UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Romantic motivation and North American urban design Oberti, Oberto Eugenio 1974

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R O M A N T I C  N O R T H  M O T I V A T I O N  A M E R I C A N  U R B A N  A N D  D E S I G N  by  Oberto Eugenio O b e r t i B.Arch.,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i n the  School  accept t h i s t h e s i s as  of  Architecture  conforming to the  THE UNIVERSITY  required  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  September 13,  1974  standard  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  purposes  for  may  be  It  financial  of  of  Columbia,  British  available for  the  by  understood  gain  for  extensive  granted  is  fulfilment  shall  not  of  S c h o o l o£ A r c h i t e c t u r e  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Sept:. 13,  1974  Columbia  the  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  permission.  Department  Date  freely  permission  representatives. thesis  partial  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  I. ABSTRACT  This thesis is America.  a study o f contemporary urban d e s i g n i n North  The p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the c i t y are examined  i n the l i g h t o f the h i s t o r y o f i d e a s and o f urban d e s i g n .  While most s t u d i e s  show the development o f modern a r c h i t e c t u r a l  and urban d e s i g n as a chronology o f ever new trends and d i s c o v e r i e s a continuous  line of progress,  t h i s work shows t h a t many e s s e n t i a l  o f d e s i g n are not new and have not been c h a n g i n g . developed i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h  in features  On the c o n t r a r y ,  ideas  c e n t u r y can be regarded as the e s s e n t i a l  source  o f i n s p i r a t i o n o f many aspects o f contemporary d e s i g n .  The c e n t r a l theme o f the t h e s i s i s developed i n the still  late eighteenth  t h a t the body o f thought  c e n t u r y - d e f i n e d as r o m a n t i c thought -  at the o r i g i n o f the m o t i v a t i o n o f contemporary urban d e s i g n .  study i d e n t i f i e s  the e s s e n t i a l  t r a i t s o f the p r e v a i l i n g s t y l e  a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n and r e l a t e s tradition.  The p o i n t made i s  one and t h a t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t very d i f f i c u l t ,  i f not  physical  attitudes,  o f urban and  that t h i s  t r a d i t i o n has become a v e r y u n c r i t i c a l  o f a l t e r n a t i v e and new t r a d i t i o n s i s  thus made  impossible.  t o make hypotheses  c e n t u r y thought and contemporary n o t i o n s  design of c i t i e s .  the thoughts  The  them t o the main themes o f the romantic  The method f o l l o w e d i n the t h e s i s i s between e i g h t e e n t h  is  The hypotheses  and p r o j e c t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of  influences  affecting  the  a r e supported by the evidence  of  t h i n k e r s quoted and by the  the laws and the p a t t e r n s o f p h y s i c a l d e s i g n found i n our days.  II  Among the sources used i n t h i s  t h e s i s the r e a d e r w i l l  f i n d passages  r a n g i n g from Edmund Burke and Immanuel Kant t o Jane J a c o b s , Frank Wright and A r t h u r E r i c k s o n .  A l a r g e body o f thoughts  Lloyd  from famous and l e s s  famous people who spoke and worked i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e way i s used throughout the t h e s i s .  I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f " p r o p h e t i c " designs  from the age o f Boullee and  Ledoux and o f many e x i s t i n g p r o j e c t s are i n t r o d u c e d to c l a r i f y  the  arguments.  Many examples were chosen from Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, but t y p i c a l examples  from the e n t i r e North American c o n t i n e n t are i n c l u d e d .  Most o f the a s p e c t s i n f l u e n c i n g design are c o n s i d e r e d . will  The r e a d e r  f i n d an examination o f e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s o f e x i s t i n g urban d e s i g n  i n North A m e r i c a , an a n a l y s i s observations decisions.  o f the a t t i t u d e s  toward the c i t y and a r c h i t e c t u r e  on the by-laws and the economic system i n f l u e n c i n g d e s i g n T h i s m a t e r i a l i s used t o show that t h e r e i s  o l d s t y l e s and i d e a l s which prevent the e s t a b l i s h m e n t styles  and o f t r u l y new canons o f d e s i g n ,  despite  a great i n e r t i a o f  of alternative  a g e n e r a l consensus  the need f o r some t r u l y new approach i n the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n o f our  life about  cities.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The  a s s i s t a n c e and the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f thought  g i v e n by P r o f e s s o r s  and o f  W. Gerson and C . W i s n i c k y o f the School o f A r c h i t e c t u r e  and by P r o f e s s o r E . Hundert o f the Department o f H i s t o r y o f the of  criticism  B r i t i s h Columbia made p o s s i b l e  many improvements  University  i n the t e x t o f  the  thesis.  My p a r t i c u l a r g r a t i t u d e of  is  d i r e c t e d toward P r o f e s s o r A . Rogatnick  the S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  His  u n i q u e , m u l t i - l i n g u a l c u l t u r e and h i s  depth o f thought  and  new e x p l o r a t i o n i n the f i e l d o f urban  h i s t o r y made p o s s i b l e  design. research.  a difficult  in architecture,  H i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c r i t i c a l h e l p were most u s e f u l  in this  art  long  IV  TABLE  OF CONTENTS  Introduction  1.  The  1  Background  p.  1  Terminology  p.  7  Purpose  p.  13  Organization  p.  14  p.  25  p.  50  p.  96  Existing  North 2.  p.  The  American  Suburban  Related 3.  Pattern  Some  and  of  the  Modern  and  Style  of  Development  and  Systems  Contemporary  Problems  Plan  City  Type  Urban  and  Urban  and  Discussions:  Architectural  The  Horns  of  a  Dilemma 4.  The  Role  Factor in 5.  6.  for  Urban  Romantic in  the  of  Architects  Attitudes  Modern  Economic  and  and  a  Conditioning  Other  People  By-Laws  8.  Historical  North  and  Unwritten  American  Political  Other and  p.138  Free  Enterprise,  etc.  p.158 Factors  Origins  of  p.183 the  North  Cities  Architectural  Theories  Laws  City  Factors:  Legal  Ethnic  Romantic  p.206  Trends  and  Creeds  Related  Romanticism 10.  Involved p.123  and  Equality,  7.  American  as  Developments  Ownership,  9.  Romanticism  Developed  with p.249  by  some  Romantics  p.284  V. 11.  Contemporary  E f f e c t  12.  Vancouver  Light  13.  Summary  B i b l i o g r a p h y  in  and  of of  H i s t o r i c t h i s  C o n c l u s i o n s  Study  Ideas  p.301 p.309 p.344 p.353  1.  INTRODUCTION Background  At  the basis  modern N o r t h  American  philosophical, traditions,  o f the urban industrial  ethical  form  city  and r e l i g i o u s  of attitudes  taken  and a r c h i t e c t u r e  lies  an e n t i r e  thought,  of the  world of  o f newer and o l d e r  f o r g r a n t e d and, i n d e e d , o f  prejudice.  It  i s an u r b a n  and  uniquely affected  the  last  developed middle  revolution  o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . such  These  of changing  American,  only i n  by t h e c u l t u r e around t h e  Most books o f h i s t o r y o f Changing  ( 1 ) , a r e f o c u s e d on t h e p e r i o d  works  ideals  developed  initiated  as P e t e r C o l l i n s '  the new way o f t h i n k i n g  century.  i n the second  seem t o be c o n c e r n e d  half  Ideals i n  which  begins  of the e i g h t e e n t h  mostly  with the h i s t o r y  and w i t h t h e many i n n o v a t i o n s o f t h e modern  up t o o u r d a y s .  The which  interest  of this  study  d i d n o t change s i g n i f i c a n t l y  ment t o o u r d a y s , ingrained the  o r , more c l e a r l y ,  by t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l  Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e  age  i n many ways u n i q u e l y N o r t h  by t h e body o f t h o u g h t  three centuries,  modern a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  with  form  i n our c u l t u r e :  continuity  fashions  and which  i s c e n t e r e d on t h o s e  from  the time  of t h e i r  ideals develop-  became more and more p r o f o u n d l y  i n o t h e r words h e r e we a r e e m p h a s i z i n g  o f a body o f t h o u g h t  and o f e x p e r i m e n t s .  under  the s u r f a c e  of changing  The often  North American  sharply  criticized,  viability  as  sometimes  seriously  differences one  may  such  of  of  time,  a  uations  which  visiting  as  change: tions is  it  generally  times  process  is  a  went  through  city  example  as  Rome  that  many  made  cars  seemed  to  is  prepared  be  impossible such  the  as  over  adapt  more  city  a  long that  sit-  journalist  observing and  to  liveable  a  similar  frightening. are  -  and  and  An A m e r i c a n  to  is  a newer  needs  enjoyable  and  this  and  systems  comparison  as  its  structural  and  to  and  that  transformations,  profoundly.  1974*,  of  developed  adapting  in  example  The  profound  implica than  it  thought.  thesis  forgotten which  uncritical  nature  Rome  not  scrutiny  functioning  such  praised  perhaps,  an  city  become  now,  As  ancient  rather  seldom  greater  as  Washington  an  only  under  urban p a t t e r n ,  early  behind  come  is  seen  that  would  it  been  -  changed  This at  an  Rome w i t h o u t  before.  has  cities  flexible  Rome  but  has  questioned.  Washington.  adopted  that  two  consider  as  period  a system  city  and  will  attempt  sources  shapes rather  the  of  American  irrational  are  many  outside  the  cities  romantic and  illustrate  inspiration  North  There  to  a  * a t a t i m e when c a r s w e r e b a n n e d w i t h o u t g a s o l i n e was looming.  in  city,  the  many  crucial  and  decision-making  in  many  cases  as  a  return which  an  process.  ideals,  such  love  for  isolation,  and  the  spectre  of  cities  to played  3.  a  great  role  in  the  background of  architecture  of  the  North  An of  the  analysis  cultural  may h e l p  us  to  see  and to  better  understood  change  in  social  ideals,  starting  an  may b e  that  blind  emotionalism  to  it  the  the  wrong  of  problems  efforts  service.  be  kind  city  in  imagine  as  put  f o r w a r d new  and b e t t e r  rooted  in  the  view  of  anything  perpetuates  as  prejudices  more  else  -  the  rational  and  ideals  illusions.  common  a  undemo-  to  established  truer  aspirations  aspirations  of  a  toward  Human  to  aspects  such  to  deeply  this  fictitious  genuine  guide  shaped  unconscious  architectural  demolition so  and  produced  and  would  attempt  the  illusions they  and  attempt  with  future  that  city.  conscious  real  and more  time,  the  the  many  direct  cratic  American  background which  light,  do  of  thought  These  consciousness  a mistaken tenets  of  love  of  forgotten  philosophies.  A for  example,  Arctic (2),  the  he  may  present future.  problems  a  study  nature  coolly  A caption romantic  page  "Concrete  of  from  view  American of  a permanent  examine  concept  North  front  needs  a headline:  false  common  in  wildlife  or  under A  contemporary  of  or  seems  and  to  of  Nature  a weekly home  dweller  magazine:  away  from  a waterfront  parks: to  it's  impair  make  a popular  urban  rational  comic  (4) :  strip  read,  "Our  man a n d  machine"  redevelopment  your our  may  choice"  ability choices  to  (3). assess  for  the  summarizes  the  4.  Nature something  which as  seen  can  is  also  an  inner mysterious  natural  seen  is  Rousseau).  to  have  latter  art  and  part  romantic feeling  a  the  live  speaking  of  to  idea  cities  good  that  and to  but  stay  the  away  reminds  build  Nature  man t h r o u g h  evil",  One s h o u l d  (an  as  products.  the do  and  from  one  of  cities  problem.  one  example theme  of  of  eighteenth  or  to  a r o m a n t i c dilemma that  this  in  those take  a  thesis  century and  negatively,  what,  Even  compelled  goodness  man c a n  good.  in  of  man a n d h i s  and p h i l o s o p h y ,  positively  movement. were  to  The main  characteristic  to  corruption  just  of  source  "Only  always  avoid  literature  influenced, was  is  inherited.  the  are  becomes  This  a n d as  voice.  To h a v e  consequently  the  opposed  wisdom,  instincts  civilization  be  as  even by  large  who  were  account  to  is  the  sense,  of  it,  and  by in  day,  have  feeling  may b e  repelled  "from  present  politics,  a way  of  that  we  been which  called this many  way  the of  cases  5. were  more  affected  The profoundly call  it  than  they  influenced  by  the  new  of  the  Renaissance  and  of  in  the  great  part  interests  of  the  early  colonial  religion. ished read  A gentle,  in  the  South  and  had  the  olution  was  name  since  the  the  seen  and  new  the  not  to  Russell).  have  thinking,  times  been  which  irony,  the  of  hated  by  corruption. representative  in  most we  will  of  the  common  waste,  of  the  parsimony  and  the of  name  The as  the  of  refined as  enlightenment  and  of  individual  liberty, of  had  and  the  the  they  in  could  a  of  of  God,  of  be  North  liberty.  present ground  nature, were  also.  agnosticism, the  the the  and  enlightenment height  of  intellectual  America, The  in  of  fertile  fear  doubt,  to  also  been  settlers,  were  rev-  but  always  and flour-  moralism,  providing  life-style  Franklin,believed  who  North American  reason,  if  literature  punishment of  it  morality  those  idealism,  love  as  pronounced  work,  of  The  sentiments  worship the  were  sentimentalism  Americans,  Benjamin  it.  little  The most  pre-romantic  colonization,  presence  North  people  degree  thought.  skeptical  the  only  very  Englightenment,  Europe.  for  of  shared  entertainment  inspired  original  The  morality,  of  of  time  A high  tide  as  the  spare  God.  early  both  among  were  of  the  sentimental,  for  fought  of  mysticism,  the  way  North American colonies  known  for  seems  (B.  romanticism.  culture  the  (5)  knew"  North American continent  The  was  by  preached  realism  and  6.  the  sentimentalism,  later age,  manifested were  of  left  a  preceding achieved age  a  individual  be  developed  of  on  Europeans in  Europe.  of  styles  a  to  as  fulfilled.  dreams  the  had  to  of  the  grand  This  have  of  one  of  The  a  long  with  land  in  style  romantic  since  the  that  of  early  to  age  never  colonies. conquer  would  the  architecture  was  became to  do  the  The  and  to  history  romantic mould  the  fulfillment  tide  between  of  could why  not of  of  have  there  a  two  slate  and  such  where  a  been  and  came  factors  done  uniformity  Europe,  where  difficult  a unified  thought  could  of  not is  in  slow  of  the  clean  dreams  exist  America  ideals  a  of  invincible  North  romantic  following  new  relationship  land.  land  liberty,  and  the  what  and  great  of  there  a  does  dream  was  reasons  that  a  of  a new  where  the  the  the  thought  British  rebellion,  It try  in  that  forms.  and  permitted  prevented  Together revolution.  that  life  and  North America  to  trends  idealism,  dream.  land  North America  intricacies  development  is  art art  the  North America  immigrants  of  scale.  come  in  the  fulfilled  in  resources  in  its  a dream  Only  would  in  be  the  a virgin  achievements,  that  a wealth  status  dream  done  of  and  primitive  Baroque  North America  The  leading  in  was  trace  according  as  if  nothing  dominant  exclusively  was  even  lasting  mysticism  North American  romanticism.  found  ideals  the  century,  Almost have  renewed  themselves  motifs  eighteenth  the  dream.  the has  industrial been  7.  interpreted the  by  essential  factual  evidence  the  ideas  them  possible. created  oriented  In not  a  of  reinforced  of  this  to  stage  was  the  industrial the  in  see  that  conceived  ( 6 ) even  without  reinforced  the  was  implement  or  cars,  the of  ( 7 ) .  that  car  by  Integral and  made  preceded the  car-  people  could  before  The  that  that  buildings  ideas  political  and  produced  indicates  trend  designed  concrete  known  however,  development  partly  drawings  evidence  technological  of  had  thinking.  suburban  before  we  is  see  the  need  and  of  thesis,  industrial  the  revolution  way  the  for  concrete  new  this  fashion  thesis  before  we  Law O l m s t e d  built  the for  preceded  the  similar be  if  presented  Thus  city  Frederick  as  background  that  and  some  be  dreamed.  which  the to  like  could  technology the  dreams  breakthroughs  theme arise  necessary  them.  Terminology  Romanticism which the of  opposes  "New the  it  York  to  here  ( 8 ) : "It  movement  the  revival,  but  extent  romantic  manifestation  According to  determine  characters  with  the  to a  not  defined  neo-classicism.  Times"  romantic  is  were to  has  this  single  essence  of  is  not  John  the  now  carried within  the  this  been  revival  category  that  the  in seeds  classical  itself  was  a  recognized."  interpretation character  narrow  Canaday observed  t r u i s m by  which  a  as  or  Romanticism"  "it  with (9).  is  impossible  a group  of  This  why  is  static there  8.  are  so  many  different  L. and  the  Hegel) der  notes  rationalism are  aspects  of of  Naturphilosophie  that M.  Geymonat  romanticism  Vinciguerra  studies  aus  came  interior  contrast  B.  distinguished  N. wrote  (14):  (reason was  which the  reason.  it  the  in  this  itself  force  between  the  noted  was  and  world  passage  was  made  or  absolute  is  an  infinity  extension  romantic  Absolute;  Hegel,  Principle  was  the  and  or  constantly  by  of  by  it  a German  of  a  of  world  understood  existentialist,  an  of  reason  value,  as  infinite  it force  constitutes  understood  as  who  identified  reason  is  called  as  (13).  be  a n d made  produced.  Although  Self-conscious  (12).  and H e g e l  concept  consciousness  (Fichte  an  theoretical  Self-Consciousness  entire  from  therefore  to  Fichte,  renaissance  life"  and  and  (11)  Reformation.  limited  and  began  the  and  this  Ursprung  maintained  Goethe  abandoned  duration.  philosophers Idea  and  rules  the  I  made  Schelling,  Per  proceeds  concepts  b o r n when  -  n.a.)  "it  historian  field  world  of  a practical  limited  from which  sense to  opposing  of  infinite  addition the  the  that  observations  a  earlier  This  w i t h the  by  in  inhabits  essence  between  and  in  Mystik  mysticism  romanticism.  Fichte,  K. J o e l der  of  anti-rationalism  r o m a n t i c i s m was  " R o m a n t i c i s m was  acting  thought  the  that  Abbagnano,  both (e.g.  dem G e i s t e  Reformation  quoting  that  idealists  from  by  romanticism,  definitions  romanticism.  retarded  Croce  (10)  the  thought  the  and  it  and  of  Infinity power,  variously I;  Reason),  of  in  called  Schelling, the  consciousness,  Infinite activity,  9.  liberty,  capability  Despite infinite  to  the  ideas  sentiment, beyond  in  of  every  determination from  to the  interpretation  insisted  erizes  on the  the  contrast of  more  in  art.  or  the  other  which  so  the  infinite  aspect,  constitutes  i n the  whole  of  its  especially it  is  their  one  of  the  man  infinity  in  from  This  figures  of  or those that  as  determination  one  may is  be  the  romantic  Schelling  Principle,  infinity  the  that  of  which  were  struggle  contrast  fundamental  complexity."  a  an charact-  man.  of  led  in  necessity  to  as  sentiment,  although  similar  interpretations  But  which  experience  with  great  closer  determinations  a-priori.  Hegel,  immediate  Hegel  and  and  in  and  every  the  two  infinity  revealed  rigorous  in t h e  presence,  of  understood  that  prevailed  considers  is  in  interpretation,  related  necessarily  Schelling  two  of  with  characters,  romantics  free  that  strictly  other,  aesthetic  sentiment.  Drang",  and  these  the  activity,  moves  of  first  interpretation  which  The  by  The  und  free  are  Fichte,  unconscious  foundation  ways.  as  second  creation.  interpreted  "Sturm  is  or  Reason,  idealism,  was  the  which  The  deduced  common  determination,  religion  absolute  continuous  different  that  activities is  the  Principle  fundamentally  of  and  against  their  traits  often  of  in the  primacy  struggle romanticism  10.  C. a  new  it  epoch  Cappuccio notes  (15)  of  . . .  manifests  civilization  itself  enlightenment, of  the  although  enlightenment  divulged and  by  the  religious  dominate  the  common  romantic  of  like  "Copernican  body  which  knowledge be  called  nature  of  of  thought  involved  we  may  such  as  Leibniz  just  as  for  seem  to  in  the  in  and  be  this in  sentiment  new  which that did  individualism which  of  the of  there  is  world  and  the of  the  probably  a  vast  were  Schiller.  had  a  eighteenth  foundations,  which  developed  hody  men  The greater  permeated  then  throughout  no  one  before not  could for  seem poet  Perfection.,  to as  and  this  understanding  "sentimental"  a problem.  of  conquests  revolution.itself.  romanticism  observe  a rather  was  development  elements  half  and  Kant  the  ideal  Cappuccio  its  understanding that  the  construction  laying  to  . . . "  second  the  French  new  of  expressions  the  Exaltation  world  by  the  was  complex  made  revolution  not  two  revolution"  of  -  . . .  Bourke  the  it  represents  obvious  opposition  many  like  than  an  understanding  followed,  is  the  the  a new  most  essence  Abbagnano  emerged  It  will  clarify  and  as  Kant,  consequences  new  are  architects  that  Rousseau  its  "romanticism  its  conserved  to  that  consciousness  knowledge  all  spiritual  Russell  Chief  in  Encyclopaedists  consensus  century.  of  in  and  exigency  From  new  first  that  -  vast  afterwards thesis.  a  far  avoid  a  the  To  reaching  being  "rationalist"  be  a  difficulty,  Petrarca  appeared  reason  rather  as  did a  11.  harmony" out  and a  conflict,  cooperation  and p e r f e c t i o n  Sentiment organic two  life  But  studied the  the  and  of  Beethoven the  in  the of  a dialectic to  "the  object'.'  coordinated  of  romanticism,  just  as  I  would  everyone  was  without trasting  to  romantic  civilization.  with  I  a  had I  It  terms ideals  is  new  or  after the  the  T h e new  way  them  angles. in  Contrast is  order of  there  last  and had  is  the  tempest  ideal  of  that  follows  understanding may b e  a  pro-  contrasts.  expressed  by  of  the  astonishing  ability  Previous  ages  would  call  it  the  such  not  as  that  one  the  to Age  Age  during  of  those  could hardly  religious  cubists,  multiple  title  have  with-  the  different  attainable,  a  with  terms  forces.  give  but  which  seeing  to  title  a believer,  coming  calm  of or  if  presentation  perhaps  centuries.  poles  contrasts.  If  medieval  is  the,  through  of  give  not  u n d e r s t a n d i n g where  delivering  features.  were  with  that  amazingly  series  terms  age  symphony,  simultaneous  (16)  dominant  of  was  the  universe  a n d human i n d u s t r y ,  u n d e r many  is  the  possible.  before  revolution.  sublimity  This tried  way  of  Perfection, it  of  considered  nature  opposing  sixth the  factors  contending  new  as  struggle,  struggle  gression  the  feature.  a  was  most  discussed  contrast,  dominant  result  been  of  all  and r e a s o n ,  science,  have  feature  necessary  is  and  centuries  been  of  aspects and  of  an  success  a  had  other  the  centuries  of  Contrast,  Religion  to  the  centuries  have  beliefs.  who  a  social  Similarly  profoundly penetrated  our  life  con-  12.  Contrast and  purely  the  love  things,  in  for  science  were  Boullee  trend,  to  are  be  one  where  Greek,  vided  new  Romanesque,  attitudes  previous  century,  The  rationalistic  the  to  absolute  aesthetics perhaps, of  the  side.  Noting  world,  times  brought  the  stock  exchange  of  followers  enterpreneur  are  of  an  examples  sort  of  or  other  individual  directly  that  had  by  the  word  new and  may be  ideal new  in  an  and  which  heroes:  as  from  the  generations related  to  the for  even  say,  subjective  which  could The  examples  the  before.  were  might  pro-  of  interest  together.  seen  terms  they  the  ideal,  back  architecture, styles  tribute  one  aesthetic  in  centuries  once  romanticism  to  in  formed  romantic  dialectic  developed  f r o m many  the  an  only  also  Newton  incredible  not  but  to  idealizing  time,  people  of  this  the  devotion  many  and  temples  although  was  of  the  became  romanticism  and  by  revived  with  logic  confused  accompanied  together  even  cenotaph  also  other where  a  some  that  Among born,  to  attitudes  century  a  was  was  come  contrasts,  some  or  rose  at  ideas,  for  category  example,  positions.  indications  Gothic  ideals  that  common ,. house  and  eighteenth  sentimental  and  drawings  strict  for  categorized;  been  and  a  idealism  science  developed  inspiration  of  and  as  Romantic,  extreme  many  have  opposing  same  (The  among  which  for  precisely  people  intended  rationalistic  mysticism  Many  eclecticism  of  be  sense.  and  idealized.  where  unity.)  form  had  not  dualistic  infinity  a new  everything  by  a  should  of  the  virtuoso  the  gifted  view be  opera new and  the  geniuses.  13.  Approach  The many  of  the  attitudes and in  This  generated be  not  to  be  d i s a p p o i n t e d by  or  to  even  praise  the  past  there two  artistic  what  with  has  been  a  And the  places  against  should  not  be  an  and of  the  necessary  solutions  be  adopted  criticised.  a r e a c t i o n a r y and would  not  return the  the  intent  of  this  despite of  some  of  have  been  the  "ancien  present  progress  that  r o m a n t i c and t h a t  to  true  an  be  that  is  that,  works  as  will  fact  advised  construed  design  is  is  the  criticism  i l l  thesis  modern  to  and t h a t  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  time.  the  earlier)  is  all  the  centuries  of  Attacking  at  this  opposing poles  Many  attempt  not  from  r o m a n t i c mood may n o t  The a u t h o r an  is  emerge  the  (and  styles.  disagreement  last  same  the  that  bad.  older  mistakes, the  by  say  romantic is  no  and o f  last'hundred years  is  will  reasonable.  is  is  that  contrasts  may n o t the  opinion  in  for  a  attack  against  to  difficulties  and  conditions  in  rewarding  produced  desire  order  There  most  reader  regime"  thesis.  living  the  what  during  may n o t e  certain moral  in  the some  moral  order  order  "tout  court':'.  Purpos e  In is  not  is  that  theme, are  the  proving  objective  of so  fact,  of  collecting that  willing  further  a philosophy  this  work.  may p r o c e e d w i t h  a new  modus  The o b j e c t i v e  many s c a t t e r e d studies  or  may b e  elements made  additional  along  a n d so  work  of  along  vivendi  this one  that the  thesis  main others lines  who of  14.  the  theme.  The  thesis  will  suggest  architectural  and n o n - a r c h i t e c t u r a l  documentation  to  founded.  Much  The which  urban  of  romantic  by  those  behind  of  it  will  thesis  design  is  and  tradition  who  the  indicate  are  with  our  Romantic  that  of  the  metropolis critical should  may b e  analysis  be  that  is in  possible  man who  it  in  of  to  if  and  live  recognized  of  to  be  on  questioned, The  the  ideas  cold  detrimental  go  future such  and work  the  in  a.sort  and  trends,  woods  with  ways  by  life.  influence  the  well  architecture  dualistic  in  adequate  are  conditioned  and  questioned found  is  several  comtemporary  design  between  bibliography.  showing  are  pernicious  seriously and  the  fully  in  There  relationships  with  not  contrasts  wants  -  found  architecture  "system"  unchallenged cities.  be  relationships  events.  these  concerned  involved  present  that  many  as  in  eye  the  of  perhaps  of  a they  re-evaluated.  Organization  The ions  on  order must the  the  to be  present  point noted  legal  influence outlines attitudes the  thesis  and  and on  out  is and  the in  essential and  historical  then  the  features  order  economic design.  organized  to  historical of  this  factors,  elements  are  the  that  of  of  first key.  present the  must  initial  characteristics  social  present  underline  framework After  to  the  This  urban  ideas, be  observed  modern  observatis  done  pattern  the  examination  modern d e s i g n  introduced.  the  -  city,  that  attitudes, in  their  which of  modern  and a r c h i t e c t u r e  The r e a s o n  for  i n -  which  -  15.  this  method  familiar of  old  and  been  elements  trends  perhaps  seems By  has  to  and  half  with  follow  a path  reason  why  strict  exert  pole of  of  what  chapter  mostly  one  to  the  with of  This  outline  urban  may b e  has  a  as  elements  of  to  old  present  the  on  persistence  certain  the  of  is  first  our  present  understand  theme.  geometry,  is  the  focus  life. we  may  the  today.  overall what  to  The p r e s e n t  and b e g i n  blocks  structure  seen  of  special  the  of  To a n a l y s e  perspective.  force  one  influence  ideas.  origins a  allows  a realization  observation  their  it  prevailing  a better  cities.  that  gain  the  classification  American allows  to  is  forgotten  to  they  concerned  of  an  Each is  and  develop  starting  chosen  of  the  view  is  supposed  (and  romantic  to  the  The  separations  fabric  of  important to  first  be  reflect  the  perfectionism  the  North it  anti-sentimental  some  or  and  because  the on  chapter  consequences  rational  idealism).  The pole  of  nature,  chapter  is  concerned  interests:  the  sentimental  the  the  individual  "suburban  garden,  style'.'.  picturesque geometry, uniformity grid.  second  is  of  In  the  order,  shown  by  a way  necessary of the  ideal  the  with  the  and p i c t u r e s q u e free  expression,  love  of  organic  element  of  contrast  precision,  two-dimensional  of  contrasting aesthetics, the  nature to  the  and  need  classification,  order  of  the  of  giant  the of  of zoned  16.  These the  first  the  contemporary  ideal map,  two  two  of  of  of  design  rational  the  civilization  generated  and  of  place  an  creative two  of  and  of  the  pressing  completely  the  and  architectural rhythm of  of  the  limit  the to  architect.  separate  of  the  seem  the  activities.  The  poles  organic  nature.  of -  in  the  terms  the  and  image  the  idealism forces the  in  of  to  realism  the  daily  seem  to  the  derives  of  vulgar  competition  and p r o d u c t i o n first  of  logic  and  system  and  of  position  ruthless  where  public  noted.  the  between  enterprise  Design  the  the  of  intuition  and  irrational  are  opposing  office,  styles.  between  illusions  romantic  the  seen  the  from  paths,  influence  call  analysis  creative  to  the  interests  and  equality,  contrast  and  free  Utopian  two-dimensional  past  inspiration  contrasting  a  curvy  conflict  pressures  of  of  law,  sentimental  caught  between  leitmotif  individualism,  which  an  The n o t i o n s  insufferable role  of  office,  politics,  money.  city  is  on  theme  of  opposing  his  elements  the  the  and  and  of  by  colour  buildings,  the  and  chapter  business  operations  the  fourth  geniality  of  of  in  classification,  for  is  the  imitation  and  introduced  the  side,  side  debates  misconceptions  creative  become  public  the  has  A p a r t i c u l a r theme  architect  realism  even  ideal in  other  detached  of  The the  and  of  science,  On t h e  are  represent  one  blocks  chapter  the -  on  third  interests  Some  scene:  nature,  nature  interests  they  neat  rules.  if  because  The opposition  opinion.  poles  engineering,  organic  imitation  man-made  urban  zoning,  geometry,  freedom,  of  chapters  reason,  uniformity  basic  become from  -  17.  intuitive of  creativity,  efficiency  genius  in  attitudes of  what  become the  the  role  The  fifth  the  of  setting. in  of  cultivated  the  an  city  noted  and  chapters  city  want  we  particular The  of  stand quoted truly a  city  is  for  at  to the  crucial we  important  cultural  that  is  that  the  about  be  The  today  of  times  old  between and  the  must  images  out  and  is  has  grow  opposite  orderly  gradually  for  by  in  of  or  the  question  in  in  a  of  every-  picturesque  the  image  Northern  romantic  these.images  all  of  kind  to  of  the  the  terms is  of  design,  what  future.  kind  means about  of  Throughout  for  a  city. a  reader  "concrete  introduction,  these  of  a dream  basis  help  of  contrasting  of  the  dilemma:  what  of  aspect  becomes is  through  range  that  the  that  made  a wide  this  in  choose,  and  real  objective  questions, to  the  and  style"  spread  clean,  link  ideals  involved  beginning  want  as  directions  this  romantic  confusion.  that  village  obliterated  notions  struggle  deal  is  seen  The  The  affecting  possible,  is  environment  notions  offices  need  alienated  the  "suburban  and  the  emphasized.  point  initial  density  and  by  an  of  popular  The  wherever  city.  priest  dreams  like.  majority.  Anglo-Saxon  The  discusses  dominated  becomes  high  industries  ideal  is  architect  look  parks  the  ideals, is  second  inspired  chapter  High  neighbourhood by  an  even  green  desirable  The  should  attitude: of  the  from r o m a n t i c  city  middle  thing  speed.  derived  an  natural  and  while  great to  under-  or  parks?",  to  avoid  what  dreams these  kind  are  the of  really  chapters  18.  it  is  demonstrated  prevalent fixed at  model  upon  the  two  end  developed imposed  for  by  in  and  even  more  centuries  a  single  eighteenth  system  political,  sixth  legal  and  the  present  "system"  the  defence  of  a positive how  manner  strongly  economic, design  In of  design  to  ideas  noted which  In  Olmsted concept. sublime ary  by are In and  of  the  and  of  factors.  and  legal  derived  have  and  the  economic,  condition noting  that  established is  embodied  which  ideas  future.  An a t t e m p t  framework.in  clear  self-  urban  to  well  been  be from  the  seem  be  and  typically  with  the  the  made  in  in to  the  contemporary  place.  ninth  related  eighth and  be  ninth  at  to the  chapter  the  to  of  notions  chosen  designing, to  became  should  for  deal  which  these  romantic  and  chapters  through  nature  architecture  now  factors  was  acceptable  seems  developed  shown  still  values  are  Penn  only for  planning  eighth,  the  of  cultural  takes  the  seventh  is  which  It  mostly  chosen  political  process  planning  the  the  conceivable  and  ago.  dream,  century, as  scheme  North America  minded  North Americans  The  particular  city  the  architectural  show  the  the  that in  that  curves at  the  chapter upon  the  end  and  earlier outset  the of  the  the  the  of  the  of  the  of  romantic  the  the of  rural  dream  "garden notions  by  city" about  The  century  and  period.  Utopian  introduced.  eighteenth  patterns  antecedents  naturalistic  effect are  chapters  historical  grid  origins  design of  tenth  the  revolutionis  shown  19.  as  the  prototype  In  relating  aspects  of  thoughts  nineteenth  clusions. be  of  the  and  chapter  eleven.  of  the  a point  contemporary of  sublime  and  an  Encyclopaedia  and  of  end  of  today  ideas  previous men  thirteen  daily  urban  beyond  as of  the  and  somewhat  limited  definition  the  are  re-  chapters  of  the  derived nature  of  in  the of  has  from  a  the  terms  draw  life  realm  twelve  beautiful..  quickly  and  given  in  (17),  to  eighteenth  the  seems  permanency criticism,  list  of  the  of are  examples  romantic  of  con-  and what  interpre-  aesthetics  Chapter thirteen  is  the  the  himself  the  am n o t  Sciences  and -  the  recommend to  title  the  may  that:  crude as  say  with  a richer  of  -  the clearest of  even  the  if  thesis  that  definition  author,  romantic.  "The  a help  reading  The  with  contrast  "Romanticism" i n  language.  enlightened  I  (1934)  outgrowing  familiar  English an  Note  introduction  outdated  under I  this  Social  classic"  Encyclopaedia. romanticism  to  the  are  romantic  considered  contrast.  proper.  As  of  in  acceptance  Concluding  minds  romantic  and  Chapter  style  contrasts  conclusion  romantic  influential  of  unquestioned  noted  tations  of  made  twelve  contradictions  to  the  most  eleven,  styles,  of  origins  observations  outmoded in  the  of  century.  The  a blind  modern p a t t e r n  ten  the  Chapters  to  the  chapter  traced,  and  of  G.  of  Borgese,  the  20. APPENDIX  NOTE  A note are  a kind  important  of by  far  well-known  the  observation  the  most  study  thinkers as  whose  home  duced  the  The  neighbourhood  to  city  as  different  Benjamin in  not  pointing  thought North  in  were of  arising  little  that  age  "the  of  the  New  the  in  the  as the  out  the  the  the  the  war  of  intellect, has  pro-  (20). farm,  that  city  planners  is  is  that  a are  n e c e s s a r y .'(22) . a  fundamental  people  Lloyd  not  the  eighteenth  and  the  satire  of  apparently  Wright, study  so  new  the  fails  tradition  Hume  North  is  much a  century.  century. in  the  detached and  of  independence  "the  the  Where t h e  eighteenth  reviews  (21)  from  of  of  past"  Frank  Howe.  with  one  isolated  town,  surprise  and  is  it  city."  the  values  city  and  City,  opens  sociologists,  England  city;  the  city  that  American  similarity  middle  the  some  with  It  most  intellectual  showing  expression  skepticism  known d u r i n g and  the  toward  that  (18)  which  the  Versus  our  American  American  points  these  American  wilderness,  and F r e d e r i c k  out  to  studies  White.  nation"  the  Thomas J e f f e r s o n  accident  America  that  attitudes as  the  (19)  according  formulation of  Franklin  historical  the  today"  things  The'study of  Lucia  of  c r i t i c i s m of  realize  similarity  of  Among  Intellectual  and  decay  important  work.  The  self-contained  are  "self-conscious  be  "the  some  this  Morton  known  concludes the  of  "virtually constitute  is  the  to  concerns  who  it  is  plantation,  made  to  by  that  sharpest  study  seeking  seems  pressing  tradition  be  antecedent  the  those  must  The  and  of In  Voltaire  literature  America  may  21. be  seen  as  an  antecedent  thought,  which  romantic  age.  for  This design  study  developed  applied  today,  prepared,  and  something  that  that  of  if  will of  show  late  we  the are  what  of  themes  this  that  origins still  design  may be  is  will  century  new be  age  called  thought  are  by  the  century  the  hundred years more  less  truly now  new,  obvious  ago.  and  of  still  the  something  becoming  of  principles  forgotten  for  next  two  the  essential  waiting  modern  of  study  the  f o r -the  was of  main  eighteenth  resolve  principles  the  purpose  will  from  even  contradictions renewal  the  to  A  true  may  be  more  neces s a r y .  This regarded the  as  spans  days:  "If  advance the  the  monumental  which  the  would  the  middle  represent  with  up  to  contemporary  future . . 1  1  this  a well (23)  the  conclusions  history  here:  were  it  is  of  to  Moderna  be  would  purposes.  something  architects perspective  to  live  duty  by  R.  Benevolo, to  be  our this  than  any  necessary  of to  To u n d e r s t a n d  which  is  happily,  and  architecture,  behind,  step  truly  what  century  left  radical:,  of  modern  eighteenth  different  difficulty  defined  the  a much m o r e  totally  not  in  of  m o d e r n movement  of  places  among  de11'Architettura  seriousness helping  be  comprehensive  Storia  shown  again,  to  most  from  changes  start  seems  hope  the  certainly but  toward  which the  22.  Introduct ion  (1)  PETER C O L L I N S ; Montreal, 1967  (2)  "Weekend M a g a z i n e " , f r o n t page  (3)  "The V a n c o u v e r ALAN D A N I E L S .  Sun:,  March  (4)  "The V a n c o u v e r  Sun",  July  (5)  BERTRAND New Y o r k  (6)  His c o n t r i b u t i o n to urban d e s i g n , i n the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century, is described in chapter 8.  (7)  T h i s c a n be s e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e d r a w i n g s b y B o u l l e e a n d L e d o u x shown i n c h a p t e r 9 . E . L . Boullee and C . N . L e d o u x were a c t i v e i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f the eighteenth century.  (8)  JOHN from p . 25  (9)  G . DE R U G G I E R O : (first published  (10)  Changing  Ideals  vol.24,  in  No.2,  Modern  Architecture  January  12,  9,  1974,  p.47,  28,  1973,  Sunday  1974,  article  comic  by  strips.  RUSSELL: A H i s t o r y of Western P h i l o s o p h y , 1965 ( f i r s t published 1945), p.675  CANADAY: " T h e New  T o g a s a n d C h i t o n s as R o m a n t i c Y o r k T i m e s " , S u n d a y , O c t o b e r 1,  L'Eta del Romanticismo, 1943), v o l . 1 1 , p.352  Disguises, 1972,  Laterza  1974  L . GEYMONAT: S t o r i a del Pensiero F i l o s o f i c o , Milan 1960, v o l . I l l , p.21: "Vedremo che n e i g r a n d i idealisti - F i c h t e , S c h e l l i n g , Hegel - i temi ora r i c o r d a t i del p e n s i e r o r o m a n t i c o s i r i v e r s t o n o d i un f o r m u l a r i o filosofico p e r m o l t i l a t i d i v e r s o da q u e l l o r e l i g i o s o sentimentale dei poeti; c i o non m u t e r a p e r o l a l o r o sostanza. Nello stesso pensiero d i Hegel... 1 aspirazione m i s t i c a verso 1 ' i n f i n i t o . . . assume, senza r i s e r v a di s o r t e , della piu' schietta cultura romanti c a . " ;  1  (11)  K. J O E L ; D e r U r s p r u n g d e r N a t u r p h i 1 o s o p h i e G e i s t e der M y s t i k , 1900, p.14  (12)  M. VINCIGUERRA:  (13)  B.  (14)  N . ABBAGNANO: Storia della F i l o s o f i a , Turin 1963, vol. I l l p a r a g r a p h 538: "II r o m a n t i c i s m o n a s c e i n v e c e quando q u e s t o c o n c e t t o d e l l a r a g i o n e v i e n e abbandonato  CROCE:  Storia  Romanticismo, d'Europa  nel  Bari  1931,  Secolo  XIX,  aus  dem  p.63-4 1932,  p.47  23.  e p e r r a g i o n e c o m i n c i a ad i n d e n d e r s i una f o r z a infinita ( c i o e o n n i p o t e n t e ) c h e a b i t a i l mondo e lo domina e p e r c i o c o s t i t u i s c e l a sostanza s t e s s a d e l mondo. Questo p a s s a g g i o v i e n e e f f e t t u a t o da F i c h t e che i d e n t i f i c o l a r a g i o n e con l ' l o i n f i n i t o o Autocoscienza assoluta e ne f e c e l a f o r z a d a l l a q u a l e l ' i n t e r o mondo e p r o d o t t o . L ' i n f i n i t a . in questo senso e u n ' i n f i n i t a . d i d i coscie.nza e di potenza, o l t r e che d i e s t e n s i o n e e d i d u r a t a . Per quanto variamente chiamato dai f i l o s o f i romantici (Fichte 10 chiamo l o , S c h e l l i n g A s s a l u t o , Hegel Idea o Radione a u t o c o s c i e n t e ) , i l P r i n c i p i o i n f i n i t o fu c o s t a n t e m e n t e i n t e s o come c o s c i e n z a , attivita, l i b e r t a , capacita di creazione incessante. Ma p u r s u l f o n d a m e n t o comune d i q u e s t i c a r a t t e r i i l P r i n c i p i o i n f i n i t o venne i n t e r p r e t a t o d a i r o m a n t i c i i n due m o d i f o n d a m e n t a l i d i v e r s i . La p r i m a interpretazione, p i l i v i c i n a a l l e i d e e d e l l o S t u r m und D r a n g , c o n s i d e r a l ' i n f i n i t o come s e n t i m e n t o cioe" come a t t i v i t a l i b e r a , p r i v a d i d e t e r m i n a z i o n i o a l di la di ogni determinazione e che s i r i v e l a n e l l ' u o m o a p p u n t o i n q u e l l e a t t i v i t S " che sono p i u s t r e t t a m e n t e c o n n e s s e con i l s e n t i m e n t o c i o e n e l l a r e l i g i o n e e nell arte. 1  La s e c o n d a i n t e r p r e t a z i o n e intese l ' i n f i n i t o come R a g i o n e a s s o l u t a c h e s i muove c o n n e c e s s i t a r i g o r o s a da una d e t e r m i n a z i o n e a l l ' a l t r a , sicche ogni determinazione pu6 essere dedotta d a l l ' a l t r a necessariamente e a p r i o r i . E questa 1'interpretazione che p r e v a l s e n e l l e g r a n d i f i g u r e d e l 1 ' i d e a l i s m o r o m a n t i c o , F i c h t e , S c h e l l i n g , ed H e g e l , p e r q u a n t o Schelling insistesse sulla presenza, nel Principio infinito, d i un a s p e t t o i n c o n s a p e v o l e o immediato, a n a l o g o a q u e l l o che c a r a t t e r i z z a l'esperienza estetica dell'uomo. Le d u e i n t e r p r e t a z i o n i d e 1 1 ' i n f i n i t o furono spesso i n c o n t r a s t o ed H e g e l s p e c i a l m e n t e condusse l a polemica contro i l primato del sentimento. Ma p r o p r i o 11 l o r o c o n t r a s t o e l a l o r o p o l e m i c a c o s t i t u i s c e u n o dei t r a t t i f o n d a m e n t a l i d e l movimento r o m a n t i c o n e l suo comp1esso." ABBAGNANO i s t h e f i r s t e n t r y P h i l o s o p h y , New Y o r k 1967. (15)  C . CAPPUCCIO: " S t o r i a 1953, p.510-5.  della  in  the  Encyclopaedia  Letteratura",  of  Florence,  24.  (16)  JOHN 1965  CANADAY: M a i n s t r e a m s o f ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1959),  Modern p.458  (17)  G . BORGESE: R o m a n t i c i s m , " E n c y c l o p a e d i a S o c i a l S c i e n c e s " , New Y o r k 1 9 3 4 , p . 4 3 3 ,  (18)  M . § L . WHITE: New Y o r k , 1964  (19)  Ibidem,  p.15  (20)  Ibidem,  p . 15  (21)  Ibidem,  p.236  (22)  Ibidem,  p.235  (23)  R. BENEVOLO: S t o r i a d e l 1 ' A r c h i t e t t u r a 1973 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 6 0 ) , p.893  The I n t e l l e c t u a l (first published  A r t , New  Versus 1962),  York  of the vol.XVII the C i t y , p.13  Moderna,  Bari  25 .  1.  THE E X I S T I N G THE An  urban well  ideal  fabric. find  early that  MODERN  it  of  grand  to  our  grid  of  to  ideally  the  suited, new  ities  the  corrupt,  land by  as  aspects  moral  fluenced the  of  It by  three  is  the  an  and  its  in  modern  unbearable,  vastness to  old  examine  perfect  well  as  by  that  dimensional  dimensional  reality  Zoning,  system  the  this  attitude world  the  has  been  into  the  fields  and  of  the  North America  seemed  resources,  for  esta-  intricacies  and  complex-  zoning  order,  and  a  dream  seems  the  physical  which  cities  of  subdividing  dream  fascinating  conditioning  of  from  world.  of  remarkable  might  background  and the  American  but  Mathematical  dream  as  the  metropolis.  will  North  metropolis  mathematical  moving  we  the  planners  contrast  slow  of  intellectual  American  with  the  two  the  cities.  like  chapter  imperatives  sciences.  our  CITY basis  of  of  order,  this  the  abstract  North  the  In  at  an  look  blishing of  is  contemporary  design  diagrams  zoned  AMERICAN  frustrating  precipitating  Cartesian  AND P L A N OF  urban worker  chaotic,  physical  be  NORTH  order  The  founders  PATTERN  influenced  beauty  of  the  be  more  in-  map  than  by  to  the  buildings  of  the  city.  areas  of  specialized  features selves dicated  the  of  on as  modern  or  by  single  use,  North American  it,  despite  a  standard  some of  is  one  cities.  controversies.  civilization  to  of  are  divided  the  most  We s e e m Zoning members  to is  of  up  into  striking pride  often other  ourin-  urban  26. societies,  a n d as t h e l a s t  in  other continents  in  this  field,  countries, aration to  to reorganize  North with  America,  place  last  and  clear,  clean  and hazardous  zones  coloured  form  charting  incorporated  a n d may  into  their sep-  of order  be v e r y  of single maps  use.  indicating  between  of the land  even  T h e map  activities.  of a  system  residential  parks, parks, etc.  and t h e  susceptible  tool  f o r study when  i t  i s  city.  contemporary.North American  o f zoned'development,  from the  i n a city,  legal  as an  to prevent  i s a concrete basis  become a c l e a r  activities  activities,  satisfaction  a reasonably flexible  and low d e n s i t y ,  industrial  different  psychological  In uses,  a r e seen  way o f o r g a n i z i n g  the zoning by-laws  sfrow o b v i o u s r e s u l t s  They  con-  belonging to  f o r t h e s t u d y o f how  the uses  From t h e a i r most  of high  tool  conditions  i s considered  discussion,  would  and t h e y a r e a t o o l  and o r d e r l y  c o n t i n u o u s improvement.  centres,  f o r instance,  to define  area,  i s a certain  o f a map  itself  areas  a new  a strict  p e r u s e , a r e a n a c c e p t e d way o f d i v i d i n g  i n an u r b a n  There  of  as P a r i s ,  as a s o p h i s t i c a t e d  conflicts  map  such  stage i n the progress of planning.  even  clarity  of zoning to  are lacking  and t o b r i n g  on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  one c o l o u r  efficient, and  which  forms  achievements  cities.  f o r a planner trying  taking the  cities  p r o g r e s s . Many p l a n n e r s  the North American  to propose  and a c t i v i t i e s  A city fusing  are studying  and a r e t r y i n g  o f uses  their  stage of urban  with' c l e a r l y suburbs,  cities defined  commercial  Zoning has been  the major  27. tool  used  appeared it  i n the  struggle  a g a i n s t urban  even more r e a s o n a b l e  is basically  to d i v i d e  the  same s y s t e m  activities  The  fact  of p l a n n i n g North  and  chaos,  rational  that  and  i t must  to those  who  many a r c h i t e c t s  i n most o r i n t h e more complex  that  z o n i n g was  American  cities  used by  as  law,  a tool rather  have  noted  would  apply  designs.  i n the than  process  through  autocratic  d e s i g n e r o r team o f d e s i g n e r s , as Haussmann d i d i n  associated  the n o t i o n o f t h e  planning.  The  elected  it  did* not  suit  by  the  imply  were  their  left  to  qualities  sciences. be  the  The  considerations might find  and  i t d i d not  seemed t o be  an  autocratic that  supported  on  by  the  approval  r  i t s representatives.  It  and  was  a choice of values: style  e x t e n t , t o choose  people  became a system  what was  seen  and  and  any  the  style  by  to the zones  statistical on  i t was  cool  world  the b a s i s  and  social  to  of p l a n n i n g North master  subject  of  approved  of  What  opinions could  i n the  p l a n , o f the  could  quantitative  support  American  ob-  the  studies.  of pure  hoped, w i t h t h e and  less  were e s t a b l i s h e d  the b a s i s  proposed  an u n d e m o c r a t i c  system:,  seemed t o have t h e  i f n e c e s s a r y , on  Zoning,  by-laws,  impersonal  which t h e  a convincing solution,  as  proposed  seem t o i m p l y  Paris,  democratic  i continual  to  person,  attract  changed,  studies.  something  of  an  development.  have been e n d l e s s d e b a t e s  scientific  with that  architectural  to a l a r g e  criteria  d i s c u s s e d and  as  subject  c h o i c e o f an  free,  t h e whims o f . a n  jective  and  individual  Zoning  seen  electorate  to u n d e r s t a n d ,  people  was  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and  verification easy  z o n i n g map  z o n i n g map  that  of form  of  cities  without  kind  proposed  28. by  the  of  a.complete  tire  totalitarian design  classical which  has  to  ment  each  be  and  remind  the  located area  the  one  ized  the  alism  not*  and  part  It  which  advanced  intellectual  the  order  that  may be  neatness  of  alien  to  from  at  elite  the  idea  for  can  be  a  the  paintings  and  strongly  by  and the  Hegel,  in  a new  such  of  to  as  the  also  the  an  en-  of and  most  of  of  fact,  to  that  the  Stijl,  colours  which  do  are not  the laid  that  the  as  of  an  the  product sciences.  was  something  an  influential ration-  sometimes  in  traditions,  fusion  of  the  perfection.  ideal  of  neat-  considerations. geometrical  perfectionism out  overlap  the  rational-  European the  a  may  of  To m a r r y  artistic  and  in  enlighten-  and  ideal  responds  land  precise  idealistic  common  of  of  such  order activity  Linneus,  example.  in  of  perfection  beauty  synthesis  the  each  late  " p u r i t a n i c a l " moral  De  were  "zones",  an  heritage;  zoning back  in  use  categories  for  of  place,  the  Mendelejeff,  of  a  species  thinking  Mondrian,  defined  the  the  as  concept  of  under  coincidence  a movement  ideal  that.of  way  from  with  perfection  origin  traced  than  of  some  of  activities  often  of  an  shares  specific  arose  of  sometimes  the  a  category  is  unlike  idealist  concept  more  It  North American  be  a  city comes  into  which  viewed  all  The  of  to  a  It  fall  elements  not  fashion, the  zoning  concept  romanticism,  of  seems  ness  a  century  pragmatic  two  an  classification  of  absolute  was  to  Encyclopedia.  of  nineteenth  is  by  too.  according  --  organization  that  a  has  romanticism which  an  of  idealism  thing  classification  The  romanticism,  prepared  concept  romantic  designated  of  of  city.  But  in  wing  in  and  neat, do  not  of pure mix,  29. are  contemporary.  boundaries showed i s  a  w i t h  ance  of  and  a  s i n g l e  example,  i n t e r m i n g l e  The and  of  i d e a l  and  of  when  a  change  complete  "zoned":  there  almost  as  i n  zoning  i n s i d e  technique  are  used  spaces  of  as  parks  f a m i l i e s  and  The a  zones  are  zones  from  even for  zoning  of  as are uses  map  concerned  has  or  of  that  have  of  It  an  appear-  g e o l o g i c a l of  s e p a r a t i n g and  j u s t  awkward of  the  maps,  ground  has  comprehensive  b l o c k .  in  has  a c t i v i t i e s . i n which d i f f e r e n t zones seen  l i g h t  more  has  been  one  in as  a  b u f f e r s  become  where  l a r g e  b l o c k ,  there  i s  some  v a r i e t y  to  c a t e g o r i z e d  produced  d i s t r i c t s .  i t s  segments  a c t i v i t y  I n e v i t a b l y , Zoning  other  in  e n t i r e  developments  i n t e g r a t e  c i t y .  every  problems  Zoning  e x c e p t i o n  to  of  a c t i v i t i e s as  moving  r e q u i r e d .  the  and  maps  i n t e r e s t i n g l y ,  nature  compartment  i n f l u e n c e d  more  the  t e r r i t o r i e s .  and  that  the  causes  i s  o f t e n  and  p a t t e r n .  one  b u f f e r  century  where,  mix,  from  as  the  between  used  commercial  i t  such  w i t h i n  s e p a r a t i o n s  are  not  that  p e r m i t t e d  apartments  d i s c i p l i n e  dream  that  maps,  a c t i v i t i e s ,  comprehensive  b u f f e r  even  as  the  i s  a c t i v i t y  m i n i - c i t y  of  s t a n c e s ;  of  are  a c t i v i t i e s a  a  c i t y  system  d i f f e r e n t  of  of  a  do  d e f i n e d  d e f i n e d  i n d i c a t i n g  f o r  s e p a r a t i o n , of  zoning  d i f f e r e n t  zoning  n i n e t e e n t h  c l e a r l y  p s y c h e d e l i c  of  the  n e a t l y  n o r m a l l y  t e r r i t o r i e s  p o p u l a t i o n  another a  quest  in  be  i n  c o l o u r s  almost  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  the  such  a l l  to  f i n d  uses  essence  d e f i n i n g  a b s o l u t e of  an  we  that  t h e i r  extremely  where i n  s t a r t e d  that  p a t t e r n  note  c o l o u r  d i f f e r e n t  a  may  n a t i o n s  p e c u l i a r i t y  c o l o u r s  f o r  of  We  a  k i n d  t e r r i t o r i e s The  of  green  c i r c u m -  between  s i n g l e  i n d u s t r y .  the w i t h  development a  two  of  p l a n n i n g  d i m e n s i o n a l  l a y -  30.  