UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Romantic motivation and North American urban design Oberti, Oberto Eugenio 1974

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R O M A N T I C M O T I V A T I O N A N D N O R T H A M E R I C A N U R B A N D E S I G N by Oberto Eugenio O b e r t i B . A r c h . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i n the School o f A r c h i t e c t u r e accept t h i s thes i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 13, 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f School o£ A r c h i t e c t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e Sept:. 13, 1974 I . ABSTRACT This thes i s i s a study o f contemporary urban design i n North America. The p h y s i c a l aspects o f the arch i t ec ture o f the c i t y are examined i n the l i g h t o f the h i s t o r y o f ideas and o f urban des ign. While most studies show the development o f modern a r c h i t e c t u r a l and urban design as a chronology o f ever new trends and d i scover ies i n a continuous l i n e o f progress , t h i s work shows that many e s s e n t i a l features of design are not new and have not been changing. On the contrary , ideas developed i n the eighteenth century can be regarded as the e s s e n t i a l source o f i n s p i r a t i o n o f many aspects of contemporary des ign. The c e n t r a l theme o f the thes i s i s that the body o f thought developed i n the la te eighteenth century - defined as romantic thought - i s s t i l l at the o r i g i n o f the motivat ion o f contemporary urban des ign. The study i d e n t i f i e s the e s s e n t i a l t r a i t s of the p r e v a i l i n g s t y l e o f urban and a r c h i t e c t u r a l design and r e l a t e s them to the main themes o f the romantic t r a d i t i o n . The point made i s that t h i s t r a d i t i o n has become a very u n c r i t i c a l one and that the establishment of a l t e r n a t i v e and new t r a d i t i o n s i s thus made very d i f f i c u l t , i f not imposs ible . The method fol lowed i n the thes i s i s to make hypotheses o f inf luences between eighteenth century thought and contemporary notions a f f e c t i n g the p h y s i c a l design of c i t i e s . The hypotheses are supported by the evidence o f the thoughts and projec t s of representat ive thinkers quoted and by the a t t i t u d e s , the laws and the patterns o f p h y s i c a l design found i n our days. I I Among the sources used i n th i s thes i s the reader w i l l f i n d passages ranging from Edmund Burke and Immanuel Kant to Jane Jacobs, Frank Lloyd Wright and Arthur E r i c k s o n . A large body of thoughts from famous and less famous people who spoke and worked i n a representat ive way i s used throughout the t h e s i s . I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f "prophetic" designs from the age o f Boullee and Ledoux and o f many e x i s t i n g projec t s are introduced to c l a r i f y the arguments. Many examples were chosen from Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, but t y p i c a l examples from the ent i re North American continent are inc luded. Most of the aspects in f luenc ing design are considered. The reader w i l l f i n d an examination of e s tab l i shed patterns of e x i s t i n g urban design i n North America, an analys i s o f the a t t i tudes toward the c i t y and arch i t ec ture observations on the by-laws and the economic system in f luenc ing design dec i s ions . This mater ia l i s used to show that there i s a great i n e r t i a of o ld s ty les and idea l s which prevent the establishment o f a l t e r n a t i v e l i f e s ty les and o f t r u l y new canons of design, despite a general consensus about the need for some t r u l y new approach i n the p h y s i c a l design of our c i t i e s . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The ass is tance and the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f thought and o f c r i t i c i s m given by Professors W. Gerson and C. Wisnicky of the School of A r c h i t e c t u r e and by Professor E . Hundert o f the Department o f H i s t o r y o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia made poss ib le many improvements i n the text o f the t h e s i s . My p a r t i c u l a r grat i tude i s d i r e c t e d toward Professor A. Rogatnick of the School of Arch i t ec ture o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. His unique, m u l t i - l i n g u a l cu l ture and his depth of thought i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , ar t and h i s t o r y made poss ib l e a d i f f i c u l t new exp lora t ion i n the f i e l d of urban des ign. His understanding and c r i t i c a l help were most use fu l i n t h i s long research . IV T A B L E OF CONTENTS I n t r o d u c t i o n p . 1 B a c k g r o u n d p . 1 T e r m i n o l o g y p . 7 P u r p o s e p . 13 O r g a n i z a t i o n p . 14 1. The E x i s t i n g P a t t e r n and P l a n o f t h e M o d e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a n C i t y p . 25 2. The S u b u r b a n T y p e and S t y l e o f D e v e l o p m e n t and R e l a t e d U r b a n S y s t e m s p . 50 3 . Some C o n t e m p o r a r y U r b a n and A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r o b l e m s and D i s c u s s i o n s : The H o r n s o f a D i l e m m a p . 96 4. The R o l e o f R o m a n t i c i s m as a C o n d i t i o n i n g F a c t o r f o r A r c h i t e c t s and O t h e r P e o p l e I n v o l v e d i n U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t s p . 1 2 3 5. R o m a n t i c A t t i t u d e s and U n w r i t t e n R o m a n t i c Laws i n t h e M o d e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a n C i t y p . 1 3 8 6. E c o n o m i c and P o l i t i c a l F a c t o r s : F r e e E n t e r p r i s e , O w n e r s h i p , E q u a l i t y , e t c . p . 1 5 8 7. B y - L a w s and O t h e r L e g a l F a c t o r s p . 1 8 3 8. H i s t o r i c a l and E t h n i c O r i g i n s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n C i t i e s p . 2 0 6 9. A r c h i t e c t u r a l T r e n d s and C r e e d s R e l a t e d w i t h R o m a n t i c i s m p . 2 4 9 10. T h e o r i e s D e v e l o p e d by some R o m a n t i c s p . 2 8 4 V . 1 1 . C o n t e m p o r a r y E f f e c t o f H i s t o r i c I d e a s p . 3 0 1 1 2 . V a n c o u v e r i n L i g h t o f t h i s S t u d y p . 3 0 9 1 3 . S u m m a r y a n d C o n c l u s i o n s p . 3 4 4 B i b l i o g r a p h y p . 3 5 3 1. INTRODUCTION  Background At the b a s i s of the urban form and a r c h i t e c t u r e of the modern North American i n d u s t r i a l c i t y l i e s an e n t i r e world of p h i l o s o p h i c a l , e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s thought, of newer and ol d e r t r a d i t i o n s , of a t t i t u d e s taken f o r granted and, indeed, of p r e j u d i c e . It i s an urban form i n many ways uniquely North American, and uniquely a f f e c t e d by the body of thought developed only i n the l a s t three c e n t u r i e s , or, more c l e a r l y , by the c u l t u r e developed by the i n t e l l e c t u a l r e v o l u t i o n i n i t i a t e d around the middle of the eighteenth century. Most books of h i s t o r y of modern a r c h i t e c t u r e , such as Peter C o l l i n s ' Changing Ideals i n Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e ( 1 ) , are focused on the p e r i o d which begins with the new way of t h i n k i n g i n the second h a l f of the eighteenth century. These works seem to be concerned mostly with the h i s t o r y of changing i d e a l s and with the many in n o v a t i o n s of the modern age up to our days. The i n t e r e s t of t h i s study i s centered on those i d e a l s which d i d not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the time of t h e i r develop-ment to our days, and which became more and more profoundly i n g r a i n e d i n our c u l t u r e : i n other words here we are emphasizing the c o n t i n u i t y of a body of thought under the s u r f a c e of changing fashions and of experiments. The N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t y has b e e n s e l d o m p r a i s e d and o f t e n s h a r p l y c r i t i c i z e d , b u t i t i s o n l y now, p e r h a p s , t h a t i t s v i a b i l i t y as a s y s t e m has come u n d e r g r e a t e r s c r u t i n y and i s s o m e t i m e s s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d . As an e x a m p l e o f s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f two c i t i e s - s e e n as f u n c t i o n i n g s y s t e m s -one may c o n s i d e r an a n c i e n t c i t y s u c h as Rome and a newer c i t y s u c h as W a s h i n g t o n . Rome i s a c i t y t h a t d e v e l o p e d o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e , t h a t went t h r o u g h many t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , and t h a t a d o p t e d a f l e x i b l e u r b a n p a t t e r n , a d a p t i n g t o needs and s i t -u a t i o n s w h i c h c h a n g e d r a t h e r p r o f o u n d l y . An A m e r i c a n j o u r n a l i s t v i s i t i n g Rome e a r l y i n 1974* , made t h e c o m p a r i s o n o b s e r v i n g t h a t Rome w i t h o u t c a r s seemed t o be as e n j o y a b l e and l i v e a b l e as b e f o r e . W a s h i n g t o n i s n o t p r e p a r e d t o a d a p t t o a s i m i l a r c h a n g e : i t w o u l d become i m p o s s i b l e and f r i g h t e n i n g . The i m p l i c a t i o n s b e h i n d an e x a m p l e s u c h as t h i s a r e more p r o f o u n d t h a n i t i s g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l a t t e m p t to i l l u s t r a t e many c r u c i a l and a t t i m e s f o r g o t t e n s o u r c e s o f i n s p i r a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h s h a p e s t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t y , i n many c a s e s an u n c r i t i c a l and r a t h e r i r r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . T h e r e a r e many r o m a n t i c i d e a l s , s u c h as a r e t u r n t o n a t u r e o u t s i d e t h e c i t i e s and a l o v e f o r i s o l a t i o n , w h i c h p l a y e d *a t a t i m e when c a r s were b a n n e d and t h e s p e c t r e o f c i t i e s w i t h o u t g a s o l i n e was l o o m i n g . 3. a g r e a t r o l e i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h o u g h t t h a t s h a p e d t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t y . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h p r o d u c e d t h i s k i n d o f c i t y may h e l p us t o see many r e a l and f i c t i t i o u s p r o b l e m s i n a t r u e r l i g h t , a n d t o d i r e c t f u t u r e a r c h i t e c t u r a l e f f o r t s t o w a r d a b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d and more g e n u i n e s e r v i c e . Human a s p i r a t i o n s do c h a n g e i n t i m e , and i t w o u l d be wrong t o i m a g i n e as undemo-c r a t i c t h e a t t e m p t t o g u i d e s u c h a s p i r a t i o n s t o more r a t i o n a l and s o c i a l i d e a l s , an a t t e m p t to p u t f o r w a r d new and b e t t e r i d e a l s s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e d e m o l i t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h e d i l l u s i o n s . T h e s e i l l u s i o n s may be so d e e p l y r o o t e d i n t h e common c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t t h e y b l i n d t h e v i e w o f a n y t h i n g e l s e - a m i s t a k e n l o v e o f e m o t i o n a l i s m p e r p e t u a t e s as p r e j u d i c e s t h e t e n e t s o f f o r g o t t e n p h i l o s o p h i e s . A c o n t e m p o r a r y N o r t h A m e r i c a n u r b a n d w e l l e r may r e a d , f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e f r o n t page o f a w e e k l y m a g a z i n e : " O u r A r c t i c w i l d l i f e needs a p e r m a n e n t home away f r o m man and m a c h i n e " (2), o r he may e x a m i n e a s t u d y o f a w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t u n d e r a h e a d l i n e : " C o n c r e t e o r p a r k s : i t ' s y o u r c h o i c e " (3). A f a l s e c o n c e p t o f n a t u r e seems t o i m p a i r o u r a b i l i t y to a s s e s s p r e s e n t p r o b l e m s c o o l l y and t o make r a t i o n a l c h o i c e s f o r t h e f u t u r e . A c a p t i o n f r o m a p o p u l a r c o m i c s t r i p s u m m a r i z e s t h e common r o m a n t i c v i e w o f N a t u r e (4) : 4. N a t u r e i s s e e n as t h e s o u r c e o f g o o d n e s s and as s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c a n be o p p o s e d to man and h i s p r o d u c t s . N a t u r e i s a l s o s e e n as w i s d o m , and as s p e a k i n g to t h e good man t h r o u g h an i n n e r m y s t e r i o u s v o i c e . " O n l y man can do e v i l " , b u t t h e n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t s a r e a l w a y s g o o d . One s h o u l d s t a y away f r o m c i v i l i z a t i o n t o a v o i d c o r r u p t i o n (an i d e a t h a t r e m i n d s one o f R o u s s e a u ) . To h a v e t o l i v e i n c i t i e s and t o b u i l d c i t i e s c o n s e q u e n t l y becomes a p r o b l e m . T h i s i s j u s t one example o f a r o m a n t i c d i l e m m a t h a t we have i n h e r i t e d . The main theme o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t " f r o m t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y , a r t and l i t e r a t u r e and p h i l o s o p h y , and e v e n p o l i t i c s , h a v e been i n f l u e n c e d , p o s i t i v e l y o r n e g a t i v e l y , by a way o f f e e l i n g w h i c h was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f w h a t , i n a l a r g e s e n s e , may be c a l l e d the r o m a n t i c movement . E v e n t h o s e who were r e p e l l e d by t h i s way o f f e e l i n g were c o m p e l l e d t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f i t , and i n many c a s e s 5. were more a f f e c t e d by i t t h a n t h e y knew" (5) ( B . R u s s e l l ) . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t seems t o h a v e b e e n most p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e new way o f t h i n k i n g , w h i c h we w i l l c a l l r o m a n t i c i s m . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s s h a r e d v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and o f t h e E n g l i g h t e n m e n t , as i t was known i n t h e g r e a t p a r t o f E u r o p e . The most p r o n o u n c e d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e e a r l y c o l o n i a l p e o p l e were w o r k , m o r a l i t y a n d r e l i g i o n . A g e n t l e , s e n t i m e n t a l , p r e - r o m a n t i c l i t e r a t u r e f l o u r -i s h e d i n t h e S o u t h f o r t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t o f t h o s e who c o u l d r e a d a n d had t h e s p a r e t i m e f o r i t . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n r e v -o l u t i o n was f o u g h t n o t o n l y i n t h e name o f l i b e r t y , b u t a l s o i n t h e name o f G o d . A h i g h d e g r e e o f i d e a l i s m , o f m o r a l i s m , o f m y s t i c i s m , and o f i n s p i r e d s e n t i m e n t a l i s m had a l w a y s b e e n p r e s e n t s i n c e t h e e a r l y t i m e s o f c o l o n i z a t i o n , p r o v i d i n g a f e r t i l e g r o u n d f o r the new t i d e o f t h o u g h t . The l o v e and t h e f e a r o f n a t u r e , s e e n b o t h as t h e p r e s e n c e and as t h e p u n i s h m e n t o f G o d , were among t h e o r i g i n a l common s e n t i m e n t s o f t h e s e t t l e r s , a l s o . The s k e p t i c a l w o r s h i p o f r e a s o n , d o u b t , a g n o s t i c i s m , and t h e i r o n y , t h e w a s t e , t h e r e f i n e d l i f e - s t y l e o f t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t were h a t e d by N o r t h A m e r i c a n s , as i f t h e y were t h e h e i g h t o f c o r r u p t i o n . B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n , b e l i e v e d t o be t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , p r e a c h e d m o r a l i t y , p a r s i m o n y and i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y . The r e a l i s m and 6. t h e s e n t i m e n t a l i s m , t h e renewed m y s t i c i s m a n d t h e i d e a l i s m , t h a t l a t e r m a n i f e s t e d t h e m s e l v e s as l e a d i n g t r e n d s i n t h e r o m a n t i c a g e , were m o t i f s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n l i f e s t y l e s i n c e t h e e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , e v e n i f i n p r i m i t i v e f o r m s . A l m o s t n o t h i n g was done i n N o r t h A m e r i c a t h a t w o u l d h a v e l e f t a l a s t i n g t r a c e o f t h e a r t and t h o u g h t o f t h e age p r e c e d i n g r o m a n t i c i s m . B a r o q u e a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e n e v e r a c h i e v e d a d o m i n a n t s t a t u s i n t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s . The r o m a n t i c age f o u n d N o r t h A m e r i c a a v i r g i n l a n d t o c o n q u e r and t o m o u l d e x c l u s i v e l y a c c o r d i n g to i t s d r e a m . The dream o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s was a dream o f l i b e r t y , o f i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e m e n t s , o f r e b e l l i o n , o f g r e a t and i n v i n c i b l e i d e a l s t h a t h a d t o be f u l f i l l e d i n a new l a n d . N o r t h A m e r i c a was d e v e l o p e d as a dream l a n d where t h e r o m a n t i c i d e a l s c o u l d be f u l f i l l e d . O n l y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a was t h e r e a c l e a n s l a t e and a w e a l t h o f r e s o u r c e s t h a t p e r m i t t e d t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f s u c h dreams on a g r a n d s c a l e . I t became a l a n d o f dreams where E u r o p e a n s w o u l d come t o t r y t o do what c o u l d h a v e n o t b e e n done i n E u r o p e . T h i s i s one o f t h e r e a s o n s why t h e r e i s a u n i f o r m i t y o f s t y l e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a t h a t does n o t e x i s t i n E u r o p e , where t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f a l o n g h i s t o r y and o f a s l o w and d i f f i c u l t d e v e l o p m e n t h a v e p r e v e n t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g o f a u n i f i e d d r e a m . T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e new t i d e o f t h o u g h t came t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two f a c t o r s has b e e n 7 . i n t e r p r e t e d by some as i f t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n h a d p r o d u c e d t h e e s s e n t i a l b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e new way o f t h i n k i n g . The f a c t u a l e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , h o w e v e r , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i d e a s p r e c e d e d t h e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t made them p o s s i b l e . Thus we see t h a t t h e s u b u r b a n t r e n d p r e c e d e d a n d c r e a t e d t h e s t a g e f o r t h e n e e d o f c a r s , and t h a t t h e c a r -o r i e n t e d c i t y was c o n c e i v e d and p a r t l y d e s i g n e d by p e o p l e l i k e F r e d e r i c k Law O l m s t e d ( 6 ) e v e n b e f o r e t h e c a r c o u l d be d r e a m e d . In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n we see d r a w i n g s o f b u i l d i n g s w h i c h c o u l d n o t be b u i l t w i t h o u t r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e b e f o r e t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e was known ( 7 ) . I n t e g r a l t o t h e theme o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t i d e a s and dreams a r i s e b e f o r e t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r p o l i t i c a l b r e a k t h r o u g h s n e c e s s a r y t o i m p l e m e n t t h e m . T e r m i n o l o g y R o m a n t i c i s m h e r e i s n o t d e f i n e d as t h e n a r r o w c a t e g o r y w h i c h o p p o s e s i t t o n e o - c l a s s i c i s m . J o h n C a n a d a y o b s e r v e d i n t h e "New Y o r k T i m e s " ( 8 ) : " I t i s a t r u i s m by now t h a t t h e s e e d s o f t h e r o m a n t i c movement were c a r r i e d w i t h i n t h e c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l , b u t t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s r e v i v a l i t s e l f was a r o m a n t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n has n o t b e e n r e c o g n i z e d . " A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w i t h a s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r o r w i t h a g r o u p o f s t a t i c c h a r a c t e r s t h e e s s e n c e o f R o m a n t i c i s m " ( 9 ) . T h i s i s why t h e r e 8. a r e so many d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s and d e f i n i t i o n s o f r o m a n t i c i s m . L . Geymonat n o t e s (10) t h a t b o t h a n t i - r a t i o n a l i s m and t h e r a t i o n a l i s m o f t h e i d e a l i s t s ( e . g . F i c h t e , S c h e l l i n g , H e g e l ) a r e a s p e c t s o f r o m a n t i c i s m . K. J o e l i n P e r U r s p r u n g  d e r N a t u r p h i l o s o p h i e aus dem G e i s t e d e r M y s t i k m a i n t a i n e d (11) t h a t r o m a n t i c i s m came f r o m the m y s t i c i s m o f t h e R e f o r m a t i o n . M. V i n c i g u e r r a t h o u g h t t h a t r o m a n t i c i s m was a German r e n a i s s a n c e r e t a r d e d by t h e R e f o r m a t i o n and t h a t " i t p r o c e e d s f r o m an i n t e r i o r c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n o p p o s i n g c o n c e p t s o f l i f e " ( 1 2 ) . B . C r o c e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e t w e e n a p r a c t i c a l and a t h e o r e t i c a l r o m a n t i c i s m , q u o t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s made by G o e t h e and H e g e l ( 1 3 ) . N . A b b a g n a n o , t h e n o t e d h i s t o r i a n and e x i s t e n t i a l i s t , w r o t e ( 1 4 ) : " R o m a n t i c i s m was b o r n when t h i s c o n c e p t o f r e a s o n ( r e a s o n a c t i n g i n a l i m i t e d f i e l d and o f l i m i t e d v a l u e , as i t was t h o u g h t e a r l i e r - n . a . ) was a b a n d o n e d and an i n f i n i t e f o r c e w h i c h i n h a b i t s t h e w o r l d and r u l e s i t and t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e s t h e e s s e n c e i t s e l f o f t h e w o r l d - b e g a n t o be u n d e r s t o o d as r e a s o n . T h i s p a s s a g e was made by F i c h t e , who i d e n t i f i e d r e a s o n w i t h the i n f i n i t e I o r a b s o l u t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s and made o f i t t h e f o r c e f r o m w h i c h t h e e n t i r e w o r l d i s p r o d u c e d . I n f i n i t y i n t h i s s e n s e i s an i n f i n i t y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and o f p o w e r , i n a d d i t i o n to e x t e n s i o n and d u r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h v a r i o u s l y c a l l e d by t h e r o m a n t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s ( F i c h t e c a l l e d i t I ; S c h e l l i n g , A b s o l u t e ; H e g e l , I d e a o r S e l f - c o n s c i o u s R e a s o n ) , t h e I n f i n i t e P r i n c i p l e was c o n s t a n t l y u n d e r s t o o d as c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a c t i v i t y , 9. l i b e r t y , c a p a b i l i t y o f c o n t i n u o u s c r e a t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e common f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e i n f i n i t e P r i n c i p l e was i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e r o m a n t i c s i n two f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t w a y s . The f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , c l o s e r t o t h e i d e a s o f t h e " S t u r m und D r a n g " , c o n s i d e r s i n f i n i t y as a s e n t i m e n t , t h a t i s as f r e e a c t i v i t y , f r e e o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o r b e y o n d e v e r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and t h a t i s r e v e a l e d i n man i n t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e more s t r i c t l y r e l a t e d w i t h s e n t i m e n t , t h a t i s i n r e l i g i o n o r i n a r t . The s e c o n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n u n d e r s t o o d i n f i n i t y as a b s o l u t e R e a s o n , w h i c h moves w i t h r i g o r o u s n e c e s s i t y f r o m one d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r , so t h a t e v e r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n may be d e d u c e d f r o m the o t h e r n e c e s s a r i l y and a - p r i o r i . T h i s i s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i c h p r e v a i l e d in t h e g r e a t f i g u r e s o f r o m a n t i c i d e a l i s m , F i c h t e , S c h e l l i n g and H e g e l , a l t h o u g h S c h e l l i n g i n s i s t e d on the p r e s e n c e , i n t h e i n f i n i t e P r i n c i p l e , o f an u n c o n s c i o u s o r i m m e d i a t e a s p e c t , s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h c h a r a c t -e r i z e s t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f man. The two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f i n f i n i t y were o f t e n i n c o n t r a s t and H e g e l e s p e c i a l l y l e d t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e p r i m a c y o f s e n t i m e n t . But i t i s t h e i r c o n t r a s t and t h e i r s t r u g g l e w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s one o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l t r a i t s o f r o m a n t i c i s m i n the w h o l e o f i t s c o m p l e x i t y . " 10. C . C a p p u c c i o n o t e s (15) t h a t " r o m a n t i c i s m r e p r e s e n t s a new e p o c h o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . . . i n i t s most o b v i o u s e x p r e s s i o n s i t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f f i r s t o f a l l as an o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t , a l t h o u g h i n i t s e s s e n c e i t was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f the e n l i g h t e n m e n t and c o n s e r v e d many o f t h e i d e a l c o n q u e s t s d i v u l g e d by t h e E n c y c l o p a e d i s t s . . . E x a l t a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m and r e l i g i o u s e x i g e n c y a r e t h e two c o m p l e x e l e m e n t s w h i c h d o m i n a t e t h e r o m a n t i c s p i r i t u a l w o r l d . . . " From R u s s e l l t o A b b a g n a n o and C a p p u c c i o t h e r e i s a common c o n s e n s u s t h a t a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w o r l d and a new c o n s c i o u s n e s s emerged i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C h i e f a r c h i t e c t s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e v a s t hody o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t f o l l o w e d , l a y i n g i t s f o u n d a t i o n s , were men l i k e R o u s s e a u and K a n t , l i k e B o u r k e and S c h i l l e r . The " C o p e r n i c a n r e v o l u t i o n " made by K a n t h a d p r o b a b l y g r e a t e r c o n s e q u e n c e s t h a n t h e F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n . i t s e l f . I t i s t h e new u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h p e r m e a t e d t h e v a s t new body o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t was d e v e l o p e d t h e n and a f t e r w a r d s w h i c h w i l l be c a l l e d r o m a n t i c i s m t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s . To c l a r i f y t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s new u n d e r s t a n d i n g - a f a r r e a c h i n g r e v o l u t i o n o f t h o u g h t i n w h i c h no one c o u l d a v o i d b e i n g i n v o l v e d - we may o b s e r v e t h a t b e f o r e f o r a " r a t i o n a l i s t " s u c h as L e i b n i z s e n t i m e n t d i d n o t seem t o be a d i f f i c u l t y , j u s t as f o r a r a t h e r " s e n t i m e n t a l " p o e t as P e t r a r c a r e a s o n d i d n o t seem t o be a p r o b l e m . P e r f e c t i o n . , a p p e a r e d r a t h e r as a 11. harmony" and a c o o p e r a t i o n o f a l l f a c t o r s o f t h e u n i v e r s e w i t h -o u t c o n f l i c t , and p e r f e c t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e . S e n t i m e n t and r e a s o n , n a t u r e and human i n d u s t r y , o r g a n i c l i f e and s c i e n c e , most o f t h e t e r m s w i t h w h i c h t h e l a s t two c e n t u r i e s h a v e b e e n c o n t e n d i n g were n o t new t e r m s and h a d b e e n s t u d i e d and d i s c u s s e d b e f o r e u n d e r many d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s . But t h e f e a t u r e o f t h e new age i s t h a t o f s e e i n g them i n n e c e s s a r y c o n t r a s t , as o p p o s i n g p o l e s o r f o r c e s . C o n t r a s t i s t h e d o m i n a n t f e a t u r e . P e r f e c t i o n , i f a t t a i n a b l e , i s t h e r e s u l t o f a s t r u g g l e , i t i s the, c a l m a f t e r t h e t e m p e s t o f B e e t h o v e n i n t h e s i x t h s y m p h o n y , o r t h e i d e a l o r d e r t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s t r u g g l e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n . The new way o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s a d i a l e c t i c way o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g where t h e r e may be a p r o -g r e s s i o n t o s u b l i m i t y t h r o u g h c o n t r a s t s . T h i s was a m a z i n g l y e x p r e s s e d by t h e c u b i s t s , who t r i e d " the s i m u l t a n e o u s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m u l t i p l e a s p e c t s o f an objec t ' . ' (16) d e l i v e r i n g w i t h a s t o n i s h i n g a b i l i t y and s u c c e s s a c o o r d i n a t e d s e r i e s o f c o n t r a s t s . P r e v i o u s ages h a d o t h e r d o m i n a n t f e a t u r e s . I f I h a d t o g i v e a t i t l e t o t h e c e n t u r i e s o f r o m a n t i c i s m , p e r h a p s I w o u l d c a l l i t t h e Age o f C o n t r a s t , j u s t as I w o u l d g i v e a t i t l e s u c h as t h e Age o f R e l i g i o n t o t h e m e d i e v a l c e n t u r i e s . I t i s n o t t h a t d u r i n g t h o s e c e n t u r i e s e v e r y o n e was a b e l i e v e r , b u t one c o u l d h a r d l y h a v e a s o c i a l l i f e w i t h o u t c o m i n g t o t e r m s w i t h r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . S i m i l a r l y c o n -t r a s t i n g r o m a n t i c i d e a l s h a v e p r o f o u n d l y p e n e t r a t e d o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n . 12. C o n t r a s t s h o u l d n o t be i n t e n d e d as a s t r i c t c a t e g o r y and p u r e l y i n a d u a l i s t i c s e n s e . R o m a n t i c , f o r e x a m p l e , was a l s o t h e l o v e f o r i n f i n i t y and f o r e x t r e m e p o s i t i o n s . Among o t h e r t h i n g s , a new f o r m o f r a t i o n a l i s t i c i d e a l i s m was b o r n , where e v e r y t h i n g had t o be p r e c i s e l y c a t e g o r i z e d ; e v e n l o g i c and s c i e n c e were i d e a l i z e d . (The d r a w i n g s f o r a c e n o t a p h t o Newton by B o u l l e e a r e one among many i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h i s i d e a l i z i n g t r e n d , where m y s t i c i s m and s c i e n c e come t o a s o r t o f d i a l e c t i c u n i t y . ) Many p e o p l e h a v e b e e n c o n f u s e d by t h e i n c r e d i b l e e c l e c t i c i s m w h i c h d e v e l o p e d a t t h e t i m e , n o t o n l y i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , where G r e e k , R o m a n e s q u e , G o t h i c o r o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s p r o -v i d e d new i n s p i r a t i o n and c o n t r a s t s , b u t a l s o i n t e r m s o f o p p o s i n g a t t i t u d e s and i d e a s , some d i r e c t l y d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y , a n d some r e v i v e d f r o m many c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e . The same r a t i o n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s t h a t h a d f o r m e d t h e g e n e r a t i o n s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y became r o m a n t i c once t h e y were r e l a t e d t o a b s o l u t e i d e a l s o r a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e new t r i b u t e t o t h e s e n t i m e n t a l s i d e . N o t i n g t h a t t h e word and t h e i n t e r e s t f o r a e s t h e t i c s r o s e t o g e t h e r w i t h r o m a n t i c i s m one m i g h t even s a y , p e r h a p s , t h a t r o m a n t i c i s m was an a e s t h e t i c a n d s u b j e c t i v e v i e w o f t h e w o r l d , a l t h o u g h d e v o t i o n t o an i d e a l , w h i c h c o u l d be common ,. many t i m e s b r o u g h t p e o p l e b a c k t o g e t h e r . The o p e r a h o u s e and t h e s t o c k e x c h a n g e may be s e e n as e x a m p l e s o f new t e m p l e s o f f o l l o w e r s o f an i d e a l i n w h i c h t h e v i r t u o s o and t h e e n t e r p r e n e u r a r e e x a m p l e s o f new h e r o e s : t h e g i f t e d g e n i u s e s . 1 3 . A p p r o a c h The o p i n i o n t h a t w i l l emerge f r o m t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t many o f t h e c o n t r a s t s and o f t h e o p p o s i n g p o l e s a n d o f t h e a t t i t u d e s g e n e r a t e d by t h e r o m a n t i c mood may n o t be n e c e s s a r y a n d may n o t be r e a s o n a b l e . Many o f t h e d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s a d o p t e d i n t h e l a s t ' h u n d r e d y e a r s (and e a r l i e r ) w i l l be c r i t i c i s e d . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t what i s modern i s r o m a n t i c and t h a t what i s r o m a n t i c i s b a d . The a u t h o r i s n o t a r e a c t i o n a r y and w o u l d be d i s a p p o i n t e d by an a t t e m p t t o r e t u r n t o t h e " a n c i e n r e g i m e " o r t o e v e n o l d e r s t y l e s . A t t a c k i n g t h e p r e s e n t i n o r d e r t o p r a i s e t h e p a s t i s n o t a t a l l t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s t h e s i s . T h e r e i s no d isagreement w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t , d e s p i t e d i f f i c u l t i e s and m i s t a k e s , t h e r e has b e e n a t r u e p r o g r e s s o f l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e l a s t two c e n t u r i e s and t h a t some o f t h e most r e w a r d i n g a r t i s t i c a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l works h a v e b e e n p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e same t i m e . And t h e c r i t i c i s m t h a t t h e r e a d e r may n o t e i n some p l a c e s a g a i n s t an i l l a d v i s e d d e s i r e f o r a c e r t a i n m o r a l o r d e r s h o u l d n o t be c o n s t r u e d as an a t t a c k a g a i n s t m o r a l o r d e r " t o u t court ' : ' . P u r p o s e In f a c t , p r o v i n g a p h i l o s o p h y o r a new modus v i v e n d i i s n o t t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s w o r k . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t o f c o l l e c t i n g many s c a t t e r e d e l e m e n t s a l o n g one m a i n t h e m e , so t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d i e s may be made and so t h a t o t h e r s who a r e w i l l i n g may p r o c e e d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l work a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f 1 4 . t h e t h e m e . The t h e s i s w i l l s u g g e s t many r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n a r c h i t e c t u r a l and n o n - a r c h i t e c t u r a l e v e n t s . T h e r e i s a d e q u a t e d o c u m e n t a t i o n t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e w e l l f o u n d e d . Much o f i t w i l l be f o u n d i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y . The t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s h o w i n g s e v e r a l ways i n w h i c h u r b a n d e s i g n and a r c h i t e c t u r e a r e c o n d i t i o n e d by a . s o r t o f r o m a n t i c t r a d i t i o n t h a t i s n o t f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d a n d q u e s t i o n e d , by t h o s e who a r e i n v o l v e d i n i t i n c o m t e m p o r a r y l i f e . The i d e a s b e h i n d t h e p r e s e n t " s y s t e m " o f d e s i g n and o f a r c h i t e c t u r e go u n c h a l l e n g e d w i t h p o s s i b l e p e r n i c i o u s i n f l u e n c e on t h e f u t u r e o f o u r c i t i e s . R o m a n t i c c o n t r a s t s and d u a l i s t i c t r e n d s , s u c h as t h a t o f t h e man who wants t o l i v e i n t h e woods and work i n t h e m e t r o p o l i s may be s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d w i t h t h e c o l d eye o f a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s - and i f f o u n d t o be d e t r i m e n t a l p e r h a p s t h e y s h o u l d be r e - e v a l u a t e d . O r g a n i z a t i o n The t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d t o p r e s e n t f i r s t t h e o b s e r v a t -i o n s on t h e p r e s e n t and t h e n t h e h i s t o r i c a l k e y . T h i s i s done i n -o r d e r t o p o i n t o u t t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r e s e n t u r b a n p a t t e r n t h a t must be n o t e d and i n o r d e r t o u n d e r l i n e t h e i d e a s , t h e a t t i t u d e s , t h e l e g a l and e c o n o m i c f r a m e w o r k t h a t must be o b s e r v e d i n t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on d e s i g n . A f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l e x a m i n a t i o n - w h i c h o u t l i n e s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e modern c i t y , o f modern a t t i t u d e s a n d s o c i a l f a c t o r s , o f modern d e s i g n and a r c h i t e c t u r e -t h e h i s t o r i c a l e l e m e n t s a r e i n t r o d u c e d . The r e a s o n f o r w h i c h 1 5 . t h i s method has been c h o s e n i s t h a t i t a l l o w s one t o f o c u s on f a m i l i a r e l e m e n t s and t o g a i n a r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f o l d t r e n d s and o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g i n f l u e n c e o f c e r t a i n o l d and p e r h a p s h a l f f o r g o t t e n i d e a s . To a n a l y s e t h e p r e s e n t f i r s t seems t o d e v e l o p a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e . The p r e s e n t i s o u r l i f e . By s t a r t i n g w i t h an o b s e r v a t i o n o f e l e m e n t s o f t h e p r e s e n t we may f o l l o w a p a t h t o t h e i r o r i g i n s and b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a s o n why t h e y e x e r t a f o r c e t o d a y . E a c h c h a p t e r has a s p e c i a l t h e m e . The f i r s t c h a p t e r i s c o n c e r n e d m o s t l y w i t h t h e g e o m e t r y , t h e s e p a r a t i o n s and t h e s t r i c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b l o c k s o f t h e f a b r i c o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . T h i s o v e r a l l v i e w i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e i t a l l o w s one t o o u t l i n e what i s s u p p o s e d t o be t h e a n t i - s e n t i m e n t a l p o l e o f t h e u r b a n s t r u c t u r e (and t o r e f l e c t on some c o n s e q u e n c e s o f what may be s e e n as r o m a n t i c p e r f e c t i o n i s m o r r a t i o n a l i d e a l i s m ) . The s e c o n d c h a p t e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o n t r a s t i n g p o l e o f i n t e r e s t s : t h e s e n t i m e n t a l and p i c t u r e s q u e a e s t h e t i c s , n a t u r e , t h e g a r d e n , t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r e e e x p r e s s i o n , t h e " s u b u r b a n s t y l e ' . ' . In a way t h e l o v e o f o r g a n i c n a t u r e and o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e i s t h e n e c e s s a r y e l e m e n t o f c o n t r a s t t o t h e n e e d o f g e o m e t r y , o f o r d e r , o f i d e a l p r e c i s i o n , o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , o f u n i f o r m i t y shown by t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l o r d e r o f t h e g i a n t z o n e d g r i d . 1 6 . T h e s e two b a s i c p o l e s i f i n t e r e s t s a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e f i r s t two c h a p t e r s b e c a u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e l e i t m o t i f o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y u r b a n s c e n e : on one s i d e , t h e l a w , U t o p i a n and i d e a l r e a s o n , z o n i n g , n e a t b l o c k s o f c o l o u r on a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l map, g e o m e t r y , e n g i n e e r i n g , s c i e n c e , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , e q u a l i t y , u n i f o r m i t y o f r u l e s . On t h e o t h e r s i d e i n d i v i d u a l i s m , c r e a t i v e f r e e d o m , o r g a n i c n a t u r e , d e t a c h e d b u i l d i n g s , c u r v y p a t h s , t h e i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e and even t h e i m i t a t i o n o f p a s t s t y l e s . The t h i r d c h a p t e r has f o r theme t h e c o n t r a s t and t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f i d e a l r a t i o n a l and o f s e n t i m e n t a l i r r a t i o n a l p o l e s o f i n t e r e s t s i n t h e p u b l i c d e b a t e s w h i c h seem t o i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n . A p a r t i c u l a r theme i s t h e c o n f l i c t s e e n b e t w e e n t h e man-made c i v i l i z a t i o n o f t h e c i t y and t h e c a l l o f o r g a n i c n a t u r e . Some o f t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s and o f t h e i l l u s i o n s - i n t e r m s o f d e s i g n - g e n e r a t e d by t h e o p p o s i n g i n t e r e s t s a r e n o t e d . The f o u r t h c h a p t e r i s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a r c h i t e c t and o f h i s o f f i c e , c a u g h t b e t w e e n t h e image o f c r e a t i v e g e n i a l i t y and t h e p r e s s u r e s f r o m t h e r u t h l e s s l o g i c o f b u s i n e s s and o f p o l i t i c s , b e t w e e n i n s p i r a t i o n and t h e v u l g a r r e a l i s m o f money . The n o t i o n s o f r o m a n t i c i d e a l i s m and r e a l i s m become e l e m e n t s o f c o n t r a s t i n g and o p p o s i n g f o r c e s i n t h e d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l o f f i c e , where t h e c o m p e t i t i o n -and t h e p r e s s i n g r h y t h m o f t h e f r e e e n t e r p r i s e s y s t e m seem t o p l a c e an i n s u f f e r a b l e l i m i t t o t h e i n t u i t i o n and t o t h e c r e a t i v e r o l e o f t h e a r c h i t e c t . D e s i g n and p r o d u c t i o n become two c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e a c t i v i t i e s . The f i r s t d e r i v e s f r o m 17. i n t u i t i v e c r e a t i v i t y , w h i l e t h e s e c o n d i s d o m i n a t e d by t h e n e e d o f e f f i c i e n c y and s p e e d . The a r c h i t e c t becomes an a l i e n a t e d g e n i u s i n t h e r o l e o f an i n s p i r e d h i g h p r i e s t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t The f i f t h c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s p o p u l a r n o t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s d e r i v e d f r o m r o m a n t i c dreams and a f f e c t i n g t h e i m a g e s o f what t h e c i t y s h o u l d l o o k l i k e . The " s u b u r b a n s t y l e " has become an a t t i t u d e : e v e n i n d u s t r i e s a n d o f f i c e s must grow i n t h e m i d d l e o f g r e e n p a r k s w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , s p r e a d o u t i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . H i g h d e n s i t y i s s e e n as t h e o p p o s i t e o f e v e r y -t h i n g d e s i r a b l e i n t h e c i t y . The c l e a n , o r d e r l y a n d p i c t u r e s q u e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f an i d e a l v i l l a g e o f o l d t i m e s i s t h e image c u l t i v a t e d by t h e m a j o r i t y . The l i n k b e t w e e n N o r t h e r n r o m a n t i c i d e a l s , A n g l o - S a x o n c u l t u r a l d i r e c t i o n s and t h e s e . i m a g e s o f t h e c i t y i s n o t e d and e m p h a s i z e d . The p o i n t t h a t i s g r a d u a l l y made t h r o u g h a l l o f t h e s e i n i t i a l c h a p t e r s i s t h a t t h e r e a l q u e s t i o n o f what k i n d o f a c i t y we want i s o b l i t e r a t e d by a w ide r a n g e o f c o n t r a s t i n g p a r t i c u l a r n o t i o n s a b o u t t h i s o r t h a t a s p e c t o f a d r e a m c i t y . The s t r u g g l e f o r r o m a n t i c i d e a l s becomes t h e b a s i s f o r a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f u s i o n . The o b j e c t i v e i s to h e l p t h e r e a d e r t o u n d e r -s t a n d t h a t t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i l e m m a : " c o n c r e t e o r p a r k s ? " , q u o t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , means t o a v o i d t h e t r u l y c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s , i n t e r m s o f d e s i g n , a b o u t what k i n d o f a c i t y we want t o c h o o s e , t h a t i s what k i n d o f dreams a r e r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o d a y and f o r t h e f u t u r e . T h r o u g h o u t t h e s e c h a p t e r s 1 8 . i t i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r scheme w h i c h became t h e p r e v a l e n t m o d e l f o r t h e c i t y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a was c h o s e n and f i x e d upon two and even more c e n t u r i e s a g o . I t s h o u l d be c l e a r a t t h e end t h a t a s i n g l e m i n d e d d r e a m , m o s t l y d e r i v e d f r o m i d e a s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i s s t i l l t y p i c a l l y s e l f -i m p o s e d by N o r t h A m e r i c a n s as t h e o n l y a c c e p t a b l e u r b a n and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s y s t e m c o n c e i v a b l e f o r now and f o r t h e f u t u r e . The s i x t h and s e v e n t h c h a p t e r s d e a l w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , l e g a l and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h seem t o c o n d i t i o n t h e p r e s e n t " s y s t e m " o f p l a n n i n g and o f d e s i g n i n g , n o t i n g t h a t t h e d e f e n c e o f t h e c h o s e n v a l u e s seems t o be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n a p o s i t i v e manner t h r o u g h t h e s e f a c t o r s . An a t t e m p t i s made t o show how s t r o n g l y r o m a n t i c n o t i o n s h a v e b e e n e m b o d i e d i n t h e e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l f r a m e w o r k . i n w h i c h t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y d e s i g n p r o c e s s t a k e s p l a c e . In t h e e i g h t h , n i n t h and t e n t h c h a p t e r s t h e p a t t e r n s o f d e s i g n n o t e d a r e r e l a t e d t o e a r l i e r h i s t o r i c a l a n t e c e d e n t s and t o i d e a s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e r o m a n t i c p e r i o d . In t h e e i g h t h c h a p t e r t h e g r i d o f t h e U t o p i a n r u r a l p l a n n i n g by Penn a n d t h e c u r v e s o f t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c dream by O l m s t e d a r e shown t o be a t t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e " g a r d e n c i t y " c o n c e p t . In t h e n i n t h c h a p t e r t h e e f f e c t o f n o t i o n s a b o u t t h e s u b l i m e and o f n a t u r e upon d e s i g n a r e i n t r o d u c e d . The r e v o l u t i o n -a r y a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s shown 19. as t h e p r o t o t y p e o f t h e modern p a t t e r n o f r o m a n t i c c o n t r a s t . In c h a p t e r t e n t h e o r i g i n s o f romantic i d e a s a r e r e -t r a c e d , r e l a t i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s t o a s p e c t s o f t h o u g h t s o f t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l men o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C h a p t e r s e l e v e n , t w e l v e and t h i r t e e n draw t h e c o n -c l u s i o n s . The c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f d a i l y u r b a n l i f e and what seems t o be a b l i n d and u n q u e s t i o n e d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p e r m a n e n c y o f ou tmoded s t y l e s , t o a p o i n t b e y o n d t h e r e a l m o f c r i t i c i s m , a r e n o t e d i n c h a p t e r e l e v e n . C h a p t e r t w e l v e has a l i s t o f e x a m p l e s o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y s t y l e as d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r o m a n t i c i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s o f c o n t r a s t s and o f n a t u r e i n t e r m s o f t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f t h e s u b l i m e and o f t h e b e a u t i f u l . . C h a p t e r t h i r t e e n i s t h e c o n c l u s i o n p r o p e r . C o n c l u d i n g N o t e As an end t o t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n I may s a y w i t h t h e E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (1934) t h a t : "The c l e a r e s t m i n d s o f t o d a y a r e q u i c k l y o u t g r o w i n g t h e c r u d e c o n t r a s t o f r o m a n t i c and c l a s s i c " ( 1 7 ) , and recommend as a h e l p - e v e n i f somewhat l i m i t e d and o u t d a t e d - t o t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e t h e s i s t h e d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n u n d e r t h e t i t l e " R o m a n t i c i s m " i n t h a t E n c y c l o p a e d i a . I am n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h a r i c h e r d e f i n i t i o n o f r o m a n t i c i s m i n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . The a u t h o r , G . B o r g e s e , c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f an e n l i g h t e n e d r o m a n t i c . APPENDIX NOTE 20. A n o t e must be made o f some i m p o r t a n t s t u d i e s w h i c h a r e a k i n d o f a n t e c e d e n t t o t h i s w o r k . Among t h e s e t h e most i m p o r t a n t by f a r seems t o be The I n t e l l e c t u a l V e r s u s t h e C i t y , t h e w e l l - k n o w n s t u d y by M o r t o n and L u c i a W h i t e . I t opens w i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " the d e c a y o f t h e A m e r i c a n c i t y i s one o f t h e most p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n s o f t h e n a t i o n " (18) and i t r e v i e w s t h o s e t h i n k e r s who " v i r t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e o u r i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n as i t i s known t o d a y " (19) s h o w i n g t h a t " the i n t e l l e c t , whose home i s t h e c i t y a c c o r d i n g t o some s o c i o l o g i s t s , has p r o -d u c e d t h e s h a r p e s t c r i t i c i s m o f t h e A m e r i c a n c i t y . " ( 2 0 ) . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t " the w i l d e r n e s s , t h e i s o l a t e d f a r m , t h e p l a n t a t i o n , t h e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d New E n g l a n d t o w n , t h e d e t a c h e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r e t h i n g s o f t h e A m e r i c a n p a s t " (21) and t h a t a " s e l f - c o n s c i o u s f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s t h a t c i t y p l a n n e r s a r e s e e k i n g t o r e a l i z e i n t h e A m e r i c a n c i t y ; i s n e c e s s a r y .'(22) . T h e ' s t u d y p o i n t s out w i t h s u r p r i s e a f u n d a m e n t a l s i m i l a r i t y o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e c i t y f r o m p e o p l e a p p a r e n t l y as d i f f e r e n t as Thomas J e f f e r s o n and F r a n k L l o y d W r i g h t , B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n and F r e d e r i c k Howe. Where t h e s t u d y f a i l s i s i n n o t p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e s i m i l a r i t y i s n o t so much a h i s t o r i c a l a c c i d e n t as t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e new t r a d i t i o n o f t h o u g h t a r i s i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In N o r t h A m e r i c a t h e s k e p t i c i s m and t h e s a t i r e o f Hume and V o l t a i r e were l i t t l e known d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The l i t e r a t u r e o f t h a t age and t h e war o f i n d e p e n d e n c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a may 21. be s e e n as an a n t e c e d e n t t o t h e m a i n themes o f t h e new age o f t h o u g h t , w h i c h f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be c a l l e d t h e r o m a n t i c a g e . T h i s s t u d y w i l l show t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n d e v e l o p e d f r o m l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h o u g h t a r e s t i l l a p p l i e d t o d a y , even i f t h e o r i g i n s may be f o r g o t t e n by t h e l e s s p r e p a r e d , and t h a t we a r e s t i l l w a i t i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g t r u l y new, s o m e t h i n g t h a t w i l l r e s o l v e f o r -the n e x t c e n t u r y t h e now o b v i o u s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f what was modern two h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o . A t r u e r e n e w a l o f p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n i s b e c o m i n g more and more n e c e s s a r y . T h i s seems to be among t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f what may be r e g a r d e d as t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e h i s t o r y o f modern a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e m o n u m e n t a l S t o r i a d e 1 1 ' A r c h i t e t t u r a M o d e r n a by R. B e n e v o l o , w h i c h s p a n s f r o m t h e m i d d l e o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o o u r d a y s : " I f t h e modern movement were t o be l e f t b e h i n d , t h i s a d v a n c e w o u l d r e p r e s e n t a much more r a d i c a l : , s t e p t h a n any o f t h e c h a n g e s shown up t o h e r e : i t w o u l d t r u l y be n e c e s s a r y t o s t a r t a g a i n , w i t h t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s c e r t a i n l y n o t h e l p i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y a r c h i t e c t s t o l i v e h a p p i l y , b u t w h i c h p l a c e s i n a w e l l d e f i n e d p e r s p e c t i v e d u t y a n d hope t o w a r d t h e f u t u r e 1 . 1 . (23) 22. I n t r o d u c t i o n (1) PETER C O L L I N S ; C h a n g i n g I d e a l s i n M o d e r n A r c h i t e c t u r e M o n t r e a l , 1967 (2) "Weekend M a g a z i n e " , v o l . 2 4 , N o . 2 , J a n u a r y 12 , 1974 , f r o n t page (3) "The V a n c o u v e r S u n : , M a r c h 9 , 1974 , p . 4 7 , a r t i c l e by ALAN D A N I E L S . (4) "The V a n c o u v e r S u n " , J u l y 28 , 1973 , Sunday c o m i c s t r i p s . (5) BERTRAND R U S S E L L : A H i s t o r y o f W e s t e r n P h i l o s o p h y , New Y o r k 1965 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 5 ) , p . 6 7 5 (6) H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o u r b a n d e s i g n , i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i s d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r 8. (7) T h i s c a n be s e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e d r a w i n g s by B o u l l e e and L e d o u x shown i n c h a p t e r 9 . E . L . B o u l l e e and C . N . L e d o u x were a c t i v e i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . (8) JOHN CANADAY: T o g a s and C h i t o n s as R o m a n t i c D i s g u i s e s , f r o m "The New Y o r k T i m e s " , S u n d a y , O c t o b e r 1, 1972 , p . 2 5 (9) G . DE RUGGIERO: L ' E t a d e l R o m a n t i c i s m o , L a t e r z a 1974 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 3 ) , v o l . 1 1 , p . 3 5 2 (10) L . GEYMONAT: S t o r i a d e l P e n s i e r o F i l o s o f i c o , M i l a n 1960 , v o l . I l l , p . 2 1 : "Vedremo che n e i g r a n d i i d e a l i s t i - F i c h t e , S c h e l l i n g , H e g e l - i t e m i o r a r i c o r d a t i d e l p e n s i e r o r o m a n t i c o s i r i v e r s t o n o d i un f o r m u l a r i o f i l o s o f i c o p e r m o l t i l a t i d i v e r s o da q u e l l o r e l i g i o s o -s e n t i m e n t a l e d e i p o e t i ; c i o non m u t e r a p e r o l a l o r o s o s t a n z a . N e l l o s t e s s o p e n s i e r o d i ; H e g e l . . . 1 1 a s p i r a z i o n e m i s t i c a v e r s o 1 ' i n f i n i t o . . . a s s u m e , s e n z a r i s e r v a d i s o r t e , d e l l a p i u ' s c h i e t t a c u l t u r a r o m a n t i c a . " (11) K. J O E L ; Der U r s p r u n g d e r N a t u r p h i 1 o s o p h i e aus dem  G e i s t e d e r M y s t i k , 1900 , p . 1 4 (12) M. V I N C I G U E R R A : R o m a n t i c i s m o , B a r i 1 9 3 1 , p . 6 3 - 4 (13) B . C R O C E : S t o r i a d ' E u r o p a n e l S e c o l o X I X , 1932 , p . 4 7 (14) N . ABBAGNANO: S t o r i a d e l l a F i l o s o f i a , T u r i n 1963 , v o l . I l l p a r a g r a p h 538: " I I r o m a n t i c i s m o n a s c e i n v e c e quando q u e s t o c o n c e t t o d e l l a r a g i o n e v i e n e a b b a n d o n a t o 23. e p e r r a g i o n e c o m i n c i a ad i n d e n d e r s i una f o r z a i n f i n i t a ( c i o e o n n i p o t e n t e ) che a b i t a i l mondo e l o d o m i n a e p e r c i o c o s t i t u i s c e l a s o s t a n z a s t e s s a d e l mondo. Q u e s t o p a s s a g g i o v i e n e e f f e t t u a t o da F i c h t e che i d e n t i f i c o l a r a g i o n e con l ' l o i n f i n i t o o A u t o c o s c i e n z a a s s o l u t a e ne f e c e l a f o r z a d a l l a q u a l e l ' i n t e r o mondo e p r o d o t t o . L ' i n f i n i t a . i n q u e s t o s e n s o e u n ' i n f i n i t a . d i d i c o s c i e . n z a e d i p o t e n z a , o l t r e che d i e s t e n s i o n e e d i d u r a t a . P e r q u a n t o v a r i a m e n t e c h i a m a t o d a i f i l o s o f i r o m a n t i c i ( F i c h t e 1 0 c h i a m o l o , S c h e l l i n g A s s a l u t o , H e g e l I d e a o R a d i o n e a u t o c o s c i e n t e ) , i l P r i n c i p i o i n f i n i t o f u c o s t a n t e m e n t e i n t e s o come c o s c i e n z a , a t t i v i t a , l i b e r t a , c a p a c i t a d i c r e a z i o n e i n c e s s a n t e . Ma p u r s u l f o n d a m e n t o comune d i q u e s t i c a r a t t e r i i l P r i n c i p i o i n f i n i t o venne i n t e r p r e t a t o d a i r o m a n t i c i i n due modi f o n d a m e n t a l i d i v e r s i . La p r i m a i n t e r -p r e t a z i o n e , p i l i v i c i n a a l l e i d e e d e l l o S t u r m und  D r a n g , c o n s i d e r a l ' i n f i n i t o come s e n t i m e n t o c ioe" come a t t i v i t a l i b e r a , p r i v a d i d e t e r m i n a z i o n i o a l d i l a d i o g n i d e t e r m i n a z i o n e e che s i r i v e l a n e l l ' u o m o a p p u n t o i n q u e l l e a t t i v i t S " che sono p i u s t r e t t a m e n t e c o n n e s s e con i l s e n t i m e n t o c i o e n e l l a r e l i g i o n e e n e l l 1 a r t e . La s e c o n d a i n t e r p r e t a z i o n e i n t e s e l ' i n f i n i t o come R a g i o n e a s s o l u t a che s i muove con n e c e s s i t a r i g o r o s a da una d e t e r m i n a z i o n e a l l ' a l t r a , s i c c h e o g n i d e t e r m i n a z i o n e p u 6 e s s e r e d e d o t t a d a l l ' a l t r a n e c e s s -a r i a m e n t e e a p r i o r i . E q u e s t a 1 ' i n t e r p r e t a z i o n e che p r e v a l s e n e l l e g r a n d i f i g u r e d e l 1 ' i d e a l i s m o r o m a n t i c o , F i c h t e , S c h e l l i n g , ed H e g e l , p e r q u a n t o S c h e l l i n g i n s i s t e s s e s u l l a p r e s e n z a , n e l P r i n c i p i o i n f i n i t o , d i un a s p e t t o i n c o n s a p e v o l e o i m m e d i a t o , a n a l o g o a q u e l l o che c a r a t t e r i z z a l ' e s p e r i e n z a e s t e t i c a d e l l ' u o m o . Le due i n t e r p r e t a z i o n i d e 1 1 ' i n f i n i t o f u r o n o s p e s s o i n c o n t r a s t o ed H e g e l s p e c i a l m e n t e c o n d u s s e l a p o l e m i c a c o n t r o i l p r i m a t o d e l s e n t i m e n t o . Ma p r o p r i o 11 l o r o c o n t r a s t o e l a l o r o p o l e m i c a c o s t i t u i s c e uno d e i t r a t t i f o n d a m e n t a l i d e l m o v i m e n t o r o m a n t i c o n e l suo c o m p 1 e s s o . " ABBAGNANO i s t h e f i r s t e n t r y i n t h e E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f  P h i l o s o p h y , New Y o r k 1967 . (15) C . C A P P U C C I O : " S t o r i a d e l l a L e t t e r a t u r a " , F l o r e n c e , 1953 , p . 5 1 0 - 5 . 24. (16) JOHN CANADAY: M a i n s t r e a m s o f M o d e r n A r t , New Y o r k 1965 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 4 5 8 (17) G . BORGESE: R o m a n t i c i s m , " E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s " , New Y o r k 1934 , p . 4 3 3 , v o l . X V I I (18) M . § L . WHITE: The I n t e l l e c t u a l V e r s u s t h e C i t y , New Y o r k , 1964 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 3 (19) I b i d e m , p . 1 5 (20) I b i d e m , p . 15 (21) I b i d e m , p . 2 3 6 (22) I b i d e m , p . 2 3 5 (23) R. B E N E V O L O : S t o r i a d e l 1 ' A r c h i t e t t u r a M o d e r n a , B a r i 1973 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 8 9 3 25 . 1 . THE E X I S T I N G P A T T E R N AND PLAN OF THE MODERN NORTH AMERICAN C I T Y An i d e a l o r d e r i s a t t h e b a s i s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n u r b a n f a b r i c . The u r b a n w o r k e r o f t h e m o d e r n m e t r o p o l i s m i g h t w e l l f i n d i t c h a o t i c , f r u s t r a t i n g and u n b e a r a b l e , b u t f r o m t h e e a r l y f o u n d e r s t o o u r c o n t e m p o r a r y p l a n n e r s t h e a t t i t u d e h a s b e e n t h a t o f p r e c i p i t a t i n g an a b s t r a c t m a t h e m a t i c a l w o r l d i n t o t h e g r a n d p h y s i c a l d e s i g n o f o u r c i t i e s . M a t h e m a t i c a l f i e l d s and C a r t e s i a n d i a g r a m s l o o k l i k e an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e z o n e d g r i d o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m e t r o p o l i s . N o r t h A m e r i c a seemed t o be i d e a l l y s u i t e d , w i t h i t s v a s t n e s s and r e s o u r c e s , f o r e s t a -b l i s h i n g t h e new o r d e r , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i n t r i c a c i e s and c o m p l e x -i t i e s o f t h e c o r r u p t , s l o w m o v i n g o l d w o r l d . In t h i s c h a p t e r we w i l l e x a m i n e z o n i n g and s u b d i v i d i n g l a n d as a s p e c t s o f t h e d r e a m o f p e r f e c t o r d e r , a d r e a m i n f l u e n c e d by m o r a l i m p e r a t i v e s as w e l l as by t h e f a s c i n a t i n g b e a u t y o f t h e s c i e n c e s . I t i s r e m a r k a b l e t h a t t h i s d r e a m seems t o be more i n -f l u e n c e d by t h e two d i m e n s i o n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g o f t h e map t h a n by t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l r e a l i t y o f t h e p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g s o f t h e c i t y . Z o n i n g , t h e s y s t e m by w h i c h c i t i e s a r e d i v i d e d up i n t o a r e a s o f s p e c i a l i z e d o r s i n g l e u s e , i s one o f t h e most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s o f modern N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . We seem t o p r i d e o u r -s e l v e s on i t , d e s p i t e some c o n t r o v e r s i e s . Z o n i n g i s o f t e n i n -d i c a t e d as a s t a n d a r d o f c i v i l i z a t i o n t o members o f o t h e r u r b a n 26. s o c i e t i e s , and as t h e l a s t s t a g e o f u r b a n p r o g r e s s . Many p l a n n e r s i n o t h e r c o n t i n e n t s a r e s t u d y i n g t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n a c h i e v e m e n t s i n t h i s f i e l d , and a r e t r y i n g t o p r o p o s e f o r m s o f z o n i n g t o t h e i r c o u n t r i e s , t o r e o r g a n i z e c i t i e s w h i c h a r e l a c k i n g a s t r i c t s e p -a r a t i o n o f u s e s and a c t i v i t i e s and t o b r i n g a new f o r m o f o r d e r t o t h e i r c i t i e s . A c i t y s u c h as P a r i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , w o u l d be v e r y c o n -f u s i n g f o r a p l a n n e r t r y i n g t o d e f i n e z o n e s o f s i n g l e u s e . I n N o r t h A m e r i c a , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , c o l o u r e d maps i n d i c a t i n g u s e s , w i t h one c o l o u r p e r u s e , a r e an a c c e p t e d way o f d i v i d i n g a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g p l a c e i n an u r b a n a r e a , and t h e y a r e a t o o l b e l o n g i n g t o t h e l a s t s t a g e i n t h e p r o g r e s s o f p l a n n i n g . They a r e s e e n as an e f f i c i e n t , c l e a r , c l e a n and o r d e r l y way o f o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and even as a s o p h i s t i c a t e d t o o l f o r t h e s t u d y o f how t o p r e v e n t c o n f l i c t s and h a z a r d o u s c o n d i t i o n s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . T h e r e i s a c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m t h e c l a r i t y o f a map c h a r t i n g t h e u s e s o f t h e l a n d i n a c i t y , and t h e map i t s e l f i s c o n s i d e r e d a r e a s o n a b l y f l e x i b l e s y s t e m s u s c e p t i b l e o f c o n t i n u o u s i m p r o v e m e n t . The map i s a c o n c r e t e b a s i s f o r s t u d y and d i s c u s s i o n , and may even become a c l e a r l e g a l t o o l when i t i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e z o n i n g b y - l a w s o f a c i t y . From t h e a i r most c o n t e m p o r a r y . N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s sfrow o b v i o u s r e s u l t s o f z o n e d ' d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h ' c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a r e a s o f h i g h and low d e n s i t y , r e s i d e n t i a l s u b u r b s , c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e s , i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s , p a r k s , e t c . Z o n i n g has been t h e m a j o r 27. t o o l used i n the s t r u g g l e a gainst urban chaos, and i t must have appeared even more reasonable and r a t i o n a l to those who noted that i t i s b a s i c a l l y the same system that many a r c h i t e c t s would apply to d i v i d e a c t i v i t i e s i n most or i n the more complex designs. The f a c t that zoning was used as a t o o l i n the process of p l a n n i n g North American c i t i e s by law, r a t h e r than through an a u t o c r a t i c designer or team of d e s i g n e r s , as Haussmann d i d i n P a r i s , a s s o c i a t e d the n o t i o n of the zoning map with that of democratic p l a n n i n g . The zoning map was seen as something proposed by the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and s u b j e c t to  ri c o n t i n u a l approval and v e r i f i c a t i o n by the e l e c t o r a t e and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t was easy to understand, and i t d i d not seem to imply a choice of v a l u e s : i t did* not imply the choice of an a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e and the people were l e f t f r e e , to a large extent, to choose any s t y l e to s u i t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l development. Zoning seemed to be an impersonal system:, l e s s s u b j e c t to the whims of.an a u t o c r a t i c person, and seemed to have the ob-j e c t i v e q u a l i t i e s that a t t r a c t people to the co o l world of the s c i e n c e s . The c r i t e r i a on which the zones were e s t a b l i s h e d could be d i s c u s s e d and changed, i f necessary, on the b a s i s of q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s supported by s t a t i s t i c a l and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . What might have been endless debates on the b a s i s of pure opinions could f i n d a c o n v i n c i n g s o l u t i o n , i t was hoped, with the support of s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s . Zoning, proposed and approved i n the form of by-laws, became a system of p l a n n i n g North American c i t i e s without what was seen as an undemocratic master p l a n , of the kind proposed 28. by t h e t o t a l i t a r i a n w i n g o f r o m a n t i c i s m , w h i c h a d v a n c e d t h e i d e a o f a . c o m p l e t e d e s i g n p r e p a r e d by an i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e f o r an e n -t i r e c i t y . But t h e c o n c e p t o f z o n i n g a c i t y s h a r e s some o f t h e c l a s s i c a l r o m a n t i c i d e a l i s m t o o . I t comes f r o m a c o n c e p t o f o r d e r i n w h i c h e a c h t h i n g has t o f a l l i n t o a s p e c i f i c p l a c e , e a c h a c t i v i t y has t o be l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o a c a t e g o r y o f t h e u s e o f l a n d i n a d e s i g n a t e d a r e a - - a c o n c e p t w h i c h a r o s e w i t h t h e l a t e e n l i g h t e n -ment and t h e E n c y c l o p e d i a . I t i s an i d e a l o f p e r f e c t i o n t h a t may r e m i n d one o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i e s o f L i n n e u s , o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f M e n d e l e j e f f , and o f t h e r a t i o n a l -i z e d r o m a n t i c i s m w h i c h v i e w e d p e r f e c t i o n and b e a u t y as t h e p r o d u c t o f an a b s o l u t e o r d e r n o t u n l i k e t h a t . o f t h e most p r e c i s e s c i e n c e s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r c a t e g o r i e s was s o m e t h i n g t h a t was not* a l i e n f r o m t h e way o f t h i n k i n g o f s u c h an i n f l u e n t i a l n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i d e a l i s t as H e g e l , f o r e x a m p l e . To m a r r y r a t i o n -a l i s m and r o m a n t i c i s m , s o m e t i m e s i n an i d e a l i s t i c and s o m e t i m e s i n a p r a g m a t i c f a s h i o n , o f t e n i n a new s y n t h e s i s o f E u r o p e a n t r a d i t i o n s , i s p a r t o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n h e r i t a g e ; i n f a c t , t h e f u s i o n o f t h e two seems t o be a t t h e o r i g i n o f t h e common i d e a l o f p e r f e c t i o n . The c o n c e p t o f z o n i n g a l s o r e s p o n d s t o an i d e a l o f n e a t -n e s s t h a t c a n be t r a c e d b a c k t o " p u r i t a n i c a l " m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t may be more t h a n a c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e a r t i s t i c g e o m e t r i c a l n e a t n e s s o f a movement s u c h as De S t i j l , and t h e p e r f e c t i o n i s m o f t h e p a i n t i n g s by M o n d r i a n , were c o l o u r s a r e l a i d o u t i n n e a t , p u r e and s t r o n g l y d e f i n e d " z o n e s " , w h i c h do n o t o v e r l a p and do n o t m i x , 29. a r e c o n t e m p o r a r y . We m a y n o t e t h a t i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b o u n d a r i e s o f n a t i o n s s t a r t e d t o b e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a n d t h e m a p s s h o w e d w i t h a s i n g l e c o l o u r t h e i r n e a t l y d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r i e s . I t i s a p e c u l i a r i t y t h a t w e f i n d i n z o n i n g m a p s , w h e r e , i n t e r e s t i n g l y , c o l o u r s o f d i f f e r e n t u s e s n o r m a l l y d o n o t m i x , a n d h a v e a n a p p e a r -a n c e a n d a p a t t e r n e x t r e m e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f g e o l o g i c a l m a p s , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e r e a l l c o l o u r s i n d i c a t i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e g r o u n d i n t e r m i n g l e i n a n a l m o s t p s y c h e d e l i c p a t t e r n . T h e e s s e n c e o f z o n i n g i s t h a t o f s e p a r a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a n d o f d e f i n i n g t e r r i t o r i e s f o r a c t i v i t i e s , a n d j u s t a s e v e r y o t h e r i d e a l r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f a d r e a m i t c a u s e s a w k w a r d p r o b l e m s i n i t s a b s o l u t e q u e s t o f s e p a r a t i o n , s u c h a s t h a t o f m o v i n g e n t i r e s e g m e n t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f a c i t y f r o m o n e c o m p a r t m e n t o f a c t i v i t y t o a n o t h e r w h e n a c h a n g e o f a c t i v i t y i s r e q u i r e d . Z o n i n g h a s b e c o m e s u c h a c o m p l e t e s y s t e m t h a t e v e n t h e e x c e p t i o n h a s b e e n c a t e g o r i z e d a n d " z o n e d " : t h e r e a r e z o n e s f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t s w h e r e d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o i n t e g r a t e i n o n e l a r g e b l o c k , a l m o s t a s i n a m i n i - c i t y w i t h i n t h e c i t y . I n e v i t a b l y , t h e r e i s z o n i n g i n s i d e t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e b l o c k . Z o n i n g h a s p r o d u c e d a k i n d o f t e c h n i q u e o f s e p a r a t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s . i n w h i c h s o m e t e r r i t o r i e s a r e u s e d a s b u f f e r z o n e s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s . T h e g r e e n s p a c e s o f p a r k s a r e u s e d a s b u f f e r z o n e s i n a v a r i e t y o f c i r c u m -s t a n c e s ; e v e n a p a r t m e n t s a r e o f t e n s e e n a s b u f f e r s b e t w e e n s i n g l e f a m i l i e s a n d c o m m e r c i a l u s e s o r l i g h t i n d u s t r y . T h e z o n i n g m a p h a s i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p l a n n i n g a s a d i s c i p l i n e c o n c e r n e d m o r e a n d m o r e w i t h a t w o d i m e n s i o n a l l a y -30. out r a t h e r than with the complex t o t a l f a b r i c of the c i t y , d e s p i t e many s t u d i e s and o b s e r v a t i o n s c a l l i n g f o r a d i f f e r e n t understanding and a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e . Mrs. Beverly Moss Spatt, a Commissioner of the New York C i t y Planning Commission, a teacher and a s c h o l a r , notes i n A Proposal To Change The S t r u c t u r e of C i t y Planning: "Perhaps the most s e n s i t i v e and t h e r e f o r e the most s u s c e p t i b l e area of development c o n t r o l i s that of zoning. A l e g i s l a t i v e device to r e g u l a t e the use and i n t e n s i t y of use of land, more- f r e q u e n t l y than not zoning has proven to be an imperfect and imprecise implementing t o o l . It should be emphasized that there i s nothing wrong with the * concept; r a t h e r , the d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n the p r a c t i c e or a d m i n i s t r a - t i o n of z o n i n g . " * ^ F. Choay sees, s i n c e the middle of the l a s t century, "a new type of p l a n n i n g on the p a r t of the p1anner. The process of urban o r g a n i z a t i o n at t h i s p o i n t l o s e s i t s o r i g i n a l immediacy, as i t now evolves about an o b j e c t that has been removed from i t s context by a n a l y s i s ; f o r the f i r s t time the u m b i l i c a l cord has been cut, so to speak, and the c i t y i s subjected to c r i t -(2) i c a l p l a n n i n g . " However, H. C h u r c h i l l , among o t h e r s , sees the development of p l a n n i n g r a t h e r as the r e s u l t of d i s a p p o i n t i n g r o u t i n e s : "The p r a c t i c e of c i t y p l a n n i n g c o n s i s t s of l i n e s on paper and t a b l e s of f i g u r e s from c a l c u l a t i n g machines", and advocates the view that "the a r t of c i t y p l a n n i n g i s four f 3") •dimensional". J But t h i s view i s w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g , j u s t as a paean of sentimental p r a i s e to an i d e a l c i t y model which i s never r e a l i z e d i n a c t u a l i t y . In f a c t , s i n c e the time of C a m i l l o S i t t e , * T h i s i s a fundamental a t t i t u d e r e g a r d i n g the contemporary design of the m e t r o p o l i s w h i c h transforms i n t o an i l l u s i o n most attempts toward a c r i t i c a l examination. 31. one o f t h e f o u n d e r s o f t h e t h e o r y o f c i t y p l a n n i n g as an a r t i n t h e r o m a n t i c t r a d i t i o n , t h e s t u d y o f u r b a n p r o b l e m s and p r o p o s a l s h a s more and more t a k e n on t h e a s p e c t o f t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l s k e t c h e s , p l a n s and maps, i n w h i c h h o r i z o n t a l s y m b o l i s m and a k i n d o f h o r i z o n t a l t h i n k i n g has s t r o n g l y p r e v a i l e d i n a l l e s s e n t i a l m a t t e r s . R e n d e r i n g s i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s have been u s e d m a i n l y as a e s t h e t i c means o f p e r s u a s i o n a f t e r t h e f a c t o f t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l d e s i g n has t a k e n p l a c e . Z o n i n g has d e v e l o p e d as a k i n d o f h o r i z o n t a l t o o l , i n w h i c h s e p a r a t i o n s a r e s e e n e x c l u s i v e l y i n a h o r i z o n t a l f a s h i o n . Not e v e n c o n d o m i n i u m s and t h e S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t have c h a n g e d t h i s e x c l u s i v e way o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t u s e s . Condominiums p o t e n t i a l l y p r o v i d e an o c c a s i o n f o r a v e r t i c a l m i x o f u s e s , where d i f f e r e n t f l o o r s c o u l d be d e d i c a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i s done i n many c i t i e s o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . The c o l o u r e d c h e c k e r b o a r d s o f o u r c i t i e s h ave b e e n d e s i g n e d and c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t as h o r i z o n t a l s e p a r a t i o n s o f u s e s . One c a n n o t f a i l t o n o t e t h a t i n modern p l a n n i n g , t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n and t h e c o n c e p t o f z o n i n g s t a r t e d a l m o s t c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s l y i n o u r r e c e n t h i s t o r y . T h i s t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l v i e w o f c i t i e s and o f s e p a r a t i o n o f u s e s i s r e f l e c t e d a l s o i n t h e most c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s a d v a n c e d t o e x p l a i n o r p r e d i c t t h e p a t t e r n t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u s e s and o f l a n d v a l u e s i n u r b a n a r e a s , as i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e Con-c e n t r i c Zone C o n c e p t ( f i g . 1 ) , by t h e S e c t o r C o n c e p t and by t h e (4) M u l t i p l e N u c l e i C o n c e p t ( f i g . 2) . These d i a g r a m s and t h e o r i e s t h a t b o t h e x p l a i n and p r o d u c e t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y N o r t h A m e r i c a n CONCENTRIC ZONE CONCEPT 1. Centra l B u s i n e s s Dis t r i c t 2. Zone of T r a n s i t i o n 3. Zone of W o r k i n g m e n ' s Homes 4 . Zone of Be t te r R e s i d e n c e s 5. C o m m u t e r s ' Z o n e 5 * - • * V F i g u r e 1 SECTOR CONCEPT MULTIPLE NUCLEI CONCEPT I- Central Bus iness Distr ict 6. Heavy Manu fac tu r i ng 2. Who lesa l e Light Manufac tu r ing 7. Ou t l y i ng Bus iness D i s t r i c t 3 . L o w - C l a s s Re s i den t i a l 8. R e s i d e n t i a l Subu rb 4 . M e d i u m - C l a s s R e s i d e n t i a l 9. Indus t r i a l S u b u r b 5. H i g h - C l a s s R e s i d e n t i a l F i g u r e 2 33. p a t t e r n a r e m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n most t e x t b o o k s o f p l a n n i n g and u r b a n e c o n o m i c s . Most e c o n o m i s t s t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e C o n c e n t r i c Zone C o n c e p t , d e v e l o p e d by Homer H o y t , i n w h i c h t h e y see t h e c i t y as f o l l o w i n g a k i n d o f n a t u r a l p a t t e r n o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h . The v e r y use o f t h e word " s u b d i v i s i o n " r e f l e c t s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e o r i g i n o f t h e p r e s e n t p a t t e r n . I t i s a s y s t e m where t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f p a r c e l s o f l a n d has b e e n c o m p l -emented by a s i m i l a r s u b d i v i s i o n o f u s e s and a c t i v i t i e s . In t h e p r e s e n t p a t t e r n t h e most p r e v a i l i n g s y s t e m i s t h a t o f h o r i z o n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , j u s t as p r o p e r t y was d i v i d e d h o r i z o n t a l l y , w i t h a p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n n o r m a l l y p r o v i d e d by . p u b l i c open s p a c e s , m o s t l y by r o a d s . Not o n l y i s e a c h a c t i v i t y t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , g e n e r a t i n g a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t s t y l e o f l i f e and code o f f a s h i o n ( f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e same p e r s o n who d r e s s e s up i n a b u s i n e s s s u i t f o r t h e day i n t h e o f f i c e w i l l p r a c t i c a l l y u n d r e s s t o go s h o p p i n g w i t h r u n n i n g s h o e s i n t h e e v e n i n g and t h e n d r e s s up a g a i n maybe t o go to a c l u b o r to some e n t e r t a i n m e n t ) , b u t e a c h b u i l d i n g and t y p e o f b u i l d i n g ( o f f i c e t o w e r , s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g , d u p l e x , c o m m e r c i a l r o w , e t c . ) i s c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e o t h e r s and s e p a r a t e l y c l a s s i f i e d . The s p i r i t o f t h e E n c y c l o p e d i s t s has b e e n a p p l i e d t o p l a n n i n g and a d i c t i o n a r y o f u s e s a n d o f b u i l d i n g s has b e e n c r e a t e d . The b u s i n e s s c e n t r e f o r e x a m p l e i s a . p l a c e w h e r e one s e e s men i n b u s i n e s s s u i t s a n d s e c r e t a r i e s m o v i n g a r o u n d a t c o f f e e b r e a k s , w h i l e t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e i s a p l a c e where one 34. s e e s h o u s e w i v e s i n r u n n i n g s h o e s , w i t h a few c h i l d r e n u n d e r s c h o o l a g e . The o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l a t i n g z o n i n g and b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s c o u l d become v e r y . d e t a i l e d and i n v o l v e d . A l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n f o c u s e d p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e e f f e c t s o f s u b -u r b a n r e s i d e n t i a l z o n i n g on b e h a v i o u r . A new a c t i v i t y g e n e r a t e d by t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s , c o m m u t i n g , has become a m a j o r a c t i v i t y i n i t s e l f . A l s o a h i e r a r c h y o f a c t i v i t i e s , o f c l o t h i n g and o f q u a l i t y o f b u i l d i n g s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r m s o f f i n i s h e s and o f d u r a b i l i t y ) has b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , w i t h t h o s e c o n s i d e r e d more n o b l e r e c e i v i n g g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n . The most f a s c i n a t i n g f a c t i s t h a t e v e n e n j o y m e n t i s o f t e n c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r some c a t e g o r y : " r e c r e a t i o n a l " o r " c u l t u r a l " o r " s p i r i t u a l " and so o n . T h e s e c a t e g o r i e s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e s p o n s e t o a r o m a n t i c i d e a l i s t i c u r g e (as A r t h u r E r i c k s o n a c u t e l y n o t e s s u c h a word as h o u s i n g c o u l d n o t have b e e n c o m p r e h e n d e d i n m e d i e v a l S i e n a ) and t o t h e n e e d o f r a t i o n a l i z i n g e a c h a c t i v i t y a c c o r d i n g t o an i d e a l o r d e r and p e r f e c t i o n . We must zone a . r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i n o r d e r t o b r i n g i t up to a c e r t a i n i d e a l s y m b o l i c p e r f e c t i o n and b e a u t y t h a t i s p r o p e r o f d w e l l i n g s a l o n e ; and e v e n e a c h t y p e o f d w e l l i n g has t o be c l a s s i f i e d , - i n a k i n d o f h i e r a r c h y t o s y m b o l i c p e r f e c t i o n , where t h e i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m e s t a b l i s h e s t h e u l t i m a t e v a l u e c h o s e n f r o m an e c l e c t i c and e n c y c l o p e d i c c o l l e c t i o n . In a s i m i l a r manner a l l t h e o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s h a v e t o be s e e n i n i s o l a t i o n and c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g l y ; f o r e x a m p l e t h e p e r f e c t c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y has t o be d e v e l o p e d f r o m a s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d c o m m e c i a l a r e a . S u c h an a t t i t u d e was f o r e i g n t o t h e way o f t h i n k i n g o f p r e v i o u s c i v i l i z a t i o n s . Someone has n o t i c e d t h a t z o n i n g was 35. a l r e a d y a p p l i e d i n V e n i c e i n t h e e a r l y M i d d l e Ages ( a n d e v e n e a r l i e r i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and A l e x a n d r i a ) on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s , b e c a u s e t h e T u r k s , t h e J e w s , t h e G e r m a n s , t h e A r m e n i a n s , e t c . , had t h e i r . d i s t i n c t a r e a s o f a c t i v i t y ; b u t t o s a y t h i s i s t o m i s -u n d e r s t a n d t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e modern m e a n i n g o f z o n i n g , w h i c h i s r a t h e r t h e o p p o s i t e : z o n i n g means h o r i z o n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and s e p a r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s , n o t o f p e o p l e . In t h e e x a m p l e o f V e n i c e , t h e p e o p l e who were s e p a r a t e d had a c o m p l e t e i n t e g r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r d o m a i n s , j u s t as t h e V e n e t i a n s d i d i n most o f t h e i r c i t y . In N o r t h A m e r i c a t o o , a s e p a r a t i o n o f p e o p l e on a r a c i a l b a s i s h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n many p l a c e s . T h i s o c c u r r e d s o m e t i m e s t h r o u g h e c o n o m i c a c c i d e n t and s o m e t i m e s t h r o u g h p r i v a t e e c o n o m i c c o n t r i v a n c e and s p e c i a l c o v e n a n t s r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h u r b a n p l a n n i n g , and i t d i d n o t a l t e r t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e u r b a n p l a n and o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s . The c o n c e p t o f s e p a r a t i o n i s a t t h e b a s i s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n u r b a n s y s t e m , c o n t r a r y t o what t h e s p i r i t o f t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n o r C a n a d i a n democracy" i s s u p p o s e d t o b e , and i t r e s p o n d s t o a n e e d t h a t has f a r - r e a c h i n g ' r o o t s . The o v e r a l l p l a n o f c o n -t e m p o r a r y c i t i e s r e v e a l s a t r e m e n d o u s e f f o r t t o s e p a r a t e e a c h d a i l y p u r s u i t and a c t i v i t y f r o m t h e o t h e r , i n a s t r i c t h o r i z o n t a l s y s t e m o f c a t e g o r i e s and e v e n o f v i s u a l s y m b o l s . I t has b e e n as sumed t h a t . t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n a p p r o a c h t o p r o b l e m s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o u r b a n p r o b l e m s , i s a f l e x i b l e and p r a g m a t i c a p p r o a c h , b u t t h i s i s an i l l u s i o n t h a t c o u l d n o t be f u r t h e r f r o m what a c t u a l l y h a p p e n e d and i s h a p p e n i n g . 36. P i e c e m e a l p r a g m a t i c and e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , n o r m a l l y i n v o k e d t o e x p l a i n t h e p r e s e n t u r b a n p r o b l e m s , a r e o n l y a way o f d e l a y i n g a d e b a t e on t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h have b e e n d i c t a t i n g p a t t e r n s and p l a n s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y c i t i e s . In f a c t , one o f t h e l a s t e c o n o m i c s t u d i e s p r e p a r e d f o r t h e c i t y o f C a l g a r y i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c h a n g e o f u r b a n p a t t e r n and o f p h i l o s o p h y o f p l a n n i n g w i l l have t o be made i n o r d e r t o a v o i d a b s u r d r e s u l t s , i n c l u d i n g b a n k r u p t c y f o r t h e c i t y , b u t i t was n o t i n d i c a t e d what c h a n g e h a d t o be made. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s t e p o u t o f a c u l t u r a l t r e n d and t o p r o p o s e a c h a n g e o f r o u t e . T h e r e i s a C a l v i n i s t i c and p u r i t a n -i c a l r e l i g i o u s p r e c e d e n t p r e s s i n g t h e n e e d f o r c l e a r , c l e a n and o r d e r l y s e p a r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s , where t h e t i m e t a b l e o f t h e day i s a c h i e f f a c t o r o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was o n l y by s e p a r a t i n g , c a t e g o r i z i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g c l e a r l y e a c h a c t i v i t y t h a t i t was f e l t t h a t t h e y c o u l d be p u r s u e d i n t h e r i g h t m o r a l o r d e r . I t was t h u s t h a t t h e y c o u l d be made c l e a n and b r o u g h t t o t h e i r n o b l e p e r f e c t i o n . The E n c y c l o p e d i a o f t h e ac t iv i t i e s" o f a c i t y as sumed a n o b l e m o r a l v a l u e , and z o n i n g became a t o o l t o w a r d t h i s e n d . The s u b d i v i s i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e c i s e t i m e t a b l e was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e m o r a l and s u p e r i o r o r d e r . The s t o r y o f t h e h o u s e w i v e s o f K e o n i g s b e r g , who were a b l e t o t e l l t h e t i m e by M r . K a n t ' s d a i l y a p p e a r a n c e s i n h i s p u r s u i t s , i s f a m o u s . The same s p i r i t p e r m e a t e d ' t h e A m e r i c a . o f B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n and p e r m e a t e s a g r e a t p a r t o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y . I t i s an o u t l o o k i n w h i c h t i m e i s n o t o n l y money , i n t h e C a l v i n i s t i c t r a d i t i o n , b u t a l s o t h e o r g a n i z e r o f e a c h a c t i v i t y a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e c i s e d i v i s i o n . T h i s may be r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e 37. f a c t , t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e move f r o m t h e zone o f one a c t i v i t y t o t h e n e x t a t t h e same t i m e . E n t i r e s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y may become empty a f t e r t h e h o u r s o f t h e i r common u s e . Many s t u d i e s h a v e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h i s has l e d t o d a n g e r o u s s i t u a t i o n s i n many N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s , where s t r e e t s have b e e n a b a n d o n e d t o a n t i -s o c i a l e l e m e n t s d u r i n g c e r t a i n h o u r s . T h e r e i s no n e e d t o m e n t i o n a l l t h e p r o b l e m s o f r u s h h o u r c h a n g e o f a c t i v i t y a t t h e same t i m e by e v e r y o n e i n t h e c i t y . Y e t i t was t h r o u g h s u c h o r d e r l y s e p a r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d o u t a t a s p e c i f i c t i m e and p l a c e by e v e r y b o d y t h a t t h e i d e a l , p e r f e c t i o n f o r e a c h a c t i v i t y was l o o k e d f o r . R a t i o n -a l i s t i c , a e s t h e t i c and m o r a l r o m a n t i c . g o a l s become m i x e d i n t h e s e i d e a l p u r s u i t s o f o r d e r . The c l o c k and t h e c o l o u r e d maps do n o t p r o v i d e a t r u l y r e a s o n a b l e s y s t e m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s . H o w e v e r , when p e o p l e a s k : " A t what t i m e do y o u go t o w o r k ? " , two q u e s t i o n s l o a d e d w i t h m o r a l v a l u e s have to be a n s w e r e d . F i r s t , w h e t h e r y o u s t a r t work a r o u n d t h e t i m e t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d r i g h t f o r a s o u n d and r e l i a b l e p e r s o n , and s e c o n d , w h e t h e r y o u do o r do n o t work i n t h e same l o c a t i o n where y o u s l e e p . Many o t h e r m o r a l v a l u e s a r e t i e d w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n and t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p l a c e o f w o r k , w i t h t h e t i m e and p l a c e o f m e a l s and w i t h t h e t i m e when one goes t o b e d . A c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n w o u l d show t h a t o u r z o n e d and t i m e d a c t i v i t i e s a r e a l l e n v e l o p e d , i n f l u e n c e d and g u i d e d by a c o m p l e t e and s e l d o m q u e s t i o n e d s y s t e m o f m o r a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l v a l u e s . But q u e s t i o n -i n g t h e v a l u e s and t h e s y s t e m i s u s u a l l y b l i t h e l y a v o i d e d . B . M . S p a t t , w i t h t y p i c a l l y b l i n d b i a s , d e c l a r e d : " I t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g wrong w i t h t h e c o n c e p t ; r a t h e r , t h e d i f f i c u l t y 38. l i e s i n t h e p r a c t i c e o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f z o n i n g . " T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r z o n e d s e p a r a t i o n s N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s grow w i t h an e v e r w i d e n i n g s y s t e m o f s u b d i v i s i o n s , e a c h o f w h i c h i s d e s i g n e d as a p a r t of" a n - i d e a l s e p a r a t e v i l l a g e . The c i t y - e x p a n d s as a c o n g l o m e r a t e o f v i l l a g e s , w e l l o r d e r e d w i t h t h e i r v a r i o u s z o n e s and w i t h t h e i r c o m m e r c i a l and m u n i c i p a l c e n t r e s . The p a t t e r n i s t h a t o f a c o n s t e l l a t i o n . o f s t a r s and o f an e v e r w i d e n i n g s y s t e m o f c e n t r e s , w i t h t h e s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g s v i s u a l l y t a k e n as t h e s t a r s . The c i t i e s l o o k l i k e a s o r t o f M i l k y Way. From t h e a i r , e s p e c i a l l y a t n i g h t , N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s show a p a t t e r n d r a m a t i c a l l y o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m many , s e m i - r u r a l g a l a x i e s ; " the f a \ A m e r i c a n m i g r a t i o n was a t o m i c " , a n d ' l i k e atoms, o r s t a r s w h i c h s c a t t e r e d and t h e n t h i c k e n e d and g r o u p e d , the- b u i l d i n g s grew i n t h e f i e l d s o f t h e new c o n t i n e n t . as m i x e d u r b a n - r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s , w i t h m i l l i o n s o f d e t a c h e d e d i f i c e s . The c h e c k e r b o a r d a p p e a r a n c e o f modern N o r t h A m e r i c a n g e o g r a p h y f r o m t h e a i r has d i s t a n t o r i g i n s t h a t r e l a t e t h e r e c t a n g l e s o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t o t h o s e o f t h e v i l l a g e s and towns and i n t u r n t o t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f f a r m s . O r i g i n a l l y i t seemed r e a s o n a b l e t o s u r v e y and s u b d i v i d e t h e l a n d w i t h r e c t a n g l e s , w h i c h f i n a l l y d e t e r m i n e d t h e s h a p e o f p i e c e s o f p r o p e r t y C e r t a i n l y s u r v e y o r s gave i m p e t u s t o a t r a d i t i o n o f p l a t t i n g r e c t a n g l e s on a map. " A t t h e t i m e and t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e moment, no b e t t e r s y s t e m o f p a r c e l l i n g l a n d f o r s e t t l e m e n t c o u l d h a v e b e e n • d e v i s e d . But a l a s t i n g mark has b e e n l e f t upon t h e e n t i r e c o u n t r y s i d e , w h i c h w i l l (cn f o r a l l t i m e a f f e c t t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d " . T h i s s y s t e m b r i n g s 39. o n e ' s m i n d b a c k t o t h e g e o m e t r i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s ( o f P l a t i o n i c o r i g i n ) o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a b o u t t h e s p e e d and s u d -d e n e s s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o l o n i z a t i o n , when t h e r e was n o t e v e n t h e t i m e and t h e money t o g i v e a g e o g r a p h i c a l b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n mos t o f C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : a l i n e was drawn on a map and i t was l e f t t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s t o f i n d o u t e x a c t l y where t h a t l i n e a c t u a l l y f e l l and what i t w o u l d d i v i d e . The c u r i o u s a c c i d e n t a l , i s o l a t i o n o f P o i n t R o b e r t s b e t w e e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e i s one c u r i o u s ' r e s u l t o f t h i s k i n d o f t w o -d i m i n e s i o n a l g e o m e t r i c s i m p l i c i t y . " In 1 7 8 5 , on t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f Thomas J e f f e r s o n , C o n g r e s s p a s s e d a l a n d o r d i n a n c e , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n p l a c i n g a huge c h e c k e r -b o a r d o f s u r v e y l i n e s o v e r a l l t h e m i l e s o f c o u n t r y n o r t h and west o f t h e O h i o r i v e r , a c h e c k e r b o a r d t h a t was r e g a r d l e s s o f c o n t o u r s and r e l e n t l e s s - as f a t e . When one r e a l i z e s t h a t as a r e s u l t o f t h i s method a l l t h e f a r m s , a l 1 t h e s u b u r b a n a r e a s , a l l v i r g i n c o u n t r y n o r t h and west o f t h e O h i o r i v e r , were b o u g h t and s o l d i n r e c t a n g -u l a r p l o t s , e i t h e r i n t h o s e o f t h e Government's o r i g i n a l s u r v e y o r i n s u b d i v i s i o n s o f i t s s q u a r e s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e l a n d o w n e r , w h a t e v e r h i s i n c l i n a t i o n s , w o u l d f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o ge t away f r o m r e c t a n g u l a r p l a t t i n g . I f h i s t r a c t was s m a l l , and i f h i s s t r e e t s were t o be d i r e c t e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e s t r e e t s p l a t t e d - in a d j o i n i n g t r a c t s , he was a l m o s t c o m p e l l e d t o a d o p t s u c h an a r r a n g e m e n t . T h u s i t i s n o t a l w a y s l a c k o f i m a g i n a t i o n , n o r f a i l u r e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f an a d j u s t m e n t o f p l a n , t o c o n t o u r , n o r i n s e n s i b i l i t y t o b e a u t i e s o f n a t u r e o r t o t h e c h a r m o f t h e p i c -4 0 . t u r e s q u e w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f i d e l i t y o f t h e t y p i c a l A m e r i c a n town t o r e c t a n g u l a r p l a n n i n g . " R e c t a n g u l a r p l a n n i n g was a l s o a d o p t e d i n C a n a d a and g e n e r a l l y won t h e s u p p o r t o f a u t h o r i t i e s and p l a n n e r s a c r o s s N o r t h A m e r i c a . B e c a u s e o f t h e i n s i s t e n c e t h a t a11 " p a r a l 1 e 1 s " c o n v e r g e at t h e p o l e s , i n C a n a d a . t h e c u r v a t u r e o f t h e e a r t h n e c e s s i t a t e d more c o r r e c t i o n s t o t h e r e c t a n g l e s t h a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Many u n c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s and p h i l o s o p h i e s f a v o u r e d o r t h o g o n a l o r r e c t a n g u l a r p l a n n i n g : t h e g e o m e t r i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t t h e age o f i d e a l i s m i n h e r i t e d f r o m t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t , a c e r t a i n p a p e r a t t i t u d e a l r e a d y n o t e d r e g a r d i n g z o n i n g a n d t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s on c o l o u r e d s q u a r e s , t h e e a s e o f work o f d r a f t s m e n w i t h t h e s e t o f s q u a r e s , t h e s p e e d and s i m p l i c i t y o f a r e c t a n g u l a r s u b -d i v i s i o n on t h e d r a f t i n g b o a r d . L a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r f a r m s s o l d as one p a r c e l c o u l d be s u b d i v i d e d a l l a t o n c e i n t o many t i n y i d e n t i c a l p i e c e s w i t h t h e same c r i t e r i a t h a t were u s e d f o r t h e o r i g i n a l l a r g e r s u b d i v i s i o n s . T h u s t h e s t r e e t p a t t e r n o f most c i t i e s , p l a n n e d and g r o w i n g q u i c k l y , was d e t e r m i n e d i n a r e c t a n g u l a r f a s h i o n . I t was soon d i s c o v e r e d t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e c u r v a t u r e o f t h e e a r t h t h e r e c t a n g u l a r s y s t e m o f s u r v e y i n g was l e s s t h a n p e r f e c t and l i n e s w o u l d o f t e n n o t i n t e r s e c t at t h e e x p e c t e d p o i n t s . J o g s had t o i n t e r r u p t t h e e s t a b l i s h e d s t r a i g h t l i n e s t o make t h e c o r n e r s m e e t . T h e s e r e m a i n e d e v e n i n t h e s t r e e t p a t t e r n s o f t h e c i t i e s , where t h e r e g u l a r i t y o f t h e g r i d had t o be i n t e r r u p t e d h e r e and t h e r e . D e s p i t e t h e a t t e m p t made on a c o n t i n e n t a l s c a l e , an a b -s o l u t e r e g u l a r i t y o f r e c t a n g l e s c o u l d n o t be o b t a i n e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e v e r y e f f o r t was made t o s t i m u l a t e r e c t a n g u l a r p e r f e c t i o n , o f t e n t o a p o i n t o f a b s u r d i t y and i n e f f i c i e n c y . 