UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A performative theory of discourse Davison, Jack Robert 1974

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A PERFORMATIVE THEORY OF DISCOURSE by JACK ROBERT DAVISON B . A . , C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y a t Los A n g e l e s , 1966 M . A . , C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y a t Los A n g e l e s , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Depa r tment o f ENGLISH We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t he / I u/i rec re^y^Tred s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F e b r u a r y 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f ENGLISH The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A P R I L 1974 ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s f o r m u l a t e s an a c c o u n t o f two l a n g u a g e a b i l i t i e s s h a r e d by a d u l t s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h . F i r s t , l anguage u s e r s a re a b l e to r e c o g n i z e when a t e x t i s c o n t i g -uous f rom u t t e r a n c e to u t t e r a n c e . S e c o n d , u s e r s a re a l s o a b l e to d e c i d e when a d i s c o u r s e as a whole i s w e l l - f o r m e d . As p r e v i o u s work i n e i t h e r a r e a has been m i n i m a l , a c e n t r a l p r o b l e m becomes t h a t o f d i s c o v e r i n g and d e m o n s t r a t i n g how s t r o n g , and o f what o r d e r , adequate t h e o r i e s o f t h e s e i n t u i -t i o n s must b e . T h u s , P a r t I , w h i c h t a k e s up the f i r s t o f the a b i l i t i e s a b o v e , a t t e m p t s to r e v i s e and s t r e n g t h e n c u r r e n t models o f c o n j u n c t i o n , e x t e n d i n g them to h a n d l e s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e d e c i s i o n s . P a r t I I s u b s e q u e n t l y a t t e m p t s to d e v e l o p a t h e o r y of e x p o s i t o r y p e r f o r m a n c e to h a n d l e the l a r g e r d i s c o u r s e i n t u i t i o n s . P a r t I b e g i n s w i t h a l a r g e c o r p u s o f g r a m m a t i c a l , but u n a c c e p t a b l e , s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e p a i r s . A f t e r moving f i r s t f rom s t r i c t l y s y n t a c t i c c o n s t r a i n t s t h r o u g h p r o g r e s s i v e l y s t r o n g e r c r i t e r i a , u n t i l r e a c h i n g p r a g m a t i c s and c o n t e x t , i t makes the case t h a t o n l y a c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e t h e o r y i s i i adequate to b l o c k the g e n e r a t i o n of s e n t e n c e p a i r s w i t h c o n -t e n t a n o m a l i e s . However , as P a r t I I a r g u e s , c o n t e n t r e l a t i o n s between s e n t e n c e s i n a d i s c o u r s e are not the o n l y meaning r e l a t i o n s of w h i c h a r e a d e r must be a w a r e . Each u t t e r a n c e a l s o has i t s own f o r c e , by w h i c h we know what a s p e a k e r i n t e n d e d to do i n u t t e r i n g what he h a s . Through examples I show t h a t f o r c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are u l t i m a t e l y pr ime i n a l l a c c e p t a b i l i t y d e c i s i o n s . C o n t e n t a n a l y s i s i n a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t s t h a t i f c o n t e n t meaning r e l a t i o n s can be found between i t s s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e p a i r s the d i s c o u r s e c o m p r i s e d o f the p a i r s w i l l be a c c e p t a b l e , and i f n o t , then the d i s c o u r s e w i l l be a n o m a l o u s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t e x t s w i t h a p p a r e n t l y anomalous c o n t e n t r e l a -t i o n s between s e n t e n c e s may be a c c e p t a b l e , g i v e n c e r t a i n p e r f o r m a t i v e i n t e n t i o n s o f the s p e a k e r , and t e x t s w h i c h appear to be a c c e p t a b l e may f a i l on p e r f o r m a t i v e g r o u n d s . P a r t I I a l s o c o n t a i n s an a n a l y s i s o f the n e c e s s a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n and o r d e r i n g of c e r t a i n e x p o s i t o r y a c t i o n s i n w r i t t e n t e x t s , g i v e n a s p e a k e r ' s e x p o s i t o r y i n t e n t i o n s f o r h i s d i s c o u r s e as a w h o l e . In p a r t i c u l a r , I l o o k a t the d i s -c o u r s e a c t i o n of a r g u i n g , w h i c h o b l i g a t o r i l y i n v o l v e s making a c l a i m and g i v i n g r e a s o n s f o r b e l i e f , as w e l l as the o p t i o n a l a c t i o n s of making d i s t i n c t i o n s , e x p l a i n i n g , a d m i t t i n g , c o n t r a d i c t i n g , and o t h e r s . In the f i n a l c h a p t e r , I b r i n g i i i t o g e t h e r the two p a r t s o f the t h e s i s , showing t h a t c o n j u n c t i o r s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e r e l a t i o n s must be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a d i s c o u r s e ' s u n d e r l y i n g p e r f o r m a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , and are to some e x t e n t d e t e r m i n e d by t h a t p e r f o r m a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i P A R T I C h a p t e r 1 THE RATIONALE FOR DISCOURSE GRAMMAR 1 The H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e • . . 1 The Need f o r a S e m a n t i c s o f C o n j u n c t i o n i n D i s c o u r s e 6 The D e s i g n o f a T h e o r y o f C o n t i n u i t y i n Di s c o u r s e 12 F o o t n o t e s . . 17 .2 THE INADEQUACY OF SYNTACTIC CRITERIA FOR CONJUNCTION THEORY 20 The P l a c e o f S y n t a c t i c R u l e s i n Models o f D i s c o u r s e 20 The " L i m i t a t i o n s o f C o o r d i n a t i o n Grammar 29 F o o t n o t e s 42 3 SEMANTIC CRITERIA AND SENTENCES IN CONTEXT. . . . 45 The Case A g a i n s t C o m p o s i t i o n a l S e m a n t i c s . . 45 "Common T o p i c " S e m a n t i c s : P r e -s u p p o s i t i o n and D e d u c t i o n 49 L i m i t a t i o n s o f ..the " I d e n t i t y " R e l a t i o n . . . 55 v C h a p t e r Page Symmetr i c C o n j u n c t i o n 60 S i m i l a r i t y P r e d i c a t e s and P r a g m a t i c R e c o v e r y 68 F o o t n o t e s 77 4 RECOVERY, RECONSTRUCTION, AND INFERENCE 79 The P l a c e of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n C o n j u n c t i o n Grammar 79 The P l a c e of I n f e r e n c e i n I n t e r p r e t i n g S u c c e s s i v e S e n t e n c e s 85 Consequence R e l a t i o n s Between S u c c e s s i v e S e n t e n c e s 92 C o n j u n c t i o n and I n v i t e d I n f e r e n c e . . . . . . 101 F o o t n o t e s 1 09 5 THE EXTENDED CONTEXT CRITERION . 112 I n t e r p r e t i v e Problems A c r o s s D i s c o u r s e . . . 112 An U n d e r l y i n g S t r u c t u r e f o r Reason A d v e r b i a l s 116 The R o l e o f Ex tended C o n t e x t i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 129 F o o t n o t e s 142 CONCLUSION: PART I 144 P A R T I I INTRODUCTION 153 The Argument 153 P e r f o r m a n c e T h e o r y and G r a m m a t i c a l R e s e a r c h . . . 1 5 7 F o o t n o t e s 161 v i C h a p t e r Page 6 EXPOSITORY NOMINALS AND ILLOCUTIONARY STATUS. . . 163 S u c c e s s i v e S e n t e n c e R e l a t i o n s : C o n t e n t and P e r f o r m a n c e 163 Uptake Problems f o r E x p o s i t o r y F o r c e . . . . 169 E x p o s i t o r y N o m i h a l s and I l l o c u t i o n a r y S t a t u s 172 The P l a c e of S t a t u s i n S t u d i e s of I n d i r e c t F o r c e 185 C o n c l u s i o n 1190 F o o t n o t e s 192 7 DISCOURSE ACTION AND EXPOSITORY STRUCTURING . . . 197 D i s c o u r s e T e x t s : S t r u c t u r e and P e r f o r m a n c e 197 S t r u c t u r i n g a t the D i s c o u r s e A c t i o n L e v e l . . 204 O b l i g a t o r y A c t i o n s and O r d e r i n g 209 R e l e v a n c y as an A d d i t i o n a l S t r u c t u r a l T e s t 215 C o n c l u s i o n 222 F o o t n o t e s 224 8 E x p o s i t o r y Nominal R e f e r e n c e 225 I n t r o d u c t i o n 225 C l a s s e s of E x p o s i t o r y A c t i o n N o m i n a l s . . . . 229 E x p o s i t i v e R e f e r e n c e and A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s . . 232 S u g g e s t i o n and O b l i q u e A c t i o n 237 Ad Hoc N o m i n a l - N o m i n a l i z a t i o n C h o i c e s . . . . 240 O b j e c t s o f E x p o s i t o r y A c t i o n 241 C o n c l u s i o n 243 v i i C h a p t e r Page 9 PERFORMATIVE CONSTRAINTS ON CONJUNCTION AND FORCE INCORPORATION 245 I n t r o d u c t i o n 245 P r e l i m i n a r y E v i d e n c e 249 F a c t i v i t y , the S u b j u n c t i v e , and N e g a t i o n as F o r c e Showing D e v i c e s 251 D i s c o u r s e C o n s t r a i n t s on C o n j u n c t i o n . . . . 257 F o r c e I n c o r p o r a t i o n 264 The I n d i r e c t F o r c e C o u n t e r - C a s e 277 F o o t n o t e s 282 CONCLUSION 284 BIBLIOGRAPHY 289 v i i i P A R T I C h a p t e r 1 THE RATIONALE FOR DISCOURSE GRAMMAR The H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e A h i s t o r y o f l i n g u i s t i c s wou ld show t h a t many areas o f l a n g u a g e u s e , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , were c o n s i d e r e d to be o u t -s i d e the domain of s t r i c t l y " l i n g u i s t i c " t h e o r y . As d i s -c o u r s e has been one of t h e s e , i t i s perhaps i n o r d e r to r e v i e w the p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n s why many grammarians are o n l y now a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h i s a r e a and i t s problems as p r o f i t a b l e f o r s t u d y . Among such r e a s o n s , u n d o u b t e d l y the most i n f l u -e n z a l was the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the s e n t e n c e , r a t h e r than a l o n g e r t e x t o r speech e v e n t , i s the l a r g e s t u n i t t h a t l i n -g u i s t i c s i s m o t i v a t e d i n h a n d l i n g . 1 2 J e s p e r s e n and B l o o m f i e l d , f o r e x a m p l e , t o o k the s e n t e n c e to be the l a r g e s t " g r a m m a t i c a l " c o n s t r u c t i o n . Chomsky s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h i s p o s i t i o n by p o s i t i n g t h a t a grammar i s f o r m a l l y a t h e o r y of s e n t e n c e s and t h a t any l a n g u a g e L 3 i s made up of the s e n t e n c e s o f L . S u b s e q u e n t l y , K a t z and Fodor a c t u a l l y a rgued a g a i n s t a d i s c o u r s e grammar, not because 1 2 i t was u n i m p o r t a n t f o r a t h e o r y of l a n g u a g e , but because t h e y 4 j u d g e d i t to be beyond the bounds of a grammar of a l a n g u a g e . And o t h e r s , l i k e H o u s e h o l d e r , c l a i m e d t h a t the g r a m m a t i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on s e n t e n c e s i n sequence were too few and t r i v i a l to be a c c o u n t e d f o r by a n y t h i n g more than s e v e r a l t r a n s f o r m a -5 t i o n a l r u l e s appended to the s t a n d a r d grammar. The h i s t o r i c a l arguments w h i c h tended to d i s q u a l i f y d i s c o u r s e f rom i n c l u s i o n i n the grammar h a v e . b e e n a b s t r a c t e d by J o s e p h W i l l i a m s i n t o the f o l l o w i n g : a ) S e n t e n c e s a r e g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t i t u t e s w i t h o u t b e i n g g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t i t u e n t s . b ) T h e g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s e n t e n c e s a r e t h e r e f o r e n o n - e x i s t e n t o r t r i v i a l . c ) A g r a m m a r i s t h e r e f o r e a t h e o r y o f i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e n c e s ; a n d s i n c e e v e r y -t h i n g we c a n s a y a b o u t a s e n t e n c e i n c o n t e x t c a n be i n c l u d e d among t h e p o s s i b l e s t a t e m e n t s we c a n m a k e a b o u t a s e n t e n c e i n i s o l a t i o n , t h e r e i s no n e e d t o i n c l u d e c o n t e x t a s a r e l e v a n t p r o b l e m i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n ( i . e . , g e n e r a t i o n ) o f s e n t e n c e s . 6 O t h e r l i n g u i s t s , o f c o u r s e , h e l d o p i n i o n s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f rom t h e s e ; some p r e d i c t e d t h a t the s t u d y of s e n t e n c e s i n sequence w o u l d become an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y 7 8 and grammar. F r i e s and F r a n c i s took such a p o s i t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r p u r s u e d the s u b j e c t w i t h Z e l l i g H a r r i s ' i n s i s t e n c e . Making a s s e r t i o n s l i k e " s i n c e t h e r e a re d i s t r i b u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s upon the u t t e r a n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t 3 to each o t h e r w i t h i n a d i s c o u r s e , t h e y c o u l d be s t u d i e d w i t h g t h e method o f d e s c r i p t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s , " and a c t i v e l y commit -t i n g t i m e to r e s e a r c h , h i s were the g r o u n d b r e a k i n g e f f o r t s i n the f i e l d . Much o f the m a t e r i a l to f o l l o w owes i t s impetus to d i s a g r e e m e n t s w i t h h i s m e t h o d s . As the a n a l y s i s o f s y n t a x ( w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s o f a s e n t e n c e grammar) became more e l a b o r a t e , c e r t a i n u n r e -s o l v e d prob lems r e q u i r e d the a d d i t i o n of s e m a n t i c c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s to the grammar, w h i l e s t i l l o t h e r problems l e d d i r e c t l y to c o n t e x t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , r e f e r e n c e problems l i k e t h o s e posed by (1) below e a s i l y r e s i s t e d e f f o r t s to f i n d t h e i r s o l u t i o n s w i t h i n the o r d i n a r y s e n t e n c e - i n - i s o 1 a t i o n f r a m e w o r k : 1 ^ I ) A n d c o n s e q u e n t I y , t h e y ' d b e t t e r d_o o t h e r -w i s e o r t h e s a m e t h i ng w i l l h a p p e n a g a i n . Such c a s e s l e d d i r e c t l y to the need f o r c o n t e x t u a l r e c o v e r y . P r o n o m i n a l r e f e r e n c e , d e i x i s , a n a p h o r a , and s e n t e n c e a d v e r b i a l i z a t i o n , as i n ( 1 ) , each l e a d s beyond the bounds o f s e n t e n c e grammar i n g e n e r a l , and s e n t e n c e s y n t a x i n p a r -t i c u l a r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , each i n v o l v e s a q u e s t i o n of r e f e r e n c e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s o r the p u r s u i t o f t h e i r adequate d e s c r i p t i o n s c o u l d be l i m i t e d s t r i c t l y to r e f e r e n -t i a l t r e a t m e n t s . Such i s not the c a s e . A l t h o u g h the m y s t e r i e s o f p r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n are p r e s e n t l y f a r f rom c l a r -i f i c a t i o n , l o o k i n g f o r i d e n t i c a l NPs w i t h i n the domain of a 1 4 d i s c o u r s e w i l l not be s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f rom l o o k i n g f o r t h o s e to be f o u n d w i t h i n a s i n g l e s e n t e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s s h o u l d not be e x p e c t e d to be a b l e to r e s o l v e r e f e r e n t i a l a m b i g u i t y f o r any g i v e n s e n t e n c e . I n s t e a d , the r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h are s u b s t a n t i a l l y beyond the d e s c r i p t i v e power o f a s e n t e n c e grammar have to dov^with p u r e l y l i n g u i s t i c o b j e c t s , l i k e c o n c l u s i o n s , o b j e c t i o n s , a r g u m e n t s , d e s c r i p -t i o n s , e x a m p l e s , s u m m a r i e s , and o t h e r s . These a r e p e c u l i a r to d i s c o u r s e , and t h e i r r e f e r e n t s o f t e n c o n t a i n e n t i r e s e t s o f s e n t e n c e s , i n w h i c h u t t e r a n c e s a re o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g to d e t e r m i n i n g c o n v e n t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , bo th t ime and l o c a t i o n d e i x i s pose prob lems i n d i s c o u r s e i n t h e i r own r i g h t , as u t t e r a n c e s such as " t h e above d e s c r i p t i o n " and " I now t u r n t o " a re by no means e x c e p t i o n a l i n l o n g e r t e x t s . Both prob lems a r e r e l a t e d to a n a p h o r a , w h i c h seems to be p e r m i s s i b l e o n l y i n t h o s e cases i n w h i c h the a u d i e n c e may be e x p e c t e d to s u p p l y e i t h e r t h r o u g h memory or i n f e r e n c e f rom c o n t e x t the d e l e t e d s t r u c t u r e o r m a t e r i a l . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s t a n d s i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t w i t h the o l d e r doctrifne of r e c o v e r a b i 1 i t y ; 1 1 p r e s e n t l y an o p e r a t i o n more l i k e t h a t known as r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n w h i c h one r e l i e s on p r e s u p p o s i t i o n and d e d u c t i o n , i s a t i s s u e . F u r t h e r m o r e , c o n t r a r y to p r e v i o u s b e l i e f , anaphora i s not an o p t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n . G r i c e has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a r u l e o p e r a t e s i n c o n v e r s a t i o n such t h a t a s p e a k e r may not t e l l 5 an a u d i e n c e more than i t needs to know f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . ' ^ Where the s p e a k e r s h o u l d d e l e t e and f a i l s to do so, the r e p e -t i t i o n o f the same message u n i t i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s the a u d i e n c e to c o n f u s i o n , e x p e c t i n g t h a t more i s meant by i t s second o c c u r r e n c e than t h e y are a b l e to f i n d t h e r e . T h u s , the h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e r e g i s t e r s a s l o w but s u b s t a n t i a l a d j u s t m e n t i n the a t t i t u d e of l i n g u i s t s t o w a r d a r e a s l i k e t h a t o f c o n t e x t and d i s c o u r s e . C e r t a i n r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the b e h a v i o r o f s p e a k e r s f o r w h i c h c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , c e r t a i n r e f e r e n c e s t h a t need c o n t e x t f o r l o c a t i o n , and the b r o a d e n i n g of s e m a n t i c i n q u i r y i n i t s e l f each p o i n t t o w a r d the need f o r a grammar w h i c h a l l o w s c o n t e x t u a l r e c o u r s e where n e c e s s a r y . What such a grammar must i n c l u d e as t h e o -r e t i c a l o b j e c t s and what i t s e v e n t u a l consequences f o r c u r r e n t t h e o r y are f a l l w e l l beyond the scope of the p r e s e n t w o r k . N e v e r t h e l e s s , g i v e n the p r e s e n t d i r e c t i o n t o w a r d p r a g m a t i c a r e a s and t o w a r d more s o p h i s t i c a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e a b i l i t i e s , a c o n t e x t u a l 1 y - b a s e d grammar may be e x p e c t e d to have c o n s i d e r a b l e m e r i t . For example ( a g a i n f rom a h i s t o r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e ) , s e v e r a l grammarians a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a have argued t h a t even the n o t i o n t h a t the s e n t e n c e s ; o f - E n g l i s h form a r e c u r s i v e s e t , a p r i m i t i v e f o r s e n t e n c e g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r y , i s i n d e f e n s i b l e . The g l o b a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e t o f E n g l i s h s e n t e n c e s , a c c o r d i n g to R i c h a r d Smaby, i s much weaker 6 t h a n a r e c u r s i v e l y enumerable s e t , and i t i s i m p o s s i b l e a x i o m a t i c a l l y to s p e c i f y w h i c h k e r n e l s e n t e n c e s can c o - o c c u r i n more complex s e n t e n c e s . He p o i n t s out t h a t i f we a l l o w any s e n t e n c e s to be c o n j o i n e d by any c o n j u n c t i o n , we p r o d u c e r e s u l t s l i k e : John opened a door and organic chemistry was required of a l l students 3 because i f seventeen were not a prime, then the dairy association would have to back down. Thus3 we can conclude that t e l e v i s i o n w i l l have a b e n e f i c i a l effect on the nation1's young.13 A grammar of d i s c o u r s e , f o l l o w i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of examples l i k e the one a b o v e , s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d to f i n d i t s way i n t o the main s t ream o f l i n g u i s t i c w o r k . As i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r g a i n s r e c o g n i t i o n i t s h o u l d come to be of i n t e r e s t to many a r e a s where i t i s now o n l y p e r i f e r a l or even c o n s i d e r e d i r r e l e v a n t . The Need f o r a S e m a n t i c s o f C o n j u n c t i o n i n D i s c o u r s e As a h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w can give-' , the m i s l e a d i n g i m p r e s s i o n of i n n o v a t i o n , where i n f a c t o n l y a p r o g r e s s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t has t a k e n p l a c e , t h e t p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n c o u l d g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a d i s c o u r s e grammar w i l l be m a r k e d l y o r i g i n a l o r a l i e n f rom c u r r e n t m e t h o d s . For t h i s work e x a c t l y the o p p o s i t e i s the c a s e , s i n c e i t draws u n s p a r i n g l y f rom p r e v i o u s e f f o r t s i n both- s y n t a x and s e m a n t i c s . In f a c t , i n P a r t I , v a r i o u s examples a re o f f e r e d by way o f showing t h a t an 7 i m p r o v e d grammar of c o n j o i n e d s e n t e n c e s , a l o n g l i n e s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d , can a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r a n o m a l i e s , s h o u l d t h e y e x i s t , i n most s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e p a i r s . T h i s i s to say t h a t i n g e n e r a l a c o n j u n c t i o n grammar can be s u f f i c i e n t l y p o w e r f u l to b l o c k the g e n e r a t i o n of most anomalous c a s e s . In t h i s s e c t i o n , I b r i e f l y r e v i e w r e c e n t p r o g r e s s i n c o n j u n c t i o n s t u d i e s , and o f f e r some p r e l i m i n a r y r e v i s i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to the n o t i o n s of s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s , c o o r d i n a -t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n . Perhaps the most f a r - r e a c h i n g t r e n d i n s t u d i e s o f c o n j u n c t i o n i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s e m a n t i c a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s a r e a . In an a r e a w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y been d o m i n a t e d by c o o r d i n a t i o n , or o t h e r p r i n c i p a l l y s y n t a c t i c t r e a t m e n t s , t h e o n s e t o f s e m a n t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l l o w e d a much more c o n v i n c i n g e x p l a n a t i o n o f why c e r t a i n c o n j o i n e d c l a u s e s were p e c u l i a r . To t h i s e n d , R o b i n L a k o f f ' s work i n making e l e m e n t a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s between t y p e s of c o n j u n c t i o n f rom a s e m a n t i c p o i n t o f v i e w , as w e l l as i n i n t r o d u c i n g 1 4 i s s u e s o f p r a g m a t i c s , has been v i t a l . In e s s e n c e , the ( a d m i t t e d l y f r a g m e n t a r y ) model t h a t i s now a v a i l a b l e i s a d e v i c e t h a t g e n e r a t e s a c c e p t a b i l i t y d e c i s i o n s about p a r t i c u l a r c o n j u n c t s i j n o n the b a s i s o f l o g i c a l f o r m u l a e . The a c c e p t -a b i l i t y o f the c o n j o i n e d c l a u s e s depends on the e s t a b l i s h i n g o f an i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n between t h e m , g i v e n the a s s i s t a n c e o f p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s and the h e a r e r ' s i n f o r m a t i o n . 8 Her model i s based on a t l e a s t t h r e e c r i t e r i a : s e m a n t i c c o n d i t i o n s f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y , l i k e " r e l e v a n c e " ; p r a g m a t i c a r e a s of k n o w l e d g e , i n c l u d i n g g l o b a l memory; and l a n g u a g e c o n v e n t i o n s on w h i c h the h e a r e r must r e l y f o r d r a w i n g needed p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . From t h e s e t h r e e c r i t e r i a , i t f o l l o w s t h a t the o b j e c t o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , where c o n j u n c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , must be the a b i l i t y o f the s p e a k e r to use c o n -j u n c t i o n c o r r e c t l y i n c o n t e x t . Compare t e s t s e n t e n c e s l i k e Tom went to the s t o r e and Mike went to the s t o r e w i t h t h e i r r e d u c e d c o u n t e r p a r t s , Tom and M i k e went to the s t o r e . As such p a i r s a r e not synonymous , i t i s c l e a r t h a t s y n t a c t i c o p e r a t i o n s l i k e c o o r d i n a t i o n r e d u c t i o n must depend on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o t h e r t h a n s y n t a c t i c ones f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f r e s u l t . S p e a k e r s can use Tom and Mike went to the s t o r e i n s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h the s p e a k e r wants to communicate t h a t t h e y went to the s t o r e t o g e t h e r . T u r n i n g to s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s , the i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m , much l e s s work has been u n d e r t a k e n . Compared to s t u d i e s on c o n j u n c t i o n , a n a l y s i s o f s e n t e n c e p a i r s has been l i m i t e d p r i m a r i l y to q u e s t i o n s and answers and a n e c e s s a r i l y 1 5 ad hoc s e r i e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s on when r e p l i e s a r e r e a s o n a b l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t seems to be the case th'aitmmaiii'yss'entenee p a i r s i n d i s c o u r s e t h a t a re not-jorinj;o'.i nedl6oh l?dcbe j o 6 n j ; d i n'ed r w i t h no l o s s o f s e n s e . Whether or not t h e s e are c o n j o i n e d by a s p e a k e r 9 may i n f a c t be a m a t t e r o f o u t p u t c o n s t r a i n t s , l i k e u t t e r a n c e l e n g t h , s t y l i s t i c i n t e n t i o n s , e t c . Compare (2) and ( 3 ) : 2) W h i t e h e a d s a i d t h a t a l a w o f n a t u r e b e g i n s a s an h y p o t h e s i s a n d e n d s a s a " i f i a c t . " T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t e n d s t o g i v e p e r s p e c t i v e t o t h e " f a c t s " o f p h y s i c s . 3) W h i t e h e a d s a i d t h a t a l a w o f n a t u r e b e g i n s a s a n h y p o t h e s i s a n d e n d s a s a " f a c t ; " t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t e n d s t o g i v e p e r s p e c t i v e t o t h e f a c t s o f phys<i:cs. However , r e l a t i o n s between s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s i n d i s c o u r s e a r e not o n l y a m a t t e r o f c o n j o i n i n g c l a u s e s o r n o t . N o t i c e t h a t (4) c o n t a i n s s e n t e n c e s t h a t when j o i n e d , as i n ( 5 ) , s t a n d i n what i s commonly c a l l e d a s u b o r d i n a t i o n r e l a t i o n . In p a s t s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e s e c l a u s e s were r e p r e s e n t e d as embedded: 4) J o h n t o o k h i s T.V. s e t t o . t h e r e p a i r m a n f o r a c h e c k o u t . He h a d b e t $50 on t h e game a n d he w a n t e d t o make c e r t a i n t h a t he w o u l d w a t c h i t . 5) J o h n t o o k h i s T.V. s e t t o t h e r e p a i r m a n f o r a c h e c k o u t b e c a u s e he h a d b e t $ 5 0 on t h e game a n d he w a n t e d t o make c e r t a i n t h a t he w o u l d w a t c h i t . For the p u r p o s e s o f d e f i n i n g " s u b o r d i n a t i o n " f o r d i s c o u r s e grammar, i t i s i m p o r t a n t to n o t i c e t h a t the o n l y c l a u s e s w h i c h are never s e p a r a b l e i n d i s c o u r s e and w h i c h are t a k e n commonly as s u b o r d i n a t e i n s e n t e n c e grammar a r e the r e s t r i c t i v e •I c c l a u s e s , (whereas noun c l a u s e s and a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s may be s e p a r a b l e ) : 10 6) a ? * T h e m a n . was a f r i e n d o f o u r s . T h e m a n j d i e d . ( T h e m a n j w h o ; d i e d was a f r i e n d o f o u r s . ) b I know t h a t Moby D i c k h a s a b r o t h e r , c T h e r e ' s no t r u t h i n w h a t he s a y s . 7) a S i n c e H a r r y was a b i g game h u n t e r he knew w h e r e t o f i n d t h e e l e p h a n t s , b H a r r y was a b i g game h u n t e r . He knew w h e r e t o f i n d t h e e l e p h a n t s . 8) a E v e r y o n e knew w h a t J o h n b e l i e v e d . He f e l t t h a t u s i n g g u n s t o s e t t l e w a g e d i s p u t e s was s i l l y . b E v e r y o n e knew t h a t J o h n b e l i e v e d t h a t u s i n g g u n s t o s e t t l e w a g e d i s p u t e s was s i l l y . (6a) s h o u l d p r o p e r l y r e a d "a_ man was a f r i e n d " because t h e , when i t appears w i t h o u t a r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e , s i g n a l s t h a t the needed r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e has appeared as i n f o r m a t i o n e a r l i e r i n the d i s c o u r s e . O t h e r w i s e , one c o u l d not know who " t h e " man w a s . A l t h o u g h work has been done r e c e n t l y to show t h a t the deep s t r u c t u r e o f r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s m i g h t be a c o n j u n c t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n , 1 7 the i n s e p a r a b i l i t y of the r e s t r i c t i v e r e l a t i v e c l a u s e w o u l d tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s more c l o s e l y bound to the NP t h a n has been t h o u g h t . (9) o f f e r s a t y p i c a l example of an a n t e c e d e n t r e l a t i v e c l a u s e to w h i c h the r e f e r s : 9) H a r r y h a d n e v e r s e e n t h e p e r s o n who r o b b e d t h e b a n k b e f o r e i n h i s l i f e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he f e l t t h a t t h e man w a s s t r a n g e l y f a m i l i a r . W i t h a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n , g r a m m a t i c a l t r e a t m e n t s o f s e n t e n c e p a i r s have c o n f i n e d t h e m s e l v e s to such phenomena w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n i n g wfjiy d i s c o u r s e s , composed o f such s e n t e n c e s , a r e 11 c o n n e c t e d and r e a s o n a b l e . O n l y the T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l and D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s P r o j e c t a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a has m a i n t a i n e d t h a t s p e a k e r s p r o d u c e d i s c o u r s e s i n s t e a d of 1 9 s i n g l e s e n t e n c e s , t h a t t r a n s f o r m s are s e c o n d a r y to p a r a -20 p h r a s e r e l a t i o n s , and t h a t s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a s p e a k e r ' s d i s c o u r s e a b i l i t i e s i s more i m p o r t a n t than the d e s c r i p t i o n of i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s on l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e . W h i l e e f f o r t s by t h o s e of the g e n e r a t i v e - s e m a n t i c p e r s u a s i o n have begun 21 to g i v e t h i s s o r t o f p o s i t i o n the a t t e n t i o n i t d e s e r v e s , the q u e s t i o n of why a s p e a k e r uses s e n t e n c e s i n the o r d e r he does has been c o n s i d e r e d more p r o p e r l y a s t u d y f o r the p s y c h o -22 l o g i s t o r s o c i o l o g i s t than the l i n g u i s t . I t i s c l e a r t h a t s p e a k e r s do have r e a s o n s f o r i n i t i a t i n g speech and t h a t such r e a s o n s are c o m p r e h e n s i b l e to h e a r e r s i s o b v i o u s f rom the f a c t t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n would be i m p o s s i b l e o t h e r w i s e . C o n v e r s e l y , we can r e c o g n i z e com-m u n i c a t i o n t h a t f a i l s , as i n ( 1 0 ) : 1 0 ) ? ?We f o u n d a l l t h o s e m a g a z i n e s i n t h e b a c k s e a t o f t h e c a r . H o w e v e r , Don knew t h a t M a r y w o u l d h a t e h i m i f s h e d i d n ' t g o b a c k . S o , L i n d a q u i c k l y l o c k e d t h e d o o r a n d b e g a n t o c o u n t h e r m o s q u i t o b i t e s . A f t e r a w h i l e we t h o u g h t b e t t e r o f i t a n d r e -p o r t e d t h e c r a s h . From a s e n t e n c e grammar p o i n t o f v i e w , each s e n t e n c e , i n i s o -l a t i o n , i s g r a m m a t i c a l and the c o n j u n c t i o n s are a c c e p t a b l e , i f c o n t e x t p r i o r to t h e i m m e d i a t e l y a n t e c e d e n t s e n t e n c e i s i g n o r e d . 1 2 The D e s i g n of a T h e o r y of C o n t i n u i t y i n D i s c o u r s e I t i s c l e a r t h a t r e a d e r s i n t u i t i v e l y a r e a b l e to r e c o g n i z e c o n n e c t e d n e s s between s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s . Any t h e o r y of d i s c o u r s e must be a b l e to a c c o u n t f o r a t l e a s t t h i s a b i l i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , s i n c e meaning r e l a t i o n s e x i s t between s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s , such a t h e o r y must be a b l e to s p e c i f y w h i c h r e l a t i o n s e x i s t between p a r t i c u l a r s e n t e n c e p a i r s . L i k e w i s e , and more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t must a l s o be a b l e to i d e n t i f y s e n t e n c e p a i r s w h i c h are a n o m a l o u s . The degree to w h i c h a t h e o r y o f d i s c o u r s e c o n j u n c t i o n w i l l be a d e q u a t e , t h e n , w i l l depend on i t s p o s s e s s i n g s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i a to a c c o u n t f o r any t y p e o f s u c c e s s i v e - s e n t e n c e anomaly and i t s a b i l i t y to d i s c o v e r c o n n e c t i o n s between s e n t e n c e p a i r s . ( N o t i c e t h a t the term c o n j u n c t i o n r e f e r s to s e n t e n c e p a i r s i n g e n e r a l h e r e ; as noted i n the prevn'duseseci t i i ion, many s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s c o u l d be c o n j o i n e d , and a r e t h e r e f o r e subsumed here w i t h i n a t h e o r y o f c o n j u n c t i o n . ) P a r t I o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the need f o r a model o f d i s c o u r s e to s p e c i f y and e x c l u d e anomalous s u c c e e d i n g s e n t e n c e s . I t s c h i e f aim i s an e x a m i -n a t i o n of the i n a d e q u a c y f o r d i s c o u r s e grammar o f many o f the c r i t e r i a w h i c h seem s u f f i c i e n t f o r s e n t e n c e grammar. As I s h a l l show, anomaly judgements a r e h i g h l y c o m p l e x , i n t h a t t h e y may depend on a range of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . For the sake of c o h e r e n c e , the m a t e r i a l on w h i c h anomaly judgements are 1 3 based i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e a r e a s : s y n t a x , c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s , common t o p i c s e m a n t i c s , i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t , and e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t . W h i l e t h i s d i v i s i o n i s a r t i f i c i a l , s i n c e t h e r e a re c l e a r l y r e l a t i o n s between a r e a s , each does d i s -t i n g u i s h a n e a r l y i n d e p e n d e n t a rea of l a n g u a g e b e h a v i o r . As a m a t t e r o f f o r m a t , t h e n , each o f the f o u r c h a p t e r s to f o l l o w i n P a r t I i s d i r e c t e d toward a t l e a s t one of t h e s e , p r o g r e s s i n g f rom s y n t a x to e x t e n d e d ^ c o n t e x t . W h i l e P a r t I i s c o m p l e t e l y engaged w i t h the s u b j e c t s o f s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e anomaly and c o n n e c t i o n , s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s a l s o are a t o p i c i n P a r t I I . There I show t h a t f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s become anomalous when the i 1 1 o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e they c a r r y i s i n c o n s i s t e n t t w i t h l a r g e r d i s c o u r s e f o r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h u s , P a r t I and P a r t I I a r e d i s t i n c t i n a t l e a s t t h i s r e s p e c t : P a r t I l o o k s a t c o n j u n c t c o n t e n t w h i l e P a r t I I l o o k s a t c o n j u n c t f o r c e . In the f i n a l c h a p t e r o f P a r t I I , I show t h a t f o r c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d e t e r m i n e , i n many c a s e s , w h i c h meaning r e l a t i o n s s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s a l l o w a b l y may h a v e . In e f f e c t , I argue t h a t f o r c e i s an a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n to be added to the f i v e a b o v e , a l t h o u g h i t i s p a r t o f a t h e o r y of speech a c t i o n r a t h e r than of c o n t e n t or f o r m . Two p r i m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n d i s c o v e r i n g a n o m a l i e s o f the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s are the means (or n e c e s s a r y o p e r a t i o n s i n p r o c e s s i n g ) by w h i c h r e a d e r s u n d e r s t a n d s e n t e n c e p a i r s , and what c o n s t i t u t e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u l d c o u n t t o w a r d s a 1 4 judgement of c o n t i n u i t y at each s t a g e . S i n c e s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s c l e a r l y w i l l have to be a t l e a s t s y n t a c t i c a l l y w e l l - f o r m e d , r e c o g n i t i o n o f s y n t a c t i c d e v i a n c e i s the l o g i c a l p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e . However , w h i l e a s y n t a c t i c model b l o c k s g r o s s a n o m a l y , e n s u r i n g f o r example t h a t p r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n a c r o s s s e n t e n c e b o u n d a r i e s p r e s e r v e s gender and number, i t w i l l i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y g e n e r a t e p a i r s w h i c h are s e m a n t i c a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y , p r a g m a t i c a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e , o r m i s o r d e r e d where o r d e r i n g c r i t e r i a o f a s e m a n t i c t y p e e x i s t . From s y n t a c t i c r e c o g n i t i o n I move i n C h a p t e r 3~ t o s e m a n t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y o f the c o m p o s i t i o n a l k i n d . Such a s e m a n t i c s , h o w e v e r , w i l l not b l o c k o b v i o u s l y odd s e n t e n c e c o u p l e s l i k e Grandma bakes r a b b i t s s l o w l y and  why i s t h i s dye s y n t h e t i c ? An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must work toward s p e c i f y i n g what r e l a t i o n p a i r e d c l a u s e s and s e n t e n c e s h a v e , i f i t i s to be of use i n a c c o u n t i n g u l t i m a t e l y f o r c o n t i n u i t y d e c i s i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , I t a k e up R. L a k o f f ' s "common t o p i c " p r o p o s a l f o r c o n j u n c t i o n , w h i c h does a t t e m p t to s p e c i f y such r e l a t i o n s . S i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e to combine s e n t e n c e s i n d i s -c o u r s e a c c e p t a b l y y w i t h o u t "common t o p i c s " and l i k e w i s e to f i n d s e n t e n c e s w i t h common t o p i c s w h i c h a r e not a c c e p t a b l e , a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a a re n e c e s s a r y . O n l y the t h i r d v e r s i o n o f the common t o p i c c o n s t r a i n t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s to s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e p r o b l e m s , but R. L a k o f f ' s a c c o u n t c o n t r i b u t e s much 15 t o w a r d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the o p e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o -c e s s i n g c o n j u n c t i o n s or s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , her a c c o u n t i n t r o d u c e s the i s s u e s o f knowledge of the w o r l d , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , and c e r t a i n l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s f o r i n t e r -p r e t i n g c o n j u n c t s . I subsume a l l o f t h e s e under the n o t i o n s of " i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t " and " p r a g m a t i c s , " w h i c h are d e a l t w i t h as c a n d i d a t e s f o r s u f f i c i e n c y s u b s e q u e n t to "common t o p i c . " C o n s e q u e n t l y , the second and t h i r d s e c t i o n s o f C h a p t e r 3 make a case f o r the r o l e o f c o n t e x t , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , and l i m i t e d d e d u c t i o n i n f i n d i n g s y m m e t r i c r e l a t i o n s between s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s . A l t h o u g h such o p e r a t i o n s can be shown to be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d i s c o v e r i n g s y m m e t r i c r e l a t i o n s , what i s r e a l l y a t s t a k e i n such cases i s r e c o v e r y o f u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y a s y m m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e and an a d v e r -b i a l c l a u s e o f r e s p e c t , i n t h a t + S . The f o u r t h s e c t i o n ; , t h e n , makes a p r a g m a t i c d i s t i n c t i o n between c a s e s o f r e c o v e r y of e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e and the l a r g e r body o f p r a g m a t i c c a s e s , or prob lems of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The l a t t e r a r e a l s o the more; c o m p l i c a t e d cases of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f rom i m m e d i a t e c o n -t e x t and knowledge of the w o r l d . C h a p t e r 4 s p e c i f i c a l l y examines " i n f e r e n c e " and " c o n s e q u e n c e " c o n j u n c t i o n , as t y p e s w h i c h b e s t c o n f o r m to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f rom immedia te c o n t e x t . W h i l e consequence r e l a t i o n s have to do w i t h d i s c o v e r i n g a s p e a k e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s 16 about the w o r l d , i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y a t t h i s p o i n t to examine c e r t a i n c o n t r a s t i n g a c c o u n t s o f t h i s r e l a t i o n f rom a s e n t e n c e grammar p e r s p e c t i v e . W h i l e s y n t a c t i c , s e m a n t i c , and immedia te c o n t e x t c r i t e r i a a r e a l l n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e a c c e p t -a b i l i t y , a f i n a l c r i t e r i o n must be added to e n s u r e s u f f i c i e n c y . C h a p t e r 5 shows t h a t p r a g m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e a c h beyond i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t to e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t . O c c a s i o n a l l y , i n f o r -m a t i o n needed f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s e n t e n c e c o n t i n u i t y l i e s beyond the i m m e d i a t e l y a n t e c e d e n t s e n t e n c e or the s p e a k e r ' s a b i l i t y to deduce from the immedia te s e n t e n c e s as p a i r e d . I c i t e r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s s e p a r a t e d i n d i s c o u r s e as examples of the c r i t e r i o n of c o n n e c t e d n e s s , o r e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t . I n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h may o n l y be o b t a i n e d from p r i o r c o n t e x t , such as whether a s p e a k e r i s r e p o r t i n g h i s own r e a s o n s and b e l i e f s o r a n o t h e r ' s i n e x p l a n a t i o n o f some e v e n t , i s e s s e n t i a l to the i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f such c o n s t r u c t s i n d i s c o u r s e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g t h e n , C h a p t e r s 2 2 t t h r ; o u g h 5 5 e x t e n d the c r i t e r i a needed to make c o n t i n u i t y and anomaly d e c i s i o n s about s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s i n d i s c o u r s e f rom s y n t a x to e x -tended c o n t e x t . As w e l l , t h e y emphas ize the o p e r a t i o n s by w h i c h l a n g u a g e - u s e r s i n t e r p r e t s e n t e n c e s i n s u c c e s s i v e p a i r s , the o p e r a t i o n s upon w h i c h d e c i s i o n s o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y a r e u l t i m a t e l y c o n t i n g e n t . 17 FOOTNOTES 1. O t t o J e s p e r s o n , Philosophy of Grammar (New Y o r k , 1924), p . 307. 2. L L e o n a r d B l o o m f i e l d , Language ( L o n d o n , 1933), p . 170. 3. Noam Chomsky, S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s (The Hague, 1957), p. 13. 4. J . J . K a t z and J . A . F o d o r , "The S t r u c t u r e o f a S e m a n t i c T h e o r y , " The Structure of Language: Readings in the Philosophy of Language ( e d . s ) , K a t z and F o d o r , (Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . , 1964), p . 484. 5. F r e d W. H o u s e h o l d e r , "On L i n g u i s t i c P r i m e s , " Word X V , (1959), p . 232. 6. J . M . W i l l i a m s , Some Grammatical Characteristics of Con-tinuous Discourse (unpub . P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n ) , 1967, p . 11. 7. C C . F r i e s , The Structure of English ( L o n d o n , 1963), p p . 240-255. 8. N e l s o n F r a n c i s , The S t r u c t u r e of Amerieani'English (New y p r k , 1958), p p . 409-417. 9. Z e l l i g H a r r i s , S t r u c t u r a l L i n g u i s t i c s ( C h i c a g o , 1961), p . 12. 10. T h i s appears as example (54) i n W i l l i a m s , op. c i t . 3 p . 37. 11. Chomsky i n t r o d u c e s t h i s c o n c e r n i n Aspects of• the Theory of Syntax ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1965), p . 132. 18 12 . H . P . G r i c e , "The L o g i c o f C o n v e r s a t i o n , " mimeo ( B e r k e l e y , 1 9 6 8 ) . A l s o see D. Gordon and G. L a k o f f , " C o n -v e r s a t i o n a l P o s t u l a t e s , " Papers from the Seventh Regional Meeting, C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y ( C h i c a g o , 1 9 7 1 ) , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the p r i n c i p l e o f r e l e v a n c e . 13 . R. Smaby, A Transformational Grammar of the Paraphrase Relation in English with Special Application to R e l a t i v e Clauses (unpub . P h . D . D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 3 . 14 . R. L a k o f f , " I f ' s , A n d ' s , and Buts about C o n j u n c t i o n , " Studies in L i n g u i s t i c Semantics ( e d . s ) , F i l l m o r e and Langendoen (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 ) , 15 . See the i n t e r e s t i n g work done by R. L a k o f f i n " Q u e s -t i o n a b l e Answers and A n s w e r a b l e Q u e s t i o n s , " Papers in Honor of Henry and Renee Kahane ( t o a p p e a r ) , and "Language i n C o n t e x t , " Language, 4 8 , #4 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 9 0 7 - 9 2 7 . 16 . N o t i c e t h a t D . T . L a n g e n d o e n , E s s e n t i a l s of E n g l i s h Grammar (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 1 4 1 , t r e a t s ( i ) and ( i i ) below as c o r r e s p o n d e n t s : i ) My c o u s i n m a r r i e d a g i r l who became p r e g n a n t . i i ) A g i r l became p r e g n a n t . My c o u s i n m a r r i e d h e r . In my d i a l e c t , i f the p r o b l e m i s d i a l e c t i c a l , ( i ) and ( i i ) e x p r e s s c o n t r a r y t e m p o r a l o r d e r . H i s example p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l grounds f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s a re not f r e e l y s e p a r a b l e i n d i s c o u r s e . 