UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social crisis and the imaging of England’s history : representing medieval Norfolk in the early 19th… Musto, Sylvia Synnove 2001

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SOCIAL CRISIS AND THE IMAGING OF ENGLAND'S HISTORY REPRESENTING MEDIEVAL NORFOLK IN THE EARLY 19™ CENTURY by SYLVIA SYNNÔVE MUSTO B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1993 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of F i n e A r t s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 2 0 0 1 C o p y r i g h t S y l v i a Synnôve Musto, 2 001 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Department of Date DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s examines a wide range of p u b l i c a t i o n s on m e d i e v a l a n t i q u i t i e s w h i c h emerged i n B r i t a i n i n the l a t e 1 8 t h and e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r i e s . These ranged from l a r g e and l a v i s h s c h o l a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n s t o p o p u l a r t o u r i s t g u i d e s t r a c i n g t r a v e l l e r s ' i t i n e r a r i e s t o famous B r i t i s h a n t i q u i t i e s and s i t e s . W h i l e a t i t s b r o a d e s t l e v e l t h i s s t u d y a s s e s s e s how the v i s u a l and t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of m e d i e v a l monuments and r u i n s gave form t o the n a t i o n ' s h i s t o r y , i t s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n i s t o e x p l o r e how r e g i o n a l and l o c a l c o n f l i c t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o l a r g e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s i n t e r s e c t e d w i t h and were n e g o t i a t e d t h r o u g h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the m e d i e v a l p a s t . A p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n o f B r i t a i n , t he county of N o r f o l k and i t s c a p i t a l c i t y N o rwich, p r o v i d e s a f o c u s f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . N o r f o l k as a r e g i o n u s e f u l l y e x e m p l i f i e s many of the c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s a t s t a k e i n the e a r l y decades of the c e n t u r y — i s s u e s t h a t were r e p e a t e d l y evoked i n t h e ongoing debates c o n c e r n i n g b o t h the n a t i o n ' s p a s t and i t s p r e s e n t . I t i s p a r t o f the argument of t h i s t h e s i s t h a t many o f the t e n s i o n s v a r i o u s l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f N o r f o l k ' s m e d i e v a l p a s t emerged from the c o n f l i c t s between modern s o c i a l u p h e a v a l s and p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n t e s t a t i o n s , and the c u r r e n t f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e n a t i o n ' s m e d i e v a l h i s t o r y . These t e n s i o n s c o n c e r n e d ' r a c i a l ' and p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o B r i t a i n ' s Saxon and Norman p a s t . They a l s o i n v o l v e d modern c o n f l i c t s c o n c e r n i n g the u r b an p u b l i c sphere, changing r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o u n t r y and c i t y , d i s p u t e d q u e s t i o n s of l a n d - o w n e r s h i p and s o c i a l a l l e g i a n c e s , and r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o v e r s i e s i n v o l v i n g t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church and C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t D i s s e n t . Such i s s u e s had an i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g on the ways i n w h i c h m e d i e v a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments and r u i n s were v i s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t o the r e a d i n g and v i e w i n g p u b l i c s . As t h i s s t u d y shows, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of m e d i e v a l a n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k and N o r w i c h i n a n t i q u a r i a n and t r a v e l p u b l i c a t i o n s , as w e l l as i n a r t i s t i c works l i k e t h o s e o f N o r f o l k a r t i s t John S e l l Cotman, c o n s t i t u t e d i m p o r t a n t s i t e s - - o n e s where contemporary c o n f l i c t s and debates were r e n d e r e d v i s i b l e , and where c h a n g i n g and s h i f t i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were c o n t i n u a l l y and v a r i o u s l y p l a y e d out and n e g o t i a t e d . T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v Acknowledgements . . . v i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 CHAPTER I . I m a g i n i n g t h e n a t i o n ; c r e a t i n g a p a s t . The Saxon and Norman h e r i t a g e s and the c o n t e s t e d t e r r a i n o f the n a t i o n ' s h i s t o r y . . . . 28 1 .1 The myth o f the Saxon Golden Age and t h e Norman Yoke. ' G o t h i c i s E n g l i s h . ' John C a r t e r and England's ' n a t i o n a l s t y l e . ' 28 1 .2 W r i t i n g the n a t i o n i n terms o f h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e and ' r a c e ; ' Saxon l i b e r t y and the 'enemy w i t h i n . ' H y b r i d i t y , r a c e and the new m a s t e r - n a r r a t i v e : Saxons, Normans and t h e emergence o f T e u t o n i c i m p e r i a l i s m 3 8 1 .3 R e p r e s e n t i n g N o r f o l k ' s Saxon and Norman h e r i t a g e s . P a t r o n s and h i s t o r y ; s e l e c t i n g g e n e a l o g i e s 51 1 .4 E l e c t o r a l c o r r u p t i o n and the im a g i n g o f the Norman c a s t l e . H i s t o r y , n o r m a l i s a t i o n , and the n a t u r a l i s i n g o f the p a s t . .61 CHAPTER I I . K n i g h t s , f r i a r s , freemen and r e b e l s ; i m a g i n g the town and i t s b o u n d a r i e s 85 2 . 1 ' C l a s s i c a l ' N orwich. Urban and r u r a l D i s t r e s s ; t h e E a s t A n g l i a R e b e l l i o n o f 1 8 1 6 . A n g l i c a n s and D i s s e n t e r s 85 2 . 2 A p p r o p r i a t i n g the m e d i e v a l ; r e a c t i o n a r i e s , r a d i c a l s and the ' S o c i e t y o f U n i t e d F r i a r s . ' These m i l d e n l i g h t e n e d times 102 2 . 3 ' M e d i e v a l i s i n g ' the c i t y . R e c r e a t i n g t h e m e d i e v a l c a t h e d r a l 112 2 . 4 D e m o l i s h i n g the c i t y g a t e s ; the b l u r r i n g o f b o u n d a r i e s . R e p r e s e n t i n g town and c o u n t r y ; t h e dream of m e d i e v a l o r d e r 12 0 2 . 5 The m e d i e v a l c a s t l e ; p r i s o n , s i t e o f e x e c u t i o n , space of l e i s u r e . The ch a n g i n g p u b l i c s p h e re; crowds and ' d o c i l e s u b j e c t s . ' From p o l i t i c a l space t o c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n 126 CHAPTER I I I . R u i n s and the t r a u m a t i c memory o f the n a t i o n . Land and p r o p e r t y ; c o n t e s t i n g space and p l a c e ' 149 3 . 1 Q u e s t i o n i n g r u r a l hegemony. The p o l i t i c s of l a n d - o w n e r s h i p 149 3 . 2 A r i s t o c r a t i c g e n e a l o g i e s ; c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m and n a t i o n a l i s m . The t u r n t o m e d i e v a l i s m ; c h i v a l r y and the p a t r i a r c h a l manor 161 3 . 3 Imaging the m e d i e v a l p r i o r y ; p i c t u r e s q u e m e d i a t i o n and t h e r e - w r i t i n g of the h i s t o r i c a l r u i n 175 CHAPTER IV. D i s t u r b i n g the margins; John S e l l Cotman's u n - p i c t u r e s q u e p i c t u r e s q u e 203 4 . 1 Cotman's A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k ; r e c e p t i o n and c r i t i q u e . M e d i e v a l imagery and a n t i q u a r i a n i s m as ' a r t . ' 203 4 . 2 "A p r o p e r s t a t e of decay." R u i n s , r u b b l e and t h e s h a t t e r i n g o f t h e i l l u s i o n of a n t i q u i t y 216 4 . 3 S o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f r e p r e s e n t i n g decay. ' R e p a i r i n g ' the m e d i e v a l r u i n s ; 223 C o n c l u s i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n s 254 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 262 B i b l i o g r a p h y 334 Acknowledgement s T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n would not have 'been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t the encouragement and s u p p o r t of my r e s e a r c h a d v i s e r s . I t has a l s o b e n e f i t e d from comments by o t h e r members of the academic community a t the F i n e A r t s Department a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and from the h e l p of s c h o l a r s and f r i e n d s who have g e n e r o u s l y g i v e n of t h e i r time and knowledge thr o u g h o u t the development of my p r o j e c t . My thanks go t o John 0 ' B r i a n f o r h i s j u d i c i o u s c r i t i c i s m and f o r h i s s t e a d f a s t s u p p o r t throughout the y e a r s of my g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s . Deborah Weiner's c o n t i n u i n g encouragement of my p r o j e c t , and h e r t h o u g h t f u l and i n s i g h t f u l comments and s u g g e s t i o n s have been i n v a l u a b l e i n the development of the t h e s i s . My l a r g e s t debt of g r a t i t u d e i s t o Maureen Ryan whose enthusiasm, i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g o u r and c h a l l e n g i n g c r i t i q u e have p r o v i d e d c o n s t a n t i n s p i r a t i o n d u r i n g the d i f f e r e n t phases of my work, and have g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o my growth as a s c h o l a r . I am t h a n k f u l t o the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the award of a T r a v e l l i n g S c h o l a r s h i p w h i c h h e l p e d make p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i v e p e r i o d s of r e s e a r c h i n London and N o r f o l k . I w i s h t o convey my p a r t i c u l a r thanks t o Norma Watt a t N o r w i c h C a s t l e Museum, and t o the l i b r a r i a n s and s t a f f a t the L o c a l S t u d i e s L i b r a r y i n N o r w i c h and N o r w i c h R e c o r d O f f i c e f o r t h e i r h e l p and a s s i s t a n c e . I a l s o want t o thank Bronwen W i l s o n and C h a r i t y Mewburn f o r t h e i r thoughts and comments on p a r t s o f my work, and Dorothy B a r e n s c o t t f o r her h e l p i n t h e s c a n n i n g of images. F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t e f u l n e s s t o my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r unwavering p a t i e n c e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t the time I spent on r e s e a r c h i n g and w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . I n t r o d u c t i o n Through the e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s i n B r i t a i n f e a t u r e d e t c h i n g s and engravings r e p r e s e n t i n g the c o u n t r y ' s medieval a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n t i q u i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g c a s t l e s , manor houses and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l b u i l d i n g s . The i n t e r e s t i n B r i t a i n ' s own medieval h i s t o r y and a n t i q u i t i e s was p a r t i c u l a r l y pronounced i n the y e a r s of the French R e v o l u t i o n a r y wars f o l l o w i n g 1 7 9 2 , and d u r i n g the N a p o l e o n i c b l o c k a d e s between 1800 and 1 8 1 4 , which c l o s e d Europe's c u l t u r a l s i t e s , the customary d e s t i n a t i o n s of the Grand Tour, t o B r i t i s h t o u r i s t s . These developments encouraged the c r e a t i o n of domestic t o u r i s t s i t e s and were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the emergence of i l l u s t r a t e d a n t i q u a r i a n works, h i s t o r i e s and t r a v e l - b o o k s t h a t d e s c r i b e d and promoted B r i t a i n ' s own c u l t u r a l monuments and n a t i o n a l p a s t . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine a wide range of p u b l i c a t i o n s on m e dieval a n t i q u i t i e s which emerged i n response t o the demand f o r a n t i q u a r i a n h i s t o r i c a l works i n t h i s p e r i o d , i n c l u d i n g l a r g e and l a v i s h s c h o l a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n s as w e l l as p o p u l a r t o u r i s t guides t r a c i n g t r a v e l l e r s ' i t i n e r a r i e s t o famous a n t i q u i t i e s and s i t e s . W hile a t i t s b r o a d e s t l e v e l my r e s e a r c h examines how these v i s u a l and t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s gave form t o the c o u n t r y ' s medieval h i s t o r y , the p a r t i c u l a r concern of t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x p l o r e how r e g i o n a l and l o c a l c o n f l i c t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o l a r g e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s i n t e r s e c t e d w i t h and were n e g o t i a t e d through r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the medieval p a s t . I n the 1 8 t h c e n t u r y an i n t e r e s t i n t o p o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g the s e v e r a l r e g i o n s and c o u n t i e s of B r i t a i n developed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i s m . 1 Such p u b l i c a t i o n s took on more urgent s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, i n the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g the French R e v o l u t i o n i n response t o a s s e r t i o n s of p a t r i o t i s m and n a t i o n a l u n i t y i n the c l i m a t e of d i s c o r d and growing f e a r s of p o l i t i c a l u p heavals. By o r d e r i n g and s y s t e m a t i s i n g the topography and h i s t o r y of the n a t i o n , by g a t h e r i n g t o g e t h e r the d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s of 'Great B r i t a i n ' under a shared medieval p a s t and by r e p r e s e n t i n g the n a t i o n as a harmonious and homogenous whole, t r a v e l and a n t i q u a r i a n p u b l i c a t i o n s such as Samuel and D a n i e l Lysons's well-known work Magna B r i t a n n i a , of 1 8 0 6 - 1 8 2 2 , and the prominent m e d i e v a l i s t p u b l i s h e r John B r i t t o n ' s The A r c h i t e c t u r a l  A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , of 1 8 0 7 - 1 8 2 6 , and h i s The B e a u t i e s  of England and Wales, of 1 8 0 1 - 1 8 1 6 , a l l a p p e a r i n g i n the p e r i o d of the N a p o l e o n i c wars, s u b t l y responded t o widesp r e a d contemporary a n x i e t i e s c o n c e r n i n g the p o t e n t i a l s p r e a d of r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s and d i s c o r d from France t o B r i t a i n . 2 Not o n l y d i d these p u b l i c a t i o n s c r e a t e a sense of a u n i f i e d n a t i o n , but through t h e i r s t r e s s on B r i t a i n ' s own h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s they a l s o i n d i r e c t l y brought up the r e c e n t r e v o l u t i o n a r y upheavals and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes i n France. Thus John B r i t t o n i n h i s Advertisement, i n s e r t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g of the f i r s t volume of h i s The B e a u t i e s of England and  Wales, emphasised how h i s p u b l i c a t i o n e l u c i d a t e d B r i t a i n ' s t r a d i t i o n a l laws and r e g u l a t i o n s , and c o n s t i t u t e d a r e v i e w of B r i t i s h , Roman and Saxon h i s t o r y which the authors imagine w i l l not o n l y prove i n t e r e s t i n g from the v a r i e t y of o b j e c t s i t i n c l u d e s , but w i l l a l s o e l u c i d a t e the o r i g i n of many of the i mportant n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s , which have stamped a c h a r a c t e r on t h i s i s l a n d , g i v e n s t a b i l i t y to i t s laws, and e x t e n s i o n t o i t s commerce. 3 However, the imaging of the B r i t i s h n a t i o n i n terms of topography and medieval a n t i q u i t i e s and i n terms of a common, medieval h i s t o r y was n e i t h e r homogenous nor c o n s t i t u t i v e of a seamless n a t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e . While some a n t i q u a r i a n p u b l i c a t i o n s , l i k e John B r i t t o n ' s A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , o r g a n i s e d t h e i r m a t e r i a l a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l modes such as e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e , domestic a r c h i t e c t u r e , and c a s t l e a r c h i t e c t u r e , o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g B r i t t o n ' s The B e a u t i e s of England and Wales and Samuel and D a n i e l Lysons's Magna B r i t a n n i a , were o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s and c o u n t i e s of B r i t a i n ; these works i n p a r t i c u l a r emphasised, i n t h i s p e r i o d of growing domestic t r a v e l , the importance of i n v e s t i g a t i n g r e g i o n a l and l o c a l a n t i q u i t i e s , h i s t o r y and topography. For example the p r e f a c e to Magna B r i t a n n i a s t r e s s e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e g i o n s of B r i t a i n and the need f o r a p u b l i c a t i o n i n which the s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i e s and t o p o g r a p h i e s of the d i f f e r e n t c o u n t i e s would be l a i d out: A l t h o u g h copious and w e l l executed H i s t o r i e s of s e v e r a l c o u n t i e s have been p u b l i s h e d , and a l t h o u g h the B r i t a n n i a of the l e a r n e d Camden has been u n i v e r s a l l y and j u s t l y r e g a r d e d as an e x c e l l e n t work r e l a t i n g t o the Kingdom a t l a r g e ; y e t as the former, b e s i d e s b e i n g f o r the most p a r t v e r y s c a r c e , and moreover so b u l k y , as t o form of themselves a l i b r a r y of no i n c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t ; and as the B r i t a n n i a g i v e s o n l y a g e n e r a l view of each county; i t appeared t o us t h a t t h e r e was s t i l l room f o r a work, which s h o u l d c o n t a i n an account of each p a r i s h , i n a compressed form, and a r r a n g e d i n an o r d e r convenient f o r r e f e r e n c e . 4 I n a s i m i l a r v e i n the importance of r e g i o n a l and l o c a l topography and h i s t o r y was emphasised i n the p r e f a c e s t o the many volumes of John B r i t t o n ' s The B e a u t i e s of England and  Wales. For i n s t a n c e J . N o r r i s Brewer, i n h i s p r e f a t o r y remarks i n Volume Ten of The B e a u t i e s of England and Wales, d e s c r i b i n g the county of M i d d l e s e x , acknowledged the a s s i s t a n c e of l o c a l h i s t o r i a n s and e x p e r t s , and s t r e s s e d the " p a i n s " he had taken t o render h i s " d e l i n e a t i o n s f a i t h f u l , " n o t i n g t h a t "Every P a r i s h i n the County has been v i s i t e d . Many p a r i s h e s more than once." 5 T h i s growing i n t e r e s t i n the r e g i o n s of B r i t a i n opens up i s s u e s and q u e s t i o n s a r t i c u l a t i n g s p e c i f i c concerns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o c a l l i f e , customs and t r a d i t i o n s . What my st u d y has r e v e a l e d i s t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of B r i t a i n ' s m e d i e v a l h i s t o r y and topography had b o t h n a t i o n a l and l o c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t i n t u r n were l i n k e d t o contemporary t e n s i o n s and c o n f l i c t s . 6 As c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n Doreen Massey has noted, " l o c a l i t i e s a r e not bounded a r e a s " but r a t h e r a r e i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y "spaces of i n t e r a c t i o n . " 7 Furthermore, not o n l y i s "the c h a r a c t e r of a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e a p r o d u c t of i t s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o w i d e r f o r c e s , " but i n a r e c i p r o c a l f a s h i o n , t h a t c h a r a c t e r i n t u r n "stamp[s] i t s own i m p r i n t on those w i d e r p r o c e s s e s . " 8 An ex a m i n a t i o n of the l o c a l can thus form p a r t of an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l changes t a k i n g p l a c e on the w i d e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . 9 Such an emphasis can a l s o d i s r u p t l a r g e r m e t a - n a r r a t i v e s . My i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as a r e s u l t , seeks t o c o n t r i b u t e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of B r i t a i n ' s medieval p a s t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e s of the n a t i o n ; a t the same time, through a l o c a l f o c u s , I attempt t o open up f i s s u r e s i n these m e t a - h i s t o r i e s . My purpose i s t o show t h a t medieval e d i f i c e s and r u i n s were c o n t i n u a l l y imagined and ' r e c o n s t r u c t e d ' to s u i t a range of n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . An e x a m i n a t i o n of these i s s u e s and t e n s i o n s , v a r i o u s l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n what i s a l a r g e l y untapped a r c h i v e of images of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n t i q u i t i e s , a l l o w s a r e - e v a l u a t i o n of how we t h i n k about e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r y m e d i e v a l i s m a t b o t h a n a t i o n a l and a l o c a l l e v e l . These f i n d i n g s i n t u r n have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e c r e a t i o n and r e b u i l d i n g of the medieval p a s t i n the l a t e r G o t h i c R e v i v a l of the V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d . The a n a l y s i s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of medieval a n t i q u i t i e s p ursued i n t h i s e n q u i r y has been narrowed down t o one a r e a , the county of N o r f o l k and i t s C a t h e d r a l c i t y , Norwich. N o r f o l k as a r e g i o n u s e f u l l y e x e m p l i f i e s many of the c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s a t s t a k e i n the e a r l y decades of the 19 t h c e n t u r y i n B r i t a i n - - i s s u e s which were r e p e a t e d l y evoked i n debates on the c o u n t r y ' s p a s t . The a r e a was u nderstood to have deep r o o t s i n b o t h Saxon and Norman medieval t r a d i t i o n s . 1 0 I t was on the E a s t A n g l i a Coast i n N o r f o l k t h a t the Saxons had f i r s t l anded i n the f i f t h c e n t u r y , and the town of Norwich was b e l i e v e d t o have been founded i n the s i x t h c e n t u r y by the Saxons. 1 1 A l t h o u g h the a u t h e n t i c i t y of what had c u s t o m a r i l y been h e l d t o be remains of Saxon a r c h i t e c t u r e i n N o r f o l k was s u b j e c t t o debates i n the e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r y , 1 2 s e v e r a l h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Saxon h i s t o r y . N o r f o l k was p a r t i c u l a r l y r i c h i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments d a t i n g t o the time of the Norman Conquest. Thus the w e l l known N o r f o l k banker, a n t i q u a r y and s p e c i a l i s t i n Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e , Dawson Turner, commented i n 182 0 on the abundance i n N o r f o l k of remains of a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments d a t i n g t o the Norman e r a : We, East A n g l e s , a r e accustomed t o admire the remains of Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e , which, i n our c o u n t i e s [ s i c ] , a r e perhaps more numerous and s i n g u l a r than i n any o t h e r t r a c t i n E ngland. 1 3 N o r f o l k ' s prominent Saxon and Norman h e r i t a g e s a l s o made the r e g i o n p i v o t a l i n terms of c u r r e n t debates c o n c e r n i n g B r i t a i n ' s Saxon E n g l i s h and Norman French ' r a c i a l ' h e r i t a g e s , and i n terms of debates among a n t i q u a r i e s and a r c h i t e c t s i n v o l v i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between Saxon and Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e and the o r i g i n s of G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e — i s s u e s t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f i r s t Chapter of t h i s t h e s i s . N o t a b l e among the numerous e d i f i c e s and r u i n s from the Norman e r a were Norwich C a t h e d r a l , the c e n t r e of A n g l i c a n w o r s h i p i n the town of Norwich, which dated t o the 1 1 t h c e n t u r y , and Norwich C a s t l e , s e r v i n g i n the e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y as the county p r i s o n and as the c e n t r e of the a s s i z e c o u r t s . Norwich C a s t l e a l s o had l i n k s t o the Saxon p a s t . A l t h o u g h the p r e s e n t C a s t l e d a t e d t o the 1 1 t h c e n t u r y , the s i t e , a c c o r d i n g t o the well-known N o r f o l k a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n W i l l i a m W i l k i n s , had o r i g i n a l l y been o c c u p i e d by a c a s t l e b u i l t by the Saxon k i n g A l f r e d i n the n i n t h c e n t u r y . 1 4 P a r t s of the medieval town w a l l s , d a t i n g t o the 1 3 t h and 1 4 t h c e n t u r i e s , were a l s o s t i l l s t a n d i n g , a l t h o u g h the o l d town gates of Norwich were l a r g e l y demolished i n the e a r l y 1 7 9 0 s . The N o r f o l k c o u n t r y s i d e i n t u r n f e a t u r e d c o u n t r y houses d a t i n g t o the medieval p e r i o d , a l o n g s i d e 'modern' P a l l a d i a n houses, and a l a r g e number of churches d a t i n g t o Norman ti m e s . N o r f o l k was a l s o the s i t e of s e v e r a l r u i n e d abbeys and p r i o r i e s which had been d e s t r o y e d when K i n g Henry V I I I d i s s o l v e d the C a t h o l i c monastic o r g a n i s a t i o n s throughout England and Wales i n the 1 6 t h c e n t u r y . N o t a b l e among these r u i n s were C a s t l e A cre P r i o r y and Walsingham Abbey; the l a t t e r had been a famous c e n t r e f o r p i l g r i m a g e s i n the M i d d l e Ages. These medieval a n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k were i l l u s t r a t e d and d e s c r i b e d i n a range of t r a v e l and a n t i q u a r i a n p u b l i c a t i o n s , c o m p r i s i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r e a t i s e s w i t h n a t i o n a l coverage, s c h o l a r l y works, p o p u l a r l o c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s and c o l l e c t i o n s of a r t i s t s ' p r i n t s . Norwich C a t h e d r a l was imaged i n John B r i t t o n ' s h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l study, The H i s t o r y and A n t i q u i t i e s  of the See and C a t h e d r a l Church of Norwich ..., of 1816 ( f i g . I ) , 1 5 and i n Thomas Cromwell's p o p u l a r t o u r i s t book E x c u r s i o n s  through N o r f o l k , of 1818 ( f i g . 2) . 1 6 Norwich C a s t l e was shown i n B r i t t o n ' s famous p u b l i c a t i o n , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of  Great B r i t a i n , of 1 8 0 7 - 1 8 2 6 ( f i g . 3 ) , i n W i l l i a m W i l k i n s ' s c h o l a r l y "An Essay towards a H i s t o r y of ... Norwich C a s t l e , " of 1795 ( f i g . 4 ) , and i n Thomas Cromwell's E x c u r s i o n s through  N o r f o l k ( f i g . 5 ). The r u i n s of C a s t l e Acre P r i o r y were r e p r e s e n t e d i n B r i t t o n ' s The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great  B r i t a i n , ( f i g . 6 ), and i n the famous N o r f o l k a r t i s t John S e l l Cotman's A S e r i e s of E t c h i n g s I l l u s t r a t i v e of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l  A n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k , of 1 8 1 2 - 1 8 1 8 ( f i g . 7) . 1 7 The r u i n s of Walsingham P r i o r y were f e a t u r e d i n B r i t t o n ' s A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n ( f i g . 8 ), i n h i s The B e a u t i e s of  England and Wales ( f i g . 9 ) , i n Cromwell's E x c u r s i o n s through  N o r f o l k , ( f i g . 1 0 ) , and i n Cotman's A S e r i e s of E t c h i n g s  I l l u s t r a t i v e of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k ( f i g . 1 1 ). A l l of these p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n drawn from well-known sources, among them the N o r f o l k h i s t o r i a n F r a n c i s B l o m e f i e l d ' s a u t h o r i t a t i v e county h i s t o r y T o p o g r a p h i c a l  H i s t o r y of the County of N o r f o l k , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1745 and r e p u b l i s h e d i n 1 8 0 5 - 1 8 1 0 . 1 8 And w h i l e these works were t a r g e t e d a t m i d d l e and upper c l a s s r e a d e r s and v i e w e r s , they r e p r e s e n t e d d i s t i n c t n i c h e s w i t h i n the f i e l d of a n t i q u a r i a n works. B r i t t o n ' s c a r e f u l l y r e s e a r c h e d c o m p i l a t i o n , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s  of Great B r i t a i n , c o n s i s t i n g of f i v e l a r g e volumes, was l a v i s h l y i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h p r i n t s produced by d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s and engravers, and aimed a t an audience of i n d i v i d u a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s knowledgeable i n the areas of a n t i q u a r i a n i s m and a r c h i t e c t u r e . Cromwell's E x c u r s i o n s through N o r f o l k , i n two s m a l l volumes, i n c l u d i n g t e x t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s and i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h s m a l l reduced p r i n t s a f t e r drawings by v a r i o u s a r t i s t s , among them Cotman, was meant as a guide f o r a g e n e r a l t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c . Cotman's A S e r i e s of E t c h i n g s I l l u s t r a t i v e of the  A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k , a f o l i o c o l l e c t i o n of l a r g e - s c a l e a r t i s t ' s e t c h i n g s , accompanied by d e s c r i p t i v e n o t i c e s by Cotman's p a t r o n , the N o r f o l k a n t i q u a r y Dawson Turner, was aimed a t h i s t o r i a n s and a n t i q u a r i e s but a l s o a t c o n n o i s s e u r s P u b l i c a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t i n g medieval a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n t i q u i t i e s i n B r i t a i n have been examined p r i m a r i l y i n terms of the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the G o t h i c R e v i v a l , i n terms of i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s ' oeuvres, o r , i n the case of the imagery of m e d i e v a l r u i n s , w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the p i c t u r e s q u e a e s t h e t i c . 2 0 Such p u b l i c a t i o n s , however, have not been examined i n the w i d e r , complex s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l framework of the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r y m e d i e v a l i s t movement, and i n the c o n t e x t of the c o n t r o v e r s i e s emerging when s p e c i f i c r e g i o n s of 'modern' B r i t a i n were r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms of the m e d i e v a l p a s t . I t i s the argument of t h i s t h e s i s t h a t many of the t e n s i o n s , v a r i o u s l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the medieval p a s t , emerged from the c o n f l i c t s between the c u r r e n t f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the n a t i o n ' s medieval h i s t o r y and the modern s o c i a l upheavals and p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n f l i c t s of the l a t e 18 t h and e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r i e s , which were prominent i n the c i t y of Norwich and the county of N o r f o l k . These t e n s i o n s i n t u r n had an important b e a r i n g on the ways i n which a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments were v i s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t o the r e a d i n g and v i e w i n g p u b l i c s . An a n a l y s i s of the t e n s i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of v i s u a l and t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of N o r f o l k ' s medieval h i s t o r y , emerging i n the n a t i o n a l and l o c a l c o n t e x t s , w i l l form an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of my i n v e s t i g a t i o n and w i l l c o n t r i b u t e toward an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how these images were i n v o l v e d i n s p e c i f i c c o n t e s t e d contemporary appropriation's of the medieval p a s t . The vogue f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s f e a t u r i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments from B r i t a i n ' s M i d d l e Ages formed a p a r t of the l a r g e r m e d i e v a l i s t movement of the l a t e 1 8 t h and e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r i e s . 2 1 M e d i e v a l i s m was, as h i s t o r i a n A l i c e Chandler has noted, a many-f a c e t e d , p e r v a s i v e movement, o r i g i n a t i n g from the time o f the Renaissance and m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f i n such v a r i o u s f i e l d s as a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e , p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n , economics, l i t e r a t u r e and s o c i o l o g y . 2 2 M e d i e v a l i s m and the a s s o c i a t e d G o t h i c R e v i v a l c o n s t i t u t e d c h a l l e n g e s , w i t h f a r - r e a c h i n g r a m i f i c a t i o n s , t o dominant h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , most n o t a b l y B r i t a i n ' s Roman h i s t o r y and the c o u n t r y ' s t r a d i t i o n of Renaissance c l a s s i c i s m . The m e d i e v a l i s t movement i n B r i t a i n , f o r m i n g a p a r t of a European response b o t h t o u n i v e r s a l i s t i c c l a s s i c a l c u l t u r e and u n i v e r s a l i s t i c Enlightenment reason, and underpinned by an e m p i r i c i s t frame of mind which f o c u s e d on n a t i o n a l and l o c a l r e s e a r c h and knowledge, was d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n the growth of n a t i o n a l i s t sentiment and i n B r i t a i n ' s c l a i m s t o the s t a t u s of a w o r l d power r i v a l l i n g b o t h France and Rome. M e d i e v a l i s m was a l s o p r o f o u n d l y i m p l i c a t e d i n r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o v e r s i e s and debates i n B r i t a i n i n the e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . The C a t h o l i c Church, p e r s e c u t e d s i n c e the time of the P r o t e s t a n t R e formation, began, from the l a t e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y , t o shore up i t s resurgence b o t h w i t h i t s a n c i e n t h i s t o r y , d a t i n g back t o Saxon times, and w i t h i t s medieval monastic and a b b a t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s of c h a r i t y and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 2 3 I n t u r n the A n g l i c a n Church, a t t h i s time the o b j e c t of mounting c r i t i c i s m and c h a l l e n g e d by b o t h the C a t h o l i c Church and P r o t e s t a n t D i s s e n t , adopted medieval r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s which c u l m i n a t e d l a t e r i n the c e n t u r y i n the e c c l e s i o l o g i c a l movement and the fo u n d i n g of the Camden S o c i e t y , 2 4 i n an e f f o r t t o a s s e r t i t s own p o s i t i o n of n a t i o n a l dominance. While the M i d d l e Ages were p e r c e i v e d by many as an u n e n l i g h t e n e d e r a of s u p e r s t i t i o u s b e l i e f s and p r i m i t i v e , ' g o t h i c ' customs, the p e r i o d was a l s o seen i n n o s t a l g i c terms as a l o s t age of s o c i a l harmony. At one l e v e l , m e d i e v a l i s m embodied a p r o f o u n d r e a c t i o n t o the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , t o the m e c h a n i s a t i o n of i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e , and t o the p e r c e i v e d sense of a l i e n a t i o n and l o s s of community, brought about by the growth of a l a i s s e z - f a i r e economy and l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s m . Robert Southey e x p r e s s e d the sense of a l i e n a t i o n most c l e a r l y i n h i s S i r Thomas More; o r C o l l o q u i e s on the Pro g r e s s and P r o s p e c t s of  S o c i e t y , of 1829: Throughout the t r a d i n g p a r t of the community ev e r y one endeavours t o purchase a t the lowest p r i c e , and s e l l a t the h i g h e s t , r e g a r d l e s s of e q u i t y i n e i t h e r case. Bad as the f e u d a l times were, they were l e s s i n j u r i o u s than these commercial ones to the k i n d l y and generous f e e l i n g s of human n a t u r e , and f a r , f a r more f a v o u r a b l e t o the p r i n c i p l e s of honour and i n t e g r i t y . 