i m e n t s t e r r i b l e s sur ceux q u i n'observent pas ces r e g i e s de c o n d u i t e . Les femmes p i e u s e s sont b e n i e s a j a m a i s .  2.  C o n s e i l s moraux s u r l a c o n d u i t e en g e n e r a l , s ' a d r e s s a n t a t o u t e s l e s femmes sans d i s t i n c t i o n d'age.  3. 4.  C o n s e i l s s ' a d r e s s a n t p l u s s p e c i a l e m e n t aux jeunes f i l l e s . C o n s e i l s s ' a d r e s s a n t p l u s s p e c i a l e m e n t aux femmes mariees.  5.  C o n s e i l s s ' a d r e s s a n t aux  6.  C o n s e i l s s u r 1 ' e d u c a t i o n des e n f a n t s .  7.  R e l a t i v e m e n t aux s e r v a n t e s .  8.  Sur l a femme amoureuse.  9.  T a b l e a u de l a 'dame honnourable  veuves.  ideale'.^  16By p r e s e n t i n g h i s c h a p t e r s i n a haphazard  arrange-  ment , t h e a u t h o r of t h e L i v r e u n w i t t i n g l y gave much scope to future c r i t i c s .  17'  FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I I I 1  M o n t a i g l o n , c h . 117,  2  I b i d . , p. 4.  3  I b i d . , P r e f a c e , p. x x x i i .  4  P e t e r S t o l i n g w a , Zum l i v r e du C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry pour l e n s e i g n e m e n t de s e s f i l l e s (Druck von P a u l F o r s t e r ) B r e s l a u , 1911, p. 88.  p. 228.  1  5  A l i c e H e n t s c h , De l a L i t t e r a t u r e d i d a c t i q u e Du Moyen Age, s ' a d r e s s a n t s p e c i a l e m e n t aux femmes, H a l l e A.S., 1903,  pp. 128-134.  CHAPTER IV THE STYLE OF THE LIVRE One can say t h a t u n t i l t h e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l works w r i t t e n i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r  were composed i n v e r s e .  S i n c e rhythm and rhyme e x e r t t h e i r f u l l e s t e f f e c t s  only  when p r e s e n t e d t o t h e e a r , e p i c , l y r i c and d r a m a t i c forms had  a p p e a l e d t o l i s t e n i n g a u d i e n c e s which were l a r g e l y  illiterate.  D u r i n g t h e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y , however, s e v e r a l  prose a d a p t a t i o n s o f v e r s e n a r r a t i v e s were a l r e a d y e n j o y e d by a s l o w l y expanding r e a d i n g p u b l i c .  being  Georges  Doutremont l i s t s some 55 e p i c poems and some 18 a d v e n t u r e romances t h a t were r e v i s e d i n t h i s manner."*" romance was B e r i n u s .  One such  As f o r t h e works o f c h r o n i c l e r s , a  few had been w r i t t e n i n prose as e a r l y as t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y by such well-known w r i t e r s as V i l l e h a r d o u i n and J o i n v i l l e . L i t e r a t u r e w h i c h d e a l t w i t h r e a l l i f e n a t u r a l l y had t o adopt a mode o f e x p r e s s i o n i n harmony w i t h r e a l i t y , t h a t i s , ordinary  language, o r prose w h i c h i s o b j e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n  subjective.  The s i m p l e and d i r e c t s t y l e o f t h e s e w r i t e r s  s a i d what i t w i s h e d t o s a y because events t a k e precedence over s t y l i s t i c form. The  1 4 t h c e n t u r y c h r o n i c l e r Jean Le B e l (-1370),  i r r i t a t e d by t h e l a c k o f t r u t h i n works h i t h e r t o composed i n v e r s e , undertook h i s e n t e r p r i s e i n p r o s e , j u s t i f y i n g h i s  19 c h o i c e by h i s l o v e o f t r u t h and h i s s c r u p l e s as an h i s t o r i an. his  At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s Vrayes C h r o n i q u e s , he e x p l a i n s motives  clearly:  Qui v e u l t l i r e e t o u i r l a v r a y e h i s t o i r e du preu e t g e n t i l r o y Edowart s i l i s e ce p e t i t l i v r e que j'ay commence a f a i r e , e t l a i s s e ung g r a n d l i v r e rime que j ' a y v e u e t l e u , l e q u e l aucun c o n t r o u v e u r a mis en rime p a r grandes f a i n t e s et bourdes c o n t r o u v e e s , duquel l e commencement e s t t o u t f a u l x , e t p l a i n de menchongnes j u s q u e s au commencement de l a g u e r r e ... e t de l a en avant peut a v o i r a s s e z de s u b s t a n c e de v e r i t e e t a s s e z de bourdes, e t s y y a g r a n d p l e n t e de p a r o l l e s c o n t r o u v e e s e t de r e d i c t e s pour e m b e l l i r l a rime e t grand f o i s o n de s i grands p r o e s s e s r a c o n t e e s sur aucuns c h e v a l i e r s e t aucunes personnes q u ' e l l e s d e b v e r o i e n t sembler mal c r e a b l e s et a i n s y comme imp o s s i b l e s . ... C a r l ' i s t o i r e e s t s i n o b l e , ce m'est a d v i s , et de s i g e n t i l e p r o e s s e , q u ' e l l e e s t b i e n d i g n e et m e r i t e d ' e s t r e mise en e s c r i p t pour l e en memoire r e t e n i r au p l u s p r e z de l a v e r i t e . . . . 2 Jean F r o i s s a r t l a t e r borrowed h e a v i l y from Jean Le Bel  who had been h i s good t e a c h e r . Since the C h e v a l i e r ' s s t o r i e s o s t e n s i b l y deal w i t h  r e a l l i f e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he s h o u l d have chosen prose as h i s medium o f e x p r e s s i o n . his  o r i g i n a l c h o i c e was v e r s e .  Y e t , as w i t h F r o i s s a r t ,  A t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the f i r s t  few l i n e s o f h i s P r o l o g u e , w i t h o n l y minor changes,  reveals  a r e g u l a r meter and n e a r l y a l l t h e rhyme r e q u i r e d i n v e r s e : Prose L'an m i l t r o i s cens s o i x a n t e et onze, en un j a r d i n e s t o y e sous 1'ombre, comme a 1 ' i s s u e d ' a v r i l , t o u t morne e t t o u t p e n s i z : mais un pou me r e s j o u y du son et du chant que j e ouy de c e s o y s i l l o n s s a u v a i g e s q u i chantoyent en l e u r s l a n g a i g e s .  Verse L'an m i l t r o i s cens s o i x a n t e et onze En un j a r d i n e s t o y s sous 1'ombre Comme a 1 ' i s s u e du mois d ' a v r i l , Tout morne, d o l e n t et p e n s i f ; Mais un peu j e me r e s j o u y Du son e t du chant que j e ouy De c e s g e n t s o y s i l l o n s s a u v a i g e s Qui c h a n t o i e n t dans l e u r s langaiges.3  20 The  author c l e a r l y s t a t e s h i s reasons f o r w r i t i n g  h i s L i v r e i n prose: ... que j e ne v e u l x p o i n t m e t t r e en r i m e , a i n c o y s l e , v e u l x m e t t r e en p r o s e , pour l ' a b r e g e r et mieux entendre According of b r e v i t y was  t o Rasmussen, i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e i d e a l  formed on t h e b a s i s of t h e r h e t o r i c a l w r i t -  i n g s of C i c e r o and t h e R h e t o r i c a ad Herenium, which  teach 5  t h a t n a r r a t i o n s h o u l d be b r i e f , c l e a r and  convincing.  i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e C h e v a l i e r ' s i n t e n t i o n was  It  t o produce a  book w i t h t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n more t h a n one  place  he r e f e r s t o i t by t h e d i m i n u t i v e un l i v r e t , p r o b a b l y of t h e f i r s t w r i t e r s t o use t h e word i n t h i s sense. an u n d e r s t a n d i n g f a t h e r and  one One  may  assume t h a t he was  teacher  who  r e a l i z e d t h a t young g i r l s l e a r n i n g t o r e a d would soon  be bored and dismayed i f he were t o p r e s e n t them w i t h l a r g e and ponderous book. simple  and d i r e c t .  H i s c h o i c e of v o c a b u l a r y  a  is  U n l i k e t h e c u r i a l or l e g a l s t y l e which  c h a r a c t e r i z e s n a r r a t i v e prose u n t i l t h e 15th c e n t u r y , author's expression  i s i n t i m a t e r a t h e r t h a n f o r m a l , and  o f t e n a d d r e s s e s h i s daughters d i r e c t l y , as Mes f i l l e s , and  telling his stories.  chieres  He was  a s u b j e c t i v e approach i n  there.  The  mediaeval author,  on the o t h e r hand, p r e f e r r e d t o have a c r u t c h t o l e a n  Chapter 30:  he  Belles f i l l e s .  The modern w r i t e r f a v o u r s  so t o speak.  the  on,  Someone e l s e had t o l d him t h e s t o r y , as i n "J'ay  ouy  compter l e compte d'un  chevalier.  ..."  21  A l i c e Hentsch f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o n c i l e t h e  stories  about l e c h e r o u s monks i n t h e L i v r e w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a u t h o r says he asked two p r i e s t s and two c l e r k s t o h e l p him.^  The t r u t h i s t h a t because o f t h e i r h e l p , t h e s t o r i e s  are so much more s i g n i f i c a n t . I n p r e s e n t i n g h i s examples, t h e C h e v a l i e r demonstrates his  awareness o f t h e v a l u e o f l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s , such as u n i t y ,  coherence and emphasis.  Chapter XV i s a good sample.  The  a u t h o r b e g i n s by w a r n i n g h i s daughters a g a i n s t d i s p u t i n g w i t h hot-headed f o o l s , male o r f e m a l e . his  theme w i t h two examples.  Then he s k i l l f u l l y  develops  I n t h e f i r s t , a woman who goes  t o o f a r i n a d i s p u t e w i t h a c h o l e r i c man i s f i n a l l y h u m i l i a t e d by him.  I n t h e second, a w i s e man knows when t o c u t s h o r t a  q u a r r e l w i t h a hot-headed woman, t o h i s advantage. two  The l a s t  s e n t e n c e s sum up and emphasize t h e l e s s o n o f t h e s t o r y : Et a i n s i l e d r o i t l ' e n f a i r e , c a r l ' e n ne d o i t mie e s t r i v e r a f o l , ne a gens t e n s e u r s , ne que ayent male t e s t e . A i n s l e s d o i t - e n eschever, comme f i s t l e c h e v a l i e r a l a dame, comme oy avez.7 Although  t h e y do n o t f o l l o w an o r d e r l y p l a n , t h e s t o r i e s  t h e m s e l v e s are w e l l - c o n s t r u c t e d , and w r i t t e n i n an u n a f f e c t e d s t y l e , s u i t e d t o t h e r e a d e r s f o r whom t h e y were i n t e n d e d .  22  FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER IV 1  Les M i s e s en prose des epopees e t des romans c h e v a l e r e s ques^du XIV au X V I ^ s p e c i e , B r u x e l l e s : P a l a i s des Academies, 1939, i n -8 (Memoires de l'Academie Royale de B e l g i q u e , C l a s s e des L e t t r e s , X L ) , pp. 5-9. Quoted by R.G.C. Holdaway i n h i s a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Verse t o prose: a l i t e r a r y f a s h i o n . "  2  H i s t o i r e L i t t e r a i r e de l a F r a n c e , ouvrage commence p a r des r e l i g i e u x b e n e d i c t i n s de l a C o n g r e g a t i o n de S a i n t Maur^ e t continue' p a r des membres de l ' I n s t i t u t (Academie des i n s c r i p t i o n s e t b e l l e s l e t t r e s ) , P a r i s , I m p r i m e r i e n a t i o n a l e , Tome 38, p. 247-  3  M o n t a i g l o n , P r e f a c e , p. x x i x , and p. 1.  4  I b i d . , p. 4.  5  Rasmussen ( J e n s ) , L a Prose N a r r a t i v e F r a n c a i s e au X V S i e c l e , p. 23.  6  A l i c e A. H e n t s c h , De l a L i t t e r a t u r e d i d a c t i q u e du Moyen Age, p. 133.  7  M o n t a i g l o n , op. c i t . , p. 34.  fa  e  CHAPTER  V  CONTEMPORARY REACTIONS The a u t h o r o f t h i s t h e s i s has not been a b l e t o f i n d much s u p p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l f o r t h e development o f t h i s t o p i c . However, t o judge by t h e number o f French MS. c o p i e s e x t a n t , one can assume t h a t t h e L i v r e became a g r e a t f a v o u r i t e i n i t s own c o u n t r y .  I n England and i n Germany, a f t e r  i t s t r a n s l a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n , i t r e t a i n e d i t s p o p u l a r i t y f o r a long time.  M e d i a e v a l works which remained  i n manu-  s c r i p t form were t e m p o r a r i l y f o r g o t t e n o r a b o l i s h e d ; o n l y t h o s e which were s e l e c t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o c i r c u l a t e and t o i n f l u e n c e t h e minds o f t h e i r r e a d e r s .  The  esteem i n which t h e L i v r e was h e l d i s w e l l e x p r e s s e d by Caxton h i m s e l f i n t h e p r e f a c e t o h i s 11*84 e d i t i o n , which i s here r e p r o d u c e d i n p a r t . Emonge a l o t h e r t h i s book i s a s p e c i a l d o c t r y n e & techyng, by which a l yong g e n t y l wymen s p e c i a l l y may l e r n e t o bihaue them s e l f v e r t u o u s l y , as w e l i n t h e i r v y r g y n y t e as i n t h e i r wedlok & wedowhede, . . . . i n whiche werk j f y n d many v e r t u o u s good enseygnementis & l e r n y n g e s , by euydent h i s t o r i e s o f a u c t o r i t e & good e n s a p l e s f o r a l maner p e p l e i n g e n e r a l l y , but i n e s p e c i a l f o r l a d y e s & gentilwymen, d o u z t e r s t o l o r d e s & g e n t i l m e n : f o r whiche book a l t h e gentilwymen now l y u y n g & h e r a f t e r t o come o r s h a l be, a r n bounde t o gyue l a u d e , p r a y s y i n g , & thankynges t o t h e a u c t o r o f t h i s book, . . . . Thene, f o as moche as t h i s book i s n e c e s s a r y t o euery gentilwoman, o f what e s t a t e she be, j aduyse euery g e n t i l m a n o r woman, hauyng such c h i l d r e n , desyryng them t o be v e r t u o u s l y b r o u z t f o r t h , t o g e t e & haue t h i s book, t o thende t h a t t h e y may l e r n e hou t h e y ouzt t o gouerne them v e r t u o u s l y i n t h i s p r e s e n t  l y f , by whiche t h e y may t h e b e t t e r & h a s t l y e r come t o w o r s h i p and good renommee. And I d e s y r e a l l them t h a t s h a l l l e r n e o r see ony thynge i n t h i s sayd book, by whiche t h e y s h a l ben t h e wyser & b e t t e r . . . .1 F i f t y y e a r s l a t e r t h e r e p u t a t i o n of t h e book had come c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n England.  be-  S i r A. F i t z - H e r b e r t , i n h i s  work e n t i t l e d The Book o f Husbandry (1534), e x p r e s s e s an o p i n i o n on t h e L i v r e which i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o t h a t of  Caxton's: I c o u l d e peraduenture shewe t h e housbandes dyuerse poyntes t h a t t h e wyues deceyue them i n : and i n l y k e maner, howe husbandes deceyue t h e y r wyues: but i f I s h u l d e do s o , I s h u l d e shewe mo s u b t y l l poyntes o f d e c e y p t , t h a n e y t h e r o f them knewe of b e f o r e . And t h e r f o r e me semeth b e s t e t o h o l d e my peace, l e a s t I shoulde do as t h e knyght of t h e t o u r e dyd, t h e whiche had many f a y r e d o u g h t e r s , and o f f a t h e r l y l o u e t h a t he oughte t o them, he made a boke, t o a good e n t e n t e , t h a t t h e y myghte eschewe and f l e e f r o m v y c e s , and f o l o w e v e r t u e s . I n t h e whiche boke he shewed, t h a t i f t h e y were wowed, moued, or s t y r e d by any man, a f t e r suche a maner as he t h e r e shewed, t h a t t h e y s h u l d e withstande i t . I n t h e whiche boke he shewed so many wayes, howe a man shoulde a t t e y n e t o h i s purpose, t o brynge a woman t o v i c e , t h e whiche wayes were so n a t u r a l l , and t h e wayes t o come t o t h e y r purpose were soo s u b t y l l y c o n t r y u e d , and c r a f t e l y shewed, t h a t harde i t wold be f o r any woman t o r e s y s t e o r deny t h e y r d e s y r e . And by t h e sayd boke h a t h made bothe t h e men and t h e women t o knowe more v y c e s , s u b t y l t y e , and c r a f t e , t h a n euer t h e y s h u l d e haue knowen, i f t h e goke had not ben made: i n t h e whiche boke he named h y m - s e l f e t h e k n i g h t of t h e t o w r e . 2 U n t i l t h e appearance  of t h e L i v r e , d i d a c t i c works were  m a i n l y c o l l e c t i o n s o f m a s c u l i n e s t o r i e s , which a r e h e t e r o geneous.  A r e a s o n f o r t h e p o p u l a r i t y and l o n g l a s t i n g s u c -  c e s s of t h e C h e v a l i e r ' s work was t h a t i t c o n s i s t e d of ent i r e l y f e m i n i n e s t o r i e s , something r a r e , and a q u i t e departure.  new  I n h i s e d i t i o n o f t h e book, t h e P a r i s i a n p r i n t e r  25 E u s t a c e added t h e a l r e a d y w e l l known H i s t o i r e de  Mellibee  et de Prudence and G r i s e l i d i s , p u t t i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e  into  3  t h e mouth o f t h e a u t h o r o f t h e L i v r e , a t r i b u t e t o h i s popularity.  26  FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER V 1  The Booke o f Thenseygnementes and Techynge t h a t t h e K n i g h t o f t h e Towre Made t o h i s Dqughters by t h e C h e v a l i e r G e o f f r o y de l a Tour Landry , e d i t e d w i t h n o t e s and a g l o s s a r y by G e r t r u d e B u r f o r d R a w l i n g s , London (George Newnes L t d . ) , 1902, pp. 5-6.  2  S i r A. F i t z - H e r b e r t , The Book o f Husbandry, p u b l i s h e d f o r t h e E h g l i s h D i a l e c t S o c i e t y , London, 1882, V o l . 13, p. 98.  3  H i s t o i r e L i t t e r a i r e de l a F r a n c e , Tome 37, p. 503.  <  PART I I THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN PRIOR TO THE APPEARANCE OF THE LIVRE (AND WITHIN THE MIDDLE AGES)  CHAPTER I AN OUTLINE OF CULTURAL INFLUENCES Today we t e n d t o d e f i n e a w e l l educated  person as  b e i n g one who has a t t a i n e d a c e r t a i n s c h o l a s t i c l e v e l .  In  r e a l i t y , e d u c a t i o n i s broader t h a n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f f e r e d in schools.  I t i s t h e t o t a l p r o c e s s o f t r a i n i n g whereby  t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s s i m i l a t e s h i s own c u l t u r e , and l e a r n s t o repress h i s e g o t i s t i c a l i n s t i n c t s .  