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Freedom of work-related choices and work-attachment : an exploratory study of secondary teachers Akhtar, M. Mumtaz 1975

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FREEDOM OF WORK-RELATED CHOICES AND WORK-ATTACHMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF SECONDARY TEACHERS by M. Mumtaz Akhtar M.A. (Punjab) M.A. (Wastern) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the .Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept this t'hasis as conforming to the r^cjuired s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Apr i l 1975 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e ABSTRACT The balance between freedom and constraint i n the work situation l i e s at the core of interests in this study. The primary aim of the study is to examine among secondary school teachers i n British Columbia the relationship between their attachment to work (i . e . , the tendency to engage i n their job consistently and continuously) and their personal assessments of freedom of choice concerning their (a) occupation, (b) working conditions, and (c) discretion in the work process. The study also deals with the impact that work-attachment has on the extent . to which teachers (a) establish c o l l e g i a l friendship ties and (b) place special emphasis on student relations''in instructional matters. Data for the study are based on self-administered questionnaires from 224 secondary school teachers in British Columbia collected during the academic year 1972-73. Supplementary data are provided by written comments of respondents toward the questionnaire, follow-up conversations with selected respondents, and observations of the teachers themselves in the classroom, staff rooms, and staff meetings. The data suggest that the relationship between any of the independent freedom-of-choice variables and work-attachment i s generally contingent upon the teacher's age, sex, and size of school d i s t r i c t in which he or she is located. Specifically, the findings indicate that (a) a high degree of freedom concerning choice of occupation is substantially related to work-attachment among young teachers (22-35 years) and among women teachers; (b) the original weak relationship between choice of ( i i ) working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment was not greatly a l t e r e d under the same controls for age, sex, or school d i s t r i c t size; and (c) the relationship bstween work-discration and work-attachment was substantially strengthened among teachers•located in larger school d i s t r i c t s . The data also show that women teachers and teachers. In. large-school d i s t r i c t s who indicate a high degree of work-attachmenc tend to establish s t r o n g e r c o l l e g i a l friendship t i e s . The impact o-e r^rk-^crschjaettt on the teacher's tendency to emphasize student relations in. instructional matters i s evident only in the case of the relatively older ( 3 6 - r & 5 years) teachers. Both theoretical and practical implications of the findings are assessed, and suggestions f o r extended research are specified„ ( i i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT L I S T OF TABLES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION 1 . The S p e c i f i c P r o b l e m 2 . Why S t u d y T e a c h e r s ? 3. R e s e a r c h T r a d i t i o n s and T h e o r e t i c a l C o n t i n u i t i e s • i . T e a c h e r s and t h e S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n i i . Job-Attachment and Related Matters 1 i i i . C o n s t r a i n t s and Freedom o f C h o i c e i v . C o n v e r g e n c e o f Research Traditions 4 . The V a r i a b l e s : S u b j e c t i v e A s p e c t s o f C h o i c e and A t t a c h m e n t i . C h o i c e o f O c c u p a t i o n i i . C h o i c e o f W o r k i n g C o n d i t i o n s i i i . T e a c h e r s ' D i s c r e t i o n i v . A t t a c h m e n t t o t h e Job v . The Two F a c e s o f A t t a c h m e n t 5. C o n c l u s i o n ! R e f e r e n c e s ( i v ) CHAPTER II. METHODOLOGY (45) 1. The Research Design 45 2. Population 46 3. Pretesting 47 4. Sample Size 48 5. Modes of Cooperation/Non-Cooperation 51 6 . Field V i s i t s 52 7. Techniques of Data Analysis 54 8. Index Construction 57 References 74 III. ANALYSIS: FREEDOM OF WORK-RELATED CHOICES AND WORK-ATTACHMENT (75) 1. Work-Related Choices and Work-Attachment 77 2. Work-Attachment, Teaching Orientations, and Friendship Items 84 3. Relative Effects of Variables on Work-Related Choices 87 IV. EXTENSION OF ANALYSIS: CONTROLS FOR DISTRICT SIZE, AGE AND SEX (94) 1. Choice of Occupation and Work-Attachment 98 2. Choice of Working Conditions and Work-Attachment 100 3. Discretion in Work and Work-Attachment 102 4. Interpretation 104 References 128 (v) CHAPTER V. EXTENSION OF ANALYSIS: THE TWO FACES OF ATTACHMENT UNDER CONTROLS FOR DISTRICT SIZE, AGE AND SEX 1. Work-Attachment and Friendship Items 2 . Work-Attachment and Teaching Orientations 3 . Interpretation References VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION VII. THE STUDY IN CRITICAL RETROSPECT 1. Choice of Occupation Reexamined 2 . Choice of Working Conditions Reexamined 3 . Discretion Reexamined 4 . Teaching Orientations Reexamined 5 . Collegial Interaction 6 . The Teacher Population 7 . Let the Respondents Speak! References VIII. WORK-ATTACHMENT REASSESSED 1. The Larger Context 2 . Attachment: Reconsideration and Enlargement 3 . Some Alternative Measures References IX. A REVISED DESIGN FOR FURTHER RESEARCH (vi) BIBLIOGRAPHY (219) APPENDICES (229) I-A. Guttman Scale 1: Items of Discretion 230 I-B, Guttman Scale 2: Items of Choice of Working Conditions 231 I-C. Guttman Scale 3: Items of Attachment 232 I-D. Smallest Space Analysis of Nina Items of Discretion 233 II. Questionnaire (234) (vii) LIST OF TABLES TABLE 11.1 Distribution of the Sample 51 11.2 Intercorralation Matrix of Items of Discretion 61 11.3 Intercorrelation Matrix of Items of \ Working Conditions 63 11.4 Intercorrelation Matrix of Items of Attachment 69 111.1 Correlation Matrix for Independent Variables 78 111.2 Relationship Between Choice of Occupation, Choice of Working Conditions, Discretion On-the-Job and Work-Attachment 79 111.3 Relationship of Occupational Choice with Each of the Six Items of Attachment 81 111.4 Relationship Between Each of the Four Items of Choice of Working Conditions and the Summative Index of Attachment 82 111.5 Relationship of the Summative Index of Choice of Working Conditions with Each of the Six Items of Attachment 82 111.6 Relationship Between Each of the Nine Items of Discretion and the Summative Index of Attachment 83 1 1 1 . 7 Relationship Between the Summative Index of Discretion and Each of the Six Items of Attachment 83 111.8 Relationship Between Work-Attachment and Emphasis on Student Relations, Subject-Matter, and Discipline and Control 85 ( v i i i ) Relationship Between Work-Attachment and Friendship with Teachers in the Same School and Other School Relationship Between Discretion and Attachment Controlling for Choice of Occupation Relationship Between Choice of Occupation and Attachment Controlling for Discretion Relationship Between Discretion and Attachment Controlling for Choice of Working Conditions Relationship Between Choice of Working Conditions and Attachment Controlling for Discretion Summary of the Results of Relationships Between One Independent and a Dependent Variable while Controlling for Another Independent Variable Relationship Between Choice of Occupation and Work-Attachment Controlling for Di s t r i c t Size, Age and Sex Relationship Between Choice of Working Conditions and Work-Attachment Controlling for D i s t r i c t Size, Age and Sex Relationship Between Discretion i n Work and Work-Attachment Controlling for Di s t r i c t Size, Age and Sex Summary of Associations (Somers' D) Between Work-Related Choice Items and Work-Attachment when Controlling for Di s t r i c t Size, Age and Sex Relationship Between Work-Attachment and Friendship Items Controlling for Di s t r i c t Size ( i x ) Relationship Between Work-Attachment and Friendship Items Controlling for Age Relationship Between Work-Attachment and Friendship Items Controlling for Sex Relationship Between Work-Attachment and the Teaching Orientations Controlling for Dis t r i c t Size Relationship Between Work-Attachment and the Teaching Orientations Controlling for Age Relationship Between Work-Attachment and the Teaching Orientations Controlling for Sex Summary of Associations (Seiners' D) Between Work-Attachment and Friendship Items and Work-Attachment and Teaching Orientations when Controlling for D i s t r i c t Size, Age and Sex ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Ever known a person who owed so much to so many I Adequate thanks cannot be extended to teachers, school principals, d i s t r i c t superintendents, and two helpful directors of secondary instruction without whose help this research could not have been completed. I wish to thank Dr David Sciweitzer and Dr Martin Meissner for "towing me ashore", to translate from my mother tongue. Their c r i t i c a l comments have contributed numerous improvements to this thesis. I appreciate deeply the advice and comments I have received from Drs Adrian Marriage, Vincent Keddie, Ian Housego of the faculty of education; and Drs Thomas Taveggia, George Miller, and John 0'Conner who were associated with this . thesis in i t s earlier phases. Shirley and Steve Thorns, and Terry Bryan hosted me at various points in my research, and I thank them. Among those who often asked me ''hoi* are you doing man" are: Anne and Peter Weibe, Victor Ujiraoto, Betty Taylor, M. Jamal, M. Fayyaz, Ferkhanda and Pervaiz Wakil, Hilary and Dennis Pvumley, Virginia Careless, June and John Pritchard, M. Nawaz, Heather Ann MacDonald, Pat and Phil Bartle, Ray Jones and Uzair Qureshi. Wishing me well from distant places are Vicki'and. Phil '! Rawkins and Stephen Balke. For computational work, the f a c i l i t i e s made available by the Computer Centre at UBC, were of immense help. (xi) For e d i t o r i a l work on the manuscript, I am greatly indebted to my f r i e n d Margo Sanderson, and to some extent to Mairona Williams. What I cannot express i n words i s the support of my parents, s i s t e r s and brothers. Bob Kerr, Ken Haslem and Jim Robertson and t h e i r colleagues, and Clyde Gillmore provided the much needed mental r e l a x a t i o n . How does one ever thank the authors one reads! ( x i i ) Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1. The Specific Problem The study of the balance between freedom and constraint regarding behaviours in work-settings is an on-going concern with social scientists. They have studied the content of work and what i t means to people. They have studied how both the content and meaning of work vary according to type of occupation, industry, and the position of people in the employing organization or in society at large. Their aim, implicit or explicit, has been to understand people and society more fu l l y . Whatever i t s emphasis, their aim has been intensified by a value judgement that people "satisfied" with the quality of their work l i f e are l i k e l y to be "happy" people. Whether this happiness i s localized to the work places or. extends into areas of non-work l i f e , and whether or not work l i f e i s segmented and kept separate from non-work l i f e are questions constituting broad areas of investigation, areas that t e l l of possible linkages between work andnon-work l i f e . Two interrelated questions, complementing the problems previously investigated, can be formulated: (a) What emotional bonds do.people develop with their occupations?, and (b) Why do people engage in their occupations consistently and continuously? These questions direct the inquiry towards (i) - 2 -(a) identifying the elements of attachment to the job, and (b) assessing the extent to which attachment to the job i s influenced by freedom of choice concerning (i) occupation ( i i ) working conditions, and ( i i i ) modes of carrying out work or discretion i n work. This research problem i s applied to secondary school teachers, and i t is guided by two fundamental questions: 1. To what extent do teachers feel that they experience a personal sense of freedom of choice i n certain sectors of work? 2. Is their sense of freedom of choice related to their affective attachment to wo£k? For teachers, a personal sense of freedom of choice w i l l be indicated to the extent that they say: (i) that they have a choice whether or not they work as teachers (the item stands for choice of occupation); ( i i ) whether or not they have a choice of certain working conditions; and ( i i i ) whether or not they exercise discretion regarding the ways in which they do their job. (The specific indices of choice of working conditions and descretion i n work are presented i n i Chapter II.) Again, teachers' attachment to the job w i l l be indicated to the extent that they say that: (i) the time they spend teaching i s the most rewarding time they spend during a day; ( i i ) to them success in teaching is more important than success i n something they do away from work - these two items stand for the "success" dimension of attachment to a job; ( i i i ) thay lik e to be identified as teachers; (iv) they would want one of their children to enter - 3 -teaching - these two items stand for the "identity" dimension of attachment to a job; (v) they would continue teaching even i f they had money to stay away from i t ; and (vi) they would choose teaching i f they were to choose an occupation over again - these two items stand for the "preference"dimension of attachment to a job. (The rationale for identifying these three dimensions of attachment i s given i n Chapter II.) ...... The forementioned research problem is exploratory because: (a) i n i t i a l l y i t seeks to c l a r i f y the notions of freedom of choice in certain sectors of work and attachment; and i t (b) then seeks to discover, .whether or not freedom of choice i n certain sectors of work is related to attachment. (A more detailed description of the exploratory nature of this research is provided later, Chapter II.) Furthermore, the conceptualization of work-related choice variables lack support i n the existing literature. This lack of cumulativeness of data on these variables makes them essentially exploratory. Later, however, these data w i l l help i n establishing p r i o r i t i e s for further research. r 2. Why Study Teachers? . i 1 r l There are many reasons for selecting teachers for the j purposes of this research. F i r s t l y , this researcher i s personally interested in education ! and the role of teachers at the secondary school le v e l . Through ' this research he hoped to deepen his understanding of an educational I system new to him. 1 Secondly, teachers as a group are becoming an influential population,aspecially in determining the broader goals of. education, and in participating in the effort to achieve those goals. From this angle, the study is timely. Besides, the study f i l l s a j - 4 -research gap by providing an opportunity to gather much-needed data about teachers' freedom of choice in certain aspects of work, and attachment to the job. Thirdly, the empirical findings on "voluntary behaviour" are limited to industrial settings, within which production technology, for one thing, i s a compelling factor in determining the behaviour of workers. For this study, a different work-setting (e.g. schools, where teachers work with other human beings, and make adjustments on a day-to-day basis) is l i k e l y to be rewarding, because i t w i l l provide information on, and.augment an understanding of, the varieties of voluntary behaviour. Fourthly, many junior and secondary teachers view themselves as. 'specialists' in particular subject-areas - therefore they have different expectations of their role. And they can j u s t i f y these expectations by referring to their role in the public school system. In studying their discretion in work,—that is,.their role and i t s b u i l t - i n expectations, the relationship between discretion and attachment to the job w i l l come into sharper focus. It should be clearly recognized, rather than dimly acknowledged, that teachers are a diverse group. Whenever they constitute the study population, their level of teaching needs to be made explicit for a proper appreciation of the findings. Studies done on teachers frequently f a i l to mention the level at which they teach. With few exceptions, teachers' careers are bound to the segment of the public school system for which they are trained. Keeping in mind the level at which they teach is l i k e l y to enhance the c r e d i b i l i t y of the findings. Lastly, the teacher population meets a "criterion of appropriateness" which a population must meet i f i t i s chosen for an empirical study of freedom of choice concerning occupation, working conditions, and discretion in work. Minimally, the population chosen needs to be engaged in an occupation in which opportunities for exercising discretion do exist; the personal s k i l l s which this population uses in performing i t s job remain potentially relevant to other jobs. For example, asking lumberjacks questions on amounts of discretion in work, and glassblowers questions on "freedom of occupational'choice" would not be r e a l i s t i c . The criterion of appropriateness mentioned above stipulates that the characteristics represented by a population and those particularized by the theoretical framework must match. ! Many other joccupational groups could meet the requirements for this research. However, since the personal preferences of researchers often determine what they do, this research i s by no means an exception to this general consideration. 3 . Research Traditions and Theoretical Continuities Placing the present research in a specific research tradition and within the associated theoretical continuities i s a stupendous task. A l i t t l e of this task can be accomplished ..but at the risk of an oversimplification. To be brief, this research is the result of a convergence between three different research traditions: (i). teachers and the school organization; ( i i ) job-attachment and related matters; and ( i i i ) constraints and freedom of choice in work-settings Each, of these research traditions w i l l be described b r i e f l y to indicate the problematic nature of some of the issues raised. Following that, the convergence between these research traditions and the relevance of that convergence to this study, w i l l be made ex p l i c i t . (i) Teachers and the School Organization: This research tradition can be identified by i t s 'educational' content, some of which i s specific to teachers. Regarding school organization, teachers, and teachers' "professionalism", this research tradition frequently raises three questions: (a) Is the behaviour of teachers in the organization of schools highly prescribed and codified? (b) Are there any personal choices open to teachers in their instructional activities? (c) Is there a congruence between the growing bureaucratic characteristics of schools and the personality needs of teachers, and is this congruence reflected in teachers' satisfaction with their job and the school structure? These questions, in fact, stem from various theoretical perspectives.among which the following are conspicuous:* (1) The f i r s t one concerns the bureaucratization of the school organization, i.e., the school organization i s characterized by: standardization * Specific references appear on p. 25, when teachers' discretion in work is discussed i n some d e t a i l . - 7 -of procedures, rules and regulations; impersonal relationships between different levels of functionaries; control of employee behaviour through rules and regulations, and obedience to authority; and job specialization involving different responsibilities. The weight of opinion, therefore, is slanted in favour of administrative authority for the development and coordination of the school programmes. And conversely, and somewhat traditionally, teachers are shown to have been lacking in "power" and "autonomy", and may frequently be subject to "arbitrary" manipulation of conditions of work. (2) The second theoretical perspective concerns the exploration of various dimensions of the teachers' role. This perspective extends to the study of the boundaries of the teachers' zone of legitimate authority within the school organization. The weight of opinion, therefore, is slanted in favour of seeing teachers (a) enjoying a measure of power, because they are "insulated" from observability while in the classroom; (b) playing an effective role i n the decision making process in the school, because they are " f o r t i f i e d " by professional norms, and (c) favouring an orientation to c o l l e g i a l authority rather than school bureaucracy, because the former is more in line with their professional image than the latter. Since this theoretical perspective uti l i z e s concepts, including their unmodified connotations from the literature on "professionalism", there is a need to propose a framework for study which (a) examines the assumptions implicitly accepted by others, (b) formulates the c r i t i c a l issue l e f t unstated, and (c) augments the research efforts previously* * Specif ic references appear on p. 26. - 8 -done. More w i l l be said on this framework, later. ( i i ) Job-Attachment and Related Matters: Insofar as the present research i s concerned with teachers' attachment to the job, 1 i t has theoretical a f f i n i t i e s with research done on alienation, 2 3 4 job satisfaction, job involvement, occupational involvement, 5 6 work attachment, and job as a 'central l i f e interest'. Each of these concepts or phrases i s couched in terms of 'feeling states' of people about their jobs. A review of these research efforts indicates that they do not make any analytical distinction between a job as a process, an activity in which people engage-continuously and consistently, and a job as a set of relationships. But an analytical distinction of this sort i s necessary because one aspect of attachment can be represented by feelings for the job i t s e l f , and another aspect by concomitant satisfactions -those which are derivable from association with one's colleagues. When both of these aspects of attachment are correlated, a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of attachment i s reached than would be possible i f only one aspect were studied. Again, these research efforts recognize the sources of job satisfaction (e.g., affable colleagues, a clean place of work, salary, p o s s i b i l i t y of personal growth, 'open' climate of work organization, etc.) but they f a i l to point out that;(i) a source of satisfaction is qualitatively different from the satisfaction derivable from the activity in which one engages continuously and consistently, and ( i i ) a 'source' is only an indirect measure of - 9 -satisfaction; i t might cloak the nature of satisfaction and deflect the focus of study. Moreover, recognizing a source of satisfaction and then deducing from i t satisfaction with the job cannot be regarded as adequate; such a deduction might reveal more about the nature of the source of satisfaction than about satisfaction with the job. This research stipulates that attachment to the job needs to be studied directly. But before doing that, attachment needs to be conceptualized in terms which are amenable to direct study. It follows,then, that the study of attachment becomes adequate to the extent (i) that i t identifies a variable which immediately precedes attachment with the job, and ( i i ) that attachment i t s e l f is conceived in such a way that an analytical distinction between-i t s elements can be maintained and demonstrated empirically. The case of the teachers' job serves to i l l u s t r a t e this mode of reasoning. In this research, attachment has been conceived to have two faces: one standing for the teaching activity i t s e l f , and the other standing for certain concomitant satisfactions, i.e., those which teachers derive from their relations with other teachers (in the same school or elsewhere) and interpersonal relations with students. In studying attachment as directly as possible, analytical distinctions can be maintained between job as a process, and job as a set of relationships. Theoretically, i f these two aspects of attachment are held together, then i t i s lik e l y that - 10 -they w i l l also hold together empirically; at least, this issue is resolvable through research. ( i i i ) Constraints and Freedom of Choice: The following are the details of the theoretical continuities of the variable 'freedom of choice'. The impetus for formulating the conception of freedom of choice i n work-settings came from the studies of workers in industrial and other organizations. In the studies reviewed below, a mention of voluntary and necessary behaviour -and the adjustment between the two - appears in at least four ways. From the most general and theoretical to the empirical and specific, the manner in which the discussion of voluntary and necessay behaviour occurs can be summed up as follows: (1) There is the long-standing and all-encompassing supposition of the social contract theorists that human society i s the result of an agreement, or "contract", into which human beings entered freely. Through this agreement, they sought to put an end to the unbearable conditions of isolation, and threat of warfare, and consequently, sought an orderly l i f e . Space does not allow a more detailed account of the ramifications of this conception of society and the freedom of the individuals to form this society. One ramification, however, i s the assumption that the structure of a l l groups i s the consequence of the aggregate of i t s separate individuals and that a l l social phenomena derive from the motivations of these knowing and feeling individuals. The social contact theorists thought of voluntary action - II -as a'value, a condition deemed desirable," a state of affairs to be achieved.- i n short, something which ought to exist. Their conception of voluntary action, though enshrined in symbolic form (i.e., philosophy, religion, and law), became the standard by which a l l institutions in the society were judged. Agencies like the family, the church, and economic and p o l i t i c a l institutions were to encourage and "demand" responsible individual, action at a l l tines. The . . business of society was not to'be run a r b i t r a r i l y by assigning' social functions to birth strata or estates; only the responsible individual was deemed to be capable of handling unique, complex, and changing problems. This responsible individual could not be confined to economics; he was also required in p o l i t i c s , religion, and family l i f e . In.other words, this broad conception of voluntary action was directed at insuring a measure of congruity between different \ institutional areas. A c r i t i c a l comment on the pervasiveness of the conception of voluntary action formulated by the social contract theorists is i n order here. To date, i t is impossible to argue that a conception of voluntary action enshrined i n symbolic form would unify or remain common to a population unless i t became relevant to the actualities of experience. Times have changed since the social contract theorists wrote about voluntary actions; the story .may be. different today. For one thing, contemporary western societies have become complex, and concomitantly, functional - 12 -specialization i s on the increase. The emergence of large scale bureaucratic and corporate enterprises has brought about enormous changes in conditions under which individuals behave. It may well be th3t voluntary behaviour - synonymous with choice behaviour -can best be understood, today, as an outcome of specific variables (economic, ethnic, educational, class, age, and sex). Voluntary actions have to be created continuously with reference to social circumstances, e.g., voting, protesting in a mob, and joining clubs for sports are voluntary behaviours which arise, flourish or 'decay' in terms of socio-cultural factors; these behaviours 7 are not released by the human "breast". By acknowledging the ideas of soc ia l contract theor ists , and by examining their ideas in conjunction with other formulations, a working concept of voluntary behaviour can be developed for purposes of empirical research. The concept thus formulated w i l l (a) be amenable to empirical research on a small sca le , and (b) recognize the sources, l imi ta t ions, and consequences of voluntary behaviour. (2) Durkheim's conception of obligations, contracts, S laws, duties and customs as constraints, Meissner's conception 9 of the constraints of technology, and Hedley's application of the constraints of technology, as formulated by Meissner, to specific 10 features of blue-collar workers' jobs, are a l l important, but are indirect sources of ideas on voluntary behaviour. If the word freedom refers to the a b i l i t y of people to do socething without constraints, then freedom and constraint connote the obverse of - 13 -each other. The term constraint, both in i t s normative Durkheimian ' sense, and in the non-normative technological sense in which Meissner uses i t , refers to conditions external to individuals which limit their behaviour in a variety of situations. The implications are obvious: that there are limits to individual voluntary behaviour; . that these limits are societal and constitute the context i n which . individual choices about behaviour find expression; .- that any d e f i n i t i t i o n of constrained behaviour is formulated with reference to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of 'freedom'which can be envisaged; and,that these p o s s i b i l i t i e s are larger and broader than the activities observed. A constraint, then, is a type of relation between two sets. When variety in an observable set is smaller than variety i n a possible set, a constraint i s present. Conversely, freedom of choice i s a relation between two sets; i t exists to the extent that po s s i b i l i t i e s of alternative modes of action exist. It is theoretically possible (though in practice v i r t u a l l y impossible) to specify a l l the freedom one has in a given situation. The subjective assessment of 'freedom: of choice', which this research has implied, w i l l later form the basis of an "operational specification" of choices concerning occupation, working conditions, and discretion in work. (3) The conception of a hierarchy of needs developed by - 14 -11 Maslow, Argyris' application of this hierarchy to industrial 12 work-settings, and the summary of the ideas of a whole school of industrial psychologists on human needs provided by Strauss under 13 the t i t l e "personality-versus-organization hypothesis", together constitute another.view of voluntary or choice behaviour. These writers assume that people have an "autonomy need" which does not find adequate expression in work-settings in which a significant portion of their lives is spent. Dependence, subordination, and submissiveness are experiences i n t r i n s i c to work settings and frustrating to those who work. While i t i s a truism to say that a work setting curtails to one degree or another free-floating expressions of human freedom, these writers f a i l to recognize that people who work adjust to the conditions under which they work. The need for autonomy can be satisfied only in relation to other individuals and a setting in which the po s s i b i l i t i e s for i t s expression exist. Assuming that people have an autonomy need and that p o s s i b i l i t i e s of satisfying this need can be distributed to varying degrees, i t . would be hard to argue that frustration, apathy, and loss'of identity are the l i k e l y outcomes of situations in which autonomy needs are not satisfied and po s s i b i l i t i e s for satisfying them are non-existent. In other words, the assumption has been made that people who work have a r e a l i s t i c assessment of what they can or cannot expect from their employing organizations. It may be conceded, however, that circumstances can arise in which a group of workers has a higher level of expectations than i s being met by their employing organizations; but this may motivate them toward - 15 -collective and concerted action, to cone to terms with their organizations, i f they see accommodative structures. Although these ideas pertain to the realm of conjecture, i t is conceivable that most working people go to their work places to complete certain tasks, a reason for which they are hired i n the f i r s t place. Most workers, regardless of the type of organization in which they work, have a sense, of balance between what they can and cannot get out of their work place. To the extent that this balance i s in their favour, workers can be attached to their work. (This i s an early mention of one of the hypotheses of this research,... that concerning discretion, which is another expression for autonomy on the job. Discretion, a term with an organizational bias, i s more appropriate than a bio-psychological bias, which the term autonomy seems to carry.) (4) Dubin has provided a review of the works of industrial scientists who have been examining the various types of formal, non-formal, and technological constraints. In this review, he indicates how human actors, In their working lives, are caught up in necessary behaviours, and how non-work l i f e is the realm 14 in which choices for voluntary behaviour exist. Most people, therefore, live with a balance between necessary and voluntary behaviour. If the assertion is made, that voluntary behaviour is preferable,.ideally in a l l situations, over necessary behaviour, whatever i t s mandate^ one of the hypotheses of this research can be formulated: to the extent that people have the balance of freedom of choice and.constraint concerning working l i f e in their - 16 -favour, they are l i k e l y to be attached to their jobs. Despite a f f i n i t i e s with the research tradition reviewed above, the conception of 'freedom of choice' implied in this research, is broader than any conceptions of autonomy, or voluntary behaviour, or the obverse connotations of normative or technological constraints. It is worth emphasizing that when the phrase 'freedom of choice' prefaces certain job-related behaviours ( i . e . , choice of occupation, working conditions, and discretion in work), i t becomes amenable to empirical research, however exploratory. Before turning to a description of the variables of this research, i t w i l l be shown how the explicit concerns of this research stem from the convergence between the research traditions reviewed above. (iv) Convergence of Research Traditions; Whether or not teachers are "professionals" i s a question about which consensus does not exist, because the term profession differentiates between occupations along several dimensions, such as kind and amount of training and involvement in work, status, and working conditions. The presence of 'accommodative structures' between teachers as "semi-professionals" and their employing organizations, help;to create a balance of freedom, power or authority for teachers. One such structure, in British Columbia, is the provincial association of teachers, which has played a major role in improving conditions for i t s members! -a l l the way from salary increases through tenure protection, involvement in curriculum, textbooks, and source materials, to. the development of a code of ethics. What this code of ethics assunes implicitly, what the 15 literature on professionalism repeats e x p l i c i t l y , i s that, for members of a profession, "absorption in the work, is not pa r t i a l , but complete; i t results in total personal involvement. The work l i f e invades the after-work l i f e , and the sharp demarcation 16 between the work hours and the leisure hours disappears". There i s no evidence that codes of ethics have this compelling power; there are too many exceptions to make this statement useful. Whether one studies professionals, professionals "on-17 the-make", or any other occupational group, the question of involvement in work i s an empirical question; i t i s a question that needs to be examined rather than accepted on face value. Hence, there exists a need for the study of teachers' attachment to the job. Another concern of this research, discretion in work, stems from the uncritically accepted views by researchers concemin professionals or semi-professionals having "power", "authority", or "autonomy", not to mention the "autonomy need theory". Not always are these views unequivocally stated. Sometimes, a middle-of-the-road view on professional power-authority-autonomy is adopted; for example, by applying a professional-non-professional classification to the schools, Etzioni concludes: Professional work here has less autonomy, that i s , i t i s more controlled by those higher in ranks and less subject to the discretion, of the professional than in full-fledged professional organizations, though i t i s s t i l l characterized by greater autonomy than blue- or white-collar workers. 18 - 18 -As to the notions of autonomy, power, or authority, i t may be that these notions are not appropriate, for reasons shown later, i f the behaviours of teachers are examined. The concept of discretion i s more appropriate than any other concept. How relevant the concept of discretion i s to the teachers' work is a matter which w i l l be discussed in detail later in the chapter. Suffice i t to say here that discretion in work is exercised after a job has been chosen, a job which offers alternative modes of action during i t s normal performance. In point of time, occupational choice and choice or working conditions precede the exercise of discretion on the job. Thus, the present research attempts to reconstruct, with different tools, the sequence in which freedom of choice concerning occupation, working conditions, and discretion in x-rork occurs. Among the occupations which have been the subject of work satisfaction studies, factory and office work have predominated. At least three generalizations seem to emerge i f studies appearing 19 . * under the 'sociology of work' are reviewed: (i) that professional workers are the most satisfied, and semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers less so; ( i i ) that work in the so-called professions and the higher positions in various bureaucratic organizations provides a n occasion for primary self-identification and self-conmiitme: of the individual; and ( i i i ) that jobs which involve dealing with people provide more satisfaction than those which do not. Not always are these generalizations based on adequate data, hence they are not i__ur.e from revision. Though s i u i l a r to assumptions appearing in the literature - 19 -on professionalism, these generalizations lack stringency, because they do not cover the semi-professions like teaching. The occupational categories represented in these generalizations (i.e., professions, s k i l l e d , seni- or unskilled occupations) do not adequately reflect the changes occurring in the occupational structure. As the emerging professions are very much part of the social scene, specific studies focusing on these emerging professions need to be undertaken to f i l l the information gap so obvious in these generalizations. Teachers work with young people,but that does not automatically ensure their attachment to their.jobs, just as. their classification as semi-professionals does not indicate their self-identification with teaching. Whether or not teachers identify with the teaching role, and whether or not they are satisfied with their job, are questions which need to be examined with data. Thus the foregoing reviews of studies appearing under the sociology of work and occupations, studies on professionalism including teaching, and studies on work satisfaction converge to form the present research problem. 