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Social impact research in planning : towards a process Rapanos, Bill Peter 1974

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S O C I A L IMPACT RESEARCH IN PLANNING: TOWARDS A PROCESS  by B I L L PETER RAPANOS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  19?0  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF WASTER OF ARTS  in  the School of  Community a n d R e g i o n a l  Planning  Wa a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g required standard  THE  to the  UNIVERSITY 0 ? BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1 9 7 4  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i s p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements  f o r an advanced degree a t The  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y  shall  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. f u r t h e r agree  I  that permission f o r extensive copying  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes  may  be  granted  by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t Is understood  t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of  t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  S c h o o l of Community and  Regional P l a n n i n g  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Dates  September,  1974  Columbia  this without  ABSTRACT T h i s study was concerned w i t h t h e problem o f a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e s o c i a l impacts o f l a r g e planned development p r o j e c t s and t h e problem  o f e v o l v i n g methods t o  minimize t h e n e g a t i v e consequences  t o those a f f e c t e d .  I n r e c e n t y e a r s many p e o p l e have expressed concern about q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e environmental e f f e c t s o f u n r e g u l a t e d economic growth.  Concern has a l s o  been expressed t h a t t h e s o c i a l r e s u l t s o f development p l a n n i n g may be important i n terms o f t h e changes t h a t growth produces  i n t h e communities o r l o c a l i t i e s i n which  the p r o j e c t s a r e undertaken* In a s i t u a t i o n where economic and urban growth ha.3 opened many o f t h e l a s t f r o n t i e r s , t h e r e may be a reduced c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e s o c i a l and e c o l o g i c a l e n v i r o n dents t o absorb t h e mistakes o f narrowly conceived p r o j e c t s . T h i s demands t h a t p l a n n i n g be equipped t o d e a l w i t h p o s s i b l e problems which may a r i s e , A l i t e r a t u r e survey ?ras u t i l i z e d t o e x p l o r e a nuabsr o f approaches  t o a s s e s s i n g s o c i a l impacts.  Examples  ware t a k e n from .studies on urban d e s i g n , economic development p l a n n i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , n o r t h e r n development, r e l o c a t i o n and urban renewal, water r e s o u r c e s ,  economics,  and environmental impact.  The findings elucidated a broad  range of concerns that should be included in an interdisciplinary analysis of the impacts of any proposed project. An analysis of three specific cases was undertaken; the f i r s t being a highway location study, the second an environmental Impact study and the third the process of New Towns development in Britain, The review of the literature provided a basis for a model outline for a social impact study of the proposed Tilbury Islandl industrial Estate on the community :  of Delta.  A comparison was made between the goals of the  agency sponsoring the project and the attitudes of various groups i n the community.  The degree to which the two sets  of values conflicted was considered to be an important indicator of the magnitude of the disruption which the project might be expected to produce. The model proposed the following l i s t of social impacts for inclusion in an analysis: employment, sense of community„ population, transportation* interaction, taxation, service f a c i l i t i e s , land values, housing, relocation, loss of future options, pollution, historical s i t e s , nuisance, and recreation.  In addition, the consequences  of not pursuing the project were raised. - i i-  I t was noted t h a t s o c i a l systems do n o t e x h i b i t e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . discovery indicated that p r i o r studies u t i l i z i n g cal  This  techni-  approaches such as check l i s t s o f p o s s i b l e con-  sequences a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t  i n themselves t o meet t h e  needs o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . p a r t i c i p a t i o n by those a f f e c t e d and i n t h e p l a n n i n g and development necessities.  flexibility  s t a g e s were seen as  The f a c t t h a t s o c i a l impacts do n o t o c c u r  i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y but a r e d i s p e r s e d over time reduces t h e utility  o f a p r i o r a n a l y s i s i n a dynamic s i t u a t i o n .  For  t h i s r e a s o n a f l e x i b l e p l a n n i n g process i n c o r p o r a t i n g a broad range o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s was r e q u i r e d .  Information  a l o n e about t h e p o s s i b l e s o c i a l impacts of a p r o j e c t i s seen as b e i n g secondary t o t h e need t o d e v e l o p a p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t y f o r d e a l i n g with negative s o c i a l as they o c c u r .  - i i i-  consequences  TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter I.  Page THE RATIONALE FOR SOCIAL IMPACT STUDIES Introduction The Problem The Purpose The Scope Methodology Definitions Limitations Footnotes  II.  1  « *  A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE C l a s s e s o f S o c i a l Research I n the field A. The S o c i a l Consequences o f Urban Design..... B. The Impacts of Large I n d u s t r i a l Implacements upon S m a l l Communities C. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Impact S t u d i e s . . . D. S o c i a l Impacts of Development i n N o r t h e r n Canada.., E. S o c i a l Consequences o f Relocation Projects. F. Water Resource Development Projects G. D i s t r i b u t i v e Impact S t u d i e s H. The Environmental Impast S t a t e ment, NEPA and the Human Consequences., Summary • Footnotes.  I I I . .. THREE CASE STUDIES. A.  1 1 8 11 12 12 14 16 18 19 20 23 25 29 34 39 44 51 60 62 69  I a n McHargi The Design o f a Highway Route  lv -  71  T a b l e of Contents... Chapter  Page B,  Environmental Impact Report f o r the Proposed R e v i s i o n t o the Sacramento County General Plan C. The B r i t i s h New Towns Development Process Summary Footnotes IV.  81 90 101 105  AN ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIAL IMPACTS OF A PROPOSED INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT t THE TILBURY ISLAND PROJECT AND THE COMMUNITY OP DELTA 109 The D e l t a A r e a The Proposed P r o j e c t The D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g Process Public Participation. • P u b l i c and. Government A t t i t u d e s towards the T i l b u r y I n d u s t r i a l Development i n D e l t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. A t t i t u d e s o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government and the R e g i o n a l District B. Past A t t i t u d e s about T i l b u r y . . . . C. Environmental I n t e r e s t s . . . D. Farming I n t e r e s t s E . Urban* R e s i d e n t *s I n t e r e s t s . . . . . . Areas o f S o c i a l Concern f o r C o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the S o c i a l Impact Report.... I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the S o c i a l Impacts.. A s p e c t s o f Each Impact A. Time B. Scope C. Incidence S o c i a l Impacts....... A. Employment.... B. Population C. Change i n Sense, of Community.... D. Transportation. E. S p a t i a l I n t e r a c t i o n . . . F •  G.  3siS0» • • • • » # # « # » • • • • • • • • # • • • •  Services  and P u b l i c F a c i l i t i e s . .  - v -  112 114 11? 118 119 120 123 123 125 126 129 129 130 13Q 130 130 131 131 131 132 133 134 ^»35  136  Table o f Contents... Chapter  Page H. I. J. K. L. M.  P r o p e r t y Values 13? Housing 139 Relocation 141 S o c i e t a l Costs 142 Farmland Loss 143 P o l l u t i o n and t h e C o s t s o f a Degraded Environment 144 N. H i s t o r i c a l and A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Sites of Interest 146 0. N o i s e and Nuisance 147 P. R e c r e a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t i e s 147 Q. Consequences o f Not P r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e Proposed Development the Concept o f S o c i a l B a l a n c e . . . 148 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s . . . 151 Footnotes 155 V.  • CONCLUSIONS Summary.... The P r o c e s s o f P l a n n i n g f o r S o c i a l Impacts F u t u r e Research Footnotes  - vi-  158 168 172 175  1 I.  THE RATIONALE FOR SOCIAL IMPACT STUDIES Introduction The purpose of t h i s study i s to Investigate the  techniques by which the s o c i a l and community consequences of planning decisions, p a r t i c u l a r l y large development projects, can be addressed.  This objective w i l l be pur-  sued by a review and analysis of several d i f f e r e n t approaches to the problem of elucidating the various consequences of planned changes In pur communities and r u r a l regions that have been u t i l i z e d i n the past.  Ultimately,  an o u t l i n e f o r a sample case study w i l l be proposed which w i l l endeavour i n i t i a l l y to o u t l i n e the scope of the areas of concern which a s o c i a l impact study should consider.  In addition, a planning process to weld together  the information and guide the a p p l i c a t i o n of the knowledge w i l l be put forward i n order to provide the opportunity f o r planners to meet the increasing demand f o r not only a b e t t e r p h y s i c a l but a l s o a better s o c i a l  environment.  The problem The h i s t o r i c a l d evelopment of Canada has been characterized by the e x p l o i t a t i o n of natural resources to serve the needs of the English and French mercantile interests.1  Given the natural abundance of minerals,  f o r e s t s , f u r and f i s h , i t was only l o g i c a l to put these  2 to human use wherever possible.  Resource  exploitation,  therefore, i s one of the t r a d i t i o n s of our f r o n t i e r history.  The evolution of government sometimes lagged  behind settlement or rapid growth of new regions but eventually was established and helped f a c i l i t a t e the economic development of the land, while maintaining order.  A general assumption developed i n the minds of  most people that economic growth was not only good because i t provided opportunities f o r people, but that i t was absolute necessity to ensure a good future. environmental problem  an  Some natural  such as the  disappearance of c e r t a i n species of birds as w e l l as vast reductions in the number of bison, beaver and codfish i n some areas.  E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s d i d not interrupt develop-  ment, nor was there any apparent general concern. The n a t i v e people of Canada were profoundly affected by disease and the l o s s of resources upon which they depended.  Attempts were made t o educate these people  and to allow them to share i n the benefits of the new ;  order, but f a i l u r e was more common than success. This process or. trend continued e s s e n t i a l l y up through the 1950»s and »6o»s when world technological advances and i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation following the Second World war enabled very rapid development of Canadian resources to meet the hungry needs of the world.  3 A g r i c u l t u r a l goods, and  minerals  such as i r o n , c o a l ,  uranium, n i c k e l , copper, t o name a few, from t h e e a r t h and British  exported,  Columbia b u i l t  were  harvested  O n t a r i o , Quebeo and  l a r g e dams and  o f hydro e l e c t r i c i t y t o t h e United  s o l d l a r g e amounts  States.  A few manu-  f a c t u r i n g f a c i l i t i e s were c o n s t r u c t e d , but t h e main base o f t h e Canadian economy was natural resources.  b u i l t on the e x t r a c t i o n o f  T h i s had  f a r r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s In  p l a c e s l i k e K i t l m a t , Uranium C i t y , Y e l l o w k n i f e , Breton,  Cornwall,  countless  Cape  Sept i s l e s , Leduc, the Arrow Lakes and  others. T e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e was  needs o f an expanding economy.  improved t o meet  Economists developed such  t o o l s as c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s t o e v a l u a t e the o f l a r g e development p r o j e c t s ,  feasibility  programs such as  A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Development A c t were s e t up t o improve the u t i l i z a t i o n o f one l a r g e s t resources,  arable land.  Conservation  was  of  our  pro-  p r a c t i s e d but t h e p o p u l a r  myth  expansion o f the economy  was  the p r e v a i l i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l  was  t h a t a growing economy would improve t h e  t h e r e was  (ARDA)  methods o f  t h a t t h e f u t u r e l a y In continued  o f income and  the  Resource management most  o f t e n meant o r g a n i z i n g the most e f f i c i e n t duction.  the  wisdom.  promote t h e "good l i f e " .  a l o t of t r u t h i n t h i s .  Implicit in this distribution  By and  large,  Many, but by no means  4 a l l p e o p l e today In Canada do have a good standard o f l i v i n g ; o u r l i v i n g s t a n d a r d , measured i n m a t e r i a l terms, i s one o f t h e h i g h e s t i n t h e w o r l d . Once t h e b a s i c needs o f t h e body have been met. people, t u r n t o more a b s t r a c t o r n o n - m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s o f life,^  m  t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 * s , some people became more and  more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e n o n - m a t e r i a l o r q u a l i t a t i v e component o f l i f e .  The environmental movement began t o grow  as some o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l r e s u l t s o f a century o f popul a t i o n growth and economic development began t o produce p o l l u t e d r i v e r s and e u t r o p h i c l a k e s , v a n i s h e d woodlots and farms, t o o obvious t o i g n o r e any l o n g e r , 3  The Club o f  Rome p u b l i s h e d a book warning t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t i n c r e a s e d r a t e o f consumption o f energy and m i n e r a l s , we c o u l d p o s s i b l y exhaust  t h e , e a r t h ' s s u p p l y i n two more g e n e r a t i o n s , ^  General concern among people a s w e l l a s aopngl e x p e r t s such a s p l a n n e r s has i n t r o d u c e d c a t c h phrases as " l i v a b i l l t y " and " q u a l i t y of l i f e " about g o a l s f o r our f u t u r e ,  such  into discussions  ; ;  i t i s becoming lncreasingJLy  c l e a r t h a t a s o u r p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , more c a r e w i l l : have t o be taken i n t h e development o f o u r edonomyT A s p u l l e r has p o i n t e d o u t , i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s * t h e e a r t h i s a s p a c e s h i p ; i f we a r e n o t c a r e f u l where we dump o u r wastes, they a r e l i k e l y t o end up i n our neighbour's  lunch.5  Environmental  oonsequenoes t h a t may have gone q u i t e  5  u n n o t i c e d 50 y e a r s ago, now  become important because o f  o u r concern and our i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o measure p o l l u t a n t s and t h e i r e f f e c t s . symbolic  "of the i l l i m i t a b l e  The  "cowboy economy" i s  p l a i n s and a l s o a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h r e c k l e s s , e x p l o i t i v e , romantic and v i o l e n t  be-  h a v i o u r , which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f open s o c i e t i e s . B o u l d l n g c o n t r a s t s t h i s w i t h t h e c l o s e d space-man economy of t h e f u t u r e t " • • • i n which t h e e a r t h has become a s i n g l e s p a c e s h i p , without u n l i m i t e d r e s e r v o i r s of a n y t h i n g , e i t h e r : f o r e x t r a c t i o n o r f p r p o l l u t i o n and In w h i c h , t h e r e f o r e , man must f i h d h i s p l a c e l n a c y c l i c a n e c o l o g i c a l system..."7 He f u r t h e r warns t h a t "our o b s e s s i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i o n and consumption t o the e x c l u s i o n o f t h e " s t a t e " a s p e c t s o f human w e l f a r e d i s t o r t s the prooess o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i n a most u n d e s i r a b l e way."8 As our environmental  t o l e r a n c e s become f i n e r ,  i n f o r m a t i o n about not o n l y t h e economic e f f e c t s o f development p r o j e c t s but. a l s o the p o s s i b l e environmental impacts, must now  be c o n s i d e r e d p r i o r t o t h e d e c i s i o n t o  go ahead w i t h any g i v e n u n d e r t a k i n g . S i m i l a r l y , more s o p h i s t i c a t e d I n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d about t h e s o c i a l consequences o f our a c t i o n s . Planners w i l l bear p a r t of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e r e q u i s i t e amount o f i n s i g h t i n t o t h e quences o f t h e i r a c t i o n s :  conse-  " • • • i n comparing t h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s , p o l i c i e s and programs, c i t y p l a n n e r s a r e now f a c e d w i t h such q u e s t i o n s as» How many p e o p l e w i l l have t o t r a v e l how f a r and a t what o o s t t o enjoy t h e v a r i o u s k i n d s o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and open spaces proposed; what i s t h e " p r i c e " o f p r e s e r v i n g open spaces t o t h e commun i t y , t o t h e s o c i a l and economic p a t t e r n s o f urban growth.,.? How many and which people ( i n t e r e s t groups) w i l l have t h e i r t a x e s i n c r e a s e d , and by how much, a s a r e s u l t o f a proposed urban renewal p r o j e c t ? ...How w i l l t h e proposed i n d u s t r i a l development a f f e c t t h e p o p u l a t income and which people ( i n t e r e s t group) w i l l be a f f e c t e d more and which l e s s and by how much?"9 As p u r v s o c i e t y  to  size.  p h y s i c a l spape^betw^  has become l e s s  while i n  r  some cases s o c i a l d i s t a n c e s a r e remaining t h e same. S t r e s s e s develop i n urban environments as was d i s c o v e r e d by t h e d i s m a l f a i l u r e of t h e urban renewal program i n Canada.  I t was found t h a t renewal was n o t merely  r e p l a c i n g o l d h o u s i n g w i t h new but a l s o o b l i t e r a t i n g  the  s o o i a l p a t t e r n s and community f a b r i c o f t h e p e o p l e involved.^P  The " s o c i a l ecosystem" was u p s e t beyond  apparent repair.= The l a r g e s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e auto-; m o b i l e and concomitant highway c o n s t r u c t i o n has had.consequences t h a t have permeated Large development  many a s p e c t s o f o u r s o o i e t y . 2 4  p r o j e c t s such a s t h e S t . Lawrence seaway  were proceeded by f a i r l y i n t e n s i v e economic a n a l y s e s and were o f t e n c a r r i e d  out w i t h some degree of s o c i a l c o n c e r n .  7  It would have been u s e f u l , however, i f i n cases s i m i l a r to these, p r i o r Information regarding not only the eoonomlc but  the environmental, d i s t r i b u t i o n a l and s o c i a l Impacts  of these types of projects had been a v a i l a b l e to the deelsion-makers• While f a i r l y sophisticated economic t o o l s were developed to meet the demands of a growing economy, there has been a general neglect of the development of methodologies to Identify the p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l consequence aspeot of the problem,*  2  I t would appear a t t h i s time  that f u r t h e r e f f o r t s , however groping, must be undertaken i n the d i r e c t i o n of t h i s need.  I t i s to t h i s issue that  t h i s study w i l l address i t s e l f . The assumption of a r c h i t e c t u r a l determinism, i . e . , that better buildings or physical environments alone make b e t t e r communities was frequently proven to be wrong through the lessons of urban renewal. Another important concept, economic determinism, or the idea that the general trend of economic growth i s going to b e n e f i t everyone i n the long run, has been brought i n t o question as w e l l .  I t would appear that the assumption that because  something cannot be cut and dried or n i c e l y weighed or measured, i t does not e x i s t , must be l a i d to r e s t . process of grappling with the s o c i a l effects of our development projects i s not l i k e l y to be dealt with  The  8  a d e q u a t e l y f o r a l l s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e near f u t u r e , however, e f f o r t s must be made,  planners,  as w e l l as o t h e r  s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s must a d d r e s s themselves t o t h i s i s s u e . The  Purpose T h i s s'tudy w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e development o f  a framework by which s o c i a l consequences o f development p r o j e c t s can be e v a l u a t e d  f o r consideration i n the  decision-making process.  I t i s assumed t h a t i n many  s i t u a t i o n s an environmental impact statement i s a necessity f o r providing sufficient- information t o i n t e r p o l a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f a dam p r o j e c t . information  Indeed, s u c h  i s r e q u i r e d by s t a t u t e i n t h e u n i t e d  States.  In t h e case o f n a t i v e p e o p l e s , f o r example, o r f i s h e r m e n who e a r n t h e i r l i v i n g by h a r v e s t i n g t h e wealth o f n a t u r a l ecosystems, environmental impact s t u d i e s may s u f f i c e a s the r e s u l t s a r e f a i r l y d i r e c t *  on t h e o t h e r hand, a n  a n a l y s i s o f t h e changes i n t h e man-made o r u r b a n systems in The  w  h  i  c  h  .  w  e  l  l  .  e f f e c t s o f changes i n t h e n a t u r a l environment upon  those not d i r e c t l y affected i h t h e need t o be c o n s i d e r e d The  economic sense w i l l  where p o s s i b l e .  s o c i a l impacts o f proposed developments  upon t h e communities o r r e g i o n s which they a f f e c t c o u l d i n c l u d e a n a l y s i s o r changes upon employment and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , changes i n p o p u l a t i o n  composition,  9 community i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , possi b l e r e l o c a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n , h o u s i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s and  requirements,  burdens of the p r o p o s a l  o t h e r f a c t o r s which can be i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g to l i f e  i n the a f f e c t e d The  and  relevant  areas.  s o c i a l impact study may  improve upon t h e  s i t u a t i o n where the burden of s o c i a l c o s t s of economic growth f a i l s l a r g e l y bh the poor c l a s s e s i n s o c i e t y must f a c e "ever h i g h e r gateways t o l i f e and choice."2-3  who  freedom of  f r e q u e n t l y the economist's " e x t e r n a l costs'*  have been d i s t r i b u t e d t o the poor i n the form of h o u s i n g in  i n d u s t r i a l " areas'and.'''seasonal''employment. S o c i a l impact s t u d i e s could p o s s i b l y p r o v i d e  b a s i s f o r a forum f o r a n a l y s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of and b e n e f i t s of a p l a n n i n g important to w e l f a r e  proposal.  T h i s could be  a costs  as  r i g h t s , m i n o r i t y and downtown  •^citizen's.groups as : the environmental Impact study . i s important to t h e suburbanite,  who  having h i s b a s i c housing  and .service: needs, .met•"-is concerned about an improved • l e v e l ofamenities and  i n the way  of a c l e a n environment,  greenbelts,  similar f a c i l i t i e s , --The  o b j e c t i v e s of a s o c i a l impact study w i l l  to a s s i s t the planning of p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n ment p r o j e c t s , and  be  p r o c e s s by p r o v i d i n g a wider amount  about  e f f e c t s of a l t e r n a t i v e develop-  to reduce the number of unexpected  10 consequences. P l a n n e r s today must r e c o g n i z e t h e absence o f u n i t a r y " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " and an attempt  w i l l be made t o  c o n s i d e r consequences t o v a r i o u s e f f e c t e d groups and t o g r a p p l e w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e changes t o t h e s o c i a l f a b r i c o f our communities,  indeed, many people a r e no l o n g e r  w i l l i n g t o pay t h e " e x t e r n a l c o s t s " o f economic growth.^ p l a n n i n g methods must be m o d i f i e d and t o o l s r e f i n e d t o meet t h e needs o f a new sense o f v a l u e s which s t r e s s e s t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e as w e l l a s t h e economic w e l l - b e i n g . p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g can g u i d e t h e incorporation of "external cosb3"  e  which were most f r e -  q u e n t l y i g n o r e d i n t h e p a s t , i n t o plans f o r developments In a d d i t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l f u r t h e r a< democratic p r i n c i p l e , which people a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y demanding, t h a t a l l persona  auat have an equal i n f l u e n c e upon and a c c e s s  to t h e d e c i s i o n makers.  Only i n t h i 3 manner and by a  p r o c e s s o f on-going d i a l o g u e and c o n s u l t a t i o n between p l a n n e r s and. t h e i r c l i e n t s can t h e form o f s o c i e t y be developed which r e f l e c t s t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f s o c i e t y , 1 ^ People should have t h e r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and implementation  o f g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s which  a f f e c t t h e i r l i v e s p a r t i c u l a r l y when o t h e r groups' are not i n v o l v e d .  interests  11 The  scope The r e s u l t s o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f p u b l i c and  p l a n n i n g concern from t h e economic  (growth), t o t h e  environmental ( e c o l o g i c a l ) t o t h e s o c i a l environment, i s t h e a r e a o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study, A s u f f i c i e n t number o f p l a n s has been  shelved  and more f r e q u e n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n s and o b j e c t i o n s t o p r o posed p r o j e c t s have been made t o make i t c l e a r t h a t n i n g and development  must f i r s t  plan-  s t a r t with the s o c i a l  system,^-5 A u s e f u l analogy can be made between n a t u r a l e c o l o g i c a l systems and t h e man-made system w i t h which p l a n n e r s a r e most o f t e n concerned. d e n c i e a have been  -  Complex i n t e r d e p e n -  identified?  " C e r t a i n remarkable s i m i l a r i t i e s can be found between t h e concerns o f e c o l o g i s t s and p l a n n e r s . L i k e complex urban systems„ e c o l o g i c a l systems appear t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f o u r d i s t i n c t i v e properties. These i n c l u d e t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n g as interdependent systems, t h e i r dependence on a s u c c e s s i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l events, t h e i r s p a t i a l l i n k a g e s and t h e i r n o n - l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e . Both systems appear t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r n a l r e s i l i e n c e w i t h i n a c e r t a i n domain o f s t a b i l i t y , However„ programs such a s i n s e c t i c i d e s p r a y i n g o r urban renewal t h a t d i s t u r b t h e complex b a l a n c e of e i t h e r system can generate unexpected o r undesirable results, u s e o f a n e c o l o g i c a l framework f o r p l a n n i n g suggests ne» p r i n c i p l e s based more on r e c o g n i t i o n o f o u r i g n o r a n c e than p r e sumption o f our knowledge about t h e systems i n which we t r y t o intervene,"1°  12 T h i s study w i l l  endeavour t o examine some o f  t h e s e systems t h a t compose the s o c i a l f a b r i c o f t h e community conoerned which may  be a f f e c t e d by major  planning decisions.  Methodology F o l l o w i n g a g e n e r a l review o f t h e range and types o f s o c i a l i m p a c t s t u d i e s t h a t have been used i n p l a n n i n g , a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s w i l l be developed which w i l l t h e n be used as a framework f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f three d i f f e r e n t  examples o f s t u d i e s whose common f e a t u r e  i s a concern f o r t h e s o c i a l e f f e c t s o f the p r o j e c t i n question.  These examples will... i n ; t u r n be compared  and  used ao a b a s i s f o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of a m o d i f i e d framework t o d e a l w i t h the: next s t e p - a b r i e f o u t l i n e c a s e study  s  ; This w i l l  i n v o l v e : p o s t u l a t i n g the s o c i a l impacts,•. -  by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e p o s s i b l e range of e f f e c t s o r consequences of a proposed l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l development upon a growing community n e a r Vancouver.  Definitions For  t h e purposes o f t h i s study, the term  w i l l be d e f i n e d  "social"  i n g e n e r a l terms as " p e r t a i n i n g t o s o c i e t y :  r e l a t i n g t o man o r t h e p u b l i c as an aggregate body".-*"? A. I , Kahn d e f i n e s t h e " u n i v e r s e o f t h e s o c i a l i n pragmatic terms  13  as a l l t h a t i s not pre-empted by o r a s s i g n e d t o economic and p h y s i c a l p o l i cy-maker a".- 1  0  Examples o f the more c o n c r e t e  s o c i a l a s p e c t s -will be developed i n t h e course o f t h e analysis.  The terms impacts and consequences w i l l be used  i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , however, t h e l a t t e r i s more s t r i c t l y c o r r e c t but t h e former i s most common i n the l i t e r a t u r e * The term "impact" means t o touch or s t r i k e o r communicate a d i r e c t f o r c e w h i l e a c c o r d i n g t o a n  ecological  systems view o f s o c i e t y , t h e r e i s not u s u a l l y an u n i d i r e c t i o n a l - c a u s a l i t y as i n p h y s i c s but a s e r i e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s . 1 9 .Thu3,^ J new  t h e r e may  appear t o be a f a i r l y c l e a r impact o f a  highway on the landscape,,, however, many o t h e r conse-i:  quences o r secondary e f f e c t s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o r e a c t o v e r time.  C e n t r a l t o - t h i s study w i l l be zhe  s e a r c h f o r the  i d e n t i t y o f t h e s e r e p e r c u s s i o n s and t h e i r e f f e c t s upon t h e subsystems i n v o l v e d . T h i s study shares some g o a l s expressed by Bauer i n h i s book S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s  i n t h a t t h e inadequacy  mere economic i n d i c a t o r s demands a t t e n t i o n . ing  of  S o c i a l account-  adopts^ t h e premise t h a t b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l  enable  b a t t e r d e c i s i o n s t o be made. Gross argues t h a t s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s a r e a symptom o f a r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t what has been c a l l e d "economic p h l l i s t i n i s m " . i n f o r m a t i o n a l o n e may  not be a  14 weighty  enough stone t o break down t h i s t r a d i t i o n o r  expand t h e range o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Data made a v a i l a b l e by a c e n t r a l i z e d s o c i a l a c c o u n t i n g system may  w e l l p r o v i d e an improved  opportunity f o r better  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , however, i f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s unchanged, primary i n p u t s such as d a t a may final  remains  not e f f e c t  the  product. The f i r s t  s t e p i n a s o c i a l impact study i s t o  c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b l e range o f consequences i n d i c a t o r s would be o f a s s i s t a n c e .  and f o r t h i s  In a d d i t i o n , t h e - :  i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g must be d e a l t w i t h as an i n t e g r a l i n order that plana  p a r t of a s o c i a l impact  p o l i c i e s and methods of  e  -  analysis  implementation-  can be seen t o g e t h e r .  Limitations T h i s study w i l l attempt  t o o u t l i n e some o f the  s o c i a l impacts o f development p r o j e c t s and propose p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r d a a i i n g w i t h „the* second complex consequences  which may  a  o r d e r more  be produced over t i m e .  attempt w i l l be made t o q u a n t i f y o r weigh t h e s o c i a l upon t h e v a r i o u s groups  i n s o c i e t y which may  as i t would seem presumptlous experience i n the f i e l d .  No impacts;  be affected„  without a g r e a t e r degree of  On the o t h e r hand, an e f f o r t  will  15 be made t o i d e n t i f y and d e a l w i t h t h e r e l a t e d o r a f f e c t e d systems and i n t e r e s t groups, and e l u c i d a t e some o f t h e e f f e c t s o f developments upon the communities and  their  component p a r t s . U l t i m a t e l y , the degree o f change brought about by t h e p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s form w i l l determined i n t h e p o l i t i c a l  sphere.  be  I t Is hoped t h a t the  d a t a generated would^ pfombte d i a i o g u e between t h o s e i n - ; ~ : v o l v e d so t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o shape our environment to  our p r e s e n t and f u t u r e needs c o u l d be b e t t e r pursued.  The p o i n t seems t o be t h a t man  must become aware o f and  l e a r n t o manipulate through an open, a c c e s s i b l e p l a n n i n g procesSj, some o f the s u b t l e t i e s i n h i 3 environment may  be c r i t i c a l t o h i s ultimate s u c c e s s .  not  be easy.  t i o n may  which  The p a t h w i l l  Burke s t a t e s that the p r o v i s i o n o f informa-  make s o c i a l c h o i c e s even more d i f f i c u l t t o make: "However, i t i s an e f f o r t which must be undertaken s i n c e the requirement f o r making s o c i a l c h o i c e s w i l l not d i s a p p e a r even though a g i s t i n g t o o l s a r e inadequate f o r that p u r p o s e . " 2 2  16  Footnotes .*H.A. Innes, ".Th.e.._Fur.Trade",. In ..W.T....Easter.brpQk ..and M . Watkins, Approaches t o Canadian Economic H i s t o r y , M c L e l l a n d antf Stewart;, Toronto, l%7 pp.20-27. t  ^David Popenoe, ..The U r b a n - I n d u s t r i a l F r o n t i e r ; Essays on S o c i a l Trends and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Goals i n Modem CJbmmunitles, R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , jjew"Jersey, 1 9 6 9 . p.X. ^M.M. Hufschmidt, "Environmental Q u a l i t y as a p o l i c y and - P l a n n i n g e c t i v e " ^ pp.2 31-242^ ' A; lVPF^J0urnal:1 ^ ^ ^" Vol.37. J u l y 1 9 7 1 , p.232. : :  r  :  ;  y  ::;  :  **Donella H. Meadows, e t . a l . , The L i m i t s t o Growth, U n i v e r s e Books, New York, 1972. /•5R-  B u c k a i n s t e r F u l l e r * Operating.Manual for; s p a c e s h i p E a r t h , Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , 1969.  .^Kenneth E.' BouldIng,; "The.Economics o f the...Coming Space-, s h i p E a r t h " , p p . 3 - 1 5 . Environmental Q u a l i t y I n a Growing Economy, Henry j a r r e t , (ed.), Resources f o r the F u t u r e , John Hopkins p r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 7 1 , p . 9 . 7  IbjLd , p . 9 . r  8  l b id., p . 1 0 .  9 i r a M. Robinson; " I n t r o d u c t o r y Note", p. 1 7 8 , D e c i s i o n making i n Urban P l a n n i n g , I.M. Robinson (ed.) sage p u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , U.S.A., 1 9 7 2 , p . 1 7 8 . r  1 9 B a r r i e B i G r e e n b l e , : " s o c i a l T e r r i t o r y , Community H e a l t h • and Urban Planning *, p T > , 7 4 - 8 2 » A » I . P . J o u r n a l , Vol.40, N o 2 , (March 1 9 7 4 ) p.75. " 8  ;  a  ^Raymond:.:.A.- B a u e r , " D e t e c t i o n and A n t i c i p a t i o n o f Impact.tThe Nature o f t h e Task", p p . j i . - i 6 3 o c i a l j n d i c a t o r s , Raymond A. Bauer (ed.),"M.I.T. P r e s s , Massaenusetts, • U.S.A., 1 9 6 6 , p.2. Bauer notes t h a t i n t h e conduct o f human a f f a i r s o u r a c t i o n s i n e v i t a b l y have second o r d e r consequences which i n many i n s t a n c e s a r e more Important than t h e o r i g i n a l a c t i o n . e  17  A s l t K« Biswas & Robert W. D u r l e , " S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f water Development", pp.1137-1144, water Resources B u l l e t i n , Vo!LJ7, No.6, (American Water Resource Assoc.) December, 1971, p.1137. T h i s a r t i c l e argues t h a t s o c i o l o g i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f p r o j e c t s must be c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e i r impacts on t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e , i f p l a n n i n g i s t o be " f o r t h e p e o p l e . "  1 2  ^•^Richard M . Titmuss, Commitment t o w e l f a r e , George A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , London, 1968, p . I $ 6 . l ^ F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f d i a l o g u e and on-going p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n - i n p^ R e t r a o k l n g America? A Theory of T r a n s a c t i v e P l a n n i n g , Ancnor Books, Garden b l t y , New York, 1973. l^R.Burke, J . Heaney, E . P y a t t , "Water Resources and S o c i a l Choices", pp.443-447, Water Resources B u l l e t i n , V o l . 9, No.3, (June 1973) V^S5l ^C.S.  H o l l i n g and M.A. Goldberg, "Ecology and p l a n n i n g " , pp.221-230, A.I.p. j o u r n a l , Vol.37, No.4, (July 1971) p.221.  *?New Webster ..Encyclopedic D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e E n g l i s h "" Language, C o n s o l i d a t e d p u o i l s n e r s , Chicago, U.S.A. A l f r e d J , Kahn, s t u d i e s i n S o c i a l p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g , R u s s e l l Sage" Foundation, New York, 1969, p . 2 9 » .  l 8  l^Hagoroh Maruyama, " C u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e P l a n n i n g of P u b l i c Works", P*>.135-l43, T e c h n o l o g i c a l F o r e c a s t i n g and S o c i a l Change, V o l . 5 . " N o . 2 , (1973),' P.135v 20  R a y a o n d A. Bauer, (ed,), S o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s , H.I.T. p r e s s , Cambridge, Massacnusetts"19o6Y  2  1  l b Id, p . i x .  " .  22R. Burke, Op.Cit», p.445.  ^  18 II.  A REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE  The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n Is t o p r o v i d e a background t o and  examples o f types o f i n f o r m a t i o n which  have been gathered  i n t h e r e s e a r c h f o r the s o c i a l con-  sequences o f s e v e r a l types o f developments. term ' s o c i a l impact  study*  While t h e  i s a r e l a t i v e l y new  one  brought i n t o usage by t h e p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of t h e e n v i r o n mental impact  s t u d i e s , s i m i l a r d a t a has been gathered  s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s and analysed f i a b l e areas.  In o r d e r t o understand  t h i s a n a l y s i s , and the f i e l d  i n a number of  identi-  the context of  t o examine t h e scope of r e s e a r c h i n  o f s o c i a l impact  p l a n n i n g , a. review o f t e n  d i f f e r e n t but r e l a t e d areas of p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s w i l l . outlined.  in  be  T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by the development of  a s e r i e s of c r i t e r i a w i t h which t o e v a l u a t e t h r e e cases ~ i n more depth.  T h i s was  seen as a more p r a c t i c a b l e  a l t e r n a t i v e than a review of the v e r y  diversified  l i t e r a t u r e p u r p o r t i n g t o d e a l w i t h s o c i a l impacts se  9  per  f o r i n aany cases t h e g o a l s , r e s u l t s and methods a r e  very general.  3ome of the r e s e a r c h has been c a r r i e d  post f a c t o t o a development, but i t i s those which attempt t o g r a p p l e w i t h the consequences i n advance which w i l l be of c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t to t h i s  study.  out  19 C l a s s e s o f S o c i a l Research  In the F i e l d  Man's environment has always been t h e  central  concern o f urban p l a n n e r s a l t h o u g h they have not had monopoly on t h e f i e l d . among economists  There has l o n g been a  concern  about t h e d i s t r i b u t i v e e f f e c t s of  v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of t h e economy,  sociologists  and  p s y c h o l o g i s t s .have^investigated... .the. s o c i e t a l and s o n a l realms  a  of our behaviour,  per-  s o c i a l development  workers and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s have begun t o  undertake  i n c r e a s i n g l y complex e v a l u a t i o n s of the growing p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e i n t h e a r e a of s o c i a l programs, A myriad  of s t u d i e s have a l s o been prepared  in  the a r e a of t r a d i t i o n a l concern t o p l a n n e r s ; t h e r e s u l t s of development of. our primary r e s o u r c e - l a n d , f i e l d s , geography, ecology and  other  r e s o u r c e economics, f o r  example, f r e q u e n t l y study the I n t e r a c t i o n - between and t h e l a n d ,  p l a n n e r s however,, have f r e q u e n t l y been  chargedI w i t h t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - i n the framework.  man  _  institutional  -  I t w i l l be u s e f u l t o s k e t c h a range of types o f s t u d i e s r e l a t e d "to the U 3 e o f - l a n d and impacts of t h e s e a c t i o n s .  the s o c i a l  These s t u d i e s v a r y i n scope,  o b j e c t i v e s and approaches (from economic t o e n v i r o n mental), however, t h i s review may s o c i a l impact  r e s e a r c h may  s e r v e t o show  be developed  further,  how or  20 where i t i s headed, A,  The S o c i a l Consequences  of urban Design  One o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l  revolution  was t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f v e r y h i g h d e n s i t y h o u s i n g cond i t i o n s where p e o p l e were brought t o g e t h e r i n c i t i e s such as Birmingham,  S h e f f i e l d , D u s s e l d o r f and many o t h e r s .  P e o p l e migrated from poor c d a d i t l o n s Iri r u r a l arigas^  •  however, th© problems i n t h e s e urban areas were o f t e n worse.  C i v i l engineering, p u b l i c transportation,  control  o f p o l l u t a n t s , h e a l t h and s o c i a l c a r e were o n l y rud1- . mentary,  workers were regarded as a f a c t o r o f p r o -  d u c t i o n and l i t t l e concern was demonstrated f o r t h e i r needs i n t h e development ford  of the i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s .  Mum-  illustrates:  v  ^ c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s new urban a r e a on i t s : ^ l o w e s t p h y s i c a l terms, vrlthout r e f e r e n c e to I t s s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s or i t s c u l t u r e , i t i s p l a i n t h a t never b e f o r e : i n . r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y had s u o h i v a s t masses pt p e o p l e l i v e d i n such a savagely d e t e r i o r a t e d environment, u g l y i n form, debased l n content, ,,,never b e f o r e had human b l i g h t so u n i v e r s a l l y been a c c e p t e d as normal; normal and i n e v i t a b l e , " 1  A t l o n g l a s t , s u n l i g h t and b a s i c h e a l t h p r e c a u t i o n s such as s a n i t a r y sewers, s t i m u l a t e d t h e concerns o f some e a r l y urban d e s i g n e r s .  Men such as  Ebenezer Howard i n h i s book Garden C i t i e s o f Tomorrow^  .  21 planned towns In which I n d u s t r y , people and commerce c o u l d c o - e x i s t In c o n d i t i o n s more s i m i l a r t o the r u r a l v i l l a g e s which were c o n s i d e r e d t o be the more n a t u r a l environment or  f o r people.  The i d e a t h a t the p h y s i c a l form  t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t o f c i t i e s was  r e s u l t a n t s o c i a l m i l i e u was town p l a n n i n g . tectural  Broady  c r i t i c a l to the  l o n g one of t h e axioms o f  expresses the t h e o r y o f a r c h i -  determinism: "The a r c h i t e c t who b u i l d s a house o r d e s i g n s a s i t e p l a n , who d e c i d e s where the roads w i l l and w i l l not go, and who d e c i d e s w h i c h : d i r e c t i o n s the houses w i l l f a c e and-how ; c l o s e together^ they w i l l be a l s o i s t o a l a r g e extent, d e c i d i n g t h e pattern of s o c i a l life-among who'wiii. l i v e " . i n t h e s e houses'." i t a s s e r t s t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n has a d i r e c t and determinant e f f e c t on t h e way p e o p l e behave. . . . I t suggests t h a t t h o s e human beings f o r whom a r c h i t e c t s and p l a n n e r s c r e a t e t h e i r designs a r e s i m p l y .-, moulded by the environment, which i s  p r o v i d e d f o r them,"3  T h i s concept was geographers who were  f u r t h e r " e v o l v e d by  argued t h a t c l i m a t e and  early  environment  the determinants of l e v e l s of s o c i a l  dsvelopments.  T h i s became known as environmental determinism  and  s t a t e d e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t the c l i m a t e of north-western Europe wa3 -the most conducive t o human There remains some u t i l i t y  development;  i n the i d e a t h a t  physical  environments a f f e c t human i n t e r a c t i o n , however,  one  22  must a l s o r e c o g n i z e o t h e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s f o r example, e d u c a t i o n , c l a s s , i n t e r e s t s , f a m i l y and  social structure.  In t h e a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l impacts o f p r o j e c t s important t o c o n s i d e r could  i t is  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n society  that  be a l t e r e d by the planned change, as w e l l as  p h y s i c a l changes.  the  Gans comments:  "There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence t h a t the p h y s i c a l environment doesT not p l a y as s i g n i f i c a n t a r o l e i n people's l i v e s as the p l a n n e r b e l i e v e s . Although people r e s i d e , work and p l a y i n b u i l d i n g s , t h e i r behaviour i s not determined by the b u i l d i n g s but by the economic, c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l : r e l a t l o n s h i p s w i t h i n them.»T  ^'-^^xry.;:^-:  ;  Examples o f t h i s theme i n r e c e n t  years are  such as t h e Hidden D l a e n s l o n 5 , Man ment ^ and  and  R V  V  publications  His Urban E n v i r o n -  t h e s o c i a l impact of Urban Deslgn7, which  e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y ( s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o as human ecology) d e s i g n f a c t o r s •and human i n t e r a c t i o n . ; -These s t u d i e s a r e a r e s u l t o f , :  the d e s i r e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n density  about the e f f e c t s of h i g h  l i v i n g , the need f o r which was  pointed  out  by  the apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i g h d e n s i t y l i v i n g and  s o c i a l problems i n some c i t i e s : "Urban d e s i g n has a profound, though o f t e n s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e on our l i v e s , i t plays a major r o l e i n how we t h i n k about ours e l v e s and o t h e r s . To a l a r g e degree, i t shapes o r mis-shapes our r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each o t h e r and s o l v e s or c r e a t e s problems c e n t r a l t o the h e a l t h of the  23 urban environment. U l t i m a t e l y , i t i s a major f a c t o r In d e c i d i n g whether our c i t i e s enhance the d i g n i t y o f the I n d i v i d u a l o r b r u t a l i z e and a l i e n a t e him."° The  urgent need f o r s o c i a l impact a n a l y s i s  emphasized by the  inadequacy of the concept t h a t  is  physical  d e s i g n a l o n e determines p a t t e r n s of behaviour.  Social  impacts r e s u l t from people's r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  i t would  appear t h a t t h e s e a r e a f f e c t e d by governments, i n s t i t u t i o n s groups and  i n d i v i d u a l s who  p l a y a r o l e i n people's l i v e s .  perhaps the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s problem by  are oversimplifying  the  expecting a better physical non-polluted  environment t o produce b e t t e r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s  alone.  What a p p e a r s . t o be needed i s an a n a l y s i s which c o n s i d e r s more elements of people's l i v e s , and  including the  s o c i a l , aa w e l l as the p h y s i c a l B.  economic  relationships,9  The impacts of Large I n d u s t r i a l Implacements Upon Small Communities Many s t u d i e s have been doen t o a n t i c i p a t e  or  e v a l u a t e the r e s u l t s of the p r o v i s i o n of i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s on the l o c a l economy, s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s  and  employment l e v e l s of the s m a l l o r d e v e l o p i n g towns i n which they were s i t u a t e d .  Examples Include s o c i o -  economic f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s f o r developments  In  "depressed" r e g i o n s of Canada under the Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion (DREE) programs.  The  con-  —  2k s t r u c t i o n of the S t . Lawrence Seaway and  some o f  consequences a r e recorded toy R i c h a r d s o n . *  the  Most o f t e n  0  t h e s e s t u d i e s were undertaken t o determine economic f e a s i b i l i t y r a t h e r than t o develop s o c i a l  information  f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n p r i o r t o the d e c i s i o n to p r o c e e d . g e n e r a l assumption appeared t o be t h a t a new  The  power p l a n t ,  s a w m i l l o r f a c t o r y would improve the l o c a l economy and thus improve l i f e  i n t h a t community.  As was  outlined  e a r l i e r , t h i s assumption went unchallenged f o r many years i n s p l t e o f occasional unanticipated  environmental  .:or s o c i a l s i d e ef f e c t s , T : One by D.M,  r a t h e r more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s was  P a t e r s o n i n 1953  titled  "The  prepared  Impact of Large  S c a l e i n d u s t r i a l Development, w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o the Ford  P l a n t Near o a k v i l l e , O n t a r i o . "1^-  urged t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d a d v i c e and required  to prevent "bad  ment" i f the p l a n t was  The  article  detailed research  mistakes and  severe  not planned i n an  were  disappoint-  integrated  fashion;: - A wide v a r i e t y : o f secondary e f f e c t s were identified  f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  d i s c u s s i o n among  groups a f f e c t e d by the i n f l u x of 5 000 new S  i n t o a s m a l l but a r t i c l e wa3  growing community.  to a s s i s t  These s t u d i e s may  The  workers  t h r u s t of  the  In the accommodation of growth.  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y  25 concerned w i t h economics, n o t o n l y to t h e p l a n t b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d  i n terms o f p r o f i t s  b u t a l s o i n terms o f t h e  c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g an I n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o meet t h e needs of t h e new i n h a b i t a n t s .  H o u s i n g , - s c h o o l s , u t i l i t i e s and  t h e i r f i n a n c i n g were seen as main c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d e s i r a b i l i t y o f new growth.  i n the  More, r e c e n t l y , s t u d i e s on  the e f f e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l development on l o c a l  agri-  c u l t u r a l l y based towns have attempted t o i d e n t i f y s o c i a l as w e l l as economic e f f e c t s a l t h o u g h t h e d e c i s i o n s i n many s i t u a t i o n s a r e f r e q u e n t l y based mainly on economic considerations,,i2.v-7vw^^.,^\;;-; C.  Transportation  Impact  _,•>:;::,  :  Studies  I f anyone asked a t t h e time what t h e p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e by Henry Ford would do t o the .. s o c i a l patterns  r  o r North America, I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t  they-would have been a b l e t o f o r e s e e - t h e : m u l t i t u d i n o u s - ~ y v range o f e f f e c t s t h a t have r e s u l t e d , construction o f t h e railway across  s i m i l a r l y , zhe  Canada *<ras seen not  o n l y a s an economic l i n k but a l s o as a s o c i a l and -psychological the p a t t e r n s  connection across of l i v i n g .  the .country which a f f e c t e d  Modem highways which changed  t h e r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s o f towns e i t h e r by b r i n g i n g them i n e f f e c t , c l o s e r t o c i t i e s or i n other cases, by-passing former r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s  had profound e f f e c t s .  26 In 1964 the U.S. Department o f Commerce publ i s h e d a r e p o r t t i t l e d Highways and Economic and S o c i a l Changes which was an attempt t o e v a l u a t e t h e impacts o f the massive U.S. i n t e r - s t a t e highway program which was s t a r t e d i n 1956.*-^ The r e p o r t reviews the r e s u l t s o f 100 economic impact s t u d i e s prepared by government  agencies  and u n i v e r s i t i e s , on t h e changes i n areas near highways and i n t e r c h a n g e s .  The g o a l o f t h e r e p o r t was t o p r o v i d e  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r " t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s e a r c h , community  plan-  n i n g , l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n and economic development.".. I t ^concludes t h a t highways ;pr6duc'e'--C:wide --range o f p l a n n i n g , :  \cbnsequence3i  ;  ,  -  -••'-•/"~  A c r i t i q u e " I n f o r m a t i o n Requirements f o r E v a l u a t i n g t h e S o c i a l Impacts o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n investment" attempts t o i d e n t i f y some o f t h e reasons f o r t h e economic b i a s o f many s t u d i e s and goes on t o o u t l i n e some o f t h e "outputs o f highway construction.* '' 1  Examples g i v e n a r e  changes i n a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s , a e s t h e t i c s , d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e f f e c t s , and n u i s a n c e e f f e c t s .  The ease was made f o r  m i n i m i z i n g t h e adverse s o c i a l consequences o f highway c o n s t r u c t i o n by i n t e g r a t i n g t h e highway p l a n s Into l o c a l r e g i o n a l p l a n s , an obvious but f r e q u e n t l y over-looked p o i n t when d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government a r e i n v o l v e d . In a d d i t i o n , a system o f s o c i a l a c c o u n t i n g was seen as a  27 u s e f u l component In a feedback system, to m o n i t o r ohanges and  permit informed d e c i s i o n s upon the changes t o take  place. P o s i t i v e b e n e f i t s of highways and may  include increased  urban freeways  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m o b i l i t y which  i n t u r n c o u l d enable the poor to have access t o more employment-opportunities. could a l s o r e s u l t . workers may  Several negative  Firstly,  Impacts  the lowest p a i d u n s k i l l e d  not a f f o r d automobiles and  tend t o  near the urban c o r e s where h o u s i n g c o s t s are Secondly, the c o n s t r u c t i o n of freeways may  live  low.  lead to  the  d e g e n e r a t i o n of p u b l i c t r a n s i t upon which these workers depend.  In a d d i t i o n , low c o s t housing and  neighbourhoods may  downtown  o f t e n be d i s r u p t e d by freeway con-  struction projects. I t has r a i l w a y s and  l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d  t h a t j u s t as  s t r e e t c a r s programmed the growth  of Canadian c i t i e s , the automobile has  patterns  been a l a r g e  determinant of the form of l a t e r growth.  the  McKain .  I l l u s t r a t e s t h e - p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e t o highway planning: "... i f a new road happened t o b r i n g b e n e f i t s t o an area, t h i s was considered t o be an unexpected bonus. And i f a highway improvement brought-economic h a r d s h i p , t h i s was d i s m i s s e d i n the name of o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s . . . " 1 5  28  In a n a r t i c l e  titled  "Some A s p e c t s  of the Social  Impact o f U r b a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n " a p l e a I s made f o r t h e development o f " o b j e c t i v e techniques with a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l v a l u e s  whereby t h e c o n c e r n  could be o b j e c t i v e l y  measured and added t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t / c o s t r a t i o . The .to  w r i t e r goes on t o l i s t  a series  h e i n c l u d e d i n h i g h w a y s p r o g r a m s : community  aesthetics, tration,  community f a c i l i t i e s  It  and accommodation f o r  life-style."  that planners  t o t h e urban and indeed have had r e l a t i v e l y  ment i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e critical  regional  little  facilities,,  i n Toronto  and T h i r d C r o s s i n g - D e b a t e s  possibly the  and t h e Chinatown  i n Vancouver,  i s a thing of the p a s t . p l a n n e r s  themselves f o r d e a l i n g with in  this  free-  indicate  t h a t d e s i g n o f highways a c c o r d i n g t o e n g i n e e r i n g alone  involve-  e y e o f t h e p u b l i c a s . d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e S p a d i n a  Expressway c o n t r o v e r s y way  adminis-  i s perhaps s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n view o f e f f e c t s  highways and access  patterns  ought  identity,  c h o i c e , economic base, convenience,  f u t u r e g r o w t h a n d "optimum  of  of goals that  should  c h a l l e n g e more  criteria equip effectively  t e r m s o f .community.- g o a l s a n d n e e d s i n t h e f u t u r e b e t t e r  than has been t h e case will  be analysed  i n the past.  f u r t h e r i n t h e next  An attempt chapter.  t o do t h i s  29 D.  The S o o l a l Impacts of Development In Canada  Northern  In r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e has been a debate d e v e l o p i n g over the f u t u r e o f the n o r t h ; whether i t should be developed  a s t h e West was,  simply denuded of i t s r e -  sources i n t h e most economic f a s h i o n , l e f t t o stand as a l a r g e p a r k - l i k e p r e s e r v e t o p r o t e c t t h e d e l i c a t e ecosystems or  g i v e n self-government  One  t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d by the r e s i d e n t s .  of the r e c u r r e n t q u e s t i o n s about n o r t h e r n development  Is t h e e f f e c t s t h a t the i m p o r t a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l  technology  and  r e s o u r c e development w i l l have on the n a t i v e people  who  f o r many g e n e r a t i o n s developed  a system o f l i v i n g  as  an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the d e l i c a t e n a t u r a l b a l a n c e o f these lands.  The t h r u s t of economic development mind s e t which  has pervaded  th© development of t h i s country has  produced  problems and  u n a n t i c i p a t e d consequences i n t h e North  as  well, i n the case o f n a t i v e ' p e o p l e , the o b l i g a t o r y change from a h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g economy t o a market economy where v i l l a g e s and  towns a r e e s t a b l i s h e d r e p r e s e n t s  so d r a s t i c a change as t o upset the n a t u r a l r e s i l i e n c e of , the " s o c i a l eco-system" or the p a t t e r n of l i v i n g i n which they a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o l i v e . term  The r e s u l t s a r e a few s h o r t  jobs f o r some, l o s s of animals from t h e r e s o u r c e  developments, l o s s of h u n t i n g s k i l l s , f r u s t r a t i o n ,  powerless-  30 ness,  and  u l t i m a t e l y dependence upon w e l f a r e . *  development  is still  r a t h e r than  the  The  seen as  s o l u t i o n to  cause.  two  poverty  /  pronged t h r u s t I l l u s t r a t e d  of t h e Department of has  the  Economic  8  Indian A f f a i r s  and  i n t h e name  Northern  Development  p r o d u c e d a v a s t number o f s t u d i e s w h i c h a t t e m p t  evaluate  in,advance,  of resource  some o f t h e f e a t u r e s and  i n a p p r o a c h , d e p t h and  A recent  example i s one  c a s e by  Affairs.*9 pagesj  j  a staff  titled  "The  i s devoted to the Basically,  historical  changes i n the  ;  p a g e s l o n g , one "social  activity.  include; the  Socio-  Field"  member o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f  r e p o r t kk  n a  These  perceptiveness.  e c o n o m i c i m p a c t o f t h e p o i n t e d M o u n t a i n Gas in this  feasibility  development p r o j e c t s i n the n o r t h .  studies vary  impacts"  chapter,  i t i s a s u b j e c t i v e review communities.  prepared Indian of  of  Specific  the  increased:  expenditures,  changes i n a l t i t u d e s , ; p o p u l a t i o n - s h i f t s - , a l -  c o h o l i s m , ^ and  scheduled  ; i s that  " i n general, the  by  the  on  t o o b s e r v e on  conclusion  changes of F o r t L l a r d  p o i n t e d M o u n t a i n p r o j e c t were not d r a s t i c " b u t  F o r t L l a r d was villages," was  social  The  t u  gathered  No  t h e same p a g e t h a t  one  of the  indication  few  caused goes:  :  " p r i o r t o the p r o j e c t ,  w e l l preserved  i s g i v e n as  o r even i f t h e a u t h o r  -  concerns  v  ( a i r l i n e ) -f 1 i g h t s .  •  five  of the p i p e l i n e  c h a n g e o£ pace,:.-.-/.changes i n employment, :  to  t o how  traditional the  information  v i s i t e d the place  in  31 question.  I t would appear that the conclusion may  be  somewhat premature. In any event there are l i t e r a l l y hundreds of s i m i l a r studies which are prepared by the Northern  Develop-  ment s t a f f or consultants which are b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r . The f a u l t l i e s not only with the authors of these studies but also with the department f o r not pursuing t h i s problem with greater care.  The problem here i s p a r t i a l l y a moral  one and the determination of whether or not projects should be approved  proposed  i s a very d i f f i c u l t one f o r  the p o l i t i c i a n to make.-In the Interim better p r i o r Information and Incorporation of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the studies by those Involved with the r e s u l t s may these analyses  improve  by promoting the i n c l u s i o n of s o c i a l con-:-.  siderations i n the discussions about these developments,: Naysmith points out that " i t must be recognized that ''northern" peoples;. ?an«L.part icttiarly^the ihdians-and . ^Eskimos have needs which may- not "necessarily be met by the development of a v i a b l e i n d u s t r i a l base* * * 1  2  The  importance  of t h i s statement, Is central:-not only to the north- but '-C^y ;  also to the area of concern of t h i s study as w e l l .  t  He  also points out that "a p o s i t i v e sense of well-being Is found i n some Individuals who  can maintain t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l  99  way of l i f e , " socio-economic  It would appear obvious that a b e t t e r impact study should address i t s e l f not only  32 t o t h e economics o f p r o j e c t s but a l s o t o t h e e f f e c t s upon traditional pursuits,  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e d e g r e e t o  which t h e indigenous r e s i d e n t s l i v e o f f t h e l a n d , and an a n a l y s i s o f t h e p o s s i b l e c o s t s i n monetary and s o c i a l terms o f d e s t r o y i n g w i l d l i f e o r f i s h r e s o u r c e s  should  be  included. Assume f o r example t h a t p r o p e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s had been prepared p r i o r t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Bennett dam on B r i t i s h Columbia's peace R i v e r ; t h e c o s t s of "the r e s u l t a n t l o s s of •• f i s h e r i e s - a n d - t r s ^ p i n g t o p e o p l e -  r  i n t h e i,000 square m i l e peace-Athabaska D e l t a might have i / a f f e c t e d t h e d e c i s i o n . ^ i n t h e event t h a t i t was approved, ' 2  these c o s t s might have been i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f t h e budget and  through d i s c u s s i o n , some o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e l o s s  of ' l i v e l i h o o d - mlgh-t-'have-been-. a v o i d a b l e ;  •"•VV  Vall'ey- p i p e l i n e - the - C h u r c h i l l : F a l l s and i James Bay .hydro.- V B  pro j e c t a have, bean .obstructed  by p o l i t i c a l . a n d . l e g a l  actions  by n a t i v e p e o p l e s . ^Co-i o p e r a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n i n v o l v i n g , •the p o s s i b l e s o c i a l - consequences.and t h e d e g r e e - t o which they can be d e a l t w i t h i n a f a s h i o n a c c e p t a b l e ' concerned i s needed.  ;i  r  to a l l  ..  "  i n t h e Nass V a l l e y r e g i o n o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, a massive r a i l w a y and development p r o j e c t  33 In an  area  p r i m a r i l y i n h a b i t e d by  proposed. on  the  The  Indian  consequences of the  native  communities w i l l  p e o p l e has  proposed  industrialization  prove d i f f i c u l t  s i n c e r e attempts to demonstrate s o c i a l  been  I f more  concerns are  not  made. Rapid  social  change i n any  community  p r o d u c e s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and  there  of t h i s  In small  In n o r t h e r n  rates per  capita often reach rates  determlnists to  many examples communities  the  crime  environmental  density. ^ 2  to northern tion  of  aspect  of  social  information  remains.  Lotz,  in this  a well  field  informed  North points  the  i s important -  thorny problem of  More c a r e f u l l y  a different'philosophy  research  impact a n a l y s i s  development however, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e  better  questions  the  that  often  would; i n urban s i t u a t i o n s p o s s i b l y a t t r i b u t e .  This  ing  settlements.  are  can  may  i n the  be  developed  moral  policies  reflect  a p r e r e q u i s i t e to valuable •  n e x t few  c r i t i c of  prepara-  social  important science  years.  programs- i n  outs  " T h i s new w e a l t h ( f r o m P i n e P o i n t M i n e s ) w i l l n o t s o l v e t h e s o c i a l a n d human p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e •^v::.;:..7- '..--.••.arising w i t h t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s ; The -••...«•, f i r m b e l i e f t h a t m e c h a n i c a l s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y w i l l b r i n g e n d l e s s b e n e f i t s and l e a d t o a g h a p p i e r l i f e " has p r o v e d c h i m e r i c a l everywhere." ;  2  The considered  value  along  to society of  e c o n o m i c g r o w t h must  with a broader s o c i a l  consideration.  be  34 E.  S o c i a l Consequences o f R e l o c a t i o n  One  o f t h e most f a r r e a c h i n g  o c c u r t o a n i n d i v i d u a l o r a community Voluntary better  changes t h a t c a n i s forced relocation.  movement o f p e o p l e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e s e a r c h f o r  opportunities  Public decisions,  o r more a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e s  on t h e o t h e r  n e e d t o move a n e c e s s i t y . bridges, often  utility  lines,  causes t h i s  The c o n s t r u c t l o n r o f  a i r p o r t s and o t h e r  problem.  construction  often  displaces One  i n rural  proareas,  o f l a r g e dams f o r h y d r o power o r i r r i g a t i o n farming  communities.  o f t h e k e y r e a s o n s f o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among  the d i f f i c u l t y  (as opposed without  i s relocation.  certain  i n attempting  t o t h e components) from  drastically  adaptable creatures costs  Looking  -  altering  i t .  t o move a n e c o s y s t e m  one h a b i t a t  t o another  Human b e i n g s a r e t h e  o n t h e e a r t h 1 how-aver, t h e r e  associated  with the adaptation,  forced  t o older people,  may b e u p s e t .  patterns often  -  The r e s u l t o f  r e l o c a t i o n may b e a l i e n a t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m a  powerlessness about  ao3t  may b e  I n t e r a c t i o n , v i s u a l i d e n t i t y / sense o f place,  important  of  p u b l i c works  a community a s a n e c o s y s t e m f o r a moment, o n e c a n  appreciate  of  hew h i g h w a y s ,  Urban renewal s i m i l a r l y  p s o p l e a f f e c t e d by u r b a n r e n e w a l at  to live.  h a n d , c a n o f t e n make t h e  duces d r a s t i c e f f e c t s I n urban a r e a 3 w h i l e the  projects  sense  t h e change and estrangement from  a  35 once f a m i l i a r s o c i a l  milieu.  which enables a n a t u r a l  ecosystem to  changes i n temperature o r is  not  great  down a n d system  of  a new,'  a  staying within  load  may  replace  few. f i s h .  replaces  the  amount o f the  the  s h o c k and  old.  The  to  organisms  the  and  adapt  system  less  breaks  complex  p o l l u t i o n of  e f f l u e n t m i g h t be  an  a  example  r e s i l i e n c e w h i l e a heavy p o l l u t i o n trout with only various  algae  and  .... ... Similarly  c h a n g i n g but  relationships behaviour.  our  social  systems a r e  constantly  a r e l o c a t i o n which breaks with h i s t o r i c a l  d e v e l o p m e n t may  ;  c h a n g e and  u s u a l l y l e s s developed  small  resilience  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new  enough t o a b s o r b a  eventually  s t r e a m by  often the  C (  change t h e  or  create  an  G r e e n b i e warns  make-up o f power and entirely  ••-H-K  social  different pattern  of  that;  "...mass r e l o c a t i o n s o f p o o r p e o p l e , a s a r e s u l t o f u r b a n r e n e w a l and r e l o c a t i o n i n h i - r i s e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , have been d i s r u p t i n g i n t r i c a t e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which c o n t r i b u t e >;i-^~s.,-.;«^r;to the s t a b i l i t y o f the v a r i o u s groups a f f e c t e d . • ...The d e g r e e t o - j h i c h s u c h p o l i c i e s h a v e ^ c o n t r i b u t e d t o the u n r e s t , crimes v i o l e n c e and: g e n e r a l s o c i a l b r e a k d o w n c a n o n l y be g u e s s e d a t , but the s o c i a l c o s t of f a i l u r e t o understand the "l~"Vrelationship I n v o l v e d must be staggering." 2 8  ' The'•••disasterous^faiiure of t h e in  St.<Louis  location vary  i s given  as  an  pr^  example.  in a l l likelihood  housing The  with the  project  effects of  re-  manner i n w h i c h  36 the move i s handled by the a u t h o r i t i e s , the degree of support p r o v i d e d and affected.  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  make-up of  I t i s u n l i k e l y , I t would seem, t h a t any  those objective  method of a n a l y s i s of t h e s e consequences i s about t o discovered.  be  Th'e o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e , i t a p p e a r s , i s t o ensure  t h a t r e l o c a t i o n be executed as s l o w l y  as p o s s i b l e and  with  thefaa^ those a f f e c t e d . In Vancouver, the proposed expansion o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l , A i r p o r t has of n e a r l y  100  homes which has  s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n and The  resulted  public  construction  inthe  resulted  the  expropriation:  In s i g n i f i c a n t  controversy.  of the S t . Lawrence Seaway  a c r o s s southern Ontario; r e s u l t e d i n the d i s p l a c e m e n t of  6„500 p e o p l e inveight;; communities.  m  s p i t e of a good d e a l  o f i n i t i a l b i t t e r n e s s , s o c i a l p a t t e r n s were d i s r u p t e d the p r i c e of p r o g r e s s . 9 2  would be w i l l i n g t o pay  as  cne wonders whether people today t h i s p r i c e . .An  interesting fact  of t h i s case i s t h a t no apparent a n a l y s i s was  done e i t h e r  ;v- b e f o r e o r a f t e r i n an attempt hto prevent .the r e p e t i t i o n of e r r o r s o r c o n t r i b u t e decisIon-making.  a p r i o r s o c i a l input  A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n was  people a f f e c t e d by the Columbia R i v e r People i n the way.3°  A  ;  into  the  a study of  project  -,  the  titled:  glimpse i s provided i n t o some Issues  37 associated of  the  of  land.  ties  with the  level  of  of  An the  i s made t o g r a p p l e  p r o c e s s and  steps  „the u t i l i t y  relocation.  A  company  formation  the  tion p r i o r to  on  the  the  some o f  the  community  closely  natural  to  the  natural  c h a n g e s may  by  the  experienced  w e l l as  the  improve the  illus.  in: v  by  occur at  people l i v e  e i t h e r by  the  two  way  of  often  more  harvesting  Northern  i n developing  Indians  countries,  different levels. about developing  c h a n g e s b r o u g h t a b o u t by on  projects.  consequences which have been  environment,  cultivation  better.evalua-Ac-  societies' relocation  c u l t u r e where t h e  Lagler writes  occur at  difficul-  stress  to permit  p r o d u c t i v i t y I n -.-the c a s e o f  Canada o r  effects  the  development o f f u t u r e  in a  the  of  A r r o w L a k e s may  feedback necessary  demonstrated,  in  the  acres  i n land a c q u i s i t i o n  i s communicated, as  I n modern i n d u s t r i a l  its  40,000  available f o r future hydro-electric projects,  provide  produces  raising  of d i f f e r e n t problems i n d i f f e r e n t communities.  Follow-up research  and  with  the  t h a t were f o l l o w e d  c l e a r conception  a%by >the p e o p l e ; i n v o l v e d tration  by  the Arrow Lakes which f l o o d e d  attempt  g o v e r n m e n t and and  relocation necessitated  life  of  levels? f i r s t l y ,  countries  man-made l a k e s local in a  have  residents.^*  where  profound This  can  s t a b l e s o c i e t y unaccustomed  33 t o change, as Is common In n o n - i n d u s t r i a l r e l o c a t i o n t o new  areas may  societies,  produce c o n f u s i o n and  i n a b i l i t y t o make a l i v i n g due t o the adjustments by new  or d i f f e r e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l techniques.  an required  Secondly,  i n a s o c i e t y where most of the food comes from  local  a g r i c u l t u r e , environmental impacts can have major e f f e c t s . The Aswan Dam  on the N i l e has reduced the f i s h i n g on the  Mediterranean c o a s t , reduced the f e r t i l i t y of the  soil,  and p r o v i d e d an i n c r e a s e d h a b i t a t In the i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l s of a p a r a s i t e - c a r r y i n g snail,-'' i r r i g a t e d a r e a s may  R e l o c a t i o n of newly  be f r u i t l e s s i n every sense i f conse-  quences such as t h e s e a r e not a n t i c i p a t e d .  Forced  c a t i o n may  d i s r u p t l i v i n g p a t t e r n s t o such a degree  people may  l a c k the new  s k i l l s t o e x p l o i t the  relothat  irrigated  land, These examples i l l u s t r a t e t h a t w h i l e t h e a n a l y s i s o f r e l o c a t i o n p r o j e c t s does p r o v i d e some i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the s o c i a l impacts, i t would appear d i f f i c u l t t o draw a s u f f i c i e n t number of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e decision-makers concerned.  The need  t o c o n s i d e r some o f the secondary s o c i a l e f f e c t s mu3t be considered,  one wonders i f the Egyptians had  the I n f o r m a t i o n  they have today p r i o r t o c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Aswan whether they would have proceeded  Dam  l n the same manner.  39 F e a s i b i l i t y must be measured  i n broader terms than t h e  economic o r t e c h n i c a l p o i n t o f view, F.  Water Resource Development p r o j e c t s Some" o f t h e l a r g e s t s c a l e economic and s o c i a l  changes t h a t can o c c u r i n r e g i o n s even when r e l o c a t i o n i s hot-involved m projects.  water r e s o u r c e develppment  Dams on r i v e r systems have l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d  by people as methods o f r e d u c i n g f l o o d dangers, p r o d u c i n g e l e c t r i c i t y o r p r o v i d i n g water s t o r a g e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e a n d - I r r i g a t i o n as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l uses.  R e c r e a t i o n on-  "the man-made l a k e s and Improved f i s h e r i e s were o f t e n i n - - > eluded as secondary  benefits.  A l l these p o i n t s have i n  common t h e improvement  o r development of t h e l o c a l o r r e -  g i o n a l economy through  i n c r e a s e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  Major developments o f t h i s n a t u r e have long: been' considered-; an I m p o r t a n t ' t o o l  f o r economic p r o g r e s s .  The Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y was s e t up i n the U n i t e d s t a t e s t o u t i l i z e t h e h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l o f t h e r i v e r .in a c o - o r d i n a t e d f a s h i o n and _thus p r o v i d e a s t a b l e economic-base f o r a h i t h e r t o r e l a t i v e l y poor -.