out  r a t h e r than  with  many s t u d i e s and and  a different  Mrs. City  Planning  A Proposal the  most  not  tion  Change The  use  has  and  be  t h e r e f o r e the of  t o be  o f use  an  despite  understanding  F.  i t s context  cord  has  by  cut,  that  a s c h o l a r , notes  in  Choay  sees,  evolves  A of  on  legislative  and  an  f o r the  t o s p e a k , and  to  middle  object first city  than  implementing  wrong w i t h  practice  or  the  administra-  of the  p a r t o f the  point  the  of  device  imprecise  i s nothing  i n the  the  "Perhaps  s u s c e p t i b l e area  s i n c e the  about  analysis;  Planning:  York  l a n d , more- f r e q u e n t l y  there  lies  of planning  so  New  imperfect  difficulty  i t now  from  been  city,  o f the  most  zoning.  emphasized  type  and  o f urban o r g a n i z a t i o n at t h i s as  o f the  for a different  Structure of City  intensity  proven  "a new  immediacy,  fabric  a Commissioner  a teacher  i s that  zoning."*^  century, process  and  r a t h e r , the  of  calling  B e v e r l y Moss S p a t t ,  It should *  concept;  total  attitude.  control  the  zoning  tool.  observations  sensitive  regulate  complex  Commission,  To  development  the  last  p1anner.  The  loses i t s o r i g i n a l t h a t has time  the  been  removed  umbilical  i s subjected  to  crit-  (2) ical  planning."  development  However, H.  of planning  r a t h e r as  routines:  "The  paper  t a b l e s of f i g u r e s  and  advocates  the  practice  view  Churchill,  of c i t y  that  result  planning  from  "the  the  among o t h e r s ,  art of c i t y  the  of d i s a p p o i n t i n g  c o n s i s t s of  calculating  sees  lines  machines",  planning  on  and  i s four  f 3") •dimensional".  J  But  paean o f s e n t i m e n t a l  this  view  p r a i s e to  is wishful thinking, just an  ideal  city  model w h i c h  as  a  i s never  realized in actuality. In f a c t , s i n c e t h e t i m e o f C a m i l l o S i t t e , * T h i s i s a fundamental a t t i t u d e r e g a r d i n g the contemporary d e s i g n o f t h e m e t r o p o l i s w h i c h t r a n s f o r m s i n t o an i l l u s i o n most a t t e m p t s toward a c r i t i c a l examination.  31.  one  of the  the  romantic  tradition,  has  more and  more t a k e n on  plans  and  founders  of the  thinking  has  matters.  Renderings  aesthetic  means  design  has  the  o f urban  horizontal  horizontal  fashion.  Zoning  prevailed  changed  this  even  has  exclusive  of  floors  activities.  This  checkerboards  continue  to e x i s t  the  to note concept  recent  that of  of  of  mainly  as  two-dimensional  developed  as  a kind  seen  of  exclusively  and  the  of thinking  in a  Strata  about  Titles  uses.  occasion for a vertical be  cities  dedicated to  mix  different  of other countries.  have been  designed  s e p a r a t i o n s of uses.  The  and  One  cannot  i n modern p l a n n i n g , the p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n  zoning started  two-dimensional  is reflected  explain and  a kind  of  could  horizontal  and  sketches,  almost  contemporaneously  in  and  our  history.  This uses  as  of our  proposals  fact  i s d o n e i n many c i t i e s  coloured  fail  the  way  p r o v i d e an  different  and  art in  in a l l essential  condominiums  Condominiums p o t e n t i a l l y u s e s , where  an  have been used  s e p a r a t i o n s are  Not  problems  symbolism  i n three dimensions  i n which  p l a n n i n g as  aspect of two-dimensional  strongly  taken place. tool,  have  study  of persuasion a f t e r  horizontal  Act  the  maps, i n w h i c h  horizontal  theory of c i t y  or p r e d i c t land  centric  values  also  i n the most  the p a t t e r n i n urban  Zone C o n c e p t  view  (fig.  of  current  to the  a r e a s , as 1 ) , by  cities  the  and  of separation  theories  distribution illustrated  advanced of  of  to  uses  by  the  Con-  S e c t o r Concept  and  by  These  and  theories  the  (4) Multiple that  both  Nuclei  Concept  explain  and  ( f i g . 2)  produce  the  .  diagrams  contemporary  North  American  CONCENTRIC ZONE CONCEPT 1.  Central  2.  Zone  of  Business  District  Transition  3.  Zone  of  Workingmen's  4.  Zone  of  Better  5.  Commuters'  Homes  Residences  Zone 5  *- • *  V  Figure  1  SECTOR CONCEPT I-  Central  2.  Wholesale  3.  Low-Class  4.  Medium-Class  5.  High-Class  MULTIPLE NUCLEI CONCEPT  Business Light  District Manufacturing  Residential Residential  Residential  Figure  2  6.  Heavy  7.  Outlying  Manufacturing  8.  Residential  9.  Industrial  Business Suburb Suburb  District  33. pattern urban  are  material  economics.  illustrated Hoyt,  in  pattern  by  of  system  they  very  aspect  where  emented  by  a  present  pattern  physical mostly  completely  instance, the  day  with to and  in  to  type  city  tend  to  of  support  Concept,  as  the  planning  the  developed  following  a kind  and  theory by of  Homer natural  word " s u b d i v i s i o n " r e f l e c t s  origin  of  of  most as  the  present  parcels  subdivision  of  of  uses  pattern.  land  and  p r e v a i l i n g system  p r o p e r t y was  has  an It  been  is  that  of  is  a  compl-  activities.  In  the  horizontal  divided horizontally,  n o r m a l l y p r o v i d e d by . p u b l i c  a  each  different same  the  or  in  the  to  some  building  separately  classified.  applied  planning  has  been  created.  one  sees  men  in  breaks,  is  while  the  and  dresses  evening  open  with  a  spaces,  up  and  tower,  The  in  then  dictionary  suits  the of  centre and  shopping  a business  but  go up  each  for  is  for  shopping again  maybe  building  dwelling,duplex,  the  and o f  example  secretaries  (for  suit  others  Encyclopedists  uses  centre  to  family from  generating  fashion  dress  single  of  of  undress  separated  spirit  separately,  code  entertainment),  The b u s i n e s s  business  life  clearly  and a  treated  practically  (office  etc.)  of  who  will  row,  to  activity  style  person  office  shoes  club  of  is  commercial  coffee  of  the  the  only  the  running  go  textbooks  roads.  Not a  use  separation  by  the  subdivision  just  most  growth.  similar  distribution,  economists  see  of  the  in  C o n c e n t r i c Zone  economic  The important  Most  the  which  contained  has  been  buildings is  moving  a place  and  a.place around  where  one  where at  34.  sees  housewives  school  age.  patterns of  urban by  become  have  of  in  noble  receiving even  romantic  and  as to  ideal  order  in  order  to  and of  beauty  it  proper  has  to  be  value  similar and  commercial commecial of  area.  previous  from  all  has  Such  an  the  the an  -i n  other  to  be  for  developed  attitude  civilizations.  and  was  Someone  example  foreign  has  a  even  each  to the  to  the that  type  to the  collection.  be  seen  in  perfect  specially  noticed  area  establishes  have  to  perfection  encyclopedic  from  medieval  according  hierarchy  dream  activities  accordingly;  in  a.residential  symbolic  to  notes  zone  individual  is  response  acutely  of  more  on.  the  and  and  fact  activity  kind  eclectic  finishes  each  alone;  a  clothing  comprehended  ideal  dwellings  classified,  classified  activity  certain  of  where  chosen  manner  a  major  category:  so  to  Erickson been  a  considered  some  sub-  generated  of of  number  of  fascinating  under  We m u s t  effects  become  those  attributed  have  A large  terms  The most  Arthur  behavioural  activities,  with  rationalizing  to  is  ultimate  isolation  up  that  perfection,  a  of  has  in  under  activity  " s p i r i t u a l " and  not  and p e r f e c t i o n .  bring  dwelling  (as  could  need  of  classified  may be  urge  housing  symbolic  In  often  the  A new  (particularly  attention.  categories  the  an  a hierarchy  and  involved.  commuting,  " c u l t u r a l " or  idealistic  a word  Siena)  is  and  established,  greater  or  These  such  been  enjoyment  "recreational"  a  activities,  children  zoning  behaviour.  buildings  has  few  p a r t i c u l a r l y on  on  Also  a  relating  focused  of  with  very.detailed  zoning  of  durability)  that  been  itself.  quality  shoes,  observations  separation  activity  of  running  residential  the  and  The  could  studies  in  way  designated of  zoning  thinking was  35. already  applied  earlier  in  because  the  had  in  Venice  Constantinople Turks,  the  their.distinct the  rather  opposite:  the  separation  of  the  essence  of  activities  of  their  city.  In  racial  basis  has  a  sometimes economic urban plan  planning, of  American  a need  temporary pursuit of  urban  and  it  of  Canadian  problems, that  happening.  accident  and  the  of  activities.  is what  democracy" i s  a  approach  flexible  could  other,  visual  not  be  the  in  a  to  problems,  and p r a g m a t i c further  be,  in  This  on  occurred private  the  of  urban  the the  and  North American  it  plan  responds  of  been  con-  each  horizontal  has  most  through  separate  strict It  of  people  of  overall  effort  symbols. to  spirit to  and  did  than  basis  is  integration  of  of  mis-  which  through  rather  The  to  example  Venetians  the  etc.,  is  complete  supposed  a tremendous  of  the  pattern  at  basis,  distribution  sometimes  alter  even  zoning,  many p l a c e s .  covenants  to  this  separation  not  from the  even  is  in  a  the  a  far-reaching' roots.  activity and  as  too,  separation  reveals  of  In  had  (and  Armenians, say  meaning  just  contrary  to  people.  Ages  a national  the  but  separated  special  did  North American  illusion is  and  system,  has  of  on  horizontal  established  separation  cities  and  not  economic  concept  that  categories  that.the  an  or  means  domains,  been  Middle  Germans,  modern  North America  and  the  urban  Revolution  the  were  their  through  The  to  in  the  activity;  zoning  contrivance  and  of  of  who  early  and A l e x a n d r i a )  activities,  people  the  Jews,  areas  understand  Venice,  in  system  assumed  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  approach,  f r o m what  daily  but  actually  this  to is  happened  36. Piecemeal invoked  to  explain  delaying  a  debate  patterns  and p l a n s  pragmatic the  on  Calgary  urban p a t t e r n  and  of  to  propose  ical  is  a  the  a  is  to  city,  but  it  was  difficult  to  step  factor  categorizing  of  and  of of  avoid  route.  precedent  separation  chief  order  change  religious  orderly  in  organization.  they  could  be  pursued  thus  that  they  could  be  made  a noble  The  moral  timetable  value,  The  subdivision  was  also  story  to  tell  the  time  by  is  famous.  The  same  It  Calvinistic  according  of  the  to  is  of  an  a  part  great  of  tradition,  a  part  but  also  by  to  time  the  This  that  a  may be  was  this  to  in  a  was  end.  precise  superior who  were  his  pursuits,  able  Benjamin  only of  It  assumed  contemporary  organizer  day  noble  city  and  not  the  it  their  America . of  is  and  and  order.  Keonigsberg,  the  trend  of  toward  moral  had  separating,  moral  appearances  which  division.  only  tool  the  of  will  change  clean  timetable  according  of  the  and p u r i t a n -  clear,  activities" o f  daily  in  for  right  became  what  activity  permeated'the  outlook  a precise  the  of  indicated  cultural  and b r o u g h t  housewives  spirit  each  activities  Mr. Kant's  and p e r m e a t e s  community.  zoning  considered  The  the  and  a  the was  the  clean  Encyclopedia of  order.  Franklin  in  of  dictating  planning  Calvinistic  need  It  clearly  of a  where  one  of  indicated  is  a way  r e s u l t s , i n c l u d i n g  out  the  activities,  that  perfection.  not  There  felt  philosophy  absurd  pressing  identifying  city  normally  been  of  to  It  have  the  have  made.  which  for  of  be  principles  only  prepared  a change  to  basic  are  fact,  that  for  urban problems,  In  studies  bankruptcy  considerations,  cities.  economic  made  economic  contemporary  last  be  present  the  of  and  business money,  each  recognized  in  activity in  the  37. fact, that activity  the to  may b e c o m e have  everyone  of  activities the  in  pursuits  The reasonable people with  moral  work  around  with  the  all  the  Spatt, that  and  where  and p l a c e  been  There  specific each  of  one  sections  of  the  use.  abandoned  is  no  activity  and was  need  at  such  time  Many  situations  activity  romantic .goals  the  coloured  do  you  to  place  mention  same  time  separation  by  looked  many  anti-  to  the  everybody  for.  mixed  city  studies in  orderly  become  and  activities.  go  to  Ration-  in  is  considered  right  whether  sleep.  the  Many  appearance  influenced moral  the  with  and  that  you  do  other of  our  guided  is  blind  bias,  wrong  with  usually  these  do  by  a  values of  values.  concept;  and in  are  and But  avoided.  should  rather,  the  tied with  goes  timed  loaded  start  work,  one  and  blithely  when  work  complete  "It  truly  you  sound  not  when  zoned  a  questions  a  place  time  declared: the  for  moral  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l  system  two  whether  or  the  the  provide  However,  work?",  that  and  nothing  of  First,  you  typically  not  answered.  second,  of  do  be  show  system  maps  to  would  is  have  through  was  zone  dangerous  it  examination  with  to  the  common  of  and  values  their  change  a  for  from  Entire  hours.  meals  enveloped,  there  led  of  questioned ing  at  time  have  location  A careful  of  organization  time  person,  time  and  of  values  location  are  Yet  and m o r a l  clock  the  time.  streets  hour  out  " A t what  same  the  rush  move  order.  system  ask:  reliable  of  has  certain  city.  aesthetic  same  where  carried  people  hours  this  during  the  the the  cities,  of  the  ideal, perfection  alistic, ideal  at  that  problems  by  of  after  out  elements  the  that  next  empty  American  social all  the  pointed  North  majority  to  bed.  activities seldom questionB.M.  be  emphasized  the  difficulty  38.  lies  in  the  practice  Together cities of  grow  which  with  is  as  various  zones  pattern  is  the  of  a  centres,  widening a part  their  with  at  the  system  night,  originating  zoning."  of  of" a n - i d e a l of  commercial  like  a  separate  stars  of  American each  village.  ordered  The  with  their  municipal  centres.  and  ever  buildings  North American from many,  well  and  sort  North  subdivisions,  villages,  separate  look  of  separations  constellation.of  cities  especially  dramatically  as  zoned  conglomerate  of  The  their  ever  and w i t h  that  stars.  air,  an  a  administration  with  designed  city- expands  system  or  of  an  visually  Milky  cities  semi-rural  widening  taken  Way. show  The  From a  as  the  pattern  galaxies;  "the  f a\  American  migration  scattered the  and  fields  with  then  of  the  millions  of  The geography  was  atomic"  thickened new  detached  the  air  has  distant  countryside  to  those  to  the  subdivision  of  farms.  determined gave the  subdivide  the  the  of  impetus time  and  parcelling  shape  to  a  to  meet  land  for  lasting  mark  has  for  time  affect  of  stars  urban-rural  with  pieces  of  of  needs  left  of  modern  which  grew  in  settlements,  upon  it  American  relate  and  the  towns  seemed  rectangles,  and  which  the  rectangles  moment,  could  have  the  entire  no  rectangles in  turn  reasonable  to  finally  p r o p e r t y C e r t a i n l y  platting of  North  that  villages  Originally  settlement  been  or  the- b u i l d i n g s  origins  the  land  tradition the  mixed  appearance  the  and  grouped,  atoms,  edifices.  of  survey  and  and'like  c o n t i n e n t . as  checkerboard  from  ,  on  surveyors a map.  better  been•devised. countryside,  "At  system But which  of  a will  (cn all  the  subdivision  of  land"  .  This  system  brings  39. one's of  mind back  the  deness the  to  the  geometrical  Renaissance  and  to  of  time  most and  of it  that  the and  Canada was  line  and  board of  of  the  and  ular  all and  as  the west  plots,  subdivisions  whatever  his  rectangular were  tracts,  he  was  Thus to nor  appreciate  the  insensibility  the  The  British  of  this  not  on  even  a map where  curious Columbia  kind  of  two-  not  find  tract of  to  of of  bought  and  sold  of  small,  and  such  an  to  this  country rectang-  survey  or  landowner, get  away  if  his  streets  -in  from  adjoining  arrangement.  imagination,  or  of  to  platted  adjustment  nature  the  west  contours  in  original  difficult  streets  lack an  virgin  that  and  result  all  it  adopt  a  of  areas,  clear  was  the  always  beauties  is  as  checker-  north  regardless that  Congress  a huge  country  Government's  it  would his  were  the  squares,  If  realizes  Jefferson,  placing  of  was  suburban  of  Thomas in  miles that  river,  those  of  resulted  all  advantages to  between  suggestion  extensions  is  divide.  curious'result  almost compelled  it  would  Roberts  the  inclinations,  direct  exactly  When o n e  Ohio  be  out  which  of  to  find  the  fate.  platting.  to  it  sud-  between  generations  checkerboard  its  boundary drawn  over  in  was  origin)  simplicity.  al1  of  geographical  there  and  was  one  farms,  either  when  speed  line  is  the  the  Plationic  a  Point  on  a  (of  States:  of  lines  river,  a  and what  ordinance,  relentless-  north  in  State  survey  Ohio  method  fell  1785,  land  give  future  about  colonization,  United  geometric  "In a  to  isolation  diminesional  to  the  actually  Washington  passed  money  and  left  accidental,  considerations  North American the  inclinations  of the  nor  p l a n , to  failure contour,  charm o f  the  pic-  40. turesque  which  American  town  is to  responsible rectangular  Rectangular won t h e  support  America.  Because  of  the  more  poles,in  the  of  to  the  was  curvature  rectangles  rectangular  planning:  the  of  inherited  from  noted  activities  on c o l o u r e d  the  squares,  set  of  division one  on t h e  parcel  geometrical the  squares, speed  drafting be  subdivided  the  same  criteria  larger  subdivisions.  Thus  and g r o w i n g  quickly,  fashion.  It  the  earth  the  and  lines  would  had  to  meet. where there. solute every to  was  soon  often  interrupt These the  the  regularity the  regularity effort  a point  of  was  that of  intersect  even of  the  attempt  of  was made  in  absurdity  of  the  the  was  to  made  on a c o n t i n e n t a l  inefficiency.  cities,  curvature  less  than  points. make  of  the  the  interrupted  of  perfect Jogs corners  cities,  here  scale,  obtained.  rectangular  identical  rectangular  expected  be  as  original  most  had to  not  sold  tiny  the  grid  could  farms  many  patterns be  of  sub-  a  lines  paper  a rectangular  of  surveying  age  with  of  in  the  draftsmen  for  because  street  stimulate and  into  pattern  at  that  Many  or  subdivision  of  used  straight  the  rectangles to  once  States.  a certain  work  determined  system  not  of  converge  orthogonal  rectangular  were  street  established  remained  Despite  the  United  and the  North  necessitated  consciousness  ease  at  that  discovered  rectangular  the  and  across  earth  favoured  Large all  Canada  the  and s i m p l i c i t y  could  with  planned  the  in  "paral1e1s"  in  zoning  board.  pieces  typical  a11  Enlightenment,  regarding  the  of  than  and p h i l o s o p h i e s  already  the  and p l a n n e r s  that  attitudes  attitude  of  adopted  authorities  unconscious  idealism  fidelity  also  insistence  Canada . the  corrections  the  planning."  planning  generally  at  for  and  an a b Nevertheless,  perfection,  often  41. Many rectangular  streets  were  and  adoption an  to  so  a  most  field  opposed  " T h e New  system  and  right-angled  convenient  to  mislead  one  in!  these  and  many that  be  with  equal  strength  Britain,  where  many p l a n n e r s  linear century of  the  plan  of  at  Bath  first  streets, with  exaggerated  can  how  from of  such  British  The W o r k i n g  Classes",  Estate,  Liverpool  and  the  plan  for  example .  of  designs  (fig.  as  could the  Portsdown  the  Hill  that  practical  cheap  truly  made.  of  have plan  plan  the  the  most  and  the  the  the  should  important could  especially  picturesque  curvi-  eighteenth  Younger,  baroque  curve  one  and  Landsdown C r e s c e n t . chosen,  Larkhill plan  for  Housing  the  been of  build  the  is  strait-  arguments  in  John,Wood,  of  city  arguments,  executed  of  to  their  rejected  Opposing views  supported  Liverpool, 3),  and  other  undulations  plans  a  convincing  Crescent  the  that  A)  been  and  reason  of  Moss  Scheme,  by  planted  justifying had  (Note  interpretations  in  different  had  property  they  men,  became  rectangular  that  of  were  conflict  the  in  most  successfully  the  romantic  further see  choice  the  them  irregularly  the  they  on  from  a  are  elements heard  which  believe  said  habitations  houses  by  of  found  private  commissioners, plan,  who  where  punctuated  favour  This  adjacent  for  in  romantics  obsessions.  the  street  live  to  on  York  the  advanced  of, h o u s i n g ,  deliberately,  p r i n c i p a l l y of  were  those  driveways,  rectangular  However not  the  and  trees.  irregular  sided  in  against  picturesque  often  paths  of  composed  their  strong  curvilinear shrubs  arguments  subdivisions  antagonistic especially  practical  in  this  Estate,  We century,  "Housing  Springwood-Allerton  Park  site,  Portsmouth  Glasgow, (fig.  4),  42.  Figure  3  43.  B O K - 0 \ O H Jt POfc I S \ l < IV I i I PDR.TSDOWN MILL H O V S I N G  S C H E M E  Figure  4  44. The grid  system  main  of  manner  tangular  geometric  make  from  new  bare  assigned of  land,  be  a n d in  everyone  and  in  irregular  the  shared  a  required  the  a  and  the  What  almost  on  cities  but  as  a place the  of  with  a more  a  many m o r e  had  buildings  on  them.  land,  not  the  were  directing  building,  but  virgin  to  land  transform  confined  within  most  into any  of  a  order, speed  view  in  time  was  to  the  vast  to  land,  constituted the  boundaries,  dream o f but  could  of  develop-  a  highly  and p r i v a t e  parts,  buildings, of  land,  the  most  as  a  as of  European it  was  the  North Americans  that  they  were  geometrically an  truly  as  North American,  cities  in-  morality  and where  nation.  idealism  seen  parcels  what  that  adopted  separate  Opposite  city  be  not  buildings  once  to  of  the  at  desire  another  had  public  smaller  rec-  the  that  maximum s p e e d system  rec-  surveying  patrimony  was  a  the  permitted  the  of  made  in  the  have  system  the  of  The h i g h  city  with  in  all  of  the  that  reality  streets  North American  simple  of  them  of  field.  of  the  larger  not  prevalence  choice  easily  use  and  infinitely  front  not  early  view  dreams,  their in  the  cities,  their  of  landowners had  open  rural  conglomerate  lots  been,in  and  The  complex  smaller  had  great  greatest  Finally,  dense  experience  to  the  of  initiatives  the  time  where  lots  where  be  grounds.  fabric  community  to  form  at  would  parsimony of  deliberate  rectangular  land,  use  appeared  integrated merely  the  plotting  superior  disorderly  of  of  the  community.  fullest  moral  and  in  equal  and  new  factor;  ment.  not  as  overwhelming  simplistic  an  parcelling by  important  The  land  found  order  the  North American, c o l o n i z a t i o n  dividual,  be  must  subdivisions  to  for  subdividing  tangular  to  reasons  ideal  a new  infinitely  plotted.  occasion  order,  a  dream  expansible.  APPENDIX  NOTE A  "The It  is  so  rectangular  easily  made  plan  has  t h a t o n e ' c a n make i t  of  retaining  expert  surveying  to  a minimum  a n d makes  Its  streets;  regularity  and because  readily  computed.  standards  were  considerably,  so  levying  front  foot  of  its to  same  that  A plan, the  of  one  too,  a  sure,  would  know  the  easy.  by  the  square  foot;  and  co-ordination  in  the  street  plans  of  promotes street  this  plan.  streets,  offset the  are in  same  is  of  the the  special  part street  by  the  further  increase  Furthermore, of  between  eliminating  one ; t u r n , hence  It  one  fact  must  on  claimed  in  new  that of  of  ease  that  But in  not  two  made  residence  the of  the  be  only  and  of  the  city.  by  makes  the  induces but  it  existing  straight  m a k i n g more  --  be  vary  depths  the  long  of  if  they  than  movement  an  a  a promiscuous a danger  and  argument  destination  sides  streets  more  each  lot  traffic  fire  to  can  subdivisions,  ever  for- any  traverse have  it  of  easy  worth  scale  subdivisions  rapidity  automobiles  traffic^movement  new  necessity  value  the  be  Whether these  or  the  cost  distances  which provides, uniform  assessments  economies.  designation  all.communities.  must  the  descriptions  systematic  and  without  reduces  standardization be  for  it  title  simplifies  This,  the  skills;  advantages  himself,  1  necessity  write.  other  not  on  triangle. rapidity and  a  nuisance.  46. Doubtless, adoption  in  increased  America  feel  pretty  his  way.  With  longer  to  consider  the  enthusiasm  secutive  trend For in  the  in  the  streets  locate  it.  of  and  posted  and  is  flow on  of  any  hardly  the  the  and one  may h a v e  to  one  not  will  one  loose  plan,  traffic,  journey  becomes an  an  a  after, be  no  of  a  need  allow  route.  In  name  of  streets.  the  a  closure  would same  In  to  have  except  on  con-  Street  number  allow  grid  of  him  to  unusual  identify  directions  traffic  otherwise time,  Alma  landmarks  the  of  labyrinth.  a baroque  identifiable  architecture,  to  of  perfect  landmark or him  do  weaken  that  the  a map w i l l  --  inevitable  as  identify  of  or  such  --  First  the  frustrating  peculiar  would  and  almost  address  only  which  from  grid  model  system.  names  avenues,  broken,  strong  which At  observations  their  and  is  of  theoretical  and  limits  artery.  them  rectangular  change  that  its  of  sender icannot  and  shapes of  street  value  given  would  with  speed  can  scientific  system  description  regardless  of  strict  points  geometrical  in  a Cartesian  streets  one  There  hand,  at  favour  feature  other  but  in  system  before  a  least  monotonous,  arguments  geometrical in  vastly  may b e any  plan's  of  but  the  the  if  Vancouver,  the  days  necessary  streets  the  time,  example,  these  be  factual  for  as  of  in  of  steps."  numbers  regularity  universality  should  efficient  soon  home  than  these  not  as  at  very  convenience,  the.rectangular  All  all,  much  his  the  a  the  Our towns  distance  retrace  despite  is  travel.  can  a  finally,  recognizable  plan  on  in  terms  can  be  system,  the of  given  only  may  regulate  the  the  maximum  speed  the  same  street,  47. the  distance  most the of  cases, sides  travelled the  of  most  ideal  to  argument use  cases  order  getting  because  one  instead  of  to is  another  would  constantly  running along  be,  in  running the  along  short  cut  the  if  it  map  system  andthe  map  the  of  the an  has  grid  system  unfamiliar  seldom  remains  point  experience  l o t , does. not has  straight  boundaries taken  related once  and  Finally, seem  streets:,  to  be  the  curvilinear fectly  that  does  city  developed  a, n e c e s s i t y  not  require  a  is  exaggerated.  according  in  order  to  to  an  avoid  lost.  description of  the  the  From  not  one. p o i n t  diagonals.  traveller  are  maximum,  rectangles,  The  In  from  sides to  or  a  teach  us  significant  reasonably  all.  the  argument where  may m e e t but  the  of  the  the  do  and  points.  be  not  title  irregularity especially  curvilinear The  measures  Commissioners  does  set  the  i r r e g u l a r angles  building..fronts  street.  must  taxation  difficulty,  New Y o r k  buildings at  that  geometric  unambiguous, r e f e r e n c e  for  fashion.,  of • surveying,  would  constitute  streets  to  view  alone  relevant  parallel  of  b ack  from  or. r u n  in  :  have  to  be  a  per-  CHAPTER  1  -  THE E X I S T I N G  PATTERN  AND PLAN  OF T H E MODERN  NORTH  AMERICAN  CITY.  (1)  B . M . SPATT: A P r o p o s a l to Change the S t r u c t u r e C i t y P l a n n i n g , New Y o r k . 1 9 7 1 , p . 81.  (2)  F.  CHOAY: The Modern C i t y : Planning C e n t u r y , New Y o r k 1 9 6 9 , . p .  (3)  H.  CHURCHILL:. p. 186.  (4)  F.S.  (5)  H.  (6)  The  (7)  B . M . SPATT: A P r o p o s a l to Change the S t r u c t u r e C i t y P l a n n i n g , New Y o r k 1 9 7 1 , p . 81.  (8)  M . NOVAK: York  (9)  How t o  CHAPIN 1965,  The  City  JR.: Urban p . 14, 15.  SYMONDS: p . 44 .  Is  the  Land  The Q u e s t i o n  of  People,  Use  in  the  New  Planning,  Housing,  of  19th  York  1945  Chicago  Vancouver  1967,  s t u d y showed t h a t a c o n t i n u o u s e x p a n s i o n o f the c i t y of C a l g a r y i n the next q u a r t e r of c e n t u r y a c c o r d i n g to the e x i s t i n g trends would cause s u c h an e s c a l a t i o n o f e x p e n d i t u r e s b y t h e city i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e the e s s e n t i a l services that n o t e v e n a 100% t a x a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t e d income o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d s a v e i t f r o m ever, i n creasing deficits. The s t u d y e x p l a i n e d t h a t the p a t t e r n was t h a t o f e v e r i n c r e a s i n g e x p e n s e s f o r ever decreasing services.  The R i s e 1971, p.  Subdivide,  o f the 92.  1949,  Unmeltable  part  I,  p . l .  Ethnics,  of  New  49. (10)  C M . ROBINSON:  City  Planning,  New  York  1816,  p.  20  (11)  C M . ROBINSON:  City  Planning,  New  York  1961,  p.  22.  (12)  F.  LONGSTRETH London  THOMPSON: 1923,  p.  51,  Site 53,  Planning 138,  139.  in  Practice,  -  21.  50. 2.  THE SUBURBAN  We complement for  an  of for  or  to  for in  the  RELATED  URBAN  now  examine  some  with  In  to  the  suburban  metropolis,  at its  the  land;  zones  physical  individual,  several become  in  aspects  in  Besides the  eclecticism  contemporary here,  we  will  of  the  a  city  urban  this  chapter  we  will  that  is,  the  of  the  fabric  and  the  detached various  observe  some  look  of  of  land.  the  We w i l l  urban  building, styles  and  metropolis attitudes  moral  order,  the  order  manifestations and  the  desire  zoning  and  at  sprawling  the  the  We w i l l  also  sub-  abstract look  contemporary  architectural  North American  the  the  buildings.  social  at  cities:  observe  style  that  has  development.  the  house  and  fashions that  of  will  towards  to  classific-  design  content  on  tend  context.  looked  at  for  observe  in  which  scientific  certain  we  suburban-oriented also  system,  and  picturesque  attitudes  a perfect  We w i l l  within  detached  prevalent  expansible  superimposed  a  the  chapter  atoms  of  SYSTEMS  for  neatness  previous  of  and  the  OF DEVELOPMENT  of  search  chapter.  nature  division  boundaries  and for  previous  attraction  contact  the  vast  geometry,  the  AND S T Y L E  AND  oppose  infinitely  ations, noted  will  TYPE  be  garden, the examined  suburbia,  and  51.  the of  suburban s t y l e design  which  amenities  of  the  and  of and  mixed  the  "His argument  the  being,  a general,  used  city.  integrated  many E u r o p e a n under  is  as  cities,  influence  endless  to  accommodate  It  will  system which of  many  why travel five hundred  be  grew  all  shown  that  system,  one over  cultural  the  to  be  absence  a  a  the  longer  and  of effqrt...  concept  activities  life  as  a  period  of  scheme of  time  styles.  highway "  and  opposite  may d e r i v e  miles of tourist-jammed  wilds when, by complete  as  to reach  CD  nature's  This  chapter  is  divided  a presentation.of  suburbia  toward the is  joy  of  the  simplicity  of  life,  criticism  of  suburbia  a  the  buildings. ideas  of  The  the  eighteenth  grass, the  beautiful  parts:  the  woods,  village a  the  flight the  purity  atmosphere,  detached  relationship  of  this  be  the  sublime  expanded  upon  of  in  the  system  second  individual with  in  chapter  city  air,  and  developed  is  the  etc.;  of  of  first  from  system  and  will  two  a romantic  as  important  century  as  in  the  the  nine  and  ten.  I •  "What of and  its  makes  contents.  therefore  quality  of  promising  It  elements  take  ...  the  suburbs  and  consequently city  the  out  of  complications  up  into  masses them.  hold  are  of  handle  is  big a  into and  of The  The  of  the  bad and  is  serves  such  more  at  omnibus  confusion, size  of  select  suburb  make  it  at  that  the  least  to  urban  that  incoherent more  Pulling  divide  city  a  more  it  point  fraction  unscrambling social  more  rational,  larger  mankind can  give  character  and  homogeneous,  equivalent to  the  the  problem  proportion  suburbs  a  into  manageable. them  is  smaller  entering  simpler,  more  city  jumble  inefficient.  the to  the  a  mess  difficulties perhaps  a better  chance  to  (2 i try."  These  by-laws  were  continent. wards  the  America,  in  observations the  A little suburbs and  were  process more  were being  were of  than  written  being  more  closely  1925  introduced  a quarter  triumphantly  in  of  a  sprawling studied.  when  zoning  across  century across Among  the after-  North the  others,  William  studying being the  Park  White  Forest,  virtually  men w e r e  Chicago,  of  where  Fortune magazine,  "he  had  the  only  male  at  work  downtown  all  and  J r . ,  there  were  some  in  had  the  place  or  joking  the  at  had  strange during  various  references  been feeling  the  daytime;  plants to  of  his  around being  (3)  loose  in  a harem".  in  this  in  metropolitan  self  time  seems  conceive seem, the  very  there,  to  as  the  poor  in  the  way  up,  the  last  long  since  have  been  home  getting  is  are  the  very  of  once  heart  „(4)  imperative . "  of as  scarcely was  a  of  or  the  group,  dominant and the fast  any  among  the  they  but  desirable  people  the  the  goal;  are  central from  More  "Oddly, living city  what  and more,  extremes  -  slightly  it  odd.  are  young  couple  the  past.  They  and  the  people  in  are  Protestant and  still  are  on often  them  are  majority  has  the  the  Jews  who  younger  able.  well-to-do now  and  there  of  class,  for  Here  the  middle  people would  a place  for  Catholics  it-  most  but  white  city's as  article:  neighbourhoods,  stability,  ethnic  more  Life.  neighbourhoods  an  The  rich,  an  alienated  a place  tree-shaded  are  leaving  there  Way o f  becoming  dispersed, the  ever  further  American  they  When a  before,  than  middle-class  old.  in  areas  or  stand  noted when  pleasant  of  people  the  later  'urbanization',  be  city  islands  getting  of  He  it  is  lived  in  becoming  suburbia, a  social  The proportions in  ing  to  turn of  the  are  the  the  small  large  Tate  from  United  observers,  and  the  was in  this  the  in  this  is  should dream  not is  a  small  community  sketch  :  the  City  (7)  less  people  who  the the  seen  Better  Home  are  good  life.  They  seems  about  the  good  permitted  preserved,  dream o f with  the  what  as  origins  example  of  of  a natural of  the  fashion  town, suburb the  despoil.  features  seen  enthusiastic  to  and  independence  the  beginn-  non-metropolitan  small  be  an  be  "The  be  at  to  dream."^^  village,  is  of  began a  young to  gigantic  Building  to  connected  ideal  a  what  needs  of  in  quest  such  values  a book,  American  style  interpreted  desired  centralization  the  Broadacre  acquired  intelligent  what  strongly  the wrote  States  of  North American  life  the  community,  been  suburbs  Clay "to  away  the there  organization  always  of  even  guardians  most  The  H.  dedicated  areas  of  that  jeopardy.  Town,  to  growth  which the  has  rural  prototype  democracy.  dream, by  which  Le C o r b u s i e r  where many  there North  is  of  were  thought  and  the  The  village  an  was  equality,  were  and  sense").  cities.  community  flourish  that  the  and p r o s p e r .  The  its  atmosphere.  The  simplicity  of  the  village  was  praised.  to  nature  around the  was  image  considered  mind, by  common  it  of  serenity  naturally  through  and  the  independence  life often of  portrayed  toward  He was  the  friendliness,  considered  sophistication through  as  simplicity.  inclined  worship.  b o o k - l e a r n i n g but  of  and  natural  sense.  premier,of as  c h u r c h was  religious  not  individual  ideals  by  fostered  of  democratic  be  the  The v i l l a g e  knew  neighbour,  strong.  of  to  was  and  development  and  folklore his  and  historical  brotherhood  given  to  the  of  Former refer  to  independent  of  of  small  believed  sound  corruption  to  the  picturesque  naturally  training  towns  grouped  villager  liberty  in  closeness  ideal  The  synthesis  American  It virtues  a  B r i t i s h ' Co l u m b i a ,  " C . S . degree".* was  cherished.  seen It  as  was  a n d human  "The p r o b l e m w i t h  a  a  classless  small  relations the  Others  W-. B e n n e t t , called  used  it  society,  "horse and  community where were  village  kept  everyone  simple,  mentality  is  its  good  not  *W. B e n n e t t , p r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e nineteens i x t i e s w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n , was a man who r o s e t o p o w e r f r o m a s m a l l town i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and who h a d g r e a t f a i t h i n t h e i n n e r g u i d a n c e o f common s e n s e . He h a d no f o r m a l u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n .  one  of  fact  cut  of  values,  examining  the  Thus,  problem is  the  present town  benefits  generation.  and J e f f e r s o n ' s  and  it  which  not It  is  concerned  the  small  limited extends  ward,  to  to to  the  the  village  before  America."  town  present  English  with  supposedly  Tocquevi11e's  (91  European  primarily  parish  suburb  bestows. and  Northwest and  the  the  The village of  the  and  farm  life.  was  The  virtues  of  the  to  nature.  dedicated  to  the  were  where  ideally  to  equal  be  the  form  seen  of  as  free  local  parts  of  their  new  the  of  was  world,  land  and  of  implementation  was  possible  its  of  source  of  recognize origins  a as  are  "A roots Ian  of  Nairn  forget  the of  that  style  of  their  markedly  well  life  the the  to  and  and  free to  of  of  be  the  these  of  building  North American,  The  supposed  in  ideals These  we  if  of  from as  a all  part  ideals, because  size,  that  the  determined  coming  even  contrast  election  its  where  and where  North America, and  naturally  farms,  were  accurately  condition. in  him  community,  immigrants,  only  made  houses  and  embraced new  independent  majority, be  expression  became  may  its  of whose of the  now  intellectual  European.  known  sprawl  the  institutions  distinctly  the  of  institutions.  supposed  by  T h e new  normally  its  all  competition,  government.  formation,  not  supposed  open  land  villages  view  established  enterprise,  small  little  was  the  that  ultimate  democratic  the  buildings  majority  industrious,  and  the  of  man,  in  the  to  was  the  of  similar  farm  land  open  will  light  of  and  taste,  to  a  interest of  pieces  common  by  His  groups  with  the  upright  defence  all  in  individual  close  towns  seen  British  problem  London  go  critic back  Observer  pioneering  era  to  says:  ended  recently the  wrote  roots  'Americans  almost  a  of  that  the  America.  tend  century  to ago  when  the  railways  though  it  There'll  reached  were always  principle'. an  an  where ing  you  inexpendable  be  more  Nairn  environment can  really  of  As  'hundreds suburban  soon  as  feasible,the  city  dwellers  the  in  villages  allowed  to  defend  dormitories at  least  the  these  the  the  life  fled  still  a  treated  like  the  is  still  buffalo. the  'disintegrating  and m e d i o c r i t y ' , of  miles  without  and "en  of  a  landscape place  ever  transportation masse"  frontiers  expanding  span  ruling  a  to  the  feel-  of  made  and  generation.  "The  of  Zoning  romanticism  industries  it  greenery  suburban -m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  new  as  tentacles'".  economy  small  against  for  the  is  corner  confusion  for the  the  suburbia  'total  of  Land  commodity  around  calls  drive  free  California.  as  clean  other  threats  suburban  f 12") mystique" "since  caused  World  War I I  a migration has  been  of  more  people  than  a  to  suburbia  gradual  which  trend;  it  (13) has  been  ation  a stampede."  is  now  in  of  magazine  an  identifiable  shopping  lawns .  n (  -  1 4  -  every  and  of  garden  the  The happy  ads  background  centers,  lives  in  it  the  bright clubs,  is  new  norm o f  family  of  suburbia; land  schools,  of of  American  aspir-  TV c o m m e r c i a l s , wherever  blue  there  jeans  and  barbecue-pit  PTA, d o - i t - y o u r s e l f ,  and  green  worker  a need  1  The flee  suburbia.  covers  participation,  "Clearly  North American  evening  to  the  suburban  seems  to  dwelling  have as  if  it  were  to his  i  romantic social lack  nest.  For him  disorder,  hectic  of  greenery  background moral have city,  the  horror;  city the  focused  more  than  its  ment.  on  Historical  Burckhardt Italian  cities  of  Thoreau, similar  Poe,  has  crime,  "hard  culture, novels  "evil  "nervousness", "melancholy",  In to  Boston  refinement  in  city.  of  as  Jefferson,  Even  commercial  Faun"  sees  "guilty  the  Emerson  popularized  America  "ancient  "blood-stained",  and  inhabitants  it  is  1 5  -  a  dis-  town  of  "uneasy  "sin",  "cold  "crime",  formalities  "chilly,  "dreary",  where have  as  shadows",  dust",  "dissolute".^  Eve",  Rome  streets",  intricacies";  "wicked",  its  of  Americans  others  the  that  corruption.  cries",  "mouldiness",  all  portrait  admiration)  among  years  improve-  of  "stony-hearted  Adam  human  and  of  centres  "The M a r b l e  "sickly",  hundred  corruption  the  artistic  educational  two  mutual  confirm  the  as * a p h y s i c a l  and  and  and  cities.  labyrinthine  after  his  North  harsh  " T h e New  to  his  last  injustice  tended  the  In  both  the  and M e l v i l l e ,  street",  "corrupt",  of  smelliness,  pollution,  nature.  Renaissance:  commercialism  "hard  crowds,  news  (despite  about  pavements",  "foul",  the  from  portrayed  on  Hawthorne  scents",  streets",  been and  the  refuge  with  novels  Hawthorne "evil  a  activity,  influential  notions  the  is  contact  completed  Such  liked  and  it  "gloomy"  "filthy",  1  Adam  and  Eve  disappeared,  return  "Hawthorne  60.  implies  that  they  race  which  this  criticism  of  Brook  paid  Farm,  were  a price was  not  for  it  specimens  'Arcadian  affectation'.  had  unreal".  both -  (  1 6  '  Only picturesque isolation the  of  the  the  and  mind o f of  flight  fromthe  natural  people,  neighbours have  other  Both  'some  a n d was and  were  full  the  in  But  of  socialist  this  sense  had  looked  the  upon  especially pursued. that  could  of  with  love.  that  this  Little make  mushroomed and  characterstics  in  It  is  the  the in  romantic  castles,  an  personal  of  choice  dream  Italian  attractive suburbs  the  -  villas,  picture  mild  i n the  segregated to to  doing  populations,  general  conformity, look  but,  anxiously  and b u y i n g .  anyone  else  has,  people  have  it,  not and  suburbanites  more  around  They  seem  because they  seem  than to  see  to  to  need want  have  other  what  think  they  may  any  their  they it very  be  part  of  the  group."  v  J  This  explains  b.oth  why  in  affirm-  must  but much  (171 to  of  city.  tend  are  city  a  disapproval  Coverdale  simplicity'  of  nature'.  Hawthorne's  hero  commercial  city  been  style  tendency  whatever  because  been  individuality  they  his  remains  against  with  from n a t u r e .  viewer,  "Being a  The  the  has  any  ations  afforded  artificial  suburbs  the  'revolt  the  A) .  has  picturesque  cottages,  of  when  it  its  observing  incompatible  departed  (Note  )  for  had  grotesque  farm  innocently  fashions  in  suburban  may  fall  part  of  dwellings  for the  surface  odd  treatments the  also  explains  suburban  dwelling  among  to  of  the  significant  become  and  accepted  independent What  you  part  of  set  their  on  that  you  aristocracy  a  Values part  trend,  at  the  summer  some a  to  without  rich  and  This  who  having are  a  which  may b e  socially  with  Italian only  villas.  style,but  for  a  of  villa  was  found  in  are to and  than  undefinable.  Nature  a  the  have  because  It  was  in  by  the  neo-  Palladianism also  even  strong  forgotten,  fashions.  Nature  want  rather  worship be  is  identified.  group  not  by  Americans  social  even  des-  determined  a  and  is  status,  good.  status  and  normally  North  is  many  that  been be  dwellers  display  typically  immigrants,  romantic  -  so  certain  has  early  beginning retreat.  a  should  not  so  t h e . new  which  i r i . i the  despite  that  and  of  love  contact  world  of  considered,  precedents  Anglo-Saxon  as  considered  values.  makes  people"  suburban  exotic  remembered  what  daughters  and w e l l  influence  aristocratic least  and  is  why an  is  himself  doing  North American  Renaissance  Platonic  by  it  a philosophical  historical  the  sons  of  for  "successful  when  believe  The some  establish  recognition,  majority  immigrants,  It  why  is  more  same.  and  because  North American suburbanite  and  to  styles,  be  "class",  the  the  sweeping  to  trying  of  It  so  has  perately  the  be  exotic  fashion.  monotonously the  and  may  taste  brought -  country,  at  62.  King precedent, palace  XIV p r o b a b l y  choosing  to  and p e r m a n e n t l y  suburaban in-the  by  Louis  palaces  following  suburban  build  leaving  meant  at  century.  frontier  have  Versailles the  least In  been  established as  city.  most  rise  "the  not  only  famous  suburban  decay  America  followed  a  The  a partial  North  the  of of  royal  such the  cities  pioneers by  to  masses  the  of  ( 1 Q "V  retail  trade  phenomenon an  the  centre  city  In the  to  mix  at  their  aristocratic  the  romantic  the the  first  moderate dream  for  the  Renaissance  in  the  country.  Noble  Sometimes  it  every  taste.  One h a s  all  features  a  the  homes  country  and  a  A similar  village  well  to  which  more  of  wealthiest  the for  became  important  democratic  as  the  illustrious  isolation  was  chosen  at  the  and m a s s - p r o d u c e d  a  set  with  larger inthe  suburbs  that  and midst  the  earlier of  of  a  an  the  southern  precendents for  a memory the  castles of  the  North  there  is  the  attempt  Versailles  of  his  own  White  House  itself  suburban house.  urban  tendency  with in  at  isolated  had  feeling  with  basis  a miniature  also,  city  (especially  medieval  that  who  ideals  the  appears  especially  people  commercial  dwellings by  suburbs,  by  note,  of  American  the  their  citizen  mansion  and  inspired  as  egalitarian  provide  North  respect  of  to  also."  around V e r s a i l l e s ,  Paris  outskirts  States),  American  industry  before  outside  United  past.  by  itself.  beginning,  themselves  but  had happened  economic  than  outlets,  Washington.  has It  is  -USN&WR Photo  C o n s t r u c t i o n of m o d e r n f r e e w a y s h a s o p e n e d a p a t h f o r i n d u s t r y a n d c o m m e r c e t o f o l l o w t h e o u t p o u r i n g of p e o p l e f r o m m a j o r m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r s i n t o t h e s u b u r b s .  While  the  population  of  New York City  remains virtually unchanged,  suburban  c o m m u n i t i e s like this one in Suffolk County, N.Y., are bulging with new residents.|  (19)  In and  addition  psychological  suburbia related  in to  the  present  move  desire  for  privacy  is  own  master  all  safely the  too  the and  still  homeowners,  In  i;h o r d e r  have  which  in  he  homeownership against  a  casual  they  growth are  of  mostly  In  bother  him;  turn  makes  and  to  the  subsidized  find  with  a  part  fitting  community  by  the  social  evils,  it  room  play  addition,  a  school  due  smaller,  and  civic  recreated. is  who  and  has  his  municipality.  may b e  authorities  and he  can  of  dwelling  he  house  respect  bourgeois  suburban  he  children  family  thoroughly  expects  to  the  there  n a t u r e . • In  family  if  detached  with  the  even  his  contact  endows  city,  individuality  some  remedy  pro-suburban writer  s u b u r b i a which  adults:  the  practical  a  sound  consider is  a  defence  inflation.  "One of  are  his  and h i s  benefits  partly  i f  family,  By way  investment,  to  from t h e  assert  can  A village-size  fringe  away  life.  administration. of  even  his  clean  this  there  contribute  to  family  of  dwelling  with  moves  and nobody  homogeneous,  tune  which  motifs,  background.  and  members  suburban  more  far,  ideal  conditions,  suburbanite  cannot  for  the  reasons  a romantic  The  his  to  'New  he  believes  mechanical  clothes  for  has  improve  contrivances  comfort,  outdoor  listed the  in  some  quality  the  dining,  home,  of of the  flowers,  the living  features for  wearing lawns,  of  pets,  all  these  of  a n d many m o r e  individual  and  community  social  assets  pleasures life  in  the  urban  pride  approval  admiration.  more  gossip suburbs  frustrations life,  of in  its  suburbia  suburb.  'In  suburbia  were  else set  for  rational they  a place  Retreat  a basic  the  White  1960's,  based  was he  on h i s  cases  the  dominant  the  space  for  the  and most  children.  important,  Park  the  one  of  of  the  the  Foresters  went  form  are  neighbours,  to  glamorize  threats  and of  those  writers  who  explanation  for  Park  for  the  amenities that  it  there  for there,  Forest move  to  not  anywhere  was  so  well  quite  eminently  sensible  reasons.  Once  created  something  over  above  the  original  The  developers  were  quick  advertising  Park  Forest  atmosphere  recognize  it  of  and  and  striking first  vigor.  they  were  just  however,  bargain  . . .  (21) as  housing  similar as  but  were  radio the  then  pattern,  happiness.  the  }  the  frustrations  the  fact  the  suburbs."  an  factors  money,  is  the  offered  most  the  f r o m the  of  study  these  with  from  virtue  to  result  retreat  in  and w o r k m a n s h i p  Added  The n e t of  living.  William  ownership  associations  visits.  is  in  in  dividends,  and  social to  as  growth  available, up  intimate  and  fact,  phenomenal  and  urban  "Although attacked  psychological  achievement,  of  of  pay  under place  began  even  Villa the of  to  advertise  suburban  condominiums  Montecito, slogan  peace  happiness'".  "come  for to  example, club  and h a p p i n e s s .  are is  now  B)  On a  advertised  advertised  Montecito",  (Note  y  as  i f  on it  a  Usually two  storeys,  middle  of  twenty  feet,  of  it  the to a  a  public This  used  rows  of  clump  in an  the  of  etc.  is  The  windows  have  back  avoid  being  has  good  and  elongated  modern  dwelling different  face  sketch  thing  is  a  alley,  is  a  ways,  about  public by  of  combination all  open  of  this  other road  windows it the  is  the  of  almost  dis-  of  in  dining, boxes  that  similar  and  into  the  a  most buildings,  impossible  situation:  the  rooms  outside;  The  of  various  reworked is  formed  back  been  little  the  drapes.  suburban  the  of  building  sides.  which  cooking,  ground,  the  especially  to  to  a  to  a number  washing,  to  with  the  in  has  and  dedicated  pulling  typical  sum  of  court  practice  the  piece  directly  except of  an  sleeping,  a bare  from the  seen  lead  separately  The  oddest  to  this  front  except  and  building one  informal  In  embellished  on  to  and  touched  carport  subdivisions,  The b u i l d i n g  family:  the  or  the  parallel  be  is  one  a hundred  or  but  in  A driveway  of  of  street.  cannot  trees.  common  houses,  basically  even  garage  by  wide,  building  entrance  located  the  feet  which  small  the  few  the  a building  sixty  facing  a  city,  of  the  to  side  is  frame,  averaging  cases  a  the  more  several  garden.  a  a  rectangular,  is  that  most  wood  grass,  the  connect  suburbs.  exterior  and  of  In  suburban  in  activities  in  be  lot,  dwelling in  smaller  to  There  like  generally  piled  and  to  continued  living,  the strip  it.  road.  elegant  a  usually  something two  structure  belonging  garden  footpath  a  with is  maintain low  with  suburban  rectangular  there  road,  the  "New  to Yorker"'-  It public  is  nothing is his is  is  not  to  accidental,  hide  a kind  of  good  life.  going  on,  important  in  show  and  North to  his  to  note  but  America,  and  neighbours,  has  this  deliberate:  The n e i g h b o u r s nobody  that  the  in a  consider right,  exposure  the fact  good his  continuous their even  to  the  citizen family  has life  testimony  right  legally,  to to  know  of what  hide.  The and a  fences  two  of  putting  case.  are  a  living  is  the  almost  such  even  fences  is  normally  completely  building,  up  in  It  against  of  which would  storey  curtains  height  w o u l d be  thing.  screen  illegal  This  leads  room w i n d o w s . considered  neighbours. invariably  It  an is  placed  The  of  on the  to  by-laws,  a building,  especially  even  if  one  dared  even  to  the  avoidance  living  offence one  subject  to  the  room  to  becomes  shutter reasons  a  one's why  think of  show-  windows  living  rooms  street.  r The in  street  particular.  more ing  is  normally  The o r i g i n a l  modern developments curves  amount  and  enough  to  which  cater  speed  of  away do  that  be  dropped  by  such  West  from  to  park  becomes  that  the  familiar  any  except  forest.  the  in  as  not if  of  does  was cul  picturesque  not  lead  anywhere  interrupted in de  sacs  taste  and  and  of  the meander-  suppress  the  traffic.  suburbia in  the  one  is  not  middle  of  a park-like  Vancouver, from  alone.  because  and  system  system  facility,  does  night,  a  car  walking  obvious  stranger at  as  grid  vehicular  realize  want  especially  to  To  development, miles  by  quiet  B.C.  anything The  everyone,  belong one  One  fact  were  in  is  that that  including  there. a  in  in  one  it  is  man's  not  dog, die  in  is  suburban  may n e e d  the  or  city  no  one  One c o u l d desert  a  in  land, or a  knows  there,  an u n -  The  people  living  strongly  influenced  style  life,  and  and  desire  of  of  guilt  for  example,  usually a  a  the  preserve Desire enances  Sobin  isolation be  adopt by  semi-rural  "a an  system  by  an  appropriate by  guilt  notes  at  that  to the  "the  the  is  of  a  with  of  goal  to  an  be  is in  as  exclusive  and w a r m t h .  municipal  the  sense  living  desire  occupy  a  Heights",  idealized  ideal  by  to  of  with  their  Heights  appurtis  accom-  f 2 31  'se1fishness' women  an  more  through  "Crestwood  inclusiveness  atmosphere  men,  trends  The  met  community  become  associated  which  Desire  ideal  a separate  retreats  In  wish.  atmosphere  is  in  in  opposed  possible.  live  becomes  "involved".  as  matched  suburban  psychological  metropolis  to  panied  to  counterpoised  the  romantic  their  people  small-town,  near  by  in  of  and  this  desire".  children  of  J  suburbia  are  f 241 never and of  quite  social the  often  and  ation  and  as  open,  with  always  a  the cost  to  yet  servicing  who  all  the  the  view  community  of  " s u b u r b a n myth" of  middle  and  A number  is  loner.,,  people  exposed a  This  American  described  "mixing"  and n e v e r  relations.  