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Regional development planning : an analysis of the approach in Pictou County, Nova Scotia Cornejo, Daniel 1975

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING: AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPROACH IN PICTOU COUNTY, NOVA SCOTIA by DANIEL CORNEJO B.A. Jamestown C o l l e g e , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED-IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1975 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A p r i l 30, 1975 ABSTRACT The t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n -n i n g h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y f o c u s e d on e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . And t h e p r e v a i l i n g s t y l e h a s b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i o n w h i c h l e d u l t i m a t e l y t o p r e s c r i b e d s o l u t i o n s b a s e d upon a v a r i e t y o f n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i a , u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d by t h e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s a n d s e n i o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s . R e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e P l a n n i n g f i e l d , however, and some r e c e n t p e r t i n e n t p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t i n P i c t o u C o u n t y , Nova S c o t i a , l e d me t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e d e t e r m i n i s t i c a s s u m p t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g p r e v i o u s p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s m i g h t be g i v i n g way t o newer a p p r o a c h e s b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o examine t h i s p e r -c e i v e d s h i f t i n t h e a p p r o a c h t o r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g t o p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t and t h e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . A b a c k g r o u n d f o r a n a l y s i s was p r e s e n t e d f i r s t . A t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t e x t was p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g two a r e a s : (1) t h e o r i e s on r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , a n d (2) r e c e n t p l a n n i n g t h o u g h t o n t h e t h e o r y o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and s o c i e t a l c h a n g e . I t was shown t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h t h e o r i e s focus l a r g e l y on a n t i c i p a t i n g changes i n the e x t e r n a l parameters of the system. Changes i n the behaviour o f the r e s i d e n t s i n a r e g i o n , these t h e o r i e s say, are due c h i e f l y t o changes i n s c a l e brought about by e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i . The o t h e r models o f s o c i e t a l change p r e s e n t e d next were shown t o i n c o r p o r a t e non-d e t e r m i n i s t i c p r o c e s s and say t h a t s o c i a l change i s the product of an open process o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g which can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . On the b a s i s of t h i s review, which g e n e r a l l y p r e s e n t e d o n l y the major f e a t u r e s o f the landscape, I suggested t h a t r e g i o n a l economic and s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g c o u l d be f o s t e r e d more e f f e c t i v e l y through an approach t h a t seeks to s t r e n g t h e n s o c i a l l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than have a d i r e c t impact on employment and i n d i v i d u a l incomes. Next, a p e r s p e c t i v e o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment i n i t i a t i v e s i n r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g i n Nova S c o t i a was put forward i n a review o f some o f the a p p r o p r i a t e programmes of the departments and a g e n c i e s . T h i s was f o l l o w e d up w i t h a community p r o f i l e of P i c t o u County, an 1100-square-mile r e g i o n on the n o r t h e r n c o a s t of Nova S c o t i a which has about 50,000 r e s i d e n t s , 60 p e r c e n t of whom l i v e i n the f i v e urban c e n t e r s . The l i v e l i h o o d of these people was shown to be mainly m a n u f a c t u r i but the t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s i n a g r i c u l t u r e , mining, f o r e s t r y , and f i s h i n g were shown to be very important a l s o . And l a s t l y , a h i s t o r y of the e v o l u t i o n o f r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g i n P i c t o u County was p r e s e n t e d . i v . H a v i n g p r e s e n t e d a b a c k g r o u n d f o r a n a l y s i s , a n d a l s o h a v i n g s t a t e d a w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s t o g i v e some f o c u s t o t h i s s t u d y , I t h e n d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t w h i c h I was i n v o l v e d i n . The aims o f t h e P r o j e c t a r e s e t f o r t h , t h e a c t o r s a r e i d e n t i f i e d , t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d e l i n e a t e d , t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s r e v i e w e d , an d t h e a c t i v i t i e s f l o w i n g f r o m t h i s e f f o r t a r e i l l u s t r a t e d . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , however, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d a r e a c c e n t e d . N e x t , t h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e p r e v i o u s f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s i n Nova S c o t i a and a l s o t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t i n l i g h t o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s o u t l i n e d i n i t i a l l y . The s t u d y showed t h a t many o f t h e p r e v i o u s e f f o r t s a t t e m p t e d t o s a t i s f y e i t h e r t h e g o a l o f i ncome r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n f a v o u r o f t h e p o o r o r a t l e a s t t h e minimum c r i t e r i o n o f e c o n o m i c e f f i c i e n c y , and r e l a t e d c l o s e l y i n s t y l e a l s o t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h c o n c e p t s . However, t h e e v i d e n c e g a t h e r e d as p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y showed t h a t t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be a gap b e t w e e n e a r l y a m b i t i o n s and t h e a c t u a l s c o p e and i m p a c t o f t h e p r o j e c t s o r programmes. Con-t r a s t e d w i t h t h i s was t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y r e s i -d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e w i d e l y - b a s e d r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g e f f o r t c a l l e d t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t . U s i n g an i n i t i a l g r a n t o f $47,500 p r o v i d e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t o t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , P i c t o n i a n s u n d e r t o o k a c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l e f f o r t s t o i n i t i a t e a n d s u s t a i n b r o a d - b a s e d d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y . The s t u d y showed t h a t t h o u g h a v a r i e t y o f s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d , t h e y were i n i t i a t e d by and c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e i n t i m a t e i n v o l v e -ment o f P i c t o u C o u n t y r e s i d e n t s who had b e e n and w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be a f f e c t e d by t h e d e c i s i o n s a r r i v e d a t . The s t u d y f u r t h e r showed t h a t P i c t o u C o u n t y r e s i d e n t s were f a s t l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t t h a t so much o f what w o u l d l i k e l y h a p p e n i n P i c t o u C o u n t y d e p e n d e d on t h e i n i t i a t i v e s t h e y w o u l d t a k e . What was h a p p e n i n g i n P i c t o u C o u n t y by v i r t u e o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t was f o u n d t o embrace q u i t e c l o s e l y t h e c o n c e p t s w h i c h f o r m t h e t h e o r y o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e d by s a y i n g t h a t w h i l e g r e a t c a r e was n e c e s s a r y t o r u l e o u t c a u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t may be s p u r i o u s , t h e p r e v i o u s f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s seemed t o h a v e h a d m a r g i n a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e e c o n o m i c w e l l - b e i n g o f r e s i d e n t s i n Nova S c o t i a r e g i o n s and may have e v e n h i n d e r e d s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p -ment. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , e v i d e n c e a p p e a r e d t o e x i s t t o s u g g e s t t h a t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t was t a k i n g p l a c e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t . No h a r d d a t a e x i s t e d on t h e e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s o f t h e P r o j e c t . G e n e r a l l y , however, t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g t h a t s t r e n g t h e n s t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n w i l l have more f u n d a m e n t a l and w o r t h w h i l e e f f e c t s t h a n t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s . v i . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i i Acknowledgments i x PROLOGUE: THE ATLANTIC DILEMMA 1 CHAPTER ONE: APPROACH TO THE STUDY 11 INTRODUCTION: PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY STATEMENT 11 OBJECTIVES 13 METHODOLOGY 16 NOTES ON DEFINITIONS 18 CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION 19 THEORIES UNDERLYING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING .. 19 REGIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH 19 Export Base 20 Stages-of-Growth 22 Growth Poles/Growth Centres 26 SOCIAL LEARNING 31 E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p Development 31 S o c i e t a l Guidance 35 Mutual L e a r n i n g Through I n n o v a t i o n and E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n 37 AN INITIAL ANALYSIS 40 PREDICTION AND PLANNING 40 AN HYPOTHESIS ; 42 CHAPTER THREE: REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN PICTOU COUNTY, NOVA SCOTIA 44 A PERSPECTIVE OF FEDERAL AND PROVINCIAL INITIATIVES IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 44 AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION AND DEVELOPMENT ACT . 44 AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT ACT 46 ATLANTIC DEVELOPMENT BOARD 49 CAPE BRETON DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION 51 v i i . Page CHAPTER THREE (Cont'd) DEPARTMENT OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC EXPANSION ...... 52 NOVA SCOTIA DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS 54 NOVA SCOTIA DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT * 56 PICTOU COUNTY COMMUNITY PROFILE 57 THE EMERGENCE OF REGIONAL PLANNING 64 THE DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES PROJECT 78 CHAPTER FOUR: RE-ASSESSMENT AND CONCLUSIONS 90 THE IMPACT OF PREVIOUS REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING EFFORTS 91 THE DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES PROJECT: SOME INITIAL RESULTS 95 CONCLUSIONS 100 FINAL NOTES 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY 106 v i i i . LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE PAGE l " MAP OF PICTOU COUNTY, NOVA SCOTIA 58 2 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE FOR INTER-MUNICIPAL AND REGIONAL PLANNING 71 3 DESIGN FOR DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING PROGRAM FOR PICTOU COUNTY 86 AC KNOWLEDGMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o P r o f e s s o r s I r v i n g F o x and G o r d o n S t e a d f o r t h e i r c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n and t i m e l y a d v i c e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e r e c e i v e d f r o m K i n g s l e y L e w i s , t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n . PROLOGUE THE ATLANTIC DILEMMA* In the space of h a l f a dozen years, the c o n f l i c t between economic growth and what we have a l l come to c a l l "the environment" has become one of the great issues of world a f f a i r s . Some see i t as the most ferocious challenge that mankind has ever faced, surpassing i n i t s threat to our s u r v i v a l even disease, r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of nuclear or chemical warfare. The concern manifests i t s e l f i n ways both solemn and h y s t e r i c a l , both responsible and s e l f - s e r v i n g ; i n the Club of Rome, an i n t e r n a t i o n a l organization of eminent s c i e n t i s t s who c a l l for zero population and zero economic growth; i n f r i g h t f u l warnings from agencies of the United Nations; i n a band of economists who've begun to question the whole i n v i o l a t e o l d orthodoxy of growth economics, who've begun to b u i l d a new theory about s t a b i l i t y as a source of economic l i f e ; i n ecology groups that, again and again i n the United States, have achieved the p o l i t i c a l sabotage of massive power projects; i n the r i s e of whole industries and technologies to f i g h t p o l l u t i o n and recycle waste; i n lawsuits to block housing developments and i n d u s t r i a l complexes; i n think tanks and f u t u r i s t s ' i n s t i t u t e s ; *Source: Sixth Annual Review: The A t l a n t i c Economy. Halifax, 1972: The A t l a n t i c Provinces Economic Council. 2. i n a t h o u s a n d s a v e - o u r - e n v i r o n m e n t p e r i o d i c a l s ; i n bumper s t i c k e r s and p o s t e r s and l a p e l b u t t o n s ; i n p o l l u t i o n p r o b e s , N a d e r ' s R a i d e r s , t o u r i s t - g o - h o m e movements, t h i n k - s m a l l c l u b s , u n d e v e l o p m e n t c o m m i s s i o n s , r u r a l communes, n a t u r e - w o r s h i p p i n g c u l t s , c o n s e r v a t i o n l o b b i e s , p i c k e t s , g u r u s , R a c h e l C a r s o n , P a u l E h r l i c h , s i t - i n s , s i t - o u t s , a n t i - l i t t e r c a m p a i g n s , e c o l o g y s e m i n a r s , O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Y o u t h p r o j e c t s , s e r v i c e c l u b c a m p a i g n s , s c a r e h e a d l i n e s , a n d i n t h e o i l t h a t so b e f o u l e d t h e r e m o t e s t h i g h s e a s t h a t T h o r H e y e r d a h l d i s d a i n e d t o jump o f f h i s r a f t t o b a t h e h i s body. The c o n c e r n d o e s n o t f i n d s u c h c o l o r f u l e x p r e s s i o n i n A t l a n t i c C a nada as i t d o e s i n , s a y , C a l i f o r n i a . We do n o t h a v e t o f a c e t h e s t u p e n d o u s p e o p l e p r o b l e m t h a t a f f l i c t s so many p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . Our p r o b l e m i s h a r d l y o v e r - d e v e l o p m e n t . I n any e v e n t , we a r e a r e l a t i v e l y p h l e g m a t i c p e o p l e , e v e n s t o i c a l , u n l i k e l y t o f e e d r e v o l u t i o n , s u s p i c i o u s o f e x t r e m e b e h a v i o u r . We do n o t e a s i l y warm t o t h e c a r n i v a l s i d e o f modern p u b l i c p r o t e s t . And y e t , t h e r e a r e r e s p e c t s i n w h i c h t h e g r e a t c o n f r o n t a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o r c e s o f e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n and t h e p a s s i o n t o p r e s e r v e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s more c l e a r a n d p a i n f u l h e r e i n t h e A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s t h a n i t i s any-where e l s e i n t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d . We have so much t o w i n : j o b s , a d e c e n t s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g f o r e v e r y o n e , an e c o n o m i c f u t u r e a t home f o r o u r c h i l d r e n . We h a v e s o much t o l o s e : c l e a n a i r , c l e a n w a t e r , a c l e a n w i l d e r n e s s , a s a n e p a c e o f l i f e , a nd t h e u n i q u e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n A t l a n t i c Canada t h a t , i n a s e n s e , t e l l s us who we a r e . 3. No r e s p o n s i b l e d i s c u s s i o n o f growth c e n t r e s , even i n undergrown A t l a n t i c Canada, can q u i t e a v o i d the c o n f r o n t a t i o n . T h i s Review has e x p l o r e d the i d e a o f growth c e n t r e s , and suggested they are p r o m i s i n g enough as a development t o o l t o warrant f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The c a t c h i s t h a t i f a growth-centre p o l i c y works the way i t i s supposed t o work f o r A t l a n t i c Canada, i t w i l l a c c e l e r a t e u r b a n i z a t i o n , i t w i l l a c c e l e r a t e the urban c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y . U n l e s s we are more c a r e f u l than o t h e r people i n o t h e r p l a c e s have been we w i l l be welcoming w i t h -i n our own w a l l s the T r o j a n Horse o f t r o u b l e s t h a t has a l r e a d y wrecked much of the p l e a s u r e o f b e i n g a l i v e i n so many c i t i e s o f the w o r l d . Growth i n s p i r e s i n c r e a s e s i n j ob o p p o r t u n i t i e s and average incomes, but jobs and wages are o n l y a means to a c h i e v i n g an end, and the end i s a b e t t e r l i f e than our peo p l e have known. We need growth but the l a r g e r q u e s t i o n s remain. They are no l e s s stubborn f o r b e i n g c l i c h e s . Can we have our cake and eat i t , too? Must we s h r i n k s p i r i t u a l l y to grow m a t e r i a l l y ? Must we s e l l our e a s t - c o a s t s o u l s t o buy Toronto's l i v i n g standards? Would t h a t be so bad? How much do we t r e a s u r e the way o f l i f e we say i s s u p e r i o r t o the urban r a t race? In A t l a n t i c Canda, when i s b i g too b i g ? Is th e r e any g e n e r a l agree-ment a t a l l on the k i n d o f p l a c e the A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s s h o u l d be when our c h i l d r e n are as o l d as we are now? We are luc k y i n an odd way. There's a sense i n which our very m i s f o r t u n e s have f i n a l l y l e f t us f o r t u n a t e . The per-p e t u a l d e p r e s s i o n i n A t l a n t i c Canada, the f a c t t h a t f o r genera-t i o n s we've been i n d u s t r i a l l y u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , means t h a t we 4. never got the chance t o wreck a l o t o f our seascapes and co u n t r y -s i d e s . We never got the chance t o b u i l d the c i t i e s where, a t be s t , the pace of l i f e and b u s i n e s s are p u n i s h i n g and, a t worst, the h e a r t o f the p l a c e r o t s , and bubbles i n s o c i a l u n r e s t . I f we'd had the chance, we might have done the same t h i n g s , but we d i d n ' t ; and now, i n some r e s p e c t s anyway, we may f i n d t h a t through l o s i n g we have a chance t o win. The speed w i t h which Americans and c e n t r a l Canadians are buying r e c r e a t i o n l a n d i n e a s t - c o a s t Canada i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l o t o f people know t h a t the A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s are a p l a c e , one o f the very l a s t a c c e s s i b l e p l a c e s , where t h i n g s are s t i l l as they once were and perhaps should be. T h i s appeal has a l r e a d y i n s p i r e d many Canadian s c i e n t i s t s , m e d i c a l men and academics permanently to s e t t l e i n A t l a n t i c Canada and - i f t h e r e ' s t o be a p r o p u l s i v e i n d u s t r y i n r e s e a r c h , h i g h e r l e a r n i n g and brainpower down here - we would be r a s h t o promote development t i l l i t scuppers such i n t a n g i b l e s as our "way o f l i f e " . A newspaper advertisement o f I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s L i m i t e d asks, "How do you equate the c r a s h o f i n d u s t r y w i t h the cry o f the loon?" The answer i s not easy. Our slow growth has l e f t us wit h a p o p u l a t i o n o f about two m i l l i o n people They share a l a n d area o f 194,000 square m i l e s . I f you l e a v e out Labrador, which c o n t a i n s some o f the world's most for m i d a b l e and l e a s t p o p u l a t e d landscapes, the l a n d area o f the A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s s h r i n k s t o about 94,000 square m i l e s . That's roughly the s i z e o f New J e r s e y , New York and Pen n s y l v a n i a , but the combined p o p u l a t i o n o f these s t a t e s i s 5. a l m o s t t w e n t y t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n o u r s . The c o a s t o f A t l a n t i c Canada s t r e t c h e s f o r more t h a n 15,000 m i l e s - t h r e e t i m e s t h e w i d t h o f t h e w h o l e c o n t i n e n t - and, o v e r g r e a t l e n g t h s o f t h i s s h o r e , y e a r a f t e r y e a r g o e s by w i t h o u t anyone e v e r s e t t i n g f o o t on i t . T h e r e a r e o t h e r " r e w a r d s " o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t . L i f e i s s l o w e r h e r e t h a n i t i s i n r i c h e r p l a c e s . The w i d e s p r e a d a t t a c k s o f f l u and c o l d s a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e t r o u t a n d d e e r s e a s o n s a r e l e g e n d a r y . T h e r e i s l e s s h a s s l e i n t h e b u s i n e s s o f l i f e i n t h e A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s . You c a n s a f e l y c r o s s t h e s t r e e t i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e b l o c k w i t h o u t b e i n g a t r a c k s t a r . P e o p l e h a v e t i m e t o s t o p and t a l k i n t h e s t r e e t , t o h e l p a n e i g h b o u r . T h e r e i s sometimes a l y r i c a l s e n s e o f l i f e h e r e , e v e n among t h e p o o r , t h a t d e n i e s t h e p u r s u i t o f money a s t h e o n l y r o a d t o h a p p i n e s s . What have " p r o p u l s i v e i n d u s t r i e s " , " d ynamic r e g i o n a l economy" and " r a p i d g r o w t h " g o t t o do w i t h t h i s image o f o u r p l e a s a n t , u n a g g r e s s i v e s t y l e o f l i f e ? What a r e t h e s o u r c e s o f t h e s t y l e ? I s i t s o m e t h i n g t r a n s i t o r y , s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a r d s h i p f o r c e d on us and p r o s p e r i t y w i l l p r o v e was f r a g i l e ? O r d o e s i t go d e e p e r t h a n t h a t ? And, one w onders, how c l o s e l y d o e s t h e image r e f l e c t r e a l i t y ? S t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e e m p l o y e e i n t h e A t l a n t i c r e g i o n s works l o n g e r h o u r s f o r f e w e r d o l l a r s t h a n h i s c o u n t e r p a r t s a l l o v e r C anada. I s he r e a l l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n e s c a p i n g t o t h e o l d f i s h i n g h o l e t h a n he i s i n m a k i n g a b u c k ? F i n a l l y , a s s u m i n g t h i s l e i s u r e l y a p p r o a c h t o p e o p l e a n d work and d a i l y l i f e i s r e a l , what do we t h i n k i s w o r t h s a c r i f i c i n g i n 6. o r d e r t o k e e p i t a l i v e ? I s i t t o t a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e new s k y s c r a p e r s and t h e f i e l d s o f f a c t o r i e s i n a T o r o n t o o r a L o s A n g e l e s ? C h r i s t o p h e r P r a t t , t h e N e w f o u n d l a n d p a i n t e r , p o i n t e d o u t i n a r e c e n t t e l e v i s i o n show a b o u t h i s l i f e and work t h a t N e w f o u n d l a n d was i n d e e d i n d u s t r i a l l y b a c k w a r d , p e r h a p s f i f t y y e a r s b e h i n d most o f N o r t h A m e r i c a ; b u t t h a t , c u r i o u s l y , t h i s v e r y f a c t m i g h t mean t h a t i t was r e a l l y f i f t y y e a r s a h e a d o f i t s t i m e . W h i l e t h e r e s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a w o u l d s p e n d t h e c o m i n g d e c a d e s f i g h t i n g i t s way o u t o f t h e t r o u b l e s t h a t t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y i n d u s t r y and t e c h n o l o g y h a d i n f l i c t e d upon i t , N e w f o u n d l a n d h a d s c a r c e l y known e v e n a w h i f f o f t h e s e t r o u b l e s . H e r s were o f a d i f f e r e n t s o r t . I f m i s f o r t u n e c a n t u r n t o b e n e f i t , t h e b a c k w a r d may y e t become a p a r a g o n o f t h e f u t u r e . I n t h e meantime, i t i s t h e p r e s e n t t h a t t r o u b l e s us w i t h a l l t h e p e n a l t i e s t h a t c h r o n i c u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n f l i c t s o n o u r p e o p l e ; l o w e r wages t h a n t h e r e s t o f C a n a d a , h i g h e r unemployment r a t e s , p o o r e r s e r v i c e s and, f o r t o o many, t h e n a g g i n g a w a r e n e s s t h a t t h e i r f u t u r e i n A t l a n t i c C a n a d a i s f o r e v e r s h a k y . The "pace o f l i f e " may n o t a p p e a l t o e v e r y f a t h e r who's b e e n o u t o f work f o r s e v e r a l months. I f c o m b a t t i n g p o l l u t i o n means l o s i n g f a c t o r i e s , y o u may n o t f i n d h i m among t h e p i c k e t s o f t h e e c o l o g y movement. T h e r e a r e r e s p e c t s i n w h i c h t h e e c o l o g y i s a h i g h - b r o w i s s u e . The p e o p l e who most t r e a s u r e o u r "way o f l i f e " , t h e most vehement d e f e n d e r s o f o u r a i r , o u r w a t e r , an d o u r u n s p o i l e d s h o r e l i n e s , l i e among t h o s e w i t h s a f e j o b s and t h e money t o r e v e l i n t h e s e t h i n g s . They own c o t t a g e s and, 7. i r o n i c a l l y , t h e power b o a t s and s n o w m o b i l e s and camper v a n s t h a t a s s a u l t t h e s i l e n c e o f what u s e d t o be o u r w i l d e r n e s s . The e v i d e n c e i s t h a t , as p o o r e r p e o p l e i n c r e a s e t h e i r i n come, t h e y t o o want w a t e r - s k i s , dune b u g g i e s , 50-hp. o u t b o a r d s , and o v e r -l a n d j e e p s , and who's t o s a y t h e y c a n n o t h a v e them? The s u b j e c t i s complex, a n d t h e e a s y s t a t e m e n t s a l w a y s t u r n o u t t o be l e s s t h a n t h e w h o l e t r u t h . We h a b i t u a l l y l a m e n t t h e e x o d u s o f o u r most t a l e n t e d p e o p l e . We s i g h t h a t t h e r e i s s i m p l y n o t enough e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y h e r e t o k e e p o u r y o u n g a t home, b u t i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t a l o t o f them l e a v e n o t b e c a u s e unemployment o r n a r r o w p r o s p e c t s h a v e e n c o u r a g e d them t o go b u t , r a t h e r , b e c a u s e t h e y s i m p l y want t o l i v e i n a c i t y . T hey do n o t t r e a s u r e t h e good, s l o w , m e a n i n g f u l l i f e t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s may f e e l down h e r e . Some day, t h e y may. B u t b i g c i t i e s h a v e a l w a y s l u r e d t h e more a m b i t i o u s a n d a d v e n t u r o u s o f o u r y o u t h f r o m t h e i r q u i e t h o m e l a n d s . The a t t r a c t i o n o f g r e a t c i t i e s i s o l d e r t h a n Rome, a s o l d as t h e c i t y mouse and t h e c o u n t r y mouse. We have no s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r m u l a f o r t h e happy r e s o l u -t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n A t l a n t i c C a n a d a . Nor, so f a r as we c a n s e e , h a s a n yone e l s e . P o l i t i c i a n s , n e w s p a p e r s , a c a d e m i c s and b u s i n e s s -men s u g g e s t f r o m t i m e t o t i m e t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n must come o r , more o p t i m i s t i c a l l y , t h a t t h e y ' r e w o r k i n g on i t and i t may be j u s t a r o u n d t h e c o r n e r . We do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t . U n l e s s o u r p e o p l e a n d g o v e r n m e n t s s i t down t o g e t h e r a n d a g r e e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n i s o f c r u c i a l h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e , u n l e s s t h e y a g r e e 8. t o s o l v e i t t h r o u g h some u n p r e c e d e n t e d mechanism o r s u p e r c o -o p e r a t i o n , t h e n t h e A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s w i l l f l o u n d e r f r o m s t o p -gap t o s t o p g a p , f r o m c r u t c h t o c r u t c h , f r o m b a n d a i d t o b a n d a i d . U n t i l i t i s t o o l a t e . U n t i l , one day, we may wake up t o f i n d t h a t we have n e i t h e r a h e a l t h y economy n o r a h e a l t h y e n v i r o n -ment, a n d t h e q u a l i t y o f o u r a i r and w a t e r i s as g r i m a s t h e l i f e on o u r b r e a d l i n e s . E x a g g e r a t i o n ? P e r h a p s . I t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s c l e a r t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s v e r y wrong w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y t h a t o u r s o c i e t y r e l i e s upon t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e i m m e n s e l y c o m p l i c a t e d s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . L . E. P o e t s c h k e , f o r m e r e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y o f t h e C a b i n e t C o mmittee on P l a n n i n g a n d Programmes o f t h e Government o f Nova S c o t i a , h a s d i s c u s s e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s f a i l u r e t o d e s i g n new m a c h i n e r y t o t a c k l e new p r o b l e m s . He h a s d e s c r i b e d "an a p p a r e n t l y u n b r e a k a b l e , s e l f -g e n e r a t i n g and s e l f - r e i n f o r c i n g c i r c l e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p o l i t i c i a n s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , m e d i a and much o f t h e a c a d e m i c w o r l d , a l l o f whom a r e p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h e x p e n d i t u r e p r o g r a m s and, w i t h a few n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , a r e u n a b l e t o d e a l w i t h t h e s y s t e m s and p r o c e s s e s w h i c h a r e t h e s t u f f o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t " . P o e t s c h k e was d e l i v e r i n g a p a p e r , on what he c a l l e d P r o b l e m s o f D e a l i n g w i t h t h e P r o b l e m s o f R e g i o n a l and R u r a l A d j u s t m e n t , t o t h e j o i n t CEA-CCRD C o n f e r e n c e i n W i n n i p e g a b o u t two y e a r s ago. We q u o t e h i m now n o t b e c a u s e p e o p l e a r e unaware o f t h e b a f f l i n g a nd f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s he d e s c r i b e d , b u t b e c a u s e t h o s e who d e a l w i t h g o v e r n m e n t a t t h e p l a n n i n g l e v e l 9. know them o n l y t o o w e l l , and r e m a i n u n a b l e t o do much a b o u t them. F o r t h e e f f e c t h i s words h a v e h a d on m o s t o f C a n a d a ' s p u b l i c l i f e , P o e t s c h k e m i g h t as w e l l have b e e n t a l k i n g t o P a t a g o n i a n s ; and, i f r e p e t i t i o n e v e r a c h i e v e s a n y t h i n g , h i s o p i n i o n s a r e w o r t h h e a r i n g o n c e more: On t h e b u r e a u c r a c y : "The b u r e a u c r a c y , a t a l l l e v e l s , o p e r a t e s i n a w o r l d w h i c h i s d i v i d e d n e a t l y i n t o s e c t o r s , r e s -p o n s i b i l i t i e s and j u r i s d i c t i o n s . To s t e p o u t s i d e a b o u n d a r y i s t o c o u r t d i s p l e a s u r e , a n d f o r one d e p a r t m e n t t o s u g g e s t p o l i c y c h a n g e s t o a n o t h e r - t o b e t t e r a c h i e v e an o b j e c t i v e o f t h e f i r s t - a t b e s t i s c o n s i d e r e d p r e s u m p t u o u s . "...The g o v e r n m e n t s t r u c t u r e must be made s e r v i c e , m a r k e t a n d s y s t e m s o r i e n t e d . T h i s w i l l o f n e c e s s i t y be a n e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s . I t c a n be s t a r t e d i m m e d i a t e l y , however, by i n s e r t i n g a mechanism w h i c h c a n work a c r o s s t h e g o v e r n m e n t s t r u c t u r e w i t h a u t h o r i t y a n d c o m p e t e n c e t o work w i t h any a n d a l l g r o u p s and i n t e r e s t s i n t h e economy and t o u s e t h e r e s o u r c e s o f g o v e r n m e n t , u n i v e r s i t y and t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s y s t e m s t h a t w i l l a c t u a l l y do what p e o p l e a n d t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e a l l y do want do n e . " We h a v e t o d e c i d e f o r o u r s e l v e s "what p e o p l e and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e a l l y do want done" w i t h r e g a r d t o d e v e l o p m e n t - v s . - o u r - w a y - o f - l i f e . The a n s w e r s a r e h e r e . They a r e e x a c t l y a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y t o l i f e i n o u r c o r n e r o f C a n a d a . We w i l l n o t f i n d them i n e i t h e r i n v i d i o u s o r y e a r n i n g c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h t h i n g s as t h e y a r e i n T o r o n t o a n d M o n t r e a l . The c o m p a r i s o n s have become t i r e s o m e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r h a r d t h o u g h t a b o u t o u r own p l a c e i n t h e s u n . 