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Longitudinal permeability within Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth increments Bramhall, George 1967

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LONGITUDINAL PERMEABILITY WITHIN DOUGLAS-FIR (PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (Mirb.) Franco) GROWTH INCREMENTS - by - . GEORGE BRAMHALL B.A.Sc, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 194-6 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of FORESTRY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1967 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h . i > s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h , C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a - i i -ABSTRACT An apparatus was constructed to measure the l o n g i t u d i n a l gas-permeability of wood microsections about 150 microns t h i c k . This apparatus was used to examine low surface tension drying methods of wood (freeze-drying and alcohol-benzene extraction) b e l i e v e d to maintain the bordered p i t t o r i of Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) i n the non-aspirated condition. Results were compared with drying methods b e l i e v e d to aspirate t o r i ( a i r - d r y i n g , oven-drying and b o i l i n g -under-vacuum). Dry nitrogen gas-permeability measurements were made under "steady s t a t e " conditions. S i m i l a r drying techniques were used to prepare gross specimens which were subsequently subjected to nnon-steady state" pressure treatment i n end-penetration. Sapwood and heartwood specimens from impermeable i n t e r i o r - t y p e and permeable coast-type Douglas f i r were tested. With both gross sections and microsections, the two low surface tension drying methods provided more permeable wood than d i d a i r - d r y i n g . Boiling-under-vacuum was as e f f e c t i v e as low surface tension methods i n improving gas-permeability, but not creosote-permeability, whereas oven-drying was as e f f e c t i v e as low surface tension methods i n improving creosote-permeability, but not gas-permeability. The improvement was most s t r i k i n g i n a l l sapwood samples, l e s s i n coast-tj'pe heartwood, and n i l or not measurable i n i n t e r i o r - t y p e heartwood. Under the experimental conditions, latewood gas-permeability was about 2 darcies f o r a l l specimens and drying methods. Heartwood e a r l y -wood gas-permeability ranged from 0.02 to 2 darcies but was unaffected by drying methods. Sapwood earlywood gas-permeability was improved from - i i i -8 to 30 times by low surface tension drying. The greatest gas-permeability was found i n the f i r s t - f o r m e d earlywood, which ranged from 2 to 100 darcies. The later-formed earlywood ranged from 0.02 to 100 darcies, depending on wood o r i g i n and drying method. Creosote-permeability of i n t e r i o r - t y p e heartwood was uniformly low by a l l drying methods. Interior-type sapvrood and coast-type sapwood and heartwood were much more permeable a f t e r low surface tension drying or oven-drying. By v i s u a l observations, a f t e r a l l drying methods, latewood was more permeable than earlywood. Low surface tension drying methods improve earlywood gas-permeability of sapvrood, and latewood creosote-permeability of sapwood and coast-type heartwood. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables v L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s v i Acknowledgements v i i i Introduction 1 Li t e r a t u r e Survey 1 Penetration Through S p i r a l Checks 1 Penetration Through Resin Canals and Wood Rays 2 Penetration Through Bordered P i t s 3 E f f e c t of P i t A s p i r a t i o n on Penetration 3 E f f e c t of Drying from Organic Solvents on P i t A s p i r a t i o n 4 E f f e c t of Solvent Drying on Permeability 5 Earlywood vs. Latewood Permeability 6 Objectives 9 Development of Apparatus 9 Experimental 12 Se l e c t i o n of Gross Specimens 12 Handling and Cutting of Gross Specimens 13 Drying Techniques 14 Creosote-Impregnation of Gross Specimens 15 Gas-Permeability of Microsections 16 Results and Discussion 19 E f f e c t of Wood Zone and Provenance on Permeability 19 E f f e c t of P o s i t i o n within Increment on Gas-Permeability 20 -iv (a )-Page E f f e c t of Drying Procedure on Gas-Permeabil i ty 21 E f f e c t of Provenance on Creosote-Permeabi l i ty 24 E f f e c t of Drying Method on Creosote-Permeabi l i ty 2U Re la t ionsh ip between Gas- and Creosote-Permeabi l i ty 25 Conclusions . 27 L i t e ra tu re C i t ed 30 - 31 Tables 3 2 - 5 7 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 58 - 77 -v-LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Douglas f i r stem sections used i n gross and micro-permeability studies 32 2. Gas-permeability experimental data 33 3. Regressions of Douglas f i r gas-permeability vs. s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y 47 U. Rate of creosote absorption i n gross specimens 4-8 - v i -LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Figure 1. Gas-permeability apparatus (diagram) 58 2. Gas-permeability apparatus (photograph) 59 3. Permeability c e l l 59 4-. Microsection cross section 60 5. Boiling-under-vacuura apparatus (diagram) 61 6. Boiling-under-vacuum apparatus (photograph) 62 7. Pressure r e t o r t 62 8. Interior-type Douglas f i r sapwood. Oven-dry s p e c i f i c 63 g r a v i t y and l o n g i t u d i n a l gas-permeability vs. p o s i t i o n i n growth increment 9. Interior-type Douglas f i r heartwood. Oven-dry s p e c i f i c 64 g r a v i t y and l o n g i t u d i n a l gas-permeability vs_. p o s i t i o n i n growth increment 10. Coast-type Douglas f i r sapwood. Oven-dry s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y 65 and l o n g i t u d i n a l gas-permeability vs_. p o s i t i o n i n growth increment 11. Coast-type Douglas f i r heartwood. Oven-dry s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y 66 and l o n g i t u d i n a l gas-permeability vs. p o s i t i o n i n growth increment 12. Rate of creosote absorption through the ends of 67 1 x 1 x 10-in. a i r - d r i e d Douglas f i r 13. Rate of creosote absorption through the ends of 68 1 x 1 x 10-in. oven-dried Douglas f i r 14. Rate of creosote absorption through the ends of 69 1 x 1 x 10-in. solvent-dried Douglas f i r 15. Rate of creosote absorption through the ends of 70 1 x 1 x 10-in. freeze-dried Douglas f i r 16. Rate of creosote absorption through the=ends of 71 1 x 1 x 10-in. boiled-under-vacuum Douglas f i r 17. E f f e c t of drying method on rate of creosote absorption 72 through ends of 1 x 1 x 10-in. i n t e r i o r type Douglas F i r (Prince George, B.C.) - v i l -lage Figure 18. E f f e c t of drying method on rate of creosote 73 absorption through ends of 1 x 1 x 10-in. coast type Douglas f i r (Lake Cowichan, B.C.) 19. E f f e c t of drying method on rate of creosote absorption lk through ends of 1 x 1 x 10-in. coast type Douglas f i r (Haney, B.C.) 20. Creosote penetration of specimens, i n t e r i o r - t y p e 75 Douglas f i r 21. Creosote penetration of specimens, coast-type Douglas 76 f i r (Lake Cowichan, B.C.) 22'. Creosote penetration of specimens, coast-type Douglas 77 f i r (Haney, B.C.) - v i i i -AGKN0WLEDGE14ENTS Dr. J.VJ. Wilson offered valuable assistance and constructive c r i t i c i s m i n carrying out t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . His guidance i s gr e a t l y appreciated. Dr. R.E. Foster, Director, Vancouver Forest Products Laboratory of the Department of Forestry and Rural Development, provided laboratory f a c i l i t i e s and servi c e s , while the s t a f f rendered valuable assistance. The following i n d i v i d u a l s were p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l : Mr. A.E. Black, who constructed several versions of the permeability c e l l and modified other parts of the apparatus; Mrs. V. Cernetic and Mr. E.P. Lancaster who provided t e c h n i c a l assistance; and Mr. B.E. Fox who rendered photographic s e r v i c e s . Dr. R.W. Wellwood and Mr. L. Valg o f f e r e d constructive c r i t i c i s m on the preparation of the manuscript. Their advice has been most h e l p f u l . The f i n a n c i a l assistance of the Department of Forestry and Rural Development during t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s g r a t e f u l l y ackmwledged. INTRODUCTION The manner in which liquids and gases penetrate into coniferous woods is of interest to wood scientists in the fields of wood preservation, pulping, fire retardants and, more recently, wood-plastic copolymers. Since investigations were begun in the first decade of this century, many aspects of wood penetration have been studied so that at the present time a considerable amount of information has been collected. In spite of this, however, there are s t i l l areas of doubt as to some details of the penetration mechanism. It is the purpose of this study to investigate certain of these. LITERATURE SURVEY Penetration Through Spiral Checks Tiemann (25) observed that under some conditions, spiral checks appear in v/ood cell walls, and he presumed that the passage of liquids from one tracheid to the next took place through these checks. Weiss (26) amplified this theory by proposing that the higher permeability of late-wood was attributable to its greater tendency to check due to the stiffer nature of its cell walls. Gerry (11) did not find evidence that the spiral slits of lob-lolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) assisted penetration. Bailey (1) in a microscopic study of Sequoia (Sequoia spp.) and longleaf pine (Pinus  palustris Mill.) woods showed that while spiral checks were sometimes observed, they penetrated only the tertiary and secondary walls, whereas the primary wall remained intact and presumably resisted - 2 -passage of f l u i d s . Penetration Through Resin Canals and Wood Rays Gerry ( 1 1 ) investigated the function of h o r i z o n t a l r e s i n canals and ray c e l l s i n the penetration of l o b l o l l y pine wood, and considered that t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n had been overestimated. She found that ray c e l l s i n the latewood appeared to be penetrated by creosote only a f t e r the adjacent tracheids were f u l l . The h o r i z o n t a l r e s i n canals were found to contain r e s i n , which was not dissolved by the creosote even when adjacent tracheids were penetrated. Penetration of the earlywood, which might be expected to receive creosote from adjacent r e s i n canals was found to be extremely slow. Teesdale ( 2 4 - ) , a f t e r penetration studies on several woods, concluded that, while h o r i z o n t a l r e s i n canals were responsible f o r t r e a t -a b i l i t y of some species, they were not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n others. Erickson (9) forced water through tan g e n t i a l specimens of l o b l o l l y pine, longleaf pine, shortleaf pine (P. echinata M i l l . ) , Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), and tamarack (Larix l a r i c i n a (Du Roi) K. Koch) 1 . 2 5 mm.thick, and demonstrated that h o r i z o n t a l r e s i n canals i n some cases conducted water. Permeability of the r e s i n canals, however, v a r i e d g r e a t l y both with species and within i n d i v i d u a l specimens. Buro and Buro ( 5 ) found no c o r r e l a t i o n between the concentration of r e s i n canals and the l o n g i t u d i n a l gas permeability of 7 mm. cubes of pine (Pinus spp.). I t appears, therefore, that r e s i n canals vary i n t h e i r e f f e c t on permeability between species and even betireen specimens. Above a l l , r e s i n canals alone do not explain penetration e f f e c t s , -3-since woods not having normal r e s i n i f e r o u s systems also d i s p l a y v a r i a b l e penetration behaviour. Penetration Through Bordered P i t s B a i l e y (2) demonstrated by the use of carbon p a r t i c l e s i n suspension that l i q u i d s penetrate from tracheid to tra c h e i d by way of bordered p i t s , and proposed that the formation of g a s - l i q u i d menisci i n the minute openings of the p i t membrane prevents penetration of gases. While communication through the bordered p i t p a i r s has been questioned from time to time ( l l , 23) i t has generally been accepted by wood s c i e n t i s t s . E f f e c t of P i t A s p i r a t i o n on Penetration B a i l e y (2) likened the torus of a coniferous bordered p i t p a i r i n the l i v i n g tree to a valve which r e s i s t s penetration of gases. Extending the concept that g a s - l i q u i d menisci i n the openings of the p i t membrane r e s i s t gas movement, he proposed that a d d i t i o n a l pressure applied on the gas moved the torus to cover one or the other p i t opening, e f f e c t i v e l y s e a l i n g the p i t . G r i f f i n (12, 13) showed that, while atmospheric a i r pressure alone i s not s u f f i c i e n t to displace the torus, a i r - d r i e d Douglas f i r generally contains a higher proportion of aspirated p i t s than does unseasoned material. P h i l l i p s (20), i n studies on Austrian pine (Pinus n i g r a var. c a l a b r i c a ) . noted a gradually increased number of aspirated p i t s as the wood d r i e d from the green condition to about 30$ moisture content, at which time the majority of the p i t s became aspirated. Erickson and Crawford (7), i n studies on Douglas f i r and western hemlock (Tsuga. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), noted s i m i l a r a s p i r a t i o n of bordered p i t s during drying. Although the a s p i r a t i o n of bordered p i t t o r i i s generally b e l i e v e d to prevent the penetration of f l u i d s , t h i s i s not unanimously accepted. B a i l e y (2) considered a s p i r a t i o n as preventing penetration, and G r i f f i n (12) provided evidence to support the theory, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t applies to mountain-type Douglas f i r . Stone (23), however, examined 10,000 t o r i i n treated and untreated coast-type Douglas f i r wood and concluded that i n spite of the f a c t that most t o r i were aspirated the wood was s t i l l permeable. He concluded f u r t h e r that the l i n i n g of the bordered p i t was too rough to give a t i g h t s e a l . E f f e c t of Drying from Organic Solvents on P i t A s p i r a t i o n B a i l e y (2) suggested surface tension of water as the f u n c t i o n a l agent i n a s p i r a t i o n of coniferous p i t t o r i . Although Liese and Bauch (13) formally demonstrated that a surface tension of the evaporating l i q u i d i n excess of about 26 dyne/cm.is s u f f i c i e n t to e f f e c t p i t a s p i r a t i o n i n Scots pine (Pinus s y l v e s t r i s L . ) , and that l i q u i d s with a surface tension below t h i s value do not aspirate the torus, G r i f f i n (12) had anticipated these r e s u l t s . She demonstrated that soaking green wood i n alcohol (surface tension 22.3 dynes/cm,,at 20°C) and subsequent drying l e f t the torus i n the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n . Stone (23), however, reported that soaking i n alcohol d i d not prevent the majority of p i t s from being aspirated. More recently Furusawa (10) and Erickson and Crawford (7) confirmed G r i f f i n ' s conclusions. - 5 -E f f e c t of Solvent-Drying on Permeability In s p i t e of the f a c t that G r i f f i n demonstrated the e f f e c t of solvent-drying on a s p i r a t i o n , and i n d i r e c t l y suggested the e f f e c t on permeability, Erickson and Crawford (7) appear to have been the f i r s t to t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between permeability and p i t a s p i r a t i o n by determining the permeability of solvent-dried wood. In t h e i r experiments they measured the l o n g i t u d i n a l water-permeability of green Douglas f i r and western hemlock. Results were compared among matched specimens, some of which were a i r - d r i e d and others solvent-dried from alcohol, alcohol-benzene and acetone. Whereas a i r - d r y i n g reduced the water-permeability of green Douglas f i r wood to one to two per cent and western hemlock to two to four per cent of t h e i r respective green values, the water-permeability of solvent-dried Douglas f i r was 70 to 103 per cent and western hemlock 110 to 115 per cent of green values. Based on microscopic observations, they a t t r i b u t e d the improved permeability of solvent-dried wood to the f a c t that the t o r i of bordered p i t s were not aspirated. Clermont and MoKnight (6) subjected Douglas f i r , red pine (Pinus  resinosa A i t . ) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) woods to various drying treatments — a i r - d r y i n g , oven-drying, and solvent-drying — followed by measuring nitrogen-permeability i n the a x i a l d i r e c t i o n . Sapwood samples were about one hundred times more permeable than corres-ponding heartwoods. In general, solvent-dried samples were more permeable than a i r - d r i e d samples. However, heartwood samples from Douglas f i r and white spruce were not affected by the seasoning treatments. Krahmer and Cote (16) reported that the increased permeability of a l c o h o l - d r i e d wood was not caused by extractive removal. In performing a c o n t r o l f o r t h e i r experiment they soaked the sapwoods of Douglas f i r , western hemlock and western redcedar (Thuja p l i c a t a Donn) i n a l c o h o l , then i n water, and permitted the woods to dry from the water-wet condition. No improvement i n permeability r e s u l t e d when t h i s drying sequence was used. Earlywood vs. Latewood Permeabiltity Weiss (26) appears to have been the f i r s t to record the observation that latewood i s more r e a d i l y penetrated i n the a x i a l d i r e c t i o n than earlywood. This has been confirmed by many in v e s t i g a t o r s since that time, and has been a constant consideration i n theories on wood permeability. Weiss (26) explained the phenonemon on the basi s that s p i r a l checks i n tra c h e i d walls were responsible f o r communication from lumen to lumen. G r i f f i n (12) confirmed the observation, but explained the e f f e c t on the basis of a s p i r a t i o n of bordered p i t s . Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s , i n c l u d i n g Erickson, Schmitz and Gortner (8), Furusawa (10), Harris ( 1 5 ) , Koljo (17), Scarth (21) and Teesdale (24) have noted also the higher permeability of latewood. Investigators are not unanimous i n recognizing higher permeability f o r latewood. Scarth (21), Buckman ( 4 ) and Teesdale (24) recorded cases where earlywood had a higher permeability. Teesdale (24) found that i n most species the latewood and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the l a s t formed tracheids which have the t h i c k e s t walls and the smallest lumens, i s penetrated f i r s t . However, i n redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Donn) End!.), tamarack and yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt. ), this generalization did not hold. In redwood the earlywood v/as the most easily treated, the summerwood being scarcely treated at a l l , whereas in tamarack and yew, both zones were similarly penetrated. Buckman (4 ) , in study of southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.), found that in spite of the apparently higher concentration of cresote in the latewood, there was actually a higher concentration in the earlywood. Guillemain-Gouvernel (14-), impregnated Jerusalem pine (Pinus halepensis Fall.) and Scots pine with pentachloro-phenol dissolved in benzene, and found by analysis that Scots pine contained a significantly higher concentration in the latewood, whereas in Jerusalem pine the concentration in the two zones was not significantly different. While these casual observations have been made for the last f i f t y years, only recently has a formal attempt been made to measure relative permeabilities of earlywood and latewood. No doubt this is because of difficult experimental problems associated with making such mea surements. Buro and Buro (5) attempted to partition the axial gas-perm-eability of small blocks of pine into earlywood and latewood components by sealing exposed earlywood on the ends of blocks with paraffin. They found considerable variation in their results. In some specimens, latewood permeability was low and fairly constant, whereas earlywood permeability ranged from high in the sapwood to low in the corewood. In other specimens, permeability was equal in adjacent earlywood and latewood ranging from high i n the sapwood to low i n the corewood. In s t i l l other specimens, the permeability of both zones was equal and constantly low. Osnach (19) compared l o n g i t u d i n a l gas-permeabilities of seven deciduous and four coniferous woods, and also p a r t i t i o n e d the permeability of the f a s t e r growing species, poplar and pine (not i d e n t i f i e d as to species) i n t o earlywood and latewood components. In the p a r t i t i o n experiments, two types of specimen were used: 1. Specimens 20 mm. long and 2 to 3 mm. t h i c k , c o n s i s t i n g e n t i r e l y of the growth zone p o r t i o n being measured, and 2. Gross specimens with r e s i n applied s e l e c t i v e l y on the cross-sections to i s o l a t e earlywood and latewood zones. He obtained consistent r e s u l t s by both methods. In Canadian poplar sapwood, the earlywood was found to be 2.8 times more permeable than the latewood. In poplar heartwood t h i s r a t i o was 4.9. The opposite r e l a t i o n s h i p was noted f o r pine, f o r which sapwood latewood was 5.5 times more permeable than the corresponding earlywood. In heartwood the r a t i o was 7.6. In the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s reported by Buro and Buro (5) and by Osnach (19), no information was provided on wood seasoning methods. Presumably, these i n v e s t i g a t o r s d r i e d t h e i r specimens from the green condition to the moisture content at which measurements were made without s p e c i a l seasoning techniques. - 9 -OBJECTIVES The purpose of t h i s study was to construct a x i a l gas-perm-e a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s within coniferous growth zones i n examination of the hypothesis that important v a r i a t i o n s i n permeability occur at t h i s l e v e l of wood organization, and that these v a r i a t i o n s are r e f l e c t e d i n creosote-permeability of whole wood. The hypothesis that wood permeability i s s e r i o u s l y reduced during drying as a r e s u l t of surface tension phenomena was also examined. Since methods were not available f o r making gas-permeability measurements at the l e v e l desired, i t was necessary to develop new techniques f o r examining minute wood specimens. DEVELOPMENT OF APPARATUS The gas-permeability apparatus was constructed as d e t a i l e d i n F i g . 1, and as pictured i n F i g . 2. In p r i n c i p l e , dry nitrogen i s passed through the specimen at a pressure d i f f e r e n t i a l measured by a manometer, and i t s volume i s measured by water displacement i n a c a l i b r a t e d p i p e t t e . Five interchangeable p i p e t t e s , 0.2, 1, 3, 10 and 50 ml. capacity were constructed to conveniently measure a wide range of p e r m e a b i l i t i e s . The permeability c e l l ( F i g . 1 and 3) was constructed to accept specimens of the order of 150 microns t h i c k , about 8 mm. wide and 25 mm. long. The specimen i s placed i n jaws constructed to f i t snugly over i t s ends without bearing on i t . These jaws are connected to a i r i n l e t and outlet tubes, and the ent i r e assembly of tubes, jaws -10-and specimen i s placed between two rubber sheets which separate the upper and lower parts of the hollow permeability c e l l . A f t e r b o l t i n g the c e l l together with the rubber sheets ac t i n g as gaskets, compressed a i r i s admitted i n t o upper and lower c a v i t i e s of the c e l l to force the rubber i n t o intimate contact with the microsection i n order to prevent leakage around the specimen face from i n l e t to o u t l e t . Leakage around the specimen was the source of most problems encountered. At f i r s t , leakage was detected by replacing the microsection by a piece of brass shim of the same dimensions. I t was found that when 4.0 p s i pressure was used to force the rubber i n t o contact with the brass shim, leakage s t i l l occurred f o r two reasons: 1. The rubber d i d not conform p e r f e c t l y to the specimen, p a r t i c u l a r l y along the edges, or 2. The rubber was s u f f i c i e n t l y porous to permit detectable a i r - f l o w even when no d i f f e r e n t i a l pressure was applied across the specimen. The use of a t h i c k rubber reduced the second error, but increased the f i r s t , while the use of a t h i n rubber reversed the e f f e c t . Leakage around the brass shim blank was e f f e c t i v e l y prevented by the use of prophylactic rubber. While t h i s material i s very prone to damage when used alone, and i s somewhat porous, when used i n conjunction with t h i n dental rubber i t d i d provide a perfect s e a l . In use, the dental rubber i s placed adjacent to the metal c e l l , and the prophylactic rubber next to the specimen. The use of pressuresvarying from 4 0 to 80 p s i , to force the -11-rubber into contact with wood microsections resulted in widely different gas flow readings. In fact, early experiments gave a high correlation between void volume of the wood and gas-flow for most of the determinations made under these conditions, suggesting that the greater part of the gas flow was taking place in the open, surface tracheids and minor cutting irregularities. It was found that by placing cellulose adhesive tape on both sides of the specimen, and maintaining 80 psi pressure on the specimen for about an hour, consistent gas flow readings could be made when the compression pressure within the cell was in the range of 4-0 to 80 psi. Photomicrographs of microsection cross-sections prepared in this way showed the surface tracheidsto be completely fi l l e d with the adhesive, whereas specimens similarly prepared but with pressure applied for only a few minutes had many surface tracheids incompletely fi l l e d (Fig. 4). Gas-flow determinations with these latter specimens at different compression pressures showed small but significant differences, supporting the hypothesis that, in previous experiments, the rubber was an imperfect seal for wood specimens. No specimens showed evidence of adhesive penetration beyond surface cavities. In addition to the gas-permeability apparatus, two other pieces of eOjUipment were constructed. The first was an apparatus for boiling micro- and gross specimens under vacuum as diagrammed in Fig. 5, and shown by photograph (Fig. 6). Specimens are placed in the retort containing a steam coil to supply heat, and are held down by means of metal bars. After closing the retort by placing a glass plate over the opening, xylene - 1 2 -was added to cover the specimens. Connection to a Dean-Stark water-trap and condenser was made through a tapered metal female and standard 24/4-0 ground-glass male joint. Extra condensate collection capacity was obtained by connecting an Erlenmeyer flask into the system. The entire unit was operated at a vacuum of 20-in. mercury. The third apparatus (Fig. 7) was a pressure retort for treating gross specimens. This was constructed of a piece of 2-in. steel pipe laid horizontally, and a vertical 3/4-in. pipe equipped with a boiler gauge glass. The retort was of a size to allow pressure-impregnation of one 1 x 1 x 12-in. specimen at a time. The gauge glass was pre-calibrated to read in grams of creosote. Air pressure applied above the liquid level in the standing pipe was used to impregnate the specimen, while readings of liquid level with time provided a measure of absorption rate. EXPERIMENTAL Selection of Gross Specimens The gross specimens used for this study were selected to give a wide range of permeability, and to provide material for satisfactory preparation of matched microsections. In a previous study, Bramhall (3) compared the permeability to creosote o i l of Douglas f i r from various provenances in British Columbia, and confirmed previous knowledge that the heartwood of specimens grown east of the Coast Range is quite impermeable, whereas the heartwood of specimens from the coastal region is usually relatively permeable. A relationship was noted also with annual precipitation in that areas of -13-high r a i n f a l l produced permeable heartwood, whereas dry areas produced more impermeable heartwood. Sapwoods, though considerably more permeable than the corresponding heartwoods of each region, appeared to be influenced by the same f a c t o r s . Stem sections of f r e s h l y - f e l l e d Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga  menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees from Prince George, Haney, and Lake Cowichan, B.C. were obtained. Prince George, which i s near the northern l i m i t of the Douglas f i r range i n the B.C. i n t e r i o r , produces t y p i c a l l y impermeable heartwood. Haney, i n the lower Fraser V a l l e y , i s i n a high r a i n f a l l area of the coastal region, and produces moderately permeable heartwood and permeable sapwood. Lake Cowichan i s c e n t r a l l y located i n the southern part of Vancouver Island. The permeability of Douglas f i r from t h i s area appears to vary widely, depending on the annual r a i n f a l l at the s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t y of growth. In ad d i t i o n to geographic v a r i a t i o n , stem sections were also selected to provide acceptable microsections, and gross sapwood specimens of suitable width. For .this purpose such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as: sapwood zone at l e a s t 1^-in. wide, rate of growth 8 to 18 rings per i n . , s t r a i g h t grain, and diameter 15 to 20 i n . i n s i d e the bark were chosen. Sections were cut 3 - f t . long. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of specimens used i n the study are given i n Table 1. Handling and Cutting of Gross Specimens On a r r i v a l at the laboratory, the wood specimen blocks were stored i n a c o n t r o l l e d temperature — humidity room at 35°F and 100 per - 1 4 -cent r e l a t i v e humidity u n t i l they were removed f o r c u t t i n g . Gross specimens were cut to provide at l e a s t seven 1 x 1 x 14-in. specimens from each heartwood and sapwood. Sapwood specimens were cut on three sides p a r a l l e l to the grain. The fourth, cambial side was l e f t uncut, with only the bark removed. Heartwood specimens were cut adjacent to the sapwood-^heartwood boundary. A f t e r c u t t i n g , specimens were returned to the humidity room u n t i l required. Drying Techniques Gross sapwood and heartwood specimens from each geographic area were d r i e d according to each of the following f i v e techniques: 1. A i r - d r i e d at room temperature to constant weight, 2. Oven-dried at 70°C to constant weight, 3. Freeze-dried at 50 microns mercury absolute pressure to constant weight, 4. Solvent-dried by Soxhlet e x t r a c t i o n with 1:2 ethanol : benzene, f o r one week, during which 4 changes of solvent were made, followed by a i r -drying to constant weight, and 5. Boiling-under-vacuum i n xylene at 20-in. mercury (about 250 mm mercury absolute pressure) u n t i l no more water could be removed, then a i r - d r i e d to constant weight. A f t e r seasoning, gross specimens were stored i n a desiccator over " D r i e r i t e " , anhydrous calcium sulphate, u n t i l required. -15-Creosote-Impregnation of Gross Specimens A f t e r drying, the gross specimens were coated on four sides with two coats of c l e a r epoxy r e s i n i n order to l i m i t subsequent creosote penetration to the end surfaces. A f t e r polymerization of the r e s i n , both ends of the specimens were trimmed to provide f r e s h surfaces. Length was reduced to a uniform 10-in. The specimens were then stored i n a desiccator u n t i l required f o r impregnation with creosote i n the apparatus ( F i g . 7) described on p. 12. Each sample was weighed, following which i t was placed i n the lower 2-in. diameter pipe, which was then sealed with a plug. Creosote was introduced into the v e r t i c a l pipe u n t i l i t reached the zero mark on the c a l i b r a t e d b o i l e r glass. A pressure gauge was screwed i n t o the i n l e t . A i r pressure at 80 p s i was applied, and absorption readings versus time were recorded. I t was noted that, on a p p l i c a t i o n of pressure, the l e v e l i n the b o i l e r glass immediately f e l l 5 grams but t h i s value was subsequently recovered on release of pressure. This i s a t t r i b u t e d to expansion of the equipment and compression of the wood under pressure. Pressure was applied u n t i l the specimens had absorbed 4-5 grams of creosote or f o r a period of three hours, whichever came f i r s t . A f t e r impregnation, the r e t o r t was drained, and the specimen was removed, cleaned and weighed. Treated specimens were then stored at -20°C u n t i l a l l impregnations were complete. They were then thawed, allowed to bleed, and s p l i t by saw i n the r a d i a l plane to permit examination of earlywood-latewood penetration. The exposed surfaces were coated with lacquer to prevent -16-surface-bleeding. In a l l , t h i r t y specimens were treated as described. Gas-Permeability of Microsections Gross specimens f o r microsectioning were chosen to represent a wide range of permeabilities as determined by creosote-impregnation of a i r - d r i e d specimens (Treatment l ) . The specimens selected were sapwood and heartwood from both Prince George and Kaney, B.C. No material from Lake Cowichan was used f o r t h i s phase of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Of the gross specimens previously described, one from each area with s t r a i g h t g rain i n both a x i a l and t a n g e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n s had been set aside f o r microsectioning. These four specimen blocks, 1 x 1 x 3^—in. long, were saturated with water by soaking under vacuum u n t i l they sank, followed by applying pressure at 80 p s i . Specimen blocks were then c a r e f u l l y aligned i n the microtome to provide sections p a r a l l e l with the grain, and s e r i a l t a n g e n t i a l microsections of at l e a s t three consecutive growth increments were c o l l e c t e d . Section thickness was about 150 microns. The sections were maintained saturated at a l l times. Each microsection blank was cut i n t o s i x pieces -§- x 1-in. long, each s u i t a b l y i d e n t i f i e d and randomly placed i n t o a separate group. In t h i s way s i x matched groups were formed from the o r i g i n a l microsections. F i v e of the groups, randomly selected, were d r i e d by one each of the f i v e drying techniques already described f o r gross specimens (Treatments 1 to 5), and the s i x t h was retained as a spare. A f t e r treatment each micro-section of a group was weighed, and the r e s u l t s were used to p l o t an approximate s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y p r o f i l e across the annual rings being examined. -17-I t i s recognized that because of v a r i a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l specimen volumes, these r e s u l t s were only approximations, but they -were s u f f i c i e n t l y accurate f o r the purpose intended. Eight micro-specimen blanks, equally spaced along the s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y p r o f i l e of one annual increment, and two micro-specimen blanks, one earlywood and one latewood from next l a t e r growth increment, were designated f o r permeability measurements. The micro-specimen blanks were t r a n s f e r r e d to a large dry-box where the designated sections were selected from each group. One edge was torn from each specimen blank to e s t a b l i s h grain d i r e c t i o n , and specimens were cut to a standard width of 8.6 mm. by means of a c u t t i n g die mounted i n an Arbor press. While s t i l l i n the dry-box, the thicknesses were measured to the clo s e s t micron and recorded. Specimens were then t r a n s f e r r e d to another dry-box containing a Cahn electro-balance where t h e i r oven-dry weights were measured to 0.01 milligram. Some minor discrepancies had been noted i n the c u t t i n g of specimens to a standard width. Specimens were therefore measured as to both length and width on a t r a v e l l i n g stage microscope, and returned to the desiccator f o r storage. Cellulose-adhesive tape was applied to both sides of specimens to cover them f o r 23 mm.of t h e i r t o t a l length of 25 mm. They were then pressed between rubber sheets at 80 p s i f o r three hours to cause exact conformity with specimen surface i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . The specimens were placed i n the permeability c e l l i n the manner that has been described, and a c e l l pressure of 80 p s i was applied to complete the se a l and prevent leakage. Depending on permeability of the i n d i v i d u a l specimen under t e s t , either the 1 ml. or 10 ml. pipett e was used. Extremely permeable or extremely impermeable specimens were tested at gas flow pressures of 3 and 60 cm. mercury ( 0 . 6 and 12 p s i ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y , while specimens of i n t e r -mediate permeability were tested at an intermediate pressure. The objective was to maintain a f a i r l y uniform, reasonable t e s t time, which was u s u a l l y between one and f i v e minutes. Replicate determinations i n which the specimen remained i n place i n the permeability c e l l gave r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y within two per cent. No s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n error was noted when the specimen was removed from and replaced i n the c e l l between determinations. Since the v a r i a t i o n between adjacent microsections of s i m i l a r s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y was u s u a l l y several times t h i s value, only two determinations of permeability without removal from the c e l l were made on a l l specimens. Two hundred microsections were tested i n a l l . Gas-permeability data and ca l c u l a t i o n s are recorded i n Table 2 . S p e c i f i c g r a v i t y , G, was calculated using the equation: „ 1000 x wt L x ¥ x T where: L = length, oven-dry (mm.) W - width, oven-dry (mm.) T = thickness, oven-dry (microns) wt= weight, oven-dry (grams) Permeability i s defined as j^-£ where volume V of a f l u i d of v i s c o s i t y n passes through a specimen of length L and cr o s s - s e c t i o n a l area A i n time t under a pressure d i f f e r e n t i a l p. In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n long-i t u d i n a l gas permeability P, i n darcies (cp. ml./cm. atm.sec.) was cal c u l a t e d from the equation: - 19 -p _ 1 . 5 2 x I O ^ X V X L T x W x p x t where; L = length (mm.) p - pressure (mm. mercury) T = nominal thickness (microns) (see Fig.4) t = time (sec.) V = volume of gas (ml.) W = width (mm.) and the v i s c o s i t y h ( 0 . 0 2 f o r nitrogen at 2 0°C) i s included i n the constant. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION S p e c i f i c g r a v i t i e s and the corresponding permeabilities are plotted against p o s i t i o n within growth increments i n F i g . 8 to 11 f o r each method of drying f o r i n t e r i o r - a n d coast-type Douglas f i r sapwood and heartwood. Because of the nat u r a l curvature of the growth increment, the various t e s t specimens cut from the same microsection blank d i d not come from exactly the same p o s i t i o n within the increment. Points on the graph, therefore, were adjusted l a t e r a l l y to correspond to the appropriate point on the common s p e c i f i c g ravity p r o f i l e . E f f e c t of Wood Zone and Provenance on Permeability I t w i l l be noted that the four graphs ( F i g . 8 to 11) representing permeability of i n t e r i o r and c o a s t a l sapwood and heartwood, i l l u s t r a t e quite d i f f e r e n t permeability p r o f i l e s , and that, with the exception of i n t e r i o r sapwood these patterns were not much changed by any of the drying methods used. A l l have i n common a latewood permeability of about 2 darcies. Earlywood permeability varied over a wide range, however, depending on provenance and wood zone tested. Gas-permeability was lowest i n the early-wood of i n t e r i o r Douglas f i r heartwood, with values of about 0 . 0 2 darcy. -20-These values were too low to be measured accurately because of experimental errors introduced at t h i s l e v e l . I n t e r i o r sapwood earlywood was more permeable, with a wide range of values from 0.2 to 20 darcies. Coastal heartwood earlywood permeability was more uniform with values near 2 darcies, and c o a s t a l sapwood earlywood was the most permeable with values from 12 to 120 darcies. E f f e c t of P o s i t i o n within Increment on Gas-Permeability While the gas-permeability has been shown to d i f f e r between earlywood and latewood, i t s p r o f i l e symmetry d i d not always correspond with that of the s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y p r o f i l e . The permeability p r o f i l e s of Haney sapwood are symmetrical about the s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y p r o f i l e (Fig. 10) and, as a r e s u l t , a regression of permeability versus s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 3). The permeability p r o f i l e s of Haney heartwood are also symmetrical, because they are uniform across the growth increment (Fig. 11), but not a l l regressions are s i g n i f i c a n t . The permeability p r o f i l e s of i n t e r i o r heartwood are s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r , uniform and symmetrical (Fig. 9). They are not symmetrical, however, about the s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y p r o f i l e i n that they are displaced to the r i g h t . The zone of greatest permeability was at the boundary between the latewood and first-formed earlywood, and i n the f i r s t c e l l s of the earlywood. As a r e s u l t , regressions of gas-permeability versus s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y gave somewhat lower c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the i n t e r i o r heartwood sample (Table 3). The permeability of i n t e r i o r sapwood appears to have inte r a c t e d with drying treatment. In those specimens which were freeze-dried and solvent-dried, the zone of greatest permeability was again i n the f i r s t -formed earlywood, while the maximum f o r specimens boiled-under-vacuurn appeared at the earlywood-latewood boundary. These r e s u l t s suggest that a simple c o r r e l a t i o n between s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y and l o n g i t u d i n a l gas-permeability may be f o r t u i t o u s , and that the point of greatest permeability within an increment i s not that of -21-greatest s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y . These r e s u l t s add support to evidence presented by VJu and Wilson (27) that the f i r s t - f o r m e d earlywood has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to those of the last-formed latewood, and quite d i f f e r e n t from those u s u a l l y associated with earlywood. E f f e c t of Drying Procedure on Gas-Permeability Liese and Bauch (18) have shoxm with Scots pine that drying from a l i q u i d having surface tension at more than 26 dynes per cm. aspirates the torus of bordered p i t s , whereas drying from a low surface tension l i q u i d r e s u l t s i n non-aspirated t o r i . The same e f f e c t might be expected from freeze-drying, where a high surface tension g a s - l i q u i d i n t e r f a c e i s completely avoided. Since f l u i d flow i n \rood i s believed to pass through the bordered p i t s , i t would be expected that f r e e z e -d r i e d or solvent-dried wood would be more permeable than s i m i l a r a i r -d r i e d or oven-dried wood. These expectations were r e a l i z e d i n these experiments f o r both i n t e r i o r and coastal sapwood earlywoods. Longitudinal gas-permeability of co a s t a l sapwood earlywood was increased 3 to 10 times over i t s a i r - d r i e d values by solvent- and freeze-drying, whereas the latewood was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d (F i g . 