17 . S a n d r a Annear Thompson, "The Deep S t r u c t u r e o f R e l a t i v e C l a u s e s , " Studies in L i n g u i s t i c Semantics ( e d : s ) F i l l m o r e and Langendoen (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 7 8 - 9 4 . 18 . K a t z and F o d o r , op. c i t . , p p . 4 9 0 - 4 9 1 . 19 . Z e l l i g H a r r i s , . Mathematical Structures of Language (New Y o r k , 1 968) , p . 1 4 6 f f . 19 20. Henry H i z , "The R o l e o f P a r a p h r a s e i n Grammar , " Monograph Series on Languages and L i n g u i s t i c s , #17 ( 1 9 6 4 ) . 2 1 . In p a r t i c u l a r , G. L a k o f f ' s c o n c l u d i n g remarks i n "The R o l e o f D e d u c t i o n i n a Grammar , " Studies in L i n g u i s t i c Semantics, op. c i t . , p p . 6 8 - 7 0 , make t h i s p l a i n . O t h e r w i s e , the papers p u b l i s h e d by t h e C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y move i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . 22 . W i l l i a m Labov p o i n t s out t h a t i n f a c t the major s t e p s , o r a t l e a s t many of t h e m , i n d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s have been t a k e n not by 1 i n g u i s t s , but by s o c i o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s . See h i s " R u l e s f o r R i t u a l I n s u l t s , " Studies in Social Interaction, e d . D . Sudnow (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 1 2 0 - 1 2 1 . C h a p t e r 2 THE INADEQUACY OF SYNTACTIC CRITERIA FOR CONJUNCTION THEORY The P l a c e o f S y n t a c t i c R u l e s i n Models o f D i s c o u r s e C h a p t e r 1 r a i s e d s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i s s u e s i n r e g a r d to the r o l e o f s y n t a x i n a t h e o r y o f d i s c o u r s e . One q u e s t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r i s f u n d a m e n t a l : may s y n t a c t i c r u l e s be e x t e n d e d to c o v e r d i s c o u r s e phenomena? In s h o r t , a l t h o u g h a t h e o r y of s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e a c c e p t a b i l i t y must n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e a s e n t e n c e s y n t a x , do t h e r e e x i s t any s y n t a c t i c r u l e s p e r t a i n i n g e x c l u s i v e l y to d i s c o u r s e ? In t h i s s e c t i o n I d i s c u s s b r i e f l y s e v e r a l o f the p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to t h e s e q u e s t i o n , b e f o r e f o r m u l a t i n g my own n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e . N e c e s s a r i l y , t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l depend g r e a t l y on the n o t i o n o f " s y n t a x , " a n o t i o n w h i c h has become i n c r e a s -i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e o r s p e c i f y . Many phenomena, h a v i n g to do w i t h b o t h s t r u c t u r e and l e x i c o n , and w h i c h were once t a k e n to be s t r i c t l y s y n t a c t i c , a re now t h o u g h t to be s e m a n t i c , 20 21 o r m e a n i n g - b a s e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , to a v o i d r e s t r i c t i n g " s y n t a x " p u r e l y to m o r p h o l o g y , I w i l l r e s o r t to an e a r l i e r o r h i s -t o r i c a l sense o f t h i s t e r m , i n w h i c h c o o r d i n a t i o n , p r o n o m i n a l -i z a t i o n , a n a p h o r a , f e a t u r e s l i k e [+ Human], and t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n s i n g e n e r a l a re c o n s i d e r e d to be m e a n i n g - i n d e p e n d e n t o r 2 s y n t a c t i c . I t i s not i n a p p r o p r i a t e to r e t u r n to t h i s s e n s e , s i n c e i t was the b a s i s f o r s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t arguments a g a i n s t d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s . T h u s , by " s y n t a c t i c " I r e f e r to r u l e s w h i c h can be w r i t t e n w i t h o u t s e m a n t i c i n f o r m a t i o n or w h i c h need not depend on d i c t i o n a r y l o o k - u p . R e t u r n i n g to the q u e s t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e r u l e s and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x t e n d i n g s y n t a c t i c r u l e s to a c c o u n t f o r d i s c o u r s e phenomena, the i s s u e s may be r e d u c e d to a t l e a s t two s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t . One wou ld argue t h a t s i n c e p r o -nomina l i z a t i on , a n a p h o r a , and t e r m - r e c u r r e n c e a c r o s s s e n t e n c e b o u n d a r i e s a r e d i s c o u r s e phenomena, the s y n t a c t i c r u l e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e them s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d among the r u l e s f o r d i s c o u r s e . As W. D r e s s i e r has p o i n t e d o u t , -The best known area of discourse grammar i s anaphora or s u b s t i t u t i o n or cross-reference or, more r e s t r i c t e d 3 coreference, subjects that are often treated by means ^ of extending discourse grammar rules. . . . The work of L a u r i K a r t t u n e n and Z e l l i g H a r r i s may be c i t e d here as examples w h i c h e x t e n d s y n t a c t i c a n a l y s i s and r e f e r e n c e p r o b l e m s i n t o d i s c o u r s e , ( a l t h o u g h K a r t t u n e n ' s l a t e r work l s s e m a n t i c ) . 22 K a r t t u n e n 1 s v a r i o u s c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g r e f e r -ence and s p e c i f i c i t y f o r noun p h r a s e s i n v o l v e the e x t e n s i o n of c e r t a i n s y n t a c t i c a n a l y s e s beyond the b o u n d a r i e s o f s e n -t e n c e s . S i n c e , by and l a r g e , t h e s e are based on c o - o c c u r r e n c e , t h e y a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y r e l a t e d to H a r r i s ' e a r l i e r and a l s o w e l l known programme of a n a l y s i s . The H a r r i s models o f " d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s " f o c u s e d d i r e c t l y on the phenomena o f o c c u r r e n c e i n d i s c o u r s e , i n an a t t e m p t to f i n d a s u c c e s s f u l method of a n a l y s i s f o r b r e a k i n g a d i s c o u r s e t e x t down i n t o s e n t e n c e s w h i c h r e c u r r e d and s e n t e n c e s w h i c h d i d n o t . In e f f e c t t h e n , the b e s t known a t t e m p t s to e x t e n d s y n t a c t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s to d i s c o u r s e have c e n t e r e d on the r e l a t i v e l y p r e d i c t a b l e t o p i c s o f c o - o c c u r r e n c e and r e c u r r e n c e , and on the d a t a o f p r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n , a n a p h o r a , and lexeme r e c u r r e n c e i n p a r t i c u l a r . S i n c e H a r r i s ' models were s y n t a c t i c o n e s , i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n " d e c o m p o s i n g " t e x t s i n t o " s t r i n g s , " w h i c h were then to be compared to o t h e r t e x t u a l s t r i n g s , t h e i r u l t i m a t e v a l u e can o n l y be e s t i m a t e d r e l a t i v e to the e x t e n t to w h i c h l a n g u a g e u s e r s depend on p u r e l y f o r m a l s y n t a c t i c c o n v e n t i o n s and t e r m - r e c u r r e n c e to d e t e r m i n e d i s c o u r s e w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s . H a r r i s c o n t r a s t e d h i s " s t r i n g a n a l y s i s " w i t h the c o n s t i t u e n t s t r u c t u r e and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s o n l y , l e a v i n g the c o n t r a s t w i t h a s e m a n t i c o r " m e a n i n g " a n a l y s i s up to the r e a d e r . In e f f e c t , t h i s l e f t open the q u e s t i o n of whether 23 o r not r e c u r r e n c e was i n f a c t a s y n t a c t i c p r o b l e m , a q u e s t i o n t h a t remains w i t h o u t an a n s w e r . A second s c h o o l of t h o u g h t m i g h t be e x p e c t e d to argue t h a t p r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n , a n a p h o r a , and t e r m - r e c u r r e n c e c o u l d not be s t a t e d a d e q u a t e l y w i t h s y n t a c t i c r u l e s . For e x a m p l e , a l t h o u g h once t h o u g h t to be a p u r e l y s y n t a c t i c phenomenon, s e m a n t i c c o n s t r a i n t s have r e c e n t l y been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the a n a l y s i s o f p r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t o f most stiudies o f c o - o c c u r r e n c e . For e x a m p l e , Kuno has a r g u e d c o n -v i n c i n g l y t h a t "Backward p r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e f o r E n g l i s h o n l y when the r i g h t - m o s t o f the two c o r e f e r e n t i a l g noun p h r a s e s r e p r e s e n t s o l d , p r e d i c t a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . " By " o l d " i n f o r m a t i o n , Kuno r e l i e s on the n o t i o n o f " p r e d i c t -a b i l i t y , " w h i c h i s a r e f i n e m e n t on the theme-rheme d i s t i n c t i o n borrowed from the Prague s c h o o l o f d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s . 7 Based on the s t i l l o l d e r n o t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n e n t r o p y , the theme i s c a s h a b l e as e i t h e r r e p e a t e d s u b j e c t o r p r e d i c t a b l e s u b j e c t , thus p r e s e n t i n g no "new" i n f o r m a t i o n i n the r e q u i r e d s e n s e . From a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n , a l s o s e m a n t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d , L a k o f f ' s t r a n s d e r i v a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h a t t e m p t s to f i n d s e m a n t i c s o l u t i o n s to s t a n d i n g problems i n s y n t a x , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r o emphasis on a n a p h o r a . A l t h o u g h e lements o f o l d e r t r e a t m e n t s can be f o u n d i n the t r a n s d e r i v a t i o n a l a c c o u n t , i n t h a t the p o s i t i o n r e l i e s on p u r e l y s y n t a c t i c arguments a t t i m e s , a t 24 base i t i s a s e m a n t i c a c c o u n t o f c e r t a i n s y n t a c t i c a l l y p e c u l i a r b e h a v i o r . L a k o f f has argued t h a t t r a n s d e r i v a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s a r e needed to b l o c k a m b i g u i t i e s a r i s i n g f rom p r o n o m i n a l i z a -t i o n , as i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e Spats and Eddy came i n and he (?)  o f f e r e d us a l l a l i t t l e r i d e to the r i v e r : , i n w h i c h the o u t p u t f r o m the f i r s t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l c y c l e c a n n o t p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to b l o c k p r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n , p r e s e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d a p o s t - c y c l i c o p e r a t i o n . More i m p o r t a n t l y , a n a p h o r a and l a r g e r i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n s l i k e t h o s e of d e l e t e d v e r b p h r a s e s and even c l a u s e s (as i n John i s an a r m c h a i r  w a r r i o r , i f even t h a t , where t h a t r e f e r s to a d e l e t e d c l a u s e ) a l s o f a l l under t r a n s d e r i v a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s . F o r t h e s e l a r g e r r e l a t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r , L a k o f f p o s t u l a t e s t h a t c o n -s t r a i n t s o f the s o r t needed would have to be a b l e to s t a t e i d e n t i t y c o n d i t i o n s between a d e r i v a t i o n and what can be deduced from the s e m a n t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and s e n t e n c e p r e -s u p p o s i t i o n s . Whatever the e v e n t u a l outcome of h i s p r o p o s a l , an u t t e r a n c e ' s m e a n i n g , as w e l l as w h a t e v e r p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s i t i n c o r p o r a t e s , must be c o n s i d e r e d a c o n d i t i o n g o v e r n i n g what m a t e r i a l can be d e l e t e d o r w h i c h m e a n i n g - c h a n g i n g l a s t -c y c l i c t r a n s f o r m s , l i k e p r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n or adverb p r e -p o s i n g , may be a l l o w e d to o p e r a t e . For e x a m p l e , c o n s i d e r ( l b ) : 9 25 I ) a D o g s a r e a l l o w e d t o r u n f r e e i n many a r e a s . In many a r e a s , d o g s a r e a l l o w e d t o r u n f r e e , b Men h a v e w i v e s i n many c i t i e s . In many c i t i e s , men h a v e w i v e s . ( l b ) d e m o n s t r a t e s the n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n s t r a i n i n g such o p e r a t i o n s , as w e l l as the r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y o f a p p l y i n g such c o n s t r a i n t s b e f o r e e i t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or s e m a n t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h u s , f rom the d i s c u s s i o n a b o v e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t the d u a l i s s u e s o f e x t e n d i n g s y n t a c t i c r u l e s i n t o d i s c o u r s e and w h e t h e r s y n t a x o r s e m a n t i c s i s p r i o r ( w h i c h i s a c t u a l l y a q u e s t i o n about how the e x t e n d e d r u l e s wou ld be s t a t e d ) are a n y t h i n g but c l e a r c u t or w e l l - d e f i n e d . F u r t h e r , an a d d i t i o n a l c o m p l i c a t i o n e x i s t s w i t h r e g a r d to the g r a m m a t i c a l s t a t u s of d i s c o u r s e r u l e s . In a d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s o f a s h o r t t e x t by B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l , C a r l o t a S m i t h g i v e s the d e s i g n a t i o n o f s t y 1 i s t i c s , a term n o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r o p t i o n a l , r h e t o r i c a l , o p e r a t i o n s , to what i s b a s i c a l l y a s y n t a c t i c a n a l y s i s e x t e n d e d to d i s c o u r s e . 1 ^ T h i s i s a t e r m i n o l o g i c a l way of e x c l u d i n g r u l e s a p p l y i n g t o j d i s e o u r s e f r o m g t h e ^ g r a m m a r . : H e r j a n a l y s i s depends h e a v i l y on t r a n s f o r m a t i o n grammar f o r d e r i v a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s , w i t h much emphasis on the s t r u c t u r i n g of c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , she draws c e r t a i n n o n - s t y l i s t i c c o n c l u s i o n s about the d i s t i n c t i o n between s u b j e c t s and t o p i c s f rom the r e s u l t s . Why such c l e a r l y s y n t a c t i c r u l e s become " s t y l i s t i c " when a p p l i e d o r e x t e n d e d t o d i s c o u r s e , and a r e d i s q u a l i f i e d f rom h a v i n g g r e a t e r g e n e r a l i t y o r m o t i v a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t 26 to s e n t e n c e s e m a n t i c s , i s not o b v i o u s . On the one h a n d , her p o s i t i o n can be de fended on the grounds t h a t p l a c e m e n t of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n emphasis a re s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g not m a t t e r s o f e i t h e r s y n t a x o r s e m a n t i c s (and thus are not n e c e s s a r i l y t o p i c s f o r g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n ) . On the o t h e r h a n d , even the f a c t t h a t i n s p e c i f i e d e n v i r o n m e n t s s p e a k e r s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r to p a s t m a t e r i a l e a r l y i n an u t t e r a n c e and i n t r o d u c e new m a t e r i a l l a t e i n an u t t e r a n c e seems w e l l w i t h i n the d o m a i n ' o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . One o f the major p o i n t s made i n her paper i s t h a t c e r t a i n t r a n s -forms a r e r e q u i r e d much more o f t e n than o t h e r s i n o r d e r to p o s t p o s e new or u n p r e d i c t a b l e m a t e r i a l . A s e r i o u s p r o p o s a l to e x c l u d e d i s c o u r s e prob lems f rom the grammar was made by Bever and R o s s , w i t h r e g a r d to s e n t e n c e s l i k e (2) b e l o w : 1 1 2) E v e r y o n e s h o u l d r e a d t h e B i b l e . D e u t e r o n o m y i s o n e o f t h e g r e a t b o o k s o f t h e w o r l d . In o r d e r to show c o n t i n u i t y o r c o h e r e n c e between such s u c c e s -s i v e s e n t e n c e s , they argued t h a t i t wou ld be n e c e s s a r y to i n c l u d e such f a c t s as "Deuteronomy i s a book o f the B i b l e " i n the grammar. A d d i t i o n s l i k e t h e s e , s e t t i n g a s i d e the q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r what l a n g u a g e u s e r s know s h o u l d be i n -c l u d e d i n a grammar o r n o t , w o u l d i n d e e d c o m p l i c a t e some t y p e s o f g r a m m a t i c a l a c c o u n t . Labov has c o u n t e r - a r g u e d t h a t " t h e 1 2 form o f d i s c o u r s e r u l e s i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f such d e t a i l . " 27 H i s d i s c o u r s e r u l e s s t i p u l a t e t h a t i n cases of s u p e r f i c i a l l y u n r e l a t e d s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s , the s p e a k e r i s a c t u a l l y " a s s e r t i n g " t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s some " c o n n e c t i n g p r o p o s i t i o n " known to both s p e a k e r and a u d i e n c e . In the case o f ( 2 ) , even i f the h e a r e r does not know t h a t Deuteronomy i s one o f the books of the B i b l e , he s h o u l d i n f e r t h i s f a c t f rom h i s know-l e d g e o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f d i s c o u r s e . W h i l e L a b o v ' s a n a l y s i s i s o n l y f r a g m e n t a r y , and i n i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e u n d e r - d e f i n e d , Labov c l e a r l y f e e l s t h a t d i s c o u r s e r u l e s b e l o n g i n the grammar. S i n c e h i s r u l e s a r e o f a l o g i c a l r a t h e r than s y n t a c t i c c h a r a c t e r , s y n t a x wou ld be e x p e c t e d to have e i t h e r no r o l e o r a v e r y s m a l l r o l e i n d i s c o u r s e or s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e a n a l y s i s . T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the p o s i t i o n I t a k e i n t h i s s t u d y : s y n t a x i s n e c e s s a r y f o r anomaly d e c i s i o n s a t the i n d e p e n d e n t s e n t e n c e or c l a u s e l e v e l , and u n i n t e r e s t i n g a t the s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e l e v e l . A t t h i s p o i n t , a t l e a s t one p o t e n t i a l c o u n t e r -argument a r i s e s . Above I have c h a r a c t e r i z e d the theme-rheme d i s t i n c t i o n as s e m a n t i c , and have used t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n to c o n c l u d e t h a t phenomena w h i c h appear to be s y n t a c t i c m i g h t i n f a c t be s e m a n t i c . I t c o u l d be a r g u e d , on the o t h e r h a n d , t h a t s i n c e themes a r e r e c u r r e n t o r r e p e a t e d m a t e r i a l t h e y m i g h t a s l w e l l be c o n s i d e r e d s y n t a c t i c on the grounds t h a t a l l c o - o c c u r r e n c e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d s y n t a c t i c . H o w e v e r , i t can be shown t h a t s y n t a c t i c a l l y - b o u n d 28 l e x i c a l r e c u r r e n c e i s f a r too weak to make a major p l a c e f o r i t s e l f i n a grammar o f d i s c o u r s e ; i n many c a s e s , a r e a d e r / h e a r e r i s a b l e to r e g i s t e r a common t o p i c between two s e n t e n c e s w h i c h do not i n c l u d e any r e c u r r i n g t e r m s : 3) J o h n h a s b e e n m i s s i n g f o r d a y s . T h e t r a i l s a n d c a n y o n s h a v e e a c h b e e n c o v e r e d . T h e s e a r c h e r s m u s t now p r e p a r e t o l o o k f o r c a v e s o r a n i m a l l a i r s . In ( 3 ) , f rom p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s and knowledge of the w o r l d i t i s p o s s i b l e to say t h a t t h e s e t h r e e s e n t e n c e s a re w e l l - o r d e r e d , and t h a t the t h i r d s e n t e n c e i s a c c e p t a b l e a l t h o u g h i t s h a r e s no r e p e a t e d terms w i t h the f i r s t two s e n t e n c e s . As w e l l , the theme-rheme d i s t i n c t i o n i s an e n t i r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e o n e , and w h i l e the n o t i o n of theme c o u l d e x p l a i n to some degree the r e a d e r / h e a r e r ' s a b i l i t y to j u d g e a c c e p t -a b i l i t y f o r s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s , the n o t i o n of rheme or " u n p r e d i c t a b l e " s e n t e n c e theme i s f a r too p o w e r f u l and u n d e r -d e t e r m i n e d to be o f e x p l a n a t o r y u s e . C o n s i d e r : 4) In a s e c o n d s e n s e , t h e c r i t i c i s m w o u l d b e t h a t s c i e n c e i s o n l y d i r e c t e d . t o w a r d t h e ^ o b j e c ; -f i v e , a n d m e t h o d i c a l l y n e g l e c t s s u b j e c t i v e m e a n i n g s - - t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f b e h a v i o r h a s b e e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h i s . One l o o k s f o r a d r e n a l i n o r g r i m a c e s , b u t n o t f o r a n g e r , e t c . B u t t h e r e i s a p s y c h o l o g y o f c o n d u c t ( t o w h i c h we w i l l r e t u r n ) : s c i e n t i f i c l i n g u i s t i c s d o e s n o t l i m i t i t s e l f t o d i c -t i o n a r y m e a n i n g s , a n d t h e s t u d y o f m e a n i n g i s i n no way t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f r e f l e c t i v e ph i I o s o p h y . ( J . P i a g e t , Insights and I l l u s i o n s of Philosophy, 1965 , p . 121) 29 In t h i s e x a m p l e , each of the t h r e e s e n t e n c e s , i s s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , a m a t t e r o f "new" i n f o r m a t i o n . H o w e v e r , the s u c c e s -s i v e s e n t e n c e s make sense i n a way t h a t perhaps o n l y c o n j u n c -t i o n r e l a t i o n s ( e . g . , p r a g m a t i c s and i n f e r e n c e ) can e x p l a i n ; "new" themes would not d i s t i n g u i s h between ajj hoc s e n t e n c e s u c c e s s i o n and a c c e p t a b l e c a s e s . The L i m i t a t i o n s o f C o o r d i n a t i o n Grammar The i n c l u s i o n of a c o o r d i n a t i o n grammar i n a t h e o r y o f c o n j u n c t i o n can do l i t t l e to s t r e n g t h e n the c a p a c i t y o f such a t h e o r y to d e s c r i b e the c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r s e n t e n c e s may be c o n j o i n e d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e e x i s t s a w e a l t h of m a t e r i a l on c o o r d i n a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t u d i e s on g a p p i n g , 1 3 r e d u c t i o n , and a n a p h o r a , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n to e x p e c t s y n t a c t i c s t u d i e s to make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to a t h e o r y o f c o n j u n c t i o n , i n t h a t the b a s i c q u e s t i o n s t h a t a c o n j u n c t i o n t h e o r y must a n s w e r , l i k e t h a t o f e x p l a i n i n g why c e r t a i n s e n t e n c e s may not be c o n j o i n e d a t a l l , a r e o u t s i d e the scope o f c o o r d i n a t i o n . G a p p i n g and r e d u c t i o n o p e r a t e on a l r e a d y formed c o n s t r u c t i o n s , f o r w h i c h the q u e s t i o n s o f what and when two s e n t e n c e s may be c o n j o i n e d have i n e f f e c t been a n s w e r e d . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l a t t e m p t to c l a r i f y the p l a c e o f c o o r d i n a t i o n and i t s o p e r a t i o n s among the l a r g e r c o n c e r n s i n c l u d e d w i t h a t h e o r y o f c o n j u n c t i o n . 30 In terms o f c o n j u n c t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e to speak not o n l y o f g r a m m a t i c a l l y c o r r e c t but s e m a n t i c a l l y anomalous c o n -j u n c t s , but a l s o o f g r a m m a t i c a l l y c o r r e c t , s e m a n t i c a l l y a c c e p t -a b l e , but p r a g m a t i c a l l y anomalous c o n j u n c t s . In f a c t , the argument a g a i n s t c o o r d i n a t i o n runs a l o n g b o t h of t h e s e g e n e r a l l i n e s : a s y n t a c t i c base may i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y g e n e r a t e e i t h e r s e m a n t i c a l l y o r p r a g m a t i c a l l y anomalous c o n j u n c t s . " S e m a n t i c , " as the term i s a p p l i e d b e l o w , i s used i n two s e n s e s . F i r s t , d i s r e g a r d i n g f o r the moment t h a t meaning r e l a t i o n s i n c l u d e an i n o r d i n a t e l y l a r g e v a r i e t y o f phenomena, i t i s used i n the 1 4 g e n e r a l sense of a t h e o r y o f meaning r e l a t i o n s . In c u r r e n t u s a g e , " s e m a n t i c " may r e f e r to r e f e r e n c e , to s e n s e , to the s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a s p e a k e r makes an u t t e r a n c e (or c o n t e x t ) , to t h e f o r c e o f an u t t e r a n c e g i v e n i n t e n t i o n s on the p a r t o f a s p e a k e r , to p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s , and 1 5 even to e n t a i l m e n t r e l a t i o n s between s e n t e n c e s . In a d d i t i o n , I have used " s e m a n t i c " i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r to s e g r e g a t e t h a t p a r t o f l i n g u i s t i c c o n c e r n r e m a i n i n g a f t e r s y n t a x and p h o n o l o g y . For i t s second s e n s e , h o w e v e r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to s p e c i f y r a t h e r c l o s e l y the d i f f e r e n c e i n r e f e r e n c e of two terms i n p a r t i c u l a r : s e m a n t i c and p r a g m a t i c . Those meaning r e l a t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ( l i k e a s p e a k e r ' s i l l o c u -t i o n a r y i n t e n t i o n s , knowledge of the a u d i e n c e , e x p e c t a t i o n s about the w o r l d , p r e v i o u s c o n t e x t , s t a t u s of the s p e a k e r , e t c . ) w h i c h a r e e x t e r n a l to the c o m p o s i t i o n a l meaning o f an 31 utterance are to be considered pragmat ic . ' " Internal r e l a -t i o n s , having to do with the l o g i c a l s tructure of the sentence and with the d i c t i o n a r y entries of the l e x i c a l items (the speaker's knowledge of the meaning of the terms), are to be considered "semantic ." Considering the grammatically well-formed but seman-t i c a l l y anomalous cases f i r s t , i t is possible to see that syntact ic well-formedness is not a s u f f i c i e n t condit ion for semantic a c c e p t a b i l i t y : 1 ^ 1) a * J o h n e a t s a p p l e s and d o e s n ' t e a t f r u i t , b J o h n e a t s a p p l e s and d o e s n ' t e a t m e a t . 2) a ? * J o h n e a t s f r u i t and e a t s a p p l e s . b J o h n e a t s a p p l e s and e a t s b a n a n a s . 3) a * J o h n e a t s a p p l e s and e a t s b a n a n a s i n t h e y a r d . b J o h n e a t s a p p l e s i n t h e a t t i c and b a n a n a s i n t h e y a r d . 4) a ? ? J o h n e a t s a p p l e s and saws l o g s i n t h e y a r d . b J o h n e a t s a p p l e s i n t h e a t t i c and saws l o g s i n t h e y a r d . 5) a * 11 was s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t he l e f t j u s t t h e n and i t was l i k e l y , b I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t he l e f t j u s t t h e n and i t was s i g n i f i c a n t . 1 £ 6) a ? * Be c a r e f u l and d i d you remember t o go s t r a i g h t home? b B e m e a r e f u l and remember t o go s t r a i g h t home. 7) a ? ? J o h n s a i d he had s p o t s and he has s m a l l p o x . b J o h n s a i d he had s p o t s . He has sma I I p o x . The examples of (la) through (7a) above are cases of indepen-dently well-formed sentences becoming semantically anomalous 32 when c o n j o i n e d , ( l a ) , f o r e x a m p l e , i s a case of l o g i c a l c o n -t r a d i c t i o n , and i s c l e a r l y d e v i a n t , a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r o f i t s c l a u s e s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t l y u n g r a m m a t i c a l . S i m i l a r l y , a l t h o u g h more complex and v i o l a t i n g e x t r a - l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , the o t h e r cases each d e m o n s t r a t e i n t h e i r own way one c e n t r a l f a c t : w h i l e w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s seems n e c e s s a r y f o r s e m a n t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t . ( 2 a ) , w h i c h c o n t r a s t s w i t h the case i n ( 2 b ) , i n v o l v e s the r e a d e r / h e a r e r 1 s knowledge of the i n c l u s i o n of " a p p l e s " withiim the s e t o f f r u i t . Where a p p l e s and f r u i t a r e both o b j e c t s of the same v e r b , the s p e a k e r has i n f a c t a s s e r t e d the same p r o p o s i t i o n t w i c e ; (2a) i s anomalous i n the same way t h a t " T h a t r o a d ^ l e a d s to Moscow and t h a t r o a d ^ l e a d s t o Moscow" i s a n o m a l o u s . W h i l e such a case b r e a k s no l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t , i t does break w i t h the c o n v e n t i o n s o f l a n g u a g e w h i c h demand t h a t two s e n t e n c e s be c o n j o i n e d i n s i t u a t i o n s where r e p e t i -1 9 t i o n i s not c a l l e d f o r . (3a) and (4a) a re both cases o f a s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t y . C o n v e n t i o n s e x i s t such t h a t a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e s and c l a u s e s s e r v e to answer q u e s t i o n s about i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n e a r l i e r , or r e f l e c t t h e s p e a k e r ' s a n t i c i p a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n h i s a u d i e n c e w i l l need to know. In t h e s e c a s e s , the l o c a t i v e answers a q u e s t i o n about o n l y one o f the c o n j o i n e d c l a u s e s . In e f f e c t , an answer becomes c o n j o i n e d to an u t t e r a n c e o f a s e p a r a t e s t a t u s i n such c a s e s . (3b) and (4b) show the n e c e s s i t y d f 33 c o n j o i n i n g u t t e r a n c e s o f i d e n t i c a l s t a t u s t o a v o i d s t r u c t u r a l d e v i a n c e . N o t i c e t h a t (5a) and (6a) a re a l s o cases of c o n -j o i n i n g u t t e r a n c e s o f s e p a r a t e s t a t u s . In ( 5 a ) , the i n i t i a l c l a u s e i s i n t r o d u c e d by a f a c t i v e p r e d i c a t e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the s p e a k e r t a k e s the p r o p o s i t i o n i d e n t i f i e d by t h e c l a u s e to be a t r u e o n e . However , i n the second c l a u s e the same p r o -p o s i t i o n i s g i v e n a n o n - f a c t i v e p r e d i c a t e , a f a c t w h i c h s e r v e s to c o n t r a d i c t the s p e a k e r ' s c o m m i t t i n g h i m s e l f t o the t r u t h of the p r o p o s i t i o n i n i t i a l l y . The two c l a u s e s , because of the s h i f t e d f a c t i v i t y , come to have s e p a r a t e s t a t u s , such t h a t to c o n j o i n them l e a d s to s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n . (6a) i s a case of an o r d e r c o n j o i n e d w i t h a q u e s t i o n ; a g a i n , t h e r e a re u t t e r a n c e s w i t h s e p a r a t e s e m a n t i c s t a t u s h e r e . W h i l e b o t h t h e command and the q u e s t i o n are i n d i v i d u a l l y w e l l - f o r m e d , t h e i r c o n j u n c t i o n i s anomalous due to v i o l a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e c o n v e n t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , i n (7a) the scope of the i n d i r e c t speech p r e d i c a t e s a i d r e a c h e s a c r o s s the c o n -j u n c t i o n to i n c l u d e s o m e t h i n g t h a t the s p e a k e r c o u l d not a c c e p t a b l y s a y : * I have s p o t s and I h a v e ^ s m a l l p o x . T h u s , f o r the cases a b o v e , a broad range o f s e m a n t i c c r i t e r i a a r e r e v e a l e d , r e s u l t i n g f r o m phenomena as d i s p a r a t e as l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i t i o n , s t r u c t u r a l a s y m m e t r y , c o u n t e r f a c % t i v i t y , i n c o n s i s t e n t f o r c e , and i n t e r p o l a t i o n w i t h i n the scope of a p r e d i c a t e o f i n d i r e c t s p e e c h . The examples above i n -d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e of a l a r g e c l a s s o f d e v i a n t c o n j u n c t s , 34 i n w h i c h c e r t a i n s e m a n t i c or i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , w h i c h s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d a c r o s s the c o n j u n c t i o n have i n f a c t been l o s t . In i t s i n a b i l i t y to b l o c k the g e n e r a t i o n of c o n j u n c t i o n s l i k e t h o s e i n ( l a ) - (7a), c o o r d i n a t i o n s y n t a x i s no more a b l e to b l o c k the g e n e r a t i o n of c o n j u n c t s w h i c h a r e anomalous f o r p r a g m a t i c r e a s o n s . The p r a g m a t i c case a g a i n s t c o o r d i n a t i o n not o n l y c o v e r s c o n j u n c t i o n s w h i c h a r e o t h e r w i s e g r a m m a t i c a l and seman-t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e on i n t e r n a l g r o u n d s , but i n c l u d e s cases w h i c h a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e i n c o n t e x t . A t f i r s t g l a n c e , the f i e l d o f p r a g m a t i c s may seem m e r e l y more i n c l u s i v e than t h a t o f s e n t e n c e s e m a n t i c s , but i n f a c t d i s t i n c t i n t e r p r e t i v e o p e r a -t i o n s a r e a t s t a k e . As t h e examples to f o l l o w i n d i c a t e , the f o r m i n g of h y p o t h e s e s f rom c o n j u n c t i o n s w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e to c o n t e x t dooms even s i m p l e c o n j u n c t i o n p a i r s to m u l t i p l e a m b i g u i t y . A c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s c o u l d s p e c i f y the p o s s i b l e p a r a p h r a s e s , but would e i t h e r mark the c o n j u n c t as w e l l - f o r m e d or w o u l d d i s q u a l i f y i t s e l f f rom d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r the c o n j u n c t was a c c e p t a b l e i n c o n t e x t . (8) o f f e r s a s i n g l e r e d u c e d c o n -j u n c t , w i t h f o u r p a r a p h r a s e s w h i c h p r o g r e s s i n d e v i a n c e t o w a r d c o m p l e t e u n a c c e p t a b i 1 i t y . 8 ) a J o h n w e n t t o t h e s t o r e b e c a u s e he was h u n g r y . ? J o h n w e n t t o t h e s t o r e a n d was h u n g r y , b J o h n w e n t t o t h e s t o r e a n d t h e n b e c a m e h u n g r y . ? ? J o h n w e n t t o t h e s t o r e a n d was h u n g r y , c J o h n w e n t to_ t h e s t o r e a n d c o u l d n ' t k e e p f r o m s t e a l i n g . ? * J o h n w e n t t o t h e s t o r e a n d was h u n g r y . 35 d J o h n h a d a c r a v i n g f o r p i n e a p p l e . * J o h n w e n t t o t h e s t o r e a n d was h u n g r y . (8) i s i n t e r e s t i n g f rom a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e as w e l l . The o p e r a -t i o n s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e c o o r d i n a t i o n , l i k e R e d u c t i o n , c o n -t r i b u t e s e r i o u s i n t e r p r e t i v e prob lems to a s e n t e n c e s e m a n t i c s . C o o r d i n a t i o n R e d u c t i o n i s a s y n t a c t i c o p e r a t i o n d e s i g n e d to a p p l y w i t h i n the d e r i v a t i o n a l h i s t o r y o f a "com-pound" s e n t e n c e . R e d u c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e o n l y when deep s t r u c -t u r e c l a u s e s , r e p r e s e n t e d s y n t a c t i c a l l y by #SX c o n j S 2 # , s h a r e one o r more i d e n t i c a l e l e m e n t s , w h i c h may t h e n be r e -c o v e r a b l y d e l e t e d . Seen i n t h i s way , R e d u c t i o n i s a t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n a l a c c o u n t o f how s e n t e n c e s l i k e t h o s e i n (9) a re r e l a t e d to and i m p a r t the same i n f o r m a t i o n as t h e i r c o u n t e r -p a r t s i n ( 1 0 ) : 2 0 9 ) a J o h n k i c k e d t h e c a t a n d J o h n s e e m s t o r e g r e t i t . b J o h n f l i e s g l i d e r s a n d B i l l fI i e s gI i d e r s . I 0 ) a J o h n k i c k e d t h e c a t a n d s e e m s t o r e g r e t i t . b J o h n a n d B i I I f I y gI i d e r s . As a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l a c c o u n t , i t depends on c o n j o i n e d p h r a s e s b e i n g d e r i v e d f rom c o n j o i n e d s e n t e n c e s . O t h e r a c c o u n t s , l i k e 21 t h a t o f D o u g h e r t y ' s , p o s t u l a t e t h a t a l l c o n j o i n e d s t r u c t u r e s , p h r a s e o r s e n t e n c e , a r e g e n e r a t e d d i r e c t l y i n t h e b a s e , and i n v o l v e no such t r a n s f o r m as R e d u c t i o n . Known as the P h r a s e S t r u c t u r e R u l e h y p o t h e s i s , t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n depends h e a v i l y on a s e m a n t i c i n t e r p r e t i v e component c a p a b l e o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the p a i r s o f examples l i k e t h o s e a b o v e . 36 N o t i c e t h a t i n (8) the s t r i n g John went to the s t o r e  and was hungry p r e s e n t s s e r i o u s i n t e r p r e t i v e • p r o b l e m s , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i s t o be g e n e r a t e d d i r e c t l y by the base r u l e s , as i n the P h r a s e S t r u c t u r e R u l e H y p o t h e s i s . F i r s t , the i n t e r p r e t i v e component wou ld have to be a b l e to d e c i d e whether s t r i n g s l i k e t h i s a r e to be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the s e q u e n t i a l sense of (8b), i n the because sense of (8a), i n an i n f e r e n t i a l s e n s e , or i n f a c t as c o m b i n a t i o n s of c l a u s e s the grammar ought to have b l o c k e d . In the f i r s t o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n s , i t m i g h t be t a k e n as a s u b s t a n d a r d form f o r s a y i n g John went to the s t o r e and became h u n g r y . O r , the a u d i e n c e m i g h t be e x p e c t e d to i n f e r , d e p e n d i n g on the i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t , s t a t e m e n t s r a n g i n g from John went to the s t o r e and bought a  g r e a t d e a l o f f o o d because he was hungry to John went to the  s t o r e h u n g r y , and h a v i n g no money became even more h u n g r y . L i k e w i s e , as i n (8d), i t i s p o t e n t i a l l y an u t t e r a n c e ( l i k e John went to the s t o r e and the t a b l e has t i p p e d o v e r ) a grammar s h o u l d b l o c k , e x c e p t i n p e c u l i a r or u n i q u e c o n t e x t s . The p l a c e m e n t o f such a p p a r e n t l y u n e x c e p t i o n a l c o n j u n c t s , as t h a t i n ( 8 ) , w i t h i n d i s c o u r s e or i n c o n t e x t p r o d u c e s i n t e r p r e -t i v e prob lems beyond the scope of an i n d e p e n d e n t s e n t e n c e s e m a n t i c s . R a t h e r , a t h e o r y of c o n j u n c t i o n must be p o w e r f u l enough to h a n d l e both the fcases o f (11) and (12) : 37 11) a ( J o h n h a s b e e n b l i n d f o r many y e a r s . ) * J o h n n e v e r s e e s UFOs a n d he a l w a y s s i t s i n t h e y a r d , b Y o u h a v e t o be m i s t a k e n a b o u t t h e o b j e c t y o u k e e p s e e i n g . J o h n n e v e r s e e s UFOs a n d he a l w a y s s i t s i n t h e y a r d , c ( Y o u s h o u l d s e e t h a t c r o w d o f b r a t s M a r g e h a s t o t e n d . ) ? * H e r h u s b a n d i s a c o w b o y a n d M a r g e r i d e s h e r d a s w e l l , d A woman h a s t o p i t c h i n w h e n t h e r a n c h i s s h o r t - h a n d e d . H e r h u s b a n d i s a c o w b o y a n d M a r g e r i d e s h e r d a s w e l l . 1 2 ) a W h e r e d i d J o h n go a n d s i n c e we a r e g o i n g t o p l a y c h e s s , w h a t o p e n i n g d o e s he l i k e b e s t ? J o h n w e n t t o t h e s t o r e a n d n e v e r p l a y s P-Q4. .b W h a t d i d y o u j u s t t e l l me a b o u t t o n i g h t ? Be c a r e f u l a n d c o u l d y o u h a v e $5 b e f o r e I g o . These are cases i n w h i c h i n d e p e n d e n t l y u n p r o b l e m a t i c u t t e r a n c e s r a i s e e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h are i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , and cases i n w h i c h e x t r e m e l y p e c u l i a r c o n j u n c t s a re i n f a c t a c c e p t a b l e due j u s t to c o n t e x t . O t h e r w i s e , n o t i c e t h a t i n the case o f ( 1 1 ) , the u n a c c e p t a b i 1 i t y o f each c o n -j u n c t i s a consequence o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h a l l o w s the r e a d e r to c o n s t r u c t h y p o t h e s e s : i f John i s a l w a y s o u t s i d e and t h e r e were UFOs, he would have seen t h e m , and i f Marge r i d e s h e r d , then Marge i s a cow p u n c h e r . W h i l e the u t t e r a n c e s a re gram-m a t i c a l and v i o l a t e no i n t e r n a l s e m a n t i c c o n d i t i o n , t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g h y p o t h e s e s c o n t r a d i c t c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . In (13) b e l o w , the ( a ) , ( c ) , and (e) c a s e s v i o l a t e the c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r e x p l a i n i n g , g i v i n g e x a m p l e s , and r e m a i n i n g c o n t e x t u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t : 38 I 3 ) a T h e b u i l d i n g c o l l a p s e d . * T h e d y n a m i t e h a d e x p l o d e d a n d t h e a c c o u n t s h a d b e e n l o s t , b T h e b u i l d i n g c o l l a p s e d . T h e d y n a m i t e h a d e x p l o d e d a n d t h e s t r u c t u r a l s u p p o r t s h a d f a i l e d , c T h e b u l I o u t s m a r t e d t h e m a t a d o r a g a i n a n d a g a i n . * H e w o u l d n e v e r c h a r g e a n d I i k e d t o s t a n d i n t h e w a t e r . d We h a d n e v e r s e e n a m o r e g e n t l e b u l l . He w o u l d n e v e r c h a r g e a n d l i k e d t o s t a n d i n t h e w a t e r . e J o h n knew j u s t w h a t t o g e t h i s w i f e . * H e r u s h e d t o t h e s t o r e t o b u y s h o e s b u t b o u g h t s a n d a l s i n s t e a d . f J o h n c o u l d n e v e r m a k e up h i s m i n d a b o u t w h a t t o g e t h i s w i f e . He r u s h e d t o t h e s t o r e t o b u y s h o e s b u t b o u g h t s a n d a l s i n s t e a d . For e x a m p l e , the a c c o u n t s had been l o s t i s not an adequate r e a s o n f o r the b u i l d i n g to c o l l a p s e , and the s p e a k e r had c o n -s t r u c t e d a c o n t e x t w i t h the f i r s t c l a u s e t h a t made i t n e c e s -s a r y t h a t h i s u t t e r a n c e j u s t then be an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the b u i l d i n g ' s c o l l a p s e . S i m i l a r l y , the b u l l ' s l i k i n g to s t a n d i n the w a t e r b e l o n g s i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t , o r t h a t o f ( 1 3 d ) . As w e l l , i f John had known j u s t what to ge t h i s w i f e , he would not have changed h i s mind a t the s t o r e ; i n a l l o f t h e s e c a s e s , p r a g m a t i c or c o n t e x t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a re b r o k e n . F i n a l l y , the examples i n (14) d e m o n s t r a t e the p o s s i b l e r e f e r e n t i a l a m b i g u i t y and range of p o s s i b l e a c c e p t a b i 1 i t y f o r c o n j u n c t s w i t h o u t c o n t e x t : 14) E d n a c a s u a l l y m e n t i o n e d t h a t i t wa s h i s w i f e ' s b i r t h d a y . J o h n r u s h e d o u t t o t h e s t o r e a n d b o u g h t a p a i r o f s h o e s , a H i s s h o e s w e r e an e m b a r r a s s m e n t e v e r y t i m e he w e n t o u t . b H i s w i f e l o v e d new s h o e s a b o v e a l 1 o t h e r g i f t s . 39 c H i s g u r u b r o t h e r - i n - l a w w o u l d h a v e t o w e a r t h e m i n t h e r e s t a u r a n t , d J o h n n e v e r h a d a n y i d e a o f w h a t t o g e t h e r . e J o h n a l w a y s knew j u s t w h a t t o g e t h e r . In c o n t e x t , o n l y one of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n each case w i l l be a c c e p t a b l e . G i v e n such i s s u e s as t h o s e r a i s e d h e r e , and such a range o f p o s s i b l e d e v i a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n of the deep s y n t a c t i c s t a t u s o f c o n j u n c t i o n , o r c o o r d i n a t i o n , seems to be much l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g than i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r c o n j u n c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the f o r m e r appears to be d i r e c t l y c o n t i n g e n t on the l a t t e r . The d i s c u s s i o n above has p r e s e n t e d a t w o - p r o n g e d a t t a c k on the u t i l i t y o f c o o r d i n a t i o n s t u d i e s o f c o n j u n c t i o n : a p u r e l y s y n t a c t i c grammar w i l l g e n e r a t e , i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , s e n t e n c e s w h i c h a r e i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e . As w e l l , the p r a g m a t i c l i n e o f a t t a c k i n c l u d e s a n o t h e r i m p o r -t a n t t y p e o f s y n t a c t i c i n s u f f i c i e n c y : a s y n t a c t i c a n a l y s i s c a n n o t a c c o u n t f o r o r d e r i n g problems i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h have c o n j u n c t remote s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s seems to be a more g e n e r a l d e f e c t i n t h a t such problems a l s o a r i s e i n r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s t r u c t u r e s . For e x a m p l e , Sandra Thompson a r g u e s t h a t c e r t a i n c l a s s e s o f r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d 22 i n deep s t r u c t u r e as c o n j u n c t s . She f i r s t compares r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s i n g e n e r a l to examples l i k e the f o l l o w i n g : 15) I t h i n k F r i e d a I i kes t o c o o k . 16) T h a t F r i e d a l i k e s t o c o o k i s no s e c r e t . 