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Social impact research in planning : towards a process Rapanos, Bill Peter 1974

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SOCIAL IMPACT RESEARCH IN PLANNING: TOWARDS A PROCESS by BILL PETER RAPANOS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19?0 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF WASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Wa a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY 0? BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1974 In presenting t h i s thesis i s p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It Is understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Community and Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e s September, 1974 ABSTRACT This study was concerned with the problem of a n t i c i p a t i n g the s o c i a l impacts of large planned develop-ment projects and the problem of evolving methods to minimize the negative consequences to those a f f e c t e d . In recent years many people have expressed concern about questions r e l a t i n g to the environmental e f f e c t s of unregulated economic growth. Concern has also been expressed that the s o c i a l r e s u l t s of development planning may be important i n terms of the changes that growth produces i n the communities or l o c a l i t i e s i n which the projects are undertaken* In a s i t u a t i o n where economic and urban growth ha.3 opened many of the l a s t f r o n t i e r s , there may be a reduced c a p a b i l i t y of the s o c i a l and ec o l o g i c a l environ-dents to absorb the mistakes of narrowly conceived projects. This demands that planning be equipped to deal with possi b l e problems which may a r i s e , A l i t e r a t u r e survey ?ras u t i l i z e d to explore a nuabsr of approaches to assessing s o c i a l impacts. Examples ware taken from .studies on urban design, economic develop-ment planning, transportation, northern development, r e l o c a t i o n and urban renewal, water resources, economics, and environmental impact. The findings elucidated a broad range of concerns that should be included in an inter-disciplinary analysis of the impacts of any proposed project. An analysis of three specific cases was under-taken; the f i r s t being a highway location study, the second an environmental Impact study and the third the process of New Towns development in Britain, The review of the literature provided a basis for a model outline for a social impact study of the proposed Tilbury Islandl: industrial Estate on the community of Delta. A comparison was made between the goals of the agency sponsoring the project and the attitudes of various groups in the community. The degree to which the two sets of values conflicted was considered to be an important indicator of the magnitude of the disruption which the project might be expected to produce. The model proposed the following l i s t of social impacts for inclusion in an analysis: employment, sense of community„ population, transportation* interaction, taxa-tion, service f a c i l i t i e s , land values, housing, relocation, loss of future options, pollution, historical sites, nuisance, and recreation. In addition, the consequences of not pursuing the project were raised. - i i -It was noted that s o c i a l systems do not ex h i b i t e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This discovery indicated that p r i o r studies u t i l i z i n g t e c h ni-c a l approaches such as check l i s t s of possi b l e con-sequences are i n s u f f i c i e n t i n themselves to meet the needs of the planning process. p a r t i c i p a t i o n by those affected and f l e x i b i l i t y i n the planning and development stages were seen as ne c e s s i t i e s . The f a c t that s o c i a l impacts do not occur instantaneously but are dispersed over time reduces the u t i l i t y of a p r i o r analysis i n a dynamic s i t u a t i o n . For t h i s reason a f l e x i b l e planning process incorporating a broad range of considerations was required. Information alone about the possible s o c i a l impacts of a project i s seen as being secondary to the need to develop a planning c a p a b i l i t y f o r dealing with negative s o c i a l consequences as they occur. - i i i -TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter Page I. THE RATIONALE FOR SOCIAL IMPACT STUDIES 1 Introduction 1 The Problem 1 The Purpose 8 The Scope 11 Methodology « 12 D e f i n i t i o n s 12 Limitations 14 Footnotes * 16 I I . A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 18 Classes of S o c i a l Research In the f i e l d 19 A. The S o c i a l Consequences of Urban Design..... 20 B. The Impacts of Large I n d u s t r i a l Implacements upon Small Commu-n i t i e s 23 C. Transportation Impact Studies... 25 D. S o c i a l Impacts of Development i n Northern Canada.., 29 E. S o c i a l Consequences of Re-l o c a t i o n Projects. 34 F. Water Resource Development Projects 39 G. D i s t r i b u t i v e Impact Studies 44 H. The Environmental Impast State-ment, NEPA and the Human Consequences., 51 Summary • 60 Footnotes. 62 I I I . .. THREE CASE STUDIES. 69 A. Ian McHargi The Design of a Highway Route 71 l v -Table of Contents... Chapter Page B, Environmental Impact Report f o r the Proposed Revision to the Sacramento County General Plan 81 C. The B r i t i s h New Towns Develop-ment Process 90 Summary 101 Footnotes 105 IV. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIAL IMPACTS OF A PROPOSED INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT t THE TILBURY ISLAND PROJECT AND THE COMMUNITY OP DELTA 109 The Delta Area 112 The Proposed Project 114 The Decision-Making Process 11? Public P a r t i c i p a t i o n . • 118 Public and. Government Attitudes towards the T i l b u r y I n d u s t r i a l Development i n Delta................. 119 A. Attitudes of the P r o v i n c i a l Government and the Regional D i s t r i c t 120 B. Past Attitudes about Tilbury.... 123 C. Environmental Interests... 123 D. Farming Interests 125 E. Urban* Resident *s Interests...... 126 Areas of S o c i a l Concern f o r Consider-a t i o n i n the S o c i a l Impact Report.... 129 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the S o c i a l Impacts.. 129 Aspects of Each Impact 130 A. Time 13Q B. Scope 130 C. Incidence 130 S o c i a l Impacts....... 131 A. Employment.... 131 B. Population 131 C. Change i n Sense, of Community.... 132 D. Transportation. 133 E. S p a t i a l Interaction... 134 F • 3siS0» • • • • » # # « # » • • • • • • • • # • • • • »^35 G. Services and Public F a c i l i t i e s . . 136 - v -Table of Contents... Chapter Page H. Property Values 13? I. Housing 139 J. Relocation 141 K. S o c i e t a l Costs 142 L. Farmland Loss 143 M. P o l l u t i o n and the Costs of a Degraded Environment 144 N. H i s t o r i c a l and Archaeological S i t e s of Interest 146 0. Noise and Nuisance 147 P. Recreational Opportunities 147 Q. Consequences of Not Proceeding with the Proposed Development the Concept of S o c i a l Balance... 148 Summary and Conclusions... 151 Footnotes 155 V . • CONCLUSIONS Summary.... 158 The Process of Planning f o r S o c i a l Impacts 168 Future Research 172 Footnotes 175 - v i -1 I. THE RATIONALE FOR SOCIAL IMPACT STUDIES Introduction The purpose of this study is to Investigate the techniques by which the social and community consequences of planning decisions, particularly large development projects, can be addressed. This objective w i l l be pur-sued by a review and analysis of several different approaches to the problem of elucidating the various con-sequences of planned changes In pur communities and rural regions that have been ut i l i z e d in the past. Ultimately, an outline for a sample case study w i l l be proposed which w i l l endeavour i n i t i a l l y to outline the scope of the areas of concern which a social impact study should con-sider. In addition, a planning process to weld together the information and guide the application of the knowledge w i l l be put forward in order to provide the opportunity for planners to meet the increasing demand for not only a better physical but also a better social environment. The problem The h i s t o r i c a l d evelopment of Canada has been characterized by the exploitation of natural resources to serve the needs of the English and French mercantile interests.1 Given the natural abundance of minerals, forests, fur and f i s h , i t was only logical to put these 2 to human use wherever possible. Resource exploitation, therefore, is one of the traditions of our frontier history. The evolution of government sometimes lagged behind settlement or rapid growth of new regions but eventually was established and helped f a c i l i t a t e the economic development of the land, while maintaining order. A general assumption developed in the minds of most people that economic growth was not only good because i t provided opportunities for people, but that i t was an absolute necessity to ensure a good future. Some natural environmental problem such as the disappearance of certain species of birds as well as vast reductions in the number of bison, beaver and codfish i n some areas. Essentially,this did not interrupt develop-ment, nor was there any apparent general concern. The native people of Canada were profoundly affected by disease and the loss of resources upon which they depended. Attempts were made to educate these people and to ; allow them to share i n the benefits of the new order, but failure was more common than success. This process or. trend continued essentially up through the 1950»s and »6o»s when world technological advances and international co-operation following the Second World war enabled very rapid development of Canadian resources to meet the hungry needs of the world. 3 A g r i c u l t u r a l goods, and minerals such as i r o n , c o a l , uranium, n i c k e l , copper, to name a few, were harvested from the earth and exported, Ontario, Quebeo and B r i t i s h Columbia b u i l t l a r g e dams and sold l a r g e amounts of hydro e l e c t r i c i t y to the United States. A few manu-fa c t u r i n g f a c i l i t i e s were constructed, but the main base of the Canadian economy was b u i l t on the extraction of natural resources. This had f a r reaching e f f e c t s In places l i k e Kitlmat, Uranium City, Yellowknife, Cape Breton, Cornwall, Sept i s l e s , Leduc, the Arrow Lakes and countless others. Technical expertise was improved to meet the needs of an expanding economy. Economists developed such t o o l s as cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the f e a s i b i l i t y of l a r g e development projects, programs such as the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Development Act (ARDA) were set up to improve the u t i l i z a t i o n of one of our l a r g e s t resources, arable land. Resource management most often meant organizing the most e f f i c i e n t methods of pro-duction. Conservation was practised but the popular myth that the future l a y In continued expansion of the economy was the p r e v a i l i n g conventional wisdom. I m p l i c i t i n t h i s was that a growing economy would improve the d i s t r i b u t i o n of income and promote the "good l i f e " . By and l a r g e , there was a l o t of t r u t h i n t h i s . Many, but by no means 4 a l l people today In Canada do have a good standard of l i v i n g ; our l i v i n g standard, measured i n material terms, i s one of the highest i n the world. Once the basic needs of the body have been met. people, turn to more abstract or non-material aspects of l i f e , ^ m the l a t e 1960*s, some people became more and more interested i n the non-material or q u a l i t a t i v e compo-nent of l i f e . The environmental movement began to grow as some of the ec o l o g i c a l r e s u l t s of a century of popu-l a t i o n growth and economic development began to produce pol l u t e d rivers and eutrophic lakes, vanished woodlots and farms, too obvious to ignore any longer,3 The Club of Rome published a book warning that at the present increased r a t e of consumption of energy and minerals, we could possibly exhaust the,earth's supply i n two more generations,^ General concern among people as well as aopngl experts such as planners has introduced catch phrases such as " l i v a b i l l t y " and "quality of l i f e " i nto discussions ; ; about goals f o r our future, i t i s becoming lncreasingJLy c l e a r that as our population increases, more care w i l l : have to be taken i n the development of our edonomyT As p u l l e r has pointed out, i n the f i n a l analysis* the earth i s a spaceship; i f we are not c a r e f u l where we dump our wastes, they are l i k e l y to end up i n our neighbour's lunch.5 Environmental oonsequenoes that may have gone quite 5 unnoticed 50 years ago, now become important because of our concern and our increased a b i l i t y to measure pollutants and t h e i r e f f e c t s . The "cowboy economy" i s symbolic "of the i l l i m i t a b l e p l a i n s and a l s o associated with reckless, e x p l o i t i v e , romantic and v i o l e n t be-haviour, which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of open s o c i e t i e s . Bouldlng contrasts t h i s with the closed space-man economy of the future t " • • • i n which the earth has become a s i n g l e spaceship, without unlimited r e s e r v o i r s of anything, e i t h e r : f o r extraction o r f p r p o l l u t i o n and In which,therefore, man must f i h d h i s place l n i c a l system..."7 a c y c l i c a n ecolog-He f u r t h e r warns t h a t "our obsession with production and consumption to the exclusion of the "state" aspects of human welfare d i s t o r t s the prooess of technological change i n a most undesirable way."8 As our environmental tolerances become f i n e r , information about not only the economic e f f e c t s of development projects but. a l s o the p o s s i b l e environmental impacts, must now be considered p r i o r to the d e c i s i o n to go ahead with any given undertaking. S i m i l a r l y , more sophisticated Information w i l l be required about the s o c i a l consequences of our a c t i o n s . Planners w i l l bear part of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r pro-v i d i n g the r e q u i s i t e amount of insight into the conse-quences of t h e i r a c tions: " • • • i n comparing t h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e plans, p o l i c i e s and programs, c i t y planners are now faced with such questions as» How many people w i l l have to t r a v e l how f a r and at what oost to enjoy the various kinds of recreation f a c i l i t i e s and open spaces proposed; what i s the " p r i c e " of preserving open spaces to the commu-n i t y , to the s o c i a l and economic patterns of urban growth.,.? How many and which people (i n t e r e s t groups) w i l l have t h e i r taxes increased, and by how much, as a r e s u l t of a proposed urban renewal pro-ject? ...How w i l l the proposed i n d u s t r i a l development a f f e c t the populat income and which people (inter e s t group) w i l l be affected more and which l e s s and by how much?"9 As purvsociety to s i z e . r p h y s i c a l spape^betw^ has become l e s s while i n some cases s o c i a l distances are remaining the same. Stresses develop i n urban environments as was discovered by the dismal f a i l u r e of the urban renewal program i n Canada. I t was found that renewal was not merely repl a c i n g o ld housing with new but a l s o o b l i t e r a t i n g the s o o i a l patterns and community f a b r i c of the people involved.^P The " s o c i a l ecosystem" was upset beyond apparent repair.= The l a r g e scale production of the auto-; mobile and concomitant highway construction has had.con-sequences that have permeated many aspects of our sooiety.24 Large development projects such as the St. Lawrence seaway were proceeded by f a i r l y intensive economic analyses and were often carried out with some degree of s o c i a l concern. 7 It would have been useful, however, i f in cases similar to these, prior Information regarding not only the eoonomlc but the environmental, distributional and social Impacts of these types of projects had been available to the deelsion-makers• While f a i r l y sophisticated economic tools were developed to meet the demands of a growing economy, there has been a general neglect of the development of method-ologies to Identify the potential social consequence aspeot of the problem,* 2 It would appear at this time that further efforts, however groping, must be undertaken in the direction of this need. It i s to this issue that this study w i l l address i t s e l f . The assumption of architectural determinism, i.e., that better buildings or physical environments alone make better communities was frequently proven to be wrong through the lessons of urban renewal. Another important concept, economic determinism, or the idea that the general trend of economic growth i s going to benefit everyone in the long run, has been brought into question as well. It would appear that the assumption that because something cannot be cut and dried or nicely weighed or measured, i t does not exist, must be l a i d to rest. The process of grappling with the social effects of our development projects i s not l i k e l y to be dealt with 8 adequately f o r a l l s i t u a t i o n s i n the near future, how-ever, e f f o r t s must be made, planners, as well as other s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s must address themselves to t h i s issue. The Purpose This s'tudy w i l l investigate the development of a framework by which s o c i a l consequences of development projects can be evaluated f o r consideration i n the decision-making process. I t i s assumed that i n many sit u a t i o n s an environmental impact statement i s a necessity f o r providing suf f i c i e n t - information to int e r p o l a t e the e f f e c t s of a dam project. Indeed, such information i s required by statute i n the united States. In the case of native peoples, f o r example, or fishermen who earn t h e i r l i v i n g by harvesting the wealth of nat u r a l ecosystems, environmental impact studies may s u f f i c e as the r e s u l t s are f a i r l y d i r e c t * on the other hand, an analysis of the changes i n the man-made or urban systems i n w h i c h . w e l l . The e f f e c t s of changes i n the natural environment upon those not d i r e c t l y affected i h t h e economic sense w i l l need t o be considered where possibl e . The s o c i a l impacts of proposed developments upon the communities or regions which they a f f e c t could include a n a l y s i s or changes upon employment and educational opportunities, changes i n population composition, 9 community i n t e r a c t i o n patterns or public services, poss-i b l e r e l o c a t i o n of population,housing requirements, d i s t r i b u t i o n of benefits and burdens of the proposal and other f a c t o r s which can be i d e n t i f i e d as being relevant to l i f e i n the affected areas. The s o c i a l impact study may improve upon the s i t u a t i o n where the burden of s o c i a l costs of economic growth f a i l s l a r g e l y bh the poor classes i n society who must face "ever higher gateways to l i f e and freedom of choice."2-3 frequently the economist's "external costs'* have been d i s t r i b u t e d to the poor i n the form of housing i n i n d u s t r i a l " areas'and.'''seasonal''employment. S o c i a l impact studies could possibly provide a basis f o r a forum f o r analysis of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of costs and b e n e f i t s of a planning proposal. This could be as important to welfare r i g h t s , minority and downtown •^citizen's.groups as : the environmental Impact study .is important to the suburbanite, who having his basic housing and .service: needs, .met•"-is concerned about an improved • l e v e l ofamenities i n the way of a clean environment, greenbelts, and s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s , --The objectives of a s o c i a l impact study w i l l be to a s s i s t the planning process by providing a wider amount of p r i o r information about e f f e c t s of a l t e r n a t i v e develop-ment projects, and to reduce the number of unexpected 10 consequences. Planners today must recognize the absence of unitary "public i n t e r e s t " and an attempt w i l l be made to consider consequences to various effected groups and to grapple with the possible changes to the s o c i a l f a b r i c of our communities, indeed, many people are no longer w i l l i n g to pay the "external costs" of economic growth.^ planning methods must be modified and tools r e f i n e d to meet the needs of a new sense of values which stresses the qu a l i t y of l i f e as well as the economic well-being. public p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning can guide the incorporation of "external cosb3" e which were most f r e -quently ignored i n the past, into plans f o r developments In addition p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l further a< democratic p r i n c i p l e , which people are increasingly demanding, that a l l persona auat have an equal influence upon and access to the decision makers. Only i n thi3 manner and by a process of on-going dialogue and consultation between planners and. t h e i r c l i e n t s can the form of society be developed which r e f l e c t s the aspirations of socie t y , 1 ^ People should have the r i g h t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the prepar-a t i o n and implementation of goals and objectives which a f f e c t t h e i r l i v e s p a r t i c u l a r l y when other groups' i n t e r e s t s are not involved. 11 The scope The r e s u l t s of the evolution of pu b l i c and planning concern from the economic (growth), to the environmental (ecological) to the s o c i a l environment, i s the area of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study, A s u f f i c i e n t number of plans has been shelved and more frequent confrontations and objections to pro-posed projects have been made to make i t c l e a r that plan-ning and development must f i r s t s t a r t with the s o c i a l system,^-5 A u s e f u l analogy can be made between natural e c o l o g i c a l systems and the man-made system with which planners are most often concerned. Complex interdepen-denciea have been i d e n t i f i e d ? "Certain remarkable s i m i l a r i t i e s can be found between the concerns of ecologists and planners. Like complex urban systems„ e c o l o g i c a l systems appear to be characterized by four d i s t i n c t i v e properties. These include t h e i r functioning as interdependent systems, t h e i r dependence on a succession of h i s t o r i c a l events, t h e i r s p a t i a l linkages and t h e i r non-linear structure. Both systems appear to have considerable i n t e r n a l - r e s i l i e n c e within a ce r t a i n domain of s t a b i l i t y , However„ programs such as i n s e c t i c i d e spraying or urban renewal that d i s t u r b the complex balance of eith e r system can generate unexpected or un-desirable r e s u l t s , use of an ec o l o g i c a l frame-work f o r planning suggests ne» p r i n c i p l e s based more on recognition of our ignorance than pre-sumption of our knowledge about the systems i n which we t r y to intervene,"1° 12 This study w i l l endeavour to examine some of these systems that compose the s o c i a l f a b r i c of the community conoerned which may be affected by major planning decisions. Methodology Following a general review of the range and types of s o c i a l impactstudies t h a t have been used i n planning, a seri e s of questions w i l l be developed which w i l l then be used as a framework f o r the evaluation of three d i f f e r e n t examples of studies whose common feature i s a concern f o r the s o c i a l effects of the project i n question. These examples will... in; turn be compared and used ao a basis f o r the formulation of a modified frame-work to deal with the: next step - a b r i e f o u t l i n e case study s ; This w i l l involve :postulating the s o c i a l impacts,•. -by i d e n t i f y i n g the possible range of effects or consequences of a proposed large i n d u s t r i a l development upon a growing community near Vancouver. D e f i n i t i o n s For the purposes of t h i s study, the term " s o c i a l " w i l l be defined i n general terms as "pertaining to s o c i e t y : r e l a t i n g to man or the public as an aggregate body".-*"? A. I, Kahn defines the "universe of the s o c i a l i n pragmatic terms 1 3 as a l l that i s not pre-empted by or assigned to economic and physical pol i cy-maker a".-1-0 Examples of the more concrete s o c i a l aspects -will be developed i n the course of the a n a l y s i s . The terms impacts and consequences w i l l be used interchangeably, however, the l a t t e r i s more s t r i c t l y correct but the former i s most common i n the l i t e r a t u r e * The term "impact" means to touch or s t r i k e or communicate a d i r e c t force while according to an e c o l o g i c a l systems view of society, there i s not usually an unidirec-t i o n a l - c a u s a l i t y as i n physics but a s e r i e s of interactions.19 .Thu3,^  there may appear to be a f a i r l y c l e a r impact of a J new highway on the landscape,,, however, many other conse-i: quences or secondary e f f e c t s w i l l continue to react over time. Central t o - t h i s study w i l l be zhe search f o r the i d e n t i t y of these repercussions and t h e i r e f f e c t s upon the subsystems involved. This study shares some goals expressed by Bauer i n his book S o c i a l Indicators i n that the inadequacy of mere economic indicators demands atte n t i o n . S o c i a l account-ing adopts^ the premise that better information w i l l enable batter decisions to be made. Gross argues that s o c i a l indicators are a symptom of a r e b e l l i o n against what has been c a l l e d "economic p h l l i s t i n i s m " . i n f o r m a t i o n alone may not be a 14 weighty enough stone to break down t h i s t r a d i t i o n or expand the range of considerations i n the decision-making. Data made a v a i l a b l e by a centralized s o c i a l accounting system may well provide an improved opportunity f o r better decision-making, however, i f the planning process remains unchanged, primary inputs such as data may not e f f e c t the f i n a l product. The f i r s t step i n a s o c i a l impact study i s to consider the poss i b l e range of consequences and f o r t h i s i n d i c a t o r s would be of assistance. In addition, t h e - : i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework f o r decision-making must be -dealt with as an i n t e g r a l part of a s o c i a l impact analysis i n order that plana e p o l i c i e s and methods of implementation-can be seen together. Limi t a t i o n s -This study w i l l attempt to o u t l i n e some of the s o c i a l impacts of development projects and propose a planning process f o r daaiing with „the* second order more complex consequences which may be produced over time. No attempt w i l l be made to quantify or weigh the s o c i a l impacts; upon the various groups i n society which may be affected„ as i t would seem presumptlous without a greater degree of experience i n the f i e l d . On the other hand, an e f f o r t w i l l 15 be made to i d e n t i f y and deal with the related or aff e c t e d systems and i n t e r e s t groups, and elucidate some of the e f f e c t s of developments upon the communities and t h e i r component parts. Ultimately, the degree of change brought about by the prov i s i o n of information i n t h i s form w i l l be determined i n the p o l i t i c a l sphere. It Is hoped that the data generated would^ pfombte diaiogue between those i n - ; ~ : volved so that the opportunities to shape our environment to our present and future needs could be better pursued. The point seems to be that man must become aware of and l e a r n to manipulate through an open, acc e s s i b l e planning procesSj, some of the subtleties i n hi3 environment which may be c r i t i c a l to h i s ultimate success. The path w i l l not be easy. Burke states that the provision of informa-t i o n may make s o c i a l choices even more d i f f i c u l t to make: "However, i t i s an e f f o r t which must be under-taken since the requirement f o r making s o c i a l choices w i l l not disappear even though a g i s t i n g tools are inadequate f o r that purpose." 2 2 1 6 Footnotes .*H.A. Innes, ".Th.e.._Fur.Trade",. In ..W.T....Easter.brpQk ..and M. Watkins, Approaches to Canadian Economic History, McLelland antf Stewart;, Toronto, l%7t p p . 2 0 - 2 7 . ^David Popenoe, ..The Urban-Industrial F r o n t i e r; Essays on  Soc i a l Trends and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Goals i n Modem CJbmmunitles, Rutgers University press, jjew"Jersey, 1 9 6 9 . p.X. M^.M. Hufschmidt, "Environmental Quality as a p o l i c y and - P l a n n i n g e c t i v e " ^ pp.2:31-242^r':A;;lVPF^J0urnal:1y^::;^:^" Vol.37. July 1 9 7 1 , p.232. : **Donella H. Meadows, e t . a l . , The Limits to Growth, Universe Books, New York, 1972. /•5R- Buckainster F u l l e r * Operating.Manual for; spaceship  Earth, Southern I l l i n o i s University press, 1969. .^Kenneth E.' BouldIng,; "The.Economics of the...Coming Space-, ship Earth", p p . 3 - 1 5 . Environmental Quality In a  Growing Economy, Henry j a r r e t , (ed.), Resources f o r the Future, John Hopkins press, Baltimore, 1 9 7 1 , p . 9 . 7IbjLdr, p . 9 . 8 l b id., p . 1 0 . 9 i r a M.r Robinson; "Introductory Note", p. 1 7 8 , Decision- making i n Urban Planning, I.M. Robinson (ed.) sage publications, Beverly H i l l s , U.S.A., 1 9 7 2 , p . 1 7 8 . 19Barrie Bi Greenble,:"social T e r r i t o r y , Community Health • and Urban Planning 8*, p T > , 7 4 - 8 2»A»I.P. Journal, Vol.40, ; No a 2 , (March 1 9 7 4 ) p.75. " R^aymond:.:.A.- Bauer,"Detection and A n t i c i p a t i o n of Impact.t-The Nature of the Task", pp.ji . - i 6 e 3ocial jndicators, Raymond A. Bauer (ed.),"M.I.T. Press, Massaenusetts, • U.S.A., 1 9 6 6 , p.2. Bauer notes that i n the conduct of human a f f a i r s our actions i n e v i t a b l y have second order consequences which i n many instances are more Important than the o r i g i n a l a c t i o n . 1 7 1 2 A s l t K« Biswas & Robert W. Durle, " S o c i o l o g i c a l Aspects of water Development", pp.1137-1144, water Resources  B u l l e t i n , Vo!LJ7, No.6, (American Water Resource Assoc.) December, 1971, p.1137. This a r t i c l e argues that s o c i o l o g i c a l feas-i b i l i t y of projects must be considered along with t h e i r impacts on the q u a l i t y of l i f e , i f planning i s to be " f o r the people." ^•^Richard M . Titmuss, Commitment to welfare, George A l l e n & Unwin Ltd., London, 1968, p . I$6. l^For a discussion of the r o l e of dialogue and on-going public p a r t i c i p a t i o n - i n p^ Retraoklng America? A Theory of Transactive Planning, Ancnor Books, Garden b l t y , New York, 1973. l^R.Burke, J . Heaney, E. Pyatt, "Water Resources and S o c i a l Choices", pp.443-447, Water Resources B u l l e t i n , V o l . 9, No.3, (June 1973) V^S5l ^C.S. H o l l i n g and M.A. Goldberg, "Ecology and planning", pp.221-230, A.I.p. journal, Vol.37, No.4, (July 1971) p.221. *?New Webster ..Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English "" Language, Consolidated puoilsners, Chicago, U.S.A. l 8 A l f r e d J, Kahn, studies i n Social policy and planning, Russel l Sage" Foundation, New York, 1969, p . 2 9 » . l^Hagoroh Maruyama, "C u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and Psychological Considerations i n the Planning of Public Works", P*>.135-l43, Technological Forecasting and S o c i a l Change, Vol . 5."No . 2 , (1973),' P.135v  2 0Rayaond A. Bauer, (ed,), Social indicators, H.I.T. press, Cambridge, Massacnusetts"19o6Y 2 1 l b Id, p.ix. " . ^ 22R. Burke, Op.Cit», p.445. 18 I I . A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The purpose of t h i s section Is to provide a background to and examples of types of information which have been gathered i n the research f o r the s o c i a l con-sequences of several types of developments. While the term ' s o c i a l impact study* i s a r e l a t i v e l y new one brought in t o usage by the popularization of the environ-mental impact studies, s i m i l a r data has been gathered i n several d i s c i p l i n e s and analysed i n a number of i d e n t i -f i a b l e areas. In order to understand the context of t h i s a n a l y s i s , and to examine the scope of research i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l impact planning, a. review of ten d i f f e r e n t but related areas of planning studies w i l l be . outlined. This w i l l be followed by the development of a ser i e s of c r i t e r i a with which to evaluate three cases ~ i n more depth. This was seen as a more p r a c t i c a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e than a review of the very d i v e r s i f i e d l i t e r a t u r e purporting to deal with s o c i a l impacts per se9 f o r i n aany cases the goals, r e s u l t s and methods are very general. 3ome of the research has been carried out post facto to a development, but i t i s those which attempt to grapple with the consequences i n advance which w i l l be of central i n t e r e s t to t h i s study. 19 Classes of S o c i a l Research In the F i e l d Man's environment has always been the c e n t r a l concern of urban planners although they have not had a monopoly on the f i e l d . There has long been a concern among economists about the d i s t r i b u t i v e e f f e c t s of various aspects of the economy, s o c i o l o g i s t s and psychologists .have^investigated... .the. s o c i e t a l and per-sonal realms of our behaviour, s o c i a l development workers and s o c i a l planners have begun to undertake increasingly complex evaluations of the growing public expenditure i n the area of s o c i a l programs, A myriad of studies have also been prepared i n the area of t r a d i t i o n a l concern to planners; the r e s u l t s of development of. our primary resource - land, other f i e l d s , geography, ecology and resource economics, f o r example, frequently study the Interaction- between man and the land, planners however,, have frequently been chargedI with t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework. _ -It w i l l be useful t o sketch a range of types o f studies re l a t e d "to the U 3 e o f - l a n d and the s o c i a l impacts of these actions. These studies vary i n scope, objectives and approaches (from economic to environ-mental), however, t h i s review may serve to show how s o c i a l impact research may be developed further, or 20 where i t i s headed, A, The S o c i a l Consequences of urban Design One of the r e s u l t s of the i n d u s t r i a l revolution was the construction of very high density housing con-d i t i o n s where people were brought together i n c i t i e s such as Birmingham, S h e f f i e l d , Dusseldorf and many others. People migrated from poor cdaditlons Iri r u r a l arigas^ • however, th© problems i n these urban areas were often worse. C i v i l engineering, public transportation, control of p o l l u t a n t s , health and s o c i a l care were only rud1- . mentary, workers were regarded as a fa c t o r of pro-duction and l i t t l e concern was demonstrated f o r t h e i r needs i n the development of the i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s . Mum-ford i l l u s t r a t e s : ^ c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s new urban area on i t s :^ lowest physical terms, vrlthout reference to Its s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s or i t s culture, i t i s p l a i n that never before v : in.recorded h i s t o r y had suohivast masses pt people l i v e d i n such a savagely deteriorated environment, ugly i n form, debased l n content, ,,,never before had human b l i g h t so u n i v e r s a l l y been accepted as normal; normal and i n e v i t a b l e , " 1 At long l a s t , sunlight and basic health precautions such as sanitary sewers, stimulated the . concerns of some early urban designers. Men such as Ebenezer Howard i n h i s book Garden C i t i e s of Tomorrow^ 21 planned towns In which Industry, people and commerce could co-exist In conditions more s i m i l a r to the r u r a l v i l l a g e s which were considered to be the more natural environment f o r people. The idea that the p h y s i c a l form or the aesthetic aspect of c i t i e s was c r i t i c a l to the resultant s o c i a l m i l i e u was long one of the axioms of town planning. Broady expresses the theory of a r c h i -t e c t u r a l determinism: "The a r c h i t e c t who builds a house or designs a s i t e plan, who decides where the roads w i l l and w i l l not go, and who decides which:directions the houses w i l l face and-how ;close together^ they w i l l be also i s to a large extent, deciding the pattern of s o c i a l life-among who'wiii. live".in these houses'." i t asserts that a r c h i t e c t u r a l design has a d i r e c t and determinant ef f e c t on the way people behave. . . . I t suggests that those human beings f o r whom arc h i t e c t s and planners create t h e i r designs are simply .