10). I n t e r i o r sapwood earlywood permeability was even more s t r i k i n g l y affected, being increased by a f a c t o r of about 30, while again the latev/ood was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d ( F i g . 8). However, the heartwood of neither Douglas f i r type was much af f e c t e d by drying procedure. The r e s u l t s support the currently accepted b e l i e f that a s p i r a t i o n of the bordered p i t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t s permeability. While the action of solvent-drying i n improving permeability might be inte r p r e t e d as a removal of i n c r u s t i n g substances or extractives from the c e l l s , a s i m i l a r r e s u l t by freeze-drying indicates that a s p i r a t i o n of the earlywood t o r i i s the predominant f a c t o r responsible f o r poor permeability of some Douglas f i r . This confirms the findings of Sebastian, Cote and Skaar (22) who observed a s p i r a t i o n and i n c r u s t a t i o n of bordered p i t membranes i n white spruce. Aspirated and non-incrusted membranes were common i n s l i g h t l y permeable heartwood, and non-aspirated, p a r t l y incrusted membranes were found i n permeable sapwood. This suggests that a s p i r a t i o n , and not i n c r u s t a t i o n , i s the more important f a c t o r of the two. In both i n t e r i o r and coastal Douglas f i r sapwood, the latewood permeability does not appear to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the drying procedure. Furthermore, as has already been noted, the latewood permeability i s quite uniform i n i n t e r i o r and coastal sapwood and heart-wood. This supports the view of P h i l l i p s (20), who suggested that the t h i c k e r membrane of latewood bordered p i t s i s s t i f f enough to r e s i s t a s p i r a t i o n by a receding water meniscus. The earlywood bordered p i t membrane, however, i s considerably thinner, and w i l l be aspirated by a receding water meniscus. The r e s u l t s of boiling-under-vacuum i n xylene were i n c o n s i s t e n t . In drying i n t e r i o r sapwood by t h i s method, the earlywood permeability was reduced to values s i m i l a r to those of a i r - d r i e d and oven-dried wood. On the other" hand, i n drying coastal sapwood by t h i s method, the earlywood permeability remained as high as that of freeze-dried and solvent-dri e d m a t e r i a l . The following explanation i s suggested f o r t h i s apparent anomaly. In freeze-drying and i n solvent-drying the surface tension of the evaporating i n t e r f a c e i s zero and 20 dynes per cm., re s p e c t i v e l y . Both values could be l e s s than the minimum required to aspirate the earlywood t o r i . In a i r - d r y i n g and oven-drying, the surface tension i s near that of water, i n the order of 60 to 73 dynes per cm. at the temperatures p r e v a i l i n g . In boiling-under-vacuum, a i r i s removed from the wood, and d i r e c t contact between water and xylene may be expected at an i n t e r f a c i a l tension of about 32 to 37 dynes per cm. I t i s suggested that the force exerted by a meniscus of t h i s nature i s enough to aspirate some t o r i , as f o r example, those of i n t e r i o r Douglas f i r sapwood earlywood, but not s u f f i c i e n t to aspirate s t i f f e r t o r i , as f o r example, those of coastal Douglas f i r sapwood earlywood. The f a c t that v a r i a t i o n s i n resistance to a s p i r a t i o n e x i s t i s supported by P h i l l i p s (20) who showed i n h i s studies that British-grown Douglas f i r latewood was 21$ non-aspirated, whereas Canadian-gro\«i Douglas f i r latewood was 53% non-aspirated. While sapwood earlywood appears to be affe c t e d considerably by low surface tension drying techniques, neither latewood nor heart-wood of e i t h e r type are af f e c t e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t changes were found i n e i t h e r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape of heartwood permeability p r o f i l e s , or i n t h e i r absolute values. Furthermore, the changes i n coastal sapirood earlywood permeability, being of the order of 3 to 10 times, were not as great as the differences between earlywood and latewood permeability, - 2 4 -which were of the order of 8 to 20 times. Consequently, no great differences was found i n the character of the p r o f i l e . In the case of i n t e r i o r sapwood earlywood, the differences r e s u l t i n g from low surface tension drying are greater than earlywood-latewood d i f f e r e n c e s . Consequently the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape of the curve i s i n v e r t e d . Earlywood remains more permeable than latewood by t h i s technique. E f f e c t of Provenance on Creosote-Permeability The rates of creosote absorption through the ends of 1 x 1 x 10-in. specimens are shown i n Table 4 * V a r i a t i o n of Douglas f i r creosote-permeability with provenance i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s well known, and i s dependent not only on region, but also upon annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n on the growth s i t e (3). This provenance e f f e c t i s shown i n F i g . 12 to 16. I t w i l l be seen that f o r a l l drying methods the sapwood and heart-wood permeability decreases almost i n v a r i a b l y i n the order of Haney, Cowichan and Prince George. These represent high and moderate r a i n f a l l B.C. c o a s t a l conditions and a B.C. i n t e r i o r environment. I t also appears from these data that f a c t o r s responsible f o r low permeability i n the heartwood had t h e i r o r i g i n i n the sapwood, since the order of decreasing permeability i s the same f o r both wood zones. E f f e c t of Drying Method on Creosote-Permeability F i g . 17 to 19 show the e f f e c t of drying methods on the creosote-permeability of Douglas f i r . Rate of creosote absorption by i n t e r i o r ^ t y p e Douglas f i r heart-wood was unaffected by drying methods ( F i g . 17). Heartwood of intermediate permeability from a moderate r a i n f a l l coast environment was a f f e c t e d to some degree ( F i g . 18), and permeable heartwood from a high r a i n f a l l c o astal environment was l a r g e l y influenced by drying methods ( F i g . 19). The r e s u l t s show that the two methods beli e v e d to reduce p i t a s p i r a t i o n by low surface tension drying phenomena, i . e . , solvent-drying and freeze-drying, were c o n s i s t e n t l y e f f e c t i v e i n maintaining wood permeability S u r p r i s i n g l y , oven-drying at 70°C was equally e f f e c t i v e . A i r - d r y i n g and boiling-under-vacuum were associated with reduced creosote-perm-e a b i l i t y . While the more permeable specimens absorbed creosote at a f a s t e r rate than impermeable specimens, the pattern of penetration v a r i e d l i t t l e ( F i g . 20 - 22). Invariably, near the specimen ends both earlywood and latewood were thoroughly penetrated, whereas several inches from the ends only the latewood was penetrated. In several cases, Cowichan solvent-dried sapwood, Cowichan a i r - d r i e d , f r eeze-dried and b o i l e d -under-vacuum heartwood, Haney oven-dried sapwood and Haney a i r - d r i e d heartwood, creosote was observed i n the earlywood tracheids immediately adjacent to and on both sides of the latewood. Since a l l drying methods demonstrated t h i s phenomenon, i t appears to be unrelated to drying method. In a few cases, Cowichan boiled-under-vacuum sapwood, i n t e r i o r oven-dried and boiled-under-vacuum sapwood, and Haney solvent-dri e d heartwood, the penetration appeared to be s i m i l a r i n both e a r l y -wood and latewood. Relationship between Gas- and Creosote-Permeability It was shown i n the gas-permeability studies that l o n g i t u d i n a l -26-latewood permeability was not influenced by drying method, but that in most cases earlywood permeability was substantially affected. It i s seen that longitudinal creosote-permeability i s also substantially affected by drying method. Consequently a correlation might be expected between longitudinal gas-permeability of the earlywood and whole wood creosote-permeability. This expectation was realized, and i s expressed in the following equation: log Y = -1.233 + 0.34 log X (R = 0 .74**, n = 20 SEE = 0.39) or Y = 0.06 X ' ^ ** significant at 0.01 • level where Y = creosote absorption (grams) after 20 min. pressure at 80 psi X = gas-permeability (darcies) of earlywood at specific gravity 0.20. Gas-permeability and creosote-permeability were both very high after solvent-drying and freeze-drying, the two drying methods believed to leave the bordered pit t o r i non-aspirated. Permeability to both fluids \-ras seriously diminished by air-drying, which i s believed to cause aspiration of the t o r i . However, opposite reactions were found to oven-drying, which l e f t creosote-permeability of a l l specimens unimpaired, but diminished gas-permeability, and to boiling-under-vacuum which l e f t Haney sapwood earlywood gas-permeability unimpaired, but reduced creosote-permeability. These reactions did not relate to visual examination of the treated specimens. -27-Considering only those drying methods which produced the same e f f e c t s i n gas- and creosote-permeability, i t i s seen that latewood gas-permeability i s not affected by drying method, but that the earlywood i s affected. In comparing the creosote-permeability of specimens d r i e d by various methods, however, no s i g n i f i c a n t change of earlywood penetration was observed; i n a l l cases the latewood was more e a s i l y penetrated, and only the rate of penetration was af f e c t e d . I t appears, therefore, that maintaining the earlywood bordered p i t s i n a non-aspirated condition improves latewood creosote-permeability, without s i g n i f i c a n t l y improving earlywood penetration. No explanation i s of f e r e d f o r t h i s phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS 1. Low surface tension drying methods (freeze-drying and a l c o h o l -benzene extraction) rendered Douglas f i r more permeable i n the a x i a l d i r e c t i o n to gases and creosote than s i m i l a r a i r -d r i e d wood. Boiling-under-vacuum was as e f f e c t i v e as low surface tension methods i n improving gas-permeability, but not creosote^permeability, whereas oven-drying was as e f f e c t i v e as low surface tension methods i n improving creosote-perm-e a b i l i t y , but not gas-permeability. The s i m i l a r e f f e c t s of freeze-drying and solvent-drying support the hypothesis that a s p i r a t i o n of p i t t o r i causes reduced permeability of a i r - d r i e d wood. -28-Improvement of both gas- and creosote-permeability with low surface tension drying was most striking in sapwood, less i n coast-type heartwood, and n i l in interior-type heartwood. This indicates, as has been observed by other investigators, that i n green Douglas f i r most sapwood t o r i are non-aspirated, whereas many t o r i i n coast-type heartwood and most t o r i i n interior-type heartwood are aspirated and the wood i s impermeable. Low surface tension drying methods do not release t o r i which were aspirated in the green wood. Under the experimental conditions, latewood gas-permeability was about . 2 darcies for a l l specimens and drying methods. Heartwood earlywood gas-permeability ranged from 0.02 to 2 darcies but was unaffected by drying methods. Sapwood earlywood gas-permeability, from 0.4- to 10 darcies i n air-dried specimens, was improved 8 to 30 times by low surface-tension drying. This supports the hypothesis that the s t i f f e r latewood pit membranes offer more resistance to pit aspiration in drying than earlywood pit membranes. The highest gas-permeability within the growth increment of interior-type Douglas f i r was i n the last-formed latewood and first-formed earlywood, indicating that the first-formed early-wood has permeability characteristics more related to latewood than earlywood. Whereas low surface tension drying methods improved earlywood but not latewood gas-permeability, they appeared to improve - 2 9 -earlywood and latewood creosote-permeability proportionately, suggesting that non-aspiration of earlywood bordered pit tori directly affects the penetration of latewood. -30-LITERATURE CITED 1. B a i l e y , I.W. 1913. The preservat ive treatment of wood. I. The v a l i d i t y of c e r t a i n theor ies concerning the penetrat ion of gases and preservat ives i n t o seasoned wood. F o r . Q. 11:5-11. 2. B a i l e y , I.W. 1913. The preservat ive treatment of wood. II. The s t ructure of the p i t membranes i n the t rache ids of con i fe rs and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the penet ra t ion of gases, l i q u i d s and f i n e l y d i v ided so l i d s in to green and seasoned wood. F o r . Q. 11:12-20. 3 . Bramhal l , G. 1966. Permeabi l i ty of Douglas f i r heartwood from var ious areas of growth i n B.C. B.C. Lumberman 50( l ) :98-102. 4 . Buckman, S. J . 1936. Creosote d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t rea ted wood. Ind. Eng. Chem. 28:474-80. 