Nevertheless, schools  do p l a y , and have always p l a y e d an e f f e c t i v e and i m p o r t a n t role. U n t i l t h e i n f l u e n c e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y became almost t o t a l , Gallo-Roman c u l t u r e had p r o v i d e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r g i r l s as w e l l as boys i n i t s c i v i l  schools."*"  c e n t u r y onward however, t h e s e d e m o c r a t i c and were r e p l a c e d by monastic  From t h e 6 t h  centers  disappeared,  or episcopal schools.  During  t h e 7 t h c e n t u r y , p r o f a n e l i t e r a t u r e almost d i s a p p e a r e d , and t h e r e was no o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n except t h a t g i v e n by t h e Church, and i n i t s name.  Monastic schools t r a i n e d  female s t u d e n t s who were d e d i c a t e d t o monastic were p l a c e d a t t h e summit o f t h e s o c i a l s c a l e . were always male. the daughters conducted  those  l i f e , o r who Teachers  A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s t o be found i n  o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r Manegold, who  successfully  a l a y s c h o o l a t Lutenbach i n t h e d i o c e s e o f 2 Strasbourg. I f t h e r e were a few t e a c h i n g masters employed  29 by c e r t a i n f a m i l i e s , t h e y became more and more r a r e , and were r e p l a c e d by c l e r i c s .  I n t h e 8 t h c e n t u r y , Charlemagne's  own female r e l a t i v e s were i n s t r u c t e d a t c o u r t by A l c u i n , who admired t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p so much t h a t he d e d i c a t e d h i s T r e a t i s e on t h e Nature o f t h e S o u l t o one o f them.^ A b e l a r d , who t a u g h t H e l o i s e i n t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y , was one o f t h e l a s t o f t h e l a y teachers.^" The i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e o f women i n m o n a s t e r i e s i n cluded t r a i n i n g i n reading, w r i t i n g , s i n g i n g , a r i t h m e t i c , grammar, Holy W r i t , m e d i c i n e  and s u r g e r y : t h e l a s t two i n  o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f male d o c t o r s .  Their  main o c c u p a t i o n was t h e copying and i l l u m i n a t i n g o f manus c r i p t s , and u n t i l t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y , t h e study o f L a t i n . With t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y , even t h e monks d e s e r t e d t h e i r s c h o o l s f o r P a r i s and O x f o r d .  Monastic schools then s u f f e r e d a lowering o f  s t a n d a r d s , and t h e r e was n o t h i n g t o supplement t h e l o s s t o women, who were n o t a d m i t t e d t o t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s . C h r i s t i a n i t y had emancipated woman by s e p a r a t i n g h e r from man, n o t by p l a c i n g h e r b e s i d e him.  Already i n the  6 t h c e n t u r y , t h e Rule o f t h e monastery f o r women which had been founded by C e s a i r e , B i s h o p o f A r i e s , recommended t h a t no c h i l d r e n under f i v e o r s i x y e a r s o f age be a d m i t t e d , and 5  a b s o l u t e l y no g i r l s o f n o b l e f a m i l i e s .  Towards t h e c l o s e  o f t h e ®in c e n t u r y , t h e d y i n g Roland has no thought f i a n c e e , Aude.  forhis  And she can o n l y p r o t e s t t e a r f u l l y when t h e  30 w e l l - m e a n i n g though r a t h e r t a c t l e s s Charlemagne o f f e r s h e r a n o t h e r husband so soon a f t e r h e r l o s s .  -The a u t h o r — o f t h e  • i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o r i e s ^ of romant-i-c-love whieh—p^gfflea-feedMzhe Honour and p a t r i o t i s m formed t h e theme o f an e p i c t a l e , e s p e c i a l l y one w h i c h belonged t o t h e 8th century.  A century l a t e r , bishops forbade t h e i r  t o admit g i r l s a l o n g w i t h t h e boys i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t count as s o c i a l  priests Women  beings.  However, c u l t u r a l changes were t a k i n g p l a c e .  By t h e  12th c e n t u r y , C e l t i c i n f l u e n c e had r e p l a c e d t h e C a r o l i n g i a n . I n t h e N o r t h , where i t was most s t r o n g , l o r d s and l a d i e s sat  down a t t h e same banquet t a b l e s , and a f t e r t h e meal,  l i s t e n e d t o t h e songs o f t r o u v e r e s , a d e l i c a t e p l e a s u r e , already attesting a c u l t i v a t e d c i v i l i z a t i o n .  Then, d u r i n g  t h e d i f f i c u l t y e a r s o f t h e C r u s a d e s , t h e women who s t a y e d a t home assumed i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and more r e s p e c t was a c c o r d e d t o them.  I n t h e S o u t h , songs o f  t h e Troubadours i d e a l i z e d a l o v e r ' s p a s s i o n f o r h i s l a d y , w h i c h approached t h e c u l t o f t h e V i r g i n Mary. poets c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d l o v e and sex.  These e a r l y  Love was t o them  a yearning f o r a psychic g r a t i f i c a t i o n which t h e l o v e r f e e l s only t h e beloved  can g i v e ; s e x , an i m p e r s o n a l  can be g r a t i f i e d by anyone p o s s e s s i n g physical characteristics.  d e s i r e which  c e r t a i n f a i r l y common  They f r e t t e d l e s t sex abate t h e  f e r v o r o f l o v e ' s l o n g i n g , and t h e y never f u l l y r e s o l v e d t h e  c o n t e s t between l o v e and sex.  The  religious  perpetuated  l o n g i n g by p l a c i n g t h e b e l o v e d  a l t o g e t h e r out of p h y s i c a l  reach:  On t h e o t h e r hand, proponents  "the B r i d e of C h r i s t . "  of t h e more w o r l d l y C o u r t l y Lovem assuming t h a t m a r r i a g e , as a s o c i a l contract, precluded  t h e n e c e s s i t y of t h e  existence  of l o v e between t h e p a r t n e r s — i n f a c t some went as f a r as t o say t h a t such l o v e was  w e l l n i g h u n d e s i r a b l e — d r e w up  an  e l a b o r a t e s e t of r u l e s by w h i c h the a s p i r i n g l o v e r of a noble married  l a d y s h o u l d govern h i m s e l f .  These r u l e s ,  d e r i v e d from Ovid's Ars Amandi had been r e - c o d i f i e d by Andreas C a p e l l a n u s  i n t h e 12th c e n t u r y .  e f f e c t , i f any, t h e y may  have had  What  ennobling  on t h e woman i s not known.  At any r a t e , t h e l a d i e s were p l a c e d on a p e d e s t a l , so t o speak.  But no m a t t e r how  n o b l e and l o f t y t h e means employed  i n w i n n i n g t h e i r l o v e , a d u l t e r y was The  Troubadour i d e a l soon gave way  approach of C o u r t l y Love, w h i c h was  always t h e f i n a l g o a l . t o t h e more p r a g m a t i c adopted as t h e theme of  t h e i r p o e t r y by w r i t e r s such as C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s . w r i t e r s , n o t a b l y M a r i e de F r a n c e , a l t h o u g h  not  t h i s theme, seemed t o p r e f e r l o v e i n t h e C e l t i c where i t was  o f t e n l i n k e d w i t h death.  i t does, l o v e indeed  i s the  Other  neglecting tradition,  I f one d i e s  before  end.  -JL,  '^Ernest Van Haag, "Love or M a r r i a g e , " Magazine, May, 1962.  i n Harper's  32  FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I 1  P a u l R o u s s e l o t , H i s t o i r e d e l ' e d u c a t i o n des femmes en F r a n c e , P a r i s ( D i d i e r ) , p. 18.  2  I b i d . , p. 18.  3  H i s t o i r e l i t t e r a i r e de l a F r a n c e , Tome I V , p. 310.  4  R o u s s e l o t , op. c i t . , p. 18.  5  I b i d . , p. 22.  CHAPTER I I FOUR GROUPS OF TEXTS ON THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN A l i c e Hentsch d i v i d e s t h e t e x t s w h i c h were w r i t t e n for  and about women, and w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r  education  i n t h e M i d d l e Ages, i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : A.  The t e x t s o f t h e Church F a t h e r s w h i c h a r e o f a  s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s o r d e r , w i t h t h e dominant note an exh o r t a t i o n t o v i r g i n i t y and i t s g l o r i f i c a t i o n .  A l l were  w r i t t e n i n L a t i n , and i n some cases i n Greek.  Saint Cyprian  i n De c u l t u feminarum, blames Eve f o r t h e e v i l  i n the world,  and i n h i s De h a b i t u v i r g i n u m , he says t h a t a woman s h o u l d not t r y t o make h e r s e l f more b e a u t i f u l t h a n she r e a l l y i s , for  this i strickery.  S a i n t Ambrose's Ad v i r g i n e m devotam  e x h o r t a t i o a d v i s e s women t o f l e e from men.  S a i n t Jerome,  a u t h o r o f t h e V u l g a t e had many f e r v e n t d i s c i p l e s and f r i e n d s among t h e l a d i e s o f Roman s o c i e t y i n t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y . p r a i s e s widows who do not remarry Furiam de V i d u i t a t e Servanda.  He  i n h i s t e x t e n t i t l e d Ad  P a r e n t s a r e a d v i s e d t o choose  t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s books w i t h c a r e i n Ad Laetam de i n s t i t u t i o n e filia-P.  They s h o u l d be g i v e n a w e l l educated  t u t o r who l e a d s  an exemplary l i f e , and t h e y s h o u l d not be t o l d t h i n g s which w i l l have t o be r e t r a c t e d l a t e r on when t h e y a r e d i s c o v e r e d to  be l i e s .  i>  34 S a i n t A u g u s t i n e , i n De s a n c t a v i r g i n i t a t e  insists  t h a t t h e f e c u n d i t y o f a m a r r i e d woman i s never worthy t o be compared t o t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f a v i r g i n .  Virginity i s  honoured because i t i s c o n s e c r a t e d t o God. T h i s a u t h o r i s more l e n i e n t when he d e a l s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f a widow's remarriage. I n t h e 6 t h c e n t u r y , F u l g e n t i u s recommends c o n t i n e n c e i n m a r r i a g e , and i n s i s t s on f a i t h f u l n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e husband as w e l l as o f t h e w i f e . on e q u a l f o o t i n g .  The c o u p l e a r e t h u s p l a c e d  Aldhelm o f Wessex, known as a Greek  s c h o l a r , p r a i s e s v i r g i n i t y , but he says t h a t one must n o t despise marriage. B.  A second group o f w r i t e r s gave a d v i c e o f a super -  f i c i a l nature.  F o r them t h e woman i s always an o b j e c t o f  l u x u r y , and h e r f i r s t duty i s t o p l e a s e ; h e r most i n d i s p e n s a b l e q u a l i t y i s beauty.  They never address themselves t o  women who a r e good, but p l a i n , and t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e i r works c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e f l o u r i s h i n g age o f c h i v a l r y . o f conduct advocated  Rules  by poets such as E t i e n n e de Fougeres  have no o t h e r a i m t h a n t o make a person an a g r e e a b l e comp a n i o n , w i t h o u t any p r e o c c u p a t i o n f o r m o r a l  betterment.  G a r i n l o Brun d e p l o r e s t h e decadence i n t o which t h e c u l t o f l o v e has f a l l e n .  A woman, he s a y s , s h o u l d know how t o  make h e r s e l f an o b j e c t o f d e s i r e : she s h o u l d be gay, t e o u s , and s e n s i b l e .  cour-  And f o r poets l i k e Jacques d Amiens T  women a r e p l a y t h i n g s , e x i s t i n g s o l e l y f o r t h e p l e a s u r e o f men.  35 C.  The t h i r d group c o n t a i n s t e a c h i n g s o f a m o r a l o r d e r ,  and c o n s t i t u t e t h e c r a d l e o f modern pedagogy.  With  Philippe  de N o v a i r e , c o n v e n t i o n i s no l o n g e r a f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . R e l i g i o n d e v e l o p s , deepens, and p u r i f i e s i t s e l f .  Practical  l i v i n g r e g a i n s i t s r i g h t s , and i g n o r a n c e t a k e s a backward step.  Women a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e companions o f men. H i s  La c l e f d'amour i s a v i o l e n t a t t a c k a g a i n s t m a r r i a g e , a woman's p r i s o n .  Another p o e t , Robert  de B l o i s , b e l i e v e s  t h a t women a r e n o t j u s t s i m p l y d o l l s , but l i v i n g  beings.  G e n e r a l l y , w r i t e r s i n t h i s group a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a l i t y , and i n women i n a l l s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . ' D.  To t h e s e g r o u p s , t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s t h e s i s would  l i k e t o add a f o u r t h , c o n s i s t i n g o f two 12th c e n t u r y w r i t e r s whose i d e a s on t h e e d u c a t i o n o f women were advanced f o r t h e i r time. The f i r s t o f t h e s e was t h e Dominican monk, V i n c e n t de Beauvais.  At t h e r e q u e s t o f Queen M a r g u e r i t e , w i f e o f  L o u i s X I , he wrote a t r e a t i s e e n t i t l e d De e r u d i t i o n e f i l i o rum n o b i l i u m .  The most e x t e n s i v e p r e c u r s o r o f t h e Humanist  t r a c t s on e d u c a t i o n , i t i s a k i n d o f a n t h o l o g y o f s e l e c t e d passages from c l a s s i c a l and B i b l i c a l a u t h o r s . n i n e c h a p t e r s , based almost  The l a s t  e n t i r e l y on t h e l e t t e r s o f S a i n t  Jerome, a r e devoted t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f g i r l s .  He i n s i s t s  ^ D e t a i l s o f a u t h o r s and t h e i r t e x t s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n have been t a k e n from De l a L i t t e r a t u r e d i d a c t i q u e du Moyen Age, s ' a d r e s s a n t s p e c i a l e m e n t aux femmes, by A l i c e A. Hentsch.  36 t h a t g i r l s o f n o b l e p a r e n t s be i n s t r u c t e d i n l e t t e r s and good m o r a l s .  I f i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , t h e y  w i l l escape h a r m f u l t h o u g h t s and t h e p l e a s u r e s and v a n i t i e s of t h e f l e s h .  N a t u r a l l y he would expect t h e p a r e n t s and  teachers t o provide s u i t a b l e studies.  He a d v i s e s p a r e n t s  t o keep a c l o s e watch on t h e i r d a u g h t e r s , and t h e c h i e f method he a d v i s e s f o r k e e p i n g them c h a s t e i s k e e p i n g them at home."'"  Of course t h e woman i n t h e M i d d l e Ages was  n e a r l y always a t home, i n h e r f a t h e r ' s o r i n h e r husband's. In e x p r e s s i n g concern about t h e s u c c e s s and h a p p i ness o f a g i r l ' s m a r r i a g e , V i n c e n t de Beauvais l i s t s  five  p r i n c i p l e s i n which she s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d b e f o r e l e a v i n g her parents: 1.  She must l o v e and honour h e r husband's r e l a t i v e s w i t h h u m i l i t y and p a t i e n c e .  2.  She must l o v e h e r husband w i t h v o l u n t a r y s u b m i s s i o n . She must c a r e f o r t h e house, and be h o s p i t a b l e . She s h o u l d support h e r husband's d e f e c t s p a t i e n t l y and sweetly.  S i x hundred y e a r s l a t e r , a l t h o u g h women have become emancipated t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degree, young g i r l s s t i l l need t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i r homes. A c c o r d i n g t o A r a b e l l a Kenealy: The h i g h e r t h e organism, t h e more and f o r t h e l o n g e r p e r i o d i t s i n f a n c y e x a c t s i n c r e a s i n g d e v o t i o n and n u r t u r e . Among t h e poor c l a s s e s , t h e c h i l d depends upon i t s h a r d w o r k i n g p a r e n t s f o r a p e r i o d v a r y i n g between 12 and 16 y e a r s . I n p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s e s , t h e young sons and daughters a r e n o t f u l l y q u a l i f i e d f o r independent e x i s t e n c e b e f o r e t h e ages o f 23 o r 25.  37 3.  She s h o u l d beware o f j e a l o u s y w h i c h d e s t r o y s f a m i l y unity.  4.  She s h o u l d r e f r a i n f r o m d y i n g h e r h a i r , and u s i n g  other  s i m i l a r means t o p l e a s e h e r husband. 5.  She must l o v e and t e a c h h e r sons and d a u g h t e r s and d o m e s t i c s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w o f God and t h e r e f o r e should a l l o w nothing o f f e n s i v e t o f a i t h o r morals t o 3 remain i n t h e home. To t h e husband he s a y s : " V i r caput e s t m u l i e r i s , "  but he warns him t h a t t h e w i f e i s t h e h e a r t o f t h e f a m i l y . She  i s n e i t h e r m i s t r e s s o r s e r v a n t ; she i s h i s companion:  nec domina debet e s s e , nec a n c i l l a s e a j s o c i a . ^  (Yet she  must l o v e h e r husband w i t h v o l u n t a r y s u b m i s s i o n . )  Vincent  de B e a u v a i s i s a worthy f o r e r u n n e r o f C h r i s t i n e de P i s a n i n p l e a d i n g f o r t h e b r o a d e n i n g o f t h e scope o f a woman's life. However, i t i s t o P i e r r e Dubois t h a t r e f e r e n c e must be made t o f i n d a r a d i c a l change i n i d e a s .  P i e r r e would  admit g i r l s t o t h e s c h o o l s a t t h e age o f f o u r .  