4. The Variables; Subjective Aspects of Choice and Attachment A simple assumption is made here: that individuals have a sense of freedom of choice of occupation, working conditions, and exercise discretion in work to the extent that they say so, and to the extent that they seek to express this sense of freedom whenever confronted with the opportunity. - 20 -An occupation can be viewed as a sphere of action containing opportunities and constraints. Individuals who have chosen an occupation are usually severely constrained; for instance, they cannot enter another occupation without loss of some kind (maybe salary or seniority or both).. However, people are constrained to varying degrees. The subjective assessments of these constraints can be different. I f they envisage poss i b i l i t i e s of changing their occupations, and i f they say that they can realize these p o s s i b i l i t i e s , they could be described as having freedom of choice of occupation. Their personal sense of freedom of choice concerning occupation does not exist in a vacuum; i t has i t s societal sources and other limitations. The source of choice of occupation is the "right" of individuals to choose their work, and to specialize in narrowly defined tasks; however, a r e a l i s t i c assessment of personal capacities and of available opportunities might put limits on the sense of freedom and the extent to which freedom can be realized in practice. The sense of choice concerning working conditions, though tied to locations of employment, exists as a compromise between what i s sought and what can be realized. The source of discretion in work is the structure of the job, and the duties and privileges which the job carries. Those who accept a job then come under the constraining effects of different sources of choice behaviour. And those who have specific - 21 -occupations enjoy a differential sense of freedom of choice concerning occupations, working conditions, and discretion in work. It may be added that their personal sense of freedom about these job-related matters is reflexively tied to the sources, and the limitations (i.e., conditions external to individuals). The principal significance of the assumptions and comments . made above l i e s in the notion that freedom of choice is not solely to be explained by personality factors nor by objective conditions, but by the perceived relationship between the sources, the limitations, and the consequences of this freedom. Each of the variables (i.e., choice of occupation, working conditions, and discretion in work and attachment to the job) needs further comment. (i) Choice of Occupation: Whether teachers entered teaching accidentally^because of certain factors beyond their control, because of a spontaneous impulse, because of their deep interest in teaching, or because of rationally calculated means to sone other ends, are matters which happened in the past; as such, these matters can be reconstructed only with techniques outside the domain of this research. The teachers' assessment of their sense of freedom of occupational choice at the present stage of their l i f e i s relevant to this research. In other words, this research seeks to e l i c i t a psychological preference for another occupation. Since working teachers are involved, the question of occupational - 22 -choice i s invoked "after-the-event", by asking them directly to indicate the amount of choice they think they have now. Phrasing the question this way can be categorized, methodologically, as 20 "reason analysis", a research tool which interrogates the actors as to the intentions or motives of their actions. The success of this tool i s limited,because:(a) actions are usually the result of many motives, and (b) many of these motives operate unconsciously, therefore, the actors may not verbalize them. Since choosing an occupation i s a deliberate act, verbalizations of freedom to choose can be e l i c i t e d adquately through structured questions. Asking teachers directly to indicate the amount of choice they have now is a rather stringent measure because those who say they have a lot of choice or some choice show a degree of freedom from the constraints of their earlier choice. Their perceptions of choice derive from their belief in having adaptive capacities as persons who, with the help of some retraining,could take on another job. To say the least, they envisage poss i b i l i t i e s of change. For them, their earlier choice i s not restrictive of access to other opportunities; their earlier choice i s not something which, once made, has become a dead end. Teachers with the response "lot of choice" or "some choice" w i l l indicate a deeper sense of personal freedom; a teaching job for them i s one form of being, but to be elsewhere could be as advantageous as being in teaching. Thus, their sense of freedom of occupational choice (a) reflects their feelings of adequacy, of independence, and of self-sufficiency i f reference is made to the latent states of mind; and (b) produces attachment to the job, a job which serves as a vehicle - a socially respectable and desirable vehicle, for the realization of latent states of mind. ( i i ) Choice of Working Conditions: The appointments of teachers are effected when available vacancies have been matched with the qualifications, the grades and the subject-matter specializations which teachers offer. It i s on the basis of their specialization in certain subjects and grades that teachers seek jobs. Different d i s t r i c t s have different needs for teachers. The range of subjects offered can differ slightly from one d i s t r i c t to another. This w i l l mean that there is a greater demand for teachers in some subjects than others, and that the demand for teachers in one d i s t r i c t . i s different from that of ;another d i s t r i c t . For teachers, the exercise of choice concerning working conditions i s bound up with their assessment of the opportunities available for appointment - assuming they would want to teach the subjects at the grade-level in which they have specialized, assuming they would prefer to teach in a certain d i s t r i c t , and assuming the opportunities for employment exist. By virtue of -having.received specialized and prolonged training, and by virtue of having certain levels of expectations, the practitioners in "professional" occupations, or those on-the-make, are li k e l y to feel frustrated when faced with limited opportunities for jobs. Their sense of freedom i s prone to become intense i f they look on the one job they get as a temporary place which enables them to pursue their interests rather than impede nobility. Perhaps they would willingly change their jobs and move to those positions where their s k i l l s would be best u t i l i z e d . In this research, the interest in working teachers requires the framing of questions on freedom of choice in working conditions in a manner that e l i c i t s responses in retrospect, lik e those on occupational choice. These questions w i l l ask teachers directly to indicate the amount of choice they have with regard to which school d i s t r i c t , which particular school, and which grades and subjects they teach. Asking them to indicate the amount of choice regarding subjects and grades is a relatively stringent measure, because having been appointed, they might have to accept the teaching of certain subjects not of their own specialization. The reasons for this are many: sometimes their teaching' tine has to be f i l l e d in; sometimes the principal wants them to teach a subject and they oblige; sometimes the appointment of a new teacher i s not warranted but someone has to teach a subject that has been offered; sometimes the teachers themselves agree to teach subjects in which they have not specialized because they want the job badly. It follows, therefore, that teachers with a lot of choice concerning the subjects and grades which they teach w i l l indicate a sense of freedom from the constraints of limited opportunities within the school and that teachers with a lot of choice concerning the school d i s t r i c t and the school in which they teach w i l l indicate a sense of freedom from the constraints of limited employment opportunities. Taken together, the responses to the four items (i.e., subjects, - 25 -grades, school d i s t r i c t s , schools) w i l l indicate that teachers' . areas of specialization are marketable and needed, that they are employable and that they have some control over working conditions. (It i s not surprising that the sense of freedom concerning working conditions turns out to be a complex, area; this complexity i s understandable though, because i t pertains to subjects and grades, school d i s t r i c t s and schools.) Once they have obtained a job and started teaching, teachers have possibly synchronized their freedoms concerning the subjects and grades they teach, the. school d i s t r i c t s and the schools ' in which they teach. -Since their job makes i t possible for them to realize different freedoms simultaneously and since their job becomes a vehicle for the realization of feelings of adequacy, independence, and self-sufficiency, teachers' attachment to the job stands in concomitant relationships with their freedom of choice concerning working conditions. (It may be. pointed out that a degree of overlap between freedom of choice concerning working conditions and occupation is inevitable because one may not exist entirely independent of the other.) The next variable,.teachers' discretion in work, is given more attention chiefly because of two reasons: (a) i t relates to the present job of the teachers; any question about i t can be invoked directly; and (b) i t s conceptual underpinnings stem from the controversy on whether or not teachers are "professionals". ( i i i ) Teachers' Discretion: One consequence of the lack - 26 -of consensus on teachers' exact location on a continuum of professional non-professional classification is that their role becomes subject to conflicting expectations regarding the amount of control they have over their own work. As a group of workers aspiring to achieve f u l l professional recognition, they are concerned with gaining 21 more control over work, as some studies have shown, but as bureaucratic employees, they are expected to subscribe to the expectations of administrators and the general community. A large body of literature i s available on the conflicting expectations of the teachers' role, about which one comment can be made, that i s , that teachers want to have a larger and more effective control over the teaching processes 22 and general conditions of work. The notable f l e x i b i l i t y study done in B.C. four years ago brought out very clearly the number of "freedoms" which the B.C. teachers wanted to have over instructional 23 matters. This study also reported that teachers expected to be consulted about building, remodelling, and designing of schools -matters which generally l i e within the domain of the school boards. This latter aspect of teachers' expectations indicates the overall involvement they would l i k e to have in teaching and in matters connected with the management of schools. Or i t could be that, as a group, since they belong to a "profession on-the-make", they have a.higher level of expectation of controlling their work than their counterparts in other organizations. However, the discrepancy existing between their expectations and the actual control they, have over work, can be resolved when teachers, school boards, - 27 -and the department of education resolve i t ; this i s a matter which l i e s outside the concerns of this research. It seems that, insofar as professionals and semi-professionals continue to he employed by others, their freedom to control their work, wholly or in part, is by i t s nature a controversial issue. It should be iterated that the c r i t i c a l issue which needs . to be very clearly formulated, concerning teachers and their employing organizations, is the notion of "power" and control", rather than freedom in the classroom or discretion in work. Incidentally, in the literature concerning teachers' professionalism, the issue i s seldom, i f ever, formulated in these terms. If power implies the a b i l i t y to mobilize scarce resources, control definitions of various situations, and articulate educational goals and strategies, then this kind of power i s vested .in the government. Very few occupational groups, in fact hardly any, could qualify as professionals i f this criterion of power were invoked. If discretion involves judgement about choices among means, and i f discretion implies recognition of the inter-dependence of one's tasks with other tasks, then discretion is l i k e l y to be exercised within the framework of accepted goals and strategies. Generally, i t would be true that jobs involving any narrow or broad definitions of "power", "authority", and "control", are usually arranged sequentially in career patterns; they allow new entrants to start at the bottom and move up when they have shown the capacity to handle small ; amounts of. power, authority, and control-Moreover, the rigorous formal training or education associated - 2 8 -with such jobs discourages or weeds out those .who are incapable. Approaching the question from the perspective of employing organizations, i t would appear l i k e l y that they have a complex structure of "inducement" for occupants of positions of power, and that they have elaborate c r i t e r i a to evaluate the performance of job holders. Teachers work in relatively " f l a t " organizations, with few hierarchical jobs. Most of them remain classroom teachers throughout their career. With the passage of time, their sphere of responsibility, and hence their accountability to senior authority remains stable. Thus,it can be seen that the application of notions of power, authority, and control to the teachers' job creates unwarranted complications rather than clarifying the nature of their job. I f , however, the simple notion of discretion in work - implying the use of independent judgement i s applied, then i t can be shown that this concept is quite appropriate to a description of the teachers' job. To elaborate, teachers engage in several tasks involving direct teaching and instruction, as well as "non-teaching" tasks l i k e the maintenance of records of attendance, paper-work, supervision of extra-curricular and social events, etc. The point of departure for this research is to identify those areas of teachers' work in which the "scope" for exercising discretion does exist and then to study those areas, through their self-reports, as to how much discretion they exercise in their work. Tangentially, any evidence of teachers' exercise of discretion w i l l indicate how the actual . performance of tasks helps to resolve the predicament of "semi-professional" employees for control over work • in bureaucratic - 29. -settings. Regarding discretion, the hypothesis of this research is that the exercise of discretion in work is l i k e l y to be associated with attachment to the job. The rationale for the hypothesis is that the exercise of discretioi in work for teachers means an acknowledgement of their s k i l l s , expertise, and competencies. This acknowledgement i s gratifying to them; i t also strengthens their self-image, sense of adequacy, and self-importance; these are feelings which they experience as a result of their exercise of discretion in work, and which dispose them to. develop affective attachment to their jobs. To c l a r i f y , teachers' attachment to the job is l i k e l y to reflect back on their self-image, because i t i s considered the mark of a profession that i t s practitioners be "committed" to their work. It follows, therefore, that attachment to the job, once developed, has the likelihood of becoming reinforced. Support for the hypothesis on discretion can be obtained by asking the teachers directly to indicate the amount of choice they have over various instructional matters. The sum of these choices can be regarded as an index of their discretion in work. The important task is to identify the a c t i v i t i e s in which teachers engage so that out of those activities,indicators of discretion in work can be chosen. To -turn to one source of act i v i t i e s in which teachers engage, a description of the teachers' duties is provided in the 24 Public Schools Act 1973. This Act provides a normative basis of what teachers are required to do while at work. Besides, i t provides guidelines to public education and administration. An examination of teachers' responsibilities in this Act indicates that in their day-to-day performances,teachers engage in various matters concerning curriculum, methods of instruction, maintenance of discipline, management and ordering of equipment, procurement of textbooks, guidance of students in different subject areas, working out of evaluations of students, and maintenance of attendance records; they participate in staff meetings and they manage extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . Any ready-made categorization of teachers' act i v i t i e s is l i k e l y to be unrealistic, because deviations in thass duties exist,from one d i s t r i c t to the next. However, there are certain "core" act i v i t i e s in which a l l teachers engage, and these core a c t i v i t i e s can be made the basis of an index of their discration in work. As a strategy of measurement of discretion in work, teachers can be asked directly to indicate how much choice they exercise in curriculum modification, in teaching techniques, in the handling of discipline matters, in the procurement of supplies and equipment, and in recommending books to students. In different terms, teachers can be asked how much influence they have in policy making in the school, to what extent they determine the amount of paper-work which they do, how much time they spend on different subject-areas, and the modifications they make in the evaluation standards of students. This would be a selected l i s t of teachers' a c t i v i t i e s , but i t is general enough to be applicable to different subject-areas - 31 -which teachers might offer in one or many schools. It i s only with the construction of a general inventory of teachers' a c t i v i t i e s that any variations in their discretion in. work can be taken into account and then subjected to study. (iv) Attachment to the Job: 'Attachment' i s an emotional bond reflected through a sense of 'identification' with the job, 'preference' for the same job, and regarding being successful i n . the job as something 'important'. To be succinct, attachment i s mediated by a blend of personal ideas and values, self-conceptions, prestige of one's job and numerous other variables. The variables appearing above as 'choice of'occupation', 'choice of working conditions', and 'discretion in work' are truncated from an i n f i n i t e variety of variables. Since these variables are directly related to the job, and since these variables precede job attachment in an immediate (temporal) sense, they are relevant and e l i g i b l e independent variables. In choosing these independent variables, the assertion is a simple one:- namely, that i f attachment to the job i s under study, then i t should be studied through variables which are related directly to jthe job. In hypothesizing that each of the 'choice' variables is positively associated with attachment, the present research intends to keep the temporal order of variables in l i n e before i t examines relationships between these variables. (v) The Two Faces of Attachment: The three dimensions of attachment - identity, preference, and success - represent individual - 32 -feelings for the job. For teachers, actual teaching i s more than just a job; i t i s also a set of relationships, those between teachers and students, and those between teachers themselves. In an analytical sense, teachers may express their attachment to the teaching job as well as show some feeling for their relationship with students and colleagues. Put in the words of some teachers: "I l i k e my job, and the kids i n this school, and I like the teachers around. They are a nice group." (Expressions lik e these were collected by the researcher during the pretesting of the questionnaire.) There i s then some ju s t i f i c a t i o n in thinking of attachment as having two faces: one represented by individual feelings for the job, and the other face represented by concomitant satisfactions which teachers derive from working with students and colleagues. There are two hypotheses which may be developed empirically to find out whether or not attachment has two faces: (1) one hypothesis is that teachers attached to teaching are more li k e l y to be student-oriented, i.e., they would place a strong emphasis on interpersonal relations with students; and (2) the other hypothesis is that teachers who are attached to teaching are more l i k e l y to have personal friends among other teachers. (The phrase 'other teachers' may stand for teachers in the same school or in schools elsewhere.) The. rationale for each of thesehypotheses i s given below. - 33 -Emphasis on Student Relations: Concerning hypothesis one, i t may be stated that there are three sets of expectations which teachers confront: (i) those held by students, and parents; ( i i ) those held by administrators, especially the principal; and ( i i i ) those l i s t e d in the "code of ethics" adopted by teachers. Information about the nature of these expectations as i t has emerged in studies on the outstanding characteristics of teachers suggests the following: that the teacher is enthusiastic about working with students; that he is sensitive to the feelings of students; that he listens to their problems; that he views his students as a major source "of satisfaction in teaching, and that. 25 he emphasizes feelings of affection for them. These characteristics by themselves are not worth mentioning except for two reasons: (a) there is a stable set of expectations of students, and parents, principals and teachers themselves, and (b) the focus of these expectations is the teachers' relation with students. In addition, the code of ethics adopted by the B.C. Teachers Federation exhorts i t s members, inter a l i a , to act toward pupils with respect and dignity, and recognize that the student-teacher relationship is a privileged one: in this again, the focus is on teachers' relations with students. It is j u s t i f i a b l e to say that these sets of expectations are quite compelling for teachers, and i t can be assumed that teachers are aware of the expectations which others hold of then. - 34 -However, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to argue about the intensity of awareness, or the degree to which these expectations have been internalized by teachers. But i t seems to follow that teachers are l i k e l y to be sensitive to their reputation among students, parents, school principals, and their colleagues in the same school and elsewhere; that they, w i l l work to maintain that reputation, and that they w i l l be concerned with the prestige with which their occupation, is regarded by others. To continue, once teachers have established their reputation, they w i l l continuously try to maintain i t , directly through appropriate behaviours, and indirectly, by avoiding those behaviours which are l i k e l y to affect their reputation adversely. Turning to the rationale, to the extent that teachers emphasize student relations in their teaching practices, they are l i v i n g up to and/or reinforcing their reputation as teachers.-that i s , they are maintaining their self-image and the image of their profession. Contacts with students make the realization of personal and professional images possible; therefore, i t i s important to study student-teacher contacts. In this behalf, the . implication may be articulated: the prestige of the teaching occupation is l i k e l y to be determined by the manner in which teachers maintain their reputation and their self-image. A complementary condition to this rationale emerging from the discussion on perceived teaching styles may also be 26 mentioned here. The general tone of the discussion on teaching styles is as follows: . a classroom is a setting in which incumbents - 35 -of two positions, teachers and pupils, are engaged in a continuous transactional process. This process has i t s own formal and informal procedures which relate in practice to the educational tasks, to the pattern of relationships, and to the problems of organization and control of the environment. One area of widespread concern' to teachers is described as "content-orientation", which, in a theoretical sense implies whether, in teaching, emphasis is placed on subject-matter, interpersonal relationships, or discipline and control. If teachers place emphasis primarily on subject-matter, i t i s described as a "traditional orientation"3 i f they place emphasis on interpersonal relationships, i t i s described as a "progressive orientation"; and i f they place emphasis on discipline and control, i t is. described as an "authoritarian orientation". I Rather than question the boundaries between these orientations too rigorously, i t may be assumed that teachers, during their training, get exposed to a l l the three. Further, i t may be assumed that teachers are then faced with a choice about whether to accept the v a l i d i t y of one orientation over the others; or that they may through their own ingenuity combine elements of each to suit their precise requirements when faced with the r e a l i t i e s of classrooms; or that the "law of the situation" nay coerce a particular teacher or groups of teachers to adhere to one orientation and ignore the others. - 36 -The discussion of teaching styles, as i t occurs in the literature, f a i l s to recognize one important point: that the grade level and subjects taught, and the size of the class are a l l determinants of the approach the teacher activates. For example, music teachers need to place a certain amount of emphasis on the students' assimilation of subject-matter, and on discipline and control, yet i t might not be possible to ignore interpersonal relations i f the classes are small. The degree of emphasis which a particular teacher places on one or another orientation i s l i k e l y to be a personal choice, or perhaps a:. . ... situational necessity. As most teachers teach mora than one subject and grade, their students differ in noticeably from one class to the naxt. Any conceivable boundaries between these orientations, on theoretical grounds, are l i k e l y to get blurred in practice as teachers adapt to various classes. In an empirical sense, a distinction may emerge i f teachers indicate the relative emphasis they place on each; for instance, a stronger emphasis placed on interpersonal relations with students may be consistent with a low/weak emphasis on discipline and control, and subject-matter. Other possible permutations w i l l not be mentioned here. 3y extending the inquiry on these lines, this research returns to the earlier concern, that of teachers' emphasis on student relations. But in doing so, a contribution to the scanty information on classroom teaching styles can be made. - 37 -The rationale for the second hypothesis, that teachers who are attached to teaching are more li k e l y to enter into personal friendships with other teachers, i s as follows." Friendship Among Teachers: It i s a f a i r l y tenable assumption that "professionals" are sensitive to their reputation among colleagues. Moreover, they are dependent on their colleagues for esteem. Assuming that teachers as a group are not an exception to this assumption about professionals, i t can be shown that they are subject to some collegial support and control. For instance, in B.C.,the accusations against teachers for breaches of the code of ethics are examined by their professional organization. (This code of ethics, as a matter of fact, expects the teachers to review and assess with their colleagues the practices they employ in discharging their duties, that is,service to their students. The fact that such an expectation has been particularized in the code of ethics constitutes a "horizontal" constraint.) A study of coll e g i a l interaction among teachers i s , therefore, a significant way of examining the assumption about "professionals". The question of collegial interaction (or friendships) among teachers can be approached by asking teachers directly to indicate the friendships they have formed with other teachers in the same school and elsewhere. Generally, when friendship i s intra-occupational, the underlying basis for friendship i s the - 38 -li k i n g for one's occupation, a liking which acts as an incentive to associate with those with whom one has something i n common. At the individual le v e l , interacting with colleagues i s a matter in which personal choice plays a great part, but the basis of interaction may be both instrumental and affective. It is instrumental in part because i t helps to belong to a group of significant others whose cooperation can be el i c i t e d at times of need (salary negotiations, for one thing, which are done locally i n a school d i s t r i c t ) j and i t i s affective in part because the recognition which one receives from one's colleagues is gratifying, and supportive of one's self-image. In the case of teachers, two compelling- -:  elements of the school - students and colleagues - help to provide the "routes" through which self-image i s supported; interaction between teachers and students, and interaction between teachers themselves are the touch-stones. In addition, the commonality of interests among teachers can be regarded as an interpersonal parallel of teachers' liking for their job. Empirically, this l i k i n g should emerge in teachers' friendships with colleagues in the same school as well as elsewhere. A personal friend by definition would be another teacher with whom one discusses personal matters not related to the work of the school. At least one personal friend may be taken as sufficient evidence of the presence of 'some' or 'weak' friendship. The same criterion can be used to designate the presence of friendship among teachers in two or more different schools. It is necessary to include 'different' schools because, owing to highly personal reasons, teachers may not form friendships but may maintain working relations with colleagues in the same school. Formation of friendships between teachers in different schools then becomes the 'extension' of intra-occupational interaction; i t becomes a second measure of co l l e g i a l interaction; i t reinforces the indicators of friendship among teachers in the same school; therefore, i t s importance in this research should not remain un-noticed. . 5. Conclusion In sum, i t is not possible to specify a l l the freedoms that teachers enjoy, but through their self-reports, at least those freedoms can be studied which pertain to choice of occupation, working conditions, and discretion in work. There are four working hypotheses which have been formulated and presented in the preceding pages. These hypotheses are: 1. Choice of occupation is positively associated with attachment to the job. 2. Choice of working conditions is positively associated with attachment to the job. 3. Discretion in work is positively associated with attachment to the job. 4. Teachers attached to the job are: (a) more l i k e l y to emphasize interpersonal relations with students; and (b) more li k e l y to enter into personal friendships with teachers in the same school as well as teachers in different schools. - 40 -A diagrammatic presentation for visual simplicity, of the working hypotheses appears on the following page. In this diagram, the Independent and the dependent variables have been identified separately. In the next chapter, the methodology used i n this research has been presented, and i n the chapter following that, the analysis of the relations between the variables has been presented. -41-Diagrammatic Presentation of the Working Hypotheses Independent Variable Dependent Variable Set 1: 1. Choice of Occupation 2. Choice of Working Conditions Attachment to the Job 3. Discretion in Work Set 2: Emphasis on Student Relations 4 . Attachment to the Job Friendship with Colleagues The unidirectedness of the arrows is just a rule-of-thumb indicating that the independent variable "leads to " , "produces", or i s "associated with" the dependent variable. -42-REFERENCES 1. Some selected references are as follows: J. Israel, Alienation: From Marx to Modern Sociology, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1971; K. Marx, Early Writings, New York: McGraw H i l l , 1964, pp. 120-34; M. Seeman,"The Urban Alienations:Some Dubious Theses from Marx to Marcuse," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 19 (August 1970) pp. 135-43; and "On the Personal Consequences of Alienation i n Work," American Sociological Review, 32 (April 1967) pp. 273-85; and "Alienation, Membership and P o l i t i c a l Alienation," Public Opinion  Quarterly, 30 (Fall 1966) pp. 253-67. See for organizational behaviour,M. Aikin and J. Hage,"Organizational Alienation: A Comparative Analysis," American Sociological Review, 31 (August 1966) pp. 497-507; and CM. Bonjean and G. Grimes,"Bureaucracy and Alienation: A Dimensional Approach," Social Forces, 48 (March 1970) pp. 365-73. 2. F. Herzberg _ [ _ _ _ . , Job Attitudes: Review and Research Opinion, Pittsberg: Psychological Service of Pittsberg, 1957; R. Blauner, . "Work Satisfaction and Industrial Trends," in W.Galenson and S.M. Lipset, eds., Labour and Trade Unionism, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1960, pp. 339-60. For a summary of determinants of job satisfaction, see V.H. Vroom, Work and Motivation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1967, Ch. 5. 3. T. Lodahl and M. Kejner,"The Definition and Measurement of Job Involvement," Journal of Applied Psychology, 49 (February 1965) pp. 24-35; and A.O. Haller and I. Miller, The Occupational Aspiration  Scale: Theory, Structure and Correlates, Technical Bulletin 288, Agricultural Experiment Station, Department" of Sociology and Anthropology, Michaigan State University, 1968, pp. 98-99. 4. See W. Faunce,"Occupational Involvement and the Selective Testing of Self-Esteem," paper delivered at the meetings of the American Sociological Association, Chicago, 111.; September 1959 as cited in J.G. Maurer,"Work as a 'Central L i f e Interest' of Industrial Supervisors," Academy of Management Journal, 11 (September 1968) p. 334. 5. See T. Taveggia, Voluntarism: Work Attachment and Satisfaction with Work, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Oregon, 1971; and R.A. Hedley, Freedom and Constraint: A Study of British Blue-Collar  Workers, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Oregon, 1971. 6. R Dubin,"Industrial Workers' World: A Study of the 'Central L i f e Interests' of Workers, Social Problems, 3 (January 1956) pp. 131-42; J.G. Maurer, op_. c i t . , pp. 329-39; and L.H. Orzack,"Work as 'Central Life Interest' of Professionals," i n E.O. Smigel, ed., Work and Leisure, New Haven, Conn.: College and University Press, 1963, pp. 73-84. -43-7. D. Rossides, Society as a Functional Process, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Company of Canada, 1968, pp. 281-84. 8. E. Durkheim, The Rules of the Sociological Method, New York: The Free Press, 1938. 9. M. Meissner,"The Long Arm of the Job," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 10 (October 1971) pp. 239-60. 10. R. Hedley, op_. c i t . 11. The phrase hierajchy of needs implies that a higher need provides motivation only when a lower one has been satisfied. From low to a high order, these needs are: physiological needs, safety, love, esteem needs, need for self-actualization, cognitive needs, and aesthetic needs. Maslow's theory may be seen in L.J. Biscoff, Interpreting Personality Theories, New York: Harper and Row, 1964. 12. C. Argyris,"Understanding Human Behaviour in Organizations: One _ Viewpoint,".in.M._Haire,_.ed., Modern Organization Theory,. New_York: :_H~rT~.?- =-John Wiley,.. 1959 pj/o 118-1?r also by- the authoF.^^^f^onaMl^" versus Organizational Goals," Yale Scientific Review, (Feb., 1960) pp. 40-50 as reproduced in R. Dubin, Human Relations in Administration Englewood-Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1968. Other contributions to the need theory are: E. Fromm, The Sane Society, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1955, pp. 191-208, and The Revolution  of Hope, New York: Bertram Books, 1968, Ch. 4; and A. Etzioni, "Basic Human Needs: Alienation and Inauthenticity," American  Sociological Review, 33 (December 1968) pp. 870-85. 13. Human Relations in Administration, op. c i t . , pp. 93-103. 14. For a general discussion of this issue, see R. Dubin,"Industrial Research and the Discipline of Sociology,^ Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meetings of Industrial Research. Association, Madison, University of Wisconsin, 1959. 15. See E. Gross, Work and Society, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1958; R. Perrucci and J.E. Gerstl, eds., The Engineers and the Social  System, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1969; and H. Wilensky, "The Professionalization of Everyone," American Journal of Sociology, 70 (September 1964) pp. 137-58. 16. E. Greenwood,"Attributes of a Profession," Social Work, 2 (July 1957) p. 53. 17. J.A. Roth,"Professionalism: The Sociologist's Decoy," Sociology of Work. and Occupations, 1 (February 1974) p. -44-18. A Etzioni, Modern Organizations,Englewood-Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1964, p.87. 19. See S. Parker, The Future of Work and Leisure, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971, Ch. 4. 20. H. Zeisel, Say i t with Figures, New York: Harper and Row, 1968, (revised) p.111. 21. R.G. Corwin,"Professional Persons in Public Organizations," Educational Administration Quarterly, 1 (Autumn 1965) pp. 1-22. 22. Some relevant references are the following: D.A. MacKay,"Using Professional Talent in a School Organization," Canadian Education  and Research Digest, 6 (December 1966) pp. 342-52; R.G. Corwin, Militant Professionalism, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970; C.S. Bower,"Professionalism without Autonomy," Journal of Educational 1 .. Thought, 2 (August 1968). pp. 68-77; N. Robinson,"Teacher ... Professionalism and Bureaucracy in School Organization," Canadian Education, and Research Digest, 7 (March 1967) pp. 29-46; A. Vexliard,"Centralization and Freedom in Education," Comparative  Education, 6 (March 1970) pp. 37-47; T. Legatt,"Teaching as a Profession," in Professions and Professionalization, ed., J.A. Jackson, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1971; J.J. Samuels/'Infringement on Teacher's Autonomy," Urban Education, 5 (April 1970) pp. 152-71; and G. Graham, The Public School in the New Society: The Social Foundations of Education, New York: Harper and Row, 1969. 23. See D.A. Erickson, Educational F l e x i b i l i t y in an Urban School D i s t r i c t , Study No. 8, Vancouver, B.C.: Educational Research Institute of B. C., 1970 (mimeographed). 24. Public Schools Act 1973, Chapter 319: 152. The Government of the Province of British Columbia, Victoria, B.C., 1973. 25. A.D. Amry, A Comparative Study of Parent r Student, and Principal Selection of Outstanding Secondary Teachers in Five Northwest  Iowa Public Schools, Ph.D. thesis Abstracts, University of South Dakota, 1967; M. Zax, Perceptions of Teaching Held by Outstanding  Secondary School Teachers, Ph.D. thesis Abstracts, Cornell University, New York, 1968. 26. O.R. Adams,"Perceived Teaching Styles," Comparative Education Review, 14 (February 1970) pp. 50-59. Chapter II METHODOLOGY 1. The Research Design The emphasis in this exploratory study i s essentially on gaining familiarity with teachers 9 sense of work-related freedoms and work-attachment. Since the research originated with the exploratory rationale i n •aind, a certain degree of f l e x i b i l i t y was bu i l t into i t , allowing for the adaptation of data collection and analysis procedures to the research purpose. The exploratory rationale of this research i s based on the following two reasons. F i r s t , as the freedom of choice variables and the statements of relationships between these variables are peculiar to this research, the ideas and insights gained concerning these variables can be used in a subsequent, more highly structured study. Secondly, as an argument has been made concerning the two faces of attachment, this study attempts to explore whether or not that argument can be supported with data. (45) -46-In formulating the research problem and i n developing working hypotheses, the present research seeks to provide information that w i l l be helpful i n formulating more precise hypotheses and a more definitive investigation in an area where hypotheses have not been f u l l y formulated as yet. Such a focus in the research effort requires certain, changes i n the basic research procedures, changes which are necessary i n order to provide data relevant to the emerging hypotheses and the general argument of this research, 2. Population Prom the beginning* i t seemed rather f u t i l e to think of having a representative sample from among 75 school d i s t r i c t s , 232 secondary schools ( grade VIII through XII) and more than nine thousand teachers i n the province. F i r s t , the resources to plan that kind of research were not available. Secondly, an earlier l e t t e r addressed to the school superintendents asking for information on the schools with a view to conducting a survey, did not bring much appreciable encouragement. The letters were sent out to f i f t y - f o u r schools superintendents in charge of 75 d i s t r i c t s . Out of these, three replied in an affirmative ton®, six refused? ona l e f t i t up to the discretion of the school principals; and about twenty-two just supplied the l i s t of schools without mentioning anything about the po s s i b i l i t y of a survey in their d i s t r i c t s . i Of necessity, the decision was made to select a sample which could be described as a sample of convenience, a judgemental sample, that i s , those schools were included i n the surrey that showed a willingness to particup&ta in the surrey. Since the study was exploratory* this sample was thought to be adequate. 3 . Pretesting — I Of the three i n i t i a l l y approving dist r i c t , two within easy reach were chosen and later approached Tor ; ~ pretesting the questionnaire. A latter requesting the cooperation of five teachers was sent to each of the principals in these districts. They were also contacted on the phone. The selection of teachers was l e f t to their discretion* However* the principals consenting to cooperate circulated the request letter among the staff, and the names of those who volunteered to cooperate* were obtained. Most often the questionnaires were delivered to the teacherss i n cases where teachers were busy, they were l e f t with the office secretary, and sometimes they were mailed with self•addressed stamped envelopes. A total of about thirty questionnaires were collected i n this manner. The other school district was approached through the good offices of the Director* Faculty of Education who happens to know a "research-oriented* director of secondary instruction* This researcher me.t with the secondary administrators i n their o f f i c i a l meeting with the director himself. -48-About fif t e e n minutes were allowed for intro-ducing the research project. As only about twenty-five questionnaires were needed, two of the principals present volunteered to distribute these questionnaires to their s t a f f . About twenty questionnaires were collected from this d i s t r i c t . In a l l , about *f8 pretested questionnaires were analyzed before f i n a l i z i n g the questionnaire used i n this study. *K Sample Size p Galtung suggests that a researcher has to answer three questions before he decides on his sample size. (1) How many variables does he want to analyze simultaneously ? (2) What i s the minimum number of values that he wants to use per variable ? (3) Given his analytical techniques, what i s the minimum average per c e l l that he needs ? A minimum of two variables were to be simul-taneously analyzed. A minimum of two values per variable were conceived. As both the independent and dependent variables happened to be of an ordinal nature, at least three values per variable were contemplatedj the results of the pretesting had made this possible. Both of these considerations made available two options* (1) Two variables with one control, with two values each would make the number of c e l l s in the two marginal tables sight. (2) If three values for both the independent and dependent variables, and only -49-two for the control variable are chosen, the number of cells in the two marginal tables would increase to eighteen. There is no rational answer to the third question as to the number of cases on the average in each ce l l . It should be preferably more than twenty for the tendencies to come out clearly. Deciding in favour of twenty oases per c e l l , the sample size in the case of option 1 was 160 cases ( 20 z 8 » 160 )• For option 2, the sample-size increases to 360 cases ( 2 0 x 18 a 360 ). As this research was placed i n the category of a survey research, however exploratory, the decision was made to hav© the larger sample, that i s , 360 cases. In choosing the school districts,, at least three considerations had to be kept in minds (1) that the district be within travelling capacity? (2) that i t should have a large number of schools a and (3) that i t showed promise of cooperation. To start with, six district were chosen. One of these was approached through i t s director of secondary -instruction,, who at one time was the instructor of this researcher: for a course on the administration of secondary schools. He was helpful In obtaining the permission of tha district superintendent for the research. m This district had nine schools. A letter soliciting^ cooperation was sent to each principal in the -50-d i s t r i c t . Of the nine principals contacted, seven refused and two agreed. A second d i s t r i c t within easy access had three schools. A letter was sent to each of these schools followed by a telephone contact. A l l the three schools refused. A third d i s t r i c t was within a 35*mile radius with two schools. Both were contacted through letters. Only one school cooperated, but the number of teachers i n the school turned out to be small. Two other d i s t r i c t were within a radius of about seventy-five miles with five secondary schools each. A l l the ten principals i n both the d i s t r i c t s were contacted by l e t t e r . Two principals from each of the d i s t r i c t s agreed. Later, another school was added to the l i s t through good luck. The researcher was v i s i t i n g with a teacher friend when the school principal arrived. After introductions, the principal showed interest i n the research i f i t mas not too late to be involved. He later provided the researcher with an opportunity to address the staff meeting. The teachers who were present agreed to participate i n the research. The laa-t d i s t r i c t contacted was the one i n which pretesting ;Md-bem2done earlier. Excluding the two schools that had already participated i n the pretesting of the questionnaire, the remaining five were approached through letters and reminders of the earlier meeting with -51-th© principals. Of these fiv e schools, only two agreed. It took the resercher nearly four months of correspondence, f i e l d v i s i t s , and contact making to collect the following number of completed questionnairest Table 11.1. Distribution of the Sample No. of Schools % Response Questionnaires D i s t r i c t Schools Cooperating per School Collected 1 9 2 7V^9 53 2 5 !2 78/55 3 5 3 77/72/76 80 4 5 2 W65 ko 5 2 1 6k 7 22k 5. Modes of Gooperation/Non-eooperation Fi r s t , there were principals to whom the idea of such a research was agreeable. They were w i l l i n g to allow 10-15 minutes i n the next staff meeting for presentation of the research project. And i f the staff agreed to participate i n the survey, i t was a l l right with them. This was possible i n a few instances as the staff meetings and the time of the research happened to coincide. Secondly, there were principals who took the i n i t i a t i v e of posting the request l e t t e r i n the st a f f room -52-along with the copy of the questionnaire, always enclosed with the letter. They would put up a note for the staff asking them i f they would participate. The st a f f decision was then communicated to this researcher. Thirdly, there were principals who sounded their s t a f f i n the staff meeting that happened to be coincidental with the research and the request le t t e r . I f the st a f f agreed, the decision was communicated to the researcher. " There were principals who decided not to cooperate. Among these there were th©se who never replied to any request letters? others simply refused to allow the i n i t i a t i o n of a research i n their schools. Those who e x p l i c i t l y refused gave the following answers * The time i s not appropriate? teachers are busyg we usually take a hard line with researchers as there are too many requests? we have some problems^ why not pay twenty dollars each for the questionnaire i f i t i s so improtant to have i t f i l l e d ? staff are tired of the M.A and Ph.D students 9 requests. 