UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A survey of measures and screening techniques used with school beginners in British Columbia, with an… Souster, Keith Harland 1972

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Cl A S U R V E Y OF M E A S U R E S A N D S C R E E N I N G T E C H N I Q U E S U S E D W I T H SCHOOL B E G I N N E R S I N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A , W I T H A N A N A L Y S I S OF T H E I R ORAL L A N G U A G E C O M P O N E N T S b y K e i t h H a r l a n d S o u s t e r B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 0 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L . F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF E D U C A T I O N i n t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date i ABSTRACT A growing body of research indicates that competence in oral language is a critical factor in reading and language success. This study sought, by examining screening procedures in use, to determine the extent to which oral language competence is assessed when children begin school in British Columbia. Following the identification of the measures employed, the study attempted further to determine what oral language factors were assessed by these measures and what proportion of beginners were assessed, generally and specifically, in oral language proficiency. A questionnaire was devised for circulation to the seventy-seven school districts of the province. To avoid bias in favour of oral language, the questionnaire asked districts to identify the total range of measures! and techniques employed to screen possible physical and learning disabilities. Replies were received from 82% of the districts, representative of 87% of the provincial enrolment of grade one pupils. Summaries were compiled of the proportions of beginners screened for possible physical and learning disabilities. The means by which the assess-ments were conducted were also reported. The most commonly used tests of mental ability, readiness and other abilities were analyzed in terms of the principal abilities which each measure. The survey showed that on the basis of tests of mental ability, recep-tive oral language ratings may be derived for approximately 7% of the reported population. A further 1% were assessed in terms of expressive oral language. Readiness and other tests provided receptive oral language assessments for an estimated 3670 of the beginners. None of the most commonly used readiness tests measured expressive oral language. The assessments of oral language were based on a l i m i t e d range of a b i l i t i e s , confined to vocabulary and paragraph comprehension, the a b i l i t y to follow d i r e c t i o n s , and the d e f i n i t i o n of words. The inves t i g a t o r con-cluded that the study uncovered no comprehensive instruments of oral language measurement i n use i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The major recommendation emerging from the study i s that there i s a clear need for the development of a comprehensive oral language instrument. On the basis of the c i t e d research, several of the more e f f e c t i v e measures of o r a l language were suggested as desirable components of such an i n s t r u -ment . i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS I. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY AND DEFINITION OF TERMS 1 Purpose of the Study 3 Data Collecting Process 3 Definition of Terms 4 Organization of the Study 6 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 7 Relationship of Oral Language to Success in Reading and Other Language Skills 7 Need for Early Identification of Oral Language Disabilities 14 Evidence Arising from Successful Compensatory Programmes 16 Measurable Qualities of Oral Language 19 Quantity of Utterances 19 Range of Vocabulary 22 Classification of Vocabulary 23 Length and Quantity of Sentences 26 Usage and Grammar 28 Variety and Complexity of Language Patterns 30 Use of Conjunctions 32 Use of Tentativeness 35 Freedom from Language Tangles 36 Summary of Measurable Qualities of Oral Language 37 Summary of Chapter 39 III. PROCEDURE 42 Development of Questionnaire 42 iv . Design of Questionnaire 43 IV. PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF THE DATA 47 Treatment of the Data 47 Response to District Screening Measures Questionnaire by District and Enrolment 49 Examinations of General Health 50 Examinations of Vision 55 Examinations of Hearing 56 Examinations of Speech 58 Examinations of Mental Ability 60 Measures Employed to Assess Mental Ability 63 Principal Abilities Assessed and Criterion Tasks Employed 64 Oral Language Assessments and Ratings Derived from Tests of Mental Ability 70 Examinations of Readiness, Vocabulary and Language, Perception, Motor Coordination and Related Abilities 73 Measures Employed to Assess Readiness and Other Abilities 76 Principal Abilities Assessed and Criterion Tasks Employed 80 Locally-developed Measures of Readiness and Other Abilities 83 Oral Language Assessments and Ratings Derived from Tests of Readiness and Other Abilities 85 Summary of Chapter 88 V. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS 90 Limitations of the Study 91 Summary of Conclusions 93 Assessments for Possible Physical Disabilities 93 v. Assessments for Possible Learning Disabilities 95 Summary of Findings Concerning Oral Language 98 Assessment Instruments in Use 98 Skills Measured by Oral Language Components 99 Proportion of Beginners Assessed with Tests Containing an Oral Language Component 100 Proportion of Beginners Receiving a Separate Oral Language Rating 101 Recommendations 102 Assessments of Possible Physical Disabilities 102 Assessments of Possible Learning Disabilities 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY 106 APPENDICES 111 Appendix I 111 Appendix II 119 Appendix III 126 Appendix IV 140 LIST OF TABLES vi . Table 1 Measurable Qualities of Oral Language and Investigators Associated With Each 38 Table 2 Response to the Questionnaire by School Districts 49 Table 3 Kindergarten and Grade One Net Enrolment of School Districts at June 30, 1971 50 Table 4 Examinations of General Health 51 Table 5 Personnel Responsible for Examinations (General Health) 52 Table 6 Scheduling of Examinations of Health, Vision, Hearing and Speech by School Districts 54 Table 7 Personnel Initiating Referrals for Examinations of Health, Vision, Hearing and Speech 54 Table 8 Examinations of Vision 55 Table 9 Personnel Responsible for Examinations (Vision) 56 Table 10 Examinations of Hearing 57 Table 11 Personnel Responsible for Examinations (Hearing) 58 Table 12 Examinations of Speech 59 Table 13 Personnel Responsible for Examinations (Speech) 60 Table 14 Examinations of Mental Ability 61 Table 15 Scheduling of Examinations of Mental Ability 62 Table 16 Personnel Initiating Referral Testing (Mental Ability) 63 Table 17 Measures Employed to Assess Mental Ability 65 Table 18 Measures of Mental Ability: Principal Abilities Assessed and Criterion Tasks Employed 69 Table 19 Oral Language Measurement and Separate Oral Language Ratings of Tests of Mental Ability 72 Table 20 Examinations of Readiness, Vocabulary and Language, Perception, Motor-coordination and Related Abilities 74 Table 21 Scheduling of Examinations of Readiness and Other Abilities 75 V l l Table 22 Personnel Initiating Referral Action (Readiness) 75 Table 23 Measures Employed to Assess Readiness, Vocabulary and Language, Perception, Motor-coordination and Related Abilities 76 Table 24 Measures of Readiness: Principal Abilities Assessed and Criterion Tasks Employed 82 Table 25 Locally-developed Measures of Readiness, Vocabulary and Language Perception and Related Abilities: Principal Abilities Assessed and Criterion Tasks Employed 84 Table 26 Oral Language Measurement and Separate Oral Language Ratings of Tests of Readiness and Other Abilities 87 Table 27 Beginners Assessed Through Tests Having an Oral Language Component 100 Table 28 Beginners Assessed Through Tests Providing Separate Language Ratings 101 v i i i . LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Typical Cell From the Possible Physical Disabilities Section 44 Figure 2 Typical Cell From the Possible Learning Disabilities Section 45 i x . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express h i s appreciation to Dr. Denis Rodgers for his constructive and f r i e n d l y guidance throughout this study and to Dr. Julianne Conry and Mr. Robert Conry for t h e i r assistance as members of the committee. The author i s indebted to his colleagues throughout the province who were generous of th e i r time i n responding to the survey questionnaire. X. DEDICATION To my wife Evelyn CHAPTER I PURPOSE OF THE STUDY AND DEFINITION OF TERMS Oracy is the basis of literacy. There is l i t t l e point in trying to teach children to read i f they lack certain basic skills. We need remedial oracy rather than remedial reading classes. (Wilkinson, 1969, p. 114) One of today's major educational problems is that a considerable pro-portion of children are either unready or unable to meet the demands which are placed on them when they" begin school. Estimates throughout the literature indicate that from ten to thirty percent of beginners experience difficulty in learning to read and hence are destined to have difficulties in other aspects of learning. A variety of factors - intellectual ability, socio-economic status, ethnic background, perceptuo-motor skills and physical and emotional condition - have been identified as contributing to the prob-lem. Another factor - oral language competence - has long been assumed to be interdependent and interrelated with reading ability and language skills. Certain inherent differences notwithstanding, the obvious similarities between speech and reading, in structure, in content and in process, readily suggest that conclusion. A number of studies, largely conducted over the past decade, have explored many facets of oral language in attempts to determine the relation-ship between oral language and various other skills and future academic success. There now exists a sizeable body of research which indicates that competence in oral language is a critical factor in reading success (Fries, 1962; Strickland, 1962; Loban, 1963; de Hirsch, 1966, and others). There are indications that neither maturation nor a broad, unfocused educational programme will act to overcome language deficiencies or disabilities (Loban, 1966a; de Hirsch, 1966; Mickelson & Galloway, 1969). This research stresses the necessity of attention to language problems at the earliest possible time. There is also evidence that carefully planned educational programmes which concentrate on oral language skills can effect the acqui-sition of the necessary competencies (Hodges et al, 1967; Bereiter & Engelmann, 1966; Clasen et al, 1969; McConnell & Horton, 1969, and others). The inferences and conclusions of these studies are of consequence to educators and, i f translated into educational practice, promise to reduce the incidence of learning disabilities. Petty (1968), however, has stated that while the relationship of oral language to academic success has been recognized for some years, this knowledge was not reflected in instructional emphasis in American schools. There are a number of cultural groups in British Columbia which might be expected to have oral language problems. Children from non-English speaking families, for example, as well as native Indian children may very well begin school with varying degrees of disabilities in the use of standard English. In addition to these cultural groups, the school popula-tion includes children of low socio-economic status. If these children resemble the socio-economically disadvantaged children studied in Britain and the United States, then lack of language proficiency will be a central factor for many of them in their inability to achieve satisfactory educa-tional progress. It is, therefore, pertinent to ask to what extent do school in this province attempt to identify children with oral language deficiencies A first step in examining the recognition that schools of the province give to the importance of oral language competency may be taken by examining those screening procedures used with t h e i r beginners. I f such practices include tests of o r a l language p r o f i c i e n c y , then ch i l d r e n i n need of assistance can be i d e n t i f i e d and cor r e c t i v e treatment undertaken. Therefore, the problem to which t h i s study w i l l address i t s e l f i s the extent to which or a l language competence i s assessed when ch i l d r e n begin school i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I. PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY S p e c i f i c a l l y , this study w i l l attempt to answer the following ques-tions : 1. What assessment instruments are used with school beginners i n B r i t i s h Columbia and do those used include an oral language component? 2. What do such o r a l language components measure? 3. What proportion of school beginners are assessed using instruments which include an or a l language component as a part of a composite rating? 4 . What proportion of the beginners receive a separate r a t i n g on oral language a b i l i t y ? I I . THE DATA COLLECTING PROCESS The data c o l l e c t i n g instrument w i l l be a questionnaire to be c i r c u l a t e d to a l l school d i s t r i c t s of the province. To avoid introducing a bias i n favour of or a l language, the questionnaire w i l l ask these broader questions : 1. In your school district what is the total range of measures and tech-niques employed to identify possible disabilities which might hinder academic progress? 2. In your school district what proportion of school beginners are assessed by the various measures and techniques used? III. DEFINITION OF TERMS Screening Measures and Techniques In this study, screening measures and techniques refer to those exam-inations, interviews and assessment instruments, both formal and informal, used by school districts for the purpose of determining learning capacity or for the identification of disabilities which may affect learning. Children Beginning School Children beginning school are those enrolled in kindergarten and grade one at June 30, 1971 in the public schools of British Columbia. Total Population All children enrolled in kindergarten and grade one in the seventy-seven school districts of British Columbia at June 30, 1971, form the total population. Reported Population The reported population is defined as those children enrolled in kindergarten and grade one in those districts of British Columbia which respond to the questionnaire. 5. Commercially-Available Tests In this study, commercially-available tests refer to those instruments which are prepared and distributed for sale by publishing companies and educational institutions. Locally-Developed Tests Locally-developed tests refer to those instruments which have been prepared at the school or school district level generally in response to local needs and not generally distributed on a commercial basis. Language Skills In this study, language skills refer to written language, composition and spelling as well as speaking and listening abilities. Oral Language Oral language as defined by J.B. Carroll (1960) is "a structured sys-tem of arbitrary vocal sounds and sequences of sounds which is used in inter-personal communication and which rather exhaustively catalogs the things, events and processes of human experience (p. 745)." In its appli-cation to this study, oral language is considered to consist of: 1. receptive oral language or the capacity to derive the meaning of an utterance; in other words, the ability of the child to understand what is said to him; 2. expressive oral language or the capacity to express intended meaning through normal speech patterns, that is, the ability of the child to express his ideas in spoken words. 6. Oral Language Competence Oral language competence is defined as performance on some task which logically appears to demand the ability to understand or use language. For example, Loban (1963) identified high ability and low ability language groups on the basis of vocabulary test scores and teachers' ratings of selected language factors. The subject's two standard deviations or more from the mean were selected to form the two groups representing the two extremes of language ability. These definitions have a general application throughout the study. Other definitions required for specific discussions will be presented at later points in the study. IV. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY Chapter I has described the purpose of the study and defined the major terms. The research studies and literature presented in Chapter II discuss-the relationship or oral language to reading and other language skills, the urgency of early treatment, evidence from compensatory programmes, and the means by which oral language proficiency may be measured. Chapter III out-lines the procedure used to determine assessment practices in British Columbia. In Chapter IV the results of the provincial survey are reported and related to the questions posed earlier. Conclusions and recommendations are advanced in Chapter V. 7. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE As stated in the preceding chapter, the proposed survey will encompass the total range of measures and techniques employed to identify possible disabilities. The main interest, however, of this study is oral language and its relationship to academic success. Therefore, this chapter is devoted to these four aspects of oral language: 1. the relationship of oral language to success in reading and other language skills, 2. the need for early identification of oral language disabilities which may hinder academic progress, 3. evidence arising from successful compensatory programmes, 4. identifiable factors which may be used to evaluate oral language competency. I. THE RELATIONSHIP OF ORAL LANGUAGE TO SUCCESS IN READING AND OTHER LANGUAGE SKILLS Many of the early studies in the area of children's language focused on the identification and measurement of vocabulary and on similar basic aspects of language development. Research by Smith (1941), Thorndike and Lorge (1944) and Rinsland (1945) exemplified this interest. Rinsland, for example, reported that the total number of different words written by his sample of grade three children was 8,976 and for grade seven, 17,930. The average yearly increment was reported as 1,790 words. While some of these 8. early studies have been criticized as loosely organized and subject to extraneous variables (O'Donnell et al, 1967, p. 3 - 26), others have served to establish foundations upon which many later studies were constructed. Studies over the past two decades have tended to examine the language of children in greater detail and in an increasing variety of ways and to search for underlying patterns and relationships which could influence curricular design. That this search is only well begun, however, is under-lined by Weintraub's observation (1969) that while a certain level of verbal ability appeared essential to success in reading, that level had not yet been determined. By 1963 sufficient attention had been given to the interrelationships of speaking, listening, reading and writing vocabularies for Robinson (1963) to conclude from several pieces of research''' that co-efficients of correla-tion among these vocabularies were of the order of .80. She suggested that, for the individual, a common core of vocabularies existed and that instruc-tion in any area of vocabulary would tend to result in improvement in all four areas. Robinson's observations are based on the following studies: Russell, D.H. Spelling ability in relation to reading and vocabulary achievements. Elementary English Review, 1946, 23, 32-37. Anderson, I.H. & Fairbanks, G. Common and differential factors in read-ing vocabulary and hearing vocabulary. Journal of Educational Research, 1937, 30, 317-324. Seashore, R.H. & Eckerson, L. The measurement of individual differences in general English vocabularies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1940, 31, 14-38. Beginning with a group of 338 kindergarten children, Loban (1966b) followed their language development, grade-by-grade, over a ten-year period His study established positive relationships between oral language and both written language and reading. By the end of the third grade, he observed that those who ranked high in writing were also those who ranked high in the use of oral language and reading. Further, those who read well by the end of grade three had consistently ranked high in oral language from the inception of the study. The data did not, however, indicate as marked a relationship for average and poor readers, that is, poor readers did not necessarily appear to have a correspondingly poor command of oral language. Loban suggested that this apparent lack of relationship could be attributed to an imprecision in the measurement of reading achievement. By the eighth grade, Loban described the relationships between reading writing and oral language as becoming "more pronounced as the years pass (p. 82)." Loban concluded: At all grades, those who read well also write well, have the highest oral language ratings, and perform best on listening tests. The medians, interquartile ranges, and scatters (on those data presented on scattergrams) indi-cate clear and positive relationships when any language art is compared to any other (p. 92). A further conclusion is particularly relevant to this discussion: Instruction can undoubtedly do more than i t has done traditionally with oral language . . . and the need for i t grows more apparent as the evidence accumulates that competence in speaking is a necessary base for competence in writing and reading (p. 92). In another section of his study, Loban (1966a) selected three sub-groups of twenty-one students each. Assignments to high language and low 10. language ability groups were based on a ten-year average of oral language ratings by teachers. Within this framework, data derived from the reading achievement scores at the grade six level were re-examined. The reading performance of the high language ability group was found to have a median grade equivalent of 4 years, 2 months above the median chronological age for the group. In contrast, the reading achievement of one low language ability group rated eight months below chronological age while the other was found to be a full two years below chronological age. Strickland (1962) called attention to the fact that speech, as the primary form of language, underlies a l l writing and that competence in spoken language should precede development of competence in reading and writing. One phase of her study, using 575 children in grades one to six, examined samples of their oral language. While at the second-grade level, the study did not establish a relationship between oral language and read-ing ability, at the sixth grade a relationship between the structure of children's oral language and silent reading comprehension, oral reading interpretation and listening comprehension was established. The oral language of children who ranked high on these three variables, in contrast with children who ranked low, was distinguished by: 1. more frequent use of the most common patterns of linguistic structures; 2. a greater reduction in the use of short utterances; 3. greater average use of movables (usually adverbial expressions) and elements of subordination; 4. a longer mean sentence length. 11. This apparent lack of relationship between oral language and reading abilities at the second-grade level and its observance at the sixth-grade level is consistent with the Loban study (1966b). Loban did not report an established relationship between these two factors until the grade three stage. He did, however, show that by the sixth grade, oral language was closely related to reading ability. The relationship between oral language and various measures of compre-hension demonstrated by Strickland led Ruddell (1965) to examine the effect on reading comprehension of written materials which used those language structures observed to occur with high and low frequency in the speech of fourth-grade children. Using frequency data established by Strickland (1962), he prepared reading passages in which vocabulary difficulty, sen-tence length, and subject matter content were equated using the Dale-Chall readability formula but which were representative of the high and low fre-quency language structures. From close comprehension tests, he established that comprehension scores on passages of low frequency usage and high fre-quency usage were significantly different beyond the .01 level. He concluded that "reading comprehension is a function of the similarity of patterns of language structure in the reading material to oral patterns of language structure used by children (p. 273)." Children suffering from severe oral language disabilities have been studied in clinical practice by de Hirsch (1966). Although no statistical support was presented, she observed that the large majority of these childr were also having difficulty with reading, writing and spelling. Children with oral language disorders were generally observed to have a tendency to scramble words and sounds and to be unable to assign a consistent value to t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d m e a n i n g o f a w o r d , w h i l e " t h e i r j e r k y , d y s r h y t h m i c h a n d w r i t i n g m i r r o r s t h e i r d i s o r g a n i z e d s p e e c h ( p . x i i i ) . " B e r n s t e i n ( 1 9 6 1 ) d e s c r i b e d t w o s t y l e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n : f o r m a l ( l a t e r d e s c r i b e d a s t h e e l a b o r a t e d c o d e ) a n d p u b l i c ( t h e r e s t r i c t e d c o d e ) . F o r m a l l a n g u a g e w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s u c h f a c t o r s a s a c c u r a t e g r a m m a t i c a l o r d e r a n d s y n t a x , e x t e n s i v e u s e o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n , a d i s c r i m i n a t i v e s e l e c t i o n f r o m a r a n g e o f a d j e c t i v e s a n d a d v e r b s , a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o d e a l i n a b s t r a c t i o n s a n d l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g . T h e p u b l i c l a n g u a g e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w a s d i s -t i n g u i s h e d b y l i m i t e d s y n t a x , l i t t l e e f f o r t t o m a k e t h e m e a n i n g c l e a r , o v e r u s e o f i d i o m s a n d c l i c h e s , a n d w a s r e s t r i c t e d t o " h e r e a n d n o w " q u a l i -t i e s . On t h e b a s i s o f l a t e r r e s e a r c h , B e r n s t e i n ( 1 9 6 2 a , 1 9 6 2 b ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e s t r i c t e d c o d e t e n d e d t o b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h l o w e r w o r k i n g c l a s s c h i l d r e n a n d t h e e l a b o r a t e d c o d e w i t h m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d r e n . S i n c e t h e o p e r a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m i s t h e e l a b o r a t e d o r f o r m a l c o d e , c h i l d r e n u s i n g t h e r e s t r i c t e d c o d e " w i l l e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d , i n e x t e n d i n g t h e i r v o c a b u l a r i e s , a n d i n l e a r n i n g t o u s e a w i d e r a n g e o f f o r m a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f v e r b a l m e a n i n g ( 1 9 6 1 , p . 