He would  p r o v i d e them w i t h t h e same b a s i c e d u c a t i o n as boys, namely, w i t h L a t i n and one o t h e r language, grammar, l o g i c ,  religion,  and a p o l o g e t i c s , t h e r u d i m e n t s o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , and s u r g e r y and m e d i c i n e — n o t t o a v o i d t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f male d o c t o r s , but t o t a k e t h e i r p a r t i n t h e conquest and maintenance o f t h e Holy Land.  Some g i r l s would marry p h y s i c i a n s  and s u r g e o n s , and t h r o u g h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n would be o f  38 g r e a t e r a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e i r husbands i n t h e care o f t h e sick.  The w e l l i n s t r u c t e d and good l o o k i n g a l s o might be  m a r r i e d t o w o r t h y O r i e n t a l s (Moslems) t o l e a d t h e s e men t o the t r u e f a i t h .  They would be i n s t r u c t e d i n o r d e r t o pos-  sess a b a s i c understanding  o f Greek, Hebrew and A r a b i c .  L e a r n i n g t h e r e f o r e became i n h i s view a p r a c t i c a l means f o r C h r i s t i a n women t o a t t r a c t and c a p t u r e t h o s e who admire these q u a l i t i e s .  At home, o r i n h e r own c o u n t r y , t h e w e l l  educated woman c o u l d have t a k e n h e r p l a c e i n academic  life,  as she had a l r e a d y done i n I t a l y . The s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e study o f L a t i n t o t h a t o f l i v i n g languages,  i n c l u d i n g o r i e n t a l languages,  f o r m a t i o n o f convents  the trans-  into teaching establishments, the  assignment o f a s o c i a l r o l e t o women, w h i l e g i v i n g t h e importance o f a s o c i a l f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r education, a l l these new and b o l d i d e a s expressed by P i e r r e Dubois i n h i s De 5  r e c u p e r a t i o n e Terre. Sancte  were being heard by t h e M i d d l e  Ages i n France f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e .  And a p a r t from such  i s o l a t e d e f f o r t s such as t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t by S a i n t L o u i s i n t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y o f s c h o o l s a t P o n t o i s e and elsewhere f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f orphaned daughters  of knights k i l l e d  i n t h e Holy Land, t h e s e i d e a s would not be u n d e r s t o o d f o r a long time. wanting  A l t h o u g h women had been t r i e d and n o t found  i n t h e attainment  o f s c h o l a s t i c achievement as  l o n g b e f o r e as d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f Charlemagne, t h e i r  lives  would c o n t i n u e t o be v e r y much r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e domestic  p a t t e r n approved by c o n s e r v a t i v e  Christian  tradition.  T h e i r models would be Our Lady and t h e p a t i e n t  Griselidis  40  FOOTNOTES FOR  CHAPTER I I  1  A s t r i k L. G a b r i e l , The E d u c a t i o n a l Ideas of V i n c e n t o f B e a u y a i s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Notre Dame P r e s s , 1962, p. 20.  2  A r a b e l l a K e n e a l y , Feminism and Sex E x t i n c t i o n , London Unwin, 1920, p. 17.  3  Quoted i n G a b r i e l , op. c i t . , p.  4  I b i d . , p.  16.  5  I b i d . , p.  39.  41.  CHAPTER I I I CATO Throughout  t h e M i d d l e Ages an i n t e r e s t i n g  t e x t b o o k s u r v i v e d a l l c u l t u r a l changes. C a t o n i s o r "Cato" as i t was every s t u d e n t .  little  T h i s was t h e D i c t a  c a l l e d , t h e "vade mecum" o f  A c c o r d i n g t o J.W.  and A.M.  Duff, i t i s  l i k e l y t h a t an unknown a u t h o r gave t o h i s c o l l e c t i o n of w i s e saws t h e t i t l e as an echo of t h e m o r a l  instruction  a d d r e s s e d g e n e r a t i o n s e a r l i e r by Cato t h e Censor  (234-149  B.C. ) t o h i s son, and c o n t a i n e d i n h i s Carmen de Moribus."^ In t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y t h i s book enjoyed an e x t e n s i v e vogue. At t h e t u r n o f t h e 6th c e n t u r y , Columbanus, t h e I r i s h monk, added many l i n e s from C h r i s t i a n s o u r c e s , and i t i s not unr e a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t t h e book was re-worked i n t h e Carolingian era.  At any r a t e "Cato" was one o f t h e books,  a l o n g w i t h t h e L i v r e o f t h e C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry which were s e l e c t e d by Caxton f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s of h i s p r e s s a t Westminster.  I t appeared i n 1483  as  2 a prose v e r s i o n .  However, t h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f maxims was  known l o n g b e f o r e t h e n i n E n g l a n d , s i n c e Chaucer  accounts  f o r the f o o l i s h marriage of the carpenter i n the  "Miller's  T a l e " by r e m a r k i n g t h a t "he knew not Catoun, f o r h i s w i t 3  was  rude."  42 As l a t e as 1784, t h e l i t t l e book was i n c l u d e d among t h e Prima Morum e t P i e t a s P r a e e e p t a , p r i n t e d as a s c h o o l book a t E d i n b u r g h . ^  I n F r a n c e , from t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y on-  wards, Cato was t r a n s l a t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s .  And s i n c e t h e  C h e v a l i e r composed h i s book f o r h i s daughters t o "aprendre a r o u m a n c i e r , " t h a t i s , t o r e a d i n F r e n c h , one might  specu-  l a t e on t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t C a t o , e s p e c i a l l y t h e D i s t i q u e s de Caton o f Jean L e f e v r e , ^ was i n c l u d e d among t h e books i n his library collection.  However, f o l l o w i n g i n t h e t r a d i t i o n  o f t h e B i b l e as d i d t h e l a t e r C h r i s t i n e de P i s a n , he p r e f e r r e d t h e use o f examples f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f h i s daughters, a l t h o u g h h i s L i v r e c o n t a i n s a l a r g e number o f maxims. '""Jean L e f e v r e was P r o c u r e u r au Parlement around 1328.  43  FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I I I 1  M a r t i n Schanz, G e s c h i c h t e Der Romischen L i t t e r a t u r , D r i t t e r T e i l . ( C H . Beck sache V e r l a g s b u c h h a n d l u n g ) Munchen, 1959, p. 34.  2  I b i d . , p.  3  The Cambridge MS. o f Chaucer's C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s , publ i s h e d f o r t h e Chaucer S o c i e t y by Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , Trubner and Co., 1902, p. 93, 1. 3227-  4  J.W. and A.M. D u f f , M i n o r L a t i n P o e t s , London, W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . ) , 1934, p. 589.  39.  CHAPTER IV WOMEN IN THE LATE MIDDLE AGES As we have noted n e a r l y a l l o f t h e t e x t s w r i t t e n on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n o f women were i n t e n d e d f o r t h e daughters  o f noble f a m i l i e s .  S i n c e t h e m e n i a l work was  done by s e r v a n t s , t h e g i r l s c o u l d be f a c e d w i t h t h e problem o f how t o use t h e i r l e i s u r e t i m e p r o f i t a b l y .  However, i f  t h e y were brought up i n t h e s t r i c t C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n , t h e i r l i v e s c o u l d be expected t o be w e l l f i l l e d .  But one  g a t h e r s t h a t such was c e r t a i n l y n o t always t h e c a s e , o r t h e r e would not have been so many e x h o r t a t i o n s t o conserve t h e i r v i r g i n i t y , and t o c a r r y out t h e i r r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s . A few w e l l - e d u c a t e d women were t o be found a t t h e summit of t h e s o c i a l s c a l e or i n t h e monasteries  and abbeys. I f  a g i r l d i d n o t marry, she u s u a l l y e n t e r e d a convent. V i n c e n t de Beauvais had f e l t t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d not f o r c e marriage to  on a g i r l who w i s h e s t o c o n s e c r a t e h e r v i r g i n i t y  God, but s h o u l d r a t h e r encourage such a noble  G i r l s were educated  i n monastic  resolution.  s c h o o l s o r i n t h e i r homes  i f t h e i r p a r e n t s were a b l e t o a c q u i r e a t u t o r .  The c l e r k s  who h e l p e d t h e C h e v a l i e r w r i t e h i s L i v r e might have a l s o been employed t o t e a c h h i s d a u g h t e r s . The w i f e was expected t o be c o m p l e t e l y devoted t o h e r husband.  However, t h e r e was n o t t o o much o p p o s i t i o n  45 a g a i n s t h e r a t t e m p t s t o impose h e r w i l l on him, and she often asserted her influence, e s p e c i a l l y i n Paris.  Of  c o u r s e , she might and o f t e n d i d u t i l i z e h e r a u t h o r i t y by means o f c o q u e t t i s h n e s s , s i n c e c o u r t e s y d i d not f o r b i d 2 such t a c t i c s .  And so i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o l e a r n t h a t  more and more a t t e n t i o n was l a v i s h e d on a i d s t o beauty, such as c l o t h e s , head d r e s s e s and make up.  From t h e 1 3 t h  c e n t u r y onwards, women p r i z e d such t h i n g s as h a i r d y e s , c o s m e t i c s , t o o t h powders, perfumes and p a s t e s f o r removing t h e h a i r , e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g t h e f o r e h e a d , t o make i t appear h i g h e r , as a mark o f beauty.  H a i r was dyed f a i r o r d a r k ,  but never r e d , w h i c h was c o n s i d e r e d t o i n d i c a t e an una t t r a c t i v e temperament.  There was a f a d f o r daubing t h e  f a c e w i t h w h i t e , r e d , and e s p e c i a l l y y e l l o w powder, w i t h s a f f r o n reserved f o r the t r u l y elegant.  Lavender and  v i o l e t s c e n t s were t h e f a v o u r i t e s o f h i g h s o c i e t y i n t h e 14th c e n t u r y .  Women c a r r i e d w i t h them s m a l l c o n t a i n e r s  of scent i n t h e form o f b i r d s , o f t e n covered w i t h f e a t h e r s t o b e t t e r i m i t a t e nature.  Sometimes t h e s e were p l a c e d i n  r i c h l y o r n a t e cages, and hung f r o m t h e c e i l i n g t o perfume t h e apartment.  By t h i s t i m e a l s o , a s l i m w a i s t and an  ample bosom were c o n s i d e r e d b e a u t i f u l , and head had become q u i t e e l a b o r a t e .  dresses  But young g i r l s c o n t i n u e d t o  l e t t h e i r h a i r hang as a s i g n o f t h e i r  virginity.  F o r g o t t e n were t h e e x h o r t a t i o n s o f Pseudo-Thomas, 3 who i n h i s De e r u d i t i o n e p r i n c i p u m l i k e n e d t h e beauty o f  46 a woman t o a t r e a s u r e , w h i c h i f c a r r i e d i n p u b l i c and  exposed o p e n l y t o danger, w i l l  be e n r a p t u r i n g .  s h o u l d p r e f e r goodness t o c o r p o r a l beauty. blessed  places A girl  I f she i s n o t  by n a t u r e she i s f o o l i s h t o want t o e m b e l l i s h  s e l f by a r t i f i c i a l means.  her-  The woman who makes every pos-  s i b l e e f f o r t t o become a t t r a c t i v e i n s t e a d o f good i s p u r suing  someone e l s e ' s i n t e r e s t , n o t h e r own, f o r i f she  becomes b e a u t i f u l , she a c t u a l l y g r a t i f i e s someone e l s e . But  i f she becomes good, she h e r s e l f w i l l  state of her soul.  She s h o u l d l e a r n t o r e a d and w r i t e :  Quod v a l d e u t i l e e s t f i l i a s n o b i l i u m , litteris  enjoy t h e p e r f e c t  i m b u i , e t semper a l i q u o opere  dum sunt i n c u s t o d i a s occupari.^  P o e t s and w r i t e r s o f f a b l i a u x t o o k t u r n s i n g o r denouncing t h e woman who was such a  i n extoll-  representative  p r o d u c t o f h e r t i m e , and i n t u r n , o s c i l l a t e d p e r p e t u a l l y between t h e c o a r s e s t  r e a l i t y and an i d e a l o f p u r i t y .  s p i t e j o f the influence  In  of C e l t i c culture i n the North,  where women were c o n s i d e r e d more as t h e companions o f men, and  o f i d e a l s o f C o u r t l y Love which s p r e a d from t h e S o u t h ,  t h e p o s i t i o n o f women i n t h e f a c e o f i n c r e a s i n g l y  bitter  a t t a c k s , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m t h e c l e r g y , was becoming uncomf o r t a b l e t o say t h e l e a s t .  I n t h e 13th c e n t u r y , G u i l l a u m e  de L o r r i s , a u t h o r o f t h e f i r s t  p a r t o f Le Roman de l a Rose,  a d v i s e s gentlemen t o s e r v e t h e l a d i e s .  H i s successor,  Jean de Meung, who completed t h e work, persuades them t o 5 escape from t h e yoke imposed by t h e women.  47 Towards t h e end o f t h e 13th c e n t u r y , c o u r t l y i n f l u ences, w i t h t h e i r v a r n i s h and a r t i f i c e , began t o g i v e way i n t h e f a c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n from t h e more p r a c t i c a l  ideas  of w e a l t h y and c u l t u r e d b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y i n t h e growing cities.  A generation  a f t e r t h e appearance o f t h e L i v r e  t h e e l d e r l y husband o f a young w i f e wrote h i s Menagier de P a r i s t o i n s t r u c t h e r so t h a t i n case o f h i s d e a t h , she would be a b e t t e r w i f e f o r h e r second husband. The nobleman o r k n i g h t , however, was s t i l l a  country  gentleman who t r i e d t o manage h i s e s t a t e s s u c c e s s f u l l y . I f he went o f f t o t h e wars h i s w i f e was expected t o c a r r y on. And i f he d i e d she managed h e r l i f e and t h a t o f h e r c h i l d r e n t o t h e best o f h e r a b i l i t y , and p r e f e r a b l y i n a c o n t i n u i n g s t a t e o f widowhood.  I t was f o r young g i r l s o f t h i s  social  l e v e l , h i s own d a u g h t e r s , r a i s e d i n t h e f a m i l y chateau on the f a m i l y estate t h a t the C h e v a l i e r wrote h i s L i v r e .  48  FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER IV 1  A s t r i k L. G a b r i e l , The E d u c a t i o n a l Ideas o f V i n c e n t o f B e a u v a i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Notre Dame P r e s s , 19'6%.  2  A l f r e d F r a n k l i n , La C i v i l i t e , 1 ' E t i q u e t t e , La Mode, Le Bon Ton, Du X l i e au X I X s i e c l e , P a r i s , E m i l e P a u l , 1908, Tome I , p. 1.  3  Quoted i n i b i d . , p. 38.  4  Loc. c i t .  5  G e r a r d P a r e , Les i d e e s et l e s l e t t r e s au X I I I s i e c l e , Le Roman de l a Rose, e d i t i o n Le Centre de P s y c h o l o g i e et de Pedagogie, M o n t r e a l , 1947, p. 29.  H  e  PART I I I AN ANALYSIS OF HIS EXAMPLES  CHAPTER I THE VIRTUE OF PIETY In t h e s t o r i e s t h e Chevalier r e l a t e s f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s d a u g h t e r s , he r e v e a l s t h e g e n e r a l v i r t u e s s i d e r e d t o be d e s i r a b l e i n t h e i d e a l woman.  con-  These a r e :  p i e t y , h u m i l i t y , courtesy, p i t y , c h a r i t y , obedience,  loyalty,  p a t i e n c e , c h a s t i t y and moderation. P i e t y c o n s i s t s o f d e v o t i o n t o r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s and practices.  When she a r i s e s i n t h e morning, t h e f i r s t t h i n g  a good woman s h o u l d do i s g i v e p r a i s e t o God by s a y i n g a p r a y e r such a s : Laudate Dominum, omnes g e n t e s , benedicamus patrem e t f i l i u m .  I t i s b e t t e r t o thank God f o r h i s g i f t s  t h a n t o ask Him f o r f a v o u r s ( c h a p t e r 2 ) .  A short sincere  p r a y e r i s b e t t e r t h a n a l o n g one i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h  thoughts  on o t h e r m a t t e r s , c a r vous ne p o u r r i e z a l e r deux chemins a un coup, ou vous y r e z l ' u n , ou vous y r e z 1'autre 5).  (chapter  One s h o u l d always pray f o r t h e dead, who r e t u r n such  prayers.  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a t t e n d Mass r e g u l a r l y and as  o f t e n as p o s s i b l e .  Behaviour  i n Church o r on a p i l g r i m a g e  s h o u l d always be exemplary; t h e j o u r n e y f o r t h e l a t t e r s h o u l d be undertaken  f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n f o r r e l i g i o u s  devotion. I m p i e t y i s p u n i s h e d , as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g examples:  Ch.3  Of two s i s t e r s who f a l l i n l o v e w i t h two b r o t h e r s , t h e e l d e r who has mocked t h e p i e t y o f t h e younger, i s drowned w i t h h e r l o v e r who has made h e r pregnant.  Ch.6  A young l a d y l o s e s t h e l o v e o f h e r husband when t h r o u g h an a c c i d e n t which i s a l l o w e d t o happen because o f h e r i m p i e t y , she l o s e s h e r beauty.  Ch.9  Another l a d y who was renowned f o r h e r a p p a r e n t l y  pious  l i f e , was damned f o r e v e r because she had not c o n f e s s e d her mortal s i n t o the p r i e s t : et c r a i g n o i e plus l e bobant du monde que l a vengeance e s p i r i t u e l l e , et pour c u i d i e r e f f a c i e r mon p e c h i e j e j e u n o i e et donnoye l e mien pour D i e u , j e ouoye l e s messes. ... Ch.28  Men and women who kept on t a l k i n g and l a u g h i n g  during  t h e sermon g i v e n by a p a t i e n t and h o l y h e r m i t were made t o c r y out and bray l i k e demons when he c a l l e d on God t o make them keep q u i e t .  A f t e r much  suffering,  t h e more l a v i s h l y d r e s s e d among t h e women, h a v i n g learned t h e i r l e s s o n , disposed of t h e i r ostentatious finery. Ch.26  A v a i n woman who r e f u s e d t o wear h e r best garments t o a Church s e r v i c e on a f e a s t day because she thought no one o f consequence would be t h e r e t o see them was transfixed  t o t h e spot where she s t o o d i n h e r d e f i a n c e .  