North  sincere  is  together  is  are  quite very  class  time, and  have  of  in  in  tune  individual,  wants  inevitably  hundreds  much  romantically  desired  studies  alone"  to is  feel  the  same  causing, of  family  the  may  he  quite  of  outlined  thousands  who  that  never  the  with  incapable  comment at  their  ideal  be  of  being  or  she  alone,  is  and  others.  Isol-  time.  the  added  beginning separate  cos ts with  small  that  the lots  over  a vast  North  American  display and  area.  of  from  that  that  impossible  energy to  cities,  grass  problems  crisis  current  But  despite  the  incredible  despite  the  waste  nobody  this  can  sprawl  adds  transportation  -  most  "housing  people  use,  to  are  problems"  of  the  caused  all  the  by  the  other  the  metropolitan  city  large  contribution  to  still  to  land  despite  to a  of  sprawl  proposing  "make  it  as  clear  a  costs -  the  solution  that  we  have r 251  plenty  of  and  supply  to  land  incentives  to  take  more  to  care  serviced  private  of  our  land  enterprise  growth  for  at  lower  or  through  years  costs,  to  come"  whether  through  publicly  owned  implement  these  land  banks.  proposals  Yet  the  are  those  with  some  same who  in  love  in  a p a r t i c u l a r spot  an  atmosphere.  decaying.  As  "housing"  are  note  consequence  matched  renewal  "pedestrian  malls"  proposed  a panacea  by  who  then that the  our  central  i l l  ills.  Paris,  may  we  do  more  founded In  who  grasp not  cities  for  downtown. cafes"  as  they  that  proposals  "sidewalk urban  such  that  regret  similarly  for  and  a place  aspects  developments and  make  visit  a n d who  People a  may  picturesque  picturesque  as  people  have  such  been for  proposals last  there  have  land  the  fall  for years  have  been  more  and  R.  Mann  adds  to  more these  (2 71 also  "open  air  myth,  in  often  matches  woods.  the  fish  style the  and v e g e t a b l e of  a  small  markets".  European  s u b u r b a n myth  of  town,  A for  a picturesque  picturesque  the home  urban among  centre the  71.  The the  choice  growth  of  both  One  choose  in  in  terms  With  the  historical  of  between  condominium,  ing.  suburbia  dormitories  limited can  of  a  offered  a hotel,  rowhouse,  of  some  of of  a  largest  to  come  as  close  the  style,  and  the  fashion  of  the  the  top  the  scale  The Some to  of  the  complete a  most  recreate  exemplify  pool  being  the  in  the  after  money, also  risky,  every  the  in  to a  and  quite  accommodation.  family  and  single  cities,  all  possible one,  even  concept,  which  is  in  at  North  America.  solution.  if  downtown, Inn  tend  to  shopping or  the  these  the  Bayshore  hotels  dwell-  in  of  to  expensive  the  apartment  apartments  a small  the  is  the  a resort  is  the  And r e n t i n g  unpleasant  try  could become  centre  countryside reality  is  next  most  expensive  equivalent  to  does  not  build  up  an  person  who  rents  is  exposed  having  and h a v i n g  with  that  within, atmo-  of  city.  tenant the  these  conceal  apartment  hotel.  because  implied  month,  of  rented  the  area,  as  fact  an  modern h o t e l s ,  units,  of  and p r e s t i g e ,  most  paradise,  the  apartment,  suburban  the  Usually  trying  middle  because  dangers  suburban  are  far  luxurious  contained  The ution  by  recreational  They  in  is  as  convenience  Vancouver.  self  and  sphere.  hotel  type  or  hotels  try  for  of  duplex,  by  urban workers  rented  accommodations  of  the  and  a  some the  fostered  to  location  exception  core  is  to  a  landlord, pay  ever  having  to  increasing  losing  equity.  meet rent  sol-  It  to  all  is the  payments due  to  inflation. poor,  who  landlords entire  Unfortunately pay  the  The  choice  categories etc.  buildings  are  fall  mostly  town  blocks,  the  in  the  These concepts  the  windows  some  to  dwelling  the  does  outside,  and  as  possible  as  of  its  atmosphere much  of  up.  Their  developers of  some  taste,  had  facade of  initial to  "cast  condominiums. marketing  the  tiny  Condominiums set  the  high  and  city  the  offer  success a  apartment  was  Apart habits,  the  from  excluding children,  most  modern These  on  the  style  have  as  of  down-  the  city.  and  stand  the  most  share or  all  buildings in  the Even  in  with  family  terms  buildings  of  with  isolation single,  all  try  of  to  keep  myth".  different,  not  concerned  many  towers  detached  lost.  nothing  and  townhouses  they  and  "suburban  limited,  expensive.  form  exactly  suburban these  of  in  are  the  with  rise out  core  fashion:  for  the  most  spread  the  solution  policies,  couples  the  they  is  Normally  s u r r o u n d i n g them,  rest  often  as  buildings  suburban  only full.  and  rise and  in  strict  such  desired  suburbs  the  on  very  units.  lower  the  units  categories:  the  landscaping  respect  have  apartment  of to  rental  their  the  is  inflation  people,  most  two  and  between  the  of  from  of  of  and managers  students,  areas  cost  renting  eye  except  overwhelming at  other  the  appreciation  of  the  legal  and  vacancy  reasons,  the  rate"  involving small  share  of  real  estate  sufficiently buildings, for  the  find the  and is  the  apartment  the  almost  and  these  sale  other  picture  did  of  respect  that  is  to  may  the  to  come,  buy  a  to  than  market  what  is  and w i t h  set  renting,  seem  rather  drastically  common  offset  inexpensive  developers  but  to  outright  producing  change  may b e c o m e  seem  the apartments,  choice  may  not  semi-suburban  However,  shortage  inflation  this  with  small.  the  no  contrast  rate  at  with  condominiums treated  speculative  of  with  up  offered.  rent  in  favour  of  apartments  majority  of  the  European b u i l d i n g s  in  condominium have  just  the  depreciation,  attractive  relationship  are  of  advantage  housing  buildings,  small  increase  in  condominiums  of  future.  In  very  many  rather  entire  condominiums, the  was  increasing  controls,  of  the  advantageous  there the  in  depreciation  that  buyer,  rental,  With  the  so  more  where  owned  rates,  their  are  and  over  locations.  a prime  like  lots  purposes,  with  type are the  their  real  a number  of  North  estate years,  European f l a t s of  real  treated  estate  in  American  in  values in  direct  buildings  investment,  North America,  advantage  that  a  they  can  and  for produce  income.  The in  American  condominium shares  tries a  North  to  recapture  completely  the  detached  in  the  building  -  suburban  style  not  only  atmosphere,  but  because  suburban fabric.  One m i g h t  or  cluster  say  that  of  row  buildings because it  is  houses,  it  -  an  old  type  designed typical in  of  for row  every  accommodation,  continuity, house,  other  although  respect  It  similarly  windows  are  open  to  the  equally  open  to  public  other  dwellings,  are  other  uses  in  mixed  There residential that  of  merge  being  in  massive  other  they  enclosed.  they  end  soon  bination  of  contained times."  ( 2 8 )  and  similar out  are  its  backyards  rowhouses,  category  like  and have  developments Their  they  as  nature  are  urban  no  not  designed  pattern.  buildings  in  On  is  to  the  different  which  shopping  where however  distinctively  oversize  typical  "comprehensive  have With  architects  Le C o r b u s i e r ' s  English  the  s u r r o u n d e d by  city.  market,  a  they  being  than  the  centres,  centres,  centres  of  a  suburban  all  and  is  everything  centres,  or  centres.  comprehensive the  mixed.  detached  become  with  are  as  up  as  comprehensive  stand  Shopping normally  street,  The  economy,  detached  front  building  a mistake.  for  addition,  together  normally  shopping  the its  In  be  walls  the  American  them.  with  Often,  with  view.  uses  large  side  and  North  actually  from  outside,  few  isolated  units,  compact  a  continuity  contrary,  is  and  back  grouped  only  would  sharing  set  with  are  it  the  identical  house.  are  is  but  are  'New  their  to  design,  fast  into  towers do w i t h "in  making  'skyscraper  Town'  the  of  developments"  apartment  much m o r e  are  product  anyhow,  the  village  the  architectural  These ideal  misreading  improbable and  because  and h o t e l s .  a profound  the  city'  suburbia,  com-  selfcliche  of  our  75.  (29)  76.  II  In the North American urban panorama each building is designed as a detached and separate unit in the of the suburban dwelling, regardless of its and use; from office  size,  fashion location  towers to warehouses the building normally  is a detached f a b r i c , located near the centre of the property and embellished by some landscaping at the periphery whenever possible.  The "model of a new r e s i d e n t i a l project w i l l t y p i c a l l y  show "a series of high r i s e tower apartments set  in geometric  patterns on an abstract green space carefully preserved against human encroachment."  The new term of "industrial  park" is indicative of a similar mentality.  By contract, even a s u p e r f i c i a l observation from the a i r of a European city like Paris would show a contrary pattern; the buildings extend rather uniformly and occupy the periphery of the blocks between the streets, ending with a sidewalk, and maybe even further, covering the sidewalk i t s e l f arcade, and ending just above the street.  with an  77.  A few more  The  clearly  continuity  illustrations  some  of  features  the  of  of a  buildings.  European contrary  examples pattern:  may  indicate  Continuous treed  buildings  screened  by  the  scale  of  the  boulevards.  Uniformity sections: department  shops, stores,  conceals  offices, etc.  different  residences,  uses small  even  in  elegant  warehouses,  79.  An J buildings  arcade to  or  extend  a gallery above  the  allows  the  pedestrian  continuous sidewalks.  body  of  Enclosed  courts  and  gardens  allow  many  arrangements.  81 .  We have mentioned in the f i r s t chapter that the North American c i t i e s tend to expand as a set of ever increasing villages,  with an unlimited suburban sprawl.  "Urbanologist  Raymond Vernon wondered why the general American public paid l i t t l e attention to the downgrading reports that suburbia had been receiving. The answer he cameup with was that, to most Americans, suburbia represents progress and improvement, while (311  they view the c i t i e s as being at a s t a n d s t i l l . " fact,  i t is the v i l l a g e mentality which perpetuates  But in itself.  "Thus, while c r i t i c s who are sometimes very well-informed scholars are pinpointing the flaws and problems of suburbia, the general public appears more concerned with the personal benefits  they see in suburbia r e l a t i v e to their p a r t i c u l a r (32")  situation".  The villages multiply in size and number.  As we noted in the previous chapter, the North American urban fabric is atomic. It develops multiplying i n d i v i d u a l , detached, isolated constructions, growing like the stars in an ever expanding sky. In this i t is deeply romantic.  It tends to i n f i n i t y . It is the opposite and even a r e b e l l i o n against the f i n i t e and limited walled c i t y . However, i t seems to be a r e b e l l i o n in the fashion of an explosion.  "Nearly two-thirds of Canadians l i v e in single  detached  (331 dwellings".  J  In the best of the circumstances  of the new residential-units look l i k e t h i s :  constructions  82 .  The  atomic  business  units  centres,  individual as  are  unit.  and a l l  nuclei  into of  interrelated  pattern.  development:  on  sides,  movement, may n o t  all  Many  they  u n r e l a t e d to  even  look  at  the  is  this  even  around  It  a development  bare  sides  is  to  by  dots  or  other  with  The highways  have  supply  of  on to  means  the  sides.  find  bigger  are  highways  ground except  a  and  independent  villages  network  equate  wrong. do  these  expanding  people  forms  politically  of  is  shopping  complex  three  an  are  they  the  villages  and  nothing  communications, People  where  they  have  turn.  answer  to  the  isolated  nuclei car  or  than  that  Highways  of  two  rather  linear the  it  a municipality.  dots,  in  together  Sometimes  a m u n i c i p a l i t y , or  grouped  to  grouped  of  have  sheer  and  streets  problem  individuals  activity. enjoyed  so  of  in  North  movement,  and between why  the  America seen  isolated  This  is  freeway  much  popularity inside  have  as  a  the  the  movement  villages and t h e  become  or individual  precincts  of the North American metropolis, as opposite to public rapid t r a n s i t . activities  (Note C).  Zoning fostered the i s o l a t i o n of  in each v i l l a g e and in the metropolitan context  formed by the conglomeration of the v i l l a g e s .  The consequence  is that according to the time when the various a c t i v i t i e s  are  supposed to take place, a stream of atomic individuals transfers at once from one zone to the other. When people go away from work, the business zone tends to be deserted as a f i e l d after the b a t t l e ,  an i n v i t i n g area for drunks and criminals  to roam through. When people go to work and to school the suburb empties in a similar manner. The hurly-burly of the shopping centres during peak a c t i v i t y and the vastness of the parking lots (how many times have you been unable to remember exactly where you l e f t your car?) gives a good image of the consequences of these atomic movements in a polar fashion, from one centre of a c t i v i t y to the other,  from one coloured block  on the zoning map to the other.  There is an e c l e c t i c mixture of styles which go together with the areas, not only in fashions of clothing but also in architecture. The business centres retain whatever is left of formality, in a r i g i d code of semi-informality. The buildings have eliminated the c a p i t a l s ,  and have stream-  lined v e r t i c a l l y . Their classicism has been defined  chiefly  by Mies Van der Rohe. The exterior skin is permanent and shiny.  84 .  It  bears  witness  to  the  industrial  revolution  and  f 3 4") to  "puritanical architectural"  ation seem to  of to  the  openly express  natural  turn  out  than  what  form. all  decorative  to  be  design  straight.  communicate materials  quite are  an  the  stage  the  huge  the  and  full  set  is  parking  obviously  While  in  strong,  the  shopping concealed shops always  and  lot  garage,  colours  inspired  by  false  and  even  interior  special the  other The  is  slightly  looking decor  sales  philosophy  going of  stage  is  and  elaborate,  Materials  but  on.  buy n o w ,  It  is  later  of  the  to  in  as it  if  look  the  inside  temporary. and  are  temporary.  made  permanent,  changing,  from  extravagant,  Everything looks  structure  sets  utilitarian  deliberately  not  to  enclosed,  anything  large  purposefully  keep  order  expensive  are  see  exotic  if  normally  abundance.  removable  permanent  unsophisticated  in  confusing.  imitated.  finished,  a  attractive  and p l a n e s ,  shopping  except  is  and  hand  not  which  materials  more  wealth  with  lights,  everything  the  of  does  style  and  and  materials  and t h e some  gay  one  the  and w e l l  centre by  or  Inside  offices  stable  audience.  these  lines  elimin-  truthfulness  efficiency;  and  the  inside  decorated,  often  gay  of  exposed  on  fact  untreated  express  are  centres  In  the  materials  and  generally  set-up  success  equipment  striking  heavily  of  in  with  and w i t h  honesty  and  like  a ne.at  idea  building.  of  different  is  and  of  materials.  The b u i l d i n g s  informal  oblong  of  really  Shopping for  ornaments  principle  aspect  they  The  the  tendencies  The  is window  there  are  almost  the  style  were  will  be  too  late.  The of  is  the  little  housewife,  informal the  is  the  of  theday  free  part  in  place  is  created and  time.  one  that  from  the  each  function.  recognize  the  window  from glass made  by  style  to  wants  use  glass  indicate  an  is  in  the  context  see  a  to  entire  list  to  a  the  the or  slightly  family  in  part  an  retires  of  easier  each  activity,  ideal,  not  too  stylistic  of  it  style  Even  is an  an  uses  of  and both  different form  even item  of  for  possible such  as  office  building  from  reflective  materials, exposed  style  made  specific  of  precast  is  Colonial,  the i n d i v i d u a l  distinguish  categorized  or  of  activity.  enough  especially  ends.  isolation  difference  panels the  that  and t h e  where  week  reflects to  Tudor,  dream,  strict  This  w o u l d be  a dwelling; and  the  family,  The house  accentuation  By t h e  the  else.  during  something  the  may be  the  and  extreme  activity  in  of  which  It  something  presentation  end  of  dreamed.  or  The each  universe  always  Contemporary,  to  house  suburbia:  It  at  individual  concrete, them.  could  be  Interestingly,  86.  even i f apartment towers may be s t r u c t u r a l l y similar to buildings, the style is markedly different. see an office  building with balconies,  wrapped in shiny r e f l e c t i v e  glass.  office  One w i l l hardly ever  or an apartment tower  And apartment buildings try  to camouflage themselves as much as possible to give the impression of being in a resort or in a suburban s i t u a t i o n , maybe with a Spanish arcade at the entry, or with some sort of Tudor remin^ iscence.  By contrast one has to note that in the linear pattern of a city like Paris every a c t i v i t y participates to a degree in the other a c t i v i t i e s , proximity.  both in terms of style and of physical  The surface treatment of the facade may be i n t e r -  changeable for an o f f i c e ,  for an apartment, or for a restaurant.  In addition to being atomic, the North American urban fabric is outward oriented, extrovert,  while the fabric of  a city l i k e Paris would be more of the introvert type. activities  Most  in the North American detached buildings take place  at the periphery of a service core and in front of an area glazed to an unobstructed view.  The i n t e r i o r of most buildings  is v i s i b l e from the nearby buildings and public spaces in a striking manner (that i s , inside),  the attention  is even drawn to look  while at the same time the i n t e r i o r is strongly i n -  fluenced by the design for a view.  The outside is the over-  whelming fact of the North American building; i t is present,  even more noticeable  maybe, than the people inside.  always  than the furniture or even, For example, chesterfields  in  87.  most  dwellings  seated  on  putting of  the  the  it  large  effect  of  forget  the  is  the  them city  on  do  afford  benefit display  the  for  becomes  On  contrary,  the  inside  outside;  a  the  the  common t o with  on  scenic  a balcony.  that  one  the  view  When  actually  steps  Graphically 1, a n d t h e  area  is  one  the  diagram  1  but  at  office main  building acts  as  European in  more  the  that  a  city,  wants  to  in  of  one  see  the  time  dramatic  the  and  immediate  completely  separation. with  It  the  main  happens  even  locations  that  This  is  view  room.  the  may  rooms  those  which  a  cities  back.  floors  same  those  attractive,  definite  living  the  the  feature  is  giving  facing  many E u r o p e a n  higher of  window  outside;  an  windows  the  view,  the  in  wall see  picture  those  area  apartments  darkened  of  glazed  being  diagram  large  up m a k e s  from  by  a  high  chesterfields the  face  from  extremely  in  will  then  outside,  enjoyed it  rather  happens  outside.  the  North  European part  of  American style  the  by  private  style  can  diagram land  be  synthesized  2, w h e r e  which  is  diagram  the  built  2  up:  88 .  1 shows t h e p l a n  Diagram of  the  property  colonial atomic  i n the  times.  and  pattern  rural  I t i s the  development  a d d e d up  of a b u i l d i n g that  diagram  of North  s e p a r a t e d by  of the  tradition  North  of  of  American  the  I f these  unit  have  middle  of of  units  c o r r i d o r s , we  plan  i n the  farmer  the b a s i c  America.  public  sits  the  are the  typical  3):  (diagram  3.  Diagram In the  land  has  to  i s o p e n , and  open  from  more d o m i n a t i n g is and  such  and  inside  present  to  outside  the  the  1 i t i s remarkable  diagram  so  a l l sides because  directed  those  i n s i d e ; at  view  the  The  building  to  outside.  The  outside  the  the  vastness  the  i t has;  The  same t i m e ,  outside i n most  i s eye  behind  the  windows  noticeable.  dramatic;  space  outside  draws  as  It i s this  extroversion  b u i l d i n g draws  f o r those  inside  much a t t e n t i o n unique  of the North  and  the  outside always  cases  isolated building  of the  attention vastness  The  open  the  and  For  those  and  at  of  i s sometimes  style.  from  catching,  set of r e l a t i o n s h i p s that American  itself i s even  is  the  is highly  of  proportion  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  feeling.  the  the  of  isolation  part  outside.  present  i s even  the  the b e t t e r  to the  that  ever  times  dramatic.  of  i s an  activity  outside,  open  that  the  equally we  call spaces  89  outside  create  On of  a constant  the contrary  development  countries  tension,  and  i n Europe  diagram 4 i n d i c a t e s  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as and  Asia,  i  a different  i t took place  i n many d i f f e r e n t  i  i n many  periods:  •  4.  Diagram It linear; ment and  of uses. clearly  built no  i s a style that  i t i s normally  up  divided  area  drama and  wall  which  i s so  and  the n a t u r a l  be  defined,  by  accompanied  by  a fairly  mixed  equally  considerations,  enclosed  p r i v a t e , and  t o t h e open  spaces that  i t i s almost l i k e  a high  as  arrangesmaller  public. i t  The  creates  fence,  or a  side  t h e movement.  to contrast  i t i s normally  of development  countries  contrast,  spaces are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  close  because  type  can  be  i s important  systems  different  could  between  accompanies  atomic by  open  tension;  It erent  The  type  taken  i s t h e one  economic and  at least these  forces.  o r more v i a b l e when t h e y  even  f o r granted  d i c t a t e d by Instead  t r a d i t i o n s shows  are allowed,  and  the  other  of pure would  diff-  that  the  market  experience  that  i n terms  two  i n many  solutions economic  tend  to  90. show t h a t  the source  non-economic  In States  that  the  fact,  sides,  wall  recent  subdivisions  the market  to t r yto take  are being  three  American  style  i s of a  nature.  show t h a t  siderations  of the North  sold  so t h a t  against  with  i s now p r e s s u r e d other  t h e owners  by economic  d i r e c t i o n s ; there  concrete  the other  i n some o f t h e U n i t e d  blocks  are lots  at the perimeter,  can extend  buildings  con-  their  on  buildings to  a n d make b e t t e r  use of a  smal1er l o t .  It  i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d C a l v i n i s t i c  prejudice  that  r 35") "in  our s o c i e t y ,  There  a r e many  North  Americans  less  forced  will  never  the  desires  one  quoted  Park  ideal  elect  have  nothing  that  style  people of  life.  J  '  the majority  of North  bus t o work,  despite  drive  of  Americans going at  the savings.  most p e o p l e making  Ultimately,  may b e r e l a t e d t o  a profit,  which  may  may n o t h a v e b e e n s c r u t i n i z e d  period  as money v a l u e  a free  t o do w i t h  o f those  that  the majority  and w h i c h  f o r a long  a profit".  t o m a k e , f o r many r e a s o n s , u n -  car,  that  t o make  profits  to ride  as a p r i v a t e  earlier,  Forest  noticed  not l i k e  For example,  irrational  sufficiently  likes  and l a r g e  and m o t i v e s  which  quite  will  freely  same s p e e d  be  small  to.  the  values  everybody  o f time.  developers  i n the form  A good who  example  started  of housing,  to  i sthe sell  a n d who  were more a t t r a c t e d by t h e a p p e a l  o f an  then  91  APPENDIX  NOTE A  In the Anglo-Saxon l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n c l a s s i c a l Greek philosophers such as Plato and A r i s t o t l e have been portrayed as defenders of the community of small or limited size.  "Classical Greece appears as the f i r s t defender of the  values of the Modern suburb, for there the small community was o r i g i n a l l y presented as the centre of the good l i f e and there philosophers f i r s t insisted that an i d e a l l y satisfactory must be limited in size" argued.  '  state  This interpretation may be  The Greek debate about the Polis was centered on the  perfect form of government.  Size was a marginal consideration,  which must be understood in the ancient Greek technological and p o l i t i c a l context.  One can easily see that in proportion a  town of 30,000 in the geography of ancient Greece was comparable to a c i t y of anywhere from 500,000 to 3,000,000 today, as far as density,  facilities  and communications are concerned.  addition only free citizens were counted. modern suburban v i l l a g e can be truly found: a c i t y in the f u l l  In  No r e l a t i o n with the the Greek town was  sense of the word, autonomous and  self-sufficient.  The suburbs are specialized municipalities which depend from the metropolis for their very existence.  92  NOTE  This M o n t e c i t o  as  i s  i t  a  photocopy  appeared  B  o f  t h e advertisement  f o r  V i l l a  on the_"Vancouver S u n " :  This weekend, take a drive to the mountain.  B  eautiful Burnaby Mountain! ' A twenty-five minute drive from the hustle and bustle of downtown Vancouver and you're back to nature. Out where the air is fresh and clean, the trees are green and growing, and the woods are there to wander. It's a g reat place to visit and now, it's a great place to live.  condominium comes with a wide choice of decorator options; private balcony or garden; and professionally landscaped and maintained grounds . that leave you lots of spare time to . enjoy doing what you enjoy doing. * ' And at Montecito 2000, prices start at $27,500 with down payments as low as $1,600 and mortgage at 8 % % ' . ' V ,,V ?>  Now there's Montecito 2000-the ultimate in condominium luxury and liveability. Nestled on the shaded slop© •of Burnaby Mountain, Montecito 2000 is convenient to both shopping and schools. And right next door is an eighteen hole golf course.  Take a drive to the mountain this 'fjweekend. Our display home is open , fromnponto6pTm.' Phone 291-6664. X; !  ;  :  Each two, three or four-bedroom  Please  keep this map as municipal  restrict  the use of directional  signs.  by-laws i'l .  ^4%  MONTECITO200B CD DawsonDevelopmentsLimited fe  Note  b u s t l e trees  Y O U R KEY T O J C O N T E M P O R A R V LIVING  t h e c a l l o f  t o  come  downtown",  a r e green  "back  t o  " o u t where  and growing,  ^rS-^r-^g^J/'(£&S?_  nature"  from  t h e a i r i s  a n d t h e woods  t h e " h u s t l e f r e s h  and  and c l e a n ,  a r e there  t o  the.-  wander."  93.  NOTE C  Public disappointments and  has  its  convenience  users. of  for  Even  deficits  support of  seldom  of  February  rapid and  been and  more seems  local 27th,  transit  failures freely  for  in  the  a  continuous  North by  American  the  inexpensiveness  other  to  be  often  and  of  senior  1974,  had  supported  relative  than  has  forms  of  reports  governemnts. under  the  for  the  despite individual  transit  despite  the  the  size  financial  The V a n c o u v e r  title:  of  metropolis,  majority,  public  overwhelming,  history  "Closure  Sun looms  BART":  " O f f i c i a l s of United States i s m o r e money  the most say they to cover  modern r a p i d t r a n s i t system i n the may h a v e t o c l o s e t h e l i n e u n l e s s there operating losses.  Two s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s o f t h e San F r a n c i s c o Bay A r e a R a p i d T r a n s i t d i s t r i c t t o l d a s t a t e senate committee Tuesday that t h e y b e l i e v e t h e 7 5 - m i l e commuter t r a i n s y s t e m w i l l n e v e r pay its way. T h e y a d d e d t h a t u n l e s s t h e s t a t e g i v e s them f r e s h f i n a n c i a l a i d t h e e n t i r e $ 1 . 6 - b i l l i o n BART s y s t e m may s i m p l y c l o s e this f a l l a f t e r l e s s t h a n two y e a r s o f p a r t i a l service."  CHAPTER 2. (1)  "The Vancouver Sun", July 30, 1974,  p,3.  (2)  M. P. DOUGLASS:  (3)  J . SEELY, A. SIM, E. LOOSLEY: Toronto 1956, p. V.  (4)  W. WHITE J R . : Sept. 1957.  (5)  H. CLAY TATE: Building a Better Home Town, New York 1954. Dedication.  (6)  R. WOOD:  (7)  F. L. WRIGHT:  Broadacre C i t y , Chicago 1945  (8)  LE 60RBUSIER':  Le Corbusier 1934-38, Zurich 1945,  (9)  R. WOOD: Suburbia . Boston 1958 , p.  The Suburban Trend, New York 1925,  P. 122  Crestwood Heights,  Are C i t i e s Un-American?, from "Fortune"  Suburbia.  Boston  1958,  p. 16  p. 67  260  (10)  "The Vancouver Sun", March 12,  1974,  p.  34.  (11)  D. P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N.Y. 1971, p. 73  (12)  D. P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N.Y. 1971, p. 65  (13)  D. P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N.Y. 1971, p. 65  (14)  W. WHITE J r . : Are C i t i e s Un-American? from Fortune Sept. 1957.  (15)  M. and L. WHITE: The Intellectual Versus The C i t y , M.I.T. 1962, p. 45  (16)  M. and L. WHITE: The Intellectual Versus The C i t y , M . I . T . 1962, p. 44  (17)  D. P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N . Y . , 1971, p. 73  (18)  B. BERGER:  (19)  "U. S. News £ World Report", August 7, 1972: of the Suburbs, p. 5 2  (20)  D.P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N . Y . , 1971, p. 69  (21)  D.P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N . Y . , 1971 p. 66  Working-Class Suburb, Berkeley 1960,  p. 9  New Role  95 .  (22)  "New  (23)  J .  Y o r k e r " ,  SEELY,  1956,  p.  June  A.  SIM,  E.  D. P. SOBIN: The Washington, N.Y.,  (25)  "The  Vancouver  (27)  (28)  (30)  W.  (34)  Vancouver  WHITE  p.  1,  June  12,  1973,  p.l  1957.  D.  SOBIN:  P.  D.  P.  "The R.  L.  "The  R.  C i t i e s  Sun",  Jr.:  Sept.  Are  The N.Y.,  SOBIN:  and  and  Un-American?  WOOD:  Mann  Future  "The  P r o v i n c e "  Mar.  9,  1974,  f r o m " F o r t u n e "  1971,  of  Sun", Mike  S u b u r b i a .  the  of  the 68.  A p r i l  18,  Loos"  1963, June  p.  31 from  "Fortune  American  Suburbs,  Port  American  Suburbs,  Port  68.  p.  " A d o l f  by  1973,  Un-American?  p.  Future  London  Vancouver  13,  C i t i e s  Sun",  DELEVOY:  J u l y  1971,  The N.Y.,  Vancouver  Richard (36)  1973,  Are  A r c h i t e c t u r e , (35)  28,  6.  Sun:,  Jr.;  Washington, (33)  J u l y  Port  1957.  Washington, (32)  35  Vancouver  "The  (31)  p.  "The  (29)  Toronto  'Subur'bs,  1973,  Sun:,  1973,  American  23,  p.  WHITE  H e i g h t s ,  June  26,  Sept.  Crestwood  Sun",  Vancouver  W.  41  Future of the 1 9 7 1 , P. 73  "The  47  p,  LOOSLEY:  June  P.  1973,  41 .  (24)  (26)  9,  1974,  in  p. 23,  p.  50.  E n c y c l o p a e d i a  1973,  p.  35,  Greenby. Boston  0  f  Modern  178  1958,  p.  260  i n t e r v i e w  of  3.  SOME AND  It and  the  things  CONTEMPORARY DISCUSSIONS:  is  now  conflict on  by  that  romantic  developed their of  the  the  new  economy,  attack  idol  that  such  as  the  plan one  that  not  the  from  without  most  only  of  human  title  reads':  people that  on  life  the  "City  ahead  of  "downtown Similar  and p r i v a t e  subway  the  of  planning  as  be  revolution drew  guilt.  this the  controversy  And i n  articles,  byproducts  etc.,  but of  also the  are  New  downtown  the  article  a place and  for  reports  found  is  mechanical  cities.  "The V a n c o u v e r Sun"  made  agencies  art  prosperity  of  to  and  accident  existence  proposed.  vehicles."  titles,  of  thanks  page  should  sense  pollution,  even  front  an  and  life  romantic  seen  nature,  and  of  aspects  not  interchanges,  not  to  increasing  some  recent  brought  controversy  and "human"  industrial  the  the  "artificial"  is  patrons  destroys  pedestrians". public  and  It  automobile,  1973,  reads  was  romantics.  being  the  freeways,  puts  other  since  "organic"  and  the  quality  24,  "natural",  PROBLEMS  OF A DILEMMA  hundred years  against  A May  two  the  and  well  of  T H E HORNS  movement  together,  One the  on  first  financial  AND A R C H I T E C T U R A L  a n d "man made"  things  examined the  about  between  one s i d e ,  "mechanical"  URBAN  now  from and  of  97.  then  i n publications  automobile porary as -  a  of  discussions  virtuous  which  the  i s one  and  s h o u l d be  mentality  contemporary  of  i n many the  about pure  most  problems.  activity at  prohibition  American  cities.  popular v i l l a i n s  urban  fostered  private  North  any i n a  -  as  Walking  opposed  cost;  we  may  illusionary  transportation .^ ^ 1  i n  to be  The contem-  i s  seen  driving approaching  crusade  against  98.  Many u r b a n of the automobile ization ities  t h e decay  of c i t i e s ,  the  of s o c i a l  Yet  these people  most i n d u s t r i a l  by human b e i n g s ,  stances,  o r as  As  a result  d i d not of  t o say  that  did with  t h e machine,  another  and  that  mistake.  not was  not  from  t o be  cities  and  and  that  other  arbitrary  aids circum-  like  would  be  the m a c h i n e , b u t what  one  i t s meaning o r message.  In  altered  our not  ours,  i n the  that,  least  This i s a  long accustomed  a means o f c o n t r o l ,  reminded  relations  to  splitting  i t i s sometimes  in operational  and  f 2) practical  fact,  We machine was people  and  the medium i s t h e  find  that  developed at t h e  i n the and  same time zoning  proposed.  who  people  message."  case  of the automobile,  m a r k e t e d by  more f a s h i o n a b l e and The  use  suburban-  realize  products  the  opportun-  i t , "many p e o p l e  t h e machine  a l l t h i n g s as  a b i t o f a shock  of  c o r n f l a k e s or C a d i l l a c s . "  "In a c u l t u r e  dividing  do  to o u r s e l v e s , i t mattered  w h e t h e r i t t u r n e d out  and  chance.  i t was  o f t h e ways i n w h i c h  and  o f our  spring  M a r s h a l l McLuhan p u t  disposed  advent  c e n t r e s , the  life  civilization.  created  and  lack  many more i l l s  like  to the  o f the . c i t y  and  the automobile,  t o one  attribute  f o r encounter,  o f our  terms  critics,  t h e same k i n d  that  suburban  laws  were b e g i n n i n g to  could afford  living  the  of  was be  i t were a l r e a d y  becoming  99 .  deserting  the  less  efficient  time  when  North as  city,  private  the  ideas  American  the  commuting  of  dream  product  of  means  the of  streetcars,  transportation.  Ebenezer  Howard  garden  suburbs.  of  a well  railways  established  were  It  was  fostering  The  and the the  automobile  culture,  which,  came  as  Morton  f 3") and  Lucia  White  intrinsically "Broadacre plan.  The  have  anti-city.  City"  made  the  medium  was  ineeed  the  North American  the  ideas  the  medium.  as  probably think the  automobile  by  an  instrumental city  already  in  its  subdivisions  his  the  of  land.  simply  propose  to  of  the  important  to  consider  is  that  urban  life  in  that  different  ills  general  version, It  of  lament  the  the  However,  message  to  and  of  message.  shape  solution  city  ideal  part  cultural  use  to  in  North American  emphasizing  and  already  integral  negligible  automobile  the  an  the  the  about  Wright  was  of  much m o r e  in  was  It  be  a  ,  established  there.*  may  as  of  as  It  transportation  Lloyd  particularly  created  were  explained^  Frank  the  automobile,  was  existence  clearly  the  means  of  what  is  city;  is  created  what what  people shapes  city.  * I n t h i s s e n s e , I f e e l t h a t one s h o u l d c o r r e c t and c l a r i f y t h e a p h o r i s m c o i n e d by M c L u l a n ; o t h e r w i s e an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t - t h e . s e q u e n c e i n t i m e - w o u l d be l o s t i n f a v o u r o f a v a g u e i d e n t i t y which would not r e f l e c t the r e a l a s p e c t s of c u l t u r a l developments.  100.  J.L. has  become  are  often  Sert  useless clogged  arteriosclerosis cases  horses  said in  our  with had  moved  in  1947:  "Our mastery  cities.  Their  vehicles,  attacked  faster  as  the  sixty  main  though  city  years  of  speed  arteries  'some  kind  structure'. ago  than  of  In  some  automobiles  f 4) do  now."  mobiles  A quarter have  increased indeed  kept  and  Most mobile is a  a  and  the  the  city.  epitaph affair created only a  city  with  the  in  order  if  it  car is  it  is  seldom  by  contrast,  a horse  the  made  a well  by  in  to  the  the  industry  and  automobile to  have the  among sold  used  in  is  to  say  growth the  mostly  of  in  occupied,  is  much  smaller,  the  auto-  people  life  and  General growth  that  Motors the  the  people's  The  automobile  and  its  a  city.  things,  city the  even  has  to  and  its  it  role  be  is  so  the love was  can  why  large  suburbs,  and  European used  "is  involves  explains  average if  write  This  that  annual  growth  that  city,  to  of  at  such  as  quick  such  while  would  so  America the  have  automobile of  of  over."''''-'  other  North  the  sales  are  a certain  fully so  who  around  of  remarked  auto-  a bicycle  view  record  and  problems  majority  chairman  1973,  those  or  that  established  reporting  the  centered  fact  Gerstenberg,  with  life,  average  even  choice  answer  this  of  ignore  passed  if  discussions  the  meeting  increase  style  the  of  even  of  in  compelling  places  has  transportation.  Richard  stockholders' a  many  of  Corporation,  century  faster  deliberate  consequence  a  multiplying,  in  provide  of  more  car,  101 .  often  outside  the  city  and  to  carry  several  people  and  luggage.  The tion to  produced  the  sense  by  suburbs. of  spaces,  What  people  It  of do  the  by  density  smaller  cars  private  of in  a  zoned  means  of  has from  produced  malls the  to  and  from  the  and  machines.  to  growth  the of  with  a of  against etc.,  cannot  be  transportation  necessarily and  ever  is  mean  over  systems increasing  carports lower  should  teach  density  inevitable.  the  more  to  suburban lawn  the  organic  pavements  to  by  outcry  mass  ever  flight  of  people  expansion.  public  double  transporta-  bigness,  city  the  the  dirty  highways  and  are  the  freeways,  would  failure  their  of  public  in  of  derived  suburbia  cities  The  that  flight  drove  their  urban  residing  form  unlimited  in  the  expanding  is  that  of  flight  of  a  a desire  and  transportation  gigantic  automobiles  fertilizing  and  city  the  away a  by  North America  paradox  suburbs,  environment  in  suburbs  The garden  area.  is  dream p a r t l y  realize,  the  people  horizontal  the  to  through  of  transportation  that  rural  pedestrian  a higher  us  philosophy  pollution,  dream o f  less  sprawl  a  seem  its  systems;  of  is  not  rural  accomplished  a  same  individualism,  automobile,  that  the  automobile  urban c l a u s t r o p h o b i a ,  open  the  North American  of  serenity and  city  and  the  natural streets,  oriented  mowers  of  industries,  lawn  102.  The recent mild energy c r i s i s in the United States has suddenly shown more v i v i d l y some of the costs and the i m p l i c i t dangers of the continuous expansion of the lowdensity zoned and suburban metropolis.. People had to line up for hours at gas stations  in order to continue their  daily routines. Tom Wicker, of the "New York Times", noted from a c i t y of North Carolina: "A fuel shortage is a serious matter anywhere,  but in c i t i e s  dependent on the automobile,  i t could become a catastrophe, i t is not just that, here in Charlotte as elsewhere,  mass t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s  are minimal.  In addition this c i t y has been b u i l t outward from i t s own centre in long g l i t t e r i n g strings of p l a s t i c , neon, glass and ersatz.  For miles before a motorist reaches what used  to be the c i t y , shopping centres, stations,  fast-food j o i n t s ,  apartment and housing developments,  glass  service office  buildings line the roads in endless tribute to an i l l u s o r y prosperity. What happens to the motels, department stores,  the sprawling cut-rate  the highway .restaurants and the  one-stop  auto service centres i f potential customers have no gas with which to drive to their sprawling parking lots?"'- '' 6  there are many c i t i e s  (And  in North America where to be unable to  drive between isolated precincts means to be exposed to the danger of physical violence. The suburban garden c i t i e s may suddenly show in b i t t e r ways their i s o l a t i o n from the urban context).  103 .  As we noted in the previous chapter, what has happened is that the exodus to nature toward the suburbs has been followed by a massive movement of commercial activities  in the same d i r e c t i o n ; the metropolis has  grown as a conglomerate of regional commercial centres and r e s i d e n t i a l suburbs spread over a vast expanse of land, where the individual automobile has become more and more the only means of transportation. This most mechanical device has become an essential  part of the general return to  nature in the picturesque suburbs and of the  lifeline  necessary to maintain them.  The romantic disgust with the automobile, i t s  noise,  i t s p o l l u t i o n , i t s speed through the serenity of the quiet streets and i t s  crowding through the main a r t e r i e s ,  is  being expressed now by the closure of important central streets to private cars. with the establishment  The "machine" is publicly  rejected  of pedestrian malls. Here picturesque  dreams and the crusade against the automobile have a f i e l d day.  105.  Ecologists and conservationists  may believe  that ripping the  pavement of a downtown street to bring back yet another garden with shrubs and trees and fountains stores means to begin a new pattern in the c i t y .  in front of shops and  - more "human" and "organic" -  But is i t not a revival of the City  Beautiful concept in a new style? Despite the supposed death of the Beaux Arts ideals, beautiful,  we see that the image of  sublime, a r t i s t i c or picturesque scenes as the  typical stage setting  continues to fascinate people are are  concerned about urban problems.  As an example one may see the study "Granville as f 71 a Pedestrian Transitway"  adopted by the City of Vancouver  for the new pedestrian mall transforming Granville The objective  Street.  is to "beautify the street as a major pedestrian f 81  street in the downtown peninsula." f 91 "parades and festivals" alive.  1  J  Among the other things,  are proposed to keep the area  The sketches of the proposed future arrangement seem  to indicate rows of trees and sidewalk cafes as the most notable new elements.  106  107.  108 .  For the reader who is not familiar with Vancouver one has to note that the people shown in the sketches could not be residents  of the neighbouring blocks, because apartments  are not foreseen  in the surrounding area. Granville  Street  is not a street leading from one centre of pedestrian to another,  activity  l i k e the G a l l e r i a in Milan (which goes from Piazza  della Scala to Piazza del Duomo, the two most centres of the c i t y ) ,  prestigious  i t is a street going from an eight-lane  vehicular bridge to an old empty transcontinental railway station on the waterfront of the harbour. F i n a l l y Vancouver is a city that cannot count on a great pedestrian a c t i v i t y  outside  some sort of g a l l e r y , because i t is a f f l i c t e d by an unusual amount of steady r a i n .  Cafes on open sidewalks are undoubtedly  a dream transplanted from a vision of a sunny southern European town.  Oddly, this new pedestrian area is at a great  distance  from Gastown, the previous project of urban beautification and pedestrian enclosure.  Gastown is a renewal of a square and  adjacent streets aimed at recapturing the atmosphere of an old v i l l a g e .  It remained i s o l a t e d , no provision has been made to  introduce any r e s i d e n t i a l quarters for a population that could focus around i t ,  and the shops and restaurants that took advan-  tage of the atmosphere depend upon tourists a few years,  and commuters.  After  i t s degree of success has already begun to give  disappointments.  It was another picturesque dream improperly  109 .  transplanted; in Europe these squares and streets are supported by the l i f e of an integrated urban system and by the presence of a resident population around them that caters to the offered there.  services  (Note A.)  Often,it seems as i f a beautiful stage, may be in the style of the central square of an ideal v i l l a g e , were a l l that is proposed to avoid the further decay of the urban centres or to solve the problems of the disintegrating c i t i e s . An engineer, an alderman who was elected to the municipal council of Vancouver,ran on a p o l i t i c a l platform which included: "Revitalize downtown by plazas and sidewalk cafes. development where necessary  - Freeze  (West End)."'- ^-' But what good w i l l 1  sidewalk cafes make to r e v i t a l i z e downtown i f high density residential developments nearby are going to be stopped? The underlying assumption seems to be that people would commute to the cafes as they do to the business centre. Sidewalk cafes seem to capture the imagination of the North American t r a v e l l e r as the key to a romantic dream of a c i t y . Even the premier of B r i t i s h Columbia, returning from his f i r s t t r i p to the European continent, could not refrain from reporting the news that, "In Paris the sidewalk cafes are just f a n t a s t i c ,  just  fantastic."^*  As a consequence of the t r i p he decided to relax local liquor laws to encourage the adoption of this European idea.  For the redevelopment of Granville Island, at the centre of Vancouver, the architects included among the  110.  the suggested uses "a museum, g a l l e r i e s ,  a fine arts  school,  f 121  a fish,  f r u i t and vegetable market,"  ' etc.  These are  some of the most t y p i c a l romantic visualizations leisure-oriented a c t i v i t i e s ,  of  low-density  lending themselves in an excellent  way to picturesque renderings giving a sketchy idea of scenes taken from vague recollections  of places somewhere between  Istanbul and Paris. Houston "is new kind of mall.  luring people from the suburbs with a  It's  called the G a l l e r i a :  a three-level,  air-conditioned, enclosed complex in the most affluent part of the c i t y .  Modeled after a shopping gallery in Milan,  Italy,  i t also has touches of Rockefeller Centre in New York a n d San Francisco's G h i r a r d e l l i Square."*  This "Galleria" is also  considered an "antidote for loneliness":  "Loneliness-  i s o l a t i o n in a crowd - is a major problem in a fast-growing, mobile urban centre like Houston" and"a lot of people are drawn to the G a l l e r i a to overcome loneliness. mingle with the crowd, do things,  Here they can  and feel part of something -  (1 3)  i f only temporarily".  This is a confused p a r a l l e l : the G a l l e r i a in Milan is simply composed of a portion of two intersecting streets covered by a glazed roof and reserved for pedestrians, mainly as a shortcut between two main squares and as a distinguished public area; i t was not "zoned" for a specialized a c t i v i t y : there is just as much shopping in any of the neighbouring streets.  Ill.  It is hard to believe developments  that these kinds of  scattered  can do anything to decrease the expansion of the  suburbs and to change the trends of the present urban pattern in North America.  On the contrary, they only seem to  the prevailing style of l i f e .  emphasize  These pedestrian centres exist  only as commercial temporary ghettos or clubs of commuters. integration with the rest of the city is quite i r r e l e v a n t , ever considered.  Their if  Despite the fact that these are pedestrian  areas, most of the pedestrians  arrive by means of private cars;  perhaps one per car.  The.same romantic d u a l i s t i c trend that sees as necessary a return to nature but that would like to abolish those automobiles and those highways that have been used to follow the i d e a l , also sees man as losing against the advance of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the city as an "inorganic", heartless "mechanical" product of industry and economics.  Developers then  become public foes, the enemies of nature and of the ideal model of the "organic" c i t y .  These issues become the object of strong  public debate when new high density developments  are proposed  in places where pretty old buildings or parks would be lost by the defenders  of art and nature.  between the defenders effeciency,  The positions become polarized  of economic reason, and even of science and  and those who want to advance the ideal model dear to  the romantic heart.  An i n f l u e n t i a l writer such as Lewis Mummford has seen the c o n f l i c t between technological and organic development  almost  112.  as a matter of l i f e  and death for the future of c i v i l i z a t i o n :  "The internal problems of the metropolis and of its subsidiaryareas are relections  of a whole c i v i l i z a t i o n geared to expansion  by s t r i c t l y rational and s c i e n t i f i c  means for purposes that have  become progressively more empty and t r i v i a l ,  more i n f a n t i l e and f 141  p r i m i t i v e , more barbarous and massively i r r a t i o n a l . " ^ renewal of l i f e  J  "The  is the great theme of our age, not the further  dominance, in ever more frozen and compulsive forms, of the machine."  Morton and Lucia White noted;  "like so many  e a r l i e r c r i t i c s of the c i t y , Mumford is enthralled by the notion of the organism, by Emersons's and Coleridge's view that  there  is an invidious d i s t i n c t i o n to be drawn between mechanically imposed form and organic form that grows from within." Mumford, like many other people fearful of the  advances  of industry and of the c o n f l i c t that they see between man and the machine, does not seem to realize that the real  conflict  is not between man or nature and man-made mechanisms, but i n t e r n a l l y between human ideas and desires that shape our romantic and contradictory c i v i l i z a t i o n .  It is c o n f l i c t i n g  ideals,  not the machinery that may express and serve them, which are the source of the shape of our "barbarous" or crazy  cities.  Mumford came near to this understanding when he observed: "One cannot bring about the renewal of the city by replacing old structures with new buildings that only confirm the obsolete pattern of city growth and that rest solely on the equally obsolete ideological foundations of 'mechanical progress'".  n 71  113.  The problems of the city are "a matter that must be attacked at f1g1 the source".  But he f a i l e d to identify the true source.  This is the mainstream of philosophy which allows people not only to be dedicated to "mechanical progress", but also to see problems in terms of conflicts  between man and machine, or between "Art  and Technics", or between i n t u i t i o n and reason, for example. We owe to this d u a l i s t i c representation of r e a l i t y , which we may have inherited from the need for anguish of the romantic generations,  not only the i n a b i l i t y to see the truth  of the circumstances that confront us, but even the creation of some of the c o n f l i c t s which are worrying so many people, are presented as necessary or even inevitable. the complexities  and which  Instead,of.seeing  of real l i f e unfolding in a variety of ways with  an integral and calm eye,  ready to take advantage of what is  useful  and to reroute what is harmful, recognizing a mixture where pleasant and unpleasant can never be completely separated, world is seen exclusively  as a set of polarized extreme  the  tendencies,  where i t is necessary to take sides and to fight the enemy to the end.  This fight can be absurd i f the enemy turns out to be  fictitious.  It is the struggle in perennial and grand conflicts  that rewards the missionary and heroic s p i r i t of the romantic movement, of which we are s t i l l part in many ways.  The contra-  dictions of the modern metropolis are seen only from one extreme or the other, and instead of being eliminated, they are made permanent: thus we zone r e s i d e n t i a l suburbs and we discourage driving.  114.  The struggle to save nature from human p o l l u t i o n and to save the rural belt around the c i t i e s may be seen in this  light,  as examples of cases where the emotionalism of popular crusades grows in a state of public confusion and romantic ideals obscure understanding of the basic issues.  Recently the provincial government of B r i t i s h Columbia, an "avant garde" government, has undertaken the duty of saving the rural belt around Vancouver with an almost sacred zeal, arousing an uproar only from the defenders of private enterprise, uncontrolled economy and "laissez  faire" theories,  basic idea of preserving a g r i c u l t u r a l land as  not because  the  something.better  than urban development could be questioned, but simply because another area of speculative investments has been r e s t r i c t e d . Again lines of battle have been drawn between the "obviously" good and the "obviously" bad.  The p r i n c i p l e of the goodness  of saving a rural belt around Vancouver is not seen as a debatable issue among the majority.  (One may be astonished to  note here that B r i t i s h Columbia has less than 5% of the population density of European countries, including such mountainous and partly rural countries as Switzerland and A u s t r i a ) .  The question was only whether or how much developers and speculators might be f i n a n c i a l l y hurt by a ban on rezoning as urban land a g r i c u l t u r a l land.  At the same time the side  effects  of such a decision, the inevitable increase in density of the c i t y , the rise in the prices of urban land and the end of the growth  115.  of suburbia once a l l the available urban land is used - namely the end of the romantic ideal of a garden city for the metropolis have a l l been put out of mind.  The dream of the saved rural  belt  and the passion of the debate about who is going to make or to lose money have, at least temporarily clouded over a l l other c o n f l i c t i n g obsessions.  It is s i g n i f i c a n t that only a short time after the decision to preserve the rural belt had been made, "The Vancouver Sun" came out with the t i t l e "Council faces dilemma on West End* re zoning". (19)  The dilemma was whether to allow a further i n -  crease in density at the core of the city or to put a limit to i t .  The opening paragraph of the a r t i c l e said: w i l l decide Tuesday whether i t ' s for West End residents area."  "City council  worth r i s k i n g large rent  to improve the quality of l i f e  increases  in their  It is important to note that in the news media and in the  minds of the majority good quality of l i f e and lower density seem to be i d e n t i f i a b l e terms even at the expense of l i m i t i n g the number  *  The"West End" is a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t in Vancouver, close to the downtown area.  116  of people who should be allowed to take advantage of "downtown" residences  to their own convenience  good of the city  and pleasure and for the  (lessening commuter t r a f f i c ,  people to populate the streets, shops, making the c i t y function properly).  adding more  outdoor cafes, e t c . ,  thus  Whether this is true or not  is never actually discussed in public.  When people talk about  "the quality of Life" certain values are taken for granted and form the basis of common understanding.  Yet these unchallenged  sets of values that form the underlying philosophy or cultural trend are those which should honestly be exposed and c r i t i c a l l y reviewed.  