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Identity and death : an empirical investigation Lavoie, Jim A. 1998

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IDENTITY AND DEATH: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION by Jim A. Lavoie B.A. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1991 A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF FAMILY AND NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  t o the r e q u i r e d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1998 ® Jim A. Lavoie, 1998  standard  In presenting  this  thesis  in partial  fulfilment  of the requirements  for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by his or her representatives.  It  is understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  FctM!/*  ^/ViArHloAd) Sr_'to>etJ  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  O^-toCr/ ^ /  ii ABSTRACT  A model based on E r i k s o n ' s p s y c h o s o c i a l approach was proposed f o r the development of an e x i s t e n t i a l domain of i d e n t i t y - c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a component of i d e o l o g i c a l operationalized  as a set of death a t t i t u d e s  i d e n t i t y , and  corresponding t o  g e n e r a l i d e n t i t y themes. P a r a l l e l i n g Marcia's  (1966)  Identity  S t a t u s c o n s t r u c t s of e x p l o r a t i o n and commitment, these death attitudes variety  r e f l e c t e d death contemplation and acceptance i n a  of c o n t e x t s . A sample of 14 9 u n i v e r s i t y  completed a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g r e p r e s e n t i n g these death a t t i t u d e s , i d e n t i t y status.  A MANCOVA  of a number o f s c a l e s as w e l l  (controlling for  involvement, bereavement, and age)  undergraduates  indicated  as a measure o f religious that  individuals  h i g h i n i d e o l o g i c a l commitment had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s of c e r t a i n types of death acceptance, and were more l i k e l y t o view death as p u r p o s e f u l . A MANCOVA examining the e f f e c t s of i d e o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n on v a r i a b l e s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h death  contemplation was a l s o conducted, but the m u l t i v a r i a t e not  s i g n i f i c a n t . An e x p l o r a t o r y i d e o l o g i c a l  MANCOVA i n d i c a t e d ,  however, that  identity  status  a c h i e v e r s may have a  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p e r s o n a l conception of death than These r e s u l t s suggest that  e f f e c t was  amongst young a d u l t  diffusions.  students,  death  i d e o l o g y i s r e l e v a n t a t l e a s t as a s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d (or f o r e c l o s e d ) form o f i d e n t i t y .  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  L i s t o f Tables  vi  L i s t of F i g u r e s  viii  Acknowledgements  ix  Introduction  1  I d e n t i t y and Death: A l i t e r a t u r e review Definitions  2  Existential/Humanist  Approaches  C o n s t r u c t i v i s t Approaches Eriksonian Limitations Existential  Psychosocial  3 7  Approach  of Past Research  15 23  I d e n t i t y - A Proposed Model  Theoretical  1  Perspective  29 29  Model  31  I d e n t i t y Themes  33  Description  of Themes  35  Existential  Points  39  Existential  I d e n t i t y Themes  39  Description  of E x i s t e n t i a l Themes  4.2  Existential  I d e n t i t y From an I d e n t i t y S t a t u s  of Reference  Perspective Existential  I d e n t i t y Status  Determinants of E x i s t e n t i a l Gender  50 54 Identity  56 56  iv Age  58  Ethnic  Identity  Religious  59  Involvement  60  Bereavement  61  Hypotheses  62  Exploration  and  Commitment  63  Identity  Status  66  Identity  Domain  67  Determinants  of  Death  Constructs/Attitudes  Identity  and 68  Method  70  Subjects  70  Recruitment Sample  7 0  Characteristics  70  Instruments  73  EOM-EIS2  73  DAP  75  -  R  Dickstein's Semantic  Death  Concern  Scale  77  Differential  78  Procedure  83  Results  84  Missing  Data  84  Correlations  85  Correlations  Between  DVs  Correlations  Between  DVs  Interpersonal  Identity  85 and  and  Covariates  Death  Attitudes  88 91  V Multivariate  Analyses  of  Covariance  91  Outliers  91  Assumptions  91  MANCOVA  93  Regression  Results  Analyses  97  Discussion  104  Exploration Identity  and  104  Status  Interpersonal Determinants Future  Commitment  112  Identity of  E x i s t e n t i a l  113 Identity  Research  115 116  Limitations  122  Strengths  127  Implications  129  Conclusion  13 0  References  132  Appendix  141  Identity  and Death  Questionnaire  141  v i List Corresponding  2.  