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Regional development planning : an analysis of the approach in Pictou County, Nova Scotia Cornejo, Daniel 1975

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING: AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPROACH IN PICTOU COUNTY, NOVA SCOTIA  by  DANIEL  CORNEJO  B.A. Jamestown C o l l e g e , 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED-IN  PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in Community  We a c c e p t required  this  the School o f and R e g i o n a l  thesis  Planning  as conforming  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1975  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s the requirements  f o r an  B r i t i s h Columbia, freely  available  that permission  of  advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of  publication of this  may  be  my  thesis  granted  1975  thesis  t h e Head o f my  for financial  Planning  Columbia  make i t  I further  I t i s understood  Regional  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  30,  by  shall  of this  written permission.  S c h o o l o f Community and  April  study.  f o r extensive copying  his representatives.  allowed without  in partial  t h a t the L i b r a r y  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  s c h o l a r l y purposes o r by  fulfilment  I agree  thesis  agree for Department  that copying  gain s h a l l  not  be  or  ABSTRACT  The ning And  theory  has t r a d i t i o n a l l y focused the prevailing  which  formed  prescribed usually civil  solutions  provided  in  some  recent  l e d me  newer  shift  provide  pertinent  a variety  by  activities  l e d ultimately  o f normative  decision-makers  A theoretical literature regional  and  that  that  to  criteria, senior  i n the approach insight  context  was  f o r analysis provided  i n the following growth,  of social  development  was  through  two a r e a s :  and  learning  (2) r e c e n t  County,  be g i v i n g  way  learning.  t o examine  this  development  per-  planning  between  public  process.  presented a review  first.  (1) t h e o r i e s planning  economic  A  of the on  thought  and s o c i e t a l change.  the t r a d i t i o n a l regional  Nova  assumptions  of social  the relationship  and t h e r e g i o n a l  background  was  to regional  into  i n Pictou  e f f o r t s might  study  however,  i n participating  the deterministic  on t h e concept  of this  field,  experience  Project  planning  based  purpose  economic  theory  personal  Opportunities  previous  some  involvement  shown  upon  which  l i t e r a t u r e i n the Planning  approaches  The  the  based  to believe  characterizing  to  forprediction  plan-  considerations.  characterized  by t h e p o l i t i c a l  the Development  ceived  on economic  development  servants.  Scotia,  to  of regional  s t y l e has been  the basis  Recent and  and p r a c t i c e  growth  on  I t was theories  focus  largely  of the  on  system.  anticipating  Changes i n t h e b e h a v i o u r  region,  these  t h e o r i e s say,  brought  about  by  societal  changes i n the e x t e r n a l  a r e due  of the  chiefly  external stimuli.  The  parameters  residents in a  t o changes i n  o t h e r models  of  c h a n g e p r e s e n t e d n e x t were shown t o i n c o r p o r a t e  deterministic  p r o c e s s and  o f an o p e n p r o c e s s  say  of social  that  social  change i s t h e  l e a r n i n g w h i c h c a n be  scale  nonproduct  characterized  as e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .  On only  the b a s i s of t h i s  the major f e a t u r e s o f the  regional  e c o n o m i c and  effectively learning  through  r a t h e r than  individual  social  an  review,  which g e n e r a l l y presented  landscape,  w e l l - b e i n g c o u l d be  approach  that  have a d i r e c t  seeks  impact  ment i n i t i a t i v e s put  forward  i n regional i n a review  o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t s and community p r o f i l e on  more social  on  employment  and  and  provincial  govern-  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g i n Nova  60  agencies.  T h i s was  o f P i c t o u C o u n t y , an  f o l l o w e d up w i t h  1100-square-mile  centers.  urban  o f t h e s e p e o p l e was  shown t o be  mainly  but  the  and  f i s h i n g were shown t o be  occupations  of the e v o l u t i o n  P i c t o u C o u n t y was  in agriculture,  very  important  of regional  presented.  region  50,000  i n the f i v e  livelihood  a  about  p e r c e n t o f whom l i v e  traditional  Scotia  o f some o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e programmes  The  a history  fostered  to strengthen  t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t o f Nova S c o t i a w h i c h has  residents,  that  incomes.  Next, a p e r s p e c t i v e o f f e d e r a l  was  I suggested  manufacturi  mining,  also.  And  forestry, lastly,  development p l a n n i n g i n  iv.  Having  presented  having  stated  a  study,  I  described  Project set  then which  forth,  I was  the  lationships reviewed,  working  and  this  Development  outlined  previous  efforts  also  to  the  However, there  trasted  with  who  to  and  gathered  be  a  was  Using  initial  gap  called  the  grant  government  to  Pictonians  undertook  of  the  participated effort  Project  are  institutional  re-  decision-making  is  the of  Pictou a  the  poor  the  however,  in  either at  part  early  of  County  of  or the  the  in  style  showed  that  the Con-  County  regional  resi-  development  Opportunities  of  income  minimum  and  Pictou  series  the  concepts.  study  D i s t r i c t Planning  also  of  of  closely  the  and  many  programmes.  by  and  theoretical  goal  ambitions  provided  closely-related  the  that  least  this  widely-based  Development  Scotia  growth  of  the  federal  the  related  projects  $47,500  Nova  showed  or  are  accented.  light  economic  as  effort  previous  in  and  the  this  are  study  between  the  of  from  experience  in  of  their  satisfy  the  this  aims  Project  regional  impact  this  of  to  The  efforts  efficiency,  evidence  planning an  favour  to  focus  also  Opportunities  adopted  The  and  Development  examined  initially.  some  description,  development  analysis,  the  process  approach  traditional  scope  this  study  economic  the  the  for  give  identified,  attempted  in  appeared  actual  dents  of  in.  Opportunities  concepts  criterion  are  the  regional  redistribution  detail  to  a c t i v i t i e s flowing  of  Next,  the  in  Throughout  characteristics  provincial  hypothesis  delineated,  the  illustrated.  background  involved  actors  are  a  Project.  provincial Commission, experimental  efforts The  to  study  they  were  ment  of  to  be  showed  their  Pictou  that  County  happening  concepts  necessary  may  be  influence regions ment.  and On  social  result  of  existed  depended  on  the  the may  more  the  even hand,  Development economic  have  more  traditional  at.  The  study  further  learning  through  fast  and  that  and  to  have  of  development  was  Opportunities  approaches.  the  while  and  had  and  What  the  great  care  regional  in  Nova  political  to  that  marginal  exist  taking  Project. Project.  regional  social  fundamental  closely  residents  appeared  of  take.  Development  provincial  evidence  process  the  in  learning.  social  that  would  quite  hindered  of  happen  effect relationships  federal  effects  likely  they of  social  well-being  suggested  the  continue  embrace  saying  involve-  would  were  e f f o r t s seemed  political  study  by  cause  previous  economic  other  of  intimate  conducted,  and  virtue  to  were  activity.  been  what would  by  theory  out  the  initiatives  found  concluded  rule  of  County  was  the  have  and  this  will  Pictou  form  strengthens  region the  much  to  the  residents  so  study  the  on  however, that  arrived  County  had  development  studies  with  decisions  the  Project  the  conducted  of  by  planning  on  and  variety  who  spurious,  development  by  a  that  which  was  though  broad-based  residents  in  The  sustain  County  Pictou  Opportunities  that  that  involvement  Pictou  and  initiated  affected  showed  was  initiate  No  develop-  to  place  suggest as  worthwhile  a  hard  data  Generally,  development  learning  Scotia  within  planning the  effects  than  vi.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract L i s t of Figures Acknowledgments PROLOGUE:  i i viii ix  THE ATLANTIC DILEMMA  CHAPTER ONE:  1  APPROACH TO THE STUDY  INTRODUCTION:  PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY STATEMENT  11 11  OBJECTIVES  13  METHODOLOGY  16  NOTES ON DEFINITIONS  18  CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION  19  THEORIES UNDERLYING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING . . 19 REGIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH  19  E x p o r t Base Stages-of-Growth  20 22  Growth P o l e s / G r o w t h C e n t r e s  26  SOCIAL LEARNING  31  E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p Development S o c i e t a l Guidance Mutual L e a r n i n g Through I n n o v a t i o n and E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n AN I N I T I A L ANALYSIS  31 35 37 40  PREDICTION AND PLANNING  40  AN HYPOTHESIS  42  ;  CHAPTER THREE: REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN PICTOU COUNTY, NOVA SCOTIA A PERSPECTIVE OF FEDERAL AND INITIATIVES  44  PROVINCIAL  IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING  44  AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION AND DEVELOPMENT ACT . 44 AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT ACT  46  ATLANTIC DEVELOPMENT BOARD  49  CAPE BRETON DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION  51  vii.  Page CHAPTER THREE  (Cont'd)  DEPARTMENT OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC EXPANSION  ......  54  NOVA SCOTIA DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS NOVA SCOTIA DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT  52  *  56  PICTOU COUNTY COMMUNITY P R O F I L E  57  THE EMERGENCE  64  OF REGIONAL PLANNING  THE DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER FOUR:  OPPORTUNITIES PROJECT  RE-ASSESSMENT AND  CONCLUSIONS  THE IMPACT OF PREVIOUS REGIONAL PLANNING EFFORTS THE DEVELOPMENT  DEVELOPMENT  78 90 91  OPPORTUNITIES PROJECT:  SOME I N I T I A L RESULTS  95  CONCLUSIONS  100  FINAL NOTES  103  BIBLIOGRAPHY  106  viii.  L I S T OF FIGURES  FIGURE  TITLE  l"  MAP  2  ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE FOR INTER-MUNICIPAL AND REGIONAL PLANNING  71  DESIGN FOR DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING PROGRAM FOR PICTOU COUNTY  86  3  OF PICTOU COUNTY, NOVA SCOTIA  PAGE  58  AC KNOWLEDGMENTS  I Professors  wish  my  sincere  I r v i n g Fox and Gordon  co-operation this  t o express  and t i m e l y  advice  Stead  appreciation to f o rt h e i r  close  i n the preparation of  thesis.  I  also wish  advice  received  Pictou  County  from  t o acknowledge Kingsley  District  Lewis,  Planning  the information and the Director ofthe  Commission.  PROLOGUE THE  ATLANTIC DILEMMA*  In the space of h a l f a dozen y e a r s , the between economic growth and what we environment" has become one  conflict  have a l l come to c a l l  o f the g r e a t i s s u e s o f world  "the affairs.  Some see i t as the most f e r o c i o u s c h a l l e n g e t h a t mankind  has  ever f a c e d , s u r p a s s i n g i n i t s t h r e a t to our s u r v i v a l even d i s e a s e , r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , and chemical  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f n u c l e a r or  warfare. The  concern m a n i f e s t s  h y s t e r i c a l , both r e s p o n s i b l e and  i t s e l f i n ways both solemn  s e l f - s e r v i n g ; i n the Club o f  Rome, an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f eminent s c i e n t i s t s c a l l f o r zero p o p u l a t i o n and  and  who  zero economic growth; i n f r i g h t f u l  warnings from agencies of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s ; i n a band o f economists who've begun to q u e s t i o n the whole i n v i o l a t e o l d orthodoxy  o f growth economics, who've begun to b u i l d a  theory about s t a b i l i t y as a source o f economic l i f e ;  new  i n ecology  groups t h a t , a g a i n and a g a i n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , have a c h i e v e d the p o l i t i c a l  sabotage o f massive power p r o j e c t s ; i n the  o f whole i n d u s t r i e s and t e c h n o l o g i e s to f i g h t p o l l u t i o n r e c y c l e waste; i n l a w s u i t s to b l o c k housing i n d u s t r i a l complexes; i n t h i n k tanks and  and  developments  futurists'  rise  and  institutes;  *Source: S i x t h Annual Review: The A t l a n t i c Economy. 1972: The A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s Economic C o u n c i l .  Halifax,  2.  in  a  thousand  stickers Nader's  and  save-our-environment p o s t e r s and  Raiders,  undevelopment cults, Paul  commissions,  Ehrlich,  sit-ins,  high  his  to bathe  seas  The Atlantic to  any  public  the  of  the we  unlikely  behaviour.  that  We  do  protest.  to  expansion  and  the  clear  and  painful  where  else  home  standard  f o r our  clean  water,  a  yet, the  quality  us  we  are.  of  service so  disdained  i n , say,  ecology  club befouled  to  problem  problem  warm  the  jump o f f  to  the  We  people, of  carnival  preserve  the  side  Provinces than so  much  f o r everyone,  an  economic  to  wilderness, a  sane  pace  in Atlantic  Canada  lose: of  that,  of the  modern great  economic  environment  much  so  extreme  have  have  We  of  not  even  r e s p e c t s i n which forces  do  over-development.  suspicious  so  life  We  expression  afflicts  i s hardly  traditional  living  that  phlegmatic  there are  world.  colorful  California.  i n the A t l a n t i c  western  clean  Carson,  campaigns,  o i l that  such  revolution,  easily  here  find  relatively  passion to  of  Rachel  projects,  people  Our  feed  children.  unique who  a  not  between  decent  i t does  world. are  clubs,  nature-worshipping  anti-litter  Heyerdahl  not  stupendous  confrontation  a  does  as  And  i n the  Thor  probes,  think-small  gurus,  i n the  bumper  body.  concern  event,  stoical,  sit-outs,  his  Canada  face  many p a r t s In  communes,  pickets,  s c a r e h e a d l i n e s , and  remotest  have  rural  in  in pollution  movements,  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Youth  campaigns,  raft  buttons;  tourist-go-home  conservation lobbies,  seminars,  in  lapel  periodicals;  i s more i t i s  to win:  anyjobs,  future  at  clean a i r , life, in a  and  the  sense,  tells  3.  No r e s p o n s i b l e d i s c u s s i o n o f g r o w t h undergrown A t l a n t i c This  warrant  they  even i n  Canada, c a n q u i t e a v o i d t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n .  Review has e x p l o r e d  suggested  centres,  t h e i d e a o f growth c e n t r e s , and  are promising  further research.  enough a s a d e v e l o p m e n t t o o l t o  The c a t c h  i s that i f a growth-centre  p o l i c y w o r k s t h e way i t i s s u p p o s e d t o w o r k f o r A t l a n t i c it  will  accelerate urbanization,  concentration other in  people  of industry. i n other  o u r own w a l l s  Unless  places  the Trojan  Growth i n s p i r e s  average incomes, b u t jobs an  a c c e l e r a t e the urban  we a r e more c a r e f u l  h a v e b e e n we w i l l  o f being  alive  increases  be w e l c o m i n g  eat  i t , too?  M u s t we s e l l  stubborn  f o r being  M u s t we s h r i n k our east-coast  a means t o a c h i e v i n g  t h a n o u r p e o p l e h a v e known.  cliches.  remain.  t o grow m a t e r i a l l y ?  t o buy T o r o n t o ' s  living  standards?  Would t h a t be so bad?  way o f l i f e  we s a y i s s u p e r i o r t o t h e u r b a n r a t r a c e ?  Atlantic  be  Is there  the Atlantic  In  any g e n e r a l Provinces  agree-  should  when o u r c h i l d r e n a r e a s o l d a s we a r e now? We a r e l u c k y  our  How much do we t r e a s u r e t h e  Canda, when i s b i g t o o b i g ?  ment a t a l l o n t h e k i n d o f p l a c e  They  C a n we h a v e o u r c a k e a n d  spiritually souls  of  i n j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  We n e e d g r o w t h b u t t h e l a r g e r q u e s t i o n s no l e s s  with-  i n s o many c i t i e s  a n d wages a r e o n l y  end, and t h e end i s a b e t t e r l i f e  are  than  Horse o f t r o u b l e s t h a t has a l r e a d y  w r e c k e d much o f t h e p l e a s u r e the world.  i tw i l l  Canada,  very  misfortunes  petual depression  i n an o d d way.  have  finally  i n Atlantic  t i o n s we've b e e n i n d u s t r i a l l y  left  There's a sense i n which us f o r t u n a t e .  Canada, t h e f a c t  that  The  per-  f o r genera-  u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , means t h a t  we  4.  never g o t t h e chance t o wreck a l o t o f o u r s e a s c a p e s and sides. best, the  We n e v e r g o t t h e c h a n c e t o b u i l d t h e pace o f l i f e  heart  and b u s i n e s s  of the place  rots,  the c i t i e s  are punishing  and b u b b l e s  country-  where, a t  and, a t w o r s t ,  i n social  unrest.  If  we'd h a d t h e c h a n c e , we m i g h t have done t h e same t h i n g s , b u t we didn't;  and now, i n some r e s p e c t s  through  l o s i n g we have a c h a n c e t o w i n .  Americans and c e n t r a l  anyway, we may  find  The s p e e d w i t h  Canadians are buying  Provinces  a r e a p l a c e , one o f t h e v e r y  p l a c e s , where t h i n g s  are s t i l l  as t h e y  which  recreation land i n  e a s t - c o a s t Canada i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l o t o f p e o p l e Atlantic  that  know t h a t t h e last accessible  o n c e were a n d p e r h a p s  should be. This medical  appeal  has a l r e a d y  men a n d a c a d e m i c s p e r m a n e n t l y  Canada and - i f t h e r e ' s higher  asks,  million  miles.  "How  slow growth has l e f t  people  They s h a r e  Pennsylvania,  and l e a s t  Provinces  roughly  the s i z e  us w i t h  a population  a land area  I f you leave out Labrador,  That's  of Industrial  Estates  The answer i s n o t e a s y .  of the A t l a n t i c  miles.  such i n t a n g i b l e s as o u r  do y o u e q u a t e t h e c r a s h o f i n d u s t r y w i t h t h e  w o r l d ' s most f o r m i d a b l e area  i t scuppers  A newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t  of the loon?" Our  two  i n Atlantic  l e a r n i n g and b r a i n p o w e r down h e r e - we w o u l d be r a s h t o  "way o f l i f e " .  cry  to s e t t l e  scientists,  t o be a p r o p u l s i v e i n d u s t r y i n r e s e a r c h ,  promote development t i l l  Limited  i n s p i r e d many C a n a d i a n  o f 194,000  which contains populated  shrinks  o f New J e r s e y ,  b u t t h e combined p o p u l a t i o n  square  some o f t h e  landscapes,  t o about  o f about  94,000  the land square  New Y o r k a n d  o f these  states i s  5.  almost  twenty  Canada  stretches  width  of  shore,  the  year  times  greater than  f o r more  whole after  than  15,000  continent year  goes  ours.  and,  by  The  coast of  miles  over  without  -  three  great  anyone  Atlantic times  the  lengths of ever  this  setting  foot  on i t . There is  slower  here  attacks  of  seasons  are  life in  have  to  stop  poor,  that  denies  happiness. and  pleasant, the  on  us  deeper  reality? Atlantic  the  prosperity  that?  And,  one  wonders,  Statistics  a l l over  to  Finally,  assuming  life  the  is real,  how  Canada.  do  that  leisurely  what  do  we  here,  the  f o r fewer  he than  really he  approach  think  that  i s worth  regional our  image  dollars  of  hardship  Or  does i t  reflect in  the  than  his  interested  i s i n making to  to  of  employee  more  the  sources  fragile?  average  among  image  the  street  neighbour.  road  the  people  of  People  "dynamic  are  does  the  even  something was  business  a  only  this  What  deer  star.  help  the  and  cross  track  with  closely  hole  i n the  to  as  prove  Is  a  Life  widespread  trout  safely  life  life?  will  the  industries",  longer hours  old fishing this  of  transitory,  indicate  r e g i o n s works  can  street,  to  of  The  hassle  o f money  got  of  being  sense  style  i t something  escaping  You  "propulsive  growth"  underdevelopment.  places.  i s less  pursuit  have  and  of  opening  i n the  lyrical  than  counterparts  daily  a  "rapid  Is  There  talk  unaggressive  style?  forced go  What  the  block without  and  i s sometimes  at  Provinces.  the  There  economy"  colds  Atlantic of  "rewards"  i t is in richer  legendary.  middle  time  other  than  f l u and  i n the  the  are  a  and  in  buck? work  sacrificing  in  and  6.  order  to  keep Is  and  the  was  of  most  of  mean  that  Pratt,  of  fighting  i t s way  industry  and  scarcely  known  may  yet  on  had  inflicted  a  whiff  paragon  penalties lower  rates,  The  of  means  "pace  losing  of  the  is  a  ecology  the  issue.  unspoiled  the  money  to  The  vehement  shorelines, revel  in  There  fact  i t s time.  might  While  decades  twentieth-century  upon  i t , Newfoundland  to  Hers  benefit,  were the  not  rest  of  and,  for  had  of  a  backward  If  to  higher  many,  are  respects  who  him  most  of  our  those They  every  combatting  find  things.  too  among  the  a i r , our with own  safe  is  father  forever who's  pollution the  i n which  treasure  us  inflicts  Canada,  not  l i e among  troubles  i n A t l a n t i c Canada appeal  defenders  that  underdevelopment  the  people  these  a  behind  very  coming  present  months. may  in  Newfoundland  years  troubles.  the  future  may  several  movement.  most  our  life"  out  future.  services  their  the  turn  chronic than  f a c t o r i e s , you  high-brow  life",  for  the  that  poorer  shaky.  can  that  this  that  these  i t is  wages  that  work  of  meantime,  awareness  of  of  If misfortune a  people;  out  spend  Angeles?  pointed  fifty  of  skyscrapers  Los  work  ahead  technology even  and  new  a  curiously,  years  would  or  perhaps  troubles  nagging  been  life  that,  the  painter,  the  the  unemployment  his  fifty  America out  Toronto  backward, but  with  of  become  a l l the  our  about  really  sort.  In with  show  North  a  Newfoundland  America;  i t was  different  the  industrially  North  rest  incompatible  factories in  television  indeed  the  i t totally  fields  Christopher recent  i t alive?  pickets the  our  "way  water, jobs  cottages  ecology  and and  and,  of  7.  ironically,  the  assault  silence  the  evidence too  i s that,  boats  of  as  jeeps,  and  The always  turn  lament  the  out  t o be  exodus  young  at  They  parents  youth  or  cannot  their  the  than  The  truth. We  here  l o t of  slow,  homelands.  to  they  and  sigh  that  keep  them  live  our  leave  adventurous of  mouse  city.  that  But  not  them  in a  life  may.  city  habitually  to  attraction  the  over-  encouraged  meaningful  The  o l d as  want  and  We  people.  a  they  statements  p r o s p e c t s have simply  income,  that  them?  easy  activity  Some d a y ,  as  wilderness.  have  whole  ambitious  Rome,  vans  outboards,  the  true that  good,  more  quiet  the  they  down h e r e .  lured  and  talented  narrow  feel  50-hp.  economic  because  our  camper  their  big of  cities  our  great and  the  mouse.  of  the  development has  anyone  men  suggest  have  no  conflict  else. from  time  just  around  question  between  the  that  corner.  crucial  time  formula  f o r the  environment  Canada.  to  governments  i s of  the  Politicians,  optimistically,  and  satisfactory  in Atlantic  more  people  most  i t i s also  may  We tion  than  enough  treasure the  i s older  country  they  be  and  increase their  buggies,  less  not  from  cities  not  rather,  always  people  say  our  unemployment  do  have  of  home, b u t  but,  to  s u b j e c t i s complex,  i s simply  go  to  snowmobiles  used  poorer  who's  there  because  and  what  want w a t e r - s k i s , dune  land  to  power  Nor,  so  f a r as  newspapers, that  the  do  s i t down  not  believe  together  historical  on  we  can  must  i t and  that.  and  importance,  resolu-  economic  academics  solution  they're working We  and  happy  agree  see,  and  business-  come  or,  i t may  be  Unless that  unless  our the  they  agree  8.  to  solve  i t through  operation, gap  then  that ment, life  from  crutch  i t i s too late. we  have  flounder  to crutch,  from  bandaid  o n e d a y , we economy  may  wake  from to  stop-  bandaid.  up t o  nor a healthy  o f o u r a i rand water  co-  find  environ-  i s as grim  as the  on o u r b r e a d l i n e s .  that  something  that  our society  complicated Poetschke,  discussed tackle  i s very  Perhaps. wrong  relies  social, former  Planning  upon  economic  executive  a n d Programmes  t h e government's  new  generating  with  systems  with  these  and environmental  immensely issues.  secretary of the Cabinet  L. E.  Committee  o f t h e Government  o f Nova  failure  new m a c h i n e r y  to design  "an a p p a r e n t l y  political  parties,  circle media  a l l o f whom a r e p r e o c c u p i e d  with  clear  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery  to deal  and s e l f - r e i n f o r c i n g  politicians, world,  I t i s nevertheless  Scotia,  has  to  problems. He h a s d e s c r i b e d  and,  o r super  will  neither a healthy  and the q u a l i t y  mechanism  Provinces  Until,  Exaggeration?  on  unprecedented  the Atlantic  t o stopgap,  Until  some  a few n o t a b l e  and processes  which  self-  of administration, a n d much  with  exceptions,  unbreakable,  o f the academic  expenditure  are unable  are the stuff  of  programs  to deal with  the  socio-economic  development". Poetschke Problems  of Dealing  Adjustment, two of  years  with  to the joint  ago.  the baffling  because  was  those  We  quote  delivering  the Problems CEA-CCRD h i m now  and f r u s t r a t i n g  who  a paper,  deal with  on what  of Regional  Conference not because  situations  government  he  and  called Rural  i n Winnipeg people  about  a r e unaware  he d e s c r i b e d , b u t  at the planning  level  9.  know  them  only  them.  For  public  life,  the e f f e c t  and,  On  policy the  and  first  all of  groups  and  government,  the  development  and  their  authority  have  representatives - v s .  -  find  them  things have own  systems  really  do  as  to l i f e  in either  become place  only  they  This be  are  achieve  must  will  of  started  really  do  sun.  to  suggest  objective  be  made  of  and  t o use  sector  however,  government any  the  and resources  to assist what  "what  in  people  people  regard  are here. o f Canada.  to  The  and  their  development  They We  comparisons  Montreal. f o r hard  an  done."  with  corner  be  t o work w i t h  want  answers  service,  the  a c t u a l l y do  done"  substitutes  res-  boundary  immediately,  f o r ourselves  and  a  necessity  the private will  i n Toronto  sectors,  an  across  economy  i n our  into  department  competence  The  his  at a l l levels,  outside  invidious or yearning  tiresome  i n the  step  c a n work  want  anything,  presumptuous.  that  to decide  our-way-of-life.  appropriate  To  structure  i n t e r e s t s i n the  of  neatly  to better  u n i v e r s i t y and  Canada's  talking to  bureaucracy,  -  and  been  of  about  more:  f o r one  which  much  on most  achieves  and  I t can  representatives We  have  "The  oriented.  process.  with  well  i s considered  i n s e r t i n g a mechanism  structure  once  government  systems  evolutionary  had  i s divided  to another  - at best  and  as  u n a b l e t o do  have  jurisdictions.  "...The  by  which  displeasure,  changes  market  hearing  i n a world  to court  h i s words  the bureaucracy:  ponsibilities is  remain  i f r e p e t i t i o n ever  are worth  operates  and  Poetschke might  Patagonians; opinions  too w e l l ,  are  exactly  will  not  with  comparisons  thought about  our  10. We simple  need the h a r d t h o u g h t , but what we y e a r n f o r are  answers.  makers and  There's a w i d e n i n g gap  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , on one  the p r e s s and  between the p o l i c y -  s i d e , and  the  the g e n e r a l p u b l i c on the o t h e r .  politicians, Sensitive legis-  l a t o r s know they o f t e n have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the p o l i c i e s o f government.  And  basic  t h e media, f o r the most p a r t ,  s i m p l y do not a t t e m p t t o fathom the i n t r i c a c i e s o f modern government; they l i m i t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o the p o l i t i c s of b r e a d and c i r c u s e s .  Y e t , we  know something i s s l i p p i n g away from us  and p e r i o d i c a l l y the c r y goes up,  " r e s t o r e power t o the p e o p l e  (Parliament)."  the p o p u l i s t r e v i v a l i n t h e  A t the same t i m e ,  U n i t e d S t a t e s , and  the y e a r n i n g  f o r t h e one man  who  can  s t r a i g h t e n e v e r y t h i n g out are r e f l e c t i o n s o f a d e s i r e f o r s i m p l i c i t y , an end  t o p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , and  a reluctance  to  think hard. Hard thought. P o e t s c h k e was  not t h i n k i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y  o f development - v s . - o u r - w a y - o f - l i f e but he may  have been  c l o s e t o the d i r e c t i o n A t l a n t i c Canada must f o l l o w t o meet i t s most c r u c i a l dilemma head-on.  I t would be a p a t h o f change,  and change i s the p a t h o f s u r v i v a l everywhere. p a t h o f unprecedented c o - o p e r a t i o n p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l ments and work now  I t would be  among dozens o f f e d e r a l ,  governments; among hundreds o f  a g e n c i e s and committees and o f f i c i a l s t h a t a t c r o s s - p u r p o s e s ; and  b u s i n e s s as w e l l .  I t would be,  among u n i v e r s i t i e s and  depart-  frequently private  a t l a s t , a p a t h towards a  system t h a t would e n a b l e us t o c o n t r o l , as f u l l y as p e o p l e our own  destiny.  t h i n k about the  We  should  destiny.  a  t h i n k about t h a t system.  We  can,  should  11.  CHAPTER  APPROACH  INTRODUCTION:  The has  only  THE  theory  and  practice  focused  marginally  in  social  style  has  been  formed  basis  for  prediction  scribed been,  solutions:  analyzed  guesses  at  what  suggestions normative makers  what  and  senior Recent  and  some  that  the  planning the  recent  politicians in  every  or  too  with.  probably  usually  civil  pertinent  important Commanding  by  considerations,  factors.  activities untimately  the  based  provided  in  the  personal  way  the  studied made  to  some  a  the  which pre-  what  future, upon  And  had educated  and  offered  variety  political  of  decision-  Planning  field,  experience  lead  characterizing to  newer  however, me  to  believe  previous  approaches  based  on  learning. in  influence,  self-serving  policy  for  led  in  future  giving  asserted  important  occur  assumptions  be  social  who  by  planning  servants.  literature  mutually  demographic  which  currently  development  economic  happening,  Diminishing standing,  and  on  was  e f f o r t s may of  part  planners  deterministic  concept  regional  characterized  a l t e r i n g that  criteria,  of  rationalistic  would  for  STATEMENT  large  prevailing the  STUDY  PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY  traditionally  treating  TO  ONE  the  greater  that  dialogue  there  matter average  i t appears,  were  that  attention  and  the  long-  between  planners  certain  "basic  were  citizen  is  to  either  too  to  issues"  sensitive  understand  appearing  and  be  and  deal  adopted  more  and  dates is  more  local  is a  characterized  And long  this  to  shift  provide  inquiry  on  the  a  regional  Opportunities  Project  local  which  efforts From  pated  i n the  Planner  on  assisted  and  I  worked  and  of  a  and  the  regional  federal  and  provincial  study  i s t o examine  to regional  the r e l a t i o n s h i p development  this  development between  process.  in Pictou  County,  Nova  resident  1972,  planning  public  I will  the  focus  Development  Scotia,  through July,  Opportunities  i n the  the residents  Pictou  number  County  and  their  and  the  councils,  special  partici-  a  Regional  of  Municipal and  governmental  and  Specifically,  Planning  while  I  community  process.  District  of other  As  Department  i n this  County  1973,  Project.  Scotia Pictou  organizations  the  it,  at  area:  i t s s i x member m u n i c i p a l  involvement  this  t o t h e Nova  advised  with  accommo-  facilitates  i n this  September,  non-governmental  only  precededi t .  contract  I was  it,  effort  Development  Affairs,  of  into  specific  not  happening  agents of  approach  insight  and  encourages  t o be  of  purpose  i n the  some  involvement my  The  which  by i t .  appears  the preserve  governments. perceived  of planning  involvement, but  becoming  level,  style  Commission  facilitating  interest  groups  the and  organizations. During I  could  growth, see  a  see what but  group  problems, tives,  and  my I  social  involvement i n this felt and  t o be  experimented, continued  evidence of not  political  of businessmen  development  mature  sought  to learn  effort  as  new about  they  i n Pictou only  as  economic  well.  repeatedly  information, t h e ways  tried  they  County  I  could  confronted alterna-  could  make  wise  public  investments.  take h i s concerns recreational  about  forward  knowledge and  activate  a series  lack of proper  of processes  I c o u l d see  attempting  to influence  decisions,  but  also  and  provincial  Department  intimate  r e t u r n t o h i s community  designed  a farmer's  to respond  to  those  w i f e , f r u s t r a t e d by  years  a s c h o o l board's  community  the i n a d e q u a c i e s o f the County e d u c a t i o n a l  decide to run again f o r a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l then get h e r s e l f  appointed  see  t h e s e and many o t h e r e v e n t s  to the and  to  of  budget-conscious  a c u t e l y aware o f t h e g r o w i n g  and  teacher  sufficient  h i s c a s e , b u t t r e s s e d by  e x p e r i e n c e , and  concerns.  cern with  the  a young s c h o o l  resources to a newly-created  of R e c r e a t i o n , put local  I c o u l d see  s e a t , win  school board.  processes  con-  system, that  seat,  I could  taking place.  OBJECTIVES  What I want t o do hard was  look at the approach being attempted  learn  from  that  by  the  however,  line  subject  i s s t e p b a c k and  to r e g i o n a l  take a  long  development p l a n n i n g  the r e s i d e n t s o f t h a t  county  and  that  t r y to  experience.  Before o u t l i n i n g study,  now  I feel  of thinking  the s p e c i f i c  i t w o u l d be  that  l e d t o my  objectives of  useful  f o r me  selection  this  to describe  of this  particular  area. In h i s r e p o r t t o the M i n i s t e r  Harvey L i t h w i c k t o w a r d s an  urban  (1970, p. society  213)  speaks  Responsible  for  of the i n f l e x i b l e  i n Canada, b u t  finds  that  Housing, trend  "evidence  suggests t h a t beyond some c r i t i c a l p o i n t , not e a s i l y  defined  or measured, the i n t e r a c t i o n between s i z e and r a p i d growth  leads  to an a c c e l e r a t i o n o f c o s t s p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t o f competing demands f o r s c a r c e urban l a n d " . L i t h w i c k chooses not to accept a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the present  the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f  urbanization process,  but rather  s e l e c t s the o p t i o n o f managing growth, p r e s e r v i n g the b e n e f i t s while  reducing  the costs.  He b e l i e v e s t h a t the s e q u e n t i a l  development o f new communities i s the most s u i t a b l e approach. Among the s t r a t e g i e s t o be employed, he says, " b u i l d i n g on urban i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a l r e a d y  should be the  i n place i n r e l a t i v e l y  s m a l l areas c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the main urban system" My own t h i n k i n g c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s t h i s of ideas.  (p. 2 3 1 ) .  progression  But, t o expand a b i t , I a l s o look a t the u r b a n i z a t i o n  t r e n d from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f the r u r a l r e g i o n w i t h ticular style of l i f e .  i t s par-  F o r t o o long, I b e l i e v e , have the  economic, s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l aspects  of rural  l i v i n g been c i r c u m s c r i b e d by the requirements o f the l a r g e urban c e n t e r s .  To be t r i t e , but t o r e s t a t e a t r u i s m ,  t h a t i n d i v e r s i t y you w i l l  find strength.  I believe  The people who  live  i n r u r a l r e g i o n s , and t h e people who would l i v e i n them, g i v e n s u i t a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s - these people m e r i t t h e i r d e s i r e to maintain  r e c o g n i t i o n and  and f o s t e r an a l t e r n a t i v e way o f  l i v i n g r e q u i r e s s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t e at every l e v e l o f government.  response  (This view i s shared by Gordon  C. Cameron, 1969, p. 207-220, 1970, p. 14-17, and John H. Cumberland, 1971, p. 8-10.)  :  This  v i e w p o i n t p r o v i d e s some o f t h e b a s i s o f a p r o -  p o s a l *'£or a c t i o n b y t h e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e S e n a t e Employment  o n Manpower a n d  (1961, p . 6 ) : The m a s s i v e m i g r a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s n e i t h e r s o c i a l l y n o r e c o n o m i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e , and we r e j e c t t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . Therefore, the other c o u r s e , namely o f p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e s e p e o p l e i n t h e a r e a s c o n c e r n e d , must be undertaken with determined e f f o r t . Thoughts such  improved in  understanding  a specific  actions.  a s t h e s e h a v e l e d me t o b e l i e v e  o f the p r o c e s s e s o f development p l a n n i n g  r e g i o n can a s s i s t  i n f u t u r e p o l i c y - m a k i n g and  A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e aims o f t h i s  1.  To d e s c r i b e a n d a n a l y z e planning  2.  study a r e :  the approach  i n P i c t o u C o u n t y , Nova  to regional  Scotia;  To compare t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y a p p r o a c h of  t h a t an  the theories underlying regional  with  some  development  planning; 3.  To d i s c o v e r t h e l i m i t a t i o n s , or  o b s t a c l e s and a l s o  this I result this,  primarily  over  time,  indications concepts  a dynamic s o c i a l  inherent i n  process, designed t o  development r e t u r n s .  Because o f  p r e c i s e q u a n t i t a t i v e measures o f t h e  two y e a r s a g o .  There  c a n be no " f i n a l  i f indeed t h e r e can ever be. of greater or lesser  of regional  and/  approach.  i n long-term  n o t attempt  the advantages  o f t h e Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t , which  a little this  am e x a m i n i n g  I will  impact  particular  h u r d l e s , problems,  Rather,  convergence  development reviewed  with  i n this  began  score" a t  there w i l l  be  the ideas or study.  METHODOLOGY  The present  a background  behaviour even  necessary,  growth,  theory time but  i n these  rather  Having  an e f f e c t i v e Next,  federal Scotia  this,  what  I then  might  regional  i s p u t forward  were  based A  to give  on r e g i o n a l  community  profile  economic  o f the landscape,  up t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of the land-  approach  planning  This  both i n Nova  i s done n o t  to the Pictou  examples  growth  of the Pictou  i n that  sets  review,  initiatives,  a background  planning  features  certain  o f some o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  by a h i s t o r y o f t h e e v o l u t i o n  major  on t h e  process.  relevant  completes  eco-  preliminary  development  followed  county  Given  features  and agencies.  of providing  but also  thought  no e x h a u s t i v e  o f government  i n a review  review  of regional  planning  some  a  c o n s t i t u t e an a p p r o p r i a t e  i n regional  o f the departments  efforts  make  development  a perspective  f o rthe purpose  County which  t h e major  and p r o v i n c i a l ,  programmes only  t o present  i ti s prudent,  through  change.  I offer  done  about  and s o c i e t a l  the  i t occurs.  (1) t h e o r i e s  a n d (2) r e c e n t  to  understanding  i n which  constraints,  attempt  i s first  I believe  i s presented  two a r e a s :  learning  study  To b e g i n  the context  context  generally,  and resource  suggestions for  t o examine  of social  scape.  i n this  f o ra n a l y s i s .  theoretical  literature  nomic  pursued  o f i n d i v i d u a l s and o f groups,  A of  methodology  theories. County  of regional  the task to return  of the specific  o f programmes  region, development  of presenting the t o t h e metaphor, and effort  t o be  examined.  17.  The cribed  Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s  in detail.  relationships forth,  and  are  the  The  are  identified,  their  delineated,  the  aims o f  Project  The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  for  this  only  the  first The  the  flowing  the  of  the  initial  no  logic  in light  f e d e r a l and  part  objective  of  of  this  r a t i n g or  Project the  attempt  concepts  f o r the  impacts,  or  purpose of  r e w a r d s and  conclusions  are  Partially preceding the  gained  it,  quite  gazing,  As  of  are  set  illustrated.  accented,  and  i s l i m i t e d to 1973.  stated previously, and  relevant  the  the  to  this  variety of obtaining  to  relevant insights.  the in  there  allusions  approaches  benefits, of  to  purpose;  rather,  regional theories  and  Finally,  each approach are  the  analyzed  d r a w i n g upon t h e  f r o m my  g o v e r n m e n t programmes,  the  recent  insights derived  Development  e x p e r i e n c e s as  from  the  utilizing  Opportunities a participant in  candidly  engaging  i n a measure o f  crystal-ball-  I complete the  s t u d y by  m a k i n g n o t e s on  some o f  implications  of  planning.  is  drawn.  f i r s t - h a n d knowledge o f  and  not  review of p e r t i n e n t  Project  ment  the  Fall  are  t h e n examined through  score-keeping,  to  Project  institutional  p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t s and are  i s made t o r e l a t e t h e s e  development p l a n n i n g  and  the  des-  t h e o r e t i c a l concepts o u t l i n e d  study.  "performance standards" are an  effort  approach adopted are  phase which ended i n the previous  the  from t h i s  d e s c r i p t i o n of  Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s use  i s then  actors  activities  purpose,  Project  a social  l e a r n i n g approach to  regional  the develop-  18.  NOTE ON  DEFINITIONS  Great terms  found  confusion exists  i n the discussions  What  i s the difference  What  i s growth?  social  the meanings  of regional  between  growth  Development?  growth?  over  Can one s e p a r a t e  a r e a few examples  which  arise  i n even  thought  i n this  area.  dilemma  i s t o make  terms  to the context  presents I  difficulties  believe  though,  this  effort  i n which  are not  i n comparing  insurmountable.  study  to relate  they  i s unavoidable.  this  planning. pole?  economic and  of the kinds o f  a cursory review  Throughout  every  development  centre and growth  These  questions  o f numerous  of planning  my  response  the definitions  a r e used. theories  I realize  to  this  of this  and concepts, b u t  The d i f f i c u l t i e s  encountered,  19.  CHAPTER  THEORETICAL  The is  mulation the  BACKGROUND AND  purpose  to provide  o f an h y p o t h e s i s .  recent  those  of this  theories  conclusions  THEORIES  UNDERLYING  REGIONAL  ECONOMIC GROWTH  How  is  some p a r t i a l  reflect  determined  local  parties  their  own  the they  regional  I have  been  and a c t i o n s chosen  proposed  economic  by t h e l o c a l  involved  i n sustained  spatial  approach  and r e f l e c t  tion  i n regional  parties  planning.  growth.  are pro-  a  were  also  These  the dominant  res-  region  themselves  1971, p.  and o f a p p r e c i a t i n g  factors  pre-  section  These  within  as ways o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  growth,  This  to the influence  (Hoover,  to discuss  some  which  field.  change  external  of  process.  sense?  question  i n this  economic  forces  and p a r t l y  decisions  theories have  p a r t l y by  that  making  and  PLANNING  grow i n an economic  of the literature  growth  development  to this  for-  o n some o f  examination  to begin  DEVELOPMENT  responses  the fact  My  suggests, i n the  economic  learning. me  me  a n d comment  the regional  REGIONAL  do r e g i o n s  by a r e v i e w  ponses  about  to guide  of regional  enables  FORMULATION  as t h e t i t l e  I describe  of social  liminary  vided  chapter,  theories  t h e o r e t i c a l concepts  presents  HYPOTHESIS  a t h e o r e t i c a l background  more t r a d i t i o n a l  also  TWO  251).  selected  of through However, because  the origins of  some  of the  theories  have  a  theoretical orienta-  Three (2) A  Stages-of-Growth,  general  generally of  activities  the purposes  (Dunn,  whether  Centres.  i s given.  of this  system  review,  that  growth  refers  i s increasing  the  level  scale  ofi t s  1971).  to Export  one measured  i t sa b i l i t y  to export.  (1960,  Perloff,  et. a l .  response  of the industries  arising The  lowing  Base,  Base  growth,  demand  Export  Poles/Growth  s t r u c t u r e s and t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e  According  upon  (3) G r o w t h  o f each  t o an a c t i v i t y  i t ssocial  Export  and  description For  (1)  theories are presented:  outside concept  p.  Base  theory,  i t by  income  "Growth  57),  ".  within  the unit  a  region's  or output,  i n a given  depends  unit,"  . . i s initiated the unit  economic  t o an  says  by t h e  increase i n  itself".  of the export  base  i s based  on  the  fol-  logic: Base t h e o r i s t s d i v i d e t h e r e g i o n a l economy i n t o two s e c t o r s : b a s i c and s e r v i c e . Comprising the b a s i c s e c t o r o f the economic base o f the r e g i o n a r e t h o s e e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s whose mark e t s l i e o u t s i d e t h e r e g i o n , i . e .those industries which export t h e i r f i n a l products; the non-basic o r s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s a r e t h o s e i n d u s t r i e s whose markets are contained w i t h i n the region. A part i c u l a r a c t i v i t y may o f c o u r s e b e p a r t i a l l y b a s i c and p a r t i a l l y s e r v i c e i f i t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s e r v e s both markets. ( D a v i s , 1972, p. 2). The r a t i o b e t w e e n e x p o r t a c t i v i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , measured i n income o r employment, i s t h e n used as a m u l t i p l i e r . F o r example, a o n e - t o - o n e r a t i o w o u l d mean t h a t a n i n c r e a s e i n e x p o r t s w i l l cause an e q u a l i n c r e a s e i n r e s i dentiary, or service activities. (Tiebout, 1964, p. 256).  The r a t e a t w h i c h a r e g i o n grows, i t i s s u g g e s t e d , w i l l d e p e n d on t h e r a t e a t w h i c h the e x p o r t base expands i n l i n e w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n t h e demand f o r t h e r e g i o n s e x p o r t a b l e c o m m o d i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . (Perloff, et. a l . , 1960, p . 5 8 ) . The  export  to a long-term says  appears  the  i n income d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and short run.  investment, dential  He  suggests  income as  are  be  just  as  per  M.  North  o f economic growth w i t h  o f a number o f therefore i s  and  (196 4)  important  inapplicable  short run,  business  t h e volume o f  (1964) who  resi-  respect to  a l o n g term the  s t u d i e d the  point of  factors  t h e decade-to-decade changes i n the r e a l  capita  Tiebout  autonomous w i t h  where " t h e o b j e c t i v e i s t o d e t e r m i n e affect  more a p p l i c a b l e  exports.  However, D o u g l a s C. factors  C.  t h a t i n the  government e x p e n d i t u r e s ,  c o n s t r u c t i o n may  regional  t o be  v i e w o f a r e g i o n a l economy.  t h a t t h e e x p o r t b a s e i s o n l y one  factors in  base t h e o r y  income o f an  area"  (p. 261)  concluded  view,  that  will  aggregate  and  that:  . . . the importance o f the economic base i s a r e s u l t of i t s primary r o l e i n determining t h e l e v e l o f a b s o l u t e and p e r c a p i t a i n c o m e i n a r e g i o n , and t h e r e f o r e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e amount o f r e s i d e n t i a r y s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y a c t i v i t y t h a t w i l l d e v e l o p (p. 2 5 4 ) . Even i n the has  some l i m i t a t i o n s .  long-term, Perloff,  however, the E x p o r t  e x p l a i n very w e l l i n t e r n a l  factors  just  do:  respond  theory  e t . a l . , (1960) a r g u e t h a t i t  doesn't  don't  Base  growth  sequences.  a u t o m a t i c a l l y as  Real  life  e l e m e n t s i n a model  22.  R e s i d e n t i a r y employment does not adopt p a s s i v e l y and a u t o m a t i c a l l y t o the s t r a t e g i c "region-building" or " c i t y building" i n d u s t r i e s t h a t have e x t e r n a l trade r e l a t i o n ships. Nor can a l l s e r v i c e s be viewed as "dependent". Some p r o v i d e the e s s e n t i a l framework f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f e x p o r t p r o ducts and i n a r e a l sense a r e " l e a d " items...The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i o u s k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r e g i o n , i n c l u d i n g the complicated m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s , are c r i t i c a l i n r e g i o n a l economic growth (p. 60-61). In c o n c l u s i o n , i t can be s t a t e d t h a t economic  base  theory can h e l p e x p l a i n i n many cases the o r i g i n s o f long-term growth.  I t f a l l s c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t , however, i n p r o v i d i n g  i n s i g h t i n t o t h e mechanics o f s u s t a i n e d economic  growth.  Stages-of-Growth Elements o f the S e c t o r Theory when j o i n e d w i t h l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s form the rough b a s i s o f the t h e o r y o f Stages-of-Growth. Although o t h e r s , f o r example Losch (1938), and Hoover and F i s h e r (1949), have sought t o e x p l a i n economic growth by r e f e r e n c e t o a sequence o f s t a g e s , W. W. Rostow has p r o b a b l y developed t h e most thorough treatment o f t h i s concept. S i n c e the mid-1930's, W. W. Rostow has worked on t r y i n g t o b r i n g modern economic to r e l a t e economic  t h e o r y t o bear on economic h i s t o r y and  f o r c e s t o s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l ones i n the  workings o f whole s o c i e t i e s .  To e x p l a i n t h e economic develop-  ment o f s o c i e t i e s as i n t e r a c t i n g organisms, he uses a w e l l developed Stages-of-Growth t h e o r y . theory t o e x p l a i n the economic  While Rostow used t h i s  development  o f n a t i o n s , I have  included  i t in this  because the offer  present  c o n c e p t s he  s e c t i o n on  o f f e r s and  i n s i g h t when a p p l i e d w i t h  i n t e r a c t i o n s which take p l a c e Rostow "the  r e s u l t of  social  and  in  and  "relation the  the  other,  of  production  such t h a t per is rising"  a dynamic t h e o r y should  decisions  be  by  i s the  the  f o r c e and strictly  of  81). to  five  capital  one  how  in  this  to h i s  i n which capital  "the  not  economic motives o f  on  con-  comes  growth  and  propositions, economic  g r o w t h and  should  way  i n population,  stages of  that  of  as  (not n e c e s s a r i l y  Central  rate  the  economy".  increase  Exactly  viewpoint  lead  productivity  be  regarded  human  as  beings"  11). According  t o Rostow  (1964, p .  i n t o w h i c h a l l s o c i e t i e s can  nature of  him  hand, and  the  psychologically  i n t o the by  as  economic,  including are  of  c a p i t a output  reference  levels.  r e g u l a r l y to  rates  the  economic growth  a society,  one  (1960, p .  he  i n v o l v i n g the  functions  of production.  