It may turn out, then, that some of the dilemmas are  improperly understood, or even  fictitious. *  It is the underlying philosophy entire chains of decisions  that sets in motion  at the origins of the problems which  people l i k e Mumford and many others have perceived mostly in their unpleasant external manifestations,  and then explained  in terms of a d u a l i s t i c interpretation.  *  The system of romantic values, which leads to a certain notion of what the relationship between nature and the fabric of the city should be. It is the b e l i e f in an organic system where sparse detached buildings and lowdensity settlements blend with parks and allow a contact with nature.  117.  A planner did note in the case mentioned before that in Vancouver "citizens are not oriented to large c i t y thinking; they are r u r a l - o r i e n t e d and that's why they are interested in greenbeltsi"  But these occasional observations  after  the fact may be more useful to s t i r isolated arguments than to provide an insight into the complexities, profundities and pervasiveness  of a strong cultural tendency.  It i s ,  after a l l ,  worth the trouble to study this matter further, for the  attitudes  of the citizens of Vancouver are bound to coincide to a great degree with those of people in many parts of North America.  The mayor of Toronto "said he is not against highrises as such but said they w i l l not be tolerated i f they are b u i l t at the expense of existing neighbourhoods" and that "most of the automobiles can effectively  be banished from within a f 21)  radius of two miles of the city centre."  The conservative  government of the province of Ontario has promised l e g i s l a t i o n to preserve farmland and to establish a parkway greenbelt around the area of metropolitan Toronto. of Burrard Inlet,  In Vancouver the t h i r d crossing  a bridge or a tunnel to relieve the t r a f f i c  of the existing bridges, was stopped for fear that i t would have increased the t r a f f i c and the density of the downtown area to an *  untolerable l e v e l .  The episode of the Spadina expressway  was an antecedent in Toronto.  The Spadina expressway was designed to connect the core of metropolitan Toronto with the system of peripheral freeways. It was stopped. The public reacted against the danger of excessive t r a f f i c and density downtown.  118.  Yet the only true solution to implement the ideals of a c i t y which does not grow in density and is limited by a permanent rural belt at the outskirts is that of a moratorium on population growth, something that no one is proposing in the open and that may be economically unfeasible possible.  even i f i t were p o l i t i c a l l y  In the current trend of population growth, which w i l l  not be stopped in the foreseeable future, to advocate less automobile t r a f f i c is to advocate at the same time an inevitable increase in density.  To advocate  lower density is to ask for more  land and more private means of transportation in the metropolis. These are the inescapable dilemmas of those who choose the ideal of a romantic garden city but at the same time would like to i t limited in size and for pedestrians  see  only.  The ultimate weapon that romantic conservationists  and  ecologists may use against the c i t y is the fear of p o l l u t i o n : however true the problem of p o l l u t i o n i s ,  i t is also the last  device used to keep the public worried about the need for ever larger parks and green spaces, as i f these were the elements determining the quality of l i f e  in a c i t y .  It seems that the  ideal city of the future is to look like vine covered Angkor Vat at the moment of i t s discovery.  It is as i f a c i t y were considered  more livable i f i t had more parks and greenery; in this  respect,  c i t i e s like Venice and Siena should be considered utterly unhappy. In a new proposal such as the redevelopment of the i n d u s t r i a l  119.  area around False Creek,  a sea i n l e t at the heart of Vancouver,  to scatter r e s i d e n t i a l buildings as i f in park and to provide a pedestrian v i l l a g e - l i k e atmosphere and a large percentage of parkland were the answer in terms of design to the future of the ci ty.  Mostly land reclaimed from a sea i n l e t at the very edge of Vancouver's downtown d i s t r i c t . This could form a beautiful sea water basin at the centre of the c i t y .  120 . APPENDIX NOTE A The "Vancouver Sun" of August 3, 1974  (p.  18),  reports: "A York County grand jury said Friday the Yonge Street Mall is a disgrace and should be closed."  Monday, August 5,  1974 a public holiday, downtown Vancouver  was closed to t r a f f i c for the enjoyment of pedestrians,  who were  supposed to s t r o l l around and to enjoy the sun from the  instant  sidewalk:? cafes. The public response was so unenthusiastic  that  the experiment w i l l not be repeated.  Kimberley, B . C . , had the honour of appearing on f 2 2) newspapers  for this prize winning beautification  project:  B A V A R I A N S T Y L E street in Kimberley has won 1973 Park and Tilford trophy for beautification in  B.C. Regional awards went to Downtown Businessmen's Association of Port Alberni, Chilliwack Gen-  eral Hospital Garden Park, Poison Park in Vernon, Inland Natural Gas of Kamloops and Dawson Creek  122.  CHAPTER 3 - SOME CONTEMPORARY URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL PROBLEMS AND DISCUSSIONS:  THE HORNS OF A DILEMMA.  (1)  "The Vancouver Sun":  August 9, 1973,  p.4.  (2)  MARSHALL McLUHAN: 1966, p. 23.  (3)  M. § L. WHITE: Harvard 1962.  (4)  J . L. SERT: Mass. 1947.  (5)  "The Vancouver Sun", May 5, 1973,  p.  25.  (6)  "The Province", December 4,  p.  5.  (7)  BAIN, BURROUGHS, HANSON: Granville as a Pedestrian Vancouver 14 September 1973.  (8)  Ibidem, p. 43  (9)  Ibidem, p. 11  Understanding Media, New York  The I n t e l l e c t u a l Versus the  City,  Can Our Cities Survive?, Cambridge,  1973,  Transitway,  (10)  "The Vancouver Sun" , December 9, 1972,  p. 49  (11)  "The Vancouver Sun" , June 15,  1973,  (12)  "The Vancouver Sun" , June 12,  1973  (13)  "U.S. News $ World Report", June 18,  (14)  LEWIS MUMFORD:  The City in History, New York  (15)  LEWIS MUMFORD:  Art and Technics, New York 1952,  (16)  M. $ L. WHITE: The I n t e l l e c t u a l Versus the Harvard 1962, p . 205 •  (17)  LEWIS MUMFORD:  The City in History, New York  1961, p.  (18)  LEWIS MUMFORD:  The City in History, New York  1961, p.554.  (19)  "The Vancouver Sun" , January 18,  (20)  "The Vancouver Sun" , March 15, 1973,  pp. 8.  (21)  "The Vancouver Sun" , March 13, 1973,  p.  30.  (22)  "The Vancouver Sun",  p.  43.  p. 1 § 2.  1973,  1973.  Sept. 21, 1973,  p.  45. 1961, p.  554  p. 157.  City, 554  123.  4.  T H E ROLE OF ROMANTICISM FOR  ARCHITECTS  AS A C O N D I T I O N I N G  AND OTHER  PEOPLE  FACTOR  INVOLVED  IN  URBAN  DEVELOPMENTS  "Development  is  Discovery  not  This the  romantic  work  of  strike  dilemmas with  Also,  origins  of  between  the  agencies,  it  some  different  Buckminster  posed  by  of  enter  the laws  the of  the  creative into  underscores  world  and  programable."'-'''''  by  the  random and  reason.  by  statement  reason at  is  programable;  and  to of  conflict it  of  world  intuition, with  the  said  engineers  and  of  first  which  may path  of  intellectual  are  the  of  necessary  planned  the  architects  some  the  that  of  objectives:  synthesizes  reconcile  explains  conflicts  industry,  creative  need  flash  and  basic  Fuller  -  to  exist  planning  two  worlds  presumably  ruled  following  (2) • the  dictum  second, within  the the  of  "the  architects domain  According themselves wish  "sound  the  heart,  and  even  needs  of  of  Moloch  between  of  at  to  those  who  of  randomness.  practicality,  and  of  wish  One  no  would  God b u t  like  and  the  side  v  believe,  J  '  the  residing  professions  people  unprogrammable  and  seems  creativity, The  to  more"  nature.  circumstances  spontaneity,  happy  knows  least  humanity  development". of  that  other  "realism",  of  drawn of  to  the  vision,  seems  to  material  of  divide  those  needs  who  of  inspiration,  respond  to  necessities,  the of  1 2 4 .  bureaucratic of  planning,  technological  one  who  while is  sides  the  of  with  among  The  against  of  and  a  dry  genius,  towards  the  the  who  know  man  recent  the  of  idea".  as  Wright,  of  of  Mies  is  for  does  Clients  want  to  architects the  the  image  not  remote  Rohe  or  make  the  in  their  form  out  of  his  intuition  and  unexpressed  be  forms  chosen  be  numerous  as  a n d who  dreams  in  may be and  has as  mechanization, to  human  eventually  is  the  been  the  from  created  little  conflicting  It  or  as  is  a  who  their  a magic  is  pencil,  an  giving  world.  the  easy.  minds.  and  interest as  by  architect  someone  physical  want  leader,  Erickson.  read  be efforts  Brunelleschi  of  intu-  environments.  inspiration  the of  can  of  expected  who  architect  creator of  a n d may  hero,  "creativity",  of  people  work  the  client,  the  discovery,  is  Arthur  be  the  should  as  that  must  for  the  "realism",  of  channel  design,  he  reasons  be  and  side  of  can  the  Ultimately  their  genius  who  a  to  to  technology,  as  shape  often  and p r a i s e w o r t h y  people  see  the  architect  vision  Van d e r  that  of  The  inspiring  This  take  spontaneity,  inspiring  image  working  solutions,  is  considered  certain  artist  it  practicality  to  money,  with  team  one  of  reason.  gifted  the  reasoned  society  is  with  expected  forces  and h i s t o r i a n s  widespread  as  in  is  "the  critics  the  is  people,  creation  who  had  of  our  who  sides  and  villains.  uninspiring  Even to  who  the  human v a l u e s ,  In  "creativity"  architect  ition,  compromised  constraints.  money-maker  classed  of  to  The the  philosophies  125.  of  the  last  century,  from u t i l i t a r i a n  communitarian  realism,  with  Anything goes,  nature.  captured  or  presented  the  to  dream  an  ing  is  into  The  cast  personal  between  on  the  and  habit  and h i s and  him.  to  as  inspiration,  the  dream o f  can  be  to  an  the  idyll  client  is  successfully  be,  personality  intuitive each  by  notion  of  popular seeing of  himself what  with  becomes  a  more  and  vivid  the  prevail-  architect  things  should  be  and of  less the  the  more  the  client  the  of  among The  the  must  a kind  victim  invention.  to  only  as  less  means,  can  design  according  notions  the  man  statement,  "Design" and  an  however,  stronger  architect  tries  his  reminiscences  architect  architect  originality  architect  provided  the  individual  stronger  scrutiny.  of  training  genius,  become  that  an  By  falls  artistic to  be  image.  mally  the  individual  ultimately  from h i s t o r i c a l  to  him.  Because have  functionalism  image  of  other  other  genius  things,  "authentic"  the  tend  critical  subterranean  or  nor-  an  contrasts  interests  become.  In philistine has  to  be  architect succeed, his  many  villain  not  to  sort  a  who  the  client  threatens  persuaded  to  accept  with  or  bad  and  good  the  compromised  were  offices  architect and  accepted. of  ruined In  romantic  this  himself  the  the  may  then  designs, way  isolation.  entire  design  manners.  the  often  creation,  and  the  Sometimes blame or  for  becomes  the  and  who  of  his  views  this  may  not  "society"  for  some  some  architect  designs  may  open  of  which his  way  126.  Each to  reflect  ution  design  the  that  is  personality  produced  development  would  "creativity"  supposed  and  it.  be of  of  branded  in  would  it  dictatorial  opportunities ion.  It  is  for  an  general,  are  work  toward  implementation  of  an  The  architect  to  work  for  people,  in  fact  the  people  the  drawings  involved Massey "I  in  ran  will  downtown  of  all  many  sorts  for  the  an  great  even  to  . . .  to  would  as  a  their  expressit  profession to  all.  with  people,  people, but  architecture  in  in  and  the  mouth  show  lots  Architect  office  which  loner.  for  Renderings  in  development  Citizen's  of  involvement  of  people  Geoffrey  Vancouver  of  of  and  render  communicate  activities.  for  destroy  would  romantic  are  of  plan,  freedom  environment  public  city  agreeable  of  instit-  reasons  total  and  a  the  fragmentation  the  together  people  people-oriented  waterfront  a  victims  if  happy  elected  of  which  is  architects. of  This  urban plan  anxious  develop  city,  a n d was  work  to  all  architect  may be  are  North American  i n the  The  one  and  and  continuity  i n d i v i d u a l i s m that to  impossible.  is  separate,  team  the  inspiration  architects  is  of  against  for  Unity  the  imposition  individual  exasperated  and  "imitation".  impossible the  new  man,  "inspiration"  too, a  the  be  The h u m i l i t y  architects find  to  saying:  Vancouver's  in  all  stages  in  r 3")  new  development."  ize  even  "the  in  a structured  people"  feeling  or  Yet  and  urge  "the which  these  good  workable  intentions  communication  designers".  They  many  pretend  leaders  fail  remain to  to  system a  materialbetween  general  satisfy  naive  through  a  127.  number most  of  meetings  emotional  which  seldom  results  at  issues  result  architects  feel  alone  and  emphasize  His  comparable in  the  itects  groups  this  or  of  that  reasoned,  image  follow opposed  his  opposition  loner.  of  in  popular  that  ical"  large  people  regarding  development  logical  action,  -  the  meetings  if  any  action  all.  The  to  with  code  pure  seem to  will  of  show  to  ethics  such  almost that  of is  "no  of  to  people.  the  make  The  profession the  tends "puritan-  as  a  the  in  which  world,  supposedly  American  Architect  may  sort  stricter  engineering.  North  architect  architect  commitment  as  any  concept  conspire  other  ways  professions,  by-laws  the  artistic  t o 1he of  and  of he  is  than  Typical  "pure"  that  of  injunctions  institute  engage  a  of  directly  archor  (4)  indirectly that as  an  in  any  of  the  b u i l d i n g or  architect  is  not  permitted  businessmen  feeling  ment  of  a  of  having  a more  pure  to  values  of  the  business very  consequence  the  environment,  community  weak  engineers profession  and  and by  restrictive  and p l a n n e r s and  to  trades"  advertise  or  to  ,  and  compete  do.  As  dedication  decorating  doing  the  but an  architect  profession  art, he  of is  he  what  of  h a m p e r e d by  uneasy  because  and  rewarded  feeling  sees he  is  of  He t e n d s them  and  a  of  the greater  improve-  isolation  in  the  belonging  to  a  to  be  invading  supposed  by  having  conservation  profession.  poorly  may be  to  do  against upon  his  better.  128.  In  particular  the  engineer  vision  of  be  and  an  to  excessively is  reasons,but  more  routines  and  creativity.  often  narrow-minded  aim  leave  engineer  according  and  work  statistical  analyze believes  profit-oriented  for  similar  to  act  as to  a codes  imagination, for  his.  efficiency,  the  to he  according  room f o r  disapproved  what  and  seems  and  seems  to  sometimes  to  believes  understanding  planner  any  is  he  materialistic  the  bureaucrat  planner  the  planner  because  toward  design  ostensibly  standardization  programming.  Developers architect  for  Developers  those  other  corrupt, least  he  "the  man  most  the  or  as  as  the  and  design, of  castigated  group  of of  the  engineers.  is  seen He  knows  is no  industrialization  for  are  high good  people  The  by  morals. taste,  and  would  produce  the  typical  of  the  friends  developer  who  the  is  and  of  seen  sell  as  the  profit.  that  economy,  of  enemies  the  too  a deficiency  enemies  client.  He w a n t s arts  as  developer  Moloch  mechanical  sees  ultimately  the  is  seen  the  The when  he  politicians  "villains",  as  for  and  what  are  environment,  to  the  because  the  developments  do n o t  The  without  and b e c a u s e  against  which  engineer  mechanical,  rationalistic  and  the  designs  promote  He  and  against  architect,  philosophy.  blindly  is  actually  the  problems may  he  repetition  crafts,  for  as  sold  to  God b u t  the  profit  unlimited  and  uniformity and  for  growth  the  even  mentality  m o r e " . H e  and  details  philistine,  and  represents for  and has  no  creative  cities. patience originality  129 .  of  the  architect.  while  the  "good  design",  The  architect  architect  developer  is  enclosure. the  architect  The  brings  against  philistine  they  not  allow  But  the  visions,  that  looks and  to  easy  cyclical  that  while  at  onciled.  is  the  to  the  politicians they  are  avoid  or  of  the in  do  not  express  often  ability  itself  the  in  "pure" their  "vision"  stand  and  itself.  can  makes  be a c c u s e d o f his  faith  him  disregard  is  inclined  aspects  of  training;  a problem.  unscrutinized  The  not  weak  have  while  city.  are  the  artificial  He  is  to  while  polluter,  they  characteristics;  tedious  education  nature,  supposedly  scholastic.  the  with  people  they  to  according  and p r o p o r t i o n .  with  because  himself  philistine  density  density,  maximum p o s s i b l e  equated  creativity  victims  to  intuitanything  little  even  Thus  cultural  in  poss-  architects  trends  and  of  fashions.  The as  contact  want  architect  of  possible  landscaping  developers,  pedantic  highest  spread  innate creative  architectural may be  to  compromise,  ion,  a  nature  against  certain  the  foster  developer  they  study  for  to  expected  is  for  "human s c a l e " ,  enough;  essing  is  is  wants  architect  do  He  of  position anyone  the  same  The  who  the  has  time  dilemma.  complete  and  It  serious  architect  to  is  is good  a  seems  reconcile  firmly  architect  romantic  permanently  of  in  dramatic faith.  f r u s t r a t e d and many  that  situation,  others  as and  they  a typical  Many  be  intuition  believing  caught  to  and if  architects change  their  difficult reason  cannot  be  rec-  crucial taken seem  in to  role.  be Some  130 .  surrender  and work  more  profession  to  and  taste  to  pure  nature  |?osed  by  common  Architects  are  the  of  system  design.  Those  vocation  to  unite to  their  fight  for  the  obstacles,  the  roots  a  ones  of  needs,  have,  design  Sometimes to and  the  a  of  is  science  by  as  of  in  with  general,  senior  of  with  that  features  intuition  the  a  the  used and  Draftsmen  seem  the  architects.  at  the  both real  basic  general  to  bring  to are  design  the of  people  with  they  want.  notion  architects science.  dignity  and  technical,  large making  of  at  more  obscure  concepts  The r e s u l t  of  for  or  occult  supply  fail. roots  "gifted" an  ruling  plea  that  of  imp-  of  ideas  anything  an  make.  times  and  as  the  to  developers,  defeated  responsibility  once  but  on  affronts  their  creativity  dependence  is  to  the  the  their  limitations  by-laws  see  make  easily  away  the  foundations.  by  to  freedom  intuition  have  serve  buildings,  they  are  the  profession  challenging  methodology  world  entrusted  established  to  sometimes  faithful  who  means  ultimate  right  complex  work,  of  be  imposed  new  the  getting  its  tends  creative  of  others  in  the  scientific  which  the  interest  intuition,  others,  restrictions,  and  the  pure  such  public  "suburban s t y l e "  of  the  instead  the  of  and  to  have  prestige  by  to  the  the  frustrated  try  and  to  developers  who  design  notions,  Because of  zoning  not  and the  vague  vested  do  that  limitations  the  lending  acceptable  often  with  strict  first  make  architects  voices  The  human  developers,  creativity  the  authorities  rather  for  social  bureaucracy the  have  this  order  occult been  process  -r  131 .  is  that  there  methods  that  religion,  go  is  The emphasis  with  the  of  turning  speed:  "Time  is  money".  permitted time  become the  the  designers,  with  experience decisions of  through  this  "intuitive" of  repeat  It  creative  is  of  to  a  the  worth  the  noting  "gifted"  drawings  flash  of  as  a  the  even  of  the  given  as  is  way  of  speed. intuition  architect. or  teams  by  of  and  great  existing  detected.  a popular  has  drawings  express  continue  followed  that  possible.  methodology  often  architectural  is  working  background  being  (called  considerations  individuals  complex  c o u l d be  absence  for  creative  of  a wrong  concern  fast  production of  a pedantic  that  main  concept,  by  people  people)  reason  t r a d i t i o n could  pattern  in  the  whose  a  working  r e i n f o r c e d by  information,  without  of  deposit  is  conscience  in  the  quo  "talented"  time,  of  them.  developed  even  were  principles,  on  design  and w i t h  A blind  men,  of  of  and h a r d  accepted  pure  voluminous  process,  "talented"  an  considerable  architecture.  large  working  the  concepts  meetings,  which  they  draftsmen,  r e g a r d i n g the  and o f  if  status  w o u l d be  acceptable  intense  of  development  original  ideas,  reminiscence,  Once  a n d money quite  the  reasonable case  of  established  intuition  p r o d u c t i o n teams  this  many  and  of  an  biblical  in  as  an u n c r i t i c a l ,  trained  out  inertia  unchallenged,  Money  But  great  strength  on  to  of  a  because  bureaucracy  also,  is  intuitive patterns  endlessly The  same  generations  rebellion.  professional  132 .  associations design  expressly  work  of  The lectual  tradition  to  work  and  and  tradesmen,  architectural too  have And ment  is  of  the  draftsmen.  very  is  from  the  two  members  to  a  development common b o d y  for  many  criticize  an  occult  the  in  balance  and the  the  between  of  architectural  The  and  the  on . w h i c h  the  to  development  hands  of  grow  of  something of  design  may  criticism.  individual practical  creative  commit-  routines  between  two  designers  productive  intel-  draftsmen  principles  people,  professional creative  a new  reasonable  necessary  categories  The  sect:  realm of  of  designers,  difficult.  a monopoly  beyond  and u s e f u l n e s s between  as  contribute made  cases  and the  design,  design  placed  most  broken that  to  different  been in  of  their  members.  understanding  and  not  other  forbid  is  activities:  and  that  processes  of  have  the  been  "zoned".  In  addition  opportunity drawings case  of  for  designers time  major  ethical  the and  is  to  the  management  draftsmen.  spent  is  normally  design  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  builder will  objective  independent  builder  contribute  a project  architects  of  to  the  with have  The  that  of  architectural  office  the  working  reasons,  and  even, i n  a team a hard  a  from  the  of  legal  engineers  time  consequence  being  off  and to  producing specifications is  cut  is and  and  co-operating  with  that  amount  a  great  drawings  protection  and p o s s i b l y  the  a  whose  for  legal  the  trap  133.  for in  the  builder.  terms  of  increase to  spot  with  the them  the  with  which  do  construction,  which  went  cost  before  and  whom he  of  the  fact  even  discoveries  often  left  unused,  group  that  has  projects  the  the  again  people,  in  or  unless  and  to  difficulties,  he  will was  normally  good  clarify  conflicts  were  than  the  enough  matter  really  as  see  money  necessary  and  more  This  which  by  a  the  by  of  are  as more  romantic  of  come  out  working  really  limbo.  most again  drawings :  according  emotional  to  are  professional  commercialism,  and had  happens  design  beauty  actual  inclined  themselves  notions  line  those  the  contrivances,  of  ultimately  contrasted  group  intellectual  basic  assembly  and  a  engineers.  process  from  creativity,  Ideas,  an  potential  further  unquestioned to  a  contact.  and  technological  the  of  even  architects  and  as  close  design  romantic  often  power  in  architects  itself  "design",  evil  on  "creative"  toward  fashion,  the  new  trite  builder  engineers.  ignored  the  nature,  the  than  than  same  working  genial  isolated  moving  latest  against  work  undetected  himself  practices  that  basic  Thus  be  makes  more  the  isolates  emphasis  repetitive  inventors  and  involved  regards  to  the  working  actual  despite  contractor  being  thus  ought  Despite  to  the  architect  enemy,  method  for  not  architect.  The legal  Details  to  observations as  if  exist.  these  134.  Now p l a n n e r s for  and  politicians  preservation  with  nature  ation  of  and  the  of of  land  politicians  has  followed  the  image  popular to  seem of  the  and  appeal  struggle  the  to  the  against  often  dragons. ity  of  sell  future  their  fought  for  personal dubious of  if  or  the  main  this  the  of  exploit-  The  century,  need  contact  against  pollution..  leadership that  trend  from  of  being  an  but  not  the  as  of  undetected  and  Ultimate  so  that  immediately  the  The  are  romantic by  because  hero  architects  part  being  other  architects,  is  still  seem  of  the  romantic  planning  are  places  interest  involve  students  monster  for  the  the  learn  not  create  faith  in  individualism  -  among  especially  available and  struggle  in  are  a  -  the  issues  different  quite  to  be  and  the  everyone  how  to  future  when  commun-  only  to  where  romantic  academic  how  communications  a different of  and  profoundly  make  of  of  raised  especially  against.  architect  monsters.  architecture  debates  themes  need  romantic  imagination  and p r o b l e m a t i c ,  with  as  professionals;  is  the  other p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  the  visionary  intuition  professors  working  popular  dreams,  the  and m o t i f s  develop  Great  and  architect  of  and  during  plague  trail  issues  Schools students  that  to  and  emphasize  people-oriented.  politicians  professions  to  developments,  density  shifting,  to  themes  by  high  been  tend  environment,  recreational in  business-oriented  The  the  also  designers criticism  seems  place,  repetitive  and  to even  be  135.  common.  E m o t i o n a l i s m makes  Design  is  sermons the  in  occult  an  Form  is  is  In  order  In  design  The  of  in  of  a  critical  a few  high  influenced the  by  romantic  analysis.  priests the  deliver  vocabularly  is  age:  order  system  creative  is  the  of  of  construction  force  means  space  nature  of  -  where  reflects  space  is  with  what  the  what  it  when  wants  spirit  and  with  to  the  how  be  . . .  will  to  much  exist  a  certain Design  must  closely  follow  Through  the  nature  Through  the  order  Through  design  -  In  darkness  faith  in  the  nature  architectural are  still  upted that  of  construction  nature the  philosophers  out  where  language  form-making  emerges  Growth  mystique  obscure  prominent  "Design  In  an  difficult  must  be  of  us  with  develops  itself  how  and  . . . " ^ ^  illuminated  organic  the  old  imprudently  with  to  His  the it  life  Louis  and w i t h  would  nature.  of  to  in  which the  must  we  to be  the  Frank  is  the  if  at  and  right  normally  flashes  be  Nature is  Man h a s  environment  such  Sullivan  (Rousseau  wisdom  by  seem  prophets.  wisdom  as  . . .  what  preserved  provides  nature.  -  will  why  religion.  among  source  -  that  way  seen  be  reason  learn organic  and and  the  Wright  as  uncorr-  an  our  that not  to  of  Lloyd  in  men w e r e  intuition  basis  back'.of  must  of  minds)  contact; evolves  and  tempering  adapt  one  it  with  himself nature.  136 .  Nature  actually  an  idealistic  to  which  himself  we as  sort  must  interpreted  in  of  reason  Hegelian  submit  a custodian,  inspiration evolution  is  of  (Buckminster  and the  ourselves. a defender  intuition, universe,  Fuller)  in  the  of  the  guiding right  a way  that  forming  And t h e and  an  correct the  is  reminiscent  the  universe,  architect  interpreter, development  "spaceship  direction.  of  sees through and  earth"  CHAPTER  4  (1)  R.  BUCKMINSTER  (2)  F . L . WRIGHT: "The L i v i n g C i t y " i n : W r i t i n g s a n d B u i l d i n g s , by KAUFMANN Y o r k 1960, p.259.  (3)  "The  (4)  BY-LAWS o f The A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Columbia, a r t i c l e 51, paragraph (1).  (5)  F . L . WRIGHT: " T h e L i v i n g C i t y " i n : W r i t i n g s a n d B u i l d i n g s , by KAUFMANN York 1960, p . 259 .  (6)  LOUIS 1962 ,  Vancouver  KAHN i n p.114.  FULLER:  Sun",  Louis  Intuition,  December  Khan  by  V.  9,  New  York  1970,  p.29  Frank L l o y d Wright: a n d R A E B U R N , New  1972,  p.49. of  British  Frank L l o y d Wright: a n d R A E B U R N , New  SCULLY  JR.,  New  York,  138.  5.  ROMANTIC.ATTITUDES IN  T H E MODERN NORTH A M E R I C A N  Popular sort  of  even  stronger  be  high  notions  priest  of  about  the  the  architect,  about  LAWS  CITY.  environment,  common o p i n i o n s  ROMANTIC  are  what  often  seen  accompanied  the  as  a  by  environment  should  like.  Jane ing  densities  do,  is  the  man-eating  the  world  the  musical  back  and  is  are  and  noted:  high  forth  suburban  in  ground  regarded  its  far  In  place.  away. and  over  "To say  romantic  The  abruptness,  of  residence  and  the  is  gardens  and  One part  To  know  the  of  education,  parks  is  of  memorization  that  his  proper  make  to  of  taste  Latin  lawn."  Ebenezer which  It  is  and  and  verses  of is  is  the  a  an  except  being  for  common  of  perhaps  pushed  and  urban  vegetation  English  part  of  that  livable.  and  know  condition. is  interests,  longer  the  notion  cultivate  suffered  no  with  barbarities  integral  beautiful  proper  sides  they  f2)  revere,  decorative  dwell-  habitation  Howard,  now  citi.es  love,  taking  machine  high  am s a y i n g  much s o u n d ,  a mowing  civilized  names  good of  not  garden  ideal.  supposed  of  is  need  I  ideal  a neighbouring  established  as  the  dream o f  the  coverage, than  the  now  cities  lower  There  clack  that  as  was  is  as  net  shark."'-'''''  whirr  What  nature  Jacobs  conventionally  "everything  the  AND UNWRITTEN  a  sign  and  while  fashionable,  it,'it  139 .  the  knowledge  flowers  and  of  the  shrubs  proper  remains  Latin a sign  sophisticated  mind  in  a  The  view  of  "nature",  is  considered  a  view  on  a  secluded  almost  the  sea,  on  hillside,  forbidden  by  the  perfectly  feasible)  "Twelve  Pines"  devices  used  the  lawn  are  simulate  a  lawn  becomes  practically  lawns.  These  status,  and  and  proud  activity, biological cathartic  take  the  of  are  the  Manor"  expression they  are  just  jogging,  purifying of  If  high  form  of  the  and  function, trees  density isolated  or  in  a  golf  Even  i f  as  of  a  were  The people  grass,  or  the  to  many  considered  industry in  are  a  a well  green  lawn sections and  conversations healthy  known  translated  cannot  and  creativity,  of  with  as  will  gardens  relation  such  garden  dedicated  is  or  advertising  Entire  trees  have  not  Names  Arizona,  subject  which  must  impossible.  also  buildings  that  trees,  (technically  the  plastic in  of  course,  scandal.  individual  the  of  it  windows  among  or  are  the  is  on  symbol  economically stores  chunk  condominiums.  where,  Gardening  view  to  a  An a p a r t m e n t  no  are  gravel,  remarks. like  with  and  society.  only  least  considered  buyers  food  and  if  classifying  culture  our  possible.  be  places  and  and  taste,  at  a unit  painted  in  of  need.  indispensable  with  carpeting,  department  would  an  outdoor  of  wherever  "Magnolia  such  even  or  names  refined  segment  a park,  attract  of  essential  by-laws,  or  to  large  an  botanical  the  be  to  into  have an  a  almost  city.  avoided,  landscaped  it  must  setting.  140.  "Industrial Parks" are encouraged. the proposed O f f i c i a l  "A 1966 popular booklet on  Plan for Toronto declared that " t a l l ,  free-standing apartments in landscaped grounds w i l l be encouraged"' Elegance and beauty are expected only from isolated buildings in landscaped open grounds, wherever possible.  Other arrangements  are seen as i n f e r i o r , i f not slum-like.  Not long ago a proposal such as that of taking down the trees along the sides of the streets of the West End, in Vancouver, to make way for wider roads, caused a minor uproar. A gentle old Scottish lady explained with horror that when she was in Quebec "the French" used to bulldoze away trees to make wider roads.  Also as a consequence  a l l the  of this  attitude  the car is seen as an enemy of nature, and ultimately of people. The car and the garden are at war.  And yet as we noted e a r l i e r  in Chapter 3, the same forces back both.  The more suburban gardens  that are created, isolated from places of employment, shopping, entertainment and education, the more private cars are needed. An e f f i c i e n t  public c a p i l l a r y transportation system has proven  again and again to be economically unfeasible cities,  and becoming increasingly so.  for North American  The suburban c i t i z e n  simply cannot understand the need to support public  services.  An unspoken or unconscious preoccupation with private  facilities  at the expense of public ones seems to be the dream that the majority, whether these dreams be l o g i c a l and possible  motivates or not.  141.  The garden the  rate  private equally  people.  After  entrepreneur sidewalk success  does  from is  isolation American  not  hero  dream  success  and  the of  family. when  the  at  more  the  moral  to  a bus the  neck  of  own  man and  The  statistics to  does  with  other  in  not  1900—10  1  1910-20  the  at of  city. to  the  share  it:  the  1  a  of Instead,  the  head  The  North  has  been  The more  live  there, of  consequences  t-  1  1940-50  1  1950-60  a  American  isolation successful  close  to  the  nature,  with  his  of  a  such  f 41  1930-40  of  North  superiority,  inspiration  show  1920-30  at  image  image.  80-r  I 1—1  look  people.  this  of  free  North America  Part  one's  of  the  dreams  American  individuals,  expected  to  and  nature  asserting  is  the  private  North American  North  garden.  outskirts  the  loner.  to  isolated  and  and  characterizes  return  garden  wants  in  spaces  his  ideals  successful  balcony:  his  everyone  the  the  successful  of  that  transportation  among  neck  large  toward  been  and  grace  living  is  of  travel  romantic  each  has  all, not  a movement  family,  high  little  midst  The mostly  a  means  1  1960-70  dream  142 .  To have a suburban house with a garden has become almost a moral goal in North America.  Being married and l i v i n g in a  house in the suburbs increase substantially not only one's respectability,  but also one's credit rating and social  acceptance.  Love between man and woman and love for nature are recognized united in a sentimental view of  ideals,  life.  One has to note that h i s t o r i c a l l y romanticism seems to have grown e a r l i e r and stronger in the northern Anglo-Saxon countries.  There, better than anywhere else, the love for  emotional i n s p i r a t i o n and s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  the love for nature  and the love for i s o l a t i o n developed as a total way of l i v i n g and as a complete philosophy. Moral and ideal factors, being drawn from experience,  rather than  were derived from inner sentiments  as a source of i n s p i r a t i o n to shape l i f e and experience and to recreate the world according to the i d e a l .  For s o c i a l i t e s in  North America the beautification of c i t i e s became an increasingly popular hobby, just as c u l t u r a l gossip had been a hobby in the e a r l i e r French society.  "•'What ought to be' has nearly as  much r e a l i t y as 'what i s * .  It is something  'go go for* " . ^ ^  Thus there is always a great deal of concern about urban matters among leaders of the North American communities, and in general, aesthetic urban matters draw a considerable amount of interest.  The missionary romantic s p i r i t often manifests  as a crusade to improve.sections  of the c i t y .  itself  143.  For those who could not afford the suburban house a substitute  for suburbia in the c i t y was made possible by town-  houses with a certain amount of open space held in common, or with small individual gardens where density permitted i t .  But for the remaining urban dwellers  picturesqueness  and the planting of trees are proposed again and again in various forms to r e v i t a l i z e the c i t y .  Drawing large malls with plenty of  trees and shrubs and happy s t r o l l e r s and no cars has become a c l i c h e , and i t has become i d e n t i f i e d with the concept of "revitalization". propose a system,  In  Life for Dead Spaces  Goodman and Eckardt^  i l l u s t r a t e d with appealing renderings f u l l of  people among trees and shrubs: pedestrian malls would become the nuclei of r e v i t a l i z a t i o n .  In The Heart of Our C i t i e s ' ;  Victor:  (71 Gruen  follows  similar l i n e s .  To eliminate the car, to bring the trees into the decaying centers of the c i t i e s  (and perhaps add a few sidewalk  cafes) is the common recipe for the i l l s of the modern North American c i t i e s .  These visual dreams originating with remote  memories and visions of happy European villages  are deeply rooted  and are repeatedly presented as the urban solution.  For example,  in the 1929 Plan for Vancouver, in the chapter "Civic Art Report", on the page where considerations about the "Burrard Street f 81 are made  }  Site"  there is an attractive picture of "Foreshore  Development, Monteaux ( s i c ) , Switzerland."  The actual development  144.  of the town of Montreaux, on the lake of Geneva, in French Switzerland, may have nothing to do with the actual  development  of Vancouver, a less than a century-old harbour on the Canadian Pacific  coast.  Yet these romantic images play a major role in guiding p o l i t i c i a n s , planners, and voters, able ideals.  I may note,  presenting false and unattain-  i n c i d e n t a l l y , that Switzerland is one  of the paradises of the Anglo-Saxon world.  The pretty images  of geranium pots decorating the window s i l l s of small Swiss villages imagination.  of the buildings  are among those dearest to the romantic  Projects of attractive developments  attempt  to  recreate a v i l l a g e atmosphere around landscaped open spaces designed to foster neighbourhood communities.  The mistaken assumptions of this kind of design have been exposed in an a r t i c l e published by Progressive Architecture in October 1973  : "One widely accepted tenet is that large, shared  open areas around project buildings are desirable.  On the  assumption that every resident could use these areas for recreation and l e i s u r e ,  open space requirements often have been met by  building higher and assembling superb locks.  The automobile, seen  as an anathema, has been banished from the inner space and through roads removed.  Since main building entrances are often  designed  to face away from perimeter streets and into the shared space, their use requires a circuitous route from the street, parking  145 .  or public transportation.  Even at i t s busiest,  i t a no man's land in large projects."  anonymity makes  The question that should  be raised when renderings of these open spaces are presented is whether there is a real basis to believe that they w i l l be used for leisure and recreation as i t is assumed.  Actually these common landscaped spaces have become, in many places,  a nest of crime, and are feared by the  tenants.  Crime has transformed the common spaces into feared areas and entire sections of c i t i e s ,  not to speak of individual buildings,  are treated as i f they were in a v i r t u a l state of siege. Patrols, security checks and circumspect behaviour take the place of open urban c i v i l i z e d l i f e .  The fragmented,  specialized  aspects of urban l i f e imposed by the ruling taste are threatened as i f in an urban nightmare. activities,  Despite t h i s ,  specialized  open spaces, and low density remain the ideal of the  maj o r i t y .  Against facts  and evidence crime is said to be fostered  by high density per se (a study released in December 1972 by the Vancouver police showed that contrary to popular opinion crime is proportionally higher in suburban areas such as West Vancouver than in high density areas such as the West End). It is an example of the deeply rooted idea in the northern, Anglo-Saxon mind that the city must be e v i l and f u l l of criminals and vices.  This is how c i t i e s were portrayed in "puritan"  146 .  l i t e r a t u r e since the Renaissance.  Sometimes one must suppose  that Rome, the metropolis by antonomasia, is s t i l l Babylon, still  the power of darkness, sti11  a creation of the d e v i l .  This is why one may see with no surprise that from Sweden to Australia the papers bring us examples of determined opposition to the growth of c i t i e s :  "The Vancouver Sun" of  December 15, 1972 ^ ^ reports that the Swedish government has made i t policy to consider urbanization 'an e v i l per se'.  Gn March 31,  1973^^ the same paper reports that "The higher you go,  the  madder you get" and explains that in Sydney, A u s t r a l i a , "The unanimous decision by the 12 aldermen of Kogarah, a 'garden suburb' with a population of 50,000, w i l l r e s t r i c t future resident i a l dwellings  to no more than three storeys for environmental and  mental health reasons".  One would wonder whether the Parisians,  for example, must be half crazy, because so many among them live above the t h i r d f l o o r .  Many psychologists  and psychiatrists have been suppor-  ting this prejudice although evidence for this support has so far been s u p e r f i c i a l .  "I told the council that i t is  generally  accepted in psychiatric c i r c l e s that the higher you go,< the madder you get",  said Dr. Koller of Kogarah, mentioning unspecf 121  i f i e d "research done in many c i t i e s throughout the world". Design, c u l t u r a l and qualitative aspects seem to be completely ignored in this kind of research and assessment, which is p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to make i f one considers a l l the involved.  factors  147.  Probably "The  suburban  citadel  of  J.  style  debased  background  of  to  whether  be  true  because  of  taste  even  -  Richards  the  the  -  we  in  non  know  what  suburb  may  even  be  has  because  and  cultural  the  shaping  heritage. of  houses  grown  of  the  the  the  up  most  in." or  in  the  symbol  anything  the seems  not,  probably and  century.  choice of  of  the  vernacular."  drastic  important  very  This  past  architecture  and  of  fashion  the is  :  the  part  English -  J  told,  fact,  contemporary  change  says  are  environment  and  he  England  countries  almost  we in  influence  Custom and as  is,  in  a true  is  is,  up  resisted  it  when  grew  like,  called  -  all  suburban  they  always  which  have  actually  "The  right  taste  Anglo-Saxon  who  improvement  we  tremendous  is  style  vulgar  England  continues:  house  that  and  people  "The  M. R i c h a r d s  technical  resource  have  as  else.  of  much  tradition  to  The h e a r t h  do  with  of  the  courtyard of  the  ( 141  English villa, have and  the  ways  Cod this  of  will  comes  -  French  become  People  says  like  words  life  that  buy  out  the  in  cultures  social  defers  to  between. space,  Arthur  window,  the  in  a  stand  symbol  of  painted  for in  social  which,  space  The p e r i m e t e r  whether  it  is  the  of  -  What m o r e in  -  symbols or  the  house  the  There  the  to  of  house wall  that or  one  way,  street,  New  England,  past or  attitudes  security.  performance.  the  the  of  grace  could  any by  the  clapboard of  comfort  inter-relationship). the  -  preference  houses  (cultures,  Erickson  language  aluminum.  w i t h 1he p a t t e r n  Latin of  cottage,  want!  Contrast or  have  sense  a  square  adjoins  garden  Cape  Mediterranean strong  individual the  Now  house -  the  wall,  the  unit space  social  joins  with  148.  a l l the other houses to form the architecture of the communal space while, within the privacy of the walled area, each family can, unseen,  live its  different  life.  But even now, in Italy  and France, they are beginning to buy Texas ranch houses." Ruralism and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . o f a c t i v i t i e s  are spreading as  fashionable myths.  Specialization has created a certain routine, and has b u i l t into the people the need for clean, neat, separations.  defined  People "go" to work, "go" shopping, and i t is  felt  that a certain distance should separate these a c t i v i t i e s .  Even  i f you are a professional and i t is legally permissible, an office ity.  in your house detracts from the seriousness of your a c t i v Similarly an office  convincing as an office  on the side of a drugstore is not as  inthe middle of two hundred other  offices.  A specialized tower is a sign of good taste, order and prestige. Although the pure office of we 11-developed  tower "constitutes a tremendous waste  land that is used only about twelve hours a  day"^*^ i t is presented as the most e f f i c i e n t  building techni-  c a l l y and economically because i t is the right thing, supposedly, in 1he minds of businessmen and of the majority.  Specialization is consdered very important in r e s i d e n t i a l buildings too, and the high rise apartment building  of d i s t i n c t i o n  is similar to the suburbs in that i t s t r i c t l y isolates from any other use. prestige.  itself  Separation is a sign of d i s t i n c t i o n and of  The people of success and d i s t i n c t i o n want to find  their togetherness in the separation of a club.  149.  In John  this  Hancock tower  ments  are  clean  and neat  little,  working  never  view  of  through  have  outside  be  hear  T h e new of  the  ation.  It  is  and  same  mentation  the  of  in  North  original  to  its to  social  the  of  steal  they  seldom  course,  his  name  adopt  not  of  and  an  the  and  his  a  even  a  closer  It  The  is  as  typical seen  do  not  fearful  is  of  a building even  proposed  the  step  grouping  is:  television  being  a more  club.  extremes.  who  take  that  together"  language  fact  complete  separ-  same from  attitude a  frag-  activities  with  groups.  people  America  "stick  they  *0f  in  are  The  you  the  is  develop-  slogan  such  inside  that  the  disregarded.  of  switch  integration is  and  gates  from  you  are  a distortion  negated  misery;  as  they  buildings.  merely  well-guarded  they  Their  these  virtually  Anglo-Saxon s e t t l e r s  immigrants adopt  of  that  worlds. of  such  separation;  sense  longer  integration  Curiously  the  buildings  "comprehensive"  social  At w o r s t ,  activities  apartheid  no  city  culture  of  in  slums,  form  zoned  of  outside"  is  it.  other  enclosed  the  riots,  about  instead  the  it  and  basis  here  eyes;  just  could to  born  the  walk  is  "integrated"  Chicago  separate  to  city  rural  channel.  an  on  and  need  the  fact,  there  in  the  self-sufficient,  "you  In  respect  and  "don't  are or  in  the  ancestors  sometimes  religion  Indian  their  native  they  pride  fact were  complain mix".  American*, beginning  they  among  the  that  "These they  to  understand  that  his  new immigrants  wear  take  were  his  his  clothes,  women,  ideals."^ '' 6  but  150 .  The newcomers were supposed to mix with the natives, but at the price of a complete renunciation of their i n t e l l e c t u a l and psychological background.  The fe ar of the newcomers, with a  confused, unknown and mistrusted cultural background, is part of an important and contradictory r a c i a l attitude, whereby the immigrant is at one and the same time welcomed, assimilated and rejected.  It would be a mistake to overlook the significance of  the Anglo Saxon r a c i a l attitude in the organization or urban life,  in North America.  The theories  about evolution developed  in the nineteenth century found a f e r t i l e ground in the r a c i a l observations that people such as Hume and Kant* had contributed, where the Northern and in p a r t i c u l a r the English race is portrayed as the best and the black races are shown to be at the bottom of the human scale of values.  The evolution of man from the primates became the scientific  base for a theory of r a c i a l evolution as w e l l , in which  the i n f e r i o r races, such as the black races, were seen as closer to the animals, as i f they were primates just come down from the trees.  Other races were seen as intermediate stages, and the  Anglo-Saxon race was seen as obviously the most developed, advanced, c i v i l i z e d and good race.  Progress therefore also acquired a kind of moral meaning, implying among the other things the acquisition of the values  *Kant's observations on races were made popular in the English speaking world in the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century. Some of these are quoted in Chapter 1. Racism and romantic idealism often nourished each other.  151 .  of  t h e most  developed  only  a matter  else  would  and  o f time  reach  This  the other,  the stage  inferior  as a d a n g e r  i n which  i f they  i n the line  and f e r a l could  back  strophe  d e s t r o y i n g t h e advance  Saxon  leading race  attempt  i t would  American  cities  races  were  the values  A t t h e same  seen  as a t h r e a t  there  could  and development,  of c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  i n v o l v e d a l s o an a t t e m p t  and good  to control  be a  a cata-  and t h e  o r even wiped  clean, beautiful  considered  everybody  recognize  n o t be i m p r o v e d :  of progress  t o make  before  as t h e b e s t .  c o u l d be t h r e a t e n e d  to purify,  i t i s normally  and o f p a t i e n t e d u c a t i o n  falling  the  i s why  the c u l t u r e o f the leading race  time and  race.  Anglo-  out.  The  the North and t o mould  non-Anglo-Saxons.  Madison  Grant,  i n "The P a s s i n g  of the Great  Race",  f 1 7) expressed large  some o f t h e common f e a r s :  sections of the country  disappear. cannot  He w i l l  compete  newcomers.  One  and  most p r i m i t i v e  Nordic and  will  shop  be d e t e r m i n e d elements  fighting resultant  hair,  and moral mixture."  inferior  i n any such  by c o m p e t i t i o n  coloured  his straight  qualities,  races  between  will  nose  have  entirely a n d he with the  the surviv-  the  traits  eyes,  that i n  trench  mixture,  and t h e s p e c i a l i z e d  man: h i s s t a t u r e , h i s l i g h t  light-colored  into  and i n t h e s t r e e t  thing i s certain:  traits  i s evident  the n a t i v e American w i l l  not inter-marry  i n t h e sweat  ing  ....It  lowest  of the  his fair  and h i s s p l e n d i d  little  part  i n the  skin  152.  The was  supposed  highest as  and  group  t o save  standards.  the promised  again  a  Nordic  and a g a i n  ability  land,  after  as t h e N o r t h  the leaders  to put everything community  to separation  A letter  having  brought  American  into  supposedly  i tto i t s  race  were  i s why o u r  a proper  that  c o n t i n e n t was  of the founding This  group  place  should  seen seen  confidence  and t o c r e a t e  never  be  lost.  o f the s u p e r i o r destiny o f the Anglo-Saxon  i s also at the roots  right  as a m i s s i o n a r y  a s t h e new M e s s i a h s .  angelic quality  race  civilization Just  neatly organized  The  saw i t s e l f  o f what  i s considered  i t s unwritten  and dominance.  t o a Vancouver  columnist  published  exception  t o your  on "The  f 181 Vancouver and  often-times  lawful and  Sun" reads  power  : " I take  unwarranted  i n t h e community,  ' e t h n i c ' groups.  wherever  criticism  the Anglo  I f you care  Democracy,  a s we know i t t o d a y ,  summed  i t up t h i s  To  play.  h i m must y i e l d  to read  Saxon has s e t f o o t ,  - n o t t h e smugness  of fair  Would  way:  history  and a r r o g a n c e springs  y o u deny  from  it?  'The A n g l o - S a x o n  find  that  has  up.  the Anglo  Saxon  W i n f i e l d Jones  i s t h e typeman  had  h i m i n m i n d when he s t r u c k h i s s o u n d l e s s  has* crowned  you'll  of history.  t h e s e l f - c e n t e r e d Hebrew, t h e c u l t u r e d Greek,  Roman, t h e m y s t i c  hast  races  you conjure  Colonel  virile  thou  holding  justiceand progress  the  '0 L o r d ;  Saxons  unjust  to the exclusion of other  flourished  system  of Anglo  harsh,  Oriental.  made h i m a l i t t l e  him with  g l o r y and honor.  The P s a l m i s t must  lower  harp  than  Thou h a s t  have  and sang:  t h e a n g e l s , and made h i m t o h a v e  153 .  dominion over the works of thy hands; Thou hastput a l l things under his f e e t . ' "  Walter Lippman made this comment about this  f 191  kind of attitude:  "...We have this feeling - this comes from  the Puritans - that we are a chosen people with a mandate from God Himself to make a perfect world for ourselves else.  and everybody  Of course that is a t e r r i b l e myth." This is why in North America in general there has been  a silent but deliberate imposition of a certain order on the cities,  and an order cast upon situations  and things rather than  developed through a harmonization, in time, of existing and evolving factors.  Even in a place like Houston, where there  is  not a zoning by-law, the c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic and legal pressures have produced the same result as in the other after the introduction of written by-laws. on attitudes  The s i l e n t  cities, agreement  and values is actually more powerful and pervasive  than the laws.  "The Anglo-Saxon fears overpopulation and crowding. The Anglo-Saxon claims to trust human beings, and to trust as well the benevolence of nature; he abjures the darker, tormented, pessimistic views of Europeans.  The Anglo-Saxon relaxes  in a  clean, orderly, neat, virtuous world; he has a terror of noise, confusion, d i r t , human density,  tangled emotion.  (Contrast a  New England Congregational church with a Spanish chapel or Jesuit baroque).  But the terror is not c l e a r l y stated.  The Anglo-  Saxon trusts the human heart and the benevolence of nature only under certain conditions: when both are under the control his  154.  own  will  has  imposed.  The  Anglo-Saxon  i s not  ' a t home' i n  this  "f201 universe;  he  must m a s t e r  In  light  it.  of these  Fundamentally,  o b s e r v a t i o n s we  i t terrifies  can  have  a  him.  greater  f 211 insight  into  what Jane J a c o b s  concentrations an  automatic  that  numbers.  centrations thinning  small  Given  played  confusing  no  c r e a t u r e s - so  chickens  matter  how  on  and  reluctance this  themselves at  the  to  a modern  base  into  housing accept  negative  may  values.  city  emotion  has  as  been  city  be  that  way:  in con-  by  is  possible,  lawns  and  variety  concentrated,  It follows gathered  of  the  should  thinner,  often  that  these  together  -  quietly  as  possible,  Systems  of  thought,  ...  to be,  have  development  an  should  under-  o f modern  e m o t i o n a l l y based  concentrations of people about  to  noxious  this  homogeneity  purport  in  assumption:  exuberant  d e c e n t l y and  The  and  a semblance  e g g - f a c t o r y farm  reform  deaden p l a n n i n g  as  felt  common  suburban  tightly  outright  away  they  and  of  t h a t the  of people,  be  i n every  insofar  illusions  gathered  i t follows  minimized  many p e o p l e  stashed  objective  emotional  planning  helped  and  is a  p o i n t of view,  hammered or  This  i n s m a l l numbers  It follows  variety  d e n s i t y can  in thinner populations.  s o r t e d out  lying  and  aiming  down, h i d d e n ,  represented  like  numbers  "People  - evil.  s h o u l d be  i n g r e a t numbers  more t r a c t a b l e  be  this  of people  t h a t by  and  charming  town p l a c i d i t y .  