-region.: There were s o c i a l Ideals i n c l u d e d i n t h e g o a l s f o r t h i s p r o j e c t and t o some extent may have helped  establish a  t r a d i t i o n t h a t water r e s o u r c e s a r e a key element i n r e g i o n a l growth.  40 The construction  large capital of  projects  of t h i s nature are  a v a i l a b l e from the h i g h e s t form of "best"  shared  the  In o r d e r  a l l o c a t e d in order  t o meet t h i s  specific  the  usually  o f government I n  t h e s e f u n d s and  only  the  to obtain  the  d e t e r m i n e where  t o maximize t h e  returns  requirement.  were  Cost-benefit  c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s s t u d i e s performed a n a l y s e s of  b e n e f i t s which would a c c r u e , expenditure.-  the  Cost-benefit  interest rates  evaluate  late  studies  are very well  not  non-monetary c o s t s  and  benefits, although  Essentially, i f a project  economic growth  •cost-!benefit'-'ratio  equipped  to attempts  Is g o i n g t o  stimu-  (benefits) than i s spent,  "-will >be^l'arger"''-thah., one.  i n benefits- the  ratio  is  1.3. v  The  the:'hlgher* b n7the ;:  come. which  the  For  a  higher  1.3 the  ratio  p r o j e c t would  ;  I t i s not  the  exampieV - ^  expenditure of 1 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s r e s u l t s i n  million  the  s e n s i t i v e to  are  more :  the  used  i n d o l l a r s , i n view of  and  made.33  are  if  for  n a t i o n a l purse, c a r e f u l l y adapted s t u d i e s  evolved and  be  level  programs.  expenditure of  they should to  cost  Investments r e q u i r e d  difficult  to understand  p r o c e s s such a s . t h i s would  the  frailty  be abla,to  be-  with  deal with  34 what e c o n o m i s t s c a l l and  purle point  out  external that  or s o c i a l  costs.^  i n a bibliography  economic a s p e c t s of water R e s o u r c e s t u d i e s  of  the  Biswas  "  Socio-  prepared  in  the  41 U.S.  only  aspects.  18  of  the  T h e y go  700  on  e n t r i e s d e a l t -with t h e  to point  out  social  that;  "Cost e f f e c t i v e n e s s s u f f e r s from a p h i l o s o p h i c a l weakness. I t h o l d s t h a t one f a c t o r - e c o n o m i c i s f u n d a m e n t a l and t h a t a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s - t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l - a r e d e r i v a t i v e T h i s i s a f a l l a c y known t o s t u d e n t s o f philosophy as t h e f a l l a c y o f r e d u c t i o n i s m ; i t r e d u c e s t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f r e a l i t y t o one o f i t s e l e m e n t s , and o f f e r s t h a t one i s s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n i n g f o r t h e whole."35 The  w r i t e r s go  not  been p r e p a r e d because of a l a c k o f methodology  i d e n t i f y and  on  to conclude that  evaluate  the  s o c i a l assessments have  p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l and  environmental  c o n s e q u e n c e s o f w a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t s . " I t m i g h t be to  realize  the  that,  p u b l i c nor  thus  past,  there  was  neither  t h e p o l i c y makers f o r t h i s  i t i s natural  Sewell :••  i n the  that  "to  more u s e f u l demand  from  Information,  methodologies remained  undeveloped.  states; " . . . s t u d i e s o f t h e e x t e r n a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l impacts = are a l s o r e q u i r e d , p o l i c y makers need t o know f o r example, what e f f e c t s o f a p r o p o s e d - I r r i g a t i o n scheme a r e l i k e l y t o be on t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f communities i n the r e g i o n a f f e c t e d by t h e scheme."3o 8  The ...y.ery l a r g e and ito  e f f e c t s of projects widespread.  be ' c o n s i d e r e d  of  this  »External"  type are  effects will  often have ;  more c a r e f u l l y = t h a n t s i m p l y p e r m i t t i n g - v -  e c o n o m i c e f f i c i e n c y t o be  the  sole criterion  " s p a c e s h i p economy" r e f e r r e d t o  i n Chapter  i n an One.  evolving  kz The  B e n n e t t Dam  on t h e B r i t i s h  o f t h e Peace R i v e r p r o v i d e s s e v e r a l of unforseen s o c i a l  consequences.  Columbia  interesting Had  this  section examples  type of  mation been a v a i l a b l e  i n advance,  location,  s c h e d u l e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n may  s t a g i n g and  been a b l e t o be a d j u s t e d I t was held  :  b a c k by t h e dam,  the d e c i s i o n about  to minimize these  found that as a r e s u l t • o f  the Delta time.  l n t h e downstream  duce  communities.  and f u t u r e g r o w t h  obliterated  to  to this; ;  o f some o f  7,500..  site, in  the population swelled  1967.  The r a p i d  t h e f a b r i c o f t h e o l d community, t h e n  an The  "hangover  effect»3?;  The  from  s o c i a l , changes; after  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o d u c e d what one o f t h e r e s i d e n t s .; a  the  I n t h e town o f H u d s o n ' s Hope, 1 3 m i l e s  d o w n r i v e r f r o m t h e dam a few hundred  prior  enabled  t h e l o w e r l e v e l s h i n d e r n a v i g a t i o n and r e -  the a c c e s s i b i l i t y  river  the  f u r b e a r i n g animals which had  I n d i a n p e o p l e t o be s e l f - r e l i a n t  As w e l l ,  have  the spring floods being  the water l e v e l s  and  the  externalities.  p e a c e - A t h a b a s c a D e l t a were l o w e r e d which r e d u c e d habitat for fish  infor-  community power  called  structures,  i m p o r t a n t - a s p e c t o f t h e town,-may a l s o b e changed.38 g e a r i n g down o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n f r o m  present l e v e l  o f 1,000  also  7,500  to i t s  c r e a t e d h a r d s h i p on t h e town.  The p r e s s u r e o n moose a n d f i s h f r o m t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l suits  ,  of the c o n s t r u c t i o n workers  pur-  a l s o reduced h u n t i n g  43 opportunities  f o rthe Indian  people In the Region o f  H u d s o n ' s Hope who, p r i o r t o t h e "boom" s t i l l  lived  to a  l a r g e degree by t r a d i t i o n a l p u r s u i t s , ^ These p e o p l e were often forced  onto s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ,  i n t o t e m p o r a r y wage  employment, w h i c h p e r m a n e n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r patterns.  Alcoholism  cases as w e l l . the a  several  This  small  and p r o s t i t u t i o n r e s u l t e d  Indian  o f 680 s q u a r e The  and  band3  part the  t h a t had t o be r e l o c a t e d as  of B r i t i s h  Columbia*s l a r g e s t  miles.  lesson  integrated  social  from t h i s planning  must b e t h a t  prior  o f t h e i r development i f a f t e r a n Informed d e c i s i o n t o go a h e a d i s made, a n d r e d u c i n g  participation Bpcking observes;.^ ;  importation  studies  must b e made a n i n t e g r a l  t a i n t y among t h o s e a f f e c t e d ,  the  i n some  I s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e e f f e c t s upon  r e s u l t . o f the formation  lake  living  t h e uncer•  i s a l s o an important was.: assumed  issue,.  in• t h e r p r a i r l e s that .  o f w a t e r i n t o d r y a r e a s would  e c o n o m i c boom I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t  discussion,  that  cause an ~ " :  many more a t t r a c t i v e -:  a r e a s o f Canada have a d e q u a t e w a t e r s u p p l i e s  and d o n o t  e x p e r i e n c e g r o w t h , ^ T h e e r r o n e o u s a s s u m p t i o n i s made water i s t h e " l i m i t i n g f a c t o r " i n economic growth. important point for an area, affected,  i s that  i f an i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t  that  An  i s planned  without t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e farmers  I t may b e p o s s i b l e t h a t  they w i l l  not wish t o  44 c h a n g e t h e i r m e t h o d s o f a g r i c u l t u r e o r c a n n o t a f f o r d new machinery*  p r i o r d i s c u s s i o n would  enable t h e planners  d e t e r m i n e t o what d e g r e e t h e p e o p l e to  see t h e i r region  in  t h e p e a c e c a s e may h a v e b e e n a b l e , w i t h  information,  changed.  Involved  t o evolve  Similarly  impact  analyses  reflect  are s t i l l  the Indian  as  the fact  that while  well.  resource  development  living  benefit-cost  necessary,in  some  regarding  the  well a s t h e i n c i d e n c e o f t h e c o s t s must b e  as  area  deal  environmental and s o c i a l  u s e f u l and i n d e e d  prepared  this  money a n d  :  c a s e s f i n e r a n d more d e t a i l e d I n f o r m a t i o n project  people  t o occur,:- '•-; -  l e s s o n must b e t h a t  studies  like  programs I n advance t o b e t t e r  w i t h ; thei; c h a n g e s , t h a t : w e r e g o i n g The  would  to  The l i t e r a t u r e contains  i n the area  o f water  some d e f i n i t e c o n c e r n s  inr  ;  i n terms o f j r e l o c a t i o n , e c o l o g i c a l changes,  pattern  changes, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  external  . c o s t s a n d - ' t h e i r - d i s t r i b u t i o h , -an  G.  D i s t r i b u t i v e Imoact  In t h e past, t h a t : were- i n t h e b e s t recognized and  costs  sented  that  planners  Studies  attempted  t o produce  interest: o f the p u b l i c *  p r o j e c t s such as i r r i g a t i o n  to different  groups  i n society.  plans  I t has been  confer  benefits  The Idea  repre-  I n t h e " m a s t e r p l a n " was a n example o f t h e assumed  45 unity of public interest. in  Today t h i s has  the p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e as p l a n n e r s  been  questioned  attempt  to  provide  i n f o r m a t i o n about a l t e r n a t i v e plans  of courses  of a c t i o n  from which the p o l i t i c i a n s  choose the  most  acceptable. would be  The  to ask  or effects and  next  can  l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n one  for specific  Information  would  about  interests  p l a n n i n g may  in society.^  be  In the p a s t  Alfred " I n one  seen as a p r o c e s s  the statement  were p l a n n e d  sense a t l e a s t , a l l  of resource  t h a t s o many new  new  p o p u l a t i o n growth.  o f t h e new  buildings.  the  i n heterogeneous l a r g e The  as  demand f o r a b e t t e r e n v i r o n m e n t h a s c o n f r o n t a t i o n s between a f f e c t e d  costs  and  not. m e e t •  I n t e r e s t s and  "quality  needs -  of l i f e "  sometimes r e s u l t e d  communities and  agencies.  One  a p p e a r t o be  toward a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  An  important  cities.  i n c r e a s i n g e m p h a s i s on  of the major trends  participation  year  s u b u r b a n homes" on  or-.•another s i n g l e ••dwell I n g t y p e may  t h e needs of young working p e o p l e  and in  planning  i n p l a n n i n g would  i n t h e p r o c e s s by  decision-making, the  2  acceptable  Today i t i s  forms o f t e n u r e  parties.  allocation."^  houses a  o n l y t h e number o f u n i t s b u t  increased  incidence  Khan i n a d i s c u s s i o n  to c o n s i d e r not  vary  the  f o r , would have been c o n s i d e r e d an  of housing  large-lots  expect  o f t h e p l a n o r p r o j e c t upon t h e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s  of s o c i a l planning s t a t e s j  way  then  affected  example o f t h i s a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g ,  which  46 utilizes  local  expertise  and knowledge,  as w e l l  drawing people i n t o a p a r t i c i p a t o r y process, i n what F r i e d m a n c a l l s stress  i s on d i a l o g u e  affected are  as  i s outlined  "transactive planning"»^ between  by t h e d e c i s i o n .  t h e p l a n n e r s and  The r e s u l t s may  The  those  be p l a n s  which  f a r b e t t e r s u i t e d t o l o c a l needs because t h e g o a l s  those a f f e c t e d a r e r e f l e c t e d i n the r e s u l t s , as t o t h e imposed planning  o r assumed g o a l s  of planners  of  opposed  In a  central  a g e n c y , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h h a s p r o d u c e d many  problems and o f t e n r e s u l t s i n t e n s i o n between and t h e p l a n s . more c o m p l i c a t e d  The  cost  o f t h i s open d i s c u s s i o n  method o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  are  opened  the  chances o f - d i s c o v e r i n g a s i n g l e r i g h t :>  the c i t i z e n s  f o r consideration  is a  Broader areas~i.  and more a l t e r n a t i v e s r e d u c e answer.  T h e p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement  is also having Interesting s o c i a l w r i t e r s a r e ' beginning:- t o c o n s i d e r ; doubt t h a t  consequences and t h e r e  that-some  is little  planners•uwlli•:•have<tO:^d..eal•v^with:•/thIs^slfcuatlon::^^  more^f'requentiy^ become :.the*:rule-.:-:»r-^ile:^.tha.-.xryArfor a . b e t t e r e n v i r o n m e n t  .  seems u n i v e r s a l , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s o f a  project  may  b o t h among  differ  individuals  greatly i n their i n any g i v e n  economic  area  Incidence,  and between  separate  regions.  47 One o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  r e s u l t i n g from t h e  p o p u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement a n d t h e r e s u l t a n t cipatory  s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g i s t h e problem  of Interests.  T h o s e i n o p p o s i t i o n t o p l a n s a n d who may h a v e to loose, a r e usually vociferous The  p e o p l e who a r e l i k e l y  something  i n their expression.  to benefit,  often  indirectly,  t e n d to• -'be.-- 'more'-'c6mpiaceht.' M i d d l e c l a s s g r o u p s ;  :  b a s i c n e e d s a r e met t e n d t o demand b e t t e r amenities w h i l e working  filled  concerns o f day t o day e x i s t e n c e . to have t h e time, p o l i t i c a l  environmental  w i t h immed l a t e  The more w e a l t h y  tend;  a c c e s s and e l o q u e n c e t o make  protecting l o c a l natural amenities.  This i s a d i f f i c u l t whom a b e t t e r  whose  class people or s i n g l e parents  f o r ."example, may h a v e t h e i r l i v e s  statements about  parti-  p o s i t i o n t o c r i t l z e f o r those t o  environment  need  the industrial  "The  elite's  jobs.  means b e t t e r h o u s i n g o r who Downs p o i n t s o u t t h a t  environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n  i s often the  'common-man'a Improved.•^.standard'^of-:-.-living»..-and'rprov..i'des-:v..^ examples s u c h a s H a w a i i , a u t o m o b i l e u s e and development.^  Babcock e x p l a i n s  do n o t c a r e a b o u t  " I t i s n o t that t h e poor  t h e environment,  them f i n d i n g a d e c e n t  suburban  environment  means t o  s h e l t e r reasonably a c c e s s i b l e to  48 What i s the r o l e of planning i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? In some areas where urban development i s spreading a t a rapid rate, l o c a l resistance to growth frequently develops as people view with d i s d a i n the l o s s of natural amenities i n t h e i r region.  The r e s u l t i s sometimes "exclusionary  zoning", where l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s refuse to allow ;densities more than two acres per dwelling f o r example and demand a high l e v e l of amenities.  The costs of hous-  ing land are thus maintained at l e v e l s which are beyond the reach of most psople.  This was done f o r example i n  Shaughnessy Heights In Vancouver i n the 1920»s.  zoning i n  fact," was born out of people's desire to conserve the "character" of neighborhoods and prevent i n t r u s i o n by i n dustry or high density housing,  information gatherings  one of the tasks of the planner, may provide a p a r t i a l solution to t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y philosophical s i t u a t i o n . A study i n C a l i f o r n i a recommended that regional s o c i a l Impacts of exclusionary >zoning p o l i c i e s should be: evaluated. Babcock goes f u r t h e r to point out that the U.S. National Environmental,?^ .. . _ ~ ... -  ..... ....  .  kinds of negative s o c i a l effects.-'  have p r e c i s e l y these 50 •  ;  His suggestion i s that  ;  p r i o r to any housing project being rejected f o r e c o l o g i c a l reasons, a housing Impact statement be required s e t t i n g f o r t h  4  a)  the e f f e c t  such a r e s t r a i n t would have  t h e s u p p l y , c o s t and b)  what a t t e m p t  was  quality  of l o c a l  made t o f i n d  c)  alternative  b e a r i n g t h e burden, o f an  t  that  on t h e h o u s i n g  t o i n d i c a t e what segment o f t h e  — :.^ . .is v  effect  on housing,  methods o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t would l e s s e n t h e  9  supply,  community  environmental  r  51 protection The  point  i s that  measure.  the p r o v i s i o n of a broader spectrum  information regarding the s o c i a l mental: e f f e c t s of an  of a p r o j e c t  environmental  siderations w i l l  s h o u l d , by w e l l "people a f f e c t e d t h e i r -actions,'  as w e l l as t h e environ-- ;  s h o u l d enhance t h e  compromise b e i n g r e a c h e d  enter the a n a l y s i s  These thorny d e c i s i o n s  and  politicians  informed  as  I n t h e same way  possibility  a s more  p r i o r to the  c a n t h e n be made, a s  Informed  of  con-  decision.  indeed  they  conversant with  t o the consequences  the of '  plannersy: i n their, evaluation  of a l t e r n a t i v e  plan3 must a t t e m p t . t o d e a l " w i t h t h e d i s t r i -  butive  of the a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  effects  as t h i s  may  be  B  i t must be u n d e r t a k e n  f o r making s o c i a l , c h o i c e s existing  A3  will  t o o l s a r e Inadequate Some e c o n o m i s t s  discussing the position  and  that  difficult  since, the  a  matter  requirement  not d i s a p p e a r even-though: . f o r that  purpose,  other social  scientists  t h e c o r e o f many o f o u r  are social  50 problems It  I s r e l a t e d t o t h e u n e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Income.  h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d f o r example t h a t  housing of  t h e cause o f slum  I s l o w incomes and t h e s o l u t i o n l i e s  i n the area  s u b s i d i z i n g people rather than providing low cost  53 housing.  The" C e n t r a l  J J  Mortgage and Housing  Corporation  a s s i s t e d home o w n e r s h i p p r o g r a m a p p e a r s t o f o l l o w philosophy. butlon the  i f , i n "the" f uturV,/ m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e : " d i s t r l - =v :  o f i n c o m e becomes a more p r o m i n e n t p u b l i c p o l i c y ,  prior consideration  -•^planning  nature,  of thed i s t r i b u t i v e  d e c i s I ons-; espec l a l l y . i n  ^become - an  effects of  t h e hous i n g  fleld  .•would-.--.n-.-  •?. ••-  i m p o r t a n t p a r t : o f t h e p o l i c y a n a l y s i s o f t h i s •-  -information  of this  determining theu t i l i t y local  this  areas f o r land  s o r t could  be -useful; i n  o f c e n t r a l government g r a n t s  to  ^  banking, redevelopment o r borrowing  f u n d s . B o n n e r warns t h a t  -•-•-  " P a s t d e c i s i o n s made w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n ; k n o w l e d g e now a p p e a r o f t e n t o l a c k e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l wisdom. ...we must now c o l l e c t t h e d a t a - - a n d - . d o t h e analysis••'•,.of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i m p a c t s t h a t a r e needed f o r t o d a y ' s d e c i s i o n . " The to  d i s t r i b u t i o n a l a s p e c t s -of- p l a n n i n g c o n s t i t u t e an important  overlooked  not only  social  dec i s Ions w o u l d  appear  concern which I s f r e q u e n t l y  by p l a n n e r s b u t by o t h e r  professionals  I t may b e u s e f u l t o t h i s  type o f analy-  and  p o l i c y makers.  sis  t o a s k which groups I n s o c i e t y a r e a f f e c t e d by plans  or p o l i c i e s the  list  i n terms o f h o u s i n g o r o t h e r  of considerations  i na social  amenities.  impact  study,  Given each  51 should  be a n a l y s e d  l n terms o f t h e consequences t o t h e  v a r i o u s a f f e c t e d groups t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d  ina  given  situation. H.  The E n v i r o n m e n t a l .impact t h e Human C o n s e q u e n c e s .  A  stimulus  environmental act  signed  National  t o research  and s o c i a l  into  i n the general area of  Impacts o f p r o j e c t s h a s b e e n a n  law i n the United States  Environmental  stipulates  s t a t e m e n t . N E P A .and  policy  Act.  i n I969, T h e  S e c . 102  of this Act  that; "A.. . A l l a g e n c i e s o f t h e F e d e r a l - Government s h a l l u t i l i z e a systematic,-- i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h ; w h i c h w i l l insure;; t h e , i n t e g r a t e d use o f t h e n a t u r a l aha s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and the environmental design a r t s i n planning and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w h i c h may h a v e a n i m p a c t .-•on man's e n v i r o n m e n t , B . • , u n q u a n t i f l e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l a m e n i t i e s and v a l u e s may b e g i v e n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n I n decision-making: a l o n g w i t h economic v and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . " 55  The  definitions,  adequacy, procedures  arrangements f o r t h a impact legal of  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  s t u d i e s have c r e a t e d  c o n t r o v e r s y w h i c h may b e i n s u r m o u n t a b l e , 5 ^  interest  these types  to this  study  of reports.  to  similar  -phe p o i n t  i s t h e methodology u t i l i z e d i n Jack Davis,  t h e former Canadian  M i n i s t e r f o r t h e environment, announced that  major  i n A p r i l , 1974,  l e g i s l a t i o n was u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r C a n a d a  a i d the formal  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of environmental  Issues  ;  52 in  t h e development o f l a r g e government p r o j e c t s .  NEPA, r e p o r t s h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d p r o t e c t i o n and and  flood  control,  power g e n e r a t i o n .  themselves ^  airports,  2. 3*  problems w i t h these  In s p i t e of the d i f f i c u l t i e s  collection  out have r e s u l t e d .  of b a s i c background  e v a l u a t i o n a r e e n u m e r a t e d and which,is submitted This point  may  legislation. p u b l i c view  be The  and  data.  The  prepared  several  there i s a criteria  in a draft  a g e n c i e s and  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  shortcomings  as w e l l ,  and  report  this  into  d e m y s t i f i e d so t h a t assumptions, c a n be o b s e r v e d  for  individuals  aspect of  p l a n n i n g process I s brought  more e l o q u e n t , o r i n f l u e n t i a l that  o f t h e NEPA  Firstly,  to interested  interests reflected be  statements  changes i n t h e p r o c e s s by which p l a n n i n g has  beencarried  will  n a v i g a t i o n works  i n c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e l i k e l y b i o l o g i c a l , p h y s i c a l and e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s o f t h e p r o p o s e d work. A complete d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e Impacts o f a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e s i s d i f f i c u l t . D i f f i c u l t y of a t t a c h i n g weights t o the numerous i m p a c t s i n o r d e r t o p e r m i t s o c i a l evaluation* such e v a l u a t i o n r e q u i r e s agree-a e n t on s o c i a l a i m s and on t h e v a l u e s y s t e m • t o be used i n a s s e s s i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f a g i v e n a c t i o n i n a c h i e v i n g t h o s e a l m s . " 57  1  important  watershed  a r e s i g n i f i c a n t as White p o i n t s o u t ; "1.  -  The  f o r highways,  Under  the  facts,  discussed*  and  There.  f o r some i n t e r e s t s may than o t h e r s .  open  be  There  is a  too narrow concern f o r the o p i n i o n s of l o c a l  area  risk  53 g r o u p s may r e s u l t  i n a balkanized  anarchy  developing.  Babcock p o i n t s o u t t h a t one group has a p p l i e d u n d e r NEPA t o p r e v e n t housing.  t h e development o f r a c i a l l y  Better social  i n f o r m a t i o n and a g r e a t e r  mixed effort  t o seek t h e a l t e r n a t i v e views t o t h o s e o f t h e environmentalists  would appear t o be a n e c e s s i t y  situation.  The more e a s i l y  a l s o may t e n d  t o Introduce  i n this  type of  identified, physical effects a bias against socially  r  useful  projects. One o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s process Of  such as t h i a  the s o c i a l  provide  the people a f f e c t e d with  circulated  report, a  i t may a s s i s t  impacts o f a p r o j e c t .  about the projects being  i s that  :  delay  t o a n open  The d e l a y  and p r i o r  the elucidation  The d r a f t  some d e t a i l e d  while  the draft  to the preparation  upon which t h e d e c i s i o n s w i l l i n the planning  planning  process  b e made,  report  will  information report i s of the f i n a l provides  and; d e c i s i o n t a k i n g .  During t h i s "period people i n v o l v e d can n o t o n l y have t h e opportunity  of improving  impacts' t h e d e v e l o p e r tatlons;  they  may h a v e i g n o r e d y  and m a k i n g  represen  c a n a l s o d i s c u s s among t h e m s e l v e s t h e c o n s e -  quences and t h e s t e p s take.59  upon t h e r e p o r t s by c o n s i d e r i n g  t h e p e o p l e i n t h e community w i s h t o  T h i s awareness about t h e range o f consequences  may g i v e t h e community a w a r n i n g a n d t e n d  t o reduce the  54 " f u t u r e shock" which might r e s u l t i f people were u n i n formed but l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d . ^ p a r t i c i p a t i o n may  0  The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  a l s o reduce t h e a l i e n a t i o n of the  I n d i v i d u a l s which o f t e n r e s u l t s from a f e e l i n g of powerl e s s h e s s and may  improve the community c o h e s i o n so t h a t  i f a change i s approved, f o r example the l o c a t i o n of a power p l a n t , the community can t a k e s t e p s t o cope w i t h the ; situation.  ... Babcock notes t h a t NEPA r e f l e c t s mainly  middle c l a s s environmental  the  I n t e r e s t s but suggests t h a t  b e t t e r a n a l y s i s of the housing Impacts be prepared  by  p l a n n e r s t o p r o v i d e a more balanced l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n , The problem w i l l s t i l l  :  remain a d i f f i c u l t one a l t h o u g h i t  remains an improvement over the t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s whereby -planners -prepare i n f o r m a t i o n - of ten  without o p p o r t u n i t y ••  for  p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m , and p r e s e n t . i t : t o - t h e p o l i t i c i a n s  who  not o n l y have-to  c o n s i d e r the i n f o r m a t i o n but  ;  the  degree t o which i t r e f l e c t s the v a l u e s of the community. The r a p i d  i n c r e a s e i n " e n v i r o n m e n t a l concern i n the p h y s i c a l  e c o l o g i c a l sense may  produce a b a c k - l a s h among tho3e  who  a r e a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by the s o c i a l ' a s p e c t s of e n v i r o n mental l e g i s l a t i o n . The American l e g i s l a t i o n has r e s u l t e d  i n the  development of g u i d e l i n e s f o r the assessment of Impacts  55 b e i n g p r e p a r e d by many a g e n c i e s . sketch by  some o f t h e c r i t e r i a  I t may b e u s e f u l t o  identified  f o r these  analyses  t h e Army C o r p s o f E n g i n e e r s and t h e U.S. A t o m i c  Energy  Commission. The "Guidelines  D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e Army i n a r e p o r t  f o r t h e Assessment o f Economic,  E n v i r o n m e n t a l E^ states  that  Civil  a d v e r s e and b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f proposed fully cost  considered  ...such  S o c i a l and  Works p r o j e c t s "  t h e purpose i s " t o ensure t h a t  (1972)-  ;;v- '^  projects are In b e n e f i t -  of the g u i d e l i n e s . " ^  The  sequence o f steps o u t l i n e d  may p r o v i d e a n example o f t h e  methodology  NEPA:  involved  "1. 2. 3.  4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  '  10. 11.  under  v  a l lsignificant  effects not included  analysis a r e the subject  titled;  Assemble a p r o f i l e o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n the planning area; E x t e n d t h e p r o f i l e t o make p r o j e c t i o n s of... . "without p r o j e c t " c o n d i t i o n s through the expected l i f e o f the p r o j e c t ; Make " w i t h p r o j e c t " p r o j e c t i o n s , i d e n t i f y i n g c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s and t r a c i n g t h e i r e f f e c t s f o r each a l t e r n a t i v e ; identify, significant effects . D e s c r i b e and d i s p l a y e a c h s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t E v a l u a t e a d v e r s e and b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s ; C o n s i d e r p r o j e c t m o d i f i c a t i o n s where a d v e r s e effects aresignificant; seek feed-back from o t h e r s o u r c e s ; U s e e f f e c t a s s e s s m e n t i n m a k i n g recommendations ; prepare a statement of f i n d i n g s ; Use e f f e c t assessment i n p r e p a r i n g t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact S t a t e m e n t . "  56 T h e Army g u i d e l i n e s trative list  of s o c i a l  provide  effects.  an i n t e r e s t i n g i l l u s They  include:  population,  (mobility, density,  relocation of  aesthetics,  housing, archeologic  and h i s t o r i c  structures,  transportation,  leisure,  educational  community  s h i p s a n d 'health.-62  j  n  opportunities,  the consideration  of the project  raisedt  national  finance  ( t a x a t i o n r e v e n u e s and  property  values),  industrial  A t o m i c Energy Commission.&3  i n the  power s t a t i o n s .  U.S.  o f t h e AEC  In 1 9 7 3 , a  of Environmental  p r e p a r e d .by t h e  -phe p u r p o s e wa3  a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c methods a c c e p t a b l e  U.S.  t o make  o f Implementing r e g u l a t i o n s  agencies  -.  t o the regu-  p o l i c y . \ These g u i d e l i n e s have been d i s c u s s e d a d o p t e d by o t h e r  distri-  supply.  Guide f o r the preparation  staff  use,  I s - i n c r e a s i n g environmental concern i s  R e p o r t s f o r N u c l e a r p l a n t s , was  latory  land  activity,  o f the developments o c c u r r i n g  preponderance of n u c l e a r  Regulatory  are  government  r e g i o n a l g r o w t h e f f e c t s . Income  o f f a r m s and f o o d  about which there  relation-  the following considerations  employment,, b u s i n e s s and  One  com-  o f t h e economic  economic development, l o c a l  facilities,  displacement  the  remains or  growth, i n s t i t u t i o n a l  effects  bution,  people),  c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  munity cohesion,  public  noise,  i n the preparation  and  and  often  o f many  types  57 of  impact  and a  studies.  social  costs  s e r i e s of  In the  external  c o s t s and  f o r e x a m i n a t i o n and  should  include' "the  and  of  the  local  site,  disruption community  of  costs  listed  the  scenic values;  term  restrictions  (opportunity  on  of -  crowding  lives  a c q u i s i t i o n f o r the . balanced an  plant  analysis be  in-  shortages. e c o n o m i c and  include;  social  impairment  l o s s of l a n d  historic*  from  costs) a l t e r n a t i v e uses;  of  and  access to areas of  value;  are  community  d e t e r i o r a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c  or a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  future  and  b u i l d i n g the  long  :  construction  t h e need t o p r o v i d e  for consideration  -recreational values,  and  land  t h a t m i g h t r e s u l t f r o m power  natural  and  g u i d e l i n e s also- suggest t h a t  Examples o f  the economic  shortage  sewer s y s t e m s ,  c a u s e d by  t h e - s o c i a l impacts of not  cluded  estimated  costs;  are  analysis  (relocation) of people's  i n r e c o g n i t i o n of  Information the  people  l o c a t i o n of  hospitals, public f a c i l i t i e s  and  facility,  consequences  of highways, n o i s e  o v e r l o a d i n g . w a t e r and  schools,  services, or  term e x t e r n a l  connection  nuisances,  economic  s p e c i a l measures t a k e n t o Examples o f  6  This  a f f e c t e d , the  any  impact.« 5  into short  housing,  the  e f f e c t s on  p r o b a b l e number and  s o c i a l - i m p a c t , and  divided  their  evaluation.^  group a d v e r s e l y  a l l e v i a t e the  of  r e s u l t i n g from a proposed n u c l e a r  raised  population  consideration  present  creation  58 of  l o c a l l y adverse meteorological  conditions;  r e d u c t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p r o d u c t due people from the l a n d  disturbances; loss  fishermen; decreased r e a l increased required  to displacement of  occupied f b r the s i t e ; l o s t  from r e c r e a t i o n or t o u r i s m t h a t ronmental  noise;  may  be  i m p a i r e d by  o f income t o  estate\values  Income envi-  commercial  i n the area;  c o s t s t o l o c a l governments f o r t h e s e r v i c e s by  the permanently  employed  workers  and  ..,  their  families. It.is of  social  study of  impact s t u d i e s  this  i s the f i r s t  the problem  study  important to note that  t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d  i s i n t h e h a n d s o f t h o s e who  approved  assuming  In p r i n c i p a l ,  range i n this  c a s e where t h e t e m p o r a l a s p e c t s  have been a n a l y s e d ,  minimize the e f f e c t s ,  through the  once a s o c i a l  impact  are attempting to  t h e development  has  i t i s necessary to have the  mation as the t i m e element  w i t h i n which  been Infor-  action w i l l  be  required. 'The l e s s o n s f r o m t h e NEPA i n t h e U.S. f o l l o w i n g as they c o n t i n u e t o evolve, been touched upon. plinary for  The  are  worth  Several points  hav  bringing together of i n t e r d i s c i -  teams o f e n g i n e e r s , b i o l o g i s t s  and  archeologlsts  example w i l l e n s u r e a w i d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e  social  consequences  of a p r o j e c t  t h a n would  be  otherwise  59 developed,by  e n g i n e e r s , f o r example.  p u b l i c presentation of the d r a f t public  Secondly,  reports  t o i n d i c a t e any weaknesses i n t h e  perhaps  as a r e s u l t  In a d d i t i o n , c i p a t e and  of t h e i r l o c a l  enables  the  presentation,  specialized  knowledge.  p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n enables people to  parti-  i f necessary, p r o v i d e s the time r e q u i r e d  a c c l i m a t i z e t o changes which t i o n may  the  may  r e d u c e a l i e n a t i o n and  w i s h t o , t o become i n v o l v e d some c a s e s community  result.  The  to  participa-  permit those people  who  i n important d e c i s i o n s ,  identity  may  be  improved  and  m  thus  ; tend-to ^reduce^th ^ t r a d i t l o n a l - l l f e*styles.v-,.'- G o a l s ; ^ a r i e i n t r o d u c e d ;pnly i n s o f a r a s t h e y a r e d e a l t w i t h by  the draft  (i.e.  respond  i f p e o p l e d i s a g r e e t h e y may  port, )  I t w o u l d seem u n n e c e s s a r y  may  n o t be  and  The  scope  In a d d i t i o n ,  as s t a t e  viewed  N3PA h a v e been done f o r a l l  o f development, redevelopment  from  statements  the A l a s k a oil  p r o j e c t s o n a few  t h e S t a t e s have passed  impact  i m p a c t s a r e re-.,  together.  s t u d i e s under  p i p e l i n e t o urban  requiring  with  preservation,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f g o a l s and  must be  ranges and  to deal  c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t , by t h o s e i n t h e a f f e c t e d -  r e g i o n . The lated  -reports*  to draft re-  to attempt  a l l "the iGsuas whan some, h i s t o r i c a l  cV?  ;r  similar  lots.  legislation  o f p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s as  government a g e n c i e s .  well  60 One  of the d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  impacts  along with the environmental  results  from  treated  somewhat m e c h a n i c a l l y and  the f a c t  that the s o c i a l the  including the impacts  social  i s the  considerations are Intangible factors  a p p e a r weak i n ' c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l  effects  which can o f t e n be  precision.  The to  weighting be  equal  a s p e c t s must a l s o n o t Impression  which covers both  produced  assumed by  an  social  f o r example by u s e  or taatrix which Includes both  factors.:  be  t h e e c o l o g i c a l and  of a given undertaking,  checklist social  o f t h e two  i n a l l c a s e s , an  Impact s t u d y effects  ascertained with reasonable  ecological  of  a  and  .  .. Summary The  purpose of t h i s  c h a p t e r has  of concern  several different  approaches to the problem of g a t h e r i n g :  information.  The  the  Issues  elucidat  the general areas  social  and  been t o  Involved  main I s s u e s w i t h i n t h i s  with  problem  w h i c h emerged r e p e a t e d l y w e r e t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e v a r y i n g quality  of  effects, and  i n f o r m a t i o n between economic,  t h e more d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h s o c i a l  the bias that often r e s u l t s  made o n  environmental  In the d e c i s i o n s being-  t h e b a s i s o f t h e more c o n c r e t e  Secondly,  the problem of r e l a t i n g  to  changes a p p e a r e d ,  social  v  effects  Information.  environmental  part of t h i s  changes  difficulty  61 results social  from  the fact  adaptability  Thirdly,  and r e l a t e d  of s o c i a l  t h a t even l e s s  i s known a b o u t  than t h a t o f n a t u r a l ecosystems. to the l a s t  consequences.  area,  i s t h e time  of cost-benefit  The t a c i t  analysis that the present  i n c o m e - d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n should be maintained questioned.  Fifth,  zed a s c r i t e r i a  utility  w i t h which t o e v a l u a t e a proposed  prior evaluate a case three past The  change  p r o c e s s and t h e  e l e m e n t was q u e r i e d . t o t h e development study,  experiences  t h e next  o f an o u t l i n e model t o  chapter w i l l  In t h i s f i e l d  purpose- o f • t h e s e - c r i t i q u e s w i l l  understanding  utili-  t h e r o l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by  i n t h e decisIon-making  of this  was  t h e need f o r g o a l s which c a n b e  was c o n s i d e r e d . ^ F i n a l l y , those a f f e c t e d  aspect  Fourthly, the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l as-  p e c t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t s were r e p e a t e d l y r a i s e d . assumption  man's  analyse  In greater  depth.  