6. Fj:sld v i s i t s Before entering the pretesting stage, the researcher had made i t a point to v i s i t as many schools as possible i n order to talk to teachers, school principals, even students, and thus become familiar with the public schools.^ in operation. These v i s i t s were arranged either through one or another friend or instructor on the Faculty -53-of Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Later, when the i n i t i a l cooperation had been e l i c i t e d , the questionnaires were sometimes mailed, sometimes l e f t i n the teachers' mail boxes, and at other times, the questionnaires were personally distributed. Whatever form the distribution of the questionnaires took, the researcher would personally v i s i t the participating schools and he would spend as much time there as he could manage. This way he was able to talk to teachers personally and answer their questions on the questionnaire. The meetings with teachers would take place mostly during the spare-times when the teachers were not teaching. The minimum time spent i n a school was one-half of a working day, and the maximum was two days, depending upon the size of the school and the number of teachers i n the school. The researcher did not v i s i t three of the ten schools included i n the sample because one school had only seven participating teachers and a v i s i t was not through to be productive. And ..two of the schools were too far away to be visited again* already the pretesting had been done i n the d i s t r i c t s i n which these schools were located. After well over four months of effort at data collection a decision had to be made whether to continue to c o l l e c t the desired number of questionnaires or stop to look at those that had already been collected. Time and effort, and the money involved in travelling within a radius of -54-three hundred mile3 from the centre of Vancouver* coupled with the high non-coperation rate were factors strong enough to make the researcher reconsider his earlier decision as to the number of questionnaires needed for analysis. At the time of reconsideration, the number of cases collected happened to be 224, a figure which lay between the two options available at the time the sample was chosen. The number of cases collected, 224, was between 160 and 360, the two figures considered earlier. Consequently, the techniques of data analysis, described below were matched to the smallness of the sample. 7. Techniques of Data Analysis The mode of data presentation i s tabular? i t i s appreciable because of i t s simplicity and direct visual appeal. When the tables are set up to examine statements of relationships between variables, the data are presented i n bivariate percentage distributions. The variables involved ( choice of occupation, working conditions, discretion on the job, and work-attachment) are ordinal, meaning that the values assigned to these variables can be arranged i n increasing or decreasing order, but the numeric values assigned to the cases do not correspond to a cardinal metric. The relationship implied i n the hypotheses i s asymmetric, meaning that the independent variable affects the dependent variable and not the oMier way round. To test for tha relationship between the -55-independent and dependent variables, a s t a t i s t i c a l measure called Somers5D was chosen, as this measure i s appropriate for both ordinal variables and asymmetric relationships-. 2 It should be noted that Somers9 D w i l l be used whenever the association between variables i3 examined. P - Q * ( H 2 - £jGj 2 ) 2 ( P - Q ) Somers• D * ( Asymmetric__ 2 - i-jCj' where P * a l l pairs i n which the order on one variable i s the same as the order on the other. Q ss a l l pairs i n which the order on one variable i s the opposite of the other. jCja the count of each column i n the table N « the number of cases. -56-The analysis also involves index construction for the multiple items which were used variously for the independent and dependent variables. As several items were involved i n any single index, i t was necessary to fi n d out i f these items were intercorrelated. Provided the items are ordinal and provided the number of categories are few, Kendall's tau i3 an appropriate measure to determine whether or not the items can be combined i n an index. r i N ( N - 1 ) Where S ss amount of agreement between two sets of ordinal ranking H = number of cases. (The computational formula has a correction factor for tied ranks.) -57-8. Index C o n s t r u c t i o n One of the independent v a r i a b l e s , d i s c r e t i o n on the job, c o n s i s t s of nine items. Each of these items represents a teacher behaviour i n v o l v i n g c h oice, and when combined w i t h oth e r s , c o n s t i t u t e s a measure of teachers* d i s c r e t i o n over work. Independent V a r i a b l e : D i s c r e t i o n on the Job Items Response Categories Much Some No Choice Choice Choice + 1 0 - 1 1. Experiment w i t h new methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . 2. Handle d i s c i p l i n e problems a c c o r d i n g t o students i n v o l v e d . 3. Recommend books i n a d d i t i o n t o those p r e s c r i b e d . 4. I n f l u e n c e school p o l i c i e s about i n s t r u c t i o n i n the grades I teach. 5 . Determine the amount of paper work i n v o l v e d i n doing my work as a classroom -teacher. 6. Vary the amount of time spent on d i f f e r e n t s u bject-areas w i t h regard to s t u d e n t s 1 s t a t e of l e a r n i n g . 7. Order s u p p l i e s and equipment needed f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . g. Modify c u r r i c u l u m content w i t h regard to student a b i l i t i e s . 9. Modify achievement standards t o correspond w i t h student a b i l i t i e s . -58-I n d i v i d u a l Score:r£ , ranging from -1.00 t o 1.00, ~n where x., = the score on each item, the p o s s i b l e score b s i n g (1, 0, -1) and n =• the number o f items. Example - (M6+) + (No 0) + (No -) _ ( + 6 ) ' + (1 0 ) + ( - 2 ) No of Items 9 J L = -44 9 The score c a l c u l a t e d i s the a r i t h m e t i c mean, which combines the responses t o s i n g l e items. Depending upon the excess of p o s i t i v e responses over the negative ones, or v i c e v e r s a , the p o s s i b l e scores are:+ or - .11, .22, .33, .44, .55, .66, .77, .33, and 1.00. In a 3 x 3 c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g three values can be formed: No Choice =-.11 to -1.00 and .00 Some Choice =+.11 to +.44 Much Choice =+.55 t o 1.00 The above formula makes i t p o s s i b l e to summarize the responses of i n d i v i d u a l s t o a s e r i e s of items. The u n d e r l y i n g assumption i s t h a t v a r i o u s items, even though d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t a t i v e l y , can be combined i n t o an index " i f they are s t r i p p e d of t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s and reduced t o t h e i r common denominator.*^ As these items enter the formula of index formation, the p a r t i c u l a r elements d i s t i n g u i s h i n g them are l o s t . Thus by a b s t r a c t i n g the p r o p e r t i e s common to a l l -59-items, d i f f e r e n t items can be put together i n an index. By the procedure f o l l o w e d , each of the items i s given equal weight, and when combined w i t h o t h e r s , forms an "index" r a t h e r than a d i r e c t measure of d i s c r e t i o n . As nine items were i n v o l v e d , t o a t t a i n a c e r t a i n degree of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n measurement, an attempt was made to secure a unidimensional s c a l e , t h a t i s , a s c a l e which permits the r a n k i n g or o r d e r i n g of respondents a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r responses on the s e v e r a l items i n v o l v e d . By s u b j e c t i n g the items to s e v e r a l t r i a l s o f Guttman scalogram a n a l y s i s , as a v a i l a b l e i n the SPSS computer programme,^ the highest c o e f f i c i e n t of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y obtained was .SI and the highest c o e f f i c i e n t of s c a l a b i l i t y was .45 w i t h s i x items: 4, 6, 9> 3, 1, and 2 e n t e r i n g the s c a l e from the most d i f f i c u l t t o the l e a s t d i f f i c u l t items. (See Appendix I - A;) I d e a l l y , a s c a l e should have a c o e f f i c i e n t of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of over .90 and of s c a l a b i l i t y of w e l l over .60. Again, to t e s t i f more than one dimension i n these items were i n v o l v e d , a d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g y , SSA (Smallest Space Analysis'?) was used, the r e s u l t s of which have been presented i n Appendix I-D. This technique i s u s e f u l i n working out the fewest number of dimensions i n v o l v e d i n a f a i r l y l a r g e number of i t e m s / v a r i a b l e s . The a n a l y s i s showed th a t items 1, 9, and 4 clustered,, items 5 and 7 c l u s t e r e d , and items 3 and & c l u s t e r e d i n a two-dimension diagram. -60-But the c o e f f i c i e n t of a l i e n a t i o n was .11, which was h i g h c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t only nine items were analyzed i n a two-dimension space. From t h i s r e s u l t , the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t more than one dimension i s i n v o l v e d , could not be drawn. In order t o keep the l e v e l of measurement simple, and t o f i n d out i f the nine items could be combined i n t o an index, an i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n m a trix was developed. Developing a m a t r i x i s a u s e f u l s t r a t e g y , even though i t does not i n d i c a t e any advantage over the Guttman scalogram a n a l y s i s or the SSA. T h i s m a t r i x , however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t w i t h the exception of item 3 which r e l a t e s n e g a t i v e l y w i t h item 5, the r e l a t i v e magnitude of the c o e f f i c i e n t s , among themselves, does not vary -considerably; hence the r e s u l t s are c r e d i b l e . Most c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range between low and moderate a s s o c i a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e i t i s j u s t i f i e d t o say t h a t none of the items i s any stronger than the o t h e r s , and t h a t these nine items can be combined i n t o an index. The items on d i s c r e t i o n , formulated w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the t e a c h e r s 1 d u t i e s o u t l i n e d i n The P u b l i c Schools  A c t , 1973, were put through the p r e t e s t , and before t h a t , were shown to some teachers and d i r e c t o r s of secondary i n s t r u c t i o n f o r c r i t i c a l comments. Any suggestions r e c e i v e d were inc o r p o r a t e d i n t o the wording of the items and i n t o the i n d i c e s f o r these items. There i s then some j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n r e g a r d i n g the items of the index as dependable. -61-TABLE I I.2.8 Intercorrelation Matrix of Items on Discretion Kendall 's Tau* (Rank-order C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t ) Items 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. 2. •31 3. .25 .23 4. .22 .20 .27 5. .14 .06 • .20 6. .12 .17 .16 .15 .21 7. .10 .15 .21 .32 .12 .01 8. .31 .21 .33 .21 .04 .27 .30 9. .32 .15 .15 .22 .12 .22 .27 * In order to determine whether or not a set of items/variables can be combined into an index, Kendall 's tau i s an appropriate measure of correlat ion when (a) the items are ordinal, and (b) the number of categories few and/or the number of t ie s large. As K e n d a l l ' s tau v a r i e s between -.1.0 zr.r3. 4-] .0. the strength of the c o r r e l a t i o r . c".n be deterrr.inec 1 !••.* the f o l l c i v i n ? conventions (- or +) .01 to . 0 9 . r e r t l i " i M e c o r r e l a t i o n : .10 to . 2 - . l e c o r r e l a t i o n : .30 to ro- 1er.ite c o r r e l a t i o n : .50 to .P?, s u b s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n : and .70 or '•.ip.her. stron? c o r r e l a t i o n . -62-L a t e r i n the a n a l y s i s , the i n i t i a l l y formulated summary scores w i l l be used wherever r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s are t e s t e d . F o r the independent v a r i a b l e , choice of occupation, only one item was used, and i t had three response c a t e g o r i e s . Item Response Cate g o r i e s Much Some No Choice Choice Choice Whether or not I work as a teacher. For purposes of cro s s t a b u l a t i o n , a l l three c a t e g o r i e s were kept wherever a 3 x 3 t a b l e needed t o be constructed. For the second independent v a r i a b l e , choice of working c o n d i t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g f o u r items were used. Independent V a r i a b l e : Choice of Working C o n d i t i o n s Items Response Categories Much Some No Choice Choice Choice 1. Which school d i s t r i c t I teach i n . 2. Which s c h o o l I teach i n a p a r t i c u l a r school d i s t r i c t . 3. Which grade l e v e l s I teach. 4. Which s u b j e c t s I teach. + 1 0 -1 As b e f o r e , each of the items has been assigned three response c a t e g o r i e s , and each of the response c a t e g o r i e s has been assigned a p o s i t i v e , a neg a t i v e , or a n e u t r a l s i g n . The signs correspond to the meaning i m p l i e d i n the items on choice of working c o n d i t i o n s : much choice i s 1, some choice i s 0, and no choice i s -1. Thus the index v a r i e s between 1 and -1, w i t h a zero p o i n t s t a n d i n f o r a balance between the p o s i t i v e and negative extremes. Usin g the previous formula, and depending upon the excess of p o s i t i v e responses over the negative ones, or v i c e v e r s a , the p o s s i b l e scores are: +or - .25, .50, .75, and 1.00. In a 3 x 3 format f o r c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g three values may be formed: No-Choice= - .25 t o -1.00 and .00 Some Choice = +.25 Much C h o i c e r +.50 t o 1.00 To t e s t whether or not these i n d i c e s measure a s i n g l e dimension, the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n matrix i s h e l p f u l . TABLE II..3» I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of Items on Choice of Working C o n d i t i o n s K e n d a l l ' s tau  Items 1 2 3 4 2 .03 3 .14 .42 + .16 .31 .44 -64-Item 1 shows a n e g l i g i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h item 2, and low a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h items 3 and 4. However, the c o e f f i c i e n t s of the other three items i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e magnitude do not d i f f e r g r e a t l y between themselves. T h i s shows t h a t n e i t h e r one of these items i s any stronger than the r e s t ; furthermore, t h a t these f o u r items can be combined i n an index. By a s s i g n i n g scores t o i n d i v i d u a l cases on a l l the f o u r items, responses t o a l l the f o u r items can be summarized. T h i s index i s not being based on a l o g i c a l attempt to t e s t u n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y or cumulativeness. An attempt, however, was made to develop a Guttman s c a l e w i t h these f o u r items, which i s by no means an adequate number w i t h which t o s t a r t . The procedure of the s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n produced a c o e f f i c i e n t of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f .87 and of s c a l a b i l i t y of .23. (See Appendix I-B.) By u s i n g t h i s procedure, no gain was made over the i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n i n i t i a l l y done (by summarizing the responses f o r each i t e m ) , but the assumption t h a t the f o u r items together can form an index, was r e i n f o r c e d . L a t e r , i n e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i o u s v a r i a b l e s , the summary scores o f responses to v a r i o u s items w i l l be used; t h a t way, the s t r a t e g y of using i n d i c e s w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t . Next, the procedures f o l l o w e d f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e , attachment, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . L E A F 6 5 O M I T T E D I N P A G E N U M B E R I N G . -66-Dependent V a r i a b l e : Attachment The index of attachment to t e a c h i n g . c o n s i s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g s i x items: Response Categories  Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r "A. Success Dimension + 1 1. The time I spend t e a c h i n g i s the most rewarding t i n e I spend d u r i n g a day. 2. To me success i n t h i n g s I do away from the job i s more important than my success as a teacher. B. I d e n t i t y Dimension -1 3 . I l i k e t o be i d e n t i f i e d as a teacher. 4. I would want one o f my c h i l d r e n t o be a teacher. C. Preference Dimension -1 5. I would stop t e a c h i n g i f I came i n t o enough money. 6 . I would choose te a c h i n g i f I were to choose an occupation again. 0 -1 0 0 + + 1 In t h i s index, the response category f s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ' was combined w i t h the 'disagree' category, and the ' s t r o n g l y agree' category w i t h the 'agree' category. (See Appendix I I , q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ) The r a t i o n a l e f o r r e c o g n i z i n g three dimensions of attachment i s as f o l l o w s . -67-As people do t h e i r j obs, they are expected to be s u c c e s s f u l i n them. T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i s i n t e r n a l i z e d by people d u r i n g t h e i r years of maturation. I f people are not s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r j obs, they are l i k e l y to l o s e f a c e , which, i n t u r n , p r e c i p i t a t e s f e e l i n g s of inadequacy. A l s o , t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r j obs, they have to devote energy and time i n l e a r n i n g the pros and cons of t h e i r j o b s . I t i s conceivable t h a t people have only so much time which thay can spend on t h e i r jobs and so much energy t h a t they can expend i n being s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r j o b s . By c o n s i d e r i n g the time spent on the job to be rewarding, and by c o n s i d e r i n g being s u c c e s s f u l on the job to be important, people can show t h e i r attachment to the j o b . People come t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the jobs they do; i n t h i s sense, t h e i r jobs acquire a pers o n a l relevance f o r them. They are attached to t h e i r jobs to the extent t h a t they acknowledge t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . T h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s , and t h e i r acceptance o f t h a t p o s i t i o n , r e i n f o r c e s t h e i r sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the j o b . I f people want one of t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o enter the same occupation as t h e i r s , i t would be a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g measure of t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h a t occupation. Whatever t h e i r reason f o r wanting one of t h e i r c h i l d r e n to be i n the same occupation, they are c a r r y i n g t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n over t o the next generation, thus i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r attachment to the j o b . -68-Having a job might be an economic n e c e s s i t y as w e l l as a s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n . Both might be strong c o n s t r a i n t s to make people keep t h e i r job l i f e r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . I f the economic n e c e s s i t y of making money i s removed and they s t i l l wish to engage i n the occupation of t h e i r c h o i c e , i t i s an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r preference f o r t h a t occupation; i t i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e i r occupation has ac q u i r e d some i n t r i n s i c value f o r them. I t i s r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g evidence o f t h e i r preference f o r a c e r t a i n type o f occupation i f they choose t h a t occupation over again when confronted w i t h a choice. The assumptions i m p l i c i t l y i n t r o d u c e d here are t h a t there i s a reasonable degree of correspondence between thoughts and words, and between words and a c t i o n s ; t h a t people w i l l express what they f e e l , and f e e l what they express; and t h a t they w i l l act accordi n g t o what they say, and r e p o r t what they have done. I n sum, attachment t o the job i s i n f l u e n c e d by m u l t i p l e f a c t o r s . For one t h i n g , s e v e r a l ' v a l u a b l e s ' get b u i l t i n t o the jobs i n which people are engaged. One o f the ' v a l u a b l e s ' i s the l i k i n g f o r the job s t r o n g enough t o motivate them to engage i n t h e i r job c o n t i n u o u s l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y . Other ' v a l u a b l e s ' such as preference f o r i t , development of an i d e n t i t y w i t h i t , and importance i n being s u c c e s s f u l at i t f o l l o w i f and when people engage i n t h e i r j o b s c o n t i n u o u s l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y . U s i n g the previous s t r a t e g y f o r c a l c u l a t i n g the mean scores f o r each respondent, and depending upon the excess -69-of p o s i t i v e over negative responses, the f o l l o w i n g p o s s i b l e scores are obtainable:-*- or - .16, .33, .50, .66, .33, and 1.00. In a 3 x 3 format of cross t a b u l a t i o n , three v a l u e s on t h i s v a r i a b l e can be formed: No attachment= -.16 t o -1.00 and .00 Low attachment= +.16 t o +.33 High attachment= +.50 to 1.00 TABLE I l A i I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of Items of Attachment K e n d a l l ' s tau  1 2 3 4 5 6 .21 .20 .23 .23 .14 .20 .22 .13 .23 .23 .26 .34 .32 .41 .25 In order to f i n d out i f a l l the items o f attachment taken together measured a s i n g l e dimension, the above m a t r i x was developed to examine the p a t t e r n o f i n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n among the items, as w e l l as t h e i r absolute magnitude. Items 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. -70 I t may be observed t h a t w i t h i n themselves, the r e l a t i v e s i z e s of the c o e f f i c i e n t s are not g r e a t l y d i f f e r e n t ; they are d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n a range of .14 t o .41, showing a low t o moderate a s s o c i a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the items i s not very s t r o n g , but as the d i r e c t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n the a f f i r m a t i v e , the items can be used i n an index. To secure a un i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l e , the items were subjected t o Guttman scalogram a n a l y s i s . To s t a r t w i t h , as s i x items were i n v o l v e d , o n l y three t r i a l s could be done. The maximum c o e f f i c i e n t of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f .31 and s c a l a b i l i t y of-.43 was obtained w i t h items 6, 1, 2, and 5, e n t e r i n g the s c a l e from the most d i f f i c u l t t o the l e a s t d i f f i c u l t items. As mentioned e a r l i e r , i d e a l l y , a sc a l e should have a c o e f f i c i e n t of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of over.90 and of s c a l a b i l i t y of over . 60 . The r e l a t i v e l y low c o e f f i c i e n t o f r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y obtained could be the r e s u l t of the way the c u t t i n g p o i n t s were introduced on the responses of these items. I n i t i a l l y , each of these items had f i v e response c a t e g o r i e s : s t r o n g l y agree, agree, u n c e r t a i n , d i s a g r e e , and s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . I t was a simple d e c i s i o n t o combine the s t r o n g l y agree category w i t h the agree category, and the s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e category w i t h the disag r e e category. But the u n c e r t a i n category could not be e l i m i n a t e d because i n one of the s i x items, the number of respondents choosing the u n c e r t a i n category was more than 50%, and e x c l u d i n g t h a t many cases from one item could i n v o l v e a g r e a t e r l o s s from -71-a l l the other items. A decision wa3 made to retain the uncertain category. Then only two categories were formedi agree and a l l othersi the reason for doing so was that the category agree is different from a l l the other categories. This procedure could have resulted in producing a greater number of errors in the construction of the Guttman scale. ( See Appendix 1-C for the scale results.) Of necessity, reliance had to be placed on the i n i t i a l procedure, that of summarizing the scores on different items for individual cases} these scores will be used in forming values on the variable attachment. In cross-tabMations with other variables, the values thus formed will be used. Dependent Variable* The Three Teaching Orientations - ' Regarding the variable emphasis on student relation 9, the following one item was usedt Item Response Categories Strong Moderate No Emphasis Emphasis Emphasis Indicate the emphasis you place on interpersonal relations with students. In analyzing the data, the response category * weak emphasis9 was collapsed with the 'moderate emphasis • category. Regarding the instructional style of teachers, the following two items were used to supplement the student relations iteml -72-Items Response Categories Strong Moderate Emphasis Emphasis No Emphasis I n d i c a t e the emphasis you place on the f o l l o w i n g aspects of i n s t r u c t i o n : a) Subject-Matter b) D i s c i p l i n e and C o n t r o l I n a n a l y z i n g the data, the response category 'weak emphasis* was c o l l a p s e d w i t h the 'moderate emphasis* category. I d e a l l y , a strong emphasis on i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a moderate emphasis on subject-matter and/or moderate/ no emphasis on d i s c i p l i n e " " ~ and c o n t r o l . I f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between attachment and a s t r o n g emphasis on student r e l a t i o n s holds, as expected, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between attachment and subject-matter should be ne g a t i v e , as should the r e l a t i o n s h i p between attachment and emphasis on d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l . Each of these items w i l l be r e l a t e d s i n g l y w i t h the attachment index. The f o l l o w i n g f o u r items were used to e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g colleague r e l a t i o n s among teachers: Dependent V a r i a b l e i F r i e n d s h i p s Items Response Categories Two One None 1. How many teachers i n your present school do you know that you enjoy getting together with ? 2 . How many of these teachers do you regard as your personal friends ( persons with whom you share confidences, nothing to do with the work of the school) ? 3» How many teachers in other schools do you know that you enjoy getting together with ? 4. How many of these teachers do you consider your close personal friends ( same definition as above) ? Items 1 and 3 were used as lead questions to e l i c i t information to questions 2 and 4. ( I n i t i a l l y , a fourth category * three and more * was provided, but i n analysing the data, i t was combined with the category 'two*. ) We have presented the data a n a l y s i s concerning the key v a r i a b l e s o f t h i s research i n the next chapter. -74-REFERENCES 1. See C. S e l l t i z , et a l . , Research Methods in Social Relations* New York t Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967, pp. 50-65. 2. J. Galtung, Theory and Methods of Social Research, New Yorkt Columbia University Press, 1969. pp. 59-61. 3. N. Nie, D. H. Bent and C.H.Hull, SPSSt S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the Social Sciences, New Yorki McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1970, p.277 4. Ibid., pp. 153-155. 5. H. Zeisel. Say It With Figures. New York* Harper and Brothers, 1947, p.100. 6. SPSS. &9. c i t . , pp. 196-205. 7. M. Bloombaum, " Doing Smallest Space Analysis", J o u r n a l of Conflict Resolutions. 14 ( Sept. 1970), pp. 409-16. 8. J. A. Davis, Elementary Survey Analysis , Englewood-Cliffs, New Jersey* Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970, p.49. Chapter I I I ANALYSIS: FREEDOM OF WORK-RELATED CHOICES AND WORK-ATTACHMENT I t may be u s e f u l to sketch the main o u t l i n e o f a n a l y s i s . One way to do t h i s I s to r e c a l l the questions r a i s e d e a r l i e r , i n the f i r s t chapter, together w i t h some o f the ideas r e g a r d i n g data p r e s e n t a t i o n . The working hypotheses of; t h i s study s t a t e d t h a t (a) choice o f occupation, (b) choice of working c o n d i t i o n s , and (c) d i s c r e t i o n i n work are r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y with, work-attachment. F u r t h e r , that work-attachment i s r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h Ca)a strong emphasis on student r e l a t i o n s , and consequently, with, a low Cor negative) emphasis on subject-matter, and d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l - these being the three t e a c h i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s , and Cb) formation of f r i e n d s h i p s among te a c h e r s . I n p r e s e n t i n g data, the three v a r i a b l e s on work-related choices are t r e a t e d as independent v a r i a b l e s and work-attachment as the dependent v a r i a b l e ; then work-attachment i s t r e a t e d as an independent v a r i a b l e and the three t e a c h i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s and the items on f r i e n d s h i p are t r e a t e d as the dependent v a r i a b l e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the three v a r i a b l e s on work-r e l a t e d choices and work-attachment may be conceived and analyzed i n the f o l l o w i n g temporal terms: choice of occupation ( 7 5 ) precedes choice of working c o n d i t i o n s , and both precede d i s c r e t i o n i n work; and each of them i s r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h work-attachment. As d i s c r e t i o n immmediately precedes work-attachment, whereas choice o f occupation and choice o f working c o n d i t i o n do not, and questions concerning them are invoked r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s can be explored by u s i n g two e m p i r i c a l models.* Model I Choice ot Occupation. Choice o f Working Conditions D i s c r e t i o n ^ In Work — Work-Attachment Model I I Choice o f Occupation Choice o f Working -> Conditions D i s c r e t i o n i n Work _ Work-Attachment Model I , besides proposing a chain o f p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between each of the independent v a r i a b l e s and work-attachment, proposes a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the independent v a r i a b l e s themselves. Model I I proposes t h a t * I n these models, the unidirectedness of the arrows should not be understood as more than the rule-of-thumb; the assumption o f feedback cannot be r u l e d out. Choice o f occupation i s an experience p r i o r to the job, whereas the e x e r c i s e o f d i s c r e t i o n i n work i s an experience which occurs on the job i t s e l f , hence the convenient assumption of the time sequence i n v o l v e d i s i m p l i c i t . d i s c r e t i o n , which immediately precedes work-attachment, independently a f f e c t s work-attachment, and i n t u r n i s not produced o r a f f e c t e d by choice of occupation and working c o n d i t i o n s . The models, however, are h e u r i s t i c , t h a t i s , a convenient way o f pr e s e n t i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than a t h e o r e t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d . I. Work-Related Choices and Work-Attachment F o l l o w i n g Model I , the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix on the next page shows a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .10, a low p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between choice of occupation and choice-of working c o n d i t i o n s ; a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .14 i n d i c a t e s a low p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between choice of working c o n d i t i o n s and d i s c r e t i o n i n work; a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .23 i n d i c a t e s a low p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between choice of occupation and d i s c r e t i o n i n work. Table III.2 shows a c o e f f i c i e n t of .11, a low p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between choice o f occupation and work-attachment; a c o e f f i c i e n t of .09 i n d i c a t e s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y non-existent r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment; again, a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .08 i n d i c a t e s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y non-existent r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment. To check whether or not some i n f o r m a t i o n was l o s t i n forming summative indexes of some v a r i a b l e s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s - 7 8 -TABIE I I I . l : CORRELATION MATRIX FOR INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Somers* D CHOICE OF OCCUPATION CHOICE OF CHOICE OF WORKING OCCUPATION CONDITIONS DISCRETION CHOICE OF WORKING CONDITIONS ,10 DISCRETION .23 .14 Somers* D value i s asymmetric i n line with the direction of the relationship implied between the variables. In each case the variable treated as independent i s on the top. As Somers' D varies between -.1.0 to +1.0, the strength of the association can be judred by the following conventions: (- or +) .01 to .09, nerrli^iMe association; .10 to .29, low association; . 3 0 to .^9, moderate association; .50 to .69, substantial association; and .7^ or hijrher, strong association. TABLE III.2: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHOICE OF OCCUPATION, CHOICE OF WORKING CONDITIONS, DISCRETION ON-THE-JOB AND WORK-ATTACHMENT. CHOICE OF OCCUPATION* WORK-ATTACHMENT: High Much % 69 Some % 56 None % 47 Somers* Low 11 26 30 .11 None 20 18 23 (N» 100%) (93) CHOICE (93) OF WORKING (30) CONDITIONS WORK-ATTACHMENT: High 69 67 59 Low 14 23 20 .09 None 17 10 21 (N= 100%) (29) (30) (165) DISCRETION ON-THE-JOB WORK-ATTACHMENT: High Low 65 16 62 20 50 25 .08 None 19 18 25 (N= 100%) (81) (103) (40) * Eight cases of no response on this item not included. Somers' D value i s asymmetric whenever i t appears. In this and the following tables, the independent variable is placed on top. - 8 0 -were examined by breaking the indexed v a r i a b l e s i n t o t h e i r component items. Table I I I . 3 shows th a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p does not g a i n any st r e n g t h when choice of occupation i s r e l a t e d to each of the s i x items o f work-attachment, w i t h the exception o f item 4 - having one o f the c h i l d r e n i n tea c h i n g - where the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s revers e d . Table I I I . 4 shows th a t the strength, of the r e l a t i o n s h i p does not change when each o f the f o u r items on choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s i s r e l a t e d w i t h the summative index o f work-attachment. Table I I I . 5 shows t h a t when the summative index o f choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s i s r e l a t e d w i t h each o f the s i x items of work-attachment, there i s no n o t i c e a b l e change i n the st r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as compared to the o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice of working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment. Table I I I . 6 shows that each of the nine items on d i s c r e t i o n i n work i s r e l a t e d w i t h the summative index o f work-attachment, but the c o e r r i c i e n t s are s i m i l a r to the o r i g i n a l one ( i . e . , d i s c r e t i o n i n work and attachment, . 0 8 ) . I n t a b l e I I I . 7 , the summative index o f d i s c r e t i o n i n work i s r e l a t e d w i t h each of the s i x items o f work-attachment, but the s t r e n g t h o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p does not change; there i s , however, one item that shows a negative s i g n . The d i f f e r e n c e s observed between the ite m i z e d c o e f f i c i e n t s and -81-TABLE III .3: RELATIONSHIP 0? OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE WITH EACH OF THE SIX ITEMS OF ATTACHMENT  Somers* D OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE ATTACHMENT ITEMS: 1. »06 2. .09 3- .01 4. -.06 5. .17 6. .10 Summative Index .11 Somers' D value i s asymmetric and i s based on a 3 x 3 table i n and the following tables. -82-TABLS III.4: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EACH OF THE FOUR ITEMS OF CHOICE OF WORKING CONDITIONS AND THE SUMMATIVE INDEX OF ATTACHMENT SomersfD CHOICE OF WORKING CONDITIONS: ITEMS 2& 3» 4. Summative Index ATTACHMENT Summative Index . 0 8 .00 .03 .11 .09 TABLE I I I . 5 : RELATIONSHIP OF THE SUMMATIVE INDEX OF CHOICE OF WORKING CONDITIONS WITH EACH OF THE SIX ITEMS OF ATTACHMENT Somers* D CHOICE OF WORKING CONDITIONS Summative Index ATTACHMENT ITEMS: 1. .03 2. .04 3. .03 4. .00 5. .08 6. .06 Summative Index .09 TABLE IIT.6: REIATIOMSHIP BETWEEN EACH OF THE NINE ITEMS OF DISCRETION AND THE SUMMATIVE INDEX OF ATTACHI-ENT. . _ Somers' D DISCRETION: ITEMS Summative i» 2. 3_. 4. 6. _7i 8 ^ Index ATTACHMENT Summative Inex .04 .09 .02 .04 .06 .05 .00 .07 -.04 . 08 TABLE I I I . 7 : RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SUMMATIVE INDEX OF DISCRETION AND EACH OF THE SIX ITEMS OF ATTACHMENT. Somers' D DISCRETION Summative Index ATTACHMENT ITEMS: 1. .03 2. .06 3. .03 4. .09 5. .03 6. -.01 Summative Index ,08 -84-those based on summative indexes are n e g l i g i b l e and may have been due to chance i n the f i r s t p l a c e . I n sum, by developing indexes, h a r d l y any information-was l o s t . By i t e m i z i n g each o r the indexed v a r i a b l e s , not a s i n g l e item on the choice of working c o n d i t i o n s , or on d i s c r e t i o n i n work, r e l a t e d a p p r e c i a b l y w i t h work-attachment. However, t h i s procedure, by confirming the o r i g i n a l n e g l i g i b l e or low a s s o c i a t i o n s , provided a check on the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s on work-r e l a t e d choices and work-attachment. 2. Work-Attachment, Teaching O r i e n t a t i o n s , and F r i e n d s M p Items Next, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between work-attachment and i t s concomitants i s examined. Turning to t a b l e I I I . 8 , a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .03 i n d i c a t e s a non-existent r e l a t i o n s h i p between attachment and emphasis on student r e l a t i o n s ( p rogressive o r i e n t a t i o n ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between work-attachment and emphasis on subject-matter ( t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n ) i s negative as expected, and i n l i n e w i t h the emphasis on student r e l a t i o n s ; but the c o e f f i c i e n t o f -.01 designates no r e l a t i o n s h i p . Again, a c o e f f i c i e n t of .07 i n d i c a t e s that work-attachment and an emphasis on d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l ( a u t h o r i t a r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n ) are not r e l a t e d . Table I I I . 9 shows a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .14, a low p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between work-attachment and f r i e n d s h i p w i t h -85-TABLE III. 8 : RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK-ATTACHMENT AND EMPHASIS ON STUDENT RELATIONS, SUBJECT MATTER, AND DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL. EMPHASIS ON STUDENT RELATIONS: Much Some None (N= 100%) WORK-ATTACHMENT High Low Nona % % % 54 48 50 36 4h 43 10 12 7 (134) (42) (42) Somers' D .03 EMPHASIS ON SUBJECT MATTER: Much Some None (N= 100%) 47 52 1 (133) 54 39 7 (43) 46 51 3 (41) -.01 EMPHASIS ON DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL: Much Some None (N= 100%) 29 63 8 (137) 18 73 9 (44) 29 51 20 (41) .07 * Six no response cases on student relat ions, seven no response cases on subject matter, and two no response cases on d i sc ip l ine and control items not included. -86-TA3LE III.9 : RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK-ATTACHMENT AND FRIENDSHIP WITH TEACHERS IN THE SAME SCHOOL AND OTHER SCHOOLS. SAME SCHOOL TEACHER FRIENDS: Many Some None (N= 100%) WORK-ATTACHMENT High Low None % % % 54 50 33 35 21 19 31 29 48 (135) (44) (43) Somers' D .14 OTHER SCHOOLS TEACHER FRIENDS: Many Some None (N=» 100%) 46 20 34 (137) 42 21 37 (43) 49 12 39 (43) .02 * Two no response cases on the same school and one no response case on other school items not included. teachers i n the same s c h o o l . However, the a s s o c i a t i o n between work-attachment and f r i e n d s h i p w i t h teachers i n other schools i s n e g l i g i b l e (.02). The evidence presented so f a r l a c k s s t r i n g e n c y e i t h e r i n d i s c o n f i n n i n g or supporting the working hypotheses; however, before drawing any co n c l u s i o n s , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the data i s warranted. 3. R e l a t i v e E f f e c t s o f V a r i a b l e s on Work-Related Choices Concerning Model I I , i t was suggested t h a t d i s c r e t i o n i n work might a f f e c t work-attachment independent o f the e f f e c t s o f choice o f occupation and choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l requirements need to be met i n order to t e s t t h i s model; 1. D i s c r e t i o n should be r e l a t e d to both the choice o f occupation and choice of working c o n d i t i o n s . 2. Both choice of occupation and working c o n d i t i o n s should be r e l a t e d to work-attachment. 3. a. When choice of occupation i s c o n t r o l l e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment should stand i n the two p a r t i a l t a b l e s . b. When d i s c r e t i o n i n work i s c o n t r o l l e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice of occupation and work-attachment should stand i n the two p a r t i a l t a b l e s . c. When choice of working c o n d i t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment should stand i n the two p a r t i a l t a b l e s . -88-d. When d i s c r e t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice of working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment should stand i n the two p a r t i a l t a b l e s . 4. The d e c i s i o n as to which o f the three v a r i a b l e s e x e r c i s e s a greater e f f e c t on work-attachment w i l l be made on the b a s i s of the r e l a t i v e s i z e o f the c o e f f i c i e n t s i n the p a r t i a l t a b l e s . Already, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the three choice v a r i a b l e s and between the choice v a r i a b l e s and work-attachment, have been described, thus requirements 1 and 2 above have been metj however, the in f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n to requirements 3 and 4 needs to be presented. F i r s t , requirement 3 i s examined. The zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n observed e a r l i e r , between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and choice o f occupation was .23; between choice o f occupation and work-attachment was .11; and between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment, i t was .08. Table I I I . 