inherent be  are  down t h e  beyond  size  - i f necessary  human b e i n g s  large  and  of b i g - c i t y  notes:  as  on  a  city glum  desirable,  concentrations of people  intellectually."  has  155 .  APPENDIX NOTE  The reported Into  "International  onvj^he  Backyard  thinks  is  James  as  has  ripe  Rep.  Burke  bill  distributing  packets  to  a  asked  and  Means  ment  tax  credit  tax  subtract $100  the  on  as  to  House  Then  he  to  backyard 1  on  their  of  Seeks  June to  26,  Plow  August  seeds  to  persuaded  . . .  as  he  1974, Funds  Rep.  Burke,  who  remembers  his  a  would  spades,  with  produce  he  raised  gardens  on  week-ends  they  a boy,  enact  no  a  three  on  home  the invest-  and  let  family  gardeners  spend  pitchforks  considerable  as  to  7 percent  styled  if  that  starters,  colleagues  it,  idea  gardeners,  'The  bills  an  For  equipment.  income-tax  wheel-barrows,  home  tentatively  garden  rakes,  Garden  cultivating  A g r i c u l t u r e committee  hoes,  Victory  is  in  approve  amendment ,  $7  corn  vegetable  Committee for  D-Mass.,  sweet  the  free  credit  up  "Congressman  Burke,  family.  Ways  garden  page:  Tribune"  Gardens".  "Rep. he  front  Herald  up  and  to  such...  nostalgia  longer  gardens  hims e 1 f . . .  Rep. corn can't been  and  so  keep more  Hays  on  -  but  up w i t h upset  by  this  is  the  weeds  the  rising  an the  -  election way  price  he of  tomatoes, year,  ought. flowers  which  peas, means  Personally, than  beans, he he  inflation  has at  1 5 6  the  vegetable  house  counter.  when t h e t u l i p s  geraniums  went  'I u s u a l l y  put i n geraniums  are f i n i s h e d ' ,  out of s i g h t .  Rep. Hays  said.  I planted marigolds  around the 'This  instead.'  year "  .  CHAPTER  5  (1)  JANE J A C O B S : The D e a t h New Y o r k 1 9 6 1 , p.218  (2)  J . M . RICHARDS: p . 9.  (3)  ALAN P O W E L L : 1972, p.41  (4)  A . DOWNS: Table 1  (5)  D. MACFADYEN: S i r E b e n e z e r Movement, M a n c h e s t e r 1933,  (6)  GOODMAN AND E C K A R D T :  (7)  VICTOR  (8)  A P l a n f o r the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B . C . 1921, edited t h e V a n c o u v e r Town P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , p.243  (9)  "Progressive  10)  "The  Vancouver  Sun",  December  11)  "The  Vancouver  Sun",  March  31,  1973,  p.89  12)  "The  Vancouver  Sun",  March  31,  1973,  p.89  13)  J . M . RICHARDS: p . 13  14)  H.  15)  "Progressive  16)  M . NOVAK: T h e 1972, p.86  Rise  of  the  Unmeltable  Ethnics,  New  York  17)  M . NOVAK: T h e 1972, p.86  Rise  of  the  Unmeltable  Ethnics,  New  York  18)  "The V a n c o u v e r Fotheringham  Sun",  March  28,  19)  "The  Sun",  April  7,  20)  M. N o v a k : The 1972, p.86  21)  JANE J A C O B S : The D e a t h New Y o r k 1 9 6 1 , p.220  The  The  SYMONDS:  The  Life  Castles  City:  Opening  GRUEN:  and  on  The  Up t h e  Life  Heart  for  Rise  of  and  Dead  15,  the  the  Ground,  1973,  Planning  York  York,  1963.  1964. by  p.92  p.3  London,  Vancouver 1972,  1946  1967,  p.44  p.92  letter  1973,  to  A.  p.6  Unmeltable  of  New  New  1972,  1973,  1946,  Toronto  Town  1972 ,  October  Life  London,  Spaces,  Housing,  Cities,  University  and  October  on  of  the  Yale  Our C i t i e s ,  Castles  American  Modern M y t h s ,  Howard p.11  of  Question  Great  Ground,  Suburbs,  Architecture",  Vancouver  the  Attacking  Architecture",  The  of  Ethnics,  Great  New  American  York  Cities,  158 .  6.  ECONOMIC  AND  EQUALITY,  It of  the  best  i n f l u e n c e d  POLITICAL  a  common  market t h i s  the  e s t a b l i s h e d  for  This  (A  q u e s t i o n  f r e e ,  is  is  It  is  by  homini  lupus")  a  law  Hobbes, and  c a n n i b a l i s m  that  to  is  a  r i g h t s  those of men  markets  who  on  have from  b e l i e v e  government, are  was  views  a r i s e n  to  of  l i k e  b a s i c a l l y  be  has  o b j e c t  an w i l l  a  and  be  "law one  in  terms  u s u a l l y is  w i l l i n g  of  to  pay  n a t u r e " .  gives  h i s  to  be  market  to  s i t u a t i o n  and,  are  l i k e  " l i k e  nature  i n  a  l i f e  by to  there Locke  c a n n i b a l i s m " ^ ' ' ' p a r t  c l e a r e r  i n  the  u n l i m i t e d and  our bad  are and  and  those  of  nature  l a s t  and  free  the  need  Rousseau,  moved i s -  on  other  p h i l o s o p h y  There  who  few  market.  every  days.  of  s t r o n g e r  free  p r o p e r t y almost  ("homo  the  i s  n a t u r a l l y  e s t a b -  man  or  i t s  r e a l  one  i n  consequence  b a s i c a l l y  and  another  s t r o n g e r  i n f l u e n c e d  Renaissance  men  a  being  a  of  the  to  market  as  to  w o l f  become  developed  Hobbes,  good  led  A  the  the  a  curbed.  been  that  i a  the  supposed  The  have  what  what  has  of  d i s s i m i l a r  from  However,  the  not  d e v i a t i o n  has  that  -  i f  as  c o n t r o l s  of  OWNERSHIP,  acts  value  almost  d e s c r i b e d  ment  kinds  -  even  r e c e n t l y  may  of  s o c i e t y  people  be  man  c o m p e t i t i o n  t o r t i o n s  the  nature  f i t t i n g l y  debated.  toward  value  mind:  each  that  Whether  i s  of  that  market  years  what  one's  that  monetary  a b s t r a c t  from  to  housing  be  ENTERPRISE,  v a l u e l e s s ? ) .  l i s h e d  may  The  c o n s i d e r e d  comes  that  assumption  v a l u e .  commonly i t .  FREE  ETC.  is  by  FACTORS,  are  the  defence  b e l i e v e b e l i e v e  that  159 .  that be  assuring  "natural"  greatest  i s p r o b a b l y t o Locke  influence  of p r o p e r t y . of peace, state  on N o r t h  benevolence,  this  that  mutual  t o draw  will  we can a t t r i b u t e t h e  thought  the s t a t e  assistence  of nature  which  that  he  o f nature  has a n a t u r a l  he has " m i n g l e d "  colonists  i s ideal,  t h e work  that a l l  s u b s i s t e n c e from interpretation  M i d d l e Ages, s a y i n g i t i s also  to possess.and o f h i s body,  was p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d  i n North  America  production  of private  the  cultivation  common thought  that  personality  both  true  control such  that  a l l that  as t h e l a n d  economy  o f more p r i m i t i v e  through  by t h e examples  and by t h e s u p e r i o r  agricultural  he p r o d u c e s ,  o f the  capacity of  i n comparison  systems.  h i s l a b o u r man e x t e n d s ,  to the o b j e c t s  energies working  with  Fundamentally  i n a way, h i s  and by s p e n d i n g h i s  on them he makes them a p a r t  of himself -  becomes an e x t e n s i o n o f man, i n t h e j a r g o n o f McLuhan,  of post-Kantian philosophy.  t h e need  i n t h e sense  gave an o r i g i n a l  right  In t h e  cultivates.  He  property  Locke  i s a state  and d e f e n c e .  was as o l d as t h e e a r l y  a l t h o u g h the s t a t e  with  regarding the concepts  t h e means o f t h e i r  t o them.  theory,which  the i n d i v i d u a l  and  the best r e s u l t s  o f n a t u r e t h e p r o p e r t y was i n common  what n a t u r e o f f e r s  that  that  American  He m a i n t a i n e d  men had t h e r i g h t  he  of l i f e  obtained.  It  to  conditions  o f any e x p l i c i t  community;  i t i s a right  Property exists  agreement that  every  even  without  o f a l l t h e members o f t h e individual  bears  i n h i s own f  person,  jsut  as he b e a r s  the p h y s i c a l  energy  o f h i s own b o d y :  21  160 .  Therefore  society  it  within  except  government existing  in  Chapter  and  Locke  limit  enumerates  he e x a m i n e s  a complex  both  i n order see t h i s  society  regulate  and t h e  to protect concept  the pre-  expressed  Columbia  private  property  o f common g o o d  t o t h e one i d e n t i c a l  that  i n t h e harmony  rights,  quoted  he a l w a y s  but i n fact property  c a r e f u l l y and w i t h  o f t h e community  of private  of liberalism,  defence  "the n a t u r a l  since  persons.  great  he p r e s u m e d  that  and t h e p r o t e c t i o n result.  of nature  H i s theory  t h e good  emphasis. rights  i n defence  In this  speaks  i s the only  o f i n d i v i d u a l and i r r e v o c a b l e  t h e competence  lead  end  since  Act of British  and p r o p e r t y " , *  r i g h t that  forerunner the  {we w i l l  of the Municipal  liberty  He e s t a b l i s h e d which  limits,  a r i g h t and c a n n o t  seven).  When "life,  such  at least p a r t i a l l y ,  rights to property  the portion  natural  not create  determinate  exist,  in  of  does  of  respect  liberty he i s t h e  t h e two t h i n g s  of private was b a s e d  i s i n any case  -  rights on t h e i d e a  the final  of evi1.  During the American r e v o l u t i o n the slogan " l i f e , liberty and p r o p e r t y " c h a n g e d t o t h a t o f " l i f e , l i b e r t y and t h e p u r suit of happiness". In the d e c l a r a t i o n of independence o f J u l y 4, 1 7 7 6 , o n e r e a d s : "We h o l d t h e s e t r u t h s t o b e s e l f e v i d e n t , t h a t a l l men a r e c r e a t e d e q u a l ; t h a t t h e y a r e endowed by t h e i r C r e a t o r w i t h c e r t a i n u n a l i e n a b l e rights; t h a t among t h e s e a r e l i f e , l i b e r t y a n d t h e p u r s u i t o f h a p p i n e s s " (3). The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r o p e r t y and h a p p i n e s s h a d a l w a y s a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on N o r t h A m e r i c a n t h i n k i n g a n d l e d some p e o p l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t h a p p i n e s s c o u l d be p a r t o f a p u r c h a s e . We made a r e f e r e n c e earlier in t h e seond c h a p t e r t o t h e n o t i o n o f buying " h a p p i n e s s " when one b u y s a h o u s e .  161 .  L o c k e ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l America  was  s e p a r a t i o n of  the  premises  great. of  democratic  been  u t i l i t a r i a n i s m  the  p o l i t i c a l  r e v o l u t i o n s more  and  the  i n e v i t a b l e  His  a  i n f l u e n c e  "the  on  Among  c u l m i n a t i o n  in  i d e a s ,  wisdom p a r t  the  the  thought  both  s k e t c h y  fundamental  profound.  were  the  h i s  remained  creed.  has  of  on  Even  powers  m a j o r i t y ,  century  i n f l u e n c e  such  of  i n  the  d e c i s i o n s  North  American  and  t w e n t i e t h  Bentham  B a c o n ' s ,  the  and  as  the  n i n e t e e n t h  o t h e r s ,  on  France  of  of  and  and  Hobbes'  and  f 4) Locke's  methodology".  and  ideas  h i s  p r o p e r t y  and  fused  b o u r g e o i s i e  i n d i v i d u a l  moral  i n  a  to  be  of  s o c i a l  than  r e a l  and  hidden. owning  a  than  person  It men  i n  f e l t  who  w e l f a r e seen  in  the  gave as  a  k i n d  a  a  gold  the  was  who  owned were the  were  not  the  North  the  t i t l e  to was  as  of  of  i n  in  aura  of  r i g h t  the  the  c i v i c  owners  supposed  s a n c t i t y .  Owning  to  c l a s s  f i r s t  e l e c t i o n s . and  to  c o n t r i b u t i o n  a  United  same  vote  obvious  v i r t u o u s  less  to  T h e i r  both  something  a l l o w e d  were  good  supposed  less  owned  who  of  p r o p e r t y ,  not  both  p r o p e r t y  the  p r i v a t e  p r o o f  i f  -  of  n o b i l i t y  i l l e g a l  seen  A m e r i c a .  r i s e  c o n s i d e r e d  was  descent,  r e g a r d i n g  even  ones  s p e c i a l  in  v i s i b l e  became  t a x - p a y e r s  s p e c i a l of  home,  i d e a l  defence  P r o p e r t y  i t  P u r i t a n  Ownership  new  rented  a  and  always  ( e v e n t u a l l y  of  and  the  v a l u e .  sense.  moral  to  t a n g i b l e  p e r s o n a l  country.  them  r e v i v a l  a  only -  entrenched  was  Tenants that  was  was  C a l v i n i s t i c  s t r e n g t h  as  person  p a r t i c u l a r  d i v i d e n d  was  the  worth.  was  in  the  e s t a t e ,  ranch  and  t o t a l  more  of  Owning  S t a t e s ) , the  and  h i m s e l f  r e l i g i o u s  p r o p e r t y  c h a r a c t e r  e s p e c i a l l y  even  w i t h  which  romantic  gave  Locke  w e l l  ownership  The  and  *•  have  to  the  b u s i n e s s a g e n e r a l  p r o p e r t y c i t i z e n -  162 .  ship, and as a sign of a b i l i t y to participate in the business of running the country.  A visa to the North American countries may not be granted even today to people who do not own a certain minimum sum of money.  Several witnesses report that apparently during  the depression of the nineteen t h i r t i e s ,  in the towns of the  p r a i r i e s people were arrested for walking in the streets without carrying any money. acter and intentions,  Not owning anything was a sign of bad charand taken as an offence.  Being of good  character meant to be w i l l i n g to work hard and therefore have property.  It was considered a theological  to  impossibility  that a man could be of good character and w i l l i n g to work and have no property at a l l .  The same mixture of faith in nature and in a  certain kind of divine providence or i n s p i r a t i o n allowed the creators of the American dream to believe that the majority of taxpayers would naturally determine the best course of action.  The majority has been granted a kind of holiness.  collective  Just as e a r l i e r the kings were r u l i n g by divine r i g h t ,  the majority came to be seen as a body naturally inspired to move in the right d i r e c t i o n .  Romanticism not only wanted to  bring the people back to nature, but also wanted to  transfer  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the decision-making process from a rather small aristocracy to the crowd.  The crowd would freely  mine the true destiny of the nation.  deter-  Many mechanisms were devised  to allow the masses to express their desires in an orderly and  163.  accurate the  manner  minority  from b e i n g  In determine natural demand  accurately  destiny  from  there  became  generations,  The  Their  with  by t h e r o m a n t i c  there  was  enlighteninstance  foundations  t h e mechanism o f t h e  the s t r u g g l i n g  individual.  and as p o p u l a r  became  institutes  o f mankind, making  of  their  The  as t h e g r e a t and t h e  of the l a t e f o r the b e t t e r -  names s h i n e f o r  and maybe f o r e t e r n i t y .  e c o n o m i c h e r o became a p a r t  unlimited  resources  supposed  o f the American  o r as t h e e x p l o r e r .  The dream o f i n f i n i t y  the market was  system.  and n a t u r a l -  of the r a t i o n a l i s t i c  the s t o r i e s o f the s a i n t s  dream, j u s t as t h e i n v e n t o r  yet  A mechanical  The s t o r i e s o f t h e C a r n e g i e s  like  ment and t h e p r o g r e s s  growth.  f r e e owner-  a t work t o shape t h e e c o n o m i c  soon became as a d m i r e d  and p o l i t i c i a n .  ages.  was  of  t o be t h e laws o f  i n h e r i t e d and a p p l i e d  On one s i d e  on t h e o t h e r  Rockefellers  land  a kind  enterprise,  of the n a t i o n .  the philosophy  dualism.  economic h e r o  middle  supposed to  The laws o f the economy soon became a n o t h e r  romantic  artist  and e q u a l i t y , was  o f t h e economy was  bourgeoisie  was  o f the majority;  i n a regime o f f r e e  and p r o s p e r i t y  view  market,  the f r e e m a r k e t p l a c e  the w i l l  to p r o t e c t  wiped out.  mechanism, t h r o u g h what were s u p p o s e d  competition  ment.  completely  t h e economy  and o f f e r ,  ship,  istic  ( i n c l u d i n g d i c t a t o r s h i p ) , and a l s o  was  supplying  had expanded  t o be a t i g h t ,  The economic h e r o was  supposed  to p r e v a i l as an i n d i v i d u a l ; t h e g r e a t  unlimited  a market w i t h into  unlimited  t h e economy; and  mechanically  to master free  An  regulated  i t s laws and  enterpreneur  dominating  164.  over  u n l i m i t e d growth.  the g i a n t  free  enterpreneurs  a virtue  which  gift,  indication  and of  an  a test: the v a l u e  succeed,  of having  of the  both  as  his personality,  he  now  acting  than  as  that  supposedly  and  as  supposed  to be  a free  as  became a v e r y of  the  task  important  everybody and  as  important  The  but  factor. to s e l l  instrument market was  success toward  o f the  truthful  else, an  duty  judge  became h a r d  artist.  with  o f the  architect  desired  selling  his  important;  I t was  the  pressed  Selling  a public,  successful  p a r t of the  and  speed  I t was  not  them f a s t ,  f o r b e a t i n g the  were soon  now  rather  "the and  market"  of  direction  man.  activity,  and  the was  Public  relations a  d i s c o v e r e d to be But  only important faster  and  What was  today  may  and  making  speed  not  as  be  was  to s e l l  c o m p e t i t i o n of the  of i n s t a b i l i t y ,  desired  speed  faster.  a rather unpredictable entity  gave a g e n e r a l s e n s e portant'.  divine  became a  lord.  the most p r e s s i n g demands o f the m a r k e t .  an  a  was  new  study.  Efficiency  ducts,  Selling the  i n which  Success  i n p a r t was  t o be  enterpreneur  the market  the new  a mission  h i s image became e x t r e m e l y  decided  Taking  as  of his products.  the d e s i g n e r f o r a powerful  developer.  field  too,  and  chosen.  supposed  a businessman  ideas, was  taught  been  individual  architect  seen  were the h i g h p r i e s t s .  i n p a r t c o u l d be  t h e market was  The to  Development was  among  the  one's  Speed was  most proalso  free  market'.  this  feeling  even more  desirable  im-  tomorrow.  165 .  Faith brought  the  i n unlimited resources  dawn  of  the  advanced  civilization  products  were  ever to  turned  one into  buildings  wood in  two  slums.  for  frame  which  building l i f e  "The  Most  The  span  market"  which  earlier  competition  terms  of  saleable  rubbish  market.  In  disposal  alone  seem  to  have  production a  certain  the of  system that  facet,  the  are  the  and  imposed  the a  refuse  "the  market"  i t seems  to  be  about  scarcity is  of  up  today  which  about  keep  an  land.  succeeding  by  The to  are  itself. i n  We  the  sell  fostered  and  the  do  the  i s  with  recognize  that  the  existence  the  economic  America,  of  not  of  people  North  i n  garbage  It  to  dream  mortgage.  fastest  and  momentum  Now  a  cases  town  by  which  be  of  mentioned  to  feeling  visionary  the  and  i n -  expect  in  to  not  houses  market.  supposed  romantic  the  they  challenging  temporary,  consumed  rubbish  the  for  be  i t is  control  the  crisis"  to  There  beginning  i s  destroying "energy  with  are  i t i s  that  industries,  generated  of  talk  pollution  people  by  trend  trend  depreciation  today  side.  fastest  general  the  and  this  were  storey  by  speed  rapidly,  o u t l a s t e d by  two  side  crucial  to  and  competition  consumism  becoming  for  years.  is  rotten  the  they  mention  twnety  years sell  nature  to  catastrophe  for  become  that  ginning a  building  a  to  of  to  of  capacity  the  alarm  very and  age  short  to  designed  fact  allowed  only  actually  had  in  last  stood  drawings;  and  span  produced  skyscrapers the  consumed  and  on  consumism  produced  b u i l d i n g s were  time  fact  According  inspectors  to  in  emphasis  identified.  increasingly  building  the  be  the  consumism;  generations,  i s becoming  frequent  to  demands.  or  of  became  designed  changing  last  age  and  an  and  are  beand  impending the  feeling  166 .  of unlimited space.  There had been signs before warning that the market and the majority may not be that wise after a l l .  The collapse of  the stock market and the depression of the t h r i t i e s had been the most notable example.  In the f i r s t years of this decade the  economists were bewildered again.  It is beginning to be recognized  that "the market" may be crazy and unpredictable, undefinable, v o l a t i l e and i r r a t i o n a l .  It is noticed that "the market" is a  rather mysterious, undefinable entity.  The wisdom of the majority  and of consumism are beginning to be questioned too. of the free economy are invoked and applied.  More controls  Some of the s o c i a l -  i s t i c remedies are beginning to be applied to the North American countries.  Waste of resources is no longer j u s t i f i e d by speed of  neeting a demand only.  Strong h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l reasons however seem to have conjured to make a phantom abstract entity, the arbiter of a l l values and developments.  "the market",  The market was a  faceless i n s t i t u t i o n hopefully controllable by those already established in a position of managing large c a p i t a l s .  It was a  machinery sanctified by operation according to what was believed to be a sum of natural laws, independent of cultural values.  It  allowed the establishment of a new aristocracy, according to free laws of competition, through the creation of limited companies, where a small number of people could control, without a risky personal f i n a n c i a l involvement, the assets of a large number of people.  167.  Europeans have often c r i t i c i s e d the i n c l i n a t i o n of North Americans to refer everything, ultimately, to values in terms of money.  They have not realized the magniture of the prob-  lem and of the task of shaping countries made of immigrants, who came from scores of different nations,  cultures and r e l i g i o n s .  It was believed that in such a p l u r a l i s t i c culture the only way to work was to leave personal values at home and to establish the money value as the only v a l i d and natural common denominator among the people.  This was very much in tune with the C a l v i n i s t i c morality  of the i n i t i a l  ruling class.  At the same time the things which  established themselves at the top of the monetary scale of values became i d e n t i f i e d with status and as such became desirable or even necessary.  This is another reason for which the house with  garden became a common denominator among the ideals of the growing middle classes.  This was also a reason for shaping the c i t i e s according to what were, supposedly,  the p r a c t i c a l needs, in a very prag-  matic manner, and avoiding discussions  that would have involved  considerations of such dangerous, touchy, emotional and unmeasurable things as sentimental or cultural  values.  Land too was subdivided across the continent simply according to the rules of rectangular surveying and of the market. "Town planning is the art of laying out c i t i e s to serve the business  requirements, conveneince,  public.  It is guiding the growth of a v i l l a g e or a city in  conformity with a s c i e n t i f i c  health and comfort of the  design."  The city as the  168 .  A r i s t o t e l i a n centre of the "good l i f e " is deliberately  forgotten.  S t r i c t l y pragmatic considerations and the fear of c o n f l i c t s and of physical hazards were the important matters, and only these were allowed to put some r e s t r i c t i o n s to the free play of the market. How could a Chinese, a Ukrainian, a Negro and an AngloSaxon have made decisions together?  Therefore the pattern of  ownership was developed trying to adhere to a sense of geometrical equality.  We must note again that the romantic revolution was also the revolution of bourgeois liberalism against the previous systems of tyrannical or of feudal o r i g i n . as setback laws, r e f l e c t  Many by-laws, such  an interpretation of the ideal of  equal opportunities for a l l in their properties, the defence of individual private property, the ideal of non-encroachment, of l i b e r t y with conflicts prevented through l e g i s l a t i o n .  Individual ownership, and p a r t i c u l a r l y ownership of land, was such a sacred thing that for a long time in North America such things as the ownership of a portion only of a building could not be conceived.  Real estate was called real  because i t was t i e d to the land.  Free enterprise,  estate as well as in the other f i e l d s ,  in real  was fostered,  protected,  and regulated through various legal frameworks, such as city by-laws. Land development was protected and encouraged, but i t was also realized that the citizens had to be protected from possible excesses of free entrepreneurs. Original subdivision  169 .  were planned with these things, and particulary with equality, in mind: and what is more perfectly equal than a square of land assigned to each c i t i z e n , apparently according to the ideal of ancient U t o p i a s ? Thus untouchable boundaries established through ownership and early subdivisions of land paralyzed the c i t i e s into gridiron patterns, s t r i c t l y zoned to protect the investment made by each c i t i z e n .  The new moral and r e l i g i o u s conscience revived by romanticism stood behind the protectionist attitude toward this system of real estate.  The property owner and the  taxpayer were the aristocrats of the new system and of the new conscience of the bourgeois community. And l i k e the old a r i s t o c r a t , the new property owner lives in the fear of change, a change daily emphasized -by the uncertainties of the economic free market, and relaxing in the comfort of the legal boundaries and constraints which he expects to be designed to protect his established interests.  The bourgeois started fostering the  free market (as opposed to the aristocrat who wishes i t closed)  u n t i l he acquired property and by extension some of the  privileges of aristocracy; then be began to desire to close the market to others.  The desire for s t a b i l i t y and the fear  of such foreign elements as blacks, Orientals, or Jews, for example, led to the establishment of r e s t r i c t i v e covenants. Country clubs and other private i n s t i t u t i o n s in the form of a club sheltered even more the new class.  170.  The r i g i d i t y of the present t i t l e s to property is out of the reasons for which the pattern that was so quickly established in the North American c i t i e s is now so slow to change:  The  rectangular lots of the North American system may be contrasted with such a view as that of the lots of Arnol, Lewis (figure and of Pitminster, Somerset  (figure 2),  1),  in England^-*, which  witness a slow and complicted subdivision of land and transfer of t i t l e s over a long period of time, without a geometrical or equalitarian r u l e . Today the image of these old English subdivisions is appreciated for picturesque aesthetic q u a l i t i e s and new subdivisions in Olmsted's style may imitate them rather than as an example of slower and less mechanical subd i v i s i o n of land, which cannot be imitated in a short time and larger scale.  The frightening view of such a thing as (71  Daly City (figure 3), California^ ' , allows one to see even more c l e a r l y the contrast of the North American type of land development and subdivisions. Here we see the effect of the senseless speed at which tiny equal lots for tiny equal houses eat up huge portions of land at the outskirts of These developments foster,  cities.  in turn, additional land speculation.  We have already mentioned the absurdity of a market that  spends  twenty m i l l i o n dollars on a parcel of land for a skyscraper, while a shack occupies the next p a r c e l , perhaps for an entire generation.  It is believed that the "market" proves these  things r i g h t ; after a l l , i f there were no economic  convenience  involved, presumably they would not happen. (Note A).  il  Figure 1  172.  Figure  2  Figure  3  174.  This is a misconception, because the economic of most land developments  convenience  is simply coming from expenses added  to other p a r t i e s , normally the public in the form of municipalities and especially  in the form of future generations,  which inherit  exorbitant costs of land and of services as well as a mess to clean up. Inflation makes most uneconomical skyscrapers economical in the long run. This means that we a l l pay for them.  From the point of view of the individual developer of the single parcel of land, in the present conditions,  i t would  seem that to build the most compact building on a small portion of the lot is the most economical thing to do.  This,  however,  is not the true situation of a free market, and even this economic  argument would collapse i f different  allowed. With different generations  conditions were  laws and with more respect  for future  the developer could choose to establish a more  permanent building attached to other more permanent buildings. The overall cost could be very similar with the savings provided by attached and unified buildings and more compact  services,  and the remaining property could be left with a clear design for recreational and future uses. The market then would not be fragmented into small lots and limited to  considerations  of return within a r e l a t i v e l y short-range speculative return, but would consider a long range return and the total gain of a large number of people including future  generations.  175 .  It may sound U t o p i a n , but this pattern corresponds to a large extent to the pattern of the development of many c i t i e s of other continents,  where property is subject to different  regulations and people inherit amortized and sound buildings. The problem is that the "economic cannibalism" already mentioned is deeply rooted in our s o c i e t y . l t  used to be a  trend b u i l t into the romantic culture that different  genera-  tions would compete, rather than help each other, so that the general attitude of the older generations was that of exploiting the new generations, this p a r t i c u l a r case.  through the pretext of "the market", in The enmity among generations was such  that each generation would tend to secure only i t s  immediate  desires,and would try to use the other generations to this end.  A recent example in Vancouver, which reached the proportions of a scandal, was the way renters were treated by owners of wood-frame apartments with a high rate of depreciation, who converted their apartments into condominiums forcing young and old to buy their rented accomodations - a sort of  legalized  blackmail, reaping an i r r a t i o n a l p r o f i t , which was the compensation for no work and no significant additional investment.  S i m i l a r l y , experience is not considered a precious possession to be passed from one generation to another, but is used as an economic weapon by the older generations both to protect themselves and to exploit the new generations as long as possible. Therefore just as in design, there is an interest  176.  in keeping "the market" as a mysterious notion, despite the fact that i t is indeed a vague and v o l a t i l e body. Consumism was, in fact,  an economic notion masking p l a i n egoism;  it  is p a r t i c u l a r l y unfortunate that under the false pretenses of rapidly and cheaply accommodating growing needs a large part of urban North America was b u i l t and designed for rapid decay. This trend  seems to be even emphasized by newly framed rental  and condominium units.  It has been noted that the fathers tend to  create  an environment which is intolerable to the next generation. As architect R. Mann observed "when father trades in real estate in a s e l l e r s '  market, he is a r t i f i c i a l l y creating prices  which his own son w i l l never be able to match. It's cannibalism. We've  like  created this market and now our own  children are not going to have a place to l i v e in the c i t y . "  ( 81  Two of the most damaging aspects of the a r t i f i c i a l low density of North American c i t i e s produced by the  establish-  ment of the single family dwelling as the desirable form of l i v i n g are the wild land speculation,  especially  at the  o u t s k i r t s , and the economic ruin of the municipalities at the core of the modern metropolis. The major burden of the expenditures for public f a c i l i t i e s  is borne by the c i t i e s at the core,  which receive none of the suburban homeowners' house taxes, but only their business taxes ( i f they own a business downtown) which must be maintained at a reasonably low level to entice businesses to retain a downtown location. This is one of the  177.  factors urban the  in  a  system  municipalities,  city  is  in  The  terms  of  system,  the  of  road  household, and  the  of  gigantic  land  the  municipalities  and  of  the  fact  that  these  of  on  sewers,  the  terms  to  bankruptcy of  New Y o r k ,  position  suburban sprawl  for  the  where  while  outer  what that  values  the  accessibility  for  at  the  properties,  the  telephone,  and  of  and  over  gas,  more  market  two  in  area.  is  created  subjected  to  electrical middle  distances,) development  To j u s t i f y  one  the  cars  the  the  independent  large  to  transportation  least  purposes  even  the a  public  market" wants,  c a n be  efficient  need  (increasing  "the  an  publicly  speed)  speculative  spread  seldom  and  water,  quarrels  is  constructing  investment,  public  sprawl  divisions,  blind  example,  maintenance  held  the  in  eventual  financial  network,the  storm  the  this  the  return  the  lines, the  of  cost,  member  sanitary  for  impossibility  average  per  as,  the  prosper.  cost  acknowledged:  fosters  a desperate  municipalities  (in  that  would by  all  have  to  arbitrary  scrutiny  and  of  be  values,  can  be  changed.  It is new  pricing  beginning  out  of  generations,  dwelling of  is  this  estate  of  of  be  not  been  a  inflation,  will  be  however, vast  be  able  to  skyrocketing  land  values.  inflationary  has  noticed,  s u b u r b a n dream the  who w i l l  because kind  the  to  land  t r a d i t i o n a l way that  of  forcing  that  majority  afford  the  result  beating of  the  The u l t i m a t e  of  change  of  family  where  a  market"  single  market, both  "the  trading and  life  in  real  causing  style.  178.  It population  appears  growth  not  be  and  technoligical  on  more  surprising  the  bulk  of  that  in  the  than  land  industrial  consideration  improvements  low  market  rise  framed  normally  growth.  of  have  has  the  had  fact  only  exploited  This  would  that  industrial  a minor  dwe11ings..Homer  influence  Hoyt,  in  (9) his  study  the  nineteen  occurred  of  control,  while  Other new  of  amounts  factors  no  growth  estate  But  the  estate  cash.  It  policy  values  until  is  in  is  curious  causing urban  an  a  placed  on  not  be  there be  enough  be  satisfied  an  impossible  not  ending  in  estate  real  been  booms  or  expected  placed  from  is  found to with  no that  stop just  even  for  the  zero  development: what  dream w h i c h  they  the  under fluctuations  of  transportation expected  up  new  trend  increase  growth  of  horizontally  city  to  growth  the  will  is  at  is the  this roots  a  real  only  and  However,  population people  large  feasible:  both  go.  of  toward  ultimately  urban  It  the  availability  that  have.  actually  new  pushing  greater  no  the  are  rumors  the  but  make  even  and  and  expansion  way  values  that  areas,  once  soon  real the  factor  inflation  would  is  land  general  is  the  up  most  growth  would  and  independent  expansion  population  vertically,  century  with  has  of  zero  limit  land  now  somewhat  pushing  directions  real  of  are  that  the  relationship  which  they  in  growth.  developments. values  showed  indirect  growth,  industrial  routes,  l a n d booms  thirties,  almost  population  in  Chicago  it  would  never drive of  for  "the market". But the fact that no growth is proposed is an ultimate evidence of the deeply rooted i s o l a t i o n and egoism of the remedies advanced by the romantic generations. A necessary concluding observation must be that the subdivision of the suburban house and garden is not rational and i t not the dictate of a free market. truer in terms of economy.  is  Something else would be  180 .  APPENDIX Note A  In March 1972, in my paper The Suburban Ideal and the C i t y , I wrote of the towers which complement the fabric of the contemporary suburban-oriented metropolis of detached buildings: "They are considered examples of efficiency and economy, which may be true i f they are considered in i s o l a t i o n , yet the economic argument collapses when the expensive towers are observed in the global economy and plan of the c i t y and of i t s suburbs. In addition the present economic cycles of the existing urban situations seem to show that booms in the construction of high rise buildings are repeatedly followed by a rapid and substantial increase of the vacancy rate. The production of towers can flood the market of an average c i t y in a matter of a few years, and has a s i z e ,  a speed and an i n e r t i a that  makes i t d i f f i c u l t to gauge even to developers."  On August 5, 1974, "Barron's" magazine published the a r t i c l e Shaky Sky's caper's'.' A Nationwide Glut in Office Space Has H i t , by D . L . Thomas, where we read: equally grim in many c i t i e s  "The situation is  around the U . S . , ranging from  Los Angeles and Tulsa to Atlanta and Miami. In some areas, there is a glut of office space that w i l l take four or more years to absorb. The downtown financial d i s t r i c t of Los Angeles has been h i t p a r t i c u l a r l y hard: buildings erected six years ago  181.  are s t i l l 25% vacant. Moreover, the picture is even worse than i t appears. Besides existing unrented space, numerous buildings are s t i l l in the construction stage. Since i t takes three or four years to plan and build a skyscraper,  developers  can't stop quickly when rentals dry up. They are forced to complete them and add to the surplus."  This is one among the many factors of a compelling evidence that would indicate that a continuous horizontal development of medium density, which can be stopped or started without major financial committments, makes much more economic sense. The true reasons for which isolated skyscrapers are preferred and have been continuously growing for almost a century must be found in motives that have nothing to do with the f i e l d of s t r i c t economic  convenience.  A compendium on the other problems related with skyscapers may be read in  The Uncertain Future of The American  Skyscraper, published on November 20 , 1972 , by "U.S. News § World Report". In the a r t i c l e we read this observation by Lewis Mumford: "There's nothing revolutionary about the World Trade Centre. T a l l buildings are outmoded concepts - this  is  Victorian thinking. Skyscrapers have always been put up for reasons of advertisement sound or e f f i c i e n t  and p u b l i c i t y . They are not economically  - in fact they are r i d i c u l o u s l y unprofitable -  and the Trade Centre's fate is to be ripped down as nonsensical."  182 .  CHAPTER  (1)  6  RICHARD p.  (2)  MANN,  JOHN  LOCKE: V,  Concerning Section  Declaration Vol.  43  of  of  RUSSEL  KIRK:  (5)  From  leaflet  a  Commerce City  (8)  2  §  "National RICHARD p.  Books  June  Government,  of  from  the  Conservative  issued  Association  NUTTGENS,  Civil  Independence,  The  Planning,  Figure (7)  Sun",  23,  1973,  Second  "American  Western  State  World"  Papers  by  New  The  by in  the  Mind,  Chicago  Minneapolis  1916,  York,  1916.  Landscape  of  in  CHARLES  Ideas,  1953,  Civic M.  p.  and  ROBINSON,  London,1972,  3. Geographic",  MANN,  from  "The  February  1968,  Vancouver  Sun,  p.  220  June  & 221. 23,  35 .  (9) HOMER H O Y T : Chicago,  Essay,  Britannica.  (4)  P.  Vancouver  25.  "Great  Encyclopaedia  (6)  "The  35 .  Chapter (3)  from  One H u n d r e d Y e a r s  Chicago  1933.  of  Land  Values  in  1973,  131  183.  7.  BY-LAWS AND OTHER LEGAL FACTORS  It was at the beginning of this century that the i n t e l l e c t u a l stage was ready, in North America, for a codification into law of the urban pattern than had been developed.  "The  view was expressed that i f the new subways produced only increased congestions of l i v i n g and business conditions they would be a doubtful benefit  to the c i t y .  Under the leadership of Mr. McAneny  the Board of Estimate and Apportionment appointed a commission in 1913 to study and propose regulations  for l i m i t i n g the height and  size of bui1 dings."^^  This was taking place in New York City.  In the cultural  background, high Density and disorder had been established  for a  long time as the enemies of the North American and p u r i t a n i c a l way of l i f e .  They were seen to be as much a threat to c i v i l i z e d  man as alcohol. of  C i t i e s were growing rapidly with a large inflow  immigrants, both from overseas and from the countryside, and  with a sporadic rise to great wealth.  The law of the jungle-  considered according to nature - emphasized by the social and economic theories  commonly held at the turn of the century, was  having generally upsetting results both in business and in real estate ownership.  184.  "No landowner in any part of the city could erect a building of any sort with assurance that in ten or twenty years the building would not be obsolete by reason of an unnecessary and undesirable change in the character of the neighbourhood... It also became evident that improper uses caused injury to homogeneous areas and were especially productive of premature depreciation of settled l o c a l i t i e s .  One-family, detached -  home d i s t r i c t s , possessing trees and lawns, were invaded by apartment houses occupying nearly their entire  lots...  L o c a l i t i e s of one-family detached homes and apartment houses were invaded by sporadic stores that sought to s h o r t - c i r c u i t the neighbourhoods by u t i l i z i n g e l i g i b l e  corners among the  residences...  Stores were b u i l t with windows on the property l i n e , thus cutting off the continuation of front yards on the remainder of the street."  The established  taste according to which the North  American c i t i e s had been b u i l t was c l e a r l y threatened. gates are open.  The bars are down.  The dam is washed away.  "The flood  The sally-ports are unguarded.  The sewer is choked...The scum of  immigration i s viscerating upon our shores.  The horde of $9.90  steerage slime is being siphoned upon us from Continental mud f 3) tanks."  Awful tides of immigrants and uncontrollable  speculation  were creating upsetting and disappointing episodes at the same time that revivalism and the beautification societies were trying to bring the c i t i e s closer to the romantic ideals.  186 .  High density at the heart of the city was creating a reaction.  At the same time that the Woolworth Building was going  up "the safety and health of the community"  began being  studied by a specially appointed Commission.  "The Commission  recommended in its report that not only height should be regulated, but that area and use were also in need of regulation in the of public health and safety. regulations  It was proposed that  should be established  for height,  interest  different  area, and use,  according to the varying needs of the d i s t r i c t s . "  A b i l l which "amended the c i t y charter by introducing d i s t r i c t i n g provision, and gave the Board of Estimate and Apportionment the power to appoint a d i s t r i c t i n g commission to  f 7) prepare a resolution and a map"  v  ' was passed.  It is important  to note that the p r i n c i p a l concern e x p l i c i t l y expressed is only the interest  of public health and safety.  general complaint of chaotic conditions.  There was also a But such an important  step as that of dividing the city into d i s t r i c t s , with stringent regulations defining their plan and character, was taken without any e x p l i c i t study and choice made regarding the cultural  values,  i m p l i c i t in the plan that was going to be c r y s t a l l i z e d into law. One may well suspect that the law was prepared with the purpose of defending the.system of values embodied in the plan, and of making them even clearer.  existing  One may observe,  also,  from the beginning the p r i n c i p a l tool for " d i s t r i c t i n g "  (later  called zoning) was immediately i d e n t i f i e d with "the map".  that  187 .  It is hard to forget that during the same years that zoning spread across North America and was more and more perfected, a painter l i k e Mondrian, as we noted in the f i r s t chapter, developed his taste for perfectly f l a t compositions of pure lines and colours.  The clear separations imposed by the new zoning  maps were not necessary.  They were responding rather to the new  r i s i n g attitude of regulating people's  lives,  an attitude  reflected  in the laws curbing immigration and establishing the prohibition era.  It was also an attitude that reflected fear:  the laws  limiting immigration were openly designed to defend the AngloSaxon numerical s u p e r i o r i t y .  "The Commission that framed the New York c i t y charter amendment and the building zone resolution made a careful study of building regulations in European countries, sending abroad for this purpose... The result was that  investigators  investigators  expecting to find laws and maps controlling zoning in the c i t i e s v i s i t e d found instead that the building departments, under general authority to make regulations, had made different regulations for different areas. excellently  Much of this  zoning work was  done, after systematic and broad-guage study.  But  i t was soon discovered that the European examples were not of material aid in this country, where courts could declare void the doings of state or municipal legislatures regulations on private property."'-^  that imposed unreasonable  188 .  The preservations  and imposition of romantic ideals  through the law created complicated legal problems.  Many  lawyers could see an infringement on the rights of private property.  In order to make the new l e g i s l a t i o n  standing a challenge in the courts,  capable of  i t had to be done under the  police power of the c i t i e s and to be made so general and uniform that no one could present an obviously legitimate  complaint of  being victim of i n j u s t i c e or discrimination.  The European d i s t r i b u t i o n of authority did not present the same problems, which were t y p i c a l l y North American. European situations decisions  officials  In the  had greater discretion and their  could be made on the merits of different  cases without  being obliged to follow an absolutely uniform and egalitarian policy.  In addition European c i t i e s in general had a rather  different history and plan, and were not suitable for a s t r i c t subdivision into d i s t r i c t s .  Their character and style of  life  was more mixed, the ownership more i r r e g u l a r and fragmented, the i n t e r i o r of the fabric of the c i t y in most cases r a d i c a l l y different.  In many European buildings the same undifferentiated  facade conceals  an expensive luxury dwelling, some middle income  apartments, some o f f i c e s ,  and maybe even some shops.  189 .  Inside there may be a court or a garden, a landscaped penthouse on top, and outside a busy commercial street with pedestrians, cars, streetcars,  perhaps a subway, or a wide and treed boulevard.  O r i g i n a l l y many light industries were concealed by neutral facades in many parts of European c i t i e s .  This, in the North American  mind even today tends to be considered disorderly and chaotic just a mess, a bazaar.  Fire d i s t r i c t s in several c i t i e s ,  a use regulation in  Los Angeles, and a height regulation in Boston had preceded the division of New York into well defined d i s t r i c t s , but i t was only after the comprehensive laws prepared by New York that the other c i t i e s started adopting complete zoning ^regulations. (9)  "Noise, vehicles,  f i r e hazard, l i t t e r , and street  congestion",  the "canyons" of the streets among skyscrapers, "light and air" among them, were aspects of the city that were subjected to regulations.  Only a decade afterwards zoning by-laws reached  Vancouver, through an American consultant from St. Louis (Missouri), Harland Bartholomew. It was a need for law and order in the urban confusion that was quickly spreading across the continent.  "Law and order"  had been established as the opposing ideal counter-balancing the romantic pioneer ideals of the frontier men, of the  aggressive  free entrepreneurs, of s o c i a l darwinism and of those who wanted a state of nature in which the stronger and the best are supposed to win.  190 .  In the f i r s t decades of the century the blacks had begun spreading into the northern and western c i t i e s  of the continent,  immigrants from non-Anglo-Saxon regions were flooding the  cities  and criminal organization were beginning to r i s e . The vote to women granted in 1917 in New York state undoubtedly produced another conservative t i d e , in which "manners", romantic prejudices and law and order came a l l together.  The desire to make people's  lives better is manifested by the northern and Protestant law prohibiting alcoholic beverages in the United States.  For the  veterans of the World War a sober world had been prepared.  Those  who had succeded when freedom and abuse were not separated were obviously feeling that i t was not the case of running the risk of maintaining such an opportunity for abuse for the future generations, or for the newcomers.  The fact that a moral attitude toward order was behind the new l e g i s l a t i o n toward zoning the c i t i e s ,  would explain why  the cultural and social implications of the new laws, defending an already rather old and established system, were not s u f f i c i e n t l y debated. issue. enough.  What kind of order to establish was not f e l t as an The existing and established ideals were considered good  191.  "Safety and health" were the concerns that would have been emphasized more and more as an excuse to regulate people's lives according to the accepted prejudices.  The same streets of  New York city that forty years later Jane Jacobs w i l l find to be the exciting part of the urban f a b r i c , were branded "canyons" and seen as dangerous examples not be continued.  "Zoning began  by applying regulations to a building on a. lot in ji block - the t r a d i t i o n a l pattern of urban development"  ^ * ^ i n North America.  These regulations had to be stringent,  uniform, and  appealing to common values and prejudices in order to stand up as laws.  Individuality had to be framed into a common, standard  uniform pattern. dream.  This was a kind of s c i e n t i f i c  and i d e a l i s t i c  The same romantics who enacted these laws went to live  in r e s i d e n t i a l suburban lots where man "is not only master in his own house, but creator of his own world."  Individualism  there t r i e d to make f u l l use of the l i b e r t y that seemed to be provided for i t . own handiwork.  It is in the suburb that "each man can see his It may be only a rockery he has b u i l t or a tree  of his own planting which he can see overtopping the hedge as he turns the corner of the road on his return from the c i t y in the evening, but to some extent he can feel responsible for his environment and thus get a sense of controlling his  destiny.  192 .  Here we have a clue to much that is puzzling in the suburban scene, and p a r t i c u l a r l y to the origins of suburban f 12) architectural taste".  This expression of individualism in  "styles" applied to the individual r e s i d e n t i a l building on individual l o t s ,  however, had a p a r a l l e l in commercial buildings  too. In the 1929 issue of A Plan For The City of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia we read: "Primarily the purpose of zoning is  to  give s t a b i l i t y and character to property so as to encourage development consistent with the highest community service which such property can render. of regulation swhich affect  A zoning by-law provides three kinds the uses of property and buildings,  the height of buildings and the size and arrangements of buildings upon lots and of open spaces about such buildings. A zonong by-law w i l l encourage l i k e types of structures within d i s t r i c t s to be determined in accordance with their natural fitness." "Safety and health" required that zoning by-laws be accompanied by building by-laws.  This sum total of laws became  more and more detailed and stringent to the point where a reaction was bound to manifest  itself.  This reaction was characterized by c r i t i c i s m of the very existence of by-laws or the content or the effects of the by-laws. Those against by-laws were for the pure theories faire" and of freedom of enterprise,  of  "laissez-  and those c r i t i c i s i n g the  content or the effects of the by-laws were fighting for more  193.  v a r i e t y , a greater mix of a c t i v i t i e s , imagination and art in the c i t i e s .  a better role for  The by-laws have not been  analysed and discussed as being the codification of one c u l t u r a l tradition.  People became involved with the c r i t i c i s m of  details  because they did not seem to be able to recognize that these were the symptoms of a cultural t r a d i t i o n .  Perhaps the true  question to ask is on what culture are these laws based? still  important or good for us?  no one recognized the essential  it  The c r i t i c i s m was weak because question to be presented.  dream of the future city was not spelled out, alternatives,  Is  The  confronted with  analysed and worked on in a c r i t i c a l and conscious  manner.  It is interesting to note  the  i l l u s i o n of those who  see a form of progress through the existing by-laws.  legal system of  In 1954 Hugh Pomeroy stated o p t i m i s t i c a l l y that "while  zoning must s t i l l deal with the t r a d i t i o n a l l o t , block,and street pattern, as i t finds i t ,  i t must be adapted to large-scale  area  design concepts in community development, with a different approach to the application of regulations. is being made in that d i r e c t i o n . going great change.  Considerable progress  Building design also is under-  It is departing from the meaningless  traditional  in architecture and is approaching a form that is appropriate to the culture and the technology of our own day.* *Pomeroy seems to be confusing facades with architecture.  /,  194.  While there are persons whose culture is tied to the past and who are a b i t uncomfortable in any move away from what was the honest expression of the technology and culture of several centuries  ago,  nevertheless we should not immure our zoning in that kind of anachronistic s i t u a t i o n , but should adapt our zoning methods to f 1 31  the conditions of the day in which we l i v e . "  1  The fact is  that  in these twenty years the pattern established by the legal framework, on the contrary, has become more and more stringent. Zoning has not adapted. "When f i r s t  zoning laws were passed during World War 1,  they were hailed as a way to assure orderly change in urban areas and safeguard property values. happening.  Today, c r i t i c s say the reverse  is  Zoning catches much of the blame for suburban sprawl, (141  inflated housing costs and speculation in land."  Sylvan Kamm,  land use expert of the American Urban Land Institute,  "says the  obstacles to better land use are zoning, subdivision r u l e s , sanitary, health and building codes. This should be confronted with the statement contained in the Plan for Vancouver of 1929 in the chapter headed "Zoning". "Vancouver!s experience  in respect  to the value of zoning is such  that a reversion to the conditions obtaining before zoning restructions were imposed would be unthinkable.  The good that  came out of the interim zoning by-law only increased the to put into effect a comprehensive by-law".  desire  195 .  The interim zoning by-law had been in force for only two years. When "the good that came out" of the by-laws began to be f a c t u a l l y questioned by a large number of people  (by 1925 i t had already  been seriously questioned authoritatively in the eastern United States), planners discovered "public p a r t i c i p a t i o n " . "Planning began with a c i v i c motivation and found i t s way into givernment. Shall i t then be left entirely in the hands of bureaucrats l i k e me, for instance?" - says Pomeroy - "Not at a l l .  I do not  trust myself to make decisions  The law  for the community."  and the grassroot movements are supposed to come together to produce something somehow better.  And yet the existing  are already in some ways an expression.of  by-laws  the w i l l of the people.  