-, moulded by the environment, which i s provided f o r them,"3 This concept was further"evolved by e a r l y geographers who argued that climate and environment w e r e the determinants of l e v e l s of s o c i a l dsvelopments. This became known as environmental determinism and stated e s s e n t i a l l y that the climate of north-western Europe wa3 -the most conducive to human development; There remains some u t i l i t y i n the idea that physical environments a f f e c t human in t e r a c t i o n , however, one 22 must al s o recognize other r e l a t e d factors f o r example, education, c l a s s , i n t e r e s t s , family and s o c i a l structure. In the analysis of the s o c i a l impacts of projects i t i s important to consider the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n society that could be a l t e r e d by the planned change, as well as the p h y s i c a l changes. Gans comments: "There i s considerable evidence that the physical environment doesT not play as s i g n i f i c a n t a r o l e i n people's l i v e s as the planner believes. Although people reside, work and play i n buildings, t h e i r behaviour i s not determined by the buildings but by the economic, c u l t u r a l ^'-^^xry.;:^-: and s o c i a l : r e l a t l o n s h i p s within them.»T ; R V V Examples of t h i s theme i n recent years are publications such as the Hidden Dlaenslon5, Man and His Urban Environ-ment ^ and the s o c i a l impact of Urban Deslgn7, which explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s i d e n t i a l density (sometimes referred to as human ecology) design f a c t o r s •and human i n t e r a c t i o n . ;:-These studies are a r e s u l t of , the d e s i r e f o r information about the effects of high density l i v i n g , the need f o r which was pointed out by the apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p between high density l i v i n g -and s o c i a l problems i n some c i t i e s : "Urban design has a profound, though often subtle influence on our l i v e s , i t plays a major r o l e i n how we think about our-selves and others. To a large degree, i t shapes or mis-shapes our r e l a t i o n s h i p s with each other and solves or creates problems ce n t r a l to the health of the 23 urban environment. Ultimately, i t i s a major f a c t o r In deciding whether our c i t i e s enhance the d i g n i t y of the I n d i v i -dual or b r u t a l i z e and a l i e n a t e him."° The urgent need f o r s o c i a l impact analysis i s emphasized by the inadequacy of the concept that p h y s i c a l design alone determines patterns of behaviour. S o c i a l impacts r e s u l t from people's relationships and i t would appear that these are affected by governments, i n s t i t u t i o n s groups and i n d i v i d u a l s who play a r o l e i n people's l i v e s . perhaps the environmentalists are oversimplifying the problem by expecting a better physical non-polluted environment to produce better l i v i n g conditions alone. What appears.to be needed i s an analysis which considers — more elements of people's l i v e s , including the economic and s o c i a l , aa well as the physical r e l a t i o n s h i p s , 9 B. The impacts of Large Industrial Implacements Upon Small Communities Many studies have been doen to a n t i c i p a t e or evaluate the r e s u l t s of the provision of i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s on the l o c a l economy, service f a c i l i t i e s and employment l e v e l s of the small or developing towns i n which they were situ a t e d . Examples Include socio-economic f e a s i b i l i t y studies f o r developments In "depressed" regions of Canada under the Department of Regional Economic Expansion (DREE) programs. The con-2k s t r u c t i o n of the St. Lawrence Seaway and some of the consequences are recorded toy Richardson.* 0 Most often these studies were undertaken to determine economic f e a s i b i l i t y rather than to develop s o c i a l information f o r consideration p r i o r to the decision to proceed. The general assumption appeared to be that a new power plant, sawmill or factory would improve the l o c a l economy and thus improve l i f e i n that community. As was outlined e a r l i e r , t h i s assumption went unchallenged f o r many years i n s p l t e o f occasional unanticipated environmental .:or s o c i a l side ef f ects, T : One rather more d e t a i l e d analysis was prepared by D.M, Paterson i n 1953 t i t l e d "The Impact of Large Scale i n d u s t r i a l Development, with Special Reference to the Ford Plant Near o a k v i l l e , Ontario. "1^ - The a r t i c l e urged that experienced advice and detailed research were required to prevent "bad mistakes and severe disappoint-ment" i f the plant was not planned i n an integrated fashion;: - A wide v a r i e t y : of secondary e f f e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d f o r consideration and discussion among groups affected by the i n f l u x of 5S000 new workers into a small but growing community. The thrust of the a r t i c l e wa3 to a s s i s t In the accommodation of growth. These studies may be characterized as being e s s e n t i a l l y 25 concerned with economics, not only i n terms of p r o f i t s to the plant being constructed but also i n terms of the costs of providing an Infrastructure to meet the needs of the new inhabitants. Housing,-schools, u t i l i t i e s and t h e i r financing were seen as main considerations i n the d e s i r a b i l i t y of new growth. More, recently, studies on the e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l development on l o c a l a g r i -c u l t u r a l l y based towns have attempted to i d e n t i f y s o c i a l as w e l l as economic effects although the decisions i n many s i t u a t i o n s are frequently based mainly on economic considerations,,i2.v-7vw^^.,^\;;-;: _,•>:;::, C. Transportation Impact Studies I f anyone asked at the time what the populari-zation of the automobile by Henry Ford would do to the .. r s o c i a l patterns or North America, I t i s u n l i k e l y that they-would have been able to foresee -the:multitudinous -~yv range of e f f e c t s that have resulted, s i m i l a r l y , zhe construction of the railway across Canada *<ras seen not only as an economic l i n k but also as a s o c i a l and -psychological connection across the .country which affected the patterns of l i v i n g . Modem highways which changed the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s of towns either by bringing them i n e f f e c t , c l o s e r to c i t i e s or i n other cases, by-passing former regional centres had profound e f f e c t s . 26 In 1964 the U.S. Department of Commerce pub-l i s h e d a report t i t l e d Highways and Economic and S o c i a l Changes which was an attempt to evaluate the impacts of the massive U.S. i n t e r - s t a t e highway program which was started i n 1956.*-^ The report reviews the r e s u l t s of 100 economic impact studies prepared by government agencies and u n i v e r s i t i e s , on the changes i n areas near highways and interchanges. The goal of the report was to provide information f o r "transportation research, community plan-ning, land a c q u i s i t i o n and economic development.".. I t ^concludes that highways:;pr6duc'e'--C:wide,--range of planning, \ c b n s e q u e n c e 3 i ; - -••'-•/"~ A c r i t i q u e "Information Requirements f o r Eval-uating the S o c i a l Impacts of Transportation investment" attempts to i d e n t i f y some of the reasons f o r the economic bias of many studies and goes on to outline some of the "outputs of highway construction.* 1'' Examples given are changes i n a c t i v i t y patterns, aesthetics, d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e f f e c t s , and nuisance e f f e c t s . The ease was made f o r minimizing the adverse s o c i a l consequences of highway construction by integrating the highway plans Into l o c a l regional plans, an obvious but frequently over-looked point when d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of government are involved. In addition, a system of s o c i a l accounting was seen as a 27 us e f u l component In a feedback system, to monitor ohanges and permit informed decisions upon the changes to take place. P o s i t i v e benefits of highways and urban freeways may include increased opportunities f o r mobility which i n turn could enable the poor to have access to more employment-opportunities. Several negative Impacts could also r e s u l t . F i r s t l y , the lowest paid u n s k i l l e d workers may not a f f o r d automobiles and tend to l i v e near the urban cores where housing costs are low. Secondly, the construction of freeways may lead to the degeneration of public t r a n s i t upon which these workers depend. In addition, low cost housing and downtown neighbourhoods may often be disrupted by freeway con-s t r u c t i o n projects. I t has long been recognized that just as the railways and streetcars programmed the growth patterns of Canadian c i t i e s , the automobile has been a large determinant of the form of l a t e r growth. McKain . I l l u s t r a t e s the-prevailing a t t i t u d e to highway planning: "... i f a new road happened to bring benefits to an area, t h i s was considered to be an unexpected bonus. And i f a highway improvement brought-economic hardship, t h i s was dismissed i n the name of o v e r a l l progress..."15 28 In an a r t i c l e t i t l e d "Some Aspects o f t h e S o c i a l Impact o f Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n " a p l e a I s made f o r the development o f " o b j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s whereby t h e concern w i t h a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l v a l u e s c o u l d be o b j e c t i v e l y measured and added t o the t r a d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t / c o s t r a t i o . The w r i t e r goes on t o l i s t a s e r i e s o f g o a l s t h a t ought .to he i n c l u d e d i n highways programs: community i d e n t i t y , a e s t h e t i c s , c h o i c e , economic base, convenience, adminis-t r a t i o n , community f a c i l i t i e s and accommodation f o r f u t u r e growth and "optimum l i f e - s t y l e . " I t i s perhaps s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n view o f e f f e c t s of highways and a c c e s s t o t h e urban and indeed r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n s t h a t p l a n n e r s have had r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n v o l v e -ment i n t h e development of t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s , , p o s s i b l y the c r i t i c a l eye o f the p u b l i c as.demonstrated by t h e Spadina Expressway c o n t r o v e r s y i n Toronto and t h e Chinatown f r e e -way and T h i r d Crossing-Debates i n Vancouver, i n d i c a t e t h a t d e s i g n o f highways a c c o r d i n g t o e n g i n e e r i n g c r i t e r i a a l o n e i s a t h i n g o f t h e p a s t . p l a n n e r s should equip themselves f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s c h a l l e n g e more e f f e c t i v e l y i n terms o f .community.- g o a l s and needs i n t h e f u t u r e b e t t e r than has been the case i n t h e p a s t . An attempt t o do t h i s w i l l be an a l y s e d f u r t h e r i n the next chapter. 29 D. The Soolal Impacts of Development In Northern  Canada In recent years, there has been a debate developing over the future of the north; whether i t should be developed a s t h e West was, simply denuded of i t s re-sources i n the most economic fashion, l e f t to stand as a large p a r k - l i k e preserve to protect the d e l i c a t e ecosystems or given self-government to be administered by the residents. One of the recurrent questions about northern development Is the e f f e c t s t hat the importation of i n d u s t r i a l technology and resource development w i l l have on the native people who f o r many generations developed a system of l i v i n g as an i n t e g r a l part of the d e l i c a t e natural balance of these lands. The thrust of economic development mind set which has pervaded th© development of t h i s country has produced problems and unanticipated consequences i n the North as well, i n the case of native'people, the obligatory change from a hunting and gathering economy to a market economy where v i l l a g e s and towns are established represents so d r a s t i c a change as to upset the natural r e s i l i e n c e of , the " s o c i a l eco-system" or the pattern of l i v i n g i n which they are s o c i a l i z e d to l i v e . The r e s u l t s are a few short term jobs f o r some, l o s s of animals from the resource developments, l o s s of hunting s k i l l s , f r u s t r a t i o n , powerless-30 ness, and u l t i m a t e l y dependence upon w e l f a r e . * 8 Economic development i s s t i l l seen as the s o l u t i o n t o p o v e r t y r a t h e r than the cause. / The two pronged t h r u s t I l l u s t r a t e d i n the name of t h e Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development has produced a v a s t number o f s t u d i e s which attempt to e v a l u a t e in,advance, some o f the f e a t u r e s and f e a s i b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e development p r o j e c t s i n the n o r t h . These s t u d i e s v a r y i n approach, depth and p e r c e p t i v e n e s s . A r e c e n t example i s one t i t l e d "The S o c i o -economic impact of the p o i n t e d Mountain Gas F i e l d " prepared i n t h i s case by a s t a f f member of the Department of I n d i a n • A f f a i r s . * 9 j n a r e p o r t kk pages l o n g , one c h a p t e r , of f i v e pagesj i s devoted t o t h e " s o c i a l impacts" of the p i p e l i n e -a c t i v i t y . B a s i c a l l y , i t i s a s u b j e c t i v e review of the h i s t o r i c a l changes i n the communities. S p e c i f i c concerns i n c l u d e ; ; t h e change :o£vpace,:.-.-/.changes i n employment, i n c r e a s e d : e x p e n d i t u r e s , changes i n a l t i t u d e s , ; p o p u l a t i o n - s h i f t s - , a l -coholism,^ and scheduled ( a i r l i n e ) -f 1 i g h t s . The c o n c l u s i o n ; i s t h a t " i n g e n e r a l , t h e s o c i a l changes of F o r t L l a r d caused by t h e p o i n t e d Mountain p r o j e c t were not d r a s t i c " but goes: : on t o observe on the same page t h a t " p r i o r t o the p r o j e c t , F o r t L l a r d was one o f t h e few w e l l p r e s e r v e d t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s , " t u No i n d i c a t i o n i s g i v e n as t o how t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was gathered o r even i f t h e a u t h o r v i s i t e d t h e p l a c e i n 31 question. It would appear that the conclusion may be somewhat premature. In any event there are l i t e r a l l y hundreds of similar studies which are prepared by the Northern Develop-ment staff or consultants which are basically similar. The fault l i e s not only with the authors of these studies but also with the department for not pursuing this problem with greater care. The problem here i s p a r t i a l l y a moral one and the determination of whether or not proposed projects should be approved is a very d i f f i c u l t one for the p o l i t i c i a n to make.-In the Interim better prior Information and Incorporation of participation in the studies by those Involved with the results may improve these analyses by promoting the inclusion of social con-:-. siderations in the discussions about these developments,: Naysmith points out that " i t must be recognized that ''northern" peoples;. ?an«L.part icttiarly^the ihdians-and . ^ Eskimos have needs which may- not "necessarily be met by the development of a viable industrial base*1*2* The importance of this statement, Is central:-not only to the north- but ; '-C^yt also to the area of concern of this study as well. He also points out that "a positive sense of well-being Is found in some Individuals who can maintain their traditional 99 way of l i f e , " It would appear obvious that a better socio-economic impact study should address i t s e l f not only 32 to the economics of projects but also to the e f f e c t s upon t r a d i t i o n a l pursuits, information about the degree to which the indigenous residents l i v e o f f the land, and an analysis of the possible costs i n monetary and s o c i a l terms of destroying w i l d l i f e or f i s h resources should be included. Assume f o r example that proper environmental studies had been prepared p r i o r to the construction of the Bennett dam on B r i t i s h Columbia's peace River; the costs of "the resultant l o s s of •• fisheries-and-trs^ping to people- r i n the i,000 square mile peace-Athabaska De l t a might have i / affected the d e c i s i o n . 2 ^ i n the event that i t was approved, ' these costs might have been included as part of the budget -and through discussion, some of the ef f e c t s of the l o s s of 'livelihood- mlgh-t-'have-been-. avoidable; •"•VV Vall'ey- p i p e l i n e B- the - C h u r c h i l l : F a l l s and i James Bay .hydro.- V pro j ect a have, bean .obstructed by p o l i t i c a l . a n d . l e g a l actions by native peoples. ^Co-i operation and discussion i n v o l v i n g , ; i •the possible social- consequences.and the degree-to which r they can be dealt with i n a fashion acceptable to a l l ' concerned i s needed. .. " i n the Nass V a l l e y region of northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, a massive railway and development project 33 In an a r e a p r i m a r i l y i n h a b i t e d by I n d i a n people has been proposed. The consequences of t h e proposed i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n on t h e n a t i v e communities w i l l prove d i f f i c u l t I f more s i n c e r e attempts to demonstrate s o c i a l concerns a r e not made. Rapid s o c i a l change i n any community can o f t e n produce s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and t h e r e a r e many examples -o f t h i s In n o r t h e r n s e t t l e m e n t s . In s m a l l communities crime r a t e s p e r c a p i t a o f t e n r e a c h r a t e s t h a t the environmental d e t e r m l n i s t s would; i n urban s i t u a t i o n s p o s s i b l y a t t r i b u t e . t o d e n s i t y . 2 ^ T h i s a s p e c t of s o c i a l impact a n a l y s i s i s important -t o n o r t h e r n development however, i n a d d i t i o n to t h e p repara-t i o n o f b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n the thorny problem o f moral q u e s t i o n s remains. More c a r e f u l l y developed p o l i c i e s r e f l e c t i n g a d i f f e r e n t ' p h i l o s o p h y may be a p r e r e q u i s i t e to v a l u a b l e • r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d i n the next few important y e a r s . L o t z , a w e l l informed c r i t i c of s o c i a l s c i e n c e programs- i n the North p o i n t s outs " T h i s new wealth (from Pine P o i n t Mines) w i l l n o t s o l v e the s o c i a l and human problems t h a t a r e •^v::.;:..7-;'..--.••.arising w i t h t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s ; The -••...«•, f i r m b e l i e f t h a t mechanical s c i e n c e and technology w i l l b r i n g e n d l e s s b e n e f i t s and l e a d t o a 2 g h a p p i e r l i f e " has proved c h i m e r i c a l everywhere." The v a l u e t o s o c i e t y o f economic growth must be c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h a broader s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 34 E. S o c i a l Consequences of R e l o c a t i o n p r o j e c t s One o f the most f a r r e a c h i n g changes t h a t can oc c u r t o an i n d i v i d u a l o r a community i s f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n . V o l u n t a r y movement o f peo p l e r e s u l t s from t h e s e a r c h f o r b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s o r more a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e s t o l i v e . P u b l i c d e c i s i o n s , on the o t h e r hand, can o f t e n make the need t o move a n e c e s s i t y . The c o n s t r u c t l o n r o f hew highways, b r i d g e s , u t i l i t y l i n e s , a i r p o r t s and o t h e r p u b l i c works o f t e n causes t h i s problem. Urban renewal s i m i l a r l y pro-duces d r a s t i c e f f e c t s In urban a r e a 3 w h i l e i n r u r a l a r e a s , the c o n s t r u c t i o n of l a r g e dams f o r hydro power o r i r r i g a t i o n o f t e n d i s p l a c e s f a r m i n g communities. One o f the key reasons f o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among p s o p l e a f f e c t e d by urban renewal i s r e l o c a t i o n . Looking -a t a community as an ecosystem f o r a moment, one can a p p r e c i a t e the d i f f i c u l t y i n attempting t o move an ecosystem (as opposed t o t h e components) from one h a b i t a t t o another without d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r i n g i t . Human beings a r e t h e ao3t a d a p t a b l e c r e a t u r e s on the e a r t h 1 how-aver, t h e r e may be c e r t a i n c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a d a p t a t i o n , p a t t e r n s of I n t e r a c t i o n , v i s u a l i d e n t i t y / sense o f p l a c e , o f t e n -important t o o l d e r people, may be upset. The r e s u l t o f f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n may be a l i e n a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from a sense of powerlessness about the change and estrangement from a 35 once f a m i l i a r s o c i a l m i l i e u . C ( o f t e n t h e r e s i l i e n c e which enables a n a t u r a l ecosystem t o change and adapt t o changes i n temperature o r i n t r o d u c t i o n of new organisms i s not g r e a t enough t o absorb a shock and the system breaks down and a new,' u s u a l l y l e s s developed and l e s s complex system e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e s t h e o l d . The p o l l u t i o n of a stream by a s m a l l amount of e f f l u e n t might be an example of s t a y i n g w i t h i n t h e r e s i l i e n c e w h i l e a heavy p o l l u t i o n l o a d may r e p l a c e the t r o u t w i t h o n l y v a r i o u s a l g a e and few. f i s h . .... .. S i m i l a r l y our s o c i a l systems a r e c o n s t a n t l y c hanging but a r e l o c a t i o n which breaks w i t h h i s t o r i c a l ••-H-K development may change the make-up of power and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r c r e a t e an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n of b e h a v i o u r . Greenbie warns t h a t ; "...mass r e l o c a t i o n s o f poor people, as a r e s u l t of urban renewal and r e l o c a t i o n i n h i - r i s e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , have been d i s r u p t i n g i n t r i c a t e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which c o n t r i b u t e ; > ; i - ^ ~ s . , - . ; « ^ r ; t o the s t a b i l i t y o f the v a r i o u s groups a f f e c t e d . • ...The degree t o -jhich such p o l i c i e s have ^ c o n t r i b u t e d t o the u n r e s t , crimes v i o l e n c e and: g e n e r a l s o c i a l breakdown can o n l y be guessed a t , but t h e s o c i a l c o s t of f a i l u r e t o understand the "l~"Vrelationship Involved must be s t a g g e r i n g . " 2 8 ' The'•••disasterous^faiiure of t h e p r ^ h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n St.<Louis i s g i v e n as an example. The e f f e c t s o f r e -l o c a t i o n v a r y i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d w i t h the manner i n which 36 the move i s handled by the a u t h o r i t i e s , the degree of support provided and the psychological make-up of those af f e c t e d . It i s u n l i k e l y , I t would seem, that any objective method of analysis of these consequences i s about t o be discovered. Th'e only a l t e r n a t i v e , i t appears,is to ensure that r e l o c a t i o n be executed as slowly as possible and with thefaa^ those a f f e c t e d . In Vancouver, the proposed expansion of the International, A i r p o r t has resulted i n t h e expropriation: of nearly 100 homes which has resulted In s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n and public controversy. The construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway across southern Ontario; resulted i n the displacement of 6„500 people inveight;; communities. m s p i t e of a good deal ; of i n i t i a l bitterness, s o c i a l patterns were disrupted as the p r i c e of progress. 29 cne wonders whether people today would be w i l l i n g to pay t h i s p r i c e . .An i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t of t h i s case i s that no apparent analysis was done either ;v- before or a f t e r i n an attempt hto prevent .the r e p e t i t i o n -, of errors or contribute a p r i o r s o c i a l input i n t o the decisIon-making. A notable exception was a study of the people affected by the Columbia River project t i t l e d : People i n the way.3° A glimpse i s provided i n t o some Issues 37 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e l o c a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d by the r a i s i n g of the l e v e l o f t h e Arrow Lakes which f l o o d e d 40,000 a c r e s of l a n d . An attempt i s made t o g r a p p l e w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l -t i e s o f the p r o c e s s and s t e p s t h a t were f o l l o w e d by the government and „the u t i l i t y company i n l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n and r e l o c a t i o n . A c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n of the s t r e s s experienced a%by >the people; i n v o l v e d i s communicated, as w e l l as t h e i l l u s -t r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t problems i n d i f f e r e n t communities. . Follow-up r e s e a r c h on the Arrow Lakes may improve t h e i n -f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r f u t u r e h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p r o j e c t s , : v and p r o v i d e t h e feedback necessary t o permit b e t t e r . e v a l u a - A c -t i o n p r i o r t o the development o f f u t u r e p r o j e c t s . In modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s ' r e l o c a t i o n o f t e n produces some of the community consequences which have been demonstrated, i n a c u l t u r e where t h e people l i v e more c l o s e l y to t h e n a t u r a l environment, e i t h e r by h a r v e s t i n g i t s n a t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y In -.-the case of Northern Indians i n Canada o r by c u l t i v a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , changes may o c c u r a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . L a g l e r w r i t e s about d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s where the changes brought about by man-made l a k e s have profound e f f e c t s on t h e way of l i f e o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . ^ * T h i s can o c c u r a t two l e v e l s ? f i r s t l y , i n a s t a b l e s o c i e t y unaccustomed 33 to change, as Is common In non-industrial s o c i e t i e s , r e l o c a t i o n to new areas may produce confusion and an i n a b i l i t y to make a l i v i n g due to the adjustments required by new or d i f f e r e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l techniques. Secondly, i n a society where most of the food comes from l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r e , environmental impacts can have major e f f e c t s . The Aswan Dam on the N i l e has reduced the f i s h i n g on the Mediterranean coast, reduced the f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l , and provided an increased habitat In the i r r i g a t i o n canals of a parasite-carrying snail,-'' Relocation of newly i r r i g a t e d areas may be f r u i t l e s s i n every sense i f conse-quences such as these are not anticipated. Forced r e l o -cation may disrupt l i v i n g patterns to such a degree that people may lack the new s k i l l s to exploit the i r r i g a t e d land, These examples i l l u s t r a t e that while the analysis of r e l o c a t i o n projects does provide some information regard-ing the s o c i a l impacts, i t would appear d i f f i c u l t to draw a s u f f i c i e n t number of generalizations to provide p r i o r information to the decision-makers concerned. The need to consider some of the secondary s o c i a l e f f e c t s mu3t be considered, one wonders i f the Egyptians had the Information they have today p r i o r to construction of the Aswan Dam whether they would have proceeded l n the same manner. 39 F e a s i b i l i t y must be measured i n broader terms than the economic or technical point of view, F. Water Resource Development projects Some" of the l a r g e s t scale economic and s o c i a l changes that can occur i n regions even when re l o c a t i o n i s hot-involved m water resource develppment pr o j e c t s . Dams on r i v e r systems have long been recognized by people as methods of reducing flood dangers, producing e l e c t r i c i t y or providing water storage f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and-Irrigation as well as i n d u s t r i a l uses. Recreation on-"the man-made lakes and Improved f i s h e r i e s were often i n - - > eluded as secondary benefits. A l l these points have i n common the improvement or development of the l o c a l or re-gional economy through increased employment opportunities, Major developments of t h i s nature have long: been' considered-; an Important'tool f o r economic progress. The Tennessee Valley Authority was set up i n the United states to u t i l i z e the hydro-electric p o t e n t i a l of the r i v e r .in a co-ordinated fashion and _thus provide a stable economic-base f o r a hitherto r e l a t i v e l y poor -.-region.: There were s o c i a l Ideals included i n the goals f o r t h i s project and to some extent may have helped e s t a b l i s h a t r a d i t i o n that water resources are a key element i n regional growth. 40 The l a r g e c a p i t a l Investments r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of p r o j e c t s of t h i s n a t u r e a r e u s u a l l y o n l y a v a i l a b l e from t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l of government In t h e form o f shared c o s t programs. In o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e " b e s t " e x p e n d i t u r e of t h e s e funds and determine where they s h o u l d be a l l o c a t e d in o r d e r t o maximize t h e r e t u r n s t o the n a t i o n a l purse, c a r e f u l l y adapted s t u d i e s were evolved t o meet t h i s s p e c i f i c requirement. C o s t - b e n e f i t and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s s t u d i e s performed a n a l y s e s of the b e n e f i t s which would a c c r u e , i n d o l l a r s , i n view o f the expenditure.- C o s t - b e n e f i t s t u d i e s a r e v e r y s e n s i t i v e t o the i n t e r e s t r a t e s used and a r e not w e l l equipped t o e v a l u a t e non-monetary c o s t s and b e n e f i t s , a l t h o u g h attempts a r e made.33 E s s e n t i a l l y , i f a p r o j e c t Is g o i n g t o stimu-l a t e more : economic growth ( b e n e f i t s ) than i s spent, the •cost-!benefit'-'ratio "-will >be^l'arger"''-thah., one. F o r exampieV - ^ i f the e x p e n d i t u r e of 1 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s r e s u l t s i n 1.3 million i n b e n e f i t s - the r a t i o i s 1.3. v The h i g h e r t h e r a t i o the:'hlgher* ; :b ;n7the p r o j e c t would be-come. I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o understand the f r a i l t y w i t h which a p r o c e s s such a s . t h i s would be abla,to d e a l w i t h 34 what economists c a l l e x t e r n a l o r s o c i a l c o s t s . ^ Biswas " and p u r l e p o i n t out t h a t i n a b i b l i o g r a p h y o f t h e S o c i o -economic a s p e c t s of water Resource s t u d i e s p r e p a r e d i n t h e 41 U.S. o n l y 18 of the 700 e n t r i e s d e a l t -with t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s . They go on t o p o i n t out t h a t ; "Cost e f f e c t i v e n e s s s u f f e r s from a p h i l o s o p h i c a l weakness. I t h o l d s t h a t one f a c t o r - economic-i s fundamental and t h a t a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s - the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l - a r e d e r i v a t i v e T h i s i s a f a l l a c y known t o students of p h i l o s o p h y as t h e f a l l a c y o f r e d u c t i o n i s m ; i t reduces the c o m p l e x i t y o f r e a l i t y t o one o f i t s elements, and o f f e r s t h a t one i s s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n i n g f o r the whole."35 The w r i t e r s go on t o conclude t h a t s o c i a l assessments have not been prepared because of a l a c k o f methodology " t o i d e n t i f y and e v a l u a t e the p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l and environmental consequences of water d e v e l o p m e n t s . " I t might be more u s e f u l t o r e a l i z e t h a t , i n the p a s t , t h e r e was n e i t h e r demand from the p u b l i c n o r the p o l i c y makers f o r t h i s I n f o r m a t i o n , thus i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t methodologies remained undeveloped. Sewell s t a t e s ; " . . . s t u d i e s of the e x t e r n a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l :• impacts = a r e a l s o r e q u i r e d , p o l i c y makers need -t o know 8 f o r example, what e f f e c t s of a proposed - I r r i g a t i o n scheme a r e l i k e l y t o be on the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f communities i n the r e g i o n a f f e c t e d by t h e scheme."3o The e f f e c t s o f p r o j e c t s of t h i s t y p e a r e o f t e n ...y.ery l a r g e and widespread. » E x t e r n a l " e f f e c t s w i l l have ; ito be ' cons i d ered more c a r e f u l l y = than t s imply p e r m i t t i n g - v -economic e f f i c i e n c y to be the s o l e c r i t e r i o n i n an e v o l v i n g " s p a c e s h i p economy" r e f e r r e d t o i n Chapter One. kz The Bennett Dam on t h e B r i t i s h Columbia s e c t i o n o f the Peace R i v e r p r o v i d e s s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g examples of u n f o r s e e n s o c i a l consequences. Had t h i s t y p e o f i n f o r -mation been a v a i l a b l e i n advance, the d e c i s i o n about the l o c a t i o n , s t a g i n g and s c h e d u l e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n may have been a b l e t o be a d j u s t e d t o minimize these e x t e r n a l i t i e s . I t was found t h a t as : a r e s u l t • o f t h e s p r i n g f l o o d s b e i n g h e l d back by t h e dam, the water l e v e l s l n t h e downstream peace-Athabasca D e l t a were lowered which reduced t h e h a b i t a t f o r f i s h and f u r b e a r i n g animals which had enabled t h e D e l t a I n d i a n p e o p l e to be s e l f - r e l i a n t p r i o r t o t h i s ; ; time. As w e l l , the lower l e v e l s h i n d e r n a v i g a t i o n and r e -duce t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y and f u t u r e growth of some o f the r i v e r communities. In t h e town o f Hudson's Hope, 13 m i l e s downriver from the dam s i t e , the p o p u l a t i o n s w e l l e d from a few hundred t o 7,500.. i n 1967. The r a p i d s o c i a l , changes; o b l i t e r a t e d t h e f a b r i c o f the o l d community, then a f t e r the c o n s t r u c t i o n produced what one o f t h e r e s i d e n t s c a l l e d .; a "hangover effect»3?; The community power s t r u c t u r e s , an i m p o r t a n t - a s p e c t of the town,-may a l s o be changed.38 , The g e a r i n g down of the p o p u l a t i o n from 7,500 t o i t s p r e s e n t l e v e l of 1,000 a l s o c r e a t e d h a r d s h i p on t h e town. The p r e s s u r e on moose and f i s h from the r e c r e a t i o n a l pur-s u i t s of the c o n s t r u c t i o n workers a l s o reduced h u n t i n g 43 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e In the Region of Hudson's Hope who, p r i o r t o t h e "boom" s t i l l l i v e d t o a l a r g e degree by t r a d i t i o n a l p u r s u i t s , ^ These people were o f t e n f o r c e d onto s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , i n t o temporary wage employment, which permanently a f f e c t e d t h e i r l i v i n g p a t t e r n s . A l c o h o l i s m and p r o s t i t u t i o n r e s u l t e d i n some cases as w e l l . T h i s Is i n a d d i t i o n t o the e f f e c t s upon the s e v e r a l s m a l l I n d i a n b a n d 3 t h a t had t o be r e l o c a t e d as a r e s u l t . o f the f o r m a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia*s l a r g e s t l a k e o f 680 square m i l e s . The l e s s o n from t h i s must be t h a t p r i o r s t u d i e s and i n t e g r a t e d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g must be made an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i r development i f a f t e r an Informed d i s c u s s i o n , t h e d e c i s i o n t o go ahead i s made, and r e d u c i n g t h e uncer-t a i n t y among those a f f e c t e d , • p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a l s o an important issue,. B p c k i n g ; o b s e r v e s ; . ^ was.: assumed i n • t h e r p r a i r l e s t h a t . the i m p o r t a t i o n of water i n t o dry areas would cause an ~ : " economic boom In s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t many more a t t r a c t i v e -: areas o f Canada have adequate water s u p p l i e s and do not ex p e r i e n c e g r o w t h , ^ The erroneous assumption i s made t h a t water i s the " l i m i t i n g f a c t o r " i n economic growth. An important p o i n t i s t h a t i f an i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t i s planned f o r an a r e a , without the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e farmers a f f e c t e d , I t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t they w i l l not wish t o 44 change t h e i r methods o f a g r i c u l t u r e o r cannot a f f o r d new machinery* p r i o r d i s c u s s i o n would enable t h e p l a n n e r s t o determine t o what degree t h e people Involved would l i k e t o see t h e i r r e g i o n changed. S i m i l a r l y the I n d i a n people i n t h e peace case may have been a b l e , w i t h money and i n f o r m a t i o n , t o ev o l v e programs In advance t o b e t t e r d e a l with; thei; changes, that : were go i n g t o occur,:- '•-;:-The l e s s o n must be t h a t environmental and s o c i a l impact s t u d i e s r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t w h i l e b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s e s a r e s t i l l u s e f u l and indeed n e c e s s a r y , i n some cases f i n e r and more d e t a i l e d I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o j e c t as well as t h e i n c i d e n c e of the c o s t s must be prepared as well. The l i t e r a t u r e i n the a r e a o f water r e s o u r c e development c o n t a i n s some d e f i n i t e concerns i n r ; t h i s a r e a i n terms o f j r e l o c a t i o n , e c o l o g i c a l changes, l i v i n g p a t t e r n changes, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e x t e r n a l .costs a n d - ' t h e i r - d i s t r i b u t i o h , -an G. D i s t r i b u t i v e Imoact S t u d i e s In the p a s t , p l a n n e r s attempted t o produce plans th a t : were- i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t : o f t h e p u b l i c * I t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p r o j e c t s such as i r r i g a t i o n c o n f e r b e n e f i t s and c o s t s t o d i f f e r e n t groups i n s o c i e t y . The Idea r e p r e -sented In the "master p l a n " was an example of the assumed 45 u n i t y o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . Today t h i s has been questioned i n the p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e as p l a n n e r s attempt t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s of courses of a c t i o n from which t h e p o l i t i c i a n s can then choose t h e most a c c e p t a b l e . The next l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n one would expect would be t o ask f o r s p e c i f i c I n f o r m a t i o n about the i n c i d e n c e o r e f f e c t s of t h e p l a n o r p r o j e c t upon t h e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s and i n t e r e s t s i n s o c i e t y . ^ A l f r e d Khan i n a d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s t a t e s j "In one sense a t l e a s t , a l l p l a n n i n g may be seen as a p r o c e s s of r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . " ^ 2 In the p a s t the statement t h a t so many new houses a y e a r were planned f o r , would have been c o n s i d e r e d an a c c e p t a b l e way of h o u s i n g new p o p u l a t i o n growth. Today i t i s important to c o n s i d e r not o n l y the number of u n i t s b u t the c o s t s and forms of t e n u r e of t h e new b u i l d i n g s . suburban homes" on l a r g e - l o t s or-.