be t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r  o f some o f t h e a b o v e c o r e I s s u e s w h i c h h a v e >  b e e n r a i s e d , " One e x p e r i e n c e w i l l : d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m of providing, concrete s o c i a l with  the s o c i a l  effects  data  (McHarg), t h e second  o f environmental  change i n t h e  c a s e o f a p l a n e v a l u a t i o n (An E n v i r o n m e n t a l Sacramento P l a n ) and t h e l a s t  will  deal with  Impact o f t h e participation  I n t h e c a s e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f some o f t h e B r i t i s h Towns.  -  New  62 Footnotes  ^ L e w i s Mumford, The c i t y I n H i s t o r y , p e n g u i n B o o k s , H a r m o n d s - w o r t h , M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d , 1961. p.540. Sir  2  E b e n e z e r Howard, G a r d e n C i t i e s o f Tomorrow, E d i t e d by F . J . Osbom,:..Eaber, London, 1965. F i r s t published i n I898 a s Tomorrow; A p e a c e f u l p a t h t o R e a l R e f o r m .  3Maurice Broady, P l a n n i n g f o r P e o p l e ; E s s a y s on t h e S o c i a l Context of planning, Bedford square p r e s s , N a t i o n a l c o u n c i l o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e , L o n d o n , 1968.  p.l4.  Gans.,. " P l a n n i n g f o r p e o p l e n o t B u i l d i n g s " , i n The C i t y p r o b l e m s o f P l a n n i n g , M. S t e w a r d ( e d . ) , p e n g u i n B o o k s , M i d d l e s e x , 19/2, p . 3 6 5 . ^ H a l l , - E d w a r d T. The H i d d e n D i m e n s i o n , Y o r k . : D o u b l e d a y , i960.  Garden C i t y ,  New  ^ W i l l i a m M i c h e l s o n , Man and H i s U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t : A S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach, A d d i s o n - W e s l e y , R e a d i n g , Mass.  vmz  7-E.N. W i l l i a m s ( e d . ) , T h e S o c i a l Impact o f U r b a n D e s i g n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o p r e s s , 1971. ' 8  lbid.,  Q  •  p.9  • ..,  ,.. •  V .....  ..-  'This r a i s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of d e f i n i n g s o c i a l impacts as changes i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l parson's l i f e . I t c o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o I d e n t i f y t h e m a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s by i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e n c o m p a r i n g w h i c h o f - t h e s e w o u l d b e a f f e c t e d by t h e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e . The d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d b e d e f i n e d a s t h e s o c i a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact. 0  1 0  R . E . R i c h a r d s o n , W a l t e r G. Rooke, G.H.' Water R e s o u r c e s , Ryerson, T o r o n t o ,  ;  McNevln, D e v e l o p i n g 1969.  **D.M. Paterson..."Impact o f L a r g e s c a l e D e v e l o p m e n t s . . . " l RAIC J o u r n a l , V o l . 3 0 , No.6. ( J u n e 1953). PP.I66-I68. n  63 * J o s e p h S. K i n g , "The Impact o f a n Aluminum Complex L o c a t i n g i n a Rural A g r i c u l t u r a l Region", unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, A u s t i n , 19&9. 2  *3u.S. ,I)epaTtment._Qf.^Co«mer.Q.e.»_Buyeau..b,f. Highways a n d D . C , 196^.  E c o n o m i c andl S o c i a l :  '  .public Roads, Changes, W a s h i n g t o n ,  * ^ J o s e p h L . S c h o f e r & E.N. Thomas, " I n f o r m a t i o n R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r E v a l u a t i n g t h e S o c i a l . .Impacts o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Investments", i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : A S e r v i c e . J.S. C o u t l n h o ( e d . ) New Y o r k Academy o f S c i e n c e s , New Y o r k ,  V o l . V I I , 1967, pp.102-116.  ^ W a l t e r c . M c x a i n , "Community R e s p o n s e t o H i g h w a y Improvement" p.19-23 i n Highway R e s e a r c h R e c o r d , No. 96,  (Jan.1965) p.19. •^Edman L . K a n w i t , "Some A s p e c t s o f t h e S o c i a l .impact o f U r b a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n " , p.81 - 89, i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t A S e r v i c e , J . S . C o u t l n h o ( e d . ) New Yoric Academy o f " S c i e n c e s , New Y o r k , V o l . V I I , 1967. • ^ V a n c o u v e r U r b a n R e s e a r c h G r o u p , F o r e v e r D e c e i v i n g You5 The p o l i t i c s o f V a n c o u v e r Development., ( L I P G r a n t ) V a n c o u v e r , 19'/z, pp. 20- zl • ^ D u r i n g t h e summer o f 1973. t h e w r i t e r , w h i l e employed by t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s v i s i t e d s e v e r a l I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s i n 3 r i t i s h C o l u m b i a where n e a r b y I n d u s t r i a l developments such as r a i l w a y s , hydroe l e c t r i c dams a n d s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s had p r o d u c e d d e s t r u c t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s upon w a y 3 o f l i f e t h a t w e r e more o r l e s s " t r a d i t i o n a l " . I t would a p p e a r t h a t I f c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s damage n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s o r t h e w o r k e r s o v e r - h u n t t h e a r e a s , a n i m a l s u p o n . w h i c h .; t h e I n d i a n s d e p e n d e d may d i s a p p e a r . Additionally, o n c e p e o p l e h a v e b e e n drawn i n t o a m a r k e t economy (one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Economic D e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m o f I.A.N.D.) i t i s v e r y u n u s u a l t h a t t h e p e o p l e w i l l r e v e r t b a c k t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l means o f l i v i n g when t h e employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s d i s a p p e a r .  64 ^ % l c h a e l S c o t t ,.' "The S o c i o - E c o n o m i c i m p a c t o f t h e p o i n t e d M o u n t a i n Gas F i e l d " , N o r t h e r n p o l i c y a n d p r o g r a m P l a n n i n g B r a n c h , D.I.A.N.D., Ottawa, O c t o b e r , 19732  ^Ibld.,  2  ^John  p . 37.  K. K a y s m i t h , C a n a d a N o r t h ; Man a n d t h e L a n d , N o r t h e r n E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h , D.I.A.N.D., O t t a w a ,  1971. p . l 6 . 2 2  2  Ibid.,  p.21,  ^W.E. P h i l l i p s & G. H e t l a n d , "The S o c i o - E c o n o m i c v a l u e o f B i o l o g i c a l R e s o u r c e s : The Case o f t h e Peace-Athabasca D e l t a i n A l b e r t a " p . 241--248, i n T h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e p e a c e A t h a b a s c a - D e l t a Symposium,!' U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1971". p . "242. ] ;  * ln v  2  1973 t h e w r i t e r was t o l d b y a n I n d i a n Band C o u n c i l member i n t h e town o f A i y a n s h t h a t t h e r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n w o u l d b e o b s t r u c t e d i f t h e Government o f B.C. p u r s u e d t h e r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h o u t due c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the Indian people a f f e c t e d .  -\j.J» Honigman, " S o c i a l D i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n F i v e N o r t h e r n Canadian Communities", The Canadian Review o f s o c i o l o g y  a n d A n t h r o p o l o g y , V o l . 2 , 1965, pp.199-214. 2  ^Jim  2  ^ T . L . " N a p i e r , " S o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s p o n s e to F o r c e d R e l o c a t i o n Due to W a t e r s h e d D e v e l o p m e n t " , W a t e r Res o u r c e s B u l l e t i n , V o l . 8, No, 4 (August, 1*972)?.734-794.  2  ^ B . B . G r e e n b i e , " S o c i a l T e r r i t o r y , Community H e a l t h and U r b a n p l a n n i n g " , J . A . I . P . V o l . 4 0 , ?TO.2 ( M a r c h , 1974), . f  2  %.E.  L o t s , " S o c i a l s c i e n c e R e s e a r c h i n t h e N o r t h " , The C a n a d i a n Forum, V o l . X L X , No, 586 (November, 1965J,  p . 74-82.  ~  R i c h a r d s o n , D e v e l o p i n g water Resources,  1969,pp.26-28,  65 3°J„w. Hllson,..,,People, i n t h e way; The Human A s p e c t s o f t h e Columbia R i v e r P r o j e c t , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto p r e s s j  .  vm:  ^Karl  3 2  p.,. L a g l e r ( e d . ) , Man-Made L a k e s ; p l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , F.A.O.» U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e v e l o p m e n t gram, Rome, 1969.  Ibid.,  pro-  p.89.  - ^ A l l e n V. K n e s s e , "The F a u s t i a n B a r g a i n " , R e s o u r c e s ( R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e ) , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., No.  44  (September, 1973)  pp.1-5.  Kneese s t a t e s ? " I t seems c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e many f a c t o r s which a b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s can n e v e r c a p t u r e i n q u a n t i t a t i v e , ' commehsurable t e r m s . . . . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e advantages o f ( n u c l e a r power) a r e much^mo^ i n the format of a b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s than are the a s s o c i a t e d • 'hazards."; - 'In 3S  A.K.  economists* parlance, e x t e r n a l costs a r e those c o s t s w h i c h a r e n o t b o r n e by t h e i n d u s t r y i n q u e s t i o n . I n t e r n a l c o s t s are,those which the i n d u s t r y o r f i r m must a c t u a l l y p a y . An example o f a n e x t e r n a l c o s t w o u l d be t h e dumping o f p u l p w a s t e s i n t o a r i v e r . The c o s t s o f p o l l u t i n g the r i v e r a r e b o r n e not by t h e p u l p m i l l b u t by t h e s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e , pollut i o n r e g u l a t i o n s can f o r c e the p l a n t t o t r e a t t h e s e w a s t e s and t h u s t h e y become an i n t e r n a l c o s t o f production. B i s w a s and H.W. Curie-, " S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f w a t e r D e v e l o p m e n t " , pp.1137-1143, w a t e r R e s o u r c e s B u l l e t i n , V o l . 7. No. 6, (December, 1971), p.1139.  36  -^W.D. S e w e l l , Ii.. J u d y , L . o u e l l e t . W a t e r Management R e s e a r c h ; S o c i a l S c i e n c e p r i o r i t i e s , Canada Department o r Energy, M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s , O t t a w a , 1969, p.62 3?The V a n c o u v e r Sun, F e b r u a r y 12, New Dam Plan".  1974,  "Hudson«s Hope G r e e t s  66 ^ K a r l „F... L a g l e r ( e d . ) , Man-Made L a k e s . p l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t . F.A.O., U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m , Rome, 1969. p.l49. He a l s o o b s e r v e s t h e c h a n g e s i n l i f e - s t y l e s t h a t may r e s u l t , " S e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s o f employment i n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e p a t t e r n s may b e a l t e r e d . " • ^ p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h a member o f t h e I n d i a n a t M o b e r l y . L a k e , B.C. i n A u g u s t , 1973.  Band  ^ R i c h a r d C. B o o k i n g , s e m i n a r p a p e r , T h e R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Water Development t o t h e Canadian I d e n t i t y , " Seminar p r o c e e d i n g s , u n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1972, p.21 8  ^ J a m e s T. Bonnen, "The A b s e n c e o f K n o w l e d g e o f D i s t r i b u t i o n a l Impacts; An o b s t a c l e t o E f f e c t i v e policy. A n a l y s i s a n d D e c i s i o n s » , pp.246-270, i n p u b l i c Expendi t u r e s a n d p o l i c y A n a l y s i s , R.H. Haveman a n d J u l i u s - H a r g o l i s ( S d s . ) Markhara p u b l i s h i n g Co., C h i c a g o , 111.,  1970,  4? A . J . Kahn, T h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e of S o c i a l p l a n n i n g , Sage F o u n d a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1969, p.9.  Russell  B u r k e , J . Heaney, E. P y a t t , " w a t e r R e s o u r c e s a n d S o c i a l C h o i c e s " , DP.433-447, w a t e r R e s o u r c e s B u l l e t i n , V o l . 9, .No. 3. ( J u n e 1973). p.*4"3% ^John  priedmann, R e t r a c k l n g A m e r i c a ; A t h e o r y of P l a n n i n g . A n c h o r p r e s s , l,ew Y o r k , 1973.  Transactive  M a r i o n C l a w s o n , " E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t and E n v i r o n m e n t a l I m p a c t : I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s p e c t s " , pp, 23-43=, i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e I n f o r m a t i o n , V o l . 1 0 , N o . 4 , " ( A u g u s t , 19/1},p.25. " ^°A  s u r v e y o f 40 i n t e r e s t and n e i g h b o u r h o o d g r o u p s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r p r e p a r e d by t h e w r i t e r and D o u g l a s S t e w a r t i n O c t o b e r 1973 f o u n d t h a t a t t i t u d e s towards" t h e d e v e l o p ment o f t h e 1,700 a c r e U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d 3 w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e f i n e d and e l o q u e n t among t h o s e g r o u p s t h a t b e l i e v e t h e y p e r c e i v e d a l o s s of a m e n i t y . The groups s u c h as t e n a n t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s - t y p e s and l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w e r e r e l u c t a n t t o t a k e  67 any p o s i t i o n as i t appeared t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s t o them o f h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n w e r e p e r c e i v e d t o be v e r y I n d i r e c t and n o t w o r t h a c t i v e l y p u r s u i n g . ^ A n t h o n y Downs, "Up and Down w i t h Ecology.:. .The . i s s u e A t t e n t i o n C y c l e " , pp.38-50,-The p u b l i c I n t e r e s t ,  No.28, (Summer, 1972) p.44.  ^R.F.  '  :  B a b c o c k & D.L. C o l l i e s , " E c o l o g y a n d H o u s i n g : V a l u e s i n C o n f l i c t " , pp.205-220, M o d e r n i z i n g U r b a n L a n d P o l i c y , M a r i o n Clawson ( e d . ) , Resources f o r t h e F u t u r e , J o h n H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1973, p.2l6. ( T h i s i s a n e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e w h i c h d e a l s w i t h some s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e p o p u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement, i n t e r m s o f I t s e f f e c t s u p o n t h e p o o r e r c l a s s e s In s o c i e t y . The a r t i c l e p o i n t s o u t t h a t NEPA c o u l d r e s u l t i n t o o g r e a t a s t r e s s b e i n g p l a c e d upon e n v i r o n mental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i t h the costs being inadequate p r o v i s i o n o f d e e e n t low c o s t h o u s i n g , t o p r o v i d e one example.)  ^ T h e i m p a c t s o f G r o w t h ; An a n a l y t i c a l Framework and F i s c a l ' -•'Example, G r u e n a n d G r u e n A s s o c i a t e s , by t h e • • • C a l i f o r n i a T B e t t e r H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n , i n c . , L o s A n g e l e s , 1972. >v: 5°Eabcock, pp. C i t . , " E c o l o g y and H o u s i n g . . . " , pp.215-216. He w a r n s t h a t e c o l o g i c a l p a n i c must be a v o i d e d : "The p o i n t i s t h a t c e r t a i n o t h e r g o a l s o f a s o c i a l n a t u r e a r e a l s o Important - such as housing. E c o l o g y I n s i s t s u p o n nob o n l y t h e c e n t r e s t a g e b u t t h e w h o l e s t a g e , on t h e g r o u n d s , that survival i s at stake." 5 1  lbid.;  p.216.  Burke,  et.al.,  "Water R e s o u r c e s and S o c i a l C h o i c e s " , * B u l l e t i n , V o l . 9, No.3,  pp.433-447. W a t e r R e s o u r c e s ( J u n e , 1973),  ^ ^ R e s i d e n t i a l L i v i n g p o l i c y Committee R e p o r t , p r e s e n t e d t o the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Vancouver, October, 1973.  68 J . T . Bonnen, "The A b s e n c e o f K n o w l e d g e o f D i s t r i b u t i o n a l I m p a c t s " , 1970, p.268. ^ Q u o t e d i n : G i l b e r t F. w h i t e , ^ E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact s t a t e ments"., pp.3Q2-309 i n T h e p r o f e s s i o n a l G e o g r a p h e r , V o l . XXIV, No. 4, (November, 1972). p.303.  56 See NEPA i n t h e C o u r t s , R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e ,  Baltimore,  1973. ^ White. 7  pp. Cit...p.307  R . F . B a b c o c k & D.L. C o l l i e s , " E c o l o g y . a n d Housing.. V a l u e s i n C o n f l i c t " , pp.205-220, M o d e r n i z i n g u r b a n l a n d p o l i c y , M a r l o n Clawson (ed.) R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e , John ' H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1973, p.216.  J  -'•'•Kevin L y n c h , " P e r f o r m a n c e z o n i n g " y . P l a n n e r s ; N o t e b o o k , No. 5 ( O c t o b e r , 1973), A . I . P . , p T ^ ^°Alvln  T o f f 1 er,  vol..%  F u t u r e s h o c k , Bantam, New Y o r k , 1971..  6l :  " G u i d e l i n e s f o r Assessment o f Economic, s o c i a l and E n v i r o n m e n t a l E f f e c t s o f C i v i l Works P r o j e c t s , " D e p t . o f t h e Army, O f f i c e o f t h e C h i e f o f E n g i n e e r s , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., December, 1972, p.A-1.  6 2  I b i d o , . p.A-11. ... . ......  ^ " P r e p a r a t i o n o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l R e p o r t s f o r N u c l e a r power P l a n t s , " R e g u l a t o r y G u i d e 4.2. U.S. A t o m i c E n e r g y Commission D i r e c t o r a t e o f R e g u l a t o r y s t a n d a r d s , W a s h i n g t o n , M a r c h , 1973« 6  ^ I b i d . , pp.4,2-34.  6 5  Ibid.,  pp.4.4-34.  66 T h i s was d o n e i n C a l i f o r n i a t o p l u g what were c o n s i d e r e d loopholes l n the National Environmental p o l i c y A c t .  69 III.  THREE GAS5 STUDIES This  section will  endeavour t o develop  some o f t h e themes t h a t w e r e i n d i c a t e d chapter.  The c e n t r a l  a planning technique ful  focus w i l l  i n the previous  be o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  and p l a n n i n g process  w h i c h may b e u s e -  i n t h e improvement o f t h e p l a n n i n g f o r s o c i a l  quences.  While t h e l i t e r a t u r e reviewed  c h a p t e r was o f t e n w r i t t e n w i t h the three  examples i n t h i s  deal with  being  social  considered  i n the previous  section that w i l l  impacts  conse-  the benefit of hindsight,  h a v e i n common t h e g o a l o f a t t e m p t i n g and  further  be  to provide  reviewed information  i n advance o f t h e p r o j e c t  f o r development.  These p o i n t s w i l l  be  used  I n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a model f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e  case  study  planned  i n the next  industrial  c h a p t e r which w i l l  development  be  to  a  In u r b a n i z i n g suburban  In the p r e p a r a t i o n of a s e r i e s useful  deal with  of reviews  dlstric  i t is  3tate t h e c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s w i l l  evaluated.  These c r i t e r i a were g l e a n e d  from t h e c o r e o f  t h e themes w h i c h w e r e r a i s e d " i n t h e p r e v i o u s l i t e r a t u r e In Chapter  review  of the  I I * - These a r e as f o l l o w s ;  Methodology;  What t y p e o f a p p r o a c h ,  environmental  o r e c o n o m i c was u t i l i z e d ?  were t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l the s o c i a l gibles  effects  consequences?  evaluated?  social, How  equated t o  How w e r e t h e i n t a n -  How w e r e t h e t e m p o r a l  70 aspects dealt  with?  O b j e c t i v e s a n d G o a l s ; How  and f r o m what  s o u r c e s were t h e s e o b t a i n e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of the report? planners, public  were t h e y assumed by t h e  imposed  by them, d e v e l o p e d  discussion,  methods? clearly  from  o r some c o m b i n a t i o n o f  Were t h e a s s u m p t i o n s  o f the study  stated?  participation; affected  To what d e g r e e d i d t h o s e  by t h e d e c i s i o n a s s i s t  mation o f t h e problem  i n the for-  or research  concern?  What r o l e d i d t h e y h a v e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of  the information?  were e f f o r t s  made t o  p r o v i d e a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o make p l a n s  adap-  t a b l e t o and a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e p e o p l e a f f e c t e d ? Distributive of  consequences;  t h e development  evaluated? equally?  among d i f f e r e n t  was  social  efficiency,  effects  groups,  or the  o f a l l p e o p l e assumed? f- I n whose ^.  Is t h e p r o j e c t b e i n g undertaken?  L e v e l o f I n f o r m a t i o n ; was level  were:the  were v a r i o u s , i n t e r e s t s : w e i g h t e d •••••••  g r e a t e r good Interests  How  t h e r e an  adequate  of information generated to analyse the  consequences  t h a t were I d e n t i f i e d .  To what  degree d i d the objectives? affected  studies  meet t h e i r  What o p p o r t u n i t y  p u b l i c given  comment upon t h e  stated  -was  the  to contribute  information  prior  to to  or the  decision?  A.  Ian  McHarg ;  The  D e s i g n o f a Highway R o u t e  I n h i s book D e s i g n w i t h criticism  of  N a t u r e , McHarg p r o v i d e s  "economic d e t e r m i n i s m as  a t i o n of the b i o p h y s i c a l w o r l d . "  He  1  an  imperfect  evalu-  a r g u e s t h a t we  must  bur,mindr setjand^  alter  a  such  a -manner^1&at/;we / ' e m b r a c e ^ h a t u r e ^ r a t h e r t h a n c o n t i n u e  to  dominate the waters,  endow-  ments.  The  poor l i v i n g ties  and  the land,  abuse of our  and  our  environment  other  natural  is also reflected  in  c o n d i t i o n s , p o l l u t i o n , " l a c k of a e s t h e t i c ameni-  o t h e r - s o c i a l l y undesirable  features  of  the  urban  .  environment. In a F o r w a r d " he sit ivity  and  chapter  attempts  o f McHarg's b o o k t i t l e d  t o o f f e r an  philistinism"  argument r e v o l v e s - a r o u n d of  t e c h n i c a l expert  p r o b l e m and a  city  routes  of  the  "A  Step  a l t e r n a t i v e to the  the highway e n g i n e e r . fact  that  the view of  "insen2  His  one  r e s u l t s i n a narrow c o n s i d e r a t i o n  makes l e s s s e n s e t h a n a s k i n g  or b u i l d i n g . which c o n s i d e r  Cost-benefit savings  a plumber t o  analyses  type of  the  design  of a l t e r n a t i v e  i n time, o p e r a t i n g  costs  :  and  72 reductions  i n accidents are  criticized  as b e i n g  incomplete  i n h i s view. McHarg a d o p t s a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e t o f which  Include  resource values,  l n a d d i t i o n to engineering  social  and  " r e v e a l t h e b e 3 t highway a l i g n m e n t  social  b e n e f i t and  must be v i e w e d and  social  t h e minimum s o c i a l  i n the  processes  context  of  t h a t c a n be  highway  biological  i n f l u e n c e and  co-  private objectives.  evaluated  Include a s e r i e s of non-price  engineering  i n monetary terms,  p r o p o s e s a more e x t e n s i v e l i s t  ience,  t h e maximum  The  i t s physical,  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f i n a n c i a l and criteria  i n short  having  cost.»3  w i t h i n i t s area of  o r d i n a t i o n w i t h p u b l i c and  aesthetic values  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which  should  criteria  o f c o s t s and criteria.^"  s a f e t y j pleasure, h e a l t h hazards,  r  McHarg  b e n e f i t s which  These a r e community  convenvalues,  i n s t i t u t i o n a l values, residential values, h i s t o r i c values, ^ r e c r e a t i o n a l : ; v a l u e s / : s u r f a c e and  ground water r e s o u r c e s , •  •;. f o r e s t  T h e s e can be  and  voir; p o s i t i v e  w i l d l i f e resources. i n each case.  the processes different  f o r e s t s and  areas  be  ranked  the other c r i t e r i a  be  and  that the v a l u e  t h a t water  ranked  as  t e r m s o f s p e c i e s , numbers, a g e  and  health.  i n g s and  are  similarly  of  value.  recreation f a c i l i t i e s The  negative  'Following the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  i n v o l v e d , McHarg s u g g e s t s  housing  either  objective i s to find  ]  of  N  of  courses,  to quality,  in  Historic  build-  listed  i n order  the highway p a t h  of  73 maximum s o c i a l u t i l i t y  where i t w i l l  v a l u a b l e man-made a n d n a t u r a l a s p e c t s  destroy the l e a s t o f t h e landscape.-*  Economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e I n t r o d u c e d areas  by e q u a t i n g  o f p o o r f o u n d a t i o n s and o t h e r p h y s i o g r a p h i c  or v a l u a b l e s t r u c t u r e s t o areas presumably truct  i t would be r e l a t i v e l y  In these areas.  different Is noted.  of high s o c i a l  cost as  more e x p e n s i v e  The I m p o s s i b i l i t y  barriers  t o cons-  o f comparing t h e  c a t e g o r i e s , f o r example, w i l d l i f e a n d l a n d I t i s here  t h a t McHarg o f f e r s a u n i q u e  value  solution  t o t h e problem o f oomparing d i s p a r a t e v a l u e s ;  ^  " A l l t h a t c a n b e done i s t o i d e n t i f y n a t u r a l and s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s and s u p e r i m p o s e t h e s e . : By s o d o i n g we c a n o b s e r v e t h e maximum c o n c u r r e n c e o f e i t h e r h i g h o r low s o c i a l v a l u e s and s e e k t h a t c o r r i d o r w h i c h t r a n s e c t s t h e a r e a of l e a s t s o c i a l value In a l lc a t e g o r i e s . . . . . . parameters a r e not- :cd^equal,^ i n :a g i v e n ; "area, c o n s i d e r e d by I t s e l f , e x i s t i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n and r e s i d e n t i a l quality are l i k e l y J t ^ b than scenic value or w i l d l i f e . -Yet i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o p r e s u m e t h a t ,'•where t h e r e i s a n o v e r w h e l m i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f - p h y s i o g r a p h i c o b s t r u c t I o n and : ^ social valuev'vs^ excluded f r o m c o n s - i d e r a t i o h ; : w h e r e t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e ... absent, t h e r e I s a presumption t h a t such areas justify consideration."" r  ;  An  important  p o i n t i s n o t merely  the identifica-  t i o n of s o c i a l values but the d e l i n e a t i o n of these upon t h e l a n d s c a p e  which c a n be used  f o rspecifying a  a b l y p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n f o r a highway a l o n g McHarg recommends t h a t t h e h i g h w a y b e u s e d public  policy  features  i t s entire as a  reasonroute;  conscious  t o c r e a t e new a n d p r o d u c t i v e l a n d u s e s a t t h e  7Mappropriate locations. The ation, are  values  of the land  such as h i s t o r i c a l ,  zones  i n each c a t e g o r y suitability,  the different  parencies  may b e d e r i v e d  o r weight  present  a vast  Those  and t h o s e  l e a s t damaging appear  to  c o m p e t i n g demands, t h e o v e r l a y s s e r v e t o  may l a y .  Different  criteria,  may b e v i e w e d  together  of t h e proposed  f o r evaluation,  highway c a n thus  component c r i t e r i a .  s o c i a l - cost corridor. darker  f o r example,  of alternatives  various  be e v a l u a t e d  alignments  according to  T h e a g g r e g a t e map o f a l l t h e c r i -  be i l l u s t r a t e d  slightly  lighter  Thus i n s t e a d o f a t t e m p t i n g  and n a t u r a l o r any combination  as  T h e maps o f  area3 w h i c h a r e most v a l u a b l e  physiographic  teria will  prices,  r a n g e o f d a t a a n d i l l u s t r a t e where p o s s i b l e  compromise r o u t e s  the  The t h r e e  c a t e g o r i e s a r e photographed and t h e t r a n s -  a n X-Ray p h o t o g r a p h .  balance  from l a n d  or subjective criteria.  are overlaid.  appear t h e darkest 1ike  i n t h r e e shades, t h e  r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e most s o c i a l l y v a l u a b l e .  habitat, all  consider-  s c e n i c , f o r e s t and r e s i d e n t i a l  i n d i c a t e d o n a map and s h a d e d  darkest  f o r each s o c i a l  i n the l i g h t e r  Alternatives will  tones,  the least-  a l s o be  illustrated  areas.''  M e t h o d o l o g y : McHarg* s a p p r o a c h i s a t e c h n i c a l one in that  i t attempts t o manipulate data  i n s u c h a way s o a s  t o d i s c l o s e aggregates o f ''social v a l u e " then their  spatial  illustrate  I n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n some c a s e s  t h e method-  75 ology and Is  I s economic, f o r example i n t h e l a n d - v a l u e  this  i s equated w i t h  evaluated  i n what McHarg s e e s  In each case,  glance,  problem o f weighting  category  s u b j e c t i v e f o r example  a r e f a c e d w i t h what  a purely technical  the different  appears  evaluation.  i s n o t d e a l t w i t h v e r y w e l l a s McHarg a d m i t s  give high  to t h e poor".^ this the  the l e a s t  is  i fthis  that  situation  cost route.  usually relatively Implicit  ecological at  where f r e e w a y s f o l l o w  as p r o p e r t y v a l u e s  disrupt  i n older  areas  lower.  i n t h e system  i s t h e assumption  the l o c a l  that the  minimized environment  be i n o p p o s i t i o n t o n a t i o n a l o r r e g i o n a l  needs and i t i s d i f f i c u l t this  r  from  T h i s o f t e n means t h e maximum  T h i s s t r o n g b i a s toward  i n some c a s e s  one-to  may n o t b e v e r y d i f f e r e n t  consequences o f t h e highway a r e t o b e  a l l costs.  may  i s a significant  i n urban areas  of low cost housing  values  t o t h e w e a l t h y and t o o l i t t l e  category  method, t h e r e s u l t s frequent  tion  social value  The  categories i n the social  ' • r e s i d e n t i a l v a l u e was d e r i v e d f r o m l a n d and b u i l d i n g that  manner  such as s l o p e , a r e p u r e l y  The p o l i c y - m a k e r s  t o be, a t f i r s t  area  others  Bach  a s t h e most s u i t a b l e  some a r e c o m p l e t e l y  h i s t o r i c values while technical.  the social value.  category  i f not Impossible  to introduce  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n McHarg*s method o f a n a l y s i s .  76 The specifically the  temporal aspects of the dealt with apart  highway be  integrated  from the  s e l e c t i o n ' of  impacts. and  I t may  follow-up  important  A the  best  the  one  route  possible that be  required  to avoid  occur are  town c e n t r e ,  I t would be  of  McHarg a d m i t s t h a t h i s g o a l social-cost  route.9  i n the  f u t u r e as  b e r g where i n s t e a d substantiate  the  1 0  seemingly  If the  from t h i s discovery  v i s u a l i z e d by  disastrous  highway: ; for  ex-  regional  analysis. of  the  the  least  trend  to  H o i l l n g s and  success of t h e i r p r o j e c t s ,  a3ked  Goldto  they w i l l  be  c o n s e q u e n c e s : be »  -  Relocation a  r e s u l t s from  t o some a r e a s ,  reflects  the  areas.where  of p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r s being  asked t o - e n s u r e t h a t : t h e  policies  growth i n a d e s i g n a t e d  perhaps t h i s  social  framework.  Only the  Is the  involved  overlooking  shown, up.  excluded  that plans.  minimize the  McHarg's  shading.technique.  encouragement  minimized.  process  more d e t a i l e d  were t o r e s u l t i n p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t s  planning  step  will  subtleties within  e f f e c t s would  ample, t h e  recommendation  further methodological d i f f i c u l t y  m a p p i n g and  negative  be  will  social  the  not  w i t h r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s and  McHarg a p p e a r s t o assume t h a t i n the  change were  of population  important  considerations.  A map  example o f  i s overlooked  some o f  of p o p u l a t i o n  the  density  by  McHarg,  omitted could  be  social added  77 to  this  process. Objectives  this to  analysis are  be  i n no  way  and  this  r e l a t e d to those  stated  and  the  appear that least  by  be  utilizing  have to c o - e x i s t with a vast  engineering  In t h i s  to  criteria,  planning  by  analysis  of the  Its being  affected  m i g h t be  local  those  and  value  openly  I t would the accom-  o p i n i o n which w i l l u l t i m a t e l y M c H a r g s method  remains  1  commonly u s e d p u r e l y  economic  The  No  goals  one.  f o r the  by  McHarg  p a r t i c i p a t i o n in-  m e n t i o n i s made i n h i s hazard  from t h e needs of the p e o p l e o f  p a r t i c i p a t i o n may may  be  h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , .'.  approach u t i l i z e d  opportunity  local  outcome o f h i s method, however, t h e  secondly  of  h o w e v e r , i t would a p p e a r t o  affected*  divorced  exist,  the  more e a s i l y  is essentially a technical  i n c l u d e any  may  simple.  method o f a n a l y s i s , o n c e t h e y  does not  the  c r i t e r i a are  i n c o r p o r a t e d i v e r s e I n t e r e s t s and  h i s approach  area  this  The  of  appear  goal of obtaining  t h e highway.  participation;  of  stated  Improvement o v e r t h e  difficult  as  the  goals  people or  i n the a n a l y s i s .  are r e l a t i v e l y  cost route,  and  o f McHarg and  of the  that the various  steps  values  e x i s t e n c e of a p l a n f o r  i n view of the  social  plished  and  The  i s n e v e r mentioned  method may  The  e x c l u s i v e l y those  communities a f f e c t e d . region  Goals;  be  demanded by  contribute better  the  those  Information  78 •about t h e  e f f e c t s o f t h i s and  utilizing  the  local  mental groups f o r  k n o w l e d g e and  concerned w i t h the  costs  the  little  of  the  -of  the  character  the  social  Certainly  differential  i s best  Improve t h e  of  t h e i r environment.  It  w o u l d seem t h a t a  suited to  incidence It  interests  having t h e i r  q u a l i t y and  to the  aesthetic  l o c a t i o n of  environment climate may  as be  McHarg a d m i t s t h a t  r e s i d e n t i a l v a l u e s was  the wealthy r a t h e r  than the  i n s o c i e t a l t e r m s must c o n s i d e r well  a 3 the  socially  p h y s i c a l one.  desirable  c l a s s homes w h e r e t h e  :  basic  more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s  analysis.  way,  there  of  e f f e c t of.:..the: r o u t e u p o n l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s m i g h t be  s o c i a l v a l u e f o r the  it  the  u p p e r c l a s s e s who, to  The  f r o m h i s method o f a n a l y s i s .  t h i s method  aspire  useful addition  the  c o r r i d o r which  appear to r e l a t e , i n a g e n e r a l  regarding  resultant  m i d d l e and  n e e d s met,  "that  environmental i n t e r e s t s .  : Is;-possible that  is  1  identification  discussion  benefits  environ-  consequences: McHarg s a n a l y s i s  discusses  broadest  is  of  area of l e a s t s o c i a l value".H  w h i c h he  to the  expertise  by  example.  Distributive  transects  s i m i l a r developments  high  influenced poor. the  A  a  by  good  social-  i n terms o f  relocation,"  to d i s p l a c e les3 dense middle  mobile residents  would have l e s s  diffi-  c u l t y a d a p t i n g than removing apartment s t r u c t u r e s  in a  established  Information  area.12  His  analysis  provides l i t t l e  more  79 for  the  consideration  affecting be  the  o f r e l o c a t i o n , but  communities  significant.  i n the  Mishan p o i n t s  economies of p r o j e c t s  the  p a t h of the highway  out  that the  s u c h a s a i r p o r t s and  h a v e a r e g r e s s i v e n a t u r e due  consequences  to the  could  external highways  lack of  choice  disoften  and  l o w e r m o b i l i t y o f low-Income g r o u p s . 1 3 Lev e l o f  Informat ion;  I t has  been demonstrated  t h a t MCHarg's method u t i l i z e d a f a i r l y collection - -highway  of data,  evaluations.  • Is collated :  duces the least The  by  the overlay  necessity  of  this  cost  f o r trading o f f values i n terms of a l l the  according  to the  level of"information  The Impacts a t cally  as  the  might be  local level  selectIng.the  the l e a s t  •  McHarg's  j u s t i f y the -  the value grading  regarding  the  judgements-. of  secondary  institu-  social  h o w e v e r must be v i e w e d  i t would a p p e a r somewhat i n s u f f i c i e n t what M c H a r g c a l l s s o c i a l  economic c o s t s .  re-  c r i t e r i a used.  appears to  o f how  '  useful.  information  decIsion-makers, simple  by  c r i t e r i a and  w a r s made, f o r example i n t h e  t i o n a l values  information  t e c h n i q u e i s most u s e f u l a n d  . results,, - A .better-explanation _ . involved  cost-benefit  type of a n a l y s i s i s to f i n d  route  a n a l y s i s and  t o most s i m p l e  The-manner I n w h i c h t h e  Important areas  aim  social  relative  comprehensive  R e s i d e n t i a l values  scepti-  f o r use  costs are w o u l d be  by  often an  ex-  80 ample. Summary; select an  the l e a s t  The  methodology u t i l i z e d  social  cost route  advance, i n t h a t broad  his  terms a r e  appropriate the  social  included  societal  nature,  interests,  impacts a t the l o c a l l e v e l  single societal but  acceptable  and  i f plans  g o a l such as  to l o c a l  not  s e n s i t i v e and  planning  only to  an  t h e u n i t y o f man  communities as  developed  co-operative  by  planners  well.  may  be  with Snvl- ;  po i n t -  assumptions are  participation  by  those  and  people  in a  fashion.  McHarg's method .Is v a l u a b l e and  more about  to guide our  adaptive  in  f o r the l o c a l e s i n which people a c t u a l l y l i v e  work a r e n o t  criteria  viewed  i t might be  r o n m e n t a l p r e s e r v a t i o n a t t h e n a t i o n a l 1ev e l less  as  to  represents  to obtain b e t t e r information  i n a manner w h i c h i s f l e x i b l e and illusory  McHarg  f o r a highway  i n the a n a l y s i s ,  t o attempt  by  i n - t h a t most o f  s t a t e d , and  a f f e c t e d a3  possibly  the  with  w e l l as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n :  of broader environmental goals, a  c o m p r o m i s e more  acceptable  t o a l l i n t e r e s t s may  This  could  be  contain a broader l e v e l the b a s i s f o r b e t t e r public of l o c a l  goals  upon the  of  compromise  i n f o r m a t i o n and-might  provide  decision-making.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n would  and  In the a n a l y s i s .  reached.  Introduce  b e t t e r e v a l u a t i o n of the  the  criteria  T h i s w o u l d make i t p o s s i b l e t o  s i t u a t i o n w h e r e a n assumed  matter  single public  used  improve interest.  