40 In cases l i k e (15) and ( 1 6 ) , the v e r b of the main c l a u s e t a k e s an embedded p r o p o s i t i o n as an o b j e c t o r i d e n t i f y i n g d e s c r i p -t i o n . For r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s , she a r g u e s , an embedded c l a u s e i s never s y n t a c t i c a l l y o b l i g a t o r y i n j u s t t h i s way. R a t h e r , g i v e n examples l i k e (17) and ( 1 8 ) , w h i c h p r o p o s i t i o n s become main c l a u s e s and w h i c h become embedded c l a u s e s i s e n t i r e l y a m a t t e r o f what t h e s p e a k e r may assume the a u d i e n c e to know: I 7 ) a T h e g i r l I m e t s p e a k s B a s q u e . b I m e t t h e g i r l who s p e a k s B a s q u e . I 8 ) a A g i r l I m e t s p e a k s B a s q u e . b I m e t a g i r l who s p e a k s B a s q u e . In c o n t r a s t w i t h ( 1 8 ) , (17) d e m o n s t r a t e s the r o l e o f surface e m b e d d i n g , or o r d e r i n g , as the case may b e , i n a l l o w i n g the s p e a k e r to assume c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l r e a d y known to h i s a u d i e n c e . T h u s , the o r d e r i n g of remote c o n j o i n e d c l a u s e s i s c o n s t r a i n e d . In ( 1 7 a ) , the s p e a k e r assumes t h a t the a u d i e n c e a l r e a d y knows t h a t he has met a g i r l , but t h a t they do not know t h a t she speaks B a s q u e . The o l d i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e s u b o r d i n a t e d , and i n some c o n t e x t s i t c o u l d be d i s p e n s e d w i t h e n t i r e l y . M a t e r i a l w h i c h w i l l be o l d or p r e -d i c t a b l e to the a u d i e n c e i s d e l e t e d , s u p p l e t e d , p r o n o m i n a l i z e d , o r s u b o r d i n a t e d , d e p e n d i n g on the m a t e r i a l . In the examples o f ( 1 8 ) , because the s u b j e c t noun i s i n d e f i n i t e , t h e r e i s no such o p p o s i t i o n and the examples a re p a r a p h r a s e s . For ( 1 8 ) , an o p e r a t i o n more l i k e t o p i c a l i z a t i o n seems to be the c a s e , 41 s i n c e t h e r e i s no o u t s t a n d i n g s e m a n t i c or p r a g m a t i c c o n s t r a i n t t o be met and the i n f o r m a t i o n i s new to the a u d i e n c e e i t h e r way i t i s s t a t e d . T h i s s e c t i o n has made a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l d e m o n s t r a -t i o n of the need to d i s t i n g u i s h d e v i a n d i e s o f a s y n t a c t i c o r d e r from d e v i a n c i e s o f a s e m a n t i c or p r a g m a t i c o r d e r . R. L a k o f f makes a s i m i l a r p o i n t i n her note i n " I f ' s , A n d ' s , and B u t ' s about C o n j u n c t i o n : " Let us try to reserve the term ungrammatical for anomalies that a r i s e out of v i o l a t i o n s of syntactic rules alone. . . . More often, we w i l l be considering sentences that are s y n t a c t i c a l l y well-formed, but semantically deviant for one reason or another. T h i s l a s t t y p e she terms " e r r o r s o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y . " A l t h o u g h the f o l l o w i n g chapter ; t a k e s up the n o t i o n of " a c c e p t a b i l i t y , " the d i s c u s s i o n above i n v i t e s a b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n between g r a m m a t i c a l i t y ( s y n t a c t i c a n o m a l i e s ) and a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n i t s own r i g h t ( s e n t e n c e s w h i c h a r e n i l - f o r m e d s e m a n t i c a l l y or i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a g i v e n sense i n a g i v e n c o n t e x t ) . 42 FOOTNOTES 1. In g e n e r a l , the work of R o s s , L a k o f f , P o s t a l , M c C a w l e y , B a c h , F i l l m o r e , and P a r t e e ( t o name o n l y a few of t h e l i n g u i s t s who have c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s r e -v i s i o n toward s e m a n t i c s ) , may be c o n s u l t e d (see B i b l i o g r a p h y ) f o r the d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s of d e v e l o p -ment away f rom the Aspects m o d e l . 2 . N o t i c e t h a t t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the p o s i t i o n h e l d by s y n t a x (or m a t e r i a l to be i n c l u d e d i n the s y n t a c t i c component) i n the Aspects m o d e l . See C h a p t e r Two, o f N . Chomsky, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax ( M . I . T . , 1 965) . 3 . W o l f g a n g D r e s s i e r , "Towards a S e m a n t i c Deep S t r u c t u r e o f D i s c o u r s e Grammar , " Papers from the Sixth Regional Meeting, C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 202 . 4 . In p a r t i c u l a r , see L . K a r t t u n e n : " C o r e f e r e n c e and D i s -c o u r s e " (1968) mimeo; "What do R e f e r e n t i a l I n d i c e s R e f e r t o ? " ( I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y L i n g u i s t i c s C l u b r e p r i n t , 1 9 6 8 ) ; and "The I d e n t i t y o f Noun P h r a s e s , " RAND mimeo ( 1 9 6 7 ) . R e f e r e n c e to H a r r i s 1 work may be f o u n d b e l o w , but b e s t known i s h i s " D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s , " Language 28 ( 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 1 -30 . 5 . Z e l l i g H a r r i s , String Analysis of Sentence Structure (The Hague , 1965) , p p . 18-21 . 6. Susumu K u n o , " F u n c t i o n a l S e n t e n c e P e r s p e c t i v e , " L i n g u i s t i c I n q u i r y I I I , #3 (Summer, 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 302 . 7. W h i l e t h e s e terms are w e l l - k n o w n , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e aims of the Prague S c h o o l , see J o s e f V a c h e k , The L i n g u i s t i c School of Prague ( I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) . 43 8 L a k o f f , "Some Thoughts on T r a n s d e r i v a t i o n a l ( U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n mimeo, 1 9 7 0 ) . C o n s t r a i n t s " 9 . Ibid., p . 5 . 10 . C a r l o t a S m i t h , " S e n t e n c e s i n D i s c o u r s e : an a n a l y s i s o f a d i s c o u r s e by B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l , " Journal of L i n -q u i s t i o s 7 , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 2 1 3 - 3 5 . 1 1 . B e v e r and R o s s , " U n d e r l y i n g S t r u c t u r e s i n D i s c o u r s e " ( u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , 1 9 6 6 ) . 1 2 . W. L a b o v , " R u l e s f o r R i t u a l I n s u l t s , " S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n , e d . D. Sudnow (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 123 . 1 3 . The i n f l u e n t i a l papers i n t h i s a r e a i n c l u d e : J . R . R o s s , " G a p p i n g and the O r d e r o f C o n s t i t u e n t s , " Progress i n Unguis tics ( e d s . ) , B i e r w i s c h & H e i d o l p h (The Hague , 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 2 4 9 - 5 9 : A . K o u t s o u d a s , " G a p p i n g , C o n j u n c t i o n R e d u c t i o n , and C o o r d i n a t e D e l e t i o n , " Foundations of Language. 7 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 3 3 7 - 3 8 6 . For s i g n i f i c a n t r e c e n t p a p e r s , s e e : P . P o s t a l , "Some F u r t h e r L i m i t a t i o n s o f I n t e r p r e t a t i v e T h e o r i e s of A n a p h o r a , " L i n g u i s t i c I n q u i r y I I I , #3 (Summer, 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 3 4 9 - 7 2 ; J . G r i n d e r and P . P o s t a l , " M i s s i n g A n t e c e d e n t s , " L i n g u i s t i c Inquiry,. I I ^Summer, 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 2 6 9 - 3 1 2 ; R. J a c k e n d o f f , " G a p p i n g and R e l a t e d R u l e s , " L i n g u i s t i c I n q u i r y I I , #1 ( W i n t e r , 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 2 1 - 3 5 . 14 . "Meaning r e l a t i o n s , " i n the l a r g e r sense f o r semantics, w o u l d i n c l u d e both p r a g m a t i c s and speech a c t i o n . 15 . For the p l a c e o f t h e s e i s s u e s i n of m e a n i n g , see W . P . A l s t o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) . the v a r i o u s , Philosophy t h e o r i es of Language 16 . S e e . R . C . S t a l n a k e r , " P r a g m a t i c s , " Semantics of Natural Language ( e d s . ) , Harman and D a v i d s o n ( 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 380-397 f o r an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s t o p i c . For e x a m p l e , on p . 383 he s t a t e s : "There are two major t y p e s o f prob lems to be s o l v e d w i t h i n p r a g m a t i c s : 44 f i r s t , to d e f i n e i n t e r e s t i n g t y p e s o f speech a c t s and speech p r o d u c t s ; s e c o n d , to c h a r a c t e r i z e the f e a t u r e s o f the speech c o n t e x t w h i c h h e l p d e t e r m i n e w h i c h p r o p o s i t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d by a g i v e n s e n t e n c e . " 17 . The s e t o f examples i n (1) and (2) i s by no means a c o m p l e t e o n e . O t h e r e x a m p l e s , o f r e a l i n t e r e s t but o u t s i d e o f the c o n c e r n s of the c h a p t e r , a re o f f e r e d by G e o r g i a G r e e n , op. c i t . , p p . 25 & 27 : i . * H o C h i M i n h i s n ' t o n e , a n d L B J i s no s a i n t e i t h e r , i i . * Y o u ' r e a h e r o , a n d i d o n ' t t h i n k y o u l o v e me e i t h e r . 18 . W i t h r e g a r d to t h i s e x a m p l e , a t l e a s t one s y n t a c t i c grammar e x i s t s w h i c h m i g h t b l o c k t h i s c a s e . The UESP grammar c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d to h a n d l e cases i n w h i c h c o n t r a r y moods a r e c o n j o i n e d . See " C o n j u n c t i o n , " UESP ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 360 . 19 . N o t i c e t h a t s i m i l a r c a s e s , i n v o l v i n g r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s , a r e odd r a t h e r than a n o m a l o u s , even though t h e y a r e the l o g i c a l consequences of t h e i r own p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s i . T h e d o g b i t t h e man he b i t . i i . T h e d o c t o r s a i d w h a t he s a i d . See E . L . K e e n a n , "Two K i n d s o f P r e s u p p o s i t i o n i n N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e , " Studies in L i n g u i s t i c Semantics ( e d s . ) F i l l m o r e and Langendoen ( 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 49 . 20 . See James T a i , C o o r d i n a t i o n Reduction ( U n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y ) , 1 969 , p p . 6 - 9 . 2 1 . Ray D o u g h e r t y , A Transformational Grammar of Coordinate Conjoined S t r u c t u r e ( P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , M . I . T . ) , 1968 . 22 . Sandra Annear Thompson, "The Deep S t r u c t u r e of R e l a t i v e C l a u s e s , " Working Papers in L i n g u i s t i c s 6 (Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , S e p t . 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 4 2 - 5 8 . 2 3 . R. L a k o f f ' s f o o t n o t e 1 t o " I f ' s , A n d ' s , and B u t ' s about C o n j u n c t i o n , " Studies in L i n g u i s t i c Semantics, op. c i t . 3 p . 115 . C h a p t e r 3 SEMANTIC CRITERIA AND SENTENCES IN CONTEXT The Case A g a i n s t C o m p o s i t i o n a l S e m a n t i c s S y n t a x was the s u b j e c t o f d i s c u s s i o n i n C h a p t e r 2, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n p a i d to c o o r d i n a t i o n grammar, and i t was shown t h a t a l t h o u g h s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r c o n j u n c t a c c e p t a b i l i t y ( o r , more p r o p e r l y s t a t e d , t h a t s y n t a x i s a p r e c o n d i t i on f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y s i n c e s e n t e n c e s must be w e l l - f o r m e d b e f o r e p a i r i n g ) , a s y n t a c t i c a c c o u n t a l o n e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y p o w e r f u l to b l o c k o b v i o u s cases o f c o n j u n c t or s e n t e n c e - p a i r a n o m a l y . T h u s , f o l l o w i n g the d i s c o v e r y p r o c e d u r e begun i n C h a p t e r 2, w h i c h i s to move f rom weaker to more adequate c r i t e r i a , i t i s now r e a s o n a b l e to ask whether a c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s w i l l a d e q u a t e l y b l o c k a l l anomalous c a s e s o f s e n t e n c e p a i r i n g . P r a g m a t i c i s s u e s w i l l be i n t r o -duced l a t e r i n the c h a p t e r . W i t h r e g a r d to what i s meant by " c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s , " two p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f c o n f u s i o n i m m e d i a t e l y come to m i n d . C o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s s h o u l d not be i d e n t i f i e d 45 46 w i t h what i s c u r r e n t l y known as " I n t e r p r e t i v e . s e m a n t i c s , " a l t h o u g h t h e r e may be f u n d a m e n t a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . N e i t h e r s h o u l d i t be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h l o g i c a l s e m a n t i c s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , I w i l l t a k e the K a t z and P o s t a l 1 model o f 1964 as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e example of c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s and examine i t s e f f e c t i v e -ness f o r h a n d l i n g c a s e s of c o n j u n c t i o n . The K a t z and P o s t a l model was o r i g i n a l l y aimed to be used i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a s y n t a c t i c component l i k e t h a t of the Aspects model and was d e s i g n e d to i n t e r p r e t phrase m a r k e r s , and to l o c a t e t y p e - c r o s s i n g , a m b i g u i t i e s , p a r a p h r a s e s , and a 2 l i m i t e d s e t o f p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . I t was composed o f a d i c -t i o n a r y and a s e t o f p r o j e c t i o n r u l e s : Thus, the semantic component, i f formulated c o r r e c t l y , provides an explanation of the speaker's a b i l i t y to determine the meaning of any sentence3 including ones wholly novel to him, as a compositional function of the antecedently known meanings of the l e x i c a l items in i t . 3 I t c o u l d l o c a t e and b l o c k a wide v a r i e t y of d e v i a n t s e n t e n c e s , as l o n g as t h e s e a n o m a l i e s were problems of t y p e - c r o s s i n g , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n c o n t r a d i c t i o n , and s e m a n t i c i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s : l ) a * J o h n m o v e d Q-R5 a n d he f r i e d t h e k i n g i n c h e c k , b * W h a t d i d y o u do y e s t e r d a y a n d I know w h a t y o u d i d . c * H a r v e y i s a j u d g e a n d s e n t e n c e s m i c e t o l i f e . F o r exampl e , i (Id), here i s a case of anomaly r i s i n g f rom the p r o j e c t i o n of s e n t e n c e ( w h i c h w i l l be marked f o r a [+ Human] o b j e c t ) w i t h mice ( w h i c h w i l l have a [- Human] f e a t u r e a s s i g n e d to i t s d i c t i o n a r y e n t r y ) . 47 From the examples o f ( 1 ) , t h e n , a c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s w o u l d seem to be s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g to b l o c k many of the a n o m a l i e s t h a t a r i s e i n c o n j o i n i n g s e n t e n c e s . S p e -c i f i c a l l y , i t s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d to b l o c k cases (1) t h r o u g h (6) i n C h a p t e r 2 , the second s e c t i o n ( cases l i k e * J o h n e a t s  a p p l e s and d o e s n ' t ea t f r u i t ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a re many c o u n t e r e x a m p l e s , or cases of a n o m a l y , w h i c h a r e w e l l beyond the adequacy of c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s to b l o c k . N o t i c e t h a t c o n j u n c t s may be c l e a r l y d e v i a n t even when t h e i r s e n t e n c e s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t l y s e m a n t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e and t h e i r c o n j u n c -t i o n b r e a k s no prsesupposi t i o n of e i t h e r s e n t e n c e : 2) a * J o h n i s s i c k a n d J o h n i s s i c k , b * J o h n i s s i c k a n d J o h n i s i l l . c ? * G e o r g e i s h e a v y w e i g h t c h a m p i o n a n d he c a n b o x . 3) a ? ? T e r m i t e s c h e w wood a n d t e r m i t e s d o n ' t c h e w c e d a r . b ^ T e r m i t e s c h e w c e d a r a n d t e r m i t e s c a n ' t c h e w c e d a r . The examples of (2) i n c l u d e no t y p e - c r o s s i n g s , a r e u n a m b i g u o u s , and c o n t r a d i c t no p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s ; y e t t h e y are u t t e r a n c e s a grammar o f c o n j u n c t i o n s h o u l d b l o c k , i n a l l but extreme c o n -t e x t s . In ( 3 ) , w h i l e the c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s would b l o c k (3b) on the grounds of c o n t r a d i c t i o n , i t m i g h t a l s o b l o c k (3a) on the same g r o u n d s , a l t h o u g h i n f a c t (3a) i s o n l y a w k w a r d ( w o o d = c l a s s term f o r c e d a r ) . S i m i l a r problems e x i s t w i t h o t h e r classes of e x a m p l e s : 48 4 ) a *EI i z a b e t h j a d o r e s d o n u t s a n d t h e q u e e n , a v o i d s b a g e l s . 1 b ? * S n o w d e n . d i d a f o l i o a n d T o n y J o n e s , was h i s m o d e I . 5) a ? * H a r r y knew B i l l a f t e r t h r e e m i n u t e s a n d t h r e e s t u d e n t s f a i l e d . b J e r o m e f o l l o w e d M o r t i m e r f o r t h r e e m i n u t e s a n d P a n c h o c h a s e d M a r g e f o r t h r e e m i l e s . 6 ) a ? ? F r o g s h a v e w a r t s a n d I c a n ' t s e e P s y c h - m o v e m e n t now . b ?My m o n k e y h a s d a n d r u f f a n d b r a n d X g o e s w e l I w i t h b a n a n a s . c I m o v e d N-K5 a n d I f o r g o t t o h i t my c l o c k . 7) a ? * J o h n r o l l e d o u t o f B o s t o n a n d J o h n r o l l e d d i c e , b R a l p h r o l l s d i c e a n d H a r r y r o l l s d r u n k s . 8) a ? ? H a r v e y s e n t e n c e s v a g r a n t s t o l i f e a n d i s a j u d g e , b H a r v e y i s a j u d g e a n d s e n t e n c e s v a g r a n t s t o I i f e . In (4) a b o v e , w h i l e c o - r e f e r e n c e i s p r e s e r v e d , to speak i n such a manner i s c l e a r l y p e c u l i a r and somehow o u t o f c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the c o n v e n t i o n s of l a n g u a g e u s e . Y e t , a c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s would have to show t h e s e cases i n (4) as a c c e p t a b l e . N o t i c e as w e l l , w i t h r e s p e c t to (5) t h r o u g h ( 8 ) , t h a t not o n l y w o u l d the (a) examples be a l l o w e d , but such a s e m a n t i c s c o u l d not s p e c i f y why the (b) and (c ) examples a r e a l l o w a b l e ( a l t h o u g h s i m i l a r to the (a) c a s e s ) . That such a d i r e c t case can be made a g a i n s t the com-p o s i t i o n a l model s u g g e s t s s t r o n g l y t h a t c o n j u n c t i o n and s u c -c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e a c c e p t a b i l i t y w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by r e l a t i v e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d c r i t e r i a . T h u s , a s h i f t i n emphasis i s d u e . The a c c o u n t , i f i t e x p e c t s to h a n d l e cases l i k e (2) t h r o u g h ( 8 ) , 49 (which i n v o l v e o r d e r i n g , r e l e v a n c e , and c o n v e n t i o n s o f u s a g e ) , must move to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f how l a n g u a g e u s e r s d e c i d e a c c e p t a b i l i t y and away f rom an o t h e r w i s e f o r m a l a c c o u n t of c o n j o i n e d s e n t e n c e s . As shown i n C h a p t e r 2 , f o r m a l i d e n t i t y o r the c o -o c c u r r e n c e of l e x i c a l i t ems c a n n o t e n s u r e a c c e p t a b i l i t y . Here meaning hyponymy s u f f e r s a s i m i l a r f a t e (a t l e a s t i n terms of r e l a t i o n s l i k e c e d a r d e s i g n a t i n g w o o d , l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n , and the c a s e s of ( 2 ) ) . C o n j u n c t s w i t h i d e n t i c a l l e x i c a l i t e m s and c o n s i s t e n t meaning (see ( 2 c ) ) o c c a s i o n a l l y a r e u n a c c e p t -a b l e w h i l e c o n j u n c t s w i t h no i d e n t i c a l l e x i c a l i t e m s and a p p a r e n t l y i n c o n c s i s t e n t meaning (see ( 6 c ) ) can be u n q u e s t i o n -a b l y a c c e p t a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , usage c o n s t r a i n t s and l e s s f o r m a l l y s t a t a b l e c o n v e n t i o n s l i k e r e l e v a n c e and c o o p e r a t i o n , and c o n d i -t i o n s on c o n j u n c t i o n l i k e t h o s e of R. L a k o f f , fo rm the next 4 / s t e p i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . From 1 e x i c a l i d e n t i t y ( b o t h s y n t a c t i c and s e m a n t i c ) the d i s c u s s i o n t u r n s to t o p i c a l i d e n t i t y and the s e m a n t i c s o f p r e s u p p o s i t i o n and d e d u c t i o n . "Common T o p i c " S e m a n t i c s : P r e s u p p o s i t i o n and D e d u c t i o n B e f o r e coming d i r e c t l y to R. L a k o f f ' s "common t o p i c " p r o p o s a l and i t s u n d e r l y i n g s e m a n t i c s , i t w i l l be u s e f u l to r e t u r n to s e v e r a l of the examples o f the l a s t s e c t i o n . N o t i c e 50 t h a t each o f the f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t s a c o n j u n c t i o n o r s u c c e s -5 s i v e s e n t e n c e t h e o r y w i t h a d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m : 1 ) C o n v e n t i o n s o f u s a g e * J o h n i s s i c k a n d J o h n i s s i c k . 2 ) K n o w l e d g e o f t h e w o r l d ^ E l i z a b e t h a d o r e s d o n u t s a n d t h e q u e e n a v o i d s b a g e l s . 3 ) C o n t r a s t i v e s t r e s s J e r o m e f o l l o w e d M o r t i m e r f o r t h r e e m i n u t e s a n d P a n c h o c h a s e d M a r g e f o r t h r e e m i l e s . 4) O r d e r i ng ? ? H a r v e y s e n t e n c e s v a g r a n t s t o l i f e a n d i s a j u d g e . W h i l e the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . r a i s e d o t h e r problems as w e l l , t h i s l i s t i l l u s t r a t e s the range of s e m a n t i c phenomena t h a t must be d e s c r i b e d by an adequate t h e o r y of c o n j u n c t i o n . W i t h r e g a r d to ( 1 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , G r i c e has p o i n t e d out t h a t to r e p e a t a message i s by the c o n v e n t i o n s of c o n v e r s a t i o n to l e a d o n e ' s a u d i e n c e to b e l i e v e t h a t more i s meant the second t i m e . When the a u d i e n c e d i s c o v e r s t h a t the r e p e t i t i o n i s p o i n t l e s s , i t w i l l c o n c l u d e t h a t The- u t t e r a n c e i s i r r e l e v a n t and a n o m a l o u s . S i m i l a r l y , i f (4) were r e o r d e r e d i t would be a c c e p t a b l e , s i n c e t h e r e seems l i t t l e p o i n t i n a s s e r t i n g and c o n j o i n i n g what must be p r e s u p p o s e d f rom the f i r s t c l a u s e ( the f a c t t h a t Harvey i s a j u d g e i s p r e s u p p o s e d f r o m the p r e d i c a t e s e n t e n c e s i n the f i r s t c l a u s e ) . T h u s , t h i s range of phenomena may s e r v e as a s c a l e f o r e v a l u a t i n g the s e m a n t i c a c c o u n t s to f o l l o w . As R. L a k o f f 51 g i v e s t h r e e d i s t i n c t v e r s i o n s of a s e m a n t i c c o n s t r a i n t on c o n j u n c t i o n , each may be e v a l u a t e d f o r adequacy i n i t s own r i g h t . H o w e v e r , b e f o r e t a k i n g up her p r o p o s a l s i t i s e s s e n t i a l to d i s c u s s the s e m a n t i c t h e o r y t h a t u n d e r l i e s them i n g e n e r a l . R a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s , t h i s a c c o u n t i n t e g r a t e s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , d e d u c t i o n , and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s i n t o a s i n g l e p r o c e d u r e w h i c h a t t e m p t s to d e s c r i b e how s p e a k e r s and h e a r e r s go a b o u t d e c i d i n g a c c e p t a b i l i t y . S i n c e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s are such an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h i s p r o c e d u r e , and s i n c e the o r i g i n s o f p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s f i g u r e i n the a c c o u n t as w e l l , some p r e l i m i n a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s may prove h e l p f u l . B r i e f l y , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s a r e o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s and a r i s e f rom d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . ^ C o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g : 5) T h e c a t s a t o n t h e m a t . 6 ) a J o h n a n d t h e o t h e r a n i m a l s f i n a l l y made i t b a c k , b T h e w o l f a n d t h e o t h e r a n i m a l s f i n a l l y made i t b a c k . 7 ) H a v e y o u m o v e d Q-R5 a g a i n ? 8) a T h e f o r e m a n r e v e a l e d t h e j u r y ' s d e c i s i o n . b T h e f o r e m a n r e p o r t e d t h e p r i s o n e r ' s c o n v i c t i o n . 9) J o h n c a l l e d M a r y a c a b a n d t h e n s h e c a l l e d h i m a j e r k . Examples (5) t h r o u g h (9) d e m o n s t r a t e some of the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p r e s u p p o s i t i o n . (5) i s a case of e x i s t e n t i a l p r e s u p -p o s i t i o n , i n t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of a c a t and of a mat i s i m p l i e d . For ( 6 a ) , we u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e r e a r e two groups 52 o f a n i m a l s i n s t e a d o f o n e ; i n ( 6 b ) , to know t h a t a w o l f i s an a n i m a l a l l o w s one to know t h a t o n l y one group of a n i m a l s came b a c k . In (7) we u n d e r s t a n d t h a t the a d d r e s s e e has moved Q-R5 b e f o r e the t i m e of the u t t e r a n c e , whether he has j u s t made thatmv.ove or n o t . O t h e r w i s e , the cases i n (8) i n v o l v e f a c t i v e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , o r i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h we t a k e s o m e t h i n g to be a f a c t : the j u r y came to a d e c i s i o n , and the p r i s o n e r was c o n v i c t e d . And f i n a l l y ( 9 ) , c o n c e r n s the h e a r e r ' s knowledge of what i t i s to " c a l l " someone s o m e t h i n g or to i n s u l t them. In a l l o f the cases a b o v e , the s p e a k e r assumes some s t a t e o f a f f a i r s to e x i s t , a n d , a l t h o u g h t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e nowhere a s s e r t e d , l a n g u a g e u s e r s a re a b l e to r e c o v e r such a s s u m p t i o n s by r e c o g n i t i o n o f such terms as o t h e r and a g a i n , r e c o g n i t i o n of f a c t i v e n o m i n a l i z a t i o n s , and by l e x i c a l l o o k -ups f o r i t e m s l i k e c a l l . A l l such cases are m a t t e r s of i n t e r n a l r e c o v e r y , or r e c o v e r y t h r o u g h i n t e r n a l means, o f u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s . However , f o r the p u r p o s e s o f i n t e r -p r e t i n g s e n t e n c e s i n d i s c o u r s e , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s w h i c h are i n t e r n a l to c o n t e x t u a l s e n t e n c e s , but w h i c h are e x t e r n a l to t h e s e n t e n c e s i n q u e s t i o n , must a l s o be e m p l o y e d . As I s h a l l show s u b s e q u e n t l y , e x t e r n a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s f i g u r e i n the t h i r d o f R. L a k o f f ' s v e r s i o n s o f the common t o p i c . B r i e f l y , the common t o p i c c o n s t r a i n t i s e x p r e s s e d i n terms of " r e l e v a n c e , " an " i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n , " and p o s s i b l e r e d u c t i o n to a s y m m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e , to s i m i l a r i n p a r t i c u l a r 53 ( t h e l a s t of t h e s e , or r e d u c t i o n to a s y m m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e , w i l l be t a k e n up i n the f o u r t h s e c t i o n ) . " R e l e v a n c e , " as she uses i t , i s more of a p r i n c i p l e than a c o n s t r a i n t : "Two s e n t e n c e s may be c o n j o i n e d i f one i s r e l e v a n t to the o t h e r , o or i f they s h a r e a common t o p i c . " T h e r e f o r e , p r i m a r y emphasis w i l l be p l a c e d on her second v e r s i o n , s i n c e the r e l e v a n c e p r i n c i p l e i s not d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r and i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the second anyway. R. L a k o f f d e f i n e s the common t o p i c as " t h a t p a r t g o f each c o n j u n c t of the s e n t e n c e t h a t i s i d e n t i c a l . " However , a l t h o u g h she p h r a s e s her a n a l y s i s i n terms o f " i d e n t i t y r e l a -t i o n s " t h e s e a r e c l e a r l y u n l i k e t h o s e of the l e x i c a l c o - o c c u r -r e n c e v a r i e t y . R a t h e r , she a r g u e s , l a n g u a g e u s e r s may combine p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s f rom the c o n j u n c t w i t h what i s a s s e r t e d i n the c o n j u n c t and r e a c h an i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n between c i lauses by means o f a p r o c e s s o f d e d u c t i o n . 1 ^ For e x a m p l e , John wants to make P e k i n g D u c k , and I  know t h a t the A&P i s h a v i n g a s a l e on h o i s i n sauce r e q u i r e s the h e a r e r to know: a ) ( P r e s u p p o s i t i o n ) H o i s i n s a u c e i s t h e u s u a l a c c o m p a n i m e n t t o P g k i n g D u c k . b ) S i n c e i t i s o n s a l e , now i s a g o o d t i m e t o b u y i t . c ) ( t h e r e f o r e ) Now i s a g o o d t i m e t o make P e k i n g D u c k . d ) t o m a k e P e k i n g D u c k = t o make P e k i n g D u c k . 54 and c o n s e q u e n t l y the s p e a k e r / h e a r e r i s a b l e to d e c i d e t h a t t h i s c o n j u n c t i s an a c c e p t a b l e one on i n t e r n a l g r o u n d s . O t h e r w i s e , R. L a k o f f ' s e a r l y o b s e r v a t i o n s on c o n j u n c -t i o n are v a l u a b l e , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g the need to e x t e n d the t o p i c to i n c l u d e s e m a n t i c i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g the range o f p o s s i b l e d e v i a n c e . She i s perhaps the f i r s t t o p o i n t o u t t h a t "To u n d e r s t a n d them a t a l l , the h e a r e r must s u p p l y , f rom h i s knowledge of the w o r l d , or f rom p r i o r d i s c o u r s e he has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , a d d i t i o n a l f a c t s t h a t l i n k s o m e t h i n g i n one c o n j u n c t to s o m e t h i n g i n the s e c o n d . " 1 1 As w e l l , she a l s o o b s e r v e s t h a t "he must make p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s about the o v e r t e l ements i n the s e n t e n c e , and the p r e s u p p o s i -t i o n s he makes , though t h e y have no o v e r t form i n the s u p e r -f i c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the s e n t e n c e , v e r y d e f i n i t e l y a f f e c t the 1 2 a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f s e n t e n c e s . " T h u s , i n terms of p r i n c i p l e s l i k e t h e s e , and i n terms o f f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s l i k e d e d u c t i o n f r o m p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s and a s s e r t i o n s , R. L a k o f f ' s a c c o u n t a p p e a r s to be a s u i t a b l e c a n d i d a t e f o r s p e c i f y i n g c o n j u n c t a c c e p t a b i l i t y . H o w e v e r , a t l e a s t f o r her " i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n " v e r s i o n o f the c o n s t r a i n t , t h i s i s not the c a s e . In t h a t i t s p r i n c i p a l v e r s i o n r e l i e s on an i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n b e i n g f o u n d between the two c o n j o i n e d c l a u s e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to show an a c c o u n t l i k e t h i s i s b o t h too s t r o n g and too weak. In c e r t a i n c a s e s , c o n j u n c t s may be d i s c o v e r e d to be a c c e p t a b l e w i t h o u t the need of e s t a b l i s h i n g 55 an i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n , and i n o t h e r c a s e s , an i d e n t i t y r e l a -t i o n m i g h t be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h o u t the s e n t e n c e b e i n g a c c e p t a b l e . L i m i t a t i o n s o f the " I d e n t i t y " R e l a t i o n W h i l e R. L a k o f f ' s t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y f i t many f a c t s about c o n j u n c t i o n , to r e s o l v e such o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t o a s i n g l e r e l a t i o n , t h a t o f i d e n t i t y , t ends to d i s c r e d i t t h e i r i n i t i a l w o r t h . W i t h r e g a r d to usage (see (10) and (11) b e l o w ) , knowledge of the w o r l d (see (3) and ( 4 ) ) , and o r d e r i n g (see ( 6 ) ) , the s c a l e o f e v a l u a t i o n s e t up i n .thetseoorniil s e c t i o n , the i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n s t o p s s h o r t o f a d e q u a c y . In George L a k o f f ' s e a r l y work on the r o l e of d e d u c -t i o n i n a grammar, d e d u c t i o n and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n were used as a f o r m a l means o f making e x p l i c i t what a h e a r e r u n d e r s t o o d f rom a c o n j u n c t i o n , as w e l l as why he took the c o n j u n c t i o n 13 to be a c c e p t a b l e . The e s s e n t i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f u t t e r a n c e s l i k e " t h e mayor i s a r e p u b l i c a n and the u s e d - c a r d e a l e r i s h o n e s t t o o " i s t h a t the r e a d e r / h e a r e r t a k e s t h i s to be one way a s p e a k e r may i m p l i c i t l y communicate h i s b e l i e f t h a t e i t h e r the mayor i s hones t or t h a t r e p u b l i c a n s are h o n e s t . In such c a s e s , we do not u n d e r s t a n d the u t t e r a n c e to be n o t h i n g more than two c o n j o i n e d sentences , i n t e n d e d to be u n d e r s t o o d i n d e p e n d e n t l y , but to be two p r e m i s e l i n e s i n an 56 i m p l i c i t p r o o f , o f f e r i n g s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to draw an i m p l i c i t t h i r d o r c o n c l u d i n g l i n e . In the P e k i n g Duck e x a m p l e , we u n d e r s t a n d o n l y t h a t a s p e a k e r i s s u g g e s t i n g s o m e t h i n g e q u i v a l e n t to "Now i s a good t i m e f o r John to buy h o i s i n sauce f rom the A & P . " The f a c t t h a t t h e r e e x i s t t o p i c s i n common between the two c l a u s e s i s i n c i d e n t a l to what we u n d e r -s t a n d by the c o n j u n c t , and the o p e r a t i o n s are o f a l o g i c a l s o r t n e c e s s a r y to t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Whether the common t o p i c i s d e r i v e d t h r o u g h r e p e a t e d l e x i c a l i t e m s , l e x i c a l l o o k - u p p r o d u c i n g common s e m a n t i c f e a t u r e s o r set -member r e l a t i o n s , or t h r o u g h the d e d u c t i v e p r o c e s s o u t l i n e d a b o v e , the c o n s t r a i n t i s n e i t h e r n e c e s s a r y or s u f f i c i e n t to c o n j u n c t - a c c e p t a b i l i t y : 1 ) Max b u i l d s b ombs a n d P e t e f 1 i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d . 2) ? * A r m y a n t s i n v a d e d t h e v i l l a g e a n d t h e h u t s w e r e a t t a c k e d i n J u l y . A l t h o u g h (2) a l l o w s the d e d u c t i o n of a t o p i c i d e n t i t y ( a n t s a t t a c k v i l l a g e = a n t s a t t a c k v i l l a g e ) the c o n j u n c t i o n r e m a i n s p e c u l i a r . The r e l e v a n c e of " J u l y " to the c o n j u n c t i s u n -c e r t a i n . For ( 1 ) , i t i s p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h a c o v e r t common t o p i c ( f u n c t i o n of the war e f f o r t = f u n c t i o n of the war e f f o r t ) where t h i s may not be what i s a c t u a l l y a s s e r t e d by the s p e a k e r , who may be i m p l i c i t l y a s c r i b i n g s i m i l a r c u l p a b i l i t y to both Max and P e t e . Once t h i s i m p l i c i t c o n n e c t i o n has been made, no d e d u c t i o n of a common t o p i c to t e s t a c c e p t a b i l i t y i s 57 n e c e s s a r y ; common t o p i c s may be a l a s t r e s o r t when o t h e r i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n f a i l s . T h u s , f o r u t t e r a n c e s l i k e ( 1 ) , a c c e p t -a b i l i t y must be u n i q u e l y d e t e r m i n e d on the b a s i s of the a c c e p t -a b i l i t y o f t h e i r i n d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t s i n c o n t e x t . C o n s i d e r (3) and (4 ) : 3) D i d y o u h e a r a b o u t w h a t h a p p e n e d t o E d n a ' s c o u s i n ? P o o r J o h n n e v e r s aw t h e t r a i n c o m i n g . I o n l y h o p e he knew how t o p l a y a h a r p . 4) J o h n w a s f i r e d y e s t e r d a y b e c a u s e he m i s s e d h i s c o m m u t e r t r a i n a g a i n . P o o r J o h n n e v e r s aw t h e t r a i n i c o m i n g . ? * l o n l y h o p e he knew how t o p l a y a h a r p . In (4) the f i n a l s e n t e n c e f a i l s a c c e p t a b i l i t y because of the c o n t e x t s e t out by i t s i n i t i a l s e n t e n c e . Taken t o g e t h e r , the f i n a l two s e n t e n c e s i n both (3) and (4) i m p l i c i t l y s t a t e t h a t John had a f a t a l a c c i d e n t . The u n a c c e p t a b i 1 i t y o f t h i s i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t i n the c o n t e x t of (4) causes the f i n a l s e n t e n c e t h e r e to be u n a c c e p t a b l e . T h u s , i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n s have l i t t l e to do w i t h a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r c o n j u n c t s l i k e (1) and c a n n o t g u a r a n t e e a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r c o n j u n c t s l i k e (2 ) . The s e m a n t i c c o n d i t i o n s f o r a s e n t e n c e ' s a c c e p t a b i l i t y may, i n f a c t , be i n a s e n t e n c e p r i o r to i t s immedia te a n t e c e d e n t . In a d d i t i o n , the i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n f a i l s to show t h a t m o d a l i t y and o r d e r i n g p l a y a v i t a l p a r t i n c o n j u n c t i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n : 58 5) a J o h n i s a u s e d c a r s a l e s m a n a n d P e t e i s a c r o o k t o o . ? * P e t e i s a c r o o k a n d J o h n i s a u s e d c a r s a l e s m a n t o o . 6) a J o h n i s a u s e d c a r s a l e s m a n a n d P e t e i s a c r o o k t o o . b ? J o h n i s a u s e d c a r s a l e s m a n a n d P e t e may be a c r o o k t o o . c * J o h n may be a u s e d c a r s a l e s m a n a n d P e t e i s a c r o o k t o o . 7) a • T h a t f u r r y o b j e c t i s a n a p e a n d h a s a l o n g t a i I . b ? T h a t f u r r y o b j e c t h a s a l o n g t a i l a n d i s a n a p e . (7) b e l o n g s to a c l a s s o f c o n j u n c t s i n w h i c h the f i r s t c l a u s e i d e n t i f i e s a s e t or c l a s s of o b j e c t s to w h i c h the second c l a u s e a s c r i b e s a t y p i c a l p r o p e r t y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o n e - w a y , the a u d i e n c e must be o f f e r e d the c l a s s or s e t term f i r s t . In (6), w h i c h i s a more c o m p l i c a t e d case of (5), one can see t h a t w h i l e a r e a d e r / h e a r e r c o u l d s t i l l deduce " u s e d c a r s a l e s -men a r e c r o o k s " or t h a t " J o h n i s a c r o o k " f rom (6b), such a c o n c l u s i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e f rom (6c). (6) a l s o shows the r o l e o f m o d a l i t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n , i n t h a t most c o n j o i n e d c l a u s e s a r e f a c t i v e , f a c i l i t a t i n g the d e d u c t i v e p r o c e s s f o r t h e a u d i e n c e . In t h i s s e n s e , what i s i m p o r t a n t f o r p r o c e s s i n g c o n j u n c t s i s not m o d a l i t y but f a c t i v i t y , i f we see the c o n j o i n e d c l a u s e s as p r e m i s e s . In a case l i k e (5a), t h e s p e a k e r t a k e s i t to be a f a c t t h a t used c a r s a l e s m e n are c r o o k s and t h a t o t h e r p e r s o n s s h a r e t h i s k n o w l e d g e . N o t i c e t h a t the f a c t i v i t y o f 59 t h i s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n u n d e r l i e s what i s a s u r f a c e c o u n t e r - f a c t u a l c l a i m i n (8): 8) Why i s J o h n p r e s s u r i n g me t o b u y P e t e ' s o l d c l u n k e r ? W e l l , J o h n may be a u s e d c a r s a l e s m a n a n d P e t e may be a c r o o k a s w e l l . However , perhaps (5) i s the b e s t example of a c o n -s t r a i n t on o r d e r i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n , s i n c e i t shows t h a t o r d e r -i n g can i n f l u e n c e the p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the s e n t e n c e . As a h y p o t h e s i s , t h e i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n p r o p o s a l l e a d s to the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t o r d e r i n g p l a y s no i m p o r t a n t p a r t f o r a c c e p t -a b i l i t y as l o n g as a common t o p i c can be l o c a t e d b e t w e e n . t h e two c l a u s e s . The i m p o r t a n c e of o r d e r i n g f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g c o n j o i n e d s e n t e n c e s may a l s o be a p p r o a c h e d f rom a d i f f e r e n t a n g l e , i n v o l v i n g R e d u c t i o n : 9 ) a J o h n i s a u s e d - c a r s a l e s m a n a n d he i s a c r o o k , b ? J o h n i s a c r o o k a n d he i s a u s e d - c a r s a l e s m a n , c J o h n i s a c r o o k e d u s e d - c a r s a l e s m a n , d * J o h n i s a u s e d - c a r s a l e s m a n c r o o k . (9c) and (9d) r e p r e s e n t f r o n t i n g of nouns i n t o a d j e c t i v a l p o s i t i o n s , d e m o n s t r a t i n g here t h a t a p r o p e r t y noun u s u a l l y f o l l o w s a c l a s s o r s e t term i n a c o n j u n c t i o n of t h i s s o r t . The p o i n t here i s t h a t t h e r e a re s y n t a c t i c , s e m a n t i c , and p r a g m a t i c r e a s o n s f o r c o n s t r a i n i n g the o r d e r o f c l a u s e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n . A common t o p i c c o n s t r a i n t makes no a l l o w a n c e f o r the e x i s t e n c e of t h e s e c o n v e n t i o n s . In r e g a r d to c a s e s l i k e (5a), o r t h o s e l i k e the P e k i n g Duck e x a m p l e , l i n g u i s t i c c o n v e n t i o n s are s u f f i c i e n t 60 to e s t a b l i s h the n e c e s s a r y p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s f o r a r r i v i n g a t a common t o p i c . F o r the f o l l o w i n g c a s e s , none o f w h i c h a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e , d i f f e r e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are i n v o l v e d : I 0 ) a He a s k e d A g n e w w h a t he t h o u g h t a n d S p i r o s a i d " o k . " b ? ? H e a s k e d S p i r o w h a t he t h o u g h t a n d A g n e w s a i d " o k . " I l ) a J o h n j i s c a s h i n g h i s c h e q u e a n d s h e ' s l o o k i n g f o r t h e m e c h a n i c j . b T h e r e i s a p r o b l e m i n s e l e c t i o n a l r e s t r i c -t i o n s h e r e a n d y o u s h o u l d r e a d Aspects . c T h a t man o n t h e b e a c h i s my b r o t h e r ; a n d P e d r o , s a i d he w o u l d m e e t us h e r e , i (10) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t c o n s t r a i n t s e x i s t such t h a t i f the s p e a k e r e x p r e s s e s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l , he must c o n t i n u e i n t h a t mood, but not v i c e v e r s a . In (11) , p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a l l o w s d e s c r i p t i v e c o r e f e r e n c e , whereas such i s not the case f o r g e n e r a l c o r e f e r e n c e . In s h o r t , the i n t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s on w e l l - f o r m e d c o n j u n c t i o n s are e x t e n s i v e and w e l l beyond the d e s c r i p t i v e power o f an i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n . Symmetr i c C o n j u n c t i o n A l t h o u g h never d e v e l o p i n g her t h i r d v e r s i o n of the common t o p i c c o n s t r a i n t to i t s t e r m i n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , R. L a k o f f has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n between c o n j u n c t i o n and i n d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t s o f s i m i l a r i t y : " p e r h a p s , what one means by s y m m e t r i c c o n j u n c t i o n , and common t o p i c i n 61 c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t , i s ' p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e d u c t i o n by p r e s u p p o s i -t i o n and d e d u c t i o n to an u n d e r l y i n g s y m m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e . ' " 1 4 I f t h i s i s the c a s e , and I s h a l l t r y to show t h a t f o r a t l e a s t one c l a s s of c o n j u n c t s i t i s , then i t i s p o s s i b l e to speak of s e n t e n c e s l i k e Max b u i l d s bombs and Pete f l i e s m i s s i o n s  o v e r T h a i l a n d as r e d u c i n g to any one o f t h r e e p o s s i b l e t o p i c p a i r s : l ) a Max i s s i m i l a r t o P e t e i n t h a t t h e y b o t h w o r k i n t h e w a r e f f o r t , b B u i l d i n g bombs i s s i m i l a r t o f l y i n g m i s s i o n s i n t h a t b o t h a r e f u n c t i o n s o f a n y w a r e f f o r t , c Bombs a r e s i m i l a r t o m i s s i o n s i n t h a t b o t h a r e d e s t r u c t i v e . N o t i c e t h a t f o r the examples i n ( 1 ) , each p a i r may be e x p r e s s e d as deep s t r u c t u r e s u b j e c t s , f i t t i n g R. L a k o f f ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t common t o p i c s c o n c e r n "what the s e n t e n c e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  a b o u t . " However , the range o f t o p i c s , or t h e m e s , p o i n t s d i r e c t l y to the r o l e t h a t c o n t e x t must p l a y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g c o n j u n c t i o n . T h u s , as i t i s the p u r p o s e of t h i s s e c t i o n to d e m o n s t r a t e , c o n j u n c t i o n s a r e c o n s t r a i n e d not o n l y by i n t e r n a l s y n t a c t i c and s e m a n t i c c o n d i t i o n s , but a l s o by c o n t e x t u a l ones (as w e l l as e x t e r n a l p r a g m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s l i k e the h e a r e r ' s knowledge of the w o r l d ) . T h u s , the e a r l i e r d i s t i n c t i o n between i n t e r n a l p r e -s u p p o s i t i o n and e x t e r n a l , or c o n t e x t u a l , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n comes f u l l y i n t o p l a y . Sentences t a k e n i n i s o l a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y depend o n l y on i n t e r n a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n and d e d u c t i o n f o r 62 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; h o w e v e r , s e n t e n c e s i n c o n t e x t r a r e l y may be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h o u t c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h u s , w h i l e the i n t e r n a l p r o c e d u r e may r e s u l t i n s e v e r a l t o p i c s b e i n g f o u n d f o r a c o n j u n c t , the e x t e r n a l or c o n t e x t u a l p r o c e d u r e u s u a l l y l i m i t s a c o n j u n c t to a s i n g l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n r e q u i r e s some i l l u s t r a t i o n . N o t i c e t h a t a s e n t e n c e l i k e Max b u i l d s bombs and Pete f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d , when i n s e r t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t 1 5 c o n t e x t s , may e l i c i t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t i v e f o c u s l s -2 ) S : Max i s no b e t t e r t h a n P e t e . Max b u i I d s b o m b s a n d P e t e f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d . T h e y a r e b o t h w a r m o n g e r s . R: B u t Max i s n ' t r e a l l y s i m i l a r t o P e t e i n t h a t w a y , b e c a u s e Max c a n ' t g e t a j o b d o i n g a n y -t h i n g e l s e . 3) S : W h a t Max d o e s i s no d i f f e r e n t f r o m w h a t P e t e d o e s . Max b u i l d s b o m b s a n d P e t e f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d . R: B u t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e n ' t r e a l l y s i m i l a r b e c a u s e b u i l d i n g b o m b s i s g o o d f o r t h e e c o n o m y w h e r e a s f l y i n g m i s s i o n s i s n o t . 