•another s i n g l e ••dwell Ing type may not. meet • t h e needs of young working p e o p l e as I n t e r e s t s and needs -v a r y i n heterogeneous l a r g e c i t i e s . The i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on " q u a l i t y of l i f e " and demand f o r a b e t t e r environment has sometimes r e s u l t e d i n c o n f r o n t a t i o n s between a f f e c t e d communities and p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . One of the major t r e n d s i n p l a n n i n g would appear t o be toward a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o c e s s by t h e a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s . An example o f t h i s approach t o p l a n n i n g , which 46 u t i l i z e s l o c a l e x p e r t i s e and knowledge, as w e l l as drawing people i n t o a p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s , i s o u t l i n e d i n what Friedman c a l l s " t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g " » ^ The s t r e s s i s on d i a l o g u e between the pl a n n e r s and t h o s e a f f e c t e d by t h e d e c i s i o n . The r e s u l t s may be p l a n s which a r e f a r b e t t e r s u i t e d t o l o c a l needs because t h e g o a l s o f those a f f e c t e d a r e r e f l e c t e d i n the r e s u l t s , as opposed to t h e imposed o r assumed go a l s o f p l a n n e r s In a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g agency, a s i t u a t i o n which has produced many problems and o f t e n r e s u l t s i n t e n s i o n between t h e c i t i z e n s and the p l a n s . The c o s t of t h i s open d i s c u s s i o n i s a more complicated method of de c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Broader areas~i. a r e opened f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and more a l t e r n a t i v e s reduce t h e chances o f - d i s c o v e r i n g a s i n g l e r i g h t answer. :> The p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of t h e environmental movement i s a l s o h a v i n g I n t e r e s t i n g s o c i a l consequences that-some w r i t e r s are' beginning:- t o c o n s i d e r ; and t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t planners•uwlli•:•have<tO:^d..eal•v^with:•/thIs^slfcuatlon::^^ m o r e ^ f ' r e q u e n t i y ^ become :.the*:rule-.:-:»r-^ile:^.tha.-.xryArfor a .better environment . seems u n i v e r s a l , the environmental impacts of a p r o j e c t may d i f f e r g r e a t l y i n t h e i r economic Incidence, b o t h among i n d i v i d u a l s i n any g i v e n a r e a and between s e p a r a t e r e g i o n s . 47 One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t i n g from t h e p o p u l a r environmental movement and the r e s u l t a n t p a r t i -c i p a t o r y s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g i s the problem o f I n t e r e s t s . Those i n o p p o s i t i o n t o pl a n s and who may have something t o l o o s e , a r e u s u a l l y v o c i f e r o u s i n t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n . The p e o p l e who a r e l i k e l y t o b e n e f i t , o f t e n i n d i r e c t l y , tend to•;-'be.--:'more'-'c6mpiaceht.' Middle c l a s s groups whose b a s i c needs a r e met tend t o demand b e t t e r environmental a m e n i t i e s w h i l e working c l a s s people o r s i n g l e p a r e n t s f o r ."example, may have t h e i r l i v e s f i l l e d w i t h immed l a t e concerns o f day t o day e x i s t e n c e . The more wealthy tend; t o have the time, p o l i t i c a l a c c e s s and eloquence t o make statements about p r o t e c t i n g l o c a l n a t u r a l a m e n i t i e s . T h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n t o c r i t l z e f o r those t o whom a b e t t e r environment means b e t t e r housing o r who need t h e i n d u s t r i a l j o b s . Downs p o i n t s out t h a t "The e l i t e ' s environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s o f t e n t h e 'common-man'a Improved.•^.standard'^of-:-.-living»..-and'rprov..i'des-:v..^ examples such as Hawaii, automobile use and suburban d e v e l o p m e n t . ^ Babcock e x p l a i n s " I t i s not t h a t t h e poor do not c a r e about the environment, environment means t o them f i n d i n g a decent s h e l t e r r e asonably a c c e s s i b l e t o 48 What is the role of planning in this situation? In some areas where urban development is spreading at a rapid rate, l o c a l resistance to growth frequently develops as people view with disdain the loss of natural amenities in their region. The result is sometimes "exclusionary zoning", where lo c a l jurisdictions refuse to allow ;densities more than two acres per dwelling for example and demand a high level of amenities. The costs of hous-ing land are thus maintained at levels which are beyond the reach of most psople. This was done for example in Shaughnessy Heights In Vancouver in the 1920»s. zoning in fact," was born out of people's desire to conserve the "character" of neighborhoods and prevent intrusion by in-dustry or high density housing, information gatherings one of the tasks of the planner, may provide a par t i a l solution to this essentially philosophical situation. A study i n California recommended that regional social Impacts of exclusionary >zoning policies should be: evaluated. Babcock goes further to point out that the U.S. National Environmental,?^ have precisely these ; .. . _ ~ ... - ..... ..  . 50 • kinds of negative social effects.-' His suggestion is that ; prior to any housing project being rejected for ecological reasons, a housing Impact statement be required setting forth 4 9 a) the e f f e c t such a r e s t r a i n t would have on the supply, c o s t and q u a l i t y of l o c a l housing, b) what attempt was made to f i n d a l t e r n a t i v e methods of p r e s e r v i n g the environment t h a t would l e s s e n the e f f e c t on the h o u s i n g s u p p l y , c) to i n d i c a t e what segment of the community — : . ^ v . t . i s b e a r i n g t h e burden, of an environmental r 51 p r o t e c t i o n measure. The p o i n t i s t h a t the p r o v i s i o n of a broader spectrum of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the s o c i a l as w e l l as the environ-- ; mental: e f f e c t s of a p r o j e c t s h o u l d enhance the p o s s i b i l i t y of a n environmental compromise b e i n g reached as more con-s i d e r a t i o n s w i l l e n t e r the a n a l y s i s p r i o r t o the d e c i s i o n . These thorny d e c i s i o n s can then be made, as indeed they shoul d , by w e l l Informed p o l i t i c i a n s conversant w i t h the "people a f f e c t e d and informed as to the consequences of ' t h e i r -actions,' In the same way plannersy: i n t h e i r , e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e plan3 must attempt.to deal" w i t h the d i s t r i -b u t i v e e f f e c t s of the a l t e r n a t i v e s , A3 d i f f i c u l t a matter as t h i s may be B i t must be undertaken since, t h e requirement f o r making s o c i a l , c h o i c e s w i l l n ot d i s a p p e a r even-though: . e x i s t i n g t o o l s a r e Inadequate f o r t h a t purpose, Some economists and o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s a r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t the core of many o f our s o c i a l 50 problems Is r e l a t e d t o the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of Income. I t has been suggested f o r example t h a t the cause o f slum h o u s i n g Is low incomes and t h e s o l u t i o n l i e s i n the a r e a o f s u b s i d i z i n g p e o p l e r a t h e r than p r o v i d i n g low c o s t 53 h o u s i n g . J J The" C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n a s s i s t e d home ownership program appears t o f o l l o w t h i s p h i l o s o p h y . i f , i n "the" f uturV,/ m a n i p u l a t i o n of the: " d i s t r l - :=v b u t l o n o f income becomes a more prominent p u b l i c p o l i c y , the p r i o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the d i s t r i b u t i v e e f f e c t s o f -•^planning dec i s I ons-; espec l a l l y . i n t h e hous i n g f l e l d .•would-.--.n-.- •?. ••-^become - an important part: o f the p o l i c y a n a l y s i s of t h i s •-n a t u r e , - i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s s o r t could be -u s e f u l ; i n d e t e r m i n i n g the u t i l i t y o f c e n t r a l government gr a n t s t o ^ l o c a l areas f o r land banking, redevelopment o r borrowing f u n d s . B o n n e r warns t h a t -•-•-"Past d e c i s i o n s made without adequate d i s t r i b u t i o n ; knowledge now appear o f t e n t o l a c k economic and s o c i a l wisdom. ...we must now c o l l e c t t he data - - a n d - . d o t h e analysis••'•,.of the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l impacts t h a t a r e needed f o r today's d e c i s i o n . " The d i s t r i b u t i o n a l a s p e c t s -of- p l a n n i n g dec i s Ions would appear t o c o n s t i t u t e an important s o c i a l concern which Is f r e q u e n t l y o v e r l o o k e d not only by p l a n n e r s but by ot h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s and p o l i c y makers. I t may be u s e f u l t o t h i s type o f analy-s i s t o ask which groups In s o c i e t y a r e a f f e c t e d by p l a n s or p o l i c i e s i n terms o f housing or othe r a m e n i t i e s . Given the l i s t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n a s o c i a l impact study, each 51 should be a n a l y s e d l n terms of the consequences t o the v a r i o u s a f f e c t e d groups t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . H. The Environmental .impact statement.NEPA .and t h e Human Consequences. A s t i m u l u s t o r e s e a r c h i n the g e n e r a l a r e a o f environmental and s o c i a l Impacts o f p r o j e c t s has been an a c t s i g n e d i n t o law i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n I969, The N a t i o n a l Environmental p o l i c y A c t . Sec. 102 o f t h i s A c t s t i p u l a t e s t h a t ; "A.. . A l l a g encies of the F e d e r a l - Government s h a l l u t i l i z e a systematic,-- i n t e r d i s c i p l i n -a r y approach;which w i l l insure;; the, i n t e g r a t e d use o f the n a t u r a l aha s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and the environmental d e s i g n a r t s i n p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g which may have an impact .-•on man's environment, B.•,unquantif l e d environmental a m e n i t i e s and v a l u e s may be g i v e n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s i d e r a -t i o n In decision-making: a l o n g w i t h economic v and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . " 55 The d e f i n i t i o n s , adequacy, procedures and i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements f o r tha impact s t u d i e s have c r e a t e d major l e g a l c o n t r o v e r s y which may be insurmountable,5^ -phe p o i n t of i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study i s the methodology u t i l i z e d i n th e s e types o f r e p o r t s . Jack D a v i s , the former Canadian ; M i n i s t e r f o r the environment, announced i n A p r i l , 1974, t h a t s i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n was under c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r Canada t o a i d t h e f o r m a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of environmental Issues 52 i n the development of l a r g e government p r o j e c t s . Under NEPA, r e p o r t s have been prepared f o r highways, watershed p r o t e c t i o n and f l o o d c o n t r o l , a i r p o r t s , n a v i g a t i o n works and power g e n e r a t i o n . The problems w i t h t h e s e statements themselves a r e s i g n i f i c a n t as White p o i n t s o u t ; " 1 . incomplete i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e l i k e l y b i o -- ^ 1 l o g i c a l , p h y s i c a l and economic e f f e c t s o f the proposed work. 2. A complete d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e Impacts of a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e s i s d i f f i c u l t . 3* D i f f i c u l t y o f a t t a c h i n g weights t o t h e numerous impacts i n o r d e r t o permit s o c i a l e v a l u a t i o n * such e v a l u a t i o n r e q u i r e s agree--aent on s o c i a l aims and on the v a l u e system • t o be used i n a s s e s s i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f a g i v e n a c t i o n i n a c h i e v i n g those alms." 57 In s p i t e of the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e NEPA s e v e r a l important changes i n the p r o c e s s by which p l a n n i n g has b e e n c a r r i e d out have r e s u l t e d . F i r s t l y , t h e r e i s a c o l l e c t i o n of b a s i c background d a t a . The c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n a r e enumerated and prepared i n a d r a f t r e p o r t w h i c h , i s submitted t o i n t e r e s t e d agencies and i n d i v i d u a l s T h i s p o i n t may be the most s i g n i f i c a n t a spect of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n . The p l a n n i n g process I s brought i n t o the open p u b l i c view and d e m y s t i f i e d so t h a t assumptions, f a c t s , and i n t e r e s t s r e f l e c t e d can be observed and d i s c u s s e d * There. w i l l be shortcomings as w e l l , f o r some i n t e r e s t s may be more eloquent, o r i n f l u e n t i a l than o t h e r s . There i s a r i s k t h a t too narrow concern f o r the o p i n i o n s of l o c a l a r e a 53 groups may r e s u l t i n a b a l k a n i z e d anarchy d e v e l o p i n g . Babcock p o i n t s out t h a t one group has a p p l i e d under NEPA t o prevent the development o f r a c i a l l y mixed housi n g . B e t t e r s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a g r e a t e r e f f o r t t o seek t h e a l t e r n a t i v e views t o those o f the environmen-t a l i s t s would appear t o be a n e c e s s i t y i n t h i s type of s i t u a t i o n . The more e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d , p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s r a l s o may tend t o Introduce a b i a s a g a i n s t s o c i a l l y u s e f u l p r o j e c t s . One of the advantages t o an open p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s such as t h i a i s t h a t i t may a s s i s t t h e e l u c i d a t i o n Of the s o c i a l impacts o f a p r o j e c t . The d r a f t r e p o r t w i l l p r o v i d e the people a f f e c t e d w i t h some d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o j e c t s The d e l a y w h i l e the d r a f t r e p o r t i s b e i n g c i r c u l a t e d and p r i o r t o the p r e p a r a t i o n of the f i n a l r e p o r t , : upon which the d e c i s i o n s w i l l be made, p r o v i d e s a d e l a y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and; d e c i s i o n t a k i n g . D u r i n g t h i s "period people i n v o l v e d can not o n l y have the o p p o r t u n i t y of i m p r o v i n g upon t h e r e p o r t s by c o n s i d e r i n g impacts' t h e d e v e l o p e r may have ignoredy and making r e p r e s e n t a t l o n s ; they can a l s o d i s c u s s among themselves the conse-quences and the steps the people i n the community wish t o take.5 9 T h i s awareness about the range o f consequences may g i v e t h e community a warning and tend t o reduce the 54 "future shock" which might r e s u l t i f people were unin-formed but l i k e l y to be a f f e c t e d . ^ 0 The opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n may also reduce the a l i e n a t i o n of the Individuals which often r e s u l t s from a f e e l i n g of power-lesshess and may improve the community cohesion so that i f a change i s approved, f o r example the l o c a t i o n of a power plant, the community can take steps to cope with the ; s i t u a t i o n . . . . Babcock notes that NEPA r e f l e c t s mainly the middle c l a s s environmental Interests but suggests that better analysis of the housing Impacts be prepared by planners to provide a more balanced l e v e l of information, : The problem w i l l s t i l l remain a d i f f i c u l t one although i t remains an improvement over the t r a d i t i o n a l process where-by -planners -prepare information- of ten without opportunity •• f o r public c r i t i c i s m , and present.it: to-the p o l i t i c i a n s ; who not only have-to consider the information but the degree to which i t r e f l e c t s the values of the community. The rapid increase in"environmental concern i n the physical e c o l o g i c a l sense may produce a back-lash among tho3e who are adversely affected by the social'aspects of environ-mental l e g i s l a t i o n . The American l e g i s l a t i o n has resulted i n the development of guidelines f o r the assessment of Impacts 55 b e i n g prepared by many a g e n c i e s . I t may be u s e f u l t o sk e t c h some of the c r i t e r i a i d e n t i f i e d f o r these a n a l y s e s by the Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of the Army i n a r e p o r t t i t l e d ; " G u i d e l i n e s f o r the Assessment of Economic, S o c i a l and E n v i r o n m e n t a l E^ C i v i l Works p r o j e c t s " (1972)- ;;v-v'^ s t a t e s t h a t the purpose i s "to ensure t h a t a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a d verse and b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f proposed p r o j e c t s a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d ...such e f f e c t s n o t i n c l u d e d In b e n e f i t -c o s t a n a l y s i s a r e the s u b j e c t of the g u i d e l i n e s . " ^ The sequence o f s t e p s o u t l i n e d may p r o v i d e an example of the methodology i n v o l v e d under NEPA: "1. Assemble a p r o f i l e o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e p l a n n i n g a r e a ; 2. Extend the p r o f i l e t o make p r o j e c t i o n s of... . "without p r o j e c t " c o n d i t i o n s through the expected l i f e o f the p r o j e c t ; 3 . Make "with p r o j e c t " p r o j e c t i o n s , i d e n t i -f y i n g c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s and t r a c i n g t h e i r e f f e c t s f o r each a l t e r n a t i v e ; 4. i d e n t i f y , s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . 5. D e s c r i b e and d i s p l a y each s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t 6. E v a l u a t e adverse and b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s ; 7. C o n s i d e r p r o j e c t m o d i f i c a t i o n s where adverse e f f e c t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t ; 8. seek feed-back from o t h e r sources; 9. Use e f f e c t assessment i n making recommen-d a t i o n s ; 10. prepare a statement of f i n d i n g s ; ' 11. Use e f f e c t assessment i n p r e p a r i n g the Environmental Impact Statement." 56 The Army g u i d e l i n e s p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g i l l u s -t r a t i v e l i s t o f s o c i a l e f f e c t s . They i n c l u d e : n o i s e , p o p u l a t i o n , ( m o b i l i t y , d e n s i t y , r e l o c a t i o n o f p e o p l e ) , a e s t h e t i c s , housing, a r c h e o l o g i c and h i s t o r i c remains or s t r u c t u r e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , l e i s u r e , c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , com-munity c o h e s i o n , community growth, i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s and 'health.-62 j n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the economic e f f e c t s o f the p r o j e c t the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e r a i s e d t n a t i o n a l economic development, l o c a l government f i n a n c e ( t a x a t i o n revenues and p r o p e r t y v a l u e s ) , l a n d use, p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , r e g i o n a l growth e f f e c t s . Income d i s t r i -b u t i o n , employment,, b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y , d i s p l a c e m e n t of farms and food supply. One o f the developments o c c u r r i n g i n the U.S. about which t h e r e I s - i n c r e a s i n g environmental concern i s the preponderance o f n u c l e a r power s t a t i o n s . In 1 9 7 3 , a R e g u l a t o r y Guide f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of Environmental -. Reports f o r N u c l e a r p l a n t s , was prepared .by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.&3 -phe purpose wa3 t o make a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c methods a c c e p t a b l e t o the regu-l a t o r y s t a f f o f t h e AEC of Implementing r e g u l a t i o n s and p o l i c y . \ These g u i d e l i n e s have been d i s c u s s e d and o f t e n adopted by o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f many types 57 o f impact s t u d i e s . In the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the economic and s o c i a l c o s t s r e s u l t i n g from a proposed n u c l e a r f a c i l i t y , a s e r i e s o f e x t e r n a l c o s t s and t h e i r e f f e c t s on p e o p l e a r e r a i s e d f o r examination and e v a l u a t i o n . ^ T h i s a n a l y s i s s h o u l d include' "the p r o b a b l e number and l o c a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n group a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d , t h e e s timated economic and s o c i a l - impact, and any s p e c i a l measures taken t o : a l l e v i a t e t h e impact.« 65 Examples o f consequences a r e d i v i d e d i n t o s h o r t term e x t e r n a l c o s t s ; s h o r t a g e of housing, c o n n e c t i o n of highways, n o i s e and c o n s t r u c t i o n -n u i s a n c e s , o v e r l o a d i n g . w a t e r and sewer systems, crowding of s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s and community s e r v i c e s , and d i s r u p t i o n ( r e l o c a t i o n ) o f people's l i v e s o r the l o c a l community caused by l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n f o r the . s i t e , i n r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e need t o p r o v i d e b a l a n c e d I n f o r m a t i o n the g u i d e l i n e s also- suggest t h a t an a n a l y s i s o f t h e - s o c i a l impacts o f not b u i l d i n g t h e p l a n t be i n -cluded t h a t might r e s u l t from power s h o r t a g e s . Examples o f the l o n g term economic and s o c i a l c o s t s l i s t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c l u d e ; impairment o f - r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s , d e t e r i o r a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c and s c e n i c v a l u e s ; r e s t r i c t i o n s on a c c e s s t o a r e a s o f h i s t o r i c * n a t u r a l or a r c h a e o l o g i c a l v a l u e ; l o s s of l a n d from p r e s e n t and f u t u r e ( o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s ) a l t e r n a t i v e uses; c r e a t i o n 58 of l o c a l l y adverse m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ; n o i s e ; r e d u c t i o n of r e g i o n a l product due t o displacement o f people from the l a n d o c cupied f b r the s i t e ; l o s t Income from r e c r e a t i o n or t o u r i s m t h a t may be impaired by e n v i -ronmental d i s t u r b a n c e s ; l o s s of income to commercial f i s h e r m e n ; decreased r e a l e s t a t e \ v a l u e s i n t h e a r e a ; i n c r e a s e d c o s t s t o l o c a l governments f o r t h e s e r v i c e s .., r e q u i r e d by t h e permanently employed workers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I t . i s important to note t h a t through the range o f s o c i a l impact s t u d i e s t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s study t h i s i s the f i r s t case where the temporal a s p e c t s o f the problem have been a n a l y s e d , once a s o c i a l impact study i s i n t h e hands o f those who a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o minimize the e f f e c t s , assuming the development has been approved In p r i n c i p a l , i t i s necessary to have t h e I n f o r -mation as the time element w i t h i n which a c t i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d . 'The l e s s o n s from the NEPA i n the U.S. a r e worth f o l l o w i n g as they c o n t i n u e t o evolve, S e v e r a l p o i n t s hav been touched upon. The b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r of i n t e r d i s c i -p l i n a r y teams of engineers, b i o l o g i s t s and a r c h e o l o g l s t s f o r example w i l l ensure a wider c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s o c i a l consequences of a p r o j e c t than would be o t h e r w i s e 59 developed,by e n g i n e e r s , f o r example. Secondly, the p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of the d r a f t r e p o r t s enables the p u b l i c t o i n d i c a t e any weaknesses i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n , perhaps as a r e s u l t of t h e i r l o c a l s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge. In a d d i t i o n , p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n enables people t o p a r t i -c i p a t e and i f n e c e s s a r y , p r o v i d e s the time r e q u i r e d t o a c c l i m a t i z e t o changes which may r e s u l t . The p a r t i c i p a -t i o n may reduce a l i e n a t i o n and permit those people who wish t o , t o become i n v o l v e d i n important d e c i s i o n s , m some cases community i d e n t i t y may be improved and thus ; t e n d - t o ^reduce^th ^ t r a d i t l o n a l - l l f e*styles.v-,.'- Goals;^arieintroduced ;pnly ; r cV? i n s o f a r as they a r e d e a l t w i t h by t h e d r a f t -reports* ( i . e . if p e o p l e d i s a g r e e they may respond t o d r a f t r e -p o r t , ) I t would seem unnecessary to attempt t o d e a l w i t h a l l "the iGsuas whan some, h i s t o r i c a l p r e s e r v a t i o n , may not be c o n s i d e r e d important, by those i n the a f f e c t e d -r e g i o n . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n of goals and impacts a r e re-., l a t e d and must be viewed t o g e t h e r . The s t u d i e s under N3PA have been done f o r a l l ranges and scope of development, from the A l a s k a oil p i p e l i n e t o urban redevelopment p r o j e c t s on a few l o t s . In a d d i t i o n , the S t a t e s have passed s i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r i n g impact statements of p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s as w e l l as s t a t e government a g e n c i e s . 60 One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n c l u d i n g t h e s o c i a l impacts a l o n g w i t h t h e environmental impacts i s t h e r e s u l t s from the f a c t t h a t the s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e t r e a t e d somewhat m e c h a n i c a l l y and the I n t a n g i b l e f a c t o r s appear weak i n ' comparison t o the environmental e f f e c t s which can o f t e n be a s c e r t a i n e d w i t h r e a s o n a b l e p r e c i s i o n . The w e i g h t i n g o f the two a s p e c t s must a l s o n o t be assumed t o be equal i n a l l cases, an Impression produced by an Impact study which covers both t h e e c o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l e f f e c t s of a g i v e n u n d e r t a k i n g , f o r example by use of a c h e c k l i s t or taatrix which Includes both e c o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . : . .. Summary The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r has been t o e l u c i d a t t h e g e n e r a l areas of concern and the Issues I n v o l v e d w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t approaches to the problem o f g a t h e r i n g : s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The main Issues w i t h i n t h i s problem which emerged r e p e a t e d l y were the problem of t h e v a r y i n g q u a l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n between economic, environmental e f f e c t s , the more d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h s o c i a l e f f e c t s and the b i a s t h a t o f t e n r e s u l t s In the d e c i s i o n s being-made on the b a s i s of the more co n c r e t e I n f o r m a t i o n . Secondly, the problem o f r e l a t i n g environmental changes to s o c i a l changes appeared, p a r t of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y v 61 r e s u l t s from the f a c t t h a t even l e s s i s known about man's s o c i a l a d a p t a b i l i t y than t h a t of n a t u r a l ecosystems. T h i r d l y , and r e l a t e d t o the l a s t a r e a , i s t h e time a s p e c t of s o c i a l consequences. F o u r t h l y , the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l as-p e c t s o f developments were r e p e a t e d l y r a i s e d . The t a c i t assumption o f c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t i n c o m e - d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n should be maintained was q u e s t i o n e d . F i f t h , t he need f o r g o a l s which can be u t i l i -zed as c r i t e r i a w i t h which t o e v a l u a t e a proposed change was c o n s i d e r e d . ^ F i n a l l y , the r o l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by those a f f e c t e d i n t h e decisIon-making p r o c e s s and t h e u t i l i t y o f t h i s element was q u e r i e d . p r i o r t o the development of an o u t l i n e model t o e v a l u a t e a case study, the next c h a p t e r w i l l a n a l y s e t h r e e p a s t experiences In t h i s f i e l d In g r e a t e r depth. The purpose- o f • t h e s e - c r i t i q u e s w i l l be t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f some o f the above c o r e Issues which have > been r a i s e d , " One ex p e r i e n c e w i l l : d e a l w i t h t h e problem of p r o v i d i n g , c o n c r e t e s o c i a l d a t a (McHarg), the second -w i t h the s o c i a l e f f e c t s o f environmental change i n t h e case o f a p l a n e v a l u a t i o n (An Environmental Impact of t h e Sacramento Plan) and the l a s t w i l l d e a l w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n In t h e case o f the development of some of t h e B r i t i s h New Towns. 62 Footnotes ^Lewis Mumford, The c i t y In H i s t o r y , penguin Books, Harmonds-worth, Middlesex, England, 1961. p.540. 2 S i r Ebenezer Howard, Garden C i t i e s of Tomorrow, E d i t e d by F . J . Osbom,:..Eaber, London, 1965. F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n I898 as Tomorrow; A p e a c e f u l path t o R e a l Reform. 3Maurice Broady, P l a n n i n g f o r People; Essays on t h e  S o c i a l Context of p l a n n i n g , Bedford square p r e s s , N a t i o n a l c o u n c i l of S o c i a l S e r v i c e , London, 1968. p . l 4 . Gans.,. " P l a n n i n g f o r people not B u i l d i n g s " , i n The C i t y problems of P l a n n i n g , M. Steward (ed. ) , penguin Books, Middlesex, 19/2, p.365. ^Hall,-Edward T. The Hidden Dimension, Garden C i t y , New York.: Doubleday, i960. ^ W i l l i a m M i c h e l s o n , Man and H i s Urban Environment: A S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. vmz 7-E.N. W i l l i a m s (ed. ) , The S o c i a l Impact of Urban Desi g n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago p r e s s , 1971. ' 8 l b i d . , p.9 Q • • .., ,.. • ..- V ..... ' T h i s r a i s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e f i n i n g s o c i a l impacts as changes i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l parson's l i f e . I t c o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o I d e n t i f y the main r e l a t i o n s h i p s by i n t e r v i e w i n g then comparing which of- t h e s e would be a f f e c t e d by the proposed change. 0 The d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be d e f i n e d as t h e ; s o c i a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact. 1 0 R . E . R i c h a r d s o n , Walter G. Rooke, G.H.' McNevln, D e v e l o p i n g  Water Resources, Ryerson, Toronto, 1969. **D.M. Paterson..."Impact of Large s c a l e Developments..." l n RAIC J o u r n a l , Vol.3 0 , No.6. (June 1953). PP.I66-I68. 63 * 2 J o s e p h S. King, "The Impact o f an Aluminum Complex L o c a t i n g i n a R u r a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Region", unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, A u s t i n , 19&9. *3u.S. ,I)epaTtment._Qf.^Co«mer.Q.e.»_Buyeau..b,f. .public Roads, Highways and Economic andl S o c i a l Changes, Washington, D.C, 196^. : ' *^Joseph L. Sc h o f e r & E.N. Thomas, "In f o r m a t i o n Requirements f o r E v a l u a t i n g the S o c i a l . .Impacts o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Investments", i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : A S e r v i c e . J.S. Coutlnho (ed.) New York Academy of S c i e n c e s , New York, V o l . V I I , 1967, pp.102-116. ^ W a l t e r c. Mcxain, "Community Response t o Highway Improve-ment" p.19-23 i n Highway Research Record, No. 96, (Jan.1965) p.19. •^Edman L. Kanwit, "Some As p e c t s of t h e S o c i a l .impact o f Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n " , p.81 - 89, i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t A S e r v i c e , J.S. Coutlnho (ed.) New Yoric Academy of " S c i e n c e s , New York, V o l . V I I , 1967. •^Vancouver Urban Research Group, F o r e v e r D e c e i v i n g You5 The p o l i t i c s o f Vancouver Development., (LIP Grant) Vancouver, 19'/z, pp. 20- zl • ^ D u r i n g the summer o f 1973. the w r i t e r , w h i l e employed by th e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s v i s i t e d s e v e r a l I n d i a n communities i n 3 r i t i s h Columbia where nearby I n d u s t r i a l developments such as r a i l w a y s , hydro-e l e c t r i c dams and s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s had produced d e s t r u c t i v e consequences upon w a y 3 of l i f e t h a t were more or l e s s " t r a d i t i o n a l " . I t would appear t h a t I f c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s damage n a t u r a l environments o r the workers over-hunt the areas, animals upon.which .; the Indians depended may d i s a p p e a r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , once p e o p l e have been drawn i n t o a market economy (one of the o b j e c t i v e s of the Economic Development program o f I.A.N.D.) i t i s v e r y unusual t h a t t h e p e o p l e w i l l r e v e r t back to t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l means of l i v i n g when the employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s d i s a p p e a r . 64 ^ % l c h a e l S c o t t ,.' "The Socio-Economic impact o f the pointed Mountain Gas F i e l d " , Northern p o l i c y and program P l a n n i n g Branch, D.I.A.N.D., Ottawa, October, 1973-2 ^ I b l d . , p. 37. 2 ^ J o h n K. Kaysmith, Canada North; Man and the Land, Northern Economic Development Branch, D.I.A.N.D., Ottawa, 1971. p.l6. 2 2 I b i d . , p.21, 2^W.E. P h i l l i p s & G. He t l a n d , "The Socio-Economic v a l u e o f B i o l o g i c a l Resources: The Case of the Peace-Athabasca D e l t a i n A l b e r t a " p. 241--248, i n The proceedings of the peace A t h a b a s c a - D e l t a Symposium,!' U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1971". p. "242. ] ; * v l n 1973 the w r i t e r was t o l d by an I n d i a n Band C o u n c i l member i n t h e town of Ai y a n s h t h a t the r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c -t i o n would be o b s t r u c t e d i f the Government of B.C. pursued the r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n without due c o n s i d -e r a t i o n f o r the I n d i a n people a f f e c t e d . 2-\j.J» Honigman, " S o c i a l D i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n F i v e Northern Canadian Communities", The Canadian Review of s o c i o l o g y  and Anthropology, Vol.2, 1965, pp.199-214. 2 ^ J i m L o t s , " S o c i a l s c i e n c e Research i n the North", The Canadian Forum, Vol.XLX, No, 586 (November, 1965J, 2^T.L." Napier, " S o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l Response to Forced R e l o c a t i o n Due to Watershed Development", Water Re- sources B u l l e t i n , V o l . 8, No, 4 (August, 1*972)?.734-794. 2^B.B. Greenbie, " S o c i a l T e r r i t o r y , Community H e a l t h and Urban p l a n n i n g " , J.A.I.P. Vol.40, ?TO.2 (March, 1974), p. 74-82. ~ . f 2 % . E . R i c h a r d s o n , D e v e l o p i n g water Resources, 1969,pp.26-28, 65 3°J„w. Hllson,..,,People, i n the way; The Human A s p e c t s o f the Columbia R i v e r P r o j e c t , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto p r e s s j vm: . ^ K a r l p.,. L a g l e r ( e d . ) , Man-Made Lakes ; p l a n n i n g and Development, F.A.O.» U n i t e d Nations Development pro-gram, Rome, 1969. 