5. Buro, A. and E.A. Buro. 1959. (Studies on the permeab i l i t y of pine ' wood). Holz Roh-u. Werkstoff 17(12):461-474. U.S. Dept. A g r i c . F .P .L . Trans . 263. 6. Clermont, L.P. and T . S . McKnight. 1963. Factors i n f l u enc i ng the impregnation of spruce with var ious l i q u i d s . Project 0-384-2. Progress Report No. 1. Permeabi l i ty of Douglas f i r , white spruce and red pine to n i t rogen gas. Can. Dept. F o r . and R.D. 7. E r i c k son , H.D. and R.J. Crawford. 1959. The e f f e c t s of severa l seasoning methods on the permeabi l i t y of wood to l i q u i d s . Proc . Am. Wood Preserv . Assoc. 55:210-220. 8. E r i c k son , H.D. , H. Schmitz, and R.A. Gortner . 1937. The permeabi l i t y of woods to l i q u i d s and f a c to r s a f f e c t i n g the rate of f low. Minn. A g r i c . Exp. S ta . Tech. B u l l . 122. 9. E r i c k son , H.D. 1938. D i r e c t i o n a l permeabi l i t y of seasoned woods to water and some f ac to r s which a f f e c t i t . J . A g r i c . Res. 56(10):111-146. 10. Furusawa, .K. 1954. (Studies on the penetrat ion of 'Karamatsu' (Lar ix kaempferi) by creosote o i l ) . B u l l . Fo r . Exp. S ta . Meguro, Tokyo. No. 76:169-74. 11 . Gerry , E. 1912. Microscopic s t ructure of woods i n r e l a t i o n to p roper t i es and uses . Proc. Soc. Am. Fores ters 8(2):159-175. 12. G r i f f i n , G. J . 1919. Bordered p i t s i n Douglas f i r : A study of the p o s i t i o n of the torus i n mountain and lowland specimens i n r e l a t i o n to creosote pene t ra t ion . J . F o r . 17:813-822. -31-13. G r i f f i n , G.J. 1924. Further note on the p o s i t i o n of the t o r i i n bordered p i t s i n r e l a t i o n to penetration of preservatives. J . For. 22:82-83. 14. Guillemain-Couvernel, J . 1959. Etude de 1'absorption de produits de preservation dans d i f f e r e n t s pins et comparaison entre 1'absorption dans l e bois i n i t i a l et l e bois f i n a l . Proceedings of the Fourth I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Biochemistry, Vienne, 1-6 Sept. 1958. V o l . I I . Symposium I I : Biochemistry of wood. Pergamon Press, London. 15. H a r r i s , J.M. 1953. Heartwood formation i n Pinus radiata (D. Don). Nature 172(4377):552. 16. Krahmer, R.L. and W.A. Cote, J r . 1963. Changes i n coniferous wood c e l l s associated with heartwood formation. Tappi 4 6 ( l ) : 42-49. 17. Koljo, B. 1951. The mechanics of the movement of l i q u i d a during wood impregnation. Medd. Svenska Traforsk. Inst. No.25B. 18. Liese, W. and J . Bauch. 1967. On the closure of bordered p i t s i n c o n i f e r s . Wood Science and Technology l ( l ) : l - 1 3 . 19. Osnach, N.A. 1961. (On the permeability of wood). Derev. Prom. 1 0 ( 3 ) i l l - 1 3 . Can. Dept. For. and R.D. Trans. No.99. 20. P h i l l i p s , E.W.J. 1933. Movement of the p i t membrane i n coniferous woods, with s p e c i a l reference to preservative treatment. Forestry 7:109-120. 21. Scarth, G.W. 1928. The structure of wood and i t s p e n e t r a b i l i t y . Paper Tr. J . A p r i l 26. pp.228-233. 22. Sebastian, L.P., W.A. Cote, J r . , and C. Skaar. 1965. Relationship of gas phase permeability to u l t r a s t r u c t u r e of white spruce wood. For. Prod. J . 15(9): 394-404. 23. Stone CD. 1936. Penetration of preservatives i n Douglas f i r as a f f e c t e d by the p o s i t i o n of the t o r i i n the p i t - p a i r s . Faster of Science t h e s i s . College of Forestry, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, Seattle. 24. Teesdale, C.H. 1914. R e l a t i v e resistance of various c o n i f e r s to i n j e c t i o n with creosote. U.S. Dep. A g r i c . B u l l . 101. 25. Tiemann, H.D. 1910. The p h y s i c a l structure of wood i n r e l a t i o n to i t s p e n e t r a b i l i t y by preservative ' f l u i d s . Amer. Ry. Engin. and Maintenance of Way Assoc. B u l l . 120 (App. D):359-375. 26. Weiss, H.F. 1912. Structure of commercial woods i n r e l a t i o n to the i n j e c t i o n of preservatives. Proc. Am. Wood Preserv. Assoc. 8:195-187. 27. Wu, I - t . and J.W. Wilson. 1967. L i g n i f i c a t i o n within coniferous growth zones. Pulp & Paper Fag. Can. 68(4) : T-159-T-164. TABLE 1 Cha rac te r i s t i c s of Douglas f i r stem sect ions used i n gross- and micro-permeabi l i ty s tudies Diameter, Age, Age at Sapwood- Sapwood Or ig in of Test Specimen B.C. Source i n * y r * Heartwood Boundary, Thickness, Gross Micro y r . i n . Sap. Ht . Sap. Ht . Age, y r . Age, y r . Age, y r . Age, y r . Pr ince George 2 0 . 1 - 2 0 . 5 73 56 1.5 - 2.25 57-73 46-54 69-70 5 0 - 5 1 Haney 1 5 . 5 - 1 6 . 0 5 9 3 8 - 4 2 1 . 7 5 - 2 . 5 46-59 29-38 55-56 34-35 Lake Cowichan 16.1 - 16.1 4 9 29 - 32 1.1 - 1.6 3 4 - 4 9 21-29 45-46 25-26 IABJ_E 2 GAS PERMEABILITY EXPERIMENTAL DATA WEIGHT LENGTH WIDTH THICK PRESSURE TIME VOLUME SP GR PERM LOG PERM IDENT MG MM MM MICRON MM HG SEC ML DARCIES INfERTOR~TAPWOOD AIR DRIED ~~ " -2-3—2-8 23.28 6.92 .,.6.-9-2-— 6.44 6.44 -2-3-.-40 23.40 24.50 ..24..30 23.90 23.90 16.84 -2-5-.-5-25.5 25.5 -2 5.-5-25.3 25.3 -2-^ .-5-25.5 24.5 _2_i_,.5._ 25.6 25.6 25.5 _7-.-8 1-7-0-.-2-170.2 152.4 7, 7 , 7. 8.2 ..8-2-,9 ,9 ' -.-4-.4 .6 _a_6_ .3 .3 .7 4.-5-2— 154. 154. -2-3^-.-233 . 188. JJ9iL_. 200. 200. 190. _5-9-.-8 1-7-0-.-2-5 9.8 169.8 60.0 134.2 _6.0-.-0-—1-3-4-.-2-0.0 60.0 -6-0-.-0-93  94.6 -44-.-2-60.0 60.0 _6D-!_0_ 44.6 28.8 60.0 60.0 60.0 33 .6 34.2 67.2 4-0-10 1 —1-_0-.-6-8-8-0.688 0.217 _0-.-2-l-7-0.208 0 .208 -0-.-4-6-7-0.467 0.619 JL»A12. 0.561 0.561 0.398 -2-.-8-T-2.88 0.39 ..0-.-3-9-0.56 0.55 -Q-.-7-4-16.84 8.98 8.98 7.2 6 7.26 25.5 25.5 _2 5 . 5. 25.4 25.4 8.7 8.6 8.6_ 8.3 8.3 190 . 154. -154. 154. 154. 58.0 60.0 59.8 67.8 142.2 143.4 60.0 60.0 123.8 124.2 0 .398 0. 264 .0.-2.64. 0.222 0.222 0.74 1.33 JL...3. L 1.16 1.14 0.-5 8 0.59 0.34 ..0...3_4_ 0.40 0.40 -0-.-4-5-7-7-0.4587 -0 .4143 -0...4J-43--0.2504 -0.2569 43-.-1-2-8-1--0.1320 0.1249 .0.11.8.9. 0.0641 0.0564 :0_._23_6_6_ -0.2257 -0.4673 -0 .A69 5. -0 .3934 -0.3948 4-S-i-IS3 6 IS3 19 IS-^ -1-9 IS3 21 IS? 21 2-4-IS3 24 IS4 .ISA. IS4 IS4 JLSiL 2 .2_ 3 3 _5_ -V*)-IS4 IS4 .IS4 IS4 IS4 5 8 ._8.. 14 14 INTERIOR HEARTWOOD AIR DRIED 6.84 25.3 8.3 172.7 59.8 149 .2 1 0.189 0.30 -0.5219 IH2 11 6.84 25.3 8.3 172.7 59.8 155.2 1 0. 189 6.29 -0.5390 IH2 11 9.56 25.6 8.2 160.0 500.0 1000.0 1 0.285 0.01 -2.2269 IH2 13 9.56 25.6 8.2 160.0 500.0 1000.0 1 0.285 0.01 -2.2269 IH? 13 26.64 25.6 8.0 180.3 60.0 30.2 1 0.721 1.49 0.1727 IH2 18 26.64 25.6 8.0 180.3 60.0 29.0 1 0.721 1.55 0.1904 IH? 18 27.88 25.6 8.4 167.6 59.6 29 .4 1 0 .773 1 . 58 0.1978 IH? 20 "2 7.8 8 25.6 8.4 167.6 59.6 30.0 1 0.773 "1.55 0.1891 IH? 20 JLAELLE. _LCIMI1IN1IJ£I)J_ W E I G H T L E N G T H W I D T H T H I C K P R E S S U R E T I M E V O L U M E S P GR P E R M L O G PERM MG MM MM M I C R O N MM HG S.E.C MJ . DAR.CLE3 . I D E M T I N T E R I O R H E A R T W O O D A I R D R I E D 1 9 . 5 0 2 5 . 5 8.5 1 4 7 . 3 5 9 . 6 1 0 . 4 ' 1 0 . 6 1 1 4 . 9 9 0 . 6 9 8 4 ' I H 2 21 1 9 . 5 0 2 5 . 5 8.5 1 4 7 . 3 5 9 . 6 1 1 . 8 1 0 . 6 1 1 4 . 4 0 0 . 6 4 3 6 I H 2 2 1 8 . 3 0 2 5 . 5 8.5 1 7 0 . 2 5 9 . 6 2 7 . 6 1 0 . 2 2 5 1 . 6 3 0 . 2 1 1 9 I H 3 1 8. 3 0 2 5 . 5 8.5 1 7 0 . 2 5 9 . 6 2 8 . 6 1 0 . 2 2 5 1 . 5 7 0 . 1 9 6 4 I H3 1 7 . 1 4 2 5 . 5 8.2 1 7 0 . 2 5 9 . 8 5 2 . 0 1 0 . 2 0 1 0 . 8 9 - 0 . 0 4 9 0 IH-3 3 _ _ 7 . 1 4 . _ 2 5 . 5 8.2 1 7 0 . 2 5 9 . 8 5 6 . 8 1 P...8 2... -.0. 0.8.7.4. LH_?_ . . ' 6 . 5 8 2 5 . 4 8.1 1 6 2 . 6 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 9 7 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 2 3 ] 8 I H * 9 6 . 5 8 2 5 . 4 8.1 1 6 2 . 6 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 9 7 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 2 3 1 8 I H 3 9 2 6 . 4 0 2 5 . 5 8.3 1 6 5 . 1 5 9 . 8 2 4 . 2 1 0 . 7 5 6 1 . 9 5 0.2910 U±3_ 30 2 6 . 4 0 2 5 . 5 8 .3 1 6 5 . 1 5 9 . 8 2 4 . 8 1 0 . 7 5 6 1 . 9 1 0 . 2 8 0 4 I H 3 3 0 C O A S T A L SAPWOOD A I R D R I E D 7 . 0 4 7 . 0 4 2 5 . 5 2 5 . 5 .5 i . 5 1 4 7 . 3 1 4 7 . 3 2 1 . 2 2 1 . 1 6 3 . 8 6 8 .6 10 10 0 . 2 2 0 0 . 2 2 0 2 2 . 8 8 2 1 . 3 8 9 . 5 2 9 . 5 2 3 5 . 2 0 3 5 . 2 0 3 2 . 0 8 3 2 . 0 8 2 5 . 5 2 5 . 5 2 5 . 7 _ 2 5 .7 2 5 . 5 2 5 . 5 .4 1 7 2 . 7 .4 1 7 2 . 7 >.7 . 2 2 8.. 6 .7 2 2 8 .6 .1 1 9 8 . 1 .1 1 9 8 . 1 2 2 . 6 2 2 . 4 1 9 . 8 5 7 . 0 5 6 . 5 6 8 . 0 10 1 0 _ I _ 1 9 . 8 2 1 . 6 2 1 . 5 6 7 . 6 5 1 . 8 5 5 . 0 0 . 2 5 7 0 . 2 5 7 JL.-6J3.9_ 0 . 6 8 9 0 . 7 8 4 0 . 7 8 4 12 n' |10 9 8 ' 7 2 7 . 3 8 2 7 . 3 8 1 0 . 5 5 1 0 . 5 5 8 . 5 6 8 . 5 6 2 5 . 8 2 5 . 8 2 5 . 6 2 5.6 2 5 . 6 2 5 . 6 1.3 ;.3 .4 .7 ;.7 2 3 3 . 7 2 3 3 . 7 1 5 2 . 4 15 2 . 4 1 5 4 . 9 1 5 4 . 9 2 1 . 9 2 1 . 7 2 2 . 6 2 7 4 . 6 3 0 1 . 2 2 3 2 . 4 10 10 _UL 2 2 . 1 2 1 . 0 2 1 . 2 2 6 0 . 8 1 8 7 . 8 1 8 9 . 6 10 1 0 10 0 . 5 4 7 0 . 5 4 7 ._P_.ft3.22_ 0 . 3 2 2 0 . 2 4 8 0 . 2 4 8 2 0 . 7 4 2 1 . 1 1 _ .1.46 1 . 4 7 2 . 1 6 _2_._0.4_ 3 . 3 6 3 . 0 9 __5...7_9_ 5 . 2 7 7 . 3 2 7 . 1 8 1 . 3 5 9 5 ____3_2JDJL C S 3 1 0 C S 3 1 0 1 . 3 1 6 8 1 . 3 2 4 5 0...1640. 0 . 1 6 6 6 0.334-2 0 . 3 1 0 2 0 . 5 2 6 6 0 . 4 9 0 4 Q..7625 0 . 7 2 2 1 0 . 8 6 4 5 _0_._8_5_.6_2_ C S 3 1 3 C S 3 1 3 X_____15_ C S 3 15 C S 4 1 __:_.__ 1_ C S 4 C S 4 _CSA-C S 4 C S 4 _C_5J__ 3 3 _4 4 TABLE 2 (CONTINUED) WEIGHT LENGTH W I'D TH THICK PRESSURE TIME VOLUME SP GR PERM ' LOG PERM IDFNT MG MM MM MICRON MM HG SEC ML DARCIES COASTAL HEARTWOOD AIR DRIED 7 . " 3 0 " " " " 25.4 8.5 157.5 60.0 68.4 1 0.215 0.70 -0.1532 CH3 8 7. 30 25.4 8.5 157.5 60.0 69.0 1 0.215 0. 70 - 0 . 1570 CH3 8 7.12 25.5 8 . 3 152.4 59.9 87.6 1 0.221 0.58 -0 . 2336 CH3 13 7.12 25.5 8 . 3 152.4 59.6 88.4 1 0.221 0.58 -0.2354 CH3 13 24.52 25.3 7.9 165 . 1 60.0 44 .0 1 0.743 1.12 0.0480 CH3 15 _._ 2 4 .3 2 25.3 7.9 165. 1 60.0 44.6 1 0..7_3 . 1.10 0.0421 CH3_ 15 2 6.14 25.5 7.8 165. 1 13.4 12 7.8 1 0.796 1.76 0.2449 CH3 19 26.14 25.5 7.8 165 . 1 13.4 141.0 1 0.796 1.59 0.2022 CH3 19 25.14 25.5 7.6 162 . 6 60.0 41.6 1 0 .708 1 .26 0.0993 CH3 2? 25.14 " 25.5 7.6 162.6 60.0 42 .8 1 0 .798 1.22 0.0870 CH3 22 12.66 25.5 8.1 154.9 14.0 61.0 1 0.396 3.62 0.5583 CH3 23 12.66 25.5 8.1 154.9 14.0 65.8 1 0.396 3.35 _Q._5_2_5A __CH3 23 • 8.02 25.4 8.3 149.9 14.0 215.0 1 0.254 1.03 o". 0 1 3 3 CH4 2 —1 8.02 25.4 8.3 149.9 14.0 219.2 1 0.254 1.01 0.0049 CH4 2 6.92 25.4 8.3 152.4 59.8 48 .4 1 0.215 1.05 0.0231 CH4 5 6.92 25.4 8.3 152.4 60.0 54.8 1 0.215 0.93 -0.0323 CH4 5 6.68 25.5 8.1 152.4 60.0 133.2 1 0.212 0.39 -0.4057 CH4 11 8.62 25.4 . 7.9 IAS? »9 13.8 157.8 .1 0.287 X.J50- 0. 1.754. _._C.H4_ .U 31.10 25.4 8.2 18 8.0 14.1 1 05 .0 1 0.794' 1.69 0.2284 CH4 13 31.10 25.4 8.2 188.0 14.1 110.0 1 0 .794 1 .62 0.2082 CH4 1. * y INTERIOR SAPWOOD OVEN DRIED 12 20.77 25.5 7.8 172.7 61.1 40.2 1 0.605 1.17 0.0687 IS4 6 11. ' 2 0 . 7 7 25.5 7.8 172.7 61.1 43.4 1 0.605 1.08 0.035^ IS4 6 10 6.18 25.3 7..5 154.9 60.2 278.4 1 0.210 0.20 -0 .7045 IS4 19 9 6.18 25.3 7.5 154.9 60.1 275.2 1 0.210 0.20 -0.6988 IS4 19 a 6.30 25.4 7.6 154.9 60.2 3 9.5.8 1 0.211 0.14 -0.8614 IS4 21 7 6.30 25.4 7.6 154.9 60.3 411.8 1 0.211 0.13 -0.8793 IS4 21 6 TABLE 2 (CONTINUED) WEIGHT LENGTH WIDTH THICK PRESSURE TIME VOLUME SP GR PERM LOG PERM I DENT MG MM MM MICRON MM HG SEC ML DARCIES  INTERIOR SAPWOOD OVEN DRIED 26.57 25.5 7.6 203.2 60.2 22.0 1 0.675 1.90 0.2776 IS4 24 26.57 25.5 7.6 203 .2 60.2 22 .4 1 ' 0.675 1 .86 0.2698 IS4. 24 20. 14 25.6 7.7 172.7 60.2 66.6 1 0.592 0.73 -0. 1368 IS4 2  20.14 25.6 7.7 172.7 60.0 68.8 1 0.592 0.71 -0.1495 IS4 2 16.26 25.5 8.0 165.1 60.1 211.0 1 0.483 0.23 -0.6356 IS4 3 . 1.6...2 6 2 5_.3 8.0. 165 . 1 60.3 213 .8 1 0.483 0.2.3. . _-Q .. 6AZ8 I_S_4 _ _3_ 10.60 25.6 8.1 160.0 60.2 413.2 1 0.319 0.12 -0.9183 IS4 5 10.60 25.6 8.1 160.0 60.1 388.6 1 0.319 0.13 -0.8910 IS4 5 8. 06 25 .6 8 .2 154.9 60.3 386.0 1 0.248 0.13 -0.88nfi IS4 8 8.06 25.6 8.2 154.9 60.3 411.0 1 0.248 0.12 -0.9081 IS4 8 , 6.97 25.4 7.9 154.9 60.1 256.8 1 0.224 0.20 -0.6896 IS4 11 £ ... 6_.__L7.__.. 25.4 7.9 154.9 60.1 267.2 1 0.224 .0....2SL_=SX.JJL6.8 IJ=L_t. X I :J_ INTERIOR HEARTWOOD OVEN DRIED 7.39 25.4 8.5 167.6 500.0 1000.0 1 0.204 0.01 -2.2661 IH2 4 7.39 25.4 8.5 167.6 500.0 1000.0 1 0.204 0.01 -2.2661 IH? 4 8.00 ... 25.6 ... _8___2_ 162.6 5 00.IL 10 00.0 L _ .0...Z3 4. 9.01.. _-2._23.37_ _I_H2. _9 8.00 25.6 8.2 162.6 5 00.0 1000.0 1 0.234 0.01 -2.2337 IH? 9 9.86 25.8 8.5 160.0 500.0 1000.0 1 0.281 0.01 -2.2391 IH? 1 3 9.86 25.8 8.5 160.0 500.0 1000.0 1 0.281 0.01 -2.2391 IH? 13 12.50 25.5 8.5 167.6 5 00.0 1000.0 1 0.344 0.01 -2.2644 IH? 15 V 12.50 25.5 8.5 167.6 500.0 1000.0 1 0 .344 0.01 -2.2644 IH? 15 12 19.40 25.5 8.5 157.5 60.6 249.0 1 0.568 0.19 -0.7169 IH? 17 11. "19.40" " "25.5 8.5 157.5 60.6 259.8 1 0.568 0.18 -0.7354 IH2 17 10 • 21.24. 25.6 7.3 170.2 61.0 89.2 1 0 .668 0.58 -0.2398 IH2 18 • 9 21.24 25.6 7.3 170.2 61.0 90.2 1 0.668 0.57 -0.2447 IH2 18 8 28.08 25.6 8.6 165 . 1 60.7 45.4 1 0.773 0.99 -0.0024 IH? 20 7 28.08 25.6 8.6 165.1 60.6 46.6 1 0.773 0.97 -0.0130 IH2 20 0 6.22 25.5 7.2 160.0 500.0 1000.0 1 0.212 0.01 -2.1721 IH3 9 5 6.22 25.5 7.2 160.0 500.0 1000 .0 1 0.212 0.01 -2.17? 1 TH3 Q 4 TABLE 2 (CONTINUED) WEIGHT LENGTH WIDTH THICK PRESSURE TIME VOLUME SP GR PERM LOG PERM IDENT MG MM MM MICRON MM HG SEC ML DARCIES  INTERIOR HEARTWOOD OVEN DRIED 25.37 25.5 7.9 165.1 60.7 32.7 1 0.763 1.50 O . 1 T 5 3 ~IH3 30 25.37 25.5 7.9 165.1 60.6 32.7 1 0.763 1.50 0.1760 IH* *0 COASTAL SAPWOOD OVEN DRIED 6.48 25.6 8.5 149.9 13.0 74.6 10 0 .199 31.50 1.498 3. -CS_3. .10 6.48 25.6 8.5 149.9 13.0 75.2 10 0 .199 31.25 1.4948 CS3 10 5.98 25.3 7.3 147.3 13.0 151.8 10 0 .220 18.12 1.2582 CS3 11 5.98 25.3 7.3 147.3 13.0 160 . 8 1 0 0.220 17.11 1.2332 CS3 n 6.18 25.5 7.9 147.3 13.4 101.2 10 0 .208 24.56 1.3902 CS3 13 6.18 25.5 7.9 147.3 13.4 108 .0 10 0.208 2 3.01 1 .3620 CS3 13 , _. . 6.4 8 .. 2_5...6__ 7.9 13.2 117..0._,, . 10 0 . 2 J J L _.2_1_..28_ . ..I.._3_2j3il„ .CS3 .1.4 _3 6.48 25.6 7.9 149.9 13.1 126.6 10 0.214 19.82 1.2971 CS3 14 • 18.04 25.5 7.1 200.7 13.0 248 .4 1 0.497 0.84 -0.0744 CS3 15 18.04 25.5 7.1 200.7 13.0 254.6 1 0 .497 0.82 -0.0851 CS3 15 28.68 25.6 7.9 172.7 13.2 108 .6 1 0.821 1.99 0.2987 CS4 2 28.68 25.6 7.9 172.7 13.3 117.2 1 0.821 1.83 0.2623 CS4 2 44.10 25.5 8.5 243.8 13.1 167.8 10 0 . 834 8.51 Q_».?29 8_ CS4 3 44.10^"" " "25.5 8.5 243 . 8 13.0 172.4 10 0.834 '8.34 0.9214 CS4 3 12.68 25.6 8.5 154.9 12.9 308 . 2 10 0.376 7.43 0.8711 CS4 5 12.68 25.6 8.5 154.9 12.9 323 .8 10 0.376 7.07 0.8496 CS4 5 11.98 25.5 8.5 157.5 13.2 179 . 