E x i s t e n t i a l  3.  Selected  4.  P r i n c i p a l  5.  R e l i a b i l i t y  6.  Correlations  Between  Death  Contemplation  7.  Correlations  Between  Death  Acceptance  8.  Correlations  Between  Control  Death  Death  Components  33  Statuses  54  Characteristics  72  of  of  Semantic  Attitude  Death  Construct  Differential  as  S u b s c a l e s . . . . 8 2  Variables  87  and  a  87  DVs  Function  90 of  and  Attitude  Identity  Regression  95  of  Means  as  a  Function  of  Status Demographic  96 Variables  on  Ideological  Exploration 12.  Multiple  81  Variables  Variables Means  Items  Commitment  Construct  L o g i s t i c  and  Identity  Analysis  Analyses  Construct  Ideological 11.  Identity  Demographic  Ideological 10.  of  Tables  1.  9.  Themes  of  Regression  99 of  Demographic  Variables  on  Conscious  Contemplation  100  13.  Multiple  Regression  of  Demographic  Variables  on  Avoidance.100  14.  Multiple  Regression  of  Demographic  Variables  on  Personal  Involvement  101  15.  Multiple  Regression  of  Demographic  Variables  on  Purpose...  16.  Multiple  Regression  of  Demographic  Variables  on  Approach  Acceptance 17.  Multiple  Regression  102 of  Demographic  Variables  on  Escape  Acceptance 18.  Multiple  Regression  101  102 of  Demographic  Variables  on  Fear  103  V l . l  19.  Multiple  Regression  Acceptance  of  Demographic  Variables  on  Neutral 103  VI11 List  A  Model  of  the  Relationship  Death  Integration  of  Figures  Between  Constructed  Identity  and 31  ix Acknowledgements  I de  gratefully Vries,  their  Dr.  support  acknowledge  the  members  Daniel  Perlman,  in  development  the  and  of  Dr. of  my  committee  Michael  this  -  Chandler  study.  Dr. -  Brian for  1 INTRODUCTION  Identity  The  topic  attention the  in  of  and  Death  identity  the  s o c i a l  relationship  -  and  A  death  sciences.  between  Literature  these  has  terms  focussed  on  the  effects  of  identity  on  of  in  the  context  of  identity  has  death  The  objective  view the  of  of  the  present  identity  and  death  literature  part  of  the  Death of  one  one's this  and  view view,  meaningful.  are  if  one  also and  is  to  Integration  of  continuity,  Because  thus  associated  and  these  with  the  d e f i n i t i o n ,  terms the  -  one  other.  integrated  appeared  in  attitudes  In  dimensions  one  to  some a  death. degree  sense  the  -  meaning  ignored.  cannot  The  of  to  be  as  of  process idea  u t i l i z e s  as  of  of to  challenges with  ultimately  one's  identity  content in  the  conceive  integrated  competence,  the  emerge  of  the  Death  l i f e  extension  openness,  s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n s  death  with  development  meaningfulness  of  The  more  previously  confronted  to  means  a  is  create  e x c l u s i v e l y  been  explore  has  exploring  anxiety.  generally  to  of  relevant  must  death  almost  empirical  development.  understanding one  l i t t l e  e x p l i c i t l y  has  formation  relative  nonexistence.  self,  self  the  are  is  what  identity  existence,  of  of  evolution,  of  some  one's  self  examine  identity  potential  define  to  process  without  affirming one's  -  study  than  received  Research  two  Review  conceptions -  one's  sense  connectedness,  domain  different  of  death.  contexts  (e.g.  2 connectedness coloured death  by  can  The  such  -  s i m i l a r l y  develops  to  focus  of  integration  can  Eriksonian  the  topic  most  has  be  present  identity,  three  it  of  relationships),  reasonable  is  study  and  to  integrated  often of  been  death,  a  is  and  discussed,  a  and  propose  with  After  are  that  self  -  be  and  general  a  informed  w i l l  from  by  in  the  death's which  such  perspective  the  approaches  These  theories  frameworks  be  subdivided  theoretical  the  of  new  examined  forms  of  from  of  of  which  this  explored.  