noted,  working  (1960, p.  the  which determine the  g o v e r n e d by  gories  can  e n t r e p r e n e u r s who  f o r c e , on  about i s d e s c r i b e d  the  utilizes  defines  ( e x i s t s ) between the  working  sumption)  of  logic  sub-national  t e c h n i c a l l y prepared new  growth  a g r o w i n g economy i s d e s c r i b e d  and  it  on  xxiv)  sectors  economic  a degree of prudence to  i n t e r a c t i n g process  a corps of  introducing  Further, a  an  political  emergence o f motivated  (1963, p.  the  regional  their  economic dimensions.  be  4)  there  placed Briefly  are  five  to explain stated,  catethe  they  are:  (1)  the t r a d i t i o n a l  (3)  the take-off,  high  mass  expansion  (4) t h e d r i v e  traditional  to maturity,  f o r take-off,  and (5) t h e a g e o f  s o c i e t y c a n be d e s c r i b e d  i n an a d h o c manner  (resulting)  from t h e f a c t  f r o m modern  science  or  (2) t h e p r e - c o n d i t i o n  consumption. The  of  society,  that  and l i m i t e d  as capable  by a  the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s  "ceiling which  flow  a n d t e c h n o l o g y were e i t h e r n o t a v a i l a b l e  n o t r e g u l a r l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  applied"  (Rostow, 1964,  p. 4 ) . The  second s t a g e o f growth i n c l u d e s  which a r e i n the process o f t r a n s i t i o n society  to the take-off  conditions that  this  f o r take-off  -  Entrepreneurs  to obtain possible profits  a l l this  i s a t i m e when t h e p r e Modern h i s t o r y  regionally-based  usually  i n transport  s t r u c t u r e and v a l u e s political  Rostow p o i n t s  power"  external,  or modernization. and communications.  still  institutions  held  out, "the t r a d i t i o n a l  economic p u r p o s e s by a c o l o n i a l  society  pace  dominated and strong. society  s i d e by s i d e w i t h modern e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s , limited  shows  came f o r w a r d , w i l l i n g t o  a c t i v i t y proceeded a t the t r a d i t i o n a l  the o l d s o c i a l  cases,"  from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  are developed.  society.  Investment i n c r e a s e d , But  This  societies  u s u a l l y r e s u l t e d f r o m some i n t r u s i o n by some  more a d v a n c e d take r i s k s  stage.  those  " I n many persisted  conducted f o r  or quasi-colonial  (1947, p . 7 ) . The  resistance  take-off  finally  stage  being  i s characterized  by o l d t r a d i t i o n a l  b r o k e n down a n d "compound  interest  becomes b u i l t , institutional for  this  as  i t were, i n t o  s t r u c t u r e " (Rostow,  t a k e - o f f i s mainly  s e e n as n e c e s s a r y social  for this  overhead c a p i t a l ,  foster  the modernization  agriculture,  of the  f o u r t h stage  stage  its  wide range o f advanced p.  to absorb  fruits  of  (then)  as  age  (3)  the  emergence  able to handle  (Rostow, 1964,  and  p.  Maturity  8).  maturity.  a l l sectors  through  i s formally the  i n d u s t r i e s which  powered  efficiently  a  over  very  the whole range - the  modern t e c h n o l o g y "  (Rostow,  o f h i g h mass c o n s u m p t i o n , o r  fifth  most  1964,  stage,  a s t a t e i n w h i c h a s o c i e t y moves t o w a r d s  c o n s u m e r s ' goods a n d the p o l i t i c a l  s e r v i c e s and  process,  chooses  increased resources  durable  to a l l o c a t e , to s o c i a l  is  through  welfare  security. While not;  they  1960,  summarized  p.  these  have an  dynamic t h e o r y and  - i f not  of  of technological  economy d e m o n s t r a t e s  apply  are  10).  described  are  and  i t s resources  The  and  i n w h i c h an  t o move b e y o n d t h e o r i g i n a l  t a k e - o f f and  and  to reach  defined  stimulus  Three elements  encompasses the d r i v e t o  o f modern t e c h n o l o g y .  capacity  The  and  (1) a b u i l d - u p  and  economy  the a p p l i c a t i o n "the  7).  (2) a b u r s t i n g f o r t h  g r o w i n g economy p u s h e s o u t w a r d  as  p.  forward:  power o f a g r o u p w i l l i n g  The The  1964,  technological. surge  d e v e l o p m e n t i n i n d u s t r y and to p o l i t i c a l  (the s o c i e t y ' s ) h a b i t s  s t a g e s may inner logic  of production,  307) .  thusly:  a p p e a r t o be and  continuity, rooted  according  T h i s dynamic t h e o r y there  descriptive,  t o Rostow  in  the  (1964, p .  of production  i s a framework s e t by  they  supply  can and  12  be demand  f o r c e s which determines the t o t a l comes s e c t o r a l framework tion,  optimum p o s i t i o n s .  i s determined l a r g e l y  determining  potentially that its  profitable  history  i s made o f t h e f a c t  rates,  due i n p a r t  Social  resources  processes.  together different  Rostow  a v a i l a b l e and  (1960, p . 309) s a y s takes a p a r t of  a p p r o x i m a t i o n - from the e f f o r t o f  that  sectoral  sectors  to the discontinuity  and p o l i c i e s  paths."  expand  elasticities  decisions  t h e dynamics o f market  technology,  Recog-  at different  of production  o f government  These b r o a d c o l l e c t i v e  risk-taking,  side  of entrepreneurship,  functions  o f demand.  also  affect  i n terms which t r a n s c e n d c o n v e n t i o n a l  place along with  this  of popula-  and on t h e s u p p l y  o f growing s o c i e t i e s  f r o m h i g h p r i c e o r income  decisions  o f income,  and t h e q u a l i t y  t o approximate the optimal  nition  Out o f t h i s  on t h e demand s i d e  by l e v e l s  innovations.  rude shape - as a f i r s t  and a l s o  of output.  the p r o p o r t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l l y  "the economic  societies  for  Now  a n d by t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t a s t e s ,  by t h e s t a t e o f t e c h n o l o g y this  level  demand  market  o u t s i d e t h e market  demand  (inaddition to  and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p ) have  worked  i n d i f f e r e n t ways t o d e t e r m i n e t h e make-up o f t h e stages o f growth  (Rostow,  1960, p . 310, a n d 1964,  p. 1 5 ) .  Growth  Poles/Growth Centres  The m e a n i n g s c e n t r e s " have been p.  o f the terms  a continuing  5 ) , among o t h e r s ,  including  "growth p o l e s "  c o n c e r n t o many. myself,  have  and  "growth  Darwent  (1969,  asked the question,  "Are  we  are  growing,  tive has  speaking  of places  t h a t a r e p r e d i c t e d t o grow, o r  s e n s e ) we  w i s h t o see  emerged f r o m my  paragraphs r e l a t e The Francois  o r phenomena t h a t have grown,  grow i n t h e  review of  some o f my  theory  Perroux  the  as  a field  (1950, p.  27),  of  are  was  89-109) who  f o r c e s , and  ".  f o r c e s emanate and  attracted.  Each c e n t e r  other  has  centers."  o f them, and represented can p.  be  "are by  an  best  was  introduced  referring  to  by  eco-  says  focii)  Perroux from which  of attraction  i s s e t i n the  firms or simply  matrix  forces  as  and  field  of a l l  industries, or  groups  sectors of  i n w h i c h growh  rows and  are  columns"  an  economy  effects  (Darwent,  1969,  5).  others. cise,  i s known as  a high  a  "propulsive  degree o f dominance  i n t e r a c t i o n with  p o s i t i o n t h a t the  dominant, economy  p l a c e when one  f i r m comes t o  T h i s d o m i n a n t f i r m , o r e c o n o m i c u n i t , t o be  (3) h i g h the  are  the  first  (poles or  which  regarded  across  following  Economic space i s des-  a center  input-output  transmitted  The  norma-  c l e a r answer  to which c e n t r i p e t a l  field  These p o l e s  Growth t a k e s  (1)  being  i t s proper  No  growth p o l e s ,  . . centers  centrifugal  repulsion  ( i n the  findings.  nomic s p a c e , r a t h e r t h a n g e o g r a p h i c . cribed  future?  literature.  o f growth p o l e s  (1950, p .  that  that  u n i t " and  (of o u t p u t ) ,  many o t h e r  process  an  t o grow r a p i d l y , i s t h e  grow.  has  firms.  three  (2)  dominate more  pre-  features:  large size,  Perroux puts  and  forth  e c o n o m i c u n i t e m p l o y s t o become f o r c e t h a t makes t h e  whole  28.  Where matter  f o r the  graphic  best  The  able  an  o f an  each  outputs.  The  linear  optimum  location  complex,  function  -  of  to  "agglomeration  pool large  of  labour,  market  meration  development Council,  i t does  theory  of the  help  p.  16,  area,  t o have  of one  They  And  while  t o e x p l a i n why success  a  on  of  and  (gives)  linked  the  processes  the b i g f i r m  centres"  i s quite  likely  diversified i t is a  financial  the notion  growth  centre  of  Thomas  services, agglo-  comes  i n growth  Provinces  1958).  growth.  urban  because of  or  theory  industrial  success  (Atlantic  Hirschman,  inputs  l a r g e and  range  e x p l a i n how  size  are usually a  growth  some o b j e c t i v e  "growth  a broad  etc.  of  relied  where  (were)  12) .  transportation costs  and  "they (the  this  of  p.  complexity  likely  doesn't  b r e e d s more  1972,  1969,  f o r growth,  facilities,  economics  existence,  small  f o r the  economics  of the  combination  economics".  reduced  in a  communications  poles"  are  this,  to  i s  (1959):  matrix  scale  solution  are u s u a l l y areas  which  the  the maximization  the basis  centres"  doing  geo-  i t s location  Schooler  o f each  (Darwent,  more  and  to invest i n  complex,  f o r the optimum  "Growth  concentrations  o f what  programming  of  By  subject  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f optimum  the  "growth  and  the  locations in  input-output  transport costs  to recognize  find  Isard  complex.  with  say p r o f i t s "  i n d u s t r y as  seems  the pole  i n terms  While big  between  the elements the  a  link  the choice  and  in  centres",  industrial  involved,  forms  "growth  simultaneously  of  place  of  inter-activity  to deal with  pole),  takes  d e m o n s t r a t e d by  developed  elements  process  theory  space.  probably they  this  and  Economic Wilson  into  (1964, p.  16-17) o f f e r s t h e  following  rationale for  growth  centres: I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t manuf a c t u r i n g c a n n o t be s c a t t e r e d i n s m a l l p o c k e t s a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y i n an a t t e m p t t o b r i n g more work o f t h i s k i n d t o e v e r y d i s t r i c t where t h e r e h a p p e n s t o be e x c e s s i v e unemployment. W h i l e i s o l a t e d f a c t o r i e s w i l l sometimes s u c c e e d and s h o u l d , o f c o u r s e , be g i v e n any r e a s o n a b l e f a c i l i t y t h a t w i l l e n a b l e them t o do s o , e x p e r i e n c e e v e r y w h e r e shows t h a t some geographic concentration of industry i s desirable. An u r b a n c e n t r e i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y i f much p r o g r e s s i s t o be made i n e x t e n d i n g o f f i c e employment. I t i s f o r these reasons t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o c e n t r e s of growth. Edgar Hoover basic  strategy  growth c e n t r e s the  issues  276-277),  for regional  i n much t h e  a l l o c a t i o n of  development  (1971, p .  same way,  i n an  outline  of  development a s s i s t a n c e , stressing efficiency  g o v e r n m e n t s p e n d i n g and  manpower i n a  views in  regional  effort:  One of the four basic issues of regional development assistance strategy concerns the focusing of such assistance upon a r e l a t i v e l y small number of selected growth centres at which there exists or can e a s i l y be created the necessary conditions for expanding employment opportunity, and e s p e c i a l l y the public i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and the external economies that most a c t i v i t i e s require. Such growth centres are then expected to a t t r a c t commuters and migrants from surrounding areas of labour surplus, and at the same time to stimulate secondary growth of employment i n some of those areas. John Friedmann of  regional  model.  The  periphery),  (1966) d i s c u s s e s  economic development impetus the  f o r growth  export of  the  i n terms o f  is usually  spatial a  center-periphery  external  a primary product or  incidence  (the  resource  to  30.  other  areas  center  or nations.  with  structure  the periphery  region.  Local  are  necessary,  leadership.  This  opportunities  of  and towns  In and an  others  units.  on the other  belief  would of  that  spread  this  needs  i s evidence  o f an  local  administration A  hierarchy  of increasing  development.  theory  Growth,  says  agglomeration  itself  tries  growth,  to surrounding  into  by P e r r o u x  occurring  dominance  but i t s  "Growth  space o f a  o f agglomeration  economies  being  communities  centre"  i n a n o r m a t i v e man-  economic  after  as  over  I believe,  further.  to explain  the total  growth  value,  t o be examined  The n o t i o n  as advanced  o f economic  explanatory  hand,  economic  theory.  within  infrastructure  decision-makers.  pole"  the notion  the interactions within region.  and expenditures  to the size  "growth  I t h a s some  theory,  geographic  socio-political  on the q u a l i t y o f  and t h i s  firm or unit propels  as a t o o l  a  emerges  summary,  utility  ner  for local  of the  17-18).  p.  describes  economic  other  i s dependent  i s proportional 1969,  (Darwent,  upon  and government  i n t e g r a t i o n , and therefore  Friedmann,  the interaction  i s encouraged by a d e c e n t r a l i z e d  providing cities  o f incomes  investment  and t h i s  says  i s dependent  and d i s t r i b u t i o n  the  spatial  Friedmann  initially  are basic  given and  localized,  assumptions  SOCIAL  LEARNING  R e c e n t t h i n k i n g on t h e p r o c e s s e s ment p l a n n i n g the  shows an i n c r e a s i n g  c o n t e x t o f more c o m p l e x  to concepts  ment I t u r n a g a i n  its  develop-  "Development i n t h e mode o f  o f human  potential  not only a s i g n i f i c a n t ,  develop-  i s being  but necessary  factor  the process. And  that  social  more r e c e n t l y ,  This  section  Entrepreneurship  relates  the notion  on a c o m p l e x , n o n -  This process  i n more d e t a i l  i n the r e l e v a n t  i scharacterized  my  investigation  literature.  Development  driving  force i n i t i a t i n g  c h a n g e s has b e e n c a l l e d  According  economic and  by some r e s e a r c h e r s  a body o f t h e o r y h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d  cesses.  are advancing  experimentation.  thoughts  The  based  learning process.  evolutionary  these  theorists  change i s a c t u a l l y  deterministic  and  of  than  f o r r e g i o n a l economic growth i n d e p r e s s e d  The s t i m u l a t i o n o f human c r e a t i v e  viewed as p o s s i b l y  of  system i s transformed  have begun t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e  ment.  by  Development r a t h e r  9)".  Strategies  in  systems t h a t a r e r e l a t e d  t o E d g a r S. Dunn, J r . ( 1 9 7 1 ) :  (p.  develop-  to consider i t i n  For a working d e f i n i t i o n  t h a t an a c t i v i t y  behaviour  areas  functional  o f b e h a v i o u r a l change.  growth i s the emphasis.  implies  tendency  of regional  to McClelland  social  "entrepreneurship",  to explain i t s pro-  (1971, p . 1 0 9 ) , t h i s  theory  focuses  o n t h e human  exploit  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t o take  conditions,  i n short,  In lagging Haynes  values  096 3)  i n East  define  has been  realized  They  say t h i s  relates  more b a s i c a l l y , More more  emphasis  mercialize  of  this  body  continuous equilibrium  t h e new  infinitesmal  who  Warren  between (p.  280-81).  but also,  capital. argues  can apply  that  a n d com-  i t from without, . . .  forward  changes  never  h i s own  b y i t s own  I t i s a spontaneous  forever  alters  and  dis-  and d i s p l a c e s the  ( s o much)  from  has  i n economics  but arise  . . .  t h e o l d one by  A d d s u c c e s s i v e l y a s many  you w i l l  person,  on t h e development  by b r i n g i n g  one cannot be r e a c h e d steps.  any o t h e r  " (It) i n v o l v e s  . . which  get a railway  mail  coaches  thereby"  (Schumpeter,  45-6) . Development,  entrepreneurship it  a n d W.  " l a r g e gap  focuses  state previously existing  you please, p.  Bowman  (1966)  Schon  than  which  Ke b e g i n s  from w i t h i n . change.  more  of theory  a r e n o t f o r c e d upon  1971,  as a  o f human  Donald  Schumpeter,  o f development:  initiative,  as  Jean  p h y s i c a l growth,  b e p u t o n t h e men  entrepreneurship.  that  Mary  to not only  trade  and p o t e n t i a l s o f a  and t h e p o t e n t i a l s o f an a r e a "  normatively, must  of favourable  research.  definition as  Kentucky,  l e a d man t o  destiny.  the problems  to the formation  Joseph advanced  h i s own  underdevelopment  what  that  advantage  t o shape  w r i t i n g about  economy  and motives  according  i n action,  to this  theory,  o r as Schumpeter  " . . . t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f new  i s really  (1971,  combinations  p.  47)  calls  (of productive  means)".  This  economic (p.  means " . . . t h e d i f f e r e n t  system's e x i s t i n g s u p p l i e s  employment  of productive  of the  means"  48-49). This  concept,  says Schumpeter  (1971), c o v e r s  five  cases: (1)  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new g o o d , o r a new q u a l i t y o f good;  .  (2)  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new method o f o p e r a t i o n ;  (3)  t h e o p e n i n g o f a new m a r k e t ;  (4)  c o n q u e s t o f a new s o u r c e o f s u p p l y or half-manufactured  (5)  (e.g. t h e c r e a t i o n o f a monopoly, o r  breaking  up o f a m o n o p o l y ) .  i s the s p e c i a l kind Kilby  one who h a s t h e i n t u i t i o n a l  which afterwards  says M c C l e l l a n d  money, i s w i l l i n g  In o r d e r  production,  capacity  the entrepreneur  t o view t h i n g s  opposition.  to with-  He h a s a d e s i r e f o r  (1971, p . 1 1 4 ) , r a t h e r and d e s i r e s  than f o r t o assume  for decisions.  for this  e n t r e p r e n e u r t o c a r r y o u t new com-  S c h u m p e t e r s a y s he must h a v e command and t h i s  i n a way  and mind  and the c a p a c i t y  t o take moderate r i s k ,  responsibility  binations,  (1971) d e s c r i b e s  o f thought,  the i n e v i t a b l e s o c i a l  achievement,  o f p e r s o n who c a r r i e s o u t  proves c o r r e c t , the energy o f w i l l  t o overcome f i x e d h a b i t s  personal  o f any  industry  t h e s e new c o m b i n a t i o n s ?  stand  materials  goods;  t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f a new o r g a n i z a t i o n  Who  as  o f raw  relates directly  o v e r means o f  t o , and emphasizes, the  34.  significance  of credit.  (1971,  p . 50) s a y s ,  resort  to credit  which cannot, returns  "The p o s s e s s o r o f w e a l t h , "  "even i f i t i s t h e g r e a t e s t c o m b i n e ,  i f he w i s h e s  like  to carry  an e s t a b l i s h e d  o u t a new  must  combination,  b u s i n e s s , be f i n a n c e d by  from p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n " . How  a n e n t r e p r e n e u r g e t s t h e sums t o p u r c h a s e t h e  means o f p r o d u c t i o n he n e e d s t o c a r r y is  Schumpeter  actually  a new c o m b i n a t i o n  characteristically  o u t t h e new  in itself.  i n a growing  o f t h e annual growth o f s o c i a l  combinations  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , and  economy, t h e s e  sums came " o u t  savings plus that part o f  r e s o u r c e w h i c h may a n n u a l l y become f r e e "  Schumpeter,  1971, p .  51-52). But relevance  t h e r e i s a n o t h e r way, a way w h i c h h a s s p e c i a l  f o r depressed  areas because  the e x i s t e n c e o f accumulated This  new method o f g e t t i n g  creation  results  of previous  t h e money  development.  f o r production i s the  o f p u r c h a s i n g power b y b a n k s o u t o f n o t h i n g .  S c h u m p e t e r s u g g e s t s bank n o t e s withdrawn from c i r c u l a t i o n , banking  i t does n o t p r e s u p p o s e  not f u l l y  different  c o v e r e d by s p e c i e  methods o f d e p o s i t  (where t h e y i n c r e a s e t h e sum t o t a l  of possible  d i t u r e ) , a n d bank a c c e p t a n c e s  i n so f a r as they  t o make payments  trade  The man, m e r e l y purchasing  i n wholesale  banker  assumes a new r o l e  transferring power.  by h i s w i l l i n g n e s s  to invest  actually  s e r v e a s money  52). now.  sums o f money w h i c h  The b a n k e r  entrepreneur himself.  (p.  expen-  He i s n o t a m i d d l e translate  produces  i n human p o t e n t i a l ,  into  purchasing  power  a n d becomes a n  A number o f o t h e r w r i t e r s who overcoming  the seemingly  a r e a s have a l s o start  Jean  come t o t h e p o s i t i o n  fundamental  W.  and  system,  W a r r e n Haynes  highest p r i o r i t y  "until  S t a n l e y F o s t e r Reed  the h i l l s  Harry C a u d i l l  (1962) s p e a k s  so  in his very  making a l i v i n g , primary  i t must be  for  one  r e a s o n , he  art  of entrepreneurship  (p.  argue  that  becoming p a r t  of  are s a t u r a t e d with  lost  Mary the  i s a c o n t i n u o u s l y improving  (1964) i n w r i t i n g  t h a t where a community has  Societal  depressed  a good p l a c e t o  (1963) a l s o  t o u c h i n g a l l groups,  aspect of l i f e  about  it".  West V i r g i n i a  i t s receptivity  re-educated.  every  t o new  says  ways o f  T h i s must t a k e p l a c e  s a y s , namely t h e r e v i v a l  of the  lost  30).  Guidance  Learning approach  among g r o u p s  to societal  comprehensive A Theory  way  drawing  and  relate  Political t o one  i n The  an  another  active  in  Society:  (1968) .  collectivities,  units with a potential  category.  meaning t h a t  Active  Processes  upon a s e t o f n o r m a t i v e  members o f a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n transformability,  and  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s p r e s e n t e d i n a more  says, which are l a r g e  t o a c t by  of people  by A m i t a i E t z i o n i  of S o c i e t a l People  Etzioni  there.  for  o f the need f o r a p r o p e r e d u c a t i o n a l system.  Bowman and  school  live  that  N i g h t Comes t o t h e C u m b e r l a n d s  eloquently  strategies  i n t r a c t a b l e problems of  i s w i t h t h e p e o p l e who  classic  have o f f e r e d  i t has  bonds w h i c h  This societal  capacity t i e together unit  not o n l y the a b i l i t y  has to  36.  to generate adaptive old  u n i t , but  also  How not  (p.  l a r g e l y by The  of  the  of  i t s patterns  mobilization  Level  this  off  of  the of  collective  A project  projects  (p. 4 0 3 ) . catalyst (1)  (2)  an  121).  as  states,  a  dynamic  is affected use  assets  l e s s permanent  system or  i t s structure (p.  i s characterized this  to  E t z i o n i does  rather  a more o r  i s the  390).  by  an  increasi  key  to  the  take  403). by  E t z i o n i as of  a  "concerted  e n e r g y and  oriented  a  comparatively  towards s p e c i f i c  reasons that a p r o j e c t acts  as  a  tasks"  societal  three:  projects and  but  organization"  focusing  guided a c t i v i t y  The are  (p.  (p.  t o c o n t r o l and  the  - and  i s defined  e f f o r t which e n t a i l s the and  "entail  i n turn,  stage of m o b i l i z a t i o n  intensive  capacity  i n t e g r a t i o n and  stability  accomplished?  given,  boundaries of  new  pattern  commitment, he  change  Boundary m o d i f i c a t i o n , number o f  a b o u t a new  change i n the  processes of  to restore  commitment as  388).  modification -  to bring  is this  view l e v e l  quality  changes or  d i s p e l "walls",  release blocked  walls  may  be  real,  psychologically  built,  energy; but  a p r o j e c t may  suffice  to  remove them; (3)  projects  can  build collective  consciousness  t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s , even though a t p r e s e n t c a n n o t be Finally, mobilizing  moved o r projects  removed involve  u n i t s because they b r i n g  commitments.  And  E t z i o n i says t h a t  of  they  (p. 40 3 ) . an new  i n t e r n a l change i n personal  "there  and  i s growing  the  collective evidence  that  t h e most e f f e c t i v e  f o r him line  way  to a c t , to p a r t i c i p a t e ,  of action"  (p.  n o t o n l y do  reconstituting transformed. interchange action  of s o c i e t a l  more p e o p l e  observes  15).  E d g a r S.  Mutual L e a r n i n g Through The  learning Reg.  process  says,  learning  of s o c i a l  through Lang  and  and  group  learning  (1972b) a r g u e s  changed p e r c e p t i o n .  process  r a t h e r than  on  a new  paradigm  i s further  t h a t the  a predictive  process:  the  refined  ecological  Heskin  community  decision  monitoring,  implementation,  is basically  s p o n t a n e i t y and  present  a  similar (1973).  "rational-  This paradigm " i s of a d e c e n t r a l i z e d  human d e v e l o p m e n t by based  experimentation"  a  one.  realization  ethic  by  to include  t o c h a l l e n g e the  facilitates  the  experimentation.  o p e r a t i o n which  is rising  s y s t e m s c h a n g e and  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f an  this  f o r a R a d i c a l Concept of P l a n n i n g "  communal s o c i e t y w h i c h an  societal  learning.  P l a n n i n g and  Allan  are  Experimentation  c o m p r e h e n s i v e " m o d e l o f modern p l a n n i n g . based  and  (1971) c a l l s  social  i n n o v a t i o n and  are p a r t of a s i n g l e  thereby  a need f o r dynamic  the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the process  i n "Foundations  They s a y  Dunn, J r . and  states  t h e members t h e m s e l v e s  Innovation  S t e p h e n Grabow and case  but  Etzioni  i s a c o n t i n u o u s l y o p e r a t i n g open system o f  feedback, he  concept  extend  intended  i n society,  that there exists  i n t e r f a c e between i n d i v i d u a l  mutual  activation,  between p e r s o n a l , s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n  (p. 11,  t h o s e who  'sample' o f t h e  g a i n a share  i t s structure, He  in a  (to change) i s  404).  In the p r o c e s s that  t o commit a p e r s o n  on  (p.  fostering  the e v o l u t i o n a r y 109).  38.  E d g a r S. ment  (1971),  s p e c i e s has  says  Dunn, J r . , i n E c o n o m i c and t h a t the  reached  learning  organism  t h e p o i n t where l e a r n i n g  has  because the dominant a s p e c t  organism's  l e a r n i n g environment i s the presence  learning  i s one  different science  and  (p.  239-41).  