41. Many p r a c t i c a l a r g u m e n t s were a d v a n c e d i n f a v o u r o f r e c t a n g u l a r s u b d i v i s i o n s a g a i n s t t h o s e r o m a n t i c s who f o u n d them a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e i r p i c t u r e s q u e o b s e s s i o n s . T h i s c o n f l i c t became e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g i n t h e f i e l d of , h o u s i n g , where t h e r e c t a n g u l a r s t r e e t s were so o f t e n o p p o s e d on t h e a d j a c e n t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y by c u r v i l i n e a r p a t h s and d r i v e w a y s , p u n c t u a t e d by i r r e g u l a r l y p l a n t e d s h r u b s and t r e e s . "The New Y o r k c o m m i s s i o n e r s , i n j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r a d o p t i o n o f a r e c t a n g u l a r s t r e e t p l a n , s a i d t h a t t h e y h a d r e j e c t e d an i r r e g u l a r s y s t e m d e l i b e r a t e l y , f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t a c i t y i s c o m p o s e d p r i n c i p a l l y o f t h e h a b i t a t i o n s o f men, and t h a t s t r a i t -s i d e d and r i g h t - a n g l e d h o u s e s a r e t h e most c h e a p t o b u i l d and t h e most c o n v e n i e n t t o l i v e i n ! (Note A) However t h e s e and many o t h e r p r a c t i c a l a r g u m e n t s s h o u l d n o t m i s l e a d one t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y were t r u l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s on w h i c h a c h o i c e had b e e n made. O p p o s i n g v i e w s c o u l d be h e a r d w i t h e q u a l s t r e n g t h and c o n v i n c i n g a r g u m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m B r i t a i n , where many p l a n n e r s s u p p o r t e d t h e p i c t u r e s q u e c u r v i -l i n e a r p l a n o f s t r e e t s , s u c c e s s f u l l y e x e c u t e d i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t B a t h w i t h t h e C r e s c e n t o f J o h n , W o o d , t h e Y o u n g e r , one o f t h e f i r s t r o m a n t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e b a r o q u e c u r v e and f u r t h e r e x a g g e r a t e d i n t h e u n d u l a t i o n s o f L a n d s d o w n C r e s c e n t . We can see how d i f f e r e n t p l a n s c o u l d h a v e b e e n c h o s e n , i n t h i s c e n t u r y , f r o m s u c h B r i t i s h d e s i g n s as t h e p l a n o f L a r k h i l l E s t a t e , " H o u s i n g o f The W o r k i n g C l a s s e s " , L i v e r p o o l , t h e p l a n o f S p r i n g w o o d - A l l e r t o n E s t a t e , L i v e r p o o l ( f i g . 3 ) , t h e p l a n f o r Moss P a r k s i t e , G l a s g o w , and t h e p l a n o f P o r t s d o w n H i l l H o u s i n g S c h e m e , P o r t s m o u t h ( f i g . 4 ) , f o r e x a m p l e . 42. F i g u r e 3 43. B O K - 0 \ O H Jt POfc I S\l< IV I i I P D R . T S D O W N M I L L H O V S I N G S C H E M E F i g u r e 4 44. The m a i n r e a s o n s f o r t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g p r e v a l e n c e o f t h e g r i d s y s t e m o f s u b d i v i d i n g l a n d and o f p l o t t i n g s t r e e t s i n a r e c -t a n g u l a r manner must be f o u n d i n t h e d e l i b e r a t e c h o i c e o f a r e c -t a n g u l a r g e o m e t r i c o r d e r as a s u p e r i o r f o r m o f o r d e r , i n t h e d e s i r e t o make new s u b d i v i s i o n s and c i t i e s a t g r e a t s p e e d a l l a t o n c e f r o m b a r e l a n d , and in a s i m p l i s t i c and r u r a l v i e w o f t h e c i t y t h a t a s s i g n e d t o e v e r y o n e an e q u a l r e c t a n g u l a r f i e l d . The h i g h i d e a l i s m o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n , c o l o n i z a t i o n w o u l d n o t e a s i l y h a v e p e r m i t t e d i n -d i v i d u a l , i r r e g u l a r and d i s o r d e r l y i n i t i a t i v e s i n t h e s u r v e y i n g  and i n t h e p a r c e l l i n g o f l a n d , t h e g r e a t e s t p a t r i m o n y t h a t c o u l d be s h a r e d by t h e new c o m m u n i t y . The use o f t i m e was a n o t h e r t r u l y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r ; t h e p a r s i m o n y o f e a r l y N o r t h A m e r i c a n m o r a l i t y r e q u i r e d t h e f u l l e s t use o f t i m e and t h e maximum s p e e d o f d e v e l o p -m e n t . What a p p e a r e d t o be t h e most s i m p l e s y s t e m h a d t o be a d o p t e d a l m o s t on m o r a l g r o u n d s . F i n a l l y , t h e c i t y was n o t s e e n as a h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d f a b r i c w i t h a c o m p l e x s y s t e m o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p a r t s , b u t m e r e l y as a more d e n s e c o n g l o m e r a t e o f s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g s , as a c o m m u n i t y o f many more l a n d o w n e r s w i t h s m a l l e r p a r c e l s o f l a n d , as a p l a c e where s m a l l e r l o t s h a d l a r g e r b u i l d i n g s and where most o f t h e l o t s h a d b u i l d i n g s on t h e m . O p p o s i t e t o what t h e E u r o p e a n e x p e r i e n c e h a d b e e n , i n t h e v i e w o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n , i t was t h e open l a n d , n o t t h e c i t i e s , t h a t made t h e n a t i o n . N o r t h A m e r i c a n s were d i r e c t i n g t h e i r d r e a m s , n o t t o t h e c i t i e s t h a t t h e y were b u i l d i n g , b u t t o t h e i r i n f i n i t e l y v a s t l a n d , g e o m e t r i c a l l y p l o t t e d . The v i r g i n l a n d i n f r o n t o f them c o n s t i t u t e d an i d e a l o c c a s i o n where t o t r a n s f o r m i n t o r e a l i t y t h e dream o f a new o r d e r , a d r e a m  n o t c o n f i n e d w i t h i n any b o u n d a r i e s , b u t i n f i n i t e l y e x p a n s i b l e . APPENDIX NOTE A "The r e c t a n g u l a r p l a n has o t h e r a d v a n t a g e s and e c o n o m i e s . I t i s so e a s i l y made t h a t o n e ' can 1 make i t h i m s e l f , w i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e t a i n i n g e x p e r t s k i l l s ; i t r e d u c e s t h e c o s t o f s u r v e y i n g t o a minimum and makes t i t l e d e s c r i p t i o n s e a s y t o w r i t e . I t s r e g u l a r i t y s i m p l i f i e s a s y s t e m a t i c d e s i g n a t i o n o f s t r e e t s ; and b e c a u s e o f i t s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n d i s t a n c e s c a n be r e a d i l y c o m p u t e d . T h i s , t o be s u r e , w o u l d be w o r t h more i f t h e s t a n d a r d s were t h e same f o r a l l . c o m m u n i t i e s . But t h e y v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y , so t h a t one must know t h e s c a l e i n e a c h c i t y . A p l a n , t o o , w h i c h p r o v i d e s , u n i f o r m l o t d e p t h s makes t h e l e v y i n g o f a s s e s s m e n t s e a s y . W h e t h e r t h e s e be by t h e f r o n t f o o t o r by t h e s q u a r e f o o t ; and i t n o t o n l y i n d u c e s c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e s t r e e t p l a n s o f new s u b d i v i s i o n s , b u t i t p r o m o t e s t h i s b e t w e e n t h e new s u b d i v i s i o n s and t h e e x i s t i n g s t r e e t p l a n . I t i s f u r t h e r c l a i m e d t h a t t h e l o n g s t r a i g h t s t r e e t s , e l i m i n a t i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e v e r m a k i n g more t h a n one ; t u r n , i n c r e a s e t h e r a p i d i t y o f t h e t r a f f i c movement and h e n c e a r e o f s p e c i a l v a l u e i n ease o f f i r e - - an a r g u m e n t o f f s e t i n p a r t by t h e f a c t t h a t for - any d e s t i n a t i o n n o t on t h e same s t r e e t one must t r a v e r s e two s i d e s o f a t r i a n g l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a u t o m o b i l e s have made a p r o m i s c u o u s r a p i d i t y o f t r a f f i c ^ m o v e m e n t on r e s i d e n c e s t r e e t s a d a n g e r and a n u i s a n c e . 46. D o u b t l e s s , f i n a l l y , t h e v e r y u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e p l a n ' s a d o p t i o n i n A m e r i c a i s a c o n v e n i e n c e , i n t h e s e d a y s o f v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d t r a v e l . Our towns may be m o n o t o n o u s , b u t a t l e a s t one c a n f e e l p r e t t y much a t home i n any o f them and c a n h a r d l y l o o s e h i s way. W i t h t h e . r e c t a n g u l a r s t r e e t p l a n , one may have t o j o u r n e y a l o n g e r d i s t a n c e t h a n s h o u l d be n e c e s s a r y b u t one w i l l n o t n e e d t o r e t r a c e h i s s t e p s . " A l l t h e s e a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f a C a r t e s i a n g r i d - -d e s p i t e t h e e f f i c i e n t and s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l - - do n o t c o n s i d e r t h e f a c t u a l v a l u e o f o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h weaken t h e e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e s t r i c t r e c t a n g u l a r s y s t e m . F i r s t o f a l l , as s o o n as s t r e e t s c h a n g e t h e i r names f r o m t h a t o f c o n -s e c u t i v e numbers o f s t r e e t s and a v e n u e s , and t h e p e r f e c t r e g u l a r i t y o f t h e s y s t e m i s b r o k e n , an a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l e t r e n d i n t i m e , t h e s y s t e m becomes a f r u s t r a t i n g l a b y r i n t h . F o r e x a m p l e , i f one i s g i v e n an a d d r e s s s u c h as A l m a S t r e e t i n V a n c o u v e r , a n d t h e s e n d e r i c a n n o t i d e n t i f y t h e number o f t h e s t r e e t s b e f o r e and a f t e r , o n l y a map w i l l a l l o w h i m t o l o c a t e i t . T h e r e w o u l d be no p e c u l i a r l a n d m a r k o r u n u s u a l g e o m e t r i c a l f e a t u r e t h a t w o u l d a l l o w h im t o i d e n t i f y r e c o g n i z a b l e p o i n t s i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a r o u t e . In a b a r o q u e p l a n on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w i t h i t s s t r o n g i d e n t i f i a b l e l a n d m a r k s i n t e r m s o f g e o m e t r i c a l s h a p e s and o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , d i r e c t i o n s c a n be g i v e n r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e name o f s t r e e t s . In t h e g r i d s y s t e m , o n l y p o s t e d s p e e d l i m i t s o r a c l o s u r e t o t r a f f i c may r e g u l a t e t h e f l o w o f t r a f f i c , w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e have t h e maximum s p e e d on any a r t e r y . A t t h e same t i m e , e x c e p t on t h e same s t r e e t , 4 7 . t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d f r o m one. p o i n t t o a n o t h e r w o u l d b e , i n most c a s e s , t h e maximum, b e c a u s e one i s c o n s t a n t l y r u n n i n g a l o n g t h e s i d e s o f r e c t a n g l e s , i n s t e a d o f r u n n i n g a l o n g t h e s h o r t c u t o f d i a g o n a l s . The a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e g r i d s y s t e m does n o t r e q u i r e a t r a v e l l e r t o u s e t h e map o f an u n f a m i l i a r c i t y i s e x a g g e r a t e d . In most c a s e s t h e s y s t e m has s e l d o m d e v e l o p e d a c c o r d i n g t o an i d e a l o r d e r a n d t h e map r e m a i n s a, n e c e s s i t y i n o r d e r t o a v o i d g e t t i n g l o s t . From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f • s u r v e y i n g , t a x a t i o n and t i t l e d e s c r i p t i o n e x p e r i e n c e a l o n e w o u l d t e a c h us t h a t t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y o f t h e l o t , d o e s . n o t c o n s t i t u t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f i c u l t y , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t has s t r a i g h t s i d e s o r r e a s o n a b l y g e o m e t r i c c u r v i l i n e a r b o u n d a r i e s r e l a t e d t o u n a m b i g u o u s , r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s . The m e a s u r e s a r e t a k e n once and f o r a l l . F i n a l l y , t h e a r g u m e n t o f t h e New Y o r k C o m m i s s i o n e r s does n o t seem t o be r e l e v a n t where b u i l d i n g s must be s e t b :ack f r o m t h e s t r e e t s : , t h e s t r e e t s may meet a t i r r e g u l a r a n g l e s or. r u n i n a c u r v i l i n e a r f a s h i o n . , b u t b u i l d i n g . . f r o n t s do n o t h a v e t o be p e r -f e c t l y p a r a l l e l t o t h e s t r e e t . CHAPTER 1 - THE E X I S T I N G PATTERN AND PLAN OF THE MODERN NORTH AMERICAN C I T Y . (1) B . M . S P A T T : A P r o p o s a l t o Change t h e S t r u c t u r e o f  C i t y P l a n n i n g , New Y o r k . 1 9 7 1 , p . 8 1 . (2) F . CHOAY: The M o d e r n C i t y : P l a n n i n g i n t h e 1 9 t h C e n t u r y , New Y o r k 1969,. p . (3) H . CHURCHILL: . The C i t y Is t h e P e o p l e , New Y o r k 1945 p . 186 . (4) F . S . CHAPIN J R . : U r b a n L a n d Use P l a n n i n g , C h i c a g o 1 9 6 5 , p . 14 , 15 . (5) H . SYMONDS: The Q u e s t i o n o f H o u s i n g , V a n c o u v e r 1 9 6 7 , p . 44 . (6) The s t u d y showed t h a t a c o n t i n u o u s e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c i t y o f C a l g a r y i n t h e n e x t q u a r t e r o f c e n t u r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x i s t i n g t r e n d s w o u l d c a u s e s u c h an e s c a l a t i o n o f e x p e n d i t u r e s by t h e c i t y i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s t h a t n o t e v e n a 100% t a x a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t e d i n c o m e o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d s a v e i t f r o m ever, i n -c r e a s i n g d e f i c i t s . The s t u d y e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e p a t t e r n was t h a t o f e v e r i n c r e a s i n g e x p e n s e s f o r e v e r d e c r e a s i n g s e r v i c e s . (7) B . M . S P A T T : A P r o p o s a l t o Change t h e S t r u c t u r e o f  C i t y P l a n n i n g , New Y o r k 1 9 7 1 , p . 8 1 . (8) M. NOVAK: The R i s e o f t h e U n m e l t a b l e E t h n i c s , New Y o r k 1 9 7 1 , p . 92 . (9) How t o S u b d i v i d e , 1 9 4 9 , p a r t I , p . l . 49. (10) C M . ROBINSON: C i t y P l a n n i n g , New Y o r k 1816 , p . 20 - 2 1 . (11) C M . ROBINSON: C i t y P l a n n i n g , New Y o r k 1 9 6 1 , p . 22 . (12) F . LONGSTRETH THOMPSON: S i t e P l a n n i n g i n P r a c t i c e , L o n d o n 1923 , p . 5 1 , 5 3 , 138 , 139 . 50. 2 . THE SUBURBAN TYPE AND S T Y L E OF DEVELOPMENT  AND R E L A T E D URBAN SYSTEMS We w i l l now e x a m i n e some o f t h e a t t i t u d e s w h i c h t e n d t o complement o r t o o p p o s e t h e s e a r c h f o r a p e r f e c t s c i e n t i f i c o r d e r , f o r an i n f i n i t e l y v a s t and e x p a n s i b l e s y s t e m , f o r c l a s s i f i c -a t i o n s , f o r g e o m e t r y , f o r n e a t n e s s and a c e r t a i n m o r a l o r d e r n o t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . We w i l l o b s e r v e t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e p i c t u r e s q u e i n c i t y d e s i g n and t h e d e s i r e f o r c o n t a c t w i t h n a t u r e w i t h i n t h e u r b a n c o n t e x t . In t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r we l o o k e d a t z o n i n g and s u b -d i v i s i o n o f l a n d ; i n t h i s c h a p t e r we w i l l l o o k a t t h e s p r a w l i n g s u b u r b a n m e t r o p o l i s , t h a t i s , a t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e a b s t r a c t b o u n d a r i e s and zones s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e l a n d . We w i l l l o o k a t t h e p h y s i c a l atoms o f t h e f a b r i c o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c i t i e s : i t s i n d i v i d u a l , d e t a c h e d b u i l d i n g s . We w i l l a l s o o b s e r v e s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f a s o c i a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e t h a t has become p r e v a l e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . B e s i d e s t h e d e t a c h e d b u i l d i n g , t h e h o u s e and g a r d e n , t h e e c l e c t i c i s m o f t h e v a r i o u s s t y l e s and f a s h i o n s o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y s u b u r b a n - o r i e n t e d m e t r o p o l i s t h a t w i l l be e x a m i n e d h e r e , we w i l l a l s o o b s e r v e some a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s u b u r b i a , and 5 1 . t h e s u b u r b a n s t y l e as a g e n e r a l , e n d l e s s s y s t e m , as a c o n c e p t o f d e s i g n w h i c h i s u s e d t o accommodate a l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s and a m e n i t i e s o f t h e c i t y . I t w i l l be shown t o be t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e m i x e d and i n t e g r a t e d s y s t e m t h a t one may d e r i v e as a scheme o f many E u r o p e a n c i t i e s , w h i c h grew o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e and u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f many c u l t u r a l and l i f e s t y l e s . "His argument being, why travel five hundred miles of tourist-jammed highway to reach nature's wilds when, by complete absence of effqrt... " CD T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n two p a r t s : t h e f i r s t i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n . o f s u b u r b i a as a r o m a n t i c f l i g h t f r o m t h e c i t y t o w a r d t h e j o y o f t h e g r a s s , t h e woods , t h e p u r i t y o f a i r , t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f l i f e , t h e v i l l a g e a t m o s p h e r e , e t c . ; t h e s e c o n d i s a c r i t i c i s m o f s u b u r b i a as a s y s t e m o f d e t a c h e d and i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s . The i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h i s s y s t e m w i t h t h e i d e a s o f t h e b e a u t i f u l and o f t h e s u b l i m e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i l l be e x p a n d e d upon i n c h a p t e r n i n e and t e n . I • "What makes t h e b i g c i t y b a d i s t h e omnibus c h a r a c t e r o f i t s c o n t e n t s . I t i s a j u m b l e and a c o n f u s i o n , i n c o h e r e n t and t h e r e f o r e i n e f f i c i e n t . The s m a l l e r s i z e and more s e l e c t q u a l i t y o f t h e e l e m e n t s e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e s u b u r b make i t more p r o m i s i n g t o t a k e h o l d o f t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e c i t y a t t h a t p o i n t . . . t h e s u b u r b s a r e s i m p l e r , more h o m o g e n e o u s , more r a t i o n a l , and c o n s e q u e n t l y more m a n a g e a b l e . P u l l i n g a l a r g e r f r a c t i o n o f t h e c i t y o u t i n t o them i s e q u i v a l e n t to u n s c r a m b l i n g a mess o f c o m p l i c a t i o n s and s e r v e s t o d i v i d e u r b a n s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s up i n t o masses o f s u c h p r o p o r t i o n t h a t m a n k i n d can p e r h a p s h a n d l e t h e m . The s u b u r b s a t l e a s t g i v e i t a b e t t e r c h a n c e t o (2 i t r y . " T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s were w r i t t e n i n 1925 when z o n i n g b y - l a w s were i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t . A l i t t l e more t h a n a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y a f t e r -wards t h e s u b u r b s were t r i u m p h a n t l y s p r a w l i n g a c r o s s N o r t h A m e r i c a , and were b e i n g more c l o s e l y s t u d i e d . Among t h e o t h e r s , W i l l i a m W h i t e J r . , o f F o r t u n e m a g a z i n e , h a d b e e n s t u d y i n g P a r k F o r e s t , where "he h a d had t h e s t r a n g e f e e l i n g o f b e i n g v i r t u a l l y t h e o n l y m a l e i n t h e p l a c e d u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e ; t h e men were a l l a t work downtown o r a t v a r i o u s p l a n t s a r o u n d C h i c a g o , and t h e r e were some j o k i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o h i s b e i n g ( 3 ) l o o s e i n a h a r e m " . He l a t e r n o t e d i n an a r t i c l e : " O d d l y , i n t h i s t i m e o f ' u r b a n i z a t i o n ' , when more p e o p l e a r e l i v i n g i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , t h e c e n t r a l c i t y i t -s e l f seems t o be g e t t i n g f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e d f r o m what most p e o p l e c o n c e i v e as t h e A m e r i c a n Way o f L i f e . More and m o r e , i t w o u l d seem, t h e c i t y i s b e c o m i n g a p l a c e o f e x t r e m e s - a p l a c e f o r t h e v e r y p o o r o r t h e v e r y r i c h , o r t h e s l i g h t l y o d d . H e r e and t h e r e , i n p l e a s a n t t r e e - s h a d e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , t h e r e a r e s t i l l i s l a n d s o f m i d d l e - c l a s s s t a b i l i t y , b u t f o r t h e y o u n g c o u p l e on t h e way u p , t h e y a r e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s o f t h e p a s t . T h e y a r e o f t e n t h e l a s t s t a n d o f an e t h n i c g r o u p , and t h e p e o p l e i n them a r e g e t t i n g o l d . The once d o m i n a n t w h i t e P r o t e s t a n t m a j o r i t y has l o n g s i n c e d i s p e r s e d , and among t h e C a t h o l i c s and t h e Jews who h a v e b e e n t h e h e a r t o f t h e c i t y ' s m i d d l e c l a s s , t h e y o u n g e r p e o p l e a r e l e a v i n g as f a s t as t h e y a r e a b l e . When s c a r c e l y any b u t t h e w e l l - t o - d o l i v e d i n s u b u r b i a , a home t h e r e was a d e s i r a b l e g o a l ; now i t i s b e c o m i n g a s o c i a l „(4) i m p e r a t i v e . " The g r o w t h o f t h e s u b u r b s a c q u i r e d s u c h g i g a n t i c p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t even t h e r e t h e d e s i r e d v a l u e s b e g a n t o be s e e n i n j e o p a r d y . H . C l a y T a t e w r o t e a b o o k , B u i l d i n g a B e t t e r Home  Town , d e d i c a t e d "to t h e i n t e l l i g e n t y o u n g p e o p l e who a r e b e g i n n -i n g t o t u r n away f r o m c e n t r a l i z a t i o n t o t h e n o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n q u e s t o f t h e good l i f e . T h e y a r e t h e g u a r d i a n s o f t h e A m e r i c a n d r e a m . " ^ ^ "The s m a l l t o w n , t h e s m a l l c o m m u n i t y , t h i s i s what seems good a b o u t t h e s u b u r b t o most o b s e r v e r s , what n e e d s t o be p r e s e r v e d , and what t h e l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be p e r m i t t e d t o d e s p o i l . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n dream i s a dream o f i n d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h has a l w a y s b e e n s t r o n g l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h the f e a t u r e s o f t h e r u r a l l i f e and t h e s t y l e o f t h e v i l l a g e , s e e n as a n a t u r a l p r o t o t y p e o f the i d e a l s m a l l communi ty at t h e o r i g i n s o f d e m o c r a c y . was i n t e r p r e t e d i n a l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c f a s h i o n by Le C o r b u s i e r i n t h i s s k e t c h : B r o a d a c r e C i t y (7) i s an e x a m p l e o f t h e d r e a m , w h i c h where t h e r e i s a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f many N o r t h A m e r i c a n towns and c i t i e s . I t was i n t h e s m a l l c o m m u n i t y t h a t t h e d e m o c r a t i c v i r t u e s were b e l i e v e d to f l o u r i s h and p r o s p e r . The i d e a l s o f e q u a l i t y , o f b r o t h e r h o o d and o f i n d i v i d u a l i n d e p e n d e n c e were t h o u g h t t o be f o s t e r e d by i t s a t m o s p h e r e . The s i m p l i c i t y and t h e c l o s e n e s s t o n a t u r e o f t h e v i l l a g e l i f e was p r a i s e d . The v i l l a g e g r o u p e d a r o u n d t h e c h u r c h was o f t e n p o r t r a y e d as an i d e a l p i c t u r e s q u e image o f s e r e n i t y and o f s i m p l i c i t y . The v i l l a g e r was c o n s i d e r e d n a t u r a l l y i n c l i n e d t o w a r d f r i e n d l i n e s s , l i b e r t y a n d i n d e p e n d e n t r e l i g i o u s w o r s h i p . He was c o n s i d e r e d o f n a t u r a l l y s o u n d m i n d , n o t t h r o u g h t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and c o r r u p t i o n g i v e n by b o o k - l e a r n i n g b u t t h r o u g h t h e n a t u r a l t r a i n i n g o f common s e n s e . F o r m e r p r e m i e r , o f B r i t i s h ' Co l u m b i a , W-. B e n n e t t , u s e d to r e f e r t o i t as t h e " C . S . d e g r e e " . * O t h e r s c a l l e d i t " h o r s e s e n s e " ) . The v i l l a g e was s e e n as a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y , and i t s f o l k l o r e was c h e r i s h e d . I t was a s m a l l c o m m u n i t y where e v e r y o n e knew h i s n e i g h b o u r , and human r e l a t i o n s were k e p t s i m p l e , good and s t r o n g . "The p r o b l e m w i t h t h e v i l l a g e m e n t a l i t y i s n o t one *W. B e n n e t t , p r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e n i n e t e e n -s i x t i e s w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n , was a man who r o s e t o power f r o m a s m a l l town i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and who h a d g r e a t f a i t h i n t h e i n n e r g u i d a n c e o f common s e n s e . He h a d no f o r m a l u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . o f f a c t c u t o f v a l u e s , and i t i s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h e x a m i n i n g t h e b e n e f i t s w h i c h t h e s m a l l town s u p p o s e d l y b e s t o w s . T h u s , t h e p r o b l e m i s n o t l i m i t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t s u b u r b and t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n . I t e x t e n d s t o T o c q u e v i 1 1 e ' s N o r t h w e s t town and J e f f e r s o n ' s w a r d , t o t h e E n g l i s h p a r i s h and t h e ( 9 1 E u r o p e a n v i l l a g e b e f o r e A m e r i c a . " The f a r m was s e e n i n a l i g h t s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f v i l l a g e l i f e . The i n d i v i d u a l f a r m was t h e u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e v i r t u e s o f t h e u p r i g h t man, i n d u s t r i o u s , i n d e p e n d e n t a n d c l o s e t o n a t u r e . H i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e l a n d made h i m n a t u r a l l y d e d i c a t e d t o t h e d e f e n c e o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . The towns were s e e n as g r o u p s o f l i t t l e v i l l a g e s and o f f a r m s , where i d e a l l y a l l p i e c e s o f l a n d and a l l h o u s e s were s u p p o s e d t o be e q u a l and open t o t h e v i e w o f t h e f r e e c o m m u n i t y , where t h e f o r m o f t h e b u i l d i n g s was n o t s u p p o s e d t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h common t a s t e , e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e m a j o r i t y , and where t h e w i l l o f t h e m a j o r i t y was s u p p o s e d t o be a c c u r a t e l y d e t e r m i n e d by f r e e e n t e r p r i s e , open c o m p e t i t i o n , and t h e e l e c t i o n o f a s m a l l l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . The new i m m i g r a n t s , c o m i n g f r o m a l l p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , n o r m a l l y e m b r a c e d t h e s e i d e a l s as p a r t o f t h e i r new l a n d and o f t h e i r new c o n d i t i o n . T h e s e i d e a l s , whose i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was p o s s i b l e o n l y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , b e c a u s e o f i t s f o r m a t i o n , o f i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s and o f i t s s i z e , became t h e s o u r c e o f a s t y l e o f l i f e and o f b u i l d i n g t h a t we may now r e c o g n i z e as d i s t i n c t l y N o r t h A m e r i c a n , e v e n i f i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i g i n s a r e m a r k e d l y E u r o p e a n . "A w e l l known B r i t i s h c r i t i c r e c e n t l y w r o t e t h a t t h e r o o t s o f t h e s p r a w l p r o b l e m go b a c k t o t h e r o o t s o f A m e r i c a . Ian N a i r n o f t h e L o n d o n O b s e r v e r s a y s : ' A m e r i c a n s t e n d t o f o r g e t t h a t t h e p i o n e e r i n g e r a ended a l m o s t a c e n t u r y ago when t h e r a i l w a y s r e a c h e d C a l i f o r n i a . L a n d i s s t i l l t r e a t e d as t h o u g h i t were an i n e x p e n d a b l e c o m m o d i t y l i k e t h e b u f f a l o . T h e r e ' l l a l w a y s be more a r o u n d t h e c o r n e r i s s t i l l t h e r u l i n g p r i n c i p l e ' . N a i r n c a l l s s u b u r b i a a ' d i s i n t e g r a t i n g l a n d s c a p e an e n v i r o n m e n t o f ' t o t a l c o n f u s i o n and m e d i o c r i t y ' , a p l a c e where y o u c a n d r i v e f o r ' h u n d r e d s o f m i l e s w i t h o u t e v e r f e e l -i n g r e a l l y f r e e o f t h e s u b u r b a n t e n t a c l e s ' " . As s o o n as t h e economy and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n made i t f e a s i b l e , t h e c i t y d w e l l e r s f l e d "en masse" t o t h e g r e e n e r y o f t h e v i l l a g e s i n t h e s m a l l s u b u r b a n - m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Z o n i n g a l l o w e d t o d e f e n d t h e s e new f r o n t i e r s o f r o m a n t i c i s m as c l e a n d o r m i t o r i e s a g a i n s t t h e e x p a n d i n g i n d u s t r i e s and o t h e r t h r e a t s a t l e a s t f o r t h e l i f e s p a n o f a g e n e r a t i o n . "The s u b u r b a n f 12") m y s t i q u e " c a u s e d a m i g r a t i o n o f p e o p l e t o s u b u r b i a w h i c h " s i n c e W o r l d War II has b e e n more t h a n a g r a d u a l t r e n d ; i t (13) has b e e n a s t a m p e d e . " " C l e a r l y t h e norm o f A m e r i c a n a s p i r -a t i o n i s now i n s u b u r b i a . The h a p p y f a m i l y o f TV c o m m e r c i a l s , o f m a g a z i n e c o v e r s and ads l i v e s i n s u b u r b i a ; w h e r e v e r t h e r e i an i d e n t i f i a b l e b a c k g r o u n d i t i s t h e l a n d o f b l u e j e a n s and s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s , o f b r i g h t new s c h o o l s , o f b a r b e c u e - p i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , g a r d e n c l u b s , P T A , d o - i t - y o u r s e l f , and g r e e n lawns . n ( - 1 4 - 1 The N o r t h A m e r i c a n w o r k e r seems t o h a v e a n e e d t o f l e e e v e r y e v e n i n g t o t h e s u b u r b a n d w e l l i n g as i f i t were h i s r o m a n t i c n e s t . F o r h i m i t i s a r e f u g e f r o m s m e l l i n e s s , s o c i a l d i s o r d e r , h e c t i c a c t i v i t y , c r o w d s , p o l l u t i o n , and t h e l a c k o f g r e e n e r y and c o n t a c t w i t h n a t u r e . In h i s e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d t h e c i t y has b e e n p o r t r a y e d b o t h as * a p h y s i c a l a n d m o r a l h o r r o r ; t h e n o v e l s and news o f t h e l a s t two h u n d r e d y e a r s h a v e f o c u s e d more on t h e c r i m e , i n j u s t i c e and c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e c i t y , t h a n on i t s c u l t u r e , r e f i n e m e n t and m u t u a l human i m p r o v e -m e n t . H i s t o r i c a l n o v e l s t e n d e d t o c o n f i r m t h e p o r t r a i t t h a t B u r c k h a r d t c o m p l e t e d ( d e s p i t e h i s a r t i s t i c a d m i r a t i o n ) o f t h e I t a l i a n c i t i e s o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e : c e n t r e s o f c o r r u p t i o n . S u c h i n f l u e n t i a l N o r t h A m e r i c a n s as J e f f e r s o n , E m e r s o n T h o r e a u , P o e , H a w t h o r n e and M e l v i l l e , among o t h e r s p o p u l a r i z e d s i m i l a r n o t i o n s a b o u t t h e c i t y . E v e n c o m m e r c i a l A m e r i c a d i s -l i k e d t h e c o m m e r c i a l i s m o f c i t i e s . H a w t h o r n e i n "The M a r b l e F a u n " s e e s Rome as a town o f " e v i l s c e n t s " , " h a r d h a r s h c r i e s " , " g u i l t y s h a d o w s " , " u n e a s y s t r e e t s " , " e v i l s t r e e t " , " s t o n y - h e a r t e d s t r e e t s " , " s i n " , " c r i m e " , " h a r d p a v e m e n t s " , " m o u l d i n e s s " , " a n c i e n t d u s t " , " c o l d f o r m a l i t i e s " n e r v o u s n e s s " , l a b y r i n t h i n e i n t r i c a c i e s " ; i t i s " c h i l l y , " g l o o m y " " m e l a n c h o l y " , " s i c k l y " , " b l o o d - s t a i n e d " , " d r e a r y " , " f i l t h y " , " f o u l " , " c o r r u p t " , " w i c k e d " , " d i s s o l u t e " . ^ 1 5 - 1 In "The New Adam and E v e " , where Adam and Eve r e t u r n t o B o s t o n a f t e r a l l i t s i n h a b i t a n t s have d i s a p p e a r e d , " H a w t h o r n e 60. i m p l i e s t h a t t h e y were i n n o c e n t l y o b s e r v i n g t h e r e m a i n s o f a r a c e w h i c h p a i d a p r i c e f o r i t s ' r e v o l t a g a i n s t n a t u r e ' . But t h i s c r i t i c i s m was n o t i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h H a w t h o r n e ' s d i s a p p r o v a l o f B r o o k F a r m , f o r i t h a d a f f o r d e d h i s h e r o C o v e r d a l e 'some g r o t e s q u e s p e c i m e n s o f a r t i f i c i a l s i m p l i c i t y ' and was f u l l o f ' A r c a d i a n a f f e c t a t i o n ' . The c o m m e r c i a l c i t y and t h e s o c i a l i s t f a r m h a d b o t h d e p a r t e d f r o m n a t u r e . B o t h were i n t h i s s e n s e u n r e a l " . ( - 1 6 ' ) (Note A) . O n l y when t h e c i t y had t h e c h a r a c t e r s t i c s o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e i t has b e e n l o o k e d upon w i t h l o v e . I t i s i n t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e s u b u r b s e s p e c i a l l y t h a t t h i s r o m a n t i c dream o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e h a s b e e n p u r s u e d . L i t t l e c a s t l e s , I t a l i a n v i l l a s , c o t t a g e s , a n d any s t y l e t h a t c o u l d make an a t t r a c t i v e p i c t u r e i n t h e m i n d o f t h e v i e w e r , mushroomed i n t h e s u b u r b s - m i l d a f f i r m -a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y and o f p e r s o n a l c h o i c e i n the g e n e r a l f l i g h t f r o m t h e c i t y . " B e i n g s e g r e g a t e d p o p u l a t i o n s , s u b u r b a n i t e s may have a n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y t o c o n f o r m i t y , b u t , more t h a n any o t h e r p e o p l e , t h e y t e n d t o l o o k a n x i o u s l y a r o u n d t o see what t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s a r e d o i n g and b u y i n g . T h e y seem t o t h i n k t h e y must h a v e w h a t e v e r anyone e l s e h a s , n o t b e c a u s e t h e y n e e d i t b u t b e c a u s e o t h e r p e o p l e h a v e i t , and t h e y seem t o want v e r y much (171 t o be p a r t o f t h e g r o u p . " v J T h i s e x p l a i n s b.oth why f a s h i o n s i n s u b u r b a n d w e l l i n g s may be so s w e e p i n g and why s u b u r b a n d w e l l e r s may f a l l f o r odd and e x o t i c s t y l e s , b e c a u s e an e x o t i c d i s p l a y i s p a r t o f t h e f a s h i o n . I t a l s o e x p l a i n s why d e s p i t e so many s u r f a c e t r e a t m e n t s t h e s u b u r b a n d w e l l i n g i s so t y p i c a l l y and m o n o t o n o u s l y t h e same. I t has t o be remembered t h a t n o r m a l l y t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s u b u r b a n i t e i s among the . new r i c h and i s d e s -p e r a t e l y t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h f o r h i m s e l f a c e r t a i n s t a t u s , " c l a s s " , a n d r e c o g n i t i o n , by d o i n g what has b e e n d e t e r m i n e d by t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e " s u c c e s s f u l p e o p l e " to be g o o d . T h i s i s e v e n more s i g n i f i c a n t when i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t N o r t h A m e r i c a n s a r e i m m i g r a n t s , a n d sons and d a u g h t e r s o f i m m i g r a n t s , who want t o become a c c e p t e d and w e l l c o n s i d e r e d , w i t h o u t h a v i n g a s t r o n g and i n d e p e n d e n t s e t o f v a l u e s . V a l u e s and s t a t u s a r e i d e n t i f i e d . What y o u b e l i e v e makes y o u p a r t o f a s o c i a l g r o u p r a t h e r t h a n p a r t o f a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e n d , w h i c h may be s o c i a l l y u n d e f i n a b l e . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n l o v e and e v e n w o r s h i p o f N a t u r e h a v e some h i s t o r i c a l p r e c e d e n t s w h i c h s h o u l d n o t be f o r g o t t e n , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on some e a r l y r o m a n t i c f a s h i o n s . I t was i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e t h a t a c o n t a c t w i t h N a t u r e was f o u n d by t h e n e o -P l a t o n i c a r i s t o c r a c y i r i . i the I t a l i a n v i l l a s . P a l l a d i a n i s m b r o u g h t t o t h e A n g l o - S a x o n w o r l d n o t o n l y s t y l e , b u t a l s o a t a s t e -a r i s t o c r a t i c a t t h e b e g i n n i n g - f o r a v i l l a i n t h e c o u n t r y , a t l e a s t as a summer r e t r e a t . 