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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The October Crisis : focus on several decision models Denoual, Daniel Guy 1974

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1  THE  OCTOBER CRISIS:  FOCUS ON SEVERAL DECISION MODELS by DANIEL GUY DENOUAL H.E.C., 1964, I.E.P., 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n t h e F a c u l t y o f Commerce and Business  Administration  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1974  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  further  for  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  of  at  University  of  Columbia,  the  make  it  that permission  p u r p o s e s may  representatives. thesis  freely  for  available  financial  is  gain  Depa rtment  Date  by  the  Columbia  shall  not  requirements  reference copying of  I  agree  and  copying or  be a l l o w e d  for  that  study.  this  thesis  Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  understood that  written permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  British  the  or  publication  without  my  A B S T R A C T  The purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o f o c u s on a l t e r n a t i v e ways o f p e r c e i v i n g t h e same r e a l i t y :  The a c t i o n s t a k e n by t h e FLQ and  the a u t h o r i t i e s d u r i n g t h e October 1970 c r i s i s . Among t h e abundant l i t e r a t u r e t h a t was p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e c r i s i s and o f t e n w i t h s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l  overtones,  two main a t t e m p t s o f e x p l a n a t i o n have emerged: One t r y i n g t o d e s c r i b e t h e a c t i o n s chosen, as t h e more o r less purposive  a c t s o f u n i f i e d i n s t i t u t i o n s o r groups  (the FLQ, t h e A u t h o r i t i e s ) and which i s o f t e n found among e i t h e r E n g l i s h Canadian commentators o r c l o s e sources t o the Government The  o t h e r one a t t e m p t i n g t o r e l a t e t h e chosen a c t i o n s ,  as t h e r e s u l t a n t o f v a r i o u s b a r g a i n i n g games among p l a y e r s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o r groups ( t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h e a c t i v i s t s , i n t h e case o f t h e FLQ, Quebec, Ottawa and Montreal  i n t h e case o f t h e Government) and which i s  o f t e n found among proponents o f t h e New L e f t o r Quebec Independentists. Two a s p e c t s o f t h e c r i s i s however, have l a r g e l y been i g n o r e d or n e g l e c t e d :  The r o l e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s and t h e r o l e  of the implementation  u n i t s i n t h e shaping  o f Government de-  c i s i o n s , except i n r a r e cases and o n l y t o d e p l o r e t h e i r i n e f f i c i e n c y or t h e i r prejudices.  Given t h i s background, we propose t o f o c u s our a t t e n t i o n on f i v e main q u e s t i o n s :  -  How  can t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e FLQ and o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s be  e x p l a i n e d i n the c o n t e x t o f a u n i t a r y and  comprehensively  rational actor perspective? How  can t h e a c t i o n s o f the FLQ and o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s be  e x p l a i n e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a u n i t a r y and boundedly  rational  actor perspective? -  How  can t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s be e x p l a i n e d , as  b e i n g t h e output o f m u l t i p l e , boundedly r a t i o n a l , s e p a r a t e information units? How  can the outcome r e s u l t i n g from t h e a u t h o r i t i e s ' chosen  a c t i o n be e x p l a i n e d as t h e output o f m u l t i p l e ,  boundedly  r a t i o n a l , separate implementation u n i t s ?  How  can t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e FLQ and o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s be  e x p l a i n e d , as t h e r e s u l t a n t o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s t a k i n g p l a c e among m u l t i p l e , boundedly r a t i o n a l , s e p a r a t e decision units? In t r y i n g t o answer t h o s e q u e s t i o n s , we w i l l draw h e a v i l y on t h e work o f Graham A l l i s o n  (Essence o f D e c i s i o n , L i t t l e  Brown  and Company, B o s t o n , 1971), whose methodology and t e r m i n o l o g y w i l l be used a b u n d a n t l y as f a r as t h e b a s i c concepts a r e concerned.  In many c a s e s , as we have not got any a c c e s s t o " i n t e r n a l " i n f o r m a t i o n , we w i l l t r y t o r e c o n s t i t u t e the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s  from t h e e v i d e n c e a t hand, h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h e developments  that  have t a k e n p l a c e . T h i s same l i m i t a t i o n ( t h e l a c k o f i n t e r n a l i n f o r m a t i o n ) ,  will  l e a d us t o c o n c e n t r a t e m o s t l y on t h e r e p e t i t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f bounded b e h a v i o u r and t o s e a r c h f o r a n t e c e d e n t s among p a s t actions.  In d o i n g s o , we hope t o m i n i m i z e o u r own p r e j u d i c e s and cont r i b u t e t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a c r i s i s which has appeared t o many as a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n Canadian  history.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  The  S e t t i n g : An o v e r v i e w o f t h e events  1.  The FLQ A c t i v i t i e s p r i o r t o October 5, 1970  2. , The P o l i t i c a l S i t u a t i o n i n Canada and i n Quebec i n October 1970 3.  1  2  The Development o f t h e C r i s i s , October 5 t o October 16 .  3  Focus I A: U n i t a r y A c t o r (Comprehensive R a t i o n a l i t y ) 1.  The FLQ o b j e c t i v e s  50  2.  The FLQ o p t i o n s  51  3.  The FLQ chosen a c t i o n  55  4.  The FLQ a n t i c i p a t e d f u t u r e a c t i o n s  58  5.  The A u t h o r i t i e s ' chosen a c t i o n  62  6.  The A u t h o r i t i e s o b j e c t i v e s  67  7.  Had t h e A u t h o r i t i e s o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s  72  8.  V a r i a t i o n s on t h e U n i t a r y A c t o r theme  74  Focus I B:  U n i t a r y A c t o r (Bounded R a t i o n a l i t y )  1.  A n t e c e d e n t s o f t h e FLQ chosen a c t i o n  77  2.  A n t e c e d e n t s o f t h e A u t h o r i t i e s chosen a c t i o n  79  Focus I I :  M u l t i p l e Separate Information Units  (Bounded R a t i o n a l i t y )  1.  The R.C.M.P. as an i n f o r m a t i o n  unit  2.  The o t h e r P o l i c e Forces as i n f o r m a t i o n  3.  C o o p e r a t i o n between t h e t h r e e P o l i c e Forces  91  4.  Resulting d i s t o r t i o n s i n Organizational  92  5.  The Mass Media as i n f o r m a t i o n  units  86 units  Intelligence  90  103  VI  Focus I I I : M u l t i p l e S e p a r a t e Implementation U n i t s (Bounded R a t i o n a l i t y ) 1. 2.  The Implementation o f t h e W.M.A. i n o t h e r P r o v i n c e s t h a n Quebec  106  The Implementation o f t h e W.M.A. i n other. P r o v i n c e s t h a n Quebec  108  2. 1 The A r r e s t P r o c e s s  108  2. 2 The D e t e n t i o n P r o c e s s  119  2. 3 The I n d i c t m e n t P r o c e s s  123  2. 4  The J u d i c i a l  Process  :  126  Focus IV: M u l t i p l e S e p a r a t e D e c i s i o n U n i t s (Bounded R a t i o n a l i t y ) 1.  2.  The FLQ 1. 1  " T h i n k e r s and Men o f A c t i o n "  130  1. 2  L i b e r a t i o n C e l l and C h e n i e r C e l l  131  The A u t h o r i t i e s 2. 1 Some E v i d e n c e on t h e P u s h i n g and H a u l i n g P r o c e s s  136  2. 2 The A c t i o n Channels I n v o l v e d  142  2.3  The A c t o r s  148  2. 4  Issues i n C o n f l i c t  156  Bibliography  162  Appendixes Appendix I  FLQ Reported A c t i o n s 1963-1970  168  Appendix I I  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r t o f t h e R.C.M.P  169  Appendix I I I Summary o f t h e I n d i c t m e n t P r o c e s s  170  Appendix IV  Summary o f t h e A c t i o n Channels I n v o l v e d  172  Appendix V  S t a t u s o f t h e 23 P o l i t i c a l P r i s o n e r s  173  Appendix VI  A l l e g e d Communications between J . C r o s s , P. L a p o r t e and t h e A u t h o r i t i e s  175  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE I  A c t o r s i n the F e d e r a l Government  TABLE I I  A c t o r s i n the P r o v i n c i a l Government  TABLE I I I  A c t o r s i n the M u n i c i p a l Government  TABLE IV  Summary o f the Indictment  TABLE V  S t a t u s o f the 23 P o l i t i c a l  Process  Prisoners  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE I  FLQ Reported A c t i o n s  FIGURE II  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Chart o f t h e R.C.M.P.  FIGURE I I I  Summary o f t h e A c t i o n Channels i n v o l v e d  THE SETTING: AN OVERVIEW OF THE EVENTS  THE FLQ ACTIVITIES PRIOR TO OCTOBER 5, 1970 As shown i n Appendix I , d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f 7 y e a r s (from 1963 t o 1970) t h e FLQ (or s i m i l a r movements) a c c o m p l i s h e d more t h a n 200 v i o l e n t a c t i o n s , m o s t l y i n t h e M o n t r e a l a r e a .  Among t h o s e  a c t i o n s more than h a l f o f them were bombings, t h e o t h e r s b e i n g e i t h e r t h e f t s o f m i l i t a r y equipment ( r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r s , u n i forms, arms, and ammunition)or hold-ups.Most o f them were directed against  Federal  I n s t i t u t i o n s (armouries, p u b l i c  b u i l d i n g s ) o r t r a d i t i o n a l symbols o f E n g l i s h Economic i n f l u e n c e (the M o n t r e a l Stock Exchange, U.S. f i r m s o r l o c a t i o n s i n t h e Westmount a r e a ) , b u t a few o f them managed t o r e a c h such d i v e r s e t a r g e t s as t h e home o f Mayor Jean Drapeau, t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e o f t h e C.N.T.U. ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Quebec Trade Unions) o r even t h e greenhouse a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y .  D u r i n g t h o s e seven y e a r s , those v i o l e n t a c t i o n s caused t h e d e a t h o f s i x p e r s o n s and l e d t o t h e a r r e s t and c o n v i c t i o n o f s u c c e s s i v e groups o f a c t i v i s t s who were condemned t o p e n a l t i e s r a n g i n g from 5 y e a r s t o l i f e I n 1965,  imprisonment.  t h e movement had r e c e i v e d t h e s u p p o r t and a p p r o v a l o f  some members o f t h e l e f t wing i n t e l l i g e n t s i a  ( l i k e Gagnon  and V a l l i e r e s ) , who r a p i d l y became t h e more o r l e s s o f f i c i a l spokesmen and t h e o r i s t s f o r t h e cause, c l a i m i n g an a c t i v e s o l i d a r i t y w i t h t h e P a l e s t i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n s t r u g g l e and t h e B l a c k Panthers.  I n 1967,  V a l l i e r e s and Gagnon were charged w i t h ho-  m i c i d e ( i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e La Grenade bombing which had caused t h e death o f one employee) and were f i n a l l y r e l e a s e d on b a i l i n May 1970.  A f t e r a f i r s t t r i a l r e p l e t e w i t h e r r o r s and  e x c e s s e s which s t i r r e d numerous p r o t e s t s i n t h e r a n k s o f t h e Quebec New L e f t and l e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e M.D.P.P.Q. (Mouvement de Defence des P r i s o n n i e r s P o l i t i q u e s Quebecois)  On t h e o t h e r hand, a t t h e s o c i a l l e v e l , t h e s e p a r a t i s t  cause  had been r e p e a t e d l y connected w i t h m a n i f e s t a t i o n s l e a d i n g t o v i o l e n c e mostly  i n the Montreal  area.  Bill  63 (on t h e language  i s s u e ) , S t . J e a n B a p t i s t e day, Murray H i l l a f f a i r , and t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n s t r i k e i n 1969, frontations  had developped i n t o v i o l e n t con-  and i n one case l e d t o t h e l o s s o f a human l i f e  (shot by an u n i d e n t i f i e d  sniper)  THE POLITICAL SITUATION IN CANADA AND QUEBEC IN OCTOBER 1970 In t h e two y e a r s p r e c e e d i n g  t h e c r i s i s , s e v e r a l changes had  t a k e n p l a c e on t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l  scenes:  i n 1968 P.E. Trudeau, a f r e n c h Canadian had been nominated at t h e head o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y and won a f e d e r a l  election  on b o t h h i s p e r s o n a l a p p e a l , h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o h a n d l e t h e Quebec problem and a r e j u v e n a t e d i n 1968 E x - N a t u r a l  program  Resources M i n i s t e r  Rene Levesque, l e f t  the Quebec L i b e r a l P a r t y t o r e g r o u p t h e proponents o f i n dependance i n t h e P r o v i n c e under t h e banner o f t h e P a r t i Quebecois i n J a n u a r y 1970,  Robert B o u r a s s a , w i t h t h e a c t i v e support o f  t h e p a r t y machine and t h e " q u i e t support  o f Ottawa" was no-  m i n a t e d as t h e s u c c e s s o r o f J e a n Lesage as l e a d e r o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f Quebec, l a r g e l y d o m i n a t i n g  h i s two opponents  P i e r r e L a p o r t e and Claude Wagner -  On A p r i l 29, 1970, d u r i n g a c l o s e l y watched e l e c t i o n , R. Bourassa was e l e c t e d on a p l a t f o r m o f economic r e f o r m  (100,000  j o b s f o r Quebec) w i t h a m a j o r i t y o f 72 seats.Among t h e opp o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , t h e f i r s t appearance o f t h e P a r t i Quebecois on t h e E l e c t o r a l scene n e t t e d i t w i t h 23% o f t h e v o t e s ,  m o s t l y a t t h e expense o f t h e Union N a t i o n a l e ( t h e P a r t y o f l a t e M a u r i c e D u p l e s s i s ) w h i c h h a v i n g dropped from 41% t o 20% o f t h e v o t e s was n e v e r t h e l e s s r e t a i n e d as t h e O f f i c i a l Oppos i t i o n i n t h e N a t i o n a l Assembly. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRISIS: OCTOBER 5 TO OCTOBER 16 In t h i s s h o r t summary we have t r i e d t o r e g r o u p t h e v a r i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o an e x t e r n a l o b s e r v e r d u r i n g t h e crisis.  T h i s means t h a t we have l i m i t e d o u r d e s c r i p t i o n  m o s t l y t o o f f i c i a l statements  and r e p o r t e d f a c t s a v a i l a b l e t o  the p u b l i c a t t h e time o f t h e c r i s i s . In d o i n g so we have p r o b a b l y n e g l e c t e d v a l u a b l e p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a t l e a s t a t t h i s l e v e l o f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n , b u t we have c o n s i d e r e d t h a t o u r purpose was n e i t h e r t o g i v e a " t o t a l " account o f t h e s i t u a t i o n (which would have been m i s l e a d i n g , s i n c e d e c i s i o n makers were a c t i n g on i n c o m p l e t e  information)  o r an " a c t o r - c e n t e r e d " account (which would have r e s t r i c t e d o u r a n a l y s i s t o one d e c i s i o n maker)  In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c o n t i n u i t y , t h e events t a k i n g p l a c e from October 5 t o October 16, have been c l a s s i f i e d by date and type o f o r i g i n a l sources  (Liberation  C e l l , C h e n i e r C e l l , P r o v i n c i a l Government, F e d e r a l Government, M u n i c i p a l Government, P o l i c e F o r c e s , Media, Canadian Armed Forces and o t h e r s ) .  /  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.)  CHENIER CELL (CC.)  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.GO  i  08.15 Cross abduction (1279 Redpath Crescent, by 4 men i n a car b e a r i n g a L a S a l l e t a x i domelight) L.B. Comm #1 Deadline = 48hrs. In exchange f o r the s a f e r e l e a s e o f J . Cross the ^ a u t h o r i t i e s must: 1. Release 23 p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s whose names where listed 2. Provide an a i r c r a f t f o r t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o Cuba or A l g e r i a 3. Turn over $500,000. i n gold bars 4. R e i n s t a t e the Lapalme postal drivers 5. I d e n t i f y the informer who helped p o l i c e apprehend members of another FLQ c e l l 6. P u b l i s h (newspapers, r a d i o , T.V.) the f u l l t e x t o f the FLQ i manifesto } ] 7. Cease a l l p o l i c e a c t i v i t i e s S r e l a t e d t o the kidnapping  15.00 Quebec J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r J . Choquette makes a p u b l i c statement o u t l i n i n g the ransom demands and r e f u s e s t o answer any question at l e a s t u n t i l . a f t e r an emergency Cabinet meeting l a t e r i n the day Incident at the end: J.C. t e l l s R. Lemieux: "Go and see your p a l s and t e l l them to f r e e Cross 20.00 A f t e r a three hour evening Cabinet meeting i n Quebec C i t y , Mr. Choquette says o n l y "We are i n c l o s e contact w i t h the F.G. and any a c t i o n taken on the kidnapping w i l l be a joint effort."  /  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  A communication c e n t e r w i t h an adhoc f o r c e i s l o c a t e d i n the East Block 14.40 M. Sharp makes a b r i e f statement i n the commons mentionning: The abduction o f J . Cross The c l o s e c o n s u l t a t i o n s between t h e F.G. and t h e B r i t i s h , P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l Governments -  The awareness o f the F.G. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the protection of foreign representatives  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.)  20.00: Mayor J . Drapeau during s e v e r a l broadcasted i n t e r v i e w s emphasizes t h a t the present s i t u a t i o n has been prepared by those (although no t e r r o r i s t s themselves) who have manifested f o r the l a s t years.  POLICE FORCES (P.F.)  08.35 A f t e r some confusion Montreal P o l i c e reaches the Cross home. A general alarm i s issued: A l l the bridges and tunnels from Montreal I s l a n d are closed. The combined a n t i - t e r r o r i s t squad (M.P. § R.C.M.P. § S.Q.)' begin checks on a l l known members o f t e r r o r i s t s or r a d i c a l independantist movements.  MEDIA  10.25 Radio Canada Broadcasts the nexs o f Cross abduction 12.00 An anonymous telephone c a l l directs radio s t a t i o n CKLM t o L.B. Comm #1 ( which the p o l i c e f o r c e s manage t o seize before the media)  CANADIAN ARMY  OTHERS  A speaker f o r the M.D.D.P.P.Q. (Defence Movement f o r the P o l i t i c a l P r i s o n e r s i n Quebec) p r e c i s e s t h a t the Movement has nothing t o do w i t h the kidnapping and the press has j u s t t o l d him the news  /  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.)  12.00  L.B. Comm #2  1. Mentions a l e t t e r sent by Cross t o h i s wife 2. Ask the newsmen t o cooperate, i n "breaking the w a l l o f s i l e n c e erected by f a c i s t p o l i c e who s t e a l s the communiques addressed t o the media 3. Wants the a u t h o r i t i e s to comply w i t h the demands 4. S t r e s s e s c o n d i t i o n s 3 and 5 o f L.B. Comm #1  CHENIER CELL (CC.) .  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.G.)  9.00 The Cabinet meet t o d i s c u s s the s i t u a t i o n  i  Quebec J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r j Jerome Choquette mentions t h a t he has i n i t i a t e d t a l k s w i t h the three i m p l i e d p o l i c e f o r c e s , and t h a t he intends to communicate w i t h G. M c l l r a i t h who i s i n charge o f the R.C.M.P. on the problem o f the r e s p e c t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n s of-the f o r c e s . He remarks however t h a t the Quebec J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r i s l e g a l l y i n charge of the implementation o f the law Premier Bourassa confirms h i s agreement t o Ottawa's a t t i t u d e and decides t o maintain h i s t r i p t o New York on Thursday  i !  /  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  9.00 Inner Cabinet meeting, whose apparent d e c i s i o n i s to r e j e c t the FLQ demands 20.00 M. Sharp d e c l a r e s i n the Commons t h a t : "I need h a r d l y t o say, t h i s set o f demands w i l l not be met ... I continue however to hope t h a t some b a s i s can be found f o r Mr. Cross safe r e t u r n . I hope the abductors w i l l f i n d a way to establish.communications to achieve t h i s "  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.) .  MEDIA  POLICE FORCES (P.F.)  P o l i c e f o r c e s begin t o keep 'under o b s e r v a t i o n ' as many FLQ members as they knew  9.30 L.B. Comm #1 i s broadcasted 16.,00 L.B. Comm #2 d e l i v e r e d a t the home o f a CKAC j o u r n a l i s t CKLM i s informed t h a t a message f o r the Canadian Government has been deposited i n a Bus s t a t i o n (L.B. Comm #3?)  Mr. Heath confirms h i s agreement on Ottawa's a t t i t u d e and put Mr. G. Rippon i n charge o f communications between the two governments Prime M i n i s t e r Garden Party  i  oo  OTHERS  CANADIAN ARMY  -  100 Winch 30-30 carbines are s t o l e n from Japanese ship i n Trois Rivieres (50 m i l e s from Montreal) R. Lemieux accuses Ottawa of p l a y i n g a c a t and mouse game w i t h the l i f e o f Mr. Cross  -  I  t i  I I t  1  Newspapers mention t h a t the d r a f t ransom note recovered i s almost i d e n t i c a l t o the one used i n an e a r l i e r FLQ plot  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.) .  j I 3 I  12.00 (?) L.B. Comm #4: The present a u t h o r i t i e s , get a 24 hour e x t e n s i o n t o who t h e i r good f a i t h i n :  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.C)  CHENIER CELL (CC.)  11.00 Press Conference from J . Choquette where he mentions that: -  Broadcasting i n f u l l the FLQ manifesto  "The governments are ready to i n v e s t i g a t e a l l p r a c t i c a l means out o f t h i s impasse.  P u t t i n g an immediate end to p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s WEDNESDAY OCTOBER 7  The Comm mentions t h a t " J . Cross l i f e w i l l not be endangered f o r a q u e s t i o n of d o l l a r s " Plus two l e t t e r s from J . Cross one t o h i s w i f e , one t o the authorities  The abduction has had. a negative e f f e c t ' o n t h e population  -  He w i l l continue t o make himself a v a i l a b l e during the next 36 hours .  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.) .  In the commons P.M. Trudeau confirms " t h a t he i s not decided t o leave the n e g o c i a t i o n s t o the Quebec government"  POLICE FORCES (P.F.)  At dawn p o l i c e r a i d s "a number o f houses" and take 27 men and 3 women i n t o custody. Unsuccessful t e n t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f suspects by Mrs. Cross i s r e p o r t e d i n the afternoon  Governor General's p a r t y to c e l e b r a t e the beginning o f the 28th legislature 22.00 O f f i c i a l statement read by M. Sharp, where he announces t h a t :  | I j  1  the manifesto w i l l be broadcasted  i j  the government needs 'a p r e c i s e b a s i s on which i t can be assured of Mr. Cross safe r e l e a s e '  j j i \  the s e t o f seven o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n s i s wholly unreasonable  \ J |  some acceptaole means o f communication are t o be arranged between the government and the abductors (he suggests them to "name some person")  5 \ j | j j  ! S  \ t  i  -  A s s i s t a n t Montreal P o l i c e D i r e c t o r P.E. O l i v i e r says the f o r c e s ' work was being hampered by the c o l l e c t i o n , copying and handling o f • FLQ messages by r a d i o s t a t i o n s before p o l i c e had a chance t o examine them. " I t seems some r a d i o s t a t i o n s and other newsrooms have c l o s e r contacts w i t h the FLQ than we do"  MEDIA  Canadian Press mentions t h a t 10,000 s t i c k s o f dynamite have been s t o l e n i n Quebec | so f a r t h i s year | 1:30 L.B. Comm #4 i s |. brought a t CKLM by a cabbie The FLQ manifesto i s read on CKAC  OTHERS  CANADIAN ARMY  ! «  Robert Lemieux  | j |  -  !  i  I  contacts (and i s contacted) by t h e p r i s o n e r s mentioned i n L.B. Comm #1  j j j I j j  declares that the a u t h o r i t i e s should stop to make "vague and incautious declarations" and appoint a n e u t r a l intermediary  j !  mentions during a Radio Canada i n t e r v i e w t h a t p o l i c e a c t i v i t i e s are s t i l l t a k i n g place  i  i j I | }  M. Sharp mentions t h a t a communique found i n a l o c k e r a t Ottawa"s bus t e r m i n a l and i n s i s t i n g on compliance w i t h f i v e demands o f the FLQ, i s assumed t o be a hoax  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.) ,  12.00 L.B. Comm #5 I f a t I 24.00 the a u t h o r i t i e s have I not broadcasted the manifesto § and put an end t o p o l i c e I a c t i v i t i e s , t h e FLQ w i l l | be o b l i g e d t o do away w i t h j. Cross The a u t h o r i t i e s a r e asked to s p e c i f y what they d e s c r i b e as i r r a t i o n a l demands  THURSDAY  CHENIER CELL (CC.)  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.C)  Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa leaves f o r N.Y. c i t y . A f t e r saying t h a t "The problems a t home a r e no reason enough f o r me t o cancel t h i s t r i p . I have a plane ready and Montreal i s j u s t one hour away " P. Laporte i s (defacto) Acting Premier o f t h e province  I  OCTOBER 8  i - The idea o f a mediator i s r e j ected  "Cross w i l l be r e l e a s e d w i t h i n 24 hours f o l l o w i n g the r e a l i z a t i o n o f another c o n d i t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h the l i b e r a t i o n o f 'consenting', p o l i t i c a l prisoners"  23.00 A f t e r the manifesto d i f f u s i o n J . Choquette srefuses to make any statement sabout a moratorium on P o l i c e |Activity  i  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  Ottawa i s s a i d t o have prepared a l i s t o f people i t might name as i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and t h a t a choice was t o be made i n the l i g h t o f whom the FLQ choose For the f i r s t time i n Ottawa Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau's limousine was preceded and f o l l o w e d by "ghosts" c a r s . Uniformed and p l a i n c l o t h e d p o l i c e have followed him a l l the day i n governmental b u i l d i n g s Speech from the Throne J.P. Cote (Post Master General) confirms the Government does not c o n s i d e r modifying i t s p o s i t i o n i n the Lapalme question  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.) .  MEDIA  POLICE FORCES (P.F.)  6 persons are a r r e s t e d (among them a former s t a n d a r d i s t i n the Premier's o f f i c e ) One o f the kidnappers i s said t o have been identified. Police i s rumoured f r e q u e n t l y t o be w i t h i n hours o f l o c a t i n g the kidnappers. The Montreal Devoir r e p o r t s t h a t "without making any p u b l i c statement, t h e a u t h o r i t i e s have asked the p o l i c e f o r c e s t o reduce t h e i r search a c t i v i t i e s a t a minimum, as r e l a t e d t o the l o c a l i s a t i o n o f Mr. Cross' abductors" (mentioned under the c o n d i t i o n a l "croit-on savoir")  14.30 A t i p t o CKLM leads to L.B. Comm #5 22.30 The FLQ manifesto i read on Radio Canada  1 t  I  Meeting between Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau and J.P. S a u l n i e r (Montreal, P r e s i d e n t o f the C.U.M.)  j  CANADIAN ARMY  Late i n the n i g h t troops a r e moved at high speed from the base a t V a l c a r t i e r (near Quebec C i t y ) t o Ste Therese (about 15 m i l e s North o f Montreal). The movement i s described as a r o u t i n e exercise a l e r t  OTHERS  R. Lemieux d e c l a r e s on a press conference " t h a t the F.G. c l a i m s i t wants t o negociate ... but a l l t h i s i s another way t o t r y t o f o o l the FLQ w h i l e g a i n i n g as much time as p o s s i b l e so the p o l i c e can f i n d where the kidnappers are h o l d i n g Cross and so they can s t a r t a g u n f i r e and cause an execution  /  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.)  L.B. Comm #6 8.00: 2 c o n d i t i o n s t o save J . Cross' l i f e : 1. Freedom f o r the 23 Pol i t i c a l P r i s o n e r s and t h e i r t r a n s p o r t to A l g e r i a o r Cuba FRIDAY  | i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , a r r e s t s and S t o r t u r e s by the " f a c i s t • police"  OCTOBER 9 I 18.00 L.B. Comm #7 (dated | Oct. 8?) • -  I  | Warns against the f a c t t h a t | Comm #6 has not been published f Give the a u t h o r i t i e s u n t i l § Saturday 18.00 t o s a t i s f y | c o n d i t i o n (1) from Comm #6  I t,  1  CHENIER CELL (CC.)  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.G.)  15.00 Mr. Choquette r e l e a s e s a b r i e f message t o the kidnappers asking f o r p r o o f t h a t J . Cross i s s t i l l a l i v e  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.)  POLICE FORCES (P.F.)  MEDIA  R. S t a n f i e l d asks the Prime M i n i s t e r i n the Commons whether there i s any new development i n the Cross a f f a i r  A member o f the P r o v i n c i a l | 20.40- A copy o f Comm #6 force says that the Force | and Comm #7 and a l e t t e r has j u s t conducted i t s 1000 | from J . Cross a r e brought a t 1st f a l s e r a i d S CKLM  A... No, Mr. Speaker  Jacques Lanctot i s i d e n t i f i e d as one o f Cross's abductors  The Department o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s a f f i r m s that Ottawa has never r e c e i v e d Comm #6  P.F.arrest one o f CKAC r e p o r t e r s and s e i z e FLQ communiques  •  CANADIAN ARMY  24 t r u c k s loaded w i t h t r o o p s , seen i n Montreal ( r o u t i n e e x e r c i s e says an Army Spokesman)  OTHERS  j j j  j  /  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.)  CHENIER CELL (CC.)  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.G.)  In c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f bad weather c o n d i t i o n s , Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa cancels a meeting w i t h Ted Kennedy i n Boston and d i r e c t l y returns to Montreal from N.Y. C i t y  18.18 P. Laporte i s abducted by 4 men i n f r o n t o f h i s home  17.30 J . Choquette (on r a d i o ) -  SATURDAY OCTOBER 10  r e j e c t s n e g o c i a t i o n s over the f a t e o f t h e 23 prisoners o f f e r s safe conduct t o a f o r e i g n country (as a f i n a l concession t o save t h e l i f e o f Mr.Cross The F.G. has i n s t r u c t e d me that i t i s prepared . t o ...)  -  proposes " s o c i a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , acceptance of change, and t h e r a l l y i n g o f a l l Quebecois around a common i d e a l " Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa comes back t o Montreal and confers w i t h P.E. Trudeau  !  i  /  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  M. Sharp i s contacted by J . Choquette and asked t o approve the general content o f h i s 17.30 conference  POLICE FORCES (P.F.)  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.)  18.30 Montreal P o l i c e a r r i v e s at Laporte's home i n St. Hubert -  Prime M i n i s t e r s t a t e s t h a t he won't attend the UN 25th a n n i v e r s a r y ceremony, during next week  W i t h i n minutes a general alarm i s sounded. Main i n t e r s e c t i o n s are blocked So are a l l bridges and the tunnel l i n k i n g the South Shore to the I s l a n d of Montreal  MEDIA  13.00 Radio Canada announces t h a t Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau w i l l apecify i t s d e f i n i t i v e a t t i t u d e a t 15.00 Several rumours about an FLQ Comm  P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e begins a s s i g n i n g guards t o the homes o f a l l Cabinet M i n i s t e r s and other p u b l i c f i g u r e s , who might become kidnap v i c t i m s -  The c o m b i n e d ' a n t i - t e r r o r i s t f o r c e c a r r i e s out "scores of r a i d s " . Five suspects are s a i d to have been j identified i  o  7"  CANADIAN ARMY  OTHERS  18.30: Troups (10 t r u c k s ) move from V a l c a r t i e r base (near Quebec) t o Ste Therese (near Montreal) Army spokesman p r e c i s e t h a t t h i s movement i s only a normal p a r t of the e x e r c i s e Night Hawk t a k i n g place a t Camp Bouchard  The Ambassador o f A l g e r i a moves from Ottawa t o Montreal In the l a t e evening P. Bourassa phones C. Ryan who mentions : "That as long as government i s not a r e f l e c t i o n of a l l the t r u e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s which are a t work i n Quebec, we w i l l have t h i s k i n d o f problem. You are going to be shaken by c r i s i s like this..."  /  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.)  I 22.00 L.B.  Comm #8  v  i | 1. Repeat the l a s t 2 demands | contained i n L.B. Comm #6 I  SUNDAY OCTOBER 11  | 2. Proposes t h e i r "word o f \ honour" as guarantee f o r the ! r e l e a s e o f Cross and Lacorte f ; 3. Does not f i x a time l i m i t ) and considers a prompt answer I as a demonstration o f good I f a i t h by the a u t h o r i t i e s ' P l u s l e t t e r from J . Cross \ "Thank you f o r saving my l i f e ! and that o f Mr. Laporte" f. 4. R. Lemieux proposed as intermediary  CHENIER CELL (CC.)  | ! s • { j | | } i j i | v [  8.00 C C Comm #1 e x p l a i n s t h a t the stuborness o f the a u t h o r i t i e s has lead t o the kidnapping o f P. Laporte and mentions that he w i l l be executed Sunday n i g h t a t 10: P.M. i f between now and then the r u l i n g a u t h o r i t i e s have not acceeded t o the 7 demands ( i n conformity w i t h plan 3 established e a r l i e r t o provide f o r such a r e f u s a l ) - C C Comm #2 ( l a s t ) warns that:  5 \ \ j \ j j ] i |  i  l 1 I » I fi | i |  L i b e r a t i o n c e l l should send the a u t h o r i t i e s "a communique summing up the s i t u a t i o n " I f by 10: P.M. t o n i g h t the 2 Governments have not favourably met the 7 c o n d i t i o n s set by the FLQ P. Laporte w i l l be executed  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.G.)  j 16.00 Meeting o f the Cabinet j a t the Queen E l i z a b e t h Hotel j i n Montreal - Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa | r e c e i v e s a l e t t e r from P. j Laporte "my l i f e i s i n your s hands"  i  i - Two P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r s I v i s i t Mrs. Laporte, Prime | M i n i s t e r Bourassa phones her  j i | I 3 I  ! ! | | |  3  21.55 A f t e r some d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r s , Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa broadcasts "an ambiguous statement" where he asks the kidnappers t o contact the Government t o d i s c u s s mechanisms t o ensure t h a t the l i b e r a t i o n o f p r i s o n e r s would i n f a c t r e s u l t i n the s a f e t y o f the hostages  ! " I t i s because we t r u l y want 1 to save Mr. Laporte and Mr. I Cross, t h a t before d i s c u s s i n g Confirms the a u t h e n t i c i t y i the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the demands o f C C Comm #2 < made, we want t o e s t a b l i s h j mechanisms which would guaSuggests that i f Cross i s s t i l l a l i v e L i b e r a t i o n c e l l I rantee the s a f e t y o f the 2 I hostages i f the P o l i t i c a l produces an 8th Comm which 1 p r i s o n e r s are r e l e a s e d " w i l l be followed by a new 3 Comm that w i l l give i t s j P.M. Bourassa i s reported t o • d e c i s i o n about Laporte |\ have mentioned that a stpoe cimialty law could be prepared C C  Comm #3 ( l a s t )  M  I'  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  Warns French Canadian men of Business and P o l i t i c s t h a t " i t cannot be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r personal s e c u r i t y " The M i n i s t r y of Foreign A f f a i r s l e t i t be known t h a t P.M. Bourassa's communique has been released after consultat i o n s w i t h P.M. Trudeau. Ottawa p r e c i s e s t h a t i t has nothing to add  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.)  POLICE FORCES (P.F.)  Several bomb c a l l s are r e c e i v e d by P o l i c e Forces  MEDIA  8.00 CKAC i s informed t h a t a communique i s a w a i t i n g at Peel S t r e e t subway s t a t i o n  P o l i c e forces are reported 11.00 CKAC i s informed t h a t to have long b e l i e v e d that the a message from the FLQ has FLQ was a n a r x i s t s t y l e been deposited at P h i l i p p s structure, with several Square s p e c i a l i z e d c e l l s of 3 to 6 members who know only t h e i r 17.00 CKAC i s informed of immediate s u p e r i o r i n the the existence of a t h i r d command chain. There are communique bombing c e l l s , propaganda c e l l s , i n t e l l i g e n c e gathering c e l l s , dynamite c e l l s and Journalists declare f i n a n c i n g c e l l s that c a r r y c a t e g o r i c a l l y that the out robberies. So f a r t h i s Bourassa Government i s year the FLQ has been blamed | deeply s p l i t f o l l o w i n g by the p o l i c e f o r holdups \ the Laporte kidnapping t o t a l l i n g more than $80,000. and t h e f t s of 9,000 s t i c k s o f dynamite 20.00 P o l i c e Forces i n v e s t i g a t e Charon's I s l a n d Warrants are issued "against i n d i v i d u a l s w e l l known f o r t h e i r collaboration with c e r t a i n committees, favourable to the FLQ" P o l i c e recovers a s t o l e n t a x i domelight  to  CANADIAN ARMY  P e r s i s t i n g rumours o f military intervention  OTHERS  6.00 or 7.00 R. Lemieux i s a r r e s t e d on the b a s i s , t h a t on Oct. 9, he had w i l l f u l l y and i l l e g a l l y impeded p o l i c e agents i n the execution of t h e i r duty Meeting between L. S a u l n i e r and C. Ryan, who want to discuss with him, t h r e e d i f f e r e n t possible issues o f the c r i s i s The P.Q. i s s u e s a statement g i v i n g i t s support t o P.M. Bourassa's d e c l a r a t i o n Meeting o f the permanent c o u n c i l of the FRAP (with most o f the candidates absent) which endorses the o b j e c t i v e of the FLQ manifesto  /  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.)  CHENIER CELL (CC.)  00. 00 C C  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.C)  Comm #4  During the day R. Levesque (P.Q.) phones R. Bourassa and urges him t o n e g o t i a t e  1. Refuses a l l n e g o t i a t i o n s on < the 6 remaining demands, but j sets no f u r t h e r deadline  19.15 Quebec Government names lawyer R. Demers as i t s spokesman f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the FLQ (presumably a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the FLQ)  ] 2. Names R. Lemieux as spokesi man f o r the FLQ i n t a l k s w i t h j authorities  i  MONDAY OCTOBER 12  I 3. Assumes that Cross w i l l be | freed i f s t i l l a l i v e ("But | since L i b e r a t i o n c e l l has not I given any s i g n o f l i f e we can| not promise anything) ' Plus Laporte's l e t t e r "Thanks \ again ... and thanks t o a l l i those who have c o n t r i b u t e d t o S t h i s reasonable d e c i s i o n which I you announced w i t h strength \ and d i g n i t y " |  C C  21.00 Mr. Demers meets b r i e f l y w i t h R. Lemieux s t i l l h e l d i n c e l l at Montreal p o l i c e H.Q.  Comm #5  \  |1. Mr. Cross w i l l be freed on 'i the l i b e r a t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l ' p r i s o n e r s and c e s s a t i o n o f ]police activity 5 2. Mr. Laporte's freedom w i l l i !depend on the t o t a l acceptance j jof FLQ demands ; |3. In case o f r e f u s a l , too |long h e s i t a t i o n s , p o l i c e I l o c a l i s a t i o n the "2 hostages j w i l l be executed"  !  * 4. This Comm. from the C C l i s the l a s t before the execution  j in  7  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.)  R.C.M.P. request f o r help i n p r o t e c t i n g the f e d e r a l establishment was made at a Cabinet meeting i n the morning  Mayor J . Drapeau decides t o c a l l o f f a l l h i s appointments and appearances i n the c i t y connected w i t h the October 25 e l e c t i o n and d e c l a r e s :  During a s p e c i a l meeting between M. Sharp and Federal M i n i s t e r s "the' p o s s i b i l i t y o f engaging i n n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the FLQ" i s s t u d i e d  "The hour i s s e r i o u s and the p o l i t i c i a n s need the support of the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n i f they are not t o lack courage ... One must note a c e r t a i n analogy between the kidnapp i n g i n other c o u n t r i e s ... That i s s t r a n g e l y s i m i l a r to r e v o l u t i o n s i n other countries  P.M. Trudeau answers a question from R. S t a n f i e l d i n the Commons: "There i s a t o t a l agreement between the P.G. and the Government o f Canada concerning the very c l e a r a t t i t u d e taken yesterday evening by P.M. Bourassa ... He s a i d that the only t h i n g to do was t o ensure through n e g o t i a t i o n s the c r e a t i o n o f a mechanism d e a l i n g with Mr. Cross and Mr. Laporte's l i b e r a t i o n . That's what must be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the beginning."  POLICE FORCES (P.F.)  Nearly a hundred members o f the S e c u r i t y Squad o f the Q.P.P. have combed the | Eastern p a r t o f the Province I and p a r t i c u l a r l y the Quebec ' M e t r o p o l i t a n area, where they have searched 38 houses of presumed FLQ members, as w e l l as a bookshop  MEDIA  2.10 CKLM r e c e i v e s telephone d i r e c t i o n s t h a t l e a d t o the discovery o f L.B. Comm #8 10.45 CKAC r e c e i v e s . i n s t r u c t i o n s and f i n d s C C . Comm. #4 16.30 CKAC informed o f C C . Comm. #5 23.00 Radio Canada: "Lieutenant Colonel Bonneau has d e c l a r e d t h a t the second and t h i r d b a t a l l i o n s from the 22nd Royal Regiment are maintained under a l e r t and that i f the Quebec Government makes the request f o r i t , they could intervene w i t h 600 t o 1200 men. In the event o f a Military intervention in Montreal, the army has e s t a b l i s h e d i t s H.Q., on the 3rd f l o o r o f the Surete du Quebec b u i l d i n g on Parthenais Street.  (Date o f t h i s answer unc e r t a i n s i n c e Monday Oct 12 was t h a n k s g i v i n g day) to  /  CANADIAN ARMY  OTHERS  17.30 Petawa troops begin t o move torwards Ottawa. Troops are reported t o be prepared f o r "a number o f e v e n t u a l i ties". They have brought w i t h them l a r g e s u p p l i e s o f barbed w i r e . During t h e n i g h t communication t r u c k s and other m i l i t a r y v e h i c l e s move to key l o c a t i o n s throughout the c i t y , although none have been seen across the Ottawa river into Hull.  The Front de J u s t i c e du Quebec, through the use o f a f a l s e bomb t h r e a t , leaves a note promising "a three f o r one" r e p r i s a l against the families of t h e p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s .  to -J  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.)  CHENIER CELL (CC.)  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.C)  Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa i n s i s t s t h a t "there can be no question o f the Government accepting or d i s c u s s i n g FLQ demands before d e a l i n g with the i n i t i a l question (Laporte and Cross safety)" 1st Meeting between Lemieux and Demers TUESDAY OCTOBER 13  Lemieux suggests the p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s be h e l d c a p t i v e i n Cuba or A l g e r i a u n t i l the host government i s informed by the Canadian Government t h a t C and L are safe - He f u r t h e r mentions that he i s net to d i s c u s s the 6 demands but only t h e i r implementation. K. Deme-s proposes to have one member of eacn c e l l h e l d as hostage by the Government u n t i l the p r i s o n e r s are f r e e d . 2nd Meeting Demers informs Lemieux tnat ne cannot answer h i s questions (on the implementation) u n t i l the p r e l i m i n a r y mecnanism nas oeen s e t t l e d . In a communique the bureau o f the P.M. a t f i r m s that the Government's p o s i t i o n has not changed and that the i p r e l i m i n a r y question of the N J s a f e t y of C § L must be d e a l t 0 0  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  Some M.P.'s f e e l r a t h e r uneasy about the extremely v i s i b l e presence o f the Army i n Ottawa; some others ask f o r some form o f Federal a c t i o n a g a i n s t the FLQ. 20.00 M. Sharp admits t h a t Canadian O f f i c i a l s had v i s i t e d Cuba and A l g e r i a to inform the Government of the FLQ demands. I t i s confirmed that one o f the two governments i s ready to accept the fugitives The Federal Cabinet i s reported to have met and heard urgent messages from Montreal and Quebec about the r i s i n g c r i s i s , the t h r e a t s o f d i s o r d e r s , the inadequacy o f normal p o l i c e f o r c e s to meet the crisis. The Cabinet i s reported to have d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b l e use of d r a s t i c emergency measures  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.)  | Mayor J . Drapeau: The two I kidnappings by Montreal S t e r r o r i s t underground may I represent the p r e l i m i n a r y I stage o f a r e v o l u t i o n  POLICE FORCES  MEDIA  IP.F.)  P o l i c e r a i d s continue throughout the province Paul Rose i s supposed to be followed by the p o l i c e (mention o f a blue Volks) (his f i n g e r p r i n t s have been found on one o f the communiques) The p o l i c e f o r c e s ' telephone standards are burdened by c a l l s from the p u b l i c  Discussion between Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau and r e p o r t e r s ! of CBC and CJOH-TV .' "I'm suggesting t h a t the press should perhaps use a b i t more r e s t r a i n t , which you are not doing now"  ; j j  "I'm suggesting t h a t the more r e c o g n i t i o n you g i v e to them, the g r e a t e r the v i c t o r y i s , and I'm not i n t e r e s t e d i n g i v i n g them a v i c t o r y "  j f  "They're c r i m i n a l p r i s o n e r s , they're not p o l i t i c a l p r i soners and they're bandits'.'  j j i  ; j  " I think s o c i e t y must take [ every means at h i s d i s p o s a l ; to defend i t s e l f a g a i n s t the emergence' o f p a r a l l e l powers F which d e f i e s the e l e c t e d i powers i n t h i s country ... < I think t h a t power must be ; stopped and: I . t h i n k i t ' s o n l y , I repeat weakneed bleeding h e a r t s who are ] a f r a i d to take these measures"  to  /  CANADIAN ARMY  OTHERS  R. Lemieux r e f u s e s t o plead arguing the charge o f o b s t r u c t i o n was p o l i t i c a l ; he i s l e f t out on h i s own recognizance Comm. from the S e r v i c e A c t i o n c e l l "ve w i l l k i l l policemen who make r a i d s without Iwarrants i n Quebec R. Lemieux ( i n the evening) asks f o r a new mandate t o meet again R. Demers and charges t h a t although Demers g i v e s him the impression t h a t the government wishes to n e g o t i a t e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i t was o n l y buying time Charles B. Neapole, P r e s i d e n t , of the Montreal Stock Exchange, mentions t h a t he i s convinced of being the 4 t h on the l i s t of FLQ's p o t e n t i a l v i c t i m s  04  o  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.)  5.00  L.B.  § C C  CHENIER CELL (CC.)  Comm #9  14.00 Demers meets R. Lemieux who refuses t o accompany him i n Quebec C i t y and d e c l a r e s to the press " t h a t t h e slowness of the n e g o t i a t i o n s endangers the l i v e s o f the hostages.  The FLQ refuses R. Demers' proposal (members o f the c e l l s h e l d as hostages) questions t h e " g o o d w i l l " of the concerned a u t h o r i t i e s  WEDNESDAY  gives R. Lemieux " c a r t e blanche" t o n e g o t i a t e the aforementioned c o n d i t i o n s  OCTOBER 14 -  reviews i t s solemn commitment before the people o f Quebec regarding the guarantees asked by the ruling authorities  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.G.)  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (Cont'd)  I  Reporters t e l l P.M. Bourassa i n Quebec C i t y that Mr. Trudeau has s a i d there was no question o f l i b e r a t i n g the prisoners.  A. "Yes, but Mr. Trudeau approved my statement o f Sunday ! night..." I When r e p o r t e r s i n s i s t e d t h a t I Mr. Trudeau had been very I c a t e g o r i c a l i n r u l i n g out | any f r e e i n g o f p r i s o n e r s the | P.M. s a i d  I  I "I have not read h i s i he was not interview ; specific"  P.M. Bourassa m o d i f i e s h i s i n i t i a l formula and c o n s i d e r s , that i n s p i t e o f the two c e l l members, two (already detained) p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s , could be h e l d as hostages, and f r e e d only a f t e r C £ L's safe r e t u r n . However, he s p e c i f i e s that such a formula (without precedent) should be r a t i f i e d by the Cabinet and submitted f o r ac-. ceptance t o the J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r . (Le Devoir 15-10-70) unconfirmed A close source t o P.M.Bourassa says the "P.M. is'dead t i r e d from lack o f sleep i n the l a s t few days and g e t t i n g a l i t t l e fed-up with Ottawa's r e f u s a l to be f l e x i b l e " "Ottawa seems unable to see the problem from Quebec's p o i n t o f view. Mr. Bourassa i s under c o n s i d e r a b l e pressure, p a r t l y from t h e e a s i l y s p l i t Quebec L i b . Feder a t i o n , t o o b t a i n the freedom of P. Laporte"  /  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  Questions i n the Commons by R. S t a n f i e l d " I s there any c o n s i d e r a t i o n given t o the d e c l a r i n g o f emergency p o l i c e powers (search without warrant, a r r e s t without charges or justifications)?" P.M. Answers' l a t e r "This i s completely h y p o t h e t i cal. I repeat t h a t i f such a c t i o n were ever contemplated i t would c e r t a i n l y be d i s c u s sed i n the House whether i t would be immediately before or immediately a f t e r , would depend o f course on ... (interruption) " Without "commiting" h i m s e l f P.M. Trudeau i n d i c a t e s t o t h e L i b e r a l Caucus that t h e Government has no i n t e n t i o n of a l t e r i n g i t s o p p o s i t i o n in an exchange o f FLQ p r i s o n e r s f o r the l i v e s o f the FLQ kidnapped v i c t i m s His general l i n e was ' i f you give now who w i l l be the next' One M.P. reported "he c e r t a i n l y d i d not sound l i k e a guy who's going t o concede" 2 0 . 0 0 (according to Toronto GSM) Meeting between P.M. Trudeau,  POLICE FORCES (P.F.)  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.)  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (Cont'd) D. McDonald, Turner, M c l l r a i t h (in.charge o f the R.C.M.P.) " S u r p r i s i n g l y the M i n i s t e r s appeared c h e e r f u l a f t e r 3 % hours o f meeting"  MEDIA  Paul Rose's t r a c k i s l o s t during the day  9:00 A.M. CKLM i s n o t i f i e d o f a new FLQ communique  P o l i c e f o r c e s are p r e s e n t l y searching f o r about 10 persons considered as prime suspects i n the kidnappings of J . Cross § P. Laporte  Quebec j o u r n a l i s t seek l e g a l aid against p o l i c e  ( P o l i c e f o r c e s were reported to have proceeded by e l i m i n a t i o n from a l i s t o f FLQ sympathisers)  "With time apparently running out there i s a growing convicDuring an i n t e r v i e w P.M. t i o n among m i n i s t e r s that new .Bourassa declares that t a c t i c s must be developped i f under a c t u a l circumstances, p o l i c e are t o crack the case and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l the have any changes t o save C § L {police forces not t o do lives" [anything" "This step (W.M.A.) has already been considered and r e j e c t e d once, on the ground that i t might| provoke a p u b l i c o u t c r y without s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhancing t h e l i k e l y h o o d o f d i s c o v e r i n g the two c e l l s " Now w i t h r e p o r t s from Montreal i n d i c a t i n g the two c e l l s w i l l soon move t o set a new deadline on the v i c t i m s ' l i v e s . There i s a growing f e e l i n g t h a t s p e c i a l p o l i c e measures, however impopular may be the o n l y mean o f avoiding a catastrophy.  Claude Ryan i s informed by P.M. Bourassa t h a t there w i l l be a move towards a tougher l i n e . (A s m a l l step, un p e t i t virage)  /  CANADIAN ARMY  An army spokesman d e c l a r e s that 300 s o l d i e r s may be i n Montreal, i f necessary, i n less than an hour. A group o f 10 C.A.F. s i g n a l men move i n t o o f f i c e s adjacent to R. Bourassa's own o f f i c e i n the N a t i o n a l Assembly b u i l d i n g . A spokesman f o r the Premier's o f f i c e s a i d a communication system has been set up through which troops at nearby V a l c a r t i e r base could be summoned by the Government at a moments notice * Troops continue to move to camp Bouchard 25 m i l e s from Montreal  * Some sources r e p o r t that w i t h the new system the Government i s able to j o i n a l l radio l i s t e n e r s  OTHERS  In Toronto, Premier J.Robarts d e c l a r e s t h a t the Quebec t e r r o r i s t s i t u a t i o n has !. evolved i n t o " t o t a l war" and the time had come to 'stand j and f i g h t ' J 1 j J | j j ] j I I  A group o f prominent Quebecers (Levesque, Ryan, Pepin, Charbonneau, Laberge, Rouleau, Dumont) o f f e r t h e i r most p r e s s i n g support to the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r the r e l e a s e o f the two kidnapped men. They speak o f "an atmosphere o f almost m i l i t a r y r i g i d i t y which one can blame on Ottawa, which r i s k s reducing Quebec and i t s Government to t r a g i c impotence." I t i s r e p o r t e d that Trudeau" i s r e s t r a i n i n g Quebec and Montreal a u t h o r i t i e s from p r e c i p i t a t e l y demanding !i the use o f the army or o f j the W.M.A. | 5 I I | j  Mass r a l l y at 1) of M w i t h Lemieux, V a l l i e r e , Chartrand, Gagnon: Students are urged to boycott c l a s s e s . A campaign t o o r g a n i z e a general student s t r i k e begins i n support o f 1 the FLQ  1 4  o>  OJ  /  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.)  CHENIER CELL (CC.)  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.C)  3  3.07 A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r s , who concurred, P.M. Bourassa makes a statement i n the National Assembly "We have t h e r e f o r e , asked f o r m i l i t a r y support, so t h a t the p o l i c e f o r c e , may be a b l e t o continue p r o t e c t i n g p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and the p o p u l a t i o n "  j THURSDAY OCTOBER 15  8 I  I  i j ; j I : |  Afternoon: Bourassa's | Government passes an order i n i c o u n c i l which p l a c e s a l l j p o l i c e and army personnel under j the command o f Maurice S t . [ P i e r r e , the D i r e c t o r o f the | Quebec P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e j Cabinet Meeting  j  9.00 P.M. Bourassa's s t a t e ment: "The Government has, decided t o give i t s f i n a l viewpoint ... The Government - promises to recommend f i r m l y the p a r o l e o f 5 o f the prisoners  j '.  - promises safe passage t o the members o f the 2 c e l l s r e j e c t s the other c o n d i t i o n s and asks a r e p l y i n the next 6 hours i  ij  I J |  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.)  POLICE FORCES (P.F.)  In the Commons P.M. admits t h a t the Government had considered every p o s s i b l e way i n which the Government o f Canada, i n conjunction with the Quebec Government, c o u l d meet t h i s very d i f f i c u l t situation, including the W.M.A.  J . Drapeau and L. S a u l n i e r prepare t h e i r l e t t e r t o P.M. Trudeau  " Numerous bomb t h r e a t s (evacuation o f the P a l a i s de J u s t i c e during the morning) S t a f f meeting at the P r o v i n c i a l Police Director's o f f i c e Montreal P o l i c e D i r e c t o r !I prepares h i s l e t t e r t o Mrs. Drapeau and S a u l n i e r  P.M. Trudeau meets opposit i o n leaders and suggests that s p e c i a l , l e s s d r a s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n to deal with the FLQ might be introduced i n the Commons i f opposit i o n p a r t i e s agree t o pass i t without delay. Mr. S t a n f i e l d and Mr. Douglas d e c l i n e t o commit themselves without more information .  |  I (See f o l l o w i n g pages "B")  1  | M. S a u l n i e r approves the i, a t t i t u d e taken by the I Government i n those s e r i o u s 1 hours" t.  1  MEDIA  Producers o f the CBC a r e ordered, by CBC President G. Davidson to " e x e r c i s e a greater degree o f r e s t r a i n t " i n t h e i r coverage of the c r i s i s  The Montreal Gazette mentioning a c o n f i d e n t i a l RCMP r e p o r t , estimates t h a t the FLQ counts 22 a c t i v e (See f o l l o w i n g pages "C") c e l l s w i t h a t o t a l o f 130 Montreal P o l i c e D i r e c t o r Mr. members. The r e p o r t |St. Aubin asks the p o l i c e forces estimates t h a t 2,000 other |to keep calm members are not i m p l i e d i n | the c e l l a c t i v i t i e s A few hundred persons support the "prominent Quebecers'" p o s i t i o n i n the Devoir  C o n s u l t a t i o n s between Ottawa and Quebec P.M.'s c o u n s e l l o r M. Lalonde i s i n Quebec C i t y Mr. Sharp says r e p o r t e r s should not overlook the f a c t t h a t P.M. Bourassa has s e t a 6 hour deadline.  !  OTHERS  CANADIAN ARMY  W i t h i n minutes a f t e r P.M.'s proclamation, troops a r r i v e on the Assembly grounds i n Quebec Less than an hour a f t e r P.M.'s d e c l a r a t i o n troops land at St. Hubert A i r base and take p o s i t i o n around " s t r a t e g i c " b u i l d i n g s (they have been c a l l e d under the c i v i l power clause o f the N a t i o n a l Defense A c t ) Troops c a r r y small arms o n l y (no tanks, a r t i l l e r y , heavy machine guns, o r armoured personal c a r r i e r s )  1.30 A group o f Laporte's f r i e n d s and c o l l a b o r a t o r s i s s u e a statement asking f o r "an a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the l i b e r a t i o n process i n order t o o b t a i n the l i b e r a t i o n o f the hostages". The statement u n d e r l i n e s the o p p o s i t i o n o f the group to p o l i c e or m i l i t a r y i n tervention. R. Lemieux d e c l a r e s t h a t p o l i c e f o r c e s have found C C . and are only w a i t i n g to f i n d the L.C before attacking i n force t o free the two men  "We are coming i n t o h e l p police authorities protect c e r t a i n p l a c e s and persons"  FRAP p u b l i c meeting (fund I r a i s i n g f o r the municipal j campaign)  C o l . Lloyd Morrison ( a t the end of the evening the number of members o f the Canadian Armed Forces a r e evaluated between 1,000 and 5,000)  ] " P e a c e f u l " student meeting 1 a t U o f M campus (no I t r o u b l e reported)  $ I  1 s  /  4 . ~  LIBERATION CELL (L.B.)  FRIDAY OCTOBER 16  Some members o f L.B. r e a l i z e that the Government w i l l not go f u r t h e r than i t s promise 1 o f safe conduct. F e a r i n g un| remediable a c t i o n from C C . 5 they issue a communique which I i s dropped i n a church. The I t e x t s p e c i f i e s t h a t Mr. Cross 1 w i l l be saved but kept as a |hostage (a p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r ) 1 as long as the p r i s o n e r s are Inot l i b e r a t e d . ! P o l i c e forces ( r e f e r r i n g to (the IV.M.A.) f o r b i d the Ibroadcast o f the communique ..  CHENIER CELL (CC)  St. Hubert firemen take a c t i o n against a l i g h t f i r e i n the a i r p o r t area.  PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT (P.G.)  Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa's l e t t e r to P.M. Trudeau (See f o l l o w i n g pages "A") At a press conference during the afternoon P.M. Bourassa takes f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d e c i s i o n p l e a d i n g t h a t the danger l i e s i n the cont i n u e d e s c a l a t i o n o f what i s seen as a c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n f o r revolution.  L e t t e r from Mayor J . Drapeau to Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau  3.00 Receives the l e t t e r s from Quebec and Montreal 4.00 The W.M.A. and the following regulations are approved 5.17 P.M.'s o f f i c e i s s u e s a formal statement that the act has been proclaimed (See f o l l o w i n g pages "C") P.M. b r i e f s the L i b e r a l Caucus before the meeting o f the House where he j u s t i f i e s the Government's a c t i o n on the grounds: of the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n i n Quebec as a response t o the appeal from Quebec The use o f the act he d e c l a r e s , i s "only an i n t e r i m and.somewhat u n s a t i s f a c t o r y measure" and he promised t o d i s c u s s w i t h o p p o s i t i o n leaders "the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f introducing l e g i s l a t i o n o f a l e s s comprehensive nature"  MEDIA  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (M.G.)  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (F.G.)  L e t t e r from Mr. S t . P i e r r e to L. S a u l n i e r i  | (See f o l l o w i n g pages "B")  By noon, P o l i c e Forces have a r r e s t e d more than 150 suspected members o f the FLQ. Another hundred w i l l be picked up before night f a l l . (Other r e p o r t s evaluate the t o t a l count over the whole province t o 242 suspects)  CKLM news d i r e c t o r says h i s s t a t i o n w i l l not broadcast any more communication on the ground t h a t the broadcast could contrevene the emergency r e g u l a t i o n .  , • . ;  jMr. Drapeau and S a u l n i e r [mentioning the e x i s t e n c e o f la r e v o l u t i o n a r y p l a n , p r a i s e jthe p o l i c e forces and ask "he c i t i z e n s t o keep calm.  I i  Apart from the S. C r e d i t , the 2 o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s seem r a t h e r doubtful the information that has lead t o the d e c i s i o n .  oo  CANADIAN ARMY  OTHERS  } M u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f student  i  strikes R. Levesque (P.QO  says Quebec  | has no more Government  j | I f | j | j  J . Marchand d e c l a r e s : I f we had not acted, the separat i o n o f Quebec would have been a f a c t , a month or a year from today; and i m p l i e s t h a t . .•. the FLQ has i n f i l t r a t e d P o l i c e Forces i n the province and other key p o s t s i n Quebec s o c i e t y  I j I j I  In Toronto 2 r a d i c a l lawyers c a l l f o r a demonstration a g a i n s t the Government "gross o v e r r e a c t i o n " and Trudeau's "Police State"  "A"  L e t t e r from Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa t o Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau  Government o f Quebec The Prime M i n i s t e r Quebec C i t y , October 16,1970 Mr. Prime M i n i s t e r , D u r i n g t h e l a s t few days t h e p e o p l e o f Quebec have been g r e a t l y shocked by the k i d n a p p i n g o f Mr. James R. C r o s s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the B r i t i s h Government i n M o n t r e a l , and t h e Hon. P i e r r e L a p o r t e , M i n i s t e r o f Labour and Manpower and M i n i s t e r o f I m m i g r a t i o n o f Quebec, as w e l l as by the t h r e a t s t o the s e c u r i t y o f the s t a t e and i n d i v i d u a l s e x p r e s s e d i n communiques i s s u e d by t h e F r o n t de L i b e r a t i o n du Quebec or on i t s b e h a l f , and f i n a l l y by a l l t h e c i r c u m stances surrounding these events. A f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a u t h o r i t i e s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e i n Quebec, t h e Quebec Government i s conv i n c e d t h a t t h e law, as i t stands now, i s inadequate t o meet t h i s situation satisfactorily. Under the. c i r c u m s t a n c e s , on b e h a l f o f t h e Government o f Quebec, I r e q u e s t t h a t emergency powers be p r o v i d e d as soon as p o s s i b l e so t h a t more e f f e c t i v e s t e p s may be t a k e n . I r e q u e s t p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t such powers encompass t h e a u t h o r i t y t o apprehend and keep i n c u s t o d y i n d i v i d u a l s who, t h e A t t o r n e y General o f Quebec has v a l i d reasons t o b e l i e v e , a r e determined t o overthrow the government t h r o u g h v i o l e n c e and i l l e g a l means. A c c o r d i n g t o the i n f o r m a t i o n we have and which i s a v a i l a b l e t o you, we a r e f a c i n g a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o i n t i m i d a t e and overthrow t h e government and the d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h i s p r o v i n c e through planned and s y s t e m a t i c i l l e g a l action, including insurrection. I t i s obvious t h a t t h o s e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s concerted e f f o r t completely r e j e c t the p r i n c i p l e o f freedom under t h e r u l e o f law. The Quebec Government i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t such powers a r e n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h e p r e s e n t emergency. Not o n l y a r e two c o m p l e t e l y i n n o c e n t men t h r e a t e n e d w i t h d e a t h , but we are a l s o f a c e d w i t h an attempt by a m i n o r i t y t o d e s t r o y s o c i a l o r d e r t h r o u g h c r i m i n a l a c t i o n ; i t i s f o r t h o s e reasons t h a t our government i s making t h e p r e s e n t r e q u e s t The government i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t , through such powers, i t w i l l be a b l e t o put an immediate s t o p t o i n t i m i d a t i o n and t e r r o r and t o ensure peace and s e c u r i t y f o r a l l c i t i z e n s . P l e a s e a c c e p t , Mr. Prime M i n i s t e r , my v e r y b e s t r e g a r d s . Robert  Bourassa.  "B"  L e t t e r from Mayor Drapeau t o Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau  C i t y o f M o n t r e a l , Canada O f f i c e o f t h e Chairman o f the E x e c u t i v e Committee O c t o b e r 15, 1970. Mr.  Prime M i n i s t e r ,  The c h i e f o f t h e M o n t r e a l P o l i c e S e r v i c e has i n f o r m e d us t h a t t h e means a v a i l a b l e t o him a r e p r o v i n g i n a d e q u a t e and t h a t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f h i g h e r l e v e l s o f government has become e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s o c i e t y a g a i n s t t h e s e d i t i o u s p l o t and t h e apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n i n which t h e r e c e n t k i d n a p p i n g s were t h e f i r s t s t e p . We a r e f o r w a r d i n g as a m a t t e r o f t h e utmost urgency t h e r e p o r t d e s c r i b i n g t h e scope o f t h e t h r e a t and t h e u r g e n t need t o r e i n f o r c e the machinery t o cope w i t h i t . We ask f o r e v e r y measure o f a s s i s t a n c e t h e f e d e r a l government may deem u s e f u l and d e s i r a b l e i n o r d e r t o c a r r y o u t t h e t a s k o f p r o t e c t i n g s o c i e t y and t h e l i v e s o f c i t i z e n s i n t h i s d i f f i c u l t period. J e a n Drapeau Mayor o f M o n t r e a l  Lucien Saulnier Chairman o f t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee October 15, 1970 Gentlemen: An e x t r e m e l y dangerous s u b v e r s i v e movement has p r o g r e s s i v e l y devel o p e d i n Quebec i n r e c e n t y e a r s w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e o f o v e r t h r o w i n g the l e g i t i m a t e s t a t e by means o f s e d i t i o n and e v e n t u a l l y armed insurrection. The r e c e n t k i d n a p p i n g s o f a f o r e i g n d i p l o m a t and a Crown m i n i s t e r o f t h e . p r o v i n c e have s i g n a l l e d t h e l a u n c h i n g by t h i s movement o f t h e i r s e d i t i o u s p r o j e c t s and a c t s l e a d i n g d i r e c t l y t o t h e i n s u r r e c t i o n and t h e o v e r t h r o w o f t h e s t a t e . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n which t h e p o l i c e aut h o r i t i e s must u n d e r t a k e must n e c e s s a r i l y d e l v e i n t o a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e networks o f t h i s s e d i t i o u s movement, and  s h o u l d n o t be r e s t r i c t e d t o s i m p l y s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who p e r p e t r a t e d t h e o d i o u s k i d n a p p i n g o f t h e two p e o p l e who a r e s t i l l p r i s o n e r s - f o r t h i s would mean f a i l u r e . The t h r e a t s e r v e d on s o c i e t y by t h i s s e d i t i o u s c o n s p i r a c y , which has moved i n t o a c t i o n i n t h e p a s t e l e v e n days, t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n s p l i t up i n t o m a n i f o l d t i n y c e l l s , each i m p e r v i o u s t o t h e o t h e r s , and t h e u n b e l i e v a b l e amount o f c h e c k i n g and r e s e a r c h i n g imposed on us have t a x e d , and c o n t i n u e t o t a x t h e r e s o u r c e s our p o l i c e f o r c e has a t i t s d i s p o s a l t o t h e i r limit. C o n s i d e r i n g how e x t r e m e l y urgent i t i s t o a c h i e v e c o n c r e t e r e s u l t s and unmask a l l t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h i s movement and i t s s e d i t i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e volume and c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p r o o f s which must be c o l l e c t e d and p r e s e r v e d , c o n s i d e r i n g , f i n a l l y , t h e enormity o f t h e t a s k we must a c c o m p l i s h , w i t h o u t moving i n t o a r e p r e s s i o n which would be n e i t h e r h e a l t h y nor d e s i r a b l e , t h e h e l p of h i g h e r governments i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f our j o b . The slowness o f p r o c e d u r e s and t h e r e s t r a i n t s imposed by t h e l e g a l methods and mechanisms now a t our d i s p o s a l do not a l l o w us a t t h i s time t o cope w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n . Consequently, I recommend t h a t t h e e x e c u t i v e committee o f t h e c i t y r e q u e s t t h a t the h i g h e r governments g i v e us a l l t h e means t h e y t h i n k a p p r o p r i a t e and u s e f u l , so as t o a l l o w us t o c o l l e c t and p r e s e n t t h e p r o o f s needed t o p r o t e c t s o c i e t y from the s e d i t i o u s and i n s u r r e c t i o n a l manoeuvres u n l e a s h e d by t h e k i d n a p p i n g s . P l e a s e a c c e p t , gentlemen, t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f my most d i s t i n g u i s h e d sentiments. The D i r e c t o r M.  St-Pierre  PROCLAMATION OF THE W.M.A. AND OF THE PUBLIC ORDER REGULATIONS "C"  Whereas t h e War Measures A c t p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e i s s u e o f a p r o c l a m a t i o n under t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e g o v e r n o r - i n - c o u n c i l s h a l l be c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t i n s u r r e c t i o n , r e a l o r apprehended, e x i s t s and has e x i s t e d f o r any p e r i o d o f t i m e t h e r e i n s t a t e d and i t s c o n t i n u a n c e , u n t i l by t h e i s s u e o f a f u r t h e r p r o c l a m a t i o n i t i s d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e i n s u r r e c t i o n no l o n g e r e x i s t s . And whereas t h e r e i s i n contemporary Canadian s o c i e t y an element or group.known as Le Front de L i b e r a t i o n du Quebec who advocate and r e s o r t t o t h e use o f f o r c e and t h e commission o f c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e s , i n c l u d i n g murder, t h r e a t s o f murder and k i d n a p p i n g , as a means o f o r as an a i d i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g a governmental change w i t h i n Canada and whose a c t i v i t i e s have g i v e n r i s e t o a s t a t e o f apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f Quebec. T h e r e f o r e , H i s E x c e l l e n c y t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l - i n - C o u n c i l , on t h e recommendation o f t h e prime m i n i s t e r , i s p l e a s e d t o d i r e c t t h a t a p r o c l a m a t i o n be i s s u e d p r o c l a i m i n g t h a t apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n e x i s t s and has e x i s t e d as and from t h e f i f t e e n t h day o f O c t o b e r , one thousand n i n e hundred and s e v e n t y .  P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s , 1970 October 16, 1970  Whereas i t c o n t i n u e s t o be r e c o g n i z e d i n Canada t h a t men and i n s t i t u t i o n s remain f r e e o n l y when freedom i s founded upon r e s p e c t f o r moral and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s and t h e r u l e o f l a w ; And whereas t h e r e i s i n contemporary Canadian s o c i e t y an element or group known as Le F r o n t de L i b e r a t i o n du Quebec who advocate the use o f f o r c e o r t h e commission o f c r i m e as a means o f o r as an a i d i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g a governmental change w i t h i n Canada and who have r e s o r t e d t o t h e commission o f s e r i o u s c r i m e s i n c l u d i n g murder, t h r e a t o f murder and k i d n a p p i n g ; And whereas t h e government o f Canada d e s i r e s t o ensure t h a t l a w f u l and e f f e c t i v e measures can be t a k e n a g a i n s t those who t h u s seek t o d e s t r o y t h e b a s i s o f our d e m o c r a t i c governmental system on w h i c h t h e enjoyment o f o u r human r i g h t s and fundamental freedoms, i s founded and t o ensure t h e c o n t i n u e d p r o t e c t i o n o f t h o s e r i g h t s and freedoms i n Canada;  T h e r e f o r e , H i s E x c e l l e n c y t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l - i n - C o u n c i l , on the recommendation o f t h e prime m i n i s t e r , pursuant t o t h e War Measures A c t , i s p l e a s e d hereby t o make the annexed r e g u l a t i o n s , t o p r o v i d e emergency powers f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p u b l i c o r d e r i n Canada.  R e g u l a t i o n s t o P r o v i d e Emergency Powers f o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f P u b l i c Order i n Canada  Short T i t l e 1.  These r e g u l a t i o n s may be c i t e d as t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s , 1970. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  2.  In t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s , "communicate" i n c l u d e s t h e a c t o f communicating by b r o a d c a s t i n g o r o t h e r a u d i b l e o r v i s i b l e means;  telephone,  "peace o f f i c e r " means a peace o f f i c e r as d e f i n e d i n the C r i m i n a l Code and i n c l u d e s a member o f t h e Canadian Armed F o r c e s ; " s t a t e m e n t s " i n c l u d e s words spoken o r w r i t t e n o r r e c o r d e d e l e c t r o n i c a l l y o r e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c a l l y o r o t h e r w i s e , and g e s t u r e s , s i g n s o r o t h e r v i s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ; and "the u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n " means t h e group o f persons o r assoc i a t i o n d e c l a r e d by these r e g u l a t i o n s t o be an u n l a w f u l a s s o ciation. 3.  The group o f persons o r a s s o c i a t i o n known as Le F r o n t de L i b e r a t i o n du Quebec and any s u c c e s s o r group o r s u c c e s s o r a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e s a i d Le Front de L i b e r a t i o n du Quebec, o r any group o f persons o r a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t advocates t h e use o f f o r c e o r the commission o f crime as a means o f o r as an a i d i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g governmental change w i t h i n Canada i s d e c l a r e d t o be an u n l a w f u l association.  4.  A person  who  a)  i s o r p r o f e s s e s t o be a member o f t h e u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n ,  b)  a c t s o r p r o f e s s e s t o a c t as an o f f i c e r o f t h e u n l a w f u l association.  c)  communicates statements on b e h a l f o f o r as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e or professed r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the unlawful a s s o c i a t i o n ,  d)  a d v o c a t e s o r promotes t h e u n l a w f u l a c t s , aims, p r i n c i p l e s or p o l i c i e s o f t h e unlawful a s s o c i a t i o n ,  e)  c o n t r i b u t e s a n y t h i n g as dues o r o t h e r w i s e t o t h e u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n o r t o anyone f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e u n l a w f u l association,  f)  s o l i c i t s subscriptions or contributions f o r the unlawful association, or  g)  a d v o c a t e s , promotes o r engages i n t h e use o f f o r c e o r t h e commission o f c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e s as a means o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g a governmental change w i t h i n Canada i s g u i l t y o f an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e and l i a b l e t o imprisonment f o r a term n o t exceeding f i v e y e a r s .  A p e r s o n who, knowing o r h a v i n g r e a s o n a b l e cause t o b e l i e v e t h a t another p e r s o n i s g u i l t y o f an o f f e n c e under t h e s e regul a t i o n s , g i v e s t h a t o t h e r p e r s o n any a s s i s t a n c e w i t h i n t e n t thereby t o prevent, hinder o r i n t e r f e r e w i t h the apprehension, t r i a l o r punishment o f t h a t p e r s o n f o r t h a t o f f e n c e i s g u i l t y o f an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e and l i a b l e t o imprisonment f o r a term not exceeding f i v e y e a r s .  An owner, l e s s e e , agent o r s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f any b u i l d i n g , room, premises o r o t h e r p l a c e who knowingly p e r m i t s t h e r e i n any meeting o f t h e u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n o r any b r a n c h , committee o r members t h e r e o f , o r any assemblage o f persons who promote the a c t s , aims, p r i n c i p l e s o r p o l i c i e s o f t h e u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n i s g u i l t y o f an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e and l i a b l e t o a f i n e o f not more than f i v e thousand d o l l a r s o r t o imprisonment f o r a term n o t exceeding f i v e y e a r s o r t o b o t h . 1. A p e r s o n a r r e s t e d f o r an o f f e n c e under s e c t i o n 4 s h a l l be d e t a i n e d i n custody w i t h o u t b a i l p e n d i n g t r i a l u n l e s s t h e a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n which t h e p e r s o n i s b e i n g d e t a i n e d consents t o t h e r e l e a s e o f t h a t p e r s o n on b a i l . 2. Where an accused has been a r r e s t e d f o r an o f f e n c e under t h e s r e g u l a t i o n s and i s d e t a i n e d i n custody f o r t h e purpose o n l y o f e n s u r i n g h i s attendance a t t h e t r i a l o f t h e charge under these r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e s p e c t o f which he i s i n c u s t o d y and t h e t r i a l has n o t commenced w i t h i n n i n e t y days from t h e time he was f i r s t d e t a i n e d , t h e p e r s o n h a v i n g t h e custody o f t h e accused s h a l l , f o r t h w i t h upon t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f such n i n e t y days, a p p l y t o a judge o f t h e s u p e r i o r c o u r t o f c r i m i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e prov  i n which t h e accused i s b e i n g d e t a i n e d t o f i x a date f o r t h e t r i a l and t h e judge may f i x a date f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t r i a l o r g i v e such d i r e c t i o n s as he t h i n k s n e c e s s a r y f o r e x p e d i t i n g the t r i a l o f t h e accused. In any p r o s e c u t i o n f o r an o f f e n c e under t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s , e v i dence t h a t any p e r s o n a)  a t t e n d e d any meeting o f t h e u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n  b)  spoke p u b l i c l y i n advocacy f o r t h e u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n , o r  c)  communicated statements o f t h e u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n as a representative or professed representative of the unlawful a s s o c i a t i o n i s , i n t h e absence o f evidence t o t h e c o n t r a r y , p r o o f t h a t he i s a member o f t h e u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n .  1.  A peace o f f i c e r may a r r e s t w i t h o u t  a)  a p e r s o n who he has reason t o suspect unlawful association; or  b)  a p e r s o n who p r o f e s s e s t o be a member o f t h e u n l a w f u l association; or  c)  a p e r s o n who he has r e a s o n t o suspect has committed, i s committing o r i s about t o commit an a c t d e s c r i b e d i n paragraphs b. t o g. o f s e c t i o n 4.  warrant i s a member o f t h e  2. A p e r s o n a r r e s t e d pursuant t o s u b s e c t i o n 1 s h a l l be t a k e n b e f o r e a j u s t i c e h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n and charged w i t h an o f f e n c e d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4 n o t l a t e r t h a n seven days a f t e r h i s a r r e s t , unless the attorney-general o f the province i n qhich the p e r s o n i s b e i n g d e t a i n e d has, b e f o r e t h e e x p i r y o f t h o s e seven days, i s s u e d an o r d e r t h a t t h e accused be f u r t h e r d e t a i n e d u n t i l the e x p i r y o f a p e r i o d n o t exceeding twenty-one days a f t e r h i s a r r e s t , a t t h e end o f which p e r i o d t h e p e r s o n a r r e s t e d s h a l l be t a k e n b e f o r e a j u s t i c e h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n and charged w i t h an o f f e n c e d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4 o r r e l e a s e d from c u s t o d y . A peace o f f i c e r may e n t e r and s e a r c h w i t h o u t warrant any p r e m i s e s , p l a c e , v e h i c l e , v e s s e l o r a i r c r a f t i n w h i c h he has r e a s o n t o suspect a)  a n y t h i n g i s kept o r used f o r t h e purpose o f p r o m o t i n g t h e u n l a w f u l a c t s , aims, p r i n c i p l e s o r p o l i c i e s o f t h e u n l a w f u l association;  b)  t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g t h a t may be evidence these r e g u l a t i o n s ;  o f an o f f e n c e under  - 47 -  c)  any member o f t h e u n l a w f u l  a s s o c i a t i o n i s present;  or  d)  any p e r s o n i s b e i n g d e t a i n e d by the u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n .  11.  Any p r o p e r t y t h a t a peace o f f i c e r has r e a s o n t o s u s p e c t may be e v i d e n c e o f an o f f e n c e under t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s may, w i t h o u t w a r r a n t , be s e i z e d by a peace o f f i c e r and h e l d f o r n i n e t y days from the date o f s e i z u r e o r u n t i l t h e f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f any p r o c e e d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n t o an o f f e n c e under t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s i n which such p r o p e r t y may be r e q u i r e d , whichever i s the l a t e r .  12.  These r e g u l a t i o n s s h a l l be e n f o r c e d i n such manner and by such c o u r t s , o f f i c e r s and a u t h o r i t i e s as e n f o r c e i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s c r e a t e d by t h e C r i m i n a l Code.  FOCUS 1 A: UNITARY ACTOR (COMPREHENSIVE R A T I O N A L I T Y )  PRELIMINARIES  I d e a l l y , i n a p u r e Model p e r s p e c t i v e , we  should  1 ( u n i t a r y a c t o r comprehensive  have f o c u s e d  final  outcome r e s u l t i n g from the  order  t o be  able  they were t r y i n g  we  to focus  The  d e c i s i o n s made by  afternoon having  and  a t t e n t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y on  actions  t a k e n by  our  the  to maximize.  a t t e n t i o n on  an  in  However, i n our intermediary  b o t h w i t h m e t h o d o l o g y and  the  case,  outcome:  a u t h o r i t i e s , b e t w e e n O c t o b e r 15  the e a r l y hours o f O c t o b e r 16,  to deal  the A c t o r s ,  the  t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h o b j e c t i v e ( o r more p r e c i s e l y ,  which f u n c t i o n ) have d e c i d e d  our  rationality)  in  for various  the  reasons  availability  of i n -  formation.  Among t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l limitations and  the f i c t i o n  problem, -  o f the  the  lengthy  t i m e s p a n c o v e r e d by  actions  basic  uncertainty in  our  ( i n J u l y 1971, a l l  n o t y e t b e e n r e n d e r e d ) and  on  the  uncertainty  decisions  structurally  d e c i s i o n depended not independent units  Federal  G o v e r n m e n t and  Government.  The  subordination, reasons hold  a notion  f o r the  powers).  s u p p o s e d t o be  f r a m e o f a l a r g e r one  distinction  but  i s not  i n our of  case i s not  "sovereign"  distinction  only  entity  a  smaller  i . e . the  Federal  a notion  of  c o m p e t e n c e - The  between the  on  (The  G o v e r n m e n t i n Quebec i s a d i s t i n c t p o l i t i c a l  i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the  judiciary  the  implementation of the  u n i t s , but  Provincial from the  had  in multiple judicial  f a c t the  separate  unit  absence of p r o v i s i o n s f o r  o f a u n i t a r y a c t o r were r a t h e r c r i t i c a l  decisions  involved the  Model, the  t h a t two  since  Courts'  -  r e a s o n s i t a p p e a r e d . t o us  political  and  same  Among t h e r e a s o n s h a v i n g t o do w i t h the  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  f a c t t h a t t h e P u b l i c Order Regulations,  a good d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n Allison,  of  information,  f o r example, gives  t a k e n by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s  (which  f o r example, d i d n o t possess i n t h e case o f t h e Russian  Government, hence h i s method o f d e d u c t i n g o b s e r v e d outcome o f i t s a c t i o n s ;  i t s objective  from t h e  i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t o remark  i n t h e c a s e o f t h e U.S. G o v e r n m e n t f o r w h i c h he p o s s e s s e d tions of intermediate  outcomes, l i k e  the decision  a c t i o n and s e c o n d l y t h e outcome) from w h i c h  infer their  This  that  descrip-  to resort to the  q u a r a n t i n e o f C u b a , he p r o c e e d s i n a d i f f e r e n t way a n a l y z i n g the  us  first  i ti s possible to  objectives.  decision  t o f o c u s on i n t e r m e d i a t e  outcomes w i l l  t r e a t t h e developments stemming from a c t i o n s  lead  us t o  i n a Model I I I  perspective.  In f u t u r e analysis on  d e v e l o p m e n t s , i t seems t o us t h a t c o m p a r i s o n s focusing  on t h e a c t i o n s  t h e outcomes c o u l d  (when d e s c r i p t i o n a v a i l a b l e ) a n d  prove f r u i t f u l ,  a p p e a r t o us as f a l l i n g  between  b u t f o r t h e moment, t h e y  beyond t h e l i m i t e d  scope o f t h i s  research.  1.  THE  FLQ  OBJECTIVES  In J u l y 1970, P i e r r e V a l l i e r e s t o l d  Peter  A l l n u t o f t h e CBC:  " Y e s , I am a member o f t h e FLQ. T o d a y t h e FLQ r e p r e s e n t s a r e a l p o l i t i c a l f o r c e i n Quebec. I t i s no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d t o be a g a n g of criminals. I t s p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s n o t j u s t p l a n t i n g bombs. The bombs a r e o n l y t h e t i p o f t h e i c e b e r g . The FLQ i s w o r k i n g a n d f i g h t i n g many o t h e r l e v e l s b o t h u n d e r g r o u n d a n d p u b l i c l y . The FLQ i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o meet t h e v i o l e n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y v i o l e n c e a n d t o c o n s t r u c t a new s o c i e t y , a f r e e s o c i e t y , f r e e from c o l o n i a l i s m , e x p l o i t a t i o n and f e a r . R e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i s n o t o n l y p l a n t i n g bombs o r t a k i n g up a g u n , b u t w o r k i n g a t t h e same t i m e t o r a d i c a l i z e g r o u p s i n Quebec and o u t s i d e " (1)  From t h i s  -  statement i t appears  the u l t i m a t e goal  that:  o f t h e FLQ was  Quebec s o c i e t y , e c o n o m i c a l l y , -  t h e more p r o x i m a t e g o a l s -  t o be c o n s i d e r e d in  tion  socially  and  as r e p r e s e n t i n g  political  force  a more o r l e s s c o n s i s t e n t g r o u p o f  violent activists.  towards p o l i t i c a l  "a r e a l  Retrospectively  this  orienta-  r e p r e s e n t a t i v i t y a p p e a r e d t o be one  o f t h e l a n d marks o f P i e r r e V a l l i e r e s the  politically.  