3 2 I b i d . , p.89. - ^ A l l e n V. Knesse, "The F a u s t i a n B a r g a i n " , Resources (Resources f o r t h e F u t u r e ) , Washington, D.C., No. 44 (September, 1973) pp.1-5. Kneese s t a t e s ? " I t seems c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e many f a c t o r s which a b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s can n e v e r c a p t u r e i n q u a n t i t a t i v e , ' commehsurable terms. ...Unfor-t u n a t e l y , the advantages o f ( n u c l e a r power) a r e much^mo^ i n t h e format of a b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s than a r e t h e a s s o c i a t e d • 'hazards."; - 3 S'In economists* p a r l a n c e , e x t e r n a l c o s t s a r e t h o se c o s t s which a r e not borne by the i n d u s t r y i n q u e s t i o n . I n t e r n a l c o s t s a r e , t h o s e which the i n d u s t r y o r f i r m must a c t u a l l y pay. An example o f an e x t e r n a l c o s t would be t h e dumping of p u l p wastes i n t o a r i v e r . The c o s t s of p o l l u t i n g the r i v e r a r e borne not by the p u l p m i l l but by the s o c i e t y as a whole, p o l l u -t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s can f o r c e the p l a n t t o t r e a t t h e s e wastes and thus they become an i n t e r n a l c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n . A.K. Biswas and H.W. Curie-, " S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f water Development", pp.1137-1143, water Resources B u l l e t i n , V o l . 7. No. 6, (December, 1971), p.1139. 36 -^ W.D. Sewe l l , Ii.. Judy, L. o u e l l e t . Water Management Research; S o c i a l S c i e n c e p r i o r i t i e s , Canada Department o r Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, 1969, p.62 3?The Vancouver Sun, February 12, 1974, "Hudson«s Hope Greets New Dam P l a n " . 66 ^ K a r l „F... L a g l e r (e d . ) , Man-Made Lakes. p l a n n i n g and  Development. F.A.O., U n i t e d Nations Development program, Rome, 1969. p.l49. He a l s o observes the changes i n l i f e - s t y l e s t h a t may r e s u l t , "Seasonal p a t t e r n s of employment i n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e p a t t e r n s may be a l t e r e d . " • ^ p e r s o n a l communication w i t h a member o f t h e I n d i a n Band a t Moberly. Lake, B.C. i n August, 1973. ^ R i c h a r d C. Booking, seminar paper, 8The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Water Development t o t h e Canadian Id e n t i t y , " Seminar p r o c e e d i n g s , u n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 1972, p.21 ^ J a m e s T. Bonnen, "The Absence o f Knowledge o f D i s t r i b u -t i o n a l Impacts; An o b s t a c l e t o E f f e c t i v e p o l i c y . A n a l y s i s and Decisions», pp.246-270, i n p u b l i c Expend- i t u r e s and p o l i c y A n a l y s i s , R.H. Haveman and J u l i u s - H a r g o l i s (Sds.) Markhara p u b l i s h i n g Co., Chicago, 111., 1970, 4? A . J . Kahn, Theory and p r a c t i c e of S o c i a l p l a n n i n g , R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, New York, 1969, p.9. Burke, J . Heaney, E. P y a t t , "water Resources and S o c i a l C h o i c e s " , DP.433-447, water Resources B u l l e t i n , V o l . 9, .No. 3. (June 1973). p.*4"3% ^ J o h n priedmann, R e t r a c k l n g America; A theory of T r a n s a c t i v e  P l a n n i n g . Anchor p r e s s , l,ew York, 1973. Marion Clawson, "Economic Development and Environmental Impact: I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s p e c t s " , pp, 23-43=, i n S o c i a l  S c i e n c e I n f o r m a t i o n, Vol.10,No.4,"(August, 19/1},p.25. " ^°A survey of 40 i n t e r e s t and neighbourhood groups i n G r e a t e r Vancouver prepared by the w r i t e r and Douglas Stewart i n October 1973 found t h a t a t t i t u d e s towards" t h e develop-ment o f the 1,700 a c r e U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Land3 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e f i n e d and eloquent among t h o s e groups t h a t b e l i e v e they p e r c e i v e d a l o s s of amenity. The groups such as t e n a n t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s -types and l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were r e l u c t a n t t o take 67 any p o s i t i o n as i t appeared t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s t o them o f h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n were p e r c e i v e d t o be v e r y I n d i r e c t and not worth a c t i v e l y p u r s u i n g . ^ A n t h o n y Downs, "Up and Down w i t h Ecology.:. .The .issue A t t e n t i o n C y c l e " , pp.38-50,-The p u b l i c I n t e r e s t , No.28, (Summer, 1972) p.44. ' : ^ R . F . Babcock & D.L. C o l l i e s , "Ecology and Housing: Values i n C o n f l i c t " , pp.205-220, Modernizing Urban Land  P o l i c y , Marion Clawson (ed. ) , Resources f o r t h e Future, John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1973, p.2l6. ( T h i s i s an e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e which d e a l s w i t h some s o c i a l consequences of the p o p u l a r environmental move-ment, i n terms o f I t s e f f e c t s upon t h e p o o r e r c l a s s e s In s o c i e t y . The a r t i c l e p o i n t s out t h a t NEPA could r e s u l t i n too g r e a t a s t r e s s b e i n g p l a c e d upon e n v i r o n -mental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i t h the c o s t s b e i n g inadequate p r o v i s i o n o f deeent low c o s t housing, t o p r o v i d e one example.) ^ T h e impacts of Growth; An a n a l y t i c a l Framework and F i s c a l ' -•'Example, Gruen and Gruen A s s o c i a t e s , by the •••CaliforniaT B e t t e r Housing Foundation, i n c . , Los Angeles, 1972. >v: 5°Eabcock, pp. C i t . , "Ecology and Housing...", pp.215-216. He warns t h a t e c o l o g i c a l p a n i c must be a v o i d e d : "The p o i n t i s t h a t c e r t a i n o t h e r g o a l s of a s o c i a l n a t u r e a r e a l s o Important - such as h o u s i n g . Ecology I n s i s t s upon nob o n l y t h e c e n t r e s t a g e but the whole stage, on the grounds , t h a t s u r v i v a l i s a t s t a k e . " 5 1 l b i d . ; p.216. Burke, e t . a l . , "Water Resources and S o c i a l Choices", * pp.433-447. Water Resources B u l l e t i n , V o l . 9, No.3, (June, 1973), ^ ^ R e s i d e n t i a l L i v i n g p o l i c y Committee Report, presented to the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Vancouver, October, 1973. 68 J.T. Bonnen, "The Absence of Knowledge o f D i s t r i b u t i o n a l Impacts", 1970, p.268. ^ Q u o t e d i n : G i l b e r t F. w h i t e , ^ E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact s t a t e -ments"., pp.3Q2-309 i n The p r o f e s s i o n a l Geographer, V o l . XXIV, No. 4, (November, 1972). p.303. 56 See NEPA i n the Courts, Resources f o r the Fut u r e , B a l t i m o r e , 1973. ^ 7 W h i t e . pp. Cit...p.307 J R.F. Babcock & D.L. C o l l i e s , "Ecology.and Housing.. V a l u e s i n C o n f l i c t " , pp.205-220, Modernizing urban l a n d p o l i c y , Marlon Clawson (ed.) Resources f o r the Future, John ' Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1973, p.216. -'•'•Kevin Lynch, "Performance zoning"y. Planners; Notebook, v o l . . % No. 5 (October, 1973), A.I.P., pT^ ^°Alvln T o f f 1 er, F u ture shock, Bantam, New York, 1971.. 6l : " G u i d e l i n e s f o r Assessment o f Economic, s o c i a l and En v i r o n -mental E f f e c t s o f C i v i l Works P r o j e c t s , " Dept. o f t h e Army, O f f i c e o f t h e C h i e f o f Engineers, Washington, D.C., December, 1972, p.A-1. 6 2 I b i d o , . p.A-11. ... . ...... ^ " P r e p a r a t i o n of Environmental Reports f o r N u c l e a r power P l a n t s , " R e g u l a t o r y Guide 4.2. U.S. Atomic Energy -Commission D i r e c t o r a t e of R e g u l a t o r y standards, Washington, March, 1973« 6 ^ I b i d . , pp.4,2-34. 6 5 I b i d . , pp.4.4-34. 66 T h i s was done i n C a l i f o r n i a t o p l u g what were c o n s i d e r e d l o o p h o l e s l n the N a t i o n a l Environmental p o l i c y A c t . 69 I I I . THREE GAS5 STUDIES T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l endeavour t o develop f u r t h e r some of the themes t h a t were i n d i c a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . The c e n t r a l focus w i l l be on the development of a p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e and p l a n n i n g process which may be use-f u l i n t h e improvement of the p l a n n i n g f o r s o c i a l conse-quences. While t h e l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r was o f t e n w r i t t e n w i t h the b e n e f i t o f h i n d s i g h t , the t h r e e examples i n t h i s s e c t i o n t h a t w i l l be reviewed have i n common the g o a l of a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and d e a l w i t h s o c i a l impacts i n advance of t h e p r o j e c t b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r development. These p o i n t s w i l l be used In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a model f o r the a n a l y s i s o f the case study i n the next chapter which w i l l d e a l w i t h a planned i n d u s t r i a l development In u r b a n i z i n g suburban d l s t r i c In the p r e p a r a t i o n of a s e r i e s of reviews i t i s u s e f u l t o 3tate the c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which the s u b j e c t s w i l l be e v a l u a t e d . These c r i t e r i a were gleaned from t h e c o r e o f the themes which were r a i s e d " i n the p r e v i o u s review o f the l i t e r a t u r e In Chapter I I * - These a r e as f o l l o w s ; Methodology; What typ e o f approach, s o c i a l , e n vironmental o r economic was u t i l i z e d ? How were the environmental e f f e c t s equated to t h e s o c i a l consequences? How were the i n t a n -g i b l e s evaluated? How were the temporal 70 a s p e c t s d e a l t with? O b j e c t i v e s and G o a l s ; How and from what sources were the s e o b t a i n e d f o r the purposes of the r e p o r t ? were they assumed by the p l a n n e r s , imposed by them, developed from p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , o r some combination of methods? Were t h e assumptions o f the study c l e a r l y s t a t e d ? p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; To what degree d i d those a f f e c t e d by the d e c i s i o n a s s i s t i n the f o r -mation o f the problem or r e s e a r c h concern? What r o l e d i d they have i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n ? were e f f o r t s made to p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make plans adap-t a b l e t o and a c c e p t a b l e t o the people a f f e c t e d ? D i s t r i b u t i v e consequences; How were:the e f f e c t s o f the development among d i f f e r e n t groups, evaluated? were various, i n t e r e s t s : weighted ••••••• e q u a l l y ? was s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y , o r the g r e a t e r good o f a l l people assumed? f- In whose ^ . I n t e r e s t s Is the p r o j e c t b e i n g undertaken? L e v e l of I n f o r m a t i o n ; was t h e r e an adequate l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n generated to a n a l y s e the consequences t h a t were I d e n t i f i e d . To what degree d i d the s t u d i e s meet t h e i r s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s ? What o p p o r t u n i t y -was t h e a f f e c t e d p u b l i c g i v e n t o c o n t r i b u t e t o o r comment upon the i n f o r m a t i o n p r i o r t o the d e c i s i o n ? A. Ian McHarg; The Design of a Highway Route In h i s book Design wi t h Nature, McHarg p r o v i d e s a c r i t i c i s m o f "economic determinism as an i m p e r f e c t e v a l u -a t i o n of t h e b i o p h y s i c a l w o r l d . " 1 He argues t h a t we must a l t e r bur , m i n d r s e t j a n d ^ such a -manner^1&at/;we /'embrace^hature^rather t h a n c o n t i n u e to dominate t h e waters, the l a n d , and our o t h e r n a t u r a l endow-ments. The abuse of our environment i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n poor l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , p o l l u t i o n , " l a c k of a e s t h e t i c ameni-t i e s and o t h e r - s o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s of t h e urban . environment. In a c h a p t e r of McHarg's book t i t l e d "A Step Forward" he attempts t o o f f e r an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e " i n s e n -s i t i v i t y and p h i l i s t i n i s m " of the highway e n g i n e e r . 2 H i s argument re v o l v e s - a r o u n d the f a c t t h a t the view o f one type : o f t e c h n i c a l expert r e s u l t s i n a narrow c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e problem and makes l e s s sense than a s k i n g a plumber t o d e s i g n a c i t y o r b u i l d i n g . C o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s e s of a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s which c o n s i d e r s a v i n g s i n time, o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and 72 r e d u c t i o n s i n a c c i d e n t s a r e c r i t i c i z e d as b e i n g incomplete i n h i s view. McHarg adopts a more comprehensive s e t of c r i t e r i a which I n c l u d e r e s o u r c e v a l u e s , s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s l n a d d i t i o n t o e n g i n e e r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which i n s h o r t s h o u l d " r e v e a l the b e 3 t highway alignment h a v i n g the maximum s o c i a l b e n e f i t and the minimum s o c i a l cost.»3 The highway must be viewed i n the context of i t s p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n i t s a r e a of i n f l u e n c e and co-o r d i n a t i o n w i t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o b j e c t i v e s . In a d d i t i o n t o the f i n a n c i a l and e n g i n e e r i n g r c r i t e r i a t h a t can be e v a l u a t e d i n monetary terms, McHarg proposes a more e x t e n s i v e l i s t o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s which I n c l u d e a s e r i e s of n o n - p r i c e c r i t e r i a . ^ " These a r e conven-i e n c e , s a f e t y j p l e a s u r e , h e a l t h hazards, community v a l u e s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l u e s , r e s i d e n t i a l v a l u e s , h i s t o r i c v a l u e s , ] ^ r e c r e a t i o n a l : ; v a l u e s / : s u r f a c e and ground water r e s o u r c e s , • •;. f o r e s t and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s . These can be e i t h e r n e g a t i v e voir; p o s i t i v e i n each case. 'Following the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f N t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d , McHarg suggests t h a t the v a l u e of d i f f e r e n t h o using a r e a s be ranked and t h a t water courses, f o r e s t s and the o t h e r c r i t e r i a be ranked as t o q u a l i t y , i n terms o f s p e c i e s , numbers, age and h e a l t h . H i s t o r i c b u i l d -i n g s and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a r e s i m i l a r l y l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f v a l u e . The o b j e c t i v e i s t o f i n d the highway pa t h o f 73 maximum s o c i a l u t i l i t y where i t w i l l d e s t r o y the l e a s t v a l u a b l e man-made and n a t u r a l a s p e c t s o f the landscape.-* Economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e Introduced by equa t i n g a r e a s o f poor f o u n d a t i o n s and o t h e r p h y s i o g r a p h i c b a r r i e r s o r v a l u a b l e s t r u c t u r e s t o areas o f h i g h s o c i a l c o s t as presumably i t would be r e l a t i v e l y more expensive t o cons-t r u c t In t h e s e a r e a s . The I m p o s s i b i l i t y of comparing the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s , f o r example, w i l d l i f e and l a n d v a l u e Is noted. I t i s here t h a t McHarg o f f e r s a unique s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem of oomparing d i s p a r a t e v a l u e s ; " A l l t h a t can be done i s t o i d e n t i f y n a t u r a l -and s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s and superimpose t h e s e . : By so d o i n g we can observe the maximum con-c u r r e n c e o f e i t h e r h i g h o r low s o c i a l v a l u e s and seek t h a t c o r r i d o r which t r a n s e c t s the a r e a of l e a s t s o c i a l v a l u e In a l l c a t e g o r i e s . . . . . . ^ parameters a r e not- r:cd^equal,^ i n :a given; "area, c o n s i d e r e d by I t s e l f , e x i s t i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n and r e s i d e n t i a l q u a l i t y a r e l i k e l y J t ^ b than s c e n i c v a l u e o r w i l d l i f e . -Yet i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to presume t h a t , '• where t h e r e i s an overwhelming -c o n c e n t r a t i o n of - p h y s i o g r a p h i c o b s t r u c t I o n and : ^  s o c i a l v a l u e v ' v s ^ excluded from cons-ideratioh; ;:where t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e ... absent, t h e r e Is a presumption t h a t such areas j u s t i f y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " " An important p o i n t i s not merely t h e i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of s o c i a l v a l u e s but the d e l i n e a t i o n o f thes e f e a t u r e s upon the landscape which can be used f o r s p e c i f y i n g a reason-a b l y p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n f o r a highway a l o n g i t s e n t i r e r o u t e ; McHarg recommends t h a t the highway be used as a co n s c i o u s p u b l i c p o l i c y t o c r e a t e new and p r o d u c t i v e l a n d uses a t the 7M-a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n s . The v a l u e s o f the l a n d f o r each s o c i a l c o n s i d e r -a t i o n , such as h i s t o r i c a l , s c e n i c , f o r e s t and r e s i d e n t i a l a r e i n d i c a t e d on a map and shaded i n t h r e e shades, the d a r k e s t r e p r e s e n t i n g the most s o c i a l l y v a l u a b l e . The t h r e e zones i n each c a t e g o r y may be d e r i v e d from l a n d p r i c e s , h a b i t a t , s u i t a b i l i t y , o r s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a . The maps of a l l t he d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s a r e photographed and the t r a n s -p a r e n c i e s a r e o v e r l a i d . Those area3 which a r e most v a l u a b l e appear t h e d a r k e s t and those l e a s t damaging appear l i g h t e r 1ike an X-Ray photograph. Thus i n s t e a d of att e m p t i n g t o ba l a n c e o r weight competing demands, the o v e r l a y s s e r v e t o pr e s e n t a v a s t range of da t a and i l l u s t r a t e where p o s s i b l e compromise r o u t e s may l a y . D i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a , f o r example, p h y s i o g r a p h i c and n a t u r a l o r any combination o f a l t e r n a t i v e s may be viewed t o g e t h e r f o r e v a l u a t i o n , v a r i o u s alignments of t h e proposed highway can thus be evaluated a c c o r d i n g t o the component c r i t e r i a . The aggregate map of a l l the c r i -t e r i a w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d i n the l i g h t e r tones, the l e a s t -s o c i a l - c o s t c o r r i d o r . A l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l a l s o be i l l u s t r a t e d as s l i g h t l y d a r k e r areas.'' Methodology: McHarg* s approach i s a t e c h n i c a l one i n t h a t i t attempts t o manipulate d a t a i n such a way so as t o d i s c l o s e aggregates of ''social v a l u e " then i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r s p a t i a l I n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In some cases t h e method-75 o l o g y Is economic, f o r example i n the l a n d - v a l u e c a t e g o r y and t h i s i s equated w i t h the s o c i a l v a l u e . Bach c a t e g o r y Is e v a l u a t e d i n what McHarg sees as the most s u i t a b l e manner In each case, some a r e completely s u b j e c t i v e f o r example h i s t o r i c v a l u e s w h i l e o t h e r s such as s l o p e , a r e p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l . The policy-makers a r e fa c e d w i t h what appears t o be, a t f i r s t g l a n c e , a p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . The problem o f w e i g h t i n g the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s i n the s o c i a l a r e a i s not d e a l t w i t h v e r y w e l l as McHarg admits t h a t ' • r e s i d e n t i a l v a l u e was d e r i v e d from l a n d and b u i l d i n g v a l u e s t h a t g i v e h i g h s o c i a l v a l u e t o the wealthy and too l i t t l e t o t h e poor".^ i f t h i s category i s a s i g n i f i c a n t o n e - t o r t h i s method, t h e r e s u l t s may not be v e r y d i f f e r e n t from th e f r e q u e n t s i t u a t i o n i n urban areas where freeways f o l l o w t h e l e a s t c o s t r o u t e . T h i s o f t e n means the maximum d i s r u p t t i o n of low c o s t housing as p r o p e r t y v a l u e s i n o l d e r areas i s u s u a l l y r e l a t i v e l y lower. I m p l i c i t i n the system i s the assumption t h a t the e c o l o g i c a l consequences of the highway a r e to be minimized a t a l l c o s t s . T h i s s t r o n g b i a s toward the l o c a l environment may i n some cases be i n o p p o s i t i o n t o n a t i o n a l o r r e g i o n a l needs and i t i s d i f f i c u l t i f not Impossible t o i n t r o d u c e t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n McHarg*s method of a n a l y s i s . 76 The temporal a s p e c t s of the change were not s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h a p a r t from th e recommendation t h a t the highway be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s and p l a n s . McHarg appears t o assume t h a t the one s t e p p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n the s e l e c t i o n ' of the b e s t r o u t e w i l l minimize the s o c i a l impacts. I t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t more d e t a i l e d p o l i c i e s and f o l l o w - u p w i l l be r e q u i r e d to a v o i d o v e r l o o k i n g t h e important s o c i a l s u b t l e t i e s w i t h i n McHarg's framework. A f u r t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t y r e s u l t s from the mapping and s hading.technique. Only the areas.where n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s would occur a r e shown, up. I f t h e highway: ; were to r e s u l t i n p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t s to some a r e a s , f o r ex-ample, the encouragement of growth i n a d e s i g n a t e d r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e , I t would be excluded from t h i s a n a l y s i s . McHarg admits t h a t h i s g o a l Is the d i s c o v e r y of t h e l e a s t s o c i a l - c o s t route.9 perhaps t h i s r e f l e c t s the t r e n d t o p l a n n i n g i n the f u t u r e as v i s u a l i z e d by H o i l l n g s and Gold-b e r g where i n s t e a d of p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r s b e i n g a3ked t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the s u c c e s s of t h e i r p r o j e c t s , they w i l l be asked t o - e n s u r e t h a t : t h e d i s a s t r o u s consequences: be » m i n i m i z e d . 1 0 -R e l o c a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n i s overlooked by McHarg, a seemingly important example of some o f the omitted s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A map of p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y c o u l d be added 77 t o t h i s p r o c e s s . O b j e c t i v e s and Goals; The v a l u e s and g o a l s of t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e e x c l u s i v e l y those o f McHarg and appear t o be i n no way r e l a t e d t o those of the people o r t h e communities a f f e c t e d . The e x i s t e n c e of a p l a n f o r t h e r e g i o n i s never mentioned i n the a n a l y s i s . The v a l u e of t h i s method may be t h a t the v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a a r e openly s t a t e d and t h e s t e p s a r e r e l a t i v e l y simple. I t would appear t h a t i n view o f the s t a t e d g o a l o f o b t a i n i n g the l e a s t s o c i a l c o s t r o u t e , t h i s might be more e a s i l y accom-p l i s h e d by u t i l i z i n g the l o c a l o p i n i o n which w i l l u l t i m a t e l y have t o c o - e x i s t w i t h the highway. McHarg 1s method remains a v a s t Improvement over the commonly used p u r e l y economic and e n g i n e e r i n g c r i t e r i a , however, i t would appear t o be d i f f i c u l t t o i n c o r p o r a t e d i v e r s e I n t e r e s t s and l o c a l g o a l s In t h i s method o f a n a l y s i s , once they have been e s t a b l i s h e d , .'. as h i s approach i s e s s e n t i a l l y a t e c h n i c a l one. p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; The approach u t i l i z e d by McHarg does not i n c l u d e any o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n -p l a n n i n g by those a f f e c t e d * No mention i s made i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f the outcome o f h i s method, however, th e hazard of I t s b e i n g d i v o r c e d from t h e needs of the people o f the a r e a may e x i s t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be demanded by those a f f e c t e d and secondly may c o n t r i b u t e b e t t e r I n f o r m a t i o n 78 •about t h e e f f e c t s of t h i s and s i m i l a r developments by u t i l i z i n g the l o c a l knowledge and e x p e r t i s e of e n v i r o n -mental groups f o r example. D i s t r i b u t i v e consequences: McHarg 1s a n a l y s i s i s concerned w i t h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " t h a t c o r r i d o r which t r a n s e c t s t h e a r e a of l e a s t s o c i a l value".H The s o c i a l c o s t s which he d i s c u s s e s appear to r e l a t e , i n a g e n e r a l way, t o the b r o a d e s t environmental i n t e r e s t s . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g the d i f f e r e n t i a l i n c i d e n c e of the b e n e f i t s r e s u l t a n t from h i s method of a n a l y s i s . I t : Is;-possible t h a t t h i s method i s b e s t s u i t e d t o i n t e r e s t s : - o f t h e middle and upper c l a s s e s who, h a v i n g t h e i r b a s i c needs met, a s p i r e t o Improve the q u a l i t y and a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r environment. I t would seem t h a t a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of t h e e f f e c t of.:..the: r o u t e upon l o c a l communities might be a u s e f u l a d d i t i o n to the a n a l y s i s . McHarg admits t h a t h i g h s o c i a l v a l u e f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l v a l u e s was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e l o c a t i o n o f the wealthy r a t h e r than the poor. A good environment i n s o c i e t a l terms must c o n s i d e r the s o c i a l -c l i m a t e as w e l l a 3 t h e p h y s i c a l one. i n terms o f r e l o c a t i o n , " i t may be s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e to d i s p l a c e les3 dense middle c l a s s homes where the mobile r e s i d e n t s would have l e s s d i f f i -c u l t y a d a p t i n g than removing apartment s t r u c t u r e s i n a more e s t a b l i s h e d area.12 H i s a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s l i t t l e I n f o r m a t i o n 79 f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e l o c a t i o n , but the consequences a f f e c t i n g the communities i n the path of the highway could be s i g n i f i c a n t . Mishan p o i n t s out t h a t the e x t e r n a l d i s -economies of p r o j e c t s such as a i r p o r t s and highways o f t e n have a r e g r e s s i v e n a t u r e due t o the l a c k o f c h o i c e and lower m o b i l i t y of low-Income groups.13 Lev e l of Informat i o n ; I t has been demonstrated t h a t MCHarg's method u t i l i z e d a f a i r l y comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a , r e l a t i v e t o most simple c o s t - b e n e f i t - - h i g h w a y e v a l u a t i o n s . The-manner In which the i n f o r m a t i o n ' • I s c o l l a t e d by t h e o v e r l a y t echnique i s most u s e f u l and r e -: duces the n e c e s s i t y f o r t r a d i n g o f f v a l u e s by s e l e c t I n g . t h e l e a s t Important areas i n terms of a l l the c r i t e r i a used. The aim o f t h i s type o f a n a l y s i s i s t o f i n d the l e a s t • s o c i a l c o s t r o u t e a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a and McHarg's a n a l y s i s and l e v e l o f " i n f o r m a t i o n appears to j u s t i f y the -. r e s u l t s , , - A . b e t t e r - e x p l a n a t i o n o f how the v a l u e judgements-. _ . i n v o l v e d wars made, f o r example i n the g r a d i n g of i n s t i t u -t i o n a l v a l u e s might be u s e f u l . The i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the secondary s o c i a l Impacts a t the l o c a l l e v e l however must be viewed s c e p t i -c a l l y as i t would appear somewhat i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r use by decIsion-makers, what McHarg c a l l s s o c i a l c o s t s a r e o f t e n s i m p l e economic c o s t s . R e s i d e n t i a l v a l u e s would be an ex-80 ample. Summary; The methodology u t i l i z e d by McHarg to s e l e c t the l e a s t s o c i a l c o s t r o u t e f o r a highway r e p r e s e n t s an advance, i n t h a t broad s o c i e t a l i n t e r e s t s , as viewed i n h i s terms a r e i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s , i t might be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o attempt to o b t a i n b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s o c i a l impacts a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l t o g u i d e our p l a n n i n g i n a manner which i s f l e x i b l e and a d a p t i v e not o n l y t o an i l l u s o r y s i n g l e s o c i e t a l g o a l such as the u n i t y o f man w i t h n a t u r e , but a c c e p t a b l e to l o c a l communities as w e l l . S n v l - ; ronmental p r e s e r v a t i o n a t t h e n a t i o n a l 1ev e l may be po i n t -l e s s i f p l a n s f o r the l o c a l e s i n which people a c t u a l l y l i v e and work a r e n o t developed by p l a n n e r s and p e o p l e i n a s e n s i t i v e and c o - o p e r a t i v e f a s h i o n . McHarg's method .Is v a l u a b l e i n - t h a t most o f the c r i t e r i a and assumptions a r e s t a t e d , and p o s s i b l y w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n by those a f f e c t e d a3 w e l l as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : o f broader environmental g o a l s , a compromise more a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l i n t e r e s t s may be reached. T h i s compromise c o u l d c o n t a i n a b r o a d e r l e v e l o f i n f o r m a t i o n and-might p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r b e t t e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n would Introduce the matter of l o c a l g o a l s and b e t t e r e v a l u a t i o n of t h e c r i t e r i a used In t h e a n a l y s i s . T h i s would make i t p o s s i b l e t o improve upon the s i t u a t i o n where an assumed s i n g l e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . 8 1 which McHarg seems t o depend upon Is the c e n t r a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n , and d e f i n e h i s concept of the g e n e r a l " s o c i a l c o s t " t o i n c l u d e broader s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . B. Environmental impact Report f o r t h e proposed. R e v i s i o n t o the Sacramento County G e n e r a l p i a n 1 ^ -The U.S. N a t i o n a l Environmental p o l i c y A c t of I969 r e q u i r e s t h a t f e d e r a l l y funded p r o j e c t s be preceded by environmental impact s t u d i e s prepared a c c o r d i n g t o a format which i s w r i t t e n Into the a c t . S i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n was passed i n C a l i f o r n i a a t the S t a t e l e v e l t o r e q u i r e t h a t Impact statements be prepared f o r s t a t e p r o j e c t s and a v a r i e t y of o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s . I t Is i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t the impact study of the proposed Sacramento County p l a n was ••• p r e p a r e d . •• • - • • - ••; The proposed p l a n i n c l u d e s an area" of" 997 square m i l e s and i s intended t o meet the needs-of- the county, until-,-; -1 i t reaches a p o p u l a t i o n . o f 8 8 0 , 0 0 0 , p e r s o n s , which I s expected -~ • i n 2 0 y e a r s ; ^  --The- format;--of ^he^-d i d e n t i f y and. d e s c r i b e the e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l f e a t u r e s o f - t h e county and f o l l o w i n g each f e a t u r e , p o s t u l a t e -' t h e Impacts which the p l a n might be expected t o produce. The f i r s t h a l f of the statement a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f t o a i r q u a l i t y , f o u n d a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , water r e s o u r c e s , and n a t u r a l b i o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s and the e c o l o g i c a l changes which would a c c r u e as a r e s u l t o f the implementation o f t h e proposed p l a n . 82 S e v e r a l areas of concern i n t h e »socio-physical»• s e c t i o n o f the r e p o r t a r e a l s o d e a l t w i t h : ( i ) t h e impact o f the p l a n on the " h i s t o r i c a l development" trends of the r e g i o n i s noted and the r e p o r t concludes t h a t the g e n e r a l t r e n d towards u r b a n i z a t i o n w i l l c o n t i n u e , ( i l ) "Land use and p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s " a r e r e -viewed i n terms o f the p l a n , problems o f groundwater s u p p l i e s , oosts o f the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and open space u t i l i z a t i o n a r e seen as n e g a t i v e l o n g term impacts. The r e p o r t s t a t e s j . " A n a l y s i s of t h i s planned development shows i t w i l l i n v o l v e a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s f o r water and sewage u t i l i t i e s , f i r e and p o l i c e p r o t e c -t i o n , garbage c o l l e c t i o n , l i b r a r y and p o s t a l s e r v i c e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , s i g n i f i c a n t impact on s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d r e s u l t , "3-5 The vague, obtuse r e f e r e n c e above t o ^ t h e , : . "impact" c o n t r i b u t e s o n l y . a g e n e r a l i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e range of e f f e c t s . The a b s t r a c t n a t u r e of these impacts would make the t a s k o f p l a n n i n g f o r o r improving the n e g a t i v e consequences a d i f f i c u l t one, ( i l l ) " A e s t h e t i c and n u i s a n c e c o n d i t i o n s " a r e con-cerned w i t h the impact of the p l a n upon the 83 n a t u r a l beauty of the Sacramento R i v e r , T h i s p o i n t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g one. In many communities t h e r e a r e man-made f e a t u r e s or n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s which pl a y e d a r o l e i n the h i s t o r i c a l development of the a r e a . The p r e s e r v a t i o n of these a m e n i t i e s may be u s e f u l i n the maintenance of the h i s t o r i c a l I d e n t i t y of the community as w e l l as b e i n g a e s t h e t i -c a l l y p l e a s i n g . Town squares, h i s t o r i c b u i l d -i n g s such :as;church o r r i v e r s i d e parks \: might be examples^ of - such a m e n i t i e s . X'Social- n uisances such as t r a f f i c e o njes-t l o n and n o i s e , h e a l t h hazards such as smog and p o s s i b l e n u c l e a r r a d i a t i o n from power p l a n t s a r e g i v e n as i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the nega-*.; • t i v e . s o c i a l impacts o f growth and f u r t h e r u r b a n i z a t i o n , v One- o f : the goals i n the p l a n i s a p p a r e n t l y to preserve; the~ c i t y - of sacra- - - v mentp as the employment c e n t r e f o r the county. The c o n j e s t i o n r e s u l t i n g from f u r t h e r growth i s c o n s i d e r e d . 1 ^ i t might have been u s e f u l to i d e n t i f y o t h e r s o c i a l impacts i n the f i e l d s o f housing and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r example which c o u l d have r e s u l t e d from t h i s d e c i s i o n . 8 4 (Iv) " p r o p e r t y v a l u e and Tax Base". No attempt i s made l n t h e study t o a n a l y s e the impacts upon the tax base which w i l l r e s u l t i f the planned growth o c c u r s , urban sprawl i s seen as a g e n e r a l s o c i a l c o s t which the county p l a n seeks t o r e s t r i c t . Unemployment i s d i s -cussed, however, the impact statement concludes t h a t the "proposed p l a n cannot be expected t o have measurable e f f e c t on the l e v e l o f unem-ployment i n the county. "I? 'T;-_T; -'One; of the issues, which i s addressed ' i s •y;'-^'--;-'the":-que^tion' o f l a n d p r i c e s and t h e degree" t o which they are. a f f e c t e d by the p l a n . The : g o a l of c u r b i n g urban sprawl l a i d down i n the p l a n r e s u l t e d i n t h e down zoning of some of t h e l a n d i n the county* The impact statement does not attempt t o a n a l y s e the s o c i a l impacts o r d i s t r i b u t i o n a l consequences o f t h i s p o l i c y , (v) "Demographic and Housing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " . The Impact r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t , "the e f f e c t o f AT. the General p l a n upon housing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s f a i r l y l i m i t e d . " one must q u e s t i o n t h i s assumption f o r i n many cases consequences may be s i g n i f i c a n t . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of permitted 85 l a n d uses may r e s u l t In e x c l u s i o n a r y zoning, l a c k o f mixed housing types o r h i g h e r p r i c e s and i n g e n e r a l produce important s o c i a l e f f e c t s which p l a n n e r s must not over-l o o k . R e g i o n a l plans should take i n t o c a r e -f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n the h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the a r e a and a more d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n than i s found i n the impact r e p o r t would be r e q u i r e d t o Improve t h e " l i m i t e d s o c i a l impacts of the p l a n " , 1 8 i f / i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the p r e s e n t - h o u s i n g t r e n d s .7 i s r e q u i r e d , a s o c i a l impact study should i d e n t i f y these needs i n a s p e c i f i c manner,: One of the a l t e r n a t i v e s c o n s i d e r e d to t h e proposed p l a n i s one of "No Growth" T n e consequences of- t h i s may have s i g n i f i c a n t impacts upon s e v e r a l groups, f o r example those p e o p l e who may wish t o purchase o r r e n t new accommo-d a t i o n . > The Report s t a t e s merely "adverse economic impacts would p r o b a b l y o c c u r on tnose b u s i n e s s e s and i n d u s t r i e s r e l i a n t upon p h y s i c a l growth f o r p r o f i t s . " 2 0 There i s a c o n s i s t e n t l a c k o f a n a l y s i s In areas p e r t a i n i n g t o s o c i a l needs such as housing, s c h o o l s , h e a l t h care, r e c r e a t i o n and o t h e r concerns which a s o c i a l impact i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a proposed p l a n s h o u l d r e v e a l . 86 Methodology ? The methodology employed In the "Environmental Impact Report f o r the proposed R e v i s i o n of the Sacramento County General p l a n " i s e s s e n t i a l l y an e c o l o g i c a l one. The Impacts of the proposed p l a n on the n a t u r a l environment a r e d e a l t w i t h i n a comprehensive manner. The s o c i o - p h y s i c a l impacts ,are t r e a t e d i n a s i m i -l a r f a s h i o n , by l i s t i n g t he e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and by commenting o r o f t e n s p e c u l a t i n g on the p o s s i b l e consequences. Impacts were i d e n t i f i e d i n a broad a r e a o f concern,however, ."little;-.attempt was made t o undertake any a n a l y s i s , which; / : might have been u s e f u l i n improving the q u a l i t y o f the county plan* i n s o f a r as i t r e l a t e s t o s o c i a l matters. L i t t l e " attempt was made t o d e a l w i t h I n t a n g i b l e s o c i a l consequences o t h e r than a e s t h e t i c s . Community s t r u c t u r e s and f e a t u r e s . were not mentioned. The impacts over time r e s u l t i n g from i n c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n and the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . - , were not d i s c u s s e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i v e Consequences: In the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the d r a f t Environmental Impact Report, - t h e r e was - ho •• i n d i c a t i o n • t h a t the v lews \of t h e p u b l i c were sought. The twofold purpose of p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i a above i s to permit those a f f e c t e d by plans t o respond and t o a i d i n the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a which can then be used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of plans which a r e as w e l l 87 adapted as p o s s i b l e t o t h e needs of t h e community. The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r i t i c i s m of the Impact Report i s p r o v i d e d f o r by t h e p u b l i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e f i r s t d r a f t copy. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to observe t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e made on b e h a l f . o f t h e owners o f 10? a c r e s o f , l a n d f o r m e r l y i n d u s t -r i a l l y zoned but f r o z e n as a g r i c u l t u r a l i n the new proposed p l a n . 2 1 Another b r i e f i s presented by a l a n d owner who r e q u e s t s t h a t the Impact Report d e a l w i t h t h e impacts "on t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n - a s well,. a_s, those o n v a r i o u s g r o u p s . " 2 r 2 ; ? T h i s e s s e n t i a l i y i s a "request f o r more i n f o r m a t I o n on t h e d i s t r i b u t i v e ' c o n s e q u e n c e s of the p l a n . The f a c t t h a t the Impact statement does not d e a l w i t h the Impacts upon, farmers > and the v i a b i l i t y of farming as an economic p u r s u i t i n the county would appear to be a s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r s i g h t i n a r e - . .. p o r t p u r p o r t i n g to r e v e a l the s o c l o - p h y s l c a l impacts of the p l a n . B e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n about the v i a b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r e as w e l l as an a n a l y s i s of the consequences of p r e s e r v i n g l a r d s i g h t have enabled the decision-makers who u l t i m a t e l y must approve t h e p l a n make the b e s t p o s s i b l e d e c i s i o n under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h i s i n c l u s i o n of c i t i z e n r e a c t i o n i l l u s - y t r a t e s the importance o f t h i s source of c r i t i c a l comment. L e v e l of I n f o r m a t i o n ; Many of the a r e a s of s o c i a l concern a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n the r e p o r t , however i t was a p p a r e n t l y 88 n o t deemed necessary t o p r o v i d e a more In-depth a n a l y s i s of some of the i s s u e s which have been r a i s e d . I t has been noted t h a t t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e r o l e of a g r i c u l t u r e t o the county and the s o c i a l l o s s which u r -b a n i z a t i o n o f the farmland may produce. In some cas e s , p e o p l e may be f o r c e d t o r e l o c a t e o f f t h e i r farms by h i g h e r taxes f o r example. The s o c i a l impacts a t the l o c a l s c a l e i n terms of ho u s i n g and community f a c i l i t i e s l a c k t h e degree o f i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r balanced and w e l l informed decIsion-making. Summary s The Environmental impact Report f o r the proposed R e v i s i o n o f the Sacramento County General p l a n ; i d e n t i f i e s many of the l o n g range and sometimes I r r e v e r s i b l e ' consequences of the development of the r e g i o n . The' main f o c u s or" b i a s o f t h e r e p o r t i s environmental^ t h a t i s , i t adopts the view t h a t the i n t r i n s i c . v a l u e of n a t u r e . i s ; t o be p r e s e r v e d f o r i t s own sake. The s o c i a l Impacts of the p l a n a r e d e a l t w i t h i n a g e n e r a l i z e d manner and t h e s p e c i f i c ^ : g o a l s o f the r e g i o n do not appear t o have been used as a b a s i s f o r evaluation- of.. t h e propos ed . p l a n Many; s o c i a l ' concerns' - -such as community .centres, day care," h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s and housing f o r s p e c i a l groups such as the e l d e r l y a r e never r a i s e d . I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the supply o f housing as In-d i c a t e d by vacancy r a t e s f o r example Is not p r e s e n t e d . The 8-9. I m p l i c i t assumption appears t o be t h a t e s s e n t i a l l y t h e market i s f u n c t i o n i n g i n an adequate manner t o meet the needs o f a l l t h e r e s i d e n t s o f the county, perhaps t h i s i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n l n many of the S t a t e s i n the U.S.A. t h a t h e a l t h or s o c i a l h o using and o t h e r p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s a r e not the; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f government,, a t l e a s t t o the degree they a r e developed i n Canada o r Europe. The i n d i c a t i o n appears t o be t h a t w h i l e t h i s impact r e p o r t generates a r a t h e r s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l of t e c h n i c a l environmental I n f o r m a t i o n i n areas of concern such as water r e s o u r c e s 9 atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s and the impacts upon p l a n t and animal communities, the infor m a t i o n : a b o u t t h e s o c i a l consequences of the p l a n a r e not In equal b a l a n c e . The Report e v a l u a t e s the environmental consequences i n much g r e a t e r d e t a i l which could tend t o b u i l d i n a b i a s i n t o the de c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The hazard which McHarg observed o f a l l o w -i n g highway engineers a l o n e t o make d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g s o c i a l needs may be repeated i n t h i s case where the" heavy p h y s i c a l - environmental b i a s of thi3 type of r e p o r t may -r e -s u i t i n a l a c k o f due regard t o s o c i a l consequences. ; E q u a l l y important i s the q u e s t i o n o f how and where s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o be i n c l u d e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s In t h i s case, a l a n d use p l a n f o r 20 years was proposed. 90 T h i s was then f o l l o w e d by an Environmental Impact statement. I t would appear t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o c i a l and e n v i r o n -mental q u a l i t y g o a l s f o r a r e g i o n must precede, r a t h e r than f o l l o w , the development o f a r e g i o n a l p l a n . The f o l l o w i n g example may p r o v i d e a d i f f e r e n t approach than t h a t i l l u s t -r a t e d by the Sacramento p l a n Impact Statement. C. The B r i t i s h New Towns Development P r o c e s s . The p r e v i o u s two cases d e a l t e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h endeavours t o gather i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s c i e n t i f i c manner about the environmental and s o c i a l consequences o f a highway pro-j e c t and a county p l a n . The purpose of the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of the B r i t i s h New Town development p r o c e s s d e a l s w i t h t h e problem o f s o c i a l consequences r e s u l t i n g from t h e l o c a t i o n of the New Towns. The r o l e of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the :. d i a l o g u e between the p l a n n e r s and those whom the p l a n s produce s o c i a l consequences w i l l be e x p l o r e d , i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be gleaned, from .a v a r i e t y o f sources r a t h e r than -a- s i n g l e case : o r r e p o r t . The obvious d i f f e r e n c e between the two p r e v i o u s sample s t u d i e s an<1 the B r i t i s h example-Is the s t r e s s upon t e c h n i c a l p l a n n i n g t o o l s and e x p e r t i s e i n the former s t u d i e s , and th? u t i l i z a t i o n of a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i n t r o d u c i n g the " r o l e of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the B r i t i s h c a s e . In B r i t a i n , an attempt to e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l mechanisms t o d e a l w i t h s o c i a l consequences as they develop i s adopted as opposed t o endeavour--0 91 Ing to Iden t i f y s o c i a l impacts i n advance as i n the former American studies. This example i s useful to planners i n North America because awareness i n B r i t a i n of the need to husband land development'with broader s o c i a l concern has long been a t r a d i t i o n as i t has i n other European countries. The " f r o n t i e r economy" which was discussed i n Chapter I appears to be drawing to a close i n North America and ob-servation of the planning processes i n other countries with l i m i t e d land resources such as B r i t a i n , may provide some useful i n s i g h t s . The d i f f e r e n t backgrounds are elucidated: "Land use zoning In the United States has t r a d i -t i o n a l l y been used to protect the money property values of land and the developments on i t , while land-use planning i n B r i t a i n has been an enterprise of much wider scope and s o c i a l purpose, i n c l u d i n g . . . e f f o r t s to protect the countryside...conserve natural resources, preserve the treasured v i l l a g e s and c i t y town-scapes from indlscriminant redevelopment ''23 I t may be possible that the present increase i n environmental concerns and pressure f o r more planning i n North America as demonstrated by the growing popularity of c i t i z e n ' s groups both i n the area of conservation and par-t i c i p a t i o n i n welfare r i g h t s may provide the public impetus to move the present s t y l e North American planning into some of the areas that are associated with planning i n B r i t a i n . 92 Broady s t a t e s : " P l a n n i n g has t o be thought o f not o n l y as a matter of p h y s i c a l d e s i g n and economic p o l i c y but a l s o as a s o c i a l process of an e d u c a t i o n a l k i n d which seeks to encourage the c o n t r i b u t i o n s which people themselves can make t o the.improve-ment of t h e i r own s o c i a l environment." 2'* One o f ' t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g a spects o f postwar p l a n n i n g i n B r i t a i n has been the New Towns program. The o b j e c t i v e s endeavour t o d e v e l o p planned, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and balanced communities, i n order t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r a l t e r -n a t i v e s t o the l a r g e r c o n j e s t e d c i t i e s such as London. 2^ The i m p o s i t i o n o f more than twenty new communities on the landscape or c o u n t r y towns of B r i t a i n has produced the p o t e n t i a l f o r s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l consequences and d i s r u p -t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . I n a d d i t i o n over 50 "expanding towns" have been d e s i g n a t e d t o h e l p accommodate growth i n l e s s i n t e n s i v e l y developed areas.26 -Tne l a r g e s t New C i t y i n Surope w i l l be M i l t o n Keynes, l o c a t e d between London and Birmingham, w i t h a p r o j e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n i n 1990 of 250,000 p e o p l e . 2 7 The I967 p o p u l a t i o n of the a r e a was 43,000, most of_whom were i n the pre s e n t town of M i l t o n Keynes. A l s o i n c l u d e d i n the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a were 11 s m a l l v i l l a g e s . - 0 While the purpose of an impact study s h o u l d be t o p r o v i d e p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the consequences of a l t e r n a -t i v e p r o p o s a l s , the B r i t i s h New Towns s i t e s a r e not s e l e c t e d 93 i n t h i s manner. Decisions about the s i t e s f o r towns are sometimes made i n response to p o l i t i c a l pressure rather than economic or. s o c i a l assessments. 2 9 The dec i s i o n i s the r e s u l t of dialogue between c e n t r a l and l o c a l governments, lay pressure groups, and te c h n i c a l advisors i n some cases.3° A public inquiry Is held following the decision on the l o c a t i o n of the New Town. Following the inquiry the secretary of state makes, amends or abandons the order designating the area.31 The designation may mean that a l l the land- may be subject to expropriation. Relocation of \: some people may be necessary. S o c i a l consequences of projects such as New Town developments are within the realm of man's control pro-vided that the mechanisms and i n s t i t u t i o n s exist to deal with problems which were i d e n t i f i e d i n advance or have j u s t developed. The 3 r i t i s h appear to adopt the view that that the best i n t e r e s t s of the whole society are served by the New Towns, thus i t i s necessary i n some cases to overrule l o c a l views. The development processes of the New Towns attempt to deal with.- some of .the social--concerns that may-.develop,: i n an i n t e r e s t i n g manner. In the case of Milton Keynes where a large New Town was to be imposed on the e x i s t i n g town and several surrounding v i l l a g e s , attempts were made to minimize the impacts.^ 2 The v i l l a g e s were each provided 94 w i t h a p l a n t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l f a b r i c and an e f f o r t was made t o i n s u r e t h a t I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n the c i t y i s accomplished t o mutual b e n e f i t . 3 3 The method u t i l i z e d t o do t h i s was l a r g e l y through p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g , by p r o v i d i n g open space around the v i l l a g e s , p r e s e r v i n g t h e b u i l d i n g s , p r o h i b i t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n or through t r a f f i c and the p r o h i b i t i o n of i n f i l l housing.-' The v i l l a g e s a r e seen as a l i n k between the o l d and the new, and the r e -p o r t s t a t e s t h a t the spaces w i l l be l e f t around the v i l l a g e s " s o . t h a t the e x i s t i n g p o p u l a t i o n w i l l not f e e l swamped." A sense of p l a c e w i l l be preserved.35 S t r e s s i s a l s o p l a c e d on; the p l a n t i n g of t r e e s to i n s u l a t e the r e s i d e n c e s from the d i s t u r b a n c e of motor t r a f f i c . 3 6 The emphasis appears t o be on the type of a r c h i t e c t u r a l determinism t h a t Ebenezer Howard espoused In Garden C i t i e s of. Tomorrow.37 ..-..v;:.-,s e r 1 ous cons i d e r a t I on i s g i v e n t o s o c i a l problems as w e l l . The a t t i t u d e appears to.be t h a t the d e s i g n of •the Mew Town should attempt t o minimize the n e g a t i v e impacts, however, i t i s a l s o deemed.necessary to-provide. a t the same time a generous amount of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and p e r s o n a l c a r e t o remedy problems as they develop. D i s c u s s i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n are I n c o r p o r a t e d i n the development. In one of the e x i s t i n g towns i n the M i l t o n Keynes ar e a , o p p o s i t i o n was v o i c e d to community h e a l t h c e n t e r s as people s t a t e d t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the o l d f a m i l y 95 doctor. The planners attempted to educate people about the advantages of the health centres.3°" The chance to be heard, to put one's case forward, l n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y also helps groups to accommodate themselves to the disappointment of not getting a l l they would want.39 In another v i l l a g e the Mew Town Development Corporation, the c e n t r a l develop-ment agency, worked with the l o c a l o f f i c i a l s and people to a s s i s t i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and preservation of some of the v i l l a g e ' s older h o u s i n g . ^ Pears of increased taxation, often a r e s u l t of the upgrading of f a c i l i t i e s i n t h i s country, 7are not encountered-in the- New-Towns areas as the burden i s bourne ••by;.the Development C o r p o r a t i o n . > The r o l e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s stressed i n one.of the Milton Keynes Corporation pamphlets: •.••-,-' the future of the .villages depends upon the • -people l i v i n g i n them, and there i s no lack of i n t e r e s t or i n i t i a t i v e here. Meetings are constantly being held between the v i l l a g e r s - themselves, the d i s t r i c t - c o u n c i l s , and the , parish counoils...This is"where-the r e a l work of preservation i s being done - through co-operation between the people concerned. Because i n the end people are always more e f f e c t i v e - than planning controls."42 The suggestion seems to revolve around -the assumption-that ..the negative consequences"'of the'construction of ?Tew Towns can be reduced, by involving the people, the' planners, as well as the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s . The idea of providing 96 people w i t h the t o o l s necessary to enable- thea fco p a r t i c i -pate may be a very u s e f u l one i f the sense of powerlessness and a l i e n a t i o n t h a t people c o u l d develop i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s t o be avoided. The ch a l l e n g e of d e a l i n g w i t h the problem of i n t e g r a t i n g a s m a l l E n g l i s h v i l l a g e which has probably remained more or l e s s the same i n hundreds of years w i t h i n the area of a New Town i s a very d i f f i c u l t one and the methods employed i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n must be c a r e f u l l y developed. For the incoming p o p u l a t i o n s i m i l a r s o c i a l concern i s evident on the part of the planners. A c t i v i t y c e n t e r s , each s e r v i n g 30,000 people, are Intended in the new communities -for education, h e a l t h and personal s o c i a l s e r v i c e s s t a f f . ^ 3 I n another expanding town, Peterborough, the "Cresset" or community area w i t h f a c i l i t i e s such as shopping m a l l , d o - i t -y o u r s e l f -shop, p o t t e r s place, dlscoteque, handicapped centre, •.:„•--hostel,", toy l i b r a r y , sports h a l l and an o l d peoples centre • ; ; are p r o v i d e d . ^ S o c i a l development Is seen as an i n t e g r a l part. of..the .Mew..Towns process. iiethodology: I n the case of the development of a • B r i t i s h New. Town,- i t has-been shown t h a t l e s s emphasis . i s >, placed "upon systematic information, about - the s o c i a l impacts -r or s u i t a b i l i t y of developing d i f f e r e n t alternatives..^5 Rather, a process i s u t i l i z e d t o make d e c i s i o n s of t h i s nature. The s i t e l o c a t i o n i s chosen by the c e n t r a l govern-ment f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n and the approval i n p r i n c i p l e 97 by the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s . P u b l i c i n q u i r i e s a re p r o v i d e d f o r p r i o r t o the f i n a l d e s i g n a t i o n of the s i t e . O b j e c t i v e s and G o a l s i The g o a l s of the New Towns Act i n B r i t a i n a r e t h r e e f o l d ! (1) to p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o " m e g a l o p o l i s " or the e x c e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f people, (2) t o p r o v i d e ways o f o r g a n i z i n g the v a s t volume o f new development which w i l l occur n a t u r a l l y a l o n g more b e n e f i c i a l l i n e s , (3) to p r o v i d e s o c i a l l y balanced communities as s e l f - r e l i a n t economical s o c i a l e n t i t i e s . The g o a l s o f the New Towns t h e r e f o r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y . n a t i o n a l ones. The above d e s c r i p t i o n of the development process demonstrates t h a t attempts are made t o m i t i g a t e the s o c i a l consequences of the p r o j e c t s on e x i s t i n g towns and enhance t h e i r l i v a -b l l l t y . In a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t , goals such as the p r o v i s i o n of more housing may be r e a l i z e d through the d e s i g n a t i o n of new o r expanding towns. An e f f o r t i s made to o r g a n i z e = and c o n t r o l change i n such a way - t h a t c o n t i n u i t y and s t a b i l i t y a re maintained i n an e f f o r t t o a v o i d d i s r u p t i v e change and. s o c i a l . r c o n f i i c t . . ... ...... P a r t i c i p a t i o n : While p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the p u b l i c i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the s i t e s f o r New Towns i s minimal, l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s engage i n d i s c u s s i o n s with the c e n t r a l government. The g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s pr o v i d e d w i t h the op-p o r t u n i t y t o r e a c t t o the d e s i g n a t i o n of a New Town a r e a 98 at a public inquiry. In the course of the development of the town, i t appears that l o c a l i n t e r e s t s are permitted to have an input i n t o matters of l o c a l concern, such as s o c i a l services healthy l i b r a r i e s and rec r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . As much of the planning i s undertaken p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of the new inhabitants, options f o r the future must be l e f t open as f a r as possible. The case involving the v i l l a g e s In the designated area of Milton Keynes was given as an example ; Thecommon -law r i g h t s to be heard aremet by.the public . Inquiry v T h e r e Is l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s used.totbbtain/info'rmatlon, a t . l e a s t i n the i n i t i a l stages of the designation, although presumably Information brought forward i n the public inquiry could be u t i l i z e d i n the f i n a l d e cision on the s i t e and design of the new community, Small 1 s'eal'e\\problems-v-^wherevparticlpati-on''-would--.:no.t: .c o n f l i c t with the national goals.appear to lend themselves to public • i n v o ^ of having p a r t i c i p a t i o n during the early development of -the towns-when the residents have yet to a r r i v e necessitate that many decisions are made by the Development Corporation. D i s t r i b u t i v e Consequences: 'While the complex p o l i t i c a l process of New Town designation i s not preceded by a research into t h i s area, the i m p l i c i t assumption of the 99 program i s to provide better environments f o r working people at reasonable cost. The loss to the farmers who once owned the land or who i n some cases would be forced to relocate are not analysed i n view of the assumption that the New Town i s i n the greater Interest. Level of Information; It has been shown that the l e v e l of p r i o r information about the consequences of the New Town appear somewhat minimal. The discussion between the Development Corporation and the l o c a l governments probably raises many of the l o c a l concerns while the pub-l i c 1 -inquiry at the l a s t stage, permits conservation groups • and other i n t e r e s t groups' to contribute t h e i r point of view p r i o r to the actual construction. It appears that the B r i t i s h prefer to adopt a type of I n s t i t u t i o n a l structure i n the New Town corporation which permits a monitoring of the process and enables a-r e l a t l v e l y rapid response to areas of d i f f i c u l t y which may a r i s e . - T h e dialogue which 1Is maintained with the l o c a l people i n the 'case of the renewal of housing i n one of ; M i l t o n Keynes e x i s t i n g v i l l a g e s demonstrates an e f f o r t to reduce the s o c i a l consequences, such as a l i e n a t i o n which ; might otherwise be f e l t by the people were they excluded from any involvement. I t appears that the le s s formal B r i t i s h approach, r e l a t i v e to mechanisms such as'NEPA i n 100 the U.S.A., u t i l i z e d i a l o g u e between i n t e r e s t e d groups a f f e c t e d by p l a n n i n g to determine the best c o u r s e of a c t i o n . H a l l p o i n t s out t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n England, the p r e s e r -v a t i o n o f a way of l i f e counted h e a v i l y above economic ha c o n s i d e r a t i o n , u n l i k e America. ° Perhaps the f a c t t h a t B r i t a i n has more o r l e s s been f u l l y developed, i n terms of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n , f o r s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s has enabled her to evolve a system of p l a n n i n g which i n c o r p o r a t e s s o c i a l and o t h e r concerns r a t h e r than s i m p l y s t r e s s i n g economic development. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e between America a n d . B r i t a i n . w o u l d be expected. to d i m i n i s h as the; l a s t I f r o n t l e r s ''lot- "untouched l a n d 'in North America become more developed and I t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t I n c r e a s i n g concern f o r the s o c i a l consequences of bur development p l a n n i n g w i l l r e s u l t . 101 Summary The approach of Ian McHarg to the problem of the s o c i a l consequences of a highway route through part of the Eastern North American Kegolopolis presents an e s s e n t i a l l y t e c h n i c a l approach to the need f o r considering s o c i a l impacts i n the decision-making. The environmental, man-nature point of view e s s e n t i a l l y reduces the oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r public p a r t i c i p a t i o n but stresses the need f o r keeping future options open. So c i a l Impacts are dealt with i n the abstract, from the view of an expert and without due regard f o r the d i v e r s i t y of goals which should be considered i n a s o c i a l impact a n a l y s i s . The .. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the various areas of s o c i a l concern which McHarg elucidates are useful and do improve upon the s i t u a t i o n where experts, such as highway, engineers------• made-decisions on simple economic and physiographic, grounds alone. : T h e Sacramsnto County Plan Environmental Impact Heportvrecognizes, the need to consider not only the eco- " \, l o g i c a l consequences of urbanization but also the need to i d e n t i f y some of the s o c i a l Impacts as well. : The. more •• e a s i l y q u a n t i f i e d presentation of the physical environmental e f f e c t s and the mere i d e n t i f i c a t i o n without evaluation, of the areas of s o c i a l concern presented i n the study may not provide a balance of information which would be acceptable 102 t o a l l the d i v e r s e I n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by the p l a n . The decision-makers a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h the views o f experts e s s e n t i a l l y , r a t h e r than a broader c r o s s - s e c t i o n of a t t i t u d e s . P u b l i o p a r t i c i p a t i o n was only p e r m i t t e d through the p r o c e s s of the p u b l i c a t i o n of the D r a f t Study and i t appears from the b r i e f s presented as an appendix t o the f i n a l Environmental Impact Statement, t h a t o n l y the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s were a b l e t o respond t o t h i s format. Those i n t e r e s t s i n the c o u n t r y such as farm workers who may not have been w e l l enough o r g a n i z e d to respond about t h e i r "  J/'-.y:':A^f h o u s i n g needs f o r example,} were f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l ; : p u r - /A poses, excluded from the d i s c u s s i o n on the s o c i a l . v impacts. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s approach separates s o c i a l ' concerns from the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Perhaps planners must pr o v i d e reasonable o o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the views of more i n t e r e s t s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a s o c i a l impact statement, In a d d i t i o n , an i n d i c a t i o n of the steps which may be r e q u i r e d t o d e a l :wlth the s o c i a l Impacts might be u s e f u l f o r use by the p o l i c y makers. In Great B r i t a i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of New Towns p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l r e l o c a t i o n and d i s l o c a t i o n l n the d e n s e l y populated " t i g h t l i t t l e i s l e . 103 H a l l p o i n t s out t h a t change as such Is not opposed; r a t h e r an e f f o r t i s made to o r g a n i z e and c o n t r o l i t i n such a way t h a t s o c i a l c o n t i n u i t y and s t a b i l i t y are m a i n t a i n e d . ^ In t h i s b r i e f s k e t c h of the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of the New Towns development process i t can be seen t h a t t h e r e i s l e s s e f f o r t put i n t o the p r i o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the m u l t i p l e order of s o c i a l impacts by the e x p e r ts r e l a t i v e t o McHarg o r t h e Sacramento case. T h i s I n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o -v i d e d a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l through d i a l o g u e between the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government and u l t i m a t e l y through a p u b l i c i n q u i r y p r i o r t o the f i n a l d e s i g n a t i o n of the New Town, and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a development c o r p o r a t i o n . D u r i n g ' the c ourse of the p r o j e c t , I n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements a r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o permit d i a l o g u e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the -people Involved* i n an e f f o r t to m i t i g a t e the n e g a t i v e s o c i a l consequences by p r o v i d i n g f o r the exchange:of i n f o r -mation n e c e s s a r y -to work out s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n s t o problems as they a r i s e . -The c o n t r i b u t i o n of- t h i s c h a p t e r has been t o i d e n t i f y two approaches or methods i n the a r e a of s o c i a l impact r e s e a r c h . The f i r s t Is t y p i f i e d by attempts t o i d e n t i f y from an expert o r t e c h n i c a l p o i n t of view, the range of consequences or s o c i a l impacts of a p r o j e c t i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o the e c o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s . T h i s method may i n v o l v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by those a f f e c t e d but i n t h e 104 two cases presented here, McHarg*s and the Sacramento study, public input was not utili z e d as a source of infor-mation about the possible future social impacts of the pro-jects. Participation may be useful not only in providing information which can be used in an open or flexible planning process-to improve the plans in terms of making them more acceptable to the ultimate consumers, i t can also act as an aid to the accommodation of change. The second approach is the one used in Great Britain where, as far as possible In the planning process, options, are kept.open to provide those in the paths of the New Towns, with the opportunity to participate in the planning. A process of dialogue and Involvement i s fostered to enable the designs or programs to be amended/where re- : . quired. This community development approach as utilized in Britain may enable a more adaptive method of dealing with social impacts because i t recognizes the fact that social changes or dislocations brought about by planning decisions can also be regulated, manipulated by man in such a way as to p r e v e n t o r regulate the consequences in many Instances: 105 Footnotes --•Ian McHarg, Design with Nature. Doubleday, Natural History Press, Garden City, New York, 1969, p.25. 2 I b l d . , p.31. 3lbld... p.32. . ^ I b l d . , p.33-5ibid., p.3-+. 6 I b l d . , p.34. 7Ibid., p.35« 3 I b i d . , p. 35.- . :.V^-': •;: --• The;; 1 l l u s t r a t 1 onwh 1ch i s produced by t hie systern ©f 7"~ :-• ;6vQrlays:7:may;;not, r e f l e c t the varying. p r i o r i t i e s - r ; ^ associated with the : d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a . .: S i m i l a r l y , i f , f o r example, two eco l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a such as q u a l i t y of forest growth and animal habitat are used while only one s o c i a l c r i t e r i o n such as value of the land f o r housing i s used, the shading i l l u s t r a t i n g theVtwo e c o l o g i c a l factors w i l l appear darker, and on the composite"overlay v i s u a l l y weightthe e c o l o g i c a l factors over the s o c i a l ones. It must be pointed out that i t Is ••••••v. possible to analyse the c r i t e r i a separately i n whatever, patterns may be required.> 9lbid., p.35* 10c.S. Ho l l i n g Sc. M.A.Goldberg, "Ecology and -Planning", - A.I.P. Journal, Vol.37. No.4, "(July, 197D, p.229. HMcHarg, op.cit., p.35* l 2H.Burge & X. Johnson, S o c i a l Costs and Benefits of Water Resource Construction, University of Kentucky, 1973. P - i i . !3Ezra J. Mishan, The Costs of Economic Growth, Praeger, New York, I967, P-73-106 ^ E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Report f o r the Proposed R e v i s i o n  t o the Sacramento County General Plan, prepared by Environmental Impact S e c t i o n , Sacramento County Com-munity, Development and Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency, Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a , A p r i l , 1973. 15ibld., p.70. i ^ I b l d . , p.72. 1 ? I b l d . , p.76. l 8 I b i d . , p.81. 1 Q I b l d . , p.85. ^ E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact R e p o r t . o p . c i t . . p.85, A study p u r p o r t i n g t o a n a l y s e the "socio-economic e f f e c t s " of a p l a n must endeavour t o p r o v i d e a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s as to the e f f e c t s o f a p o l i c y on a l l those a f f e c t e d ; not merely the - • l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l I n t e r e s t s . Economic and s o c i a l impacts of "no growth" may be s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of the f u t u r e shape and composition of the community. Plans which adopt t h i s p o l i c y must c o n s i d e r the consequences, r a t h e r than p e r m i t t i n g the s o c i a l c h i p s t o f a l l where they may. 2 1 I n the appendices o f the r e p o r t , r e a c t i o n s and b r i e f s which have been presented t o the County i n - r e s p o n s e t o the d r a f t Environmental Impact s t a t e -ment a r e reproduced, pp.93-127. 2 2 I b l d . , p.109. 23peter H a l l , H. C-racey, R. Drewett, & Roy Thomas, The Containment o f Urban England, Volume Two; The  P l a n n i n g System; O b j e c t i v e s , - Operations, Impact . r George A l l e n & Unwln; 1973• "Some F u n c t i o n s o f the B r i t i s h P l a n n i n g System", Harry Gracey, pp.363-- 375. P. 363.' 2k Maurice Broady, P l a n n i n g f o r People. Bedford Square Press, London, I968, p.9-25peter H a l l , o p . c l t . , p.329. 2 6 I b i d . , pp.355-356. 107 2 ? T h e Times, London, March 24, 1972. 2 8 A r c h i t e c t u r a l Design, June, 1973. S p e c i a l i s s u e on M i l t o n Keynes, p.355* 29Lady Sharp, "The Government Role",New Towns: The B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e , C h a r l e s Knight and Co., London, 1972, p.42. 30sir Henry W e l l s , "Agencies & F i n a n c e " , In New Towns, 1972, p.31. 