9 0 ) . " A s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n b y H a w k i n s ( 1 9 6 9 ) w i t h p r i m a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s u p p o r t e d B e r n s t e i n ' s p o s i t i o n . I n o n e s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y , p i c t u r e s w e r e u s e d t o e l i c i t s p e e c h ; i n a n o t h e r s e c t i o n , c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d t h e w o r k i n g s o f a m e c h a n i c a l t o y e l e p h a n t t o a b l i n d f o l d e d e x p e r i m e n t e r . P r i m a r y m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d r e n u s e d n o u n s m o r e t h a n p r o n o u n s , a n d t h e y e m p l o y e d a g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f p r o n o u n s w h i c h h a d s p e c i f i c n o u n r e f e r a n t s p r e c e d i n g t h e m ( e . g . " T h e y k i c k e d t h e b a l l a n d i t b r o k e t h e w i n d o w . " ) . H a w k i n s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s p e e c h o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d w a s o b s e r v e d t o b e a d e q u a t e f o r 13. comprehension outside the immediate context (in the study, pictures and the toy constituted the immediate context). Their communication style did not depend on previously shared experiences nor upon voice tone and gesture. The speech of the working class child was sufficiently restricted as to be tied to the context in which i t occurred. In describing the process of learning to read, Fries (1963) states: The process of learning to read in one's native language is the process of transfer from the auditory signs for language signals, which the child has already learned, to the new visual signs for the same signals (p. 120). This statement bears on the status of the children examined by Loban and Bernstein and, to some extent, those other investigators who have been cited. Many children who have acquired a substantial repertoire of language signals by the time they begin school are well prepared to approach the task of learning to read. Those who have developed only a meagre or even primi-tive set of signals bring very l i t t l e which they can transfer to the new task. In a similar vein, Eisenberg (1967) described inner-city children as having been short-changed of contact with rich and varied speech patterns. He argued that i f exposed to less-differentiated language experiences, children will speak and understand less well. These studies have supported the position that oral language facility is closely related to the acquisition of reading and language skills. The research has also shown that the relationships become even more evident as the children move through school. Evidence will be presented at various points later in the chapter to show that certain aspects of oral language have strong predictive qualities in relation to success in reading at the grade two level and to language development through both the elementary and secondary school grades. II. NEED FOR EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF ORAL LANGUAGE DISABILITIES The observation that some types of learning difficulties recede with maturation may be applied only with caution in the field of language devel-opment. While some disabilities attributed to immaturity may be self-correcting, de Hirsch (1966) assigns limited verbalization, grammatical defects and crippling deficits in the printed and written forms of the language as the consequences which can arise from oral language disorders. She deplored the common practice of waiting until the end of the third grade to offer remedial assistance. Early identification of disabilities should be followed by "transition" training in which "youngsters with receptive-and expressive-language deficits would receive specific language training (p. 90)." The need for remedial action specifically designed to overcome oral language deficiencies is an obvious conclusion drawn from Loban's study (1966a). For students, whose language was influenced by social class dia-lect, ten years of school did not substantially effect improvements in control over non-standard uses of the language. The study delineated these difficulties which were dominated by an inability to use forms of the verb to be appropriately and by omissions, inconsistencies and non-standard use involving verb phrases. Loban emphasized that pupils who use standard English do not require much instruction in usage but would benefit from assignments designed to develop coherence. Those using non-standard English need assistance both in areas of usage and coherence. At the conclusion of his thirteen-year longitudinal study of language development, Loban (1970) reported that: . . . those who began their schooling with low scores on these oral language measures (length of communication unit, use of dependent clauses, and elaboration of units) never reach the proficiency of those who began with high scores. On the use of standard English, the eight groups do not grow closer together from the primary grades to the final years of high school. Those subjects who hear and use non-standard speech at home continue to use the same models or standards throughout their school lives (p. 35). Mickelson and Galloway (1969) reported a short-term total verbal immersion programme conducted with Indian children in British Columbia. The authors presented evidence that "when no specific objective for language improvement was formulated, growth did not appear to occur (p. 189)." In this instance, the behavioural objectives of the study did not include the verbal use of the indirect object. Post-test results indicated no growth in this area, while correct use of negatives, prepositions, tenses, adjec-tives and other tasks set out in the objectives were marked by an improve-ment in usage which achieved a significance level of .01. They held that neither undifferentiated school instruction nor the passage of time were sufficient to eliminate language disabilities from the verbal repertoire of children. The four preceding studies have called attention to the need for early identification followed by diagnostic instruction. Some of the consequences attached to language disabilities have been mentioned, to which, by associa-tion, further problems are distinct possibilities. Various studies (Gates, 1941; Harris, 1961; Berry, 1969) have connected language and reading failure with anti-social and aggressive behaviour, intense anxiety, impaired self-image, and emotional maladjustment. If preventative or remedial actions are delayed, the compounding of emotional and language problems followed by failure in reading may all but defy successful treatment at a later time. III. EVIDENCE ARISING FROM SUCCESSFUL COMPENSATORY PROGRAMMES A number of language development studies pertaining to both short-term experimental research and long-range compensatory programmes have been reported. The characteristics of these programmes are of interest to this study since they demonstrate that differentiated instruction can influence the acquisition of language skills and later academic success. Mickelson and Galloway (1969) explored the possibility that Indian children.living on reserves in British Columbia would, with respect to language development, resemble the lower class and Negro children described by Deutsch (1965). Based on his position that such children need saturation in language before and during the early years of school, they devised a programme to increase quality and quantity of verbalization and to extend abilities to comprehend and manipulate language. The highly structured programme encouraged children to verbalize at every opportunity; those having difficulty in doing so were freely provided with examples. Activi-ties included question-picture discussions and visual discrimination assignments. Sorting, classifying and describing tasks were employed to foster conversation and the ability to follow specific verbal instructions. On the basis of pre-test/post-test examination, the authors concluded after a four-week training session that the improvement of language achieved significance at the .01 level. Clasen et al (1969) designed an intensive language experience programme based on Peabody Language Development materials, language games, and other related skill-building activities. Fifteen pre-kindergarten white children of low socio-economic status were compared to a control group whose prog-ramme was described as "conventional" and socially-oriented. The language group showed significant improvement over the control group after an eight-week session. The authors further indicated that the advantage persisted over the following year as determined by an assessment using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. As the Mickelson and Galloway study would also suggest, instruction based on specific behavioural objectives can produce marked results. Children identified as having an inadequate command of the language require early and concentrated attention in this area rather than more broadly based instruction. McConnell and Horton (1969) reported a project then in its fourth year of operation. The programme, described as quite structured for a pre-kindergarten group, heavily stressed language experiences, "direct face-to-face conversation encounters with each child", and a variety of language-building activities and games. Compared to a control group enrolled in a day-care centre, the treatment group evidenced substantial gains as measured by intelligence, perceptual ability and readiness tests. A year later as the groups were about to begin grade one, the Metropolitan Readiness Test was administered. The median total score for the control group was 13; according to the test standardization, this placed them in the lowest seven percent. The experimental group achieved a median total score of 44 which placed them at the highest score of the low-normal range for this test. Probably the most highly structured programme in the language develop-ment field was devised and tested by Bereiter and Engelmann (1966). In 18. Teaching Disadvantaged Children in the Preschool, the authors described their project as "an intensive, fast-paced, highly structured program of instruction in basic language skills, reading and arithmetic (p. 52)." Fifteen specific objectives form the basis of the programme as these few illustrate: 1. Ability to use both affirmative and not statements in reply to the question "What is this?" "This is a ball. This is not a book." 4. Ability to use the following prepositions correctly in statements describing arrangements of objects: on, in, under, over, between. "Where is the pencil?" "The pencil is under the book." 12. Ability to recognize and name the vowels and at least 15 consonants (pp. 48-49). The learning situation in which these abilities were developed was charac-terized by structured drills, repetition, and sentence imitation. As determined by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test and the Wide Range Achievement Tests in Reading, Arithmetic and Spelling, their experi-mental group showed significantly greater achievement than the control group Insufficient data were supplied to determine the full nature of these gains. Hunt (1969) followed the progress of the experimental group in grade one. Of the group, two-thirds were reported to have completed the grade with ratings which ranged from fair to good. The remainder were unable to complete the grade. Hunt observed that the successful group represented a larger portion than ordinarily expected. Critics have attacked the Bereiter and Engelmann approach for the excessive use of rote d r i l l , the apparent dismissal of the concept of individual differences, and the repressive control over behaviour. The authors offer a telling counter-argument: while middle class children can afford the luxury of a leisurely pace, for the disadvantaged child time is "the least available resource". 19. A New York State Education Department study prepared by Di Lorenzo and Salter (1968) compared several types of pre-kindergarten programmes. Those which stressed reading readiness and language development (after Bereiter and Engelmann) were judged effective in contrast to more conventional programmes and to an innovative project utilizing a "talking typewriter". Researchers have contrasted language development techniques (Karnes et al, 1970), designed programmes to overcome cultural disadvantages (Hodges et al, 1967; Johnson & Jacobson, 1970) and sought to replicate previously mentioned studies (Day & Nurss, 1970). Each of these studies together with others discussed in this section has a common characteristic of interest: their behavioural objectives concentrated on the development of language skills. Oral drills, language games, story hours, dramatizations and other activities were carefully selected to provide variety while maintaining focus on the primary objective of overcoming disabilities. IV. MEASUREABLE QUALITIES OF ORAL LANGUAGE The relationship between oral language and reading and language skills, the need for early identification of disabilities and evidence that certain programmes can be successful in the alleviation of these problems has been discussed thus far. There s t i l l remains the problem of distinguishing those specific factors of oral language which are important to the identification of disabilities. It will be immediately apparent that no overwhelming degree of unanimity exists among the various studies. Some factors, however, emerge which are indicative of oral language competence and which follow a developmental sequence of growth. Quantity of Utterances The classic and also one of the most widely used measures of language 20. competency is total word count which for the purposes of this discussion is defined as the total number of words uttered by the child in response to an appropriate stimulus. The procedure most generally reported is to devise a task or an interesting situation which will encourage speech, then to record either a pre-determined number of sentences or the entire spoken output. de Hirsch (1966) undertook the development of an instrument which, used during kindergarten, would effectively predict performance in reading and spelling at the end of grade two. Of the expressive language measures which she assessed, the number of words used in telling the story of The  Three Bears proved to be the best indicator of later success. The correla-tion between the number of words used and both reading and spelling scores at the end of grade two was .40 and .32 respectively (level of significance: P ^  .01 and .01 ^ P ^  .05 respectively). Loban (1966b), following a method outlined by Watts (1944), obtained samples of language by asking his subjects to talk about a set of six pic-tures; informal questioning provided additional speech samples. The relationship stated by Loban between oral language, of which this measure formed a portion, and reading and other language skills has been previously noted. The quantity of speech reported for each of two sub-groups clarifies this relationship. A high language ability and a low language ability group were selected on the basis of a vocabulary test and teacher's yearly rat-ings, and represented the two extremes of the complete sample. At the kindergarten level, the mean total number of words of the language sample recorded for the high ability group was 704.6 while for the low ability group i t was 453.1 or a difference of 251.5 words. At the grade nine level, the high ability group recorded a mean total of 1,995.08 words; the low ability group, 1,455.24 words or a difference of 549.84 words. The complete 21. set of data reveals the developmental nature of this aspect of language: children used an increasing number of words in each succeeding year of the study while the difference between groups increased annually. Three studies used motion pictures to stimulate discussion. In this situation the children all have a similar experience about which they can talk. Harrell (1957), O'Donnell et al (1967) and Fox (1972) used brief commercially-produced films (Three Bruins in the Woods, The Ant and the  Dove, and The North Wind and the Sun) with the sound shut off. Children then told the story as they envisioned i t and answered pre-planned questions. Although the first two studies did not report degrees of correlation, Harrell stated that for both oral and written compositions obtained from children aged 9, 11, 13, and 15, "the average length of stories showed a consistent gain with increasing age (p. 63)." O'Donnell et al stated that there was a "high positive correlation between advances in grade and gross increases in wordage (p. 42)." Fox reported that the main effect of grade level was significant at the .01 level for the total number of words in T-units (the independent clause with all its subordinate clauses). An extensive study of language skills was reported by Templin (1957). Two picture books and six small toys were used to encourage conversation; the first fifty verbal utterances of each subject were recorded and analyzed. Even with this arbitrary limitation, the mean number of words per utterance showed an increase with age for all groups; the differences, however, between half-year intervals were not statistically significant. She did not report consideration of differences on a yearly basis. The speech sample in each of these studies was generated under special conditions, that is, within a child-adult framework, the child told a 22. particular story or talked about specific books, pictures, toys or films. The utterances obtained in such instances may very well not represent the full range of verbal ability at the child's command. Nevertheless, these studies and others (Skull, 1968; Strickland, 1962; Bernstein, 1961) suggest that the quantity of utterances is one important measure of language compe-tency and that a distinct developmental sequence of growth may be discerned Range of Vocabulary The range of vocabulary, that is, the variety of words used, has been measured by two means: 1. by comparison of the speech samples with a frequency l i s t which indi-cates the extent to which commonly and uncommonly used words were employed; 2. by determination of the ratio of different words spoken (types) to the total number of words used (token). Loban (1966b) employed both means to examine the speech samples of the two sub-groups of high and low language ability. The vocabulary was com-pared to the frequency of occurrence established in The Teacher's Word Book  of 30,000 Words (Thorndike & Lorge, 1944). Data pertaining to grades five through nine showed that the high ability group was "clearly superior" to the low ability group in using a larger number of less common words. Simi-larly, a type-token comparison of thirty-one 100-word segments of speech showed that the medians of the high ability group exceeded the low group thirty times. The low ability group exceeded the high ability group once. Using motion pictures to stimulate speech, Fox (1972) found that the resulting vocabulary samples showed a developmental trend. Both by usage of uncommon words and by diversity (type-token) the increases from grade to 23. grade were significant. Templin (1957) reported that the number of different words used in the fifty utterances obtained from each subject showed a steady increase from one test age to the next (six-month intervals from ages three to eight). Differences were reported as significant at the .01 level. The studies suggest that the range of vocabulary as a measure of oral language competency discriminates between children who exhibit high and low levels of language proficiency. The measure adequately differentiated between age and grade groups. Classification of Vocabulary The ways in which children classify words have been the subject of a number of studies. Classification behaviour has been described by Sigel and McBane (1967) as "the organization or ordering of instances on the basis of one or more observable or inferred criteria (p. 435)." The underlying assumption is that the child acquires a word which is, at first, associated with a single and concrete meaning; later experiences add other meanings and associations to the word. Eventually, his depth of understanding of the word enables the child to classify i t in abstract ways. Sigel (1953, 1954) asked subjects to group objects, photographs of the objects and word cards naming the objects on the basis of those "that belong together, or go together, or are alike in any way ... (1953, p. 133)." Seven-year-old children used perceptual groups (based on feeling, structure, func-tion) significantly more than conceptual classifications (objects grouped as members of a class). Nine-year olds showed a reduction in the use of per-ceptual grouping; eleven-year-old children used conceptual grouping 24. predominantly. No differences in groupings were attributed to the three types of materials. A later study (Sigel & McBane, 1967) used objects and photographs of objects. Lower social class children were significantly less able to group pictures or to explain the bases of groupings than middle class children. Lower class children also made greater use of perceptual grouping and less use of conceptual grouping than did middle class children of comparable ages. The evidence suggested that lower social class children have difficulty in handling representational material and that they operate on a less advanced developmental level than middle class children. An intervention programme devised to provide classification training (Sigel & Olmsted, 1970) produced significant changes. The children grouped objects more accurately, were more articulate in describing the groups and used a greater variety of bases for grouping as the result of their training. Their ability to group rep-resentational material, however, was not increased. Spain (1962) asked culturally deprived and non-culturally deprived children to define familiar nouns. The responses were classed as formal (on the basis of class membership), descriptive (the characteristics of the object named), and functional (on the basis of use). He reported that, for the non-culturally deprived child, the use of formal and descriptive responses increased with age while functional responses decreased. With culturally deprived children, functional responses remained predominant at every age level studied (ages four years to eleven years, eleven months). Spain suggested that different cultural patterns of reinforcement have an influence on the child's language performance. A study of the classifications which children use was reported by Russell and Saadeh (1962) . The responses to forty words were classed as concrete (by illustration: count means "to find how many pennies are in your pocket"), functional and abstract. Responses from third-grade children were dominated by concrete and functional terms. At the sixth- and ninth-grade levels, concrete terms declined progressively while the use of func-tional and abstract answers increased significantly. In developing a Predictive Index, de Hirsch (1966) found that a mea-sure of the ability of kindergarten children to classify groups of words in abstract terms was closely related to success in reading and spelling at the end of grade two. This brief sub-test required the child to produce a class name for a group of three words, for example, ball-doll-marbles must be identified as toys. It should be noted that this sub-test is one of ten which form de Hirsch's Predictive Index. The author claimed predictive qualities on the basis of the entire test, not for any individual sub-test. An extensive classification system was devised and used by Carson and Rabin (1960). Groups matched for grade, sex, age and non-verbal comprehen-sion but varying as to socio-economic class were required to orally define words. Middle class children made significantly greater use of categoriza-tion (abstract), essential description and essential function than did lower class children. Since the classification system presented by the authors is more elaborate than others reported here, an outline of the scale may be of interest (p. 48) : Classification Typical Response to the Word: Wagon la. Categorization A vehicle, lb. Synonym A cart. 2 6 . 2 . E s s e n t i a l D e s c r i p t i o n A w o o d e n t h i n g w i t h f o u r w h e e l s , a n d i t l o o k s l i k e a b o x . 3. E s s e n t i a l F u n c t i o n Y o u r i d e i n i t o u t W e s t . 4. E x a m p l e T h e r e ' s a r e d w a g o n k i d s p l a y w i t h . 5 a . V a g u e D e s c r i p t i o n S o m e t h i n g t h a t h a s f o u r w h e e l s . 5 b . V a g u e F u n c t i o n I t b u m p s i n t o p e o p l e . 6 . E r r o r T h e d o g ' w a g o n s ' h i s t a i l . 7 . D o n ' t k n o w D o n ' t k n o w . T h e r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y m a y b e u s e d a s a m e a s u r e o f o r a l l a n g u a g e m a t u r i t y . B o t h a g e a n d s o c i a l c l a s s g r o u p s m a y b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y e v a l u a t i n g r e s p o n s e s i n a s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m t h e c o n c r e t e t o t h e f u n c t i o n t o t h e a b s t r a c t . L e n g t h a n d Q u a n t i t y o f S e n t e n c e s / T - u n i t s / C o m m u n i c a t i o n U n i t s ^ I n e x a m i n i n g t h e s p e e c h o f n u r s e r y s c h o o l a n d g r a d e o n e c h i l d r e n , M e n y u k ( 1 9 7 1 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e t o t a l s e n t e n c e o u t p u t i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a g e . T h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n a l s o u s e d l o n g e r s e n t e n c e s . T h i s t h e y a c c o m -p l i s h e d w i t h o u t d e v e l o p i n g n e w s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s b u t r a t h e r b y l i n k i n g b a s i c p a t t e r n s t o g e t h e r w i t h c o n j u n c t i o n s . T h e O ' D o n n e l l e t a l s t u d y ( 1 9 6 7 ) s u p p o r t e d b y F o x ' s r e p l i c a t i o n ( 1 9 7 2 ) b o t h r e p o r t e d c o n s i s t e n t i n c r e m e n t s f r o m g r a d e t o g r a d e o f b o t h T - u n i t ( t h e i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e w i t h a l l i t s s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s ) l e n g t h a n d t h e n u m b e r o f T - u n i t s p e r s p e e c h s a m p l e . O ' D o n n e l l e t a l d e s c r i b e d t h e i n c r e a s e s i n T - u n i t l e n g t h a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f r o m k i n d e r g a r t e n t o t h e e n d o f g r a d e o n e a n d f r o m t h e e n d o f g r a d e f i v e t o t h e e n d o f g r a d e s e v e n . T h e T h e t e r m s " s e n t e n c e " , " T - u n i t " , a n d " c o m m u n i c a t i o n u n i t " , w h i l e s i m i l a r , a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l . " S e n t e n c e " s u g g e s t s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l m e a n i n g a s r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e o f a c o m p l e t e t h o u g h t . O t h e r t e r m s a r e b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e t e x t . 27. authors stated that the mean length of T-units provided a close approximation to the results of more complex calculations of sentence-combining transfor-mation. Thus, "the mean length of T-units has special claim to consideration as a simple, objective, valid indicator of development in syntactic control (pp. 98-99)." Fox (1972), whose study extended from kindergarten through grade three, reported the main effect of grade level between kindergarten and grade one was at the .01 level for length of T-units and at the .05 level for the number of T-units. She also reported a second significant growth period between the second and third grade levels. With data covering ten years of language development, Loban (1966b) reported a steady increase in the length of communication units (an independent predication and a l l of its relevant modification). The mean total number of communication units per transcript increased through grade six. An increased use of complex expressions resulted in fewer but longer units for grades seven through nine. The measure differentiated consistently between high language and low language ability groups. A final report (1970) concluded Loban's thirteen-year study of language development. At that point Loban reported five language variables which, measured at grades one, two and three, had predictive qualities for language performance in grades ten, eleven and twelve: 1. average number of words per communication unit, 2. maze words as a percentage of total words, 3. dependent clause ratio, 4 . weighted index of elaboration, 5. conventional English usage. 