of  this,  process  different  theoretical  these  review  this  constructivism.  l i t e r a t u r e  summary  is  the  This  general  representing  present  however,  the  manifest.  review  perspective. be  seems  that  p s y c h o l o g y and  represent  and  it  psychosocial theory,  e x i s t e n t i a l  w i l l  extent  context  contextualized.  into  sections  the  contexts,  the  integration  The  in  theory's  empirical  the  categories. approach  studies  limitations  conceptual  definitions  of  the  into  of  framework terms  to  done these  three Each  both from  section identity  such  a  approaches  proposed.  identity  and  w i l l  F i r s t , death  w i l l  presented.  Definitions  Identity perspectives, Bosma  (1994,  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  has  been  and p.  has  176)  unique  defined quite  l i s t  a  from range  three  combination  a of  number  different  d e f i n i t i o n s .  different of  of  Graafsma  d e f i n i t i o n s :  personal,  generally  1)  and  "an  inalienable  data, is  like  name,  age  sex  characterized  and  distinguishable  applies  to  groups);  structure...[and] structure";  and  " i n d i v i d u a l ' s uniqueness". between or  her  an  Death  The  ranging  study,  which  subjective and  this  can  consist  present  components  can from  death  mean  often  shared  an  of  more not  meanings  b e l i e f s than  emphasize  to  Of  highly  and  his  death, although  p r i n c i p l e .  affect,  in  E r i k s o n ' s  and  related this  (Durlak,  study  and/or  are  affects.  t h i s .  any  things  and  identity  always  explored  an  relationship  organizing  not  complex  different  the  toward  b e l i e f s ,  are  (also  personality  continuity,  examines  particular  does  quite  that  as  person"  sense,  d e f i n i t i o n ,  variables  represent  study  that  experience  third  attitudes  are  of  attitudes  individual  personality  sameness,  personal  employed  attitudes  have  that  other  of  is  they  any  phenomenal  constructs  simplest  from  which  subjective,  present  three  by  unique  others  d e f i n i t i o n  constructs:  It  a  emphasizes  behaviours:  death.  in  profession,  person's  images  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  structural  The  "a  awareness The  p a r t i c u l a r l y  Death  the 3)  personal  1994).  2)  and  to  one  d e f i n i t i o n  different  idiosyncratic  of  people:  personal  ones .  Existentialist/Humanist  E x i s t e n t i a l emerged out  of  out the  of  and  Theories  humanistic  existential  philosophical  approaches  philosophical  writings  of  in  psychology  thought  Kierkegaard,  -  both  p a r t i c u l a r l y Nietzsche,  4 Heidegger, (Corey,  Sartre,  1991)  .  Frankl  (e.g.  Yalom,  1989);  and  Abraham  Buber,  Key  existential  1963,  1978),  prominent  Maslow  on  freedom,  personal  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  subjective "reduce  are  to  (Shaffer, less  have  a  lack  more us  through  which  term  of  we  to  can  are  however,  potential  experience  "being-in-the-world"  less  real  than  in  world  constantly the  of  the  to  and  'outside  objects"  of to  world',  (Shaffer,  needs  to  be  validated.  self  as  less  real  1978,  there that  Living  (Shaffer,  each  hand, have  and  of  the  24)  involves  (1962)  is  no  r e a l l y viewing  it -  into  -  the "an  something  authentically 1978)  above-  Heidegger  by  turns p.  humans  Self-awareness  world.  one  other  p.206).  identity.  experience;  the  a  its  actualize  perspective,  imply  to  paint  emphasizing  that  the  trying  generally  can  the  behaviourism"  proposing  (Corey,  on  in  on  we  1959)  Both, focus  as  in  -  &  p a r t i c u l a r  than  humanists,  that  meaning"  relevant  self  defenses,  existence  orientation,  find  they  rather  as  May  (e.g.  place  meaning.  oriented:  or  (e.g.  authenticity,  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s  human  meaning,  one's  between  viewing  Whereas  and  for  individual,  existential/humanist  dichotomy  a  search  Victor  Rogers  approaches  epiphenomena,  of  Carl  Camus  been  Yalom  self-awareness,  drives  mere  picture  themes  open  to  nature  the  mentioned being  a  Both  the  the  basic  optimistic  "within  From  of  p.16).  