3 1 r b i d ., p.32. 32»HOW the I d e n t i t y of the E x i s t i n g V i l l a g e s i s Being Pre s e r v e d " , M i l t o n Keynes Development C o r p o r a t i o n , pamphlet, 1972. 3 3 A r c h i t e c t u r a l . . . , o p . o l t . , p . 3 6 l . 34j4iiton Keynes, o p . o l t . , 3 5 i b l d . , ~ " 36xha Times, o p . c i t . 3 7 s i r Ebenezer H o w a r d G a r d e n C i t i e s of Tomorrow, F . J . Osbourne, (ed.), Faber, I965, ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n I898 as Tomorrow: A P e a c e f u l P a t h to Reform). 3 8The Times,. opvolt:.--:^ Vy.\.':/>;,:...:--.^ v.^  ^ ^ P e t e r H a l l , H. Gracey, R. Drewett, & Roy Thomas, The Containment of urban England. Volume Two: The  P l a n n i n g System; O b j e c t i v e s , Operations, Impact, George A l l e n & Unwln, 1973. "Some Fu n c t i o n s of the B r i t i s h P l a n n i n g System", Harry Gracey, p.367. ^ A r c h i t e c t u r a l . . . , o p . c i t . p - 3 6 l . ^ I b l d . , p.393. ^ M i l t o n Keynes, o p . o l t . , ^3 The Times, o p . c i t . ^ T h e Times, November 17, 1972, "Peterborough". 108 ^5peter H a l l , H. Gracey, fl. Drewett & Hoy Thomas, The Containment o f Urban England, Volume Two* The  P l a n n i n g System; O b j e c t i v e s , Operations, Impact, George A l l e n & Unwln, 1973» "Some F u n c t i o n s of the B r i t i s h P l a n n i n g System:, Harry Gracey, p.356. 4 6 p e t e r S e l f , "New Towns In the Modem World", New Towns: The B r i t i s h E x p e rience , H. Evans (ed.) , ;- C h a r l e s Knight •& Co., London, 1972, p.208. * * 7 I b l d . , p.368. 4 8 i b l d . , p.374. • ^ 9 i b i d . , p.368. 109 IV. AN ANALYSIS OP THE SOCIAL IMPACTS OP A PROPOSED INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT: THE TILBURY ISLAND PRO-JECT AND THE COMMUNITY OP DELTA _ The purpose of t h i s Chapter Is to propose a method of Identifying In advance the possible s o c i a l Impacts of an I n d u s t r i a l development u t i l i z i n g the c r i t e r i a and s p e c i f i c s o c i a l concerns that have been rai s e d i n Chapters II and I I I . The objective of the study would be to provide information regarding the range of s o c i a l impacts of the project, for the decision-makers as well as those people affected by the project. This could permit an analysis .of the s o c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y of the proposal and could serve to i d e n t i f y .those areas of concern which must be Included i n the on-going planning to enable the project to proceed in.the least d i s r u p t i v e manner. A s o c i a l Impact study could be undertaken by an external i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team- of experts or a govern ment planning agency. Coneommitant studies of. the environmental, economic, engineering and transportation aspects of a major project of t h i s nature should be provided along with the s o c i a l information. The need f o r such a study could be written into law as i s the case with the National Environmental Policy Act i n the U.S. although t h i s may prove cumbersome. A s o c i a l impact study could be i n i t i a t e d a l t e r n a t i v e l y by community concern about the proposed project, or i n 110 response t o a p e r c e i v e d p u b l i c need f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n . p a r t i c i p a t i o n In the study would be a key element In promoting p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t . The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a d r a f t r e p o r t o f t h e f i n d i n g s of t h e s o c i a l Impact study would p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e s t the a c c u r a c y and completness of the a n a l y s i s . T h i s c o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d t o I n t e r e s t e d groups and d i s c u s s e d a t p u b l i c meetings o r s t u d i e s by c l t i z e n - s a d v i s o r y groups. The s o c i a l impact study may p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r d i a l o g u e between the planners and the a f f e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and groups which may, through d i s c u s s i o n , reduce th e u n c e r t a i n t y and t h e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s of t h e proposed p r o j e c t . In a d d i t i o n , a b a s i s may be p r o v i d e d f o r a c t i o n , on t h e f u t u r e l o n g e r term s o c i a l consequences which w i l l a r i s e as the p r o j e c t proceeds. *.-• The p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i s seen, f o r the purpose o f t h i s study,-, as a means of p r o v i d i n g the broadest range of i n f o r m a t i o n p o s s i b l e a l o n g with t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f the .-- a l t e r n a t i v e s . I n f o r m a t i o n generated i n the course of a •••social;;-impact study may i n some "cases p r o v e i c o n c l u s l y e l y • -.ry ^-that..;the p r o j e c t .under ^ c o n s i d e r a t i o n may have such -massive consequences t h a t i t must not be p e r m i t t e d t o proceed. The MacKenzie V a l l e y o i l p i p e l i n e o r the NAWAPA c o n t i n e n t a l water export scheme may f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . In many I l l c a s es, t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a s o c i a l impact study w i l l i d e n t i f y those a r e a s i n which c a r e must be taken. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f areas of p o s s i b l e s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t y c o u l d e s t a b l i s h the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r use by t h e engineers and t e c h n i c i a n s i n the d e s i g n or t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the i n d u s t r i a l complex or o t h e r i n s t a l l a t i o n . I f i t Is determined t h a t the p r o p o s a l w i l l proceed, the g o a l must be t o p r o v i d e the i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o minimize the d i s r u p t i o n t o the community r e s u l t i n g from t h e p r o j e c t . I t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t the p u b l i c d i s -cussion; of- t h e development p r o j e c t , which i s i n p a r t f a c i l -i t a t e d by the s o c i a l impact study, w i l l p r o v i d e p e o p l e w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y to adapt-to the changes t h a t w i l l o c c u r . t o the community. Thus s o c i a l impact r e p o r t s a r e not seen as a replacement: f o r . c o s t - b e n e f i t o r e n v i r o n -mental impact s t u d i e s - b u t as a supplementary t y p e o f i n -f o r m a t i o n f o c u s s e d on people i n t h e i r l o c a l community m i l i e u . As more people become concerned about the conse-quences o f our continued economic expansion i n the p u r s u i t of the e l u s i v e " q u a l i t y o f l i f e " , s o c i a l impact s t u d i e s may f a c i l i t a t e b r o a d e r - d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i e t a l g o a l s and i n c l u s i o n of I n t e r e s t s ( i . e . l o c a l ) which were o f t e n n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p a s t when d e c i s i o n s were made about the I n d u s t r i a l development of the country. 112 This study is not an attempt to prepare a com-prehensive social Impact study of the proposed Tilbury Island Industrial park on the Community of Delta, It i s , rather, an attempt to project the stages to be followed and the areas of concern which such an analysis might require. The f i r s t stage of the social impact process, the identification of areas of concern, w i l l be dealt with here. A process for dealing with the on-going problems as they evolve with the aotual construction w i l l be put forward in the following chapter. For purposes of this study, i t is assumed that the main impacts w i l l occur within the boun-daries of the Municipality of Delta. The Delta Area In 1961, the population of Delta was 14,597 persons,- a 66.6% Increase over 1956.1 By 1971, the pop-ulation reached 4-5,860, a 320$ increase between 1961 and 1971. Many of the area's residents are employed in other parts of Metropolitan Vancouver. The principal shopping area and centre- of municipal government is Ladner, formerly a fishing and agricultural centre. 2 Ladner is located 13 miles south of the Vancouver business d i s t r i c t . There are new.residential developments in the Tsawwassen upland area further south and in North Delta, on the opposite bank of the Fraser River to New Westminster. Major 113 s t i m u l i to the r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l development of the area resulted from the construction of the Deas Thruway, along with the tunnel under the Eraser to Van-couver i n 1958. The construction of a f e r r y terminal f o r Vancouver Island t r a f f i c on the Roberts Bank foreshore i n 1958 and the l a t e r development of a bulk loading f a c i l i t y In 196? f o r coal with a new Canadian p a c i f i c R a i l l i n e resulted In the l o s s of some farmlands to the area. Manufacturing Is mainly concentrated on the 1,200 acre Annacis island I n d u s t r i a l Estate, an Important manufacturing and d i s t r i b u t i o n centre f o r a wide v a r i e t y of in d u s t r i e s including metal and s t e e l products, plywood, paint and food processing. Approximately 1,600 persons were employed (196l) by hj firms.3 T h i s estate i s being developed by a private company, Grosvner-Laing. I t should be noted that Annacis Island i s not d i r e c t l y connected to the municipality of Delta but i s connected by bridge to Mew Westminster. Workers at the Annaci3 complex, therefore, would be more l i k e l y to reside i n Richmond, Burnaby or New Westminster. Delta had 275 farm operators i n 1961 and the farm population t o t a l l e d 1,085 persons on 23,982 acres. Dairying i s of f i r s t Importance but truck farming i s also 114 s i g n i f i c a n t . The r i c h a l l u v i a l s o i l on the f l o o d p l a i n p r o v i d e s good o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . The average annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t Ladner i s 36 inches which a l s o makes the a r e a more a t t r a c t i v e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes than Vancouver w i t h 60 i n c h e s . ^ F i s h i n g , i n the F r a s e r e s t u a r y and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s such as h u n t i n g f o r b i r d s , and water o r i e n t e d f a c i l i t i e s such as Beach Grove on Boundary Bay a r e a v a i l -a b l e i n t h e a r e a . There a r e 10,000 a c r e s of peat bog i n n o r t h c e n t r a l D e l t a , from which commercial peat moss i s h a r v e s t e d . D e l t a was the second f a s t e s t growing r e g i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia between 1956 and 1961 w i t h a 66.8% p o p u l a t i o n Increase, on t h e average 275 d w e l l i n g u n i t s were b u i l t \ annually; 0". S e r v i c e d i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o t a l s 1,694 a c r e s and i s p r i n c i p a l l y l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . ? The r i v e r i s n a v i g a b l e by ocean going s h i p s o f l e s s t han 40 f o o t d r a f t up to New Westminster. Road and r a i l s e r v i c e make . the r i v e r a r e a a t t r a c t i v e f o r p o r t and i n d u s t r i a l develop-ment. The T i l b u r y a r e a i s p r e s e n t l y h i g h q u a l i t y farmland but i s mainly zoned i n d u s t r i a l . 8  The proposed p r o j e c t On November 26, 1973* t h e p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r of 115 I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce announced the T i l b u r y I s l a n d I n d u s t r i a l Land Assembly i n v o l v i n g 726 a c r e s o f l a n d t o t h e south o f T i l b u r y I s l a n d i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f D e l t a . ^ The o b j e c t i v e was t o p r o v i d e r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d , s e r v i c e d I n d u s t r i a l l a n d on a l e a s e b a s i s f o r i n d u s t r i a l use, "To p r o v i d e r e a l and ongoing a s s i s t a n c e t o the b u s i n e s s community i n B.C."-10 The d e s i r e t o b r i n g indus-t r i e s " t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e many a l t e r n a t i v e forms o f employ-ment t o t h e p e o p l e o f the a r e a " was m e n t i o n e d . 1 1 The b e n e f i t s were.seen t o i n c l u d e advantages to b u s i n e s s e s which-could^now l o c a t e without "massive expenditures o n : l a n d " and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e l o c a t i o n o f manufacturing -j i n d u s t r i e s from "Vancouver, West Vancouver ( s i c ) and North V a n c o u v e r . " 1 2  The o b j e c t i v e s o f the proposed development appear: t o be aimed a t one group i n s o c i e t y ; the i n d u s t r i a l i s t s . I t would appear that t h e o b j e c t i v e s of the T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l , as o u t l i n e d i n p r e s s r e l e a s e , were economic, perhaps I t i s p o s s i b l e t o assume :that u l t i m a t e l y the b e n e f i t s i n terms o f jobs and s a l a r i e s w i l l f i l t e r down t o the r e s i d e n t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The assumption t h a t the p r o v i s i o n of l e s s expensive l a n d w i l l b e n e f i t t h e consumer i s erroneous as p r i c e s i n a market system a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by c o m p e t i t i o n r a t h e r than t h e c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n . Thus the o b j e c t i v e o f 116 •'providing on-going a s s i s t a n c e t o the b u s i n e s s community of B.C." may simply produce an i n c r e a s e i n p r o f i t s . I t may be more e f f i c i e n t t o d e a l -with s o c i a l needs i n a head-on f a s h i o n and a l l o w the market system t o determine t h e economic v i a b i l i t y of. v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s . In a l a n d - s h o r t r e g i o n such as Vancouver, h i g h l a n d p r i c e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes may d i s c o u r a g e l a n d e x t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i e s i n p r e f e r e n c e t o l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e ones, which i s i n f a c t a g o a l o f t h e r e g i o n a l government. The p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l i n c l u d e s a deepsea p o r t f a c i l i t y , e x t e n s i o n o f the Canadian n a t i o n a l r a i l l i n e i n t o t h e a r e a w i t h $250 t o #350/million d o l l a r s worth . - . of p l a n t c o n s t r u c t i o n over the l i f e of the p r o j e c t . 1 ^ While-the main use o f the l a n d i n t h e a r e a i s s t i l l a g r i c u l t u r a l , t h e 1966 r e g i o n a l p l a n has t h e a r e a zoned: f o r i n d u s t r i a l development, . The c o s t s o f t h e pro j-ect proposed w i l l be borne • .by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government f o r t h e l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n i a n d : > s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g the c o n s t r u c t l o n o f deepsea d o c k i n g f a c i l i t i e s and u t i l i t i e s . . The p r i v a t e companies who l e a s e t h e l a n d w i l l undertake the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f th o s e f a c i l i t i e s they r e q u i r e . The m u n i c i p a l i t y i s not a b l e t o t a x p r o v i n c i a l l y owned l a n d , however, the M i n i s t e r r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o j e c t has s t a t e d t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y 117 w i l l r e c e i v e an annual grant from the government i n l i e u o f t a x e s . ^ The Decision-making p r o c e s s There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the b e n e f i t s o f the development,have been c a r e f u l l y e v a l u a t e d . The press r e l e a s e s t a t e s t h a t the o b j e c t i v e i s to p r o v i d e r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d l a n d f o r the b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y . i t i s a l s o s t a t e d t h a t i t i s the government's p o l i c y t o encourage "l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r y and to p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e forms of employment to the people i n the a r e a . " 1 ^ The d e c i s i o n t o proceed w i t h the p r o j e c t appears t o have been a u n i l a t e r a l one r a t h e r than a p roduct o f d i s c u s s i o n between the p r o v i n c e , the m u n i c i p a l -i t y and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t f o l l o w i n g the announcement of the p r o p o s a l the D e l t a C o u n c i l moved t o s e t up meetings w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l • m i n i s t e r s o^ highways.; a g r i c u l t u r e and t r a d e and commerce' to have them e x p l a i n the government's p o l i c y on the indus-t r i a l i z a t i o n of farmland.17 j n February, 1974, the G.V.R.D. appointed -a s i m i l a r - d e l e g a t i o n to meet w i t h the A g r i c u l t u r e M i n i s t e r t o d i s c u s s the impact of the proposed T i l b u r y E s t a t e upon farms i n the a r e a . 1 8 C r i t i c i s m has been l e v e l e d a t t h e government f o r p u r c h a s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l y zoned lan d f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes a t " a r t i f i c i a l l y low p r i c e s . " 1 9 118 The d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e the proposed i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e i n D e l t a was not based upon s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Mr. K. Chauncey, the D i r e c t o r f o r Land A c q u i s i t i o n and Development i n the B.C. Development Cor-p o r a t i o n , t h e d e c i s i o n was based upon economic c r i t e r i a such as t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y and p r o x i m i t y t o the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway Trackage and barge f a c i l i t y and t h e p r o x i m i t y i n temporal terms f o r the s h i p p i n g o f goods t o V a n c o u v e r . 2 0 The c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e g o a l s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f ^ D e l t a ^ p r - t h e . R e , :ihvolv.ed :i:^ moret l r i k e l y ^ t h a t ; -decisions; which: a r e ;;; undertaken: w i t h b u t d ahdTdlsCussionfabout. ; •: s o c i a l g o a l s a r e more l i k e l y t o produce n e g a t i v e s o c i a l consequences. p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n I t does not appear t h a t those a f f e c t e d by the T i l b u r y , p r o j e c t were p r o v i d e d w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the p r o p o s a l . The con-f l i c t between th e need f o r c o n f i d e n c e t o a v o i d the i n f l a t i o n o f p r i c e s In l a r g e l a n d assembly p r o j e c t s such as t h i s one and t h e need f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n c r e a t e s a d i f f i c u l t c o n t r a -d i c t i o n . I t would seem p o s s i b l e however to a c q u i r e t h e l a n d , then t o engage i n p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n s i n t h e formu-l a t i o n of p l a n s f o r the a r e a , r a t h e r than p r o c e e d i n g 119 • u n i l a t e r a l l y as was done i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . p u b l i c and Government A t t i t u d e s Towards the T i l b u r y I n d u s t r i a l Development i n D e l t a . • In g e n e r a l a s o c i a l impact may be d e f i n e d as a consequence upon a community o f a p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n i n s o -f a r as i t a f f e c t s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f l i f e i n t h e community, and t h e degree t o which the change c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g g o a l s and a t t i t u d e s i n the community. The scope of t h i s study i s mainly a l o c a l one, t h a t i s . I t Is an attempt t o determine the e f f e c t s o f the T i l b u r y Indus-t r i a l E s t a t e upon the community of D e l t a . S o c i a l impacts can be p o s i t i v e I f the a c t i o n s r e s u l t i n the accomplishment o f g o a l s d e s i r e d by those a f f e c t e d . On the o t h e r hand, the d i f f e r e n c e between the a t t i t u d e s and g o a l s of one group and the p r o b a b l e conse-quences o f the a c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e the n e g a t i v e s o c i a l Impact. For example, the p r o v i n c i a l or n a t i o n a l goals o r a t t i t u d e s towards h o u s i n g c o u l d be compared w i t h the proposed p o l i -c i e s o r pro j e c t s and so on a t each l e v e l of s o c i e t a l i n t e r e s t ; I t has been assumed i n the p a 3 t t h a t economic growth has been a d e s i r a b l e n a t i o n a l g o a l a t any c o s t (e.g. r e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n , environmental l o s s o r a g g r a v a t i o n of i n f l a t i o n . ) I t has f u r t h e r been assumed t h a t economic growth would reduce i n e q u a l i t i e s of income and b e n e f i t the poor, one of the c h a l l e n g e s o f a s o c i a l impact a n a l y s i s 120 must be t o t a k e these assumptions t o t a s k and attempt t o a n a l y s e and p r o v i d e more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about development p r o j e c t s . A. A t t i t u d e s of the p r o v i n c e and the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . • . One o f the p r e r e q u i s i t e s to a s o c i a l Impact study would be t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about th e a t t i t u d e s of t h e people i n the D e l t a a r e a towards i n d u s t r i a l develop-ment, as w e l l as the a t t i t u d e s of o t h e r groups a f f e c t e d by the p r o p o s a l . A t the most g e n e r a l l e v e l , the p r o v i n -c i a l one, t h e p r e s s r e l e a s e prepared by the M i n i s t e r of -I n d u s t r y , Trade and Commerce on November 26, 1973, i n d i -c a t e s a d e s i r e t o p r o v i d e " b e n e f i t s t o the economic develop-ment o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " 2 1 I t i s i n d i c a t e d thab the p r o v i s i o n o f new indus-t r i a l : l a n d w i l l p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r . f i r m s w i s h i n g t o r e l o c a t e away f r o m F a l s e Creek and t h u s improve the urban environment elsewhere i n the r e g i o n . 2 2 i n - a d d i t i o n - , - I t i s : s t a t e d t h a t : t h e i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e w i l l a t t r a c t l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e I n d u s t r y In l i n e w i t h p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s . F i n a l l y , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r "many a l t e r n a t i v e forms of employment f o r the. people of the a r e a " w i l l be p r o v i d e d . 2 ^ I t i s s t a t e d t h a t " d i s c u s s i o n s have been h e l d w i t h the F r a s e r R i v e r Harbours Commission and I t i s my 121 •understanding t h a t they approve o f t h i s p r o j e c t . " 2 ^ The q u e s t i o n o f the v a l i d i t y of t h i s support may be r a i s e d by v i r t u e o f the f a c t t h a t the Harbour Commission i s com-posed o f app o i n t e d o f f i c i a l s and may not n e c e s s a r i l y rep-r e s e n t the a t t i t u d e s of the r e s i d e n t s o f the r e g i o n . ' Nor i s t h e commission a c c o u n t a b l e t o the p u b l i c . The next l e v e l o f government i s the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . In November, 1972, a "Report on L l v a b i l i t y " was p u b l i s h e d by the G.V.R.D. which l i s t e d a s e r i e s of p o l i c i e s f o r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n as p o s s i b l e . .. : -components ipf ,the new G r e a t e r Vancouver. Reg 1 o n a l ; p l a n . ,'. ~in r e l a t i o n t b the T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l , the p r e s e n t o f f i c i a l ".' R e g i o n a l p l a n (1966) d e s i g n a t e s the i s l a n d i t s e l f and the F r a s e r R i v e r shore i n the a r e a as i n d u s t r i a l . The "Re-p o r t .on. L i v a b l l i t y " proposes s e v e r a l p o l i c i e s which a l - -: though t e n t a t i v e , , c a s t , some. 1 ight... on the• r e g i o n a l goals • "G.V.R.D. should d i s c o u r a g e "the l o c a t i o n i n t h i s r e g i o n o f l a r g e land-consuming i n d u s t r i e s and p o r t f a c i l i t i e s which have low employment d e n s i t i e s . " (May not c o n f l i c t w i t h T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l ) . " p o l i c i e s t o keep development from o c c u r r i n g i n f l o o d p l a i n a reas should be con t i n u e d and stre n g t h e n e d . " (Would c o n f l i c t w i t h p r o p o s a l ) . " C o n t r o l l i n g the growth r a t e o f G r e a t e r Vancouver should be a f u n c t i o n o f a l l t h r e e l e v e l s of gov-ernment." (Would appear t o c o n f l i c t w i t h p r o p o s a l ) "Recuperate f o r p u b l i c use u n i n t e n s i v e l y used i n -d u s t r i a l (zoned) areas o f f o r e s h o r e " . (Would con-f l i c t . ) 122 "Seek to p r e s e r v e as much farmland In p r o d u c t i o n i n the r e g i o n as i s p o s s i b l e , by the e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s of the o f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l p l a n . " (The T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l would contravene not o n l y t h i s r e g i o n a l p o l i c y but t h a t I n s t i t u t e d by the p r o v i n c e i n the example o f the Land Commission A c t , ) "The L i v a b l e Region program/plan sh o u l d c o n t a i n p o l i c i e s t o p r o v i d e maximum o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p eople t o l i v e c l o s e to where they work." ( T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l may promote t h i s p o l i c y a l -though th e development of a "new community" i n t h e f a r m i n g areas of D e l t a may not be i n accordance w i t h o t h e r p o l i c i e s ) . " C o n t r o l and develop " R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e s " o u t s i d e of downtown (Vancouver) and attempt to d e c e n t r a l i z e some downtown growth t o t h e s e . c e n t r e s . " (The - T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l m i g h t : n o t be. s i t u a t e d i n the best l o c a t i o n f o r promptIng t h i s . p o l i c y as I t • i s r e l a t i y e l y f a r from r e s l d e h t i a l -' a r e a s and as has ; been mentioned,- w o u l d - r e q u i r e : : t h e l o s s o f f u r t h e r farmlands. Another l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s type of development c o u l d however ac-t i v e l y s e r v e to promote t h i s p o l i c y . ) " P o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l measures must i n e v i t a b l y be ; ,: p a i d f o r both from g e n e r a l government revenues : .and by ind i v i d u a l p o l l u t e r s , but emphas i s should be on p o l i c i e s r e q u i r i n g the p o l l u t e r t o pay whenever t h i s i s i n the p u b l i c I n t e r e s t . " ( P o l l u t i o n , and the methods o f d e a l i n g w i t h i t , have not been made p u b l i c r e g a r d i n g the T i l b u r y •...-/..-.proposal, •:• I t . may be p o s s i b l e t h a t by encouraging th e l o c a t i o n of I n d u s t r y on t h i s s i t e , the burden r e s u l t i n g from the e f f l u e n t s put i n t o the r i v e r ; w i l l f a l l on the p u b l i c . ) "Encourage a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n p r o c e s s p r i o r to c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the Board of a l l major p l a n amendments and major p r o j e c t s . " ( I t does not appear t h a t the p l a n n i n g o f the T i l b u r y p r o j e c t Included t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ) The degree to which the T i l b u r y I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e p r o p o s a l c o n f l i c t s w i t h the g o a l s as s t a t e d i n the e v o l v i n g r e g i o n a l p l a n amendments would p o s s i b l y be s i g n i f i c a n t and 123 would appear t o warrant a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the s o c i a l impacts o f the p r o p o s a l . ' B. p a s t A t t i t u d e s about T i l b u r y As e a r l y as 1957. a r e p o r t t i t l e d " D e l t a plans f o r t he Future", was prepared f o r the d e v e l o p i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y which suggested the i n d u s t r i a l development o f the T i l b u r y i s l a n d a r e a . 2 o I t was o f f e r e d as the t h i r d p r i o r i t y due t o i t s r i v e r f r o n t a g e , b u i l d a b l e l a n d and p r o x i m i t y t o Vancou-v e r v i a the Deas I s l a n d throughway. The o t h e r areas f o r I n d u s t r i a l development recommended were Annacis I s l a n d and the ;area; e a s t o f T i l b u r y : I s l a n d . In 1966, the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l p l a n d e s i g n a t e d the T i l b u r y i s l a n d area;; a l o n g : v w i t h a s t r i p o f backup l a n d approximately 3,000 f e e t deep and 3»3 m i l e s a l o n g the south bank of tne r l v e r v a s develop-:; i n g i n d u s t r i a l i n the l o n g range p l a n . 2 7 T h i s was i n the o r d e r o f 2,000 a c r e s i n c l u d i n g the I s l a n d i t s e l f . ' ' A r e p o r t prepared i n 1972 f o r the F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commis s i o n , the - governing, author i t y over the. r i v er; >-recommended the T i l b u r y a r e a as a f o u r t h p r i o r i t y f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 8 The h i g h e r p r i o r i t i e s were at t a c h e d t o t h e Surrey a r e a south bank, t h e Richmond bank o p p o s i t e T i l b u r y and Annacis I s l a n d . C. Environmental i n t e r e s t s In 1973. a s e r i e s o f c i t i z e n ' s p o l i c y committees 124 of v o l u n t e e r s were e s t a b l i s h e d by the GVRD i n an e f f o r t t o o b t a i n the views of c i t i z e n s of the r e g i o n t o a s s i s t i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of an updated r e g i o n a l p l a n . 2 9 The r e p o r t recommended t h a t i n view of the f i s h i n g r e s o u r c e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l o f the E r a s e r R i v e r , o n l y those i n d u s t r i e s which r e q u i r e water a c c e s s be p e r m i t t e d near the waterfront.3 0 j t may be the case t h a t t h e T i l b u r y p r o j e c t would c o n f l i c t w i t h t h i s p o l i c y . The Report a l s o recommended t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d must "cease t o be the r e s i d u e from which r e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l governments draw la n d f o r o t h e r u s e s , " and t h a t permanent a g r i c u l t u r a l p r e s e r v e s be e s t a b l i s h e d . 3 1 i t was a l s o recommended t h a t p o p u l a t i o n growth i n the r e g i o n be l i m i t e d " t o d ecrease the p r e s s u r e f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of housing and i n d u s t r y on f a r m l a n d 3 2 T h i s g o a l would appear to be i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e -goals o f the proposed T i l b u r y p r o j e c t . The recommendations of the Environmental Manage-ment p o l i c y -Committee r e p r e s e n t a ...strong •• statement f o r care-f u l development o f our r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . I t would appear t h a t the a t t i t u d e s o f the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s would c o n f l i c t w i t h those of the government as o u t l i n e d i n the T i l b u r y I s l a n d I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e p r o p o s a l . The u n d e r t a k i n g o f a s o c i a l impact study i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n should a s s i s t i n the n e g o t i a t i o n of a p r o p o s a l more a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l i n t e r e s t s 125 by p r o v i d i n g a g r e a t e r degree of In f o r m a t i o n about the burden or b e n e f i t o f the s o c i a l c o s t s o r b e n e f i t s o f the p r o j e c t . A t t i t u d e s and go a l s of i n t e r e s t groups a r e u s e f u l i n t h a t they i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s but a r e d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o the dec i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t o f t e n i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o J u s t i f y o t h e r p o i n t s o f view and promote a compromise Is not pre p a r e d . B. Farming i n t e r e s t s The development.;of,, Tthe. T i l b u r y i n d u s t r i a l estate^.-would reduce the: l a n d a v a i l a b l e - f o r f a r m i n g i n D e l t a , and i t would appear t h a t t h i s c o u l d a f f e c t the f u t u r e of\the" f a r m i n g community. A study done f o r the G.V.R.D. t i t l e d " V i a b i l i t y of[ Farming; Study'' concluded t h a t the g r e a t e s t ; s i n g l e c o n t r i b u t o r t o the n o n - v i a b i l i t y of D e l t a a g r i c u l -t u r e i s the facfc t h a t 53% of the m u n i c i p a l i t y 8 s farmland i s - not owned by -res i d ent; farmers .34 other • hind erances t o : a g r i c u l t u r e r e s u l t e d from t h e growing u r b a n i z a t i o n o f t h e a r e a , which by i n c r e a s i n g t h e volume o f t r a f f i c on the roads has hindered t h e movement of slow moving farm equipment a l o n g highways between f i e l d s . 3 5 i n a d d i t i o n new r a i l w a y s , roads and t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s t o se r v e the growing urban and i n d u s t r i a l developments i n D e l t a have i s o l a t e d o r d i v i d e d farms and r e s u l t e d i n reduced e f f i c i e n c y i n the p u r s u i t o f a g r i c u l t u r e . 3 6 The u n c e r t a i n t y produced among t h e farmers 126 by development p r o p o s a l s i n the a r e a produces a s o c i a l impact i n t h a t farmers may reduce c a p i t a l expenditures and maintenance of the s o i l out of concern t h a t i t may not be p r a c t i c a l t o c o n t i n u e f a r m i n g . 3 7 T h i s r e p o r t p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the needs and goals o f some of the farmers i n the a f f e c t e d a r e a and would be u s e f u l i n the a n a l y s i s o f the s o c i a l consequences of the T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l upon the D e l t a f a r m i n g community. I t may be p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n f o r example, t h a t f a r m i n g i s s t i l l important i n some areas but may be l i m i t e d i n p r o d u c t i v i t y or v i a b i l i t y as a r e s u l t . o f the d i s r u p t i o n s r e s u l t i n g / from urban growth, e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f l a n d , d i v i s i o n o f farms by highways and o t h e r s e r v i c e s , or simply u n c e r t a i n t y and l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n . 3 S 3. Urban R e s i d e n t s 8 i n t e r e s t s p r i o r t o 1953, the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f T e l t a as i t i s today was a c c e s s i b l e to Richmond and Vancouver o n l y by f e r r y a c r o s s the F r a s e r R i v e r i n t o Richmond or a l o n g the R i v e r Road on the south banls o f the r i v e r t o t h e p a t u l l o B r i d g e a t New Westminster. The r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n o f the a r e a was s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t a n t . f r o m the main urban a r e a t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o m a i n t a i n a r u r a l atmosphere and economy. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Deas i s l a n d Throughway i n 1958 brought Ladner, the main c e n t e r o f a c t i v i t y , w i t h i n 127 30 minutes of downtown Vancouver. The r e s u l t a n t develop-ment o f south D e l t a as a bedroom community of Vancouver d u r i n g the ensuing years r e p r e s e n t e d a major change i n the h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d o f the community. Duri n g t h i s p e r i o d i n d u s t r i a l development continued In n o r t h D e l t a , a l o n g the F r a s e r R i v e r where a c c e s s to r a i l f a c i l i t i e s and the b r i d g e i n t o New Westminster made the a r e a a t t r a c t i v e . The development o f a b u l k c o a l f a c i l i t y a t Roberts Bank i n 1958 a l o n g w i t h the r a i l c o n n e c t i o n and proposed super p o r t development p l a c e d the f u t u r e o f t h i s a r e a i n doubt r f o r ' - ^ e x p r o p r i a t i o n f o r the : i r a i l w a y and f or . I n d u s t r i a l development produced changes i n the farmland use of the a r e a . There remains, however, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e I n d u s t r i a l development i n D e l t a and many of t h e p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t s work i n o t h e r p a r t s of the r e g i o n . The t h r e e nodes: of urban or suburban development a r e North D e l t a •.•'••'Ladner,'• the o l d e s t c e n t r e , and Tsawwassen. on the upland p e n n l n s u l a of P o i n t R o b e r t s . In a random survey of D e l t a r e s i d e n t a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r community taken i n February 197-+, i t was found t h a t about 39.7% o f 1^ 1 respondents favoured the l o c a t i o n : o f l i g h t e n g i n e e r i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n D e l t a , w h i l e 27.7% favoured secondary o r manufacturing i n d u s t r y . A m i n o r i t y of 17.7% favoured no industry.39 Without any s u g g e s t i o n i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e 128 t h e respondents were asked t o s t a t e t h e i r l o c a t i o n pre-f e r e n c e s . Of the 50 responses, 57*5% i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n -d u s t r y should be l o c a t e d " c l o s e t o ;the water" w h i l e a f u r t h e r ka6% suggested Annacis I s l a n d and 3.