The  social  from  i n the  hypothesis  learning  the experimental  o f and  This process  testing  process,  become  largely  individual  of evolutionary experimentation,  of problem s o l v i n g character  l e a r n i n g organisms.  Develop-  i n t h e human  socialized  sharing with other  o f the  Social  an  of quite a  of  the social  activity different  a c c o r d i n g t o Dunn, i s  p r o c e s s known t o  classical  f o l l o w i n g ways:  The b a s i c p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e i s t h e f a c t t h a t the s o c i a l system e x p e r i m e n t e r i s not exogenous t o the system. He e x i s t s a s an e n d o g e n o u s component o f t h e s y s t e m he i s a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d and transform. He i s n o t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d e s i g n o f f u l l y d e t e r m i n i s t i c s y s t e m s . He i s immersed i n t h e a c t o f s o c i a l s y s t e m s e l f - a n a l y s i s and s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . He i s t h e a g e n t o f s o c i a l learning - a purposive, s e l f - a c t u a t i n g but not f u l l y deterministic process. He i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d t o t h e same d e g r e e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g u n i v e r s a l s because the s o c i a l system which engages h i s a c t i v i t y i s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y u n i q u e and b o t h i t s s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n a r e t e m p o r a r y i n c h a r a c t e r . He i s e n g a g e d , r a t h e r , i n f o r m u l a t i n g a n d t e s t i n g developmental hypothesis. The developmental h y p o t h e s i s i s a p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t , i f the organ i z a t i o n and b e h a v i o u r o f a s o c i a l s y s t e m were t o be m o d i f i e d i n a c e r t a i n way, t h e g o a l s o f t h e s y s t e m w o u l d be more a d e q u a t e l y r e a l i z e d . This development h y p o t h e s i s i s not t e s t e d r e p e a t e d l y under n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l o r c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . R a t h e r , i t i s t e s t e d by t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h g o a l c o n v e r g e n c e i s r e a l i z e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e experimental design. Problem s o l v i n g hypothesis f o r m u l a t i o n and t e s t i n g - i s an i t e r a t i v e , s e q u e n t i a l s e r i e s o f a d e t p t a t i o n s o f an a d a p t a b l e , g o a l - s e e k i n g , s e l f - a c t u a t i n g system. I t c a n be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n (p. 2 4 1 ) . (Emphasis mine.)  39.  Disparities rather  than  the  E.  and  Poetschke  Dynamic P l a n n i n g t o be  usually defined  in statistical  terms  " d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n what i n d i v i d u a l s , n e i g h b o r -  hoods, communities, s a y s L.  are  regions  (1972, p .  are  and  57).  In  Process" Poetschke  stating that  what t h e y c o u l d  become,"  "Regional Planning  in a  s a y s t h a t p u b l i c wisdom  d e v e l o p m e n t i s s o m e t h i n g p e o p l e do,  seems  not  governments: Planning which i s r e l e v a n t i n t h i s world would be a p r o c e s s t o s u p p o r t and s t r e n g t h e n t h e i n d i genous c a p a c i t y o f p e o p l e t o d e f i n e t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s and d e v e l o p c a p a b i l i t y t o manage and c o n t r o l t h e i r own d e s t i n y - a p r o c e s s o f g r o w t h i n human t e r m s (p. 5 7 ) . P o e t s c h k e g o e s on  to describe  an  evolutionary  process of  experi-  mentation: The g u i d e l i n e s f o r a c t i o n w o u l d n o t be r e g u l a t i o n b u t a c o n c e p t o f a d e s i r a b l e and f e a s i b l e direction for evolution. A c t i o n s w o u l d be j u d g e d on t h e b a s i s o f w h e t h e r t h e y r e i n f o r c e o r u n d e r mine t h e d e s i r a b l e e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s , not whether they conform to a r b i t r a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d administrative c r i t e r i a . W i t h i n t h i s framework, p l a n n i n g and t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y w o u l d be d i r e c t e d to working with i n t e r e s t groups, neighb o r h o o d g r o u p s , i n v e s t o r s , and o t h e r s t o h e l p them take i n n o v a t i v e a c t i o n which r e i n f o r c e s s t r a t e g y (p. 6 1 ) . John Friedmann a l s o b e l i e v e s process of  social  However, he  more s t r o n g l y  pant planning", conditions  social  For  process  must be actor,  a  focuses  on  institutional  emphasizes mutual  says Friedmann  (1973c, p.  participant-dominated  organization  76),  consequently  t o work e f f e c t i v e l y ,  forging of  that  and  i s , the  a personal adopting of  a  "Partici-  "occurs resides is  however, he  relation  change.  learning.  where power t o i m p l e m e n t d e c i s i o n s  forms o f this  change which  in a  under in  community  dispersed". says t h a t  between e x p e r t  " t r a n s a c t i v e " s t y l e of  and  there client  planning.  40.  "Transactive "changes  knowledge  interpersonal Dialogue".  planning,"  into  relations"  Since  opera of a high  Kas  intellectual  Dialogue, t o open y o u r s e l f their  calls  calls  order,  And  this  between  AN  useful  others  lead  to a  Since r e l a t i o n s h i p s  from each  communication, i n a r e as v i t a l  I t presumes  a n d commitments, o f r e c i p r o c i t y ,  ( F r i e d m a n n , 1973c,  can-  i n which c o n f l i c t i s  total  said.  and s u g g e s t s i n t i m a c y  learning  soap  explanation.  persons d i f f e r e n t  as t h a t w h i c h i s a c t u a l l y  shared i n t e r e s t s  mutual  definition  he b e l i e v e s c a n o n l y  However, i t a l s o p r e s u m e s  obligations,  of  i t m i g h t be  w h i c h g e s t u r e s and o t h e r modes o f e x p r e s s i o n  of  the " L i f e  I t means an a c c e p t a n c e o f  d i a l o g u e must presume a r e l a t i o n  meaning  of  self-discovery.  n o t a l w a y s be h a r m o n i o u s  accepted.  sequence  ( 1 9 7 3 c ) , means a w i l l i n g n e s s  What d o e s d i a l o g u e p r e s u m e ?  other,  this  this  I think  says Friedmann  differences.  process o f mutual  (1974)  He  i n t o Friedmann's  to others.  (1973c),  t h r o u g h an u n b r o k e n  (p. 1 7 1 ) .  Kalba  to probe a b i t f u r t h e r  and  action  says Friedmann  a  to  relation  mutual  and a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s p.  of  177-181).  I N I T I A L ANALYSIS  PREDICTION AND  PLANNING  In the economic part of this role.  chapter,  According  directed  growth  prediction  concepts presented and p l a n n i n g have  i n the a very  first defined  t o E d g a r S. D u n n , J r . , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , " p r e d i c t i o n i s  to anticipating  changes  i n the e x t e r n a l  parameters of  41.  the  system,  (and)  ordination,  or  planning  i s addressed  specification  of  the  to  the  efficient  subsystem  co-  interrelationships"  (p. 17-18). I focus  of  external  believe  these  i t is  important  conventional  factors. as  adaptation.  to  in  scale brought  Prediction deterministic effort  to  prediction Those  and  Dunn  upon  exchange  and  to  with  second  part  cesses.  expansion  linked  systems.  other this tell  models chapter us  open  process  of  social  Dunn  (1971)  says  this  endogenous  in  behaviour This  tionary  form  of  relegated  carried  state  the  This  burden  linked  of  social  type of  demand  change  change  process and  has  does by  a  the  due  chiefly  within and of  a  every activity,  limits for  to  their  resource  in  the  non-deterministic i s the  product  not  on  system's as  a  pro-  of  an  programmed. that  external  own  and  systems.  presented  depend  learning i s described  on  being  learning capacity  not  the  explanation  resource  incorporate social  out  exogenous  their  is  to  are  i s adopted  i t .  that  stimuli.  l e a r n i n g , c r e a t i v e and  is instigated  purposes  process  of  is  agents; (p.  29-  evolu-  experimentation. Prediction,  the  that  character  social  are  here  theories  external  encounter  the  of  They  however,  of  are  out  i n behaviour  reaching places  point  growth  by  final  behaviour  must,  The  30).  A  (19 7 1 ) ,  the  about  planning  framework.  systems  expansion  new  Changes  i s d i r e c t e d toward  according  economic  I n t e r n a l changes  classified changes  to  of  a  then,  developmental  i s not  prophecy.  hypothesis.  Rather,  Planning  is  i t not  takes  engineering.  Planning,  form o f c o n d u c t i n g mental hypothesis  AN  t o Dunn  an e x p e r i m e n t , i n action  that  (1971),  takes the  i s , t e s t i n g the develop-  ( p . 133-4) .  HYPOTHESIS  This ship  study  between p u b l i c  process. social  seeks  examined  this  chapter  and t h e r e g i o n a l  f o r an a p p r o a c h  the r e l a t i o n -  development  that w i l l  first  I have r e v i e w e d  of thought  relevant  t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l  growth, and s e c o n d l y ,  I analyzed  better  foster  literature  to this  theories  relating  inquiry.  of regional  t h e more r e c e n t  I economic  theories of  learning. On t h e b a s i s  believe  of this  cursory  I c a n make some p r e l i m i n a r y  regional  development process.  what i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y  involved.  well-being  could  that  to strengthen  seeks  impact  of  local  to  take  suggestions that  us v e r y  I would  social  learning  appropriate  to assess action.  their  I the  the t r a d i t i o n a l i n understanding  suggest  that  through  rather  regional an a p p r o a c h  than have a  and i n d i v i d u a l income.  seems t o be d e s i r a b l e  communities  review,  concerning  much  b e f o s t e r e d more e f f e c t i v e l y  o n employment  experimentation  literature  I t appears  e c o n o m i c g r o w t h m o d e l s do n o t h e l p  direct  insights into  change.  two m a j o r b o d i e s  social  to obtain  involvement  I t i s a search  In to  according  A degree o f  t o promote t h e a b i l i t y problems  and  opportunities  The planning  process  Opportunities initial  next  chapter  i n which  Project.  analysis.  outlines  a  regional  I participated:  I use  i t as  a  the  development Development  rudimentary  test  of  th  CHAPTER  THREE  REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING  This of  a number  tiatives ment  chapter  o f recent  designed  planning.  presented living call  County  to carry  described  fully.  These  level  to deal  nings  of a learning  mental The of  with  and less  final  effort  nearly  background, about  process  that  approach  planning  c a l l e d t h e Development  AGRICULTURAL  In Agriculture, Commons:  REHABILITATION  December, introduced  of  social  describes  at the regional t o be t h e b e g i n -  i n Pictou  the following  experi-  and development.  the formal  initiation  County,  an  Project.  INITIATIVES  Hamilton,  Pictou  change i s  t o a more  DEVELOPMENT  1960, A l v i n  County i s  the attempts  Opportunities  AND  develop-  Scotians  them  A P E R S P E C T I V E OF F E D E R A L AND P R O V I N C I A L REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING  ini-  t h e h i s t o r y and  to planning  process  intentions  provincial  of Pictou  a r e shown  leads  SCOTIA  50,000 Nova  desirable  problems  o f the chapter  the developmental  profile  i n limited detail  regulatory  section  of the  Scotia  efforts at organizing  common  NOVA  out policies f o rregional  this  to bring  COUNTY,  an o u t l i n e  and Nova  o f the place  Following  residents  with  a community  describes  environment  home.  federal  Next,  which  begins  IN PICTOU  IN  ACT  then  resolution  Minister i n the  of  That i t i s expedient to i n t r o d u c e a measure t o a u t h o r i z e the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e to e n t e r i n t o agreements w i t h p r o v i n c i a l governments o r a g e n c i e s t h e r e o f f o r the undertaking j o i n t l y with those governments o r a g e n c i e s o f p r o j e c t s f o r t h e a l t e r n a t i v e u s e s o f l a n d s t h a t a r e o f marg i n a l o r o f low p r o d u c t i v i t y , p r o j e c t s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f income and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s , and p r o j e c t s f o r t h e development and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s o i l and w a t e r r e s o u r c e s o f C a n a d a . . . ( B r e w i s , 1969, p . 1 0 4 ) . And t o combat  fully  national  e s t a b l i s h e d under the A g r i c u l t u r a l  Development A c t  the F i r s t  the f i r s t  i n a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d use and i t s a t t e n d a n t  p o v e r t y was and  s o , i n 1961,  Agreement  (ARDA).  programme rural  Rehabilitation  The i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r a g r a p h s  expressed  of  the d e s i r e o f the c o - s i g n i n g  governments: . . . o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e economic a d j u s t ment o f r u r a l a r e a s and o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e i n c o m e and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d i m p r o v i n g t h e standards of l i v i n g of people i n r u r a l areas... o f i m p r o v i n g t h e u s e and p r o d u c t i v i t y o f r e s o u r c e s i n r u r a l a r e a s (Buckley and T i h a n y i , 1967, p . 9 3 ) . ARDA programmes and p o l i c i e s tion ments  and a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n and e n t a i l e d  the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l  a sharing o f the c o s t s .  g o v e r n m e n t had t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y expenditures  required formal  within their  own  The  for policy  boundaries.  those  direction  The  could  initiate  1969, p . 1 0 7 ) .  Research  which the f e d e r a l  a n d c a r r y o u t , were  govern-  clearly  t h e programmes t h e y w a n t e d  projects,  and  federal  from  a u t h o r i z e d under the agreements s i g n e d p u r s u a n t  legislation.  govern-  provincial  ment a d v i s e d and made r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b u t i t was the p r o v i n c e s to s e l e c t  co-opera  up t o among  to the  government  the only exception  (Brewis,  With these "essentially siderable  kinds  a collection  federal  o f ground r u l e s , of provincial  influence.  ARDA became  programmes" w i t h  How ARDA f u n c t i o n e d ,  actually  depended on t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e s  Tihanyi,  1967, p . 9 6 ) . Even though t h e F i r s t  economic and s o c i a l  problems  funds were used m a i n l y and  t o "underwrite  On  data  (Buckley and  agricultural  t o promote e f f i c i e n c y  areas,  of land  projects o f p h y s i c a l resources  ARDA  utilization  development"  Economic Expansion,  1969, p . 3 5 ) .  based on t a b u l a t i o n s r e c e i v e d from t h e Department o f  Forestry found  though,  Agreement gave r e c o g n i t i o n t o  i n rural  (Canada, D e p a r t m e n t o f R e g i o n a l  con-  and R u r a l Development, B u c k l e y  about seventy-one percent  development r e l a t e d centered  rural  and T i h a n y i  (1967, p . 98)  i n l a n d use and s o i l  projects, only  12.1 p e r c e n t  development, and a p p r o x i m a t e l y  and water  i n people-  seventeen  percent  research.  AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT ACT  On  April  1, 1965, a S e c o n d A g r e e m e n t was  between t h e f e d e r a l on  tion and  government and t h e p r o v i n c e s w h i c h  the problem o f r u r a l  types  poverty  through  an e x p a n s i o n  o f programmes a n d p r o j e c t s a u t h o r i z e d . i s reflected  initially  Brewis,  eight parts  1969, p . 1 1 2 ) :  focused  of the  T h i s new  orienta-  i n t h e name c h a n g e t o A g r i c u l t u r a l  R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t A c t (ARDA I I ) .  following  signed  (Buckley  ARDA I I c o n s i s t e d o f t h e  a n d T i h a n y i , 1967, p . 99 a n d  (1)  Research  (2)  L a n d Use and F a r m A d j u s t m e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f v i a b l e farms ment o f r e g r o u p i n g as w e l l as a g r i c u l t u r e of farmland areas t h a t purpose)  (3)  Rehabilitation  (4)  R u r a l Development  (5)  R u r a l Development A r e a s t o a r e a s i n need)  (6)  S p e c i a l R u r a l Development A r e a s ( c a r r y i n g o u t o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t programmes)  (7)  P u b l i c Information Services (expansion of these s e r v i c e s t o e n c o u r a g e community i n t e r e s t and support)  (8)  Soil  and Water  W h i l e expanded areas,  none was  (FRED) w h i c h was  million 1969,  p.  budget  and T r a i n i n g (increased  Services  assistance  funds accompanied  I n 1966  f o r the Fund  earmarked  In March,  these  new  for Special  l e g i s l a t i o n was  passed  allo-  f o r R u r a l Economic  Development  f o r comprehensive r u r a l  development  1967,  (Canada, D e p a r t m e n t  this  f u n d was  increased  t o $300  o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n ,  36). The  the  Staff  Conservation.  Areas.  $50 m i l l i o n  programmes.  underemployed)  as e x t e n s i v e as t h o s e a u t h o r i z e d  R u r a l Development cating  (of the  (involving the through enlargew i t h d r a w a l from unsuitable for  following  S p e c i a l R u r a l Development  A r e a programme c o m p r i s e d  components:  (1)  p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l s t u d i e s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o determine the development problems and p o t e n t i a l s o f t h e a r e a ;  (2)  the involvement o f l o c a l people through the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r u r a l development committees or s i m i l a r bodies;  48.  (3)  the p r e p a r a t i o n of comprehensive r u r a l development p l a n s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g a broad r a n g e o f p r o j e c t s t o i n c r e a s e income and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t o r a i s e s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g ( P o e t s c h k e , 1968b, p. 3 ) . It  rural  appears,  then,  that  development p l a n n i n g  u n d e r ARDA h e l p e d  to  that  out  that  shift  the  that  clearly selves  rural  on  i n new  turning  rural  plan  needed i n the  areas.  The  employment o r exist" 1965  points,  (p.  new  rural  industrial  new  Agreement  Brewis  (1969)  according  he  poverty  He  without  the  lead  1966  ment"  (p.  aggravate the 128).  P o l i c y and  This  (1969).  i n t o the  cites  Planning  and human  was  improved  "The an  FRED p l a n s ,  broader  discussions basic  field  relating problem  inefficient  improvements  problem of was  the  FRED l e g i s l a t i o n  in this  and  apparent  l o w - i n c o m e s and t o L.  f o r ARDA, when he  E.  to  says,  the  ARDA  (in this  area  declining  and  action forestry  under-employ-  Poetschke,  stated:  he  were  of  sector,  improve p r o d u c t i v i t y i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h e r i e s , only  the  says,  to  i n ARDA  towards  development o f  emphasis,  to Brewis  i s t h o u g h t t o be  sector;  taken  t o r e s e t t l e i n a r e a s where  f o r N o r t h e r n Nova S c o t i a :  Nova S c o t i a )  Agreement  p e o p l e t o r e - e s t a b l i s h them-  A g r e e m e n t s and  structure.  t o be  in  I l l ) .  d e v e l o p m e n t may  industrial  of  1973).  First  just agriculture-related)  "program t o h e l p  The  may  (not  in rural  opportunities  to  (Wilson,  the  experience  i t s o o n became a p p a r e n t t o a l l i n v o l v e d  a m a j o r e f f o r t was  resources  of  emphasis o f  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h had  problems o f  for  accumulating  t h a t began under the  a more r e g i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n points  the  Director  The s t r a t e g y o f p l a n n i n g f o r t h i s a r e a h a s not y e tbeen completed. I t i s o u r view, however, t h a t t h e main emphasis must be o n t h e d e v e l o p ment o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d s e r v i c e activities. M o r e o v e r , we e x p e c t t h a t t h e p r o g r a m c a n n o t b e based on f u r t h e r support f o r t h e i n e f f i c i e n t i n d u s t r i e s o r on expansion o f t h e e x i s t i n g small and r e g i o n a l l y m a r k e t - o r i e n t e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s which a r e a t present c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the area. The o b j e c t i v e must be a c c o m p l i s h e d through t h e promotion o f developments which take advantage o f t h e area's l o c a t i o n a l and n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , and which w i l l e n t a i l a change i n t h e t o t a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r , moving i t towards l a r g e e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n s o r i e n t e d t o export markets (1968c, p . 1 3 ) . FRED p r o g r a m m e s tion  i n plans  operation Brewis, tion  THE  (1969),  t h e two l e v e l s  might  causes  contributing  of  the A t l a n t i c provinces  as  part  of the enquiries  Economic  Prospects  believed  that  a  resources (Brewis,  were  important  of co-  according to  factor  (the Gordon  expenditures of basic  that  i n an e v a l u a -  1969, p . 1 7 2 - 4 ) .  Commission  response  facilities  land  growth 50's  on Canada's  The C o m m i s s i o n e r s  t o these  problems  that  was  i s , the  and r e s o u r c e s ,  o f power.  awareness  and b e t t e r  economic  i n t h e m i d 19  Commission).  and sources  an i n c r e a s e d  o f the region  investigated  on i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  public  system  t o the slow  o f the Royal  the appropriate  transportation  recognized  the evaluation  o f government,  be t h e most  co-opera-  DEVELOPMENT BOARD  The  development  In fact,  the joint  policies.  ATLANTIC  considerable  necessitated  f o r development.  between  o f ARDA  have  including  In a d d i t i o n ,  and knowledge o f t h e u s e was  desirable  they  50.  Even though the Gordon in  1957,  i t wasn't  intentions region. this  until  was  established.  advisory  powers.  Development  (increased  t o $150  and e v o l v e  a planning  (Wilson,  1973,  According into  various  1963,  i n 1966)  didn't  In d o i n g  this,  available  framework  systematic  Conse-  Development  Board only Atlantic  o f the Board to  eleven  million  f o r the development o f the  p. 1 2 9 ) .  and p r o j e c t s  require  the Board c o u l d  f o r f o s t e r i n g the region  use o f t h e fund  The more i m p o r t a n t  inquire  economic  even i f t h e s e  (Brewis,  1969,  t h e B o a r d h a d a number o f s t a t u t o r y  t o them.  that  to invest i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  growth and development o f t h e A t l a n t i c measures  advisory.  b u d g e t o f $100  to the l e g i s l a t i o n ,  measures  concluded  an amendment t o t h e  the s i z e  an o p e r a t i o n a l  million  expressed i t s  5-member B o a r d , however, h a d  But i n J u l y ,  i t with  finally  the A t l a n t i c  Board A c t i n c r e a s e d  and p r o v i d e d  region  The  i t s findings  board f o r the A t l a n t i c  t o be more t h a n j u s t  i n December o f 1962,  revealed  the government  a f t e r much d e b a t e , i t was  b o a r d w o u l d have  (ADB)  that  t o e s t a b l i s h an a d v i s o r y  And  quently,  1962  Commission  p.  176-7).  options  among them were t h e  and c o m p r e h e n s i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f f a c t o r s r e l e v a n t  economic growth  i n the A t l a n t i c  region,  the p r e p a r a t i o n ,  the Economic C o u n c i l  co-ordinated  f o r the p r o m o t i o n o f the economic growth o f  the  region,  Council, for  and s u b j e c t  the e n t e r i n g  undertaking  o p i n i o n would  to the approval  i n t o agreements  an  in  consultation with plan  o f Canada,  to  over-all  of the Governon-in-  with  Atlantic  provinces  p r o j e c t s o r programmes w h i c h i n t h e B o a r d ' s  contribute  economy o f t h e r e g i o n  and  t o t h e g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f o r which  satisfactory financing  a r r a n g e m e n t s were  not otherwise  available  (Brewis,  19 69,  p. 1 7 7 ) .  THE  CAPE BRETON DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION  I n an e f f o r t  to establish  Cape B r e t o n  to replace the declining  the  a n d Nova  federal  up t h e Cape  Breton  a new e c o n o m i c b a s e f o r steel  Scotia provincial  and c o a l  resource,  governments j o i n t l y s e t  Development C o r p o r a t i o n  (DEVCO) i n J u l y ,  1967. DEVCO was g i v e n organize, Steel  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  a n d manage t h e c o a l m i n i n g  "to acquire, r e -  interests  o f the Dominion  and C o a l C o r p o r a t i o n and t o h e l p promote and f i n a n c e t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t o f modern  i n d u s t r y on t h e i s l a n d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t  o f a comprehensive economic development p l a n c o v e r i n g both t h e Cape B r e t o n  area  a n d e a s t e r n Nova  The s t a t u t e s e t t i n g a Coal D i v i s i o n Division.  coal operation. as  a business  on p l a n t l o c a t i o n , basis,  soon as they  Whereas  most  have been p r o v i n c i a l l y with  the federal  has b a s i c a l l y  unusual  technical  motives.  Development  subsidized the  After  a l lthe c a p i t a l services,  a n d a b l e t o do so (Kent,  operates deciding  on a l o a n  and then  t o buy DEVCO o u t a n d t a k e o v e r  a r e ready  1969, p . 2 1 6 ) .  Development D i v i s i o n  DEVCO p r o v i d e s  a s w e l l as f r e e  the o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r an I n d u s t r i a l  fund  The I n d u s t r i a l  operation with  (Brewis,  up DEVCO g a v e i t $25 m i l l i o n f o r  a n d $20 m i l l i o n  The C o a l D i v i s i o n  Scotia"  "they"  have  t h e o p e r a t i o n as 1972).  