1 0 shows t h a t when choice o f occupation i s c o n t r o l l e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment i n the two p a r t i a l t a b l e s i s not i n l i n e w i t h the zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n . Table I I I . 1 1 shows that when d i s c r e t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice of occupation and work-attachment i s i n l i n e w i t h the zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n . However, the a s s o c i a t i o n between choice of occupation and work-attachment remains low w i t h i n the c o n t r o l l e d c a t e g o r i e s o f d i s c r e t i o n . Requirement 4 can now be examined. The zero-order -89-TABLE I I I . 10: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DISCRETION AND ATTACHMENT, CONTROLLING FOR CHOICE OF OCCUPATION Attachment: High Low (N=100 )^ OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE MUCH Discretion Much 70 30 (46) Some 66 34 (47) Somers* D .04 OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE SOME Discretion Much T 50 50 (32) Some 54 46 (91) -.04 TABLE III.11: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHOICE OF OCCUPATION AND ATTACHMENT, CONTROLLING FOR DISCRETION Attachment: High Low (N=100 )^ DISCRETION MUCH Occupational Choice Much 70 30 (46) Some 50 50 (32) Somers' D .20 DISCRETION SOME Occupational Choice Much 66 34 (47) Some i° 54 46 (91) Somers * _D .12 -90-c o r r e l a t i o n between choice of working c o n d i t i o n s and d i s c r e t i o n i n work was .14; between choice of working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment, i t was .09; and between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment, i t was .08. Table I I I . 1 2 shows that when c o n t r o l l e d f o r choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s , the r e l a t i o n between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment i n the two p a r t i a l tables, reverses r a t t i e r than s t a y i n g i n l i n e with, the zero-order- c o r r e l a t i o n ; besides, w i t h i n the category 'working condition-some choice', the s i z e o f the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between d i s c r e t i o n and work-attachment increases to .25 as. compared to .08, between, d i s c r e t i o n and work-attachment, without c o n t r o l l i n g f o r choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s Table 111.13 shows that when c o n t r o l l e d f o r d i s c r e t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice o f working co n d i t i o n s and work-attachment reverses r a t h e r than s t a y i n g i n l i n e w i t h the zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n ; besides, both, of the p a r t i a l t a b l e s show low a s s o c i a t i o n s between working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment, compared to the n e g l i g i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n o r i g i n a l l y observed between choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment. From the summary of r e s u l t s i n t a b l e I I I . 1 4 , i t i s observable t h a t a l l of the three choice v a r i a b l e s are i n t e r t w i n e d and mutually contaminating; d i s c r e t i o n i n work seems to be c o n d i t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d w i t h work-attachment. How -91-T _ m , _ ^ , . r>TCirrRv rr,TPN AND a ^ A C H M S N T , Attachment: High Low (N=10C#) WORKING CONDITIONS MUCH CHOICE Discretion Much Sorr.e . 53 42 (55) 64 36 (91) WORKING CONDITIONS SOME CHOICE Pi s ere t ion Much Some_ SomeiS* _ D -.06 74 26 49 -51 (27) (51) .25 TABLE - T T T R E L A T I O N S ^ T ? B E T W E E N C H O I C E O F W O R K I N G C O I T I O N S A N D * N I J - 3 - SsST" C O N T R O L L I N G F O R D I S C R E T I O N Attachment: High Low DISCRETICN MUCH Mnriring Conditions (N=10O?o) Much Choice % 58 42 (55) Some Choice * 74 26 (27) DISCRETION SOME w w M n g Conditions Somers1  D -.16 Much Choice 64 36 (91) Some Choice 49 51 (51) -92-TABLE I I L14: SUMMARY 0 ? THE RESULTS INDICATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ONE B7DEPENDENT AND A DEPENDENT VARIABLE WHILE CONTROLLING FOR ANOTHER INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DISCRETION controlled for Occupational Choice Somers' D values CHOICE OF OCCUPATION controlled for Discretion DISCRETION controlled for Working Conditions CHOICE OF WORKING CONDITIONS controlled for Discretion Much Some Much Some Much Some ATTACHMENT .04 -.04 .20 .12 -.06 .25 Much -.16 " Some .15' -93-much. of t h i s contamination, i s o c c u r r i n g due to chance, i s not determinable at t h i s p o i n t . However, the data a n a l y s i s can be extended, r a t h e r than concluding prematurely t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the. v a r i a b l e s are weak, or sometimes n e g l i g i b l e . Assuming that the r e a l strength, of the r e l a t i o n between these v a r i a b l e s i s being c a n c e l l e d out, reduced, or concealed by the i n t r u s i o n o f a t h i r d v a r i a b l e , which, i s sometimes c a l l e d the "suppressor* v a r i a b l e , the scope of the i n q u i r y can be extended concurrently w i t h the p o i n t made e a r l i e r t h a t freedom concerning work-related choices can be d e f i n e d , or at l e a s t understood, i n the l i g h t o f ' other v a r i a b l e s . I n extending the scope of data a n a l y s i s , these other v a r i a b l e s which might intercede, w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the choice v a r i a b l e s and work-attachment, and work-attachment and teaching o r i e n t a t i o n s and f r i e n d s h i p items, can. he. i d e n t i f i e d . Once that i s done, some s i g n i f i c a n t gains can be a n t i c i p a t e d i n the g e n e r a l argument of t h i s study. I n the f o l l o w i n g , chapter, some s e l e c t e d demographic v a r i a b l e s are introduced i n t o the data a n a l y s i s i n order to extend the scope of e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n done so f a r . . Chapter IY EXTENSION OF ANALYSIS: CONTROLS FOR DISTHICT SIZE, AGE AND SEX The aim of' t h i s chapter i s to take the a n a l y s i s p r e v i o u s l y done a step f u r t h e r , and by i n c l u d i n g three demographic v a r i a b l e s i n the a n a l y s i s , attempt to i d e n t i f y c o n d i t i o n s under which the r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice o f occupation, choice of working- c o n d i t i o n s , d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment appears w i t h s p e c i a l sharpness. By t a k i n g i n t o account one or more key demographic v a r i a b l e s i n t i a l l y not i n c l u d e d i n the explanatory model, one can begin to elaborate on the zero-order r e l a t i o n s h i p s (examined i n the previous chapter) and t r y to. answer the questions of "why** and "under what c o n d i t i o n s " do the zero-order r e l a t i o n s h i p s become more exact, thus more meaningful? M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y speaking, the s t r a t e g y by which one pursues i n s i g h t s beyond the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f predesignated or pre-data hypotheses and examines the data f o r new ideas and new i n s i g h t s , i s c a l l e d data-dredging,"'" to.use a phrase which i n f a c t stands f o r r e l a t i v e l y f l e x i b l e r esearch procedures. At t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y research stage, the use of the data-dredging s t r a t e g y i s important because i t helps us to evolve the form of a n a l y s i s , and consquently, enables us to s t r i v e towards more confident data-based conclusions than (94) those possible, at the l e v e l of zero-order r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n the course o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , we hope to maximize the f r u i t f u l n e s s o f the t h e o r e t i c a l argument of t h i s r e s e a r c h by p r o v i d i n g post factum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and Tchance r 2 f i n d i n g s , baaed on the s e r e n d i p i t y p r i n c i p l e : . The three demographic variables^ - school d i s t r i c t s i z e , age and sex have been chosen-because o f - t h e i r -relevance to the general argument o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . For instance:, b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as age and sex 3 can act as l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s f o r the degree o f freedom o f work-related choices which i n d i v i d u a l s experience. By d i v i d i n g the present sample according to age and sex c a t e g o r i e s , we w i l l attempt to define i n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study the c o n d i t i o n s under which, choices i n c e r t a i n s ectors o f work l e a d to work-attachment. Thus-, the c o n t r i b u t i o n made by c e r t a i n demographic v a r i a b l e s to data a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however i n t u i t i v e l y s e l e c t e d , should not be underestimated. Again, since schools are part o f the l a r g e r u n i t s such as school d i s t r i c t s , i t can be argued t h a t d i s t r i c t s i z e i s a u s e f u l v a r i a b l e . I f t h i s v a r i a b l e i s inc l u d e d i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x p l a i n i n g teachers' sense o f freedom of choice and work-attachment, i t might b r i n g to l i g h t c e r t a i n n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s among teachers. Perhaps the s i z e of the school would be o f equal importance, but -96-not always are most schools i n a c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t ' r e c e p t i v e t o s o c i a l r e s e a r c h , hence the number of schools p a r t i c i p a t i n g and the number of teachers responding l i m i t the use o f school s i z e as an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e . No doubt, the s i z e o f the d i s t r i c t i s a crude measure of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n than school s i z e would, be, but the r e s t r i c t i o n s of the small sample i n t h i s study could not be o f f - s e t ; hence a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to school d i s t r i c t s i z e * I n sum, two e x p l o r a t o r y questions guide t h i s a n a l y s i s r One: I n what manner are the demographic v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d • to e i t h e r th.e independent v a r i a b l e s Cwork-related choices) o r the dependent v a r i a b l e (work-attachment) or both? I t should be noted t h a t t h i s i s a necessary question because the k i n d o f e l a b o r a t i o n o f zero-order r e l a t i o n s h i p s suggested above can be viewed as a sequence of steps, which proceeds by r e l a t i n g the demographic v a r i a b l e s i n d i v i d u a l l y with, the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s before the former v a r i a b l e s are used as the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s . The second question d e r i v i n g from the f i r s t one, forms the main focus of a n a l y s i s i n the f o l l o w i n g pages: Are there any i d e n t i f i a b l e or p r o p i t i o u s c o n d i t i o n s created by the demographic v a r i a b l e s under which the weak zero-order r e l a t i o n s h i p s are perhaps strengthened or a l t e r e d ? (By posing t h i s q u e s t i o n , we are i n f a c t a v o i d i n g the misl e a d i n g c o n c l u s i o n that the absence -97-o f a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s concerning work-r e l a t e d choices-and-work-attachment observed i n the previous chapter, i s r e a l . 4 ) I n l i n e with., the sequence of steps which we must f o l l o w i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , the three demographic v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , d i s t r i c t s i z e , age, and sex) were r e l a t e d to the t h r e e work-related choice v a r i a b l e s and work-attachment. The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were obtained: (.a) Choice of Occupation and d i s t r i c t s i z e showed a n e g l i g i b l e association'; choice o f occupation and age showed a low a s s o c i a t i o n (.15), f a v o u r i n g the young teachers (ages 22 to 35) r a t h e r than the o l d teachers (ages 35 to 65); and choice of occupation and sex showed a low a s s o c i a t i o n (.18), f a v o u r i n g women r a t h e r than men teachers^ (b) Choice of" Working Conditions showed an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h each of the three: demographic v a r i a b l e s t h a t d i d not exceed .05; (c) D i s c r e t i o n i n Work, showed an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h each o f the three demographic v a r i a b l e s t h a t was .07 or l e s s ; and (d) Work-Attachment showed a n e g l i g i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n of .09 w i t h a.ge, f a v o u r i n g the o l d teachers; but. the a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h each o f the two other demographic * A l l a s s o c i a t i o n s are Somers* D a s s o c i a t i o n s . I n the l i g h t of.conventions l i s t e d i n Chapter I I I , an a s s o c i a t i o n o f .09 or l e s s i s n e g l i g i b l e ; of .10 to .29, a low a s s o c i a t i o n ; of .30 to .49,.a moderate a s s o c i a t i o n , and so f o r t h . Thus the judgement on an a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h i s context i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the conventions already l i s t e d . v a r i a b l e s d i d not exceed .06. As can be noted, almost a l l these a s s o c i a t i o n s are n e g l i g i b l e , but when the data were r e t a b u l a t e d by u s i n g the demographic v a r i a b l e s as c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s , some, i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s emerged which w i l l now be presented and analyzed. 1. Choice o f Occupation and Work-Attachment Table I V . I shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice of occupation and work-attachment under c o n t r o l s f o r d i s t r i c t siz-e, age and sex. I n t h i s t a b l e , by c o n t r o l l i n g f o r sex, the amount of a s s o c i a t i o n d i s p l a y e d i n the two p a r t i a l s i s d i f f e r e n t . For women, the. s t r e n g t h of r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice of occupation and work-attachment i s i n d i c a t e d by a Somers' TJ o f .32 (a moderate a s s o c i a t i o n ) which shows an increase o f seventeen c o r r e l a t i o n p o i n t s over the zero-order a s s o c i a t i o n o f .15 (see t a b l e IV.4). Again, w i t h i n the two c o n t r o l l e d c a t e g o r i e s o f age, the a s s o c i a t i o n between choice of occupation and work-attachment i s a l t e r e d . For young teachers, the s t r e n g t h of r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice of occupation and work-attachment i s i n d i c a t e d by a Somers* D o f .25 (a low a s s o c i a t i o n ) which d i s p l a y s an increase o f ten c o r r e l a t i o n p o i n t s over the o r i g i n a l zero-order a s s o c i a t i o n o f .15. cut. when d i s t r i c t s i z e i s c o n t r o l l e d , the amount o f * By using average percentage d i f f e r e n c e s on the "high" work-attachment percentages across the two p a r t i a l t a b l e s , the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of one independent v a r i a b l e , c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the other, can also be determined.5 -99-Table IV.1: Relationship Between CHOICE OF OCCUPATION and WORK-ATTACHMENT Controlling for D i s t r i c t Size, Age and Sex. SMALL DISTRICTS LARGE DISTRICTS Choice of Occupation Choice of Occupation Much Some Much Some „ . ' CO "(%) , (%) (%) w o r K ~ Somers' Somers Attachment: n p High 67 51 72 57 i .16 .15 Low 33 49 28 43 (N) (57) (69) (36) (54) YOUNG OLD Choice of Occupation Choice of Occupation Much Some Much Some (%) (%) (%) (%) Work-Attachment: High 68 43 69 61 .25 .08 Low 32 57 31 39 (N) i (54) (53) (39) (70) MEN WOMEN Choice of Occupation Choice of Occupation Much Some Much Some (%) (%) (%) (%) Work-Attachment: High 67 58 71 39 .09 .32 Low 33 42 29 . 61 GO" (58) (95) (35) (28) -100-r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice o f occupation and work-attachment d i s p l a y e d in. the two p a r t i a l s remains the same as the o r i g i n a l zero-order a s s o c i a t i o n of .15. However, f o r men and f o r o l d . tea c h e r s , the d i r e c t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice o f occupation and work-attachment i s not cont r a r y to our expe c t a t i o n but the s i z e of the a s s o c i a t i o n suggests only a n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Thus, the o r i g i n a l zero-order a s s o c i a t i o n between choice o f occupation and work-attachment is- a l t e r e d or strengthened n o t i c e a b l y only i n case o f women and young t e a c h e r s . 2. Choice o f Working Conditions and ?/ork-Attachment I n t a b l e VI.2, under c o n t r o l s f o r d i s t r i c t s i z e , age and sex, the s i z e of Somers' E L . a s s o c i a t i o n s between choice, o f working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment f o r teachers i n . s m a l l d i s t r i c t s (.12), f o r young teachers (.14), and f o r men teachers (.11) as compared to the zero-order a s s o c i a t i o n :• o f .09, d i s p l a y only a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p without adding any noteworthy improvement to i t s strength.. For teachers i n l a r g e d i s t r i c t s , o l d teachers, and women teachers, the a s s o c i a t i o n between choice of working-conditions and'work-'' attachment i s not more than .05. Since the s t r e n g t h o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s determined by comparing the s i z e of the p a r t i a l s w i t h that of the zero-order a s s o c i a t i o n , i t can be concluded t h a t c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the demographic v a r i a b l e s f a i l s to b r i n g about an improvement i n the r e l a t i o n between choice o f -101-Table IV.2: Relationship Between CHOICE OF WORKING CONDITIONS and WORK-ATTACHMENT Controlling for D i s t r i c t Size, Age and Sex. Work-Attachment : High SMALL DISTRICTS Choice of / Working Conditions Much (Z) 68 Some (Z) 55 .12 LARGE DISTRICTS Choice of Working Conditions Much Somers * (%) D 68 Some (Z) 63 Somers' _D .05 Low 32 ! (37) 45 (94) 32 (22) 37 (71) Work-Attachment: High YOUNG Choice of  Working Conditions Much (%) 67 Some (Z) 53 OLD Choice of  Working Conditions .14 Much (Z) 69 Some (Z) 64 .05 Low 33 I (33) 47 (78) 31 (26) 36 (87) Work-Attachment: High MEN Choice of Working Conditions Much (Z) 71 Some (Z) 60 WOMEN Choice of Working Conditions .11 Much (Z) 61 Some (Z) 56 .04 Low 29 40 39 44 (41) (119) (18) (46) -102-working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment. 3. D i s c r e t i o n i n Work and "fork-Attachment When the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and . work-attachment i s examined under c o n t r o l s f o r the demographic v a r i a b l e s , t a b l e IY.3 shows that f o r teachers i n small  d i s t r i c t s , Somers* D a s s o c i a t i o n o f .20 d i s p l a y s an improvement i n the s t r e n g t h o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p as compared to the zero-order a s s o c i a t i o n of .07; however, f o r teachers i n l a r g e d i s t r i c t s , the low a s s o c i a t i o n o f -.12 i s contrary to our expectation suggesting that w i t h l e s s d i s c r e t i o n i n work, o l d teachers are l i k e l y to i n d i c a t e h i g h work-attachment. These d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s u l t s i n the amount and d i r e c t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n d i s p l a y e d i n the two p a r t i a l s cancel each other out i n the o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n t r o l l i n g f o r d i s t r i c t s i z e performs a u s e f u l f u n c t i o n i n making the zero-order r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment suspect. Table IV.3 also shows a Somers* D o f .10 f o r young teachers, i n d i c a t i n g an increase of three c o r r e l a t i o n p o i n t s over the zero-order a s s o c i a t i o n of .07, an increase which i s o f no consequence concerning the st r e n g t h of r e l a t i o n between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment. C o n t r o l l i n g f o r sex does not b r i n g out any c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n the o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment. -103-Table IV.3: Relationship Between DISCRETION IN WORK and WORK-ATTACHMENT, Controlling for Dis t r i c t Size, Age and Sex. SMALL DISTRICTS Discretion Much (%) Work-Attachment: High 71 Some (%) 51 Somers' D .20 LARGE DISTRICTS Discretion Much (Z) 5& Some (%) 69 Somers' D -.12 Low (N) 29 (49) 49 (82) 44 (32) 31 (61) YOUNG Discretion Work-Attachment: High Much (%) 63 Some (%) 53 .1.0 OLD Discretion Much (Z) 67 Some (Z) 64 .03 Low 37 (N) | (41) 47 (70) 33 (40) 36 (73) MEN Discretion Much (%) Work-Attachment Attachment: High 67 Some (%) 60 .06 WOMEN Discretion Much (Z) 62 Some (Z) 55 .07 Low 33 40 38 45 (N) (57) (103) (24) (40) -104-I n summary, a l l the important observations made so f a r can be put together by reviewing the zero-order and p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s provided i n t a b l e IV.4. This t a b l e shows t h a t h i g h work-attachment i s l i n k e d w i t h h i g h choice of occupation f o r (a) women teachers, (b) young teachers, and f o r teachers i n . (c) s m a l l and l a r g e d i s t r i c t s . High work-attachment i s -a l s o l i n k e d w i t h h i g h choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s f o r Ca) teachers i n small d i s t r i c t s , Cb) young teachers, and (c) men teachers. Again, h i g h work-attachment i s l i n k e d w i t h h i g h d i s c r e t i o n i n work f o r (a) teachers i n small d i s t r i c t s , and (b) young teachers; there i s an in v e r s e r e l a t i o n between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and h i g h work-attachment f o r teachers i n l a r g e school d i s t r i c t s . An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these f i n d i n g s i n l i g h t of the working hypotheses o f t h i s r esearch and the general ideas pursued i n the previous chapters i s provided below. 4. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n To r e c a p i t u l a t e , the o r i g i n a l working hypotheses were concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the follow i n g -v a r i a b l e s : (a) choice o f occupation, (b) choice of working c o n d i t i o n s , Cc) d i s c r e t i o n i n work, and (d) work-attachment. I n the course o f a n a l y s i s , the three demographic v a r i a b l e s have, demonstrated more a c c u r a t e l y when and where s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n s from the o r i g i n a l statement of r e l a t i o n s h i p s might Table IV.A: Summary of Associations (Somers* D) Between Work-Related Choice Items and Work-Attachment when Controlling for D i s t r i c t Size, Age and Sex. Paired Variables Zero-order Association DISTRICT SIZE Small Large AGE Young Old SEX Men Women Choice of Occupation and Work-Attachment .15 .16 .15 .25 .08 .09 .32 i m o I Choice of Working Conditions and Work-Attachment Discretion and Work-Attachment .09 .07 .12 .20 .05 -.12 .14 .10 .05 .03 .11 .06 .04 .07 Note: A l l variables were dichotomized for comparative correlational purposes. -106-be expected to occur. Stated d i f f e r e n t l y , the o r i g i n a l statements o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s must now take cognizance o f a t l e a s t one demographic v a r i a b l e which, can be e i t h e r the school d i s t r i c t s i z e i n which the respondents are l o c a t e d , or i t can be the age or the sex o f the respondents. The. f i n d i n g s demonstrating the i n f l u e n c e o f the demographic v a r i a b l e s on the.choice v a r i a b l e s and work-attachment have confirmed the assumption made i n Chapter r t h a t freedom o f work-related choices can be understood only w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f those who make the choices or the s o c i a l contexts i n which the choices are made. To f u r t h e r elaborate on the f o r e g o i n g statement, the f i n d i n g s p e r t a i n g to each combination o f v a r i a b l e s d i c t a t e separate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Ca) Sex - Choice Items - Work-Attachment: A p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be given to the f i n d i n g t h a t the combination o f being a woman and having a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree of choice concerning occupation i s a s s o c i a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h h i g h work-attachment ( t a b l e s 17.1 and 17.4). I t should be noted that we s t r e s s the word " p l a u s i b l e " as the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that f o l l o w s i s a post factum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The s o c i e t a l d e f i n i t i o n of being a woman(a f i x e d b i o l o g i c a l -107-c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ) , tends toward excluding her from 'achievement s t a t u s e s ' and to r e s t r i c t i n g her to r o u t i n e s t a t u s e s (marriage and f a m i l y ) . Once t h i s s e x - l i n e segregation takes p l a c e , a woman faces a l i f e - l o n g p a t t e r n o f experiences confirming the o r i g i n a l d e f i n i t i o n of her r o l e . Today working f o r remunerations outside the home has become an acceptable a l t e r n a t i v e forewomenj however, the f a c t that i t may not be the f i r s t choice on t h e i r l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s i s a d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n . I n the world of work dominated by men, teaching o f f e r s a t t r a c t i v e p r e s t i g e and money compared to other jobs a v a i l a b l e to women. But achievement i n teaching does not open other areas f o r achievement, i . e . , the span of t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l choice r e l a t i v e to men continues to be l i m i t e d . ( T h e i r achievement i n one area of l i f e , occupation, might even e n t a i l a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e i r conventional "feminine" statuses e n t i t l i n g them to c e r t a i n c o u r t e s i e s , e.g., independent and a r t i c u l a t e women e s p e c i a l l y those who speak out f o r greater e q u a l i t y between the sexes, are stereotyped as "brainy" and "bossy" and are not shown the c o u r t e s i e s which are shown to more dependent and conventional women. Among dual-career f a m i l i e s a w i f e earning more than the husband f e e l s uncomfortable f o r having taken-over the man's r o l e and depends on her husband f o r constant reassurance that she does not have the dominant r o l e i n the house, a r o l e which has been the man's p r e r o g a t i v e . -108-Some casual observation suggests that i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s where both men and women are employed, some women would not want to be promoted because they could not stand to "give orders" to men and f e e l t h a t men are not going to l i k e them f o r being the bosses. These instances are i l l u s t r a t i v e but i n s u f f i c i e n t and considerable more systematic research i s needed to develop the p o i n t f u l l y as to what consequences f o l l o w from women's achivement statuses.) Women are u s u a l l y found i n c l e r i c a l and s e r v i c e work, the lowest, l e v e l s of management and the l e s s p r e s t i g i o u s , lower-paid "women's" pr o f e s s i o n s - elementary education, n u r s i n g , s o c i a l work and l i b r a r i a n s h i p . As sex-typing o f jobs has beer-challenged, women have become t a x i d r i v e r s , jockeys, g a s - s t a t i o n attendants, and c o n s t r u c t i o n workers. I n other words, occupations considered u n s u i t a b l e f o r women have opened up to female rec r u i t m e n t , though these trends o f change vary enormously from p e r i o d to period, and country to country. Such, tre n d s , however,, are l i k e l y to enhance the sense o f achievement s t a t u s f o r women and may consequently i n t e n s i f y t h e i r work-attachment. Thus the f i n d i n g reported above, concerning women's high work-attachment l i n k e d w i t h h i g h occupational choice, suggests t h a t perhaps women, r e l a t i v e to men, tend to make the most o f what they are able to achieve i n the world of work. I t should be noted that s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n ought to be -109-given to the process o f occupational choice by women. So f a r , most work on the problem of occupational choice has been confined to men and l i t t l e systematic a t t e n t i o n has been given to the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s which operate f o r women by v i r t u e o f t h e i r s e x - r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s i n s o c i e t y . I t i s not s u f f i c i e n t to assume tha t e x t r i n s i c rewards Ce.g., income) of an occupation are enough i n i n f l u e n c i n g . o c c u p a t i o n a l choice. This has y e t to be shown e m p i r i c a l l y because the evidence provided by Turner suggests t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e x t r i n s i c and i n t r i n s i c rewards (e.g., personal s a t i s f a c t i o n ) may d i f f e r as between men and _.. i . women. Among the f a c t o r s , proposed by Psathas. as p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t f o r women's occupational choice are the f o l l o w i n g : Ca) the r a t i n g of the occupation by women; (b) t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f how e l i g i b l e males r a t e t h a t occupation; and (c) t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f how e l i g i b l e males r a t e the women engaged i n t h a t 8 p a r t i c u l a r occupation - t h i s mode o f reasoning combines marriage and f a m i l y w i t h a job.outside the home and both become important elements i n the process o f occupational choice f o r women. For the time being, these p o i n t s are to be accepted f o r t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l i n g e n u i t y , as data amenable to adequate a n a l y s i s are not yet. a v a i l a b l e . As the sex-typing o f occupations i s becoming f l e x i b l e , working f o r money outside the home i s not considered a tregedy; i t i s an acceptable a l t e r n a t i v e even though one may f i n d a woman who -110-can w r i t e t h a t : " I aa f o r t u n a t e to be a woman, because that makes Q i t e a s i e r f o r me to r e j e c t the tyranny of "work", , r However, the evidence that our women respondents have s u p p l i e d concerning h i g h work-attachment c o n t r a d i c t s some of the f i n d i n g s accumulated by Simpson and Simpson to the e f f e c t t h a t women show low career commitment, l a c k of ambition, and l a c k of occupational community,' Since the f i n d i n g on high, work-attachment and h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l choice i s contingent upon a sm a l l sample o f women teachers, i t cannot be p u l l e d out o f i t s context through o v e r - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Perhaps the remarks by one teacher best i l l u s t r a t e the f i n d i n g r e p o r t e d above:"I have done o f f i c e work, s e l l i n g and play productions but teaching i s .the'hardest, but the most rewarding -though not salary-wise.'* I t may be t h a t women envisage wider a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r s k i l l s and they envisage p o s s i b i l i t i e s of change; i t may be that being a woman i s not concomitant w i t h a d i f f e r e n t i a l p e rception o f the world o f work; o r may be the acquired s k i l l s , competence and expetise are not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a ccording to sex-types. I t may be that f e e l i n g s such as these predispose women to show h i g h work-attachment. Concerning choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s , we observed i n t a b l e s IV.2 and IV.4 that f o r women the a s s o c i a t i o n between choice of working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment was n e g l i g i b l e , w h i l e f o r men,the a s s o c i a t i o n was low (.11). For one t h i n g , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f both women and men f e l t most constrained -111-about working c o n d i t i o n s . But are there reasons to which d i f f e r e n t i a l s between women and men on'choice of working c o n d i t i o n s can be a t t r i b u t e d ? Are the perceptions o f these choices d i f f e r e n t as between women and men? These questions cannot be argued adequately because i t i s impossible to suggest t h a t there i s something i n the s t r u c t u r e o f school o r g a n i z a t i o n s which d i s c r i m i n a t e s against women i n a way that they tend to have a l i m i t e d sense o f choice concerning working c o n d i s t i o n s ( i . e . , choices w i t h regard to the school d i s t r i c t and the school, they teach i n , the subjects and the grades they teach). I f the matter p e r t a i n e d to women i n i n d u s t r y , there i s evidence c o l l e c t e d by Marchak that on j o b - c o n t r o l measures such as choice over task content, c o n t r o l over pacing and sequencing, c o n t r o l over q u a l i t y and q u a t i t y of d a i l y work, s u b j e c t i o n to d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n , amount o f d i s c r e t i o n i n work, and s p a t i a l arrangements at work, women were over-represented at the bottom of the s c a l e d a c k o f c o n t r o l ) and men were over-represented at the top o f the s c a l e (high l e v e l o f c o n t r o l ) T h e r e i s no such evidence to suggest t h a t women teachers as -compared to men, are more o f t e n assigned to teach subjects i n which they have not s p e c i a l i z e d . However, there are other instances i n which women teachers f e e l l e f t out; f o r i n s t a n c e , i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of the p u b l i c secondary schools,.men tend to c l u s t e r i n the h i g h e s t p o s i t i o n s ; t h i s would be true even when one took count o f p o s i t i o n s o f heads of departments i n schools, v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s and p r i n c i p a l s . -112-Since. i n most schools at the j u n i o r and sen i o r secondary l e v e l , women teachers are i n samll numbers, i t i s not unusual to f i n d a s i t u a t i o n i n which women teachers defer to decision-making- by men teachers; sometimes, women teachers are j u s t informed of the deci s i o n , which, has been made by the p r i n c i p a l even though i t might be a d e c i s i o n which a f f e c t s the teacher concerned d i r e c t l y . I n other s i t u a t i o n s , women teachers tend to withdraw from a c t i v e involvement i n the school a f f a i r s , and attempt to concentrate on t h e i r work i n the classrooms. However informative these instances might be, since they are based on the casual observations of t h i s -^researcher d u r i n g the data c o l l e c t i o n stage, they cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d s t r i n g e n t l y . I t could not be s a i d on the b a s i s o f these instances t h a t w i t h i n schools, women's low sense of choice concerning working c o n d i t i o n s i s determined on s e x - l i n e s . Perhaps the f i n d i n g on women teachers* sense of low choice i n working c o n d i t i o n s and low. work-attachment s e n s i t i z e s us toward a phenomenon which desrves independent study. This phenomenon i s best, i l l u s t r a t e d by the in t i m a t e account of a b l a c k , Jewish, woman lawyer who describes h e r s e l f as " t h r i c e damned" i n the p r a c t i c e o f law.'Her i l l u m i n a t i n g ' a c c o u n t demonstrates how m u l t i p l e a s c r i p t i v e a t t r i b u t e s can represent j a r r i n g s t a t u s 12 " c o n t r a d i c t i o n s " i n the "grey world o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m " . Concerning d i s c r e t i o n i n work, we found i n t a b l e s IV.3 and IV.4 t h a t being a woman or a man and having l i t t l e sense o f -113-d i s e r e t i o n i n work makes f o r l i t t l e work-attachment. The n e g l i g i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment was contrary to our o r i g i n a l expectation t h a t e x e r c i s e of d i s c r e t i o n i n work i s a s s o c i a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h work-attachment. The assumption u n d e r l y i n g the hypothesis on d i s c r e t i o n was that f o r teachers, e x e r c i s e of d i s c r e t i o n i n work c o n s t i t u t e s an .-acknowledgement o f t h e i r comptencies, s k i l l s and e x p e r t i s e ; that t h i s acknowledgement i s g r a t i f y i n g to them, and tha t i t predisposes them to i n d i c a t e h i g h work-attachment. V/hile t h i s assumption i s weakly supported both f o r women and men teachers, the data show t h a t women teachers as compared to men, have s l i g h t l y smaller p r o p o r t i o n s on h i g h work-attachment when t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n i n work i s low ( t a b l e I V . 3 ) . I n attempting an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s both about men and women, perhaps the n o t i o n of "motivation" to exe r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n can be explored. M o t i v a t i o n to ex e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n has been considered as a r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e to the e x c l u s i o n of v a r i a b l e s such as s a l a r y d i f f e r e n t i a l s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n amount o f t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d , and subject-area s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . The p r i n c i p l e of e x c l u s i o n c o n s i s t s i n the simple c o n s i d e r a t i o n that any d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women on these v a r i a b l e s do not e x i s t such that any one of these v a r i a b l e s can have a d i f f e r e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e on the exe r c i s e of d i s c r e t i o n . Since m o t i v a t i o n i s a complex v a r i a b l e , i t s v a r i o u s underpinnings cannot be t r e a t e d -114-e x t e n s i v e l y ; however, i t can be regarded as only a p a r t i a l determinant of the f i n d i n g s concerning d i s c r e t i o n i n work. I t i s conceivable that there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a b i l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s to exe r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n ; both education and experience produce such d i f f e r e n c e s . I n a d d i t i o n , some i n d i v i d u a l s are more t o l e r a n t of r i s k and ambiguity than o t h e r s . And such personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s mix w i t h the s i t u a t i o n s i n which they do t h e i r jobs and at the same time e x e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n i n work. Turning to the job context, i t may be observed that c u l t u r a l or " p r o f e s s i o n a l " norms discourage i n d i v i d u a l s from "gambling"' w i t h the l i v e s of others, r e g a r d l e s s of what they do to themselves, or how they- manage t h e i r own a f f a i r s . Thus i f teachers employ o b j e c t i v e t e s t s and i f they a s s i g n low grades to students on the b a s i s of the r e s u l t s of these o b j e c t i v e t e s t s , they can exonerate themselves from the consequences of e r r o r s of judgement. I f i n t u r n these low grades a f f e c t student careers a d v e r s e l y , i t would not be a t t r i b u t a b l e to teachers* e v a l u a t i o n s . I n other words, teachers are l i k e l y to evade d i s c r e t i o n to the extent t h a t they b e l i e v e that the consequences o f e r r o r s are f a l l i n g on the students, and tha t the e x e r c i s e of d i s c r e t i o n i s not to t h e i r advantage. For teachers, r e l i a n c e on o b j e c t i v e t e s t s , as opposed to take-home assignments or essay type exams, does not mean the e l i m i n a t i o n o f d i s c r e t i o n , but r a t h e r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f -115-some of the a l t e r n a t i v e s which might otherwise be considered. I f teachers avoid those d e c i s i o n s which are l i k e l y to a f f e c t students' careers adversely, i t i s an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r work-attachment, i . e . , they have i n t e r n a l i z e d the norm of r e s p o n s i b l e s e r v i c e to t h e i r students. They would r a t h e r e r r on the safe side, than make d e c i s i o n s on i n c o n c l u s i v e evidence. W i t h i n the general argument presented above, the s o c i e t a l d e f i n i t i o n of being a man or woman can. come i n t o play too. Women, as opposed to men, are b e l i e v e d to have a* compliant*" d i s p o s i t i o n ; w i t h i n c e r t a i n schools, they defer the decision-making to men iteachers who tend to c l u s t e r i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . I t may be t h a t the s o c i e t a l d e f i n i t i o n of being a woman r e i n f o r c e s experiences w i t h i n the schools i n a way t h a t women teachers w i l l tend to i n t e r n a l i z e a conforming a t t i t u d e toward t e a c h i n g . I s l i t t l e sense of d i s c r e t i o n i n work f o r women, a way of demonstrating t h e i r low t o l e r a n c e of r i s k , ambiguity, and u n c e r t a i n t y ? A counter-example would be. a s i t u a t i o n i n which the job s i t u a t i o n permits no d i s c r e t i o n , but the i n d i v i d u a l i s tempted to e x e r c i s e i t because w i t h i n the organization, i t is the e x e r c i s e o f d i s c r e t i o n which hastens m o b i l i t y ; i t would thus be a symptom o f "aggression" and d e s i r e f o r "success", more i n keeping w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which men are supposed to show. E x e r c i s i n g d i s c r e t i o n i n work w i t h i n the school o r g a n i z a t i o n i s p a r t i a l l y determined by how the p r i n c i p a l administers the. -116-s c h o o l . Concerning choices i n c u r r i c u l u m m o d i f i c a t i o n , one teacher had w r i t t e n i n the questionnaire that there i s "no c h o i c e , o f f i c i a l l y ? ? ? " . Concerning most of. the questions tapping d i s c r e t i o n i n work, another teacher had w r i t t e n the comments: . . ."because of our p r i n c i p a l . . . i s l a r g e l y rmuch c h o i c e ' j however, I have been i n schools where rno choice' would apply". The content of the teaching p r a c t i c e i s another determinant o f whether or not a teacher w i l l e x e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n i n work. For i n s t a n c e , concerning the choices i n modifying e v a l u a t i o n standards, one-teacher wrote:"To a l a r g e extent, academic , standards are set by c u r r i c u l u m requirements. Unless c e r t a i n areas are s u c c e s s f u l l y completed, how does one honestly move a student to the next l e v e l ? " . From these remarks by some teachers, i t i s understandable t h a t there i s a spatio-temporal dimension to e x e r c i s i n g d i s c r e t i o n i n work; and t h i s dimension can a f f e c t the work of a l l teachers r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r gender. Un f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s dimension cannot be used to throw more l i g h t , on the problematics of d i s c r e t i o n because i t i s not present i n the i n d i c e s o f d i s c r e t i o n used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . However, i t seems l i k e l y that i n order to achieve a c l e a r understanding of the c o n d i t i o n s under which d i s c r e t i o n i s e x e r c i s e d and c o n d i t i o n s under which i t can be e x e r c i s e d , a longer l i s t of teachers' a c t i v i t i e s would be r e q u i r e d than was used i n t h i s r esearch. -117-The p o i n t of the matter i s that teaching as a job i s to some extent a non-routine job r e q u i r i n g judgement on the p a r t o f those p r a t i c i n g i t . There i s room f o r teachers, both women and men, to monitor t h e i r work and seek to incl u d e teaching p r a c t i c e s and cu r r i c u l u m goals which are congruent' with, t h e i r personal p r i o r i t i e s . When, they are seen to f o r m a l i z e procedures, or to r e l y on some precedents and o b j e c t i v e evidence i n accomplishing t h e i r • i n s t r u c t i o n a l and student management t a s k s , they are i n f a c t t r y i n g to c o n t r o l t h e i r work. This c o n t r o l over t h e i r work i n t u r n determines t h e i r task performance. And teachers cannot i g n o r e task performance because t h e i r rewards, both m a t e r i a l and non-material, come about through the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r performance. There i s another angle from which the f i n d i n g on d i s c r e t i o n i r i work and work-attachment can be examined. A question can be r a i s e d as to whether or not there are d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women concerning occupational a s p i r a t i o n s or the p u r s u i t of careers? I t i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that there are d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women because p r e s e n t l y the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f schools at the secondary l e v e l i s represented by male employment; men teachers move i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s , whereas women are be l i e v e d to be i n t e r e s t e d i n jobs and not car e e r s . This g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about women i s not based on d i f f e r e n t i a l s of demonstrated competence, a b i l i t i e s , o r managerial q u a l i t i e s , but on a stereotype of t h e i r work h a b i t s . -118-I f these assumptions about the work h a b i t s of women and men were t r u e , the d i f f e r e n c e s between them concerning h i g h d i s c r e t i o n i n work and hi g h work-attachment would be more pronounced than they tend to be i n the data presented i n t a b l e IV.3. Whatever s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n proportions e x i s t between men and women on h i g h work-attachment and h i g h d i s c r e t i o n i n work, sex as a v a r i a b l e does not .adequately explain-.those _ d i f f er.encesv. ..