81  which  McHarg seems t o depend u p o n I s t h e c e n t r a l c o n s i d e r a -  tion,  and  to  d e f i n e h i s concept of the general " s o c i a l  include broader s o c i a l B.  cost"  considerations.  E n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t R e p o r t f o r t h e proposed. R e v i s i o n t o t h e Sacramento County G e n e r a l p i a n ^ 1  The requires  that  U.S.  National  federally  e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact which  i s written  Environmental p o l i c y Act of  funded  p r o j e c t s be p r e c e d e d  Similar legislation  passed  i n C a l i f o r n i a a t the S t a t e l e v e l  Impact  statements  variety  study of the proposed  ••• p r e p a r e d .  •• The  that  Sacramento County  •  proposed  context  -  a that  plan  •  was  •  p l a n i n c l u d e s a n a r e a " of" 997  - •• ;  square  i s i n t e n d e d t o meet t h e n e e d s - o f - t h e county, until-,-; -1  m i l e s and it  I t Is i n t h i s  format was  be p r e p a r e d f o r s t a t e p r o j e c t s and  of other s i t u a t i o n s .  the impact  to require  I969  by  studies prepared according t o a  Into the a c t .  -  reaches a p o p u l a t i o n . o f 8 8 0 , 0 0 0 , p e r s o n s , which  Is expected -  ~ • i n 2 0 y e a r s ; ^ --The- format;--of ^he^-d i d e n t i f y and. d e s c r i b e t h e e x i s t i n g f e a t u r e s o f - t h e county t h e Impacts The  first  quality,  which  half  and  p h y s i c a l and  following  t h e p l a n might  of the statement  be  each f e a t u r e , expected  f e a t u r e s and  a c c r u e as a r e s u l t  to  addresses i t s e l f  f o u n d a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , water  biological  social  the e c o l o g i c a l  postulate  -'  produce. to a i r  r e s o u r c e s , and changes which  natural would  of the implementation o f the proposed  plan.  82 Several section  of the (i)  areas of  concern i n the  report are  also dealt  the  of the  impact  and  the  trend (il)  report  on  the  of the  "historical  region  concludes that  the  towards u r b a n i z a t i o n w i l l  "Land use viewed  with:  plan  development" trends  »socio-physical»•  and  plan, oosts  agricultural  open s p a c e  are  seen as  report  and  negative  long  are  re-  problems  groundwater s u p p l i e s , land  general continue,  public f a c i l i t i e s "  i n terms o f the  i s noted  of  of  the l o s s  term  of  utilization  impacts.  The  states j  . " A n a l y s i s o f t h i s p l a n n e d d e v e l o p m e n t shows i t w i l l i n v o l v e a d d i t i o n a l costs f o r water and sewage u t i l i t i e s , f i r e and p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , garbage c o l l e c t i o n , l i b r a r y and p o s t a l services. A d d i t i o n a l l y , s i g n i f i c a n t impact on s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d r e s u l t , "3-5 The  vague, obtuse r e f e r e n c e  "impact" c o n t r i b u t e s cation of the  only.a  above t o ^ t h e general  p o s s i b l e range of  , : .  identifi-  effects.  The  a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f t h e s e i m p a c t s w o u l d make the  task of planning  negative (ill)  f o r or  improving  consequences a d i f f i c u l t  " A e s t h e t i c and cerned with  the  the  one,  nuisance conditions" are impact o f  the  p l a n upon  conthe  83 natural  beauty of the  T h i s p o i n t i s an  Sacramento R i v e r ,  i n t e r e s t i n g one.  I n many  c o m m u n i t i e s t h e r e a r e man-made f e a t u r e s  or  n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s which played a r o l e  in  the  historical  The  development of the a r e a .  preservation of these amenities  may  be u s e f u l  i n the maintenance of the h i s t o r i c a l I d e n t i t y of the  community a s w e l l a s b e i n g  cally pleasing.  Town s q u a r e s ,  ings such as;church :  examples^ o f - s u c h  X'Social- n u i s a n c e s t l o n and and  historic  or r i v e r s ide  :  \ might be  aestheti-  parks  amenities.  such as  n o i s e , h e a l t h hazards  traffic  • tive. social  impacts  eonjes-  such as  p o s s i b l e n u c l e a r r a d i a t i o n from  p l a n t s a r e g i v e n as  illustrations  smog  power  o f t h e nega-*.;  o f g r o w t h and  further  u r b a n i z a t i o n , v One- o f : t h e g o a l s i n t h e i s a p p a r e n t l y t o p r e s e r v e ; the~ c i t y - o f mentp a s The  t h e employment  build-  plan sacra---v  centre f o r the  county.  c o n j e s t i o n r e s u l t i n g from f u r t h e r growth  is  considered. ^  to  identify  1  of housing  i t might have been u s e f u l  other s o c i a l and  impacts  i n the  fields  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r example  which c o u l d have r e s u l t e d  from t h i s d e c i s i o n .  84 (Iv)  " p r o p e r t y v a l u e and Tax Base". is  No a t t e m p t  made l n t h e s t u d y t o a n a l y s e t h e i m p a c t s  upon t h e t a x base which w i l l planned  growth  occurs,  result  i f the  urban sprawl i s  seen as a g e n e r a l s o c i a l  c o s t which  t h e county  p l a n seeks t o r e s t r i c t .  Unemployment  c u s s e d , however, t h e impact s t a t e m e n t that  ployment  effect  on t h e l e v e l o f unem-  •y;'-^'--;-'the" -que^tion' o f l a n d :  which  'T;-_T;  i n t h e c o u n t y . "I?  -'One; o f t h e i s s u e s , w h i c h  i s addressed ' i s  p r i c e s and t h e degree"  t h e y a r e . a f f e c t e d by t h e p l a n .  : g o a l o f c u r b i n g urban sprawl l a i d plan resulted the  land  (v)  i n t h e county*  distributional  Impact  report  The i m p a c t  consequences  fairly  assumption  statement  states that,  limited."  of this  impacts policy,  characteristics".  AT. t h e G e n e r a l p l a n upon h o u s i n g is  down i n t h e  to analyse the s o c i a l  " D e m o g r a p h i c and H o u s i n g The  The  i n t h e down z o n i n g o f some o f  does n o t attempt or  concludes  t h e "proposed p l a n cannot be expected t o  have measurable  to  i s dis-  "the effect of characteristics  one must q u e s t i o n t h i s  f o r i n many c a s e s c o n s e q u e n c e s  be s i g n i f i c a n t .  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  may  of permitted  85 l a n d uses  may  result  z o n i n g , l a c k o f mixed h o u s i n g  types  p r i c e s and  important  i n g e n e r a l produce  e f f e c t s w h i c h p l a n n e r s must n o t  over-  look.  Regional plans should take  care-  a more d e t a i l e d  the i n f o r m a t i o n than  impacts  social  required, a social  "No  Growth"  impacts  t h o s e p e o p l e who  may  Report  reliant  upon p h y s i c a l  consistent  e  if  1 8  manner,: proposed  accommo-  economic  2 0  may  f o r example  o r r e n t new  "adverse  impacts  industries There  In areas p e r t a i n i n g  to  is a social  schools, health care, r e c r e a t i o n  reveal.  impact  .7  should  c o n s e q u e n c e s of- t h i s  t n o s e b u s i n e s s e s and  which a s o c i a l  plan should  n  t o purchase  lack of analysis  other concerns  study  considered to the  growth f o r p r o f i t s . "  needs such as housing,  proposed  T  s t a t e s merely  o c c u r on  impact  upon s e v e r a l groups,  wish  the  of the p l a n " ,  t h e s e needs i n a s p e c i f i c  have s i g n i f i c a n t  impact  i n the present-housing trends  of the a l t e r n a t i v e s  would p r o b a b l y  i n the  "limited  identify  d a t i o n . > The  i s found  r e q u i r e d t o Improve  is  of  p r e s e n t a t i o n of  r e p o r t would be  /intervention  i s one  into  c o n s i d e r a t i o n the housing c o n d i t i o n s of  t h e a r e a and  plan  or higher  social  ful  One  In e x c l u s i o n a r y  investigation  of  a  and  86 Methodology ? The methodology  employed  In t h e  "Environmental  Impact R e p o r t f o r t h e p r o p o s e d R e v i s i o n o f  the  County  Sacramento  ecological natural  The Impacts  The s o c i o - p h y s i c a l  f a s h i o n , by l i s t i n g  commenting o r o f t e n  ina  comprehensive  i m p a c t s ,are t r e a t e d  the existing  speculating  Impacts were i d e n t i f i e d  i s e s s e n t i a l l y an  o f t h e proposed p l a n on t h e  environment a r e d e a l t w i t h  manner. lar  one.  General plan"  ina  simi-  c o n d i t i o n s and by  on t h e p o s s i b l e  consequences.  i n a broad a r e a o f concern,however,  ."little;-.attempt was made t o u n d e r t a k e a n y a n a l y s i s , w h i c h ; might have been u s e f u l  i n improving the q u a l i t y  county plan* i n s o f a r as i tr e l a t e s a t t e m p t was made t o d e a l w i t h other than a e s t h e t i c s . were n o t mentioned. increased tation  Intangible  consequences  u r b a n i z a t i o n a n d the n e e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l  facilities.-,  from  transpor-  were n o t d i s c u s s e d . and D i s t r i b u t i v e  The t w o f o l d  Consequences: I n  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact R e p o r t ,  - t h e r e was - h o •• i n d i c a t i o n • t h a t  the v l e w s \of t h e p u b l i c  purpose o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  to  the c r i t e r i a  to  r e s p o n d and t o a i d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n  t h e n be used  Little"  Community s t r u c t u r e s and f e a t u r e s .  p r e p a r a t i o n o f the d r a f t  sought.  matters.  social  :  of the  The impacts o v e r t i m e r e s u l t i n g  Participation the  to social  /  were  according  above i s t o p e r m i t t h o s e a f f e c t e d  by plans  o f d a t a which can  i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f plans which a r e as w e l l  87 adapted as  p o s s i b l e t o the needs of  opportunity for  by  is  the  for criticism  of  the  first  is  plan.  t h e owners o f 10?  zoned b u t  f r o z e n as  requests  are  made o n  of,land formerly  indust-  agricultural  that  the  i s presented  essentialiy  i s a "request  deal with  the v i a b i l i t y  of  Better  w e l l as  lard  an  the  who  impacts  "on  plan.  an  The  the  fact  on  the  that  the  I m p a c t s upon, f a r m e r s  economic p u r s u i t  significant  2  oversight  in  in a  the  of a g r i c u l t u r e  a n a l y s i s of  the  preserving  the  p l a n make t h e b e s t This  importance of Level  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s who  of  this  identified  i n the  under  citizen reaction illus-  source of  Information;  ultimately  possible decision  i n c l u s i o n of  critical  >  r e - . ..  s o c l o - p h y s l c a l impacts of  consequences of  ?  the  about the v i a b i l i t y  circumstances.  concern are  owner  information  must a p p r o v e t h e  the  a  as  to r e v e a l the  s i g h t have enabled  trates  the  farming  c o u n t y w o u l d a p p e a r t o be  plan.  a land  f o r more i n f o r m a t I o n  Impact s t a t e m e n t d o e s n o t  purporting  by  2  of  port  proposed  well,. a_s, t h o s e o n v a r i o u s g r o u p s . " r ;  distributive'consequences  and  i n t h e new  Impact R e p o r t d e a l w i t h  e n t i r e population-as  This  provided  2 1  Another b r i e f  the  acres  The  d r a f t copy. I t  i n t e r e s t i n g to observe that representations  rially  the  community.  Impact R e p o r t  p u b l i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  behalf.of  as  the  y  comment.  Many o f t h e a r e a s o f  r e p o r t , h o w e v e r i t was  social apparently  88 not of  deemed n e c e s s a r y  a more I n - d e p t h  some o f t h e i s s u e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n r a i s e d .  noted of  to provide  that  there  i s insufficient  information  analysis I t h a s been  about t h e r o l e  a g r i c u l t u r e t o t h e county and t h e s o c i a l l o s s w h i c h u r -  banization  of the farmland  p e o p l e may b e f o r c e d t a x e s f o r example.  may p r o d u c e .  I n some  cases,  t o r e l o c a t e o f f t h e i r farms by The s o c i a l  impacts a t t h e l o c a l  in  t e r m s o f h o u s i n g a n d community  of  information  facilities  higher scale  l a c k t h e degree  n e c e s s a r y f o r b a l a n c e d and w e l l  informed  decIsion-making. Summary s the  The Environmental  proposed R e v i s i o n  identifies  o f t h e Sacramento County G e n e r a l p l a n  many o f t h e l o n g  or" b i a s  of the report  adopts t h e view that be  preserved  plan goals for  of the region  of the region.  i s environmental^  The' m a i n that  is,  i t  the i n t r i n s i c . v a l u e of nature.is;to  f o r i t s own s a k e .  are dealt with  The s o c i a l Impacts o f t h e  i n a generalized  manner a n d t h e s p e c i f i c ^ :  do n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n u s e d  e v a l u a t i o n - of.. t h e  p r o p o s ed . p l a n  s u c h a s community . c e n t r e s ,  as a  basis  Many; s o c i a l ' c o n c e r n s '  d a y care," h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s a n d  h o u s i n g f o r s p e c i a l g r o u p s s u c h a s the e l d e r l y a r e n e v e r raised. dicated  ;  r a n g e and sometimes I r r e v e r s i b l e '  consequences o f t h e development focus  impact R e p o r t f o r  Information regarding by v a c a n c y r a t e s  the supply  of housing as In-  f o r example I s n o t p r e s e n t e d .  The  --  8-9. Implicit market  assumption  appears  i s functioning  t o be t h a t  essentially the  i n a n a d e q u a t e manner t o meet t h e  needs o f a l l t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e county, a r e f l e c t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n States  facilities  government,, a t l e a s t Canada o r  indication  environmental  water r e s o u r c e s  upon p l a n t  The  a r e n o t the; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f  t o the degree  r e p o r t generates  technical  social  9  appears  balance.  consequences  to build  i n much  i n a bias into the  w h i c h McHarg o b s e r v e d  of allow-  e n g i n e e r s a l o n e t o make d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g  s o c i a l n e e d s may b e r e p e a t e d physical- environmental  i n this  c a s e where the" h e a v y  b i a s o f t h i 3 t y p e o f r e p o r t may - r e -  i n a l a c k o f due r e g a r d t o s o c i a l Equally  this  such  the information:about t h e  evaluates the environmental  highway  social  of concern  c o n d i t i o n s and t h e impacts  communities,  The hazard  this  l e v e l of  consequences o f t h e p l a n a r e n o t In equal  decision-making.  In  t o be t h a t w h i l e  Information i n areas  g r e a t e r d e t a i l which could tend  suit  they a r e developed i n  a rather sophisticated  atmospheric  and animal  Report  ing  l n many o f t h e  Europe. The  as  this i s  i n t h e U.S.A. t h a t h e a l t h o r s o c i a l h o u s i n g a n d  other public  impact  perhaps  important  consequences.  i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how a n d w h e r e  i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g case,  ;  a l a n d u s e p l a n f o r 20 y e a r s was  process  proposed.  90 T h i s was  t h e n f o l l o w e d by a n  I t would a p p e a r mental  quality  follow,  consideration  by  approach  t h e S a c r a m e n t o p l a n Impact The The  endeavours  British  and  of the B r i t i s h  plan.  New  of s o c i a l  The  The  role  will  g l e a n e d , f r o m .a v a r i e t y  purpose  and role  be  o f a highway  from  the  pro-  participation  location  t h o s e whom t h e p l a n s  0  :.  be  t h a n -a- s i n g l e c a s e  case. In  upon studies,  to  the  "  Britain,  mechanisms t o d e a l w i t h as opposed  :  previous  i n the former  i n the B r i t i s h  i s adopted  the  produce  information w i l l  example-Is t h e s t r e s s  expertise  social  as they d e v e l o p  the  o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  explored,  about  analysis  of a p l a n n i n g process, i n t r o d u c i n g  to e s t a b l i s h  consequences  manner  o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two  th? u t i l i z a t i o n  an attempt  with  of the f o l l o w i n g  of sources rather  p l a n n i n g t o o l s and  of p u b l i c  illust-  Process.  essentially  resulting  s a m p l e s t u d i e s an<1 t h e B r i t i s h technical  than that  consequences  consequences  consequences  The  following  Town d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s d e a l s w i t h  Towns.  or report.  than  Statement.  cases d e a l t  d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n t h e p l a n n e r s and social  rather  The  Towns D e v e l o p m e n t  social  statement. environ-  to gather information i n a s c i e n t i f i c  a county  o f t h e New  New  p r e v i o u s two  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  problem  o f s o c i a l and  g o a l s f o r a r e g i o n must p r e c e d e ,  provide a different  C.  ject  Impact  the development o f a r e g i o n a l p l a n .  example may rated  that  Environmental  social endeavour--  91 Ing t o I d e n t i f y s o c i a l impacts  i n advance as i n t h e former  American s t u d i e s . T h i s example i s u s e f u l t o planners i n North America because awareness i n B r i t a i n o f the need t o husband l a n d development'with broader  s o c i a l concern has l o n g been  a t r a d i t i o n as i t has i n o t h e r European c o u n t r i e s . " f r o n t i e r economy" which was d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  The I  appears t o be drawing t o a c l o s e i n North America and obs e r v a t i o n o f the p l a n n i n g processes  i n other c o u n t r i e s w i t h  l i m i t e d l a n d r e s o u r c e s such as B r i t a i n , may p r o v i d e some useful insights.  The d i f f e r e n t backgrounds a r e e l u c i d a t e d :  "Land use zoning I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been used t o p r o t e c t the money p r o p e r t y v a l u e s o f l a n d and the developments on i t , w h i l e land-use p l a n n i n g i n B r i t a i n has been an e n t e r p r i s e o f much wider scope and s o c i a l purpose, i n c l u d i n g . . . e f f o r t s t o p r o t e c t t h e countryside...conserve n a t u r a l resources, p r e s e r v e t h e t r e a s u r e d v i l l a g e s and c i t y townscapes from i n d l s c r i m i n a n t redevelopment ''23 I t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t the present i n c r e a s e i n environmental  concerns  and p r e s s u r e f o r more p l a n n i n g i n  North America as demonstrated by the growing p o p u l a r i t y of c i t i z e n ' s groups both i n t h e a r e a o f c o n s e r v a t i o n and part i c i p a t i o n i n w e l f a r e r i g h t s may p r o v i d e t h e p u b l i c impetus t o move t h e p r e s e n t s t y l e North American p l a n n i n g i n t o some of t h e areas t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a n n i n g i n B r i t a i n .  92 Broady  states: " P l a n n i n g h a s t o be t h o u g h t o f n o t o n l y a s a m a t t e r o f p h y s i c a l d e s i g n and economic p o l i c y but a l s o as a s o c i a l process of a n e d u c a t i o n a l k i n d which seeks t o encourage the c o n t r i b u t i o n s w h i c h p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s c a n make t o t h e . i m p r o v e ment o f t h e i r own s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . " ' * 2  One  o f ' t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s  p l a n n i n g i n B r i t a i n h a s b e e n t h e New objectives  The  postwar  Towns p r o g r a m .  The  endeavour t o d e v e l o p planned, s e l f - c o n t a i n e d  and b a l a n c e d communities, natives  of  i n order to provide b e t t e r  to the l a r g e r conjested c i t i e s  imposition  o f more t h a n t w e n t y new  such as  alter-  London. ^ 2  communities  on t h e  l a n d s c a p e o r c o u n t r y towns o f B r i t a i n has p r o d u c e d t h e potential for significant tion  of t r a d i t i o n a l  towns" less  s o c i a l consequences and  patterns.  have been d e s i g n a t e d  intensively Tne  Keynes,  projected  I n a d d i t i o n o v e r 50  "expanding  t o h e l p accommodate g r o w t h i n  developed areas.26  largest  located  disrup-  New  between  City  -  i n Surope w i l l  L o n d o n and B i r m i n g h a m ,  p o p u l a t i o n i n 1990  p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a was  be  Milton  with  o f 250,000 p e o p l e .  2 7  a  The  I967  43,000, most of_whom were i n  t h e p r e s e n t town o f M i l t o n K e y n e s . d e s i g n a t e d a r e a were 11 s m a l l  Also included  villages.-  i n the  0  W h i l e t h e p u r p o s e o f a n i m p a c t s t u d y s h o u l d be provide tive  prior  i n f o r m a t i o n about the consequences  proposals,  the B r i t i s h  New  to  of a l t e r n a -  Towns s i t e s a r e n o t  selected  93 i n t h i s manner.  D e c i s i o n s about the s i t e s f o r towns a r e  sometimes made i n response t o p o l i t i c a l pressure than economic or. s o c i a l assessments. 9 2  rather  The d e c i s i o n i s  the r e s u l t o f d i a l o g u e between c e n t r a l and l o c a l governments, l a y pressure  groups, and t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s i n some cases.3°  A p u b l i c i n q u i r y I s h e l d f o l l o w i n g the d e c i s i o n on the l o c a t i o n o f t h e New Town.  Following  the i n q u i r y the  s e c r e t a r y o f s t a t e makes, amends o r abandons the o r d e r d e s i g n a t i n g the area.31 The d e s i g n a t i o n may mean that a l l the land- may be s u b j e c t t o e x p r o p r i a t i o n .  Relocation of  \:  some people may be necessary. S o c i a l consequences o f p r o j e c t s such as New Town developments a r e w i t h i n the realm of man's c o n t r o l p r o v i d e d t h a t the mechanisms and i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t t o d e a l with  problems which were i d e n t i f i e d i n advance o r have j u s t  developed. the best  The 3 r i t i s h appear t o adopt the view t h a t t h a t  i n t e r e s t s of the whole s o c i e t y a r e served by the  New Towns, thus i t i s necessary i n some cases t o o v e r r u l e l o c a l views. The development processes of the New Towns attempt to d e a l with.- some o f .the social--concerns t h a t may-.develop,: i n an i n t e r e s t i n g manner.  I n the case of M i l t o n Keynes  where a l a r g e New Town was t o be imposed on the e x i s t i n g town and s e v e r a l surrounding t o minimize the i m p a c t s . ^  2  v i l l a g e s , attempts were made The v i l l a g e s were each  provided  94 with a  plan  and  an  effort  the  city  utilized by  was  t o do  are  and  "so.that  placed  appears that  link  the  will  •the Mew  on  time a  method  o l d and be  preserved.35  of t r e e s  preserving  or  the  left  will  planning,  through  new,  around  not  feel  Stress  villages  and  the  In Garden C i t i e s  c o n s i d e r a t I on  a t t i t u d e appears  the  villages  is also residences  emphasis  attempt  i s given  to  to.be that  social  the  to minimize the  of. Tomorrow.37 problems  design  negative  of impacts,  i t i s a l s o deemed.necessary to-provide. a t the  g e n e r o u s amount  Discussion development.  In  M i l t o n Keynes a r e a , as  re-  swamped."  to i n s u l a t e the The  The  type of a r c h i t e c t u r a l determinism  t o remedy p r o b l e m s a s  centers  The  housing.-'  of motor t r a f f i c . 3 6  the  Town s h o u l d  however,  the  be  planting  r 1 ous  The  within  villages,  infill  spaces w i l l  E b e n e z e r Howard e s p o u s e d  well.  the  between the  disturbance  ..-..v;:.-,s e  Integration  l a r g e l y through p h y s i c a l  p r o h i b i t i o n of  place  t o be  that  fabric  to mutual b e n e f i t . 3 3  e x i s t i n g population  on; t h e  the  insure  social  p r o h i b i t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n  that  the  sense of  from  a  states  was  p h y s i c a l and  open space around  the  s e e n as  port  their  made t o  this  buildings,  traffic  as  preserve  i s accomplished  providing  the  A  to  of  social  they  s e r v i c e s and  care  develop.  and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n are  one  of  the  opposition  people stated  personal  same  their  Incorporated  e x i s t i n g towns i n was  voiced  preferences  the  t o community f o r the  in  old  health family  95 doctor.  The p l a n n e r s attempted  the advantages  to educate people  about  of the h e a l t h centres.3°" The chance t o be  heard, t o put one's case forward, l n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y  also  h e l p s groups t o accommodate themselves  t o the disappointment  of not g e t t i n g a l l they would want.39  I n another v i l l a g e  the Mew  Town Development C o r p o r a t i o n , the c e n t r a l d e v e l o p -  ment agency, worked w i t h the l o c a l o f f i c i a l s and people t o assist  i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of some of  the v i l l a g e ' s o l d e r h o u s i n g . ^ Pears of i n c r e a s e d t a x a t i o n , o f t e n a r e s u l t of the upgrading of f a c i l i t i e s  i n this  country, a r e not e n c o u n t e r e d - i n the- New-Towns a r e a s as the 7  burden i s bourne ••by;.the Development  Corporation.>  The r o l e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s t r e s s e d i n  one.of  the M i l t o n Keynes C o r p o r a t i o n pamphlets: •.••-,-' the f u t u r e of the . v i l l a g e s depends upon the • people l i v i n g i n them, and t h e r e i s no l a c k of i n t e r e s t or i n i t i a t i v e here. Meetings are c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g h e l d between the v i l l a g e r s - themselves, the d i s t r i c t - c o u n c i l s , and the , p a r i s h c o u n o i l s . . . T h i s is"where-the r e a l work of p r e s e r v a t i o n i s b e i n g done - through coo p e r a t i o n between the people concerned. Because i n the end people are always more e f f e c t i v e - than p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s . " 4 2 The s u g g e s t i o n seems t o r e v o l v e around -the assumptiont h a t ..the n e g a t i v e consequences"'of  t h e ' c o n s t r u c t i o n of ?Tew  Towns can be reduced, by i n v o l v i n g t h e people, the' p l a n n e r s , as w e l l as the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s .  The i d e a of p r o v i d i n g  96 people w i t h the t o o l s necessary  t o enable- t h e a fco p a r t i c i -  p a t e may be a v e r y u s e f u l one i f t h e sense o f and a l i e n a t i o n t h a t p e o p l e c o u l d d e v e l o p i s t o be a v o i d e d .  powerlessness  i n this  situation  The c h a l l e n g e o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e problem  o f i n t e g r a t i n g a s m a l l E n g l i s h v i l l a g e which has p r o b a b l y r e m a i n e d more o r l e s s t h e same i n hundreds o f y e a r s w i t h i n t h e a r e a o f a New Town i s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t one and t h e methods employed i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n must be c a r e f u l l y For the incoming p o p u l a t i o n s i m i l a r s o c i a l  developed. concern  i s e v i d e n t on t h e p a r t o f the p l a n n e r s .  A c t i v i t y centers,  each s e r v i n g 30,000 p e o p l e , a r e Intended  i n t h e new communities  -for e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h and p e r s o n a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s s t a f f . ^ 3 I n another  e x p a n d i n g town, P e t e r b o r o u g h ,  community a r e a w i t h f a c i l i t i e s  the "Cresset" or  such as shopping m a l l , d o - i t -  y o u r s e l f -shop, p o t t e r s p l a c e , d l s c o t e q u e , handicapped c e n t r e , •..:„•- h o s t e l , " , t o y l i b r a r y , s p o r t s h a l l and an o l d p e o p l e s c e n t r e are p r o v i d e d . ^  •; ;  S o c i a l development I s seen as an i n t e g r a l  p a r t . of..the .Mew..Towns p r o c e s s . i i e t h o d o l o g y : I n t h e c a s e o f t h e development o f a • B r i t i s h New. Town,- i t has-been shown t h a t l e s s emphasis . i s >, p l a c e d "upon s y s t e m a t i c i n f o r m a t i o n , about - the s o c i a l impacts -r or s u i t a b i l i t y of developing d i f f e r e n t alternatives..^5 R a t h e r , a p r o c e s s i s u t i l i z e d t o make d e c i s i o n s o f t h i s nature.  The s i t e l o c a t i o n i s c h o s e n by t h e c e n t r a l  govern-  ment f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n and t h e a p p r o v a l i n p r i n c i p l e  97 by  the l o c a l  for  prior  politicians.  to the f i n a l  to  i n Britain  are threefold!  "megalopolis"  (2)  (3) t o p r o v i d e  self-reliant the  to provide  Towns  alternatives  New  that  o c c u r n a t u r a l l y a l o n g more socially  economical  balanced  social  entities.  The g o a l s o f  o f t h e development process  blllty.  may  be r e a l i z e d  o f new o r e x p a n d i n g towns. control  stability  change i n such  are maintained  the determination  local  politicians  government. portunity  such  through  An e f f o r t  i n an e f f o r t . ...  While  as t h e p r o v i s i o n  the d e s i g n a t i o n  i s made t o  organize=  to avoid ......  f o r New  Towns  engage i n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h public  disruptive  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e p u b l i c  of the s i t e s  The g e n e r a l  liva-  a way - t h a t c o n t i n u i t y a n d  c h a n g e and. s o c i a l . r c o n f i i c t . Participation:  goals  The  consequences  towns a n d enhance t h e i r  In a r e g i o n a l context,  o f more h o u s i n g  ones.  demonstrates  a t t e m p t s a r e made t o m i t i g a t e t h e s o c i a l  t h e p r o j e c t s on e x i s t i n g  beneficial  communities as  Towns t h e r e f o r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y . n a t i o n a l  above d e s c r i p t i o n  in  (1)  o f t h e New  t o p r o v i d e ways o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e v a s t v o l u m e o f new  lines,  and  The g o a l s  or the excessive c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f people,  development which w i l l  of  are provided  designation of the s i t e .  and G o a l s i  Objectives Act  Public inquiries  i s minimal,  the central  i s provided with  t o r e a c t t o t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f a New  t h e op-  Town  area  98 at  a public inquiry. In the c o u r s e of the development of the town, i t  appears t h a t l o c a l i n t e r e s t s a r e permitted  t o have an  i n p u t i n t o matters o f l o c a l concern, such as s o c i a l s e r v i c e s healthy  l i b r a r i e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s .  o f the p l a n n i n g  i s undertaken  new i n h a b i t a n t s , o p t i o n s as f a r as p o s s i b l e . the d e s i g n a t e d  As much  p r i o r t o the a r r i v a l of t h e  f o r t h e f u t u r e must be l e f t  open  The case i n v o l v i n g the v i l l a g e s I n  a r e a o f M i l t o n Keynes was g i v e n as an example  ; Thecommon -law r i g h t s t o be heard a r e m e t by.the p u b l i c . Inquiry T h e r e v  Is l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s  used.totbbtain/info'rmatlon,  a t . l e a s t i n the i n i t i a l  of the d e s i g n a t i o n , a l t h o u g h presumably Information forward i n the p u b l i c i n q u i r y c o u l d be u t i l i z e d final  d e c i s i o n on the s i t e and d e s i g n  stages brought  i n the  of the new community,  S m a l l s'eal'e\\problems-v-^wherevparticlpati-on''-would--.:no.t: . c o n f l i c t 1  with t h e n a t i o n a l g o a l s . a p p e a r t o lend themselves t o p u b l i c •invo^ of h a v i n g -the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y development of  towns-when t h e r e s i d e n t s have y e t t o a r r i v e n e c e s s i t a t e  t h a t many d e c i s i o n s a r e made by the Development  Corporation.  D i s t r i b u t i v e Consequences: 'While the complex political a research  process  o f New Town d e s i g n a t i o n i s not preceded by  i n t o t h i s area,  the i m p l i c i t assumption of the  99  program i s t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r environments people a t r e a s o n a b l e c o s t . once owned the l a n d or who  f o r working  The l o s s t o the farmers  i n some cases would be f o r c e d  to r e l o c a t e a r e not a n a l y s e d i n view of the t h a t the New  who  assumption  Town i s i n the g r e a t e r I n t e r e s t .  L e v e l of I n f o r m a t i o n ; I t has been shown t h a t the l e v e l of p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the consequences New  Town appear somewhat minimal.  of the  The d i s c u s s i o n between  the Development C o r p o r a t i o n and the l o c a l governments probably r a i s e s many of the l o c a l concerns w h i l e the publ i c - i n q u i r y a t the l a s t stage, permits c o n s e r v a t i o n groups 1  • and o t h e r i n t e r e s t groups' t o c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r point of view p r i o r t o the a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t appears t h a t the B r i t i s h p r e f e r t o adopt type of I n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n the New  a  Town c o r p o r a t i o n  which permits a m o n i t o r i n g of the process and  enables a-  r e l a t l v e l y r a p i d response to areas of d i f f i c u l t y which may  a r i s e . - T h e dialogue which Is 1  maintained w i t h the  local  people i n the 'case of the renewal of housing i n one o f M i l t o n Keynes e x i s t i n g v i l l a g e s demonstrates reduce the s o c i a l consequences, might  an e f f o r t t o  such as a l i e n a t i o n which  otherwise be f e l t by the people were they excluded  from any involvement. B r i t i s h approach,  I t appears  ;  t h a t the l e s s f o r m a l  r e l a t i v e t o mechanisms such as'NEPA i n  ;  100 the  U.S.A., u t i l i z e  affected Hall  by p l a n n i n g  points  vation  dialogue  out that  o f a way  between i n t e r e s t e d  to determine the best  course  t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n England,  of l i f e  groups  counted h e a v i l y above  of a c t i o n .  the presereconomic  ha  consideration,  u n l i k e America.  Perhaps the f a c t been f u l l y  developed,  several centuries planning rather  t h a t B r i t a i n h a s more o r l e s s  i n terms o f l a n d  utilization, for  has enabled h e r t o evolve  which i n c o r p o r a t e s  than simply  °  s o c i a l and other  a system of concerns  s t r e s s i n g economic development.  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n A m e r i c a a n d . B r i t a i n . w o u l d be to diminish  Increasing  development  expected.  a s the; l a s t I f r o n t l e r s ''lot- " u n t o u c h e d l a n d ' i n  N o r t h A m e r i c a become more d e v e l o p e d and I t may that  This  be  possible  concern f o r t h e s o c i a l consequences o f b u r  planning  will  result.  101  Summary The approach of Ian McHarg t o the problem of the s o c i a l consequences of a highway r o u t e through  part  of the E a s t e r n North American K e g o l o p o l i s p r e s e n t s  an  e s s e n t i a l l y t e c h n i c a l approach t o the need f o r c o n s i d e r i n g s o c i a l impacts  i n the decision-making.  The  environmental,  man-nature p o i n t of view e s s e n t i a l l y reduces  the oppor-  t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n but s t r e s s e s the need f o r keeping f u t u r e o p t i o n s open.  S o c i a l Impacts are  d e a l t w i t h i n the a b s t r a c t , from the view of an and  without due  expert  r e g a r d f o r the d i v e r s i t y of g o a l s which  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n a s o c i a l impact  analysis.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the v a r i o u s areas of s o c i a l  The  ..  concern  which McHarg e l u c i d a t e s a r e u s e f u l and do improve upon the s i t u a t i o n where e x p e r t s , such as highway, engineers------• made-decisions on simple economic and  physiographic, grounds  alone. :  T  h  e  Sacramsnto County P l a n Environmental  Impact  Heportvrecognizes, the need to c o n s i d e r not o n l y the eco- " \, l o g i c a l consequences of u r b a n i z a t i o n but a l s o the need to i d e n t i f y some of the s o c i a l Impacts as w e l l . : The. more •• e a s i l y q u a n t i f i e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l  environmental  e f f e c t s and the mere i d e n t i f i c a t i o n without e v a l u a t i o n , of the areas of s o c i a l concern presented not p r o v i d e a b a l a n c e  i n the study  of i n f o r m a t i o n which would be  may  acceptable  102 to a l l the d i v e r s e I n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d decision-makers essentially, attitudes. through Study  a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h the views o f  r a t h e r than a broader  The  experts  cross-section  P u b l i o p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  and  i t appears  from the b r i e f s  to the f i n a l  Environmental  of  only permitted  p r e s e n t e d as Impact  o n l y t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and  were a b l e t o r e s p o n d in  plan.  the process of the p u b l i c a t i o n of the D r a f t  appendix that  by t h e  to this  the c o u n t r y such as  Statement,  financial  format.  Those  f a r m w o r k e r s who  been w e l l enough o r g a n i z e d t o r e s p o n d  may  about  an  interests  interests not  have  /'-.y:':A^f  their "  J  /A  h o u s i n g n e e d s f o r example,} were f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l ; : p u r poses,  excluded  impacts. concerns  from the d i s c u s s i o n  In a d d i t i o n , from  on t h e s o c i a l  t h i s approach  .  separates s o c i a l  f o r t h e v i e w s o f more i n t e r e s t s  preparation of a s o c i a l an  impact  d e a l :wlth t h e s o c i a l  I m p a c t s m i g h t be  provides  be  In  o  i n the addition,  required to  useful f o r  use  makers.  In Great B r i t a i n  and  statement,  i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s t e p s w h i c h may  by t h e p o l i c y  '  the p l a n n i n g process.  P e r h a p s p l a n n e r s must p r o v i d e r e a s o n a b l e opportunities  v  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f New  the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s i g n i f i c a n t  dislocation  l n the d e n s e l y populated  Towns  social  relocation  "tight  little  isle.  103 Hall an  points  effort  that  out  i s made t o  is  New  this  effort  multiple  brief  put  order of  McHarg o r t h e vided  and  at  the  into social  political  levels  inquiry  prior  of to  final  the  establishment  of  the  c o u r s e of  project,  the  to  social  -The identify impact  two  i n an  effort  The  consequences or fashion  of  New  public  Town,  the  the  by  expert  to  or  the  involve participation  Is  are  negative  solutions  c h a p t e r has  inforto  technical  social  ecological by  point  impacts  been  area  t y p i f i e d by  of  social to  of  view,  the  project  in  effects.  