reassuring  i n t r i n s i c  the  or  1978,  1968).  and  have  and  include  phenomenologically  more  psychoanalysis,  (e.g.1953),  autonomy,  experiences  them  May  and  Jaspers,  psychologists  humanists  (e.g.  emphasis  furthermore,  Merleau-Ponty,  not  used  self  as  object that  means  limiting  not one's  5 view  of  self  of  others.  is  not  to  A  reflection  central  fixed  personal  a  and  tenet  that  in  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  humanists,  this  true  self"  this  involves  l i f e  (Corey,  is  the  (Graafsma the  as  more  corresponding  process  & Bosma,  than  of  self.  awareness  does  enable  one  to  appreciate  1991),  and,  not  to  anxiety,  One of  Rollo  one's into  the  value  one's May,  existential  as  a  being  of  one's  According if  one  world  normal  humanist  necessary to  does  who  i s .  one the  For  potential  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s , commitment  to  freedom  of  have  idiographically)  an -  price  and  for  Such  openness  of  fear  awareness,  moment  in  the  cited  anxiety  which  is  l i f e  -  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for  an  and  in  having  preoccupation,  1961,  awareness  awareness  without  denying  undefined  have  a  death  present  (May,  cannot  and  the  everyday  prerequisites one  of  self-aware  anxiety,  perspective,  Maslow, not  part  identity,  unhealthy  s e l f - a l i e n a t i o n "  perspective  to  role  be  of  "the  from  are  identity and  one's  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  distinguished  death  that  freedom  of  For  mortality.  an  self-defeating,  a  the  cannot  Such  From  create  through  approach  p.184).  aware  to  the  p.176).  meaning  other  turn  consequently,  According  1991,  has  expectations  is  "actualization  emphasizes  it  undefined  of  and  thought  one or  1994,  of  any  as  s e l f .  moment  discover  creation  construction  long  perceptions  existential  each to  existentialism/humanism  a  of  the  1991).  Perhaps  the  of  can  (Corey,  creation death in  of  is  Corey,  is  to  be  viewed  in  this  a  consequence  (Corey,  1991)  acceptance  of .  of  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . an  actualized  perception of  death  sense  (i.e.  distorts  of  self  viewing such  a  the  6 perception (1959),  (Maslow,  openness  Actualized  of  of  of  have  defense.  worth  death  is  a  no  As  (Tomer,  accept need  can  play  empirical  perspective  on  relationship fear  of  perspective  a  Carl  of  conditions  themselves  as  they  constrict i t s e l f  an  of  lack  their  can  loosening  be  of  important  of  studies  identity  between  are,  view  such  a  in  Rogers of  worth.  and,  of  r e a l i t y  considered  role  death.  These  considering  Sartre's  occurs  at  the  was--hypothesized their  ideals  discrepancy hypothesis  (as  a  a  condition  condition the  as  through  actualization  moment  1981;  meaningfulness, Peler,  fact  reported  results. in  the  &  In  the  focussed  symbolic fact,  literature  most  who  the  levels  or  of  Durlak,  immortality  be  negatively  example,  a l l  is  more  fear.  has  of  The measures  (e.g.  Vargo  of  (Aronow,  (Drolet,  one  self  Maslow  1972),  that  that  u t i l i z i n g  measures  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n to  of  studies  contentions  1978,  becomes  accomplished  writings  1977),  for  identity  actual-ideal  and  different  (1980),  one  lower  purpose  of  definite  had  the  of  variety  Other  Frankl's Bolt,  a  on  sense  Chapman  smaller  evidence  on  or  death--when  Colvin,  on  1980; of  by  based  based  conceptualization similar  of  and  confirmed.  Lester  & DeVitto,  have  individuals  would  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n Batsel,  existential/humanistic  represent  that  reflected  in  an  death  Neimeyer  claim  that  scores) was  and  studies  viewpoints.  which  from  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n  existential  &  the  the  self. Most  of  to  existence  1994),  acceptance  From  function  individuals  consequently, form  1968).  and 1990)  Rauchway, L i f t o n ' s have  consistently  correlated  with  had been fear  7 of  death  (Neimeyer,  Another explored  in  anxiety.  A  between death.  