4) S : T h e s e men may be e n g a g e d i n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s b u t t h e r e s u l t i s t h e s a m e . Max b u i l d s b o m b s a n d P e t e f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d . R: B u t , b ombs a r e n ' t r e a l l y s i m i l a r t o m i s s i o n s e v e n t h o u g h b o t h a r e d e s t r u c t i v e . ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) , and (4) show t h a t the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s u r f a c e s t r u c -t u r e s must r e f l e c t and be i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to deep s t r u c t u r e i s an i n s e c u r e o n e . R e g a r d l e s s o f i t s s u r f a c e s u b j e c t or s u b j e c t s , c o n t e x t must p l a y an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n our u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f what themes a p a r t i c u l a r c o n j u n c t may h a v e . 6 3 T u r n i n g to i n t e r n a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n , G. L a k o f f has s t a t e d t h a t " f o r many s e n t e n c e s i t makes no sense to ask w h e t h e r o r not t h e y are g r a m m a t i c a l i n any a b s o l u t e s e n s e , but o n l y to ask w h e t h e r t h e y are g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i v e to 1 C c e r t a i n p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . " A l t h o u g h G. L a k o f f t a k e s the p r e -s u p p o s i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a c c e p t a b i l i t y o n l y f rom the s e n t e n c e s i n q u e s t i o n , and such s e n t e n c e s a r e a c c e p t -a b l e r e l a t i v e to such p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , i f h i s examples were p l a c e d i n c o n t e x t t h e i r a c c e p t a b i l i t y m i g h t a l s o depend on c o n t e x t u a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , bo th of the L a k o f f s ' p r o p o s a l s c o n c e r n i n g p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s are p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h w h e t h e r the s e n t e n c e i s g r a m m a t i c a l o r a c c e p t a b l e , g i v e n o n l y i n t e r n a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , a l t h o u g h t h e i r p r o p o s a l s seem at l e a s t f o r m a l l y d i s t i n c t , bo th a t t e m p t to e s t a b l i s h a c c e p t a b i l i t y ( o r g r a m m a t i c a l l y , d e p e n d i n g on o n e ' s n o t i o n of what a grammar s h o u l d be a b l e to do) by means o f d e d u c i n g an i n t e r n a l i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n . For e x a m p l e , g i v e n a s e n t e n c e l i k e ( 5 ) , G . L a k o f f a rgues t h a t i t i s " g r a m m a t i c a l o n l y r e l a t i v e to the p r e s u p p o -s i t i o n t h a t c a l l i n g someone a v i r g i n i s an i n s u l t . " 1 ^ 5) J o h n c a l l e d M a r y a v i r g i n a n d t h e n s h e i n s u l t e d h i m . A l t h o u g h perhaps t h i s c l a i m s h o u l d be m o d i f i e d to c o v e r o n l y c a l l i n g ( s i n c e ??He c a l l e d him a hero i s u n d o u b t e d l y s t r a n g e ) , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s p o s s i b l e to r e d u c e t h i s s e n t e n c e to L a k o f f ' s 64 f o r m u l a [ f ( a , b ) & f ( b , a ) ] , i n w h i c h the i d e n t i c a l f u n c t o r s r e f l e c t the f a c t t h a t the s p e a k e r or h e a r e r has p r e s u p p o s e d t h a t to c a l 1 someone s o m e t h i n g i s to i n s u l t them. T h u s , the above f o r m u l a i s a case of the s i m p l e form L a k o f f p o s i t s to r e p r e s e n t what s p e a k e r s a r r i v e a t e v e n t u a l l y i n t h e i r u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f such s e n t e n c e s . However , i t i s p o s s i b l e , even e s s e n t i a l a t t i m e s , , ( a s i n r e a d i n g l i t e r a t u r e or s u b j e c t s o u t -s i d e our t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e ) , to speak of a s e n t e n c e a c c u -rately r e p o r t i n g the b e l i e f s o f the s p e a k e r , no m a t t e r what the a u d i e n c e knows, or b e l i e v e s . P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s seem to be r e l a t i v e to s p e a k e r - g r a m m a t i c a l i t y o n l y ; c o n s i d e r the case o f ( 6 ) : 6) The mayor i s a R e p u b l i c a n and t h e u sed c a r d e a l e r i s h o n e s t t o o . Here we know t h a t whoever u t t e r s t h i s b e l i e v e s e i t h e r t h a t the mayor i s h o n e s t o r t h a t a l l R e p u b l i c a n s a r e h o n e s t , or b o t h , r e g a r d l e s s o f our own b e l i e f s a b o u t the h o n e s t y of R e p u b l i c a n s . In s h o r t , t h i s a c c o u n t i s i n f o r m a t i v e c o n c e r n i n g how c o n j u n c t s a r e u n d e r s t o o d , but not c o n c e r n i n g how c o n j u n c t s a re a c c e p t a b l e . By the same c r i t e r i a , one would a c c e p t an example l i k e (7) s i n c e we know t h a t to be r i c h i s an u n d e r s t a t e d , but t r u e d e s c r i p t i o n of someone h a v i n g . "80 mi 1 1 i o n d o l l a r s , " and y e t (7) i s d e c i d e d l y q u e e r : 7) ? ? J o h n i s r i c h and he has 80 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . 65 I t i s the case w i t h p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , as w e l l as w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s , t h a t they can be made e x p l i c i t . Such i s not the case w i t h i m p l i e d s t a t e m e n t s . C o n t r a s t (8) and (9) i n t h i s r e g a r d : 8) a J o h n c a l l e d Mary a v i r g i n and t h e n she i n -s u I t e d h i m . b J o h n c a l l e d Mary a v i r g i n and t h e n she i n -s u l t e d him b a c k , b e c a u s e t o " c a l I " someone a n y t h i n g i s t o i n s u l t t h e m . 9) a The mayor i s a R e p u b l i c a n and t h e used c a r d e a l e r i s h o n e s t t o o . b * T h e mayor i s a R e p u b l i c a n and t h e used c a r d e a l e r i s h o n e s t t o o b e c a u s e a l I R e p u b l i c a n s a r e h o n e s t ; „ T h i s p a i r o f examples d e m o n s t r a t e s i n the main the d i f f e r e n c e i n s t a t u s between p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s . N o t i c e t h a t where " i m p l i c a t i o n " demands a c o n d i t i o n a l w i t h i t s f i r s t member a s s e r t e d , the p r o c e s s o f p r e s u p p o s i t i o n i s more t e n u o u s : 10) I f t h e mayor i s a - R e p u b l i c a n , t h e n he i s h o n e s t , and t h e mayor i s a R e p u b l i c a n . I I ) The mayo r (who i s h o n e s t ) i s a R e p u b l i c a n and t h e u sed c a r d e a l e r (who i s a D e m o c r a t ) i s h o n e s t t o o . 12) ? ? The monkey d i g s c l a m s and we have l i t e r a r y e v a I u a t i o n s t o o . 13) a ?My m o t h e r makes a b i g i m p r e s s i o n and S a l l y w r e s t l e s a l l i g a t o r s t o o . b My m o t h e r makes a b i g i m p r e s s i o n and she w r e s t l e s a l I i g a t o r s t o o . In t h i s s e r i e s o f . e x a m p l e s ( 1 1 ) , ( 1 2 ) , and (13) a re meant to c o n t r a s t w i t h ( 1 0 ) , w h i c h i s a case o f e x p l i c i t i m p l i c a t i o n . 66 (11) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n may be a v a i l a b l e such t h a t a d e d u c t i o n f o r a s e n t e n c e l i k e (6) to the e f f e c t t h a t " t h e mayor i s h o n e s t " i s nowhere n e e d e d . I n s t e a d , the d e d u c t i o n f o r (11) m i g h t be The mayor i s s i m i l a r to the used  c a r d e a l e r i n t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e y b e l o n g to d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s , b o t h are h o n e s t . (12) d e f i e s L a k o f f - a c c e p t a b i 1 i t y , but i s a s t a t e m e n t to the e f f e c t t h a t d i g g i n g c lams i s s i m i l a r to l i t e r a r y e v a l u a t i o n , and may be c o n t e x t - a c c e p t a b l e i n s a t i r i c a l c r i t i c i s m . (13) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t even the a p p l i c a t i o n of terms l i k e i m p r e s s i o n are u l t i m a t e l y c o n t i n g e n t on t h e i r i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t . (13a) i n d i r e c t l y s t a t e s t h a t my mother makes an i m p r e s s i o n by w r e s t l i n g a l l i g a t o r s , w h i c h i s not the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i s to be i n f e r r e d i n ( 1 3 b ) . I t m i g h t be a rgued a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s a re m e r e l y t e r m i n o l o g i c a l between d e d u c t i o n f rom i n t e r n a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n and c o n t e n t to a common t o p i c and d e d u c t i o n from b o t h e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n and c o n t e n t to an i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as I a rgued i n the l a s t s e c t i o n , s e n t e n c e p a i r s may have common t o p i c s and be u n a c c e p t a b l e ; y e t , w i t h r e g a r d to R. L a k o f f ' s t h i r d v e r s i o n of the common t o p i c c o n s t r a i n t , s e n t e n c e s w i t h s i m i l a r i t i e s or t h a t a l l o w the i n f e r e n c e of a s i m i l a r i t y p r e d i c a t e a re a c c e p t a b l e . T h e i r a c c e p t a b i l i t y seems to stem d i r e c t l y f rom the r e c o v e r y of t h i s s y m m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e and the s u b s e q u e n t 67 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t a l l o w s . The l i m i t a t i o n of " t o p i c s " to "what the s e n t e n c e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a b o u t " seems to be c r u c i a l . For e x a m p l e , the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s i n t e r n a 1 to Max  b u i l d s bombs and Pe te f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d can i n c l u d e a s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e range of m a t e r i a l : I 4 ) a b u i l d i n g bombs and f l y i n g m i s s i o n s a r e war a c t i v i t i e s b bombs and m i s s i o n s b o t h have t o do w i t h f l y i n g c P e t e may be d r o p p i n g M a x ' s bombs on T h a i l a n d d bomb m a k i n g and f l y i n g b o t h r e q u i r e s k i l l As (14b) i n d i c a t e s , to r e a c h an i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n , or even a s i m i l a r i t y r e l a t i o n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make a f i r m d i s t i n c t i o n between an a s s o c i a t i o n and a p r e s u p p o s i t i o n , s i n c e both depend o n l y on a s i n g l e u t t e r a n c e f o r t h e i r f o r m a t i o n . What i s i m p o r -t a n t f o r an example l i k e t h i s i s not t h a t we are a b l e to deduce back to a s i m i l a r i t y o r to an i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n between M a x ' s a c t i o n and P e t e ' s a c t i o n , but t h a t the u t t e r a n c e i n c o n t e x t p e r m i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s l i k e : " B u i l d i n g bombs i s to p a r t i c i p a t e s e r i o u s l y i n the war e f f o r t , " or "What Max does i s j u s t as c o n s e q u e n t i a l as what Pe te d o e s . " C o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g : I 5 ) a Max and P e t e a r e g r e a t b o w l e r s , w i t h s t e a d y ne i ? ve s . Max b u i l d s bombs and P e t e f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d , b P e t e t u r n s h e r o n , b u t M a r t h a w i l l p r o b a b l y m a r r y Max. Max b u i l d s bombs and P e t e f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d . 68 c Compared t o P e t e , what does Max know a b o u t S o u t h e a s t a n y w h e r e ? Max b u i l d s bombs and P e t e f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d , d S i d n e y g o t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n s c o m p l e t e l y m i x e d up . Max b u i l d s bombs and P e t e f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d . Each o f the examples o f (15) a re a c c e p t a b l e , but i n the (b) and (d) c a s e s , no r e c o u r s e to i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n s between the c l a u s e s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a c c e p t a b i l i t y . For (a) and ( c ) , where (c ) o f f e r s a c o m p a r i s o n f o r d i f f e r e n c e r a t h e r t h a n f o r s i m i l a r i t y , an a u d i e n c e does have to examine the two c l a u s e s r e l a t i v e to one a n o t h e r . (15a) i s a c c e p t a b l e i n c o n t e x t not j u s t because one can deduce t h a t the two a c t i o n s are s i m i l a r , or because we can deduce f rom i n t e r n a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s t h a t bo th are p a r t o f the war e f f o r t , but because o f i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s l i k e "Max and Pe te have s t e a d y n e r v e s because they have o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h demand s t e a d y n e r v e s , " deduced from c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . In the f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i l l t u r n to t h e problems i n v o l v e d i n r e c o v e r i n g an u n d e r l y i n g s y m m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e ( s i m i l a r i s the example I used t h r o u g h -o u t ) . T h u s , the p r o c e d u r e begun i n C h a p t e r 2 w u l t i m a f c e i y r e a c h e s the q u e s t i o n of p r a g m a t i c s or c o n t e x t . S i m i l a r i t y P r e d i c a t e s and P r a g m a t i c R e c o v e r y W h i l e i n C h a p t e r 2 a p r e l i m i n a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f p r a g m a t i cs d e s i g n a t e d the r e a d e r ' s " k n o w l e d g e o f the w o r l d " 69 as the b a s i s o f i t s o p e r a t i o n s , t h i s d e f i n i t i o n s u b s e q u e n t l y has come to i n c l u d e a knowledge o f immedia te c o n t e x t a l s o . " C o n t e x t " emerges , t h e n , as a c r u c i a l t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n f o r d i s c o u r s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f rom the p o i n t o f v i e w o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g c o n j u n c t i o n t h e o r y . R e c a l l t h a t knowledge o f the w o r l d formed p a r t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n a r e a d e r c o u l d g a t h e r f rom a c o n j u n c t and use i n r e a c h i n g a common t o p i c . In the t h i r d s e c t i o n , as i n the f o u r t h , the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n p r o p o s a l , i n c l u d i n g g l o b a l k n o w l e d g e , was f o u n d i n -adequate f o r d i s c o u r s e on the grounds t h a t i t f a i l e d to s c r e e n out c o n t e x t u a l l y anomalous c o n j u n c t s . C l e a r l y the c o n t e x t u a l c r i t e r i o n , w h i c h c u r r e n t c o n j u n c t i o n t h e o r i e s l a c k , i s an i m p o r t a n t o n e . B u t , n o t i c e t h a t w h i l e c o n t e x t i s spoken of as a " c r i t e r i o n , " i t s c a n d i d a c y i s a c t u a l l y founded on c e r t a i n i n t e r p r e t l v e v e o p e r a t i o n s t h a t f i g u r e i n p r o c e s s i n g c o n j u n c t s . As I p o i n t e d o u t i n the f o u r t h s e c t i o n , one o f t h e s e i s r e c o v e r y . C o n c e r n i n g c o n t e x t u a l r e c o v e r y , to a v o i d c o n f u s i o n , two t o p i c s must be k e p t d i s t i n c t . The a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r what i s to be r e c o v e r e d are e a s i l y c o n f u s e d w i t h the o p e r a t i o n i t s e l f . I argue t h a t c o n j u n c t (or s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e ) a c c e p t a b i l i t y depends g r e a t l y , when i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s are i n v o l v e d as t h e y a r e h e r e , on a s i n g l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Re-c o v e r y of a s y m m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e i s matched i n i m p o r t a n c e w i t h the o b j e c t s o f the p r e d i c a t e , s i n c e , as I p o i n t e d o u t i n the 70 f o u r t h s e c t i o n , d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e . Re-c o v e r y may be seen as the r e v e r s a l o f the p r o c e s s o f d e l e t i o n (where d e l e t i o n t a k e s p l a c e j u s t because c o n t e x t u a l r e c o v e r y i s p o s s i b l e ) . T h u s , on r e a d i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s e n t e n c e i n a d i s c o u r s e , an audnience may deduce an i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t f rom the s e n t e n c e and i t s a n t e c e d e n t . A t t h i s p o i n t , the i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y where s e v e r a l a re p o s s i b l e , becomes the t a r g e t f o r the a c c e p t a b i l i t y d e c i s i o n . I f a t l e a s t one i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t f i t s the c o n t e x t , then the s e n t e n c e w i l l be c o n -n e c t e d and r e a s o n a b l e i n i t s immedia te c o n t e x t . I f n o t , i t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d odd o r d e v i a n t . T h e r e f o r e , the r e c o v e r y o f d e l e t e d m a t e r i a l i s c r u c i a l to m e e t i n g the c r i t e r i o n of c o n t e x t u a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y . I t i s n e c e s s a r y to d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e o b j e c t s f o r s i m i l a r i t y p r e d i c a t e s , f o r i t i s between t h e s e o b j e c t s t h a t r e a d e r s must d e c i d e i n r e c o v e r y . P o s t a l ' s work i n t h i s r e g a r d i s i m p o r t a n t , i n p a r t i c u l a r h i s d i s t i n c -t i o n between " e n t i t y L " s e n t e n c e s and " p r o p e r t y " s e n t e n c e s , 1 8 c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the (a) and (b) examples b e l o w : 1) a Max i s s i m i l a r t o G e o r g e i n t h e way he t r e a t s g i r l s . b T h e way Max t r e a t s g i r l s i s s i m i l a r t o t h e way G e o r g e t r e a t s g i r l s . 2) a Max i s s i m i l a r t o P e t e i n c o I o u r i n g . b M a x ' s c o l o u r i n g i s s i m i l a r t o P e t e ' s c o l o u r i n g . 71 N o t i c e t h a t the i n the way t y p e i s b o t h s y n t a c t i c a l l y and c o n c e p t u a l l y d i f f e r e n t , e x p r e s s i n g s i m i l a r i t y o f manner r a t h e r t h a n p r o p e r t y o r a t t r i b u t e . P o s t a l a l s o f o r m u l a t e d a P r o p e r t y F a c t o r i n g r u l e to s t a n d f o r a " sequence of r u l e s " w h i c h 1 9 o p e r a t e to r e s t r u c t u r e e n t i t y t y p e s i n t o p r o p e r t y t y p e s . P o s t a l ' s c l a i m here i s not a f o r m a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l o n e , but i t seeks to e x p r e s s the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e two t y p e s a r e r e l a t e d . I f we assume t h a t h i s r u l e o p e r a t e s f r e e l y on e n t i t y s e n t e n c e s , (3b) would be the " p r o p e r t y " form of e n t i t y s e n -t e n c e ( 3 a ) : 3) a Max a n d P e t e a r e s i m i l a r t n t h a t t h e y b o t h s w i m . b M a x ' s s w i m m i n g i s s i m i l a r t o P e t e ' s s w i m m i n g . However , due to the f a c t t h a t s i m i 1 a r i n t h a t i s a l w a y s f o l l o w e d by one or more f a c t i v e c l a u s e s , e . g . , 4) a * M a x a n d I a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t he h o p e s t o e n j o y b u l l f i g h t s a n d I e n j o y b u l l f i g h t s , b Max a n d I a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t he e n j o y s b u l l f i g h t s a n d I e n j o y t h e m t o o . (3b) above may not be u n d e r s t o o d i n the manner s e n s e , but i n the f a c t i v e s e n s e , as i n ( 5 ) : 5) M a x ' s s w i m m i n g ( a f t e r h<fcs h e a r t t r a n s p l a n t ) a n d P e t e ' s s w i m m i n g ( a f t e r h i s l u n g c o l l a p s e d ) a r e s i m i l a r ( i n t h a t t h e y a r e s u r p r i s i n g , e t c . ) . N o t i c e i n (5) t h a t the s u b s e q u e n t i n t h a t S c l a u s e t y p i c a l l y c o n t a i n s a f a c t i v e p r e d i c a t e . There a r e , t h e n , t h r e e d i s t i n c t 72 t y p e s of c o n s t i t u e n t s w h i c h o c c u r w i t h sri'mi 1 ar to s p e c i f y r e s p e c t s o f s i m i l a r i t y : a p r o p e r t y t y p e , ( 2 ) ; a manner t y p e , ( 1 ) ; and a f a c t i v e t y p e l i k e ( 5 ) . P o s t a l ' s f a c t o r i n g r u l e works on any of the t h r e e . The m a t e r i a l above argues t h a t the s i m i l a r i t y c o n -s t r u c t i o n i s i n f a c t composed o f t h r e e c o n c e p t u a l l y d i s t i n c t t y p e s . S y n t a c t i c e v i d e n c e can be b r o u g h t to s u p p o r t t h i s same c o n t e n t i o n . As one m i g h t e x p e c t , f a c t i v e t y p e s t a k e o n l y t h e s e n t e n c e a d v e r b i a l s i m i l a r l y i n d i s c o u r s e , and manner t y p e s t a k e o n l y manner a d v e r b i a l s i m i l a r l y : 6) a Max a n d P e t e a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t t h e y s m o k e , b Max s m o k e s . S i m i l a r l y , P e t e s m o k e s . 7) a Max a n d P e t e a r e s i m i l a r i n t h e way t h e y s m o k e . b Max s m o k e s a c e r t a i n w a y . P e t e s m o k e s s i m i l a r l y . 8T)-a J o h n a n d M a r y a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t J o h n h a s r e d h a i r a n d M a r y h a s r e d h a i r t o o . b * J o h n a n d M a r y a r e s i m i l a r i n t h e way J o h n p l a y s c h e s s a n d i n t h e way M a r y p l a y s c h e s s t o o . c * J o h n a n d M a r y a r e s i m i l a r i n t h e c o l o r o f h i s h a i r a n d i n t h e c o l o r o f h e r h a i r t o o . F i n a l l y , coming d i r e c t l y to t h e i s s u e of c o n t e x t u a l a m b i g u i t y , usage o f i n t h a t S , a l r e a d y shown to be p o t e n t i a l l y t h r e e ways a m b i g u o u s , i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by i t s f r e q u e n t p a r a p h r a s a b i 1 i t y f o r " b e c a u s e " c l a u s e s : 9 ) a F r e d a n d P e t e a r e s i m i l a r i n o u t l o o k b e c a u s e t h e y arse b r o t h e r s , b F r e d a n d P e t e a r e s i m i l a r i n o u t l o o k i n t h a t t h e y a r e b r o t h e r s . 73 (9) p r e s e n t s two s e n t e n c e s w h i c h are s e m a n t i c a l l y synonymous but l e x i c a l l y d i s t i n c t . In l o o k i n g a t u t t e r a n c e s w i t h s i m i l a r t h e n , the r e a d e r / h e a r e r must not o n l y examine the r e s p e c t o f s i m i l a r i t y f o r p r o p e r t y - m a n n e r d i f f e r e n c e s but must a l s o (where o b j e c t s l i k e i n o u t l o o k p r e c e d e the i n t h a t S c l a u s e ) examine the u t t e r a n c e f o r a c a u s a l or r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l c o n -n e c t i o n . T h u s , a deep s t r u c t u r e a n a l y s i s showing c o n j o i n e d e n t i t i e s f o l l o w e d by a s i m i l a r i t y p r e d i c a t e and r e s p e c t c l a u s e i s not n e a r l y deep enough to e x p r e s s the c a u s a l v e r s u s p r o p e r t y d i s t i n c t i o n . Where s i m i l a r i t y p r e d i c a t e s o c c u r i n i s o l a t i o n , or w i t h o u t an accompanying r e s p e c t c l a u s e , a f o u r - w a y a m b i g u i t y i s p o s s i b l e . 10) Max a n d P e t e p l a y g o l f , b u t b o t h o f t h e m a r e a w f u l a t i t . ? ? T h e y a r e s i m i l a r . In g e n e r a l , t h e i r a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y i s p o o r . Max and P e t e can be s i m i l a r here i n t h a t they p l a y g o l f ( f a c -t i v e ) , i n the .way they p l a y g o l f ( m a n n e r ) , because t h e i r a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y i s poor ( r e a s o n ) , o r f rom u n s p e c i f i e d s h a r e d a t t r i b u t e s l i k e a p p e a r a n c e or number of t e e t h ( p r o p e r t y ) . T h u s , a r e c o v e r y o p e r a t i o n i s f a c e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h s i m i l a r as p r e d i c a t e . In f a c t , o f the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l t y p e s o r r e s p e c t s o f s i m i l a r i t y i d e n t i f i e d a b o v e , each c o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d i n deep s t r u c t u r e as h a v i n g i t s own u n i q u e head n o u n : E v e n t , M a n n e r , and P r o p e r t y . M o r e o v e r , a s e n t e n c e l i k e John smokes 74 c i g a r s and the c a t smokes c i g a r s too ( o r John smokes c i g a r s . The c a t smokes c i g a r s t o o ) , even i f r e d u c e d to John and the c a t a re s i m i l a r i n t h a t they smoke c i g a r s , wou ld t y p i c a l l y be g i v e n a s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h l e f t the r e s p e c t o f 20 s i m i l a r i t y u n s p e c i f i e d : T h u s , each of the t h r e e t y p e s above would be subsumed under a s i n g l e s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e between p h r a s a l a d v e r b i a l s and t h e examples of r e s p e c t c l a u s e s used to t h i s p o i n t , i n many w a y s , d e p e n d i n g on the a n a l y s i s one c h o o s e s , c o u l d be appended as an a d v e r b i a l to t h e VP d o m i n a t i n g s i m i 1 a r , d o i n g away e n t i r e l y w i t h the dummy marker J/T and i t s m a t r i x s e n t e n c e . P o s t a l ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t what a re s i m i l a r a r e not e n t i t i e s but p r o p e r t i e s o f t h o s e e n t i t i e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h my arguments t h a t m a n n e r s , e v e n t s , and a c t i o n s may a l s o be s i m i l a r , l e a d s l o g i c a l l y to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the f o r m u l a 75 x and y a r e s i m i l a r i s s i m p l y the s u r f a c e form of a p r o p o s i -t i o n i n v o l v i n g p r o p e r t i e s , e v e n t s , a c t i o n s , e t c . What appears to be a s u r f a c e a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e may i n f a c t be the f a c t o r e d p r e d i c a t e s o f two s e n t e n c e s , the N P ' s o f w h i c h h a v i n g been r a i s e d i n t o a main c l a u s e w i t h s i m i l a r . To meet t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , I have been s u g g e s t i n g an a n a l y s i s o f s i m i l a r i n t h a t S i n w h i c h s i m i l a r h o l d s not betweensehti . i tf l ies but between s e n t e n c e s , the s u b j e c t N P ' s o f w h i c h may be r a i s e d i n t o a s i n g l e e n t i t y s e n t e n c e on r e a c h i n g the s u r f a c e , i . e . : #S# NP VP John smokes c i g a r s c a t smokes c i g a r s Such a deep s t r u c t u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p r e s e r v e s the g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n t h a t not o n l y must the u n d e r l y i n g ( o r i m p l i c i t ) s i m i -l a r i t y p r e d i c a t e be r e c o v e r e d , b u t t l t h e ' r e s p e c t o f s i m i l a r i t y ( r e p r e s e n t e d here by head nouns) must be r e c o v e r e d as w e l l . T h u s , to r e t u r n to the f o u r t h s e c t i o n , c a s e s l i k e (11) be low come to have i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s l i k e t h o s e i n (12): I I ) a Max a n d P e t e a r e g r e a t b o w l e r s , w i t h s t e a d y n e r v e s . Max b u i l d s bombs a n d P e t e f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d . 76 b P e t e t u r n s h e r o n , b u t M a r t h a w i l l p r o b a b l y m a r r y M a x . Max b u i l d s b o m b s . P e t e f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d . I 2 ) a M a x ' s b u i l d i n g b o m b s i s s i m i l a r t o P e t e ' s f l y i n g m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d i n t h a t b o t h a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e s t e a d y n e r v e s , b F l y i n g m i s s i o n s i s d i f f e r e n t f o r M a r t h a t h a n b u i l d i n g bombs i n t h a t i t i s ( s a f e r , b e t t e r p a y i n g , e t c . ) . As (12a) and (12b) show, context is needed for deciding which symmetric predicate (simi1ar or d i f fe rent ) is to be recovered, and for discovering or recovering the respect of s i m i l a r i t y or d i f fe rence . Of course, by recovery in these cases, I do not mean that ( l i b ) represents the surface structure of an underlying (12b) but only that (12b) is the i m p l i c i t s tate-ment by which a speaker could say Pete f l i e s missions over  Thai 1 and acceptably in a context l i ke that of ( l i b ) . In Chapter 4 to fo l low, the discussion w i l l remain general ly on the subject of i m p l i c i t statements and the c r i -ter ion of immediate context. There I show that symmetric predicates (excluding types (like met and married) do not designate the only re lat ions between sentences, and that re -covery is not the only operation by which readers decide that sentences are connected and acceptable in context. 77 FOOTNOTES K a t z and P o s t a l , An Integrated Theory of L i n g u i s t i c Descriptions ( M . I . T . , 1 9 6 4 ) . E n t a i l m e n t and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s are h a n d l e d i n the d i s c u s -s i o n o f q u e s t i o n s . In p a r t i c u l a r , see p . 117 . K a t z and P o s t a l , i b i d . , p p . 1 2 - 1 3 . R. L a k o f f , " I f ' s , A n d ' s , and B u t i s About C o n j u n c t i o n , " Studies in L i n g u i s t i c Semantics ( e d s . ) , F i l l m o r e and Langendoen (1 971 ) , p p . 1 1 4 - 1 4 9 . I l i s t here f o u r p r i n c i p l e p r o b l e m s , but t h e r e a r e many o t h e r s p o s s i b l e . For e x a m p l e , a c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s would b l o c k cases o f s y l l e p s i s , a r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e , where t h e s e s h o u l d be a l l o w e d : i ) He l e f t i n h i s c a r sand a b l i n d r a g e , i i ) Here t e a r s r a n down her cheeks and h i s bank a c c o u n t . A d i c t i o n a r y f o r such a s e m a n t i c s does not l e n d i t s e l f to e x p r e s s i n g c o n v e n t i o n s l i k e t h e s e , o r t h o s e w h i c h b l o c k ( 1 ) . See H . P . G r i c e , "The L o g i c o f C o n v e r s a t i o n " ( u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r ) , 1968. There are w e l l - k n o w n c o n t r o v e r s i e s o v e r the n o t i o n of " p r e s u p p o s i to ' ion , " about whether p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s a r e a s s e r t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s and w h e t h e r t h e y n e c e s -s a r i l y s u p p l y p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r some s t a t e m e n t to be t r u e . F i l l m o r e ' s d e f i n i t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y the one used i n t h i s s t u d y : "We may i d e n t i f y the p r e -s u p p o s i t i o n s of a s e n t e n c e as t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h must be s a t i s f i e d b e f o r e the s e n t e n c e can be used i n any o f the f u n c t i o n s j u s t m e n t i o n e d . " C . F i l l m o r e , "Types o f L e x i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n , " Working Papers in L i n g u i s t i c s #2 (Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 8 3 . 78 8. R. L a k o f f , op. c i t . , p . 118 . 9 . Ibid., p . 118 . 10 . Ibid., p . 120 . 1 1 . Ibid., p p . 118-9 12 . Ibid., p . 119 . 13 . G. L a k o f f , "The R o l e o f D e d u c t i o n i n Grammar , " N S F - 2 4 , p p . 3 7 - 5 0 . 14. R. L a k o f f , op. c i t . , p . 1 3 1 . 15 . Note here t h a t e x t e r n a l a s s e r t i o n s and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s are used i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In M. M a s a t a k e ' s " D i s c o u r s e P r e s u p p o s i t i o n , " Papers in L i n g u i s t i c s 5 :2 (Summer, 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 3 0 0 - 3 2 0 , a t i s s u e a r e p r e -s u p p o s i t i o n s ( i n t e r n a l to the s e n t e n c e i t s e l f ) w h i c h are about the s u r r o u n d i n g d i s c o u r s e . The two a p p r o a c h e s s h o u l d not be c o n f u s e d s i n c e they are e x a c t l y o p p o s i t e . G. L a k o f f , op. c i t . , p . 37 and G. L a k o f f , " P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s and R e l a t i v e G r a m m a t i c a l i t y , " NSF-24 (1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 5 1 - 6 7 . ITak'o'ff, psee?8footnote 1 3 , p . 3 8 . P . P o s t a l - , i)0n the S u r f a c e Verb ' R e m i n d ' , " L i n g u i s t i c Inquiry 1:1 ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 90 . 19 . Ibid., p . 9 1 . 16 . 17 . 18 . 20 . For e x a m p l e , see G. L a k o f f , On the Wature of Syntactic I r r e g u l a r i t y , NSF-16 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , A p p e n d i x F . C h a p t e r 4 RECOVERY, RECONSTRUCTION, AND INFERENCE The P l a c e of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n C o n j u n c t i o n Grammar In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s i t has been p o s s i b l e to move by a s t e p by s t e p p r o c e d u r e toward a t h e o r y o f s u f f i c i e n t adequacy to b l o c k u n a c c e p t a b l e s e n t e n c e p a i r s . B e g i n n i n g w i t h s y n t a c t i c w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s , w h i c h i s a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r s e n t e n c e p a i r i n g , the d i s c u s s i o n has p r o c e e d e d i n terms of p r o g r e s s i v e l y s t r o n g e r c r i t e r i a and each s u c c e s s i v e c r i t e r i o n has been based on the i n a b i l i t y o f the p r e v i o u s c r i t e r i o n to b l o c k c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of s e n t e n c e p a i r a n o m a l y . T h u s , s y n t a x f a i l e d on s e m a n t i c and p r a g m a t i c g r o u n d s , c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s f a i l e d on p r e s u p p o s i t i o n a l and d e d u c t i v e s e m a n t i c grounds ( t h e s e m a n t i c s o f the deduced i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n ) , and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s f a i l e d on c o n t e x t u a l p r a g m a t i c g r o u n d s . C o n c e r n i n g c o n t e x t u a l p r a g m a t i c s , as I a rgued i n the f i f t h s e c t i o n o f C h a p t e r 3, t h i s c r i t e r i o n i s adequate f o r one r e s t r i c t e d c l a s s o f c o n j u n c t s . Where s e n t e n c e p a i r s a r e not d e v i a n t i n any of the r e s p e c t s i d e n t i f i e d t h u s f a r 79 80 ( s y n t a x , c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s , usage c o n v e n t i o n s , o r d e r i n g , e t c . ) , where such p a i r s p e r m i t the r e c o v e r y of an i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t c o n t a i n i n g a s y m m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e , and where the i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t i s a c c e p t a b l e i n immedia te c o n t e x t , the s e n t e n c e p a i r w i l l be a c c e p t a b l e . I t s h o u l d b e n n o t i c e d t h a t as an i n t e r p r e t i v e o p e r a t i o n , r e c o v e r y (based as i t i s on c o n t e x t and p r e s u p p o -s i t i o n ) i s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f rom the i n t e r p r e t i v e i o p e r a -t i o n s t h a t p r e c e d e d i t . These e a r l y o p e r a t i o n s , a t l e a s t p r i o r to the common t o p i c a c c o u n t , c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d under the h e a d i n g of r e c o g n i t i o n , s i n c e n e i t h e r p r e s u p p o s i t i o n nor d e d u c t i o n were r e q u i r e d f o r them. A l s o d i s t i n c t f r o m r e c o v e r y , and to be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , a r e t h o s e o p e r a t i o n s t h a t draw i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s f rom c o n j u n c t p a i r s where no s i m i l a r i t y p r e d i c a t e i s i n v o l v e d . As t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s do not i n v o l v e r e c o v e r y , I c l a s s them under the h e a d i n g of r e - c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e y i n c l u d e i n f e r e n c e , r e a c h i n g consequence r e l a t i o n s , and ad hoc d e d u c t i o n s . T h u s , I a rgue t h a t a b i l i t i e s beyond the mere r e c o g n i t i o n and r e c o v e r y o f i n t e r n a l s y n t a c t i c , s e m a n t i c , and p r a g m a t i c f a c t s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r r e a d e r s to d e c i d e a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r many c o n j u n c t s and s e n t e n c e p a i r s . N o t i c e t h a t l a t e i n C h a p t e r 3 a d i s t i n c t i o n was made between d e d u c i n g an i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n f rom i n t e r n a l p r e -s u p p o s i t i o n s and d e d u c i n g what i s an i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t f r o m c o n t e x t u a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n r e l i e d on the 81 d i f f e r e n c e between p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s w h i c h are c a r r i e d by an u t t e r a n c e , and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s w h i c h are a p p l i e d i n the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f an u t t e r a n c e i n e x a c t l y the same way e x t e r n a l o r c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s a p p l i e d : l ) a A s y o u c a n i m a g i n e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n He n r y ' s ... income a n d J o h n ' s i n c o m e i s g r e a t . H e n r y s e l l s c a s k e t s a n d J o h n d i g s g r a v e s , b N e i t h e r H e n r y o r J o h n h a v e w h a t y o u c o u l d c a l l p l e a s a n t j o b s . H e n r y s e l l s c a s k e t s a n d J o h n d i g s g r a v e s , c I f y o u w a n t t o know a b o u t p r i c e s , d o n ' t b o t h e r a s k i n g J o h n . H e n r y s e l I s c a s k e t s a n d J o h n d i g s g r a v e s . For b o t h ( l a ) and ( l b ) an u n d e r l y i n g s y m m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e i s i n d i c a t e d by c o n t e x t : d i f f e r e n t f o r ( l a ) and s i m i 1 a r f o r ( l b ) In ( l c ) , where the second s e n t e n c e e x p l a i n s or g i v e s i n f o r -m a t i o n i n e x p l a n a t i o n of the a n t e c e d e n t c l a i m , n e i t h e r sym= m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e i s c a l l e d f o r . A l t h o u g h a l l t h r e e cases i n (1) seem to depend u n i q u e l y on c o n t e x t f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , a c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the s y m m e t r i c c a s e s and ( c ) . In (a) and (b) Henry s e l l s c a s k e t s and John d i g s g r a v e s i s open to r e s t r u c t u r i n g as H e n r y ' s income i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m J o h n ' s  income i n t h a t Henry s e l l s c a s k e t s and John d i g s g r a v e s and J o h n ' s j o b i s s i m i l a r to H e n r y ' s j o b i n t h a t n e i t h e r a re  p l e a s a n t . Our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f ( c ) , w h a t e v e r we may want to a s c r i b e to the r o l e o f e x p e c t a t i o n s about the w o r l d o r c o n -d i t i o n a l s , may not be e x p r e s s e d i n a way s i m i l a r to (a) and 82 ( b ) . R a t h e r , the s p e a k e r here i n t e n d s to convey s o m e t h i n g s t r u c t u r a l l y d i s s i m i l a r to ( c ) , l i k e : Ask Henry about the  p r i c e s . I n d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t s l i k e t h i s a re c o n t i n g e n t on the r e a d e r / h e a r e r ' s knowledge of the w o r l d and a b i l i t y to h y p o t h e s i z e . H e r e , the r e a d e r / h e a r e r must know t h a t t h o s e who s e l l p r o d u c t s b e s t know t h e i r p r i c e s , must e x p e c t t h a t the s p e a k e r b e l i e v e s him to want to know about the p r i c e s of c a s k e t s , and must h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t " I f Henry s e l l s the p r o d u c t , then he i s the p r o p e r p e r s o n to ask about the p r i c e s . " M o r e o v e r , no s t r i c t l i n e o f d i s t i n c t i o n between r e -c o v e r y and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n can be d r a w n , f o r even i n the (a) and (b) c a s e s , the cases i n w h i c h , o s t e n s i b l y , o n l y r e c o v e r y o f d e l e t e d s t r u c t u r e i s c a l l e d f o r , c o n t e x t and o u t s i d e know-l e d g e are s t i l l needed f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . For ( l a ) we need to know t h a t s e l l i n g j o b s commonly pay b e t t e r t h a n d i g g i n g j o b s and f o r ( l b ) we need to know o f t aboos about the " u n -p l e a s a n t n e s s " o f d e a t h . In a s e n s e , the s p e c t r u m from r e c o v e r y t o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s one of d e c r e a s i n g p u b l i c k n o w l e d g e ; i n moving t o w a r d r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , a r e a d e r seems to move away f rom knowledge s t r i c t l y o f the l a n g u a g e toward knowledge of the w o r l d and u l t i m a t e l y , t towand p e r s o n a l knowledge and i m m e d i a t e s o u r c e s . In t h i s r e g a r d , d e i c t i c terms l i k e here and t h e r e depend on u n i q u e l y p e r s o n a l knowledge o f the u t t e r -ance s i t u a t i o n . L i k e w i s e , use o f p r o p e r nouns i n s e n t e n c e s w i l l o f t e n r e q u i r e p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e , a l t h o u g h i n cases l i k e 83 Queen El izabeth such knowledge would count as one's knowledge of the world. On the other hand, our understanding of common nouns, and even conventions of usage count as part of our knowledge of the language and not information that we might have to look up. Although recovery is a necessary c o r o l l a r y to many grammatical operat ions , including anaphora, pronominal izat ion, and delet ions of d i f f e r e n t kinds (thus i t is necessary for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of sentence pairs where these operations have occurred) , in no case is i t independently s u f f i c i e n t to es tabl ish a c c e p t a b i l i t y : 2 ) a H i s p r i z e h a s j u s t a r r i v e d a n d i t i s a g o o d o n e . b ? * H i s p r i z e h a s j u s t a r r i v e d a n d G r a n n y j u s t t h r e w o n e i n t o t h e d i s p o s a l . 3 ) a H e r p r i z e f l o w e r h a s j u s t b l o o m e d a n d i t i s a g o o d o n e . b ? * H e r p r i z e f l o w e r h a s j u s t b l o o m e d a n d we s aw o n e i n t h e b a r b e r s h o p . 4) a B e t t y d r i v e s a t r u c k a n d s o d o e s J o h n . b ? * B e t t y j u s t h a d a c h i l d a n d s o d i d J o h n . 5) a J o h n d r i v e s a h e a r s e a n d B i l l d i g s g r a v e s . b ? * A n d y r a i s e s p o o d l e s . My f r e n c h m a i d j u s t q u i t . 6 ) a H a n k ' s w i f e i s p r e g n a n t a n d he i s a n o t h e r W . C . F i e l d s . 