6 10 0.351 12.21 1.0869 CS4 6 11.98 25.5 8.5 157.5 13.3 182.4 10 0.351 11 .94 1.0769 CS4 6 7.88 25.6 7.7 154.9 13.0 60.0 1 0.258 4.18 0.6213 CS4 8 7.8 8 25.6 7.7 154.9 13.0 61.0 1 0.258 4.11 0.6142 CS4 8 27.10 25.5 8.4 180.3 13.0 46.6 1 0.702 4.22 0.6257 CS5 2 27.10 25.5 8.4 180.3 13.0 49.4 1 0.702 3.98 0.6003 CS5 2 T A B L E 2 (CONTINUED) WEIGHT LENGTH WIDTH T H I C K PRESSURE T I M E VOLUME SP GR PERM LOG PERM I DENT MG MM MM MICRON MM HG S E C ML D A R C I E S C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD OVEN D R I E D 6.84 25.6 8.4 1 5 2 . 4 6 0 . 0 83.0 1 0 . 2 0 9 0.61 - 0 . 2 1 4 4 CH3 9 6.84 25.6 8.4 1 5 2 . 4 . 6 0 . 0 80 .6 1 0. 209 0.63 - 0 . 2 0 1 7 CH3 ' 9 2 6 . 4 0 2 5 . 5 7.7 172.7 19.7 9 2 . 0 1 0.778 1.61 0 . 2 0 6 3 CH3 19 2 6 . 4 0 25.5 7.7 172.7 19.4 9 5 . 0 1 0.778 1.58 0 . 1 9 9 0 CH 3 19 2 4 . 6 4 2 5 . 6 7.8 16 2.6 • 19.8 99.4 1 0.759 1. 56 0 . 1 9 2 9 CH3 22 2 4 . 6 4 25.6 7.8 162.6 20.1 99 . 8 1 0.759 1.53 . _ 0.. 1846__ .CH 3 _ 22__ 2 3 . 2 8 2 5 . 4 7.8 175.3 19.8 77.8 1 0.670 1.83 6.2633 CH 3 23 2 3 . 2 8 2 5 . 4 7.8 1 7 5 . 3 19.6 92.4 1 0.670 1 .56 0 . 1 9 3 0 CH 3 23 1 3 . 7 2 25 . 5 8.0 1 6 2 . 6 19.5 57.4 1 0.414 2.66 0 . 4 2 5 3 CH4 1 13.72 25 . 5 8.0 1 6 2 . 6 19.2 64.6 1 0.414 2.40 0 . 3 8 0 7 CH4 1 6.26 25.4 8.0 157.5 6 0 . 0 53.4 1 0.196 0.96 - 0 . 0 1 9 3 CH4 11 6.26 , 2 5 . 4__ „ 8J»_Q__ 157.5 59.8 55.0 1 0.196 0.53 _-0-.JO_2.CL7._ _CHA 11 VJJ 7. 72 25. 5 8 .3 172 . 7 59.8 44.6 1 0.211 1.01 0 . 0 0 5 9 CH4 13 CO 1 7.72 25 . 5 8.3 172.7 59.8 4 6 . 4 1 0.211 0.97 • - 0 . 0 1 1 3 CH4 13 I N T E R I O R SAPWOOD SOLVENT D R I E D 2 5 . 4 8.1 1 4 9 . 9 12.7 123.2 10 0 . 2 1 0 _ __2.Q_.31 1.3081 I S3 19 6 . 4 8 " 25.4 8.1 1 4 9 . 9 12.7 125.6 10 0.210 1 9 . 9 4 1.2997 I S 3 19 8.38 25.5 7.7 1 9 8 . 1 12.7 161.4 10 0 . 2 1 5 1 2 . 4 0 1.0933 I S3 21 8.38 2 5 . 5 7.7 198.1 12.7 164. 1 10 0 . 2 1 5 1 2 . 1 9 1.0861 I S 3 21 s- 2 3 . 0 8 25 . 5 8.2 1 8 0 . 3 12.7 6 2 1 . 6 10 0.612 3.32 0 . 5 2 1 2 I S 3 24 V 2 3 . 0 8 25 . 5 8.2 1 8 0 . 3 12.9 629 .4 10 0.612 3.23 0 . 5 0 9 0 I S 3 24 12 2 2 . 0 8 2 5 . 6 8.2 175 . 3 12.7 1 3 4 . 0 10 0.600 1 5 . 9 1 1 . 2 0 1 7 I S 4 2 11. 2 2 . 0 8 2 5 . 6 " " 8.2 175.3 12.7 138 .0 10 0 .600 1 5 . 4 5 1.1889 I S 4 2 10 1 6 . 6 6 2 5 . 5 8.1 1 6 0 . 0 12.7 94.2 10 0.504 2 5 . 0 0 1.3979 I S 4 3 9 1 6 . 6 6 2 5 . 5 8.1 1 6 0 . 0 12.7 9 4 . 4 10 0.504 2 4 . 9 4 1.3969 I S 4 , 3 8 7 5 5 3 lAhLE Z ( CJINJJJjLiJEDJ, WEIGHT L E N G T H WIDTH T H I C K P R E S S U R E T I M E VOLUME SP GR PERM LOG PERM I D E N T MG MM MM M I C R O N MM HG SEC ML P A R C I ES , I N T E R I O R SAPWOOD S O L V E N T D R I E D 1 4 . 3 0 2 5 . 5 ' 8 . 2 1 5 7 . 5 1 2 . 7 9 9 . 2 10 0 . 4 3 4 2 3 . 8 2 1 . 3 7 7 0 I S 4 4 1 4 . 3 0 2 5 . 5 . 8 . 2 1 5 7 . 5 1 2 . 7 99 . 8 10 0 . 4 3 4 2 3 . 6 8 1 . 3 7 4 4 I S 4 4 1 0 . 8 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 1 5 2 . 4 1 2 . 7 1 3 7 . 0 10 0 . 3 4 1 1 7 . 8 3 1 . 2 5 1 1 I S 4 5 1 0 . 8 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 1 5 2 . 4 1 2 . 7 1 3 5 . 6 10 0 . 3 4 1 1 8 . 0 1 1 . 2 5 5 5 I S 4 5 8 . 3 6 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 1 4 9 . 9 1 2 . 9 1 2 9 . 0 10 0 . 2 6 7 1 8 . 9 5 1 . 2 7 7 7 I S 4 8 8 . 3 6 ' 2 5 . 5 . 8 . 2 _ l _ L ? j _ ? 1 2 . 9 1 3 1 . 2 ._ 1.0. 0 .2 .6 7.. 1.8...64 .. 1.2.7.04.. I S A _8 . 6 . 8 6 2 5 . 5 7 . 9 1 4 9 . 9 1 2 . 7 1 0 1 . 4 10 0 . 2 2 7 2 5 . 4 2 1 . 4 0 5 2 I S 4 14 6 . 8 6 2 5 . 5 7 . 9 1 4 9 . 9 1 2 . 9 1 0 0 . 2 10 0 . 2 2 7 2 5 . 3 3 1 . 4 0 3 6 I S 4 14 I N T E R I O R HEARTWOOD S O L V E N T D R I E D 1 4 . 1 8 . 2 ,5 .5 . 7 . 9 4 2 1 . 6 59_.it L2LL.D L 0...16 7 0 . 1 6 - . 0 . 7 9 0 8 I H.2. .16 1 /, 1 Q T C L C ; I n /. o 1 _ _ A C i n t r -i r\ i _ _ r. n o -i n T i _ i i i /• ' 1 4 . 1 8 2 5 . 5 7 . 9 4 2 1 . 6 6 0 . 5 1 3 0 . 6 1 0 . 1 6 7 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 8 3 1 9 I H 2 16 l 21 . 4 4 2 5 . 6 7 . 6 1 9 8 . 1 6 0 . 0 5 8 . 8 1 0 . 5 5 6 0 . 7 3 - 0 . 1 3 5 2 IH2 18 21 . 4 4 2 5 . 6 7 . 6 198 . 1 5 9 . 9 5 9 . 0 1 0 . 5 5 6 0 . 7 3 - 0 . 1 3 5 9 1 8 2 7 . 8 2 2 5 . 6 8 . 3 1 8 0 . 3 5 9 . 7 2 6 . 6 1 0 . 7 2 6 1 . 6 4 0 . 2 1 4 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ I H 2 20 2 7 . 8 2 2 5 . 6 8 . 3 1 8 0 . 3 5 9 . 5 2 8 . 2 1 0 . 7 2 6 1 . 5 5 0 . 1 9 0 1 I H 2 20 2 3 . 5 0 2 5 . 3 8 . 1 1 6 2 . 6 6 0 . 0 2 7 . 2 1 0 ._10.5„ . 1...79. _ 0 . 2 5 2 7 . J H 2 . _22 2 3 . 5 0~ 2 5 . 3 . 8 . 1 1 6 2 . 6 5 9 . 9 2 9 . 4 1 0 . 7 0 5 1 . 6 6 0 . 2 1 9 7 I H 2 22 6 . 8 4 2 5 . 3 8 . 4 1 7 0 . 2 5 9 . 9 1 7 5 . 0 10 0 . 1 8 9 2 . 5 7 0 . 4 0 9 3 IH3 3 6 . 8 4 2 5 . 3 8 . 4 1 7 0 . 2 5 9 . 9 1 9 3 . 6 10 0 . 1 8 9 2 . 3 2 0 . 3 6 5 4 I H * 3 -7 5 . 7 6 2 5 . 4 . 7 .1 1 6 7 . 6 6 0 . 1 6 2 . 0 1 0 . 1 9 1 0 . 8 7 - 0 . 0 6 0 2 I H * 0 \ 5 . 7 6 2 5 . 4 7 . 1 1 6 7 . 6 6 0 . 1 6 2 . 0 1 0 . 1 9 1 0 . 8 7 - 0 . 0 6 0 2 I H * 9 12 11_ 10 9 8 7 S T A B L E 2 ( C O N T I N U E D ) WEIGHT L E N G T H WIDTH TH ICK P R E S S U R E T IME VOLUME S P GR PERM LOG PERM IDEMT MG MM MM M ICRON MM HG SEC ML D A R C I E S C O A S T A L SAPWOOD S O L V E N T DR I ED 6 . 9 0 ' " 2 4 . 6 8 . 3 1 4 9 . 9 3 . 7 1 6 9 . 0 10 0 . 2 2 6 4 8 . 0 8 1 . 6 8 1 9 C S 3 10 6 . 9 0 2 4 . 6 8 . 3 1 4 9 . 9 3 . 7 1 7 6 . 2 10 0 . 2 2 6 4 6 . 11 1 . 6 6 3 8 C S 3 10 7 . 4 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 1 1 7 5 . 3 3 . 3 9 1 . 2 10 0 . 2 0 5 9 0 . 3 7 1 . 9 5 6 0 C S 3 14 7 . 4 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 1 1 7 5 . 3 3 . 3 9 2 . 6 10 0 . 2 0 5 8 9 . 0 0 1 . 9 4 9 4 C S 3 14 1 7 . 2 6 2 5 . 3 5 . 4 2 3 1 . 1 1 2 . 7 42 . 0 1 0 . 5 4 7 5 . 7 8 0 . 7 6 1 6 C S 3 15 1 7 . 2 6 2 5 . 3 5 . 4 _ 2 3 J . . 1 1 2 . 7 4 2 . 2 •1 0 . 5 4 7 . 5 . 7 5 0 . 7 5 9 6 . CS 3 _ 15 2 5". 1 4 2 5 . 6 '* 6 . 1 2 3 8 . 8 1 2 . 5 1 2 7 . 6 1 0 . 6 7 4 1 . 6 8 0 . 2 2 4 0 C S 4 1 2 5 . 1 4 2 5 . 6 6 . 1 2 3 8 . 8 1 2 . 5 1 2 9 . 8 1 0 . 6 7 4 1 . 6 5 0 . 2 1 6 6 C S 4 1 3 3 . 5 0 2 5 . 3 7 . 7 2 5 4 . 0 .17 .6 79 . 4 1 0 0 . 6 7 7 1 4 . 0 7 1 . 1 4 8 3 ' CS_4_ 3 3 3 . 5 0 2 5 . 3 7 . 7 2 5 4 . 0 1 7 . 5 8 1 . 0 10 0 . 6 7 7 1 3 . 8 7 1 . 1 4 2 1 C S 4 3 9 . 0 2 2 5 . 6 8 . 0 1 4 7 . 3 3 . 4 9 7 . 6 10 0 . 2 9 9 9 9 . 5 0 1 . 9 9 7 8 C S 4 5 l •p-_ . . . 9 . 0 2 2 5.. A . . . _ 8 . . . . 0 _ . _.L47...3_ 9 9-. 6 . —JUL—. _ 0 . 2 9 . 5 „ . J .QQ. . .45 . . 2 . . 0 0 2 0 . . .-CS4. . . .55 o . I 8 . 6 4 2 4 . 6 8 . 2 1 4 7 . 3 3 . 7 8 9 . 2 10 0 . 2 9 1 9 3 .7 .9 1 . 9 7 2 1 C S 4 6 8 . 6 4 2 4 . 6 8 . 2 1 4 7 . 3 3 . 5 9 1 . 2 10 0 . 2 9 1 9 6 . 9 7 1 . 9 8 6 6 C S 4 6 7 . 8 6 2 5 . 5 8 . 3 1 5 4 . 9 1 7 . 8 3 1 . 4 1 0 0 . 2 4 0 5 3 . 9 3 1 . 7 3 1 8 C S 4 8 7 . 8 6 2 5 . 5 8 . 3 1 5 4 . 9 3 . 1 1 5 3 . 4 10 0 . 2 4 0 6 3 . 3 8 1 . 8 0 2 0 C S 4 8 2 6 . 1 4 2 5 . 5 7 . 4 22 1 . 0 1 2 . 6 48 . 4 1 0 . 6 2 7 3 . 8 9 0 . 5 8 9 6 - CS 5 2 2 6 . 14 2 5 . 5 . 7.».__ 2 2 1 . 0 1.2. 5 49 . 8 1 0 . 6 2 7 3 . 8 1. 0.5j3.07._ _ £ . S 5 _ . 2 . 2 7 . 6 4 2 5 . 8 8~. 3 1 8 8 . 0 1 2 . 1 4 5 . 4 1 0 . 6 8 7 4 . 5 8 0 . 6 6 0 5 C S 5 3 2 7 . 6 4 2 5 . 8 8 . 3 1 8 8 . 0 1 2 . 1 4 7 . 6 1 0 . 6 8 7 4 . 3 6 0 . 6 3 9 9 CS 5 3 C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD S O L V E N T D R I E D V :2 11. 10 9 7 . 0 5 7 . 0 5 ' 6 . 5 6 6 . 5 6 2 5 . 6 2 5.T 2 5 . 2 2 5 . 2 3_ 14 6 J L ° 3 1 4 6 . 0 1 1 5 1 . 1 1 • 1 5 1 . 1 1 2 . 8 1 3 . 0 1 2 . 7 1 2 . 7 1 3 0 . 4 1 4 0 . 6 1 2 9 . 0 1 3 5 . 6 SL»J  7 ? 0 . 2 2 7 0 . 2 1 3 __•_» 2 1 . 7 6 1 . 9 1 1 . 8 2 0.. 2.840.. 0 . 2 4 4 6 0 . 2 8 1 0 0 . 2 5 9 3 CJ±3 9 . CH 3 9 CH3 12 CH 3 12 8 1 6 . 5 0 2 5 . 5 7 . 8 1 5 1 . 1 1 2 . 7 2 4 0 . 8 1 0 . 5 4 9 1 . 0 8 0 . 0 3 1 5 CH 3 16 7 1 6 . 5 0 2 5 . 5 7 . 8 1 5 1 . 1 1 2 . 7 2 6 0 . 4 1 0 . 5 4 9 0 . 9 9 - 0 . 0 0 2 5 CH 3 16 5 2 ' 7 . 0 0 2 5 . 5 7 . 8 1 6 5 . 1 1 2 . 9 142 . 4 1 0 . 8 2 2 1 . 6 4 _ .0 .2 .1 .4A _XH.3 19 5 2 7 . 0 0 2 5 . 5 7 . 8 16 5 . 1 1 3 . 3 1 4 9 . 6 1 0 . 8 2 2 1 . 5 1 0 . 1 7 9 8 CH 3 19 t 3 2 5 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 7 . 8 1 5 2 . 4 1 2 . 9 1 2 4 . 4 1 0 . 8 3 7 2 . 0 3 0 . 3 0 7 9 CH3 2? WEIGHT L E N G T H WIDTH T H I C K P R E S S U R E T IME VOLUME S P GR PERM LOG PERM I DENT MG MM MM M ICRON MM HG • SEC ML P A R C I ES , , C O A S T A L HEARTWOOP S O L V E N T D R I E D 2 5 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 7 . 8 1 5 2 . 4 1 3 . 2 1 2 8 . 4 1 0 . 8 3 7 1 . 9 2 0 . 2 8 4 2 CH3 22 1 1 . 9 8 2 5 . 5 7 . 9 1 4 2 . 2 1 3 . 1 2 3 . 6 1 0 . 4 1 8 1 1 . 1 6 1 . 0 4 7 6 CH3 23 1 1 . 9 8 2 5 . 5 7 . 9 1 4 2 . 2 1 3 . 1 2 5 . 2 1 0 . 4 1 8 1 0 . 4 5 1 . 0 1 9 1 CH3 23 1 5 . 3 0 2 5 . 4 . 8 . 0 1 5 7 . 5 1 0 . 7 1 2 7 . 4 1 0 . 4 7 8 2 . 2 5 0 . 3 5 1 8 C H 4 1 1 5 . 3 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 0 1 5 7 . 5 1 0 . 7 1 3 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 7 8 2 . 2 0 0 . 3 4 3 0 CH4 1 8 . 3 8 2 5 ^ 5 8 . 2 1 4 9 . 9 1 2 . 6 2 0 5 . 2 1 . 0 . 2 6 7 - J L . 2 2 0 . 0 8.63 - X b _ . 5 8 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 1 4 9 . 9 1 2 . 6 2 0 5 . 2 1 0 . 2 6 7 1 . 2 2 0 . 0 8 6 3 C H 4 5 6 . 5 4 2 5 . 5 8 . 3 1 5 2 . 4 1 0 . 6 2 3 5 . 6 1 0 . 2 0 3 1 . 2 3 0 . 0 8 8 8 C H 4 11 6 . 5 4 2 5 . 5 8 . 3 1 5 2 . 4 1 0 . 7 2 6 4 . 2 1 0 . 2 0 3 1 . 0 8 0 . 0 3 5 0 C±L4_ 1 1 2 3 . 5 8 2 5 . 6 8 . 1 1 7 0 . 2 1 3 . 0 1 4 7 . 2 1 0 . 6 6 8 1 . 48 0 . 1 6 8 8 C H 4 13 i i—i 2 3 . 5 8 2 5 . 6 8 . 1 1 7 0 . 2 1 3 . 5 1 5 5 . 6 1 0 . 6 6 8 1 . 3 4 0 . 1 2 8 3 CH4 13 I N T E R I O R SAPWOOD F R E E Z E D R I E D 2 4 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 1 1 7 7 . 8 1 9 . 7 4 4 . 6 1 0 . 6 6 4 3 . 0 6 0 . 4 8 6 2 I S 3 6 2 4 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 1 1 7 7 . 8 1 9 . 7 4 5 . 2 1 0 . 6 6 4 3 . 0 2 0 . 4 8 0 4 I S 3 6 6 . 5 8 2 5 . 4 8 . 2 1 5 2 . 4 1 9 . 5 1 9 3 . 8 1 0 . 2 0 7 0 . 8 2 - 0 . 0 8 7 5 I S 3 19 6 . 5 8 2 5 . 4 8 . 2 1 5 2 . 4 1 9 . 4 2 1 3 . 0 1 0 . 2 0 7 0 . 7 5 . - 0 . 1 26 3 I S 3 19 2 5 . 5 0 2 5 . 5 7 . 8 2 8 4 . 5 1 9 . 2 1 0 5 . 2 1 0 . 4 5 1 0 . 8 6 - 0 . 0 6 3 1 I S 3 24 2 5 . 50 2 5 . 5 7 . 8 2 8 4 . 5 1 9 . 0 1 1 2 . 6 1 0 . 4 5 1 0 . 8 2 - 0 . 0 8 8 1 I S 3 24 2 1 . 7 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 2 165 . 1 2 0 . 0 7 2 . 0 1 0 . 6 3 1 1 . 9 8 0 . 2 9 6 8 I S 4 2 Y 2 1 . 7 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 2 1 6 5 . 1 2 0 . 0 7 5 . 2 1 0 . 6 3 1 1 . 9 0 0 . 2 7 7 9 I S 4 2 8 . 5 6 2 5 . 4 8 . 1 1 5 4 . 9 1 9 . 6 5 5 . 0 1 0 . 2 6 9 2 . 8 5 0 . 4 5 5 4 I S 4 3 12 8 . 5 6 2 5 . 4 8 . 1 1 5 4 . 9 1 9 . 4 5 7 . 0 1 0 . 2 6 9 2 _ . 7 8 _ _ _ 0 L 4 4 4 4 _ I S 4 3 n 1 0 . 8 6 " 2 5 V 5" 7 . 9 1 5 7 . 5 1 9 . 3 1 9 6 . 4 10 0 . 3 4 2 8 . 2 2 0 . 9 1 4 8 I S 4 c 10 1 0 . 8 6 2 5 . 5 7 . 9 1 5 7 . 5 1 9 . 0 2 0 1 . 2 10 0 . 3 4 2 8 . 1 5 0 . 9 1 1 1 I S 4 5 9 7 . 5 4 2 5 . 5 7 . 6 1 4 9 . 9 1 9 . 8 3 5 . 0 1 0 . 2 6 0 4 . 9 1 6 . 6 9 1 2 I S 4 8 8 7 . 5 4 2 5 . 5 7 . 6 1 4 9 . 9 1 9 . 7 3 6 . 6 1 0 . 2 6 0 4 . 7 2 0 . 6 7 3 9 I S 4 8 7 7 . 2 8 2 5 . 4 8 . 2 1 5 2 . 4 1 9 . 6 1 7 0 . 6 10 0 . 2 2 9 9 . 2 4 0 . 9 6 5 6 I S 4 11 5 7 . 2 8 2 5 . 4 8 . 2 1 5 2 . 4 1 9 . 5 1 7 5 . 7 10 0 . 2 2 9 9 . 0 2 __0-._9J5 5.1._. X S A . 1.1 5 7 . 6 0 2 5 . 3 8 . 6 1 5 2 . 4 2 0 . 0 3 1 . 0 1 0 . 2 2 9 4 . 7 3 0 . 6 7 5 1 I S * 13 4 7 . 6 0 2 5 . 3 8 . 6 1 5 2 . 4 1 9 . 9 3 2 . 8 1 0 . 2 2 9 4 . 5 0 0 . 6 5 2 8 I S 4 13 T A B L E 2 ( C O N T I N U E D ) WEIGHT L E N G T H WIDTH T H I C K P R E S S U R E T IME VOLUME S P GR PERM LOG PERM IDENT MG MM MM M ICRON MM HG SEC ML D A R C I E S I N T E R I O R HEARTWOOD F R E E Z E D R I E D 7 . 3 6 " 2 5 . 5 8 . 4 1 4 9 . 9 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 2 9 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 2 1 0 6 I H ? 4 7 . 3 6 2 5 . 5 8 . 4 1 4 9 . 9 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 2 9 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 2 1 0 6 I H ? 4 8 . 2 4 2 5 . 6 8 . 2 1 4 7 . 3 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 6 6 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 1 9 1 0 I H ? g 8 . 2 4 2 5 . 6 8 . 2 1 4 7 . 3 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 6 6 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 1 9 1 0 I H ? , 9 9 . 2 2 2 5 . 5 7 . 9 1 4 4 . 8 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 3 1 6 0 . 0 1 ' - 2 . 1 6 8 9 IH2 • 1? 9 . 2 2 2 5 . 5 7 . 9 1 4 4 . 8 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 3 1 6 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 1 6 8 9 I H ? 1? 6 . 6 2 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 1 4 9 . 9 5 0 0 . 0 10 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 1 1 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 2 0 0 1 I H 3 9 6 . 6 2 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 1 4 9 . 9 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 1 1 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 2 0 0 1 I H3 9 1 6 . 4 2 2 5 . 5 7 . 9 1 5 7 . 5 6 0 . 5 1 4 3 . 4 1 0 . 5 1 8 0 . 3 6 - 0 . 4 4 4 8 I H 2 16 1 6 . 4 2 2 5 . 5 7 . 9 1 5 7 . 5 6 0 . 5 1 4 7 . 4 1 0 . 5 1 8 0 . 3 5 - 0 . 4 5 6 7 I H ? 16 2 5 . 9 4 2 5 . 5 8 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 6 0 . 4 33 . 6 1 0 . 7 9 5 1 . 4 9 0 . 1 7 3 7 I H ? 18 » -p-2_5_._9 4__ _ 2 5_..5_ 8 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 6 0 . 4 33 . 8 1 0 . 7 9 5 1 . 4 8 0 . 1 7 1 2 I H ? 18 2 4 . 9 2 2 5 . 6 7 . 8 1 5 4 . 9 6 0 . 0 3 6 . 4 1 0 . 8 0 5 1 . 4 7 0 . 1 6 8 6 I H ? ?0 2 4 . 9 2 2 5 . 6 7 . 8 1 5 4 . 9 6 0 . 0 3 6 . 2 1 0 . 8 0 5 1 . 48 0 . 1 7 1 0 I H ? ?0 1 4 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 1 4 9 . 9 6 0 . 0 1 8 4 . 8 10 0 . 4 5 9 2 . 8 4 0 . 4 5 4 0 I H ? 2? 1 4 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 1 4 9 . 9 6 0 . 0 1 8 7 . 2 10 0 . 4 5 9 2 . 8 1 0 . 4 4 8 4 I H 2 22 2 4 . 7 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 1 1 6 5 . 1 6 0 . 5 2 8 . 4 1 0 . 7 2 7 1 . 6 9 0 . 2 2 7 1 IH3 30 2 4 . 7 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 1 1 6 5 . 1 6 0 . 5 2 8 . 7 1 0 . 7 2 7 1 . 6 7 . 0 . 2 22 5_ I H 3 _ 30 C O A S T A L SAPWOOD F R E E Z E D R I E D Y 6 . 9 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 2 1 5 1 . 1 4 . 5 1 5 6 . 8 10 0 . 2 1 9 4 4 . 1 5 1 . 6 4 5 0 C S 3 10 | V 6 . 9 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 2 1 5 1 . 1 4 . 4 1 5 4 . 2 10 0 . 2 1 9 4 5 . 9 2 1 . 6 6 2 0 C S * 10 12 ___ 6 . 3 6 2 5 . 7 8 . 1 1 4 7 . 3 4 . 2 1 1 7 . 0 10 0 . 2 0 7 6 6 . 6 2 1 . 8 2 3 6 CS 3 13 11. " 6 . 3 6 2 5 . 7 8 . 1 1 4 7 . 3 4 . 2 1 2 0 . 0 10 0 . 2 0 7 6 4 . 9 5 1 . 8 " ! 2 6 C S * 1 3 no 9 . 7 2 2 5 . 3 8 . 5 1 6 2 . 6 4 . 3 1 0 9 . 2 10 0 . 2 7 8 5 9 . 2 7 1 . 7 7 2 8 C S 3 14 9 9 . 7 2 ' 2 5 . 3 8 . 5 1 6 2 . 6 4 . 2 1 1 4 . 6 10 0 . 2 7 8 5 7 . 8 2 1 . 7 6 2 1 CS 3 14 8 2 0 . 3 2 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 7 5 . 3 4 . 4 6 3 . 4 1 0 . 5 3 3 9 . 3 6 0 . 