those affected  of  to  attempts  a  '  the -  exchange:of  satisfactory  and  During  participation  for  the  arrangements  mitigate  to  pro-  through a  the  methods i n t h e  first  range of  may  ultimately  of- t h i s  approaches or  from an  similar  the  arise.  identify  a  to  providing  contribution  research.  of  there  experts r e l a t i v e  Institutional  m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y -to work o u t they  seen that  a development c o r p o r a t i o n .  c o n s e q u e n c e s by  p r o b l e m s as  be  Information i s  designation  way  of  through d i a l o g u e between  p e r m i t d i a l o g u e and  people Involved*  the  This  g o v e r n m e n t and the  s o c i a l aspects  identification  i m p a c t s by  rather  maintained.^  i t can  prior  level  opposed;  i t i n such a  are  the  process  Sacramento case.  various  established  stability  the  not  control  s k e t c h of  Towns d e v e l o p m e n t  less  such Is  o r g a n i z e and  social continuity In  the  t h a t c h a n g e as  T h i s method but  in  the  104 two cases presented here, McHarg*s and the Sacramento study, public input was not u t i l i z e d as a source of i n f o r mation about the possible future s o c i a l impacts of the projects.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n may be useful not only i n providing  information which can be used i n an open or f l e x i b l e planning process-to improve the plans i n terms of making them more acceptable to the ultimate consumers, i t can also act as an a i d to the accommodation of change. The second approach i s the one used i n Great B r i t a i n where, as f a r as possible In the planning process, options, are kept.open to provide those i n the paths of the New  Towns, with the opportunity to participate i n the  planning.  A process of dialogue and Involvement  i s fostered  to enable the designs or programs to be amended/where required.  : .  This community development approach as u t i l i z e d i n  B r i t a i n may  enable a more adaptive method of dealing with  s o c i a l impacts because i t recognizes the fact that s o c i a l changes or d i s l o c a t i o n s brought about by planning decisions can also be regulated, manipulated by man i n such a way as to p r e v e n t o r regulate the consequences i n many I n s t a n c e s :  105 Footnotes --•Ian McHarg, Design w i t h Nature. Doubleday, N a t u r a l H i s t o r y P r e s s , Garden C i t y , New York, 1969, p.25. I b l d . , p.31.  2  3lbld... p.32. . ^ I b l d . , p.33-  5 i b i d . , p.3-+. I b l d . , p.34.  6  7Ibid., p.35« I b i d . , p. 35.. :.V^-': •;: --• The;; 1 l l u s t r a t 1 o n w h 1ch i s produced by t hie systern ©f 7"~ -• ;6vQrlays 7 may; not, r e f l e c t the varying. p r i o r i t i e s ; ^ a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a . .: S i m i l a r l y , i f , f o r example, two e c o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a such as q u a l i t y o f f o r e s t growth and animal h a b i t a t a r e used w h i l e o n l y one s o c i a l c r i t e r i o n such as v a l u e of t h e l a n d f o r housing i s used, t h e shading i l l u s t r a t i n g theVtwo e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s w i l l appear d a r k e r , and on t h e composite"overlay v i s u a l l y w e i g h t t h e e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s over t h e s o c i a l ones. I t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t i t Is ••••••v. p o s s i b l e t o a n a l y s e the c r i t e r i a s e p a r a t e l y i n whatever, p a t t e r n s may be required.> 3  :  :  :  r  ;  :  9lbid., p.35* 10c.S. H o l l i n g Sc. M.A.Goldberg, "Ecology and -Planning", - A.I.P. J o u r n a l , Vol.37. No.4, "(July, 197D, p.229. HMcHarg, o p . c i t . , p.35* l2  H . B u r g e & X. Johnson, S o c i a l Costs and B e n e f i t s o f Water Resource C o n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Kentucky, 1973. P - i i .  ! 3 E z r a J . Mishan, The Costs o f Economic Growth, Praeger, New York, I967, P-73-  106 ^ E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact R e p o r t f o r t h e P r o p o s e d R e v i s i o n t o t h e Sacramento County G e n e r a l P l a n , p r e p a r e d by E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact S e c t i o n , S a c r a m e n t o C o u n t y Community, Development and E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency, Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a , A p r i l , 1973. 1  5 i b l d . , p.70.  i^Ibld.,  p.72.  ?Ibld.,  p.76.  1  l 8  I b i d . , p.81.  1 Q  Ibld.,  p.85.  ^ E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact R e p o r t . o p . c i t . . p.85, A study p u r p o r t i n g t o a n a l y s e the "socio-economic e f f e c t s " o f a p l a n must e n d e a v o u r t o p r o v i d e a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s a s t o t h e e f f e c t s o f a p o l i c y on a l l t h o s e a f f e c t e d ; n o t m e r e l y t h e - • local industrial Interests. Economic and s o c i a l i m p a c t s o f "no g r o w t h " may be s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f t h e f u t u r e shape and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e community. P l a n s w h i c h a d o p t t h i s p o l i c y must c o n s i d e r t h e consequences, r a t h e r than p e r m i t t i n g t h e s o c i a l c h i p s t o f a l l where t h e y may. 2  1  2 2  2  In  t h e appendices o f t h e r e p o r t , r e a c t i o n s and b r i e f s w h i c h have been p r e s e n t e d t o t h e County i n - r e s p o n s e t o t h e d r a f t E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact s t a t e ment a r e r e p r o d u c e d , pp.93-127.  Ibld.,  p.109.  3peter H a l l , H. C-racey, R. D r e w e t t ,  . r  2k  & Roy Thomas, The C o n t a i n m e n t o f U r b a n E n g l a n d , Volume Two; The P l a n n i n g S y s t e m ; O b j e c t i v e s , - O p e r a t i o n s , Impact G e o r g e A l l e n & U n w l n ; 1973• "Some F u n c t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h P l a n n i n g S y s t e m " , H a r r y G r a c e y , pp.363375. P. 363.'  M a u r i c e Broady, P l a n n i n g f o r People. B e d f o r d P r e s s , L o n d o n , I968, p.92  5peter H a l l , o p . c l t . , p.329.  2 6  Ibid.,  pp.355-356.  Square  107 2  ?The  T i m e s , London,  March  24, 1972.  2 8 A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , June, M i l t o n K e y n e s , p.355* 2  1973. S p e c i a l i s s u e  on  9 L a d y S h a r p , "The Government Role",New Towns: The B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e , C h a r l e s K n i g h t a n d Co., L o n d o n , 1972, p.42.  30sir  Henry Wells, 1972, p.31.  "Agencies & Finance",  I n New  Towns,  3 1 r b i d . , p.32. 32»HOW t h e I d e n t i t y o f t h e E x i s t i n g V i l l a g e s i s B e i n g P r e s e r v e d " , M i l t o n Keynes Development C o r p o r a t i o n , pamphlet, 1972. 33Architectural..., 3 4 j 4 i i t o n Keynes,  op.olt.,  p.36l.  op.olt.,  35ibld.,  ~ "  36xha T i m e s ,  op.cit.  3 7 s i r E b e n e z e r H o w a r d G a r d e n C i t i e s o f Tomorrow, F . J . O s b o u r n e , ( e d . ) , F a b e r , I965, ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n I898 a s Tomorrow: A P e a c e f u l P a t h t o R e f o r m ) . 3 The 8  Times,. opvolt:.--:^Vy.\.':/>;,:...:--.^v.^  ^ ^ P e t e r H a l l , H. G r a c e y , R. D r e w e t t , & Roy Thomas, The C o n t a i n m e n t o f u r b a n E n g l a n d . Volume Two: The P l a n n i n g System; O b j e c t i v e s , O p e r a t i o n s , Impact, G e o r g e A l l e n & Unwln, 1973. "Some F u n c t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h P l a n n i n g S y s t e m " , H a r r y G r a c e y , p.367. ^Architectural.. . , op.cit.p-36l. ^Ibld.,  p.393.  ^Milton  Keynes,  ^3 The T i m e s , ^The  op.olt.,  op.cit.  T i m e s , November 17,  1972, " P e t e r b o r o u g h " .  108  ^5peter H a l l , H. G r a c e y , fl. D r e w e t t & Hoy Thomas,  The C o n t a i n m e n t o f U r b a n E n g l a n d , Volume Two* The P l a n n i n g S y s t e m ; O b j e c t i v e s , O p e r a t i o n s , Impact, G e o r g e A l l e n & Unwln, 1973» "Some F u n c t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h P l a n n i n g S y s t e m : , H a r r y G r a c e y , p.356.  4 6 p e t e r S e l f , "New Towns I n t h e M o d e m W o r l d " , New Towns: T h e B r i t i s h E x p e r i e n c e , H. E v a n s ( e d . ) , - C h a r l e s K n i g h t •& Co., L o n d o n , 1972, p.208. ;  ** Ibld.,  p.368.  48ibld.,  p.374.  •^9ibid.,  p.368.  7  109 IV.  AN ANALYSIS OP THE SOCIAL IMPACTS OP A PROPOSED INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT: THE TILBURY ISLAND PROJECT AND THE COMMUNITY OP DELTA _ The purpose  of t h i s Chapter Is t o propose a  method of I d e n t i f y i n g In advance the p o s s i b l e Impacts of an I n d u s t r i a l development u t i l i z i n g  social the  c r i t e r i a and s p e c i f i c s o c i a l concerns that have been r a i s e d i n Chapters I I and I I I .  The o b j e c t i v e of the  study would be t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the range of s o c i a l impacts of the p r o j e c t , f o r the d e c i s i o n makers as w e l l as those people a f f e c t e d by the p r o j e c t . T h i s c o u l d permit an a n a l y s i s .of the s o c i a l  feasibility  of the p r o p o s a l and c o u l d s e r v e t o i d e n t i f y .those areas of c o n c e r n which must be Included i n the  on-going  p l a n n i n g t o enable the p r o j e c t t o proceed i n . t h e  least  d i s r u p t i v e manner. A s o c i a l Impact study c o u l d be undertaken  by  an e x t e r n a l i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team- of experts or a govern ment p l a n n i n g agency.  Coneommitant s t u d i e s of. the  environmental, economic, e n g i n e e r i n g and  transportation  a s p e c t s of a major p r o j e c t o f t h i s n a t u r e should be p r o v i d e d a l o n g with the s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The need f o r such a study c o u l d be w r i t t e n  into  law as i s the case w i t h the N a t i o n a l Environmental P o l i c y A c t i n the U.S.  a l t h o u g h t h i s may  prove cumbersome.  s o c i a l impact study c o u l d be i n i t i a t e d by community c o n c e r n about the proposed  A  alternatively p r o j e c t , or i n  110 response to a perceived participation element  presentation  the  social  could  discussed advisory basis  a  s t u d y w o u l d be  of a d r a f t report  a c c u r a c y and be  at  The  individuals  and  uncertainty  f o r a c t i o n , on  the  of  this  of  information  - alternatives. •••social;;-impact  the  through  negative  future longer the  planning  study,-, a s  by  function  be  the  provided  consequences *.-•  the  with the  purpose  broadest  evaluation  i n the  range  of  the  course of  .-  a  i n s o m e "cases p r o v e i c o n c l u s l y e l y • -.ry  i t must n o t  be  fall  h a v e s u c h -massive  permitted  o i l p i p e l i n e or the  w a t e r e x p o r t scheme may  affected  i s seen, f o r the  Information generated  MacKenzie V a l l e y  the  a  discussion,  term s o c i a l  ^-that..;the p r o j e c t .under ^ c o n s i d e r a t i o n may  The  provide  p r o j e c t proceeds.  possible along  consequences t h a t  and  aspects of  a means o f p r o v i d i n g  s t u d y may  analysis.  cltizen-s  I n a d d i t i o n , a b a s i s may  a r i s e as The  and  the  p l a n n e r s and  g r o u p s w h i c h may,  of  opportunity  i m p a c t s t u d y may  between t h e  project.  which w i l l  social  subject.  groups  studies  key  findings  the  Interested  p u b l i c meetings or  groups.  reduce the  of the  completness of  d i s t r i b u t e d to  f o r dialogue  proposed  In the  Impact s t u d y w o u l d p r o v i d e  t e s t the  This  information.  In promoting p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of the  The  to  p u b l i c need f o r more  into this  to  proceed.  NAWAPA  category.  continental I n many  Ill  cases,  the preparation  identify  those  areas  identification could  of  the  and  determined be  terms o f r e f e r e n c e  that the  to provide  the  has  will  proceed,  out  with  by  the  occur.to not  the  social  that  opportunity the  seen as  milieu.  may  the  Thus s o c i a l  As  on  facilitate  considered  provide  of  Interests  i n the past  social  facil-  will  impact r e p o r t s  are  environof i n -  community  about the  economic e x p a n s i o n  broader-discussion  dis-  people  changes t h a t  more p e o p l e become c o n c e r n e d  e l u s i v e " q u a l i t y of l i f e " ,  the  i s in part  people i n t h e i r l o c a l  continued  must  project.  s t u d i e s - b u t as a supplementary type  focussed  inclusion  the  the p u b l i c  will  the  I f i t Is  the g o a l  a replacement: f o r . c o s t - b e n e f i t o r  quences o f our of  to adapt-to  community.  mental impact formation  impact study,  construction  to minimize  c u s s i o n ; of- t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t , w h i c h itated  the  installation.  community r e s u l t i n g f r o m been p o i n t e d  by  or the  information necessary  d i s r u p t i o n to the It  proposal  The  difficulty  f o r use  i n the d e s i g n  complex o r o t h e r  will  taken.  of p o s s i b l e s o c i a l  technicians  industrial  impact study  i n w h i c h c a r e must be  of areas  e s t a b l i s h the  engineers  of a s o c i a l  i n the  impact  of s o c i e t a l  consepursuit  studies  goals  and  ( i . e . l o c a l ) w h i c h were o f t e n when d e c i s i o n s were made a b o u t  I n d u s t r i a l development of the  country.  not the  112  This study i s not an attempt to prepare a comprehensive s o c i a l Impact study of the proposed  Tilbury  Island I n d u s t r i a l park on the Community of Delta,  It is,  rather, an attempt to project the stages to be followed and the areas of concern which such an analysis might require.  The f i r s t stage of the s o c i a l impact process,  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of areas of concern, w i l l be dealt with here.  A process f o r dealing with the on-going problems as  they evolve with the aotual construction w i l l be put forward in the following chapter.  For purposes of t h i s study, i t i s  assumed that the main impacts w i l l occur within the boundaries o f the Municipality of Delta. The Delta Area In 1961, the population of Delta was 14,597 persons,- a 66.6% Increase over 1956.  1  By 1971, the pop-  u l a t i o n reached 4-5,860, a 320$ increase between 1961 and 1971.  Many of the area's residents are employed i n other  parts of Metropolitan Vancouver.  The p r i n c i p a l shopping  area and centre- of municipal government i s Ladner, formerly a f i s h i n g and a g r i c u l t u r a l c e n t r e .  2  Ladner i s located  13 miles south o f the Vancouver business d i s t r i c t . There are new.residential developments i n the Tsawwassen upland area further south and i n North Delta, on the opposite bank of the Fraser River to New Westminster.  Major  113 s t i m u l i t o the r e s i d e n t i a l and  i n d u s t r i a l development of  the a r e a r e s u l t e d from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e Deas Thruway, a l o n g w i t h the t u n n e l under t h e E r a s e r t o Vancouver i n 1958.  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a f e r r y t e r m i n a l f o r  Vancouver I s l a n d t r a f f i c on the Roberts Bank f o r e s h o r e i n 1958  and t h e l a t e r development o f a b u l k l o a d i n g  facility  In 196?  f o r c o a l w i t h a new  R a i l l i n e resulted  Canadian  pacific  In t h e l o s s o f some farmlands t o the  area. M a n u f a c t u r i n g Is mainly concentrated on the 1,200  acre Annacis i s l a n d  I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e , an  Important  manufacturing and d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t r e f o r a wide v a r i e t y of i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d i n g metal and s t e e l p r o d u c t s , plywood, p a i n t and food p r o c e s s i n g . were employed  Approximately 1,600  (196l) by hj f i r m s . 3  T  persons  h i s estate i s being  developed by a p r i v a t e company, G r o s v n e r - L a i n g .  I t should  be noted t h a t Annacis I s l a n d i s not d i r e c t l y connected  to  t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f D e l t a but i s connected by b r i d g e t o Mew  Westminster.  Workers a t the Annaci3 complex, t h e r e f o r e ,  would be more l i k e l y t o r e s i d e i n Richmond, Burnaby or New  Westminster. D e l t a had  275  farm o p e r a t o r s i n 1961  farm p o p u l a t i o n t o t a l l e d 1,085 Dairying i s of f i r s t  and  the  persons on 23,982 a c r e s .  Importance but t r u c k f a r m i n g i s a l s o  114  significant. provides  The  rich alluvial  soil  the  floodplain  good o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t L a d n e r i s 36  annual  on  The  inches which a l s o  makes t h e a r e a more a t t r a c t i v e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l 60  than Vancouver with Fishing, facilities  such  facilities  such as  able north  purposes  inches.^  i n t h e F r a s e r e s t u a r y and  as h u n t i n g  i n the area.  average  f o r b i r d s , and  B e a c h G r o v e on  recreational  water o r i e n t e d  B o u n d a r y Bay  T h e r e a r e 10,000 a c r e s  are  of peat  c e n t r a l D e l t a , from which commercial peat  availbog  in  moss i s  harvested. D e l t a was British  the  second f a s t e s t  Columbia between 1956  population  Increase,  on  and  1961  growing r e g i o n i n with a  t h e a v e r a g e 275  66.8%  dwelling units  were b u i l t \ a n n u a l l y ; " . 0  Serviced is  principally  is  n a v i g a b l e by  draft  up  ment. but  The  ocean going Westminster.  Tilbury zoned  area  acres  and  The  river  Fraser River.?  ships of less Road and  a r e a a t t r a c t i v e f o r p o r t and  i s mainly The  located along the  t o New  the r i v e r  i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o t a l s 1,694  than  rail  40  foot  s e r v i c e make .  industrial  develop-  i s presently high q u a l i t y  farmland  industrial.  8  proposed p r o j e c t On  November 26,  1973*  the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r of  115 I n d u s t r i a l Development, T r a d e and  Commerce a n n o u n c e d  Tilbury  Island  I n d u s t r i a l Land Assembly  of land  to the  south of  of  Delta.^  The  Tilbury Island  o b j e c t i v e was  serviced  Industrial land  use,  provide  "To  r e a l and  b u s i n e s s community tries  "that w i l l  on  provide  i n v o l v i n g 726 i n the  to provide  for  ongoing a s s i s t a n c e 10  The  b e n e f i t s were.seen t o  i n c l u d e advantages to  area"  which-could^now l o c a t e without land"  and  the  industries  opportunity  from  The t o be It  would appear  as  outlined  possible of  jobs  British less as  one  i n press  The  1 1  on  :  f o r r e l o c a t i o n of manufacturing  of  the  (sic)  -j  and  proposed development  objectives  The  filter  of the  Tilbury  will  b e n e f i t the  costs  It i s  i n terms  residents  provision  consumer i s  e s t a b l i s h e d by  of production.  proposal,  perhaps  benefits  the  appear:  industrialists.  down t o t h e  assumption that  i n a market system a r e  than the  employ-  businesses  r e l e a s e , were economic,  salaries will  Columbia.  prices  indus-  "massive expenditures  group i n s o c i e t y ; the  that the  expensive land  rather  mentioned.  t o assume : t h a t u l t i m a t e l y t h e and  the  1 2  objectives  aimed a t  was  " V a n c o u v e r , West V a n c o u v e r  North Vancouver."  to  many a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m s o f  the  priced,  industrial  desire to bring  ment t o t h e p e o p l e o f  acres  Municipality  reasonably  a lease basis  i n B.C."-  the  Thus t h e  of  of  erroneous competition  objective  of  116 •'providing of  on-going a s s i s t a n c e  B.C." may  simply  to the business  produce an increase  I t may b e more e f f i c i e n t  In a l a n d - s h o r t for  region  is  a goal  i n fact  The facility, into  the area  t o labour  of the regional  project proposal  extension  of plant  with  of the  industrial  land  prices  extensive which  government.  Canadian  a deepsea  port  national r a i l  line  $250 t o #350/million d o l l a r s w o r t h . - .  construction  agricultural,  industries.  i n t e n s i v e ones,  includes  over the l i f e  While-the main u s e o f t h e l a n d t h e 1966  of the p r o j e c t . ^ 1  i n the area  is still  r e g i o n a l p l a n has t h e area  zoned:  development,  . The c o s t s .by  of. v a r i o u s  i n d u s t r i a l p u r p o s e s may d i s c o u r a g e l a n d i n preference  social  t h e market system t o  such as Vancouver, h i g h  industries  for  i n profits.  t o d e a l -with  needs i n a head-on f a s h i o n and a l l o w d e t e r m i n e t h e economic v i a b i l i t y  community  o f t h e p r o j-ect p r o p o s e d w i l l  be borne •  t h e p r o v i n c i a l government f o r t h e l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n i a n d  site preparation  including the constructlon  o f deepsea  docking f a c i l i t i e s  and u t i l i t i e s . . The p r i v a t e  who l e a s e  will  the land  those f a c i l i t i e s  ponsible  companies  undertake the construction of  they r e q u i r e .  to tax p r o v i n c i a l l y  :  owned l a n d ,  The m u n i c i p a l i t y  i s not able  however, t h e M i n i s t e r  f o r t h e p r o j e c t has s t a t e d  that  res-  the municipality  >  117 will of  receive  an  annual grant from the  government i n  lieu  taxes.^ The  Decision-making T h e r e i s no  the  process  i n d i c a t i o n that  the  benefits  development,have been c a r e f u l l y e v a l u a t e d .  release  states  that  the  priced  land  f o r the  stated  that  i t i s the  "labour  intensive  forms of  i s to p r o v i d e  government's p o l i c y t o  to the  and  people i n the  and  fact  the  that  Delta  regional  following  Council  ministers  district.  moved t o  trialization a p p o i n t e d -a  of  the  encourage  project  province,  This  than the  the  by  the  proposal  the  meetings w i t h the trade  j  n  F e b r u a r y , 1974,  s i m i l a r - d e l e g a t i o n t o meet w i t h t h e  to discuss  the  impact of  proposed  the the  indusG.V.R.D.  Agriculture Tilbury  upon farms i n t h e  at  government f o r p u r c h a s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l y zoned  for  industrial  purposes at  1 8  C r i t i c i s m has  " a r t i f i c i a l l y low  •  commerce'  Estate the  area.  the  provincial  and  g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y on  farmland.17  a  municipal-  is indicated  announcement o f s e t up  is also  1  rather  o ^ highways.; a g r i c u l t u r e and  t o h a v e them e x p l a i n  Minister  between the  the  reasonably  area." ^  d e c i s i o n to proceed with the  product of d i s c u s s i o n  press  to provide a l t e r n a t i v e  a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n a u n i l a t e r a l one  ity  The  business c o m m u n i t y . i t  industry  employment The  objective  of  been l e v e l e d land  prices."19  118 The estate  d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e the  i n D e l t a was  According  t o Mr.  A c q u i s i t i o n and poration, such as  not  K.  National  Development i n the  i n temporal  municipality  2 0  The  B.C.  Development  proximity  to the  barge f a c i l i t y  terms f o r the consideration  shipping of the  Cor-  criteria Canadian  and  the  of  goods  goals  of  the  of^Delta^pr-the.Re  , ihvolv.ed i:^  moret l r i k e l y ^ t h a t ; - d e c i s i o n s ; w h i c h : a r e ;;  :  ;  undertaken: w i t h b u t d social  considerations.  based upon economic  d e s i r a b i l i t y and  to Vancouver.  industrial  Chauncey, t h e D i r e c t o r f o r Land  R a i l w a y T r a c k a g e and  proximity  :  based upon s o c i a l  t h e d e c i s i o n was  the  proposed  goals  are  a h d T d l s C u s s i o n f a b o u t . •: ;  more l i k e l y  to produce negative  social  consequences. public participation I t does not  appear that  T i l b u r y , p r o j e c t were p r o v i d e d participate flict  the  lation  of the  In l a r g e land  I t would  then to  opportunity proposal. to avoid  assembly p r o j e c t s  need f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n c r e a t e s  diction. land,  formulation  with the  between t h e need f o r c o n f i d e n c e  of prices and  i n the  t h o s e a f f e c t e d by  to  The the  such as  con-  inflation this  a difficult  f o r the  area,  rather  than  i n the  one  contra-  seem p o s s i b l e however t o a c q u i r e  engage i n p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n s  of plans  the  the  formu-  proceeding  119 • u n i l a t e r a l l y as  was  done i n t h i s  instance.  p u b l i c and Government A t t i t u d e s Towards t h e I n d u s t r i a l Development i n D e l t a . In general consequence upon a far  as  and  the  aspects of  degree t o which the  scope of  goals  and  t h i s study  Estate  attitudes  result  i n the  affected.  On  quences of For  growth has  community o f  that  the  goals  goals  of  one  desired  g r o u p and  the  has  and  be so  at  b e e n assumed  goals  each l e v e l  of  or  p a 3 t  that  been a d e s i r a b l e n a t i o n a l  goal  a t any  inflation.)  f u r t h e r b e e n assumed t h a t  the  challenges  of  a  the  conseImpact.  attitudes poli-  economic cost  loss or aggravation  growth would r e d u c e i n e q u a l i t i e s o f of  those  societal interest;  environmental  one  Indus-  proposed  resource depletion,  poor,  by  i n the  I t has  Is  actions  probable  compared w i t h t h e on  i s . It  negative s o c i a l  p r o v i n c i a l or n a t i o n a l could  The  d i f f e r e n c e between  a c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e the  the  the  Delta.  of  o t h e r hand, t h e  a  inso-  Tilbury  accomplishment  or pro j ects It  one,  e f f e c t s of  as  community,  community.  p o s i t i v e I f the  towards h o u s i n g cies  i n the  be  the  example,  i n the  impacts can  the  a t t i t u d e s and  defined decision  life  i s mainly a l o c a l  upon the  Social  be  change c o n f l i c t s w i t h  attempt t o determine the  trial  i m p a c t may  community o f a p l a n n i n g  i t affects various  prevailing  an  a social  Tilbury •  of  economic  income and  social  (e.g.  impact  benefit  the  analysis  120 must be  t o t a k e t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s t o t a s k and  t o a n a l y s e and development  provide  Attitudes District. One  of  s t u d y w o u l d be the  people  ment, a s by  the  cial  proposal.  At  press  T r a d e and  a desire  ment o f  British It  t r i a l : land  information  Delta area  the  the  most g e n e r a l  release  to provide  by  the  the  1973,  thab the  C r e e k and  thus  region.  2  improve the  Industry  I n l i n e w i t h p r o v i n c i a l and  It with  the  be  that  urban  attract  labour  regional  opportunities  for  employment f o r t h e . p e o p l e  of  provided. ^  i s stated  Fraser  estate w i l l  i t i s stated  River  2  that  to  in-addition-, - I t  2  intensive  will  indus-  alternatives for.firms wishing  "many a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m s o f  -  develop-  p r o v i s i o n o f new  industrial  area"  of  indi-  economic  that:the  the  provin-  2 1  elsewhere i n the  Finally,  develop-  Minister  November 26,  "benefits to the  Columbia."  attitudes  groups a f f e c t e d  level,  prepared  Commerce on  provide  other  Impact  industrial  is: stated  policies.  about  Regional .  about the  towards  a t t i t u d e s of  r e l o c a t e away f r o m F a l s e environment  and •  i s indicated  will  province  p r e r e q u i s i t e s to a s o c i a l  i n the  the  of the  to obtain  the  Industry, cates  the  w e l l as  one,  more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n  projects.  A.  of  attempt  "discussions  have been  H a r b o u r s C o m m i s s i o n and  It i s  held my  121 •understanding The  t h a t they approve o f t h i s  question of the v a l i d i t y  by v i r t u e  of the fact  posed o f appointed resent is  next  support  may b e r a i s e d i s com-  a n d may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  level  to the public.  o f government i s t h e G r e a t e r  Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t .  I n November, 1 9 7 2 , a  on L l v a b i l i t y " was p u b l i s h e d by t h e G.V.R.D. w h i c h a  series  of policies  rep-  o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e r e g i o n . ' Nor  t h e commission accountable The  2  t h a t t h e Harbour Commission  officials  the attitudes  of this  project." ^  "Report listed  f o r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n as p o s s i b l e .  .. :  -components ipf ,the new G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . Reg 1 o n a l ; p l a n . ~in r e l a t i o n Regional  tb the Tilbury  plan  proposal, the present  (1966) d e s i g n a t e s  F r a s e r R i v e r shore p o r t .on. L i v a b l l i t y "  the island  itself  i n the area as i n d u s t r i a l . proposes  ,'.  o f f i c i a l ".' and t h e  T h e "Re-  s e v e r a l p o l i c i e s which a l - -  :  t h o u g h t e n t a t i v e , , c a s t , some. 1 ight... o n t h e • r e g i o n a l g o a l s • "G.V.R.D. s h o u l d d i s c o u r a g e "the l o c a t i o n i n t h i s r e g i o n o f l a r g e l a n d - c o n s u m i n g i n d u s t r i e s and p o r t f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h h a v e l o w employment d e n s i t i e s . " (May n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h T i l b u r y proposal). " p o l i c i e s t o keep development from o c c u r r i n g i n f l o o d p l a i n a r e a s should be c o n t i n u e d and s t r e n g t h e n e d . " (Would c o n f l i c t w i t h p r o p o s a l ) . " C o n t r o l l i n g t h e growth r a t e o f G r e a t e r Vancouver s h o u l d b e a f u n c t i o n o f a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f gove r n m e n t . " (Would a p p e a r t o c o n f l i c t w i t h p r o p o s a l ) "Recuperate f o r p u b l i c u s e u n i n t e n s i v e l y used i n d u s t r i a l ( z o n e d ) a r e a s o f f o r e s h o r e " . (Would c o n flict.)  122 "Seek t o p r e s e r v e as much f a r m l a n d I n p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n as i s p o s s i b l e , by t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s of the o f f i c i a l Regional plan." (The T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l would contravene not o n l y t h i s r e g i o n a l p o l i c y b u t t h a t I n s t i t u t e d by t h e p r o v i n c e i n t h e example o f t h e L a n d C o m m i s s i o n Act,) "The L i v a b l e R e g i o n p r o g r a m / p l a n s h o u l d contain p o l i c i e s t o p r o v i d e maximum o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e o p l e t o l i v e c l o s e t o w h e r e t h e y work." ( T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l may p r o m o t e t h i s p o l i c y a l t h o u g h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a "new community" i n t h e f a r m i n g a r e a s o f D e l t a may n o t be i n accordance with other p o l i c i e s ) . " C o n t r o l and d e v e l o p " R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e s " o u t s i d e o f downtown ( V a n c o u v e r ) and a t t e m p t t o d e c e n t r a l i z e some downtown g r o w t h t o t h e s e . c e n t r e s . " (The - T i l b u r y p r o p o s a l m i g h t n o t be. s i t u a t e d i n the best l o c a t i o n f o r promptIng t h i s . p o l i c y a s I t • i s r e l a t i y e l y f a r f r o m r e s l d e h t i a l -' a r e a s and a s has ; b e e n mentioned,- w o u l d - r e q u i r e : the l o s s of f u r t h e r farmlands. Another l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s t y p e o f development c o u l d however a c t i v e l y s e r v e t o promote t h i s p o l i c y . ) :  :  ;  " P o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s must i n e v i t a b l y be ,: p a i d f o r b o t h f r o m g e n e r a l g o v e r n m e n t r e v e n u e s .and by i n d i v i d u a l p o l l u t e r s , b u t emphas i s s h o u l d be on p o l i c i e s r e q u i r i n g t h e p o l l u t e r t o pay whenever t h i s i s i n t h e p u b l i c I n t e r e s t . " ( P o l l u t i o n , and t h e methods o f d e a l i n g w i t h i t , h a v e n o t b e e n made p u b l i c r e g a r d i n g t h e T i l b u r y •...-/..-.proposal, •:• I t . may be p o s s i b l e t h a t by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f I n d u s t r y on t h i s s i t e , t h e b u r d e n r e s u l t i n g from the e f f l u e n t s put i n t o the r i v e r ; w i l l f a l l on t h e p u b l i c . ) :  " E n c o u r a g e a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n p r o c e s s p r i o r t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e B o a r d o f a l l m a j o r p l a n amendments and m a j o r p r o j e c t s . " ( I t does not appear t h a t the p l a n n i n g o f the T i l b u r y p r o j e c t Included t h i s consideration.) The proposal  degree to which the  c o n f l i c t s w i t h the  regional plan  goals  Tilbury Industrial as  stated  amendments w o u l d p o s s i b l y be  i n the  Estate  evolving  significant  and  123 would appear t o w a r r a n t a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i a l impacts  of the proposal. B.  past A t t i t u d e s about As  for  '  e a r l y a s 1957.  Tilbury  a report t i t l e d  t h e F u t u r e " , was p r e p a r e d  "Delta  plans  f o r the developing municipality  which suggested  t h e i n d u s t r i a l development o f t h e T i l b u r y  island  I t was o f f e r e d a s t h e t h i r d  its  area.  river  2 o  p r i o r i t y due t o  f r o n t a g e , b u i l d a b l e l a n d and p r o x i m i t y t o Vancou-  v e r v i a t h e Deas I s l a n d t h r o u g h w a y .  The o t h e r a r e a s f o r  I n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t recommended w e r e A n n a c i s the area; east o f T i l b u r y : I s l a n d . ;  Regional  plan designated  with a s t r i p  the Tilbury  3»3 m i l e s a l o n g  ing  industrial  2  o r d e r o f 2,000 a c r e s  including the Island  ' A r e p o r t prepared  itself.'  i n 1972 f o r the F r a s e r R i v e r t h e . r i v e r ; >-  t h e T i l b u r y area as a f o u r t h p r i o r i t y f o r 2 8  The h i g h e r p r i o r i t i e s  were  t o t h e S u r r e y a r e a s o u t h bank, t h e R i c h m o n d  o p p o s i t e T i l b u r y and A n n a c i s C.  deep  T h i s was i n t h e  the - governing, author i t y over  industrial development. attached  3,000 f e e t  : v  t h e s o u t h bank o f t n e r l v e r v a s develop-:;  i n t h e l o n g range p l a n . 7  H a r b o u r Commis s i o n ,  the O f f i c i a l  i s l a n d area;; a l o n g  o f backup l a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y  and  recommended  I n 1966,  I s l a n d and  Environmental In 1973.  bank  Island.  interests  a series of citizen's policy  committees  124 of volunteers to obtain in  were e s t a b l i s h e d  the views of  the  GVRD i n a n  c i t i z e n s of the  the  preparation  of an  report  recommended  that  and  by  region  p r o j e c t would  i n view of the  recommended residue land  fishing  be  the  with this  f r o m w h i c h r e g i o n a l and  f o r other  population  growth i n the  that  This  The  that  region  of the  with those of  the  Industrial Estate  social  impact study  negotiation  be  l i m i t e d "to  of a proposal  also the  decrease  industry  proposed T i l b u r y the  that  on  in direct project.  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Manage-  a ...strong •• s t a t e m e n t f o r I t would  environmentalists outlined  proposal.  in this  Report  a l s o recommended  o f h o u s i n g and  government as  Island  Tilbury  g o v e r n m e n t s draw  regional resources.  a t t i t u d e s of the  near  must " c e a s e t o be  municipal  recommendations of  development of our the  The  those  permanent a g r i c u l t u r a l  ment p o l i c y -Committee r e p r e s e n t ful  policy.  the  g o a l w o u l d a p p e a r t o be  t o t h e -goals  only  permitted  case that  i t was  f o r construction  farmland32 contrast  u s e s , " and  established.31  pressure  The  resources  Eraser River,  that a g r i c u l t u r a l land  p r e s e r v e s be  the  j t may  conflict  assist  2  r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l of the  waterfront.30  to  updated r e g i o n a l p l a n . 9  i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h r e q u i r e w a t e r a c c e s s be the  effort  The  would  i n the  appear  conflict  Tilbury  undertaking of  s i t u a t i o n should  more a c c e p t a b l e  care-  assist  in  a the  to a l l i n t e r e s t s  125 by  providing a greater  degree o f Information  burden or b e n e f i t o f the s o c i a l project. useful  A t t i t u d e s and g o a l s  i n that  difficult due  they  costs or benefits o f the  o f i n t e r e s t groups a r e  identify  specific  i n t e r e s t s but are  to integrate into the decision-making  to the fact  other  about the  points  that  often  information  process  needed t o J u s t i f y  o f v i e w and p r o m o t e a compromise I s n o t  prepared. B.  Farming i n t e r e s t s The  development.;of,, the. T i l b u r y i n d u s t r i a l T  w o u l d r e d u c e the: l a n d it  would a p p e a r t h a t  f a r m i n g community. "Viability  a v a i l a b l e - f o r f a r m i n g i n D e l t a , and this  could  affect  the future  of[ F a r m i n g ; Study'' c o n c l u d e d t h a t  i s t h e facfc t h a t  i s - not  of\the"  A s t u d y done f o r t h e G.V.R.D. t i t l e d the greatest;  s i n g l e contributor to the n o n - v i a b i l i t y of Delta ture  53% o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y s 8  owned by -res i d ent; f a r m e r s .34  agriculfarmland  other • hind erances t o :  a g r i c u l t u r e r e s u l t e d from t h e growing u r b a n i z a t i o n area, has  w h i c h by i n c r e a s i n g t h e v o l u m e o f t r a f f i c  hindered  along  estate^.-  t h e movement o f s l o w m o v i n g f a r m  highways between f i e l d s . 3 5  r o a d s and t r a n s m i s s i o n  lines  on t h e roads  equipment  i n a d d i t i o n new  t o serve  of the  railways,  t h e growing urban and  i n d u s t r i a l developments i n D e l t a have i s o l a t e d o r d i v i d e d farms and r e s u l t e d i n reduced agriculture.36  The u n c e r t a i n t y  efficiency  i n the pursuit of  p r o d u c e d among t h e f a r m e r s  126 by  development p r o p o s a l s  impact  i n that  i n t h e area produces a  f a r m e r s may r e d u c e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s  and  maintenance of t h e s o i l  not  be p r a c t i c a l t o c o n t i n u e f a r m i n g . 3 7  provides  out of concern that  farmers  the  analysis  i n the affected of the social  possible  t o a s c e r t a i n f o r example, t h a t  f a r m i n g community.  