A h o t wind s t r u c k h e r so t h a t she c o u l d not move, and she began t o s w e l l . Ch.3P^ A k n i g h t and h i s w i f e who s l e e p i n l a t e on Sunday  52 mornings, t h e r e b y c a u s i n g i n c o n v e n i e n c e t o t h e o t h e r p a r i s h i o n e r s , a r e p u n i s h e d by h a v i n g t o do penance b e f o r e them on t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e Sundays.  Here t h e  i d e a o f p i e t y i s n o t f o r one's own sake, b u t as an example t o o t h e r s , t h e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e h i g h born. Ch.34  Another example t e l l s o f a w o r l d l y young w i f e who goes on a p i l g r i m a g e t o be w i t h h e r l o v e r . v i c e she becomes g r a v e l y i l l ,  During t h e s e r -  and i n a v i s i o n , h e r  r e c e n t l y deceased p a r e n t s rebuke h e r . Ch.35  Nor i s a church a p l a c e f o r s i n f u l b e h a v i o u r .  At Notre  Dame de B e a u l i e u , a man and a woman commit f o r n i c a t i o n on t h e a l t a r .  By a m i r a c l e which works t o r e v e a l t h e i r  s i n , t h e y a r e l o c k e d t o g e t h e r l i k e dogs, and become t h e o b j e c t o f c u r i o s i t y f o r t h e v i l l a g e r s who form a p r o c e s s i o n around them. Ch.36  A monk, caught i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n by h i s u n c l e and f r i e n d s , i s so overcome w i t h shame t h a t he l e a v e s t h e abbey.  Ch. 3  A l l s u f f e r t h e punishment o f shame.  On t h e o t h e r hand, p i e t y i s always rewarded.  The young  s i s t e r o f t h e g i r l who was punished f o r mocking h e r p i e t y , i s g i v e n i n m a r r i a g e t o a g r e a t k i n g o f Greece, a f i t t i n g reward f o r t h e daughter o f an emperor who d i d n o t f o r g e t t h e dead i n h e r p r a y e r s . Ch.6  The p i o u s h a l f s i s t e r o f t h e woman who l o s t h e r husband's l o v e because o f h e r i m p i e t y i s rewarded i n a  53 happy m a r r i a g e t o a r i c h and p o w e r f u l husband. Ch.32  God comes t o t h e h e l p o f f a i t h f u l women who a t t e n d  Ch.33  mass r e g u l a r l y .  When t h e i r p r i e s t s become i l l , He  sends an a n g e l i n d i s g u i s e t o r e p l a c e them, t h u s r e w a r d i n g t h e women who t a k e more d e l i g h t i n p l e a s i n g God t h a n i n p l e a s i n g t h e w o r l k and t h e f l e s h . I t i s e v i d e n t from t h e s e examples t h a t t h e l i f e o f a p i o u s woman w i l l be b e t t e r r e g u l a t e d .  She w i l l have l e s s  t i m e f o r f r i v o l o u s a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e t r a i n i n g , i f a c q u i r e d i n y o u t h , w i l l be a l l t h e more v a l u a b l e i n l a t e r  life.  F u r t h e r m o r e , she w i l l s e t a good example f o r o t h e r s t o f o l low.  B u t , as t h e C h e v a l i e r e x p l a i n s , p i e t y s h o u l d be s i n -  c e r e , and not an attempt t o compensate f o r e v i l done.  CHAPTER I I COURTESY AND  HUMILITY  There a r e s e v e r a l examples i l l u s t r a t i n g h u m i l i t y and courtesy.  The f o r m e r , which i s t h e o u t s t a n d i n g C h r i s t i a n  v i r t u e r e s u l t s f r o m a f e e l i n g and acknowledgement o f one's own weakness and i n s u f f i c i e n c y .  Courtesy expresses  itself  i n p o l i t e n e s s , k i n d n e s s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n manner or address.  The a u t h o r t e l l s h i s g i r l s t h a t t h i s v i r t u e i s t h e  f i r s t r o a d which l e a d s t o f r i e n d s h i p . g r e a t nobleman who  He says he knows a  w i n s everyone by h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r  o t h e r s , so t h a t t h e y always s e r v e him w i t h p l e a s u r e t e r 10).  Kindness  shown t o humble f o l k w i l l b r i n g g r e a t e r  p r a i s e and renown t h a n w i l l c o u r t e s y t o g r e a t people t a k e i t as t h e i r due. a r e addressed  (chap-  who  L e s s e r f o l k are honoured when t h e y  politely.  I t i s d i s c o u r t e o u s t o always t u r n one's head from side to side.  The daughters  a r e a d v i s e d t o t u r n body and  head t o g e t h e r , and a v o i d l o o k i n g f l i g h t y . t h e i r chance o f m a r r i a g e  Many g i r l s l o s e  because o f t h i s f a u l t , as i n t h e  f o l l o w i n g examples: Ch.13  Two  Danish p r i n c e s s e s were i g n o r e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e i r  c o u r t e o u s young s i s t e r when t h e K i n g o f England looking f o r a wife.  The  was  e l d e s t appeared l i g h t - h e a d e d ,  and t h e second i n t e r r u p t e d people a l l t h e t i m e .  55 Ch.14  The e l d e r o f two Aragonese  s i s t e r s l o s t h e r chance t o  become queen o f S p a i n because she was d i s c o u r t e o u s . Wives who a r e d i s c o u r t e o u s t o t h e i r husbands,  expeci-  a l l y i n t h e presence o f o t h e r s can expect t r o u b l e .  A  q u e r u l o u s w i f e drove h e r husband t o a f i t o f anger, d u r i n g which he broke h e r nose.  S i n c e t h e nose was  c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most b e a u t i f u l p a r t o f t h e f a c e ( c h a p t e r 1 7 ) , t h e punishment Ch.22  was i n d e e d s e v e r e .  The daughters a r e warned a g a i n s t v e r b a l exchanges persons who a r e easy t a l k e r s .  with  A woman who r e p r o a c h e d  t h e M a r s h a l l o f Clermont f o r h i s w o r s t f a u l t i n t h e presence o f l o r d s and l a d i e s was h u m i l i a t e d by him before the others. Ch.23  I t i s b e s t t o keep one's peace.  Three women, who t r i e d t o shame t h e d a s h i n g Bouciquant because t h e y had r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t he was f i c k l e and a c h e a t e r , were r e n d e r e d p o w e r l e s s by t h e d e x t e r i t y of h i s v e r b a l defense.  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e c o u r t e o u s g i r l o r woman w i l l be rewarded. Ch.12  When t h e K i n g o f E n g l a n d chooses t h e youngest o f t h r e e Danish s i s t e r s as h i s w i f e because o f h e r good manners, he o b s e r v e s :  ^A maxim e x p r e s s i n g t h i s a d v i c e i s found i n Cato: C o n t r a verbosos n o l i contendere v e r b i s ; sermo d a t u r c u n c t i s , animi s a p i e n t i a p a u c i s . l  . . . n u l l e beaute ne n o b l e s c e ne s ' a p a r e i l l e , ne passe bonnes moeurs, et n'est ou monde g r a n t a a i s e comme de a v o i r femme seure e t ferme d ' e s t a t et de bonne m a n i e r e , ne n'est p l u s b e l l e n o b l e s c e . 2 Ch.13  The a u t h o r h i m s e l f r e f u s e d t o marry a b e a u t i f u l  noble  woman because " E l l e a v o i t assez de l a n g a i g e ... et s i a v o i t l ' u e i l b i e n v i f et l e g i e r ... c a r e l l e me p r i a 11 f o i z ou 111.  ..." Her manner was t o o f r e e and open  w i t h him t o o soon. Ch.97  The w i s e H e s t e r g e n t l y c o r r e c t e d h e r husband i n t h e p r i v a c y o f t h e i r home, f o r which he l o v e d h e r d e a r l y . Courtesy  s o f t e n s anger, and l e a d s t o domestic equa-  n i m i t y , f o r t h e courteous  person always a v o i d s  doing  or s a y i n g a n y t h i n g t o d i s p l e a s e one she l o v e s and honours.  (Cato a d v i s e s one n o t t o q u a r r e l w i t h one  " c l o s e l i n k e d t o thee./Anger breeds h a t e , l o v e  feeds  on harmony."' Humble women never q u e s t i o n t h e ways o f t h e A l m i g h t y . Ch.69  Of two w i v e s , one was c h i l d l e s s .  The o t h e r who had  s e v e r a l b e a u t i f u l c h i l d r e n shamed h e r w i t h d i s d a i n . God  punished  t h e proud woman by h a v i n g h e r l o s e a l l  h e r c h i l d r e n , and rewarded t h e humble one by g i v i n g her s e v e r a l who l i v e d . Ch.105  The humble Rebecca, c h i l d l e s s f o r many y e a r s , was r e warded w i t h handsome t w i n sons.  In B i b l i c a l  times,  t w i n s were c o n s i d e r e d a b l e s s i n g and a reward.  But  L i t e m i n f e r r e cave, cum quo t i b i g r a t i a i u n c t a i r a odium g e n e r a t , c o n c o r d i a n u t r i t amorem.3 r  i n t h e M i d d l e Ages, on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y were t h e cause o f much shame and s u f f e r i n g f o r t h e mother who was blamed f o r h a v i n g had r e l a t i o n s w i t h two men, as i n t h e case o f t h e s t o r y t o l d by Jean Renart i n G a l e r a n de Bretagne^" i n t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y .  The i n c l u -  s i o n o f t h e s t o r y o f Rebecca i n t h e L i v r e , and t o l d i n such a s y m p a t h e t i c way, must have r e a s s u r e d t h e women o f t h e C h e v a l i e r ' s t i m e . Ch.100  Because o f t h e s i n c e r e h u m i l i t y w i t h w h i c h she c l e a n s e d h e r s o u l r o f s i n by b a t h i n g t h e f e e t o f C h r i s t w i t h h e r t e a r s and d r y i n g them w i t h h e r h a i r , Mary Magdalen was pardoned.  People who d i s c a r d t h e i r h u m i l i t y i n f a v o u r o f p r i d e a r e punished. Ch.83  A worthy man and h i s w i f e , a l s o c h i l d l e s s f o r many y e a r s promised  t h e i r f i r s t born t o t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e Church.  They were g i v e n two sons. handsome was t h e f i r s t  When t h e y saw how much more  one, t h e y d e c i d e d t o make him  t h e i r h e i r , and g i v e t h e second one t o t h e Church. God punished t h e i r p r i d e by ending t h e i r l i n e a g e . Ch.105  The n i e c e who made h e r much t r a v e l l e d u n c l e w a i t i n o r d e r t o b e a u t i f y h e r s e l f when he came t o see h e r , l o s t h e r chance o f r e c e i v i n g t h e g i f t o f a b e a u t i f u l d r e s s , w h i c h he had brought back f o r h e r . The a u t h o r o f t h e L i v r e p r a i s e s t h e two v i r t u e s o f  c o u r t e s y and h u m i l i t y .  Indeed, he c o n s i d e r s them t o be so  53 c l o s e l y l i n k e d t h a t he t r e a t s them as  one:  A p r e s , mes b e l l e s f i l l e s , gardez que vous s o i e z court o i s e s et humbles, c a r i l n'est n u l l e p l u s b e l l e v e r t u , ne q u i t a n t a t t r a i t e a a v o i r l a g r a c e de D i e u et l ' h o n neur de t o u t e s gens, que e s t r e humbleset c o u r t o i s e s . ... ( c h a p t e r 10)  59  FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I I 1  J.W. and A.M. 11. 598-99.  D u f f , M i n o r L a t i n P o e t s , "Cato," p. 10,  2  M o n t a i g l o n , p. 26.  3  D u f f , op. c i t . , p. 36, 11. 602-603.  4  Jean R e n a r t , G a l e r a n de B r e t a g n e , roman du X I I I siecle e d i t e p a r L u c i e n F o u l e t , P a r i s (Champion), 1925. e  CHAPTER I I I CHARITY AND  COMPASSION  The f i r s t q u a l i t y o f t h e v i r t u e o f c h a r i t y i s t h e l o v e o f man  f o r h i s f e l l o w men.  I t i s e x p r e s s e d by an a c t  of g o o d w i l l o r a f f e c t i o n o r compassion.  I t i s a l s o the  q u a l i t y of being k i n d or l e n i e n t i n judging o t h e r s . by compassion  Moved  a c h a r i t a b l e p e r s o n f e e l s sorrow f o r t h e s u f -  f e r i n g s o r t r o u b l e o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s , and i s s e i z e d w i t h t h e urge t o h e l p .  A g a i n t h e s e v i r t u e s have  t h e i r rewards, w h i l e punishment l i e s i n s t o r e f o r t h o s e persons who  are p i t i l e s s  and u n c h a r i t a b l e .  Wise men  say  t h a t woman i s by n a t u r e more g e n t l e and compassionate man.  I f a woman's h e a r t i s h a r d , she i s mannish.  than  A true  woman need not be ashamed t o c r y from a humble h e a r t which i s f i l l e d w i t h p i t y f o r t h e u n f o r t u n a t e ( c h a p t e r 103). The a u t h o r of t h e L i v r e o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g examples i n which the u n c h a r i t a b l e are punished. Ch.20  Women who  pamper t h e i r f a t l i t t l e dogs w i t h good c a r e  and f o o d w h i l e God's poor go hungry can expect s m a l l b l a c k dogs t o make t h e i r mouths c o a l b l a c k from t h e i r l i c k i n g when t h e y a r e on t h e i r death Ch.l6  bed.  J e z e b e l h a t e d h e r m i t s and t h e poor, and t h e people of t h e Church so much t h a t she f o r c e d them t o f l e e from  the realm.  When she d i e d , she was d e n i e d a s e p u l c h e r ,  and was devoured by dogs. Ch. 67 Breneheust,  a queen o f F r a n c e , a t t h a t t i m e known as  G a u l , was so c r u e l and p i t i l e s s t h a t she was q u a r t e r e d on t h e a d v i c e o f one o f h e r grandsons who escaped h e r rampage o f s l a u g h t e r . Compassionate and c h a r i t a b l e women, on t h e o t h e r hand, have their Ch.8l  rewards: The two v i r t u e s were combined i n Pharaoh's daughter who found t h e h e l p l e s s babe Moses and r a i s e d him a s h e r own son.  She was rewarded by s e e i n g h i m grow i n  wisdom and power. Ch. 88  When h e r c i t y was a t t a c k e d , Raab and h e r f a m i l y were saved because she had g i v e n s h e l t e r t o God's messeng e r s , and had t r i e d t o p r o t e c t them.  I n t h e same  c h a p t e r t h e a u t h o r t e l l s o f S a i n t A n a s t a s i a who was d e l i v e r e d from imprisonment because God knew t h a t she had h e l p e d w i t h h e r own goods t h e u n f o r t u n a t e i n s i m i l a r circumstances.  He reminds h i s daughters  that ac-  c o r d i n g t o t h e G o s p e l , Jesus C h r i s t on t h e l a s t day o f judgement w i l l have mercy on t h o s e who v i s i t e d t h e s i c k and t h e p r i s o n e r s .  Saintffec!©gonde, a queen o f  F r a n c e , f e l t t h a t she was s t i l l not doing enough f o r the unfortunate.  So she l e f t h e r husband and a l l t h e  honour and g l o r y o f t h e kingdom and w o r l d l y p l e a s u r e s t o e n t e r a convent a t P o i t i e r s .  I n h e r honour, God  62  worked a miracle by making a d r y o l d t r e e which shaded the c o u r t y a r d t o renew i t s e l f , so t h a t i t bore l e a v e s a g a i n , much a g a i n s t t h e course o f n a t u r e . Ch.102  Because o f h e r h o l y l i f e , h e r c h a r i t y and compassion Jesus C h r i s t H i m s e l f s t a y e d i n t h e home o f M a r t h a , t h e s i s t e r o f Mary Magdalen.  The a u t h o r o f t h e L i v r e  c o u l d h a r d l y have chosen a b e t t e r example t h a n  this  one t o impress h i s d a u g h t e r s w i t h t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s e virtues. Ch.106  The v i r t u e o f compassion i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o women a l o n e . A young k n i g h t once came t o t h e rescue o f a g i r l unj u s t l y accused o f a h e a r t l e s s crime.  He c h a l l e n g e d h e r  f a l s e a c c u s e r t o a d u e l and overcame h i m — b u t n o t w i t h out r e c e i v i n g f i v e m o r t a l wounds, as d i d C h r i s t b e f o r e he d i e d t o save mankind. The a u t h o r t e l l s about s e v e r a l g e n t l e and compassiona t e women, such as t h o s e who f o l l o w e d C h r i s t and wept t o see him c a r r y h i s heavy c r o s s .  Then t h e r e were t h e t h r e e Marys  who r o s e e a r l y on E a s t e r morning t o a n o i n t H i s body w i t h precious ointments.  D u r i n g Nero's c r u e l y e a r s , t h e k i n d l y  women o f Rome, prepared t h e b o d i e s o f t h e m a r t y r s f o r b u r i a l . The C h e v a l i e r d e p l o r e s t h e f a c t t h a t i n h i s own day so many women s e t t h e i r h e a r t s on w o r l d l y t h i n g s , and on t h e a t t e n t i o n they r e c e i v e from others.  CHAPTER  IV  LOYALTY AND OBEDIENCE I f she i s a l o y a l p e r s o n , a w i f e w i l l be t r u e and f a i t h f u l t o d u t y , l o v e and o b l i g a t i o n s . she was expected t o be c o m p l e t e l y  I n Mediaeval  times,  devoted t o h e r husband,  and t o comply w i t h h e r commands, i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r  nature.  And a l w a y s , a w i f e s h o u l d be worthy o f h e r husband's t r u s t , as he s h o u l d be o f h e r s . Ch.58  The f i r s t  example o f l o y a l t y i n t h e L i v r e i s i n t h e  s t o r y o f Joseph who was s o l d t o Pharaoh by h i s b r o t h e r s . The to  queen f e l l madly i n l o v e w i t h h i m ,  r  but he r e f u s e d  comply w i t h h e r w i s h e s because o f h i s d e v o t i o n t o  h e r husband.  I n a f i t o f anger, she f a l s e l y accused  him o f t r y i n g t o seduce h e r , and he was thrown i n t o prison.  Remembering h i s goodness, God had him d e l i v e r e d ,  I t i s t o be n o t e d t h a t t h e a u t h o r i d e n t i f i e s P o t i p h a r ' s w i f e w i t h Pharaoh's queen. The V u l g a t e , G e n e s i s , c h a p t e r 39, v e r s e 1, r e a d s : I g i t u r Joseph ductus e s t i n Aegyptum, emitque eum P o t i p h a r eunuchus P h a r a o n i s , p r i n c e p s e x e r c i t u s , v i r A e g y p t i u s , de manu I s m a e l i t a r u m , a quibus p e r d u c t u s e r a t . Later t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Bible follow different vers i o n s o f t h e s t o r y , based on J o r E a c c o u n t s which were contemporaneous. Both groups drew from m a t e r i a l f a r o l d e r t h a n t h e i r own day, sometimes o l d e r t h a n I s r a e l i t s e l f . 