10. We need the hard thought, but what we yearn f o r are simple answers. There's a widening gap between the p o l i c y -makers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , on one s i d e , and the p o l i t i c i a n s , the press and the general p u b l i c on the other. S e n s i t i v e l e g i s -l a t o r s know they o f t e n have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the b a s i c p o l i c i e s of government. And the media, f o r the most p a r t , simply do not attempt to fathom the i n t r i c a c i e s of modern government; they l i m i t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to the p o l i t i c s of bread and c i r c u s e s . Yet, we know something i s s l i p p i n g away from us and p e r i o d i c a l l y the c r y goes up, " r e s t o r e power to the people (Pa r l i a m e n t ) . " At the same time, the p o p u l i s t r e v i v a l i n the United S t a t e s , and the yearning f o r the one man who can s t r a i g h t e n e v e r y t h i n g out are r e f l e c t i o n s of a d e s i r e f o r s i m p l i c i t y , an end to p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , and a r e l u c t a n c e t o t h i n k hard. Hard thought. Poetschke was not t h i n k i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y of development - vs. - o u r - w a y - o f - l i f e but he may have been c l o s e t o the d i r e c t i o n A t l a n t i c Canada must f o l l o w t o meet i t s most c r u c i a l dilemma head-on. I t would be a path of change, and change i s the path of s u r v i v a l everywhere. I t would be a path of unprecedented co-operation among dozens of f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l governments; among hundreds of depart-ments and agencies and committees and o f f i c i a l s t h a t f r e q u e n t l y work now at cross-purposes; and among u n i v e r s i t i e s and p r i v a t e business as w e l l . I t would be, at l a s t , a path towards a system t h a t would enable us to c o n t r o l , as f u l l y as people can, our own d e s t i n y . We should t h i n k about t h a t system. We should t h i n k about the d e s t i n y . 11. CHAPTER ONE APPROACH TO THE STUDY INTRODUCTION: PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY STATEMENT The t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y f o c u s e d i n l a r g e p a r t o n e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t r e a t i n g o n l y m a r g i n a l l y s o c i a l a n d d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s . And t h e p r e v a i l i n g s t y l e h a s b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i o n w h i c h l e d u n t i m a t e l y t o p r e -s c r i b e d s o l u t i o n s : r a t i o n a l i s t i c p l a n n e r s s t u d i e d what h a d b e e n , a n a l y z e d what was c u r r e n t l y h a p p e n i n g , made some e d u c a t e d g u e s s e s a t what w o u l d p r o b a b l y o c c u r i n t h e f u t u r e , a n d o f f e r e d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a l t e r i n g t h a t f u t u r e b a s e d upon a v a r i e t y o f n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i a , u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d by t h e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n -makers and s e n i o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s . R e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e P l a n n i n g f i e l d , h owever, and some r e c e n t p e r t i n e n t p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e l e a d me t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e d e t e r m i n i s t i c a s s u m p t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g p r e v i o u s p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s may be g i v i n g way t o newer a p p r o a c h e s b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . D i m i n i s h i n g i n i n f l u e n c e , i t a p p e a r s , i s t h e l o n g -s t a n d i n g , m u t u a l l y s e l f - s e r v i n g d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s who a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n " b a s i c i s s u e s " i n e v e r y i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y m a t t e r t h a t were e i t h e r t o o s e n s i t i v e o r t o o i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e a v e r a g e c i t i z e n t o u n d e r s t a n d and d e a l w i t h . Commanding g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n and a p p e a r i n g t o be a d o p t e d more and more i s a s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g w h i c h n o t o n l y accommo-d a t e s l o c a l i n v o l v e m e n t , b u t e n c o u r a g e s i t , f a c i l i t a t e s i t , a n d i s b e c o m i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t . And t h i s a p p e a r s t o be h a p p e n i n g a t t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l , l o n g t h e p r e s e r v e o f a g e n t s o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x a m i n e t h i s p e r c e i v e d s h i f t i n t h e a p p r o a c h t o r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g t o p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t and t h e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . I w i l l f o c u s my i n q u i r y on a s p e c i f i c e f f o r t i n t h i s a r e a : t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t i n P i c t o u C o u n t y , Nova S c o t i a , and t h e l o c a l e f f o r t s w h i c h p r e c e d e d i t . From September, 1972, t h r o u g h J u l y , 1973, I p a r t i c i -p a t e d i n t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t . As a R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r on c o n t r a c t t o t h e Nova S c o t i a D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , I was r e s i d e n t i n t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y community a n d a s s i s t e d and a d v i s e d t h e r e s i d e n t s and t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t a l a n d n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h i s p r o c e s s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , I w o r k e d w i t h t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n and i t s s i x member m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , w h i l e f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f a number o f o t h e r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D u r i n g my i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h i s e f f o r t i n P i c t o u C o u n t y I c o u l d s e e what I f e l t t o be e v i d e n c e o f n o t o n l y e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , b u t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t as w e l l . I c o u l d s e e a g r o u p o f b u s i n e s s m e n m a t u r e as t h e y r e p e a t e d l y c o n f r o n t e d p r o b l e m s , e x p e r i m e n t e d , s o u g h t new i n f o r m a t i o n , t r i e d a l t e r n a -t i v e s , and c o n t i n u e d t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e ways t h e y c o u l d make wise p u b l i c investments. I c o u l d see a young s c h o o l t e a c h e r take h i s concerns about the l a c k o f proper and s u f f i c i e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s to a newly-created p r o v i n c i a l Department o f R e c r e a t i o n , put forward h i s case, b u t t r e s s e d by i n t i m a t e l o c a l knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e , and r e t u r n to h i s community t o a c t i v a t e a s e r i e s of processes designed to respond to those concerns. I c o u l d see a farmer's w i f e , f r u s t r a t e d by y e a r s o f attempting to i n f l u e n c e a s c h o o l board's budget-conscious d e c i s i o n s , but a l s o a c u t e l y aware of the growing community con-ce r n w i t h the inadequacies of the County e d u c a t i o n a l system, d e c i d e to run a g a i n f o r a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s e a t , win t h a t s e a t , and then get h e r s e l f appointed to the s c h o o l board. I c o u l d see these and many oth e r events and p r o c e s s e s t a k i n g p l a c e . OBJECTIVES What I want to do now i s s t e p back and take a l o n g hard look a t the approach to r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g t h a t was b e i n g attempted by the r e s i d e n t s o f t h a t county and t r y t o l e a r n from t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . Before o u t l i n i n g t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s study, however, I f e e l i t would be u s e f u l f o r me to d e s c r i b e the l i n e o f t h i n k i n g t h a t l e d to my s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t a r e a . In h i s r e p o r t to the M i n i s t e r R e s p o n s i b l e f o r Housing, Harvey L i t h w i c k (1970, p. 213) speaks of the i n f l e x i b l e t r e n d towards an urban s o c i e t y i n Canada, but f i n d s t h a t "evidence suggests that beyond some c r i t i c a l point, not e a s i l y defined or measured, the i n t e r a c t i o n between size and rapid growth leads to an acceleration of costs primarily as a r e s u l t of competing demands for scarce urban land". Lithwick chooses not to accept the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of a continuation of the present urbanization process, but rather selects the option of managing growth, preserving the benefits while reducing the costs. He believes that the sequential development of new communities i s the most suitable approach. Among the strategies to be employed, he says, should be the "building on urban i n f r a s t r u c t u r e already i n place i n r e l a t i v e l y small areas c l o s e l y linked to the main urban system" (p. 231). My own thinking c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s t h i s progression of ideas. But, to expand a b i t , I also look at the urbanization trend from the perspective of the r u r a l region with i t s par-t i c u l a r s t y l e of l i f e . For too long, I believe, have the economic, s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l aspects of r u r a l l i v i n g been circumscribed by the requirements of the large urban centers. To be t r i t e , but to restate a truism, I believe that i n d i v e r s i t y you w i l l f i n d strength. The people who l i v e i n r u r a l regions, and the people who would l i v e i n them, given suitable opportunities - these people merit recognition and t h e i r desire to maintain and foster an a l t e r n a t i v e way of l i v i n g requires serious consideration and appropriate response at every l e v e l of government. (This view i s shared by Gordon C. Cameron, 1969, p. 207-220, 1970, p. 14-17, and John H. Cumberland, 1971, p. 8-10.) : T h i s v i e w p o i n t p r o v i d e s some o f the b a s i s o f a p r o -p o s a l *'£or a c t i o n by the Committee o f the Senate on Manpower and Employment (1961, p. 6): The massive m i g r a t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n i s n e i t h e r s o c i a l l y nor e c o n o m i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e , and we r e j e c t t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , the o t h e r course, namely o f p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r these people i n the areas concerned, must be undertaken w i t h determined e f f o r t . Thoughts such as these have l e d me t o b e l i e v e t h a t an improved understanding o f the pr o c e s s e s o f development p l a n n i n g i n a s p e c i f i c r e g i o n can a s s i s t i n f u t u r e p o l i c y - m a k i n g and a c t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the aims of t h i s study a re: 1. To d e s c r i b e and analyze the approach t o r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n P i c t o u County, Nova S c o t i a ; 2. To compare the P i c t o u County approach w i t h some of the t h e o r i e s u n d e r l y i n g r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g ; 3. To d i s c o v e r the l i m i t a t i o n s , h u r d l e s , problems, and/ or o b s t a c l e s and a l s o the advantages i n h e r e n t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r approach. I am examining a dynamic s o c i a l p r o c e s s , designed t o r e s u l t p r i m a r i l y i n long-term development r e t u r n s . Because o f t h i s , I w i l l not attempt p r e c i s e q u a n t i t a t i v e measures of the impact o f the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t , which began a l i t t l e over two years ago. There can be no " f i n a l s c o r e " a t t h i s time, i f indeed t h e r e can ever be. Rather, t h e r e w i l l be i n d i c a t i o n s o f g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r convergence w i t h the i d e a s o r concepts o f r e g i o n a l development reviewed i n t h i s study. METHODOLOGY The m e t h o d o l o g y p u r s u e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s f i r s t t o p r e s e n t a b a c k g r o u n d f o r a n a l y s i s . To b e g i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r o f i n d i v i d u a l s and o f g r o u p s , I b e l i e v e i t i s p r u d e n t , e v e n n e c e s s a r y , t o examine t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t o c c u r s . A t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t e x t i s p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h a r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e s e two a r e a s : (1) t h e o r i e s o f r e g i o n a l e c o -nomic g r o w t h , g e n e r a l l y , and (2) r e c e n t p l a n n i n g t h o u g h t on t h e t h e o r y o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and s o c i e t a l c h a n g e . G i v e n c e r t a i n t i m e and r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s , I o f f e r no e x h a u s t i v e r e v i e w , b u t r a t h e r a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t t h e m a j o r f e a t u r e s o f t h e l a n d -s c a p e . H a v i n g done t h i s , I t h e n make some p r e l i m i n a r y s u g g e s t i o n s a b o u t what m i g h t c o n s t i t u t e an a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h f o r an e f f e c t i v e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . N e x t , a p e r s p e c t i v e o f g o v e r n m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s , b o t h f e d e r a l a nd p r o v i n c i a l , i n r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g i n Nova S c o t i a i s p u t f o r w a r d i n a r e v i e w o f some o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e programmes o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s . T h i s i s done n o t o n l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g a b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y e f f o r t s b u t a l s o t o g i v e r e l e v a n t e x a m p l e s o f programmes w h i c h were b a s e d on r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h t h e o r i e s . A community p r o f i l e o f t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y r e g i o n , f o l l o w e d by a h i s t o r y o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g i n t h a t c o u n t y c o m p l e t e s t h e t a s k o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e m a j o r f e a t u r e s o f t h e l a n d s c a p e , t o r e t u r n t o t h e m e t a p h o r , a n d s e t s up t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c e f f o r t t o be e x a m i n e d . 17. The Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t i s then des-c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . The a c t o r s are i d e n t i f i e d , t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are d e l i n e a t e d , the aims o f the P r o j e c t are s e t f o r t h , and the a c t i v i t i e s f l o w i n g from t h i s e f f o r t are i l l u s t r a t e d . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the approach adopted are accented, and f o r t h i s purpose, the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the P r o j e c t i s l i m i t e d to o n l y the f i r s t phase which ended i n the F a l l o f 1973. The p r e v i o u s f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t s and the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t are then examined through the use of l o g i c i n l i g h t of the t h e o r e t i c a l concepts o u t l i n e d i n the i n i t i a l p a r t of t h i s study. As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e r e i s no o b j e c t i v e r a t i n g or s c o r e - k e e p i n g , and the a l l u s i o n s to "performance standards" are not r e l e v a n t to t h i s purpose; r a t h e r , an attempt i s made to r e l a t e these approaches to r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g to the v a r i e t y o f r e l e v a n t t h e o r i e s and concepts f o r the purpose o f o b t a i n i n g i n s i g h t s . F i n a l l y , the impacts, or rewards and b e n e f i t s , o f each approach are a n a l y z e d and c o n c l u s i o n s are drawn. P a r t i a l l y drawing upon the i n s i g h t s d e r i v e d from the p r e c e d i n g review o f p e r t i n e n t government programmes, u t i l i z i n g the f i r s t - h a n d knowledge of the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t gained from my r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e s as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n i t , and q u i t e c a n d i d l y engaging i n a measure of c r y s t a l - b a l l -g a z i n g , I complete the study by making notes on some o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a s o c i a l l e a r n i n g approach to r e g i o n a l develop-ment p l a n n i n g . 18. NOTE ON DEFINITIONS G r e a t c o n f u s i o n e x i s t s o v e r t h e m e a n i n g s o f numerous t e r m s f o u n d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g . What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between g r o w t h c e n t r e a n d g r o w t h p o l e ? What i s g r o w t h ? D e v e l o p m e n t ? Can one s e p a r a t e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l g r o w t h ? T h e s e a r e a few ex a m p l e s o f t h e k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r i s e i n e v e n a c u r s o r y r e v i e w o f p l a n n i n g t h o u g h t i n t h i s a r e a . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y my r e s p o n s e t o t h i s dilemma i s t o make e v e r y e f f o r t t o r e l a t e t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t e r m s t o t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y a r e u s e d . I r e a l i z e t h i s p r e s e n t s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o m p a r i n g t h e o r i e s and c o n c e p t s , b u t I b e l i e v e t h i s i s u n a v o i d a b l e . T he d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d , t h o u g h , a r e n o t i n s u r m o u n t a b l e . 19. CHAPTER TWO THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r , a s t h e t i t l e s u g g e s t s , i s t o p r o v i d e a t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d t o g u i d e me i n t h e f o r -m u l a t i o n o f an h y p o t h e s i s . I d e s c r i b e and comment on some o f t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s o f r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h a n d a l s o r e c e n t t h e o r i e s o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . My e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s e n a b l e s me t o b e g i n m a k i n g some p r e -l i m i n a r y c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . THEORIES UNDERLYING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING REGIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH How do r e g i o n s grow i n an e c o n o m i c s e n s e ? T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s some p a r t i a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n w h i c h a r e p r o -v i d e d by a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s f i e l d . T h e s e r e s -p o n s e s r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t e c o n o m i c c h a n g e w i t h i n a r e g i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d p a r t l y by f o r c e s e x t e r n a l t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f l o c a l p a r t i e s and p a r t l y by t h e l o c a l p a r t i e s t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s a n d a c t i o n s ( H oover, 1971, p . 2 5 1 ) . However, t h e t h e o r i e s I h a v e c h o s e n t o d i s c u s s were a l s o s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d as ways o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e o r i g i n s o f r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , and o f a p p r e c i a t i n g some o f t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n s u s t a i n e d g r o w t h . T h e s e t h e o r i e s h a v e a s p a t i a l a p p r o a c h and r e f l e c t t h e d o m i n a n t t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a -t i o n i n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . T h r e e t h e o r i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d : (1) E x p o r t B a s e , (2) S t a g e s - o f - G r o w t h , and (3) Growth P o l e s / G r o w t h C e n t r e s . A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f e a c h i s g i v e n . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s r e v i e w , g r o w t h r e f e r s g e n e r a l l y t o an a c t i v i t y s y s t e m t h a t i s i n c r e a s i n g t h e s c a l e o f i t s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s and t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e l e v e l o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s (Dunn, 1 9 7 1 ) . E x p o r t B a s e A c c o r d i n g t o E x p o r t B a s e t h e o r y , a r e g i o n ' s e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , w h e t h e r one m e a s u r e d i t by income o r o u t p u t , d e p e n d s upon i t s a b i l i t y t o e x p o r t . "Growth i n a g i v e n u n i t , " s a y s P e r l o f f , e t . a l . (1960, p. 5 7 ) , ". . . i s i n i t i a t e d by t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n t h e u n i t t o an i n c r e a s e i n demand a r i s i n g o u t s i d e t h e u n i t i t s e l f " . The c o n c e p t o f t h e e x p o r t b a s e i s b a s e d on t h e f o l -l o w i n g l o g i c : B a s e t h e o r i s t s d i v i d e t h e r e g i o n a l economy i n t o two s e c t o r s : b a s i c a n d s e r v i c e . C o m p r i s i n g t h e b a s i c s e c t o r o f t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e o f t h e r e g i o n a r e t h o s e e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s whose mar-k e t s l i e o u t s i d e t h e r e g i o n , i . e . t h o s e i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h e x p o r t t h e i r f i n a l p r o d u c t s ; t h e n o n - b a s i c o r s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s a r e t h o s e i n d u s t r i e s whose m a r k e t s a r e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . A p a r -t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y may o f c o u r s e be p a r t i a l l y b a s i c and p a r t i a l l y s e r v i c e i f i t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s e r v e s b o t h m a r k e t s . ( D a v i s , 1972 , p. 2 ) . The r a t i o b e t w e e n e x p o r t a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , m e a s u r e d i n income o r employ-ment, i s t h e n u s e d as a m u l t i p l i e r . F o r example, a o n e - t o - o n e r a t i o w o u l d mean t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n e x p o r t s w i l l c a u s e an e q u a l i n c r e a s e i n r e s i -d e n t i a r y , o r s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . ( T i e b o u t , 1964 , p . 2 5 6 ) . The r a t e a t which a r e g i o n grows, i t i s suggested, w i l l depend on the r a t e a t which the export base expands i n l i n e w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n the demand f o r the r e g i o n s e x p o r t -able commodities and s e r v i c e s . ( P e r l o f f , e t . a l . , 1960, p. 58). The export base th e o r y appears to be more a p p l i c a b l e to a long-term view o f a r e g i o n a l economy. C. M. T i e b o u t (196 4) says t h a t the e x p o r t base i s o n l y one o f a number o f important f a c t o r s i n income d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e i s i n a p p l i c a b l e i n the s h o r t run. He suggests t h a t i n the s h o r t run, b u s i n e s s investment, government e x p e n d i t u r e s , and the volume of r e s i -d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n may be j u s t as autonomous w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e g i o n a l income as are e x p o r t s . However, Douglas C. North (1964) who s t u d i e d the f a c t o r s o f economic growth w i t h a l o n g term p o i n t o f view, where "the o b j e c t i v e i s to determine the f a c t o r s t h a t w i l l a f f e c t the decade-to-decade changes i n the r e a l aggregate and per c a p i t a income o f an a r e a " (p. 261) concluded t h a t : . . . the importance o f the economic base i s a r e s u l t of i t s primary r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the l e v e l of a b s o l u t e and per c a p i t a income i n a r e g i o n , and t h e r e f o r e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the amount o f r e s i d e n t i a r y secondary and t e r t i a r y a c t i v i t y t h a t w i l l develop (p. 254). Even i n the long-term, however, the Export Base th e o r y has some l i m i t a t i o n s . P e r l o f f , e t . a l . , (1960) argue t h a t i t doesn't e x p l a i n very w e l l i n t e r n a l growth sequences. Real l i f e f a c t o r s j u s t don't respond a u t o m a t i c a l l y as elements i n a model do: 22. Residentiary employment does not adopt passively and automatically to the s t r a t e g i c "region-building" or " c i t y b u i l d i n g " industries that have external trade r e l a t i o n -ships. Nor can a l l services be viewed as "dependent". Some provide the e s s e n t i a l framework for the production of export pro-ducts and i n a r e a l sense are "lead" items...The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the various kinds of a c t i v i t i e s within a region, including the complicated m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s , are c r i t i c a l i n regional economic growth (p. 60-61). In conclusion, i t can be stated that economic base theory can help explain i n many cases the o r i g i n s of long-term growth. I t f a l l s considerably short, however, i n providing i n s i g h t into the mechanics of sustained economic growth. Stages-of-Growth Elements of the Sector Theory when joined with l o c a t i o n factors form the rough basis of the theory of Stages-of-Growth. Although others, for example Losch (1938), and Hoover and Fisher (1949), have sought to explain economic growth by reference to a sequence of stages, W. W. Rostow has probably developed the most thorough treatment of t h i s concept. Since the mid-1930's, W. W. Rostow has worked on t r y i n g to bring modern economic theory to bear on economic h i s t o r y and to r e l a t e economic forces to s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l ones i n the workings of whole s o c i e t i e s . To explain the economic develop-ment of s o c i e t i e s as i n t e r a c t i n g organisms, he uses a w e l l -developed Stages-of-Growth theory. While Rostow used t h i s theory to explain the economic development of nations, I have i n c l u d e d i t i n t h i s p r e s e n t s e c t i o n on r e g i o n a l economic growth because the concepts he o f f e r s and the l o g i c he u t i l i z e s can o f f e r i n s i g h t when a p p l i e d w i t h a degree o f prudence to the i n t e r a c t i o n s which take p l a c e on s u b - n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . Rostow (1963, p. xxiv) d e f i n e s economic growth as "the r e s u l t of an i n t e r a c t i n g process i n v o l v i n g the economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s e c t o r s o f a s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g the emergence o f a corps o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s who are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m otivated and t e c h n i c a l l y prepared r e g u l a r l y to l e a d the way i n i n t r o d u c i n g new p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n