28. Of the topic under consideration here - the average length of the communica-tion unit - Loban stated that this measure had proved to be one of the most crucial measures of fluency emerging from the investigation. The high language ability group maintained its superiority consistently through to grade twelve over the low ability group. The differences between the two groups may best be described by example: at the grade one level, the high ability group had an average of 7.91 words per communication unit; the low ability group did not reach this level of achievement until grade five. For grades one, two and three, i t was determined by multiple regression analysis that the average length of the communication unit and the number of dependent clauses correlate highly with the weighted index of elaboration. Loban concluded that, for these grade levels at least, a count of the first two variables would serve just as effectively as a count of all three to predict the oral language performance of the subjects when they reach grades ten, eleven and twelve. On the basis of these studies i t would appear that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that sentence quantity and especially sentence length are effective measures of verbal ability where indices of developmental change are sought. Usage and Grammar The topic of non-standard oral usage and grammar has not been the subject of much attention. Two studies, however, have provided a signifi-cant body of information. With the single exception of the use of slang and colloquialisms, Templin (1957) reported that the occurrence of grammatical errors declined 29. between three and eight years of age. The most frequent error was the use of got for have or have got which at the age of eight s t i l l persisted at the rate of six times per thousand words of speech. Disagreement of the verb with the subject ranked second, followed by the non-standard use of verbs, nouns, and pronouns, the use of double negatives, errors in conju-gation, redundant construction, and beginning a sentence with and. Loban (1966a) regarded the misuse of got as an accepted colloquialism. In his study, lack of agreement of the subject and verb appeared as the most frequent error in usage. Other common errors reported were the deviant use of the verb _to be, use of the present for the past tense, non-standard use of verbs, nouns, and pronouns, and use of double negatives. These difficulties were attributed mainly to children who used a social class dialect. Although only Negro children were studied, Loban suggested that children speaking other dialects would probably have similar problems. The statistical treatment of the complete Loban study (Marascuilo and Loban, 1969) gave the canonical correlation between conventional English usage (conventionality) at grades one, two and three related to performance of the same subjects in grades ten, eleven and twelve as R = .78. This indicates that 60.84% of the total variance for grades ten, eleven and twelve is predictable from performance in grades one, two and three. The authors state: Students who start l i f e with conventional speech will continue to use this mode of expression. On the other hand, students who start at the lower end of this language characteristic will continue at the lower end of this important style of expression (p. 38). 30. These studies have indicated areas of conventional English usage which trouble children; the Loban study has indicated that i t is possible to pre-dict conventional English usage performance with considerable accuracy. Variety and Complexity of Language Patterns Menyuk (1964) has pointed out that by three years of age children have acquired almost all of the basic structures of speech used by adults. The child generates unique sentences from these rules rather than merely imi-tating sentences which he hears. Generalizing from experiences, the child displays his sense of rules by creating novel sentences: "Wash a dishes." This level of mastery of basic patterns was also reported by Templin (1957) who showed that her three-year-old subjects made use of declarative, inter-rogative, imperative and exclamatory sentences. The declarative sentence was the most common and its use increased with age from 68% of all sentences at age three to 89% at age eight. Use of the interrogative and imperative forms declined with age, while the exclamatory sentence, the least used at any age, bore l i t t l e relation to the age group tested. The use of subordi-nate clauses increased with age; the eight-year-olds used five times as many subordinate clauses as the three-year-olds. Harrell's study (1957) supported Templin's findings. In addition, he showed that of the adverbial clauses (by far the most frequently used), relationships of time, cause and comparison appeared earlier in the speech of children and were used much more at all age levels than relationships of condition, place or result. In terms of variability within the sentence pattern, he reported that all adjective clauses followed the words they modified; adverb clauses preceded the word modified from one-fourth to one-half of the time. Strickland (1962) presented evidence that flexibility in manipulating movable sentence elements was an indication of language maturity. While children had a substantial variety of patterns at their command, they tended, in the main, to use only five or six regardless of grade level. Conclusions drawn by O'Donnell et al (1967) support the preceding studies. In addition, the authors outlined some of the stages of develop-ment in the language of children: The preschool years constitute a period of rapid and extensive development in language structure; then from grade one to grade five, i f these samples are repre-sentative, i t appears that growth proceeds at a much slower pace. Approaching adolescence, children apparently experience an increase in rate of language growth, and their increasing physical maturity is accompanied by a corresponding increase in maturity of language structures (p. 76). Loban (1966b) found few and not highly meaningful differences between groups in the use of structural patterns. Variations within the patterns, however, proved to be highly related to language maturity. The high ability group compared to the low ability group made much greater use of clauses and multiple movable constructions ("whoever in the excitement manages to keep from laughing") and they employed to a greater degree clauses and infinitives as sentence subjects and complements. Loban emphasized that: Not pattern but what is done to achieve flexibility within the pattern proves to be the measure of effect-iveness and control of language at this level of language development (p. 84). In his final study, Loban (1970) identified flexibility within patterns as the "elaboration of language" and defined the term as "the use of various strategies of syntax through which the individual communication unit is expanded beyond a simple subject and predicate (p. 17)." Throughout the school grades, the high a b i l i t y group was rated four years ahead of the low a b i l i t y group. By example, the high group achieved 52.56% of i t s growth by grade one, while the low group reached almost that percentage by grade f i v e A weighted index of subordination was devised to describe the use of dependent clauses (Loban, 1963). At that time, subordination appeared to be c l o s e l y associated with chronological age, p r o f i c i e n c y i n language and socio-economic status. Reporting in 1970, Loban showed that the high a b i l i t y group achieved 41.38% of i t s growth i n grade one while the low a b i l i t y group reached that l e v e l of accomplishment by grade f i v e . The use of subordinate clauses and the a b i l i t y to use or f l e x i b l y p o s i t i o n movable elements within s t r u c t u r a l patterns have been shown i n these studies to be c l o s e l y related with oral language competence. The developmental nature of these s k i l l s has been shown and from one study a s i g n i f i c a n t statement o u t l i n i n g the general growth pattern has been pre-sented . Use of Conjunctions Function words such as conjunctions have meaning i n context rather than i n i s o l a t i o n . Because conjunctions are employed i n highly variable positions within sentences and because they are not high-information bear-ing words, they tend, with the exception of and, to be added to the c h i l d ' s language l a t e r than other parts of speech. Templin (1957) indicated that at age three the conjunction was the l e a s t used part of speech; by age eight the conjunction was the second l e a s t part used. Of necessity, some means of l i n k i n g thoughts i s required. This has led investigators 33. (O'Donnell et al, 1967) to comment on the predisposition of young children to form long sentences by the use of and. Menyuk offered a typical example: "I have a big, big teddy bear and I have a l i t t l e doggie and he's named Blacky/Whitey and there's this big dog and he's named Peppermint (1971, p. 297) ." Using multiple-choice statements, Watts (1944) has observed that at age eight children could respond correctly to only one-half of the state-ments where an understanding of the meaning of various conjunctions was required. Loban (1966b) applied the same test and obtained similar results. He noted that the median score of the high language ability group was nearly double that of the low ability group. Robertson (1966) found that at the fourth-grade level only slightly more than half of her subjects could correctly answer multiple-choice questions built up from sentences containing conjunctions. Although chil-dren are slow to acquire the meaning of many of these words, she pointed out that they are rarely given much help in understanding or using conjunctions. At the fourth-grade level, Stoodt (1972) found a significant relation-ship between reading comprehension and the comprehension of conjunctions. The conjunctions found most difficult were: when, s_o, but, or, where, while, how, that and if_; of medium difficulty were: because, either, now, since, than, though, why and yet. The most easily understood conjunctions were: and, for and as. A study to examine relationships of the use of connectives, the quantity of vocabulary used in structured and free situations, the quality of 34. vocabulary used and socio-economic status was reported in progress by Rodgers and Slade, 1972"*". Their conclusions should reveal the extent to which the findings of Loban, Bernstein and others are applicable to the language development of children of this province. 2 From an examination of various school textbooks, Rodgers has estimated an average of over 1200 conjunctions in grade six social studies texts and a similar number in grade twelve geography books; grade twelve history texts ranged higher with an estimate of 1523. Grade six science books averaged 684 conjunctions while a composite average of grade twelve chemistry, physics and biology texts reached 2,993. Some of the differences are due purely to the differing number of pages per book; however, a comparison based on the average number of conjunctions per page showed that much use is made of this part of speech. Grade six social studies texts averaged 5.95 conjunctions per page; grade twelve history and geography texts averaged 5.64. Grade six science books used 6.77 and a combined average of grade twelve chemistry, physics and biology texts reached 8.19. The twelve most frequently used conjunctions were reported as : but, i f , when, because, however, as, thus, then, while, for example, since and although (and was counted only when i t served a surbordinating function). From the extent to which conjunctions are used in written materials, and since they tend to be difficult to comprehend, i t would appear that more attention could be devoted to their meaning and usage at an early Rodgers, D.C. and Slade, K. Study in progress, 1972. 2 Rodgers, D.C. Personal communication, 1972. 35. stage in education. The studies cited suggest that the ability to use conjunctions appropriately is associated with oral language competence. Use of Tentativeness Loban (1963) analyzed speech samples to establish the functions of the sentences, that is, to identify statements of fact, interpretation, tentativeness, generalization, and so on. One observation of consequence emerged: children who had otherwise demonstrated high ability in language "were the subjects who most frequently used language to express tentative-ness (p. 53)." Words and phrases such as perhaps, maybe, I think, and i t might be were used five times as often by the high language ability groups compared to the low language ability group. Loban concluded that: The child with less power over language appears to be less flexible in his thinking, is not often capable of seeing more than one alternative, and apparently summons up al l his linguistic resources merely to make a flat dogmatic statement (p. 54). Bernstein (1962a) distinguished between I think statements and isn't  i t , you know, and wouldn't he statements. The former statements were associated with middle class speech and, he argued, served to facilitate conversation. The isn't i t statement arose from uncertainty and by invit-ing implicit affirmation, tended to close communication in a particular area. The importance of this difference must be viewed within the frame-work of Bernstein's elaborated and restricted codes which have been described elsewhere. This area of speech has not yet received much attention. The differ-ences observed by Loban and Bernstein would suggest that tentativeness should be considered a measure of oral language ability. 36. Freedom from Language Tangles One final area of language development and also one which has received limited attention i s that of language tangles. Variously labelled "garbles", "mazes" and "ramblings", these utterances are illustrated in this speech sample: "(These two are ... and this one who ... who has ...) these are a l l pirates having a party (Loban, 1963, p. 67)." As defined by Loban, mazes are groups of words or parts of words which do not result in meaningful communication. O'Donnell et al (1967) observed a general decline in the use of garbles through the elementary school grades with the exception of an increase in grade two. The investigators noted that children showed no dramatic progress in eliminating them, that most garbles were attributable to a few individuals and that they were quite rare in written language. Fox (1972) found an increase in garbles from kindergarten to grade two, followed by a decline in the third grade. The observation was not related to any of the factors in the study. Loban (1966b) described a general decline in the use of mazes through the primary grades. In the intermediate grades an increase in mazes accom-panied a marked increase in the amount of language used. The high language a b i l i t y group used a far lower proportion of mazes than the low a b i l i t y group, in spite of the fact that the high group had more to say and said i t in more complex ways than the low group. Loban stressed that "the members of the low sub-group say less and many of them have more d i f f i c u l t y in saying i t (p. 25)." 37. The canonical correlation analysis performed by Marascuilo and Loban (1969) reported that with reference to freedom from mazes, 22.09% of the variance at grades ten, eleven and twelve was predictable from performance in grades one, two and three. Thus some prediction is possible; i t is not, however, overly strong. While the use of mazes was characterized by erra-tic fluctuations during the middle years of schooling, Loban (1970) reported that " . . . all groups end in grade twelve with virtually the identical percentages with which they began in grade one (p. 45)." The relationship between language tangles and oral language competency remains uncertain. Tangles or mazes do, however, represent a lack of con-trol over speech and would appear to result in ineffective communication. On that basis, control over language tangles may be considered an indication of verbal ability. Summary of the Measurable Qualities of Oral Language The preceding nine categories have been identified as indicators of oral language competency. They do not, however, represent the entire range of factors which might be used to define this s k i l l . Such factors as arti-culation, coherence of style in speech, and the ability to predict linguistic events (closure) have been considered and omitted as being beyond the scope of this discussion or as insufficiently established by research. Table 1 summarizes the measurable qualities of oral language which have been discussed and indicates the investigators whose work in the area has been quoted in this chapter. 38. TABLE 1 MEASURABLE QUALITIES OF ORAL LANGUAGE AND INVESTIGATORS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH Measurable Qualities of Oral Language Investigators 1. Quantity of utterances de Hirsch, 1966; Loban, 1966b; Harrell, 1957; O'Donnell et al, 1967; Fox, 1972; Templin, 1957; Skull, 1968; Strickland, 1962. 2. Range of vocabulary Loban, 1966b; Fox, 1972; Templin, 1957. 3. Classification of vocabulary Sigel, 1953, 1954; Sigel & McBane, 1967; Sigel 6c Olmsted, 1970; Spain, 1962; Russell 6c Saadeh, 1962; de Hirsch, 1966; Carson & Rabin, 1960. 4. Length and quantity of sentences Menyuk, 1971; O'Donnell et al, 1967; Fox, 1972; Loban, 1966b, 1970. 5. Usage and grammar Templin, 1957; Loban, 1966a; Marascuilo & Loban, 1969. 6. Variety and complexity of language patterns Menyuk, 1964; Templin, 1957; Harrell, 1957; Strickland, 1962; O'Donnell et al, 1967. 7. Use of conjunctions Templin, 1957; Watts, 1944; Robertson, 1966; Stoodt, 1972; Rodgers, 1972; Rodgers & Slade, 1972. 8. Use of tentativeness Loban, 1963; Bernstein, 1962. 9. Freedom from language tangles O'Donnell et al, 1967; Loban, 1963, 1966b, 1970; Marascuilo & Loban, 1969. 39. V. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER This chapter has reviewed recent research i n the area of oral language competence. The studies quoted o f f e r support for the views that: 1. Oral language i s related to success i n reading and other language s k i l l s . Although the r e l a t i o n s h i p has been observed i n the early school grades, i t becomes more evident i n the l a t e r elementary grades. There i s evidence that some oral language factors have p r e d i c t i v e q u a l i t i e s with respect to language development throughout the school years. 2. A need exists for the early i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of or a l language d i s a b i l i -t i e s . The research suggests that many oral language d e f i c i t s are not subject to improvement on the basis of maturation. Delays i n diagnosis and i n providing c o r r e c t i v e treatment may lead to a compounding of problems which may be i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to overcome. 3. Evidence from compensatory programmes indicates that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n can influence the a c q u i s i t i o n of language s k i l l s . The more successful programmes have approached the problem of oral language d e f i c i e n c i e s with c a r e f u l l y designed sets of behavioural objectives. 4. Certain q u a l i t i e s of oral language are i n d i v i d u a l l y i n d i c a t i v e of oral language competence. Each of these q u a l i t i e s exhibited a developmental pattern of growth through the school years. Nine such q u a l i t i e s have been i d e n t i f i e d and discussed i n this chapter: (a) Quantity of utterances (b) Range of vocabulary 40. (c) Classification of vocabulary (d) Length and quantity of sentences (e) Usage and grammar (f) Variety and complexity of language patterns (g) Use of conjunctions (h) Use of tentativeness (i) Freedom from language tangles Because of the suggested importance of oral language to academic success, in Chapter I the investigator posed several questions regarding children beginning school in British Columbia to determine: 1. what measures and techniques were employed to screen beginners for possible disabilities; 2. the proportion of beginners who are assessed by these measures and techniques; 3. whether these instruments include a measure of oral language compe-tency ; 4. the factors of oral language which are assessed by those measures which have an oral language component; 5. the proportion of beginners assessed by tests which provide a compo-site rating of which oral language is a part; 6. the proportion of beginners assessed by tests which provide a separate oral language rating. Also, as indicated in Chapter I, i t was determined to survey all school 41. districts in British Columbia for the school year 1970-1971 to attempt to obtain answers to these questions. Procedures used to determine assessment practices in the province are discussed in the following chapter. 42. CHAPTER III PROCEDURE In t h i s chapter the development and design of the D i s t r i c t Screening  Measures Questionnaire i s discussed, together with the contact procedures adopted. I. DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE For an undertaking of this nature - the determination of those screen-ing measures and practices employed i n B r i t i s h Columbia with children beginning school - the construction of an appropriate questionnaire was required. Since a number of varied factors are related to academic prog-ress, considerable care was needed to include these elements while ensuring that the form did not become either unwieldy or unnecessarily complex and, further, that the questionnaire r e f l e c t e d recommended practices i n i t s construction. As the organization and the s p e c i f i c questions were formu-lated the p r a c t i c a l guidelines i n the construction of questionnaires as suggested by Hillway (1969) were taken into account. A preliminary e d i t i o n of the questionnaire was prepared and offered to four elementary school administrators for comment. Although a more exten-sive p i l o t test programme would have been desirable, t h i s was impossible since the f i n a l form would go forward to a l l d i s t r i c t s . This l i m i t e d t r i a l was, however, of some assistance i n i d e n t i f y i n g and eliminating weaknesses. Although t h i s paper i s concerned, i n large measure, with the concept of o r a l language competency, the use of t h i s term was avoided throughout the questionnaire and the accompanying material to avoid biasing the 43. responses. Therefore, within the limitations of the questionnaire tech-nique, the goal was to develop a complete summary of screening practices employed with beginners in British Columbia based on assessments or examinations of health, vision, hearing, speech, mental ability and readi-ness, vocabulary development and perceptual skills. From these data, which would be of broad general interest in their own right, information specifi-cally related to oral language could be extracted and examined. The population to be surveyed was determined as the kindergarten and grade one children enrolled in all British Columbia School Districts as of June 30, 1971. II. DESIGN OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE The questionnaire (Appendix I) consists of two sections: (1) areas related to possible physical disabilities and (2) those related to learning disabilities. In the first section of the questionnaire, school districts were asked to supply information regarding examinations of general health, vision, hearing and speech of kindergarten and grade one children. The questions were designed to reveal: the proportion of beginners who receive attention in these areas, the source of referral (where such attention is not a matter of routine), the time of the year at which examinations are generally given and identification of the examining personnel. As indicated by Figure 1, responses were largely limited to "yes" or "no" and check marks. 44. HEARING Examination given by: • Nurse General Practitioner • • Specialist An Examination is given to: 1A11 beginning pupils? YES NO 2 Large numbers of beginners at the request of teachers or principals? YES NO In which case, estimated percentage of district beginners examined is . . . Individual referrals only? YES NO If yes, referral cases are determined by: Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO Other? (. specify .) YES NO No beginning pupils? YES NO ^Examination given: (check appropriate space(s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan.-June Figure 1. T y p i c a l , c e l l from the Possible Physical D i s a b i l i t i e s section The second section of the questionnaire (using e s s e n t i a l l y the same format) was concerned with measures and techniques intended to i d e n t i f y learning d i s a b i l i t i e s through the assessment of mental a b i l i t y , reading readiness, vocabulary development, perceptual s k i l l s and other related s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s . Figure 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the format of this section. Respondents were requested to supply copies of any locally-developed materials i n use. Additional space was provided to cover the eventuality that some aspects of a d i s t r i c t ' s screening programme could not be adequately des-cribed within the framework of the questions and to provide an opportunity, i f needed, for respondents to q u a l i f y or amplify t h e i r responses. I t was anticipated that t e s t i n g practices might not e a s i l y be described: (1) i n those d i s t r i c t s where considerable l a t i t u d e i n t e s t i n g materials and time schedules i s allowed, and (2) i n those d i s t r i c t s which depend extensively on r e f e r r a l examinations rather than on large-group t e s t i n g procedures. 4 5 . READINESS Name of test: Publisher: The test is administered to: 1A11 beginning pupils? YES NO' 2 Large numbers of beginners at the request of teachers or principals? YES NO In which case, estimated percentage of district beginners examined is . . . . Individual referrals only? YES NO If yes, referral cases are determined by: Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO Other? ( ) YES NO SPECIFY Examination given: (check appropriate space(s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan. -June Figure 2. Typical cell from the Possible Learning Disabilities secti on To accompany the questionnaire, a set of directions was compiled which outlined the purpose and format of the questions. This document is included in Appendix I as is the covering letter which described the survey in general terms, and gave assurance of anonymity. The questionnaire package was then mailed to District Superintendents of Schools for the seventy-seven school districts early in the fall of 1971. To encourage a high percentage of returns, a follow-up reminder was prepared and sent out four weeks following the first mailing to those districts which had not yet replied. Telephone contact as a final reminder was used in a few cases. It was assumed by December 31, 1971, that all districts intending to answer had done so. At that point, sixty-three of the seventy-seven dis-tricts had replied, their combined grade one enrolments amounting to nearly 87% of the provincial total. 