1 Volume I I I , p. 819, o f A D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e B i b l e s t a t e s : The l o n g and e l a b o r a t e s t o r y o f Joseph p r e s e n t s some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g d a t a f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , but t h e y a r e not favourable t o the view that i t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y t r u e .  and t h e queen was p u n i s h e d w i t h a sudden and e v i l death. Ch.83  A f t e r a b a r r e n p e r i o d t h a t l a s t e d more t h a n one hundred y e a r s , S a r a was rewarded f o r h e r l o y a l t y t o h e r 2 husband Abraham, by g i v i n g b i r t h t o I s a a c . for  Rebecca,  h e r l o y a l t y t o h e r husband, r e c e i v e d a s i m i l a r  reward i n h e r sons Esau t h e h u n t e r and J a c o b , t h e p r o v i d e n t one,  f a v o u r e d by h i s mother.  I n t h i s con-  t e x t t h e a u t h o r compares Rebecca t o t h e l i o n e s s and the  s h e - w o l f who p r e f e r t h e cub b e s t a b l e t o f e n d f o r  itself. Ch.92  The w i f e o f a Roman s e n a t o r i s p r a i s e d f o r h e r l o y a l t y t o h e r husband who was j e a l o u s w i t h o u t cause and c r u e l to her.  Committed t o f i g h t i n g a d u e l , he o b t a i n e d a  proxy because he was t o o much o f a coward. man became i l l ,  When t h e  and no replacement c o u l d be f o u n d , h i s  w i f e , r e a l i z i n g t h e g r e a t d i s h o n o u r t h a t would b e f a l l her  husband, went t o h e r room and had h e r s e l f  and d i s g u i s e d .  armed  God saw t h a t she was r e n d e r i n g good  for  e v i l , and gave h e r t h e courage and s t r e n g t h needed  for  victory.  When h e r i d e n t i t y was r e v e a l e d everyone  was i m p r e s s e d , and she r e c e i v e d even g r e a t e r honour from the c i t y . Ch.98  A n o b l e example o f l o y a l t y i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s t o r y of t h e b e a u t i f u l Suzanne.  Two p r i e s t s who were tempted  one day when t h e y saw h e r combing h e r h a i r i n t h e o r -  65 c h a r d , t h r e a t e n e d t o w i t n e s s i n c o u r t t h a t t h e y had seen h e r w i t h another man i f she d i d not comply w i t h t h e i r wishes.  Death would have been h e r f a t e , s i n c e  two w i t n e s s e s were b e l i e v e d a t t h a t t i m e . be untrue t o h e r vows, she chose death.  R a t h e r than To t h e g r e a t  amazement o f everyone, she was r e s c u e d by t h e f o u r y e a r o l d prophet D a n i e l who d i r e c t e d t h e c l e v e r quest i o n i n g which uncovered t h e p e r f i d y o f t h e two p r i e s t s , 5 on whom t h e death sentence was passed. Ch.94  Here we have an example o f l o y a l t y i n f r i e n d s h i p . F l a t t e r i n g f r i e n d s gathered  around t h e d e a t h bed o f a  Roman emperor, and concerned o n l y w i t h t h e s t a t e o f h i s p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , kept t e l l i n g him he would r e c o v e r . But a f a i t h f u l o l d c h a m b e r l a i n his  who had s e r v e d him s i n c e  c h i l d h o o d , a d v i s e d him t o g i v e t o t h e poor t h e  w e a l t h o f w o r l d l y goods God had seen f i t t o bestow on him d u r i n g h i s l o n g l i f e .  The emperor a c c e p t e d t h e  w i s e a d v i c e , s a y i n g : P l u s v a u l t amy q u i p o i n t que f l a t teur qui oint.^  More v a l u a b l e i s t h e l o y a l f r i e n d who  v a l u e s t h e s a l v a t i o n o f t h e s o u l , f o r he who l o v e s t h e body must a l s o l o v e t h e s o u l , and he must never c o n c e a l from h i s f r i e n d a n y t h i n g t h a t w i l l b r i n g him p r o f i t o r honour. D i s l o y a l t y i s t h e theme o f t h r e e e n t e r t a i n i n g c h a p t e r s . Ch.62  T h i s i s a contemporary example i n which a f o o l i s h rope maker's w i f e (her husband s h o u l d have t i e d her.') f i n a l l y  66 drove her honest husband t o i n f l i c t i n g the  effective,  i f severe punishment o f b r e a k i n g her l e g s when she persisted i n v i s i t i n g  a r i c h and l u s t f u l  prior.  Her  d o w n f a l l began w i t h her g r e e d , f o r she a c c e p t e d j e w e l s from the man, q u i p r e n t se Ch.128  little  and as t h e a u t h o r remarks: femme  vent.^  A d i s l o y a l w i f e who  i s unworthy of her husband's con-  f i d e n c e can cause a g r e a t d e a l of m i s c h i e f .  On h i s  deathbed, Cato t h e Censor a d v i s e d h i s son t o t e s t h i s w i f e ' s l o y a l t y and d i s c r e t i o n .  I n time t h e young hus-  band c o n f i d e d t o her t h a t he had k i l l e d t h e emperor's son, removed h i s h e a r t and sent i t t o h i s p a r e n t s a t e i t i n i t s s p i c y sauce. s e c r e t t o a f r i e n d who  The w i f e soon b e t r a y e d  One  g o s s i p , Cathonet was  As a r e s u l t  almost hanged.  author.  Y e t , i n s p i t e o f the a d v i c e of the s a g e s , w i v e s w i l l go on r e v e a l i n g t h e i r husbands! s e c r e t s . ample, t h e husband who  -  46  In t h i s  confides t o having l a i d  eggs i s f i n a l l y r e p o r t e d t o have l a i d one Ch.39  of  s h o u l d always weigh the p o s s i b l e consequences of  one's words and a c t i o n s , says the Ch.74  the  went d i r e c t l y t o t h e emperor's  w i f e w i t h i t , hoping t o g a i n f a v o u r . this indiscreet  who  ex-  two  hundred.  I f a w i f e i s d i s l o y a l , i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r her t o be o b e d i e n t .  Because of her d i s o b e d i e n c e ,  been blamed f o r a l l t h e woes of mankind. de L a t o u r Landry devotes n i n e c h a p t e r s  The  Eve  has  Chevalier  to.a^alysti^his  67 c o m p l i c a t e d and p o r t e n t o u s s i n .  I f t h e M i d d l e Ages  have been accused o f i n a b i l i t y t o a n a l y s e , t h e a u t h o r ' s e f f o r t s here c e r t a i n l y prove t h e c o n t r a r y .  I n t h e end,  t h e d a u g h t e r s — a n d f u t u r e r e a d e r s — a r e l e f t t o specul a t e on what t h e h i s t o r y o f mankind might have been i f Eve had been o b e d i e n t . Ch.64  The a u t h o r a d v i s e s h i s g i r l s t o obey t h e i r husbands e s p e c i a l l y b e f o r e company, i f t h e y w i s h t o be honored. Queen V a s t i s , who d i s o b e y e d h e r husband, was b a n i s h e d by him f o r seven y e a r s , and p l a c e d on a s e v e r e l y r e stricted  Ch.72  diet.  A w i f e who would n o t obey h e r husband's command t o come t o t h e d i n n e r t a b l e was made t o s i t w i t h an u g l y v i l e l a c k e y a t another t a b l e spread w i t h a d i r t y  cloth.  A good d e a l o f humour i s c o n t a i n e d i n a s t o r y about a w i f e who does obey h e r husband. Ch.19  Three c l o t h merchants made a wager as t o w h i c h o f t h e i r w i v e s w i l l prove most o b e d i e n t .  The f i r s t two  w i v e s r e f u s e t o obey, and a r e s t r u c k by t h e i r husbands. The t h i r d one however, has t h e meal ready when t h e men a r r i v e , and l a t e r even jumps on t h e t a b l e a t h e r husband's command: Femme, s a u l s u r table.'  The s i t u a t i o n  and t h e l a d y ' s honour a r e saved by t h e husband's e x p l a n a t i o n o f a c l e v e r p l a y on words. sur t a b l e .  He had s a i d : S e i  The d a u g h t e r s l e a r n t h a t common people  c h a s t i s e t h e i r women w i t h blows.  But a gentlewoman  s h o u l d be rebuked c o u r t e o u s l y .  The more g e n t l e  she  i s , t h e more j o y f u l l y she w i l l c a r r y out her husband's wishes.  A f t e r r e a d i n g t h i s s t o r y t h e g i r l s would be  d e t e r r e d from m a r r y i n g  a man  of t h e c l a s s of "gens  v o i t t u r i e r s , " a l t h o u g h t h e y would l i k e l y admire t h e s p i r i t of the f i r s t two w i v e s who  wished t o know  why  t h e y were b e i n g asked t o jump i n t o a basin.' The a u t h o r concludes obedient  w i f e by  h i s c h a p t e r i n p r a i s e of the  saying:  . . . et a i n s i d o i t t o u t e bonne femme f e r e , c r a i n d r e et o b e i r a son s e i g n e u r , et f a i r e son commandement, s o i t t o r t , s o i t d r o i t , se l e commandement n'est t r o p o u l t r a g e u x , et se i l y a v i c e , e l l e en est desblamee, et demoure l e blasme, se blasme y a, a son s e i g n e u r .  69  FOOTNOTES FOR  CHAPTER IV  1  A D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e B i b l e , V o l . IV, p.  23.  2  G e n e s i s 21 ( 2 , 3 ) .  3  I b i d . , 25 (25:26).  4  I b i d . , 25:28.  5  The Apocrypha. pp. 184-186.  6  V g l . Godefroy V, 583 (quoted i n Zum l i v r e du C h e v a l i e r .... by P e t e r S t o l i n g w a , p. 159).  7  P r o v e r b e s f r a n c a i s a n t e r i e u r s au 1 5 s i e c l e . e d i t e s par Joseph Morawski, P a r i s , L i b r a i r i e Ancienne Edouard Champion, 1925, p. 27, no. 738.  Revised Standard V e r s i o n ,  e  "Susanna,"  CHAPTER  V  PATIENCE Although  t h e G r i s e l i d i s was a p o p u l a r model o f calm  endurance f o r women i n t h e l a t e M i d d l e Ages,^ and t h e p a t i e n t and f o r e b e a r i n g w i f e i s o f t e n met i n t h e L i v r e , a c t u a l l y o n l y one  c h a p t e r emphasizes t h i s v i r t u e , w i t h s t o r i e s t a k e n from  T o b i t I I I o f t h e Apocrypha.'*" Ch.80  The f i r s t s t o r y t e l l s how God rewarded t h e p a t i e n t Tobias the e l d e r w i t h t h e r e t u r n of h i s s i g h t , w h i l e his  nagging w i f e Anna was p u n i s h e d w i t h i l l n e s s f o r  q u e s t i o n i n g God's ways. W i t h u n c o m p l a i n i n g p a t i e n c e , S a r a h , daughter o f t h e w e a l t h y R a g u e l , bore t h e t r i a l o f l o s i n g seven husbands one a f t e r t h e o t h e r .  The a u t h o r  e x p l a i n s t h a t a l l were  k i l l e d by t h e demon Asmodeus "pour ce q u ' i l s v o u l i u e n t u s e r d'un t r o p v i l l a i n f a i t que j a ne f a i t a nommer." G r i s e l i d i s was t h e h e r o i n e o f a l e g e n d t o l d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e by B o c c a c i o (Decameron, X, 1 0 ) . The s t o r y was made i n t o a drama by an unknown French a u t h o r a t t h e c l o s e of t h e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y . 1 """"included i n t h e L a t i n V u l g a t e , though not i n t h e Hebrew Canon o f H o l y S c r i p t u r e , t h e Apocrypha had a p l a c e i n a l l 1 6 t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e B i b l e , and i n t h e K i n g James V e r s i o n (1611). "And t h e o t h e r books (as Jerome s a i t h ) t h e Church doth r e a d f o r example o f l i f e , and i n s t r u c t i o n o f manners, but y e t doth i t not a p p l y them t o e s t a b l i s h any d o c t r i n e . " 2  71 F u r t h e r on, r e f e r r i n g a g a i n t o Sarah i n Chapter 96,  he  adds "pour ce q u ' i l s ne v o u l i u e n t pas u s e r de l o y a l mariage."  I n Chapter 54, r e f e r r i n g t o t h e seven  cities  burned by t h e w r a t h o f God, t h e a u t h o r c i t e s " l e v i l p e c h i e de l u x u r e " as t h e s i n "que j a ne f a i t a nommer." For h e r l o n g s u f f e r i n g p a t i e n c e Sarah was  rewarded  w i t h t h e g e n t l e T o b i a s t h e younger as h e r e i g h t h husband.  They had b e a u t i f u l c h i l d r e n and p r o s p e r e d  honorably. The a u t h o r ' s daughters might not have r e a d t h e G r i s e l i d i s l e g e n d , but on t h e o t h e r hand, Cato's maxim c o u l d have been f a m i l i a r t o them."* R e s i g n a t i o n t o God's w i l l as t h e crowning j e w e l o f p a t i e n c e i s emphasized  i n t h e s e examples.  The a u t h o r con-  c l u d e s by s a y i n g : ... n u l ne d o i t d e s p i r e l e mehaing ne l e mal d ' a u t r u y , c a r n u l ne s c e t q u i a l ' u e i l l u i p e u t , ne n u l ne d o i t e s m e r v e i l l i e r ne esmaier des f o r t u n e s ne des t r i b u l a c i o n s a soy ne a ses v o y s i n s , et d o i t l ' e n du t o u t m e r c i e r D i e u . ... Quern s u p e r a r e potes i n t e r d u m v i n c o f e r e n d o ; Maxima enim e s t hominum semper p a t i e n t i a v i r t u s . 3  72  FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER V 1  L a ~ r o u s s e du X X  2  The Apocrypha, R e v i s e d S t a n d a r d V e r s i o n , New York N e l s o n and S o n s ) , 1$57, P r e f a c e .  3  J.W. and A.M. D u f f , Minor L a t i n P o e t s , "Cato," p. 36.  i e m e  s i e c l e , p. 886. (Thomas  CHAPTER VI CHASTITY T h i s v i r t u e has always been p r a i s e w o r t h y , from  Bibli-  c a l t i m e s and from e a r l i e s t C h r i s t i a n days when members o f the  s e c r e t s o c i e t y p l e d g e d t h e m s e l v e s not t o commit a d u l t e r y T  A c h a s t e p e r s o n a b s t a i n s from i n d u l g i n g i n f o r b i d d e n p l e a s u r e s o f t h e f l e s h , and p r a c t i s e s c o n t i n e n c e i n m a r r i a g e . The C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry i s v e r y much aware o f the to Ch.55  p i t f a l l s o f t e m p t a t i o n , and he o f f e r s s e v e r a l  examples  show how t h e unchaste a r e p u n i s h e d . The daughters o f L o t h gave b i r t h t o an a c c u r s e d l i n e a g e when t h e y c o n c e i v e d from t h e i r f a t h e r whom t h e y had r e n d e r e d i n e b r i a t e w i t h wine.  Ch.56  Jacob's daughter caused so much carnage by h e r f a l l from t h e g r a c e o f c h a s t i t y t h a t h e r u n c l e remarked t o h e r f a t h e r : I I vous v a u l s i s t t r o p m i e u l x que e l l e n'eust oncques e s t e nee.  Ch.59  She was  cut up i n t o s m a l l p i e c e s .  The daughters o f Moab, who h i m s e l f had been c o n c e i v e d a g a i n s t t h e l a w , went i n t o Hebrew c o u n t r y t o seduce  "\ . . quod e s s e n t s o l i t i s t a t o d i e ante lucem conuen i r e , carmenque C h r i s t o q u a s i deo d i c e r e secum i n u i c e m seque Sacramento non i n s c e l u s a l i q u o d o b s t r i n g e r e , sed ne f u r t a ne l a t r o c i n i a ne a d u l t e r i a c o m m i t t e r e n t . . . .1  74 t h e men so t h a t t h e w r a t h o f God would f a l l upon them. Many t r i b u l a t i o n s r e s u l t e d from t h i s p i e c e o f s k u l duggery. fruit. Ch.6l  The a u t h o r remarks: et v o u l e n t i e r s de mauvais  2  Thamar, daughter o f K i n g David was made pregnant by h e r b r o t h e r Amon who was t h e n k i l l e d by t h e i r Absalom.  brother  Gay young f l e s h i s e a s i l y tempted, s a y t h e  Chevalier.  He warns h i s daughters never t o be a l o n e  w i t h any man, not even w i t h a c l o s e r e l a t i v e . t e l l i n g h i s harrowing  But a f t e r  t a l e s he i n d i c a t e s h i s acknowledge-  ment o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g by a l l o w i n g t h a t a g i r l may be a l o n e w i t h h e r f a t h e r o r h e r b r o t h e r . The Ch.125  c h a s t e w i f e i s rewarded, as i n t h e next  example.  A h o l y h e r m i t q u e s t i o n s h i s own w o r t h i n e s s b e f o r e God. He i s t o l d i n a v i s i o n t o v i s i t t h e P r o v o s t o f A c q u i l l e e and h i s w i f e .  I n t h e absence o f h e r husband t h e good  l a d y s e v e r e l y t e s t s t h e m o r a l f i b r e o f h e r guest who had never l e a r n e d t o be moderate, because he had never f a c e d such t e m p t a t i o n s .  He r e t u r n e d t o h i s h e r m i t a g e ,  full  of p r a i s e f o r t h e chaste w i f e . Although t h e a u t h o r h i m s e l f m a r r i e d t w i c e , and h i s second w i f e was a widow w i t h c h i l d r e n , he does n o t adv i s e a woman t o remarry.  R a t h e r , she s h o u l d l i v e i n  c l e a n widowhood, and r e a r h e r c h i l d r e n t o t h e best o f her a b i l i t y .  P h i l o s o p h e r s and S a i n t s have  t h e same c o n v i c t i o n :  expressed  75 Tous l e s a u t e u r s a n c i e n s se prononcent c o n t r e un deuxieme m a r r i a g e : S a i n t Jerome ( P a t r o l , l a t . , X X I I , c o l . 289-290, et c o l . 2 9 D ; S a i n t ^Amboise, S a i n t P a u l ; exemples de S o c r a t e , de C i c e r o n . Le Roman de l a Rose ( 1 , 136-137) et Eustache Deschamps, dans t o u t e s ses b a l l a d e s et dans son M i r o i r , sont fortement c o n v a i n c u s de l a sagesse de s'en t e n i r a une p r e m i e r e epreuve.3 S e v e r a l widows are c i t e d by the C h e v a l i e r as  ex-  amples f o r h i s d a u g h t e r s t o c o n s i d e r . Ch.114  The  f i r s t , a b e a u t i f u l w i f e who  l o s t her husband a t t h e  b a t t l e of Crecy, continued t o l i v e a blameless and was  p r a i s e d more t h a n ever  life,  before.  Another a t t r a c t i v e young w i f e c a r e d f o r her  diffi-  c u l t and s e n i l e o l d husband t h r o u g h o u t h i s l o n g  illness  and c o n t i n u e d t o behave i m p e c c a b l y i n her widowhood. Queen Jeanne of France i s e q u a l l y p r a i s e d . The  a u t h o r a d v i s e s widows a g a i n s t r e m a r r y i n g  p l e a s u r e or l i g h t l o v e .  