s i n t o the economy". F u r t h e r , a growing economy i s d e s c r i b e d by him as one i n which a " r e l a t i o n ( e x i s t s ) between the r a t e s o f i n c r e a s e i n c a p i t a l and the working f o r c e , on the one hand, and i n p o p u l a t i o n , on the o t h e r , such t h a t per c a p i t a output (not n e c e s s a r i l y con-sumption) i s r i s i n g " (1960, p. 81). E x a c t l y how this comes about i s d e s c r i b e d by r e f e r e n c e to f i v e stages o f growth and a dynamic the o r y o f p r o d u c t i o n . C e n t r a l to h i s p r o p o s i t i o n s , i t s h ould be noted, i s the v i e w p o i n t t h a t "the economic d e c i s i o n s which determine the r a t e of growth and p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the working f o r c e and o f c a p i t a l should not be regarded as governed by the s t r i c t l y economic motives o f human b e i n g s " (1960, p. 11). A c c o r d i n g t o Rostow (1964, p. 4) t h e r e are f i v e c a t e -g o r i e s i n t o which a l l s o c i e t i e s can be p l a c e d to e x p l a i n the nature of t h e i r economic dimensions. B r i e f l y s t a t e d , they a r e : (1) the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y , (2) the p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r t a k e - o f f , (3) the t a k e - o f f , (4) the d r i v e to m a t u r i t y , and (5) the age of h i g h mass consumption. The t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y can be d e s c r i b e d as capable of expansion i n an ad hoc manner and l i m i t e d by a " c e i l i n g ( r e s u l t i n g ) from the f a c t t h a t the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s which flow from modern s c i e n c e and technology were e i t h e r not a v a i l a b l e or not r e g u l a r l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a p p l i e d " (Rostow, 1964, p. 4 ) . The second stage o f growth i n c l u d e s those s o c i e t i e s which are i n the pro c e s s o f t r a n s i t i o n from the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y t o the t a k e - o f f stage. T h i s i s a time when the p r e -c o n d i t i o n s f o r t a k e - o f f are developed. Modern h i s t o r y shows t h a t t h i s u s u a l l y r e s u l t e d from some i n t r u s i o n by some e x t e r n a l , more advanced s o c i e t y . E n t r e p r e n e u r s came forward, w i l l i n g t o take r i s k s t o o b t a i n p o s s i b l e p r o f i t s o r m o d e r n i z a t i o n . Investment i n c r e a s e d , u s u a l l y i n t r a n s p o r t and communications. But a l l t h i s a c t i v i t y proceeded a t the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y pace - the o l d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and v a l u e s s t i l l dominated and r e g i o n a l l y - b a s e d p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s h e l d s t r o n g . "In many cas e s , " Rostow p o i n t s out, "the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y p e r s i s t e d s i d e by s i d e w i t h modern economic a c t i v i t i e s , conducted f o r l i m i t e d economic purposes by a c o l o n i a l o r q u a s i - c o l o n i a l power" (1947, p. 7 ) . The t a k e - o f f stage i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o l d t r a d i t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e f i n a l l y b e i n g broken down and "compound i n t e r e s t becomes b u i l t , as i t were, i n t o (the s o c i e t y ' s ) h a b i t s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e " (Rostow, 1964, p. 7). The s t i m u l u s f o r t h i s t a k e - o f f i s mainly t e c h n o l o g i c a l . Three elements are seen as necessary f o r t h i s surge forward: (1) a b u i l d - u p o f s o c i a l overhead c a p i t a l , (2) a b u r s t i n g f o r t h o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development i n i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e , and (3) the emergence to p o l i t i c a l power o f a group w i l l i n g and a b l e to handle and f o s t e r the m o d e r n i z a t i o n of the economy (Rostow, 1964, p. 8). The f o u r t h stage encompasses the d r i v e to m a t u r i t y . The growing economy pushes outward to reach a l l s e c t o r s through the a p p l i c a t i o n of modern technology. M a t u r i t y i s f o r m a l l y d e f i n e d as "the stage i n which an economy demonstrates the c a p a c i t y t o move beyond the o r i g i n a l i n d u s t r i e s which powered i t s t a k e - o f f and to absorb and apply e f f i c i e n t l y over a very wide range o f i t s r e s o u r c e s - i f not the whole range - the most advanced f r u i t s o f (then) modern technology" (Rostow, 1964, p. 10). The age of h i g h mass consumption, o r f i f t h stage, i s d e s c r i b e d as a s t a t e i n which a s o c i e t y moves towards d u r a b l e consumers' goods and s e r v i c e s and chooses to a l l o c a t e , through the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , i n c r e a s e d r e s o u r c e s to s o c i a l w e l f a r e and s e c u r i t y . While these stages may appear to be d e s c r i p t i v e , they are not; they have an i n n e r l o g i c and c o n t i n u i t y , r o o t e d i n the dynamic theory o f p r o d u c t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to Rostow (1964, p. 12 and 1960, p. 307) . T h i s dynamic theory o f p r o d u c t i o n can be summarized t h u s l y : t h e r e i s a framework s e t by supply and demand f o r c e s which determines the t o t a l l e v e l o f output. Out of t h i s comes s e c t o r a l optimum p o s i t i o n s . Now on the demand s i d e t h i s framework i s determined l a r g e l y by l e v e l s o f income, o f popula-t i o n , and by the c h a r a c t e r o f t a s t e s , and on the supply s i d e by the s t a t e o f technology and the q u a l i t y o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , t h i s d e t e r m i n i n g the p r o p o r t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e and p o t e n t i a l l y p r o f i t a b l e i n n o v a t i o n s . Rostow (1960, p. 309) says t h a t "the economic h i s t o r y o f growing s o c i e t i e s takes a p a r t o f i t s rude shape - as a f i r s t a pproximation - from the e f f o r t o f s o c i e t i e s t o approximate the o p t i m a l s e c t o r a l paths." Recog-n i t i o n i s made of the f a c t t h a t s e c t o r s expand a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s , due i n p a r t t o the d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n s and a l s o from h i g h p r i c e o r income e l a s t i c i t i e s o f demand. S o c i a l d e c i s i o n s and p o l i c i e s o f government a l s o a f f e c t demand f o r r e s o u r c e s i n terms which t r a n s c e n d c o n v e n t i o n a l market p r o c e s s e s . These broad c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s o u t s i d e the market p l a c e a l o n g w i t h the dynamics o f market demand ( i n a d d i t i o n t o r i s k - t a k i n g , technology, and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p ) have worked t o g e t h e r i n d i f f e r e n t ways to determine the make-up o f the d i f f e r e n t stages o f growth (Rostow, 1960, p. 310, and 1964, p. 15). Growth Poles/Growth Centres The meanings o f the terms "growth p o l e s " and "growth c e n t r e s " have been a c o n t i n u i n g concern t o many. Darwent (1969, p. 5), among o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g myself, have asked the q u e s t i o n , "Are we speaking o f p l a c e s or phenomena t h a t have grown, t h a t are growing, t h a t are p r e d i c t e d to grow, or t h a t ( i n the norma-t i v e sense) we wish to see grow i n the f u t u r e ? No c l e a r answer has emerged from my review o f the l i t e r a t u r e . The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs r e l a t e some of my f i n d i n g s . The theory o f growth p o l e s was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d by F r a n c o i s Perroux (1950, p. 89-109) who was r e f e r r i n g t o eco-nomic space, r a t h e r than geographic. Economic space i s des-c r i b e d as a f i e l d o f f o r c e s , and growth p o l e s , says Perroux (1950, p. 27), are ". . . c e n t e r s (poles o r f o c i i ) from which c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s emanate and to which c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e s are a t t r a c t e d . Each c e n t e r b e i n g a c e n t e r o f a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n has i t s proper f i e l d which i s s e t i n the f i e l d o f a l l o t h e r c e n t e r s . " These p o l e s are f i r m s o r i n d u s t r i e s , o r groups of them, and "are b e s t regarded simply as s e c t o r s o f an economy re p r e s e n t e d by an i n p u t - o u t p u t m a t r i x i n which growh e f f e c t s can be t r a n s m i t t e d a c r o s s the rows and columns" (Darwent, 1969, p. 5). Growth takes p l a c e when one f i r m comes to dominate o t h e r s . T h i s dominant f i r m , o r economic u n i t , t o be more p r e -c i s e , i s known as a " p r o p u l s i v e u n i t " and has t h r e e f e a t u r e s : (1) a h i g h degree of dominance (of o u t p u t ) , (2) l a r g e s i z e , and (3) h i g h i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h many o t h e r f i r m s . Perroux puts f o r t h the p o s i t i o n t h a t the process an economic u n i t employs to become dominant, to grow r a p i d l y , i s the f o r c e t h a t makes the whole economy grow. 28. Where t h i s p r o c e s s t a k e s p l a c e f o r m s t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r t h e t h e o r y o f " g r o w t h c e n t r e s " , l o c a t i o n s i n g e o -g r a p h i c s p a c e . The l i n k b etween t h e p o l e and i t s l o c a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y b e s t d e m o n s t r a t e d by I s a r d and S c h o o l e r (1959): t h e y d e v e l o p e d an i n t e r - a c t i v i t y i n p u t - o u t p u t m a t r i x f o r t h e e l e m e n t s o f an i n d u s t r i a l c o m p l e x . By d o i n g t h i s , " t h e y (were) a b l e t o d e a l w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f what t o i n v e s t i n ( t h e g r o w t h p o l e ) , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f optimum s i z e o f e a c h o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e complex, t h e s c a l e e c o n o m i c s i n v o l v e d , a n d t h e t r a n s p o r t c o s t s o f e a c h o f t h e i n p u t s and o u t p u t s . The l i n e a r p r o g r a m m i n g s o l u t i o n t o t h i s ( g i v e s ) t h e optimum l o c a t i o n f o r t h e optimum c o m b i n a t i o n o f l i n k e d p r o c e s s e s i n a complex, i n t e r m s o f t h e m a x i m i z a t i o n o f some o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n - s a y p r o f i t s " (Darwent, 1969, p . 12) . W h i l e " g r o w t h p o l e s " t h e o r y r e l i e d on t h e b i g f i r m o r b i g i n d u s t r y as t h e b a s i s f o r g r o w t h , " g r o w t h c e n t r e s " t h e o r y seems t o r e c o g n i z e more o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h . "Growth c e n t r e s " a r e u s u a l l y a r e a s where one i s q u i t e l i k e l y t o f i n d " a g g l o m e r a t i o n e c o n o m i c s " . They a r e u s u a l l y u r b a n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w h i c h a r e l i k e l y t o h a v e a l a r g e and d i v e r s i f i e d p o o l o f l a b o u r , r e d u c e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s b e c a u s e i t i s a l a r g e m a r k e t i n a s m a l l a r e a , a b r o a d r a n g e o f f i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f a c i l i t i e s , e t c . And w h i l e t h e n o t i o n o f a g g l o -m e r a t i o n e c o n o m i c s d o e s n ' t e x p l a i n how a g r o w t h c e n t r e comes i n t o e x i s t e n c e , i t does h e l p t o e x p l a i n why s u c c e s s i n g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t b r e e d s more s u c c e s s ( A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l , 1972, p. 16, and H i r s c h m a n , 1958). Thomas W i l s o n (1964, p. 16-17) o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g r a t i o n a l e f o r growth c e n t r e s : I t i s necessary to r e c o g n i z e t h a t manu-f a c t u r i n g cannot be s c a t t e r e d i n s m a l l pockets a l l over the country i n an attempt to b r i n g more work of t h i s k i n d to every d i s t r i c t where the r e happens to be e x c e s s i v e unemployment. While i s o l a t e d f a c t o r i e s w i l l sometimes succeed and should, o f course, be g i v e n any reasonable f a c i l i t y t h a t w i l l enable them t o do so, e x p e r i e n c e everywhere shows t h a t some geographic c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y i s d e s i r a b l e . An urban c e n t r e i s a l s o necessary i f much pro g r e s s i s to be made i n e x t e n d i n g o f f i c e employment. I t i s f o r these reasons t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d to c e n t r e s o f growth. Edgar Hoover (1971, p. 276-277), i n an o u t l i n e o f b a s i c s t r a t e g y i s s u e s f o r r e g i o n a l development a s s i s t a n c e , views growth c e n t r e s i n much the same way, s t r e s s i n g e f f i c i e n c y i n the a l l o c a t i o n o f government spending and manpower i n a r e g i o n a l development e f f o r t : One of the four basic issues of regional development assistance strategy concerns the focusing of such assistance upon a relatively small number of selected growth centres at which there exists or can easily be created the necessary conditions for expanding employ-ment opportunity, and especially the public infrastructure and the external economies that most activities require. Such growth centres are then expected to attract com-muters and migrants from surrounding areas of labour surplus, and at the same time to stimulate secondary growth of employment in some of those areas. John Friedmann (1966) d i s c u s s e s the s p a t i a l i n c i d e n c e o f r e g i o n a l economic development i n terms of a c e n t e r - p e r i p h e r y model. The impetus f o r growth i s u s u a l l y e x t e r n a l (the p e r i p h e r y ) , the export of a primary product or r e s o u r c e t o 30. o t h e r a r e a s o r n a t i o n s . F r i e d m a n n s a y s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e c e n t e r w i t h t h e p e r i p h e r y i s d e p e n d e n t upon s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n c o m e s and e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . L o c a l i n v e s t m e n t a n d g o v e r n m e n t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a r e n e c e s s a r y , and t h i s i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e q u a l i t y o f l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s i s e n c o u r a g e d by a d e c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . A h i e r a r c h y o f c i t i e s and towns emerges and t h i s i s e v i d e n c e o f i n c r e a s i n g s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , a n d t h e r e f o r e d e v e l o p m e n t . Growth, s a y s F r i e d m a n n , i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s i z e o f an a g g l o m e r a t i o n (Darwent, 1 9 6 9 , p . 1 7 - 1 8 ) . I n summary, "growth p o l e " t h e o r y a s a d v a n c e d by P e r r o u x and o t h e r s d e s c r i b e s t h e n o t i o n o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h o c c u r r i n g a s an e c o n o m i c f i r m o r u n i t p r o p e l s i t s e l f i n t o d o m i n a n c e o v e r o t h e r u n i t s . I t has some e x p l a n a t o r y v a l u e , I b e l i e v e , b u t i t s u t i l i t y a s a t o o l n e e d s t o be e x a m i n e d f u r t h e r . "Growth c e n t r e " t h e o r y , o n t h e o t h e r hand, t r i e s t o e x p l a i n i n a n o r m a t i v e man-n e r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e t o t a l e c o n o m i c s p a c e o f a g i v e n g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n . The n o t i o n o f a g g l o m e r a t i o n e c o n o m i e s a n d a b e l i e f t h a t e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , a f t e r b e i n g i n i t i a l l y l o c a l i z e d , w o u l d s p r e a d t o s u r r o u n d i n g c o m m u n i t i e s a r e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h i s t h e o r y . SOCIAL LEARNING Recent t h i n k i n g on the p r o c e s s e s o f r e g i o n a l develop-ment p l a n n i n g shows an i n c r e a s i n g tendency to c o n s i d e r i t i n the c o n t e x t o f more complex f u n c t i o n a l systems t h a t are r e l a t e d to concepts o f b e h a v i o u r a l change. Development r a t h e r than growth i s the emphasis. For a working d e f i n i t i o n o f develop-ment I t u r n a g a i n t o Edgar S. Dunn, J r . (1971): "Development i m p l i e s t h a t an a c t i v i t y system i s transformed i n the mode o f i t s behaviour (p. 9 ) " . S t r a t e g i e s f o r r e g i o n a l economic growth i n depressed areas have begun t o r e c o g n i z e the importance o f human develop-ment. The s t i m u l a t i o n of human c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l i s being viewed as p o s s i b l y not o n l y a s i g n i f i c a n t , but necessary f a c t o r i n the p r o c e s s . And more r e c e n t l y , t h e o r i s t s are advancing the n o t i o n t h a t s o c i a l change i s a c t u a l l y based on a complex, non-d e t e r m i n i s t i c l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s process i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n r e l a t e s i n more d e t a i l my i n v e s t i g a t i o n of these thoughts i n the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p Development The d r i v i n g f o r c e i n i t i a t i n g economic and s o c i a l changes has been c a l l e d by some r e s e a r c h e r s " e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p " , and a body of theory has been developed to e x p l a i n i t s pro-c e s s e s . A c c o r d i n g t o M c C l e l l a n d (1971, p. 109), t h i s theory f o c u s e s on t h e human v a l u e s and m o t i v e s t h a t l e a d man t o e x p l o i t o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f f a v o u r a b l e t r a d e c o n d i t i o n s , i n s h o r t , t o sh a p e h i s own d e s t i n y . I n w r i t i n g a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m s and p o t e n t i a l s o f a l a g g i n g economy i n E a s t K e n t u c k y , Mary J e a n Bowman a n d W. W a r r e n Haynes 096 3) d e f i n e u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t as a " l a r g e gap b e t w e e n what has b e e n r e a l i z e d and t h e p o t e n t i a l s o f an a r e a " (p. 280-81). They s a y t h i s r e l a t e s t o n o t o n l y p h y s i c a l g r o w t h , b u t a l s o , more b a s i c a l l y , t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f human c a p i t a l . More n o r m a t i v e l y , D o n a l d S c h o n (1966) a r g u e s t h a t more e m p h a s i s must be p u t on t h e men who c a n a p p l y a n d com-m e r c i a l i z e r e s e a r c h . J o s e p h Schumpeter, more t h a n any o t h e r p e r s o n , h a s a d v a n c e d t h i s body o f t h e o r y w h i c h f o c u s e s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . Ke b e g i n s by b r i n g i n g f o r w a r d h i s own d e f i n i t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t : " (It) i n v o l v e s c h a n g e s i n e c o n o m i c s a s a r e n o t f o r c e d upon i t f r o m w i t h o u t , b u t a r i s e by i t s own i n i t i a t i v e , f r o m w i t h i n . . . . I t i s a s p o n t a n e o u s and d i s -c o n t i n u o u s c h a n g e . . . w h i c h f o r e v e r a l t e r s a n d d i s p l a c e s t h e e q u i l i b r i u m s t a t e p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g (so much) . . . t h a t t h e new one c a n n o t be r e a c h e d f r o m t h e o l d one by i n f i n i t e s m a l s t e p s . Add s u c c e s s i v e l y a s many m a i l c o a c h e s as y o u p l e a s e , y o u w i l l n e v e r g e t a r a i l w a y t h e r e b y " (Schumpeter, 1971, p. 45-6) . D e v e l o p m e n t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y , i s r e a l l y e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i n a c t i o n , o r a s S c h u m p e t e r (1971, p . 47) c a l l s i t ". . . t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f new c o m b i n a t i o n s ( o f p r o d u c t i v e means)". T h i s means " . . . the d i f f e r e n t employment of the economic system's e x i s t i n g s u p p l i e s o f p r o d u c t i v e means" (p. 48-49). T h i s concept, says Schumpeter (1971), c o v e r s f i v e c a s es: (1) the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new good, o r a new q u a l i t y o f good; . (2) the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new method o f o p e r a t i o n ; (3) the opening of a new market; (4) conquest o f a new source o f supply o f raw m a t e r i a l s o r h a l f - m a n u f a c t u r e d goods; (5) the c a r r y i n g out o f a new o r g a n i z a t i o n o f any i n d u s t r y (e.g. the c r e a t i o n o f a monopoly, or b r e a k i n g up of a monopoly). Who i s the s p e c i a l k i n d o f person who c a r r i e s out these new combinations? K i l b y (1971) d e s c r i b e s the en t r e p r e n e u r as one who has the i n t u i t i o n a l c a p a c i t y t o view t h i n g s i n a way which afterwards proves c o r r e c t , the energy of w i l l and mind to overcome f i x e d h a b i t s o f thought, and the c a p a c i t y t o w i t h -stand the i n e v i t a b l e s o c i a l o p p o s i t i o n . He has a d e s i r e f o r achievement, says M c C l e l l a n d (1971, p. 114), r a t h e r than f o r money, i s w i l l i n g t o take moderate r i s k , and d e s i r e s to assume p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s . In o r d e r f o r t h i s e n t r e p r e n e u r t o c a r r y out new com-b i n a t i o n s , Schumpeter says he must have command over means o f p r o d u c t i o n , and t h i s r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o , and emphasizes, the 34. s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c r e d i t . "The p o s s e s s o r o f wealth," Schumpeter (1971, p. 50) says, "even i f i t i s the g r e a t e s t combine, must r e s o r t t o c r e d i t i f he wishes t o c a r r y out a new combination, which cannot, l i k e an e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s , be f i n a n c e d by r e t u r n s from p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n " . How an entrepreneur gets the sums to purchase the means o f p r o d u c t i o n he needs t o c a r r y out the new combinations i s a c t u a l l y a new combination i n i t s e l f . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i n a growing economy, these sums came "out o f the annual growth o f s o c i a l s a v i n g s p l u s t h a t p a r t o f res o u r c e which may a n n u a l l y become f r e e " Schumpeter, 1971, p. 51-52). But t h e r e i s another way, a way which has s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e f o r depressed areas because i t does not presuppose the e x i s t e n c e o f accumulated r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s development. T h i s new method o f g e t t i n g the money f o r p r o d u c t i o n i s the c r e a t i o n o f p u r c h a s i n g power by banks out o f n o t h i n g . Schumpeter suggests bank notes not f u l l y covered by s p e c i e withdrawn from c i r c u l a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t methods o f d e p o s i t banking (where they i n c r e a s e the sum t o t a l o f p o s s i b l e expen-d i t u r e ) , and bank acceptances i n so f a r as they serve as money to make payments i n wholesale t r a d e (p. 52). The banker assumes a new r o l e now. He i s not a middle-man, merely t r a n s f e r r i n g sums of money which t r a n s l a t e i n t o p u r c h a s i n g power. The banker a c t u a l l y produces p u r c h a s i n g power by h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to i n v e s t i n human p o t e n t i a l , and becomes an entrepreneur h i m s e l f . A number o f o t h e r w r i t e r s who have o f f e r e d s t r a t e g i e s f o r overcoming the seemingly i n t r a c t a b l e problems of depressed areas have a l s o come to the p o s i t i o n t h a t a good p l a c e to s t a r t i s w i t h the people who l i v e t h e r e . Harry C a u d i l l i n h i s c l a s s i c Night Comes to the Cumberlands (1962) speaks so very e l o q u e n t l y o f the need f o r a proper e d u c a t i o n a l system. Mary Jean Bowman and W. Warren Haynes (1963) a l s o argue t h a t the fundamental and h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y i s a c o n t i n u o u s l y improving s c h o o l system, t o u c h i n g a l l groups, becoming p a r t of every aspect o f l i f e " u n t i l the h i l l s are s a t u r a t e d w i t h i t " . S t a n l e y F o s t e r Reed (1964) i n w r i t i n g about West V i r g i n i a says t h a t where a community has l o s t i t s r e c e p t i v i t y to new ways of making a l i v i n g , i t must be re-educated. T h i s must take p l a c e f o r one primary reason, he says, namely the r e v i v a l o f the l o s t a r t o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p (p. 30). S o c i e t a l Guidance L e a r n i n g among groups o f people and an a c t i v e approach t o s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s p r e s e n t e d i n a more comprehensive way by A m i t a i E t z i o n i i n The A c t i v e S o c i e t y :  A Theory of S o c i e t a l and P o l i t i c a l P rocesses (1968) . People r e l a t e to one another i n c o l l e c t i v i t i e s , E t z i o n i says, which are l a r g e u n i t s w i t h a p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y to a c t by drawing upon a s e t o f normative bonds which t i e t o g e t h e r members o f a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n c a t e g o r y . T h i s s o c i e t a l u n i t has t r a n s f o r m a b i l i t y , meaning t h a t i t has not o n l y the a b i l i t y t o 36. t o generate a d a p t i v e changes or to r e s t o r e new s t a b i l i t y t o an o l d u n i t , but a l s o t o b r i n g about a new p a t t e r n (p. 121). How i s t h i s m o b i l i z a t i o n accomplished? E t z i o n i does not view l e v e l of commitment as g i v e n , but r a t h e r as a dynamic q u a l i t y (p. 388). L e v e l of commitment, he s t a t e s , i s a f f e c t e d l a r g e l y by the change i n the c a p a c i t y t o c o n t r o l and use a s s e t s The p rocesses of t h i s change " e n t a i l a more or l e s s permanent m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the boundaries o f the system o r i t s s t r u c t u r e - i t s p a t t e r n s o f i n t e g r a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n " (p. 390). Boundary m o d i f i c a t i o n , i n t u r n , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n c r e a s i number o f c o l l e c t i v e p r o j e c t s - and t h i s i s the key to the take o f f stage o f m o b i l i z a t i o n (p. 403). A p r o j e c t i s d e f i n e d by E t z i o n i as a " c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t which e n t a i l s the f o c u s i n g o f energy and a c o m p a r a t i v e l y i n t e n s i v e and guided a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d towards s p e c i f i c t a s k s " (p. 403). The reasons t h a t a p r o j e c t a c t s as a s o c i e t a l c a t a l y s t are t h r e e : (1) p r o j e c t s d i s p e l " w a l l s " , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y b u i l t , and r e l e a s e b l o c k e d energy; (2) w a l l s may be r e a l , but a p r o j e c t may s u f f i c e t o remove them; (3) p r o j e c t s can b u i l d c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f these c o n s t r a i n t s , even though at p r e s e n t they cannot be moved o r removed (p. 40 3). F i n a l l y , p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e an i n t e r n a l change i n the m o b i l i z i n g u n i t s because they b r i n g new p e r s o n a l and c o l l e c t i v e commitments. And E t z i o n i says t h a t "there i s growing evidence t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e way to commit a person (to change) i s f o r him t o a c t , to p a r t i c i p a t e , i n a 'sample' o f the intended l i n e of a c t i o n " (p. 404). In the process o f s o c i e t a l a c t i v a t i o n , E t z i o n i s t a t e s t h a t not o n l y do more people g a i n a share i n s o c i e t y , thereby r e c o n s t i t u t i n g i t s s t r u c t u r e , but the members themselves are transformed. He observes t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a need f o r dynamic in t e r c h a n g e between p e r s o n a l , s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and s o c i e t a l a c t i o n (p. 11, 15). Edgar S. Dunn, J r . (1971) c a l l s t h i s the i n t e r f a c e between i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l group l e a r n i n g . Mutual L e a r n i n g Through Inn o v a t i o n and E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n The concept o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g i s f u r t h e r r e f i n e d by those who extend the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the process t o i n c l u d e mutual l e a r n i n g through i n n o v a t i o n and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . Reg. Lang (1972b) argues t h a t the community d e c i s i o n p rocess i s a c o n t i n u o u s l y o p e r a t i n g open system o f m o n i t o r i n g , feedback, and changed p e r c e p t i o n . P l a n n i n g and implementation, he says, are p a r t o f a s i n g l e o p e r a t i o n which i s b a s i c a l l y a l e a r n i n g process r a t h e r than a p r e d i c t i v e one. Stephen Grabow and A l l a n Heskin p r e s e n t a s i m i l a r case i n "Foundations f o r a R a d i c a l Concept of P l a n n i n g " (1973). They say a new paradigm i s r i s i n g t o c h a l l e n g e the " r a t i o n a l -comprehensive" model of modern p l a n n i n g . T h i s paradigm " i s based on systems change and the r e a l i z a t i o n of a d e c e n t r a l i z e d communal s o c i e t y which f a c i l i t a t e s human development by f o s t e r i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n of an e c o l o g i c a l e t h i c based on the e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s : s p o n t a n e i t y and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n " (p. 109). 