9 7 1 4 C S * 15 1 7 2 0 . 3 2 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 7 5 . 3 4 . 2 6 4 . 0 1 0 . 5 3 3 9 . 7 2 0 . 9 8 7 6 C S 3 15 6 3 2 . 8 6 2 5 . 4 8 . 3 2 0 3 . 2 4 . 4 2 3 3 . 0 1 0 . 7 6 7 2 . 2 3 0 . 3 4 8 9 C S 4 1 5 3 2 . 8 6 "2 5~.4 8 . 3 2 0 3 . 2 4 . 4 2 4 2 . 6 1 • 0 . 7 6 7 "" ' 2 . 1 4 0". 3 3 1 3 C S 4 1 4 T A B L E 2 ( C O N T I N U E D ) WEIGHT MG L E N G T H MM WIDTH MM. T H I C K M I C R O N P R E S S U R E MM HG T IME SEC VOLUME ML S P GR PERM D A R C I E S LOG PERM I D E N T C O A S T A L SAPWOOD F R E E Z E D R I E D 3 7 . 5 0 1 5 . 6 0 2 5 . 5 " 2 5 . 5 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 8 . 5 8 . 6 2 2 3 . 5 2 2 3 . 5 1 5 2 . 4 4 . 6 4 . 4 4 . 5 3 8 . 0 3 8 . 8 4 1 . 0 1 1 1 0 . 7 7 4 0 . 7 7 4 0 . 4 6 5 1 1 . 6 7 1 1 . 9 5 1 6 . 0 9 1 . 0 6 7 1 1 . 0 7 7 4 1 . 2 0 6 6 C S 4 C S * C S 4 ' 3 3 4 1 5 . 6 0 8 . 9 0 8 . 9 0 2 5 . 6 2 5 . 7 2 5 . 7 8 . 6 8 . 7 8 . 7 15 2 . 4 1 4 9 . 9 1 4 9 . 9 4 . 4 4 . 2 4 . 2 4 3 . 0 1 6 3 . 2 1 6 2 . 2 1 10 10 0 . 4 6 5 0 . 2 6 6 0 . 2 6 6 1 5 . 6 9 4 3 . 7 1 4 3 . 9 8 1 . 1 9 5 7 1 . 6 4 0 6 1 . 6 4 3 3 C S 4 C S 4 C S 4 4 6 6 8 . 3 9 8 . 3 9 2 8 . 2 0 2 5 . 7 2 5 . 7 2 5 . 5 8 . 5 8 . 5 8 . 6 1 5 4 . 9 1 5 4 . 9 1 7 0 . 2 4 . 4 4 . 5 4 . 4 1 6 4 . 4 1 6 6 . 4 1 3 6 . 2 10 10 1 0 . 2 4 8 0 . 2 4 8 0 . 7 5 6 4 1 . 0 1 3 9 . 6 1 4 . 4 2 1 . 6 1 2 8 1 . 5 9 7 8 0 . 6 4 5 3 C S 4 C S 4 C S 5 8 8 3 2 8 . 2 0 2 5 . 5 8 . 6 1 7 0 . 2 4 . 4 1 4 3 . 8 1 0 . 7 5 6 4 . 1 9 0 . 6 2 1 8 C S 5 3 l COAST A. L. HEARTWOOD F R E E Z E DRI ED V 1 0 . 7 0 1 0 . 7 0 2 5 . 6 2 5 . 6 8 . 0 8 . 0 1 4 9 . 9 1 4 9 . 9 2 0 . 0 1 9 . 8 6 6 . 6 7 3 . 8 1 1 0 . 3 4 9 0 . 3 4 9 2 . 4 4 2 . 2 2 0 . 3 8 6 8 0 . 3 4 6 6 C H * CH3 9 9 7 . 1 2 7 . 1 2 2 3 . 8 8 2 5 . 4 2 5 . 4 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 8 . 2 7 . 7 1 4 7 . 3 1 4 7 . 3 1 6 7 . 6 6 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 1 9 . 8 60 . 6 6 2 . 8 1 4 9 . 2 1 1 1 0 . 2 3 2 0 . 2 3 2 0 . 7 2 5 0 . 8 8 0 . 8 5 1 . 0 2 - 0 . 0 5 6 0 - 0 . 0 7 1 5 0 . 0 0 7 1 . CH3 C H * CH3 1 3 . 1 3 23 2 3 . 8 8 " 2 2 . 8 8 2 2 . 8 8 '2 5 . 5 " 25 . 5 2 5 . 5 " 7 . 7 7 . 8 7 . 8 1 6 7 . 6 1 5 4 . 9 1 5 4 . 9 1 9 . 8 6 0 . 0 5 9 . 9 1 5 0 . 0 3 5 . 4 3 5 . 6 1 1 1 0 . 7 2 5 0 . 7 4 2 0 . 7 4 2 T. 6 1 1 . 5 1 1 . 50 0 . 0 0 4 8 " 0 . 1 7 9 0 . 0 . 1 7 7 2 " C H 3 CH4 CH4 ' 23 5 5 6 . 9 8 6 . 9 8 2 5 . 5 2 5 . 5 8 . 1 8 . 1 1 6 2 . 6 1 6 2 . 6 2 0 . 2 2 0 . 0 5 6 . 0 6 0 . 6 1 1 0 . 2 0 8 0 . 2 0 8 2 . 6 0 2 . 4 3 0 . 4 1 5 3 0 . 3 8 5 4 CH4 CH4 13 13 11 10 0 7 T A B L E 2 ( C O N T I N U E D ) WE IGHT LENGTH WIDTH T H I C K P R E S S U R E T I M E VOLUME SP GR P E R M LOG PERM I DENT MG MM MM M I C R O N MM HG SEC ML D A R C I E S I N T E R I O R SAPWOOD B O I L E D UNDER VACUUM • 1 8 . 0 4 2 5 . 5 6 . 8 1 6 7 . 6 1 9 . 9 49 . 2 1 0 . 6 2 1 3 . 4 7 0 . 5 4 0 7 I S 3 6 1 8 . 0 4 2 5 . 5 6 . 8 1 6 7 . 6 1 9 . 9 5 0 . 4 1 0 . 6 2 1 3 . 3 9 0 . 5 3 0 2 I S 3 6 6 . 2 6 2 5 . 4 7 . 5 ' 1 5 7 . 5 1 9 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 0 9 0 . 7 2 - 0 . 1 4 4 6 I S 3 19 6 . 2 6 2 5 . 4 7 . 5 1 5 7 . 5 1 9 . 2 2 8 8 . 6 1 0 . 2 0 9 0 . 5 9 . - 0 . 2 2 9 2 I S3 19 6 . 9 6 2 5 . 3 8 . 6 1 5 7 . 5 6 0 . 8 1 1 5 . 2 1 0 . 2 0 3 0 . 4 1 - 0 . 3 9 2 1 I S 3 21 1 3 . 8 2 2 5 . 5 8 . 5 J 8 0.._3_ 1 9 . 3 1 8 6 . 1 1 __Q_L35 „ 0 . 7 0 . _ - 0 . . . 15.24 I S 3 24 1 3 . 8 2 2 5 . 5 8 . 5 1 8 0 . 3 1 9 . 0 1 9 1 . 5 I 0 . 3 5 4 0 . 6 9 - 0 . 1 5 8 0 I S 3 24 2 5 . 1 9 2 5 . 6 8 . 4 16 7 . 6 1 8 . 8 39 . 0 1 0 . 6 9 9 3 . 7 7 0 . 5 7 6 2 I S 4 2 2 5 . 1 9 2 5 . 6 8 . 4 1 6 7 . 6 1 9 . 7 39 . 2 1 0 . 6 Q 9 3 . 5 8 0 . 5 5 3 7 I S 4 ? 2 3 . 1 4 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 7 2 . 7 1 9 . 3 2 7 . 2 1. 0 . 6 1 6 5 . 0 5 0 . 7 0 3 2 I S 4 3 2 3 . 1 4 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 7 2 . 7 1 8 . 9 2 8 . 0 1 0 . 6 1 6 5 . 0 1 0 . 6 9 9 7 I S 4 3 1 6 . 4 9 2 5 . 5 . . .8 . 4 „ 1JL.4 .„? 1 9 . 8 8 0 . 8 1 . ...at 4 9 7 . . . . 1 . 8 6 . . . 0 . 2 . 6 9 9 . I S.4.. 4 jjL. 1 5 . 4 9 2 5 . 5 8 . 4 1 5 4 . 9 1 9 . 7 8 4 . 2 1 0 . 4 9 7 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 5 4 2 I S 4 4 1 1 3 . 6 8 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 6 2 . 6 6 2 . 5 7 5 . 8 1 0 . 3 8 7 0 . 5 9 - 0 . 2 2 5 9 I S 4 5 1 3 . 6 8 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 6 2 . 6 6 2 . 3 83 . 8 1 0 . 3 8 7 0 . 5 4 - 0 . 2 6 8 1 I S 4 5 9 . 2 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 5 1 5 7 . 5 2 0 . 2 9 8 3 . 0 1 0 . 2 7 1 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 8 3 7 9 I S 4 8 9 . 2 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 5 1 5 7 . 5 6 1 . 3 3 1 8 . 2 1 0 . 2 7 1 0 . 1 5 - 0 . 8 3 0 1 I S 4 8 7 . 9 8 2 5 . 5 8 _ . 4 1 5 4 . 9 5 9 . 5 2 7 3 . 4 1 0j.2_40.__. .. . . 0 . 1 8 . - 0 . 7 3 7 4 . L S _ . J L 1 . . . . - ... 7 . 9 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 4 1 5 4 . 9 5 9 . 5 2 7 5 . 8 1 0 . 2 4 0 0 . 1 8 - 0 . 7 4 1 2 I S 4 11 7 . 4 7 2 5 . 5 8 . 6 1 5 7 . 5 6 1 .5 199 . 5 1 0 . 2 1 6 0 . 2 3 - 0 . 6 3 2 2 I S 4 14 7 . 4 7 2 5 . 5 8 . 6 1 5 7 . 5 6 1 . 3 2 2 5 . 0 1 0 . 2 1 6 0 . 2 1 - 0 . 6 8 3 0 I S 4 14 ^ I N T E R I O R HEARTWOOD B O I L E D UNDER VACUUM 12 11 7 . 6 6 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 1 6 7 . 6 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 1 9 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 2 4 8 8 I H 2 4 • 1° 7 . 6 6 2 5 . 5 8 . 2 1 6 7 . 6 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 1 9 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 2 4 8 8 I H 2 4 8 . 6 8 2 5 . 6 7 . 9 1 6 2 . 6 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 6 4 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 2 1 7 5 I H 2 9 0 8 . 6 8 2 5 . 6 7 . 9 1 6 2 . 6 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 6 4 0 . 0 1 - 2 . 2 1 7 5 I H ? 9 2 6 . 5 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 1 1 8 2 . 9 6 0 . 4 6 0 . 0 1 0 . 7 0 4 0 . 7 2 - 0 . 1 4 3 2 I H ? 16 5 2 6 . 50 2 5 . 4 8 . 1 1 8 2 . 9 6 0 . 4 5 9 . 2 1 0 . 7 0 4 _0..7 3 _ .-6._._1.3 7_3- _J.H_? _16_. s 3 T A B L E 2 ( C O N T I N U E D ) WE IGHT LENGTH WIDTH T H I C K P R E S S U R E T I M E VOLUME SP GR PERM LOG PERM I D E N T MG MM MM M I C R O N MM HG SEC ML D A R C I E S I N T E R I O R HEARTWOOD B O I L E D UNDER VACUUM 2 7 . 3 6 2 5 . 5 8 . 0 1 8 2 . 9 6 0 . 5 . 3 8 . 6 1 0 . 7 3 3 1 . 1 3 0 . 0 5 4 8 I H 2 18 2 7 . 3 6 2 5 . 5 8 . 0 1 8 2 . 9 6 0 . 5 38 . 6 1 0 . 7 3 3 1 . 1 3 0 . 0 5 4 8 I H 2 18 1 6 . 5 0 2 5 . 5 8 . 5 1 5 4 . 9 6 0 . 6 2 4 . 6 1 0 . 4 9 1 1 . 9 7 0 . 2 9 5 4 I H 3 31 1 6 . 5 0 . 2 5 . 5 8 . 5 1 5 4 . 9 6 0 . 6 2 5 . 0 1 0 . 4 9 1 1 . 9 4 0 . 2 8 8 4 I H 3 31 . C O A S T A L SAPWOOD B O I L E D UNDER VACUUM 7 . 3 8 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 4 7 . 3 3 . 9 1 1 6 . 6 10 0 . 2 3 0 6 8 . 3 3 1 . 8 3 4 6 C S 3 10 7 . 3 8 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 4 7 . 3 3 . 6 122 . 8 10 0 . 2 3 0 7 0 . 2 9 1 . 8 4 6 9 C S 3 10 7 . 0 0 2 5 . 5 8 . 5 1 5 4 . 9 3 . 8 8 6 . 6 10 0 . 2 0 8 8 9 . 4 3 1 . 9 5 1 5 C S 3 13 7 . 0 0 2 5 . 5 8 . 5 1 5 4 . 9 3 . 4 9 5 . 0 10 0 . 2 0 8 9 1 . 1 2 1 . 9 5 9 6 C S 3 13 1 _ 7 . 7 6 . 2 5__2_. 8 . 5 1 6 2 . 6 3 . 8 9 1 . 4 10 0 . 2 2J3 _ I ? . 8 1 1 . 9 0 2 1 „ C S 3 . 14 1 7 . 7 6 2 5 . 2 8 . 5 1 6 2 . 6 3 . 6 9 4 . 7 10 0 . 2 2 3 . 8 1 . 3 1 1 . 9 1 0 2 C S 3 14 1 7 . 6 6 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 2 0 0 . 7 4 . 2 1 4 9 . 3 10 0 . 4 0 4 3 6 . 3 8 1 . 5 6 0 9 C S 3 15 1 7 . 6 6 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 2 0 0 . 7 3 . 7 • 1 6 4 . 8 10 0 . 4 0 4 3 7 . 4 1 1 . 5 7 3 0 C S 3 15 3 2 . 8 6 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 9 3 . 0 1 9 . 9 3 7 6 . 4 10 0 . 7 8 2 3 . 1 7 0 . 5 0 0 5 C S 4 1 3 2 . 8 6 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 9 3 . 0 1 9 . 8 4 5 . 0 1 0 . 7 8 2 2 . 6 6 0 . 4 2 5 1 C S 4 1 4 5 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 5 2 7 4 . 3 4 . 4 2 7 . 0 1 0 . 7 6 3 1 3 . 9 9 1 . 1 4 5 9 C S 4 3 4 5 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 5 2 7 4 . 3 4 . 3 2 8 . 2 1 "0 . "76 3" 13". 71 1 . 1 3 7 0 " " C S 4 3 1 6 . 74 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 4 2 . 2 4 . 6 3 6 . 4 1 0 . 5 4 1 1 9 . 2 2 1 . 2 8 3 8 C S 4 4 1 6 . 7 4 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 4 2 . 2 4 . 6 3 6 . 8 1 0 . 5 4 1 1 9 . 0 1 1 . 2 7 9 0 C S 4 4 9 . 6 4 2 5 . 2 8 . 5 1 4 7 . 3 4 . 3 1 2 5 . 0 10 0 . 3 0 5 5 6 . 9 1 1 . 7 5 5 2 C S 4 6 9 . 6 4 2 5 . 2 8 . 5 1 4 7 . 3 4 . 2 1 2 8 . 2 10 0 . 3 0 5 5 6 . 8 1 1 . 7 5 4 4 C S 4 6 8 . 5 8 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 5 4 . 9 3 . 8 1 7 1 . 0 10 0 . 2 5 4 4 5 . 4 7 1 . 6 5 7 7 C S 4 8 8 . 5 8 2 5 . 6 8 . 5 1 5 4 . 9 . 3 . 6 1 8 1 . 4 10 0 . 2 5 4 4 5 . 2 4 1 . 6 5 56 ™CS4 8 ;0 9 8 7 T A B L E 2 ( C O N T I N U E D ) WE IGHT L E N G T H W IDTH T H I C K P R E S S U R E T I M E VOLUME S P GR PERM LOG PERM I DEN T. MG MM MM MI CRON MM HG SEC ML D A R C I E S C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD B O I L E D UNDER V A C U U M 1 4 . 3 0 2 4 . 9 . 8 . 3 1 7 0 . 2 2 0 . 6 7 7 . 6 1 0 . 4 0 7 1 . 6 8 0 . 2 2 4 3 CH 3 13 1 4 . 3 0 2 4 . 9 8 . 3 1 7 0 . 2 2 0 . 6 8 4 . 4 1 0 . 4 0 7 1 . 5 4 0 . 1 8 7 8 CH 3 13 2 7 . 2 8 2 5 . 4 8 . 1 1 6 7 . 6 2 0 . 4 7 0 . 6 1 0 . 7 9 1 1 . 9 7 0 . 2 9 5 4 CH 3 15 2 7 . 2 8 2 5 . 4 8 . 1 1 6 7 . 6 2 0 . 4 72 . 4 1 0 . 7 9 1 • 1 . 9 3 0 . 2 8 4 4 CH 3 15 26 . 4 0 2 5 . 3 7 . 9 17 5.. 3 2 0 . 2 5 7 . 0 1 0 . 7 5 4 2 . 4 1 0 . 3 8 2 4 CH3 19 2 6 . 4 0 2 5 . 3 7 . 9 1 7 5 . 3 2 0 . 2 5 8 . 8 1 0 . 7 5 4 2 . 3 4 . . _0 . « 3 6 8 9 C H 3 19 1 9 . 2 6 2 5 . 5 8 . 1 1 6 0 . 0 2 0 . 4 4 5 . 6 1 0 . 5 8 3 3 . 2 1 0 . 5 0 7 1 CH3 22 1 9 . 2 6 2 5 . 5 8 . 1 1 6 0 . 0 2 0 . 4 4 7 . 4 1 . 0 . 5 8 3 3 . 0 9 0 . 4 9 0 3 CH 3 22 1 0 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 . 8 . 4 1 5 7 . 5 2 0 . 4 6 0 . 8 1 0 . 3 0 8 2 . 3 6 0 . 3 7 3 3 CH 3 23 1 0 . 3 8 2 5 . 5 8 . 4 15 7 . 5 2 0 . 4 6 4 . 0 1 0 . 3 0 8 2 . 2 4 0 . 3 5 1 1 CH3 23 ' 8 . 4 6 2 5 . 5 . 8 . 4 1 6 0 . 0 5 9 . 8 1 4 5 . 4 1 0 . 2 4 7 0 . 3 3 - 0 . 4 7 9 3 C H 4 1 8 . 4 6 „2.5_. 5_- 8 . 4 _J__0 -0 6 0 . 0 J_6_L. 8 1 J 3 _ . „ A 7 _ .JD,.,28„ _-_r-il._5Jf_L6_ C H 4 1 3 0 . 5 4 25 . 5 7 . 8 1 7 5 . 3 2 0 . 0 5 3 . 2 1 0 . 8 7 6 2 . 6 6 0 . 4 2 5 7 C H 4 13 i 3 0 . 5 4 2 5 . 5 7 . 8 1 7 5 . 3 1 9 . 7 5 5 . 0 1 0 . 8 7 6 2 . 6 2 0 . 4 1 7 8 C H 4 13 1 0 . 5 4 2 5 . 4 8 . 7 1 7 2 . 7 6 0 . 0 4 0 . 2 1 0 . 2 7 6 1 . 0 7 0 . 0 2 7 4 CJ-A 1 1 1 0 . 54 2 5 . 4 8 . 7 1 7 2 . 7 6 0 . 0 . 43 . 4 1 0 . 2 7 6 0 . 9 9 - 0 . 0 0 5 8 C H 4 11 -47-TABLE. 3 Regressions of Douglas f i r gas-permeability v s . s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y Regressions have the form l o g P = a + bG where P = permeability (darcies) G = s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y a, b = constants tabulated below Drying method a b n R SEE Interior-type sapwood a i r - d r i e d -0.751 oven-dried -1.339 solvent-dried -1.383 f r e e z e - d r i e d -0.464 boiled-under-vacuum -1.150 Interior-type heartwood a i r - d r i e d -1.407 oven-dried -3.339 solvent-dried 0.022 f r e e z e - d r i e d -3.050 boiled-under-vacuum -2.291 Coast-type sapwood a i r - d r i e d 1.405 oven-dried 1.389 solvent-dried 2.572 free z e - d r i e d 2.155 boiled-under-vacuum 2.307 Coast-type heartwood a i r - d r i e d -0.150 oven-dried -0.369 solvent-dried 0.268 freeze-dried 0.121 boiled-under-vacuum -0.226 1*509 20 0.93 xx 0.109 1.211 20 0.91 xx 0.188 -0.685 20 0.45 x 0.234 -0.473 18 0.22 n.s. 0.375 1.267 22 0.91 0.231 2.3 08 18 0.56 x 0.899 1.446 18 0.98 XX 0.212 0.045 11 0.03 n.s. 0.307 4.447 18 0.88 xx 0.599 3.410 12 0.72 XX 0.795 -1.528 18 0.84 XX 0.217 -1.189 22 0.60 XX 0.391 -2.907 20 0.90 XX 0.289 -1.955 20 0.92 XX 0.196 -1.941 18 0.93 XX 0.173 0.441 22 0.46 X 0.229 0.829 20 0.59 XX 0.283 0.001 20 0.00 n.s. 0.292 -0.054 16 0.06 n.s. 0.196 0.815 18 0.66 ** 0.236 T A B L E 4 r R A T E OF CREOSOTE A B S O R P T I O N IN GROSS SPECIMENS" T I M E LOG TIME R E T E N T I O N LOG RET MINUTES GRAMS T"NT~ERTC^STP"W00D ( P R I N C E GEORGE) AIR D R I E D 0.3 - 0 . 5 2 2 9 1.0 0 . 0 0 0 0 7.2 0 . 8 5 7 3 5.0 0 . 6 9 9 0 2 4 . 0 1.3802 9.0 0 . 9 5 4 2 4 4 . 0 1 . 6 4 3 5 1 3.0 ..._J_. I 111. 1.7782 1 5.0 1.1761 1.8808 17.0 1. 2 3 0 4 -2-. 1004 2-1-.-Q 3_._3-2-_2-2 . 2 5 5 3 2 3 . 0 1 . 3 6 1 7 I N T E R I O R HEARTWOOD ( P R I N C E GEORGE) AIR DRIED « 17.0 1.2304 2.0 0 . 3 0 1 0 4 0 . 0 1 .6021 3.0 0 . 4 7 7 1 6 0 . 0 1 . 7782 3.5 0 . 5 4 4 1 C O A S T A L SAPWOOD (HANEY) A I R DRI ED 0.8 - 0 . 1 2 4 9 5.0 0 . 6 9 9 0 2.5 0 . 3 9 7 9 1 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 6.0 0.7782 15.0 1 . 1 7 6 1 11.0 1 . 0 4 1 4 2 0 . 0 1 . 3 0 1 0 2 1 . 0 1.3222 2 5 . 0 1 . 3 9 7 9 it. 3 8 . 0 1.5798 3 0 . 0 ~~I.4"771~ 10 6 1 . 0 1 . 7 8 5 3 3 5 . 0 ' 1.5441 9 9 3 . 0 1.9685 4 0 . 0 1 . 6 0 2 1 8 1 2 0 . 0 2 . 0 7 9 2 4 3 . 0 1 . 6 3 3 5 7 136.0 2 . 1 3 3 5 4 5 . 0 1.6532 6 0 . 0 7 6 . 0 _2-6-.-0-180.0 T A B L E 4 ( C O N T I N U E D ) T I M E LOG T I M E R E T E N T I O N LOG RET M I N U T E S GRAMS C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD ( H A N E Y ) A I R D R I E D 0 . 5 - 0 . 3 0 1 0 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 7 . 5 0 . 8 7 5 1 3 . 5 0 . 5 4 4 1 2 7 . 0 1 . 4 3 1 4 6 . 0 0 . 7 7 8 2 6 0 . 0 1 . 7 7 8 2 8 . 5 0 . 9 2 9 4 1 2 0 . 0 2 . 0 7 9 2 1 1 . 0 1 . 0 4 1 4 1 5 0 . 0 2 . 1 7 6 1 1 2 . 0 1 . 0 7 9 2 1 8 0 . 0 2 . 2 5 5 3 1 2 . 5 1 . 0 9 6 9 C O A S T A L SAPWOOD (COWICHAN) A I R D R I E D 4 . 0 0 . 6 0 2 1 4 . 0 0 . 6 0 2 1 1 4 . 0 1 . 1 4 6 1 9 . 0 0 . 9 5 4 2 2 5 . 0 . 1 . 3 9 7 9 1 4 . 0 1 . 1 4 6 1 3 7 . 0 1 . 5 6 8 2 1 9 . 0 1 . 2 7 8 8 5 5 . 0 1 . 7 4 0 4 2 4 . 0 1 . 3 8 0 2 7 5 . 0 1 . 8 7 5 1 2 9 . 0 1 . 4 6 2 4 9 9 . 0 1 . 9 9 5 6 3 4 . 0 1 . 5 3 1 5 1 2 7 . 0 2 . 1 0 3 8 i f L * 5_9 1 1 1 6 1 . 0 2 . 2 0 6 8 4 4 . 0 1 . 6 4 3 5 C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD ( C O W I C H A N ) A I R D R I E D ' 2 . 0 0 . 3 0 1 0 1 6 . 0 1 . 2 0 4 1 6 0 . 0 1 . 7 7 8 2 9 0 . 0 1 . 9 5 4 2 1 8 0 . 0 2 . 2 5 5 3 I N T E R I O R SAPWOOD ( P R I N C E GEORGE ) OVEN D R I E D 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 . 3 0 1 0 3 . 5 0 . 5 4 4 1 4 . 0 0 . 6 0 2 1 5 . 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 0 . 3 - 0 . 5 2 2 9 TABLE 4 (CONTINUED) TIME LOG TIME RETENTION LOG RET MINUTES GRAMS INTERIOR SAPWOOD (PRINCE GEORGE) OVEN DRIED 1.0 0.0000 10.0- 1.0000 2.2 0.3424 15.0 1.1761 3. 7 0. 5682 20.0 1.3010 6.0 0.7782 25.0 1.3979 9.1 0.9590 35.0 1.5441 12.9 1 . 