I f t h e y must marry, t h e y  for should  seek t h e a d v i c e of t h e i r p a r e n t s and w i s e f r i e n d s . F u r t h e r on i n h i s t e x t , t h e a u t h o r h a n d l e s t h e f a s c i n a t i n g and c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t of l o v e w i t h  ever  analy-  t i c a l d e x e r i t y where he r e c o r d s a debate between h i s w i f e and h i m s e l f . The  T h e i r arguments may  be summarized as f o l l o w s :  C h e v a l i e r : A f t e r a l l o w i n g t h a t a woman or a young l a d y may  l o v e because of honour i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , as i n t h e  hope of m a r r i a g e , for  he f e e l s t h a t she c o u l d l o v e  t h e sake of l o v i n g .  simply  Her l o v e r , whether a k n i g h t  or s q u i r e , would become a more worthy p e r s o n ,  gayer,  76  b e t t e r d r e s s e d , and a m b i t i o u s f o r honour i n o r d e r t o p l e a s e t h e woman he l o v e s .  Here t h e a u t h o r  expresses  i d e a s which had been e n u n c i a t e d much e a r l i e r by poets such as Drouart l a Vache, who based h i s work on t h a t of  Capellanus. He b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s daughters  s h o u l d n o t be r e -  s t r a i n e d t o t h e p o i n t where t h e y would be unable t o l o v e one man more t h a n a n o t h e r .  And a g a i n he argues  i n f a v o u r o f a l l o w i n g them t o l o v e f o r t h e sake o f l o v i n g , a t l e a s t once t h e y a r e m a r r i e d .  And i f t h e y  marry a man o f l o w l y p o s i t i o n , i t w i l l be t o t h e i r c r e d i t t o i n c r e a s e h i s esteem, so t h a t he may be a c cepted among t h e worthy.  As f o r a l l o w i n g them t o k i s s  and embrace, he e x c l a i m s : Avoy, dame, e t , se i l l a r e q u i e r t d ' a c o l e r et de b a i s i e r , ce n'est mie g r a n t chose; c a r a u t a n t en porte l e vent.* The Lady o f La Tour Landry m a i n t a i n s t h a t a l l such t a l k about l o v i n g f o r t h e sake o f l o v i n g i s s i m p l y t h e common pastime o f gentlemen and t h e i r f r i e n d s .  In t r u t h , a  man w i s h e s t o impress t h e w o r l d around him o n l y t o r e c e i v e honours f o r h i m s e l f .  She a d v i s e s h e r daughters t o keep  t h e i r honour c l e a n and b l a m e l e s s b e f o r e t h e w o r l d .  They  s h o u l d a v o i d f a l l i n g i n l o v e t o t h e p o i n t o f b e i n g mastered by t h e emotion, which o f t e n l e a d s i t s v i c t i m s a s t r a y . ""This p r o v e r b appears i n V i l l o n ' s poem e n t i t l e d " B a l l a d e en V i e i l Langage F r a n c o i s . " 4  There  77 a r e always p l e n t y o f s l a n d e r e r s and b a c k - b i t e r s who d e l i g h t i n s p r e a d i n g e v i l s t o r i e s w h i c h defame t h e honour o f a good woman. T h i s emphasis on t h e n o b i l i t y o f honour, e x t o l l e d by t h e e p i c poets o f t h e N o r t h e r n s c h o o l appears t o p l a c e t h e Lady o f L a Tour Landry i n o p p o s i t i o n t o h e r husband who seems t o support t h e i d e a s o f t h e Southern Troubadours who sang t h e p r a i s e s o f Women and " l a j o i e d amour." T  She ex-  p r e s s e s concern about t h e bad e f f e c t s o f an e n g r o s s i n g l o v e which would prevent them from s e r v i n g God w i t h as good a h e a r t as b e f o r e , and she c i t e s t h e example o f t h e a r t f u l goddess Venus who a d v i s e d t h e T r o j a n s t o send P a r i s t o Greece to  seek t h e most b e a u t i f u l woman i n t h e kingdom.  H e l e n , w i f e o f K i n g Menelaux.  T h i s was  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s e x p e d i t i o n ,  f o r t y k i n g s d i e d , and more t h a n one hundred thousand men. She i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t no l o v e s i c k woman w i l l ever be i n a s t a t e t o l o v e God p e r f e c t l y , and she w i l l be tempted more s o r e l y i n church t h a n  elsewhere.  She i s n o t i n f a v o u r o f a l l o w i n g h e r g i r l s t o l o v e a man o f l o w e r rank.  Nor s h o u l d t h e y s e t t h e i r h e a r t s on men  o f h i g h p o s i t i o n , f o r g r e a t l o r d s w i l l not marry them.  Rather,  t h e y w i l l o n l y d e c e i v e them t o o b t a i n t h e i r own f a l s e p l e a s u r e . As f o r women who have a f f a i r s w i t h m a r r i e d men, p r i e s t s o r monks, w i t h s e r v a n t s o r o t h e r s o f l o w degree, t h e y a r e worse h a r l o t s t h a n t h o s e u n f o r t u n a t e women i n b r o t h e l s .  These poor  c r e a t u r e s f a l l i n t o t h e s i n o f l e c h e r y o n l y because o f need  78 or poverty,  o r because t h e y have been d e c e i v e d i n t o t h a t  kind of l i f e . She e x p e c t s h e r daughters t o be gay w i t h a l l s o r t s of h o n o u r a b l e p e o p l e , and more so w i t h c e r t a i n ones t h a n with others.  I t i s t r u e , however, t h a t no woman can have  two h e a r t s , no more t h a n a greyhound can r u n a f t e r two b e a s t s a t one t i m e . The best k i n d o f l o v e i s t h e one t h a t makes no demands.  Wise women o f o l d m a i n t a i n e d t h a t as soon as g i r l s  a l l o w t h e m s e l v e s t o be k i s s e d t h e y put t h e m s e l v e s i n t o t h e hands o f t h e d e v i l who i s v e r y s u b t l e .  The mother warns  her g i r l s n o t t o a c c e p t any g i f t s , f o r many a woman has p l a c e d h e r s e l f i n s u b j e c t i o n , s i m p l y because o f c o v e t o u s n e s s . The C h e v a l i e r does n o t r e p l y t o h i s w i f e ' s l a s t a r g u ment, and so ends t h e debate.  In t h e preceding  c h a p t e r , how-  e v e r , he i n s i s t s t h a t a woman o f q u a l i t y and honour s h o u l d t a k e good c a r e t o keep h e r s e l f t h a t way. be on g u a r d a g a i n s t f a l s e p r e t e n d e r s ,  She s h o u l d  always  l o n g and t h o u g h t f u l  l o o k s , l i t t l e s i g h s , and a f f e c t e d countenances.  Women who  s t a n d f i r m i n t h e f a c e o f a l l t h e s e r u s e s s h o u l d be p r a i s e d . However, i n c r i t i c i z i n g t h e Dame de V i l l o n ' s s u g g e s t i o n  that  a l o v e r s h o u l d be t e s t e d by h i s l a d y f o r a p e r i o d o f seven y e a r s ( t h i s c r u e l t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e l a d y was one o f t h e o b s t a c l e s t o be overcome by t h e C o u r t l y L o v e r ) t h e C h e v a l i e r says t h a t seven y e a r s i s t o o l o n g f o r a man t o w a i t f o r an embrace.  79  FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER VI 339.  1  C. P l i n i C a e c i l i S e c u n d i : E p i s t u l a r u m L i b r i Decern, p.  2  S a i n t Matthew,  3  M a t h i l d e L a i g l e , Le L i v r e des T r o i s V e r t u s de C h r i s t i n e de P i s a n , et son M i l i e u H i s t o r i q u e et L i t t e r a i r e , P a r i s (Honore Champion), 1912, p. 98.  4  Francois V i l l o n , Poesies, Ballades, Editions Broceliande, S t r a s b o u r g , 1958, p. 79.  7:18.  CHAPTER V I I MODERATION There a r e many examples t h r o u g h o u t t h e L i v r e t h a t encourage t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e v i r t u e o f t h e sophrosyne o f Greek p h i l o s o p h y .  moderation...  A moderate person  who a v o i d s extremes, and i s temperate i n conduct o r exp r e s s i o n i s rewarded.  On t h e o t h e r hand, v i o l a t i o n s o f  t h e g o l d e n mean may and do cause c o m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h v a r y ing  degrees o f s e r i o u s n e s s .  In the guise of h i s e x c e l -  l e n t examples, t h e a u t h o r t e a c h e s m o d e r a t i o n i n e a t i n g , d r i n k i n g , i n c l o t h i n g and i n one's h a b i t s and p e r s o n a l relationships. Ch.l6  Greed i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f immoderation.  In the  absence o f h e r husband a w i f e e a t s a t a s t y e e l w i t h o u t t e l l i n g him. The h o u s e h o l d magpie c a t c h e s h e r i n t h e act  and t e l l s on h e r .  I n a f i t o f anger t h e w i f e  p l u c k s a l l o f i t s f e a t h e r s , and t h e r e a f t e r when b a l d headed v i s i t o r s come t o t h e house, and o t h e r s w i t h l a r g e foreheads  (a d i g a t women who p l u c k t h e i r h a i r  to heighten t h e i r foreheads  as a mark o f b e a u t y ) , t h e  b i r d c r i e s out "Vous en p a r l a t e s de l ' a n g u i l l e , " an embarrassing  punishment f o r a greedy w i f e who i s im-  m o d e r a t e l y v a i n and bad-tempered.  Ch.17  Jealousy i s intemperate.  A wife gets into a f i g h t  w i t h " t h e o t h e r woman," who b r e a k s h e r nose. Ch.68  Mary, t h e s i s t e r o f Moses, e n v i e d h e r b r o t h e r so much t h a t God p u n i s h e d h e r w i t h an i l l n e s s which f o r c e d h e r t o l i v e away from everyone.  Ch.70  Sampson's w i f e b e t r a y e d h e r husband t o t h e enemy f o r a price.  When she r e m a r r i e d he came t o t h e f e a s t and  pushed t h e house down on t h e newly-weds, t h u s k i l l i n g the Ch.71  pagan and t h e covetous w i f e .  Anger i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f immoderation. curring f i t s the  Ch.73  A wife's r e -  o f anger over s m a l l i s s u e s f i n a l l y  cause  death o f t h i r t y - t h r e e thousand p e r s o n s .  There i s no m o d e r a t i o n i n f l a t t e r y .  Therefore i t i s  a bad t h i n g t o have f l a t t e r e r s around one, f o r t h e y never dare t e l l t h e t r u t h n o r g i v e l o y a l a d v i c e , and people a r e t h u s o f t e n d e t r a c t e d from t h e r i g h t r o a d . Ch.52  A woman who p e r s i s t e d i n t r y i n g t o b e a u t i f y h e r s e l f by removing t h e h a i r from h e r f o r e h e a d was f i n a l l y  aban-  doned by h e r d e s p e r a t e husband who t h e n donned a h a i r s h i r t and t o o k up f a s t i n g on Wednesday ( t h e day C h r i s t was s o l d ) and on F r i d a y , as t h e l e s s e r o f two e v i l s . Ch.89  F o r t h e i r m o d e r a t i o n i n e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g , Sampson's p a r e n t s were rewarded i n t h e i r s t r o n g son who u p h e l d the  l a w o f God. At t h e end o f t h i s c h a p t e r t h e a u t h o r  says: P o u r q u o i mes c h i e r e s f i l l e z , gardes-vous de c e l l u i mauvais v i c e de t r o p b o i r e , ne gourmender, ne mengier  82 f o r s aux d r o i t e s h e u r e s , comme a d i s n e r e t a soupper. Car une f o i s mengier e s t v i e d'ange, e t deux f o i z e s t d r o i t e v i e d'homme e t de femme, e t p l u s i e u r s f o i s mengier e s t v i e de b e s t e . ... Before  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e author's  examples which t e a c h  m o d e r a t i o n i n d r e s s , a s h o r t account o f t h e s t y l e s i n Mediaeval  France up t o h i s t i m e w i l l r e v e a l c e r t a i n t r e n d s .  At t h e b e g i n n i n g  o f t h e 12th c e n t u r y , l o n g garments  r e p l a c e d t h e s h o r t ones which had been worn f o r c e n t u r i e s . " ^ F r a n k i s h costume had been s i m p l e .  But w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n  t h e number o f p r i n c e l y c o u r t s , and r e s u l t i n g d r e s s became more e l a b o r a t e .  competition,  I t was h i g h l y s t y l i z e d ,  bril-  l i a n t i n c o l o u r , w i t h s t r a n g e and o f t e n b e a u t i f u l shapes. A f a i t h f u l mirror of i t s time, i t recognized  distinctions  o f c l a s s and v o c a t i o n as b e i n g a t l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e sexes. 2 dignity. t h e age.  as t h e  And i t r a r e l y l a c k e d i n  The 13th c e n t u r y became t h e most b r i l l i a n t o f A l l c l a s s e s went f o r t h , r e s p l e n d a n t  even t h e peasant.  i n purple,  As Q u i c h e r a t w r i t e s : Le paysan e n i v r e  de se v o i r dans l a tenue d'un empereur, se juge l ' e g a l de 3  toutes puissances.  However, by t h i s t i m e , t h e costumes  of men and women were so much a l i k e t h a t a n t i q u a r i a n s have o f t e n confused  t h e sexes on monuments.  Emblems o r badges  were worn f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . By-the end o f t h e c e n t u r y , u n f o r e s e e n d i f f i c u l t i e s n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f sumptuary laws.  Slavishness  t o e l a b o r a t e s t y l e prompted t h e abstemious S a i n t L o u i s t o enunciate  a d o c t r i n e on m a t t e r s o f d r e s s , w h i c h appealed t o  83 the  good sense o f t h e p e o p l e , and approved o f t h o s e who  observed moderation.  Y e t people c o n t i n u e d i n t h e i r  vagant ways as l o n g as t h e y c o u l d .  extra-  Costumes became more  d a r i n g , and i n t h e case o f female d r e s s , s l i t s i n t h e b o d i c e s went so f a r as t o r e v e a l t h e f l e s h beneath.  Predicators  c a l l e d t h e s e openings " f e n e t r e s de l ' e n f e r . " ^ " E x t r a v a g a n c e i n d r e s s i s a s i g n o f uneasy t i m e s and impending c a t a s t r o p h e , says t h e a u t h o r o f t h e L i v r e . cites the B i b l i c a l are  deluge as an example (ch. 47)•  u r g e d n o t t o be f i r s t  i n a d o p t i n g new s t y l e s ,  t h o s e from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s ( c h . 21).  He  The g i r l s especially  The best course t o  t a k e i s t o f o l l o w t h e example s e t by t h e good women o f one's own c o u n t r y .  He reminds them t h a t " e s t - i l  bon de ne se  h a s t e r p o i n t e t de t e n i r l e moyen e s t a t , c ' e s t en f a i r e p l u s sur  l e moins que s u r l e p l u s . "  And he d e p l o r e s t h e f a c t  t h a t s e r v a n t s and chamber maids put f u r s on t h e i r backs and heels.  S i n c e t h e y do n o t r i d e i n c a r r i a g e s , t h e i r f e e t be-  come caked w i t h mud and t h e y resemble t h e backs o f sheep. In w i n t e r t h e s e women d i e o f c o l d because t h e f u r i s n o t on t h e i r b r e a s t s and stomachs, and i n summer f l e a s and l i c e get i n t o i t . Ch.49  A young woman who i s n o t v e r y w i s e becomes t h e o b j e c t of  c u r i o s i t y f o r h e r f r i e n d s who come t o see h e r new  head d r e s s , c a l l e d "Du g i b e t " (cassete*te).  The a u t h o r ' s  daughters may w e l l wince a t t h e mere thought o f supp o r t i n g such a c o n t r a p t i o n , which was anchored t o t h e  84 hair with s i l v e r pins. Ch.50  A woman who had an e x t r a v a g a n t  wardrobe goes t o h e l l  when she d i e s and i s made t o s u f f e r more by h a v i n g t o wear a f l a m i n g Ch.52  dress.  A woman who had been immoderate i n a l t e r i n g t h e f a c i a l a t t r i b u t e s God had g i v e n h e r was tormented by many d e v i l s i n h e l l when she d i e d .  Ch.27  S a i n t Bernard's s i s t e r , o v e r - d r e s s e d put t o shame by h e r b r o t h e r .  i n h e r f i n e r y , was  He reminded h e r t h a t one  t e n t h o f h e r f i n e r y would c l o t h e more t h a n f o r t y unfortunates against the cold. Ch.31  An i n o r d i n a t e l y v a i n and s e l f i s h woman who caused i n convenience t o t h e o t h e r p a r i s h i o n e r s by t a k i n g one q u a r t e r o f t h e day t o a r r a n g e h e r s e l f , was p u n i s h e d by b e i n g made t o see t h e u g l y back s i d e o f t h e d e v i l when she l o o k e d i n t o h e r m i r r o r l a t e one Sunday morning Good h a b i t s o f m o d e r a t i o n m a n i f e s t  respect f o r other people.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  E x t r a v a g a n c e i s never a v i r t u e ,  more e s p e c i a l l y when people s u f f e r as a consequence o f i t . One l o n g d r e s s , two s h o r t ones and two c o t t e s h a r d i e s (a k i n d o f o v e r c o a t w i t h l o n g s l e e v e s ) s h o u l d s u f f i c e any woman, says t h e a u t h o r expressed  i n chapter  50. And he echoes t h e thought  i n Cato:  P l e a s e d w i t h s m a l l s t o r e , t a k e care t o a v o i d t h e extreme S a f e r t h e c r a f t t h a t s a i l s a moderate stream. ? 5  "'Quod nimium e s t f u g i t o parvo gaudere memento; t u t a mage e s t p u p p i s modico quae f l u m i n e f e r t u r . 5  85 The M i d d l e Ages enjoyed g r e a t freedom o f word and a c t i o n , and t h e c r u d e s t e x p r e s s i o n f r i g h t e n e d no Ch.54  one.  Yet when t h e C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry w r i t e s on t h e s u b j e c t o f l u s t he uses a c i r c u m l o c u t i o n t o r e f e r t o t h e s i n a g a i n s t n a t u r e : "que  j a ne f a i t a nommer."  It  s t i n k s so b a d l y t h a t t h e s t e n c h r i s e s t o t h e sky and u p s e t s a l l heaven and n a t u r e .  I n t h e days o f Sodom  and Gomorrah, whoever c o u l d i n d u l g e i n i t d i d s o , f o r c i n g h i m s e l f t o do i t , u n b r i d l e d , w i t h o u t rime or reason. Because t h e i r h e a r t s had become o v e r h e a t e d w i t h l u s t , God punished t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e s e c i t i e s by making them p e r i s h i n s u l p h u r o u s f l a m e s , which s m e l l h o r r i b l y . Ch.122  "But f o r d e s t r u c t i o n ' s s a k e , i c e i s a l s o g r e a t , " says t h e poet Robert F r o s t .  