46. Copies of the commonly used tests were obtained and analyzed i n terms of the p r i n c i p a l a b i l i t i e s which each assesses. A discussion of these tests together with other data derived from the questionnaire i s presented i n Chapter IV. 47. CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF THE DATA In this chapter the information accumulated is presented in summary form. Topics are arranged in the same sequence as they appeared in the questionnaire. Measures and techniques employed to assess mental ability, readiness, vocabulary and language development, perceptual skills, and other related skills and abilities are of particular concern to this study, hence the principal testing devices are individually identified and dis-cussed. The abilities evaluated by these more extensively used measures are described with particular attention to the oral language component. I. TREATMENT OF THE DATA A wealth of data emerged from the responses but the varieties of practices which were reported did not always lend themselves readily to a simple summation of responses. In addition, some replies were incomplete or contained apparent inconsistencies. Therefore, in order to summarize the data, i t was necessary to make certain arbitrary assumptions. Grade One Enrolment Used as a Base Throughout the following summaries, the computations were based on the grade one enrolment unless noted otherwise. Since kindergarten is not a compulsory grade (the programme was not offered in twenty-three districts in 1970-71), information concerning examinations and testing programmes of kindergarten pupils was carried forward to form a proportion of the grade one enrolment so treated. It was assumed that an individual examined in kindergarten would not again be examined in grade one except under special 48. circumstances. Generally, testing programmes were reported as commencing during the kindergarten year and carrying over to the year following to include absentees and those not enrolled in kindergarten. Testing Programmes for Large Groups In this study, large groups were considered to include all children assessed exclusive of those individually referred for examination. The term then provided for situations where a l l children in a district were examined and, i f less than all beginners were assessed, the smaller groups reported. In practice, these smaller groups occasionally ranged as low as 10% of the enrolment. Referral Testing Respondents were not asked to state the proportion of children referred for individual assessment. It was felt that such information would not be readily available and that i t would have been an unreasonable request to make of school districts. On the basis of personal experience in testing procedures and in administration, the investigator selected 5% as typical of the proportion of children individually referred for examination. Con-sultation with administrative personnel in several school districts supported this proportion. It is acknowledged that this figure may, to some degree, either under-estimate or over-estimate the percentage of beginners examined. For districts reporting less than 100% of their beginners as being assessed, and indicating that individual referrals constituted a part of their testing programme, 5% of those not included in large group assessments was calculated as a part of the referral population. For convenience, this figure is identified as a correction factor in Tables 14 and 20. 49. I I . RESPONSE TO DISTRICT SCREENING MEASURES QUESTIONNAIRE BY DISTRICT AND ENROLMENT The sizeable response from school d i s t r i c t s as shown i n Table 2 affords assurance that the information which follows i s representative of practices i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Sixty-three of the seventy-seven school d i s t r i c t s , amounting to nearly 82?0 of the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l , responded to the question-na i r e . At June 30, 1971, these sixty-three d i s t r i c t s enrolled 17,714 kindergarten pupils or 84.13% of the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l and 37,516 grade one pupils or 86.95% of the p r o v i n c i a l enrolment (Table 3). TABLE 2 RESPONSE TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE BY SCHOOL DISTRICTS D i s t r i c t s Reporting D i s t r i c t s Not Reporting P r o v i n c i a l Total Number of Dis-t r i c t s 63 14 77 Percentage of Total 81.82% 18.18% 100% 50. TABLE 3 KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE I NET ENROLMENT OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS AT JUNE 30, 1971 Enrolment Data Districts Reporting Districts Not Reporting Provincial Total Kindergarten enrol-ment 17,714 3,342 21,056 Kindergarten enrol-ment as a percentage of the provincial total 84.13% 15.87% 100% Grade 1 enrolment 37,516 5,629 43,145 Grade 1 enrolment as a percentage of the provincial total 86.95% 13.15% 100% Source: Net enrolment of school districts as reported in B.C., Department of Education. Public  Schools of the Province of British Columbia, lOOth Annual Report, 1970-71. Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1972, pp. 108-165. III. EXAMINATIONS OF GENERAL HEALTH Questions relating to general health assessments were included in the questionnaire to identify that proportion of school beginners who had received or would receive during their first year in school an examination as a matter of course. The information presented in Table 4 indicates that by the end of grade one approximately 61% of the enrolment is estimated as having been examined. An examination of individual replies reveals that twenty-six districts while reporting that most or all of their beginners were examined, stated that the examinations were performed not by physicians 51. TABLE 4 EXAMINATIONS OF GENERAL HEALTH Enrolment Data Testing Programme For Large Groups3 Referral Testing Only No Testing Programme Totals Number of Districts Reporting 40 21 2 63 Grade 1 enrolment of Districts reporting 27,348 8,771 1,392 37,516 Grade 1 enrolment as a percentage of the reported population 72.90% 23.38% 3.72% 100% Estimate of Beginners examined 22,517 439b - 22,956 Estimate of Beginners examined as a percen-tage of reported Grade 1 population of 37,516 60.02% 1.17% - 61.19% Large group testing was reported as ranging from 10% to 100% of the beginners. Referral testing estimated at 5% of the enrolment. but by Public Health nurses (Table 5). A similar situation prevailed in four districts who reported only referral examinations. The term examination, in these cases, is somewhat misleading; "general health appraisal" might be more precise. The nature of the appraisal and a related assessment prog-ramme will be amplified in a description of general health practices. 52. TABLE 5 PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR EXAMINATIONS Districts Personnel Reporting Public Health Nurse 30 General Practitioner 33 Specialist 3 A general health examination, as reported here, may, or may not, con-sist of a full-scale physical examination. The questionnaire responses suggest a variety of practices : 1. School District Health Services: Some districts maintain full-time medical personnel. In these cases, most, i f not a l l , of the beginners are given physical examinations. 2. Referral to Private Practitioners: In some areas both the school district and the Public Health staff request, with varying degrees of insistence, that school beginners be examined by the family physician. Relevant information is usually relayed back to the Public Health staff so that continued observation and follow-up procedures are facilitated. 3. Public Health Services: Practices vary from area to area. At least three procedures or combinations of the three are evident: (a) General Health Appraisal: The appraisal by Public Health nurses may include height and weight measurements, tests of vision and hearing, and observations of general dental and physical condition. 53. (b) The Pre-School Clinic : Some areas have developed a c l i n i c approach which usually combines the services of both medical doctors and Public Health staff. (c) The Denver Developmental Scale Pilot Project: In the 1970-71 school year, Public Health staff i n three school districts under-took a t r i a l use of the Denver Developmental Scale with four-year old children. The Scale includes gross motor, fine motor-adaptive, language and personal-social test items set out in a developmental sequence which ranges from one month to six years of age. The Scale, however, was actually only reported by one of the three districts and since that d i s t r i c t does not offer a kindergarten programme, i t s use could not be considered applicable to children who were beginning school. Its use has been noted here since i t is anticpated within the Health Branch that more widespread application of the Scale w i l l be made over the next few years. The need for early diagnosis of any forms of disabi l i t y prompted the inclusion of a series of questions which asked when various examinations were conducted. Table VI indicates that examinations were begun prior to the kindergarten year and continued on through grade one. More examinations were made during the f a l l term of kindergarten and grade one than at other times. Recognizing the d i f f i c u l t y of contacting a l l children prior to school opening, these data suggest that examinations were generally per-formed as early as possible. 54. TABLE 6 SCHEDULING OF EXAMINATIONS OF HEALTH, VISION, HEARING AND SPEECH BY SCHOOL DISTRICTS Before Start During Fall Term During Spring Term 6 0 0 0 6 0 Grade .13 a c rC c c •e c c j= J J o • H o 4 J o • H O • U o • H o • H cu r-l • H cu i—1 •T4 H cu cS co CO cu CO CO CO cu CO CO CO cu CU • H CU a, CU •l-l cu ft CU • H CU ft * > w co x > X C O W > ff! C O Kindergarten 16 12 11 9 25 32 33 19 16 12 12 13 Grade I 27 12 11 12 33 47 46 34 10 9 11 24 Respondents reported that the teacher or principal was the main source of referrals for a l l types of examinations (Table 7), although parents, school district staff and public health personnel were also involved. Fewer referrals concerning vision and hearing were reported compared to general health and speech, reflecting the practice of routine and large-scale testing programmes of the former. TABLE 7 PERSONNEL INITIATING REFERRALS FOR EXAMINATIONS OF HEALTH, VISION, HEARING AND SPEECH Personnel Districts Reporting Health Vision Hearing Speech Teacher or principal 21 8 13 38 Parent 15 4 8 26 School district staff 6 2 4 9 ' Public Health staff 6 4 4 12 55. IV. EXAMINATIONS OF VISION As a matter of B.C. Health Branch p o l i c y , v i s i o n examinations are administered to a l l kindergarten and grade one c h i l d r e n . Despite the o f f i c i a l p o l i c y , data from the questionnaire show 91.17=, of the grade one enrolment as receiving a v i s i o n test (Table 8). A v a r i e t y of factors i n c l u d i n g absenteeism and family mobility appears to account for the lower than 1007, f i g u r e . TABLE 8 EXAMINATIONS OF VISION Enrolment Data Testing Programme For Large Groups 3 Referral Testing Only No Testing Programme Totals Number of D i s t r i c t s reporting 60 3 N i l 63 Grade 1 enrolment of D i s t r i c t s reporting 34,799 2,717 - 37,516 Grade 1 enrolment as a percentage of the reported population 92.767o • 7.247, _ 1007, Estimate of Beginners examined 34,042 136 b - 34,178 Estimate of Beginners examined as a percen-tage of reported Grade 1 enrolment of 37,516 90.747, .367o - 91.107. Large group t e s t i n g was reported as ranging from 807> to 1007, of the Beginners. Referral t e s t i n g was estimated at 57» of the enrolment. 56. Public Health examinations of visual acuity employ either or both the Health Branch Symbols Chart consisting of series of squares, circles and heart symbols and the "E" Test (Sloan Scale) using an illuminated frame. Children having 20/40 or poorer vision are referred for further attention. Inspection for abnormalities such as strabismus, muscle imbalance and colour blindness are also typically part of the examination. Responsibility for vision examinations clearly fell to the Public Health staff (Table 9). Where other medical personnel were mentioned, res-pondents indicated that the first step in the sequence of referrals remained with the Public Health nurse. TABLE 9 PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR EXAMINATIONS Districts Personnel Reporting Public Health Nurse 60 General Practitioner 3 Specialist 8 V. EXAMINATIONS OF HEARING The School Health Programme (1971, p. 8) of the B.C. Health Branch recommends hearing examinations of children attending kindergarten, of grade one children not previously examined, and of older school children where some problem appears to exist. The examination may vary depending on available equipment but typically i t would involve a two-part procedure: first, a test using an "Oto-chek" which emits frequencies of 2000 and 4000 57. cycles at both the 15 and 35 decibel levels; and second, the child failing to meet certain requirements of the first test may then be examined using a Pure-Tone Audiometer. This examination involves frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 cycles at the 20 decibel level and of 4000 cycles at the 25 decibel level. The child, again exhibiting auditory problems, would be referred for medical attention. TABLE 10 EXAMINATIONS OF HEARING Enrolment Data Testing Programme For Large Groups3 Referral Testing Only No Testing Programme Totals Number of Districts reporting 57 6 0 63 Grade 1 enrolment of Districts reporting 34,304 3,212 - 37,516 Grade 1 enrolment as a percentage of the reported population 91.44% 8.56% - 100% Estimate of Beginners examined 33,082 161b - 33,243 Estimate of Beginners examined as a percen-tage of reported Grade 1 enrolment of 37,516 88.18% .43% - 88.61% Large group testing was reported as ranging from 30% to 100% of Beginners. Referral testing was estimated at 5% of the enrolment. 5 8 . M o s t d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d a l l , o r n e a r l y a l l , o f t h e i r b e g i n n e r s w e r e g i v e n h e a r i n g t e s t s , o r i n s u m m a t i o n , s o m e 8 8 . 6 1 % o f t h e e n r o l m e n t b y t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t g r a d e ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . S i x d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d t h a t h e a r i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s w e r e c o n d u c t e d o n a r e f e r r a l b a s i s o n l y ; a s i m i l a r r e p o r t m a y b e n o t e d f o r v i s i o n e x a m i n a t i o n s . No e x p l a n a t i o n s w e r e d i s c e r n i b l e f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s a n d n o p a t t e r n c a n b e s e e n t o l i n k t h e s e w i d e l y d i s s i m i l a r d i s t r i c t s . P u b l i c H e a l t h s t a f f a g a i n a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y a l l o f t h e f i r s t - s t a g e e x a m i n a t i o n s ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . A u d i t o r y p r o b l e m s d e t e c t e d a t t h i s l e v e l w e r e t h e n r e f e r r e d f o r m o r e s p e c i a l i z e d a t t e n t i o n . T A B L E 1 1 P E R S O N N E L R E S P O N S I B L E F O R E X A M I N A T I O N S P e r s o n n e l D i s t r i c t s R e p o r t i n g P u b l i c H e a l t h n u r s e 6 0 G e n e r a l P r a c t i t i o n e r 4 S p e c i a l i s t 8 V I . E X A M I N A T I O N S OF S P E E C H O f t h e v a r i o u s s u r v e y e d a r e a s o f p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , s p e e c h e x a m i n a -t i o n s w e r e r e p o r t e d t o b e g i v e n t h e l e a s t a t t e n t i o n ( T a b l e 1 2 ) w i t h a n e s t i m a t e d 1 2 . 1 6 7 , o f t h e g r a d e o n e e n r o l m e n t e x a m i n e d . S e v e n d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d n o t e s t i n g p r o g r a m m e a n d f o r t y - s e v e n i n d i c a t e d r e f e r r a l e x a m i n a -t i o n s o n l y . O n l y n i n e d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s o f l a r g e g r o u p s o f b e g i n n e r s ; a n u m b e r o f t h o s e s o r e p o r t i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e x a m i n a t i o n w a s c o n d u c t e d b y P u b l i c H e a l t h s t a f f ( T a b l e 1 3 ) . S u c h a n e x a m i n a t i o n 59. appears to vary from area to area; generally, the c h i l d i s asked to name a series of pictures with the responses intended to cover most of the conso-nants as uttered i n the i n i t i a l , medial and f i n a l p o s i t i o n s . Children e x h i b i t i n g marked d i f f i c u l t i e s are then referred for further a t t e n t i o n . Typical p r a c t i c e at the Public Health l e v e l also includes r e f e r r a l of both the s t u t t e r i n g and the excessively non-verbal c h i l d . Minor speech i r r e g u -l a r i t i e s which are a t t r i b u t a b l e to immaturity are not considered cause for r e f e r r a l . TABLE 12 EXAMINATIONS OF SPEECH Enrolment Data Testing Programme For Large Groups 3 Referral Testing Only No Testing Programme Totals Number of D i s t r i c t s reporting 9 47 7 63 Grade 1 enrolment of D i s t r i c t s reporting 2,935 32,595 1,986 37,516 Grade 1 enrolment as a percentage of the reported population 7.827o 86.887, 5.297o 100% Estimate of beginners examined 2,935 l,630 b - 4,565 Estimate of beginners examined as a percen-tage of reported Grade 1 enrolment of 37,516 7.827o 4.347, - 12.16% Large group t e s t i n g was reported as ranging from 10% to 100% of the beginners. Referral t e s t i n g was estimated at 57> of the enrolment. 60. TABLE 13 PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR EXAMINATIONS Personnel Districts Reporting Public Health Nurse 25 General Practitioner 12 Specialist 34 VII. EXAMINATIONS OF MENTAL ABILITY While the practice of screening beginners through the use of mental ability tests was reported by fifty-seven of the sixty-three districts, only a small percentage of the grade one enrolment was actually examined. Of the seventeen districts reporting large group testing, only seven indi-cated the examination of their full enrolment; the proportion of beginners assessed in the remaining ten districts ranged from 10% to 30%. Thus of the 8,559 pupils enrolled in these seventeen districts, i t is estimated that a l i t t l e more than one-third, or 3,444 pupils were actually tested (Table 14). A majority of districts favoured systems of referral testing. Although only 4.35%, or 1,633 pupils, are estimated as receiving such a test, i t should be borne in mind that any of the 27,800 children in these forty districts could have been examined i f any reason existed to do so. These data suggest that, for this age level at least, educators generally avoid group testing and (as will be shown) where i t has been determined that large segments of the enrolment will be screened, 61. TABLE 14 EXAMINATIONS OF MENTAL ABILITY Enrolment Data Testing Programme For Large Groups3 Referral Testing Only No Testing Programme Totals Number of Districts reporting 17 40 6 63 Grade 1 enrolment of Districts reporting 8,559 27,800 1,157 37,516 Grade 1 enrolment as a percentage of the reported population 22.82% 74.10% 3.08% 100% Estimate of children tested 3,444 l,390b - -Correction estimate - 243° 1,633 - 5,077 Estimate of children tested as a percentage of reported Grade 1 enrolment of 37,516 9.18% 4.35% - 13.53% Large group testing was reported as ranging from 10% to 100% of the beginners. Referral testing was estimated at 5% of the enrolment. Correction estimate compensates where less than 100% of the enrolment was tested and where referral test-ing was also reported. individually administered tests are usually employed. A summary of mental ability tests in use, showing the extent of their application, may be found in Table 17. 62. S i n c e r e f e r r a l t e s t i n g w a s r e p o r t e d t o b e m o r e c o m m o n p r a c t i c e , t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e n t h e m e n t a l a b i l i t y t e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d w a s n o t e s p e c i a l l y m e a n i n g f u l . U n a b l e t o s p e c i f y a n y p a r t i c u l a r t i m e , m a n y d i s -t r i c t s r e s p o n d e d w i t h p h r a s e s : " a n y t i m e " , " t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r " , a n d " a s s o o n a s r e f e r r e d " . A s T a b l e 1 5 ( a ) s h o w s , i n d i s t r i c t s w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n , t h e r e w a s a s m a l l t e n d e n c y t o p r e f e r l a t e k i n d e r g a r t e n a n d e a r l y g r a d e o n e a s t i m e s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f m e n t a l a b i l i t y t e s t s . D i s t r i c t s p r o v i d i n g n o k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m m e ( T a b l e 1 5 ( b ) ) s h o w e d a s m a l l t e n d e n c y t o f a v o u r e a r l y g r a d e o n e . S o m e o f t h e s e d i s t r i c t s i n d i c a t e d a t t e m p t s t o e v a l u a t e t h e c h i l d p r i o r t o h i s e n t r y i n t o s c h o o l . T A B L E 1 5 S C H E D U L I N G OF E X A M I N A T I O N S OF M E N T A L A B I L I T Y ( a ) D i s t r i c t s w i t h K i n d e r g a r t e n P r o g r a m m e s b y N u m b e r o f D i s t r i c t s B e f o r e F a l l S p r i n g G r a d e S t a r t T e r m T e r m K i n d e r g a r t e n 2 17 2 1 G r a d e 1 2 2 2 17 ( b ) D i s t r i c t s W i t h o u t K i n d e r g a r t e n P r o g r a m m e s b y N u m b e r o f D i s t r i c t s G r a d e B e f o r e S t a r t F a l l T e r m S p r i n g T e r m G r a d e 1 7 1 8 1 3 N u m b e r o f d i s t r i c t s s h o w n h e r e d o e s n o t e q u a l t h e n u m b e r r e p o r t i n g s i n c e s o m e d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d a v a r i e t y o f t i m e s . A s m i g h t b e a n t i c i p a t e d , m o s t d i s t r i c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e f e r r a l s w e r e m o s t o f t e n i n i t i a t e d b y e i t h e r t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r o r t h e p r i n c i p a l . F i f t e e n d i s t r i c t s r e p o r t e d t h a t s o m e r e q u e s t s f o r e v a l u a t i o n c a m e f r o m 6 3 . p a r e n t s ; w h i l e e i g h t e e n d i s t r i c t s o b t a i n e d r e q u e s t s f r o m g e n e r a l p r a c t i -t i o n e r s , P u b l i c H e a l t h p e r s o n n e l a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t a f f ( T a b l e 1 6 ) . W h i l e t h e t e a c h e r a p p e a r s t o b e i n t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n t o n o t e d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d m a k e r e f e r r a l s , o t h e r l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . T A B L E 1 6 P E R S O N N E L I N I T I A T I N G R E F E R R A L T E S T I N G P e r s o n n e l D i s t r i c t s R e p o r t i n g T e a c h e r 4 5 P a r e n t 1 5 O t h e r : S c h o o l D i s t -r i c t S t a f f 5 M e d i c a l H e a l t h P e r s o n n e l 1 3 M e a s u r e s E m p l o y e d t o A s s e s s M e n t a l A b i l i t y D a t a s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 1 4 h a s i n d i c a t e d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m e a s u r e s o f m e n t a l a b i l i t y a r e e m p l o y e d t o s c r e e n s c h o o l b e g i n n e r s f o r p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . T h e i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s r e p o r t e d a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h e a c h w a s u s e d i s d e t a i l e d i n T a b l e 1 7 . I t i s n o t e d t h a t s o m e t i t l e s a r e n o t g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t e s t s o f m e n t a l a b i l i t y ; t h e y w e r e , h o w e v e r , r e p o r t e d t o b e i n u s e a s s u c h . O f t h e f o u r t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a t l e a s t 1% o f t h e t o t a l r e p o r t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 7 , 5 1 6 , i t m a y b e o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n m a y o n l y b e a d m i n i s t e r e d o n a n i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s ; t h e P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t a n d t h e R a v e n ' s C o l o u r e d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s a r e a l s o t y p i c a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d o n a n i n d i v i -d u a l b a s i s a l t h o u g h g r o u p a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . O f t h e m o s t c o m m o n l y 64. used t e s t s , only the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Mental Maturity i s generally used for group administration. P r i n c i p a l A b i l i t i e s Assessed and C r i t e r i o n Tasks Employed Tests of mental a b i l i t y vary as much i n format as i n the a b i l i t i e s measured. Table 18 summarizes the p r i n c i p a l a b i l i t i e s and outlines the c r i t e r i o n tasks by which the assessment i s made for those tests which were reported to have been employed with at l e a s t 1% of the grade one enrolment. Appendix II provides a further elaboration of these tests i n which the depth of evaluation i s indicated together with i n s t r u c t i o n s c i t e d or para-phrased from the tests to c l a r i f y the nature of the tasks, and a further examination of the vocabulary and language components. To e s t a b l i s h a framework within which to examine i n d i v i d u a l instruments, the p r i n c i p a l a b i l i t i e s assessed by the tests were i d e n t i f i e d and defined. The i n d i v i d u a l components of each test were then categorized within t h i s framework p a r t l y on the basis of the investigator's judgment and p a r t l y on the information a v a i l a b l e i n the test manuals. It should be noted that the p r i n c i p a l a b i l i t i e s used i n Table 18 do not n e c e s s a r i l y represent s p e c i f i c sub-tests, nor are separate scores for each a b i l i t y n e c e s s a r i l y a v a i l a b l e . TABLE 17 MEASURES EMPLOYED TO ASSESS MENTAL ABILITY Large Group Testing Referral Testing Beginners Tests Number of Districts Number of Pupils Examined Number of Districts Estimate of Pupils Examined Total Estimated Number of Beginners Tested3 Tested As Percentage of Reported Population Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 8 1629 19 284 1913 5.10% California Test of Mental Maturity 1 726 726 1.947. Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices 3 526 8 91 617 1.687. Wechsler Intelli-gence Scale for Children 26 429 429 1.147. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence 11 277 277 .747. Stanford Binet In-telligence Scale 13 213 213 .577. Dominion Test of Mental Ability 1 176 176 .477. SRA Primary Mental Abilities 1 98 1 12 110 .297. Slosson Intelli-gence Test 3 64 64 Bender Gestalt Test for Young Children 4 38 38 Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test 3 28 28 . 487. Otis Quick Scoring Test of Mental Ability 2 19 19 i 66. TABLE 17 (Continued) Large Group Testing Referral Testing Beginners Tests Number of Districts Number of Pupils Examined Number of Districts Estimate of Pupils Examined Total Estimated Number of Beginners Tested3 Tested As Percentage of Reported Population Columbia Test of Mental Maturity 3 10 10 Illinois Test of Psycho-linguistic Abilities 1 14 14 IPAT Culture Fair Intelligence Scale, 1 1 2 2 Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test 1 5 5 Grace Arthur Point Scale of Perform-ance _ Unspecified 3 313 3 436 1.16% Totals 3,444 1,633 5,077 13.53% 3 Referral testing was estimated at 5% of the enrolment. Where several tests were listed for referral use, the 5% was divided equally among the several titles. The principal abilities assessed in the tests of mental ability are defined as follows : Visual Perception -The ability to recognize and discriminate visual stimuli and to inter-pret these stimuli by associating them with previous experience. Although most tests draw upon visual perception to some extent, the ability was not 67. deemed to have been measured unless that was a s p e c i f i c purpose of the te s t . Visual Discrimination -The a b i l i t y to see likenesses and differences i n v i s u a l patterns. The a b i l i t y involves d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of l e t t e r forms and word patterns as well as discrimination of gross forms (pictures, geometric patterns). Visual-Motor Coordination -The a b i l i t y to coordinate v i s i o n with body movement; i n th i s context, i t includes copying of forms and symbols. Visual Association -The a b i l i t y to r e l a t e or associate several factors which are presented v i s u a l l y . Spatial Orientation -The a b i l i t y to perceive the p o s i t i o n of objects i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to other objects and i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the observer. Auditory Memory -The a b i l i t y to r e c a l l information received a u d i t o r a l l y , for example, a sequence of d i g i t s , words, or, i n the case of r e - t e l l i n g a story, a sequence of thoughts. General Knowledge -An understanding of information common to the cult u r e . 