38. Edgar S. Dunn, J r . , i n Economic and S o c i a l Develop- ment (1971), says t h a t the l e a r n i n g organism i n the human s p e c i e s has reached the p o i n t where l e a r n i n g has become l a r g e l y s o c i a l i z e d because the dominant aspect o f the i n d i v i d u a l organism's l e a r n i n g environment i s the presence o f and the s h a r i n g w i t h o t h e r l e a r n i n g organisms. T h i s p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g i s one o f e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , an a c t i v i t y o f problem s o l v i n g and h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g o f q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r (p. 239-41). The s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , a c c o r d i n g t o Dunn, i s d i f f e r e n t from the e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e s s known to c l a s s i c a l s c i e n c e i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: The b a s i c p o i n t o f departure i s the f a c t t h a t the s o c i a l system experimenter i s not exogenous to the system. He e x i s t s as an endogenous component o f the system he i s attempting to understand and t r a n s f o r m . He i s not d e a l i n g w i t h the understanding and d e s i g n o f f u l l y d e t e r m i n i s t i c systems. He i s immersed i n the a c t o f s o c i a l system s e l f - a n a l y s i s and s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . He i s the agent o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g - a p u r p o s i v e , s e l f - a c t u a t i n g but not f u l l y d e t e r m i n i s t i c p r o c e s s . He i s not i n t e r e s t e d t o the same degree i n e s t a b l i s h i n g u n i v e r s a l s because the s o c i a l system which engages h i s a c t i v i t y i s phenomenologically unique and both i t s s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n are temporary i n c h a r a c t e r . He i s engaged, r a t h e r , i n f o r m u l a t i n g and t e s t i n g developmental h y p o t h e s i s . The developmental h y p o t h e s i s i s a p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t , i f the orga-n i z a t i o n and behaviour o f a s o c i a l system were to be m o d i f i e d i n a c e r t a i n way, the g o a l s o f the system would be more adequately r e a l i z e d . T h i s development h y p o t h e s i s i s not t e s t e d r e p e a t e d l y under n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l o r c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . Rather, i t i s t e s t e d by the degree to which g o a l convergence i s r e a l i z e d as a r e s u l t o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . Problem s o l v i n g h y p o t h e s i s  f o r m u l a t i o n and t e s t i n g - i s an i t e r a t i v e , s e q u e n t i a l  s e r i e s o f adetptations o f an adaptable, g o a l - s e e k i n g ,  s e l f - a c t u a t i n g system. I t can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n (p. 241). (Emphasis mine.) 39. D i s p a r i t i e s are u s u a l l y d e f i n e d i n s t a t i s t i c a l terms r a t h e r than the " d i s p a r i t y between what i n d i v i d u a l s , neighbor-hoods, communities, and r e g i o n s are and what they c o u l d become," says L. E. Poetschke (1972, p. 57). In "Regional P l a n n i n g i n a Dynamic P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s " Poetschke says t h a t p u b l i c wisdom seems to be s t a t i n g t h a t development i s something people do, not governments: P l a n n i n g which i s r e l e v a n t i n t h i s world would be a process to support and s t r e n g t h e n the i n d i -genous c a p a c i t y of people to d e f i n e t h e i r a s p i r a -t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s and develop c a p a b i l i t y to manage and c o n t r o l t h e i r own d e s t i n y - a p r o c e s s o f growth i n human terms (p. 57). Poetschke goes on t o d e s c r i b e an e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s o f e x p e r i -mentation: The g u i d e l i n e s f o r a c t i o n would not be r e g u l a -t i o n but a concept o f a d e s i r a b l e and f e a s i b l e d i r e c t i o n f o r e v o l u t i o n . A c t i o n s would be judged on the b a s i s of whether they r e i n f o r c e or under-mine the d e s i r a b l e e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s , not whether they conform to a r b i t r a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c r i t e r i a . W i t h i n t h i s framework, p l a n n i n g and t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y would be d i r e c t e d t o working w i t h i n t e r e s t groups, n e i g h -borhood groups, i n v e s t o r s , and o t h e r s t o h e l p them take i n n o v a t i v e a c t i o n which r e i n f o r c e s s t r a t e g y (p. 61). John Friedmann a l s o b e l i e v e s i n a p a r t i c i p a n t - d o m i n a t e d p rocess o f s o c i a l change which focuses on i n s t i t u t i o n a l change. However, he more s t r o n g l y emphasizes mutual l e a r n i n g . " P a r t i c i -pant p l a n n i n g " , says Friedmann (1973c, p. 76), "occurs under c o n d i t i o n s where power to implement d e c i s i o n s r e s i d e s i n community forms of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and consequently i s d i s p e r s e d " . F o r t h i s p rocess to work e f f e c t i v e l y , however, he says t h a t t h e r e must be a f o r g i n g of a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n between expert and c l i e n t a c t o r , t h a t i s , the adopting o f a " t r a n s a c t i v e " s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . 40. " T r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g , " says Friedmann (1973c), "changes knowledge i n t o a c t i o n through an unbroken sequence o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s " (p. 171). He c a l l s t h i s the " L i f e o f D i a l o g u e " . Since Kas Kalba (1974) c a l l s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n soap opera of a h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l o r d e r , I t h i n k i t might be u s e f u l t o probe a b i t f u r t h e r i n t o Friedmann's e x p l a n a t i o n . Dialogue, says Friedmann (1973c), means a w i l l i n g n e s s to open y o u r s e l f t o o t h e r s . I t means an acceptance of o t h e r s and t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . And t h i s he believes can o n l y l e a d t o a process o f mutual s e l f - d i s c o v e r y . What does d i a l o g u e presume? Since r e l a t i o n s h i p s can-not always be harmonious between persons d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r , d i a l o g u e must presume a r e l a t i o n i n which c o n f l i c t i s accepted. However, i t a l s o presumes t o t a l communication, i n which g e s t u r e s and o t h e r modes o f e x p r e s s i o n are as v i t a l to meaning as t h a t which i s a c t u a l l y s a i d . I t presumes a r e l a t i o n o f shared i n t e r e s t s and commitments, o f r e c i p r o c i t y , mutual o b l i g a t i o n s , and suggests i n t i m a c y and a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s o f mutual l e a r n i n g (Friedmann, 1973c, p. 177-181). AN INITIAL ANALYSIS PREDICTION AND PLANNING In the economic growth concepts pr e s e n t e d i n the f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s c hapter, p r e d i c t i o n and p l a n n i n g have a very d e f i n e d r o l e . A c c o r d i n g t o Edgar S. Dunn, J r . , (1971), " p r e d i c t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o a n t i c i p a t i n g changes i n the e x t e r n a l parameters of 41. t h e s y s t e m , (and) p l a n n i n g i s a d d r e s s e d t o t h e e f f i c i e n t c o -o r d i n a t i o n , o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s u b s y s t e m i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s " (p. 17-18). I b e l i e v e i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p o i n t o u t h e r e t h a t t h e f o c u s o f t h e s e c o n v e n t i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h t h e o r i e s i s on e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s . I n t e r n a l c h a n g e s a r e r e l e g a t e d t o b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d as a d a p t a t i o n . Changes i n b e h a v i o u r a r e due c h i e f l y t o c h a n g e s i n s c a l e b r o u g h t a b o u t b y e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i . P r e d i c t i o n and p l a n n i n g a r e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h i n a d e t e r m i n i s t i c framework. A f i n a l s t a t e i s a d o p t e d and e v e r y e f f o r t i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d r e a c h i n g i t . T h i s t y p e o f a c t i v i t y , a c c o r d i n g t o Dunn (19 71), p l a c e s t h e b u r d e n o f e x p l a n a t i o n a n d p r e d i c t i o n upon t h e b e h a v i o u r o f l i n k e d e xogenous s y s t e m s . T h o s e s y s t e m s must, however, e n c o u n t e r r e s o u r c e l i m i t s t o t h e i r e x p a n s i o n a n d t o t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e i r demand f o r r e s o u r c e e x c h a n g e w i t h l i n k e d s y s t e m s . The o t h e r m o d e l s o f s o c i a l c h a n g e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r i n c o r p o r a t e n o n - d e t e r m i n i s t i c p r o -c e s s e s . They t e l l us t h a t s o c i a l c h a n g e i s t h e p r o d u c t o f an open p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g , c r e a t i v e and n o t programmed. Dunn (1971) s a y s t h i s p r o c e s s h a s a l e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y t h a t i s e n dogenous i n c h a r a c t e r a n d d o e s n o t d e p e n d on e x t e r n a l a g e n t s ; new b e h a v i o u r i s i n s t i g a t e d by t h e s y s t e m ' s own p u r p o s e s (p. 29-3 0 ) . T h i s s o c i a l l e a r n i n g i s d e s c r i b e d as a p r o c e s s o f e v o l u -t i o n a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . P r e d i c t i o n , t h e n , i s n o t p r o p h e c y . R a t h e r , i t t a k e s t h e f o r m o f a d e v e l o p m e n t a l h y p o t h e s i s . P l a n n i n g i s n o t e n g i n e e r i n g . P l a n n i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o Dunn (1971), takes the form o f co n d u c t i n g an experiment, t h a t i s , t e s t i n g the develop-mental h y p o t h e s i s i n a c t i o n (p. 133-4) . AN HYPOTHESIS T h i s study seeks t o o b t a i n i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between p u b l i c involvement and the r e g i o n a l development p r o c e s s . I t i s a search f o r an approach t h a t w i l l b e t t e r f o s t e r s o c i a l change. In t h i s c h apter I have reviewed l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o two major bodies of thought r e l e v a n t t o t h i s i n q u i r y . I examined f i r s t the more t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s o f r e g i o n a l economic growth, and secondly, I a n a l y z e d the more r e c e n t t h e o r i e s o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . On the b a s i s o f t h i s c u r s o r y l i t e r a t u r e review, I b e l i e v e I can make some p r e l i m i n a r y s u g g e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the r e g i o n a l development p r o c e s s . I t appears t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l economic growth models do not h e l p us very much i n understanding what i s fundamentally i n v o l v e d . I would suggest t h a t r e g i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g c o u l d be f o s t e r e d more e f f e c t i v e l y through an approach t h a t seeks to s t r e n g t h e n s o c i a l l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than have a d i r e c t impact on employment and i n d i v i d u a l income. A degree o f ex p e r i m e n t a t i o n seems to be d e s i r a b l e t o promote the a b i l i t y o f l o c a l communities t o assess t h e i r problems and o p p o r t u n i t i e s to take a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n . The n e x t c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s a r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n w h i c h I p a r t i c i p a t e d : t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t . I use i t as a r u d i m e n t a r y t e s t o f t h i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s . CHAPTER THREE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN PICTOU COUNTY, NOVA SCOTIA T h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h an o u t l i n e o f t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f a number o f r e c e n t f e d e r a l and Nova S c o t i a p r o v i n c i a l i n i -t i a t i v e s d e s i g n e d t o c a r r y o u t p o l i c i e s f o r r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment p l a n n i n g . N e x t , a community p r o f i l e o f P i c t o u C o u n t y i s p r e s e n t e d w h i c h d e s c r i b e s i n l i m i t e d d e t a i l t h e h i s t o r y and l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e p l a c e n e a r l y 50,000 Nova S c o t i a n s c a l l home. F o l l o w i n g t h i s b a c k g r o u n d , t h e a t t e m p t s o f P i c t o u C o u n t y r e s i d e n t s t o b r i n g a b o u t d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l c h a n g e i s d e s c r i b e d f u l l y . T h e s e e f f o r t s a t o r g a n i z i n g a t t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l t o d e a l w i t h common p r o b l e m s a r e shown t o be t h e b e g i n -n i n g s o f a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t l e a d s them t o a more e x p e r i -m e n t a l a n d l e s s r e g u l a t o r y a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . The f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e f o r m a l i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n P i c t o u C o u n t y , a n e f f o r t c a l l e d t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t . A PERSPECTIVE OF FEDERAL AND PROVINCIAL I N I T I A T I V E S IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION AND DEVELOPMENT ACT In December, 1960, A l v i n H a m i l t o n , t h e n M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , i n t r o d u c e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n i n t h e Commons: That i t i s expedient to i n t r o d u c e a measure to a u t h o r i z e the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i -c u l t u r e to e n t e r i n t o agreements w i t h p r o v i n c i a l governments or agencies t h e r e o f f o r the undertaking j o i n t l y w i t h those governments or agencies o f p r o j e c t s f o r the a l t e r n a t i v e uses o f lands t h a t are o f mar-g i n a l or o f low p r o d u c t i v i t y , p r o j e c t s f o r the development of income and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l areas, and p r o j e c t s f o r the development and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f the s o i l and water r e s o u r c e s of Canada. . . (Brewis, 1969, p. 104). And so, i n 1961, the f i r s t f u l l y n a t i o n a l programme to combat i n a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d use and i t s a t t e n d a n t r u r a l p o v e r t y was e s t a b l i s h e d under the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Development A c t (ARDA). The i n t r o d u c t o r y paragraphs o f the F i r s t Agreement expressed the d e s i r e o f the c o - s i g n i n g governments: .. . o f f a c i l i t a t i n g the economic a d j u s t -ment o f r u r a l areas and o f i n c r e a s i n g the income and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and improving the standards of l i v i n g o f people i n r u r a l a r e a s . . . o f improving the use and p r o d u c t i v i t y o f r e s o u r c e s i n r u r a l areas (Buckley and T i h a n y i , 1967, p. 93). ARDA programmes and p o l i c i e s r e q u i r e d formal co-opera t i o n and agreement between the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l govern-ments and e n t a i l e d a s h a r i n g o f the c o s t s . The p r o v i n c i a l government had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n and exp e n d i t u r e s w i t h i n t h e i r own boundaries. The f e d e r a l govern-ment a d v i s e d and made recommendations but i t was c l e a r l y up t o the p r o v i n c e s to s e l e c t the programmes they wanted from among those a u t h o r i z e d under the agreements s i g n e d pursuant to the l e g i s l a t i o n . Research p r o j e c t s , which the f e d e r a l government c o u l d i n i t i a t e and c a r r y out, were the o n l y e x c e p t i o n (Brewis, 1969, p. 107). With these kinds o f ground r u l e s , ARDA became " e s s e n t i a l l y a c o l l e c t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l programmes" w i t h con-s i d e r a b l e f e d e r a l i n f l u e n c e . How ARDA f u n c t i o n e d , though, a c t u a l l y depended on the wishes o f the p r o v i n c e s (Buckley and T i h a n y i , 1967, p. 96). Even though the F i r s t Agreement gave r e c o g n i t i o n t o economic and s o c i a l problems i n r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l areas, ARDA funds were used mainly t o promote e f f i c i e n c y o f l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n and t o "underwrite p r o j e c t s o f p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s development" (Canada, Department o f Re g i o n a l Economic Expansion, 1969, p. 35). On data based on t a b u l a t i o n s r e c e i v e d from the Department o f F o r e s t r y and R u r a l Development, Buckley and T i h a n y i (1967, p. 98) found about seventy-one p e r c e n t i n l a n d use and s o i l and water development r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s , o n l y 12.1 p e r c e n t i n peop l e -c e n t e r e d r u r a l development, and approximately seventeen p e r c e n t r e s e a r c h . AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT ACT On A p r i l 1, 1965, a Second Agreement was s i g n e d between the f e d e r a l government and the p r o v i n c e s which focused on the problem o f r u r a l p o v e r t y through an expansion o f the types o f programmes and p r o j e c t s a u t h o r i z e d . T h i s new o r i e n t a -t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n i t i a l l y i n the name change t o A g r i c u l t u r a l and R u r a l Development A c t (ARDA I I ) . ARDA I I c o n s i s t e d o f the f o l l o w i n g e i g h t p a r t s (Buckley and T i h a n y i , 1967, p. 99 and Brewis, 1969, p. 112): (1) Research (2) Land Use and Farm Adjustment ( i n v o l v i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of v i a b l e farms through e n l a r g e -ment o f r e g r o u p i n g as w e l l as withdrawal from a g r i c u l t u r e of farmland areas u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h a t purpose) (3) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n (of the underemployed) (4) R u r a l Development S t a f f and T r a i n i n g S e r v i c e s (5) R u r a l Development Areas ( i n c r e a s e d a s s i s t a n c e to areas i n need) (6) S p e c i a l R u r a l Development Areas ( c a r r y i n g out of comprehensive r u r a l development programmes) (7) P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s (expansion o f these s e r v i c e s t o encourage community i n t e r e s t and support) (8) S o i l and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n . While expanded budget funds accompanied these new areas, none was as e x t e n s i v e as those a u t h o r i z e d f o r S p e c i a l R u r a l Development Areas. In 1966 l e g i s l a t i o n was passed a l l o -c a t i n g $50 m i l l i o n f o r the Fund f o r R u r a l Economic Development (FRED) which was earmarked f o r comprehensive r u r a l development programmes. In March, 1967, t h i s fund was i n c r e a s e d t o $300 m i l l i o n (Canada, Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion, 1969, p. 36). The S p e c i a l R u r a l Development Area programme comprised the f o l l o w i n g components: (1) p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l s t u d i e s and i n -v e s t i g a t i o n s to determine the development prob-lems and p o t e n t i a l s o f the area; (2) the involvement o f l o c a l people through the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r u r a l development committees or s i m i l a r b o d ies; 48. (3) the p r e p a r a t i o n of comprehensive r u r a l development p l a n s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g a broad range o f p r o j e c t s t o i n c r e a s e income and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and to r a i s e s t a n d -ards of l i v i n g (Poetschke, 1968b, p. 3). I t appears, then, t h a t the accumulating e x p e r i e n c e i n r u r a l development p l a n n i n g t h a t began under the F i r s t Agreement under ARDA helped to s h i f t the emphasis of the new Agreement to a more r e g i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n (Wilson, 1973). Brewis (1969) p o i n t s out t h a t i t soon became apparent to a l l i n v o l v e d i n ARDA t h a t a more comprehensive approach had to be taken towards the problems o f r u r a l (not j u s t a g r i c u l t u r e - r e l a t e d ) p o v e r t y and t h a t a major e f f o r t was needed i n the development o f the human res o u r c e s i n r u r a l areas. The new emphasis, he says, was c l e a r l y on "program t o h e l p r u r a l people to r e - e s t a b l i s h them-s e l v e s i n new employment or to r e s e t t l e i n areas where improved o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t " (p. I l l ) . The 1965 Agreements and the 1966 FRED l e g i s l a t i o n were t u r n i n g p o i n t s , a c c o r d i n g to Brewis (1969). FRED p l a n s , he says, f o r r u r a l development may l e a d i n t o the broader f i e l d o f i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e . He c i t e s d i s c u s s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the ARDA p l a n f o r Northern Nova S c o t i a : "The b a s i c problem ( i n t h i s area of Nova S c o t i a ) i s thought to be an i n e f f i c i e n t and d e c l i n i n g i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r ; without improvements i n t h i s s e c t o r , a c t i o n to improve p r o d u c t i v i t y i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h e r i e s , and f o r e s t r y may o n l y aggravate the problem of low-incomes and under-employ-ment" (p. 128). T h i s was apparent to L. E. Poetschke, D i r e c t o r o f P o l i c y and P l a n n i n g f o r ARDA, when he s t a t e d : The s t r a t e g y o f p l a n n i n g f o r t h i s a r e a h as n o t y e t b e e n c o m p l e t e d . I t i s o u r v i e w , however, t h a t t h e main e m p h a s i s must be on t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g and s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . M o r e o v e r , we e x p e c t t h a t t h e p r o g r a m c a n n o t be b a s e d on f u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h e i n e f f i c i e n t i n d u s t r i e s o r on e x p a n s i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g s m a l l and r e g i o n a l l y m a r k e t - o r i e n t e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e a t p r e s e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e a r e a . The o b j e c t i v e must be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o m o t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e a r e a ' s l o c a t i o n a l a n d n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , a n d w h i c h w i l l e n t a i l a ch a n g e i n t h e t o t a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r , m o v i n g i t t o w a r d s l a r g e e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n s o r i e n t e d t o e x p o r t m a r k e t s (1968c, p . 1 3 ) . FRED programmes have n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e j o i n t c o - o p e r a -t i o n i n p l a n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . I n f a c t , t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f c o -o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two l e v e l s o f go v e r n m e n t , a c c o r d i n g t o B r e w i s , ( 1 9 6 9 ) , m i g h t be t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n an e v a l u a -t i o n o f ARDA p o l i c i e s . THE ATLANTIC DEVELOPMENT BOARD The causes c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the slow economic growth o f the A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the mid 19 50's as p a r t o f the e n q u i r i e s o f the Royal Commission on Canada's Economic P r o s p e c t s (the Gordon Commission). The Commissioners b e l i e v e d t h a t the a p p r o p r i a t e response t o these problems was c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e n d i t u r e s on i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , t h a t i s , the development of b a s i c p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system and sources o f power. In a d d i t i o n , they r e c o g n i z e d t h a t an i n c r e a s e d awareness and knowledge o f the re s o u r c e s o f the r e g i o n and b e t t e r l a n d use was d e s i r a b l e (Brewis, 1969, p. 172-4). 50. Even though the Gordon Commission r e v e a l e d i t s f i n d i n g s i n 1957, i t wasn't u n t i l 1962 t h a t the government expressed i t s i n t e n t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h an a d v i s o r y board f o r the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n . And a f t e r much debate, i t was f i n a l l y concluded t h a t t h i s board would have to be more than j u s t a d v i s o r y . Conse-q u e n t l y , i n December o f 1962, the A t l a n t i c Development Board (ADB) was e s t a b l i s h e d . The 5-member Board, however, had o n l y a d v i s o r y powers. But i n J u l y , 1963, an amendment to the A t l a n t i c Development Board A c t i n c r e a s e d the s i z e o f the Board to e l e v e n and p r o v i d e d i t w i t h an o p e r a t i o n a l budget of $100 m i l l i o n ( i n c r e a s e d to $150 m i l l i o n i n 1966) to i n v e s t i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and e v o l v e a p l a n n i n g framework f o r the development of the r e g i o n (Wilson, 1973, p. 129). A c c o r d i n g t o the l e g i s l a t i o n , the Board c o u l d i n q u i r e i n t o v a r i o u s measures and p r o j e c t s f o r f o s t e r i n g the economic growth and development o f the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n even i f these measures d i d n ' t r e q u i r e use of the fund (Brewis, 1969, p. 176-7). In doing t h i s , the Board had a number o f s t a t u t o r y o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to them. The more important among them were the s y s t e m a t i c and comprehensive assessment of f a c t o r s r e l e v a n t t o economic growth i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n , the p r e p a r a t i o n , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, an o v e r - a l l c o - o r d i n a t e d p l a n f o r the promotion of the economic growth o f the r e g i o n , and s u b j e c t to the a p p r o v a l of the Governon-in-C o u n c i l , the e n t e r i n g i n t o agreements w i t h A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s f o r u ndertaking p r o j e c t s or programmes which i n the Board's o p i n i o n would c o n t r i b u t e to the growth and development o f the economy of the r e g i o n and f o r which s a t i s f a c t o r y f i n a n c i n g arrangements were not otherwise a v a i l a b l e (Brewis, 19 69, p. 177). THE CAPE BRETON DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION In an e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h a new economic base f o r Cape Breton t o r e p l a c e the d e c l i n i n g s t e e l and c o a l r e s o u r c e , the f e d e r a l and Nova S c o t i a p r o v i n c i a l governments j o i n t l y s e t up the Cape Breton Development C o r p o r a t i o n (DEVCO) i n J u l y , 1967. DEVCO was g i v e n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y "to a c q u i r e , r e -o r g a n i z e , and manage the c o a l mining i n t e r e s t s o f the Dominion S t e e l and C o a l C o r p o r a t i o n and to he l p promote and f i n a n c e the development o f modern i n d u s t r y on the i s l a n d w i t h i n the co n t e x t o f a comprehensive economic development p l a n c o v e r i n g both the Cape Breton area and e a s t e r n Nova S c o t i a " (Brewis, 1969, p. 216). The s t a t u t e s e t t i n g up DEVCO gave i t $25 m i l l i o n f o r a C o a l D i v i s i o n and $20 m i l l i o n f o r an I n d u s t r i a l Development D i v i s i o n . The C o a l D i v i s i o n fund has b a s i c a l l y s u b s i d i z e d the c o a l o p e r a t i o n . The I n d u s t r i a l Development D i v i s i o n o p erates as a b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n w i t h unusual motives. A f t e r d e c i d i n g on p l a n t l o c a t i o n , DEVCO p r o v i d e s a l l the c a p i t a l on a l o a n b a s i s , as w e l l as f r e e t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s , and then "they" have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o buy DEVCO out and take over the o p e r a t i o n as soon as they are ready and a b l e to do so (Kent, 1972). Whereas most p u b l i c r e g i o n a l development c o r p o r a t i o n s have been p r o v i n c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d and have co-operated c l o s e l y with the f e d e r a l government, DEVCO i s unique i n Canada as being the o n l y case of a p r i m a r i l y f e d e r a l crown c o r p o r a t i o n a c c e p t i n g d i r e c t working r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the f i e l d . DEPARTMENT OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC EXPANSION To s t r e n g t h e n the e f f o r t s of the f e d e r a l government to reduce r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s , the Department of R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion (DREE) was e s t a b l i s h e d i n A p r i l , 1969. T h i s new Department brought t o g e t h e r a l l r e g i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d f e d e r a l development programmes to p r o v i d e an i n t e g r a t e d co-o r d i n a t e d approach to r e g i o n a l development. G e n e r a l l y speaking, DREE p o l i c i e s emphasize t h r e e main elements, (1) the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , (2) urban growth p o l e s , and (3) the mechanism o f growth i n urban growth p o l e s ( G e r t l e r , 1972, p. 75-6). The l e g i s l a t i o n empowers the M i n i s t e r t o d e s i g n a t e " s p e c i a l a r e a s " where employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s are s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . He can then formulate and c a r r y out development p l a n s f o r the s o c i a l adjustment and economic expansion o f these a r e a s . The emphasis here, c o n t r a r y t o ARDA p o l i c y o f investment i n m a r g i n a l and mainly r u r a l a r e a s , i s on " f i n d i n g