2 5 M e d i e v a l i s m i n B r i t a i n i n the l a t e 18 t h and e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r i e s had f u r t h e r , more s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s , r e l a t i n g t o the contemporary events i n France. While the Enlightenment and the b e l i e f i n reason had q u e s t i o n e d e x i s t i n g creeds and i n s t i t u t i o n s , the i d e a l of reason had a l s o engendered the u n i v e r s a l i s i n g p r i n c i p l e s of l i b e r t y and e q u a l i t y which e v e n t u a l l y l e d to the upheavals of the French R e v o l u t i o n . I n t h i s p e r i o d when B r i t a i n ' s t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s were c h a l l e n g e d by the de m o c r a t i c i d e a l s of the French R e v o l u t i o n , as w e l l as by r a d i c a l i s m and the Reform movement a t home, h i s t o r i a n s and p o l i t i c i a n s , r e c o n s i d e r i n g u n i v e r s a l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s , t u r n e d toward an e x p l o r a t i o n of the n a t i o n ' s own h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s i n a s e a r c h f o r g u i d e l i n e s i n the n a t i o n a l p a s t f o r the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l problems of the p r e s e n t . M e d i e v a l h i s t o r y was i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p l i c a t e d i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l debates, and the r o l e of m edieval customs and t r a d i t i o n s i n the shaping of the n a t i o n ' s p o l i t i c a l l i f e came t o be fore-grounded and t o be the o b j e c t of s t u d y f o r s c h o l a r s and p o l i t i c i a n s . B r i t a i n ' s m edieval h i s t o r y was, however, a c o n t e s t e d i s s u e . D i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l groups took up v a r i o u s t r a d i t i o n s and developed d i v e r g i n g h i s t o r i e s of the p a s t , s i g n a l l i n g a d e s i r e , b o t h on the r i g h t and the l e f t s i d e s of the p o l i t i c a l spectrum, t o support t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s and agendas through the c l a i m s t h a t they aimed a t p r e s e r v i n g o r r e i n s t a t i n g h i s t o r i c a l p o l i t i c a l customs and r i g h t s . The medieval p a s t was thus a p p r o p r i a t e d by Whigs who c l a i m e d l i b e r t i e s d a t i n g t o Magna C a r t a and r e a f f i r m e d i n the B i l l of R i g h t s of 1689, by C o n s e r v a t i v e s who appealed t o the t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y of Church and K i n g as e s t a b l i s h e d a t the time of the Norman Conquest, and by r a d i c a l s who wanted t o r e s u r r e c t what they p e r c e i v e d t o be a t r u l y d e m o c r a t i c Saxon p a s t . 2 6 As a r e s u l t , i n the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g the French R e v o l u t i o n , the p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h B r i t a i n ' s medieval monuments and w i t h the n a t i o n ' s own h i s t o r i c a l customs and t r a d i t i o n s had i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . These r e v o l v e d around ways of c o n c e p t u a l i s i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g the space and time of l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e , and p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n a r t i c u l a t i n g s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s and h i e r a r c h i e s i n a s o c i e t y i n which customary a l l e g i a n c e s were seen to be s h i f t i n g , and s o c i a l groups were seen t o be d i s t a n c i n g themselves from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l p l a c e s and r o l e s i n s o c i e t y . The images of B r i t a i n ' s m edieval p a s t , which emerged a t t h i s dynamic moment i n the c o u n t r y ' s h i s t o r y , c i r c u l a t e d w i t h i n a range of d i v e r g e n t , competing h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e s t h a t drew from d i f f e r e n t epochs, ' r a c i a l ' d i v i s i o n s , h i e r a r c h i c a l c a t e g o r i e s and c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . They formed a complex nexus of l a y e r e d a s s o c i a t i o n s and i n t e r s e c t i n g and competing c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s which s t r u g g l e d f o r c o n t r o l over the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the n a t i o n ' s p a s t , and hence f o r mastery over i t s p r e s e n t . N o r f o l k and Norwich were i n the e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y p r o b l e m a t i c modern l o c a l e s , undergoing f a r - r e a c h i n g s o c i a l changes, and e m b r o i l e d i n p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s . Norwich, w i t h a l o n g h i s t o r y of c i v i c t r a d i t i o n s , was known i n the 1 8 t h c e n t u r y as an i m p o r t a n t c u l t u r a l and c i v i c c e n t r e , f e a t u r i n g c o f f e e houses and c i v i c and c h a r i t a b l e c l u b s and o r g a n i s a t i o n s . The c i t y was a l s o famous f o r i t s w e a l t h and f o r i t s - t h r i v i n g t e x t i l e manufacture. However, i n the e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y Norwich underwent a g r a d u a l downturn i n i t s t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y , due p a r t l y t o c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r t e x t i l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g c e n t r e s , and p a r t l y t o the N a p o l e o n i c b l o c k a d e s . As the w e a l t h of Norwich was l a r g e l y dependent on t h i s i n d u s t r y , the economic s i t u a t i o n of the town was g r a d u a l l y d e t e r i o r a t i n g , f o l l o w e d by widespread c i v i c c o r r u p t i o n and growing s o c i a l u n r e s t . At the time of the F rench R e v o l u t i o n Norwich was p a r t i c u l a r l y famous f o r i t s s t r o n g support of J a c o b i n i s m , and the a r e a of N o r f o l k was known f o r h a r b o u r i n g s e v e r a l r a d i c a l c o r r e s p o n d i n g s o c i e t i e s . 2 7 The r u r a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l areas of N o r f o l k had a l s o been undergoing s u b s t a n t i a l changes throughout the 18 t h c e n t u r y : t r a d i t i o n a l communal v i l l a g e f a r m ing was g r a d u a l l y g i v i n g way t o m e c h a n i s a t i o n and new systems of c u l t i v a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e d i n l a r g e , p r i v a t e l y owned or t e n a n t e d e n c l o s e d farms. 2 8 As the famous s u r v e y o r of a g r i c u l t u r e A r t h u r Young observed, t h i s development a l l o w e d l a r g e landowners to r e a l i s e immense p r o f i t s , - 2 9 however, the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of l a r g e r farms and the r i s i n g pace of e n c l o s u r e s , i n t e n s i f y i n g d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the N a p o l e o n i c wars, s e r v e d to i n c r e a s i n g l y f o r c e s m a l l farmers and the poor o f f the l a n d . 3 0 Tensions such as these gave r i s e t o the w idespread and n o t o r i o u s E a s t .Anglia R e b e l l i o n s which took p l a c e i n 1816, 3 1 p o i g n a n t l y i n the p e r i o d j u s t f o l l o w i n g the end of the N a p o l e o n i c wars i n 1814 and the r e s t o r a t i o n of the Bourbon monarchy i n France, marked i n N o r f o l k by g r e a t f e s t i v i t i e s c e l e b r a t i n g the R e s t o r a t i o n and hence a l s o the r e t u r n to c o n s e r v a t i v e v a l u e s and r u l e . 'In o r d e r t o u n r a v e l some of the i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g m e d i e v a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and the imaging o f . t h e n a t i o n a l and the l o c a l , the t h e s i s w i l l be o r g a n i s e d i n a way t h a t w i l l a l l o w broad n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s t o be e x p l o r e d , w h i l e a l s o a l l o w i n g p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l p o i n t s of t e n s i o n t o emerge. That v a r i e d and numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s gave form t o the medieval remains i n N o r f o l k and Norwich has meant t h a t u n r a v e l l i n g and r e v e a l i n g t h e i r l o a d e d a s s o c i a t i o n s , and a s s e s s i n g the ways i n which these were n e g o t i a t e d i n t e x t s and images, has r e q u i r e d a t t e n t i o n t o the h i s t o r i c time and s o c i a l space t o which the medieval monuments were l i n k e d . To t h i s end the t h e s i s Chapters are arranged to a l l o w the e x t e n s i v e debates around n a t i o n and the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t , addressed i n Chapter One, to p r o v i d e a frame f o r the c o n f l i c t i n g uses and a p p r o p r i a t i o n s of the medi e v a l p a s t as they were c a l l e d up i n r e l a t i o n t o p a r t i c u l a r monuments i n N o r f o l k and Norwich. Chapters Two and Three a r e o r g a n i s e d to draw a t t e n t i o n t o the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l spaces i n which the medieval monuments i n N o r f o l k and Norwich were s i t u a t e d - - t h e town i n Chapter Two and the c o u n t r y s i d e i n Chapter T h r e e — a n d , e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t l y , t o the k i n d s of i s s u e s these spaces r a i s e d f o r a modern p u b l i c . Chapter Four w i l l be arranged around the consumption and patronage of medieval imagery i n a r t i s t i c , as opposed t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r t o u r i s t i c forms. As I w i l l be a r g u i n g , the r e n d e r i n g of medieval a n t i q u i t i e s i n a r t had a f u n c t i o n i n c r e a t i n g p o s i t i o n s of s o c i a l i d e n t i t y , rank and s t a t u s f o r v i e w e r s , b o t h i n Norwich and N o r f o l k and w i t h i n a l a r g e r n a t i o n a l frame. Thus my f i r s t . Chapter w i l l h i s t o r i c i s e the c o n f l i c t s around B r i t a i n ' s Saxon and Norman ' r a c i a l ' h e r i t a g e s , and s i t u a t e these c o n f l i c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o n a t i o n a l i s t , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l debates of the p e r i o d . The i s s u e s of 'race' and the ' r a c i a l i s a t i o n ' of the n a t i o n ' s p a s t were h i g h l y m e a n i n g f u l at t h i s time when B r i t a i n was i n the p r o c e s s of b o t h c r e a t i n g a sense of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y and d e f i n i n g i t s e l f as a w o r l d power i n the c o n t e x t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s , m a i n l y i n response t o the R e v o l u t i o n i n France. Questions of 'race' and of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d o m i n a t i o n underpinned contemporary debates on Saxon and Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e and d i s p u t e s around the o r i g i n s of G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e , which i n v o l v e d the famous a r c h i t e c t and w r i t e r John C a r t e r and the N o r f o l k a n t i q u a r y Dawson Turner. An a n a l y s i s of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l debates between C a r t e r and Turner s e r v e s t o e l u c i d a t e the i n t e r e s t s a t s t a k e i n the w r i t i n g of B r i t a i n ' s h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l p a s t , and the p o l i t i c a l r o l e p l a y e d by c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . I n the c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n of t h i s Chapter, I w i l l i n p a r t i c u l a r examine how t e x t u a l and v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the medie v a l C a s t l e a t C a s t l e R i s i n g i n the e a s t e r n p a r t of N o r f o l k , i n John B r i t t o n ' s A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , ( f i g . 12), and h i s The B e a u t i e s of England and Wales, ( f i g . 13), as w e l l as i n Thomas Cromwell's E x c u r s i o n s through N o r f o l k ( f i g . 14), a r t i c u l a t e d and n e g o t i a t e d d i f f e r e n t t e n s i o n s around p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , e l e c t o r a l r e f o r m and the c o n f l i c t i n g Saxon and Norman h e r i t a g e s . I n o t h e r words, the Chapter w i l l e x p l o r e how r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of N o r f o l k ' s medieval a n t i q u i t i e s , i n the c o n t e x t of the l o c a l patronage of these works, were i m b r i c a t e d i n n a t i o n a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s , w h i l e a l s o b e i n g d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n a r t i c u l a t i n g q u e s t i o n s of s o c i a l rank and h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g a t a l o c a l l e v e l . My second Chapter w i l l a n a l y s e how m e d i e v a l i s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the town of Norwich i n t r a v e l and a n t i q u a r i a n p u b l i c a t i o n s s i t u a t e d , the town i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s r u r a l environment and a r t i c u l a t e d p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l t e n s i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the changing s t r u c t u r e s of r u r a l and urban power and a u t h o r i t y . I n the e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r y N o r f o l k and Norwich were the scenes o f widespread u n r e s t . Norwich w i t n e s s e d r i o t i n g i n p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the new Corn Laws of 1815, and a g r a r i a n unease and d i s t r e s s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n the East A n g l i a R e b e l l i o n s of 1816, had c o n t i n u i n g impact on the c i t y . T h i s p e r i o d of h e i g h t e n e d s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n s e c u r i t y , due t o economic, i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l changes, was i n p a r t i c u l a r marked by a sense of a b l u r r i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l boundaries between town and c o u n t r y s i d e — o n e t h a t i s a p t l y s y m b o l i s e d by the d e m o l i t i o n of most of the medieval town gates of Norwich i n the 1790s. While t h i s Chapter w i l l e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n of Norwich t o i t s r u r a l environment, i t w i l l a l s o examine the changing n a t u r e of p u b l i c involvement i n the c i v i c l i f e of the c i t y i n t h i s p e r i o d when c i v i c power was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y a b s t r a c t and c i v i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s was g r a d u a l l y g i v i n g way'to the p r i v a t e p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h i n d i v i d u a l w e a l t h among a growing urban i n d u s t r i a l i s t b o u r g e o i s i e . The c i t y , a t the t h r e s h o l d between the medieval and the modern e r a s , v a c i l l a t i n g between 18 t h c e n t u r y Enlightenment i d e a l s and an entrenchment i n t o the s e c u r i t y and t r a d i t i o n s of the M i d d l e Ages, was r e - p r e s e n t e d i n a range of images, r e s p o n d i n g t o and n e g o t i a t i n g contemporary t u r m o i l and upheavals and v i s i b l e changes i n the l o c a l environment. The Chapter w i l l focus on i l l u s t r a t i o n s of views of Norwich i n a range of p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g Mostyn Armstrong's comprehensive work, H i s t o r y and A n t i q u i t i e s of the County o f  N o r f o l k , of 1781, ( f i g . 1 5 ) , 3 2 and P h i l i p Browne's A H i s t o r y of  Norwich from the E a r l i e s t Records to the Pre s e n t Time, of 1814 ( f i g s . 16, 1 7 ) , 3 3 and w i l l a l s o examine images of the famous landmarks l o c a t e d i n the town: Norwich C a s t l e and Norwich C a t h e d r a l . The t h i r d Chapter w i l l concern i t s e l f w i t h s p e c i f i c k i n d s of medieval r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n r u r a l N o r f o l k : the r u i n s of abbeys and mona s t e r i e s which had been d e s t r o y e d a t the D i s s o l u t i o n of the monasteries d u r i n g the r e i g n of Henry V I I I , i n the course of h i s d i s p u t e w i t h the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. The a n a l y s i s w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of C a s t l e Acre P r i o r y and Walsingham Abbey i n p u b l i c a t i o n s by John B r i t t o n , Thomas Cromwell and John S e l l Cotman. The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of B r i t a i n ' s C a t h o l i c p a s t i n the form of these r u i n e d m o n a s t e r i e s and abbeys brought up t e n s i o n s around the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the S t a t e , the A n g l i c a n Church and Roman C a t h o l i c i s m , and problems c o n c e r n i n g the p a r a d o x i c a l s i m u l t a n e i t y of p e r c e i v e d n a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s and the steep i n c r e a s e s i n p o v e r t y and a g r a r i a n and s o c i a l d i s t r e s s . The imaging of these e d i f i c e s and r u i n s of the M i d d l e Ages, a t the same time as a hos t of e l a b o r a t e p u b l i c a t i o n s on B r i t a i n ' s and N o r f o l k ' s a r i s t o c r a t i c P a l l a d i a n and P a l l a d i a n i s e d country-houses were a l s o emerging, was p r o f o u n d l y i m p l i c a t e d i n the s t r u g g l e s of the upper c l a s s e s t o r e t a i n t h e i r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l power. The 18 t h and 19 t h c e n t u r i e s i n B r i t a i n were marked by the d i v i s i o n between two s t r a n d s of h i s t o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and t r a d i t i o n , the medieval and the c l a s s i c a l , c o n s t i t u t i n g two p o l e s around which a range of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i s s u e s were c o n t i n u o u s l y b e i n g p l a y e d out and t e s t e d . 3 4 The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of medieval e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a n t i q u i t i e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p e r i o d i n a s h i f t i n g p r o c e s s d u r i n g which the e l i t e t r a c e d t h e i r g e n e a l o g i c a l r o o t s , f i r s t t o B r i t a i n ' s Roman a n c e s t r y and then to the c o u n t r y ' s Norman a n c e s t r y . T h i s s e a r c h f o r g e n e a l o g i e s was d e e p l y i m p l i c a t e d i n debates around the adherence of the e l i t e t o Pan-European c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m and the emerging demands of B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i s m and n a t i o n a l commitment. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the t r a c i n g of g e n e a l o g i e s was p a r t i c u l a r l y i m b r i c a t e d i n t e n s i o n s around l a n d -ownership i n t h i s p e r i o d when a g r a r i a n l a n d was i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g r e g a r d e d i n terms of economic p r o f i t and when r a d i c a l a g r a r i a n i s m was q u e s t i o n i n g the r i g h t s of the e l i t e t o the almost e x c l u s i v e ownership of l a n d . However, as I w i l l argue, the i l l u s t r a t i o n s d e p i c t i n g r u i n e d abbeys and p r i o r i e s can a l s o be seen as d e e p l y ambiguous, p a r t l y due t o the a m b i v a l e n t n a t u r e of the p i c t u r e s q u e a e s t h e t i c , f u n c t i o n i n g b o t h as r e p r e s e n t i n g and d i s s i m u l a t i n g ' r e a l i t y . ' W hile these images ser v e d , a t one l e v e l , t o a r t i c u l a t e the c l a i m s t o power of the upper c l a s s e s , a t the same time they c o u l d be seen as p o t e n t i a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g the dominant p o s i t i o n of the r u l i n g e l i t e . W h i l e i n the f i r s t t h r e e Chapters I examine how v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the n a t i o n ' s medieval a n t i q u i t i e s n e g o t i a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways the p r o b l e m a t i c of r e p r e s e n t i n g medieval h i s t o r y i n terms of r e m a i n i n g r e g i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments, the f i n a l Chapter addresses p a r t i c u l a r problems r a i s e d by ambivalences i n h e r e n t i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the medie v a l p a s t . T h i s Chapter w i l l focus on the work of the N o r f o l k a r t i s t John S e l l Cotman and w i l l examine h i s e t c h i n g s of medieval e d i f i c e s and r u i n s , A S e r i e s of E t c h i n g s I l l u s t r a t i v e of the  A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k , of 1812-1818, w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h e i r r e c e p t i o n , as a way of u n d e r s c o r i n g and h i g h l i g h t i n g a range of important l o c a l debates and c o n f l i c t s . A l t h o u g h Cotman's work on N o r f o l k and h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of mediev a l churches, abbeys, town gates and c a s t l e s were f a i r l y w e l l r e c e i v e d by c r i t i c s , the images a l s o met w i t h s u b t l e c r i t i c i s m , and the c o l l e c t i o n was not c o m m e r c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . Cotman's most imp o r t a n t p a t r o n , the a n t i q u a r i a n Dawson Turner, thought t h a t the e t c h i n g s were not ' f i n i s h e d ' enough, and a f r i e n d of Cotman c o n s i d e r e d them to have "too much the c h a r a c t e r of p e n c i l s k e t c h e s . " 3 5 What I argue i n Chapter Four i s t h a t Cotman's e t c h i n g s can be seen as s u b t l y t r a n s g r e s s i n g the s p e c i f i c r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s and p a r t i c u l a r codes and co n v e n t i o n s t h a t underpinned and governed the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n t i q u i t i e s i n t h i s p e r i o d . These e t c h i n g s can be seen as s i t e s wherein a range of contemporary l o c a l and n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i c a l i s s u e s , d e a l t w i t h i n the p r e c e d i n g Chapters of the t h e s i s , were a r t i c u l a t e d i n terms of a p i c t o r i a l language t h a t d i d not meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s o r respond t o the i n t e r e s t s of Cotman's N o r f o l k p a t r o n s who, as the d e d i c a t i o n s of Cotman's p r i n t s show, i n c l u d e d p o l i t i c i a n s , churchmen, p r o f e s s i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s and members of the a r i s t o c r a c y . The e x a m i n a t i o n of Cotman's e t c h i n g s i n the c o n t e x t of t h e i r l o c a l audiences and ambiguous r e c e p t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of medieval a n t i q u i t i e s , when seen a g a i n s t a l o c a l background and as t a n g i b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e g i o n a l landscape and i t s h i s t o r y , had the p o t e n t i a l t o s u b t l y d i s r u p t n a t i o n a l m e t a - n a r r a t i v e s and h i s t o r i e s , and evoke s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s which were o f t e n more e f f e c t i v e l y mediated and even obscured i n h i s t o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a w i d e r , n a t i o n a l frame of r e f e r e n c e . The a n a l y s i s of Cotman's work i n terms of t h e i r r e c e p t i o n e l u c i d a t e s a n x i e t i e s i n t h i s p e r i o d , r e l a t e d t o i s s u e s around n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l p r o g r e s s and t r a d i t i o n s , r e v e a l i n g t h a t images of medieval a n t i q u i t i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r when d i s s e m i n a t e d i n the r e p r o d u c t i v e medium of p r i n t , were understood t o have the power t o i n f l u e n c e and d i s t o r t customary assumptions r e l a t e d t o the f o u n d a t i o n a l r o l e of medieval h i s t o r y i n the n a r r a t i v e of B r i t a i n ' s p r o g r e s s . Indeed, by examining why Cotman's works were h e l d t o t r a n s g r e s s a c c e p t e d norms of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o open up a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of medieval a n t i q u i t i e s were i n v o l v e d i n i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g the attempts of i n d i v i d u a l s t o d e f i n e t h e i r own p l a c e s w i t h i n s o c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s and w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l economy of the r e g i o n as w e l l as of the n a t i o n . By e x p l o r i n g the t e n s i o n s and c o n t e s t a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the n a t i o n ' s 'pedagogical' and ' p e r f o r m a t i v e ' n a r r a t i v e s embedded i n the m u l t i - l a y e r e d a s s o c i a t i o n s of Cotman's images of N o r f o l k ' s medieval b u i l d i n g s and r u i n s , my purpose i s t o e x p l o r e the u n s t a b l e spaces between r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and the v i e w e r s ' own, p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e s , knowledge and e x p e c t a t i o n s . What I c l a i m i s t h a t by opening up a space a t the j u n c t u r e of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n t i q u i t i e s and t h e i r audiences, and by t a k i n g i n t o account the open-endedness of the s i g n and the image and the wide p o t e n t i a l f o r s h i f t i n g , c o n f l i c t i n g and c o n t r a s t i n g r e a d i n g s , a r e -assessment can be made of medieval imagery and i t s r o l e i n shaping, not o n l y the medieval r e v i v a l of the 18 t h and e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r i e s , but as w e l l the l a t e r G o t h i c R e v i v a l of the V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d . NOTES 1 For d i s c u s s i o n s of B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i s m i n the l a t e 18 t h and e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r i e s , see e s p e c i a l l y Linda C o l l e y , Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1992), and Gerald Newman, The Rise of  E n g l i s h Nationalism. A C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y 1740-1830 (London: Macmillan, 1997). 2 Samuel and Daniel Lysons, Magna B r i t a n n i a : Or a Concise  Topographical Account of the Several Counties of Great B r i t a i n , 6 v o l s . (T. Ca d e l l and W. Davies, 1806-1822); John B r i t t o n , A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s  of Great B r i t a i n , Represented and I l l u s t r a t e d i n a Se r i e s of Views,  E l e v a t i o n s , Plans, Sections and D e t a i l s , of va r i o u s Ancient E n g l i s h  E d i f i c e s ..., 5 v o l s . (London: Longman, 1807-1826); John B r i t t o n , The  Beauties of England and Wales; or. D e l i n e a t i o n s Topographical, H i s t o r i c a l ,  and D e s c r i p t i v e , of each County ..., 18 v o l s . (London: Verner & Hood, 1801-1816). The sense of n a t i o n a l p r i d e evinced i n t r a v e l and a n t i q u a r i a n p u b l i c a t i o n s of the p e r i o d was ex e m p l i f i e d i n the a n t i q u a r i a n p u b l i s h e r John B r i t t o n ' s The Beauties of England and Wales (1801-1816). B r i t t o n introduced volume I I I (1802) of t h i s work w i t h a quote, i n s e r t e d on the t i t l e - p a g e , by the w e l l known t r a v e l w r i t e r W i l l i a m Mavor: "In whatever L i g h t we regard the B r i t i s h I s l a n d s , whether as the Cradle of L i b e r t y , the Mother of A r t s and Sciences, the Nurse of Manufactures, the M i s t r e s s of the Sea; or whether we contemplate t h e i r g e n i a l S o i l , t h e i r m i l d Climate, t h e i r v a r i o us n a t u r a l and a r t i f i c i a l c u r i o s i t i e s ; we s h a l l f i n d no equal extent of T e r r i t o r y on the Face of the Globe of more Importance, or c o n t a i n i n g more A t t r a c t i o n s , even i n the Estimation of those who cannot be biased by na t i v e P a r t i a l i t y . " 3 John B r i t t o n , The Beauties of England and Wales, v o l . I (1801), Advertisement. 4 Samuel and Daniel Lysons, Magna B r i t a n n i a , preface. 5 B r i t t o n , The Beauties of England and Wales, v o l . X (1816), pp. v, v i i . The d i f f e r e n t volumes i n John B r i t t o n ' s The Beauties of England and  Wales were co-authored and e d i t e d by, among others, Edward Wedlake Brayley, Joseph N i g h t i n g a l e and J . N o r r i s Brewer. 6 My conce n t r a t i o n on the i n t e r p l a y between the n a t i o n a l and the l o c a l has been informed by Charles Pythian-Adams, Re-thinking E n g l i s h L o c a l  H i s t o r y ( L e i c e s t e r : L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1987), Doreen Massey, Space, Place and Gender (Minneapolis: U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press, 1994), and A r j u n Appadurai, Modernity at Large. C u l t u r a l Dimensions of  G l o b a l i z a t i o n (Minneapolis: U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, 1996). The works of Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space (Oxford: B l a c k w e l l , 1991), and David Harvey, J u s t i c e , Nature and the Geography of D i f f e r e n c e (Oxford: B l a c k w e l l , 1996) have a l s o i n f l u e n c e d my t h i n k i n g on the c o n f l i c t s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s at p l a y i n any re p r e s e n t a t i o n of space and the s o c i a l . 7 Massey, Space. Place and Gender, pp. 137, 138. 8 I b i d . , p. 131. 9 I b i d . , passim. Massey a l s o argues that l o c a l s t u d i e s should "not be 'case s t u d i e s , ' i n the sense of i d i o s y n c r a t i c p o r t r a i t s of i n d i v i d u a l regions. Each study should attempt both to l i n k the fortunes of the l o c a l area to the wider n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l scene, which i s par t of the explanation f o r the changes t a k i n g place, and a l s o r i g o r o u s l y to l i n k together the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of change going on w i t h i n the l o c a l area ..." (p. 130). 1 0 For a d i s c u s s i o n of No r f o l k ' s Saxon and Norman h i s t o r y , see f o r instance Susanna Wade Martins, A H i s t o r y of Nor f o l k (West Sussex: P h i l l i m o r e , 1997). For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , I take the term 'medieval' to denote the p e r i o d i n B r i t a i n beginning a f t e r the Roman withdrawal and the a r r i v a l of the Saxons i n the f i f t h century, and con t i n u i n g to the Renaissance. 1 1 P u b l i c a t i o n s on Norfolk, such as the a r c h i t e c t and h i s t o r i a n W i l l i a m W i l k i n s ' s "An Essay toward a h i s t o r y of the Venta Icenorum of the Romans, and of Norwich C a s t l e ; w i t h remarks on the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the Anglo-Saxons and Normans," Archaeologia v o l . X II (1795): p. 139, c o n s t a n t l y made reference to these h i s t o r i c a l events. According to W i l k i n s , the name of the town de r i v e d from the Saxon name 'Northwic,' which r e f e r r e d to the s i t u a t i o n of the town north of the Roman settlement of Venta Icenorum. W i l l i a m W i l k i n s was the fa t h e r of the famous W i l l i a m W i l k i n s , the a r c h i t e c t of p a r t s of King's College, Corpus C h r i s t i i n Cambridge, of Downing College i n Cambridge, and the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . See Joan Evans, A H i s t o r y of the Soc i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s (Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1956), p. 205. 1 2 For instance the N o r f o l k antiquary Dawson Turner, i n h i s preface to the N o r f o l k a r t i s t John S e l l Cotman's A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of  Normandy (London: John and Arthur Arch, 1822), p. i i i , doubted the exi s t e n c e of any Saxon a r c h i t e c t u r a l remains i n Norfolk, c l a i m i n g that these remains were i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e . 1 3 Dawson Turner, Account of a Tour i n Normandy, Undertaken C h i e f l y  f o r the Purpose of I n v e s t i g a t i n g the A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of the  Duchy, 2 v o l s . (London: John and Arthur Arch, C o r n h i l l , 1820), v o l . I, p. 122 . 1 4 W i l k i n s , "An Essay toward the h i s t o r y of the Venta Icenorum pp. 139-142. 1 5 John B r i t t o n , The H i s t o r y and A n t i q u i t i e s of the See and Cathedral  Church of Norwich ... (London: Longman, 1816), forming p a r t of B r i t t o n ' s s e r i e s Cathedral A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n (1814-1835). 1 6 Thomas Cromwell, Excursions through Norfolk. 2 v o l s . (London: Longman, 1818), forming p a r t of h i s Excursions through England (1818-1822). 1 7 John S e l l Cotman, A Series of Etchings I l l u s t r a t i v e of the  A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k (London: Longman, 1818) . 1 8 F r a n c i s B l o m e f i e l d , An Essay towards a Topographical H i s t o r y of  the County of N o r f o l k ..., 11 v o l s . (1745; London: W i l l i a m M i l l e r , 1806). 1 9 In h i s d e d i c a t i o n s of the etchings i n The A r c h i t e c t u r a l  A n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k Cotman v a r i o u s l y complimented h i s patrons on t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l and a n t i q u a r i a n i n t e r e s t s , but a l s o on t h e i r support f o r the a r t s . 2 0 Among important works d e a l i n g w i t h e a r l y 19 t h century c o l l e c t i o n s of p r i n t s d e p i c t i n g medieval a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n t i q u i t i e s i n B r i t a i n can be mentioned David M o r r i s , Thomas Hearne and His Landscape (London: Reaktion Books, 1989); Luke Herrmann, Turner P r i n t s . The Engraved Works of J . M. W.  Turner (Oxford: Phaidon Press, 1990); Luke Herrmann, Paul and Thomas Sandbv (London: B. T. B a t s f o r d , 1986); J . Mordaunt Crook "John B r i t t o n and the Genesis of the Gothic R e v i v a l , " i n Concerning A r c h i t e c t u r e , ed. John Summerson (London: John A l l e n , 1968), pp. 98-119; J . Mordaunt Crook, John  C a r t e r and the Mind of the Gothic R e v i v a l (London: The S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , 1995) . Sydney K i t s o n , i n h i s The L i f e of John S e l l Cotman (1937; London: Rodart Reproductions., 1982), has examined Cotman's etchings i n the l i g h t of t h e i r patronage. Cotman's etchings have a l s o been analysed e x t e n s i v e l y by Andrew Hemingway i n h i s a r t i c l e s "Cotman's ' A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Normandy:' Some amendments to Kitson's account," The Waloole  Societ y, v o l . XLVI (1976-1978): pp. 164-185, and "'The E n g l i s h P i r a n e s i : ' Cotman's a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r i n t s , " The Waloole Society, v o l . XLVII (1980-1982): pp. 210-244. Important analyses of medieval r u i n imagery i n terms of the picturesque a e s t h e t i c i n c l u d e Michael Charlesworth's "The r u i n e d abbey: Picturesque and Gothic values," The P o l i t i c s of the Picturesque.  