This is why decades of public p a r t i c i p a t i o n and of democratic planning are not changing them in any substantial manner.  The people seem to be caught p a r t i a l l y in the vicious  c i r c l e • of the fact that by-laws must be stringent,  uniform and  general in order to be compatible with the equalitarian principles of democracy as i t is presently understood and established, that stringent,  and  uniform and general by-laws, s t r i c t l y enforced,  have for the individual an effect that takes away much of the l i b e r t y for which democracy is established,  loved and defended.  Yet planning through a system of by-laws is f e l t as more democratic and f l e x i b l e  than planning through a complete master design  produced by an a r i s t o c r a t i c e l i t e of experts.  "The fact is  planning as a separate governmental function adds nothing  that  whatsoever  to the powers of government.  The regulation of individuals and  their property rights results  from policy decisions  formulated  196.  and executed by those who exercise the p o l i t i c a l power. Planning, properly conceived, served only as an arm to these p o l i t i c a l representatives and interpreting essential  to aid them in gathering, evaluating, data to serve as a basis for making  i n t e l l i g e n t policy decisions.  Under this concept,  the planning  function is compatible with the policy making r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of either democratic or nondemocratic s o c i e t i e s . "  The differences  (17)  "arise in the aims, objectives  and processes".  The problem is that when a plan is enforced through comprehensive by-laws the system becomes so complicated, c r y s t a l l i z e d and uniformly defined, that over as many as forty years only minor items are changed. slowest things to change.  The law is one of the  Mayors, aldermen, prejudices, even  bureaucrats, in time, change, but laws do not.  However, the  fear of delegating excessive authority to human beings, elected,  even i f  and often called to public scrutiny, makes people more  inclined to l i v e under regulations issued in the form of laws and printed on an open book.  What happens is that the prejudices  of a generation are often written in such a book and transmitted in an i n f l e x i b l e manner over a number of generations u n t i l when a formidable reaction develops and causes a radical and total change.  Planning through l e g i s l a t i o n seems to become inhuman.  Writing everything into law produces a manual attitude by a large impersonal bureaucracy.  served  One can reason and develop an  understanding with a man, but not with a book of laws.  197.  When the zoning by-laws were f i r s t introduced, the need for "light and a i r " , the "safety" of buildings, especially with consideration to the danger of f i r e , and concern for "health", especially  in r e l a t i o n to the dangers due to  overcrowding, were emphasized. sufficient  Even i f these concerns were  to j u s t i f y the kind of l e g i s l a t i o n  that followed,  is amazing to see that the tremendous s c i e n t i f i c  it  and technological  advancements of the last f i f t y years have not been given a chance to prove the v i a b i l i t y of other urban arrangements, and that what technology has undoubtedly made possible with respect air,  light,  safety and health (almost any arrangement of environmental  conditions) still  to  is not recognized in any positive manner by the law,  today.  Zones dedicated to "comprehensive development" are simply a space l e f t blank on the planner's map, where a specific arrangement can be agreed with by the c i t y . dwelling" (an i n s t i t u t i o n in i t s e l f ,  But a "single  family  not less sacred than the  Parliament) in the c i t y of Vancouver has to be set back at least twenty-four feet, today as in the nineteen twenties, for example. In the suburban municipalities these limitations were increased. It is interesting to note that after almost a half century since the introduction of zoning by-laws in the City of Vancouver, and while yards are defended a l l around the buildings and high density is s t i l l considered as a dangerous disease, you can s t i l l read provisions for the keeping of "horses, or sheep"  .  cows, goats,  The law has not bothered to recognize views such  as those of Jane Jacobs:  198 .  "Things have changed since the days when Ebenezer Howard looked at the slums of London and concluded that to save the people, city l i f e must be abandoned.  Advances in fields  than city planning and housing reform, fields  less moribund  such as medicine,  sanitation and epidemiology, n u t r i t i o n and labor l e g i s l a t i o n , have profoundly revolutionized dangerous and degrading conditions that were once inseparable from high-density c i t y l i f e . "  f 191 '  v  The principles and philosophy that must, today, inspire the by-laws are established in the Municipal Act of B r i t i s h Columbia, at section  Zoning.  702:  702.(1)  The Council may by by-law (hereinafter referred  to as a "zoning by-law") (a)  divide the whole or a portion of the area of the municipality into zones and define each zone either by map, plan, or description, or any combination thereof;  Regulating(b) uses in  regulate the use of land, buildings, and structures,  zones  including the surface of water, within such zones, and the regulations may be different for different zones and for different uses within a zone, and for the purposes of this clause the power to regulate includes the power to prohibit any particular use or uses in any specified zone or zones ;  199 .  Cc)  regulate  the size,  buildings the  a (d)  and with  any  be  respect  and with  t h e owners  zone  space  within  of  such  different  zones,  and  f o r different  to d i f f e r e n t  f o r such  respect  by-law  uses  within  any  existing any  o f any b u i l d i n g i n parking  a n d may  class  buildings classes  t o be  provided,  of building  o r any  of adoption  of the requirements  loading  between  of space  a t t h e time  and  c l a s s i f y  and d i s c r i m i n a t e  t o t h e amount  exempt  from  off-street  building,  differentiate  may  or occupiers  to provide  building  Further (2) regulations concerning the public. (a)  may  and s i t i n g  zone;  require  and  and s t r u c t u r e s  regulations  zones  shape,  of the  of this  In making regulations under this section, shall have due regard to the following  clause.  the Council  considerations  The promotion of health, safety, convenience, and welfare of the public;  (b)  The prevention of the overcrowding of land, and the preservation of the amenities peculiar to any  zone;  (c)  The securing of adequate l i g h t , a i r and access:  (d)  The value of the land and the nature of  its  present and prospective use and occupancy;  2 0.0..  (e)  The  character  buildings  The  here  be  through  used  hensive  that  enough  buildings"  and  structures", This  the  of  is  form  of  by  the  The  tool  Such sound is  law.  that the  size,  to  "regulate  the  use  city  to in  without In  is  "design"  technical  important  of  concerned  but  almost  what of  the  law  and  land,  parking  of  life  style plan,  avoided;  or  in  They  New Y o r k  to  be  light, are City  at  at  frame as  terms that  well.  have  is  are  character,  same the  to  imposed  considered  air,  the  a  all  description".  the  Things  of  framework  urban  noted.  planners  loading  not  land,  and  contribution,  be  values."  and  The  to  of  determination  features.  "map,  has  compre-  buildings,  The p h i l o s o p h y  property  be  siting  legal.  of  cities  must  and  to  1957,c.42,  is  a  the  uses;  established  carefully  overcrowding  the  as  of  creative  the  of  peculiar  values.  complete  is  the  particular  shape,  essential  defined is  such  of  character  1961,c.43,s.41.  "off-street  individual  addition  as  century.  its  form o n l y ,  safety,  an  for  power  the  a word  conservation  regulatory  establish  and  s.306;  "regulate  to  the  property  to  used  "health,  of  that  be  equally  zone  and  to  coolly  the  law  the  urban  the  amounts  established  once,  all  zone,  erected,  1958,c.32,  written  and  space".  of  conservation  s.699;  We n o t e  each  already  suitability (f)  of  things beginning  of  2 0 1.  In addition to the municipal by-laws there are a number of other legal influences over the creation of the urban environment.  F i r s t among them is the federal lending agency.  The agency not only promotes home ownership, especially of single-family dwellings, but establishes the most detailed rules of design and construction, r i g i d l y enforced by armies of inspectors and runs tests on materials and performance of components of buildings of a l l sorts. specifications,  The agency prescribes  contracts and even d e s i g n patterns.  It  also  advises on design and i t publishes a large number of publications, including standard house plans to be chosen by the public, and i t promotes studies and design ideas that i t judges worthy of interest.  Private lending authorities normally follow the same path as the federal agency in every respect,  thus making  universal any trend or decision established by federal authorities. Where there is any doubt that the s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and legal system would s t i l l leave openings to upsetting developments, covenants and deed r e s t r i c t i o n s regulate the use of the land. The p r i n c i p l e s followed by the federal and private authorities are normally i d e n t i c a l with those stated by the Municipal Act mentioned, and in particular the "conservation of property values, health, and safety".  How these judgements of values and conditions  are reached is not, normally, a subject of concern or of debate.  2  02.  Professor Charles M. Haar, introducing the papers of a comparative study of the legal control of land use in England and the United States, noted: "One of the seminar's functions was to delineate  the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences  and the American systems.  When a l l the papers had been submitted,  i t became clear (with some surprise) similarity exists.  between the B r i t i s h  that a considerable area of  True, as with a l l comparative law  there are dangers in glossing  over differences  studies,  and being trapped  into thinking that use of the same terms - or as Whitehead put i t , use of a common  language - means a s i m i l a r i t y in approach.  Yet there is an emergency of truly common p r i n c i p l e s , not only in respect to the two nations, but within the United States as well: despite the f i f t y  state laboratories,  there is a more or  less standardized product of american planning and zoning. That the legal resemblances  are many seems even more remarkable  in view of the divergencies  of physical conditions and experiences  of Great B r i t a i n and the United States ." especially  When c u l t u r a l trends,  i f tied with r a c i a l and religious phenomena, are  absorbed without analysis  and c r i t i c i s m , their effect can be  sweeping and can manifest i t s e l f  in a large number of areas and in  the entire family of countries p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the same movement of ideas.  The Anglo-Saxon countries seem to hold the key to the  origins of the English garden trend and of the -garden city movement, as part of a p a r t i c u l a r interest  in nature.  In the next chapters we w i l l explore aspects of the origins of these  interests.  204.  CHAPTER 7  (1)  E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936,  p.  (2)  E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936,  p. 25  (3)  M. NOVAK: The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics, New York 1972,  p.  11  117  (4)  "The Vancouver Sun", A p r i l 11,  1974,  (5)  E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936,  p.  20  (6)  E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936,  p.  20  (7)  E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936,  p.  20  (8)  E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936,  p.  21  (9)  E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936,  p. 25  (10)  H. POMEROY: in An Approach to Urban Planning By BREESE £ WHITEMAN, Princeton  (11)  p.  24  27  p.  28  H. POMEROY: in An Approach to Urban Planning, by BREESE & WHITEMAN, Princeton  (14)  p.  J . M . RICHARDS: The Castles on The Ground, London 1946,  (13)  1953,  J . M . RICHARDS: The Castles on The Ground, London 1946,  (12)  p.4  "U.S. News and World Report",  1953,  p.  24  March 6,  1972:  March 6,  1972:  Fight Over Zoning Heats Up (15)  "U.S. News and World Report", Fight Over Zoning Heats Up  (16)  H. POMEROY: In An Approach to Urban Planning, By BREEZE & WHITEMAN, Princeton  1953,  p.  24  205 .  (17)  D.H. WEBSTER: Urban Planning and Municipal Public Policy, New York 1958, p. 8  (18)  Vancouver Zoning and Development By-Law No. 3575, 1969,  (19)  (22/3/66-*4234)  J . JACOBS: The Death and Life of Great American C i t i e s , New York 1961  (20)  C M . HAAR: Law and Land, Harvard 1964, p. X  (21)  Tribune Tower Competition, Chicago 1923.  206 .  8.  HI S T O K I A L  AND E T H N I C  ORIGINS  OF THE NORTH  AMERICAN  CITIES.  This made  by  chapter,  William  is  divided  in  of  a  and  ing is  rural from  the  The planning  Penn  two  by  promote  of  the  a  part and  rural  development  the  first  the  the  conscious  type  of  of  of  of  the  "voids"  garden  the  city,  development  planning  and  civilization.  literary  examines  plan  examines  tradition  related  suburban  eighteenth  the  North American  a  concepts  from  the  idealistic  second  to  to  parts:  early  paralleled  going  of  This  think-  tradition  tradition.  development  of  modern  North American  effort  metropolis  since  the  middle  century.  I .  It is  typical  city, have the is  will  be  among  a n d who  those  do  something  not  the  for  consists  of  machines.  It  who  seem  purpose  nothing".'""''''  nothing,  to  to  he  of  most  continues  lines  on  paper  adopted  if  with of  city  an  plan  people  Churchill,  the is who  and it  the live  is  mediocre  in  author cities  from  why  artistic we  cannot  expression  "The p r a c t i c e tables  that  and more  reasons  the  contemporary that  observation  a better  examine  the  For Henry plan  is  of  begin dream  different:"A  collective  statement,  useful  of  of  it,  or  of  this  tends city  it  to  be  planning  calculating enough."  Yet  his  207.  outcry for more "art" in the design of c i t i e s is contradictory: like many other similar pleas for a more beautiful c i t y ,  the  practice that he condemns seems to be an actual part of the collective  purpose of the poeple,  and may be shown to have  more profound roots and effects than he r e a l i z e s . typical example of many similar s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s  As a rather one cannot  f a i l to note the picture beside the t i t l e of C h u r c h i l l ' s book: a painting of Toledo, Spain, of dramatic and picturesque  effect,  but quite unrelated to the h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y of the North American c i t y ,  and obviously insufficient  to give an  understanding of the true urban r e a l i t y of the town of Toledo. (Figure 1)  (2).  The t r a d i t i o n of "lines on paper" in North America has distant roots and may be seen at its  origins in William Penn's  gridiron plan for Philadelphia. (Figure 2)(3).  It is a plan that  seems to be in the Hippodamic t r a d i t i o n , but closer study would indicate that i t s abstract,  inspiration comes more d i r e c t l y from the  geometrical,  Renais s ance.  neoplatonic and Cartesian mood of the  H E N R Y S. C H U R C H I L L  THE  jCITY THE  IS  PEOPLE REYNAL Figure  & 1  HITCHCOCK,  NEW  YORK  209 .  210.  The  former  layout even  of  objects,  more  ssance. scheme  classical  remote  In  interest  the than  Penn's  scheme  the  lines  on  of  rectangular  it  was  the  streets  dividing  followed  North  number  with  a  with  as  infinite  of  deep  alive  and  to  alike  city in  to  in  a  meant  common  and  an  during  dwellings, and  mystical  times.  (such  full  as  void.-  religious  and  as  the  new  or  objects.  that  on  most  of  entire  of  according  perfect,  It  is  and  appealed  a  to  an  abstract was  cast  important  idealism  of  the  taking  connotations  founder  the  system  period,  perfection  of  same  geometric  romantic  system  the  them  land.  number  arranged  space  urban  Instead  a pure,  voids:  classical  whether  of  because  infinite  the  the  the  here,  Renai-  certain  fields  In  organizing  rational  designers  later  subdivided  merely  a  geometric  indicate  relationship,  this  almost  and  the  to  are  of  remote,  of  abstract  superimposed  taken  very  cities  geometry.  urban  and  an  is  land  important  objects  model  strong  and  is  of  full,  political  that  infinite  was  continent  understand and  of  are  They  lines  continued  defined  ideal an  blocks  system  was  order  ideal  virgin  fields  fields.  the  The p l a n  American  limited idea  ideal  opposite:  Penn's he  empty  rectangular  an  pre-existing.  an  arrangement  buildings,  Italian  of  to  individual the  boundaries  according  the.concrete  in  superimposed  smaller  in  remained  that to  Salt  to  its  engineers Lake  City)  211 .  In of  Penn's  primary  rural of  importance  aspect  fields,  built, or  of  on  not  This  the  than  in  a  is  the  another  later  We h a v e  sparse  a plan  contain  rural  there  plan.  which  rather  might  layout  of  character  romantic seen  fabric  or  is  of  open  that  period.  that  arrangement a  gardens  factor  his  of  will This  City  buildings,  is  is  buildings  become the  a  plan  can  be  which  might  spaces.  also  recognizable  in  the  early (4)  plan but  of it  New can  Amsterdam, also  Londonderry, of  1582 ,  and  that  castles ments. a  here In  total  model farms,  would Le  5) ' " ^ .  over  define  Penn's  a  such  suggest  Corbusier's We m u s t  planning  These  with  of  layout  the  back  sketch  are  of  towns with  that an  aspect of  is  the  sparesely  .  (One  seen  in  chapter  C h r i s t o p h e r Wren's  plan  such  as  Delft,  Holland  are  almost  a  urban  built  evil  aspect  up  on  urban It  city.  equally  laid  compare  tight the and  environ-  seems  The  (Pennsylvania)  should  Utopian,  3)  or  eliminated.  and  of Bethlehem (7)  this  (figure  streets,churches  identifiable  6)  contrast  4)^^,  However,  rejection  century  European examples  (figure  field.  this  view  (figure  to  farms,  clearly  development as  seventeenth  1622,  the  puritannical  is  of  conglomerate looks  the  traced  Ireland,  (figure  walled  side  be  in  to  chosen  isolated of  1798  this  with  two). rationalistic for  and  Rebuilding  rural  London  after  f 81 the  Fire  baroque the  of  1666  thinking,  buildings  (Figure  7)  urban  and  define  the  .  this  concrete.  streets  and  be  is  a product  Here  the  therefore  of  closed the  European line  of  circulation  Figure  3  216.  217 .  between  the s o l i d  be  o f many  said  cities  less  American ence  from  related  baroque  connecting  there,  We  may  have  baroque  masked  the p r i n c i p a l  (such  was no f e e l i n g content  with  the  North  American  the  first  two  The  type  as t h a t  in  cities.  Rome, o f North  the voids  tradition)  and even  L'Enfant.  (the functions  of planning  pattern  by  differ-  of the grand  are a l l  for a  long  of a truly  urban  f o r i n s t a n c e ) , because  f o r i t a n d i t was n o t r e a l l y  metropolitan  o f Sante (Georgia)  Density  arrangements these  the middle  could  there that  built.  they  we  People  introduced  described i n  chapters.  views  will  episodes  of Paris,  Fe  (New M e x i c o )  to the p i c t u r e o f the general  probably  lines  the p o s s i b i l i t y  add  Ultimately  to Washington  i n the baroque  o f Savannah  cramped  with  of the puritan  urban  and  American  beginning  and t h e a r t e r i a l  and c o n f u s e d  T h e same  instead, a substantial  brought  of the r u r a l  situation  remained  note  plan  government,  the voids  plans,  fabric.  to the e a r l y bulk  the "baroque"  the c i v i l  there  or the urban  the circulation  avenues  time  other  migration.  Although  of  blocks  i n 1955  i s what  of villas  villas  be t r e a t e d  may  of a landscaped  (figure rural  trend  i n a growing  like lot.  small  (Figure  9 and f i g u r e  transforms  become h i g h  just  i n 1848  rise  8)  10) ' ^ (  i n the plan  t h e farms urban  ^  1 0  of  North  into  settlement.  b u i l d i n g s , which  b u i l d i n g s , that  i s units  220.  221 .  We may relate the Utopian rural planning of the early North American colonization with a sort of pre-romantic t r a d i t i o n that saw nature as pure, clean and uncarrupt, and that saw man prone to corrupt himself and the environment. Man-made objects were considered i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n f e r i o r to natural this  products. Some of Andrew Marvell's verses i l l u s t r a t e  attitude:  "What but a soul could have the wit To build me up for sin to  fit?  So architects do square and hew Green trees that in the forest  grew".  One can see here a distant source of the f a i t h in organicism and of the d i s l i k e for the machine that are so pervasive in Lewis Mumford.  The rural character of the early North American c i v i l i z a t i o n was emphasized by the fact that the migrants not only attached a moral value to farming, but had come to North America to own land. A walled city with a house and no land would have been inconceivable for them as a new place in which to s e t t l e . .In fact the idea of s e t t l i n g in one place and of owning land were p r a c t i c a l l y considered the same. This is why even today the man who owns a house and garden is generally considered more settled than the man who lives in an apartment, even i f the l a t t e r owns i t .  The attitude of the free artisan in the medieval I t a l i a n "compile'  1  here was reversed: l i b e r t y was now coming from the land  222.  that one could own and farm, not from the p o l i t i c a l  independence  of the community of the c i t y . The security and pleasures  of the  walled c i t i e s were forgotten and damned with the memory of vice and tyranny. For the migrants who were leaving behind a condition not too different  from that of slave labourers the a b i l i t y to  own land became i d e n t i f i e d with a sort of c i t i z e n s h i p . And for the C a l v i n i s t immigrants the ownership of land was not only a proof of l i b e r t y and equality of c i t i z e n s ,  but also of goodness.  It was a source of happiness: "The instant  I enter my own  land, the bright ideas of property, of  exclusive  independence exalt my mind. Precious s o i l ,  r i g h t , of  I say to myself, by  what singular custom of law is i t that thou wast made to  constitute  the riches of the freeholder? What should we American farmers be without the d i s t i n c t possession of that s o i l ? It feeds,  it  clothes us, from i t we draw even a great exuberancy, our best meat, our richest drink, the very honey of our bees comes from this privileged spot. No wonder we should cherish its  possession,  no wonder that so many Europeans who have never been able to. say that such portion of land was t h e i r s , to realize that happiness.  cross the Atlantic  This formerly rude s o i l has been c  converted by my father into a pleasant established  farm, and in return i t has  a l l our r i g h t s , on i t is founded our rank, our freedom,  our power, as c i t i z e n s ,  our importance as inhabitants of- such  a d i s t r i c t . These images I must confess I always behold with pleasure,  and extend them as far as my imagination can reach."^  The American Revolution was not only a l o g i c a l conclusion; of this trend, but also an important strengthening factor of the r u r a l , equalitarian and C a l v i n i s t i c morality. George Washington and  J  223.  Thomas J e f f e r s o n minds  of the  At Age, We  have  ization  time  of  really  seen  that  since  religious  There  with  geometry  urb'an  attachment opposing  one's  tended  to  sentiment.  however, were  emotions why  England  river an  the  eclectic  romantic  plan of Hygeia, - t o be we  built can  where b o t h  see the  the  ideals  a return  to  variety  struggle,  struggle of the  of reasons  taste.  d r a w n by  i n Kentucky of  and  t o t i m e . What i s  i s one  town  into  struggle  rational  romantic  romantic  one  internal  i s the  This  a model  dreams  i n favour of  time  feeling  motifs.  non-geometric these  an  of the  colon-  and  trend toward  order  i t s birth.  strongly  emotional;  from  at  ideal associated  emphasized  became p a r t o f t h e  plan,  the  American  and  sometimes  ideals  differently  Cincinnati-  in  Romantic  a rural  transformed  geometric  opposing  i n 1827  from  an  w h i l e the  opposing  of the  eclecticism  In in  condemn  between  and  intellectual  t h e r e was  life,  was  of North  dream  a struggle,  chosen  characteristic  abstract  Romanticism  of  The  America,  beginning  Idealism often  s c i e n t i f i c aspects  and  and  of  soul.  the  a rational  to nature.  high  R e v o l u t i o n the  simultaneously present  was  elements  American made N o r t h  and  dream were  operative.  Nature  the  that  geometric  C i n c i n n a t u s was  revivalists.  age  a  within  farmers.  classical  the  the  were  the  J.B.  across first  the  Papworth Ohio  examples  of geometric  order  of and r i 31  of natural there an  are  variety very well  accentuated  and  would  be  served.  In.this  organized geometric almost  plan  blocks  crazy curvilinear  (figure  11)  and p a t h s w i t h  pattern  i n the  area  of the both  parks.  Organic  nature  and  geometric  served.  Figure  11  order  are  somehow  225 .  Before  considering further  let  go  us  ideas  back  of our  American  Anglo-Saxon group  had by  of  been  and  and  culture was  a mass  of  they  side  a  one  hand,  piety  passing and  the  by  the the  and  culture;  age,  of people  and  c o n t r i b u t e d to  the  early  North  foundations  America  exploited by  by  essential  about  cruel  economic  of  of  emigrants  with  false  d e s p a i r , by  especially  White,  Britain;  and  aspects  aristocratic  i s the  I t began  beginning" find  side  but  - says  two  Puritans,  the  rarely  they  justice,  an  aristocratic  justice,  i n the  religion  south,  established  where  over  Wyck  c u r r e n t s i n the  both  on  the  i n the  the  practical  America s 1  American  o f most the  shifts  the the  Edwards,  refinement as  the  g r a d u a l l y faded contemporary  c u r r e n t catchpenny of P u r i t a n  on in  i n Jonathan  and,  mind  overtones  originating  fastidious  writers,  of Transcendentalism  o t h e r hand  in  equally unsocial:  a philosophy  American  unreality  Brooks  mingling - a current of  - and  becoming  chief  i n the f i n a l  originating  main  Emerson, p r o d u c i n g  beliefs  and  Van  current of Transcendentalism,  through  resulting  the  feelings  motherland,  of  - we  aloofness of  ideals  and  current of undertones  of  to  and  Romantic  slaves.  Coming-of-Age  and  and  w i t h mixed  shared  caste  "From t h e  running  America-  speaking  religion,  with  a  influence  P r o t e s t a n t e t h n i c group.  hypocritical  there  cities,  refugees  Yet  historical  to North  English  oppressed  culture.  the  d u r i n g the  society.  Dominating  a  to  that immigrated  construction North  again  developments  life,  coherent out,  American opportunism, becoming  a  226.  philosophy  i n Franklin,  p a s s i n g t h r o u g h the A m e r i c a n  humorists, f 14  and  resulting  These  at  o f contemporary  two main c u r r e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d  common p o l e s the  i n t h e atmosphere  of romantic  intellectual  development  that slowly  the side o f Transcendentalism  was  an i n t e r e s t  for  the romantic  better  forinfinity  these  my mouth (Jonathan  many y e a r s , 'Infinite  these  infinite  expressions  upon i n f i n i t e  an i n t e r e s t  may be drawn a l s o  Saxon, p u r i t a n i c a l a r e dammed  with  Jean  the f i r s t  living  a fertile  ground  " I know n o t how t o e x p r e s s by h e a p i n g  by i n f i n i t e .  infinite  Very  often,  a r e i n my mind and i n  - Infinite  upon  i n an i n f i n i t e  anguish:  to aspects  "The w r a t h f  was  and o f i d e a l i s m t h e r e  inf i n i te I '" ^  system  i n W i l l i a m Penn's p l a n n i n g . With J o n a t h a n  attention  "As  metropolis.  Edwards).  open s p a c e s  that  and i n t h e dream  American  t o me t o b e , than  and m u l t i p l y i n g  We h a d n o t e d  our  appear  formed  that prepared  n o t i o n of the sublime:  what my s i n s  upon i n f i n i t e , for  North  life."  t h e two most  c o n t r a s t i n the debates  the b a s i s o f the contemporary  On  business  i  and i n Edwards  of northern,  o f God i s l i k e  Anglo-  waters  ft "\  f o r the present".  Paul  S a r t r e d i d not f a i l  existential  hero:  by an a b s u r d i s t code t h a t  him - c o u l d o n l y  to n o t i c e ,  t h e cowboy  the s t r a n g e r , the o u t s i d e r , - though h i s f i a n c e e p l e a d s  end i n d e a t h .  For h i s ambition  t o master  ^  227.  the earth, his need to snap the promordial bonds of family and community,  his i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of freedom with the restless i t c h  to 'move on', spring from his secret love for the i n f i n i t e , which finite  earth cannot contain. The lover of the Infinite must  inevitably be k i l l e d . Implied in the American dream of mastery (17)  is the ominous imagination of disaster"  . And disaster  is  associated with the growth of the c i t y , which is a non-infinite and confined space and a place of damnation. Wentworth Eldredge pointed out that "we 'Anglo-Saxons' must 'love that Morton and Lucia White have shown that American  city'.  intellectuals  don't, and a similar survey of B r i t i s h i n t e l l e c t u a l s  makes clear  that this antipathetic stream has a source higher in the h i l l s . Among American i n t e l l e c t u a l s , Essay on. Farming  Ralph Waldo Emerson, whose  was in part reprinted by Frank Lloyd Wright as  an appendix to his Broadacre C i t y , described Thoreau in this manner: "No truer American existed than Thoreau, his preference of his country and condition was genuine,  and his aversation from Eng-  l i s h and European manners and tastes almost reached contempt... The men were a l l imitating each other, and on a small mold. Why can they not l i v e as far apart as possible, by himself?  and, each be a man  What he sought was the most energetic  nature; and  he wished to go to Oregon, not to London...He interrogated every custom, and wished to s e t t l e a l l his practice on an ideal foundation. He was protestant  'a l'outrance*, and few lives contain f 19)  so many renunciations. He was bred to no profession..."^  J  228 .  Benjamin Franklin was an i n t e l l e c t u a l and a moralist too, but more inclined to sciences, economics and p o l i t i c s and to a s e t t l e d ,  peaceful, sober urban existence; an insight  into his attitude toward the c i t y may come from reading his proposal to the Parisians in order that they stop wasting money with candies by going to bed and r i s i n g late: "I say i t is impossible that so sensible  a people, under such circum-  stances, should have lived so long by smokey, and enormously expensive  unwholesome,  light of candles, i f they had r e a l l y  known, that they might have had as much pure light of the sun for nothing."  One might wonder why at the beginning  North American c i t i e s were b u i l t at a l l , at least after the war of Independence.  We have noticed that Mysticism, Solitude, the love of Nature, of L i b e r t y , o f Equality,  of Idealism, ..most :of the  components of the r i s e of the romantic movement, were already present since the origins of the development of North America and of i t s  cities.  We must also note that the o r i g i n a l bulk  of population of the United States and of B r i t i s h America was made up of a majority of Protestant p u r i t a n i c a l farmers and of a minority of scientist-engineers interests.  with deep moral  There was a very limited l i t e r a r y production  in the t r a d i t i o n of the Mathers or of a sentimental kind, with a distant memory of the Elizabethan period. It was a new world determined to be new, pure and p r a c t i c a l . The new North American c i t i e s did not gather craftsmen and a r t i s t s  and did  229 .  not  promote  science. the  Art  rich.  America  of  spring sort  of  of  on  was  the  to  or  most  of  is  were  his  very  of  diverse or  than  of  to  destiny  among  of  culture  a  the  land  a  i s  or  since  of  i n  related  the to  community  trend  of  A  capable  of  communities.  and  On  or  Greece  l i f e .  The  America  centre  by  urban  but away  his  the  and  because  city  had  arts,, -  of even  a l l kinds.  cities land,  was  i t s  Even different.  i t was  related  independent  contrary,  Upon  city.  l i f e ,  pursuits  shaping  relation.  only  cities,  than  of  the  with  representative  crafts  of  different  North  times  medieval  off-  in  of  and  an  earlier  in  pleasures  property  as  exist  rather  exchanges  property  nature,  could  (not  medieval  late  of  American  new  of  of  specialized  leisure,  -  tradition  p o l i t i c a l  contrary  state,  transin  science  even  by  views  came  and  and  imported  time.  with  and  The  late  neutral  the  later  small  important  other  Beauty  representatives i n  the  lovers  wrong,  the  be  business  of  centres  On  intellectual  being  belonging  the  centres.  liberty  a  world,  elegant  morally  at  morally  regions)  magnet  values.  religion  alternative  the  concerned  European  continent,  concept  WASP  not  gather  a  a  moral  of  those  of  was  could  place  are  values,  l a r g e r urban  old  city  mattered.  This  Rather to  what  by  the  and  cities  designated  wasteful the  the  was  states  become the  In  a  that  traditional  considered  the  trend  from was  was  was  tradition  intellectual,  "polis"  of  the  sentimental  Rome,  the  best the  the  sentimental  Europe.  and  at  i s why  of  pursuits. Culture  embellishment  about  and  morality, in  an  City  This  engineers and  was  The  actions . North  intellectual  "the  property,  heart the  230.  most are  easily  rationalized  founded.  banner  of  Even  mysticism,  rationalization not  b e i ng  or  was  From  functional.  to  mentality.  The  the  Kings  we  French have  moving  the  outside  example  putting  of  classical examples even  Hume u n t i l  today,  to  however,  trend an  was  of  idealize  hands  to  those  of  that  based  of  the  having  by  no  Louis  the  outlook  upon  'utility'."!'  less the  Versailles, Joseph  plow.  rural  Jefferson  all man.  old  Marie set  the  of  There  have  good  century  sorts  Romans  would  as  by  Eighteenth  with  good  II  did  than  XIV,  tradition  are  and  "WASP"  Emporer  itself  WASP w o r d s  North American  a new  the  the  Europe  emporer.  to  the  continental  encouraged  nobility  reminiscences  similar  to  occupied the  the  Paris and  is  that  started  arcadian, his  of  Austian  walls  romanticism  classical  republic  through  mentioned,  an  central  Locke  and  was  The  ethic  freedom  exuberance,  are  WASP  of  under  WASP w o r d s  foundations  Antoinette  sailed  sheer  practical.  dominent  the  and  notions  central  rural  already  English pirate  adventure,  remember,  contribute  WASP  The  The  We may  relations,  the  rather  doing.  control ling. is  when  of  of  were the  had.  Let North  us  American  romanticism, grew New  larger York  and  Vancouver.  The  more  of  vised fields The  larger.  to  the  the  Industrial  of  land  the of  The to  group  and  of  turned  and  San  cities,  infinite  the  system  War g a v e  development  when  the  the and  settlers land  jeopardizing  from  had  to  from to  absolute  calvinistic  the  panorama treasured  be  of  revolution  Toronto  final  speculation  the the  of  tide  expanded  industrialists,  transformed  resources  was  Francisco,  into  the  industrial  puritanical  exploitation,  of  century,  of  grid  nostalgic  quickly  aspects  last  American C i v i l  north,  dwellings  some  the  immigration  aristocratic  states.  in  Philadelphia  predominance farmers  examine  cities,  of  and  now  sought  over  the  slavist and of  impro-  the  open  rural  dream  further  and  232 .  further west, while the eastern c i t i e s began experiencing the transformation of urban blocks into slums.  "In the middle of the 19th century Frederick Law Olmsted joined a p o l i t i c a l l y powerful group of eastern anthropists,  social reformers, writers and Protest  phil-  ministers  who set out to introduce the virtues of rural America among the huddled urban masses. Their thesis, common enough at the time, was that what the c i t i e s needed was big public parks. When Olmsted put the reformers' ideals into practice by planting a huge v i l l a g e green in the middle of Manhattan, he automatically became the cutting edge of the whole movement.  Olmsted was more than equal to the task.  Though he  personally responded to landscapes with the eye of an a r t i s t , he was also an intensely p r a c t i c a l man. He never f a i l e d to impress on c i t y o f f i c i a l s  that his parks and parkways would (221  raise surrounding land values and tax  revenues."  "While Olmsted accepted as inevitable the fact  that  the city grew at the expense of the countryside, he was pained (231  to see i t replacing the v i l l a g e as a dominant way of l i f e . " "Olmsted had no professional  education to sustain his deep  (241  attachment to nature",  and in fact he was rather a n t i -  i n t e l l e c t u a l ; in his letters he seems to be even prone to misspell a large percentage of words including the names of his  favourite  233.  authors. However "he had picked up a l l he knew from reading, from running the Staten Island farm his rich merchant father had given him, and from examining England's great parks during a (25)  walking t r i p abroad"  . The tour extended also to France and  Germany, and changed the focus of his interests from farming to urban l i f e ,  in part because of the impressive s t a t i s t i c s  he gathered on the growth of urban centers.  that  "Omsted found many  ideas in his independent studies of English and American l i t e r ature. From the work of such English landscape theorists  as  Uvedale Price (in An Essay on the Picturesque Price argued for a formal landscape art which was natural and picturesque,  as  opposed to the formal landscaping then in vogue) and William Gilpin (in Upon Prints - 1768 - Gilpin established  the  p r i n c i p l e that a scene or picture has beauty i f i t  conforms  to the rules of painting) he drew both an esthetic theory and a - s e t - o f ••technique's- for-the - development of - a -natural, romantic lands cape.  He derived i n s p i r a t i o n from the c u l t u r a l . ' f l o w e r i n g  of New England', notably the essays and poetry of contemporaries such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, James Russel Lowell, and William Cullen Bryant.  The theme of nature was the dominant synthe-  sizing idea in the cultural and i n t e l l e c t u a l while he was maturing.  Yet his  .s closest ( ?  l i f e of New England  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with nature ft ^  derived from memories of childhood." Olmsted brought the romantic picturesque reaction  against  the prevailing ideal geometric grid to the North American  cities.  We see the outcry for nature and curves against the  development  234 .  of the o r i g i n a l semirural grid of city blocks. We find the romantic struggle of sentiment against ideal reason, i n t e r preted as greenery and i r r e g u l a r curves, as organic growth and variety against building blocks and geometry, man made development and uniformity.  The contrast is v i o l e n t ,  abrupt and  shocking: the perpendicular streets of Manhattan suddenly end, the buildings stop and one goes across meandering paths, trees and grass, grid.  lakes,and then again one is in the urban  It is not just picturesque, i t is sublime.  And yet the same Olmsted who was fighting the growth of the i n d u s t r i a l c i t y by spreading parks, shrubs and serpentines across North America, had been a member of the U t o p i a n community of Red Bank, New Jersey, the most famous town in North America modeled after the theories of Charles F o u r i e r . . Fourier in France had been preaching a harmony of people, nature and industry in his communities for i n d u s t r i a l labourers. Olmsted thought by separating the various a c t i v i t i e s c i t i e s and by creating suburban r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e s , would achieve harmony of a c t i v i t i e s  generations.  Olmsted wished "to contain the destructive of the commercial sections of the c i t y . This was since  he  and would provide the  advantages of the l i f e of the v i l l a g e to future  he f e l t ,  of the  influence feasible,  'commerce does not require the same conditions  to be maintained in a l l parts of a town'. It was undoubtedly Olmsted's rural background which led him to emphasize  235 .  the introduction of 'natural'elements environment.  in reforming the urban  But i t would be inaccurate to characterize his  point of view as either rural or antiurban. Rather, he hoped to fuse the best qualities of both country and city into a new physical and social unit: the suburb. it,  As he expressed  'No broad question of country l i f e in comparison with  city l i f e is involved; i t is confessedly delicate  adjustment'  The 'adjustment'  a question of  could best be achieved  in governmentally designed communities d i s t i n c t from, but connected to, the older commercial c i t y ,  creating a new form  for the metropolis. These suburbs were not intended to be (as are suburbs now in existence)far removed from the heart of the c i t y . The idea - recurrent in present day urban planning l i t e r a t u r e - was to develop communities within easy reach of the city center,  inhabited by 'urban v i l l a g e r s ' .  Olmsted believed that the many varieties  of the light carriage  (which had come into use in the nineteenth steam railway would f a c i l i t a t e  century) and the  rapid and easy transporation  between home and work. The city he looked forward to was an organic one in which its many parts, like the various rooms (27)  of a.ihouse, would have separate  functions."  As we see here, both the suburban style and zoning had been c l e a r l y conceptually developed i n the middle of the nineteenth century, from romantic notions and as two necessary aspects of the same c u l t u r a l and urban trend.  236.  Olmsted's view of means of transporation carriages and the steam railway) once again  (light  for suburban dwellers proves  that the concepts of urban and c i v i l developments  precede rahter than follow the technoligical make them possible and viable.  advances that  While the concept of the modern  suburban development was c l e a r l y advanced, the automobile was just as clearly outside the realm of Olmsted's  imagination.  We w i l l have to remark that Calvert Vaux (Olmsted's partner) "like Olmsted, considered spaces to be more s i g n i f i cant than solids in planning c i t i e s "  and that he was  brought from England to North America by Andrew Jackson Downing, the important American h o r t i c u l t u r i s t and propagandist  for  naturalism in architectural and landscape design. Vaux brought with him a romantic traditon with which Olmsted had only a s u p e r f i c i a l acquaintance. together for twenty-four years,  Olmsted and Vaux worked trying to avoid "an unhealthy  density of population" and propagandizing and developing "suburban neighborhoods where each family abode stands fifty  or a hundred feet or more apart from a l l others,  some distance from the public road."  ( 2 9 )  and at  *  J  "It is to Andrew Jackson Downing and his b r i l l i a n t associates, Clavert Vaux and Frederick Low Olmsted, J r . , that  *We may recollect  the e a r l i e r quote about Thoreau's tastes.  237 .  we owe the curvilinear street pattern and studied informality of the contemporary suburban development."'-*^''  For Olmsted  the suburb could be described as "the most a t t r a c t i v e ,  the  most refined and the most soundly wholesome forms of domestic life,  and the best application of the arts of c i v i l i z a t i o n ( 3D to which mankind has yet attained." From the f i r s t opening of part of Central Park in New York in 1858 to the setting of the 1893 Chicago Exposition, Olmsted and Vaux showed the pattern of the North American romantic urban philosophy and development.  Sinous roads among  elegant s t r i c t l y r e s i d e n t i a l suburbs (in Europe the suburbs were mostly a mixture of i n d u s t r i e s ,  commerce, and lower  class  apartments, close to the boulevards and the parks of the former city walls),  an i n i t i a l form of zoning, metropolitan govern-  ments, meandering paths through English gardens, beside lakes and through forests of huge parks, were among their legacy to our  cities.  They were contrasted by the perennial foe of the naturalist romantics:  the ruthless "catchpenny" (to use  again the expression of Van Wyck Brooks) developer, successful  the  supporter of Social Darwinism. This presented  another side of romanticism, the romanticism of the i n d u s t r i a l revolution, the p r a c t i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c the sentimental  dream as opposed to  and n a t u r a l i s t i c dream. Developers and lovers  of nature confronted each other with the d i a l e c t i c  opposition  238 .  and with the obstacle  that is necessary  to produce the romantic  struggle and anguish of a true romantic. In this sense the  love  of nature and the i n d u s t r i a l revolution have always been complementary. The developers were appealing to Nature too, but in another manner: the Social Darwinists " g l o r i f i e d ruthless individual enterprise and disdained a l l forms of social planning. Public taste in urban beauty shifted from r u s t i c scenery to impressive buildings sublime)  (another form of the  - a change brought on, i r o n i c a l l y , by the success  of the Chicago Columbian Exposition whose setting Olmsted had (32) designed." and the opposite  The skyscraper had arrived as the  aslternative  (in terms of density and size only) to the  suburban dwelling. The new monumentalism that the forces of the i n d u s t r i a l revolution brought forward had deep r e v i v a l i s t roots. industrialists,  the developers,  The  and the s c i e n t i s t s sided in  most cases with those who read the universe as written in geometric and mathematical language: for them Nature was revered and admired as a fascinating and beautiful machine. Their line of thought had i l l u s t r i o u s precedents  going as  far back as Leonardo (or even Pythagoras), through Descartes and G a l i l e o . They were opposed by those who interpreted Nature rather as an animal or as a vegetal  being, than  as a machine: an organic nature that would abhor from geometric impositions.  The natural forms in these cases would be  239 .  mostly the i r r e g u l a r and round shapes of bodies and trees, rahter than those produced at the drafting table.Only a few eclectic  "geniuses", such as Frank Lloyd Wright, would try  to reconcile the two interpretations most of the time.  While North America was developing under the  influence  of the Chicago Columbian Exposition, in the old continent Camillo Sitte and Ebenezer Howard were laying the of modern city planning. substance  foundations  And yet i t would seem that the  of their thoughts was already present and partly  theorized in the new continent at the turn of the century. Ebenezer Howard himself maintained that he drew his i n s p i r a t i o n and formed the bulk of his ideas during his stay and thanks to the atmosphere of America. And a book such as Modern Civic Art or The City Made Beautiful by Charles Mulford Robinson, (33) of 1903,  is very significant  as an example of the ideas  that had been c i r c u l a t i n g in North America. Robinson comes so close to S i t t e ' s thinking or feeling in some of his pages that he would appear almost to be quoting him: "vast areas of regularly plotted streets became dreadf u l l y monotonous  . . . Then arose the wish to beautify  to bring stateliness into the business d i s t r i c t  cities,  (note the  d i s t i n c t i o n of zones) and the soft touch of nature into the regions where the .homes were,.  The opportunities of the square  for this were perceived and sized . . . And the square afforded an excellent location for c i v i c sculpture . . . of the city are, or should be, i t s  ornaments."  The open spaces (34)  240.  At the same time Robinson endorsed the idea of suburban, housing with a lot of greenery and went at great  length f 351  defending "the well-proved charm of the curving street." (He even quoted Professor William James, the psychologist,  as  saying . . . "that the daily sight of the curve of Scott Street added much to the pleasure of l i v i n g in his house - or, indeed, the neighbourhood.'!)  He had l i t t l e  to learn  from Ebenezer Howard in terms of garden c i t i e s except from the p o l i t i c a l and administrative point of view which would . have not been easily applicable to North America.  And he  shared some of Howard's discontent with modern i n d u s t r i a l cities:  "As when heavens r o l l e d away and St. John beheld  the new Jerusalem, so a vision of a new London, a new Washington, Chicago or New York breaks with the morning's sunshine upon the degradation, discomfort, and baseness of modern city  life."^ '' 6  The movement toward suburbia and the vision of a new and monumental city gained momentum at the same time; while the c i t i e s were more and more clearly divided into  separate  d i s t r i c t s and the commercial centres increased in density, the suburbs grew. By 1925 a comprehensive s o c i a l study and (371  c r i t i c i s m of suburbia, The Suburban Trend  had been  published, and Le Corbusier by 1931 had commented on "the vast,  romantic amphitheater that is now the gateway to America's  immensity:  Manhattan," that  "the skyscraper has p e t r i f i e d the f 3 81  c i t i e s " and that is was not "Cartesian", i t was i r r a t i o n a l .  241 .  But the forces behind zoning and the suburban trend were older than the American revolution and more rooted than the principles of American democracy. By 1929 a definitive  zoning plan had  reached even Vancouver, and in the t h i r t i e s  Clarence Stein  and Henry Wright were developing garden c i t i e s in the English fashion, with federal aid.  The 1929 "Plan for Vancouver" had  i l l u s t r a t i o n s with comments such as "A store intrusion in the West End" and "There are Many Attractive Homes and Gardens in the South Vancouver Area."  The term garden, and p a r t i c u l a r l y "garden city" had had a magic spell in North America for quite some time. In the second half of the nineteenth  century, Chicago, a city  where Ebenezer Howard resided from 1971 to 1976, had adopted the name of Garden City and placed i t on the coat of arms, as a sign of pride  for its many gardens and parks. In 1869  Alexander T. Stewart described a model town for Long Island, New York, as a "garden city".  In 1906,  eight years after  appearance of Howard's book and the same years when the "garden city",  the first  Letchworth, was opened in England, the Garden  City Association of America was founded. A former senator, the head of the Long Island Railroad, an Episcopal bishop, a university professor and a banker were among i t s  officers  and members ( a l l of the single Anglo-Saxon ethnic . group). The association published for more than fifteen Village."  years "The  242 .  In North America Howard's theories  had a tremendous  success, but i t was soon clear,that "communal: ownership" f 39")  of real estate cut against a very tough American grain"  and  that the p o l i t i c a l schemes proposed by Howard could not be accepted as readily as his aesthetic urban views. The ideal was instead that "millions of workers may own homes with gardens".  "The American plan is to t r a i n and develop the  individual in the capacity and ambition to own his own decent home."^^  President Hoover stated: "To own one's own  home is a physical expression of individualism, of enterprise, of f 41)  independence,  and of freedom of s p i r i t . "  Hoover even proposed  the Home Loan Bank System to encourage universal single home ownership.  The Depression came to cut into this dream and  brought Radburn, the suburban jewel designed by Henry Wright and Clarence Stein, into bankruptcy.  Radburn was already  incorporating the latest thinking in terms of modern planning: everything was clean and separated as much as possible,  "the  houses facing away from the street toward i n t e r i o r parks", and " a l l pedestrian and vehicular t r a f f i c was separated - the walkways often running through the i n t e r i o r parks and crossing C42)  roads through underpasses." It was up to the new president,  Franklin Delano Roosevelt,  to give a new interpretation to the t r a d i t i o n a l dreams. Roosevelt thought that the "breaking down of a r t i f i c i a l and unnecessary barriers between the rural and urban communities"  243.  was important, and saw "a definite  place for an intermediate  type between the urban and r u r a l , namely a r u r a l - i n d u s t r i a l (43) group".  ^ Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt had been a board member of  the company that b u i l t Radburn, N . J . , and the president had other relatives  that had been in contact with Garden City groups.  It was his administration that founded the Resettlement Admini s t r a t i o n and permitted the successful  construction of Greenbelt,  Greenhills and Greendale, towns closer to the B r i t i s h theory in terms of financing and administration.  These towns remained the  most famous examples of s o c i a l l y and a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y suburbia; the most generous and planned attempt,  progressive  probably, to  bring everybody out in contact with redeeming nature in a semirural community.  They died l a t e r , while the "hardness and self(44)  ishness beyond belief"  of the other suburbs spread across  the  continent with the booming economy. In the context of the origins of North American c i t i e s outlined thus far nothing seems to me more in line with the North American t r a d i t i o n than Frank Lloyd Wright's Broadacre City.  It is even amazing that actually John L a n s i l l and the  Resettlement Administration did not take seriously his proposal, even i f i t implied a budget three times larger than the one available.  More tragic is the case of Edgar Chambless, who  proposed Roadtown, "a line of c i t y through the country", and who committed suicide after finding his proposal refused.  repeatedly  244.  The growth and development of the zoned c i t i e s ,  with  a green belt of suburban r e s i d e n t i a l housing, with suburban villages  and a high density commercial core has become the sign  of modern and contemporary times in North America.  It has become  so "modern" that i t is being exported and imitated as a symbol and as a system a l l over the world.  The North American city  is  in fact that most overall total product of romanticism, and as such i t cannot f a i l to appear as a model to the rest of the world, during these last stages of romanticism. stereotype:  It has become a  in 1958 a volume such as "Urbanistica, Storia e  Tecnica", could publish side by side the plans of suburban residential developments Victor:  in Stockholm, Turin and Palermo.  Gruen dreams of his old native Vienna and plans a  "counterattack" with beautifications the heart o.f the c i t i e s , Sitte,  While  and pedestrian malls in  proposing himself as a new Camillo  the entire world seems to be rushing to adopt the  lethal  pattern that is keeping North American urbanism buried.  "Are C i t i e s Un-American?" William White had to ask (45) himself.  "In a s t r i k i n g f a i l u r e to apply marketing princ-  iples and an even more s t r i k i n g f a i l u r e of esthetics, c i t i e s are freezing on a design for l i v i n g i d e a l l y  the  calculated  to keep everybody in suburbia." The suburban trend continued across the continent at a phenomenal pace.  