1106 35.0 1 .5 441 17.7 1.2480 40.0 1.602*1 26.3 1.4200 45.0 1.6532 INTERIOR HEARTWOOD (PRINCE GEORGE) OVEN DRIED 1.7 0.2304 2_0 30.0 1.4771 3.5 60.0 1.7782 4.0 90..0 1 .9542 4.5  120.0 2.0792 5.0 0.6990 150.0 2.1761 5.5 0.7404 180. 0 2 .2553 6.0 0_ 7 78 2 COASTAL SAPWOOD (HANEY) OVEN DRIED 0.2 -0.6990 5.0 0.6990 0.7 - 0 . 1549 10.0 1.0000 12 _ _ 1. 2 , 0.0792 • 15.0 A J L 1 7AL ; i ~ " 1.8 • 0 .2553 20.0 "1.3010 " 10 3. 0 0. 4771 25.0 1. 3979 9 4. 5 0 .6 53 2 30.0 1 .4771 8 7.5 0.8751 35.0 1.5441 7 12.0 1.0792 40.0 1.6021 5 22 . 8 1 . 3579 4 5.0 L__L_L__ 5 4 3 I . 0 . . 3 . 0 1 0 . . 6.5441 0.6021 0.6532 T A B L E 4 ( C O N T I N U E D ) T I M E M I N U T E S LOG T I M E R E T E N T I O N GRAMS LOG RET C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD ( H A N E Y ) OVEN DRI ED 0 . 2 1 1 . 2 1 5 . 0 - 0 . 6 9 9 0 1 . 0 4 9 2 . 1 . 1 7 6 1 5 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 1 . 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 1 . 0 4 1 4 3 0 . 0 4 5 . 0 6 0 . 0 1 . 4 7 7 1 1 . 6 5 3 2 1 . 7 7 8 2 1 5 . 0 1 8 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 . 1 7 6 1 1 . 2 5 5 3 1 . 3 0 1 0 9 0 . 0 1 0 5 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 1 . 9 5 4 2 2 . 0 2 1 2 2 . 0 7 9 2 2 3 . 0 2 4 . 0 2 6 . 0 1 . 3 6 1 7 1 . 3 8 0 2 1 . 4 1 5 0 1 3 5 . 0 .. 1 8 0 . 0 2 . 1 3 0 3 2 . 2 5 5 3 2 7 . 0 3 0 . 0 1 . 4 3 1 4 1 . 4 7 7 1 -T i C O A S T A L SAPWOOD (COWICHAN) OVEN D R I E D _ | | , f 1 0 . 5 - 0 . 3 0 1 0 2 . 0 0 . 3 0 1 0 2 . 5 6 . 0 1 0 . 4 0 . 3 9 7 9 0 . 7 7 8 2 1 . 0 1 7 0 8 . 0 1 3 . 0 1 8 . 0 0 . 9 0 3 1 1 . 1 1 3 9 1 . 2 5 5 3 1 5 . 4 2 3 . 5 3 4 . 7 1 . 1 8 7 5 1 . 3 7 1 1 1 . 5 4 0 3 2 3 . 0 2 8 . 0 3 3 . 0 1 . 3 6 1 7 1 . 4 4 7 2 1 . 5 1 8 5 4 7 . 8 6 4 . 5 9 0 . 0 1 . 6 7 9 4 1 . 8 0 9 6 1 . 9 5 4 2 3 8 . 0 4 3 . 0 4 8 . 0 . 1 . 5 7 9 8 1 . 6 3 3 5 1 . 6 8 1 2 C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD ( C O W I C H A N ) OVEN D R I E D 3 . 0 0 . 4 7 7 1 1 5 . 0 1 . 1 7 6 1 3 0 . 0 1 . 4 7 7 1 6 0 . 0 1 . 7 7 8 2 3 . 0 0 . 4 7 7 1 5 . 5 0 . 7 4 0 4 8 . 0 0 . _9031_ 1 2 . 5 " 1 . 0 9 6 9 T A B L E 4 ( C O N T I N U E D ) T I M E M I N U T E S LOG T I M E R E T E N T I O N GRAMS LOG RET C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD (COWICHAN) OVEN D R I E D 9 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 1 . 9 5 4 2 2 . 0 7 9 2 2 . 1 7 6 1 1 5 . 0 1 7 . 0 1 8 . 5 1 . 1 7 6 1 1 . 2 3 0 4 1 . 2 6 7 2 1 8 0 . 0 2 . 2 5 5 3 1 9 . 5 1 . 2 9 0 0 I N T E R I O R SAPWOOD ( P R I N C E GEORGE ) SOLVENT 0 . 2 0 . 5 - 0 . 6 9 9 0 - 0 . 3 0 1 0 5-0 1 0 . 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 9 1 . 5 2 . 4 - 0 . 0 4 5 8 0 . 1 7 6 1 0 . 3 8 0 2 1 5 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 5 . 0 1 . 1 7 6 1 1 . 3 0 1 0 .-1..-3 9 7.9 . . . I ro I 3 . 8 5 . 5 7 . 5 0 . 5 7 9 8 0 . 7 4 0 4 0 . 8 7 5 1 3 0 . 0 3 5 . 0 4 0 . 0 1 . 4 7 7 1 1 . 5 4 4 1 1 . 6 0 2 1 1 0 . 5 1 . 0 2 1 2 4 5 . 0 1 . 6 5 3 2 I N T E R I O R HEARTWOOD ( P R I N C E GEORGE ) S O L V E N T D R I E D 1 . 2 9 . 0 0 . 0 7 9 2 0 . 9 5 4 2 0 . 5 1 . 5 - 0 . 3 0 1 0 0 . 1 7 6 1 2 9 . 0 4 1 . 5 6 0 . 0 1 . 4 6 2 4 1 . 6 1 8 0 1 . 7 7 8 2 2 . 5 3 . 5 4 . 5 0 . 3 9 7 9 0 . 5 4 4 1 0 . 6 5 3 2 -1 2 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 2 . 0 7 9 2 2 . 2 5 5 3 5 . 0 5 . 5 0 . 6 9 9 0 0 . 7 4 0 4 C O A S T A L SAPWOOD ( H A N E Y ) S O L V E N T D R I E D 0 . 5 - 0 . 3 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 1 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 4 T A B L E 4 ( C O N T I N U E D )  T I M E L O G T I M E R E T E N T I O N L O G R E T M I N U T E S G R A M S  C O A S T A L SAPWOOD ( H A N E Y ) S O L V E N T D R I E D 1.5 0 . 1 7 6 1 1 5 . 0 1 . 1 7 6 1 2 . 5 0 . 3 9 7 9 2 0 . 0 1 . 3 0 1 0 4 . 0 0 . 6 0 2 1 2 5 . 0 1 . 3 9 7 9 7 . 0 0 . 8 4 5 1 3 0 . 0 1 . 4 7 7 1 1 2 . 0 1 . 0 7 9 2 3 5 . 0 1 . 5 4 4 1 1 9 . 0 1 . 2 7 8 8 4 0 . 0 1.6 021__ 2 9 . 0 1 . 4 6 2 4 4 4 . 0 1 . 6 4 3 5 C O A S T A L H E A R T W O O D ( H A N E Y ) S O L V E N T D R I E D 3 . 0 _6.JX. 3 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 0 . 4 7 7 1 SU12HZ. 1 . 4 7 7 1 1 . 7 7 8 2 1 . 9 5 4 2 2 . 5 _4_si__. 1 2 . 5 1 8 . 0 2 2 . 0 0 . 3 9 7 9 -_„.J5LOZ1_ 1 . 0 9 6 9 1 . 2 5 5 3 1 . 3 4 2 4 l I 1 2 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 2 . 0 7 9 2 2 . 1 7 6 1 2 . 2 5 5 3 2 5 . 0 2 8 . 0 3 0 . 0 1 . 3 9 7 9 1 . 4 4 7 2 1 . 4 7 7 1 C O A S T A L SAPWOOD ( C O W I C H A N ) S O L V E N T D R I E D V 0.2 - 0 . 6 9 9 0 5 . 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 0 . 8 - 0 . 0 9 6 9 1 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 12 1 . 3 0 . 1 1 3 9 1 5 . 0 _.JL7_61 11 " " ~ " 2 . 3 0 . 3 6 1 7 2 0 . 0 " 1 . 3 0 1 0 10 3 . 5 0 . 5 4 4 1 2 5 .0 1. 3 9 7 9 9 5 . 2 0. 7 1 6 0 3 0 . 0 1 . 4 7 7 1 3 7 .2 0 . 8 5 7 3 3 5 . 0 1 . 5 4 4 1 7 9 . 5 0 . 9 7 7 7 4 0 . 0 1 . 6 0 2 1 6 1 2 . 8 1 . 1 0 7 2 4 5 . 0 1 . 6 5 3 2 5 4 3 . T A B L E 4 ( C O N T I N U E D ) T I M E LOG T I M E R E T E N T I O N LOG RET M I N U T E S GRAMS  C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD (COWICHAN) S O L V E N T D R I E D 1 . 6 1 5 . 0 1 9 . 2 0 . 2 0 4 1 1 . 1 7 6 1 1 . 2 8 3 3 1 . 0 5 . 0 6 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 0 . 7 7 8 2 6 8 . 0 1 1 8 . 0 1 . 8 3 2 5 2 . 0 7 1 9 1 1 . 0 1 6 . 0 1 . 0 4 1 4 1 . 2 0 4 1 -I N T E R I O R SAPWOOD ( P R I N C E GEORGE ) F R E E Z E DRI ED 0 . 4 0 . 3 9 7 9 1 1 . 0 1 . 0 4 1 4 1 . 0 2 . 5 4 . 5 7 . 0 1 0 . 5 1 4 . 5 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 3 9 7 9 0 . 6 5 3 2 0 . 8 4 5 1 -1 . 0 2 1 2 1 . 1 6 1 4 1 5 . 0 1 8 . 0 .2 3__0__. 2 7 . 0 3 1 . 0 3 5 . 0 1 . 1 7 6 1 1 . 2 5 5 3 1 ..36.1 7... .... . 1 . 4 3 1 4 1 . 4 9 1 4 1 . 5 4 4 1 1 I N T E R I O R HEARTWOOD ( P R I N C E GEORGE ) F R E E Z E D R I E D 6 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 1 . 7 7 8 2 2 . 0 7 9 2 2 . 2 5 5 3 1 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 3 0 1 0 C O A S T A L SAPWOOD ( H A N E Y ) F R E E Z E DR I ED 0 . 1 0 . 2 0 . 5 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 0 . 3 0 1 0 3 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 5 . 0 0 . 4 7 7 T 1 . 0 0 0 0 1 . 1 7 6 1 0 . 9 1 . 5 2 . 2 0 . 0 4 5 8 0 . 1 7 6 1 0 . 3 4 2 4 2 0 . 0 2 5 . 0 3 0 . 0 1 . 3 0 1 0 1 . 3 9 7 9 1 . 4 7 7 1 3 . 2 0 . 5 0 5 1 3 5 . 0 l .~ 5 4 4 1 4 3 T A B L E 4 ( C O N T I N U E D ) T I M E LOG T I M E R E T E N T I O N LOG RET ___ M I N U T E S GRAMS  C O A S T A L ' SAPWOOD ( H A N E Y ) F R E E Z E D R I E D 4 . 5 0 . 6 5 3 2 4 0 . 0 1 . 6 0 2 1 6 . 2 0 . 7 9 2 4 4 5 . 0 1 . 6 5 3 2 C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD ( H A N E Y ) F R E E Z E . D R I E D ; ' 3 . 5 0 . 5 4 4 1 5 . 0 0 . 6 9 9 0. 1 3 . 0 3 0 . 0 5 4 . 0 1 . 1139-1 . 4 7 7 1 1 . 7 3 2 4 1 0 . 0 1 5 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 1 . 1 7 6 1 1 . 301.0 8 2 . 0 1 3 5 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 1 . 9 1 3 8 2 . 1 3 0 3 2 . 2 3 0 4 2 5 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 . 5 . 1 . 3 9 7 9 1 . 4 7 7 1 1 . 5 1 1 9 l . C O A S T A L SAPWOOD (COWICHAN) 1 r R E E Z E D R I E D 1 0 . 2 . 0 . 8 1 . 7 - 0 . 6 9 9 0 . - 0 . 0 9 6 9 • 0 . 2 3 0 4 5 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 5 . 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 1 . 1 7 6 1 2 . 5 3 . 5 5 . 5 0 . 3 9 7 9 0 . 5 4 4 1 0 . 7 4 0 4 2 0 . 0 2 5 . 0 3 0 . 0 1 . 3 0 1 0 • 1 . 3 9 7 9 1 . 4 7 7 1 7 . 5 1 0 . 0 1 3 . 4 0 . 8 7 5 1 1 . 0 0 0 0 1 . 1 2 7 1 3 5 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 5 . 0 1 . 5 4 4 1 1 . 6 0 2 1 1 . 6 5 3 2 C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD . (COW ICHAN ) F R E E Z E D R I E D 1 9 . 0 1 . 2 7 8 8 5 . 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 6 0 . 0 1 . 7 7 8 2 . 8 . 0 0 . 9 0 3 1 7 5 . 0 1 . 8 7 5 1 9 . 0 0 . 9 5 4 2 1 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 0 8 6 1 0 . 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 1 8 0 . 0 2 . 2 5 5 3 1 1 . 5 1 . 0 6 0 7 TABLE 4 (CONTINUED) TIME LOG TIME RETENTION LOG RET MINUTES GRAMS INTERIOR SAPWOOD (PRINCE GEORGE) BOILED UNDER VACUUM 4.2 10.0 21.3 0.6232 1.0000 1.3284 5.0 9.0 14.0 0.6990 0.9542 1.1461 40. 0 69. 0 104. 0 155.0 180.0 1.6021 1 .8388 2.0170 2. 1903 2 . 2553 18.0 23.0 27.0 32.0 33.0 1.2553 1.3617 „1.».4 314_ 1.5051 1.5185 INTERIOR HEARTWOOD (PRINCE GEORGE) BOILED UNDER VACUUM .__1.._5_ 60. 0 J_.J_L6_L 1.7782 J_*.0„ 2.0 ..Q..JD0.QXL. 0.3010 - _ v . 1 . 120.0 180. 0 2.0792 2.2553 2.0 2.0 0. 3010 0.3010 COASTAL SAPWOOD (HANEY) BOILED UNDER VACUUM 0.4 1 • 6 3.3 -0.3979 0.2041 0.5185 5.0 10.0 15.0 0.6990 1.0000 1.1761 12 5.4 9. 1 15.2 0.7324 0.9590 1.1818 20.0 25.0 30.0 1.3010 1.3979 1.4771 10 9 24. 9 44.8 75.0 1.3962 1.6513 1.8751 35.0 40.0 43 .0 1.5441 1.6021 1.6335 COASTAL HEARTWOOD (HANEY) BOILED UNDER VACUUM 8.0 0.9031 4.0 0.6021 T A B L E 4 ( C O N T I N U E D ) T I M E LOG T I M E R E T E N T I O N LOG RET M I N U T E S GRAMS  C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD ( H A N E Y ) B O I L E D UNDER VACUUM 1 7 . 0 1 . 2 3 0 4 2 7 . 0 1 . 4 3 1 4 6 0 . 0 1 . 7 7 8 2 5 . 0 6 . 0 8 . 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 0 . 7 7 8 2 0 . 9 0 3 1 1 2 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 2 . 0 7 9 2 2 . 2 5 5 3 1 1 . 0 1 3 . 5 -1 . 0 4 1 4 1 . 1 3 0 3 C O A S T A L SAPWOOD (COWICHAN) B O I L E D UNDER VACUUM 1 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 5 . 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 2 . 5 4 . 0 8 . 5 0 . 3 9 7 9 0 . 6 0 2 1 0 . 9 2 9 4 7 . 5 1 0 . 0 1 5 . 0 1 4 . 5 2 4 . 0 4 0 . 0 1 . 1 6 1 4 1 . 3 8 0 2 1 . 6 0 2 1 2 0 . 0 2 5 . 0 3 0 . 0 0 . 8 7 5 1 1 . 0 0 0 0 J 76.L 3 0 1 0 3 9 7 9 4 7 7 1 6 6 . 0 1 1 6 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 1 . 8 1 9 5 2 . 0 6 4 5 2 . 2 5 5 3 3 5 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 2 . 5 1 . 5 4 4 1 1 . 6 0 2 1 1 . 6 2 8 4 C O A S T A L HEARTWOOD (COW ICHAN ) B O I L E D UNDER VACUUM 12 _ l l / 10 0 . 6 1 5 . 0 3 0 . 0 - 0 . 1 8 7 1 1 . 1 7 6 1 1 . 4 7 7 1 2 . 0 5 . 0 7 . 0 4 5 . 0 6 0 . 0 7 5 . 0 1 . 6 5 3 2 1 . 7 7 8 2 1 . 8 7 5 1 8 . 5 9 . 5 1 0 . 5 0 . 3 0 1 0 0 . 6 9 9 0 0_845JL 0 . 9 2 9 4 0 . 9 7 7 7 1 . 0 2 1 2 9 0 . 0 1 0 5 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 1 . 9 5 4 2 2 . 0 2 1 2 2 . 0 7 9 2 1 1 . 5 1 2 . 0 1 2 . 7 1 . 0 6 0 7 1 . 0 7 9 2 1 . 1 0 3 8 Mercury manometer air inlet air inlet / rubber dam ^^A\x outlet wood microsection permeability cell cell cavities Permeability cell detail air vent —=^F= to vacuum pump interchangeable calibrated pipette yair leak water reservoir i Gas-permeability apparatus F I G U R E I -59-Gas permeability apparatus FIGURE 2 Permeability cell FIGURE 3 FIGURE U -61-to vacuum pump flit Condenser v. r Dean-Stark trap Steam-heated retort I ing-under-vacuum apparatus F I G U R E 5 - 6 2 -o OF o-LO' LO LO d CO CO _ o CO d CO 6 d •= LO "_a O S 6 £ Q> Q. > O i— - C7> O d o CD a . co INTERIOR TYPE DOUGLAS FIR SAPWOOD Oven-dry specific gravity and longitudinal gas-permeability vs. position in growth increment after drying by various methods - air-dried « freeze-dried x oven-dried o solvent-dried ® boiled-under-vacuum i I 9 0 1.0 Distance - mm 2.0 3.0 F I G U R E 8 4.0 5.0 Specific gravity Distance - mm INTERIOR TYPE DOUGLAS FIR HEARTWOOD Oven-dry specific gravity and longitudinal gas-permeability vs. position in growth increment after drying by vorious methods • air-dried » freeze-dried * oven-dried o solvent-dried o boiled-under-vacuum 8 F I G U R E 9 o o o m LO LO d to .9? "o _ o •o • vit . i >. d o i= LO 1Q a Q o d a> o rm o rm — cu CD a. CL CO 0 0.5 Distance - mm o X COAST TYPE DOUGLAS FIR SAPWOOD (HANEY,B.C.) Oven-dry specific gravity and longitudinal gas-permeability vs. position in growth increment after drying by various methods • air-dried • freeze-dried x oven-dried o so I vent-dried © boiled-under-vacuum t o VJ. I 1.0 1,5 F I G U R E 10 2.0 2.5 o o o m CO CD -o _ O o> e i—. <_> Q_ d CO d C D b d o o > a - o> OJ 0 6 "o a> a. co COAST TYPE DOUGLAS FIR HEARTWOOD (HANEY, B.C.) Oven-dry specific gravity and longitudinol gas-permeability vs. position in growth increment after drying by various methods • air-dried » f reeze-dried * oven-dried o solvent-dried ® boiled-under-vacuum . 0 1 ON I 0 I Distance - mm F I G U R E II 5 0 4 0 Rate of creosote absorption through ends of I x I x 10 - in. air^dried Douglas fir (a) coast type sapwood (Haney, B.C.) (b) coast type sapwood (Lake Cowichan, B.C.) (c) interior type sapwood (d) coast type heartwood (Haney, B.C.) (e) coast type heartwood (Lake Cowichan, B.CJ (f) interior type heartwood 3 0 Time-minutes F I G U R E 12 50 40 -30 -20 -; CO e o _ o t c o - 10 _ o co _ < 0 30 Time-minutes F I G U R E 13 50 40 30 -2 0 ~ 00 £ _ CD _ o o 00 _ < 10 0 is I 0 30 Time-minutes 60 90 120 150 F I G U R E 14 50 40 -30 r 20 -CO •E ' a _ CD i c o - 10 a . v_ O CO < Rate of creosote absorption through ends of I x I x 10-in. freeze-dried Douglas fir (a) coast type sapwood (Haney, B.C.) (b) coast type sapwood (Lake Cowichan, B.C.) ( c ) interior type sapwood (d) coast type heartwood (Haney, B.C.) (e) coast type heartwood (Lake Cowichan, B.C.) (f) interior type heartwood i i : 0 30 Time-minutes 60 90 120 150. F I G U R E 15 50 40 30 20 CO e a CD i c o - 10 a . _ o CO _ < Rate of creosote absorption through ends of I x I x 10-in. boiled-under-vacuum Douglas fir (a) coast type sapwood .(Haney, B.C.) (b) coast type sapwood (Lake Cowichan, B.C.) (c) interior type sapwood (d) coast type heartwood (Haney, B.C.) (e) coast type heartwood (Lake Cowichan, B.C.) (f) interior type heartwood 0 30 Time-minutes 60 90 120 150. F I G U R E 16 Effect of drying method on rate of creosote absorption through ends of I >0 x 10-in. interior type Douglas fir (Prince George, B.C.) Is, Ih 2s, 2h 3s, 3h 4s, 4h 5s, 5h air dried sapwood, heartwood oven dried ;• « v ' »/ '• solvent dried «» freeze dried boiled under vacuum sapwood, heartwood 0 30 Time-minutes F I G U R E 17 Effect of drying method on rate of creosote absorption through ends of IxIxlO-in. Time-minutes • . F I G U R E : 18 I i 30 Time-minutes 150 F I G U R E .19 PR INCE G E O R G E S A P H E A R T 8 3 4 5 1 8 3 4 5 Creosote penetration of specimens, interior-type Douglas f i r (Uurabers as on page 14-) FIGURE 20 1 COWICHAN SAP I 2 3 4 5 HEART i 1 2 3 4 5 i Creosote penetration of specimens, coast-type Douglas f i r (Lake Cowichan, 3.C.) (Numbers as on page 14.) FIGURE 21 HANEY SAP HEART 1 8 3 4 S 1 2 3 4 Creosote penetration of specimens, coast-type Douglas f i r (Haney, 3.C.) (Numbers as on page 1 4 ) FIGURE 22 

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