L i t e r a t u r e , Landscape and A e s t h e t i c s s i n c e 1770. eds. Stephen Copley and Peter Garside (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1994), pp. 62-80, and Raimonda Modiano, "The legacy of the Picturesque: landscape, property and the r u i n , " The P o l i t i c s of the Picturesque. L i t e r a t u r e , Landscape and  A e s t h e t i c s s i n c e 1770," pp. 196-219. 2 1 Several s t u d i e s have examined medievalism and i t s many r e l a t e d aspects. A l i c e Chandler, i n her path-breaking study A Dream of Order. The  Medieval I d e a l i n Nineteenth Century E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska Press, 1970), conceptualises and analyses 19 t h century medievalism i n England i n a h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l context and i n i t s various manifestations i n l i t e r a t u r e . The s e r i e s Studies  i n Medievalism, eds. L e s l i e J . Workman et a l . (Cambridge: D. Brewer, 1992), began, as noted i n the e d i t o r i a l to v o l . IV, number 1, Medievalism i n  England, to e s t a b l i s h a "new d i s c i p l i n e or f i e l d of s c h o l a r l y c o n c e n t r a t i o n , " and to "begin the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y study of medievalism as a comprehensive c u l t u r a l phenomenon analogous to c l a s s i c i s m or romanticism." Paul F r a n k l , i n h i s The Gothic. L i t e r a r y Sources and  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s through Eight Centuries (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1960), traced the h i s t o r y of Gothic and i t s v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n the l a r g e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l context. Kenneth C l a r k ' s The Gothic R e v i v a l . An  Essay i n the H i s t o r y of Taste (1928; London: John Murray, 1962), analysed the r e v i v a l of Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the 18 t h and 19 t h c e n t u r i e s i n England. Mark Gir'ouard, The Return of Camelot. C h i v a l r y and the E n g l i s h  Gentleman (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981), examines the idea of medieval c h i v a l r y i n the l a t e 18 t h and 19 t h c e n t u r i e s . J . M. Crook, John  C a r t e r and the Mind of the Gothic R e v i v a l (London: The S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s , 1995) and J . M. Frew, "Gothic i s E n g l i s h ; John Car t e r and the Revival, of the Gothic as England's n a t i o n a l s t y l e , " The A r t B u l l e t i n , v o l . LXIV (June 1982): 315-319, l i n k the i n t e r e s t i n medieval a r c h i t e c t u r e to a growing sense of B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . R. J . Smith's The Gothic  Bequest. Medieval I n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Thought, 1688-1863 (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1987), c o n s t i t u t e s a thorough study of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l uses of medievalism. Raymond W i l l i a m s ' A r t and  S o c i e t y 1780-1950 (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958), contains a p a r t i c u l a r l y t h oughtful study of the s o c i a l underpinnings and i m p l i c a t i o n s of medievalism as a c u l t u r a l f o r c e , c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h i n d u s t r i a l i s m , i n the 19 t h century. 2 2 Chandler, A Dream of Order, p. 1. 2 3 The C a t h o l i c h i s t o r i c a l medieval past was used by many notable h i s t o r i a n s and churchmen, such as the C a t h o l i c p r i e s t John M i l n e r i n h i s , The H i s t o r y C i v i l and E c c l e s i a s t i c a l and Survey of the A n t i q u i t i e s of  Winchester (Winchester: James Robbins, 1798), to support the claims of C a t h o l i c s that t h e i r r e l i g i o n was i n f a c t a n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n . 2 4 The Camden Soci e t y i n p a r t i c u l a r promoted the b u i l d i n g and r e s t o r a t i o n of churches i n order to encourage A n g l i c a n r e l i g i o u s worship. For the a c t i v i t i e s of the Camden Society, see f o r instance A. G. Lough, The  Influence of John Mason Neale (London: S.P.C.K., 1962). 2 5 Robert Southey, S i r Thomas More: or C o l l o q u i e s on the Progress and  Prospects of Societ y, v o l . I I (London: John Murray, 1829), pp. 246-247. 2 6 For example, England's l a t e r medieval h i s t o r y was used most famously by the h i s t o r i a n Catherine MacCaulay to propound Whig views i n her The H i s t o r y of England from the Accession of James I to the E l e v a t i o n of  the House of Hanover, 8 v o l s . (London: J . Norse, 1766-1783); England's medieval Norman h i s t o r y was evoked to support conservative o p i n i o n i n Sharon Turner's The H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons from Their F i r s t Appearance  above the Elbe to the Norman Conquest, 4 v o l s . (London: T. N. Longman, 1802-1805), and i n h i s H i s t o r y of England from the Norman Conquest to the  Accession of Edward the F i r s t , 3 v o l s . (London: Longman, 1814-1823); e a r l y medieval times and the ancient Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n were evoked to l e g i t i m i z e r a d i c a l views i n Obadiah Hulme's well-known An H i s t o r i c a l Essay on the E n g l i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n : Or, An I m p a r t i a l I n q u i r y i n t o the E l e c t i v e Power of  the People, from the F i r s t Establishment of the Saxons i n t h i s Kingdom (Dublin, 1771), and i n T. H. B. O l d f i e l d ' s The Representative H i s t o r y of  Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d ..., 6 v o l s . (London: Baldwin, 1816). 2 7 For a d i s c u s s i o n of r e v o l u t i o n a r y sentiment and a c t i v i t i e s i n Norwich and No r f o l k i n the 1790s, see C. B. Jewson, The Jacobin C i t y . A  P o r t r a i t of Norwich i n i t s Reaction to the French Revolution 1788-1802 (London: B l a c k i e & Son, 1975). See a l s o E. P. Thompson, The Making of the  E n g l i s h Working Class (London: Penguin Books, 1980), and Trevor Fawcett, "Measuring the P r o v i n c i a l Enlightenment: The Case of Norwich," Eighteenth  Century L i f e , v o l . V I I I (Oct. 1982): 12-27. 2 8 For a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of No r f o l k ' s changing a g r i c u l t u r e , see Susanna Wade Martins, N o r f o l k . A Changing Countryside 1780-1914 (Chichester, Sussex: P h i l l i m o r e , 1988), pp. 10-13. 2 9 Arthur Young, A General View of the A g r i c u l t u r e of the County of  Norfo l k . (1804; London: Sherwood, Nealy and Jones, 1813), p. 30. 3 0 Nathaniel Kent, A General View of the A g r i c u l t u r e of the County of  Nor f o l k (Norwich: Crouse, Stevenson and Matchett, 1796), discussed the question of enclosures at length. Although Kent saw enclosures as b e n e f i c i a l and as c o n t r i b u t i n g to the general wealth i n the county through the b e t t e r u t i l i s a t i o n of the land, he a l s o p a i d considerable a t t e n t i o n to the problems caused by enclosures i n d e p r i v i n g the poor of the use of the commons (pp. 72-85). An advocate f o r small farms, Kent was p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l of the system of la r g e farms, arguing that "husbandmen of small c a p i t a l s , l e t them be ever so i n d u s t r i o u s , w i l l be e f f e c t u a l l y cut o f f from the common means of r a i s i n g themselves i n l i f e " (pp. 135, 132-133) . 3 1 For an account of the East A n g l i a R e b e l l i o n s , see A. J . Peacock, Bread or Blood. A Study of the Ag r a r i a n R i o t s i n East A n g l i a i n 1816 (London: Gol l a n c z , 1965). 3 2 Mostyn Armstrong, H i s t o r y and A n t i q u i t i e s of the County of  Norf o l k . 10 v o l s . (Norwich: J . Crouse, 1781). 3 3 P h i l i p Browne, The H i s t o r y of Norwich from the E a r l i e s t Records to  the Present Time (Norwich: R. C h i p p e r f i e l d , 1814) . 3 4 This t e n s i o n was enunciated most c l e a r l y i n the famous words of Lord Acton i n 1859: "Two great p r i n c i p l e s d i v i d e the world, and contend f o r the mastery, a n t i q u i t y and the middle ages. These are the two c i v i l i s a t i o n s that have preceded us, the two elements of which ours i s composed. A l l p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s questions reduce themselves p r a c t i c a l l y to t h i s . This i s the great dualism that runs through our s o c i e t y . " Lord Acton's manuscript notes, p r i n t e d i n Herbert B u t t e r f i e l d , Man on His Past:  The Study of the H i s t o r y of H i s t o r i c a l Scholarship (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955), p. 212. 3 5 Andrew Hemingway, "'The E n g l i s h P i r a n e s i , ' " p. 221; l e t t e r to Cotman from F r a n c i s Cholmeley, Feb. 24, 1811, i n the B r i t i s h Museum; quoted i n K i t s o n , The L i f e of John S e l l Cotman. p. 141. I . Imagining the nation; c r e a t i n g a past. The Saxon and the Norman heritages and the contested t e r r a i n of the nation's h i s t o r y . 1. The myth of the Saxon Golden Age and the Norman Yoke. 'Gothic  i s E n g l i s h . ' John C a r t e r and England's ' n a t i o n a l s t y l e . ' The medieval r e v i v a l i n B r i t a i n i n the l a t e 1 8 t h and e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r i e s , and i t s e v o c a t i o n of a shared medieval p a s t , p l a y e d an.important r o l e i n the development of B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i s m and a sense of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . However, B r i t a i n ' s m e d i e v a l p a s t d i d not l e n d i t s e l f to a seamless, homogenous h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i o n , but r a t h e r formed the b a s i s f o r a f r a c t u r e d c o n s t e l l a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t n a r r a t i v e s t r a n d s , based i n d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of B r i t a i n ' s ' r a c i a l ' and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e s . As h i s t o r i a n Robert Young has observed, " E n g l i s h n e s s ... has never been s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d by an e s s e n t i a l , c o r e i d e n t i t y , " but has always been " d i v i d e d w i t h i n i t s e l f , and i t i s t h i s t h a t has enabled i t to be v a r i o u s l y and c o u n t e r a c t i v e l y c o n s t r u c t e d . " 1 I n the e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y the q u e s t i o n of ' E n g l i s h n e s s ' and 1 B r i t i s h n e s s ' r e v o l v e d around debates on ' n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s , ' c e n t r e d i n p a r t i c u l a r i n England's medieval e r a . An i mportant focus i n the s t u d y of B r i t a i n ' s medieval h i s t o r y i n the 1 8 t h and e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r i e s was the Anglo-Saxon and the Norman p a s t of the c o u n t r y ; indeed, the c o n f l i c t s and t e n s i o n s between these two i n t e r - l i n k e d h e r i t a g e s c o n s t i t u t e d a continuous t h r e a d i n medieval h i s t o r i o g r a p h y i n t h i s p e r i o d . These c o n f l i c t s were e p i t o m i s e d i n the myth of the Saxon Golden Age and the Norman Yoke. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s myth an o r i g i n a l d emocratic Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n had been overthrown i n 1066 by the Norman Conquest which had c o n c e n t r a t e d a l l p r o p e r t y and a l l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l power i n the hands of the Norman i n v a d e r s who e s t a b l i s h e d themselves as a new e l i t e , o p p r e s s i n g and e n s l a v i n g the Saxon i n h a b i t a n t s o f the c o u n t r y . The r a c i s t sentiment a t the h e a r t of the Norman and the Saxon myth was expressed i n 1558, a t the time of the P r o t e s t a n t R e f o r m a t i o n , by the f u t u r e b i s h o p of London, John Aylmer, who a s s e r t e d England's Saxon language and h e r i t a g e by condemning the Norman i n v a d e r s as " e f f e m i n a t e Frenchmen: S t o u t e i n bragge but n o t h i n g i n dede." Aylmer c o n t i n u e d : "We have a few h u n t i n g termes and p e d l a r s French i n the l o u s y e law brought i n by the Normans, y e t r e m a y i n i n g : But the language and customs bee E n g l i s h e and Saxonyshe." 2 The myth of the Saxon Golden Age and the Norman Yoke had p a r t i c u l a r c u r r e n c y i n the c o n t e x t of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l debates and c o n f l i c t s between the Crown and the P a r l i a m e n t i n the 17 t h c e n t u r y . D u r i n g these y e a r s the myth of the Saxons and the Normans was i n f a c t a p p r o p r i a t e d by a whole spectrum of d i f f e r i n g p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s . The P a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n , s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r c l a i m s t o power a g a i n s t the a b s o l u t i s m of the Crown, based t h e i r p o l i t i c s i n the Saxon myth, demanding a r e t u r n t o an a n c i e n t Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n d u r i n g which, i t was c l a i m e d , power had not been a b s o l u t e but had been shared among the k i n g and h i s barons. The R o y a l i s t s on t h e i r s i d e argued t h a t the k i n g , through the Norman Conquest and the consequent e x t i n g u i s h i n g of Saxon laws had the a b s o l u t e r i g h t t o w i e l d power. The r a d i c a l L e v e l l e r s a l s o demanded a r e t u r n t o Saxon l a w s — t h e y , however, i n t e r p r e t e d these laws d i f f e r e n t l y , c l a i m i n g t h a t d u r i n g Saxon times t h e r e had been t r u e democracy, when the community as a whole, and not o n l y the barons, had p a r t i c i p a t e d d i r e c t l y i n government. F i n a l l y , the r a d i c a l D i g g e r s a t t a c k e d the v e r y concept of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and r e j e c t e d a l l t r a d i t i o n a l laws, i n c l u d i n g Saxon ones, which they saw as p e r p e t u a t i n g o p p r e s s i o n . 3 The 1760s and the 1770s i n B r i t a i n saw a r e v i v a l of the myth of the Saxon Golden Age and the Norman Yoke a t the hands of famous r a d i c a l s such as Tooke Home and Obadiah Hulme who, f o l l o w i n g the L e v e l l e r s , s t r o v e t o a c h i e v e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l aims by c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e i r g o a l was to r e i n s t a t e the l i b e r t i e s of the o l d Saxons. While the 17 t h c e n t u r y c o n f l i c t had p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e d a c o n t e s t between the K i n g and the P a r l i a m e n t , the c o n f l i c t i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the 18 t h c e n t u r y comprised t e n s i o n s i n v o l v i n g l a r g e r a d i c a l f a c t i o n s opposing P a r l i a m e n t a r y i n t e r e s t s . R a d i c a l f a c t i o n s saw P a r l i a m e n t as an o l i g a r c h i c group, s u p p o r t i n g the power of the upper c l a s s e s and i n p a r t i c u l a r of the land-owning a r i s t o c r a c y , u nderstood t o be descended from the Norman conquerors. The r a d i c a l s demanded a r e t u r n t o the Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n which, a c c o r d i n g t o them, had been an i d e a l system of government where t h e r e had been no h e r e d i t a r y n o b i l i t y , and where democratic f r a n c h i s e and annual e l e c t i o n s had formed the b a s i s f o r government. 4 Obadiah Hulme, i n h i s sem i n a l work An H i s t o r i c a l Essay on the E n g l i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n , of 1771, wrote t h a t the E n g l i s h were i n d e b t e d f o r t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n to the N o r t h e r n Saxons : ... the N o r t h e r n n a t i o n s , t h a t o v e r r a n Europe a t the d i s s o l u t i o n of the Roman Empire, i n t r o d u c e d a model of government, f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the common r i g h t s of mankind, as f a r s u p e r i o r t o the Greek and Roman commonwealths ... I t was i n some branches of those n o r t h e r n t r i b e s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the name Saxon, t h a t the E n g l i s h a r e i n d e b t e d f o r t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n , o r mode of government, i n t r o d u c e d i n t o England about the y e a r 450. 5 Hulme emphasised the e g a l i t a r i a n n a t u r e of Saxon s o c i e t y , i n which, he argued, w e a l t h had never c o n f e r r e d p o l i t i c a l p r i v i l e g e s : ... the n a t u r a l r i g h t s of mankind were t h e i r g uide [the Saxons'] ... They c o n s i d e r e d every man a l i k e ... r i c h e s w i t h them, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d gave no power or a u t h o r i t y , o r any r i g h t t o power o r a u t h o r i t y , over the p o o r e s t p e r s o n i n the s t a t e . 6 A c c o r d i n g t o Hulme, the Norman k i n g had d e s t r o y e d the e l e c t i v e power and-democratic l i b e r t i e s of the Saxon p e o p l e , 7 r e p l a c i n g the Saxon 'ealdormen' w i t h a f o r e i g n Norman, Fr e n c h s p e a k i n g n o b i l i t y . 8 I n t u r n the ownership of the l a n d had been t r a n s f e r r e d t o the k i n g , the Norman n o b i l i t y and the Church. 9 Hulme condensed the myth of the Saxon Golden Age and the Norman Yoke i n h i s famous statement: Whatever i s of Saxon e s t a b l i s h m e n t , i s t r u l y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l ; but whatever i s Norman, i s heterogeneous t o i t , and p a r t a k e s of a t y r a n n i c a l s p i r i t . 1 0 The famous N o r f o l k born r a d i c a l Thomas Paine r e v e a l e d the c l o s e l i n k between contemporary E n g l i s h r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e s a g a i n s t the F rench and the a n c i e n t p r e j u d i c e s a g a i n s t the Normans when he e x c l a i m e d i n h i s Common Sense of 1776: A French b a s t a r d l a n d i n g w i t h an armed b a n d i t t i and e s t a b l i s h i n g h i m s e l f K i n g of England, a g a i n s t the consent of the n a t i v e s , i s , i n p l a i n terms, a v e r y p a l t r y , r a s c a l l y o r i g i n a l . 1 1 The i s s u e of the Norman and Saxon h e r i t a g e s i n t e r s e c t e d w i t h debates i n v o l v i n g B r i t a i n ' s c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and the c o u n t r y ' s medieval and G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , debates which i n the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the Fre n c h R e v o l u t i o n assumed deep n a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n the c o n t e x t of a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s 'Gothic' was o r i g i n a l l y used d e r o g a t o r i l y t o d e s c r i b e what was p e r c e i v e d t o be a debasement of c l a s s i c a l Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e by the i n f l u x of N o r t h e r n European b u i l d i n g modes from the time Rome had been o v e r r u n by the G o t h i c V a ndals. M e d i e v a l a r c h i t e c t u r e had, s i n c e the Renaissance and the P r o t e s t a n t Reformation, been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o r c e s of darkness and the i r r a t i o n a l ; f o r the h i s t o r i a n John E v e l y n , w r i t i n g i n 1707, G o t h i c b u i l d i n g s were "Dark, M e l a n c h o l y P i l e s ... Mountains of Stone, Vast and G y g a n t i c ... but not Worthy the Name of A r c h i t e c t u r e . " 1 2 I n the 17th and 18 t h c e n t u r i e s the a n t i q u a r i a n i n t e r e s t i n medieval and G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l r u i n s , as a p a r t of an emerging p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e and the n a t i o n a l p a s t , was foc u s e d m a i n l y on the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a h i s t o r i c a l and n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e . 1 3 D u r i n g the 18 t h c e n t u r y the emphasis on p r e s e r v a t i o n began t o develop i n t o an i n t e r e s t i n a r e t u r n t o a c t u a l G o t h i c b u i l d i n g , as a p a r t of the growing r e a c t i o n t o the domi n a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l c u l t u r e i n B r i t a i n . The e a r l y attempts t o d e f i n e a d i s t i n c t G o t h i c s t y l e were p i o n e e r e d by the a r c h i t e c t and w r i t e r B a t t y L a n g l e y who, i n h i s w e l l known work G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e Improved, of 1742, attempted to^give r u l e s f o r what had customarily been understood to be a d i s o r d e r l y 1 g o t h i c , ' or p r i m i t i v e , mode of b u i l d i n g . 1 4 The most famous example of the new i n t e r e s t i n Gothic was Horace Walpole's v i l l a , Strawberry H i l l , which was g o t h i c i s e d by the owner between 1750 and 1753. However, i n t h i s p e r i o d the i n t e r e s t i n Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e was s t i l l mainly seen as a f r i v o l o u s pastime, and Gothic was s t i l l s t igmatised as having o r i g i n a t e d i n an unenlightened age. 1 5 I t was not u n t i l the l a t t e r part of the 18 t h century that Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e began to a t t r a c t wider s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n and began to be seen as s e r i o u s l y r i v a l l i n g the hegemony of c l a s s i c a l a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e . The w e l l known a r c h i t e c t and w r i t e r John Carter published i n the l a t t e r part of the 18 t h century h i s famous work Specimens of the Ancient Sculpture and  Pai n t i n g , now Remaining i n t h i s Kingdom,16 i n which he s p e c i f i c a l l y lauded the c h i v a l r y and the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the l a t e r medieval era and deplored the d e s p o l i a t i o n of the C a t h o l i c churches and monasteries during the rei g n of Henry V I I I ; t h i s i s evidenced i n the f r o n t i s p i e c e s to t h i s work ( f i g s . 18, 19). Subsequently commissioned by the Society of Antiquaries to produce a second a u t h o r i t a t i v e work on England's' medieval a r c h i t e c t u r e , Carter began to p u b l i s h i n 1795 The Ancient  A r c h i t e c t u r e . o f England, 1 7 a large and luxurious volume which contained drawings and del i n e a t i o n s of the p r i n c i p l e s of the Gothic mode of b u i l d i n g . The preoccupation with England's ancient a r c h i t e c t u r e gained c r u c i a l p o l i t i c a l importance wi t h the i n t e n s i f y i n g n a t i o n a l i s t mood aroused i n B r i t a i n i n a r e a c t i o n to the Revolutionary upheavals i n France. In a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s i n the B u i l d e r s ' Magazine and the Gentlemen's Magazine, through' the l a t e 18th and e a r l y 19th centuries, Carter c o n t i n u a l l y emphasised the importance of England's own a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , asking i n 1798: Why have the minds of Englishmen, f o r these two centuries, been deluded to i m i t a t e the Roman and Grecian s t y l e s ? What features have t h e i r boasted remains that we cannot p a r a l l e l ? For the extensiveness of t h e i r e d i f i c e s , t h e i r grandeur, t h e i r elegance, t h e i r enrichments, view our cathedrals, and other attendant b u i l d i n g s . Is any one excellence that a r c h i t e c t u r e boasts to be sought f o r i n va i n i n our own country? No, we may here f i n d them a l l . 1 9 For Carter the c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e of the Renaissance c o n s t i t u t e d deplorable "novelty"^ and "innovation, " and he claimed that i t was t h i s love f o r "novelty" which had helped stigmatise England's "sacred works of a n t i q u i t y ... wit h the barbarous name of Gothic." 2 0 "Carter's l i n k i n g of c l a s s i c i s m with "innovation" was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s time when the term 'innovation' was associated i n B r i t a i n with the French Revolution and rev o l u t i o n a r y i d e a l s . For Carter, e l e v a t i n g England's medieval a r c h i t e c t u r e c o n s t i t u t e d a p a t r i o t i c act, "the honour due to our Sovereign, and the pres e r v a t i o n of our C o n s t i t u t i o n from the inroads of democratic p r i n c i p l e s . " 2 1 E x p l o i t i n g the connotation between r e v o l u t i o n a r y thought and "innovation," Carter exclaimed i n 1799: Innovation i n whatever form i t may appear, i s at t h i s hour dangerous and f u l l of s u s p i c i o n . 2 2 Two years l a t e r , i n 1801, C a r t e r also attacked those who derided medieval t r a d i t i o n s , who " f o i l the h i s t o r i c page with a blackening s t a i n ; 'dark ages' i s t h e i r warhoop cry; and a l l t h e i r purposes l e a d t o i n n o v a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as a r c h i t e c t u r a l . " 2 3 C a r t e r thus e x p l i c i t l y h e l d up a n a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n found i n B r i t a i n as a defence a g a i n s t r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d wi t h France : I n the day l i k e the p r e s e n t , when the i n f e r n a l d i s p e n s e r s of " l i b e r t y and e q u a l i t y " a re s p r e a d i n g t h e i r d e s t r o y i n g power over so many realms, and when t h i s c o u n t r y , the fa v o u r e d n a t i o n of Heaven, has h i t h e r t o escaped the d i r e f u l c o n t a g i o n ; i t behoves ev e r y Englishman t o come f o r w a r d i n the g e n e r a l cause, t o p r o t e c t h i s K i n g and Country ... and I know o f no way t h a t can so w e l l a i d the g e n e r a l cause, as to s t i m u l a t e my countrymen to t h i n k w e l l of t h e i r own n a t i o n a l memorials, the works of a r t , of a n c i e n t times, and not h o l d up any f o r e i g n works•as s u p e r i o r t o our own; and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the name of France s h o u l d never be i n t r o d u c e d , but to r a i s e i d e a s of t e r r o r and d e s t r u c t i o n ! 2 4 Wanting t o a p p r o p r i a t e G o t h i c as England's n a t i o n a l s t y l e , C a r t e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e had i n f a c t o r i g i n a t e d i n England, c l a i m i n g i n 1801 t h a t "There i s v e r y l i t t l e doubt t h a t the l i g h t and e l e g a n t s t y l e of b u i l d i n g , whose p r i n c i p a l and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e i s the h i g h p o i n t e d a r c h s t r u c k from two c e n t r e s , was i n v e n t e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y ; i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t i t was here brought t o i t s h i g h e s t s t a t e of p e r f e c t i o n . . . . " 2 5 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , a l t h o u g h C a r t e r acknowledged the Norman i n f l u e n c e i n the development of E n g l i s h G o t h i c , 2 6 he s p e c i f i c a l l y attempted t o t r a c e the G o t h i c s t y l e t o Saxon o r i g i n s , s t a t i n g i n The Gentleman's Magazine i n 1810 t h a t t h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l mode had e v o l v e d as a slow, not r a d i c a l o r sudden, change from Roman source: "The Saxon A r c h i t e c t u r e was a g r a d u a l d e v i a t i o n from the Roman; and out of the Saxon f a n c i f u l i d e a s sprang the P o i n t e d Arch; not a sudden c r e a t i o n , but a l o n g and p r o g r e s s i v e growing up of the A r t , s i x c e n t u r i e s a t l e a s t . . . . " 2 7 C a r t e r a l s o m a i n t a i n e d t h a t G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e s h o u l d r i g h t f u l l y , and w i t h " p e c u l i a r p r o p r i e t y " be c a l l e d " E n g l i s h , " as i t s e s s e n t i a l development had taken p l a c e i n En g l a n d . 2 8 I n h i s A Guide t o the C a t h e d r a l of E l y , of 1805, 2 9 the well-known a r c h i t e c t u r a l w r i t e r George M i l l e r s p r o v i d e d support f o r C a r t e r ' s argument t h a t G o t h i c s h o u l d be c o n c e i v e d as ' E n g l i s h , ' a l t h o u g h he d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y support the t h e o r y of a Saxon o r i g i n of the G o t h i c s t y l e : The Saxon and Norman s t y l e s a r e v e r y p r o p e r l y denominated. from the n a t i o n s i n which they r e s p e c t i v e l y f l o u r i s h e d . To the s t y l e which succeeded these, the Goths are no more e n t i t l e d t o the honour of g i v i n g a name than the P e r u v i a n s or Chinese ... the more a p p r o p r i a t e and honourable name E n g l i s h i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r i t . . . 3 0 C a r t e r ' s e a r l i e r e l e v a t i o n of medieval a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the l a s t q u a r t e r of the 18 t h c e n t u r y had c o i n c i d e d w i t h the famous p e r i o d o f E n g l i s h r a d i c a l i s m when such well-known f i g u r e s as Obadiah Hulme p e r s i s t e n t l y h e l d f o r t h the i d e a s of the Saxon Golden Age and the Norman Yoke, and when the Saxon h e r i t a g e was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d by r a d i c a l f a c t i o n s w i t h E n g l i s h n a t i o n a l i s m . However, w i t h the French R e v o l u t i o n the-Saxon h e r i t a g e came t o be l i n k e d not o n l y w i t h domestic r a d i c a l i s m , but, more t h r e a t e n i n g l y , w i t h French r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a s . I n t h i s p e r i o d England's Norman h e r i t a g e was i n c r e a s i n g l y fore-grounded (a p o i n t t o which I w i l l r e t u r n i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n ) , and the Norman o r i g i n s of the G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l mode a l s o g a i n e d growing a t t e n t i o n . A c c e p t i n g Norman o r i g i n s f o r E n g l i s h G o t h i c would, however, have i m p l i e d an acceptance of 'French' o r i g i n s f o r what C a r t e r wanted t o c l a i m as England's n a t i o n a l s t y l e . As a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n James Mordaunt Crook has shown, i n o r d e r t o emphasise the E n g l i s h n e s s of the G o t h i c s t y l e , C a r t e r suppressed the d e s i g n a t i o n 'Norman,' and he a c c o r d i n g l y a n t e d a t e d E n g l i s h G o t h i c b u i l d i n g s , c l a i m i n g t h a t they had i n f a c t been e r e c t e d i n the Saxon e r a , p r e c e d i n g the Norman Conquest. 3 1 However, the ' E n g l i s h n e s s ' of G o t h i c came i n c r e a s i n g l y t o be r e f u t e d ; as was w e l l known, England's G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e i n f a c t dated to the y e a r s when the c o u n t r y was r u l e d by the descendants of the Norman conquerors, and i t was t h e r e f o r e understood by many e x p e r t s as h a v i n g Norman, and hence ' f o r e i g n , ' o r i g i n s . The predominant view among most s c h o l a r l y a r c h i t e c t s and a n t i q u a r i a n s i n the f i r s t decades of the 19 t h c e n t u r y was t h a t the G o t h i c s t y l e had not i n f a c t o r i g i n a t e d i n England, but had been c r e a t e d through the i n t e r p l a y of many d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s , w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the o r i g i n s of G o t h i c c o u l d not be determined e x a c t l y . 3 2 Most n o t a b l y , the a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n George W h i t t i n g t o n c l a i m e d i n 1811, i n h i s a u t h o r i t a t i v e An H i s t o r i c a l Survey of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l  A n t i q u i t i e s of France, t h a t the G o t h i c s t y l e had o r i g i n a t e d i n the E a s t and had been brought t o the West by the c r u s a d e r s . Furthermore, W h i t t i n g t o n d e f i n i t i v e l y argued t h a t the G o t h i c s t y l e had a c t u a l l y emerged i n France e a r l i e r than i n B r i t a i n ; hence the c l o s e s t h i s t o r i c a l l y t r a c e a b l e o r i g i n s of G o t h i c had t o be acknowledged as b e i n g Norman—or F r e n c h . 3 3 2. W r i t i n g the n a t i o n i n terms of h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e and 'race;'  Saxon l i b e r t y and the 'enemy w i t h i n . ' I n the t u r b u l e n t y e a r s a f t e r the French R e v o l u t i o n n a t i o n a l and ' r a c i a l ' o r i g i n s were i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p l i c a t e d i n p o l i t i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l debates. Under t h r e a t of r a d i c a l i s m and f e a r s of r e v o l u t i o n a r y u p r i s i n g s s p r e a d i n g t o B r i t a i n , c o n s e r v a t i v e o p i n i o n , emphasising the Norman Conquest as the f o u n d a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l government, g a i n e d c u r r e n c y and began t o c h a l l e n g e the r a d i c a l s ' i n s i s t e n c e on the v i r t u e and democracy of the Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n . 3 4 The myth of the Saxon Golden Age and the Norman Yoke, and the r a d i c a l s ' c r i t i q u e of the Norman Conquest and t h e i r defence of the Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n , were i n p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t e r e d by the c o n s e r v a t i v e h i s t o r i a n Sharon Turner i n h i s famous..works The H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons from t h e i r F i r s t < Appearance above the E l b e t o the Norman Conquest, of 1 8 0 2 - 5 , and H i s t o r y of England from the Norman Conquest t o the A c c e s s i o n of  Edward I . of 1 8 1 4 . Turner's h i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons has been seen as a p i o n e e r i n g work, c e l e b r a t i n g England's Saxon h i s t o r y and h e r i t a g e . 3 5 However, Turner's p r a i s e of the Anglo-Saxons was h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d , and i n f a c t i n many r e s p e c t s c o n s t i t u t e d an i n d i c t m e n t of the Saxons, r e p r e s e n t i n g them as a p r i m i t i v e and u n e n l i g h t e n e d p e o p l e . I n h i s The H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons 3 6 Turner d e n i e d t h a t the Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n had been d e m o c r a t i c and e g a l i t a r i a n , a r g u i n g i n s t e a d t h a t the Anglo-Saxon community was h i e r a r c h i c a l l y ordered, 3 7 w i t h the Saxons not c o n s i d e r i n g a l l ranks as e q u a l . 3 8 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n terms of modern p o l i t i c s , Turner a l s o c l a i m e d t h a t land-ownership had i n d e e d been a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r o b t a i n i n g a sea t i n the Saxon Wittenagemot, o r C o u n c i l of E l d e r s . 3 9 He a l s o m a i n t a i n e d t h a t E n g l i s h l i b e r t i e s had not been a b r i d g e d by the Norman Conquest: The Norman Conquest was ... no abridgement of the l i b e r t i e s of England; on the c o n t r a r y , i t e s t a b l i s h e d ... a p o w e r f u l and a c t i v e a r i s t o c r a c y , which was s t r o n g enough a t times even t o g i v e the law t o i t s s o v e r e i g n . I t promoted the eman c i p a t i o n of the s e r v i l e , and i t p r o t e c t e d the p r i v i l e g e s of the f r e e . 4 0 At one l e v e l , then, Turner's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Anglo-Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n as h i e r a r c h i c a l and as based on land-ownership r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s e r v a t i v e support f o r e x i s t i n g modern h i e r a r c h i e s and f o r the p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n of the l a n d -owning c l a s s e s , and j u s t i f i e d the contemporary e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y p a r l i a m e n t a r y system whereby Members of P a r l i a m e n t were r e q u i r e d t o be s u b s t a n t i a l landowners. Furthermore, a c c o r d i n g t o Turner, a l t h o u g h the a n c i e n t Saxons had been f r e e d o m - l o v i n g and courageous, t h e i r c h a r a c t e r as a people had a l s o been marked by b a r b a r i s m and savagery:-T h e i r w a r f a r e d i d not o r i g i n a t e from the more generous, o r the more pardonable of man's e v i l p a s s i o n s . I t was the o f f s p r i n g of the b a s e s t . T h e i r swords were not unsheathed by a m b i t i o n o r revenge. The l o v e of p l u n d e r and c r u e l t y was t h e i r f a v o u r i t e h a b i t , and hence 'they a t t a c k e d i n d i f f e r e n t l y e v e r y c o a s t which they c o u l d r e a c h . . . 