68. Arithmetic Concepts and Number Knowledge -The a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y , use, or p r i n t number symbols; the a b i l i t y to perceive arithmetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s and to engage i n quantitative reasoning. Abstract Thinking and Logical Relationships -The a b i l i t y to perceive i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t organization within sys-tems; the a b i l i t y to r e l a t e experiences and information i n novel ways to produce problem so l u t i o n s . Receptive Oral Language -The a b i l i t y to derive the meaning of an utterance or from continuous speech. Receptive o r a l language i s a component of most tests i n the sense that the subject must understand the examiner's di r e c t i o n s before he can respond to the question. This aspect, however, has been considered i n c i -dental. In t h i s study, receptive o r a l language i s considered to have been assessed when i t i s apparent that some aspect of language capacity i s the p r i n c i p a l concern. T y p i c a l l y , receptive oral language i s measured by tests of vocabulary, comprehension, of following d i r e c t i o n s where the subject does not have to respond i n words. Expressive Oral Language -The a b i l i t y to express intended meaning and thought through normal speech patterns. Chapter II suggests nine measurable q u a l i t i e s of expres-sive oral language. 69. TABLE 18 MEASURES OF MENTAL ABILITY: PRINCIPAL ABILITIES ASSESSED AND CRITERION TASKS EMPLOYED INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES M E A S U R E D 3 b TEST CRITERION TASKS Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Verbal Intelligence) California Test of Mental Maturity (General Intelligence) Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (Perceptual Intelligence) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (General Intelligence) Used with 5.10% of the beginners + referrals Used with 1. 94% of the beginners Used with 1. 68% of the beginners + referrals Used with 1.14% of the beginners Visual Perception - Perception of pictorially presented sequences. Identify missing parts of familiar objects; arrange segments for form pictures and sequences; match elements using coding system; perceive path through mazes. Visual Discrimination - Distinguish detail in patterns. Similarities and differences of blocks used to form design. Visual-Motor Coordination - - - Arrange blocks to form pattern; arrange segments to form pictures; match elements using coding system. Visual Association - - - Match elements using coding system. Spatial Orientation Sense of right and left by identification of pictures of body parts. Identification of geometric forms and drawings rotated in space. Identification of pattern?. Identification of spatial shift to form patterns. Perceive pathway through mazes. Auditory Memory - Relate sequence of detail to form con-clusion and identify appropriate picture. - Repeat sequences of digits forwards and backwards. General Knowledge Comprehend concepts implicit in vocabulary. Definitions of quantitative, geographical, natural, and historical information; ques-tions of experience, morality, politics, financial and practical matters. Arithmetic Concepts and Number Knowledge - Identify pictures showing arithmetic re-lationships and number sequences; quan-titative reasoning related to pictures. - Counting; quantitative reasoning using whole numbers and fractions. Abstract Thinking and Logical Relationships - Categorization of pictures by class and function; identify pictures showing re-lationships of position and distance. Identify and project on the basis of visual relationships. State relationships of words by category and description. Receptive Oral Language Vocabulary comprehension by identifica-tion of pictures representing nouns, ad-jectives, verbs, gerunds. Relate pictures to story; vocabulary com-prehension by identifying pictures repre-senting nouns, gerunds, adjectives and prepositions. Expressive Oral Language - - - Define nouns, verbs and adjectives. Principal abilities are based in part on investigator's judgment and in part on descriptions provided in test manuals. Abilities listed do not necessarily form specific sub-tests, neither may separate scores be derived for these abilities necessarily. 70. Oral Language Assessments and Ratings Derived from Tests of Mental Ability The preceding section has reported practices throughout the province with respect to assessments of mental ability. It now remains to return to the specific interest of this study and re-examine these various assessment instruments and the data to determine the proportion of beginners tested with measures having an oral language component and the proportion who are separately rated on oral language competency. Of the commonly used tests of mental ability''', the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), the California Test of Mental Ability (CTMM) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) have been shown to con-tain oral language components. As indicated in Table 18, the criterion tasks by which oral language is assessed are: 1. Receptive Oral Language (a) Vocabulary comprehension indicated by identifying pictures; (b) Paragraph comprehension indicated by relating short spoken statements to appropriate pictures. 2. Expressive Oral Language (a) Vocabulary comprehension indicated by orally defining words. Approximately 8% of the reported population, or 3,068 beginners, were assessed through the three tests of mental ability which include oral Of the four most commonly used tests of mental ability, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices does not contain an oral language component. language components (Table 19). It may be seen that, of this number, only an estimated 429 pupils were assessed on the basis of expressive oral language through use of the WISC. Receptive oral language ratings may be inferred from the PPVT and the CTMM. The PPVT, as a test of verbal intelligence, affords mental age, intelligence quotient and percentile rank data. The CTMM distinguishes between language and non-language components; mental ages, intelligence quotients and percentile ranks may be determined for each section. The vocabulary sub-test of the WISC has been defined in this study as a measure of expressive oral language. The sub-test raw scores may be converted to equivalent mental ages. Of the 5,077 beginners^, then, who were estimated as having received a test of mental ability, approximately 807, were assessed with one of the four most commonly used tests. Three of the four tests contain an oral language component and a separate rating may be derived in each case. Since all three instruments are generally considered to be measures of mental ability rather than of oral language, the point must be made that while separate language scores may be derived, the extent to which this is actually done is open to question. The figure of 5,077 beginners represents only 13.537, of the total reported population. An estimated 86.477, were not examined in terms of mental ability. TABLE 19 ORAL LANGUAGE MEASUREMENT AND SEPARATE ORAL LANGUAGE RATINGS OF TESTS OF MENTAL ABILITY Proportion of Beginners Assessed3 ^  Assessed through tests Assessed through tests having an Oral Language providing a separate Component Oral Language Rating Tests Receptive Expressive Receptive Expressive Oral Oral Oral Oral of Language Language Language Language Mental Ability Number of Beginners Assessed Number as Percentage Number of Beginners Assessed Number as Percentage Number of Beginners Assessed Number as Percentage Number of Beginners Assessed Number as Percentage Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 1,913 5.10% - - 1,913 5.10% - -California Test of Mental Maturity 726 1.94% - - 726 1.94% - -Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children — 429 1.14% 429 1.14% Sub-totals 2,639 7.04% 429 1.14% 2,639 7.04% 429 1.14% Totals of Receptive and Expressive 3, 068 3, 068 Oral Language 8. 18% 8. 18% Measures Proportions based on the total reported population of 37,516. Includes both large-group and referral testing. 73. VIII. EXAMINATIONS OF READINESS, VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE, PERCEPTION, MOTOR COORDINATION AND RELATED ABILITIES In contrast to the use of mental ability tests where referral testing was reported to be favoured over examinations of large groups, tests of readiness and other abilities were more generally administered to large groups; only four districts reported the exclusive use of referral proce-dures. Table 20 summarizes the extent to which measures of readiness and other abilities were used and indicates tha an estimated 63.23%, or 23,721 pupils, were examined with at least one test by the end of grade one. The distinction of one test is made since some districts with extensive programmes reported that their beginners were evaluated with as many as three measures. Because of the diversity, not only from district to dis-trict, but also from school to school within a given district, i t has not been possible to incorporate all of this information here. It may be observed from the Table that of the 29,368 beginners enrolled in districts utilizing large-group testing procedures, at least 22,996 were examined as a matter of routine. A substantial number, 8,820, attended districts which relied on referral action exclusively. It may not be sup-posed, however, that, while for purposes of this survey a referral estimate was designated as 5% of the enrolment, large numbers of beginners were neglected. Comments and marginal notes added to the District Screening  Measures questionnaire indicated that these districts have well-established testing programmes which rely on the classroom teacher to make the ini t i a l screening through informal day-by-day observations. In fact, then, any one of these 8,820 beginners could have been examined i f such was considered desirable. TABLE 20 EXAMINATIONS OF READINESS, VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE, PERCEPTION, MOTOR COORDINATION AND RELATED ABILITIES Enrolment Data Testing Programme For Large Groups3 Referral Testing Only No Testing Programme Totals Number of Districts reporting 57 4 2 63 Grade 1 enrolment of Districts reporting 29,368 8,820 328 37,516 Grade 1 enrolment as a percentage of the reported population 75.62% 23.51% .87% 100% Estimate of children tested on at least one test 22,996 441b _ Correction estimate - 284° 725 -23,721 Estimate of children tested as a percentage of reported Grade 1 enrolment of 37,516 61.30% 1.93% 63.23% Large group testing was reported as ranging from 10% to 100% of the beginners. Referral testing was estimated at 5% of the enrolment. Correction estimate compensates where less than 100%, of the enrolment was tested and where referral testing was also reported. Scheduling of tests of readiness and other abilities followed a pattern similar to that reported for mental ability tests (Table 21), with group-administered tests given in the spring term of kindergarten (where appli-cable) and in the fall term of grade one. As has been previously reported for other forms of referral screening, the classroom teacher was responsible for most of the referral requests (Table 22) although parents, school dis-trict staff and medical health personnel accounted for some of the requests. TABLE 21 SCHEDULING OF EXAMINATIONS OF READINESS AND OTHER ABILITIES (a) Districts with Kindergarten Programme (by number of districts) 3 Grade Before Start Fall Term Spring Term Kindergarten Nil 8 26 Grade 1 3 28 11 (b) Districts without Kindergarten Programme (by number of districts) Grade Before Start Fall Term Spring Term Grade 1 7 18 11 Number of districts listed here does not equal the number reporting, since many districts reported a variety of times. TABLE 22 PERSONNEL INITIATING REFERRAL ACTION Personnel Districts Reporting Teacher 38 Parent 16 Other: School District Staff 10 Medical Health Staff 8 76. Measures Employed to Assess Readiness and Other Abilities Table 23 summarizes those measures employed to assess readiness, vocabulary and language, perception, motor coordination and related abili-ties, and indicates the extent to which each is used. It is noted that some of the titles are usually considered to be measures of mental ability; they were, however, reported to be used to assess readiness and other abilities. A summation of the number of districts and the proportion of beginners tested will be observed not to agree with those indicated pre-viously in Table 20. The preceding table referred to beginners who were tested on at least one measure while Table 23 includes a l l reported assess-ments. Where a district reported the extensive use of a number of tests, that district and its beginners would be reported more than once in this table. No attempt has been made to assign a percentage of the enrolment to each test used in referral procedures since some districts listed as many as twenty titles. Whether al l of these instruments were actively used in the testing programme would be difficult to gauge. TABLE 23 MEASURES EMPLOYED TO ASSESS READINESS, VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE, PERCEPTION, MOTOR COORDINATION AND RELATED ABILITIES LARGE GROUP USE REFERRAL USE TESTS No. of Districts No. of Beginners Tested Beginners Tested as Percentage3 No. of Districts Metropolitan Readiness Test 30 8,306 22.14% 4 Lee-Clark Reading Readiness 8 3,436 9.19% -Locally Developed Measures (Copies not supplied) 9 3,418 9.11% 77. TABLE 23 (Continued) LARGE GROUP USE REFERRALS USE TESTS No. of D i s t r i c t s No. of Beginners Tested Beginners Tested as Percentage 3 No. of D i s t r i c t s L o c a l l y Developed Measures (Copies supplied) 4 2,655 7.08% 2 F i r s t Grade Screening Test 4 1,910 5.09% -WinterHaven Perceptual Figure Test 6 1,797 4.79% 6 Primary Academic Senti-ment Scale 1 1,326 3.537o -Slingerland Pre-reading Screening Procedures 6 1,248 3 .337, 5 Gates-MacGinitie Readi-ness S k i l l s 4 982 2.627, 2 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 6 936 2.497, 11 Beery-Buktenica Devel-opmental Test of V i s u a l -Motor Integration 2 833 2.227c 2 Fr o s t i g Developmental Test of Visual Perception 7 808 2.157o 28 Benton Visual Retention 3 491 1.31% 1 Anton Brenner Develop-mental Gestalt Test of School Readiness 1 459 1.22% _ SRA Primary Mental A b i l i t i e s 1 393 1.05% -Ginn Check L i s t for Reading Readiness 1 260 .69% -Clymer-Barret Pre-reading Battery 1 1152 .41% 1 TABLE 23 (Continued) LARGE GROUP USE REFERRALS USE TESTS No. of D i s t r i c t s No. of Beginners Tested Beginners Tested as Percentage 3 No. of D i s t r i c t s School Readiness Survey 1 150 .407o 1 Test of Basic Experiences 1 147 .39% -C a l i f o r n i a Pre-Test of Vision, Hearing & Coordination 1 127 .347o Wepman Auditory ' Discrimination 1 105 .287. 11 Reardon-Baer Group Diagnostic 1 68 .187, -Bender Gestalt Test of Visual-Motor Perception 1 48 .13% 5 I l l i n o i s Test of Psycho-l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s - - - 15 Purdue Perceptual Motor Survey - - - 5 M i l l s Learning Methods Test - - - 3 Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices - - - 3 Harris Tests of La t e r a l Dominance - - - 2 Goldman-Fristoe Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination _ _ — 2 Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test - - - 2 Slossen Coordination Test - - - 1 Cratty Left-Right - - - 1 TABLE 23 (Continued) LARGE GROUP USE REFERRALS USE TESTS No. of Districts No. of Beginners Tested Beginners Tested as Percentage3 No. of Districts BCTF Auditory Screening - - - 1 Boehm Test of Basic Concepts - - - 1 Rutger's Drawing Test - - - 1 House-Tree-Person Test - - - 1 Valett Developmental Survey of Basic Learning Abilities _ _ _ 1 Pinter-Cunningham Primary Test - - - 1 Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty - - - 1 Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension - - - 1 Basic Concepts Inventory - - - 1 Neale Analysis of Read-ing Ability - - - 1 Standard Reading Inventory - - - 1 Reversals Test (Edfelt) - - - 1 Vineland Social Maturity Scale - - - 1 Pre-School Attainment Record - - - 1 Leavell Hand-Eye Coordinator Tests - - - 1 Percentages based on the reported Grade 1 enrolment of 37,516. 80. Principal Abilities Assessed and Criterion Tasks Employed The principal abilities and the determining criterion tasks of the more commonly used tests of readiness and other abilities are presented in Table 24. Tests which were reported to have been used with at least 2% of the grade one enrolment are included. The brevity of description necessary in a table may cause some ambiguity. A more detailed analysis of these tests is set out in Appendix III to indicate the extent of the evaluation, to illustrate the nature of the tasks, and to provide a closer considera-tion of the language component. The principal abilities were first identified and defined. The indi-vidual components of the tests were then categorized within these definitions on the basis of the investigator's judgment and on information available in test manuals. It should again be noted that the principal abilities used in Table 24 do not necessarily represent specific sub-tests, nor are separate scores for each ability necessarily available. Eleven definitions of principal abilities were provided in the preced-ing section. With three exceptions (visual association, general knowledge, and abstract thinking) all are applicable to the consideration of tests of readiness and other abilities and are not repeated here. Additional terms required are defined as follows : Visual Memory -The ability to identify or reproduce symbols, forms and details from pictures from memory. 81. Auditory Discrimination -The a b i l i t y to detect likenesses and differences among sounds, i n c l u d -ing speech sounds. Auditory Blending -The a b i l i t y to synthesize the phonemes of a word which have been pre-sented with pauses between the phonemes. A r t i c u l a t i o n -The a b i l i t y to c o r r e c t l y repeat words or phrases which have been presented o r a l l y . Perception of Body Image -The a b i l i t y to draw a human figure. The amount of d e t a i l i s considered a measure of perception, motor control and general i n t e l l i g e n c e . Emotional and A t t i t u d i n a l Awareness -The a b i l i t y to perceive emotions and reactions; awareness of own behaviour and expression of a t t i t u d e s . Knowledge of the Alphabet -The a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y or produce l e t t e r s of the alphabet. Word Recognition -The process of asso c i a t i n g the printed form of a word with i t s or a l language counterpart. TABLE 24 MEASURES OF READINESS, VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE, PERCEPTION AND RELATED AB I L I T I E S : PRINCIPAL ABILITIES ASSESSED AND CRITERION TASKS EMPLOYED0 82. TEST CRITERION TASKS INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT o f PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED 3 b M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Test L e e - C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t F i r s t Grade S c r e e n i n g T e s t Winter Haven P e r c e p t u a l F i g u r e s T e s t P r i m a r y Academic Sentiment S c a l e S I i n g e r l a n d P r e - r e a d i n g S c r e e n i n g Procedures Gates-MacGini t i e Reading R e a d i n e s s Test B e e r y - B u k t e n i c a Developmental T e s t of V i s u a l Motor I n t e g r a t i o n F r o s t i g Developmental T e s t - V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n Used w i t h 22.14% of the beginners + r e f e r r a l s Used w i t h 9.19% o f the b e g i n n e r s Used w i t h 5.09% of the b e g i n n e r s Used w i t h 4.79% of the beginners + r e f e r r a l s Used w i t h 3.53% o f the b e g i n n e r s Used w i t h 3.33% o f the b e g i n n e r s + r e f e r r a l s Used w i t h 2.62% of the b e g i n n e r s + r e f e r r a l s Used w i t h 2.22% o f the b e g i n n e r s + r e f e r r a l s Used w i t h 2.15% o f the b e g i n n e r s + r e f e r r a l s V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n D e t e c t s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f -f e r e n c e s i n forms; i n t e r p r e t d e t a i l s from p i c t u r e s . I d e n t i f y p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t -i n g p o s i t i o n s i n space. P e r c e i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f g e o m e t r i c f i g u r e s and p a t t e r n s . P e r c e i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of geometric f i g u r e s . P e r c e i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f i g u r e s and forms. P e r c e i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e t t e r and word forms; i d e n t i f y s p a t i a l c o n c e p t s . P e r c e i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of g e o m e t r i c f i g u r e s and forms. P e r c e p t i o n o f g e o m e t r i c forms, p a t t e r n s , p o s i t i o n i n space. V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Match geometric forms, d e s i g n s and word symbols. I d e n t i f y s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e t t e r and word symbols. I d e n t i f y s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e t t e r , word, geometric symbols. I d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s i n word symbols. I d e n t i f y geometric forms r o -t a t e d , c o n c e a l e d and i n v a r i -ous s i z e s ; s i m i l a r ! t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n p i c t u r e s . V i s u a l - M o t o r C o o r d i n a t i o n Reproduce l e t t e r s , geometric d e s i g n s and forms. - Reproduce g e o m e t r i c f i g u r e s and p a t t e r n s ; draw l i n e s . Reproduce g e o m e t r i c forms. - Reproduce g e o m e t r i c forms, l e t t e r and number symbols. Reproduce l e t t e r symbols. Reproduce g e o m e t r i c f i g u r e s and forms. Draw l i n e s ; f o l l o w around forms; reproduce p a t t e r n s . V i s u a l Memory Recal1 iterns seen i n t e s t . Draw or i d e n t i f y forms, l e t t e r s a f t e r removal o f v i s u a l s t i m u l i . I d e n t i f y and draw around ge o m e t r i c p a t t e r n s and forms a f t e r removal of v i s u a l s t i m u l i . S p a t i a l O r i e n t a t i o n - - D i s t i n g u i s h p o s i t i o n s to complete t a s k . - - - - - D i s t i n g u i s h f i g u r e s r o t a t e d o r r e v e r s e d . A u d i t o r y Memory F o l l o w sequence of d i rec t i o n s . R e t e l l a s h o r t s t o r y . F o l l o w sequence of d e t a i l s to form c o n c l u s i o n or i n f e r e n c e ; f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s t o complete t a s k . A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n - - - - - Recognize s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n words; repeat words and p h r a s e s . D i s t i n g u i s h between s i m i l a r sounds. - -A u d i t o r y B l e n d i n g - - - - - - S y n t h e s i z e two and t h r e e phonemes. - -A r t i c u l a t i o n - - - - - Repeat words and p h r a s e s . - - -P e r c e p t i o n of Body Image Draw-a-man t e s t . ( A l s o a measure o f g e n e r a l mental a b i l i t y . ) Draw-a-man t e s t . (Scored f o r arms-mouth-body o n l y . ) - - - - - • E m o t i o n a l and A t t i t u d i n a l Awareness - I d e n t i f y p i c t u r e s showing emotions. I d e n t i f y mature a c t s ; aware-ness of p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n s . - D i s p l a y a t t i t u d e toward edu-c a t i o n and degree o£ p a r e n t a l dependency. - -A r i t h m e t i c Concepts and Number Knowledge A r i t h m e t i c c o n c e p t s , recog-n i t i o n o f numerals, p r i n t n umerals; q u a n t i t a t i v e r e a s o n i n g . I d e n t i f y p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t -i n g concepts of q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s i z e . I d e n t i f y p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t -i n g concept of s i z e . Knowledge o f A l p h a b e t I d e n t i f y l e t t e r symbols. - - - - I d e n t i f y l e t t e r symbols. I d e n t i f y l e t t e r symbols. - -Word R e c o g n i t i o n - - - - - - I d e n t i f y words read by examiner. - -R e c e p t i v e O r a l Language V o c a b u l a r y comprehension by marking p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g nouns; comprehension of s t o r i e s by marking p i c t u r e s . V o c a b u l a r y comprehension by marking p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , s p a t i a l c o n c e p t s . F o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s to p e r f o r m t a s k ; i d e n t i f y p i c t u r e s r e p -r e s e n t i n g nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , concept o f u t i l i t y ; s p a t i a l c o n c e p t s . Comprehension o f s h o r t s t o r y and draw c o n c l u s i o n from c o n t e n t . Comprehension o f s h o r t s t o r i e s and r e l a t e t o p i c -t u r e s ; draw i n f e r e n c e t o i d e n t i f y p i c t u r e s ; f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s t o p e r f o r m t a s k . E x p r e s s i v e O r a l Language R e t e l l s h o r t s t o r y (no obj ec t i v e r a t i n g ; i n f o r m a l and s u b j e c t i v e ) . P r i n c i p a l a b i l i t i e s a r e based i n p a r t on i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s judgment and i n p a r t on d e s c r i p t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n t e s t manuals. A b i l i t i e s l i s t e d do not n e c e s s a r i l y form s p e c i f i c s u b - t e s t s , n e i t h e r may s e p a r a t e s c o r e s be d e r i v e d f o r these a b i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r i l y . The Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t , i n a d d i t i o n to i t s use as a t e s t of mental a b i l i t y , was r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n t o have been used w i t h 2.49% o f the b e g i n n e r s p l u s use f o r r e f e r r a l assessments. The p r i n c i p a l a b i l i t i e s and c r i t e r i o n t a s k s f o r t h i s t e s t may be found i n T a b l e 18. Locally-Developed Measures of Readiness and Other Abilities 83. In response to the request that locally-developed measures be returned with the questionnaire, some twenty tests and check-lists were provided for examination. Since some materials were used only in individual schools and in other cases the extent to which some materials were used was not reported, an item-by-item discussion does not appear profitable. Nevertheless i t is of interest to note than an estimated 7.08% of the total grade one enrol-ment, or approximately 2,600 pupils, were assessed using the materials which were submitted. Another 9.11% or approximately 3,400 pupils, are estimated as having been assessed using locally-developed materials which were reported but not submitted for examination. Table 25 summarizes the components of those locally-developed measures and check-lists which were returned with the questionnaire. Although the range of abilities and criterion tasks is extensive, no single test encom-passed al l of these factors. Individual tests, rather, were restricted to two or three of these abilities rather than the entire spectrum. A further examination of these tests and check-lists is provided in Appendix IV. 84. TABLE 25 LOCALLY-DEVELOPED MEASURES OF READINESS, VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE, PERCEPTION AND RELATED ABILITIES: PRINCIPAL ABILITIES ASSESSED AND CRITERION TASKS EMPLOYED 4 INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT CRITERION TASKS OF TESTS OF Locally-developed materials PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED13 Used with 7. 