freedom  indicated  The a  confusion  and  was  of  Because  of  v a l i d i t y results  personal  and also  of need  based  based  (a  the  Constructivist  on  and  to  be  sense  of  empathic  be  sample  of  used  interpreted  as  related  connection  information  provided  in  with  this  and  upon  May  anxious meaning  about of  study,  l i f e "  identity  the  of  l a t t e r  and  cold.  E x i s t e n t i a l  to  extended  with  on  and  students,  between  death  negatively  is  self  conceptualization  also  of  based  and 82  of  between  Erikson's  found  of  relationships  was  i s o l a t i o n ,  been  existential  individual  relationship  anxiety,  instruments  to  a  conceptualizations  lack  anxiety  "each  on  strong  of  has  conceptualizations  of  choice,  that  that  f o c u s s e d on  that  results,  the  and  is  existential  existential  self  (1992)  contention  construct  denial  anxiety  anxiety of  psychology  research  Westman  moderately  (a  identity)  sense  by  construct  .  existential  thanatological  (1989)  1064)  death  from  existential  Yalom's  (p.  theme  study  Her  death,  1988).  the  an  others). r e l i a b i l i t y  however,  and  these  caution.  Theories  Constructivism Hume's  skepticism,  1994).  According  to  can in  be  the  traced Critique  back of  to  Kant's  Pure  response  Reason  to  (Widdershoven,  Kant,  "the p o s s i b i l i t y of knowledge i s grounded i n the a c t i v i t y of consciousness. Our knowledge of the physical world does not stem d i r e c t l y from the world i t s e l f , it is s t r u c t u r e d by our concepts of time, space, and  8 causality. We o r d e r a n d u n d e r s t a n d r e a l i t y consciousness" (Widdershoven, 1994, p.104) Constructivists,  echoing  not  objective  believe  that  Consequently, the  not  constantly theories  focus  structure  from  of  on  this  way  theories  as  knowing  r e f l e c t i n g  a  the  and  (1993)  employ  i l l u s t r a t e K e l l e y ' s system and  of  make  the  for  events.  enable  an  of The  in  which  most  self-theory,  to  the  is  according  the  maintain  to  of  Personal  bipolar  important  the  Berzonsky,  as  which  Two through  of  Theory  these to  world.  George  individuals  u t i l i z e  or  to  and core  identity.  individual serves  to  s c i e n t i s t  constructs  of  emphasis  (knowing  Both  anticipate  sense  a  Constructs  the  constructs, a  extent  knowing  that  Identity  along  paradigms.  individual  to  s e l f .  phenomenon.  approach.  proposes  is  the  knowing,  the  construes  and  of  of  s o c i a l  (1955)  one  world,  s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  and  of  that  is  Constructivist  way  through way  arranged  notion  or  style  of  example,  their  individual u t i l i z e s  world  identity  h i e r a r c h i c a l l y sense  personal  metaphor  manner  theory,  future  approach  the  realism,  From  identity  something  differentiated  including  K e l l e y ' s  is  1993).  be  paradigmatic  include  Berzonsky's  a  formation,  it  do  known.  p o s i t i v i s m .  constructions  can  versus  of  creation:  one's  dimensions:  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n )  theories  of  of  -  viewpoint,  d i r e c t l y  identity  discovered  process  viewed  of  of  be  realism  (Berzonsky,  idealism  is  can  naive  perspective  different  construction  is  content  this  development,  One  that  created  and/or  theories number  being  the  perspective  something  transcendentalist  r e a l i t y  reject  c o n s t r u c t i v i s t  thus  on  they  Kant's  through  as  as a  organize  control constructs, Berzonsky's  s e l f - t h e o r i s t . frame  a  within  A  9 which  experience  solved  is  (Berzonsky,  interpreted,  knowing.  approaches  Narrative  knowing,  of  events  into  (Polkinghorne,  1996).  An  structuring  identity  is  McAdams'  c o n s t r u c t i v i s t  Surrey,  1985)  .  interpersonal of  one's  ways  c o n s t r u c t i v i s t Kegan  (1982)  identity that  of  as  a  -  "balance be  identity,  was  made  identity  sophisticated Lastly,  in  What  is  et  of  problems  through  -  that  et  of  1986;  relational  self  in  the  or  context  empathic  a  have note  is  1989,  diachronic (1987). of  theories, to  it  of  focus  .  