4 1 Turner a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d the Saxons a t the time of the Norman Conquest as e n f e e b l e d and degenerated, and as an " e f f e m i n a t e , " "submissive and u n w a r l i k e p e o p l e " : At t h a t p e r i o d the Anglo-Saxons, o r i g i n a l l y the f i e r c e s t n a t i o n of the p r e d a t o r y North, had become changed i n t o a s u b m i s s i v e and u n w a r l i k e people, by the u n i t e d i n f l u e n c e of p r o p e r t y and l u x u r y , of a g r e a t l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y , and a r i c h l y endowed h i e r a r c h y . But t h e i r c o n d i t i o n was r a t h e r degeneracy than c i v i l i s a t i o n . T h e i r s o v e r e i g n s were men of f e e b l e minds; t h e i r n o b l e s , f a c t i o u s and e f f e m i n a t e ; the c l e r g y c o r r u p t and i g n o r a n t ; the people, s e r v i l e and depr e s s e d . 4 2 A r g u i n g t h a t England's h i s t o r y had, from the Conquest, been a h i s t o r y of c o n t i n u e d n a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s toward c i v i l i s a t i o n , 4 3 Turner c o u l d d e s c r i b e the conquering Normans .as a peopl e embodying a s p i r i t of e n t e r p r i s e , f e r v e n t p i e t y and moral c h a r a c t e r , a p e o p l e formed f o r l o f t y achievements and n a t i o n a l c e l e b r i t y . 4 4 The Normans emerge as a c h i v a l r o u s and h e r o i c 'race' who had brought a l a w f u l c o n s t i t u t i o n , t r u e government and a u t h o r i t y , c u l t u r e , c i v i l i s a t i o n and p i e t y t o England, and as a peop l e who had i n f u s e d the degenerated Saxons w i t h new 'manly' v i g o u r and s p i r i t : A l l the v e n e r a t e d forms of the Saxon i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t e d , but t h e i r s p i r i t had evaporated ... England was s l u m b e r i n g i n t h i s d e c l i n i n g s t a t e , when the Norman Conquest, l i k e a moral earthquake, suddenly shook i t s p o l i t y and p o p u l a t i o n t o t h e i r c e n t r e ; broke up and h u r l e d i n t o r u i n a l l i t s a n c i e n t a r i s t o c r a c y ; d e s t r o y e d the n a t i v e p r o p r i e t o r s of i t s s o i l ; a n n i h i l a t e d i t s c o r r u p t h a b i t s , t h i n n e d i t s e n e r v a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n ; k i n d l e d a v i g o r o u s s p i r i t of l i f e and a c t i o n i n a l l the c l a s s e s of i t s s o c i e t y ; and r a i s e d from the mighty r u i n s w i t h which i t o v e r s p r e a d the c o u n t r y , t h a t new and g r e a t c h a r a c t e r of government, c l e r g y , and n o b i l i t y , and people, which the B r i t i s h h i s t o r y has never ceased t o d i s p l a y ...45 At a time i n the e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y when i d e a s of Saxon democracy c o n j u r e d up the r e c e n t r e v o l u t i o n a r y events i n France, and when many l o o k e d to t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y and r u l e as the s a f e g u a r d f o r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y and peace, Turner's j u x t a p o s i n g of Saxons and Normans i s c l e a r ; the Saxons, and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , had 'degenerated,' w h i l e the Norman a r i s t o c r a c y was p o w e r f u l and a c t i v e , s t r o n g enough t o g i v e the law t o the k i n g , but a l s o compassionate and p r o t e c t i v e of the s e r v i l e and the f r e e . The p r o c e s s through which the h i s t o r y of the B r i t i s h n a t i o n came t o be seen i n terms of a r a c i a l c o n f l i c t can be u n d e r s t o o d through M i c h e l F o u c a u l t ' s d i s c u s s i o n on r a c e i n h i s 1975 C o l l e g e de France l e c t u r e . H i s t o r i a n Ann Laura S t o l e r has p o i n t e d out t h a t F o u c a u l t , d i s c u s s i n g i n t e r n a l s t a t e r a c i s m , d e s c r i b e d i t as "a combat t o be c a r r i e d out not between two r a c e s , but between a r a c e p l a c e d as the t r u e and o n l y one ( t h a t h o l d s power and d e f i n e s the norm), and one t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s v a r i o u s dangers f o r the b i o l o g i c a l patrimony." 4 6 F o u c a u l t f u r t h e r argued t h a t i n the 2 0 t h c e n t u r y "the theme of r a c e w i l l no l o n g e r s e r v e one s o c i a l group a g a i n s t another; i t w i l l become a ' t o o l ' of s o c i a l c o n s e r v a t i s m s and of racisms of the s t a t e , " and emerge as "an i n t e r n a l r a c i s m — t h a t of c o n s t a n t p u r i f i c a t i o n — w h i c h w i l l be one of the fundamental dimensions of s o c i a l n o r m a l i s a t i o n . " 4 7 F o u c a u l t c h a r a c t e r i s e d the i n s i d i o u s workings of i n t e r n a l s t a t e r a c i s m i n an argument f o r m u l a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: ... we must defend s o c i e t y a g a i n s t a l l the b i o l o g i c a l danger of t h a t o t h e r r a c e , of t h a t sub-race, of t h a t c o u n t e r - r a c e t h a t d e s p i t e o u r s e l v e s we are c o n s t i t u t i n g 48 F o u c a u l t ' s n o t i o n of "a c o u n t e r - r a c e t h a t d e s p i t e o u r s e l v e s we a r e c o n s t i t u t i n g " can be a p p l i e d t o d e s c r i b e the e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r y c o n s e r v a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a degenerated Saxon c o u n t e r - r a c e , o r 'other,' t h a t was ambiguous and p r o b l e m a t i c p r e c i s e l y because i n d i v i d u a l s were c o n s t i t u t i n g i t ' d e s p i t e themselves.' I n the a f t e r m a t h of the French R e v o l u t i o n and the d e f e a t of Napoleon, the Enlightenment i d e a l s of Reason, u n i v e r s a l e q u a l i t y and l i b e r t y which the E n g l i s h p r i d e d themselves i n r e p r e s e n t i n g , now c o n s t i t u t e d , f o r c o n s e r v a t i v e s , a t h r e a t t o e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s and t o t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s of p r o p e r t y and power. Turner's h i s t o r i e s of the Saxons and the Normans i n e f f e c t t u r n e d the Saxon 'counter-r a c e , ' which f o r many e p i t o m i s e d t r u e d e m o c r a t i c p r o g r e s s i n p o l i t i c s , i n t o a r a c i a l , p r i m i t i v e and savage 'other,' and opposed t h i s 'other' t o the E n g l i s h as r u l e d by the descendants of the c u l t i v a t e d Normans of the Conquest. As Ann Laura S t o l e r p u t s i t , " r a c i a l t h i n k i n g harnesses i t s e l f t o v a r i e d p r o g r e s s i v e p r o j e c t s and shapes the s o c i a l taxonomies d e f i n i n g who w i l l be ex c l u d e d from them." 4 9 A concept of 'degeneration' as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r h i s t o r i c a l development of d i f f e r e n c e s between 'races' was a common one i n the 18 t h c e n t u r y . Johann F r i e d r i c h Blumenbach, auth o r of On the N a t u r a l V a r i e t y of Mankind, of 1776, 5 0 s u b s c r i b e d t o the monogenetic r a t h e r than the p o l y g e n e t i c t h e o r y of human o r i g i n s , f o l l o w i n g the B i b l i c a l account of 'man' as b e i n g descended from a s i n g l e source. Blumenbach e x p l a i n e d the d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s 'races' of humankind as due t o g r a d u a l ' r a c i a l d e g e n e r a t i o n ' caused by geographic and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . While employing the concept of 'degeneration,' and thus foreshadowing the deep b i o l o g i c a l r a c i s t t h i n k i n g of the 20 t h c e n t u r y , which F o u c a u l t was e x p l o r i n g , Turner's main concern was w i t h c u l t u r a l and mental d i f f e r e n c e s as d e f i n i n g and s e p a r a t i n g the v a r i o u s 'races.' Turner's work i n f a c t s e r v e s as a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of how c u l t u r e was made s u b t l y c o m p l i c i t i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of ' r a c i a l ' d i f f e r e n c e s . 5 1 A l t h o u g h i t a f f e c t e d t o be a c r i t i c a l and o b j e c t i v e h i s t o r i c a l study, Turner's a n a l y s i s , f o c u s i n g on a l l e g e d mental, i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the Saxons and the Normans to d e f i n e and j u s t i f y s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and moral s t a n d i n g , i n f a c t responded t o p r e v i o u s myths and t o contemporary e x i g e n c i e s , so as t o p r o v i d e the p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l and n a t i o n a l l i f e . R a c i a l d i v i s i o n was i n s h o r t e l e v a t e d , i n c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , i n t o a s a l i e n t f e a t u r e which came to s e r v e as the agent of s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . Sharon Turner's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Norman h e r i t a g e was not u n c h a l l e n g e d . The h i s t o r i a n and r a d i c a l r e f o r m e r T. H. B. O l d f i e l d i n h i s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e H i s t o r y of Great B r i t a i n and  I r e l a n d ; B e i n g a H i s t o r y of the House of Commons, p u b l i s h e d i n 1816, 5 2 r e a c t i v a t e d Hulme's e a r l i e r c l a i m f o r the Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n as the o r i g i n a l d e mocratic c o n s t i t u t i o n of England. I n c o n t r a s t t o Sharon Turner who i n t e r s p e r s e d h i s h i s t o r i c a l account w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , O l d f i e l d c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n on h i s t o r i c a l p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . O l d f i e l d e n u n c i a t e d the myth of the Norman Yoke and a l l i t s n e g a t i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s f o r B r i t i s h l i b e r t y : As power n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w s p r o p e r t y , t h i s r e v o l u t i o n gave g r e a t s e c u r i t y t o f o r e i g n e r s ... W i l l i a m ... i n t r o d u c e d i n t o England the f e o d a l law, as e s t a b l i s h e d i n France and Normandy ... He d i v i d e d the lands except the r o y a l demesne, i n t o b a r o n i e s , which he c o n f e r r e d on h i s f o l l o w e r s ... As none of the E n g l i s h were a d m i t t e d i n t o the f i r s t rank, the few who r e t a i n e d t h e i r landed p r o p e r t y were g l a d t o be r e c e i v e d i n t o the second ... The Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n , and the l i b e r t i e s of the people were then a n n i h i l a t e d , and the Wittenagemot, o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p e o p l e , sunk under the a c c u m u l a t i n g t y r a n n y . o f the f e o d a l system. 5 3 O l d f i e l d ' s t h e s i s i n f a c t p a r a l l e l e d the d o c t r i n e promoted by the French h i s t o r i a n A u g u s t i n T h i e r r y and g i v e n form i n E n g l i s h i n h i s H i s t o r y of the Conquest of England by the Normans, of 1825. A c c o r d i n g t o T h i e r r y ' s p h i l o s o p h y of h i s t o r y , a p p l i c a b l e i n England as i n France, the conquest of a c o u n t r y h i s t o r i c a l l y l e d t o the c r e a t i o n of two ranks, o r 'two n a t i o n s , ' whereby the con q u e r i n g 'race' o c c u p i e d the p o s i t i o n of a r u l i n g e l i t e w h i l e the conquered peo p l e sunk t o the l e v e l of s l a v e r y and s e r v i t u d e . 5 4 O l d f i e l d , however, sometimes r e p e a t i n g Hulme's work v e r b a t i m i n h i s own h i s t o r y , demanded, l i k e Hulme, a r e t u r n t o a p e r c e i v e d o r i g i n a l Saxon c o n s t i t u t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t w i t h Turner who c l a i m e d t h a t i n a n c i e n t Saxon times the r i g h t t o v o t e had been v e s t e d i n p r o p e r t y owners, O l d f i e l d m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e system of government, where each householder who p a i d taxes was e n t i t l e d t o v o t e , had been the a n c i e n t h e r i t a g e of the Saxons, but had been o v e r t u r n e d by the Norman Conqueror. 5 5 O l d f i e l d a l s o a t t a c k e d the law enacted under Queen Anne, which s t a t e d the requirement of land-ownership f o r h o l d i n g p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . Under Queen Anne the g r e a t Whig landowners had been a b l e t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power, through the s t i p u l a t i o n of landed q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r Members of P a r l i a m e n t . Borrowing from Hulme's An H i s t o r i c a l Essay on the E n g l i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n , 5 6 O l d f i e l d c l a i m e d t h a t ... i n the r e i g n of Queen Anne the P a r l i a m e n t made a law, f o r a landed q u a l i f i c a t i o n of the members of the House of Commons, by which i t was enacted, t h a t e v e r y member f o r a county s h o u l d be possessed of an e s t a t e i n l a n d of 600 pounds a y e a r ; and every member f o r a borough s h o u l d have an e s t a t e i n l a n d of 300 pounds a y e a r . The p r i n c i p l e s upon which these two laws are founded have i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n c o n v e r t e d our f r e e c o n s t i t u t i o n and mode of government, i n t o a downright rank a r i s t o c r a c y of the r i c h i n l a n d . 5 7 M a i n t a i n i n g t h a t the q u a l i f i c a t i o n law of Queen Anne had c r e a t e d a B r i t i s h government c o n s i s t i n g of an upper c l a s s of w e a l t h y landowners, descended from the Norman conquerors, O l d f i e l d c r i t i c i s e d the contemporary modern P a r l i a m e n t i n B r i t a i n f o r b e i n g dominated by landowners who put t h e i r i n t e r e s t s b e f o r e the w e l f a r e of the c o u n t r y as a whole. 5 8 The myth of the democratic Saxons was i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h the n a r r a t i v e of the f r e e d o m - l o v i n g and p o w e r f u l G o t h i c t r i b e s who had o v e r r u n Rome. The term 'Gothic' came i n t o use i n the 17 t h c e n t u r y as an e p i t h e t employed by p a r l i a m e n t a r y l e a d e r s t o defend the p r e r o g a t i v e of P a r l i a m e n t a g a i n s t the p r e t e n s i o n s of the K i n g t o a b s o l u t e r u l e , ' 5 9 a l o n g s i d e the myth of the Saxon Golden Age. A c c o r d i n g t o 17th c e n t u r y a n t i q u a r i e s the f o r e b e a r s of the E n g l i s h were the Germanic, or G o t h i c i n v a d e r s of Rome.60 What i s i m p o r t a n t here i s the simultaneous i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the 17 t h c e n t u r y p a r l i a m e n t a r y Whigs w i t h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and d e m o c r a t i c Saxon t r a d i t i o n s , as w e l l as w i t h the 'Gothic' t r a d i t i o n ; indeed, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h these two s t r a n d s of t r a d i t i o n formed an important p a r t i n the c o n s t i t u t i n g o f a sense of B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y i n the 19 t h c e n t u r y . 6 1 The G o t h i c n a r r a t i v e was a l s o l i n k e d w i t h the Germanic myth of the T r a n s l a t i o I m p e r i i ad T e u t o n i c o s , a c c o r d i n g t o which Roman i m p e r i a l power had been t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Germanic p e o p l e s . The myth of the T r a n s l a t i o o r i g i n a t e d i n the B i b l i c a l p r o p h e s i e s of D a n i e l naming the f o u r c o n s e c u t i v e empires of a n t i q u i t y , the B a b y l o n i a n , the Medo-Persian, the Greek and the Roman. German P r o t e s t a n t Reformers, c l a i m i n g t h a t Charlemagne had been German, saw h i s Empire i n terms of a t r a n s f e r of w o r l d power from the c o r r u p t Roman Empire t o the T e u t o n i c r e j u v e n a t o r s of Europe, and the R e f o r m a t i o n as the Germanic r e l i g i o u s v i c t o r y over Rome.62 The T e u t o n i c myth had widespread c u r r e n c y s i n c e the 17 t h c e n t u r y i n England; the h i s t o r i a n John Hare, i n h i s h i s t o r y of England of 1647, had expressed the common argument t h a t the B r i t i s h were descended from Germany and belonged t o a T e u t o n i c n a t i o n , and he c o n t r a s t e d the Teutons w i t h the " s e r v i l e body" of the o c c i d e n t a l n a t i o n s of Europe: We are members of the T e u t o n i c k n a t i o n , and descended out of Germany, a descent so honourable and happy, i f d u l y c o n s i d e r e d , as t h a t the l i k e c o u l d not have been f e t c h e d from any o t h e r p a r t of Europe, nor s c a r c e of the u n i v e r s e ... S c a r c e l y was t h e r e any w o r l d o r manhood l e f t i n the o c c i d e n t a l n a t i o n s , a f t e r t h e i r so l o n g s e r v i t u d e under the Roman Yoke, u n t i l these new s u p p l i e s of f r e e b o r n men r e -i n f u s e d the same, and r e i n f o r c e d the then s e r v i l e body of the west, w i t h a s p i r i t of honour and magnanimity. 6 3 Hare's h i s t o r y formed p a r t of a c o l l e c t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l m a n u s c r i p t s , H a r l e i a n M i s c e l l a n y , begun by Robert H a r l e y , E a r l of Oxford, i n the e a r l y 18 t h c e n t u r y , and p u b l i s h e d i n 1744-1746. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the H a r l e y c o l l e c t i o n of n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l works, i n c l u d i n g Hare's h i s t o r y , was r e p u b l i s h e d i n 1810, a t a time when B r i t a i n ' s i m p e r i a l power was seen as t h r e a t e n e d by the N a p o l e o n i c wars, and a t a time when the c o u n t r y was governed by a Hanoverian k i n g . Hare's l a u d a t o r y account of the Germanic Teutons as the defenders of Europe's freedom, e v o k i n g the myth of the T r a n s l a t i o , can be seen as a reminder t h a t the E n g l i s h descendants of the T e u t o n i c Saxons and Goths, r u l e d now by the Hanoverian Royal f a m i l y of German descent, were d e s t i n e d t o be the founders of a new empire i n Europe. 6 4 The concept had a c u r r e n c y w e l l i n t o the middl e of the 19 t h c e n t u r y . 6 5 John M. Kemble's f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d h i s t o r y of England's Germanic p a s t , The Saxons i n England, of 1849, 6 6 e c h o i n g the thoughts of Hare, was reviewed by a c r i t i c i n The Edinburgh Review, who r e i t e r a t e d the i d e a t h a t the Germanic pe o p l e were t o re g e n e r a t e the Western w o r l d : But the t r u e m i s s i o n of the Germanic peop l e was t o renova t e and r e - o r g a n i s e the western w o r l d . I n the h e a r t of the f o r e s t , amid the s i l e n c e of unbroken p l a i n s , the Teuton r e c o g n i s e d a law and f u l f i l l e d d u t i e s , of which the s a n c t i t y i f not the memory, was n e a r l y e x t i n c t among r a c e s who deemed and c a l l e d him a b a r b a r i a n ... and i t i s the p o r t r a i t u r e of the Teuton do i n g h i s a p p o i n t e d work, i n r e -i n f u s i n g l i f e and v i g o u r and the s a n c t i o n s of a l o f t y m o r a l i t y i n t o the e f f e t e and marrowless i n s t i t u t i o n s of the Roman w o r l d , which i s drawn i n the volumes b e f o r e u s . 5 7 Dr. Thomas A r n o l d , renowned clergyman and headmaster of Rugby Sc h o o l , e n u n c i a t i n g the m y t h o l o g i c a l r a c i a l Saxon and T e u t o n i c i d e o l o g y , e x p r e s s e d i t s 19 t h c e n t u r y u n d e r p i n n i n g s of demo c r a t i c i d e a l i s m and moral and c i v i c v i r t u e . A r n o l d d e s c r i b e d i n the l a t e 1820s the moment when he f i r s t saw the v a l l e y of the Rhine: ... b e f o r e us l a y the l a n d of our Saxon and T e u t o n i c f o r e f a t h e r s - - t h e l a n d u n c o r r u p t e d by Roman or any o t h e r m i x t u r e ; the b i r t h p l a c e of the most moral r a c e s of men the w o r l d has y e t seen--of the soundest laws--the l e a s t v i o l e n t p a s s i o n s , and the f a i r e s t domestic and c i v i l v i r t u e s . 6 8 I n h i s i n a u g u r a l l e c t u r e , d e l i v e r e d i n 1841 when he became p r o f e s s o r of h i s t o r y a t Oxford, A r n o l d argued t h a t the Roman Empire p o s s e s s e d C h r i s t i a n i t y and the i n t e l l e c t u a l and p o l i t i c a l l e g a c i e s of Greece and Rome; however "What was not t h e r e , was s i m p l y the German r a c e , and the p e c u l i a r q u a l i t i e s which c h a r a c t e r i s e i t . " 6 9 A r n o l d f u r t h e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t w h i l e the E n g l i s h owed a g r e a t d e a l m o r a l l y t o Rome and Greece, they owed n o t h i n g t o them i n r a c e : "Our E n g l i s h r a c e i s the German r a c e . " 7 0 Emphasising the domination of the Germanic r a c e , and of the E n g l i s h , he wrote t h a t " h a l f of Europe, and a l l America and A u s t r a l i a , a r e German more or l e s s c o m p l e t e l y , i n r a c e , i n language, o r i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , o r i n a l l . " 7 1 Thus the Saxons who i n the e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , a time of p a r a n o i a and f e a r of r e v o l u t i o n a r y upheavals, had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y t h r e a t s t o the s t a b i l i t y of the n a t i o n and had been r e p r e s e n t e d , by c o n s e r v a t i v e s a t l e a s t , as 'degenerated' and b a r b a r i a n , were, l a t e r i n the c e n t u r y when the r e v o l u t i o n a r y t h r e a t s had g r a d u a l l y s u b s i d e d , e l e v a t e d as the T e u t o n i c founders of the E n g l i s h ' n a t i o n . ' England's h i s t o r y was r e w r i t t e n as the h i s t o r y of it's T e u t o n i c , Saxon and G o t h i c p a s t . I n t h i s p r o c e s s the i d e a of p o l i t i c a l democracy a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Saxons was s u b t l y subsumed under the o v e r - a r c h i n g concepts of T e u t o n i c , Saxon and G o t h i c m o r a l i t y , c u l t u r e and power. Yet, the T e u t o n i c h e r i t a g e was n o t unc o n t e s t e d . Charlemagne's Empire had a l s o t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c l a i m e d by the French who saw Charlemagne as a Frank, not a German. Thus i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the h i s t o r i a n W a l t e r C. P e r r y , i n h i s The  Franks, from T h e i r F i r s t Appearance i n H i s t o r y t o the Death of  K i n g Pepin, of 1 8 5 7 , e m p h a t i c a l l y e r a s e d the denomination 'Frank' a l t o g e t h e r , a r g u i n g t h a t The g r e a t l e a d e r s and monarchs of the F r a n k i s h n a t i o n have been f a r more c l o s e l y connected w i t h modern France than i s war r a n t e d by h i s t o r i c a l t r u t h . I t w i l l be observed t h a t i n the f o l l o w i n g pages we everywhere speak of the Franks e x c l u s i v e l y as Germans, as one of the many o f f s h o o t s of the mighty T e u t o n i c r a c e , which f o r more than a thousand y e a r s has been s t e a d i l y advancing towards u n i v e r s a l dominion over the p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and moral w o r l d . 7 2 While P e r r y argued f o r a u n i t y between the Germanic peoples which i n c l u d e d the E n g l i s h Saxons as w e l l as the Germanic Franks, the p e r i o d of the 1 8 t h and e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r i e s i n B r i t a i n was a l s o marked by attempts a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between England's Norman and Saxon o r i g i n s , and the a n i m o s i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the myths of the Saxons and Normans were cou n t e r e d by attempts a t n a r r a t i v e s ^ o f appeasement. D a v i d Hume, i n h i s The H i s t o r y of  England from the I n v a s i o n of J u l i u s Caesar t o the R e v o l u t i o n i n  1688, of 1 7 6 2 , saw the Norman Conquest as h a v i n g brought an end to E n g l i s h " n a t i v e l i b e r t i e s " and as h a v i n g sunk the E n g l i s h p eople i n t o the "most a b j e c t s l a v e r y . " 7 3 A c c o r d i n g t o Hume the Conquest and subsequent r e i g n s had g i v e n r i s e t o "mutual j e a l o u s i e s and a n i m o s i t i e s " between the E n g l i s h and the Normans; however, he a l s o h e l d t h a t these a n i m o s i t i e s had e v e n t u a l l y been appeased, and "a l o n g t r a c t of time had g r a d u a l l y u n i t e d the two n a t i o n s and made them one p e o p l e . " 7 4 I n the e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y the f a m o u s . n o v e l i s t S i r W a l t e r S c o t t , i n h i s Ivanhoe, of 1 8 1 9 , had a l s o f o r m u l a t e d such a r e s o l u t i o n t o the c o n f l i c t between the two 'races . ' S c o t t r e p r e s e n t e d the Saxons as a degenerated pe o p l e , and the Norman Conquest as the event which brought an i n f u s i o n of v i g o u r t o an e n f e e b l e d Anglo-Saxon 'race.' However, S c o t t a l s o emphasised t h a t the Conquest r e s u l t e d i n a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and amalgamation of the two 'races' of Saxons and Normans wherein the s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t i e s would be i n v i s i b l e . S c o t t d e s c r i b e d the wedding ceremony of the Saxon h e r o i n e and the Norman hero i n Ivanhoe: ... these d i s t i n g u i s h e d n u p t i a l s were c e l e b r a t e d by the attendance of the hi g h - b o r n Normans, as w e l l as Saxons, j o i n e d w i t h the u n i v e r s a l j u b i l e e of the lower o r d e r s , t h a t marked the marriage of two i n d i v i d u a l s as a ple d g e of the f u t u r e peace and harmony b e t w i x t two r a c e s , which, s i n c e t h a t p e r i o d , have been so c o m p l e t e l y mingled, t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n has become w h o l l y i n v i s i b l e . 7 5 Sharon Turner, i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t manner, r e s o l v e d the problem of the c l a s h i n g ' r a c i a l ' o r i g i n s by s t a t i n g i n h i s H i s t o r y o f England from the Norman Conquest, of 1814, t h a t the Normans were d e r i v e d from the "Northmen," who had e s t a b l i s h e d a S c a n d i n a v i a n r a c e i n Normandy. 7 6 Thomas A r n o l d a l s o made a s p e c i f i c p o i n t of i n c l u d i n g the Normans i n the Germanic 'race,' and he s t r e s s e d t h a t the Normans and the Saxons had o r i g i n a t e d from a common T e u t o n i c s t o c k : 7 7 ... f o r though our Norman f o r e f a t h e r s had l e a r n t t o speak a s t r a n g e r ' s language, y e t i n bl o o d , as we know, they were the Saxons' b r e t h r e n : b o t h a l i k e b e l o n g t o the T e u t o n i c o r ' German s t o c k . 7 8 The k i n s h i p between the Saxons and the Normans became a commonplace assumption toward the middl e of the 19 t h c e n t u r y . L i k e A r n o l d , Thomas C a r l y l e a l s o d e n i e d any ' r a c i a l ' d i v i s i o n between Saxons and Normans, co n t e n d i n g t h a t the "Normans were Saxons who had l e a r n e d t o speak F r e n c h . " 7 9 By the l a t t e r p a r t of the 19 t h c e n t u r y the r a c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the E n g l i s h was f i r m l y r o o t e d i n a Germanic h e r i t a g e which i n c l u d e d Saxons and Normans, and the concept of the Germanic f o l k as the new masters of the w o r l d was l a r g e l y e s t a b l i s h e d . W a l t e r C. P e r r y , w r i t i n g i n 1857, saw the Germanic f o l k . a s the "people of the p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e " : I f the Greeks and Romans are r i g h t l y c a l l e d the p e o p l e of the p a s t , the Germans ... have an undoubted c l a i m t o be c o n s i d e r e d the people of the p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e . To whatever p a r t we t u r n our eyes of the course which t h i s f a v o u r e d r a c e has run, whether under the name Teuton, German, Frank, Saxon, Dane, Norman, Englishman or N o r t h American, we f i n d i t f u l l of i n t e r e s t and g l o r y . M a j e s t i c i n n a t u r e , h i g h i n s p i r i t , w i t h f e a r l e s s h e a r t s on which no s h a c k l e has been l a i d , they came f o r t h from t h e i r p r i m e v a l f o r e s t t o w r e s t l e w i t h the masters of the w o r l d . 8 0 Hence, b o t h the Saxons and t h e i r Norman conquerors were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the r a c i a l c o n c e p t i o n of a T e u t o n i c p e o p l e , and the ' B r i t i s h , ' through t h e i r newly c o n s t i t u t e d and ' r a c i a l l y ' u n i f i e d p a s t , were s e t a p a r t as the chosen r u l e r s of the w o r l d , as the l e a d e r s of an i m p e r i a l w o r l d power and as the h e i r s t o Rome. 3. R e p r e s e n t i n g ' N o r f o l k ' s Saxon and Norman h e r i t a g e s . Patrons  and h i s t o r y ; s e l e c t i n g g e n e a l o g i e s . How d i d " such Norman and Saxon debates p l a y out i n N o r f o l k ? I t has been noted a l r e a d y t h a t the p e r i o d of the French R e v o l u t i o n and of the N a p o l e o n i c wars was marked by i n c r e a s i n g domestic t r a v e l i n B r i t a i n , and by a growing, wide and p o p u l a r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l geography and scenery, and w i t h the n a t i o n ' s medieval h i s t o r y and a r c h i t e c t u r a l h e r i t a g e . As a p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g r a r i a n a r e a , N o r f o l k c o u l d not p r i d e i t s e l f on n a t u r a l s c e n i c beauty; however, the county was d e e p l y i m p r i n t e d w i t h h i s t o r y , f e a t u r i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n t a n t i q u a r i a n remains from the Saxon and the Norman e r a s . The N o r f o l k c o a s t was where the Saxons had f i r s t l a n d e d i n the f i f t h c e n t u r y , and the county of N o r f o l k was a l s o , due t o the g e o g r a p h i c a l p r o x i m i t y and the h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r c h a n g e s w i t h Normandy, c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g e s p e c i a l l y r i c h i n Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e . Thus s e v e r a l p o p u l a r a n t i q u a r i a n and t r a v e l books on N o r f o l k , p u b l i s h e d i n the p e r i o d , e l a b o r a t e d on the h i s t o r y of the Saxon and Norman eras of the county, t r a c i n g i t i n e r a r i e s around famous h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l monuments d a t i n g t o these h i s t o r i c a l times. The Norwich book s e l l e r and t r a v e l book w r i t e r R i c h a r d B e a t n i f f e , i n h i s p o p u l a r guide The N o r f o l k Tour or T r a v e l l e r s  Pocket Companion, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1772 and a p p e a r i n g i n 1808 i n i t s s i x t h r e v i s e d e d i t i o n , 8 1 devoted a l a r g e p a r t of h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Saxon h i s t o r y of N o r f o l k . B e a t n i f f e r e l a t e d how a f t e r the d e p a r t u r e of the Romans the Saxons, l e d by t h e i r c h i e f C e r d i c , had landed i n N o r f o l k i n the y e a r 495: Foremost ... we have t o n o t i c e C e r d i c , surnamed the w a r l i k e Saxon, who ... landed i n the county of N o r f o l k , then c o n s t i t u t i n g p a r t of the p r o v i n c e of the I c e n i . 8 2 I n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Norwich C a s t l e , b e l i e v e d by the a n t i q u a r y John B r i t t o n t o have been b u i l t i n e a r l y Norman t i m e s , 8 3 B e a t n i f f e , however, drew p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the Saxon h i s t o r y of N o r f o l k and Norwich when he r e l a t e d how, a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n , the C a s t l e f i g u r e d i m p o r t a n t l y i n the r e i g n of the Saxon K i n g A l f r e d : I n the Danish wars i t [the C a s t l e ] o f t e n changed masters, and a f t e r A l f r e d the g r e a t had overcome t h a t people, he i s supposed t o have e r e c t e d the f i r s t b u i l d i n g of b r i c k or stone about the y e a r 872 . . , 8 4 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t B e a t n i f f e d i d not mention the Norman i n v a s i o n of 1066 i n h i s work of 1 7 7 4 ; h i s p o p u l a r guide thus c e l e b r a t e d N o r f o l k ' s Saxon h e r i t a g e , a t a time when r a d i c a l s such as T. H. B. O l d f i e l d and Obadiah Hulme so p r o m i n e n t l y fore-grounded B r i t a i n ' s Saxon h i s t o r y . W h i l e the v i s i b l e remains of N o r f o l k ' s e a r l i e r m edieval h i s t o r y c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y of e d i f i c e s from the Norman e r a , the county s t i l l p r i d e d i t s e l f on what was b e l i e v e d t o be the e x i s t i n g remains of Saxon b u i l d i n g s . The a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n W i l l i a m W i l k i n s of Norwich p u b l i s h e d i n 1795 a l a v i s h l y i l l u s t r a t e d s c h o l a r l y essay on Norwich C a s t l e , s i t u a t e d i n the c i t y of Norwich. 8 5 I n t h i s essay W i l k i n s gave d e t a i l e d drawings of the C a s t l e ( f i g . 4 ) , and i n h i s t e x t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n he e s p e c i a l l y e l a b o r a t e d on i t s Saxon h i s t o r y . W i l k i n s n o t e d i n h i s s t u d y t h a t the s i t e of Norwich C a s t l e was o r i g i n a l l y one of the s e v e r a l f o r t i f i c a t i o n s b u i l t by the Romans i n N o r f o l k as p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t the d e p r e d a t i o n s of the Saxons, and he went on t o t r a c e the subsequent h i s t o r y of the landmark. 8 6 W i l k i n s t o l d the r e a d e r t h a t i n the y e a r 642 Norwich C a s t l e was the s e a t of the s e v enth Saxon K i n g Anna, and t h a t i t a l s o s e r v e d i n the n i n t h c e n t u r y as a s e a t of the Saxon K i n g A l f r e d who f o r t i f i e d i t w i t h b r i c k and stone b u i l d i n g s . 8 7 The C a s t l e c o n t i n u e d t o be i n the p o s s e s s i o n of a s u c c e s s i o n of Saxon k i n g s u n t i l i t was d e s t r o y e d i n 1004 by the Danish K i n g Swane; i t was r e b u i l t by the D a nish K i n g Canute who came to power i n 1 0 1 7 . 8 8 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , however, W i l k i n s c o n s i d e r e d the a r c h i t e c t u r e of Norwich C a s t l e t o be e s s e n t i a l l y Saxon, c l a i m i n g : A l t h o u g h the b u i l d i n g i s of Danish workmanship, i t i s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g i n the t a s t e of a r c h i t e c t u r e p r a c t i s e d by the Saxons l o n g b e f o r e England became s u b j e c t of the Danes, and i t i s the b e s t e x t e r i o r specimen of t h i s k i n d of a r c h i t e c t u r e e x t a n t . 8 9 W i l k i n s a l s o observed t h a t a l t h o u g h some au t h o r s c o n s i d e r e d the s t y l e adopted i n B r i t a i n a f t e r the d e p a r t u r e of the Romans t o be a mere c o r r u p t i o n of the a r c h i t e c t u r e of t h a t n a t i o n , the s t y l e developed i n B r i t a i n c o u l d immediately be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , by an " a r c h i t e c t u r a l eye," as b e i n g d i f f e r e n t from the Roman; co n s e q u e n t l y he h e l d t h a t t h i s mode of b u i l d i n g was more g e n e r a l l y termed "Saxon": ... indeed, i t i s now b e t t e r and more g e n e r a l l y known by the t i t l e of Saxon, from i t s b e i n g p r a c t i s e d by the Saxons p r i o r t o the Norman Conquest. 