o f t h e FLQ w e r e :  Quebec" a n d n o t o n l y  sporadic  t o b r i n g a r a d i c a l change i n  1  collaboration with  movement:  "By t h e t i m e V a l l i e r e s came t o t h e FLQ i n 1965 m o s t o f t h e e a r l i e r "members" w e r e i n j a i l . Few o f them h a d i d e o l o g i c a l convictions. Few w e r e a b l e t o i n t e l l e t u a l i z e t h e i r c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s , e x c e p t t h a t a l m o s t a l l had s u f f e r e d t h e deep h u r t o f b e i n g p u t down by E n g l i s h S p e a k i n g C a n a d i a n s . V a l l i e r e s was a d e p t a t r o m a n t i c i z i n g t h e p a s t a n d c r e a t i n g the i l l u s i o n o f a c o n t i n u i n g underground p o l i t i c a l terrorist movement." (2) Past developments the  (like  the t r i a l  o f V a l l i e r e s a n d Gagnon i n  La Grenade a f f a i r ) had p r o v e n t h e f r u i t f u l n e s s  approach: awkward  of this  The a u t h o r i t i e s h a d b e e n e x t r e m e l y u n c i e v e r a n d  in their  treatment of p o l i t i c a l  c e s s e s had g e n e r a t e d a c u r r e n t  p r o t e s t and t h e i r e x -  o f sympathy f o r V a l l i e r e s and  Gagnon ( c r e a t i o n o f t h e M.D.P.P.Q., movement f o r t h e D e f e n c e o f Quebec P o l i t i c a l like  Prisoners, informal  t h e l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d by "a g r o u p o f C h r i s t i a n s o f t h e  University of Montreal" October C r i s i s  to r a d i c a l i z e social  and quoted i n Gerard  Pelletier's  p 116)  the already  agitation like  mittees  On  support i n the Press,  e x i s t i n g examples o f spontaneous  the trade  unions, the c i t i z e n s '  com-  and t h e s t u d e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s  the whole, the t a c t i c a l  objectives  o f t h e FLQ a p p e a r e d t o be  at the time:  -  to gain  p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n as a r e a l  political  force  i n the  Province -  t o i n s e r t themselves openly i n the process o f p o l i t i c a l as  one o f t h e emergent f o r c e s  since  t h e days o f t h e q u i e t  Breton's  decisions  on Quebec c h a n g i n g p o l i t i c a l  scene  r e v o l u t i o n o r t o p u t i t i n Raymond  terms:  " FLQ members w a n t e d d e s p e r a t e l y t o be d e f i n e d a s p o l i t i c a l enemies o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d powers, a g o a l t h e y had f a i l e d t o achieve i n the past. T h e y w a n t e d t o be a p o w e r i n t h e s o c i a l bargaining equation" (3)  2.  THE FLQ OPTIONS  Three main o p t i o n s They c o u l d  continue  w e r e o p e n e d t o t h e FLQ g i v e n the pattern  o f violent actions  h o l d u p s ) t o w h i c h they had r e s o r t e d  since  existing  to create  leading the  those o b j e c t i v e s :  p r o t e s t movements i n o r d e r  1963,  (bombing, r a i d s ,  they could public  radicalize  manifestation  t o v i o l e n c e , o r d e v e l o p some f o r m o f a c t i o n t h a t w o u l d  a u t h o r i t i e s t o a h e a d on c o n f r o n t a t i o n .  force  - 52 -  -  2.  1  Continuation  of  the  In s p i t e o f t h e i r o f manpower and  violent actions:  relatively  other  easy to o b t a i n  c o s t l e s s s e t up  resources  like  ( i n terms  dynamite which  i n a C i t y l i k e Montreal  undergoing a  program o f p u b l i c works) t h o s e a c t i o n s were o f fit;  residents  for  i n Montreal  a f a c t of l i f e ,  t h e i r emotional  loss of  c o n t e n t and  highly successful activists,  since  the  very  H a g g a r t and  was  The  FLQ  like  raids against  in this  value  organization the  -  the  sense could  Murray H i l l  ( o f the  Police  a t the  slaughter  there  of  b a n k s , o r warehouses, were  and  had  more t o do w i t h  or  the  i n d i v i d u a l needs the  the  central  hardly  provide  any  satis-  problem.  movements:  affair)  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  lead  to spectacular  suffered  p r o t e s t movement, whose o b j e c t i v e s uncongenial  two  main  t o keep a low  a c t i o n , whose m a i n c r e d i t was  prove r a t h e r  as  FLQ.  o p t i o n , even i f i t c o u l d  i t obliged  action  squad,  success  f u l f i l l m e n t of  Radicalize existing protests  the  of  (4)  f a c t o r y answer t o the  (like  teams  among  o b j e c t i v e s o f the  This  been  type of  antiterrorist  reasons f o r t h i s  o f t h e members t h a n w i t h  2  had  rate of d e f e c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y  maintenance o f the  2.  dynamics of t h i s  f o r the  of dubious r e v o l u t i o n a r y  -  successive  became d i s i l l u s i o n e d  Other t a c t i c s  option  the  detracted  and  innocent victims"  This  police forces  them  needed to b o a s t about i t s c r i m e s ,  always a high  a c t i v i s t s who  the  had  bene-  Golden:  " There were s e v e r a l Forces)  innocent lives  large  little  more o r l e s s t a k e n  in cracking  made them e a s y t a r g e t s n o t e d by  had  was  to the  t o be could  results  drawbacks:  profile  given  to  i n the  o n e s f o s t e r e d by  in the  end the  FLQ.  -  i t was it  c o s t l y i n terms o f r e s o u r c e s  required a considerable  or i n f i l t r a t i n g the  and  -  influence  could  be  obtained  respect  nearly  any  the  the  action that w i l l  FLQ  on  political  form o f p o l i t i c a l  optimal  i t tends to give  action  t o the  oblige  the  grounds:  kidnapping  appears  since:  kidnappers  instant public  r e c o g n i t i o n o r a w a r e n e s s b o t h n a t i o n a l l y and  interna-  tionally  kidnapping  (as  illustrated  f o r e x a m p l e by  o f J u a n F a n g i o i n Cuba i n 1956 o r by the -  recruiting  option.  Government t o deal w i t h  t o be  because  movement.  Develop a form o f s p e c t a c u l a r  In t h i s  amount o f w o r k i n  n o t much o f i m m e d i a t e g a i n s  f r o m s u c h an  time,  adequate competences to  d e c i s i o n s o f the  Obviously  and  Patty Hearst's  a c t i o n s o f the  kidnapping  by by  the  the  Castrist  the  movement,  S.L.A. o r  Tupamaros)  i t tends to f o r c e the a u t h o r i t i e s to n e g o t i a t e kidnappers under p u b l i c p r e s s u r e , the tend  kidnappers' t o be  demands.  t h e y have t r o u b l e w i t h  ground of t h e i r  the  obtain  concessions  the  or to r e j e c t b l u n t l y  authorities.  t h e i r hard l i n e r s , reproaches of the  "inhumanity".  i s both a p o t e n t i a l l y  with  In b o t h c a s e s t h e r e s u l t s  damageable t o the  t h e y have t o f a c e  by  I n one i n the  opinion  In t h a t s e n s e  d a n g e r o u s t r a p and  (money, l i b e r a t i o n  of  case other  on  the  kidnapping  a means  to  prisoners,  publicity...) -  i t gives creased are  able  the and  k i d n a p p e r s a good p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t i n more a c t i v e p o l i c e a c t i o n s as  to detain  their  hostage.  long  as  they  i t h e l p s t o m a i n t a i n a good image f o r the movement as l o n g as the hostage i s "humanely t r e a t e d and s a f e l y released" i t c r e a t e s an "event"  s u s c e p t i b l e o f e x t e n s i v e and  con-  t i n u o u s coverage by the media e s p e c i a l l y by the e l e c t r o n i c ones i t tends t o g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n o f a "vacuum" i n the f i e l d o f p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , which are o b l i g e d t o keep a low p r o f i l e and a r e s u b j e c t e d t o v a r i o u s p r e s sures b o t h e x t e r n a l l y ( i n t e r n a t i o n a l o p i n i o n , f o r e i g n governments) and i n t e r n a l l y  (demands f o r i n c r e a s e d  p r o t e c t i o n , d i v i s i o n s on the course o f a c t i o n ) Moreover, i t must be n o t e d t h a t t h i s form o f a c t i o n i s r a t h e r c o s t l e s s i n terms o f r e s o u r c e s ganization:  The  f o r the o r -  a c t i o n b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d by a s m a l l  number o f p e r s o n s w i t h v e r y l i m i t e d m a t e r i a l s (hand weapons, c a r s , h i d e o u t  and cash f o r a l i m i t e d  i s r a t h e r w e l l adapted t o the urban c o n t e x t  period)  (anonimity,  absence o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , m u l t i p l i c i t y o f h i d e o u t s , availability  o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n means)  p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f u r t h e r p o l i t i c a l developments and p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n (vacuum i n p o l i t i c a l spheres,  low p r o f i l e o f t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s , e x t e n s i v e  media c o v e r a g e , development o f s u p p o r t i v e movements...)  was  at the t i m e new  by John S a y w e l l :  i n N o r t h America or as  expressed  " A l l evidence p o i n t e d t o the e s c a l a t i o n o f r a d i c a l i s m and n a t i o n a l i s m , whether d i s t i n c t o r j o i n e d i n the P r o v i n c e o f Quebec. Only a few Canadians took s e r i o u s l y t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t r a d i c a l n a t i o n a l i s t s had adopted a s t r a t e g y f o r r e v o l u t i o n i n i t i a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r Banana r e p u b l i c s and t h e T h i r d World. Even t h o s e - i n the p r e s s o r i n the P u b l i c - who c o u l d r e a d t h e s i g n s seemed t o d i s c u s s them as i d l e r h e t o r i c r a t h e r t h a n impending r e a l i t y " (5) 3.  THE  FLQ CHOSEN ACTION  "At 8:15 on Monday morning, October 5, two armed men pushed p a s t t h e maid a t 1297 Redpath C r e s c e n t i n Westmount. W i t h i n minutes James R i c h a r d C r o s s , S e n i o r B r i t i s h Trade Commissioner i n M o n t r e a l , had d r e s s e d under the b a r r e l o f a sub-machine gun and been whisked away i n a t a x i " (6) At 12:00  an anonymous t e l e p h o n e c a l l d i r e c t s '. Radio S t a t i o n CKLM t o  a communique o f t h e FLQ L i b e r a t i o n C e l l ' which s t a t e s t h a t i n exchange f o r t h e s a f e r e l e a s e o f J . Cross the a u t h o r i t i e s must: r e l e a s e 23 " p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s " whose names were l i s t e d provide  an a i r c r a f t f o r t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o Cuba o r A l g e r i a  t u r n o v e r $500,000. i n g o l d b a r s r e i n s t a t e t h e Lapalme p o s t a l d r i v e r s i d e n t i f y the i n f o r m e r who h e l p e d P o l i c e F o r c e s apprehend members o f another FLQ publish  cell  (newspaper,  r a d i o , T.V.)  the f u l l t e x t o f t h e FLQ m a n i f e s t o  cease a l l p o l i c e a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o the k i d n a p p i n g At t h i s p o i n t , i t seems i m p o r t a n t t o n o t i c e the congruence the implemented  a c t i o n and the o b j e c t i v e s advocated by t h e  James Cross i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  between FLQ:  o f a f o r e i g n n a t i o n whose  importance i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h e n g l i s h s p e a k i n g Canadians (emotionally  and e c o n o m i c a l l y ) and f r e n c h Canadians ( c u l t u r a l l y )  i n terms o f c r e d i b l e f o r e i g n e x p l o i t a t i o n (see the "Free  Society"  Free from C o l o n i a l i s m and E x p l o i t a t i o n " from P. V a l l i e r e s )  The  demand t o p u b l i s h the FLQ m a n i f e s t o and the use o f  the  r a d i o t o communicate w i t h the a u t h o r i t i e s are d e s i g n e d t o spread among the p u b l i c the awareness o f the FLQ  The  and o f i t s o r i e n t a t i o n  demands t o r e l e a s e the p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s , t o p r o v i d e  an  a i r c r a f t f o r Cuba or A l g e r i a , t o r e i n s t a t e the Lapalme p o s t a l d r i v e r s ( f o r whom P.M.  Trudeau had r a t h e r a r r o g a n t  d e l e t i v e s ) a r e d e s i g n e d t o prove t h a t t h e FLQ been d e s c r i b e d  as u n f l e x i b l e d e c i s i o n s  p r i s o n e r s " had been d e p r i v e d The  unexpleted  can change what  ( s i n c e the  had  "political  conditional liberation)  demands t o p u b l i s h the m a n i f e s t o and  t o r e i n s t a t e the Lapalme  d r i v e r s are d e s i g n e d t o show the s o l i d a r i t y o f the FLQ  with  e x i s t i n g forms o f S o c i a l P r o t e s t and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the Province. The  o t h e r t h r e e r e m a i n i n g demands b e i n g o r i e n t e d towards the  maintenance o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n  ( f i n a n c i a l resources, i n t e r n a l  security, external security) However, a f t e r n e a r l y a week o f n e g o t i a t i o n s  i t appeared,as e x p r e s s e d  i n J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Choquette's statement o f October 11, t h a t i f the FLQ had been a b l e t o g a i n a f a i r amount o f " p u b l i c i t y " i n the p r e s s ( d i f f u s i o n o f the m a n i f e s t o ) and s u p p o r t from the p o p u l a t i o n hot  a c e r t a i n amount o f v e r b a l  (as f o r example e x p r e s s e d i n the numerous  l i n e s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e d i f f u s i o n o f the m a n i f e s t o ) and  form o f governmental r e c o g n i t i o n as a p o l i t i c a l  even some  force:  "Without g i v i n g i n t o undue p r e s s u r e e v e n dangerous p r e s s u r e the ' r u l i n g a u t h o r i t i e s ' as you say are not unaware t h a t t h e r e are areas o f d i s c o n t e n t , w i t h o u t our s o c i e t y and t h a t . i n j u s t i c e exists ;  ....On the c o n t r a r y t h e s e o p i n i o n s (the one o f Mr. C r o s s ' k i d n a p p e r s ) can be e x p r e s s e d i n a chat o r a f r a n k open d i s c u s s i o n between the d i f f e r e n t elements o f s o c i e t y so as t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a c o n s t r u c t i v e and p o s i t i v e s o l u t i o n o f our problems" (7)  I t had been u n a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e n o t i c e a b l y t h e Governmental  decision  p r o c e s s as f a r as t h e " p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s " were concerned.  This i n  t u r n was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t J . Cross,whatever h i s e m o t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v i t y , w a s a c h a r a c t e r o f a t o o l i m i t e d importance t o move Ottawa, and t h a t a more v a l u a b l e hostage had t o be s e c u r e d t o push the Government a b i t f u r t h e r i n i t s c o n c e s s i o n s .  T h i s was t h e aim o f  P i e r r e L a p o r t e ' s k i d n a p p i n g , a prominent member o f t h e p o l i t i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t and an o l d l i b e r a l hand, as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y statement w h i c h accompanied  t h e second communique o f t h e C h e n i e r  C e l l found a t 9:00 A.M. on October 12:  " I n f a c e o f t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e Governmental a u t h o r i t i e s i n not c o m p l y i n g w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e FLQ and i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h P l a n 3 e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r t o p r o v i d e f o r such a r e f u s a l , the C h e n i e r f i n a n c i a l C e l l has j u s t kidnapped t h e M i n i s t e r o f Unemployment and Quebec A s s i m i l a t i o n , P i e r r e L a p o r t e The M i n i s t e r w i l l be executed Sunday e v e n i n g a t 10:00 P.M. i f between now and t h e n t h e r u l i n g a u t h o r i t i e s have n o t responded f a v o u r a b l y t o t h e seven demands s e t f o r t h f o l l o w i n g t h e k i d n a p p i n g o f Mr.James C r o s s . Any p a r t i a l a s s u r a n c e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as a r e f u s a l " (8)  T h i s t i m e t h e blow was more s e r i o u s and t h e a c t i o n a p p a r e n t l y moved from Ottawa t o Quebec where P r e m i e r B o u r a s s a i m m e d i a t e l y had a meeting with the Cabinet.  During the f o l l o w i n g press conference j u s t b e f o r e  the 10:00 P.M. d e a d l i n e P r e m i e r Bourassa s t a t e d t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s were ready t o n e g o t i a t e  " I t i s because we p a r t i c u l a r l y want Mr. L a p o r t e and Mr. C r o s s t o l i v e t h a t we d e c i d e - b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e demands t h a t have been made - t o s e t up mechanisms t h a t would g u a r a n t e e , as Mr. L a p o r t e says i t w i l l , t h a t t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s w i l l s u r e l y r e s u l t i n t h e s a f e r e l e a s e o f t h e h o s t a g e s " (9)  However, t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w e d between l a w y e r Demers on b e h a l f o f t h e Quebec Government and l a w y e r Lemieux on b e h a l f o f t h e FLQ went r a p i d l y t o a deadend, u n t i l Wednesday October 15, P r e m i e r B o u r a s s a s e t a new governmental d e a d l i n e , g i v i n g t h e FLQ 6 hours t o a c c e p t c o n d i t i o n s  t h a t were n e a r l y the same as those proposed by J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r J . Choquette  i n h i s p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e o f October  11.  Robert Lemieux was not l o n g t o express h i s f r u s t r a t i o n : " I n o f f e r i n g t o f r e e f i v e good Quebec guys who s h o u l d have been p a r o l l e d a l o n g time ago anyway and whose p a r o l e s a r e coming soon, the government i s s i m p l y mocking the p e o p l e o f Quebec. I urge the government t o meet not i n t h e n e x t few h o u r s , but i n minutes and t o r e c o n s i d e r . R e c o n s i d e r t h i s this incredible mockery. My mandate has ended. I have n o t h i n g more t o s a y . . . " Asked i f he was w a l k i n g out o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s Mr. replied  " I have been thrown out on my a s s "  Lemieux  (10)  As, however, some p u b l i c p r e s s u r e t o have t h e government n e g o t i a t e was mounting (see t h e l e t t e r o f the 14 prominent  Quebecers o r the  support o f t h e CNTU) and some s t u d e n t u n r e s t was  developing i n Montreal  t h e FLQ d e c i d e d t o s e i z e the o p p o r t u n i t y i n o r d e r t o have the ment r e v e r t h i s p r i o r d e c i s i o n .  In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e P i e r r e  govern-  Vallieres  t o l d the 3,000 s t u d e n t s p r e s e n t a t t h e P a u l Sauve a r e n a on the evening o f October  15:  " ...The government c l a i n s the FLQ i s a s m a l l band o f c r i m i n a l s ... But you a r e t h e FLQ and a l l t h e p o p u l a r groups t h a t f i g h t f o r t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f Quebec. We must o r g a n i z e t h e f i g h t f o r l i b e r a t i o n i n e v e r y d i s t r i c t , i n each p l a n t , i n each o f f i c e , everywhere..." (11)  4.  THE  FLQ ANTICIPATED FUTURE ACTIONS  On October 15 s e v e r a l a c t i o n s c o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d from the -  4. 1  K i l l the  FLQ  hostages  They c o u l d c a r r y on t h e i r t h r e a t t o d i s p o s e o f "the l i f e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e a n c i e n t r a c i s t and  of  colonialist  B r i t i s h System" ( l i b e r a t i o n c e l l communique #1)  and/or t o  "execute M i n i s t e r P i e r r e L a p o r t e " ( c h e n i e r c e l l communique #1)  - 59 -  -  4. 2  Other k i d n a p p i n g s  They c o u l d c a r r y on a t h i r d o r f o u r t h k i d n a p p i n g as exp r e s s e d i n P i e r r e L a p o r t e ' s l e t t e r t o Robert Bourassa " A f t e r me t h e r e w i l l be a t h i r d one,then a f o u r t h and a twentieth. I f a l l p o l i t i c a l men a r e p r o t e c t e d , t h e y w i l l s t r i k e elsewhere i n o t h e r c l a s s e s o f s o c i e t y " T h i s t h r e a t was t h e more c r e d i b l e t h a t t h e FLQ i n l e s s t h a n a week a f t e r t h e k i d n a p p i n g o f J . Cross had been a b l e i n l e s s than a few minutes a f t e r t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e i r  first  demands t o k i d n a p a P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r , who a t t h e t i m e was de f a c t o ( i n t h e absence o f Robert Bourassa) Prime M i n i s t e r of the Province, felt  and t h e t h r e a t was so i n t e n s e l y  that  "Mr. C h a r l e s B. Neapole, p r e s i d e n t o f t h e M o n t r e a l and o f the Canadian Stock Exchange, e x p r e s s e d h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he was t h e f o u r t h on t h e l i s t o f t h e FLQ's p o t e n t i a l v i c t i m s ..." (12)  -  4. 3  Selective assassination They c o u l d i n d u l g e i n s e l e c t i v e a s s a s s i n a t i o n , as mentioned by P r e m i e r Bourassa i n h i s p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e i n the a f t e r n o o n o f October 16:  " And t h e y even made t h r e a t s o f s e l e c t e d a s s a s s i n a t i o n s as part o f the fourth stage" 4.4  Manifestations  and R i o t s  They c o u l d t r y t o o r g a n i z e  and d e v e l o p t h e c u r r e n t o f p o p u l a r  s u p p o r t , a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g i n some segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( s t u d e n t s , workers) i n o r d e r t o o b l i g e t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o come t o term w i t h t h e i r demands ( p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e  l i b e r a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l  prisoners)  T h i s s t r a t e g y , a t t h e f i r s t g l a n c e , may appear r a t h e r r i s k y s i n c e t h e r i s k s o f s p i l l - o v e r s ( r i o t s , s t r e e t d i s o r d e r s ) i n v o l v e d b u t a second l o o k r e v e a l s t h a t on these grounds t h e FLQ had n o t h i n g t o l o s e . A few v i c t i m s would have g i v e n t h e cause p r o v i d e n t i a l m a r t y r s t h a t i n t u r n c o u l d have h e l p e d m o b i l i z e p u b l i c o p i n i o n .  Apparently,  this  e v e n t u a l i t y was a g r e a t s u b j e c t o f c o n c e r n among t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , as expressed  by G e r a l d  Pelletier:  "One o f my s h a r p e s t f e a r s d u r i n g t h i s p a r t o f t h e c r i s i s was t h a t a group o f e x t r e m i s t s t u d e n t s b e l i e v i n g t h e g r e a t day had come, would go out i n t o t h e s t r e e t s and c r e a t e d i s t u r b a n c e s , w h i c h , w i t h the p o l i c e and t h e army exhausted might have ended i n s h o o t i n g . I perhaps y i e l d e d t o a tendancy towards a l a r m i s m : Y e t t h i s k i n d o f s c e n a r i o has a l r e a d y been p l a y e d out t o o o f t e n t o make i t n e c e s s a r y t o argue f o r i t s p l a u s i b i l i t y " (13)  o r by Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w w i t h M a r t i n on Format 60 on November 3: " . . . I f t r o u b l e had s t a r t e d , i f maybe i n defence o f l i v e s o r goods, p i s t o l s h o t s had been f i r e d on one s i d e o r a n o t h e r and t h a t t h e r e had been perhaps two deaths l i k e i n Kent S t a t e . . . " (14)  Those f o u r c o n j e c t u r e s seemed t o be a t t h e time, t h e o n l y c r e d i b l e ones.  However, as two o t h e r s have been mentioned we must make them  some j u s t i c e : The  t h r e a t t o o v e r t h r o w t h e Quebec Government by f o r c e which has  been d i s m i s s e d by b o t h G e r a l d  Pelletier:  "No one, I t h i n k , has ever assumed t h a t t h e r e was a r e v o l u t i o n a r y army p o i s e d t o o v e r t h r o w t h e Quebec Government by f o r c e . . . " (15) and o t h e r commentators l i k e Denis Smith: "There was no d e c i s i v e c o n c e a l e d u p r i s i n g " (16)  e v i d e n c e o f an imminent c i v i l  The " p r o v i s i o n a l governmental p l o t " which was mentioned  lately  t h r o u g h a w e l l managed l e a k i n the p r e s s and t o which no  credi-  b i l i t y was g i v e n i n Quebec (as e x p r e s s e d by P r e m i e r B o u r a s s a "such an i l l u s o r y hypotheses"(17) and v e r y l i t t l e i n Ottawa: "There was never o f c o u r s e a c o n s p i r a c y t o s e t up a p r o v i s i o n a l government i n Quebec. There was s i m p l y s p e c u l a t i o n s t h a t i t might become n e c e s s a r y " (18) "The s t o r y ("Ryan has been out t o t a k e o v e r t h e government") was o b v i o u s l y t a k e n s e r i o u s l y , b u t my own c a b i n e t s o u r c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was n e v e r advanced as t h e major r e a s o n f o r i m p o s i n g War Measures" (19) and which can be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d as a stone s e n t by  P.E.  Trudeau i n  (who  the  C. Ryan's n i c e l y - t e n d e d  m o n a s t i c gardens  was  o n l y c u l p r i t , w i t h maybe Rene Levesque, t o be s i n g l e d out i n  a group which i n c l u d e d t h r e e Union l e a d e r s , a h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d Academic  and t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C r e d i t Union movement). More-  o v e r , t h i s argument can h a r d l y r e s i s t t o t h e f a c t t h a t as the e d i t o r o f the s m a l l but b i b l e - l i k e Le D e v o i r , Claude Ryan i s more i n f l u e n c i a l o u t s i d e t h a n w i t h i n any Quebec Government ( p r o v i s i o n a l or not)  As t h e a u t h o r i t i e s ' o b j e c t i v e s have been t h e c e n t e r o f numerous c o n t r o v e r s i e s a r i s i n g from t h e d e c i s i o n t o use the War Measures A c t we s h a l l t r e a t t h e problem a b i t d i f f e r e n t l y t h a t i n t h e case o f the  FLQ; i n t h e r sense  t h a t we s h a l l f i r s t t r y t o determine t h e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s ' chosen a c t i o n ,  infer  from t h o s e t h e o b j e c t i v e s the a u t h o r i t i e s were t r y i n g t o maximize and check whether t h o s e o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d have been b e t t e r  fulfilled  by o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s which were a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s ' d i s p o s a l a t the  time.  I n t h i s way, we w i s h t o reduce,as much as p o s s i b l e , t h e  number o f p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h a t have been proposed t o e x p l a i n the  government's  actions.  5.  THE  AUTHORITIES CHOSEN ACTIONS  Between October 15, 3:07  P.M.,  and October 16, 4:00  A.M.,  three  a c t i o n s were t a k e n by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s : t h e y had t h e Canadian Armed F o r c e s i n t e r v e n e i n M o n t r e a l - • t h e y had the D i r e c t o r o f t h e Q.P.P., M a u r i c e S t . P i e r r e , t a k e charge o f t h e command o f a l l p o l i c e and a l l i n v o l v e d armed f o r c e s i n the Province t h e y had t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l (which i s i n f a c t t h e  Cabinet)  p r o c l a i m t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s t a t e o f apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n , which i n t u r n p r o v i d e d ground ( c o n c l u s i v e evidence) p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e War  f o r the  Measures Act and o f the subsequent  P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s as mentioned i n t h e f o r m a l i s s u e d by t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e a t 5:17  A.M.  statement on October  16: "Whereas the War Measures A c t p r o v i d e s t h a t the i s s u e o f a p r o c l a m a t i o n under the a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l s h a l l be c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t i n s u r r e c t i o n , r e a l o r apprehended e x i s t s and has e x i s t e d f o r any p e r i o d o f time t h e r e i n s t a t e d and i t s c o n t i n u a n c e , u n t i l by the i s s u e o f a f u r t h e r p r o c l a m a t i o n i t i s d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e i n s u r r e c t i o n no l o n g e r e x i s t s " (20)  5. 1  The a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e Canadian Army i n t e r v e n t i o n :  S i n c e the Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n s t r o n g l y l i m i t s t h e power o f t h e Army i n t h e case o f a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e C i v i l Powers ( t h e y cannot make a r r e s t s d i r e c t l y w i t h o u t b e i n g accompanied by law enforcement o f f i c e r s ) , t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the Army has m a i n l y two dominant a t t r i b u t e s :  i t p r o v i d e s f o r armed manpower i n p r o t e c t i v e t a s k s : (buildings, personalities, strategic points) i t p r o v i d e s f o r manpower equipped  and t r a i n e d f o r  massive s e a r c h o p e r a t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y i n r u r a l  areas  - 63  -  5. 2  The  a t t r i b u t e s o f the n o m i n a t i o n o f the Q.P.P. d i r e c t o r  a t the head o f the law enforcement p e r s o n n e l  The  o b v i o u s a t t r i b u t e o f t h i s a c t i o n appears t o be the  that i t established forces  involved  some u n i t y o f command among the  i n law enforcement ( M u n i c i p a l  Q.P.P., R.C.M.P. and  Canadian Armed F o r c e s ) .  fact  various  P o l i c e Forces, Such a move  t a k e s f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e when the need i s f e l t f o r c o o r d i n a t e d o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g numerous and nel.  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d person-  Moreover, the c h o i c e o f the D i r e c t o r o f the Q.P.P.  makes r e a l sense o n l y i f t h i s need f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n  is felt,  a l l o v e r the P r o v i n c e and not o n l y i n a l i m i t e d a r e a  like  M o n t r e a l ( f o r w h i c h the D i r e c t o r o f the M o n t r e a l P o l i c e , s h o u l d have been t h e o p t i m a l c a n d i d a t e )  The  i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the Canadian Army and  the c e n t r a l i z a -  t i o n o f P o l i c e powers seem t o c o r r e s p o n d t o a p a t t e r n q u a n t i t a t i v e and  q u a l i t a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f the  Police  powers a n n u n c i a t i n g the development o f m a s s i v e p o l i c e  5.3  The  a t t r i b u t e s o f the War  of actions.  Measures Act  Four main a t t r i b u t e s appear t o be o f some r e l e v a n c e i n  our  analysis:  i t i s a v e r y comprehensive p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n as n o t e d by G e r a l d P e l l e t i e r : " . . . i t i s wide i n i t s powers (among o t h e r t h i n g s i t g i v e s the a u t h o r i t i e s the r i g h t t o f o r b i d the s a l e o f g a s o l i n e and to r a t i o n c o f f e e ) . . . " (21) even e x c e s s i v e f o r the case a t hand as n o t e d by Anthony Westell: " He (P.E. Trudeau) r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the m a s s i v e powers a v a i l a b l e under the War Measures A c t were o v e r k i l l " (22)  -  - 64  -  i t i s a piece of l e g i s l a t i o n  that permits  the C a b i n e t  b y - p a s s P a r l i a m e n t w h i c h means t h a t i t t e n d s reduce the p o s s i b i l i t i e s Government e x p e d i e n c y . unnoticed in  1939  by  former  t h a t t h e War  of control  and  both  to  to increase  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were  Premier  M a c K e n z i e K i n g , who  Measures A c t  to  the not  mentioned  was:  "A l a w o f i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e s i n c e i t p e r m i t t e d t h e Government t o take a l l n e c e s s a r y measures w i t h o u t having to w a i t f o r the P a r l i a m e n t " (23)  -  i t i s a rather undiscriminative piece of s i n c e a p p a r e n t l y i t was (apparently directly  -  i t can  a p p l i c a b l e a l l over  its applicability  t o one  o n l y be  single  invoked  5. 4  attributes  The  P u b l i c Order Regulations t o be  as d e f i n e d by  o f the P u b l i c Order  legal  code i n o r d e r to s i n g l e but  features.  On  the b a s i s o f such  main a t t r i b u t e s  the  or  Cabinet  Regulations  proclaimed  compared t o the e x i s t i n g  criminal  limited  under c o n d i t i o n s o f " r e a l  The  is  c o u l d n o t be  Canada  Province)  apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n "  -  legislation  by  the  Government  provisions of  i t s main  the  distinctive  a "marginal" analysis four  a p p e a r as c h a r a c t e r i z i n g  the P u b l i c  Order  Regulations.  -  5.  4  1.  Extension of Police  One  Powers:  o f t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e R e g u l a t i o n s was  increase s i g n i f i c a n t l y lice  F o r c e s , as  noted  the powers a v a i l a b l e f o r e x a m p l e by  to the  D o u g l a s A.  to Po-  Schmeiser  "The m o s t l e g a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f t h e e m e r g e n c y l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o t a k e away t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t p o l i c e o f f i c e r s act reasonably...  -  The key d i s t i n c t i o n , I w o u l d s u g g e s t a r e f o u n d i n t h e p r o v i s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h a r r e s t and w i t h s e a r c h and s e i z u r e . You w i l l r e c a l l t h a t u n d e r t h e C r i m i n a l Code a p o l i c e o f f i c e r c a n a r r e s t o n l y on r e a s o n a b l e and probable grounds. U n d e r S e c t i o n 9 o f t h e new A c t a p o l i c e o f f i c e r may a r r e s t w i t h o u t w a r r a n t a p e r s o n "who he has r e a s o n " t o s u s p e c t i s a member o f an u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n o r who "he has r e a s o n t o s u s p e c t " has c o m m i t t e d o r i s a b o u t t o c o m m i t any o f t h e a c t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by S e c t i o n 4 o f t h e A c t ... The same p h r a s e " r e a s o n t o s u s p e c t " i s f o u n d i n t h e p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o e n t r y o f p r e m i s e s s e a r c h and s e i z u r e . O r d i n a r i l y , a p o l i c e o f f i c e r c a n e n t e r p r e m i s e s o n l y when a c t i n g u n d e r a s e a r c h w a r r a n t i s s u e d by a c o u r t . Under t h e A c t h o w e v e r , a p o l i c e o f f i c e r may e n t e r and s e a r c h w i t h o u t w a r r a n t any p r e m i s e s , o r s e i z e any p r o p e r t y i f he has " r e a s o n t o s u s p e c t t h a t t h e s e a r c h o r p r o p e r t y w i l l p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f a v i o l a t i o n o f the A c t . . . " (24) o r by W a l t e r  Stewart  "The new r e g u l a t i o n s p e r m i t t e d p o l i c e t o s e a r c h w i t h o u t w a r r a n t , a r r e s t w i t h o u t c h a r g e and h o l d w i t h o u t b a i l persons they suspected of a c t i n g i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n of the A c t " (25)  Semi o f f i c i a l  S e c t i o n 4b  censorship  o f the  press:  o f the P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s  provides  that:  "A p e r s o n who c o m m u n i c a t e s s t a t e m e n t s ( i n c l u d e s w o r d s spoken o r w r i t t e n o r recorded e l e c t r o n i c a l l y o r e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c a l l y o r o t h e r w i s e , and g e s t u r e s , s i g n s o r o t h e r v i s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ) on b e h a l f o f o r as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r p r o f e s s e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the unlawful a s s o c i a t i o n . . . i s g u i l t y o f an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e and l i a b l e to imprisonment f o r a term not exceeding five years" T h i s was provision  q u i c k l y i n t e r p r e t e d by  t h e m e d i a as  f o r c e n s o r s h i p , as m e n t i o n e d by  a  latent  Earle Beattie  " I n O c t o b e r t h e m e d i a became s o d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n r e p o r t i n g North America's f i r s t p o l i t i c a l kidnapping by t h e FLQ t h a t t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t c u r t a i l e d t h e i r c o v e r a g e u n d e r a u t h o r i t y o f t h e W.M.A. and i t s s u c c e s s o r t h e P u b l i c O r d e r (emergency m e a s u r e s ) A c t . . . " (26)  - 66 -  o r by the London O b s e r v e r : "The A c t b e s i d e s o u t l a w i n g t h e FLQ p r o v i d e s f o r pen a l t i e s o f up t o f i v e y e a r s i m p r i s o n m e n t f o r a s s i s t i n g i t o r i t s members i n any way. For i n s t a n c e , j o u r n a l i s t s who p u b l i s h o r b r o a d c a s t s t a t e m e n t s f r o m t h e g r o u p c o u l d be a r r e s t e d " (27)  -  5.  4  3.  Redundancy o f the  Several  repressive  provisions  commentators emphasized the  provisions  included  i n the  point  P u b l i c Order  that  Regulations  were m e r e l y redundant t o , or even weaker than provisions already  included  i n the  C o d e , as m e n t i o n e d f o r e x a m p l e by  the  Canadian D o u g l a s A.  existing  Criminal Schneiser  " I t i s a c c o r d i n g l y suggested t h a t the sweeping prov i s i o n s o f the o f f e n c e s d i s c u s s e d above (murder, t h r e a t of murder, kidnapping, m a l i c i o u s d e s t r u c t i o n of property, possession of explosives, possession of offensive weapons and f i r e a r m s , t h r e a t e n i n g t o i n j u r e o r t o destroy property, obstructing j u s t i c e , r e s i s t i n g or o b s t r u c t i n g a p o l i c e o f f i c e r , t r e a s o n , u n l a w f u l assemb l i e s and r i o t s and s e d i t i o n ) c o u p l e d w i t h t h e s w e e p i n g n o t i o n a b o u t p a r t i e s t o o f f e n c e s a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r any o v e r t c o n d u c t on t h e p a r t o f an i n s u r g e n t o r r e v o l u t i o n a ry" (28)  -  5.  4  4.  Inapplicability  Several  o f the  critical  by  various  -  The  legal  existing  repressive  limitations  provisions  have i n e f f e c t been  detected  commentators c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the  Regulations  and  Regulations  Act,  the  provisions  o r as  Public  of Section  r e m a r k e d by  6 of  D o u g l a s A.  Order the Schmeiser  "The e m e r g e n c y r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e n o t e x e m p t e d f r o m t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e R e g u l a t i o n s A c t and there c e r t a i n l y i s not doubt t h a t a t the date of the a l l e g e d c o n t r a v e n t i o n s r e a s o n a b l e s t e p s had n o t b e e n taken to b r i n g the p r o c l a m a t i o n to the a t t e n t i o n o f the persons charged - i n f a c t the o r i g i n a l a r r e s t s were shrouded i n s e c r e c y " (29)  The  severe r e s t r i c t i o n s  o r a s n o t e d by  on r e t r o a c t i v e  applications  Schmeiser  " I t i s a c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e o f the c r i m i n a l law t h a t a penal s t a t u t e does n o t a p p l y r e t r o a c t i v e l y i . e . an a c t m u s t be an o f f e n c e a t t h e t i m e i t i s c o m m i t t e d b e f o r e i t i s p u n i s h a b l e . The p r o s e c u t i o n s u n d e r t h e new A c t h o w e v e r , w o u l d n o r m a l l y r e l a t e t o conduct p r i o r to i t s e n a c t m e n t . . B e c a u s e of the g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h o f t h e c r i m i n a l law and because o f t h e r e v e r s i o n o f j u r o r s a g a i n s t ex f a c t o l a w s , s u c c e s s f u l p r o s e c u t i o n s w o u l d be v e r y d i f f i c u l t i f n o t impossible." (30)  -  The  f a c t t h a t the P u b l i c Order  u s u r p a t i o n o f the j u d i c i a l P r o f e s s o r Noel  Regulations are a  f u n c t i o n o r as n o t e d  by  Lyon  " P r o f e s s o r L y o n g o e s On t o c l a s s i f y t h e R e g u l a t i o n s as a " c r i m i n a l c l a s s a c t i o n " . The j u d i c i a r y , he s t a t e s , i s reduced to the r o l e of time keeper, k e e p i n g t r a c k o f who a t t e n d s w h a t m e e t i n g s and s p e a k s o r c o m m u n i c a t e s w h a t s t a t e m e n t s on b e h a l f o f an a s s o c i a t i o n . T h u s , he c o n c l u d e s t h a t c r i m i n a l g u i l t i s d e t e r m i n e d n o t by t h e c o u r t s b u t by executive decree." (31)  6.  THE  AUTHORITIES' O B J E C T I V E S  From w h a t we  have l e a r n e d from the a t t r i b u t e s  by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s  i t appears  ruled out with  little  -  the t e r r o r i s t s  6.  1  "Find  The  chance  of the actions  t h a t some p o t e n t i a l of  can  be  the  case  error:  and  s e t o f m e a s u r e s had  objectives  chosen  Free the hostages"  nothing d i r e c t l y  o f P. L a p o r t e a n d J . C r o s s . F o r e x a m p l e ,  t o do w i t h  as d e n i e d by  Anthony  Westell "A more p r a g m a t i c c r i t i c i s m o f t h e u s e o f t h e War M e a s u r e s A c t was t h a t i t p r o v e d q u i t e u n n e c e s s a r y f o r t r a c k i n g t h e terrorists. T h a t was done by n o r m a l p o l i c e w o r k u n d e r t h e r e g u l a r p o w e r s i n t h e C r i m i n a l Code. But the c r i t i c i s m  o v e r l o o k e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o i n v o k e emergency powers was never based on a d e c l a r e d need t o f i n d t h e t e r r o r i s t s and f r e e t h e h o s t a g e s " (32) In f a c t i f one c o n s i d e r s t h e e v i d e n c e a t hand i t appears t h a t numerous reasons p r e c l u d e t h i s  interpretation:  the a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e had o t h e r a l t e r n a tives available:  T a i l s on t h e s u s p e c t s ' f r i e n d s and  r e l a t i v e s (which a t t h e time were p o s i t i v e l y  identified)  rewards f o r i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g t o t h e c a p t u r e o f t h e s u s p e c t s (which had been used e a r l i e r i n 1970), massive s e a r c h o p e r a t i o n s w i t h the. h e l p o f t h e army ( t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s were b e l i e v e d t o know t h e " g e n e r a l " a r e a where t h e v i c t i m s were d e t a i n e d )  They seemed more e f f e c t i v e  t h a n r e l y i n g on t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e P u b l i c Order A c t to a r r e s t and d e t a i n everybody more o r l e s s to  connected  t h e FLQ (which i s r a t h e r a v e r y i n d i r e c t way t o  approach  t h e problem)  i t would have been a v e r y r i s k y s t r a t e g y :  For two  l i m i t e d and dubious r e s u l t s ( l o c a t i n g t h e h i d e o u t s , which d i d n o t change much t h e e q u a t i o n o f t h e problem s i n c e t h e k i d n a p p e r s were s t i l l  i n possession of t h e i r  hostages and " d r y i n g t h e pond o f p o t e n t i a l s u p p o r t " which c o u l d have been d i f f i c u l t l y e x h a u s t i v e ) t h e a u t h o r i t i e s would have r i s k e d t h e l i v e s o f L a p o r t e and Cross  (which  t h e y had been r a t h e r a n x i o u s t o save f o r t h e p a s t 11 days)  the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s : I n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e what c o u l d have been t h e use o f c r e a t i n g a new crime s i n c e t h e a r r e s t e d persons would have been proven g u i l t y o r not g u i l t y o f an e x i s t i n g crime p l i c i t y i n kidnapping)?  (com-  Why d i d t h e r e g u l a t i o n s i n c l u d e  p r o v i s i o n s a g a i n s t those "advocating or p u b l i c i z i n g  FLQ  - 69 -  s t a t e m e n t s " s i n c e those were not r e t r o a c t i v e ? A l a r g e p a r t o f t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s become i r r e l e v a n t in this perspective. -  6. 2  "Counteract The  an apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n "  s e t o f measures had n o t h i n g d i r e c t l y t o do w i t h t h e e x i s -  t e n c e o f a s t a t e o f "apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n " . evidences permit t o d i s c a r d t h i s  Numerous  interpretation  the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s : o f an "apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n "  (33)  In the  case  the proclamation  o f the M a r t i a l Law would have seemed more a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n t r o l armed and c o n c e r t e d v i o l e n t developments t h e equipment t h e m i l i t a r y f o r c e s d i s p l a y e d i n M o n t r e a l : I n t h e case o f an apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n t h e m i l i t a r y f o r c e s would have been d i s p a t c h e d w i t h heavy m a t e r i a l (armoured c a r s , p e r s o n n e l c a r r i e r s , heavy machine guns, tanks) but on  t h e c o n t r a r y t h e y were o n l y equipped  with  submachine guns and t r u c k s the l o c a t i o n o f the armed f o r c e s i n M o n t r e a l :  In the  case o f an apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n t h e armed f o r c e s would c e r t a i n l y have t r i e d t o s u r r o u n d t h e areas from which most o f t h e t r o u b l e c o u l d be expected  ( l i k e St.  