2 b ? * H a r r y i s an a r s o n i s t a n d we s a w B u s t e r C r a b b e o n c e . Examples (2) through (6) are, r e s p e c t i v e l y , cases of anaphoric pronominal izat ion, anaphoric recovery (bloomed becomes bloom), 8 4 l e x i c a l i d e n t i t y , l e x i c a l l o o k - u p , and p r a g m a t i c l o o k - u p . A l t h o u g h i n each case r e c o v e r y i s p o s s i b l e , i n no case can i t r e s u l t i n u t t e r a n c e a c c e p t a b i l i t y . For e x a m p l e , t h e f a c t t h a t W . C . F i e l d s was a c e l e b r i t y can be r e c o v e r e d t h r o u g h p r a g m a t i c l o o k - u p , but i t i s o n l y the f a c t t h a t he d i s l i k e d c h i l d r e n t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r (6a). I t s h o u l d be n o t i c e d t h a t the p r a g m a t i c c o n s t r a i n t s on a c c e p t a b i l i t y a r e s t r o n g e r f o r c o n j u n c t i o n t h a n f o r o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s , l i k e q u e s t i o n s and r e p l i e s . For e x a m p l e , L a b o v ' s Q: A r e you g o i n g to work tomorrow? R: I 'm on j u r y d u t y shows t h a t l e x i c a l and p r a g m a t i c l o o k - u p a r e o f t e n s u f f i c i e n t 3 to e s t a b l i s h r e a s o n a b l e a n s w e r s . I f d u t y i s marked i n the l e x i c o n f o r " o b l i g a t i o n , " and to work i s i n t e r p r e t e d as where the q u e s t i o n e d p e r s o n i s to g o , then j u r y becomes a " r e a s o n a b l e " a l t e r n a t i v e i n t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s o b l i g e d to go t h e r e i n s t e a d of to w o r k . H o w e v e r , i f to work i s a l s o marked w i t h " o b l i g a t i o n , " i n the sense t h a t one i s u s u a l l y o b l i g e d to g o , then j ury must be i n t e r p r e t e d p r a g m a t i c a l l y as a form of s o c i e t a l o b l i g a t i o n h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f w o r k . Forms o f i n -t e r n a l r e c o v e r y , s y n t a c t i c , s e m a n t i c , or p r a g m a t i c , a re never s u f f i c i e n t to e s t a b l i s h c o n t e x t u a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r c o n j u n c t s , f o r u n i q u e l y c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n :i s a l w a y s ' n e e d e d f f o r i n -t e r p r e t i n g them. T h u s , t h i s c h a p t e r does not p r o c e e d to a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a f o r c o n j u n c t i o n a n o m a l y , but b e g i n s to e x p l o r e the 85 r o l e o f i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t i n c o n j u n c t or s e n t e n c e - p a i r i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n . The i n t e r e s t here i s i n a r e a d e r ' s a b i l i t y to d e t e r m i n e t h a t s e n t e n c e s a r e c o n n e c t e d f o r c o n t e x t ; the i n t e r -p r e t d v e v e o p e r a t i o n s t h a t f i g u r e i n a c c e p t a b i l i t y d e c i s i o n s n e c e s s a r i l y f i g u r e i n u n a c c e p t a b i 1 i t y d e c i s i o n s as w e l l . The P l a c e o f I n f e r e n c e i n I n t e r p r e t i n g S u c c e s s i v e S e n t e n c e s As I s h a l l argue s u b s e q u e n t l y , what i s o r d i n a r i l y t a k e n to be a m a t t e r o f i n f e r e n c e i s i n many c o n t e x t s a m a t t e r o f d e d u c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , the e a r l y t r e a t m e n t o f i n f e r e n t i a l c o n j u n c t i o n here s h o u l d be t a k e n not p r i n c i p a l l y as an a c c o u n t o f how l a n g u a g e u s e r s i n t e r p r e t a l l c o n j u n c t s , but r a t h e r as m a t e r i a l g i v e n to d e m o n s t r a t e the d i f f e r e n c e between such c o n j u n c t i o n and s y m m e t r i c or s i m i l a r i t y c o n j u n c t i o n . The term i n f e r e n c e may be used to c o v e r a wide range of l a n g u a g e b e h a v i o r , f rom p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s to p o e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and the d i s t i n c t i o n between i t and i m p ! i c a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t to 4 a p p l y i n many c a s e s . G e i s and Z w i c k y use i n f e r e n c e where 5 G r i c e mmaghtuuseiriimpl n 'Gatd 'on . S i n c e a c o n s i s t e n t b i a s t h r o u g h -o u t t h i s work has been to t a k e the p o i n t o f v i e w of the a u d i e n c e , and i n f e r e n c e e x p r e s s e s b e h a v i o r by the a u d i e n c e , t h i s te rm w i l l be u s e d , w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s . O t h e r w i s e , the phenomenon i s l i t t l e u n d e r s t o o d and s t u d i e s on t h i s s u b j e c t a r e o n l y now i n p r o g r e s s ; ^ n e v e r t h e l e s s , the a s s e r t e d c o n t e n t 86 o r s t a t e m e n t made by an u t t e r a n c e i s r a r e l y a l l the s p e a k e r i n t e n d s an a u d i e n c e to u n d e r s t a n d by i t . A t h e o r y o f d i s -c o u r s e must t h e r e f o r e a c c o u n t f o r the a u d i e n c e ' s a b i l i t y to p r o p e r l y i n t e r p r e t u t t e r a n c e s a p a r t f rom what t h e y a s s e r t . I n f e r e n t i a l c o n j u n c t i o n o c c u r s when two c o n j o i n e d cd.auses a r e such t h a t t h e y i n v i t e the auddience to i n f e r a t h i r d , or a d d i t i o n a l , c l a u s e . As i n the case of i n d i r e c t s p e e c h - a c t i o n (a k i n g u t t e r s I t ' s c o l d i n h e r e , but means You a r e commanded to c l o s e the window) s p e a k e r s have the o p t i o n of making t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s e x p l i c i t , o r , by u t t e r i n g s e n t e n c e s w h i c h w i t h c o n t e x t l e a d the h e a r e r to i n f e r the i n t e n d e d m a t e r i a l , o f l e a v i n g t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s i m p l i c i t . C o n j u n c t i o n r e q u i r i n g i n f e r e n c e i s such a case of i n d i r e c t c o m m u n i c a t i o n , r e l y i n g on the a b i l i t y o f t h e h e a r e r to r e -c o n s t r u c t f rom c o n t e x t . The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between s y m m e t r i c c o n j u n c t i o n and i n f e r e n t i a l c o n j u n c t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s to the d i f f e r e n c e between c o n t e x t u a l r e c o v e r y and c o n t e x t u a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . In the case of c o n j u n c t i o n r e d u c t i o n , as i n the case o f s y n -t a c t i c d e l e t i o n i n g e n e r a l , any d e l e t e d m a t e r i a l i s r e c o v e r -a b l e . In the case o f i n f e r e n c e c o n j u n c t i o n , h o w e v e r , o n l y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , s i n c e the i n f e r r e d m a t e r i a l i s not s t r i c t l y a p a r t o f any s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of e i t h e r c l a u s e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the i s s u e f o r s y m m e t r i c ( s i m i l a r i t y ) c o n j u n c t i o n i s s u p e r f i c i a l l y u n c l e a r . On the one h a n d , one 87 m i g h t want to say t h a t f rom our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c o n j u n c t s we " i n f e r " t h a t a s i m i l a r i t y r e l a t i o n must h o l d . T h e r e b y , s i n c e d e d u c t i o n and knowledge o f the w o r l d i s i n v o l v e d , the o p e r a t i o n must be one o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n a l t h e o r y i s s u f f i c i e n t l y p o w e r f u l to d e a l w i t h d e l e t i o n of a deep p r e d i c a t e f o l l o w e d by s u p p l e t i o n by a n d , where c o n v e n t i o n s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are such t h a t an a u d i e n c e w o u l d r e c o v e r the p r e d i c a t e . In t h i s way the s u r f a c e s t r u c -t u r e o f a s i m i l a r i t y c o n j u n c t i o n , where i t i s marked o n l y by a n d , can be s a i d to e x i s t i n a d e l e t i o n and p a r a p h r a s e r e l a -t i o n s h i p to the e x p l i c i t form o r remote s t r u c t u r e c o n t a i n i n g the s y m m e t r i c p r e d i c a t e . In f a c t , s y m m e t r i c c o n j u n c t i o n h o l d s a median p o s i t i o n between r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e c o v e r y , as t h e a u d i e n c e must r e l y on c o n t e x t to r e c o v e r w h i c h of s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s i s meant . N o t i c e t h a t e i t h e r (b) o r : (c ) be low c o u l d appear on the s u r f a c e as ( a ) : l ) a J o h n d r i v e s a h e a r s e . B i l l d i g s g r a v e s , b J o h n i s s i m i l a r t o B i l l i n t h a t o n e d r i v e s a h e a r s e a n d t h e o t h e r d i g s g r a v e s , c J o h n ' s d r i v i n g a h e a r s e i s s i m i l a r t o B i l l ' s d i g g i n g g r a v e s i n t h a t b o t h a r e i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r m e n t . F o l l o w i n g the i s s u e of c o n t e x t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , I now t u r n d i r e c t l y to i n f e r e n c e c o n j u n c t i o n , w h i c h i s w e l l w i t h i n the domain o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . As I a r g u e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n a b o v e , r e c o g n i -t i o n and even r e c o v e r y , a l t h o u g h f i g u r i n g i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 88 and n e c e s s a r y o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e m s e l v e s , a re not s u f f i c i e n t to g u a r a n t e e c o n t e x t u a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y o r to r e a c h i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s . T h u s , a l t h o u g h the c a s e s of i n f e r e n c e c o n j u n c -t i o n below o f t e n c o n t a i n cases of p r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n , t h i s f a c t a l o n e does not e n s u r e a c c e p t a b i l i t y : 2) J o h n w a n t s s d i o m e e t t h e Q u e e n a n d I know h e r . 3) I j u s t h a v e t o s e e t h e new b u i l d i n g a n d Ed i s g o i n g t o d r i v e by i t . 4) T h e s e h a t s a r e j u s t o u t a n d y e t H e l e n c l a i m s s h e h a s o n e . 5) We j u s t c h e c k e d t h e p r i n t s o n t h e w e a p o n . T h e y ' r e F r e d ' s . 6 ) F r a n k h a t e s k i d s . H i s w i f e i s b a b y s i t t i n g t h r e e t o n i g h t . P l a c e d i n c o n t e x t , cases l i k e t h e s e depend u n i q u e l y on t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t m a t e r i a l f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : 7) a Y o u w a n t t o know why J o h n ' s b e e n b o t h e r i n g me a l 1 w e e k . ( J o h n w a n t s me t o i n t r o d u c e h i m t o t h e Q u e e n ' . ) b How do I know t h a t s h e w i l l w a i t a l i t t l e l o n g e r b e f o r e g r a n t i n g a n a u d i e n c e ? ( T h e Q u e e n w i l l c u n n i n g l y g e t t h e a d v a n t a g e i n t h e m e e t i n g . ) 8) a I 'm s u r e we c a n g e t F r a n k t o j o i n us t o n i g h t . ( F r a n k w i l l w a n t t o g e t a w a y f r o m , t h e k i d s . ) b D o n ' t y o u t h i n k we s h o u l d d r o p i n o n F r a n k a n d h i s w i f e t o n i g h t ? ( F r a n k may be d a n g e r o u s , a v i s i t w o u l d i m p r o v e t h e a t m o -s p h e r e , e t c . ) 89 As (7) and (8) show, the i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s of (2) t h r o u g h (6) depend on c o n t e x t ; i f a r e a d e r assumed an (a) i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n i n a (b) c o n t e x t , he wou ld f i n d the c o n j u n c t i o n o r s e n -t e n c e p a i r anomalous and u n a c c e p t a b l e . On the o t h e r hand (9) shows t h a t w h i l e common e l e m e n t s may appear i n i n f e r e n c e c o n j u n c t s , s i m i l a r i t y c o n j u n c t i o n i s not a t s t a k e : 9) ? * J o h n a n d I a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t he w a n t s t o b u y a new r u l e r a n d I h a v e o n e t o s e l l . No d e l e t i o n s or p a r a p h r a s e r e l a t i o n s c o u n t i n the r e c o n s t r u c -t i o n of the i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t i n ( 2 ) . The mere f a c t t h a t b o t h c l a u s e s c o n t a i n the word r u l e r i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to e s t a b -l i s h a common t o p i c of s i m i l a r i t y and a r e c o v e r y o p e r a t i o n w i l l p r o d u c e no i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t of s i m i l a r i t y . In a d d i t i o n , , the c l a u s e s l i k e t h o s e i n (2) a r e c o - r e l e v a n t p r e c i s e l y due to o u r a b i l i t y to b r i n g our knowledge and e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h e w o r l d to the u t t e r a n c e , and to i n f e r the i m p l i c i t s t a t e -ment ( John c o u l d buy a r u l e r f rom me) f rom the two a s s e r t i o n s . N o t i c e t h a t each of the examples above i s an u t t e r a n c e w h i c h c o u l d be used to answer o r as an i n d i r e c t answer to the f o l l o w -i n g s i n g l e c l a u s e q u e s t i o n s . 10) Why do y o u t h i n k t h a t J o h n m i g h t b u y y o u r r u l e r ? 11) Why a r e y o u i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g Ed ? 90 12) Why do you t h i n k t h a t H e l e n i s l y i n g a b o u t h e r h a t ? 13) Why do you t h i n k t h a t F r e d i s t h e m u r d e r e r ? 14) Why d o e s n ' t F r a n k want t o go home t o n i g h t ? N o t i c e too t h a t because (10) t h r o u g h (14) a re why q u e s t i o n s , or q u e s t i o n s t h a t c a l l f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s , t h e i r p o t e n t i a l a n s w e r s , ( ( 2 ) t h r o u g h ( 6 ) ) , a r e more d i r e c t t h a n t h e y m i g h t a t f i r s t seem. For e x p l a n a t i o n s t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e e i t h e r causes or r e a s o n s f o r b e l i e f (see C h a p t e r 5 ) , and (2) - (6) a r e n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n s f o r c e r t a i n b e l i e f s e x p r e s s e d by (10) - ( 1 4 ) . In the p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s of (11) and ( 1 4 ) , n o t i c e t h a t some s p e c i a l c o n t e x t needs to be assumed i n o r d e r to i n t e r p r e t t h e s e . However , what i s i m p o r t a n t here i s t h a t , f i r s t , t h i s s e t o f examples d i s t i n g u i s h e s a u n i q u e c l a s s o f c o n j u n c t i o n , a n d s e c o n d , t h a t G . L a k o f f ' s c l a i m t h a t c o n j u n c -t i o n s w i l l be g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i v e to i n f o r m a t i o n and d e d u c -t i o n does seem to a p p l y h e r e . Assuming t h a t (5) i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s t y p e of c o n j u n c t i o n , we would not e x p e c t to be c h a l l e n g e d i f we were to say t h a t t h i s u t t e r a n c e was an i n d i r e c t way of s t a t i n g a b e l i e f such t h a t Fred was the m u r d e r e r , g i v e n our knowledge o f c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h such an u t t e r a n c e may be u s e d . From the s p e a k e r ' s knowledge and g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n c a s e s l i k e Q t h i s , L a k o f f m i g h t c o n t e n d , a l o n g w i t h Thomason, t h a t we s u p p l y an e x p e c t a t i o n about the w o r l d such t h a t , no e v i d e n c e 9 1 to the c o n t r a r y , the p e r s o n whose p r i n t s a re on a murder weapon i s the m u r d e r e r : "a b e l i e f on t h e p a r t o f the s p e a k e r t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to some g e n e r a l rule ' . ' some u t t e r a n c e s h o u l d e n t a i l some o t h e r u t t e r a n c e . G r a m m a t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , the l a n g u a g e u s e r ' s knowledge o f the w o r l d has h i s t o r i c a l l y been an o b j e c t w h i c h many l i n g u i s t s t h o u g h t c o u l d never be d e s c r i b e d . E a r l y arguments a g a i n s t the i n c l u s i o n of s e m a n t i c s i n a grammar o f t e n r e s t e d on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t such an i n c l u s i o n wou ld i n v o l v e the s p e a k e r ' s knowledge of the w o r l d . Thomason has i m p l i c i t l y q u e s t i o n e d t h i s a s s u m p t i o n by p o i n t i n g out t h a t w h a t e v e r p a s t e x p e r i ence two s p e a k e r s may have t h e y may c e r -t a i n l y a r r i v e a t the same e x p e c t a t i o n about the w o r l d i n d e -p e n d e n t l y . Such e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e n o t h i n g more f o r Thomason g t h a n g e n e r a l r u l e s , or p r a g m a t i c p o s t u l a t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , "no e v i d e n c e to the c o n t r a r y " i s an i m p o r t a n t p h r a s e here because the q u e s t i o n of what wou ld be e v i d e n c e to the c o n t r a r y i s e s s e n t i a l . (5), a c c o r d i n g to t h e s t r o n g e s t form of the e x p e c t a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s , w o u l d a l w a y s be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o f the e x p e c t a t i o n i f p r i n t s a r e on t h e  weapon, t h e y w i l l i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y be the m u r d e r e r ' s and few s p e a k e r s w i l l p r o c e s s t h i s s e n t e n c e or i n t e r p r e t i t w i t h o u t t a k i n g t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i n t o a c c o u n t . However , i f we knew f rom p r i o r c o n t e x t t h a t F r e d was a c lumsy p o l i c e m a n who had p i c k e d up the weapon, t h e n t h i s w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e " e v i d e n c e to the c o n t r a r y . " Y e t , the q u e s t i o n must be asked 92 f o r t h i s example and e v e r y o t h e r such example t h a t when we a r e c o n t e x t u a l l y i n f o r m e d , does t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n a r i s e a t a l l ? A r e e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n t e x t - i n d e p e n d e n t and a r i s i n g i n e v e r y case o r a re e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n t e x t - d e p e n d e n t and a r i s i n g o n l y f rom the c o n t e x t ? Is " k n o w l e d g e to the c o n t r a r y " s i m p l y a m a t t e r o f normal c o n t e x t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n about how to t a k e c e r t a i n u t t e r a n c e s ? The answer:, to t h e s e k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s i s beyond the scope of t h i s w o r k , but s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a t the l e v e l o f a t h e o r y o f s e m a n t i c s . I f we r e a d (5) i n the c o n t e x t i n w h i c h F r e d i s a p o l i c e m a n we may not c o n s i d e r (5) to be a s t a t e m e n t o f b e l i e f or a c h a r g e t h a t F r e d i s the m u r d e r e r a t a l 1 . Consequence R e l a t i o n s Between S u c c e s s i v e S e n t e n c e s W h i l e a s e n t e n c e grammar must a t t e m p t to d e s c r i b e a l l e x p l i c i t o r m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y marked s e n t e n c e r e l a t i o n s , l i k e £ 0 , a n d , h o w e v e r , t h u s , t h e r e f o r e , as a r e s u l t , e t c . , a d i s c o u r s e grammar must c o n f r o n t cases i n w h i c h such r e l a t i o n s are l e f t unmarked and i n e x p l i c i t . I ) a He f i n a l l y p r o m i s e d t o l e a v e . T h e y c a l l e d t h e d o g o f f . b He f i n a l l y p r o m i s e d t o l e a v e , s o t h e y c a l l e d t h e d o g o f f . c He f i n a l l y p r o m i s e d t o l e a v e . T h u s , t h e y c a l l e d t h e d o g o f f . d He f i n a l l y p r o m i s e d t o l e a v e . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e y c a l l e d t h e d o g o f f . 93 e He f i n a l l y p r o m i s e d t o l e a v e . T h e y t h e n c a l l e d t h e d o g o f f . ( l a ) , a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d be t a k e n to be no more t h a n a s t a t e m e n t o f t e m p o r a l o r d e r o f e v e n t s , i s open as w e l l to an i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n t h a t the dog was c a l l e d o f f as a consequence or a r e s u l t o f h i s p r o m i s i n g to l e a v e . C l e a r l y , c o n s i d e r a b l e know-l e d g e o f the w o r l d w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r a r e a d e r to c o v e r a l l such c a s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the r e a d e r i s unaware of such f a c t s as " p e o p l e have g u a r d d o g s . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c o n s e -quence r e l a t i o n i s a ma jor o n e ; perhaps as many c o n t i n u i t y judgements a re made on the b a s i s o f t h i s r e l a t i o n as?.any o t h e r . Two s i g n i f i c a n t prob lems haunt the a n a l y s i s o f c o n -sequence r e l a t i ons , f rom s e n t e n c e grammar and p e r f o r m a n c e t h e o r y . A t l e a s t i n the case of so c o n s t r u c t i o n s , i t w i l l be e s s e n t i a l to show t h a t such c o n s t r u c t i o n s are s e p a r a b l e i n d i s c o u r s e , s i n c e so^ c l a u s e s have been c o n s i d e r e d s u b o r d i n a t e . On the o t h e r l h a n d , r e l a t i o n s marked by thus , and t h e r e f o r e commonly have the f o r c e o f CONCLUDE. T h u s , t h e s e two t o p i c s w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the the d i s c u s s i o n . N o t i c e t h a t f o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s e c t i o n , " c o n -s e q u e n c e " as a r e l a t i o n must be r e s t r i c t e d to i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e s . I t c o u l d a l s o be s a i d to a p p l y a d v e r b i a l l y i n r e -s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s w h i c h are not s e p a r a b l e i n d i s c o u r s e . O t h e r t h a n " c o n s e q u e n c e i s " t y p i c a l a d v e r b i a l u s a g e , and the o c c a -s i o n s i n w h i c h i t appears between i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e s , i t a l s o 94 appears between s e n t e n c e s marked by s e n t e n c e a d v e r b i a l s l i k e t h u s , t h e r e f o r e , h e n c e , s o , as a r e s u l t , e t c . F i n a l l y , i t appears i n the l a t e s t a g e s o f t e x t s , marked by d i s c o u r s e a d v e r b i a l s l i k e , i n c o n c l u s i o n , f i n a l l y , i n summary, e t c . Because i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e many and the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e , I w i l l b r i e f l y o u t l i n e i t s p r i n c i p l e u s e s , p u r p o s e l y s t r e s s i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n w h i c h £0 h o l d s between i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e s , as t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n r e v e a l s much about the l a r g e r r e l a t i o n s . T a k i n g f i r s t the a d v e r b i a l sense o f the consequence r e l a t i o n , examples l i k e (2) and (3) a re t y p i c a l . 2) I t w a s s o he c o u l d s w i m t h a t M i k e b r o u g h t h i s t r u n k s . 3) M i k e b r o u g h t h i s t r u n k s s o he c o u l d sw. im. The examples c o n t a i n a d v e r b i a l s t h a t are r o u g h l y synonymous w i t h p u r p o s e a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s , u s u a l l y marked by f o r the p u r p o s e and i n o r d e r t o . However , t h e r e are i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . C o n s i d e r : 4) M i k e ' s p u r p o s e i n b r i n g i n g h i s t r u n k s w w a s t o s w i m . 5) M i k e b r o u g h t h i s t r u n k s i n o r d e r t o s w i m . T a k i n g (4) and (5) as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p r e v i o u s examples (2) and ( 3 ) , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t t h e s e have the p u r p o s e a d v e r b i a l a c t u a l l y made e x p l i c i t , one can see t h a t c o u l d i s 95 removed f rom the l a s t e x a m p l e . Even i f (5.) was changed to M i k e b r o u g h t h i s t r u n k s i n o r d e r to be a b l e to s w i m , (3) w o u l d have to be changed to Mike b r o u g h t h i s t r u n k s so he wou ld be  a b l e to swim. E i t h e r case shows the £ 0 t y p e s to t a k e a c o n -d i t i o n a l would or c o u l d m a r k e r . The i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s c o n -d i t i o n a l i z a t i on o f the so_ c l a u s e w i l l be made a p p a r e n t a f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n of the £ 0 c o n s t r u c t i o n between i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e s . I t can be seen t h a t , w i t h i n s e n t e n c e s , so_ c o n s t r u c -t i o n s do not have the same c o n s t i t u e n t s t r u c t u r e as r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s , a l t h o u g h they r e s e m b l e r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s c l o s e l y . S o , h o l d i n g between i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e s , marks consequences and r e s u l t s r a t h e r than r e a s o n s . 6 ) J o h n w a s i n t o w n , s o he s t o p p e d b y . Here we c a n ' t m a i n t a i n , s e r i o u s l y , t h a t J o h n ' s r e a s o n f o r s t o p p i n g by was t h a t he was i n town (even though s p e a k e r s may o f f e r t h i s as an o n l y r e a s o n ) , but r a t h e r one must say t h a t t h i s s t o p p i n g by was a r e s u l t o f h i s b e i n g i n t o w n . To put the above p a r e n t h e t i c a l m a t e r i a l more a c c u r a t e l y , what the s p e a k e r says i s , " I was i n town so I s t o p p e d b y . " Even i n the case o f John s t o p p e d by because he was i n t o w n , we o n l y u n d e r -s t a n d the r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l i n a r e s u l t s e n s e , as i f J o h n ' s s t o p p i n g by somehow r e s u l t e d from h i s b e i n g i n t o w n . More i m p o r t a n t l y , i n the case o f so_ c o n s t r u c t i o n s each i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e has i n d e p e n d e n t f o r c e , w h i c h p r o v i d e s 96 an i n t e r e s t i n g t e s t o f w h e t h e r a c o n s t r u c t i o n has an i n d e p e n -dent c l a u s e . T . H . P e t e r s o n 1 0 makes an i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s o f c o n j u n c t i o n of i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e s , where each c l a u s e has s e p a r a t e f o r c e . He a n a l y z e s e x a c t l y such c l a u s e s i n M o o r e , a N i g e r - C o n g o l a n g u a g e , and p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n Moore b o t h i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e s must i n c l u d e and be marked by the d e c l a r a -t i v e p e r f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e me, whereas i n s e n t e n c e s w i t h dependent c l a u s e s , o n l y the main or m a t r i x c l a u s e t a k e s a me. For E n g l i s h , a l t h o u g h he p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e i s no such marker a v a i l a b l e as i n M o o r e , he n o t e s t h a t n e g a t i o n c a n n o t e x t e n d i n scope o v e r more than one s e n t e n c e w h i c h i s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r s e n t e n c e . To do s o , i t wou ld have to e x t e n d out o f the complement o f one c l a u s e , o v e r i t s u n d e r l y i n g p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b , and i n t o the n e x t c l a u s e . P e t e r s o n 1 1 a rgues t h a t t h e r e a re no such n e g a t a b l e p e r f o r m a -t i v e s . As f a r as so_ c o n s t r u c t i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d , the f i r s t c l a u s e i s u s u a l l y a s s e r t e d ( a l t h o u g h c l e a r l y t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the c a s e , as s e n t e n c e s l i k e I p r o m i s e to l e a v e ,  so c a l l o f f y o u r dog are c e r t a i n l y a c c e p t a b l e ) and the second c l a u s e u s u a l l y has the f o r c e o f CONCLUDE. I f a grammar of c o n j u n c t i o n i s to be equal to the t a s k of a c c o u n t i n g f o r r e l a t i o n s between s e n t e n c e s , then i t w i l l have to a c c o u n t f o r consequence r e l a t i o n s . I show below t h a t s e n t e n c e s w i t h two i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e s and so_ h o l d i n g between them are not a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t a b l e i n a s e n t e n c e grammar ( t h e y are l i k e i n f e r e n c e c o n j u n c t i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t ) 97 and argue f rom t h i s f a c t t h a t a grammar of s e n t e n t i a l c o n -j u n c t i o n , d e p e n d i n g on s e n t e n c e grammar, c a n n o t h a n d l e such a r e l a t i o n . To b e g i n w i t h , a " n o " answer to (7) b e l o w , does not deny the f a c t i v i t y o f e i t h e r c l a u s e . I t d e n i e s o n l y t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e l a s t c l a u s e i s the r e a s o n , or a s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n , f o r the e v e n t e x p r e s s e d by the f i r s t c l a u s e , i . e . , " N o , t h a t he was hungry i s not the r e a s o n t h a t he a t e the c a k e . " 7) He a t e t h e c a k e b e c a u s e he was h u n g r y . 8) He was h u n g r y , s o he a t e t h e c a k e . However , a " n o " r e s p o n s e to (8) does n o t a f f e c t o n l y the s £ o r consequence r e l a t i o n s h i p . S i n c e one c a n n o t say " * H e was not h u n g r y , so he a t e the c a k e , " e x c e p t i n u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , but o n l y "He was not hungry so he d i d n ' t ea t t h e c a k e , " d e n y -i n g f a c t i v i t y f o r bo th c l a u s e s , i t can be seen- t h a t n e g a t i o n l e a v e s the S £ r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t a c t . T h i s means t h a t n e g a t i o n somehow o p e r a t e s below the SJD o p e r a t o r , whereas i n the r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l i t o p e r a t e s on t h e h i g h e s t s i m p l e x s e n t e n c e . (9) and (10) a re u n a c c e p t a b l e because i n b o t h cases the f i r s t c l a u s e c a n n o t e n t a i l the s e c o n d . Put i n o t h e r w o r d s , the second c l a u s e i s not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s p r o v i d e d by the f i r s t . 9) * H e was n o t h u n g r y s o he a t e t h e c a k e . 98 10) *He was h u n g r y so he d i d n ' t e a t t h e c a k e . 11) He was n o t h u n g r y so he d i d n ' t e a t t h e c a k e . However , s i n c e (11) i s a c c e p t a b l e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t the f i r s t c l a u s e , w h i c h has the f o r c e o f a s s e r t i o n , must i n some way depend on the p r e s e n c e o r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a c o n d i t i o n a l l i k e : 12) I f J o h n was h u n g r y , t h e n he w o u l d have e a t e n t h e c a k e . In t h i s way , so c o n s t r u c t i o n s s t a n d i n a c o n v e r s e r e l a t i o n to but c o n j u n c t i o n ; whereas f o r but t h e e x p e c t a t i o n i s d e n i e d , f o r so i t i s a f f i r m e d . (13) shows t h e s e f a c t s : 13) I f t h e r e was a d r a f t , t h e n J o h n w o u l d s h u t t h e d o o r . a T h e r e was a d r a f t s_o J o h n s h u t t h e d o o r , b (ASSERT) T h e r e was a d r a f t , / bu t J o h n d i d n ' t s h u t t h e d o o r . / H o w e v e r , Neve r t h e l e s s , e t c . J o h n d i d n ' t s h u t t h e d o o r . In t h i s w a y , s e n t e n c e s l i k e Marsha came home so B i l l shaped up seem to be a s s e r t i v e r e f l e x e s o f c o n d i t i o n a l s ; i . e . , f o r t h e e n t a i l m e n t r e l a t i o n to s u c c e e d , an u n d e r l y i n g c o n d i t i o n a l must be p o s i t e d . I t m i g h t be o b j e c t e d t h a t the f i r s t c l a u s e i s not a l w a y s u t t e r e d w i t h the f o r c e of a s s e r t i o n and t h i s wou ld i n v a l i d a t e the c l a i m of an u n d e r l y i n g c o n d i t i o n a l . For e x a m p l e , c o n s i d e r : 99 14) I 'm w a r n i n g you t h a t t h e i c e i s t h i n , so be c a r e f u l . ? l ' m w a r n i n g you t h e i c e i s t h i n , so you m i g h t b r e a k t h r o u g h . I 5 ) a I b e l i e v e d t h a t J o h n knew t h a t we were a f t e r h im b e c a u s e he t r i e d t o e s c a p e , b ? * l b e l i e v e d t h a t J o h n knew t h a t we were a f t e r h im b e c a u s e I' t o l d t h e o f f i c e r t o p i c k him up i m m e d i a t e l y . I 6 ) a ? * l b e l i e v e d t h a t J o h n knew t h a t we we re a f t e r h i m , so he t r i e d t o e s c a p e , b I b e l i e v e d t h a t J o h n knew t h a t we we re a f t e r h i m , so I t o l d t h e o f f i c e r t o p i c k him up i mmed i a t e I y . In c a s e s l i k e (14) and (16) r e s p e c t i v e l y , where the f i r s t c l a u s e i s not g i v e n the f o r c e o f a s s e r t i o n and i s n o n -f a c t i v e , t h e r e are prob lems of s c o p e . As shown i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l e x a m p l e , i n t h e s e cases the so c l a u s e must not e x p r e s s the c o n s e q u e n t o f a c l a u s e s u b o r d i n a t e to I b e l i e v e o r I w a r n , but must be the c o n s e q u e n t to the e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e b e f o r e i t . T h i s i n no way i n v a l i d a t e s the c l a i m f o r an u n d e r l y i n g c o n d i t i o n a l as i t would be r e a s o n a b l e to t e l l the o f f i c e r to p i c k John up i m m e d i a t e l y i f we t h o u g h t t h a t he knew t h a t we were a f t e r h i m . A l i c e D a v i s o n ' s w e l 1 - r e a s o n e d p r o p o s a l t h a t S i , so S 2 c o n s t r u c t s a r e d e r i v e d f rom an u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e w i t h 1 2 IF as a t w o - p l a c e p r e d i c a t e , would seem to be an a t t e m p t to i n c o r p o r a t e the r e q u i s i t e c o n d i t i o n a l and a s s e r t e d f i r s t c l a u s e t o g e t h e r i n t o one u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e . 100 Moving to the l a r g e r and more i n c l u s i v e o c c a s i o n s of the consequence r e l a t i o n , or t h a t w h i c h h o l d s between s e n t e n c e s , the f o l l o w i n g a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c a s e s : 18) U n l e s s t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s c a n be f o r m u l a t e d and shown t o f o l l o w f r o m i n d e p e n d e n t p r i n c i p l e s , t h e p r o p o s a l t o t r e a t g e n e r i c s &S3 h i g h e r v e r b s has no m o t i v a t i o n o t h e r t h a n t h e f a c t s o f ( 1 4 - 1 7 ) and a c e r t a i n v ague n o t i o n o f l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y . H e n c e , t h e E q u i - N P a r g u m e n t f o r q u a n t i f i e r s as h i g h e r v e r b s i s h a r d l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e c l a i m t h a t G e n e r i c i s a h i g h e r v e r b . ( J a c k e n d o f f , "On Some Q u e s t i o n a b l e Arguments about Q u a n t i f i e r s and N e g a t i o n . " ) 19) J o h n f o l l o w e d me home. T h u s , he mus t have s u s p e c t e d t h a t I was t h e t h i e f . (18) and (19) e x e m p l i f y the f o r c e o f c o n c l u s i o n f o r u t t e r -ances w h i c h e x i s t i n consequence r e l a t i o n s to the m a t e r i a l t h a t has a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e n . O f t e n , the s e n t e n c e marked by h e n c e , t h u s , s o , t h e r e f o r e , e t c . w i l l c o n s t i t u t e the l a s t l i n e o f an u n d e r l y i n g p r o o f . O f t e n arguments t a k e the form 1 01 o f some a s s e r t i o n w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d by a s e r i e s o f arguments o r r e a s o n s f o r b e l i e v i n g the a s s e r t i o n t r u e , and the c l a i m i s r e p e a t e d a t the end o f the a r g u m e n t , p r e c e d e d by a c o n s e -quence m a r k e r . 20) T h i s i s a p e r m a n e n t b o o k . O u r p a p e r i s o p a q u e ; i t w i l l n o t d i s c o l o r o r b e c o m e b r i t t l e w i t h a g e . P a g e s a r e s e w n i n s i g -n a t u r e s , a n d t h e b i n d i n g w i l l n o t c r a c k o r s p l i t . T h u s , t h i s i s a p e r m a n e n t b o o k . In t h i s way , t h u s , t h e r e f o r e , and hence s e r v e as f o r c e showing d e v i c e s f o r CONCLUDE and o c c a s i o n a l l y REASSERT. C o n j u n c t i o n and I n v i t e d I n f e r e n c e The m a t e r i a l i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t has r a i s e d c e r t a i n f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s , b o t h of method and of m a t e r i a l . I t i s o b s e r v a b l y t r u e t h a t i n f e r e n c e s can be drawn a c r o s s d i s c o u r s e , based on s e n t e n c e s w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d f a r f rom one a n o t h e r i n a t e x t . The i n f e r e n c e o p e r a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r , a l t h o u g h m a t e r i a l l y adequate f o r a c l a s s o f c o n j u n c t s (and s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s i f t h e s e c o n j u n c t s a r e s e p a r a t e d ) , i s a l s o adequate f o r r e l a t i o n s h a v i n g n o t h i n g to do w i t h s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s . S h o u l d i n f e r e n c e c o n j u n c t i o n t h e n , be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t o f c o n j u n c t i o n t h e o r y , or a p a r t o f s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e a n a l y s i s e i t h e r ? S h o u l d i n f e r e n c e r e l a t i o n s q u a l i f y as s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e r e l a t i o n s i f t h e y are 1 02 not c o n f i n e d to s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s ? I f i n f e r e n c e i s t h u s c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n , what i s the s t a t u s o f d i s c o u r s e i m p l i -c a t i o n o r a u d i e n c e d e d u c t i o n f o r s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e a n a l y s i s ? G e i s and Z w i c k y have p o i n t e d out c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t i n f e r e n c e i s by no means an i n c i d e n t a l phenomena i n l a n g u a g e 1 3 u s e . W h i l e i t may a p p l y on an a_d hoc b a s i s a c r o s s d i s c o u r s e , i t a l s o a p p l i e s i n the c a s e s of c o n d i t i o n a l s and t e m p o r a l a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h s u g g e s t c a u s a t i o n , e t c . : 1) a I f y o u mow t h e l a w n , I ' l l g i v e y o u f i v e do I I a r s . b I f y o u d o n ' t mow t h e l a w n , I w o n ' t g i v e y o u f i v e d o l l a r s . 2) a A f t e r a l a r g e m e a l , t h e y s l e p t s o u n d l y , b T h e i r l a r g e m e a l c a u s e d t h e m t o s l e e p s o u n d l y . 3) a D o g s t h a t e a t O p l a a r e h e a l t h y , b D o g s t h a t a r e h e a l t h y e a t O p l a . The (a) cases i n (1) t h r o u g h (3) i n v i t e the i n f e r e n c e of the (b) c a s e s . N o t i c e t h a t the (a) c a s e s do not i m p l y t h e i r c o r -r e l a t e s and to draw such i n f e r e n c e s as i n the (b) c a s e s i s , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , to i n d u l g e i n l o g i c a l l y f a l l a c i o u s r e a s o n -i n g . For e x a m p l e , (2b) c o r r e s p o n d s to the " a f t e r t h e f a c t t h e r e f o r e because of the f a c t " f a l l a c y , and ( l b ) i s a m a t t e r of f a l l a c i o u s l y " a f f i r m i n g the c o n s e q u e n t . " In c a s e s l i k e ( l a ) , i f the s u b j e c t d o e s n ' t mow the l a w n , he may s t i l l be g i v e n f i v e d o l l a r s f o r some o t h e r r e a s o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t 103 seems t h a t s e n t e n c e s of the t y p e x -> y i n v i t e f a l l a c i o u s i n f e r e n c e s o f the t y p e -x •> - y ; such f a l l a c i e s show the v a r i e t y o f usage p o s s i b l e i n n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e , as w e l l as r e v e a l knowledge on the p a r t o f l a n g u a g e u s e r s t h a t i n v i t e d i n f e r -ence c o n s t r u c t i o n s are used w i t h f o r c e as w e l l as c o n t e n t i n m i n d . ( l a ) can be a w a r n i n g , a t h r e a t , a r e m i n d e r , a p r o m i s e , e t c . , and i t s p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t e s depend on the f o r c e i t has o r i g i n a l l y ; e . g . , i f i t were a p r o m i s e , the a u d i e n c e would not f e e l i n v i t e d to i n f e r ( l a ) f rom i t . As G e i s and Z w i c k y c l a i m , " I n many c a s e s . . . t h e r e i s a q u a s i - r e g u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n between the l o g i c a l form of a 1 4 s e n t e n c e and the form o f t h e s i n f e r e n c e i t i n v i t e s . " However , e x p r e s s i n g the p r o b l e m i n t h i s way l e a v e s d i s t i n c t i o n s between what a re e x p e c t a t i o n s , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , and i n v i t e d i n f e r e n c e s undrawn and u n c l e a r . Is L a k o f f p r e s u p p o s i n g (as he s a y s ) " I f one i s a used c a r s a l e s m a n , then one i s a c r o o k , " f rom John  s e l l s used c a r s and Pe te i s a c r o o k t o o , o r i n f e r r i n g i t ? A l t h o u g h a c o m p l e t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e prob lems i s beyond the scope of P a r t I , the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d do r e q u i r e a t l e a s t a p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n . F i r s t , the v e r y q u e s t i o n of whether i n f e r e n c e r e l a -t i o n s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e a n a l y s i s must be d i s c u s s e d . A n d , a m a j o r d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e i n f e r e n c e and c r o s s - s e n t e n t i a l i n f e r e n c e . C o n s i d e r the two t y p e s of c a s e s b e l o w : 1 04 4) J o h n i i s l o o k i n g f o r H e n r i . J a n e t i s c a l l i n g t h e p o l i c e . H e ' s i k n o w n t o be c a r r y i n g a s h o t g u n . 5 )a J o h n i i s l o o k i n g f o r H e n r i . H e ' s i k n o w n t o be c a r r y i n g a s h o t g u n . B a c k a t h o m e , J a n e t i s c r y i n g . b J o h n i i s l o o k i n g f o r H e n r i . B a c k a t h o m e , J a n e t i s c r y i n g . H e ' s i k n o w n t o be c a r r y i n g a s h o t g u n . In ( 4 ) , an a u d i e n c e w i l l u n d e r s t a n d f rom the l a s t two s e n t e n c e s t h a t J a n e t b e l i e v e s t h a t s o m e t h i n g u n d e s i r a b l e i s g o i n g to happen and t h a t the p o l i c e may be a b l e to s t o p i t . These i n -f e r e n c e s may be i n v i t e d from the l a s t two s e n t e n c e s but t h e y do not s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e to s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e a c c e p t a b i l i t y . R a t h e r , J o h n ' s c a r r y i n g a s h o t g u n i s a r e a s o n f o r J a n e t to r e p o r t John to the p o l i c e and i s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f why she has c a l l e d the p o l i c e . T h u s , i n f e r e n c e , where o t h e r and s t r o n g e r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t , has low p r i o r i t y f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y j u d g e m e n t s . J o h n i s l o o k i n g f o r H e n r i o r t h a t he i s c a r r y i n g a s h o t g u n i s i n d e p e n d e n t l y s u f f i c i e n t to w a r r a n t J a n e t ' s c r y i n g . How-e v e r , i n c o m b i n a t i o n , . t h e y i n v i t e the i n f e r e n c e t h a t John i n t e n d s to s h o o t H e n r i (no c o n t e x t u a l a d v i c e to t h e c o n t r a r y ) and t h i s j_s a r e a s o n f o r J a n e t ' s c r y i n g . I n f e r e n c e has h i g h p r i o r i t y i n t h i s c a s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , f rom both (5a) and (5b) an a u d i e n c e can draw t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t John i n t e n d s N o t i c e , h o w e v e r , t h a t i n (5a) n e i t h e r the f a c t t h a t 105 to s h o o t H e n r i , s i n c e l o o k i n g f o r someone, b e i n g armed w i t h a s h o t g u n , and l e a v i n g o n e ' s w h e r e a b o u t s unknown i s b e h a v i o r t y p i c a l o f someone who i n t e n d s v i o l e n c e . B u t , i n ( 5 b ) , J o h n ' s c a r r y i n g a s h o t g u n i s o f f e r e d as a r e a s o n f o r J a n e t to be c r y i n g r a t h e r t h a n as m a t e r i a l i n v i t i n g the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t John i n t e n d s v i o l e n c e , a l t h o u g h i t does i n f a c t s e r v e i n t h i s second s e n s e . Two c o n c l u s i o n s s h o u l d be drawn from t h e s e c a s e s . F i r s t , t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n of p r i o r i t y i n judgements of a c c e p t -a b i l i t y . I t may be the case t h a t an answer to a why q u e s t i o n i n a d i s c o u r s e w i l l n a t u r a l l y be more r e l e v a n t o r o f h i g h e r p r i o r i t y t h a n an answer to a when or what o r where or how q u e s t i o n asked of an a n t e c e d e n t s e n t e n c e . I t may a l s o be the c a s e t h a t an i n f e r e n c e w i l l o n l y be i m p o r t a n t when no r e l a t i o n of h i g h e r p r i o r i t y i s a v a i l a b l e and o n l y the i n f e r -ence i s s u f f i c i e n t to j u s t i f y some l a t e r f a c t . Where a s u b -s e q u e n t s e n t e n c e o f f e r s m a t e r i a l f o r b o t h a h i g h and low p r i o r i t y r e l a t i o n , n a t u r a l l y the r e l a t i o n of h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e most to the a c c e p t a b i l i t y d e c i s i o n . S e c o n d , i t i s o f t e n the case t h a t w h i l e r e a d i n g t h r o u g h a w e l l - f o r m e d d i s c o u r s e a l a n g u a g e u s e r w i l l d i s c o v e r what l o o k s l i k e a d i g r e s s i o n , o r what i s o t h e r w i s e u n r e n t -a b l e to t h e a n t e c e d e n t m a t e r i a l . O f t e n t h e s e d i s p a r i t i e s (or a p p a r e n t d i s p a r i t i e s ! ) r e m a i n i n a r e a d e r ' s memory s t o r e and a r e r e s o l v e d as the r e a d e r d i s c o v e r s s u b s e q u e n t f a c t s . 1 06 T h e i r r e s o l u t i o n , and the r e a d e r ' s f i t t i n g the a p p a r e n t l y a b e r r a n t s e n t e n c e s back i n t o the d i s c o u r s e , i s based on c r o s s -s e n t e n t i a l i n f e r e n c e . To a u t o m a t i c a l l y e x c l u d e c r o s s - s e n -t e n t i a l i n f e r e n c e f rom an a n a l y s i s o f s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e a c c e p t a b i l i t y judgements i s t o i g n o r e an i m p o r t a n t g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n a b o u t l a n g u a g e p r o c e s s i n g i n g e n e r a l : l a n g u a g e u s e r s o f t e n p r o c e s s backwards a c r o s s d i s c o u r s e , a s u b j e c t to be h a n d l e d i n C h a p t e r 5. T u r n i n g f rom the t o p i c o f t h e p l a c e of i n f e r e n c e i n a s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e a n a l y s i s to t h e q u e s t i o n o f i n f e r e n c e i t s e l f , o r how t o d i s t i n g u i s h i n f e r e n c e f rom p r e s u p p o s i t i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n , e t c . , I w i l l d i s c u s s t h i s l a t e r q u e s t i o n o n l y f rom the p o i n t of v i e w of d i s c o u r s e . In terms o f the c o n -j u n c t i o n o r s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e r e l a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s w o r k , and o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a grammar to h a n d l e c o n j u n c t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to o b s e r v e t h a t whether we speak of s i m i l a r i t y c o n j u n c t i o n o r o f i n f e r e n c e c o n j u n c -t i o n , use o f such u t t e r a n c e s i n c o n t e x t r e q u i r e s d e d u c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n f e r e n c e . G e i s and Z w i c k y ' s " i n v i t e to i n f e r " i s an i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , but l a c k s the c o n t e x t u a l p e r -s p e c t i v e and t h e r e b y m i s s e s an i m p o r t a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . Such u t t e r a n c e s as have been o f f e r e d as examples here must be r e l e v a n t to the c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y o c c u r o r t h e y w i l l f a i l a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n s p i t e o f i n f e r e n c e . F o r " John b u i l d s bombs and Pe te f l i e s m i s s i o n s o v e r T h a i l a n d , " a c o n t e x t w h i c h 107 f i r s t i n t r o d u c e s the n o t i o n of c u l p a b i l i t y makes the d e d u c t i o n t h a t b o t h a r e i n v o l v e d i n the war e f f o r t > p o s s i b l e . C o n t e x -t u a l l y i n f o r m e d or s p e c i f i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e t y p i c a l l y m a t t e r s of d e d u c t i o n r a t h e r than i n f e r e n c e . G . L a k o f f has shown t h a t our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c e r t a i n 15 c o n j u n c t s can be d e s c r i b e d l o g i c a l l y . I d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n s f o r c o n j o i n e d s e n t e n c e s may be f o r m a l l y deduced from p r o o f s i n c l u d i n g b o t h e x p l i c i t a s s e r t i o n s and i m p l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n ( p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , e t c . ) . T h i s i s not to c l a i m t h a t the r e a d e r / h e a r e r a c t u a l l y o r e m p i r i c a l l y deduces i n j u s t such a f o r m a l w a y , but o n l y to iiow t h a t g i v e n the amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n a s s e r t e d both i n the c o n j u n c t and i n i t s c o n t e x t , as w e l l as t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , e t c . t h a t a r e p a r t o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as w e l l , an o p e r a t i o n as f o r m a l as d e d u c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . In terms of c o n t e x t , the r e a d e r i s g i v e n much more i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t G e i s and Z w i c k y have a n t i c i p a t e d . T h u s , many a p p a r e n t cases of i n f e r e n c e a r e b e t t e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d as cases of d e d u c t i o n , and f o r d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y judgements i n f e r e n c e w i l l be r e q u i r e d j u s t i n t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h no d e d u c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . " I n f e r e n c e " c o n j u n c t i o n then may or may not i n v o l v e i n f e r e n c e , may or may not be l i m i t e d to s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s , and may o r may not c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to a c c e p t a b i l i t y j u d g e m e n t s , d e p e n d i n g on r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i g h e r p r i o r i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , h o w e v e r , the b o r d e r l i n e between i n f e r e n c e and d e d u c t i o n i s 108 p l a c e d and w h a t e v e r p r i o r i t y i s a s s i g n e d to i n f e r e n c e c o n -j u n c t i o n , the r o l e o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h i n c l u d e s phenomena so v a r i e d as to i n c l u d e both i n f e r e n c e and d e d u c t i o n , i s a c e n t r a l o n e . 109 FOOTNOTES Examples s i m i l a r to (4) a p p e a r * i n G . W i l l i a m s , "The I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e o f A n t e c e d e n t s , " Papers from the Eighth Regional Meeting, C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y ( 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 3 7 9 - 8 7 . In p a r t i c u l a r , see p . 