And i n a s i n g u l a r t a l e  r e v e a l s t h e easy morals o f h i s own  which  day, t h e a u t h o r  g i v e s an example o f what happens when people  interfere  w i t h t h e b a l a n c e of n a t u r e . S e v e r a l k n i g h t s and l a d i e s made an o r d i n a n c e by which t h e y were t o d r e s s and l i v e i n w i n t e r as i f i t were summer,  and v i c e v e r s a .  When a m a r r i e d man,  v i s i t e d a m a r r i e d woman, a G a l o y s e , i t was  a Galoys, understood  t h a t h e r husband would t a k e h i s h o r s e and v i s i t  another  G a l o y s e , whose husband would be expected t o d e p a r t , o r s u f f e r shame.  T h i s l i f e o f promiscuous  some t i m e , u n t i l most o f t h e proponents c o l d b e s i d e each o t h e r .  behaviour l a s t e d d i e d s t i f f of  One might say t h e y were m a r t y r s  86 o f l o v e , remarks t h e a u t h o r , and he adds: Ce e s t l e s i e c l e f o r t a c o n n o i s t r e e t moult m e r v e i l l e u x  tels  et t e l l e s l e c u i d e n t b i e n c o n n o i s t r e q u i en sont et s i c o n n a i s s e n t The  deceus,  moins que i l s ne c u i d e n t .  C h e v a l i e r ' s daughters a r e l e f t t o consider t h e e f -  f e c t s o f two extremes: t h a t o f a s i n g l e overpowering  passion  w h i c h can consume i t s v i c t i m s (as i n t h e t a l e o f La Chatel a i n e de Vergy mentioned by t h e i r mother i n c h a p t e r and t h e e q u a l l y f a t a l consequences o f t h e c r e e p i n g  124), c o l d which  r e s u l t s from t h e s c a t t e r i n g and r e d u c t i o n o f t h e flame o f Venus i n t o weak l i t t l e f i r e s which e v e n t u a l l y d i e out."' In t h e s e l e c t i o n o f these  examples, t h e a u t h o r ' s i n -  t e n t i o n appears t o be t h e t e a c h i n g o f m o d e r a t i o n and decorum in  l o v e , as i n every o t h e r f a c e t o f l i f e . The g i r l s a r e reminded never t o f o r g e t t h a t God p r a i s e s  the good woman t h r o u g h h i s Son, who s a i d l o n g ago: Una '^A modern i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s v e r y o l d problem i s contained i n the I n t e r p r e t e r ' s B i b l e : Miscellaneous sex r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; i l l i c i t s o - c a l l e d love a f f a i r s a r e not l o v e ; they a r e only l u s t . Sex i s p a r t o f t h e d i v i n e o r d a i n i n g , and i n i t s r i g h t use i s s a n c t i f i e d . But s e x i m p u l s e s , und i s c i p l i n e d , degrade t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i n t o an i n s t r u m e n t o f low p a s s i o n . I t has no l o y a l t y , and t h e r e f o r e i t s "romance" i s r o t t e n n e s s . . . . Those who have l e t t h e m s e l v e s go i n s e x u a l l i c e n s e can become so c a r n a l , c y n i c a l and c a l l o u s t h a t i t w i l l be h a r d f o r them t o l o v e one woman t r u l y , o r t o b r i n g t o m a r r i a g e a whole h e a r t . 6 When s e x u a l o b j e c t s a r e e a s i l y and g u i l t l e s s l y a c c e s s i b l e , i n a s o c i e t y t h a t does n o t o b j e c t t o p r o m i s c u i t y , r o m a n t i c l o v e seldom p r o s p e r s . Love i s u n l i k e l y t o arouse t h e h e a r t o f someone brought up i n a harem, where t h e i d e a o f uniqueness has a h a r d t i m e . Romans sometimes wondered i f l o v e would not b l u n t and tame t h e i r s e x u a l p l e a s u r e s , whereas t h e t r o u b a d o u r s f r e t t e d l e s t s e x abate t h e f e r v o u r of l o v e ' s l o n g i n g .  87 p r e c i o s a m a r g a r i t a comparavit earn, which means t h a t she i s l i k e a l a r g e round p e a r l  1  , c l e a n and w h i t e , whether she i s  a v i r g i n , o r a c h a s t e w i f e who keeps c l e a n t h e sacrament of  marriage. As t h e f i n e s t example o f t h e woman h i s d a u g h t e r s  s h o u l d have as t h e i r model, t h e a u t h o r o f course s e l e c t s t h e Mother o f C h r i s t .  She has no e q u a l , f o r i n h e r were  combined a l l o f t h e v i r t u e s i n t h e i r n o b l e s t degree: She was a l o n e i n p i o u s p r a y e r when t h e Angel  appeared  t o h e r , and announced t h e f o r t h c o m i n g b i r t h o f h e r s o n . She asked him how i t was t h a t she s h o u l d be w i t h c h i l d , s i n c e she had had no c a r n a l knowledge o f man.  The C h e v a l i e r  p r a i s e s h e r f o r w a n t i n g t o know about t h e s e t h i n g s , and cont r a s t s h e r t o o u r f i r s t mother E v e , who d i d n o t l o o k o r t h i n k ahead, n o r e n q u i r e where h e r a c t i o n s might l e a d h e r . Holy S c r i p t u r e p r a i s e s h e r f o r h e r h u m i l i t y when she s a i d t o t h e A n g e l : Behold t h e handmaid o f t h e L o r d , be i t done a c c o r d i n g t o t h y word. and took t h e t r o u b l e t o v i s i t  Mary was c o u r t e o u s t o everyone, people i n need o f c o u n s e l o r  consolation. She i s a l s o p r a i s e d f o r h e r compassion riage feast i n Galilee.  a t t h e mar-  When t h e s u p p l y o f wine f a i l e d ,  she asked h e r son Jesus t o h e l p .  Mary always obeyed h e r  husband Joseph, and i t was w i t h u n c o m p l a i n i n g  resignation  and p a t i e n c e t h a t she s u f f e r e d t h e t r i a l o f s e e i n g h e r Son's holy passion.  88 So humble and c h a r i t a b l e , she i s i n d e e d t h e f i n e s t model a g i r l o r woman c o u l d have.  The a u t h o r r e g r e t s t h a t  t h e r e a r e so many v a i n and proud women i n h i s day. want t o be f i r s t  They  i n e v e r y t h i n g i n o r d e r t o have more o f t h e  useless g l o r y of the world.  He reminds h i s d a u g h t e r s t h a t  t h e humblest w i l l be t h e most e x a l t e d .  And i f woman must  s u f f e r , t h e y s h o u l d not wonder o r f r e t , f o r n o t even t h e Mother o f C h r i s t was s p a r e d .  89  FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER VII 1  Joan Evans, Dress i n Mediaeval France (Oxford at t h e Clarendon P r e s s ) , 1952, p. 202.  2  J u l e s E. Q u i c h e r a t , H i s t o i r e du Costume en France, P a r i s ( L i b r a i r i e H a c h e t t e ) , 1877, p. 143.  3  I b i d . , p. 177.  4  Loc. c i t .  5  J.W. and A.M. Duff, Minor L a t i n Poets, "Cato," Book I I , maxim 6.  6  The I n t e r p r e t e r ' s B i b l e , New York P r e s s ) , 1952, p. 766.  (Abingdon-Cokesbury  PART  IV  CONCLUSION  AN EVALUATION OF THE AUTHOR'S CONTRIBUTION I n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry and h i s L i v r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y  t o i d e n t i f y him i n r e l a t i o n  t o t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f h i s t i m e and p l a c e .  His relatively  l o n g l i f e extended t h r o u g h t h e b e t t e r p a r t o f t h e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y , and perhaps i n t o t h e 1 5 t h , i n o t h e r words, t h e c l o s e o f t h e M i d d l e Ages.  At t h a t t i m e , t h e B y z a n t i n e  Empire was waging a l o s i n g s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e Mohammedans, who f i n a l l y conquered C o n s t a n t i n o p l e  i n 1453•  I n France,  t h e m i l l e n i u m had seen t h e f u s i o n o f Roman, Germanic and C h r i s t i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , and t h e s u b j u g a t i o n o f Feudal  barons  by p o w e r f u l k i n g s who were t h e n t o d i s p u t e among t h e m s e l v e s the domination of t h e world.  The R e n a i s s a n c e , w i t h i t s  " l i b r e a r b i t r e " was s t i l l t o f i n d i t s way n o r t h w a r d from i t s home i n I t a l y .  As f o r t h e s u c c e s s  o f democratic  i d e a s and  i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h a t i s a f a c t o f contemporary t i m e s . Throughout t h e c e n t u r i e s , t h e age was concerned w i t h conduct more t h a n w i t h c o n v e r s a t i o n .  Its didactic realism  made i t s e l f t h e a u x i l i a r y o f C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y and w o r l d l y m o r a l i t y a t t h e same t i m e . ^  The Church e l e v a t e d t h e i d e a l  of v i r g i n i t y t o a dogma o f e x c e l l e n c e , and i t s d o c t r i n e on m a r r i a g e was r e l e g a t e d t o t h e rank o f a p a l l i a t i v e ,  destined  f o r t h o s e who c o u l d not be c h a s t e , t h u s g i v i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n  92 of  l e s s e n i n g the d i g n i t y of marriage t o the p r o f i t of  celibacy. As we have s e e n , e d u c a t i o n was i n t h e hands o f t h e Church, and i f t h e i r p a r e n t s so d e s i r e d , g i r l s o f n o b l e f a m i l i e s might be sent t o convents o r m o n a s t e r i e s f o r i n struction.  These were t h e o n l y s c h o o l s a v a i l a b l e t o them,  even as l a t e as t h e t i m e o f F e n e l o n . were educated a t home.  I n most cases t h e y  M a r r i a g e s were g e n e r a l l y a r r a n g e d  by t h e p a r e n t s , and a l t h o u g h l o v e might p l a y a p a r t , i t was n o t c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o t h e i r s u c c e s s .  Perhaps be-  cause o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n , e x t r a - m a r i t a l a f f a i r s were not uncommon, i f one can judge by t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e t i m e .  A  code o f manners such as t h e one c o m p i l e d by Andreas C a p e l l a n u s , and t h e i d e a s and a d v i c e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e l y r i c p o e t r y of  t h e p e r i o d s e r v e d t o g i v e a p o l i s h e d veneer t o what might  o t h e r w i s e have been a r a t h e r r a p a c i o u s s o c i e t y . In t h e second h a l f o f t h e 13th c e n t u r y , t h i s civilization lost i t s brilliance.  courtly  The r i s e o f an i n c r e a s -  i n g l y w e a l t h y and c u l t i v a t e d m i d d l e c l a s s i n t h e growing towns d e a l t a s e r i o u s blow t o a r t i f i c i a l i t sensed t h e f u t i l i t y .  p r a c t i c e s o f which  T h i s new b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y t u r n e d  s e r i o u s l y t o t h e B i b l e as i t s g u i d e . The C h e v a l i e r de La Tour L a n d r y , a member o f t h e l e s ser  n o b i l i t y , took p a r t i n t h e defense o f h i s c o u n t r y , and,  as has been n o t e d , he d i d so w i t h d i s t i n c t i o n i n 1346. t h a t t i m e he must have been around twenty y e a r s o l d .  At He  93 was i n h i s f o r t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s man  o f t h e w o r l d who  had seen a good d e a l of l i f e , when he d e c i d e d t o i n s t r u c t h i s d a u g h t e r s by w r i t i n g a book f o r them.  I t i s p l a i n from  i t s pages t h a t h i s l i b r a r y was o f r e s p e c t a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s , c o n t a i n i n g many c l a s s i c s , a n c i e n t and modern.  Historical  r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e a n e c d o t e s , names such as Bruneheust, and l a royne de C h i p p r e , h e l p form a l i n k between t h e remote B i b l i c a l past o f many of t h e s t o r i e s and t h e a u t h o r ' s own t i m e , i n w h i c h Bouciquattt, Fouques de L a v a l , l a dame de L a n g u i l l i e r , l e s i r e de Beaumanoir were w e l l known p e r s o n alities. Some o f t h e s t o r i e s he i n c l u d e d i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n would h a r d l y have been t h e c h o i c e o f h i s w i f e , but he knew perhaps b e t t e r than? she d i d , t h e k i n d o f t e m p t a t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n s t h e i r daughters might have t o f a c e .  Since they  were young and b e a u t i f u l , and would l i k e l y be m a r r i e d , h i s main c o n c e r n appears t o have been t h e i r h a p p i n e s s as w i v e s and mothers, and even as widows, because widowhood was likely possibility.  a  Not one c h a p t e r o f t h e L i v r e s u g g e s t s  t h e g i r l s might e n t e r a convent.  On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e  a u t h o r wants them t o be p r e p a r e d t o f a c e t h e w o r l d around them, where r e a l i t y i s o f t e n d i s c o n c e r t i n g .  They must  l e a r n t o govern t h e m s e l v e s , t o be d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n t h e i r c h o i c e s , and t o s e t a good  example.  C r i t i c s of t h e L i v r e b e g i n w i t h C a x t o n , who  has  n o t h i n g but p r a i s e f o r i t i n t h e p r e f a c e t o t h e 12*84 e d i t i o n  94 of h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . In t h e 16th century  S i r A. F i t z - H e r b e r t f e e l s t h a t  t h e book has a c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e w i t h i t s examples o f y i c e , s u b t l e t y and c r a f t .  The E n g l i s h gentleman was c e r -  t a i n l y f o r g e t t i n g o r s i m p l y d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e B i b l e from w h i c h t h e a u t h o r s e l e c t e d n e a r l y one h a l f o f h i s s t o r i e s . And  as f a r as o f f e r i n g t h e e v i l as w e l l as t h e good f o r h i s  d a u g h t e r s t o c o n s i d e r , he was s i m p l y f o l l o w i n g t h e l e a d s e t by B i b l i c a l w r i t e r s , and he would have r e c e i v e d t h e u n q u a l i f i e d support o f l a t e r c r i t i c s such as John M i l t o n who w r o t e : S i n c e t h e r e f o r e t h e knowledge and s u r v e y o f v i c e i s i n t h i s w o r l d so n e c e s s a r y t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i n g o f human v i r t u e , and t h e s c a n n i n g o f e r r o r t o t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n of t r u t h , how can we more s a f e l y and w i t h l e s s danger scout i n t o t h e r e g i o n s o f s i n and f a l s i t y t h a n by r e a d i n g a l l manner o f t r a c t a t e s , and h e a r i n g a l l manner o f reason? And t h i s i s t h e b e n e f i t w h i c h may be had o f books p r o m i s c u o u s l y read.2 I n h i s p r e f a c e M o n t a i g l o n n o t e s t h a t Gudin and Legrand D'Aussy a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e L i v r e i s f i l l e d w i t h obscenities.  He d i s a g r e e s , but a l l o w s t h a t t h e book would 3  have been improved by a s m a l l e r c o n t r i b u t i o n from t h e B i b l e . The  charge o f o b s c e n i t y  i s founded on t h e two s t o r i e s  which t e l l about f o r n i c a t i o n i n a c h u r c h .  However, such  i n s t a n c e s o f m i s b e h a v i o u r must have been common enough, o r t h e a u t h o r would have i g n o r e d them. censure l e c h e r o u s  monks.  Later w r i t e r s sharply  I n A n t o i n e De L a S a l l e ' s Le P e t i t  Jehan De S a i n t r e , t h e f l o w e r o f c h i v a l r y i s b a f f l e d and beaten by a c u r s e d monk b e f o r e t h e v e r y eyes o f h i s former  95 4 protectress.  5 L'Heptameron of M a r g u e r i t e de Navarre  t a i n s no fewer t h a n 16 n o u v e l l e s which c r i t i c i z e lascivious  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Church-.  c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t t h e number of B i b l i c a l  con-  certain  As f o r t h e contributions,  one might suggest t h a t s i n c e t h e a u t h o r t e l l s h i s d a u g h t e r s t h a t i t i s a good t h i n g t o see o n e s e l f i n t h e m i r r o r o f one's a n c e s t o r s , t h e s e s t o r i e s would g i v e them an opport u n i t y t o c o n s i d e r improvements, i f any, made by l a t e r generations. The book has t h r e e d i s t i n c t n o t e s : 1.  Deep, but not dark p i e t y .  The s i n c e r i t y o f t h e C h r i s -  t i a n a u t h o r i s never i n doubt, and when he r e s o r t s t o s a t i r e t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t , i t i s never r e l i g i o n t h a t he a t t a c k s , o n l y t h e p e o p l e who 2.  shame i t .  A charming t e n d e r n e s s which i s m a n i f e s t i n c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e s t o h i s dear d a u g h t e r s , and i n h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r p h y s i c a l and m o r a l , as w e l l as t h e i r ual  3.  spirit-  well-being.  The calm d i s a r m i n g f r a n k n e s s of t h e C a t h o l i c M i d d l e Ages which evokes such h o r r i f i e d censure from p u r i t a n critics. G e r t r u d e B u r f o r d R a w l i n g s says t h a t t h e e t h i c a l  stan-  d a r d of t h e book f r e q u e n t l y f a l l s somewhat l o w , inasmuch as i t makes expediency and hope o f reward loom v e r y l a r g e on the m o r a l h o r i z o n . ^  A g a i n , one must keep i n mind t h a t t h e  L i v r e was w r i t t e n f o r a d o l e s c e n t s , perhaps not q u i t e ready  96 for  what L e s s i n g c a l l s t h e r i p e age when people do good  for  i t s own  sake.  V i n c e n t de Beauvais thought of e d u c a t i o n as a complete preparation f o r adult l i f e .  