62. K i n g L o u i s XIV p r o b a b l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e most famous p r e c e d e n t , by c h o o s i n g to b u i l d V e r s a i l l e s as a s u b u r b a n r o y a l p a l a c e and p e r m a n e n t l y l e a v i n g t h e c i t y . The r i s e o f s u c h s u b u r a b a n p a l a c e s meant a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l d e c a y o f t h e c i t i e s in- the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y . In N o r t h A m e r i c a " the p i o n e e r s t o t h e s u b u r b a n f r o n t i e r h a v e b e e n f o l l o w e d n o t o n l y by masses o f ( 1 Q "V r e t a i l t r a d e o u t l e t s , b u t by i n d u s t r y a l s o . " A s i m i l a r phenomenon h a d h a p p e n e d b e f o r e a r o u n d V e r s a i l l e s , w h i c h became an e c o n o m i c c e n t r e o u t s i d e P a r i s and a v i l l a g e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e c i t y i t s e l f . In t h e r o m a n t i c N o r t h A m e r i c a n s u b u r b s , e s p e c i a l l y at t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e f i r s t and t h e w e a l t h i e s t p e o p l e who i s o l a t e d t h e m s e l v e s a t t h e o u t s k i r t s o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l c i t y h a d a t e n d e n c y t o mix t h e i r m o d e r a t e r e s p e c t f o r d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l s w i t h an a r i s t o c r a t i c dream f o r t h e i r d w e l l i n g s ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the s o u t h e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s ) , homes i n s p i r e d by t h e i l l u s t r i o u s p r e c e n d e n t s o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e as w e l l as by t h e m e d i e v a l f e e l i n g f o r c a s t l e s i n t h e c o u n t r y . N o b l e i s o l a t i o n was c h o s e n w i t h a memory o f t h e p a s t . Somet imes i t a p p e a r s t h a t a t t h e b a s i s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n e g a l i t a r i a n and m a s s - p r o d u c e d s u b u r b s t h e r e i s t h e a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e e v e r y c i t i z e n w i t h a m i n i a t u r e V e r s a i l l e s o f h i s own t a s t e . One has t o n o t e , a l s o , t h a t t h e W h i t e House i t s e l f has a l l t h e f e a t u r e s o f a l a r g e r and e a r l i e r s u b u r b a n h o u s e . I t i s a c o u n t r y m a n s i o n s e t i n t h e m i d s t o f u r b a n W a s h i n g t o n . -USN&WR Photo C o n s t r u c t i o n of m o d e r n f reeways h a s o p e n e d a pa th f o r i n d u s t r y a n d c o m m e r c e to fo l l ow the o u t p o u r i n g of p e o p l e f r o m m a j o r m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r s into the s u b u r b s . Wh i le t h e p o p u l a t i o n of N e w Y o r k C i t y r e m a i n s v i r t u a l l y u n c h a n g e d , s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s l i ke t h i s o n e in Su f fo lk C o u n t y , N .Y . , a re b u l g i n g w i t h new r e s i d e n t s . | (19) In a d d i t i o n to t h e i d e a l m o t i f s , t h e r e a r e p r a c t i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e g r o w t h o f s u b u r b i a i n t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s , even i f t h e y a r e m o s t l y r e l a t e d to a r o m a n t i c b a c k g r o u n d . The s u b u r b a n i t e moves away f r o m t h e c i t y , e v e n i f he c a n n o t move t o o f a r , i;h o r d e r t o a s s e r t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y and h i s d e s i r e f o r p r i v a c y and f a m i l y l i f e . In h i s d e t a c h e d h o u s e he i s h i s own m a s t e r and n o b o d y can b o t h e r h i m ; t h e r e he has room f o r a l l t h e members o f h i s f a m i l y , and h i s c h i l d r e n can p l a y s a f e l y and s t i l l h a v e some c o n t a c t w i t h n a t u r e . • In a d d i t i o n , t h e s u b u r b a n d w e l l i n g endows t h e f a m i l y w i t h t h e r e s p e c t due h o m e o w n e r s , w h i c h i n t u r n makes t h e f a m i l y p a r t o f a s m a l l e r , more h o m o g e n e o u s , c l e a n and t h o r o u g h l y b o u r g e o i s m u n i c i p a l i t y . In t u n e w i t h t h i s he e x p e c t s t o f i n d a f i t t i n g s c h o o l and c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A v i l l a g e - s i z e communi ty may be r e c r e a t e d . By way o f f r i n g e b e n e f i t s t h e s u b u r b a n d w e l l i n g i s a s o u n d i n v e s t m e n t , p a r t l y s u b s i d i z e d by a u t h o r i t i e s who c o n s i d e r h o m e o w n e r s h i p a remedy t o s o c i a l e v i l s , and i t i s a d e f e n c e a g a i n s t i n f l a t i o n . "One p r o - s u b u r b a n w r i t e r has l i s t e d some o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f s u b u r b i a w h i c h he b e l i e v e s i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f l i v i n g f o r a d u l t s : 'New m e c h a n i c a l c o n t r i v a n c e s i n t h e home, t h e w e a r i n g o f c a s u a l c l o t h e s f o r c o m f o r t , o u t d o o r d i n i n g , f l o w e r s , l a w n s , p e t s , a l l t h e s e and many more pay p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i v i d e n d s , i n t h e f o r m o f i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e m e n t , p r i d e i n o w n e r s h i p and w o r k m a n s h i p } a n d communi ty a p p r o v a l and a d m i r a t i o n . A d d e d t o t h e s e a r e t h e s o c i a l a s s e t s o f more i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e n e i g h b o u r s , p l e a s u r e s o f g o s s i p and v i s i t s . The n e t r e s u l t i s t o g l a m o r i z e l i f e i n t h e s u b u r b s as a p l a c e o f r e t r e a t f r o m the t h r e a t s and f r u s t r a t i o n s o f u r b a n l i v i n g . R e t r e a t f r o m t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s o f u r b a n l i f e , i n f a c t , i s a b a s i c v i r t u e o f t h e s u b u r b s . " " A l t h o u g h W i l l i a m W h i t e was one o f t h o s e w r i t e r s who a t t a c k e d s u b u r b i a i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , he o f f e r e d an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r i t s p h e n o m e n a l g r o w t h b a s e d on h i s s t u d y o f t h e P a r k F o r e s t s u b u r b . ' I n most c a s e s t h e d o m i n a n t f a c t o r s f o r t h e move t o s u b u r b i a were t h e s p a c e f o r t h e money , t h e a m e n i t i e s n o t anywhere e l s e a v a i l a b l e , and most i m p o r t a n t , t h e f a c t t h a t i t was so w e l l s e t up f o r c h i l d r e n . P a r k F o r e s t e r s went t h e r e f o r q u i t e r a t i o n a l and e m i n e n t l y s e n s i b l e r e a s o n s . Once t h e r e , h o w e v e r , t h e y c r e a t e d s o m e t h i n g o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e o r i g i n a l b a r g a i n . . . a s o c i a l a t m o s p h e r e o f s t r i k i n g v i g o r . The d e v e l o p e r s were q u i c k t o r e c o g n i z e i t and f i r s t t h e y were j u s t a d v e r t i s i n g P a r k F o r e s t (21) as h o u s i n g b u t t h e n b e g a n t o a d v e r t i s e h a p p i n e s s ' " . y On a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n , e v e n s u b u r b a n c o n d o m i n i u m s a r e now a d v e r t i s e d as h a p p i n e s s . V i l l a M o n t e c i t o , f o r e x a m p l e , i s a d v e r t i s e d on t h e r a d i o u n d e r t h e s l o g a n "come t o c l u b M o n t e c i t o " , as i f i t were t h e p l a c e o f p e a c e and h a p p i n e s s . (Note B) U s u a l l y t h e s u b u r b a n d w e l l i n g i s a b u i l d i n g o f one o r two s t o r e y s , w i t h a s t r u c t u r e i n wood f r a m e , l o c a t e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f a r e c t a n g u l a r l o t , a v e r a g i n g s i x t y by a h u n d r e d a n d t w e n t y f e e t , w i t h t h e s m a l l e r s i d e f a c i n g t h e s t r e e t . In f r o n t o f i t t h e r e i s a s t r i p o f g r a s s , a few f e e t w i d e , p a r a l l e l t o t h e r o a d , b e l o n g i n g t o t h e c i t y , w h i c h c a n n o t be t o u c h e d e x c e p t t o m a i n t a i n i t . In most c a s e s t h e b u i l d i n g i s e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h a low g a r d e n and a c lump o f s m a l l t r e e s . A d r i v e w a y a n d a f o o t p a t h u s u a l l y c o n n e c t t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e b u i l d i n g t o t h e p u b l i c r o a d . T h e r e i s a g a r a g e o r c a r p o r t on one o f t h e s i d e s . T h i s u s e d t o be i n t h e b a c k and t o l e a d t o an a l l e y , w h i c h f o r m e d s o m e t h i n g l i k e an e l o n g a t e d common i n f o r m a l c o u r t i n t h e b a c k o f two rows o f s u b u r b a n h o u s e s , b u t t h i s p r a c t i c e has b e e n d i s -c o n t i n u e d i n t h e more modern s u b d i v i s i o n s , and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e e l e g a n t s u b u r b s . The b u i l d i n g i s t h e sum o f a number o f rooms g e n e r a l l y r e c t a n g u l a r , s e p a r a t e l y d e d i c a t e d t o t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e f a m i l y : s l e e p i n g , w a s h i n g , c o o k i n g , d i n i n g , l i v i n g , e t c . The d w e l l i n g i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f l i t t l e b o x e s p i l e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t w a y s , a l l open t o t h e o u t s i d e ; and t h e e x t e r i o r i s b a s i c a l l y a b a r e p i e c e o f g r o u n d , r e w o r k e d i n t o a g a r d e n . The o d d e s t t h i n g a b o u t t h i s b u i l d i n g i s t h a t most windows h a v e t o f a c e d i r e c t l y o t h e r windows o f s i m i l a r b u i l d i n g s , and t h a t e v e n f r o m t h e p u b l i c r o a d i t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o a v o i d b e i n g s e e n e x c e p t by p u l l i n g t h e d r a p e s . The "New Y o r k e r " ' -has a good s k e t c h o f a t y p i c a l s u b u r b a n s i t u a t i o n : I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h i s e x p o s u r e t o t h e p u b l i c i s n o t a c c i d e n t a l , b u t d e l i b e r a t e : t h e good c i t i z e n has n o t h i n g t o h i d e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , and i n f a c t h i s f a m i l y l i f e i s a k i n d o f show t o h i s n e i g h b o u r s , a c o n t i n u o u s t e s t i m o n y o f h i s good l i f e . The n e i g h b o u r s c o n s i d e r t h e i r r i g h t to know what i s g o i n g o n , and nobody has t h e r i g h t , even l e g a l l y , t o h i d e . The h e i g h t o f f e n c e s i s n o r m a l l y s u b j e c t t o b y - l a w s , and f e n c e s w h i c h w o u l d c o m p l e t e l y s c r e e n a b u i l d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y a two s t o r e y b u i l d i n g , w o u l d be i l l e g a l even i f one d a r e d t o t h i n k o f p u t t i n g up s u c h a t h i n g . T h i s l e a d s e v e n t o t h e a v o i d a n c e o f c u r t a i n s i n l i v i n g room w i n d o w s . The l i v i n g room becomes a show-c a s e . I t i s even c o n s i d e r e d an o f f e n c e t o s h u t t e r o n e ' s windows a g a i n s t t h e n e i g h b o u r s . I t i s one o f t h e r e a s o n s why l i v i n g rooms a r e a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y p l a c e d on the s t r e e t . r The s t r e e t i s n o r m a l l y q u i e t and does n o t l e a d a n y w h e r e i n p a r t i c u l a r . The o r i g i n a l g r i d s y s t e m was i n t e r r u p t e d i n t h e more modern d e v e l o p m e n t s by a s y s t e m o f c u l de s a c s and o f m e a n d e r -i n g c u r v e s w h i c h c a t e r t o t h e p i c t u r e s q u e t a s t e and s u p p r e s s t h e amount and s p e e d o f v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . To r e a l i z e t h a t i n s u b u r b i a one i s n o t i n a c i t y i t i s enough t o be d r o p p e d by c a r i n t h e m i d d l e o f a p a r k - l i k e s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t , s u c h as West V a n c o u v e r , B . C . One i s i n no man's l a n d , m i l e s away f r o m any f a c i l i t y , f r o m a n y t h i n g t h a t one may n e e d o r want to do e x c e p t w a l k i n g a l o n e . The f a c t t h a t one i s n o t i n a p a r k becomes o b v i o u s b e c a u s e e v e r y o n e , i n c l u d i n g t h e d o g , knows t h a t t h e s t r a n g e r does n o t b e l o n g t h e r e . One c o u l d d i e t h e r e , e s p e c i a l l y a t n i g h t , as i f one were i n a d e s e r t o r i n an u n -f a m i l i a r f o r e s t . The p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e s u b u r b a n r e t r e a t s become more s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by r o m a n t i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e n d s t h r o u g h t h e i r s t y l e o f l i f e , and t h e i r i s o l a t i o n becomes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s e n s e o f g u i l t and a d e s i r e t o be " i n v o l v e d " . In " C r e s t w o o d H e i g h t s " , f o r e x a m p l e , p e o p l e a d o p t "a s y s t e m i n w h i c h an i d e a l i z e d g o a l i s  u s u a l l y c o u n t e r p o i s e d by an o p p o s e d w i s h . The i d e a l o f l i v i n g i n a s m a l l - t o w n , s e m i - r u r a l a t m o s p h e r e i s met by a d e s i r e t o be as n e a r t h e m e t r o p o l i s as p o s s i b l e . D e s i r e t o o c c u p y an e x c l u s i v e p r e s e r v e i s m a t c h e d by an i d e a l o f i n c l u s i v e n e s s and w a r m t h . D e s i r e t o l i v e i n a s e p a r a t e c o m m u n i t y w i t h m u n i c i p a l a p p u r t -e n a n c e s a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e H e i g h t s i s a c c o m -f 2 31 p a n i e d by g u i l t a t t h e ' s e 1 f i s h n e s s ' o f t h i s d e s i r e " . J S o b i n n o t e s t h a t " t h e men, women and c h i l d r e n o f s u b u r b i a a r e f 241 n e v e r q u i t e t o g e t h e r and n e v e r q u i t e a l o n e " i n t h e i r f a m i l y and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . T h i s i s v e r y much i n t u n e w i t h t h e i d e a l o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m i d d l e c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l , who may be o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as a l o n e r . , , r o m a n t i c a l l y i n c a p a b l e o f b e i n g s i n c e r e and o p e n , and y e t who wants t o f e e l t h a t he o r she i s " m i x i n g " w i t h p e o p l e a l l the t i m e , i s n e v e r q u i t e a l o n e , and i s a l w a y s e x p o s e d t o t h e v i e w and comment o f t h e o t h e r s . I s o l -a t i o n and a communi ty a r e d e s i r e d a t t h e same t i m e . A number o f s t u d i e s h a v e o u t l i n e d t h e a d d e d cos t h e " s u b u r b a n myth" i s i n e v i t a b l y c a u s i n g , b e g i n n i n g w i t h c o s t o f s e r v i c i n g h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f s e p a r a t e s m a l l t s t h a t t h e l o t s o v e r a v a s t a r e a . But d e s p i t e t h e i n c r e d i b l e s p r a w l o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s , d e s p i t e the w a s t e o f l a n d c a u s e d by t h e d i s p l a y o f g r a s s t h a t nobody can u s e , d e s p i t e a l l t h e o t h e r c o s t s a n d p r o b l e m s t h a t t h i s s p r a w l adds t o t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n c i t y -f r o m i m p o s s i b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o a l a r g e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e e n e r g y c r i s i s - most p e o p l e a r e s t i l l p r o p o s i n g as a s o l u t i o n t o c u r r e n t " h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s " t o "make i t c l e a r t h a t we h a v e r 251 p l e n t y o f l a n d t o t a k e c a r e o f o u r g r o w t h f o r y e a r s t o come" and t o s u p p l y more s e r v i c e d l a n d a t l o w e r c o s t s , w h e t h e r t h r o u g h i n c e n t i v e s t o p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e o r t h r o u g h p u b l i c l y owned l a n d b a n k s . Y e t t h e same p e o p l e who make and i m p l e m e n t t h e s e p r o p o s a l s a r e t h o s e who may v i s i t a p l a c e s u c h as P a r i s , who f a l l i n l o v e w i t h some p i c t u r e s q u e a s p e c t s t h a t t h e y may g r a s p t h e r e i n a p a r t i c u l a r s p o t and who t h e n r e g r e t t h a t we do n o t h a v e s u c h an a t m o s p h e r e . P e o p l e n o t e t h a t o u r c e n t r a l c i t i e s h a v e b e e n d e c a y i n g . As a c o n s e q u e n c e t h e p r o p o s a l s f o r more l a n d f o r " h o u s i n g " a r e m a t c h e d by s i m i l a r l y i l l f o u n d e d p r o p o s a l s f o r p i c t u r e s q u e r e n e w a l d e v e l o p m e n t s downtown. In t h e l a s t y e a r s " p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s " and " s i d e w a l k c a f e s " h a v e b e e n more and more p r o p o s e d as a p a n a c e a f o r u r b a n i l l s . R. Mann adds t o t h e s e (2 71 a l s o "open a i r f i s h and v e g e t a b l e m a r k e t s " . A p i c t u r e s q u e m y t h , i n t h e s t y l e o f a s m a l l E u r o p e a n t o w n , f o r t h e u r b a n c e n t r e o f t e n m a t c h e s t h e s u b u r b a n myth o f a p i c t u r e s q u e home among t h e woods . 71. The g r o w t h o f s u b u r b i a i s f o s t e r e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f d o r m i t o r i e s o f f e r e d t o t h e u r b a n w o r k e r s i s q u i t e l i m i t e d b o t h i n t e r m s o f l o c a t i o n and o f t y p e o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n . One can c h o o s e b e t w e e n a h o t e l , a r e n t e d a p a r t m e n t , an a p a r t m e n t i n c o n d o m i n i u m , a r o w h o u s e , a d u p l e x , o r t h e s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l -i n g . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f some h o t e l s and a p a r t m e n t s i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o r e o f some o f t h e l a r g e s t c i t i e s , a l l o f t h e s e a c c o m m o d a t i o n s t r y to come as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e c o n c e p t , t h e s t y l e , and t h e f a s h i o n o f t h e s u b u r b a n o n e , w h i c h i s a t t h e t o p o f t h e s c a l e f o r c o n v e n i e n c e and p r e s t i g e , i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . The h o t e l i s by f a r t h e most e x p e n s i v e s o l u t i o n . Some o f t h e most l u x u r i o u s modern h o t e l s , e v e n i f downtown, t r y t o r e c r e a t e t h e s u b u r b a n p a r a d i s e , as t h e B a y s h o r e Inn c o u l d e x e m p l i f y i n V a n c o u v e r . U s u a l l y t h e s e h o t e l s t e n d to become c o m p l e t e s e l f c o n t a i n e d u n i t s , w i t h a s m a l l s h o p p i n g c e n t r e w i t h i n , a p o o l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a , and a r e s o r t o r c o u n t r y s i d e a tmo-s p h e r e . T h e y a r e t r y i n g t o c o n c e a l t h e u n p l e a s a n t r e a l i t y o f b e i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f a c i t y . The r e n t e d a p a r t m e n t i s t h e n e x t most e x p e n s i v e s o l -u t i o n a f t e r t h e h o t e l . And r e n t i n g i s e q u i v a l e n t t o l o s i n g money , b e c a u s e t h e t e n a n t does n o t b u i l d up an e q u i t y . I t i s a l s o r i s k y , b e c a u s e t h e p e r s o n who r e n t s i s e x p o s e d t o a l l t h e d a n g e r s i m p l i e d i n h a v i n g a l a n d l o r d , h a v i n g to meet p a y m e n t s e v e r y m o n t h , and h a v i n g t o pay e v e r i n c r e a s i n g r e n t due t o i n f l a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y r e n t i n g i s t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n f o r t h e p o o r , who pay t h e c o s t o f i n f l a t i o n i n f u l l . The c h o i c e o f r e n t a l u n i t s o f t e n i s l i m i t e d , and many l a n d l o r d s and managers have v e r y s t r i c t p o l i c i e s , e x c l u d i n g e n t i r e c a t e g o r i e s o f p e o p l e , s u c h as c o u p l e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , s t u d e n t s , e t c . f r o m t h e i r u n i t s . N o r m a l l y t h e most modern b u i l d i n g s a r e t h e most d e s i r e d and t h e most e x p e n s i v e . T h e s e f a l l m o s t l y i n two c a t e g o r i e s : t h e h i g h r i s e t o w e r s on t h e down-town b l o c k s , and t h e l o w e r r i s e s p r e a d o u t t o w n h o u s e s o f t h e a r e a s b e t w e e n t h e s u b u r b s and t h e c o r e o f t h e c i t y . T h e s e a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s i n f o r m and s t y l e s h a r e a l l t h e c o n c e p t s o f t h e s u b u r b a n f a s h i o n : t h e y have most o r a l l o f t h e windows t o t h e o u t s i d e , t h e y a r e d e t a c h e d b u i l d i n g s w i t h some l a n d s c a p i n g s u r r o u n d i n g t h e m , and s t a n d i n i s o l a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e s t o f t h e c i t y e x a c t l y as t h e s i n g l e , f a m i l y d w e l l i n g does on i t s t i n y s u b u r b a n l o s t . E v e n i n t e r m s o f a t m o s p h e r e and o f f a c a d e t h e s e apartment b u i l d i n g s t r y t o keep as much as p o s s i b l e o f t h e " s u b u r b a n m y t h " . C o n d o m i n i u m s o f f e r n o t h i n g d i f f e r e n t , e x c e p t t h e l e g a l s e t u p . T h e i r i n i t i a l s u c c e s s was n o t o v e r w h e l m i n g and d e v e l o p e r s h a d t o " c a s t a c o n c e r n e d eye at t h e v a c a n c y r a t e " o f some c o n d o m i n i u m s . A p a r t f r o m o t h e r r e a s o n s , i n v o l v i n g t a s t e , m a r k e t i n g and h a b i t s , t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s m a l l s h a r e o f r e a l e s t a t e owned i n many c o n d o m i n i u m s d i d n o t seem t o o f f s e t s u f f i c i e n t l y t h e d e p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s e s e m i - s u b u r b a n i n e x p e n s i v e b u i l d i n g s , so t h a t t h e a d v a n t a g e w i t h r e s p e c t t o o u t r i g h t r e n t i n g , f o r t h e b u y e r , was r a t h e r s m a l l . H o w e v e r , d e v e l o p e r s seem t o f i n d more a d v a n t a g e o u s t h e s a l e o f t h e a p a r t m e n t s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e r e n t a l , a n d t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i s p r o d u c i n g a m a r k e t where t h e r e i s a l m o s t no o t h e r c h o i c e b u t t o buy what i s o f f e r e d . W i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n f l a t i o n t h a t may come, and w i t h r e n t c o n t r o l s , t h e e n t i r e p i c t u r e may c h a n g e d r a s t i c a l l y i n f a v o u r o f c o n d o m i n i u m s , and t h i s may become t h e common s e t up o f a p a r t m e n t s o f t h e f u t u r e . In c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s , E u r o p e a n b u i l d i n g s i n c o n d o m i n i u m h a v e a v e r y s m a l l r a t e o f d e p r e c i a t i o n , and t h e i r r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s i n c r e a s e a t a t t r a c t i v e r a t e s , o v e r a number o f y e a r s , i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r l o c a t i o n s . E u r o p e a n f l a t s i n b u i l d i n g s i n c o n d o m i n i u m s a r e a p r i m e t y p e o f r e a l e s t a t e i n v e s t m e n t , and a r e t r e a t e d j u s t l i k e l o t s a r e t r e a t e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , f o r s p e c u l a t i v e p u r p o s e s , w i t h t h e a d v a n t a g e t h a t t h e y c a n p r o d u c e i n c o m e . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n b u i l d i n g - o r c l u s t e r o f b u i l d i n g s -i n c o n d o m i n i u m s h a r e s i n t h e s u b u r b a n s t y l e n o t o n l y b e c a u s e i t t r i e s t o r e c a p t u r e t h e s u b u r b a n a t m o s p h e r e , b u t b e c a u s e i t i s a c o m p l e t e l y d e t a c h e d f a b r i c . One m i g h t s a y t h a t row h o u s e s , an o l d t y p e o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n , a r e t h e o n l y N o r t h A m e r i c a n b u i l d i n g d e s i g n e d f o r c o n t i n u i t y , b u t i t w o u l d a c t u a l l y be a m i s t a k e . The t y p i c a l row h o u s e , a l t h o u g h s h a r i n g s i d e w a l l s f o r e c o n o m y , i s i n e v e r y o t h e r r e s p e c t i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e d e t a c h e d s u b u r b a n h o u s e . I t i s s i m i l a r l y s e t b a c k f r o m the s t r e e t , a l l i t s windows a r e open t o t h e o u t s i d e , and i t s f r o n t and b a c k y a r d s a r e e q u a l l y open t o p u b l i c v i e w . In a d d i t i o n , r o w h o u s e s , l i k e o t h e r d w e l l i n g s , a r e g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r as a c a t e g o r y and h a v e no o t h e r u s e s m i x e d i n w i t h t h e m . T h e r e a r e a few c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t s where r e s i d e n t i a l and o t h e r u s e s a r e m i x e d . T h e i r n a t u r e h o w e v e r i s t h a t o f b e i n g i s o l a t e d c e n t r e s , and t h e y a r e n o t d e s i g n e d t o merge i n c o n t i n u i t y w i t h a s i m i l a r u r b a n p a t t e r n . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y n o r m a l l y s t a n d out as d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t m a s s i v e u n i t s , as l a r g e d e t a c h e d b u i l d i n g s i n w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g i s e n c l o s e d . O f t e n , t h e y a r e o v e r s i z e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s , o r c o m p a c t s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s . S h o p p i n g c e n t r e s , t h e t y p i c a l p r o d u c t o f s u b u r b i a , n o r m a l l y end up b e i n g " c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t s " anyhow, b e c a u s e t h e y s o o n become s u r r o u n d e d by a p a r t m e n t t o w e r s and h o t e l s . T h e s e c o m p r e h e n s i v e c e n t r e s h a v e much more t o do w i t h t h e v i l l a g e i d e a l t h a n w i t h t h e c i t y . W i t h t h e i r d e s i g n , " i n a p r o f o u n d m i s r e a d i n g o f t h e m a r k e t , a r c h i t e c t s a r e f a s t m a k i n g t h e i m p r o b a b l e com-b i n a t i o n o f Le C o r b u s i e r ' s ' s k y s c r a p e r c i t y ' and t h e s e l f -c o n t a i n e d E n g l i s h 'New Town' i n t o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l c l i c h e o f o u r t i m e s . " ( 2 8 ) 7 5 . (29) 76. I I In the North American urban panorama each building is designed as a detached and separate unit in the fashion of the suburban dwelling, regardless of its size, location and use; from office towers to warehouses the building normally is a detached fabric, located near the centre of the property and embellished by some landscaping at the periphery whenever possible. The "model of a new residential project wi l l typical ly show "a series of high rise tower apartments set in geometric patterns on an abstract green space carefully preserved against human encroachment." The new term of "industrial park" is indicative of a similar mentality. By contract, even a superficial observation from the air of a European city like Paris would show a contrary pattern; the buildings extend rather uniformly and occupy the periphery of the blocks between the streets, ending with a sidewalk, and maybe even further, covering the sidewalk i t s e l f with an arcade, and ending just above the street. 7 7 . A few i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f E u r o p e a n e x a m p l e s may i n d i c a t e more c l e a r l y some f e a t u r e s o f a c o n t r a r y p a t t e r n : The c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g s . C o n t i n u o u s b u i l d i n g s s c r e e n e d by t h e s c a l e o f t h e t r e e d b o u l e v a r d s . U n i f o r m i t y c o n c e a l s d i f f e r e n t u s e s even i n e l e g a n t s e c t i o n s : s h o p s , o f f i c e s , r e s i d e n c e s , s m a l l w a r e h o u s e s , d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s , e t c . 7 9 . An a r c a d e o r a g a l l e r y a l l o w s t h e c o n t i n u o u s body o f J b u i l d i n g s t o e x t e n d above t h e p e d e s t r i a n s i d e w a l k s . E n c l o s e d c o u r t s and g a r d e n s a l l o w many a r r a n g e m e n t s . 8 1 . We have mentioned in the f i r s t chapter that the North American cit ies tend to expand as a set of ever increasing vi l lages, with an unlimited suburban sprawl. "Urbanologist Raymond Vernon wondered why the general American public paid l i t t l e attention to the downgrading reports that suburbia had been receiving. The answer he cameup with was that, to most Americans, suburbia represents progress and improvement, while ( 3 1 1 they view the cit ies as being at a s tandst i l l ." But in fact, i t is the vil lage mentality which perpetuates i t se l f . "Thus, while cr i t i c s who are sometimes very well-informed scholars are pinpointing the flaws and problems of suburbia, the general public appears more concerned with the personal benefits they see in suburbia relative to their particular (32") situation". The villages multiply in size and number. As we noted in the previous chapter, the North American urban fabric is atomic. It develops multiplying individual , detached, isolated constructions, growing like the stars in an ever expanding sky. In this i t is deeply romantic. It tends to in f in i ty . It is the opposite and even a rebellion against the f ini te and limited walled c i ty . However, it seems to be a rebellion in the fashion of an explosion. "Nearly two-thirds of Canadians l ive in single detached (331 dwellings". J In the best of the circumstances constructions of the new residential-units look like this: 82 . The a t o m i c u n i t s a r e g r o u p e d i n v i l l a g e s a r o u n d s h o p p i n g and b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s , and a l l t o g e t h e r t h i s c o m p l e x f o r m s a b i g g e r i n d i v i d u a l u n i t . Somet imes i t i s e v e n p o l i t i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t as a m u n i c i p a l i t y , o r two o r t h r e e o f t h e s e v i l l a g e s a r e g r o u p e d i n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y . I t i s a d e v e l o p m e n t by d o t s and n u c l e i o f d o t s , r a t h e r t h a n an e x p a n d i n g n e t w o r k o r o t h e r i n t e r r e l a t e d p a t t e r n . Many p e o p l e e q u a t e h i g h w a y s w i t h l i n e a r d e v e l o p m e n t : t h e y a r e w r o n g . The h i g h w a y s h a v e n o t h i n g on t h e s i d e s , a l l t h a t t h e y do i s t o s u p p l y means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , movement , u n r e l a t e d t o t h e b a r e g r o u n d on t h e s i d e s . P e o p l e may n o t e v e n l o o k at t h e s i d e s e x c e p t t o f i n d where t h e y h a v e t o t u r n . H i g h w a y s and s t r e e t s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a h a v e become t h e answer t o t h e s h e e r p r o b l e m o f movement , s e e n as a movement o f i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and b e t w e e n i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s o r n u c l e i o f a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s why t h e f r e e w a y and t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a r h a v e e n j o y e d so much p o p u l a r i t y i n s i d e t h e p r e c i n c t s of the North American metropolis, as opposite to public rapid transit . (Note C). Zoning fostered the isolation of act iv i t ies in each vil lage and in the metropolitan context formed by the conglomeration of the vi l lages . The consequence is that according to the time when the various act iv i t ies are supposed to take place, a stream of atomic individuals trans-fers at once from one zone to the other. When people go away from work, the business zone tends to be deserted as a f ie ld after the battle, an inviting area for drunks and criminals to roam through. When people go to work and to school the suburb empties in a similar manner. The hurly-burly of the shopping centres during peak act ivi ty and the vastness of the parking lots (how many times have you been unable to remember exactly where you left your car?) gives a good image of the conse-quences of these atomic movements in a polar fashion, from one centre of activity to the other, from one coloured block on the zoning map to the other. There is an eclectic mixture of styles which go together with the areas, not only in fashions of clothing but also in architecture. The business centres retain whatever is left of formality, in a r ig id code of semi-informality. The buildings have eliminated the capitals, and have stream-lined vert ica l ly . Their classicism has been defined chiefly by Mies Van der Rohe. The exterior skin is permanent and shiny. 84 . I t b e a r s w i t n e s s t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and f 3 4") t o " p u r i t a n i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l " t e n d e n c i e s w i t h t h e e l i m i n -a t i o n o f o p e n l y d e c o r a t i v e o r n a m e n t s and w i t h m a t e r i a l s w h i c h seem t o e x p r e s s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f h o n e s t y and t r u t h f u l n e s s t o t h e n a t u r a l a s p e c t o f m a t e r i a l s . In f a c t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s t u r n out t o be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t and g e n e r a l l y more a t t r a c t i v e t h a n what t h e y a r e r e a l l y l i k e i n u n t r e a t e d and u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d f o r m . The d e s i g n i s a ne.at s e t - u p o f l i n e s and p l a n e s , n o r m a l l y a l l s t r a i g h t . The b u i l d i n g s e x p r e s s e f f i c i e n c y ; i n o r d e r t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h e i d e a o f s u c c e s s and o f w e a l t h e x p e n s i v e m a t e r i a l s and e q u i p m e n t a r e e x p o s e d w i t h a b u n d a n c e . S h o p p i n g c e n t r e s on t h e o t h e r h a n d a r e s t a g e s e t s f o r an i n f o r m a l and gay a u d i e n c e . The s h o p p i n g i s e n c l o s e d , t h e s t a g e s e t i s i n s i d e and one does n o t see a n y t h i n g f r o m t h e huge p a r k i n g l o t o r g a r a g e , e x c e p t a l a r g e u t i l i t a r i a n o b l o n g b u i l d i n g . I n s i d e t h e s t y l e i s e x o t i c and e x t r a v a g a n t , f u l l o f s t r i k i n g c o l o u r s and l i g h t s , d e l i b e r a t e l y e l a b o r a t e , h e a v i l y d e c o r a t e d , gay and s l i g h t l y c o n f u s i n g . M a t e r i a l s a r e o f t e n o b v i o u s l y f a l s e and i m i t a t e d . E v e r y t h i n g l o o k s t e m p o r a r y . W h i l e i n t h e o f f i c e s e v e r y t h i n g i s r e m o v a b l e b u t made t o l o o k s t r o n g , s t a b l e and w e l l f i n i s h e d , i f n o t p e r m a n e n t , i n t h e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e e v e n t h e p e r m a n e n t s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n s i d e i s c o n c e a l e d by m a t e r i a l s l o o k i n g p u r p o s e f u l l y t e m p o r a r y . The window s h o p s and t h e i n t e r i o r d e c o r keep c h a n g i n g , and t h e r e a r e a l m o s t a l w a y s some s p e c i a l s a l e s g o i n g o n . I t i s as i f t h e s t y l e were i n s p i r e d by t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f buy now, l a t e r i t w i l l be t o o l a t e . The i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e i s the f r e e s t y l e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s u b u r b i a : I t i s t h e l i t t l e u n i v e r s e o f w h i c h t h e f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y t h e h o u s e w i f e , a l w a y s d r e a m e d . I t may be T u d o r , o r C o l o n i a l , o r C o n t e m p o r a r y , o r s o m e t h i n g e l s e . The h o u s e i s a s l i g h t l y i n f o r m a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d r e a m , where t h e f a m i l y r e t i r e s a t t h e end o f t h e d a y and d u r i n g week e n d s . The e x t r e m e a c c e n t u a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e o f e a c h a c t i v i t y i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s i n p a r t made e a s i e r and i n p a r t c r e a t e d by t h e s t r i c t i s o l a t i o n o f e a c h a c t i v i t y , b o t h i n p l a c e and t i m e . T h i s r e f l e c t s an i d e a l , n o t t o o d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e one t h a t want s t o see a s p e c i f i c s t y l i s t i c f o r m f o r e a c h f u n c t i o n . By t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f s t y l e i t i s e v e n p o s s i b l e to r e c o g n i z e t h e u s e and t h e a c t i v i t y . E v e n an i t e m s u c h as t h e window w o u l d be enough to d i s t i n g u i s h an o f f i c e b u i l d i n g f r o m a d w e l l i n g ; an e n t i r e l i s t o f m a t e r i a l s , f r o m r e f l e c t i v e g l a s s and g l a s s p a n e l s t o p r e c a s t e x p o s e d c o n c r e t e , c o u l d be made t o i n d i c a t e t h e c a t e g o r i z e d u s e s o f t h e m . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , 86. even i f apartment towers may be structurally similar to office buildings, the style is markedly different. One wi l l hardly ever see an office building with balconies, or an apartment tower wrapped in shiny reflective glass. And apartment buildings try to camouflage themselves as much as possible to give the impres-sion of being in a resort or in a suburban situation, maybe with a Spanish arcade at the entry, or with some sort of Tudor remin^ -iscence. By contrast one has to note that in the linear pattern of a city like Paris every act ivi ty participates to a degree in the other ac t iv i t i e s , both in terms of style and of physical proximity. The surface treatment of the facade may be inter-changeable for an office, for an apartment, or for a restaurant. In addition to being atomic, the North American urban fabric is outward oriented, extrovert, while the fabric of a city like Paris would be more of the introvert type. Most act iv i t ies in the North American detached buildings take place at the periphery of a service core and in front of an area glazed to an unobstructed view. The interior of most buildings is v is ible from the nearby buildings and public spaces in a striking manner (that i s , the attention is even drawn to look inside), while at the same time the interior is strongly in-fluenced by the design for a view. The outside is the over-whelming fact of the North American building; i t is always present, even more noticeable than the furniture or even, maybe, than the people inside. For example, chesterfields in 87. most d w e l l i n g s w i l l f a c e a l a r g e p i c t u r e window g i v i n g t h o s e s e a t e d on i t t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e v i e w , b u t a t t h e same t i m e p u t t i n g them on d i s p l a y f o r t h o s e o u t s i d e ; f a c i n g a d r a m a t i c v i e w o f t h e c i t y f r o m h i g h up makes an o f f i c e more a t t r a c t i v e , and t h e l a r g e g l a z e d a r e a becomes t h e m a i n f e a t u r e o f t h e r o o m . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i n many E u r o p e a n c i t i e s t h e i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t o f b e i n g i n s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g i s t h a t one may c o m p l e t e l y f o r g e t t h e o u t s i d e ; t h e w a l l a c t s as a d e f i n i t e s e p a r a t i o n . I t i s e x t r e m e l y common t o s e e E u r o p e a n l i v i n g rooms w i t h t h e m a i n c h e s t e r f i e l d s w i t h t h e windows i n t h e b a c k . T h i s h a p p e n s e v e n i n t h e a p a r t m e n t s on t h e h i g h e r f l o o r s i n t h o s e l o c a t i o n s t h a t do a f f o r d a s c e n i c v i e w o f t h e c i t y , w h i c h i s t h e n e n j o y e d r a t h e r f r o m a b a l c o n y . When one wants t o see t h e o u t s i d e , i t h a p p e n s t h a t one a c t u a l l y s t e p s o u t s i d e . G r a p h i c a l l y t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s t y l e c a n be s y n t h e s i z e d by d i a g r a m 1, and t h e E u r o p e a n s t y l e by d i a g r a m 2, where t h e d a r k e n e d a r e a i s t h e p a r t o f t h e p r i v a t e l a n d w h i c h i s b u i l t u p : d i a g r a m 1 d i a g r a m 2 8 8 . D i a g r a m 1 shows t h e p l a n o f a b u i l d i n g t h a t s i t s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e p r o p e r t y i n t h e r u r a l t r a d i t i o n o f t h e f a r m e r o f c o l o n i a l t i m e s . I t i s t h e d i a g r a m o f t h e b a s i c u n i t o f t h e a t o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . I f t h e s e u n i t s a r e added up and s e p a r a t e d by p u b l i c c o r r i d o r s , we have t h e t y p i c a l p a t t e r n o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n ( d i a g r a m 3): D i a g r a m 3. I n d i a g r a m 1 i t i s r e m a r k a b l e t h a t t h e b e t t e r p a r t o f t h e l a n d i s o p e n , and open t o t h e o u t s i d e . The b u i l d i n g i t s e l f has t o open f r o m a l l s i d e s t o t h e o u t s i d e . The o u t s i d e i s even more d o m i n a t i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e v a s t n e s s i t h a s ; t h e p r o p o r t i o n i s s u c h and so d i r e c t e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n o u t s i d e and i n s i d e i s an e v e r p r e s e n t f e e l i n g . The o u t s i d e i s a l w a y s p r e s e n t t o t h o s e i n s i d e ; a t t h e same t i m e , i n most c a s e s f r o m t h e o u t s i d e t h e v i e w o f t h e i s o l a t e d b u i l d i n g i s eye c a t c h i n g , and t h e a c t i v i t y b e h i n d t h e windows i s h i g h l y n o t i c e a b l e . F o r t h o s e o u t s i d e , t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g draws a t t e n t i o n and a t t i m e s i s even d r a m a t i c ; f o r t h o s e i n s i d e t h e v a s t n e s s o f t h e s p a c e o u t s i d e draws as much a t t e n t i o n and i s s o m e t i m e s e q u a l l y d r a m a t i c . I t i s t h i s u n i q u e s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t we c a l l t h e e x t r o v e r s i o n o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s t y l e . The open s p a c e s 89 o u t s i d e c r e a t e a c o n s t a n t t e n s i o n , On t h e c o n t r a r y d i a g r a m 4 i n d i c a t e s a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t and o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as i t t o o k p l a c e i n many c o u n t r i e s i n E u r o p e and A s i a , i n many d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s : i i • D i a g r a m 4. I t i s a s t y l e t h a t c o u l d be d e f i n e d , by c o n t r a s t , as l i n e a r ; i t i s n o r m a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d by a f a i r l y m i x e d a r r a n g e -ment o f u s e s . The open s p a c e s a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l e r and c l e a r l y d i v i d e d b e t w e e n e n c l o s e d p r i v a t e , and p u b l i c . The b u i l t up a r e a i s so c l o s e t o t h e open s p a c e s t h a t i t c r e a t e s no drama and t e n s i o n ; i t i s a l m o s t l i k e a h i g h f e n c e , o r a s i d e w a l l w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e s t h e movement. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n t r a s t a t l e a s t t h e s e two d i f f -e r e n t s y s t e m s b e c a u s e i t i s n o r m a l l y t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d t h a t t h e a t o m i c t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e one d i c t a t e d by t h e m a r k e t and by t h e n a t u r a l e c o n o m i c f o r c e s . I n s t e a d e x p e r i e n c e i n many d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s and t r a d i t i o n s shows t h a t o t h e r s o l u t i o n s c a n be e q u a l l y o r more v i a b l e e ven i n t e r m s o f p u r e e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , when t h e y a r e a l l o w e d , and w o u l d t e n d t o 90 . show t h a t t h e s o u r c e o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s t y l e i s o f a n o n - e c o n o m i c n a t u r e . I n f a c t , r e c e n t s u b d i v i s i o n s i n some o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s show t h a t t h e m a r k e t i s now p r e s s u r e d by e c o n o m i c c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s t o t r y t o t a k e o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s ; t h e r e a r e l o t s t h a t a r e b e i n g s o l d w i t h c o n c r e t e b l o c k s a t t h e p e r i m e t e r , on t h r e e s i d e s , so t h a t t h e owners c a n e x t e n d t h e i r b u i l d i n g s t o t h e w a l l a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r b u i l d i n g s and make b e t t e r u s e o f a s m a l 1 e r l o t . I t i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d C a l v i n i s t i c p r e j u d i c e t h a t r 35") " i n o u r s o c i e t y , e v e r y b o d y l i k e s t o make a p r o f i t " . J ' T h e r e a r e many s m a l l and l a r g e p r o f i t s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n s w i l l n o t l i k e t o make, f o r many r e a s o n s , un-l e s s f o r c e d t o . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e m a j o r i t y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n s w i l l n e v e r f r e e l y e l e c t t o r i d e a f r e e bus t o work, g o i n g a t t h e same s p e e d as a p r i v a t e c a r , d e s p i t e t h e s a v i n g s . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e d e s i r e s and m o t i v e s t h a t d r i v e most p e o p l e may be r e l a t e d t o v a l u e s w h i c h have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h m a k i n g a p r o f i t , w h i c h may be q u i t e i r r a t i o n a l and w h i c h may n o t have been s c r u t i n i z e d s u f f i c i e n t l y f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e . A good e x a m p l e i s t h e one q u o t e d e a r l i e r , o f t h o s e d e v e l o p e r s who s t a r t e d t o s e l l P a r k F o r e s t as money v a l u e i n t h e f o r m o f h o u s i n g , and who t h e n n o t i c e d t h a t p e o p l e were more a t t r a c t e d b y t h e a p p e a l o f an i d e a l s t y l e o f l i f e . 9 1 APPENDIX NOTE A In the Anglo-Saxon l i terary tradition classical Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle have been portrayed as defenders of the community of small or limited size. "Classical Greece appears as the f i r s t defender of the values of the Modern suburb, for there the small community was original ly presented as the centre of the good l i f e and there philosophers f i r s t insisted that an ideally satisfactory state must be limited in size" ' This interpretation may be argued. The Greek debate about the Polis was centered on the perfect form of government. Size was a marginal consideration, which must be understood in the ancient Greek technological and p o l i t i c a l context. One can easily see that in proportion a town of 30,000 in the geography of ancient Greece was comparable to a city of anywhere from 500,000 to 3,000,000 today, as far as density, f a c i l i t i e s and communications are concerned. In addition only free citizens were counted. No relation with the modern suburban vil lage can be truly found: the Greek town was a city in the f u l l sense of the word, autonomous and se l f -suff ic ient . The suburbs are specialized municipalities which depend from the metropolis for their very existence. 92 N O T E B T h i s i s a p h o t o c o p y o f t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r V i l l a M o n t e c i t o a s i t a p p e a r e d o n t h e _ " V a n c o u v e r S u n " : T h i s w e e k e n d , t a k e a d r i v e t o t h e m o u n t a i n . Beautiful Burnaby Mountain! ' A twenty-five minute drive from the hustle and bustle of downtown Vancouver and you're back to nature. Out where the air is fresh and clean, the trees are green and growing, and the woods are there to wander. It's a g reat place to visit and now, it's a great place to live. Now there's Montecito 2000-the ultimate in condominium luxury and liveability. Nestled on the shaded slop© •of Burnaby Mountain, Montecito 2000 is convenient to both shopping and schools. And right next door is an eighteen hole golf course. Each two, three or four-bedroom condominium comes with a wide choice of decorator options; private balcony or garden; and professionally landscaped and maintained grounds . that leave you lots of spare time to . enjoy doing what you enjoy doing. * ' And at Montecito 2000, prices start at $27,500 with down payments as low as $1,600 and mortgage at 8%% ' . 'V ,,V ?> Take a drive to the mountain this !'fj-weekend. Our display home is open , ; fromnponto6pTm.' Phone 291-6664. X; : Please keep this map as municipal by-laws i'l restrict the use of directional signs. . ^4% MONTECITO200B CD DawsonDevelopmentsLimited fe Y O U R K E Y T O J C O N T E M P O R A R V LIVING ^rS-^r-^g^J/ '(£&S?_ N o t e t h e c a l l t o c o m e " b a c k t o n a t u r e " f r o m t h e " h u s t l e a n d b u s t l e o f d o w n t o w n " , " o u t w h e r e t h e a i r i s f r e s h a n d c l e a n , t h e . -t r e e s a r e g r e e n a n d g r o w i n g , a n d t h e w o o d s a r e t h e r e t o w a n d e r . " 9 3 . NOTE C P u b l i c r a p i d t r a n s i t has h a d a c o n t i n u o u s h i s t o r y o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s and f a i l u r e s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m e t r o p o l i s , and has s e l d o m b e e n f r e e l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e m a j o r i t y , d e s p i t e i t s c o n v e n i e n c e and r e l a t i v e i n e x p e n s i v e n e s s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l u s e r s . E v e n more t h a n f o r o t h e r f o r m s o f p u b l i c t r a n s i t t h e s i z e o f d e f i c i t s seems t o be o f t e n o v e r w h e l m i n g , d e s p i t e t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f l o c a l and o f s e n i o r g o v e r n e m n t s . The V a n c o u v e r Sun o f F e b r u a r y 2 7 t h , 1974 , r e p o r t s u n d e r t h e t i t l e : " C l o s u r e looms f o r B A R T " : " O f f i c i a l s o f t h e most modern r a p i d t r a n s i t s y s t e m i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s a y t h e y may h a v e t o c l o s e t h e l i n e u n l e s s t h e r e i s more money t o c o v e r o p e r a t i n g l o s s e s . Two s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s o f t h e San F r a n c i s c o Bay A r e a R a p i d T r a n s i t d i s t r i c t t o l d a s t a t e s e n a t e c o m m i t t e e T u e s d a y t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e t h e 7 5 - m i l e commuter t r a i n s y s t e m w i l l n e v e r pay i t s way. T h e y a d d e d t h a t u n l e s s t h e s t a t e g i v e s them f r e s h f i n a n c i a l a i d t h e e n t i r e $ 1 . 6 - b i l l i o n BART s y s t e m may s i m p l y c l o s e t h i s f a l l a f t e r l e s s t h a n two y e a r s o f p a r t i a l s e r v i c e . " CHAPTER 2. (1) "The Vancouver Sun", July 30, 1974, p,3. (2) M. P. DOUGLASS: The Suburban Trend, New York 1925, P. 122 (3) J . SEELY, A. SIM, E. LOOSLEY: Crestwood Heights, Toronto 1956, p. V. (4) W. WHITE JR.: Are Cities Un-American?, from "Fortune" Sept. 1957. (5) H. CLAY TATE: Building a Better Home Town, New York 1954. Dedication. (6) R. WOOD: Suburbia. Boston 1958, p. 16 (7) F. L. WRIGHT: Broadacre City, Chicago 1945 (8) LE 60RBUSIER': Le Corbusier 1934-38, Zurich 1945, p. 67 (9) R. WOOD: Suburbia . Boston 1958 , p. 260 (10) "The Vancouver Sun", March 12, 1974, p. 34. (11) D. P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N.Y. 1971, p. 73 (12) D. P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N.Y. 1971, p. 65 (13) D. P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N.Y. 1971, p. 65 (14) W. WHITE J r . : Are Cities Un-American? from Fortune Sept. 1957. (15) M. and L. WHITE: The Intellectual Versus The City, M.I.T. 1962, p. 45 (16) M. and L. WHITE: The Intellectual Versus The City, M.I .T. 1962, p. 44 (17) D. P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N.Y. , 1971, p. 73 (18) B. BERGER: Working-Class Suburb, Berkeley 1960, p. 9 (19) "U. S. News £ World Report", August 7, 1972: New Role  of the Suburbs, p. 5 2 (20) D.P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N.Y. , 1971, p. 69 (21) D.P. SOBIN: The Future of the American Suburbs, Port Washington, N.Y. , 1971 p. 66 9 5 . ( 2 2 ) " N e w Y o r k e r " , J u n e 9 , 1 9 7 3 , p , 4 1 ( 2 3 ) J . S E E L Y , A . S I M , E . L O O S L E Y : C r e s t w o o d H e i g h t s , T o r o n t o 1 9 5 6 , p . 4 1 . ( 2 4 ) D . P . S O B I N : T h e F u t u r e o f t h e A m e r i c a n ' S u b u r ' b s , P o r t W a s h i n g t o n , N . Y . , 1 9 7 1 , P . 7 3 ( 2 5 ) " T h e V a n c o u v e r S u n " , J u n e 2 3 , 1 9 7 3 , p . 3 5 ( 2 6 ) " T h e V a n c o u v e r S u n : , J u l y 2 8 , 1 9 7 3 , p . 1 , a n d " T h e P r o v i n c e " J u n e 2 6 , 1 9 7 3 , p . 6 . ( 2 7 ) " T h e V a n c o u v e r S u n : , J u n e 1 2 , 1 9 7 3 , p . l a n d M a r . 9 , 1 9 7 4 , P . 4 7 ( 2 8 ) W. W H I T E J r . ; A r e C i t i e s U n - A m e r i c a n ? f r o m " F o r t u n e " S e p t . 1 9 5 7 . ( 2 9 ) " T h e V a n c o u v e r S u n " , J u l y 1 3 , 1 9 7 3 , p . 3 1 ( 3 0 ) W. W H I T E J r . : A r e C i t i e s U n - A m e r i c a n ? f r o m " F o r t u n e S e p t . 1 9 5 7 . ( 3 1 ) D . P . S O B I N : T h e F u t u r e o f t h e A m e r i c a n S u b u r b s , P o r t W a s h i n g t o n , N . Y . , 1 9 7 1 , p . 6 8 . ( 3 2 ) D . P . S O B I N : T h e F u t u r e o f t h e A m e r i c a n S u b u r b s , P o r t W a s h i n g t o n , N . Y . , 1 9 7 1 , p . 6 8 . ( 3 3 ) " T h e V a n c o u v e r S u n " , A p r i l 1 8 , 1 9 7 4 , p . 5 0 . ( 3 4 ) R . L . D E L E V O Y : " A d o l f L o o s " i n E n c y c l o p a e d i a 0 f M o d e r n  A r c h i t e c t u r e , L o n d o n 1 9 6 3 , p . 1 7 8 ( 3 5 ) " T h e V a n c o u v e r S u n " , J u n e 2 3 , 1 9 7 3 , p . 3 5 , i n t e r v i e w o f R i c h a r d M a n n b y M i k e G r e e n b y . ( 3 6 ) R . W O O D : S u b u r b i a . B o s t o n 1 9 5 8 , p . 