H e n r i , f o r example) b u t on t h e c o n t r a r y t h e y were m o s t l y l o c a t e d i n the b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s and the w e l l - t o - d o suburbs o f Westmount o r V i l l e Mont-Royal. way  I n t h e same  t h e y would have g i v e n heavy p r o t e c t i o n t o s t r a t e g i c  l o c a t i o n s but t h e r o a d - b l o c k s , which t h e y i n s t a l l e d  on  the b r i d g e s f o r example, were i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e s e t up by p o l i c e f o r c e s i n o r d i n a r y o c c a s i o n s t o check t r a f f i c .  On the other hand, i t must be noted that the proclamation of a state of "apprehended insurrection" was  the l i m i t i n g  factor i n the proclamation of the W.M.A. and of the subsequent emergency measures. 6. 3  Counteract further acts of s e l e c t i v e violence The  interpretation, by which the authorities were s p e c i f i c a l l y  trying to counteract  further acts of selective violence  (bombings, murders, kidnappings),  suffers several short-  comings : S p e c i f i c pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n l i k e the Quebec Coroner's Act or the Firearm Act, had already given the p o l i c e forces extended powers of search and arrest emergency l e g i s l a t i o n would have then been unnecessary i f this had been the objective of the Government Numerous provisions were already existing i n the Criminal Code (and those provisions had been already successfully employed against FLQ members) to curb nearly any type of violence against persons or properties  It renders meaningless most of the content of the Public Order Regulations  e s p e c i a l l y those provisions against  "communicating, advocating  and promoting"  Those objectives having been discarded i f one t r i e s now  to  reconstruct the objective the authorities appeared to maximize one cannot f a i l to conclude that the authorities were simply t r y i n g to "freeze" the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n the Province. in providing the p o l i c e forces with instant and massive powers of arrests, against a l l those that could be  p u b l i c l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s e p a r a t i s t movement, and i d e n t i f i e d as i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o r even s i m p l y as i t s proponents i n u r g i n g o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e the media,the t r a d e unions o r the l e g a l i n d e p e n d a n t i s t s movements t o show more r e s t r a i n t under the t h r e a t o f an extended  implementation  o f the P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s In o r d e r t o o b l i g e the FLQ t o f o l d and t o a c c e p t the mate p r o p o s a l s e t f o r t h b y Robert Bourassa, g i v e much but p r o v i d e d the k i d n a p p e r s  ulti-  which d i d not  w i t h a minimal  face  s a v i n g d e v i c e i n exchange o f the s a f e r e l e a s e o f the h o s t a .ges.  From the a u t h o r i t i e s p o i n t o f v i e w the s e t o f chosen  measures was p e r m i t t i n g  t o reduce a t minimal  l e v e l the mounting p r e s s u r e s  urging  the Government t o n e g o t i a t e and which c o u l d have l e d t o p u b l i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s and t o s e r i o u s p u b l i c d i s o r d e r s .  t o develop  a form o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e internment  t i o n a r y a r r e s t plus detention without t r i a l ) the r e s u m p t i o n  (discrepreventing  o f the s o c i a l u n r e s t t h a t had preceded the  p r o c l a m a t i o n o f the W.M.A.  A d d i t i o n a l l y the s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the p r o c l a m a t i o n the W.M.A., had f u r t h e r b e n e f i c i a l consequences f o r t h e authorities: i t was  d r y i n g out the p o o l o f support on w h i c h the  kidnappers s h e l t e r and  i t was  c o u l d count i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n funds  reducing the r i s k s of f u r t h e r s e l e c t i v e v i o l e n c e .  of  by the magnitude o f the p l a n n e d round up and by checks more numerous p o l i c e f o r c e s  the  (as s u p p o r t e d by  the army) w i t h sweeping s e a r c h powers c o u l d impose on the m o b i l i t y o f would-be t e r r o r i s t s i t was  o s t e n s i b l y g i v i n g back the i n i t i a t i v e t o  a u t h o r i t i e s and  c o r n e r i n g the FLQ  the  e i t h e r to f o l d or to  commit a c o l d b l o o d e d a s s a s s i n a t i o n w h i c h would u n d o u b t e d l y be d e t r i m e n t a l t o i t s image In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e  the p r o v i s i o n s f o r f u r t h e r  prosecutions  (which we have n o t e d were weak, redundant and more o r l e s s a p p l i c a b l e ) i n c l u d e d i n the P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s n o t h i n g more t h a n dummies s e r v i n g as an u m b r e l l a extension  to  o f ( q u a s i p o l i t i c a l ) p o l i c e powers t h a t  o n l y have been e n f o r c e d  under e x c e p t i o n a l  were the  could  contingencies  thanks t o the " r e a l i s m and progmatism" o f the c o u r t s .  But  thanks t o the improved means t o c o l l e c t e v i d e n c e g i v e n  to  the p o l i c e f o r c e s and  the l i m i t a t i o n s e x e r t e d on the  FLQ  o p t i o n s , the u s u a l p r o v i s i o n s o f the C r i m i n a l Code were l i k e l y t o be s u f f i c i e n t and the emergency measures c o u l d c o n f i n e d t o the emergency o f the s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t  be  generating  any u n h e a l t h y r e p r e s s i o n . The  p o l i c e f o r c e s g a t h e r e d t h e i r f i l e s and  up a t 4:00 7.  HAD  THE  Apparently The  A.M.  on October  s t a r t e d the round  16  AUTHORITIES OTHER ALTERNATIVES? a few o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s were c o n s i d e r e d  by the a u t h o r i t i e s  t o t a l a c c e p t a n c e o f the rLQ demands had been r e j e c t e d and  a u t h o r i t i e s had violence.  the  to face the r i s k s of a p o t e n t i a l e s c a l a t i o n i n  At t h i s l e v e l , i f we are t o b e l i e v e G e r a l d  Pelletier:  " I have s t a t e d above t h a t o n l y l i m i t e d means o f defence are a v a i l a b l e t o a modern s t a t e when a t h r e a t t o i t s i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y must be c o u n t e r e d . On the o t h e r hand the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e means can v a r y i n i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n " (34) A l t e r n a t i v e s a r e l i m i t e d e s p e c i a l l y as he f u r t h e r n o t e s , one  considers  " . . . t h a t Canada, no doubt because o f i t s p e a c e f u l p a s t , had a v a i l a b l e no o t h e r r e s t r i c t i v e law t h a t was more l i m i t e d and b e t t e r adapted t o the problem" (35) Apparently, was  the o n l y o t h e r way,  w h i c h the Government t r i e d t o  explore,  t o pass some ad-hoc p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n t h r o u g h P a r l i a m e n t ,  as  r e v e a l e d by J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r John Turner i n h i s speech i n defence o f Government a c t i o n on October  16:  " T h i s l e f t o n l y two p o s s i b l e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . The Government c o u l d have sought s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n o f the t y p e embodied i n the r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h have been brought i n t o f o r c e under the War Measures or a l t e r n a t i v e l y the War Measures Act c o u l d have been r e s o r t e d t o I suggest t o the House t h a t i f a s p e c i a l p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n had been r e s o r t e d t o , the p r o v i s i o n s might w e l l have been s i m i l a r t o the p r o v i s i o n s now found i n the r e g u l a t i o n s . But t h i s Government was a s s u r e d by the Government o f Quebec and by s e n i o r persons d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h a t t e m p t i n g t o cope w i t h the t e r r o r i s t s t h a t a s e a r c h and a r r e s t o p e r a t i o n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e magnitude d i r e c t e d at the FLQ was n e c e s s a r y and t h a t t i m e was o f the essence. Our i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n was the r e a c t i o n o f s e v e r a l Members o f the House t o seek t h e a u t h o r i t y o f P a r l i a m e n t f i r s t . But f a c e d w i t h the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the s i t u a t i o n and w i t h the n e c e s s i t y o f not b r o a d c a s t i n g what the Government o f Quebec and the Government o f Canada i n t e n t e d t o do, f a c e d w i t h the u r g e n c y o f a n t i c i p a t i n g any f u r t h e r e s c a l a t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n i n M o n t r e a l , the Government o f Canada r e s o r t e d t o the War Measures A c t " (36)  From what has  f i l t e r e d from C a b i n e t d i s c u s s i o n s , the o n l y t h i n g  can i n f e r i s the f a c t t h a t the War  Measures A c t and  the  Intervention  o f t h e army have been p o l a r i z i n g the debates s i n c e October 11 and apparently  no o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s have been  considered.  we that  To a c e r t a i n p o i n t t h i s i s not a s t o n i s h i n g , p a r l i a m e n t a r y  democraties  ( e s p e c i a l l y o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n s ) have g e n e r a l l y as a r u l e v e r y provisions that could provide  8.  VARIATION ON THE  few  f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e internment.  UNITARY ACTOR THEME  In h i s a n a l y s i s o f p o s s i b l e v a r i a n t s o f the c l a s s i c a l model Graham A l l i s o n mentions: "A r e l a t e d but n e v e r t h e l e s s d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f a n a l y s i s f o c u s e s e x p l i c i t e l y on an i n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r o r l e a d e r s h i p c l i q u e as t h e a c t o r whose p r e f e r e n c e f u n c t i o n i s maximized and whose p e r s o n a l (or group) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a l l o w e d t o m o d i f y the b a s i c concepts o f the paradigm. T h i s i n d i v i d u a l ' s w e i g h i n g o f g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , t e n d e n c i e s t o p e r c e i v e (and t o e x c l u d e ) p a r t i c u l a r range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and p r i n c i p l e s employed i n e s t i m a t i n g the consequences t h a t f o l l o w from each a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v e as the b a s i c framework w i t h i n which the c h o i c e must be l o c a t e d " (37)  As s e v e r a l commentators have been e x p l i c i t e l y r e f e r r i n g t o the problem i n t h e s e terms, i . e . , t r y i n g t o g i v e a c e n t r a l p l a c e t o P.E.  Trudeau's  m o t i v e s and p r e j u d i c e s , i t appears t h a t some j u s t i c e must be  rendered  t o the two  -  The  following theories:  t h e o r y t h a t P.E.  t h r e a t from the FLQ  Trudeau had  conspired  t o e x a g g e r a t e the  i n o r d e r t o a t t a c k and d i s c r e d i t the demo-  c r a t i c s e p a r a t i s t movement T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seems t o i g n o r e f a c t o r s among which numerous s t a t e m e n t s from P.E.  Trudeau h i m s e l f :  " I would make every e f f o r t t o make t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n t o make s u r e t h a t t h e r e i s no m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , no p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h i n k i n g t h a t a l l s e p a r a t i s t s b e l i e v e i n v i o l e n c e because a few FLQ have used v i o l e n c e t o promote s e p a r a t i s m " (38) and  from s e v e r a l F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r s l i k e Bryce MacKasey:  "When we t r y t o equate the FLQ and the P a r t i Quebecois we are e q u a t i n g b a n d i t s , t e r r o r i s t s and p a r t o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l movement w i t h a l e g i t i m a t e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n t h i s c o u n t r y " (39)  He t h e n added, i n one o f h i s t y p i c a l I r i s h o u t b u r s t s t h a t : "He would g i v e h i s l i f e f o r t h e P.Q. t o s u r v i v e " or  Gerald P e l l e t i e r :  " I t would o f course be a b s u r d t o confuse t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e FLQ and t h o s e o f t h e P a r t i Quebecois" (40) On o t h e r grounds such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g e n e r a l l y i g n o r e s t h e f a c t t h a t even i f such a m o t i v e had been b e h i n d t h e War Measures Act,  i t would have been r e m a r k a b l y u n s u c c e s s f u l . i n t h e b y - e l e c t i o n  i n Chambly (which was P i e r r e L a p o r t e ' s former r i d i n g )  The P.Q.  made 33% o f t h e v o t e s (over t h e average, 27%, which i t made i n t h e 1970 e l e c t i o n s ) and t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r i t became t h e o f f i c i a l opp o s i t i o n i n t h e Quebec P r o v i n c e a f t e r h a v i n g improved i t s 1970 score.  -  The t h e o r y t h a t P.E. Trudeau had c o n s p i r e d t o g e t r i d (by l e g a l means) o f t h e l e f t i s t o p p o s i t i o n i n Quebec Even i f more grounded o r former s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r i t i s shaded by s e v e r a l  facts:  the  absence o f c o n v i c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e " b i g f i v e " i n 1971.  the  r e s u m p t i o n o f t e r r o r i s t s a c t i v i t i e s i n 1971 ( s e v e r a l bombs)  the  absence o f c l e a r c u t p r o v i s i o n s f o r e f f e c t i v e p r o s e c u t i o n  i n t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s the  r a t h e r l e n i e n t p o l i c y a p p l i e d towards p e o p l e l i k e  V a l l i e r e s who i n 1972 was h i r e d of  Pierre  ( a t t h e o u t c r y o f some members  P a r l i a m e n t ) as a f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v a n t .  NOTE ON FOGUS 1A: Had we f o c u s e d on u l t e r i o r outcomes, o u r c o n c l u s i o n s would have been different. of  I f we c o n s i d e r , f o r example, two o f t h e main a t t r i b u t e s  t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s ( t h e redundancy  and t h e i n a p p l i c a b i l i  o f some o f i t s p r o v i s i o n s ) i t f u r t h e r appeared:  t h a t numerous s p e c i f i c charges were l a i d under t h o s e p r o v i s i o n s , and t h a t charges were even l a i d under b o t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the R e g u l a t i o n s (FLQ membership) and t h e C r i m i n a l Code ( S e d i t i o n ) t h a t a few (2) c o n v i c t i o n s were o b t a i n e d under the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s  In our a n a l y s i s however, we w i l l t r y t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h o s e d e v e l o p ments i n a Model I I I p e r s p e c t i v e Units)  ( S e p a r a t e M u l t i p l e Implementation  FOCUS 1 B: UNITARY ACTOR (BOUNDED RATIONALITY)  1.  ANTECEDENTS OF THE  FLQ CHOSEN ACTION  On October 6, former J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Remi P a u l i n the Lesage Government made a statement which u n d e r l i n e d , t h a t "the o f Mr.  kidnapping  C r o s s had been planned, f o r more t h a n a y e a r " and t h a t " h i s  a f f i r m a t i o n was  supported  had r e c e i v e d a t t h e t i m e "  by i n f o r m a t i o n the M i n i s t r y o f J u s t i c e (41)  In f a c t s e v e r a l elements c o u l d j u s t i f y Mr. P a u l ' s In r e c e n t y e a r s k i d n a p p i n g s  position:  had become a s t a n d a r d  feature of  urban g u e r r i l l a o p e r a t i o n s and were d u l y i n c l u d e d i n B a s i c Manuals l i k e the one p u b l i s h e d by C a r l o s M a r i g h e l l a : " K i d n a p p i n g i s c a p t u r i n g and h o l d i n g i n a s e c r e t spot a p o l i c e agent, a N o r t h American spy, a p o l i t i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y , o r a n o t o r i o u s and dangerous enemy o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement. K i d n a p p i n g i s used t o exchange or l i b e r a t e i m p r i s o n e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y comrades, o r t o f o r c e s u s p e n s i o n o f t o r t u r e i n the j a i l c e l l s o f the m i l i t a r y d i c t a t o r s h i p The k i d n a p p i n g o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s who a r e known a r t i s t s , s p o r t s f i g u r e s , o r o u t s t a n d i n g i n some o t h e r f i e l d but who have e v i denced no p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t can be a u s e f u l form o f propaganda f o r the r e v o l u t i o n a r y . a n d p a t r i o t i c p r i n c i p l e s o f the urban g u e r r i l l a p r o v i d e d i t o c c u r s under s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and the k i d n a p p i n g i s h a n d l e d so t h a t the p u b l i c sympathizes w i t h i t and a c c e p t s i t . The k i d n a p p i n g o f N o r t h American r e s i d e n t s o r v i s i t o r s i n B r a s i l c o n s t i t u t e s a form o f p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the p e n e t r a t i o n and domin a t i o n o f U n i t e d S t a t e s i m p e r i a l i s m i n our c o u n t r y " (42)  I n t h i s " o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e " most o f the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the a c t i o n chosen by the FLQ:  The p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e v i c t i m  (a  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l i s t i c power), the n a t u r e  of  the b a r t e r ( t h e p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s ) and the consequences f o r the movement (accrued propaganda) are a l r e a d y u n d e r l i n e d . t e x t was  This  p u b l i s h e d a few months b e f o r e the d e a t h o f C a r l o s  M a r i g h e l l a i n 1969,  and i t i s not i m p o s s i b l e s i n c e the manual  was  w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d , t h a t some p e o p l e i n t h e FLQ took n o t i c e o f i t .  -  One k i d n a p p i n g attempt had a l r e a d y t a k e n p l a c e i n M o n t r e a l i n 1970: "On F e b r u a r y 26, M o n t r e a l p o l i c e stopped a r e n t e d p a n e l t r u c k and found two men, arms, a l a r g e w i c k e r b a s k e t and a document announcing t h a t the FLQ had j u s t kidnapped Moshe G o l a n , t h e I s r a e l i Consul and Trade Commissioner i n M o n t r e a l . The men, Jacques L a n c t o t and P i e r r e M a r c i l , were charged w i t h c o n s p i r a c y to k i d n a p and r e l e a s e d on b a i l , L a n c t o t d i s a p p e a r e d " (43)  -  The p o l i c e f o r c e s , w h i l e d i s m a n t l i n g a n o t h e r FLQ c e l l a few months l a t e r , found c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t a second attempt had been p l a n n e d : "The reward ( o f f e r e d on June 1 by J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r J . Choquette f o r i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g t o t h e a r r e s t o f bombers) a p p a r e n t l y p a i d o f f . A t i p l e d p o l i c e t o a summer home i n t h e L a u r e n t i a n s , n e a r P r e v o s t and a house i n suburban L a v a l . At P r e v o s t the p o l i c e a r r e s t e d f o u r people...and found an FLQ communique announcing the k i d n a p p i n g o f t h e American Consul i n M o n t r e a l . By the k i d n a p p i n g o f Consul Burgess t h e FLQ wants t o s t r e s s i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o l i d a r i t y w i t h a l l those c o u n t r i e s that f i g h t a g a i n s t the economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l n o m i n a t i o n o f the Americans i n t h e w o r l d . T h i s means u n c o n d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t o f the movements i n L a t i n America and P a l e s t i n e , s u p p o r t o f t h e American b l a c k s and o f a l l the p e o p l e o f A f r i c a and A s i a who work f o r t h e i r l i b e r a t i o n . " (44)  T h i s s u c c e s s i o n o f events l e d James C r o s s h i m s e l f t o e x p r e s s a r a t h e r d i s a b u s e d o p i n i o n when he was asked why he was chosen as a h o s t a g e :  " I t h i n k t h e y wanted a d i p l o m a t . They had a l r e a d y t r i e d t h r e e , two at l e a s t , and p o s s i b l y t h r e e k i d n a p p i n g a t t e m p t s i n M o n t r e a l which had been f r u s t r a t e d . They had s u r v e y e d a number o f p e o p l e . They gave me a few reasons when I asked them, c l a i m i n g B r i t i s h c u l t u r a l i m p e r i a l i s m i n Canada, but I don't b e l i e v e t h i s . I think they simply wanted t o get a d i p l o m a t t o get w o r l d o p i n i o n and I happened t o be available" (44 b i s )  -  A t the same o c c a s i o n a l i s t o f " i r r e v o c a b l e c o n d i t i o n s " f o r t h e l i f e o f t h e Consul was  f o u n d , whose s i m i l a r i t y w i t h the l a t t e r  demands o f the FLQ  is striking.  "The r e l e a s e o f a l l " p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s " and t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o Cuba. The r e i n s t a t e m e n t o f t h e " r e v o l u t i o n a r y Lapalme workers. The payment o f a v o l u n t a r y t a x o f $500,000. i n g o l d i n g o t s . The b r o a d c a s t i n g and p u b l i c a t i o n o f a l l FLQ communiques and t h e end o f a l l p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and a r r e s t s " (45)  The  o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s l i s t and t h e f i r s t communique  o f the l i b e r a t i o n c e l l which was  found, r e s i d e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t  no mention o f the i n f o r m e r i s made i n the former (which i s q u i t e l o g i c a l s i n c e i t i s t h i s v e r y i n f o r m e r which l e d t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h i s f i r s t communique) S u r p r i s i n g l y however, s t r o n g a t t a c k s a g a i n s t " i n f o r m e r s " can  be  found i n a l a t e r i n t e r v i e w o f a spokesman o f the M.D.P.P.Q., Jacques L a r u e - L a n g l o i s . "Choquette i s t r y i n g t o c r e a t e a new n a t i o n a l hero i n Q u e b e c . . . The s t o o l pigeon....We want t o open a n a t i o n a l campaign a g a i n s t p o l i c e i n f o r m e r s . We a l s o want t o a p p l y p u b l i c p r e s s u r e on the Quebec newspaper m o n o p o l i e s , l i k e Quebec C o r p o r a t i o n to p u b l i s h the statements put out by the FLQ" (46) From these e v i d e n c e s , one  cannot f a i l  t o conclude  t h a t the a c t i o n  chosen by the FLQ d u r i n g the October c r i s i s had s t r i k i n g rities  w i t h i t s past a c t i o n s .  simila-  Moreover t h i s c o n t i n u i t y found among  a c t i o n s i s a l s o found among p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d , Jacques L a n c t o t  was  i n v o l v e d i n the f i r s t attempt, h i s b r o t h e r F r a n c o i s i n the second, and Jacques L a n c t o t , h i s s i s t e r L o u i s e and Jacques (her husband) i n the t h i r d (the-one o f J .  2.  ANTECEDENTS OF THE  Cossette-Trudel  Cross)  AUTHORITIES' CHOSEN ACTIONS  Under some o f i t s a s p e c t s the a c t i o n s chosen by the a u t h o r i t i e s have n o t i c e a b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h a c t i o n s taken i n d i f f e r e n t contexts  earlier  The n o m i n a t i o n o f the D i r e c t o r o f the Q.P.P. a t the head o f the j o i n t P o l i c e Forces.  In October 1969  d u r i n g and a f t e r the  P o l i c e s t r i k e , Q.P.P. D i r e c t o r M a u r i c e S t . P i e r r e was  nominated  a t the head o f the law enforcement f o r c e s i n the P r o v i n c e i n c l u d e d t h e members o f the Canadian Armed The  i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the Canadian Army:  Montreal (which  Forces)  For s e v e r a l y e a r s  the  Canadian Armed Forces had been i n v o l v e d w i t h the problem o f enforcement i n the  law  Province:  Members o f the Canadian Armed Forces had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e f i r s t a n t i - t e r r o r i s t squad, c o n s t i t u t e d i n 1963,  as a j o i n t t a s k f o r c e r e g r o u p i n g members o f the  p o l i c e , the Q.P.P. and the R.C.M.P. t i o n may  Montreal  However, t h i s p a r t i c i p a -  be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t the C.A.F. had  the  r e q u i r e d e x p e r t i s e i n d e f u s i n g bombs which were the main problems o f the squad at the  D u r i n g the M o n t r e a l  time.  P o l i c e s t r i k e , a l i m i t e d number o f  from the 22nd Regiment (Regiment de l a C h a u d i e r e , a l s o as the Vandoos, the same one t h a t was i n 1970)  However, what was  known  to intervene i n Montreal  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v a r i o u s t a s k s o f law  under a f o r m a l r e q u e s t  troops  enforcement,  from t h e P r o v i n c i a l C i v i l  supposed t o be a p u n c t u a l  Powers.  i n t e r v e n t i o n took  a p p a r e n t l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n s , as suggested from the f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n Le D e v o i r on December 1,  1969:  "On t h i s o c c a s i o n ( i n a u g u r a t i o n o f the new c o n t r o l ward) C h i e f G i l b e r t , who gave a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s new t o o l put a t the d i s p o s a l o f the p o l i c e f o r c e s , d e c l a r e d t h a t the ward was a c h i e v e d i n l e s s than a month a t a c o s t o f $50,000. I t i s p r i m a r i l y an i n t e r n a l communication c e n t e r , equipped w i t h a s c r e e n r e p r e s e n t i n g a Map o f M o n t r e a l ( C i t y ) , and w i t h c l o s e d c i r c u i t T.V. m o n i t o r s which g i v e p i c t u r e s from the events t a k i n g p l a c e i n the s t r e e t , thanks t o a network o f T.V. cameras i n s t a l l e d on the r o o f s . In case o f i m p o r t a n t o p e r a t i o n s , l i k e the c o n t r o l o f an i m p o r t a n t p o p u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n , f o r example, s a i d Mr. G i l b e r t ,  - 81 -  members o f t h e R.C.M.P., Canadian Armed Forces and o f t h e Q.P.P. can t a k e a p l a c e b e s i d e M o n t r e a l p o l i c e m e n on a p l a t form f a c i n g t h e 8' x 40' mural s c r e e n " (47) During t h e same y e a r , a d r a s t i c change appeared i n t h e m i s s i o n s a s s i g n e d t o t h e Canadian Armed Forces as n o t e d by P a u l Stevens and John S a y w e l l : "There was some q u e s t i o n , as w e l l , about t h e r o l e s o f t h e f o r c e s . The Prime M i n i s t e r had d e f i n e d t h e r o l e s as t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s o v e r e i g n t y , t h e defence o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f NATO commitments, and p e a c e k e e p i n g . But " P r i o r i t y One" a t Canadian Forces H e a d q u a r t e r s was s a i d t o be " a i d t o t h e c i v i l a u t h o r i t y , " and t h e f o r c e s were b e i n g o r g a n i z e d and equipped f o r t h i s purpose. H e l i c o p t e r s were b e i n g purchased w i t h s e a r c h l i g h t s and l o u d h a i l e r s , and i n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n s were r e p o r t e d t o be t r a i n i n g i n t e n s i v e l y i n r i o t c o n t r o l , t e a r gas employment, and p o l i c e d u t i e s . The army's deployment o f i n f a n t r y i n support o f t h e c i v i l a u t h o r i t y i n M o n t r e a l d u r i n g t h e r i o t s t h e r e was seen as t h e k e y f u t u r e r o l e f o r t h e f o r c e s . What was n o t c l e a r was the o r i g i n o f t h i s P r i o r i t y One. C e r t a i n l y n e i t h e r t h e Prime M i n i s t e r n o r t h e M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l Defence had g i v e n any p u b l i c i n k l i n g t h a t a i d t o t h e c i v i l a u t h o r i t y was a n y t h i n g more t h a n one o f a whole host o f d u t i e s f o r t h e Canadian F o r c e s . S t i l l , i t seemed u n l i k e l y t h a t some p e t t y b u r e a u c r a t c o u l d d e c r e e a s h i f t o f t h i s magnitude on h i s own. What was a l s o u n c l e a r was j u s t what t h r e a t e x i s t e d t h a t c o u l d n e c e s s i t a t e a i d to t h e c i v i l a u t h o r i t y becoming t h e f i r s t p r i o r i t y o f t h e f o r c e s " (48)  A p p a r e n t l y , t h i s deep i n t e r e s t , f o r domestic law enforcement and for  t h e Quebec P r o v i n c e , o f t h e Canadian Armed Forces was a l o n g  l a s t i n g one as r e v e a l e d b y two r e c e n t The  (May and June 1974)  leaks:  c u r i o u s s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f t h e "Neat P i t c h " E x e r c i s e w i t h t h e  g e n e r a l s t r i k e i n Quebec and t h e memo d e a l i n g w i t h  separatism  w i t h i n t h e Canadian Armed F o r c e s . The use o f t h e War Measures A c t as a means f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e internment:  During World War I I , 21,000 Japanese-Canadians were  evacuated from t h e i r homes and communities, o r as mentioned by Haggart and Golden:  "The Japanese were herded i n t o Vancouver's H a s t i n g Park, s l e e p i n g i n e x h i b i t i o n b u i l d i n g s , c a r r y i n g a l l they could w i t h them i n the maximum two s u i t c a s e s a l l o w e d p e r p e r s o n . G r a d u a l l y t h e y were d i s p e r s e d , but w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y , as community a f t e r community i n t h e i n t e r i o r r e j e c t e d the i d e a o f t h e camps b e i n g p l a c e d t h e r e " (49) The use o f t h e War  Measures A c t as a means f o r banning a s s o c i a t i o n s  " D u r i n g the war, the power t o d e c l a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i l l e g a l was g i v e n t o the C a b i n e t under t h e War Measures A c t , and i t was u s e d , b o t h on t h e Jehovah's w i t n e s s e s and t h e i r r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s and on Technocracy I n c . , a p r o s e l y t i z i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h semi r e l i g i o u s and a u t h o r i t a r i a n o v e r t o n e s " (49a) T h i s e x t e n s i v e use o f the emergency l e g i s l a t i o n s , enabled some o f t h e Quebec a c t i v i s t s o f t h e t i m e t o g a i n f i r s t hand o f t h e p o w e r f u l e f f e c t s o f t h e War  experience  Measures A c t , as r e l a t e d i n  an i n t e r v i e w between Simone C h a r t r a n d and N i c k auf der Maur "When B r i t a i n d e c l a r e d war i n September 1939, Canada q u i c k l y f o l l o w e d i t s l e a d . The same i s s u e s a r o s e . The War Measures A c t was imposed. During t h e 1940 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , t h e L i b e r a l s under Mackenzie K i n g promised t h e r e would be no c o n s c r i p t i o n . A f t e r t h e y won, t h e y changed t h e i r minds. The Throne Speech i n J a n u a r y 1942 announced a n a t i o n a l p l e b i s c i t e on the c o n s c r i p t i o n issue. M i c h e l h e l p e d t o o r g a n i z e the "Non"  campaign.  The n a t i o n a l i s t s o f t h e t i m e , Andre Laurendeau, F r a n c o i s - A l b e r t A n g e r s , Gerard F i l i o n , Jean Drapeau, Rene C h a l o u t , Marc C a r r i e r e , and many o t h e r s formed the L i g u e pour l a Defense du Canada ( M i c h e l proposed t h e name). Even H e n r i Bourassa came out o f retirement to take p a r t . I t was a v e r y h e c t i c t i m e , w i t h r a l l i e s and meetings b e i n g h e l d c o n t i n u o u s l y . M i c h e l poured a l l h i s e n e r g i e s i n t o t h e campaign. At t h e end o f i t , on A p r i l 27, 1942, Quebec v o t e d 75% "Non". The r e s t o f Canada v o t e d d i f f e r e n t l y . C o n s c r i p t i o n was imposed and the War Measures Act e n f o r c e d a g a i n s t d i s s i d e n t s . Many were a r r e s t e d , even t h e Mayor o f M o n t r e a l , who spent t h e r e s t o f the war i n an internment camp.  The league p r e p a r e d t o f i g h t the November b y - e l e c t i o n i n Outremont, i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a s a f e L i b e r a l s e a t f o r the M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l Defence, M a j o r - G e n e r a l L a f l e c h e . J e a n Drapeau, who had j u s t g r a d u a t e d from law s c h o o l , was chosen as c a n d i d a t e , M i c h e l was h i s o r g a n i z e r . That f a l l , we s t a r t e d s e e i n g P i e r r e E l l i o t t Trudeau a l o t , as he became i n c r e a s i n g l y a c t i v e i n the campaign. M i c h e l and P i e r r e were f r i e n d s , h a v i n g been s c h o o l chums, and l i k e d each o t h e r a l t h o u g h P i e r r e s a i d he thought M i c h e l a b i t u n r e a l i s t i c . He s a i d M i c h e l was a dreamer, a m y s t i c , and wasn't p r a g m a t i c enough. D e s p i t e h i s good i n t e n t i o n s , he s a i d , M i c h e l would never get anywhere. There were many meetings t o a t t e n d and we a l l worked f e v e r i s h l y I was f i v e months pregnant a t the t i m e , and sometimes the meetings c o u l d get p r e t t y rough. P o l i c e i n p l a i n c l o t h e s were . at every meeting t a k i n g n o t e s , k e e p i n g tabs on t h i n g s . Gen. L a f l e c h e ' s m e e t i n g s , a t t e n d e d by s e v e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s and MPs, were p a r t i c u l a r l y t u m u l t u o u s , s i n c e he a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e number o f young c o n s c r i p t s who had a l o t o f q u e s t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y q u e s t i o n s weren't a c c e p t e d a t t h a t time - whether i n t h e c h u r c h , the f a m i l y o r b e f o r e a u t h o r i t y . At one m e e t i n g , M i c h e l asked P i e r r e E l l i o t t Trudeau t o keep an eye on me, t o s o r t o f a c t as my bodyguard. I t was a L i b e r a l e l e c t i o n m e e t i n g and the c o n s c r i p t s wanted t o know why the L i b e r a l s went back on t h e i r promise o f no c o n s c r i p t i o n . Everyone who posed a q u e s t i o n was e j e c t e d . P i e r r e became v e r y i n d i g n a n t , and demanded t o know how a p o l i c e m a n c o u l d push a pregnant woman. He was v e r y g a l l a n t , w i t h h i s c u l t u r e d language and n i c e manner, as he came t o my d e f e n c e . He became e x t r e m e l y upset when we were asked i n no u n c e r t a i n terms t o l e a v e the h a l l and were u s h e r e d out. Because o f the War Measures A c t , the i s s u e o f c o n s c r i p t i o n c o u l d n ' t be d i s c u s s e d o p e n l y on the r a d i o and i n the p r e s s . P i e r r e s a i d i t was i n t o l e r a b l e t h a t t h e r e c o u l d n ' t be f r e e d i s c u s s i o n , t h a t the p o l i c e were b e i n g used t o c r u s h c i v i l liberties. As we were thrown o u t , the complained about the s t a t e u s i n g p o l i c e f o r c e t o e n f o r c e i t s power. He was v e r y i n d i g n a n t and upset about the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l P a r t y , a l t h o u g h b o t h our f a t h e r s were L i b e r a l m i l i t a n t s . Today, when p e o p l e i n Quebec c o m p l a i n about what the s t a t e i s d o i n g t o p e o p l e , he knows e x a c t l y how i t f e e l s . T h i s i s what i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y about what he has done. Watch him. But i n those days my husband and he were good f r i e n d s . " (49b)  FOCUS I I :  MULTIPLE SEPARATE INFORMATION (BOUNDED RATIONALITY)  UNITS  PRELIMINARIES  In h i s a n a l y s i s o f c r i s i s b e h a v i o u r ,  Burton notes t h a t :  "The study o f c r i s i s b e h a v i o u r i s v a l u a b l e i n i t s e l f b u t i t s main v a l u e i s t h a t i t p o i n t s d r a m a t i c a l l y t o i n e f f i c i e n c i e s t h a t go u n n o t i c e d i n o r d i n a r y d e c i s i o n making. I n c r i s i s and d e s p i t e i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h e problem, m i s p e r c e p t i o n s a r e g r e a t e r , p e r c e p t i o n s become more s t e r e o t y p e d , e v e r y a c t i o n o f t h e enemy i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a t h r e a t . The h i s t o r y o f t h e c o n f l i c t i s r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e t h e o r y t h a t a g g r e s s i o n always the i n t e n t o f t h e enemy, b e l i e f systems become c l o s e d and a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s u n r e a l i s t i c , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s by which f a c t s a r e examined a r e by-passed t o s e c u r e q u i c k d e c i s i o n s ^ f a c t s t h a t do n o t support p o l i c i e s a r e d i s r e g a r d e d and t h e i r s u r v e y o r s t r e a t e d as h o s t i l e a g e n t s , a d v i s e r s , a r e t h o s e who g i v e t h e a d v i c e t h a t i s wanted, p r i o r i t i e s l e a d t o t h e n e g l e c t o f m a t t e r s n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e c r i s i s power becomes c e n t r a l i z e d and i n t i m i d a t i o n of p a r t i e s w i t h opposing views i n c r e a s e s " (49c)  In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , as most o f t h e above comments r e l a t e t o t h e way i n f o r m a t i o n i s h a n d l e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f c r i s i s , we a r e going t o f o c u s our a t t e n t i o n on t h e r o l e p l a y e d by i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s (and i n t h i s case f o r m a l s p e c i a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) i n s h a p i n g t h e authorities' decisions.  I n so doing,we w i l l have t o d e t e r m i n e :  1.  What was t h e o b s e r v a b l e  situation  2.  What was t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e s p e c i a l i z e d u n i t s , and  3.  Why were t h e r e d i s t o r t i o n s between t h e o b s e r v a b l e and t h e "image" p r o v i d e d  t o the decision-makers  situation  We c o u l d have t r e a t e d t h o s e q u e s t i o n s  separately i n focusing  f i r s t on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would have been p r o v i d e d . b y " r a t i o n a l " i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s (which would have c o n s t i t u t e d a Model I I A ) and t h e n on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s (which would have c o n s t i t u t e d a Model I I B ) i n o r d e r t o c o n c e n t r a t e  f i n a l l y on t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  o f c o r r e c t i v e ( a n t i - d i s t o r t i o n ) measures (which would have c o n s t i t u t e d a Model I I C )  However, we have p r e f e r r e d t o f o l l o w a s t e p by s t e p p r o c e d u r e , comparing,all  a l o n g our a n a l y s i s , t h e "image" t o t h e r e a l i t y  and t r y i n g t o r e l a t e t h e n o t e d d i s c r e p a n c i e s t o what we knew were t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , demands and u s u a l forms o f a c t i o n o f the information u n i t s i n v o l v e d .  D u r i n g t h e c r i s i s , s e v e r a l u n i t s , t h e R.C.M.P., t h e Q.P.P., t h e Montreal  P o l i c e , t h e A n t i - T e r r o r i s t Squad, t h e M e d i a , t h e MPs  and numerous members o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y , p r o v i d e d r i t i e s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n p u t s w h i c h have n o t been inferring with t h e i r decision. the M o n t r e a l  t h e authowithout  On some o f t h e s e u n i t s , t h e Q.P.P.,  P o l i c e , t h e A n t i - T e r r o r i s t Squad, v e r y l i t t l e  f i l t e r e d , at l e a s t concerning  informat  t h e way t h e y h a n d l e d and t r a n s m i t -  t e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e d e c i s i o n making A u t h o r i t i e s .  However,  thanks t o t h e Report o f t h e R o y a l Commission on S e c u r i t y , pub l i s h e d i n 1969, and t o o t h e r v a r i o u s s o u r c e s ,  i ti s easier to  a s s e s s how t h e s t r u c t u r e s , t h e programs and t h e s t r a t e g i e s o f  o t h e r u n i t s , among which t h e R.C.M.P. and t h e Media p a r t l y shaped t h e A u t h o r i t i e s ' d e c i s i o n s .  In the f i r s t part o f t h i s  a n a l y s i s , we s h a l l t r y t o a n a l y z e t h e main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e u n i t s i n o r d e r t o show i n a second p a r t , which b i a s and d i s t o r t i o n s t h e y have i n t r o d u c e d  1.  -  i n t h e decision-making  process.  THE R.C.M.P. AS AN INFORMATION UNIT  1. 1  The O r g a n i z a t i o n The  R.C.M.P. i s t h e main f e d e r a l o p e r a t i o n a l and i n -  v e s t i g a t i v e body i n t h e f i e l d o f s e c u r i t y . assumed t h i s r o l e d u r i n g W.W.  The f o r c e  1 because as t h e e x i s t i n g  f e d e r a l p o l i c e f o r c e , i t was a t t h a t t i m e t h e n a t u r a l f e d e r a l instrument i n t h i s area.  There i s , however,  no e x p l i c i t s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e s e c u r i t y r o l e . Such a u t h o r i t y , as does e x i s t , i s d e r i v e d from c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f t h e R.C.M.P. A c t (S.C. 1959 C. 54)-. 44 (e) o f t h e R.C.M.P. r e g u l a t i o n s and o r d e r s which have been p r o c l a i m e d under t h e A c t , p r o v i d e s  Section  (1960)  by t h e governor i n C o u n c i l  that " i n addition to the duties  p r e s c r i b e d by t h e Act, i t i s the duty o f the force...(e) to maintain  and o p e r a t e such s e c u r i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e  s e r v i c e s as may be r e q u i r e d b y t h e M i n i s t e r "  A d d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e R.C.M.P.'s s e c u r i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e operations  i s contained  i ncertain instruc-  t i o n s and d i r e c t i v e s i s s u e d b y t h e Government, which i n e f f e c t a u t h o r i z e t h e R.C.M.P. t o conduct t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r a s e c u r i t y program, and i n a d d i t i o n make t h e f o r c e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r v a r i o u s measures concerned w i t h i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y i n t h e event o f a n a t i o n a l emergency, as p r o c l a i m e d Act.  under t h e War Measures  I n p r a c t i c e t h e R.C.M.P. i s concerned w i t h t h e  following security functions:  (a)  A l l s e c u r i t y and s e c u r i t y i n t e l l i g e n c e o p e r a t i o n s and  (b)  " p o l i c e " operations  related to security  Maintenance and e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e c o r d s i n q u i r i e s concerning personnel,  and f i e l d  but not evaluation  o f r e p o r t s , n o r d e c i s i o n making i n i n d i v i d u a l cases (c)  Advice concerning departmental s e c u r i t y  (d)  Record k e e p i n g  •(e)  C e r t a i n s t a f f f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e management of the n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y e f f o r t  These f u n c t i o n s a r e performed b y a H e a d q u a r t e r s D i r e c t o r a t e o f S e c u r i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e ( r e p o r t i n g t o t h e Deputy Commissioner  i n charge o f O p e r a t i o n s ,  see o r g a n i z a t i o n  i n Appendix I I ) which m a i n t a i n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Regional  chart  a t R.C.M.P.  H.Q. and detachments and a t c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s  o v e r s e a s and which o p e r a t e i n c l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h t h e o t h e r D i r e c t o r a t e s o f t h e Force.  