-^^ I t can only be concluded that c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the e f f e c t s o f sex on d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment has n e i t h e r supported nor i n v a l i d a t e d the working hypothesis t h a t proposed • -a p o s i t i v e association.between" "d i s c r e t i o n in- work-' and-work--— -attachment. Bather, the a n a l y s i s has given some weak e m p i r i c a l •• support to the a n a l y s i s of the connection between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment by demonstrating the n e c e s s i t y of usi n g more s t r i n g e n t i n d i c e s of d i s c r e t i o n i n work. To r e c a p i t u l a t e , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of f i n d i n g s along s e x - l i n e s are post factum, hence only p l a u s i b l e . But there i s no denying the f a c t that the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f sex i n the a n a l y s i s has c l a r i f i e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y the working hypotheses and the general argument of t h i s study that freedom of choice concerning occupation, working c o n d i t i o n s , and d i s c r e t i o n i n work produces h i g h work-attachment. The f i n d i n g s reported above have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the span of work-related choices i s l i m i t e d , and p a r t i a l l y determined by sex. -119-Cb) Age - Choice Items - Work-Attachmentr For young'teachers, we found a p o s i t i v e low a s s o c i a t i o n between: c h o i c e o f occupation and work-attachment, choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment, and d i s c r e t i o n i n work and w o r k - a t t a c h m e n t f o r the o l d teachers, the a s s o c i a t i o n s were c o n s i s t e n t l y n e g l i g i b l e ( t a b l e 17.4). An explanation f o l l o w s . A. multitude o f r i g h t s , o b l i g a t i o n s , p r i v i l e g e s , and d u t i e s -come to mind when one t a l k s about the a s c r i p t i v e s t a t u s o f the •young* or the r o l d r . A f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n would b r i n g to mind the d i f f e r e n t i a l s , between the young and the o l d , of a l e r t n e s s to competition, the importance o f appearance and achievement ( o f goals o f success, happiness, and progr e s s ) , the c a p a c i t y to d e a l w i t h s t r e s s and change, and so f o r t h . Our d i s t i n c t i o n between the young teachers and o l d teachers does not r e s t on any such c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; however, the d i f f e r e n t i a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each category can bear upon the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s . A l l teachers, 36-yeais o l d and over were grouped as o l d ; and a l l those 35-years o l d and under were grouped as young. This c u t t i n g p o i n t was used to approximate a 50:50 s p l i t between the two c a t e g o r i e s ; but the d i s t i n c t i o n needs to be remembered i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the f i n d i n g s , l e s t m i s l e a d i n g conclusions are reached. Tnat does i t mean to be a young teacher* e s p e c i a l l y when one has made the i n i t i a l c h o i c e , taken the t r a i n i n g , and accepted -120-a t e a c h i n g job? I t i s not too hard to imagine t h a t d u r i n g the f i r s t two years o f teaching, performance i s the s i n g l e most important concern o f the working teachers. F o r them, t h i s performance i n c l u d e s t h e i r teaching methods, t h e i r a b i l i t y to communicate w i t h students, and to p l a n l e s s o n s . The school p r i n c i p a l , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the school board other than the - p r i n c i p a l , and sometimes the departmental head, are a l l i n v o l v e d i n determining whether or not teachers are performing w e l l . Teachers' r e t e n t i o n i n the school and the school d i s t r i c t , and the concomitant rewards accrui n g to them depend e n t i r e l y on the s a t i s f a c t o r y performance of t h e i r many d u t i e s . I t i s not unusual f o r new and young teachers to d i r e c t and concentrate t h e i r energies at those p o i n t s where e f f o r t makes the l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r performance, and i n t h e i r t o t a l rewards. I f t h e i r performance i s judged u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , t h e i r employment elsewhere i s threatened. I n other words, youn teachers cannot be e n t i r e l y unconcerned w i t h the g o o d w i l l of t h e i r employers, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the i n i t i a l few years of t h e i r teaching c a r e e r . Since they want to 'make i t through' w i t h t h e i r f i r s t assignment, they are u s u a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e i r job, and tha t enthusiasm perhaps makes up f o r t h e i r l a c k of experience i n teaching. I t i s not unbecoming f o r teachers to make compromises concerning working c o n d i t i o n s during t h e i r probationary p e r i o d ; since they are not as y e t deeply grounded i n t h e i r work i n a p a r t i c u l a r -121-school and a school d i s t r i c t , they may continue to envisage p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f change. As to the exercise of d i s c r e t i o n i n work, i t comes about only when teachers have grasped the nature of t h e i r d u t i e s , understood the climate of the school i n which they work, and gained some on-the-job experience. S t a t e d b r i e f l y , i t i s not unexpected that young teachers as opposed to o l d teachers w i l l demonstrate high work-attachment w h i l e showing at l e a s t some choice concerning occupation, working c o n d i t i o n s , and d i s c r e t i o n i n work. To i l l u s t r a t e , one teacher-had commented i n the que s t i o n n a i r e : " I am new to teaching - s t i l l R e e l i n g my way the c l a s h of i d e a l i s m and r e a l i t y , e t c . " . Another teacher had s a i d : " I may put more energy and enthusiasm i n t o the two. c l a s s e s I teach" - t h i s teacher also had some student c o u n s e l l i n g to do. • On the other hand, teachers who have been lo n g i n teaching experience a degree of" r e d u c t i o n i n t h e i r energy i n p u t s and enthusiasm, which i s by no means an. uncommon experience, as one teachers i l l u s t r a t e s : " A f t e r 2000 le s s o n s how 'motivated*' can a human, being f e e l ". Another teacher who had taught elementary s c h o o l , j u n i o r secondary school, and who was tea c h i n g s e n i o r secondary at the time o f data c o l l e c t i o n , wrote t h i s comment on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e : " ... teaching as a p r o f e s s i o n i s much more demanding today than i t was when I began my career. There are more demands and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s placed on the teach e r " . Energy -122-and enthusiasm are the two i n g r e d i e n t s which perhaps make the d i f f e r e n c e between the inp u t s o f o l d and young teachers, and which consequently a f f e c t t h e i r work-attachment* I n the l i g h t o f the above p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t can be s a i d that the i n c l u s i o n o f age i n the a n a l y s i s b r i n g s about a c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n working hypotheses o f t h i s research even though t h e e f f e c t . t h a t "age has on work-attachment i s not s u b s t a n t i a l . Furthermore, .':' the argument i s strengthened t h a t i f freedom o f choice i n c e r t a i n s e c t o r s o f work i s being s t u d i e d , then i t ' o u g h t to—be.studied together w i t h the age or length, o f experience of those who work, because the data o f t h i s research, have i n d i c a t e d t h a t age mixes with, freedom o f choice to produce work-attachment. Such, a mode o f i n q u i r y w i l l , a l l o w f o r s p e c i f y i n g the c o n d i t i o n s under which, a working hypothesis holds and thereby becomes a l i t t l e more p r e c i s e than i t s e a r l i e r f o r m u l a t i o n . Cc) D i s t r i c t S i z e - Choice Items - Work-Attachment: For teachers working i n small d i s t r i c t s and i n l a r g e d i s t r i c t s , the a s s o c i a t i o n between choice of occupation and work-attachment was p o s i t i v e and low and was about the same s i z e . The a s s o c i a t i o n between choice o f working c o n d i t i o n s and work-attachment was p o s i t i v e and low f o r small d i s t r i c t s but n e g l i g i b l e f o r l a r g e d i s t r i c t s ; and the a s s o c i a t i o n between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment was p o s i t i v e ; b u t low f o r small d i s t r i c t s , . and the a s s o c i a t i o n .^vas negative and low f o r l a r g e d i s t r i c t s . -123-To make these f i n d i n g s i n t e l l i g i b l e , I t i s necessary to des c r i b e i n some d e t a i l the nature o f ' d i s t r i c t s i z e ' as a v a r i a b l e . As the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f two variables, ( d i s t r i c t s i z e and choice items) i s being evaluated on. one v a r i a b l e , work-attachment, some ca u t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g - the meaning o f " the small d i s t r i c t s and l a r g e d i s t r i c t s . . I t i s worth, emphasizing; t h a t r e g i o n a l differences-..among school d i s t r i c t s are not only l a r g e and important but a l s o m u l t i - f a c e t e d . The school d i s t r i c t s are d i f f e r e n t from each other on s e v e r a l dimensions simultaneously: f o r example, l o c a t i o n -.turban - r u r a l , or distance from b i g urban c e n t r e s ) , wealth, .size (number of students, or s c h o o l s ) , c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , number of s p e c i a l i s t teachers employed, r e t e n t i o n o f teachers, and so f o r t h . I n t h i s study, the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f 'small d i s t r i c t s ' and ' l a r g e d i s t r i c t s ' i s not very r i g o r o u s ; i t i s based only on the number o f schools, i n the d i s t r i c t and the r e l a t i v e distance from metro-Vancouver. These i n d i c a t o r s of d i s t i n c t i o n between d i s t r i c t s would serve to provide an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e f f e c t o f d i s t r i c t s i z e on work-attachment, an e f f e c t which cannot be over-emphasized because of i t s i n t u i t i v e c h a r a c t e r . While journeying through the small d i s t r i c t s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d teachers assigned to teach subjects not n e c e s s a r i l y i n keeping w i t h t h e i r areas o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n because -124-fewer teachers are a v a i l a b l e to cover a l l the subjects o f f e r e d . Again, i t i s not unusual f o r smaller d i s t r i c t s to tend to employ teachers w i t h minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and l i t t l e experience. This happens more as a matter of expediency, e s p e c i a l l y i f the d i s t r i c t s ' c l i m a t e i s harsh because not many people choose to teach i n such d i s t r i c t s . I f a d i s t r i c t i s both remote and c l i m a t i c a l l y harsh, i t might show a h i g h rate- of teacher 13 turn-over; however, t h i s i s by no means a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n because exceptions to such a tendency can be found. The i n t e r n a l atmosphere o f the schools, the way the p r i n c i p a l s conceive o f -ntheir r o l e , and the s t r i c t n e s s w i t h which r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s are enforced i n the schools and the d i s t r i c t , are the c h i e f determinants of the performance of teachers i n t h e i r work. I n a d d i t i o n to these o b j e c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s regarding d i s t r i c t s i z e , a mention should also be made of the s u b j e c t i v e aspects i n v o l v e d . For i n s t a n c e , what about the f e e l i n g s o f teachers i n such d i s t r i c t s towards t h e i r r ole-conceptions and performance o f teaching d u t i e s ? 7/hat w i l l t h e i r f e e l i n g s be i f they were faced w i t h unemployment? What w i l l they do i f they had a job to do but not the k i n d of job t h a t they would l i k e to have i f they had a wider range of choices? 7/hereas l a r g e d i s t r i c t s can o f f e r s e v e r a l amenities o f l i f e , teachers i n small d i s t r i c t s t h i n k o f other compensations, as one teacher put i t : **I l i k e the k i d s i n the s m a l l schools". -125-Yery e a r l y i n our pr e s e n t a t i o n (Chapter I ) , i t was i n d i c a t e d that perceptions o f choice of occupation and working c o n d i t i o n s are i n f l u e n c e d by what people want and what they can get; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s not i n e v i t a b l e f o r people to have a sense o f freedom o f choice de r i v i n g , from the a c t u a l i t i e s of experience. I f teachers i n s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t s do. not f i n d working c o n d i t i o n s ..entirely s a t i s f a c t o r y , or i f they envisage no p o s s i b i l i t e s or o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a change, they cannot be expected to make a p u b l i c announcement o f t h e i r d i s l i k e . The same could be s a i d o f teachers i n l a r g e r d i s t r i c t s . Thus, i t i s understandable ftb;atrteachers cannot remain e n t i r e l y unconcerned w i t h the . -goodwill o f t h e i r c h i e f employer, th.e d i s t r i c t . (To argue otherwise r e q u i r e s a ca p a c i t y to deny the • ' r e a l i t y ' t hat goes w e l l beyond o r d i n a r y psychology.) What i s deserving o f note here i s t h a t , by and l a r g e , teachers accept q u i t e a l o t i n t h e i r schools and school d i s t r i c t s which-they do not approve of wholeheartedly. Maybe-they f i n d i t d e r s i r a b l e to have a v a r i e t y of choices i n t h e i r t eaching p r a c t i c e , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment, ease of t r a n s f e r from one school to another; but i f they do not have as many choice as they would want to have, then perhaps they get used to not having them, and adapt to the c o n d i t i o n s prevalent i n t h e i r schools and d i s t r i c t s . I t i s u n l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , that freedom of choice i n c e r t a i n s e c t o r s of.work w i l l have the consequences a t t r i b u t e d to i t - those -126-o f high, work-attachment, unless c e r t a i n other c o n d i t i o n s are present. A poi n t can be made that d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n the school d i s t r i c t s can be explained i n o b j e c t i v e terms, as was done above, but i t a l s o has to take account of the v a r i a t i o n s , however o c c a s i o n a l and i n f r e q u e n t they may be,, i n the way i n -.-which teachers conceive of t h a t d i v e r s i t y . Maybe t h i s d i v e r s i t y i s not a determinant of t h e i r work-attachment but a p e r i p h e r a l c o n d i t i o n whose i n f l u e n c e i s m i t i g a t e d by c e r t a i n other compensatory c o n d i t i o n s . •~~:';.:por l a r g e d i s t r i c t s , the p o s i t i v e but n e g l i g i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n -7-between cho i c e of working c o n d i t i o n and work-attachment i s perhaps a r e f l e c t i o n of the l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s of moving out of the school or school d i s t r i c t . TThe negative low a s s o c i a t i o n between d i s c r e t i o n i n work and work-attachment i s p o s s i b l y the e f f e c t o f d i s t r i c t s i z e , as Anderson has reported that the l a r g e r the s i z e o f the s c h o o l , the more bureau c r a t i c i s the c o n t r o l of the employees - though t h i s does not r u l e out completely the instances o f i n d i v i d u a l d i s c r e t i o n . (His observation would apply to the school s t u d i e d i n t h i s sample because l a r g e r schools are found i n l a r g e r d i s t r i c t s . ) Anderson has also reported t h a t the commitment of employees v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w i t h the number of bu r e a u c r a t i c r u l e s ; to do t h e i r job, teachers need not be committed to education i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l sense because l e s s o n plans can be prepared according to s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , p r e s c r i b e d -127-c u r r i c u l u m guides can be r i g i d l y f o l l o w e d , grading procedures can be c a r r i e d out e x a c t l y , and teachers may make l i t t l e or no e f f o r t beyond what i s r e q u i r e d o f them. Furthermore, teachers, who f i n d i t impossible to r e a l i z e t h e i r expectations w i l l tend to abandon t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and w i l l accept a 13 more rewarding bu r e a u c r a t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . We should-hasten .to add t h a t our data do not d i r e c t l y suggest the k i n d o f in f e r e n c e or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t we have attempted. I t i s not an u n l i k e l y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n though, considerin, the f a c t , that the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s post factum, and transcends "the c o n d i t i o n s which our working hypotheses d i d not i d e n t i f y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of d i s t r i c t s i z e i n the a n a l y s i s , e s p e c i a l l y the f i n d i n g s reported above, has i n d i c a t e d that c e r t a i n important i n f l u e n c e s can be exerted by a v a r i a b l e which was considered as p e r i p h e r a l to the o r i g i n a l statements o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s . •"*• . Next we w i l l t u r n to an extended a n a l y s i s of the two fa c e s of attachment and how work-attachment i s l i n k e d w i t h f r i e n d s h i p s among teachers and the three teaching o r i e n t a t i o n s . -128-REFEEENC2S 1. K.C. S a l v i n and A. Stuart,"Data-Dredging Procedures i n Survey A n a l y s i s , " The American S t a t i s t i c i a n , 20 (June 1956) pp. 20-23. 2. R.K. Merton, On T h e o r e t i c a l Sociology: F i v e Essays, Old and Few, New York: The Free Press, 1967, pp. 157-62. 3 . A d i s c u s s i o n on the importance to s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of age i s provided i n L.D. Cain, J r . , " L i f e Course and S o c i a l Structure:," - i n R.E.L. F a r i s , ed., Handbook o f Modern Sociology,' Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1964, pp. 278-87; and , S.N. E i s e n s t a d t , From Generation to Generation! Age Groups  and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , Glencoe, IT1.: The Free P r e s s , 1955, p. 32. ^4. This mode, of i n q u i r y i s i n l i n e w i t h the d i s c u s s i o n provided i n M. "Rosenberg, The." L o g i c o f Survey A n a l y s i s , New .Torkr B a s i c Books, 1958, Ch. 4. 5. I b i d . , pp. 174-78. 6. See Encyclopedia o f So c i o l o g y , G u i l f o r d , Conn.r The Dushkin P u b l i s h i n g Group, Inc., 1974, pp. 257-60. 7. : R. Turner,"Some Aspects o f Women's Ambitions," American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , 70 (November 1964) pp. 271-S5. 8. G. Psathas,"Toward a Theory o f Occupational Choice f o r Vfomen," Soci o l o g y and S o c i a l Research, 52 "(January 1968) pp. 253-58. 9. S.C. C a l l a h a n , The Working Mother, New York: Warner Paperback, 1972, p. 85. 10. R.L. Simpson and I.H. Simpson,"Women and Bureaucracy i n Semi-Professions," i n A. E t z i o n i , ed., The. Semi-Prof essions  and T h e i r O r g a n i z a t i o n , New York: The Free P r e s s , 1969, pp. 217-44. 11. M.P. Marchak,."The Canadian Labour Force: Jobs f o r Women," I n M. Stephenson, ed., Women i n Canada, Toronto: New P r e s s , 1973, pp. 202-204. 12. The Working Mother, o p . c i t . , pp. 101-108. 13. W.J. H a r t r i c k , A Study o f Teacher Supply and Demand and Some Related Factors m the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Study No. 13, Vancouver, £>.C: Educational Research I n s t i t u t e o f B.C., 1971, pp. 64-65. Chapter V EXTENSION OF ANALYSIS: THE TOO FACES OF ATTACHMENT UNDER CONTROLS FOR DISTRICT SIZE, AGE AND SEX In this chapter, our aim i s to extend the scope of the argument and the strategy of analysis applied in the previous chapter and tc examine the relationship between work-attachment and friendships among teachers, and work-attachment and the three teaching orientations under controls of the demographic variables. 1 . Work-Attachment and Friendship Items Earlier i n Chapter III, the data failed to give a substantial support to the hypothesis that teachers highly attached to their job are l i k e l y to have many personal friends among colleagues in their own school as well as other schools. While i t i s apparent that teachers are never physically alone while at work in the schools, their physical contiguity in i t s e l f i s not sufficient to promote friendship in the sense that teachers would share confidences with their colleagues and discuss matters not related with the work of the school. It was assumed, therefore, that for friendship to exist among teachers, there must be a motivating "force". This force was presumed to be work-attachment which acts as a "pull factor". The analysis that follows is a further examination of the postulated relationship between work-attachment and having many friends among other teachers in the same school and schools elsewhere. (129) -130-The questions guiding this analysis are the following: (1) Is the weak association between work-attachment and having friends among colleagues (in the same school and in other schools) the result of the effect of another variable, i.e., school d i s t r i c t size, age, or sex? (2) Is i t possible that by introducing the three demographic variables, certain conditions can be identified under which the relationship between work-attachment and teacher-teacher friendship i s strengthened or altered? In order to answer these questions in light of the s t a t i s t i c a l requirement that must be met, the demographic variables were examined in relation with work-attachment . and friendship items. The results obtained are as follows: (a) work-attachment showed a negligible association of .09 with age, favouring the old teachers; but the association with d i s t r i c t size and age did not exceed .06; (b) the association between friendships (same school) and d i s t r i c t size, age, and sex was close to zero; and (c) the association between friendships (other schools) and age was low (.14, favouring the old teachers); but the association of this item with d i s t r i c t size and sex was close to zero. When the data are retabulated according to the two values of d i s t r i c t size, table V . l , we observe that for teachers in large d i s t r i c t s , the association between work-attachment and having many friends (same s c h o o l ) of .20 improves by seven correlation points over * A l l associations are Somers' D associations; an association of .09 or l e s s is negligible; of .10 to .29, low; of .30 to .49, moderate, and s o forth. -131-Table V . l : Relationship Between.WORK-ATTACHMENT and FRIENDSHIP ITEMS ; Controlling for DISTRICT SIZE. Friendship Items  Friendships (SAME SCHOOL) Many Some (N) Friendships (OTHER SCHOOLS): Many Some SMALL DISTRICTS Work-Attachmen t (N) High (%) 5A 46 (77) 40 60 (77) Low (%) 46 54 (54) 49 51 (53) Somers' D .08 -.09 LARGE DISTRICTS Work-Attachment High (%) 53 47 (58) 53 47 (60) Low (%) 33 67 (33) 39 61 (33) Somers' D .20 ,14 N o t e : I n t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s N i s - ' l i k e l y t o f l u c t u a t e because n o - r e s p o n s e c a s e s f o r t h e i t e m used a s a dependent v a r i a b l e were n o t i n c l u d e d i n c o m p u t a t i o n s . -132-the original association of .13; the association between work-attachment and having many friends (other schools) of .14 improves by thirteen correlation points over the original association which i s close to zero (see table V.7 for a quick comparison). For small d i s t r i c t s , the negligible association of -.09 between work-attachment and having many friends (other schools) i s contrary to our expectation because i t suggests that teachers with low work-attachment are li k e l y to have more friends in other schools. When age is controlled, table V.2, the noteworthy finding is that for young teachers, the association between work-attachment and having many friends (same school) increases to .16 from the original association of .13; this increase i s of l i t t l e importance because the relationship remains weak despite the introduction of a control variable, age. For old teachers, the negligible association of -.08 is contrary to our expectation because i t suggests that teachers with low work-attachment are lik e l y to have many friends among teachers in other schools. When sex is controlled i n table V.3, for women teachers, the association between work-attachment and having many friends in the same school increases to .43 as compared to the original association of .13. Again, for women teachers, work-attachment and having many friends (other schools) show an association of .11 as compared to the original association of .01, suggesting a weak relationship where none existed before controlling for sex. An interpretation of the findings reported so far w i l l be provided later. -133-Table V.2: Relationship Between WORK-ATTACHMENT and FRIENDSHIP ITEMS i Controlling for AGE. Friendship Items Friendships (SAME SCHOOL): Many YOUNG OLD Some (N) Friendships (OTHER SCHOOLS): Many Some Work-Attachment High (N) 41 58 (63) Low (%) (%) 54 37 44 63 (63) (48) 35 65 (48) Somers' D .16 .06 Work-Attachment High (%) 54 46 (72) 50 50 (74) Low (%) 46 54 (39) 58 42 (33) Somers' D .08 -.08 -134-Tabla V.3: Relationship Between WORK-ATTACHMENT and FRIENDSHIP ITEMS Controlling for SEX* MEN WOMEN Friendship Items  Friendships (SAME SCHOOL): Many Some (N) Friendships (OTHER SCHOOLS): Many Some Work-Attachment (N) High (%) 50 50 (98) 44 56 (100) Low 50 50 (60) 47 53 (59) Somers' D -.03 Work-Attachment (%) 65 35 (37) 51 49 (37) Low (.%) 22 78 (27) 41 59 (27) Somers' D .43 .11 -135-2. Work-Attachment and the Teaching Orientations The statement, that teachers highly attached to teaching are lik e l y to emphasize strongly student relations in their teaching practices rather than emphasize subject-matter or discipline and control, did not receive adequate support i n the earlier analysis. The underlying assumption for the hypothesis was that an equal emphasis on each of these orientations is not compatible. As these orientations are not concerned with 'what teachers do', but rather with 'how they are doing i t ' , the findings w i l l be placed in the context of the teaching a c t i v i t i e s . To begin, i f these teaching orientations are not compatible, then they should not relate one with another in a matrix of inter-correlations. To test this out, the three teaching orientations were related one with another. The results showed that there is an inverse relation between emphasis on subject-matter and emphasis on student relations and that this relation i s i n the expected direction. However, a low positive association between emphasis on subject-matter and discipline and control (.19), suggests that these two orientations might be compatible, without each being compatible with emphasis on student relations. This finding opens up a line of inquiry that has not yet been touched by the arguments of this research. A possible interpretation of this finding w i l l be attempted later. The teaching orientations were also related with each of the demographic variables. The results obtained were that -136-(a) a strong emphasis on student relations showed a low association of .12 with sex, favouring women teachers; but the association with d i s t r i c t size and age did not exceed .06; (b) a strong emphasis on subject-matter showed a low association of .15 with d i s t r i c t size, favouring the large d i s t r i c t s ; but the association with age and sex was less than .07; (c) a strong emphasis on discipline and control showed a low association of .15 with d i s t r i c t size, favouring the large d i s t r i c t s ; but the association with age was .06, and with sex, close to zero. When d i s t r i c t size i s controlled i n table V.4, the only BQteworthy finding i s the low association of .11 (compared to the original of .05) between work-attachment and discipline and control; this association i s contrary to our expectation because i t suggests that teachers with "high" work-attachment are l i k e l y to place a "strong" emphasis on discipline and control. A l l the other pa r t i a l associations in table V.4 do not exceed .06; only the direction which they display in the relationship i s in line with our expectation. In controlling for age i n table V.5, the parti a l associations do not display any mentionable alteration in comparison with the original relationship between wcrk-attachment and the teaching orientations, with one exception: for old teachers, the strength of the relationship i s indicated by an association of .19 as compared to the zero-order association of .05. Furthermore, for young teachers, the direction of the relationship between work-attachment and -137-T a b l e V . 4 : R e l a t i o n s h i D Between WORK-ATTACHMENT and the TEACHING ORIENTATIONS C o n t r o l l i n g f o r DISTRICT SIZE. Teaching Orientations \^ Emphasis on STUDENT RELATIONS: Strong Moderate (N) Emphasis on SUBJECT-MATTER: Strong Moderate (N) SHALL DISTRICTS Work-Attachment Emphasis on DISCIPLINE & CONTROL: Strong Moderate (N) H i g h i f r 51 49 (75) 39 61 (74) 25 75 (77) Low T%7 47} 53 (51) 45 55 (51) 13 87 (52) LARGE DISTRICTS f o r k - A t t a c h m e n t Somers r D .04 -.06 ,11 H i g h 58 42 (59) 56 44 (59) 33 67 (60) Uow 51.! 49 (33) 58 42 (33) 39 61 (33) Somers' D .06 -.02 -.06 -138-T.able V . 5 : R e l a t i o n s h i p Between WORK—ATTACHMENT and the TEACHING ORIENTATIONS C o n t r o l l i n g f o r A G E » Teaching Orientations Emphasis on \ luuiMb  ^fork-Attachment H i g h OLD  Work-A11achment Low 737T H i g h Somers' •Low Somers* STUDENT RELATIONS: \ 52 58 D 55 36 1 D S trong Moderate A 8 42 -.06 45 64 • 19 (N) (63) (48) (71) (36) Emphasis on SUBJECT-MATTER: Strong 46 46 47 55 Moderate 54 54 — 53 46 -.08 (N) (61) (46) (72) (38) Emphasis on DISCIPLINE & CONTROL: . S trong 25 21 31 27 Moderate 75 79 .04 69 73 .04 (N) (63) (48) (74) (37) -139-a strong emphasis on student relations is contrary to our expectation; again, for both the young and old teachers, the direction of the relationship between work-attachment and a strong emphasis on discipline and control i s contrary to our expectations. When the data are rearranged according to the two categories of sex i n table V.6, the parti a l associations linking work-attachment with each of the three teaching orientations do not display any mentionable alteration in comparison with the original association of .05. Here, again, only the direction of the relationship displayed between work-attachment and emphasis on student relations and on subject-matter i s in line with our expectation; this finding i s consistent for both men and women teachers. However, the negligible association of .07 between work-attachment and emphasis on discipline and control noticed for men also, i s contrary to our expectation. In summary, even by dividing the sample according to two categories of d i s t r i c t size, age and sex, the data have not shown any appreciable change in the strength of association between work-attachment and the three teaching orientations. It i s possible that the explanations for d i f f e r e n t i a l emphases on student relations, subject-matter, and discipline and control, l i e in the subject-areas which teachers offer. To elaborate on this statement, the sample needs to be further s t r a t i f i e d , somethin which is impossible because the present sample is not large enough to permit multi-stratification. Since the data analysis -140-T a b l e V . 6 : R e l a t i o n s h i p Between WORK-ATTACHMENT and the TEACHING ORIENTATIONS C o n t r o l l i n g f o r S E X „ MEN WOMEN Teaching \ Work-Attachment Wo r k - A 11 achment Orientations \ \ H i g h Low H i g h Low Emphasis on STUDENT RELATIONS: X- . Somers' .. . . Somers' Strong 50 46 I . D 64 56 \ D Moderate 50 54 .04 36 44 .08 (N) (98) (57) (36) (27) Emphasis on SUBJECT-MATTER: Strong 44 48 53 54 " Moderate 56 52 -.04 47 " "46 -.01 (N) (99) (58) (34) (26) Emphasis on DISCIPLINE & CONTROL: Strong 29 22 27 27 Moderate 71 78 .07 73 73 (N) (100) (59) (37) (27) -141-under control variables has failed to bring about an appreciable alteration in the strength of the relationship between work-attachment and the teaching orientations, the findings as they stand w i l l be summarized and interpreted c r i t i c a l l y , albeit later. 3. Interpretation Work-Attachment - Friendships: A l l of the important findings which deserve interpretation and which help us i n maximizing our theoretical argument linking "high" work-attachment and the occurrence of "many" friendships among teachers (in the same school and elsewhere), can be gleaned from the summary table V . 7 . This table shows that high work-attachment and having many friends (same school) are linked only for teachers located in large school d i s t r i c t s , for young teachers, and for women teachers; again, high work-attachment and having many friends (other schools) are linked only for teachers located in large d i s t r i c t s and for women teachers. Since only five partials out of twelve tend to support our working hypothesis, these findings and the absence of a substantial support for the working hypothesis need to be given an extended c r i t i c a l comment. The findings reported above are quite important when understood in light of the opportunities which the teachers have for face-to-face contacts with their colleagues. The circumstances in which teachers get to know other teachers or to befriend other teachers are equally important, but these circumstances, by them-selves, do not promote friendships. The point deserves elaboration. Table V.7: Summary of Associations (Somers' D) Between Work-Attachment and Friendship Items, and Work-Attachment and Teaching Orientations when Controlling for D i s t r i c t Size, Age and Sex. Zero-order DISTRICT SIZE AGE SEX Friendship Items Association Small Large_ Young Old . Men Women Work-Attachment & Friendships (SAME SCHOOL) .13 .08 .20 .16 .08 — .43 Work-Attachment & Friendships (OTHER SCHOOLS) .01 -.09 .14 .06 -.08 .03 .11 Teaching Orientations Work-Attachment & Emphasis\ on STUDENT RELATIONS .05 .04 .06 -.06 •19 .04 .08 Work-Attachment & Emphasis on SUBJECT-MATTER -.03 -.06 -.02 — -.08 -.04 -.01 Work-Attachment & Emphasis on DISCIPLINE & CONTROL .05 .11 -.06 .05 .04 .07 — Note: A l l variables were dichotomized for comparative correlational purposes. -143-Most teachers are busy most of the day working with students. The lunch breaks, the occasional staff meetings, and "socials" are some of the occasions which bring teachers together, but the quality of contacts generated by such occasions i s hardly conducive to sustained interpersonal contacts or friendships as defined in this research. Again, teachers can be seen together in the staff room drung lunch breaks, but there i s considerable variation in how much the different teachers talk, and in the degree to which any one teacher w i l l talk to any other teacher. Moreover, getting to know other teachers is made possible and easy in schools which are divided into departments. This happens primarily in large d i s t r i c t s in which the size of the school is large enough to be divided into departments. Teachers belonging to the same department are frequently in contact as they have to consult with each other over lesson plans for different grade levels and for different subject areas. Knowing other teachers i s also made possible, occasionally, by "problem" students because teachers do talk to each other about such students. Thus i t seems probable that in larger d i s t r i c t s and larger schools, teachers have many opportunities, within the work of the school, to associate with colleagues. Just the frequency of interaction may be a sufficient condition for promoting sustained contacts which converge towards friendships among teachers. In addition, the code of ethics adopted by the B.C. Federation -144-of Teachers exhorts i t s member teachers to review and assess with their colleagues, the practices which they employ in discharging their duties, that i s service to students. This expectation i n i t s e l f does not warrant teacher interaction because (a) unsolicited assistance is seldom, i f ever, initi a t e d , even though teachers might.regard "good" colleagues as those who show a willingness to share their knowledge; (b) limited consultation takes place between teachers in the same department, teaching.the same subject and not between teachers offering different subjects; and (c) there are always special committees handling different 'problem areas', and teachers on such committees meet each other more often than they would others. If the data on teacher-teacher friendships, within large d i s t r i c t s , are examined in the light of the foregoing observations, then the data become more meaningful; the data bear out some of the aspects of the on-going contacts of teachers within the work of the schools. The notion that friendships are "extra-organizational", that i s , something which must be generated by the teachers' l i k i n g for their jobs, can be further supported by citing evidence on how the d i s t r i c t size i t s e l f can promote satisfaction with the job. For instance, the study of teacher supply and demand in B.C. has reported that the larger school d i s t r i c t s , which are mostly urban, possessed the highest number of teachers who reported the most satisfaction with their teaching assignments. But for small d i s t r i c t s , the study reported findings somewhat -145-opposite to those reported for the large districts."'" Thus i t seems that d i s t r i c t size in i t s e l f is a complex variable and that i t s effect on promoting work-attachment cannot be underestimated. When the findings under examination are complemented with the data on frequency distribution of friendship, i t was found that 66% of the teachers had at least one personal friend among colleagues in the same school, while 64% of the teachers had at least one friend among teachers in other schools. Thus a f a i r proportion of teachers tend to meet the minimal requirement (having at least one personal friend among other teachers) of possessing a "second face" of their work-attachment; However1, i t can be added that the evidence presented i n the preceding pages, though i t i s less than conclusive, i s not without i t s importance. The measure of friendship used in this research i s quite stringent and this stringency ought to make up for the absence of substantial s t a t i s t i c a l evidence for the working hypothesis that high work-attachment i s positively associated with having many friends among colleagues i n the same and other schools. An uncontrollable circumstance that can make the postulated relationship inexact i s the individual teacher's personal preference for forming many friendships among colleagues, not-withstanding the opportunities available and the locations of the schools. Accounting for the differentials in teachers' preferences i s a complex matter; this added complexity i s -146-acknowledgeable, but i t is assumed away in stipulating a positive association between work-attachment and having many friends among other teachers. The comments by one teacher on the question-naire bring home the point very concisely: "I enjoyed your questions on relationships with other teachers. It made me realize how isolated we often are with fellow workers; how l i t t l e we share each others' company outside of teaching. -- - ;-Maybe we are too selfi s h with our time - we need to look at each other as fellow humans, not just as teachers." JWe...may concede the point that the working hypothesis of this ^ research apparently generates a c r i t i c a l perspective on work-attachment and teacher-teacher friendships, but this perspective tends to be restricted and fragmented. Though we present i t cautiously, the interpretation of two other interesting findings emerging from our analysis, indicate the apparent impact of age and sex on the relationship between work-attachment and having many friends among other teachers. Concerning age, table V . 