I t may b e  farming  as a r e s u l t . o f t h e d i s r u p t i o n s  urban growth,  expropriation  of land,  highways and o t h e r s e r v i c e s ,  is still  r e s u l t i n g / from  d i v i s i o n o f farms by  or simply uncertainty  and  speculation.3S 3.  Urban R e s i d e n t s prior  t o 1953,  t o d a y was a c c e s s i b l e  ferry  across  River  Road  the Fraser  i t was p o s s i b l e  i n 1958  o f T e l t a as i t  t o Richmond and V a n c o u v e r o n l y River  i n t o Richmond  o n t h e s o u t h banls o f t h e r i v e r  a r e a was s u f f i c i e n t l y  economy.  interests  8  the Municipality  B r i d g e a t New W e s t m i n s t e r .  that  o f some o f  i n some a r e a s b u t may b e l i m i t e d i n p r o d u c t i v i t y  or v i a b i l i t y  is  report  consequences o f t h e T i l b u r y  upon t h e D e l t a  important  i t may  a r e a and w o u l d b e u s e f u l i n  proposal  land  This  a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n e e d s and g o a l s  the  social  by  or along the  to the patullo  The r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n o f t h e  distant.from  t h e main u r b a n  area  t o m a i n t a i n a r u r a l a t m o s p h e r e and  The c o n s t r u c t i o n brought Ladner,  o f t h e Deas i s l a n d Throughway  t h e main c e n t e r  of activity,  within  127 30  m i n u t e s o f downtown V a n c o u v e r .  The  resultant  develop-  ment o f s o u t h D e l t a a s a bedroom community o f V a n c o u v e r during the  ensuing  years represented  historical  t r e n d o f t h e community.  i n d u s t r i a l development continued t h e F r a s e r R i v e r where a c c e s s bridge  i n t o New  During  to r a i l  along with the r a i l  and  the  c o n n e c t i o n and  Bank i n  proposed  super  the f u t u r e o f t h i s a r e a i n doubt  f or . I n d u s t r i a l development produced  the farmland  relatively  use  little  the present  of the area.  changes  There remains,  I n d u s t r i a l development  however,  i n D e l t a and  many  r e s i d e n t s work i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e r e g i o n .  t h r e e nodes: o f u r b a n o r s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t a r e  D e l t a •.•'••'Ladner,'• t h e o l d e s t c e n t r e , and upland  The  e x p r o p r i a t i o n f o r the :  i r a i l w a y and  The  facilities  at Roberts  rfor'-^  of  period  W e s t m i n s t e r made t h e a r e a a t t r a c t i v e .  p o r t development placed  in  this  In n o r t h D e l t a , a l o n g  development o f a b u l k c o a l f a c i l i t y 1958  a major change i n the  pennlnsula of Point  Tsawwassen. on  North the  Roberts.  In  a random s u r v e y  of D e l t a r e s i d e n t a t t i t u d e s  towards t h e i r  community t a k e n  i n February  t h a t about of  light  39.7%  o f 1^1  engineering industries  favoured  secondary  of  favoured  17.7%  respondents  favoured  industry.  i t was  27.7% A minority  industry.39  W i t h o u t any  suggestion  found  the l o c a t i o n  i n Delta, while  or manufacturing no  197-+,  i n the questionnaire  :  128 the  r e s p o n d e n t s were asked  ferences. dustry  Of t h e  should  f u r t h e r k 6%  50  t o s t a t e t h e i r l o c a t i o n pre-  57*5% i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n -  responses,  be l o c a t e d  " c l o s e t o ;the w a t e r " w h i l e  suggested Annacis  a  I s l a n d a n d 9*2% s a i d  I s l a n d a n d 3.^  both i s l a n d s .  a  Tilbury  Considering  that  these  a r e a l l " n e a r w a t e r " t h e t o t a l r i s e s , t o 7^.7%*^° On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s  s m a l l sample i t would  appear t h a t t h e people surveyed opposed Island  i n D e l t a would n o t be  t o some f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n area.  i n the Tilbury  T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d  about  t h r e e , m o n t h s " a f t e r y t h e i n i t i a l / g o v e r n m e n t announcement of t h e i n d u s t r i a l  estate proposal.  would p o s s i b l y r e v o l v e around  The c r i t i c a l  the rate of Industrial  g r o w t h t h e community w o u l d b e f o r c e d the  general  explanation  principle  and  expansion.:  the views o f the majority  rather  i n D e l t a would suburban r e s i d e n t s  indicate l i t t l e  the  Tilbury proposal,  a questionnaire could  proposed  acceptable.  who  ;  i n t e r e s t : groups^.ri-As. t h e r e s u l t s .of • t h e - sur-v  vey  project  than  Another  s u b m e r g e s t h e a t t i t u d e s o f f a r m e r s and f i s h e r m e n  a r e -minor I t y :  the  of industrial  to accept  may; b e t h a t a random s a m p l e  mainly obtain  question  apparent  conflict  a social  specifically  p o s s i b l y begin  impact  i n principle study  d e a l i n g with  with  Incorporating  the Tilbury  t o i n d i c a t e what c h a n g e s i n  p r o j e c t would be needed  t o make i t more  :  129 Areas o f . s o c i a l Concern f o r C o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the S o c i a l impact Report The f i r s t  s t e p i n the development  s o c i a l impact study p r o p o s a l was of the  the p r o j e c t .  of t h i s  essentially a description  The second p a r t endeavoured  a t t i t u d e s towards  i n d u s t r i a l development  by v a r i o u s a f f e c t e d groups.  outline  to  illustrate  i n D e l t a held  The p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t o f the  p r o p o s a l v i s - a - v i s the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s and g o a l s o f t h o s e a f f e c t e d appears t o warrant the p u r s u i t o f a more i n - d e p t h study and p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n about t h e proposed Estate at Tilbury. ted  The f i r s t  to-:demonstrate the need  Industrial  chapter o f t h i s s t u d y attempt  1  former i t l e a l .analysis and pub-i... r<;-\  l i e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n i n the development  of  f u t u r e human environments t h a t a r e as w e l l s u i t e d t o soc i e t a l needs as p o s s i b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n s i t u a t i o n s where d e c i s i o n s may  be i r r e v e r s i b l e .  The i n f o r m a t i o n developed  w i l l p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c l a r i f y and f o c u s those a r e a s of the  concern t h a t ' w i l l r e q u i r e m o n i t o r i n g and a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g development  process.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the S o c i a l - I m p a c t s I t i s p o s s i b l e now  to l i s t a s e r i e s of s o c i a l  impacts o r a r e a s f o r e v a l u a t i o n t h a t should be i n c l u d e d i n an a n a l y s i s of the proposed Island.  i n d u s t r i a l estate at Tilbury  The concerns l i s t e d here were r a i s e d  i n Chapters  I I and I I I and a r e brought t o g e t h e r to develop a model  130 form of s o c i a l impact  study.  The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l  d e t a i l a s p e c t s o f a p r o c e s s which can be u t i l i z e d w i t h the Impacts as they a r e c a t a l o g u e d i n t h i s  to deal  section.  A s p e c t s of each Impact Each s p e c i f i c impact must be e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the development of  solutions: A.  Time - A t what stage i n the p r o c e s s of p r o j e c t development w i l l the problem occur?  y.u"i;  , :  B.  ,.  o r Impact  W i l l l o n g term or s h o r t term  impacts o c c u r ?  ,-  -\\.;'V*.-•.'^'-"'•V.-;'  :  scope - w i l l the n e g a t i v e o r p o s i t i v e : impact "'. be f e l t on s o c i e t y as a xfhole o r w i l l i t be more l o c a l i n n a t u r e , e.g. t o n a t i o n , r e g i o n , or m u n i c i p a l i t y ?  C  I n c i d e n c e - what groups i n s o c i e t y w i l l or l o s e as  a result  of any  benefit  impact which  can be i d e n t i f i e d , or w i l l the impacts fall  on the s o c i e t y as  a whole?  - D e l t a i s l i k e l y t o be most a f f e c t e d  In  •terms o f : : I.  s o c i a l structure of  lifestyles  ii.  s o c i a l economics or  distributional  Impacts iii.  s o c i a l needs and  amenities.  131 It fully  Is not  a l l the  however, an  possible in this  f o l l o w i n g areas  attempt w i l l  manner i n w h i c h s u c h a n Social  be  study  suggested  for  undertaken to  i n d i c a t e the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n could  the  industrial  composition  anticipated  pursued.  local  labour  the area?  o f t h e D e l t a f o r c e compare w i t h  needs of the development?  o v e r what t i m e p e r i o d j | w i l l  be  How  required?  How the  many w o r k e r s , I f the  Indus-.  require'-''workers'--which*'•are"? 'unskill'edf' - are'- t h e y , - a v a i l a b l e • :  in Delta?  I f they  attracting  them be,  or  be  estate u t i l i z e  or r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s from outside  tries  examination,  Employment Will  r  evaluate  Impacts  A.  does the  to  improving  training  are not, as  adapted  B»  what m i g h t be  a result  necessary?  to this  type  1  the  impacts  o f p r o v i d i n g more  transportation links?  f a c i l i t i e s be  facilities  :  of  Will Are  housing  educational  existing  of  and  educational  need?  Population What e f f e c t s  D e l t a under the present  on  the p o p u l a t i o n  trend w i l l  of  the  i n d u s t r i a l development?  of  the  present  e x i s t i n g day  population  c a r e or  be  chronic  be  projections for  a l t e r e d as  w i l l t h e age  a  result  composition  significantly affected?  Will  care  with  f a c i l i t i e s be  faced  132 an  increased  presently  pressure or w i l l  l a c k i n g he  the  improved?  stimulus  W i l l an  for  I n f l u x of  workers l n a p r i m a r i l y suburban young f a m i l y in  p r e s s u r e upon s o c i a l  ties?.  critical  must be to  the  recognized  completely  :  a  i f they are  composition of  from the  trend  social  the  present residents, :  An  Influx  scale  ^ differences C.  of the  the  and  present  difference  in a  small  and  town.  are  more l i k e l y  Thus t h e  with  the  goals  more l i k e l y  to  rapid  create  the  the  potential Sense of  proposed  degree that  residents  r a t e arid s c a l e o f  project  change  degree to which and  attitudes  g r o w i n g community s u c h as  a  of  the  d i f f i c u l t i e s .will  can  sharpen  to  dea  lifestyle  problems.  Community  development a l t e r the  know i t , be  change a r e  of suffer  o f y o u n g s i n g l e w o r k e r s t o work on  Change I n  growth t o  is a  change  i n a g r o w i n g community  residents  construction  Will  r a t e of  Impacts r e s u l t i n g from t h e  development c o n f l i c t s  large  facili-  more homogeneous i n t e r m s  heterogeneous population.  velop.  the  there  a l t e r i n g e x i s t i n g trends  S m a l l e r towns,  .A  area result  recreational  "that  impact here as  between a c c e l e r a t i n g a  the  single  It  is  s e r v i c e s and  facilities  tempo  e x i s t i n g community obliterated?  significant.  Delta,  the  In a  i t m i g h t be  as  Again  the  rapidly  possible  133 for  a l a r g e development  drastically  the  to occur without  "resilience"  of  the  changing  community a s  i t would  appear t o have a l a r g e c a p a c i t y  to absorb change.  mation about  of the  of D e l t a  the  mobility rates  might he  u s e f u l i n the  of  concern,  similarly  or  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s  upon c u l t u r a l which can  in social  the  adequate to serve  may  population  of t h i s  services,  area  educational  have s i g n i f i c a n t among e t h n i c  effects minorities  dislocation.  present the  be  p r a c t i c a b l e f o r the  on  roads loaded To  pacity : of  social  Infor-  Transportation Will  traffic?  evaluation  groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y  result  D.  new  present  very  proposed  transit  industrial  more h e a v i l y w i t h t r u c k  existing  ;  an  a n a l y s i s of  and  r o a d s be [  estate?  f a r m e r s t o move t h e i r  pursue t h i s  the  system of  wlll.it  machinery  and  commuter  the  carrying  ca-  f a c i l i t i e s - s h o u l d .be / u n d e r t a k e n . a n d  compared w i t h t h e  expected volume of t r a f f i c  generated  from the  project.  could  proposed  This  information  u t i l i z e d - t o - stage- the  construction  the  industrial  of  development of the safety are  t o be  felt?  estate.  I f the  e x c e e d e d , what d a n g e r s m i g h t  Which group o f u s e r s , h a z a r d s be  of municipal  and  where i n t h e  be  roads  with  limits result?  community w i l l  the  134 Similarly, present are as  a result  How w i l l  future options  could  impacts,might  result  area  to Delta  o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e new c r o s s i n g o f  Fraser River?  term  f o r example t h a t t h e  b e t w e e n D e l t a and t h e V a n c o u v e r  i n a d e q u a t e , what s o c i a l  the of  connections  i f I t i s found  f o rDelta?  t h i s need a f f e c t What, w i l l  the range  t h e l o n g and  short  i m p a c t s o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t b e and what a l t e r n a t i v e s be p r o v i d e d ?  how t h e v a r i o u s  I t would a l s o b e n e c e s s a r y t o  groups  i n the area  analyse  w o u l d be a f f e c t e d b y  t h e new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t . E.  Spatial Interaction How w i l l  existing  patterns  the Tilbury Industrial Estate of land  use, shopping patterns,  activities  and f u t u r e h o u s i n g o r c o m m e r c i a l  In Delta?  Could  municipality in  traffic  ting  from  of :  development  functions  i n d u s t r i a l development i n t h e c e n t r e alter -the-past heirarchy?  Would a n  7  congestion  o n t h e Deas I s l a n d  the i n d u s t r i a l  traffic  the social  south or  .  of the  increase;  Throughway  t o T i l b u r y tend  s o u t h D e l t a by i n c r e a s i n g t h e t r a v e l What w o u l d  economic  t h e e x i s t i n g communities o f Ladner,  D e l t a and N o r t h D e l t a r e t a i n t h e i r p r e s e n t would a l a r g e  affect  to  resulisolat  time t o Vancouver?  impacts upon s o u t h D e l t a be i n terms  growth, use o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , p r o v i s i o n o f  f a c i l i t i e s and p o p u l a t i o n  composition  be?  135 Similarly, a new  public  i f i t Is  found  i n the  long  t r a n s i t f a c i l i t y i s required,  how  run  that  would  present patterns  of  s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n t e r n a l and  ternal  be  altered?  of  to Delta,  d e v e l o p m e n t m i g h t be t o work  useful  Tax  proposed  ability  to  The  deal  with  cast  of  required  by  costs the  of  the  miles of the  the  journey  the  costs  Is a v a i l a b l e ,  the  will  of  m a k i n g on  be  or d e s i g n of If.lt  raised  may  i n the  tax  base,  Impact while  community's  e x p e n d i t u r e s w h i c h may  be  able  establishing a  .  the  to  provide  mechanism  to  p r o v i d e some f o r e -  Unless  financial  external  T  considered  the  two  a useful  i s found  may  s o c i a l I m p a c t s and  the  not  t h e y a r i s e and  h a v e . t o be  comparison of  analysis  about the  s o c i a l needs r e s u l t i n g from  the. budget  slderations  be  15  i t does a f f e c t the  t h e .concerns a s  assistance  benefit  Illustrating  s o c i a l impact a n a l y s i s  i n d i c a t i o n of  tion,  and  development upon the  meet t h e  necessitated  project. an  In  is also  strictlya"social*Impact  be  10,  Base .  information the  5.  number  patterns. F.  of  ex-  Information about the  p o t e n t i a l workers w i t h i n  the  by  tax  base  together,  s u c h methods a s  t o o l i n the  con-  i n addi- > cost  decision  i n d u s t r i a l estate.  that  land  community, who  tax  rates  w o u l d be  will  affected  have and  to what  136 would the be  consequences be?  economically  or d r i v e n out  forced  to  For sell  of business?  i n c o m e w o r k e r s be  able  example, w o u l d their  people?  of the  to purchase housing  What a r e  impacts of a  u r b a n g r o w t h be lot  and  a f f e c t e d , would  i f the  s t a b l e taxes,  expected  the  llvablllty.of  creational  D e l t a by  of the  urban development  re-  would,  development o f  the  large  density  community?  estateTacilltat^  required  and  public  made c o m p a r i n g t h e load  on  financial the  schooi  other  m i g h t be  v  .\  facilities  situation affect money  construetion,  s e r v i c e s and  re-  needs?  Facilities industrial  or  services.  Physical services  facilities  and  industrial present t o be  social  amount o f  p r i m a r y . n e e d s o f any  is local  f o r the  expected  expenditure  reducing  w a t e r , sewage t r e a t m e n t  the  How  c h a n g e s , i f any,  serv ices,  S e r v i c e s ana One  and  community?  temporal d i s t r i b u t i o n s  nature of  form a t i g h t  facilities  G.  be  i n the  medium o r h i g h  industrial  l a c k of  a v a i l a b l e for. s o c i a l  are  middle  l e s s a t t r a c t i v e to  and  the  by  what s o c i a l  which might r e s u l t  as  or  to result? Could  the  replaced  thus change the  Alternatively, or  the area  developers  change i n t a x a t i o n r a t e s ?  s u b d i v i s i o n s be  dwellings  to  would f e w e r l o w  Would. S o u t h D e l t a become r e l a t i v e l y tired  land  farmers  estate.  fire An  protection  a n a l y s i s must  capacity of these  introduced  by  such  the  services  industrial  137 development.  The f i n a n c i a l burden f o r an enlarged  treatment p l a n t capable o f h a n d l i n g may  fall  industrial effluents  on the p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t s o f the community, or on  the whole o f s o c i e t y i f t h e wastes a r e e x p e l l e d into the Fraser,River, Social  untreated  f o r example.  s e r v i c e s such as s c h o o l s ,  community r e c -  r e a t i o n , h o s p i t a l , day care and community h e a l t h may  undergo p r e s s u r e I f the i n d u s t r i a l growth  urban development.  concommitant  services  stimulates  Problems could r e s u l t i f a l a r g e i n -  c r e a s e i n the teenage p o p u l a t i o n  for  sewage  develops without adequate  development o f 'activ1 t y ~-cehtres"and'. programs;A :  t h i s , group.  S o c i a l needs o f o t h e r  groups must a i s o "be .  considered. In a community where l i v a b i l i t y  Is more than a  mere f u n c t i o n o f an adequate income, c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f people's needs f o r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s  must be  consIdered more c a r e f u l l y i n the f u t u r e than was  t h e case  i n the past..  I t may  not be adequate t o assume t h a t an i n -  f l u x o f new workers and g e n e r a l  undirected  growth i n a  community w i l l j . I n themselves, improve the community. The p r o b a b l e impacts o f a new  Industry  a r e a must t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d  on the s e r v i c e s i n the i n a d d i t i o n t o income  changes. H.  property  Values  Any l a r g e p r o j e c t which i s l i k e l y t o i n c r e a s e t h e  138 attractiveness likely at  to  or  stimulate  Tilbury will  the  choice  "unearned  of  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s  urban growth.  occur  on l a n d  leased  increment" i n value  ment w i l l  t h e r e f o r e r e t u r n to the  rates are  lower r e l a t i v e l y  locations,  i t may  be  l o c a t e on  for  may  to sea, result  who  rail  and  road  the  veloped  and  purpose of  anticipated price  site,  of  to  of the  may  but  I f the  earning  an  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  land  Uncertainty  s p e c u l a t i o n and  offer.  pressures  by  land  access  This  costs  the  may  to  uses.  '  be  society. is  de-  for  ex-  may  be  land  purchase of land in value  This  due  to  an  increase  in  the  make i t more d i f f i c u l t some o f t h e  future of farming  less  c o n t r i b u t e to the d e c l i n e of farm operators  from  •  for  economic  i n the  for further industrial  discouraging  in-  lease rates  the r e s u l t  as  to enlarge  about the  h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t may farm operations  will  other  I n d u s t r i e s w h i c h may  increase  change i n p e r m i t t e d  of  r e q u i r e the  Industrial estate  defined  lease  extensive  i f the low  d e v e l o p and be  develop-  essentially wasting  i n terms o f the  i f a large  formers to purchase land units.  a result  some l a n d  inefficiency  s p e c u l a t i o n , which can the  government,  p r o v e s s u c c e s s f u l , economic p r e s s u r e  pansion of the area  with  from the  which T i l b u r y w i l l  elsewhere,  development  to the a l t e r n a t i v e c o s t s  encourage the l o s s o f farmland  Similarly,  proposed  public purse.  require less- land  i n a degree of  better located  as  possible that  dustries w i l l users  The  Is  face  or the doing  139 necessary  capital  improvements t o m a i n t a i n t h e f a r m i n  good o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n . ly  degraded  farmers,  farms,  uncertain futures,  may o c c u r  i f nuisance  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  poor  elements  returns to  social  reduce  i n D e l t a . Smoke,  t h e community's t a x  Impact s t u d y  should  t h e number o f p e o p l e a f f e c t e d  of the effects,  time o v e r which changes w i l l I.  sites  endeavour  by c h a n g e s i n  and t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l  some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e o c c u r would be  useful.  Pious i n g One o f t h e i m p o r t a n t  s o c i a l needs  in a  i s a n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y and c h o i c e o f h o u s i n g . of  reduce  c o n g e s t i o n , may make some a r e a s  l a n d v a l u e s , how t h e y a r e a f f e c t e d distribution  unlikely,  to i t s potential.  A complete anticipate  land.  o f t h e development  of p o t e n t i a l housing  smell of t r a f f i c  base r e l a t i v e  may b e s e v e r e -  i n property values, although  l e s s a t t r a c t i v e and p o s s i b l y  to  result  and u n d e r u s e o f good a g r i c u l t u r a l Reductions  noise,  The s o c i a l  community  The  a .new - l a r g e s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t : u p o n t h e h o u s i n g  and  demand  rates,  building  are useful that  should  be e x a m i n e d .  starts,  supply  I n d i c a t i o n s such as  vacancy  and t h e number o f d w e l l i n g s f o r s a l e  t o such an a n a l y s i s .  i n t h e case of t h e T i l b u r y  drawn from  impact  s e v e r a l a r e a s , thus  burden on t h e r e g i o n a l h o u s i n g  I t may w e l l be t h e c a s e p r o j e c t workers w i l l placing a small  be  additional  supply r a t h e r than  placing  140 a l a r g e new component t o t h e demand prices by  In D e l t a alone.  f o r land f o r housing  might he d r i v e n up  t h e i n c r e a s e d demand f o r h o u s i n g r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e  influx rises  o f new w o r k e r s t o t h e a r e a .  I f t h e c h a n g e i n demand  sharply, the costs o f the land or housing  a b o v e t h e l e v e l w h i c h many o f t h e new m i g r a n t s to a f f o r d .  The s o c i a l r e s u l t  substandard  housing.  will  may be o v e r c r o w d i n g  be a b l e  or use o f  hardship f o r r e t i r e d  o f t h e community who may h a v e f i x e d  Incomes.  d e t e r m i n e d - i n advance, .that a s e r i o u s h o u s i n g may b e n e c e s s a r y  a land banking  rise  I n c r e a s e d v a l u e s may a l s o r e s u l t i n  h i g h e r t a x e s and thus produce  develop,.it  may  I f i t c a n be shortage  f o r t h e government t o  program f o r h o u s i n g  members  might  undertake  or take other steps t o  encourage t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g a t a pace r e l a t e d t o the growth o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l reports  estate.  In other s o c i a l  i n t h e case of l e s s developed  can be c r i t i c a l , -  i f a general housing  areas, t h i s ''shortage"  I n some c o m m u n i t i e s .the p l a n s a t t e m p t  impact  factor exists.  t o encourage  some t y p e s o f _ h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s u c h a s l a r g e l o t s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s o v e r medium o r h i g h d e n s i t y h o u s i n g . may c r e a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s or can best afford for  example.  i f t h e i n f l u x o f new w o r k e r s  rental  o r mobile  I f the Tilbury  This desire  home a c c o m m o d a t i o n  Industrial  Estate develops  a l a r g e g a r m e n t f a c t o r y f o r example, a n i n d u s t r y w h i c h ditionally this  e m p l o y s women a t s a l a r i e s  may h a v e a d i f f e r e n t  effect  near  tra-  t h e minimum wage,  upon t h e h o u s i n g  market  141 than the l o c a t i o n of a l i g h t  engineering plant  proportion  and  of highly  workers. ensure  consequently  better  T h e s e f a c t o r s need t o b e - c o n s i d e r e d  that  Central  skilled  with a  shortages  M o r t g a g e and  t e c h n i c a l and  of housing Housing  c a n be  kept  financial assistance  i  paid  i n order to a  C o r p o r a t i o n may  large  to  minimum.  provide  i f t h e need  can  be  . . . .  demonstrated. In a d d i t i o n t o the housing for  types, the  f u r t h e r h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t n e e d s t o be  advance and  staged  development  or c o s t l y urban  a period  t o reduce  location  planned  the l i k e l i h o o d of  haphazard  sprawl which might r e s u l t  o f h i g h h o u s i n g demand and  minimal  i  J. - v-  and  Relocation one  may  o f t h e most s e v e r e s o c i a l r e s u l t from  families.  the forced  group o r groups a r e what s t a g e  involved  and  i n Chapter  II.  those affected  i t may  be  have t o  I n f o r m a t i o n about  s t r o n g sense  p o s s i b l e , by  the  7.  social  where t h e y a r e l o c a t e d  shown t o be a h a z a r d  i f there i s a  large  t o know t h e  t h e y a r e o r what  other aspects of those affected  In a d d i t i o n ,  of  r e l o c a t i o n 6^ people  i n the development they w i l l A l i e n a t i o n was  age  impacts  In t h i s s i t u a t i o n I t i s u s e f u l  .number o f p e o p l e a f f e c t e d , who  projects  from  planning pre-  paration.-  projects  in  and  at  relocate,  in relocation mobility,  m i g h t be  useful.  o f community among  discussing  the  142 consequences  w i t h them, t o work o u t t h e b e s t  D i a l o g u e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e t h e keys this  potentially in  great  social  solutions.  to dealing with  impact.  the case of Delta,  r e l o c a t i o n o f f a r m e r s may  be n e c e s s a r y d u e t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n d u s t r y upon t h e former farms.  Secondary  c a u s e s f o r r e l o c a t i o n may  f r o m new h i g h w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d of  h o u s i n g o r commercial  facilities.  by t h e growth  In a d d i t i o n ,  g e s t i o n o f r o a d s may n o . l o n g e r .make i t p r a c t i c a l machinery  t o some f i e l d s  f a r m i n g and. r e s u l t i n g result  of'indirect K. In  and  i n , a .type o f f o r c e d  social  .  Costs  t h e c o u r s e o f t h e development  of our lands  produce  have attempted  impacts o f t h e p r o j e c t  upon t h e w a r l o u s  development  i n teras  of the possible  o f a' l o c a l  community, a  such as the T i l b u r y  industrial  estate can  societal  they f a l l  affect  to identify  groups  costs or benefits.  d i f f e r f r o m what h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d  The  relocation- as a  pressures. [  t h e above n i n e c r i t e r i a  effects  that  t o move  r e s o u r c e s , f u t u r e o p t i o n s f o r t h e i r u s e may be r e d u c e d .  While the  con-  thus r e d u c i n g the v i a b i l i t y o f  economic  Societal  result  society  These  as s o c i a l  upon s o c i e t y as a whole. i n broad  terms,  societal  importance o f c o n s i d e r i n g the s o c i e t a l  impacts  impacts i n  The i m p a c t  f o r example  ... .  may  aesthetically. impacts  results  :  143 Is t w o - f o l d .  Firstly,  s o c i e t y -which d e p e n d such  t h e r e may b e some s e g m e n t s o f  u p o n t h e common p r o p e r t y  a s c l e a n w a t e r ; f o r example, f i s h e r m e n  industries.  Secondly,  resource,  referred  t o by e c o n o m i s t s ,  t h e e x t e r n a l c o s t s , as they a r e  i n the decision-making  and u s e d  Evaluation of the s o c i a l  activity  difficult  of the consideration w i l l i n c l u s i o n of• the s o c i e t a l :  L.  o f a p r o j e c t upon a  p r o p o s i t i o n : however, t h e a n a l y s i s  some i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e  of the societal although  impacts,  the public d i s c u s s i o n  provide the opportunity f o r the impacts  i n t h e dec i s i o n - making  legal  sense,: f a r m l a n d  C o l u m b i a , where o n l y a b o u t  be c o n s i d e r e d  scarce resource.  ducing  The  o f t h e l a n d a r e consumed by s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e .  In B r i t i s h  could  7:  Is-owned by -  t h e " p e r s o n ' i n whose name t h e t i t l e i s r e g i s t e r e d .  can  evalua-  FarmlandLoss  .In t h e s t r i c t  products  local  i n t e r m s o f income, a r e a o f r e s i d e n s e  In t h e case  t i o n may b e v e r y  and u t i l i z e d  goals o f r e g i o n a l development.  patterns provides  consequences.  be noted  to evaluate the project  impacts  i s not a simple  of t h e groups a f f e c t e d and  should  some o f o u r b r o a d e r  community  or tourist  i f a p r o j e c t consumes some common  property  against  resource  affect  a r a b l e , farmland Conversion  3% o f t h e l a n d  therefore i s a  o f farmland  surface  relatively  t o urban uses  s o c i e t y by i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o s t o f f o o d , r e -  t h e a e s t h e t i c and r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l  of our  144 g r e e n b e l t s and p o s s i b l y have, n a t i o n a l foreign  economic  exchange I s r e q u i r e d t o purchase  ef f ects . I f  Imported  In t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f any g i v e n p i e c e o f farmland well  be i m p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e t h e s e l o s s e s ,  conscious of  with  p r o p o s a l , t h e r e appears  the intent  B.C. Government  o f t h e Land i n 1973  development o f T i l b u r y people  contradiction  t o preserve farmland. may i n c u r a s o c i e t a l  Industrial  cost t o the  i tis difficult change upon  Environment to project society  A c l e a n e n v i r o n m e n t c a n b e s e e n a s a common  r e s o u r c e and i f i t i s degraded  It Is generally  a s a c o s t t o a l l members o f s o c i e t y .  society  by t h e  consumers.  consequences o f an environmental  tions,  of the  P o l l u t i o n and t h e c o s t s o f a Degraded  as a whole.  felt  In the case  t o be a  In any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n  property  b u t by b e i n g  Commission A c t passed  o f t h e province as food M.  the  i t may  o f them, b e t t e r r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e f u t u r e s h a p e  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t may b e p o s s i b l e .  Tilbury  foods.  however, s o c i a l  I n some  I m p a c t s upon s p e c i f i c  c a n be i d e n t i f i e d ,  situa-  groups i n  i n t h e n o r t h , many n a t i v e  people  live  a rail  o r p i p e l i n e may h a v e u p s e t t i n g e f f e c t s u p o n t h e e n -  vironmental p e r s depend.  by t r a p p i n g and h u n t i n g ,  balance  upon which t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e  In t h i s  produce a s o c i a l  the construction of  case an environmental  impact  upon t h e s e p e o p l e ,  or trap-  effect  would  similarly, the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a l a r g e new p u l p and p a p e r m i l l  i nthe  145 Okanagan B a s i n m i g h t d e g r a d e t h e a i r a n d w a t e r ment t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t t r e e the  tourist  be l o s t .  that  T h i s would have a n economic  similarly  i n the Praser River  be a f f e c t e d .  The d e v e l o p m e n t  I s l a n d would  likely fish  have a n e f f e c t  population.  may be u s e f u l  upon t h e  people upstream  I f n e g a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t a l changes consequences  i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by d e m o n s t r a t i n g the types of industries  the e f f l u e n t  the negative s o c i a l Analysis identification  on  The s o c i a l  I n f o r m a t i o n about these  the need t o c o n t r o l or i n d i c a t e  may  of industry  upon t h e f i s h e r m a n and t h e n a t i v e  c o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a l  present  o r impaired i n i t s  Water q u a l i t y  were t o o c c u r .  cost  f o r holidaying.  Praser River estuary Impact  would  impact upon t h e  o p e r a t o r s and a s o c i e t a l  t h e a r e a would be l o s t  attractiveness  Tilbury  w o u l d be demaged a n d  p o t e n t i a l f o r water based r e c r e a t i o n  orchardists and-resort in  fruits  environ-  permitted,  treatments required,  impacts which c o u l d o f the incidence  of the a f f e c t e d  environmental quality,  t o minimize  result.  of p o l l u t i o n , the  g r o u p s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e i n a d d i t i o n t o some  a n a l y s i s a b o u t how, when a n d where t h e g r o u p s a r e affected, The  s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d  e n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact  i n a social  impact  study.  s t u d i e s c a n be u s e d a s a b a s i s  146 for this  analysis. N.  H i s t o r i c a l and A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s of Interest \ . ;  Under the N a t i o n a l Environmental l n the U.S.  P o l i c y Act  i t i s mandatory t h a t these items be i n c l u d e d  i n the environmental  impact  statement.  The v a l u e of an  h i s t o r i c a l b u i l d i n g or an I n d i a n midden g e n e r a l l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o the s o c i e t y as a whole. b u i l d i n g or o t h e r s i t e of i»terest- may  The  l o s s of a  reduce the  . d i v e r s i t y • and-sense of c o n t i n u i t y t o a community.  In  most cases, the l o s s i s a s o c i e t a l one u n l e s s the a r e a  ;  Is of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to one component of the community such as an o l d p a r i s h church, are a l s o d i f f i c u l t  f o r example.  to e v a l u a t e , however, the  These Impacts importance  .of remainders of p a s t - e r a s are o f t e n important s o c i e t y o r groups w i t h i n i t . new  highway c o n s t r u c t i o n may  to.  I n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s or o b l i t e r a t e these f o r e v e r .  I n c l u s i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s o c i a l impact may  study  p r o v i d e the o n l y s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s of a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  which should be u t i l i z e d  i n the p l a n n i n g f o r development  but i s f r e q u e n t l y overlooked In a r a p i d l y changing  i n the name of  progress.  s o c i e t y l i n k s w i t h the past  may  be u s e f u l I n p r o v i d i n g a sense of i d e n t i t y o r c o n t i n u i t y f o r the present  i n h a b i t a n t s of an a r e a .  147 0.  N o i s e and An  e n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact s t a t e m e n t  Information about noise  Nuisance  t h a t may  the degree  result  from a proposed  to  to Illustrate  t h e number o f p e o p l e  b e a f f e c t e d w i t h i n one,  the  how  two  o r any  these people are a f f e c t e d  case of T i l b u r y ,  n u i s a n c e f a c t o r may establishment and  the degree P.  this  development.  A subjective may  be p o s s i b l e .  f o r the types of  The  i n the industry  of r e g u l a t i o n permitted.  of the losses  to society  l o c a t i o n s ^ such as T i l b u r y passive recreation  Island  such as w a l k i n g or f i s h i n g .  i t i s more d i f f i c u l t  of a  this  fact  In i t s e l f  to It is  proposed terms,  to anticipate  r e c r e a t i o n a l demands u p o n a n a r e a .  may  R i v e r bank  upon a n a r e a i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l  be r e d u c e d ,  industrial  lend themselves  to a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t s  development  of an  of lands' which  have i m p o r t a n t r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a c i t y .  will  In  be m i n i m a l .  be a u s e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n  d e v e l o p m e n t : may - r e s u l t . j f r o m . t h e u s e  however,  analysis  Recreational Opportunities One  possible  likely  number o f m i l e s  f a c t o r y may  of parameters  This  on a p o p u l a t i o n d i s -  from the source of the nuisance. of  provide  o f n u i s a n c e f r o m smoke o r  i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be s u p e r i m p o s e d t r i b u t i o n map  may  the  future  I f future options i s useful.  If  ;  public  access  t o the water i s a n important  government p o l i c y , it  impact  study  m i g h t make  possible t o design the industrial-development i n  such be  a social  goal i n  a way t h a t a f o o t p a t h a l o n g  t h e dyke o o u l d  still  maintained.  Q.  Consequences o f Not P r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e Proposed Development; t h e Concept o f S o c i a l Balance •• t  I n many c a s e s balance sider  I t i s necessary  with an environmental  the s o c i a l  impact  t o provide a  statement  Impacts o f a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  scrapping the proposal.  I t i s most common  t o con-  including t h a t changes  b r o u g h t a b o u t b y man u p o n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s a s i t seems t h a t n a t u r e ' s difficult  t o Improve upon.  have  design I s  I n our s o c i a l milieu,  there  w o u l d appear: t o b e a l a r g e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o i m p r o v e t h e distributlpn  :workV  of^wealth,- l e v e l : o f a m e n i t i e s ,  choice of V  housirig o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i f these  .^goals^-are.•iestablish^.».u\•A•.••••soc•ial• Impact - s t u d y t h e r e f o r e be l e s s study  likely  than an environmental  t o demonstrate p u r e l y negative In order  societal distribution proposed  project.  