N e a r l y 60% o f t h e p e r s o n n e l  o f t h e s e c u r i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e D i r e c t o r a t e ( i n c l u d i n g a l l t h e s e n i o r o f f i c e r s , a l l b u t t h r e e o f the b r a n c h heads and almost a l l t h e o f f i c e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o p e r a t i o n s o r  - 88 -  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ) a r e r e g u l a r members o f t h e F o r c e ; t h e remaining  personnel  i n c l u d e s some s p e c i a l  constables  employed on s u r v e i l l a n c e d u t i e s , c i v i l i a n members employed as t r a n s l a t o r s , t e c h n i c i a n s o r r e s e a r c h e r s  and p u b l i c  s e r v a n t s on c l e r i c a l d u t i e s (50) I n t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec, as mentioned by Commissioner H i g g i t (51) o f t h e 800 R.C.M.P. o f f i c e r s and men i n M o n t r e a l  99.2% a r e  b i l i n g u a l and more than 70% o f t h e s e have f r e n c h as t h e i r mother tongue (no s p e c i f i c a t i o n however f o r t h e S e c u r i t y and  1.2  I n t e l l i g e n c e Branch)  I t s l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s as an i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t The  Commission on s e c u r i t y , was r a t h e r c r i t i c a l on some  f e a t u r e s o f t h e Force t h a t u n d o u b t e d l y c o n s t i t u t e d s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f i t s m i s s i o n as a s e c u r i t y agency. 1. 2  1.  Absence o f a d e f i n i t e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y - A u t h o r i t y Center " f o r s e c u r i t y matters":  "At p r e s e n t t h e S e c u r i t y P a n e l and t h e concerned o f f i c e r s i n t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l o f f i c e make an attempt t o p e r f o r m most o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s ( p o l i c y d e t e r m i n a t i o n , r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n , c o n f l i c t a r b i t r a t i o n , issuance o f r e g u l a t i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s , l i n k w i t h t h e Government and t h e P u b l i c , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o p e r a t i o n s ) b u t t h e y do so w i t h o u t e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y o r adequate r e s o u r c e s and w i t h an approach which i s n e c e s s a r y p e r m i s s i v e r a t h e r than compelling. As f a r as t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f S e c u r i t y p o l i c y i s concerned i t seems t o us t h a t under t h e p r e s e n t arrangements t h e t o t a l view o f t h e r e quirements o f s e c u r i t y may o f t e n be obscured by t h e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d by i n d i v i d u a l departments and t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e i r proposed p o l i c i e s . Nor a r e we c e r t a i n t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r a l arrangements ensure t h a t i s s u e s and arguments concerned w i t h s e c u r i t y a r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Government i n an e x p l i c i t and u n d i l u t e d form" (52)  - 89 -  1. 2  2.  Recruitment P o l i c y  "At p r e s e n t a l l t h e r e g u l a r members o f t h e D.S.I, a r e drawn from p e r s o n n e l r e c r u i t e d and t r a i n e d under normal R.C.M.P. p r o c e d u r e s , a l t h o u g h they a r e n o t s e l e c t e d f o r s e c u r i t y employment u n t i l they have had a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n p o l i c e d u t i e s and have r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g . There i s a t p r e s e n t no e f f e c t i v e program o f p o s t u n i v e r s i t y r e c r u i t i n g , even f o r t h e more demanding t a s k s i n t h e Force (which would o f course i n c l u d e many d u t i e s concerned w i t h s e c u r i t y ) and i n p r a c t i c e a p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t who has a t t e n d e d a u n i v e r s i t y i s faced with d i s i n c e n t i v e s . . . . These p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s mean i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t h a t t h e R.C.M.P. i s c u t t i n g i t s e l f o f f from t h e whole o f t h a t group o f p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s who a t t e n d a u n i v e r s i t y - i n o t h e r words and i n g e n e r a l terms, from those p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s who a r e l i k e l y t o p o s s e s s t h e most i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n i t i a t i v e and i m a g i n a t i o n . " (53)  1. 2  3.  C o n f u s i o n between s e c u r i t y and p o l i c e  activities  " P o l i c e f o r c e s a r e concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h law e n f o r c e ment i n c l u d i n g p o s t - f a c t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n , w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f e v i d e n c e and w i t h t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f c r i m e s . S e c u r i t y s e r v i c e s a r e p r i m a r i l y engaged i n p r e v e n t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . A secur i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l almost i n e v i t a b l y be h i n d e r e d i n i t s o p e r a t i o n s by t h e l a c k o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n h e r e n t i n a p o l i c e f o r c e such as R.C.M.P.... A s e c u r i t y s e r v i c e w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be i n v o l v e d i n a c t i o n s t h a t may c o n t r a vene t h e s p i r i t i f n o t t h e l e t t e r o f t h e law and w i t h c l a n d e s t i n e and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s which may sometimes seem t o i n f r i n g e on i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t s ; these a r e not a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c e f u n c t i o n s . N e i t h e r i s i t approp r i a t e f o r a p o l i c e f o r c e t o be concerned w i t h events o r a c t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t crimes o r s u s p e c t e d c r i m e s , w h i l e a s e c u r i t y s e r v i c e i s o f t e n i n v o l v e d w i t h such m a t t e r s G e n e r a l l y i n a p e r i o d i n which p o l i c e f o r c e s a r e s u b j e c t to some h o s t i l i t y , i t would appear unwise e i t h e r t o add t o t h e p o l i c e burden by an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s e c u r i t y d u t i e s , o r t o make s e c u r i t y d u t i e s more d i f f i c u l t by an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e p o l i c e f u n c t i o n . " (54)  1.3  I t s o p e r a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s as an i n f o r m a t i o n  From the a n a l y s i s o f the a b r i d g e d  unit  r e p o r t o f the R o y a l  Commission on s e c u r i t y i t appears t h a t two  dimensions  tend t o p o l a r i z e the o v e r a l l a t t e n t i o n o f the s e c u r i t y forces  the communist t h r e a t which appears t o be some l a t e p r o d u c t o f the c o l d war  and  (read i n t e r N o r t h American) the r i s k s o f i n f i l t r a t i o n  o f the A t l a n t i c cooperation  ( i n the Government, u n i o n s ,  u n i v e r s i t i e s ) o f the abovementioned p e r v a s i v e Only i n t h i s c o n t e x t  by-  and  doctrine.  i s i t p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d the  newly a p p o i n t e d Commissioner H i g g i t ' s statement i n t h a t the a r r i v a l o f Chinese d i p l o m a t s i n Ottawa  1969,  was  l i k e l y t o " i n c r e a s e the problems o f s e c u r i t y i n Canada" 2.  THE  OTHER POLICE FORCES AS  Although l i t t l e information  INFORMATION UNITS  i s a c t u a l l y a v a i l a b l e on t h e two  p o l i c e f o r c e s i n v o l v e d , i t seems t h a t what has been s a i d on ment, t r a i n i n g p o l i c i e s and  other recruit-  c o n f u s i o n between s e c u r i t y p o l i c e a c t i -  v i t i e s i s e q u a l l y r e l e v a n t i n the case o f b o t h the Q.P.P. and Montreal P o l i c e .  Moreover, i t appears t h a t two  of t h e i r  the  specific  f e a t u r e s are l i k e l y t o have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s as  informa-  tion units:  the f a c t t h a t t h e i r experience i n " c r i m i n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s " been g a i n e d i n t h e i r f i g h t s a g a i n s t o r g a n i z e d  crime (whose  s t r u c t u r e s t h e y t r i e d more or l e s s a c c o r d i n g  t o an R.C.M.P.  had  o f f i c e r on d u t y i n M o n t r e a l a t t h e time o f the c r i s i s t o p l a c a t e on the s u b v e r s i v e  movements)  the f a c t t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l  d i m e n s i o n o f t h e problem was more  or l e s s a l i e n t o them (which caused t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d R.C.M.P. o f f i c e r t o p r o f e r a few s l i g h t l y c a u s t i c remarks on t h e i r candour; o t h e r d i r e c t w i t n e s s e s  have c o n f i r m e d  instances p o l i c e o f f i c e r s producing  that i n several  i n t e l l i g e n c e r e p o r t s had  been more o r l e s s m e n t i o n i n g a l l t h e p e r s o n s t h e y knew " t o be . a t t h e l e f t o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y " o r even " l i s t s o f N.D.P. members")  3.  COOPERATION BETWEEN THE THREE POLICE FORCES IN THE INFORMATION PROCESS  Apparently  t h e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s (Q.P.P., R.C.M.P.,  M o n t r e a l ) had n o t been t h a t good as f a r as i n t e l l i g e n c e was concerned.  The F i e l d o f t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t o r g a n i z e d  gathering crime had  been a l a s t i n g s u b j e c t o f f r u s t r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p r e c e e d i n g  years  (and i t i s d i f f i c u l t not t o see how such a s i t u a t i o n c o u l d  equally  a f f e c t the f i g h t against subversive  The Commission o f E n q u i r y  activities)  i n t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e on  C r i m i n a l and Penal m a t t e r s i n Quebec mentions i n i t s r e p o r t :  "Three y e a r s l a t e r ( i n 1969) t h e s i t u a t i o n i s p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same. I t i s h a r d l y an e x a g g e r a t i o n t o say t h a t t h e R.C.M.P. c o n t i n u e s t o l o o k upon o r g a n i z e d c r i m e as i t s e x c l u s i v e p r o p e r t y and t r e a t s somewhat a r r o g a n t l y a l l those who c l a i m t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s c r i m i n a l activity. At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , i t i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e t o l o o k upon t h e M o n t r e a l M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e as a second r a t e p o l i c e f o r c e . Similarly, the P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e i t has a p p r e c i a b l y improved i t s enrolment and t r a i n i n g p o l i c y has a l r e a d y c o r r e c t e d many weaknesses o f t h e p a s t . However i n s p i t e o f t h e p r o g r e s s a c h i e v e d by t h e two main Quebec p o l i c e f o r c e s , i t i s s t i l l not p o s s i b l e t o t a l k o f a f r e e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n amongst t h e l a r g e p o l i c e f o r c e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e Quebec f i g h t a g a i n s t o r g a n i z e d crime (R.C.M.P., P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , M o n t r e a l Municipal Police)  However we are p l e a s e d t o note some improvement. The R.C.M.P. shows more w i l l i n g n e s s t o meet w i t h and even exchange some i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l and M o n t r e a l P o l i c e l e t us hope t h i s improvement w i l l c o n t i n u e . . . " (55) T h i s aspect o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a c t i v i t i e s came under t h e b i t t e r remarks o f Chairman S a u l n i e r a f t e r the M o n t r e a l complacently",  t h a t v e r y few  S t r i k e , where he  underlined,  i n f o r m a t i o n on the r e a l s i t u a t i o n i n  M o n t r e a l had been t r a n s m i t t e d t o the F e d e r a l A u t h o r i t i e s . The  c u l t u r a l f o l k l o r e o f the Q.P.P. t e s t i f i e s o f some k i n d o f  f r u s t r a t e d p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f o r c e and R.C.M.P.: 4.  The  the  l a t t e r b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o as t h e "Hats"  RESULTING DISTORTIONS IN ORGANIZATIONAL INTELLIGENCE  This set of l i m i t a t i o n s ( s t r u c t u r a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , i d e o l o g i c a l ) has u n d o u b t e d l y e x e r t e d some i n f l u e n c e on the n a t u r e and the o f the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d by the a u t h o r i t i e s .  quality  I n t h e absence o f  d i r e c t e v i d e n c e (G, P e l l e t i e r i s r a t h e r e v a s i v e on the s u b j e c t  and  the F e d e r a l Government has been s u c c e s s f u l i n a v o i d i n g any type  of  e n q u i r y h a v i n g t o do w i t h the c i r c u m s t a n c e s m a t i o n o f the War  surrounding  the p r o c l a -  Measures A c t ) the o n l y o p p o r t u n i t y l e f t t o us  consists in trying  t o compare the statements made by t h e o f f i c i a l s i n v o l v e d w i t h the evidences  at. hand  t o r e l a t e the apparent d i f f e r e n c e s between the s t a t e m e n t s and  the  e v i d e n c e s , w i t h the known p r o p e n s i t i e s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s analyzed  before  T h i s approach, which can be c r i t i c i z e d on s e v e r a l grounds (among w h i c h the f a c t t h a t i t i s h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e t o any attempt o f m a n i p u l a t i o n made by the o f f i c i a l s i n v o l v e d ) i s a p p a r e n t l y  the  o n l y one on which we can p r e s e n t l y r e l y ;  i t i s an attempt t o  u n d e r l i n e p r o b a b l e i n f l u e n c e s but d e c i s i v e l y not an attempt t o prove them  I n o r d e r t o l i m i t a t e i t s i n h e r e n t r i s k s we w i l l t r y t o j u x t a -  pose d i f f e r e n t statements from d i f f e r e n t o f f i c i a l s and make t h e assumption t h a t t h e i r correspondences can be e x p l a i n e d by an i d e n t i c a l s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and not by a d e l i b e r a t e and torial  will  conspira-  to mislead t h e i r audiences.  In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e t h e f o l l o w i n g elements o f d i s t o r t i o n can be detected: -  4. 1  Over s e n s i t i v i t y t o a l l e g e d f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e i n the Numerous statements from p o l i t i c a l  FLQ  p e r s o n a l i t i e s and  s e c u r i t y o f f i c e r s have r e f l e c t e d t h e l a s t i n g c o n c e r n f o r f o r e i g n and e s p e c i a l l y communist involvement i n t h e s e p a r a t i s t movement as f o r example: Commissioner  Higgitt  "Some degree o f t r a i n i n g f o r s u b v e r s i v e l y o r i e n t e d s e p a r a t i s t groups has t a k e n p l a c e i n Cuba" (56)  The R o y a l Commission on S e c u r i t y  "What i s more, t h e r e i s no doubt about communist and t r o t s k y s t i n t e r e s t and involvement i n t h e movement ... F o r e i g n involvement i s more d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h w i t h any c e r t a i n t y . However, i t i s c l e a r t h a t c e r t a i n communist c o u n t r i e s have shown a marked i n t e r e s t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the Communist P a r t y o f Quebec" (57) Quebec Ex-Premier  Bertrand  "Speaking i n t h e Magdalen I s l a n d s on August 17 (1969) P r e m i e r B e r t r a n d promised t h a t t h e Government would use f o r c e i f necessary t o crush the r a d i c a l s , the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and t h e bearded l i t t l e C a s t r o s " (58)  Quebec E x - J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Remi P a u l "At a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e on August 22 (1969) J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Remi P a u l o u t l i n e d a 10 p o i n t program worked out a f t e r meetings w i t h 100 p o l i c e c h i e f s " among w h i c h p r o v i s i o n s one c o u l d f i n d a recommendation a s k i n g "the F e d e r a l i m m i g r a t i o n m i n i s t e r t o p r e v e n t known t e r r o r i s t s from e n t e r i n g Canada" (59) However, the i n t e n s i v e searches the p r o c l a m a t i o n  and a r r e s t s t h a t f o l l o w e d  o f t h e W.M.A. d i d not r e s u l t e i t h e r i n  the a r r e s t o r even the e x p u l s i o n o f any f o r e i g n r e s i d e n t ! : Apparently to  the i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s had been o v e r l y s e n s i t i v e  the f a c t t h a t e a r l y FLQ members l i k e G. S c h o e l t e r s o r  F. Schrim were immigrants (but v e r y u n l i k e l y communists) and t o t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n s  o f s o l i d a r i t y w i t h U.S.  or T h i r d  World movements which were common r h e t h o r i c s i n the speeches o f V a l l i e r e s and Gagnon. The n o t i o n o f communist involvement on the o t h e r s i d e appears t o be a s t a n d a r d  preoccupation  o f b o t h the R.C.M.P. (some k i n d o f l e f t o v e r from t h e c o l d war  and t h e i n t e r d i c t i o n o f the Canadian Communist P a r t y )  and the Q.P.P. (which appointees,  is still  s t a f f e d b y former D u p l e s s i s  who are s t i l l r e m i n i s c e n t o f the " C h i e f ' s "  a t t i t u d e s d u r i n g the "Great Darkness")  2 O v e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b v e r s i v e forms o f o r g a n i zation S e v e r a l o f f i c i a l statements may enable us t o recompose the p i c t u r e t h a t was made o f the s u b v e r s i v e movement:  -  I t ' s a movement w i t h  leaders  Commissioner H i g g i t " . . . t h e a r r e s t s made under the W.M.A. have t a k e n most o f the l e a d e r s h i p out o f c i r c u l a t i o n " (59) J.  Choquette, i n a more c a u t i o u s manner  "Choquette would n o t say whether p o l i c e b e l i e v e persons, now b e i n g h e l d under t h e W.M.A. a r e t h e a c t u a l l e a d e r s o f t h e FLQ, b u t s a i d : I am s a t i s f i e d t h a t among t h e persons we have d e t a i n e d a r e persons who b e a r a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d i s o r d e r s we have known i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec" (60) I t ' s a movement s t r u c t u r e d a c c o r d i n g t o f u n c t i o n a l requirements J . Choquette "The e x p e r i e n c e we have l i v e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t y e a r s , and e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e October c r i s i s , l e a d s ' u s to conclude t h a t d i f f e r e n t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s a r e t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d among t e r r o r i s t p e r s o n n e l , b u t t h a t i t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o measure t h e v e r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f each c a t e g o r y . Thus, t h e r e a r e i d e o l o g u e s , the " t h i n k e r s " and t h e " s p e a k e r s " who can d i s p l a y but always v e r b a l l y , some sympathy f o r t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e a r e a c t i o n men who i n d u l g e i n c r i m i n a l a c t s i n o r d e r t o g a i n a t t e n t i o n " (61)  -  G. P e l l e t i e r "So we saw t h e s u c c e s s i v e appearance o f t h e I n f o r m a t i o n C e l l , t h e V i g e r (Communications) C e l l , t h e Dieppe C e l l , t h e L o u i s R i e l C e l l , t h e N e l s o n C e l l and t h e S t . Denis C e l l , w h i l e t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e communiques s t r o v e a t the same t i m e . t o p r e s e n t an image o f a p o w e r f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n spread s e c r e t l y throughout a l l m i l i e u s o f s o c i e t y . The f u t u r e may perhaps prove t h a t t h e c l a i m s o f t h e FLQ v e s t e d on a s o l i d e base, b u t u n t i l p r o o f appears t o t h e c o n t r a r y , I c o n s i d e r much exaggerated N e v e r t h e l e s s , d u r i n g t h e phase o f w e i g h i n g t h e r i s k s t h a t preceded t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e Government, one could not simply discount the p o s s i b i l i t y that the FLQ was indeed as p o w e r f u l and w e l l o r g a n i z e d as i t c l a i m e d . (62)  I t ' s a movement t h a t has i n f i l t r a t e d v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s (and t h a t has been i n f i l t r a t e d i t s e l f )  Royal Commission on S e c u r i t y  "What i s more, t h e r e i s no doubt about communist and t r o t s k y s t i n t e r e s t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e movement. Both groups have e s t a b l i s h e d "autonomous" Quebec o r g a n i z a t i o n s as somewhat t r a n s p a r e n t a t t e m p t s t o e x p l o i t s e p a r a t i s t s e n t i m e n t . Members o f b o t h have a c h i e v e d p o s i t i o n s o f i n f l u e n c e i n a t l e a s t some o f the s e p a r a t i s t groups and a g e n c i e s h e l p e d by t h e b i t t e r f a c t i o n a l i s m o f t h e movement i t s e l f . " (63)  J.  Marchand  "There i s no r e l a t i o n i n our a c t i o n t o t h e e l e c t i o n i t s e l f b u t we had good r e a s o n s t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e FLQ which (pause) as a f r o n t has t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d FRAP i n M o n t r e a l and i s r u n n i n g c a n d i d a t e s i n M o n t r e a l , wanted t o d i s t u r b t h e e l e c t i o n by e x p l o s i o n o f a l l k i n d s and by even k i d n a p p i n g s o r even s h o o t i n g (pause) p e o p l e " On October 22, J . Marchand c o n f e s s e d i n t h e Commons, t h a t he had used t h e word " f r o n t " i n c o r r e c t l y i n E n g l i s h and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between FRAP and t h e FLQ was r e j e c t e d by t h e P.M. (64) Mayor J . Drapeau Q. "You s a y t h e r e a r e some a f f i n i t i e s between FRAP and FLQ. Can you e l a b o r a t e on t h a t ? What a r e t h o s e affinities? A. " F i r s t o f a l l , t h i s m u n i c i p a l movement (FRAP), t h i s p a r a - m u n i c i p a l movement i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s t e r r o r i s t and r e v o l u t i o n a r y " (65) G. P e l l e t i e r  " I n t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n and t h e i r attempt t o evaluate the p o s s i b i l i t y o f serious d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the s o c i a l c l i m a t e o f Quebec, t h e Governments had t o t a k e i n t o account t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p r o t e s t  movements and e s p e c i a l l y the s i g n s o f a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t and o f a r a l l y i n g o f f o r c e s f a v o u r a b l e t o the cause o f the FLQ and presumably sympathic t o i t s mode o f o p e r a t i o n " (66) I t ' s a movement f o l l o w i n g an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y plan -  J . Choquette " T h i s measure (the W.M.A.) caused the f o l l o w i n g results: F i r s t l y , d i s l o c a t i o n o f the p l a n , o r somewhat i m p r o v i z e d s t r a t e g y i f you l i k e , c o v e r i n g propaganda, p u b l i c d e m o n s t r a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n s aimed a t the d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y and the s t a t e " (67)  -  D. McDonald "McDonald a p p e a r i n g on one CTV i n t e r v i e w program Q u e s t i o n P e r i o d , was r e s p o n d i n g t o q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g grounds f o r the Government's p r o c l a m a t i o n o f the W.M.A. w i t h i t s b r o a d P o l i c e Powers. McDonald s a i d r e c e n t a c t i v i t i e s o f the FLQ i n c l u d i n g the a b d u c t i o n o f two o f f i c i a l s , f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y detected o r t s "to create d i s o r d e r s . . . McDonald s a i d t h a t t h e f t s o f dynamite and weapons i n Quebec b e f o r e the k i d n a p p i n g s i n d i c a t e d "a p r e t t y c l e a r p a t t e r n . . . o f p r e p a r a t i o n . . . . " I f you are s a y i n g do I have (or) i n the p o l i c e s e a r c h e s have we uncovered a master b l u e p r i n t f o r the t a k e o v e r o f the whole o r g a n i z a t i o n ( o f s o c i e t y ) I t h i n k the answer i s no" (68)  -  Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa on October 16 "... c o n t i n u e d e s c a l a t i o n had r e v e a l e d the g r a v i t y o f the s i t u a t i o n . F i r s t t h e r e were v i o l e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s then t h e r e were bombs and a f t e r w a r d s s p e c t a c u l a r k i d n a p pings. O b v i o u s l y , t h i s was a l l o f a p l a n , l o g i c a l l y t h e f o u r t h s t a g e would be more i m p o r t a n t s t i l l . A c t i o n was r e q u i r e d because t h e r e was no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r l e t t i n g t h i s e s c a l a t i o n go on and which f o l l o w e d a p l a n we knew about...And t h e y even made t h r e a t s o f s e l e c t e d a s s a s s i n a t i o n as p a r t o f the f o u r t h s t a g e . As a r e s u l t "as soon as the r i s k s o f anarchy seemed t o a c q u i r e a new d i m e n s i o n , I d e c i d e d t o a c t - f i r m l y and q u i c k l y " (69)  On numerous grounds t h i s p e r c e p t i o n from o f f i c i a l  o f t h e FLQ t h a t emerges  s t a t e m e n t s , appears a t l e a s t t o be r a t h e r  inadequate ( i t i s nevertheless  i n t e r e s t i n g to note that  the l a t e r t h e statements a r e , t h e more e v a s i v e t h e y t e n d t o be: J.  See f o r example t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f J . Marchand and  Drapeau i n t h e immediate a f t e r m a t h o f t h e c r i s i s and  t h o s e o f G e r a l d P e l l e t i e r , o r Bourassa and McDonald) -  The l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e movement I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e some d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e statements o f Commissioner H i g g i t and o f J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r C h o q u e t t e , t h e former r e f e r s e x p l i c i t l y  to the "leader-  s h i p " , whereas t h e l a t t e r mentions o n l y "persons who bear a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e  responsibility".  This  difference  i s n o t p u r e l y t r i v i a l , f o r Commissioner H i g g i t , t h e movement has l e a d e r s , t h a t i s p e o p l e t h a t g i v e i t s i m p u l s e t o t h e movement and t o i t s a c t i o n s and who by consequence, c o n s t i t u t e t h e c r i t i c a l pressive strategy.  f a c t o r o f any r e -  T h i s n o t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p w i l l be  re-examined i n a m u l t i p l e D e c i s i o n - m a k e r s p e r s p e c t i v e , but we can a l r e a d y n o t e t h a t i n a f u r t h e r statement ( 6 1 ) , M i n i s t e r J . Choquette o n l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e FLQ members h i p i n terms o f " t h i n k e r s " and " a c t i o n men" w i t h o u t any e x p l i c i t mention o f l e a d e r s h i p . This deformation, apparently  coming from t h e R.C.M.P.,  i s l a r g e l y congruent w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of the force i n the f i e l d s o f "organized "communist s u b v e r s i o n " ,  c r i m e " and  b o t h movements t h a t o p e r a t e under  " c l a s s i c a l " p a t t e r n s ; t h e n e c e s s a r y c o r o l l a r y f o r subv e r s i v e or large scale c r i m i n a l a c t i o n being of a "Big  Brother"  the existence  The  f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e movement  Even i f such an assessment was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e FLQ's v o c a b u l a r y :  " C e l l s " " P l a n No. 3", subsequent  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d i d n o t t u r n much o f e v i d e n c e , the i n t e r n a l " s t r u c t u r e " o f t h e movement.  regarding  What i s  however s t r i k i n g i s t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e o f f i c i a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , with the standard  structures depicted i n  a n t i - g u e r r i l l a manuals (see f o r example, B. Singh and Ku-Wang M e i , Theory and P r a c t i c e o f Modern G u e r r i l l a Warfare).  Apparently  and as b e f o r e , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  u n i t s have a t t r i b u t e d t o the movement, f e a t u r e s or experienced  The  i n other  learned  contexts.  I n f i l t r a t i o n o f t h e movement  A g a i n v e r y few cases t u r n e d by t h e subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s appear t o j u s t i f y t h i s p r e s u m p t i o n (a former s e c r e t a r y i n Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa's o f f i c e and a former c l e r k o f t h e c o u r t i n M o n t r e a l )  I n some cases  however, we have been p e r s o n a l l y r e p o r t e d crisis  that the  r e s u l t e d i n minor purges o f p e r s o n n e l  (3 persons  i n t h e French CBC network) b u t i t i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s b o t h t h e v e r a c i t y and t h e r e l e v a n c e o f such i n formation.  However, i t i s t o be n o t e d h e r e t h a t one o f  t h e f o r m a l t a s k s o f t h e R.C.M.P. c o n s i s t s i n c h e c k i n g p o t e n t i a l appointees  i n t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e and m o n i t o r i n g  s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s i n t h e v a r i o u s governmental departments, the F o r c e was somewhat f r u s t r a t e d by t h e r a t h e r detached a t t i t u d e s which i t s e f f o r t s encountered among t o p C i v i l Servants.  We can h y p o t h e s i z e  that the c r i s i s  provided  the R.C.M.P. w i t h , r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e a s s e s s i t s r o l e i n such m a t t e r s .  The R e v o l u t i o n a r y p l a n f o l l o w e d by the movement As mentioned by Don  McDonald  " I f you a r e s a y i n g do I have (or) i n the p o l i c e searches have we uncovered a master b l u e p r i n t f o r the t a k e o v e r o f the whole o r g a n i z a t i o n ( o f s o c i e t y ) I t h i n k the answer i s no.." (70) The v a s t s e a r c h powers g i v e n t o the p o l i c e d i d not t u r n any e v i d e n c e o f a f o r m a l p l a n the FLQ was follow.  The  supposed t o  g e n e s i s o f the concept on the o t h e r hand  is rather interesting.  The  f i r s t mention o f i t was made  by M i c h e l Cote, t h e M o n t r e a l C i t y A t t o r n e y , d u r i n g a meeting o f the Commons Committee on b r o a d c a s t i n g November 27,  on  1969:  "That was t h e t h r e e stage p l a n as p r e s e n t e d t o the Members o f P a r l i a m e n t by. M i c h e l Cote w i t h S a u l n i e r a t h i s s i d e arid Mayor Drapeau s i t t i n g i n the audience. To r e s t a t e i t and r e p h r a s e i t s l i g h t l y t o improve the t r a n s l a t i o n , i t consisted of 1.  R a d i c a l i z i n g the a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g examples o f spontaneous a g i t a t i o n ( t h a t i s t o say i m p l a n t i n g a r a d i c a l message w i t h workers and s t u d e n t s who were demonstrating f o r s p e c i f i c goals)  2.  O r g a n i z i n g the e x p l o i t e d c l a s s e s on a v a s t s c a l e  3.  F i n a l l y , when the time i s r i p e , p o p u l a r i n s u r r e c t i o n w i t h armed ( i t was u n d e r l i n e d f o r c e s i n the o r i g i n a l o c c u p a t i o n o f f a c t o r i e s , s c h o o l s and p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s . " (71)  Even i f a t the t i m e , the " p l a n " , w h i c h was  purely a  quotation of V a l l i e r e ' s w r i t i n g s (Revolutionary Strategy and t h e Role o f the Avant Garde), was  not taken  very  s e r i o u s l y , i t a p p a r e n t l y made i t s way  rather successfully;  on October 16, i n Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa's statement i t had become:  - 101  " F i r s t t h e r e were v i o l e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , then t h e r e were bombs and a f t e r w a r d s p e c t a c u l a r kidnappings... L o g i c a l l y the f o u r t h s t a g e would be more i m p o r t a n t s t i l l . . . A n d t h e y even made t h r e a t s o f s e l e c t e d a s s a s s i n a t i o n as p a r t o f the f o u r t h s t a g e " (72) Apparently,  new  v a r i a t i o n s had been developped and i f  the k i d n a p p i n g s c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o the p r e c e e d i n g e v e n t s , the theme o f s e l e c t i v e a s s a s s i n a t i o n came from a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t background. " I n June 1970, M o n t r e a l b r o a d c a s t e r , P i e r r e Nadeau was i n J o r d a n making a f i l m on t e r r o r i s t g u e r r i l l a t r a i n i n g and q u i t e by a c c i d e n t came upon two men i n a camp o f the P o p u l a r Democratic f r o n t who a l t h o u g h hooded by Bedouin s c a r v e s were c o n s p i c u o u s by t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n F r e n c h . They t u r n e d t o be a p a i r o f a c t i v e t e r r o r i s t s from M o n t r e a l who r e a d i l y a d m i t t e d t h e i r p a r t i n some 20 a c t s o f v i o l e n c e i n Quebec... "We are l e a r n i n g more how t o k i l l t h a n how t o m o b i l i z e p o p u l a r movements... We want t o o r i e n t our m i l i t a r y t a c t i c s toward s e l e c t i v e a s s a s s i n a t i o n . For too l o n g the FLQ has been synonymous w i t h bombs and u s e l e s s v i o l e n c e . We i n t e n d t o p i c k our t a r g e t s so t h a t the p e o p l e who are r e s p o n s i b l e w i l l pay" An account o f Nadeau's i n t e r v i e w w i t h f i l m by Ronald L a b e l l e , appeared i n P e r s p e c t i v e s and i n i t s E n g l i s h language companion p u b l i c a t i o n Weekend" (73)  When t h e y r e t u r n e d  t o Canada b o t h Nadeau and L a b e l l e were  i n t e r v i e w e d by the p o l i c e and 16, L a b e l l e was  arrested  on the morning o f October  (but n e v e r charged) under the  p r o v i s i o n s o f the W.M.A. Apparently  the p o l i c e f o r c e s had  "synthetized"  the  information.  4.  3  I n s u f f i c i e n t d e f i n i t i o n o f purpose  Apparently  the weak c o o r d i n a t i o n e x i s t i n g between the  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n charge o f s e c u r i t y (a department o f R.C.M.P.) and  the  the p o l i t i c a l powers, r e s u l t e d i n some form  -  o f c o n f u s i o n , as f a r as t h e purposes o f i n t e l l i g e n c e s e c u r i t y a c t i v i t i e s were concerned.  Official  and  statements on  such m a t t e r s are r a t h e r p u z z l i n g as e x p r e s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g statements o f purpose: Commissioner H i g g i t " F o r t h e R.C.M.P. the problem i s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between l e g i t i m a t e p r o t e s t and s u b v e r s i o n . . . E v e r y b o d y has a p e r f e c t r i g h t t o get up on a s t r e e t c o r n e r and a d v o c a t e . . . the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the C o n f e d e r a t i o n . But i f t h e y do i t w i t h s u b v e r s i v e i n t e n t t h e n o f c o u r s e i t becomes a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r " (74) R o y a l Commission on S e c u r i t y " S e p a r a t i s m i n Quebec, i f i t commits no i l l e g a l i t i e s and appears t o seek i t s ends by l e g a l and d e m o c r a t i c means, must be r e g a r d e d as a p o l i t i c a l movement t o be d e a l t i n a p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n a s e c u r i t y c o n t e x t . However, i f t h e r e i s any e v i d e n c e o f an i n t e n t i o n t o engage i n s u b v e r s i v e a c t i v i t i e s o r i f t h e r e i s any s u g g e s t i o n o f f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e , i t seems t o us i n e s c a p a b l e t h a t t h e F e d e r a l Government has a c l e a r d u t y t o t a k e such s e c u r i t y measures as a r e n e c e s s a r y t o p r o t e c t t h e F e d e r a t i o n " (75)  However, i t i s not sure t h a t t h i s u n c e r t a i n d e f i n i t i o n o f purpose can o n l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o a weak c o o r d i n a t i o n between t h e s e c u r i t y a g e n c i e s and the p o l i t i c a l  powers,  s i n c e t h o s e t o some e x t e n t t e s t i f y o f t h e same vagueness " A f t e r some time i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e n e c e s s a r y and p r o d u c t i v e s o c i a l c o n t e s t a t i o n and the systemat harassment o f a u t h o r i t i e s . The t e r r o r i s t uses the s o c i a l c o n t e s t a t i o n , n o t t o f o s t e r r e f o r m s , but s i m p l y t o p r o v o c a t e a s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the s o c i a l f i e l d " (76)  Whatever i t s d i r e c t cause such a vagueness i n t h e purpose of  s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s had a d i r e c t e f f e c t on t h e d a i l y work o f  the f o r c e s :  As t h e y d i d not know what t o c o l l e c t , t h e y began  t r a n s m i t t i n g a l l t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and c o m p i l i n g l i s t s o f p o t e n t i a l suspects ( i . e . mostly people opposing the a c t u a l  s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , whatever t h e i r  motives).  T h i s c o u p l e d w i t h t h e f a c t , t h a t t h e f o r c e s were p r i m a r i l y law enforcement b o d i e s , w i t h r a t h e r meagre r e s o u r c e s i n t h e f i e l d o f s p e c i a l i z e d manpower,could o n l y r e s u l t i n two developments: the e x a g g e r a t i o n  o f t h e danger a t hand  the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f f i l e s and name l i s t s h a r d l y be r e v i e w e d  (which  could  i n t h e absence o f adequate c r i t e r i a )  Those two developments were more o r l e s s c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y i  r e c o g n i z e d by t h e Royal Commission on s e c u r i t y when i t proposed t h a t : "At t h e v e r y l e a s t i t ( t h e F e d e r a l Government) must take adequate s t e p s t o i n f o r m i t s e l f o f any such t h r e a t s and t o c o l l e c t f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i n t e n t i o n s and c a p a b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s o r movements whose o b j e c t i s t o d e s t r o y t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n by s u b v e r s i v e o r s e d i t i o u s methods" (78) A p p a r e n t l y t h e needs f o r a more comprehensive and more e f f i c i e n t " c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y s u r v e i l l a n c e " was by the. Government:  The c r i s i s  " i n t e n s i f i e d cabinet  felt review  o f t h e Royal Commission r e p o r t " (79) and a permanent comm i t t e e on s e c u r i t y was a p p o i n t e d the Royal  .5.  i n 1971 (as recommended  by  Commission)  THE MASS MEDIA AS INFORMATION UNITS  S e v e r a l elements (among which t h e f a c t t h a t M a r s h a l l MacLuhan has been r e p o r t e d as h a v i n g been c o n s u l t e d by t h e F e d e r a l  Government  d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s ) tend t o u n d e r l i n e t h e r o l e p l a y e d by t h e mass media d u r i n g t h e October c r i s i s  and a few commentators have  focused  t h e i r a n a l y s i s on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e media and t h e s t r a t e g y adopted by t h e FLQ.  T h e i r arguments t e n d t o f o c u s on two main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e mass media i n a developped  (and c a p i t a l i s t i c )  society.  the media a r e i n a c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e i r quest f o r an audience and f o r t h e r e s o u r c e s which i t commands ( a d v e r t i sing, q u a l i f i e d personnel, influence).  They a r e b o t h i n a s i -  t u a t i o n o f i n t r i n s i c c o m p e t i t i o n (among t h e same type o f media, l i k e between r a d i o s t a t i o n s f o r example) and o f e x t r i n s i c comp e t i t i o n (among d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f media, between r a d i o s t a t i o n s and t h e w r i t t e n p r e s s f o r example). t h e y t e n d t o be o f a low p o l i t i c a l c o n t e n t , m o s t l y f a v o u r i n g t h e dominant i d e o l o g i e s ( i n o r d e r t o maximize t h e i r a u d i e n c e ) , t o c l u s t e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o p r e d e f i n e d headings  (politics,  national, international, business, j u s t i c e , social a f f a i r s ) , to p r i v i l e g e " f a c t s " over o p i n i o n s ( f o r which s p e c i a l headings a r e r e s e r v e d ) and news over i n f o r m a t i o n . From t h i s premises i t appears t h a t t h e mass media -  have p l a y e d t h e r o l e o f an a m p l i f y i n g drum i n t h e sense t h a t t h e y have been o b l i g e d t o " o v e r - c o v e r " t h e FLQ which e x p l i c i t e l y p l a y e d on t h e c o m p e t i t i o n between t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s (The L i b e r a t i o n C e l l used t o address i t s communiques t o one s t a t i o n , whereas t h e C h e n i e r C e l l used t o address i t s communiques t o a n o t h e r o n e ) . I n t h e same way t h e d i f f u s i o n o f s u c c e s s i v e communiques w i t h o u t any f i x e d s c h e d u l e had t h e e f f e c t o f c r e a t i n g b o t h a "suspense"  (which f o r c e d  c o n s t a n t coverage) and " i n s t a n t news" (which broke down t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n o f i n f o r m a t i o n and d i f f u s i o n ) .  Such a s t r a t e g y  d i d n o t o n l y g i v e t h e FLQ an e x t e n s i v e amount o f media  coverage,  but a l s o d e t e r i o r a t e d t h e . e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s between t h e media and t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s .  U n t i l October 16, most FLQ communiques  were a i r e d and m a n i p u l a t e d b e f o r e t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s c o u l d a n a l y z e them and s e a r c h f o r f i n g e r p r i n t s .  To a c e r t a i n p o i n t t h i s  s t r a t e g y e q u a l l y a f f e c t e d t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , which had t o t a k e  p o s i t i o n s on p u b l i c i z e d and a l r e a d y debated demands ( t h i s i n t u r n can e x p l a i n the o u t b u r s t s  o f anger t h a t p e o p l e l i k e L o u i s P h i l i p p e  L a c r o i x , the whip o f the Quebec L i b e r a l P a r t y , were u n a b l e t o r e t a i n i n the a f t e r m a t h o f the  crisis).  have over emphasized some f e a t u r e s o f the FLQ:  D u r i n g the  week o f the c r i s i s the coverage o f the events was " c r i m i n a l " r e p o r t e r s , who  i n t u r n , turned  the s u b j e c t d e s c r i b i n g the FLQ  assigned  first to  " c r i m i n a l " papers on  as:  "A p a r a - m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , h a v i n g numerous members t r a i n e d i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s ; (as) a w e l l o r g a n i z e d movement, anonymous, f a c e l e s s , f e e l i n g l e s s , a movement w i t h no o t h e r purpose than pure v i o l e n c e , anarchy and d e s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i e t y " (80) On t h i s a c c o u n t , a t h e f t o f weapons i n T r o i s - R i v i e r e s was b u t e d t o the FLQ  attri-  ( f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t the c r i m e  had been committed by l o n g s h o r e men),  as w e l l as a more or l e s s  case o f s a d i s t i c v i o l e n c e i n H u l l ( t o which i f my memory i s good J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r T u r n e r r e f e r r e d i n the Commons, and which u l t i m a t e l y p r o v e d t o be o n l y the e x a g g e r a t i o n s o f a p s y c h o t i c woman).  have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c l i m a t e o f c o n f u s i o n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d Quebec at the time: example, James C r o s s '  Hoaxes and  f a l s e news were p l e n t y f u l , f o r  d e a t h was  announced s e v e r a l t i m e s (among  which a t l e a s t once on t h e French network  have c o n t r i b u t e d t o g i v e the FLQ  CBC)  a p o l i t i c a l r e c o g n i t i o n through  t h e i r d i f f u s i o n o f the m a n i f e s t o (which a c c o r d i n g mentators r e p r e s e n t e d universe  t o some com-  an i n t r u s i o n o f the " r e a l " speech i n the  of " c o m m e r c i a l " speech o f the media) and t h e i r coverage  o f the n e g o t i a t i o n s between the FLQ  and  the a u t h o r i t i e s (which  according  t o the same commentators, p l a c e d the FLQ  political  f o o t i n g than the Governments, and t h i s l e d t o the down-  grading  o f the t r a d i t i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n movements).  