At the same time, New York city opened again  245 .  the  t a l l e s t  and  a l l the commercial  of  skyscraper  high-rise  around  office  matters  a  and  " r a t i o n a l i s t s " with  a  years  the world,  metropolitan  buildings.  o f money  and  ations  hundred  of  ago; work  and  now  together  geographical  centres  Urban  matters  only  i n the middle  of  even  the  discussions style more  i n t h e same  b a s i s ." • ^ ^  saw  as than  of  a  recession,  last  s t i l l  they  d i d  before  " s e t of  surge revolve f i f t y "romantics"  specializ-  246.  CHAPTER  8  (1)  CHURCHILL,  (2) (3)  H.  The  City  is  the  People,  Making  of  Urban  New  Y o r k . 1945 ,  p,186  Ibidem J .  W.  Reps,  America,  ~  97  fig.  The  Ibidem,  f i g .  90  (5)  Ibidem,  f i g .  7  (6)  Ibidem,  f i g .  12  (7)  Ibidem,  f i g .  262  (8)  Ibidem,  f i g .  8  (9)  Ibidem,  f i g .  25  (10)  Ibidem,  f i g .  118  (11)  ANDREW M A R V E L L , qfrom "The Great p. 198.  (12)  JOHN HECTOR ST. Amerian Farmer, The  1965,  "  (4)  CHOAY,  P r i n c e t o n  S  120  A Dialogue Between the Soul and M a s t e r s " by M . C I A R A M E L L A , Rome JOHN from  Modern  DE C R E V E C O E U R , L e t t e r s from an M. PRAZ, A n t o l o g i a , Milan 1959,  (13)  F.  (14)  V A N WYCK BROOKS, A n t o l o g i a , Milan  (15)  JONATHAN EDWARDS, P e r s o n a l N a r r a t i v e A n t o l o g i a , Milan 1959, p.527  (16)  JONATHAN EDWARDS, S i n n e r s i n the Hands from M. CIARAMELLA, The Great M a s t e r s ,  (17)  M. NOVAK: The 19 7 2 , p . 9 5  (18)  H.  T.  (19)  R. M.  W. E M E R S O N , L e c t u r e s a n d B i o g r a p h i c a l PRAZ, A n t o l o g i a , Milan 1959, p.530  (20)  BENJAMIN F R A N K L I N , To the A u t h o r s o f from M. PRAZ, A n t o l o g i a , Milan 1959,  ELDREDGE,  City,  New  York  1969,  America's Coming-of-Age, 1959, p.626  Rise  the Body, 1958,  of  Taming  the  Unmeltable  M e g a l o p o l i s ,  from  f i g .  48  from  M.  M.  p.528  PRAZ,  PRAZ,  o f an A n g r y G o d , Rome 1958, p.570  E t h n i c s ,  New  York  New  York  1967  Sketches,  the J o u r n a l p.532  from  o f  P a r i s ,  247.  (21)  M. NOVAK, The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics, New York 1972, p. 171  (22)  "Life", December 8,  (23)  A. FEIN: Landscape into Cityscape, Cornell 1968,  (24)  A. FEIN: Landscape into Cityscape, Cornell 1968,  (25)  "Life",  (26)  A. FEIN: Landscape into Cityscape, Cornell 1968,  (27)  Ibidem,  p.37  (28)  Ibidem,  p.43  (29)  Ibidem,  p.38  (30)  A. ARNOLD, The New Deal in the Suburbs, Ohio State University Press 1971, p.4  (31)  A. FEIN: Landscape.into Cityscape, Cornell 1968,  (32)  "Life",  (33)  C M . ROBINSON, Modern Civic Art of The City Made Beautiful, New York 1903  (34)  Ibidem, p.287  (35)  Ibidem,  p.196  (36)  Ibidem,  p.4  (37)  H.P. DOUGLASS, The Suburban Trend, New York 1925  (38)  LE CORBUSIER, The Radiant City, Paris 1933,  (39)  A. ARNOLD, The New Deal in the Suburbs, Ohio State University Press, 1971, p.8  (40)  Ibidem, p.38,  (41)  Ibidem,  p.38  (42)  Ibidem,  p.16  (43)  Ibidem,  p.41  (44)  "Atlantic Monthly", January 1920, Delux, by EDWARD YEOMANS  1972,  December 8, 1972,  December 8,  1972,  p.87,  p.84,  a r t i c l e by E . Kern. p.3 p.5  a r t i c l e by E. KERN p.6  p.38  p.84  p.127  quoting Albert Shaw  p.107, The Suburban  248 .  (45)  W.H. WHITE J r . , Are Cities Un-American?, "Fortune", September 1957.  (46)  H.P. DOUGLASS, The Suburban Trend, New York  1925  249 .  9.  ARCHITECTURAL  TRENDS  AND  CREEDS  Nature  and  the  RELATED  WITH  ROMANTICISM  The i n t e l l e c t u a l with  the  m o t i f s  romantic  The  i n t e r e s t  and  can  be  i n  as  a  ladder with the  f u l l y .  to  or  contact  "Deus  sive  over  two  i s  and  l a t e r .  Even  horse  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  i s  a l s o  and  a  Yet i s  i s  as  p a i n s t a k i n g  w i t h  gains  v i r t u o u s  i s  the  one  the  f o r  emphasis  not  e n t i r e l y from  the  Renaissance  that  Nature  not  God  i t s e l f .  i s  open  A r c a d i a f o r e s t  great  the  past  may  n e o p l a t o n i c Nature  shines  courts  to  formed  of  a a  l i t t l e m y s t i c a l  s i n f u l n e s s ;  the  e n t i r e  e x p l o r e r s and  new  s e t t l e r s  d i s c o v e r .  that  has  to  tamed  and  converted  nature  w i l d has  e x e r c i s e  he  The is  labour  of  beast to  be  v i r t u e ,  farmer  i s  and  seen  in  c l o s e  contact  the  f r u i t  of  b r i n g s  Nature  to  i n  a  be  f o r i t s  i s  man  with  Nature Man  n a t u r a l  peace  as  of  p r i m i t i v e  a c q u i r e  anguish  to  p r e s e n t e d  p h i l o s o p h y  golden i s  i s  the  t h e i r  e l a b o r a t e s A  n o t i o n s  and  a  are  new.  the  romantic  i t  p r i n c e s  the a  and  and  Nature).  agent,  who  i s  c o r r u p t  c r a f t .  p o s i t i o n :  farmer  as  the  p r i v i l e g e d with  and  Human  This a  bad  enemy,  c o n v e r t e d .  i t  i s  l i g h t  pure  c h e r i s h e d .  there  s c i e n c e s ,  s o u r c e s .  i s  in  new  dates  Renaissance  i t  i s  r i d i n g  p u n i s h i n g  done  the  of  were  Sciences  S p i n o z a  (God  new  c e n t u r i e s  when  i s  a  r i s e  they  Arab  Nature.  N a t u r a "  v i o l e n t  the  goodness;  Nature  a  i n  God,  with  be  and  phenomenon;  with  nature  However,  to  contact  human  a c q u i r e d  back  It  from  d i v i n i t y  which  Nature  took  c a t h a r t i c  to  age.  t r a c e d  It develop  r e t u r n  world  can Nature  tamed t o o .  o b t a i n e d  in  a  Nature,  and  mankind. most  benign  The  250 .  form;  he  is  must  and  i s  f i n a l l y be  A f i n a l  an  v i v i d  by  It f a r m e r ' s  can  to  n a t u r a l  i n  ment  to  s c i e n t i s t  as  s c i e n c e s . f o r  f e c t i o n  of  the of  a  i s  and  One Romantic  as  a  hobby  It  was  the  balanced  of  may age,  and  a  new f o r  time  of  passages  added  that  thought  i t s  by  of  from  Frank  i n  the  "Essay  on  Lloyd  Wright  as  Emerson  a s k s :  not  c o o l i e s ,  the  "Who  same  p u b l i c a t i o n  passage  from  such  a  are  but  t h i s  the  see  the  an  i d e a l i s t i c  c h e m i s t r y , i n  and at  the the  the  as  the  Geology  by  Frank  n e o - p l a t o n i s t  XVI  A n t o i n e t t e  such  a  hero  attachment  of  the  to  f o r  the  matheand  s c i e n c e .  There  of of  open  p e r -  knowledge the  is i n  elements  development  of  r e v o l u t i o n .  the  had that as  of  a t t a c h -  p r e c i s i o n  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n time  m y s t i c a l  geometry, the  f i e l d  and  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  smybolic the  f o r f o r  the  i n d u s t r i a l  Louis  emotional  enthusiasm  between  1869,  Marie  who  C i t y . " ^ ^  by  endeavours  in  t r a d i t i o n  the  i n  a  m i s s i o n a r y  man.  I r i s h ,  i s  E n c y c l o p a e d i a  r o m a n t i c i s m  the  i t  N a t u r a l  P a r a c e l s u s .  years  M e n d e l e j e f f  i n  r e n a i s s a n c e  i s  human  t h i s  the  f i n d  p h y s i c s ,  hundred  f i r s t  the  There  m a t i c s ,  only  and we  nature  of  essay  Not  of  urban  Emerson  t h i s  that  Since  the  k i n d  "Broadacre  servants?  Wright  a  found  Waldo  C h e m i s t r y . . . "  Lloyd  by  be  h i s  i s  as  example  Ralph  appendix  and  revered  f r u i t i o n  Farming"  seen  f a c t  t h a t ,  mechanical of  p l a y i n g  Robinson  at  the  l o c k i n g a  Crusoe  dawn  of  devices  shepherdess. and  of  the  251 .  w r i t i n g s  of  p a s s i o n of  the  f o r  of  the  between  s c i e n c e ,  and  the  d e s i r e  of  of  a  The a  of  something  emphasize  the  i n f i n i t e  or  a  d e s i r e  of  b u c o l i c  and  p r o j e c t  of  a  s p h e r i c a l  ( f i g u r e  1)  a  p e r f e c t  t r e e s , no  other  t h i s the of  of  the g r a s s b u i l d i n g  a b s o l u t e l y middle  of  i s o l a t e d ,  of  sphere  and is  of  in  the  grandiose  and  an  pure  and  of  to  may  the  a  is  only  o b j e c t ,  g e o m e t r i c a l  t h i s  an  as  a  be  seen  age.  c o n t r a s t in  Ledoux. of  the •*  the c o u n t r y ;  mystery  and  The  i n  new  the  the  alone  c o n t r a s t .  the  by  in  t e n d e n c i e s ,  or  middle  farm  comes  dwell  of  one designs  anguish  achieved  in  i n  d a r i n g  i m p o s s i b l e  guards"  of  or,  opposing  i d e a l i s m  r u r a l  trend  the  f a s h i o n  sublime  There  sublime  i n  and  enthusiasm  geometry,  two  the  d e v o t i o n  mixed  d e n i a l ;  of  c a t t l e  man-made  i n  t h i s  i t s  s h i n i n g  s i g h t .  p e r f e c t  Nature,  and  f o r  is  s c i e n t i f i c  i d e a l  geometric  "house  the  between  the  the  f e e l i n g  became  of  of  c o n t r a s t ,  sentiment  example  r u r a l i s m  and  c o n t r a s t  and  see  romantic  of  d i v i d e d  of  We  sublime  to  f i r s t  and  nature  and  A  England,  France.  Ledoux.  sentiment  i n  Rousseau i n  e x p r e s s i o n ,  Boullee  mood  Nature  and  romantic  from  Newton,  E n c y c l o p a e d i a  sentiment  of  Isaac  of  detached,  i n  monumentality  forms  i s  even  more  (31 e x p l o i t e d  by  (figure  2)  s e t t i n g  sun,  Boullee  where  i n  an  immense  surrounded  c y p r e s s e s .  The  reminds  one  of  Wagner  World.  We  must  note  scale  of  preceded  only  romantic  B o u l l e e ' s the  his  and that  sphere by  f o r  a  r i s e s  three  cenotaph to  the  p e r f e c t  awa  and  immenseness  of  the  taste  human  drawings.  t e c h n i c a l  p r o j e c t  beings  Romantic  achievements  of  of  l i k e  l a t e r  in  of  t h i s  ants  J  a  s l e n d e r d e s i g n  N a t i o n a l  i d e a l i s m  that  Newton,  clouds  r i n g s  the  are  to  in  S o c i a l i s t the  undoubtedly p e r m i t t e d  many  252 .  I.EDOIX} JVfnison dcs Gardes Agricolos  ism  I: ittH Xlev&doa.  Figure  253 .  Figure  2  254 .  of  i t s  dreams  Ledoux of  is  which  precede t h i s  t r u l y  the  design  had  s o r t  Kant  to  mind,  and  a r c h e o l o g i c a l decided  to  were  The a r c h i t e c t u r e to  the  copy as  chronology. was  of  l a r g e l y  no  and  was  ornaments  execute  of  i n t e r e s t s to  of  d e t a i l s  and  in  a  almost  under  the  i n f l u e n c e  of  modern The  p h i l o s o p h y  p h i l o s o p h y c o n s t r u c t i o n of  man,  d i s a p p e a r .  Species  b u i l d i n g s  f o r  i n  man  the  p l a c i n g  1750, to  of  E n g l i s h  Plantarum,  Normandy  these  undue  who,  of  w h i l s t  r e c o g n i z i n g  could  l a r g e  the  importance  emphasis  with  of  p u b l i c a t i o n s  chronology  O r d e r s ,  having  a n t i q u a r i e s  l i f e  e x c e s s i v e  f a m i l i a r  Five  without  the  to  s o c i a l  a r c h i t e c t s ,  become the  of  harmless  g i v i n g  craftsmen to  them  p r o j e c t i o n s  L i n n e a u s ' s  In  p h i l o s o p h y .  While  p r o j e c t i o n the  are  make  p r o f e s s i o n , of  Before  l e f t  o b l i g a t i o n  and  of  were  aspect  e f f e c t s  d r a f t s m a n s h i p ,  a  i t .  to  as  i f  s p e c i m e n s . . . .  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  u n f o r t u n a t e  as  medieval  books  an  to  by  always  a t t a i n  for.modern  house  c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  seems  Boullee  a t t r i b u t e d  n a t u r e ,  the  to  a r c h i t e c t u r e .  seen  and  dream  and  are  i s  Gaumont,  s t u d i e s  b o t a n i c a l  Ledoux  s p h e r i c a l  concrete  necessary  Hume  i n  the  The  a r c h i t e c t u r e  de  c l a s s i f y  i s  that  worshipped  " A r c i s s e  r e i n f o r c e d  and  be  i n  f o r  l i k e  p a r a l l e l  begins  human  geometry  a  example,  that  r e v o l u t i o n " of  e v e r y t h i n g the  what  f o r  knowledge.  r e s p e c t . a r c h i t e c t s  a  they  no  technology  " C o p e r n i c a n  of  paper: a  Ledoux  a r c h i t e c t u r e  has  on  the be  scale  on  had to  the  d e t a i l i n g  regarded  p a s t .  But the  s k i l l  value  antique  that  who  i n of  monuments had  t h e i r  been f i r s t  t r a d i t i o n a l  mouldings  r e l i e d  to  upon  drawings  s u p p l i e d .  255 .  But  with  the  u n f a m i l i a r employ,  advent  with  the  of  the  the  Gothic  t e c t o n i c  craftsmen  had  to  R e v i v a l ,  v o c a b u l a r y be  a l l  they  s u p p l i e d  t h i s  were  with  changed.  asked  exact  Now,  to  d e l i n e a t i o n s  (41 of  every  p r o f i l e  This most the in  is  r e v i v a l i s t  c r o c k e t . . . "  one  of  the  a r c h i t e c t u r e  o r i g i n a l s advance  and  i t  on  t r i e d  the  to  reasons,  i n c i d e n t a l l y ,  looks  c o l d  t a b l e ,  exact  g e o m e t r i c a l  c o n s t r u c t i o n s .  o f t e n  d e t a i l s  to  craftsmen  executed  be  the  so  i m i t a t e :  d r a f t i n g  had  '  v  every and In  as  On  i f  they  had  repeated to  the  which  comparison  d e t a i l  order  s i m p l i f i e d . d e t a i l s  was  in  f o r  to  w i t h be  drawn  a c c o r d i n g  to  accomplish  t h i s  c o n s t r u c t i o n  s i t e  were  the  hands  of  a  of  s t y l e  or  of  machine.  From  t h i s  time  ornamentation  or  forms  essence  more  are and  the more  p r o c e s s .  It  Napoleon,  and  of  surface of  p e r f e c t e d is  the  of  a l l  and  b e t t e r  by  Ledoux  and  to  the  by  LeCorbusier  a r c h i t e c t u r e more  and  t a b l e s  his  Reliance  of  more  of  the  take  other  an  there  Mies is  three  yesterday.  b a s i c  in Van  an  der  of  to  dream.  to  the  and  dreams  design  founded  by  p r o d u c i n g  the  b u i l d i n g s  c o n t i n u i t y ,  the  the  C r y s t a l  most  on  i n d u s t r i a l  become  p r o v i d e s  From  Paxton's  Rohe ;  s u c c e s s f u l  in  world  r e v o l u t i o n  the  undeniable  part  the  geometric  t o o l s  P o l y t e c h n i q u e ,  C h i c a g o ,  dimensions The  D r a f t i n g  schools  capture  simple  i n c r e a s e d  Ecole  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ,  and  r e g a r d l e s s  i n d u s t r i a l  to  B u i l d i n g  i n  day,  treatment,  the  The  t o o l s  our  a r c h i t e c t u r e . and  age  a r c h i t e c t s - e n g i n e e r s . b e t t e r  to  designs P a l a c e , designed  contemporary in the  which  we  see  d r a f t i n g  maecenases  took  256.  p r i d e the  in  f i n a n c i n g  advent  of  new  It ages  and  has  been  mass a  of  d e c o r a t i v e  f o r  f o r e ,  f o r e i g n  of  not  d i f f e r e n t  It not  d i s j o i n e d  and  from  the  with  new  to  e x c l u s i v e l y  of  of  by  age  and  past  golden  share  with  i t . the  of and  something of  the  the age,  the  r e v e r i e  i n t e r e s t  and  forms  appeared  to  There-  i n s t i t u t i o n s Canadian  e a r l y  were  a  love  i r r e m e d i a b l y  p a s s i n g  of  l o s t  t h i n g s .  r e v o l u t i o n a r y looked  i d e a l  the be,  f o r  r o m a n t i -  c o r p s e s ;  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y  The  keys.  s c i e n c e .  romantics of  t h i n k i n g  n e o g o t h i c ,  of  of  had  employ-  whereas  of  k i n d  forms  of  movements  cemeteries a  they  were  banking  f o r  i t  e c l e c t i c  mode  they  r e v i v a l  and  which  temporary  i n t r i n s i c a l l y  a l t h o u g h  w i t h  that  p r e f e r e n c e  as  an  i n  n e o c l a s s i c i s m ,  b e a u t i f u l  was  s t o l e  other  two  phenomenon,  and  The  f o r  l a s t  e n t i r e  and  f o r  death  c o n t i n u i t y ;  what  new  s l i g h t  n o s t a l g i a  sense  the  p l a c e s  symbols  archaelogy  a  f o r  the  love  f o r  romantic  of  a  of  the  and  governments  the  love  n o s t a l g i a  anguish  n o t h i n g  a  from  The d e s t r u c t i v e  r i s e  d u r i n g  T h e i r  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  from  the  ages  toward  have  minor  was  p o s s i b l e  n o s t a l g i a  g r a n d f a t h e r s  developed  i n c l i n e d  i s  the  to  American  example,  past  even  to  romantic  i n t e r e s t .  that  from  made  s u p e r f i c i a l  from  fact  seemed  and  v e r y  had  more  the  Our  symbols  governments  cism  a  s u p e r f i c i a l  be  dreams  r e p e a t e d l y  they  to  much  spread  which  the  seemed  that  o v e r r a t e d .  c o m p l e t e l y  i n g ,  noted  remained  h i g h l y  n e c e s s a r i l y  was  be  that  always  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  t e c h n o l o g i e s .  must  places  c e n t u r i e s  those  to  t i m e s , they  f o r  the  with  had  n o s t a l g i a not  and  the  was mode  257 .  of  l i f e  and  i n t e r e s t s those  of  t h i n k i n g  and  e f f o r t s  a r t ' s  r u i n s ,  but,  f l u n g  of  sake,  a b s t r a c t e d  the  of  even  from  c r a z i l y  e f f e c t  i s  a  e a r l y  e f f e c t  of  the  of  group  the  of  of  a n t i c i p a t e  be  made  make  o  4)^  f  what  sublime  k i n d  i s o l a t e d should  b u i l d i n g  i s  a  be  of a  of  an  the  and  J  i t s  a  a c t u a l  had  human  been  part  of  c i t y i s  a  of  a  c i t y  monuments the  p e r f e c t  most  are  of  art  i s o l a t e d s t a n d i n g  p o s s i b l e .  m a j e s t i c forms,  The  object  somewhere  w i t h  or  one  see  s t r o n g  can  as  as  "Astonishment  those  i n t o not  a  remains The  s u r p r i s i n g  by  by  Coast  made.  as  i n  that  of  new  In  f a c t  3 ) ^ ^  by  one  these  should  in  seems  comparison  d e s i g n  terms  see  to  t r e n d s .  environment.  accomplishment  we  something  ( f i g u r e  when  One  were  can  Ledoux  Headquarters  q u e s t i o n  envisaged  s u i t a b l e  a  the  s k y s c r a p e r  i n t e r e s t i n g  shown  s i n c e  i s  p r o p o s a l  romantic Boullee  that  no  monumental  Ruins  m i l e - h i g h  these  The  v e r y  d e g r e e " .  P a c i f i c  i s  concept  landscape  Another  d e s i g n .  the  a s t o n i s h i n g  tower  S e a r ' s  the  F r a n c i s c o .  of  i d e a .  to  c e r t a i n  such San  r e l a t e d  free  were  the  so  of  Ledoux:  e x p e c t a t i o n s  the  to  only  h i g h e s t  l i g h t  contemporary  i s  desert  the  such  of  and  land  p r o j e c t  between  ( f i g u r e  open  i n  a  of  i t  that  produced,  the  e x t r a v a g a n t , drawing  i n  and  not  i f  Boullee  p o p u l a t i o n  middle  )  of  i d e a l  e x h i b i t i o n  to  5  of  and  forms,  detached,  produce  sublime  the  love  middle  to  a r t i f i c i a l l y  today  a  the  of  age  meaning  romantic  dreams  the  p e r f e c t ,  i n t o  meaning,  or  t o t a l i t y  produced  concept  to  also  or  the  the  had  romantic  led  reason  even  that  detached  monumental ism  the  of  forms.  This  f o r  and  ( f i g u r e  has  to  designs  t h i n k  that  However, geometric  of the t h i s form:  258 .  Figure 3  259 .  Figure 4  261 . not  o n l y  also and  i t  i t  i s  a  p e r f e c t  succeeds  i n  c o n s t r u c t i o n  i t  i n t o  by  a  a  cube,  c o n c e a l i n g  thanks  s h i n y  p e r f e c t l y  magic  to  a  box,  mentioned  i n t r i n s i c a l l y also  but  i t s  c o n t e n t s ,  use  c o m p l e t e l y  p e r f e c t  as  i f  an  awe  of  cemeteries  c u r i o s i t y  and  d e s i g n e r s . f e i g n e d ;  before  r e v o l u t i o n a r y  developed  I n i t i a l l y ,  r e f l e c t i o n  i t  were  l a d i e s  and  and  would  and  one  that  s o l i d  by  a  main  i n g r e d i e n t ,  and  mood  age,  the  i n  the  i n d u s t r i a l  The ism  a l s o  led  ary  sense,  t r a n s f o r m s  piece  dropped  than  became  a  become  part  a  of  k i n d  to  seeing  as  a of  of  l i f e  the  to  much  more  t r a d i t i o n  s t a r t  t o g e t h e r  and  the  of  improvement.  among  mode  of  i n s t i n c t  the  duty  anew.  Fashions  frequent  and  change  a c q u i r e d  a  to  new  Fear  meaning,  that to  o f t e n food  and  that  undo  p r o g r e s s .  in  i n d i v i d u a l -  a  r e v o l u t i o n -  more  of  what  s t a r t e d  r a p i d l y .  s i g n i f y i n g  e l s e ,  s u s p i c i o n  g e n e r a t i o n  most  might  enthusiasm  g e n e r a t i o n s : each  was  c a t a s t r o p h e  something  consequently  much  Even  the  more  by  and  romantic  with  d i f f e r e n t  t h i n k i n g or  with  and  something  as  c a t a s t r o p h e  with  more  c o n s i d e r a b l e  w e l l  and  b o u r g e o i s  connected  of  p a l e .  of  This  c a t a s t r o p h i e s .  as  t e r r o r  sense  i n n o v a t i o n  gradual  n a t u r a l  done  r e v o l u t i o n  s u b s t i t u t i o n  fact  been  the  and  f a s h i o n a b l e  look  was  c o n t i n u i t y .  w r i t e r s  made  a  movement  subject  became  Poe  r e b e l l i o u s n e s s  as  r a t h e r  of  the  themselves  M a l t h u s .  of  death  l i t e r a r y  f o r  was  were  s i c k n e s s  make  romantic  d e s t r u c t i v e  death  p r e o c c u p a t i o n l i t e r a r y  the  d e s t r u c t i o n ,  s p e c u l a t i o n  F r a i l t y  that  a  f o r  s t a n d i n g ,  g i a n t .  We  come  free,  m o s t l y  The j u s t  i t  had  had had to  be  word the  as  2 6 2 .  s t y l e of  of  the  p r e v i o u s  ideas  and  p r a c t i c e s  sequence and  of  by  the  that  g e n e r a t i o n s  t h e i r  p o s i t i o n s For  s k y s c r a p e r of  t h e i r  order Ladner is  a  as  p r o v i d e  tower  small  to a  The  opposing romantic  Drang":  he  impose  to  impose  such  made a  i t  common  i n  is  the  of  a  t h i s  s o l i t a r y  on  of  the  e x e r c i s e to  of  s o n . o f  of  b u i l d  leave  new  dramas  s t r u g g l e ,  defend  the  a  a  monument  g e n e r a t i o n s  of  i n  The  B r i t i s h  Columbia  p h i l o s o p h y .  f o r . f a t h e r s  i n  the  i m m o r t a l i t y .  k i n d  custom  to  to  n o t i o n  p o s i t i o n s  that  decide  U n i v e r s i t y  theme  s t i l l  are,  may  common  the  and  patrimony  u n i n t e r r u p t e d  a  grab  company  form  an  through  monument a  to  example  i n d i v i d u a l alone  w i t h  donated  obvious  a  to  they  d i r e c t o r s a  c e r t a i n  w i t h  t h i n g s  as  of  a  became  had  c o n t i n u i t y  of  themselves  i t  change  headquarters  s i d e s ,  i s  keep  board  Romanticism take  g e n e r a t i o n s  t h i n g s  to  r e c e n t l y  but  p a r t i c u l a r  had  new  and  new  than  c o n t i n u o u s l y  to  and  a  In  r a t h e r  g e n e r a t i o n s  example  age  to  the  o l d e r  o l d e r  power.  growing  g e n e r a t i o n s .  a t t i t u d e  h e l d  g e n e r a t i o n ,  of  the  and  the  sons  p e r i o d .  "Sturm  w a i t i n g  to  to  and become  f 91 "handsome  w i t h  U l y s s e s .  In  c o n t i n u i t y (the not of  f a c t  not  romantic even  the  t o o ,  same  i d e a s :  modern  m i s f o r t u n e "  only man  among  fears in  the  a  "Do  to  masses  i n  the  shape, are  made  and  modern  of  a  g e n e r a t i o n s ,  you  they  and  see  new  d e s t r u c t i v e  c a t a s t r o p h e  c o n s e r v a t i v e s even  i s  '  v  p r o c r e a t i n g )  g e n e r a t i o n .  i n v o l u n t a r i l y The  and  r o m a n t i c i s m  i n t e r e s t e d  romantic  b a s i c  fame  own  f o r  but  of  from the  a l s o  people  who  see  of  past  In  ants  themselves  bonds  among  r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s of  of  to  f u t u r e  t h i n g " .  world  k i n d  as  and  the  share  i s  people  t h i s  that  f u t u r e  r e s p e c t , the  they  i s o l a t e d  themselves  same seem  monuments. as  263. i s o l a t e d  and  i n f i n i t y ,  p e r f e c t i o n  c o l l e c t i v e Boston i t  doom.  i n  w i l l  a l i e n a t e d  "consumism"  a  seem  they  to  to  the  always  lacked  be  Adam  Smith,  economic t e n s e l y  feared  the  romantic  i n f i n i t y . . . psychology to  at  of  the  t i m e .  of  of  are  the  romantic  c l a s s  of that  of  the  not  c o n t r i b u t e  seen  of  the  i s o l a t i o n  in  one  age,  aspects that  of  e x p l a i n s  romantic  both  see in  of  deep  at the  whether the  of  i t  a  of  sense  and  of  but  of  c o n t i n u i t y  of  the  his  man  of  d e s i r e of  a  roots  of  the  It  of the  is  the  of  and  f r e e  roots  small  great  a r i s t o c r a t i c  to  p h i l o s o p h y the  creates  t h e o r i e s  a r c h i t e c t u r e .  i n d i v i d u a l , may  a  have  s u b s t i t u t i o n  power,  of  to  a  d e s i r e d  as  and  they  but  p r e v i o u s  economic  d e s t r u c t i o n  to  dreams,  was  but  and  emerged  The  change  o l d  that  i t s e l f  e g o i s t i c  from  c o n t i n u i t y  i m p o s i t i o n  a l l  Sert  of  r e v o l u t i o n  the  romantic that  sense  i n n o v a t i o n  of  J . L .  f o r  arguments.  of  fear  sense  century  e l s e ,  romanticism  r e v o l u t i o n a r y , of  h i s  These of  same  spoken  monumental ism  i s o l a t i o n  l i s m  the  d i d  g e n e r a l ,  a  d e d i c a t e d  s e c u r i t y  in  asks  l o n g i n g  a  F r a n k e n s t e i n  i n d i v i d u a l  something  of  age  by  s t r o n g e r  l o s t  c o m f o r t a b l e .  and  balanced  i n d u s t r i a l  the  The  Malthus  i n d i v i d u a l  already  bourgeois  of  and  e x e r c i s e  age,  of  is  the of  romantic  f e e l  have  with  new  sense  s e c u r i t y ,  something  trend  the  Ricardo  We  through  to  a f r a i d  is  always  of  c r e a t e d .  p u r s u i t  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  sons  The  the  with  The  S u r v i v e ? ,  q u e s t i o n  back,  d i s o r i e n t a t i o n .  extent  C i t i e s  The  have  during  happiness  Our  i s o l a t e d  dominance  or  Can  coming  The  imagined  and  1 9 4 7 . ^ " ^  keep  i n d i v i d u a l s .  the  entrepreneur the  monumenta-  large  s c a l e .  264 . It is a mistake to associate monumental ism with the styles of the revival periods.  The monumental trend was already strong at the  time of the designs for the cenotaph for Newton, and always remained strong.  In North America there was not even an a l t e r -  native to this trend, because i t developed contemporarily with its birth.  But in Europe the trend developed slowly and deeply,  showing even more the sources of i t s  character.  An interesting  sketch by Le Corbusier (figure 6)^'""'""^ shows how even buildings that were designed with a completely different concept, and which were o l d , were "monumentalized" by transforming them into i s o l a t e d , free standing structures, to be seen from the outside rather than fron inside (just as majestic ruins of the past age ought to be seen and cherished in an open f i e l d ) . in Paris.  The example is Notre Dame,  It is worth mentioning here that romanticism was a  phenomenon which developed as a kind of northern version of the Renaissance and which always had very strong cultural ties with the northern European countries.  This is an important fact in  r e l a t i o n to the ethnic composition of the North American countries in their f i r s t two centuries.  Camillo Sitte remarked that the  placement of churches and of other buildings as detached structures in the middle of squares was a northern and a nineteenth century phenomenon, while in the I t a l i a n squares, and p a r t i c u l a r l y in Rome, churches had never been free standing.  It is also  interest-  ing to see that despite the acute observation that Le Corbusier made regarding the development of the square around Notre Dame, he turned out to propose for his visionary c i t y  a perfectly (12)  monumental set of isolated geometric pieces (figure 7) was in perfect accordance with Ledoux' dreams, and that he  that  2 6 5 .  Figure  7  267.  f o l l o w e d  is  even  the  same  monumental  In  t h i s  l i g h t ,  more  The  c i t y  p l a c e d  and  has  by  Le  i n t e r e s t i n g ;  monumentalism  the  become  g i g a n t i c  is  the  Nations  New  dramatic The  open  romantic  age  not  pure  a l l  should  not  i n t e r e s t s  and  pure  of  most  more  geometric  York  i n  a  Even  the  s i t e  i t ,  of  the  monumental  be  missed  s i m p l e .  The  thanks  even the  how  s t r o n g l y  become as  i f  f o r  the  a t t a c h e d . they  the  box  Hudson  r e v i v a l i s m  surfaces  c o m p o s i t i o n  of  housing  allowed  a r c h i t e c t u r e  i f  or  were  c o u n t r y s i d e .  chosen  to  p r o j e c t s .  c a r t e s i a n i s m  m i n i a t u r e  around  confused  have  b l o c k s ,  t r u e .  C i t y  his  show  geometry  p l a y i n g  of  p r o f e s s e d  once  becoming  c h a r a c t e r  a r c h i t e c t u r a l is  i n  space  geometric  of  c h i l d r e n  experience  United  would  group  G u l l i v e r ' s  i n  C o r b u s i e r ' s  i t  love  a  t r a d i t i o n  i f  R i v e r . of  or  the other  the  monumental  a  c o m p o s i t i o n p i e c e s  of  (13) a r c h i t e c t u r e , has  become  e x p l o i t i n g  the  urban  "the  game,  sublime  meaning  r e g a r d l e s s  of  of  c o r r e l a t i o n "  p a r t i c u l a r  p e r i o d ,  t r e n d ,  use.  The too, and  b e a u t i f u l Kant  could  b e a u t i f u l  can  l i t t l e as  detached  l i t t l e  t h i n g s  e x p l a i n . a l s o  be  houses  "The  s m a l l .  have  can  be,  sublime The  become  not  must  sublime  l i t t l e  s u b l i m e , always  must  be  monuments  as  be  Burke  g r e a t ;  s i m p l e ;  the the  f 14) b e a u t i f u l from  the  cism. a l s o the a  can same  The as  the  c a s t l e  l i t t l e  be  adorned  sources  romantic  love  the nest  that  l i t t l e  p r i n c e s f o r  the  ornamented."^  n o u r i s h e d  detached  bourgeois of  and  but  s i n g l e  the  is  not  f a m i l y ,  f a i r y  f a m i l y  monument. at  Beauty  y  t a l e s  d w e l l i n g  The ease  here of  t h e r e .  r e m i n i s c e n t  of  r o m a n t i -  must  bourgeois  comes  be  seen  remembers He  some  wants romantic  268.  tales.  He is interested  in history and "periods", and has a  middle class informal formality.  The precedent of F o n t h i l l Abbey  is downgraded s o c i a l l y and economically, brought a l i t t l e to the town and to p r a c t i c a l needs, and mass produced.  closer  The two  by four in North America becomes the main component of the produc tion line of the l i t t l e ,  miniaturized beautiful castles.  Romanti  cism is balancing the love for the sublime with the daily use of l i t t l e beautiful things and down to earth bourgeois ".common sense".  The sublime and the beautiful are two  simultaneous  aspects of romanticism in the manner of two extremes, large and small, awesome and a t t r a c t i v e ,  for example.  such as The  opposite extremes of the compositions of Richard Wagner and of the rise of caricature are contemporary in the development of romanticism.  This is why monumental ism and the love for the  isolated cottage, the pretty l i t t l e house of the f a i r y tales developed contemporarily.  Nature and the a g r i c u l t u r a l man praised and admired by the romantics are at the origins of "common sense".  And "common  sense" is at the foundations of those sound prejudices that are transmitted from generation to generation and form the bulk of conservative knowledge,  according to Burke.  It is a non-rational  bulk of knowledge that becomes l i k e an i n s t i n c t and should be respected as such. respect  Reason cannot question i t , but can only  i t and follow i t as a guide.  penetrated the romantic generations  This is an attitude  that  together with the romantic  tenets, tastes, principles and ideas and made them even more  269 .  pervasive and stubbornly strong, even after two centuries their  since  development.  The perception of the sublime according to Burke is one of those non-rational sentiments that is carried almost as an i n s t i n c t from generation to generation. at least proved him r i g h t .  The romantic  From the end of the  generations  eighteenth  century the design of gardens was modified and nature was rearranged to produce the feeling of the natural sublimity. Instead of the c l e a r l y architectural design of the I t a l i a n and French gardens, where vegetal  objects were arranged and tended  as physical extensions of the buildings in the open a i r , with a sensuous r e l a t i o n with the colours, the smell, the shadows and lights of the garden, which was a c l e a r l y man-made object, the new gardens are "natural".  They are designed to produce an  i d y l l with nature, as i f i t had been found that way -  untouched,  pure, immaculate, not profaned by human hands.  It is the new fashion: form nature across the continents  the English garden. for two centuries.  It w i l l The new  English gardens w i l l allow Goethe and a r t i s t s of a l l sorts and countries to find their sublime relationship and i d y l l with Nature, in a state of awe and wonder.  These gardens are the  next thing after Arcadia, and in their naturalness they would mate very well with a ruin or with another ideal sublime object, maybe a lone monument.  They are b u i l t in gentle h i l l s with  sparse trees and a carpet of grass, bring variety and the l i f e of Nature,  A stream and a l i t t l e A few willow trees  lake reflect  2 7 0 ,  in the clear waters, small forest  A casual meandering path leads through a  on the side of the lake.  The whole scenery  is  designed to be as "picturesque" as a painter might wish i t to be for an i n s p i r i n g natural scene of a sublime landscape.  The  dream of Nature endures the reorganizing of nature so that looks natural and o r i g i n a l .  it  Nature must be recreated, p u r i f i e d .  This notion spread l i k e a fever to North America, where huge areas were recreated or set aside for contemplating the picturesque and the sublime.  The immaculate aspect of western North America  fascinated as a dream the romantic t r a v e l l e r s , painters and writers; even that, however, was modified here and there more natural, picturesque, tamed, i d y l l i c settings.  into  "Youth" in  "The Voyage of Life" by Thomas Cole is a painting that well synthesizes the favourite natural themes. Olmsted won the assignment  It is believed  that  of the project of Central Park thanks  to very picturesque watercolors of the natural scenes which he submitted.  In the English garden Nature is brought back to man  as an Eden, as a morally regenerating factor.  The English  garden s a t i s f i e s the desire of perfect naturalness,  of things  unspoiled by the s i n f u l human hand (as they must have been in a primeval state), of natural order and cleanliness  (a s h i r t for-  gotten there would be a crime), and of i n f i n i t y .  While the  perspective of a path of a baroque garden.would have a clear axial d i r e c t i o n , would normally be stopped by a statue or a fountain at the focal point and the view would normally end against a hedge or a stone wall with a wrought iron fence behind i t , the English garden wherever possible  in  the path leads to points of  i n f i n i t e open vistas (which would not exist in Italy except over  271 .  the sea)  of serene and bucolic landscapes.  When there is a  statue or some building this is a true dramatic monument: i t  is  set in an i n f i n i t e landscape, with nothing around or behind i t . It has to be sublime.  Another important feature of an English garden is  that  i t cannot merge with a different fabric such as a building; in this respect the garden i t s e l f becomes a monument, in that sets i t s e l f objects,  it  in a world apart and i t is detached from the other  in the romantic fashion.  It participates in the romantic  destruction of continuity and love for i s o l a t i o n . place of noble melancholy and of quiet wonder: is sublime"'-'"^''.  It is also a  "deep  loneliness  As such the romantic garden can be contrasted  only with something abruptly different and equally sublime, unless i t is set in an unlimited view of countryside.  This is why the  simple geometric forms that contrast i t in North American c i t i e s are so f i t t i n g and participate so well of the romantic sublime atmosphere; a successful City.  example is Central Park in New York  This example shows quite c l e a r l y how r i g i d the sublime  formulas can be.  We have opened this chapter by observing that the return to Nature and the rise of new sciences, technologies  and  industries are among the important themes of the romantic age. Their importance is even greater because the romantic creeds produced a kind of symbiotic necessity and growth of the two themes.  The romantics loved the d i a l e c t i c struggle of opposing  trends and forces,  the opposite limitations of contrasting forces,  272 . and tended to believe that an overwhelming synthesis,  sublime  or picturesque or t r a g i c , could or had to be achieved.  Industry  and Nature, Science and Spontaneity,  Law and Freedom, Technique  and I n t u i t i o n , Reason and Sentiment,  etc.  provided some of the  dual motifs on which the romantics dwell to serve their  creative  anguish or synthesis, even to our day.  For two centuries we have had proposals of a l l sorts to bring together these themes perceived as opposing poles of human attitudes.  At the origins of the architectural synthesis  of these same centuries one may see p a r t i c u l a r l y the concepts of the sublime and of the beautiful that were developed in the eighteenth  century.  These concepts were extremely well  suited  to provide the a e s t h e t i c key with which to solve the romantic contrasts.  In the description of the sublime written by Burke we can find most of the motives of the modern architectural blocks; for him "visual objects of great dimensions are sublime" "everything great by i t s quantity must necessarily be one,  , simple  f 171 and entire" , and "a species of greatness arises from the a r t i f i c i a l i n f i n i t e " , which "consists of a uniform succession f 181 great parts".  J  of  What must be obtained is "not pleasure, but  a sort of d e l i g h t f u l horror, a sort of t r a n q u i l i t y tinged with terror; which as i t belongs to self-preservation, strongest of a l l the passions.  is one of the  Its object is the sublime.  Its highest degree I c a l l astonishment;  the subordinate degrees  r 191 are awe, reverence,  and r e s p e c t , . , . , "  v  .  " A l l general p r i v a -  273. tions  are  great,  because  they  Solitude,  and S i l e n c e . " ^  infinity;  if  a  tendency  it  to  does  f i l l  ^  2 (  not  the  are  all  "Another  rather  terrible;  Vacuity,  source  the  belong  to  that  sort  mind w i t h  of  the  sublime  last.  of  Darkness, is  Infinity  delightful  has  horror,  f 21 which  is  the  "INFINITY,  of  is  as  best  of  well  the  drawing,  the  genuine  though  agreeable, spring  most  effect  another as  of  I  have  often  When a n y  causes  the  seen  in  source  to  of  have  sublime."  pleasure  images.  ...In  which  the  our  sublime,  something  seems  of  much o f  seasons;  "Another  work  truer.test  delight  of  finisingh:..."  Difficulty.  kind,  our  pleasantest  and  The  unfinished  pleased  me  greatness  required  in  sketches  beyond  is  immense  force  (22) and  labour  effect  it,  source  of  is  likewise  a  of  the  immediately  sun,  sense, .  to  to  is  a very  the  exerted  great  on  idea./,  darkness  darkness  is  more  productive  continues  with  a revealing  his  favourite  " Here  is  an  'Dark idea  not  philosophically  organs  of  exactly sun,  dance  sight,  to  two  before  imagined  black our  with  "...such  the  eye,  of  a  as  light  it  has  sublime  yet  as  that  overpowers  transition  light,  from  a  ideas  greater than  the  light effect.  light."  comment  to  a verse  written  light  thy  skirts  appear'.  excessive  only  poetical  just.  spots,  in  in  Extreme all  darkness.  eyes.  reconciled  to  "Magnificence"  by  poet:  obliterates  resemble  great"  A quick  from  Milton,  is  sublime."  or  Burke  the  idea  darkness,  But  and  the  the  Thus the  a high  but  light,  by  overcoming  objects,  so  as  After  looking  impression are  degree,  two  extremes  of  for  which  ideas  as  both;  in  it  its  some  strictly the effect  time  leaves,  opposite  as  and b o t h ,  in  at seem can  to be  spite  274 .  of their opposite nature, brought to concur in producing the sub 1ime.  And this is not the only instance wherein the  opposite  extremes operate equally in favour of the sublime, which in a l l (231  things abhors mediocrity."  v  The sublime was proposed and loved before  engineering  made i t possible in i t s most grandiose modern manifestations; undoubtedly a shiny white shell of concrete r i s i n g eight hundred feet above a deep alpine v a l l e y , or the view of the earth from a spaceship, or the skyscrapers facing the sea, would have impressed Edmund Burke as overwhelming examples of the sublime.  The isolated  skyscraper or other free-standing monumental b u i l d i n g , especially when facing a park or other wide open space,  is probably the  most common example of the influence of the sublime in architecture.  But engineers and architects alike have gone very far in  the dream and in the exploitation of the sublime in many ways, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the exhibitions, from E i f f e l ' s tower in Paris to the Space Needle in Seattle.  By distinguishing the sublime from the b e a u t i f u l , Burke l a i d down also the foundations for the theory of the picturesque, which Knight and Price expanded from concepts mainly related to the b e a u t i f u l .  Beauty does not depend upon proportion  and perfection, as i t used to in the Renaissance, but from pleasing q u a l i t i e s , mostly opposite to those of the sublime, such as smallness,  smoothness,  variety, lack of sharp angles,  "a delicate  frame", "colors clear and bright, but not very strong and glaring"'-  275.  Beauty  has  feminine  q u a l i t i e s ,  and  i t  i s  something  that  is  more  (25) a c c o r d i n g  to  the  This and  i s  e x p l a i n e d  that  the  a  views  at  also  a  of  of  I t a l i a n s  important  great  r u l i n g  apart  are  from  p i c t u r e s q u e ,  of  taken  pure  views  with  images  l a t i n  c u l t u r e s .  "The  I t a l i a n  from  that  of  f o r  the  the  l a t t e r .  of  h i s  a  Spaniard  b e a u t i f u l In  moral  than  t h i s  art  f o r  toward such  a r t ' s the  s u b l i m e ,  and  by  no  f e e l i n g  anyone  *Thomas  Quincy  De  and  Sublime  from i n  appears  I  to  be  a  the a l s o  the  p i c t u r e s q u e  r u r a l has  and  been  more  have  a  more the  f o r  f e e l i n g more  the  i n  l a n d s c a p e s ,  mediterranean  or  mixed f e e l i n g  sublime  remaining  than  t r a i t s  e x p l a i n e d . " *  c l a i m from  f o r  a  Kant  p i c t u r e s q u e  and  even  c l o s e l y "The  that  r i s e s  the  c i t e  a  s i n g l e  i n t o  E n g l i s h on  a s s o c i a t e d  to  Negroes  A f r i c a  of  t r i f l i n g .  example  O b s e r v a t i o n s  an  a t t i t u d e  taste  above  a r t ,  the  the  were  d i s i n t e r e s t e d h i m s e l f ,  b e a u t i f u l ,  t r a n s l a t e d  i n  v i l l a g e s ,  Frenchman,  and  i n d i c a t e  would  of  repeated  from  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  Kant's 18 2 4 .  of  to  t h i n k ,  romantic  as  v i l l a g e s  that  as  most  A m e r i c a ,  i s  would  This  p i c t u r e s q u e  former  can  the  r a c i a l  c h a l l e n g e s  of  that  that  saw  mediterranean  North  o r i g i n a t i n g  n o t i o n s  r e l i g i o u s  c h a r a c t e r s  way,  the  sake,  general  nature  the  c h a r a c t e r  Despite  and  which  America  f a c t  of  in  a s s o c i a t e d  and  s u p e r i o r i t y .  the  often  o b s e r v a t i o n  North  from  e s p e c i a l l y  Frenchmen.  Kant,  i n  e t h n i c  e x p l a n a t i o n  v i l l a g e s  by  c l a s s  of  and  r a c i a l  length  reason  p a r t i a l  g e n e r a l , the  an  o r i g i n a l  sublime give  nature  i n  the  the  which  Mr. a  s e c t i o n  F e e l i n g  of  m o r a l , have  Hume  Negro  on the  has  n a t i o n a l B e a u t i f u l  276. shown t a l e n t s , and a s s e r t s of  blacks  although one  who  science  whites  and  through  found  i n color.  among into  them  the t r i f l i n g  would  Saxon  sleep"  q u a l i t y , even though  superior  respect  dominance, w i t h  feeling,  progress,  to mental  o f man,  capacities  i s ;so w i d e s p r e a d  that  sinks  a s d e e p l y :'. (271 nature."  t o human  that  the three  same t r e n d s ,  The s u b l i m e  rabble, So  two r a c e s  I t was r a t h e r  aesthetic  aesthetics  these  to believe  f o r the strong  and i t s m o r a l i t y  The  the lowest  t o be p o s s i b l e  basis  among  i n the world.  of idolatry  rational  aesthetic  from  i n regard  trends.  between  attitudes.  race  aloft  and wrote  of those  but also  seemed t o f e e l physical  i n a r tor  be a m i s t a k e  t h e most p r o f o u n d  idealism,  most  a sort  h i s former  rationalization  laid  great  of fetishes that  as a p p e a r s  h i s "dogmatic  repudiated of  The r e l i g i o n  i s perhaps  It from  anything  earn  t o be as g r e a t  countries,  not a single  i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  i t appears  their  still  praiseworthy  gifts  from  of thousands  set free,  who p r e s e n t e d  superior  the hundreds  elsewhere  some c o n t i n u a l l y r i s e  fundamental  as  among  o f them have been  o r any o t h e r  the  and  are transported  many  was e v e r  that  when K a n t  critiques  he  an e x c e l l e n t  and u n d o u b t e d l y  not only  was t h u s  exercise Kant  f o r romantic  r e l a t i o n s h i p that and m o r a l ,  arose  the romantics  religious  introduced  and t h e one i n w h i c h  and metaas t h e the Anglo-  excelled.  of the sublime and w i t h  became a s s o c i a t e d  the expression  with  of the superior  277 . people  and  nations.*  some m o d i f i c a t i o n among h i s brought God  Seven  i n the  and  sublime  was  feeling,  Ruskin  2 8  Architecture.  This  most  Science  It  power"' -' .  sentiment,  vision.  instance,  nothing  Lamps o f  together  i n one  Nature  of  " I know o f  i s the  typical  coming  associated  to  with  North  The  i n most  is  Lamp o f  and  was  what  for  sees  inspiration.  the  notion  intuitive cases.  even  Emerson,  tradition,  poetic  not  Power  sometimes  i n which  that  obscure,  i f overwhelming,  the  American with  which  sublime  nature  understand an  put  synthesis  together,  i s important  even  science,  sublime,  of  and  "A  the  sketchy  clear idea  is  f 2 9") therefore  another  rather  to  the  is  intuition  why  sublime. is  The  genius,  that  He  priest  leads  sublime  are  not  The  "another  also  name f o r a or  part  allows  vision. sciences,  In  of  the  or  idea",  succession  fearful  contact  fact  a group  of  produce  an  romantic  than  to  revealing.  It  is a  but of  only  who  the  "clear ideas", highly  sublime such  as  high  leads  dear  "artificial  the  "gifted"  i s the  is a  i s i s also the  with  idealized,  He  "clear ideas" Nor  the  understanding,  b e a u t i f u l , but  the  This  way  therefore  opposed.  the  can  the  However  little  i n the  rather  artist  belongs  well-crafted things.  sublime mysteries.  dispense  forgotten  Clarity  J  overwhelming,  inspiration,  intuitions.  entirely  reason  i s sudden,  sublime.  might  idea."^  b e a u t i f u l , the  normally  the  little  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the  the  which  the  sublime  to  that  element  small,  t a l e n t or  leads  man.  name f o r a  to  Descartes  clear  idea  contrasting infinite"  intuition those  romantic,  to  of  or the  sublime  and f r i g h t e n i n g v i s i o n , and become a s k e t c h y , o b s c u r e and *The s k y s c r a p e r became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o w e r - a n d s u p e r i o r d e v e l o p ment, i n a u n i q u e combination..  278. overwhelming been  one  grandiose  among  such  G i e d i o n towers apart  of  aspects two of  of  noble great  remarkable  height  f o r  f e e l i n g  the  high  with  speed  the  of  and  not  of  only  s c i e n c e .  i n  e f f e c t  a  and of  i n  and to  to  eye  not  The  v e r y  are  i n t u i t i o n , could  not  o b t a i n as  i n  here  of  g o l f e r  the  speed  comes  the  as  a c c u r a t e .  as  sublime  cosmic  would  in  shown  photography  f o l l o w  compared  s k y s c r a p e r ,  i n  comparison  however, be  To  and  to  new  conceived  f u n c t i o n  might  r e l a t e d  the  s t r o n g  that  one  s t a n d i n g  of  sublime  The  view"  free  v i e w . "  must  elegance  that  be  of  f o r t r e s s e s  s i n g l e  f o r c e f u l l y  b e l i e v e  the  a  C e n t r e :  towers  p a t r i c i a n  s i n g l e  the  i s  they  This  i m a g i n a t i o n  overwhelming  one  " l e a n i n g  i n t u i t i o n .  images,  when  are  the  other  " e x p r e s s i o n s  E d g e r t o n " .  motion  induce  have  R o c k e f e l l e r  designed  Center  overwhelming  b e a u t i f u l  p e r s o n a l  embraced  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s  would  modern  p r i v a t e  embraced  of  to  between  i n d i c a t e  the  Instead,  harmony,smoothness  i n t u i t i o n s  confused  be  photographs  produces  of  were  p a r t ) .  photography  the  awesome  be  yet  R o c k e f e l l e r  t h e i r  example  simply  can  the  would  d i f f e r e n c e , are  upper  seems  comparison  and  that  Bologna  n o r m a l l y  cannot  sketchy  Instead,  act  and  speed  a  scale  l i k e  f o r  from  i n  t h e i r  scale  of  which  except  space-time  G a r i s e n d a ^ ^  t h e i r  f a m i l i e s  C o r b u s i e r  i n t e r e s t i n g  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  f o r t r e s s e s  a  and  an  Le  C a r t e s i a n s .  other  (These  urban  romantic  makes  A s i n e l l i  from  i n t u i t i o n .  be  an  with the  the case  shown.  Kant f l o w e r s  with  makes  the  important  " m o r a l l y  o b s e r v a t i o n s  b e a u t i f u l " :  " i f  r e l a t i n g we  examine  the the  use  of  r e l a t i o n  279.  of  the  alone  sexes has  sensual so  i n these  found  charm  the  of  parts  secret  a mighty  much m o r a l i t y  that  he  of of  the  world,  decorating  inclination has  not  we  find  with  so  and  only  of  that  the  many f l o w e r s  interlacing  extremely  European the  i t with  elevated  its  f 31*)  agreableness of  but  Judgement"  a l s o made i t v e r y  Kant  notes  that  decorous."  "gardening  In  might  be  the  "Critique  considered  as  (32*1  a  kind  of  of p a i n t i n g " .  flowers  beauty, must  and  but  love  of  also  gardens with  flowers;  recognized  as  Those  Philistines, are  the  southern  a point reach of  of  the  the  little  and  well  feeling by and  beautiful has  become  The  statement. garden an  I t was  and  of  I t was  the and  place  and  maybe e v e n  symbol  of  best  not  Europeans  them  kept  could  among make they  of  the  refinement,  clean  individual be  demonstrated  pots, a  part  of  compounded  geranium  a  for  when  crown  the  and  only  a necessary  where  the  flowers;  a few  symbol  with  know  shrubs  are  of  not  little  shutters  to  upon  gentle  f o r beauty  with  generally  America w i l l  the  person  Southern  became  the  is  trees,  i s cast  among t h e garden  aesthetic  gentle  flowers  gardens  love  with  a fashion  criminals.  I t was  chalet  arthitectural  on  the  flowers  various  walk  became a n o t h e r The  loves  i n North  love-nest.  garden  The  therefore, that  The  picturesque  beautiful.  courseness  ideal.  family.  only  the  and  grounds  suburbs.  bourgeois  of  future  and  not  who  disregard  their  tradition  I t became  immigrants  cottage  f o r the  moral  trees  surprising,  showing  bred  anyone.  cut  dirtiness  wealthy  the  person. features  European  little  person  maybe e v e r  I t i s not  romantic  morally  the  for their  of moral  this.  and  who  but  condemned  sense  and  the  became r e l a t e d  the  a better  names, p r o p e r t i e s flowers.  In  J  a  artistic little  sculptured  heart  gentleness,  280 .  moral  order  and  northern  become a s y n t h e s i s and  an  simplicity archetype  and  cleanliness.  of the  beautiful.  It  has  281 . APPENDIX  NOTE : As Lloyd  a  c u r i o s i t y ,  f 33")  Wright"-  }  with  we  the  may  compare  drawing  of  this  figure  1,  drawing by  by  Frank  Ledoux:  f-^-  '  . 1  „..:,  /  i  Those  who  v i s i t e d  Buckminster project  the  F u l l e r ' s  shown  i n  American " b a l l "  figure  2  of  -*  P a v i l l i o n may  this  at  compare chapter.  Expo i t  '67  with  in  Montreal  B o u l l e e ' s  282 . CHAPTER  (1)  9  R.W.  EMERSON,  Broadacre (2)  D.  DE  (3)  Ibidem  (4)  P.  E.  C i t y  MENIL, p.  Changing  A  of  (6)  D.  MENIL,  (7)  Ibidem  (8)  "U.S.  (9)  U.  (10)  J . L .  (11)  LE  (12)  Ibidem  (13)  E. New  (14)  I.  (16)  §  FOSCOLO,  (19)  Appendix  Chicago  to  1945  Houston  1968,  p.  93  Can  i n  Modern  A r c h i t e c t u r e ,  103  and  Our The  Enquiry the  i n t o  my  A p r i l  12,  Radiant  Survive ? C i t y ,  O r i g i n  London  Houston  of  Our  p.  p.  40  37  advertisement  sonnet  Boston  Paris  of  1889,  1968,  1973,  t r a n s l a t i o n  C i t i e s  the  B e a u t i f u l ,  A r c h i t e c t s ,  R e p o r t " ,  Z a c i n t o ,  CORBUSIER:  verse  1947  1933  232  SAARINEN,  The  1943,  C i t y ,  p.  Its  Growth,  Its  Decay,  Its  Future,  122  Observations U n i v e r s i t y  on  of  the  F e e l i n g  C a l i f o r n i a ,  of  the  1965,  p.  B e a u t i f u l  and  48  Ibidem E.  BURKE,  E.  of  BURKE,  Ideas (18)  p.  World A  SERT:  Ideas (17)  from  A r c h i t e c t s ,  V i s i o n a r y  News  KANT,  WRIGHT,  I d e a l s  Sublime  147  Sublime, (15)  the  p.  York  Farming,  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  Ideas  p.  F.L,  V i s i o n a r y  1967,  BURKE,  DE  by  on  27  COLLINS,  Montreal (5)  Essay  of  A  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  the A  Sublime  P h i l o s o p h i c a l  the  Ibidem Ibidem  p.  and  101  Sublime  and  Enquiry the  B e a u t i f u l ,  Enquiry the  i n t o  i n t o  B e a u t i f u l ,  the  O r i g i n  London the  1889,  O r i g i n  London  of  of  1889,  our p.  101  our p.  103  283 . (20)  Ibidem  p.  51  (21)  Ibidem  p.  53  (22)  Ibidem  p.  56  (23)  Ibidem  p.  57  (24)  Ibidem  p.  88  (25)  Ibidem  p.  84  (26)  I. and  KANT:  Sublime,  (27)  Ibidem  (28)  E.  of  (29)  Ibidem  (30  S.  and (32)  I.  (33)  F.L.  p.  KANT:  KANT:  U n i v e r s i t y  of  P h i l o s o p h i c a l Sublime  Space,  F e e l i n g  of  C a l i f o r n i a ,  the  1965  B e a u t i f u l p.  101  and  Enquiry the  i n t o  the  B e a u t i f u l ,  O r i g i n  London  of  1889,  our p.  Time  and  A r c h i t e c t u r e ,  Cambridge,  46  Mass.  753 Observations  on  U n i v e r s i t y  C r i t i q u e  WRIGHT:  York  the  45  Sublime,  Wright: New  A the  p.  on  I l l  GIEDION,  1965, I.  p.  BURKE,  Ideas  (31)  O b s e r v a t i o n s  p.  and 320  of  F e e l i n g  of  C a l i f o r n i a ,  Judgement,  H u n t i n g t o n  W r i t i n g s 1960,  of  the  Part  H a r t f o r d  B u i l d i n g s ,  by  the  B e a u t i f u l  1965, I,  House,  p.  Sec. i n  Kaufmann  1  112 Book  Frank and  II  Lloyd Raeburn,  284 . 10.  THEORIES  DEVELOPED  BY  V o l t a i r e  concluded  " C a n d i d e "  our  g a r d e n " ,  and  the  only  to  deed  way  not  only  Rousseau with  die  i n  your and  to  who  "0  man  you,  and  the  can  be  not  an  who  The  to  i n  s i n c e  "We  without  have  o n l y  ROMANTICS  s a y i n g :  eager  On  r e s i g n  resume,  and  THE  work  must  c u l t i v a t e  r e a s o n i n g , of  gardener  h i m s e l f .  