9 0 T a k i n g p a r t i n the g e n e r a l contemporary debates on the o r i g i n s of the Saxon and G o t h i c s t y l e s , W i l k i n s noted t h a t Authors are not agreed as t o the o r i g i n of Saxon a r c h i t e c t u r e ; and i t i s e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e the o r i g i n of the G o t h i c s t y l e , which immediately succeeded i t , and c o n t i n u e d i n use f o r upwards of f o u r hundred y e a r s a f t e r . 9 1 W i l k i n s a l s o devoted a l e n g t h y p a r t of. h i s essay t o e x p l a i n i n g and c l a r i f y i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Saxon and the Norman s t y l e s , p r o v i d i n g examples i n d e t a i l e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s of b o t h h i s t o r i c a l modes ( f i g s . 20, 2 1 ) . 9 2 Thus, a l t h o u g h W i l k i n s acknowledged the Saxon h e r i t a g e , h i s essay, d e a l i n g a t l e n g t h w i t h the Norman h e r i t a g e as w e l l , a l s o o c c u p i e d a m e d i a t i n g p o s i t i o n , ' - w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l domain, a t a time when the i d e a of Saxon democracy and the r a d i c a l myth of Saxon o p p r e s s i o n came t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r y -events i n France. B e a t n i f f e ' s guide and W i l k i n s ' h i s t o r y , b o t h w r i t t e n i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the 1 8 t h c e n t u r y , can be seen as f o r e - g r o u n d i n g and c e l e b r a t i n g , a l t h o u g h t o d i f f e r e n t e x t e n t s , N o r f o l k ' s Saxon p a s t . I n c o n t r a s t , N o r f o l k authors of the e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , a t a time when E n g l i s h r a d i c a l i s m had become t a i n t e d w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the French R e v o l u t i o n , tended t o emphasise the d i f f e r e n c e between a p r i m i t i v e Saxon p a s t and a subsequent development of c i v i l i s a t i o n through the Norman Conquest. These i d e a s were i n p a r t i c u l a r e x pressed i n the works of the w e l l --known N o r f o l k authors Frank Sayers and W i l l i a m T a y l o r , b o t h r e p r e s e n t i n g the e l i t e l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l c i r c l e s of Norwich. 9 3 Sayers, an admirer of Macpherson's O s s i a n , 9 4 p u b l i s h e d i n 1803 a work Dramatic Sketches of N o r t h e r n Mythology, seemingly i n a s p i r i t of a d m i r a t i o n f o r the C e l t i c and Saxon p a s t . 9 5 However, a l t h o u g h Sayers emphasised i n h i s p r e f a c e t o the Dramatic Sketches the importance of the study of England's a n c e s t r a l people, and a l t h o u g h h i s d r a m a t i c poems a c c l a i m e d the i n d i v i d u a l h e r o i sm of many a n c i e n t Saxons and C e l t s , he a l s o p o r t r a y e d the Saxons as a b a r b a r i c and p r i m i t i v e p eople, as the adherents of the s u p e r s t i t i o u s b e l i e f s and c r u e l customs of an u n e n l i g h t e n e d age. 9 6 I n h i s e p i c poem "H a r o l d and T o s t i , a Tragedy," p u b l i s h e d i n the Monthly Magazine i n 1 8 1 0 , W i l l i a m T a y l o r , i n t u r n , r e p r e s e n t e d the Saxons of the time of the Norman Conquest as c r u e l and i g n o r a n t , as l e d by crude i n s t i n c t s and l o v e of power r a t h e r than of freedom. T a y l o r p o r t r a y e d Edward the Confessor, the l a s t Saxon k i n g of England, as a weak and u n p r i n c i p l e d k i n g , governed by h i s l u s t s , and the Saxon H a r o l d , who was k i l l e d i n b a t t l e w i t h the Normans i n 1066, as a cunning and unscrupulous nobleman s e e k i n g t o usurp the throne of Edward. I n the poem Har o l d ' s b r o t h e r T o s t i b e w a i l s the l a c k of freedom i n England and a t t r i b u t e s t h i s t o the c o r r u p t i o n of the Saxon K i n g Edward and h i s nobles : A l l p u b l i c duty i s a l i k e d e s p i s ' d . How s h a l l the l a n d be f r e e , whose v e r y nobles C o n s p i r e w i t h i t s v i l e r u l e r t o oppress, B a t t e n on s t o l e n w e a l t h , grow f a t on p l u n d e r , Refuse t o make a common cause of j u s t i c e , And t o unsheath the sword of t y r a n n y ? 9 7 T a y l o r ' s work hence e r a s e d from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the Saxons the i n t e g r i t y and d e v o t i o n t o democracy and j u s t i c e w hich r a d i c a l w r i t e r s such as Hulme and O l d f i e l d had a s c r i b e d t o them. T a y l o r ' s poem, d e s c r i b i n g a c o r r u p t and v i o l e n t Saxon a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , r e p r e s s i v e of freedom, thus a l s o c o v e r t l y i m p l i e d a moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the su c c e e d i n g Norman Conquest. The debates on England's a r c h i t e c t u r a l h e r i t a g e , brought t o the f o r e by John C a r t e r ' s p o l e m i c s around England's ' n a t i o n a l ' a r c h i t e c t u r e , were taken up i n N o r f o l k by, among o t h e r s , the w e l l r e s p e c t e d l o c a l amateur h i s t o r i a n and a n t i q u a r y , the Yarmouth banker Dawson Turner. Turner's p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t and p u b l i s h i n g s p e c i a l i t y l a y i n the st u d y of Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e , and a f t e r a t o u r i n Normandy which he had undertaken i n o r d e r t o r e s e a r c h the Norman a n t i q u i t i e s of the a r e a , he p u b l i s h e d i n 1820 a work t i t l e d An Account of a Tour i n Normandy, Undertaken C h i e f l y f o r the Purpose of  I n v e s t i g a t i n g the A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of the Duchy. Turner, p u r s u i n g a d i f f e r e n t course from t h a t of John C a r t e r , was i n p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t e d i n e l u c i d a t i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s as w e l l as the d i f f e r e n c e s between Norman and Saxon modes of b u i l d i n g . To t h i s end he encouraged the well-known N o r f o l k a r t i s t John S e l l Cotman t o produce a c o l l e c t i o n of e t c h i n g s i l l u s t r a t i n g the most n o t a b l e Norman and G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k ; Cotman's A S e r i e s of E t c h i n g s  I l l u s t r a t i v e of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k , f o r which Turner wrote the d e s c r i p t i v e n o t i c e s , was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 8 1 8 . F o l l o w i n g the end of the N a p o l e o n i c wars Turner encouraged Cotman t o t r a v e l t o Normandy i n the y e a r s 1 8 1 7 , 1818 and 182 0, t o make drawings of e a r l y Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e f o r comparison w i t h b u i l d i n g s of the same c h a r a c t e r i n England. 9 8 Cotman's t r a v e l s t o Normandy r e s u l t e d i n a l a r g e and l u x u r i o u s volume, The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Normandy, which was i s s u e d i n 18 2 2 , 9 9 a g a i n w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and commentary t o the images by Turner. At one l e v e l , the p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the Norman p a s t can be seen as an e x p r e s s i o n of an i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g . Throughout England's h i s t o r y s i n c e the Conquest Norman h e r i t a g e was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h rank and s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . I n the p e r i o d of the 1 8 t h and e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r i e s many f a m i l i e s i n B r i t a i n were r e s e a r c h i n g t h e i r p a s t h i s t o r y , w i t h the aim of a s s e r t i n g a Norman a n c e s t r y and hence l i n k s t o the upper c l a s s e s . As one example, the prominent Quaker f a m i l y , the Gurneys of Norwich, who had made t h e i r f o r t u n e i n the b a n k i n g b u s i n e s s and i n the Norwich t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y , were a l s o i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h i n g t h e i r presumed Norman a n c e s t r y . Indeed, a member of the f a m i l y , D a n i e l Gurney, p u b l i s h e d a g e n e a l o g i c a l h i s t o r y i n 1 8 4 8 , The Record of the House of Gournay, i n which he t r a c e d the f a m i l y t r e e t o Normandy and t o the times b e f o r e the Norman Conquest. 1 0 0 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n h i s work of 1842 d e s c r i b i n g C a i s t e r C a s t l e near Yarmouth, 1 0 1 Turner rendered h i s f r i e n d the banker and Member of P a r l i a m e n t Hudson Gurney, another member of the Gurney f a m i l y , an e x p l i c i t compliment. D e s c r i b i n g the a n c i e n t h i s t o r y of C a i s t e r C a s t l e , Turner c l a i m e d t h a t the s i t e had o r i g i n a l l y been g r a n t e d t o Hugh de Gornay who had accompanied W i l l i a m the Conqueror t o England; Turner s p e c i f i c a l l y p o i n t e d out i n t h i s work, t h a t the f a m i l y of Hudson Gurney were descended from t h i s Norman l o r d , Hugh de Gornay. 1 0 2 Turner's i n t e r e s t i n the Norman p a s t a l s o expresses an e n l i g h t e n e d c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m r e m i n i s c e n t of an upper c l a s s c u l t u r e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and t o l e r a t i o n , as opposed t o the i n t e n s e Francophobia and p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h n a t i o n a l , ' E n g l i s h ' c u l t u r e and v a l u e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the middle c l a s s e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e v a l e n t i n the y e a r s a f t e r the French R e v o l u t i o n . 1 0 3 I n a s i m i l a r manner Cotman complimented the Gurney f a m i l y i n h i s work on N o r f o l k a n t i q u i t i e s . Cotman d e d i c a t e d an e t c h i n g of the Norman entrance of Hales Church i n h i s A S e r i e s of  E t c h i n g s I l l u s t r a t i v e of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of  N o r f o l k , of 1 8 1 2 - 1 8 1 8 , t o Hudson Gurney, h i s i m p o r t a n t p a t r o n and s u p p o r t e r ( f i g . 22 ). 1 0 4 Cotman's d e d i c a t i o n a l s o drew s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n t o the Norman a n c e s t r y of the Gurney f a m i l y : To Hudson Gurney Esq. M. P., t h i s p l a t e o f one of the f i n e s t arches i n e x i s t a n c e [ s i c ] b u i l t by t h a t n a t i o n w i t h which h i s a n c e s t o r s came i n t o N o r f o l k i s most r e s p e c t f u l l y i n s c r i b e d . The importance a t t a c h e d t o such Norman a n c e s t r y i s f u r t h e r h i g h l i g h t e d by the response t o Cotman's 'mistake' of b r i n g i n g up the Norman a n c e s t r y i n the c o n t e x t of the commercial a c t i v i t y of the Gurney f a m i l y . 1 0 5 I n 1820 Cotman d i s p l a y e d an a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r h i s f o r t h c o m i n g work, The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s o f Normandy, which i n c o r p o r a t e d a l i s t of g r e a t Norman f a m i l i e s i n N o r f o l k , i n c l u d i n g t h a t of the f a m i l y of Gurney, i n the window of Gurney's bank i n Yarmouth. Hudson Gurney took o f f e n c e a t t h i s , f e a r i n g t h a t p e o p l e would r i d i c u l e h i s , a merchant banker's, p r e t e n s i o n s t o Norman a n c e s t r y and he wrote t o h i s f r i e n d Dawson Turner: I n f a c t I am most h o r r i b l y annoyed by Master Cotman h a v i n g i n h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t u c k i n our B e g g a r l y House of Norwich Shopkeepers as an Example of what, the Norman p i l l a g e r s t u r n e d t o i n the l a p s e of y e a r s — a s B e i n g known t o be a f e l l o w mooning over t h i n g s of the s o r t p e o p l e w i l l t a x me w i t h p u f f i n g & b l o w i n g about a descent c o u p l e d w i t h the c a l l i n g of my immediate p r e d e c e s s o r s — b e c o m e s [ s i c ] e x q u i s i t e l y r i d i c u l o u s . 1 0 6 However, w h i l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the medieval p a s t were i m b r i c a t e d i n concerns around s o c i a l rank and s t a n d i n g , Turner's involvement w i t h Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n the c o n t e x t of contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r a l debates, had f u r t h e r p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . Turner i n f a c t d i s p u t e d the a s s e r t i o n s of a n t i q u a r i e s who c l a i m e d t o have d e t e c t e d Saxon remains i n E n g l i s h b u i l d i n g s . He i n p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c i s e d the C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g i a n and a n t i q u a r y John M i l n e r who i n h i s famous The H i s t o r y C i v i l and E c c l e s i a s t i c a l and the Survey of the A n t i q u i t i e s of Winchester, of 1798, 1 0 7 had e l e v a t e d the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and c i v i c h i s t o r y of the Saxon town and C a t h e d r a l of Winchester. I n h i s d e s c r i p t i v e n o t i c e s f o r Cotman's A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Normandy, of 1822, Turner wrote t h a t M i l n e r and o t h e r a n t i q u a r i e s have s a i d much w i t h r e g a r d to the Saxon work a t W inchester; but ... I c o n f e s s I have met w i t h no p o r t i o n t h a t d i d not appear t o me to be t r u l y Norman. 1 0 8 I t i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o note Turner's r e f i n e d r e f u t a t i o n of John C a r t e r ' s a g g r e s s i v e n a t i o n a l i s m and h i s i n s i s t e n c e on an i n d i g e n t Saxon a r c h i t e c t u r e . Turner took i s s u e w i t h C a r t e r who i n h i s The A n c i e n t A r c h i t e c t u r e of England, of 1795, had c l a i m e d t h a t the i n t e r l a c i n g arches a t T i c h e n c o t e Church i n R u t l a n d s h i r e were of Saxon o r i g i n . Turner argued: ... t h a t a b l e a n t i q u a r y [ C a r t e r ] regards the c h u r c h as a specimen of t r u e Saxon a r c h i t e c t u r e . Whereas i t may s a f e l y be a f f i r m e d , t h a t t h e r e i s no p a r t of i t as f i g u r e d by him, but may be e x a c t l y p a r a l l e l e d from Normandy. The same may a l s o be s a i d of almost every i n d i v i d u a l i n s t a n c e t h a t he has produced as i l l u s t r a t i v e of the s t y l e i n use among our Saxon p r o g e n i t o r s . . . 1 0 9 Turner's s t u d y of medieval b u i l d i n g s i n f a c t l e d him t o conclude t h a t l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between Saxon and Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e . As a r e s u l t , h i s p u b l i c a t i o n i n d i r e c t l y r e f u t e d not o n l y C a r t e r ' s i n s i s t e n c e on Saxon o r i g i n s f o r G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e , but a l s o the e x i s t e n c e of a s p e c i f i c 'Saxon' a r c h i t e c t u r e i t s e l f . I n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Cotman's The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Normandy, of 1822, i n the c o n t e x t of c h u r c h e n t r a n c e s i n N o r f o l k i l l u s t r a t e d by Cotman, Turner m a i n t a i n e d t h a t : Common r e p o r t , a i d e d by the s u f f r a g e s of the l e a r n e d , and i n some degree by l o c a l i t y , d e s igned them as Saxon; a t the same time, when they were compared w i t h what i s l e f t i n B r i t a i n , of workmanship avowedly Norman, the p o i n t s of d i s s i m i l a r i t y appeared t r i f l i n g , o r a l t o g e t h e r v a n i s h e d . Was i t then t o be i n f e r r e d t h a t , between Norman and Saxon a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e r e was r e a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e ; and, c a r r y i n g the i n f e r e n c e one s t e p f a r t h e r , t h a t the hordes of b a r b a r i a n s denominated by these a p p e l l a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h they might not have embarked a t the same p o i n t , were o n l y cognate t r i b e s of one common o r i g i n , i f not i n r e a l i t y the I m p o r t a n t l y , as t h i s passage makes c l e a r , the comparative examples which l e d t o Turner's c o n c l u s i o n t h a t l i t t l e o r no d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between Saxon and Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n t u r n suggested t o him t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the Anglo-Saxon and the Norman p e o p l e s . Turner's argument i n 1822 thus c l e a r l y emerges as an attempt t o r e c o n c i l e the p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the Saxon and Norman c o n t r o v e r s y , t o o b l i t e r a t e n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s and t o suggest a ' r a c i a l ' u n i t y between the Saxons and the Normans. 4. E l e c t o r a l c o r r u p t i o n and the imaging of the Norman C a s t l e .  H i s t o r y , n o r m a l i s a t i o n and the n a t u r a l i s i n g of the p a s t . The debates on Norman and Saxon t r a d i t i o n s and on t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a r c h i t e c t u r e and genealogy a r e r e g i s t e r e d i n the ways i n which a wide range of p u b l i c a t i o n s d i s c u s s Norman c a s t l e s . At a g e n e r a l l e v e l , i n the l a t e 18 t h and e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r i e s medieval c a s t l e s were seen i n terms of a range of 'meanings.' Thus these c a s t l e s c o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e u d a l o p p r e s s i o n d a t i n g to the e r a of the Norman Conquest, or w i t h r e l i g i o u s t e r r o r and s u p e r s t i t i o n as f o r i n s t a n c e i n the G o t h i c n o v e l s of Ann R a d c l i f f e . They were a l s o f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an a e s t h e t i c of medieval c h i v a l r y . Hence Joshua Reynolds of the R o y a l Academy wrote i n h i s D i s c o u r s e s on A r t of 1786: ... A r c h i t e c t u r e c e r t a i n l y possesses many p r i n c i p l e s i n common w i t h p o e t r y and p a i n t i n g . Among those which may be reckoned as the f i r s t , i s , t h a t of a f f e c t i n g the i m a g i n a t i o n by means of a s s o c i a t i o n of i d e a s . Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , as we have n a t u r a l l y a v e n e r a t i o n f o r a n t i q u i t y , whatever b u i l d i n g b r i n g s t o our remembrance a n c i e n t costume and manners, such as the C a s t l e s of the Barons" of a n c i e n t C h i v a l r y , i s sure t o g i v e t h i s d e l i g h t . 1 1 1 However, Norman c a s t l e s , as h i s t o r i c a l c e n t r e s o f power, c o u l d a l s o be i m p l i c a t e d i n contemporary power s t r u g g l e s . I n the s p e c i f i c contemporary c o n t e x t s and i n view of the c o n t r o v e r s i e s a t t e n d a n t on the Norman and Saxon h e r i t a g e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of m edieval c a s t l e s d a t i n g t o the time of the Norman Conquest c o u l d be seen as s i t e s where l o c a l c o n f l i c t s , charged w i t h p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , were b e i n g evoked and p l a y e d out. I n t h i s p e r i o d , what was a t s t a k e was who c o u l d c l a i m the r i g h t t o r e p r e s e n t the n a t i o n — t h a t i s , r a d i c a l f a c t i o n s who l o o k e d back t o a p e r c e i v e d Saxon democracy, or c o n s e r v a t i v e and l i b e r a l f a c t i o n s who l e a n e d toward t r a d i t i o n a l o r d e r as h i s t o r i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by the Normans and u p h e l d by t h e i r descendants, the p r e s e n t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e . As most of the v i s i b l e medieval h e r i t a g e of N o r f o l k d a t e d t o the Norman e r a , the e d i f i c e s and r u i n s d e p i c t e d i n t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e were i n v o l v e d p r i m a r i l y i n r e p r e s e n t i n g the Norman h i s t o r y of the county. S i n c e the Norman Conquest and through the M i d d l e Ages, t h i s h i s t o r y had been a h i s t o r y of c o n t i n u i n g t u r b u l e n c e and r e p r e s s i o n , the a r i s t o c r a t i c descendants of the Normans u s i n g t h e i r m i l i t a r y power t o e s t a b l i s h themselves as the r u l i n g c l a s s . Even the r e s t r a i n e d Dawson Turner made u n d e r s t a t e d a l l u s i o n s t o the c o n t e s t a t i o n s of the p a s t and the o p p r e s s i o n of the Saxons by the Normans. He r e l a t e d i n h i s S k e t c h of the H i s t o r y of C a i s t e r C a s t l e , of 1 8 4 2 , t h a t W i l l i a m the Conqueror c r e a t e d a l o r d s h i p a t C a i s t e r f o r h i s f o l l o w e r R a l p h de V a c a j e t , t h e r e b y d e p r i v i n g e i g h t y freemen of t h e i r l a n d . 1 1 2 Turner a l s o drew a t t e n t i o n to the l a w l e s s n e s s of the Norman e r a when he d e s c r i b e d the i l l e g a l m i l i t a r y a s s a u l t on C a i s t e r C a s t l e by the Duke of N o r f o l k i n the 1 5 t h c e n t u r y : I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n those l a w l e s s times ... a g g r e s s i o n s of t h i s n a t u r e were l o o k e d upon as everyday o c c u r r e n c e s , and l i t t l e heeded; however, i n these h a p p i e r days, the v e r y h a i r s of the head would s t a n d e r e c t , a t the bare mention of an armed f o r c e s e i z i n g a man's house and l a n d s , and t u r n i n g the owner a d r i f t . 1 1 3 The sense of t e n s i o n between the Saxon and Norman h e r i t a g e s can i n p a r t i c u l a r be t r a c e d i n contemporary images of N o r f o l k ' s m edieval c a s t l e s . C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e , near the town of King's Lynn i n the e a s t e r n p a r t of N o r f o l k , was one of the most im p o r t a n t medieval c a s t l e r u i n s r e m a i n i n g i n the county, and i t was f r e q u e n t l y imaged i n b o t h n a t i o n - w i d e and l o c a l t r a v e l and a n t i q u a r i a n p u b l i c a t i o n s . The prominent p u b l i s h e r John B r i t t o n , i n h i s The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , of 1 8 0 7 -1 8 2 6 , showed two images of C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e , drawn by F r e d e r i c k Mackenzie and engraved, r e s p e c t i v e l y by R. Sands and J . Smith ( f i g s . 1 2 , 2 3 ) . B r i t t o n a l s o showed an image of the C a s t l e , engraved a f t e r a drawing by John P r e s t o n Neale, i n h i s The B e a u t i e s of England and Wales, of 1801-1816 ( f i g . 13), a work i n e i g h t e e n volumes which was more g e n e r a l l y o r i e n t e d than the s c h o l a r l y The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n . Thomas Cromwell's p o p u l a r s m a l l guidebook E x c u r s i o n s through  N o r f o l k , of 1818, i n c l u d e d an e n g r a v i n g of the C a s t l e a f t e r a drawing by Cotman ( f i g . 14) . 1 1 4 The h i s t o r y of C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e was w e l l known, as i t had been r e c o r d e d by, among o t h e r s , the famous N o r f o l k h i s t o r i a n F r a n c i s B l o m e f i e l d i n h i s T o p o g r a p h i c a l H i s t o r y of the County of N o r f o l k , o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1745 and r e p u b l i s h e d i n 1805-1810. B e a t n i f f e n o t e d i n h i s The N o r f o l k Tour t h a t K i n g W i l l i a m I I had g r a n t e d the town and l o r d s h i p t o h i s f o l l o w e r W i l l i a m de A l b i n i , and t h a t C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e was b u i l t i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the 12th c e n t u r y by de A l b i n i and p r o b a b l y by h i s son, the E a r l of A r u n d e l and Sussex. 1 1 5 K i n g Henry V I I I gave the C a s t l e t o Thomas Howard, Duke of N o r f o l k , 1 1 6 a descendant of W i l l i a m de A l b i n i . 1 1 7 The C a s t l e remained i n the p o s s e s s i o n of the Howard f a m i l y , and belonged i n the e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y to R i c h a r d Howard. 1 1 8 I n the e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r y the Borough of C a s t l e R i s i n g was a n o t o r i o u s and w e l l p u b l i c i s e d example of the unreformed e l e c t o r a l system. The tenements of C a s t l e R i s i n g had over the y e a r s been bought up i n p a r t by the Howard f a m i l y and i n p a r t by another a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l y , the Cholmondeleys of Houghton. 1 1 9 O l d f i e l d , i n h i s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e H i s t o r y of Great B r i t a i n , of 1816, gave a d e t a i l e d account of the c o r r u p t e l e c t o r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the borough of C a s t l e R i s i n g . He inf o r m e d the rea d e r t h a t the owner of C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e , R i c h a r d Howard, had f o r n e a r l y f i f t y y e a r s h e l d the v e r y l u c r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n of c o l l e c t o r of the l a n d t a x f o r the c i t y of London and the county of M i d d l e s e x . And he noted t h a t the members of the c o r p o r a t i o n , h a l f of them named by Mr. Howard and the o t h e r h a l f by the E a r l Cholmondeley, were m o s t l y n o n - r e s i d e n t s , and t h a t they i m p l i c i t l y obeyed the nomina t i o n of t h e i r p a t r o n s i n t h e i r r e t u r n of two members t o P a r l i a m e n t . 1 2 0 R i c h a r d Howard was a l s o the owner of a l a r g e e s t a t e a t C a s t l e R i s i n g . He d i d not, however, r e s i d e on the e s t a t e . The e s t a t e was run by a steward who sent Howard r e g u l a r updates on the income from r e n t s , and on such i s s u e s as e n c l o s u r e p r o c e e d i n g s and poac h i n g on the p r o p e r t y . 1 2 1 Howard thus t y p i f i e d , not o n l y the c o r r u p t e l e c t o r a l system, but a l s o what W i l l i a m Cobbett saw as one of the main reasons f o r the d e c l i n e of the c o u n t r y s i d e , absentee l a n d l o r d s . Cobbett, i n h i s R u r a l R i d e s , w r i t t e n between 1822 and 182 6, c o n t r a s t e d the n a t i v e r e s i d e n t g e n t r y , whom he d e s c r i b e d as "a r e s i d e n t n a t i v e g e n t r y , a t t a c h e d t o the s o i l , known to every farmer and l a b o u r e r ... f r e q u e n t l y m i x i n g w i t h them i n those p u r s u i t s where a l l a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e l o s t , p r a c t i s i n g h o s p i t a l i t y w i t h o u t ceremony, from h a b i t and not on c a l c u l a t i o n , " w i t h absent landowners whom he d e s c r i b e d as "a gen t r y , o n l y now-and-then r e s i d i n g a t a l l , h a v i n g no r e l i s h f o r c o u n t r y - d e l i g h t s , f o r e i g n i n t h e i r manners, d i s t a n t and haughty i n t h e i r b e h a v i o u r , l o o k i n g t o the s o i l o n l y f o r i t s r e n t s , v i e w i n g i t as a mere o b j e c t of s p e c u l a t i o n , u n - a c q u a i n t e d w i t h i t s c u l t i v a t o r s , d e s p i s i n g them and t h e i r p u r s u i t s , and r e l y i n g , f o r i n f l u e n c e . . . upon the dread of t h e i r power. ..." 1 2 2 The e l e c t o r a l system of C a s t l e R i s i n g was w e l l known l o c a l l y ; the t r a v e l book w r i t e r B e a t n i f f e , i n h i s The N o r f o l k  Tour, of 1 8 0 8 , gave a d e t a i l e d account of the c o r r u p t s i t u a t i o n of the borough. 1 2 3 John B r i t t o n , i n h i s t e x t accompanying Neale's i l l u s t r a t i o n of C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e i n B r i t t o n ' s The B e a u t i e s  of England and Wales, of 1 8 0 1 - 1 8 1 6 , drew almost v e r b a t i m from B e a t n i f f e ' s account i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the l o c a l p o l i t i c s of the borough of C a s t l e R i s i n g : At p r e s e n t the c o r p o r a t i o n c o n s i s t s of o n l y two aldermen, who a l t e r n a t e l y n o m i n a l l y s e r v e the o f f i c e of mayor; and he i s the r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r of two members to the B r i t i s h s enate. Though a t an e l e c t i o n f i v e o r s i x names appear on the p o l l - b o o k ; y e t i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , whether, except the r e c t o r of the p a r i s h , t h e r e be a s i n g l e l e g a l v o t e r . 1 2 4 I n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e i n h i s more s p e c i a l i s e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l work, the The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , of 1 8 0 7 - 1 8 2 6 , B r i t t o n d i d not d i r e c t l y mention the p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g the C a s t l e . Rather, he p o i n t e d out t h a t a l t h o u g h some w r i t e r s had b e l i e v e d i t t o have been one of k i n g A l f r e d ' s c a s t l e s , t h i s v iew of the h i s t o r y of the C a s t l e was " v i s i o n a r y . " 1 2 5 However, a f t e r d e l i n e a t i n g the h i s t o r y and the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the b u i l d i n g , B r i t t o n a l s o e x pressed a s l i g h t c r i t i q u e , a l t h o u g h v e i l e d b e h i n d a sense of memento mori, of the power of monarchs, p r i n c e s and nob l e s : Such are the p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s of t h i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g keep-tower, which has been o c c u p i e d a t d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s by monarchs,. p r i n c e s , and n o b l e s : which must a l s o have been a t those p e r i o d s a p l a c e of j u s t s , r e v e l r y , and rude grandeur: but now i t s w a l l s are g r a d u a l l y f a l l i n g to the ground, and o n l y o c c u p i e d by the daw, hawk, owl, and by r e p t i l e s and vermin. Thus proud man, and h i s o s t e n t a t i o u s works, a r e a l i k e s u b j e c t t o r e v o l u t i o n s : are b o t h l i a b l e t o e x a l t a t i o n and decay, and are a t one moment i n the z e n i t h of h e a l t h or p e r f e c t i o n , but i n another reduced t o d e c r e p i t u d e , or c r u m b l i n g t o d u s t . 1 2 6 While B r i t t o n ' s t e x t i n The B e a u t i e s of England and Wales brought c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n t e s t e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g the borough of C a s t l e R i s i n g , the l a v i s h and s e d u c t i v e v i s u a l images i n h i s works, g i v i n g d i f f e r e n t views and d e t a i l s of the C a s t l e , n e g o t i a t e d these debates d i f f e r e n t l y . By s i n g l i n g out the Norman C a s t l e and hence drawing a t t e n t i o n to the Norman h e r i t a g e , and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , to the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n founded by the Normans, these images c o u l d i n f a c t be seen as c e l e b r a t i n g the Norman p a s t . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the p i c t o r i a l v o c a b u l a r y employed i n these images a l s o s e r v e d t o mediate the sense of o p p r e s s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Norman Conquest and the subsequent r u l e by the descendants of the Norman upper c l a s s e s . Mackenzie, i n one of h i s images of C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e i n B r i t t o n ' s The  A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , r e p r e s e n t e d a p a r t of the C a s t l e which was p a r t i c u l a r l y r u i n e d and decayed ( f i g . 12). However, he showed the C a s t l e r u i n i n s e d u c t i v e terms as overgrown w i t h a mass of verdant and l u x u r i a n t f o l i a g e , and as l i t by r a y s of sunshine. By the c h o i c e of a view of the most decayed p a r t s of the C a s t l e , and by the v i s u a l c o n j u r i n g up of the t e x t u r e of s l o w l y c r u m b l i n g stone, Mackenzie's p i c t u r e s q u e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r u i n , conveys, a t one l e v e l , a r e a s s u r i n g sense of the g r a d u a l waning and c r u m b l i n g away of Norman power and supremacy. However, i n t h i s p r i n t the remains of the o l d C a s t l e a r e a l s o shown as a massive frame f o r the d i s t a n t v i s t a of the c o u n t r y s i d e beyond; the image s t i l l frames, i n s y m b o l i c terms, the whole c o u n t r y w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s e c u r i t y of the a n c i e n t w a l l s of the Norman p a s t . I n Mackenzie's second image of the C a s t l e i n B r i t t o n ' s The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great  B r i t a i n ( f i g . 2 3 ) , w h i l e the imposing form of the C a s t l e i s p l a c e d i n the c e n t r e of the p i c t u r e , the sense of Norman power i s m i t i g a t e d by the c l e a r l y v i s i b l e and advanced decay and r u i n a t i o n of the e d i f i c e . Mackenzie's d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n to the s m a l l mounds of e a r t h and v e g e t a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g the base of the C a s t l e seems t o i n t i m a t e the growth of the C a s t l e out of the s o i l i t s e l f ; f u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s image a l s o shows t i n y human f i g u r e s emerging from an a r e a shaded by the C a s t l e , thus p o t e n t i a l l y e v o k i n g a l i n k which t i e d B r i t a i n ' s p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n t o the Norman p a s t . John P r e s t o n Neale's image of C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e i n B r i t t o n ' s The B e a u t i e s of England and Wales, of 1 8 0 1 - 1 8 1 6 ( f i g . 1 3 ) , a l s o does not convey a sense of the o p p r e s s i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s a s c r i b e d t o Norman r u l e by r a d i c a l h i s t o r i a n s , but r a t h e r s e r v e s to mediate, through the p i c t o r i a l language and c o m p o s i t i o n , the sense of Norman u p p e r - c l a s s power. By i n c l u d i n g the horse and r i d e r and two seemingly l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s i n the foreground, and by emphasising them th r o u g h the prominent s c a l e , Neale's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y downplays the power of the r u i n e d C a s t l e ; the C a s t l e i s imaged i n s t e a d as a d e s t i n a t i o n f o r t r a v e l l e r s and t o u r i s t s . I n t h i s d e p i c t i o n the t r a v e l l e r on horseback commands an overview of the C a s t l e , s u r v e y i n g i t from a p r i v i l e g e d v i e w p o i n t ; thus, the image conveys a sense of empowerment and c o n t r o l , not o n l y over the t o p o g r a p h i c a l space of the c o u n t r y but over the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t as w e l l . Cotman's s m a l l i l l u s t r a t i o n of the C a s t l e , engraved by W. W a l l i s i n Cromwell's p o p u l a r t o u r i s t guide E x c u r s i o n s through N o r f o l k , of 1818, shows the C a s t l e s e t i n a c o a s t a l landscape ( f i g . 