380 : i . * A s b e a u t i f u l as Tom t h i n k s Sandra i s , I d o n ' t t h i n k s o . i i . * W h i c h book d i d Tom b e l i e v e t h a t B i l l had c o l l a t e d and why d i d he t h i n k so? A l t h o u g h I am i n t e r e s t e d i n l o o k i n g a t r e c o v e r y h e r e , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , no r e c o v e r y i s p o s s i b l e i n t h e s e c a s e s . However , t h e s e examples do show t h a t r e c o v e r -a b i l i t y , where n e e d e d , i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y . In ( 6 a ) , i f we f o l l o w the d i c t u m t h a t s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s w i l l be c o - r e l e v a n t , we may c o n s u l t s t o r e d knowledge and c o n c l u d e t h a t s i n c e W . C . F i e l d s never l i k e d dogs or c h i l d r e n ( e x c e p t w e l l - d o n e o n e s ) , H a n k ' s w i f e i s h a v i n g t r o u b l e w i t h Hank about the b a b y . For ( 6 b ) , a l t h o u g h we a r e t o l d t h a t H a r r y i s an a r s o n i s t and know from s t o r e d knowledge t h a t B u s t e r Crabbe i s a w a t e r a c t o r , no c o n c l u s i o n s s u g g e s t t h e m s e l v e s , and no i n f e r e n c e s f o l l o w f rom t h e s e f a c t s . W. L a b o v , " R u l e s f o r R i t u a l I n s u l t s , " Studies in Social Interaction, e d . D. Sudnow (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 1 2 2 f f . M . G e i s and A . Z w i c k y , "On I n v i t e d I n f e r e n c e s , " L i n g u i s t i c Inquiry I I , #4 ( F a l l , 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 5 6 1 - 5 6 6 . H . P . G r i c e , "The L o g i c o f C o n v e r s a t i o n , " u n p u b l i s h e d m s . , 1968 . n o These r e s e r v a t i o n s a r e made e x p l i c i t i n the s e c t i o n e n -t i t l e d " C o n j u n c t i o n and I n v i t e d I n f e r e n c e . " As the d i s c u s s i o n of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u e s , i t w i l l becomes c l e a r t h a t my a n a l y s i s i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e work o f H . P . G r i c e . T h i s i n f l u e n c e i s by c h o i c e , as t h e r e a r e o t h e r or a l t e r n a t i v e p o s i t i o n s to be c o n s i d e r e d . For e x a m p l e , J o n a t h a n Cohen has o f f e r e d one i n t e r e s t i n g c o u n t e r - p r o p o s a l to the " c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i m p ! i c a t u r e s " p o s i t i o n s . G i v e n i( i *) eand i ( i i ) , by what means do we u n d e r s t a n d ( i i ) to i m p l y the c o n v e r s e o r d e r o f e v e n t s to ( i ) : i ) A r e p u b l i c has been d e c l a r e d and the o l d k i n g has d i e d of a h e a r t a t t a c k . i i ) The o l d k i n g has d i e d of a h e a r t a t t a c k and a r e p u b l i c has been d e c l a r e d . Cohen bases h i s a n a l y s i s on a s e m a n t i c t r e a t m e n t o f a n d : A c c o r d i n g to the C o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t H y p o t h e s i s , w h i c h G r i c e f a v o r s , the meaning o r l i n g u i s t i c f u n c t i o n of ' a n d , 1 even i n [ i ] and [ i i ] , i s j u s t the same as t h a t o f the t r u t h - f u n c t i o n a l c o n s t a n t ' & ' and the i m p l i c a t i o n of t e m p o r a l sequence t h a t i s conveyed by u t t e r i n g [ i ] o r [ i i ] d e r i v e s f rom a p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t p e o p l e ' s d i s c o u r s e obeys the maxim "Be o r d e r l y ; ' A c c o r d i n g to the S e m a n t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s , h o w e v e r , the meaning or l i n g u i s t i c f u n c t i o n o f ' a n d , ' as a c l a u s e - c o n c a t e n a t i n g p a r t i c l e , i s r a t h e r r i c h e r t h a n t h a t o f the t r u t h - f u n c t i o n a l c o n -s t a n t ' & . ' S i n c e a d i s c o u r s e grammar must a s s i g n r e l a t i o n s to s e p a r a t e s e n t e n c e p a i r s w i t h o u t the p a r t i c l e a_ncT f i g u r i n g i n the m a t e r i a l to be c o n s i d e r e d , i t s r i c h n e s s i s b e s i d e the p o i n t . O t h e r w i s e , o r d e r i n g c o n v e n t i o n s do e x i s t , a t l e a s t i n E n g l i s h , such t h a t a n t e c e d e n t e v e n t s a r e o r d e r e d f i r s t . O t h e r c o n v e n t i o n s of r e l e v a n c e and c o - o p e r a t i o n e x i s t , a l t h o u g h t h e s e a r e as y e t p o o r l y s p e c i f i e d , t h a t e n a b l e a r e a d e r to make sense of s e n t e n c e p a i r s , w h e t h e r c o n j o i n e d by and o r d n o t . - - 'Thus , f o r d i s c o u r s e grammar, the G r i c e a n p r o p o s a l seems b e t t e r m o t i v a t e d . L . J o n a t h a n C o h e n , "Some Remarks on G r i c e ' s Views a b o u t the I l l L o g i c a l P a r t i c l e s o f N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e , " Pragmatics of Natural Languages, e d . B a r - H i 11 e l , D o r d r e c h t , 1971 , p p . 5 0 - 6 8 . The q u o t a t i o n s above a r e f o u n d on p . 5 5 . 8 . See f o o t n o t e 2 , G . L a k o f f , "The Ro le o f D e d u c t i o n i n Grammar.,,!'. Studies -in..- L i n g u i s t i c Semantics ( e d . s ) F i l l m o r e and L a n g e n d o e n , New Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 , p . 66 . 9 . Ibid., p . 4 8 . The p h r a s e " g e n e r a l r u l e " i s T h o m a s o n ' s . 10 . See T . H . P e t e r s o n , "A Case f o r the D e c l a r a t i v e P e r f o r m a -t i v e V e r b : Dependent and Independent C o n j u n c t i o n i n Moore and E n g l i s h , " Papers from the F i f t h Regional Meeting, C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y , 1969 , p p . 4 2 1 - 4 2 8 . 1 1 . " T h a t the scope o f the n e g a t i v e can e x t e n d o v e r more than one s e n t e n c e i n dependent but not i n i n d e p e n d e n t c o n j u n c t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t a p e r f o r -m a t i v e v e r b c a n n o t be n e g a t e d . " See P e t e r s o n , i b i d . , p . 426 . 12 . A l i c e D a v i s o n , " C a u s a l A d v e r b s and P e r f o r m a t i v e V e r b s , " Papers from the Sixth Regional Meeting, C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y , 1970 , p p . 1 9 8 - 9 9 . 1 3 . G e i s and Z w i c k y , op. c i t . , p p . 5 6 1 - 5 6 2 . 14 . Ibid., p . 563 . 1 5 . G . L a k o f f , op c i t . , p . 6 3 f f . C h a p t e r 5 THE EXTENDED CONTEXT CRITERION I n t e r p r e t i v e Prob lems A c r o s s D i s c o u r s e In Chapters 2 and 3 , p r i m a r y a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n to a n o m a l i e s o f s e n t e n c e s i n s u c c e s s i o n . Through a s t e p by s t e p d i s c o v e r y p r o c e d u r e , p r o g r e s s i v e l y s t r o n g e r c r i t e r i a were i n t r o d u c e d to i d e n t i f y t h o s e anomalous p a i r s l e f t u n b l o c k e d by the p r e v i o u s s t a g e s . The e v e n t u a l i n a d e q u a c y of i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i a l e d to t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of e x t e r n a l o r p r a g m a t i c c r i t e r i a . For the p u r p o s e s o f a s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e t h e o r y , i t was n e c e s s a r y to show t h a t p r a g m a t i c c r i t e r i a f a l l i n t o two t y p e s : knowledge of the w o r l d and c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t . Each c r i t e r i a e n t a i l e d i t s own i n t e r -p r e t i v e p r o b l e m s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the d i s c u s s i o n i n C h a p t e r 3 and 4 c e n t e r e d on the i n t e r p r e t i v e problems o f i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e were i n f a c t knowledge of the w o r l d prob lems f o r b o t h r e c o v e r y and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The n o t i o n o f " imme-d i a t e e c o n t e x t " was r e s t r i c t e d , by a<nd l a r g e , to a n t e c e d e n t 11 2 1 1 3 s e n t e n c e s , o r i f an i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t was to be drawn be -tween s u c c e s s i v e u t t e r a n c e s the n o t i o n e x t e n d e d to t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t s e n t e n c e . However , as the f o u r t h s e c t i o n of C h a p t e r 4 a r g u e d , the n o t i o n o f " i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t " does not a l w a y s d e s c r i b e the f a c t s o f d i s c o u r s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In f a c t , d i s c o u r s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n prob lems may e x t e n d beyond immedia te c o n t e x t and a c r o s s d i s c o u r s e . A l t h o u g h the case made t h e r e c o n c e r n e d ad hoc d e d u c t i o n s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to make a more g e n e r a l case f o r i n c l u d i n g " e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t " among the c r i t e r i a a s u c c e s s f u l t h e o r y of d i s c o u r s e must r e f 1 e c t . In t h i s c h a p t e r a case i s made f o r c o n n e c t e d n e s s , a term w h i c h d e s c r i b e s the i n t u i t i o n the r e a d e r has when a s e n t e n c e p a i r i s not o n l y w e l l - f o r m e d and a c c e p t a b l e i n c o n -t e x t , but i s d i s c o u r s e - c o n s i s t e n t as w e l l . C o n n e c t e d n e s s must be d e f i n e d i n terms more g e n e r a l than t h o s e f o r i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t , or i n terms of d i s c o u r s e i n f o r m a t i o n and r e l e v a n c e to the s p e a k e r ' s l a r g e r i n t e n t i o n s . A l t h o u g h a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n o f the dependency of s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e r e l a t i o n s on b r o a d e r d i s c o u r s e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l f o l l o w i n C h a p t e r 7 , the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r i n i t i a t e s many o f the i s s u e s t h a t a re i n v o l v e d i n t h i s i i n t u i t i o n . In s h o r t , the n o t i o n o f " e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t " i n c l u d e s c o n t e x t u a l knowledge beyond t h a t w h i c h may be f o u n d i n an a n t e c e d e n t s e n t e n c e . Such knowledge i s e s s e n t i a l f o r 114 a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t i n g o t h e r w i s e ambiguous s e n t e n c e s i n c o n t e x t a n d , as I s h a l l show, f o r d e c i d i n g the i 1 1 o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of p a r t i c u l a r u t t e r a n c e s . To d e m o n s t r a t e the r o l e o f e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w h i c h are made a c r o s s d i s c o u r s e , I w i l l l o o k here a t a member of the c l a s s of a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s . Reason a d v e r b i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s are s e p a r a b l e i n d i s c o u r s e and p r e s e n t a r e a d e r w i t h i n t e r p r e t i v e di lemmas w h i c h a r e u n r e s o l v a b l e w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e to e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t . Whereas ad hoc d e d u c t i o n s were p o s s i b l e based on s u b s e q u e n t i n f o r m a t i o n b r i n g i n g r i g h t a p p a r e n t l y a b e r r a n t s e n t e n c e s , the s i t u a t i o n n here i s e x a c t l y the o p p o s i t e . Readers f a c e on the one hand s e n t e n c e s w h i c h are r e l a t e d to t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t but not to the e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t , and on the o t h e r hand s e n t e n c e s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d to the e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t but not a p p a r e n t l y to t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t . For e x a m p l e , c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g s e q u e n c e s : ' I ) a M a r l e n e h a s b e e n a t h e r f a t h e r f o r m o n t h s t o g e t a s t e a d y j o b . D i c k i s a b o u n c e r a t a c l u b . ? ? T e d i s a t o u g h g u y t o o . b M a r l e n e h a s b e e n a t h e r b r o t h e r s f o r m o n t h s t o g e t s t e a d y j o b s . D i c k i s a b o u n c e r a t a c l u b . T e d i s a t o u g h g u y t o o . 2 ) a E v e r y o n e r e m e m b e r s t h e c a m p a i g n t h r o u g h t h e d e s e r t . ? * l n f a c t , h o u s e w i v e s w e l d e d t a n k s a n d p a c k e d b o m b s , b ( T h e w a r w a s r e a l l y won on t h e h o m e f r o n t . ) E v e r y o n e r e m e m b e r s t h e c a m p a i g n t h r o u g h t h e d e s e r t . In f a c t , h o u s e w i v e s w e l d e d t a n k s a n d p a c k e d b o m b s . 11 5 3 ) a T h e d y n a m i t e e x p l o d e d w i t h a g i g a n t i c c o n -c u s s i o n . W h e r e a b u i l d i n g s t o o d b e f o r e now t h e r e w a s n o t h i ng . b ( T h e f r a u d u l e n t a c c o u n t s w e r e b u r i e d u n d e r t h e r u b b l e . ) T h e d y n a m i t e e x p l o d e d w i t h a g i g a n t i c c o n c u s s i o n . ? * W h e r e a b u i l d i n g s t o o d b e f o r e now t h e r e was n o t h i n g . Examples (2) and (3) above a r e cases o f i r r e l e v a n c e , i l l u s t r a -t ing t h a t s e n t e n c e s may be a c c e p t a b l e i n immedia te but not i n e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t (3) and t h a t s e n t e n c e s may be u n a c c e p t a b l e i n i m m e d i a t e but a c c e p t a b l e i n e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t ( 2 ) . Both c o n t r a s t w i t h ( 1 ) , i n p a r t i c u l a r ( l a ) , as i t d e m o n s t r a t e s the r o l e o f immedia te c o n t e x t f o r i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s . A s i m i l a r i t y r e l a t i o n may be e s t a b l i s h e d between the l a s t two s e n t e n c e s of ( l a ) , w h i c h i s a t odds w i t h i t s f i r s t s e n t e n c e . ( M a r l e n e has been a t her f a t h e r f o r months t o g e t a s t e a d y  j o b . ? * D i c k and Ted are s i m i l a r i n t h a t they are tough g u y s . ) W h i l e (2) and (3) above are mere i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the p r i n c i p l e o f e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t , and i n t e n d e d o n l y to f o c u s the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i t h r e g a r d to prob lems o f i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t , the i m p o r t a n t case f o r e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t does not l i e i n i r r e l e v a n c e o r c o n t r a d i t i o n . U l t i m a t e l y , i t l i e s i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . F o r c e , or the s p e a k e r ' s i 1 1 o c u t i o n a r y i n t e n -t i o n s f o r an u t t e r a n c e , and a m b i g u i t y a r e the e s s e n t i a l prob lems l e a d i n g to the need to i n c l u d e e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t i n a grammar of s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s . They w i l l be t a k e n up i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n b e l o w . 1 1 6 I m m e d i a t e l y , h o w e v e r , s i n c e the argument i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n depends on an a n a l y s i s o f r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s w h i c h i s r e v i s e d f o r d i s c o u r s e and c o n t e x t p r o b l e m s , c e r t a i n s e n t e n c e grammar c o u n t e r - a n a l y s e s must be i n t r o d u c e d and d e a l t w i t h . These c o u n t e r - c l a i m s may be l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : a ) b e c a u s e c l a u s e s a r e s u b o r d i n a t e a n d n o t s e p a r a b l e i n d i s c o u r s e t h e r e f o r e ( b u t s e e T h o m p s o n ' s a n a l y s i s ) ; ! b ) b e c a u s e c l a u s e s a r e c a u s a l r a t h e r t h a n r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s ; a n d c ) b e c a u s e c l a u s e s a n s w e r no p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n a b o u t t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t s e n t e n c e ( s e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n t r a s t i v e s t r e s s i n t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n b e l o w ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e n , I a rgue t h a t r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s a re not s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s ( f o l l o w i n g G. L a k o f f ' s argument to p t h e same e f f e c t ) and t h a t because c l a u s e s do answer s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t s . An U n d e r l y i n g S t r u c t u r e f o r Reason A d v e r b i a l s In t h i s s e c t i o n , I b r i e f l y r e v i e w s e v e r a l o f the e a r l i e r s t r u c t u r a l c l a i m s f o r r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s b e f o r e o f f e r i n g an i n d e p e n d e n t d e s c r i p t i o n , r e v i s e d to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h p r e v i o u s t r e a t m e n t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , I make a case here t h a t r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s a re s e p a r a b l e i n d i s c o u r s e and t h a t t h e y do s e r v e to answer a s k e d or a n t i c i -p a t e d q u e s t i o n s about a n t e c e d e n t m a t e r i a l : ( G o d z i l l a p l o d d e d 117 up the beach t o w a r d T o k y o . The k i d s i n the t h e a t e r screamed  t h e i r a p p r o v a l . T h i s i s why Johnny wants to go t o J a p a n ) . "Why" q u e s t i o n s , w h e t h e r marked e x p l i c i t l y by t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h i s te rm or n o t , o c c u r f r e q u e n t l y i n d i s c o u r s e . F i r s t , h o w e v e r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to show t h a t because c l a u s e s a re not c a u s a l c l a u s e s . To b e g i n w i t h , i t seems t h a t r e c e n t t r e a t m e n t s o f because c l a u s e s ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , A . D a v i s o n ) and of e x p l a n a -t i o n s i n w h i c h one uses because c l a u s e s ( J . D a k i n ) 4 have r e l i e d on a r a t h e r too s i m p ! e h h y p o t h e s i s , by w h i c h the u n d e r -l y i n g s t r u c t u r e of because a d v e r b i a l s can be r e p r e s e n t e d by a p h r a s e marker i n v o l v i n g two c l a u s e s , the a n t e c e d e n t one c a u s a l l y or c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d to the f o l l o w i n g o n e . For e x a m p l e , J . D a k i n a s s e r t s t h a t " t h e f i r s t e v e n t i s no e x p l a n a t i o n of the second u n l e s s I i n t e n d you to u n d e r s t a n d 5 t h a t the two e v e n t s a re r e l a t e d c a u s a l l y , " and A . D a v i s o n makes the c o r r o l l a r y s t a t e m e n t t h a t s i n c e , a s , and because i n t r o d u c e c l a u s e s w h i c h a c t as c a u s a l a d v e r b s to some i n d e -6 pendent c l a u s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the d i f f i c u l t y o f the q u e s -t i o n s t h a t s u r r o u n d how the l a n g u a g e u s e r i s a b l e to make e x p l a n a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l , and the c o m p l e x i t y o f the s y n t a x o f because c o n s t r u c t s i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n d i c a t e t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s above i s s i m p l y too b r i e f to a c c u r a t e l y h a n d l e e i t h e r the s e m a n t i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s o r the c o m p l i c a t e d s y n t a c t i c c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t g o v e r n the d e r i v a t i o n of such c o n s t r u c t i o n s . 118 One not u n u s u a l way of h a n d l i n g because i s as an a d v e r b i a l synonym f o r c a u s e ; but w h i l e t h i s makes t h e i m p o r t a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t the two are s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d and o f t e n d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h i n s e n s e , i t does so a t the expense of i g n o r i n g the d i f f e r e n t senses t h a t because does have and l e a v e s a s i d e q u e s t i o n s t h a t ask f o r a more e x p l i c i t a c c o u n t o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . In o r d e r to meet a synonymy c l a i m o f the s o r t i n d i c a t e d , because c o n s t r u c t s , a l t h o u g h a d v e r b i a l , s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d to meet a t l e a s t two m i n i m a l a b s t r a c t c a u s a l p r e d i c a t e t e s t s . For i n s tance , . (1 , ) e x p r e s s e s L a k o f f ' s p r o p o s a l t h a t c e r t a i n a f f e c t i v e p r e d i c a t e s have an u n d e r l y i n g CAUSE + a f f e c t i v e v e r b i n an embedded S . ^ 1) a T h e d y n a m i t e ' s e x p l o d i n g c a u s e d t h e b u i l d i n g t o c o l l a p s e , b T h e d y n a m i t e ' s e x p l o d i n g c o l l a p s e d t h e b u i I d i ng . As can be seen (2) seems a t l e a s t s u p e r f i c i a l l y to be synonymous i n the r e q u i r e d way w i t h ( l a ) s i n c e both seem r e l a t e d to ( l b ) . 2 ) T h e bu i I d i n g c o l l a p s e d b e c a u s e t h e d y n a m i t e e x p I o d e d . However , t h i s e v i d e n c e f o r because c o n s t r u c t s h a v i n g an u n d e r -l y i n g CAUSE p r e d i c a t e i s a n y t h i n g but c o n c l u s i v e . S u b j e c t R a i s i n g p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g e r t e s t o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p . (3) and (4) seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t S u b j e c t R a i s i n g , w h i c h f i x e s the a b s t r a c t p r e d i c a t e f o r the s u r f a c e , w i l l o p e r a t e here w i t h o u t l o s s of sense ( a l t h o u g h (5) and (6) r e f l e c t a c l a s s of c o u n t e r -e x a m p l e s ) . 119 3) a M a r y ' s b e a t i n g t h e d o g c a u s e d i t t o r u n a w a y . b M a r y c a u s e d t h e d o g t o r u n a w a y by b e a t i n g i t . 4) a T h e d o g r a n a w a y b e c a u s e M a r y b e a t i t . b M a r y c a u s e d t h e d o g t o r u n a w a y b e c a u s e s h e b e a t i t . 5) a M a r y ' s d i s l i k i n g t h e d o g c a u s e d i t t o r u n a w a y . b M a r y c a u s e d t h e d o g t o r u n a w a y by d i s l i k i n g i t . 6) a T h e d o g r a n a w a y b e c a u s e M a r y d i s l i k e d i t . b M a r y c a u s e d t h e d o g t o r u n a w a y b e c a u s e s h e d i s l i k e d i t . For (6) we e x p e c t t h a t Mary has p e r f o r m e d some a c t or a c t i o n s t h a t have r e s u l t e d i n , but not c a u s e d , the d o g ' s r u n n i n g away. Moving t o w a r d the sense o f because w h i c h i s n o n -c a u s a l , n o t i c e t h a t the f o l l o w i n g p a i r s a re u s u a l l y t a k e n as synonymous : 7) a J o h n ' s h i t t i n g t h e w i n d o w c a u s e d i t t o b r e a k , b B e c a u s e J o h n h i t t h e w i n d o w i t b r o k e . 8) a J o h n h i t t h e w i n d o w a n d c a u s e d i t t o b r e a k , b T h e w i n d o w b r o k e b e c a u s e J o h n h i t i t . In p a r t i c u l a r ( 8 a ) , t y p i c a l o f c a u s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , c o n -t a i n s two c o n j o i n e d f a c t i v e c l a u s e s w i t h the c a u s a l p r e d i c a t e h o l d i n g between them. In c a s e s l i k e (10a) and ( I T a ) , how-e v e r , we f e e l t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e s e e v e n t s a r e c o n n e c t e d , cause i s too s t r o n g a p r e d i c a t e to use to e x p r e s s t h a t c o n -n e c t i o n , whereas i n (9a) we do n o t . 120 9 ) a The hand le ' s b e i n g h o t c a u s e d J o h n t o d r o p t h e p a n . b J o h n d r o p p e d t h e pan b e c a u s e t h e h a n d l e was h o t . 10) a ? H i s b e i n g an i n t e l l e c t u a l c a u s e s J o h n t o p l a y c h e s s . b J o h n p l a y s c h e s s b e c a u s e he i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l . 11) a ? 0 u r b e i n g t o o e a r l y c a u s e d J o h n t o d r i v e s l o w l y , b J o h n d r o v e s l o w l y b e c a u s e we we re t o o e a r l y . That the f i r s t s e n t e n c e s o f (10) and (11) a re o d d , w h i l e the o t h e r examples above are a c c e p t a b l e , i s due to the f a c t t h a t we use because i n making e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r w h i c h we need r e a s o n s , and a l t h o u g h causes may be o f f e r e d as r e a s o n s , not a l l r e a s o n s are c a u s e s . As e v i d e n c e of the b r o a d e r f u n c t i o n o f because , (9b) answers not o n l y the q u e s t i o n "What caused John to drop the pan?" but "What do you b e l i e v e to be the r e a s o n t h a t John dropped the pan?" as w e l l . In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the l a s t q u e s t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e to show, as i n (12) , t h a t a l t h o u g h o n l y f a c t i v e c l a u s e s a re p o s s i b l e i n c a u s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s ( J o h n ' s b e i n g s i c k caused him to be a b s e n t b u t not * T h a t John m i g h t be s i c k caused h i s absence ) because i s not t h u s l i m i t e d , a f a c t w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two s e m a n t i c a l l y . 12) J o h n d r o p p e d t h e pan b e c a u s e t h e h a n d l e mus t have been h o t . 13) * T h e h a n d l e must have been ho t c a u s e d J o h n t o d rop t h e p a n . 121 Yet a n o t h e r t r e a t m e n t o f because i n c l u d e s i t i n a c a t e g o r y o f a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e w h i c h a l s o i n c l u d e s c l a u s e s headed by s i n c e , a s , r f , and £0_, e t c . ( A . D a v i s o n ) . However , A . D a v i s o n p o i n t s out t h a t s i n c e and because do not have the same d i s t r i b u t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s are v e r y s i m i l a r . She notes t h a t because c l a u s e s may not be used w i t h Q p e r f o r m a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s , as i n ( 1 4 ) : 14) ^ B e c a u s e you a r e an e x p e r t , what do you t h i n k o f my co I I e c t i o n ? whereas (15) i s a c c e p t a b l e : 15) S i n c e you a r e an e x p e r t , what do you t h i n k o f my c o l l e c t i o n ? (16) p r o v i d e s an e x a m p l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t c a s t s doubt on the i n c l u s i o n o f because i n the f i r s t p l a c e w i t h the above s e t o f c l a u s e m a r k e r s . 16) a J o h n l o s t t h e book b e c a u s e s i n c e he was s l e e p y he was c a r e l e s s , b * J o h n l o s t t h e book b e c a u s e he was c a r e l e s s b e c a u s e he was s l e e p y . g S i m i 1 a r l y 9 ( 1 7 ) , t a k e n f rom Ross on L a n g a c k e r , i s a c c e p t a b l e w i t h s i n c e , i n d i c a t i n g , as Ross seems to s u g g e s t , t h a t (17) i n v o l v e s a m i s o p e r a t i o n of e x t r a p o s i t i o n r e s u l t i n g f rom because b e i n g i n c l u d e d under an ADV or a d v e r b i a l node ( t h e e x t r a p o s i t i o n t r a n s f o r m i s p o s s i b l e w i t h s i nee under ADV, see (18) and ( 2 0 ) ) . 1 22 17) * l t n e v e r o c c u r r e d t o H a r v e y b e c a u s e he i s i n s e n s i t i v e t o o t h e r p e o p l e ' s d e s i r e s t h a t I m i g h t want t o l e a v e . 18) I t n e v e r o c c u r r e d t o H a r v e y s i n c e he i s i n -s e n s i t i v e t o o t h e r p e o p l e ' s d e s i r e s t h a t I m i g h t want t o l e a v e . On the o t h e r h a n d , u n l i k e the c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n i n g s i n c e , w h i c h a l s o c o n t a i n s c o n c e s s i v e s l i k e a l t h o u g h , even i f , e t c . , because c l a u s e s , as (19c) r e v e a l s , a re c l e f t a b l e i n -d e p e n d e n t l y : From (19) and the above e x a m p l e s , i t may be seen t h a t because c l a u s e s do not have a c o n s t i t u e n t s t r u c t u r e l i k e t h a t o f s i n c e c l a u s e s or l i k e t h a t o f c a u s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s e i t h e r . When because c l a u s e s a re r e p r e s e n t e d under ADV n o d e s , as i n ( 2 0 ) , the d i f f e r e n c e between because a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s and o t h e r a d v e r b i a l s and a d v e r b s i s not c l e a r a t a l l . 1 0 20) #S# I 9 ) a b c * l t was s i n c e he was s l e e p y t h a t he was c a r e l e s s . * l t was a l t h o u g h - he was s l e e p y t h a t he was c a r e l e s s . I t was b e c a u s e he was s l e e p y t h a t he was c a r e l e s s . NP PDP VP ADV g a v e t h e book t o H a r v e y NP PDP H a r v e y a s k e d me t o 1 23 As s u g g e s t e d a b o v e , Ross argues t h a t a p h r a s e marker l i k e (20) does not a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t the c o n s t i t u e n t s t r u c -t u r e o f such s e n t e n c e s . For I t never o c c u r r e d to Harvey t h a t  I m i g h t want to l e a v e because he i s i n s e n s i t i v e to o t h e r  p e o p l e ' s d e s i r e s , Ross p r o p o s e s : 1 1 21 ) n e v e r o c c u r r e d t o H a r v e y b e c a use he i s t o o t h e r peop i n s e n s i t i v e e ' s de s i r e s t h a t I m i g h t want t o l e a v e L a k o f f o f f e r s the b e s t e x p l a n a t i o n of why (21) more a d e q u a t e l y 1 2 r e p r e s e n t s the c o n s t i t u e n t s t r u c t u r e h e r e . For o n e , he p r e s e n t s e v i d e n c e l i k e t h a t o f the scope of n e g a t i o n i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e I d o n ' t bea t my w i f e i n the y a r d . In cases l i k e t h e s e , n e g a t i o n may a p p l y o n l y to the a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e , a f a c t w h i c h i s e x p l a i n a b l e o n l y i f (22) i s the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e . 124 However , the most i m p o r t a n t argument f o r (22) i s a s e m a n t i c o n e . I f we ask " D i d John s h o o t B i l l near the h o u s e ? " we a r e not q u e s t i o n i n g whether or not John s h o t B i l l , but where the a c t i o n took p l a c e , a f a c t w h i c h i s e x p l a i n e d by r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s as h i g h e r s e n t e n c e s . As L a k o f f a r g u e s , a " n o " answer d e n i e s , o n l y the l o c a t i o n and not the e v e n t . The arguments i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n a r e i n t e n d e d to make the case f o r d e r i v i n g (23) f rom ( 2 4 ) , the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f w h i c h i s ( 2 5 ) , 23) I t was n e a r t h e house t h a t J o h n s h o t B i l l . 24) The p l a c e whe re J o h n s h o t B i I I was n e a r t h e h o u s e . 125 C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e x p l i c i t n e s s c r i t e r i o n f o r remote s t r u c -t u r e , i t s h o u l d be n o t i c e d t h a t f o r the f o l l o w i n g s e t o f a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s , as w i t h (23) and ( 2 4 ) , each has an e x p l i c i t head noun f o r m and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g form w i t h the head noun d e l e t e d and r e p l a c e d by u n i q u e m a r k e r s l i k e b e c a u s e , when, w h e r e , e t c . 26) a The r e a s o n t h a t we r e t u r n e d was t h a t we we re b ro ke . b We r e t u r n e d b e c a u s e we we re b r o k e . 27) a He l e f t a t t h e t i m e t h a t we a r r i v e d , b He l e f t when we a r r i v e d . 28) a He c u t t h e b r e a d i n t h e manner we t o l d him t o . b He c u t t h e b r e a d as we t o l d him t o . 29) a He s t o p p e d a t t h e p l a c e we we re c a m p i n g , b He s t o p p e d whe re we we re c a m p i n g . 30) a He wen t u p s t a i r s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f g e t t i n g a b o o k . b He wen t u p s t a i r s t o g e t a b o o k . 126 The s e t o f a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e markers c o n t a i n i n g s i n c e , a l t h o u g h , e t c . , does not have head noun c o u n t e r p a r t s to c h a r a c t e r i z e the s e m a n t i c f u n c t i o n of i t s a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s . M o r e o v e r , the head nouns of (26 -30) r e f l e c t a c e n t r a l f a c t about the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f the a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r ; i . e . , each o f the above t y p e s o f a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e i s s u b j e c t to R o s s ' s Complex NP C o n s t r a i n t (as s u g -1 o g e s t e d by A . D a v i s o n ) , 31) a J o h n s t a y e d home b e c a u s e h i s w i f e was i l l . b *Who d i d J o h n s t a y e d home b e c a u s e was s i c k . 32) a The r e a s o n J o h n s t a y e d was t h a t M a r t h a t o l d h im t o . b *Who d i d J o h n s t a y f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t she t o Id h im t o . a l i m i t a t i o n not s h a r e d by the c a u s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ( 3 3 ) . 33) a The d y n a m i t e ' s e x p l o d i n g c a u s e d t h e b u i l d i n g t o coI I a p s e . b What d i d t h e d y n a m i t e ' s e x p l o d i n g c a u s e t o c o l l a p s e ? F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e a d v e r b i a l head nouns seem to s e r v e as n a t u r a l m a r k e r s f o r the f a c t t h a t t h e s e c l a u s e s a re so c o n s t r a i n e d . In a d d i t i o n , j u s t as IT can r e p l a c e the head noun FACT, as i n I t s u r p r i s e d us t h a t John knew H a r r y w h i c h i s d e r i v e d f rom The f a c t t h a t John knew H a r r y s u r p r i s e d u s , IT may a l s o r e p l a c e t h e s e head n o u n s . I f the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s e n t e n c e s l i k e (23) a re d e r i v e d f rom (24) i s c o r r e c t , then i n the case of r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s , because must be t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l l y i n s e r t e d f o l l o w i n g head 1 27 noun d e l e t i o n , v e r y much l i k e the way wh- lexemes are i n s e r t e d i n r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s and q u e s t i o n s . W h i l e c e r t a i n a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e t y p e s l i k e PLACE and TIME and REASON may a p p e a r , a l -though a w k w a r d l y , w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c l a u s e m a r k e r s , as i n : 34) a The p l a c e he s t o p p e d was whe re we we re s t u c k , b The t i m e he c u t t h e r i b b o n was when we t o l d h im t o . c The r e a s o n he l e f t was t h a t we t o l d him t o g o . o n l y PURPOSE may be d e l e t e d w i t h o u t some i n s e r t e d r e p l a c e m e n t : 35) a J o h n ' s p u r p o s e i n g o i n g u p s t a i r s was t o g e t a b o o k . b J o h n went u p s t a i r s t o g e t a b o o k . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s not my i n t e n t i o n here to argue the prob lems r a i s e d by because i n s e r t i o n as most o f t h e s e problems would have to do w i t h where such a t r a n s f o r m wou ld f i t i n the t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n a l c y c l e . R a t h e r , i t i s o n l y my i n t e n t i o n to show t h a t s e n t e n c e s l i k e The r e a s o n John r a c e s i s t h a t he l i k e s  danger a r e the e x p l i c i t forms of s e n t e n c e s l i k e John r a c e s  because he l i k e s d a n g e r . I now t u r n to the c l a i m t h a t t h e s e a d v e r b i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s c o n t a i n i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s . A l t h o u g h the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f Q - m a r k e r s have been i n g e n e r a l w e l 1 - d e b a t e d , and q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s t i l l r e m a i n , o n l y t w o , and t h e s e w e l 1 - s u p p o r t e d , f a c t s c o n -1 4 c e r n i n g Q a r e germane h e r e . F i r s t , Q-markers are o p e r a t o r s w h i c h d e s i g n a t e the p h r a s e m a r k e r s w h i c h are to be q u e s t i o n e d , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y . S e c o n d , t h e s e m a r k e r s a re 1 28 r e p l a c e d by the s u r f a c e i n i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s w i t h wh-1exemes l i k e why , who, w h e r e , e t c . The more c e n t r a l p o i n t to be e m p h a s i z e d here though i s t h a t j u s t as i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s c o n t a i n the q u e s t i o n e d s t r i n g , as i n : 36) a Why d i d J o h n s h o o t B i l l ? b I know why J o h n s h o t B i l l . a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s o f the r e a s o n , e t c . , t y p e s a l s o c o n t a i n the q u e s t i o n e d s t r i n g . 37) a Where d i d J o h n s h o o t B i l l ? b The p l a c e whe re J o h n s h o t B i I I was n e a r t h e h o u s e . 38) a When d i d J o h n s h o o t B i l l ? b The t i m e o f J o h n ' s s h o o t i n g B i l l was when we a r r i ved . 39) a Why d i d J o h n l e a v e ? b The r e a s o n why J o h n l e f t was t h a t h i s w i f e was i l l . 40 ) a Why d i d J o h n go u p s t a i r s ? b The p u r p o s e f o r J o h n ' s g o i n g u p s t a i r s was t o f i n d h i s w a t c h . As m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , the w h - q u e s t i o n lexemes may be r e p l a c e d by head nouns to make the q u e s t i o n s more e x p l i c i t , as i n For  what r e a s o n d i d John l e a v e ? and F o r what p u r p o s e d i d John go  u p s t a i r s ? As L a k o f f has p o i n t e d o u t , to ask q u e s t i o n s of s e n t e n c e s w i t h t h e s e a d v e r b i a l s i s to ask a q u e s t i o n to w h i c h o n l y t h e a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e i s an a n s w e r . In t h e s e a d v e r b i a l s , the q u e s t i o n marker s p e c i f i e s i n the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e the p h r a s e marker t h a t i s q u e s t i o n e d ; b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the s u r f a c e , 129 the Q i s r e p l a c e d i n the p h r a s e marker ( a l t h o u g h (38b) i s a s p e c i a l c a s e ) by the r e l e v a n t w h - l e x e m e , w h i c h has to be u n i q u e l y d e t e r m i n e d by the a d j a c e n t head n o u n , j u s t as the t h a t - w h o c h o i c e i n r e l a t i v e s i s d e t e r m i n e d by a f e a t u r e [+ human] . The c o n t e n t o f t h i s p h r a s e marker w h i c h i s d o m i -nated by Q and to be i n d i r e c t l y q u e s t i o n e d must be a v a i l a b l e to the s p e a k e r and h i s a u d i e n c e e i t h e r by c o n t e x t o r o t h e r -w i s e . I f i t were not a v a i l a b l e and q u e s t i o n e d , t h e r e wou ld be no need to o f f e r an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r i t . I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e s e are the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t must e x i s t f o r any e x p l a n a -t i o n to be o f f e r e d . The R o l e o f Ex tended C o n t e x t i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n In t h i s s e c t i o n , I examine i n t e r p r e t i ve\ p r o b l ems f o r r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s w h i c h demand c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s d i s c u s s i o n -wi11 c o n c e r n prob lems o f a m b i g u i t y , f o r c e a s s i g n m e n t , q u e s t i o n a n s w e r i n g , and s p e a k e r i n t e r p o l a t i o n . Ex tended c o n t e x t , t h e n , i n c l u d e s a range of phenomena and i n t e r p r e t a . t a ' o ' n e b e g i nni ng w i t h f a c t s l o c a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s d i s c o u r s e and r e a c h i n g as f a r as a s p e a k e r ' s i 1 1 o c u t i o n a r y i n t e n t i o n s . To add the prob lems of f o r c e and q u e s t i o n a n s w e r i n g to t h o s e w h i c h must be h a n d l e d by a t h e o r y o f s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s i s to e x t e n d the n o t i o n of p r a g m a t i c s s i g n i f i c a n t l y beyond t h a t used i n i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t . N o t i c e as w e l l t h a t d e c i s i o n s o f 1 3 0 a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n c o n t e x t come to be subsumed under q u e s t i o n s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n c l u d e s not o n l y d e c i s i o n s made about d i s c o u r s e c o n t e n t , but i n c l u d e s o p e r a -t i o n s by the r e a d e r i n w h i c h r e c o v e r y and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e a t s t a k e . W i t h o u t t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s , s p e a k e r s w o u l d have to s p e c i f y f u l l y not o n l y the g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s t h e y use but e x t e n s i v e knowledge of the w o r l d and what c o n n e c t i o n s e x i s t between t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s . Whether what i s now done w i t h e f f i c i e n c y c o u l d be done a t a l l i s u n c l e a r . B e g i n n i n g w i t h s e n t e n c e s ambiguous i n i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t , the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s a p p a r e n t l y i n v o l v e a n a p h o r a , and a r e ambiguous i n c o n t e x t . I t must be emphas ized t h a t t h e a m b i g u i t i e s h a n d l e d here are not o f the f l y i n g p l a n e s  can be dangerous o r the v i s i t i n g r e l a t i v e s can be a n u i s a n c e t y p e s , as a l t e r n a t i v e deep s t r u c t u r e s can be g i v e n f o r e i t h e r o f t h e s e w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e to any c o n t e x t . Of c o u r s e , i f e i t h e r o f t h e s e ambiguous s e n t e n c e s were used i n c o n t e x t , one c o u l d s u p p o r t o n e ' s s e l e c t i o n of the a p p r o p r i a t e r e a d i n g f o r them, but t h i s i s not the case I w i s h to make. R a t h e r , w h i l e the examples below may be a s s i g n e d o n l y one p h r a s e m a r k e r , t h e y s t i l l . r e m a i n ambiguous due to the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e r e b e i n g d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g s f o r them i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . Examples l i k e (41) and (421) a re more to the p o i n t : 41) Bobby s t a r t e d c r y i n g . He w a n t e d i n . 42) Bobby wen t b a c k u p s t a i r s . He w a n t e d t o g e t a b o o k . 131 (41) c o u l d mean e i t h e r t h a t he s t a r t e d c r y i n g because he wanted i n and b e l i e v e d t h a t c r y i n g w o u l d cause someone to l e t him i n , o r t h a t he was c r y i n g because someone was k e e p i n g him o u t on p u r p o s e . S i m i l a r l y (42) m i g h t mean e i t h e r t h a t Bobby i n t e n d e d to ge t a book by g o i n g u p s t a i r s (or knew t h a t by g o i n g u p s t a i r s when he d i d t h a t he wou ld be rewarded w i t h a b o o k ) , or t h a t he had not been a l l o w e d to have the book t h a t he came d o w n s t a i r s to g e t . S i n c e knowledge o f the s u b -j e c t ' s i n t e n t i o n s and b e l i e f s i s n e c e s s a r y to d i s a m b i g u a t e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s f o r the r e a d e r , t h e s e s e n t e n c e s become ambiguous when such i n f o r m a t i o n i s u n a v a i l a b l e . N a t u r a l l y , each sense i s a c c e p t a b l e o n l y i n c o n t e x t s w h i c h c a l l f o r t h a t s e n s e , and i t f o l l o w s from t h i s t h a t o n l y f rom such c o n t e x t s w i l l the d e l e t e d i n f o r m a t i o n be r e c o v e r a b l e . I t m i g h t be o b j e c t e d here t h a t the a m b i g u i t i e s o f (41) and (42) a re a t 1 e a s t p a r t i a l 1 y r e s o l v a b l e by i n c l u s i o n o f p a s t p e r f e c t a s p e c t , as i n Bobby s t a r t e d c r y i n g because  he had wanted to g e t i n , but the q u e s t i o n o f what e x i s t i n g grammars w o u l d do w i t h (41) and (42) s t i l l r e m a i n s . A s p e c t i s as e a s i l y d e l e t e d i n c o n t e x t s f rom w h i c h i t can be r e -c o v e r e d as o t h e r c o n t e x t u a l l y d e l e t a b l e t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . More i m p o r t a n t l y , s e n t e n c e s s i m i l a r to t h e s e , l i k e ( 4 3 ) , c a n n o t be d i s a m b i g u a t e d by i n c l u s i o n of a s p e c t to b e g i n w i t h , showing t h a t a s p e c t i n c l u s i o n i s o f much l e s s a i d here than i t m i g h t a t f i r s t seem. 1 32 43) He b r o k e t h e h a n d l e b e c a u s e i t was (had been ) t h e o n l y way t o g e t i n . (43) w o u l d r e m a i n ambiguous out o f c o n t e x t between the r e a d i n g t h a t he b r o k e the h a n d l e to l e t h i m s e l f i n , and the r e a d i n g t h a t he b r o k e the h a n d l e to keep e v e r y o n e o u t . C o n t e x t s f o r t h e s e two r e a d i n g s are e a s i l y c o n s t r u c t e d : 44) J o h n knew t h a t t h e P r o s e c u t o r w o u l d f i n d t h e i n c r i m i n a t i n g e v i d e n c e i f he was a b l e t o s e a r c h t h e v a u l t . J o h n b r o k e t h e h a n d l e b e c a u s e i t was t h e o n l y way t o g e t i n (and J o h n i n t e n d e d t h a t no one g e t i n ) . 45) J o h n knew t h a t he had t o r e a c h t h e e v i d e n c e f i r s t and d e s t r o y i t . He b r o k e t h e h a n d l e b e c a u s e i t was t h e o n l y way t o g e t i n ( and d e s t r o y t h e e v i d e n c e ) . The l a s t example here a p p e a r s to be a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e case of a n a p h o r a ; the d e l e t e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s e x p l i c i t and a v a i l a b l e i n the i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t and thus e a s i l y r e c o v e r e d . ( 4 4 ) , h o w e v e r , c o n t a i n s the r e a d i n g of (43) f o r w h i c h we may not say t h a t the needed i n t e n t i o n c l a u s e " John i n t e n d e d t h a t no one g e t i n , " i s s i m p l y a n a p h o r i z e d , as i t does n o t , i n f a c t , appear e x p l i c i t l y anywhere i n the immedia te c o n t e x t . F u r t h e r -m o r e , (44) c o n t a i n s n o t h i n g e l s e e x p l i c i t l y t h a t c o u l d be added to (43) to d i s a m b i g u a t e i t . In t h i s c a s e , we must say t h a t (44) has an i n t e n t i o n c l a u s e t h a t i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d r a t h e r t h a n r e c o v e r e d . P r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f R o b i n L a k o f f , i n d i c a t e t h a t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a m a t t e r o f p r e s u p p o s i t i o n and d e d u c t i o n . The p o i n t to be t a k e n h e r e , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t a l t h o u g h r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s the more p o w e r f u l 133 and s u f f i c i e n t argument f o r c o n t e x t u a l r e c o u r s e i n the case o f such a m b i g u i t i e s , r e c o v e r y i s s t i l l an argument f o r such r e c o u r s e . T h i s i s t r u e i f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a t the f a c t t h a t l a n g u a g e l i s t e n e r s c o n s t a n t l y both r e c o v e r and r e c o n s t r u c t f rom c o n t e x t to make sense of i n d i v i d u a l u t t e r a n c e s t h a t w o u l d make l i t t l e sense o t h e r w i s e . p o s s i b l e r e f e r e n t s f o r the embedded j_t under a n o n - c o n t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of ( 4 3 ) . F i n a l l y , n o t i c e t h a t i n (46) and (47) t h e r e a re two 46) NP VP Q J o h n b r o k e t h e h a n d l e J o h n i n t e n d e d t o d e s t r o y t h e e v i d e n c e I t ( b r e a k i n g t h e h a n d l e ) w a s t h e o n l y way t o g e t i n . 