2 6 0 3. SOME CONTEMPORARY URBAN AND A R C H I T E C T U R A L PROBLEMS AND D I S C U S S I O N S : THE HORNS OF A DILEMMA I t i s now a b o u t two h u n d r e d y e a r s s i n c e t h e c o n t r o v e r s y and t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n " n a t u r a l " , " o r g a n i c " and "human" t h i n g s on one s i d e , and "man made" and " a r t i f i c i a l " and " m e c h a n i c a l " t h i n g s on t h e o t h e r was b r o u g h t to l i f e and e x a m i n e d by t h e f i r s t r o m a n t i c s . I t i s n o t an a c c i d e n t t h a t t h e r o m a n t i c movement and t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n d e v e l o p e d t o g e t h e r , and t h a t p a t r o n s o f r o m a n t i c a r t drew t h e i r f i n a n c i a l w e l l b e i n g f r o m t h e i n c r e a s i n g p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e new economy, n o t w i t h o u t some s e n s e o f g u i l t . One o f t h e most r e c e n t a s p e c t s o f t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y i s t h e a t t a c k a g a i n s t t h e a u t o m o b i l e , s e e n as t h e m e c h a n i c a l i d o l t h a t d e s t r o y s n o t o n l y n a t u r e , t h a n k s t o b y p r o d u c t s s u c h as f r e e w a y s , i n t e r c h a n g e s , p o l l u t i o n , e t c . , b u t a l s o t h e q u a l i t y o f human l i f e and e v e n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e c i t i e s . A t i t l e on t h e f r o n t page o f "The V a n c o u v e r Sun" o f May 2 4 , 1973 , r eads ' : " C i t y subway p r o p o s e d . New downtown p l a n p u t s p e o p l e a h e a d o f v e h i c l e s . " And i n t h e a r t i c l e one r e a d s t h a t "downtown s h o u l d be made a p l a c e f o r p e d e s t r i a n s " . S i m i l a r t i t l e s , a r t i c l e s , and r e p o r t s f r o m p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s a r e f o u n d now and 97. t h e n i n p u b l i c a t i o n s i n many N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . T h e a u t o m o b i l e i s o n e o f t h e m o s t p o p u l a r v i l l a i n s i n c o n t e m -p o r a r y d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t u r b a n p r o b l e m s . W a l k i n g i s s e e n a s a v i r t u o u s a n d p u r e a c t i v i t y - as o p p o s e d t o d r i v i n g - w h i c h s h o u l d b e f o s t e r e d a t a n y c o s t ; we may b e a p p r o a c h i n g t h e m e n t a l i t y o f p r o h i b i t i o n i n a i l l u s i o n a r y c r u s a d e a g a i n s t c o n t e m p o r a r y p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . ^ 1 ^ 98. Many urban c r i t i c s , a t t r i b u t e to the advent and the use of the automobile the decay of the . c i t y c e n t r e s , the suburban-i z a t i o n of c i t i e s , the lack of s o c i a l l i f e and of opportun-i t i e s f o r encounter, and many more i l l s of our c i t i e s and of our c i v i l i z a t i o n . Yet these people do not r e a l i z e that the automobile, l i k e most i n d u s t r i a l products and other aids created by human beings, d i d not s p r i n g from a r b i t r a r y circum-stances, or as a r e s u l t of chance. As M a r s h a l l McLuhan put i t , "many people would be disposed to say that i t was not the machine, but what one d i d with the machine, that was i t s meaning or message. In terms of the ways i n which the machine a l t e r e d our r e l a t i o n s to one another and to o u r s e l v e s , i t mattered not i n the l e a s t whether i t turned out c o r n f l a k e s or C a d i l l a c s . " This i s a mistake. "In a c u l t u r e l i k e ours, long accustomed to s p l i t t i n g and d i v i d i n g a l l things as a means of c o n t r o l , i t i s sometimes a b i t of a shock to be reminded t h a t , i n o p e r a t i o n a l and f 2) p r a c t i c a l f a c t , the medium i s the message." We f i n d that i n the case of the automobile, the machine was developed and marketed by the same kind of people and at the same time that suburban l i v i n g was becoming more f a s h i o n a b l e and zoning laws were beginning to be proposed. The people who could a f f o r d i t were already 99 . d e s e r t i n g t h e c i t y , c o m m u t i n g t h e s t r e e t c a r s , r a i l w a y s and l e s s e f f i c i e n t p r i v a t e means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I t was t h e t i m e when t h e i d e a s o f E b e n e z e r Howard were f o s t e r i n g t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n dream o f g a r d e n s u b u r b s . The a u t o m o b i l e came as t h e p r o d u c t o f a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d c u l t u r e , w h i c h , as M o r t o n f 3") and L u c i a W h i t e have c l e a r l y e x p l a i n e d ^ , was a l r e a d y i n t r i n s i c a l l y a n t i - c i t y . F r a n k L l o y d W r i g h t i n h i s i d e a l " B r o a d a c r e C i t y " made t h e a u t o m o b i l e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p l a n . The a u t o m o b i l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s N o r t h A m e r i c a n v e r s i o n , was t h e medium c r e a t e d by an e s t a b l i s h e d c u l t u r a l m e s s a g e . I t was i n e e e d as i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e m p h a s i z i n g t h e s h a p e o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t y as s u b d i v i s i o n s o f l a n d . H o w e v e r , t h e i d e a s were a l r e a d y t h e r e . * I t was t h e message t h a t c r e a t e d t h e medium. I t may be o f n e g l i g i b l e u s e s i m p l y t o l a m e n t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e and t o p r o p o s e d i f f e r e n t means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as a s o l u t i o n t o t h e i l l s o f t h e c i t y ; what i s p r o b a b l y much more i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r i s t h a t what p e o p l e t h i n k a b o u t t h e c i t y and u r b a n l i f e i n g e n e r a l i s what s h a p e s t h e c i t y . * I n t h i s s e n s e , I f e e l t h a t one s h o u l d c o r r e c t and c l a r i f y t h e a p h o r i s m c o i n e d by M c L u l a n ; o t h e r w i s e an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t - t h e . s e q u e n c e i n t i m e - w o u l d be l o s t i n f a v o u r o f a v a g u e i d e n t i t y w h i c h w o u l d n o t r e f l e c t t h e r e a l a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . 100. J . L . S e r t s a i d i n 1947: " O u r m a s t e r y o f s p e e d has become u s e l e s s i n o u r c i t i e s . T h e i r m a i n a r t e r i e s a r e o f t e n c l o g g e d w i t h v e h i c l e s , as t h o u g h 'some k i n d o f a r t e r i o s c l e r o s i s h a d a t t a c k e d t h e c i t y s t r u c t u r e ' . In some c a s e s h o r s e s moved f a s t e r s i x t y y e a r s ago t h a n a u t o m o b i l e s f 4) do now." A q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y has p a s s e d and a u t o -m o b i l e s have k e p t m u l t i p l y i n g , e v e n i f t h e p r o b l e m s h a v e i n c r e a s e d and i n many p l a c e s a h o r s e o r a b i c y c l e w o u l d i n d e e d p r o v i d e f a s t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . M o s t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e a u t o -m o b i l e and t h e c i t y i g n o r e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a u t o m o b i l e i s a d e l i b e r a t e c h o i c e made by t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d v i e w o f l i f e and o f t h e c i t y . R i c h a r d G e r s t e n b e r g , c h a i r m a n o f G e n e r a l M o t o r s C o r p o r a t i o n , i n r e p o r t i n g t h e r e c o r d s a l e s g r o w t h a t t h e a n n u a l s t o c k h o l d e r s ' m e e t i n g i n 1973 , r e m a r k e d t h a t s u c h g r o w t h " i s a c o m p e l l i n g a n s w e r t o t h o s e who a r e so q u i c k to w r i t e t h e e p i t a p h o f t h i s i n d u s t r y and t o s a y t h a t t h e p e o p l e ' s l o v e a f f a i r w i t h t h e a u t o m o b i l e i s over ." ' ' ' ' - ' The a u t o m o b i l e was c r e a t e d i n o r d e r to h a v e a c e r t a i n c i t y , and i t s r o l e c a n o n l y i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f s u c h a c i t y . T h i s i n v o l v e s a s t y l e o f l i f e , among t h e o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t exp la ins why t h e a v e r a g e c a r s o l d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a has to be so l a r g e e v e n i f i t i s u s e d m o s t l y i n t h e c i t y and i t s s u b u r b s , and i t i s s e l d o m f u l l y o c c u p i e d , w h i l e t h e a v e r a g e E u r o p e a n c a r , by c o n t r a s t , i s so much s m a l l e r , e v e n i f i t i s u s e d more 101 . o f t e n o u t s i d e t h e c i t y and t o c a r r y s e v e r a l p e o p l e and l u g g a g e . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n a u t o m o b i l e i s a f o r m o f t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n p r o d u c e d by t h e same p h i l o s o p h y t h a t d r o v e t h e p e o p l e to t h e s u b u r b s . I t i s a r u r a l dream p a r t l y d e r i v e d by a s e n s e o f u r b a n c l a u s t r o p h o b i a , by a d e s i r e o f b i g n e s s , o f open s p a c e s , o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and o f u n l i m i t e d e x p a n s i o n . What p e o p l e do n o t seem t o r e a l i z e , i n t h e i r o u t c r y a g a i n s t t h e a u t o m o b i l e , i t s p o l l u t i o n , t h e u r b a n f r e e w a y s , e t c . , i s t h a t t h e r u r a l dream o f t h e f l i g h t t o s u b u r b i a c a n n o t be a c c o m p l i s h e d by p e d e s t r i a n m a l l s and p u b l i c mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s ; l e s s c a r s t h r o u g h t h e c i t i e s w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y mean a h i g h e r d e n s i t y o f p e o p l e r e s i d i n g i n t h e c i t y and o v e r a s m a l l e r h o r i z o n t a l a r e a . The f a i l u r e o f p u b l i c s y s t e m s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g s p r a w l o f t h e s u b u r b s and o f t h e i r d o u b l e c a r p o r t s s h o u l d teach us t h a t i n a z o n e d c i t y e x p a n d i n g w i t h e v e r l o w e r d e n s i t y p r i v a t e means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r e i n e v i t a b l e . The p a r a d o x i s t h a t t h e f l i g h t to t h e s e r e n i t y o f t h e g a r d e n s u b u r b s , t h e f l i g h t t o t h e more o r g a n i c and n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t away f r o m t h e d i r t y p a v e m e n t s o f c i t y s t r e e t s , has p r o d u c e d a g i g a n t i c g r o w t h o f s u b u r b a n o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i e s , f r o m a u t o m o b i l e s and h i g h w a y s to lawn mowers and lawn f e r t i l i z i n g m a c h i n e s . 102. The recent mild energy cr is i s in the United States has suddenly shown more vividly some of the costs and the implicit dangers of the continuous expansion of the low-density zoned and suburban metropolis.. People had to line up for hours at gas stations in order to continue their daily routines. Tom Wicker, of the "New York Times", noted from a city of North Carolina: "A fuel shortage is a serious matter anywhere, but in cit ies dependent on the automobile, i t could become a catastrophe, i t is not just that, here in Charlotte as elsewhere, mass transit f a c i l i t i e s are minimal. In addition this city has been built outward from its own centre in long gl i t tering strings of p last ic , neon, glass and ersatz. For miles before a motorist reaches what used to be the c i ty , shopping centres, fast-food joints , service stations, apartment and housing developments, glass office buildings line the roads in endless tribute to an i l lusory prosperity. What happens to the motels, the sprawling cut-rate department stores, the highway .restaurants and the one-stop auto service centres i f potential customers have no gas with which to drive to their sprawling parking lots?"'-6'' (And there are many cit ies in North America where to be unable to drive between isolated precincts means to be exposed to the danger of physical violence. The suburban garden cit ies may suddenly show in bitter ways their isolation from the urban context). 103 . As we noted in the previous chapter, what has happened is that the exodus to nature toward the suburbs has been followed by a massive movement of commercial act ivi t ies in the same direction; the metropolis has grown as a conglomerate of regional commercial centres and residential suburbs spread over a vast expanse of land, where the individual automobile has become more and more the only means of transportation. This most mechanical device has become an essential part of the general return to nature in the picturesque suburbs and of the l i f e l ine  necessary to maintain them. The romantic disgust with the automobile, i ts noise, i ts pollution, i ts speed through the serenity of the quiet streets and its crowding through the main arteries, is being expressed now by the closure of important central streets to private cars. The "machine" is publicly rejected with the establishment of pedestrian malls. Here picturesque dreams and the crusade against the automobile have a f ie ld day. 1 0 5 . Ecologists and conservationists may believe that ripping the pavement of a downtown street to bring back yet another garden with shrubs and trees and fountains in front of shops and stores means to begin a new - more "human" and "organic" -pattern in the city. But is i t not a revival of the City Beautiful concept in a new style? Despite the supposed death of the Beaux Arts ideals, we see that the image of beautiful, sublime, ar t i s t i c or picturesque scenes as the typical stage setting continues to fascinate people are are concerned about urban problems. As an example one may see the study "Granville as f 71 a Pedestrian Transitway" adopted by the City of Vancouver for the new pedestrian mall transforming Granville Street. The objective is to "beautify the street as a major pedestrian f 81 street in the downtown peninsula." 1 J Among the other things, f 91 "parades and festivals" are proposed to keep the area alive. The sketches of the proposed future arrangement seem to indicate rows of trees and sidewalk cafes as the most notable new elements. 106 107. 108 . For the reader who is not familiar with Vancouver one has to note that the people shown in the sketches could not be residents of the neighbouring blocks, because apartments are not foreseen in the surrounding area. Granville Street is not a street leading from one centre of pedestrian activity to another, l ike the Galleria in Milan (which goes from Piazza della Scala to Piazza del Duomo, the two most prestigious centres of the c i ty ) , i t is a street going from an eight-lane vehicular bridge to an old empty transcontinental railway station on the waterfront of the harbour. Finally Vancouver is a city that cannot count on a great pedestrian activity outside some sort of gallery, because i t is aff l icted by an unusual amount of steady rain. Cafes on open sidewalks are undoubtedly a dream transplanted from a vision of a sunny southern European town. Oddly, this new pedestrian area is at a great distance from Gastown, the previous project of urban beautification and pedestrian enclosure. Gastown is a renewal of a square and adjacent streets aimed at recapturing the atmosphere of an old vi l lage. It remained isolated, no provision has been made to introduce any residential quarters for a population that could focus around i t , and the shops and restaurants that took advan-tage of the atmosphere depend upon tourists and commuters. After a few years, its degree of success has already begun to give disappointments. It was another picturesque dream improperly 109 . transplanted; in Europe these squares and streets are supported by the l i f e of an integrated urban system and by the presence of a resident population around them that caters to the services offered there. (Note A.) Often,it seems as i f a beautiful stage, may be in the style of the central square of an ideal v i l lage , were a l l that is proposed to avoid the further decay of the urban centres or to solve the problems of the disintegrating c i t i es . An engineer, an alderman who was elected to the municipal council of Vancouver,ran on a p o l i t i c a l platform which included: "Revitalize downtown by plazas and sidewalk cafes. - Freeze development where necessary (West End)."'-1^-' But what good wi l l sidewalk cafes make to revital ize downtown i f high density residential developments nearby are going to be stopped? The underlying assumption seems to be that people would commute to the cafes as they do to the business centre. Sidewalk cafes seem to capture the imagination of the North American traveller as the key to a romantic dream of a c i ty . Even the premier of Brit ish Columbia, returning from his f i r s t tr ip to the European continent, could not refrain from reporting the news that, "In Paris the sidewalk cafes are just fantastic, just fantast ic ."^* As a consequence of the tr ip he decided to relax local liquor laws to encourage the adoption of this European idea. centre of For the redevelopment of Granville Vancouver, the architects included Island, at the among the 110. the suggested uses "a museum, gal leries , a fine arts school, f 121 a f ish, fruit and vegetable market," ' etc. These are some of the most typical romantic visualizations of low-density leisure-oriented act iv i t i e s , lending themselves in an excellent way to picturesque renderings giving a sketchy idea of scenes taken from vague recollections of places somewhere between Istanbul and Paris. Houston "is luring people from the suburbs with a new kind of mall. It's called the Gal ler ia: a three-level, air-conditioned, enclosed complex in the most affluent part of the c i ty . Modeled after a shopping gallery in Milan, Italy, i t also has touches of Rockefeller Centre in New York a n d San Francisco's Ghirardel l i Square."* This "Galleria" is also considered an "antidote for loneliness": "Loneliness-isolation in a crowd - is a major problem in a fast-growing, mobile urban centre like Houston" and"a lot of people are drawn to the Galleria to overcome loneliness. Here they can mingle with the crowd, do things, and feel part of something -(1 3) i f only temporarily". This is a confused para l l e l : the Galleria in Milan is simply composed of a portion of two intersecting streets covered by a glazed roof and reserved for pedestrians, mainly as a shortcut between two main squares and as a distinguished public area; i t was not "zoned" for a specialized act iv i ty: there is just as much shopping in any of the neighbouring streets. I l l . It is hard to believe that these kinds of scattered developments can do anything to decrease the expansion of the suburbs and to change the trends of the present urban pattern in North America. On the contrary, they only seem to emphasize the prevailing style of l i f e . These pedestrian centres exist only as commercial temporary ghettos or clubs of commuters. Their integration with the rest of the city is quite irrelevant, i f ever considered. Despite the fact that these are pedestrian areas, most of the pedestrians arrive by means of private cars; perhaps one per car. The.same romantic dualist ic trend that sees as necessary a return to nature but that would like to abolish those automobiles and those highways that have been used to follow the ideal , also sees man as losing against the advance of industrial ization and the city as an "inorganic", heartless "mechanical" product of industry and economics. Developers then become public foes, the enemies of nature and of the ideal model of the "organic" city. These issues become the object of strong public debate when new high density developments are proposed in places where pretty old buildings or parks would be lost by the defenders of art and nature. The positions become polarized between the defenders of economic reason, and even of science and effeciency, and those who want to advance the ideal model dear to the romantic heart. An inf luential writer such as Lewis Mummford has seen the conflict between technological and organic development almost 112. as a matter of l i f e and death for the future of c i v i l i za t i on : "The internal problems of the metropolis and of its subsidiary-areas are relections of a whole c iv i l i za t ion geared to expansion by s t r i c t l y rational and scient i f ic means for purposes that have become progressively more empty and t r i v i a l , more infanti le and f 141 primitive, more barbarous and massively irrat ional ."^ J "The renewal of l i f e is the great theme of our age, not the further dominance, in ever more frozen and compulsive forms, of the machine." Morton and Lucia White noted; "like so many earl ier cr i t i c s of the c i ty , Mumford is enthralled by the notion of the organism, by Emersons's and Coleridge's view that there is an invidious distinction to be drawn between mechanically imposed form and organic form that grows from within." Mumford, like many other people fearful of the advances of industry and of the conflict that they see between man and the machine, does not seem to realize that the real conflict is not between man or nature and man-made mechanisms, but internally between human ideas and desires that shape our romantic and contradictory c i v i l i z a t i o n . It is conflicting ideals, not the machinery that may express and serve them, which are the source of the shape of our "barbarous" or crazy c i t i e s . Mumford came near to this understanding when he observed: "One cannot bring about the renewal of the city by replacing old structures with new buildings that only confirm the obsolete pattern of city growth and that rest solely on the equally n 71 obsolete ideological foundations of 'mechanical progress'". 1 1 3 . The problems of the city are "a matter that must be attacked at f 1 g 1 the source". But he failed to identify the true source. This is the mainstream of philosophy which allows people not only to be dedicated to "mechanical progress", but also to see problems  in terms of conflicts between man and machine, or between "Art and Technics", or between intuit ion and reason, for example. We owe to this dualist ic representation of rea l i ty , which we may have inherited from the need for anguish of the romantic generations, not only the inabi l i ty to see the truth of the circumstances that confront us, but even the creation of some of the conflicts which are worrying so many people, and which are presented as necessary or even inevitable. Instead,of.seeing the complexities of real l i f e unfolding in a variety of ways with an integral and calm eye, ready to take advantage of what is useful and to reroute what is harmful, recognizing a mixture where pleasant and unpleasant can never be completely separated, the world is seen exclusively as a set of polarized extreme tendencies, where i t is necessary to take sides and to fight the enemy to the end. This fight can be absurd i f the enemy turns out to be f i c t i t ious . It is the struggle in perennial and grand conflicts that rewards the missionary and heroic sp ir i t of the romantic movement, of which we are s t i l l part in many ways. The contra-dictions of the modern metropolis are seen only from one extreme or the other, and instead of being eliminated, they are made permanent: thus we zone residential suburbs and we discourage driving. 1 1 4 . The struggle to save nature from human pollution and to save the rural belt around the cit ies may be seen in this l ight , as examples of cases where the emotionalism of popular crusades grows in a state of public confusion and romantic ideals obscure understanding of the basic issues. Recently the provincial government of Brit ish Columbia, an "avant garde" government, has undertaken the duty of saving the rural belt around Vancouver with an almost sacred zeal, arousing an uproar only from the defenders of private enterprise, un-controlled economy and "laissez faire" theories, not because the basic idea of preserving agricultural land as something.better than urban development could be questioned, but simply because another area of speculative investments has been restricted. Again lines of battle have been drawn between the "obviously" good and the "obviously" bad. The principle of the goodness of saving a rural belt around Vancouver is not seen as a debatable issue among the majority. (One may be astonished to note here that Brit ish Columbia has less than 5% of the popu-lation density of European countries, including such mountainous and partly rural countries as Switzerland and Austria). The question was only whether or how much developers and speculators might be f inancially hurt by a ban on rezoning as urban land agricultural land. At the same time the side effects of such a decision, the inevitable increase in density of the c i ty , the rise in the prices of urban land and the end of the growth 115. of suburbia once a l l the available urban land is used - namely the end of the romantic ideal of a garden city for the metropolis -have a l l been put out of mind. The dream of the saved rural belt and the passion of the debate about who is going to make or to lose money have, at least temporarily clouded over a l l other conflicting obsessions. It is significant that only a short time after the decision to preserve the rural belt had been made, "The Vancouver Sun" came out with the t i t l e "Council faces dilemma on West End* re zoning". (19) The dilemma was whether to allow a further in-crease in density at the core of the city or to put a limit to i t . The opening paragraph of the art ic le said: "City council wi l l decide Tuesday whether i t ' s worth risking large rent increases for West End residents to improve the quality of l i fe in their area." It is important to note that in the news media and in the minds of the majority good quality of l i f e and lower density seem  to be identifiable terms even at the expense of l imiting the number * The"West End" is a residential d i s tr i c t in Vancouver, close to the downtown area. 1 1 6 of people who should be allowed to take advantage of "downtown" residences to their own convenience and pleasure and for the good of the city (lessening commuter t ra f f i c , adding more people to populate the streets, shops, outdoor cafes, etc. , thus making the city function properly). Whether this is true or not is never actually discussed in public. When people talk about "the quality of Life" certain values are taken for granted and form the basis of common understanding. Yet these unchallenged sets of values that form the underlying philosophy or cultural trend are those which should honestly be exposed and c r i t i c a l l y reviewed. It may turn out, then, that some of the dilemmas are improperly understood, or even f i c t i t ious . * It is the underlying philosophy that sets in motion entire chains of decisions at the origins of the problems which people like Mumford and many others have perceived mostly in their unpleasant external manifestations, and then explained in terms of a dualist ic interpretation. * The system of romantic values, which leads to a certain notion of what the relationship between nature and the fabric of the city should be. It is the belief in an organic system where sparse detached buildings and low-density settlements blend with parks and allow a contact with nature. 1 1 7 . A planner did note in the case mentioned before that in Vancouver "citizens are not oriented to large city thinking; they are rural-oriented and that's why they are interested in greenbeltsi" But these occasional observations after the fact may be more useful to s t i r isolated arguments than to provide an insight into the complexities, profundities and pervasiveness of a strong cultural tendency. It i s , after a l l , worth the trouble to study this matter further, for the attitudes of the citizens of Vancouver are bound to coincide to a great degree with those of people in many parts of North America. The mayor of Toronto "said he is not against high-rises as such but said they wi l l not be tolerated i f they are built at the expense of existing neighbourhoods" and that "most of the automobiles can effectively be banished from within a f 21) radius of two miles of the city centre." The conservative government of the province of Ontario has promised legislation to preserve farmland and to establish a parkway greenbelt around the area of metropolitan Toronto. In Vancouver the third crossing of Burrard Inlet, a bridge or a tunnel to relieve the traf f i c of the existing bridges, was stopped for fear that i t would have increased the traf f ic and the density of the downtown area to an * untolerable level . The episode of the Spadina expressway was an antecedent in Toronto. The Spadina expressway was designed to connect the core of metropolitan Toronto with the system of peripheral free-ways. It was stopped. The public reacted against the danger of excessive traff ic and density downtown. 1 1 8 . Yet the only true solution to implement the ideals of a city which does not grow in density and is limited by a per-manent rural belt at the outskirts is that of a moratorium on population growth, something that no one is proposing in the open and that may be economically unfeasible even i f i t were p o l i t i c a l l y possible. In the current trend of population growth, which wi l l not be stopped in the foreseeable future, to advocate less auto-mobile traf f ic is to advocate at the same time an inevitable  increase in density. To advocate lower density is to ask for more  land and more private means of transportation in the metropolis. These are the inescapable dilemmas of those who choose the ideal of a romantic garden city but at the same time would like to see i t limited in size and for pedestrians only. The ultimate weapon that romantic conservationists and ecologists may use against the city is the fear of pollution: however true the problem of pollution i s , i t is also the last device used to keep the public worried about the need for ever larger parks and green spaces, as i f these were the elements determining the quality of l i f e in a c i ty . It seems that the ideal city of the future is to look like vine covered Angkor Vat at the moment of i ts discovery. It is as i f a city were considered more livable i f i t had more parks and greenery; in this respect, cit ies like Venice and Siena should be considered utterly unhappy. In a new proposal such as the redevelopment of the industrial 1 1 9 . area around False Creek, a sea inlet at the heart of Vancouver, to scatter residential buildings as i f in park and to provide a pedestrian v i l lage- l ike atmosphere and a large percentage of parkland were the answer in terms of design to the future of the ci ty. Mostly land reclaimed from a sea inlet at the very edge of Vancouver's downtown d i s t r i c t . This could form a beautiful sea water basin at the centre of the city. 120 . APPENDIX NOTE A The "Vancouver Sun" of August 3, 1974 (p. 18), reports: "A York County grand jury said Friday the Yonge Street Mall is a disgrace and should be closed." Monday, August 5, 1974 a public holiday, downtown Vancouver was closed to traf f i c for the enjoyment of pedestrians, who were supposed to s t r o l l around and to enjoy the sun from the instant sidewalk:? cafes. The public response was so unenthusiastic that the experiment wi l l not be repeated. Kimberley, B . C . , had the honour of appearing on f 2 2) newspapers for this prize winning beautification project: B A V A R I A N S T Y L E street in Kimberley has won B.C. Regional awards went to Downtown Business-1973 Park and Tilford trophy for beautification in men's Association of Port Alberni, Chilliwack Gen-eral Hospital Garden Park, Poison Park in Vernon, Inland Natural Gas of Kamloops and Dawson Creek 122. CHAPTER 3 - SOME CONTEMPORARY URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL PROBLEMS AND DISCUSSIONS: THE HORNS OF A DILEMMA. (1) "The Vancouver Sun": August 9, 1973, p.4. (2) MARSHALL McLUHAN: Understanding Media, New York 1966, p. 23. (3) M. § L. WHITE: The Intellectual Versus the City, Harvard 1962. (4) J . L. SERT: Can Our Cities Survive?, Cambridge, Mass. 1947. (5) "The Vancouver Sun", May 5, 1973, p. 25. (6) "The Province", December 4, 1973, p. 5. (7) BAIN, BURROUGHS, HANSON: Granville as a Pedestrian Transitway, Vancouver 14 September 1973. (8) Ibidem, p. 43 (9) Ibidem, p. 11 (10) "The Vancouver Sun" , December 9, 1972, p. 49 (11) "The Vancouver Sun" , June 15, 1973, p. 1 § 2. (12) "The Vancouver Sun" , June 12, 1973 (13) "U.S. News $ World Report", June 18, 1973, p. 45. (14) LEWIS MUMFORD: The City in History, New York 1961, p. 554 (15) LEWIS MUMFORD: Art and Technics, New York 1952, p. 157. (16) M. $ L. WHITE: The Intellectual Versus the City, Harvard 1962, p . 205 • (17) LEWIS MUMFORD: The City in History, New York 1961, p. 554 (18) LEWIS MUMFORD: The City in History, New York 1961, p.554. (19) "The Vancouver Sun" , January 18, 1973. (20) "The Vancouver Sun" , March 15, 1973, pp. 8. (21) "The Vancouver Sun" , March 13, 1973, p. 30. (22) "The Vancouver Sun", Sept. 21, 1973, p. 43. 123. 4 . THE ROLE OF ROMANTICISM AS A CONDITIONING FACTOR  FOR A R C H I T E C T S AND OTHER PEOPLE INVOLVED IN URBAN  DEVELOPMENTS " D e v e l o p m e n t i s p r o g r a m a b l e ; D i s c o v e r y i s n o t p r o g r a m a b l e . " ' - ' ' ' ' ' T h i s s t a t e m e n t by B u c k m i n s t e r F u l l e r s y n t h e s i z e s some o f t h e r o m a n t i c d i l e m m a s p o s e d by t h e n e e d t o r e c o n c i l e t h e n e c e s s a r y work o f r e a s o n w i t h t h e c r e a t i v e f l a s h o f i n t u i t i o n , w h i c h may s t r i k e a t random and e n t e r i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e p l a n n e d p a t h o f r e a s o n . A l s o , i t u n d e r s c o r e s and i t e x p l a i n s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i g i n s o f some o f t h e b a s i c c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r e s a i d to e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e w o r l d o f i n d u s t r y , o f e n g i n e e r s and o f p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s , and t h e c r e a t i v e w o r l d o f a r c h i t e c t s - two w o r l d s r u l e d by d i f f e r e n t laws and o b j e c t i v e s : t h e f i r s t p r e s u m a b l y f o l l o w i n g (2) • t h e d i c t u m o f " the M o l o c h t h a t knows no God b u t m o r e " v J ' t h e s e c o n d , t h e a r c h i t e c t s a t l e a s t w o u l d l i k e t o b e l i e v e , r e s i d i n g w i t h i n t h e d o m a i n o f h u m a n i t y and n a t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s and p r o f e s s i o n s p e o p l e d i v i d e t h e m s e l v e s b e t w e e n t h o s e who w i s h t h e u n p r o g r a m m a b l e and t h o s e who w i s h " s o u n d d e v e l o p m e n t " . One s i d e seems drawn t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e h e a r t , o f s p o n t a n e i t y , o f c r e a t i v i t y , o f v i s i o n , o f i n s p i r a t i o n , and e v e n o f h a p p y r a n d o m n e s s . The o t h e r seems t o r e s p o n d t o t h e needs o f p r a c t i c a l i t y , o f " r e a l i s m " , o f m a t e r i a l n e c e s s i t i e s , o f 1 2 4 . b u r e a u c r a t i c p l a n n i n g , o f c o m p r o m i s e d and r e a s o n e d s o l u t i o n s , o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s . In o u r s o c i e t y i t i s o f t e n t h e one who s i d e s w i t h " c r e a t i v i t y " who i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e h e r o , w h i l e t h e m o n e y - m a k e r who s i d e s w i t h p r a c t i c a l i t y and " r e a l i s m " , i s c l a s s e d among t h e v i l l a i n s . The a r c h i t e c t i s e x p e c t e d t o t a k e t h e s i d e o f " c r e a t i v i t y " , o f human v a l u e s , o f p e o p l e , o f s p o n t a n e i t y , o f d i s c o v e r y , o f i n t u -i t i o n , a g a i n s t t h e f o r c e s o f money , o f t e c h n o l o g y , o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n , o f d r y and u n i n s p i r i n g r e a s o n . The a r c h i t e c t i s e x p e c t e d t o be a g e n i u s , t h e man g i f t e d w i t h v i s i o n who can c h a n n e l human e f f o r t s t o w a r d s t h e c r e a t i o n o f i n s p i r i n g and p r a i s e w o r t h y e n v i r o n m e n t s . E v e n i n t h e team o f a r c h i t e c t s t h e p e o p l e e v e n t u a l l y want t o know who i s t h e one i n s p i r i n g t h e d e s i g n , who i s t h e l e a d e r , who h a d "the i d e a " . T h i s i s t h e image t h a t has b e e n c r e a t e d by c r i t i c s and h i s t o r i a n s f o r p e o p l e as r e m o t e as B r u n e l l e s c h i o r as r e c e n t as W r i g h t , M i e s Van d e r Rohe o r A r t h u r E r i c k s o n . I t i s a w i d e s p r e a d image t h a t does n o t make t h e work o f t h e a r c h i t e c t e a s y . C l i e n t s want t o see i n t h e i r a r c h i t e c t someone who i s as c e r t a i n as a g e n i u s s h o u l d be and who can r e a d t h e i r m i n d s . U l t i m a t e l y he must be t h e c r e a t o r o f f o r m f r o m a m a g i c p e n c i l , an a r t i s t w o r k i n g o u t o f h i s i n t u i t i o n and i n s p i r a t i o n and g i v i n g s h a p e t o t h e i r u n e x p r e s s e d dreams i n t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d . The r e a s o n s f o r t h e f o r m s c h o s e n may be o f l i t t l e i n t e r e s t t o t h e c l i e n t , and may be as numerous and c o n f l i c t i n g as t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s 125. o f t h e l a s t c e n t u r y , f r o m u t i l i t a r i a n f u n c t i o n a l i s m t o c o m m u n i t a r i a n r e a l i s m , f r o m h i s t o r i c a l r e m i n i s c e n c e s t o an i d y l l w i t h n a t u r e . A n y t h i n g g o e s , p r o v i d e d t h e d r e a m o f t h e c l i e n t i s c a p t u r e d o r t h e dream o f t h e a r c h i t e c t can be s u c c e s s f u l l y p r e s e n t e d t o h i m . B e c a u s e t h e a r c h i t e c t as an i n t u i t i v e man c a n o n l y have an i n d i v i d u a l i n s p i r a t i o n , h o w e v e r , e a c h d e s i g n must u l t i m a t e l y be an i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e m e n t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e v a i l -i n g i m a g e . By t r a i n i n g and by p o p u l a r n o t i o n t h e a r c h i t e c t n o r -m a l l y f a l l s i n t o t h e h a b i t o f s e e i n g h i m s e l f as a k i n d o f a r t i s t i c g e n i u s , and h i s n o t i o n s o f what t h i n g s s h o u l d be t e n d t o become s t r o n g e r and s t r o n g e r w i t h l e s s and l e s s c r i t i c a l s c r u t i n y . The a r c h i t e c t becomes a v i c t i m o f t h e image o f g e n i u s t h a t i s c a s t on h i m . " D e s i g n " means , among t h e o t h e r t h i n g s , p e r s o n a l o r i g i n a l i t y and i n v e n t i o n . The more " a u t h e n t i c " an a r c h i t e c t t r i e s t o b e , t h e more v i v i d t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e c l i e n t o r t h e o t h e r i n t e r e s t s b e c o m e . In many o f f i c e s t h e c l i e n t h i m s e l f o f t e n becomes t h e p h i l i s t i n e v i l l a i n who t h r e a t e n s t h e e n t i r e c r e a t i o n , and who has t o be p e r s u a d e d t o a c c e p t t h e d e s i g n and t h e v i e w s o f h i s a r c h i t e c t w i t h good o r b a d m a n n e r s . Somet imes t h i s may n o t s u c c e e d , and t h e a r c h i t e c t may t h e n b lame " s o c i e t y " f o r some o f h i s c o m p r o m i s e d and r u i n e d d e s i g n s , o r f o r some d e s i g n s w h i c h were n o t a c c e p t e d . In t h i s way t h e a r c h i t e c t may open h i s way to a s o r t o f r o m a n t i c i s o l a t i o n . 126. E a c h d e s i g n i s s u p p o s e d t o be new and s e p a r a t e , and t o r e f l e c t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e man, t h e team and t h e i n s t i t -u t i o n t h a t p r o d u c e d i t . The h u m i l i t y o f t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d be b r a n d e d " i m i t a t i o n " . T h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f " c r e a t i v i t y " and o f " i n s p i r a t i o n " i s one o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r w h i c h a r c h i t e c t s t o o , i n g e n e r a l , a r e a g a i n s t a t o t a l c i t y p l a n , and w o u l d f i n d i t a d i c t a t o r i a l i m p o s i t i o n w h i c h w o u l d d e s t r o y t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n s p i r a t i o n and f r e e d o m o f e x p r e s s -i o n . I t i s an e x a s p e r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l i s m t h a t w o u l d r e n d e r i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r a r c h i t e c t s t o work a l l t o g e t h e r as a p r o f e s s i o n t o w a r d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an u r b a n p l a n a g r e e a b l e t o a l l . U n i t y i s i m p o s s i b l e . The a r c h i t e c t i s a r o m a n t i c l o n e r . The a r c h i t e c t may be a n x i o u s t o c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h p e o p l e , to work f o r p e o p l e , t o d e v e l o p an e n v i r o n m e n t f o r p e o p l e , b u t i n f a c t t h e p e o p l e a r e the g r e a t v i c t i m s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t y , even i f p e o p l e a r e i n t h e mouth and i n the d r a w i n g s o f many a r c h i t e c t s . R e n d e r i n g s show l o t s o f p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n a l l s o r t s o f h a p p y a c t i v i t i e s . A r c h i t e c t G e o f f r e y M a s s e y r a n and was e l e c t e d to p u b l i c o f f i c e i n V a n c o u v e r s a y i n g : "I w i l l work f o r p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f V a n c o u v e r ' s downtown w a t e r f r o n t . . . C i t i z e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n a l l s t a g e s i n r 3") new d e v e l o p m e n t . " Y e t t h e s e good i n t e n t i o n s f a i l t o m a t e r i a l -i z e e v e n i n a s t r u c t u r e d w o r k a b l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m b e t w e e n " the p e o p l e " and " t h e d e s i g n e r s " . T h e y r e m a i n a g e n e r a l n a i v e f e e l i n g o r u r g e w h i c h many l e a d e r s p r e t e n d t o s a t i s f y t h r o u g h a 127. number o f m e e t i n g s w i t h l a r g e g r o u p s o f p e o p l e r e g a r d i n g t h e most e m o t i o n a l i s s u e s o f t h i s o r t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t - m e e t i n g s w h i c h s e l d o m r e s u l t i n r e a s o n e d , l o g i c a l a c t i o n , i f any a c t i o n r e s u l t s a t a l l . The p o p u l a r image and t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n t h a t a r c h i t e c t s f o l l o w seem t o c o n s p i r e to make t h e a r c h i t e c t f e e l a l o n e and o p p o s e d to o t h e r p e o p l e . The a r c h i t e c t t e n d s t o e m p h a s i z e h i s p u r e a r t i s t i c commitment as a s o r t o f " p u r i t a n -i c a l " o p p o s i t i o n t o 1he ways o f t h e w o r l d , i n w h i c h he i s a " p u r e " l o n e r . H i s code o f e t h i c s i s s u p p o s e d l y s t r i c t e r t h a n t h a t o f c o m p a r a b l e p r o f e s s i o n s , s u c h as e n g i n e e r i n g . T y p i c a l i n j u n c t i o n s i n the b y - l a w s o f a l m o s t any N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n s t i t u t e o f a r c h -i t e c t s w i l l show t h a t "no A r c h i t e c t may engage d i r e c t l y o r ( 4 ) i n d i r e c t l y i n any o f t h e b u i l d i n g o r d e c o r a t i n g t r a d e s " , and t h a t an a r c h i t e c t i s n o t p e r m i t t e d t o a d v e r t i s e o r t o compete as b u s i n e s s m e n d o . As a c o n s e q u e n c e t h e a r c h i t e c t may be r e w a r d e d by t h e f e e l i n g o f h a v i n g a more p u r e p r o f e s s i o n and o f h a v i n g a g r e a t e r d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e v a l u e s o f a r t , o f c o n s e r v a t i o n and o f i m p r o v e -ment o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , b u t he i s h a m p e r e d by i s o l a t i o n i n t h e b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y and by an u n e a s y f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g t o a v e r y weak a n d r e s t r i c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n . He t e n d s t o be a g a i n s t e n g i n e e r s and p l a n n e r s b e c a u s e he s e e s them i n v a d i n g upon h i s p r o f e s s i o n and d o i n g p o o r l y what he i s s u p p o s e d t o do b e t t e r . 