14). D e p i c t e d i n the f a r d i s t a n c e , the C a s t l e i s s i l h o u e t t e d a g a i n s t w h i t e c l o u d s and the open c o a s t of the ocean. A f l o c k of b i r d s sweeps over the b u i l d i n g which forms the background f o r a h e r d of g r a z i n g sheep. I n t h i s image, the C a s t l e seems t o c o n s t i t u t e o n l y a s m a l l and i n c i d e n t a l p a r t of the landscape; i n d e e d i t i s s l i g h t l y t i l t i n g t o one s i d e , s u g g e s t i n g a sense of i n s t a b i l i t y r a t h e r than of permanence. T h i s d e p i c t i o n t y p i f i e s the 18 t h c e n t u r y p i c t u r e s q u e overview r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the landscape, o r 'prospect' as i t was termed i n the p e r i o d . The v i s t a empowers the v i e w e r and lends a sense of v i s u a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n and ownership of the p r o s p e c t ; the expansive views around the b u i l d i n g e v i n c e a f e e l i n g of openness and space and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , of l i b e r t y . • W h i l e C a s t l e R i s i n g as a ' r o t t e n borough' was a t the c e n t r e of l o c a l p o l i t i c a l debates, the images of C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e , showing the e d i f i c e as i f almost growing out of the c o u n t r y s i d e i t s e l f and as n a t u r a l i s e d i n the landscape over the c e n t u r i e s , would a l s o have h e l p e d t o n a t u r a l i s e the Norman p a s t as B r i t a i n ' s h i s t o r i c a l h e r i t a g e . I n these images the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l debates and q u a r r e l s c e n t r e d on the Saxon and Norman h e r i t a g e s a re assuaged and r e c o n c i l e d , and hi d d e n b e h i n d a s e d u c t i v e sense of p a s t h i s t o r y and p r e s e n t r e a l i t y as merging i n t o a n a t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y . C u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , i n the form of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the medieval C a s t l e , thus e n t e r s i n t o and i n t e r v e n e s i n a p o l i t i c a l arena d e e p l y f r a u g h t w i t h ' r a c i a l ' and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s . These images of N o r f o l k ' s h i s t o r y , f u s i n g the Saxon and the Norman p a s t , a l s o s e r v e d t o e r a s e c o n n o t a t i o n s w i t h contemporary Saxon r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y , and c o n s t i t u t e d a b l u r r i n g of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s evoked by the Saxon and the Norman m y t h i c a l h e r i t a g e s ; however, a t the same time, they u l t i m a t e l y s e r v e d contemporary c o n s e r v a t i v e i d e o l o g i c a l thought and the d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s quo i n B r i t a i n . T h i s n a t u r a l i s i n g of the Norman p a s t , i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e , as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of England's n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y had important i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the p r o c e s s whereby G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e was ' n a t i o n a l i s e d . ' As l o n g as G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e was shown, as i t had been by W h i t t i n g t o n and o t h e r s , t o have o r i g i n a t e d i n France and th e r e b y a s s o c i a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h the Normans, the G o t h i c c o u l d not u n - p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y be a p p r o p r i a t e d as B r i t a i n ' s ' n a t i o n a l ' s t y l e . However, when Saxon a r c h i t e c t u r e was i n t e g r a t e d w i t h Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e and the Norman c o u l d be n a t u r a l i s e d as an a u t h e n t i c p a r t of England's h e r i t a g e , G o t h i c c o u l d a l s o be viewed as t r u l y and a u t h e n t i c a l l y E n g l i s h . I n the s h i f t i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g the r e w r i t i n g of B r i t a i n ' s ' r a c i a l ' h e r i t a g e s , the Gothic s t y l e could thus b r i n g together the c o n f l i c t i n g strands of the nation's h i s t o r y , u n i t i n g the idea of Teutonic and Saxon l i b e r t y w ith Norman c i v i l i s a t i o n . In turn, the idea of the Gothic s t y l e , as produced by a Saxon and Norman c i v i l i s a t i o n , could be set against Renaissance c l a s s i c i s m and ' n e o - c l a s s i c a l ' a r c h i t e c t u r e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i n k e d w i t h the status of Rome, thus also allowing the Gothic to be used to support B r i t a i n ' s claims to world leadership. The r a c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the e l e v a t i o n of Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e as a 'national s t y l e ' were c l e a r l y expressed by the famous medievalist John Ruskin who saw Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e i n terms of the character of the Northern peoples, or the Goths, among whom he included the English, the French, the Danes and the Germans. 1 2 7 In The Stones of Venice, of 1851-1853, Ruskin set out to trace " t h i s grey, shadowy, many-pinnacled image of the Gothic s p i r i t w i t h i n us; and d i s c e r n i n g what f e l l o w s h i p there i s between i t and our Northern h e a r t s . " 1 2 8 Ruskin i m p l i c i t l y l i n k e d climate, geography, c u l t u r e and character i n h i s comparison of the Northern and Southern peoples and t h e i r respective a r c h i t e c t u r e s : Strength of w i l l , independence of character, resoluteness of purpose, impatience of undue c o n t r o l , and that general tendency to set the i n d i v i d u a l reason against a u t h o r i t y , and the i n d i v i d u a l deed against destiny, which, i n the Northern t r i b e s , has opposed i t s e l f throughout a l l ages to the languid submission, i n the Southern, of thought to t r a d i t i o n , and purpose to f a t a l i t y , are a l l more or l e s s traceable i n the r i g i d l i n e s , vigorous and various masses, and d a r i n g l y p r o j e c t i n g and independent s t r u c t u r e of the Northern Gothic ornament: while the opposite f e e l i n g s are i n l i k e manner l e g i b l e i n the g r a c e f u l and s o f t l y guided waves and wreathed bands, i n which Southern decoration i s constantly disposed; i n i t s tendency to lose i t s independence, and fuse i t s e l f i n t o the s u r f a c e of the masses upon which i t i s t r a c e d ; and i n the e x p r e s s i o n seen so o f t e n , i n the arrangement of those masses themselves, of an abandonment of t h e i r s t r e n g t h t o an i n e v i t a b l e n e c e s s i t y , or a l i s t l e s s r e p o s e . 1 2 9 Indeed, the G o t h i c R e v i v a l and the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e as a s y m b o l i c form f o r a n a t i o n a l B r i t i s h i d e n t i t y can be u n d e r s t o o d as h a v i n g had important u n d e r p i n n i n g s i n the n a t u r a l i s i n g of England's Norman h i s t o r y and i t s f u s i o n w i t h the Saxon p a s t , s u b t l y e f f e c t e d i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the r u i n e d Norman C a s t l e . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of medieval a n t i q u i t i e s i n the e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r y can be seen as i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h a v i n g l a i d the groundwork f o r the r e d e f i n i n g of B r i t a i n as a n a t i o n founded not o n l y on the l o v e of l i b e r t y of the Saxons and Goths, but a l s o on the l o v e of l e a r n i n g of the Normans. However,. G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e a l s o s u p p l i e d the c u l t u r a l form embodying N o r t h e r n " i n d i v i d u a l reason" and "independence of c h a r a c t e r , " as opposed t o the " l a n g u i d s u b m i s s i o n " of Southern p e o p l e s , seen as embodied i n c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e ; hence the G o t h i c symbol can be seen as the s i g n of a most u n d e r s t a t e d , y e t s i n i s t e r r a c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , based on a l l e g e d human p s y c h o l o g i c a l and mental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . NOTES 1 Robert Young, C o l o n i a l Desire. H v b r i d i t v i n Theory, C u l t u r e and  Race (London and New York: Routledge, 1995), p. 3. 2 John Aylmer, An Harborewe f o r F a i t h f u l l and Trewe Subjects ... (1558); quoted i n Leon Poliakov The Aryan Myth. A H i s t o r y of R a c i s t and N a t i o n a l i s t Ideas i n Europe (London: Chatto, Heinemann, f o r Sussex U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1974), p. 46. 3 For a d i s c u s s i o n on the r o l e of the myth of the Saxon Golden Age and the Norman Yoke i n the disputes between Parliament and the Crown i n the 17 t h century, see Christopher H i l l , P u r itanism and Revolution; Studies i n  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the E n g l i s h Revolution of the 17 t h Century (London: Seeker & Warburg, 1958), Chapter 3. 4 Gerald Newman, The Rise of E n g l i s h Nationalism, pp. 183-191, discusses the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of the Saxon and Norman myth by r a d i c a l s i n the l a t e 18 t h century. 5 Hulme, An H i s t o r i c a l Essay on the E n g l i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n (Dublin, 1771), p. 2. 6 I b i d . , p. 3. 7 I b i d . , p. 32. 8 Hulme wrote i n An H i s t o r i c a l Essay, p. 34: "... from t h i s time we hear no more of the Saxon ealdormen and thanes, which were t i t l e s of o f f i c e , and not t i t l e s of honour. But, from t h i s p e r i o d , there appeared a new order of men, w i t h new a u t h o r i t y d e r i v e d from the k i n g ; which were e n t i t l e d counts, v i s c o u n t s , barons, vavafours, esquires, and other; names taken from the Norman and French tongue." 9 I b i d . , p. 36. 1 0 I b i d . , pp. 6-7. 1 1 Thomas Paine, Common Sense (177 6), i n Common Sense and other P o l i t i c a l Writing's, ed. Nelson F. Adkins ( I n d i a n a p o l i s and New York: Bobbs-M e r r i l l , 1953), p. 15. See a l s o Christopher H i l l , P u r i t a n i s m and Revolution (1958), p. 99. H i l l ' s emphasis i n t h i s passage, however, i s on the t i t l e of the Kings of England, r a t h e r than on the issu e of race, which i s my concern here. 1 2 John Evelyn, A P a r a l l e l of the Ancient A r c h i t e c t u r e and the  Modern, (London, 1707), pp. 9-15; quoted i n Frew, "Gothic i s E n g l i s h , " p. 316 . 1 3 For a d i s c u s s i o n on e a r l y a n t i q u a r i a n i s m i n B r i t a i n , see Stuart P i g g o t t , Ancient B r i t o n s and the A n t i q u a r i a n Imagination.' Ideas from the Renaissance to the Regency (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1989), e s p e c i a l l y Chapter 1. 1 4 Batty Langley, Gothic A r c h i t e c t u r e Improved by Rules and  Proportions i n Many Grand Designs (London, 1742).For a d i s c u s s i o n of Langley's work, see Kenneth Clark, The Gothic R e v i v a l , an Essay i n the  H i s t o r y of Taste, pp. 51-53. I t i s noteworthy that i n the mid-18 t h century the ' r u l e s ' f o r Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e were s t i l l loose and comparatively undefined. I t was not u n t i l the e a r l y 19 t h century that Gothic as an a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e came to be more r i g o r o u s l y defined, most notably i n the a r c h i t e c t and w r i t e r Thomas Rickman's An Attempt to D i s c r i m i n a t e the S t y l e s  of E n g l i s h A r c h i t e c t u r e from the Conquest to the Reformation' (1812-1817; Oxford and London: John Henry and James Parker, 1862). 1 5 Although Horace Walpole thought Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e " b e a u t i f u l , " he s t i l l thought of the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e as the " o r i g i n a l standard," and he wrote i n h i s Anecdotes of P a i n t i n g (London, 1762), v o l . I, p. 116, note 1: "When men enquire, 'Who invented Gothic b u i l d i n g s ? ' they might as w e l l ask 'Who invented bad L a t i n ? ' The former was a c o r r u p t i o n of Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e , as the l a t t e r was of the Roman language. Both were debased i n barbarous ages; both were r e f i n e d , as the age p o l i s h e d i t s e l f ; but n e i t h e r were r e s t o r e d to the o r i g i n a l standard. B e a u t i f u l Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e was engrafted on Saxon deformity; and pure I t a l i a n succeeded to v i t i a t e d L a t i n . " The d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of 'Gothic' and the d i f f e r e n t ways the medieval era was taken up i n the l a t e r 18 t h and e a r l y 19 t h c e n t u r i e s was a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e of the p e r i o d . Thus Richard Hurd's famous L e t t e r s on C h i v a l r y and Romance (London, 1762), c e l e b r a t e d England's medieval l i t e r a r y and f o l k h e r i t a g e , while the p e r i o d was a l s o marked by the appearance of the popular Gothic novels, such as Ann R a d c l i f f e ' s The  I t a l i a n or the Confessional of the Black Penitents (1796; London, New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), and her The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794; New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1998). In these novels 'gothic' was i n p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a r b i t r a r y and haughty C a t h o l i c and a r i s t o c r a t i c supremacy during the feudal era, w i t h the I n q u i s i t i o n and w i t h monkish s u p e r s t i t i o n s , and w i t h ignorance and u n b r i d l e d passions. At a general l e v e l 'gothic' was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r i m i t i v e customs; thus Thomas Browne's The Union D i c t i o n a r y : c o n t a i n i n g a l l that i s t r u l y u s e f u l i n the  D i c t i o n a r i e s of Johnson, Sheridan, and Walker ... (London: F.C. and J . R i v i n g t o n , 1822), defined 'Gothicism' as 'roughness, rudeness, b a r b a r i t y , ' and 'Goths' as 'any n a t i o n d e f i c i e n t i n general knowledge.' 1 6 John C a r t e r , Specimens of Ancient Sculpture and P a i n t i n g , now  Remaining i n t h i s Kingdom, from the E a r l i e s t P e r i o d to the Reign of Henry  V I I I , 2 v o l s . (London: John Carter, 1780-1794) . 1 7 John Cart e r , The Ancient A r c h i t e c t u r e of England, 2 v o l s . (London, 1795-1814) . 1 8 A r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s James Mordaunt Crook, i n John Car t e r and  the Mind of the Gothic R e v i v a l , and J . M. Frew, "Gothic i s E n g l i s h : John Cart e r and the r e v i v a l of the Gothic as England's N a t i o n a l S t y l e , " have provided p e n e t r a t i n g analyses on John Carter's work on B r i t a i n ' s medieval and Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e i n terms of B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i s m and i n terms of the p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of Carter's r e v i v a l of Gothic i n the years of the Franch Revolution. I am indebted to these w r i t e r s f o r my d i s c u s s i o n of C a r t e r ' s ideas. 1 9 C a r t e r , The Gentleman's Magazine, v o l . LXVIII (1798): p. 1027. 2 0 I b i d . , v o l . LXIX (1799): p. 92. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 749. 2 2 I b i d . 2 3 I b i d . , v o l . LXXI (1801): p. 310. 2 4 I b i d . , v o l . LXIX (1799): p. 190. 2 5 C a r t e r , Plans, E l e v a t i o n s . Sections and Specimens of the  A r c h i t e c t u r e and Ornaments of Durham Cathedral (London: W. Bulmer and Co., 1801), note p. 3. 2 6 C a r t e r wrote i n Plans, E l e v a t i o n s , Sections ... of Durham  Cathedral. note p. 3, that "The a r c h i t e c t u r e used by the Saxons, i s very p r o p e r l y c a l l e d Saxon. The improvements introduced a f t e r the Norman Conquest, j u s t i f y the a p p l i c a t i o n of Norman, to the e d i f i c e s of that p e r i o d . " 2 7 C a r t e r , Gentleman's Magazine, v o l . LXXX:1 (1810): p. 406. Ca r t e r ' s i n t e r e s t l a y i n the e l e v a t i o n of England's Saxon h e r i t a g e and i n e s t a b l i s h i n g Gothic as a n a t i o n a l s t y l e ; thus, although he acknowledged that Saxon a r c h i t e c t u r e had o r i g i n a t e d i n Roman modes, he chose to ignore the long Roman occupation of B r i t a i n and the t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l l i n k s between B r i t a i n and Rome. 2 8 In h i s Plans. E l e v a t i o n s , Sections ... of Durham Cathedral, note p. 3, Ca r t e r , proposing that the term 'English' should be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the term 'Gothic,' wrote that " I t i s much to be wished that the word Gothic should no longer be used i n speaking of the A r c h i t e c t u r e of England, from the t h i r t e e n t h to the s i x t e e n t h century. The term tends to give f a l s e ideas on the subject, and o r i g i n a t e s w i t h the I t a l i a n w r i t e r s of the fourteenth and f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , who a p p l i e d the expression ' l a Maniera Gothica,' i n contempt to a l l the works of a r t of the middle Ages ... The n a t i o n assumed a new character at about the time of Henry I I . The language, p r o p e r l y c a l l e d E n g l i s h , was then formed; and an a r c h i t e c t u r e founded on the Norman and the Saxon, but extremely d i f f e r e n t from both, was invented by E n g l i s h a r t i s t s . I t s u r e l y i s e q u a l l y j u s t and proper to d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s s t y l e by the honourable a p p e l l a t i o n of E n g l i s h . " 2 9 George M i l l e r s , A Guide to the Cathedral of E l y (London, 1805). The Church at E l y dated to pre-Norman times. 3 0 M i l l e r s , A Guide to the Cathedral of E l v : quoted by John B r i t t o n , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , v o l . V (1826), p. 37. 3 1 J . M. Crook, John Carter and the Mind of the Gothic R e v i v a l , p. 42. Crook notes that i n order to suppress the 'Norman' h e r i t a g e , C a r t e r f o r example antedated the b u i l d i n g of St. Albans, f o r c i n g i t back i n t o the Saxon era. Further, as Crook a l s o notes, although Ca r t e r was w e l l aware that Durham had been b u i l t by the Normans, he claimed that i t s s t y l e was Saxon, because the use of the round arch preceded the Norman Conquest. 3 2 John B r i t t o n , i n h i s A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , v o l . V (1826), Chapter 1, discussed i n d e t a i l the d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s of the o r i g i n s of Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e . 3 3 George Whittington, An H i s t o r i c a l Survey of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l  A n t i q u i t i e s of France (London: J . Taylor, 1811), p. v i i i . 3 4 C l a r e Simmons, i n her Reversing the Conquest. H i s t o r y and Myth i n Nineteenth-Century B r i t i s h L i t e r a t u r e (New Brunswick: Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1990), discusses the 19 t h century s h i f t i n emphasis i n the h i s t o r i o g r a p h y of the Saxons and the Normans. 3 5 See f o r instance Hugh A. MacDougall, R a c i a l Mvth i n E n g l i s h  H i s t o r y . Troians, Teutons, and Anglo-Saxons (Montreal: Harvest House, 1982), pp. 92-4. 3 6 Turner's H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons was an enormously popular work which went through s i x e d i t i o n s i n the e a r l y years of the 19 t h century. See Simmons, Reversing the Conquest, p. 56. 3 7 Turner claimed i n The H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons, v o l . IV, p. 261: " I t i s c e r t a i n that i n the e a r l i e s t periods of the Anglo-Saxon h i s t o r y we f i n d the Cyning or King, and a l l the four orders of noble, f r e e , freed, s e r v i l e . Their conversion to C h r i s t i a n i t y introduced another c l a s s , of monks and c l e r g y . " 3 8 Turner wrote i n The H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons, v o l . IV, p. 295: "The Saxons made many d i s t i n c t i o n s i n homicides. The l i f e of every man was protected, not by the penalty of h i s murderer's death, but by the pecuniary exactions which were to f o l l o w the homicide. A l l ranks of men were not, however, esteemed of equal value i n the eye of the Saxon law, nor t h e i r l i v e s e q u a l l y worth p r o t e c t i n g ... Our present l e g i s l a t i o n considers the l i f e of one man as sacred as that of another, and w i l l not admit the degree of the crime of murder to depend on the rank or property of the deceased. Hence a peasant i s now as secure from w i l f u l punishment as a nobleman. I t was otherwise w i t h the Saxons. Every man was valued at a c e r t a i n sum which was c a l l e d h i s were, and whoever took h i s l i f e was punished by having to pay t h i s were." 3 9 Turner argued i n The H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons, v o l . IV, p. 277: "... we cannot d i s t i n c t l y a s c e r t a i n a l l the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s which e n t i t l e d persons to a seat i n the witenagemot. There i s , however, one curious passage which a s c e r t a i n s that a c e r t a i n amount of property was an indispensable r e q u i s i t e , and that acquired property would answer t h i s purpose as w e l l as h e r e d i t a r y property, the possession ... necessary was f o r t y hides of land." 4 0 Turner, The H i s t o r y of England from the Norman Conquest, v o l . I, p. 105. 4 1 I b i d . , v o l . IV, p. 2. 4 2 I b i d . , v o l . I, pp. 56-57. 4 3 I b i d . , p. v i . 4 4 Turner wrote i n The H i s t o r y of England from the Norman Conquest, v o l . I, p. 54: "... that emulous love of g l o r y , which authors of the middle ages d e c l a r e to have been the most a c t i v e p r i n c i p l e of the Norman mind; t h e i r beginning love of l i t e r a t u r e ; that s p i r i t of e n t e r p r i s e , which l e d them to I t a l y and Greece; and that fervent p i e t y , which produced a general decorum and l a s t i n g steadiness of moral character; we see a people formed f o r l o f t y achievements and n a t i o n a l c e l e b r i t y . " 4 5 Turner, The H i s t o r y of England from the Norman Conquest, v o l . I, pp. 56-57. 4 6 Michel Foucault, College de France l e c t u r e , 1975, i n Difendere l a  Soci e t a , (Florence: Ponte a i l e Grazie, 1990), p. 54; quoted i n Ann Laura S t o l e r , Race and the Education of Desire. Foucault's H i s t o r y of S e x u a l i t y  and the C o l o n i a l Order of Things (Durham and London: Duke U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1995), p. 67. 4 7 Michel Foucault, College de France l e c t u r e , 1975, i n Difendere l a  Societ a . (1990), p. 55; quoted i n S t o l e r , Race and the Education of Desire, p. 67. 4 8 I b i d . 4 9 S t o l e r , Race and the Education of Desire, p. 9. 5 0 Johann F r i e d r i c h Blumenbach, On the Nat u r a l V a r i e t y of Mankind, i n The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l T r e a t i s e s of Johann F r i e d r i c h Blumenback, tr a n s . T. Bendyshe (London, 1865). 5 1 Robert Young, i n h i s C o l o n i a l Desire. H v b r i d i t v i n Theory, C u l t u r e  and Race, Chapter 3, "The c o m p l i c i t y of c u l t u r e , " discusses 18 t h and 19 t h century t h e o r i e s of genetics, and the s h i f t from an emphasis on a monogenetic o r i g i n of humankind to an emphasis on po l y g e n e t i c o r i g i n s . Young f u r t h e r notes the growing preoccupation among ethnographers and e t h n o l o g i s t s not only w i t h an e s s e n t i a l i s i n g of p h y s i o l o g i c a l and anatomical d i f f e r e n c e s , but a l s o w i t h the fore-grounding of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and mental d i f f e r e n c e s and c u l t u r a l developments as the b a s i s f o r ' r a c i a l ' d i f f e r e n c e s In c o n t r a s t , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that already i n the 18 t h century David Hume, i n h i s Essays Moral, P o l i t i c a l and L i t e r a r y (1741-1742; Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963), Essay XXI, "On N a t i o n a l Character," had emphatically denied that c l i m a t e and geographical l o c a t i o n could i n f l u e n c e .'national character.' Hume in s t e a d s t r e s s e d the importance of c u l t u r a l , or what he termed 'moral' and ' a c c i d e n t a l ' causes, among which he in c l u d e d systems of government, and human ideas and i d e a l s . 5 2 This work was l a r g e l y based on O l d f i e l d ' s e a r l i e r work, H i s t o r y of  the O r i g i n a l C o n s t i t u t i o n of Parliament from the Time of the B r i t o n s to the  Present. of 1797. 5 3 T. H. B. O l d f i e l d , The Representative H i s t o r y of Great B r i t a i n and  I r e l a n d : Being a H i s t o r y of the House of Commons, and of the Counties,  C i t i e s , and Boroughs, of the United Kingdom, from the E a r l i e s t Period, 6 v o l s . (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), v o l . I, pp. 103-105. O l d f i e l d borrowed i n t h i s passage from David Hume's H i s t o r y of England from  the Invasion of J u l i u s Caesar to the Revolution i n 1688 (1754-1762; London, Jones & Company, 1828), p. 58. 5 4 A. T h i e r r y , H i s t o r y of the Conquest of England by the Normans ..., 3 v o l s . (London: Geo. B. Whittaker, 1825), i n t r o d u c t i o n . The 1825 t r a n s l a t i o n to E n g l i s h was introduced on the t i t l e - p a g e by a quote from Robert of Gloucester's C h r o n i c l e : "... The f o l k of Normandie/Among us woneth yet, and s h a l l e t h ever moe:/0f Normans beth these hygh men that beth i n t h i s land,/ And the low men of Saxons." 5 5 O l d f i e l d , The Representative H i s t o r y of Great B r i t a i n , v o l . I, p. x i i i . 5 6 Hulme, An H i s t o r i c a l Essay, pp. 89-90. x 5 7 O l d f i e l d , The Representative H i s t o r y of Great B r i t a i n , v o l . I I , p. 490. 5 8 I b i d . , pp. 493-496. 5 9 Samuel K l i g e r , The Goths i n England. A Study i n Seventeenth and  Eighteenth Century Thought (Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1952), p. 1. 6 0 K l i g e r , The Goths i n England, p. 1. However, as K l i g e r shows, the c l a i m that the E n g l i s h were descended from the Goths was h i s t o r i c a l l y i n a c c u r a t e . The Goths were but one of the Northern t r i b e s which had overrun Europe, and i t was not t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r i b e which had landed i n B r i t a i n ; nonetheless, many E n g l i s h scholars equated 'Gothic' w i t h a l l the Germanic t r i b e s which had spread over Europe, and according to t h i s understanding Jutes and Saxons, the t r i b e s that had a c t u a l l y migrated to England, were a l s o termed 'Goths' ( K l i g e r , The Goths i n England, pp. 10-19). 6 1 'Saxonism' and 'Gothicism' are f l u i d c a t e g o r i e s , h i s t o r i c a l l y o f t e n employed i n overlapping manners. The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s c h o l a r R. J . Smith, i n h i s "Cobbett, C a t h o l i c h i s t o r y and the Middle Ages," i n Medievalism i n England, ed. L e s l i e J . Workman, p. 131, separates the two concepts, arguing that Saxonism i t s e l f was only one p a r t of the wider Gothic argument. 6 2 K l i g e r , i n The Goths i n England, pp. 33-34, 41, 47, 57-66, 102-106, discusses the h i s t o r i c a l theory of the T r a n s l a t i o and the E n g l i s h a p p r o p r i a t i o n of a Germanic past. 6 3 John Hare's h i s t o r y , "St. Edward's Ghost" (1647), i n H a r l e i a n  M i s c e l l a n y : a c o l l e c t i o n of scarce, curious and e n t e r t a i n i n g pamphlets and  t r a c t s ... from the l i b r a r y of Edward Harlev, Second E a r l of Oxford (1744-1746; London, 1810), VI, pp. 92, 95, of the 12 v o l . ed. (London, 1808-11); quoted i n K l i g e r , The Goths i n England, p. 78. 6 4 The terms "Teutonic,' 'Saxon' and 'Gothic' were o f t e n used interchangeably. W i l l i a m J u l i u s M i c k l e , i n h i s 1781 p l a y "Almahida H i l l , " i n The P o e t i c a l Works of W. J . Mick l e. ed. T. Park (London, 1808), p. 80, d e s c r i b i n g the defeat of Rome, p i c t u r e d the v i c t o r i o u s northerners as emanating from 'Saxony's w i l d f o r e s t s . ' In c o n t r a s t , Sharon Turner, t a k i n g up i n h i s 1819 poem Pr o l u s i o n s (London, 1819), p. 151, the theme of the conquest of Rome and i t s decaying empire, termed the Germanic conquerors of Rome as s e r v i n g the 'Gothic Crown.' See a l s o K l i g e r , The Goths i n England, pp. 31, 103. K l i g e r ' s p o i n t i s not, however, to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between the terms 'Gothic' and 'Saxon,' but i n s t e a d to emphasise the power of the Germanic conquerors of Rome. 6 5 For the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n on Anglo-Saxonism i n England i n the 19 t h century I am indebted to Reginald Horsman, "Origins of r a c i a l Anglo-Saxonism i n Great B r i t a i n before 1850," Journa l of the H i s t o r y of Ideas (1976): 387-410. However, while Horsman's emphasis i s on Anglo-Saxonism as a foundation f o r B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i s m and im p e r i a l i s m , my argument i s more p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between B r i t a i n ' s Norman and Saxon h e r i t a g e s . 6 6 John M. Kemble, The Saxons i n England. A H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h  Commonwealth t i l l the Period of the Norman Conquest (London: Brown, Green and Longman, 1849). 6 7 Edinburgh Review, v o l . CLXXIX (Jan. 1849): p. 157. 6 8 Arthur Penryhn Stanley, The L i f e and Correspondence of Thomas  Arnold. D. D. 2 v o l s . (1844; London, 1881), v o l . I I , p. 324. 6 9 Thomas Arnold, Introductory Lectures on Modern H i s t o r y ...  Inaugural Lecture d e l i v e r e d i n December MDCCCXLI (London: B. Fellowes, 1845), p. 27. 7 0 I b i d . , p. 26. 7 1 I b i d . , p. 28. 7 2 Walter C. Perry, The Franks, from Their F i r s t Appearance i n  H i s t o r y to the Death of King Pepin (London: Longman, 1857), pp. 4-5. 7 3 David Hume, The H i s t o r y of England from the Invasion of J u l i u s Caesar to  the Revolution i n 1688 (1762; London: Jones & Company, 1828), pp. 57-58, 56 . 7 4 I b i d . , p. 56. 7 5 Walter Scott, Ivanhoe (1819; New York: Dodd, 1941), p. 496. 7 6 Sharon Turner wrote i n The H i s t o r y of England from the Norman  Conquest .... v o l . I, p. 39, t h a t : "France, on the d e c l i n e of the C a r l o v i n g i a n f a m i l y , e x h i b i t e d four great d i v i s i o n s , of language, race, manners; i t s Northern province f u l l of the German race; the midland country, where a mixed L a t i n language and people p r e v a i l e d , and the Southern s t a t e s which were d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o r the Provencal and Troubadour language, w h i l e the Northmen e s t a b l i s h e d a Scandinavian race i n Normandy." 7 7 The idea that the Normans and the E n g l i s h were one race was not new. Already i n 1605 the h i s t o r i a n Richard Verstegen, i n h i s R e s t i t u t i o n of  Decayed I n t e l l i g e n c e , a work which ran to f i v e e d i t i o n s between 1605 and 1670, a s s e r t e d on the a u t h o r i t y of T a c i t u s that the E n g l i s h were not a mixed race: "And whereas some do c a l l us a mixed n a t i o n by reason of these Danes and Normannes coming i n among us, I answer ... that the Danes and the Normannes were one and the same people w i t h the Germans, as were a l s o the Saxons: and wee not to bee accompted mixed by having only some such ioyned, unto us again, as sometime had one same language and one same o r i g i n a l l w i t h us"; quoted i n Leon Poliakov, The Aryan Mvth. A H i s t o r y of R a c i s t and  N a t i o n a l i s t Ideas i n Europe, p. 47. 7 8 Arnold, Introductory Lectures on Modern H i s t o r y , p. 26. 7 9 Thomas C a r l y l e , C r i t i c a l and Miscellaneous Essays, 5 v o l s . (1839; London: Chapman & H a l l , 1899), v o l . IV, "Chartism," p. 175. 8 0 Perry, The Franks, from Their F i r s t Appearance i n H i s t o r y to the  Death of King Pepin, p. .1. See a l s o K l i g e r , The Goths i n England, p. 102. 8 1 Richard B e a t n i f f e , The N o r f o l k Tour: or. T r a v e l l e r ' s Pocket-Companion:  Being a Concise D e s c r i p t i o n of a l l the P r i n c i p a l Towns. Noblemen's and  Gentlemen's Seats, and other Remarkable Places, i n the County of N o r f o l k ... (Norwich: B e a t n i f f e , 1808). B e a t n i f f e ' s preface, emphasising the need f o r a compact county guide to serve the gentleman t r a v e l l e r , s t a t e d that "The h i s t o r i e s of N o r f o l k and i t s p r i n c i p a l towns are comprised i n so many f o l i o s , quartos, and books of a l l s i z e s as c o l l e c t i v e l y are too voluminous and expensive, and s e v e r a l of them too scarce to be e a s i l y procured. These, amongst other reasons have induced me to compress i n t o as small and compact as p o s s i b l e , to be u s e f u l to a gentleman t r a v e l l e r an epitome of what seemed worthy of p a r t i c u l a r n o t i c e i n the county, compiled from the labour of Camden, Spelman, Blo m e f i e l d , P a r k i n , Swinden...." B e a t n i f f e ' s The  N o r f o l k Tour d i d not o r i g i n a l l y c o n t a i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s ; the copies of the 1795 e d i t i o n at B r i t i s h L i b r a r y and at the L o c a l Studies L i b r a r y i n Norwich have no images. The copy of the 1808 e d i t i o n at B r i t i s h L i b r a r y a l s o has no i l l u s t r a t i o n s ; however, the copy of the 1808 e d i t i o n at the L o c a l Studies L i b r a r y i n Norwich contains some of the images engraved by v a r i o u s engravers from drawings by John S e l l Cotman and other a r t i s t s f o r Thomas Cromwell's Excursions through Norfo l k, of 1818. These images were, however, executed a f t e r 1808 (Cotman, f o r instance was not commissioned to execute the drawings f o r Cromwell's p u b l i c a t i o n u n t i l 1817. See K i t s o n , The L i f e of  John S e l l Cotman. pp. 283-284), and must th e r e f o r e have been i n c l u d e d i n the 1808 e d i t i o n of The N o r f o l k Tour at a l a t e r date, p o s s i b l y by an i n d i v i d u a l patron. 8 2 B e a t n i f f e , The N o r f o l k Tour (1808), p. 2. 8 3 B r i t t o n wrote i n h i s A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , v o l . IV, (1814), p. 164, that the keep-tower of the present c a s t l e was most l i k e l y erected i n 1077 by Roger Bigod, appointed E a r l of N o r f o l k by W i l l i a m the Conqueror. 8 4 B e a t n i f f e , The N o r f o l k Tour, p. 81. 8 5 W i l l i a m W i l k i n s "An Essay towards a H i s t o r y of the Venta Icenorum of the Romans, and of Norwich C a s t l e ; w i t h Remarks on the A r c h i t e c t u r e of the Anglo-Saxons and Normans," pp. 139-146. 8 6 I b i d . , pp. 134-135. 8 7 I b i d . , pp. 139-142. 8 8 I b i d . , pp. 143, 195. 8 9 I b i d . , pp. 145-146. 9 0 I b i d . , pp. 156-157. 9 1 I b i d . , p. 157. 9 2 I b i d . , pp. 165-180. 9 3 Taylor and Sayers had both supported the French Revolution i n i t s e a r l y years, but had become d i s i l l u s i o n e d at i t s ' l a t e r v i o l e n t course, and had turned against i t . See David Chandler, "Two Norwich W r i t e r s of the e a r l y Revolutionary Period (1789-1791)" (Unpublished M. P h i l , t h e s i s . Oxford,-Corpus C h r i s t i College, 1993), pp. 12-57. 9 4 See David Chandler, "Two Norwich w r i t e r s . . . , " p. 12. 9 5 Frank Sayers' Dramatic Sketches of Northern Mythology (Norwich: Stevenson and Matchett, 1803) was w e l l r e c e i v e d and went through four e d i t i o n s i n the e a r l y 19 t h century. See David Chandler, "Two Norwich w r i t e r s . . . , " p. 25. 9 6 For instance, i n the poem "Moina," i n the Dramatic Sketches of  Northern Mythology, pp. 70-88, Sayers described the ancient Saxon custom of b u r i a l s of war-heroes, which demanded that the w i f e be b u r i e d a l i v e w i t h the deceased w a r r i o r . 9 7 W i l l i a m Taylor, "Harold and T o s t i , a Tragedy," The Monthly  Magazine (1810): p. 319. 9 8 Cotman's l e t t e r s from Normandy show that h i s primary i n t e r e s t l a y i n d e p i c t i n g Romanesque b u i l d i n g s . See "John S e l l Cotman's L e t t e r s from Normandy 1817-1820," ed. Isherwood Kay, The Waloole Socie t y , v o l . XIV (1925-1926): p. 102. 9 9 John S e l l Cotman, The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Normandy (London: John and Arthur Arch, 1822). 1 0 0 The h i s t o r i a n Walter Rye i n h i s N o r f o l k F a m i l i e s (Norwich: Goose and Son, 1913), p. 279, doubted that the Norwich Gurneys could l a y c l a i m to a Norman ancestry; according to him the claims of the Gurney f a m i l y were a l l e g a t i o n s not founded i n h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s . 