^ T i l b u r y I s l a n d and 9*2% s a i d both i s l a n d s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t these a r e a l l "near water" the t o t a l r i s e s , t o 7^.7%*^° On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s s m a l l sample i t would appear t h a t t h e people surveyed i n D e l t a would not be opposed t o some f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e T i l b u r y I s l a n d a r e a . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d about three, m onths"afterythe i n i t i a l / government announcement of t h e i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e p r o p o s a l . The c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n would p o s s i b l y r e v o l v e around the r a t e of I n d u s t r i a l growth t h e community would be f o r c e d t o ac c e p t r a t h e r than the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e of i n d u s t r i a l expansion.: Another e x p l a n a t i o n may; be t h a t a random sample i n D e l t a would mainly o b t a i n the views of the m a j o r i t y suburban r e s i d e n t s and submerges the a t t i t u d e s of farmers and fi s h e r m e n who ; a r e -minor Ity: i n t e r e s t : groups^.ri-As. t h e r e s u l t s .of • the - sur-v: vey i n d i c a t e l i t t l e apparent c o n f l i c t i n p r i n c i p l e w i t h the T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l , a s o c i a l impact study I n c o r p o r a t i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h the T i l b u r y p r o j e c t c o u l d p o s s i b l y b e g i n t o i n d i c a t e what changes i n the proposed p r o j e c t would be needed t o make i t more a c c e p t a b l e . 129 Areas of .social Concern f o r Consideration i n the Soc i a l impact Report  The f i r s t step i n the development of t h i s outline s o c i a l impact study proposal was e s s e n t i a l l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of the project. The second part endeavoured to i l l u s t r a t e the a t t i t u d e s towards i n d u s t r i a l development i n Delta held by various affected groups. The preliminary t e s t of the proposal v i s - a - v i s the general attitudes and goals of those affected appears to warrant the pursuit of a more in-depth study and public discussion about the proposed I n d u s t r i a l Estate at T i l b u r y . The f i r s t chapter of t h i s study attempt 1 ted to-:demonstrate the need former i t l e a l .analysis and pub-i... r<;-\ l i e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and discussion i n the development of future human environments that are as well suited to so-c i e t a l needs as possible, e s p e c i a l l y i n s i t u a t i o n s where decisions may be i r r e v e r s i b l e . The information developed w i l l provide the opportunity to c l a r i f y and focus those areas of concern that ' w i l l require monitoring and a t t e n t i o n during the development process. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Social-Impacts It i s possible now to l i s t a series of s o c i a l impacts or areas f o r evaluation that should be included i n an a n a l y s i s of the proposed i n d u s t r i a l estate at Ti l b u r y Island. The concerns l i s t e d here were raised i n Chapters II and I I I and are brought together to develop a model 130 form of s o c i a l impact study. The following chapter w i l l d e t a i l aspects of a process which can be u t i l i z e d to deal with the Impacts as they are catalogued i n t h i s section. Aspects of each Impact Each s p e c i f i c impact must be evaluated according to several c r i t e r i a In order to f a c i l i t a t e the development of s o l u t i o n s : A. Time - At what stage i n the process of project development w i l l the problem or Impact occur? W i l l long term or short term y.u"i; , : ,. impacts occur? ,-: -\\.;'V*.-•.'^'-"'•V.-;' B . scope - w i l l the negative or positive: impact "'. be f e l t on society as a xfhole or w i l l i t be more l o c a l i n nature, e.g. to nation, region, or municipality? C Incidence - what groups i n society w i l l benefit or lose as a r e s u l t of any impact which can be i d e n t i f i e d , or w i l l the impacts -f a l l on the society as a whole? - Delta i s l i k e l y to be most affected In •terms of: : I. s o c i a l structure of l i f e s t y l e s i i . s o c i a l economics or d i s t r i b u t i o n a l Impacts i i i . s o c i a l needs and amenities. 131 I t Is not p o s s i b l e i n t h i s study t o e v a l u a t e f u l l y a l l the f o l l o w i n g areas suggested f o r examination, however, an attempt w i l l be undertaken t o i n d i c a t e the manner i n which such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n could be pursued. S o c i a l Impacts A. Employment W i l l the i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e u t i l i z e l o c a l l a b o u r or r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s from o u t s i d e the area? How does t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f the D e l t a f o r c e compare wit h the a n t i c i p a t e d needs of t h e development? How many workers, over what time periodj| w i l l be r e q u i r e d ? I f the Indus-. r t r i e s require'-''workers'--which*'•are"?:'unskill'edf':- are'-1 they,-available• i n D e l t a ? I f they a r e not, what might be the impacts of a t t r a c t i n g them be, as a r e s u l t of p r o v i d i n g more housing or improving t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s ? W i l l e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s be n ecessary? Are e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s adapted t o t h i s type of need? B» P o p u l a t i o n What e f f e c t s on the p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s f o r D e l t a under th e p r e s e n t t r e n d w i l l be a l t e r e d as a r e s u l t o f the i n d u s t r i a l development? w i l l the age composition of the p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d ? W i l l e x i s t i n g day c a r e or c h r o n i c c a r e f a c i l i t i e s be faced with 132 an i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e or w i l l the s t i m u l u s f o r f a c i l i t i e s p r e s e n t l y l a c k i n g he improved? W i l l an I n f l u x of s i n g l e workers l n a p r i m a r i l y suburban young f a m i l y a r e a r e s u l t i n p r e s s u r e upon s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i -t i e s ? . -I t must be r e c o g n i z e d "that the r a t e of change i s c r i t i c a l t o the impact here as t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between a c c e l e r a t i n g a trend i n a growing community and completely a l t e r i n g e x i s t i n g trends i n a s m a l l town. S m a l l e r towns, i f they a r e more homogeneous i n terms of the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the r e s i d e n t s a r e more l i k e l y t o s u f f e r . A: from t h e s o c i a l Impacts r e s u l t i n g from the r a p i d change to a heterogeneous p o p u l a t i o n . Thus the degree t o which a development c o n f l i c t s w i t h the g o a l s and a t t i t u d e s of the p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t s , the more l i k e l y d i f f i c u l t i e s . w i l l de-v e l o p . : An I n f l u x of young s i n g l e workers to work on a l a r g e s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t can sharpen l i f e s t y l e ^ d i f f e r e n c e s and c r e a t e p o t e n t i a l problems. C. Change In Sense of Community W i l l the proposed development a l t e r t h e tempo of growth t o the degree t h a t the e x i s t i n g community as t h e p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t s know i t , be o b l i t e r a t e d ? A g a i n the r a t e arid s c a l e of change a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . In a r a p i d l y growing community such as D e l t a , i t might be p o s s i b l e 133 f o r a l a r g e development to o c c u r without changing v e r y d r a s t i c a l l y the " r e s i l i e n c e " o f the community as i t would appear t o have a l a r g e c a p a c i t y to absorb change. I n f o r -mation about the m o b i l i t y r a t e s o f the p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n of D e l t a might he u s e f u l i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s a r e a o f concern, s i m i l a r l y new s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , e d u c a t i o n a l o r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s may have s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s upon c u l t u r a l groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y among e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s which can r e s u l t i n s o c i a l d i s l o c a t i o n . D. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n W i l l t h e p r e s e n t system of t r a n s i t and roads be [ adequate t o s e r v e t h e proposed i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e ? w l l l . i t be p r a c t i c a b l e f o r the farmers t o move t h e i r machinery on roads l o a d e d more h e a v i l y w i t h t r u c k and commuter t r a f f i c ? To pursue t h i s an a n a l y s i s of the c a r r y i n g ca-p a c i t y : o f the e x i s t i n g ; f a c i l i t i e s - s h o u l d .be /undertaken.and compared w i t h t h e expected volume of t r a f f i c generated from th e proposed p r o j e c t . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be u t i l i z e d - t o - stage- the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l roads w i t h the development o f the i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e . I f the l i m i t s o f s a f e t y a r e t o be exceeded, what dangers might r e s u l t ? Which group o f u s e r s , and where i n the community w i l l the hazards be f e l t ? 134 S i m i l a r l y , i f I t i s found f o r example t h a t the p r e s e n t c o n n e c t i o n s between D e l t a and the Vancouver a r e a a r e inadequate, what s o c i a l impacts,might r e s u l t t o D e l t a as a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the new c r o s s i n g of the F r a s e r R i v e r ? How w i l l t h i s need a f f e c t the range o f f u t u r e o p t i o n s f o r D e l t a ? What, w i l l t h e l o n g and s h o r t term impacts of t h i s development be and what a l t e r n a t i v e s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d ? I t would a l s o be n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y s e how the v a r i o u s groups i n the a r e a would be a f f e c t e d by the new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n development. E. S p a t i a l I n t e r a c t i o n How w i l l the T i l b u r y I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e a f f e c t e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s o f l a n d use, shopping p a t t e r n s , economic a c t i v i t i e s and f u t u r e housing or commercial development In D e l t a ? Could the e x i s t i n g communities o f Ladner, south D e l t a and North D e l t a r e t a i n t h e i r p r e s e n t f u n c t i o n s o r . would a l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l development i n the c e n t r e o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y a l t e r 7 - t h e - p a s t h e i r a r c h y ? Would an increase; i n t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n on the Deas I s l a n d Throughway r e s u l -t i n g from the i n d u s t r i a l t r a f f i c t o T i l b u r y tend t o i s o l a t s outh D e l t a by i n c r e a s i n g the t r a v e l time t o Vancouver? What would the s o c i a l impacts upon south D e l t a be i n terms o f growth, use of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , p r o v i s i o n o f : f a c i l i t i e s and p o p u l a t i o n composition be? 135 S i m i l a r l y , i f i t I s found i n the l o n g r u n t h a t a new p u b l i c t r a n s i t f a c i l i t y i s r e q u i r e d , how would the p r e s e n t p a t t e r n s of s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n t e r n a l and ex-t e r n a l t o D e l t a , be a l t e r e d ? I n f o r m a t i o n about the number of p o t e n t i a l workers w i t h i n 5. 10, and 15 m i l e s o f the development might be u s e f u l In I l l u s t r a t i n g the journey t o work p a t t e r n s . F. Tax Base . i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o r e q u i r e d about th e Impact o f the proposed development upon the t a x base, w h i l e not s t r i c t l y a " s o c i a l * I m p a c t i t does a f f e c t the community's a b i l i t y t o meet the c o s t s of the expenditures which may . be n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e s o c i a l needs r e s u l t i n g from t h e p r o j e c t . The s o c i a l impact a n a l y s i s may be a b l e t o p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f the c o s t s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a mechanism t o d e a l w i t h the .concerns as they a r i s e and p r o v i d e some f o r e -c a s t o f the. budget Unless e x t e r n a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e Is a v a i l a b l e , s o c i a l Impacts and t a x base con-s l d e r a t i o n s w i l l have. t o T be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , i n a d d i - > t i o n , the comparison of the two by such methods as c o s t b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s may be a u s e f u l t o o l i n the d e c i s i o n making on or d e s i g n of the i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e . I f . l t i s found t h a t l a n d tax r a t e s w i l l have t o be r a i s e d i n the community, who would be a f f e c t e d and what 136 would th e consequences be? For example, would farmers be e c o n o m i c a l l y f o r c e d t o s e l l t h e i r l a n d t o d e v e l o p e r s or d r i v e n out of b u s i n e s s ? would fewer low or middle income workers be a b l e t o purchase housing i n the community? Would. South D e l t a become r e l a t i v e l y l e s s a t t r a c t i v e t o r e -t i r e d p eople? What a r e the a r e a and temporal d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e impacts o f a change i n t a x a t i o n r a t e s ? How would, urban growth be a f f e c t e d , would the development o f l a r g e l o t s u b d i v i s i o n s be r e p l a c e d by medium o r h i g h d e n s i t y d w e l l i n g s and thus change the n a t u r e of the community? A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f the i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e T a c i l l t a t ^ o r s t a b l e t a x e s , what s o c i a l changes, i f any, might be v.\ expected t o r e s u l t ? Could the l a c k of expenditure on s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s which might r e s u l t form a t i g h t f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t t h e l l v a b l l l t y . o f D e l t a by r e d u c i n g the amount o f money a v a i l a b l e for. s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , s c h o o i c o n s t r u e t i o n , r e -c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and o t h e r s e r v i c e s and needs? G. S e r v i c e s ana p u b l i c F a c i l i t i e s One o f the primary.needs of any i n d u s t r i a l o r urban development i s l o c a l s e r v i c e s . P h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s such as water, sewage treatment f a c i l i t i e s and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d f o r the i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e . An a n a l y s i s must be made comparing the p r e s e n t c a p a c i t y o f these s e r v i c e s and t h e expected l o a d t o be i n t r o d u c e d by the i n d u s t r i a l 137 development. The f i n a n c i a l burden f o r an enlarged sewage treatment plant capable of handling i n d u s t r i a l effluents may f a l l on the present residents of the community, or on the whole of society i f the wastes are expelled untreated into the Fraser,River, for example. Social services such as schools, community rec-reation, h o s p i t a l , day care and community health services may undergo pressure I f the i n d u s t r i a l growth stimulates urban development. Problems could r e s u l t i f a large i n -crease i n the teenage population develops without adequate concommitant development of 'activ1 ty ~-cehtres"and'.:programs;A f o r this, group. Social needs of other groups must aiso "be . considered. In a community where l i v a b i l i t y Is more than a mere function of an adequate income, consideration of people's needs f o r public and private f a c i l i t i e s must be consIdered more c a r e f u l l y i n the future than was the case i n the past.. It may not be adequate to assume that an i n -f l u x of new workers and general undirected growth i n a community w i l l j . I n themselves, improve the community. The probable impacts of a new Industry on the services i n the area must therefore be considered i n addition to income changes. H. property Values Any large project which i s l i k e l y to increase the 138 a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o r c h o i c e o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s Is l i k e l y t o s t i m u l a t e urban growth. The proposed development a t T i l b u r y w i l l occur on l a n d l e a s e d from the government, the "unearned increment" i n v a l u e as a r e s u l t of the develop-ment w i l l t h e r e f o r e r e t u r n to t h e p u b l i c purse. I f the l e a s e r a t e s a r e lower r e l a t i v e l y t o the a l t e r n a t i v e c o s t s o f o t h e r l o c a t i o n s , i t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t some l a n d e x t e n s i v e i n -d u s t r i e s w i l l l o c a t e on the s i t e , e s s e n t i a l l y w a s t i n g la n d f o r u s e r s who may r e q u i r e l e s s - l a n d but r e q u i r e t h e a c c e s s t o sea, r a i l and road which T i l b u r y w i l l o f f e r . T h i s may r e s u l t i n a degree o f i n e f f i c i e n c y i f the low l e a s e r a t e s ' encourage th e l o s s o f farmland t o I n d u s t r i e s which may be b e t t e r l o c a t e d elsewhere, i n terms o f the c o s t s t o s o c i e t y . S i m i l a r l y , i f a l a r g e I n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e i s de-veloped and proves s u c c e s s f u l , economic p r e s s u r e f o r ex-p a n s i o n o f t h e a r e a may develop and the r e s u l t may be l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n , which can be d e f i n e d as the purchase o f l a n d - • w i t h t h e purpose o f e a r n i n g an i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e due t o an a n t i c i p a t e d change i n p e r m i t t e d u s e s . T h i s i n c r e a s e i n the p r i c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d w i l l make i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r formers t o purchase l a n d t o e n l a r g e some of the l e s s economic u n i t s . U n c e r t a i n t y about the f u t u r e of f a r m i n g i n t h e f a c e o f s p e c u l a t i o n and p r e s s u r e s f o r f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l o r h o u s i n g development may c o n t r i b u t e t o the d e c l i n e of t h e farm o p e r a t i o n s by d i s c o u r a g i n g farm o p e r a t o r s from d o i n g 139 n e c e s s a r y c a p i t a l improvements t o m a i n t a i n the farm i n good o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n . The s o c i a l r e s u l t may be severe-l y degraded farms, u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e s , poor r e t u r n s t o farmers, and underuse o f good a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Reductions i n p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , a l t h o u g h u n l i k e l y , may o c c u r i f nuis a n c e elements o f the development reduce t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f p o t e n t i a l housing s i t e s i n D e l t a . Smoke, n o i s e , s m e l l o f t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n , may make some ar e a s l e s s a t t r a c t i v e and p o s s i b l y reduce the community's tax base r e l a t i v e t o i t s p o t e n t i a l . A complete s o c i a l Impact study should endeavour to a n t i c i p a t e the number o f people a f f e c t e d by changes i n la n d v a l u e s , how they a r e a f f e c t e d and the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the e f f e c t s , some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the time over which changes w i l l occur would be u s e f u l . I. Pious i n g One o f the important s o c i a l needs i n a community i s an adequate supply and c h o i c e o f hous i n g . The impact of a .new - l a r g e s c a l e development: upon the ho u s i n g supply and demand should be examined. I n d i c a t i o n s such as vacancy r a t e s , b u i l d i n g s t a r t s , and the number of d w e l l i n g s f o r s a l e a r e u s e f u l t o such an a n a l y s i s . I t may w e l l be t h e case t h a t i n the case of the T i l b u r y p r o j e c t workers w i l l be drawn from s e v e r a l a r e a s , thus p l a c i n g a s m a l l a d d i t i o n a l burden on the r e g i o n a l housing supply r a t h e r than p l a c i n g 140 a l a r g e new component t o the demand In D e l t a a l o n e . p r i c e s f o r l a n d f o r housing might he d r i v e n up by t h e i n c r e a s e d demand f o r h o u s i n g r e s u l t i n g from the i n f l u x o f new workers t o the a r e a . I f the change i n demand r i s e s s h a r p l y , the c o s t s o f the l a n d o r housing may r i s e above t h e l e v e l which many o f the new migrants w i l l be a b l e t o a f f o r d . The s o c i a l r e s u l t may be overcrowding o r use o f substandard h o u s i n g . Increased v a l u e s may a l s o r e s u l t i n h i g h e r taxes and thus produce h a r d s h i p f o r r e t i r e d members of the community who may have f i x e d Incomes. I f i t can be determined - i n advance, .that a s e r i o u s housing shortage might d e v e l o p , . i t may be nec e s s a r y f o r the government t o undertake a l a n d banking program f o r housing o r take o t h e r steps t o encourage t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f housing a t a pace r e l a t e d to the growth o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e . In o t h e r s o c i a l impact r e p o r t s i n the case of l e s s developed a r e a s , t h i s f a c t o r can be c r i t i c a l , i f a g e n e r a l housing ''shortage" e x i s t s . - In some communities .the p l a n s attempt t o encourage some types o f _ h o u s i n g development such as l a r g e l o t s i n g l e -f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s over medium or h i g h d e n s i t y h o u s i n g . T h i s may c r e a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s i f the i n f l u x of new workers d e s i r e o r can b e s t a f f o r d r e n t a l o r mobile home accommodation f o r example. I f the T i l b u r y I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e develops a l a r g e garment f a c t o r y f o r example, an i n d u s t r y which t r a -d i t i o n a l l y employs women a t s a l a r i e s near the minimum wage, t h i s may have a d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t upon the housing market 141 than the l o c a t i o n of a l i g h t e n g i n e e r i n g p l a n t w i t h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f h i g h l y s k i l l e d and consequently b e t t e r paid workers. These f a c t o r s need t o be-considered i n o r d e r to ensure t h a t shortages o f housing can be kept t o a minimum. C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n may p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i f the need can be i . . . . demonstrated. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e housing types, the l o c a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r h ousing development needs t o be planned i n advance and staged t o reduce the l i k e l i h o o d o f haphazard development or c o s t l y urban sprawl which might r e s u l t from a p e r i o d of h i g h h o u s i n g demand and minimal p l a n n i n g pre-p a r a t i o n . - i J . R e l o c a t i o n - v- one o f the most severe s o c i a l impacts of l a r g e p r o j e c t s may r e s u l t from the f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n 6^ people 7. and f a m i l i e s . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n I t i s u s e f u l t o know the .number o f people a f f e c t e d , who they a r e or what s o c i a l group o r groups a r e i n v o l v e d where they a r e l o c a t e d and a t what st a g e i n the development they w i l l have t o r e l o c a t e , A l i e n a t i o n was shown t o be a hazard i n r e l o c a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n Chapter I I . I n f o r m a t i o n about the m o b i l i t y , age and o t h e r a s p e c t s of those a f f e c t e d might be u s e f u l . In a d d i t i o n , i f t h e r e i s a s t r o n g sense of community among those a f f e c t e d i t may be p o s s i b l e , by d i s c u s s i n g the 142 consequences w i t h them, t o work out the bes t s o l u t i o n s . D i a l o g u e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e t h e keys t o d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s p o t e n t i a l l y g r e a t s o c i a l impact. i n t he case of D e l t a , r e l o c a t i o n o f farmers may be n e c e s s a r y due t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n d u s t r y upon the former farms. Secondary causes f o r r e l o c a t i o n may r e s u l t from new highway c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d by the growth o f h o u s i n g o r commercial f a c i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , con-g e s t i o n o f roads may no.longer .make i t p r a c t i c a l t o move machinery t o some f i e l d s thus r e d u c i n g the v i a b i l i t y o f farming and. r e s u l t i n g i n , a .type o f f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n - as a . r e s u l t o f ' i n d i r e c t economic p r e s s u r e s . [ K. S o c i e t a l Costs In t he course o f the development o f our lands and r e s o u r c e s , f u t u r e o p t i o n s f o r t h e i r use may be reduced. While the above n i n e c r i t e r i a have attempted t o i d e n t i f y the s o c i a l impacts o f the p r o j e c t i n t e r a s o f the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s upon the w a r lous groups o f a' l o c a l community, a ... .: development such as the T i l b u r y i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e can produce s o c i e t a l c o s t s o r b e n e f i t s . These s o c i e t a l impacts d i f f e r from what has been d i s c u s s e d as s o c i a l impacts i n t h a t they f a l l upon s o c i e t y as a whole. The impact may a f f e c t s o c i e t y i n broad terms, f o r example a e s t h e t i c a l l y . The importance o f c o n s i d e r i n g the s o c i e t a l impacts r e s u l t s 143 Is t w o - f o l d . F i r s t l y , t h e r e may be some segments of s o c i e t y -which depend upon the common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e such as c l e a n water; f o r example, f i s h e r m e n o r t o u r i s t i n d u s t r i e s . Secondly, i f a p r o j e c t consumes some common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e , t h e e x t e r n a l c o s t s , as they a r e r e f e r r e d t o by economists, should be noted and u t i l i z e d i n t he d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and used t o e v a l u a t e the p r o j e c t a g a i n s t some of our broader goals of r e g i o n a l development. E v a l u a t i o n o f the s o c i a l impacts o f a p r o j e c t upon a l o c a l community i s not a simple p r o p o s i t i o n : however, the a n a l y s i s of the groups a f f e c t e d i n terms of income, a r e a of r e s i d e n s e and a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s p r o v i d e s some i n f o r m a t i o n about the consequences. In the case o f the s o c i e t a l impacts, evalua-t i o n may be v e r y d i f f i c u l t a l t h o u g h the p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n o f the c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f • t h e : s o c i e t a l impacts i n the dec i s i o n - making 7 : L. F a r m l a n d L o s s .In the s t r i c t l e g a l sense,: farmland Is-owned by -t h e " p e r s o n ' i n whose name the t i t l e i s r e g i s t e r e d . The products o f the l a n d a r e consumed by s o c i e t y as a whole. In B r i t i s h Columbia, where o n l y about 3% o f the l a n d s u r f a c e can be co n s i d e r e d a r a b l e , farmland t h e r e f o r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y s c a r c e r e s o u r c e . Conversion o f farmland t o urban uses co u l d a f f e c t s o c i e t y by i n c r e a s i n g the c o s t o f food, r e -d u c i n g the a e s t h e t i c and r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l o f our 144 g r e e n b e l t s and p o s s i b l y have, n a t i o n a l economic ef f e c t s . I f f o r e i g n exchange Is r e q u i r e d t o purchase Imported f o o d s . In t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f any g i v e n p i e c e o f farmland i t may w e l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e these l o s s e s , but by b e i n g c o n s c i o u s o f them, b e t t e r r e g u l a t i o n o f the f u t u r e shape o f the environment may be p o s s i b l e . In the case o f the T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l , t h e r e appears t o be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h t h e i n t e n t of t h e Land Commission A c t passed by the B.C. Government i n 1973 t o p r e s e r v e farmland. I n d u s t r i a l development of T i l b u r y may i n c u r a s o c i e t a l c o s t t o the people o f t h e p r o v i n c e as food consumers. M. P o l l u t i o n and the c o s t s of a Degraded Environment In any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r o j e c t t h e consequences of an environmental change upon s o c i e t y as a whole. A c l e a n environment can be seen as a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e and i f i t i s degraded I t I s g e n e r a l l y f e l t as a c o s t t o a l l members o f s o c i e t y . I n some s i t u a -t i o n s , however, s o c i a l Impacts upon s p e c i f i c groups i n s o c i e t y can be i d e n t i f i e d , i n the n o r t h , many n a t i v e p e o p l e l i v e by t r a p p i n g and hu n t i n g , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a i l o r p i p e l i n e may have u p s e t t i n g e f f e c t s upon the en-v i r o n m e n t a l balance upon which t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e o r t r a p -p e r s depend. In t h i s case an environmental e f f e c t would produce a s o c i a l impact upon these people, s i m i l a r l y , t he c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a l a r g e new pulp and paper m i l l i n t h e 145 Okanagan B a s i n might degrade the a i r and water e n v i r o n -ment t o the degree t h a t t r e e f r u i t s would be demaged and the t o u r i s t p o t e n t i a l f o r water based r e c r e a t i o n would be l o s t . T h i s would have an economic impact upon the o r c h a r d i s t s a n d - r e s o r t o p e r a t o r s and a s o c i e t a l c o s t i n t h a t the a r e a would be l o s t o r impaired i n i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r h o l i d a y i n g . Water q u a l i t y i n the P r a s e r R i v e r may s i m i l a r l y be a f f e c t e d . The development of i n d u s t r y on T i l b u r y I s l a n d would l i k e l y have an e f f e c t upon the P r a s e r R i v e r e s t u a r y f i s h p o p u l a t i o n . The s o c i a l Impact upon t h e fi s h e r m a n and the n a t i v e people upstream c o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a l I f n e g a t i v e environmental changes were t o occur. I n f o r m a t i o n about these consequences may be u s e f u l i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by demonstrating the need t o c o n t r o l the t y p e s of i n d u s t r i e s p e r m i t t e d , or i n d i c a t e the e f f l u e n t treatments r e q u i r e d , t o minimize the n e g a t i v e s o c i a l impacts which c o u l d r e s u l t . A n a l y s i s o f the i n c i d e n c e of p o l l u t i o n , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the a f f e c t e d groups dependent upon the pr e s e n t environmental q u a l i t y , i n a d d i t i o n t o some a n a l y s i s about how, when and where the groups a r e a f f e c t e d , s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a s o c i a l impact study. The environmental Impact s t u d i e s can be used as a b a s i s 146 f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . N. H i s t o r i c a l and Archaeological S i t e s of Interest ; \ . Under the National Environmental P o l i c y Act l n the U.S. i t i s mandatory that these items be included i n the environmental impact statement. The value of an h i s t o r i c a l b u i l d i n g or an Indian midden generally contributes to the society as a whole. The loss of a b u i l d i n g or other s i t e of i»terest- may reduce the .diversity• and-sense of continuity to a community. In most cases, the loss i s a s o c i e t a l one unless the area ; Is of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to one component of the community such as an old parish church, f o r example. These Impacts are a l s o d i f f i c u l t to evaluate, however, the importance .of remainders of past-eras are often important to. society or groups within i t . I n d u s t r i a l estates or new highway construction may o b l i t e r a t e these forever. Inclusion of t h i s information i n a s o c i a l impact study may provide the only systematic analysis of a consideration which should be u t i l i z e d i n the planning f o r development but i s frequently overlooked i n the name of progress. In a r a p i d l y changing society l i n k s with the past may be useful In providing a sense of i d e n t i t y or continuity f o r the present inhabitants of an area. 147 0. N o i s e and Nuisance An environmental Impact statement may p r o v i d e I n f o r m a t i o n about the degree of n u i s a n c e from smoke or n o i s e t h a t may r e s u l t from a proposed development. This i n f o r m a t i o n can be superimposed on a p o p u l a t i o n d i s -t r i b u t i o n map t o I l l u s t r a t e the number of people l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d w i t h i n one, two or any number of m i l e s from t h e source of the nuisance. A s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of how these people a r e a f f e c t e d may be p o s s i b l e . In the c a s e of T i l b u r y , t h i s f a c t o r y may be minimal. The n u i s a n c e f a c t o r may be a u s e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of parameters f o r the types o f i n d u s t r y and the degree of r e g u l a t i o n p e r m i t t e d . P. R e c r e a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t i e s One of the l o s s e s t o s o c i e t y of an i n d u s t r i a l development: may - result.jfrom. t h e use of lands' which may have important r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a c i t y . R i v e r bank l o c a t i o n s ^ such as T i l b u r y I s l a n d l e n d themselves t o ; p a s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n such as w a l k i n g or f i s h i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t s of a proposed development upon an a r e a i n environmental terms, however, i t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o a n t i c i p a t e the f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n a l demands upon a n a r e a . I f f u t u r e o p t i o n s w i l l be reduced, t h i s f a c t In i t s e l f i s u s e f u l . I f p u b l i c access t o the water i s an important g o a l i n government p o l i c y , a s o c i a l impact study might make i t p o s s i b l e t o d e s i g n the i n d u s t r i a l - d e v e l o p m e n t i n such a way t h a t a f o o t path a l o n g the dyke o o u l d s t i l l be maintained. Q. Consequences of Not Proceeding w i t h the Proposed Development; the Concept of S o c i a l Balance • • t I n many cases I t i s necessary t o p r o v i d e a ba l a n c e w i t h an environmental impact statement t o con-s i d e r the s o c i a l Impacts o f a l t e r n a t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g s c r a p p i n g the p r o p o s a l . I t i s most common t h a t changes brought about by man upon the n a t u r a l environment have n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s as i t seems t h a t nature's d e s i g n I s d i f f i c u l t t o Improve upon. I n our s o c i a l m i l i e u , t h e r e would appear: t o be a l a r g e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o improve the d i s t r i b u t l p n of^wealth,- l e v e l : o f a m e n i t i e s , c h o i c e o f V :workV housirig o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i f these : .^goals^-are.•iestablish^.».u\•A•.