on the same  FOCUS I I I : MULTIPLE SEPARATE IMPLEMENTATION UNITS (BOUNDED RATIONALITY)  1.  THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE W.M.A. IN OTHER PROVINCES THAN QUEBEC  F o l l o w i n g the p r o c l a m a t i o n o f the W.M.A. (which we are t o was  designed  understand  t o cope w i t h the s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l i n g i n the P r o v i n c e o f  Quebec) some " u n f o r e s e e n "  u t i l i z a t i o n s o f the new l e g i s l a t i o n appeared  i n other provinces: In Vancouver, the  C i t y C o u n c i l took under c o n s i d e r a t i o n a m o t i o n  i n s p i r e d b y the W.M.A. t o ban a l l " s u b v e r s i v e g a t h e r i n g s " -  B r i t i s h Columbia passed an o r d e r i n C o u n c i l b a n n i n g any from t a x supported  (81)  teachers  s c h o o l s " i f t h e y advocated the p o l i c i e s o f  Le F r o n t de L i b e r a t i o n du Quebec"  (82)  "At the u n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r Ronald K i r k b y i s s u e d a statement d e c l a r i n g t h a t Trudeau's a c t i o n s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the death o f P i e r r e L a p o r t e , a b r u t a l assessment p e r h a p s , but one a l s o shared b y Rene Levesque, whose p o l i t i c a l p a r t y was supported by almost one q u a r t e r o f the v o t e r s o f Quebec. The p o l i c e came around t o the o f f i c e s o f the M a r t l e t t , the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a s t u d e n t newspaper and warned them not t o p u b l i s h a l e t t e r from K i r k b y . They d i d n ' t . . . " (83)  In O n t a r i o , a s i t u a t i o n has a l r e a d y a r i s e n which c o u l d be d e a l t w i t h under the W.M.A. i f A t t o r n e y General A r t h u r W i s h a r t to.  wanted  A U n i v e r s i t y newspaper i n Toronto t h i s week p u b l i s h e d the  FLQ m a n i f e s t o .  Another paper i n Guelph c a n c e l l e d i t s p r e s s  because o f f e a r s o f p r o s e c u t i o n  run  (84)  Less d i r e c t l y , some a u t h o r i t i e s took advantage o f the "law and mood (more than s p e c i f i c a l l y , o f t h e W.M.A.) t o o b t a i n the o f demands which c o u l d h a r d l y have been c o n s i d e r e d  order"  fulfilment  before  The A l b e r t a movie censors r e f u s e d a Quebec made f i l m , Red, s t o r y o f a M e t i s who l e a v e s the r e s e r v e and goes t o  the  Montreal  Mr.  C a o u e t t e , who had r e p e a t e d l y charged  Radio-Canada w i t h  f a v o u r i n g s e p a r a t i s m i n i t s i n f o r m a t i o n programming, asked whether t h e c o r p o r a t i o n would be p l a c e d under t r u s t e e s h i p f o r a clean-up.  He c a l l e d t h e CBC a r e f u g e f o r r e b e l s who  a r e w e l l f e d a t t h e expense o f t h e p u b l i c . -  Mr. L l o y d Crouse (P.C. South Shore) c a l l e d t h e program "The Legacy o f L e n i n " , t h a t was t o be b r o a d c a s t e d  on CBC t h a t  e v e n i n g , a documentary f o r r e v o l u t i o n and asked f o r i t s c a n c e l l a t i o n ( a p p a r e n t l y he g a i n e d  satisfaction).  On t h e same day J.A. MacLean (P.C. Malpeque) won from b o t h C o n s e r v a t i v e and L i b e r a l backbenchers,  applause when he  asked b a r r i n g CBC from going abroad t o i n t e r v i e w p e o p l e who a r e n o t a l l o w e d i n t o Canada: " I ask t h i s i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t some o f t h e i r f a v o r i t e commentators such as Timothy Leary and o t h e r s a r e now f u g i t i v e s from J u s t i c e " (84a)  C o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h i s f l o w o f u n p r e d i c t e d developments, J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Turner warned t h e p r o v i n c e s a g a i n s t abuse o f t h e emergency measures l a i d down " t o break t h e F r o n t de L i b e r a t i o n du Quebec". In t h e Commons he made c l e a r t h a t : "The measures were d e s i g n e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e emergency touched o f f by Quebec t e r r o r i s m i n Quebec - n o t w i t h r a d i c a l i s m i n g e n e r a l a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y " . (g5) A p p a r e n t l y t h e a u t h o r i t i e s had come t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e Government had no a u t h o r i t y t o make c e r t a i n t h a t t h e p o l i c e powers a r e n o t abused and i n v o k e d by p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s f o r "ad-hoc"  purposes.  In f a c t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e r e l i e s on t h e p r o v i n c e s and t h e i r a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l s g i v i n g t h e F e d e r a l Government no c o n t r o l over t h e implemented a c t i o n s .  In o r d e r t o s o l v e t h i s problem and a v o i d p o t e n t i a l "harmful  effects",  J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Turner took t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s :  Dispatched  an a s s i s t a n t deputy m i n i s t e r t o v i s i t t h e f o u r  A t l a n t i c and t h e f o u r Western P r o v i n c e s t o d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r w i t h a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l s and t h e i r o f f i c e r s . I n i t i a t e d personal discussions with the Ontario Attorney  General  and a p p a r e n t l y r e a c h e d t h e f o l l o w i n g agreement: " M u n i c i p a l and O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , w i l l c o o p e r a t e f u l l y w i t h t h e R.C.M.P. b u t any a r r e s t w i l l be on b e h a l f o f t h e F e d e r a l F o r c e . - Anyone a r r e s t e d would be t u r n e d t o t h e R.C.M.P. f o r c h a r g i n g and d e t e n t i o n " (86) P r o m i s e d , w i t h i n days, a new a c t and r e g u l a t i o n s " o f a l e s s comprehensive n a t u r e " t o r e p l a c e t h e W.M.A. 2.  THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE W.M.A. IN QUEBEC  As f a r as t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n seems n e c e s s a r y covered  o f t h e War Measures.Act i s concerned i t  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between f o u r s u c c e s s i v e s t e p s , w h i c h  t h e p e r i o d from October 16, 1970,  date o f t h e f i r s t a r r e s t s  under t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e W.M.A. and August 1971,  date o f t h e Quebec  J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r ' s d e c i s i o n t o suspend t h e charges a g a i n s t t h e r e m a i n i n g i n d i c t e d persons. The  Those f o u r s t e p s i n c l u d e :  a r r e s t process  (arrests, seizures)  -  The d e t e n t i o n p r o c e s s  -  The i n d i c t m e n t p r o c e s s  ( q u e s t i o n i n g and d e t e n t i o n w i t h o u t (charges  indictment)  l a i d a g a i n s t t h e a r r e s t e d and  d e t a i n e d persons) The 2.1  t r i a l process  ( d e c i s i o n s rendered  by t h e courts)  The a r r e s t p r o c e s s This process  i n c l u d e s two phases:  The massive round up  - 109 -  f o l l o w i n g the proclamation  o f t h e W.M.A. and t h e c r a c k i n g  o f t h e L i b e r a t i o n and o f t h e C h e n i e r C e l l . t i n c t i o n may a p r i o r i seem q u e s t i o n a b l e  Such a d i s -  b u t we i n t e n d t o  show i n o u r a n a l y s i s t h a t t h e y r e s u l t e d from such d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t t h e y may l e g i t i m a t e l y be h e l d as two different  2. 1  entities.  1. The round up f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n  o f t h e War  Measures A c t Among t h e 497 p e r s o n s a r r e s t e d under t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e W.M.A. 355 have been a r r e s t e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d  from  October 16 t o October 25 41 have been a r r e s t e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from October 25 t o October 28 56 have been a r r e s t e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from October 28 t o November 24 45 have been a r r e s t e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from November 24 t o F e b r u a r y 3, 1971.  In o t h e r terms more than 70% o f t h e p e r s o n s a r r e s t e d , have been a r r e s t e d i n t h e n i n e f i r s t days f o l l o w i n g the p r o c l a m a t i o n  o f t h e W.M.A.  On t h o s e 497 a r r e s t s  o n l y two have been made b y t h e R.C.M.P. (see t h e c r a c k i n g o f t h e FLQ c e l l s ) a l l t h e o t h e r s were t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e j o i n t e f f o r t s o f t h e Q.P.P. and t h e M o n t r e a l P o l i c e , which c o n s t i t u t e d t h e backbone o f the A n t i - t e r r o r i s t Squad.  As no d e t a i l e d  information  has been r e l e a s e d on t h e p r e c i s e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r among t h e t h r e e p o l i c e f o r c e s d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s and t h a t b y a l l a c c o u n t s t h e Squad was s t i l l the t i m e , we w i l l  activeat  c o n s i d e r any m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d t o  - 110 -  one o f the t h r e e f o r c e s as r e l e v a n t i n our a n a l y s i s . 2. 1  1.  1  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f o r c e s The Q.P.P. was  c r e a t e d i n 1959  and  organized  on s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s than the R.C.M.P., w i t h detachments i n M o n t r e a l , major c i t i e s rural -  and  areas  The M o n t r e a l P o l i c e w h i c h , i n the p a s t , h a d . o f t e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r b o t h i t s c o r r u p t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , was  under  foreign specialists,  a p p a r e n t l y succeeded i n t h e i r t a s k o f the f o r c e but who  lack of  " r e o r g a n i z e d " i n 1967  the s u p e r v i s i o n o f two  a t the same time  "morale" r e l a t e d problems i n t h e The A n t i - T e r r o r i s t Squad was  been  who  "upgrading"  generated  ranks  f i r s t formed i n t h e  S p r i n g o f 1963 w i t h the f i r s t wave o f t e r r o r i s t bombings.  I t was  disbanded  formed w i t h the r e s u m p t i o n  i n 1964.  o f bombings i n  w i t h a membership o f 50 t o 70 men. b e f o r e the k i d n a p p i n g  I t was  i t had  re-  1968  Immediately  200 men.  At  the  h e i g h t o f the c r i s i s the Squad was b e l i e v e d t o have 400 men  assigned to i t .  Persistently police  and c i t y o f f i c i a l s have r e f u s e d t o d i v u l g e the Squad budget, a l t h o u g h i t was The  known t o be handsome.  l o c a t i o n o f i t s command p o s t , b e l i e v e d t o be  somewhere i n Montreal,was kept s e c r e t  2. 1  1.  2  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a s t performances The  Precedent  o f the M o n t r e a l  Police Strike  By s e v e r a l o f i t s a s p e c t s the P o l i c e S t r i k e i n .  M o n t r e a l on October 7 and 8, 1969, appears t o be some k i n d o f a p r e m i e r e t o t h e implementat i o n o f t h e War Measures A c t ( i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the Army, n o m i n a t i o n  o f t h e Q.P.P. d i r e c t o r as  the head o f law enforcement f o r c e s ) and r e v e a l s some i n t e r e s t i n g evidence on t h e a c t i v i t i e s p l a y e d by t h e P o l i c e  dis-  Forces.  Among t h e s e , was t h e gloomy performance o f t h e Q.P.P. i n t h i s new environment: "We a r e c o m p l e t e l y l o s t , d e c l a r e d a Q.P.P. spokesman, who r e c o g n i z e d t h a t most o f t h e 700 Q.P.P. members d i s p a t c h e d t o M o n t r e a l d i d n o t know t h e s t r e e t s o f t h e m e t r o p o l e , the crime proned l o c a t i o n s and " c e r t a i n char a c t e r s " w e l l known t o t h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e " ( 8 7 )  These shortcomings  were n o t l e f t u n n o t i c e d by  Defence M i n i s t e r Leo Cadieux who p e r f i d l y mentioned t h a t he "was s a t i s f i e d by t h e s w i f t d i s p a t c h o f t r o o p s a t S t . Hubert A i r Base" and who a c c o r d i n g t o Le D e v o i r "appeared t o have some doubts on t h e Q.P.P. e f f i c i e n c y . "  As no c o r r e c t i v e measures were a p p a r e n t l y t a k e n , i t i s t o be assumed t h a t t h e Q.P.P. approached t h e October c r i s i s w i t h a " t a r n i s h e d c o a t o f arms" whose b r i l l i a n c e i t t r i e d t o r e s t o r e .  A p p a r e n t l y t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e Q.P.P and the M o n t r e a l P o l i c e Forces were n o t a b s o l u t e l y " c l o u d l e s s " , members i n t h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e Force r e s e n t i n g t h e r o l e o f " s c a b s " p l a y e d by t h e i r P r o v i n c i a l counterparts during the s t r i k e . In f a c t , a t t h e t i m e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s c o u l d be o n l y d e s c r i b e d as " i n a m i c a b l e " .  "Many o f the p o l i c e m e n ( M o n t r e a l ) began d r i n k i n g h e a v i l y i n b a r s n e a r the a r e n a , i n s p i t e o f app e a l s by t h e i r l e a d e r s and f i s t f i g h t s b r o k e out between c i t y and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c e m e n . S i x or seven Q.P.P. c r u i s e r s were d r i v e n t o the a r e n a by C i t y policemen who o r d e r e d t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l c o l l e a g u e s t o go home i n t a x i s " (88)  The p r i o r a c t i v i t i e s o f the A n t i - T e r r o r i s t Squad D u r i n g t h e few y e a r s p r e c e e d i n g  the c r i s i s ,  the  Squad had a p p a r e n t l y concerned i t s e l f w i t h o t h e r matters  than bombs and t e r r o r i s t  raids:  " U n t i l now the Squad's main t a s k has been s u r veillance. I t has c a r r i e d out numerous r a i d s but a r r e s t s have been i n f r e q u e n t o f t e n because e x t r e m i s t s and suspected t e r r o r i s t s were d o i n g n o t h i n g u n l a w f u l . U n t i l the W.M.A. was i n v o k e d i t was no crime t o p o s s e s s r e v o l u t i o n a r y l i t e r a t u r e t h a t b o r d e r e d but d i d not c r o s s the l i n e i n t o s e d i t i o n . The same c o u l d be s a i d o f s h o u t i n g s l o g a n s , making f i e r y speeches, h o l d i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y meetings and c o n d u c t i n g demonstrat i o n s t h a t d i d not l a p s e i n t o v i o l e n c e . The r a i d s c a r r i e d out under w a r r a n t s a l l e g i n g s u s p i c i o n o f p o s s e s s i o n o f s t o l e n goods, f i r e a r m s o r p o r n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e o r the commission o f l i q u o r offences or a v a r i e t y of other o f f e n c e s , y i e l d e d mounds o f a c t i v i s t l i t e r a t u r e and o f t e n p r e v i o u s l i s t s o f names, o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o r respondence . A r r e s t s a l t h o u g h s m a l l i n number compared t o the number o f r a i d s , n e v e r t h e l e s s were s i g n i f i c a n t Hundreds over t h e p a s t few y e a r s have been p i c k e d up on v a r i o u s charges photographed and f i n g e r printed. Roundups o f t e n took p l a c e b e f o r e major demonstrat i o n s and i n the v i e w o f the P r e v o s t Commission on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e i n Quebec amounted t o a form o f p r e v e n t i v e d e t e n t i o n which "does not at a l l conform t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the law" (...) so a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s o f c o n t i n u o u s and c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t s , the Squad has c o m p i l e d  con-  voluminous f i l e s on almost everyone who has had even a p a s s i n g f l i r t a t i o n w i t h t h e r a d i c a l f r i n g e s " (89) From t h i s a c c o u n t , i t appears t h a t t h e temptat i o n o f a more a c t i v e r e p r e s s i v e p o l i c y must have been a growing s u b j e c t o f c o n c e r n i n t h e Squad.  They had gathered  t h e names o f most o f  the p o t e n t i a l and proven a c t i v i s t s i n t h e P r o v i n c e , accumulated "mounds o f a c t i v i s t l i t e r a t u r e " . . . b u t were r a t h e r f r u s t r a t e d i n * t h e i r a t t e m p t s o f making a r r e s t s .  The October  c r i s i s was g i v i n g i t a r a t h e r p r o m i s i n g  oppor-  t u n i t y t o g e t r i d o f an e v e r l a s t i n g source o f t r o u b l e and i n t h e same time t o prove t h e app r o r i a t e n e s s o f i t s approach.  O r g a n i z a t i o n v a l u e s and b e l i e f s Among t h e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s n u r t u r e d i n t h e f o r c e s , two o f them seem t o have e x e r t e d some form o f i n fluence i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s during the c r i s i s :  -  t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward t h e C i v i l R i g h t s : The same P r e v o s t commission on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e i n Quebec,mentioned e a r l i e r , i n c l u d e d i n i t s r e p o r t the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s o f a r e s e a r c h made by t h e department o f c r i m i n o l o g y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Montreal: "The Quebec p o l i c e m a n b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p u b l i c p e r c e i v e s him r a t h e r u n f a v o u r a b l y c h i e f l y because o f a bad p r e s s coverage and a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n . He r e f u s e s t o c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f as a r e p r e s s i v e agent and c o n s i d e r s t h a t h i s main r o l e i s t o m a i n t a i n t h e o r d e r d u r i n g mass m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . . . However, he i s v e r y f a v o u r a b l y i n c l i n e d toward the u t i l i z a t i o n o f some t e c h n i q u e s , g e n e r a l l y  - 114 -  r e p r o v e d by t h e Human R i g h t s p r o p o n e n t s : Compulsory i d e n t i t y cards, e l e c t r o n i c s u r v e i l l a n c e and p r e v e n t i v e detention..."  t h e i r perceptions  o f mounting t h r e a t s  their physical security:  against  In f a c t i t appears, that  among t h e members o f t h e P o l i c e F o r c e s , many happened t o f e a r f o r t h e i r l i v e s and t h e ones of t h e i r family during the c r i s i s .  This  element  was c o n f i r m e d by Commissioner H i g g i t "Even p o l i c e and t h e i r f a m i l i e s have been t h r e a t e n e d w i t h death i n t h e l a s t two y e a r s v i a l e t t e r s or telephone c a l l s . Authenticity o f t h e t h r e a t o r t h e i r o r i g i n c o u l d n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d " (90) t h e Commissioner s a i d . -  2. 1  1.  4  The impact o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the p r o c e s s o f a r r e s t s One o f t h e f i r s t consequences o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on t h e p r o c e s s o f a r r e s t s was app a r e n t l y t o s u r p r i s e Ottawa i f we a r e t o b e l i e v e Anthony W e s t e l l : " B e f o r e t h e g r e a t round up f i n i s h e d , more t h a n 400 p e o p l e had been i n t e r n e d - a much g r e a t e r number t h a n Ottawa had e x p e c t e d . . . " (91) T h i s surabundant number o f a r r e s t s can l a r g e l y be explained  i f one t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t :  the r a t h e r l o o s e d e f i n i t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l  suspects,  a c c e p t e d by t h e f o r c e s . t h e r a t h e r u n d i s c r i m i n a t i v e way under which t h o s e " s t a n d a r d s " were a p p l i e d t h e q u a l i t y and u n t i m e l i n e s s accumulated by t h e f o r c e s several years)  o f the materials  (the f i l e s  covered  -  t h e conspicuous absence o f a s e r i o u s process:  revision  On October 15 i n t h e e v e n i n g , t h e  d i f f e r e n t p o l i c e forces pooled t h e i r l i s t s o f s u s p e c t s and c o n s t i t u t e d a master l i s t which J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r i s reported  t o have r e v i e w e d  ( g i v e n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s one can s e r i o u s l y doubt o f t h e q u a l i t y o f such a r e v i s i o n )  the absence o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l forms o f r e s t r a i n t > which t h e W.M.A. had removed.  Under t h e new  c i r c u m s t a n c e s p o l i c e o f f i c e r s were no l o n g e r l i a b l e f o r u n j u s t i f i e d a r r e s t s which induce them to a r r e s t b y e x t e n s i o n (case f o r example o f p e o p l e found i n t h e company o f s u s p e c t s , whether on t h e l i s t o r n o t , o r p e o p l e found a t a g i v e n address mentioned on t h e l i s t )  the f r u s t r a t i o n and f e a r p r e v a i l i n g among t h e members o f t h e f o r c e s  ( o r t o r e v e r t t h e remark  C h u r c h i l l a p p l i e d t o S i r Edward Mosley " t h e y are l e s s dangerous i n t h a n o u t " ) the d e s i r e o f t h e Q.P.P. t o d i s p l a y i t s e f f i c i e n c y : It i s reported  that:  " A f t e r t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e W.M.A., Q.P.P. D i r e c t o r M a u r i c e S t . P i e r r e , phoned t h e p o l i c e c h i e f o f a c i t y o f medium i m p o r t a n c e , t o make i t c l e a r t h a t r a t h e r few a r r e s t s had been made i n h i s a r e a - The p o l i c e c h i e f answered t h a t he could not a r r e s t people j u s t f o r the fun o f i t . D i r e c t o r S t . P i e r r e then suggested t o make a few p e r q u i s i t i o n s , t o s e a r c h c a r s , w h i c h he s a i d was easy under t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the, W.M.A. i n o r d e r " t o c r e a t e some k i n d o f atmosphere" " (92) The  o t h e r consequence o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s  o f t h e W.M.A.,  c o u p l e d w i t h t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s ' p r o c e d u r e s , was t o indulge saw  them i n a f r a n t i c s e a r c h f o r m a t e r i a l , which  t h e M o n t r e a l and Q.P.P. p o l i c e o f f i c e r s c o l l e c t i n g  - 116  i n a h u r r y , documents, t e l e p h o n e  books ( f o r t h e  phone numbers on t h e l a s t page p r e s u m a b l y ) ,  files  and p i l i n g them i n green garbage bags which t h e y had brought w i t h them f o r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  Among o t h e r  o b j e c t s o f i n t e r e s t t h e y have a l s o been r e p o r t e d t o have r e p e a t e d l y s e i z e d t y p e w r i t e r s and weapons o f any kind.  2. 1  2.  The c r a c k i n g o f t h e L i b e r a t i o n and C h e n i e r  Cell  I f t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s had s e i z e d t y p e w r i t e r s t o t r y t o match them w i t h t h e communiques a l l accounts u n s u c c e s s f u l .  t h e i r attempt was by  T h e i r s e a r c h f o r t h e murderers  o f P i e r r e L a p o r t e and f o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e h i d e - o u t o f James C r o s s ' k i d n a p p e r s Rose's b o a s t f u l n e s s .  was a t a low p o i n t , i n s p i t e o f  On October 18, w a r r a n t s had been  e m i t t e d a g a i n s t P a u l Rose, Marc Charbonneau, and on October 24, a g a i n s t F. Simard, Bernard  L o r t i e and  Jacques Rose, b u t w i t h no immediate r e s u l t s .  The i n -  v e s t i g a t o r s were a p p a r e n t l y c o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e i r  efforts  outside o f Montreal.  " I n t h e meantime, a c c o r d i n g t o informed s o u r c e s , t h e armed f o r c e s have combed c e r t a i n areas i n t h e Western and N o r t h Western p a r t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , i n o r d e r t o f i n d the t e r r o r i s t s ...Reconnaissance a i r c r a f t s have j o i n e d t h e s e a r c h . They f l y o v e r woods and f o r e s t s i n o r d e r t o d e t e c t b o n f i r e s that could e v e n t u a l l y s i g n a l the presence o f t e r r o r i s t s ' camps. The armed f o r c e s and t h e p o l i c e have c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s i n t h e r e g i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e where summer c o t t a g e s a r e l o c a t e d . . . " (93)  In t h e absence o f d e c i s i v e p r o g r e s s .  ( t h e measure  having  been a l r e a d y postponed s e v e r a l t i m e s ) , J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r  Choquette, announced on November 3, 1970  that:  "The Governments o f Quebec and Ottawa, j o i n t l y o f f e r rewards up t o $75,000. f o r i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g t o t h e a r r e s t o f the k i d n a p p e r s o r murderers o f former Quebec Labour M i n i s t e r P i e r r e L a p o r t e . S i m i l a r rewards a r e o f f e r e d a t the same time f o r i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g t o the a r r e s t o f the k i d n a p p e r s of J . Cross. In the same way rewards w i l l be g i v e n f o r i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g t o the a r r e s t o f f i v e s u s p e c t s P a u l Rose, Marc Charbonneau, Jacques Rose, Bernard L o r t i e and F. Simard" (94) T h i s t a c t i c was  not  new:  During a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e  on August 22, 1969,  Union N a t i o n a l e J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r P a u l had  former  included  . i n h i s t e n p o i n t program t o f i g h t t e r r o r i s m " t h e o f f e r i n g o f a $50,000. reward f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g t o the a r r e s t o f t e r r o r i s t s " I t had been used i n the b e g i n n i n g o f 1970  and  l e d t o the d i s c o v e r y o f the FLQ h i d e - o u t  i n Prevost  which i n t u r n had r e v e a l e d the p l o t a g a i n s t Consul  had  U.S.  Burgess.  But a t l e a s t i t was  e f f i c i e n t , on November 6,  Montreal  p o l i c e d u r i n g a " r o u t i n e " i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r r e s t e d B. L o r t i e and a p p a r e n t l y came c l o s e t o a r r e s t i n g the Rose b r o t h e r s and F r a n c i s Simard (who c l o s e t ) , who  f i n a l l y were'located  M o n t r e a l on December 27.  were hidden  in a  i n S a i n t Luc near  ( A p p a r e n t l y on a l e a d  o r i g i n a t i n g from t h e f o l l o w - u p o f L o r t i e ' s  arrest).  The c r a c k i n g o f the C h e n i e r C e l l , however, t u r n e d i n t e r e s t i n g evidence on the c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the P o l i c e Forces e s p e c i a l l y between the R.C.M.P. and the two o t h e r s .  I n f a c t i t appeared:  t h a t t h e d i s c o v e r y o f the S t . Hubert p a v i l i o n i n which P. L a p o r t e was d e t a i n e d  was r e p o r t e d  only  48 hours l a t e r by t h e Q.P.P. t o t h e R.C.M.P. t h a t t h e R.C.M.P. l e a r n e d L o r t i e ' s a r r e s t by t h e newspapers and was o n l y i n f o r m e d o f t h e  existence  o f t h e c l o s e t h i d e - o u t f o u r days a f t e r t h e a r r e s t (Montreal  P o l i c e was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y proud o f t h e  f a c t , s i n c e an FLQ communique sent by Jacques Rose was  a l l e g i n g t h a t t h e weapons o f the p o l i c e m e n on  d u t y had been s t o l e n ) On t h e same v e i n , c l a s s i c a l p o l i c e work (a t a i l on Jacques L a n c t o t ' s  wife)  l e d t h e R.C.M.P. t o 10945 r u e  des R e c o l l e t s and t o t h e a r r e s t o f  Cossette-Trudels  (the o n l y two a r r e s t s made by the R.C.M.P.) and t o t h e r e l e a s e o f James C r o s s a f t e r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e Government o f f e r .  As i n the p r e c e e d i n g c a s e , b i t t e r  e v i d e n c e was t u r n e d on t h e l a c k o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n among the P o l i c e  Forces.  On t h e t a i l o f J . L a n c t o t , a n R.C.M.P. o f f i c e r and his  w i f e , s e t t l e d on t h e second f l o o r o f 10945 r u e  des R e c o l l e t s , were n e a r l y a r r e s t e d by N o r t h M o n t r e a l Municipal  P o l i c e , on whose j u r i s d i c t i o n was t h e a r e a ,  and who had n o t been i n f o r m e d o f t h e i r p r e s e n c e . The m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y s t a t e m e n t s a f t e r James Cross' s a f e  release  " A f t e r t h e B r i t i s h Trade Commissioner won h i s freedom i n exchange f o r s a f e conduct t o Cuba f o r h i s k i d n a p p e r s the Q.P.P. D i r e c t o r gave l e n g t h y i n t e r v i e w s t o s e l e c t e d r e p o r t e r s from M o n t r e a l newspapers i n which he c l e a r l y l e f t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t h i s f o r c e was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  O b v i o u s l y peeved A s s i s t a n t Commissioner Dube r e v e a l e d i n an i n t e r v i e w t h a t t h e R.C.M.P. was n o t g i v e n a c cess t o t h e S t . Hubert b u n g a l l o w where t h e Q.P.P. found masses o f e v i d e n c e t h a t Labour M i n i s t e r P. Laporte had been h e l d hostage f o r a week and s t r a n g l e d on October 17"(94a) I n t h e same mood, t h e C h i e f o f M o n t r e a l - N o r t h P o l i c e , added a few comments on h i s own by which a l l t h a t was a l o t of noise f o r r e a l l y nothing  (the heavy s u r -  r o u n d i n g o f t h e des R e c o l l e t s area) and t h a t two o r three Montreal  N o r t h P o l i c e c r u i s e r s would have been  sufficient. The  detention process  At t h e apparent embarrassment o f t h e F e d e r a l A u t h o r i t i e s numerous q u e s t i o n s were r a i s e d i n t h e Commons on t h e way t h e P r o v i n c e was implementing t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e W.M.A. e s p e c i a l l y those r e g a r d i n g t h e d e t e n t i o n o f " s u s p e c t s " . Among t h e most prominent were: The  f a c t t h a t lawyers had n o t been p e r m i t t e d  f i r s t week t o see t h e i r i m p r i s o n e d  The  i n the  clients  f a c t t h a t on October 27, n e i t h e r t h e S o l i c i t o r  . G e n e r a l n o r t h e J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r had been a b l e t o g i v e the Commons t h e box s c o r e on a r r e s t s , r e l e a s e s and d e t e n t i o n s under t h e r e g u l a t i o n s n o r t o t e l l them how much dynamite arms and ammunitions had been  recovered  in raids  -  The f a c t t h a t a p p a r e n t l y  t h o s e a r r e s t e d had been f i n g e r -  p r i n t e d which was n o t a u t h o r i z e d e i t h e r b y t h e W.M.A. o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f C r i m i n a l s A c t .  The f a c t t h a t some  p r i s o n e r s had been b e a t e n o r i l l - t r e a t e d .  -  The  f a c t t h a t , i n s p i t e o f the Prime  agreement on the demand, no had  been p r o v i d e d t o the  Minister's  l i s t of arrested  persons  public.  Those c r i t i c i s m s a g a i n s t the a c t i o n s  t a k e n i n the Quebec  P r o v i n c e were answered o n l y w i t h weak comments on  the  v i s s i c i t u d e s o f the Canadian F e d e r a l System o r as  expressed  by Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau: "Here a g a i n , I cannot speak f o r the P r o v i n c e o f Quebec, which was e n t r u s t e d w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g the A c t " (95) or J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r  Turner:  "The a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l s a r e f r e e t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s on the a d v i c e g i v e n by t h e i r Governments" (95)  In s p i t e o f t h e s e d e c l a r a t i o n s a few -  The  o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l impotence  c o r r e c t i v e measures were t a k e n : Government, more or l e s s , p r o m i s e d t o s p e c i f y , i n  the new  regulations,  a l i a i s o n committee and  t o c o u n s e l (on which Mr.  J . D i e f e n b a k e r was  the  right  especially  sensitive) The  Quebec J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r approved the f o r m a t i o n  by  the C i v i l L i b e r t i e s Union o f a t h r e e member sub-committee t o f u r n i s h " c l o t h i n g and the W.M.A. and  -  c i g a r e t t e s " t o t h o s e h e l d under  t o a c t as a l i a i s o n between the  and  their families  Mr.  Turner's parliamentary s e c r e t a r y ,  Albert  prisoners  Bechard,  promised t o b r i n g the q u e s t i o n o f u n a u t h o r i z e d f i n g e r p r i n t i n g t o the Quebec J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r ' s S u r p r i s i n g l y , these deviations action no  (any a r r e s t e d p e r s o n has  from the  attention.  l e g a l course of  the r i g h t t o r e t a i n c o u n s e l ,  f i n g e r p r i n t i n g i s l e g a l u n t i l a p e r s o n i s sentenced  no one can be d e t a i n e d s e c r e t l y ) i f t h e y can be t r a c e d back t o t h e A t t o r n e y General - J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec, o r a t l e a s t t o some o f h i s  statements,  he argued f o r example, t h a t t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e names o f t h o s e a r r e s t e d c o u l d be h a r m f u l t o them, which c o n s t i t u t e d a prime r e a s o n f o r n o t p u b l i s h i n g such a l i s t b u t a l s o t o t h e Q.P.P.  The C i v i l L i b e r t i e s Union Committee mentions i n i t s p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t t h a t i t had n o t i c e d t h a t : " i n c e r t a i n detention centers, e s p e c i a l l y outside Montreal the d i r e c t o r s were p r e s s u r e d by Q.P.P. o f f i c i a l s . The p r e s s u r e s were a l l i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n . People a r r e s t e d under t h e W.M.A. were t o be m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e most complete i s o l a t i o n and incommunicado" (96) A p p a r e n t l y t h i s n o t i o n o f "incommunicado" went as f a r as p r e v e n t i n g t h e a r r e s t e d persons  t o communicate w i t h t h e i r  f a m i l i e s , o r c e n s u r i n g t h e news b r o a d c a s t e d by t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s which were t u r n e d on i n t h e d e t e n t i o n c e n t e r s . It i s d i f f i c u l t a p r i o r i  t o c o n c e i v e o f any r a t i o n a l e  b e h i n d such a f e a t u r e , u n l e s s one t r i e s t o r e l a t e i t t o t h e way t h e " s u s p e c t s " were q u e s t i o n e d  ( n o t a l l o f them,  s i n c e i n some s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s people have r e p o r t e d not to have been  The persons  questioned)  t h a t were q u e s t i o n e d  (see Serge Mondeau) never  mentioned any s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e 10 prime s u s p e c t s  (which a t t h e t i m e were p o s i t i v e l y  identi-  f i e d ) b u t r e l a t e t h e y have been s u b m i t t e d t o some form of p o l i t i c a l established.  q u e s t i o n i n g f o r which a s t a n d a r d form had been Among t h e r e c u r r i n g themes were q u e s t i o n s  such  as "Are you a member o f t h e FLQ" ... " D i d you k i d n a p James C r o s s " ... "Do you agree w i t h t h e FLQ M a n i f e s t o " . . . "Are you i n f a v o u r o f making s o c i a l change b y v i o l e n c e " . . . Most  p e o p l e d e s c r i b e them as i n t e r v i e w s more t h a n i n t e r r o g a t i o n s , t h e y were g e n e r a l l y f r i e n d l y , a p p a r e n t l y p o i n t l e s s and gave a f a i r importance t o s t a n d a r d q u e s t i o n s on  the  i d e n t i t y o f r e l a t i v e s , job h i s t o r y , education... However n a i v e those q u e s t i o n s may criminating:  The  appear, they were i n -  d e t a i n e d persons  " c o u l d not know t h a t making statement i n support o f the FLQ, even t o a p o l i c e o f f i c e r i n a f r i e n d l y chat about " p o l i t i c s and t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g " , c o u l d be used i n c o u r t as p r o o f they were g u i l t y o f the c r i m e o f b e l o n g i n g t o t h e FLQ, which was d e f i n e d i n a law o f which t h e y were not a l l o w e d t o be aware, as t h e " u n l a w f u l a s s o c i a t i o n " " (97)  On t h i s a c c o u n t , the Q.P.P. was  f a c i l i t a t i n g the j o b o f the  Crown f o r f u r t h e r p r o s e c u t i o n s .  I t i s u n l i k e l y that this  was  done w i t h o u t the consent (not t o speak o f the  o f the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , who  initiative)  took the p a i r i t o defend some  h i g h l y q u e s t i o n a b l e p o s i t i o n s ( l i k e the n o n - d i v u l g a t i o n the s u s p e c t s '  l i s t s ) and who  was  one  o f the main b e n e f i -  c i a r y (as t h e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o s e c u t i o n s ) o f t h a t procedure.  of  This c o n c l u s i o n i s confirmed  by two  illegal  statements  one s u r p r i s i n g l y emanating from the Quebec Finance M i n i s t e r R.  Garneau:  "The Finance M i n i s t e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t the purpose o f the a r r e s t s was t o a l l o w q u e s t i o n i n g i n o r d e r t o b r i n g charges a g a i n s t those who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s o f t e r r o r i s t movements" (98) the o t h e r from J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Choquette: "And I s h a l l add t o t h i s , t h a t the a r r e s t and d e t e n t i o n o f a c e r t a i n number o f persons have enabled us t o c o l l e c t many u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n as f a r as p o t e n t i a l charges t o be l a i d i n c o u r t s a r e c o n c e r n e d " (99)  The  c o m p l i c i t y o f Ottawa i s more open t o q u e s t i o n i n g :  Some  vague promises o f i n t e r v e n t i o n were made but when compared w i t h the r e a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t took p l a c e i n o t h e r  - 123 -  provinces  ( t o p r e v e n t the use  and abuse o f the W.M.A.)  t h e y appear r a t h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t but no f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e p e r m i t s t o e s t a b l i s h whether i t was a m a t t e r o f  tolerance  or a matter of i n t e n t i o n . One  o f the P.R.  agents o f the Q.P.P. d e n i e d c a t e g o r i c a l l y  t h e a l l e g a t i o n s made b y Quebec l a w y e r Samson t h a t  prisoners  had been b e a t e n i n O r s a i n v i l l e p r i s o n , who s u b s e q u e n t l y s p e c i f i e d that h i s accusations o f f i c e r s but p r i s o n wardens.  were, not a g a i n s t  police  Later, i n spite of Minister  Choquette's r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p r i s o n e r s had been b e a t e n but " o n l y s l i g h t l y " and  t h a t the blows had not been v i o l e n t ,  the Q.P.P. D i r e c t o r a f f i r m e d on November 27 " t h a t as f a r as he knew, no p r i s o n e r had been b e a t e n i n the c e l l s "  -  2. 3  The i n d i c t m e n t  (100)  process  As soon as October 27, Prime M i n i s t e r P.E.  Trudeau mentioned  i n the Commons: " I hope i t w i l l be as much as p o s s i b l e . . . t h a t charges w i l l be l a i d under the C r i m i n a l Code r a t h e r than on the W.M.A. ( P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s ) but here a g a i n I cannot speak f o r the p r o v i n c e o f Quebec, which was e n t r u s t e d w i t h adm i n i s t e r i n g the A c t . . ." (101)  T h i s statement seems p a r a d o x i c a l  s i n c e the P u b l i c Order  Regulations  had been a c c e p t e d b y a huge m a j o r i t y a few  days b e f o r e  i n the Commons:  The  Government had  t a k e n the  p a i n t o have a v o t e on the r e g u l a t i o n s (which i t was a l l o b l i g e d t o do) t h a t i t was use  t o announce, l e s s t h a n a week  recommending the Quebec A t t o r n e y  some o f i t s p r o v i s i o n s . . . !  not a t  afterwards,  General not t o  T h i s d r a s t i c change makes  sense o n l y under t h r e e p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s :  -  The F e d e r a l Government had never i n t e n d e d t o have t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s used f o r p r o s e c u t i o n s  ( i t was  o n l y an u m b r e l l a f o r extended P o l i c e powers) which i s i n l i n e w i t h t h e Model I p e r s p e c t i v e s The F e d e r a l Government had found t h e outcome o f t h e a r r e s t s r a t h e r d e c e p t i v e on t h e account o f t h e p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i t had r e c e i v e d ( c o n f o r m i t y w i t h Model I I p e r s p e c t i v e s ) and t h e p r e s s u r e s  f o r a c t i o n made by t h e  two o t h e r Governments ( i n c o n f o r m i t y as we w i l l f u r t h e r see w i t h Model IV p e r s p e c t i v e s )  The F e d e r a l Government had d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s  i n t h e i r r e p r e s s i v e p r o v i s i o n s were  i n a p p l i c a b l e ( d i s c r e p a n c y between i n t e n t i o n and a c t i o n ) As c o n d i t i o n number t h r e e appears r a t h e r weak s i n c e i n p u r e l y r a t i o n a l terms t h e Government s h o u l d have been a b l e t o conv i n c e t h e Quebec A t t o r n e y General o f t h e i n t r i n s i c weakness o f t h e A c t , c o n d i t i o n number one and number two, even i f t h e y focus on d i f f e r e n t causes (which can have i n t e r v e n e d t e l y o r j o i n t l y ) l e a d t o t h e same c o n c l u s i o n :  separa-  The F e d e r a l  Government had t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  o f the  W.M.A. was b e i n g d i s t o r t e d from i t s i n i t i a l o r ( r e v i s e d ) i n t e n t i o n s and f e l t the n e c e s s i t y o f a p u b l i c w a r n i n g .  T h i s w a r n i n g was not r e t a i n e d by t h e Crown ( i n f a c t t h e A t t o r n e y General  and t h e t a s k f o r c e o f lawyers t h a t  prepared  the i n d i c t m e n t s ) as shown i n t h e t a b l e r e c o n s t i t u t e d from the v a r i o u s p r e s s r e l e a s e s , summarized by Canadian News Facts  (101) and p r e s e n t e d  i n Appendix I I I .  I f we t r y t o summarize those f a c t s i t appears:  -  t h a t on 45 persons f o r whom known charges were l a i d , o n l y 6 were charged on p r o v i s i o n s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s t h a t on 31 p e r s o n s f o r whom known charges were l a i d i n M o n t r e a l , o n l y two were charged on p r o v i s i o n s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s t h a t 13 p e r s o n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o charges under t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s , were charged on p r o v i s i o n s o f s e d i t i o u s c o n s p i r a c y , as d e f i n e d by t h e C r i m i n a l Code t h a t t h e i n d i c t m e n t was p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy (69 charges l a i d ) f o r t h e f i v e " b i g s " : C h a r t r a n d , Lemieux, V a l l i e r e s , Gagnon, L a r u e - L a n g l o i s  -  t h a t i n M o n t r e a l t h e Crown d e c i d e d t o t a k e advantage o f a r a r e l y used p r o c e d u r e ( p r e f e r r e d i n d i c t m e n t s ) w h i c h , e f f e c t i v e l y p r e v e n t e d t h e defense from examining and t e s t i n g t h e e v i d e n c e t o be used a g a i n s t them p r i o r t o trial.  The a g g r e s s i v e approach t a k e n b y t h e Crown was n o t e x a c t l y new.  