08% of the beginners and for referral assessments Visual Perception Identify words, pictures, numbers and letters. Identify miss-ing parts. Perceive characteristics of geometric forms. Visual Discrimination Recognize similarities and differences in geometric forms and patterns; complete sequence of patterns. Visual-Motor Coordination Print name; reproduce geometric patterns. 1 Visual Memory Recall details from pictures. Spatial Orientation Left-right orientation. Auditory Memory Repeat sequences of numbers, of words. Auditory Discrimination Recognize rhyming words, initial and final consonant sounds. Auditory Blending -Articulation -Perception of Body Image Draw-a-man test (scored on three parts only). Emotional and Attitudinal Awareness Projective measure ("I'd most like to . . .") . Arithmetic Concepts and Number Knowledge Count objects. Knowledge of Alphabet Identify letter symbols. Word Recognition Identify words read by examiner. Receptive Oral Language Follow directions to perform task; identify pictures representing nouns, gerunds, adjectives and adverbs, concept of utility. Expressive Oral Language Informal observation of quality of ideas, ability to define words, mastery of sentences, ability to verbalize ideas. a The criterion tasks for twenty measures and check-lists are summarized. No individual measure included all of the tasks shown. Principal abilities are based on the investigator's examination of the materials supplied. 85. Oral Language Assessments and Ratings Derived from  Tests of Readiness and Other A b i l i t i e s The preceding section has reported practices throughout the province with respect to assessments of readiness and other a b i l i t i e s . The questions now to be answered are: what proportion of beginners are tested with mea-sures having an oral language component and what proportion are separately rated on oral language competency? Six of the ten most commonly used tests''' of readiness and other a b i l i t i e s contain oral language components. As shown in Table 26 these are: the Metropolitan Readiness Test, the Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test, the Fir s t Grade Screening Test, the Slingerland Pre-reading Screening Procedures, the Gates-MacGinitie Readiness Skills and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. The Slingerland Pre-reading test does not, however, pro-vide a rating of the language component; the assessment is informal and subjective. As has been shown in Table 23, the criterion tasks by which these tests measure oral language are: 1. Receptive Oral Language (a) Vocabulary comprehension indicated by identifying pictures; (b) Paragraph comprehension indicated by relating appropriate pictures to short spoken statements; (c) Following a sequence of directions to perform tasks. Of these ten tests used with at least 27, of the reported population, the following do not have an oral language component: Winter Haven Percep-tual Figure Test, Primary Academic Sentiment Scale, Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, and the Frostig Develop-mental Test of Visual Perception. 86. 2. Expressive Oral Language None of the tests attempt to measure expressive oral language. The information presented in Table 26 is based entirely on tests administered to large groups. This under-estimates the proportion of beginners who were assessed by omitting those tested through referral procedures. It was felt, however, that i t would be an unreasonable request to ask school districts to determine the exact numbers of children tested on referral bases with each of the many instruments available. Some 15,570 beginners, or 41.537, of the total reported population, were assessed through those tests of readiness and other abilities which include an oral language component. All such assessments were based on receptive oral language; none of these tests provide a measure of expres-sive oral language. Four of the six tests provide separate ratings of receptive oral language competence, although the ratings are generally cast in rather broad terms. The Metropolitan Readiness Test provides a five-point rating scale for each sub-test; the Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test provides a four-point scale. Stanines are available for each sub-test of the Gates- MacGinitie Readiness Skills. The total score of the Peabody Picture  Vocabulary Test, as described previously, may be converted to percentile rank, mental age, or intelligence quotient. Thus, at least 36.447, of the enrolment were assessed through tests which provide for a separate recep-tive oral language rating. 87 TABLE 26 ORAL LANGUAGE MEASUREMENT AND SEPARATE ORAL LANGUAGE RATINGS OF TESTS OF READINESS AND OTHER ABILITIES Tests of Readiness and Other Abilities Proportion of Beginners Assessed6 Assessed through tests having an Oral Language Component Receptive Oral Language M-I to O U X ) 0 1 0 ) fi co C co cu 60 CO CU CO m <; u CU •i 3 CU CO 60 c« cs J J U fi CU CU 3 3 P J Expressive Oral Language m co O !-J X I cu cu fi CO C to • H CU 60 CO CU CO U CU "I 3 S3 m <; cu CO 00 CS CS J J S-i C cu <u •e ° E h 3 CU la fx, Assessed through tests providing a separate oral language rating Receptive Oral Language CO u x) cu cu C -co C co • H CU 60 CO CU CO cu CO 60 CS cs U C cu cu S3 PQ <! a 3 55 Pi, Expressive Oral Language •4-1 CO O U X I CU CU fi CO C co • r - l <U 60 CO cu co r-l 0 1 •i 3 Ss m <J 0) CO 60 CS cs J J U fi cu 0 1 3 S 3 P M Metropolitan Readiness Test Lee-Clark Reading Readi ness Test First Grade Screening Test Slingerland Pre-reading Screening Procedures Gates-MacGinitie Readiness Skills Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 8,306 3,436 1,910 22.1-4% 9.19% 5.09% 8,306 22.14% 3,436 9.19% 982 2.62% 982 2.62% 936 2.49% 936 2.49% Totals of Receptive and Expressive Oral Language Measures 15,570 41.53% Nil Nil 13,660 36.44% Nil Nil 88. TABLE 26 (Continued) Proportions based on the t o t a l reported population of 3 7 , 516 . k Only those tested i n large-group procedures are included. The language component i s not scored or included as part of the o v e r a l l r a t i n g . The extent to which the beginners reported here were the same beginners who were assessed with tests of mental a b i l i t y was considered. This c l e a r l y was the case i n some d i s t r i c t s since 1007, of the enrolment was reported as assessed with both a mental a b i l i t y test and a readiness t e s t . However, other d i s t r i c t s reported, for example, that 25% were assessed with a mental a b i l i t y test while 407, were assessed with a readiness measure. It was impossible i n such instances to determine the overlap, i f any, of the two t e s t s . IX. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER In t h i s chapter the data obtained from the D i s t r i c t Screening Measures questionnaire have been summarized and discussed. The report has included practices r e l a t i n g to examinations of general health, v i s i o n , hearing, speech, mental a b i l i t y , readiness and other re l a t e d a b i l i t i e s . The more commonly used measures of mental a b i l i t y and readiness have been viewed with respect to the p r i n c i p a l a b i l i t i e s which each assess, and the c r i t e r i o n tasks by which these a b i l i t i e s are measured. Since the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t of this study i s the measurement of o r a l language, the commonly used measures have been analyzed with p a r t i c u l a r 89. atte n t i o n to th e i r oral language components. The extent to which these instruments were used with school beginners has been shown. Those measures which provide a separate oral language r a t i n g have been i d e n t i f i e d . The following chapter w i l l report the conclusions of this study together with such recommendations as appear j u s t i f i e d on the basis of the information and data presented. 90. CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS In this study a survey was undertaken of the means employed in British Columbia to screen school beginners for disabilities which may hinder aca-demic progress. To obtain this information, a questionnaire was prepared and sent to a l l seventy-seven school districts of the province. The ques-tionnaire included a broad range of factors which could influence school progress: 1. Possible physical disabilities related to general health, vision, hearing and speech. 2. Possible learning disabilities related to mental ability, reading readiness, vocabulary and language development and perceptual ability. Although the questionnaire inquired into a variety of areas which could bear on learning problems, the specific interest of the study was an exam-ination of the methods employed and the extent to which receptive and expressive oral language proficiency was assessed. Persuasive evidence has emerged from a number of studies linking oral language proficiency and subsequent achievement in reading and other language skills. As observed in Chapter II, not a l l of the questions have been answered yet. Children, however, who demonstrate high oral language ability are also proficient in reading and written language abilities. Moreover, the differences between those who are more proficient and those who are not become more pronounced as the children progress through school. This consequence, labelled by Deutsch (1965) as a "cumulative deficit 91. phenomena", underlines the urgency for early diagnosis and treatment. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of various successful treatment programmes were also d i s -cussed i n the chapter. An examination of the measurable q u a l i t i e s of oral language suggested nine factors as in d i c a t o r s of pr o f i c i e n c y i n expressive o r a l language. The design of the questionnaire and the data c o l l e c t i n g process was described i n Chapter I I I . The data was presented and discussed i n Chapter IV. This chapter w i l l summarize the findings of the study and, i n discuss-ing the conclusions, o f f e r recommendations and observations. I t would be appropriate to f i r s t examine the l i m i t a t i o n s of th i s study since these impose c e r t a i n constraints which should be taken i n t o account when considering the conclusions. I. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The following l i m i t a t i o n s are recognized i n th i s study: Estimate of Referral Population The accuracy of the data would have been improved i f an exact account-ing of the number of chil d r e n referred for assessment could have been obtained. I t was f e l t , however, that t h i s was an unreasonable request to make of school d i s t r i c t s and one which would have resulted i n a much reduced response. On the basis of personal experience the in v e s t i g a t o r selected the figure of 57= of the enrolment as that proportion of chi l d r e n i n d i v i d u -a l l y referred for examination. I t i s recognized that the choice may r e s u l t , i n some cases, i n either an under-estimation or an over-estimation of the 92. proportion of c h i l d r e n so assessed. I t was the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s judgment that t h i s percentage would be an acceptable average. Lack of D i r e c t l y Applicable Research Whether chi l d r e n studied i n B r i t a i n and the United States are repre-sentative of c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s open to question. The problems of the disadvantaged i n n e r - c i t y American c h i l d may well be quite unrelated to t h i s l o c a l i t y . What i s known about the a c q u i s i t i o n of language suggests, however, a u n i v e r s a l i t y as applicable i n B r i t i s h Columbia as i n any part of the world. Unfortunately there has been very l i t t l e research conducted i n the province i n the f i e l d of language. L i m i t a t i o n on Number of Tests Examined The sheer volume of tests i n use - seventeen mental a b i l i t y tests and f o r t y - f i v e readiness and related tests - prohibited the examination of every item. A l l readiness instruments which were used with 2% or more of the reported population were examined and discussed; since tests of mental a b i l i t y were used to a lesser extent, those used with 17<, or more of the reported population were considered. P r i n c i p a l A b i l i t i e s Assessed by Tests The analysis of the components of the tests was l i m i t e d to the p r i n c i -pal a b i l i t i e s involved, although many tests encompass a number of a b i l i t i e s i n varying degrees. The p r i n c i p a l a b i l i t y was equated with what the test score purported to show as determined i n part by the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s judgment and i n part on d e s c r i p t i v e material provided i n t e s t manuals. 93. Locally-Developed Measures School districts were asked to supply copies of any locally-developed measures. While a number of districts complied with the request, several did not. Some 97» of the reported population were reported as having been examined with locally-developed materials which were not supplied. The principal abilities which these measures assessed are, of course, not included in the report. Use of a Questionnaire The questionnaire, as a data collecting device, has a number of limit-ations. These generally relate in the first place to the clarity and suitability of the questions, and in the second place, to the care and accuracy with which the respondents complete the questionnaire. These factors represent potential limitations to the study. II. SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS Assessments for Possible Physical Disabilities The data concerning the assessment of possible physical disabilities have been reported in Chapter IV and appear to support the following conclusions: Examinations of General Health The survey of practices showed that approximately 617> of school beginners were given examinations of general health. These examina-tions varied from complete physical assessments carried out by physicians to more general appraisals performed by public health 94. personnel. The times at which c h i l d r e n were examined ranged from p r i o r to the kindergarten year on through grade one, although they tended to be performed during the f a l l terms of both grades. Where examinations were not given as a matter of course, the main source of r e f e r r a l was the teacher or p r i n c i p a l . Examinations of V i s i o n : An estimated 917o of school beginners received v i s i o n examinations. In the main, the tests were conducted by public health personnel using a Symbols Chart or an "E" Test followed by r e f e r r a l to s p e c i a l i s t s where necessary. The examinations tended to be given during the f a l l terms of kindergarten and grade one; although i n some areas the chi l d r e n were tested p r i o r to entry i n t o kindergarten and i n other areas, not u n t i l the spring term of grade one. In si t u a t i o n s where examinations were not r o u t i n e l y given, the teacher or p r i n c i p a l were the main sources of r e f e r r a l . Examinations of Hearing: Approximately 897, of beginners received hearing examinations. The tests t y p i c a l l y involved the use of audiometers and were performed by public health s t a f f . Beginners were examined over a period ranging from p r i o r to entry i n t o kindergarten to the spring term of grade one with preference shown for the f a l l terms of both grades. Where requests for examination were necessary, the teacher or the p r i n c i p a l most often made the r e f e r r a l . 9 5 . Examinations of Speech: Very l i t t l e wide-scale testing of speech was reported. Some 12% of the beginners were reported as assessed for speech problems, the com-mon practice consisting of a screening appraisal performed by public health personnel followed by referral to specialists where necessary. Examinations were given over the same range of times reported for other kinds of physical assessments. The teacher or the principal and the parent were reported as the main sources of referral requests. Assessments for Possible Learning Disabilities The data concerning assessments for possible learning d i s a b i l i t i e s have also been reported in Chapter IV and appear to support these conclu-sions : Examinations of Mental A b i l i t y : An estimated 13% of school beginners were assessed through tests of mental a b i l i t y . Only seven dis t r i c t s reported the testing of their entire enrolment. The most common practice reported was assessment of only those children referred. Since this was the case, testing tended to be carried out at any time during kindergarten and grade one. Most requests for referral assessments were made by teachers or principals. Of the four most commonly used tests (each used with at least 1% of the reported population), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices are typically, although not necessarily, administered on an individual basis; the Wechsler Intel-ligence Scale for Children may only be administered individually. 96. The fourth test, the California Test of Mental Maturity, is suited to group administration. Oral Language Components of Mental Ability Tests : Three of the four most commonly used tests have oral language compo-nents and provide separate oral language ratings either on the basis of the entire test, as in the case of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, or on sub-test scores, as in the cases of the California Test of Mental Maturity and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Receptive oral language ratings were obtainable (from the PPVT and the CTMM) for approximately 7% of the population. These ratings are based on vocab-ulary and paragraph comprehension as indicated by identification of pictures. For approximately a further 1%, the vocabulary sub-test of the WISC provides a measure of expressive oral language. This rating is based on oral definitions of vocabulary. Thus, oral language scores were available for an estimated 8% of the reported population. Tests of Readiness and Related Abilities : Approximately 63% of the school beginners were assessed with measures of readiness, vocabulary and language, perception, motor coordination and related abilities. This estimate does not take account of those children who are referred for examination since the specific tests administered to any individual child were not reported. Only four districts reported exclusive reliance on referral testing. Such measures were most commonly administered during the spring term of kindergarten or the fall term of grade one. With respect to referral examinations, the main sources of requests were the classroom 97. teacher or the principal. Oral Language Components of Tests of Readiness: Of the ten tests most commonly used (each with at least 2% of the reported population), six instruments have oral language components. These are: the Metropolitan Readiness Test, the Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test, the First Grade Screening Test, the Slingerland Pre-reading Screening Procedures, the Gates-MacGinitie Readiness Skills, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Of these six tests, four provide for separate oral language ratings: the Metropolitan Readiness Test, the Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test, the Gates-MacGinitie Readiness Skills and the Peabody Picture Vocabu-lary Test. In each case, the principal ability measured is receptive oral language. An estimated 36.44% of the beginners were assessed on that basis through these four tests. Receptive oral language is rated on the basis of vocabulary and paragraph comprehension indicated by the identification of pictures and by following a sequence of directions to perform a task. None of the four tests provide a measure of expressive oral language competency. It should be noted that although these instruments under discussion contain sections which assess oral language, they are not represented as principal measures of oral language by their authors. They are identified as tests of readiness and vocabulary. III. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS CONCERNING ORAL LANGUAGE In Chapter I, i t was indicated that the study would attempt to answer the following questions concerning school beginners in British Columbia: 1. What assessment instruments are used with school beginners and do those used include an oral language component? 2. What do such oral language components measure? 3. What proportion of beginners are assessed using instruments which include an oral language component as a part of a composite rating? 4. What proportion of the beginners receive a separate rating on' oral language ability? The data relating to these questions are discussed in Chapter IV and may be summarized as follows : Assessment Instruments in Use A wide range of tests of mental ability, readiness, vocabulary and language, perception, motor coordination and related abilities were reported in use. The list s , too lengthy,to repeat here, may be found in Tables 17 and 23 of Chapter IV. Of the most commonly used instruments, the following were found to include oral language components: 1. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 2. California Test of Mental Maturity 3. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 99. 4 . Metropolitan Readiness Test 5. Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test 6. Gates-MacGinitie Readiness S k i l l s 7. F i r s t Grade Screening Test''' 8. Slingerland Pre-reading Screening Procedures^ S k i l l s Measured by Oral Language Components The oral language components which are measured by those instruments l i s t e d i n the preceding section are l i m i t e d to the following s k i l l s : 1. Receptive o r a l language (a) Vocabulary comprehension as measured by r e l a t i n g spoken words to appropriate p i c t u r e s . (b) Paragraph comprehension indicated by r e l a t i n g spoken statements to appropriate p i c t u r e s . In some instances, the a b i l i t y to draw conclusions from the statements i s involved before the picture can be i d e n t i f i e d . (c) Following d i r e c t i o n s as demonstrated by performing visual-motor tasks i n response to b r i e f sequences of i n s t r u c t i o n s . 2. Expressive o r a l language (a) Vocabulary comprehension as measured by o r a l l y defining words. 1 These tests do not provide a separate i d e n t i f i a b l e language r a t i n g . 1 0 0 . P r o p o r t i o n o f B e g i n n e r s A s s e s s e d w i t h T e s t s  C o n t a i n i n g a n O r a l L a n g u a g e C o m p o n e n t T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s c h o o l b e g i n n e r s w h o a r e a s s e s s e d w i t h t e s t s w h i c h i n c l u d e a n o r a l l a n g u a g e c o m p o n e n t i s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 2 7 . T h i s s u m m a r y i n c l u d e s b o t h t h o s e t e s t s w h i c h p r o v i d e a s e p a r a t e l a n g u a g e s c o r e a n d t h o s e w h e r e l a n g u a g e i s p a r t o f a t o t a l r a t i n g . A s m a y b e o b s e r v e d , i n t e r m s o f t e s t s o f m e n t a l a b i l i t y , a t o t a l o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 % o f t h e r e p o r t e d p o p u -l a t i o n w a s a s s e s s e d . M e a s u r e s o f r e c e p t i v e o r a l l a n g u a g e a c c o u n t e d f o r a n e s t i m a t e d 7%, w i t h e x p r e s s i v e l a n g u a g e r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e r e m a i n i n g 1 % . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 2 % o f t h e r e p o r t e d p o p u l a t i o n w e r e a s s e s s e d b y r e a d i n e s s a n d o t h e r m e a s u r e s h a v i n g o r a l l a n g u a g e c o m p o n e n t s . T h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s b a s e d e n t i r e l y o n m e a s u r e s o f r e c e p t i v e o r a l l a n g u a g e s i n c e n o m e a s u r e s o f e x p r e s s i v e l a n g u a g e w e r e i d e n t i f i e d . T A B L E 27 B E G I N N E R S A S S E S S E D THROUGH T E S T S H A V I N G A N ORAL L A N G U A G E COMPONENT T e s t E s t i m a t e d P r o p o r t i o n o f B e g i n n e r s A s s e s s e d I n f o r m a t i o n B y M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t s B y R e a d i n e s s a n d O t h e r T e s t s A r a t i n g w h i c h i n c l u d e s e x p r e s s i v e o r a l l a n g u a g e 1 . 1 4 % 0 % A r a t i n g w h i c h i n c l u d e s r e c e p t i v e o r a l l a n g u a g e 7 . 0 4 % 4 1 . 5 3 % T o t a l s 8 . 1 8 % 4 1 . 5 3 % 101. Proportion of Beginners Receiving a Separate Oral Language Rating Somewhat fewer beginners are assessed in ways which can provide a separate and distinct oral language rating (Table 28). Tests of mental ability provide language assessments for an estimated 8% of the reported population, with receptive oral language measures accounting for 7% of the total and expressive oral language, the remaining 1%. TABLE 28 BEGINNERS ASSESSED THROUGH TESTS PROVIDING SEPARATE LANGUAGE RATINGS Test Estimated Proportion of Beginners Assessed Information By Mental Ability Tests By Readiness and Other Tests A separate rating for expressive oral language 1.14% 0% A separate rating for receptive oral language 7.04% 36.44% Totals 8.18% 36.44% Turning to readiness and other measures, a separate receptive language rating may be derived for an estimated 36.44% of the reported population. No measures of expressive oral language were identified. These percentages represent only the potential proportions which may be assessed in oral language. As stated previously, the tests involved are generally considered to be measures of mental ability and readiness. Whether the language component is singled out for inspection and evaluation is open to question. 102. IV. RECOMMENDATIONS Some recommendations appear warranted on the basis of this study. Assessments of Possible Physical Disabilities 1. Tests of vision as presently administered by public health personnel identify nearsightedness and measure visual acuity at a distance of twenty feet. Children begin l i f e farsighted, however, and studies have indicated that some school beginners are s t i l l too farsighted to see the printed word clearly. Dechant (1970) suggests several screen-ing tests which are capable of identifying farsightedness and a variety of other visual deficits. While i t is beyond the scope of this study to develop a further discussion of tests of vision, i t would appear that the topic merits further consideration. 2. As administered, the audiometer tests of hearing provide a reasonably accurate measure of auditory acuity. There is evidence cited by Eisenberg (1967) that auditory discrimination deficiencies can exist although no loss of hearing is involved. Teachers of primary grades should be aware that the child may have normal acuity but s t i l l require an auditory discrimination examination (e.g. Wepman Auditory Discrimi-nation Test) followed by a specific training programme to overcome this deficit. 