47) NP VP R e a s o n Q J o h n b r o ke t h e h a n d l e J o h n i n t e n d e d no o n e g e t i n 1 1 ( t h e h a n d I e ) wa s t h e o n l y way t o g e t i n . 1 34 I t i s to be s t r e s s e d t h a t as t h e s e two e x a m p l e s , as w e l l as t h e p r e v i o u s o n e s , a r e not u n t y p i c a l i n E n g l i s h , recovery and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e o p e r a t i o n s t h a t must c o n s t a n t l y be used i n the p r o d u c t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s e n t e n c e s , and t h a t u n d e r -l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s f o r r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s a t l e a s t may be i n a d e -q u a t e w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e to t h e i r c o n t e x t s . The second l i n e I s u g g e s t e d above i s t h a t t h e r e a r e c o n t e x t u a l c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h g o v e r n the s u r f a c e forms of r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s , and t h a t the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s must be r e v i s e d i n l i n e w i t h t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s . The o b j e c t o f t a k i n g t h i s second l i n e i s to show t h a t the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s must be r e v i s e d to i n c l u d e m a r k e r s o f i 1 1 o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e , as f o r c e s e r v e s to a c t i n a c o n s t r a i n i n g way on what may appear on the s u r f a c e f o r such a d v e r b i a l s . 1 ^ As shown i n (48) and ( 4 9 ) , r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s a re used w i t h one o f two i 1 l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e s ; o t h e r s o f c o u r s e are p o s s i b l e , but commanding and q u e s t i o n i n g a r e not a t s t a k e h e r e , and o t h e r usage tends to be o n l y s p e c i a l cases o f e i t h e r EXPLAIN o r REPORT. 48) I e x p l a i n e d t h a t I knew t h a t t h e r e a s o n why t h e b u i l d i n g c o l l a p s e d was t h a t t h e d y n a m i t e e x p l o d e d . 49) I r e p o r t e d t h a t he s a i d t h a t t h e r e a s o n why t h e b u i l d i n g co I l a p s e d was th!a?ii t h e d y n a m i t e e x p l o d e d . 50) The r e a s o n why t h e b u i l d i n g c o l l a p s e d was t h a t t h e d y n a m i t e e x p l o d e d . 135 I i n t e n d to show why one must a s s i g n e i t h e r EXPLAIN or REPORT to u t t e r a n c e s l i k e ( 5 0 ) , d e p e n d i n g on whether one i s q u o t i n g or p a r a p h r a s i n g a n o t h e r s p e a k e r , or o f f e r i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n of some e v e n t based on o n e ' s own i n f o r m a t i o n and b e l i e f s . Of c o u r s e , i f we meant (50) as a r e p o r t , we c o u l d not use i t i n a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h the a p p r o p r i a t e form and f o r c e i s t h a t o f an e x p l a n a t i o n ; h o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e more p o w e r f u l r e a s o n s f o r the i n c l u s i o n of f o r c e . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t c o n s t r a i n t s l i k e the f o l l o w i n g one must h o l d f o r r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s , i . e . , i f we have p e r -m i t t e d some s u r f a c e o r l a t e o p e r a t i o n l i k e f o c u s i n g o r c o n -t r a s t i v e s t r e s s a s s i g n m e n t o r c l e f t i n g to t o p i c a l i z e an e lement o f the p h r a s e marker to be q u e s t i o n e d i n d i r e c t e d then the r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e may s e r v e to e x p l a i n o_nl_y_ t h a t t o p i c a l i z e d e l e m e n t . A p r i m a r y consequence of t h i s c o n -s t r a i n t i s t h a t i f the because c l a u s e e x p l a i n s any o t h e r e l e m e n t t h a n the e lement i n q u e s t i o n , then the r e s u l t i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n i s u n a c c e p t a b l e , as i n ( 5 2 ) : 51 )a TH IEVES b r o k e i n t o t h e hou se b e c a u s e we have no v a n d a l s i n t h i s a r e a , b T h i e v e s BROKE i n t o t h e hou se b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d n ' t p i c k t h e l o c k s , c T h i e v e s b r o k e i n t o t h e HOUSE b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n ' t f i n d a n y t h i n g v a l u a b l e i n t h e g a r a g e . 5 2 ) a * T h i e v e s b r o k e i n t o fWeoHOUSE b e c a u s e we have no v a n d a l s i ' n n t h i s a r e a , b * TH I EVES b r o k e i n t o t h e hou se b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d n ' t p i c k t h e l o c k s . 136 Because the i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n (51a) asks not "Why d i d t h i e v e s break i n t o the h o u s e ? " but r a t h e r , "Why do you say t h a t THIEVES broke i n t o the h o u s e ? " and because the d e r i v a t i o n of the r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e i n (51 a) must be b l o c k e d i f i t i s an answer to any o t h e r q u e s t i o n t h a n t h i s second o n e , one m i g h t be i n c l i n e d to c o n c l u d e t h a t e i t h e r the embedded S o f the r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e i s s u b j e c t to f i l t e r i n g and b l o c k i n g near the s u r f a c e o r t h a t f o c u s and c l e f t i n g are not l a t e phenomena, and b l o c k i n g must o c c u r e a r l y i n the d e r i v a t i o n . O n l y one of t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s can be g i v e n p r i n c i p l e d s u p p o r t ; i n f a c t , g e n e r a l l y , both of t h e i r o p p o s i t e s seem to be the c a s e . However , r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h the f o r c e o f REPORT do p l a c e s e m a n t i c c o n -s t r a i n t s on what may be g i v e n f o c u s w i t h i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n ; (54) i s not a c c e p t a b l e . 53) TH IEVES b r o k e i n t o t h e h o u s e , b e c a u s e we have no v a n d a l s i n t h e a r e a . 54) * l REPORT t h a t t h e t h i e v e s s a i d t h a t i t was TH IEVES t h a t b r o k e i n t o t h e house b e c a u s e we have no v a n d a l s i n t h e a r e a . A l t h o u g h u n p r o m i s i n g , because f o r c e i s a remote s t r u c t u r e c o n -s t r a i n t , one m i g h t c o n c l u d e t h a t f o c u s i s a l s o a remote s t r u c -t u r e phenomena. On the o t h e r h a n d , o p e r a t i o n s l i k e f o c u s and c l e f t i n g seem to have v e r y much i n common w i t h s t y l i s t i c c o n s t r a i n t s , w h i c h are g e n e r a l l y t a k e n to be s u r f a c e phenomena. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how ( 5 5 ) , t a k e n f rom Chomsky, c o u l d be 1 6 d e s c r i b e d i n terms of remote s t r u c t u r e . 137 55) J o h n i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h A F f i r m a t i o n t h a n w i t h CONf i rma t i o n . A more i n t e r e s t i n g a c c o u n t of t h e way f o c u s o c c u r s i n t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r examples o f f e r s i t s e l f i f we c o n s i d e r t h a t such i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s as "Why was i t T H I E V E S . . . ?" ( w h i c h appear i n r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l c o n s t r u c t s ) a re a l l i n r e f e r e n c e to some s e n t e n c e w h i c h may be p r e s e n t i n the p r e v i o u s d i s c o u r s e or some i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d by the s p e a k e r to be a v a i l a b l e to h i s a u d i e n c e ( o r r e c o n s t r u c t a b l e by h i s a u d i e n c e ) . I t seems o f t e n to be the case t h a t where the q u e s t i o n e d c l a u s e i s not i n f a c t e x p l i c i t l y p r e s e n t i n the p r e v i o u s d i s c o u r s e , i t i s a v a i l a b l e i n the second way a b o v e / In e i t h e r c a s e , i t w o u l d seem t h a t s i n c e the m a t e r i a l to be q u e s t i o n e d i_§_ a v a i l a b l e , t h a t i t i s s i m p l y " c o p i e d " i n t o the i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n p o s i t i o n i n the r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . W h i l e " c o p y i n g " must be t a k e n o n l y as a p o s s i b l e a c c o u n t f o r the s o u r c e of c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n e d m a t e r i a l and not n e c e s s a r i l y as an o p e r a t i o n , i t s use does p r e s e r v e the i m -p o r t a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t the two o c c u r r e n c e s of t h i s i n -f o r m a t i o n a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y s i m i l a r . Y e t , i n many c a s e s , as shown b e l o w , the o r i g i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n undergoes f u n d a m e n t a l changes b e f o r e i t s a p p e a r a n c e i n the i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n . In ( 5 6 ) , the f o c u s e d e lement i n the q u e s t i o n e d p h r a s e marker must be p r e s e r v e d t h r o u g h i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t o the i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n c l a u s e of the a d v e r b i a l . 1 3 8 56) W h i l e i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e damage t o t h e hou se n e x t d o o r , t h e p o l i c e w a n t e d t o know why I t h o u g h t i t had been done by T H I E V E S . (I EXPLA INED) t h e r e a s o n why I t h o u g h t i t was TH IEVES t h a t b r o k e i n was t h a t we have no v a n d a l s . . . . In e x p l a n a t i o n s l i k e (56) the s p e a k e r t a k e s t h e c o p i e d m a t e r i a l as an i d e n t i f y i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s knowledge o r b e l i e f and t h e n e x p l a i n s or g i v e s h i s r e a s o n s f o r b e l i e v i n g o r knowing the q u e s t i o n e d m a t e r i a l to be t r u e or f a l s e . Whereas s e n t e n c e s l i k e ( 5 6 ) , w i t h the f o r c e of E X P L A I N , r e l y on the s p e a k e r ' s own b e l i e f s , we e x p e c t t h i s not to be the c a s e w i t h s e n t e n c e s h a v i n g the f o r c e o f REPORT, i n w h i c h we are a p p a r e n t l y o n l y a c t i n g to r e l a y the b e l i e f o f some o t h e r s p e a k e r . However , i n r e g a r d s t o d e c i d i n g w h i c h f o r c e an u t t e r a n c e o f t h i s t y p e h a s , s e l e c t i o n s based on t h e s e c r i t e r i o n are not e a s i l y made and r e s o r t to c o n t e x t i s o f t e n n e c e s s a r y . I t i s u s u a l l y the case t h a t u t t e r a n c e s a r e g i v e n o n l y one f o r c e a s c r i p t i o n ; i f the s p e a k e r i s o f f e r i n g h i s own b e l i e f then we a s c r i b e the f o r c e o f e x p l a n a t i o n to the u t t e r -a n c e , i f he o f f e r s the b e l i e f o f a n o t h e r then we say the u t t e r a n c e has the f o r c e o f a r e p o r t . In the case o f r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s r e a s o n to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e a r e many u t t e r a n c e s i n t e r m e d i a t e between the two f o r c e s . Many t i m e s , when o f f e r i n g what seems to be a r e p o r t , the s p e a k e r w i l l not m e r e l y p a r a p h r a s e t h e ^ u t t e r a n c e made by a n o t h e r p e r s o n , but w i l l i n t e r p o l a t e h i s own b e l i e f s and knowledge onto t h a t u t t e r a n c e as w e l l . As t h i s p r o b l e m 1 39 r i g h t f u l l y i n c l u d e s m a t e r i a l r e c e n t l y d i s c u s s e d by H a s a g a w a 1 7 ( i n a d i s c u s s i o n of c l a i m s made by Ross and P e r l m u t t e r , and McCawley) I s h a l l i n c l u d e t h o s e examples a l s o . R o s s , P e r l m u t t e r and McCawley t a k e the p o s i t i o n t h a t Mary and t h a n he i s i n (57) and (58) must appear o u t s i d e the o b j e c t o f t h i n k i n u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e because t h e y do not form p a r t o f an i d e n t i f y i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of what B i l l o r John t h o u g h t , but r a t h e r o f what the s p e a k e r h i m s e l f knows. 57) a J o h n t h i n k s t h a t B i l l i l o v e s t h e g i r l h e i met y e s t e r d a y , , ^ . b J o h n t h i n k s t h a t B i l l l o v e s M -aVy: 58) J o h n t h i n k s t h a t he i s t a I l e r t h a n he i s . In (57b) the s p e a k e r i s a b l e to s u b s t i t u t e Mary f o r the g i r l  he met y e s t e r d a y when he and h i s a u d i e n c e know her name, whereas John may a c t u a l l y have s a i d o n l y " B i l l l o v e s the g i r l he met y e s t e r d a y . " T h u s , we a r e i n c l i n e d to say t h a t the s p e a k e r has f i r s t p a r a p h r a s e d J o h n ' s u t t e r a n c e and then i n t e r -p o l a t e d i n t o the p a r a p h r a s e from h i s own s t o r e o f f a c t s . In t h i s c a s e , we would s t i l l be a b l e to v i r t u a l l y r e c o v e r what J o h n s a i d . Y e t , i n cases l i k e ( 5 9 ) , 59) J o h n d o e s n ' t know t h a t B i l l l o v e s M a r y . t h e s p e a k e r i s not s i m p l y i n t e r p o l a t i n g i n t o what John s a i d , w h i c h m i g h t have been s o m e t h i n g l i k e " I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t B i l l l o v e s the g i r l he met y e s t e r d a y , " but i s a c t u a l l y p r e -s e n t i n g an i d e n t i f y i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s own b e l i e f . J o h n ' s s t a t e m e n t i s u n r e c o v e r a b l e ; i t c o u l d not have b e e n : 140 60) * l d o n ' t know t h a t B i l l l o v e s t h e g i r l t h a t he met y e s t e r d a y . because f a c t i v e p r e d i c a t e s l i k e know d o n ' t a l l o w n e g a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . By t h i s , one can see t h a t (59) does not have a f o r c e i d e n t i c a l to t h a t o f REPORT (compare ( 4 9 ) ) , a l t h o u g h (59) j_s_ based on a s t a t e m e n t made by J o h n . (61) and (62) d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t an i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s f o r r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s : 61) Mary knew t h a t I had t a l k e d t o J o h n and w a n t e d t o know why J o h n t h o u g h t t h a t B i I I was i l l . I a n s w e r e d t h a t t h e r e a s o n why J o h n d o e s n ' t know t h a t B i l l i s w e l l i s t h a t J o h n h a s n ' t been t o v i s i t him i n some t i m e . 62) * J o h n s a i d , "I d o n ' t know t h a t B i l l i s s i c k b e c a u s e I h a v e n ' t been t o v i s i t h im i n some t i m e . " By way o f s a t i s f y i n g the t h i r d 1 i n e i n t r o d u c e d a b o v e , i t can be seen t h a t i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , l i k e f o c u s i n g , the p r e v i o u s s t r u c t u r e i s t r a n s p o r t e d whole i n t o t h e a d v e r b i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , w h i l e i n o t h e r c a s e s , i t may be c o m p l e t e l y i n t e r p o l a t e d by the s p e a k e r b e f o r e a p p e a r i n g t h e r e . W i t h o u t r e c o u r s e to c o n t e x t , t h e r e wou ld seem to be no way i n a s e n -t e n c e grammar to p r o v i d e the f o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h i s a b i l i t y on the p a r t o f the s p e a k e r to i n t e r p o l a t e , or the r e a d e r or a u d i e n c e ' s a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h w h i l e gram-m a t i c a l i n t h e i r own r i g h t , a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s . 141 W h i l e t h i s c h a p t e r has been c o n c e r n e d e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h s u b o r d i n a t i o n r e l a t i o n s and t h e i r n e c e s s a r y i n c l u s i o n i n a c o n j u n c t i o n grammar f o r d i s c o u r s e , and w i t h a d e m o n s t r a -t i o n o f the r o l e o f c o n t e x t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l s , i t has c o n t i n u e d the a r g u m e n t , i n d i r e c t l y , a g a i n s t the a d e -quacy o f a s e n t e n c e grammar f o r d i s c o u r s e . As w e l l , by e x -t e n d i n g the n o t i o n of c o n t e x t beyond the i m m e d i a t e l y a n t e -c e d e n t s e n t e n c e , i t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c r i t e r i a whereby s p e a k e r s p r o d u c e and r e a d e r s e v a l u a t e s e n t e n c e s f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y . In g e n e r a l , the arguments I have p r e s e n t e d here s h o u l d be t a k e n as s u p p o r t f o r a s t a t e m e n t made r e c e n t l y by R. L a k o f f : Much evidence has accumulated to support the contention that one must often be aware of the context in which an utterance is used, of the beliefs of speaker and hearer, before one can know whether or not a sentence has been used correctly, or appropriately."^^ 142 FOOTNOTES 1. S a n d r a A n n e a r Thompson, "The Deep S t r u c t u r e o f R e l a t i v e C l a u s e s , " Studies in L i n g u i s t i c Semantics ( e d s . ) F i l l m o r e and Langendoen (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 7 9 - 9 6 . 2 . My c a s e f o r t h i s c l a i m , w h i c h r e l i e s on a n a l y s e s made by Ross and L a k o f f r e s p e c t i v e l y , i s l o c a t e d i n the second s e c t i o n . 3 . A . D a v i s o n , " C a u s a l A d v e r b s and P e r f o r m a t i v e V e r b s , " Papers of the Sixth Regional Meeting, the C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 1 9 0 - 2 0 1 . 4 . J . D a k i n , " E x p l a n a t i o n s , " Journal of L i n g u i s t i c s 6 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 199 -214 . 5 . A D a v i s o n , op. c i t . , p . 199 . 6. J . D a k i n , op. c i t , , p . 190 . 7. G . L a k o f f , On the Nature of Syntactic I r r e g u l a r i t y , NSF-1 6 (1 965) , p . I X - l f f . 8 . D a v i s o n , op. c i t . , p . 196. 9 . J . R. R o s s , Constraints on Variables in Syntax (unpub-l i s h e d M . I . T . d i s s e r t a t i o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y L i n g u i s t i c s C l u b R e p r i n t , p . 197 . Example (17) i s R o s s ' ( 5 . 1 5 7 c ) . 10 . Ibid., p . 196 . 1 1 . Ibid., p . 198 . 12 . G . L a k o f f , op. c i t . , A p p e n d i x F , p . F - 1 6 f f . 143 1 3 . D a v i s o n , op. c i t . , p . 194 . 14. C L . B a k e r , " N o t e s on the D e s c r i p t i o n o f E n g l i s h Q u e s t i o n s ; the r o l e of an a b s t r a c t q u e s t i o n morpheme," Founda-tions of Language 6 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 1 9 7 - 2 1 9 . 1 5 . N o t i c e t h a t F r e d e r i c k Bowers a r r i v e s a t a s i m i l a r c o n -c l u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g s t r u c t u r e s w i t h a f f e c t i v e p r e d i -c a t e s : "The S t r u c t u r e o f A f f e c t i v e S e n t e n c e s i n E n g l i s h , " L i n g u i s t i c s 86 ( J u l y , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 28 . 16 . N . Chomsky, "Deep S t r u c t u r e , S u r f a c e S t r u c t u r e , and S e m a n t i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y L i n g u i s t i c s C l u b R e p r i n t ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 25 . 17 . K. Hasagawa, " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n and S e m a n t i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " NSF-26 (1 9 7 0 ) , p p . V 1 - V 2 4 . J . D . M c C a w l e y , "Where do Noun P h r a s e s Come From?" Read-ings in English Transformational Grammar ( e d s . ) J a c o b s and Rosenbaum ( T o r o n t o , 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 1 6 6 - 1 8 3 . J . R . Ross and D . M . P e r l m u t t e r , "A N o n - S o u r c e f o r Com-p a r a t i v e s , " L i n g u i s t i c Inquiry 1:1 ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 1 2 7 - 2 8 . 18 . R. L a k o f f , " Q u e s t i o n a b l e Answers and A n s w e r a b l e Q u e s t i o n s , " mimeo, 1972 . CONCLUSION: PART I P a r t I has worked t o w a r d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a n . a b i l i t y s h a r e d by the g r e a t e s t p a r t o f a d u l t l a n g u a g e u s e r s : the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y s e n t e n c e s w h i c h do not f i t i n c o n t e x t o r a r e somehow anomalous i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t s e n -t e n c e s . T h i s a b i l i t y , I have a r g u e d , i s a complex o n e , r e l y -i n g on e x t e n s i v e knowledge o f the l a n g u a g e and i t s c o n v e n t i o n s of u s a g e , as w e l l as knowledge of the w o r l d and a b i l i t y , to u n d e r t a k e d e d u c t i v e o p e r a t i o n s . T h u s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to e x p e c t any adequate t h e o r y o f s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s (one w h i c h w o u l d p r e d i c t anomalous cases g i v e n c o n t e x t ) to be s e n s i t i v e to i n f o r m a t i o n from many a r e a s o f g r a m m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . A f i r s t p r o b l e m f o r s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e t h e o r y , t h e n , must be to d e t e r m i n e on j u s t w h i c h l e v e l s anomaly d e c i s i o n s o p e r a t e , and w h i c h c r i t e r i a n e c e s s a r i l y must be i n c l u d e d i n such a t h e o r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s s t u d y has not been i n t e r e s t e d i n i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y s p e c i f y i n g t y p e s o f s e n t e n c e p a i r a n o m a l y ; r a t h e r , I have emphas ized o n l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a n o m a l i e s , o r t h o s e w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e most to e v a l u a t i n g the adequacy o f the d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e a c c o u n t s o f s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s . 1 4 4 145 As the i n a d e q u a c i e s o f weaker c r i t e r i a were d i s -c o v e r e d , p r o g r e s s i v e l y s t r o n g e r c r i t e r i a came under c o n s i d e r a -t i o n . Each c r i t e r i o n was c o n s i d e r e d on two g r o u n d s : n e c e s s i t y and s u f f i c i e n c y . Any c r i t e r i o n w h i c h b l o c k e d c e r t a i n a n o m a l i e s but a l l o w e d e i t h e r the g e n e r a t i o n o r o c c u r r e n c e of o t h e r anomalous s e n t e n c e s i n s u c c e s s i o n was d e f i c i e n t on the b a s i s o f i n s u f f i c i e n c y . T h u s , i f a c r i t e r i o n was f o u n d to be n e c e s -s a r y but not s u f f i c i e n t i t was to be i n c l u d e d i n the t h e o r y but j o i n e d by o t h e r c r i t e r i a w h i c h would s t r e n g t h e n the t h e o r y t o w a r d a d e q u a c y . I f any c r i t e r i o n i n c l u d e d an o p e r a -t i o n w h i c h b l o c k e d a c c e p t a b l e s e n t e n c e s , t h a t o p e r a t i o n c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r n e c e s s a r y or s u f f i c i e n t and was e x c l u d e d f r o m the t h e o r y a l t o g e t h e r . A b r i e f r e v i e w , e x c l u d i n g e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t ( w h i c h w i l l be t a k e n up l a t e r ) , w i l l b r i n g i n t o f o c u s the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f the d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a f o r u n a c c e p t a b i 1 i t y : 1) S y n t a x a * T h e c a b i n e t r e f u s e d h i m s e l f and J o h n i s a d o c t o r s . b * J o h n e a t s a p p l e s and e a t s b a n a n a s i n t h e y a r d . 2) C o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s a * H a r v e y i s a j u d g e and s e n t e n c e s m i c e t o l i f e , b * J o h n i s s i c k and J o h n i s i l l . 3 ) The i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n a ? * S t r e s s a s s i g n m e n t i s c y c l i c and r a d i o i s n ' t a R u s s i a n i n v e n t i o n , b ? ? l r e v i e w e d my a p p l i c a t i o n and i t need s t o be r e v i e w e d . 146 4 ) I m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t a M a r l e n e has been a t D i c k f o r month s t o g e t a s t e a d y j o b . D i c k i s a b o u n c e r a t a c l u b . ? * T e d i s a t o u g h guy t o o . b (The f r a u d u l e n t a c c o u n t s we re b u r i e d u n d e r t h e r u b b l e . ) The d y n a m i t e e x p l o d e d w i t h a t e r r i f i c c o n c u s s i o n . ? *No t r a c e was l e f t o f what had been a b u i l d i n g . In examples (1) t h r o u g h ( 4 ) , the (a) cases a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a n o m a l i e s b l o c k e d by the c r i t e r i o n w h i l e the (b) cases are c o n j u n c t s the c r i t e r i o n w o n ' t b l o c k . O n l y w i t h the a d d i -t i o n to the t h e o r y of the c r i t e r i o n o f e x t e n d e d c o n t e x t does the t h e o r y a p p r o a c h d e s c r i p t i v e a d e q u a c y . In each o f the o t h e r c a s e s , a l t h o u g h many anomalous c o n j u n c t s are b l o c k e d , t h o s e c o n j u n c t s l e f t u n b l o c k e d s u g g e s t an a d d i t i o n to the t h e o r y of a h i g h e r o r more p o w e r f u l c r i t e r i o n . N o t i c e , h o w e v e r , t h a t w i t h r e g a r d to c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s , t h e r e a re s e v e r a l o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h are n e i t h e r n e c e s s a r y or s u f f i c i e n t . For e x a m p l e , c o n s i d e r (5) and ( 6 ) : 5) T e r m i t e s e a t wood and t e r m i t e s d o n ' t e a t c e d a r . 6) The l a d y w a n t s t h e m e e h a n i c i and J o h n i i s o u t t o l u n c h . Whereas a c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s i s e s s e n t i a l to a c o n j u n c -t i o n grammar ( s i n c e t y p e - c r o s s i n g s l i k e (2a) c l e a r l y r e n d e r s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s u n a c c e p t a b l e ) , (5) and (6) i n d i c a t e t h a t the p r o j e c t i o n r u l e s and the d i c t i o n a r y i t s e l f i n a c o m p o s i -t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s may a c t to b l o c k a c c e p t a b l e s e n t e n c e s . Such a s e m a n t i c s w o u l d t a k e (5) to be c o n t r a d i c t o r y on t h e b a s i s 147 o f a wood = c e d a r r e a d i n g and would q u e s t i o n (6) s i n c e no d i c t i o n a r y of the t y p e f u r n i s h e d c o u l d i n c l u d e what i s p e r -s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . A l t h o u g h problems l i k e t h e s e d i s q u a l i f y such o p e r a t i o n s f rom i n c l u s i o n i n the t h e o r y , l i t t l e was made o f them a t the t ime s i n c e s u b s e q u e n t c r i t e r i a a re s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g to e s t a b l i s h c o n n e c t i o n s between such s e n t e n c e s and t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t s . As p o i n t e d out on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , s e n t e n c e s may be anomalous i n more than one r e s p e c t a t the same t i m e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s f a c t s h o u l d not be l o s t . S i n c e the t h e o r y ' s most p r e s s i n g t a s k i s to s p e c i f y the r e l a t i o n s between s e n t e n c e s such t h a t t h e y a r e a c c e p t a b l e to a r e a d e r , q u e s t i o n s of u n a c c e p t a b i 1 i t y a r i s e o n l y when t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i v e p r o c e d u r e f a i l s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the t h e o r y be c o n s t r a i n e d from b l o c k i n g any a c c e p t a b l e or p o t e n t i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s e n t e n c e a t s t a g e s as e a r l y as t h a t o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s . A n o m a l i e s s h o u l d be w e l l - d e f i n e d a t such l e v e l s and a d d i t i o n s to the t h e o r y w e l 1 - m o t i v a t e d . The i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n was d i s q u a l i f i e d f rom the t h e o r y f o r j u s t the r e a s o n s s p e c i f i e d a b o v e . Cases l i k e ( 3 a ) , w h i c h a r e a s s i g n e d anomaly markers because they' ; l a c k common t o p i c s , a r e p o t e n t i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , g i v e n c o n t e x t . A l t h o u g h c o n t e x t s w h i c h a l l o w such s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s w i l l be r a r e , the t h e o r y must o n l y a s s i g n anomaly to cases w h i c h a r e c l e a r l y u n a c c e p t a b l e . O t h e r w i s e , the i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n a c c o u n t o f f e r e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s w h i c h 1 4 8 were i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e a d i n g s t h o s e u t t e r a n c e s wou ld t a k e i n o r d i n a r y u s a g e . As I p o i n t e d out i n C h a p t e r 3, the t h i r d s e c t i o n , the impetus f o r d i s c o v e r i n g i d e n t i t y r e l a t i o n s stems f rom an e a r l i e r s e n t e n c e grammar a p p r o a c h i n w h i c h i d e n t i c a l t e r m s , c o - r e f e r e n c e , and anaphora were c o n s i d e r e d to be the o n l y i m p o r t a n t d i s c o u r s e r e l a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h l i t t l e of the d i s -c u s s i o n i n P a r t I has been d i r e c t e d e x p l i c i t l y t o w a r d the i n a d e q u a c y o f a s e n t e n c e grammar a p p r o a c h f o r d i s c o u r s e , i t i s s e l f - e v i d e n t t h a t the arguments a g a i n s t s y n t a c t i c and c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c adequacy and the arguments f o r p r a g m a t i c and c o n t e x t u a l c r i t e r i a t end to r e f u t e the argument f o r a s e n t e n c e grammar a p p r o a c h . More damaging than i t s d e s c r i p -t i v e i n a d e q u a c y i s i t s c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e to e x p l a i n how s p e a k e r s o r d e r u t t e r a n c e s or how r e a d e r s d e c i d e t h a t u t t e r -ances a r e a c c e p t a b l y o r d e r e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , P a r t I has i n c l u d e d a n a l y s e s o f f o u r p r i n c i p l e meaning r e l a t i o n s between s e n t e n c e s i n d i s c o u r s e : !7) J o h n b r o k e t h e h a n d l e . I t was t h e o n l y way t o g e t i n . ?8 ) J o h n d r o p s bombs. P e t e b u i l d s B-66s. 39) My s h o e s a r e l e a k i n g . F r a n k t h e F e n c e has some f o r s a l e . 110) E v e r y o n e f o r g o t t h e m e e t i n g , N a t u r a l l y , J a n e was a n g r y . 149 Whether c o n j o i n e d by and o r n o r , s p e a k e r / h e a r e r s a r e a b l e to i n t e r p r e t s u c h s e n t e n c e p a i r s i n terms of c o n n e c t i o n s l i k e r e a s o n e x p l a n a t i o n s , s i m i l a r i t i e s , i n f e r e n c e s i n v i t e d , and consequences f o r them r e s p e c t i v e l y . Judgements o f a c c e p t -a b i l i t y depend u n i q u e l y on such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and on the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f the meaning r e l a t i o n i n c o n t e x t . There a r e , o f c o u r s e , o t h e r meaning r e l a t i o n s between s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s . C o n s i d e r : I I ) J o h n has n e v e r been known t o g e t a n g r y . Even when h i s dog a t e t h e p a y c h e c k he s t a y e d c o o l . i|>2) C h a r l e s c l a i m e d he saw J o h n a t t h e s c e n e . T h a t ' s a l i e . I'3) The c a t was c a g e d f o r t h r e e w e e k s . T r e a t i n g any a n i m a l t h a t way i s c r i m i n a l . For Oil') t h r o u g h 03;), i n s t e a d of r e c o u r s e to a t t e m p t s a t r e -c o v e r y or r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , we f e e l t h a t t h e s e p a i r s a r e a c c e p t -a b l e not p r i n c i p a l l y because of what i s s a i d , but because of what i s d o n e . These are not cases of a d v e r b i a l q u e s t i o n a n s w e r i n g , s i m i l a r i t y i n f e r e n c e , i n d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t i n f e r e n c e , or consequence r e l a t i o n s . R a t h e r , f o r (1:1) the s p e a k e r o f f e r s an i n s t a n c e or an example o f h i s c l a i m . For (lf2), the s p e a k e r c o n t r a d i c t s a n o t h e r s p e a k e r ' s c l a i m . A n d , f o r 03), the s p e a k e r makes a c r i t i c i s m . P a r t I I to f o l l o w t a k e s up t h i s t y p e of phenomena and shows t h a t both t y p e s of c o n j u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s a r e c o n t i n g e n t on l a r g e r d i s c o u r s e o r d e r i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n . O n l y when t h e s e two t y p e s of c r i t e r i o n a r e 1 50 t a k e n t o g e t h e r does an a c c o u n t of d i s c o u r s e c o n n e c t e d n e s s between i n d i v i d u a l u t t e r a n c e s or s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s a p p r o a c h a d e q u a c y . By l o o k i n g a t t h o s e c o n j u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s t r e a t -a b l e by an e x t e n d e d c o n j u n c t i o n grammar, i t was p o s s i b l e to s u g g e s t c e r t a i n r e v i s i o n s ( w h i c h are beyond the scope of t h i s s t u d y ) of p r i m i t i v e g r a m m a t i c a l n o t i o n s l i k e c o o r d i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n . These n o t i o n s , u n l i k e a u t h e n t i c p r i m i -t i v e s , a r e a n a l y z a b l e . S u b o r d i n a t i o n , e x c e p t where i t i s s t r u c t u r a l l y n e c e s s a r y , as i n I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t Moby D i c k  never swam up the Amazon, seems to depend l e s s on t h e l o g i c a l s t a t u s of embedded c l a u s e s t h a n on whether the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the c l a u s e i s a l r e a d y known to the a u d i e n c e . C l a u s a l c o o r d i n a t i o n , on the o t h e r h a n d , seems to be an o p t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n : whereas s u b o r d i n a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r to a v o i d c o n f u s i o n i n the minds o f the a u d i e n c e ( s u b o r d i n a t i n g m a t e r i a l p r o h i b i t s the a u d i e n c e from t a k i n g a s t a t e m e n t to mean more t h a n i t w o u l d i f i t were a s s e r t e d a g a i n ) , c o o r d i n a -t i o n seems to be a m a t t e r o f o u t p u t ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of c o n j u n c t i o n s w i t h but i n i t s c o m p a r a t i v e s e n s e : b o i 1 i ng  w a t e r i s hot but b o i l i n g i r o n i s h o t t e r ) . W i t h the e x c e p -t i o n of s t r u c t u r e s l i k e s i n c e a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s , • c o n c e s s i v e s , and c o n d i t i o n a l s ( o r t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g s e n t e n t i a l p r e d i c a t e s l i k e c a u s e ) , s u b o r d i n a t e and c o o r d i n a t e c l a u s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s may o c c u r i n d i s c o u r s e i n s e p a r a t e s e n t e n c e f o r m . T h i s 151 s e p a r a b i l i t y i n d i s c o u r s e , where l a n g u a g e u s e r s a re a b l e to u n d e r s t a n d r e l a t i o n s between s e n t e n c e s when t h e y a r e not s y n t a c t i c a l l y c o n n e c t e d , means t h a t a t h e o r y o f d i s c o u r s e c o n j u n c t i o n must be a t base a s e m a n t i c and p r a g m a t i c t h e o r y . P a r t I has a l s o t r i e d to show t h a t r e v i s i o n of c e r -t a i n s y n t a c t i c p o s i t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l , i n l i g h t o f the need to i n c l u d e s e m a n t i c and p r a g m a t i c examples i n the c o r p u s a grammar of a l a n g u a g e s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d to d e s c r i b e . E s s e n -t i a l l y s e m a n t i c o p e r a t i o n s l i k e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n , d e d u c t i o n , and r e c o v e r y , a l o n g w i t h p r a g m a t i c o p e r a t i o n s l i k e r e c o n -s t r u c t i o n based on g l o b a l and c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o c e s s i n g o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s e n t e n c e s i n c o n -t e x t . A l t h o u g h a c o m p o s i t i o n a l s e m a n t i c s can. e s t a b l i s h a m b i g u i t y and t y p e c r o s s i n g s f o r s e n t e n c e s i n i s o l a t i o n , i t i s f a r too e c o n o m i c a l to be of use i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c c e p t -a b i l i t y i n c o n t e x t . In c e r t a i n cases ( l i k e Men who w r i t e  ads b e l i e v e the p u b l i c i s i l l i t e r a t e ) knowledge of the w o r l d or e x p e c t a t i o n s about the w o r l d a r e n e c e s s a r y to a r r i v e a t what a l a n g u a g e u s e r u n d e r s t a n d s by an u t t e r a n c e ( t o i n t e r -p r e t "Ad-men t a k e a d v a n t a g e of the p u b l i c " i n s t e a d of "Ad-men t r y to e d u c a t e as w e l l as s e l l " or s o m e t h i n g s i m i l a r ) . L i k e w i s e , c e r t a i n s e n t e n c e s must remain ambiguous u n t i l c o n t e x t i s a p p l i e d i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h u s , i n t u i t i o n s l i k e w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s , a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t , and c o n n e c t e d n e s s i n d i s c o u r s e c o n t e x t a re a l l 1 52 c o n t i n g e n t on the r e a d e r ' s a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t s e n t e n c e s . In P a r t I I , a l o n g p a r a l l e l l i n e s , judgements o f p e r f o r m a t i v e s u c c e s s and the l a r g e r judgements on w h i c h t h e s e a r e b u i l t a r e dependent on the u p t a k e e o f f o r c e . In both c a s e s , p r o -c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s form the b a s i s f o r j u d g e m e n t . T h u s , P a r t I I w i l l c o n t i n u e to emphas ize the means by w h i c h r e a d e r s u n d e r s t a n d s e n t e n c e s ™ c o n t e x t . PART II INTRODUCTION The Argument P a r t I I d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n s the s t r u c t u r e o f " e x p o s i -t o r y " speech a c t i o n i n d i s c u r s i v e w r i t t e n p r o s e . " E x p o s i t o r y " was the term used by A u s t i n to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the t y p e o f speech a c t i o n w h i c h makes p l a i n "how our u t t e r a n c e s f i t i n t o the c o u r s e o f an argument o r c o n v e r s a t i o n , " 1 and w h i c h i s " u s e d i n a c t s o f e x p o s i t i o n i n v o l v i n g the e x p o u n d i n g of v i e w s , the c o n d u c t i n g o f a r g u m e n t s , and the c l a r i f y i n g o f usages and o f r e f e r e n c e s . " W h i l e s p e a k e r s employ the o t h e r t y p e s o f speech a c t i o n i d e n t i f i e d by A u s t i n , b e h a b i t i v e s , commis-s i v e s , v e r d i c t i v e s , and e x e r c i t i v e s , e x p o s i t i v e s a re the 3 t y p e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f o u n d i n w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e . Many l i n g u i s t s have r e c o g n i z e d t h a t what a l a n g u a g e u s e r p r o d u c e s i n p r i n t i s s u b j e c t to more s t r i c t o r f o r m a l 4 l i n g u i s t i c c o n v e n t i o n s t h a n what he p r o d u c e s o r a l l y ; an a u d i e n c e i s u s u a l l y a b l e to r e c o g n i z e w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e as s u c h , even when i t i s r e a d w i t h the i n t o n a t i o n g i v e n spoken or c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s p e e c h . In l a r g e p a r t , t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n i s due to the f a c t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n must be made more e x p l i c i t 5 i n w r i t i n g than i n s p e a k i n g , as w e l l as to the f a c t t h a t 1 53 1 54 i n g e n e r a l w r i t e r s a re more f o r m a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to e x p o s i t o r y a c t s ( a r g u i n g , a d m i t t i n g , i l l u s t r a t i n g , p r o v i n g , r e f u t i n g , e t c . ) t h a n s p e a k e r s a r e . Taken as a w h o l e , P a r t I I p r e s e n t s a v a r i e t y o f e v i d e n c e f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f an u n d e r l y i n g d i s c o u r s e o r g a n i -z a t i o n , w h i c h I argue must be d e s c r i b e d a l o n g the l i n e s o f p e r f o r m a n c e t h e o r y . S i n c e no u t t e r a n c e i n a d i s c o u r s e i s i 1 1 o c u t i o n a r i l y e m p t y , i n d i v i d u a l t e x t s w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l or not d e p e n d i n g on whether t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s a r e o r g a n i z e d a t the p e r f o r m a t i v e l e v e l . The degree to w h i c h t h e y are s u c c e s s f u l must depend on how u n a m b i g u o u s l y t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s r e f l e c t t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . In s h o r t , speech a c t i o n s i n d i s -c o u r s e do not o c c u r i n random o r d e r or w i t h random p r o p o s i -t i o n a l c o n t e n t ; t h e y a r e s u b j e c t to both e x p o s i t o r y and d i s -c o u r s e c o n s t r a i n t s , a p a r t from the t y p i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t a p p l y to a l l speech a c t i o n s . An e f f e c t i v e method of e l u c i d a t i n g d i s c o u r s e o r g a n i -z a t i o n a t the p e r f o r m a t i v e l e v e l i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e the many e r r o r s t h a t s p e a k e r s must be a b l e to a v o i d i n the p e r f o r m a n c e o f d i s c o u r s e e x p o s i t o r y a c t s . By e s t a b l i s h i n g the v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h some l i n g u i s t i c o b j e c t may be permuted and be d e v i a n t as a r e s u i l t , the e x t e n t o f c o n t i n g e n t s t r u c t u r e p r e s e n t can be d e t e r m i n e d , as w e l l as the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t have to be met and the c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t must a p p l y b e f o r e the s t r u c t u r e i s a c c e p t a b l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the l a s t t h r e e 155 c h a p t e r s o f P a r t I I a re each c o n c e r n e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s o f e x p o s i t o r y e r r o r . A n d , w h i l e they do not e x p l i c i t l y d e a l w i t h a s p e a k e r ' s i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the a b i l i t y to o r g a n i z e d i s c o u r s e i n such a way as to a v o i d t h e s e e r r o r s , t h e y do i m p l i c i t l y d e f e n d the t h e s i s t h a t a s p e a k e r must a c q u i r e the a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e and a v o i d such e r r o r s . The s p e a k e r must have i n t e r n a l i z e d r u l e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h such c o n s t r a i n t s i n o r d e r to p r o d u c e o r d e r e d d i s c o u r s e s i n the f i r s t p l a c e . A l t h o u g h the aim of P a r t I I i s to e x p l o r e the e x t e n t to w h i c h e x p o s i t o r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e to a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n t u i t i o n s about d i s c o u r s e , a t i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s p o i n t s a r e made i n s u p p o r t o f t h r e e r e l a t e d h y p o t h e s e s . These a r e : a ) 7 I I o c u t i o n a r y b e h a v i o r i s u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e l e v e l o f d i s c o u r s e , i . e . , some e x p o s i -t i v e a c t i o n s t a k e e n t i r e d i s c o u r s e s as t h e i r u t t e r a n e e ; b) w i t h i n a g i v e n d i s c o u r s e a c t i o n , t h e p e r f o r -mance o f c e r t a i n o t h e r a c t i o n s i s o b l i g a t o r y ; a n d , c ) . c o n j u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s a r e c o n s t r a i n e d i n d i s c o u r s e a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f p e r f o r m a n c e . W h i l e s i n g l e u t t e r a n c e s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t r e a t e d as h a v i n g f o r c e , I show t h a t t h e r e a r e m o t i v a t e d r e a s o n s f o r t r e a t i n g l a n g u a g e u n i t s as l a r g e as d i s c o u r s e t e x t s as h a v i n g f o r c e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s . S p e a k e r s may i n t e n d e n t i r e d i s c o u r s e s to be t a k e n as arguments f o r , e x p l a n a t i o n s o f , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f , d i s c u s s i o n s o f , a n a l y s e s o f , o r even a b s t r a c t s o f some p o s i t i o n , to name a few of t h e s e . In t h i s 1 56 way , the n o t i o n of " u t t e r a n c e " i t s e l f i s e x t e n d e d beyond s e n t e n t i a l b o u n d a r i e s ; n o t i c e the s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s p o s i t i o n and t h a t t a k e n by H a r r i s : " A l l o c c u r r e n c e s o f l a n g u a g e a r e d i s c o u r s e s , each b e i n g s e g m e n t a b l e i n t o s t r e t c h e s of sound whose s t r u c t u r e can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as some c o n n e c t e d segment o f a s e n t e n c e . " Where such e x p o s i t o r y n o m i n a l s as argument and e x p l a n a t i o n do not r e f e r to arguments and e x p l a n -a t i o n s made w i t h i n d i s c o u r s e , they a r e o f t e n used to r e f e r to the s t a t u s of the d i s c o u r s e i t s e l f . Examples a r e " T h i s argument has now moved toward i t s s t r o n g e s t e v i d e n c e " and " T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d f rom r e s e a r c h done a t H a r v a r d . " C o n c e r n i n g the second h y p o t h e s i s , I p r o c e e d on the b a s i s o f n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r a d i s c o u r s e l e v e l a c t i o n to be s u c c e s s f u l . In d i s c o u r s e s i n w h i c h someone i s a r g u i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g , the g i v i n g o f r e a s o n s i s an empty a c t i o n w i t h o u t the p r i o r i n t r o d u c t i o n o f some c l a i m to be a r g u e d . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , the a c t i o n o f c l a i m i n g s o m e t h i n g w i t h o u t s u b s e q u e n t r e a s o n s b e i n g g i v e n i s not by i t s e l f an a r g u m e n t . T h u s , the a c t i o n s of c l a i m i n g and g i v i n g r e a s o n s become mandatory f o r the l a r g e r e x p o s i t o r y a c t i o n of a r g u i n g . O p t i o n a l a c t i o n s f o r d i s c o u r s e arguments would i n c l u d e the making of d i s t i n c t i o n s , the g i v i n g of e x a m p l e s , a d m i t t i n g , o b j e c t i n g , s u g g e s t i n g , e t c . ( h o w e v e r , note t h a t i n some arguments the making of d i s t i n c t i o n s m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l ) . 