7 shows that young teachers, compared to the old, with high work-attachment, are more l i k e l y to have many friends among teachers in their own school. Morrison and 2 Mclntyre have observed, though they do not present any hard data, that young teachers who have recently l e f t their training institutions, i f they want the satisfaction and support to be gained from acceptance by their colleagues, must commonly aspire to membership in groups of relatively experienced teachers. -147-But where such young teachers find a sizable minority of others in their own position, they may often find their company more pleasant and less demanding. Concerning sex, table V.7 shows that women rather than men teachers, with high work-attachment, are more l i k e l y to have many friends among other teachers (in the same school as well as other schools). Again, Morrison and Mclntyre have observed that.sex and marital status are important ; determinants of the formation of social groups. Married women who have entered or returned to teaching after raising their families, increasingly form sizable minorities with common interests. Since they have introduced a new variable, marital status, their observation needs some empirical support. Unfortunately, we could not control for marital status simultaneously with sex because the sub-sample of women respondents was too small to make that analysis meaningful; hence the post factum character of the interpretation provided i s incontestable. Work-Attachment - Teaching Orientations: We mentioned earlier that a strong emphasis on subject-matter and on discipline and control were linked in the data, and this observation needs to be explained. What else needs to be explained is the general absence of empirical support for the working hypothesis that teachers with high work-attachment are more likely, to emphasize strongly student relations and consequently, to deemphasize subject-matter and discipline and control in their teaching practices. In the summary table V.7, for old teachers, -148-there is some weak support concerning the relationship between work-attachment and a strong emphasis on student relations; a l l the other partials, except the one for young teachers, indicate only a slight tendency in the data in the direction of our working hypothesis. Again, in table V . 7 , a l l the partials concerning the relationship between work-attachment and a low emphasis on subject-matter are negative, indicating a slight '•„.'. tendency in the data in the direction of our hypothesis, but the amount of relationship displayed in these partials i s negligible. And again, a l l the partials with the exception of one for large d i s t r i c t s , concerning the- relationship" beWeen^WfU^tTiaMmiettt-and a low emphasis on discipline and control, are contrary to our expectation. A possible explanation of these disparate findings i s given below. The findings reported above can be made i n t e l l i g i b l e with reference to what teachers are "expected" to do and what they "seem" to do and by leaving aside the complex issue of what they would " l i k e " to do; this latter aspect of the teachers' work li e s outside the scope of this study. However, this approach helps to highlight some of the elements of the workings of the school and to explain how the teaching activity i s carried on. The latter are matters deserving of attention, but to which only passing references can be made, owing to the more pressing problem of establishing the relevance of the finding just mentioned. What we cannot do is to establish a close " f i t " between the differen -149-elements of the workings of the schools, and consequently, we cannot show how the teachers' behaviours "l o g i c a l l y " follow from the interplay of these elements. To do so would require much more data, observational or otherwise, than we have available. However, a reference to these elements is being made because their influence on the on-going a c t i v i t i e s of teachers cannot be controlled. It follox^s, therefore^ that the plausible character of the interpretations of findings should not be overlooked. To begin, the Public Schools Act expects a teacher to "teach a l l the pupils under his care diligently and f a i t h f u l l y a l l the branches of learning required to be taught by him in the school to which he is assigned, and maintain proper order and discipline among the pupils attending the school ..." The obvious omission of the student-relations aspect of teachers' work leaves i t open to the teachers themselves as to whether or not they adopt this approach in their teaching practices. The teachers who adopt the student-relations approach, would be over-stepping their duties, as mentioned in the Act. The low association between subject-matter and discipline and control becomes understandable because these are two of those duties which teachers must perform. Maybe this finding suggests how teachers have internalized an o f f i c i a l expectation. If at the same time, teachers are found to be less attached to the job, i t might be that they are less attached for the precise -150-reason that they are expected, in teaching, to do what they would not want to do i f they had a choice, that i s , they would not emphasize discipline and control to the exclusion of student relations. If a pronounced emphasis on student relations i s absent in the data, a l i t e r a l explanation for that observation would be that for the responding teachers, there are other more pressing problems requiring attention than cultivating student relations. One of these pressing problems is the demand of curriculum coverage, which creates a preoccupation with lesson plans, and the need to cover these plans by a certain period of time. A l l teachers are faced with this demand, regardless of age and.sex. To meet the curriculum demands, teachers have to create an effective "classroom ecology" in which learning programmes can be developed, in i t i a t e d , and maintained for individual and for group achievement. The management of student behaviour in the classroom ( i . e . , maintenance of discipline and control), i s not dictated by the available techniques of controlling behaviour, but i t becomes a necessity in the service of curriculum goals. A l l teachers are faced with the need to maintain order, a lack of which w i l l be interpreted by the principal, the parents, or the colleagues and students, as incompetence. Just the fear of such an occurrence creates feelings of inadequacy among young teachers who generally come to the school armed with a "new" approach, but they soon discover that the r e a l i t i e s of the classroom dictate -151-something otherwise, Whether man or woman, young or old, a successful teacher is more apt to be one who does not have anxieties owing to discipline problems in the classroom. Teachers have to u t i l i z e the time they spend in the classroom productively. They can do so to the extent that they have learnt the subject-matter to a "criterion of security"; their performance i s evaluated by the performance of their students and how effectively they are able to achieve curriculum goals. It can be unsettling for the teachers to be unable to take the students through the lesson plans; any problems arising out of this might expose their insecurity, and in the case of some, their inadequacy. The energy output of teachers through the years i n trying to master the materials, can be awesome, especially during the early years of a teaching career. Therefore i f a large proportion of young teachers with low work-attachment places a strong emphasis on student relations (table V.5), but a large proportion of old teachers places a strong emphasis on subject-matter (table V.5), then these two tendencies in the data would indicate how some teachers respond to their various duties in the school. If teaching becomes a routine and a predictable experience, then both the routine and the work experience may have some consequence for the feelings of teachers and for the particular orientation they activate in the classroom. For instance, on the basis of a few conversations which this researcher had with teachers during the data-collection stage -152-(some carried on even after), i t seems clear that the ways in which teachers responded to questions regarding teaching orientations and their feelings about teaching, are partly related to their length of teaching experience. Older teachers or those with long years of service, admitted that they no longer experienced the enthusiasm and excitement that they once did. However, they did not say that they disliked teaching. For the most part, they-felt more competent than in their earlier -yeacsr,::l)ut .then ; - v^?7 expectation of teaching for many more years, reduced their enthusiasm. It i s li k e l y that their emphasis on discipline and control or on subject-matter f a l l s within the "routinization of their" role"; "it" i s not an indication of their ''"non-attachment" to teaching. Whether teachers in large d i s t r i c t s or in small d i s t r i c t s are more li k e l y to become subject to the routinization of their role i s a question which can be answered only with further research. Thus, the links between work-attachment and emphasizing a particular teaching orientation tend to become tenuous, and in fact, may be subject to various "imponderables regarding the situations in which teaching i s carried on. : In this respect, the remarks of a teacher on the questionnaire used in this research are very instructive: "teaching i s not a black and white subject". A few comments on the teaching orientations themselves are in order here. It was indicated and argued that i n the literature on classroom teaching styles, an emphasis on student -153-relations is designated as a "progressive orientation", subject-matter as a "traditional orientation", and discipline and control as an "authoritarian orientation". These distinctions are conceptual, and they may not predict how teachers are l i k e l y to behave in their work-a-day l i f e , nor which one particular orientation they are l i k e l y to activate. Maybe these orientations are not as far apart as one might think. Is a teacher being authoritarian when she/he wants silence in the classroom in the service of learning? There is no easy answer to this question and we are unable to provide one. What may be said i s that the.question of placing.a.certain emphasis on student relations and a de-emphasis on subject-matter or discipline and control, touches questions on what is "desirable" in public education. Schools which are being run on a "flexible modular system" or on an "individualized instruction programme" - both being recent innovations - show a slant toward a greater frequency of teacher-pupil interaction than is the case of the "chalk-and-talk" schools. It is also possible that the l i k i n g of teachers for their job becomes "compartmentalized" as a cognitive experience therefore, a l i k i n g for teaching may not manifest i t s e l f i n the particular teaching orientation which the teacher activates in the class. , In sum, on a more self-evaluative note, i t may be added that the r e a l i t i e s of what teachers do in the classroom, how they relate to students, how they make an effort to achieve -154-curriculum goals, or how they compromise with the conflicting expectations of their role and the competing philosophies of education, stubbornly refuse to conform to this not-too-rigorous theory of teaching orientations. The literature in this respect is scarce and there is none concerning teachers in Canada -to the knowledge of this researcher; hence the exploratory findings cannot as yet be placed in the context of related research A further evaluative comment on this aspect of the research as well as on work-attachment and choice variables i s provided in the later chapters. -155-REFERENCES 1. W.J. Hartrick, A Study of Teacher Supply and Demand and Some Related Factors in the Province of Bri t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.: Educational Research Institute of B.C., 1971, pp. 80-84. 2. A.Morrison and D.McIntyre, Teachers and Teaching, Hammondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1969, pp. 89-92. 3. Ibid., p. 90. 4. The Public-Schools Act 1973, Victoria, B.C.: The Government-of the Province of British Columbia, 1973, Ch. 319:152 (b). C h a p t e r V i • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION There were two f a c e t s t o t h e a n a l y s i s w i t h w h i c h we were c o n c e r n e d * F i r s t l y , we were concerned w i t h f i n d i n g out i f f o r w o r k i n g t e a c h e r s (a) c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n , (b) c h o i c e o f w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , (c) d i s c r e t i o n i n work i s r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r w o r k - a t t a c h m e n t * S e c o n d l y , we were concerned w i t h . i n v e s t i g a t i n g whether or n o t t e a c h e r s w i t h h i g h w o r k - a t t a c h m e n t were m o r e . l i k e l y t o (a) emphasize s t r o n g l y s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s . (and de-emphasize s u b j e c t - m a t t e r and d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l ) i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e , and (b) have many p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s among t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e same s c h o o l a n d . o t h e r s c h o o l s . C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o f a c e t o n e , we f o u n d . t h a t when c e r t a i n demographic ( c o n t r o l ) v a r i a b l e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n and h i g h w o r k -attachment becomes s h a r p e r and more e x a c t only, f o r women arid young t e a c h e r s ; the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h o i c e o f w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s and w o r k - a t t a c h m e n t appears w e a k l y o n l y f o r women and young t e a c h e r s , and f o r t e a c h e r s l o c a t e d i n s m a l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ; the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c r e t i o n \ i n work and w o r k - a t t a c h m e n t i s n o t i c e d o n l y f o r young t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r s l o c a t e d i n s m a l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ; f o r l a r g e d i s t r i c t s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was c o n t r a r y t o our e x p e c t a t i o n s . (156) -157-C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o f a c e t two, we o b s e r v e d t h a t (a) women t e a c h e r s , (b) young t e a c h e r s , and (c) t e a c h e r s l o c a t e d i n l a r g e s c h o o l ' d i s t r i c t s , w i t h h i g h w o r k - a t t a c h m e n t , were more l i k e l y t o have many p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s i n t h e i r own s c h o o l ; o n l y women t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r s i n l a r g e d i s t r i c t s showed a weak tendency t o have many p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s i n o t h e r s c h o o l s . F u r t h e r m o r e , o n l y o l d t e a c h e r s , w i t h h i g h w o r k -attachment were found t o emphasize s t r o n g l y s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e ; the weak e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g a d e - e m p h a s i s on s u b j e c t - m a t t e r and d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l was n o t c o n d u c i v e to any d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s . One r e a s o n f o r t h a t i s the n e g l i g i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n between w o r k - a t t a c h m e n t and a s t r o n g emphasis on d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l , and between w o r k - a t t a c h m e n t and a s t r o n g emphasis on s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ; t h e s e two t e n d e n c i e s i n the d a t a a r e n o t i n the e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e a s o n c o u l d be the p e r s o n a l p r i o r i t i e s o f t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s as t o w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g o r i e n t a t i o n t h e y would a c t i v a t e w i t h w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s . The t e m p o r a l o r d e r i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s o r g a n i z e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and i n w h i c h they a c t on t h e i r p e r s o n a l p r i o r i t i e s i s absent i n t h e i n d i c e s of t h i s r e s e a r c h ; t h a t t h i s t e m p o r a l o r d e r e x i s t s i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t cannot be rule4 o u t . There i s a l s o the c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s have t o u t i l i z e d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l methods i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e -158-c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s . The way t h e y m a i n t a i n o r d e r i n the c l a s s -room may n o t be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l p r i o r i t i e s o r t h e i r c o n c e p t o f what i s d e s i r a b l e i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s , but t h e i r c o n c e r n , w i t h performance m i g h t o v e r - r i d e any o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , Thus, a degree o f c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n o f i d e a s and a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r s i s i n e v i t a b l e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , each o f the t e a c h i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s i s d e e p l y grounded i n t h e " c u l t u r e " o f the s c h o o l , i f one may use t h i s c o n c e p t . T h i s p o s t f a c t u m o b s e r v a t i o n e n a b l e s us t o u n d e r s t a n d r e a l i s t i c a l l y why the i n d i c e s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h were n o t adequate i n b r i n g i n g t o l i g h t the e m p i r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the weak e v i d e n c e on t h e t e a c h i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s , our a n a l y s i s has shown' t h a t t h e r e a r e d e m o n s t r a b l e l i n k a g e s between freedom o f w o r k - r e l a t e d c h o i c e s and w o r k - a t t a c h m e n t , though t h e s t r e n g t h o f these-, l i n k a g e s d i s p l a y e d i n t h e d a t a i s o p e n . t o c o n t e n t i o n . Our s t u d y i s i n e v i t a b l y l i m i t e d i n i t s s c o p e , and does not. a d d r e s s i t s e l f t o s e v e r a l key a s p e c t s o f t e a c h e r s ' b e h a v i o u r s i n the s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , when a d d i t i o n a l d a t a c o l l e c t e d c h i e f l y t h r o u g h c o n v e r s a t i o n s ' w i t h t e a c h e r s , p e r i o d i c o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , s t a f f rooms, and s t a f f m e e t i n g s , and remarks w r i t t e n by the r e s p o n d i n g t e a c h e r s on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a r e b r o u g h t t o bear on t h e i n d i c e s o f v a r i a b l e s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , many -159-c l a r i f i c a t i o n s come about i n the g e n e r a l argument o f t h i s , s t u d y ; and we a r e i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m some e x t e n s i v e i t e m c o n t e n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s . . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n g a i n s s t r e n g t h , when we r e c o l l e c t f r o m C h a p t e r I I I the e v i d e n c e showing t h e g r o s s e m p i r i c a l o v e r l a p o f the t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s on w o r k - r e l a t e d c h o i c e s ( i . e . , c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n , c h o i c e o f w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and d i s c r e t i o n i n w o r k ) . What' l i t t l e t h e o r e t i c a l b r e a d t h may be s a c r i f i c e d i n r e d e f i n i n g the key v a r i a b l e s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h seem more t h a n recompensed by t h e i r c l e a r e r more p r e c i s e measurement. S i n c e the o b s e r v a t i o n s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c h o i c e v a r i a b l e s and w o r k - a t t a c h m e n t under c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , we a r e l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e absence o f a s u b s t a n t i a l s u p p o r t lies i n the i n d i c e s o r i t e m s u s e d , r a t h e r than the " i d i o s y n c r a c i e s " o f a . s m a l l s a m p l e . I t i s i n the l i g h t o f t h i s c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t we have p r o v i d e d the n e x t t h r e e c h a p t e r s , and we hope t h a t each one o f t h e s e c h a p t e r s i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . Chapter VII THE STUDY IN CRITICAL RETROSPECT The data and findings presented in the foregoing chapters are deserving of several levels of explanation. A reexamination of the hypotheses and their interpretations, the observational tests, the measurement of the variables, and the inconclusiveness of the findings constitute the "universe of discourse" in this chapter. In doing this reexamination, an effort w i l l be made to raise those points which serve to i l l u s t r a t e the problems faced in this research and the mode of data presentation. In the pages that follow, the three "choice" variables, the three teaching orientations, and the teacher-teacher friendships have been discussed. Attachment to the job has been dealt with separately and in some detail in the following chapter. What cannot be disccussed presently is the occurrence of some contaminating influences of the three "choice" variables on each other. And this contamination has been ignored while each one of these variables is examined together with attachment and with the demographic variables. The tabular mode of analysis which was adopted in this research for reasons of f l e x i b i l i t y and direct visual simplicity, is not immune to that short-coming. It was in Chapter III that the mutual contamination of the "choice" variables was noted from the pattern of their intercorrelation. Nevertheless, this needs to be remembered in order to appreciate the evaluative tone of the discussion that follows. At the outset, i t may be noted that the suggestions appearing in books on research methodology make at least, two points regarding "what to do" in research: (1) when research is systematically based upon a body of (160) -161-existing theory, a genuine contribution in knowledge is more lik e l y to result; and (2) i f i t is impossible to cover the literature relating to "your" subject, then your hypothesis probably covers too much ground - or perhaps too l i t t l e , we might add.^ What happens to the findings i f these two conditions are not adequately met is a matter that cannot be settled with a fex* words. A specific i l l u s t r a t i o n may be of value. The findings pertaining to the independent variables (choice of occupation, working conditions, and discretion in work) cannot be compared with other researches because comparable studies do not exist. However, wherever possible, a partial • comparison of some aspects of this research with others w i l l ba instituted. Thus, the respectable convention of comparing results from one study with those of other studies for their possible contribution to the existing knowledge, can be observed but only pa r t i a l l y . Furthermore, an evaluation of this research w i l l have to be done by generating some c r i t e r i a within the arguments of this research. Since these c r i t e r i a are l i k e l y to be subjective, certain limitations of the reexamination concerning the rationale of the hypotheses, conceptualization and measurement of variables, are unavoidable. The guiding hypothesis of this research was that each of the "choice" variables is associated with attachment positively. The f i r s t variable, choice of occupation, deserves elaboration because as a label, i t can be misleading. Only one indicator was used to e l i c i t responses to choice of occupation:"whether or not I work as a teacher". This item was designed : to e l i c i t a subjective assessment of choice. It was assumed that those who -162-answered that they had a lot of choice, would indicate a personal sense of freedom. This sense of freedom in turn was presumed to induce, or at least to influence, attachment as measured by a preference for teaching, by valuing success in teaching, and by indentifying with teaching. Thus,.the rationale (the implicit sense of gratification involved in the expression of that freedom) was abstracted from the writings on voluntary behaviour, i t s sources and limitations. 1. Choice of Occupation Reexamined . i Does the question,"whether or not I work as a teacher", cover too much ground? Was the meaning of the question implicit in this research conveyed wholly or partly to the respondents? The answer to the f i r s t question can come partly from the recorded comments of the respondents indicating their understanding of the question. However, the answer to the second question w i l l come from the pattern of responses of a l l the cases. It i s on the basis of these lines of reasoning that an evaluation of the findings of this research can be undertaken. The f i r s t question w i l l be answered by citing some of the comments of the respondents. One respondent: Don't understand what you want. (checked "much choice") A second one: Stupid question. (checked "no response") Another one: Not sure how to interpret. (checked "some choice") A woman teacher: Unless my husband earns more.. (checked "no choice") Another one: Unless I go back to university for retraining. (checked "no choice") -163-While each of these responses is open to some interpretation, the last two respondents seem to have understood the "intent" of the question, which was to e l i c i t a sense of constraint owing to the somewhat irreversible nature of the choice that has been made already. (Since the term constraint was regarded as the obverse of freedom in Chapter I, the answers were valid.) A further delineation of the meanings attributed to the research question is not possible because the comments reproduced above are exhaustive. However, in the case of many respondents, we w i l l not know what was in their minds when they recorded their responses. But the point may be conceded that an element of ambiguity lingers in the question the way i t was phrased in the questionnaire. This ambiguity is a by-product of the intention to formulate a general question which would e l i c i t a generalized response. Maybe the question turned out to be too specific to be appropriately answered by the generalized categories of "no choice", "some choice", and "much choice". Before evaluating the findings in the light of the.above remarks, the response pattern of a l l the cases needs to be examined. The data showed the following distribution of the respondents on the question,"whether or not I work as a teacher": Much choice =41.5% Some choice = 41.5 No choice = 13.4 Incomplete =3.6 Total =100.0% If a distinction is made between "choice" and "no choice", then 83% of the respondents f a l l in one category. However, in the data analysis, the cut-off -164-point was used near the 50% mark, especially for the 2 x 2 tables. The figure, 83%, indicated that a majority of the respondents had at least "some choice", though the precise meanings which they attributed to the question and to their own responses w i l l not be known. By dichotomizing the values on this item, the sample is divided into those who had "much choice" and those who had "some choice". In a cross-tabulation with the "high" and "low" attachment categories, i f the results show a difference of 15 per cent in favour of the combined much-choice and high-attachment categories, then the interpretation i s simple, that i s , this difference of 15 per cent becomes the measure of the association between the two variables. The decision about the strength of this association can be made in the light of certain conventions (Chapter II); but the decision regarding the strength that this association lends to the argument linking choice of occupation with attachment, i s not easy to make. The dependent variable, attachment, was ordinal too. About 84% of the respondents had attachment scores from low to high; only 16% scored either j zero or in the opposite direction. If we just match the two percentages (83 for choice - 84 for attachment), we have an intuitive feeling about the turn which the data are taking. When we rotate the data in a cross-tabulation, how strong: are the tendencies in favour of the hypothesis that "choice of occupation is associated with attachment positively? It seems that to start xjith, i t is desirable to have an equal number of cases on the two values of either the independent or the dependent variable. This could serve as a good basis for exploring the relationship between the two variables. A much larger sample than the one used in this research could have provided a -165-different, and perhaps adequate, dispersion of cases on the two values for each of these variables. But the limitations of the available time, material resources, and the.high refusal rates a l l combined to make the sample small. ; The low association which this research obtained between choice of occupation and attachment, demonstrates at most how these key variables hold together. However, considering the fact that Somers' D is a stringent measure which provides a better " f i t " between two ordinal scales, this low association can be regaded as adequate for the purposes of this exploratory research. The Findings and the Rationale: Summarizing a l l the findings concerning choice of occupation and attachment while controlling for d i s t r i c t size, age, and sex is l i k e l y to be laborious. However, some selected findings can be presented here for i l l u s t r a t i v e puposes. For both the small and large d i s t r i c t s , summary of associations in table IV.4 showed a low association between choice of occupation and work-attachment; the finding is consistent for young teachers; however, for women there was a moderate association. These findings confirm the postulated relation between choice of occupation and work-attachment, but only for a sub-group of respondents. But some tendencies in the data contrary to those expected, dictate a revision of the generalized hypothesis and i t s rationale. The rationale for the hypothesis linking choice of occupation and attachment was that a sense of choice concerning occupation i promotes a personal sense of adequacy and self-importance, and strengthens self-image. To the extent that this rationale did not recognize e x p l i c i t l y the differences among people according to their spatial distribution, their age, or sex, the original hypothesis becomes reformulated under empirical -166-tests. Rather than saying that choice of occupation i s associated with attachment positively, we can now rephrase this hypothesis a l i t t l e more precisely: attachment is li k e l y to be high when (a) choice of occupation is high and (b) the school d i s t r i c t is large. This hypothesis can be repeated for young teachers and women. This hypothesis w i l l help to identify those characteristics of teachers that are required for further v e r i f i c a t i o n . By phrasing the hypothesis this way, an "antecedent variable" ( d i s t r i c t size, 2 age, or sex) is not l e f t free to vary, but i t is included i n the statement of the postulated relationship. Since the inclusion of a third variable helps to identify the conditions under which a relation holds, i t can have immediate practical value. For instance, i t can help to avoid hazardous statements about the relative importance of variables. However, i t must be pointed out that a hypothesis of this kind does not attempt to be applicable to a general population, and as such, It is applicable only to some sub-groups. > within that population. Since the decision concerning the des i r a b i l i t y of formulating a general or a specific hypothesis is dependent on the research goals, an exploratory study is flexible enough to recognize the "situational 3 intensification" in relations which are brought to attention by certain antecedent variables. A further comment on the measurement of choice of occupation i s in order here. In this research just one question was asked which under a reconsideration of the research procedures, may not be regarded as adequate, especially when i t was couched in rather general, or somewhat ambiguous, phraseology. This inadequacy of having just one item is further compouneded by the nature of occupational choice. This choice is a process of compromise -167-between what i s sought and what can be obtained, or more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s a compromise between private i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s , and the a v a i l a b l e o p p r t u n i t i e s . In add i t i o n , the margin of choice concerning the occupations i s enormous. Both the conception of choice and i t s scope make i t e s s e n t i a l that (a) the 'phenomenology' of choice be adequately comprehended and (b) a set of items be used so that i f one item proves to be inadequate, another can be r e l i e d on. Judged on th i s l a t t e r point, the present research has a shortcoming. I t i s not an unworthy admission to say that, since j u s t one item was used, the measurement of occupational choice f a i l s to be rigorous. Other i n d i c a t o r s r e i n f o r c i n g the one item used, would have i n t e n s i f i e d the measurement. The findings tending not to support the postulated r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice of occupation and attachment deserve mention too. For instance, when sex i s c o n t r o l l e d , the o r i g i n a l low a s s o c i a t i o n (.15) between choice of occupation and attachment increases to a moderate p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n f o r women (.32, table IV.4). This f i n d i n g i s very important as i t leads toward a reexamination of the postulated r e l a t i o n s h i p . In the absence of th i s f i n d i n g f o r women, t r u s t i n the o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l be misplaced. Thus, the in t r o d u c t i o n of sex as a v a r i a b l e served a very u s e f u l pupose i n the a n a l y s i s , that i s , i t showed how the o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n between choice of occupation and attachment i s suspect. 2. Choice of Working Conditions Reexamined The case of the in d i c a t o r s of choice of working conditions represents an improvement over that of choice of occupation. The four i n d i c a t o r s which were used can be ranked from high to low i n terms of the -168-percentages of responses: 1. Which subject I teach 84% 2. Which grade level I teach = 80 3. Which school d i s t r i c t I teach = 74 4, Which school I teach = 70 These questions made sense to the respondents, as illustrated from their comments:' These were the only comments we received. However,' i t i s 1 evident that the respondents were able to comprehend the constraints they experienced. From their answers we can be sure that they understood the questions as they were intended to be understood. Perhaps more direct measure of choice concerning working conditions (e.g., number of students they would want to teach, or the a b i l i t y to refuse to deal with "problem students") can be added to the l i s t . But there is no guarantee that these measures would bring out the relation between variables any stronger than the relation observed already. However, our confidence in the research findings certainly improves i f we are reasonably sure of the adequacy of the indicators used for the key variables. The c r i t i c a l comment on the findings concerning choice of working conditions and attachment and the demographic variables i s not l i k e l y to One: Had choice originally, but hard to move when on higher pay scale and experience. (Referent i s the school d i s t r i c t . ) Two: My salary (maximum) is too high for other d i s t r i c t s . (Referent i s the school d i s t r i c t . ) Three: No choice, unless I drop back to elementary school where I started. (Referent i s the subject taught.) -169-be different from that already made on choice of occupation. The maximum association between choice of working conditions and attachment was .14 (table IV.2) when age is controlled. If a strong relationship were present in the data, i t should have come out when other variables l i k e d i s t r i c t size and sex were introduced in the analysis. Perhaps the original low association between choice of working conditions and attachment i s unalterable. No matter how many variables are introduced i n the analysis, the association does not improve. However^ since the introduction of the demographic variables in the analysis confirms the original low association, their contribution ought to be acknowledged. 3. Discretion Reexamined Much of teachers' behaviour is situationally oriented and geared to meeting the many and shifting claims which students, fellow teachers, and administrators make upon them. The loose structuring and the frequently changing facade and content of the teachers' work make i t d i f f i c u l t for the researcher to decide which means w i l l ensure a deeper understanding of the teachers' discretionary actions. One way out is to spend enough time in the school watching and talking to teachers; this the present researcher did not do extensively because of the style of the research. But very early in the planning of the research, in trying to form a perspective on the teachers' work, some help was sought from teacher friends, school administrators, and directors of secondary instruction, not to mention the help indirectly obtained by reviewing the relevant literature. The result of a l l the effort was that about nine items (Chapter II) were selected, albeit a r b i t r a r i l y , to e l i c i t responses about -170-the discretionary behaviours of teachers * These items were pretested, and as no apparent shortcomings were observed, the items were included i n the f i n a l questionnaire. Some minor changes in the wording of the quations did take place but these are of no consequence at this stage of the research. A c r i t i c a l look at the number of items makes these items look lik e the every day routine matters, which teachers take for granted as the "givens" of their job, and about which they keep their intimate feelings i n abeyance. When they are presented with a l i s t of what they do every day, the chances are that the items are not l i k e l y to e l i c i t a "reflective" response. Besides, i f the items provide response categories such as "much choice", "some choice", and "no choice", i t can be suspected that a "middle-of-the-road" response i s selected. And i f quite a large number of items i s involved, a response-set pattern may develop. It i s a possi b i l i t y that something of this sort did happen. For instance, the item,"experiment with new methods of instruction", e l i c i t e d as much as 99% response for the combined categories of "much choice" and "some choice". Was this item measuring teachers' discretion? How i s i t that.individual variations in the responses do not emerge? The absence of individual differences could be the reason that some respondents scored 1.00 on the discretion index. Maybe the respondents developed a "reactive 4 bias" that depressed their tendency to select the precise category they would have chosen on reflection. This can happen in survey research, especially when i t relies heavily on structured questions with fixed-choice categories. However, the "amount" of reactive bias that invalidates the responses, cannot be determined. As such,only c l a r i f i c a t i o n s can be introduced by including information that i s gathered without the direct -171-involvement of the respondents. It i s worthwhile to note that i t is precisely the measurement of variation which makes a measuring instrument interesting. The homogeneity of the responses must be responsible for bringing out low and negligible associations when the items on discretion were correlated with the summative index of attachment (Chapter III). There i s some contamination involved in the measurement of discretion. This contamination is the result of the presence of items on attachment in the same questionnaire. It i s well recognized that teachers have a certain f l e x i b i l i t y in the ways in which they make the tactical decisions — about their work, and they enjoy that f l e x i b i l i t y . Assuming that teachers are f a i r l y "satisfied" with their work, they are l i k e l y to impute certain meanings to the items they see, and they may not care to ponder about what the items imply. Their unfamiliarity with the subject-matter of the questionnaire may produce uncertainty about which answer to select. Stated differently, the emergence of an "acquiescent response""* among the respondents is uncontrollable. As a result of that they begin to endorse the agree categories and disregard other categories provided. And i f some corrective steps are not taken, the research findings can become strongly suspect. It would be a fascinating study i n i t s e l f , i f i t could be done, just to find out the seriousness with which the questions were answered. We should, however, hasten to add that certain research procedures were adopted to mitigate the effects of a response-set. For instance, this researcher was usually present in the school at the time the questionnaires were distributed. He talked to teachers frequently,, or -172-when he was approached by teachers themselves. He had enough opportunities to answer teachers' questions regarding the questionnaire items. But these exchanges were not as extensive as this researcher had hoped. It should be noted, however, that these remarks are not a criticism of teachers' involvement in this research, but these remarks are concerned with the issue of the f a l l i b i l i t y of the questionnaire as a measuring instrument. The questions were deemed to be self-explanatory, and the presence or absence of the researcher on the site of research is immaterial to the completion of the questionnaire. The point of the matter is that the discretion items f a l l somewhat short of e l i c i t i n g differentials in responses which, i f e l i c i t e d , can make the instrument an efficient one. We have no reasons to believe that the responses recorded on the questionnaire are misleading; however, the homogeneity of these responses is a matter that should not have gone unattended. Some findings deserve to be reviewed here. The highest degree of association between discretion and attachment was obtained (.20, table IV. 3) when d i s t r i c t size i s controlled. This association is low and i s not adequate by any means. Presently, i t has "prolonged the l i f e " of the hypothesis that discretion i s associated with attachment positively. Most of the findings emerging from the tabular analysis are not very different from the findings on choice of occupation and working conditions, simply because we are rotating the same data over and over again. It may be pointed out that some alternative measures of discretion were not included in the questionnaire, partly because i t was hoped that -173-the items already provided would work, and partly because the instrument was not to be made a lengthy one. Alternative measures like asking teachers to indicate the average "number" of times in a week they have to meet chance, unanticipated happenings and the "precise" ways in which they meet them, can be useful measures of their discretion i n work. These items can be be supplemented by asking teachers to indicate the "per cent" of their training, expertise, and s k i l l s , which come into play as they go about their work in the schools. Since the exercise of discretion is the outcome of teachers' s k i l l s , competencies, and expertise, such other indicators would serve to measure discretion stringently. These -indicators would also measure the "extent" to which teachers do exercise discretion. 