3. From the comments obtained during the provincial survey and from interviews with public health staff, the investigator was struck by the heavy reliance which is placed on the classroom teacher as the first-in-line to observe problems and to request further diagnosis. A certain urgency exists, then, to ensure that lines of communication 103. between the teacher and the public health personnel are maintained at an e f f e c t i v e l e v e l . In a s i m i l a r vein, i t does not seem unreasonable to suggest that greater use of parents as the r e f e r r i n g agents could be made. This, of course, would necessitate a continuing educational campaign. Parents need to be informed of c e r t a i n danger signals as well as what constitutes the normal range of development before they can be of assistance i n the early detection of problems. Assessments of Possible Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s 1. I t has been noted i n Chapter IV that the Public Health Branch a n t i c i -pates that t h e i r s t a f f w i l l make widespread use of the Denver Develop-mental Scale with four-year-old c h i l d r e n . Although the Scale does not represent an extensive assessment of development, educators should consider the information i t affords as a basis for t h e i r own early diagnostic t e s t i n g programmes. 2. Chapter IV included an analysis of tests of mental a b i l i t y , readiness and other a b i l i t i e s used to i d e n t i f y possible learning d i s a b i l i t i e s . As analyzed and reported by the in v e s t i g a t o r , these instruments measure a wide range of a b i l i t i e s . The major concern of th i s study, however, i s t h e i r function i n assessing oral language. The recommend-ations which follow are l i m i t e d to that concern. Analysis of these various instruments revealed the narrow range of language competencies which may be measured i f the tests are used for that purpose. The assessments are confined to vocabulary and para-graph comprehension, the a b i l i t y to follow d i r e c t i o n s , and word 104. definitions. An inspection of the research cited in Chapter II will show that a much wider range of abilities should be considered in assessing oral language competency. Although the importance of oral language to academic success has been repeatedly stated through the research, the writer must observe that this study uncovered no  comprehensive instruments of oral language measurement in use in British Columbia. Thus, the writer feels that two recommendations are appropriate: i . There is a clear need for the development of a comprehensive expressive oral language instrument. Of the nine measurable qualities of oral language discussed in Chapter II, the following five aspects would appear to merit special consideration in the development of such a test : (a) Quantity of Vocabulary: de Hirsch (1966) described the number of words used in telling The Three Bears as "by far" the best indi-cator of expressive oral language. The actual stimulus, however, appears relatively unimportant. Other researchers have used pictures, picture-stories, motion pictures and other devices successfully. (b) Classification of Vocabulary: The large number of studies in this area offer convincing evidence that the ability to classify or categorize vocabulary reflects the level of language maturity of the learner. (c) The length of the sentence (T-unit or communication unit): Several studies (O'Donnell et al, 1967; Loban, 1970; Fox, 1972) 105. have indicated that this measure is a particularly effective indicator of language control. (d) The number of - .dependent clauses : A count of the number of dependent clauses used in speech combined with the length of the communication unit was described by Loban (1970) as effective a measure of competency as the more complex weighted index of elaboration. Since i t is through the correct use of conjunctions that subordination is largely expressed, i t may be that a test of the ability to use conjunctions would be as effective and pos-sibly more informative than simply counting dependent clauses. (e) Conventional English Usage: Loban (1970) found that convention-ality was a strong predictive measure of future performance. His earlier report (1966b) provides a wealth of information concerning the developmental sequence of usage and also those factors with which children have the greatest difficulty. Finally, the assessment of oral language competence should lead to a differentiated and developmental programme of language instruction. As suggested by Marascuilo and Loban (1969) "such a program would be filled with functional uses of language where students are genuinely communicating to other people ideas and feelings they sincerely wish to communicate (p. 180)." 106. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bereiter, C. & Engelmann, S. Teaching Disadvantaged Children in the Pre- school . Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966. Bernstein, B. Aspects of language and learning in the genesis of social process. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1961, 1, 313-324. Bernstein, B. Linguistic codes, hesitation phenomena and intelligence. Language and Speech, 1962a, _5, 1-13. Bernstein, B. Social class, linguistic codes and grammatical elements. Language and Speech, 1962b, 5, 221-240. Berry, M.F. Language Disorders of Children: The Bases and Diagnoses. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969. B.C., Department of Education. Public Schools of the Province of British  Columbia, 100th Annual Report, 1970-71. Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1972. B.C., Health Branch, Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance. School Health Programme. Victoria: B.C. Health Branch, 1971. Carroll, J.B., Language development. In C. Harris (Ed.) Encyclopedia of  Educational Research. New York: Macmillan, 1960. Carson, A.S. & Rabin, A.I. Verbal comprehension and communication in negro and white children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1960, 51, 47-51. Clasen, R.E., Spear, J.E. & Tomaro, M.P. A comparison of the relative effectiveness of two types of preschool compensatory programming. Journal of Educational Research, 1969, 62, 401-405. Day, D.E. & Nurss, J.R. Effects of instruction on language development. Elementary School Journal, 1970, 70, 225-231. Dechant, E.V. Improving the Teaching of Reading (2nd ed.) Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall, 1970. de Hirsch, K., Jansky, J. & Langford, W. Predicting Reading Failure. New York: Harper and Row, 1966. Deutsch, M. The role of social class in language development and cognition. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1965, 3_5, 78-83. Di Lorenzo, L.T. & Salter, R. An evaluation study of pre-kindergarten programs for educationally disadvantaged children: follow-up and replication. Exceptional Children, 1968, 3_5, 111-119. Eisenberg, L. 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M o n o g r a p h s  o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 5 7 , 22, N o . 3 . H a r r i s , A . J . How t o I n c r e a s e R e a d i n g A b i l i t y . New Y o r k : L o n g m a n s , G r e e n , 1 9 6 1 . H a w k i n s , P . R . S o c i a l c l a s s , t h e n o m i n a l g r o u p a n d r e f e r e n c e . L a n g u a g e a n d  S p e e c h , 1 9 6 9 , 12, 1 2 5 - 1 3 5 . H i l l w a y , T . H a n d b o o k o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n , 1 9 6 9 . H o d g e s , W . L . , M c C a n d l e s s , B . R . & S p i c k e r , H . H . T h e D e v e l o p m e n t a n d  E v a l u a t i o n o f a D i a g n o s t i c a l l y B a s e d C u r r i c u l u m f o r P r e s c h o o l  P s y c h o s o c i a l l y D e p r i v e d C h i l d r e n . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 6 7 . H u n t , J . M c V . T h e C h a l l e n g e o f I n c o m p e t e n c e a n d P o v e r t y : P a p e r s o n t h e R o l e o f E a r l y E d u c a t i o n . U r b a n a , 1 1 1 . : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 . J o h n s o n , J . C . & J a c o b s o n , M . D . C u r r e n t t r e n d s i n N e g r o e d u c a t i o n a n d s h o r t e r p a p e r s . J o u r n a l o f N e g r o E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 0 , 39_, 1 7 1 - 1 7 6 . K a r n e s , M . B . , T e s k a , J . A . & H o d g i n , A . S . T h e e f f e c t s o f f o u r p r o g r a m s o f c l a s s r o o m i n t e r v e n t i o n o n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f o u r - y e a r - o l d d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f  O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1 9 7 0 , 4 0 , 5 8 - 7 6 . L a B r a n t , L . A s t u d y o f c e r t a i n l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t s o f c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e s 4 - 1 2 i n c l u s i v e . G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y M o n o g r a p h s , 1 9 3 3 , 1 4 : 4 , 3 8 7 - 4 9 1 . L a w t o n , D . S o c i a l c l a s s l a n g u a g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s . L a n g u a g e a n d S p e e c h , 1 9 6 4 , 1_, 1 8 3 - 2 0 4 . L o b a n , W. T h e L a n g u a g e o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C h i l d r e n . N C T E R e s e a r c h R e p o r t N o . 1 , C h a m p a i g n , 1 1 1 . : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , 1 9 6 3 . L o b a n , W . P r o b l e m s i n O r a l E n g l i s h . N C T E R e s e a r c h R e p o r t N o . 5 , C h a m p a i g n , 1 1 1 . : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , 1 9 6 6 a . 108. Loban, W. Language Ability, Grades Seven, Eight and Nine. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1966b. Loban, W. Stages, Velocity, and Prediction of Language Development: Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department , of Health, Education and Welfare, 1970. ERIC 040 198. Marascuilo, L.A & Loban, W. An Empirical Study of the Dominating Predictive Features of Spoken Language in a Representative Sample of  School Pupils. Washington, D.C. : U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1969. ERIC 038 424. McConnell, F. & Horton, K. Effects of early language training for culturally disadvantaged preschool children. Journal of School Health, 1969, 39, 661-665. Menyuk, P. Syntactic rules used by children from preschool through f i r s t grade. Child Development, 1964, 35, 533-546. Menyuk, P. Sentences Children Use. Research Monograph No. 52. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1969. Menyuk, P. Syntactic structures in the language of children. In Aaron Bar-Adon & Werner Loepold (Eds.) Child Language. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971. Mickelson, N. & Galloway, C. Cumulative language def i c i t among Indian children. Journal of Exceptional Children. 1969, 36, 187-190. Munroe, M. & Rogers, B. Foundations for Reading. Chicago: Scott Foresman, 1964. O'Donnell, R.C, Gr i f f i n , W.J. & Norris, R.C. Syntax of Kindergarten and  Elementary School Children. NCTE Research Report No. 8. Champaign, 111.: National Council of Teachers of English, 1967. Petty, W.T. Research needs in oral language: three statements. Elementary English, 1967, 44, 262-264. Rinsland, H.D. A Basic Vocabulary of Elementary School Children. New York: Macmillan, 1945. Robertson, J.E. Kindergarten perception training: i t s effect on f i r s t grade reading. In Helen K. Smith (Ed.) Perception and Reading. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1968. Robertson, J.E. An investigation of pupil understanding of connectives in reading. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta, 1966. Robinson, H.M. Vocabulary: speaking, listening, reading and writing. In H. Alan Robinson (Ed.) Reading and the Language Arts. Supplementary Edu-cational Monographs No. 93. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963. Ruddell, R.B. The effects of oral and written patterns of language struc-ture on reading comprehension. Reading Teacher, 1965, 1_8, 270-275. 1 0 9 . R u s s e l l , D . H . & S a a d e h , I . Q . Q u a l i t a t i v e l e v e l s i n c h i l d r e n ' s v o c a b u l a r i e s . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 2 , 5 3 , 1 7 0 - 1 7 4 . S i g e l , I . E . D e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s i n t h e a b s t r a c t i o n a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 5 3 , 2 4 , 1 3 1 - 1 4 4 . S i g e l , I . E . T h e d o m i n a n c e o f m e a n i n g . J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 4 , 8 5 , 2 0 1 - 2 0 7 . S i g e l , I . E . & M c B a n e , B . C o g n i t i v e c o m p e t e n c e a n d l e v e l o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n a m o n g f i v e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n . I n J . H e l l m u t h ( E d . ) D i s a d v a n t a g e d  C h i l d , V o l u m e 1 . S e a t t l e : S t r a u b a n d H e l l m u t h , 1 9 6 7 . S i g e l , I . E . & O l m s t e d , P . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e . I n A n d r e w J . B i e m i l l e r ( E d . ) P r o b l e m s  i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f Y o u n g C h i l d r e n . T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 0 . S k u l l , J . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a n o r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s c a l e a t t h e C . S . E . l e v e l , a n d a n a n a l y s i s o f s o m e o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s . U n p u b l i s h e d M . E d , t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B i r m i n g h a m , 1 9 6 8 . S m i t h , M . K . M e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e s i z e o f g e n e r a l E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y t h r o u g h t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s a n d h i g h s c h o o l . G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y M o n o g r a p h s , 1 9 4 1 , 2 4 , 3 1 3 - 3 4 5 . S p a i n , C . J . D e f i n i t i o n o f f a m i l i a r n o u n s b y c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d a n d n o n -d e p r i v e d c h i l d r e n o f v a r y i n g a g e s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 1 9 6 2 , 2 3 , 2 2 0 1 . S t o o d t , B . D . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n u n d e r s t a n d i n g g r a m m a t i c a l c o n j u n c t i o n s a n d r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 1 9 7 2 , 4 9 , 5 0 2 + . S t r i c k l a n d , R . G . T h e l a n g u a g e o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n : i t s r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o t h e l a n g u a g e o f r e a d i n g t e x t b o o k s a n d t h e q u a l i t y o f r e a d i n g o f s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . B u l l e t i n o f t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 2 , 3 8 . T e m p l i n , M . C . C e r t a i n L a n g u a g e S k i l l s i n C h i l d r e n : T h e i r D e v e l o p m e n t a n d I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 . T h o r n d i k e , E . L . & L o r g e , I . T h e T e a c h e r ' s W o r d B o o k o f 3 0 , 0 0 0 W o r d s . N e w Y o r k : B u r e a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 4 4 . W a t t s , A . F . T h e L a n g u a g e a n d M e n t a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f C h i l d r e n . L o n d o n : G e o r g e G . H a r r a p a n d C o . , 1 9 4 4 . W e i n t r a u b , S . R e s e a r c h : O r a l l a n g u a g e a n d r e a d i n g . R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 1 9 6 8 , 2 1 , 7 6 9 + . W i l k i n s o n , A . O r a l c o n s t r a i n t s a n d r e a d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w ( B i r m i n g h a m ) , 1 9 6 9 , 2 2 , 1 0 3 - 1 1 6 . 110. TESTS Beery, K.E. and Buktenica, N.A. Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Follett Educational Corporation, 1967. Curry, G.I. Winter Haven Perceptual Figures Test. Winter Haven, Florida: Winter Haven Lions Research Foundation, Inc., 1969. Dunn, L.M. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Circle Pines, Minn.: American Guidance Service, 1965. Frankenburg, W.K. and Dodds, J.B. Denver Developmental Screening Test. Denver, Colo.: Ladoca Project and Publishing Foundation, 1969. Frostig, M. Developmental Test of Visual Perception. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1964. Gates, A.I. and MacGinitie, W.H. Readiness Skills. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1968. Hildreth, G.H., Griffiths, N.L. and McGauvran, M.E. Metropolitan Readiness  Tests. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969. Lee, M.J. and Clark, W.W. Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test. Monterey, Calif.: California Test Bureau, 1962. Pate, J.E. and Webb, W.W. First Grade Screening Test. Circle Pines, Minn.: American Guidance Service, 1966. Raven, J.C. Coloured Progressive Matrices, Sets A, Ab, B. London: H.K. Lewis & Co. Ltd., 1965. Slingerland, B.H. Pre-reading Screening Procedures. Cambridge, Mass.: Educators Publishing Service, 1969. Sullivan, E.T., Clark, W.W. and Tiegs, E.W. California Short-Form Test of  Mental Maturity, Primary. Monterey, Calif.: California Test Bureau, 1957 . Thompson, G.R. Primary Academic Sentiment Scale. Skokie, 111.: Priority Innovations, Inc., 1968. Wechsler, D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1949. DIRECTIONS This D i s t r i c t Screening Measures questionnaire concerns those examinations, tests, and techniques which are used with children beginning school (Kindergarten and/or Grade 1) to i d e n t i f y d i s a b i l i t i e s which may hinder t h e i r academic progress. Section One of the questionnaire requests information concerning examina-tions made of physical a b i l i t i e s - general health, v i s i o n , hearing and speech. Section Two i s concerned with tests of mental and learning a b i l i t i e s . Each c e l l follows a s i m i l a r format and requires the c i r c l i n g of a YES or NO response to most of the questions. A number of c e l l s are provided for the use of d i s t r i c t s using a v a r i e t y of measures. In the Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s s e c t i o n : 1. Please include not only standardized tests, but also any non-standardized measures, interviews, etc., which you employ. 2. Commercially-available tests - i n addition to the questions, please i n d i c a t e the name of the test and the publisher. 3 . Locally-devised tests - i n addition to the questions, a copy of the test, related i n s t r u c t i o n s , d i s t r i c t norms, etc., would be appreciated. Should the d i s t r i c t programme include screening measures which cannot adequately be described by these questions, please add such d e t a i l s on Page 5 as w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the s i t u a t i o n . 113. DISTRICT SCREENING MEASURES DISTRICT ENROLMENT Kindergarten: AT JUNE 30, 1971 FOR: Grade 1: POSSIBLE PHYSICAL DISABILITIES GENERAL HEALTH Examination given by: • Nurse •General Practitioner • Specialist An examination is given to: 1A11 beginning pupils? YES NO individual referrals only? YES NO "Large numbers of beginners at the request of teachers or principals? YES NO In which case, estimated percentage of district beginners examined is If yes, referral cases are determined by: Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO Other? ( ) YES NO specify 4 No beginning pupils? YES NO Examination given: (check appropriate space(s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan.JJune VISION Examination given by: | [Nurse ( 1 General 1 I Practitioner [ [ Specialist An examination is given to: 1A11 beginning pupils? YES NO individual referrals only? YES NO o Large numbers of beginners If yes, referral cases are at the request of teachers determined by: or principals'' YES NO Teacher request? YES NO In which case, estimated Other? ( ) YES NO percentage of district specify beginners examined is % "%o beginning pupils? YES NO ^Examination given: (check appropriate spaces (s): Grade Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan. - June Kindergarten Grade 1 114. HEARING Examination given by: [ [Nurse •General Practitioner • Specialist An examination is given to: 1 3 All beginning pupils? YES NO Individual referrals only? YES NO Large numbers of beginners at the request of teachers or principals? YES NO In which case, estimated percentage of district beginners examined is If yes, referral cases are determined by: Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO Other? ( ) YES NO specify ^ o beginning pupils? YES NO Examination given: (check appropriate space (s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan.-June SPEECH (Articulation) Examination given by: | [ Nurse •General Practitioner • Specialist An examination is given to: i 3 Al l beginning pupils? YES NO Individual referrals only? YES NO o Large numbers of beginners If yes, referral cases are at the request of teachers determined by: or principals? YES NO Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO In which case, estimated Other? ( ) YES NO percentage of district . . specify beginners examined is % 4 No beginning pupils? YES NO ^Examination given: (check appropriate space (s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan. - June 115. POSSIBLE LEARNING DISABILITIES MENTAL ABILITY TESTS: In addition to standardized group tests, please include individually administered tests and locally developed measures. MENTAL ABILITY TESTS Name of test: Publisher: The test is administered to: 1A11 beginning pupils? YES NO individual referrals only? YES NO JLarge numbers of beginners at the request of teachers or principals? YES NO In which case, estimated percentage of district beginners examined is If yes, referral cases are determined by: Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO Other ? ( ) YES NO specify Examination given: (check appropriate space (s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan. - June MENTAL ABILITY TESTS Name of test: Publisher; The test is administered to: 1A11 beginning pupils? YES NO individual referrals only? YES NO JLarge numbers of beginners at the request of teachers or principals? YES NO In which case, estimated percentage of district beginners examined is lo If yes, referral cases are determined by: Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO Other? ( ) YES NO specify Examination given: (check appropriate space (s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan. - June 116. LEARNING ABILITY: On the following pages please record readiness, vocabulary and language development, and perceptual skills tests. Also please make reference to the use of any informal interviews or locally developed measures. If a test used is a locally developed measure, please attach ,a copy of the test, manual, scoring instructions, etc. READINESS Name of test: Publisher: The test is administered to: 1All beginning pupils? YES NO individual referrals only? YES NO 2. Large numbers of beginners at the request of teachers or principals? YES NO In which case, estimated percentage of district beginners examined is If yes, referral cases are determined by: Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO Other? ( ) YES NO specify ^Examination given: (check appropriate space (s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan. -June READINESS Name of test: Publisher: The test is administered to: 1 3 All beginning pupils? YES NO Individual referrals only? YES NO JLarge numbers of beginners at the request of teachers or principals? YES NO In which case, estimated percentage of district beginners examined is-If yes, referral cases are determined by: Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO Other? ( ) YES NO specify ^Examination given: (check appropriate space (s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan. -June 117. VOCABULARY & LANGUAGE Name of test: Publisher: The test is administered to: 1 3 All beginning pupils? YES NO Individual referrals only? YES NO 2 Large numbers of beginners If yes, referral cases are at the request of teachers or determined by: Parent request? YES NO In which case, estimated Other? ( ) YES NO percentage of district . specify beginners examined is °]o ^Examination given: (check appropriate space (s): Grade Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan. -June Kindergarten Grade 1 VOCABULARY & LANGUAGE Name of test: Publisher: The test is administered to: 1 3 All beginning pupils'? YES NO Individual referrals only? YES NO o Large numbers of beginners If yes, referral cases are at the request of teachers determined by: or principals'? YES NO Teacher request? YES NO In which case, estimated Other? ( ) YES NO percentage of district specify beginners examined is °/o ^Examination given: (check appropriate space (s): Grade Before Start Sept. - Dec. Jan. -June Kindergarten Grade 1 118. PERCEPTUAL SKILLS Name of test; Publisher: The test is administered to: 1 3 All beginning pupils? YES NO Individual referrals only? YES NO "Large numbers of beginners at the request of teachers or principals? YES NO In which case, estimated percentage of district beginners examined is If yes, referral cases are determined by: Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO Other? ( ) YES NO specify Examination given: (check appropriate space (s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan.-June OTHERS Name of test: Publisher: The test is administered to: 1A11 beginning pupils? YES NO individual referrals only? YES NO Large numbers of beginners at the request of teachers or principals? YES NO In which case, estimated percentage of district beginners examined is If yes, referral cases are determined by: Teacher request? YES NO Parent request? YES NO Other? ( ) YES NO specify ^Examination given: (check appropriate space (s): Grade Kindergarten Grade 1 Before Start Sept. -Dec. Jan. - June IF THERE ARE ASPECTS OF YOUR SCREENING PROGRAMME WHICH HAVE NOT BEEN COVERED BY THE QUESTIONNAIRE THUS FAR, PLEASE DESCRIBE THEM BELOW (OR ATTACH PERTINENT INFORMATION). THANK YOU FOR YOUR HELP WITH THIS SURVEY. Keith H. Souster 1 1 9 . APPENDIX II TESTS OF MENTAL ABILITY; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT AND PRINCIPAL ABILITIES ASSESSED TESTS, EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test American Guidance Service, Inc. Used with 5 . 1 0 % of the beginners and for r e f e r r a l examinations. Test: A measure of verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e . Receptive Oral Language Both the A and B editions of the test provide a t o t a l of 1 5 0 possible items, however, i n pr a c t i c e the tes t i s administered over a s p e c i f i e d c r i t i c a l range of items. General Knowledge Example: "I w i l l say a word, then I want you to t e l l me the number of (or point to) the pict u r e which best t e l l s the meaning of the word." The vocabulary encompasses singular nouns (car, queen, stadium, machete, gauntlet), c o l l e c t i v e nouns (hive, group), adjectives (timorous, obese) and gerunds (catching, h o i s t i n g , angling). C a l i f o r n i a Test of Mental Maturity, Short Form C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau Used with 1 . 9 4 7 o of the beginners. Test: A measure of general i n t e l l i g e n c e . Sub-test 1 : Sense of r i g h t and l e f t ( s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) S p a t i a l Orientation 1 0 test items Example: "Put a mark on the boy's r i g h t hand." 120. TESTS, EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Sub- test 2 : A b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y geometric forms Spatial Orientation and three-dimensional drawings which are rotated i n space. 12 te s t items Example: "Look at the f i r s t draw-ing and then at the other drawings i n the same row. The f i r s t drawing i s among the other drawings, but i t i s turned around or turned over. Find i t and mark i t . " Sub- te s t 3 : A b i l i t y to perceive l o g i c a l Abstract Thinking & r e l a t i o n s h i p s . L o g i c a l Relationships 12 test items Example: "Find something i n each row that i s l i k e the f i r s t two pictures and mark i t . " (Sample: pants, sweater - mark •coat'). The r e l a t i o n s h i p s are based on: (a) Category: 9 items: ch a i r , cupboard, and table. (b) Function: 3 items: moon, candle, l i g h t b u l b Sub- test 4 : A b i l i t y to draw inferences. Receptive Oral Language 12 test items Example: "Look at the f i r s t two Auditory Memory boys. B i l l caught more f i s h than Ned. Put a mark on B i l l . " Sub- test 5 : F a c i l i t y with quantitative Arithmetic Concepts & r e l a t i o n s h i p s and number Number Knowledge sequences. 