may Impact  effects.  t o ensure t h a t both  c o i n a r e d e a l t with,  :  sides o f the  i t may be u s e f u l t o l o o k a t t h e of the effects  of not pursuing a  F o r example, would a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e  149  size In  o f the proposed T i l b u r y I n d u s t r i a l Estate  such a severe r e s t r i c t i o n  industry  that  force w i l l the  opposition  to, e n t e r  the labour  with reduced o p p o r t u n i t i e s ?  of citizen's  jects  reduce the supply  case,  some a n a l y s i s  Impact  i n available land f o r  young people about  be f a c e d  result  Will  g r o u p s t o new h o u s i n g  of units available?  i s required  pro-  I n each  i n a balanced  social  s t u d y t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a "no  growth^' a l t e r n a t i v e a r e e v a l u a t e d possibilities. consequences society  o r a t l e a s t r a i s e d as  The d i s t r i b u t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e  i n t e r m s o f who i s a f f e c t e d , be i t t h e w h o l e  o r g r o u p s , w i t h i n - i t , how t h e y a r e a f f e c t e d  and  when e f f e c t s w i l l  are  located  may a s s i s t interest  be f e l t  i s required.  a n d where t h o s e  Provision of this  the organization  o f groups w i t h  affected information  vested  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n and  ultimately  promote d i a l o g u e  between t h e v a r i o u s  interests  t h a t a r e a f f e c t e d . i n d i f f e r e n t ways. The a  costs  "no g r o w t h " o p t i o n  analysis. of for  this  a r e important  I t has been s t a t e d  type o f research  decision-making  milieu.  and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e x e r c i s i n g  that  to a social  impact  the general  goal  i s t o provide  In an Increasingly  I n many c a s e s  the pursuit  better complex  information societal  of a project,  such  150 as  housing  f o r o l d e r p e o p l e may  produce  environmental  damage o r s o c i a l - c h a n g e s I n l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . s o c i a l - impact  s t u d y must p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t  the consequences of such a p r o j e c t , the  opportunity.to carry  fashion.  i t out d n  E q u a l l y important  the consequences with  A  important  of not  social  so as  t o maximize  the l e a s e  disruptive  i s t h e need t o d e a l w i t h  proceeding w i t h an  objectives  s u c h as  undertaking  the  Tilbury  Industrial Estate. I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s weight any a  subject.  social  ation  p r o v i d e d by  the e o o l o g i s t ,  o f i n f o r m a t i o n may  decision-making  prerequisite In  the  sought  but  t o d i a l o g u e and  to the  engineer and complicate the  i t must be  s e e n as a  informed  on  i n the course  Impact s t u d y a s a n a l t e r n a t i v e  This balance of  A b a l a n c e must be  t o arguments  informeconomist. process  necessary  decision-making.  preceding i n t r o d u c t o r y chapters, the hazards  making d e c i s i o n s on economist,  i n f o r m a t i o n h e a v i l y b i a s e d by  o r t h e e n g i n e e r must n o t  an  ecological  o r narrow s o c i a l b i a s .  to  be  on  stopped  s e q u e n c e s must be  ecological examined.  be d e v e l o p e d  to generate  disciplinary  information.  grounds,  of  the  be r e p l a c e d w i t h If projects  are  the s o c i a l  con-  A planning process  must  a broad  of  range  of  inter-  151 Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s In t h i s impact  chapter an outline  f o r a model  s t u d y h a s b e e n i l l u s t r a t e d . ; . The a r e a  by  a proposed  726 a c r e I n d u s t r i a l p a r k  as  it. Is presently developing.  social  affected  was d e s c r i b e d  In addition,  was made t o compare t h e g o a l s o f \ t h e p e o p l e  an  attempt  i n the  D e l t a a r e a w i t h t h e g o a l s and p o s s i b l e consequences o f the  proposed The  Impact by  study  Tilbury  rationale on t h i s  with  f o r the undertaking  proposed  a number o f f a c t s .  conflict  Firstly,  with  social  supported  the proposal appears  some c o n t r o v e r s y .  proposal c o n f l i c t s  of a  d e v e l o p m e n t was  the goals of c e r t a i n  which has caused  of  Island Industrial Estate.  groups i n t h e r e g i o n Secondly,  the  the Regional Plan In that part  t h e i n d u s t r y w o u l d be l o c a t e d on a g r i c u l t u r a l l y  land;-  Thirdly,  to  zoned  t h e l a r g e s c a l e consequences such a s v  t h e n e e d f o r a new. c r o s s i n g a s t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , a n d the; irreversibility It the  of-the project  one t h a t - s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y  once-constructed scrutinized.-  make -. -  Finally  v  l o c a t i o n o f a l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l complex i n a n a r e a  w h i c h has h i t h e r t o been a g r i c u l t u r a l and suburban would a p p e a r t o r e p r e s e n t a change i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l development. project  The s i z e  type o f  and r a t e o f development o f t h e  may a l s o p r o d u c e more s i d e e f f e c t s t h a n  c o n t i n u a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g  growth t r e n d , thus  a more  152 i n f o r m a t i o n to permit be  required to provide  negative course  social  outline  in Delta.  impact  and  funds  must n o t social the  were l i s t e d  they  m i g h t be  were a v a i l a b l e .  proceed. to  for analysis  The  and  estate  indications  evaluated, i f  list  o f 15  complete or necessary  concerns  in a l l  s t u d i e s , i t i s merely a s u g g e s t i o n as  types  people  to  of concern  the  i n the  of a proposed i n d u s t r i a l  factors  t o how  general areas  Different and  or areas  be v i e w e d a s  impact  opportunity to minimize  i f i t i s allowed  study  Various  vrere p r o v i d e d a s time  would  s e c o n d o b j e c t i v e o f t h e c h a p t e r was  the c r i t e r i a  a social  the  Impacts which c o u l d a r i s e  o f development The  in  p l a n n i n g a c t i o n In advance  to  i n t o which i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed.  of proposals,  different  conditions  would warrant v a r y i n g arrangements i n  this  guide. Once t h e impacts are  i s gathered  possible.;  decision  The  ation  the  s h o u l d be  range  a l t e r n a t i v e courses  of  of a c t i o n  p r o j e c t c o u l d - b e .stopped:..If, t h e ••>.  social  political impacts  level  are  that  such  the  that  the  scrapped.  Alternatively,  the  social  impact  to e s t a b l i s h  social  "terms o f r e f e r e n c e " f o r  p r o v i d e d by  utilized  two  I s made a t t h e  magnitude of the project  i n f o r m a t i o n about the  design,  s t a g i n g and  development  study  of the  the  can  inform-  be  proposed  153 project. social nity  T h i s c o u l d ensure  concern a r e dealt  that areas  of special  w i t h and p r o v i d e t h e opportu-  f o r p l a n s t o be d e v e l o p e d  d i s r u p t i o n does n o t exceed  i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e  the resilience  community w h i c h c o u l d r e s u l t  i f large  of the  or rapid  changes  were i m p o s e d u p o n t h e community. Also nary  s t r e s s e d was t h e n e e d f o r  r e s e a r c h and the p r o v i s i o n  of information. impacts  interdiscipli-  of a balanced  level  The need t o e v a l u a t e t h e s o c i a l  of not pursuing a project  item i s important  i f the p i t f a l l  was a l s o r a i s e d . of s o c i a l  This  Impact  s t u d i e s becoming a t o o l f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s t a t u s q u o i s t o be a v o i d e d . carried at  community.  level,  t o s e r v e t h e needs o f - t h e  Senior citizen's  c o r r i d o r s a n d new h o s p i t a l s examples.  housing,  impacts  larger  power t r a n s m i s s i o n  m i g h t be more  obvious  S o c i e t a l cost3 t o t h e whole s o c i e t y a s w e l l social  decision-making.  impacts  -  mu3t b e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e  The t r a d e - o f f s  between t h e l o o a l and  broader  i n t e r e s t s c a n b e made b a s e d  study.  The i n f o r m a t i o n , h o w e v e r ,  d e a l w i t h problems as they a r i s e , not  must b e  out i n the face o f r e a l negative s o c i a l  the l o c a l  as l o c a l  Often a project  t h e ca3e i n t h e p a s t .  upon a s o c i a l  will  Impact  be a v a i l a b l e t o  w h i c h a l l t o o f t e n was  154 The need f o r e v a l u a t i o n of p r o j e c t s a g a i n s t our s o c i a l g o a l s , a l o n g w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n of s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g important  challenges  t h a t w i l l have t o be f a c e d .  a d d i t i o n , a p l a n n i n g process aspects  of decision-making  fosters dialogue, provided  In  which d e c e n t r a l i z e s some  t o the l o c a l l e v e l which  r e c o g n i z e s v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s and  Information  w i l l provide a b e t t e r b a s i s f o r  s e l e c t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e courses adoption  are  of a c t i o n and  facilitate  t o l o c a l needs wherever p o s s i b l e and a v o i d the  o p p r e s s i o n o f l o c a l communities by massive  develop-  ments emanating from a d i s t a n t government agency.  155 Footnotes ^-Greater V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (G.V.R.D.), P o p u l a t i o n F o r e c a s t , J a n u a r y , 1973, V a n c o u v e r , (D.B.S. f i g u r e s ) . ; . 2  " R e g l o n a l Index o f B r i t i s h Columbia", Department o f I n d u s t r y , T r a d e a n d Commerce, V i c t o r i a , B.C., J a n u a r y , 1966, p.187.  3Ibid.,  p.188.  •^Loo.cit. ,  5ibid.,'• p.256. 6  Ibld.,  7Ibid., 8  p.188. p. 189.  0 f f l c l a l R e g i o n a l P l a n , Lower M a i n l a n d B o a r d . New W e s t m i n s t e r , 1966.  Regional  Planning  9press R e l e a s e , November 26, 1973. lOlbid., p . l . 1 1 I b i d . , p.6. 1.A 2  Report  on L i v a b l l l t y ,  13Press R e l e a s e , l 7ancouver k  November  November.. R e p o r t .  1972. p. 27.  26, 1973." P'4.  S u n . December 29, 1973*  l5Press Release,  op.olt., p . l .  l^Ibid.,pp.5-6. 17Vancouver i 8  S u n , December 11, 1973•  G r e a t e r Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , F e b r u a r y , 1974, p . l .  19"Position  1974.  Newsletter,.  Paper", D e l t a Farmer's I n s t i t u t e ,  J u n e 29,  156 20  2:  i n t e r v i e w , August  5. 1974.  --Press Release, November 26, 1973. P-3-  2 2  2  Telephone  I b i d . , p.5.  3 l b l d . , pp. 5-6.  24-ibid., p.4. 2  5 T h i s i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as the November Report. The f o l l o w i n g statements were gleaned from t h e a n a l y s i s of over 50 p u b l i c meetings i n t h e G.V.R.D. "A Report on L I v a b i l i t y , G.V.R.D., P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver, November, 1972, pp.27-28. M  2  ^N.H. Richardson, L.M.R.P.B., p.27.  2 7 o f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l Plan,L.M.R.P.B., 1966, p.32. 28JSJ. Pearson, " P r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Development Study," Vancouver, 1972. 29see: "Report o f the Environmental Management and P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P o l i c y Committee", G.V.R.D., October, 1973« 30ibid., p.30. 3 l b l d . , p.27. 1  32ibtd., p.3933pa-con, Smith and Gram A g r i c u l t u r a l C o n s u l t a n t s . , " V i a b i l i t y o f Farming Study: Phase I", f o r G.V.R.D., September, 1973* 3 4 i M d . , p.61. 35ibid., p.3. 36ibid., p.6. 37ibid,, p.62. 38Natlonal and i n t e r n a t i o n a l marketing p r a c t i c e s f o r v e g e t a b l e s and o t h e r products a g a i n s t which D e l t a farmers must compete may a l s o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e c l i n e i n market gardening.  157 3 9 p e l t a L i v a b l l l t y Study, E i k o s C o n s u l t a n t s , B.C., February, 1974.  ^°Ibld.  Vancouver,  158 V.  CONCLUSIONS Summary I n t h l 3 study  the r a t i o n a l e f o r p u r s u i n g  s o c i a l Impact s t u d i e s o f t h e consequences o f l a r g e development p r o j e c t s has been i n v e s t i g a t e d .  I n what  B o u l d i n g has c a l l e d t h e "spaceship economy" o f t h e f u t u r e man must apply h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e t o ensure t h a t continued  economic growth takes p l a c e w i t h i n s o c i a l  parameters.  I n t h e past, i t was assumed t h a t economic  growth i n i t s e l f  was l i k e l y t o reduce human misery,  p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the poor and promote development o f a sound economic and s o c i a l community. S c i e n t i s t s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s have r e a l i z e d i n recent years, that unregulated  resource e x t r a c t i o n and  i n d u s t r i a l growth must have an optimum l i m i t which t h e e a r t h would have a reduced support  life.  These understandings  demands f o r environmental  capacity t o have s t i m u l a t e d  impact s t u d i e s o f both  l a r g e and s m a l l development p r o p o s a l s . Environmental  after  The N a t i o n a l  P o l i c y A c t o f 1970 passed by the United  S t a t e s Congress r e f l e c t s t h i s awareness.  Economic  growth may be i n c r e a s i n g l y s u b j e c t t o c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s as man c o n s i d e r s t h e p o s s i b l e consequences of h i s actions.  The new t a s k Kahn suggests  Is one o f I n t r o -  d u c i n g a s o c i a l component Into the on-going p l a n n i n g . ^  159 To produced a  some e x t e n t  "backlash"  e v o l u t i o n of the this.  e n v i r o n m e n t a l awareness  against  economic g r o w t h .  "no-growth" e t h i c i s an  Unfortunately,  has The  example  this attitude i s frequently  f o u n d - a m o n g some e l e m e n t s o f t h e community who, t h e i r b a s i c housing, met,  employment and  a d v o c a t e more a m e n i t i e s  ments a n d  u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s may  active  and  t o day  less  eloquent  p r o g r a m s and  Firstly,  the assumption estate w i l l  critically  examined  the various  the ning  cleaner  environments,  will  th®  environ-  Poor people  often  social  that simple  less  impact--of  development of  o f -the g o a l s - a n d In t h i s  made w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e  be  be  way  better,  social  significant.  of the  an  objectives  values  f o r such undertakings,  could  needed.  incorporated  our  be  If  where plan-  f u t u r e s h a p e o f human  i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements capable goals  in  the  b e n e f i t a community must  concerned about the  t r a n s l a t i n g the realities  are  needs  i n environmental debates.  in light  d i s r u p t i o n to l i f e  must be  l i v i n g and  terms of r e f e r e n c e  I s t o be  social  concerned with  interests involved. be  having  development p r o j e c t s Is- u r g e n t .  industrial  d e c i s i o n s can  be  need t o e v a l u a t e  planning  In the  such as  simply  of day  The  of  other  more r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s .  struggles  of  community i n t o  Large development  of  concrete proposals  i n t o the m i l i e u of the a f f e c t e d  l6o community w i t h o u t  e x c e e d i n g It's r e s i l i e n c e  t o a b s o r b change. s h o u l d be viewed  Perhaps  or capacity  negative social  Impacts  a s e f f l u e n t s which, d e g r a d e  the eviron-  merit a n d must b e a v o i d e d o r - a d e q u a t e l y t r e a t e d . I n some a r e a s , u n c o n t r o l l e d in  rapid  shock"  changes  t o e x i s t i n g communities.  has produced  and  social  has  resulted  groups  such as the S i e r r a Club.  r a t e s a r e t o be adopted  I f reduced  information w i l l  be r e q u i r e d incidence  growth r a t a .  Social  trend  heavy w e i g h t i n g o f d e c i s i o n  relating future,  s o c i a l a s w e l l as economic  An  relate  t o and l i v e  the apparent on f a c t o r s  Increasingly environments  their  important area of t h i s  t y p e s o f s o c i a l and economic  which  lives i n .  study d e a l t  water  r e s o u r c e s a n d r e g i o n a l economic a s s i s t a n c e i n Chapters  with  impact r e s e a r c h  has been undertaken  reviews  i nthe must be  which  The  i n fields  inter-  o f the reduced  i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e communities  people a c t u a l l y  various  growth  to anticipate  i n f o r m a t i o n may r e d u c e  t o environmental q u a l i t y .  considered  a d v o c a t e d by  as p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s ,  impacts and economic  towards  "future  I n some c a s e s , t h e s e n t i m e n t  i n t h e "no-growth" approach  disciplinary  This  among p e o p l e a l a c k o f h i s t o r i c a l  continuity.  the s o c i a l  growth has r e s u l t e d  such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , programs.  I I and I I I s e r v e d t o i l l u s t r a t e  some o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s f o r u n d e r t a k i n g s o c i a l  impact  161 analysis.  A theme p r e s e n t  indicated of any  diverse  concerns f o r the s o c i a l  the i n d i v i d u a l projects.  future planning The  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  future.  solution.  o r dealt with i n  process. researchers  provision of information  enable decision-makers t o solve and  alone  will  problems i n t h e present  T h i s does n o t a p p e a r t o be a n a d e q u a t e I t i s similar to the likelihood  proposals  lacked  e f f e c t s which had  a s s u m p t i o n made b y many  a p p e a r s t o be t h a t  consequences  Most o f t h e s t u d i e s  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f how t h e a d v e r s e  been i d e n t i f i e d ' c o u l d any  I n many o f t h e s t u d i e s  being  stated without  of planning  Implemented when t h e p r o b l e m i s m e r e l y o f f e r i n g s o l u t i o n s a n d methods o f  implementing the o b j e c t i v e s . In t h e o u t l i n e case study o f the p o s s i b l e social  Impacts o f t h e proposed T i l b u r y I s l a n d I n d u s t r i a l  Estate,  there  coming.  This  an  remains a major i m p e r f e c t i o n Involves  stages  Itself  certainty are  from a p r o j e c t c a n r e s u l t  s o c i a l consequences occur  and a r e spread  to analyse in  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f tlme.  e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact  or l e s s d i r e c t l y ,  or short-  over time.  While more  a t various  A study which  or anticipate the s o c i a l  J  attempts  impacts o f a change  may p r o d u c e s o c i a l c h a n g e s b y a f f e c t i n g u n about t h e f u t u r e  motivated  t o accept  o r the degree t o which  or reject  the change.  people  162 Social investigated  i m p a c t s o f a p r o j e c t c a n n o t be  or analysed entirely  p r o j e c t because  Impacts  I n advance  are the result  a c t i o n between p e o p l e and t h e i r  of a  of the i n t e r -  environment  over time.  C h a n g e s may o c c u r when t h e l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n b e g i n s , when t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t o f a p r o j e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n and development during  process,  o f t h e changes  or checklist  t o provide a basis  problems  ation will'improve improve  the f i n a l  f o r some t y p e o f  f o r l a t e r actions as the  c a n be made a b o u t  analysis.  upon t h i s  reason that  reasons objectives.  i s that better s o c i a l  inform-  f o r dec13ion-making and  t h e range, o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s u t i l i z e d i n S o c i a l a c c o u n t i n g and systems  assumption.  t h e one i n d i c a t e d  that  improved  of the p o s s i b l e range of  the basis  information r e t r i e v a l  is  may b e  f a i l u r e .of p l a n n e r s t o a c h i e v e t h e i r  One i m p o r t a n t a s s u m p t i o n  and  With t h e I n t r o -  arise. Many a s s u m p t i o n s  heavily  later  Into the planning  The n e c e s s i t y r e m a i n s  prior analysis effects  participation  the q u a l i t y  positively.  thus  or years  the operation of the f a c i l i t y .  duction of citizen  for-the  period  i s made, d u r i n g t h e  by t h i s  planners f a i l  approaches A second analysis  depend assumption,  states  to achieve their  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements  complex  that the  objectives  through  which  163 i n f o r m a t i o n i s processed  or Implemented are found wanting.  U n c e r t a i n t y must be r e c o g n i z e d as a g i v e n i n the a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l consequences of p l a n n i n g . While i t i s u s e f u l t o a n a l y s e from a t e c h n i c a l framework, the areas o f community l i f e which may  change as a  r e s u l t of a l a r g e development, t h i s e v a l u a t i o n can n e v e r be complete In our present I t may  "turbulent environment" . 2  be f r u i t l e s s t o expend energy o n l y  upon methods t o e v a l u a t e or a n t i c i p a t e the s o c i a l Impacts of  planning d e c i s i o n s .  The s o l u t i o n t o the  produced by n e g a t i v e s o c i a l Impacts may improving  difficulties  not l i e i n  the p l a n n i n g process as much as  expanding  the process t o i n c l u d e a broader range of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and by a s k i n g d i f f e r e n t types of q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o actual social  policy.  Conclusions The c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s a n a l y s i s i s t h a t t h e main shortcoming planning process. utilized  of p l a n n i n g Is the nature of the I n f o r m a t i o n i s v i t a l but I t must be  r a t h e r than b e i n g seen as an end i n i t s e l f .  I n the p a s t , p l a n n e r s were a b l e t o gather and  manipulate  i n f o r m a t i o n t o produce Master Plans f o r communities t o g u i d e l a n d use.  Today, I t has been g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d  t h a t t h i 3 Is no l o n g e r an adequate approach.  Situations  164 change r a p i d l y hence f u t u r e o p t i o n s must be kept open and broader s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be i n c l u d e d . P l a n 3 which do not i n c l u d e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by those a f f e c t e d a r e o f t e n r e j e c t e d by r a p i d l y o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i s t groups.--*  The i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y and  d i v e r s i t y o f I n t e r e s t s makes I t d i f f i c u l t  t o prepare  c o n c r e t e p l a n s and i t appears t h a t t h i 3 i n d i c a t e s t h e importance o f the process through which p l a n n i n g takes place i n society. In  r e l a t i n g t h i s t o s o c i a l impacts, i t can  been seen t h a t consequences  which may be f e l t  community may not o n l y r e s u l t from the p r o j e c t  ina itself  but a l s o from t h e manner i n which the p r o j e c t I s handle  by the government I n v o l v e d .  F o r example, i f  people i n a c o u n t r y a r e f o r c e d t o r e l o c a t e as a r e s u l t of  a dam c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t , the s o c i a l consequences .;  may be worse i f the p r o j e c t i s not e x p l a i n e d i n advance and time i s not p e r m i t t e d t o re-educate people about life  i n a new and changing economic m i l i e u . S i m i l a r l y , i n an urban s i t u a t i o n the mere  p r o c e s s o f u n d e r t a k i n g an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  social  impact study may p r o v i d e people w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about a p r o j e c t and t h i s may a l l o w the l e a d time f o r people to  adapt as i n d i v i d u a l s by e i t h e r a c c l i m a t i z i n g t o an  i d e a , moving away, o r working t o modify the impacts  165 u p o n t h e i r community.  The  breathing  the d e o i s l o n to undertake a reduce the  suddenness of the  o v e r t i m e i n s u c h a way n i t y . t o absorb-change The social the  that  Is not  information  impact  study  e v a l u a t i o n and  criteria  impact  impacts and  study  later  i n the  Cognisance of  the  g e n e r a t e d by  the  be  preliminary  incomplete  varying  affected  is  criteria,  intensities  types  flexible  of  fixed  with  supply  become more i m p o r t a n t .  r e v o l u t i o n can  provide  inadequate.  development of an society  process. projects  processes  o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by  increasing population,  of resources, To  continue  planning  t o assume  t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s which have p r o p e l l e d our  needs I s  and  and  those  necessary.  In a world relatively  of  development  that d i f f e r e n t  require different  possibly  and  but  various  a basis for negotiation  planning  fact  commu-  exceeded.  w i l l - - a s s i s t - t h e subsequent g a t h e r i n g  dialogue  them  of the  p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of the  provide  by  can  spread  the-capacity  would i n e v i t a b l y  i n f o r m a t i o n and  will  social  time p e r m i t t e d  d e c i s i o n s would a s s i s t o f how  that scientific  planners  by  s o c i e t y works.  Impacts o f improving This  or  the  oomputor-based model  predict social  a  must  problems  I t m i g h t be a r g u e d t h a t  elaborate  which c o u l d  understanding  solutions to s o c i a l  and  of  planning their  approach  166  would emulate the the  physical  sciences  their variables t h a n i n the  methods o f  can  social  of  i n the  process of  possible  a l l the  perfected  however, f o r t h e  physical  recognize  i t might This  simple reason that but  the  s y s t e m s do  e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s but  is  develop  over social  e x h i b i t cause  r e s u l t from  I n d u s t r y c a n n o t be  s o c i e t y an  e f f e c t , f o r the  place.  The  action  over  changes are  the  society  c a u s e and  existed  people.  the  i n the  first  r e s u l t of complex i n t e r -  time.  The two  looked at as-a  v  complex  i n t e r a c t i o n s between I n s t i t u t i o n s , government and An  not  social  fact that  not  rather  society  s o c i a l impacts  design.  occur instantaneously  unlike  insight  important.  f o r example,  Thl3;; p o i n t - i s s u p p o r t e d by  systems, and  project  to develop a  information  in-an-ever changing  to anticipate  be  tlmei  social  must  p l a n n i n g becomes v e r y  a water development  not  precision  technical  In a d d i t i o n , t h e y  of  I m p a c t s do  of  f o r i t provides useful  planning takes place  possible,  greater  consideration  t h e i r work, must u t i l i z e  Were i t p o s s i b l e  ln  relationships^and  I d e n t i f i e d with  I n t o complex systems.  where t h e  successful  sciences.  when i t i s a v a i l a b l e  that  so  where c a u s a t i v e  be  Planners, impacts  research  p r i o r s o c i a l impact s t u d y i s u s e f u l  purposes d e s p i t e  i t s incompleteness.  Firstly,  for as  a  167 comparison goals  b e t w e e n t h e g o a l s o f the p r o j e c t and  o f the people a f f e c t e d  q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) p r o v i d e s an the in  impacts a r e l i k e l y goals,  are  the l e s s  likely  t o be  ( w h i c h c a n be s u r m i s e d by-  i n d i c a t i o n o f how  t o be.  likely  towards  the  The  significant  greater the  difference  o r amenable t h o s e a f f e c t e d the p r o j e c t .  Secondly,  the  Identification  o f t h e a r e a s o f c o n c e r n peoposed  in  Chapter  provoke  con-  IV c a n  tribution  to the p r i o r  participation will gleaned  p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n o f and impact  report.  In addition,  p r o m o t e d i a l o g u e and  i f the experiences  from the r e l o c a t i o n s t u d i e s are a p p l i c a b l e ,  reduce the a l i e n a t i o n a l o n e may  justify  of the people a f f e c t e d .  the s o c i a l  impact  This  study i f crime  s i m i l a r a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r i s aggravated by Increase i n the a l i e n a t i o n Another b a r r i e r prior  social  situations.  of people  studies  No  communities  of development,  i s the v a r i a b i l i t y  A  h i s t o r i c a l backgrounds  format t o study s o c i a l  impacts  of  and  -  likely  on v a r i o u s  a r e composed  i n d i v i d u a l s with v a r i o u s mixtures of c l a s s , c u l t u r a l and  adequate of  or regions are  f o r communities  and  community.  t o c o n t a i n p e o p l e w i t h homogeneous a t t i t u d e s types  fact  an  to' t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f  impact two  in a  will  of  religious,  aspirations.  alternative  l o c a t i o n s f o r a power p l a n t w o u l d h a v e t o be a d a p t i v e r a t h e r than p r e s c r i b e d .  This  f o r m a t w o u l d be  better  163  suited  to an adaptable  scribed  social  literature ficant  planning process  Impact  would not  study. indicate  agreement a t t h i s  information should social  The  be  than a  review  of  on what t y p e s  i n the world  suafe-a r a t e i n i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s t h a t  may  change i s o c c u r l n g planners  mechanisms t o d e a l w i t h u n c e r t a i n t y .  T h e s e mechanisms s h o u l d be  negative  prior  It  at  Master Plans  Certainly,  today,  signi-  future  proposed p r o j e c t .  possible that  pursued  of  provided r e g a r d i n g the  be  must d e v e l o p  the  t h a t t h e r e i s any  time  consequences of a  pre-  more e f f e c t i v e  than  i f they  o r Advance S o c i a l Impact  the B r i t i s h  system f o r minimizing  s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r New  Studies. the  Towns p r o g r a m  appears t o p r o v i d e a workable p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d answer t o t h e need t o i n c l u d e s o c i a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the  c o n s t r u e t i o n : o f ••-•••new: c o m m u n i t i e s , ^•^"•^^^•••-N;.-.---  The  Process This  r a t h e r than 1.  of Planning f o r S o c i a l planning  a product  process  and  ••••  Impacts  must d e v e l o p  a  capability  must meet s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a *  I t must c o n s i d e r t h e s o c i a l g o a l s p r o p o s a l and  2.  V.  compare t h e s e w i t h  and  o b j e c t i v e s of the a f f e c t e d  The  process  must p r o v i d e t h e  r e j e c t i n g the  of  the  a goals  communities.  o p t i o n of  proposal e n t i r e l y  i f i t  ••.  169  appears  to I n d i c a t e that  sufficient  d i s r u p t i o n t o people w i l l r e s u l t . it  i s a l l o w e d t o proceed, the  If  social  parameters w i t h i n which i t i s a l l o w e d "to c o n t i n u e must be e v o l v e d .  T h i s must  a l s o Insure the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of s o c i a l g o a l s i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the p r o p o s a l i n such a way  t h a t s o c i a l matters  can  be I n c l u d e d I n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a l o n g w i t h economic, environmental technical f e a s i b i l i t y The  and  of the p r o j e c t .  process should promote c i t i z e n  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the areas of c o n c e r n i d e n t i f i e d i n the  prior  impact study as w e l l as p e r m i t t i n g them to b e n e f i t from h e l p i n g t o shape the . f u t u r e o f t h e i r community.  If a l l  i n t e r e s t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , a balanced d e c i s i o n i s p o s s i b l e as the d i s t r i b u t i v e e f f e c t s of a p r o j e c t upon a community can be c l a r i f i e d by p u b l i c  discussion.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l provide a platform f o r d i a l o g u e , which may promise;  promote com-v  the p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n of i n f o r m -  a t i o n about a proposed  project  will  170 p r o v i d e the time necessary f o r people to adapt, a c c l i m a t i z e or remove thems e l v e s from the a r e a .  By d e m o c r a t i z i n g  the process - p e r m i t t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l groups a t every s t a t e —  the  p o t e n t i a l f o r a l i e n a t i o n w i l l be and t h e community's g o a l s and w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the end  reduced  objectives product.  An example of a s i m i l a r process i s p r o v i d e d by the a n a l y s i s of the B r i t i s h New  Town case study  which i s reviewed  Of the s t u d i e s and  approaches  i n Chapter I I I .  t o s o c i a l Impacts i n v e s t i g a t e s i n t h i s  a n a l y s i s , o n l y t h e B r i t i s h approach  appears  t o recog-  n i z e and a c t upon the need f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  flexibility  and on-going p l a n n i n g as a s o c i a l development process. One  c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h i s process may  to t h e o r i g i n a l Utopian o r i g i n s of the New Britain.  be  attributable  Towns i n Great  Perhaps i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r planners t o  r e c o n s i d e r the broader o b j e c t i v e s of t h e i r work w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the m i l i e u i n which they work.  changing  I n t h i s country t h e r e i s no  c o u n t e r p a r t t o the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r i n the  New  Towns o f B r i t a i n whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o g i v e a d v i c e on a range of matters w i t h s o c i a l oontent, as a member of a p l a n n i n g team.  Thl3 work I n v o l v e s a d v i s i n g on the  171 s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l p l a n and i t s preparation, attempting new  t o a s s i s t i n the s t a r t i n g of  groups and a s s o c i a t i o n and  encouraging  between d i f f e r e n t s t a t u t o r y and v o l u n t a r y I f planners  co-operation bodies.*^  are t o s e r v e the people In a  manner which w i l l promote the c a r e f u l management of growth and  the development of v i a b l e communities,  broad changes i n the p l a n n i n g C l o s e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  process  are  required.  s o c i a l t o l e r a n c e s have been  produced In p a r t by the f a i l u r e t o i n c l u d e In d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , the diseconomies of past growth. and  Planners  must d e a l w i t h these  the  economic  considerations  promote a d i a l o g u e between d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s  t o ensure t h a t problem a r e a s a r e not only I d e n t i f i e d but t h a t s o c i a l mechanisms are evolved the d i s c o v e r y of the  b e 3 t  to promote  paths through u n c e r t a i n t y .  172 Further  Research  In  this  study a range  have been e x p l o r e d . been  o f I s s u e s and  A number o f c o n c e r n s  The social  Related  q u e s t i o n o f who  Impact s t u d y h a s  have  to t h i s  the subsequent To for a be  impact  studies.  should fund or  undertake  n o t be a d e q u a t e l y d e a l t  i s the problem  arrangements w i t h i n which the  may  that  identified could possibly assist future-planning  programs w h i c h ' i n c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l  a  ideas  of the prior  with.  institutional  impact  study  and  p l a n n i n g program s h o u l d take p l a c e .  obtain a better understanding  of the  need  p l a n n i n g process t o d e a l with s o c i a l impacts, i t u s e f u l t o t r a c e out  o v e r time  s t u d i e s which have been done.  some s o c i a l  Social  impact  have been done i n t h i s  P r o v i n c e on hydro  developments a f f e c t i n g  I n d i a n people, and  expansion  of the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Assuming that important w o u l d be  these  prior  studies i n fact  i n f o r m a t i o n about  I n t e r e s t i n g t o s t u d y how,  ation affected  the  weak l i n k s  i n the process  w o u l d be v a l u a b l e .  on  From t h i s  the  Airport.  generated  the  impacts, i t  o v e r time  Identification  through  studies  projects,  p l a n n i n g , Implementation  ment s t a g e s o f t h e p r o j e c t s .  impact  empericle  this and  Inform-  develop-  of  the  research  type of a n a l y s i s  a  b e t t e r m o d e l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d  for  173 use  i n these  cases.  Citizen  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n large  p r o j e c t s was  frequently  roles  a n t i c i p a t i o n of s o c i a l  i n the  subsequent p l a n n i n g  r i a s e d as  process.  looked  a t i n any  may  p r a c t i c a b l e w o u l d be  be  different pation  so  This  impacts and  t o compare  I t may  be  i t i s not  easily  be which  several  r o l e of  partici-  found t h a t  minimize d i s r u p t i o n or delays  that  of  the  issue could  number o f ways, however, one  i n each c a s e .  badly  h a v i n g a number  s t u d i e s and,examine the  pation helps  development  particithe  incorporated  process  in  the  planning. Past by  p r o j e c t case studies  l a r g e developments could,  questionnaire,  d e t e r m i n e the  actually affected. available,  i t w o u l d be  anticipated felt  by  This  validity  of  affected  through Interviews impacts upon  and  those  impact s t u d i e s  i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare  consequences with the  people.  i n t o the  If social  of areas  were the  actual results  would p r o v i d e  valuable  insights  e x i s t i n g methods o f s o c i a l  impact  research. It similar be  it-is  projects  p o s s i b l e -to i d e n t i f y a  series  of  s u c h a s h i g h w a y s o r dams. I t w o u l d  u s e f u l t o compare t h e  t o d e t e r m i n e which had  consequences of each  negative  social  project  Impacts,  which  17k p o s i t i v e , and  to e x p l o r e the reasons  f o r the  variations.  A review of the whole i s s u e of s o c i a l  develop-  ment programs I n s o f a r as they r e l a t e to r e s o u r c e development p r o j e c t s may  reduce the s o c i a l c o s t s of  Canada's n o r t h e r n development programs which have, i n the past f r e q u e n t l y c r e a t e d h a r d s h i p upon n o r t h e r n r e s i d e n t s and n a t i v e peoples. Ultimately, b e t t e r procedures  i t may  he p o s s i b l e t o  f o r undertaking  impact  s t u d i e s and  i n c o r p o r a t i n g them i n a v a r i e t y of p l a n n i n g each one b e i n g adapted t o d i f f e r e n t  identify  processes,  situations.  175 Footnotes  A l f r e d J.  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