and b u i l d i n g on the p o i n t s o f s t r e n g t h i n a r e g i o n a l economy" (Kent, 1969) . These p l a n s can be e f f e c t e d through j o i n t agreements w i t h the p r o v i n c e s , w i t h the f e d e r a l government p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l support o f the p r o v i n c e ' s e f f o r t a t implementing the develop-ment p l a n . And a l s o w i t h i n these s p e c i a l areas the M i n i s t e r can p r o v i d e g r a n t s o r loans to a p r o v i n c e f o r economic i n f r a -s t r u c t u r e and s p e c i a l i n c e n t i v e s to a commercial u n d e r t a k i n g , a l l f o r the purpose of s u c c e s s f u l implementation of the de-velopment p l a n . A second p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n came i n t o e f f e c t on August 7, 1969 which gr a n t e d the M i n i s t e r the power to o f f e r f i n a n c i a l inducements to i n d u s t r y to i n i t i a t e o r expand i t s o p e r a t i o n s t o c e r t a i n d e s i g n a t e d r e g i o n s . C a l l e d the R e g i o n a l Development I n c e n t i v e s A c t , t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n s e t up the programme which was to o f f s e t p a r t o f the i n i t i a l c a p i t a l c o s t s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g expanding, or modernizing c e r t a i n manufacturing or p r o c e s s i n g e n t e r p r i s e s . In 1972, a p o l i c y review was undertaken by DREE s t a f f to assess the r e s u l t s o f t h e i r e f f o r t s . T h i s was completed as a basis f o r the M i n i s t e r ' s t a l k s w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l premiers i n the S p r i n g o f 1973. A number o f r e p o r t s r e s u l t e d from t h a t p o l i c y review. I b e l i e v e i t would be u s e f u l to r e l a t e b r i e f l y some of the p o i n t s made i n the r e p o r t e n t i t l e d "Nova S c o t i a : Economic Circumstances and O p p o r t u n i t i e s " (Canada, Department of R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion, 1973b). The message o f the r e p o r t i s q u i t e c l e a r : Nova S c o t i a ' s economic growth w i l l depend c o n s i d e r a b l y on the e x t e n t o f l o c a l community involvement i n both p l a n n i n g and implementa-t i o n o f development o b j e c t i v e s . I t s a i d t h a t improved per-formance, responsibeness and v i a b i l i t y i n each s e c t o r o f the Nova S c o t i a ' s economy, c o u l d p r o v i d e a s t r o n g framework to which groups o f communities c o u l d r e l a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s to f o s t e r development. I n i t i a t e d at the l o c a l l e v e l , t h i s a c t i o n would i n i t s e l f c o n t r i b u t e to s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f the s e c t o r s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h o u g h , t h e r e p o r t s a i d t h a t d e l i b e r a t e i n i t i a t i v e s o f t h e i r own on t h e p a r t o f g r o u p s o f c o m m u n i t i e s w o u l d g e n e r a t e q u i t e a b i t more i n t h e way o f p o t e n t i a l f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , and c o u l d e n a b l e them t o a c c e p t i n t r u s i o n s f r o m o u t s i d e s y s t e m s on t e r m s n e g o t i a t e d t o t h e i r b e s t a d v a n t a g e . The r e p o r t q u i t e c l e a r l y showed t h a t t h e a b i l i t y o f c o m m u n i t i e s and t o t a k e i n d e p e n d e n t a c t i o n c o u l d be a c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t f o r p r o v i n c i a l a n d r e g i o n a l s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . Though t h i s r e p o r t s u g g e s t s a d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h u s e d by DREE t o a s s i s t r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , no p o l i c i e s o r programmes have emanated f r o m i t . NOVA SCOTIA DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g i n Nova S c o t i a r e s t s w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t o c a r r y i t o u t was f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1969 w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e Nova S c o t i a P l a n -n i n g A c t ( C h a p t e r 16, A p r i l 25, 1969). However, Reg L a n g i n Nova S c o t i a - M u n i c i p a l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n t h e S e v e n t i e s (1973) p o i n t s o u t t h i s d i d n o t mean t h e P r o v i n c e i t s e l f must o r s h o u l d do a l l t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , r a t h e r " t h e P r o v i n c e assumes t h e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n i t i a t i n g t h e f o r m u -l a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p l a n s and programmes and f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t a g r e e m e n t on them i s r e a c h e d " (p. 9 8 - 9 ) . The D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s has t h e d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e P l a n n i n g A c t . The Nova S c o t i a D e p a r t m e n t o f D e v e l o p m e n t p r o v i d e s e c o n o m i c s u p p o r t s e r v i c e t o M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Two p a r t s o f t h e A c t e s t a b l i s h t h e framework f o r b r i n g i n g e c o n o m i c p o l i c y and i n t e r m u n i c i p a l i s s u e s t o g e t h e r i n a p r o v i n c i a l - m u n i c i p a l c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t r e s u l t s i n r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s / p l a n s a n d programmes. P a r t I I - R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n s d e s c r i b e s p r o c e d u r e s f o r d e s i g n a -t i n g p l a n n i n g r e g i o n s , s p e c i f i e s t h e c o n t e n t o f a R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n , and o u t l i n e s t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l u n d e r a R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n . P a r t IV - D i s t r i c t  P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n s o u t l i n e s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v e h i c l e f o r i n t e r m u n i c i p a l a n d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . The e v a l u a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g method a n d p r i o r i t y a r e a s r e c o g n i z e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s h a s r e s u l t e d i n two b a s i c a p p r o a c h e s : (1) R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s w i t h i n D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n a r e a s , a n d (2) P r e p a r a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s and s u p p o r t i n g s t u d i e s i n t h e two " S p e c i a l A r e a s " d e s i g n a t e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n . D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n s a r e composed o f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f member m u n i c i p a l u n i t s w h i c h a c h i e v e i n t e r -m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l s t h r o u g h s h a r e d f i n a n c e s and t e c h n i c a l p l a n n i n g s t a f f . D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s c o s t s h a r e s 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e o p e r a t i n g e x p e n s e s w i t h t h e D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n . T h e r e a r e D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n s i n o p e r a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e a r e a s : i (1) P i c t o u C o u n t y (2) I n d u s t r i a l Cape B r e t o n (3) A n n a p o l i s V a l l e y (4) L u n e n b u r g (5) H a l i f a x - D a r t m o u t h (MAPC-2) T h e r e a r e two " S p e c i a l A r e a s " d e s i g n a t e d by DREE, (1) M e t r o p o l i t a n H a l i f a x - D a r t m o u t h a n d (2) t h e S t r a i t o f C a n s o . The r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s has b e e n a c t i v e i n p r e p a r i n g r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e r i m p l a n s and b a c k g r o u n d s t u d i e s i n b o t h o f t h e s e a r e a s . NOVA SCOTIA DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT P r e v i o u s l y c a l l e d the Department o f Trade and I n d u s t r y , the Department o f Development was f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1971 t o : (1) A d m i n i s t e r and c o - o r d i n a t e economic develop-ment a c t i v i t i e s o f the p r o v i n c e ; (2) C o - o r d i n a t e the f o r m u l a t i o n o f f u t u r e development p o l i c i e s ; (3) P r o v i d e l i a i s o n w i t h and s e r v i c e to the F e d e r a l Government, o t h e r agencies o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government and p r o v i n c i a l i n d u s t r y and commerce; (4) Promote the t r a d e and commerce o f Nova S c o t i a ; and (5) Perform r e l a t e d economic s t u d i e s and a n a l y s e s (N. S. Department of Development, 1973a). The Department's branches are designed to focus maximum c a p a b i l i t y i n the key areas o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t s them and b r i e f l y o u t l i n e s t h e i r f u n c t i o n s : (1) I n d u s t r y Operations - promotes and a s s i s t s new and e x i s t i n g Nova S c o t i a b u s i n e s s ; (2) I n d u s t r y S e r v i c e s - p r o v i d e s d i v e r s i f i e d s e r v i c e s t o e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r y , a d v i s e s on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g , a c c u m u l a t e s and d i s s e m i n a t e s i n f o r m a -t i o n on v a r i o u s f o r m s o f i n c e n t i v e s f r o m a l l s o u r c e s , and i d e n t i f i e s and f o l l o w s - u p e x p o r t s a l e s p o t e n t i a l and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r N. S.-b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s ; (3) P l a n n i n g and E c o n o m i c s - i d e n t i f i e s new o p p o r t u -n i t i e s a n d a s s e s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t o o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h as u r b a n p l a n -n i n g , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , c o l l e c t s a nd a n a l y z e s e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l d a t a , a n d p r o v i d e s e c o n o m i c s u p p o r t s e r v i c e f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a T  A f f a i r s ; (4) S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s - s u p p o r t s f i n a n c i a l l y , Nova S c o t i a e n t e r p r i s e s e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s a nd p r o v i d e s " t a s k f o r c e " c a p a b i l i t y f o r m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; (5) Nova S c o t i a D e v e l o p m e n t B o a r d - a c t s a s a p p r o v i n g body f o r l o a n s and i s r e s p o n s i v e i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n f i s h e r i e s , t o u r i s m , a g r i c u l t u r e , and c e r t a i n f o r e s t r y s e c t o r s ; (6) F i n a n c e a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - p e r f o r m s i n t e r n a l d e p a r t m e n t a l a c c o u n t i n g . PICTOU COUNTY COMMUNITY PROFILE The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o t r a c e some o f t h e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c f o r c e s w h i c h p r o d u c e d t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y community. P i c t o u C o u n t y i s l o c a t e d on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e Nova S c o t i a p e n i n s u l a , b o unded n o r t h e r l y b y t h e N o r t h u m b e r l a n d S t r a i t , e a s t e r l y by A n t i g o n i s h C o u n t y , s o u t h e r l y by G u y s b o r o u g h C o u n t y , and w e s t e r l y by C o l c h e s t e r C o u n t y ( s e e F i g u r e 1). 58. *P/C TOC/ COUAJTY , AJOl/A SCOTth FIGURE 1 MAP OF PICTOU COUNTY, NOVA SCOTIA The Micmac Indians were the area's o r i g i n a l i n h a b i -t a n t s . P a r t o f the Algonquin t r i b e , they l i v e d mostly on the co a s t w i t h t h e i r p robable headquarters a t Merigomish. The river-mouths on the coa s t l i n e s were advantageous camp s i t e s because they were f i l l e d w i t h an abundant supply o f s h e l l and v e r t e b r a t e f i s h , the s u r f a c e o f the water was covered w i t h waterfowl, and the nearby f o r e s t s were w e l l stocked w i t h c a r i b o u , moose, and s m a l l game (James M. Cameron, 1972) .' The f i r s t s e t t l e r s i n P i c t o u County were French, a r r i v i n g sometime between 1725 and 1750. In 1767, the f i r s t E n g l i s h s e t t l e m e n t was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the a r r i v a l o f the "Betsy" from P h i l a d e l p h i a . L a t e r i n 1773, 189 s e t t l e r s from S c o t l a n d came to P i c t o u on the "Hector". The p o p u l a t i o n o f the area was i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g 1783 and 1784 by the s e t t l e m e n t of disbanded s o l d i e r s . In 1792 l o c a l government was i n i t i a t e d when the P i c t o u area was c r e a t e d as a s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t . Each year between 1801 and 1805, s e v e r a l v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g H i g h l a n d Scots s e t t l e r s a r r i v e d t o make t h e i r home i n the P i c t o u area (Harvey, 1968, and N. S. Department o f Development, 1973b). In the e a r l y 1800's lumbering was the focus o f economic a c t i v i t y . Whereas b e f o r e 1820 a g r i c u l t u r e was d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y a t r a i s i n g crops f o r immediate needs, the p e r i o d a f t e r 1820 saw a g r e a t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f the oc c u p i e d farm l a n d as markets grew due to improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the develop-ment o f mining and manufacturing. By 1827, i t was g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l the l a n d capable o f economic c u l t i v a t i o n had been taken up by a g r i c u l t u r e (Torey, 1968). Even though c o a l d e p o s i t s were d i s c o v e r e d a t A l b i o n Mines ( l a t e r c a l l e d S t e l l a r t o n ) i n 1798, i t wasn't u n t i l 1827 t h a t the f i r s t mining s h a f t s were sunk i n the E a s t R i v e r V a l l e y . For the next one hundred and t w e n t y - f i v e y ears c o a l mining was the predominant economic f a c t o r . P r o s p e c t i v e employment a t t r a c t e d people from S c o t l a n d , the n o r t h o f England, and a l l p a r t s o f Nova S c o t i a . 60. The E a s t R i v e r V a l l e y area a l s o began to grow and pros p e r s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y . Schools were e s t a b l i s h e d i n c l u d i n g the famous P i c t o u Academy which opened i t s f i r s t c l a s s e s i n 1817. Many churches were b u i l t and became f o c a l p o i n t s f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . Newspapers began p u b l i c a t i o n . The f i r s t h o s p i t a l i n the area was opened at P i c t o u i n 1848, t o be fo l l o w e d by a Marine H o s p i t a l i n 18 80 and a g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l i n 1893. In 1821 a s u b s c r i p t i o n l i b r a r y was formed. F r a t e r n a l Orders formed lodges. The E a s t P i c t o u County L o c a l C o u n c i l o f Women was formed i n 1899 when the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women was but seven years o l d . YMCA branches were e s t a b l i s h e d a t P i c t o u , S t e l l a r t o n and New Glasgow i n the 1860's. C u r l i n g , c r i c k e t , r e g a t t a s and ot h e r o r g a n i z e d s p o r t f l o u r i s h e d . S e r v i c e c l u b s such as the Rotary, Gyro, Kiwanis, L i o n s , and Kinsman were o r g a n i z e d (James M. Cameron, 1972). During t h i s p e r i o d o f the mid-1800's, s h i p b u i l d i n g became a very important economic a c t i v i t y , e s p e c i a l l y a t P i c t o u and New Glasgow. S t e e l s h i p c o n s t r u c t i o n began a t New Glasgow, f o l l o w e d i n Trenton and P i c t o u . Wooden s a i l i n g s h i p s were made i n New Glasgow and R i v e r John. G r i s t m i l l s , saw m i l l s , cheese f a c t o r i e s , t e x t i l e f a c t o r i e s , t a n n e r i e s , f o u n d r i e s , and meat pac k i n g were a l s o i n o p e r a t i o n a t t h i s p e r i o d o f the County's h i s t o r y . C o a l mining c o n t i n u e d t o expand. New seams were opened near W e s t v i l l e by the Drummond and A c a d i a Mines. New r a i l l i n e s were l a i d t o the s h i p p i n g wharves a t Granton, P i c t o u Landing and Abercrombie. There were over 2,0 00 men employed i n the P i c t o u County c o a l f i e l d s a t i t s peak and they were produc i n g 61. 900,000 tons of c o a l a y e a r . A l s o d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d s e v e r a l d i s a s t r o u s e x p l o s i o n s and f i r e s i n the mines o c c u r r e d (N. S. Department of Development, 1973b). The f i r s t Canadian Census r e t u r n i n 1871 showed the County's p o p u l a t i o n had i n c r e a s e d to over 32,000. In terms o f employment, farming was the l e a d i n g i n d u s t r y . Farming con-t i n u e d to be important up to the 1880's and. the r u r a l p opula-t i o n c o n t i n u e d to i n c r e a s e . However, r a i l w a y s began to be c o n s t r u c t e d e n a b l i n g people t o move f u r t h e r a f i e l d and t h i s l e d to the opening up o f more p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l areas i n o t h e r areas of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e r e a f t e r , a g r i c u l t u r e decreased i n importance i n the County's economy (Harvey, 1968, and N. S. Department of Development, 1973b). Between the 1880*s and the e a r l y 1920's, the founda-t i o n s were l a i d f o r the County's e r a as a l e a d e r i n heavy i n d u s t r y . S t e e l works were b u i l t a t a s i t e n o r t h o f New Glasgow l a t e r t o be known as the town o f Trenton. A b l a s t f u r nace f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f p i g i r o n t o be used i n s t e e l m i l l s was s e t up i n 1892. By 1912 the Trenton works o f the Nova S c o t i a S t e e l and C o a l Co. L t d . comprised head o f f i c e , f i n i s h i n g m i l l s , cogging m i l l s , f o r g e s , nut and b o l t department, machine shops and o t h e r a n c i l l a r i e s , as w e l l as the works of t h e i r s u b s i d i a r y , E a s t e r n Car Co. L t d . , which produced r a i l w a y c a r s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s . T h i s s t e e l works was p r o d u c i n g 50 p e r c e n t o f the s t e e l a n n u a l l y consumed i n Canada at t h a t time (N. S. Department o f Development, 1973b, p. 9). 62. In the 1920's, the a x i s of commerce moved away from A t l a n t i c Canada i n t o O n t a r i o and Quebec. P i c t o u County r a p i d l y l o s t i t s l e a d e r s h i p i n the heavy i n d u s t r i a l f i e l d . The d e p r e s s i o n of the 19 30's added to the economic t r o u b l e s of the a r e a . C o a l mining h e l d i t s ground f o r a w h i l e , but soon began f e e l i n g the e f f e c t s o f l o s s i n demand f o r i t s products w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a r i t y o f o i l f o r f u e l purposes. The l a s t o f the l a r g e mines to c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i o n , the McBean Mine a t Thorburn, was f i n a l l y c l o s e d i n 1972 (N. S. Department o f Development, 1973b, p. 10). C o a l mining w h i l e b e i n g a major i n d u s t r y f o r over 150 y e a r s , l e f t i t s s c a r s on the landscape and the people of the County. During the 19 50's, the County e x p e r i e n c e d a p e r i o d o f g e n e r a l r e c e s s i o n . However, d u r i n g the l a s t twenty to twenty-f i v e y e ars t h e r e has been a r e v i v a l i n the economic c l i m a t e . M a n u f a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s have begun to expand. New l a r g e -s c a l e ventures were e s t a b l i s h e d , i n c l u d i n g a p u l p m i l l and a rubber t i r e manufacturing p l a n t . O l d e r i n d u s t r i e s such as the p r o d u c t i o n of r a i l r o a d r o l l i n g s t o c k , c a r a x l e s and heavy f o r g i n g s , s h i p b u i l d i n g , s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l , and b r i c k and t i l e have s t a b i l i z e d and are p r o g r e s s i n g . Today, P i c t o u County has about 50,000 r e s i d e n t s , or almost s i x p e r c e n t of the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l . The County's popu-l a t i o n i s predominantly (about s i x t y percent) l o c a t e d i n the f i v e urban c e n t r e s . New Glasgow i s the l a r g e s t , having almost t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the county's p o p u l a t i o n a t 10,800 i n 1971. S t e l l a r t o n has about 5,400, P i c t o u 4,300, and W e s t v i l l e and Trenton w i t h j u s t below 4,000. With a b i t of c a u t i o n , the l e v e l of m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y i n the county may be measured by the annual incomes as r e p o r t e d i n income tax r e t u r n s . The average income per r e t u r n i n 19 71 was $4,636, or 95 p e r c e n t o f the p r o v i n c i a l average (N. S. Department of Development, 19 73b, p. 19). The most important economic a c t i v i t y today i n P i c t o u County i s manufacturing. The t o t a l v a l u e of shipments o f goods was almost $100 m i l l i o n i n 1970, the l a s t year f o r which f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e , which r e p r e s e n t s about 13 p e r c e n t o f the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l . S i nce 1970, the M i c h e l i n T i r e M a n u f a c t u r i n g Co. p l a n t a t Granton has begun o p e r a t i o n s . Before 1970, and c o n t i n u i n g i n o p e r a t i o n today are the f o l l o w i n g major f i r m s : Hawker S i d d e l e y (Canada) L t d . (boxcars), S c o t t (Maritimes) Pulp L t d . ( k r a f t p a per), Maritime S t e e l and Foundries L t d . , McGregor Bedding, Canso Chemicals L t d . , E a s t e r n Woodworkers L t d . , Ferguson I n d u s t r i e s L t d . ( s h i p b u i l d i n g ) , M aritime Packers D i v i s i o n of N a t i o n a l Sea Products L t d . The t o t a l number o f workers employed by these and s m a l l e r f i r m s i s around 2,800 (N. S. Dept. of Development, 1973b, p. 29-33). The more t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s i n a g r i c u l t u r e , mining, f i s h i n g , and f o r e s t r y p l a y a l e s s e r r o l e i n the county's economic l i f e . Farming i s r a p i d l y changing over from s m a l l e r farm u n i t s to l a r g e r , more v i a b l e e n t i t i e s ; the s m a l l e r u n i t s are becoming p a r t - t i m e o p e r a t i o n s where the incomes a v a i l a b l e have to be supplemented by o t h e r types o f s e a s o n a l a c t i v i t y . Mining does not p l a y the major r o l e i t once d i d i n the county economy. Only 60 or so men are now employed i n c o a l mining. 64. F i s h e r i e s , a l s o , does not p l a y a very important p a r t i n the county's economy r e l a t i v e to o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s . F i s h i n g i s not t y p i c a l l y a f u l l - t i m e o c c u p a t i o n . F o r e s t p r o d u c t i o n , however, has shown a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e over the p a s t few y e a r s , due mainly to the b u i l d i n g of two pulp m i l l s i n the p r o v i n c e , one a t P o i n t Tupper on Cape Breton and the S c o t t Pulp M i l l a t Abercrombie P o i n t . THE EMERGENCE OF REGIONAL PLANNING L o c a l government began f o r P i c t o u County w i t h the Court o f Quarter S e s s i o n s , which was a system i n o p e r a t i o n i n England f o r a g r e a t number o f y e a r s , exported to V i r g i n i a and New England w i t h the c o l o n i s t s , and from t h e r e t r a n s p l a n t e d w i t h amendments by s e t t l e r s from New England to Nova S c o t i a w i t h i n a s h o r t time a f t e r H a l i f a x was founded (James M. Cameron, 1972, p. 184) . T h i s Court had a d m i n i s t r a t i v e as w e l l as j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s and governed the County u n t i l 1879 when the Government o f Nova S c o t i a passed the County I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t . The Towns I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t was enacted i n 18 79 a l s o . Over the years s i n c e then, l o c a l government i n the County has e v o l v e d i n t o the f o r m a t i o n o f town C o u n c i l s i n f i v e towns, P i c t o u (1874), New Glasgow (1875), W e s t v i l l e (1884), S t e l l a r t o n (1889), and Trenton (1911), and a c o u n c i l o f the r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y o f P i c t o u (1889). C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the County's S c o t t i s h a n c e s t r y , p a r o c h i a l t r a d i t i o n s and l o y a l t i e s grew s t r o n g and remain to t h i s day. However, a common d e t e r m i n a t i o n to accept the oppor-t u n i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f economic and s o c i a l changes slo w l y began to m a n i f e s t i t s e l f . A r e g i o n a l a t t i t u d e e v o l v e d i n the County and t h i s was f o r m a l i z e d w i t h the c r e a t i o n o f the E a s t R i v e r V a l l e y P l a n n i n g Commission i n 1962. T h i s body i n c l u d e d e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from S t e l l a r t o n , W e s t v i l l e , New Glasgow, and Trenton, and was c h a i r e d by David R. Hayman, a hardware merchant and former mayor of S t e l l a r t o n . And i n 19 64, upon the recommendation of the P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , the town o f P i c t o u and the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f P i c t o u j o i n e d the major m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the County (Paton, 1967, p. 13) . At about t h i s same time the p r i v a t e s e c t o r was a l s o o r g a n i z i n g i t s e l f a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . Responding t o t h i s l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e , the Nova S c o t i a L e g i s l a t u r e passed the P i c t o u County Development A c t i n March, 1964, which i n c o r p o r a t e d the P i c t o u County Research and Development Commission (PICORD), an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s and clergymen i n the County. . A c c o r d i n g t o the Act, the o b j e c t s o f the Commission a r e : (a) To encourage the expansion of e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Tourism and o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s w i t h i n the County o f P i c t o u . (b) To s o l i c i t and encourage the E s t a b l i s h m e n t and Development of new i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n and about the County o f P i c t o u . (c) To sponsor by means o f a d v e r t i s i n g , p e r s o n a l s o l i -c i t a t i o n and otherwise, campaigns of p u b l i c i t y f o r the purpose of making known the advantages of the County of P i c t o u and i t s e n v i r o n s as a l o c a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . 66. (d) To prepare and di s s e m i n a t e s t a t i s t i c a l and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the purpose o f c r e a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n the County of P i c t o u as a l o c a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . (e) To make recommendations to the Towns i n the County o f P i c t o u and the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l i n the County of P i c t o u r e s p e c t i n g : (i) zoning f o r i n d u s t r i a l and b u s i n e s s purposes; ( i i ) the p r o v i s i o n o f s i t e s s u i t a b l e f o r s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s and the m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d t h e r e f o r e ; ( i i i ) the e f f e c t o f the m u n i c i p a l t a x a t i o n system upon c o r p o r a t i o n s o r persons commencing or doing b u s i n e s s i n the County; (iv) such o t h e r matters which i n the o p i n i o n o f the Commission r e l a t e t o the develop-ment o f i n d u s t r y and b u s i n e s s i n the County of P i c t o u . (f) The Commission w i l l co-operate w i t h the A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s Economic C o u n c i l , I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s L i m i t e d , The A t l a n t i c Development Board and any o t h e r o r g a n i -z a t i o n s e t up f o r the purpose o f promoting i n d u s t r y , b u s i n e s s o r Tourism. (g) N otwithstanding a n y t h i n g h e r e i n b e f o r e c o n t a i n e d the Commission may do any matter which w i l l p r o v i d e a b e n e f i t f o r the County o f P i c t o u . On A p r i l 14th, 1965, an o r d e r by the M i n i s t e r o f Muni-c i p a l A f f a i r s e s t a b l i s h e d the P i c t o u County R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission which r e p l a c e d the E a s t R i v e r V a l l e y P l a n n i n g Commis-s i o n and f o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d the r e c e n t l y - j o i n e d town o f P i c t o u and the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f the County o f P i c t o u . L a t e r , i n June, 196 5, an agreement was completed between the F e d e r a l government, the P r o v i n c i a l government, and the County's s i x m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to undertake a Re g i o n a l Urban Renewal Study. Sponsored by the P i c t o u County Regional P l a n n i n g Commission, t h i s was q u i t e p o s s i b l y the f i r s t such study o f i t s k i n d i n Canada. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l o t h e r s were sponsored by a s i n g l e m u n i c i p a l i t y (Paton, 1967, p. 13). F u r t h e r a c t i o n i n 1965 demonstrated q u i t e c l e a r l y t h a t P i c t o u County was embracing a r e g i o n a l approach to pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g and deci s i o n - m a k i n g . During t h a t year a com-m i t t e e composed o f both e l e c t e d and n o n - e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the towns o f New Glasgow, P i c t o u , S t e l l a r t o n , Trenton, and W e s t v i l l e i n i t i a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f co-o r d i n a t i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the urban areas of P i c t o u County. U l t i m a t e l y , the I n s t i t u t e o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s a t Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y ( H a l i f a x ) was a s s i g n e d the task o f con-d u c t i n g a comprehensive study of such s e r v i c e s . In 1969 The  P i c t o u County M u n i c i p a l C o - o r d i n a t i o n Study was completed by L a r r y Sandford. The Phase I r e p o r t analyzed the e f f i c i e n c y and economy o f every l o c a l s e r v i c e and ways o f meeting the urgent problems o f adequacy and c o s t o f these s e r v i c e s . The Phase 2 r e p o r t developed the argument t h a t e f f e c t i v e l o c a l government i n P i c t o u County demands a l a r g e enough area f o r adequate p l a n -n i n g and development c o n t r o l and a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n and tax base t o permit the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the e f f i c i e n c i e s and economies o f a r e a s o n a b l y - s i z e d o p e r a t i o n . The major recom-mendation of the Study was t h a t one amalgamated government be c r e a t e d f o r the whole o f the geographic area o f urban and r u r a l P i c t o u County. A " P i c t o u County R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l " has never come i n t o e x i s t e n c e t o t h i s day; however, i t i s important t o note t h a t the c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations of t h a t study c o n t i n u e t o serve as the rough b a s i s f o r i n t e r m u n i c i p a l co-o r d i n a t i o n . 68. In 1970 wit h the passage of the P l a n n i n g A c t of Nova S c o t i a , the P i c t o u County R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission became the P i c t o u County D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission (PCDPC). I t s mandate and d u t i e s i n c l u d e d : (1) the p r o v i s i o n o f a s s i s t a n c e to the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a R e g i o n a l Development P l a n ; (2) the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a M u n i c i p a l Development P l a n on b e h a l f o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; (3) the undertaking o f any f u n c t i o n d e l e g a t e d to i t by the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s o r by a p a r t i c i p a t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y ; (4) p r o v i d i n g ad hoc ad v i c e on matters a f f e c t i n g p l a n n i n g g e n e r a l l y . Appointments to the Commission are made a n n u a l l y by each member C o u n c i l . The Commission has a permanent s t a f f whose a c t i v i t i e s are d i v i d e d i n t o the f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s o f p l a n n i n g and r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e s . The P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n has r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g and the Re g i o n a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e f u s e c o l -l e c t i o n and d i s p o s a l , water p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t i o n and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f development c o n t r o l s i n c l u d i n g zoning, b u i l d i n g by-laws, s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , and mobile home parks by-laws. Much o f the Commission's a c t i v i t i e s p r i o r t o 1971 ce n t e r e d on the p r o v i s i o n o f r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e s . The County's m u n i c i p a l i t i e s used the Commission as the mechanism f o r pro-v i d i n g the necessary focus of e f f o r t t o o b t a i n l o c a l s e r v i c e s a t reduced c o s t ( i n most cases) and a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f q u a l i t y . A n ot u n t y p i c a l example was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f sewage c o l -l e c t i o n and treatment f a c i l i t i e s f o r the towns of New Glasgow, Trenton, and S t e l l a r t o n . These t h r e e towns are s i t u a t e d r i g h t on the E a s t R i v e r and were dumping u n t r e a t e d sewage d i r e c t l y i n t o i t . Each o f the Towns was faced w i t h the c o s t l y p r o s p e c t of u n dertaking the c o n s t r u c t i o n of treatment f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e i r own. However, they d e l e g a t e d t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission and requested t h a t an e n g i n e e r i n g f e a s i b i l i t y study be done. By l o o k i n g f o r a r e g i o n a l s o l u t i o n to t h e i r l o c a l problems, these t h r e e towns were e v e n t u a l l y a b l e to take advantage o f a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and more e f f e c t i v e technology i n sewage c o l l e c t i o n and treatment. The p a r t i c u l a r type of f a c i l i t y they e v e n t u a l l y undertook to b u i l d r e q u i r e d the volume o f sewage p o s s i b l e o n l y by c o l l e c t i o n from a l l t h r e e towns (PCDPC, 1972a). The D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission began to r e a l i z e e a r l y i n 1971 t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y r a d i c a l change i n development a c t i v i t y was happening i n the County and t h a t the e f f e c t s o f many asp e c t s o f t h i s change were going t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Key development d e c i s i o n s were going to have to be made and the Commission i n i t i a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s on a s u i t a b l e c o - o r d i n a t e d s t r a t e g y f o r h a n d l i n g expansion. The p r e p a r a t i o n of M u n i c i p a l Development Plans was b e l i e v e d to be the s h o r t - r u n v e h i c l e to c o n t r o l the problems o f development and to p r o v i d e the framework f o r the a d a p t i v e decision-making c o n c e r n i n g the e x t e n s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . The approach to the County's longer term f u t u r e took advantage o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p a r t of the P l a n n i n g A c t . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was a P r o v i n c i a l f u n c t i o n (with a s s i s t a n c e from the 70. C o m m i s s i o n , o f c o u r s e ) , t h e C o m m i s s i o n made a p r o p o s a l t o t h e gov e r n m e n t f o r a s e r i e s o f s p e c i a l p u r p o s e s t u d i e s t o a s s e s s t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e C o u n t y i n a w i d e r a n g e o f a r e a s . T h e r e a r e two k e y a s p e c t s t o n o t e i n t h e C o m m i s s i o n ' s r e s p o n s e t o i m p e n d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t and g r o w t h . F i r s t , t h e y b e g a n a s e q u e n c e o f a c t i o n s t o c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e . And s e c o n d l y , t h e y n e v e r c h a l l e n g e d , i n f a c t f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h , t h e l e g a l c o n c e p t t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was a P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n J a n u a r y 1972, t h e C o m m i s s i o n e n d o r s e d a s t a f f r e p o r t w h i c h made a f a i r l y f r a n k a s s e s s m e n t o f what t h e main b a r r i e r s t o i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g were. E n t i t l e d " P l a n n i n g i n P i c t o u C o u n t y : P r o p o s a l s f o r Form, P r o c e s s a n d S t r a t e g y " , t h i s r e p o r t went o n t o s u g g e s t an a p p r o a c h t o c o m p e n s a t e f i r s t f o r t h e l a c k o f a R e g i o n a l P l a n a n d s e c o n d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e framework i n w h i c h b o t h m u n i c i p a l a n d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o u l d p r o c e e d . The r e p o r t p r o p o s e d a h i g h l y - s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n ( F i g u r e 2) s t r e s s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a nd f o c u s e d on t h r e e b r o a d p o l i c y a r e a s : P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s , S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , a n d E c o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t i e s (PCDPC, 1 9 7 2 b ) . E a c h o f t h e s e g e n e r a l p o l i c y a r e a s was t o be c o n -s i d e r e d by s e p a r a t e T a s k G r o u p s composed o f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s and v o l u n t e e r s f r o m t h e community whose f u n c t i o n was t o p r e p a r e r e p o r t s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s e c t o r s . 71. <TT~> <T7r> - OHG;MIZATIOM STRUCTUTJ FOR  INTER >!UNTCT?;J.; & R E G I O N A L " " <CT> ^Jte crc at loi^> N ^ HeeicnalV / Center / , <Harbor V A O K a O /~7 OPPORTUKI—QSS SKsnufacturlji^/-Natural Ehvironnant) ^ft-cources Cultural ^Facilities / NOTE: The i n d i v i d u a l S e c t o r G r o u p s a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e o n l y . FIGURE 2 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE FOR INTER MUNICIPAL & REGIONAL PLANNING F o l l o w i n g t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h i s r e p o r t by t h e Com-m i s s i o n , t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y R e s e a r c h and D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i s s i o n PICORD) was a p p r o a c h e d t o p r o v i d e t h e m a j o r i n p u t i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e E c o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t i e s T a s k G r o u p . I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s g r o u p o f p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s a n d c l e r g y m e n c o u l d s u p p l y t h e c r i t i c a l f i n a n c i a l e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d , I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s a s p e c t c f t h e p r o c e s s , t h e P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f D e v e l o p m e n t was a p p r o a c h e d and, f o l l o w i n g t a l k s , 72. t h e M i n i s t e r o f D e v e l o p m e n t , who c o i n c i d e n t a l l y h a p p e n e d t o be a l o c a l MLA, a n n o u n c e d h i s D e p a r t m e n t ' s i n t e n t i o n t o p r o v i d e f u n d s t o t h e D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l work w h i c h was t o be u n d e r t a k e n . I n May, 1972, t h e D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n f o r -m a l l y r e q u e s t e d t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s t o u n d e r t a k e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e C o u n t y . The f o l l o w i n g September, t h e M i n i s t e r o f D e v e l o p m e n t o n b e h a l f o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a n n o u n c e d t h a t a R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n w o u l d be p r e p a r e d f o r P i c t o u C o u n t y . As a f i r s t s t e p i n i n a u g u r a t i n g t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a s s i g n e d a p l a n n e r u n d e r c o n t r a c t t o work i n t h e C o u n t y u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n . I was t h a t p e r s o n , a s s i s t i n g t h e C o m m i s s i o n f r o m September t h r o u g h J u l y , 1973. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o t e , I b e l i e v e , some o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s b e i n g made by t h e l o c a l p u b l i c and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s on t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r ' s announcement. They i n d i c a t e a n e v o l u t i o n i n o r i e n t a t i o n o r a p p r o a c h t o t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . D a v i d Hayman, C h a i r m a n o f t h e D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Com-m i s s i o n , s a i d he was " p a r t i c u l a r l y d e l i g h t e d t h a t t h e p r o c e s s w i l l e m p h a s i z e l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e o f l o c a l i n v o l v e m e n t r i g h t f r o m t h e i n c e p t i o n . . ." K i n g s l e y L e w i s , ( s t a f f ) D i r e c t o r o f t h e D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , n o t e d t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l programme h a d a number o f s p e c i f i c aims and f e a t u r e s : (1) p l a n n i n g w o u l d be o r i e n t e d t o g o a l s r a t h e r t h a n t r e n d s , (2) p o l i c i e s w o u l d be a i m e d a t b r e a k i n g a d v e r s e t r e n d s r a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o a d j u s t to them, (3) a l l programming and p r o j e c t s developed as the p r o-cess con t i n u e s wouldn't n e c e s s a r i l y be kept w a i t i n g f o r a "grand scheme" t o be f u l l y developed b e f o r e implementation a c t i o n i s taken. B i l l K n o l l , Chairman of PICORD, s t a t e d t h a t h i s orga-n i z a t i o n would p r o v i d e the nucleus o f the S e c t o r Task Groups and c o - o r d i n a t e the involvement of o t h e r l o c a l groups who had an i n t e r e s t and c o u l d p r o v i d e an i n p u t i n t o i d e n t i f y i n g and  a c t i v a t i n g economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Taken t o g e t h e r these statements suggest t h a t the l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n P i c t o u County was g r a d u a l l y v i e w i n g the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g process more as an a c t i v i t y o f i n i t i a t i v e - t a k i n g a t the l o c a l l e v e l r a t h e r than o f management and c o n t r o l . There was a g e n e r a l awareness t h a t a p l a n was necessary as an a d m i n i s t -r a t i v e t o o l which s t a t e d p o l i c y and t e c h n i c a l l y l a i d down p r o -cedures f o r implementing t h a t p o l i c y . However, i t was becoming c l e a r e r t o a l l i n v o l v e d t h a t the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s meant the c r e a t i o n o f a s t r a t e g y f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and development o f the human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s of the r e g i o n . During the f a l l o f 1972 the P i c t o u County D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission i n i t i a t e d the f o r m a t i o n o f some o f the working s e c t o r groups o f the P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Task Groups. The D i r e c t o r c a l l e d t o g e t h e r a number of i n t e r e s t e d persons to b e g i n study i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and housing s e c t o r s , w h i l e I began d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o t h e r s who formed the e d u c a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r groups. The f i r s t few meetings of a l l these s e c t o r groups were s t r a i n e d , r e l a t i n g , I b e l i e v e , t o t h e v a r y i n g commitments and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d . However, t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d h o u s i n g g r o u p s s o o n began t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m a r e a s s u c h as t h e T r e n t o n A i r p o r t , p u b l i c t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new b r i d g e t o T r e n t o n , a n d t h e a r t e r i a l r o a d s y s t e m . The e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r g r o u p q u i c k l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e g o a l o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r t h e s e v e n d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l b o a r d s i n t h e C o u n t y t o g e t them t a l k i n g t o e a c h o t h e r a b o u t common p r o b l e m s an d o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r g r o u p u n d e r t o o k a s e r i e s o f a c t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o s t i m u l a t e p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n p r o -j e c t s , s u c h as community a d v e n t u r e p l a y g r o u n d s , N. S. Y o u t h A g e n c y a r t s w o r k s h o p s , c a b l e - v i s i o n programmes, e t c . I n December, t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n w r o t e a W o r k i n g P a p e r on R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n P i c t o u C o u n t y w h i c h was i n t e n d e d t o s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n , t o c r y s t a l i z e some k e y i s s u e s , t o draw o u t o p e r a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s , a n d t o f a c i l i t a t e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s . T h i s p a p e r p r o v i d e d a s u c c i n c t resume o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g a n d c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d some o f t h e m a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e p a r -t i c u l a r a p p r o a c h w h i c h h a d b e e n a d o p t e d . The W o r k i n g P a p e r s t a t e d t h e o b j e c t i v e s as f o l l o w s : (1) t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an o n g o i n g p r o c e s s . . . t h a t r e s u l t s i n d e c i s i o n s w h i c h s y s t e m a t i c a l l y : (a) i d e n t i f i e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d p r o b l e m s , (b) b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t h e f o u r d e c i s i o n t y p e s (Government, M u n i c i p a l , p r i v a t e s e c t o r , a n d t e c h n i c a l / a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ) , (c) i n c r e a s e s t h e number o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n p r e p a r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , (d) e x a m i n e s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . (2) the f o r m u l a t i o n o f a p l a n o r development s t r a t e g y which: (a) enables governments to l e g i s l a t e on the b a s i s o f e x p l i c i t d e c i s i o n s , (b) serves as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t o o l t o f a c i l i t a t e programming and day-to-day d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . (PCDPC, 1972d, p. 3-4). The approach t o r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g adopted by P i c t o u County had two major i m p l i c a t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h a t same Working Paper: (1) Agreement on the p a r t o f a d d i t i o n a l s e n i o r government departments to the p r i n c i p l e s o f the approach as o u t l i n e d n e c e s s a r i l y means a com-mitment o f more than one year, (2) The i n i t i a l investment may be h i g h e r than the t r a d i t i o n a l approach (PCDPC, 1972d, p. 13). However, the Working Paper went on to p o i n t out some o f the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r approach: (1) A much c l e a r e r u n derstanding o f c o l l e c t i v e r e g i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and a means of a r t i c u l a t i n g changes i n them; (2) A s y s t e m a t i c means o f un c o v e r i n g c o n f l i c t s between v a r i o u s d e c i s i o n and o p t i o n s and the c r e a t i o n o f mechanisms f o r r e s o l v i n g them as work proceeds and b e f o r e e x p e n d i t u r e s have been made; (3) I n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y t o draw groups o f people i n t o the p r o c e s s means i n c r e a s i n g the a b i l i t y o f the human r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the r e g i o n to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and b e n e f i t from the development and implementation o f programs necessary t o take advantage o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s which can be c r e a t e d or uncovered; (4) A d e c r e a s i n g l o a d on the p r o v i n c e ' s f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s as the p r o c e s s proceeds (PCDPC, 1972d, p. 13). In l i n e w i t h the thoughts expressed i n t h i s Working Paper, the Commission con t i n u e d f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f D e v e l o p m e n t who f i n a l l y a g r e e d on a s p e c i f i c i n i t i a l amount ($47,500) t o be p r o v i d e d t o t h e Com-m i s s i o n t o b e g i n , w i t h PICORD, t h e p r i v a t e - s e c t o r r e s e a r c h body, t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e E c o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t i e s T a s k G r o u p . The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e E c o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t i e s T a s k G r o u p and i t s e v o l u t i o n i n t o t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s T a s k Group w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . The P i c t o u C o u n t y D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n i n 19 73 c o n t i n u e d t o u n d e r t a k e a v a r i e t y o f p r o j e c t s a n d s e t i n m o t i o n a number o f a c t i v i t i e s , a l l d e s i g n e d t o e n a b l e C o u n t y r e s i d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h a n g e . W i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e M a r i t i m e R e s o u r c e Manage-ment S e r v i c e (MRMS), a t e c h n i c a l r e s e a r c h body s p o n s o r e d by t h e t h r e e M a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s , a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , t h e C o m m i s s i o n s t a f f e n g a g e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n and mapping o f d a t a c a t e g o r i z e d r o u g h l y as s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n f o r m a -t i o n , t h e man-made e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The r e s u l t i n g P i c t o u C o u n t y R e g i o n a l A t l a s i s t o be u s e d as b a c k g r o u n d r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e t o t a l p r o c e s s . I n J u n e t h e C o m m i s s i o n was p r o v i d e d a g r a n t f r o m t h e Nova S c o t i a D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n t o u n d e r t a k e a s t u d y o f r e c r e a t i o n g r o u p s and f a c i l i t i e s i n P i c t o u C o u n t y and t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o - o r d i n a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n p r o -grammes i n t h e C o u n t y . T h i s s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t by a l o c a l c o n s u l t a n t and h i s r e p o r t was d i s t r i b u t e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n t o t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s and t h e v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n c o m m i s s i o n s i n t h e C o u n t y . I n a d d i t i o n t o d i s t r i b u t i n g a p a m p h l e t e n t i t l e d " P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t i n P i c t o u C o u n t y i n t h e S e v e n t i e s " w h i c h i n v i t e d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e C o m m i s s i o n b r o u g h t more r e s i d e n t s i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s by c o n d u c t i n g t h r e e m a j o r " l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s " . A two-day N o r t h S h o r e C i t i z e n s ' Workshop was h e l d t o (1) a s s e m b l e f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e r e s o u r c e s and n e e d s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e N o r t h u m b e r l a n d S t r a i t a r e a , (2) p r o m o t e d i s c u s s i o n s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g by com-m u n i t y p e o p l e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s o f t h e a r e a ' s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , an d (3) o u t l i n e s u g g e s t e d s t e p s w h i c h t h e a r e a community m i g h t t a k e i n a s s u m i n g a c t i v e , i n t e g r a t e d , and r e s p o n s i b l e programmes o f e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . S e c o n d l y , t h e C o m m i s s i o n ( w i t h t h e Nova S c o t i a D i v i s i o n o f t h e Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada) h e l d a p u b l i c s e m i n a r o n l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t j u s t p r i o r t o t h e F a l l m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s . And, l a s t l y , a two-week c o u r s e i n l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t was h e l d u n d e r t h e j o i n t s p o n s o r -s h i p o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n , t h e Nova S c o t i a D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l -t u r e a n d M a r k e t i n g , and t h e M a r i t i m e R e s o u r c e Management S e r v i c e . U n d er t h e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g o f Ad Hoc A s s i s t a n c e P r o -gramme, t h e C o m m i s s i o n was i n v o l v e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : (1) P i c t o u Water S t u d y - an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e w a t e r s u p p l y and sewer s y s t e m o f t h e town o f P i c t o u ; (2) S t e l l a r t o n C o a l Dump R e c l a m a t i o n L a n d Use P o l i c y - a l a n d u s e s t u d y w h i c h p r o v i d e d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e l a n d use o f an a r e a b e i n g r e c l a i m e d by T h o r b u r n M i n i n g L t d . , a s u b s i d i a r y o f PICORD; 78. (3) T r e n t o n A i r p o r t S t u d y - an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f c o s t - s h a r i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n and m a i n -t e n a n c e o f t h e T r e n t o n A i r p o r t on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s ; (4) P i c t o u R e d e v e l o p m e n t Scheme - a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e town o f P i c t o u i n e x p l o r i n g a r e d e v e l o p m e n t scheme f o r t h e town; (5) D e v e l o p m e n t o f R o t a r y C l u b L a n ds - i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o s u i t a b l e p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t f o r community b e n e f i t o f t h e l a n d s owned by t h e C l u b w i t h f r o n t a g e on t h e E a s t R i v e r ; (6) W e s t v i l l e Road D e v e l o p m e n t - c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h mer-c h a n t s on t h e W e s t v i l l e Road c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p on p r o p o s a l s t o u p g r a d e t h e a r e a . THE DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES PROJECT The E c o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t i e s T a s k G r o u p t h a t was o r g a n i z e d as p a r t o f t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t b e g u n i n P i c t o u C o u n t y s o o n e x p a n d e d i t s f o c u s . Formed w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r v i a PICORD, t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s v i a t h e PCDPC, and t h e P r o v i n c e and v a r i o u s community g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s on an a d hoc b a s i s , t h i s T a s k G r o u p c h a n g e d i t s name t o t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s T a s k G r o u p a n d c h a n g e d i t s r o l e : i t d e f i n e d d e v e l o p m e n t a s n o t o n l y e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , b u t a l s o s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l g r o w t h o r change as w e l l . W i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a g r a n t o f $47,500 f r o m t h e P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f D e v e l o p m e n t , t h i s T a s k G r o u p u n d e r t o o k a s e r i e s o f a c t i v i t i e s known c o l l e c t i v e l y a s t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t . T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w h i c h t o o k p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o j e c t . The D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t r e a l l y g o t o f f t h e g r o u n d w i t h t h e h i r i n g o f H a r o l d V e r g e , a c o n s u l t a n t , t o a s s i s t t h e T a s k G r o u p i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e C o u n t y . V e r g e was h i r e d p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h he p r o p o s e d c o n -c e r n i n g h i s r o l e as a c o n s u l t a n t . O t h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d a t t h e t i m e o f f e r e d t o u n d e r t a k e t h e s t u d y o f d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e i n a more t r a d i t i o n a l f a s h i o n , t h a t i s , t h e y w o u l d examine t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e a r e a a n d t h e m a r k e t s f o r them, o u t l i n e t h e a c t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s d i s -c o v e r e d , a l l o f t h e i r a c t i v i t y b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t i n a d e t a c h e d , " p r o f e s s i o n a l " manner, and s u b m i t a r e p o r t t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f i t s s t u d y . The C o m m i s s i o n and H a r o l d V e r g e , however, h a d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i d e a s on t h e a p p r o p r i a t e manner i n w h i c h t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t . T h e s e i d e a s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f i n a l t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e drawn up a n d a g r e e d t o by V e r g e and t h e C o m m i s s i o n w h i c h were s e t o u t as f o l l o w s : (a) t o a s s i s t i n t h e d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an o n g o i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h has t h e p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s o f : (1) i d e n t i f y i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l , o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d b a r r i e r s t o d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e r e g i o n ; 80. (a) (2) e v o l v i n g , b e g i n n i n g a t the o u t s e t o f the c o n s u l t a n t ' s work, development a c t i o n based on the i d e n t i f i e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s and b a r r i e r s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g programs and p r o -j e c t s as r e q u i r e d ; (3) examining the economic, p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t a k i n g p a r t i c u l a r develop-ment a c t i o n , w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to the adequacy o f , and requirements f o r , community and l a n d use p l a n n i n g , community s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s and o t h e r i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e . (b) to i d e n t i f y and i n t e g r a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of l o c a l people, l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s and l o c a l government, w i t h t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from s e n i o r government departments and agencies to serve the p r o c e s s ; (c) to e x p l o r e and recommend methods of r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s between the needs of the P i c t o u r e g i o n a l