1 0 1 Dawson Turner, Sketch of the H i s t o r y of C a i s t e r C a s t l e near  Yarmouth (London: Whittaker & Co., 1842). 1 0 2 I b i d . , pp. 22-23. 1 0 3 Gerald Newman, "Anti-French propaganda and B r i t i s h l i b e r a l n a t i o n a l i s m i n the e a r l y nineteenth century," V i c t o r i a n Studies, v o l . 18 (1975), pp. 385-418, sees Francophobia and B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i s m as instrumental i n the c r e a t i o n of an emerging middle-class i d e n t i t y against the F r a n c o p h i l i s m and cosmopolitanism of the upper c l a s s e s , i n the p e r i o d of the Napoleonic wars. However, Newman's account does not deal w i t h the groups of upper middle c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s who a s p i r e d to higher s o c i a l rank through an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a r i s t o c r a t i c p r a c t i c e s and values. In h i s p u b l i c a t i o n on C a i s t e r C a s t l e i n Norfolk, Sketch of the H i s t o r y of C a i s t e r  C a s t l e , near Yarmouth (1842), p. 5, Dawson Turner a l s o seemed to be s u b t l y suggesting that the e l e v a t i o n of the upper middle c l a s s e s , or the s o c i a l group to which he belonged, was a process o c c u r r i n g n a t u r a l l y as a p a r t of h i s t o r i c a l progress: "The a r c h i t e c t u r a l character of the c a s t l e i s i n f l u e n c e d by the time of i t s e r e c t i o n . I t was b u i l t at that t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d , when the heavy and s t r o n g l y f o r t i f i e d d w e l lings of our nobles, constructed mainly as places of s e c u r i t y , began to be superseded by h a b i t a t i o n s of a l e s s m i l i t a r y character; when the c l a s s of s o c i e t y , one step below barons, was g r a d u a l l y r i s i n g i n t o importance, when comfort and amenity had gained i n a degree upon sternness and f o r c e . . . " 1 0 4 Gurney i n p a r t i c u l a r provided f i n a n c i a l support f o r Cotman's work on The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Normandy. See Hemingway, "Cotman's ' A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Normandy,'" pp. 165, 167, 172, 178. 1 0 5 See Hemingway, "Cotman's ' A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Normandy,'" p. 17 0. 1 0 5 L e t t e r from Hudson Gurney to Dawson Turner, 20 t h A p r i l , 1820; quoted i n Hemingway, "Cotman's ' A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Normandy,'" p. 170. 1 0 7 John M i l n e r , The H i s t o r y C i v i l and E c c l e s i a s t i c a l and the Survey  of the A n t i q u i t i e s of Winchester, 2. v o l s . (1798; Winchester: James Robbins, 1809) . 1 0 8 Dawson Turner, i n Cotman's A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Normandy (London: John and Arthur Arch, 1822), p. 4. 1 0 9 I b i d . , p. 7. 1 1 0 I b i d . , p. i i i . 1 1 1 Joshua Reynolds, Discourses on A r t , ed. Robert R. Wark (New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975), Discourse X I I I , pp. 241-242. 1 1 2 Dawson Turner, Sketch of the H i s t o r y of C a i s t e r C a s t l e , p. 22. 1 1 3 I b i d . , pp. 103, 114. 1 1 4 While Cotman drew and etched the images f o r h i s A r c h i t e c t u r a l  A n t i q u i t i e s of N o r f o l k himself, he was commissioned, together w i t h s e v e r a l other a r t i s t s , by Thomas Cromwell to make drawings f o r Cromwell's Excursions through No r f o l k . These drawings were then s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced i n s c a l e and engraved by d i f f e r e n t engravers f o r Cromwell's p u b l i c a t i o n . 1 1 5 B e a t n i f f e , The N o r f o l k Tour ( O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1772), p. 269 . 1 1 6 B r i t t o n , A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , v o l . IV (1814), p. 164. 1 1 7 Lawrence Harry, C a s t l e R i s i n g . A Short H i s t o r y and D e s c r i p t i o n of  the C a s t l e (King's Lynn: West Nor f o l k and King's Lynn Newspaper Co., 1932), p. 16. 1 1 8 I b i d . , p. 112. 1 1 9 Beloe, Edward M., C a s t l e R i s i n g , N o r f o l k : the Barony; the  Borough: the Franchise ... (Norwich: A. H. Goose, 1894), p. 26. 1 2 0 O l d f i e l d , The Representative H i s t o r y of Great B r i t a i n , v o l . IV, p. 271. 1 2 1 Correspondence between Howard and the steward concerning the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the e s t a t e i s i n N o r f o l k Record O f f i c e . Howard C a s t l e R i s i n g C o l l e c t i o n . How 750. 1 2 2 Cobbett, Rural Rides (1830; Oxford: Cole G. D. H. and M., 1930), p. 313; quoted i n Raymond Wi l l i a m s , The Country and the C i t y (1973; London: The Hogarth Press, 1993), p. 110. 1 2 3 B e a t n i f f e wrote i n The Nor f o l k Tour (1772; 1808), p. 268: "At present the c o r p o r a t i o n c o n s i s t s of two aldermen only, who a l t e r n a t i v e l y serve the o f f i c e of mayor, and r e t u r n two members to parliament, the mayor being the r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r . The burgage tenures are the property of the E a r l s of S u f f o l k and Orford; and though f i v e or s i x names g e n e r a l l y appear upon the p o l l at an e l e c t i o n f o r member of Parliament, i t i s very d o u b t f u l whether there i s a s i n g l e l e g a l v o t e r belonging to the burgh except the r e c t o r . " By 1816, when O l d f i e l d wrote h i s account, the ownership of the borough had descended to the E a r l Cholmondeley and Richard Howard. 1 2 4 B r i t t o n , The Beauties of England and Wales, v o l . XI (1810), p. 303 . 1 2 5 B r i t t o n , A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , v o l . IV (1814), p. 162. B r i t t o n ' s reference was to the h i s t o r i a n Edward King, who i n h i s Observations on Ancient C a s t l e s (1782), had claimed a Saxon o r i g i n f o r C a s t l e R i s i n g C a s t l e . 1 2 6 B r i t t o n , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n , v o l . IV (1814), p. 161. 1 2 7 John Ruskin, "The Nature of Gothic" (1851-1853), i n The Nature of  Gothic. A Chapter from the Stones of Venice, w i t h a preface by W i l l i a m M o r r i s (London: George A l l e n , 1899), p. 53. 1 2 8 I b i d . , p. 3 . 1 2 9 I b i d . , p. 54. I I . Knights, f r i a r s and freemen; imaging the town. 1. ' C l a s s i c a l ' Norwich. Urban and r u r a l D i s t r e s s ; the E a s t  A n q l i a R e b e l l i o n of 1816. A n g l i c a n s and D i s s e n t e r s . W hile debates over the medieval p e r i o d had n a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , the medieval p a s t was a l s o m a n i p u l a t e d i n c o n t e s t e d d i s c o u r s e s a t the l o c a l l e v e l of the c i t y of Norwich, t h a t i n t u r n i n t e r s e c t e d w i t h s h i f t i n g p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and economic i n t e r e s t s . The medieval landmarks w i t h i n the c i t y , i n p a r t i c u l a r Norwich C a s t l e , Norwich C a t h e d r a l , and what remained of the o l d town-gates and w a l l s , c o n s t i t u t e d i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and c i v i c symbols. While the town-gates were demolished i n the e a r l y 1790s, and the w a l l s were i n a s t a t e of advanced decay, Norwich C a s t l e and Norwich C a t h e d r a l were not o n l y c o n s i d e r e d i mportant h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s , but a l s o formed a p a r t of the contemporary l i f e of the c i t y . The C a t h e d r a l was s t i l l used as a p l a c e of worship, and Norwich C a s t l e housed the a s s i z e . c o u r t s and s e r v e d as the County P r i s o n . The C a s t l e was a l s o the customary p l a c e f o r the hanging of c r i m i n a l s . C o n s t i t u t i n g s i t e s . w h e r e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s were a r t i c u l a t e d , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n t r a v e l and a n t i q u a r i a n p u b l i c a t i o n s of views of Norwich, i t s C a s t l e and i t s C a t h e d r a l p l a y e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e s i n imaging the c i t y i n t h i s p e r i o d of economic and i n d u s t r i a l change and b l u r r i n g of c l e a r boundaries between town and c o u n t r y . As a r e g i o n a l c a p i t a l , Norwich was an i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , l e g a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c i a l c e n t r e i n the 18 t h c e n t u r y , competing u n t i l the 1750s w i t h B r i s t o l f o r the p l a c e of the second most populous town i n England. 1 Norwich was a l s o an i m p o r t a n t c u l t u r a l c e n t r e steeped i n the t r a d i t i o n s of the Enlightenment, and famous f o r such well-known l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s as the a u t h ors George Borrow, H a r r i e t M a r t i n e a u , Frank Sayers and W i l l i a m T a y l o r . The c i t y was home t o s e v e r a l p r i v a t e and s e m i - p r i v a t e c l u b s and s o c i e t i e s w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s , and i t f e a t u r e d c o f f e e houses, c i r c u l a t i n g l i b r a r i e s and bookshops. 2 Three of the o n l y s i x p r o v i n c i a l newspapers known i n the whole c o u n t r y were p r i n t e d t h e r e as e a r l y as 1706, and a p u b l i c l i b r a r y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the c i t y i n 1784.3 Famous f o r i t s C a t h e d r a l , d a t i n g t o the 11 t h c e n t u r y , and f o r i t s l a r g e number of churches, c o m p r i s i n g t h i r t y - t w o p a r i s h churches i n a l l , N orwich a l s o had a t r a d i t i o n of r e l i g i o u s D i s s e n t , stemming p a r t l y from the f o r e i g n r e l i g i o u s r e f u g e e s who had s e t t l e d here i n the p r e v i o u s two c e n t u r i e s . Norwich thus had s i z e a b l e and e s t a b l i s h e d Quaker, B a p t i s t and U n i t a r i a n c o n g r e g a t i o n s and the c i t y f e a t u r e d a l a r g e number of Nonconformist meeting houses; D i s s e n t had i n f a c t h e l p e d g i v e the c i t y much of i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n . 4 D i s s e n t e r s were a l s o a c t i v e i n the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l l i f e of the c i t y ; d e s p i t e the Test A c t , D i s s e n t e r s had l o n g s e r v e d the c o r p o r a t i o n i n v a r i o u s o f f i c e s from Mayor down, 5 and the Quaker community of the c i t y was e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e i n o r g a n i s i n g p r i s o n reform. Throughout the 18 t h c e n t u r y Norwich had been famous f o r i t s p r o s p e r i t y , and i n p a r t i c u l a r f o r i t s s u c c e s s f u l t e x t i l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y . 6 L i k e many o t h e r E n g l i s h c i t i e s and towns, Norwich p r i d e d i t s e l f on i t s t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r t i e s , l a i d out i n c h a r t e r s , f r a n c h i s e s and m u n i c i p a l c o n c e s s i o n s from the Crown. Thus the t r a v e l book p u b l i s h e r John Stacy, i n h i s T o p o g r a p h i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l Account of the C i t y and County of Norwich, of 1819, 7 p r o u d l y noted t h a t a t the p r e s e n t the c i t y of Norwich was governed by a n c i e n t c h a r t e r s d a t i n g t o the time o f Henry I and r e a f f i r m e d a t the time of the R e s t o r a t i o n i n the 17 t h c e n t u r y . A c c o r d i n g t o these c h a r t e r s , S t a c y remarked, the c i t i z e n s and commonality had the r i g h t t o make laws r e g u l a t i n g Norwich's government and economy: ... f o r the b e t t e r government of the c i t y , and of the s e v e r a l companies and t r a d e s t h e r e i n ... and f o r the p u b l i c good of the realm, the Mayor, s h e r i f f s , c i t i z e n s and commonalty ... a t any p u b l i c assembly, may make laws, o r d e r s , and c o n s t i t u t i o n s , f o r the b e t t e r r e g u l a t i n g , moderating, and g o v e r n i n g the c i t i z e n s and s e p a r a t e companies of t r a d e s and o c c u p a t i o n s i n the s a i d c i t y . 8 The N o r f o l k topographer and h i s t o r i a n Mostyn Armstrong, i n h i s H i s t o r y and A n t i q u i t i e s of the County of N o r f o l k , of 1781, r e p r e s e n t e d Norwich as a c e n t r e of o r d e r l y c i v i c o r g a n i s a t i o n , c u l t u r e and economic p r o g r e s s , conveying a sense of p r i d e i n the c i t y . Armstrong's work f e a t u r e s a map of Norwich, engraved by J . Thompson f o r Armstrong's h i s t o r y and d e d i c a t e d t o the Mayor ( f i g . 24). The map marks out the s u r r o u n d i n g medieval w a l l s and gates of Norwich, as w e l l as the l o c a t i o n of Norwich C a s t l e i n the c e n t r e of the c i t y , and Norwich C a t h e d r a l s i t u a t e d nearby. I t shows i n the margins images r e p r e s e n t i n g the arms of the c i t y , i t s o l d G u i l d h a l l , and, p r o m i n e n t l y , some of i t s 'modern' c l a s s i c i s i n g G eorgian b u i l d i n g s , i n c l u d i n g the Assembly House ) and the Theatre, both b u i l t i n the 1750s. The i n c l u s i o n of both the medieval G u i l d h a l l and the 'modern' Assembly House i n the margins of the map t e s t i f y to a sense of pr i d e i n the c o n t i n u i t y , s t a b i l i t y and progress of the c i v i c government of the c i t y . Armstrong's map, a t t e s t i n g the l o c a l climate of enlightened t o l e r a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s Dissent, a l s o included i n the margin a view of the new Presbyterian Octagon Chapel i n Norwich, b u i l t i n the 1750s i n a c l a s s i c a l s t y l e . 9 The work featured, as w e l l , a p r i n t of Gurney's bank i n Norwich, hence a l l u d i n g to the bourgeois p r o s p e r i t y of the c i t y ( f i g . 25). In a d d i t i o n , Armstrong showed an overview image of Norwich ( f i g . 15), dedicated to the Mayor and the Corporation, and thus honouring the c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the c i t y . This view i n Armstrong's H i s t o r y and A n t i q u i t i e s of the County of Norfolk belongs to an 18 t h century topographical t r a d i t i o n rather than to a picturesque t r a d i t i o n ; i t consis t s of a d e t a i l e d , comprehensive map-like d e p i c t i o n of the c i t y , i t s separate b u i l d i n g s , and i t s surrounding medieval gates and w a l l s , dating to the 13 t h and 14 t h c e n t u r i e s . 1 0 Outside the w a l l s which separate the space of the town from the countryside can be seen enclosed f i e l d s , d i v i d e d and marked out by rows of trees and hedges. The 11 t h century Norwich Cathedral i s shown prominently i n the middle of the p r i n t ; the Cathedral dominates the scene and thus underlines the important function of Norwich as a s p i r i t u a l centre. Both the map and the overview of the c i t y convey a sense of a c l e a r d i v i s i o n between town and country, d i v i d e d by the e n c i r c l i n g w a l l s , and hence co n f e r r i n g on each a d i s t i n c t and separate i d e n t i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , at t h i s secure and prosperous p e r i o d of the e a r l y 1780s, Norwich Castle i s hardly v i s i b l e i n the p r i n t . However, while Norwich had been seen i n the l a t e 18 t h century as an exemplar of urban order and middle c l a s s p r o s p e r i t y , during the e a r l y years of the French Revolution the c i t y a l s o became known f o r i t s support of the Revolution. Indeed, Norwich was considered i n t h i s p e r i o d by many to be a hotbed of Jacobinism. 1 1 The d i a r i s t and n o v e l i s t Fanny Burney wrote i n a l e t t e r i n 1792 from Norfolk: I am t r u l y amazed and h a l f alarmed to f i n d t h i s County f i l l e d w ith l i t t l e Revolution S o c i e t i e s , which transmit t h e i r notions of things to the l a r g e r Committees at Norwich, which communicate the whole to the Reformists of London. I am t o l d there i s scarce a V i l l a g e i n Norfolk free from these meetings . 1 2 A c t i v e p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n groups and r a d i c a l s o c i e t i e s c o n s t i t u t e d a d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c i t y i n the 1790s. A r t i s a n s as w e l l as Norwich i n t e l l e c t u a l s were involved i n these groups and s o c i e t i e s which included the 'Revolution Society,' the ' P a t r i o t i c Society' and the 'Tusculan Society,' and i n the p u b l i s h i n g of r a d i c a l and Reformist texts and j o u r n a l s . The author and U n i t a r i a n Dissenter and leading i n t e l l e c t u a l i n Norwich, W i l l i a m Taylor, edited the r a d i c a l newspaper, The I r i s , 1 3 and conducted the correspondence f o r the Norwich Revolution Society which claimed by 1792 to stand at the head of f o r t y - e i g h t a f f i l i a t e d groups i n the area,- 1 4 f o r Taylor the Revolution meant " l i b e r t y f o r every man." 1 5 R e l i g i o u s D i s s e n t e r s were i n p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y r a d i c a l i s m . 1 6 Indeed, the French R e v o l u t i o n , as a h a r b i n g e r of l i b e r a t i o n f o r Nonconformists, was welcomed by r e l i g i o u s D i s s e n t e r s who had been o f f i c i a l l y b a r r e d from p o l i t i c a l l i f e by the Test A c t s . The N o r f o l k B a p t i s t p r e a c h e r , farmer and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t Mark W i l k s , a w e l l known defender of the French R e v o l u t i o n , preached a sermon a t S t . P a u l ' s Chapel i n Norwich i n 1791, t i t l e d The O r i g i n and S t a b i l i t y of the French R e v o l u t i o n . W i l k s p r e f a c e d h i s sermon w i t h a quote from the S c r i p t u r e s , Lev. XXV.10: And- ye s h a l l p r o c l a i m l i b e r t y throughout a l l the l a n d , unto a l l the i n h a b i t a n t s t h e r e o f ; i t s h a l l be a j u b i l e e unto you, and ye s h a l l r e t u r n every man to h i s p o s s e s s i o n . W i l k s reminded h i s l i s t e n e r s t h a t they were c o n g r e g a t i n g t o commemorate the R e v o l u t i o n i n France, "a R e v o l u t i o n of God, which no power c o u l d overthrow." He p r o c l a i m e d t h a t C h r i s t was a r e v o l u t i o n a r y , sent t o f o r e t e l l the l i b e r t y of mankind: Jesus C h r i s t was a R e v o l u t i o n i s t ; and the R e v o l u t i o n he came t o e f f e c t was f o r e t o l d i n these words, "He h a t h sent me t o p r o c l a i m l i b e r t y t o the c a p t i v e s , and the opening of the p r i s o n t o them t h a t a re bound." 1 7 I n the course of h i s sermon W i l k s a l s o d e c l a r e d the demise of the o l d r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l system i n terms t h a t l i k e n e d G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e t o an o l d outmoded o r d e r : The v e n e r a b l e g o t h i c s t r u c t u r e has been shaken t o i t s v e r y f o u n d a t i o n , the s a c r e d e d i f i c e has been l a i d low, and democracy has d e d i c a t e d a Temple t o l i b e r t y on i t s r u i n s . 1 8 W i l k s ' s sermon was p r o p h e t i c f o r the c i t y of Norwich and the county of N o r f o l k as the f i r s t decades of the 19 t h c e n t u r y were marked by u n r e s t and p o p u l a r u p r i s i n g . The c i t y ' s t e x t i l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n e d i n the decades f o l l o w i n g the French R e v o l u t i o n , i n p a r t due t o the N a p o l e o n i c b l o c k a d e s and the Orders i n C o u n c i l which cut o f f the i m p o r t a n t American markets f o r B r i t i s h t e x t i l e s , from c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r t e x t i l e p r o d u c i n g c e n t r e s , and from r i s i n g war-time t a x e s . 1 9 A l t h o u g h landowners and farmers i n N o r f o l k had p r o f i t e d d u r i n g .the war y e a r s from the h i g h p r i c e s of g r a i n , these same h i g h p r i c e s h u r t r u r a l and urban workers and manufacturers who were e x p e r i e n c i n g growing unemployment and d i s t r e s s . I n a d d i t i o n , a l a r g e i n f l u x of unemployed r u r a l workers i n t o the c i t y 2 0 added t o the f e a r s of l o c a l e r u p t i o n s of u n r e s t . One o f the most c o n t e n t i o u s and debated i s s u e s of the time was the Corn Law B i l l of 1815. The B i l l was d e s i g n e d t o r e s t r i c t the i m p o r t a t i o n of cheap f o r e i g n g r a i n , and so t o p r o t e c t B r i t i s h farmers a f t e r the ending of the N a p o l e o n i c b l o c k a d e s had opened up im p o r t s of g r a i n from Europe. 2 1 Landowners and farmers i n N o r f o l k congregated t o p e t i t i o n f o r the new Corn Laws; 2 2 however, the q u e s t i o n of the Corn Laws deeply p o l a r i s e d r u r a l land-owning and urban m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n t e r e s t s . M a n u f a c t u r i n g groups saw the proposed Corn Laws as b e i n g i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s : the laws meant a r i s e i n the p r i c e of g r a i n , which i n t u r n t h r e a t e n e d n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on i n d u s t r y and manufactures. In the town of Norwich the sentiment was d e c i d e d l y a g a i n s t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the new Corn Laws. On March 11 t h, 1815, the N o r f o l k C h r o n i c l e and Norwich G a z e t t e p u b l i s h e d the r e s o l u t i o n of a meeting a t the G u i l d h a l l i n the c i t y , p r e s i d e d over by the Mayor J . W. Robberds: 1. That i t i s the opinion of t h i s meeting that the B i l l now pending i n Parliament respecting an a l t e r a t i o n i n the Corn Laws can have no other e f f e c t than that of r a i s i n g the p r i c e of corn, and of keeping up the extravagant rents which were obtained during the l a t e war, thus b e n e f i t i n g the land owner, to the great i n j u r y of both the grower and consumer. 2. That t h i s meeting views w i t h great astonishment and concern the indecent p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h which the proposed B i l l i s c a r r y i n g through the House of Commons ... 3. That the advantages held out by the proposed B i l l are remote, contingent, and improbable, whereas the e v i l s attendant on a r i s e i n the p r i c e of corn are immediate, c e r t a i n , and. d e s t r u c t i v e . 4. That t h i s Meeting i s therefore of opinion that any f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n on the importation of f o r e i g n g r a i n i s unnecessary and unjust . . . 2 3 The Norfolk Chronicle and Norwich Gazette a l s o noted the. p e t i t i o n of Mr. Edward Taylor which s p e c i f i c a l l y put f o r t h the expected negative e f f e c t s of the Corn B i l l on the c i t y ' s manufactures and accused the landowners of s e l f - s e r v i n g motives i n t h e i r support of the B i l l : In reference to what he considered to. be the r e a l object of the B i l l , he asked what claim the land owner had thus to come forward and propose to f i l l h i s pockets at t h e i r expense ... Mr. Taylor proceeded to remark that Norwich, as a manufacturing town, would doubly f e e l the hardship of corn s e l l i n g at a high p r i c e , which, attended as i t n e c e s s a r i l y must be with an advance of wages, would o b l i g e them to send t h e i r goods i n t o the market at a higher p r i c e than ought to be done to meet the competition of f o r e i g n a r t i c l e s ; i t was e v i d e n t l y therefore of the utmost importance, i n t h i s point of view, to keep bread as low as p o s s i b l e . 2 4 In the same issue the paper reported on both the numerous p e t i t i o n s against the Corn Law B i l l , and the country-wide r i o t s which had already ensued i n the context of protests against the proposed B i l l . Thomas Coke, one of the most prominent landowners i n Norfolk and owner of the famous Holkham estate i n the northern part of the county, was a l s o deeply involved i n the c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o l i t i c s around the proposed Corn Law B i l l . Coke s e r v e d as a lon g - t i m e Member of P a r l i a m e n t ; he was f i r s t e l e c t e d Member f o r N o r f o l k i n 1776, and from then on he r e p r e s e n t e d N o r f o l k almost c o n t i n u o u s l y i n the House of Commons u n t i l 1832. 2 5 Coke was a committed Whig and a f r i e n d of C h a r l e s James Fox 2 6 and S i r F r a n c i s B u r d e t t , the famous Reformer and Member of P a r l i a m e n t whom Coke supported when B u r d e t t was b r i e f l y i m p r i s o n e d i n the Tower i n 1810.27 A l t h o u g h Coke, as a l i b e r a l and as a Whig, supported Reform, as a landowner and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o ducer he a l s o supported the proposed Corn Laws. The f a c t t h a t Coke had v o t e d i n fav o u r of the Corn B i l l gave r i s e t o extreme anger and a g i t a t i o n among the l a b o u r i n g p o p u l a t i o n of Norwich and N o r f o l k . I n fa c e of the p u b l i c anger a g a i n s t Coke, h i s f r i e n d and f e l l o w N o r f o l k landowner L o r d A l b e r m a r l e warned him i n a l e t t e r of March 5 t h, 1815, t h a t the ferment i n Norwich i s p r e p a r i n g and i t i s much f e a r e d t h a t your l i f e i s i n g r e a t danger ... Something must be done b e f o r e you go t o Norwich. You would be immed i a t e l y a t t a c k e d , and you know w e l l t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o e x p l a i n t o a mob ...28 D e s p i t e t h i s warning Coke, accompanied by A l b e r m a r l e , a t t e n d e d on March 16 t h, 1815, the y e a r l y C a t t l e Show h e l d i n the C a t t l e Market i n f r o n t of Norwich C a s t l e i n the c e n t r e of the town. The resentment a g a i n s t Coke e r u p t e d i n r i o t i n g ; Coke and A l b e r m a r l e were a t t a c k e d by an a n t i - C o r n Law crowd which was l e d by a man b e a r i n g a l o a f of br e a d on a p o l e , the t r a d i t i o n a l s i g n of p o v e r t y . 2 9 Coke and A l b e r m a r l e f l e d , but the crowd f o l l o w e d them u n t i l they managed t o escape i n t o a n e i g h b o u r i n g i n n . 3 0 H i s t o r i a n E. P. Thompson has shown t h a t food r i o t s and p r o t e s t s against high p r i c e s of g r a i n formed an important part i n the s t r u c t u r e of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l o rganisation i n B r i t a i n . 3 1 According to Thompson, food r i o t s were not, as has been commonly understood by h i s t o r i a n s , i n v a r i a b l y expressions of mindless v i o l e n c e caused by hunger, but were often r a t i o n a l demonstrations, based on a sense of moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w i t h the r i o t e r s demanding and frequently achieving r e l i e f and the lowering of p r i c e s . 3 2 The crowds p r o t e s t i n g high food p r i c e s were informed by the b e l i e f that they were defending t r a d i t i o n a l customs and r i g h t s , and that they were supported by the wider consensus of the community.33 However, i n the years of p o l i t i c a l paranoia and repression a f t e r 1800, food protests were r e a d i l y c o n f l a t e d with ideas of Jacobinism and perceived as p o t e n t i a l threats to the p o l i t i c a l order, and as such severely repressed by the a u t h o r i t i e s . 3 4 The protests i n Norwich i n 1815, during which several aldermen of the c i t y were also attacked while attempting to re s t o r e order, were eventually q u e l l e d by the Brunswick Hussars. 3 5 The Norfolk Chronicle and Norwich Gazette, r e p o r t i n g on the i n c i d e n t , s t r o n g l y condemned the attack on Coke and Albermarle. 3 6 Despite widespread opposition, the Corn B i l l was passed i n the House of Lords on March 23 r d, 1815. The Norfolk Chronicle and  Norwich Gazette reported a r e s o l u t i o n of the Grand Jury of the County of Norfolk i n respect to the Corn Law B i l l . The Jury deplored the v i o l e n t demonstrations against the new law and the attack on Coke and Albermarle, and the r e s o l u t i o n reminded the c i t i z e n s of t h e i r duty to acquiesce peaceably to the laws of the c o u n t r y and t o r e s p e c t the l a w f u l h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of power : ... c o n s i d e r i n g the g r a d u a l c o n n e c t i o n between a l l ranks of p e o p l e i n t h i s c o u n t r y , the happy and i n s e p a r a b l e u n i o n of t h e i r r e a l i n t e r e s t s , and t h e i r mutual dependence on each o t h e r , which we f e e l e q u a l l y w i t h a l l our f e l l o w s u b j e c t s , we must contend t h a t i t i s the bounden duty of a l l , i n whatever rank, t o a c q u i e s c e p e a c e a b l y i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n s of the Supreme l e g i s l a t i v e Power. That a l l attempts t o c o n t r o u l by menaces and v i o l e n c e the d e l i b e r a t i o n of P a r l i a m e n t ... are u t t e r l y s u b v e r s i v e of the f r e e c o n s t i t u t i o n of t h i s c o u n t r y and tend o n l y t o produce u n i v e r s a l c o n f u s i o n and m i s e r y . 3 7 However, the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l t u r b u l e n c e i n N o r f o l k and Norwich, e x a c e r b a t e d by the p a s s i n g of the Corn Laws, c u l m i n a t e d i n a g e n e r a l u p r i s i n g , the East A n g l i a R e b e l l i o n , which broke out i n the e a r l y summer of 1816. A p l a c a r d e x h o r t i n g the p e o p l e of Norwich t o march t o London w i t h t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s i n p a r t i c u l a r evoked the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u g g l e s f o r ' E n g l i s h l i b e r t y : ' A t t e n t i o n F e l l o w countrymen & S l a v e s , now i s the time t o shake of [ s i c ] your Load of Oppression & S t a r v a t i o n f o r which Purpose meet on the C a s t l e H i l l on Sunday Morning a t 10 o ' c l o c k then March t o London t h e r e Demand your R i g h t s l i k e Sons of L i b e r t y . God Save the P e o p l e ! ! 3 8 The a n i m o s i t y and deep resentment engendered by wi d e s p r e a d d i s t r e s s i s b e s t expressed i n the famous l e t t e r a ddressed "To the Gentlemen of A s h i l l . " I n t h i s l e t t e r anonymous N o r f o l k l a b o u r e r s blamed t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g d i s t r e s s d i r e c t l y on the l o c a l m i l l e r s and landowners, whom they a l s o t h r e a t e n e d w i t h v i o l e n c e : T h i s i s t o i n f o r m you t h a t you have by t h i s time brought us under the h e a v i e s t burden and under the h a r d e s t yoke we ever knowed ... you have o f t e n times b l i n d e d us s a y i n g t h a t the f a u l t was a l l i n the Place-men of P a r l i a m e n t : but now you have opened our eyes, we know they have a g r e a t power, but they have n o t h i n g to do w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n o f t h i s p a r i s h ... There i s 5 or 6 of you have g o t t e n a l l the whole of the land, i n t h i s p a r i s h i n your own hands and you would w i s h t o be r i c h and s t a r v e a l l the o t h e r p a r t of the poor of the p a r i s h ... So we s h a l l ... knock down the M i l l , and s e t f i r e t o a l l ... houses and s t a c k s as we go a l o n g : we s h a l l b e g i n i n the n i g h t ... And the f i r s t Man t h a t r e f u s e s to j o i n the Combination s h a l l s u f f e r death i n a moment, o r the f i r s t p e r s o n t h a t i s c a t c h e d s a y i n g a n y t h i n g a g a i n s t the same, s h a l l s u f f e r death ... We have counted up t h a t we have g o t t e n about 60 of us to 1 of you: t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d you govern, so many t o one? 3 9 The r e b e l l i o n was r e p r e s s e d i n August of the same y e a r . Most of the r i o t e r s r e c e i v e d p r i s o n sentences, but two men were sentenced t o death, f o r r i o t i n g , and one man, Thomas Moy, who had r e s i d e d a t Binham, was condemned t o death f o r s h e e p - s t e a l i n g . 4 0 A l l t h r e e men were executed a t a p u b l i c hanging i n August 1816, i n f r o n t of Norwich C a s t l e , the p r i s o n and i m p o r t a n t j u d i c i a l and e l e c t o r a l c e n t r e of Norwich and N o r f o l k . Hanging and the death p e n a l t y were focuses of p u b l i c concern a t the n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s and had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the ways i n which p r i s o n a r c h i t e c t u r e and s o c i a l space were p e r c e i v e d and r e p r e s e n t e d . Over the course of the 18 t h c e n t u r y , a p e r i o d of commerce and i n c r e a s i n g p r o s p e r i t y , England's "Bloody Code" had i n c r e a s e d the number of c a p i t a l o f f e n c e s i n the s t a t u t e book t o w e l l over two hundred, i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t not o n l y the p o l i t i c a l o r d e r but a l s o p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . 4 1 But responses t o t h i s had a l s o e v o l v e d when the death p e n a l t y came i n c r e a s i n g l y under c r i t i c i s m . Demands were i n p a r t i c u l a r v o i c e d c o n c e r n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n of c a p i t a l o f f e n c e s . The d i f f e r e n t s i d e s of the debates were most n o t a b l y r e p r e s e n t e d by the A n g l i c a n archdeacon W i l l i a m P a l e y who s u p p o r t e d the e x i s t i n g laws, and by Jeremy Bentham, Samuel R o m i l l y and Thomas F o w e l l Buxton, b r o t h e r - i n - l a w of the p r i s o n r e f o r m e r E l i z a b e t h F r y of the prominent Quaker f a m i l y the Gurneys of Norwich, who demanded t h a t the death p e n a l t y be r e s t r i c t e d to o n l y the most heinous c r i m e s . 4 2 Bentham and R o m i l l y i n p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n on the summary meting out of c a p i t a l sentences f o r a wide range of s m a l l e r crimes such as t h e f t , and they argued t h a t judges had f a r too much a r b i t r a r y power i n the d e c i s i o n s t o pronounce c a p i t a l sentences, hence r e n d e r i n g the whole p r o c e s s confused and i n c o n s i s t e n t . 4 3 Bentham and R o m i l l y here touched on an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of the death p e n a l t y , the f a c t t h a t the S t a t e had the a r b i t r a r y power of punishment by death, but a l s o of r e p r i e v e , and hence the a b i l i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e p o p u l a r sentiment i n i t s f a v o u r . The t e n s i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the i s s u e of c a p i t a l punishment were e v i d e n t i n the responses of the p r e s s , the p u b l i c and the Church t o the e x e c u t i o n s of the t h r e e men condemned t o death a f t e r the E a s t A n g l i a R e b e l l i o n s . The N o r f o l k C h r o n i c l e and . Norwich G a z e t t e , r e p o r t i n g on the e x e c u t i o n s , d i d not q u e s t i o n the p e n a l t i e s themselves, but r a t h e r emphasised t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y , a r g u i n g t h a t the sentences were j u s t i f i e d as a d e t e r r e n t t o o t h e r s and i n view of the danger of the c r i m e s . However, w h i l e the paper i n p a r t i c u l a r h e l d f o r t h the dangers of f o l l o w i n g p a s s i o n a t e and angry crowds and of Sabbath-breaking, i t a l s o n oted the honest r e p u t a t i o n s of the t h r e e condemned men: They were a l l of them men of honest and r e p u t a b l e c o n n e c t i o n s , and were brought t o t h e i r u n t i m e l y end by s a b b a t h - b r e a k i n g ... and by f o l l o w i n g a m u l t i t u d e to do e v i 1. The N o r f o l k C h r o n i c l e and Norwich G a z e t t e f u r t h e r n o t e d the deep sympathy ex p r e s s e d by the g e n e r a l populace toward the t h r e e who were hung i n f r o n t of Norwich C a s t l e : No m a l e f a c t o r s ever e x p i r e d w i t h g r e a t e r sympathy from the immense m u l t i t u d e , which covered the whole s u r f a c e of the h i l l a d j o i n i n g the p l a c e of e x e c u t i o n ... Thomas Moy, aged 32, was born a t Guestwick i n N o r f o l k , and has l e f t a w i f e and seven young c h i l d r e n . The p r e s s u r e of the times had i n v o l v e d him i n g r e a t d i s t r e s s ; and he had undertaken t o h i r e a farm of c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t a t Binham, t o which h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s were by no means e q u a l . H i s r e l a t i o n s a r e r e s p e c t a b l e , and the crime f o r which he s u f f e r e d was the o n l y one which brought him under the sentence of the law. 4 5 I n f a c t , d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of the 19 t h c e n t u r y i n B r i t a i n p u b l i c e x e c u t i o n s were g r a d u a l l y abandoned, 4 6 as the d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t was seen as n e g l i g i b l e i n comparison w i t h the f e a r e d p o t e n t i a l of p u b l i c e x e c u t i o n s t o e l i c i t v i o l e n c e among the l a r g e crowds which they a t t r a c t e d . 