p u b l i c r e g i o n a l development c o r p o r a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d a n d have c o - o p e r a t e d  government,  DEVCO i s u n i q u e i n C a n a d a  closely as b e i n g  the o n l y case  of a p r i m a r i l y  federal  crown c o r p o r a t i o n  accepting d i r e c t working r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  DEPARTMENT OF To to reduce  federal  strengthen  the e f f o r t s  regional disparities, (DREE) was  Department brought  of the  federal  the Department o f  government Regional  established in April,  together  i n t e g r a t e d co-  approach to r e g i o n a l development. Generally  elements,  speaking,  DREE p o l i c i e s  (1) t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ,  emphasize t h r e e  (2) u r b a n g r o w t h p o l e s ,  (3) t h e mechanism o f g r o w t h i n u r b a n g r o w t h p o l e s 1972,  p.  main and  (Gertler,  75-6). The  "special  legislation  empowers t h e M i n i s t e r t o  designate  a r e a s " where employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e s e v e r e l y  limited.  He  can  social  then  for  the  The  emphasis here,  marginal  and  formulate  adjustment  mainly  and  and  c a r r y out  c o n t r a r y t o ARDA p o l i c y rural  These p l a n s  can  provinces, with  be  areas,  the  effected federal  i s on  through  of  "finding  And  joint  also w i t h i n these  can p r o v i d e g r a n t s o r l o a n s t o a p r o v i n c e structure  and  special  areas. in  and  building  (Kent,  1969) .  agreements w i t h  a t implementing special  plans  of these  investment  government p r o v i d i n g  o f the p r o v i n c e ' s e f f o r t  ment p l a n .  development  economic expansion  t h e p o i n t s o f s t r e n g t h i n a r e g i o n a l economy"  support  1969.  a l l regionally-oriented  d e v e l o p m e n t programmes t o p r o v i d e an  ordinated  field.  REGIONAL ECONOMIC EXPANSION  Economic Expansion T h i s new  i n the  areas  financial the  develop-  the M i n i s t e r  f o r economic  i n c e n t i v e s to a commercial  the  infra-  undertaking,  on  all  f o r the  velopment  purpose of  successful  second p i e c e  A u g u s t 7,  1969  financial  inducements to  operations  establishing  In  1972,  the  Spring  of  the  the  their  Minister's 1973.  A number o f  Regional  the  costs  programme  in  c e r t a i n manufacturing  made i n t h e  message o f  the  reports  community  entitled  (Canada,  i s quite  viability  Nova S c o t i a ' s  provide  contribute  could  to  briefly  Scotia:  Department  clear:  It said that  f o r m a n c e , r e s p o n s i b e n e s s and  would i n i t s e l f  "Nova  in  that  to r e l a t e  depend c o n s i d e r a b l y  Initiated  as  1973b).  development o b j e c t i v e s .  communities  staff  completed  r e s u l t e d from  involvement i n both planning  economy, c o u l d  DREE  p r o v i n c i a l premiers  useful  report  report  of  development.  T h i s was  Opportunities"  economic growth w i l l  which groups o f  u n d e r t a k e n by  the  i t w o u l d be  Scotia's  foster  expand i t s  s e t up  capital  efforts.  talks with  I believe  points  The  of  initial  or  C a l l e d the  legislation  on  power t o o f f e r  initiate  a p o l i c y r e v i e w was  of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n ,  tion  to  the  regions.  this  of  E c o n o m i c C i r c u m s t a n c e s and  local  de-  came i n t o e f f e c t  Minister  industry  Act,  r e s u l t s of  review.  some o f  the  enterprises.  a basis f o r t h e  policy  the  expanding, or modernizing  or p r o c e s s i n g  the  legislation  to c e r t a i n designated  to o f f s e t p a r t  assess  of  which granted  Development I n c e n t i v e s  to  of  plan. A  w h i c h was  implementation  at  on  and  the  a strong  local  strengthening  extent  implementa-  improved  i n each s e c t o r  relate their the  Nova  perof  framework  the to  e f f o r t s to  level,  this  of  sectors.  the  action  More  importantly,  initiatives would  though,  of their  outside The  report  and  t o take  showed  independent action and regional  Though  this  report  traditional  approach  no  o r programmes  policies  NOVA  SCOTIA  planning The  organizational  ning  Act  Nova  Scotia  (1973) or  (Chapter  assumes lation  16,  do a l l the  o f regional o n them The  responsibility  with  the  t o carry  25,  development.  regional  economic  Provincial  Department  development,  development government.  o f t h e Nova However,  Planning  planning,  responsibility  Scotia  i nthe  rather  Plan-  Reg Lang i n Seventies  itself  "the  for initiating  a n d programmes  i s reached"  the  i t o u t was f o r m a l l y  d i d n o t mean t h e P r o v i n c e  plans  from  from i t .  1969).  a n dRegional  regional  element f o r  AFFAIRS  the adoption  April  out this  the ultimate  agreement  emanated  for regional  structure  - Municipal  points  should  have  rests  i n 1969 w i t h  o f communities  be a c r i t i c a l  toassist  from  advantage.  ability  a n deconomic  u s e d b y DREE  Scotia  the  best  suggests a departure  responsibility  i n Nova  established  that  D E P A R T M E N T OF M U N I C I P A L  The  o f communities  intrusions  to their  could  social  deliberate  o f groups  t o accept  negotiated  clearly  that  i n t h e way o f p o t e n t i a l f o r  e n a b l e them  on terms  quite  provincial  a b i t more  andcould  systems  said  own o n t h e p a r t  generate quite  development,  the report  must  Province the  formu-  and f o r ensuring  that  (p. 9 8-9).  o fMunicipal  Affairs  f o r implementing the Planning  has the Act.  direct  T h e Nova  Scotia  Department  service  to Municipal Two  bringing a  parts  economic  provides  economic  of the Act e s t a b l i s h  policy  development  Regional  ting  and  the  Development control  regions,  Plan,  under  Planning  a  The priority  and  resulted  Plan.  of a  of  Part  IV  regional  finances Affairs  and cost  District  Commissions  by  regional planning the Department  method  District  and  of Municipal  Affairs  basic approaches:  Planning  District  Commissions  o f member m u n i c i p a l and  development  technical  planning  shares  percent  50  Planning  Commission.  i n operation  i n the  a r e composed  u n i t s which  P i c t o u County I n d u s t r i a l Cape  Breton  of elected  achieve  c o n t r o l s through  staff. of  Planning  Department  the operating  of  There are D i s t r i c t  following five  inter-  shared Municipal  expenses  areas: i  (1) (2)  -  planning.  P r e p a r a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l development plans and s u p p o r t i n g s t u d i e s i n t h e two " S p e c i a l A r e a s " d e s i g n a t e d by t h e Department o f Regional Economic Expansion.  planning  designa-  development  (2)  municipal  II  Regional  Regional Studies within Commission areas, and  representatives  in  in  Part  for  (1)  District  the  results  procedures  the content  Development  together  o u t l i n e s the administrative v e h i c l e f o r  recognized  i n two  that  for  programmes.  outlines the process  evaluation of  areas  describes  specifies  Regional  Commissions  intermunicipal  has  and  Plans  framework  intermunicipal issues  s t r a t e g i e s / p l a n s and  Development  planning  support  Affairs.  provincial-municipal consultation process  regional -  o f Development  with  Planning  (3) (4) (5)  Annapolis Valley Lunenburg Halifax-Dartmouth There  are  two  (MAPC-2)  "Special  Areas"  (1)  Metropolitan Halifax-Dartmouth  The  regional  planning  Affairs  has  interim  plans  NOVA  SCOTIA  been  active  and  D E P A R T M E N T OF  in  1971  the  of  the  (2)  the  studies  i n both  DREE,  Strait  Department  in preparing regional  background  Previously Industry,  section  and  d e s i g n a t e d by  of  of  Municipal  development of  these  areas.  DEVELOPMENT  called  the  Department o f  D e p a r t m e n t o f D e v e l o p m e n t was  Trade  and  formally established  to:  (1)  A d m i n i s t e r and c o - o r d i n a t e e c o n o m i c ment a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e ;  (2)  Co-ordinate the formulation of development p o l i c i e s ;  (3)  P r o v i d e l i a i s o n w i t h and s e r v i c e t o t h e F e d e r a l Government, o t h e r a g e n c i e s o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government and p r o v i n c i a l i n d u s t r y and commerce;  (4)  Promote the t r a d e S c o t i a ; and  (5)  P e r f o r m r e l a t e d e c o n o m i c s t u d i e s and analyses (N. S. D e p a r t m e n t o f D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 7 3 a ) . The  following  and  lists  i n the  them and  key  areas  briefly  of  develop-  future  commerce o f  Department's branches are  maximum c a p a b i l i t y  (1)  Canso.  Nova  designed  to  focus  i t s responsibility.  outlines their  functions:  I n d u s t r y O p e r a t i o n s - p r o m o t e s and a s s i s t s and e x i s t i n g Nova S c o t i a b u s i n e s s ;  new  The  (2)  Industry Services - provides d i v e r s i f i e d services to e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r y , a d v i s e s on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication, p r o d u c t i o n and marketing, accumulates and disseminates informat i o n on v a r i o u s forms o f i n c e n t i v e s from a l l sources, and i d e n t i f i e s and f o l l o w s - u p export s a l e s p o t e n t i a l a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r N. S.based i n d u s t r i e s ;  (3)  P l a n n i n g a n d E c o n o m i c s - i d e n t i f i e s new o p p o r t u n i t i e s and assesses t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f economic development t o o t h e r f a c t o r s such as urban p l a n ning, s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , c o l l e c t s and analyzes economic and s o c i a l data, and p r o v i d e s economic s u p p o r t s e r v i c e f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s o f t h e Department o f M u n i c i p a T  Affairs; (4)  S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s - s u p p o r t s f i n a n c i a l l y , Nova S c o t i a e n t e r p r i s e s e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and provides "task f o r c e " c a p a b i l i t y f o r major development possibilities;  (5)  Nova S c o t i a Development B o a r d - a c t s as a p p r o v i n g body f o r l o a n s and i s r e s p o n s i v e i n s t r u m e n t f o r the implementation of provincial development policies, especially i n fisheries, tourism, a g r i c u l t u r e , and c e r t a i n f o r e s t r y s e c t o r s ;  (6)  Finance and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - performs departmental accounting.  PICTOU  COUNTY  The social  COMMUNITY  purpose  and economic  internal  PROFILE  of this  section i s to trace  forces which  produced  some o f t h e  the Pictou  County  community. Pictou Scotia Strait,  peninsula, easterly  Guysborough Figure  1).  County  i s l o c a t e d on t h e n o r t h  bounded  o f t h e Nova  n o r t h e r l y by the Northumberland  by A n t i g o n i s h  County,  side  County,  and westerly  s o u t h e r l y by  by C o l c h e s t e r County (see  58.  *P/C TOC/  COUAJTY  , AJOl/A  SCOTth  FIGURE 1 MAP OF PICTOU COUNTY, NOVA  The tants.  Micmac I n d i a n s were t h e a r e a ' s o r i g i n a l  Part o f the Algonquin  coast with t h e i r river-mouths because  SCOTIA  tribe,  they  probable headquarters  l i v e d mostly  a t Merigomish.  on t h e c o a s t l i n e s were a d v a n t a g e o u s  t h e y were f i l l e d  vertebrate  fish,  waterfowl,  and t h e nearby  camp  on t h e The sites  w i t h an a b u n d a n t s u p p l y o f s h e l l a n d  t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e w a t e r was c o v e r e d  moose, a n d s m a l l game  inhabi-  forests  were w e l l  with  stocked with caribou,  (James M. Cameron, 1972) .'  The arriving  first  settlers  i n P i c t o u C o u n t y were  sometime b e t w e e n 1725 and 1750.  English  settlement  was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h  "Betsy"  from P h i l a d e l p h i a .  Later  came t o P i c t o u o n t h e " H e c t o r " .  the  was i n c r e a s e d  of  disbanded  during  soldiers.  when t h e P i c t o u  area  I n 1767, t h e f i r s t  the a r r i v a l  1783 a n d 1784 by t h e  I n 1792 l o c a l  was c r e a t e d  settlers  (Harvey,  g o v e r n m e n t was  after as  Whereas b e f o r e  at raising  crops  ment o f m i n i n g that  and m a n u f a c t u r i n g . a l l the land  called  the f i r s t  (Torey,  and t h e d e v e l o p generally  1968). were d i s c o v e r e d  s h a f t s were sunk i n t h e E a s t  the  predominant economic  o f Nova  land  c a p a b l e o f economic c u l t i v a t i o n had  t h e n e x t one h u n d r e d a n d t w e n t y - f i v e  parts  farm  at Albion  S t e l l a r t o n ) i n 1798, i t w a s n ' t u n t i l  mining  people  the period  By 1827, i t was  For  attracted  1973b).  o f the occupied  transportation  Even though c o a l d e p o s i t s  that  area  1820 a g r i c u l t u r e was d i r e c t e d  utilization  b e e n t a k e n up b y a g r i c u l t u r e  (later  Highland  home i n t h e P i c t o u  f o r immediate needs,  m a r k e t s grew due t o i m p r o v e d  Mines  carrying  Each  t h e e a r l y 1800's l u m b e r i n g was t h e f o c u s o f  1820 saw a g r e a t e r  believed  initiated  as a s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t .  a r r i v e d t o make t h e i r  economic a c t i v i t y . primarily  of  settlement  1968, a n d N. S. D e p a r t m e n t o f D e v e l o p m e n t , In  from  The p o p u l a t i o n  y e a r b e t w e e n 1801 and 1805, s e v e r a l v e s s e l s Scots  o f the  i n 1773, 189 s e t t l e r s  Scotland area  French,  factor.  from S c o t l a n d ,  Scotia.  years  Prospective the north  River  1827 Valley.  coal mining  was  employment  o f England,  and a l l  60.  The prosper  socially  including classes points first  River  V a l l e y area  and c u l t u r a l l y .  for social  S c h o o l s were  Many c h u r c h e s were b u i l t activity.  h o s p i t a l i n the area  i n 18 80  I n 1821 a s u b s c r i p t i o n formed  lodges.  seven years o l d .  Stellarton regattas  The E a s t  library  was f o r m e d .  P i c t o u County L o c a l  organized  in  Gyro, Kiwanis,  important  textile  p a c k i n g were a l s o Coal  Fraternal Council o f  o f Women was  economic a c t i v i t y ,  Steel ship  construction  John.  i n operation  mining continued  clubs  shipbuilding  b e g a n a t New G l a s g o w ,  Grist mills,  at this  Service  especially at Pictou  Wooden s a i l i n g  factories, tanneries,  at Pictou,  a n d K i n s m a n were  o f t h e mid-1800's,  period  New G l a s g o w a n d R i v e r  history.  Lions,  During t h i s  i n T r e n t o n and P i c t o u .  factories,  flourished.  1972).  New G l a s g o w .  followed  sport  t o be  Curling, cricket,  (James M. Cameron,  became a v e r y and  Council  The  hospital  YMCA b r a n c h e s were e s t a b l i s h e d  organized  such as t h e Rotary,  focal  i n 1848,  and a g e n e r a l  a n d New G l a s g o w i n t h e 1 8 6 0 ' s .  and other  first  a n d became  was o p e n e d a t P i c t o u  Women was f o r m e d i n 1899 when t h e N a t i o n a l but  established  Newspapers b e g a n p u b l i c a t i o n .  by a M a r i n e H o s p i t a l  1893.  Orders  a l s o began t o grow a n d  t h e famous P i c t o u Academy w h i c h o p e n e d i t s  i n 1817.  followed in  East  ships  saw m i l l s ,  foundries,  period  t o expand.  were made cheese  a n d meat  o f t h e County's  New seams were  o p e n e d n e a r W e s t v i l l e by t h e Drummond a n d A c a d i a M i n e s .  New  rail  Pictou  l i n e s were l a i d  Landing the  to the shipping  and Abercrombie.  wharves a t G r a n t o n ,  T h e r e were o v e r  P i c t o u County c o a l f i e l d s  2,0 00  men e m p l o y e d i n  a t i t s peak and t h e y were  producing  61.  900,000 t o n s disastrous  of  coal a year.  explosions  and  fires  Department of Development, The  during  i n the  this  period  several  mines o c c u r r e d  (N.  showed  County's p o p u l a t i o n  had  increased  In  employment,  was  the  tion  farming  t o be  important  continued  constructed to the other  areas  up  and  later the in and  cogging and  By  S.  Co.  ancillaries,  Eastern  Car  kinds.  This  annually  Co.  the  and  this  areas  in  as  a leader  at a s i t e  town o f T r e n t o n . t o be  Trenton  used  works o f  nut  and  bolt  as w e l l as  s t e e l works was  9).  founda-  i n heavy  north A blast  o f New  was  finishing  the works o f  50  for  set  up  Nova S c o t i a S t e e l mills,  department, machine  producing  Glasgow  furnace  in steel mills the  led  Thereafter,  e a r l y 1920's, t h e  L t d . , which produced r a i l w a y  1973b, p.  be  1973b).  consumed i n C a n a d a a t t h a t t i m e  Development,  began t o  Department o f Development,  of pig iron  forges,  popula-  economy  L t d . comprised head o f f i c e ,  mills,  other  i n the  County's e r a  the  the  States.  of  con-  County's  1880*s and  f o r the  1912  rural  agricultural  United  i n importance  N.  known as  production  Coal  the  S t e e l w o r k s were b u i l t  t o be  1892.  However, r a i l w a y s  the  terms  Farming  1880's and. t h e  o f more p r o d u c t i v e  Between t h e t i o n s were l a i d  32,000.  p e o p l e t o move f u r t h e r a f i e l d  decreased  1968,  industry.  to the  o f C a n a d a and  agriculture  to over  leading industry.  increase.  enabling  opening  (Harvey,  to  up  S.  1973b).  C a n a d i a n C e n s u s r e t u r n i n 1871  tinued  first  Also  their  cars of  percent (N.  S.  of  shops  subsidiary, various the  steel  Department  of  62.  In t h e Atlantic lost of  1920's, t h e a x i s  C a n a d a i n t o O n t a r i o and  i t s l e a d e r s h i p i n the heavy  the  mining effects  19 30's  Quebec.  Pictou  industrial  from  County  field.  rapidly  The  depression  added t o the economic t r o u b l e s o f t h e a r e a .  h e l d i t s ground of loss  popularity  o f commerce moved away  f o r a while, but  soon began  i n demand f o r i t s p r o d u c t s w i t h  of o i l f o r f u e l purposes.  The  last  Coal  feeling  the  the  increase i n  of the  large  m i n e s t o c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i o n , t h e McBean M i n e a t T h o r b u r n , finally p.  closed  10).  years,  i n 1972  Coal mining left  (N. S.  Department o f Development,  was 1973b,  w h i l e b e i n g a major i n d u s t r y f o r over  i t s s c a r s on  the  landscape  and  the people  of  150  the  County. During general five  the  recession.  y e a r s t h e r e has  Manufacturing  19 50's,  the County e x p e r i e n c e d  However, d u r i n g t h e been a r e v i v a l  activities  tire  manufacturing  production of r a i l r o a d forgings,  have s t a b i l i z e d  and  Older  a pulp m i l l  industries  steel,  and  about  s i x p e r c e n t of the p r o v i n c i a l  total.  lation  i s predominantly  percent)  centres.  New  (about  has  Trenton with  about  sixty  Glasgow i s the  t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the Stellarton  and  such  brick  a  as  the  heavy and  tile  50,000 r e s i d e n t s ,  almost  urban  large-  are p r o g r e s s i n g .  T o d a y , P i c t o u C o u n t y has  five  New  s t o c k , c a r a x l e s and  structural  twenty-  i n the economic c l i m a t e .  including  plant.  rolling  shipbuilding,  twenty t o  have begun t o expand.  s c a l e v e n t u r e s were e s t a b l i s h e d , rubber  last  a period of  county's  5,400, P i c t o u  j u s t below  4,000.  The  located  largest,  population at 4,300, and  County's  or popu-  i n the  having  almost  10,800 i n  Westville  and  1971.  With  a b i t of caution,  in  t h e c o u n t y may  in  income t a x r e t u r n s .  was  be m e a s u r e d by The  The County  the annual  average  19 73b,  income p e r r e t u r n  i s manufacturing.  almost  provincial plant  $100  million  total.  The  total  i n 1970,  S i n c e 1970, has  Ferguson  Division workers  of National e m p l o y e d by  Sea  Ltd.  (N. S. D e p t . o f D e v e l o p m e n t , The mining, economic  life.  farm u n i t s  and  Farming  to l a r g e r ,  Tire  Manufacturing  B e f o r e 1970,  (shipbuilding),  Mining  does n o t p l a y  economy.  Only  and  firms:  (Maritimes)  The  Maritime  total  Packers  number o f  i s around  2,800  29-33).  occupations i n agriculture, play  a lesser  role  i n the  i s rapidly  changing  over  from s m a l l e r  more v i a b l e  supplemented  figures  the  entities;  by o t h e r t y p e s o f s e a s o n a l  the major r o l e  60 o r so men  a r e now  available activity.  i t once d i d i n the employed  county's  the s m a l l e r u n i t s  a r e b e c o m i n g p a r t - t i m e o p e r a t i o n s where t h e i n c o m e s have t o be  o f goods  L t d . , E a s t e r n Woodworkers  1973b, p .  forestry  i n Pictou  and F o u n d r i e s L t d . ,  smaller firms  more t r a d i t i o n a l  fishing,  13 p e r c e n t o f  Steel  Products Ltd.  t h e s e and  S.  year f o r which  (boxcars), Scott  Canso C h e m i c a l s  Industries  today  are the f o l l o w i n g major  (kraft paper), Maritime  McGregor Bedding, Ltd.,  the l a s t  begun o p e r a t i o n s .  i n o p e r a t i o n today  (N.  v a l u e of shipments  the M i c h e l i n  Hawker S i d d e l e y (Canada) L t d . Pulp L t d .  average  i n 19 71  19).  r e p r e s e n t s about  a t Granton  continuing  p.  prosperity  i n c o m e s as r e p o r t e d  most i m p o r t a n t e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y  are a v a i l a b l e , which  Co.  of m a t e r i a l  $4,636, o r 95 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l  Department o f Development,  was  the l e v e l  i n coal  county  mining.  64.  Fisheries,  a l s o , does not  play  c o u n t y ' s economy r e l a t i v e typically has  a full-time  to the  THE  Local  New  1972,  and  Sessions,  w h i c h was  number o f y e a r s ,  the  colonists,  settlers  and  p.  184) .  This Court  f u n c t i o n s and  f r o m New  had  governed the  Towns I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t was Over the evolved  towns, P i c t o u Stellarton  strong  due  province,  Scott Pulp  Mill  one  at  of Pictou  i n operation  exported  to V i r g i n i a  enacted  formation  Glasgow  when  Incorporation  (1889).  Consistent  government i n  parochial traditions  and  Act.  the  the  in  five  (1884),  a c o u n c i l of with  the  also.  (1875), W e s t v i l l e  ( 1 9 1 1 ) , and  day.  1879  Cameron,  as  o f town C o u n c i l s  Trenton  remain to t h i s  (James M.  i n 18 79  local  and  t o Nova S c o t i a  founded  County  in  transplanted  County u n t i l  the  the  a system  England  s i n c e then,  i n t o the  ( 1 8 7 4 ) , New  ancestry,  and  years  (1889), and  municipality Scottish  years,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e as w e l l  G o v e r n m e n t o f Nova S c o t i a p a s s e d  C o u n t y has  few  i n the  from t h e r e  a s h o r t t i m e a f t e r H a l i f a x was  judicial  The  the  past  not  however,  government began f o r P i c t o u County w i t h  amendments by  within  mills  the  Fishing is  Forest production,  pulp  Cape B r e t o n  for a great  England with  with  industries.  in  REGIONAL PLANNING  of Quarter  England  two  part  Point.  EMERGENCE OF  Court  important  i n c r e a s e over the  b u i l d i n g of  a t P o i n t T u p p e r on Abercrombie  to o t h e r  occupation.  shown a c o n s i d e r a b l e  mainly  a very  the  County's  loyalties  grew  rural  However, a common d e t e r m i n a t i o n tunities slowly in  the oppor-  a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l  began t o m a n i f e s t  itself.  A regional  t h e C o u n t y a n d t h i s was f o r m a l i z e d  East  to accept  River  included  Valley  elected  P l a n n i n g Commission representatives  New G l a s g o w , a n d T r e n t o n ,  with  attitude  This  from S t e l l a r t o n , by D a v i d  upon t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g town o f P i c t o u  and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y  major m u n i c i p a l i t i e s At organizing local  i n t h e County  of Pictou  (Paton,  itself  at the regional  level.  initiative,  t h e Nova S c o t i a  Legislature  Pictou  R.  County.  of private  . According  business  Hayman, A n d i n 19 64,  Director, joined the  sector  Responding passed  was  leaders  the Pictou the  (PICORD), an  and clergymen  to the Act, the objects  also  to this  1964, w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e d  County R e s e a r c h and Development Commission  organization  body  1967, p . 13) .  a b o u t t h i s same t i m e t h e p r i v a t e  County Development A c t i n March,  of the  Westville,  a h a r d w a r e m e r c h a n t a n d f o r m e r mayor o f S t e l l a r t o n .  the  evolved  the c r e a t i o n  i n 1962.  and was c h a i r e d  changes  i n the  o f t h e Commission  are: (a)  To e n c o u r a g e t h e e x p a n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Tourism and o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s w i t h i n t h e County o f P i c t o u .  (b)  To s o l i c i t a n d e n c o u r a g e t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f new i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n a n d a b o u t t h e County o f P i c t o u .  (c) To s p o n s o r b y means o f a d v e r t i s i n g , p e r s o n a l solic i t a t i o n and o t h e r w i s e , campaigns o f p u b l i c i t y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f m a k i n g known t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e C o u n t y o f P i c t o u and i t s e n v i r o n s a s a l o c a t i o n for industrial enterprises.  66.  (d)  To p r e p a r e and d i s s e m i n a t e s t a t i s t i c a l a n d o t h e r information f o r the purpose o f c r e a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e C o u n t y o f P i c t o u as a l o c a t i o n f o r industrial enterprises.  (e)  To make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e Towns i n t h e C o u n t y o f P i c t o u and t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l i n the County o f P i c t o u r e s p e c t i n g : (i) (ii)  (iii)  (iv)  zoning f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes;  the p r o v i s i o n of s i t e s s u i t a b l e f o r s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s and t h e m u n i c i p a l services required therefore; the e f f e c t of the municipal taxation s y s t e m upon c o r p o r a t i o n s o r p e r s o n s commencing o r d o i n g b u s i n e s s i n t h e County; such other matters which i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e Commission r e l a t e t o t h e d e v e l o p ment o f i n d u s t r y a n d b u s i n e s s i n t h e County o f P i c t o u .  (f)  The Commission w i l l c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s Economic C o u n c i l , I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s L i m i t e d , The A t l a n t i c D e v e l o p m e n t B o a r d and any o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t up f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o m o t i n g i n d u s t r y , business o r Tourism.  (g)  Notwithstanding anything hereinbefore contained C o m m i s s i o n may do any m a t t e r w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e b e n e f i t f o r t h e County o f P i c t o u . On A p r i l  cipal Affairs  1 4 t h , 1965, a n o r d e r  established  Commission which r e p l a c e d s i o n and f o r m a l l y and  included  the m u n i c i p a l i t y Later,  by t h e M i n i s t e r  the P i c t o u County R e g i o n a l the East  River  Valley  Commission,  o f Muni-  Planning  Planning  Commis-  t h e r e c e n t l y - j o i n e d town o f P i c t o u  196 5,  government,  an a g r e e m e n t was  completed  t h e P r o v i n c i a l government, and  County's s i x m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to undertake a Regional  Renewal S t u d y .  the a  o f t h e County o f P i c t o u .  i n June,  between t h e F e d e r a l the  and b u s i n e s s  S p o n s o r e d by t h e P i c t o u C o u n t y  t h i s was q u i t e  possibly  the f i r s t  Regional  Urban Planning  such study o f i t s  kind by  i n Canada.  I t i s believed  a single municipality Further  that  Pictou  (Paton,  f r o m t h e towns o f New initiated  the  Larry  Sandford.  Institute  local  Co-ordination  in  and  the task  o f con-  I n 1969 The  S t u d y was c o m p l e t e d by  analyzed  of these  d e v e l o p e d t h e argument t h a t  P i c t o u C o u n t y demands a l a r g e  ning  of co-  the e f f i c i e n c y and  s e r v i c e and ways o f m e e t i n g t h e u r g e n t  problems o f adequacy and c o s t report  T r e n t o n , and  of Public Affairs at  The P h a s e I r e p o r t  economy o f e v e r y  representatives  the urban areas o f P i c t o u  study o f such s e r v i c e s .  P i c t o u County M u n i c i p a l  y e a r a com-  Stellarton,  ( H a l i f a x ) was a s s i g n e d  a comprehensive  clearly  on t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  County.  Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y  that  and n o n - e l e c t e d  services within  Ultimately,  During  Glasgow, P i c t o u ,  discussions  sponsored  a r e g i o n a l approach to  ordinating municipal  ducting  were  1967, p . 1 3 ) .  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  m i t t e e composed o f b o t h e l e c t e d  Westville  a l l others  a c t i o n i n 1965 d e m o n s t r a t e d q u i t e  C o u n t y was e m b r a c i n g  problem-solving  that  services.  effective  enough a r e a  local  government  f o r adequate  and development c o n t r o l and a s u f f i c i e n t l y t a x base t o p e r m i t the r e a l i z a t i o n  The P h a s e 2  large  plan-  population  o f t h e e f f i c i e n c i e s and  economies o f a r e a s o n a b l y - s i z e d  operation.  m e n d a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y was t h a t  one a m a l g a m a t e d g o v e r n m e n t be  created  The m a j o r  f o r t h e whole o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a  P i c t o u County.  note t h a t  t o t h i s d a y ; however,  the conclusions  continue t o serve ordination.  o f urban and r u r a l  A " P i c t o u County R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l "  come i n t o e x i s t e n c e  has never  i t i s important t o  and recommendations o f t h a t  as t h e rough b a s i s  recom-  study  f o r intermunicipal co-  68.  In Scotia, the  1970 w i t h  the Pictou  Pictou  mandate  C o u n t y R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n became  County D i s t r i c t  and d u t i e s  P l a n n i n g Commission  (PCDPC).  Its  included:  (1)  the p r o v i s i o n o f assistance to the M i n i s t e r o f Municipal A f f a i r s i n the preparation of a Regional Development P l a n ;  (2)  t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a M u n i c i p a l Development P l a n on b e h a l f o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ;  (3)  t h e u n d e r t a k i n g o f any f u n c t i o n d e l e g a t e d t o i t b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s o r by a participating municipality;  (4)  p r o v i d i n g ad hoc advice planning generally. Appointments  e a c h member C o u n c i l . whose a c t i v i t i e s planning  Regional lection  t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n a r e made a n n u a l l y  are divided  staff  and m u n i c i p a l  planning  and t h e  and d i s p o s a l , water p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , b u i l d i n g  building  o f development c o n t r o l s  by-laws, s u b d i v i s i o n  of  The P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n h a s r e s -  D i v i s i o n has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e f u s e  the administration  by  i n t o the f u n c t i o n a l categories  services.  f o rregional  Services  on m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g  The C o m m i s s i o n h a s a p e r m a n e n t  and r e g i o n a l  ponsibility  and  t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e P l a n n i n g A c t o f Nova  regulations,  including  colinspection zoning,  a n d m o b i l e home p a r k s  by-laws. Much o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n ' s c e n t e r e d on t h e p r o v i s i o n municipalities viding at  cost  A not untypical lection  of regional  p r i o r t o 1971  services.  The C o u n t y ' s  u s e d t h e C o m m i s s i o n as t h e mechanism  the necessary  reduced  activities  focus  ( i n most  of effort  cases)  to obtain  and a t a h i g h e r  f o r pro-  local level  services of quality.  e x a m p l e was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f sewage  and t r e a t m e n t  facilities  f o r t h e towns  o f New  col-  Glasgow,  Trenton, on  the  into of  and  E a s t R i v e r and  i t .  own.  District  their  to  take  Planning  local  towns a r e  faced with  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  be  done.  problems,  and By  this  three  i n sewage c o l l e c t i o n  facility  they  (PCDPC,  Planning  that a relatively  a c t i v i t y was  happening  many a s p e c t s  of this  responsibility  to  t h a t an  and  i n the  Key  made a n d  the  co-ordinated  treatment.  to b u i l d  radical  the  the  t h a t the  t o be  part of  the  of  term  expansion.  adaptive  Planning Act.  a Provincial  services.  f u t u r e took  function  to  d i s c u s s i o n s on  be  development  decision-making The  advantage o f  Recognizing  a  The  believed to  the problems of  framework f o r t h e  longer  effects  t r a n s f e r r e d to  initiated  extension of municipal  County's  realize  change i n development  strategy for handling  to provide  p l a n n i n g was  required  from a l l t h r e e  Commission began t o  Commission  and  planning  particular  d e v e l o p m e n t d e c i s i o n s were g o i n g  s h o r t - r u n v e h i c l e to c o n t r o l  the  solution  effective  The  collection  C o u n t y and  the  to  engineering  more  p r e p a r a t i o n o f M u n i c i p a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n s was  concerning  the  towns were e v e n t u a l l y a b l e  change were g o i n g  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  suitable  prospect of  e v e n t u a l l y undertook  District  i n 1971  h a v e t o be  costly  1972a).  The early  directly  looking for a regional  these  right  facilities  requested  volume o f sewage p o s s i b l e o n l y by  towns  the  a d v a n t a g e o f a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and  of  situated  sewage  treatment  delegated  Commission  study  technology type  Towns was  However, t h e y  feasibility to  the  These t h r e e  were dumping u n t r e a t e d  Each o f the  undertaking  their  the  Stellarton.  approach the r e g i o n a l  that regional  (with a s s i s t a n c e from  the  70.  Commission, government the  of course), f o ra series  potential  began  a sequence  secondly,  they  the  concept  never  responsibility. staff main  made  Process  approach  second  and  regional planning  Opportunities  sidered tives  and v o l u n t e e r s  prepare sectors.  reports  endorsed  a  o f what t h e  Proposals f o r on t o suggest  i n which  both  an  Plan  municipal  The r e p o r t proposed  a  2) s t r e s s i n g t h e  and focused Social  on three  Services,  broad  and Economic  1972b).  o f these  by separate  with,  Provincial  assessment  (Figure  Physical Services,  Each  And  comfortable  was a  r e p o r t went  proceed.  participation  (PCDPC,  felt  they  were.  t h e framework  could  First,  f o rthe lack o f a Regional  organization  of local  areas:  this  first  to establish  highly-structured  policy  frank  assess  i n the Commission's  i n P i c t o u County:  and Strategy",  and  importance  fairly  to  and r e g u l a t e .  i n fact  to the  areas.  1972, t h e Commission  "Planning  t o compensate  of  and growth.  to integrated planning  Entitled Form,  a  studies  t o note  regional planning  In January  a proposal  range  to control  challenged,  that  report which barriers  i n a wide  development  of actions  made  purpose  a r e two k e y a s p e c t s  t o impending  legal  of special  o f the County  There response  t h e Commission  general  Task from  Groups  policy  areas  composed  t h e community  and recommendations  was  t o be  of elected whose  i n their  con-  representa-  f u n c t i o n was t o respective  71.  - OHG;MIZATIOM STRUCTUTJ FOR INTER >!UNTCT?;J.; & R E G I O N A L " "  <T~> < > T  ^ J t e crc at loi^>  N  HeeicnalV Center  <  <CT>  T7r  ^  /  / ,  VAOKaO  Harbor  /~7  OPPORTUKI—QSS  SKsnufacturlji^/Cultural ^Facilities  Natural Ehvironnant) ^ft-cources  NOTE:  The i n d i v i d u a l  Sector  Groups  FIGURE  /  are i l l u s t r a t i v e only.  2  O R G A N I Z A T I O N S T R U C T U R E FOR INTER MUNICIPAL & REGIONAL PLANNING  Following mission,  the Pictou  PICORD) was out It  County  of this  was  felt  approached t o provide  that  could  connection  Department  this  group  supply  with  this  the major  by  aspect was  input  Opportunities  of private  the c r i t i c a l  o f Development  report  t h e Com-  Research and Development  the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Economic  clergymen In  the adoption  business  financial  c f the process,  Commission  i n carrying Task  Group.  leaders  expertise the  and required,  Provincial  approached and, f o l l o w i n g  talks,  72.  the a  M i n i s t e r o f Development,  local  funds  MLA,  announced  to the D i s t r i c t  w o r k w h i c h was In mally  requested  1972,  planning  Minister  o f Development  prepared the  i n the County.  that  regional planning a planner  the  direction  the  Commission It  of  under  the occasion  planning  said  emphasize  local  Hayman,  he  number  of  oriented  was  local  involvement  aimed  specific  at breaking  provide  technical  Affairs  step  t o work I was  local  to undertake  the M i n i s t e r of Plan in  the Department  through  for-  f o l l o w i n g September,  first  t o note,  the  would  inaugurating  i n the County  July,  be  of Municipal  that  person,  Affairs  under  assisting  1973.  I b e l i e v e , some  p u b l i c and  or  the  Municipal  of  private  the  business  o f the M i n i s t e r ' s announcement.  Chairman  of  "particularly  approach to  the D i s t r i c t  They  the  and  right  inception.  from  noted  aims  that  and  rather adverse  the  (staff)  the  significant . the  (2) p o l i c i e s than  process degree  District  (1) p l a n n i n g  rather  Com-  ."  t h e r e g i o n a l programme  trends,  trends  a  Director of  features:  than  Planning  delighted that  responsibility  Lewis,  Commission,  to goals  be  process.  Kingsley Planning  a  evolution i n orientation  David  to  Commission  Development  contract  made b y  regional  mission,  As  i s significant  an  of  the Commission.  leaders  of  behalf  process  being  will  on  from September  indicate  to  f o r the  Planning  The  a Regional  statements on  Commission  the D i s t r i c t  f o r P i c t o u County.  assigned  intention  the M i n i s t e r o f Municipal  announced  happened  undertaken.  regional  Affairs  coincidentally  h i s Department's Planning  t o be  May,  who  trying  had  would would to  a be  be  adjust  t o them, cess  (3)  a l l programming  continues  and  projects  w o u l d n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y be  scheme" t o be  fully  developed before  developed  as  kept w a i t i n g  the  for a  pro"grand  implementation a c t i o n  is  taken. Bill  K n o l l , Chairman of  n i z a t i o n would p r o v i d e and an  co-ordinate  the  i n t e r e s t and  activating  the  could  provide  p r o c e s s more as  local  was  a general  level  rather  clearer  to a l l involved creation of the  Groups.  Commission sector The  educational of  a l l these  and  I  fall  of  initiated  study  of  Groups had  viewing the  the  called i n the  necessary  f o r the  the  the  formation  an  the  together  a number o f  and region.  District  some o f  and  the  Social Services  transportation  and  with others  g r o u p s were s t r a i n e d ,  becoming  process  of  Physical  groups.  administ-  down p r o -  County of  The  at  There  identification  Pictou  local  regional  However, i t was  p h y s i c a l resources  recreation sector  as  regional planning  1972  the  control.  technically laid  policy. the  that  initiative-taking  a p l a n was  began d i s c u s s i o n s  sector  Task  g r o u p s who  orga-  i n t o i d e n t i f y i n g and  gradually  a strategy  Director  sectors, while  that that  groups o f  persons to begin  local  his  statements suggest  activity  human and  During the  working  input  s t a t e d p o l i c y and  f o r implementing  development o f  other  Sector  t h a n o f management and  cedures  meant t h e  an  awareness t h a t  t o o l which  Planning  these  i n P i c t o u C o u n t y was  the  rative  an  the  that  opportunities.  Taken t o g e t h e r  planning  nucleus of  involvement of  economic  leadership  PICORD, s t a t e d  Task  interested housing  who  formed  first  relating,  few I  the meetings  believe,  to  the  varying  involved. began  to  public  commitments  However, identify  transit  Trenton,  and  the  quickly  seven  different  each  to  arterial  about  sector  stimulate  as  Agency  arts  workshops,  some k e y  issues,  facilitate succinct  was  of  clearly  illustrated  ticular  approach The  (1)  the  draw of  the  the  in  of  The  bringing  the  County and  a  new  to  get  of  specific  of  Paper  Regional  operational  the  process.  had Paper  been  main  N.  S.  pro-  Youth  Planning  Planning to  guidelines,  this  designed  etc.  District  This  The  paper  Pictou  crystalize and  to  provided  undertaking  implications  in  a  and  of  the  par-  as  follows:  adopted.  stated  the establishment of results in decisions  of  talking  recreation  discussion,  out  objectives  which  the  stimulate  the  them  actions  to  sector  together  playgrounds,  on  bridge  opportunities.  series  in  a  soon  Airport,  education  goal  the  groups  Trenton  Director  to  some o f  Working  housing  c a b l e - v i s i o n programmes,  Working  evaluation  resume  as  persons  system.  adventure  intended to  and  the  of  involvement  December, a  of  construction  undertook  community  wrote  which  the  group  such  County  road  such  common p r o b l e m s  jects,  Commission  the  boards  personal  In  areas  identified  other  recreation  problem  school  expectations  transportation  facilities,  group  to  the  and  the  objectives  an o n g o i n g p r o c e s s . . . which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y :  (a)  identifies  opportunities  (b)  brings together the four d e c i s i o n types (Government, M u n i c i p a l , p r i v a t e s e c t o r , and t e c h n i c a l / a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ) ,  (c)  increases preparing  (d)  examines the of action.  t h e number o f alternatives,  and  problems,  considerations  implications  of  that  various  in courses  (2)  the formulation which:  of a plan  o r development  (a)  e n a b l e s governments t o l e g i s l a t e of e x p l i c i t decisions,  (b)  s e r v e s a s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t o o l t o f a c i l i t a t e programming and d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . (PCDPC, 1972d, p . 3 - 4 ) .  The  approach t o r e g i o n a l planning  C o u n t y h a d two m a j o r i m p l i c a t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g Working  strategy  on t h e b a s i s  adopted by to that  Pictou  same  Paper:  (1)  A g r e e m e n t on t h e p a r t o f a d d i t i o n a l s e n i o r government departments t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e a p p r o a c h a s o u t l i n e d n e c e s s a r i l y means a comm i t m e n t o f more t h a n one y e a r ,  (2)  The i n i t i a l traditional  i n v e s t m e n t may be h i g h e r t h a n t h e a p p r o a c h (PCDPC, 1972d, p . 1 3 ) .  However, t h e W o r k i n g P a p e r went on t o p o i n t potential  benefits of this  o u t some o f t h e  p a r t i c u l a r approach:  (1)  A much c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o l l e c t i v e r e g i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s a n d a means o f a r t i c u l a t i n g c h a n g e s i n them;  (2)  A s y s t e m a t i c means o f u n c o v e r i n g c o n f l i c t s between v a r i o u s d e c i s i o n and o p t i o n s and t h e c r e a t i o n o f mechanisms f o r r e s o l v i n g them a s work p r o c e e d s a n d b e f o r e e x p e n d i t u r e s h a v e b e e n made;  (3)  I n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y t o draw g r o u p s o f p e o p l e i n t o t h e p r o c e s s means i n c r e a s i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e human r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and b e n e f i t from t h e development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o g r a m s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e advantage o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h c a n be c r e a t e d o r uncovered;  (4)  A d e c r e a s i n g l o a d on t h e p r o v i n c e ' s f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s a s t h e p r o c e s s p r o c e e d s (PCDPC, 1972d, p . 1 3 ) . In  Paper,  line  with  the thoughts expressed  t h e Commission c o n t i n u e d  i n this  further discussions  Working  with the  Provincial specific mission the  Department  initial  amount  to begin,  with  operations  activities evolution be  Pictou  19 73 c o n t i n u e d a number  three  mapping tion,  the assistance  (MRMS),  Maritime  a  t o t h e Com-  Task  Task  Opportunities  Group.  Group Task  body, The  and i t s  Group  will  chapter.  Planning  a l ldesigned  Commission  i n  and s e t i n  to enable  of their  o f data  provinces,  resulting  County  opportunities  Pictou  Scotia  recreation  June  recommendations grammes  County  municipal  This  and h i s r e p o r t  County.  s p o n s o r e d by  was  of  f o r the t o t a l  process.  was  provided  County  to co-ordinating was  carried  distributed  and the v a r i o u s  informa-  used  a grant  to undertake a  i n Pictou  and  environment.  i s t o be  study  Municipal  i n the c o l l e c t i o n  Atlas  of Recreation  respect  Manage-  as socio-economic  Regional  and f a c i l i t i e s  with  councils  engaged  t h e Commission  i n the County.  consultant  body  and the Department  roughly  material  Department groups  Resource  environment, and the n a t u r a l  resource In  staff  categorized  t h e man-made  o f the Maritime  a technical research  the Commission  background  the  Opportunities  District  of activities,  on  the private-sector research  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the discovery  Service  Affairs,  Nova  t o be p r o v i d e d  section of this  County  agreed  change.  ment  The  finally  to undertake a v a r i e t y of projects  With  the  who  Opportunities  the Development  i n the next  The  for  PICORD,  o f the Economic  into  residents  ($47,500)  o f the Economic  described  motion  o f Development  from the  study  and  of  t o make  recreation o u t by  as  a  for discussion  prolocal to the  r e c r e a t i o n commissions i n  In "Planning which  addition  and  invited public into  "learning  sessions".  Workshop  was  the  A  area,  (2)  munity  people  (1)  area's  opportunities  of  the  for  the  area  integrated,  and  responsible  Secondly,  Division  of  a  seminar  public  municipal use  of  ture  and  the  the  and  (1)  (2)  on  development  Marketing,  the  and  the  Commission  Pictou  Water  supply  and  land  use  Mining  Ltd.,  use a  under  Scotia  Resource Ad  involved  in  the  an  system Dump  which of  an  to  Hoc  the  Reclamation provided area  subsidiary  AgriculService.  Assistance  Pro-  of  Land  activities: the  water  Pictou; Use  reclaimed  PICORD;  land  sponsor-  Policy  recommendations  being of  in  Management  following  town  held  Fall  joint  investigation into of  Scotia  the  of  the  social  Canada)  course  the  of  active,  Nova  of  com-  suggested  and  Department  of  -  the  two-week  about  by  assuming  just prior  held  major  agencies  economic  heading  Study  study  land  was  a  more  Northumberland  outline  Association  Maritime  sewer  future  (with  the  was  in  Commission  Nova  S t e l l a r t o n Coal  take of  the  general  (3)  programmes  lastly,  three  understanding  and  government  And,  the  government  might  Planning  local  Commission,  Under gramme,  the  Community  elections.  planning  ship  community  brought  information  of  and  of  Seventies"  Citizens'  and  residents  development,  which  development.  Shore  discussions  the  conducting  facts  representatives  in  entitled  Commission  by  North  assemble  promote  and  County  process  two-day  needs  Strait  Pictou  pamphlet  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the  to  and  in  planning  held  resources  steps  distributing a  Development  residents  the  to  by  -  a  for Thorburn  78.  (3)  Trenton  Airport  feasibility tenance (4)  Pictou of  (5)  benefit  of  with  lands  on  part  Group  only  economic  change  Group and  basis;  to the  Provincial  the  town  the Club  for  community  with  frontage  Opportunities  County  groups  changed  and  Task  and  expanded sector  and  also  to  on  social  and of  i t s focus.  Formed  v i a PICORD,  the  an  and  ad hoc  basis,  Opportunities  development  political  a grant  of Development,  was  development  the Development  i t defined  the assistance  that  the Province  i n d i v i d u a l s on  i t s role:  Department  Group  planning  soon  i t s name  but  commercial s t r i p  mer-  PROJECT  v i a t h e PCDPC,  With  investigation into  area.  from the p r i v a t e  growth,  -  - consultation with  Road  of the regional  changed  as w e l l .  by  Development  t o upgrade  i n Pictou  community  Task  main-  River;  Economic  governments  Task  assistance  Lands  owned  the Westville  this  regional  f o r the development  chants  as  a  and  r e d e v e l o p m e n t scheme f o r  Club  Road  begun  various  a  Westville  representation  local  the  the  the East  The  effort  Scheme -  of Rotary  DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES  organized  A i r p o r t on  i n exploring  proposals  proposals  THE  the operation  the  town;  suitable  (6)  investigation into  cost-sharing  Redevelopment  Development  on  - an  of the Trenton  Pictou  the  of  Study  this  as  growth  of  $47,500  Task  Group  not or from  undertook  a  series  Development  of  Opportunities  those  activities  place  throughout the The  the  ground  assist  with  development  cerning time in  a more  actions  to  Harold  the a  different  and  a l lof their  Others  study of that  of  however,  had  manner  i n which  this  reflected t o by  submit  and  terms  Verge  was  proposed  development  at  the  opportunitie examine  outline  out  to  on  the  detached,  Harold  These  drawn  were  up  set out  i d e n t i f y i n g the development potential, o p p o r t u n i t i e s and b a r r i e r s t o development i n the region;  ideas  and  t o a s s i s t i n the d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an o n g o i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h has t h e p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s o f : (1)  dis-  appropriate  out.  reference  the  Commission  and  the  carried  which  in a  the  Commission  the Commission  con-  the opportunities  ideas  to  hired  interviewed  report  be of  he  carried  The  different  study should final  a  got o f f  follows: (a)  took  consultant,  f o r them,  of  being  i t s study. quite  i n the Verge  and  really  i s , they would  the markets  activity  manner,  conclusion  describes  implementing  approach  consultant.  of  a  and  i n the County.  fashion,  the area  Project  Verge,  in investigating  undertake the  Verge,  agreed  of  traditional  "professional"  the  of decision-making which  Opportunities  hiring  of as  section  as  Project.  Group  because  collectively  This  necessary to take advantage  covered,  are  the process  opportunities  offered  the  the  his role  resources  at  and  known  Project.  Development  the Task  primarily  activities  as  80.  (a)  (2)  e v o l v i n g , b e g i n n i n g a t the o u t s e t o f the c o n s u l t a n t ' s work, d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i o n b a s e d on t h e i d e n t i f i e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s and b a r r i e r s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g p r o g r a m s and p r o j e c t s as r e q u i r e d ;  (3)  e x a m i n i n g t h e e c o n o m i c , p h y s i c a l and social implications of taking p a r t i c u l a r development a c t i o n , w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a d e q u a c y o f , and r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r , community and l a n d use p l a n n i n g , community s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s and o t h e r i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e .  (b)  t o i d e n t i f y and i n t e g r a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f l o c a l p e o p l e , l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s and l o c a l government, w i t h t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s t o serve the process;  (c)  t o e x p l o r e and recommend methods o f r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s between the needs o f the P i c t o u r e g i o n a l community and e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s o f s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s , and o f l o c a l government i n P i c t o u County;  (d)  t o i d e n t i f y t h e n e e d f o r and t o i n t e g r a t e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from s o u r c e s o u t s i d e government;  (e)  t o i d e n t i f y the needs f o r o n g o i n g t e c h n i c a l assistance, f e a s i b i l i t y studies or a d d i t i o n a l requirements for organizing action;  (f)  t o r e p o r t , r e g u l a r l y , throughout the p e r i o d p r o g r e s s , e v e n t s , o b s e r v a t i o n s , c o n c l u s i o n s and t o submit recommendations, to the D i r e c t o r of the C o m m i s s i o n (PCDPC, 1973d, p . 1-3). I t was  the  arranged  responsibility  of  the  that  the  T a s k G r o u p made up  PICORD, i n c l u d i n g i t s E x e c u t i v e PCDPC, and  a representative  ment.  first  carried of  the  The out  phase of  over a period  consultant,  Harold  management o f  of  the of  Director, the  N.  S.  development goals  the  Project  s i x members  Director of  Department of  p r o j e c t was  designed  n i n e months w i t h  the  to  be of  the  Developbe  assistance  Verge.  B a s e d upon e a r l y a c c e p t a n c e . b y its  of  the  would  include  the  social  Task Group  and  political  that growth  81.  as  well  ciple be  as economic  that  growth  achieved With  level,  i t was must  action, and  respect  to this that  (3) m o n e y ,  professional  three  a n d money  the  taken  local  a t the  local  apply,  and t e c h n i c a l to obtain  ultimately  part,  a t the  f o r decision-making  instance,  prin-  can, i n large  conditions  professional  i n the f i r s t  help,  being  adopted  initiative-taking  (1) a m e c h a n i s m  (2) c o n t i n u i n g  Group  meaning  initiatives  accepted  be:  the Task  i n i t s broadest  by p l a n n e d  level.  these  growth,  and  that  and  taking  assistance,  t e c h n i c a l and  t o implement  worthy  emphasis  given  projects. Throughout the  matter  of studying  decision-making initiate quickly  and s u s t a i n  strengthened  And  over  problems,  requires level,  which  recognized  issues,  the Project  relate  time,  County  District  quired  developmental  kind  County  Development  to obtain  only  the consultant  specialists Most  retained  o f t h e money  between  Opportunities  throughout  PICORD.  and t h e P i c t o u as t h e r e -  permitted  the  services, not  the contributions  phase  with  level.  Project  the course  the f i r s t  development  recognized  and t e c h n i c a l  b u t from  was  with the  rested  PICORD  at the local  professional  during  was  of  view  I t was  a t t h e community  leadership  Commission  mechanism  community from  of leadership that  to  to  activity.  and t h i s  and p o l i c i e s  arrangement  Planning  capacity  a programme d e a l i n g  opportunities  the co-operative  development  i n the process, that  was  the structures f o r  t o the County's  broad-based  the strongest  The  and understanding  early  and i n P i c t o u  strong  of  of the Project.  of the Project  was  82.  provided  u n d e r t h e $47,500 g r a n t  from the Department  of  Development. During  t h e c o u r s e o f 1973,  a variety of  s e r v i c e s were u t i l i z e d  to conduct a c t i v i t i e s  the  range o f q u i t e  County w i t h a wide  cerning is  which  specific  some o f i t s p r o b l e m s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  a summary o f t h o s e  consulting provided  information The  con-  following  efforts:  (1)  P e r s o n a l P r o p e r t y Tax. A l a n d e c o n o m i s t was r e t a i n e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t of the personal property t a x on o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t i n P i c t o u C o u n t y (PCDPC, 1 9 7 3 k ) ;  (2)  Communications Study. A r e p o r t on c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f a c i l i t i e s i n P i c t o u County w i t h recommendations r e g a r d i n g t h e n e e d f o r i n c r e a s e d two-way i n f o r m a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s was p r e p a r e d (PCDPC, 1 9 7 3 c ) ;  (3)  P r o p e r t y Mapping Program. To f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y , a p r o p e r t y m a p p i n g p r o g r a m o f t h e two main a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s - t h e S c o t s b u r n a r e a and t h e M e r i g o m i s h s h o r e - was u n d e r t a k e n . In a d d i t i o n , a g e n e r a l background s u r v e y f o c u s i n g on l a n d needs, and i n t e n t i o n s o f owners i n t h e s e a r e a s , was a l s o c a r r i e d out;  (4)  New B u s i n e s s P r o j e c t s F u n d P r o p o s a l . A r e p o r t was p r e p a r e d w h i c h d e v e l o p e d an a p p r o a c h t o e n c o u r a g e new b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p m e n t and w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d i n n o v a t i o n and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l (PCDPC, 1973h);  (5)  B r i e f on N o n - R e s i d e n t L a n d O w n e r s h i p . The T a s k G r o u p p r e p a r e d and p r e s e n t e d a b r i e f t o t h e S e l e c t Comm i t t e e o f t h e House o f A s s e m b l y on t h e N o n - R e s i d e n t Ownership o f Land. The B r i e f . w a s b a s e d on t h e p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s o f t h e mapping program i n t h e S c o t s b u r n a r e a (PCDPC, 1 9 7 3 b ) ;  (6)  Examination of Transportation Opportunities. A cons u l t a n t was e n g a g e d who e x a m i n e d and r e p o r t e d on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the P o r t o f P i c t o u , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e new T r e n t o n B r i d g e , highway l o a d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e T r e n t o n a i r p o r t , a r e g i o n a l r a i l " l a n d s h i p " , t h e e n e r g y market, and t h e p r o m o t i o n o f a s e r v i c e s i n d u s t r y b a s e d on summer homes (PCDPC, 1 9 7 3 e ) ;  83.  (7)  Home O w n e r s h i p P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m . A program of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the a c q u i s i t i o n o f h o u s i n g was u n d e r t a k e n w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f t w e n t y w e e k l y s e m i n a r s d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t and advise p e o p l e i n home f i n a n c i n g , c o n t r a c t i n g , accounting, l o t s e l e c t i o n , landscaping, etc. A unique f e a t u r e o f t h e programme was t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f two small p i l o t h o u s e s by l o c a l d e v e l o p e r s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e to p r o v i d e a working l a b o r a t o r y f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s (PCDPC, 1 9 7 4 b ) ;  (8)  S o c i a l Housing Program. A meeting o f a l l the h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e C o u n t y , f o l l o w e d by two p u b l i c m e e t i n g s i n v o l v i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f CMHC, t h e Nova S c o t i a Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , the I n t e r f a i t h Housing Corporation ( H a l i f a x ) , and t h e Cape B r e t o n S o c i a l Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , l e d to the d e c i s i o n to h i r e a c o n s u l t a n t t o work w i t h t h e T a s k G r o u p i n p r e p a r i n g a s o c i a l h o u s i n g s t r a t e g y f o r t h e C o u n t y (PCDPC, 1974a, p. 17-18);  (9)  Tourism-Recreation. In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a p r o v i n c e wide study of the T o u r i s m - R e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r , the Task G r o u p a r e p u r s u i n g s t u d y o f t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y o f an e n t e r t a i n m e n t and r e c e p t i o n c e n t r e t o be l o c a t e d on t h e E a s t R i v e r n e a r t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a Highway. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t such a c e n t r a l l y - l o c a t e d f a c i l i t y c o u l d be u s e d y e a r - r o u n d by t h e community a t l a r g e as a c u l t u r a l a n d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c e n t r e - two i m p o r t a n t i n g r e d i e n t s t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e C o u n t y (PCDPC, 1973, p . 38);  (10)  F i s h e r i e s Sector. The p r o s p e c t f o r o p e r a t i n g a f i s h f a c t o r y s h i p i n t h e N o r t h u m b e r l a n d S t r a i t was ident i f i e d as an o p p o r t u n i t y and i s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o f f i c i a l s o f the Resources Loan E o a r d have r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e B o a r d o f t h e n e e d f o r a l o a n s o f f i c e r who w o u l d work more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e f i s h e r m e n (PCDPC, 1973d, p. 3 6 - 3 7 ) . An  important  element  vities  j u s t o u t l i n e d i s not  rather  how  initiated  the by  r e s i d e n t s who decisions  t o be  had  conducted with b e e n and  arrived at.  concerning  so much what was  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  and  noted  Pictou  studied  but  The  studies  were  involvement of  would continue  acti-  being  c a r r i e d out. the  the  t o be  County r e s i d e n t s  Pictou  County  a f f e c t e d by were f a s t  the  learning  84.  that  so much o f what w o u l d  depended  on t h e i n i t i a t i v e s The  P r o j e c t was of  first  phase  had been h i r e d  "shelf-study"  point  future  Task Group,  to r e l a t e  action  in  so o f t e n  that  I believe  of departure  team  b u t by t h e p r i v a t e  unquestionably  opportunity",  The p o s t u r e  served  the  attempts  Development at for report.  County  Harold Verge p o i n t s the formal  recog-  o f the p r i v a t e  and government itself,  sector  departments namely  out  and  PICORD.  Commission  rep-  development  (PCDPC, 1973d, p . 1 ) .  toward development  by PICORD and t h e D e v e l o p m e n t according  traditional  be i n s t r u c t i v e  t h e C o u n t y ' s number one  says Verge  practical  i n the P i c t o u  has b e e n  sector  Verge  i n h i s summary  P i c t o u C o u n t y R e s e a r c h and D e v e l o p m e n t  resents  Mr.  and recommendations  of the decision-making c a p a c i t y  agencies, "The  i t may  Harold Verge p r o v i d e d  the p l a n n i n g  conclusion  i n t h e p a s t had  i n developmental planning,  by n o t o n l y  the  Although the next chapter  the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s r e p o r t ,  nition  a more  than the  the c o n c l u s i o n s  The m a i n p o i n t experience  with  t h e a p p r o a c h u s e d by.Mr. V e r g e and  Opportunities this  Opportunities  Harold Verge.  and development  approach which  County  take.  o f 1973  i n innovating  to postpone d e c i s i o n s .  to evaluate  i n Pictou  o f the Development  the c o n s u l t a n t ,  to assist  approach to p l a n n i n g  happen  they would  completed i n the F a l l  the c o n t r a c t w i t h  only  likely  t o V e r g e , embodies  that  has b e e n  O p p o r t u n i t i e s Task  Group,  the f o l l o w i n g concepts:  taken  85.  (1)  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g was v i e w e d as an o n g o i n g p r o c e s s , and u n l i k e t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s , p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n were n o t s e e n a s d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e a c t i v i t i e s , b u t r a t h e r as a s p e c t s o f e a c h o t h e r ;  (2)  a s a l o n g - t e r m p r o c e s s w h i c h , among o t h e r t h i n g s , i s meant t o be d y n a m i c , d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g was a l s o meant t o o c c u r i n t e r m s o f t h r e e e s s e n t i a l c a t e g o r i e s o f growth: politic a l , e c o n o m i c , and s o c i a l (PCDPC, 1973d, p . 6-7) . Political  as:  growth i s d e f i n e d  "Access t o the decision-making  a way w h i c h w i l l  enable t h e i r  e x p r e s s e d and e f f e c t i v e l y  Opportunities operative  he c o n c l u d e s  and d i r e c t i n g  that  early  the developmental process  and c i t i z e n  prise  groups a t l a r g e .  a s s u c h a mechanism  form, i t c o u l d  the f i r s t  political  surely  this  Council  County  consisting of  He goes on t o s t a t e  that  allowed  t h i s would  c o n d i t i o n s by w h i c h  (PCDPC, 1973d,  p. 8-9).  t o take com-  real Figure  3  arrangement.  Economic  growth  i s v i e w e d as t h e c o n t i n u a l  ment o f new s o u r c e s o f j o b s w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l perity  Planning  f o r managing  i n Pictou  i s eventually  be s a i d  step i n creating  growth i s a c h i e v e d  illustrates  conceded t h a t the co-  t h e e m e r g i n g mechanism  citizens  concrete  on i n t h e Development  f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and t a k i n g  a l s o a Community D e v e l o p m e n t  insofar  p. 10).  PICORD a n d t h e D i s t r i c t  includes  that  by a l l p e o p l e i n  (PCDPC, 1973d,  i t was g e n e r a l l y  was t h e mechanism  report  a n d c o n c e r n s t o be  solved..."  a r r a n g e m e n t between  Commission action,  Project  facility  needs  Mr. V e r g e p o i n t s o u t t h a t w h e r e a s  i n Mr. V e r g e ' s  o f the County.  s t e p s have a l r e a d y  been  Mr. V e r g e p o i n t s o u t t h a t taken with  respect  develop-  to the prosimportant  to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  DESIGN FOR DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING PROGRAM FOR PICTOU COUNTY  of  economic  are  listed  opportunities previously  (summary d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h o s e  i n this  "A s o c i e t y  efforts  section).  that operates i n a b a s i c a l l y  smoothe way  and i n w h i c h a l l o f i t s members c a n e n j o y some d e g r e e o f c o n tentment/  s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t and freedom from u n n e c e s s a r y  frustration  and t o i l  says Harold Verge nition  of social  i s a society  t h a t h a s grown  (PCDPC, 1973d, p . 1 1 - 1 2 ) . growth, Verge o b s e r v e s t h a t  YMCA-YWCA s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o s t a n d the  opportunity  velopment  i t provides  i sclearly  n o t now a p r i o r i t y  P i c t o u C o u n t y community i s a l l o w i n g its  financial  decline.  Using  Verge says t h a t perhaps t h i s  this  Using  this  t h e County  for social  for recreational  socially," defiRegional  growth, b u t  and a r t i s t i c de-  i n t h e community.  The  t h e YMCA-YWCA t o c o n t i n u e situation  indicates  that  as a  symptom,  t h e County  i s not  87.  growing be  socially.  achieved,  and  He  i t appears  housed p r o p e r l y  t h e s e needs  surmises  and  that  their  (PCDPC, 1973d, p.  status  e c o n o m i c , and  of p o t e n t i a l "  that  that  at  this "the  social  Verge r e v o l v e  b e e n made b u t  namely t h a t  mental planning and  around process  of  by  District  Planning  resented  by  Council. says,  to  structure,  resented  idea  i s the  technical assistance  decision-making  PICORD, t h e  possibilities  13).  again  The  and  quired  to negotiate  resources  t o b u i l d up  the  p.  The p r o p o s e s as  to  d e p e n d s upon  three  real the  that  emphasize long-term  a n a l y t i c a l summary  sector  the  of  the  out  resolutions of the  sector  private  the  rep-  intended, and  he  public  understanding which w i l l  community  by  Development  are  conflicts  the  rep-  represented  Community sets  professional  sector  community  he  develop-  components o f  private  c a p a b i l i t y and  capability for action within 1973,  returns  c e n t r a l to the  the  public  project proposals the  grants  need f o r c o n t i n u i n g  a yet-to-be-established  t o b u i l d up  (Verge,  that  and  for  more t h a n  He  from t h i s  namely t h e  local  evolution  PICORD.  serve  Commission,  sector  as  the  l i e i n meeting  g r o w t h h a v e no  Recommendations e m e r g i n g by  can  clothed  stage i n the  a long-term developmental process  dynamic l e a d e r s h i p ,  growth  fed,  priorities  (PCDPC, 1973d, p.  i m p o r t a n t headway has  social  12-13).  development i n P i c t o u County,  political,  before  t h a t p e o p l e want t o be  Verge concludes of  that  sector  rearise  increases  15-16).  following  necessary  velopmental planning  to  i s a summary o f the  effort:  the  continuation  of  p r o j e c t s Mr. an  effective  Verge de-  88.  Management. The s u c c e s s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s , he s a y s , d e p e n d s on a w o r k a b l e management f u n c t i o n b e i n g d e s i g n e d to most e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e the p r i v a t e , p u b l i c , and community s e c t o r s . He prop o s e s t h a t PICORD p e r f o r m t h i s f u n c t i o n a n d t h a t a s t u d y be c o n d u c t e d t o examine e x i s t i n g development p r o g r a m s and recommend t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e arrangement f o r P i c t o u C o u n t y ; Planning. I n t r y i n g t o a c h i e v e some " s y n e r g y of a c t i o n " between s e c t o r s , the D i s t r i c t Planning C o m m i s s i o n has e n t e r e d i n t o c o n t r a c t u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h c o n s u l t a n t s and U n i v e r s i t y s t a f f . Verge feels that the f u l l - t i m e s e r v i c e s of another p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r a r e r e q u i r e d t o (1) f o r m u l a t e strategies f o r r e s o u r c e management a t t h e r e g i o n a l community level, (2) a n a l y z e u r b a n i m p r o v e m e n t p r o g r a m s t o r e v e a l t h e i r impact on s o c i a l and economic development, and (3) r e p o r t o n f i n d i n g s a t a l l s t a g e s o f t h e work i n r e g i o n a l community p l a n n i n g t o the D i s t r i c t Planning Commission; Economic Supports s t a t e s , to update the P i c t o u County grant i n 1967;  Analysis. There i s a need, Verge t h e r e p o r t , The E x p o r t B a s e o f E c o n o m y c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r a n ARDA  Supplements to Current Planning A c t i v i t y . Profess o r s and s t u d e n t s i n A t l a n t i c u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s s h o u l d be h i r e d t o u n d e r t a k e t h e f o l l o w i n g activities: (a) e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g (coastal z o n e s , c o a l dump r e c l a m a t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l areas), (b) u r b a n d e s i g n ( r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c e n t r a l t o w n a r e a s ) , (c) l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n (study of East River v a l l e y lowlands p o t e n t i a l f o r r e c r e a t i o n ) , (d) r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g ( f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e , etc.), and (e) c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ; Community Development and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Trained community d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s a r e n e e d e d t o work w i t h g r o u p s o f c i t i z e n s t o s u p p o r t t h e Community Development C o u n c i l . A l s o , a study i s needed to d e t e r m i n e t h e p a r t i c u l a r type o f community body r e q u i r e d to r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s of the larger community i n the d e v e l o p m e n t a l planning process; P i c t o u County I n f o r m a t i o n System. The establishment o f an i n f o r m a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n c e n t r e i n P i c t o u County i s necessary to support a planned program of economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l growth i n the C o u n t y . Functions of t h i s centre would e n t a i l (a) disseminat i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , d a t a , and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on p r o g r a m s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s , (b) s u r v e y o f c o m m u n i t y  89.  and i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s , (c) a s s i s t l o c a l m e d i a a s r e q u e s t e d o r r e q u i r e d , a n d (d) a s s i s t p r e s e n t i n f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e s ( e . g . PICORD, PCDPC, R e g i o n a l A s s e s s m e n t O f f i c e , town and m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e s ) i n b e c o m i n g more e f f e c t i v e (PCDPC, 1973d, p . 1 7 - 2 6 ) . Although of  involvement,  tinued it  H a r o l d V e r g e has withdrawn h i s i n t e n s e  t h e Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o j e c t  to pursue i t s a c t i v i t i e s  adopted a t i t s i n i t i a t i o n .  have b e e n c a r r i e d filled  with  was  has con-  t h e same l e a r n i n g  A number o f s i g n i f i c a n t  approach efforts  o u t s i n c e O c t o b e r , 1973, when Mr. V e r g e  t h e terms o f h i s c o n t r a c t .  I believe,  level  The m o s t  t h e J a n u a r y , 19 74, v i s i t  notable  ful-  undertaking,  to the Georgia Mountains  P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i s s i o n by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l six  P i c t o u County M u n i c i p a l Governments  tatives  o f PICORD, t h e D i s t r i c t  and s e l e c t e d  P l a n n i n g Commission  S c o t i a Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f i a r s . Gainseville, of  Ga., was  Development  and  t h e group t o exchange  l e a r n more a b o u t p r o j e c t s  a n d t h e Nova  The t h r e e - d a y  s p o n s o r e d by t h e Nova S c o t i a  and e n a b l e d  represen-  trip  to  Department  information  a n d p r o b l e m a r e a s common t o b o t h  regions. Though tion  of the a c t i v i t i e s  Group,  tempted t o c o n t i n u e w i t h a f u r t h e r o f the Development  the scope o f t h i s  of  the f i r s t  at  this  this  I am  Project.  study extends only  phase o f the P r o j e c t .  point,  to proceed  Opportunities to the  Task  conclusion  I t i s appropriate,  to a c r i t i q u e  descrip-  then,  of the approach used i n  90.  CHAPTER  FOUR  R E - A S S E S S M E N T AND  The more  recent  regional  previous  federal  by  underlying  an  the  development. impact  of  gramme b y the  on  years  or  Pictou or  in a  receiving  and  d e s c r i b i n g some o f  provincial  These  were  related  out  general but  closely  end  of  those  part  of  this  by  to  to  way,  a  effects efforts  a  char-  the  concepts  regional  not  economic the  specific  pro-  review  of  on  people  the  over  the  at  be  looking at  rather  economic  efforts  shown  theories of  starts  checklist,  political,  second  results  of  County.  the  some  past  of who  ten  the  The  chapter  Development  evidence out  that  at  Opportunities  i s examined  of  looks  some o f  Project in  for certain  approach  to  the  rewards  regional  develop-  planning.  the  the  involvement  the  study  with  approach  and a  part  of  formulated  conclusions  lic  the  final  hypothesis  tentative  of  efforts  by  so.  In to  which  chapter  b e n e f i t s t h a t grew  ment  Scotia  traditional  This  The initial  began  planning.  more  programme  the  Nova  approach  those  social,  were  and  development  acterized  chapter  CONCLUSIONS  chapter  i n Chapter  concerning  the  on  what  in Pictou  Two  I  relate  and  planning.  I b e l i e v e to County.  be  my  arrive  relationship  r e g i o n a l development  note used  this  key  findings at  some  between  pub-  I  complete  implications  THE  IMPACT OF  PREVIOUS REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING EFFORTS  Many o f t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t s a t r e g i o n a l development the  goal  least  planning  o f income  i n Nova S c o t i a a t t e m p t e d t o s a t i s f y  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n favour  t h e minimum c r i t e r i o n  o f economic  ween e a r l y a m b i t i o n s and projects  was  s c o p e and  a gap  bet-  impact o f the  "To a c o n s i d e r a b l e  degree," write  16) , "ARDA p r o j e c t  s e l e c t i o n has b e e n  widely held  contention  velopment o f s o i l  that  rural  i n the r u r a l  encouragement  improvements  and w a t e r r e s o u r c e s  for raising  processes  scale  there  The e v i -  o r programmes.  (1967, p .  measures  the a c t u a l  o f the poor o r a t  efficiency.  d e n c e , however, a p p e a r s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  either  economy  to leave  and e f f i c i e n c y ,  incomes  B u c k l e y and  and  s h a p e d by  a  u s e and  de-  i n land  are the  Tihanyi  appropriate  f u r t h e r i n g adjustment  . . . (However), p r o v i d i n g  neither  n o r t h e means t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y i m p r o v e ARDA f a r m s programmes a r e j u d g e d u n l i k e l y  t o h a v e h a d any a p p r e c i a b l e  i m p a c t on t h e p r o b l e m o f  low-income  farming". T. N. majority  Brewis  points  "soil  few p r o j e c t s ,  and w a t e r " , and  he s a y s ,  rural  development,  serve  as f o c a l p o i n t s  that  127).  inhibit  change  an  under  "alternate  were u n d e r t a k e n u n d e r  overwhelming the headings o f  land  use".  f o r development,  and m o b i l i t y  Very  the headings o f  i s , the s e l e c t i o n of areas that  the problems o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  that  out that  o f ARDA p r o j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d  "research",  of  (1969)  or education,  co-ordination  or  or the  i n c e r t a i n communities  might studies factors (p.  126-  L.  0. G e r t l e r  o f ARDA a s r e f l e c t e d hensive into  by t h e l a t e r  development p l a n n i n g ,  rural  b u t says  not  a decentralization  end  of the period  believe,  that individual  isolation,  general  lines  sectoral  over  a n d t h e employment  At the  dramatic  accurately, I assessed  and t h e i n t e r -  of individual of the j o i n t  and t h e A r e a  i n the A t l a n t i c  figures  He does t h i s  Nova S c o t i a i s c o n c e r n e d ,  repair  i t was  h a s t o be f o r m e d o f t h e  an i m p r e s s i o n  study)  plan-  projects impact  Development  provinces  s i x t i e s m i g h t be f o r m e d by l o o k i n g a t i n c o m e ,  change i n t r e n d s .  