4. Teaching Orientations Reexamined The argument separating the three teaching orientations (emphasis on student relations, subject-matter, and discipline and control) is a theoretical one. It has already been stated that the intention was to find out i f a strong emphasis on one was compatible with a weak or no emphasis on the others. Each of these orientations was understood to represent a teaching style about which information needs to be collected. It i s a defensible argument that one teaching style i s different from the others in i t s focus. But, somehow this argument i s not exhaustive because i t f a i l s to take into account the diversity in the students, with whom the teachers deal. For instance, a teacher emphasizes subject-matter with one class, maybe because he/she feels i t is in the interest of the students. But the next hour, a new class comesj and the teacher -174-i s pleased to give teaching a personal touch just because he/she likes the kids - i t is a perfectly normal behaviour for teachers to l i k e some classes more than they l i k e others. S t i l l another class i s met during the day and the teacher becomes a disciplinarian. The different adjustments which teachers have to make from one class to the next are by their content t a c t i c a l and they may not be easily "captured" by a few general questions. Stated differently, teachers make c r i t i c a l choices about the sequence, duration, and tempo of the communication of knowledge. Their teaching styles constitute vocabularies of motives which w i l l dictate -----.v.the broad preferences for the bases on which knowledge i s to be transmitted. It i s conceivable that teachers would be sensitive to the manner they adopt in transmitting knowledge, and they would regard the manners which are not in line with their personal preferences with indifference.Thus, the search for a distinct teaching orientation among the several present i s a compelling one. If i t Is found to exist, i t would enhance our understanding of the ways which f a c i l i t a t e the transfer of knowledge to pupils. As a strategy of measurement, i f teachers are s t r a t i f i e d according to the number of classes they teach, and each class is made the referent for the measurement of their teaching style, and then perhaps a "prepotent" teaching style can be understood - a style which i s frequently adopted by the teachers concerned. It should be apparent from this suggestion that a f a i r l y elaborate and exclusive research design would have to be developed to accomplish this task. And such a design could not be included -175-in the present one owing to other pressing tasks. However, i t is a possi b i l i t y that with an elaborate research design, the findings on the three teaching orientations would be strikingly different from those of the present research. A few comments on the measurement of the three teaching orientations must be made. The way i n which questions about them were phrased contained an element of loadedness.. That loadedness was experienced by the responding teachers, as the following comments by them i l l u s t r a t e : One teacher, about subject-matter: Depends upon the course and the students in the course. — Another, on discipline: • - - - '- - • - ------ -What type - self or teacher oriented. Some general observations by another: Teaching is not a black and white subject. Each student i s different. Each group of students is different. This teacher could have been reminded, in a face-to-face interaction., that the difference among students was not under dispute. Perhaps the same teacher would then have supplied an illuminating answer i f the questions were ex p l i c i t l y stated to him. The specific findings on the relation between attachment and an emphasis on student relations deserve to be reexamined. The data have shown that the associations between attachment and an emphasis on student relations are negligible or low even when the demographic variables, age and sex, are controlled. Thus the data have consistently failed to support the postulated relationship between attachment and an emphasis on student relations. However, the findings, both for women and men, can be examined in -175-th e ligh t of some existing research. For instance, i t has been argued by Goldsen et a l . / that men are quite happy to be working with things rather than people; women are more concerned with self-expression and want to work with people and be helpful to others. If this were the case, some evidence would have emerged from the present research. For example, i t could be expected that men teachers w i l l de-emphasize student relations and cultivate impersonality in their work by emphasizing subject-matter or discipline and control. It could also be expected that women teachers would strongly emphasize student relations because i t is in keeping with their preferences in work. The findings of this research do not support this sort of reasoning. This research did not show any notable differences between men and women with regard to their emphasis on student relations, subject-matter, or discipline and control. In another research study, Davis^ has observed that both sex and patterns of interest provide a good prediction of. occupational choice. Among the cases that he studied, 70 per cent of the women with "service" interests chose teaching, compared with 5 per cent of the men who were oriented toward money. If women's preferences for a service oriented job were a stable tendency, i t might have shown in the data of this research. In their case, a stronger emphasis on student relations should have emerged which, at the same time, would have been an indication of their attachment to teaching - a job that certainly provides opportunities for service to others. In sum, several variables have been considered in this research, but s t i l l there are no indications that individual differences between men -177-and women teachers are subject to a generalization. The task of providing some conclusive evidence should better be l e f t to some future undertaking. 5 . Collegial Interaction Interpersonal relations among teachers is an important area of research. The brief venture made into this area by this researcher was the outcome of several v i s i t s to various schools prior to the research undertaking. Staff-rooms were observed in which the teachers were eating, reading newspaper and making occasional comments on the "Canucks"; as such these comments were usually one-way. There were other staff-rooms in which verbal exchanges were the norm, and teachers created the "impression as i f they knew each other well; There were'other staff-rooms" -which were found almost empty even during the lunch hours. These myriad scenes roused the interest of this researcher to the effect that an attempt was made to look into the di f f e r e n t i a l modes of interaction by using some theoretical arguments. These were the supposition that the d i f f e r e n t i a l interaction among teachers may be the result of their dissatisfaction with teaching. The basic argument was simple and not very rigorous that association with others is a sensate, existential experience which is not resistant to a theoretical explanation. In other words, teachers are not "physically" alone when they are at work in schools. If they want to withdraw to the private and personal spheres of "self", there might be a social basis responsible for that withdrawal. To the extent that the formation of friendships with others is voluntary and the desire for friendships individualistic, the need is there to take up these matters empirically, and to attempt to -178-understand the formation of friendships by invoking an empirically verif i a b l e proposition. Ours was of this kind even though i t does not seem to have worked very satisfactorily. Vie observed earlier (Chapter V) that for larger d i s t r i c t s , the evidence of friendships among teachers in the same school was noticeably different than the one observed for the smaller d i s t r i c t s . For larger d i s t r i c t s , the association between attachment and having friends in the same school was supported by the data (table V . l ) . One explanation for that association i s the fact that large d i s t r i c t s contain large schools which are organized round departments for various subjects. These departments are a monocratic organization, i.e., they bring together like-professionals. Teachers belonging to such departments have a large say in determining policies related to the subjects they teach. (In one big school, this researcher found that the teachers i n certain departments could determine the nature of discipline they wanted to enforce among the students.) As teachers in the same department work together, their cooperation xtlth each other stimulates and heightens their interaction. It is understandable that they tend to have friendships in the same school. Since they are busy with work most of the time, their, friendships with teachers elsewhere are limited; that is why the data have shown l i t t l e support for friendships extending beyond the school in which teachers work. In smaller d i s t r i c t s , with fewer schools, and a relative degree of isolation from the big urban centres, the opportunities for teachers to be friends with colleagues are different than for their counterparts in larger, urban d i s t r i c t s . The data showed a negligible association between -179-th eir attachment and their tendency to have friends in the same school; the association concerning friendships in other schools was low and negative (table V . l ) . It is not possible to delineate a l l the qualitative differences between the friendships of teachers and the special circumstances that promote friendships among them. However, we should qualify the statements about friendships with teachers elsewhere In this research we did not specify i f those other teacher friends were in the same d i s t r i c t or elsewhere. We were not interested i n the exact locale of these friends. We were interested i n finding out i f the c i r c l e of friendships among teachers extended beyond their own school and i f these friendships were the result of their liking for teaching. And the data presented in Chapter V have shown that there i s a tendency among the teachers in larger school d i s t r i c t s to that effect Thus, the postulated relationship between attachment and having friends among teachers in the same school and other schools is supported but for nearly one-half of the sample or the subsample of women alone. We need to make another qualification. We have measured frienships among teachers and not just "knowing" other teachers or just getting together with them. There is a qualitative difference between the meanings of these words. Friendships involve knowing the number of teachers with whom one shares confidences and discusses matters not related with the work of the school. Getting together with other teachers in the staff meetings, or "socials" i s a different matter. The measurement of friendships done in this research is quite stringent and this needs to be remembered for a proper appreciation of the finding - 1 8 0 -6. The Teacher Population One should not forget how diverse classroom teachers are as a group. They vary in several dimensions, e.g., the grade level they teach, the subject they teach, length of teaching experience and training, formal degrees and certificates they possess, background, and even "idiosyncracies i f one may be permitted to be a l i t t l e petulant. (This researcher i s not insensitive to their problems, though.) This diversity i s li k e l y to show in their teaching practices, behaviours, and attitudes or whatever we wish to study about them. The intention of this research was not to study that diversity. If teachers' diversity were the focus, the.research design .would be a:-different one. The present research was exploratory, and the exploratory rationale resulted in developing a questionnaire that was addressed to a certain homogeneity among teachers. However, the point needs to be emphasized that teachers' diversity can be a useful tool in data analysis. The sample can be s t r a t i f i e d into sub-groups and aspects of teachers' responses to the items of the questionnaire can be studied. As the present sample was small, not much could be accomplished i n the analysis. About 224 cases, teaching from grades VIII to XII, some teaching at both the junior and senior secondary levels, are not enough for division into sub-groups which would be meaningful for cross-tabulations. Hence, some of the inconclusiveness of the findings i s attributable to the smallness of the sample because i t did not permit the use of certain viable analytical strategies. Some general observations which have been made on teachers as -181-research subjects may be considered in passing. For instance, Trow" has stated that teachers are d i f f i c u l t subjects for the survey researcher. Many of them, by virtue of their profession, mistrust survey research and the ways in which i t gathers data. They resent structured questionnaires about complicated issues, presenting forced choices among limited alternatives. They do not want to be studied through methods that appear to them mechanical and stereotyed. In the experience of this researcher, teachers were generally cooperative, once he had broken through the administrative red-tape and approached the teachers for the research. However, he found that- there were some reticent teachers, even though they had willingly accepted the questionnaire. As to their reactions to this research, i t is d i f f i c u l t to formulate any definite opinions. Some of their comments have been recorded below, and these provide a measure of support to the foregoing observations. But their comments also accent individual differences among them. 7. Let the Respondents Speak! We wish to cap the general self-evaluative tone of this chapter with comments from teachers which they recorded on the questionnaire. They serve to i l l u s t r a t e the predicaments of both the resaarchar and the respondents themselves. Your survey questions need considerably more refinement before the above answers (mine) w i l l really reflect my attitude. I feel I have not given you any information by completing this. The answers a l l depend upon my personality, my students, and my personal teaching none of which can be measured by this sort of survey. -182-I hope you do not pretend to now know what's going on. These questions are too value packed and don't allow for individual circumstances. Possibly my answers may not be significant to your consensus, due to the fact that I am in the fortunate position of teaching because I want to not because I have to. Please note the subject that I teach when you consider my answers on page 2. (teaching orientations) Not much room for shades of black and white in some of the questions. This questionnaire is too ambiguous and vague. But does checking squares t e l l the whole story? Do I interpret the word "choice" as you do? Good luck to you and your project. It won't change .. the world. Rather pointless. (A personal sense of modesty forbids this researcher to reproduce the "laudatory" comments.) -183-REFERENCES 1. D.C. Mi l l e r , Handbook of Research Design and Social Measurement, New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1971, pp. 6-20. 2. T. Hirschi and H.C. Selvin, Principles of Survey Analysis, New York: The Free Press, 1973, p. 75. 3. Ibid., p. 100. 4. E.J. Webb, e_t a l . , Unobtrusive Measures, Chicago: Rand Mclially Company, 1966, pp. 13-15. 5. Ibid., p. 19. 6. See R.K. Goldsen, et a l . , What College Students Think, Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1960. 7. See J.H. Davis, Great Aspirations, Vol. 1, Chicago: National . — Opinion Research Centre, 1963. . . . . 8. M. Trow,"Survey Research and Education," in C.Y. Glock, ed., Survey Research in the Social Sciences, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1967, pp. 351-69. Chapter VIII ATTACHMENT REASSESSED Has attachment been adequately studied on the basis of teachers' responses to the questionnaire items? And have the research procedures provided an adequate answer to the question raised earlier -"why do people engage in their occupations continuously and consistently"? An examination of. what became known through observation, conversations with, teachers, and the c r i t i c a l remarks by teachers to the questionnaire items together indicate that a second look ought to be given to the measurement of attachment. This revision entails essentially two tasks: (1) a delineation of the larger Context of work attachment research, from which this study derives i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n and i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y ; and (2) a presentation of additional observational data which serve to enlarge and improve the picture of attachment developed from the measures used in this research. Since these observational data were gathered independent of the cooperation of teachers, i t i s believed that they w i l l greatly reduce the uncertainty of interpretation of attachment findings.^" Stated differently, these data w i l l provide a " r e l i a b i l i t y check" on the conception and measurement of attachment, and consequently, w i l l provide clues that may be used in future research on teachers' attachment to the job. 1. The Larger Context of Attachment The larger context of job attachment studies i s quite disparate. Making sense of that disparateness is a laborious task which cannot be accomplished adequately in the present research. This disparateness has resulted partly because of the ways in which job-attachment has been theorized. As a sensate (184) -185-existential phenomenon, attachment to the job i s not resistant to theoretical explanations which can be different from one another in their focus. Many studies on job attachment and related concepts have already . been mentioned; many more of equal merit might have been referred to with equal pertinence. But the studies mentioned were intended to be i l l u s t r a t i v e rather than inclusive. One may say that major issues and research approaches have been delineated. However, an extended interest i n the f i e l d suggests that a few more of these studies may be mentioned to view in detail the important contribution that some of them have made. The studies under ^•--.reference are those which attempted to focus on x^ork i t s e l f i n order to assess attachment to the job. Though their focus has not been very pronounced, but as i t was one of the points of departure for these studies, i t needs to be mentioned. 2 The early surveys carried out by Hoppock approached the study of attachment with the easiest vay out: by asking people to what extent they are satisfied with their work. Another approach in studying attachment has employed the "free response" method of asking people to write essays about 3 4 what they l i k e in their jobs. The studies of Herzberg et a l . , employed the c r i t i c a l "incident" approach. The latter studies need to be singled out because they are theoretically more sophisticated than the others. Herzberg and his colleagues carried-out a number of surveys in which engineers and accountants were asked to describe occasions when they had f e l t "exceptionally good" or "exceptionally bad" about their jobs. Through the analysis of the responses obtained, i t was found that achievement, -186-recognition, the work i t s e l f , responsibility and advancement brought about good experiences. And supervision, company policy, fellow workers and working conditions brough about bad experiences. Their theory, now labelled as a "two-factor theory", had concluded that "motivating" factors (achievement, etc.) affect satisfaction, while "hygiene" factors (supervision, etc.) affect dissatisfaction. However, other researchers employing the same theory have obtained rather different results.^ It i s possible that these inconsistent results were obtained because the theory e l i c i t s biased replies from the respondents or because the researchers themselves introduce biases in coding the responses. It is also possible that satisfaction i s not the opposite of.dissatisfaction a s v these researchers imply. Again, i t i s possible that the sources of satisfaction are not independent of the sources of dissatisfaction, and the inconsistent results are obtained because of an inadequate conceptualization of attachment. The foregoing researches mention satisfaction with work i t s e l f but they f a i l to treat i t with methodological rigour. For instance, in order to form an adequate theoretical perspective, i t i s worthwhile to delineate the bases of satisfaction with work i t s e l f : people get attached to the work i t s e l f because they are expected to keep their work l i f e stable; people get attached to work i t s e l f because they come to be identified with what they do; and people get attached to the work i t s e l f because they prefer to engage in i t rather than engage in something else. These bases of attachment with the work i t s e l f point to something different than the answer which is conventionally given, i.e., people get attached to the -187-work i t s e l f because i t provides a measure of their latent potentialities or capacities. In addition, as a strategy of measurement of attachment, i t is worthwhile to remember that by employing measures to which the respondents are "blind", their biases in responses can be greatly reduced. 6 In other words, i t is essential that adequate attention be given not only to the ways in which conceptualization of attachment proceeds, but also that steps be undertaken which help to refine this conceptualization. Adequate conceptualization i s a task that i s accomplished primarily in the beginning of a research undertaking, but refinement is a task that can continue to occur even when the data are being collected. It is during this latter stage that observational data can be collected which, later on, can be quite useful i n interpreting the results. Both of these tasks have been further elucidated in the discussion that follows. The explic i t concern of this research was ±o study and to establish linkages between choice of occupation, choice of working conditions, and discretion i n work and work-attachment. The data gave weak support to the relationship between these variables; however, when certain control variables ivere introduced in the analysis, the relationship between choice of occupation and work-attachment was moderate for women and in the expected direction; i t was weak for young teachers even though the size of the correlation showed an increase of ten correlation points over the original correlation of .15. However, d i s t r i c t size, age, and sex seemed not to have any noticeable effect on the relationship between choice of working conditions, discretion i n work and work-attachment. In some respects i t was possible to suggest which of the -188-"choice" variables, or which of the demographic variables had a greater effect on attachment separate from the others. In this mode of analysis, the theoretical a f f i n i t i e s with researches done on job satisfaction, job involvement, work attachment, and occupational involvement are obvious. What this research chiefly shares with the earlier work i s the conception of attachment as an emotional bond which results i f certain conditions exist for individual need satisfaction or for integration within the employing organizations. What this research does not share with other studies i s the analytical distinction between attachment to the job per se, and attachment as reflected through the set of relationships which a job entails. This analytical distinction was accented by delineating the three dimensions of attachment: preference for the job, valuing success in one's job, and identification with the job. These three dimensions derive their rationale from the societal context which recognizes the fact that people l i v e in society and i n relationships with others. And people's conception of what is desirable in l i f e i s derivable in part from the generalized conceptions prevalent i n the society in which they l i v e . In other words, the conception of attachment as an emotional bond was given a sociological bias rather than a psychological one which is concerned solely with personal evaluations or attitudes. To measure attachment, six indicators employed in this study were intercorrelated (Chapter II) in order to provide a basis for combining them in and index of work-attachment. If an element of imprecision entered the measurement process, i t would be a point which i3 incontestable. Presently, i t can be suggested that a search for more convincing measures of concepts is an on-going activity. And this search measurably -189-improves as more insights are gained through empirical investigation and evaluated in light of insights which already exist. Perhaps, one can add that the only s t a b i l i t y belongs to the process of inquiry i t s e l f rather than to a set of indicators. 2 . Attachment: Reconsideration and Enlargement What became known through observation, conversations with teachers, and their remarks on the questionnaire items suggests that in between attachment to the job or dissatisfaction with i t , there can be a gray neutral response - the job is a role which one performs, among others, during the course of a single day. This gray neutral response, i n more -expressive terms," might be'called "adaptation" to the job requir-ements. - '" •' It implies that the features of work and work environment become so well known to people that they find i t d i f f i c u l t to think of them as something deserving of special attention or curiosity. Alluding to the presence or absence of any external conditions (e.g., freedoms or constraints) which may or may not induce attachment, provides a starting point for an inquiry directed at determining which two variables in the job environment hold together - i t is this kind of inquiry which constituted the essential "sociological task" i n this research. However, adaptation to job requirements i s not "non-attachment", but a process of coming to terms with the "givens" of the job and i t s environment. The psychological and social requirements of people who work, and their emotional bonds become boundary conditions to their performance. It may be mentioned, that the operational specifications of the social -190-and psychological requirements of people for a particular kind of work environment are not easy to make. But i f they are met by work i t s e l f or by the work environment, i t would probably show in their performance on the job or might even enhance the quality of their work l i f e . I f , however, these requirements are not met, i t i s l i k e l y that most people would continue to perform at a level which is acceptable to their employing organizations. And this performance level, i f maintained, enables them to survive occupationally and without loss of face. How pervasive this kind of adaptation to the job i s or how pervasive i t can be, i s a question which cannot be answered by the present inquiry. Suffice i t to say, that -this mode of thinking about jobs can provide insights into work experiences xfhich otherwise would be l e f t out i f one consistently looked at these work experiences through the emotional bonds of people or through the subjective evaluations of people. Any indications of a neutral or a non-committal attitude towards the job are not necessarily evidence of non-adaptation, but these indications should lead one to look analytically at the structure of jobs and how they are done. It is through studying this job performance that the extent to which attachment and/or adaptation exists, would become known. To substantiate this viewpoint, certain features of the teachers' job need to be discussed i n some d e t a i l . And i n so doing, we can consider only a few aspects of their job, and these aspects have been deliberately chosen to i l l u s t r a t e the general and obvious point that theirjob and i t s social milieu are .-.ot easily matched by other kinds of jobs. Therefore, i t follows that a study of teachers' attachment to the job is not easily -191-comparable with studies of attachment to the job which are unlike teaching in major respects. Classroom Behaviour: Interpersonal exchanges are endemic and they occur between teachers and students a l l the time. These exchanges can be quite extensive. For instance, the classroom of an art teacher that this researcher visited looked almost chaotic during the f i r s t ten minutes. As the teacher entered, there were ten students with different demands: one required supervision; some required evaluation and direction of tasks already assigned to them; one or two were requesting stationery items; and the others wanted permission to leave the classroom. Also, some memos which required the teacher's attention, were si t t i n g on the table. It was o o f by'any means a ' typical day of a typical class hour. But handling too subjects, two grade levels, with 50-60 students, five days a week, forty weeks in a year implies some adpative a b i l i t y on the part of the teacher, no matter what his/her feelings are about the job. What personal qualities enable teachers to withstand the demands of a classroom, i s a matter which needs to be taken into consideration in measuring teachers' attachment to the job. And this i s a matter which is understandable through extensive observation and not through structured questions alone. In addition, the content and sequence of the interchanges between the teachers and students cannot be planned with any exactitude. Yet teachers cope with these and make discretionary decisions i n meeting students' demands in the classroom. Whether or not this particular aspect can be included in assessing teachers' attachment to the job, w i l l depend on what other indicators are being used, and how confident the researcher i s about the adequacy of those indicators. -192-For teachers, their continuous contact with students constitutes a special source of satisfaction. The following comments by three teachers are illuminating. An Art Teacher: Teaching is a war of a t t r i t i o n - a battle you have to fight everyday. Not i n the sense of a war but, even in the least job, one would get bored or tired. After 2000 lessons, how motivated can a human being act. S t i l l , a l l in a l l , I enjoy teaching. A Science Teacher: I find that teaching has become more exhausting. There are many more pressures now than there used to be. I think that working with youth i s most rewarding. A Social Studies Teacher: A rewarding career, but I find I spend an average of f i f t y - f i v e hours on school a c t i v i t i e s . While in the classroom, there are other sources of teacher satisfaction, e.g., some of them convey a sense of personal usefulness in helping the students to develop, in teaching them something different from one week to the next. Some teachers watch the faces of their students to see i f they have the "light" of understanding - the use of metaphor and simile is not uncommon among teachers. It follows, therefore, that indicators of attachment l i k e preference for teaching, success in teaching, and identification with teaching, can be supplemented with those indicators which suggest teachers' adaptation to the demands of their classrooms. Supervision: Quite a few teachers in one of the school d i s t r i c t s which I visited reported that they were not closely supervised, and whether or -193-not they w i l l work on their job is l e f t to them. In other words, they could close their door and "be" in their classrooms. They had a good feeling about their work in that the d i s t r i c t administration did not act as a watchdog over them a l l the time. One implication (and not a generalization by any means) of this aspect of teachers' satisfaction i s that teachers get to know and internalize, to a certain extent, the expectations of their immediate administrators and the school board. They tend to avoid those behaviors which would endanger their reputation and the reputation of their schools. Any limitations which are placed on them through d i s t r i c t policy are accepted as part, of the prevalent educational conditions. Host of their -attention revolves around the particular group of students with whom they work and with the specific details of the classroom work. In doing this work, they have to cooperate, i f not completely agree, with administrative actions initiated by the school administrators i n the school and in the school d i s t r i c t . Indications of non-cooperation are l i k e l y to work against the teachers' professional self-image, hence, their dissatisfaction with the administration may not manifest i t s e l f in their indifference with the job they do. Job Requisites: Teaching requires a certain discipline on the job and an acceptance of individual responsibility for job performance. The school board retains the right to renew the contract of teachers. The "costs'' of failure to meet job requirements are heavy. This pressure, complemented by support from fellow teachers, internalization of the code of ethics, and expectations of their administrators, a l l enable the -194-teachers to determine in part the quality of their performance themselves. At present we do not know the quality of performance required from teachers, hence a further refinement of this aspect of teachers' behaviour is not possible. However, since teachers are l e f t to determine their own performance level, they do what their "security" needs suggest them to do, i.e., perform at a level that ensures continuous employment. A recent study of teacher demand and supply in the province of British Columbia has revealed that qualified professional teachers prefer to stay in rich , urban, and climatically agreeable d i s t r i c t s . ^ (The school d i s t r i c t s from which the data for the present research were collected f a l l within these c r i t e r i a in relative terms.) By implication, we might suggest that teachers in the "good" d i s t r i c t s "have i t made"; they have got their tenure, and they w i l l continue to perform at a level which i s acceptable to their d i s t r i c t administration. Such performance by teachers, though not substantiable here, i s an indication of adaptation on practical grounds. They may remain neutral or non-committal to such indicators of attachment, as preference for teaching, identification with teaching or valuing success i n teaching. If, however, theoretical reasoning suggests that 'preference', 'identification and 'success' are viable concepts for studying attachment, then the inquiry can be directed towards asking teachers whether or not they are satisfied with their teaching assignment during the current year, and whether or not they would l i k e to have the same teaching assignment over the next academic year. This mode of inquiry would put certain temporal boundaries on attachment and enable us to assess i t s fluctuations; -195-otherwise we might assume, unrealistically of course, that attachment is a stablized, i f not a static experience. g The Zeigarnik Effect: For.several decades now, psychologists have talked about a psychological phenomenon called the Zeigarnik effect, named after i t s discoverer, which stresses that the human psyche has a low tolerance for incompleteness. (This perhaps would explain some of the dissatisfaction which industrial workers experience under extreme conditions of job fragmentation.) We resist being interrupted and have a strong desire to fi n i s h what we are doing. This could be true; assuming that we have control over what we are doing. To i l l u s t r a t e , .when a teacher i s teaching a subject, he/she teaches i t continuously, once the i n i t i a l outline has been worked out in the light of the curriculum guide. Lessons l e f t unfinished today can be completed tomorrow or the day after, or from week to x^ eek t i l l the end of the year. The extent of teachers' control over x-;ork in the classroom is tight; the scope of control x-zithin the classroom of the subject taught and student behaviours is extensive; and the amount of discretion exercised in handling interpersonal exchanges with students is considerable, i f one takes into account such refinements of teachers' xrork. Since teachers' jobs are not fragmented, this might have an indirect influence on their job satisfaction - a consideration which cannot be ruled out. Another related issue: Which one area of xrork do teachers regard with priority? Is i t classroom instruction, paper-xrork, or extra-curricular activities? If there was one such area, i t would be possible to concentrate on that to e l i c i t teachers' responses to that area and -196-th en to determine their attachment. At present we do not know i f there is one task which teachers regard as important. An English teacher had remarked: Outside from minor hassles or paper-work, etc., I can think of no job which is as rewarding (although somewhat frustrating at times - because of my own inexperience and inadequacy) than teaching. Another English teacher had remarked: Marking and paper-vrork, registers etc., make teaching less enjoyable, One is never free from one or the other. The point of the matter is that teachers' responsibilities involve not only instruction but also management of the physical environment of the class, and related administrative matters. Their feelings about teaching cannot be separated from their feelings about non-teaching matters. The scope of-control over non-teaching matters is wide and does not rest with teachers. Their education and experience might enhance their competence in the subjects they teach, which in turn might entitle them to determine more and more what ought to be taught in the classroom. But by the same token, they resemble an "encapsulated man", who, as a practical matter, must forbid himself from thinking in an area where only other specialists can think because they have the data. If teachers are tempted to extend the exercise of discretion in those areas which are outside the definition of their job, and their formal training, the consequences of their actions for the employing organization might be intolerable. Teachers at the secondary level are mostly subject-area specialists. -197-They can raise their expectations about control over what they teach but they could not control, at least to the same degree, the overall goals of school education which, i n practice, are determined by various administrative levels. Their discretion would be operative within the broad goals set down by their employing d i s t r i c t s and i t would pertain to those matters which teachers themselves w i l l handle. In this sense, teachers 1 discretion over instructional matters needs to be viewed analytically and r e a l i s t i c a l l y . Any gains which teachers make in controlling instructional matters i s balanced by their adaptation to certain policy matters initiated by the school administration. Their verbal affirmation of their satisfaction with teaching matters and dissatisfaction-with non-teaching matters need not be equated with their abiding commitment to teaching as a career. A refinement needs to be introduced i n working out the specific areas which teachers regard as their "rightful role". Given the diversity of tasks which teachers are expected to perform as part of their teaching job, the global indicators of preference for teaching, identification with teaching, and success i n teaching somewhat cloak the nature of teachers' responses. Only observational data can help to supplement the understanding of attachment that i s gained through structured questions. Some evidence which this researcher collected, suggests that the administrative constraints which the teachers experienced did not create the effect which would be attributable to them, one of dissatisfaction with teaching, but rather the teachers adapted to those constraints in a manner that did not hamper their work in the classroom. -198-Staff Dscisions: The seven schools which this researcher visited during data collection, were different according to the number of meetings they had. For schools,it i s mandatory to have at least one staff meeting during the year. However, meetings are arranged whenever the necessity arises, and they can be as frequent as once a month. The matters x^hich are discussed in these meetings can vary in importance, and this researcher has no means of assessing that importance. However, the sense of participation which teachers have i s not determinable because i t was not the focus of this research. But this could be an important aspect of teachers' overall satisfaction with the internal organization of the school. _ .. - ' ~."'. y "' ' • Among the schools v i s i t e d , larger schools were divided into departments, with a senior teacher acting as the head. The department as a whole was responsible for instructional matters, discipline, and the conduct of the courses, as long as the department remained x^ithin the boundaries permitted by the curriculum guide and the administrative policy set-down for the whole d i s t r i c t . (The relationship betx^een departments and the principal's office can vary from one school to the next.) In one school, the teachers were pleased about the relative xrorking autonomy they had over the curriculum. In addition to participation i n decision making in the school, teachers have local and provincial associations which attempt to influence policies through collective representation. Any existing reduction i n teachers' influential participation in decision making is offset by their "hope" that gradual gains can be obtained through collective effort. 199-The extent to which teachers participate in decision making is related to whether or not the school in which they work has become thoroughly routinized, or perhaps their participation is related to the frequency with which important decisions have to be made.^^ The goals of education are broad. Matters related with curriculum are decided before the school term starts. And the assignment of duties to teachers i s allocated before the term starts; hence any decisions which are made later during the year are made within the broad policies already agreed on. So perhaps important decisions are not made often enough to be a consideration relevant for teachers' participation in them, unless the study were undertaken at a time when those decisions were being made. Maybe a f a i r amount of teachers' work has become routinized; the non-routinized aspects are not v i s i b l e enough once the school term has started. However, for any meaningful conclusion regarding this aspect of teachers' work, more evidence is needed. Some of the schools which this researcher vi s i t e d , did have procedures worked out for most of the work to be handled from week to week. And the way the staff meetings were arranged, he found, that the teachers were generally satisfied with them. Participation in decision making indicates some control, and the existence of control contributes to satisfaction, as Blauner has noted. In the case of teachers, the satisfaction measured through indicators l i k e preference for teaching, identification with teaching, and valuing success in teaching can perhaps be augmented by indicators l i k e participation in decision making. But i t ought to be remembered, that even this augmentation may not strengthen our conclusions, because not - 200 -a l l teachers participate in these meetings with equal zest. However, teachers' participation in the decision-making processes in i t s e l f , i s an interesting area of inquiry deserving of a separate study; hut i t can reveal quite a lot as to how they feel about their participation in the working of the school. 