••••soc•ial• Impact - study may t h e r e f o r e be l e s s l i k e l y than an environmental Impact s t u d y t o demonstrate p u r e l y n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s . I n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t both s i d e s o f the c o i n a r e d e a l t w i t h , i t may be u s e f u l t o l o o k a t the s o c i e t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the e f f e c t s o f not p u r s u i n g a proposed p r o j e c t . F o r example, would a r e d u c t i o n i n the 1 4 9 s i z e o f the proposed T i l b u r y I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e r e s u l t In such a severe r e s t r i c t i o n i n a v a i l a b l e l a n d f o r i n d u s t r y t h a t young people about to, e n t e r the l a b o u r f o r c e w i l l be f a c e d w i t h reduced o p p o r t u n i t i e s ? W i l l the o p p o s i t i o n o f c i t i z e n ' s groups t o new h o u s i n g pro-j e c t s reduce the s u p p l y of u n i t s a v a i l a b l e ? In each c a s e , some a n a l y s i s i s r e q u i r e d i n a balanced s o c i a l Impact study t o ensure t h a t the consequences of a "no growth^' a l t e r n a t i v e a r e e v a l u a t e d o r a t l e a s t r a i s e d as p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e consequences i n terms of who i s a f f e c t e d , be i t the whole s o c i e t y o r groups, w i t h i n - i t , how they a r e a f f e c t e d and when e f f e c t s w i l l be f e l t and where those a f f e c t e d a r e l o c a t e d i s r e q u i r e d . P r o v i s i o n of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may a s s i s t the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f groups with v e s t e d i n t e r e s t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n and u l t i m a t e l y promote d i a l o g u e between the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s t h a t a r e a f f e c t e d . i n d i f f e r e n t ways. The c o s t s and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n of e x e r c i s i n g a "no growth" o p t i o n a r e important t o a s o c i a l impact a n a l y s i s . I t has been s t a t e d t h a t the g e n e r a l g o a l o f t h i s type o f r e s e a r c h i s t o pro v i d e b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g In an I n c r e a s i n g l y complex s o c i e t a l m i l i e u . I n many cases the p u r s u i t of a p r o j e c t , such 150 as housing f o r o l d e r people may produce environmental damage o r s o c i a l - changes In l o c a l communities. A s o c i a l - impact study must p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the consequences of such a p r o j e c t , so as t o maximize the o p p o r t u n i t y . t o c a r r y i t out d n the l e a s e d i s r u p t i v e f a s h i o n . E q u a l l y important i s the need t o d e a l w i t h the consequences of not p r o c e e d i n g w i t h an u n d e r t a k i n g w i t h important s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s s u c h as the T i l b u r y I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e . I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s weight to arguments on any s u b j e c t . A b a l a n c e must be sought i n the course of a s o c i a l Impact study as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the i n f o r m -a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the e o o l o g i s t , engineer and economist. T h i s balance of i n f o r m a t i o n may complicate the process of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g but i t must be seen as a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o d i a l o g u e and informed d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In the p r e c e d i n g i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r s , the hazards of making d e c i s i o n s on i n f o r m a t i o n h e a v i l y b i a s e d by the economist, o r the e n g i n e e r must not be r e p l a c e d w i t h an e c o l o g i c a l o r narrow s o c i a l b i a s . I f p r o j e c t s a r e t o be stopped on e c o l o g i c a l grounds, the s o c i a l con-sequences must be examined. A p l a n n i n g process must be developed t o generate a broad range of i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n . 151 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s In t h i s c h a p t e r an o u t l i n e f o r a model s o c i a l impact study has been i l l u s t r a t e d . ; . The ar e a a f f e c t e d by a proposed 726 a c r e I n d u s t r i a l park was d e s c r i b e d as i t . Is p r e s e n t l y d e v e l o p i n g . In a d d i t i o n , an attempt was made t o compare the g o a l s of\ the people i n the D e l t a a r e a w i t h the g o a l s and p o s s i b l e consequences o f the proposed T i l b u r y I s l a n d I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e . The r a t i o n a l e f o r the undertaking of a s o c i a l Impact study on t h i s proposed development was supported by a number o f f a c t s . F i r s t l y , the p r o p o s a l appears t o c o n f l i c t with the g o a l s of c e r t a i n groups i n the r e g i o n which has caused some c o n t r o v e r s y . Secondly, the p r o p o s a l c o n f l i c t s w i t h the R e g i o n a l P l a n In t h a t p a r t of the i n d u s t r y would be l o c a t e d on a g r i c u l t u r a l l y zoned land;- T h i r d l y , the l a r g e s c a l e consequences such a s v the need f o r a new. c r o s s i n g as the F r a s e r R i v e r , and the; i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y o f - t h e p r o j e c t once-constructed make -. -I t one that- s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e d . - F i n a l l y v the l o c a t i o n o f a l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l complex i n an a r e a which has h i t h e r t o been a g r i c u l t u r a l and suburban would appear t o r e p r e s e n t a change i n the h i s t o r i c a l type o f development. The s i z e and r a t e of development of the p r o j e c t may a l s o produce more s i d e e f f e c t s than a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g growth t r e n d , thus more 152 i n f o r m a t i o n t o permit p l a n n i n g a c t i o n In advance would be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o minimize the n e g a t i v e s o c i a l Impacts which c o u l d a r i s e i n the c o u r s e o f development i f i t i s allowed to proceed. The second o b j e c t i v e of the c h a p t e r was t o o u t l i n e the c r i t e r i a o r areas of concern f o r a n a l y s i s i n a s o c i a l impact study of a proposed i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e i n D e l t a . V a r i o u s f a c t o r s were l i s t e d and i n d i c a t i o n s vrere p r o v i d e d as t o how they might be e v a l u a t e d , i f time and funds were a v a i l a b l e . The l i s t of 15 concerns must not be viewed as complete or necessary i n a l l s o c i a l impact s t u d i e s , i t i s merely a s u g g e s t i o n as t o the g e n e r a l areas i n t o which i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed. D i f f e r e n t types of p r o p o s a l s , d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s and people would warrant v a r y i n g arrangements i n t h i s guide. Once the i n f o r m a t i o n about the range of impacts i s gathered two a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n a r e p o s s i b l e . ; The p r o j e c t could-be .stopped:..If, the •>. d e c i s i o n Is made a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l t h a t the magnitude of the s o c i a l impacts a r e such t h a t the p r o j e c t should be scrapped. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the inform-a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the s o c i a l impact study can be u t i l i z e d to e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l "terms of r e f e r e n c e " f o r the d e s i g n , s t a g i n g and development of the proposed 153 p r o j e c t . T h i s c o u l d ensure t h a t areas of s p e c i a l s o c i a l c oncern a r e d e a l t w i t h and provide the opportu-n i t y f o r plans t o be developed i n such a way t h a t the d i s r u p t i o n does not exceed the r e s i l i e n c e of the community which c o u l d r e s u l t i f l a r g e or r a p i d changes were imposed upon the community. A l s o s t r e s s e d was the need f o r i n t e r d i s c i p l i -n a r y r e s e a r c h and the p r o v i s i o n of a balanced l e v e l o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The need t o ev a l u a t e the s o c i a l impacts o f not p u r s u i n g a p r o j e c t was a l s o r a i s e d . T h i s i t e m i s important i f the p i t f a l l of s o c i a l Impact s t u d i e s becoming a t o o l f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the s t a t u s quo i s t o be avoided. Often a p r o j e c t must be c a r r i e d out i n the f a c e o f r e a l n e g a t i v e s o c i a l impacts a t the l o c a l l e v e l , t o s e r v e the needs o f - t h e l a r g e r community. S e n i o r c i t i z e n ' s housing, power t r a n s m i s s i o n c o r r i d o r s and new h o s p i t a l s might be more obvious examples. S o c i e t a l cost3 t o the whole s o c i e t y as w e l l -as l o c a l s o c i a l impacts mu3t be c o n s i d e r e d i n the de c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The t r a d e - o f f s between the l o o a l and bro a d e r i n t e r e s t s c an be made based upon a s o c i a l Impact study. The information,however, w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o d e a l w i t h problems as they a r i s e , which a l l t o o f t e n was not the ca3e i n the past. 154 The need f o r evaluation of projects against our s o c i a l goals, along with the presentation of s o c i a l information f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the decision-making are important challenges that w i l l have to be faced. In addition, a planning process which decentralizes some aspects of decision-making to the l o c a l l e v e l which foste r s dialogue, recognizes various i n t e r e s t s and provided Information w i l l provide a better basis f o r s e l e c t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n and f a c i l i t a t e adoption to l o c a l needs wherever possible and avoid the oppression of l o c a l communities by massive develop-ments emanating from a di s t a n t government agency. 155 Footnotes ^-Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (G.V.R.D.), P o p u l a t i o n F o r e c a s t , January, 1973, Vancouver, (D.B.S. f i g u r e s ) . ; . 2 " R e g l o n a l Index o f B r i t i s h Columbia", Department of In d u s t r y , Trade and Commerce, V i c t o r i a , B.C., January, 1966, p.187. 3I b i d . , p.188. •^Loo.cit. , 5ibid.,'• p.256. 6 I b l d . , p.188. 7Ib i d . , p. 189. 8 0 f f l c l a l R e g i o n a l P l a n , Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board. New Westminster, 1966. 9press Release, November 26, 1973. l O l b i d . , p . l . 11Ibid., p.6. 1.2A Report on L i v a b l l l t y , November.. Report. 1972. p. 27. 13Press Release, November 26, 1973." P'4. l k 7 a n c o u v e r Sun. December 29, 1973* l5Press Release, o p . o l t . , p . l . l^Ibid.,pp.5-6. 17Vancouver Sun, December 11, 1973• i 8 G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Newsletter,. February, 1974, p . l . 19 " P o s i t i o n Paper", D e l t a Farmer's I n s t i t u t e , June 29, 1974. 156 2 0Telephone interview, August 5. 1974. 2:--Press Release, November 26, 1973. P-3-2 2 I b i d . , p.5. 2 3 l b l d . , pp. 5-6. 24-ibid., p.4. 25This i s also r e f e r r e d to as the November Report. The following statements were gleaned from the analysis of over 50 public meetings i n the G.V.R.D. "A Report on L I v a b i l i t y M , G.V.R.D., Planning Department, Vancouver, November, 1972, pp.27-28. 2^N.H. Richardson, L.M.R.P.B., p.27. 27official Regional Plan,L.M.R.P.B., 1966, p.32. 28JSJ. Pearson, "Praser River Harbour Development Study," Vancouver, 1972. 29see: "Report of the Environmental Management and Po l l u t i o n Control P o l i c y Committee", G.V.R.D., October, 1973« 30ibid., p.30. 3 1lbld., p.27. 32ibtd., p.39-33pa-con, Smith and Gram A g r i c u l t u r a l Consultants., " V i a b i l i t y of Farming Study: Phase I", f o r G.V.R.D., September, 1973* 34iMd., p.61. 35ibid., p.3. 36ibid., p.6. 37ibid,, p.62. 38Natlonal and in t e r n a t i o n a l marketing practices f o r vegetables and other products against which Delta farmers must compete may also have contributed to the decline i n market gardening. 157 3 9 p e l t a L i v a b l l l t y Study, E i k o s C o n s u l t a n t s , Vancouver, B.C., February, 1974. ^°Ibld. 158 V. CONCLUSIONS  Summary In thl3 study the rati o n a l e f o r pursuing s o c i a l Impact studies of the consequences of large development projects has been investigated. In what Boulding has c a l l e d the "spaceship economy" of the future man must apply h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e to ensure that continued economic growth takes place within s o c i a l parameters. In the past, i t was assumed that economic growth i n i t s e l f was l i k e l y to reduce human misery, provide opportunities f o r the poor and promote development of a sound economic and s o c i a l community. S c i e n t i s t s and environmentalists have r e a l i z e d i n recent years, that unregulated resource extraction and i n d u s t r i a l growth must have an optimum l i m i t a f t e r which the earth would have a reduced capacity to support l i f e . These understandings have stimulated demands f o r environmental impact studies of both large and small development proposals. The National Environmental P o l i c y Act of 1970 passed by the United States Congress r e f l e c t s t h i s awareness. Economic growth may be increasingly subject to c r i t i c a l analysis as man considers the possible consequences of h i s actions. The new task Kahn suggests Is one of Intro-ducing a s o c i a l component Into the on-going planning.^ 159 To some exte n t environmental awareness has produced a " b a c k l a s h " a g a i n s t economic growth. The e v o l u t i o n of the "no-growth" e t h i c i s an example o f t h i s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s a t t i t u d e i s f r e q u e n t l y found-among some elements of the community who, having t h e i r b a s i c housing, employment and o t h e r s o c i a l needs met, advocate more a m e n i t i e s such as c l e a n e r e n v i r o n -ments and more r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . Poor people i n urban communities may simply be concerned w i t h the s t r u g g l e s of day t o day l i v i n g and are o f t e n l e s s a c t i v e and l e s s eloquent i n environmental debates. The need t o e v a l u a t e th® s o c i a l impact--of our p l a n n i n g programs and development p r o j e c t s Is- urgent. F i r s t l y , the assumption t h a t simple development of an i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e w i l l b e n e f i t a community must be c r i t i c a l l y examined i n l i g h t o f -the goals- and o b j e c t i v e s of the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e d . In t h i s way better, d e c i s i o n s can be made which i n c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l v a l u e s In the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r such undertakings, where the d i s r u p t i o n t o l i f e c o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t . I f p l a n -n i n g Is t o be concerned about the f u t u r e shape of human environments, i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements c a p a b l e of t r a n s l a t i n g the g o a l s o f the community i n t o c o n c r e t e r e a l i t i e s w i l l be needed. Large development p r o p o s a l s must be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the m i l i e u of the a f f e c t e d l6o community without exceeding It's r e s i l i e n c e or c a p a c i t y t o absorb change. Perhaps n e g a t i v e s o c i a l Impacts s h o u l d be viewed as e f f l u e n t s which, degrade the e v i r o n -merit and must be avoided or-adequately t r e a t e d . In some a r e a s , u n c o n t r o l l e d growth has r e s u l t e d i n r a p i d changes t o e x i s t i n g communities. T h i s " f u t u r e shock" has produced among people a l a c k of h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l c o n t i n u i t y . In some cases, the sentiment has r e s u l t e d i n the "no-growth" approach advocated by groups such as the S i e r r a C l ub. I f reduced growth r a t e s a r e t o be adopted as p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s , i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e s o c i a l impacts and economic i n c i d e n c e of the reduced growth r a t a . S o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n may reduce the apparent t r e n d towards heavy w e i g h t i n g of d e c i s i o n on f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o environmental q u a l i t y . I n c r e a s i n g l y i n the f u t u r e , s o c i a l as w e l l as economic environments must be c o n s i d e r e d i n the p l a n n i n g of the communities which people a c t u a l l y r e l a t e t o and l i v e t h e i r l i v e s i n . An important a r e a of t h i s study d e a l t w i t h v a r i o u s types o f s o c i a l and economic impact r e s e a r c h which has been undertaken i n f i e l d s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , water r e s o u r c e s and r e g i o n a l economic a s s i s t a n c e programs. The reviews i n Chapters I I and I I I served t o i l l u s t r a t e some of the techniques f o r u n d e r t a k i n g s o c i a l impact 161 a n a l y s i s . A theme present In many of the s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d d i v e r s e concerns f o r the s o c i a l consequences of the i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s . Most of the s t u d i e s l a c k e d any a p p r e c i a t i o n of how the adverse e f f e c t s which had been i d e n t i f i e d ' c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d o r d e a l t w i t h i n any f u t u r e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The assumption made by many r e s e a r c h e r s appears t o be t h a t p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l o n e w i l l enable decision-makers t o s o l v e problems i n the present and f u t u r e . T h i s does not appear t o be an adequate s o l u t i o n . I t i s s i m i l a r t o the l i k e l i h o o d of p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s b e i n g Implemented when the problem i s merely s t a t e d without o f f e r i n g s o l u t i o n s and methods o f implementing the o b j e c t i v e s . In the o u t l i n e case study o f the p o s s i b l e s o c i a l Impacts of the proposed T i l b u r y I s l a n d I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e , t h e r e remains a major i m p e r f e c t i o n o r s h o r t -coming. T h i s I n v o l v e s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f tlme. J While an environmental impact from a p r o j e c t can r e s u l t more or l e s s d i r e c t l y , s o c i a l consequences occur a t v a r i o u s stages and a r e spread over time. A study which attempts t o a n a l y s e o r a n t i c i p a t e the s o c i a l impacts o f a change i n I t s e l f may produce s o c i a l changes by a f f e c t i n g un-c e r t a i n t y about the f u t u r e o r the degree t o which people a r e motivated t o ac c e p t o r r e j e c t the change. 162 S o c i a l impacts of a p r o j e c t cannot be i n v e s t i g a t e d o r a n a l y s e d e n t i r e l y In advance of a p r o j e c t because Impacts a r e the r e s u l t o f the i n t e r -a c t i o n between people and t h e i r environment over time. Changes may o c c u r when the l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n b e g i ns, when t h e announcement of a p r o j e c t i s made, d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n and development p e r i o d o r years l a t e r d u r i n g the o p e r a t i o n of the f a c i l i t y . With the I n t r o -d u c t i o n o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n Into the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the q u a l i t y of the changes may be improved p o s i t i v e l y . The n e c e s s i t y remains f o r some type of p r i o r a n a l y s i s o r c h e c k l i s t of the p o s s i b l e range of e f f e c t s t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r l a t e r a c t i o n s as the problems a r i s e . Many assumptions can be made about reasons f o r - t h e f a i l u r e .of planners t o a c h i e v e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . One important assumption i s t h a t b e t t e r s o c i a l i n f o r m-a t i o n w i l l ' i m p r o v e the b a s i s f o r dec13ion-making and thus improve the range, of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s u t i l i z e d i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s . S o c i a l a c c o u n t i n g and complex i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems approaches depend h e a v i l y upon t h i s assumption. A second assumption, and the one i n d i c a t e d by t h i s a n a l y s i s s t a t e s t h a t the re a s o n t h a t p l a n n e r s f a i l t o a c h i e v e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s i s t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements through which 163 information i s processed or Implemented are found wanting. Uncertainty must be recognized as a given i n the analysis of the s o c i a l consequences of planning. While i t i s u s e f u l to analyse from a technical frame-work, the areas of community l i f e which may change as a r e s u l t of a large development, t h i s evaluation can never be complete In our present "turbulent environment" 2. I t may be f r u i t l e s s to expend energy only upon methods to evaluate or anticipate the s o c i a l Impacts of planning decisions. The s o l u t i o n to the d i f f i c u l t i e s produced by negative s o c i a l Impacts may not l i e i n improving the planning process as much as expanding the process to include a broader range of considerations and by asking d i f f e r e n t types of questions r e l a t e d to a c t u a l s o c i a l p o l i c y . Conclusions The conclusion of t h i s analysis i s that the main shortcoming of planning Is the nature of the planning process. Information i s v i t a l but It must be u t i l i z e d rather than being seen as an end i n i t s e l f . In the past,planners were able to gather and manipulate information to produce Master Plans f o r communities to guide land use. Today, It has been generally recognized that thi3 Is no longer an adequate approach. Situations 164 change r a p i d l y hence future options must be kept open and broader s o c i a l considerations must be included. Plan3 which do not include p a r t i c i p a t i o n by those a f f e c t e d are often rejected by r a p i d l y organized a c t i v i s t groups.--* The increasing complexity and d i v e r s i t y of Interests makes I t d i f f i c u l t to prepare concrete plans and i t appears that thi3 indicates the importance of the process through which planning takes place i n society. In r e l a t i n g t h i s to s o c i a l impacts, i t can been seen that consequences which may be f e l t i n a community may not only r e s u l t from the project i t s e l f but a l s o from the manner i n which the project Is handle by the government Involved. For example, i f people i n a country are forced to relocate as a r e s u l t of a dam construction project, the s o c i a l consequences .; may be worse i f the project i s not explained i n advance and time i s not permitted to re-educate people about l i f e i n a new and changing economic milieu. S i m i l a r l y , i n an urban s i t u a t i o n the mere process of undertaking an interdisciplinary s o c i a l impact study may provide people with information about a project and t h i s may allow the lead time f o r people to adapt as in d i v i d u a l s by either a c c l i m a t i z i n g to an idea, moving away, or working to modify the impacts 165 upon t h e i r community. The b r e a t h i n g time p e r m i t t e d by the d e o i s l o n t o undertake a s o c i a l impact study can reduce t h e suddenness of the impacts and spread them over time i n such a way t h a t t h e - c a p a c i t y of the commu-n i t y . t o absorb-change Is not exceeded. The i n f o r m a t i o n generated by the p r e l i m i n a r y s o c i a l impact study would i n e v i t a b l y be incomplete but the e v a l u a t i o n and p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of the v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a w i l l - - a s s i s t - t h e subsequent g a t h e r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n and d i a l o g u e i n the l a t e r p l a n n i n g and development p r o c e s s . Cognisance of the f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t types of p r o j e c t s w i l l r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a , f l e x i b l e processes and p o s s i b l y v a r y i n g i n t e n s i t i e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by those a f f e c t e d i s n e c e s s a r y . In a world w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , and a r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d s upply o f r e s o u r c e s , p l a n n i n g must become more important. To c o n t i n u e t o assume t h a t t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s which have p r o p e l l e d our s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n can p r o v i d e s o l u t i o n s t o s o c i a l problems or needs Is inadequate. I t might be argued t h a t the development of an e l a b o r a t e oomputor-based model of s o c i e t y which c o u l d p r e d i c t s o c i a l Impacts of p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s would a s s i s t planners by improving t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how s o c i e t y works. T h i s approach 166 would emulate the methods of r e s e a r c h so s u c c e s s f u l l n the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s where c a u s a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ^ a n d t h e i r v a r i a b l e s can be I d e n t i f i e d with g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n t h a n i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . P l a n n e r s , i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o c i a l impacts of t h e i r work, must u t i l i z e t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n when i t i s a v a i l a b l e f o r i t p r o v i d e s u s e f u l i n s i g h t I n t o complex systems. In a d d i t i o n , t h e y must r e c o g n i z e t h a t p l a n n i n g t a k e s p l a c e i n-an-ever changing s o c i e t y where the p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g becomes v e r y important. Were i t p o s s i b l e t o a n t i c i p a t e a l l the s o c i a l impacts of a water development p r o j e c t f o r example, i t might be p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p a p e r f e c t e d d e s i g n . T h i s i s not p o s s i b l e , however, f o r the simple reason t h a t s o c i a l Impacts do not o c c u r i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y but d e v e l o p over t l m e i Thl3;; p o i n t - i s supported by the f a c t t h a t s o c i a l systems, u n l i k e p h y s i c a l systems do n o t e x h i b i t cause v and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s but r a t h e r r e s u l t from complex i n t e r a c t i o n s between I n s t i t u t i o n s , government and people. An I n d u s t r y cannot be looked a t as-a cause and the s o c i e t y an e f f e c t , f o r the s o c i e t y e x i s t e d i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The changes a r e the r e s u l t of complex i n t e r -a c t i o n over time. The p r i o r s o c i a l impact study i s u s e f u l f o r two purposes d e s p i t e i t s incompleteness. F i r s t l y , as a 167 comparison between the goals of the p r o j e c t and the g o a l s o f the people a f f e c t e d (which can be surmised by-q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of how s i g n i f i c a n t the impacts a r e l i k e l y t o be. The g r e a t e r the d i f f e r e n c e i n g o a l s , the l e s s l i k e l y o r amenable t h o s e a f f e c t e d a r e l i k e l y t o be towards the p r o j e c t . Secondly, the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the areas of concern peoposed i n Chapter IV can provoke p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of and con-t r i b u t i o n t o the p r i o r impact r e p o r t . I n a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l promote d i a l o g u e and i f the experiences gleaned from the r e l o c a t i o n s t u d i e s are a p p l i c a b l e , w i l l reduce the a l i e n a t i o n of the people a f f e c t e d . T h i s f a c t a l o n e may j u s t i f y the s o c i a l impact study i f crime and s i m i l a r a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r i s aggravated by an I n c r e a s e i n the a l i e n a t i o n of people i n a community. Another b a r r i e r to' the p r e p a r a t i o n of adequate p r i o r s o c i a l impact s t u d i e s i s the v a r i a b i l i t y of -s i t u a t i o n s . No two communities or r e g i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o c o n t a i n people w i t h homogeneous a t t i t u d e s on v a r i o u s types of development, f o r communities are composed of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h v a r i o u s mixtures of c l a s s , r e l i g i o u s , c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l backgrounds and a s p i r a t i o n s . A format t o study s o c i a l impacts of a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r a power p l a n t would have to be a d a p t i v e r a t h e r than p r e s c r i b e d . T h i s format would be b e t t e r 163 s u i t e d t o an a d a p t a b l e p l a n n i n g process than a p r e -s c r i b e d s o c i a l Impact study. The review of the l i t e r a t u r e would not i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s any s i g n i -f i c a n t agreement a t t h i s time on what types of p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d r e g a r d i n g the f u t u r e s o c i a l consequences of a proposed p r o j e c t . I t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t i n the world today, change i s o c c u r l n g a t suafe-a r a t e i n i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s t h a t p l a n n e r s must d e v e l o p mechanisms t o d e a l w i t h u n c e r t a i n t y . These mechanisms sh o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e t han i f they pursued Master Plans o r Advance S o c i a l Impact S t u d i e s . C e r t a i n l y , the B r i t i s h system f o r m i n i m i z i n g the n e g a t i v e s o c i a l consequences of t h e i r New Towns program appears t o p r o v i d e a workable p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d answer t o t h e need t o i n c l u d e s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the c o n s t r u e t i o n : o f ••-•••new: communities, ^•^ "•^ ^^ •••-N;.-.--- V. •••• ••. The Process of P l a n n i n g f o r S o c i a l Impacts T h i s p l a n n i n g process must dev e l o p a c a p a b i l i t y r a t h e r than a product and must meet s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a * 1. I t must c o n s i d e r the s o c i a l g o a l s of a p r o p o s a l and compare these w i t h t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of the a f f e c t e d communities. 2. The process must p r o v i d e the o p t i o n of r e j e c t i n g the p r o p o s a l e n t i r e l y i f i t 1 6 9 appears to Indicate that s u f f i c i e n t d i s r u p t i o n to people w i l l r e s u l t . I f i t i s allowed to proceed, the s o c i a l parameters within which i t i s allowed "to continue must be evolved. This must a l s o Insure the incorporation of s o c i a l goals i n the evaluation of the proposal i n such a way that s o c i a l matters can be Included In the decision-making along with economic, environmental and te c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y of the project. The process should promote c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the evaluation of the areas of concern i d e n t i f i e d i n the p r i o r impact study as well as permitting them to benefit from helping to shape the . future of t h e i r community. I f a l l int e r e s t s are represented, a balanced dec i s i o n i s possible as the d i s t r i b u t i v e e f f e c t s of a project upon a community can be c l a r i f i e d by public discussion. P a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l provide a platform f o r dialogue, which may promote com-v promise; the public provision of inform-a t i o n about a proposed project w i l l 170 provide the time necessary f o r people to adapt, acclimatize or remove them-selves from the area. By democratizing the process - permitting p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l groups at every state — the p o t e n t i a l f o r a l i e n a t i o n w i l l be reduced and the community's goals and objectives w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the end product. An example of a s i m i l a r process i s provided by the analysis of the B r i t i s h New Town case study which i s reviewed i n Chapter I I I . Of the studies and approaches to s o c i a l Impacts investigates i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , only the B r i t i s h approach appears to recog-nize and act upon the need f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , f l e x i b i l i t y and on-going planning as a s o c i a l development process. One could speculate that t h i s process may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the o r i g i n a l Utopian o r i g i n s of the New Towns i n Great B r i t a i n . Perhaps i t i s necessary f o r planners to reconsider the broader objectives of t h e i r work while maintaining a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the changing m i l i e u i n which they work. In t h i s country there i s no counterpart to the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r i n the New Towns of B r i t a i n whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to give advice on a range of matters with s o c i a l oontent, as a member of a planning team. Thl3 work Involves advising on the 171 s o c i a l implication of the physical plan and i t s preparation, attempting to a s s i s t i n the s t a r t i n g of new groups and a s s o c i a t i o n and encouraging co-operation between d i f f e r e n t statutory and voluntary bodies.*^ I f planners are to serve the people In a manner which w i l l promote the c a r e f u l management of growth and the development of v i a b l e communities, broad changes i n the planning process are required. Closer environmental and s o c i a l tolerances have been produced In part by the f a i l u r e to include In the decision-making, the diseconomies of past economic growth. Planners must deal with these considerations and promote a dialogue between d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s to ensure that problem areas are not only I d e n t i f i e d but that s o c i a l mechanisms are evolved to promote the discovery of the b e 3 t paths through uncertainty. 172 F u r t h e r Research In t h i s study a range of Issues and i d e a s have been e x p l o r e d . A number of concerns t h a t have been i d e n t i f i e d c o u l d p o s s i b l y a s s i s t f u t u r e - p l a n n i n g programs w h i c h ' i n c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l impact s t u d i e s . The q u e s t i o n of who should fund o r undertake a s o c i a l Impact study has not be adequately d e a l t w i t h . R e l a t e d t o t h i s i s the problem of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements w i t h i n which the p r i o r impact study and the subsequent p l a n n i n g program should take p l a c e . To o b t a i n a b e t t e r u nderstanding of t h e need f o r a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o d e a l w i t h s o c i a l impacts, i t may be u s e f u l t o t r a c e out over time some s o c i a l impact s t u d i e s which have been done. S o c i a l impact s t u d i e s have been done i n t h i s P r o v i n c e on hydro p r o j e c t s , developments a f f e c t i n g I n d i a n people, and on t h e expansion of the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . Assuming t h a t these s t u d i e s i n f a c t generated important p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the impacts, i t would be I n t e r e s t i n g t o study how, over time t h i s Inform-a t i o n a f f e c t e d the p l a n n i n g , Implementation and d e v e l o p -ment s t a g e s of the p r o j e c t s . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the weak l i n k s i n the process through empericle r e s e a r c h would be v a l u a b l e . From t h i s type of a n a l y s i s a b e t t e r model p l a n n i n g process c o u l d be developed f o r 173 use i n these c a s e s . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a r g e development p r o j e c t s was f r e q u e n t l y r i a s e d as h a ving a number of r o l e s i n the a n t i c i p a t i o n of s o c i a l impacts and the subsequent p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s i s s u e c o u l d be l o o k e d a t i n any number of ways, however, one which may be p r a c t i c a b l e would be t o compare s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s and,examine the r o l e of p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n each c a s e . I t may be found t h a t p a r t i c i -p a t i o n h e l p s minimize d i s r u p t i o n o r d e l a y s the p r o c e s s so b a d l y t h a t i t i s not e a s i l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the p l a n n i n g . Past p r o j e c t case s t u d i e s of a r e a s a f f e c t e d by l a r g e developments c o u l d , through I n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e , determine the impacts upon those a c t u a l l y a f f e c t e d . I f s o c i a l impact s t u d i e s were a v a i l a b l e , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare the a n t i c i p a t e d consequences w i t h the a c t u a l r e s u l t s f e l t by people. T h i s would p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o the v a l i d i t y o f e x i s t i n g methods o f s o c i a l impact r e s e a r c h . I t i t - i s p o s s i b l e -to i d e n t i f y a s e r i e s of s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s such as highways or dams. I t would be u s e f u l t o compare the consequences of each p r o j e c t t o determine which had n e g a t i v e s o c i a l Impacts, which 17k p o s i t i v e , and to explore the reasons f o r the v a r i a t i o n s . A review of the whole issue of s o c i a l develop-ment programs Insofar as they r e l a t e to resource development projects may reduce the s o c i a l costs of Canada's northern development programs which have, i n the past frequently created hardship upon northern residents and native peoples. Ultimately, i t may he possible to i d e n t i f y b e t t e r procedures f o r undertaking impact studies and incorporating them i n a v a r i e t y of planning processes, each one being adapted to d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . 175 Footnotes A l f r e d J. 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