4 7 M i c h e l F o u c a u l t has n o t e d t h a t p u b l i c e x e c u t i o n s came t o be seen as dangerous i n t h a t they " p r o v i d e d a support f o r a c o n f r o n t a t i o n between the v i o l e n c e of the k i n g and the v i o l e n c e of the p e o p l e . " 4 8 P u b l i c d i s a p p r o v a l of s e n t e n c i n g and the show of p i t y and sympathy toward the condemned were f e a r e d by a u t h o r i t i e s as p o t e n t i a l t r i g g e r s of u n r e s t , but a l s o as deeper comments on the workings of the j u d i c i a r y and on the m o r a l i t y of the p e n a l system i t s e l f . Thus the r e f e r e n c e i n the N o r f o l k C h r o n i c l e and Norwich G a z e t t e to the s y m p a t h e t i c f e e l i n g s of the crowd toward the condemned can a l s o be seen as t e s t i f y i n g t o a sense of a n x i e t y and u n c e r t a i n t y c o n c e r n i n g the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the e x e c u t i o n s of the t h r e e men. Exposing the e x e c u t i o n s t o p u b l i c view exposed moral i s s u e s r e a c h i n g t o the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s of the l e g i t i m a c y of the power and a u t h o r i t y w i e l d e d by the S t a t e . 4 9 C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s were i n p a r t i c u l a r brought up by those who opposed the death p e n a l t y f o r t h e f t . I n the 18 t h c e n t u r y the death p e n a l t y f o r t h e f t was commonly a t t a c k e d by Reformers through r e f e r e n c e t o Mosaic law, a c c o r d i n g t o which t h e f t s h o u l d be p u n i s h e d not by death but by r e s t i t u t i o n . 5 0 Most p r e l a t e s of the Church of England, however, r e s i s t e d the appeal t o Mosaic law, a r g u i n g t h a t c r i m i n a l law s h o u l d be based on reason and on contemporary s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l needs and c i r c u m s t a n c e s r a t h e r than on what they termed were obscure and outmoded B i b l i c a l p r e c e p t s . 5 1 The R e f o r m i s t R o m i l l y , i n h i s Memoirs of 1840, i n f a c t gave an account of the c o n t i n u e d and determined r e s i s t a n c e of the A n g l i c a n b i s h o p s t o h i s e f f o r t s t o a b o l i s h the death p e n a l t y f o r s m a l l e r o f f e n c e s , such as t h e f t . 5 2 The p a r i s h p r i e s t of the Church a t Binham i n N o r f o l k — t h e c h u r c h was d e p i c t e d i n , among o t h e r works, B r i t t o n ' s The A r c h i t e c t u r a l A n t i q u i t i e s of  Great B r i t a i n ( f i g . 2 6 ) — M r . Upjohn, who r e p r e s e n t e d the views of many A n g l i c a n c l e r g y and c o n s e r v a t i v e T o r i e s s u p p o r t i v e of c a p i t a l punishment, j u s t i f i e d i n the most severe terms the e x e c u t i o n s a t Norwich as ne c e s s a r y f o r the upkeep of law and o r d e r . Upjohn, who had v i s i t e d Thomas Moy i n p r i s o n , r e l a t e d t h a t Moy had r e g r e t t e d t h a t he had not been i n the h a b i t of a t t e n d i n g Church, and t h a t he had e x c l a i m e d t o the v i c a r : "... i f I had been i n the h a b i t of coming where you were, I s h o u l d never have been here!" Thus Upjohn i n f a c t made Moy's r e g r e t seem as an acceptance of h i s punishment as the j u s t r e t r i b u t i o n f o r h i s 'crime.' Upjohn d e l i v e r e d a sermon a t Binham P r i o r y Church a f t e r Moy's e x e c u t i o n , i n which he blamed Moy's b r e a k i n g of the law on h i s l a c k of r e l i g i o u s r e s t r a i n t : Poor Moy was n e c e s s i t o u s ; and t h i s n e c e s s i t y , he h a v i n g no r e l i g i o u s r e s t r a i n t s , urged him t o commit d e p r e d a t i o n s t o r e l i e v e h i s d i s t r e s s e s i n open v i o l a t i o n of the laws of God, h i s c o u n t r y . . . 5 3 I n h i s sermon Upjohn defended the s e n t e n c i n g of Moy w i t h a c i t a t i o n from Romans, v i , 23, which he r e p e a t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s : "The wages of s i n i s Death." The v i c a r contended t h a t s i n was not o n l y a s p i r i t u a l e v i l , but a temporal e v i l as w e l l , thus c l a i m i n g d i s o b e d i e n c e a g a i n s t s o c i e t y as a s i n : S i n ... i s not o n l y a s p i r i t u a l e v i l , i n f i n i t e i n i t s n a t u r e , and e t e r n a l i n i t s consequences, but i t i s a l s o a temporal e v i l ; i t aims a t the overthrow of d i v i n e government and c i v i l a u t h o r i t y . Hence the laws of a l l c i v i l governments are c e r t a i n s o c i a l agreements which the p u b l i c e n t e r i n t o f o r the good of the whole community. P a i n and punishment, t h e r e f o r e , must f o l l o w a v i o l a t i o n of t h i s s o c i a l bond, and t h a t f o r the p u b l i c good. 5 4 Mr. Upjohn i n 1816 demonstrates the c l o s e l i n k s between the Church and the S t a t e t h a t i n formed contemporary i d e o l o g i e s . The Church, s u p p o r t i n g the death sentences of the t h r e e men condemned a f t e r the East A n g l i a R e b e l l i o n , and u p h o l d i n g the r i t u a l s s u r r o u n d i n g the s e n t e n c i n g , l e n t i m p o r t a n t support t o the p o l i c i e s of the S t a t e , determined t o s e c u r e law and o r d e r i n a p e r i o d of f e a r and p a r a n o i a . W h i l e the 1816 r e b e l l i o n i n N o r f o l k was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t farmers, m i l l e r s and e n c l o s i n g l a n d l o r d s who b e n e f i t e d from the s c a r c i t y of g r a i n , much of the resentment among the r e b e l s was a l s o d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the E s t a b l i s h e d Church and i t s c l e r g y . 5 5 I n p a r t i c u l a r the l a b o u r i n g p o p u l a t i o n and the poor i n t h i s time of d i s t r e s s r e s e n t e d the A n g l i c a n c l e r g y f o r t h e i r support of the landowners' i n t e r e s t s , f o r t h e i r p o w e r f u l r o l e i n the m a g i s t e r i a l c o u r t s , f o r t h e i r o f t e n h a r s h d i s p e n s a t i o n of j u s t i c e and t h e i r a d m i n i s t e r i n g of heavy p e n a l t i e s f o r o f f e n c e s such as poa c h i n g and t h e f t . 5 6 Indeed, the l o c a l c l e r g y were h a b i t u a l l y t h r e a t e n e d by r e b e l s and p r o t e s t e r s . 5 7 R e l i g i o u s D i s s e n t e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r , who were f r e q u e n t l y s u s p e c t e d of c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h r a d i c a l i s m and c r i m i n a l i t y , 5 8 took up the a t t a c k s on the Church. I n Norwich the B a p t i s t p r e a c h e r Mark W i l k s , d enying the involvement of D i s s e n t e r s i n r a d i c a l and c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s , i n s t e a d accused the A n g l i c a n Church of c r i m i n a l i t y . 5 9 He d e f i n e d D i s s e n t i n terms of Enlightenment p r i n c i p l e s of Reason, i n o p p o s i t i o n t o what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be the s e l f - s e r v i n g p r a c t i c e s of the Church, which he c h a r a c t e r i s e d as based on a r c h a i c and p r i m i t i v e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . I n a sermon o f 1817, "Non-conformity: A Sermon D e l i v e r e d a t ... the Monthly A s s o c i a t i o n of C o n g r e g a t i o n a l M i n i s t e r s , " W i l k s a t t a c k e d the Church f o r i t s c o l l a b o r a t i o n 1 w i t h the S t a t e , 6 0 and the c l e r g y f o r t h e i r involvement i n p o l i t i c s and f o r t h e i r e l e c t o r a l support of p o l i t i c a l p a t r o n s i n r e t u r n f o r f a v o u r s . 6 1 He f u r t h e r c r i t i c i s e d the Church f o r i t s l a r g e p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g s , i t s system of b e n e f i c e s , s i n e c u r e s and patronage, and he accused the c l e r g y of v e n a l i t y , f a u l t i n g them f o r t h e i r absenteeism, n e g l e c t of t h e i r f l o c k s and f o r f e i t u r e of t h e i r moral o b l i g a t i o n s toward t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s . 6 2 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , enumerating the c o u n t l e s s compulsory r i t u a l s and sacraments which the A n g l i c a n Church demanded i t s c o n g r e g a t i o n s and p a r i s h i o n e r s t o undergo, W i l k s accused the Church of a "complete s u b j e c t i o n of Reason." 6 3 He p o i n t e d out t h a t the Ref o r m a t i o n i t s e l f had been the r e s u l t of Nonconformity and D i s s e n t i n g thought, 6 4 and he f i n i s h e d h i s sermon by te r m i n g the A n g l i c a n churches ' g i l d e d p a l a c e s and g o t h i c temples of c o n f o r m i s t s , ' and by comparing them t o the Nonconformist "meeting houses and barns" where "the word of the L o r d has f r e e course and i s g l o r i f i e d . " 6 5 W i l k s ' use of the term ' g o t h i c ' would have been i n t e n d e d t o t a i n t the Church w i t h c o n n o t a t i o n s of p r i m i t i v e n e s s and s u p e r s t i t i o n , as s e t a g a i n s t the e n l i g h t e n e d a t t i t u d e s of the Nonconformists. H i s use of the term ' g o t h i c ' c o u l d a l s o have been seen i n terms of a s s o c i a t i o n s of the A n g l i c a n Church w i t h the G o t h i c churches v i s i b l e everywhere i n the N o r f o l k c o u n t r y s i d e ; however, as many of these churches were e v i d e n t l y i n advanced stages of r u i n a t i o n , W i l k s ' comment c o u l d , by e x t e n s i o n , have been seen as an i r o n i c a l l u s i o n t o the decayed s t a t e of the Church i t s e l f . 2. A p p r o p r i a t i n g the med i e v a l ; r e a c t i o n a r i e s , r a d i c a l s and the ' S o c i e t y of U n i t e d F r i a r s . ' These m i l d , e n l i g h t e n e d times. The c i v i c s t r u c t u r e of Norwich was a l s o p e r c e i v e d i n t h i s p e r i o d t o be d e t e r i o r a t i n g , and the c i t y was i n p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c i n g antagonism around the i s s u e of c i v i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and m e c h a n i s a t i o n had brought about changes i n the economic s t r u c t u r e of the c i t y and had rendered many of the t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s of c r a f t s m e n and a r t i s a n s o b s o l e t e w h i l e g i v i n g r i s e t o a new group of w e a l t h y entrepreneurs and p r o f e s s i o n a l s . These developments had created a perceived imbalance i n the governing s t r u c t u r e of Norwich. 6 6 Under the unreformed e l e c t o r a l system the freemen of Norwich, many of them the descendants of craftsmen and a r t i s a n s who had been granted the freedom of the town i n medieval times, were the only ones who had the r i g h t to vote. In Norwich, which had about three thousand freemen i n a l l , freemen s t i l l h e l d the p o s i t i o n s of power i n the c i t y , and from t h e i r ranks were drawn the members of the corporation of Norwich. 6 7 However, wi t h the economic and s o c i a l changes many of the freemen had f a l l e n i n t o poverty, which had l e d them to openly s e l l t h e i r votes to wealthy candidates f o r the p o s i t i o n s of mayor and aldermen i n the c i t y corporation. The v e n a l i t y of the unreformed e l e c t o r a l system was w e l l known and was exposed by, among others, Thomas Roope, himself a freeman who aspired to p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n the c i t y . Roope, i n h i s Roope's Weekly Let t e r s to the Freemen of  Norwich, of 1810, i n p a r t i c u l a r drew a t t e n t i o n to the corrupt p r a c t i c e s of members of the corporation of Norwich. Roope revealed how large c h a r i t a b l e donations, instead of reaching the needy, had been appropriated by members of the corporation and had been disposed of i n ways which they considered most l i k e l y to serve t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l purposes. 6 8 C h a r i t a b l e donations were i n f a c t being used by the aldermen to bribe freemen when s o l i c i t i n g t h e i r votes. 6 9 Further, Roope recounted that when he himself had s o l i c i t e d votes from freemen, he had been asked f o r donations i n return: ... and when i n the p a r i s h of A l l Saints, I s o l i c i t e d a vote to place me i n the common Council, the Freeman r e p l i e d : S i r , you say you w i l l not pay me f o r my vote, i f I do o b l i g e you, and i f I do not oblige you, I am sure to receive my annual donation from Alderman Steward, provided I always vote as he chuses to d i r e c t . Again, two more people, i n King Street ... promised me t h e i r suffrages, and with apparent regret, they afterwards assigned as a reason f o r not supporting me, that they were a f r a i d Mr. C r i s p i n Brown [the Mayor of Norwich] should be the means of g e t t i n g them deprived of eighteen pence a week, from the allowance they received of the Court of Guardians ... When at the time to which I a l l u d e , we r e c o l l e c t that the strong arm of power was exerted i n every d i r e c t i o n , to prevent my g e t t i n g amongst the Corporate Body--when Mr. C r i s p i n Brown put the bank b i l l s i n t o the hands of the poor freemen to vote against me, and t o l d them to come f o r more . . . 7 0 The accusations of corruption d i r e c t e d at the c i t y corporation c o n s i s t i n g of the incumbent freemen, frequently voiced throughout the second decade of the 19 t h century, provided added impetus to the demands fo r e l e c t o r a l reform. Reform would, however, deprive the freemen both of t h e i r e x c l u s i v e r i g h t to membership i n the corporation and to t h e i r e x c l u s i v e r i g h t to e l e c t the mayor and aldermen. The proposals f o r reform of the e l e c t o r a l system, which would have e f f e c t e d a s h i f t i n power from the freemen to a l a r g e r s e c t i o n of the urban population, were hence perceived by many freemen as c o n s t i t u t i n g a threat not only to t h e i r power but to the l i v e l i h o o d of some among them as w e l l . That the proposals f o r Reform were perceived as a r e a l threat by many of the freemen of Norwich i s a t t e s t e d i n a pamphlet " P l a i n Truth i n P l a i n Words, addressed to the Freemen of Norwich by a Freeman." In t h i s pamphlet the anonymous w r i t e r made a point of reassuring the freemen that they would, even a f t e r e l e c t o r a l reform, r e t a i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l p r i v i l e g e s f o r the duration of t h e i r own l i f e t i m e s . 7 1 The s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s and a n x i e t i e s , l i n k e d w i t h the q u e s t i o n of Reform, l e d t o c o n t r a s t i n g a p p r o p r i a t i o n s of the M i d d l e Ages among opposing p o l i t i c a l groups. I n Norwich the t u r b u l e n t c l i m a t e p r e v a i l i n g i n the months f o l l o w i n g the East A n g l i a R e b e l l i o n s of 1816 l e d t o a p r e j u d i c i a l , o p e n l y p o l i t i c a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n of medieval forms among some c o n s e r v a t i v e Norwich r e s i d e n t s . A group of Norwich freemen, h o l d i n g a g g r e s s i v e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e o p i n i o n s , s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t i n g customary a u t h o r i t y , and opposed t o e l e c t o r a l reform, founded i n December 1816, s h o r t l y a f t e r the East A n g l i a R e b e l l i o n s , a l o y a l i s t s o c i e t y c a l l e d the K n i g h t s of the Order of Brunswick. 7 2 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , by cho o s i n g t o c a l l themselves the K n i g h t s of the Order of Brunswick, these freemen a s s o c i a t e d themselves not o n l y w i t h medieval knighthood, but a l s o w i t h the Hanoverian House of Brunswick and w i t h r o y a l a u t h o r i t y . The statement of the o b j e c t i v e s of the s o c i e t y i n p a r t i c u l a r e x pressed the deep p a r a n o i a and f e a r which the members f e l t toward the " d i s a f f e c t e d and the t r e a s o n a b l e . " The motto of the s o c i e t y was To be f a i t h f u l and l o y a l to the s o v e r e i g n and h i s i n t e r e s t s ; t o r e s p e c t and v e n e r a t e the laws of the l a n d ; t o keep down the d i s a f f e c t e d and the t r e a s o n a b l e ; t o extend c h a r i t y t o the s u f f e r i n g poor of our c i t y . 7 3 The S o c i e t y , e v o k i n g f e a r s of r e v o l u t i o n a r y u p r i s i n g , anarchy and the dangers of D i s s e n t , p r o c l a i m e d i n 1817, i n the c o n t e x t of an a s s a s s i n a t i o n attempt on the P r i n c e Regent, t h a t t h i s event has been the means of opening wide the eyes of persons who had remained i n a s t a t e of t o r p i d i t y t o the r e a l dangers of the S t a t e caused by the schemes of v i s i o n a r y e n t h u s i a s t s and a t h e i s t i c a l d o c t r i n e s promulgated w i t h an a s s i d u i t y a l a r m i n g i n the extreme, and sowing wide the seeds of d i s s a f f e c t i o n and anarchy--which i f s u f f e r e d t o r i p e n i n t o m a t u r i t y , w i l l e v e n t u a l l y overthrow the g l o r i o u s f a b r i c of our C o n s t i t u t i o n , and bury i n i t s r u i n s a l l t h a t i s v i r t u o u s and humane ...74 The Brunswick K n i g h t s f u r t h e r d e c l a r e d t h e i r support f o r the K i n g and t h e i r r e a d i n e s s t o defend the K i n g and the C o n s t i t u t i o n "as Men, as Freemen": ... we w i l l s t a n d f o r t h w i t h our P r o p e r t y and i n f l u e n c e i n the Defence of our Sover e i g n , our C o n s t i t u t i o n , and our L i b e r t i e s as Men, as Freemen, t h a t i t may p l e a s e God t o a v e r t the impending c a l a m i t y which t h r e a t e n s us, t o r e s t o r e peace and concord t o t h i s l a n d . . . 7 5 The K n i g h t s i n p a r t i c u l a r a t t a c k e d the re f o r m e r W i l l i a m Cobbett who i n "An Address t o the Men of Norwich" i n Cobbett's Weekly P o l i t i c a l R e g i s t e r , i n 1817, r e a c t e d a n g r i l y t o the newly formed S o c i e t y , r e f e r r i n g t o the K n i g h t s as the "sons of C o r r u p t i o n " whose main a m b i t i o n c o n s i s t e d i n f i g h t i n g Reform: ... I have been informed, t h a t , a t Norwich, an Order of Knighthood had been e s t a b l i s h e d , the o b j e c t of which was t o embody the g a l l a n t sons of C o r r u p t i o n t o f i g h t under her banners a g a i n s t a l l Reformers g e n e r a l l y , but more e s p e c i a l l y a g a i n s t W i l l i a m Cobbett's R e g i s t e r ...76 Cobbett took i s s u e w i t h the D e c l a r a t i o n of the Brunswick K n i g h t s , i n which the K n i g h t s condemned c i t i z e n s who c h a l l e n g e d the S t a t e and the K i n g , and named as an example of such s e d i t i o n the 17 t h c e n t u r y f o l k hero John Hampden, who was a l s o e x t o l l e d i n works l i k e R i c h a r d B e a t n i f f e ' s t r a v e l guide The N o r f o l k Tour. 7 7 Cobbett quoted the Brunswick K n i g h t s ' D e c l a r a t i o n : ... we cannot but view w i t h extreme p a i n and dread the a c t i v e endeavours of v i o l e n t p a r t y men t o sow d i s c o r d and d i s c o n t e n t i n the minds of the lower o r d e r s , by the e x t e n s i v e a s s o c i a t i o n of Clubs, p r o f e s s i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of John Hampden ... I t s h o u l d never be f o r g o t t e n ... t h a t no e x t e n u a t i o n of the crime of f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t the K i n g and d y i n g i n the f i e l d as a T r a i t o r can be found i n the laws of e i t h e r God or man; t h e r e f o r e , t o m i s l e a d the people, by a r t f u l and s p e c i o u s p r a i s e s of h i s p r e t e n d e d p a t r i o t i c conduct i n r e s i s t i n g , by f o r c e of arms, what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be an i n f r i n g e m e n t of h i s r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s , i s t o t e a c h the people t o t r e a d i n h i s f o o t s t e p s , and to compel the s t a t e ... t o an immediate s u b m i s s i o n t o a l l they demand. 7 8 To c o u n t e r the c l a i m s of the K n i g h t s , Cobbett t r a c e d the advances of B r i t i s h l i b e r t y t o a h i s t o r y of r e v o l u t i o n s , and he noted t h a t Magna C a r t a and the " G l o r i o u s R e v o l u t i o n " had i n f a c t been brought about e x a c t l y because of r e s i s t a n c e t o the K i n g . 7 9 A c c o r d i n g t o Cobbett, the people had the r i g h t t o r e s i s t o p p r e s s i o n ; were t h i s not t r u e , he argued, "the p r e s e n t R o y a l F a m i l y ... and a l l the p e o p l e i n t h i s n a t i o n were and a r e t r a i t o r s a g a i n s t the House of S t u a r t and t h e i r h e i r s . " He c o n t i n u e d : Hence i t would f o l l o w , t h a t , i f a k i n g were t o d i s s o l v e the p a r l i a m e n t and l e v y taxes by h i s s o l e w i l l , the p e o p l e must s t a n d s t i l l and bear i t a l l w i t h o u t any attempt t o r e s i s t , because t o r e s i s t would be t o f i g h t a g a i n s t the K i n g ! 8 0 A c c o r d i n g t o Cobbett, Englishmen had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y w e l l o f f , u n t i l the changes i n commerce and b a n k i n g i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the 18 t h c e n t u r y had brought about d e v a s t a t i n g changes. The l a t e M i d d l e Ages, however, were evoked as an age of p r o s p e r i t y i n B r i t a i n , and Cobbett based h i s c l a i m s on the comments of L o r d C h i e f J u s t i c e Fortesque on the c o n d i t i o n of England i n h i s Of the E x c e l l e n c e of the Laws of England, w r i t t e n i n 1470. Drawing from the w r i t i n g s of Fortesque, Cobbett m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i n the 15 t h c e n t u r y Englishmen enjoyed s e c u r i t y f o r t h e i r p r o p e r t y , and the r i g h t t o enjoy the f r u i t s of t h e i r l a b o u r s ; the k i n g had no power t o e x e r t t a x e s , or a l t e r the laws, "without the express consent of the whole kingdom i n P a r l i a m e n t assembled." 8 1 Fortesque was quoted to demonstrate the p r o s p e r i t y of England i n the 15 t h c e n t u r y : ... the i n h a b i t a n t s of England a re r i c h i n g o l d , s i l v e r , and a l l the n e c e s s a r i e s and conveniences of l i f e ... They are f e d i n g r e a t abundance, w i t h a l l s o r t s of f l e s h and f i s h , ... every one a c c o r d i n g t o h i s rank, h a t h a l l t h i n g s which conduce t o make l i f e easy and happy. 8 2 Lamenting t h a t Englishmen would ever have been reduced t o such a s t a t e as t o be f e d a t "Soup Shops" by c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i s a t i o n s , Cobbett p o i n t e d l y c o n t r a s t e d the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s among the l a b o u r e r s i n e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y B r i t a i n t o those of Fo r t e s q u e ' s time. 8 3 He concl u d e d by comparing the w e l l - b e i n g i n France a f t e r the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n w i t h the growing p o v e r t y and d i s t r e s s among B r i t o n s . 8 4 S i g n i f i c a n t l y Cobbett, who saw t h e f t as the r e s u l t of p o v e r t y engendered by modern market economy, a l s o brought up the i s s u e of hanging f o r t h e f t i n c r i t i c a l terms : I can w e l l remember when the v e r y p o o r e s t of the peopl e would not eat p o t a t o e s , and I have l i v e d t o see peopl e hanged f o r f o r c i n g them out of a market c a r t a t t h e i r own p r i c e ! 8 5 While c o n s e r v a t i v e groups such as the Brunswick K n i g h t s evoked the M i d d l e Ages i n terms of t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y , and r a d i c a l s such as Cobbett c o n j u r e d up the medieval e r a i n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l terms as a p e r i o d of j u s t i c e and w e l l - b e i n g t h a t c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the s o c i a l i l l s of contemporary B r i t a i n , the medieval p e r i o d was taken up y e t d i f f e r e n t l y by i n d i v i d u a l s p r o f e s s i n g p r o g r e s s i v e l i b e r a l p e r s u a s i o n s w h i l e a d h e r i n g t o c o n s e r v a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s . I n Norwich i n 1785 a group of middl e and upper c l a s s i n t e l l e c t u a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s had founded a mock medieval monastic o r d e r c a l l e d the S o c i e t y of U n i t e d F r i a r s . The Society was a c t i v e i n the f i r s t decades of the 19 t h century and continued to meet i n t o the l a t e 1820s. The Society's membership i n the e a r l y 19 t h century was comprised of i n d i v i d u a l s of d i f f e r e n t professions and r e l i g i o u s groups, i n c l u d i n g the a r c h i t e c t and h i s t o r i a n W i l l i a m W i l k i n s , the Mayor of Norwich C r i s p Brown, the a r t i s t John S e l l Cotman, the banker and Member of Parliament Hudson Gurney of the Norwich Quaker family, the topographer and County Surveyor Mostyn Armstrong, the Lord Bishop of Norwich and the E a r l of Orford. 8 6 Not only d i d the members occupy d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l ranks and adhere to d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o n s , but they also comprised both Whigs and Tories; Hudson Gurney was a reformer and a Whig, and the Mayor C r i s p Brown, a prominent corn and coal merchant, was the leader of the Norwich 87 Tory party. In t h e i r founding proclamation, "Exordium to the r u l e s and orders of the F r a t e r n i t y of United F r i a r s , " the United F r i a r s emphasised the importance of human s o c i e t y and community, thus by omission underplaying p o l i t i c s : Society may be properly considered the source from where the c h i e f comforts of human l i f e are derived; and therefore, i t i s not to be wondered at, that mankind, i n a l l Ages, have been assiduous i n forming various p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s , d i g n i f y i n g them with t i t l e s implying something of a Divine O r i g i n , or Extraordinary R e s p e c t a b i l i t y . 8 8 Yet a p o l i t i c s that saw knowledge and progress as dependent on England's c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and Protestant monarchy was an important aspect of the United F r i a r s ' philosophy. While the f r a t e r n i t y of Friàrs modelled t h e i r o rganisation on the medieval monastic orders, they also took care to proclaim t h e i r separation from r e l i g i o u s functions and p r a c t i c e s , and to assert t h e i r distance from the " e v i l s " of monastic i n s t i t u t i o n s . Instead, the Society of F r i a r s emphasised and endeavoured to emulate i n the present what t h e i r members claimed were the e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e and p r a c t i c a l functions of medieval monastic l i f e , namely the p u r s u i t of knowledge and the p r a c t i c e of c h a r i t y . The founding Proclamation made t h i s c l e a r : Whatever e v i l s may have a r i s e n from Monastic i n s t i t u t i o n s ... i t i s allowed on a l l a u t h o r i t i e s , that w i t h i n the gloomy mansions of the ancient r e l i g i o u s f r a t e r n i t i e s , the Fine Arts were nurtured; Philosophy and Science f l o u r i s h e d ; a l l the Profundity of E r u d i t i o n was deposited; and to add l u s t e r to the scene, the ... V i r t u e s took t h e i r stand before t h e i r gates, and dispersed the Blessings of C h a r i t y f a r and wide throughout the World! ... Di s c l a i m i n g everything which appertains to the r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n of Monks and F r i a r s , t h i s s o c i e t y professes to i m i t a t e only what has been j u s t l y deemed praiseworthy i n that d e s c r i p t i o n of men, to emulate t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c a c q u i s i t i o n s ; t h e i r love of lea r n i n g ; t h e i r benevolence and philanthropy. 8 9 By 1814, i n the aftermath of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, knowledge and enlightenment i n turn could be l i n k e d e x p l i c i t l y to England's c o n s t i t u t i o n , as a l e c t u r e presented by 'Brother Taylor' of the Society of United F r i a r s i n that year made c l e a r : Can we indeed contemplate the c o n s t i t u t i o n of t h i s favoured land, can we trace the 'gathered wisdom of a thousand years' through the v i c i s s i t u d e s of a long extended progress to that s t a t e i n which we now experience the f u l l n e s s of i t s b l e s s i n g s and s h a l l we not recognise i n i t the march of i n t e l l e c t , and the triumph of t r u t h . 9 0 According to Brother Taylor, the age of Henry V I I I and E l i z a b e t h I, although marked by unenlightened b e l i e f s , r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e and a r b i t r a r y power, had al s o cleansed the country of popish s u p e r s t i t i o n , and had introduced the Reformation and the v i c t o r y of the e n l i g h t e n e d P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o n , l e a d i n g the c o u n t r y toward the " m i l d e r and more e n l i g h t e n e d p r i n c i p l e s " which underpinned "the s u p e r i o r p r e t e n s i o n s of modern over a n c i e n t times ... i n England." 9 1 W h i l e the U n i t e d F r i a r s s t r o v e to r e a f f i r m the Enlightenment f a i t h i n s e c u l a r s c i e n c e and human knowledge as the b a s i s of p r o g r e s s , the S o c i e t y a l s o responded t o the t e n s i o n s t h a t emerged from i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n , m e c h a n i s a t i o n and the s p r e a d of commerce, and the i n c r e a s i n g d i s p a r i t i e s i n w e a l t h and growing p o v e r t y among l a r g e groups of the p o p u l a t i o n t h a t these developments f o s t e r e d . For example, the F r i a r s p l a c e d g r e a t emphasis on moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and on a s p i r i t of c h a r i t y which they understood t o have c h a r a c t e r i s e d m e d i e v a l r e l i g i o u s communities. While the concern of the S o c i e t y of U n i t e d F r i a r s was w i t h the f u r t h e r a n c e of " u s e f u l knowledge," t h e i r meetings were a l s o devoted t o c h a r i t y , and t h e i r members were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i s i n g c h a r i t a b l e works, i n c l u d i n g the weekly s o u p - k i t c h e n s which Cobbett so d i s p a r a g e d , t o a l l e v i a t e the p l i g h t of the poor. However, a l t h o u g h t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y was underpinned by c h a r i t a b l e i m p ulses, the U n i t e d F r i a r s a l s o c ircumvented the i s s u e s of p o l i t i c a l reform, as put f o r t h by r a d i c a l advocates such as W i l l i a m Cobbett, and i n s t e a d s h i f t e d the emphasis on t o the s o c i a l sphere, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s , and t o a l i b e r a l concept of ' n a t u r a l ' p r o g r e s s . Through t h e i r p o l i t i c a l l y mixed membership, i n c l u d i n g b o t h Whig and Tory i n d i v i d u a l s , and through t h e i r avoidance of p o l i t i c a l t o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n , the S o c i e t y of F r i a r s a l s o functioned to r e c o n c i l e the two p o l i t i c a l groups. Linked to the thought of such conservative and t r a d i t i o n a l i s t thinkers as Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey, who advocated the cr e a t i o n of a s o c i e t y of C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y and p i e t y founded on a u n i v e r s a l Church and on what was understood to be the p r i n c i p l e s of the medieval C h r i s t i a n community, the philosophy of the United F r i a r s i n f a c t served to infuse a progressive l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s t ideology with a notion of ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' m o r a l i t y and sense of community. In t h i s respect the Norwich Society formed a part of the l i b e r a l - c o n s e r v a t i v e underpinnings of the l a r g e r movement of the V i c t o r i a n Gothic R e v i v a l , which was, at one l e v e l , a movement c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l exigencies, l e g i t i m a t i n g a l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y through an i l l u s i o n i s t framework of r e l i g i o u s p i e t y , c h a r i t y and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 3. 'Medievalisinq' the c i t y . Recreating the medieval Cathedral. These several s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l issues were a r t i c u l a t e d at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of 'meaning' i n texts and images i n contemporary t r a v e l and antiquarian p u b l i c a t i o n s on Norwich. The Norfolk topographer Armstrong had represented Norwich i n 1781 i n terms of i t s 'modern' and c l a s s i c i s i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e and as an independent centre of c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , by f e a t u r i n g images of the Assembly House and the o l d G u i l d h a l l of the c i t y . However, as Norwich's t e x t i l e industry began to decl i n e i n the f i r s t decades of the 19 t h century, and with p u b l i c questions r a i s e d about the moral and c i v i c commitment of the c i t y corporation, l o c a l t o u r i s t p u b l i c a t i o n s , addressed to a large and v a r i e d p u b l i c and faced with the need to mediate tensions and c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n the c i t y , fore-grounded, i n contrast, the medieval h i s t o r y of Norwich. P u b l i c a t i o n s such as P h i l i p Browne's The H i s t o r y of Norwich from the E a r l i e s t Records to the Present Time, of 1814, Thomas Cromwell's Excursions through  Norfolk, of 1818 and John Stacy's A Topographical and H i s t o r i c a l  Account of the C i t y and County of Norwich, of 1819, gave short h i s t o r i c a l accounts of medieval b u i l d i n g s i n Norwich, and included small-scale and modest i l l u s t r a t i o n s both of the b u i l d i n g s and of the c i t y . Browne's guide of 1814 was introduced by a view of Norwich as a f r o n t i s p i e c e , showing prominently the important medieval landmarks of the c i t y , Norwich Castle and Norwich Cathedral ( f i g . 16). 9 2 Stacy, i n h i s A Topographical and  H i s t o r i c a l Account of the C i t y and County of Norwich, h i g h l i g h t e d the medieval past by fe a t u r i n g an image of Norwich Cathedral as h i s f r o n t i s p i e c e ( f i g . 27). Stacy's book al s o included a map of the c i t y which marked out the c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s of Norwich Castle and Norwich Cathedral, and depicted i n the margins the medieval coat of arms of Norwich, as w e l l as St. Ethelbert's Gate at Norwich Cathedral ( f i g . 28 ). 9 3 The fa c t that these images c o n s t