O r i g i n  l i v e  of  midst  s p i r i t s ,  i t  depends  innocence:  r e t i r e  the  of  the  crimes  apprehensive  of  degrading  the of  and c i t i e s  on  hearts o u r s e l v e s ,  woods,  your  your  of  l i f e  c o r r u p t  e n t i r e l y  remembrance  i n And  populous  your  to  was  v o i c e  l i t t l e  of  i s  I n e q u a l i t y "  heard  t h i s  o l d  i t  V o l t a i r e  never  the  your r e s t l e s s  p r i m i t i v e  s i g h t  and  you,  d e s t i n e d  who  d e s i r e s ;  but  " D i s c o u r s e  a c q u i s i t i o n s ,  ancient  p o r a r i e s ;  h i s  us  OF  t o l e r a b l e . " ' ^  s u b u r b a n i t e ,  t h i n k  peace;  f a t a l  lose  a  "Let  l i f e  i n v i t a t i o n :  endless  your  make  concluded  t h i s  heaven,  a d v i s e d :  SOME  there  contem-  s p e c i e s ,  by  f 21 renouncing  i t s  advances  Amazan,  the  hero  of  hero  of  p r i m i t i v e  from  s i m i l a r  "La  debates  or  opposed  i n  of  r u r a l  an  among  farming  renounce  de  whose  about to  the  the  i t s  Babylone"  s t r e n g t h  v i c e s . "  v  ( V o l t a i r e ) ,  and  greatness  ' is  a  s p r i n g  h i s  f o l l o w e r s ,  Farmer",  i d e a l s ,  of  n a t u r e "  of  man"  as  induced  something  many  to  w r i t e  l i f e .  i n s p i r e d  many  "law  "law  Rousseau  American  to  P r i n c e s s e  innocence,  d i f f e r e n t  one  order  concepts.  The  favour  i n  which  in  M i c h e l  p r a i s e  to of  p e n e t r a t e d  Guillaume  w r i t e  h i s  Jean  famous  de  Crevecoeur,  " L e t t e r s  r u r a l  l i f e  and  e a r l y  deeply  i n t o  the  American  from  American con-  285 . s c i e n c e ,  and  Emerson. i n  Later  England,  p r i m i t i v e  a  forms  man  of  herent  scious  were  These  ideas  large  number  fact and  may  r e a l i z e .  We  acceptance f o l l o w a l s o  may  now  of  of  the  t h i n k e r s W i l l i a m  f i e l d  of  i n d u s t r y  how  the  as  as M o r r i s ,  those  r e a l i s m  saw  of  of  that  and  e v i l ,  to  de-  may  and  tenets  may  may  here be  advice  r e a s o n i n g  the  not i n  Anglo-Saxon  on  way  of  of  l e s s  and,  l i v i n g .  g i v i n g w i t h  t h i n k e r s .  the  large  been  f o r g o t t e n ,  make  In  r e l i g i o u s  f o r  l i f e  our  l i f e  than  we  which  garden,  we but  t o l e r a b l e " .  European t u r n ,  dogmas  u n c r i t i c a l  f o r  our  world to  q u e s t i o n a b l e .  reasons  i n  i d e a s ,  r i s e  a  p r a c t i c a l  f i r s t  p e r -  uncon-  across  long  c u l t i v a t e " t o  strong and  i n of  romantic  than  our  what  e x c e p t i o n a l  have  reasons  only  world  of  s e c t s ,  i d e a l s ;  the  by  f u r t h e r  s t r o n g e r  order  among  Anglo-Saxon  and  con-  importance  b e l i e v e r s ,  f o r g o t t e n  and  true  even  and  conscious  o r i g i n s  e f f e c t  outworn  was  of  r e l i g i o u s  become  at,  The  number  c a l l  become  profound  f i n d  what  has  have  a  whose  romantic  o r i g i n a t e d  f u r t h e r  i n t e l l e c t u a l  more  may  we  by  new  a r r i v e d  p a r t i c u l a r l y  c a r r i e d  what  were  numbers  developed  then  is  are  is  be  the  from  they  This  V o l t a i r e  s u p e r i o r  help  i m p l i e d .  large  I n c i d e n t a l l y , i n  some  they  gain  without  admired  l a t e r  Ruskin  a e s t h e t i c s  can  V o l t a i r e ' s  work  such  s i m p l e - h e a r t e d  examine  c o n f l i c t s  axioms a  by  j o i n i n g  to  John  is  were  have  with  n a t u r e ,  a c c e p t a b i l i t y  these  ways  Germ",  ideas  axioms  whose  to  and  numbers  of  "The  o r i g i n a l l y  e q u i v a l e n t  many  R o s s e t t i s ,  a r t .  f o l l o w e r s .  which  and  we  d u a l i s i t i c  who  i n  beauty.  nature  s o n a l i t i e s  the  of  of  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  by  the  r e t u r n  What cepts  shared  p u b l i s h e d  advocating  p r i v i n g  were  to  l i b e r a l s c o n s i d e r  to  286 . It of  n a t u r e ,  was  of  r e a s o n ,  f l i c t s  between  had  be  to  heros  as  "Sturm a  a  d u r i n g  these  und  human  Within and  mind  man  too  r e a s o n .  dependent  and  and  molished  o f t e n  the  but  also  the  m o r a l i t y  and  nature  of  as  ings :  human  forces  of  God  w o r l d .  The  a  n a t u r e ,  o u t s i d e f o r c e ,  world  even  and  dangerous  and  the  i n c o r r u p t  harmony  with  In  a  which  fact and  to  was  work  not  d i v i d e d were  seen one,  f o r  a  which  only  man  the  the  as  of  which  we  must  as  with  p e r -  de-  man, time  mean-  which  and  the  e x t e r i o r o u t s i d e  as be  a v i o l e n t  subdued, to  of  For  two  i n  c o u l d and  word  same  God.  ways:  c o n t r o l l e d  i n -  c o r r u p t  unknown  be  as  o u t s i d e  At  to  adapt  nature  temporary  nature  two  man.  Hume  s t r u g g l i n g ,  i n  the  not  between  a c q u i r e d  n e u t r a l ,  of  coined  man.  nature  i s  s t r i c t l y  not  m a n i f e s t a t i o n  p u n i s h i n g had  was  emphasizing  i n c o r r u p t too  beauty  of  of  reasons  what  u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  knowledge  l i f e  such  e s t a b l i s h e d  Baumgarten  something  was  the  f i n a l l y  that  That  dramas  as  d e f i n e d  sentiment the  s t r i c t l y  t i e d  con-  p h i l o s o p h e r s .  c l e a r l y  time  the  m e t a p h y s i c a l  major  were  concepts  by  the  more  b i b l i c a l  of  dominate  by  as  c o r r u p t  s y m b o l i z e d  created  a n y t h i n g  h i m s e l f .  and  or  than  of  romantic  e s t a b l i s h e d .  and  f o r c e s .  seen  of  who  the  e v o l v e d ,  was  the  reason  powers  and  by  f i r s t  of  was  k i n d  reason  proper  mysterious  the  n a t u r e ,  n a t u r e ,  was  and  men  c l a s s i f i e d  P r o t e s t a n t i s m  a  was  be  r a t h e r  the  f i r m l y  m o d i f i e d  knowledge  beyond  i t  f o r  Nature  were  profound  opposing  f e e l i n g  were  l a i d  c o n f l i c t  and  h y p o t h e s i s .  Spinoza  not  that  beauty  those  more  to  Sentiment  " A e s t h e t i c s " c e p t i o n  a  and  were  began  and  of  i s o l a t e d  But  s t r u g g l e  Nature the  of  Crusoe  D r a n g " .  permanent  and  l i f e t i m e  concepts  s t r u g g l e  Robinson  h i s  the  and  as  u l t i m a t e  287 .  wisdom which  a of  even we  i f we  must  obey.  It  i s Kant  complete  and  t h e laws  cannot  know  nature  as  i s by other  postulated  By  i t slaws  pletely know  p r i o r i " terior tence and  split  than  The  world,  Furthermore,  while  as  these  a way  nature,  t h e way  reason  and  as t o p r o v e  the only  cannot  contradictions i n  opening  analyzed  way The  be  most  estab-  sees  existence  known;  to  that i t  reason  the  out-  i t s e l f  i t has  t h e "noumenon"  which  human  to  i s an  of  be  unknown  only  i n t h e manner be  according  independent  of reason,  what  by  from i s  which  i s subject  of the sciences,  known  isolated  i n i t sentirety,  the world  accuracy  can only  i s completely  completely  the universe  parts:  and  reason  something  world,  i t sfeatures  fields;  best  world;  time  i n t o two  to  and  com-  can  "a  the ex-  postulating i t s exis-  to the exigences  of our  moral  faculties.  Science  at  i n such  comprehend i t , and  system,  Kant  ourselves  are seen  certitude  intuitive  dent  coherent  definition  judgements,  and  organized  a projection of i t s e l f .  the f i r s t  else.  with  wholly  entity.  For  anything  f i r s t  of reason  the exterior  postulated.  and  who  philosophies.  lished  world  rationally  supposedly  the romantic  side  cannot  and  f o r many reason  nature,  reason  romantics  becomes  a  rather  i t can f u r t h e r s t r i c t l y  t h e n o n - r a t i o n a l human  they  and  intuition,  became  opposing  negative  abstract  faculties  are  and  acquire  fields.  dry  scientific  indepen-  faculty:  knowledge,  nobility,  leading  288 .  man into the f i e l d s  of morality and aesthetics.  This is one of  the reasons for which design later tended to become an occult science.  It is Kant who gave origins to the romantic notions of  a disinterested morality and of a disinterested art ("art for art s 1  sake").  In morality the power of the w i l l is emphasized.  It  becomes a driving and creative force, with no end or i n t e r e s t , obedient only to the "categorical imperative", an innate source of judgment, even i f man is recognized as having a "propensity to e v i l . " - (  3  1  The power of the w i l l was later to create the myth of the romantic hero gifted with an "iron w i l l " .  ( A l f i e r i ' s history *  of his l i f e : " v o l l i , sempre v o l l i , fortissimamente v o l l i " ) . Great men were supposed to be men of strong w i l l . The motif of lack of s e l f interest  in virtuous persuits later seemed to i n -  fluence the professional associations essional  ethics..  and the codes of Prof-  A r c h i t e c t s , for example, are not supposed  to be contractors and businessmen and cannot c r i t i c i z e other architects. fessional  They are supposed to be purely disinterested pro-  consultants and designers acting for a c l i e n t at a  fixed and equal fee.  In a r t , Kant's view that art should be  created only for art.'.s sake, with pure intention and no other i n terest, led to the theory that art should have complete independence from other fields of knowledge and of a c t i v i t y .  Beauty,  however, in Kant's view, ultimately leads to the morally good. "I w i l l e d , I always w i l l e d , I most strongly willed"  289.  It is also in the Romantic period that the notion of genius is for the f i r s t time detached from any premise or intellectualist  limit.  In opposition to philosophers  such as  Meier, Baumgarten and Lessing for whom genius is always somehow limited to rational capacities, define  J . C. Hamann is the f i r s t  to  genius as "Urkraft", that is as a natural and originary  creativity,  as a mysterious revelation of God.  With Hamann the  "Sturm und Drang" period is announced and his i n t u i t i o n w i l l be developed and cherished in the Romantic thought of the Genieperiod. finds i t s  But already with Kant the romantic notion of genius first definition:  "Genius is the talent (natural en-  dowment) which gives the rule to a r t . productive faculty of the a r t i s t , may put i t this way:  Since talent,  belongs i t s e l f  as an innate  to nature, we  Genius is the innate mental aptitude  (in-  genium) through which nature gives the rule to art . . . Genius may also be defined as the faculty of aesthetic ideas.  This  serves at the same time to point out the reason why i t is nature (the nature of the individual) and not a set purpose, that in the products of genius gives the rule to art (as the production of the beautiful) . " - (  4  )  This means that i t s products do not derive from any sort of t r a d i t i o n or imitation but are the o r i g i n a l models which have to be used as c r i t e r i a of judgement.  Therefore, the genius  cannot know and does not know how to reach whence he took his intuitions.  Ultimately the romantics w i l l propose a genius  who is beyond a l l laws and a l l possible his own laws each time that he acts. architecture this is a d i f f i c u l t y .  c r i t i c i s m , and who creates  In p o l i t i c s ,  planning and  The genius can work be;S;t utlone.  290.  Although he is necessarily bound to nature and to human events, yet the genius rises above daily vicissitudes  and practical:,  interests in a region out of time where there is no place for the becoming of history.  Psychologically the genial a r t i s t of romantic  t r a d i t i o n is characterized by a deep melancholy which makes him unhappy and r e s t l e s s , by a desire for loneliness which isolates him from the l a i t y  (or from common people).  s i m p l i c i t y which makes him like a c h i l d .  and by a naive  We find many examples  of this kind of man in Romantic l i t e r a t u r e , from A. DeVigny's Chatterton and Moise to Baudelaire's Albatros.  The view that the universe is a projection of the mind soon led the genial romantic architects to feel the need of draw*  ing their designs to minute d e t a i l s : o r i g i n a l and unique.  every design also had to be  There was no room l e f t for the tradesman to  interpret the more sketchy drawings used in e a r l i e r  centuries  and to contribute craft and s k i l l developed on the construction site.  While Kant goes to great length to establish such notions  as "The Dynamically Sublime in Nature", he does not realize  that  he reinforced the trend established by Baumgarten, and followed later almost to our day, of trying to relate the notion of beauty with perception and i n t u i t i o n rather than with understanding.  Thus  we have;another romantic contradiction, that of reason which projects i t s e l f  over the entire universe and yet cannot be related  We noted this attitude reasons.  in the previous chapter for additional  291 .  d i r e c t l y with the pleasure a r i s i n g from the appreciation of aesthetic q u a l i t i e s .  Reason and art enter into c o n f l i c t .  In  art individual expression is emphasized more than'communication. Ultimately such an impalpable quality as that of being a genius allows one to reach the perfect aesthetic expression.  Design had  to become an occult science, where a few high priests could decide who was i n s p i r e d , and everybody else had to follow and understand. A rational enquiry into the f i e l d of design was supposed to be a contradiction of terms.  Struggle was in the nature of romanticism, as we said before.  It was in the recognition of opposing trends and forces  that the romantic reached his dramatic tension, drama.  anguish and  It was Hegel who f i n a l l y gave a coherent shape to the ro-  mantic d i a l e c t i c dualism and explained i t through a universal reason manifesting i t s e l f  as a synthesis of opposing forces and  thus creating the universe.  In this view c o n f l i c t s  are nothing  but the expression of this reason in i t s process of selfdetermination through opposing aspects.  The power of the w i l l was  emphasized by the romantics, p a r t i c u l a r l y beginning with Kant. It was to the w i l l that the power of overcoming d i f f i c u l t i e s and opposing forces was attributed, and the strong w i l l was seen as an expression of the universal reason, in fact as allowing the universal reason to materialize i t s e l f  in a human being, in a  more perfect manner.  The romantic man of ambition welcomed struggle and difficulties  to overcome; he actually needed those  difficulties  292 .  to overcome to r e a l i z e his destiny. identified.  Success and true w i l l were  If something were not obtained, or achieved i t was  only because i t had not been the object of enough true w i l l . From this emerged a new concept of f a i l u r e ; i t could no longer be a calamity that could oppress the f r a i l nature of a human being without a fault of his own and despite a l l his good w i l l . It no longer deserved a charitable understanding.  Failure to the  romantic eye was the proof of lack of strong w i l l ,  and as such i t  deserved only moral condemnation and disgust.  Not to succeed was  in fact proof of i l l character and a social e v i l .  Suicide was  a p a r t i c u l a r l y romantic disease, and many a r t i s t s  and designers  died of  it.  True w i l l and race and nation began being i d e n t i f i e d too; beginning with Fichte destiny is attributed not only to individuals but also to nations and races.  The concept of a lead-  ing race was thus prepared, and i t had a tremendous success with the Anglo-Saxons.  The Anglo-Saxon taste began to be i d e n t i f i e d  as the best and as c i v i l i z a t i o n i t s e l f . eighteenth  Thus, what in the  century was only a romantic feeling in taste, par-  t i c u l a r l y in England, later began to be i d e n t i f i e d with c i v i l i z a tion i t s e l f by those who had inherited i t .  We mentioned in the previous chapter that the romantic interest  in nature is paralleled by an equal interest  in death, in dark and gloomy things and in mysteries.  in sepulchres, One of the  many aspects of romantic dualism is that of wishing at the same time both death and immortality, annihilation and greatness.  293. Romanticism and  f o r  b u i l d i n g s  p a t t e r n a  of  d e s i r e  On  one  use  o r i g i n a l t e d  n a t u r e .  as  that  side  power  i t  has  has no  true  i t  of  by  s o l v i n g  the  as  a  of  the  less  n a t u r e ,  s i d e r i n g  known  i n  d i v i d i n g  unknown,  with  was  and  on  and  almost arid  the  had  p h i l o s o p h y : s l e e p "  a n y t h i n g  that  i t s e l f .  Nature i t  the  through  human  ground  greatness  worlds  i t s e l f :  the  nature  unknown,  dccgmatic  romantics  e x c l u d i n g  the  two  c o n s i d e r i n g  r e a s o n ,  the  s t r u c t u r e s , the  as  s t r o n g  p e r f e c t i o n .  " o t h e r "  the  (to  other  side  the  r e a s o n .  Despite  by  prepared  d u a l i s m ,  of  i n t e l l e c t  dilemma of  the  c o l o s s a l  i n t o  o u r s e l v e s , of  "the  d e f i n i t i o n .  c r e a t i o n  i s t i c  of  i n t o  m y s t e r i o u s  p o s t - K a n t i a n  out  f o r  i n f i n i t e  from  knowledge  be  away  e x t e n s i o n  to  d e s i r e  d i s a p p e a r  to  mentioned,  the  cannot  unknown  and  we  come  p r o j e c t i o n but  and  a c c o r d i n g  reason,  the  e x p r e s s i o n )  As t a c t s  r i s i n g  was  the  would  M e l t i n g  of  there  S a r t r e ' s  i n f i n i t e  that  both  i s  the  i t s  u n i v e r s e nature  and  r e c o g n i z e d  i s  not has  that  i n  f e l l two  to  be  p o s t u l a t e d  a  nature  most  gross  p h y s i c a l  of  and  becoming,  m a t e r i a l -  p a r t s ,  p r o p e r ,  o p t i m i s m ,  the  thought  u n i v e r s e  i n t o  that  a b s t r a c t  Hegel  nature  human  an  c o n -  a b s t r a c t  "noumenon",  d i a l e c t i c  from  t y p i c a l  mind,  e n t i r e  a c t u a l l y  compatible  the  the  fact  no  as  s e l f  and the  conb e t t e r  p a r t .  Thus b e t t e r  and  f i n d  mysterious  and  flowers  the  seasons.  pursued  we  with  grow  and  people cycle  b l o s s o m ,  Gardening a  by  s i m i l a r  and  who  b e l i e v e  g a r d e n i n g , and  worrying  r e a d i n g  i n t e l l e c t u a l  they  become  watching about  horoscopes background.  the  the  may It  part  of  shrubs  weather  sometimes i s  a  the  and be concept  294.  of nature outside of you and mysteriously influencing you.  Yet  on examination pollution would be seen to be as natural as the stars,  landslides, or influenza, while cutting the grass would  be a less natural act, quite unecological.  (In fact Le Corbusier  avoided i t in his landscaping; instead of putting cultivated lawns around his buildings, he l e f t  the grass to grow n a t u r a l l y , so  that i t only needs to be cut once a year, in the manner of a farmer cutting hay.)  The old concept was that of nature as a planned creation of which man was an integral part.  Mythology or r e l i g i o n would  explain what was man's place on earth. with or without a religious context,  In the romantic concept,  man and nature are separate  and watching each other as two e n t i t i e s without a common language, but with a great need to i n t e r a c t .  A popular misconception about the nature of romanticism is that i t was opposed by classicism, or by rationalism. C o l l i n s says:  Peter  "Romanticism was by no means universally accepted,  and the words Romantic and C l a s s i c a l were s t i l l used to express the basic antithesis  between two fundamentally antagonistic  ideals.  This was because they corresponded to two aspects of human nature from which a l l ^problems of morality ultimately spring, and thus they meant not only the difference between Greek and Gothic, but the difference between emotional and r a t i o n a l , between sensual and i n t e l l e c t u a l , between sentiment and judgement, and between freedom and the rule of the law.  Most moderate architects of the  time, l i k e most moderate men, managed to achieve some harmony  295 .  and balance, or at least a compromise; between these c o n f l i c t i n g forces."  The mistake here is to f a i l to see that the c o n f l i c t was necessary and that i t was the p e r s i s t i n g c o n f l i c t betwen opposing trends that was the nature of romanticism.  Greek and Gothic,  emotional and r a t i o n a l , sensual and i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  sentiment and  judgement, freedom and legalism are the opposing poles of the romantic dual representation of the world.  The c o n f l i c t between Romantic and C l a s s i c a l was a fictitious  c o n f l i c t of opposing styles within the one trend of  revivalism.  "The Greek and the Gothic were both, in the minds of  the serious aestheticians  and a r t i s t s ,  eighteenth century flippancy."'"'^  the salvation from  The struggle "to achieve some  harmony and balance, or at least a compromise, between these conf l i c t i n g forces" of sentiment and judgement is the nature of romanticism.  The romantic anguish and sense of greatness thrives  on these c o n f l i c t s ,  which may be t o t a l l y imaginary.  It is an  introvert world which is ruled by the d i a l e c t i c of opposing trends in continuous need of a unifying solution.  It is t y p i c a l l y romantic to see a c o n f l i c t between emot i o n a l and r a t i o n a l , for example, and to have to opt for one or the other.  In fact the choice is made in order to foment a struggle  that creates a feeling of greatness. is an i n t e l l e c t u a l drug.  In this respect romanticism  The man who pretends to be only r a t i o n a l  or the man who pretends to be only emotional in some ways is not  2 9 6 .  different only.  from the whole man who pretends to walk on one leg  The l i b r a r i e s are f u l l of dubious problems created by the  romantic age in i t s urge to debate great c o n f l i c t s , created by s p l i t t i n g observations  mainly  and by taking sides.  The  romantic urge for contrasts had dawned in the drawings of Piranesi, where, i n t e r e s t i n g l y ,  the buildings grow out of pro-  portion with respect to the scale of people.  They become iso-  lated and contoured by the odd shrub and tree.  But i t is especially  Boullee who reflects  in his  drawings what Kant called the "Gopernican revolution of thought". The perfect rational object drawn by Boullee contrasts with a mysterious and desert nature. Men are like ants between reason and nature.  The two worlds of the rational object and of nature are  designed in absolute contrast: i t is as i f the object drawn by Boullee had f a l l e n from another world. ture of romantic aesthetics.  This w i l l become a fea-  It is in accord with the new view,  introduced by Kant, of incommensurability between the world of pure reason and the world of nature, the "noumenon". cannot communicate. another world.  The two  The man made object is made to drop from  "The inventions of Lequeu show an unexpected  facet of French architecture around 1800.  They belong to another  world, a world pervaded by dreams and e c c e n t r i c i t i e s . universe is crowded with details! and marginalia, but i t nonetheless empty:  Lequeu's is  alcoves are deserted; temples have no  devotees; roads no t r a f f i c .  The question becomes inevitable:  Was Lequeu ever addressing anyone but himself?"  J  297. The the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  i n t e l l e c t u a l  and  massive  p a s t .  these and  i s  the  i t  s e v e r a l  p r a g m a t i s t a t t r i b u t e  most  mentalism  of  was to  the be  ing  our  of  was  the  but  i t of  process  by  f 8 ~)  . The *»-  object  the  Judgement,  a  times  s i m i l a r where  to  an  the  and  i d e a ,  a  the  from  i s  of  to  the  and  to  s t i m u l a t e  through  c o n t r a s t s  the  Ruskin of  i m p r e s s i v e  keyed  proposed  than  Instead  sentiments  c r e a t e d  Lamps  b e a u t i f u l  made  an  or  i n t r i c a t e  A r c h i t e c t u r e " ,  s p i r i t u a l  on one  d u a l i s t  f a t h e r  nature  Two the  other  a e s t h e t i c  of  most  of  " A r t  a  is  r e l a t i o n s h i p  m y s t i c a l  m e t a p h y s i c a l  a e s t h e t i c s  he  by  that  n o t i o n s ,  and  f i n a l l y  or  i n  an  arid  many  stepped  image."  debates, which to  C r i t i q u e i n t o  f e e l -  f e e l i n g s  a c c o r d i n g  i t s  was  the  a e s t h e t i c i s m  grounds, Kant  of  may  monu-  i d e a  and  ideas  we  the  b u i l d i n g  This  i n t u i t i o n  and  the  Each  between  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  f o l l o w e d  movement  i n t u i t i o n , an  systems  movement  d e s i g n .  the  r o m a n t i c i s m ,  important  i s o l a t i o n .  form,  and  of  i d e a l i s t  i d e a l i s t  image,  mysterious  the  of  are  John  t h e i r  b u i l d i n g .  ended  to  e m o t i o n a l l y  f e e l i n g  c a l l  contemporary  c o m p l i c a t e d  o r i g i n a t e d  have  code  d u a l i s m .  is  a e s t h e t i c  of  a e s t h e t i c s .  intended  the  the  may  through the  the  "Seven  we  b u i l d i n g s  embodiment  s t i m u l a t e d  t h i s  It  the  communicated  (Croce)  most  of  a  r a t h e r  new  mostly  remains  what  movement.  we  that  e a r l i e r  of  are  the  f e e l i n g  s u b j e c t .  mentioned  p o l a r i z a t i o n  the  systems  are  his  who  the  aspects  many  r e c a l l  in  of  symbolism  produce  may  touch  symbolism  and  to  Burke on  part  s t i m u l i  is We  was  We and  The  to  t h e r e f o r e  new  s t i m u l i  l i t e r a t u r e  is  o n l y  developed,  the  although the  a  o b j e c t i v e  of  having  man  The  than  s u b l i m e .  study  of  symbolism  f e e l i n g s .  the  o f  of  forms.  Rather  emotions  of  concept  a of  t h e o l o g y ,  298 . the theology which he had previously proven r a t i o n a l l y  impossible  in 'his Critique of Pure Reason.  So the arcane monumental object, and made real by many isolated  prophesized by Boullee  skyscrapers, among the others,  is  not only a sublime product of modern engineering and of the i n d u s t r i a l revolution, but i t is also the admired object of a kind of aesthetic c u l t .  The government centre in B r a s i l i a and the City  Hall in Toronto seem to share in this aestheticism to a considerable extent.  These monumental buildings are the cathedrals,  dedicated buildings, of romanticism.  or  And l i k e a r e l i g i o n , romantic  aestheticism tended to be an object of faith and rather esoteric. It used to be, and i t s t i l l is impossible to argue about aesthetic matters;  such things as personal intuitions  and feelings are hard  to relate to more simple, common and communicable forms of understanding. *  On the other end of the spectrum matists,  there are the prag-  with whom.it would be equally hard to discuss aesthetic  matters because they claim no specific intuitions  interest in ideas and  except as related to their usefulness for a certain per-  iod of time.  Pragmatists normally would give the greatest consid-  eration to the economic aspect of the matter, and see the buildings as part of the play of the market.  But "the market", as we noted  in chapter 6, may be a very d i f f i c u l t entity to study.  Ultimately,  A spectrum somehow i d e n t i f i e d by Van Wyck Brooks, in the quote introduced in chapter 8, as ranging from "overtones" to "undertones".  299.  it  may  appear  to  be  al1-encompassing It  happened  and  to  design  could  is  why  so  strong  In  fact  d e b a t e.  reason  therefore  romantics  the  another  their not  romantic and  they  deep were  that  that  is  discussed  go  placed  the  interest  prejudices and  notion,  supposed  despite  claimed be  esoteric  in  in  in one  terms  unchallenged beyond  the  to  a  mysterious  explain  great  human  idealism  of  ideas,  ideas  way  another.  of for  realm  or  as  and choices. many  applied This  design  could  a  long  period  any  reasonable  of  become of  time.  300. CHAPTER  (1)  10  VOLTAIRE  (FRANCOIS-MARIE  1'Optimisme,  Paris  1775,  AROUET) : l a s t  Candide,  page.  My  ou  t r a n s l a t i o n .  (2)  JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU: A D i s s e r t a t i o n on the O r i g i n and F o u n d a t i o n of the I n e q u a l i t y of Mankind, e d i t e d by E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , Toronto 1952, t r a n s l a t e d by G. D. H. COLE, p. 366.  (3)  T.K. ABBOTT: London 1963,  (4)  I.  (5)  P. COLLINS: Changing Montreal 1 9 6 7 , p. 40.  (6)  N. PEVSNER: An O u t l i n e P e l i c a n Books, 1 9 6 6 , p.  (7")  D.  DE  (8)  B. my  CROCE: B r e v i a r i o t r a n s l a t i o n  KANT:  Kant's p. 335.  C r i t i q u e  MENIL,  C r i t i q u e  of  V i s i o n a r y  of  P r a c t i c a l  Judgement, I d e a l s  i n  p.  A r c h i t e c t s , di  168.  Modern  of European 360.  E s t e t i c a ,  Reason,  A r c h i t e c t u r e ,  A r c h i t e c t u r e ,  Houston B a r i  1968 ,  1958,  p.  p. 12,  11.  301 11.  CONTEMPORARY EFFECTS OF HISTORIC IDEAS  A blind force seems to be driving North America in i t s attitude and philosophy of urbanization.  Its nature has  not been the subject of many analysis and discussions. this force seems to be quite i r r a t i o n a l . rooted in the romantic s p i r i t  And  Its origins are  of early generations of s e t t l e r s  which influenced an unquestioned pervasive background of our times.  Speculations of what appear now as distant thinkers  have penetrated the consciousness of generations of immigrants in the form of unquestionable axioms which seem to blindly lead the public system of values against the needs and the logic of our times and of our evolving culture.  We have seen that the ideas and values of thinkers whose names our l e g i s l a t o r s may not even r e c o l l e c t have been transferred into the philosophy of the laws which rule the development of our c i t i e s .  At a time when the "American dream"  is rapidly fading and we are beginning to understand such a notion as that of a possible shortage of energy, the gigantic waste produced by our i r r a t i o n a l c i t i e s more apparent.  is becoming more and  We seem to be slowly approaching the f u l l  circle  of the tautologies of the romantic dreams; for example we are encouraged to lower the thermostats in our suburban homes or urban office towers and be uncomfortable so that enough o i l can be refined for our cars taking us to work to the c i t y ; we want power, the progress of sciences,  and to l i v e close to untouched,  unpolluted nature, but we do not want to flood the valleys to  3 0 2.. o b t a i n the  the  necessary  i n d u s t r i a l  b i l l  in  terms  In oddly  magic  r e s o u r c e s ,  what and  they  time  of  leads  aspect  of  America  of  i t  as  n o t h i n g c i t i e s  i f  are  expanding and  the  c o u l d  century and  and  d a i l y  laws.  the  r u l e  time  ago.  The  system  that  we  i t .  Much  we  are  supposed  of  that  i s to  were  r e p e t i t i v e  l o s t  from  urban  Our  under  time  b l i n d  b a s i c a l l y  i n h e r i t e d  f i n d  so  we  work,  make  so  no  time  l i n i n g  up  f o r  and  from  as  to  Our  of  who  and a  l i k e  t h i s  a  age  i n  the  i n  which and  ever  n i n e t e e n t h of  an  w r i t t e n i r r a t i o n a l  d i s a p p e a r e d and  energy  the  to  A t t i t u d e s  form of  i s  impulse  l i b r a r i e s  romantic  which  i t  c r i t i c i s m ;  the  the  c h e r i s h d e s t r o y  something  i n t r i c a t e  have  d e s i r e  s e l f  part  generals  to  e a r l i e r , of  of  o l d  change:  noted  an  l i t t l e  or  people  change,  j u s t  i n us  become  of  condominiums.  p u r s u i t s  become  beaches  wrong.  g e n e r a t i o n s  unknown has  taken  and  c i t i e s  of  true  the  b u i l d i n g s ,  t r e e s ,  problem  to  has  c o n t r a d i c t o r y  we  The  pay  c o n t r o l s .  of  d e s t r u c t i v e  as  f o s t e r  cannot  of  to  to  c o n s e r v a t i o n  d r i v e s  d u a l i s t i c ,  s u b d i v i s i o n s  army  may  as  n a t u r e ,  r e b e l ,  r e l a t e d ,  is  or  c o n s e r v a t i o n  that  and  cars  p o l l u t i o n  shops,  importance.  w i t h  suburban  u n w r i t t e n  to  " s y s t e m "  seen  our  also  to  c o n s e r v a t i o n  impulse  be  i t  urban  growing  r u l e  may  and  c o n s e r v a t i o n  extreme  that  be  procedures  energy,  produce  want  of  s p e c i a l t y  them  the  that  i s  of  to  not  change,  c o n s e r v a t i o n  anguish  North  of  romantic  Frozen  do  c o n s e r v a t i o n  rows  same  r o m a n t i c i s m  i s  r a p i d  l i f e - s t y l e s ,  of  have  we  want  consumption  c o n s e r v a t i o n  renew.  f e e l i n g  of  We  but  energy  concept:  The  another of  of  churches,  houses.  economy,  a  c o n s e r v a t i o n o l d  energy.  a  long  c o m p l i c a t e d l e f t  to  p a r a d i s e  crowd  ahead  q u e s t i o n which seems  303.  always to separate us.  We are rushing toward a nature which we  w i l l never find and which we cannot define for ourselves.  There has been a colossal amount of l i t e r a t u r e produced on the problems of c i t i e s  in recent years; a few years ago senator  Abraham Ribicoff noted in Washington:  "Since we are dealing  with people, since we must understand the forces at work in the c i t y and  our society,  then we must look at the people, not the  houses - at the i n d i v i d u a l , not the group - at what a man wants, not what someone else t e l l s him he needs.. " ^ ^  Yet in his speech  as well as in the vast amount of l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e , the fundamental question about what kind of c i t y , what kind of dreams, and what kind of c u l t u r a l values we want to see reflected or admitted in our c i t i e s ,  has been avoided, as i f i t  could be taken for granted, or i t had been already f u l l y answered.  Instead the dreams that we have established and that  we are following are no longer of true value to us.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , this has developed as the contemporary trend in North America, and perhaps in the world; the cultural content of the architecture of our c i t i e s problem, about which no debate is open.  is considered a solved Unfortunately, from  what we have seen i t would appear that this is not the result of a free and rational choice. of consensus regarding t h i s .  And there is a certain degree "Suburban sprawl and urban decay  have not come about solely because people have made a free choice in a free enterprise market.  That choice has been  influenced by federal housing subsidies, which, purporting to  3 04 .  be  n e u t r a l ,  l i v i n g white  in  have  the  in  suburbs  p o p u l a t i o n  d i s p e r s a l  housing  f a c t and  have  the  c i t y .  from  has  been  our  The  lack  of  s e g r e g a t i o n  p u b l i c  and  p a t t e r n s  has  of  c i t y  suburbs  and  a  d i s c u s s i o n  and  has  to  f l i g h t  the  the  c i t y .  upon  u n d e r s t a n d i n g a  t h i s  i n f l u e n c e  s u b s i d i e s  created  of  a f f e c t i n g  w i t h i n  about  housing  the  f a c t o r  p r a c t i c e s  b a r r i e r  middle-income  f i n a n c e d  Another  f e d e r a l  been  l o w - d e n s i t y  thereby  s e g r e g a t i o n  growth the  s u b s i d i z e d  f e e l i n g  urban  the  of  of  problems  hopelessness  (21 about  the  f u t u r e  "The e x p r e s s i n g or  again  of  i n d i v i d u a l i t y  i t s e l f  i n  no  in  less  ' i n d i v i d u a l i t y ' P h i l i s t i n e s  the  to  analyze  t h e i r  to  t r a n s f o r m  i t .  on  the  s i d e :  g u t t e r . " '  3  course,  p o r t a t i o n t r i p  The  a  l e a v i n g  of  the  was the  the  that  ornament,  s t y l e s  the  -  and  the  way  organism  t h i s  proud  i n t e l l e c t u a l  p h a r i s a i c  c i v i c  now  ' o r i g i n a l '  h i s t o r i c  courage  a  c o t t a g e ,  of  c o n f e s s i o n  n e i t h e r  nor  suburb  a  "acceptance  works  o r i g i n s  of  c u r t a i l m e n t  and  well  l o w - d e n s i t y mass  i n  p e n e t r a t i o n  i m a g i n a t i o n  of  p a s s i n g  i t s e l f  e f f i c i e n t l y  f o r  the  intense  concentrated  c l u s t e r e d  a u t o m o b i l e ,  d e c e n t r a l i z e d of  are  r e g i o n a l  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  h i g h l y  d e s t i n a t i o n s  C o n v e r s e l y ,  c o n d i t i o n s  of  only  d i s p e r s e d .  under  i m i t a t i o n  had  c o n d i t i o n  suburban  excrescences  e f f e c t  p e r i o d  the  in  by  the  ' '  Yet of  i n  cities.'.'  of  p a i n f u l p a i n f u l  was  of  other  A m e r i c a ' s  t r a f f i c ,  demand.  growth f o r  which becomes  Suburban  mass  areas  r a t h e r  w i d e l y  f u n c t i o n s  sprawl  t r a n s -  where  than  h i g h l y  i m p l i e s ,  so i n e f f i c i e n t  w i l l  thus  305 .  bring about a further decline in mass transportation, as increasing reliance on the automobile brings further  congestion  f 4")  to central business d i s t r i c t s . "  In fact the entire North  American economy in the last half century has been geared to sustain the development of a suburban-designed world; the North American "standard of l i v i n g " and the industry would face a period of painful transformation i f such suburban design had to be d r a s t i c a l l y and suddenly single-purpose  revised.  It is amazing that a  industry, that of the production of  chiefly  suburban-designed motor cars, has become the most indicative and crucial industry.  The time, the money and the energy that has  been dedicated to create the suburban society is beyond rational understanding. fulfill  Yet even now that the resources necessary  to  the romantic dream on a national scale are beginning to  dwindle, people are shutting their eyes and waiting for the p o l i t i c a l or technical miracle that w i l l allow the  achievement  of the romantic paradise on earth. Weissbburd said:  "If we know what kind of urban environ-  ment we want, the power and the tools to create i t are at our d i s p o s a l . " T h e problem is that we do not know and do not seem to want to know what kind of environment we want.  The  design was evolved a long time ago and we would rather not bother to discuss i t ; we prefer to follow b l i n d l y at an unknown cost a c r y s t a l l i z e d ideal that has been given to us. as the only possible  ideal.  The bourgeoisie has made up i t s mind a long  time ago; now i t merely wants to defend its  ideals.  This seems  to be the feature of a decaying, not of a growing culture.  306 . At romantic  the  trend  b e g i n n i n g  of  the  age  n a t i v e  v i s i o n  of  note  famous  example,  a  urban  model  l i z a t i o n f o r  a  t h i s  the  while  seem  to  of be  moon,  ago,  the  Spanish  a l l o w  the  a c c o r d i n g  l o t s ,  tower and  that  we  t u r a l  dream and  a  of  the  of  and  the  suburban  v i l l a  are  art  since  middle  Romanticism but  The  our  ages  o l d  age  the  end  of  d e s i r e  to  extreme and  been Verne or  urban  the  c i t y  a  on  centruy  Tudor  or  b u i l d i n g s  l e x i c o n .  The  e s t a b l i s h e d  by  r e n a i s s a n c e ,  i n t o  should  l i f e  the  w a l k i n g  decaying  them  alone the  But  c r e a t u r e s and  transformed  even  J u l e s  c r y s t a l -  c i t y .  nature  of  mere  and  has  an  m e g a l o p o l i s  c o l o n i a l  h a n d f u l  items  the  of  to  of  complex  and  tend  i n d i c a t e  to  these  a r c h i t e c -  t r e n d s .  more  are  a  c l e a r :  v i o l e n t  There  w i l d  main  approaching  i n t e l l e c t u a l and  the  the  garden  man  a l t e r -  drawings  v a r i a t i o n s  a f t e r  main  S a n t ' E l i a ,  i d e a l  romantic  the  p o s s i b l e  beyond  away.  even  by  a  b o l d  i d e a l  the  From even  us  So  s k y s c r a p e r  f o r  few  faded  about  separated  symbols,  are  a  The  d i f f e r e n t  w i t h i n  blossom.  are  r e s p e c t i v e l y . e l a b o r a t e  to  i n  the  have  ideas  p r e v a i l i n g .  c o t t a g e ,  c u l t u r e  only  same  to  schemes.  to  ideas  brought  c o n t r a s t  seems  i n d i v i d u a l  empty  urban  and  to  seemed  have  c e n t u r y ,  new  designed  might  seemed  t h i s  some  c i t y  romantic  o p p o r t u n i t y  examples  and  which  of  emphasize  the  the  of  c u l t u r a l the  f a s h i o n s d e a t h ,  economic,  m a n i f e s t i n g  as  stubborn meets many  s o c i a l  themselves  v i e w p o i n t  with  i m p o s i t i o n  sooner  or  h i s t o r i c a l and  the  of  l a t e r  t r i t e w i t h  examples  p o l i t i c a l  very  i n d i c a t i o n  a  and  s i g n s ,  r e a c t i o n  i n d i c a t e .  which be  be  i r r a t i o n a l  sudden  would  t e n s i o n s  i n d i c a t i v e  would  keep they  307 .  urban r i o t s or gasoline rationing.  It would be a t e r r i b l e  mistake to continue to approach these signs as p r a c t i c a l problems to be pragmatically solved only with s k i l f u l day to day administrative decisions,  buying a l i t t l e  Arabs or increasing the efficiency  more o i l from the  of the police forces.  fact the 'problems' w i l l simply shift  In  continuously from one area  to another and compound themselves, u n t i l they w i l l erupt with dramatic and conclusive  force.  CHAPTER  (1)  (2)  11  HADDEN,  MASOTTI,  LARSON:  M e t r o p o l i s  I t a s c a ,  I l l i n o i s  1967, p.  16.  B.  WEISSBOURD:  M e t r o p o l i s  (3)  L.  MUMFORD:  1938,  (4)  B.  i n  p.  Are  C i t i e s  C r i s i s , b y  The  C u l t u r e  Obsolete?  same  o f  as  (1)  C i t i e s ,  i n  C r i s i s ,  from P-  New  1?  York  216.  WEISSBOURD:  M e t r o p o l i s  i n  Are  C i t i e s  C r i s i s ,  by  Obsolete?  same  as  (1)  from p.  18.  309 .  VANCOUVER  12.  There the  city  with We  the  houses  may n o t e electric  the  open  the  streets.  stable  the  set  openness  country.  or  laid  well  poles  OF T H I S  many s t r e e t s  w h i c h were  and  a  are  IN L I G H T  for It  out back of  the is  as  in if  as  the  day  the  area  time  garage.  were  they  were  rows  the  is  in no  building  of the  farms.  telephone fashion  sign on  of  roads,  individual  ground  and t h e r e  heart  country  and t h e  above  One may w o n d e r w h e t h e r a  geographic  they  i f  lines  STUDY  of  the  of  life  in  right  is  310 .  We may n o t e the  city.  not  too  far  building.  There away  is  the  rural  character  a man a t t e n d i n g  a garage  that  looks  to  his  like  of  this  house  vegetable a separate  in  garden farm  and  The suburban house in the c i t y .  Note the setback  and the lawn separating the house from the sidewalk, the shrubs and the vegetable garden in the back.  The garage is also a  free standing separate b u i l d i n g , in the purest t r a d i t i o n .  Note  the proportion of the land taken up by the grass alone, in comparison with the buildings.  Extending the eye further around  one may see that the new residences, the apartments, follow the i d e n t i c a l seheme.  They are a l l detached buildings with grass  and shrubs surrounding them as far as possible and made to look just like larger suburban houses. continuity of rural  setting.  In fact they try to maintain a  This intentional of  nature,  is  loss  a suburban of  and the  oneself  street in  meandering  the  where  we  landscape,  gardens.  may n o t e the  the  pervasiveness  The as  deliberate a purely  rectilinear  The  wish  to  choice  of  geometrical character  live  in  a  of  a  curvilinear path,  negation the  castle.  of  the  street.  A formidable  feeling.  The  The  eclecticism  social  of  status  the  romantic  symbol  castle  317 .  The the  exhibition  provide  any  occasion  romantic  of  of  i f  in  it  to  is  and  view  of  shrubs  the  house.  not  a castle  individual  thought.  full  rockery  privacy  Even one  cottage  the in  the  expression.  street.  front,  which  individual Another  Note do  house  aspect  of  not  is  The complement of suburbia  The revolt against the car  321 .  The the  city.  surround is  abuse  The the  missing.  of  open  telephone  little  space.  poles  houses,  in  Land  dominate an  area  between the  where  suburbia  landscape. public  and  Cars  transportati  322 .  Larger to  maintain  suburban of  and  the  where the oped  symbolism  cottage,  bricks,  iscences  the  apartment  roof  which Tudor.  possible,  alley. portion  in  their  tiles,  and  the  also the  The  forest  of  North  of  the  and  in  the  to  and  the  provide is  a  Note  the  the with  garden fact  all on a  the blending  remin-  Spanish  grass  in  attempt  dwellings,  timbers,  Mansard,  background  Vancouver.  family  exposed  shrubs  attempt  a desperate  treatment.  colonial the  make  single  surface  stucco  include Note  buildings  suburban  around the fully  side  of  devel-  323 .  Compare the style of the suburban house and the apartment b u i l d i n g . Note the oddity of the apartment building with the kind of false Tudor Mansard.  It may  remind one of those New York skyscrapers that had gothic or greek revival toppings. We can see here the  struggle  between romantic suburban styles and increasing urban necessities .  324 .  Note one  is  the  other,  on  has the  separation  r u n n i n g between  separated and  the  giving by  an side  (Traffic  access  shrubs,  access of  an  at  shops  ate  attempt  d i v e r s i on.  are to  set  a  to  right  well  provide  the  fence  Cars  and  angle to to  back a  the  strips  entrance  separation?  The  two  of  of  sidewalk well  shops,  is  from  the  underground the  from  garden  two  parts;  maintained  grass,  out  way,  ornamental  right, the even  of  the  lamp-posts,  main  sidewalk,  parking.  pedestrians  street. at  in  the  We s e e cost  of  to a  the  left).  deliber-  making  a  325 .  Note arcade meet one  which  the  negated  goes  not  an  to  the  on  the the  other.  isolation  and t h e y  only  around  pedestrians  building  produces  here  of  become  shrubs  isolated street The  the a  the  and  the  towers to  isolation  arcades:  simply  but  their  stylistic  but  cover of  purely fails them  the  to from  buildings  function motif.  decorative  is  The magic box emerging in i s o l a t i o n .  An a p a r t m e n t id. the  tower  Vertical  development  tower  isolation  in  in  the  for  and  of  the  middle sake  of of  undeveloped the  monumentality.  prestige  328 .  UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A LAONER CLOCK TOWER  EDDY MATCH CO. LTD VANCOUVER R C  Ultimate romantic monumentality: the geometric object standing alone in absolute contrast with nature. An expression of the sublime.  We may note the perfectly  sublime picture that has been chosen as a symbol of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  329 .  same c o n c e p t  in a developer's  version.  330 .  Perfect contrast large  the  trees.  the  full  one  of  with  of  isolated  Note  view  many  geometric  of  how  the  romantic  Piranesi.  object  view  tiny  naked  of  the mass  renderings  in  the two  a park  setting.  building men  against  appear  of  the  of  buildings,  Sublime the  against  building;  it  reminds  starting  A crowd of isolated buildings. The paradox.  The dential laid  out  dramatic  typical  towers, a  not  century  effect.  romantic  unlike before.  that  setting of  the  Isolation  of  high  rise  suburban  here  brings  resi-  houses a  more  The  In floating It it;  is in  not  in  fact, space,  intended  fact,  relation  romantic  to  the it.  the  ideal  building  anchored to  other  at  have  to any  its  is the  best:  conceived ground  relation  structures  the  seem  to to  as  like a  black  i f a  city  box  it  were  balloon. around  disappear  in  the  shiny  box  strives  geometry;  the  separation  concealed  by  if  it  world  were but  reflection,  fully even  inconspicuous Noise is  and  pure  from that  the  encased  in  reach  it  a  with  and  pure  and windows  and  box  made  the  not  only  ground.  someone may w e l l  reinforced stone.)  perfection  floors  uncontaminated  entry  formal  between  detached  disoder  and  toward  The  is  from  entrance  may w o n d e r reign (and  the  how  below;  the  protected  concrete.  to  by  to  appear  rest is  of  up  upper  You c o u l d  as  the  so  get  a  is  there.  space  single not  is  a whole  series  of  examples  of  sublime  towers.  336  This  s u g g e s t s an e t h e r e a l  almost d o e s n ' t joyment ople  or of pride  i n i t . One  ilding  look  structural.  There  box w i t h  i s a sort  i n p r o d u c i n g a box which  has t o note  on t h e r i g h t  paper  which  the contrast  still  shows  content  of  doesn't  with  every  no  the  show  older  window.  The manticism. alate  the  free  standing  Landscaping is building  revivalist provided  a n d make  it  in  stand  monument front out  to  more  of  early  further strongly  The e  same  isolation.  flective  this  Vancouver provide ean  ultimate  surface  to  monument  the  were  w o u l d be  were  total  If  geometric glass  the  perfect  disappointed reflection, the  almost  by  a  advantage  little  monument.  the  and thus perfect  just  takes  failure create  parallel  of a  more  Many  peopl  the  glass  perfectly  piped.  339 .  The situated with in  two t o w e r s  to allow  an open  t h e maximum  space  f r o n t o f them.  think  the dramatic  the  dark  stand that  i n the f a s h i o n  reflective  i s no o t h e r  and  the towers  are  very  against  them, and plaza one  might  makes  a l s o because  of  the buildings  the sky. I t i s remarkable  communication  separated.  that  Centre,  and o f G l i A s i n e l l i ,  greater,  b u t two e n t r a n c e s .  strongly  are such  m a t e r i a l , which  o u t more s t r o n g l y there  i s much  between  of a pedestrian  o f La G a r i s e n d a  effect  Dominion  separation  The p r o p o r t i o n s  of the towers  but  of the Toronto  between  the s t r e e t  The i n s i d e and t h e o u t s i d e  The is  carried  store is  on  on by  the  Stronplv  theme  of  the  side,  the  low,  box wider  and o f box  s t r i k i n g l y white.  spnaratpH  f-rnm  +• Vi Q  the  used Here  nnt<;i H P  perfect for  the  again  surfaces Eaton's  the  inside  The box i s a f a c a d e intended the  f o r outside,not  activity.  o n l y . The monumentalism i s  inside.  The s t y l e  changes  with  34 2 .  The lot  romantic  enhance the  contrast.  sublimity  of  the  Low high  buildings rise  and  a  building.  parking  343  As the of  University romantic  from of  a final  the  of B r i t i s h  setting.  city  b;.y  a peninsula.  isolated A good  the  and  buildings  o f money  While  observe  Columbia  a forest The  may  are  situated are  on  a  expanse  of  land,  the sheer  massiveness  central  building  dominates  Simon  in  i n the  sublime  effect is  emphasized  of  the  academic by  gigantic  greenery  i n the  quantity  are  of the  at  the  top  acropolis  the  spread  of the  separated  fashion  of  the park  over  a  This  building mountain.  concrete. Its  surrounds  it.  The  rises  in direct  contrast  of  large  monumental  producing  that  parks.  beautiful  single  of a mountain,  of  University  Fraser University.  i n bare  of  example  geographic heart of m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver,  isolation  o f an  village,  dominates  the b u i l d i n g s  i s an  l a n d s c a p i n g and  large  Columbia,  campus  the western t i p  detached  theme o f n a t u r e where  on  s e p a r a t e d by  i s spent  the  i n Vancouver  British  sity,  that  It is a self-contained  monuments, and  deal  flowers.  n o t e , we  universtands the  isolation  c o n c r e t e mass a g a i n s t the  344 .  13.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  A general uniformity of pattern of developments in contemporary c i t i e s , and subdivisions.  p a r t i c u l a r l y in the recent  exists  developments  It is a pattern of growth t y p i c a l of North  America, corresponding to moral and aesthetic ideals fostered by romantic trends.  Love for separation and ideal order play a great  part in the growth of this pattern.  The pattern of the  eighteenth  century towns of Quebec and Nouvelle Orleans, compact, mixed, introvert and European, remained essentially continent.  foreign to this  The i s o l a t i o n of buildings and of uses, the exterior  lawns and gardens, are among the essential  t r a i t s of the North  American system, where landscaped open spaces are emphasized and the buildings are free standing, i f density and cost allow it.  The suburban dwelling and the skyscraper are the most typical North American buildings.  The f i r s t corresponds to the  romantic notion of the b e a u t i f u l , The Call of the Wild, the worship of Nature, the morality of rural l i f e .  The second corres-  ponds to the romantic notion of the monument and of the sublime. As a summary of modern North American architecture The World Trade Centre ( f i g  u r e  1) is most t y p i c a l .  Its sublime design  is  emphasized by the model shown, where no other complex of buildings is present,and where the composition stops with a few trees.  The  purity of the twin towers and the contrast with the low rise composition at their feet could not be greater.  Comparing i t with  the drawing of a tower by Boullee (p. 253 ~) we may note that the  THE WORLD TRADE CENTER, scheduled for completion by 1972, will have the world's tallest buildings, two 110-story towers, surrounded by four low-lying Plaza buildings— a 16-acre complex. Owner, The Port of New York Authority; Architects, Minoru Yamasaki and Associates—and Emery Roth and Sons; | Consulting Mechanical Engineer, Jaros, Baum & Bolles; General Contractor, Tishman Realty & Construction Co. Inc.; Electric Engineers, Joseph R. Loring & Associates; Mechanical Contractor, H. Sand & Co. Inc.  346 ,  scale is  and  about  the  the the  same  p r o p o r t i o n same.  genius i s  an  magical of  j u s t  The  I n t u i t i v e  and  the  The  without  a  r a t h e r  at  shown  the  and  the  b a s e . i s  towers  almost  a b i l i t i e s .  The  b e a u t i f u l  These  and  cannot  i n  of  the  in  is  c i t y  car  as are  s i g h t ,  sublime  and  some  of  an  a  g a r -  balanced  by  of  the  c o n f l i c t s  value  f o l l o w  the  the  house  d i s c o v e r s  to  p r o d u c t s  s o l u t i o n  f o r  s e n t i m e n t a l  l i k e s  p u b l i c  a r c h i t e c t ,  produce  man  a  stand  t e c h n o l o g i c a l  reasonable  may  The  love  technology  such  American  the  suburban  romantic  i m p r a c t i c a l i t y and  and  trends  suburban  but  s c i e n c e .  from  science  North  o c c u l t  p u r i t y  the  advances  moon,  values  f o r  Nature.  and  a  s t r i k i n g  f o r  suburban  the  as  dream  commuters,  urban  seen  i n  except  v e h i c l e . c o n f l i c t ,  s u f f e r i n g  dreaming.  An the  present  that we  love  f o r  p o l l u t i o n  o f t e n  people  b u i l d i n g  innate  love  t e c h n o l o g i c a l  c a p t u r i n g  the  the  of  and  dilemmas.  n a t u r e . of  the  become  shapes  the  love  romantic between  by  as  equal  has  i n t u i t i v e  balanced  den,  Even  the  p r o p o r t i o n .  Design expects  between  the  noted  values i t . not acts  We  asking  North  market that  as  such f o r  a  urban  responded  people  noted  r a t i o n a l i t y  American  has  i n f l u e n c e  r e a l l y i n  economic  tend  the  to  dream  that  "the  free  as  to buy  is  supposed  to  because  i t  i t  evident  f a v o u r .  with  happiness  and  that  is  supposed  market"  is  a  vague  thought.  In  c o n f u s i n g  and  i r r a t i o n a l  manner  have  a t t r i b u t e d  to  i t  romantic  and  f a c t ,  that  the  that a  appear However,  correspond  n o t i o n  be  would  that  to  may  and  behind  system,  i t  c o n t r o l s  e x i s t  s o r t  i t  is  market  people of  to  are  " c a n n i b a l i s m " .  347 ,  The of  c o n t r o l s ,  laws has  and  been  s e p a r a t i o n s scaping  of  the  in  of  l i n e s ,  a  l e g a l  i n  imposed.  which  and  under  a  romantic  s u b s t a n t i a l  u s e s ,  and  a  t a s t e  w e l l  such  view  a c c o r d i n g  of  and  a  c o n s t r a i n t s ,  Geometry  p a t t e r n  present because  v i s i o n  s a t i s f a c t i o n a  o l d  s i t u a t i o n  the  c o n t r a s t s ,  d i a l e c t i c  by  a c t i n g  as  of  to  an  almost  amount  c i t y  the  by-  c i t y  i d e a l