community and e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s and programs of s e n i o r government departments and a g e n c i e s , and o f l o c a l government i n P i c t o u County; (d) to i d e n t i f y the need f o r and to i n t e g r a t e t e c h -n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from sources o u t s i d e government; (e) to i d e n t i f y the needs f o r ongoing t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s or a d d i t i o n a l requirements f o r o r g a n i z i n g a c t i o n ; (f) t o r e p o r t , r e g u l a r l y , throughout the p e r i o d p r o -g r e s s , events, o b s e r v a t i o n s , c o n c l u s i o n s and to submit recommendations, to the D i r e c t o r of the Commission (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 1-3). I t was arranged t h a t the management o f the P r o j e c t be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the Task Group made up of s i x members of PICORD, i n c l u d i n g i t s E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , the D i r e c t o r o f the PCDPC, and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the N. S. Department of Develop-ment. The f i r s t phase of the p r o j e c t was designed to be c a r r i e d out over a p e r i o d of nine months w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f the c o n s u l t a n t , Harold Verge. Based upon e a r l y acceptance.by the Task Group t h a t i t s development g o a l s would i n c l u d e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l growth 81. as w e l l a s e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , t h e T a s k G r o u p a d o p t e d t h e p r i n -c i p l e t h a t g r o w t h i n i t s b r o a d e s t m eaning c a n , i n l a r g e p a r t , be a c h i e v e d by p l a n n e d i n i t i a t i v e s b e i n g t a k e n a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s i n i t i a t i v e - t a k i n g a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , i t was a c c e p t e d t h a t t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s a p p l y , and t h a t t h e s e must be: (1) a mechanism f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and t a k i n g a c t i o n , (2) c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , and (3) money, i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t o o b t a i n t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p , a n d money u l t i m a t e l y t o i m p l e m e n t w o r t h y p r o j e c t s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o j e c t s t r o n g e m p h a s i s was g i v e n t o t h e m a t t e r o f s t u d y i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e s f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w h i c h r e l a t e t o t h e C o u n t y ' s c a p a c i t y t o i n i t i a t e a n d s u s t a i n b r o a d - b a s e d d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y . I t was q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e d e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s , a n d t h i s v i e w was s t r e n g t h e n e d o v e r t i m e , t h a t a programme d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i s s u e s , p r o b l e m s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s and p o l i c i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e s t h e s t r o n g e s t k i n d o f l e a d e r s h i p a t t h e community l e v e l , and i n P i c t o u C o u n t y t h a t l e a d e r s h i p r e s t e d w i t h PICORD. And t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t b e t w e e n PICORD and t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n was r e c o g n i z e d a s t h e r e -q u i r e d d e v e l o p m e n t a l mechanism a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . The D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t p e r m i t t e d t h e community t o o b t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s , n o t o n l y f r o m t h e c o n s u l t a n t b u t f r o m t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f s p e c i a l i s t s r e t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f t h e P r o j e c t . M o s t o f t h e money d u r i n g t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f t h e P r o j e c t was 82. p r o v i d e d under the $47,500 g r a n t from the Department of Development. During the course of 1973, a v a r i e t y o f c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s were u t i l i z e d to conduct a c t i v i t i e s which p r o v i d e d the County w i t h a wide range of q u i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n con-c e r n i n g some of i t s problems and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f those e f f o r t s : (1) P e r s o n a l P r o p e r t y Tax. A l a n d economist was r e t a i n e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t of the p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y tax on o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development i n P i c t o u County (PCDPC, 1973k); (2) Communications Study. A r e p o r t on communications f a c i l i t i e s i n P i c t o u County w i t h recommendations r e g a r d i n g the need f o r i n c r e a s e d two-way i n f o r m a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s was p r e p a r e d (PCDPC, 1973c); (3) P r o p e r t y Mapping Program. To f a c i l i t a t e the p r e -p a r a t i o n of an a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r development s t r a t e g y , a p r o p e r t y mapping program o f the two main a g r i c u l t u r a l areas - the Scotsburn area and the Merigomish shore - was undertaken. In a d d i t i o n , a g e n e r a l background survey f o c u s i n g on l a n d needs, and i n t e n t i o n s of owners i n these areas, was a l s o c a r r i e d out; (4) New Business P r o j e c t s Fund P r o p o s a l . A r e p o r t was prepared which developed an approach to encourage new bu s i n e s s development and which emphasized i n n o v a t i o n and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l (PCDPC, 1973h); (5) B r i e f on Non-Resident Land Ownership. The Task Group prepared and p r e s e n t e d a b r i e f to the S e l e c t Com-m i t t e e of the House o f Assembly on the Non-Resident Ownership of Land. The Brief.was based on the p r e -l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s of the mapping program i n the Scotsburn area (PCDPC, 1973b); (6) Examination of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s . A con-s u l t a n t was engaged who examined and r e p o r t e d on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the P o r t of P i c t o u , the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the new Trenton B r i d g e , highway l o a d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , the Trenton a i r p o r t , a r e g i o n a l r a i l " l a nd s h i p " , the energy market, and the promotion of a s e r v i c e s i n d u s t r y based on summer homes (PCDPC, 1973e); 83. (7) Home Ownership P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n Program. A program of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the a c q u i s i t i o n o f housing was undertaken which c o n s i s t e d o f twenty weekly seminars designed to a s s i s t and a d v i s e people i n home f i n a n c i n g , c o n t r a c t i n g , a c c o u n t i n g , l o t s e l e c t i o n , l a n d s c a p i n g , e t c . A unique f e a t u r e o f the programme was the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f two s m a l l p i l o t houses by l o c a l d e v e lopers d u r i n g the course to p r o v i d e a working l a b o r a t o r y f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s (PCDPC, 1974b); (8) S o c i a l Housing Program. A meeting o f a l l the housing a u t h o r i t i e s i n the County, f o l l o w e d by two p u b l i c meetings i n v o l v i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f CMHC, the Nova S c o t i a Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , the I n t e r f a i t h Housing C o r p o r a t i o n ( H a l i f a x ) , and the Cape Breton S o c i a l Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , l e d to the d e c i s i o n to h i r e a c o n s u l t a n t to work w i t h the Task Group i n p r e p a r i n g a s o c i a l housing s t r a t e g y f o r the County (PCDPC, 1974a, p. 17-18); (9) T o u r i s m - R e c r e a t i o n. In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a p r o v i n c e -wide study of the T o u r i s m - R e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r , the Task Group are p u r s u i n g study o f the d e s i r a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y o f an e n t e r t a i n m e n t and r e c e p t i o n c e n t r e to be l o c a t e d on the E a s t R i v e r near the Trans-Canada Highway. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t such a c e n t r a l l y - l o c a t e d f a c i l i t y c o u l d be used year-round by the community a t l a r g e as a c u l t u r a l and a d u l t -e d u c a t i o n c e n t r e - two important i n g r e d i e n t s to a c h i e v e s o c i a l development i n the County (PCDPC, 1973, p. 38); (10) F i s h e r i e s S e c t o r . The p r o s p e c t f o r o p e r a t i n g a f i s h f a c t o r y s h i p i n the Northumberland S t r a i t was i d e n -t i f i e d as an o p p o r t u n i t y and i s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o f f i c i a l s o f the Resources Loan Eoard have r e s u l t e d i n the r e c o g n i t i o n by the Board o f the need f o r a loans o f f i c e r who would work more c l o s e l y w i t h the fishermen (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 36-37). An important element to be noted c o n c e r n i n g the a c t i -v i t i e s j u s t o u t l i n e d i s not so much what was being s t u d i e d but r a t h e r how the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d out. The s t u d i e s were i n i t i a t e d by and conducted w i t h the involvement o f P i c t o u County r e s i d e n t s who had been and would c o n t i n u e to be a f f e c t e d by the d e c i s i o n s a r r i v e d a t . P i c t o u County r e s i d e n t s were f a s t l e a r n i n g 84. t h a t so much o f what would l i k e l y happen i n P i c t o u County depended on the i n i t i a t i v e s they would take. The f i r s t phase of the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t was completed i n the F a l l o f 1973 with the c o n c l u s i o n of the c o n t r a c t w i t h the c o n s u l t a n t , H a r o l d Verge. Mr. Verge had been h i r e d t o a s s i s t i n i n n o v a t i n g a more p r a c t i c a l approach to p l a n n i n g and development than the t r a d i t i o n a l " s h e l f - s t u d y " approach which so o f t e n i n the p a s t had served o n l y to postpone d e c i s i o n s . Although the next chapter attempts to e v a l u a t e the approach used by.Mr. Verge and the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s Task Group, I b e l i e v e i t may be i n s t r u c t i v e a t t h i s p o i n t to r e l a t e the c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n t h a t H a r o l d Verge p r o v i d e d i n h i s summary r e p o r t . The main p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e i n the P i c t o u County exper i e n c e i n developmental p l a n n i n g , Harold Verge p o i n t s out i n the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s r e p o r t , has been the formal r e c o g -n i t i o n o f the decision-making c a p a c i t y o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r by not o n l y the p l a n n i n g team and government departments and agencies, but by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i t s e l f , namely PICORD. "The P i c t o u County Research and Development Commission r e p -r e s e n t s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y the County's number one development o p p o r t u n i t y " , says Verge (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 1). The p o s t u r e toward development t h a t has been taken by PICORD and the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s Task Group, a c c o r d i n g to Verge, embodies the f o l l o w i n g concepts: 85. (1) development p l a n n i n g was viewed as an ongoing p r o c e s s , and u n l i k e t r a d i t i o n a l approaches, p l a n n i n g and implementation were not seen as d i s t i n c t and separate a c t i v i t i e s , but r a t h e r as aspects o f each othe r ; (2) as a long-term process which, among o t h e r t h i n g s , i s meant to be dynamic, development p l a n n i n g was a l s o meant to occur i n terms o f thr e e e s s e n t i a l c a t e g o r i e s of growth: p o l i t i -c a l , economic, and s o c i a l (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 6-7) . P o l i t i c a l growth i s d e f i n e d i n Mr. Verge's r e p o r t as: "Access to the decision-making f a c i l i t y by a l l people i n a way which w i l l enable t h e i r needs and concerns to be expressed and e f f e c t i v e l y s o l v e d . . . " (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 10). Mr. Verge p o i n t s out t h a t whereas e a r l y on i n the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t i t was g e n e r a l l y conceded t h a t the co-o p e r a t i v e arrangement between PICORD and the D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission was the mechanism f o r decision-making and t a k i n g a c t i o n , he concludes t h a t the emerging mechanism f o r managing and d i r e c t i n g the developmental p r o c e s s i n P i c t o u County i n c l u d e s a l s o a Community Development C o u n c i l c o n s i s t i n g of c i t i z e n s and c i t i z e n groups a t l a r g e . He goes on to s t a t e t h a t i n s o f a r as such a mechanism i s e v e n t u a l l y a l l o w e d to take c o n c r e t e form, i t c o u l d s u r e l y be s a i d t h a t t h i s would com-p r i s e the f i r s t s t e p i n c r e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s by which r e a l p o l i t i c a l growth i s achieved (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 8-9). F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s arrangement. Economic growth i s viewed as the c o n t i n u a l develop-ment of new sources o f jobs which are e s s e n t i a l to the p r o s -p e r i t y of the County. Mr. Verge p o i n t s out t h a t important steps have a l r e a d y been taken w i t h r e s p e c t to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n DESIGN FOR DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING PROGRAM FOR PICTOU COUNTY of economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s (summary d e s c r i p t i o n s o f those e f f o r t s are l i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s s e c t i o n ) . "A s o c i e t y t h a t operates i n a b a s i c a l l y smoothe way and i n which a l l o f i t s members can enjoy some degree o f con-tentment/ s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t and freedom from unnecessary f r u s t r a t i o n and t o i l i s a s o c i e t y t h a t has grown s o c i a l l y , " says H a r o l d Verge (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 11-12). Using t h i s d e f i -n i t i o n o f s o c i a l growth, Verge observes t h a t the County R e g i o n a l YMCA-YWCA should be expected t o stand f o r s o c i a l growth, but the o p p o r t u n i t y i t p r o v i d e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l and a r t i s t i c de-velopment i s c l e a r l y not now a p r i o r i t y i n the community. The P i c t o u County community i s a l l o w i n g the YMCA-YWCA to con t i n u e i t s f i n a n c i a l d e c l i n e . Using t h i s s i t u a t i o n as a symptom, Verge says t h a t perhaps t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the County i s not 87. growing s o c i a l l y . He surmises t h a t b e f o r e s o c i a l growth can be achieved, i t appears t h a t people want to be f e d , c l o t h e d and housed p r o p e r l y and t h a t t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s l i e i n meeting these needs (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 12-13). Verge concludes t h a t a t t h i s stage i n the e v o l u t i o n of development i n P i c t o u County, "the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e a l p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l growth have no more than the s t a t u s of p o t e n t i a l " (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 13). He g r a n t s t h a t important headway has been made but a g a i n r e t u r n s to emphasize t h a t a long-term developmental process depends upon long-term dynamic l e a d e r s h i p , namely t h a t o f PICORD. Recommendations emerging from t h i s a n a l y t i c a l summary by Verge r e v o l v e around the i d e a t h a t c e n t r a l to the develop-mental p l a n n i n g process i s the need f o r c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to serve the t h r e e components o f the decision-making s t r u c t u r e , namely the p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e p -r e s e n t e d by PICORD, the l o c a l p u b l i c s e c t o r r e p r e s e n t e d by the D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission, and the community s e c t o r r e p -r e s e n t e d by a y e t - t o - b e - e s t a b l i s h e d Community Development C o u n c i l . The p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s he s e t s out are i n t e n d e d , he says, to b u i l d up the r e s o u r c e s o f the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r and to b u i l d up the c a p a b i l i t y and understanding r e -q u i r e d to n e g o t i a t e r e s o l u t i o n s o f c o n f l i c t s which w i l l a r i s e as c a p a b i l i t y f o r a c t i o n w i t h i n the community s e c t o r i n c r e a s e s (Verge, 1973, p. 15-16). The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the p r o j e c t s Mr. Verge proposes as necessary to the c o n t i n u a t i o n of an e f f e c t i v e de-velopmental p l a n n i n g e f f o r t : 88. Management. The s u c c e s s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s , he s a y s , d e pends on a w o r k a b l e management f u n c t i o n b e i n g d e s i g n e d t o most e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e t h e p r i v a t e , p u b l i c , and community s e c t o r s . He p r o -p o s e s t h a t PICORD p e r f o r m t h i s f u n c t i o n and t h a t a s t u d y be c o n d u c t e d t o examine e x i s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s and recommend t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e a r r a n g e -ment f o r P i c t o u C o u n t y ; P l a n n i n g . I n t r y i n g t o a c h i e v e some " s y n e r g y o f a c t i o n " b etween s e c t o r s , t h e D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n has e n t e r e d i n t o c o n t r a c t u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h c o n s u l t a n t s and U n i v e r s i t y s t a f f . V e r g e f e e l s t h a t t h e f u l l - t i m e s e r v i c e s o f a n o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r a r e r e q u i r e d t o (1) f o r m u l a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e s o u r c e management a t t h e r e g i o n a l community l e v e l , (2) a n a l y z e u r b a n i m p r o v e m e n t p r o g r a m s t o r e v e a l t h e i r i m p a c t on s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p -ment, and (3) r e p o r t o n f i n d i n g s a t a l l s t a g e s o f t h e work i n r e g i o n a l community p l a n n i n g t o t h e D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n ; E c o n o m i c S u p p o r t s A n a l y s i s . T h e r e i s a n e e d , V e r g e s t a t e s , t o u p d a t e t h e r e p o r t , The E x p o r t B ase o f  t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y Economy c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r an ARDA g r a n t i n 1967; S u p p l e m e n t s t o C u r r e n t P l a n n i n g A c t i v i t y . P r o f e s -s o r s a n d s t u d e n t s i n A t l a n t i c u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d c o l l e g e s s h o u l d be h i r e d t o u n d e r t a k e t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : (a) e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g ( c o a s t a l z o n e s , c o a l dump r e c l a m a t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l a r e a s ) , (b) u r b a n d e s i g n ( r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c e n t r a l town a r e a s ) , (c) l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n ( s t u d y o f E a s t R i v e r v a l l e y l o w l a n d s p o t e n t i a l f o r r e c r e a t i o n ) , (d) r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g ( f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e , e t c . ) , a n d (e) community d e v e l o p m e n t ; Community D e v e l o p m e n t a n d A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . T r a i n e d community d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s a r e n e e d e d t o work w i t h g r o u p s o f c i t i z e n s t o s u p p o r t t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l . A l s o , a s t u d y i s n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f community body r e -q u i r e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e l a r g e r community i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ; P i c t o u C o u n t y I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i n f o r m a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n c e n t r e i n P i c t o u C o u n t y i s n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t a p l a n n e d p r o g r a m o f e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l g r o w t h i n t h e C o u n t y . F u n c t i o n s o f t h i s c e n t r e w o u l d e n t a i l (a) d i s s e m i n a -t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , d a t a , and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on p r o g r a m s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s , (b) s u r v e y o f community 89. and i n d i v i d u a l needs, (c) a s s i s t l o c a l media as requ e s t e d or r e q u i r e d , and (d) a s s i s t p r e s e n t i n f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e s (e.g. PICORD, PCDPC, Reg i o n a l Assessment O f f i c e , town and m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e s ) i n becoming more e f f e c t i v e (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 17-26). Although Harold Verge has withdrawn h i s i n t e n s e l e v e l of involvement, the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t has con-t i n u e d to pursue i t s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the same l e a r n i n g approach i t adopted a t i t s i n i t i a t i o n . A number o f s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t s have been c a r r i e d out s i n c e October, 1973, when Mr. Verge f u l -f i l l e d the terms o f h i s c o n t r a c t . The most n o t a b l e u n d e r t a k i n g , I b e l i e v e , was the January, 19 74, v i s i t t o the Georgia Mountains P l a n n i n g and Development Commission by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l s i x P i c t o u County M u n i c i p a l Governments and s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s o f PICORD, the D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission and the Nova S c o t i a Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f i a r s . The three-day t r i p t o G a i n s e v i l l e , Ga., was sponsored by the Nova S c o t i a Department of Development and enabled the group to exchange i n f o r m a t i o n and l e a r n more about p r o j e c t s and problem areas common to both r e g i o n s . Though I am tempted to c o n t i n u e w i t h a f u r t h e r d e s c r i p -t i o n o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s Task Group, the scope o f t h i s study extends o n l y to the c o n c l u s i o n of the f i r s t phase of the P r o j e c t . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e , then, a t t h i s p o i n t , t o proceed to a c r i t i q u e of the approach used i n t h i s P r o j e c t . 90. CHAPTER FOUR RE-ASSESSMENT AND CONCLUSIONS The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r b e g an by d e s c r i b i n g some o f t h e more r e c e n t f e d e r a l and Nova S c o t i a p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t s a t r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g . T h e s e were shown t o be c h a r -a c t e r i z e d by an a p p r o a c h w h i c h r e l a t e d c l o s e l y t o t h e c o n c e p t s u n d e r l y i n g t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s o f r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s c h a p t e r s t a r t s o u t by l o o k i n g a t t h e i m p a c t o f t h o s e e f f o r t s i n a g e n e r a l way, n o t a s p e c i f i c p r o -gramme by programme c h e c k l i s t , b u t r a t h e r a r e v i e w o f some o f t h e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s on t h e p e o p l e who were on t h e r e c e i v i n g end o f t h o s e e f f o r t s o v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s o r s o . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r l o o k s a t some o f t h e i n i t i a l r e s u l t s o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t i n P i c t o u C o u n t y . The e v i d e n c e i s e x a m i n e d f o r c e r t a i n r e w a r d s o r b e n e f i t s t h a t grew o u t o f t h a t a p p r o a c h t o r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment p l a n n i n g . I n t h e f i n a l p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r I r e l a t e my f i n d i n g s t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s f o r m u l a t e d i n C h a p t e r Two and a r r i v e a t some t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween pub-l i c i n v o l v e m e n t a n d r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g . I c o m p l e t e t h e s t u d y w i t h a n o t e on what I b e l i e v e t o be k e y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e a p p r o a c h u s e d i n P i c t o u C o u n t y . THE IMPACT OF PREVIOUS REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING EFFORTS Many o f the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t s a t r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g i n Nova S c o t i a attempted to s a t i s f y e i t h e r the g o a l of income r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n favour o f the poor or a t l e a s t the minimum c r i t e r i o n o f economic e f f i c i e n c y . The e v i -dence, however, appears to i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was a gap b e t -ween e a r l y ambitions and the a c t u a l scope and impact o f the p r o j e c t s o r programmes. "To a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree," w r i t e Buckley and T i h a n y i (1967, p. 16) , "ARDA p r o j e c t s e l e c t i o n has been shaped by a w i d e l y h e l d c o n t e n t i o n t h a t improvements i n l a n d use and de-velopment o f s o i l and water r e s o u r c e s are the a p p r o p r i a t e measures f o r r a i s i n g r u r a l incomes and f u r t h e r i n g adjustment pro c e s s e s i n the r u r a l economy . . . (However), p r o v i d i n g n e i t h e r encouragement to leav e nor the means to s u b s t a n t i a l l y improve s c a l e and e f f i c i e n c y , ARDA farms programmes are judged u n l i k e l y to have had any a p p r e c i a b l e impact on the problem o f low-income farming". T. N. Brewis (1969) p o i n t s out t h a t an overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f ARDA p r o j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d under the headings o f " r e s e a r c h " , " s o i l and water", and " a l t e r n a t e l a n d use". Very few p r o j e c t s , he says, were undertaken under the headings o f r u r a l development, t h a t i s , the s e l e c t i o n of areas t h a t might serve as f o c a l p o i n t s f o r development, o r e d u c a t i o n , o r s t u d i e s of the problems o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i o n or the f a c t o r s t h a t i n h i b i t change and m o b i l i t y i n c e r t a i n communities (p. 126-127). L. 0. G e r t l e r (1970) concedes t h a t the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f ARDA as r e f l e c t e d by the l a t e r agreements was toward compre-hensive development p l a n n i n g , but says t h a t t h i s remained s p l i t i n t o r u r a l and urban components. And w h i l e some important new ground was broken i n e v o l v i n g the s t y l e and method o f j o i n t p l a n -ning by two l e v e l s o f government, p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l was not g e n e r a l l y s u s t a i n e d . C i t i z e n s were i n v o l v e d i n s u b s t a n t i v e programmes i n or d e r to f a c i l i t a t e e x e c u t i o n ; i t was not a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the deci s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . At the end o f the p e r i o d (1961-1969), he concludes, no dramatic changes i n i n t e r r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s were r e c o r d e d . Brewis (1970), however, p o i n t s out very a c c u r a t e l y , I b e l i e v e , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s cannot be adequately a s s e s s e d i n i s o l a t i o n , but r a t h e r an i m p r e s s i o n has to be formed o f the g e n e r a l l i n e s along which growth i s to pr o g r e s s and the i n t e r -s e c t o r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e f o r e the e f f i c a c y o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s can be a p p r a i s e d . He suggests an i m p r e s s i o n o f the j o i n t impact of ARDA, the A t l a n t i c Development Board, and the Area Development Agency (not reviewed i n t h i s study) i n the A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s over the l a t e s i x t i e s might be formed by l o o k i n g a t income, investment, and the employment f i g u r e s f o r the p e r i o d , n o t i n g any change i n t r e n d s . He does t h i s and f i n d s t h a t , as f a r as Nova S c o t i a i s concerned, t h e r e were no r e l a t i v e g ains i n pe r -son a l income, t h e r e was a marked upward t r e n d i n c a p i t a l and r e p a i r e x p e n d i t u r e s , but the r e was no s e c u l a r f a l l i n unemploy-ment r a t e s i n comparison w i t h the n a t i o n a l ones (p. 188-189). New economic a c t i v i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n manufacturing, i s b e i n g a t t r a c t e d to Nova S c o t i a i n the 1970's because of i n c e n t i v e grants and loans p r o v i d e d by the new Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion. However, a s t a f f r e p o r t by DREE (Canada, DREE, 1973b, p. 3) p o i n t s out t h a t the t o t a l impact i s o f t e n much l e s s than i t c o u l d be because of b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l