H i s system i n c l u d e s  t r a i n i n g not o n l y i n v i r t u e s but i n p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s as w e l l , and he i n s i s t s t h a t v i r t u e cannot be t a u g h t t h r o u g h t h e t e a c h i n g o f e t h i c a l systems, but r a t h e r w i t h p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e and h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . In t h e l i g h t o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , one can s t a n d why  under-  t h e a u t h o r o f t h e L i v r e added "pour 1'enseignement  de ses f i l l e s " t o t h e t i t l e .  The word "enseignement" meant  " c o n n a i s s a n c e , a v i s , c o n s e i l " i n o l d F r e n c h , and "une sonne e n s e i g n e e " was w e l l brought up.  "une  per-  personne b i e n e l e v e e " t h a t i s ,  E v i d e n t l y he has no c r i t i c i s m t o make of  t h e i r early up-bringing.  What concerns him now  problems t h e y must f a c e as young a d u l t s .  are the  But i n o r d e r t o  reap t h e b e n e f i t s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e l e s s o n s of h i s book, t h e y must f i r s t l e a r n t o r e a d , o r "aprendre a as t h e i r f a t h e r e x p r e s s e s i t .  roumancier"  And because c e r t a i n  people  do not w i s h t o have t h e i r w i v e s and daughters l e a r n t o r e a d and w r i t e , he makes h i s own  a t t i t u d e on t h e s u b j e c t q u i t e  plain: Je dy a i n s i que quant d ' e s c r i p r e , n y a f o r c e que femme en s a i c h e r i e n s , mais quant a l i r e , t o u t e femme en v a u l t m i e u l x de l e s c a v o i r , et c o g n o i s t m i e u l x l a f o y et l e s p e r i l s de l a m e et son saulvement, et n'en e s t pas de cent une q u i n'en v a i l l e m i e u l x , c a r c ' e s t chose esprouvee.7 T  T  97 I f a woman cannot l e a r n t o w r i t e , a t l e a s t she s h o u l d l e a r n to read.  A f t e r a l l , the advice i s very s e n s i b l e .  s i n c e been w r i t t e n on t h e b e n e f i t s o f r e a d i n g , has  Much has  but l i t t l e  been s a i d about t h e p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s o f w r i t i n g . To h i s d a u g h t e r s , he says i t i s a good t h i n g t o send  one's c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l t o l e a r n f r o m books o f wisdom, where t h e y may l e a r n how t o save t h e i r b o d i e s and s o u l s  ( c h . 90).  The l i v e s o f t h e Church F a t h e r s and t h e S a i n t s a r e more p r o f i t a b l e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l t h a n t h e s t u d y o f f a b l e s and l i e s . R e f e r e n c e s t o a n i m a l s i n t h e L i v r e a r e u s u a l l y made t o i l l u s t r a t e a l e s s o n i n a humorous way, and t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a u t h o r appears t o have been a most o b s e r v a n t c o u n t r y gentleman. There i s a g r e a t change i n t h i s book f r o m t h o s e t h a t preceded i t .  The g e n e r a l tone i s n o t t h e same; woman i s no  l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f C o u r t l y Love. of t h e f a m i l y a c q u i r e s  a much g r e a t e r  The i d e a  i m p o r t a n c e , and con-  j u g a l h a p p i n e s s i s t h e most d e s i r a b l e g o a l .  For the g i r l s ,  t h e book i s a g u i d e f o r t h e i r conduct t h r o u g h l i f e .  How-  e v e r , t h e g e n t l e m o r a l p h i l o s o p h e r who was i t s a u t h o r , d i d not attempt any r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f women. But n e i t h e r d i d t h e e a r l y humanists o f h a l f a c e n t u r y l a t e r . V i t t o r i n o da F e l t r e , who founded a famous s c h o o l a t Mantua g i n 1424,  still  c o n s i d e r e d home, s o c i a l l i f e , t h e r e a r i n g  of c h i l d r e n , t h e p r a c t i c e o f c h a r i t y and r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n t o be t h e f i r s t d u t i e s o f a woman.  98 According  t o A. David-Sauvageot, people i n t h e M i d d l e  Ages d i d not know how t o a n a l y s e .  U n l i k e t h e Greeks who o  wanted t o u n d e r s t a n d , t h e y were s a t i s f i e d o n l y t o s e e . C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry i s an e x c e p t i o n .  The  By s e l e c t i n g  examples i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r o f f o u r  periods,  i n c l u d i n g h i s own, by h i s e x c e l l e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e debate on l o v e , and t h e a s t u t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f mother l o v e o r t h e l a c k o f i t on c h i l d r e n , he proved t h a t he was not o n l y an o b s e r v e r ,  but a s e r i o u s t h i n k e r as w e l l .  A l t h o u g h i n m a t t e r s o f d r e s s he a d v i s e s h i s daughters not t o copy t h e s t y l e s o f f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , he encourages them t o be r e s p e c t f u l o f a u t h o r i t y , f o r e i g n as w e l l as domest i c , by h i s p r a i s e o f k i n g s , i n c l u d i n g t h e w i s e E n g l i s h k i n g , a l t h o u g h France and England had been a t war f o r so many decades.  And i t i s always w i t h sympathy t h a t he r e f e r s t o  Constantinople,  which was t h e n t h e b e l e a g u e r e d b a s t i o n o f  Christendom. I t i s i n a C h r i s t i a n m a r r i a g e b l e s s e d w i t h monogamous love, with passion reserved  o n l y f o r t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t wor-  s h i p o f God, and i n a v i r t u o u s l i f e devoted t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n and t o c h a r i t a b l e deeds t h a t t h e f a t h e r hopes h i s d a u g h t e r s w i l l find fulfilment.  Then, as i n t h e case o f t h e dame O l i v e  de B e l l e V i l l e , " ^ m i n s t r e l s may s i n g t h e i r p r a i s e s when t h e y have l e f t t h i s  earth.  From t h e s t u d y o f h i s L i v r e we may conclude t h a t t h e C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry was a p r o g r e s s i v e l y  conservative  99 gentleman, and a C h r i s t i a n Humanist o f t h e l a t e M i d d l e  Ages.  I n t h e outspoken e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s language, he i s t y p i c a l of h i s t i m e .  The r a t h e r l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f B i b l i c a l s e l e c -  t i o n s i n h i s manuel would appear t o be i n keeping bourgeois was  with  i n f l u e n c e w h i c h was a l r e a d y g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h .  He  o r i g i n a l i n h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a book e x c l u s i v e l y f o r  g i r l s , and w r i t t e n i n prose r a t h e r t h a n i n p o e t r y .  His  views e n c o u r a g i n g t h e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e he was p r o g r e s s i v e .  On t h e o t h e r hand he c o u l d be c o n s i -  dered r e t r o g r e s s i v e i n a d v i s i n g women t o wear h a i r s h i r t s . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t  t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h e L i v r e en-  j o y e d g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y f o r a good two hundred y e a r s .  The  p e r e n n i a l c h a r a c t e r o f many o f i t s i d e a s make i t i n t e r e s t ing  t o r e a d even t o d a y .  100 FOOTNOTES FOR CONCLUSION 1  A. David-Sauvageot, Le Realisme e t l e N a t u r a l i s m e dans, l a L i t t e r a t u r e et dans l ' A r t , P a r i s (Caiman-Levy, e d i t e u r a l a L i b r a i r i e N o u v e l l e ) , 1889, p. 87-  2  John M i l t o n , A r e o p a g i t i c a , and o f E d u c a t i o n , e d i t e d by George H. Sabine ( A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . ) , New Y o r k , 1951, pp. 18-19-  3  M o n t a i g l o n , P r e f a c e , p. x x x i i i .  4  A n t o i n e de l a S a l l e , Le P e t i t Jehan de S a i n t r e , L d n d r e s (J.M. Dent & Sons).  5  M a r g u e r i t e d'Angouleme, Reine de N a v a r r e , L'Heptameron des N o u v e l l e s , P a r i s ( L i b r a i r i e des B i b l i o p h i l e s ) , 1879, V o l s . 1 and 2.  6  G e r t r u d e B u r f o r d R a w l i n g s , ( e d . ) , The Booke o f Thenseygnementes and Techynge t h a t t h e Knyght o f t h e Towre Made t o h i s Doughters by t h e C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry, p. 202.  7  M o n t a i g l o n , p. 178.  8  W i l l i a m H a r r i s o n Woodward, V i t t o r i n o da F e l t r e and o t h e r Humanist E d u c a t o r s , New York (Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ) , 1964, quoted i n t h e f o r e w o r d by Eugene F. R i c e J r .  9  A. David-Sauvageot, op. c i t . , p. 85.  10. M o n t a i g l o n , op. c i t . , p. 276.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY I.  TEXTS OF THE LIVRE  La Tour L a n d r y , l e C h e v a l i e r de. L i v r e , e d i t e p a r M.A. de M o n t a i g l o n . P a r i s : J a n n e t , 1854. S t o l i n g w a , P e t e r . Zum l i v r e du C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry pour 1'enseignement de s e s f i l l e s . B r e s l a u : Druck von P a u l F o r s t e r , 1911. The Book o f t h e K n i g h t o f La Tour-Landry. Compiled f o r t h e I n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s Daughters. T r a n s l a t e d from t h e O r i g i n a l French i n t o E n g l i s h i n t h e R e i g n o f Henry V I , and E d i t e d f o r t h e F i r s t Time from t h e Unique M a n u s c r i p t i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum, w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n and Notes by Thomas W r i g h t . London: The E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y , 1868. The Booke o f Thenseygnementes^and Techynge t h a t t h e Knyght of t h e Towre Made t o h i s Doughters by t h e C h e v a l i e r de La Tour Landry. E d i t e d w i t h n o t e s and a g l o s s a r y by G e r t r u d e B u r f o r d R a w l i n g s . London: George Newnes L t d . , 1902. The Book o f t h e K n i g h t o f La Tour Landry. E d i t e d by G.S. T a y l o r , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by D.B. Wyndham L e w i s . London: John H a m i l t o n L t d .  II.  BOOKS  Andre, l e C h a p e l i n . The a r t o f c o u r t l y l o v e , by Andreas C a p e l l a n u s . W i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n , t r a n s l a t i o n and n o t e s by John J a y P a r r y , New York: F. ungar P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1964. Apocrypha, The. R e v i s e d S t a n d a r d V e r s i o n o f t h e O l d T e s t a ment. New Y o r k : Thomas N e l s o n & Sons, 1957. Bede J a r r e t t , O.P. S o c i a l T h e o r i e s o f t h e M i d d l e Ages, 12001500. London: E r n e s t Benn, 1926.  103 B e l p e r r o n , P i e r r e . La " j o i e d'amour"; c o n t r i b u t i o n a 1'etude des t r o u b a d o u r s et de 1'amour c o u r t o i s . P a r i s : P l o n , 1948. B i b l i a S a c r a L a t i n a V u l g a t e . London: Samuel B a g s t e r 8c Sons Ltd. B o s s u a t , R o b e r t . Le Moyen Age. P a r i s : d e l Duca de G i g o r d , 1955. . B e r i n u s , Roman en prose du XIV e s i e c l e . Tome P r e m i e r . P a r i s : Textes F r a n c a i s , 1931. . L i L i v r e s D'Amours De Drouart La Vache. Texte E t a b l i D'apres Le M a n u s c r i t Unique De La B i b l i o t h e q u e De L ' A r s e n a l . Paris": ( L i b r a i r i e Ancienne Honore) Champion, 1926. Cambridge MS. o f Chaucer's C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s . E d i t e d by F r e d e r i c k J . F u r n i v a l , P a r t I I . London: p u b l i s h e d f o r t h e Chaucer S o c i e t y by Kegan P a u l (Trench, Trubner & C o . ) , 1902. David-Sauvageot, A. Le Realisme et l e N a t u r a l i s m e dans l a l i t t e r a t u r e et dans l ' a r t . P a r i s : Caiman Levy, e'diteur a l a L i b r a i r i e N o u v e l l e , 1889• De La S a l l e , A n t o i n e . Le P e t i t Jehan De S a i n t r e . J.M. Dent & Sons L t d .  Londres:  D u f f , E. Gordon. W i l l i a m Caxton. Chicago: t h e Caxton C l u b , 1905. Evans, Joan. Dress i n m e d i a e v a l F r a n c e . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1952, i n -8°. F i t z h e r b e r t , S i r Anthony. The Book o f Husbandry. R e p r i n t e d from t h e e d i t i o n o f 1534, and e d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n , n o t e s , and g l o s s a r i a l i n d e x by t h e Rev. W a l t e r W. S k e a t . London: p u b l i s h e d f o r t h e E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s o c i e t y by Trubner & Co., 1882. F r a n k l i n , A l f r e d . La C i v i l i t e , L ' E t i q u e t t e , La Mode, Le Bon Ton, Du X l i e s i e c l e . P a r i s : E m i l e P a u l , 1908, 2 v o l s . G a b r i e l , A s t r i k L. The E d u c a t i o n a l Ideas of V i n c e n t of B e a u v a i s . The U n i v e r s i t y of Notre Dame P r e s s , 1962. H e n t s c h , A l i c e A. De l a L i t t e r a t u r e d i d a c t i q u e Du Moyen Age s'Adressant Specialement Aux Femmes. P u b l i e avec l e concours du " G i r t o n C o l l e g e P u b l i c a t i o n s Fund." Cambridge: H a l l e , 1903.  104 K e n e a l y , A r a b e l l a . Feminism and s e x - e x t i n c t i o n . London: Unwin, 1920. Lanson, G. H i s t o i r e de l a L i t t e r a t u r e F r a n c a i s e . P a r i s : H a c h e t t e , 1930. L i B e s t i a i r e s D'Amours P i M a i s t r e R i c h a r t De F o r n i v a l E L i Response Du B e s t i a i r e . A Cura P i Cesare Segre. R i c c a r d o R i c c i a r d i E d i t o r e , M i l a n o - N a p o l i , 1957M i l t o n , John. A r e o p a g i t i c a , and o f E d u c a t i o n . E d i t e d by George H. S a b i n e . New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , 1951. Minor L a t i n P o e t s . I n t r o d u c t i o n and E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by J . Wight D u f f and A r n o l d M. D u f f . 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O x f o r d C l a s s i c a l T e x t s , 1963. Q u i c h e r a t , , J u l e s E t i e n n e Joseph. H i s t o i r e du costume en France d e p u i s l e s temps l e s " p l u s r e c u l e s j u s q u ' a l a f i n du X V I I I e s i e c l e . P a r i s : H a c h e t t e , 1877. Rasmussen, Jens. La P r o s e N a r r a t i v e F r a n c a i s e Du XVe s i e c l e . Copenhague: Munksgaard, 1958. R e n a r t , Jean. G a l e r a n de B r e t a g n e , roman du X H I e s i e c l e , e d i t e p a r L u c i e n F o u l e t . P a r i s : Champion, 1925, i n -8° (C.F.M.A. No. 3 7 ) .  105 R i c c i , Seymour de. A Census o f Caxton's. P r i n t e d f o r t h e B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y at t h e Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press,  1909.  R o u s s e l o t , P a u l . H i s t o i r e de l ' e d u c a t i o n des femmes en F r a n c e . P a r i s : D i d i e r , 1883. T e l l e , E m i l e . L'Oeuvre de M a r g u e r i t e de N a v a r r e et l a Q u e r e l l e Des Femmes. T o u l o u s e : I m p r i m e r i e T o u l o u s a i n e L i o n e t R i l s , 1937. "Towards a Quaker View o f Sex." An essay by a group o f F r i e n d s , e d i t e d by A l a s t a i r Heron. P u b l i s h e d f o r t h e Group by F r i e n d s Home S e r v i c e Committee, F r i e n d s House, Euston Road, London, N.W. 1, 1963. Tretyse  Van  o f Love (The). E d i t e d by J.H^ F i s h e r . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951, i n -8 . ( E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y , o r i g i n a l s e r i e s No. 223.)  Haag, E r n e s t . 1962.  "Love o r M a r r i a g e , "  H a r p e r ' s Magazine, May  V i l l o n , F r a n c o i s . Oeuvres, edite^s p a r Auguste Longnon, quatrieme E d i t i o n Revue P a r L u c i e n F o u l e t . P a r i s : , L i b r a i r i e Ancienne Honore Champion, E d i t e u g , 1932. V i o l l e t , Le Due M. A n c i e n T h e a t r e F r a n c a i s . Tome I I I . P a r i s : |_ P. J a n n e t , l"EW~. Woodward, W i l l i a m H a r r i s o n . V i t t o r i n o da F e l t r e and Other Humanist E d u c a t o r s . New Y o r k : Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s \ Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , I963. V||loa  F r a n c o i s , P o e s i e s , S a l U c l e s , IrJ.-htms B r o c c i i a n Je., I I I . DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPAEDIAS  D i c t i o n n a i r e Etymologique de l a langue f r a n c a i s e . (O.Bloch et W.V. Wartburg. P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s De F r a n c e ) , P a r i s , 1964. E n c i c l o p e d i a I t a l i a n a . Fondata Da G i o v a n n i JCondata Da =s£gmm8mm£. T r e c c a n i . Roma, 1933, X I . Grosses V o l l s t a n d i g e s U n i v e r s a l - L e x i k o n . Band 14, 1. Akademische Druck-U. V e r l a g S a n s t a l t , G r a z - A u s t r i a , 1961.  106  H i s t o i r e L i t t e r a i r e de l a F r a n c e : ouvrage commence p a r des r e l i g i e u x b e n e d i c t i n s de l a C o n g r e g a t i o n de S a i n t Maur, et c o n t i n u e p a r des membres de l ' I n s t i t u t . (Academie des i n s c r i p t i o n s e t b e l l e s - l e t t r e s ) P a r i s : I m p r i m e r i e n a t i o n a l e , 1733La-^rousse XX  siecle.  R e v a i , Nagy L e x i k o n a Az Ismeretek E n c i k l o p e d i a j a .  Budapest,  1914.  Schanz-Hosius. G e s c h i c h t e Der Romischen L i t t e r a t u r . B i s Zum Gesetzgebungswerk Des K a i s e r s J u s t i n i a n . D r i t t e r T e i l , C.H. Becksche V e r l a g s b u c h h a n d l u n g , Munchen, 1959. The I n t e r p r e t e r ' s B i b l e . New Y o r k : Abingdon-Cokesbury P r e s s , 1952. V o l . I .  ft Dictjicrvcary f floe. D  Bible. - VoUme.  IV.  

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