I n 1968, d u r i n g t h e t r i a l  o f V a l l i e r e s and Gagnon  (on t h e charges o f murder i n t h e case o f t h e La Grenade A f f a i r ) t h e Crown had used a l l t h e p o s s i b l e l e g a l  tricks  to o b t a i n a heavy c o n v i c t i o n :  i t d e l a y e d t h e t r i a l , a n n o u n c e d t h a t i t wanted t o proceed j o i n t l y on t h e two cases (which made V a l l i e r e s and Gagnon p r e p a r e a common defence) and t h e n r e v e r t e d i t s d e c i s i o n and opted f o r s e p a r a t e t r i a l s  (which as a  r e s u l t d e l a y e d Gagnon's t r i a l , who was judged o n l y three years a f t e r h i s a r r e s t )  i t tried to: " e x t r i c a t e i t s e l f from t h e embarrassment,that d e s p i t e a d e l a y o f a y e a r and a h a l f , i t had no e v i d e n c e t h a t V a l l i e r e s had any knowledge o f t h e La Grenade bombing. I t p i l e d t h e t a b l e s h i g h w i t h examples o f V a l l i e r e s i n f l a m a t o r y w r i t i n g s which were r e a d t o the j u r y a t g r e a t l e n g t h . As t h e Quebec C o u r t o f A p p e a l was t o say l a t e r t h o s e w r i t i n g s might w e l l c o n t a i n e v i d e n c e f o r some o t h e r charge but t h e y c o n t a i n e d no e v i d e n c e o f a s p e c i f i c murder" (102) 1  Moreover, a l l t h o s e e f f o r t s had been f r u s t r a t e d  (in spite  o f t h e e l o q u e n t t h r e a t s made by the Crown A t t o r n e y l i k e "Gentlemen, the  f r e e V a l l i e r e s and you know what w i l l happen")  Quebec Court o f Appeal o r d e r e d a new t r i a l and the  sentence o f l i f e imprisonment was reduced t o 30 months. Those p r e c e d e n t s may p e r m i t t o u n d e r s t a n d the p u g n a c i t y of the Crown ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n M o n t r e a l ) and the i n f l a m e d statement d e l i v e r e d by Mr. G i r o u a r d d u r i n g t h e t r i a l V a l l i e r e s i n 1971  of  ( o u t s i d e the C o u r t )  " P i e r r e V a l l i e r e s has always, c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f as a p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r ; he has c o n s t a n t l y r e q u e s t e d f o r a p o l i t i c a l t r i a l . He has d e s i r e d t o be judged on h i s p o l i t i c a l ideas. His actual t r i a l f o r seditious conspir a c y i s a p o l i t i c a l t r i a l d u r i n g which he w i l l be judged f o r h i s p o l i t i c a l i d e a s " (103)  The Crown was a p p a r e n t l y so determined t h a t even a f t e r the charges o f s e d i t i o u s c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t the " B i g F i v e " were quashed by J u s t i c e Ouimet, on F e b r u a r y 12, i t l a i d  new  charges under t h e same p r o v i s i o n s , f o r n e a r l y the same p e r i o d o f t i m e a g a i n s t V a l l i e r e s , Gagnon and L a r u e - L a n g l o i s . The J u d i c i a l P r o c e s s  I f t h e c o u r t s made a r a t h e r heavy use o f contempt c i t a t i o n s , t h e i r d e c i s i o n s n e v e r t h e l e s s t u r n e d t o be on t h e average f o r more clement than one c o u l d have expected (and d e c i s i v e l y more  t h a n t h e Crown had e x p e c t e d ) . Sentences r e n d e r e d on Charges  l a i d under t h e P u b l i c  Order R e g u l a t i o n s Acquitals: R. Cormier a c q u i t t e d o f t h r e e charges l a i d under the R e g u l a t i o n s (FLQ membership, a d v o c a t i n g t h e aims o f the  FLQ and communicating  A p r i l 15,  s t a t e m e n t s ) i n M o n t r e a l on  1971.  M. Gutowski a c q u i t t e d found n o t g u i l t y o f a d v o c a t i n g FLQ aims by r e a s o n o f i n s a n i t y c o n v i c t i o n s / F. M e r c i e r , sentenced t o 15 months i n j a i l  f o r FLQ  membership i n C o w a n s v i l l e on November 16, 1970 . C. L e b l a n c , sentenced t o 10 months i n j a i l  f o r advo-  c a t i n g FLQ aims, a c q u i t t e d o f charges o f FLQ membership and s e d i t i o u s c o n s p i r a c y on F e b r u a r y 15,  1971.  Sentences r e n d e r e d on charges l a i d under t h e C r i m i n a l Code Acquitals: C h a r t r a n d , V a l l i e r e s , Gagnon, L a r u e - L a n g l o i s , Lemieux "On F e b r u a r y 12, Mr. J u s t i c e Ouimet had stunned t h e C o u r t rooms by c o n c l u d i n g t h a t t h e charges o f s e d i t i o u s c o n s p i r a c y (...between J a n a u r y l , 1968, and l a s t October 16, t h e f i v e p u b l i c f i g u r e s were p a r t y to a s e d i t i o u s c o n s p i r a c y w i t h the i n t e n t o f changing the Government i n Canada and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec by a d v o c a t i n g t h e use o f f o r c e . . . c o n t r a r y to t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 62, paragraph (c) o f t h e C r i m i n a l Code) a g a i n s t t h e b i g f i v e - C h a r t r a n d , Lemieux, L a r u e - L a n g l o i s , V a l l i e r e s , Gagnon were too vague" (104)  S i m i l a r charges l a i d a g a i n by t h e Crown were t u r n e d down by the Court on June 15, 1971:  Gagnon and  L a r u e - L a n g l o i s b e i n g found not g u i l t y . R. Langevin o f a charge o f p u b l i s h i n g a s e d i t i o u s l i b e l on J a n u a r y 15,  1971  C. Caron o f making anonymous phone c a l l s t o a l a r m one or more p e r s o n s , on J u l y 23, 1971  convictions  A. L a v o i e , sentenced t o 2 weeks i n j a i l and a $200. f i n e f o r c o n s p i r a c y t o commit a hold-up t o f i n a n c e the  FLQ  R. B e l a n g e r sentenced t o 15 days i n j a i l of  a sawed-off  f o r possession  gun  C. L a r i v i e r e and L. V e r r a u l t , sentenced t o j a i l of  terms  2 and 1 y e a r (on v a r i o u s charges r a n g i n g from  o b s t r u c t i n g j u s t i c e t o a i d i n g t h e outlawed FLQ;  they  had a i d e d P a u l Rose t o l e a v e M o n t r e a l i n December) on A p r i l 27, J.G. of  1971  L e l i e v r e , V. D a u d e l i n , s e n t e n c e d on t h e charges  h a v i n g c o n s p i r e d t o s t e a l machine guns and m i l i t a r y  uniforms.  From t h i s account (which does not p r e t e n d t o be e x h a u s t i v e , b u t which was r e c o n s t i t u t e d from s c a t t e r e d s o u r c e s ) i t appears t h a t t h e C o u r t s :  -  had been r e l u c t a n t t o c o n v i c t on charges o f s e d i t i o n  -  had been i n c l i n e d t o condemn p e o p l e on charges r e l a t e d to  traditional violence  -  had t o r e n d e r o n l y i n 4 cases s e n t e n c e s on charges a r i s i n g from t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s .  On J u l y 30, 1971, J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Choquette, under "mounting p r e s s u r e " (105) "Ordered Crown p r o s e c u t o r s t o suspend p r o c e e d i n g s under the charges a r i s i n g from t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s (but not under the C r i m i n a l Code). T e c h n i c a l l y the charges a g a i n s t one o f t h e 32 accused c o u l d be r e v i e w e d at a l a t e r d a t e , i f J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Choquette o r any o f h i s s u c c e s s o r s s h o u l d so d e c i d e " (106)  FOCUS IV: MULTIPLE SEPARATE DECISION UNITS (BOUNDED RATIONALITY)  1.  THE  FLQ  Numerous o b s e r v e r s , a t l e a s t d u r i n g the p r e l i m i n a r y  phase o f  c r i s i s , have more o r l e s s o p e n l y assumed t h a t the FLQ  was  the  some k i n d  o f a u n i t a r y movement, o p e r a t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o a w e l l d e f i n e d predetermined strategy  (see Model I I f o r d e s c r i p t i v e  T h i s view, however, h a r d l y  and  statements).  r e s i s t s a more thorough a n a l y s i s o f  the  e v i d e n c e a t hand. -  1. 1  " T h i n k e r s " and In the r e p o r t  "Men  of  Action"  on "La J u s t i c e et l a S e c u r i t e  J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Choquette d e s c r i b e s the  des  s e p a r a t i s t move-  ment as a more or l e s s l o o s e c o a l i t i o n between and  "men  d i s p l a y , but  A l l we  can  l e a r n i s t h a t "some revo-  t h a t the o t h e r s " i n d u l g e i n c r i m i n a l  acts i n order to gain a t t e n t i o n " .  A p p a r e n t l y the Crown  t h e same problem, b o t h i n the La Grenade and  t r i a l under charges o f c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t the was  links  always v e r b a l l y , some sympathy f o r the  l u t i o n a r y a c t i o n " and  and  "thinkers"  o f a c t i o n " w i t h o u t p r e c i s e l y s p e l l i n g the  e x i s t i n g between the two.  had  Citoyens",  in  "big  the five"  r e p e a t e d l y u n a b l e t o prove the e x i s t e n c e o f  d i b l e and  d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n s between the two  problem was  not a new  c o n n e c t i o n s had  ever  one  and  one  can  cre-  groups.  even doubt t h a t  The such  existed:  " I t was a t a c t i c o f p r o p a g a n d i s t s , such as P i e r r e V a l l i e r e s , t o lump t o g e t h e r a l l the c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s over a seven y e a r p e r i o d , as i f a l l had been c e n t r a l l y d i r e c t e d to a common cause. Thus, s h o r t l y a f t e r he " j o i n e d " the FLQ, V a l l i e r e s wrote "one o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f the FLQ was and s t i l l i s t o a c c e l e r a t e (the) p r o c e s s o f becoming c o n s c i o u s t o make men aware o f the n e c e s s i t y o f f i g h t i n g to the d e a t h a g a i n s t the d e s p o t i s m o f the c a p i t a l i s t system..." By the time V a l l i e r e s came t o the FLQ i n 1965, most o f the e a r l i e r "members" were i n j a i l . Few o f them had i d e o l o g i c a l conv i c t i o n s . Few were a b l e t o i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e t h e i r c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s , except t h a t almost a l l had s u f f e r e d the deep h u r t o f b e i n g put down by E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g C a n a d i a n s " (107)  - 131 -  In t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , one can s t r o n g l y doubt about t h e e n f o r c i b i l i t y o f t h e " p l a n s " d e s c r i b e d by V a l l i e r e s i n h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y works:  The m a t t e r b e i n g more one o f oppor-  t u n i s t i c p o l i t i c s , than one o f p l a n n e d and d e t a i l e d r e v o lutionary action. -  1. 2  " L i b e r a t i o n C e l l " and " C h e n i e r C e l l " M u l t i p l e evidence t e s t i f y o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p r o c e s s o f " p u s h i n g and h a u l i n g " between t h e two c e l l s : D i s c r e p a n c i e s between L i b e r a t i o n C e l l communique number 7 and C h e n i e r C e l l communique number 1:  The former  m e n t i o n i n g o n l y two c o n d i t i o n s , whereas, t h e l a t t e r r e s t o r e s t h e FLQ demands t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l  level  D i s c r e p a n c i e s between L i b e r a t i o n C e l l communique number 8 and C h e n i e r C e l l communique number 4: still  The former  l i m i t i n g i t s e l f t o t h e same two c o n d i t i o n s ( t h e  l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s and t h e j o i n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f t h e p r i s o n e r s and t h e members o f t h e C e l l t o Cuba), t h e l a t t e r more o r l e s s m a i n t a i n i n g t h e o r i g i n a l s e t o f demands  -  The wording o f L i b e r a t i o n C e l l communique number 10 d a t e d October 17, 10:00 A.M., and addressed t o r a d i o s t a t i o n CKLM (and which i n c i d e n t a l l y was n o t made p u b l i c b e f o r e December 8, 1970, because o f t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s ' o p p o s i t i o n t o i t s immediate b r o a d c a s t i n g )  "As a consequence, declares that: 1.  t h e F r o n t de L i b e r a t i o n du Quebec  t h e death sentence a g a i n s t J . Cross i s i n d e f i n i t e l y suspended. J . Cross i s a p r i s o n e r o f t h e FLQ. He w i l l n o t be l i b e r a t e d b e f o r e t h e acceptance o f our demands, by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s .  He w i l l not be executed u n l e s s t h e p o l i t i c a l f a c i s t p o l i c e d i s c o v e r s us and attempts t o i n t e r v e n e As f a r as P. L a p o r t e i s concerned, the C h e n i e r C e l l o f t h e F r o n t de L i b e r a t i o n du Quebec'is a c t u a l l y r e v i e w i n g h i s case and w i l l soon l e t t h e d e c i s i o n be known" (108) I f one r e f e r s t o t h e p a t t e r n o f communication  between  t h e two c e l l s , e s p e c i a l l y t o the f a c t t h a t the commun i q u e s were a p p a r e n t l y the' main source o f between the two c e l l s  communication  (see C h e n i e r C e l l communique  number 3, m e n t i o n i n g "we  d i d not get any news from  L i b e r a t i o n C e l l " . . . " I f J . Cross i s a l i v e they should, t h e members o f the C e l l , send an e i g h t h communique" o r C h e n i e r C e l l communique number 4 s p e l l i n g a comprehens i v e s t r a t e g y f o r t h e two c e l l s ) : One  cannot f a i l t o  i n t e r p r e t t h i s message as a warning t o t h e C h e n i e r C e l l (which had been r e p e a t e d l y t h r e a t e n i n g t o k i l l P.  Laporte)  I f one t r i e s t o e x p l a i n those marked d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e a c t i o n s and the b e h a v i o r o f t h e two c e l l s , i t seems necessary to take s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n t o  account:  The absence o f any p r e - e x i s t i n g p l a n o f a c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o some s o u r c e s (109) o n l y vague d i s c u s s i o n s between t h e two groups had t a k e n p l a c e and no e x p l i c i t s t r a t e g y had been agreed upon. "There had been t a l k about f o r m i n g two c e l l s . One a k i d n a p c e l l and one t o r a i s e f u n d s , but i t was j u s t t a l k " The Rose b r o t h e r s had not been informed o f the p l a n s o f t h e C h e n i e r C e l l and d e c i d e d on t h e i r own t o i n t e r v e n e , i n t e r r u p t i n g a t r i p t o the U.S.  to kidnap a  known p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e i n the immediate M o n t r e a l a r e a .  "We heard on the r a d i o about t h e k i d n a p p i n g o f James R i c h a r d C r o s s . When we l e a r n e d t h a t t h e r e was o n l y one h o s t a g e , we d e c i d e d we had t o r e t u r n t o Canada i n case t h e Government r e f u s e d t o meet t h e demands o f t h e L i b e r a t i o n C e l l . We a r r i v e d i n L o n g u e u i l on Thursday morning, October 8, 1970" (110) The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e two o p e r a t i o n s i s t h a t t h e L i b e r a t i o n C e l l apparently taken s u f f i c i e n t  had  p r e c a u t i o n s t o be  a b l e t o m a i n t a i n i t s p o s i t i o n f o r at l e a s t  two  months ( f u n d s , c h o i c e o f t h e h i d e - o u t ) and  on  t h e o t h e r hand t h e members o f the C h e n i e r  Cell  were not n e a r l y as r e s o u r c e f u l , i n t h a t t h e y had t o use L a p o r t e ' s money t o buy food and  on  t h o s e grounds i t would have been d i f f i c u l t f o r them t o l a s t more than one o r two weeks w i t h o u t going i n t h e open and t a k i n g g r e a t  risks.  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e a c t o r s :  There i s a  number o f s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e members o f t h e two  cells:  t h e p e o p l e i n t h e L i b e r a t i o n C e l l were m o s t l y p e o p l e w i t h f a m i l i e s o f t h e i r own  (Charbonneau,  L a n c t o t and C o s s e t t e - T r u d e l were m a r r i e d , Charbonneau had s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n , L a n c t o t a c h i l d and h i s w i f e a t t h e time was  had  pregnant)  whereas t h e people i n t h e C h e n i e r C e l l had  little,  i f none. the people i n t h e L i b e r a t i o n C e l l had g a i n e d most of t h e i r experience i n labour c o n f l i c t s  (Charbonneau  and L a n c t o t were i n v o l v e d i n the M.L.T., t h e  libe-  r a t i o n movement o f the t a x i i n d u s t r y and had  taken  p a r t i n t h e Murray H i l l c o n f l i c t i n 1969):  They  were more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e impact o f t h e i r a c t i o n s and t o t h e i r l o g i s t i c components than t h e b o a s t f u l P a u l Rose, who was more p r e o c c u p i e d sensationalism of h i s passport The  w i t h pure  ( c o n s i d e r f o r example t h e r e t u r n to the a u t h o r i t i e s )  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s :  L a n c t o t and t h e C o s s e t t e - T r u d e l s , had p e r s o n a l  connections  Jacques  f o r example,  w i t h some o f t h e p o l i t i c a l  p r i s o n e r s ( F r a n c o i s L a n c t o t , t h e i r b r o t h e r and b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , and Andre Roy who had been a r r e s t e d at t h e same time) had a p e r s o n a l denunciation  i n t e r e s t i n the  o f t h e " s t o o l " (who was r e s p o n s i b l e  for the arrest of Francois Lanctot);  t h e members  o f t h e C h e n i e r C e l l on t h e o t h e r hand had no p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h o s e demands, except t h a t t h e y were a means t o curb t h e " a r r o g a n c e " o f t h e aut h o r i t i e s and o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  Those d i f f e r e n c e s , combined w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e C h e n i e r C e l l had secured  t h e more important  hostage  ( i n b a r g a i n i n g t e r m s ) , appear t o shed some l i g h t on t h e r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t (and o t h e r w i s e  unexplicable)  s t r a t e g i e s f o l l o w e d by t h e two c e l l s .  2.  THE AUTHORITIES  I f the u n i t a r y actor perspective i s often a useful f i c t i o n , the a n a l y s i s o f t h e p o l i t i c s o f d e c i s i o n appears t o be an e q u a l l y f r u i t f u l approach i n t h e p r o c e s s o f governmental d e c i s i o n making.  In t h i s d i r e c t i o n , we would l i k e t o u n d e r l i n e some s p e c i f i c char a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e problem a t hand (as compared t o A l l i s o n ' s ) t h a t make i t p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r a Focus IV t r e a t m e n t :  The  existence of s t r u c t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t u n i t s , with  powers, d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r e s o u r c e s and  different  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (both i n the r e s t r i c t e d and The but  The  specific  extended senses)  i n t e r n a l n a t u r e o f the problem, as opposed t o  context of Foreign A f f a i r s .  different  d i s t i n c t i o n may  Allison's seem tenuous,  i t s consequences are n e v e r t h e l e s s i m p o r t a n t : External issues,  i n most c o u n t r i e s ,  c o n c e r n f o r p o l i t i c i a n s and  are u s u a l l y  a secondary  decisions i n that f i e l d  usually  l i m i t themselves t o a v e r y l i m i t e d number o f p e r s o n s . Whereas i n t e r n a l i s s u e s ( e s p e c i a l l y when l o n g l a s t i n g ) g i v e r i s e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and but  sensitive positions  not  i n the whole body o f p o l i t i c s and  External issues, minate t h r e a t s ,  o n l y i n the  public  e s p e c i a l l y when t a k i n g  the  Cabinets  opinion. form o f  indiscri-  t e n d t o d e v e l o p a form o f s o l i d a r i t y and  c o n s c i o u s n e s s (us v s . them) which t e n d t o be  absent i n i n -  t e r n a l i s s u e s ( i n t h a t case the d i v i d i n g l i n e i s i n t e r n a l , as i n t h e extreme c a s e o f c i v i l -  war)  The  n a t u r e o f the Canadian P o l i t i c a l System w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e  the  Prime M i n i s t e r  originates  (as opposed t o a U.S.  from a d i r e c t e l e c t i o n )  P r e s i d e n t whose power  the P r o v i n c i a l and  o f the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , t h e i r l o o s e and (the L i b e r a l P a r t y i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d the  " p u s h i n g and  as an  ideologies  i d e o l o g i c a l sponge),  governments  r e l a t e i t t o the n a t u r e o f the a c t i o n c h a n n e l s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the A c t o r s i n v o l v e d ,  the p r o c e s s which l e d t o the  authorities'  and  Elite.  w i l l t r y to f i n d some e v i d e n c e o f  h a u l i n g " p r o c e s s t a k i n g p l a c e among the  i n d i v i d u a l s and t o the  heterogeneous  l i m i t e d r e c r u i t m e n t o f the Canadian P o l i t i c a l  In t h i s model IV p e r s p e c t i v e we  Federal nature  the and  and  i n order to determine  decisions.  - 136 -  -  2. 1  Some Evidence on t h e p u s h i n g and h a u l i n g p r o c e s s  -  2. 1  1.  P r i o r t o October 1970 a)  I n November 1969, t h e M o n t r e a l a u t h o r i t i e s had been u s i n g t h e C.J.C. h e a r i n g s i n Ottawa as a forum t o express t h e i r concern about t h e p r e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n e x i s t i n g i n Canada a t t h e time and t h e l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e means t o p r o t e c t society: "He s a i d (Mr. S a u l n i e r ) t h a t t h e r i o t on October 7, i n M o n t r e a l , had proved t h a t Canada was a d e f e n c e l e s s c o u n t r y . Defence, s a i d Mr. S a u l n i e r , does n o t a p p l y o n l y t o e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s , b u t t o any a c t i o n t h a t i s t o be t a k e n t o p r e v e n t t h e i n t e r n a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f a country... Canada has t o f a c e a r e v o l u t i o n a r y p l a n ; some o f our examples drawn from t h e s i t u a t i o n i n M o n t r e a l t a k e p l a c e i n t h i s p l a n . E n q u i r e elsewhere and you w i l l d i s c o v e r t h e same t h i n g , i f you r e a l l y want t o f i n d what t h e r e i s t o s e a r c h " (111) At t h e t i m e , h i s a l l e g a t i o n s were t a k e n r a t h e r l i g h t l y by t h e members o f p a r l i a m e n t , whose f e e l i n g was t h a t t h e M o n t r e a l a u t h o r i t i e s were t r y i n g t o b u i l d a case in order to dissimulate, t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the r i o t s and d i s o r d e r s t h a t had f o l l o w e d t h e s t r i k e of  b)  the Montreal P o l i c e Forces.  I n J u l y 1970, J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r T u r n e r , d u r i n g t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s c o n f e r e n c e i n H a l i f a x , h a d unsucc e s s f u l l y proposed  important m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e  C r i m i n a l Code, i n o r d e r t o curb " c r i m e s f o r m i n g p a r t of a n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n "  The m a t t e r came back t o  s u r f a c e i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e c r i s i s , when t h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s took advantage o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o g i v e a new chance t o t h e i r " p e t p r o j e c t " .  " J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Turner w i l l seek the support o f the p r o v i n c i a l Attorneys-General f o r h i s proposal t h a t a new c a t e g o r y o f n a t i o n a l crime be e s t a b l i s h e d . When t h e m a t t e r was f i r s t r a i s e d i n H a l i f a x , l a s t summer, t h e A t t o r n e y s - G e n e r a l were not keen, but t h e M i n i s t e r f e e l s t h a t developments i n Quebec have s t r e n g t h e n e d h i s hand. Mr. Turner f e e l s t h a t the FLQ c r i s i s has demonstrated t h e need f o r f e d e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and p r o s e c u t i o n when such crimes form p a r t o f a n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n . T h i s c o u l d o c c u r as a r e s u l t o f p o l i t i c a l conspiracy or organized crime. In such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r b e l i e v e s Ottawa i s b e t t e r equipped t o f e r r e t out evidence and b e t t e r a b l e t o handle p r o s e c u t i o n s . In a l l o f t h i s t h e r e i s more t h a n a h i n t o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ( i n t h e way the) FLQ t h r e a t (had been handled) i n t h e y e a r s p r e c e e d i n g t h e c u r r e n t c r i s i s . When t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was put t o t h e J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r y e s t e r d a y , he d e n i e d i t . But a remark he made l a t e r i n another c o n t e x t seemed t o c o n f i r m t h a t Ottawa p i n s some o f the blame f o r t h e c u r r e n t c r i s i s on what i t r e g a r d s as a somewhat c a s u a l app r o a c h t o t h e FLQ problem by t h e Quebec a u t h o r i t i e s " (112)  On t h o s e grounds, i t appears t h a t : -  t h e problem o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was  p a r t o f a l a r g e r problem.  of J u s t i c e  The  constitutional  r e p a r t i t i o n o f power between t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments, which was  one o f t h e  c r i t i c a l i s s u e s o f t h e l a t e s i x t i e s w i t h the p r o v i n c e s t r y i n g t o defend themselves  against  any i n f r i n g e m e n t on t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l  preroga-  tives .  t h e r e was  some k i n d o f disagreement between  t h e F e d e r a l government and t h e Quebec P r o v i n c e on t h e t r e a t m e n t t o be g i v e n t o  "political  -  conspiracy" (since the a s s i m i l a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l c o n s p i r a c y w i t h o r g a n i z e d crime as n a t i o n a l c r i m e s , i s r a t h e r s t r a n g e one b e i n g " n a t i o n a l " o n l y by the e x t e n t o f i t s o p e r a t i o n s , t h e o t h e r b e i n g " n a t i o n a l " o n l y by i t s purpose i . e . t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f Quebec from Canada)  -  2.1  2.  From October 5 t o October 16 a)  D i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s toward t h e k i d n a p p e r s between, Mitchell! Sharp and Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau, e s p e c i a l l y on the i s s u e o f n e g o t i a t i o n s .  b)  Repeated rumours o f disagreement among t h e members o f t h e Quebec C a b i n e t more o r l e s s e x p l i c i t e l y conf i r m e d by Prime M i n i s t e r B o u r a s s a : "When I r e c e i v e d t h e l e t t e r from P i e r r e and you know i t was a v e r y p e r s o n a l l e t t e r , I s a i d " w e l l t h i s has t o be a unanimous c a b i n e t d e c i s i o n " I c o u l d not make d e c i s i o n s i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n where we would have been d i v i d e d l e t us say 9 t o 6 o r 13 t o 12. With the l i f e o f a colleague i n v o l v e d , I decided t o t a k e t h e t i m e f o r d i s c u s s i o n . We d i s c u s s e d i t Sunday, Monday, v e r y l o n g d i s c u s s i o n s , and o f c o u r s e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e r e were d i f f e r e n t view p o i n t s , but i t was unanimous i n t h e end" (113) J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Choquette: "At t h e s t a r t not everybody was a t the same p o i n t . There was a d i f f e r e n t way o f s e e i n g t h i n g s ... we met Sunday f o r the f i r s t t i m e and we had a n o t h e r meeting Monday; a n o t h e r Tuesday and so on... i t took t h r e e days... I t h i n k i t was Wednesday t h a t t h e r e was agreement among everybody" (114)  c)  C o n f l i c t i n g statement on October 13 and October from Prime M i n i s t e r s Trudeau and B o u r a s s a :  14,  138  Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau on October 13 " I t h i n k s o c i e t y must t a k e e v e r y means a t i t s d i s p o s a l t o defend i t s e l f a g a i n s t t h e emergence o f p a r a l l e l powers which d e f y t h e e l e c t e d powers i n t h i s country. I t h i n k t h a t power must be stopped and I t h i n k i t ' s o n l y weakened b l e e d i n g h e a r t s who a r e a f r a i d t o t a k e t h e s e measures" (115) Whereas, on t h e same day,  lawyer Lemieux and lawyer  Demers, who had been a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government were h a v i n g t h e i r f i r s t round o f negotiations. Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau on October 14, i s r e p o r t e d t o have s a i d , a t a meeting o f t h e L i b e r a l Caucus i n Ottawa: "That t h e Government has no i n t e n t i o n o f a l t e r i n g i t s o p p o s i t i o n i n an exchange o f FLQ p r i s o n e r s f o r the l i v e s o f FLQ kidnapped v i c t i m s " (116) When r e p o r t e r s t o l d Prime M i n i s t e r B o u r a s s a , i n Quebec C i t y , t h a t P i e r r e Trudeau had s a i d was  no q u e s t i o n  there  o f l i b e r a t i n g t h e prisoners•,. he  r e p l i e d t h a t "Mr. Trudeau had approved h i s statement on Sunday n i g h t "  When r e p o r t e r s i n s i s t e d t h a t Mr.  Trudeau had been v e r y c a t e g o r i c a l i n r u l i n g o u t any  f r e e i n g o f p r i s o n e r s , Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa  s a i d o n l y t h a t he "had n o t r e a d h i s i n t e r v i e w " and t h a t "he (Trudeau) was n o t s p e c i f i c "  The  "independent l e t t e r " addressed t o Prime M i n i s t e r  Trudeau on October 15 (whereas, Bourassa's was  d a t e d on t h e 16th)  requesting  b y J . Drapeau and L. S a u l n i e r ,  " f o r the assistance o f higher  government".  letter  levels of  T h i s l e t t e r i s even more c u r i o u s i n  t h a t no l e g a l b a s i s e x i s t s f o r such a r e q u e s t and  - 140  t h a t i n 1969,  Chairman L. S a u l n i e r , when q u e s t i o n e d  on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y had n o t r e q u e s t e d the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e Canadian Army, had r e p l i e d that: " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y speaking, the m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d n o t communicate w i t h t h e F e d e r a l author i t i e s t h i s a t t r i b u t i o n being o f p r o v i n c i a l competence" e)  The statement made by Mayor J . Drapeau on October 12: "The hour i s s e r i o u s and t h e p o l i t i c i a n s need t h e support o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n , i f t h e y a r e n o t t o l a c k courage. One must n o t e a c e r t a i n a n a l o g y between t h e k i d n a p p i n g o f Mr. L a p o r t e and k i d n a p p i n g s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . . . That i s s t r a n g e l y s i m i l a r to revolutions i n other countries..."  f)  The p e r s o n a l  l e t t e r addressed by Mrs.  several Federal  Laporte t o  and P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r s between  October 10 and October 16. g)  The statement made b y a group o f P. L a p o r t e ' s f r i e n d s and c o l l a b o r a t o r s on October 15 and a s k i n g for "an a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e l i b e r a t i o n p r o c e s s i n o r d e r to obtain the l i b e r a t i o n o f the hostages" In t h e same open l e t t e r , t h e group was u n d e r l i n i n g i t s opposition to p o l i c e or m i l i t a r y intervention (at  t h e t i m e t h e army had n o t y e t been o f f i c i a l l y  requested i n Montreal) h)  The p l e d g e made b y Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa on October 12, t h a t he "had t h e support o f t h e N a t i o n a l  i)  The presence o f Mr. Lalonde ( r e p u t e d  Assembly"  as Trudeau's  eminence g r i s e ) i n Quebec C i t y on t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e 15th.  Mr. Lalonde i s r e p o r t e d  t o have t a k e n  - 141  Prime M i n i s t e r Bourassa's l e t t e r back t o Ottawa. j)  Rumours o f disagreement i n t h e F e d e r a l Government, among the Prime M i n i s t e r and a group o f E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g M i n i s t e r s l e d by John Munro, on the f a c t t h a t t h e proposed l e g i s l a t i o n was a p p l i c a b l e a l l over Canada.  -  2. 1  3.  A f t e r October 16 a)  On October 20 t h e Quebec Government nominates: Mr. Roy F o u r n i e r as P r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . Up t o t h a t d a t e the P r o v i n c i a l J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r had been i n charge o f t h e two f u n c t i o n s . Mr. Jean Bienvenue, who had been shadow J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r on P. L a p o r t e ' s s l a t e d u r i n g the l a s t l i b e r a l l e a d e r s h i p c o n v e n t i o n , as M i n i s t e r o f I m m i g r a t i o n ( b e f o r e h i s d e a t h P. L a p o r t e had been t h e Quebec M i n i s t e r o f Manpower and Immigration)  b)  On November 1970, J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Choquette i s r e p o r t e d t o have s a i d  that:  "The P u b l i c Order Temporary Measures A c t i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e Commons Monday i s "an improvement" o v e r the War Measures A c t , b u t t h e Quebec Government, would l i k e t o see a permanent law r a t h e r t h a n temporary measures" c)  (117)  The o p p o s i t i o n between Ottawa and Quebec on t h e i n d e f i n i t e e x t e n s i o n o f the P u b l i c Order  Temporary  Measures A c t , as n o t e d by W a l t e r S t e w a r t :  - 142 -  "Premier B o u r a s s a wanted t h i s A c t extended i n d e f i n i t e l y and c r i t i c i z e d t h e F e d e r a l Government f o r n o t c o m p l y i n g w i t h h i s w i s h e s ; b u t John Turner who c o u l d see t h e l i n k i n g o f h i s own name w i t h t h e r e p r e s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n ( t h e P u b l i c Order A c t was i n v a r i a b l y r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e French p r e s s as La l o i T u r n e r ) t h e death o f h i s own prime m i n i s t e r i a l a m b i t i o n s , t h r e a t e n e d t o r e s i g n on t h e i s s u e and t h e law d i e d " (118) 2. 2  The a c t i o n c h a n n e l s i n v o l v e d The k i d n a p p i n g  o f James R. C r o s s , i m m e d i a t e l y  the meeting o f a t a s k f o r c e i n t h e O p e r a t i o n  triggered Centre o f  t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s : "The t a s k f o r c e was c r e a t e d w i t h i n minutes o f t h e k i d n a p p i n g ; i t was an i n f o r m a l group o f o f f i c i a l s w h i c h f u n c t i o n e d i n a v e r y e l a s t i c manner i n t h e O p e r a t i o n s C e n t r e o f t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . The O p e r a t i o n s C e n t r e i s designed f o r j u s t t h i s k i n d o f " c r i s i s management" f u n c t i o n . I t s p e r manent s t a f f and s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s and equipment supp o r t e d t h e t a s k f o r c e o p e r a t i o n i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. The t a s k f o r c e was i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l . The Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s p r o v i d e d t h e f a c i l i t i e s , t h e head and a number o f members o f t h e group b u t s e v e r a l o t h e r departments a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d - t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e , t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , t h e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l ' s o f f i c e , t h e R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , t h e N a t i o n a l Defence Department, t h e J u s t i c e Department and t h e T r a n s p o r t Department. I t s main f u n c t i o n was t o p r o v i d e a base w i t h r e a d y a c c e s s t o a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n media and a l l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c e n t r e s i n v o l v e d i n the c r i s i s . By combining t h e r e c e i v i n g , d i s t r i b u t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f a l l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c r i s i s , i t a l s o became a u s e f u l c e n t r e f o r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h a l l t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s who p l a y e d major r o l e s i n t h e crisis. Of course i t was n o t t h e o n l y c e n t r e o f c o n c e r n and a c t i v i t y i n t h i s f i e l d . W h i l e t h e t a s k f o r c e was i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l , i t a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t o f t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s i n t h e m a t t e r because o f c o u r s e , t h e k i d n a p v i c t i m was a f o r e i g n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and, as t h i n g s t u r n e d o u t , t h e e s s e n t i a l s a f e - c o n d u c t had t o be arranged w i t h a f o r e i g n government .  - 143  As i t was a d i p l o m a t who was kidnapped, o u r Department was i m m e d i a t e l y s e i z e d o f t h e problem because o f o u r i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n s under t h e v a r i o u s convent i o n s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n and w e l l - b e i n g o f d i p l o m a t s . " (119) A p p a r e n t l y , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n was i n v o l v i n g a f o r e i g n d i p l o m a t , had dominated over t h e o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s of the kidnapping  (which was an o p e r a t i o n o f t h e FLQ and  which c o u l d f o r example have been h a n d l e d on p l a u s i b l e grounds, b y t h e a n t i - t e r r o r i s t squad).  As t h e m a t t e r was  i n v o l v i n g d e c i s i o n s f a l l i n g under P r o v i n c i a l (the  jurisdiction  a c t i v i t i e s o f the P o l i c e Forces, the d i s c l o s u r e o f  t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e i n f o r m e r ) as w e l l as i n d i r e c t l y t h e whole p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f Quebec, J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r J . Choquette was g i v e n a say i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s with the Liberation C e l l .  However, t h e k i d n a p p i n g o f P. L a p o r t e , i m m e d i a t e l y a d r a s t i c extension i n the a c t i o n channels  introduced  i n v o l v e d . In  o r d e r t o s p e c i f y them as e x h a u s t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e , we s h a l l try  t o d e s c r i b e f i r s t t h o s e i n v o l v e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f t h e FLQ chosen a c t i o n , and then t h o s e i n v o l v e d b y t h e set  o f demands made by t h e FLQ (both o f them b e i n g summa-  r i z e d i n Appendix IV)  2. 2  1.  A c t i o n channels  Place:  i n v o l v e d by t h e FLQ chosen a c t i o n  As b o t h k i d n a p p i n g s took p l a c e i n M o n t r e a l , one  o f t h e f i r s t e f f e c t o f t h e FLQ chosen a c t i o n was t o i n v o l v e d i r e c t l y t h e M o n t r e a l P o l i c e F o r c e s , which have j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e c r i m i n a l a c t i o n s committed i n t h e Montreal area.  A t a f u r t h e r s t a g e , as t h e m u n i c i p a l  P o l i c e Forces a r e under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e m u n i c i p a l government, t h e m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s became i n v o l v e d in the process.  I n t h e same way, t h e Q.P.P. and i t s  c o n t r o l l i n g a u t h o r i t y , the Attorney-General Province  o f the  o f Quebec were g i v e n a s a y i n t h e law e n f o r c e -  ment p r o c e s s (however, i t must be n o t e d t h a t t h e e x a c t b a s i s f o r t h e i r involvement i s not t o t a l l y c l e a r ,  since  the b a s i s f o r t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , between t h e two f o r c e s i n t h e M o n t r e a l a r e a i s unknown t o u s ; f o r t h e moment) Type o f A c t i o n :  As b o t h k i d n a p p i n g s i n v o l v e t h e FLQ,  the t a s k f o r c e on t e r r o r i s t s a c t i v i t i e s squad) becomes p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s .  (anti-terrorist  The t a s k  force  i n c l u d e s members o f t h e M o n t r e a l P o l i c e f o r c e s , R.C.M.P. and Q.P.P.  I t s c o n t r o l l i n g a u t h o r i t y seems t o be t h e  Quebec A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  b u t as 70% o f t h e t a s k f o r c e i s  c o n s t i t u t e d by members o f t h e M o n t r e a l P o l i c e the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l  Forces,  f o r c e s i s l i k e l y t o have  a preponderent i n f l u e n c e i n i t s p o l i c y ( g i v e n a l s o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t a s k f o r c e i s l o c a t e d i n M o n t r e a l , whereas t h e Quebec A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  i s u s u a l l y i n Quebec C i t y )  P e r s o n a l i t y o f James C r o s s :  As a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e  B r i t i s h Government i n Canada, t h e s a f e t y o f James C r o s s i s a c o n c e r n f o r t h e B r i t i s h Government (which p l a c e d Mr. G e o f f r e y  Rippoh i n charge o f t h e c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e  Canadian Government, d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s ) and f o r t h e ministry of External A f f a i r s  (which a r e o f f e d e r a l  competence) as mentioned e a r l i e r . channel i n t u r n i n v o l v e d  This " f e d e r a l "  t h e R.C.M.P. which i t i s t o  be n o t e d i s t h e o n l y law enforcement a u t h o r i t y i n c l u d e d i n t h e "East Block" task f o r c e .  In a d d i t i o n t o these  f o r m a l c h a n n e l s , t h e k i d n a p p i n g o f James C r o s s i n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e s t h e whole D i p l o m a t i c  Corps i n p o s t i n Canada  ( e s p e c i a l l y i n Ottawa and M o n t r e a l ) and h i s p e r s o n a l network o f r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s .  -  P e r s o n a l i t y o f P. L a p o r t e :  As a member o f the Quebec  Government (and through h i s d i r e c t address t o Robert B o u r a s s a ) , t h e s a f e t y o f P. L a p o r t e i m m e d i a t e l y i n v o l v e s t h e whole Quebec C a b i n e t , on t h e o t h e r hand h i s q u a l i t y of  l o n g s t a n d i n g M.P.,  makes h i s k i d n a p p i n g a m a t t e r  of  concern f o r h i s c o l l e a g u e s a t t h e N a t i o n a l Assembly, e s p e c i a l l y f o r those i n the L i b e r a l Deputation.  On  o t h e r grounds h i s q u a l i t y as a M i n i s t e r o f Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s a network o f c o l l a b o r a t o r s "customers"  and  whose w e l f a r e i s more or l e s s t i e d t o P.  L a p o r t e ' s s u r v i v a l and i n f l u e n c e .  F i n a l l y , on a p e r s o n a l  l e v e l h i s k i d n a p p i n g u l t i m a t e l y concerns h i s f a m i l y and his  network o f r e l a t i o n s (among which p e o p l e l i k e  C.  Ryan, P. L a p o r t e h a v i n g been f o r a few y e a r s t h e p a r liamentary correspondant  2. 2  2.  o f Le  Devoir)  A c t i o n channels i n v o l v e d by t h e seven FLQ demands I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the s e t o f demands s e t f o r t h by t h e FLQ i n v o l v e by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e a complex network o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s c o m p l e x i t y one cannot e s t i m a t e d by t h e  D-l  fail  (whose  t o wonder was p r o b a b l y under-  FLQ)  The r e l e a s e o f t h e " P o l i t i c a l " P r i s o n e r s  As t h e s t a t u s o f t h e 23 p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s were r a t h e r ' heterogeneous (15 were d e t a i n e d i n F e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , 5 i n P r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and 3 were f r e e on b a i l : a more d e t a i l e d account  see Appendix V ) , any  For  acceptance  of t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e p r i s o n e r s would have i n v o l v e d : t h e F e d e r a l Government and more p r e c i s e l y the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e , John T u r n e r  ( s i n c e t h e p r i s o n e r s had been  condemned under e x i s t i n g p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e C r i m i n a l Code), and the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , George M a c l l r a i t h ,  145  who  c o n t r o l s t h e Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e  (which had t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the  detention  o f the p r i s o n e r s ) and the N a t i o n a l P a r o l e Board (which i n t u r n c o n t r o l l e d one  o f the few  legal  p r o v i s i o n s under which the p r i s o n e r s c o u l d have been r e l e a s e d w i t h a minimum o f l e g a l decency) the P r o v i n c i a l Government and more p r e c i s e l y the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , Choquette, who  J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Jerome  had u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  t h e P r o v i n c i a l P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , the Crown (which had o b t a i n e d  the condemnation o f t h e  p r i s o n e r s ) and the judges (who them and who  had  would have not a c c e p t e d t o  t h e i r d e c i s i o n s reverted without  D-2  The  condemned see  discussion)  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f the P r i s o n e r s t o Cuba  or A l g e r i a As i n d i c a t e d b e f o r e t h i s demand i n v o l v e d b o t h the Federal M i n i s t r y of External A f f a i r s  (which had  the  a u t h o r i t y t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h the p o t e n t i a l h o s t c o u n t r i e s ) and the R.C.A.F. under the c o n t r o l o f Defence Department (which was  the  t o p r o v i d e the means  of transportation)  D-3  The  $500,000 Gold Ransom  In October 1970,  as g o l d was  •evaluated at $125.  