3 . Some Alternative Measures From some of the recognizable features of their job, and the nature of their performance, i t seems that teachers respond to practical considerations more often than can be anticipated in a theoretical argument. Their adaptation to the requirements of their jobs, seems to suggest that a r e a l i s t i c assessment of teachers' attachment needs to be refined i n two ways: (1) by enlarging the number of indicators, and (2) by focussing on those processes by which teachers meet the requirements of their job, in addition to those indicators which focus on their "feeling states". Teachers' adaptation to their role requirements, when coupled with the presence of positive affective responses, could be labelled as job involvement (synonymous with the present usage of the phrase); and when coupled with a negative affective response, i t could be labelled as "alienation". In addition, the concept "adaptation" permits the study of attachment to the job without defining attachment in "feeling states" of individuals. Some indicators of attachment used in this research require a c r i t i c a l comment. For example, the item "whether or not teachers would li k e to have one of their children in teaching" was misinterpreted. In the case of miners who have been reported to say that they would not have -201-any of their children in mining, this item is l i k e l y to e l i c i t a clearly positive or negative response depending upon how the miners are disposed toward their job. But consider the following remarks by some teachers to this particular item: I have no intention of influencing my children's l i f e decisions. Depends on what kind of people they turn out to be, who knows. Have no children. It i s up to them. As they are young I have not had time to observe the necessary qualities that I consider necessay for a teacher. If they feel they can handle i t . Would agree i f i t were their choice. I couldn't really care ... While each of these responses is open to interpretation on an individual basis, the item raises certain doubts about i t s proper place amidst other items. Besides these remarks, about 52% of the respondents chose the "uncertain" response category to this item, x^hich does not lend any strength to other items. Because of the many-faceted responses that this item e l i c i t e d and the low contribution that i t makes to other items, this item cannot be regarded as a very satisfactory indicator of attachment to the job. Another point pertains to the teachers' self-assessments of their own work. This self-assessment can give some indication of their attachment to the job. Consider the following two remarks by teachers: - 202 -Teaching is a highly under-rated profession. Once teachers realize how much freedom they have -i f they choose to exercise i t - they cease to complain and w i l l certainly enjoy working with students who are always new and challenging. One could argue that such a self-assessment might be an exaggeration in their own favour. The prestige which the society at large accords to an occupational category may not correspond to this category's self-assessment. However, the matter is empirically v e r i f i a b l e . In the case of teachers, a recent study has reported that among high school students, parents, and school trustees, the predominant image of the teacher appears to be that of a highly respected member of the community, 12 a competent and skilled professional engaged in hard and demanding work. This study further reported that interestingly enough, teachers tend to under-rate their support and even accomplishments. Thus, i t seems possible to devise a subtractive model of teachers' attachment to the job, that i s , by working out the discrepancy between teachers' s e l f -assessment and the assessment of significant groups i n the community, of how they regard teaching as an occupation. This model may not replace other indicators of attachment, but i t could be used in conjunction with them, i f resources were available for introducing such additions to the measurement. If we say that we deepen our understanding to the extent that we sharpen the indices for concepts, or enlarge these indices, then there is no way of ensuring that the "gain" in understanding i s lik e l y to be equal to the "complexity" of the measurement. But i t can certainly enhance our confidence in the way in which the Inquiry i s conducted - because the alternatives have been considered. - 2 0 3 -Another point may be made regarding the question of an individual' identity with the occupational role. The argument i s tenable that, since a substantial part of people's lives is spent in occupational a c t i v i t i e s the work-roles serve to link people with others through interaction, and thereby form the basis of people's sense of personal identity. If a question relating to personal identity with one's occupation does not e l i c i t from the respondents an appropriate response, i t is l i k e l y that the researcher's level of abstraction remains unmatched by those of his respondents. Consider the following two comments by teachers: Sometimes - depends on who, and where I am. Sometimes I'm ashamed of the blatant incompetence of my colleagues. The relationship with my family is equally rewarding. Another teacher does not l i k e to be identified as a teacher i n private l i f e . And yet a l l the three teachers have been teaching for several years, and perhaps w i l l continue to teach, but their responses do not indicate a sense of identity with teaching even though they have been teaching every year. Could i t be that they are attached to teaching despite their reluctance to identify with the teaching role? The answer to this question is not available in light of the data presented so far. Perhaps the answer to the question as to why teachers continue to perform their work roles with or without verbalized feelings, at a level that is acceptable to their administration year after year, can be found in their i n i t i a l selection of a teaching career. Their formal - 2 0 4 -schooling preceding work is direct preparation for work. The study of teacher demand and supply done over a three-year period, 1969-71, reveals 13 that about 88.5% of those who had entered teaching were retained. The implication i s that those who choose teaching choose i t because they want to make i t a career - in the sense that they x-zant to continue i n i t . A study of undergraduate career decisions indicates that the most retentive f i e l d was education, as i t lost only 15% of students who began their university education as education majors. This study also reported that education as a career f i e l d ranked the highest in terms of recruiting students whose i n i t i a l f i e l d of study was outside education, and that when compared to the net gains of a f i e l d , education again had the highest gains of students making i t a career. This evidence throx^s some light on hox-7 an objective indicator may be used to measure attachment to an occupation, i.e., the retention rate of those who enter an occupation. Such an indicator adds something to those which rely mostly on the feeling states of individuals for validation. A Xv'ord of caution is necessary here. The amount of teacher turn-over as a measure of attachment implies that those who do not l i k e their job w i l l leave for something else. Whether those who do not l i k e their job actually leave i t for something else i s an assumption, because we have suggested in the preceding pages that the employed teachers may neutralize their feelings, and that they may not leave even when they do not l i k e their job. Thus, this particular indicator can be used in conjunction with others and not alone and separate from the others. In summary, from the foregoing comments, i t seems that teachers' -205-attachment to the job could best be conceived as their involvement in the work situation in the schools. The evidence and argument presented so far have suggested that several aspects of the work situation are gratifying to the teachers involved. The measures of attachment employed i n this research measured, perhaps, nothing more than the degree to which teachers are "internally" motivated to perform their job. Several shades of their attachment become known when their total situation and some of i t s salient features, are taken into account. Hence, for future research, those aspects of teachers' job which are gratifying to them should be combined with those measures that can be used objectively, i.e., independent of the cooperation of teachers. Of necessity, such a study would concentrate on studying attachment alone and study i t rather stringently. Inclusion of several measures for the same crucial concept is l i k e l y to involve a comprehensive research design concerned with making a contribution to the measurement theory - that is a task which goes well beyond the present exploratory study. However, i t needs to be emphasized that by supplying observational data, on the teachers' attachment to the job, the present research has attempted to enhance confidence in the data which were gathered through the structured questionnaire. It is believed that "the confluence of proof from two or more independent sources" reduces the uncertainty about the phenomenon , . , 15 • -stualed, REFERENCES 1. See E.J, Webb, et a l . , Unobtrusive Measures, Chicago: Rand McNaliy Company, 1966, pp. 1-3. 2. R. Hoppock, Job Satisfaction, New York: Harper, 1935* 3. See C.E. Evance and V.N. Lasseau, My Job Contest, Washington: Personnel Psychology Inc., 1950. 4. F. Herzberg, et a l . , Job Attitudes: Review of Research and Opinion, Pittsberg: Psychological Service of Pittsberg, 1957. 5. For example, see D.K. Lah i r i and S. Srivasta,"Determinants of Satisfaction in Middle-Management Personnel," Journal of Applied  Psychology, 51 (June 1967) pp. 254-65; C.L. Hulin and P. Smith, "An Empirical Investigation of Two Implications of the Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction," Journal of Applied Psychology, 51 (October 1967) pp. 396-402; and L.L. Cummings and A.M. El Salmi, "Empirical Research on the Bases and Correlates of Managerial Motivation: A Review1 of Literature," Psychological Bulletin, 70 (August 1968) pp. 127-44. 6. Unobtrusive Measures, op. c i t . , p. 20. 7. W.J. Hartrick, A Study of Teacher Supply and Demand and Some Related Factors in the Province of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.: Educational Research Institute of B.C., 1971, pp. 89-90. 8. A. Levenstein, Why People Work, New York: The Corwell-Collier Press, 1962, p. 113. 9. J.R. Royce,"Educating the Generalist," Main Currents i n Modern Thought, 17 (May-June 1961) pp. 99-100. 10. See C. Perrow,"A Framework for the Comparative Analysis of Organizations, American Sociological Review, 32 (April 1967) pp. 198-204. 11. R. Blauner,"Work Satisfaction and Industrial Trends," in W. Galenson and S.M. Lipset, eds., Labour and Trade Unionism, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1960, pp. 339-60. 12. A Study of Teacher Supply and Demand, op. c i t . , p. 78. 13. Ibid., pp. 9-16. See also, F.D. Carver and T. Sergiovanni,"Complexity, Adaptability and Job Satisfaction in High Schools: An Axiomatic Theory Applied," The Journal of Educational Administration, 9 (May 1971) pp. 15-19; and R.M. Pavalko,"Recruitment to Teaching," Sociology of Education, 43 (Summer 1970) pp. 340-53. - 2 0 7 -14. J.A. Davis, Undergraduate Career Decisions, Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co.,'1965, pp. 19-21. 15. H . Zeisel, Say i t with Figures, New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1968, rev. p. 190. Chapter IX A REVISED DESIGN FOR FURTHER RESEARCH In the previous two chapters, the c r i t i c a l evaluation of the research procedures has demonstrated the need for some extensive modifications in the content of the indicators used previously for the key variables. Since at this point the familiarity with the teachers' work-setting has increased considerably, i t may now be possible to formulate questions which can retrieve information in a f a i r l y well bounded manner. By paying greater attention to the indicators of crucial variables, a certain rigour w i l l be introduced to the fixed-choice questions. As a strategy of measurement, the fixed-choice questions may be methodologically expedient but they may f a l l short of a certain degree of theoretical sophistication i f their dimensions are l e f t unspecified. Our past experience has shown that some of the items used for discretion, choice of working conditions, and work-attachment, invoked queries from the respondents rather than provide them with a psychological continuity of their own experience. By attempting to provide this psychological continuity to the respondents, by formulating questions which are sensitive to the responses they are intended to e l i c i t , we w i l l be able to move In the direction of exercising a greater control over the means of e l i c i t i n g the desired information; this control was less than desirable in our previous undertaking. It is with these considerations in view that the following research design is presented. Since we are aiming for more stringent measurement, (208) -209-thus an elaborate design, we are excluding questions concerning the choice of occupation for the following reasons: As the working teachers have already made the i n i t i a l choice, questions on occupational choice at the present stage of their working career would e l i c i t nothing more than the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of change which they might envisage vaguely. And i f they have already received training, i n order to make teaching a career, then questions e l i c i t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s of change would tend to measure nothing more than wishful thinking. It i s possible that questions e l i c i t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s of change may in fact indicate job-attachment.^" Thus, i t i s essential that the measurement of job-attachment be kept distinct from the contaminating influences of the indices of occupational choice. Again, for the sake of economy of space, we are not considering questions on the teaching orientations and teacher-teacher contacts. Our focus of research is narrower than before and i s concerned with freedom of choice i n working conditions, discretion i n work, and job-attachment (or work-attachment). The Problem: The research problem focuses on; the following two questions addressed to teachers at the secondary level: 1 . To what extent do teachers experience a personal sense of freedom concerning working conditions and discretion in work? 2. Is this sense of freedom associated with their attachment to the job? L '. _ . . . These questions are limited in scope, but they are amenable to empirical treatment and test. -210-Concepts and Indicators: (1) Freedom of choice in working conditions w i l l be indicated to the extent that teachers say that (a) the subjects which they are presently teaching are appropriate to their areas of special training, (b) they have adequate opportunities to attend courses and conferences for their own professional development, and (c) they are often consulted by the school administration before i n i t i a t i o n of new programmes. To reinforce these subjective indicators, the following objective indicators can be used: (i) number of teachers not assigned to their subject area specialization either wholly or partly, ( i i ) number of teachers who are currently attending or who have made requests to attend courses/ conferences/seminars relating to their own academic development, and ( i i i ) during the past one year, the number of significant instances over which consultation took place between the school administrators and the teachers/teachers' representatives. (2) Freedom to exercise discretion in work w i l l be indicated to the extent that teachers say that (a) they can make changes in the prescribed curricula and materials for pupils who do not have the background to deal with them, (b) they can make decisions concerning the promotion and retention of students, and (c) they can determine and maintain their own pace of instruction without pressure from the school/district administration. Objective indicator: the number of cases of suspension/transfer/ problem-students in the classes handled by teachers over the last one year without recourse to school/district administration. Since one area in which teachers make discretionary decisions pertains to the maintenance of order in the class, this indicator w i l l reflect teachers' refusal to -211-deal with "problem students1'; and i f they had some but they dealt with them themselves, i t would show the extent to which they actually exercised discretion. As such, the indicator does not reflect a discipline-and-control orientation on the part of the teachers concerned. Since the actual exercise of discretion depends on the extent to which the teachers' work is non-routinized, the opportunities to exercise discretion can be measured by asking the teachers directly to indicate (a) the average number of times in a week they have to meet chance, unanticipated happenings in their work, (b) how they handle these happenings -alone or in consultation with the school/district administration, and (c) the "per cent" of their formal training which comes into play in their work as teachers. (3) Attachment to the job w i l l be indicated to the extent that teachers say that (a) they are satisfied with their present teaching assignment, (b) they are l i k e l y to have the same teaching assignment over the next year, (c) they would choose teaching as a job i f they were to choose an occupation over again, and (d) they l i k e to be identified as teachers. Objective indicators: (i) the number of teachers who have requested a transfer to some other school, and ( i i ) the number of teachers holding full-time tenured positions over the number of such positions available in the school/district. In addition, some fill-in-the-blank kind of statements can be included to e l i c i t responses which are not premeditated by the researcher; -212-e.g.: (a) what I like in teaching is ; or (b) I decided to go into teaching when I was . This strategy of measuring satisfaction or attachment with the job should prove to be useful because i t has the least amount of researcher bias to steer the responses into categories which he had thought about. It i s also a strategy of measurement that has not bean tried as yet and i t might prove to be more adequate than the " c r i t i c a l incident" approach or the ' Messay" type approach in which biases of the.respondents cannot be controlled. Frame of Reference: { Age is an important criterion in the articulation of a status system which links individuals to the society in 2 which they participate. Studies have shown hox-7 age can have a bearing on the ways in xvrhich individuals map their x-rork careers. For example, by considering both the subjective and objective aspects of a career, Buhler was able to distinguish five stages: (1) the "exploratory stage", xtfhich typically spans the years from 17 to 28; (2) the "selective stage", which lasts from approximately 28 to 43 years; (3) the "testing stage", which represents a five-year period in the mid-forties in x-rhich the individuals look both backwards and forx^ards, and by doing this, also assess their career to date and re-evaluate prospects for the future; (4) the "indulgence stage", v?hich lasts from possibly 48 to 64 years, during which the individuals maximize self - g r a t i f i c a t i o n ; and (5) the "completion" stage, during which the retiree lives upon memories of the 3 past accomplishments. By examining work careers i n industrial settings, two writers j x^ere able to corroborate the five stages, but they delineated these stages as follows: (1) preparatory period, 0 to 15 years; (2) i n i t i a l , -213-\ work period, 15 to 13 years; (3) t r i a l work period, 18 to 34 years; 4 (4) stable work period, 34 to 64 years; and (5) retirement. These stages may provide a moving perspective on the subjective aspects of a career, but they do not indicate how the individuals themselves interpret the meanings of their various attributes, and actions, and work experiences. Thus, the question of v;hether or not age is related to attachment to the job', can be answered only through empirical observations. However, these career stages do lead one to expect that individuals who are in the stable work period (34 to 64 years) of their l i f e , are l i k e l y to be highly attached to their job. The data presented earlier in table IV.2 support this argument, but since the s t a t i s t i c a l evidence is not substantial, further v e r i f i c a t i o n is warranted. However, i f age is as in f l u e n t i a l a variable as the above \ i i mentioned studies stipulate, then i t is more practical to include age ! in the original statements of relationship between variables, to use i t in advance, rather than use i t as an aid to post factum interpretaion of findings. Thus, both age and expectations of the working teachers to have control over their work and working conditions, can be linked j together in relation to their attachment to the job. Hypotheses t-jhich link multiple variables are described as multiplicative models by Blalock. He emphasizes the point that when formulated in terms of continuous variables, these multiplicative models can generate predictions which may be tested even whe.re measurement has been very crude, and they can also be helpful ; 5 in ordering chaotic empirical findings. The Hypotheses: (1) Teachers within the ages 34-64 and having much freedom in working conditions are l i k e l y to be i highly attached to their job. (2) Teachers withing the ages 34-64 and having much discretion in work are l i k e l y to be highly attached to their job. -214-Two values for each of these variables are considered: low vs high. Freedom in working conditions and discretion i n work and attachment to the job w i l l be measured by developing indexes of the subjective indicators specified earlier. Objective indicators specified earlier w i l l be used to validate the findings and interpret the results. The Design of Inquiry: Cases w i l l be examined by controlling for the d i s t r i c t size, sex, and length of teaching experience. An equal number of cases from a small d i s t r i c t and a large d i s t r i c t of both men and women is contemplated. The size of the d i s t r i c t w i l l be determined by the number of students enrolled in the secondary schools. The pupil-teacher ratio can fluctuate between school d i s t r i c t s but this is something over which not much control can be exercised by the researcher; therefore, the size of d i s t r i c t determined according to the number of students appears to be the most neutral way of dividing the d i s t r i c t s . Sampling Procedure: Practical considerations suggest the selection of a purposive sample, i.e., cases are to be picked up according to age categories. As we have considered age and high choice of working conditions together, the focus w i l l be on choosing cases that are within the 34-64 age category. This sample w i l l consitute the cases required to test for the working hypothesis as formulated above. To verify the hypothesis further whether or not age and high choice of working conditions mix to produce high work-attachment, another sample of teachers with ages 33 and less would be desirable. If the measure of degree of association shows significant differences for the two groups, i. e . , i f i t i s -215-significantly larger for the 34-64 age group than for the age group 33 and less, then the working hypothesis w i l l stand as confirmed. This manner of confirming the working hypothesis w i l l reduce the possibility of alternative interpretations of the results, a concern which i s at the heart of our argument in this revised design. Whereas i t i s possible to have both large and small school d i s t r i c t s represented equally i n the sample, i t may not be possible to have both men and women teachers represented equally. The reason for that i s that men teachers outnumber women teachers at the secondary level in any school d i s t r i c t . The selection of the sample is l i k e l y to involve complicated f i e l d work because l i s t s of teachers within the desired categories of age w i l l need to be prepared before they are contacted to participate i n the research. Methods of Gathering Data: Data are to be gathered through a questionnaire which w i l l consist of approximately sixteen questions with multiple response categories. These questions are distributed on the crucial variables as follows: three on working conditions; three on discretion in work; six on attachment; one on length of teaching experience; and one each on the subjects and the grades taught. The questionnaire is to be followed by one half hour of direct interview to obtain reactions on the questionnaire, items and any other relevant information which the respondents volunteer to give. The information pertaining to the objective indicators l i s t e d earlier, w i l l be obtained through office records. There might be a d i f f i c u l t y -216-in having access to those records. Perhaps the school/district administration can be convinced of the innocuousness of the information required. Since even before the teachers are contacted, the research has to be approved by the district/school administration, i t is worthwhile to establish a good rapport with the administration. The time at which the research is undertaken can be a crucial factor in establishing rapport with the school administration. Either the months of October and November or the months of March and April are l i k e l y to f a c i l i t a t e the gathering of data. In the experience of this researcher, the months of December, January and February, then May and June were not productive. During these months the teachers were found to be very busy with their work and the school administration was reluctant to allow : the presence of a researcher. i Analysis of Results: The method of data analysis i s tabular involving the standard multivariate analysis techniques on the lines of those that have already been presented in the earlier chapters. The i results obtained w i l l be fed back into the frame of reference. Since the data are to be analyzed according to age groups/district sizes/men and women, a reexamination of the working hypotheses may be inevitable. It should be pointed out that since some of the measures used in this design are similar to those which have been used bv other researchers, I i i the results obtained are comparable. Thus the degree of contribution which ; this design is l i k e l y to make to information already available is somex^hat different from the contribution x^hich the exploratoy study has made. j -217-What About Classroom Participant Observation?: In the preceding design, the omission of participant observation in the classroom i s rather striking. The reason that i t has not been given explici t attention is that most teachers are not receptive to this kind of a suggestion, maybe because a "sociologist" i s involved i n the research and not an "educationist". In the-* experience of this researcher, not much came out when such a question was posed to various teachers. There were only four "bold" ones who l e t the researcher spend time i n their classrooms when they were busy with the students: one was an English and arts teacher, one, an industrial arts teacher, one, a radio communication teacher, and the fourth one was a social studies teacher. Therefore, as a technique of acquiring data, participant observation cannot be relied on so far as the present research i s concerned. If, however, during the course of f i e l d work, opportunities become available, they would be made use of for whatever contribution they can make. -218-REFERENCES 1. Specialized training as a factor affecting teachers' retention in education, and as a determinant of satisfaction has been discussed by F.D. Carver and T. Sergiovanni,"Complexity, Adaptability and Job Satisfaction in High Schools," The Journal of Educational Administration, 9 (May 1971) pp. 13-15. Another writer has observed that teachers who have done graduate work are more li k e l y to continue in education. See R.M. Pavalko,"Recruitment to Teaching," Sociology of Education, 43 (Summer 1970) pp. 340-53. 2. L.D. Cain,Jr.,"Life Course and Social Structure," in R.E.L. Faris, (ed.), Handbook of Modern Sociology, Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1964, p. 275. 3. C. Buhler,"The Curve of L i f e as Studied in Biographies," Journal of Applied Psychology," 19 ( 1935) pp. 405-409. 4. D.C. Miller and W. Form, Industrial Sociology: An Introduction to the Sociology of Work Relations, New York: Harper, 1951, and Industrial Sociology: The Sociology of Work Organizations, New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1964, sec. ed., pp. 539-604. 5. H.M. Blalock, Jr., Theory Construction: From Verbal to Mathematical Formulations, Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1969, p. 165. 6. J. Galtung, Theory and Method of Social Research, New York: Columbia i University Press, 1967, p. 150. BIBLIOGRAPHY Sele c t e d Books and Documents Anderson, J.G., Bureaucracy i n Education, Baltimore: John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968. B a l a s s i , S.J., Focus on Teaching:, New York: The Odyssey • Press, 1968. B i s c o f f , L . J . , I n t e r p r e t i n g P e r s o n a l i t y Theories, New York: Harper and Row, 1964. B l a l o c k , H.M. Jr.,. Theory Construction: From Verbal to  Mathematical Formulations, Englewood-Cliffs, N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1969. Bowers, C.A. et a l . , Sducation and S o c i a l P o l i c y : L o c a l  C o n t r o l o f Education, New York: Random House-, 1970. Byrne, N. and J . Quarter (eda.), Must Schools F a i l ? Toronto:.McClelland and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1972. Ca l l a h a n , S „ C , The; Working Mother, New York: Warner Paperback, 1972. C.aplow, T., The Sociology of Work, Minneapolis: U n i v e r s i t y , of Minnesota P r e s s , 1954. Carlson,. P.O. et a l . , Change Process i n the P u b l i c School, . Eugene, Oregon: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, 1965. Carr-Saunders, A.M.- and P.A. Wilson, The- Professions-, . Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1933. C l a r k , K.B., Lark Ghetto, New York: Harper and Row, 1965, Cole, So, The U n i o n i z a t i o n of Teachers, Mew York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1969. Coleman, J*S. et a l . , E q u a l i t y of Educational Opportunity, . 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(ed.), Work and Leisure, New Haven, Conn.: College and University Press, 1963. Spindler, G.E. (ed.), Education and Anthropology, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1955. Taveggia, T., Voluntarism: Work Attachment and Satisfaction  with 'Work, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Oregon, 1971. - - • - -Thompson, V., Modern Organizations, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1961. Tilger, A., Homo Paber: Work Through Ages, Chicago: Henry Hegnery Company, 1930. Urofsky, M. (ed.), Why Teachers Strike, New York: Anchor Books, 1970. Vollmer, H.M. and D.L. Mills, Professionalization, Englewood-Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965. Vroom, V.H., Work and Motivation, New York: John Wiley, 1967. Waller, W., Sociology of Teaching, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1932. Webb, E.J. .et a l . , Unobtrusive Measures, Chicago: Rand McNally Company, 1966. Wclcott, H.F., A Kwakiutl Village and School, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1957. Zeigler, H., The P o l i t i c a l World of the High School Teacher, Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon, 1966. -225-Zeisel, H., Say i t with Figures, Mew York: Earner arid Row, 1968. Selected Articles Adams, O.R.,"?erceived Teaching Styles," Comparative  Education Review, 14 (February 1970). Aikin, M. and J . Hage,"Organizational Alienation: A Comparative Analysis," American Sociological Review, 31 (August 1955). • Alutto, J . e_t_ a_l.,"On Operationalizing the Concept of Commitment," Social Forces, 51 (June 1973). Anderson, J.G.,"Bureaucratic Rules: Bearers of Organizational Authority," Educational Administration Quarterly, 2 (Winter' 19o6TT ' Argyris, C.j"Personal versus Organizational Goals," Yale Scienti f i c Review, (February 1960). Becker, H.S.,"Notes on the Concept of Commitment," American Journal of Sociology, 66 (July 1960) , Becker, H'.S. ,"The. Teacher in the Authority System of the Public School,"' in A. Etzioni (ed.), Complex Organizations: A  Sociological Reader, New York: Holt, Rmehart-and Winston, 1951. Becker, H.S. and J. Carper,"The Elements of Identification with a Profession," American Sociological geview, 21 ("June 1956). Bloombaum, M._."Doing Smallest Space Analysis," Journal of  Conflict Resolutions, .14 (September 1970). Bonjean, CM. and D. Grimes,"Bureaucracy and Alienation: A Dimensional Approach," Social Forces, 48 (March 1970). Bower, C.S. ,"Prof essionalism without Autonomy,,r Journal of  Educational Thought, 2 (August 1958). Buhler,. C. ,"The Curve of Life as Studied in Biographies," Journal of Applied Psychology, 19 (1935). -226-Cain, L.D.,""Life Course and Social Structure," in R.E.L. Faris (ed.) , Handbook, of Modem Sociology» Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1964• Carver, F.D. and T.J.. Sergiovanni,"Complexity, Adaptability and Satisfaction in High Schoolsi An Axiomatic Theory . 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Ripton,"Teachers and Students," The• Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 7 (February 1970). Lahiri, D.K. and S. Srivasta,"Determinants of Satisfaction i n Middle Management Personnel," Journal of Applied Psychology a 51 (June 1967). Lodahl, T. and M. Kejner,"The Definition arid Measurement of Job Involvement," Journal of Applied Psychology, 49 (February 1955). MacKay, D.A.."Using Professional Talent in a School Organization," Canadian Education and Research Digest, 6 (December 1966). Maurer, J.G.,"Y/ork as a 'Central Life Interest' of Industrial Supervisors," Academy of Management Journal, 11 (September 1968). Meissner, M.,"The Long Arm of the Job," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 10 (October 1971). Moeller, G.H. and V/.W. Charter,"Relation of Bureaucracy and Sense of Power Among Teachers," Administrative Science  Quarterly, 10 (March. 1966 Parsons, T.,"The Professions and the Social Structure," Social Forces, 17 (May 1939). Pavalko, R.M.,"Recruitment to Teaching," Sociology of  Education, 43 (Summer 1970). Perrcw, C.,"A Framework for the Comparative Analysis of Organizations," American Sociological Review, 32~(April 1967). Ritzer, G. and H.M. Trice,"An Empirical Study of Howard . Escker*s Side-Bet Theory," Social Forces, 47 (June 1969). Robinson, N.,"Teacher Professionalism and Bureaucracy i n School Organization,"' Canadian Education and Research Digest, 7 (March 1967). -228-Roth, J.A.,"Professionalism: The Sociologists' Decoy," Sociology of Work and Occupations, 1 (February 1974). Hoyce,. J.R./'Educating the Generalist," Main Currents in  Modern Thought, 17 (May-June 1951). Samuels, J.J./'Infringements on Teachers*' Autonomy," Urban Education, 5 (July 1970). Seeman, M.,"The Urban. Alienations: Some Dubious Theses from Marx to Marcuse," Journal of Personality and Social  Psychology, 19 (August 1970). Selvin, H.C. and A. Stuart,"Data-Dredging Procedures in Survey Analysis," The American Statistician, 20 (June 1956). Seymour, F.J.C.,"What is Professionalism?," The A.T.A. Magazine, 43 (June 1953). Slmpkihs.,' W..S." and D. 'Friesen,"Discretionary" Pqwe^ s;:of; vi'V-_ j ; _ Classroom Teachers,"" The Canadian Administrator, • 9 " (March 1970). Steubing, CM.,"Some Role Conflict as Seen by a High School Teacher," Human Organization, 27 (Spring 1968). Trow, M.,"Survey Research and Education," in C.Y. Glock (ed.), Survey Research in the Social Sciences, New York: Russell Sage Foundation,• 1957.* Vexliard, A./'Centralization and Freedom in Education," Comparative- Education, 6 (March 1970). Wilensky, H.,"The. Professionalization of Everyone," American Journal of Sociology, 70 (September 1964). APPENDIX I : I-A: GUTTMAN SCALE 1: ITEMS 0? DISCRETION 1-3: GUTTMAN SCALE 2: ITEMS C? CHOICE 0? WORKING CONDITIONS I-C: GUTTMAN SCALE 3: ITEMS OF ATTACHMENT I-D: SMALLEST SPACE ANALYSIS 0? NINE ITEMS OF"DISCRETION (229) -230-• APPENDIX I-A | GUTTMAN SCALE 1: ITEMS OF DISCRETION Scale Type ° - l _ o _ i _ o _ i _ o 1 0 1 0 1 0 15 6. _0 15. 0 15 0 15 0 15 0 15 5. 17 8 _4 21_ 3 22 0 25 1 24 0 25 4. 36 13 23 26 21 28 9 40 3 46 6 43 3. 37 5 30 12 23 10 .16 26 10 32 10 32 2 . 33 3 29 7 32 4 26 10 14 22 10 26 1. 37 0 32 5 35 2 33 4 28 9 20 17. 0. 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 Sums 180 44 138 86 134 90 304 120 76 148 86 153 Errors 0 29 4 50 24 25 25 14 28 9 46 0 Coefficient of Reproducibility = .81 Coefficient of Scalability = .45 Note: Items are entered from l e f t to right; the left-most item is the most dif f i c u l t , the last one the least d i f f i c u l t item to respond to. A valid scale should have a coefficient of reproducibility of .9 and of scalability well over .6. - 2 3 1 -APPEIvDIX 1-3 GUTTMAN SCALE 2 : ITEMS OP CHOICE OP WORKING CONDITIONS 2 3 1 4 o _ i _ o _ l _ P _ _ _ _ c _ j _ Scale Type , 4 . 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 3 . 4 6 _ 1 9 3 7 2 8 2 . 1 8 6 1 0 1 4 1 5 9 5 1 9 1 . 4 9 5 4 7 7 3 4 2 0 3 2 22 0 . 1 3 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 3 1 0 Sums" ~202~ 2 2 1 8 9 . " 3 5 1 8 3 4 1 "TTO 5 4 " Errors 1 0 1 7 1 2 1 1 8 2 0 3 9 0 Coefficient of Reproducibility = . 8 7 Coefficient of Scalability = . 2 4 . -232-A P P S N D I X I-C GUTTMAN SCALE 3: ITEMS CF ATTACHMENT 0 1 0 1 0 1 * 0 1 Type 4. 0 35 0 35 0 35 0 35 3. 47 32 17 62 8 71 7 72 2. 49 4 .19 34 24 29 14 39 1. 33 2 31 4 26 9 15 20 ... - 0. 22 0 22 0 22 0 22 0 Sums 151 73 89 135 SO 144 58 166 Errors 0 38 17 38 32 9 36 0 Coefficient of P.eproducibility = .81 Coefficient of Scalability = .43 APPENDIX II : QUESTIONNAIRE Note: The questionnaire in i t s original design covers a broad range or interests not a l l of* which have found place in this thesis. Hence a certain number .of Items has been l e f t out of the analysis appearing in the preceding pages. (234) -235-THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER S, CANADA DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY This questionnaire seeks information about teaching practices, teachers' feelings for work, their use of independent judgement i n instruc-tional matters, interaction among teacher colleagues, and some selected background characteristics of teachers at the Secondary School level. The information obtained w i l l be used by the undersigned i n completing a Ph.D. dissertation. In addition, I believe the information w i l l f i l l - i n an information gap about certain aspects of teachers' behaviours. -An*earlier version of 'this questionnaire was pretested i n three school d i s t r i c t s i n B.C. and the response was enthusiastic. During the-preparatory stage, the questionnaire received helpful suggestions from, several teachers and two directors of secondary instruction. Your cooperation i n completing this survey w i l l be invaluable. You are not required to give your name or the name of the school i n which you teach so you can be assured of the anonymity of the information you give. General results or significant findings from this survey w i l l be made available to interested teachers, school administrators or educationists on request. Kindly answer a l l questions. Thank you. Yours truly, . Mumtaz Akhtar . . Graduate Student Address for incuiries: Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, B.C. -236-YOUR EMPHASIS ON VARIOUS INSTRUCTIONAL MATTERS Please indicate how much emphasis you place on the following instructional matters by marking an X in the blanks as indicated. Strong Moderate Weak No emphasis emphasis emphasis emphasis 007; Subject-matter Interpersonal relations Discipline and control "Acquisition of s k i l l s Acquisition of facts 312 Acquisition of understanding Acquisition of attitudes Completion of assignment within the prescribed time Have students competing with one another for excellence i n studies 016 : Maintaining record of cases of tardiness and absence ] L Z J L [_D C -237-YOUR CHOICES ABOUT VARIOUS FEATURES OF YOUR WORK Please indicate how much choice you have with respect to the following features of your work by marking an X or by writing in the appropriate spaces as indicated. Much Some No • choice choice choice 2 . 3 oi7 Whether or not I work Experiment with new methods of instruction Handle discipline problems according to students involved Whether or not I work as a teacher Recommend books in addition to those prescribed Which school d i s t r i c t I teach i n Influence school policies about instruction in the grades I teach Determine the amount of paperwork involved i n doing my work as a classroom teacher 025i Which school I teach in a particular school d i s t r i c t CD Vary the amount of time spent on different subject-areas with regard to students' state of learning [ | [ [ Which grade levels I teach | j I ~~\ [ Order supplies and procure equipment needed for instruction Modify curriculum content with regard to student a b i l i t i e s Which subjects I teach 031 Modify achievement standards to correspond with, student a b i l i t i e s -238-Are you able to use your independent judgement in your x^ork as a teacher? Yes No Is teaching (not necessarily your job) the kind of work in which one can use independent judgement? Yes No Do you engage in ac t i v i t i e s other than teaching i n which you can use your independent judgement? Yes No 33i_0j6 If yes, could you mention just one such activity WhicK kind of job would you prefer to have i f you were given a choice A job with well-defined routine duties. A job with opportunities to use independent judgement. -239-YOUR RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER TEACHERS Please give your answer to the following questions by marking an X in the appropriate spaces as indicated. How many teachers i n your present school do you know that you enjoy getting together with? None _] One Two Three or more 6391Are these teachers the same age as you are? ,•. I 1 Yes | No CMO,On the average, how frequently do you get together with these teachers off-the-school premises? At least once a week j At least once a month 4 At least once i n two weeks At least once a year -a, ! Do you fee l you see these teachers often enough? Yes No a« : How many of these teachers do you consider close personal friends (persons with whom you share confidences, nothing to do with the work of the school)? None One 3, Two Three or more How many teachers i n other schools do you know that you enjoy getting together with? None One Two Three or more 04*; Are these teachers the same age as you are? I Yes No o*s On the average, how frequently do you get together with these teachers? At least once a week At least once a month At least once in two weeks At least once a year O-TO Do you feel you see these teachers often enough? Yes i . No-on How many of these teachers do you consider your close personal friends (same definition as above)? None One Two Three or more -240-YOUR FEELINGS ABOUT YOUR JOB Please give your answer to the following statements by marking an X in the blanks as indicated. Strongly Strongly agree Agree Uncertain Disagree disagree The time I spend teaching i s the most rewarding time I spend during a day I would choose teaching i f I were to choose an . occupation over again I lik e to be identified as a teacher I would stop teaching i f I came into enough money To me, success i n things I do away from the job i s more important than my success as a teacher I would want one of my children to be a teacher SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT YOURSELF Please give your answer to the following questions by writing in the appropriate spaces or by marking an X in the blanks as indicated. -055 lAge: 056 Sex: years Male Female 05?: Marital status: Single Married ] Other ^ I s your spouse gainfully employed? Yes J ' No 059 How many dependent children do you have? children ojso.: What' is the highest degree/certificate thaV'you have? Degree :{\ No degree z \ Bachelors Masters •! Doctorate o6i_of,2 Certificate: osj What grade levels are you presently teaching? «•! 1 8 , j | 9 i l | 10 .[ 11 12 Please indicate your subject-area specialization(s) by training. 064-a6S\ 1. 0o6—00 7 2. °**-oi>» 3 • What subjects are you presently teaching? 070-0?! 2. . Is there a government exam i n the subject(s) you teach? (Please answer corresponding to the previous question.) 2. Yes Yes No No 073 3 , Yes No -242-107-cs What is the average class-size that you teach? / students io via For how many years have you taught now, counting the present year as complete? years j,,_,2 For how many years have you been teaching i n the present school? years iiwu For how many years have you been teaching i n the present school di s t r i c t ? years 115" Was teaching the f i r s t year-round, full-time job that you had? No Yes -U6 ..Did! you work in another job for at least a year before you took up teaching? Yes 2 No i"7 Are you presently holding an administrative assignment? Yes No iis-is: If yes, what is i t ? iJ O . Do you take school work home? Yes 2 No i2i_22( If yes, how often? i t YOUR COMMENTS, IF ANY: THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND COOPERATION. 

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