121. TESTS, EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED 12 test items Example: "Put a mark on the thing that can go the fastest." "The marbles in the boxes count up by ones. One of the boxes is wrong. Put a mark on i t . " Sub-test 6: Ability to solve quantitative problems. Visual Perception Arithmetic Concepts & Number Knowledge 12 test items Example: "In this row of coins you can take away one of these four coins and have 16 cents left. Mark the coin that you can take away." Sub-test 7 : Ability to relate a picture and the word which i t symbolizes. Receptive Oral Language 30 test items Example: "Put a mark on the plant ...on something comfort-able... on the man inside..." The sub-test requires the label-ing in picture form of these elements: Recognition: plant, wigwam, insect, blossom, twig, helmet, bunch, vehicle, anvil, valise, monarch, pulley, rodent, tresses, vermin. Position in Space : the cow between, the man inside. Qualitative Factors : something comfortable, venerable person, studious person, absurd picture, athletic, cultivating, constructing, those descending. 122. TESTS, EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Functional Factors : one who defends, a shelter, an eclipse. Emotional Factors: distress, a hostile man. Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Sets A, Ab, and B H.K. Lewis and Co. Ltd., London Used with 1.68% of the beginners and for referral examinations. Test: A measure of perceptual intelligence. 12 test items per sub-test Example: "This is a pattern with a piece cut out of i t . Each of these pieces (six) is the right shape to f i t the space, but only one of them is the right pattern. Visual Discrimination Spatial Orientation (With Book Form of test) Point to the piece which came out of the pattern. Abstract Thinking & Logical Relationships (With Board Form of test) See i f you can find the piece that goes in here." Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Psychological Corporation Used with 1.14% of the beginners. Test: A measure of general intelligence. Sub-test 1 : Verbal - General Information General Knowledge 30 test items (maximum) Example: "How many ears have you?" 123. TESTS, EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR1S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Subjects respond orally to wide assortment of questions involving quantitative relationships ("How many pennies make a nickel?"), geographical concepts ("Where is Chile?"), historical knowledge ("Who discovered the South Pole?"), natural phenomena ("What is the colour of rubies?") and defini-tions of various events, objects and terms. Sub- test 2 : Verbal - Comprehension 14 test items (maximum) Example: "What is the thing to do when you cut your finger?" Subjects respond orally to a series of "what" and "why" ques-tions which range over moral, political, financial, and practi-cal topics. General Knowledge Sub- test 3 : Verbal - Arithmetic Arithmetic Concepts & 16 test items (maximum) Number Knowledge Example: "If I cut an apple in half, how many pieces will I have?" Subjects respond orally to ques-tions involving counting and basic number operations for whole num-bers and fractions. Sub- test 4: Verbal - Similarities Abstract Thinking & 16 test items (maximum) Logical Relationships Example: (Analogies) "Lemons are sour but sugar is ?" (Similarities) "In what way are a plum and a peach alike?" 124. TESTS, EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Responses to the similarity ques-tions, which represent the bulk of this sub-test, are scaled to pro-vide two marks for a response which established a similarity by categorization, and one mark i f the similarity is defined descriptively. Sub -test 5 : Verbal - Vocabulary 40 test items (maximum) Example: "What is a bicycle?" Subjects define orally a selection of vocabulary including nouns (bicycle, spade, shilling), adjectives (brave, imminent) and verbs (join, recede, flout). Responses are scored according to the depth of understanding revealed. Expressive Oral Language Sub -Test Supplementary: Verbal - Digit Span Auditory Memory 14 test items with an alternate for each Example: "I am going to say some numbers. When I am through, say them right after me ... 3 - 8 - 6." "This time I want you to say them backwards. For example, i f I say 9 - 3 -7, what would you say?" (7 - 3 - 9). Sub -Test 6: Performance - Picture Completion Visual Perception 20 test items (maximum) Example: "I am going to show you some pictures in which there is a part missing. I want you to tell me what is missing." 125. TESTS, EXTENT AND METHOD OF ASSESSMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Sub- test 7 : Performance - Picture Arrangement Visual Perception 11 test items (maximum) Example: "Here is a picture of a dog that has been cut up. Put i t together so that i t will look right." Spatial Orientation Sub- test 8 : Performance - Block Design 10 test items (maximum) Visual Discrimination Subject arranges the blocks to Visual-Motor Coordination form a colour pattern provided first by the examiner's example and later from observations of colour plates. Sub- test 9 : Performance - Object Assembly 4 test items Visual Perception Subject arranges a number of Visual-Motor Coordination pieces to form a picture (similar to a jig-saw puzzle) Sub- test 10 : Performance - Coding Visual Perception 163 test items (maximum) Visual-Motor Coordination Subjects respond to geometric and Visual Association numeral symbols by drawing cer-tain specified symbols, e.g. subject draws "=" within each circle. Sub- test Supplementary: Performance - Mazes Visual Perception 8 test items Spatial Orientation Subject traces path from the interior to the exterior of a maze pattern. 126. APPENDIX III TESTS OF READINESS, VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE, PERCEPTION AND RELATED ABILITIES; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT; PRINCIPAL ABILITIES ASSESSED TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Metropolitan Readiness Test Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc. Used with 22.14% of the beginners and for referral examinations. Sub-test 1: Vocabulary meaning Receptive Oral Language 16 test items Example: "Put a mark on (the picture of) the moose ... the collie ... the pilot ... The sub-test involves the recog-nition in picture form of these elements, all of which are common nouns : Relating to animals: moose, collie, aquarium, hoof Relating to humans: pilot (airline) 3 umpire (baseball) Relating to plants : walnut, blueberry Other objects: globe, yarn, stone house, compass, moccasin, knitting, toboggan, spectacles Sub-test 2 : Comprehension 16 test items Receptive Oral Language Example: "Put a mark on the pic-ture that I tell you about. While Mother got the money ready, the clerk tied up her package. Mark the picture that shows that." 127. TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED The sub-test requires the recogni-tion in picture form of these elements: Familiar situations : the mailbox, mailing a letter, phoning for needs, a store, raking leaves General knowledge : recognizes descriptions of an organ grinder and monkey, a bear, an elephant, a pear tree, cows with bells, a TV, a toy house Inferences : stories involving a need for crutches, need for water, and what happened next? Sub-test 3 : Ability to discern similarities in geometric forms and word symbols. 14 test items Example: "Mark the picture which is exactly the same as the picture at the edge of the paper." Sub-test 4: Ability to recognize letters of the alphabet. 16 test items Example: "Put a mark on the 's' in the box." Sub-test 5 : Facility with number concepts, number knowledge, quantitative relationships, recognition of number symbols, ability to print some numerals. 26 test items Visual Discrimination Knowledge of Alphabet Arithmetic Concepts and Number Knowledge Example: "Mark the house that has seven windows." "In the box, write 81." 128. TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR1S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Sub-test 6: Ability to reproduce letter forms and geometric figures and designs. 14 test items Example: "Draw another circle just like the one that is already here." Sub-test 7: (Optional) Perception of Human Body Image Example: "Make a picture of a man on this page." Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test California Test Bureau Used with 9.19% of beginners Sub-test 1: Ability to discern similarities in letter forms. 12 test items Example: "Look at this letter. Find a letter that looks exactly like i t . Draw a line from this letter to that one." Sub-test 2: Ability to perceive differences in letter forms. 12 test items Example: "Find the letter that is not the same as the others Draw a line through i t to show that i t does not belong." Sub-test 3 : Vocabulary meaning 20 test items Visual-Motor Coordination Visual Perception Perception of Body Image Visual Discrimination Visual Discrimination Receptive Oral Language Visual Perception 129. TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Example : "Put a mark on (the p i c -ture of) the baby ... the airplane ... the t a l l e s t boy ..." Arithmetic Concepts The sub-test requires the recogni-t i o n i n pi c t u r e form of these elements: Recognition: r a b b i t , baby, a i r -plane, ship, bed, house, boat without oars, g i r l wearing hat, g i r l running (empty-handed) Position i n space: cow l y i n g down, middle cat, most distant man, boy following g i r l Quantitative r e l a t i o n s h i p s : t a l -l e s t boy, two l i t t l e chickens, dog with short h a i r , nest with fewest eggs Emotions: happiest g i r l , angry goat The sub-test i s t i t l e d Vocabulary and Following D i r e c t i o n s ; there i s , however, no pro v i s i o n made to evaluate the responses e x c l u s i v e l y on the basis of eit h e r vocabulary comprehension or the a b i l i t y to follow d i r e c t i o n s . Sub-test 4 : A b i l i t y to recognize s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i n l e t t e r and word symbols. Visual Discrimination 20 test items Example: "Find a l e t t e r (word) which i s l i k e the f i r s t l e t t e r (word) and mark i t . 130. INVESTIGATOR'S TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED First Grade Screening Test American Guidance Service, Inc. Used with 5.09% of beginners. This test is not divided into sub-sections; the groupings indicated here are those of the investigator to clarify the test components. Group 1 : Test page 1 : Perception of body Perception of Body Image image Example: "Draw the best man that you can." Group 2: Test pages 2, 3, 4, and 6: Ability Visual-Motor Coordination to reproduce geometric figures, patterns and demonstrate general motor-visual coordination Visual Perception 4 test items Example: "Draw a diamond just like the one you see on the page." Group 3 : Test pages 5 and 7 : Ability to Receptive Oral Language follow directions. 2 test items Spatial Orientation Example: "Put a dot in the ball, and Auditory Memory draw a circle around the box." (Directions are given only once.) Group 4: Test pages 8, 9, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25. Vocabu- Receptive Oral Language lary meaning 13 test items Example: "Draw circles around all the things you use a screwdriver on." 131. INVESTIGATOR'S TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED The sub-test involves the recognition in picture form of these elements: Concept of ut i l i t y : function of a screwdriver, a needle, of toys Recognition: lasso, saxophone, post-age, thorn, shrub, magician, compass, rhinoceros, temperature, juicy Group 5: Test pages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14: Emotional and Attitudinal Awareness of mature actions and Awareness emotional situations 5 test items Example: "Draw a circle around the girl that is most like you." "Draw circles around a l l the nice ladies." Group 6: Test pages 26 and 27: Ability to recall specific information. Visual Memory 8 test items Example: "Draw circles around all the pictures you have seen in this booklet." Winter Haven Perceptual Figure Test Winter Haven Lions Research Foundation, Inc. Used with 4.79% of the beginners and for referral examinations. Sub-test 1: Ability to reproduce geometric Visual-Motor Coordination figures (Perceptual Form Procedure) 7 test items 132. TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Example: "Here are seven pictures. I will show you these one at a time. Copy all seven of them on one side of your paper." (Figures are presented in order : circle, cross, square, triangle, divided rect-angle, horizontal diamond, vertical diamond) Visual Perception Sub-test 2 : Ability to reproduce geometric forms as a completion task (Incomplete Form Procedure) Visual-Motor Coordination 7 test items Visual Perception Example: "Part of each picture ... has been completed for you. See i f you can finish the rest of your half-pictures so that i t will look just like the one I am showing you." (Examiner presents a s t i -mulus card of a circle. The pupil response page provides a half-circle which the pupil is asked to complete.) Primary Academic Sentiment Scale Priority Innovations, Inc. Used with 3.53% of the beginners. This scale is not divided into sub-tests; the groups indicated here are those of this investigator to clarify the test components. Group 1: Interpretation of child's attitude toward school and education Emotional and Attitudinal Awareness Example: "This page has three faces on i t , a sad face, a happy face, and a face that is not sad, but not happy either. Mark the face that shows how you like coming to school." 133. INVESTIGATOR'S TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Group 2: Interpretation of child's dependency Emotional and Attitudinal on parents Awareness Example: "Mark the picture you would like to do best. Hold Mother's hand, go to the grocery store, or learn a l l about dinosaurs." Of the 38 test items, a l l may be scored in terms of "sentiment" or attutide toward education; 28 of the same items may be scored in terms of "dependency". Slingerland Pre-reading Screening Procedures Educators Publishing Service, Inc. Used with 3.33% of the beginners and for referral examinations. Sub-test 1 : Ability to discern similarities in Visual Discrimination letter forms 6 test items Example: "Find another letter exactly like this first letter. Put a mark on i t . " Sub-test 2: Ability to recognize similarities Visual Discrimination and differences in word symbols 7 test items Example: "Find another word exactly like the first word. Put a mark on i t . " Sub-test 3 : Ability to recognize similarities Visual Memory and differences in geometric and letter symbols from memory Visual Perception 8 test items Visual Discrimination 134. TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Example: "I am going to show you some pictures, and you must try to remember what you see." (Stimulus card is exposed for a pre-determined length of time, followed by a 10-second delay; child exposes test booklet space and marks picture) Sub- test 4: Ability to reproduce geometric Visual-Motor Coordination forms and letter or numeral symbols 6 test items Visual Perception Example: "Draw a picture exactly like the picture in the booklet." Sub- test 5: Ability to reproduce various figures from memory Visual Memory 10 test items Visual-Motor Coordination Example:"I am going to show you some cards with pictures on them. You must try to remember what you see and draw the pictures in your booklet." (Same procedure as with sub-test 3 is employed) Visual Perception Sub- test 6 : Ability to discern auditory Auditory Discrimination similarities and differences in words 8 test items Example: "See i f the words I say sound just the same... boy--toy--boy." (Child responds with one type of mark i f words are the same; a different mark i f there are differences) 135. TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Sub-test 7: Ability to recognize letters of Knowledge of Alphabet the alphabet 16 test items Example: "Mark the letter I name in the first box . . . j . . . " Echolalia Test: Ability to repeat words and Articulation phrases given by the examiner 24 test items Example: "I am going to say a word. I will say i t only one time. You will say the same word ... animals ..." Reproducing a Story: Ability to retell an Auditory Memory incomplete story and supply a brief conclusion Example: "After I tell the story, Receptive Oral Language I will ask you to tell me the same story. You Expressive Oral Language will have to finish i t (informal, subjective by telling me where the procedure) l i t t l e boy put his wagon." The examiner is instructed to note the organization, points recalled, enunciation, and the use of words, phrases or whole sentences. The sub-test is not graded; evaluation of the per-formance is subjective. Gates-MacGinitie Reading Readiness Test Teachers College Press, Columbia University Used with 2.62% of the beginners and for referral examinations. 136. TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL' ABILITIES MEASURED Sub-test 1 : Listening comprehension 20 test items Example: "Listen carefully while I read a story to you: Grandmother needed the thread so that she could mend Jane's dress. She looked all over the house for the thread but couldn't find i t . Mark the picture that shows what Grandmother lost." Sub-test 2 : Ability to distinguish between similar sounds 21 test items Example: "I will say the name of both pictures in each box. Then I will name ONE of the pictures again and you will mark that picture. CLOCK -CLOTH. Put an X on CLOCK." Sub-test 3 : Ability to distinguish between the printed forms of two words 16 test items Example: "Three of the words on this line are exactly alike. One word is dif-ferent. Put an X on the word that is different." (Sample: food, foot, food, food) Sub-test 4: Ability to follow directions 14 test items Example: "Put an X on the middle block and another X on the block that is the same size as the middle one." Receptive Oral Language Auditory Memory Auditory Discrimination Visual Discrimination Visual Perception Receptive Oral Language Visual Perception Auditory Memory Arithmetic Concepts 137. TESTS; EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Sub-test 5: Ability to recognize letters of the alphabet 18 test items Example: "Put an X on the 'D'." (Sample: Z D F J) Sub-test 6 : Ability to produce copies of letter symbols 8 test items Example: "Look at this letter (indicate 'V'). Next to the letter is a line (/). With your pencil finish the line so that i t looks just like the letter." Sub-test 7 : Ability to synthesize the parts of a word, presented orally, into a whole word 14 test items Example: "Put an X on one of the three pictures in the box. I will say the name of the picture in two or three parts. Put an X on RAB -- BIT (pronounced with one second between phonemes). Sub-test 8 : Ability to recognize whole words 24 test items Example: "Listen and put an X on the word you think I say. Put an X on LOOK." (Sample: look boat here) Knowledge of Alphabet Visual-Motor Coordination Visual Perception Auditory Blending Word Recognition 138. TESTS: EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual- Motor Integration Follett Educational Corporation Used with 2.227, of the beginners and for referral examinations. Test: The ability to reproduce geometric figures and designs 24 test items The pupil is required to reproduce a series of figures of increasing com-plexity from illustrations provided. Frostig Developmental Test of Visual  Perception Consulting Psychologists Press Used with 2.157, of the beginners and in referral examinations. Sub-test 1 : Ability to draw a line between two points to specified standards (Eye-Motor Coordination) 16 test items Example: "Here is a car. Show with your pencil how you would drive the car into the garage. Don't go off the driveway (outside parallel guide lines)." Sub-test 2 : Ability to recognize figures, against complex backgrounds (Figure Ground) 8 test items Example: "Here is a star (show on card; then point to test item). Here are two stars. Take your green pencil and outline one of the stars." (Later, out-line second star using red pencil) Visual-Motor Coordination Visual Perception Visual-Motor Coordination Visual Memory Visual-Motor Coordination Visual Perception 139. TESTS : EXTENT AND METHOD OF MEASUREMENT INVESTIGATOR'S ASSESSMENT OF PRINCIPAL ABILITIES MEASURED Sub-test 3 : Ability to recognize figures pre-sented in various situations, sizes and positions (Constancy of Shape) 32 test items Example: "(Display sample of a circle and an oval). Find as many balls (circles) as you can and outline them a l l . Don't mark the egg-shaped (oval) ones." Sub-test 4: Ability to distinguish figures which are reversed or rotated in space (Position in Space) Visual Discrimination Visual-Motor Coordination Visual Memory Visual Perception Visual Discrimination Spatial Orientation 8 test items Example: "These are tables. Most of the tables are right side up. But one table is upside down. Mark i t . " Sub-test 5: Ability to reproduce given forms and patterns (Spatial Relationships) Visual-Motor Coordination 8 test items Example: "The picture on this side has dots and sticks. Now look at this side. It has dots but i t doesn't have a stick. Take your pencil and draw a stick so that this side looks just like the other." 140. APPENDIX IV LOCALLY-DEVELOPED MEASURES OF READINESS, VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE, PERCEPTION AND RELATED ABILITIES D i s t r i c t s making use of locally-developed materials were requested to sup-ply copies of the tests along with the completed questionnaire. A number of d i s t r i c t s , but not a l l , complied with this request. In general, the materials may be categorized i n one of three ways: Type One: The Check L i s t The c h i l d ' s l e v e l of development i s estimated on the basis of a number of informal observations ("articulates w e l l " , "able to work and play i n a group") and s p e c i f i c requirements ("recognizes numbers to ten"). The examiner i s c a l l e d upon to make subjective judgments i n d i c a t i n g strengths, weaknesses, and evidence of development. The t y p i c a l check-l i s t involved twenty to twenty-four points of observation. The interested reader i s referred to the Preschool Attainment Record published by the American Guidance Service. This c h e c k - l i s t , while more extensive than any of the locally-developed materials, affords a comparable i l l u s t r a t i o n . Type Two: Commercial Derivations Several d i s t r i c t s have developed materials s i m i l a r to, or patterned on, various commercially d i s t r i b u t e d t e s t s . I t would appear that these d i s t r i c t s have determined that the evaluation of only c e r t a i n s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to them. Further, by developing a test l o c a l l y , i t i s possible to avoid or stress urban or i e n t a t i o n , eliminate questions which have a n a t i o n a l i s t i c basis, and, i n general, adopt materials which are better suited to ch i l d r e n of the immediate area and circumstance. For these purposes then, d i s t r i c t s have created o r i g i n a l , u sually shorter, materials rather than make use of more lengthy commercial t e s t s . The locally-developed measures included assessments of such s k i l l s as v i s u a l perception, auditory and v i s u a l d iscrimination, visual-motor coordination, auditory and v i s u a l memory, recognition of l e t t e r s and numbers, and language development. Individual tests were r e s t r i c t e d to two or three of these a b i l i t i e s rather than the ent i r e spectrum. Type Three: Combination of Types One and Two f Some materials involved a c h e c k - l i s t of various a b i l i t i e s together with l o c a l l y - d e v i s e d test items. 141. Only one such measure attempted to evaluate oral language development. The material suggested that the teacher engage the child in informal conversation or, i f necessary, prompt the child through the use of pictures. The teacher then attempts to appraise the child's ability on the basis of (a) quality of ideas, (b) ability to verbalize ideas, (c) ability to define words, and (d) mastery of sentence structure. The material originated from Foundations for Reading by Marion Munroe and Bernice Rogers (1964, pp. 30-39). Although objective scoring is not possible, the teacher is able to arrive at some conclusions rela-tive to the child's level of oral language development. Since the suggestions closely parallel the line of thought of this paper, the four major divisions of oral language which are discussed, and the varying levels of quality for each follow in paraphrase. Suggested scale for quality of ideas 1. Ideas fully concrete. Concerned with the immediate environment. Relationships not stated. 2. Sees some objects and events in relation to each other. Relation-ships are concerned with the concrete and the here and now. Characters (in pictures) are related to their actions. 3. Sees relationships between objects and events, including relationships of size, shape, colour, use, distance, and cause and effect. Recognizes simple emotional reactions and motives. Forms sensory images. 4. Sees relationships of various kinds as Level 3 but tends to include the more abstract qualities as well as the concrete and immediate. Anticipates events, deduces more complex cause-and-effect relationships and time relationships. Recognizes simple character traits. 5. Ideas as at Level 4 but with the addition of some evaluation and judgment. Generalizes within limits of experience. Judgments may include abstract concepts. Suggested scale for definition of words 1. Cannot verbalize any definition. May respond to the word by pointing to object or picture. 2. Repeats the name of the object or uses the name of the object in a sentence. 3. Defines by stating the use of the object (or shows use with pantomime). 4. Defines by describing. 5. Defines by classifying or by classifying plus describing. May recognize variant meanings. 142. Suggested scale for ability to verbalize ideas 1. No ideas clearly expressed. Talks very l i t t l e or far too much. Displays inappropriate use of words, inability to express relationship, frequently disorganized or even incoherent. May shrug shoulders, point to an object, or grimace without verbal-izing. 2. Verbal expression of ideas severely limited, but better than at Level 1. 3. Moderately clear in verbal expression. May become blocked or over-productive and digress. Sometimes uses words inappropriately but manages to express some of his ideas adequately. 4. Uses words adequately for clear expression of ideas. Stays on the subject, usually avoiding irrelevancies. 5. Same as Level 4, but in addition to the ability to express his own ideas, shows a desire and an ability to include others in a conversational manner. Suggested scale for mastery of sentence structure 1. Has not mastered English syntax well enough to be understood. 2. May alter English word order somewhat in the direction of the syntax of another language but uses sufficiently idiomatic English to be understood. 3. Approaches somewhat nearer to standard English sentence structure. Uses large numbers of subject-verb or subject-verb-object sen-tences strung together with and. Uses "run-on" sentences. Uses because in an incomplete sentence to answer questions. Does not use appropriate conjunctions to indicate subordination. 4. Manages more frequently to make a stop between sentences. Uses a larger proportion of complete sentences. 5. Approaches standard English syntax. Uses standard word order and a greater variety of acceptable word order. Connects related ideas appropriately. 

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