ounce, the $500,000. ransom n e a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d pounds o f g o l d .  an 225  I t s payment would have n e c e s s i t a t e d  an a u t h o r i z a t i o n from the M i n i s t r y o f F i n a n c e  (Federal  or P r o v i n c i a l ) t o purchase t h e g o l d e i t h e r from t h e Bank o f Canada or from the Bank o f Nova S c o t i a (which i s t h e o n l y Canadian Bank, d e t a i n i n g g o l d i n l a r g e quantities).  However, t h i s demand was  rapidly  e l i m i n a t e d s i n c e the k i d n a p p e r s d e c l a r e d " t h a t t h e y would not k i l l  D-4 The  f o r the sake o f d o l l a r s "  The r e h i r i n g o f the Lapalme m a i l d e l i v e r y workers f u l f i l m e n t o f t h i s demand would have o b l i g e d  t h e F e d e r a l Post M a s t e r General t o come t o terms w i t h the Lapalme workers u n i o n , headed by Ditterlizzi.  Frank  However, as t h e l e a d e r s o f the  union,  q u i c k l y mentioned, t h a t t h e y were o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a c h i n g a s e t t l e m e n t by t h e i r own demand was  means, the  c o n s e q u e n t l y d i s a c t i v a t e d (but n e v e r -  t h e l e s s p r e l i m i n a r y c o n t a c t s had  t a k e n p l a c e between  the Post Master G e n e r a l and the w o r k e r s )  D-5  The  d i s c l o s u r e o f the i d e n t i t y o f the p o l i c e  informer Rested e n t i r e l y on the Quebec J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but i t i s c l e a r t h a t no d e c i s i o n on such a p o i n t would have been reached a f t e r some thorough c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the P o l i c e F o r c e s  (and  e s p e c i a l l y o f the Q.P.P., which had b e n e f i t e d from the  information)  D-6  The  d i f f u s i o n o f the FLQ  Manifesto  T h i s demand u l t i m a t e l y r e s t e d under the  responsibility  o f t h e F e d e r a l Government which t h r o u g h the o f S t a t e , G e r a l d P e l l e t i e r , was r i t y f o r t h e CBC.  The  Secretary  the c o n t r o l l i n g autho-  d e c i s i o n t o p u b l i s h the mani-  f e s t o i n o t h e r media b e i n g l e f t t o t h e  responsibility  of t h e i r e d i t o r i a l boards.  D-7  The  cessation of P o l i c e Forces'  activities  - 148 -  As t h r e e p o l i c e f o r c e s were i n v o l v e d such a d e c i s i o n c o u l d o n l y be t a k e n by t h e r e s p e c t i v e d i r e c t o r a t e s o f t h e t h r e e f o r c e s under t h e c o n t r o l of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e h i e r a r c h i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s (the M u n i c i p a l Government, t h e Quebec G e n e r a l and t h e F e d e r a l  Attorney-  Attorney-General)  This d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n channels i n v o l v e d b o t h by t h e s i t u a t i o n and t h e FLQ demands, w i l l now enable us t o examine t h e a c t o r s , e i t h e r as p l a y e r s i n p o s i t i o n ( i n v o l v e d by t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a l o n g t h e a c t i o n c h a n n e l s ) o r as ad-hoc p l a y e r s ( i n v o l v e d by t h e impact o f t h e d e c i s i o n on t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s ) .  -  2. 3  The A c t o r s In a n a l y z i n g t h e main a c t o r s o f t h e c r i s i s  (at l e a s t those  f o r whom s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e ) we s h a l l t r y t o f o c u s f i r s t on what determined t h e i r s t a n d preferences,  (priorities,  p e r c e p t i o n s , g o a l s , s t a k e s ) and then t r y t o  a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r power s i t u a t i o n ( b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n , s k i l l , p e r c e p t i o n s by o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , r u l e s ) i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o a s s e s s  t h e i r impact on t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n .  We have t r i e d t o r e g r o u p them a c c o r d i n g  to the i n s t i t u t i o n s  t o which t h e y b e l o n g e d , s i n c e i t appeared t o u s , t h a t even i f d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d among t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s , the s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e i r environments made them share some common b a s i c p e r s p e c t i v e s .  2.3  1.  Actors i n the Federal  Government  The main a c t o r s i n t h e F e d e r a l Government share t h e a t t r i b u t e o f b e i n g n a t i o n a l (as opposed t o p r o v i n c i a l )  c h a r a c t e r s , which u l t i m a t e l y means t h a t t h e y a r e accountable f o r t h e i r actions nation, national  to the opposition Party.  t o t h e whole Canadian  i n Ottawa, and t o t h e i r own  As L i b e r a l s , moreover, t h e y a r e  p u b l i c l y committed t o c e r t a i n i s s u e s of the Confederation i n i t s actual  l i k e the s u r v i v a l  form o r t h e i r  p o l i c y on b i l i n g u a l i s m and b i c u l t u r a l i s m .  However,  beyond t h o s e common a t t r i b u t e s i n d i v i d u a l s show n o t i ceable differences  r e s u l t i n g e i t h e r from p e r s o n a l o r  e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a t i o n s , as shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g table.  - 150  ACTORS IN POSITION P.E. TRUDEAU  PRIORITIES AND PREFERENCES  PERCEPTIONS  J.M. TURNER  • Solve Quebec's problems w i t h i n the frame o f Confederation  Desire to improve Federal c o n t r o l on " n a t i o n a l crimes"  • Use the "system" as i t i s but do not h e s i t a t e .to take harsh measures to face emergency situations  Desire to l i b e r a l i z e the C r i m i n a l Code  I n t e l l e c t u a l s do not represent e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n Quebec Weak s t a t u s o f democracy i n Quebec Maintain  GOALS  legality  Check progress o f separatism i n Quebec Save the l i v e s o f the hostages  Avoid permanent r e pressive l e g i s l a t i o n of " i d e o l o g i c a l nature  National leadership  Prime M i n i s t e r i a l ambitions ( h e i r apparent t o Trudeau)  1  STAKES  Expectations o f E n g l i s h Canada Survival of Liberal Party  i  C o n t r o l over most FLQ ; demands i BARGAINING POSITION  Gain b e t t e r c o n t r o l on implementation o f law  Control over C r i m i n a l legislation  U l t i m a t e c o n t r o l on use o f Armed Forces L i t t l e local control over i n f o r m a t i o n Low key p o s i t i o n i n f i r s t phase o f c r i s i s Charismatic l e a d e r s h i p  Charismatic l e a d e r s h i p  SKILLS  Autocratic style o f decision-making  Competence  PERCEPTIONS  "Toughness" as a negotiator  P r i v i l e g e d status i n the Cabinet  BY  OTHER  PARTICIPANTS  RULES  Has t o o b t a i n some form of acceptance i n Commons i n the case o f emergency legislation  151 AD-HOC PLAYERS M. SHARP  G. MacILRAITH  MUNR0E  J . MARCHAND  Maintain the i n t e r n a t i o n a l image o f Canada  - C o l l u s i o n between separatism and "legal" political movements  Save the l i v e s o f the hostages, esp e c i a l l y the one of J . Cross  Defend the R.C.M.P. against reproaches of incompetence  Reform o f the R.C.M.P. and the implementation of the recommendations of the Report on Security Control over Federal P o l i c e Forces  L i m i t a c t i o n s t o the Province o f Quebec  Check progress o f separatism i n Quebec Preserve the p o s i t i o n of the Quebec Wing o f the L i b e r a l P a r t y Status as main Quebec " L i e u t e n a n t " t o P.E. Trudeau  - 152  2. 3  2.  A c t o r s i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government The p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government share the a t t r i b u t e s o f being accountable f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s t o t h e i r e l e c t o r a t e ( i n which E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g members r e p r e s e n t l e s s t h a n 25% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ) , t o the o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e N a t i o n a l Assembly (Union N a t i o n a l e , P a r t i Quebecois and C r e d i t S o c i a l ) and t o t h e i r own Provincial  Party.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y r e p r e s e n t a tendancy which was brought t o power i n t h e p r e c e e d i n g l e a d e r s h i p c o n g r e s s , w i t h t h e d i s c r e t e b l e s s i n g o f Ottawa and o f t h e p a r t y machinery. However, by some a s p e c t s , sharp d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t o be noted i n t h e C a b i n e t , which i n c l u d e s b o t h  traditional  L i b e r a l s ( l i k e C. K i r k l a n d - C a s g r a i n o r W. T e t l e y ) and newly a p p o i n t e d t e c h n i c i a n s ( l i k e Castonguay o r L | A l l i e r ) w i t h few c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l culture.  A t t h e time o f t h e c r i s i s , t h e  C a b i n e t i s s t i l l u n t r i e d and a l a r g e amount o f energy i s devoted t o p a t c h and smooth t h e b i t t e r n e s s which has f o l l o w e d t h e l e a d e r s h i p c o n g r e s s . Given those elements, i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appear i n t h e stands and power p o s i t i o n s o f t h e a c t o r s , as shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :  TABLE I I R. BOURASSA  PRIORITIES AND PREFERENCES  C. CASGRAIN R. GARNEAU W. TETLEY  J . CHOQUETTE  Quebec Economic Development  Oriented toward t h e i r specific tasks  Social Policy (Introduction of medical plan) -1 —  PERCEPTIONS  STAND  Feels h i s priorities § even h i s secur i t y are threatened  Actual legal p r o v i s i o n s are! insufficient | to curb " i d e o - j l o g i c a l crimes','  Growing f e a r § discontent i n Montreal area  The problem is limited to negotiations with the FLQ  Restore the p o l i t i c a l status-quo  Obtain a j tougher l e g i s - \ l a t i o n against! "ideological"  Opposision to concessions :  Save l i f e o f P. Laporte even a t expense o f "major concessions"  Maintain h i s leadership Save the l i f e of P.Laporte  Political career  Ask Gov't I action to r e s t o r e con-' fidence '  Save the l i f e of P. Laporte  |  Leadership over Cabinet STAKES  C. CASTONGUAY J.P. L'ALLIER  - 153 LAPORTE'S FRIENDS ANI RELATIVES  Participation i n the Cabinet! I  [ A u t h o r i t y over j j P o l i c e Forces  Influence i n Provincial politics  Participation i n the Cabinet  L i f e of P. Laporte (personal relations, careers, influence)  Influence i n the L i b e r a l Caucus  Credible image i n Public Opinion  Influence : Liberal Caucus  i i  BARGAINING POSITION  POWER SKILLS  PERCEPTIONS BY OTHER PARTICIPANTS  RULES  Conception o f Prov. Fed. ; relations C o n t r o l over L i t t l e control; implementation over FLQ j of l e g a l prodemands visions (arOpportunity to r e s t s , i n d i c t use Prov. pub.' ments) opinion t o re-. i n f o r c e h i s pos i t i o n i n face of Ottawa. |  Ability to develop "moral" 5 personal pressure  Bureaucratic leadership  Limited experience i n c r i - : minal matters j L i t t l e autho- • (main backj r i t y over ; ground i n f Cabinet j labour r e l a t i o n s ) Uncertain Unexpcrimented Technocratic Image Wants uhanim. decisions i n Cabinet  i-  :  j j I  Often perceived "Tough" as too s o f t by j members o f L i b j Hard L i n e r s Caucus J P o l i c e Forces a r e reported t o have l i t t l e confidence i n him I  Technocratic appeal  Represent i tendancy dc feated a t Leadership Congress  -  2. 3  3.  Actor(s)  i n the Municipal  Government  As v e r y l i m i t e d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s appear between Mayor J . Drapeau and Chairman L u c i e n S a u l n i e r , t h e i r common p o s i t i o n may be summarized as f o l l o w s :  154  TABLE I I I J . DRAPEAU AND L. SAULNIER PRIORITIES AND PREFERENCES  PERCEPTIONS  Preserve the s t a t u s o f Montreal as Canada's most important urban center Feel t h a t a r e v o l u t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n Montreal Feel  t h r e a t s against h i s personal s e c u r i t y  C o l l u s i o n between p o l i t i c a l movements on the M u n i c i p a l scene and the FLQ  STAND  GOALS  "Clean-up the mess" ( e l i m i n a t e demonstrations, p u b l i c p r o t e s t s , bombings...) Get r e - e l e c t e d w i t h the minimum l e v e l of o p p o s i t i o n  STAKES BARGAINING POSITION  R e - e l e c t i o n as Mayor o f Montreal V i r t u a l l y no o f f i c i a l c o n t r o l except on Montreal P o l i c e Forces, which i n f a c t means a l a r g e c o n t r o l over informat i o n and the implementation o f l e g a l provisions Autocratic  POWER  SKILLS  leadership  A b i l i t y t o c a r r y on long proj ects Easy access to Federal  PERCEPTION BY OTHER PARTICIPANTS RULES  lasting  leaders  Tough Resolute - No c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o intervene  - 156  2. 4  Issues i n c o n f l i c t I f we t r y t o summarize t h e p r e c e e d i n g a n a l y s i s , i t appears t h a t t h r e e i s s u e s were i n c o n f l i c t among t h e governmental decision-makers: -  The a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e r e p r e s s i v e p r o v i s i o n s o u t s i d e Quebec  T h i s l i m i t e d c o n f l i c t e s s e n t i a l l y appeared i n t h e F e d e r a l Government, a group o f Ottawa o f f i c i a l s a p p a r e n t l y headed by John Munro opposing legislation.  t h e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e new  A p p a r e n t l y t h e w o r r i e s o f t h a t group were  calmed by a promise t o " l o c k " as much as p o s s i b l e .the implementation  o f t h e P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s i n o t h e r  P r o v i n c e s than Quebec. -  The acceptance  o f t h e FLQ demands  By c o n f l i c t on t h i s i s s u e , we do n o t mean t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d two extreme p o s i t i o n s , one a c c e p t i n g a l l FLQ demands, t h e o t h e r r e j e c t i n g them, b u t t h a t t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e number and t h e e x t e n t o f t h e c o n c e s s i o n s , t h e a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d make i n o r d e r t o save t h e h o s t a g e s ' l i v e s .  In Ottawa, t h e M i n i s t r y o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , who was c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e t a s k f o r c e , was i n t h e b e g i n n i n g  pushing  f o r a n e g o t i a t e d s e t t l e m e n t w i t h t h e FLQ, a t l e a s t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t days o f t h e c r i s i s .  But as t h e FLQ g r a d u a l l y  removed t h e demands, which were t h e e a s i e s t t o agree upon o n l y minimal  c o n c e s s i o n s were p r o p o s e d , p r o p a b l y under  t h e j o i n t i n f l u e n c e o f P.E. Trudeau and J . Choquette.  However, the e v e n t u a l i t y o f t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e 23 p r i s o n e r s was never c o n s i d e r e d as i n d i c a t e d by  political  Claude  Roquet: "When p l a n n i n g f o r a s a f e conduct, what we were p r e p a r e d t o t h i n k about was t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n out o f Canada f o r t h e k i d n a p p e r s t h e m s e l v e s . . . For v a r i o u s p r a c t i c a l reasons ( g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e , presence o f a Cuban C o n s u l a t e i n M o n t r e a l , and o f a r e s i d e n t Canadian M i s s i o n i n Havana) i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s e arrangements s h o u l d be made w i t h Cuba. We made a r e q u e s t t h a t Cuba a s s i s t us f o r h u m a n i t a r i a n r e a s o n s and t h e Cuban Government agreed. The s a f e conduct o f f e r was t h e n f o r m u l a t e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Cubans" (119)  A f t e r P. L a p o r t e ' s k i d n a p p i n g , the problem  s h i f t e d to  Quebec where n e i t h e r Bourassa nor t h e o t h e r C a b i n e t members had t a k e n p a r t i n t h e f i r s t round o f n e g o t i a t i o n s .  The  t i m i d l e a d e r s h i p o f R. Bourassa and i n t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t i c e t h e comments made by Anthony W e s t e l l , one y e a r l a t e r d u r i n g the V i c t o r i a c o n f e r e n c e : "When t h e b a r g a i n i n g began, i t was soon apparent t h a t Bourassa was unsure o f h i s ground on some i s s u e s . He h e s i t a t e d , p r o c r a s t i n a t e d and s e v e r a l times excused hims e l f t o go t o the phone and t a k e a d v i c e , presumably from C a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s back home i n Quebec. To the o t h e r P r e m i e r s , i t seemed t h a t he was not so much a head o f Government as a spokesman f o r a c o l l e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p a c o l l e c t i v e which was d i v i d e d on major m a t t e r s " (120)  a l l i e d t o t h e sharp d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g among C a b i n e t members, and t o t h e d e s i r e e x p r e s s e d by R. Bourassa t o r e a c h a unanimous d e c i s i o n , l e d t o t h r e e days o f d i s c u s s i o n s among t h e C a b i n e t .  From what we know " t h e  flexible"  a t t i t u d e was defended by Castonguay and L ' A l l i e r , whereas, the "law and o r d e r one" was defended by Choquette, C a s g r a i n , T e t l e y and Garneau, whose p o s i t i o n had been weakened by the k i d n a p p i n g o f P. L a p o r t e , f o l l o w i n g J . " f i r m " s t a n d i n h i s address t o the  FLQ.  Choquette's  Given t h i s s p l i t i n t h e C a b i n e t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Ottawa, h i s weak b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n (he c o u l d o n l y have " l i b e r a t e d " 8 p r i s o n e r s , under a " N o l l e P r o s e q u i " p r o v i s i o n , b u t i t i s h i g h l y d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e Crown and t h e Quebec A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  would have accepted  the p r e s s u r e s emanating from L a p o r t e ' s  such a move),  f r i e n d s and r e l a -  t i v e s , and t h e promises o f t h e p o l i c e f o r c e s t o c r a c k t h e two c e l l s i n a matter o f h o u r s , R. Bourassa d e c i d e d t o "buy t i m e " . to  D u r i n g h i s , Sunday, 12, statement,  he t r i e d  be as l i t t l e compromising as p o s s i b l e and d e l i b e r a t e l y  o r i e n t e d t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s toward t e c h n i c a l i t i e s ( t h e mechanisms o f t h e exchange)  In h i s view,those  two o r t h r e e  days he was t r y i n g t o "buy" were t o p e r m i t :  the c a b i n e t t o make a unanimous d e c i s i o n the p o l i c e f o r c e s t o make d e c i s i v e p r o g r e s s  i n their  investigation However, i f he succeeded i n c o n v i n c i n g t h e FLQ (as expressed i n t h e i r l a t e r messages and i n L a p o r t e ' s  l e t t e r ) t h a t he  was r e a d y t o n e g o t i a t e h i s a t t i t u d e a p p a r e n t l y  generated  some s i d e consequences, w h i c h he had n o t a p p a r e n t l y  foreseen  o r deemed w o r t h c o n s i d e r i n g : the p o l i c e f o r c e s grew n e r v o u s , and h e l d R. Lemieux (who t h e y had a r r e s t e d on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e ) i n j a i l even a f t e r t h e Quebec Government had p r o c l a i m e d he was a c c e p t e d  that  as a "bona f i d e " n e g o t i a t o r on b e h a l f  o f t h e FLQ. the o f f e r f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s r a i s e d FLQ e x p e c t a t i o n s as can be seen i n C h e n i e r C e l l communique No. 5 where a " s p l i t d e a l " was proposed ( J . Cross a g a i n s t t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e P o l i t i c a l P r i s o n e r s and t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of p o l i c e searches.  P. L a p o r t e a g a i n s t t h e f u l f i l l m e n t  o f the o t h e r f o u r demands, among which some had been t u r n e d down the week b e f o r e ) . c o n f u s i o n appeared i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n (as t e s t i f i e d by the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d i n the media) t h e development o f a c u r r e n t o f s u p p o r t f o r a negot i a t e d s o l u t i o n i n some segments o f the  population  (and i t i s not sure a t a l l t h a t Bourassa t r i e d t o d i s courage them, s i n c e i t was  improving  his position  i n f r o n t o f Ottawa) -  An i n c r e a s i n g r e s t i v e n e s s among M o n t r e a l a u t h o r i t i e s , who  are persuaded t h a t the " r e v o l u t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e "  (backed i n t h a t by the a l a r m i s t i n f o r m a t i o n t u r n e d the M o n t r e a l  by  P o l i c e F o r c e s ) and t h a t e l e c t i o n s are  g o i n g t o be a d i s a s t e r i f t h e y take p l a c e i n a c l i m a t e o f v i c t o r y f o r the s e p a r a t i s t movement.  I n c r e a s i n g l y a f r a i d by the developments (which have more or l e s s been caused by the Government's a t t i t u d e ) the "doves" f o l d on Wednesday t h e 14th, and B o u r a s s a  concentra-  t e s h i s a t t e n t i o n on r e p r e s s i v e a c t i o n s ( he does not  even  take the p a i n t o c o n s u l t w i t h the P a r o l e Board D i r e c t o r " , i n o r d e r t o check whether the Quebec Government recommendat i o n makes any  -  The  sense)  c r e a t i o n o f new  r e p r e s s i v e p r o v i s i o n s i n the C r i m i n a l  Code Apparently  on the p r e s s u r e  o f b o t h the Crown and the P o l i c e  Forces (which were s t i l l r e s e n t i n g t h e i r u n s u c c e s s f u l tempt t o have Gagnon and V a l l i e r e s c o n v i c t e d on charges) J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Choquette made h i m s e l f  at-  conspiracy the  advocate f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new  repressive provisions  a g a i n s t " i d e o l o g i c a l c r i m e s " i n t h e C r i m i n a l Code. But on t h e s e grounds he had t o f a c e J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r T u r n e r who  had committed h i m s e l f d u r i n g h i s mandate t o  the " l i b e r a l i z a t i o n " o f the C r i m i n a l Code (and who not p l e a s e d w i t h the p r o s p e c t  was  o f h a v i n g h i s name t i e d  to an "infamous" p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n , w h i c h c o u l d have hampered h i s own  political  career)  A p p a r e n t l y , however, J . Choquette got h i s p o i n t , as expressed  by John T u r n e r h i m s e l f :  "Why t h e s e powers? Because i n the o p i n i o n o f the A t t o r n e y General o f t h e Government o f Quebec, an o p i n i o n which I s h a r e , i n t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . . . u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t law, the p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h i s type o f v i o l e n t c r i m i n a l c o n s p i r a c y i s rendered d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , under the p r e s e n t p r o v i s i o n s o f the C r i m i n a l Code" (121)  But a p p a r e n t l y " t h i s shared o p i n i o n " l e d t o r e s u l t s f a r under t h e Quebec A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s  expectations.  P u b l i c Order R e g u l a t i o n s were v e r y s p e c i f i c  (and by  f a c t d i f f i c u l t t o extend) and r a t h e r cumbersome t o plement.  But as he was  The the im-  g i v e n a more or l e s s f r e e hand i n  implementing them, he s a t i s f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h a t d e a l .  The whole i s s u e s u r f a c e d a g a i n a t the e x p i r a t i o n o f the emergency l e g i s l a t i o n but as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r T u r n e r put h i s r e s i g n a t i o n i n the b a l a n c e the P u b l i c Order (temporary measures) Act was longed.  But, t h i s was  not  and pro-  not t h e end o f i t , as mentioned  by Anthony W e s t e l l : " I n P a r l i a m e n t , t h e r e was t a l k o f t h e need f o r permanent l e g i s l a t i o n l e s s fearsome than the a l l - e m b r a c i n g War  - 161  Measures A c t t o p r o v i d e emergency powers i n t i m e s o f d i s t u r b a n c e . T h i s was a dubious p r o p o s i t i o n because the s a v i n g g r a c e o f t h e W.M.A..was t h a t i t was a d r a c o n i a n measure which t h e government must h e s i t a t e t o i n voke. A handy l i t t l e law f o r suspending j u s t a few l i b e r t i e s might be t o o t e m p t i n g . A b e t t e r approach, perhaps, was suggested by Trudeau i n June 1971 when he asked t h e p r o v i n c e s t o agree t o e n t r e n c h b a s i c pol i t i c a l r i g h t s i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n . The d r a f t c h a r t e r p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e government c o u l d l i m i t t h e s e r i g h t s when n e c e s s a r y t o p r o t e c t p u b l i c s a f e t y and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , among o t h e r t h i n g s . But a c c o r d i n g t o J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r T u r n e r , i t would t h e n be open t o t h e c o u r t s t o determine i f t h e government had r e a s o n a b l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s a c t i o n . I f t h e c h a r t e r had been i n f o r c e i n October 1970, t h e c o u r t s c o u l d have been asked t o d e c i d e i f t h e Government had r e a s o n a b l e grounds f o r suspending c i v i l r i g h t s , and t o r e s t o r e them i f t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence o f an apprehended i n s u r r e c t i o n endangering o r d e r and s e c u r i t y . The c h a r t e r was n o t a c c e p t e d by Quebec f o r q u i t e d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s , b u t Trudeau's p r o p o s a l s h o u l d n o t be i g n o r e d by t h o s e who argue t h a t t h e c r i s i s s t r i p p e d him of any c l a i m t o be a c i v i l l i b e r t a r i a n . " (122)  BIBLIOGRAPHY  FOOT-NOTES  (1)  Quoted i n Ron Haggart and Aubrey E. Golden, New T o r o n t o , 1971, p. 134  Press,  (2)  I b i d p.  (3)  Raymond B r e t o n , The S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l Dynamics o f t h e October E v e n t s , i n Quebec S o c i e t y and P o l i t i c s , E d i t e d by Dale C. Thomson, M c C l e l l a n d § S t e w a r t , T o r o n t o , 1973, p. 229  (4)  Haggart and Golden, op. c i t . p.  (5)  John S a y w e l l , Quebec 1970: A Documentary N a r r a t i v e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , T o r o n t o , p. 3  (6)  I b i d p.  28  (7)  I b i d p.  53  (8)  Quoted i n S a y w e l l , o p . c i t . p.  58  (9)  Quoted i n S a y w e l l , op. c i t p.  65  (10) Quoted i n S a y w e l l , o p . c i t . p.  82  127  129  (11) Quoted i n S a y w e l l , op. c i t . p.  82  (12) Le S o l e i l , Quebec, October 14,  1970  (13) G e r a l d P e l l e t i e r , The October C r i s i s , t r a n s l a t e d by J o y c e M a r s h a l l , M c C l e l l a n d $ S t e w a r t , T o r o n t o , 1971, p. 115 (14) Quoted i n J . S a y w e l l , op. c i t . p. (15) P e l l e t i e r ,  140  p. c i t . , p. I l l  (16) Denis S m i t h , B l e e d i n g H e a r t s . . . B l e e d i n g Country M.G. H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , Edmonton, 1971, p. 50 (17) Le S o l e i l , Quebec, October 28,  1970  (18)  Anthony W e s t e l l , Paradox: Trudeau as Prime M i n i s t e r P r e n t i c e - H a l l Canada L t d . , Scarborough, Ont., 1972, p. 244  (19)  W a l t e r S t e w a r t , Shrug: Trudeau i n Power New P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1971, p. 63  (20)  Quoted i n S a y w e l l , o p . c i t . , p. 86  (21)  P e l l e t i e r , op., c i t . , p.  (22)  W e s t e l l , op. c i t . , p.  (23)  Quoted i n Le S o l e i l , Quebec, October 17,  (24)  Douglas A. Schmeiser, C o n t r o l o f Apprehended I n s u r r e c t i o n Emergency Measures v s The C r i m i n a l Code, M a n i t o b a Law J o u r n a l , Winnipeg, V o l . 4 No. 2, 1971, p. 363  (25)  S t e w a r t , op. c i t . , p. 59  (26)  E a r l B e a t t i e , Mass Media, Canadian Annual Review f o r 1970  (27)  The O b s e r v e r , London, October 18,  (28)  Schmeiser, op. c i t . , pp 363 § 364  (29)  I b i d p.  364  (30)  I b i d p.  364  (31)  Quoted i n B. Marx "Apprehended I n s u r r e c t i o n o f October 1970" U.B.C, Law Review, Vancouver, V o l . 7, No. 1, pp 62 5 63  (32)  W e s t e l l , op. c i t . , p.  (33)  I n s u r r e c t i o n = a r i s i n g up a g a i n s t e s t a b l i s h e d syn. = r e b e l l i o n , r e v o l t - Webster D i c t i o n a r y  138  251 1970  1970  265 authority,  I n s u r r e c t i o n = the a c t i o n o f r i s i n g i n arms o r open r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y , o r governmental r e s t r a i n t . . . a n armed r i s i n g , a r e v o l t , an i n c i p i e n t or l i m i t e d r e b e l l i o n - Shorter Oxford D i c t i o n a r y (34)  P e l l e t i e r , op. c i t . , p.  (35)  I b i d p.  (36)  Quoted i n S a y w e l l ,  133  134 op. c i t . , p. 92  (37)  Graham A l l i s o n , Essence o f D e c i s i o n E x p l a i n i n g t h e Cuban M i s s i l e C r i s i s , L i t t l e Brown and Company, B o s t o n , 1971, p. 37  (38)  W e s t e l l , op. c i t . , p.  (39)  Ibid  (40)  Ibid  (41)  Quoted i n Le S o l e i l , Quebec, O c t o b e r 6,  (42)  C a r l o s M a r i g h e l l a , Minimanual o f t h e Urban G u e r r i l l a P u l p P r e s s , Vancouver, 1974, p. 27.  (43)  S a y w e l l , op. c i t . , p. 30  (44)  I b i d p. 32  254  1970  ( 4 4 b i s ) Globe and M a i l , T o r o n t o , December 10, 1970 (45)  S a y w e l l , op. c i t . , p. 32  (46)  I b i d p. 34  (47)  Le D e v o i r , M o n t r e a l , December 1, 1969  (48)  P a u l Stevens and John S a y w e l l , The New Canadian Annual Review f o r 1969, . p. 265  (49)  Haggart and Golden, op. c i t . , p.  (49a) I b i d p.  Defence P o l i c y ,  217  147  (49b) Robert Chodos and N i c k Auf Der Maur, Quebec: A C h r o n i c l e 1968-1972, A L a s t P o s t S p e c i a l , James Lewis § Samuel P u b l i s h e r s , T o r o n t o , 1972, pp 82 § 83 (49c)  J.W. B u r t o n , Systems, S t a t e s Diplomacy and R u l e s , Cambridge, 1968, p. 77  (50)  S o u r c e : A b r i d g e d r e p o r t o f The R o y a l Commission S e c u r i t y , Ottawa, 1969, p. 14  (51)  Vancouver Sun, November 6,  (52)  R o y a l Commission on S e c u r i t y , op. c i t . , p.18  1970  on  I b i d , p. 19 I b i d , p. 19 R o y a l Commission o f E n q u i r y i n t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e on P e n a l and C r i m i n a l M a t t e r s , Quebec, V o l . 3, T I I I , p. 125, p. 127 Quoted i n Globe and M a i l , T o r o n t o , October 7, 1969 Royal Commission on S e c u r i t y , op. c i t . , p. 8 Canadian News F a c t s , August 15 / August 3 1 , 1969 Vancouver Sun, November 6, 1970 The P r o v i n c e , Vancouver, November 1970 La P o l i c e e t l a S e c u r i t e des C i t o y e n s , M i n i s t e r e de l a J u s t i c e , Quebec, J u i n 1971 • p. 29 P e l l e t i e r , op. c i t . , p. I l l Royal Commission on S e c u r i t y , op. c i t . , p. 8 I n t e r v i e w w i t h CKNW (Vancouver) J a c k Webster, October 17, 1970 I n t e r v i e w on CKAC ( M o n t r e a l ) October 21 o r 22 P e l l e t i e r , op. c i t . , p. I l l Quoted i n S a y w e l l p. 141 Quoted i n The P r o v i n c e , October 26, 1970 Quoted i n S a y w e l l p. 92 Quoted i n The P r o v i n c e , October 26, 1970 Haggart and Golden, op. c i t . , p. 166 Quoted i n S a y w e l l p. 92 Haggart and Golden, op. c i t . , p. 168 Quoted i n Toronto Globe and M a i l , October 7, 1969 Royal Commission on S e c u r i t y , op. c i t . , p. 89  (76) (77)  La P o l i c e e t l a S e c u r i t e des C i t o y e n s , op. c i t . , p. 30 -  (78)  R o y a l Commission on S e c u r i t y ,  op. c i t . , p. 8  (79)  Vancouver Sun, November 16,  (80)  Quebec Occupe, L'Agence de D i s t r i b u t i o n P o p u l a i r e , E d i t i o n s P a r t i P r i s , M o n t r e a l , 1971, p. 212  (81)  Vancouver Sun, October 20,  (82)  Haggart and Golden, op. c i t . , p.  (83)  Vancouver Sun, October 22,  (84)  Toronto Globe and. M a i l , October 27, 1970'  1971  1970 112  1970  (84a) I b i d (85)  Ibid  (86)  Toronto Globe and M a i l , October 20,  (87)  Le D e v o i r , M o n t r e a l , October 8,  (88)  Toronto Globe and M a i l , October 8,  (89)  T o r o n t o Globe and M a i l , October 20,  (90)  Vancouver Sun, November 6,  (91)  W e s t e l l , op. c i t . , p. 251  (92)  Jacques L a c o u r s i e r e , Alarme C i t o y e n s , L ' A f f a i r e Cross L a p o r t e du Connu a l , I n c o n n u , Les E d i t i o n s La P r e s s e , M o n t r e a l , 1972, p. 311  (93)  Le S o l e i l , Quebec, October 27,  (94)  Quoted i n Le S o l e i l , Quebec, November 3,  1970  1969 1969 1970  1970  1970  (94a) Toronto Globe and M a i l , December 8,  1970  (95)  Toronto Globe and M a i l , October 26 o r 27  (96)  L a c o u r s i e r e , op. c i t . , p.  (97)  Haggart and Golden, op. c i t . , p.  318 194  1970  (98)  Le S o l e i l , Quebec, October 17,  (99)  I b i d , November 4,  1970  1970  (100) L a c o u r s i e r e , op. c i t . , p.  314  (101) Toronto Globe and M a i l , October 28, (102) Haggart and Golden, op. c i t . , p. (103) L a c o u r s i e r e , op. c i t . , p.  1970  131  347  (104) Canadian Annual Review o f P o l i t i c s and P u b l i c A f f a i r s 1971 S e p a r a t i s m , p. 94 (105)  Ibid  (106) Canadian News F a c t s , J u l y 15 - J u l y 31, 1971 (107) Haggart and Golden, p.  issue  127  (108) L a c o u r s i e r e , op. c i t . , p.  277  (109) B r i a n Moore, The R e v o l u t i o n S c r i p t , M c C l e l l a n d § S t e w a r t L t d . T o r o n t o , 1971, p. 91 (110) Quoted i n S a y w e l l , op. c i t . , p. 55 (111) Le D e v o i r , November 28,  1969  (112) Toronto Globe and M a i l , October 20, (113) Quoted i n S a y w e l l , op. c i t . , p. (114) I b i d p.  1970  138  139  (115) I b i d p. 73 (116) Toronto Globe and M a i l , October 16,  1970  (117) I b i d , November 1970 (118) S t e w a r t , op. c i t . , p. 62 (119) I n t e r v i e w w i t h Claude Roquet ( D i r e c t o r o f t h e t a s k f o r c e ) quoted i n E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , M o n t h l y B u l l e t i n o f t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , V o l XX111, No. 1, J a n 1971 (120) W e s t e l l , op. c i t . , p. 41 (121) S t e w a r t , op. c i t . , p. 61 (122) W e s t e l l , op. c i t . , p.  259  APPENDIX  FLQ REPORTED ACTIONS  I  - 1963-1970  FIGURE I  APPENDIX I - FLQ REPORTED ACTIONS - 1963-197^  o  PH  rt  \0  O*  i—l  W  O  Di O  H U  H i—i 0- < Ui  OS  1/1  i—I  ^  f)  i-1 i-H  C  i-l  M  <  -  H  i-H i — I  O  O  »  O  O  t  ^  v  O  L  O  T  t  t  O  C  M  i  —  I  - 168  APPENDIX I I ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF THE R.C.M.P.  3> — T3 t r  tn  2  o P-H  1-  x *I—i i—i  o JO i—t  /—\  p o  oenvamcrrnu.  Lrf  ?GteerAity U'MSOM  AN  3 Br.  C-l  fld>h-ning Br.  HCentral  «?  P  C P a  t—*  to «o  H h—i O  > f n  a: > SO H  O H  a: m jo o  DCPOTV COMN'fc  ( operations)  >  T3  INSftoTtoN TEAM  X  I  I *S* DifteCTDJCATC ANfc CMTeU4«eNCC  A N D ffffeSoKCL  B" Br  fti  P *  B r  CevTEWo8rl€NT  Br.  ftLMiNisTeATwH  CoMTROW  Adapted from J.G.E. Murray O r g a n i z a t i o n , F u n c t i o n s and J u r i d i c t i o n o f t h e R.C.M.P. Master T h e s i s i n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1970.  DlCEtTolUTC fJAfclKC frEANCH  APPENDIX I I I SUMMARY OF THE INDICTMENT PROCESS  TABLE IV  'LACE OF ARRAIGNMENT  DATE OF ARRAIGNMENT  C H A R G E S NAMES UNDER THE PUBLIC ORDER REGULATIONS FLQ MEMBERSHIP  MONTREAL  NOVEMBER 2  J.G.  ADVOCATING THE AIMS OF THE FLQ  [COMMUNICATING STATEMENTS  UNDER THE CRIMINAL CODE SEDITIOUS CONSPIRACY  Lelievre  Conspiracy to s t e a l machine guns and m i l i tary uniforms i t S t . John's Base, Quebec  V. D a u d e l i n  MONTREAL  NOVEMBER 5  | | | | |  I  I  M. C h a r t r a n d Lemieux Vallieres Gagnon Larue-Langlois L. B a l c e r L. Rose A. F e r e t t i J. Boisjoly G. Cormier R. Cormier R. L a n g e v i n C. L e b l a n c J . L . Arene P. Beauchamp J.F. B r o s s i n P. C a r r i e r G. Lachance A. L a v o i e G. L'Esperance C. Roy L. Samson N. Turgeon F. V i c k e r s o n  OTHERS  x  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Numerous other m i s c e l laneous charges (69 f o r t h e five)  X X X X X  x x  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  Seditious l i b e l possession of weapons  X X X X X X X X X  is  DNTREAL  (NOVEMBER 12)  xl x2  (A. Vachon)  DWANSVILLE  NOVEMBER 5  F.  Mercier  ffiRBROOKE  NOVEMBER 5  R. J. M. J.  Jodoin Jodoin Gauthier Gauthier  JEBEC  NOVEMBER 5  G. Hudon R. Noel  :MOUSKI  NOVEMBER 5  jC. JL. JJ. R.  x x x x  x X  Caron * Caron * Plante Belanger **  Making anony. mous phone c a l l s t o alarm one o r more persons  Possession o f sawed-off gun )NTREAL  JN KNOWN  NOVEMBER 13  UNKNOWN  G. P e l l e t i e r P. Bourret J . Depatie 1 J . J . Leroux |D. Seguin  R. Belanger M. Gutowski P.J. C h a n t e l a i n e H. Audet G. C o u r c e l l e s J . Geoffroy F. Roux B. Simard C. L a r i v i e r e L. V e r r a u l t  X X X X X  -UNKNOWN UNKNOWN  pbst. Justice a i d t o FLQ  > ra z a n X  APPENDIX IV SUMMARY OF THE ACTION CHANNELS INVOLVED  APPENDIX V STATUS OF THE 23 POLITICAL PRISONERS  TABLE V  - 173 APPENDIX V STATUS OF THE 23 POLITICAL PRISONERS CONDEMNED IN  SENTENCE  ELIGIBILITY FOR PAROLE*  ELIGIBLE F.P. FOR "NOLLE PROSEQUI"  F. Schirm  Nov 67  Life  Nov 74  X  E. Guenette  Nov 67  Death Committed to l i f e  Nov 77  X  C. D e i i s l e  Nov 67  Life  Nov 74  X  S. Demers  June 67  8 years 10 months  June 70*  X  M. Faulkner  June 67  6 years 8 months  Sep 69*  X  G. Laquerre  June 67  6 years 8 months  Sep 69*  X  C. Simard  June 67  5 years 10 months  June 69*  X  R. Mathieu  June 67  9 years 2 months  Aug 70*  X  R. Levesque  Nov 68  7 years  Jan 71  X  P.P. Geoffroy  Apr 69  Life  Apr 76  X  C. Morency  Arrested  June 70  X  X  A. Roy  Arrested  June 70  x  x  F. Lanctot  Arrested  June 70  x  x  G. Hudon  Oct 63  12 years Paroled 67 again May70  X  X  Arrested R. Hudon  1964  Arrested  R. Tremblay  Arrested  M.A. Gagne  June 70  25 years  1978  X  •  Liberated on b a i l i n 70 Liberated on b a i l i n 70 25 years  X  X  X  X  1978  X  P. Boucher  16 years  X  A. Ouellet  10 years 1,000 days  X  P. Demers  Arrested e a r l y 70  •  8 years Paroled 69  Arrested i n June A. Lessard  OTHER  P.P.  held without bail  x  X  '  .  j  i  i j  P. M a r c i l  1  Arrested  ~ >  L i b e r a t e d on b a i l i n 70 it  M. L o r i o t  X ?  E l i g i b l e 5or6 N.Eligible 9  F.P. = Federal Prisons P.P. = P r o v i n c i a l Prisons * According t o Parole Board Regulations  X X  8  15  5  3  APPENDIX V I ALLEGED COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN J . CROSS, P. LAPORTE AND THE AUTHORITIES  APPENDIX VI  ALLEGED COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN J . CROSS, P. LAPORTE AND In any  THE  AUTHORITIES  s i t u a t i o n h a v i n g t o do w i t h a s e a r c h p r o c e s s t h e y a r e u s u a l l y  commentators who  proclaim  ( g e n e r a l l y a f t e r the f a c t ) that know how  to read"  The  "everything  was  c l e a r , f o r t h o s e who  October c r i s i s ,  did  not  f a i l t o produce such a r e s u l t and gave b i r t h t o a t l e a s t t h r e e  d i f f e r e n t . a c c o u n t s o f " c l u e s " , d i s s i m u l a t e d i n the messages sent  by  the v i c t i m s t o the a u t h o r i t i e s .  "Route R u r a l e No.  4"  Between the 11th and  t h e 16th, Robert Lemieux has p r e t e n d e d , w i t h o u t  much j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t h a t t h e messages sent by R. L a p o r t e were cont a i n i n g some form o f a code, which when i n t u r n t r a n s l a t e d s t r e s s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a Route R u r a l e No.  4.  But,  was  apparently,  he d i d not go f u r t h e r i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  J . Cross'  Message  In December 1970, i n one  the P r e s s r e f l e c t e d the f a c t s t h a t :  o f the messages t h e t i m e was  mentioned, 9:45,  the 1 p r e c e e d i n g t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p h was  underlined  and  that  twice.  i n a f u r t h e r message, " r e c o l l e c t i n g " had been used more or l e s s out o f  context.  T h i s l e a d t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t , J . C r o s s had  t r i e d to i n d i c a t e  the l o c a t i o n o f t h e h i d e - o u t on 10945 des R e c o l l e t s ( s i n c e 9:45  in  m i l i t a r y c o d i n g was  one  gave 10945). s t r a t e g y was  The  w r i t t e n 0945, which i n t u r n when added the  a u t h o r s o f the a r t i c l e u n d e r l i g n e d  t h a t such a  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f a c t t h a t p r i o r g o i n g t o  where he had been p o s t e d b e f o r e , J.R. c o u r s e s by t h e M.  15.  Malaysia,  C r o s s had been g i v e n a  few  P. L a p o r t e ' s  Message  An a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n 1973  ( r e f e r e n c e unknown) and based on  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h former f r i e n d s and c o l l a b o r a t o r s o f P. gave a v e r y s i m i l a r account o f P. L a p o r t e ' s Bourassa.  Laporte,  f i r s t message t o  I t i s remarked t h a t i n h i s l e t t e r , P. L a p o r t e  on b o t h the number 12  R.  insists  ( m i s d a t i n g h i s l e t t e r on the 12th i n s p i t e  o f the 11th and m e n t i o n i n g e r r o n e o u s l y t h a t he has  12 persons a t  charge i n h i s f a m i l y ) and the n o t i o n o f h e a l t h ( f i r s t s e l f and then about h i s f a m i l y . )  about him-  Those two c l u e s 'are t h e n c o r e -  l a t e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t i n S t . Hubert P. L a p o r t e was c l o s e t o a v i a t i o n b u i l d i n g No.  detained  12 ( t o which the p e o p l e around  r e f e r as the 12, a huge 12 b e i n g p a i n t e d on the r o o f ) and  close  to a h o s p i t a l .  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h e n backed by the  fact  t h a t P. L a p o r t e  i s r e p o r t e d t o have s a i d , i n the week f o l l o w i n g  the k i d n a p p i n g  o f James C r o s s , t h a t i n such a case he would  have t r i e d t o smuggle out coded messages.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t a p r i o r i t o d i s c o u n t the v a l u e o f such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , but i t must n e v e r t h e l e s s be n o t e d t h a t : the s o u r c e s  f o r t h e f i r s t and t h i r d messages had a d i r e c t  i n t e r e s t i n haying  their interpretation accredited  (Robert  Lemieux had an i n t e r e s t i n m i s d i r e c t i n g the p o l i c e f o r c e s and the f r i e n d s o f P. L a p o r t e had a p p a r e n t l y some resentment against the a u t h o r i t i e s ) the second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  never c o n f i r m e d by J . C r o s s  himself after his release NOTE: In the same " s e n s a t i o n a l i s t i c " v e i n , Robert Burns (P.Q.  Member i n  the Quebec N a t i o n a l Assembly) r a i s e d e m b a r r a s s i n g q u e s t i o n s  on  a l l e g e d c o n n e c t i o n s between P. L a p o r t e and t h e u n d e r w o r l d . ( A c c r e d i t i n g t h e v e r s i o n t h a t t h e government had a v e s t e d interest i n the silencing of Laporte).  But on t h e whole,  i t does n o t appear t o be more t h a n a case o f c a r e l e s s p o l i t i c a l campaign management from L a p o r t e ' s p a r t and a case o f " a g g r e s s i v e " p a r l i a m e n t a r y t a c t i c s from R. Burns' p a r t .  

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