weaknesses i n the p r o v i n c i a l economy. Moreover, i t goes on to say, the job g a i n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the new manufacturing ven-t u r e s are o f t e n o f f s e t by job l o s s e s i n more t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i -v i t i e s . The r e p o r t even goes so f a r as to say t h a t " i t can be argued t h a t the c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i t y of much r e c e n t manufacturing investment i n the p r o v i n c e and the h i g h leakages out o f the p r o v i n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s investment have been important c a u s a l f a c t o r s behind the slow growth i n t o t a l employment i n Nova S c o t i a i n r e c e n t y e a r s " (p. 11). On a broader plane, the a n a l y s i s by DREE s t a f f o f the economic circumstances and o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f the whole A t l a n t i c Region (1973a) i d e n t i f i e d a more nebulous problem a f f e c t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s e c t o r a l b ehaviour. The A t l a n t i c Region has been dependent on a s s i s t a n c e and support f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f time and t h i s has l e f t i t s mark on the o u t l o o k of the r e g i o n . The DREE r e p o r t f i n d s t h a t i t has tended to become a p a r t o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom t h a t o n l y government s u b s i d i e s or some form of s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n p o i n t the way to a c h i e v i n g p r o s -p e r i t y . The r e s u l t of t h i s has been to weaken the c o n f i d e n c e o f the r e g i o n i n i t s own a b i l i t y to take i n i t i a t i v e s and operate independently (p. 25). Roy E. George (1970) made a s i m i l a r a s s e s s m e n t i n h i s c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e -v e l o p m e n t o f two r e g i o n s , Nova S c o t i a and E a s t e r n O n t a r i o -W e s t e r n Quebec: W i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e (Nova S c o t i a ) i s an a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c u s t o m a r y way o f l i f e a n d a r e l u c t a n c e t o f i g h t h a r d t o a c h i e v e p e r s o n a l m a t e r i a l a d v a n c e m e n t . C o u p l e d w i t h t h i s i s a s e n s e o f d e p e n d e n c y w h i c h c o n v i n c e s Nova S c o t i a n s o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o s hape t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s (p. 1 6 7 ) . P i c t o u C o u n t y h a s b e e n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d b y some o f t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t programmes. Two o f i t s l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r s , M i c h e l i n T i r e a n d S c o t t P a p e r , were a t t r a c t e d t o P i c t o u C o u n t y by i n c e n t i v e g r a n t s . However, t h e C l a i r t o n e C o r p o r a t i o n , a n o t h e r f i r m a t t r a c t e d b y i n c e n t i v e g r a n t s , went i n t o r e c e i v e r s h i p s o o n a f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g o p e r a -t i o n s and l e f t i n i t s wake b r o k e n p r o m i s e s an d a c o n f u s e d a n d d e s p o n d e n t c i t i z e n r y . The e c o n o m i c i m p a c t o f t h i s k i n d o f " d e v e l o p m e n t " i n P i c t o u C o u n t y i s d e b a t e a b l e . More j o b s a r e now a v a i l a b l e t h a n b e f o r e ; t h a t c a n be d o cumented. B u t t h e r e i s a p r e v a l e n t f e e l i n g t h a t most o f t h e l o c a l p e o p l e a r e n o t a b l e ( o r a l l o w e d ) t o a c h i e v e t h e b e t t e r - p a y i n g , more c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . S i m p l y p u t , t h e r e h a s b e e n a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e C o u n t y i s b e i n g c o l o n i z e d by o u t s i d e r s . To go b a c k a few y e a r s , t h e N o r t h e r n Nova S c o t i a S t u d y u n d e r t h e ARDA programme was n o t u s e d i n a p r o d u c t i v e way t o p r o d u c e p o s i t i v e e c o n o m i c i m p a c t . I t has b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d l o c a l l y as t h e c l a s s i c " s h e l f - s t u d y " e f f o r t . However, one v e r y o b v i o u s e f f e c t has b e en t h e b a d - t a s t e l e f t i n t h e mouths o f t h o s e who w o r k e d l o n g and h a r d h o u r s , d a y s , and months, a l l o n a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s , t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y o n l y t o f i n d t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s were f o r n a u g h t . THE DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES PROJECT: SOME I N I T I A L RESULTS T h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i -t i e s P r o j e c t , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n community p l a n n i n g u n d e r t h e Nova S c o t i a P l a n n i n g A c t and d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g as i t was b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t i n P i c t o u C o u n t y was s t r o n g l y e m p h a s i z e d . The f o r m e r , i t was p o i n t e d o u t , was u n d e r t a k e n b y l o c a l g o v e r n -ments ( e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y o r c o l l e c t i v e l y ) and was e l i g i b l e f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . I t s end p r o d u c t s , w h i c h t e n d e d t o w a r d s p l a n n e d m u n i -c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , were m u n i c i p a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s , z o n i n g b y - l a w s , a n d s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e l a t t e r , namely t h e a c t i v i t y o f p l a n n i n g f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , h a d t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n t h e p r e s e r v e o f d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s o f s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s . And p e r h a p s e x c e p t f o r t h e i n s t a n c e o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t , d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l h a d r a r e l y b e e n f u n d e d . I t s end p r o d u c t s , i t was p o s i t e d , w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y be m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f j o b s , new i n v e s t m e n t s , c o n t i n u i t y o f l a b o u r f o r c e , r e g i o n a l w e l l -b e i n g as r e f l e c t e d i n i m p r o v e d income, a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g , e t c . However, i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a p p r o a c h t o t h e P r o j e c t i n a l l i t s p h a s e s , b u t most i m p o r t a n t l y i n i t s i n i t i a l p h a s e , w o u l d be m e a s u r e d by t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e p r o c e s s i n c u l c a t e d new a t t i t u d e s a n d i d e a s , p r o m o t e d s t a t e s o f mind e a g e r f o r p r o g r e s s , h o s p i t a b l e t o change, and c a p a b l e o f a p p l y i n g s c i e n t i f i c approaches to an ever wider range o f problems. The a c t i v i t i e s o f the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s Pro-j e c t were d e s c r i b e d i n l i m i t e d d e t a i l i n the l a s t c h a p ter. A l s o d e s c r i b e d were a number of a c t i v i t i e s o f the P i c t o u County D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission which were c a r r i e d out d u r i n g the same time p e r i o d as the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t . Though these a c t i v i t i e s were not p a r t of the P r o j e c t , they were c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e d by i t . A c l o s e r examination of some o f the more key a c t i v i t i e s or undertakings appears warranted here so t h a t by viewing these " i n i t i a l r e s u l t s " i n the l i g h t of the rough c r i t e r i a the p a r t i c i p a n t s have o f f e r e d I can b e g i n to d i s c o v e r the rewards o r b e n e f i t s o f the p a r t i c u l a r approach to r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g . In e a r l y 1973 the P i c t o u County D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission was asked by the Thorburn M i n i n g L t d . , a s u b s i d i a r y o f PICORD, to undertake i n the community i n t e r e s t , l a n d use p l a n n i n g f o r the lands i n the v i c i n i t y of the S t e l l a r t o n C o a l Dumps Reclamation P r o j e c t . Over the course o f 197 3 the PCDPC worked w i t h the S t e l l a r t o n R e c r e a t i o n Commission, a wide-based l o c a l c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n , Thorburn Mining L t d . , members of the S t e l l a r t o n town s t a f f , Mr. Robert O j o l i c k , a P l a n n i n g Con-s u l t a n t , the Canadian S k i A s s o c i a t i o n , the Canadian S k i I n s t r u c t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n , Sport Nova S c o t i a , the N. S. Department of R e c r e a t i o n , the N. S. Department o f Mines, and the N. S. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and Marketing. F i n a l l y i n November a p r o p o s a l was submitted to Thorburn Mining L t d . and the N. S. Department of Mines f o r t h e i r t e c h n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . A p p r o v a l o f the t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y was r e c e i v e d i n January o f 1974 and the p r o p o s a l was submitted to the Town of S t e l l a r t o n and i t s R e c r e a t i o n Commission f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and comment by the c i t i z e n s o f the r e g i o n . T h i s p r o j e c t was not an under-t a k i n g of the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t but seems to i n d i c a t e w e l l the s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t o f p o l i t i c i a n s , p l a n n e r s , the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and government departments c o - o p e r a t i n g i n p u r s u i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y which r e a l i z e s b e n e f i t s f o r the r e g i o n a l community (PCDPC, 1974d). A key undertaking of the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t was the New Business P r o j e c t s Fund P r o p o s a l . T h i s was the r e s u l t o f the r e c o g n i t i o n by the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s Task Group t h a t the development and growth o f e x i s t i n g and new b u s i n e s s e s would depend i n equal o r g r e a t e r measure on what mechanisms e x i s t t o encourage new i d e a s , i n n o v a t i o n , and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and to f i n a n c e new u n d e r t a k i n g s . The p r o p o s a l , prepared by the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s Task Group w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of two c o n s u l t a n t s , recommended t h a t a s p e c i a l fund be e s t a b l i s h e d t o promote the d i s c o v e r y o f new b u s i n e s s i d e a s and c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e i r t e s t i n g and implementation. The p r o p o s a l p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s was e s s e n t i a l l y a d i f f e r e n t process than the u s u a l development e f f o r t which seeks to a t t r a c t e x i s t i n g b u s i n e s s e s t o a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n ; the emphasis here was on i n n o v a t i o n and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l encouragement w i t h i n the r e g i o n . Because i t i s u s u a l l y somewhere i n the flow from an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a market need to the f o r m u l a t i o n o f a com-m e r c i a l p l a n t h a t the would-be entrepreneur f a l t e r s f o r l a c k o f 98. funds o r support, the purpose o f the New Business P r o j e c t s Fund was to ensure t h a t good ide a s reach the b u s i n e s s develop-ment phase w i t h a commercial p l a n t h a t w i l l a t t r a c t venture c a p i t a l . T h i s approach t o new busi n e s s development was sub-m i t t e d f o r fund i n g as a p i l o t p r o j e c t to the N. S. Department o f Development, the Department o f Industry, Trade and Commerce, and the Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion (PCDPC, 1973h). Another key un d e r t a k i n g o f the Development Opportu-n i t i e s P r o j e c t was a seminar course known as H.O.P.E., Home Ownership P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n , which was o f f e r e d f r e e . t o anyone i n P i c t o u County i n t e r e s t e d i n a home of t h e i r own. The course was the r e s u l t o f two d e c i s i o n s made a t a very e a r l y stage i n the d i s c u s s i o n s o f the Housing S e c t o r Group: (1) a s t a t i s t i c a l measure o f County housing need would prove as u s e l e s s as those p r o v i d e d by the Nova S c o t i a Housing Commission, and (2) a P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n Programme was necessary t o a c q u a i n t people w i t h the re s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . These d e c i s i o n s were based on d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h a County sample of h o p e f u l home-owners. The H.O.P.E. course was funded through the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t and out of 200 e n q u i r i e s , 120 r e g i s t r a t i o n s were accepted. Twenty weekly, three-hour seminars were h e l d . Two p i l o t houses were c o n s t r u c t e d as p a r t o f the course t o demonstrate the f i n a n c i a l procedures and c o n s t r u c t i o n s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i n home b u i l d i n g . Approximately 50 people i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were p l a n n i n g t o proceed on one o f the many paths i d e n t i f i e d t o secure a home o f t h e i r own. A number o f o t h e r s planned to i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r the p r o v i s i o n s o f the f e d e r a l A s s i s t e d Home Ownership Programme (PCDPC, 1974b). 99. D u r i n g t h e H.O.P.E. c o u r s e i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e p i l o t h o u s e s b u i l t d i d n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e s t a n d a r d s r e q u i r e d f o r f e d e r a l f i n a n c i n g . The C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r -p o r a t i o n s t a t e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e l a x t h e i r s t a n d a r d s so t h a t t h e i r f i n a n c i n g programmes c o u l d be e x t e n d e d t o a p p l y t o t h o s e h o u s e s c o n s t r u c t e d as p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e . The D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s T a s k G r o u p r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h i s " s o l u t i o n " , a r g u i n g t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r c o u r s e , a n d i n f a c t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e A s s i s t e d Home O w n e r s h i p Programme i n P i c t o u C o u n t y , d e p e n d e d on i t s r e l e v a n c e t o t h e t a s k o f p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f P i c t o u C o u n t y . They p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e p i l o t h o u s e s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l h o u s i n g n e e d s o f most P i c t o u C o u n t y f a m i l i e s , and a l s o t o t h e l i m i t s o f t h e i r f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . The f e d e r a l f i n a n c i n g mechanism was shown t o h a v e s t a n d a r d s t o o r i g i d t o r e l a t e t o t h e a v e r a g e p o t e n t i a l homeowner i n P i c t o u C o u n t y . B o t h CM.H.C. a n d t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s T a s k Group a r e c o n t i n u i n g t o p u r s u e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s d i lemma. The f i n a l u n d e r t a k i n g o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i -t i e s P r o j e c t t o be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e i s t h e i n v o l v e m e n t by t h e T a s k Group i n t h e i n i t i a l p h a s e s o f a p r o p o s e d " M a r i t i m e P l a n -n i n g I n s t i t u t e " . I t h a d b e e n r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e was a c r u c i a l a nd g r o w i n g r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t e c h n i c a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e t r a i n e d t o d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e M a r i t i m e R e g i o n o f C a n a d a . The D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s T a s k G r o u p , a l o n g w i t h t h e M a r i t i m e R e s o u r c e Management S e r v i c e and t h e Nova S c o t i a C o l l e g e o f A r t 100. and Design, began d i s c u s s i o n s i n the S p r i n g of 1973 c o n c e r n i n g the development o f a "Maritime P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e " designed t o p r o v i d e i n i t i a l f i e l d - b a s e d f a c i l i t i e s and programmes f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y and post-graduate s t u d e n t s , government employees, businessmen, p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and o t h e r s who have a r o l e i n the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic development o f the p r o v i n c e . The " I n s t i t u t e " was seen not to be a c e n t r a l i z e d s c h o o l , but r a t h e r one w i t h " l a b s " i n the f i e l d , drawing upon e x i s t i n g government and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s f o r t e a c h i n g e x p e r t i s e , and o f f e r i n g programmes t h a t would s a t i s f y both the academic requirements o f Maritime e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and the needs o f government and p r i v a t e p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The " I n s t i t u t e " i s s t i l l not a r e a l i t y , but t h i s i n n o v a t i v e approach to e d u c a t i o n i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s l y as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the more t r a d i t i o n a l , c e n t r a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . And the Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s Task Group c o n t i n u e s to push f o r i t s development. CONCLUSIONS T h i s study has examined two d i f f e r e n t approaches to responding to s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , and economic problems a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The more t r a d i t i o n a l approaches were based on the r e g i o n a l economic growth concepts p r e s e n t e d e a r l y i n the study. I t was shown t h a t these approaches l e d to a number o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g programmes, some of which were d e s c r i b e d l a t e r on i n the study. A l s o s t u d i e d were some o f the more r e c e n t t h e o r i e s of the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g p r o -101. c e s s . The D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t i n P i c t o u C o u n t y , Nova S c o t i a , a n d t h e l o c a l e f f o r t s w h i c h p r e c e d e d i t , were b r o u g h t f o r w a r d as a c a s e s t u d y o f t h i s l a t t e r a p p r o a c h b a s e d on s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . The t e n t a t i v e " r e s u l t s " o r i m p a c t o f b o t h o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s h a ve b e e n s e t o u t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e n , a t t h i s p o i n t f o r me t o make some c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d upon t h e s e f i n d i n g s . I r e c o g -n i z e t h a t g r e a t c a r e i s n e c e s s a r y t o r u l e o u t c a u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t may be s p u r i o u s . T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n t o t r y t o i d e n t i f y a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l c h a n g e . I have b e e n l o o k i n g f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o f o s t e r d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l c h a n g e . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w l e d me t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h m o d e l s d i d n o t p r o v i d e much i n s i g h t i n t o what i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . The s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s seemed t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l c h a n g e a t t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l more a c c u r a t e l y . I h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t r e g i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g c o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be f o s t e r e d more e f f e c t i v e l y t h r o u g h an a p p r o a c h t h a t s e e k s t o s t r e n g t h e n s o c i a l l e a r n i n g r a t h e r t h a n have a d i r e c t i m p a c t on employment o r i n d i v i d u a l i n c o m e s . W h i l e I h a v e made a h a r d s e a r c h f o r e v i d e n c e , I d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t we h a v e a l l t h e e v i d e n c e , due p a r t l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t most e f f o r t s i n t h i s a r e a a r e d e s i g n e d t o have l o n g - t e r m r e t u r n s a n d a l s o b e c a u s e we a r e s t i l l l e a r n i n g q u i t e a b i t a b o u t i n d i c a t o r s o f s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c w e l l - b e i n g . The p r e v i o u s f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l programmes seem t o h a v e h a d m a r g i n a l i n f l u e n c e on e c o n o m i c w e l l - b e i n g i n Nova S c o t i a r e g i o n s ; and 102. i t a p p e a r s t h a t s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t may i n f a c t have s u f f e r e d b e c a u s e o f them. C o n f i d e n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e s i d e n t s i n a r e a s r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l manner ha s a c t u a l l y e r o d e d , an d a f e e l i n g o f d e p e n d e n c e has t a k e n i t s p l a c e . C o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h i s i s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f P i c t o u C o u n t y r e s i d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a w i d e l y - b a s e d r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g e f f o r t c a l l e d t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t . T h i s P r o j e c t was s t a r t e d w i t h an i n i t i a l g r a n t o f $47,500 f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e a n d was shown t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d n o t by i n c e n t i v e s t o i n d u s t r y o r d e t a c h e d c o n -s u l t a n t s ' s t u d i e s , b u t r a t h e r by l o c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o b -lems an d by e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n s t e a d o f a d a p t a t i o n t o e x t e r n a l p a r a m e t e r s . T h e r e e x i s t s no h a r d d a t a on t h e e c o n o m i c r e s u l t s on a C o u n t y - w i d e b a s i s f o r t h i s P r o j e c t . B u t t h e r e d o e s a p p e a r e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t was t a k i n g p l a c e . The w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e v e l o p m e n t was shown t o be g r a d u a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e w i l l t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f f u t u r e w e l l - b e i n g i n t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y r e g i o n . L o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a c t i v e l y p u r s u i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a t t e m p t i n g t o s o l v e t h e i r p r o b l e m s . P i c t o n i a n s were b e c o m i n g more a b l e t o n o t o n l y d i s c o v e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l c h a n g e f r o m w i t h i n t h e i r own community s p h e r e , b u t a l s o were b e c o m i n g more a b l e t o a c c e p t i n t r u s t i o n s f r o m o u t s i d e t h e C o u n t y , be t h e y p r o b l e m s o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and d e a l w i t h them i n a more i n t e l l i g e n t manner. T h e r e f o r e , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h was p r e -s e n t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r a n d a l s o i n a 103. more g e n e r a l i z e d way i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , I b e l i e v e I c a n s a y t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s was s u p p o r t e d : t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g t h a t s t r e n g t h e n s t h e p r o -c e s s o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n w i l l have more f u n d a m e n t a l and w o r t h w h i l e e f f e c t s t h a n t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s . FINAL NOTES H a v i n g p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e D e v e l o p m e n t O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t and now h a v i n g e x a m i n e d i t i n a s y s t e m a t i c d i s c i p l i n e d manner, I have l e a r n e d t h a t t h e s o c i a l l e a r n i n g a p p r o a c h t o r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g h a s some q u i t e i m p o r t a n t and s p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s , b o t h as i n d i v i d u a l s and as members o f i n s t i t u t i o n s . The p l a n n e r , t h e e c o n o m i s t , t h e mayor, t h e b u s i n e s s -man, t h e wage e a r n e r , t h e s t u d e n t , t h e w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t -e v e r y o n e - h a s t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t e a c h has a p a r t i c u l a r a n d e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make i n t h i s p r o c e s s . E a c h i s an e x p e r t i n h i s own s p e c i a l way. The t r a d i t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s a r e b l u r r e d a n d i n f a c t may d i s a p p e a r i n some i n s t a n c e s . T h i s means t h a t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s n e e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r a b i l i t y t o manage i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . J o h n F r i e d m a n n (1973, p . 232-236) has a r g u e d t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t o e n h a n c e h i s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n e f f e c t i v e l y , and my e x p e r i e n c e h a s b o r n e t h i s o u t . F r i e d m a n n s a y s t h a t t o l e a r n e f f e c t i v e l y t h e s e f o u r a b i l i t i e s must be s t r e n g t h e n e d : (1) t h e a b i l i t y t o q u e s t i o n e x i s t i n g 104. r e a l i t y , (2) the a b i l i t y to draw g e n e r a l l e s s o n s from c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e , (3) the a b i l i t y t o t e s t theory i n p r a c t i c e , and (4) the a b i l i t y to examine s i n c e r e l y the r e s u l t s . For a g e n c i e s , government departments, l o c a l p l a n n i n g b o d i e s , and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s u s i n g the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g approach i n r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g , the f o l l o w i n g items should be c o n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s l y : (1) a long-term view i s a d v i s e d , and p o l i c i e s r e s -ponding to s h o r t - t e r m p o l i t i c a l expediency s h o u l d be viewed i n t h e i r proper p e r s p e c t i v e ; (2) a h i g h standard of e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s r e q u i r e d t o enable a l l p a r t i -c i p a n t s to c o n t r i b u t e e f f e c t i v e l y (Buckley and T i h a n y i , 196 7); (3) economic i n d i c a t o r s need to be supplemented by s o c i a l and demographic ones, and on a r e g i o n a l and sub-area b a s i s , and i t should be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t economic i n d i c a t o r s are o n l y very l i m i t e d t o o l s ( F i r e s t o n e , 1972); (4) t h i s approach r e q u i r e s some b u i l t - i n d i s o r d e r and ambiguity, and by p r e s e n t standards, i n e f f i c i e n c y , i n f a v o u r o f m a i n t a i n i n g o r encouraging l i f e - s t y l e s important t o s m a l l e r groups of people (Lang, 1972b); (5) the p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g must be made more o r d e r l y and r a t i o n a l , which i m p l i e s t h a t (a) c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t e n t i o n i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h i s needed t o understand the p r o c e s s , (b) developmental hypotheses need to be more o b j e c t i v e l y and c o n s c i o u s l y formulated, and more f r a n k l y c o n c e i v e d as an experiment, and (c) new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms and procedures need to be t r i e d (Dunn, 1971). As a c o n c l u d i n g statement, I b e l i e v e I should p o i n t out t h a t I have not attempted to w r i t e a handbook f o r r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g . T h i s has been an e x p l o r a t o r y study, and my c o n c l u s i o n s have been c o n s e r v a t i v e because o f t h i s . I know t h a t t h i s study r e f l e c t s somewhat the b i a s e s of my employment 105. i n P i c t o u C o u n t y , my own p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , and some o f t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f o p e r a t i o n t h a t grew o u t o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e M a r i t i m e s . I have t r i e d , how-e v e r , t o r e l a t e b o t h t h e o r y and p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n a man-n e r t h a t w i l l e n a b l e b o t h m y s e l f a s t h e w r i t e r and r e s e a r c h e r , and a l s o t h e p e r s o n who r e a d s t h i s s t u d y , w i t h some u s e f u l i n -s i g h t s i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t and t h e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . 106. BIBLIOGRAPHY The A p p a l a c i a n R e g i o n a l Commission, 1968. Research Report No.  8: P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s f o r Development of C e n t r a l  A p p a l a c i a . Washington, D~. C.: The A p p a l a c i a n R e g i o n a l Commission. A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s Economic C o u n c i l , 1971. F i f t h Annual  Review: The A t l a n t i c Economy. H a l i f a x ? A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s Economic C o u n c i l . 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