128. In p a r t i c u l a r he i s a g a i n s t t h e e n g i n e e r b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e s t h e e n g i n e e r a c t u a l l y d e s i g n s w i t h o u t t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d t h e v i s i o n o f t h e a r c h i t e c t , and b e c a u s e t h e e n g i n e e r seems t o a n a l y z e p r o b l e m s a n d t o p r o m o t e d e v e l o p m e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o what he b e l i e v e s may be an e x c e s s i v e l y m e c h a n i c a l , m a t e r i a l i s t i c and p r o f i t - o r i e n t e d p h i l o s o p h y . He i s a g a i n s t t h e p l a n n e r s o m e t i m e s f o r s i m i l a r r e a s o n s , b u t more o f t e n b e c a u s e t h e p l a n n e r seems t o a c t as a b l i n d l y r a t i o n a l i s t i c b u r e a u c r a t and t o work a c c o r d i n g t o c o d e s and r o u t i n e s w h i c h do n o t l e a v e any room f o r i m a g i n a t i o n , d e s i g n and c r e a t i v i t y . The p l a n n e r i s d i s a p p r o v e d f o r h i s . o s t e n s i b l y n a r r o w - m i n d e d a i m t o w a r d s t a t i s t i c a l e f f i c i e n c y , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and p r o g r a m m i n g . D e v e l o p e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s t o o a r e c a s t i g a t e d by t h e a r c h i t e c t f o r what he s e e s as a d e f i c i e n c y o f h i g h m o r a l s . D e v e l o p e r s a r e s e e n as e n e m i e s o f d e s i g n , o f good t a s t e , o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , u l t i m a t e l y as e n e m i e s o f t h e p e o p l e and f r i e n d s o f t h o s e o t h e r " v i l l a i n s " , t h e e n g i n e e r s . The d e v e l o p e r i s s e e n as c o r r u p t , as t h e man o r the g r o u p who w o u l d p r o d u c e and s e l l t h e l e a s t f o r t h e most p r o f i t . The d e v e l o p e r i s s e e n as t h e t y p i c a l p h i l i s t i n e , e v e n when he i s t h e c l i e n t . He i s s o l d t o t h e p r o f i t m e n t a l i t y and t o " the M o l o c h t h a t knows no God b u t m o r e " . H e r e p r e s e n t s m e c h a n i c a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u n l i m i t e d g r o w t h f o r c i t i e s . He want s economy, r e p e t i t i o n and u n i f o r m i t y and has no p a t i e n c e f o r a r t s and c r a f t s , f o r d e t a i l s and f o r t h e c r e a t i v e o r i g i n a l i t y 129 . o f t h e a r c h i t e c t . He i s f o r t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e d e n s i t y , w h i l e t h e a r c h i t e c t i s f o r a s p r e a d o f d e n s i t y a c c o r d i n g t o "good d e s i g n " , "human s c a l e " , l a n d s c a p i n g and p r o p o r t i o n . The a r c h i t e c t wants to f o s t e r c o n t a c t w i t h n a t u r e , w h i l e t h e d e v e l o p e r i s e x p e c t e d to want t h e maximum p o s s i b l e a r t i f i c i a l e n c l o s u r e . The d e v e l o p e r i s e q u a t e d w i t h the p o l l u t e r , w h i l e t h e a r c h i t e c t b r i n g s n a t u r e t o t h e p e o p l e i n t h e c i t y . The a r c h i t e c t i s a g a i n s t p o l i t i c i a n s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t " p u r e " e n o u g h ; t h e y c o m p r o m i s e , t h e y a r e s u p p o s e d l y weak i n t h e i r s t a n d a g a i n s t p h i l i s t i n e d e v e l o p e r s , t h e y do n o t h a v e " v i s i o n " and t h e y do n o t a l l o w c r e a t i v i t y t o e x p r e s s i t s e l f . But t h e a r c h i t e c t h i m s e l f o f t e n c a n be a c c u s e d o f p o s s -e s s i n g c e r t a i n p h i l i s t i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; h i s f a i t h i n i n t u i t -i o n , v i s i o n s , i n n a t e c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y makes h i m d i s r e g a r d a n y t h i n g t h a t l o o k s p e d a n t i c o r s c h o l a s t i c . He i s i n c l i n e d t o l i t t l e s t u d y a n d to a v o i d t h e t e d i o u s a s p e c t s o f t r a i n i n g ; e v e n a r c h i t e c t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f i s a p r o b l e m . Thus a r c h i t e c t s may be e a s y v i c t i m s o f u n s c r u t i n i z e d c u l t u r a l t r e n d s and o f c y c l i c a l f a s h i o n s . The p o s i t i o n o f t h e a r c h i t e c t seems t o be as d i f f i c u l t as t h a t o f anyone who has t o r e c o n c i l e i n t u i t i o n and r e a s o n w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e f i r m l y b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e y c a n n o t be r e c -o n c i l e d . The a r c h i t e c t i s c a u g h t i n a t y p i c a l and c r u c i a l r o m a n t i c d i l e m m a . I t i s a d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n , i f t a k e n i n c o m p l e t e and s e r i o u s good f a i t h . Many a r c h i t e c t s seem t o be p e r m a n e n t l y f r u s t r a t e d and many o t h e r s c h a n g e t h e i r r o l e . Some 130 . s u r r e n d e r and work f o r d e v e l o p e r s , l e n d i n g t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e i r more p u r e p r o f e s s i o n t o make a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c t h e a f f r o n t s t o n a t u r e and common t a s t e t h a t d e v e l o p e r s s o m e t i m e s seem t o make . A r c h i t e c t s a r e o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d by t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i m p - -r | ?osed by t h e s y s t e m o f z o n i n g and o f t h e " s u b u r b a n s t y l e " o f d e s i g n . T h o s e a r c h i t e c t s who t r y t o be f a i t h f u l t o t h e i r v o c a t i o n to c r e a t i v i t y and t o t h e p u r e p r o f e s s i o n at t i m e s u n i t e t h e i r v o i c e s w i t h t h e o t h e r s , who s e r v e t h e d e v e l o p e r s , to f i g h t t h e s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n s i m p o s e d by b y - l a w s and r u l i n g a u t h o r i t i e s f o r t h e d e s i g n o f new b u i l d i n g s , b u t b o t h f a i l . The f i r s t ones do n o t h a v e t h e means t o see t h e r e a l r o o t s o f t h e o b s t a c l e s , and i n s t e a d o f c h a l l e n g i n g t h e b a s i c i d e a s a t t h e r o o t s o f t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e y make a g e n e r a l p l e a f o r r a t h e r v a g u e n o t i o n s , s u c h as f r e e d o m o f c r e a t i v i t y o r more human n e e d s , and t h e o t h e r s a r e e a s i l y d e f e a t e d as p e o p l e w i t h a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n g e t t i n g away w i t h a n y t h i n g t h a t t h e y w a n t . B e c a u s e o f i t s u l t i m a t e d e p e n d e n c e on an o b s c u r e n o t i o n o f i n t u i t i o n , t h e r i g h t i n t u i t i o n t h a t t h e " g i f t e d " a r c h i t e c t s h a v e , d e s i g n t e n d s t o have t h e f e a t u r e s o f an o c c u l t s c i e n c e . Somet imes a c o m p l e x m e t h o d o l o g y i s u s e d t o b r i n g d i g n i t y and o r d e r t o t h e c r e a t i v e w o r l d o f i n t u i t i o n and t o s u p p l y t e c h n i c a l , s o c i a l and s c i e n t i f i c f o u n d a t i o n s . D r a f t s m e n a r e t h e l a r g e b u r e a u c r a c y w h i c h i s e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f m a k i n g t h e o c c u l t s c i e n c e w o r k , i n g e n e r a l , once t h e d e s i g n c o n c e p t s have b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d by s e n i o r a r c h i t e c t s . The r e s u l t o f t h i s p r o c e s s 1 3 1 . i s t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t i n e r t i a o f i d e a s , o f p r i n c i p l e s , o f methods t h a t go u n c h a l l e n g e d , as i f t h e y were t h e d e p o s i t o f a r e l i g i o n , b e c a u s e an u n c r i t i c a l , l a r g e and h a r d w o r k i n g b u r e a u c r a c y i s t r a i n e d and e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e m . The s t r e n g t h o f t h e s t a t u s quo i s r e i n f o r c e d by a wrong e m p h a s i s on s p e e d : an i n t u i t i o n o f t h e " g i f t e d " p e o p l e ( c a l l e d a l s o , w i t h b i b l i c a l r e m i n i s c e n c e , " t a l e n t e d " p e o p l e ) i s g i v e n t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n teams o f d r a f t s m e n , whose main c o n c e r n i s t h a t o f t u r n i n g o u t r e a s o n a b l e w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s as f a s t as p o s s i b l e . Money i n t h i s c a s e w o u l d be an a c c e p t e d r e a s o n f o r s p e e d . "Time i s money". Once t h e p u r e f l a s h o f c r e a t i v e i n t u i t i o n has p e r m i t t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d e s i g n c o n c e p t , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t i m e and money r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s become q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e c o n s c i e n c e o f t h e a r c h i t e c t . But t h e o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t s d e v e l o p e d by i n d i v i d u a l s o r teams o f d e s i g n e r s , w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e , a c o m p l e x m e t h o d o l o g y and many i n t e n s e m e e t i n g s , and w i t h t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f g r e a t e x p e r i e n c e and o f v o l u m i n o u s i n f o r m a t i o n , o f t e n e x p r e s s i n t u i t i v e  d e c i s i o n s w h i c h r e p e a t e v e n i n a p e d a n t i c way e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e . A b l i n d t r a d i t i o n c o u l d c o n t i n u e e n d l e s s l y t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s , w i t h o u t e v e n b e i n g d e t e c t e d . The same " i n t u i t i v e " c r e a t i v e p a t t e r n c o u l d be f o l l o w e d by g e n e r a t i o n s o f " t a l e n t e d " men, i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a p o p u l a r r e b e l l i o n . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l 1 3 2 . a s s o c i a t i o n s e x p r e s s l y f o r b i d t h e i r members t o c r i t i c i z e t h e d e s i g n work o f o t h e r members . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new i n t e l -l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n o f d e s i g n , as a common b o d y on . w h i c h to grow and t o work and t o c o n t r i b u t e f o r many d e s i g n e r s , d r a f t s m e n and t r a d e s m e n , i s made v e r y d i f f i c u l t . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n i s a m o n o p o l y i n t h e hands o f s o m e t h i n g n o t t o o d i f f e r e n t f r o m an o c c u l t s e c t : p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n may h a v e b e e n p l a c e d b e y o n d t h e r e a l m o f r e a s o n a b l e c r i t i c i s m . And i n most c a s e s t h e b a l a n c e b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v e c o m m i t -ment and u s e f u l n e s s and t h e n e c e s s a r y p r a c t i c a l r o u t i n e s i s b r o k e n b e t w e e n two c a t e g o r i e s o f p e o p l e , b e t w e e n two a c t i v i t i e s : t h a t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n e r s and t h a t o f t h e d r a f t s m e n . The c r e a t i v e and t h e p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s h a v e b e e n " z o n e d " . In a d d i t i o n t h e b u i l d e r i s n o r m a l l y c u t o f f f r o m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e s i g n and t o t h e w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s f o r e t h i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a s o n s , and even , i n t h e c a s e o f a p r o j e c t management w i t h a team o f e n g i n e e r s and a r c h i t e c t s the b u i l d e r w i l l h a v e a h a r d t i m e c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h d e s i g n e r s and d r a f t s m e n . The c o n s e q u e n c e i s t h a t a g r e a t amount o f t i m e i s s p e n t p r o d u c i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and d r a w i n g s whose m a j o r o b j e c t i v e i s t h a t o f b e i n g a l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l o f f i c e and p o s s i b l y a l e g a l t r a p 1 3 3 . f o r t h e b u i l d e r . D e t a i l s w h i c h do n o t work o r d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n t e r m s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h went u n d e t e c t e d w i l l n o r m a l l y i n c r e a s e t h e c o s t f o r t h e c o n t r a c t o r u n l e s s he was g o o d e n o u g h t o s p o t them b e f o r e b e i n g i n v o l v e d and t o c l a r i f y t h e m a t t e r w i t h the a r c h i t e c t . The a r c h i t e c t r e g a r d s t h e b u i l d e r as a p o t e n t i a l l e g a l enemy, and t h u s i s o l a t e s h i m s e l f e v e n f u r t h e r f r o m t h o s e w i t h whom he o u g h t t o be w o r k i n g i n c l o s e c o n t a c t . D e s p i t e t h e e m p h a s i s on d e s i g n and c r e a t i v i t y , t h e a c t u a l method o f w o r k i n g makes t h e a r c h i t e c t s as a g r o u p more i n c l i n e d to a c t u a l r e p e t i t i v e p r a c t i c e s t h a n e n g i n e e r s . T h i s h a p p e n s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t g e n i a l a r c h i t e c t s see t h e m s e l v e s as i n v e n t o r s e v e n more t h a n e n g i n e e r s . I d e a s , w h i c h a r e more b a s i c d i s c o v e r i e s t h a n new t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n t r i v a n c e s , a r e o f t e n l e f t u n u s e d , i g n o r e d and u n q u e s t i o n e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p t h a t has i s o l a t e d i t s e l f t o an i n t e l l e c t u a l r o m a n t i c l i m b o . T h u s i n t h e " c r e a t i v e " p r o c e s s o f t h e d e s i g n o f most p r o j e c t s t h e same t r i t e r o m a n t i c b a s i c n o t i o n s come o u t a g a i n and a g a i n m o v i n g t o w a r d t h e a s s e m b l y l i n e o f w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s : p e o p l e , n a t u r e , " d e s i g n " , and u l t i m a t e l y b e a u t y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a t e s t f a s h i o n , o f t e n c o n t r a s t e d by e m o t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e e v i l power o f money and c o m m e r c i a l i s m , as i f t h e s e c o n f l i c t s were r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y and h a d t o r e a l l y e x i s t . 1 3 4 . Now p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s a l s o t e n d t o e m p h a s i z e t h e n e e d f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , and t h e n e e d o f c o n t a c t w i t h n a t u r e and o f r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , a g a i n s t e x p l o i t -a t i o n o f t h e l a n d i n h i g h d e n s i t y and p o l l u t i o n . . The t r e n d o f p o l i t i c i a n s has b e e n s h i f t i n g , d u r i n g t h i s c e n t u r y , f r o m b e i n g b u s i n e s s - o r i e n t e d t o p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d . The themes t h a t p l a g u e t h e r o m a n t i c a r c h i t e c t a r e b e i n g f o l l o w e d by p o l i t i c i a n s and o ther p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s seem t o t r a i l t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f a r c h i t e c t s , b e c a u s e t h e image o f t h e a r c h i t e c t as t h a t o f t h e r o m a n t i c h e r o i s s t i l l p o p u l a r and t h e i s s u e s and m o t i f s r a i s e d by a r c h i t e c t s seem t o a p p e a l t o t h e p o p u l a r i m a g i n a t i o n as p a r t o f t h e r o m a n t i c s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t v i s i o n a r y m o n s t e r s . S c h o o l s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e and o f p l a n n i n g a r e p l a c e s where s t u d e n t s o f t e n d e v e l o p an u n d e t e c t e d i n t e r e s t f o r t h e r o m a n t i c d r a g o n s . G r e a t d e b a t e s p r o f o u n d l y i n v o l v e t h e a c a d e m i c commun-i t y o f f u t u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; and s t u d e n t s l e a r n n o t o n l y how t o s e l l t h e i r d r e a m s , b u t e s p e c i a l l y how t o c r e a t e i s s u e s t o be  f o u g h t f o r o r a g a i n s t . U l t i m a t e f a i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l i s m and p e r s o n a l i n t u i t i o n make c o m m u n i c a t i o n s among t h e f u t u r e d e s i g n e r s d u b i o u s and p r o b l e m a t i c , so t h a t - e s p e c i a l l y when t h e c r i t i c i s m o f p r o f e s s o r s i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e - e v e r y o n e seems t o be w o r k i n g w i t h a d i f f e r e n t m o n s t e r and i n a d i f f e r e n t p l a c e , e v e n i f t h e m a i n themes o f t h e s t r u g g l e a r e q u i t e r e p e t i t i v e and 1 3 5 . common. E m o t i o n a l i s m makes d i f f i c u l t a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . D e s i g n i s an o c c u l t m y s t i q u e where a few h i g h p r i e s t s d e l i v e r sermons i n an o b s c u r e l a n g u a g e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e v o c a b u l a r l y o f t h e p r o m i n e n t p h i l o s o p h e r s o f t h e r o m a n t i c a g e : " D e s i g n i s f o r m - m a k i n g i n o r d e r Form emerges o u t o f s y s t e m o f c o n s t r u c t i o n G r o w t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n In o r d e r i s c r e a t i v e f o r c e In d e s i g n i s t h e means - where w i t h what when w i t h how much The n a t u r e o f s p a c e r e f l e c t s what i t wants t o be . . . In t h e n a t u r e o f s p a c e i s t h e s p i r i t and t h e w i l l t o e x i s t a c e r t a i n way D e s i g n must c l o s e l y f o l l o w t h a t w i l l . . . T h r o u g h t h e n a t u r e - why T h r o u g h t h e o r d e r - what T h r o u g h d e s i g n - how . . . " ^ ^ In t h e d a r k n e s s i l l u m i n a t e d by s u c h f l a s h e s o f i n t u i t i o n f a i t h i n n a t u r e and o r g a n i c l i f e seem t o be a t t h e b a s i s o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e l i g i o n . L o u i s S u l l i v a n and F r a n k L l o y d W r i g h t a r e s t i l l among t h e o l d p r o p h e t s . N a t u r e i s s e e n as an u n c o r r -u p t e d s o u r c e o f w i sdom ( R o u s s e a u i s i n t h e b a c k ' . o f o u r m i n d s ) t h a t must be p r e s e r v e d and w i t h w h i c h we must be i n c o n t a c t ; i t p r o v i d e s us w i t h t h e w i sdom o f t h e r i g h t r e a s o n t h a t e v o l v e s and d e v e l o p s i t s e l f as i t w o u l d n o r m a l l y i f men were n o t t e m p e r i n g i m p r u d e n t l y w i t h n a t u r e . Man has t o l e a r n and t o a d a p t h i m s e l f t o n a t u r e . H i s e n v i r o n m e n t must be o r g a n i c and one w i t h n a t u r e . 1 3 6 . N a t u r e a c t u a l l y i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n a way t h a t i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f an i d e a l i s t i c s o r t o f H e g e l i a n r e a s o n f o r m i n g t h e u n i v e r s e , t o w h i c h we must s u b m i t o u r s e l v e s . And t h e a r c h i t e c t s e e s h i m s e l f as a c u s t o d i a n , a d e f e n d e r and an i n t e r p r e t e r , t h r o u g h i n s p i r a t i o n and i n t u i t i o n , o f t h e c o r r e c t d e v e l o p m e n t and e v o l u t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e , g u i d i n g t h e " s p a c e s h i p e a r t h " ( B u c k m i n s t e r F u l l e r ) i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . CHAPTER 4 (1) R. BUCKMINSTER F U L L E R : I n t u i t i o n , New Y o r k 1970 , p . 2 9 (2) F . L . WRIGHT: "The L i v i n g C i t y " i n : F r a n k L l o y d W r i g h t :  W r i t i n g s and B u i l d i n g s , by KAUFMANN and RAEBURN, New Y o r k 1960 , p . 2 5 9 . (3) "The V a n c o u v e r S u n " , December 9 , 1972 , p . 4 9 . (4) BY-LAWS o f The A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a r t i c l e 5 1 , p a r a g r a p h ( 1 ) . (5) F . L . WRIGHT: "The L i v i n g C i t y " i n : F r a n k L l o y d W r i g h t :  W r i t i n g s and B u i l d i n g s , by KAUFMANN and RAEBURN, New Y o r k 1 9 6 0 , p . 259 . (6) LOUIS KAHN i n L o u i s Khan by V . S C U L L Y J R . , New Y o r k , 1962 , p . 1 1 4 . 1 3 8 . 5. R O M A N T I C . A T T I T U D E S AND UNWRITTEN ROMANTIC LAWS  IN THE MODERN NORTH AMERICAN C I T Y . P o p u l a r n o t i o n s a b o u t t h e a r c h i t e c t , o f t e n s e e n as a s o r t o f h i g h p r i e s t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , a r e a c c o m p a n i e d by e v e n s t r o n g e r common o p i n i o n s a b o u t what t h e e n v i r o n m e n t s h o u l d be l i k e . J a n e J a c o b s n o t e d : "To s a y t h a t c i t i e s n e e d h i g h d w e l l -i n g d e n s i t i e s and h i g h n e t g r o u n d c o v e r a g e , as I am s a y i n g t h e y d o , i s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y r e g a r d e d as l o w e r t h a n t a k i n g s i d e s w i t h t h e m a n - e a t i n g shark."'- ' ' ' ' ' In t h e i d e a l r o m a n t i c h a b i t a t i o n " e v e r y t h i n g i s i n i t s p l a c e . The a b r u p t n e s s , t h e b a r b a r i t i e s o f t h e w o r l d a r e f a r away. T h e r e i s n o t much s o u n d , e x c e p t p e r h a p s t h e m u s i c a l w h i r r and c l a c k o f a mowing m a c h i n e b e i n g p u s h e d f 2 ) b a c k and f o r t h o v e r a n e i g h b o u r i n g l a w n . " What was t h e d r e a m o f E b e n e z e r H o w a r d , f o r t h e E n g l i s h s u b u r b a n r e s i d e n c e and t h e g a r d e n w h i c h i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f i t , ' -i s now t h e e s t a b l i s h e d i d e a l . I t i s now a common n o t i o n t h a t i t i s g a r d e n s and p a r k s t h a t make c i t i . e s b e a u t i f u l and l i v a b l e . One i s s u p p o s e d t o l o v e , r e v e r e , c u l t i v a t e and know n a t u r e as p a r t o f h i s c i v i l i z e d and s u f f e r e d u r b a n c o n d i t i o n . To know t h e p r o p e r names o f d e c o r a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n i s a s i g n o f e d u c a t i o n , o f good t a s t e and o f p r o p e r i n t e r e s t s , and w h i l e t h e m e m o r i z a t i o n o f L a t i n v e r s e s i s no l o n g e r f a s h i o n a b l e , 1 3 9 . t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p r o p e r L a t i n b o t a n i c a l names c l a s s i f y i n g f l o w e r s and s h r u b s r e m a i n s a s i g n o f r e f i n e d c u l t u r e and o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d m i n d i n a l a r g e segment o f o u r s o c i e t y . The v i e w o f " n a t u r e " , e v e n i f o n l y a chunk o f t r e e s , i s c o n s i d e r e d a l m o s t an e s s e n t i a l n e e d . An a p a r t m e n t must h a v e a v i e w on t h e s e a , on a p a r k , o r a t l e a s t on a g o l f c o u r s e , o r a s e c l u d e d h i l l s i d e , w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . E v e n i f i t were n o t f o r b i d d e n by t h e b y - l a w s , a u n i t w i t h no windows ( t e c h n i c a l l y p e r f e c t l y f e a s i b l e ) w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s c a n d a l . Names s u c h as " T w e l v e P i n e s " o r " M a g n o l i a M a n o r " a r e among t h e a d v e r t i s i n g d e v i c e s u s e d t o a t t r a c t b u y e r s t o c o n d o m i n i u m s . The g a r d e n and t h e lawn a r e s u c h an i n d i s p e n s a b l e s y m b o l t h a t p e o p l e w i l l s i m u l a t e a lawn w i t h p a i n t e d g r a v e l , o r p l a s t i c g r a s s , o r g r e e n o u t d o o r c a r p e t i n g , i n p l a c e s w h e r e , as i n A r i z o n a , t h e lawn becomes p r a c t i c a l l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . E n t i r e s e c t i o n s o f d e p a r t m e n t and o f f o o d s t o r e s a r e d e d i c a t e d t o g a r d e n s and l a w n s . T h e s e a r e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y , s t a t u s , and t a s t e , and t h e y a r e t h e s u b j e c t o f many c o n v e r s a t i o n s and p r o u d r e m a r k s . G a r d e n i n g i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a h e a l t h y a c t i v i t y , j u s t l i k e j o g g i n g , and t h e t r e e s a r e known t o h a v e a b i o l o g i c a l p u r i f y i n g f u n c t i o n , w h i c h i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o an a l m o s t c a t h a r t i c v i e w o f t h e t r e e s i n r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e c i t y . I f h i g h d e n s i t y o r i n d u s t r y c a n n o t be a v o i d e d , i t must t a k e t h e f o r m o f i s o l a t e d b u i l d i n g s i n a w e l l l a n d s c a p e d s e t t i n g . 140. "Industrial Parks" are encouraged. "A 1966 popular booklet on the proposed Off ic ia l Plan for Toronto declared that " t a l l , free-standing apartments in landscaped grounds wi l l be encouraged"' Elegance and beauty are expected only from isolated buildings in landscaped open grounds, wherever possible. Other arrangements are seen as infer ior , i f not slum-like. Not long ago a proposal such as that of taking down the trees along the sides of the streets of the West End, in Van-couver, to make way for wider roads, caused a minor uproar. A gentle old Scottish lady explained with horror that when she was in Quebec "the French" used to bulldoze away a l l the trees to make wider roads. Also as a consequence of this attitude the car is seen as an enemy of nature, and ultimately of people. The car and the garden are at war. And yet as we noted earl ier in Chapter 3, the same forces back both. The more suburban gardens that are created, isolated from places of employment, shopping, entertainment and education, the more private cars are needed. An efficient public capillary transportation system has proven again and again to be economically unfeasible for North American c i t i e s , and becoming increasingly so. The suburban cit izen simply cannot understand the need to support public services. An unspoken or unconscious preoccupation with private fac i l i t i e s at the expense of public ones seems to be the dream that motivates the majority, whether these dreams be logical and possible or not. 1 4 1 . The p r i v a t e means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t h e p r i v a t e g a r d e n r a t e e q u a l l y h i g h among t h e i d e a l s and t h e dreams o f t h e p e o p l e . A f t e r a l l , t h e s u c c e s s f u l N o r t h A m e r i c a n f r e e e n t r e p r e n e u r does n o t t r a v e l i n a bus and does n o t l o o k a t a s i d e w a l k f r o m a l i t t l e b a l c o n y : t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n image o f s u c c e s s i s n o t l i v i n g n e c k t o n e c k w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . I n s t e a d , i s o l a t i o n m i d s t l a r g e s p a c e s c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s i m a g e . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n h e r o i s t h e s u c c e s s f u l l o n e r . The r o m a n t i c r e t u r n t o n a t u r e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a has b e e n m o s t l y a movement o f i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , a t t h e h e a d o f a f a m i l y , e a c h t o w a r d h i s own g a r d e n . P a r t o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n d r e a m has b e e n t h a t o f a s s e r t i n g o n e ' s s u p e r i o r i t y , i s o l a t i o n and s u c c e s s a t t h e o u t s k i r t s o f t h e c i t y . The more s u c c e s s f u l and t h e more m o r a l man i s e x p e c t e d t o l i v e t h e r e , c l o s e t o t h e g r a c e o f h i s g a r d e n and t o t h e i n s p i r a t i o n o f n a t u r e , w i t h h i s f a m i l y . The s t a t i s t i c s show t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u c h a dream f 41 when e v e r y o n e wants t o s h a r e i t : 80-r I 1—1 1 1 t- 1 1 1 1900—10 1910-20 1920-30 1930-40 1940-50 1950-60 1960-70 142 . To have a suburban house with a garden has become almost a moral goal in North America. Being married and l iving in a house in the suburbs increase substantially not only one's respectability, but also one's credit rating and social acceptance. Love between man and woman and love for nature are recognized ideals, united in a sentimental view of l i f e . One has to note that h i s tor ica l ly romanticism seems to have grown earlier and stronger in the northern Anglo-Saxon countries. There, better than anywhere else, the love for emotional inspiration and self -sat isfact ion, the love for nature and the love for isolation developed as a total way of l iv ing and as a complete philosophy. Moral and ideal factors, rather than being drawn from experience, were derived from inner sentiments as a source of inspiration to shape l i f e and experience and to recreate the world according to the ideal . For socialites in North America the beautification of c i t ies became an increasingly popular hobby, just as cultural gossip had been a hobby in the earl ier French society. "•'What ought to be' has nearly as much real ity as 'what is*. It is something 'go go for* " . ^ ^ Thus there is always a great deal of concern about urban matters among leaders of the North American communities, and in general, aesthetic urban matters draw a considerable amount of interest. The missionary romantic sp ir i t often manifests i t s e l f as a crusade to improve.sections of the c i ty . 143. For those who could not afford the suburban house a substitute for suburbia in the city was made possible by town-houses with a certain amount of open space held in common, or with small individual gardens where density permitted i t . But for the remaining urban dwellers picturesqueness and the planting of trees are proposed again and again in various forms to revital ize the c i ty . Drawing large malls with plenty of trees and shrubs and happy strol lers and no cars has become a cliche, and i t has become identified with the concept of "revitalization". In Life for Dead Spaces Goodman and Eckardt^ propose a system, i l lustrated with appealing renderings f u l l of people among trees and shrubs: pedestrian malls would become the nuclei of rev i ta l izat ion. In ;The Heart of Our Cities' Victor: (71 Gruen follows similar l ines. To eliminate the car, to bring the trees into the decaying centers of the cit ies (and perhaps add a few sidewalk cafes) is the common recipe for the i l l s of the modern North American c i t i e s . These visual dreams originating with remote memories and visions of happy European villages are deeply rooted and are repeatedly presented as the urban solution. For example, in the 1929 Plan for Vancouver, in the chapter "Civic Art Report", on the page where considerations about the "Burrard Street Site" f 81 are made } there is an attractive picture of "Foreshore Development, Monteaux (sic) , Switzerland." The actual development 144. of the town of Montreaux, on the lake of Geneva, in French Switzerland, may have nothing to do with the actual development of Vancouver, a less than a century-old harbour on the Canadian Pacific coast. Yet these romantic images play a major role in guiding pol i t ic ians , planners, and voters, presenting false and unattain-able ideals. I may note, incidentally, that Switzerland is one of the paradises of the Anglo-Saxon world. The pretty images of geranium pots decorating the window s i l l s of the buildings of small Swiss villages are among those dearest to the romantic imagination. Projects of attractive developments attempt to recreate a vil lage atmosphere around landscaped open spaces designed to foster neighbourhood communities. The mistaken assumptions of this kind of design have been exposed in an art ic le published by Progressive Architecture in October 1973 : "One widely accepted tenet is that large, shared open areas around project buildings are desirable. On the assumption that every resident could use these areas for recreat-ion and leisure, open space requirements often have been met by building higher and assembling superb locks. The automobile, seen as an anathema, has been banished from the inner space and through roads removed. Since main building entrances are often designed to face away from perimeter streets and into the shared space, their use requires a circuitous route from the street, parking 145 . or public transportation. Even at its busiest, anonymity makes i t a no man's land in large projects." The question that should be raised when renderings of these open spaces are presented is whether there is a real basis to believe that they wi l l be used for leisure and recreation as i t is assumed. Actually these common landscaped spaces have become, in many places, a nest of crime, and are feared by the tenants. Crime has transformed the common spaces into feared areas and entire sections of c i t i es , not to speak of individual buildings, are treated as i f they were in a virtual state of siege. Patrols, security checks and circumspect behaviour take the place of open urban c iv i l i zed l i f e . The fragmented, specialized aspects of urban l i fe imposed by the ruling taste are threatened as i f in an urban nightmare. Despite this , specialized act iv i t ies , open spaces, and low density remain the ideal of the maj ority . Against facts and evidence crime is said to be fostered by high density per se (a study released in December 1972 by the Vancouver police showed that contrary to popular opinion crime is proportionally higher in suburban areas such as West Vancouver than in high density areas such as the West End). It is an example of the deeply rooted idea in the northern, Anglo-Saxon mind that the city must be evi l and f u l l of criminals and vices. This is how cit ies were portrayed in "puritan" 146 . l i terature since the Renaissance. Sometimes one must suppose that Rome, the metropolis by antonomasia, is s t i l l Babylon, s t i l l the power of darkness, sti11 a creation of the devi l . This is why one may see with no surprise that from Sweden to Australia the papers bring us examples of determined opposition to the growth of c i t ies : "The Vancouver Sun" of December 15, 1972 ^ ^ reports that the Swedish government has made i t policy to consider urbanization 'an evi l per se'. Gn March 31, 1973^^ the same paper reports that "The higher you go, the madder you get" and explains that in Sydney, Austral ia, "The unanimous decision by the 12 aldermen of Kogarah, a 'garden suburb' with a population of 50,000, wi l l restr ict future residen-t i a l dwellings to no more than three storeys for environmental and mental health reasons". One would wonder whether the Parisians, for example, must be half crazy, because so many among them live above the third floor. Many psychologists and psychiatrists have been suppor-ting this prejudice although evidence for this support has so far been superf ic ia l . "I told the council that i t is generally accepted in psychiatric circles that the higher you go,< the madder you get", said Dr. Koller of Kogarah, mentioning unspec-f 121 i f i ed "research done in many cit ies throughout the world". Design, cultural and qualitative aspects seem to be completely ignored in this kind of research and assessment, which is practical ly impossible to make i f one considers a l l the factors involved. 1 4 7 . P r o b a b l y J . M. R i c h a r d s i s r i g h t when he s a y s J : "The s u b u r b a n s t y l e - t h a t s t y l e w h i c h i s , we a r e t o l d , t h e v e r y c i t a d e l o f d e b a s e d and v u l g a r t a s t e - i s , i n f a c t , p a r t o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e E n g l a n d we h a v e a l l grown up i n . " T h i s seems to be t r u e w h e t h e r we a c t u a l l y grew up i n E n g l a n d o r n o t , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e t r e m e n d o u s i n f l u e n c e o f t h e E n g l i s h f a s h i o n and t a s t e - e v e n i n non A n g l o - S a x o n c o u n t r i e s - i n t h e p a s t c e n t u r y . R i c h a r d s c o n t i n u e s : "The s u b u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t i s t h e c h o i c e o f p e o p l e who know what t h e y l i k e , a n d t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e s u b u r b may e v e n be c a l l e d a t r u e c o n t e m p o r a r y v e r n a c u l a r . " "The h o u s e has a l w a y s r e s i s t e d c h a n g e and d r a s t i c t e c h n i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t b e c a u s e i t i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e o f t r a d i t i o n and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . C u s t o m and s y m b o l have as much t o do w i t h t h e s h a p i n g o f h o u s e s as a l m o s t a n y t h i n g e l s e . The h e a r t h o f t h e ( 1 4 1 E n g l i s h c o t t a g e , - s a y s A r t h u r E r i c k s o n - t h e c o u r t y a r d o f t h e v i l l a , t h e F r e n c h w i n d o w , t h e p a i n t e d c l a p b o a r d o f New E n g l a n d , h a v e become l i k e words i n a l a n g u a g e - s y m b o l s o f p a s t a t t i t u d e s and ways o f l i f e t h a t s t a n d f o r c o m f o r t o r g r a c e o r s e c u r i t y . P e o p l e w i l l buy t h e s y m b o l i n p r e f e r e n c e t o p e r f o r m a n c e . Now Cape Cod comes o u t i n a l u m i n u m . What more c o u l d one w a n t ! C o n t r a s t t h i s w i t h 1he p a t t e r n o f h o u s e s i n any o f t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n o r L a t i n c u l t u r e s ( c u l t u r e s , w h i c h , by t h e way , have a s t r o n g s e n s e o f s o c i a l i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . T h e r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e u n i t d e f e r s t o t h e s o c i a l s p a c e - t h e s t r e e t , t h e s q u a r e - t h e s p a c e b e t w e e n . The p e r i m e t e r o f t h e h o u s e t h a t a d j o i n s t h e s o c i a l s p a c e , w h e t h e r i t i s t h e h o u s e w a l l o r g a r d e n w a l l , j o i n s w i t h 148. a l l the other houses to form the architecture of the communal space while, within the privacy of the walled area, each family can, unseen, live its different l i f e . But even now, in Italy and France, they are beginning to buy Texas ranch houses." Ruralism and specialization.of act iv i t ies are spreading as fashionable myths. Specialization has created a certain routine, and has built into the people the need for clean, neat, defined separations. People "go" to work, "go" shopping, and i t is felt that a certain distance should separate these act iv i t i es . Even i f you are a professional and i t is legally permissible, an office in your house detracts from the seriousness of your a c t i v -i ty . Similarly an office on the side of a drugstore is not as convincing as an office inthe middle of two hundred other offices. A specialized tower is a sign of good taste, order and prestige. Although the pure office tower "constitutes a tremendous waste of we 11-developed land that is used only about twelve hours a day"^*^ i t is presented as the most efficient building techni-cally and economically because i t is the right thing, supposedly, in 1he minds of businessmen and of the majority. Specialization is consdered very important in residential buildings too, and the high rise apartment building of distinction is similar to the suburbs in that i t s t r i c t l y isolates i t s e l f from any other use. Separation is a sign of distinction and of prestige. The people of success and distinction want to find their togetherness in the separation of a club. 1 4 9 . In t h i s r e s p e c t t h e " i n t e g r a t e d " b u i l d i n g s s u c h as t h e J o h n H a n c o c k t o w e r i n C h i c a g o and o t h e r " c o m p r e h e n s i v e " d e v e l o p -ments a r e w o r k i n g on t h e b a s i s o f s o c i a l s e p a r a t i o n ; t h e y a r e c l e a n and n e a t and s e p a r a t e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y a r e c o m p l e t e l i t t l e , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , e n c l o s e d w o r l d s . T h e i r s l o g a n i s : " y o u n e v e r n e e d t o w a l k o u t s i d e " o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s . The t y p i c a l v i ew o f t h e c i t y i s h e r e no l o n g e r m e r e l y a d i s t o r t i o n as s e e n t h r o u g h r u r a l e y e s ; i t i s v i r t u a l l y n e g a t e d and d i s r e g a r d e d . In f a c t , j u s t o u t s i d e t h e w e l l - g u a r d e d g a t e s o f s u c h a b u i l d i n g t h e r e c o u l d be r i o t s , s l u m s , m i s e r y ; f r o m i n s i d e y o u do n o t e v e n h a v e t o h e a r a b o u t i t . A t w o r s t , y o u s w i t c h t h e t e l e v i s i o n c h a n n e l . The new f o r m o f i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t i s b e i n g p r o p o s e d i n s t e a d o f t h e z o n e d c i t y i s i n f a c t e v e n a more f e a r f u l s e p a r -a t i o n . I t i s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f a c l u b . I t i s t h e same a t t i t u d e and t h e same c u l t u r e t o i t s e x t r e m e s . The s t e p i s f r o m a f r a g -m e n t a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s to a c l o s e r g r o u p i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s w i t h an a p a r t h e i d o f s o c i a l g r o u p s . C u r i o u s l y p e o p l e who t a k e p r i d e i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were b o r n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and t h a t t h e i r a n c e s t o r s were among t h e o r i g i n a l A n g l o - S a x o n s e t t l e r s s o m e t i m e s c o m p l a i n t h a t new i m m i g r a n t s " s t i c k t o g e t h e r " and " d o n ' t m i x " . " T h e s e i m m i g r a n t s a d o p t t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e n a t i v e A m e r i c a n * , t h e y wear h i s c l o t h e s , t h e y s t e a l h i s name and t h e y a r e b e g i n n i n g t o t a k e h i s women, b u t t h e y s e l d o m a d o p t h i s r e l i g i o n o r u n d e r s t a n d h i s i d e a l s . " ^ 6 ' ' *0f c o u r s e , n o t an I n d i a n 150 . The newcomers were supposed to mix with the natives, but at the price of a complete renunciation of their intel lectual and psychological background. The fe ar of the newcomers, with a confused, unknown and mistrusted cultural background, is part of an important and contradictory racial attitude, whereby the imm-igrant is at one and the same time welcomed, assimilated and rejected. It would be a mistake to overlook the significance of the Anglo Saxon racial attitude in the organization or urban l i f e , in North America. The theories about evolution developed in the nineteenth century found a fer t i l e ground in the racial observations that people such as Hume and Kant* had contributed, where the Northern and in particular the English race is por-trayed as the best and the black races are shown to be at the bottom of the human scale of values. The evolution of man from the primates became the sc ient i f ic base for a theory of racial evolution as well, in which the inferior races, such as the black races, were seen as closer to the animals, as i f they were primates just come down from the trees. Other races were seen as intermediate stages, and the Anglo-Saxon race was seen as obviously the most developed, advan-ced, c iv i l i zed and good race. Progress therefore also acquired a kind of moral mean-ing, implying among the other things the acquisition of the values *Kant's observations on races were made popular in the English speaking world in the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century. Some of these are quoted in Chapter 1. Racism and romantic idealism often nourished each other. 151 . o f t h e most d e v e l o p e d r a c e . T h i s i s why i t i s n o r m a l l y c o n s i d e r e d o n l y a m a t t e r o f t i m e and o f p a t i e n t e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e e v e r y b o d y e l s e w o u l d r e a c h t h e s t a g e i n w h i c h i t w o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l u e s and t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e l e a d i n g r a c e as t h e b e s t . A t t h e same t i m e t h e o t h e r , i n f e r i o r and f e r a l r a c e s were s e e n as a t h r e a t and as a d a n g e r i f t h e y c o u l d n o t be i m p r o v e d : t h e r e c o u l d be a f a l l i n g b a c k i n t h e l i n e o f p r o g r e s s and d e v e l o p m e n t , a c a t a -s t r o p h e d e s t r o y i n g t h e a d v a n c e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , and t h e A n g l o -S a xon l e a d i n g r a c e c o u l d be t h r e a t e n e d o r even w i p e d o u t . The a t t e m p t t o p u r i f y , t o make c l e a n , b e a u t i f u l and good t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s i n v o l v e d a l s o an a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l and t o mould t h e n o n - A n g l o - S a x o n s . M a d i s o n G r a n t , i n "The P a s s i n g o f t h e G r e a t R a c e " , f 1 7) e x p r e s s e d some o f t h e common f e a r s : . . . . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t i n l a r g e s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y t h e n a t i v e A m e r i c a n w i l l e n t i r e l y d i s a p p e a r . He w i l l n o t i n t e r - m a r r y i n t o i n f e r i o r r a c e s and he c a n n o t compete i n t h e sweat shop and i n t h e s t r e e t t r e n c h w i t h t h e newcomers. One t h i n g i s c e r t a i n : i n any s u c h m i x t u r e , t h e s u r v i v -i n g t r a i t s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e l o w e s t and most p r i m i t i v e e l e m e n t s and t h e s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i t s o f t h e N o r d i c man: h i s s t a t u r e , h i s l i g h t c o l o u r e d e y e s , h i s f a i r s k i n and l i g h t - c o l o r e d h a i r , h i s s t r a i g h t n o s e and h i s s p l e n d i d f i g h t i n g and m o r a l q u a l i t i e s , w i l l h ave l i t t l e p a r t i n t h e r e s u l t a n t m i x t u r e . " 1 5 2 . The N o r d i c g r o u p saw i t s e l f as a m i s s i o n a r y g r o u p t h a t was s u p p o s e d t o s a v e c i v i l i z a t i o n a f t e r h a v i n g b r o u g h t i t t o i t s h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d s . J u s t as t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t was s e e n as t h e p r o m i s e d l a n d , t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e f o u n d i n g r a c e were s e e n a g a i n and a g a i n as t h e new M e s s i a h s . T h i s i s why o u r c o n f i d e n c e and a b i l i t y t o p u t e v e r y t h i n g i n t o a p r o p e r p l a c e and t o c r e a t e a n e a t l y o r g a n i z e d community s u p p o s e d l y s h o u l d n e v e r be l o s t . The a n g e l i c q u a l i t y o f t h e s u p e r i o r d e s t i n y o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n r a c e i s a l s o a t t h e r o o t s o f what i s c o n s i d e r e d i t s u n w r i t t e n r i g h t t o s e p a r a t i o n and d o m i n a n c e . A l e t t e r t o a V a n c o u v e r c o l u m n i s t p u b l i s h e d on "The f 181 V a n c o u v e r S un" r e a d s : " I t a k e e x c e p t i o n t o y o u r h a r s h , u n j u s t and o f t e n - t i m e s u n w a r r a n t e d c r i t i c i s m o f A n g l o S a x o n s h o l d i n g l a w f u l power i n t h e co m m u n i t y , t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r r a c e s and ' e t h n i c ' g r o u p s . I f y o u c a r e t o r e a d h i s t o r y y o u ' l l f i n d t h a t w h e r e v e r t h e A n g l o S a x o n has s e t f o o t , j u s t i c e a n d p r o g r e s s has f l o u r i s h e d - n o t t h e smugness and a r r o g a n c e y o u c o n j u r e up. De m o c r a c y , as we know i t t o d a y , s p r i n g s f r o m t h e A n g l o S a x o n s y s t e m o f f a i r p l a y . Would y o u deny i t ? C o l o n e l W i n f i e l d J o n e s summed i t up t h i s way: 'The A n g l o - S a x o n i s t h e typeman o f h i s t o r y . To h i m must y i e l d t h e s e l f - c e n t e r e d Hebrew, t h e c u l t u r e d G r e e k , t h e v i r i l e Roman, t h e m y s t i c O r i e n t a l . The P s a l m i s t must have had h i m i n mind when he s t r u c k h i s s o u n d l e s s h a r p and s a n g : '0 L o r d ; t h o u h a s t made h i m a l i t t l e l o w e r t h a n t h e a n g e l s , and h a s * c r o w n e d h i m w i t h g l o r y and h o n o r . Thou h a s t made h i m t o ha v e 1 5 3 . dominion over the works of thy hands; Thou hastput a l l things under his feet.' " Walter Lippman made this comment about this f 191 kind of attitude: "...We have this feeling - this comes from the Puritans - that we are a chosen people with a mandate from God Himself to make a perfect world for ourselves and everybody else. Of course that is a terrible myth." This is why in North America in general there has been a silent but deliberate imposition of a certain order on the c i t i es , and an order cast upon situations and things rather than developed through a harmonization, in time, of existing and evolving factors. Even in a place like Houston, where there is not a zoning by-law, the cul tural , p o l i t i c a l , economic and legal pressures have produced the same result as in the other c i t i e s , after the introduction of written by-laws. The silent agreement on attitudes and values is actually more powerful and pervasive than the laws. "The Anglo-Saxon fears overpopulation and crowding. The Anglo-Saxon claims to trust human beings, and to trust as well the benevolence of nature; he abjures the darker, tormented, pessimistic views of Europeans. The Anglo-Saxon relaxes in a clean, orderly, neat, virtuous world; he has a terror of noise, confusion, d i r t , human density, tangled emotion. (Contrast a New England Congregational church with a Spanish chapel or Jesuit baroque). But the terror is not clearly stated. The Anglo-Saxon trusts the human heart and the benevolence of nature only under certain conditions: when both are under the control his 154. own w i l l has i m p o s e d . The A n g l o - S a x o n i s n o t ' a t home' i n t h i s "f201 u n i v e r s e ; he must m a s t e r i t . F u n d a m e n t a l l y , i t t e r r i f i e s h i m . I n l i g h t o f t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s we c a n h a v e a g r e a t e r f 211 i n s i g h t i n t o what J a n e J a c o b s n o t e s : " P e o p l e g a t h e r e d i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b i g - c i t y s i z e and d e n s i t y c a n be f e l t t o be an a u t o m a t i c - i f n e c e s s a r y - e v i l . T h i s i s a common a s s u m p t i o n : t h a t human b e i n g s a r e c h a r m i n g i n s m a l l numbers and n o x i o u s i n l a r g e numbers. G i v e n t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , i t f o l l o w s t h a t c o n -c e n t r a t i o n s o f p e o p l e s h o u l d be m i n i m i z e d i n e v e r y way: by t h i n n i n g down t h e numbers t h e m s e l v e s i n s o f a r as t h i s i s p o s s i b l e , and b e y o n d t h a t by a i m i n g a t i l l u s i o n s o f s u b u r b a n l a w n s and s m a l l town p l a c i d i t y . I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e e x u b e r a n t v a r i e t y i n h e r e n t i n g r e a t numbers o f p e o p l e , t i g h t l y c o n c e n t r a t e d , s h o u l d be p l a y e d down, h i d d e n , hammered i n t o a s e m b l a n c e o f t h e t h i n n e r , more t r a c t a b l e v a r i e t y o r t h e o u t r i g h t h o m o g e n e i t y o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i n n e r p o p u l a t i o n s . I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e s e c o n f u s i n g c r e a t u r e s - so many p e o p l e g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r - s h o u l d be s o r t e d o u t and s t a s h e d away as d e c e n t l y and q u i e t l y as p o s s i b l e , l i k e c h i c k e n s on a modern e g g - f a c t o r y f a r m ... S y s t e m s o f t h o u g h t , no m a t t e r how o b j e c t i v e t h e y may p u r p o r t t o b e , have an u n d e r -l y i n g e m o t i o n a l b a s e and v a l u e s . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f modern c i t y p l a n n i n g and h o u s i n g r e f o r m has b e e n e m o t i o n a l l y b a s e d on a glum r e l u c t a n c e t o a c c e p t c i t y c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p e o p l e as d e s i r a b l e , and t h i s n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n a b o u t c i t y c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p e o p l e has h e l p e d deaden p l a n n i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . " 155 . APPENDIX NOTE The " I n t e r n a t i o n a l H e r a l d T r i b u n e " o f J u n e 26 , 1974 , r e p o r t e d onvj^he f r o n t p a g e : " C o n g r e s s m a n S e e k s t o Plow Funds I n t o B a c k y a r d G a r d e n s " . " R e p . James B u r k e , D - M a s s . , i s c u l t i v a t i n g an i d e a t h a t he t h i n k s i s as r i p e as sweet c o r n i n A u g u s t . . . F o r s t a r t e r s , R e p . B u r k e has a s k e d t h e House A g r i c u l t u r e c o m m i t t e e t o e n a c t a b i l l d i s t r i b u t i n g f r e e v e g e t a b l e s e e d s t o home g a r d e n e r s , t h r e e p a c k e t s to a f a m i l y . T h e n he p e r s u a d e d h i s c o l l e a g u e s on t h e Ways and Means C o m m i t t e e t o a p p r o v e t e n t a t i v e l y a 7 p e r c e n t i n v e s t -ment t a x c r e d i t f o r b a c k y a r d g a r d e n e q u i p m e n t . ' T h e home and f a m i l y g a r d e n t a x c r e d i t a m e n d m e n t 1 , as he s t y l e d i t , w o u l d l e t g a r d e n e r s s u b t r a c t up t o $7 on t h e i r i n c o m e - t a x b i l l s i f t h e y s p e n d up t o $100 on h o e s , r a k e s , w h e e l - b a r r o w s , s p a d e s , p i t c h f o r k s and s u c h . . . R e p . B u r k e , who remembers w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e n o s t a l g i a t h e V i c t o r y G a r d e n p r o d u c e he r a i s e d as a b o y , no l o n g e r g a r d e n s h ims e 1 f . . . R e p . Hays g a r d e n s on w e e k - e n d s - t o m a t o e s , p e a s , b e a n s , c o r n a n d so on - b u t t h i s i s an e l e c t i o n y e a r , w h i c h means he c a n ' t keep up w i t h t h e weeds t h e way he o u g h t . P e r s o n a l l y , he has b e e n more u p s e t by t h e r i s i n g p r i c e o f f l o w e r s t h a n i n f l a t i o n a t 1 5 6 . t h e v e g e t a b l e c o u n t e r . ' I u s u a l l y p u t i n g e r a n i u m s a r o u n d t h e h o u s e when t h e t u l i p s a r e f i n i s h e d ' , Rep. Hays s a i d . ' T h i s y e a r g e r a n i u m s went o u t o f s i g h t . I p l a n t e d m a r i g o l d s i n s t e a d . ' " CHAPTER 5 (1) JANE J A C O B S : The D e a t h and L i f e o f G r e a t A m e r i c a n C i t i e s , New Y o r k 1961 , p . 2 1 8 (2) J . M . RICHARDS: The C a s t l e s on t h e G r o u n d , L o n d o n , 1946 , p . 9 . (3) ALAN POWELL: The C i t y : A t t a c k i n g M o d e r n M y t h s , T o r o n t o 1972 , p . 4 1 (4) A . DOWNS: O p e n i n g Up t h e S u b u r b s , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y 1973 , T a b l e 1 (5) D. MACFADYEN: S i r E b e n e z e r Howard and t h e Town P l a n n i n g  Movement , M a n c h e s t e r 1933 , p . 1 1 (6) GOODMAN AND E C K A R D T : L i f e f o r Dead S p a c e s , New Y o r k 1963 . (7) VICTOR GRUEN: The H e a r t o f Our C i t i e s , New Y o r k , 1964 . (8) A P l a n f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B . C . 1 9 2 1 , e d i t e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r Town P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , p . 2 4 3 (9) " P r o g r e s s i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e " , O c t o b e r 1972 , p . 9 2 10) "The V a n c o u v e r S u n " , December 15 , 1972 , p . 3 11) "The V a n c o u v e r S u n " , M a r c h 3 1 , 1973 , p . 8 9 12) "The V a n c o u v e r S u n " , M a r c h 3 1 , 1973 , p . 8 9 13) J . M . RICHARDS: The C a s t l e s on t h e G r o u n d , L o n d o n , 1946 p . 13 14) H . SYMONDS: The Q u e s t i o n o f H o u s i n g , V a n c o u v e r 1967 , p . 4 4 15) " P r o g r e s s i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e " , O c t o b e r 1972 , p . 9 2 16) M. NOVAK: The R i s e o f t h e U n m e l t a b l e E t h n i c s , New Y o r k 1972 , p . 8 6 17) M. NOVAK: The R i s e o f t h e U n m e l t a b l e E t h n i c s , New Y o r k 1972 , p . 8 6 18) "The V a n c o u v e r S u n " , M a r c h 28 , 1973 , l e t t e r t o A . F o t h e r i n g h a m 19) "The V a n c o u v e r S u n " , A p r i l 7, 1973 , p . 6 20) M. N o v a k : The R i s e o f the U n m e l t a b l e E t h n i c s , New Y o r k 1972 , p . 8 6 21) JANE J A C O B S : The D e a t h and L i f e o f G r e a t A m e r i c a n C i t i e s , New Y o r k 1961 , p . 2 2 0 1 5 8 . 6 . E C O N O M I C A N D P O L I T I C A L F A C T O R S , F R E E E N T E R P R I S E , O W N E R S H I P , E Q U A L I T Y , E T C . I t i s a c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s o c i e t y a c t s i n t e r m s o f t h e b e s t m a r k e t v a l u e . T h e m o n e t a r y v a l u e - a n d u s u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h i s t h e a b s t r a c t v a l u e - o f a n o b j e c t i s c o m m o n l y e s t a b l i s h e d f r o m w h a t t h e p e o p l e w i l l b e w i l l i n g t o p a y f o r i t . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a l m o s t a " l a w o f n a t u r e " . ( A q u e s t i o n c o m e s t o o n e ' s m i n d : e v e n i f o n e g i v e s h i s l i f e f r e e , i s t h a t v a l u e l e s s ? ) . I t i s a l a w o f n a t u r e n o t d i s s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e e s t a b -l i s h e d b y H o b b e s , t h a t e a c h m a n i a a w o l f t o a n o t h e r m a n ( " h o m o h o m i n i l u p u s " ) a n d t h a t r e c e n t l y l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n i n t h e h o u s i n g m a r k e t f i t t i n g l y d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g " l i k e c a n n i b a l i s m " ^ ' ' ' W h e t h e r c a n n i b a l i s m i s a d e v i a t i o n f r o m n a t u r e o r i s p a r t o f n a t u r e m a y b e d e b a t e d . H o w e v e r , w h a t h a s b e c o m e c l e a r e r i n t h e l a s t f e w y e a r s i s t h a t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e m a r k e t i n i t s u n l i m i t e d f r e e c o m p e t i t i o n m a y h a v e t o b e c u r b e d . A s t r o n g e r a n d s t r o n g e r m o v e -m e n t t o w a r d c o n t r o l s h a s d e v e l o p e d a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e d i s -t o r t i o n s o f w h a t w a s s u p p o s e d t o b e a n a t u r a l l y f r e e m a r k e t . T h e v i e w s o n t h e m a r k e t o f r e a l p r o p e r t y a n d o n o t h e r k i n d s o f m a r k e t s h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y a l m o s t e v e r y p h i l o s o p h y t h a t h a s a r i s e n f r o m t h e R e n a i s s a n c e t o o u r d a y s . T h e r e a r e t h o s e w h o b e l i e v e t h a t m e n a r e b a s i c a l l y b a d a n d n e e d t h e d e f e n c e o f g o v e r n m e n t , l i k e H o b b e s , a n d t h e r e a r e t h o s e w h o b e l i e v e t h a t m e n a r e b a s i c a l l y g o o d a n d , l i k e L o c k e a n d R o u s s e a u , b e l i e v e 1 5 9 . that a s s u r i n g " n a t u r a l " c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e the best r e s u l t s w i l l be obtained. It i s probably to Locke that we can a t t r i b u t e the gr e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on North American thought r e g a r d i n g the concepts of p r o p e r t y . He maintained that the s t a t e of nature i s a s t a t e of peace, benevolence, mutual a s s i s t e n c e and defence. In the s t a t e of nature the p r o p e r t y was i n common i n the sense that a l l men had the r i g h t to draw the means of t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e from what nature o f f e r s to them. Locke gave an o r i g i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to t h i s theory,which was as o l d as the e a r l y Middle Ages, saying that although the s t a t e o f nature i s i d e a l , i t i s a l s o true that the i n d i v i d u a l has a n a t u r a l r i g h t to possess.and c o n t r o l a l l that with which he has "mingled" the work of h i s body, such as the land that he c u l t i v a t e s . He was probably i n f l u e n c e d both by the examples of the c o l o n i s t s i n North America and by the s u p e r i o r c a p a c i t y of pro d u c t i o n of p r i v a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l economy i n comparison with the common c u l t i v a t i o n of more p r i m i t i v e systems. Fundamentally he thought that through h i s labour man extends, i n a way, h i s p e r s o n a l i t y to the ob j e c t s he produces, and by spending h i s energies working on them he makes them a p a r t of h i m s e l f -property becomes an extension of man, i n the jargon of McLuhan, and of post-Kantian philosophy. Property e x i s t s even without the need of any e x p l i c i t agreement of a l l the members of the community; i t i s a r i g h t that every i n d i v i d u a l bears i n h i s own f 21 person, j s u t as he bears the p h y s i c a l energy of h i s own body: 160 . T h e r e f o r e s o c i e t y does n o t c r e a t e s u c h a r i g h t and c a n n o t r e g u l a t e i t e x c e p t w i t h i n d e t e r m i n a t e l i m i t s , s i n c e b o t h s o c i e t y and t h e g o v e r n m e n t e x i s t , a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e p r e -e x i s t i n g r i g h t s t o p r o p e r t y {we w i l l s ee t h i s c o n c e p t e x p r e s s e d i n t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a q u o t e d i n C h a p t e r seven). When L o c k e e n u m e r a t e s "the n a t u r a l r i g h t s , he a l w a y s s p e a k s o f " l i f e , l i b e r t y and p r o p e r t y " , * b u t i n f a c t p r o p e r t y i s t h e o n l y n a t u r a l r i g h t t h a t he e x a m i n e s c a r e f u l l y and w i t h g r e a t e m p h a s i s . He e s t a b l i s h e d a c o m p l e x o f i n d i v i d u a l and i r r e v o c a b l e r i g h t s w h i c h l i m i t t h e co m p e t e n c e o f t h e community i n d e f e n c e o f l i b e r t y and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o f p r i v a t e p e r s o n s . I n t h i s r e s p e c t he i s t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f l i b e r a l i s m , s i n c e he p r e s u m e d t h a t t h e two t h i n g s -t h e d e f e n c e o f common good and t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f p r i v a t e r i g h t s -l e a d t o t h e one i d e n t i c a l r e s u l t . H i s t h e o r y was b a s e d on t h e i d e a t h a t i n t h e harmony o f n a t u r e t h e good i s i n any c a s e t h e f i n a l end o f e v i 1 . D u r i n g t h e A m e r i c a n r e v o l u t i o n t h e s l o g a n " l i f e , l i b e r t y and p r o p e r t y " c h a n g e d t o t h a t o f " l i f e , l i b e r t y and t h e p u r -s u i t o f h a p p i n e s s " . I n t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n c e o f J u l y 4, 1776, one r e a d s : "We h o l d t h e s e t r u t h s t o be s e l f -e v i d e n t , t h a t a l l men a r e c r e a t e d e q u a l ; t h a t t h e y a r e endowed by t h e i r C r e a t o r w i t h c e r t a i n u n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s ; t h a t among t h e s e a r e l i f e , l i b e r t y and t h e p u r s u i t o f h a p p i n e s s " (3). The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r o p e r t y and h a p p i n e s s h a d a l w a y s a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on N o r t h A m e r i c a n t h i n k i n g and l e d some p e o p l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t h a p p i n e s s c o u l d be p a r t o f a p u r c h a s e . We made a r e f e r e n c e e a r l i e r i n t h e s e o n d c h a p t e r t o t h e n o t i o n o f b u y i n g " h a p p i n e s s " when one buys a h o u s e . 161 . L o c k e ' s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t a n d o n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r e m i s e s o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n s b o t h i n F r a n c e a n d i n A m e r i c a w a s g r e a t . E v e n h i s m o r e s k e t c h y i d e a s , s u c h a s t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f p o w e r s a n d t h e i n e v i t a b l e w i s d o m o f t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e m a j o r i t y , r e m a i n e d a f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n d e m o c r a t i c c r e e d . H i s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e n i n e t e e n t h a n d t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y h a s b e e n p r o f o u n d . A m o n g t h e o t h e r s , B e n t h a m a n d u t i l i t a r i a n i s m w e r e " t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f B a c o n ' s , H o b b e s ' a n d f 4 ) L o c k e ' s m e t h o d o l o g y " . *• L o c k e h i m s e l f w a s o f P u r i t a n d e s c e n t , a n d h i s i d e a s f u s e d w e l l w i t h t h e C a l v i n i s t i c i d e a l r e g a r d i n g p r o p e r t y a n d o w n e r s h i p w h i c h w a s e n t r e n c h e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h e r o m a n t i c r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l a n d t h e r i s e o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e g a v e e v e n m o r e s t r e n g t h t o t h e d e f e n c e o f p r i v a t e a n d i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y a s a t a n g i b l e a n d v i s i b l e p r o o f o f g o o d m o r a l c h a r a c t e r a n d o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e . O w n e r s h i p o f p r o p e r t y , e s p e c i a l l y o f r e a l e s t a t e , w a s t h e n e w t i t l e t o n o b i l i t y b o t h i n a s o c i a l a n d i n a m o r a l s e n s e . P r o p e r t y w a s n o t s u p p o s e d t o b e h i d d e n . O w n i n g g o l d w a s a l w a y s c o n s i d e r e d l e s s v i r t u o u s t h a n o w n i n g a r a n c h ( e v e n t u a l l y i t b e c a m e i l l e g a l i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ) , a n d t h e p e r s o n w h o r e n t e d w a s s e e n a s s o m e t h i n g l e s s t h a n t h e p e r s o n w h o o w n e d a h o m e , e v e n i f b o t h o w n e d t h e s a m e t o t a l w o r t h . T e n a n t s w e r e n o t a l l o w e d t o v o t e i n c i v i c e l e c t i o n s . I t w a s f e l t t h a t o n l y t h e t a x - p a y e r s - p r o p e r t y o w n e r s a n d b u s i n e s s -m e n i n p a r t i c u l a r - w e r e t h e o n e s w h o w e r e s u p p o s e d t o h a v e a d i v i d e n d i n t h e c o u n t r y . T h e i r o b v i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l w e l f a r e g a v e t h e m a s p e c i a l a u r a o f s a n c t i t y . O w n i n g p r o p e r t y w a s s e e n a s a k i n d o f s p e c i a l r i g h t t o a f i r s t c l a s s c i t i z e n -162 . ship, and as a sign of abi l i ty to participate in the business of running the country. A visa to the North American countries may not be granted even today to people who do not own a certain minimum sum of money. Several witnesses report that apparently during the depression of the nineteen th ir t i e s , in the towns of the prairies people were arrested for walking in the streets without carrying any money. Not owning anything was a sign of bad char-acter and intentions, and taken as an offence. Being of good character meant to be wil l ing to work hard and therefore to have property. It was considered a theological impossibility that a man could be of good character and wil l ing to work and have no property at a l l . The same mixture of faith in nature and in a certain kind of divine providence or inspiration allowed the creators of the American dream to believe that the majority of taxpayers would naturally determine the best course of action. The majority has been granted a kind of collective holiness. Just as earl ier the kings were ruling by divine right, the majority came to be seen as a body naturally inspired to move in the right direction. Romanticism not only wanted to bring the people back to nature, but also wanted to transfer the responsibility of the decision-making process from a rather small aristocracy to the crowd. The crowd would freely deter-mine the true destiny of the nation. Many mechanisms were devised to allow the masses to express their desires in an orderly and 1 6 3 . accurate manner ( i n c l u d i n g d i c t a t o r s h i p ) , and a l s o to p r o t e c t the m i n o r i t y from being completely wiped out. In the economy the f r e e marketplace was supposed to determine a c c u r a t e l y the w i l l of the m a j o r i t y ; a kind of n a t u r a l mechanism, through what were supposed to be the laws of demand and o f f e r , i n a regime of f r e e e n t e r p r i s e , f r e e owner-sh i p , competition and e q u a l i t y , was at work to shape the economic d e s t i n y and p r o s p e r i t y of the n a t i o n . A mechanical and n a t u r a l -i s t i c view of the economy was i n h e r i t e d and a p p l i e d by the romantic b o u r g e o i s i e from the philosophy of the r a t i o n a l i s t i c e n l i g h t e n -ment. The laws of the economy soon became another i n s t a n c e of romantic dualism. On one side there was the mechanism of the market, on the other there was the s t r u g g l i n g i n d i v i d u a l . The economic hero soon became as admired and as popular as the great a r t i s t and p o l i t i c i a n . The s t o r i e s of the Carnegies and the R o c k e f e l l e r s became l i k e the s t o r i e s of the s a i n t s of the l a t e middle ages. T h e i r foundations became i n s t i t u t e s f o r the b e t t e r -ment and the progress of mankind, making t h e i r names shine f o r generations, and maybe f o r e t e r n i t y . The economic hero became a p a r t of the American dream, j u s t as the i n v e n t o r or as the e x p l o r e r . An u n l i m i t e d land with u n l i m i t e d resources was su p p l y i n g a market with u n l i m i t e d growth. The dream of i n f i n i t y had expanded i n t o the economy; and yet the market was supposed to be a t i g h t , mechanically r e g u l a t e d system. The economic hero was supposed to master i t s laws and to p r e v a i l as an i n d i v i d u a l ; the great f r e e enterpreneur dominating 1 6 4 . over u n l i m i t e d growth. Development was seen as a mission i n which the g i a n t f r e e enterpreneurs were the high p r i e s t s . Success was a v i r t u e which i n p a r t could be taught and i n p a r t was a d i v i n e g i f t , an i n d i c a t i o n of having been chosen. S e l l i n g became a duty and a t e s t : the market was supposed to be the t r u t h f u l judge of the value of the i n d i v i d u a l and of h i s products. The a r c h i t e c t too, as everybody e l s e , became hard pressed to succeed, both as a businessman and as an a r t i s t . S e l l i n g h i s ideas, h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s image became extremely important; he was now a c t i n g as a f r e e enterpreneur with a p u b l i c , r a t h e r than as the designer f o r a powerful l o r d . I t was now "the market" that supposedly decided the success of the a r c h i t e c t and of the developer. Taking the market toward the d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n was supposed to be the new task of the s u c c e s s f u l man. P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s became a very important p a r t of the s e l l i n g a c t i v i t y , and a new f i e l d of study. E f f i c i e n c y and speed were soon d i s c o v e r e d to be among the most p r e s s i n g demands of the market. But speed was the most important f a c t o r . I t was not only important to s e l l one's pro-ducts, but to s e l l them f a s t , f a s t e r and f a s t e r . Speed was a l s o an instrument f o r b e a t i n g the competition of the f r e e market'. The market was a r a t h e r u n p r e d i c t a b l e e n t i t y and t h i s f e e l i n g gave a general sense of i n s t a b i l i t y , making speed even more im-portant'. What was d e s i r e d today may not be as d e s i r a b l e tomorrow. 1 6 5 . F a i t h i n u n l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s a n d t h e e m p h a s i s o n s p e e d b r o u g h t t h e dawn o f t h e a g e o f c o n s u m i s m ; i n f a c t c o n s u m i s m a n d a d v a n c e d c i v i l i z a t i o n b e c a m e i d e n t i f i e d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t r e n d p r o d u c t s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o be p r o d u c e d a n d c o n s u m e d r a p i d l y , f o r e v e r c h a n g i n g d e m a n d s . M o s t b u i l d i n g s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o b e t e m p o r a r y , t o l a s t o n e o r t w o g e n e r a t i o n s , a n d i n f a c t t h e y w e r e c o n s u m e d a n d t u r n e d i n t o s l u m s . T h e t i m e s p a n a l l o w e d f o r t h e d e p r e c i a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s i s b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y s h o r t a n d t o d a y i t i s n o t i n -f r e q u e n t f o r b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r s t o m e n t i o n t h a t t h e y e x p e c t a w o o d f r a m e b u i l d i n g t o l a s t o n l y t w n e t y y e a r s . T h e r e a r e c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e l i f e s p a n o f a b u i l d i n g i s o u t l a s t e d b y t h e m o r t g a g e . " T h e m a r k e t " p r o d u c e d r o t t e n t w o s t o r e y h o u s e s a n d s k y s c r a p e r s w h i c h s t o o d f o r y e a r s s i d e b y s i d e . We m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r t h e c o m p e t i t i o n t o s e l l t h e f a s t e s t r u b b i s h i n t o w n i n t e r m s o f d r a w i n g s ; a c t u a l l y t h e c o m p e t i t i o n t o s e l l t h e f a s t e s t s a l e a b l e r u b b i s h h a d b e c o m e a g e n e r a l t r e n d f o s t e r e d b y t h e m a r k e t . I n t h e a g e o f c o n s u m i s m p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a n d g a r b a g e d i s p o s a l a l o n e a r e b e c o m i n g c r u c i a l i n d u s t r i e s , w h i c h do n o t s e e m t o h a v e t h e c a p a c i t y t o k e e p up w i t h t h e momentum o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d t h e r e f u s e g e n e r a t e d b y t h e m a r k e t . I t i s w i t h a c e r t a i n a l a r m t h a t p e o p l e t o d a y a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e s y s t e m i m p o s e d b y " t h e m a r k e t " i s c h a l l e n g i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h a t v e r y n a t u r e o f w h i c h i t i s s u p p o s e d t o b e t h e e c o n o m i c f a c e t , a n d i t s e e m s t o be d e s t r o y i n g i t s e l f . Now p e o p l e a r e b e -g i n n i n g t o t a l k a b o u t a n " e n e r g y c r i s i s " i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , a n d a b o u t a s c a r c i t y o f l a n d . T h e r o m a n t i c f e e l i n g o f an i m p e n d i n g c a t a s t r o p h e i s s u c c e e d i n g t o t h e v i s i o n a r y d r e a m a n d t h e f e e l i n g 1 6 6 . of unlimited space. There had been signs before warning that the market and the majority may not be that wise after a l l . The collapse of the stock market and the depression of the thrit ies had been the most notable example. In the f i r s t years of this decade the economists were bewildered again. It is beginning to be recognized that "the market" may be crazy and unpredictable, undefinable, volat i le and i rrat iona l . It is noticed that "the market" is a rather mysterious, undefinable entity. The wisdom of the majority and of consumism are beginning to be questioned too. More controls of the free economy are invoked and applied. Some of the social-i s t i c remedies are beginning to be applied to the North American countries. Waste of resources is no longer just i f ied by speed of neeting a demand only. Strong his tor ica l and p o l i t i c a l reasons however seem to have conjured to make a phantom abstract entity, "the market", the arbiter of a l l values and developments. The market was a faceless inst i tut ion hopefully controllable by those already established in a position of managing large capitals. It was a machinery sanctified by operation according to what was believed to be a sum of natural laws, independent of cultural values. It allowed the establishment of a new aristocracy, according to free laws of competition, through the creation of limited companies, where a small number of people could control, without a risky personal financial involvement, the assets of a large number of people. 167. Europeans have often cr i t i c i sed the inclination of North Americans to refer everything, ultimately, to values in terms of money. They have not realized the magniture of the prob-lem and of the task of shaping countries made of immigrants, who came from scores of different nations, cultures and rel igions. It was believed that in such a p lura l i s t i c culture the only way to work was to leave personal values at home and to establish the money value as the only valid and natural common denominator among the people. This was very much in tune with the Calvinist ic morality of the i n i t i a l ruling class. At the same time the things which established themselves at the top of the monetary scale of values became identif ied with status and as such became desirable or even necessary. This is another reason for which the house with garden became a common denominator among the ideals of the growing middle classes. This was also a reason for shaping the cit ies according to what were, supposedly, the practical needs, in a very prag-matic manner, and avoiding discussions that would have involved considerations of such dangerous, touchy, emotional and un-measurable things as sentimental or cultural values. Land too was subdivided across the continent simply according to the rules of rectangular surveying and of the market. "Town planning is the art of laying out c it ies to serve the business requirements, conveneince, health and comfort of the public. It is guiding the growth of a vi l lage or a city in conformity with a sc ient i f ic design." The city as the 1 6 8 . Aristotel ian centre of the "good l i fe" is deliberately forgotten. S tr ic t ly pragmatic considerations and the fear of conflicts and of physical hazards were the important matters, and only these were allowed to put some restrictions to the free play of the market. How could a Chinese, a Ukrainian, a Negro and an Anglo-Saxon have made decisions together? Therefore the pattern of ownership was developed trying to adhere to a sense of geometrical equality. We must note again that the romantic revolution was also the revolution of bourgeois liberalism against the previous systems of tyrannical or of feudal origin. Many by-laws, such as setback laws, reflect an interpretation of the ideal of equal opportunities for a l l in their properties, the defence of individual private property, the ideal of non-encroachment, of l iberty with conflicts prevented through legis lat ion. Individual ownership, and particularly ownership of land, was such a sacred thing that for a long time in North America such things as the ownership of a portion only of a building could not be conceived. Real estate was called real because it was tied to the land. Free enterprise, in real estate as well as in the other f ie lds, was fostered, protected, and regulated through various legal frameworks, such as city by-laws. Land development was protected and encouraged, but i t was also realized that the citizens had to be protected from possible excesses of free entrepreneurs. Original subdivision 1 6 9 . were planned with these things, and particulary with equality, in mind: and what is more perfectly equal than a square of land assigned to each c i t izen, apparently according to the ideal of ancient U t o p i a s ? Thus untouchable boundaries established through ownership and early subdivisions of land paralyzed the cit ies into gridiron patterns, s t r i c t ly zoned to protect the investment made by each c i t izen. The new moral and religious conscience revived by romanticism stood behind the protectionist attitude toward this system of real estate. The property owner and the taxpayer were the aristocrats of the new system and of the new conscience of the bourgeois community. And like the old aristocrat, the new property owner lives in the fear of change, a change daily emphasized -by the uncertainties of the economic free market, and relaxing in the comfort of the legal boundaries and constraints which he expects to be designed to protect his established interests. The bourgeois started fostering the free market (as opposed to the aristocrat who wishes i t closed) unt i l he acquired property and by extension some of the privileges of aristocracy; then be began to desire to close the market to others. The desire for s tabi l i ty and the fear of such foreign elements as blacks, Orientals, or Jews, for example, led to the establishment of restr ict ive covenants. Country clubs and other private institutions in the form of a club sheltered even more the new class. 170. The r ig id i ty of the present t i t l e s to property is out of the reasons for which the pattern that was so quickly established in the North American cit ies is now so slow to change: The rectangular lots of the North American system may be contrasted with such a view as that of the lots of Arnol, Lewis (figure 1), and of Pitminster, Somerset (figure 2), in England^-*, which witness a slow and complicted subdivision of land and transfer of t i t l e s over a long period of time, without a geometrical or equalitarian rule. Today the image of these old English sub-divisions is appreciated for picturesque aesthetic qualities -and new subdivisions in Olmsted's style may imitate them -rather than as an example of slower and less mechanical sub-division of land, which cannot be imitated in a short time and larger scale. The frightening view of such a thing as (71 Daly City (figure 3), California^ ' , allows one to see even more clearly the contrast of the North American type of land development and subdivisions. Here we see the effect of the senseless speed at which tiny equal lots for tiny equal houses eat up huge portions of land at the outskirts of c i t i e s . These developments foster, in turn, additional land speculation. We have already mentioned the absurdity of a market that spends twenty mill ion dollars on a parcel of land for a skyscraper, while a shack occupies the next parcel, perhaps for an entire generation. It is believed that the "market" proves these things right; after a l l , i f there were no economic convenience involved, presumably they would not happen. (Note A). il F i g u r e 1 172. F i g u r e 2 F i g u r e 3 1 7 4 . This is a misconception, because the economic convenience of most land developments is simply coming from expenses added to other parties, normally the public in the form of municipalities and especially in the form of future generations, which inherit exorbitant costs of land and of services as well as a mess to clean up. Inflation makes most uneconomical skyscrapers economical in the long run. This means that we a l l pay for them. From the point of view of the individual developer of the single parcel of land, in the present conditions, i t would seem that to build the most compact building on a small portion of the lot is the most economical thing to do. This, however, is not the true situation of a free market, and even this economic argument would collapse i f different conditions were allowed. With different laws and with more respect for future generations the developer could choose to establish a more permanent building attached to other more permanent buildings. The overall cost could be very similar with the savings provided by attached and unified buildings and more compact services, and the remaining property could be left with a clear design for recreational and future uses. The market then would not be fragmented into small lots and limited to considerations of return within a relat ively short-range speculative return, but would consider a long range return and the total gain of a large number of people including future generations. 1 7 5 . It may sound U t o p i a n , but this pattern corresponds to a large extent to the pattern of the development of many ci t ies of other continents, where property is subject to different regulations and people inherit amortized and sound buildings. The problem is that the "economic cannibalism" already mentioned is deeply rooted in our society. l t used to be a trend built into the romantic culture that different genera-tions would compete, rather than help each other, so that the general attitude of the older generations was that of exploiting the new generations, through the pretext of "the market", in this particular case. The enmity among generations was such that each generation would tend to secure only its immediate desires,and would try to use the other generations to this end. A recent example in Vancouver, which reached the proportions of a scandal, was the way renters were treated by owners of wood-frame apartments with a high rate of depreciation, who converted their apartments into condominiums forcing young and old to buy their rented accomodations - a sort of legalized blackmail, reaping an irrat ional prof i t , which was the compensa-tion for no work and no significant additional investment. Similarly, experience is not considered a precious possession to be passed from one generation to another, but is used as an economic weapon by the older generations both to protect themselves and to exploit the new generations as long as possible. Therefore just as in design, there is an interest 1 7 6 . in keeping "the market" as a mysterious notion, despite the fact that it is indeed a vague and volat i le body. Consumism was, in fact, an economic notion masking plain egoism; i t is particularly unfortunate that under the false pretenses of rapidly and cheaply accommodating growing needs a large part of urban North America was built and designed for rapid decay. This trend seems to be even emphasized by newly framed rental and condominium units. It has been noted that the fathers tend to create an environment which is intolerable to the next generation. As architect R. Mann observed "when father trades in real estate in a sel lers' market, he is art i f ic ial ly creating prices which his own son wi l l never be able to match. It's l ike cannibalism. We've created this market and now our own ( 81 children are not going to have a place to l ive in the c i ty ." Two of the most damaging aspects of the a r t i f i c i a l low density of North American cit ies produced by the establish-ment of the single family dwelling as the desirable form of l iv ing are the wild land speculation, especially at the outskirts, and the economic ruin of the municipalities at the core of the modern metropolis. The major burden of the expendi-tures for public f a c i l i t i e s is borne by the c i t ies at the core, which receive none of the suburban homeowners' house taxes, but only their business taxes ( i f they own a business downtown) which must be maintained at a reasonably low level to entice businesses to retain a downtown location. This is one of the 177. f a c t o r s i n a s y s t e m t h a t f o s t e r s t h e e v e n t u a l b a n k r u p t c y o f t h e u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , a s , f o r e x a m p l e , New Y o r k , where t h e c i t y i s i n a d e s p e r a t e f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n w h i l e o u t e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p r o s p e r . The c o s t o f t h e s u b u r b a n s p r a w l i s s e l d o m p u b l i c l y a c k n o w l e d g e d : i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g an e f f i c i e n t ( i n t e r m s o f c o s t , r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t , a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e a v e r a g e member o f t h e p u b l i c and s p e e d ) p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m , t h e r o a d n e t w o r k , t h e n e e d f o r a t l e a s t two c a r s p e r h o u s e h o l d , t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f the p r o p e r t i e s , t h e s a n i t a r y and s t o r m s e w e r s , w a t e r , g a s , t e l e p h o n e , and e l e c t r i c a l l i n e s , t h e l a n d h e l d f o r s p e c u l a t i v e p u r p o s e s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e g i g a n t i c s p r a w l ( i n c r e a s i n g e v e n more t h e d i s t a n c e s , ) t h e d i v i s i o n s , t h e q u a r r e l s and t h e i n d e p e n d e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s p r e a d o v e r a l a r g e a r e a . To j u s t i f y a l l t h i s i n t e r m s o f what "the m a r k e t " w a n t s , one w o u l d h a v e to be b l i n d t o t h e f a c t t h a t the m a r k e t i s c r e a t e d by a r b i t r a r y v a l u e s , and t h a t t h e s e v a l u e s c a n be s u b j e c t e d t o s c r u t i n y and c a n be  c h a n g e d . I t i s b e g i n n i n g to be n o t i c e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t " the m a r k e t " i s p r i c i n g o u t o f t h e s u b u r b a n dream t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e new g e n e r a t i o n s , who w i l l n o t be a b l e t o a f f o r d t h e s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g b e c a u s e o f s k y r o c k e t i n g l a n d v a l u e s . The u l t i m a t e r e s u l t o f t h i s k i n d o f i n f l a t i o n a r y l a n d m a r k e t , where t r a d i n g i n r e a l e s t a t e has b e e n a t r a d i t i o n a l way o f b o t h b e a t i n g and c a u s i n g i n f l a t i o n , w i l l be t h a t o f f o r c i n g a c h a n g e o f l i f e s t y l e . 178. I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e l a n d m a r k e t has n o r m a l l y e x p l o i t e d p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h more t h a n i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h . T h i s w o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n d u s t r i a l a n d t e c h n o l i g i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t s have h a d o n l y a m i n o r i n f l u e n c e on t h e b u l k o f low r i s e f r a m e d d w e 1 1 i n g s . . H o m e r H o y t , i n (9) h i s s t u d y o f C h i c a g o l a n d booms i n t h e c e n t u r y e n d i n g i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h i r t i e s , showed t h a t l a n d and r e a l e s t a t e booms o c c u r r e d a l m o s t i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e r e a l o r e x p e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , w h i c h u n t i l now has n o t b e e n p l a c e d u n d e r c o n t r o l , w h i l e t h e y a r e somewhat i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h . O t h e r f a c t o r s p u s h i n g up l a n d v a l u e s a r e new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s , new d i r e c t i o n s o f e x p a n s i o n and r u m o r s o f e x p e c t e d d e v e l o p m e n t s . But t h e most g e n e r a l f a c t o r p u s h i n g up t h e v a l u e s o f r e a l e s t a t e i s i n f l a t i o n and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e amounts o f c a s h . I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t t h e new t r e n d t o w a r d a no g r o w t h p o l i c y i s c a u s i n g an even g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e o f r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s , b u t t h a t u l t i m a t e l y o n l y z e r o p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h w o u l d make no u r b a n g r o w t h f e a s i b l e : o n c e a l i m i t i s p l a c e d on e x p a n s i o n b o t h h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y , t h e r e i s no way f o r t h e c i t y t o g o . H o w e v e r , i t w o u l d s o o n be f o u n d t h a t e v e n z e r o p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h w o u l d n o t be e n o u g h t o s t o p d e v e l o p m e n t : t h e p e o p l e w i l l n e v e r be s a t i s f i e d w i t h j u s t what t h e y h a v e . I t i s t h i s d r i v e f o r an i m p o s s i b l e dream w h i c h a c t u a l l y i s a t t h e r o o t s o f "the market". But the fact that no growth is proposed is an ultimate evidence of the deeply rooted isolation and egoism of the remedies advanced by the romantic generations. A necessary concluding observation must be that the subdivision of the suburban house and garden is not rational and i t is not the dictate of a free market. Something else would be truer in terms of economy. 180 . APPENDIX Note A In March 1972, in my paper The Suburban Ideal and  the City, I wrote of the towers which complement the fabric of the contemporary suburban-oriented metropolis of detached buildings: "They are considered examples of efficiency and economy, which may be true i f they are considered in isolat ion, yet the economic argument collapses when the expensive towers are observed in the global economy and plan of the city and of i ts suburbs. In addition the present economic cycles of the existing urban situations seem to show that booms in the construction of high rise buildings are repeatedly followed by a rapid and substantial increase of the vacancy rate. The production of towers can flood the market of an average city in a matter of a few years, and has a size, a speed and an inert ia that makes i t d i f f i cu l t to gauge even to developers." On August 5, 1974, "Barron's" magazine published the art ic le Shaky Sky's caper's'.' A Nationwide Glut in Office Space  Has Hit , by D.L. Thomas, where we read: "The situation is equally grim in many cit ies around the U.S. , ranging from Los Angeles and Tulsa to Atlanta and Miami. In some areas, there is a glut of office space that wi l l take four or more years to absorb. The downtown financial d i s tr ic t of Los Angeles has been hit particularly hard: buildings erected six years ago 181. are s t i l l 25% vacant. Moreover, the picture is even worse than i t appears. Besides existing unrented space, numerous buildings are s t i l l in the construction stage. Since i t takes three or four years to plan and build a skyscraper, developers can't stop quickly when rentals dry up. They are forced to complete them and add to the surplus." This is one among the many factors of a compelling evidence that would indicate that a continuous horizontal development of medium density, which can be stopped or started without major financial committments, makes much more economic sense. The true reasons for which isolated skyscrapers are preferred and have been continuously growing for almost a century must be found in motives that have nothing to do with the f ie ld of s tr ic t economic convenience. A compendium on the other problems related with sky-scapers may be read in The Uncertain Future of The American  Skyscraper, published on November 20 , 1972 , by "U.S. News § World Report". In the art ic le we read this observation by Lewis Mumford: "There's nothing revolutionary about the World Trade Centre. Tal l buildings are outmoded concepts - this is Victorian thinking. Skyscrapers have always been put up for reasons of advertisement and publ ic i ty . They are not economically sound or efficient - in fact they are ridiculously unprofitable -and the Trade Centre's fate is to be ripped down as nonsensical." 182 . CHAPTER 6 (2) (3) (4) (5) (1) RICHARD MANN, f r o m "The V a n c o u v e r S u n " , J u n e 23 , 1 9 7 3 , p . 35 . JOHN L O C K E : C o n c e r n i n g C i v i l G o v e r n m e n t , S e c o n d E s s a y , C h a p t e r V , S e c t i o n 25 . D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e , f r o m " A m e r i c a n S t a t e P a p e r s V o l . 43 o f " G r e a t Books o f t h e W e s t e r n W o r l d " by E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a . RUSSEL K I R K : The C o n s e r v a t i v e M i n d , C h i c a g o 1953 , p . 131 From a l e a f l e t i s s u e d by t h e M i n n e a p o l i s C i v i c and Commerce A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1916 , i n CHARLES M. ROBINSON, C i t y P l a n n i n g , New Y o r k , 1916 . (6) P . N U T T G E N S , The L a n d s c a p e o f I d e a s , L o n d o n , 1 9 7 2 , F i g u r e 2 § 3 . " N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c " , F e b r u a r y 1968 , p . 220 & 2 2 1 . RICHARD MANN, f r o m "The V a n c o u v e r S u n , J u n e 2 3 , 1973 , p . 35 . HOMER H O Y T : One H u n d r e d Y e a r s o f L a n d V a l u e s i n C h i c a g o , C h i c a g o 1 9 3 3 . (7) (8) (9) 183. 7. BY-LAWS AND OTHER LEGAL FACTORS It was at the beginning of this century that the intel lectual stage was ready, in North America, for a codification into law of the urban pattern than had been developed. "The view was expressed that i f the new subways produced only increased congestions of l iv ing and business conditions they would be a doubtful benefit to the c i ty . Under the leadership of Mr. McAneny the Board of Estimate and Apportionment appointed a commission in 1913 to study and propose regulations for l imiting the height and size of bui1 dings."^^ This was taking place in New York City. In the cultural background, high Density and disorder had been established for a long time as the enemies of the North American and puritanical way of l i f e . They were seen to be as much a threat to c iv i l i zed man as alcohol. Cities were growing rapidly with a large inflow of immigrants, both from overseas and from the countryside, and with a sporadic rise to great wealth. The law of the jungle-considered according to nature - emphasized by the social and economic theories commonly held at the turn of the century, was having generally upsetting results both in business and in real estate ownership. 1 8 4 . "No landowner in any part of the city could erect a building of any sort with assurance that in ten or twenty years the building would not be obsolete by reason of an unnecessary  and undesirable change in the character of the neighbourhood... It also became evident that improper uses caused injury to  homogeneous areas and were especially productive of premature depreciation of settled loca l i t i e s . One-family, detached -home d i s t r i c t s , possessing trees and lawns, were invaded by apartment houses occupying nearly their entire l o t s . . . Localities of one-family detached homes and apartment houses were invaded by sporadic stores that sought to short-circuit the neighbourhoods by u t i l i z ing e l ig ible corners among the residences.. . Stores were bui l t with windows on the property l ine , thus cutting  off the continuation of front yards on the remainder of the street." The established taste according to which the North American cit ies had been built was clearly threatened. "The flood gates are open. The bars are down. The sally-ports are unguarded. The dam is washed away. The sewer is choked...The scum of immigration is viscerating upon our shores. The horde of $9.90 steerage slime is being siphoned upon us from Continental mud f 3) tanks." Awful tides of immigrants and uncontrollable speculation were creating upsetting and disappointing episodes at the same time that revivalism and the beautification societies were trying to bring the cit ies closer to the romantic ideals. 1 8 6 . High density at the heart of the city was creating a reaction. At the same time that the Woolworth Building was going up "the safety and health of the community" began being studied by a specially appointed Commission. "The Commission recommended in its report that not only height should be regulated, but that area and use were also in need of regulation in the interest  of public health and safety. It was proposed that different regulations should be established for height, area, and use, according to the varying needs of the d i s tr i c t s ." A b i l l which "amended the city charter by introducing dis tr ic t ing provision, and gave the Board of Estimate and Apportionment the power to appoint a d i s tr ic t ing commission to f 7) prepare a resolution and a map" v ' was passed. It is important to note that the principal concern expl ic i t ly expressed is only the interest of public health and safety. There was also a general complaint of chaotic conditions. But such an important step as that of dividing the city into d i s t r i c t s , with stringent regulations defining their plan and character, was taken without any explici t study and choice made regarding the cultural values, implicit in the plan that was going to be crystal l ized into law. One may well suspect that the law was prepared with the purpose of defending the.system of values embodied in the existing plan, and of making them even clearer. One may observe, also, that from the beginning the principal tool for "districting" (later called zoning) was immediately identified with "the map". 187 . It is hard to forget that during the same years that zoning spread across North America and was more and more perfected, a painter l ike Mondrian, as we noted in the f i r s t chapter, developed his taste for perfectly flat compositions of pure lines and colours. The clear separations imposed by the new zoning maps were not necessary. They were responding rather to the new rising attitude of regulating people's l ives , an attitude reflected in the laws curbing immigration and establishing the prohibition  era. It was also an attitude that reflected fear: the laws limiting immigration were openly designed to defend the Anglo-Saxon numerical superiority. "The Commission that framed the New York city charter amendment and the building zone resolution made a careful study of building regulations in European countries, sending investigators abroad for this purpose... The result was that investigators expecting to find laws and maps controlling zoning in the cit ies vis i ted found instead that the building departments, under general authority to make regulations, had made different regulations for different areas. Much of this zoning work was excellently done, after systematic and broad-guage study. But i t was soon discovered that the European examples were not of material aid in this country, where courts could declare void the doings of state or municipal legislatures that imposed unreasonable regulations on private property."'