1 57 Of equa l i m p o r t a n c e , i n the c h a p t e r on f o r c e i n c o r -p o r a t i o n e r r o r s , I p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l h a v i n g to do w i t h c o n -j u n c t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n and h y p o t h e s i s (c ) i n g e n e r a l . W h i l e s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s t u d i e s i n the p a s t commonly have been c o n j u n c t i o n s t u d i e s , t h i s m a t e r i a l d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t e x p l i c i t c o n j u n c t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n m a r k e r s between s e n -t e n c e s ( o r i m p l i c i t r e l a t i o n s ) must be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h and a p p l i e d i n such a way as not to a l t e r the f o r c e of the u t t e r -ances between w h i c h they o p e r a t e . T h u s , a l t h o u g h I acknow-l e d g e t h a t s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s may be t a k e n as c o n s t r a i n e d a t a c o n j u n c t i o n l e v e l , I argue t h a t such c o n t e n t c o n s t r a i n t s a r e con s i s t e n t w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e f o r c e . P e r f o r m a n c e Theory and G r a m m a t i c a l R e s e a r c h A l t h o u g h p h i l o s o p h i c a l e f f o r t s i n r e c e n t y e a r s have p r o d u c e d s i g n i f i c a n t and i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o p e r f o r -mance ,^ such r e s u l t s o f t e n l o s e much i n t e r e s t when t r a n s l a t e d i n t o l i n g u i s t i c t e r m s . Such p h r a s e s as s i n c e r i t y c o n d i t i o n and i l l o c u t i o n a r y m i s f i r e , w h i l e a p p e a r i n g i n both l i n g u i s t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t u d i e s , may v a r y i n d e s i g n a t i o n c o n s i d e r -a b l y , a c c o r d i n g to the d e s i g n s of the r e s e a r c h i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r . What may be i m p o r t a n t f o r l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y may be even t r i v i a l f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s . In s h o r t , the two a p p r o a c h e s a r e d i s t i n c t ; t h e a c t o f p r o m i s i n g , or 1 58 o b l i g i n g o n e s e l f p e r h a p s , i s i m p o r t a n t f o r p h i l o s o p h y but u n e x c e p t i o n a l f o r l i n g u i s t i c s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n P a r t I I , a l t h o u g h h a v i n g to do d i r e c t l y w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e t h e o r y , a re p e c u l i a r l y l i n g u i s t i c . A n d , w h i l e moving a c r o s s p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e r r i t o r y , the d i s c u s s i o n w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y i g n o r e c e r t a i n t h e s e s of d e f i n i t e p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e r e s t . For e x a m p l e , t a k i n g a w e l l - k n o w n c a s e , i f one e x c l u d e s t h o s e a c t s l i k e p r o m i s i n g i n w h i c h the a c t needs the e x p l i c i t a p p e a r a n c e of o a p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b , A u s t i n ' s e x p l i c i t f o r c e t h e s i s a c c o u n t s o n l y f o r a s i n g l e a b i l i t y o f a s p e a k e r . T h i s t h e s i s r e g i s t e r s how the s p e a k e r i s a b l e to i d e n t i f y a p a s t a c t i o n when he i s a s k e d to do s o . However , f rom a l i n g u i s t i c p o i n t o f v i e w , s p e a k e r s t y p i c a l l y a r e more i n t e r e s t e d i n p e r f o r m i n g a c e r t a i n a c t i o n t h a n w i t h i n t r o d u c i n g t h e i r own b e h a v i o r . What i s i m p o r t a n t here i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b e h a v i o r o f s p e a k e r s and t h e i r a u d i e n c e s ; s p e a k e r s t y p i c a l l y do not i n t r o d u c e t h e i r a c t i o n s , and a u d i e n c e s r a r e l y need to ask them to do so f o r a p a s t a c t i o n . What an a u d i e n c e uses to r e c o g n i z e w h i c h a c t i o n i s a t s t a k e , i n s p i t e o f the l a c k of e x p l i c i t i n t r o d u c t i o n s , i s the c r u c i a l l i n g u i s t i c o b j e c t o f d e s c r i p t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e are a t l e a s t two e s s e n t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s to be s a l v a g e d f o r l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y f rom the r u b r i c o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e s e a r c h . The f i r s t i s t h a t to u t t e r c e r t a i n words o r s e n t e n c e s under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s t o 1 59 p e r f o r m a c t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y to say s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s t r u e o r f a l s e . When u t t e r e d i n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a s t a t e m e n t i s t a k e n to have f o r c e r a t h e r than a t r u t h v a l u e o n l y . L i k e o t h e r l a n g u a g e phenomena, f o r c e o r i 1 1 o c u t i o n a r y a c t i o n i s c o n v e n t i o n b a s e d , and r u l e s f o r the s u c c e s s f u l use o f u t t e r a n c e s to a c h i e v e c e r t a i n f o r c e a r e a v a i l a b l e to the s p e a k e r f rom the speech c o m m u n i t y . A l t h o u g h the s p e a k e r i s f r e e to choose between ways i n w h i c h he w i l l p e r f o r m the a c t i o n i n t e n d e d , a l l normal u t t e r a n c e s o f a l a n g u a g e have some i 1 1 o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e , a f a c t w h i c h r e n d e r s s u c c e s s f u l speech as much a m a t t e r of the s p e a k e r ' s i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of p e r f o r m a n c e r u l e s as o f g r a m m a t i c a l r u l e s . The second o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t d i f f e r e n t u t t e r a n c e s may be used by a s p e a k e r to p e r f o r m the same a c t , and t h a t d i f f e r e n t a c t s may be p e r f o r m e d by u s i n g the same u t t e r a n c e . T h i s c o m p o s i t e o b s e r v a t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t c o n v e n t i o n s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n e x i s t such t h a t an a u d i e n c e ' s a t t e n t i o n to t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s around w h i c h s o m e t h i n g i s u t t e r e d i s n e c e s -s a r y f o r u p t a k e o f the s p e a k e r ' s i n t e n d e d f o r c e . Such c i r -cumstances have the utmost i m p o r t a n c e f o r perf-orma-nee t h e o r y as t h e y d e t e r m i n e , a l o n g w i t h p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n t e n t , w h e t h e r an a c t i s f e l i c i t o u s o r n o t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s a r e a more t h a n any o t h e r i s t h e f o c u s o f d i s p u t e and c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s . T h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t to a v o i d the c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g the c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y (or w h i c h c o n d i t i o n s are n e c e s s a r y ) 160 to t h e s u c c e s s o f the o t h e r t y p e s o f speech a c t i o n , and d e v o t e i t s e l f e n t i r e l y to the e x i g e n c i e s o f the e x p o s i t o r y a c t i o n . In d o i n g s o , h o w e v e r , i t c o n f r o n t s s q u a r e l y one of the most g r e y a r e a s o f p e r f o r m a n c e t h e o r y , the ax iom t h a t p e r f o r m a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s a r e not t r u e or f a l s e . A p a r t from s a v i n g the two o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o v e , P a r t I I w i l l a l s o a t t e m p t to s p e c i f y as p r e p a r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s o n l y t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r y to the s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e of an a c t . Some o f the c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t s u r r o u n d the normal p e r f o r m a n c e of a speech a c t i o n can be m i s t a k e n f o r e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s s u c c e s s . For e x a m p l e , whether a s p e a k e r s i n c e r e l y i n t e n d s to meet the o b l i g a t i o n o f h i s p r o m i s e i s i r r e l e v a n t to t h e c o n v e n t i o n s he has to r e l y on to make one ( i . e . , he may be l y i n g but he s t i l l makes a p r o m i s e ) . In a d d i t i o n , someone can r e q u e s t s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h o u t assuming t h a t h i s a u d i e n c e would be w i l l i n g to do the a c t i n q u e s t i o n . In s h o r t , even i f an a c t i o n i s empty ( l i k e l y i n g o r a s k i n g t h a t a door be s h u t when i t i s a l r e a d y c l o s e d ) , an a u d i e n c e can s t i l l s e c u r e u p t a k e of u t t e r a n c e f o r c e . T h u s , t h i s s t u d y w i l l t r y to m a i n t a i n the f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n between c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s and c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r u p t a k e . T h i s l a s t i s a c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n , as I s h a l l show, s i n c e many e x p o s i t o r y a c t i o n s are p e r f o r m e d o b l i q u e l y ; t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s i n d i s c o u r s e are s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t s o r r e p o r t s , c a u s i n g p o t e n t i a l f o r c e a m b i g u i t y . 161 FOOTNOTES 1. J . L . A u s t i n , How to Do Things with Words ( O x f o r d , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 151 . 2 . Ibid., p . 160. 3 . However , n o t i c e t h a t o t h e r t y p e s may appear i n d i s c o u r s e and t h a t e x p o s i t o r y a c t s o f t e n bear many s i m i l a r -i t i e s to p a r t i c u l a r a c t s i n the o t h e r c l a s s e s of speech a c t i o n . A t h e o r y of d i s c o u r s e a c t i o n i s not n e c e s s a r i l y j u s t a t h e o r y of e x p o s i t o r y a c t i o n . 4 . A l t h o u g h examples of t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n are numerous , see Sumner I v e s , " L i n g u i s t i c s i n the C l a s s r o o m , " College English 17 ( D e c , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 167 , f o r a t y p i c a l e x p r e s s i o n ( i n a t y p i c a l c o n t e x t ) o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e . 5 . N o t i c e t h a t a s t a t e m e n t o f t h i s t y p e , w h i c h makes a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e u s e , i s not e x p r e s s e d or i n t e n d e d to be u n d e r s t o o d as a r u l e . R a t h e r , i t i s a c o n v e n t i o n of l a n g u a g e use (and c e r t a i n l y an i m p o r t a n t one) and must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s i m i l a r c o n v e n t i o n s , i n any d e s c r i p t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e l a n g u a g e b e h a v i o r . For an i m p o r t a n t d i s c u s s i o n of c o n v e n t i o n s and t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e f o r l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n see D a v i d L e w i s , Convention: A Philosophical Study (1 969) . 6 . Z . H a r r i s , Mathematical Structures of Language ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 10 . 7. Many of t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e beyond the scope of t h i s work and have to do s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the p l a c e of a t h e o r y o f speech a c t i o n i n a l a r g e r t h e o r y o f m e a n i n g . P h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t m e n t s i n g e n e r a l , h o w e v e r , u t i l i z e terms and d i s t i n c t i o n s w h i c h must c o n t i n u a l l y be r e d e f i n e d f o r l i n g u i s t i c t r e a t m e n t s . 162 8. For an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s and i t s r e l a t i o n to h i s " p e r f o r m a t i v e t h e s i s , " see Mats F u r b e r g , Saying and Meaning ( O x f o r d , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 192 . C h a p t e r 6 EXPOSITORY NOMINALS AND ILLOCUTIONARY STATUS S u c c e s s i v e S e n t e n c e R e l a t i o n s : C o n t e n t and P e r f o r m a n c e In the C o n c l u s i o n to P a r t I , a b r i e f argument was made a g a i n s t t h e adequacy o f c o n t e n t to a c c o u n t f o r a l l meaning r e l a t i o n s between s e n t e n c e s . T h i s argument i s r e p -r e s e n t e d by (a) below but i s not as e l e m e n t a r y o r p r i m a f a c i e as (a) m i g h t l e a d one to b e l i e v e . In f a c t , w h i l e (5) t h r o u g h (7) i n the C o n c l u s i o n were examples o f e x p o s i t o r y a c t i o n s l i k e o f f e r i n g , c o n t r a d i c t i n g , and c r i t i c i z i n g r e -s p e c t i v e l y , such a c t i o n s w o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e c o n c l u d i n g and e x p l a i n i n g , r a i s i n g the q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r p e r f o r m a n c e or c o n t e n t i s p r i m e i n such c a s e s . Do m a r k e r s l i k e £ 0 , t h u s , t h e r e f o r e , and because e x i s t to show the f o r c e o f c o n c l u d i n g and e x p l a i n i n g , or a r e e t h e a c t s o f c o n c l u d i n g and e x p l a i n i n g m e r e l y i n c i d e n t a l to t h e c o n t e n t r e l a t i o n s between s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s ? T h u s , a l t h o u g h (a) a p p e a r s to be the s i m p l e s t o f the cases b e l o w , i t i s i n f a c t complex and forms the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f C h a p t e r 9 to f o l l o w . 1 63 1 64 A more c o m p l e t e i n a d e q u a c y argument a g a i n s t c o n t e n t c o u l d t a k e s e v e r a l complementary l i n e s : a) no d i r e c t p r o v i s i o n i s made by P a r t I f o r d i s c o u r s e r e l a t i o n s in w h i c h s p e e c h a c t i o n s a r e u n d e r t a k e n ; b) c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s i n a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t s t h a t i f m e a n i n g r e l a t i o n s c an be d i s c o v e r e d b e t w e e n s u c c e s s i v e s e n t e n c e s , t h e n t h e d i s -c o u r s e wi I I be a c c e p t a b l e ; c ) i t i n a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t s t h a t i f m e a n i n g r e l a t i o n s c a n n o t be d i s c o v e r e d , t h e n t h e d i s c o u r s e w i l l be u n a c c e p t a b l e ; d) i t i n a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t s t h a t i f c o n t e n t i s t h e c h i e f c r i t e r i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y , t h e n e x p o s i t o r y a c t s i n d i s c o u r s e may o c c u r i n any o r d e r - w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g a c c e p t a b i l i t y ; and e) i t p r e d i c t s t h a t d <il seo-u n s e s s w h lit c h h s ha r e common t o p i c s o r t hemes w i l l t o l e r a t e l a r g e d e g r e e s o f r e o r d e r i n g , p r o v i d e d no c o n t e n t r e l a t i o n s ( o f t h e t y p e s p e c i f i e d i n P a r t I) a r e d e s t r o y e d . In e f f e c t , t h e n , (a) t h r o u g h (e) may be g e n e r a l i z e d as ( f ) : f ) c o n t e n t , w h e t h e r m e a n i n g r e l a t i o n s , s h a r e d t o p i c s , o r s h a r e d t h e m e s , i s n o t a s u f f i -e i 'en t o c d h d i t> homo t o ti j d fcsc-ou isseoeori t i n u y t y >. and t h u s n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r j u d g e m e n t s o f d i s -c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i I i t y . B e g i n n i n g w i t h ( c ) , the c o n v e r s e o f ( b ) , c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g : I) P r a c t i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y i s a n o t h e r m a t t e r , n o t d i r e c t l y i n q u e s t i o n h e r e . The a n t e c e d e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s so r o u g h and t e n t a t i v e t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n s t o be made a r e many, i n t r i c a t e , and c o n s e q u e n t i a l . And i n a d v e r t e n t v i o l a t i o n o f one o f t h e s y n t a c t i c o r s e m a n t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s 165 can e a s i l y r e s u l t i n a n o n - n o t a t i o n a I l a n g u a g e o r a s y s t e m t h a t i s no l a n g u a g e a t a l l . B o l d and i n t e l l i g e n t s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n i s c a l l e d f o r , a l o n g w i t h a good d e a l o f c a r e . ( N e l s o n Goodman, Languages of Art, 1968) Of the f o u r s e n t e n c e s h e r e , w h i c h i n f a c t form a p a r a g r a p h , none a r e r e c o g n i z a b l y r e l a t e d t h r o u g h c o n t e n t to any o t h e r . T h i s d i s c o u r s e s h o u l d not be a c c e p t a b l e t h e r e f o r e , but i t i s . Each s e n t e n c e r e f e r s to m a t e r i a l a n t e c e d e n t to the p a r a g r a p h i n w h i c h i t a p p e a r s , and n o m i n a l s l i k e q u e s t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a - t i o n , and r e q u i r e m e n t s r e f e r not to c o n t e x t u a l c o n t e n t but to c o n t e x t u a l speech a c t i o n . L i k e w i s e , c o n s i d e r (2) as a t r i v i a l but t e l l i n g case a g a i n s t h y p o t h e s i s (b) a b o v e : 2 ) a U n e m p l o y m e n t i s g e t t i n g t o be a r e a l p r o b l e m . F o r i n s t a n c e , 4 5 0 , 0 0 0 r e c e i v e d no p a y c h e c k l a s t m o n t h . A d m i t t e d l y , t h e p r o s p e c t s a r e l o o k i n g b e t t e r , b u t i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n w i l l more t h a n make up t h e g a i n . I ' v e come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s t r o n g m e a s u r e s a r e i n o rd e r . b * * U n e m p I o y m e n t i s g e t t i n g t o be a r e a l p r o b l e m . F o r e x a m p l e , o v e r p o p u l a t i o n i s a r e a l p r o b l e m . A d m i t t e d l y , o v e r d o i n g a n y t h i n g , l i k e o v e r -e x e r c i s i n g , c an be d a n g e r o u s . I ' v e come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t e x e r c i s e has d i s a d v a n t a g e s . N o t i c e t h a t w h i l e (2b) i n c l u d e s f o u r s e n t e n c e s , each of w h i c h t a k e s up a theme o f i t s a n t e c e d e n t , t h e o v e r a l l d i s c o u r s e i s u n a c c e p t a b l e . In f a c t , i t appears to f a i l not because of l a c k of common t o p i c s , but because w i t h o u t a p p r o p r i a t e p r o -p o s i t i o n a l c o n t e n t , a c t i o n s l i k e g i v i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s and 166 examples c a n n o t be s u c c e s s f u l . (2b) does not i n c l u d e s u c c e s s - f u l cases of an e x a m p l e , an a d m i s s i o n , or a c o n c l u s i o n , even though t h e s e u t t e r a n c e s a r e e x p l i c i t l y marked f o r such f o r c e . A l s o , a l t h o u g h each of the s e n t e n c e s i n (2a) i s on t h e t o p i c o f unemployment , c o n t r a s t i t w i t h (2c) f o r the r o l e i n c o n -t i n u i t y judgements t h a t f o r c e h a s : 2) c U n e m p l o y m e n t i s g e t t i n g t o be a r e a l p r o b l e m . 450., 000tr.pe.ee i ved no p a y c h e c k l a s t m o n t h . The p r o s p e c t s a r e l o o k i n g b e t t e r , b u t i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n w i l l more t h a n make up t h e g a i n . S t r o n g m e a s u r e s a r e i n o r d e r . L o o k i n g o n l y a t the f i r s t two s e n t e n c e s of (2c) f r o m the c o n -t e n t p o i n t o f v i e w , d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e ( r e a s o n a d v e r b i a l and i n f e r e n c e c o n j u n c t i o n ) , p o s i n g the q u e s t i o n of a m b i g u i t y . C o n c e r n i n g (d) and i t s complement ( e ) , w h i l e many t e x t s a r e l i k e (3) below i n a l l o w i n g r e o r d e r i n g , most t e x t s a r e l i k e (4) and ( 5 ) : 3) B u t i n s c i e n c e f i c t i o n f i l m s , u n l i k e h o r r o r f i l m s , t h e r e i s n o t much h o r r o r . S u s p e n s e , s h o c k s , s u r p r i s e s a r e . m o s t l y a b j u r e d i n f a v o r o f a s t e a d y , i n e x o r a b l e p l o t . S c i e n c e f i c t t © i n n f i l m s i n v i t e a d i s p a s s i o n a t e , a e s t h e t i c v i e w o f d e s t r u c t i o n and v i o l e n c e - -a t e c h n o Iog i ca I v i e w . T h i n g s , o b j e c t s , m a c h i n e r y p l a y a m a j o r r o l e i n t h e s e f i l m s . (Susan S o n t a g , "The I m a g i n a t i o n of D i s a s t e r , " Against I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , 1 969) 4) a G e o r g e h a t e s t o b a t h e h i s d o g . The m o n g r e l o n c e - b i t h im d u r i n g a b a t h . I t ' s e a s y t o t e l l when t h i s t a s k i s d u e . G e o r g e b e g i n s t o l o o k f o r new p r o d u c t s on t h e m a r k e t w h i c h m i g h t make t h e j o b e a s i e r . 167 b ? * T h e m o n g r e l o n c e b i t G e o r g e d u r i n g a b a t h . He b e g i n s t o l o o k f o r new p r o d u c t s on t h e m a r k e t w h i c h m i g h t make t h e j o b e a s i e r . G e o r g e h a t e s t o b a t h e i t . I t ' s e a s y t o t e l l when t h e d o g ' s b a t h i s d u e . c * * G e o r g e b e g i n s t o l o o k f o r new p r o d u c t s on t h e m a r k e t w h i c h m i g h t make t h e j o b e a s i e r . I t ' s e a s y t o t e l l when t h i s t a s k i s d u e . The m o n g r e l o n c e b i t h im d u r i n g a b a t h . G e o r g e h a t e s t o b a t h e h i s d o g . 5 ) a J o h n has n e v e r l i k e d r a c i n g h i s b o a t . T h i s i s b e c a u s e he d o e s n ' t e n j o y l o s i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , he w o u l d n ' t r a c e e ven a f t e r we o f f e r e d him a s t a r t . A d m i t t e d l y , he has l o s t o f t e n . B u t , I mus t c o n c l u d e t h a t he i s b e i n g t o o s e n s i t i v e a b o u t t h i s , b ? * F o r e x a m p l e , he w o u l d n ' t r a c e even a f t e r we o f f e r e d h im a s t a r t . A d m i t t e d l y , he h a s l o s t o f t e n . T h i s i s b e c a u s e he d o e s n ' t e n j o y l o s i n g i n g e n e r a l . I mus t c o n c l u d e t h a t he i s b e i n g t o o s e n s i t i v e a b o u t t h i s . J o h n has n e v e r l i k e d r a c i n g h i s b o a t . O m i t t i n g but i n ( 3 ) , t h i s t e x t c o u l d be o r d e r e d i n a r e v e r s e f a s h i o n w i t h no l o s s i n sense or c o n t i n u i t y . However ( 4 ) , w h i c h does not c o n t a i n f o u r c o n t i n u o u s i n d e p e n d e n t c l a i m s (an u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n ) , r e s i s t s r e o r d e r i n g . (4b) poses problems of t e n s e and a m b i g u i t y , and (4c) f a i l s c o h e r e n c e ; the u t t e r a n c e s become i r r e l e v a n t i n s u c c e s s i o n . S i m i l a r l y , (5), w h i c h p r e s e n t s a r e o r d e r i n g of the e x p o s i t o r y a c t i o n s o f c l a i m i n g , a d m i t t i n g , c o n c l u d i n g , e x p l a i n -i n g , and g i v i n g an e x a m p l e , d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t the o r d e r i n w h i c h a c t i o n s appear i s more s i g n i f i c a n t than t h e p r e s e n c e of a common t o p i c o r a c o n t e n t r e l a t i o n between each u t t e r a n c e i n the t e x t . P l a c e d out o f c o n t i g u o u s o r d e r , examples f a i l to have c l a i m s , a d m i s s i o n s are made not to o b j e c t i o n s but to 168 a c t i o n s w h i c h do not c a l l f o r a d m i s s i o n s , and c o n c l u s i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , appear r e d u n d a n t or undrawn f rom a n t e c e d e n t e x p l a n a t i o n s and c l a i m s . A p p r o a c h i n g (d) f rom a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w , t h a t o f r e f e r e n c e c o n s t r a i n t s , a n o t h e r l i n e of argument p r e s e n t s i t s e l f . The e m p h a s i z e d terms below i n (6) r e f e r to the i l l o -c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of p r i o r a c t i o n s ; d e v i a n c e r e s u l t s when the c o n v e n t i o n s t h a t g o v e r n the o r d e r i n g o f t h e s e a c t i o n s a r e bro k e n : 6 ) a B u t i t w i l l n o t do s i m p l y t o r e a f f i rm t h e d i r e c t - e v i d e n c e p r i n c i p l e by way o f r e p l y t o my c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e . T h a t you a r e d o i n g t h i s may be made c l e a r a s f o l l o w s : you c l a i m t h a t p i s m e a n i n g l e s s f o r me, c i t i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e as y o u r r e a s o n . I r e j e c t t h i s p r i n c i p l e , o f f e r i n g t h e a n a l o g y a r g u m e n t . b * * B u t i t w i l l n o t do s i m p l y t o r e j e c t t h e d i r e c t -e v i d e n c e p r i n c i p l e by way o f o f f e r i n g my r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e . T h a t you a r e d o i n g t h i s may be made c l e a r as f o l l o w s : you r e p l y t h a t p i s m e a n i n g l e s s f o r me, c r i t i c i z i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e as y o u r c l a i m . I c i t e t h i s p r i n c i p l e , r e a s o n i ng f o r t h e a n a l o g y a r g u m e n t . H e r e , not o n l y t h e o r d e r i n g o f a c t i o n s i s i n v o l v e d , but j u s t as i m p o r t a n t l y , the o b j e c t s o f t h e s e a c t i o n s . For e x a m p l e , to u n d e r t a k e a r e j e c t i o n by way o f o f f e r i n g a n o t h e r ' s r e -a f f i r m a t i o n i s d e c i d e d l y p e c u l i a r and c o u n t e r to the n o t i o n of r e j e c t i n g . T h u s , a p r e l i m i n a r y case f o r ( f ) can be made by p o s i n g counter-exampihes to (a) t h r o u g h ( e ) . Of c o u r s e , t h e s e 1 69 c o u n t e r - e x a m p l e s g i v e no i n d i c a t i o n of the range or c o m p l e x i t y o f a c t u a l o r d e r i n g i n d i s c o u r s e . R a t h e r , i n terms o f n e c e s -s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s b e i n g met f o r judgements o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y , o n l y the f a c t t h a t o r d e r i n g c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i s i m p o r t a n t a t t h i s p o i n t , because they r a i s e the q u e s t i o n of the a u d i e n c e ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s of e x p o s i t o r y o r d e r . As I s h a l l show b e l o w , a l o n g p e r f o r m a t i v e l i n e s judgements o f a c c e p t -a b i l i t y depend on the s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e of the a c t u n d e r -t a k e n i n d i s c o u r s e . Any p e r f o r m a n c e i s s u c c e s s f u l r e l a t i v e to the c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s s u c c e s s b e i n g met a t the t i m e of the u t t e r a n c e , and i n the case o f e x p o s i t o r y a c t i o n s t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d e the p r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e o f O t h e r e x p o s i t o r y a c t i o n s . Uptake Problems f o r E x p o s i t o r y F o r c e Two u n r e l a t e d a s s u m p t i o n s e x p l a i n to a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t why d i s c o u r s e p e r f o r m a n c e i n p a r t i c u l a r and e x p o s i t o r y p e r f o r m a n c e i n g e n e r a l have remained u n i n v e s t i g a t e d . T r a d i -t i o n a l l y , d i s c o u r s e o r g a n i z a t i o n has been t a k e n to be a m a t t e r of s t y l e or r h e t o r i c , 1 meaning t h a t i n t u i t i o n s of d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y were not to be u n d e r s t o o d , l i k e t h e i r s e n t e n c e c o u n t e r p a r t s , i n terms of " o b l i g a t o r y " c o n s t i t u e n t s . As w e l l , s u c c e s s c o n d i t i o n s f o r the e x p o s i t o r y c l a s s o f speech a c t i o n have not been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f rom the s u c c e s s 1 70 2 c o n d i t i o n s f o r the o t h e r c l a s s e s . I t has been assumed t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g an a c t i o n of any c l a s s , on w h i c h i t s s u c c e s s i s c o n t i n g e n t , have c h i e f l y to do w i t h j u s t o n e ' s i n t e n t i o n s i n s p e a k i n g , h a v i n g the r e q u i s i t e s t a t u s ( t h e a b i l i t y , f o r e x a m p l e , to see a p r o m i s e t h r o u g h ) , and h a v i n g s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of a u d i e n c e and s i t u a t i o n . As p r e p a r a -t o r y c o n d i t i o n s , t h e s e f i t w e l l i n t o the schemas used i n d e s c r i b i n g v e r d i c t i v e s ("we f i n d the d e f e n d a n t g u i l t y " ) , e x e r c i t i v e s ( " f i r e when r e a d y " ) , c o m m i s s i v e s ("I p r o m i s e to be t h e r e " ) , and b e h a b i t i v e s ( " c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s " ) . For t h e s e c l a s s e s o f speech a c t i o n , the u t t e r a n c e used t y p i c a l l y e x -3 h a u s t s or makes e x p l i c i t j u s t the f o r c e i n t e n d e d . In such c a s e s , knowledge of the c o n t e x t or p r e p a r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s i s u s u a l l y u n n e c e s s a r y f o r the u p t a k e of f o r c e , and i s deemed 4 e s s e n t i a l o n l y f o r the s u c c e s s o f the a c t i o n s . For e x p o s i t i v e s , on the o t h e r h a n d , u p t a k e i s c o n -t i n g e n t on d i s c o u r s e c o n t e x t i t s e l f ; bo th a n t e c e d e n t and s u b s e q u e n t c o n t e x t a re e s s e n t i a l . U t t e r a n c e s i n d i s c o u r s e a r e r a r e l y i n t r o d u c e d by p e r f o r m a t i v e p r e d i c a t e s , or the " I hereby " e x p l i c i t f o r m u l a . Uptake of a c t i o n s as w i d e l y d i v e r s e as a d m i s s i o n s , s u m m a r i e s , a r g u m e n t s , e x p l a n a -t i o n s , o b j e c t i o n s , g i v i n g e x a m p l e s , q u o t a t i o n s , c r i t i c i s m s , e t c . , when any of t h e s e may appear o b l i q u e l y as s i m p l e s t a t e -ments or r e p o r t s , must depend u n i q u e l y on the d i s c o u r s e c o n -5 t e x t and the p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n t e n t o f the a c t t o g e t h e r . 171 S p e a k i n g o n l y o f e x p o s i t o r y c a s e s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to ask why s p e a k e r s do_ i n f a c t sometimes i n t r o d u c e t h e s e u t t e r a n c e s , i f c o n v e n t i o n s e x i s t w h i c h a l l o w u p t a k e i n d e p e n -d e n t o f f o r c e i n t r o d u c t i o n . In r e s p o n s e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to say t h a t a l t h o u g h the i n t e n t i o n here i s to l o o k a t the r o l e o f c o n t e x t i n d i s a m b i g u a t i n g f o r c e , no c l a i m t h a t c o n t e x t w i l l a l w a y s be s u f f i c i e n t f o r u p t a k e i s b e i n g made. To a s c r i b e a l l u p t a k e to c o n v e n t i o n or c o n t e x t seems as extreme as a s c r i b i n g p e r f o r m a t i v e s t a t u s o n l y to t h o s e u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h a r e i n t r o d u c e d by a p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b . A n a l y s i s of c o n v e r s a t i o n c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p a c l a s s o f a p p r o p r i a t e s p e a k e r ' s r e s p o n s e s a l o n g the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : a) whe re t h e s p e a k e r a p p r e c i a t e s t h a t h i s a u d i e n c e w i l l n o t e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n t e n d e d f o r c e o f h i s u t t e r a n c e , he must u t i l i z e a f o r c e s h o w -i n g o r f o r c e i n t r o d u c i n g d e v i c e ; b) when an a u d i e n c e has a s s i g n e d a s t a t u s ( f o r c e ) f o r h i s u t t e r a n c e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t he i n -t e n d e d , a s p e a k e r mus t s u b s e q u e n t l y b r i n g h i s f o r c e r i g h t by m a k i n g h i s i n t e n t i o n exp I i c i t . In (b) above, the term s t a t u s was used to d e s i g n a t e and d i f f e r e n t i a t e the a u d i e n c e ' s u p t a k e o f f o r c e f rom the s p e a k e r ' s i n t e n d e d f o r c e . T h i s n o t i o n i s c r u c i a l f o r any s t u d y o f i n t u i t i o n s o f d i s c o u r s e a c c e p t a b i l i t y . T y p i c a l l y , an a u d i e n c e f a c e s the t a s k , o f t e n d i f f i c u l t , o f a s c r i b i n g f o r c e to o b l i q u e , o r u n i n t r o d u c e d u t t e r a n c e s . I t i s some-t i m e s the case t h a t a speech a c t i o n i s u n d e r t a k e n c o r r e c t l y i n a l l r e s p e c t s by the s p e a k e r , but m i s a s c r i b e d by t h e a u d i e n c e , 1 72 f o r c i n g the s p e a k e r to make h i s i 1 1 o c u t i o n a r y i n t e n t i o n e x p l i c i t . L i k e w i s e , a s p e a k e r i s a b l e to a c t as a u d i e n c e to h i s own u t t e r a n c e , i n s u b s e q u e n t d i s c o u r s e r e f e r r i n g back to t h a t u t t e r a n c e and o f t e n a s s i g n i n g i t a d i f f e r e n t f o r c e than i t was i n t e n d e d to have o r i g i n a l l y . As I s h a l l show i n the s e c t i o n to f o l l o w , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the a u d i e n c e to a c c e p t -a b l y and p r o p e r l y r e f e r to the e x p o s i t o r y f o r c e t h e y a s c r i b e to an u t t e r a n c e i n more ways than the s p e a k e r may i n t r o d u c e the f o r c e o f h i s u t t e r a n c e . I l l o c u t i o n a r y n o m i n a l s may be shown to r e f e r n e i t h e r to p e r f o r m a t i v e a c t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s , nor to u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h a r e somehow o b j e c t i o n s o r d e n i a l s , e t c . , b e f o r e t h e y are made. They r e f e r , i n s t e a d , to the p e r f o r m a t i v e s t a t u s o f a s t a t e m e n t or a s s e r t i o n i n c o n t e x t . F i r s t l y , t h e r e f o r e , I s h a l l d i s c u s s the p o s s i b l e d e r i v a t i o n a l s o u r c e s o f such n o m i n a l s , c o n s i d e r -i n g o b j e c t i o n s to my a n a l y s i s , and c o n c l u d e they e x i s t i n d e -p e n d e n t l y o f f o r c e - s h o w i n g p r e d i c a t e s . A f t e r w a r d s , I s h a l l d e m o n s t r a t e the c o m p l e x i t y o f a u d i e n c e r e f e r e n c e to a t e x t , i n r e l a t i o n to the ways i n w h i c h a t e x t and i t s u t t e r a n c e s may be i m m e d i a t e l y i n t r o d u c e d f o r f o r c e . E x p o s i t o r y N o m i n a l s and I l l o c u t i o n a r y S t a t u s A l t h o u g h p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b s and n o m i n a l s o f f o r c e a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t they r e f e r to u t t e r a n c e f o r c e , t h e y a r e n e i t h e r synonymous nor s u b s t i t u t a b l e . T h e i r c o n t r a s t i s an 173 i m p o r t a n t o n e , and c o r r e s p o n d s to t h e a c t : a c t i o n d i s t i n c t i o n . P e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b s i d e n t i f y a c t s i n t e n d e d by and u n d e r t a k e n by a s p e a k e r . E x p o s i t o r y n o m i n a l s r e f e r to a r e a d e r ' s j u d g e -ment t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r a c t b e l o n g s to a l a r g e r c l a s s o f such a c t s , h a v i n g s a t i s f i e d the c o n d i t i o n s to q u a l i f y as a p a r -t i c u l a r a c t i o n . There are two o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s o f p e r f o r m a -t i v e v e r b s w h i c h d i f f e r w i t h my d i s t i n c t i o n , and I w i l l t r e a t t h e s e as p o t e n t i a l c o u n t e r - c a s e s and d e a l w i t h them b e l o w . Both have to do w i t h the p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n e x p o s i t o r y p e r -formance has to t r u t h . W i t h a s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n , t h e s p e a k e r as a r u l e i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n p e r f o r m i n g the r e q u i s i t e a c t i o n t h a n i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g h i s own b e h a v i o r by the use o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n t r o d u c i n g v e r b s . The s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t one f o r d i s c o u r s e . In o r d e r to p r e d i c a t e upon o r c h a r a c t e r i z e o n e ' s p r i o r speech a c t i o n or p r e v i o u s d i s c o u r s e p a s s a g e , one has to r e f e r i n some way to t h e p a s t a c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e two modes of r e f e r e n c e a v a i l a b l e to b o t h s p e a k e r and a u d i e n c e means t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e can check the s p e a k e r ' s i n t e n t i o n s a g a i n s t h i s a c t i o n s and the a u d i e n c e can a s c r i b e f o r c e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f h i s i n t e n t i o n s . The f i r s t mode i s a s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d case of r e f e r -ence to a c t i o n , w h i c h I w i l l c a l l s i m p l e a c t i o n r e f e r e n c e . P r o v i d e d t h a t t h e r e q u i s i t e speech a c t i o n has been p e r f o r m e d , the s p e a k e r may r e f e r to t h a t a c t i o n by u s i n g i d e n t i f y i n g 1 74 v e r b s l i k e admi t , o r even n o m i n a l i z a t i o n s 1 i ke admi t t i n g , as i n you have a d m i t t e d t h a t you were a t the scene of the c r i m e , and y o u r a d m i t t i n g what you d i d s u r p r i s e d us a l l . The second mode, w h i c h i s more c o m p l e x , i n v o l v e s n o m i n a l s ; c o n t r a s t a d m i s s i o n w i t h admi t and admi t t i n g . T h i s t y p e of r e f e r e n c e i s q u i t e as common i n o r d i n a r y speech as i s s i m p l e a c t i o n r e f e r e n c e , b u t , t h e r e i s no c l e a r way to answer the q u e s t i o n of what e x a c t l y t h e s e n o m i n a l s r e f e r to and how. As w e l l , t h e y i n v o l v e one o f the more s e r i o u s prob lems i n c u r r e n t speech a c t t h e o r y . P r i n c i p a l l y , I w i l l be l o o k i n g here a t n o m i n a l s l i k e c r i t i c i s m and a r g u m e n t , as i n y o u r s i s not a s u b s t a n t i v e  c r i t i c i s m and but i f you a d m i t t h i s , y o u r . a r g u m e n t f a i l s . I t i s n e c e s s a r y to show t h a t t h e y a r e not s i m p l y s p e c i a l cases o f mere a c t i o n r e f e r e n c e , but r e f e r to the s t a t u s o f u t t e r a n c e s made i n c o n t e x t . The p r o b l e m f o r e x p o s i t i v e s c o n c e r n s the f a c t t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , u t t e r a n c e s w i t h t h e i r i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e made e x p l i c i t by b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d by a p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b as i n " I t e s t i f y t h a t " o r " I p r o m i s e t h a t " or " I pronounce you man and w i f e " w e r e , as c o r r e c t l y o b s e r v e d by A u s t i n , the d o i ng of s o m e t h i n g r a t h e r t h a n the s a y i ng o f s o m e t h i n g , and w o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l a c t i o n s r a t h e r than t r u e o r f a l s e . In the cases I have j u s t g i v e n , c l e a r l y p r o m i s e s and e x c e r c i t i v e pronouncements a re not t r u e or f a l s e . However , i n the case 175 of the e x p o s i t o r y t y p e , the t y p e most i n t r e g a l to d i s c o u r s e , l i k e s t a t i n g , a r g u i n g , o b j e c t i n g , a d m i t t i n g , i l l u s t r a t i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , e t c . , t h e r e seems to be an e x c e p t i o n . 7 A l t h o u g h A u s t i n had to acknowledge t h a t sta_te, c o n -s i d e r i n g i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g a c t i o n , seemed to be a p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b , he c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t c o u l d not be p u r e l y so because the u t t e r a n c e s used f o r s t a t i n g a r e i n f a c t t r u e o r f a l s e i n the c o n s t a t i n g way. A u s t i n d i d a d m i t t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e s e cases seemed to f a l l w i t h i n h i s c r i t e r i o n f o r p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e y seemed to be c o n s t a t i v e i n e v e r y o t h e r way. The paradox here i s t h a t w h i l e s t a t e and the o t h e r e x p o s i t o r y u t t e r a n c e s a r e c l e a r l y p e r f o r m a t i v e , they a r e a l s o c o n s t a t i v e l y t r u e or f a l s e , an i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i o n t h a t A u s t i n used to s e p a r a t e o p e r f o r m a n c e f rom n o n - p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s c r i t e r i o n may be e x p r e s s e d q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n most c a s e s by two complementary t e s t s . When the " r e t o r t " t e s t s u c c e e d s , w h i c h i s to ask "what were you d o i n g i n u t t e r i n g what y o u d i d " where d o i n g e x p r e s s e s the n o t i o n of a c t i o n , then the t r u t h t e s t w i l l f a i l . In the case o f " I p r o m i s e to be home e a r l y " t h a t i s t r u e i s not a r e a s o n a b l e r e s p o n s e to the s t a t e m e n t as a whole and can o n l y mean t h a t i t i s t r u e t h a t someone does p r o m i s e , and not t h a t i t i s t r u e t h a t someone w i l l be home e a r l y . In a d d i t i o n , p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b s l i k e ob j e c t ? admi t , d e n y , e t c . , and t h e i r n o m i n a l i z a t i o n s , w i l l a p p e a r , as m i g h t 176 be e x p e c t e d , w i t h t e m p o r a l a d j e c t i v e s s i n c e a c t i o n s t a k e t i m e . In t h i s r e g a r d t h e y compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h the n o m i n a l s , as we can see by c o m p a r i n g J o h n ' s d e s c r i b i n g the p l a c e b o r e d us f o r t h r e e hours and J o h n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l a c e t a k e s too l o n g to r e p e a t . From t h i s f a c t i t m i g h t be a r g u e d , as t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t s do i n f a c t a r g u e , t h a t t h e s e n o m i n a l s a re i n some m y s t e r i o u s way to be d e r i v e d from the m a t c h i n g 9 v e r b f o r m s . I f t r u e , such n o m i n a l usage wou ld be o n l y a case o f s i m p l e a c t i o n r e f e r e n c e . B u t , u n l i k e the v e r b s , o n l y the n o m i n a l s t a k e b o t h t i m e and v e r a c i t y p r e d i c a t e s , s h a r i n g the same o v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as both e x p o s i t o r y a c t i o n s and c o n s t a t i v e s , i . e . , bo th p e r f o r m a t i v e and t r u e and f a l s e . W h i l e we can say J o h n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t r a i n took  f i v e m i n u t e s and was s t i l l i n a c c u r a t e , where i n a c c u r a t e c h a r a c t e r i z e s the c o n t e n t r a t h e r than the a c t i o n , to say * J o h n ' s d e s c r i b i n g the t r a i n was i n a c c u r a t e i s d e v i a n t . W i t h such e v i d e n c e , i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e t h a t e x p o s i -t o r y n o m i n a l s a re d e r i v a b l e f rom the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v e r b f o r m s . As a p r o p o s a l , t h i s has o t h e r t r o u b l e s as w e l l . In the f i r s t p l a c e , n o m i n a l s l i k e example and d i f f i c u l t y and a d v e r b i a l head nouns l i k e t i m e , p l a c e , and r e a s o n have no m a t c h i n g v e r b s to d e r i v e f r o m , but c l e a r l y t h e g i v i n g or u s i n g o f examples and such a d v e r b i a l s wou ld q u a l i f y as e x -p o s i t i v e a c t i o n . S e c o n d l y , n o m i n a l s l i k e d e s c r i p t i o n w o u l d have to be s a i d to d e r i v e f rom the v e r b d e s c r i b e , f o l l o w e d 177 by some i d e n t i f y i n g d e s c r i p t i o n , the s t a n d a r d form f o r u t t e r -ance i n t r o d u c i n g p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b s . Compare I a d m i t t h a t  John i s an a r s o n i s t w i t h the d e v i a n t * I d e s c r i b e t h a t the  houses have t h r e e f l o o r s to see t h a t i f d e s c r i p t i o n i s to d e r i v e f rom d e s c r i b e i t w i l l be d e r i v e d f rom a v e r b t h a t c a n n o t be used to i n t r o d u c e what one u t t e r s i n o r d e r to d e s c r i b e . A g a i n , d e s c r i p t i o n s may be t r u e or f a l s e , even i f d e s c r i b i n g i s n o t . In f a c t , i t m i g h t be the case t h a t v e r b s l i k e c l a i m , a r g u e , a d m i t , e t c . , d e r i v e f rom the n o m i n a l s p l u s some a f f e c t i v e v e r b l i k e g i v e o r make. We can speak o f g i v i n g  an example when we c a n n o t speak o f e x a m p l i n g and w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s n o m i n a l s may o c c u r i n p r e d i c a t e p h r a s e s w i t h e i t h e r g i v e or make. Ross (1967) has a l r e a d y argued t h a t c l a i m i n make a c l a i m must be g i v e n a s e p a r a t e s t a t u s f r o m c l a i m i n d i s c u s s a c l a i m . ^ I f i t were the case t h a t t h e v e r b d e r i v e d f rom the nomina l i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h make or g i v e , then the s e n t e n c e t h a t Ross took to be c o u n t e r to h i s Complex-NP c o n -s t r a i n t I am making the c l a i m t h a t the company s q u a n d e r e d the  money w o u l d not i n f a c t be c o u n t e r . I t wou ld s i m p l y be the remote s t r u c t u r e f o r I c l a i m e d , a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h d o e s n ' t f a l l under the Complex-NP c o n s t r a i n t to b e g i n w i t h . B u t , i f we w i s h to a f f o r d t h e s e n o m i n a l s an i n d e -pendent e x i s t e n c e i n a grammar, as Chomsky wou ld d o , 1 1 i f we want to speak of making c l a i m s o r g i v i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s , to 1 78 speak as i f we a r e a p p a r e n t l y a c t i n g by u s i n g c l a i m s , a r g u -m e n t s , or d e s c r i p t i o n s , then we must be l e f t i n an u n t e n a b l e p o s i t i o n . Our u t t e r a n c e s would be c l a i m s , arguments or d e -s c r i p t i o n s b e f o r e we a c t u a l l y c l a i m e d , a r g u e d , or d e s c r i b e d w i t h them. T h i s runs c o u n t e r to the axiom i n p e r f o r m a n c e t h e o r y t h a t t h e same u t t e r a n c e can be used f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t s . A n d , i t i s j u s t as a p p a r e n t t h a t a s s e r t i o n s are c l a i m s , d e n i a l s , d e s c r i p t i o n s , o n l y when used i n the a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e x t . T h u s , .we have a n o t h e r p a r a d o x . These n o m i n a l s do not d e r i v e f r o m p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b s , b u t , as they a r e r e f e r e n t i a l , c a n n o t have an e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t some p r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e w h i c h i s a l w a y s c h a r a c t e r ! ' z a b l e by a p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b . T h i s p a r a d o x , t a k e n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f i r s t , forms an i n f