sonal  no  c a n n o t be a d e q u a t e l y  Development Board, i n this  new  recorded.  the e f f i c a c y  He s u g g e s t s  (not r e v i e w e d  the late  process.  however, p o i n t s o u t v e r y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s before  investment, any  d i s p a r i t i e s were  efforts  split  a t the l o c a l  execution;  a l o n g which growth i s t o p r o g r e s s  o f ARDA, t h e A t l a n t i c Agency  to f a c i l i t a t e  b u t r a t h e r an i m p r e s s i o n  be a p p r a i s e d .  remained  C i t i z e n s were i n v o l v e d i n  ( 1 9 6 1 - 1 9 6 9 ) , he c o n c l u d e s ,  (1970),  compre-  a n d method o f j o i n t  o f the decision-making  changes i n i n t e r r e g i o n a l  trend  some i m p o r t a n t  o f government, p a r t i c i p a t i o n  s u b s t a n t i v e programmes i n o r d e r  can  And w h i l e  was n o t g e n e r a l l y s u s t a i n e d .  Brewis  that this  i n evolving the style  n i n g by two l e v e l s  in  a g r e e m e n t s was t o w a r d  and urban components.  g r o u n d was b r o k e n  level  (1970) c o n c e d e s t h a t t h e g e n e r a l  f o rthe period,  and f i n d s  noting  t h a t , as f a r a s  t h e r e were no r e l a t i v e  gains  i n per-  i n c o m e , t h e r e was a marked upward t r e n d i n c a p i t a l a n d expenditures,  b u t t h e r e was no s e c u l a r f a l l  ment r a t e s i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h  t h e n a t i o n a l ones  i n unemploy-  (p. 1 8 8 - 1 8 9 ) .  New is  being  economic a c t i v i t y ,  a t t r a c t e d t o Nova S c o t i a  incentive Regional  grants  and  loans  3)  the  tures  points  vities.  report  argued t h a t investment province causal  associated  o f t e n o f f s e t by The  the  with  i n recent  and  the  and  years"  left  the  conventional  perity. of  the  the  and  region  finds that  independently  r e s u l t of t h i s  (p.  25).  is  i t g o e s on  manufacturing  say  that  to  venacti-  " i t can  be  manufacturing  leakages out have b e e n  of  only  of  the  important  employment  DREE s t a f f  the  in  of  the  whole A t l a n t i c  E.  A t l a n t i c Region  the  t o become a p a r t  to  way  take i n i t i a t i v e s  George  or  to achieving  t o weaken t h e  of  region.  government s u b s i d i e s the  has  for a long period  outlook of  tended  been  ability Roy  the  point  has  The  support  i t has  wisdom t h a t  i n i t s own  impact  basic structural  a n a l y s i s by  i t s mark on  special consideration The  total  DREE  11).  s e c t o r a l behaviour.  t i m e and  form of  (p.  by  a more n e b u l o u s p r o b l e m a f f e c t i n g  assistance  has  high  opportunities  b e e n d e p e n d e n t on  DREE r e p o r t  to  investment  a broader plane,  The  the  slow growth i n t o t a l  (1973a) i d e n t i f i e d  this  report  of  i n more t r a d i t i o n a l  f a r as  the  this  e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s and  institutional  new  of  Department  Moreover,  the  losses  e v e n g o e s so  factors behind  Region  that  because of  with  job  province  associated  On  new  c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i t y o f much r e c e n t  i n the  Nova S c o t i a  be  out  manufacturing,  1970's b e c a u s e  the  p r o v i n c i a l economy.  job gains  are  by  in  However, a s t a f f  o f t e n much l e s s t h a n i t c o u l d weaknesses i n the  i n the  provided  Economic E x p a n s i o n .  (Canada, DREE, 1973b, p.  say,  particularly  of some pros-  confidence and  operate  (1970) made a s i m i l a r  assessment velopment Western  in his of  comparison  two  regions,  of  the  Nova  social  Scotia  and  and  economic  Eastern  de-  Ontario-  Quebec: Within the p r o v i n c e (Nova S c o t i a ) i s an a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c u s t o m a r y way o f l i f e and a r e l u c t a n c e to f i g h t hard to achieve personal m a t e r i a l advancement. Coupled with this i s a s e n s e o f dependency w h i c h c o n v i n c e s Nova S c o t i a n s o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to shape t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s (p. 167). Pictou  the  federal  Two  of  were the  and  Clairtone  grants,  went  and  to  into in  now  than  able  prevalent (or  is  being  under  to  colonized  the  before;  go  put, by  back  a  few  locally  as  obvious  e f f e c t has  classic  worked  has  a  of  incentive  local  a  opera-  confused  this  kind  More  and  of  jobs  are  But  people  better-paying, been  by  documented.  the  not  impact.  the used It  "shelf-study"  been  long  the  years,  was  p o s i t i v e economic  who  impact  of  However,  there  are  more  not  critical  feeling that  the  County  outsiders.  produce  those  grants.  and  of  Paper,  establishing  promises  be  some  Scott  attracted  after  can  most  there  ARDA p r o g r a m m e  the  firm  by  programmes.  and  i s debateable.  that  achieve  Tire  incentive  economic  feeling that  Simply  To  by  soon  County  affected  development  another  The  Pictou  allowed)  positions.  County  i t s wake b r o k e n  citizenry.  available  directly  Michelin  receivership  in  a  employers, Pictou  "development"  is  been  Corporation,  left  despondent  has  provincial regional  i t s largest  attracted  tions  County  the  and  bad-taste  hard  hours,  Northern in  a  has  Nova  Scotia  productive been  effort. left days,  way  to  characterized However,  in  Study  the  and  one  mouths  months,  very of  a l l  on  a  volunteer  their  THE  basis,  efforts  throughout the study  were  DEVELOPMENT  the  Project, Nova  OPPORTUNITIES  being The  carried  former,  ments for  cipal  assistance  administration,  latter,  namely  traditionally senior  local  was  posited,  new  investments,  would  i t was  the Project  ultimately  process  inculcated  of  eager  planned plans,  the other  munizoning  hand,  f o r development,  the had  and agencies  income,  at  I t s end products, i t i n terms  force,  adequate  b u t most  jobs, well-  housing, e t c . of the approach  importantly  by t h e e x t e n t and ideas,  of  regional  the effectiveness  hospitable  of  of the  developmental planning  o f labour  attitudes  f o r progress,  On  eligible  Municipal  development  funded.  be measured  new  of  govern-  except f o r the instance  i n a l l i t s phases, would  a s i t was  emphasized.  a n d was  o f departments  that  under  undertaken by l o c a l  be measured  i n improved  planning  strongly  of planning  been  Opportuni-  planning  tended towards  Project,  recognized  phase,  mind  which  And perhaps  continuity  initial  was  municipal  had r a r e l y  as r e f l e c t e d  However, to  level  RESULTS  community  regulations.  Opportunities  the  INITIAL  t h e Department  the preserve  governments.  Development  County  from  the a c t i v i t y been  SOME  or collectively)  were  and s u b d i v i s i o n  between  o u t , was  I t s end products,  by-laws,  being  pointed  individually  financial  PROJECT:  A c t and development  out i n Pictou  (either  Affairs.  Planning  i t was  that  t h e conduct o f t h e Development  the difference  Scotia  to find  f o r naught.  Throughout ties  only  i n  i t s  to which the  promoted  t o change,  states  and capable o f  applying  scientific  approaches  t o an  ever wider range  of  problems. The  activities  ject  were d e s c r i b e d  Also  described  District  of  the  Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s  in limited detail  were a number o f  Planning  as  the  were n o t  certainly  i t .  so  i n f l u e n c e d by  t h a t by  activities  viewing  rough c r i t e r i a the  or  these  the  regional  development  PICORD, t o  planning  "initial  the  citizen  lands  the  of  the  Project,  I can  Thorburn Mining  i n the  community vicinity  Over the  of  the  the  to to  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e submitted  and  subsidiary use  197 3 t h e  PCDPC  wide-based  members  Robert O j o l i c k , a Planning  Ski A s s o c i a t i o n ,  S.  Planning a  Ltd.,  the  Canadian  Department o f Mines,  was  of  begin  Commission, a  of  a proposal  here  S t e l l a r t o n Coal  course of  Sport  N.  some o f  i n t e r e s t , land  Thorburn Mining Mr.  Ltd.,  Instructors Association, the  were  p a r t i c u l a r approach  the  organization,  Recreation,  the  they  light  County D i s t r i c t  S t e l l a r t o n Recreation  Canadian  during  Project.  r e s u l t s " i n the  Pictou  S t e l l a r t o n town s t a f f ,  sultant,  the  the  Dumps R e c l a m a t i o n P r o j e c t .  local  of  County  undertakings appears warranted  undertake i n the  worked w i t h t h e  Pictou  planning.  a s k e d by  f o r the  the  A c l o s e r examination of  rewards o r b e n e f i t s  I n e a r l y 1973  of  part  p a r t i c i p a n t s have o f f e r e d  discover  C o m m i s s i o n was  of  chapter.  Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s  Though t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s  more key  activities  last  C o m m i s s i o n w h i c h were c a r r i e d o u t  same t i m e p e r i o d  the  i n the  Pro-  Nova S c o t i a ,  Marketing.  the  N.  and  Finally  to Thorburn Mining  Ltd.  of Con-  Ski S.  the  Department N.  S.  i n November and  the  N.  S.  Department o f Mines f o r t h e i r of  the t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y  and  the p r o p o s a l  its  Recreation  received  of the region.  community  Opportunities  n o t an u n d e r -  P r o j e c t b u t seems t o planners,  departments c o - o p e r a t i n g  t h e New  o f the Development  Business  Opportunities  P r o j e c t s Fund P r o p o s a l .  o f t h e r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e Development  This  businesses  would depend  i n equal  t o e n c o u r a g e new  entrepreneurship  and t o f i n a n c e  be e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o m o t e create  conditions  The p r o p o s a l  pointed  attract  existing  the  region.  testing was  The  that a special  and  business  the fund  ideas  implementation.  essentially  a  different  which seeks t o location;  t h e emphasis  and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t  o f a market need t o the f o r m u l a t i o n entrepreneur  proposal,  Task Group w i t h  o f new  to a specific  p l a n t h a t t h e would-be  new  and  B e c a u s e i t i s u s u a l l y somewhere i n t h e f l o w  an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n mercial  undertakings.  development e f f o r t  businesses  on i n n o v a t i o n  innovation,  recommended  out that t h i s  than the usual  h e r e was  new  the discovery  for their  process  ideas,  Opportunities  a s s i s t a n c e o f two c o n s u l t a n t s ,  and  o r g r e a t e r m e a s u r e on what  mechanisms e x i s t  by t h e D e v e l o p m e n t  was  Opportunities  t h a t t h e development and growth o f e x i s t i n g  and  in  b e n e f i t s f o r the r e g i o n a l  Task Group  prepared  and  (PCDPC, 1 9 7 4 d ) .  P r o j e c t was result  1974  comment  of p o l i t i c i a n s ,  which r e a l i z e s  A key u n d e r t a k i n g  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  the s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t  an o p p o r t u n i t y  i n January of  T h i s p r o j e c t was  the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and government pursuing  Approval  t o t h e Town o f S t e l l a r t o n  for their  o f t h e Development  indicate well  was  submitted  Commission  by t h e c i t i z e n s taking  was  technical evaluation.  falters  within from  o f a com-  for lack of  98.  funds  o r support,  the purpose  F u n d was t o e n s u r e  that  good  ment p h a s e w i t h a c o m m e r c i a l capital. mitted  T h i s approach  the business  plan that w i l l  t o new b u s i n e s s project  attract  a n d Commerce,  P i c t o u County the r e s u l t  (PCDPC,  key u n d e r t a k i n g o f t h e Development  P r o j e c t was a s e m i n a r  Ownership P u b l i c  venture  t o t h e N. S. D e p a r t m e n t  t h e Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n  nities  i n a home o f t h e i r  Opportu-  free.to  own.  the d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e Housing  S e c t o r Group:  need would prove  p r o v i d e d by t h e Nova S c o t i a H o u s i n g E d u c a t i o n Programme was n e c e s s a r y resources a v a i l a b l e .  anyone i n  The c o u r s e  o f two d e c i s i o n s made a t a v e r y e a r l y  measure o f County h o u s i n g  1973h).  c o u r s e known a s H.O.P.E., Home  E d u c a t i o n , w h i c h was o f f e r e d  interested  develop-  d e v e l o p m e n t was s u b -  t h e Department o f I n d u s t r y , Trade  Another  was  ideas reach  f o r f u n d i n g as a p i l o t  o f Development, and  o f t h e New B u s i n e s s P r o j e c t s  (1) a  stage i n statistical  as u s e l e s s as t h o s e  Commission,  a n d (2) a P u b l i c  t o acquaint people with the  T h e s e d e c i s i o n s were b a s e d  on d i s c u s s i o n s  w i t h a C o u n t y s a m p l e o f h o p e f u l home-owners. The Opportunities were a c c e p t e d . Two p i l o t  that  Project  a n d o u t o f 200 e n q u i r i e s ,  Twenty w e e k l y ,  three-hour  the f i n a n c i a l  i n home b u i l d i n g .  procedures  identified  Assisted  t h e Development 120 r e g i s t r a t i o n s  seminars  were h e l d .  t o secure  and c o n s t r u c t i o n s k i l l s  Approximately  t h e y were p l a n n i n g t o p r o c e e d  planned  through  h o u s e s were c o n s t r u c t e d a s p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e t o  demonstrate required  H.O.P.E. c o u r s e was f u n d e d  further  indicated  on one o f t h e many  a home o f t h e i r own.  to investigate  50 p e o p l e  paths  A number o f o t h e r s  the provisions of the federal  Home O w n e r s h i p Programme  (PCDPC,  1974b).  99.  During pilot for  houses  federal  poration their  built  stated  that  arguing validity  Group  of the Assisted depended  housing  opportunities  the  They  physical  also  rigid  financing  to relate  County. Group  Both  Task  Group  ning  Institute".  The  Resource  houses  responded t o  County  f a m i l i e s , and  t o have  to deal  with  t o the development  Service  of this  of a proposed that  problems  o f the Maritime Task  Group,  a n d t h e Nova  Task  dilemma. Opportuniby t h e  "Maritime there  f o r technical  specific  Opportunities  Opportunities  i s the involvement  recognized  requirement  i n Pictou  o f t h e Development  here  phases  I t had been  Management  resolution  The  standards too  p o t e n t i a l homeowner  and t h e Development  i n the i n i t i a l  Development  of Pictou  was shown  and growing  related  of providing  population  Pictou  i n Pictou  mechanism  undertaking  t o those  "solution",  capabilities.  t o pursue  that  and i n fact the  t o the task  o f most  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  trained  this  financial  final  Project  people  needs  so  t o apply  Programme  the pilot  t o t h e average  ties  course,  Home O w n e r s h i p  Cor-  The Development  to accept  of their  required  standards  of their  are continuing  crucial  o f the course.  out that  CM.H.C.  The  their  that the  and Housing  be e x t e n d e d  f o rt h e general  pointed  to the limits  federal  could  on i t s relevance  housing  Mortgage  relax  refused  the validity  County,  County.  could  as p a r t  Task  that  they  i t was d i s c o v e r e d  t o the standards  The C e n t r a l  programmes  constructed  Opportunities  course  d i dn o t conform  financing.  financing  houses  t h e H.O.P.E.  Plan-  was a  and p r o f e s s i o n a l and opportunities  Region along  Scotia  o f Canada.  with  the Maritime  College  of A r t  100.  and D e s i g n , the  began  d i s c u s s i o n s i n the Spring  development o f a "Maritime  provide  initial  education  Planning  field-based f a c i l i t i e s  of university  o f 1973  Institute"  concerning designed  and programmes f o r t h e  and p o s t - g r a d u a t e  students,  government  e m p l o y e e s , b u s i n e s s m e n , p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and o t h e r s who role  i n the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l ,  province.  The  existing  government  expertise,  the  The  of Maritime  innovative  approach to education a s an a l t e r n a t i v e  educational i n s t i t u t i o n . Group  is still  continues  to push  drawing  satisfy  both  the  institutions  and  organizations.  not a r e a l i t y ,  but  i s c u r r e n t l y being  t o t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l ,  And  t h e Development  upon  f o r teaching  educational  and p r i v a t e p l a n n i n g  "Institute"  a  centralized  " l a b s " i n the f i e l d ,  a n d o f f e r i n g programmes t h a t w o u l d  needs o f government  seriously  s e e n n o t t o be a  and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s  academic requirements  have  and economic development o f t h e  " I n s t i t u t e " was  s c h o o l , b u t r a t h e r one w i t h  to  this  considered centralized  Opportunities  Task  f o r i t s development.  CONCLUSIONS  This responding regional the  study  has e x a m i n e d  to s o c i a l ,  level.  two  r e g i o n a l economic growth concepts I t was  federal  and p r o v i n c i a l  approaches to  p h y s i c a l , and economic problems a t t h e  The more t r a d i t i o n a l  study.  different  shown t h a t t h e s e  a p p r o a c h e s were b a s e d on presented  e a r l y i n the  a p p r o a c h e s l e d t o a number o f  r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g  some o f w h i c h were d e s c r i b e d  later  on i n t h e s t u d y .  were some o f t h e more r e c e n t  t h e o r i e s of the s o c i a l  programmes, Also  studied  learning pro-  101.  cess. Nova  The  Scotia,  brought on  Development and  forward  social of  these  this  chapter.  make  nize  It  that  great  understand  care  The  literature  economic  fundamentally social  change  hypothesized fostered  strengthen  at  employment  or  While believe that  that  most  returns  indicators federal  also  and  influence  we  of  on  social  did  in  social  and  this  believe provide  the  of  beginning  point  for I  cause  seemed  to  level  of me  recog-  and  effect  rather  identify  have  that much  looking  social  the  into  development  describe  the  process  a  that  of  I  therefore,  approach  what  process.  accurately.  have  change.  traditional  insight  could,  than  and  been  desirable  more  an  to I  regional  through  be  seeks  direct  to  impact  incomes. hard  search  evidence,  area we  try  change.  are  are  economic  well-being  for  due  evidence,  partly  designed  s t i l l  p r o v i n c i a l programmes economic  to  well-being  a l l the  because  the  out  based  impact  findings.  rule  to  h a v e made a  this  to  foster  regional  learning  have  at  these  to  not  regional  efforts in  and  of  individual I  upon  undertaken  effectively  social  then,  at  i t , were  spurious.  theories  the  that  more  based  out  County,  approach  set  involved  learning  latter  have  l e d me  models  this  been  Pictou  preceded  " r e s u l t s " or  necessary  review  in  tentative  be  was  process  growth  of  i s necessary  may  conditions  study  appropriate,  study  the  the  on  is  that  for  social  The  Project  e f f o r t s which  case  some c o n c l u s i o n s  This  The  a  approaches  relationships  is  as  local  learning.  both  to  the  Opportunities  to  learning  to  have  I  the  don't fact  long-term  quite  a  bit  well-being.  The  previous  seem  had  marginal  in  to  Nova  have Scotia  regions;  about  and  102.  it  appears  have  that  suffered  residents manner taken  in  has  social  because areas  Pictou  County  regional  of  residents  initial  of  sultants' lems  and  studies, by  a  County-wide  evidence taking to  There  be  Local  to  The  gradually of  that wish  Pictonians  and  were  for  own  sphere,  community  accept or  intrustions  opportunities,  manner. sented  Therefore, in  the  into  from  on  previous  to  more  desirable  and  in  deal the  basis of  of  take  County, in the  this  a  external results  does  appear  was in  was shown the  pursuing  problems.  from  becoming  prob-  region.  actively  their  be  con-  of  part  County  change  them  to  development  only  the  detached  to  development  not  were  with  section  were  to  shown  there  Pictou  social  or  was  But  the  of  an  economic  to  has  Development  the  will  solve  outside  and  the  able  also  the  political  organizations  but  on  the  widely-based  adaptation  data  of  traditional  identification  of  fact  experience  a  industry  and  part  started with  participate in  attempting  opportunities  was  in  dependence  the  called  Project.  social  becoming  is  local  hard  this  to  to  by  well-being  i n d i v i d u a l s and  opportunities  no  for  the  province  instead  transformed  future  the  rather  basis  suggest  place.  creation  from  exists  this  effort  incentives  but  in  may  the  f e e l i n g of  Project  experimentation  parameters. on  by  on  participated in  This  $47,500  a  with  planning  Project.  not  Confidence  and  who  development  assistance  Contrasted  Opportunities  characterized  them.  eroded,  development  grant  political  receiving  actually  i t s place.  and  discover within  more be  more  they  to  problems  intelligent  evidence chapter  able  their  which  and  also  was in  prea  103.  more say  g e n e r a l i z e d way that  i n the previous  the hypothesis  was  that  r e g i o n a l development  cess  of social  fundamental  learning  supported:  planning  within  and worthwhile  chapter,  I believe  this  that  study  effects  than  suggests  strengthens  the region w i l l  the pro-  have  t h e more  I can  more  traditional  approaches.  FINAL  NOTES  Having Project  a n d now  manner,  I have  participated having  development  specific  implications  as  individuals The  man,  equally is  important  blurred  means  that  manage  earner,  learn  of  the student,  contribution  and i n f a c t  may  a l l participants  to  and  i n the process,  the welfare  each  both  the business-  recipient  has a p a r t i c u l a r  way.  i n this  i n some  -  and  process.  The t r a d i t i o n a l  disappear need  important  t h e mayor,  t o make  special  approach  institutions.  the economist,  that  disciplined  Each boundaries  instances.  to increase their  This  ability  to  interpersonal relations.  process  Friedmann  requires  effectively,  Friedmann must  f o r the participants  i n h i s own  John this  learning  h a s some q u i t e  a n d a s members  Opportunities  i t i n a systematic  the social  planning  - has t o recognize  an e x p e r t  are  that  planner,  t h e wage  everyone  examined  learned  regional  i n the Development  be  says  that  (1973,  the p a r t i c i p a n t  a n d my  experience  to learn  strengthened:  p . 232-236)  has argued  t o enhance has borne  effectively  (1) t h e a b i l i t y  these  that  his ability  this out. four  to question  abilities existing  to  104.  reality,  (2)  experience, (4) t h e  the (3)  ability For  bodies, in  and  ability the  ability  to t e s t  agencies,  other  the  using  the  the  and  results.  social  local  planning  l e a r n i n g approach  f o l l o w i n g items  should  (1)  a l o n g - t e r m v i e w i s a d v i s e d , and p o l i c i e s r e s ponding to short-term p o l i t i c a l expediency s h o u l d be v i e w e d i n t h e i r p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e ;  (2)  a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s r e q u i r e d to enable a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s t o c o n t r i b u t e e f f e c t i v e l y ( B u c k l e y and T i h a n y i , 196 7 ) ;  (3)  e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s n e e d t o be s u p p l e m e n t e d by s o c i a l and d e m o g r a p h i c o n e s , a n d on a r e g i o n a l and s u b - a r e a b a s i s , a n d i t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t economic i n d i c a t o r s a r e o n l y v e r y l i m i t e d t o o l s ( F i r e s t o n e , 1972);  (4)  t h i s a p p r o a c h r e q u i r e s some b u i l t - i n d i s o r d e r and a m b i g u i t y , and by p r e s e n t s t a n d a r d s , i n e f f i c i e n c y , i n favour of maintaining or encouraging l i f e - s t y l e s important to smaller g r o u p s o f p e o p l e (Lang, 1 9 7 2 b ) ;  (5)  t h e p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l l e a r n i n g must be made more o r d e r l y and r a t i o n a l , w h i c h i m p l i e s t h a t (a) c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t e n t i o n i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h i s needed t o u n d e r s t a n d the p r o c e s s , (b) d e v e l o p m e n t a l h y p o t h e s e s n e e d t o be more o b j e c t i v e l y and c o n s c i o u s l y f o r m u l a t e d , and more f r a n k l y c o n c e i v e d as an e x p e r i m e n t , and (c) new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m s a n d procedures n e e d t o be t r i e d (Dunn, 1 9 7 1 ) . a concluding  t h a t I have not  statement,  attempted  development p l a n n i n g .  I b e l i e v e I should  t o w r i t e a handbook  this  be  T h i s has  b e e n an  study  reflects  somewhat t h e  point  for regional  e x p l o r a t o r y study,  c o n c l u s i o n s have b e e n c o n s e r v a t i v e b e c a u s e o f t h i s .  that  concrete  in practice,  government departments,  institutions  from  seriously:  As out  lessons  theory  t o examine s i n c e r e l y  r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g ,  considered  my  t o draw g e n e r a l  b i a s e s o f my  and  I know  employment  105.  in  P i c t o u County,  peculiarities  my  own p e r s o n a l  of operation  kinds  o f people  living  ever,  to relate  both  ner  that w i l l  and  also  sights the  enable  the person  into  that  philosophy,  grew  both who  reads  the relationship  r e g i o n a l development  and p e r s o n a l  myself  I have  tried,  experience  how-  i n a man-  as the w r i t e r and researcher,  this  study,  between  process.  of the  out of the particular  i n the Maritimes.  theory  a n d some  with  public  some  useful i n -  involvement  and  106.  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