||This thesis presents a reassessment of the 'monarchiens', the group of constitutional monarchists of whom the most prominent were Malouet, Mounier, Lally-Tolendal, Mallet du Pan and Montlosier, in the whole period from 1787 to 1799.
Previous study of the monarchiens has concentrated on their unsuccessful.attempt to secure an English type of constitution in the summer of 1789. But the proposals, presented by the first constitutional committee of the Constituent Assembly led by Mounier, were hastily compiled and supported by a far from homogeneous group, many members of which would not have considered themselves as 'monarchien' later in the revolution (Chapters 2 and 4). The word 'monarchien' was not used in 1789; it was first used to describe the monarchist clubs led by Malouet and Clermont-Tonnerre in 1790 and 1791. A study of the controversy which surrounded these clubs reveals that both the Left and the Right conceived of the monarchiens primarily as the inheritors of the ministerial reformist tradition of the pre-revolution (Chapter 3). This was even more the case after the closure of the Constituent Assembly when 'monarchien-ism' became the vogue word of opprobrium in the polemical vocabulary of the counter-revolutionary Right (Chapter 5). An analysis of the monarchiens' own pronouncements in the clubs of 1790/91 (Chapter 3) and in their pamphlets of 1791/92 (Chapter 5) |