-^ 1 8 8 . The preservations and imposition of romantic ideals through the law created complicated legal problems. Many lawyers could see an infringement on the rights of private property. In order to make the new legislation capable of standing a challenge in the courts, i t had to be done under the police power of the cit ies and to be made so general and uniform that no one could present an obviously legitimate complaint of being victim of injustice or discrimination. The European distribution of authority did not present the same problems, which were typically North American. In the European situations of f ic ia ls had greater discretion and their decisions could be made on the merits of different cases without being obliged to follow an absolutely uniform and egalitarian policy. In addition European cit ies in general had a rather different history and plan, and were not suitable for a s tr ic t subdivision into d i s tr i c t s . Their character and style of l i f e was more mixed, the ownership more irregular and fragmented, the interior of the fabric of the city in most cases radically different. In many European buildings the same undifferentiated facade conceals an expensive luxury dwelling, some middle income apartments, some offices, and maybe even some shops. 1 8 9 . Inside there may be a court or a garden, a landscaped penthouse on top, and outside a busy commercial street with pedestrians, cars, streetcars, perhaps a subway, or a wide and treed boulevard. Originally many light industries were concealed by neutral facades in many parts of European c i t i e s . This, in the North American mind even today tends to be considered disorderly and chaotic -just a mess, a bazaar. Fire dis tr icts in several c i t i es , a use regulation in Los Angeles, and a height regulation in Boston had preceded the division of New York into well defined d i s t r i c t s , but i t was only after the comprehensive laws prepared by New York that the other cit ies started adopting complete zoning ^regulations. ( 9 ) "Noise, vehicles, f ire hazard, l i t t e r , and street congestion", the "canyons" of the streets among skyscrapers, "light and air" among them, were aspects of the city that were subjected to regulations. Only a decade afterwards zoning by-laws reached Vancouver, through an American consultant from St. Louis (Missouri), Harland Bartholomew. It was a need for law and order in the urban confusion that was quickly spreading across the continent. "Law and order" had been established as the opposing ideal counter-balancing the romantic pioneer ideals of the frontier men, of the aggressive free entrepreneurs, of social darwinism and of those who wanted a state of nature in which the stronger and the best are supposed to win. 190 . In the f i r s t decades of the century the blacks had begun spreading into the northern and western cit ies of the continent, immigrants from non-Anglo-Saxon regions were flooding the cit ies and criminal organization were beginning to r ise . The vote to women granted in 1917 in New York state undoubtedly produced another conservative tide, in which "manners", romantic prejudices and law and order came a l l together. The desire to make people's lives better is manifested by the northern and Protestant law prohibiting alcoholic beverages in the United States. For the veterans of the World War a sober world had been prepared. Those who had succeded when freedom and abuse were not separated were obviously feeling that i t was not the case of running the risk of maintaining such an opportunity for abuse for the future generations, or for the newcomers. The fact that a moral attitude toward order was behind the new legislation toward zoning the c i t i es , would explain why the cultural and social implications of the new laws, defending an already rather old and established system, were not suff iciently debated. What kind of order to establish was not felt as an issue. The existing and established ideals were considered good enough. 1 9 1 . "Safety and health" were the concerns that would have been emphasized more and more as an excuse to regulate people's lives according to the accepted prejudices. The same streets of New York city that forty years later Jane Jacobs wi l l find to be the exciting part of the urban fabric, were branded "canyons" and seen as dangerous examples not be continued. "Zoning began by applying regulations to a building on a. lot in ji block - the traditional pattern of urban development" ^*^in North America. These regulations had to be stringent, uniform, and appealing to common values and prejudices in order to stand up as laws. Individuality had to be framed into a common, standard uniform pattern. This was a kind of sc ient i f ic and idea l i s t i c dream. The same romantics who enacted these laws went to live in residential suburban lots where man "is not only master in his own house, but creator of his own world." Individualism there tried to make f u l l use of the liberty that seemed to be provided for i t . It is in the suburb that "each man can see his own handiwork. It may be only a rockery he has built or a tree of his own planting which he can see overtopping the hedge as he turns the corner of the road on his return from the city in the evening, but to some extent he can feel responsible for his environment and thus get a sense of controlling his destiny. 192 . Here we have a clue to much that is puzzling in the suburban scene, and particularly to the origins of suburban f 12) architectural taste". This expression of individualism in "styles" applied to the individual residential building on individual lots, however, had a paral le l in commercial buildings too. In the 1929 issue of A Plan For The City of Vancouver, Brit ish Columbia we read: "Primarily the purpose of zoning is to give s tabi l i ty and character to property so as to encourage development consistent with the highest community service which such property can render. A zoning by-law provides three kinds of regulation swhich affect the uses of property and buildings, the height of buildings and the size and arrangements of buildings upon lots and of open spaces about such buildings. A zonong by-law wi l l encourage like types of structures within distr icts to be determined in accordance with their natural fitness." "Safety and health" required that zoning by-laws be accompanied by building by-laws. This sum total of laws became more and more detailed and stringent to the point where a reaction was bound to manifest i t se l f . This reaction was characterized by crit ic ism of the very existence of by-laws or the content or the effects of the by-laws. Those against by-laws were for the pure theories of "laissez-faire" and of freedom of enterprise, and those c r i t i c i s i n g the content or the effects of the by-laws were fighting for more 193. variety, a greater mix of act iv i t ies , a better role for imagination and art in the c i t i e s . The by-laws have not been analysed and discussed as being the codification of one cultural tradit ion. People became involved with the crit ic ism of details because they did not seem to be able to recognize that these were the symptoms of a cultural tradit ion. Perhaps the true question to ask is on what culture are these laws based? Is i t s t i l l important or good for us? The cri t ic ism was weak because no one recognized the essential question to be presented. The dream of the future city was not spelled out, confronted with alternatives, analysed and worked on in a c r i t i c a l and conscious manner. It is interesting to note the i l lus ion of those who see a form of progress through the existing legal system of by-laws. In 1954 Hugh Pomeroy stated optimistically that "while zoning must s t i l l deal with the traditional lot , block,and street pattern, as i t finds i t , i t must be adapted to large-scale area design concepts in community development, with a different approach to the application of regulations. Considerable progress is being made in that direction. Building design also is under-going great change. It is departing from the meaningless tradit ional in architecture and is approaching a form that is appropriate to the culture and the technology of our own day.* *Pomeroy seems to be confusing facades with architecture. /, 194. While there are persons whose culture is tied to the past and who are a bit uncomfortable in any move away from what was the honest expression of the technology and culture of several centuries ago, nevertheless we should not immure our zoning in that kind of anachronistic situation, but should adapt our zoning methods to f 1 31 the conditions of the day in which we l ive ." 1 The fact is that in these twenty years the pattern established by the legal frame-work, on the contrary, has become more and more stringent. Zoning has not adapted. "When f i r s t zoning laws were passed during World War 1, they were hailed as a way to assure orderly change in urban areas and safeguard property values. Today, cr i t i c s say the reverse is happening. Zoning catches much of the blame for suburban sprawl, ( 1 4 1 inflated housing costs and speculation in land." Sylvan Kamm, land use expert of the American Urban Land Institute, "says the obstacles to better land use are zoning, subdivision rules, sanitary, health and building codes. This should be confronted with the statement contained in the Plan for Vancouver of 1929 in the chapter headed "Zoning". "Vancouver!s experience in respect to the value of zoning is such that a reversion to the conditions obtaining before zoning restructions were imposed would be unthinkable. The good that came out of the interim zoning by-law only increased the desire to put into effect a comprehensive by-law". 195 . The interim zoning by-law had been in force for only two years. When "the good that came out" of the by-laws began to be factually questioned by a large number of people (by 1925 i t had already been seriously questioned authoritatively in the eastern United States), planners discovered "public participation". "Planning began with a civic motivation and found its way into givernment. Shall i t then be left entirely in the hands of bureaucrats -like me, for instance?" - says Pomeroy - "Not at a l l . I do not trust myself to make decisions for the community." The law and the grassroot movements are supposed to come together to produce something somehow better. And yet the existing by-laws are already in some ways an expression.of the wi l l of the people. This is why decades of public participation and of democratic planning are not changing them in any substantial manner. The people seem to be caught part ia l ly in the vicious circle • of the fact that by-laws must be stringent, uniform and general in order to be compatible with the equalitarian principles of democracy as i t is presently understood and established, and that stringent, uniform and general by-laws, s t r i c t l y enforced, have for the individual an effect that takes away much of the liberty for which democracy is established, loved and defended. Yet planning through a system of by-laws is felt as more democratic and flexible than planning through a complete master design produced by an aristocratic e l i te of experts. "The fact is that planning as a separate governmental function adds nothing whatsoever to the powers of government. The regulation of individuals and their property rights results from policy decisions formulated 1 9 6 . and executed by those who exercise the p o l i t i c a l power. Planning, properly conceived, served only as an arm to these p o l i t i c a l representatives to aid them in gathering, evaluating, and interpreting essential data to serve as a basis for making intel l igent policy decisions. Under this concept, the planning function is compatible with the policy making responsibil it ies of either democratic or nondemocratic societies." The differences (17) "arise in the aims, objectives and processes". The problem is that when a plan is enforced through comprehensive by-laws the system becomes so complicated, crystal l ized and uniformly defined, that over as many as forty years only minor items are changed. The law is one of the slowest things to change. Mayors, aldermen, prejudices, even bureaucrats, in time, change, but laws do not. However, the fear of delegating excessive authority to human beings, even i f elected, and often called to public scrutiny, makes people more inclined to l ive under regulations issued in the form of laws and printed on an open book. What happens is that the prejudices of a generation are often written in such a book and transmitted in an inflexible manner over a number of generations unt i l when a formidable reaction develops and causes a radical and total change. Planning through legislation seems to become inhuman. Writing everything into law produces a manual attitude served by a large impersonal bureaucracy. One can reason and develop an understanding with a man, but not with a book of laws. 1 9 7 . When the zoning by-laws were f i r s t introduced, the need for "light and air", the "safety" of buildings, especially with consideration to the danger of f i re , and concern for "health", especially in relation to the dangers due to overcrowding, were emphasized. Even i f these concerns were sufficient to justify the kind of legislation that followed, i t is amazing to see that the tremendous sc ient i f ic and technological advancements of the last f i f ty years have not been given a chance to prove the v iab i l i ty of other urban arrangements, and that what technology has undoubtedly made possible with respect to l ight , a ir , safety and health (almost any arrangement of environmental conditions) is not recognized in any positive manner by the law, s t i l l today. Zones dedicated to "comprehensive development" are simply a space left blank on the planner's map, where a specific arrangement can be agreed with by the city. But a "single family dwelling" (an inst i tution in i t se l f , not less sacred than the Parliament) in the city of Vancouver has to be set back at least twenty-four feet, today as in the nineteen twenties, for example. In the suburban municipalities these limitations were increased. It is interesting to note that after almost a half century since the introduction of zoning by-laws in the City of Vancouver, and while yards are defended a l l around the buildings and high density is s t i l l considered as a dangerous disease, you can s t i l l read provisions for the keeping of "horses, cows, goats, or sheep" . The law has not bothered to recognize views such as those of Jane Jacobs: 1 9 8 . "Things have changed since the days when Ebenezer Howard looked at the slums of London and concluded that to save the people, city l i f e must be abandoned. Advances in fields less moribund than city planning and housing reform, fields such as medicine, sanitation and epidemiology, nutrition and labor legis lat ion, have profoundly revolutionized dangerous and degrading conditions f 191 that were once inseparable from high-density city l i f e . " v ' The principles and philosophy that must, today, inspire the by-laws are established in the Municipal Act of Brit ish Columbia, at section 702: Zoning. 702.(1) The Council may by by-law (hereinafter referred to as a "zoning by-law") (a) divide the whole or a portion of the area of the municipality into zones and define each zone either by map, plan, or description, or any combination thereof; Regulating(b) regulate the use of land, buildings, and structures, uses in zones including the surface of water, within such zones, and the regulations may be different for different zones and for different uses within a zone, and for the purposes of this clause the power to regulate includes the power to prohibit any particular use or uses in any specified zone or zones ; 199 . Cc) r e g u l a t e t h e s i z e , s h a p e , a n d s i t i n g o f b u i l d i n g s a n d s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n s u c h z o n e s , a n d t h e r e g u l a t i o n s may b e d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t z o n e s a n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i f f e r e n t u s e s w i t h i n a z o n e ; ( d ) r e q u i r e t h e o w n e r s o r o c c u p i e r s o f a n y b u i l d i n g i n a n y z o n e t o p r o v i d e o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g a n d l o a d i n g s p a c e f o r s u c h b u i l d i n g , a n d may c l a s s i f y b u i l d i n g s a n d d i f f e r e n t i a t e a n d d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n c l a s s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a m o u n t o f s p a c e t o b e p r o v i d e d , a n d may e x e m p t a n y c l a s s o f b u i l d i n g o r a n y b u i l d i n g e x i s t i n g a t t h e t i m e o f a d o p t i o n o f t h e b y - l a w f r o m a n y o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h i s c l a u s e . Further (2) regulations concerning the public. (a) The promotion of health, safety, convenience, and In making regulations under this section, the Council shall have due regard to the following considerations welfare of the public; (b) The prevention of the overcrowding of land, and the preservation of the amenities peculiar to any zone; (c) The securing of adequate l ight , air and access: (d) The value of the land and the nature of its present and prospective use and occupancy; 2 0.0.. (e) The c h a r a c t e r o f e a c h z o n e , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g s a l r e a d y e r e c t e d , and t h e p e c u l i a r s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e zone f o r p a r t i c u l a r u s e s ; ( f ) The c o n s e r v a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . 1 9 5 7 , c . 4 2 , s . 6 9 9 ; 1 9 5 8 , c . 3 2 , s . 3 0 6 ; 1 9 6 1 , c . 4 3 , s . 4 1 . We n o t e h e r e t h a t a l l t h e r e g u l a t o r y power o f t h e c i t i e s has to be u s e d t h r o u g h w r i t t e n law and t h a t s u c h law must be c o m p r e -h e n s i v e enough t o " r e g u l a t e t h e s i z e , s h a p e , and s i t i n g o f b u i l d i n g s " and to " r e g u l a t e t h e u s e o f l a n d , b u i l d i n g s , and s t r u c t u r e s " , and t o e s t a b l i s h " o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g and l o a d i n g s p a c e " . T h i s amounts t o an a l m o s t c o m p l e t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e f o r m o f t h e c i t y i n i t s e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s . The f r a m e w o r k i s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h o u t i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n , a l l a t o n c e , by l a w . I n a d d i t i o n what i s e s t a b l i s h e d i s n o t a f rame o f t h e u r b a n f o r m o n l y , b u t o f t h e u r b a n s t y l e o f l i f e as w e l l . T he t o o l t o b e u s e d i s d e f i n e d as a "map, p l a n , o r d e s c r i p t i o n " . S u c h a word as " d e s i g n " i s c a r e f u l l y a v o i d e d ; t h e t e r m s h a v e t o s o u n d c o o l l y t e c h n i c a l and l e g a l . The p h i l o s o p h y t h a t i s i m p o s e d i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t to be n o t e d . T h i n g s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a r e " h e a l t h , s a f e t y , o v e r c r o w d i n g o f l a n d , l i g h t , a i r , c h a r a c t e r , c o n s e r v a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . " T h e y a r e t h e same t h i n g s t h a t c o n c e r n e d t h e p l a n n e r s i n New Y o r k C i t y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c e n t u r y . 2 0 1. In addition to the municipal by-laws there are a number of other legal influences over the creation of the urban environment. First among them is the federal lending agency. The agency not only promotes home ownership, especially of single-family dwellings, but establishes the most detailed rules of design and construction, r ig id ly enforced by armies of inspectors and runs tests on materials and performance of components of buildings of a l l sorts. The agency prescribes specifications, contracts and even d e s i g n patterns. It also advises on design and i t publishes a large number of publications, including standard house plans to be chosen by the public, and i t promotes studies and design ideas that i t judges worthy of interest. Private lending authorities normally follow the same path as the federal agency in every respect, thus making universal any trend or decision established by federal authorities. Where there is any doubt that the social , economic, p o l i t i c a l and legal system would s t i l l leave openings to upsetting developments, covenants and deed restrictions regulate the use of the land. The principles followed by the federal and private authorities are normally identical with those stated by the Municipal Act mentioned, and in particular the "conservation of property values, health, and safety". How these judgements of values and conditions are reached is not, normally, a subject of concern or of debate. 2 0 2 . Professor Charles M. Haar, introducing the papers of a comparative study of the legal control of land use in England and the United States, noted: "One of the seminar's functions was to delineate the s imilarit ies and differences between the Brit i sh and the American systems. When a l l the papers had been submitted, i t became clear (with some surprise) that a considerable area of s imilarity exists. True, as with a l l comparative law studies, there are dangers in glossing over differences and being trapped into thinking that use of the same terms - or as Whitehead put i t , use of a common language - means a s imilarity in approach. Yet there is an emergency of truly common principles , not only in respect to the two nations, but within the United States as well: despite the f i f ty state laboratories, there is a more or  less standardized product of american planning and zoning. That the legal resemblances are many seems even more remarkable  in view of the divergencies of physical conditions and experiences  of Great Britain and the United States ." When cultural trends, especially i f tied with racial and religious phenomena, are absorbed without analysis and cri t ic ism, their effect can be sweeping and can manifest i t s e l f in a large number of areas and in the entire family of countries participating in the same movement of ideas. The Anglo-Saxon countries seem to hold the key to the origins of the English garden trend and of the -garden city movement, as part of a particular interest in nature. In the next chapters we wi l l explore aspects of the origins of these interests. 204. CHAPTER 7 (1) E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936, p. 11 (2) E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936, p. 25 (3) M. NOVAK: The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics, New York 1972, p. 117 (4) "The Vancouver Sun", Apri l 11, 1974, p.4 (5) E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936, p. 20 (6) E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936, p. 20 (7) E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936, p. 20 (8) E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936, p. 21 (9) E.M. BASSET: Zoning, New York 1936, p. 25 (10) H. POMEROY: in An Approach to Urban Planning By BREESE £ WHITEMAN, Princeton 1953, p. 24 (11) J .M. RICHARDS: The Castles on The Ground, London 1946, p. 27 (12) J.M. RICHARDS: The Castles on The Ground, London 1946, p. 28 (13) H. POMEROY: in An Approach to Urban Planning, by BREESE & WHITEMAN, Princeton 1953, p. 24 (14) "U.S. News and World Report", March 6, 1972: Fight Over Zoning Heats Up (15) "U.S. News and World Report", March 6, 1972: Fight Over Zoning Heats Up (16) H. POMEROY: In An Approach to Urban Planning, By BREEZE & WHITEMAN, Princeton 1953, p. 24 205 . (17) D.H. WEBSTER: Urban Planning and Municipal Public Policy, New York 1958, p. 8 (18) Vancouver Zoning and Development By-Law No. 3575, 1969, (22/3/66-*4234) (19) J . JACOBS: The Death and Life of Great American Ci t ies , New York 1961 (20) C M . HAAR: Law and Land, Harvard 1964, p. X (21) Tribune Tower Competition, Chicago 1923. 2 0 6 . 8 . HI S T O K I A L AND ETHNIC ORIGINS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN C I T I E S . T h i s c h a p t e r , g o i n g f r o m t h e r u r a l p l a n o f " v o i d s " made by W i l l i a m Penn t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e g a r d e n c i t y , i s d i v i d e d i n two p a r t s : t h e f i r s t e x a m i n e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r u r a l and i d e a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n o f p l a n n i n g and o f t h i n k -i n g f r o m t h e e a r l y N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . T h i s t r a d i t i o n i s p a r a l l e l e d by a r e l a t e d l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . The s e c o n d p a r t e x a m i n e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f modern p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s and t h e c o n s c i o u s N o r t h A m e r i c a n e f f o r t t o p r o m o t e a s u b u r b a n t y p e o f m e t r o p o l i s s i n c e t h e m i d d l e o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I . I t w i l l be u s e f u l to b e g i n w i t h an o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i s t y p i c a l among t h o s e who dream o f a b e t t e r and more a r t i s t i c c i t y , and who do n o t seem t o e x a m i n e t h e r e a s o n s why we c a n n o t h a v e s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t : " A c i t y p l a n i s the e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e p u r p o s e o f t h e p e o p l e who l i v e i n i t , o r i t i s nothing".'""'''' F o r H e n r y C h u r c h i l l , t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t , t h e p l a n o f most c o n t e m p o r a r y c i t i e s t e n d s t o be n o t h i n g , f o r he c o n t i n u e s t h a t "The p r a c t i c e o f c i t y p l a n n i n g c o n s i s t s o f l i n e s on p a p e r and t a b l e s f r o m c a l c u l a t i n g m a c h i n e s . I t i s a d o p t e d i f i t i s m e d i o c r e e n o u g h . " Y e t h i s 207. outcry for more "art" in the design of cit ies is contradictory: like many other similar pleas for a more beautiful c i ty , the practice that he condemns seems to be an actual part of the collective purpose of the poeple, and may be shown to have more profound roots and effects than he realizes. As a rather typical example of many similar superf ic ial i t ies one cannot f a i l to note the picture beside the t i t l e of Churchill 's book: a painting of Toledo, Spain, of dramatic and picturesque effect, but quite unrelated to the his tor ical real i ty of the North American city, and obviously insufficient to give an understanding of the true urban real ity of the town of Toledo. (Figure 1) (2). The tradition of "lines on paper" in North America has distant roots and may be seen at its origins in William Penn's gridiron plan for Philadelphia. (Figure 2)(3). It is a plan that seems to be in the Hippodamic tradit ion, but closer study would indicate that its inspiration comes more directly from the abstract, geometrical, neoplatonic and Cartesian mood of the Renais s ance. HENRY S. CHURCHILL T H E j C I T Y IS T H E P E O P L E R E Y N A L & H I T C H C O C K , N E W Y O R K F i g u r e 1 209 . 210. The f o r m e r c l a s s i c a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e . c o n c r e t e a r r a n g e m e n t o f a l a y o u t o f o b j e c t s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s , i s v e r y r e m o t e , h e r e , e v e n more r e m o t e t h a n i n t h e I t a l i a n i d e a l c i t i e s o f t h e R e n a i -s s a n c e . In P e n n ' s scheme t h e l i n e s a r e an a b s t r a c t g e o m e t r i c scheme s u p e r i m p o s e d on an empty v i r g i n l a n d t o i n d i c a t e v o i d s : b o u n d a r i e s o f r e c t a n g u l a r f i e l d s s u b d i v i d e d i n a c e r t a i n number o f s m a l l e r r e c t a n g u l a r f i e l d s . T h e y a r e m e r e l y f i e l d s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o an i d e a l o r d e r o f g e o m e t r y . In t h e c l a s s i c a l s y s t e m i t was t h e o p p o s i t e : t h e l i n e s meant t h e common s p a c e o f t h e s t r e e t s d i v i d i n g b l o c k s o f u r b a n d w e l l i n g s , w h e t h e r new o r p r e - e x i s t i n g . The p l a n was f u l l , a n d f u l l o f u r b a n o b j e c t s . P e n n ' s s y s t e m i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e t h e same s y s t e m t h a t he f o l l o w e d was c o n t i n u e d and s u p e r i m p o s e d on most o f the e n t i r e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t t a k e n as v o i d . - I n s t e a d o f t a k i n g a l i m i t e d number o f o b j e c t s and o r g a n i z i n g them a c c o r d i n g t o an i d e a w i t h a d e f i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p , a p u r e , p e r f e c t , a b s t r a c t i d e a l w i t h deep p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s was c a s t as an i n f i n i t e m o d e l t o an i n f i n i t e l a n d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h i s r a t i o n a l and g e o m e t r i c i d e a l i s m r e m a i n e d s t r o n g and a l i v e d u r i n g t h e r o m a n t i c p e r i o d , and t h a t i t s i n f i n i t e and a l m o s t m y s t i c a l p e r f e c t i o n a p p e a l e d t o e n g i n e e r s and t o c i t y d e s i g n e r s ( s u c h as t h e f o u n d e r o f S a l t L a k e C i t y ) a l i k e i n l a t e r t i m e s . 211 . In P e n n ' s l a y o u t t h e r e i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t w i l l become o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e l a t e r r o m a n t i c p e r i o d . T h i s i s t h e r u r a l a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n . We h a v e s e e n t h a t h i s C i t y i s a p l a n  o f f i e l d s , on w h i c h a s p a r s e a r r a n g e m e n t o f b u i l d i n g s can be b u i l t , r a t h e r t h a n a p l a n o f a f a b r i c o f b u i l d i n g s , w h i c h m i g h t o r m i g h t n o t c o n t a i n g a r d e n s o r open s p a c e s . T h i s r u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s a l s o r e c o g n i z a b l e i n t h e e a r l y (4) p l a n o f New A m s t e r d a m , i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( f i g u r e 3) b u t i t c a n a l s o be t r a c e d b a c k t o E u r o p e a n e x a m p l e s s u c h as L o n d o n d e r r y , I r e l a n d , o f 1622 , ( f i g u r e 4 ) ^ ^ , o r D e l f t , H o l l a n d o f 1582 , ( f i g u r e 5) ' " ^ . T h e s e a r e towns t h a t a r e a l m o s t a t i g h t and w a l l e d c o n g l o m e r a t e o f f a r m s , w i t h an u r b a n a s p e c t on t h e s i d e t h a t l o o k s o v e r t h e f i e l d . H o w e v e r , s t r e e t s , c h u r c h e s and c a s t l e s h e r e d e f i n e c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e b u i l t up u r b a n e n v i r o n -m e n t s . In P e n n ' s l a y o u t t h i s a s p e c t i s e l i m i n a t e d . I t seems t o be a t o t a l p u r i t a n n i c a l r e j e c t i o n o f t h e e v i l c i t y . The c h o s e n m o d e l i s a d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p a r e s e l y and e q u a l l y l a i d i s o l a t e d f a r m s , s u c h as t h e v i e w o f B e t h l e h e m ( P e n n s y l v a n i a ) o f 1798 (7) w o u l d s u g g e s t ( f i g u r e 6) . (One s h o u l d compare t h i s w i t h Le C o r b u s i e r ' s s k e t c h s e e n i n c h a p t e r t w o ) . We must c o n t r a s t t h i s U t o p i a n , r a t i o n a l i s t i c and r u r a l p l a n n i n g w i t h C h r i s t o p h e r W r e n ' s p l a n f o r R e b u i l d i n g L o n d o n a f t e r f 81 t h e F i r e o f 1666 ( F i g u r e 7) . t h i s i s a p r o d u c t o f E u r o p e a n b a r o q u e t h i n k i n g , u r b a n and c o n c r e t e . H e r e t h e c l o s e d l i n e o f t h e b u i l d i n g s d e f i n e t h e s t r e e t s and t h e r e f o r e t h e c i r c u l a t i o n Figure 3 2 1 6 . 217 . b e t w e e n t h e s o l i d b l o c k s o r t h e u r b a n f a b r i c . The same c o u l d be s a i d o f many o t h e r b a r o q u e p l a n s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h Rome, o f c i t i e s l e s s r e l a t e d t o t h e e a r l y b u l k o f t h e p u r i t a n N o r t h A m e r i c a n m i g r a t i o n . We may n o t e i n s t e a d , a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r -e n ce f r o m t h e " b a r o q u e " p l a n b r o u g h t t o W a s h i n g t o n by L ' E n f a n t . A l t h o u g h t h e c i r c u l a t i o n and t h e a r t e r i a l l i n e s o f t h e g r a n d a v e n u e s c o n n e c t i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l u r b a n e p i s o d e s ( t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e c i v i l g o v e r n m e n t , i n t h e b a r o q u e t r a d i t i o n ) a r e a l l t h e r e , t h e v o i d s o f t h e r u r a l t y p e o f p l a n n i n g f o r a l o n g t i m e have masked and c o n f u s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t r u l y u r b a n b a r o q u e s i t u a t i o n ( s u c h as t h a t o f P a r i s , f o r i n s t a n c e ) , b e c a u s e t h e r e was no f e e l i n g f o r i t and i t was n o t r e a l l y b u i l t . P e o p l e r e m a i n e d c o n t e n t w i t h t h e v o i d s and even t h e r e t h e y i n t r o d u c e d t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m e t r o p o l i t a n p a t t e r n t h a t we d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f i r s t two c h a p t e r s . The v i e w s o f S a n t e Fe (New M e x i c o ) i n 1848 ( F i g u r e 8) ^ and o f S a v a n n a h ( G e o r g i a ) i n 1955 ( f i g u r e 9 and f i g u r e 10) (' 1 0^ add t o t h e p i c t u r e o f t h e g e n e r a l r u r a l t r e n d i n t h e p l a n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . D e n s i t y i s what t r a n s f o r m s t h e f a r m s i n t o c ramped a r r a n g e m e n t s o f v i l l a s i n a g r o w i n g u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t . U l t i m a t e l y t h e s e v i l l a s may become h i g h r i s e b u i l d i n g s , w h i c h p r o b a b l y w i l l be t r e a t e d j u s t l i k e s m a l l b u i l d i n g s , t h a t i s u n i t s i n t h e m i d d l e o f a l a n d s c a p e d l o t . 220. 2 2 1 . We may relate the Utopian rural planning of the early North American colonization with a sort of pre-romantic tradition that saw nature as pure, clean and uncarrupt, and that saw man prone to corrupt himself and the environment. Man-made objects were considered in tr ins i ca l ly inferior to natural products. Some of Andrew Marvell's verses i l lus trate this attitude: "What but a soul could have the wit To build me up for sin to f i t? So architects do square and hew Green trees that in the forest grew". One can see here a distant source of the faith in organicism and of the disl ike for the machine that are so pervasive in Lewis Mumford. The rural character of the early North American c iv i l i za t ion was emphasized by the fact that the migrants not only attached a moral value to farming, but had come to North America to own land. A walled city with a house and no land would have been inconceivable for them as a new place in which to settle. .In fact the idea of settl ing in one place and of owning land were practical ly considered the same. This is why even today the man who owns a house and garden is generally considered more settled than the man who lives in an apartment, even i f the latter owns i t . The attitude of the free artisan in the medieval Italian "compile'1 here was reversed: l iberty was now coming from the land 222. that one could own and farm, not from the p o l i t i c a l independence of the community of the c i ty . The security and pleasures of the walled cities were forgotten and damned with the memory of vice and tyranny. For the migrants who were leaving behind a condition not too different from that of slave labourers the abi l i ty to own land became identified with a sort of citizenship. And for the Calvinist immigrants the ownership of land was not only a proof of l iberty and equality of cit izens, but also of goodness. It was a source of happiness: "The instant I enter my own land, the bright ideas of property, of exclusive right, of independence exalt my mind. Precious s o i l , I say to myself, by what singular custom of law is i t that thou wast made to constitute the riches of the freeholder? What should we American farmers be without the distinct possession of that soil? It feeds, i t clothes us, from i t we draw even a great exuberancy, our best meat, our richest drink, the very honey of our bees comes from this privileged spot. No wonder we should cherish its possession, no wonder that so many Europeans who have never been able to. say that such portion of land was theirs, cross the Atlantic to realize that happiness. This formerly rude soi l has been c converted by my father into a pleasant farm, and in return i t has established a l l our rights, on i t is founded our rank, our freedom, our power, as cit izens, our importance as inhabitants of- such a d i s t r i c t . These images I must confess I always behold with pleasure, and extend them as far as my imagination can reach."^ J The American Revolution was not only a logical conclusion; of this trend, but also an important strengthening factor of the rura l , equalitarian and Calvinist ic morality. George Washington and 223. Thomas J e f f e r s o n were f a r m e r s . C i n c i n n a t u s was h i g h i n t h e minds o f t h e c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l i s t s . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n t h e R o m a n t i c Age, t h e age t h a t r e a l l y made N o r t h A m e r i c a , was a t i t s b i r t h . We have s e e n t h a t s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o l o n -i z a t i o n a g e o m e t r i c and a b s t r a c t dream and a r u r a l and r e l i g i o u s dream were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r e s e n t and s t r o n g l y o p e r a t i v e . T h e r e was a r a t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e a l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urb'an g e o m e t r y and t h e r e was an e m o t i o n a l ; n o n - g e o m e t r i c a t t a c h m e n t t o n a t u r e . R o m a n t i c i s m t r a n s f o r m e d t h e s e dreams i n t o o p p o s i n g e l e m e n t s o f a s t r u g g l e , s o m e t i m e s an i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e  w i t h i n one's s o u l . I d e a l i s m o f t e n e m p h a s i z e d t h e r a t i o n a l and  s c i e n t i f i c a s p e c t s o f l i f e , w h i l e t h e t r e n d t o w a r d a r e t u r n t o N a t u r e t e n d e d t o condemn g e o m e t r i c o r d e r i n f a v o u r o f v a r i e t y  and s e n t i m e n t . The o p p o s i n g i d e a l s o f t h e r o m a n t i c s t r u g g l e , h o w e v e r , were c h o s e n d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . What i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e r o m a n t i c f e e l i n g i s t h e s t r u g g l e o f  e m o t i o n s b e t w e e n o p p o s i n g m o t i f s . T h i s i s one o f t h e r e a s o n s why e c l e c t i c i s m became p a r t o f t h e r o m a n t i c t a s t e . I n t h e p l a n o f H y g e i a , a model town drawn by J.B. P a p w o r t h i n E n g l a n d i n 1827 - t o be b u i l t i n K e n t u c k y a c r o s s t h e O h i o r i v e r f r o m C i n c i n n a t i - we can s e e one o f t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e s o f an e c l e c t i c p l a n , where b o t h t h e i d e a l s o f g e o m e t r i c o r d e r and r i 31 o f n a t u r a l v a r i e t y w o u l d be s e r v e d . I n . t h i s p l a n ( f i g u r e 11) t h e r e a r e v e r y w e l l o r g a n i z e d g e o m e t r i c b l o c k s and p a t h s w i t h an a c c e n t u a t e d and a l m o s t c r a z y c u r v i l i n e a r p a t t e r n i n t h e a r e a o f t h e p a r k s . O r g a n i c n a t u r e and g e o m e t r i c o r d e r a r e somehow b o t h s e r v e d . F i g u r e 11 2 2 5 . B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s d u r i n g t h e R o m a n t i c a g e , l e t us go b a c k a g a i n t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e o f p e o p l e and i d e a s t h a t i m m i g r a t e d t o N o r t h A m e r i c a - and c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f o u r c i t i e s , and t o t h e e a r l y f o u n d a t i o n s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . D o m i n a t i n g E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g N o r t h A m e r i c a i s t h e W h i t e , A n g l o - S a x o n and P r o t e s t a n t e t h n i c g r o u p . I t b e g a n w i t h a g r o u p o f r e f u g e e s w i t h m i x e d f e e l i n g s a b o u t B r i t a i n ; t h e y had been o p p r e s s e d and e x p l o i t e d by c r u e l and f a l s e j u s t i c e , by h y p o c r i t i c a l r e l i g i o n , by e c o n o m i c d e s p a i r , by an a r i s t o c r a t i c c u l t u r e . Y e t t h e y s h a r e d e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f j u s t i c e , r e l i g i o n and c u l t u r e w i t h t h e m o t h e r l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s o u t h , where t h e r e was a c a s t e o f a r i s t o c r a t i c e m i g r a n t s e s t a b l i s h e d o v e r a mass o f s l a v e s . "From t h e b e g i n n i n g " - s a y s Van Wyck B r o o k s i n A m e r i c a 1 s  C o m i n g - o f - A g e - we f i n d two main c u r r e n t s i n t h e A m e r i c a n mind r u n n i n g s i d e by s i d e b u t r a r e l y m i n g l i n g - a c u r r e n t o f o v e r t o n e s and a c u r r e n t o f u n d e r t o n e s - and b o t h e q u a l l y u n s o c i a l : on t h e one h a n d , t h e c u r r e n t o f T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m , o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e p i e t y o f t h e P u r i t a n s , b e c o m i n g a p h i l o s o p h y i n J o n a t h a n E d w a r d s , p a s s i n g t h r o u g h E m e r s o n , p r o d u c i n g t h e f a s t i d i o u s r e f i n e m e n t and a l o o f n e s s o f t h e c h i e f A m e r i c a n w r i t e r s , a n d , as t h e c o h e r e n t i d e a l s and b e l i e f s o f T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m g r a d u a l l y f a d e d o u t , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e f i n a l u n r e a l i t y o f most c o n t e m p o r a r y A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e ; and on t h e o t h e r hand t h e c u r r e n t c a t c h p e n n y o p p o r t u n i s m , o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e p r a c t i c a l s h i f t s o f P u r i t a n l i f e , b e c o m i n g a 226. philosophy i n F r a n k l i n , p a s s i n g through the American humorists, f 14 and r e s u l t i n g i n the atmosphere of contemporary business l i f e . " These two main cu r r e n t s represented the two most common poles of romantic c o n t r a s t i n the debates and i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l development that slowly formed the dream at the b a s i s of the contemporary North American m e t r o p o l i s . On the side of Transcendentalism and of i d e a l i s m there was an i n t e r e s t f o r i n f i n i t y that prepared a f e r t i l e ground f o r the romantic n o t i o n of the sublime: "I know not how to express b e t t e r what my sin s appear to me to be, than by heaping i n f i n i t e upon i n f i n i t e , and m u l t i p l y i n g i n f i n i t e by i n f i n i t e . Very o f t e n , f o r these many years, these expressions are i n my mind and i n my mouth ' I n f i n i t e upon i n f i n i t e - I n f i n i t e upon i n f i n i t e I ' " ^  ^ (Jonathan Edwards). We had noted an i n t e r e s t i n an i n f i n i t e system and i n open spaces i n W i l l i a m Penn's p l a n n i n g . With Jonathan Edwards our a t t e n t i o n may be drawn a l s o to aspects of northern, Anglo-Saxon, p u r i t a n i c a l anguish: "The wrath of God i s l i k e waters f i ft "\ that are dammed f o r the present". "As Jean Paul S a r t r e d i d not f a i l to n o t i c e , the cowboy was the f i r s t e x i s t e n t i a l hero: the s t r a n g e r , the o u t s i d e r , l i v i n g by an a b s u r d i s t code that - though h i s f i a n c e e pleads with him - could only end i n death. For h i s ambition to master 227. the earth, his need to snap the promordial bonds of family and community, his identif ication of freedom with the restless itch to 'move on', spring from his secret love for the in f in i te , which f inite earth cannot contain. The lover of the Infinite must inevitably be k i l l e d . Implied in the American dream of mastery (17) is the ominous imagination of disaster" . And disaster is associated with the growth of the c i ty , which is a non-infinite and confined space and a place of damnation. Wentworth Eldredge pointed out that "we 'Anglo-Saxons' must 'love that c i t y ' . Morton and Lucia White have shown that American intellectuals don't, and a similar survey of Brit ish intellectuals makes clear that this antipathetic stream has a source higher in the h i l l s . Among American intel lectuals , Ralph Waldo Emerson, whose Essay on. Farming was in part reprinted by Frank Lloyd Wright as an appendix to his Broadacre City, described Thoreau in this manner: "No truer American existed than Thoreau, his preference of his country and condition was genuine, and his aversation from Eng-l ish and European manners and tastes almost reached contempt... The men were a l l imitating each other, and on a small mold. Why  can they not l ive as far apart as possible, and, each be a man  by himself? What he sought was the most energetic nature; and he wished to go to Oregon, not to London...He interrogated every custom, and wished to settle a l l his practice on an ideal foun-dation. He was protestant 'a l'outrance*, and few lives contain f 19) so many renunciations. He was bred to no profession.. ."^ J 228 . Benjamin Franklin was an intel lectual and a moralist too, but more inclined to sciences, economics and pol i t ics and to a settled, peaceful, sober urban existence; an insight into his attitude toward the city may come from reading his proposal to the Parisians in order that they stop wasting  money with candies by going to bed and ris ing late: "I say it is impossible that so sensible a people, under such circum-stances, should have lived so long by smokey, unwholesome, and enormously expensive light of candles, i f they had really known, that they might have had as much pure light of the sun for nothing." One might wonder why at the beginning North American cit ies were bui l t at a l l , at least after the war of Independence. We have noticed that Mysticism, Solitude, the love of Nature, of Liberty,of Equality, of Idealism, ..most :of the components of the rise of the romantic movement, were already present since the origins of the development of North America and of its c i t i e s . We must also note that the original bulk of population of the United States and of Brit ish America was made up of a majority of Protestant puritanical farmers and of a minority of scientist-engineers with deep moral interests. There was a very limited l i terary production in the tradition of the Mathers or of a sentimental kind, with a distant memory of the Elizabethan period. It was a new world determined to be new, pure and pract ica l . The new North American cit ies did not gather craftsmen and artists and did 229 . n o t p r o m o t e i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s . C u l t u r e was r e l i g i o n a n d s c i e n c e . A r t was a n e m b e l l i s h m e n t t h a t c o u l d b e i m p o r t e d b y t h e r i c h . T h e C i t y a t b e s t was a p l a c e o f b u s i n e s s t r a n s - a c t i o n s . T h i s i s why t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a b o u t t h e c i t y a r e t h o s e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n o f e n g i n e e r s a n d o f t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e l o v e r s o f n a t u r e , a n d o f s e n t i m e n t a l a n d m o r a l v a l u e s . B e a u t y came a s a n o f f -s p r i n g o f s e n t i m e n t a l v a l u e s , a t a l a t e r t i m e . A d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l , n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h s c i e n c e o r w i t h m o r a l i t y , was c o n s i d e r e d m o r a l l y w r o n g , a n d c o u l d e x i s t o n l y i n E u r o p e . I n t h e E u r o p e a n w o r l d , a n d e v e n e a r l i e r i n G r e e c e a n d Rome, t h e c i t i e s w e r e t h e c e n t r e s o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e . T h e " p o l i s " was w h a t m a t t e r e d . O