to  a  by  on  be  self  and  Another  aspects  This  of  approach  increasingly  existence. is  important  identity  is  out  contributions  p.6)  temporal  their  are  emerged  taken  series  approaches  also  which  a l .  one's  and  style  (Miller,  that  on  approaches  identity,  A  p a r t i c u l a r  theories  (Kroger,  of  to  1986).  theories  as  ways  the  approach  emphasizes  knowing  other  story  theory  viewing  (1976)  for  these  women's  particular  development  or  perspective.  theory  a l . ,  Of  catalogue  to  and  explore  narrative  -  Chandler  postmodern  unique  construction  by  on  focussing  arguments  this  acknowledge  and  other"  contribution,  a  story  self  between  important  of  l i f e  knowing  Loevinger  to  made,  involves  gestalt  S e l f - i n - R e l a t i o n  paradigm.  considered  explored  temporal  developmental  and  example,  focussing  (Belenky  of  also  for  example  the  relationships  number  identity  to  S e l f - i n - r e l a t i o n  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . A  is  a  (1990)  approach  s e l f - c o n s t r u c t i o n  are  1993).  Constructivist of  decisions  their  (e.g.  emphasis  rejection  of  the  to  Gergen, on  the  1991)  .  s o c i a l  existence  of  10 a  global  self.  unravelling A unity  Postmodern  of  traditional  constructivist and  d i v e r s i t y  c o n s t r u c t i v i s t death  -  the  v a l i d  on  and  extends  1994b, death  p.  an  with  his  or  is  of  change  -  example  Threat  1974; of  successful  in  that  K e l l e y ' s  F i r s t  "can  seen  (1955)  way  we  can  of  lives"  The  Epting, Test of  a  developed  we  one's  she  w i l l ,  and  1979) is  are.  A  greater systemic prime of  self  such Epting,  and  modified  probably  the  most  to  the  study  Epting,  and  personality  Krieger,  a  of  system  of  (Krieger,  a  a  A  extent  is  to  context  construction  the  Index  & Hays,  threat.  fundamental  who  on  incompatible  information.  more  supports  research  of  which  Threat  by  is or  with  Personal  to  assess  of  of  extent  construe  theory  most  the  a  (1955),  he  death  (Neimeyer,  the  that  of  equally  that  d e f i n i t i o n  such  for  to  death  the  view  infuse  In  the  an  a  as  threat.  threaten  devised  to  theory  information  need  be  generated  theory's  to  From  correct  their  experience  Index.  application  attitudes.  this  a  that  Rep  has  death.  cultures  of  of  emphasizes  single,  construction  accommodate  the  Krieger,  of  construct.system,  implies  methodology  the  a  refers  to  attitudes  no  and  K e l l e y ' s  degree,  order  is  somewhat  identity.  interpreted  encounters  threat  of  conceptions  construction  George  represent  death  individuals  theory  something A  is  Leitner,  in  to  there  is  personal  change  of  death.  threat  her  threat a  it  p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  lesser  change  one's  develop  The  theory,  degree  death  -  or  K e l l e y ' s  version  to  individual  greater  is  of  people's  attitudes  When  must  and  266).  Constructs  ways  part  significance  approach of  thus  theories  perspective,  many  the  theories  of  Leitner  11 (1974)  as  an  (1979)  as  a  Index  is  a  in  most  (Neimeyer,  of  one's  is  also  concept  identity  s i m i l a r i t y Integration To  represent  death  the  of  in  relation  Threat  Index  research,  threat  many  the  to  not  can  the  is  and  the  the  in  the  the  eightees  the  in  structure  validated  was  Attitude  which,  Hays  Threat  most  for  and  death  form  basis  1986),  of  is  1982),  the  of  Threat  Repertory addition  and  to  content  death of  of  While  conceived  with  death and  of  can  identity  the  intended  many to  those  as  into  be -  of  the  the  s e l f .  identity. measures u t i l i z e d  as  or  one's  sense  studies  using  the  represent  considered informative  to  r e f l e c t i n g  related  measures  component  been  be  relevant  construct  Index  these  death.  can  a  incorporation  have  be  p a r t i c u l a r l y  threat  constructions  existential  may  It  the  orientations  formed  assessing  integration,  an  self  standardized  death  Epting,  scale,  between time.  Moore,  inverse  that  of  self  of  & Robinson,  indexes  Krieger,  death.  of  extent  by  s o p h i s t i c a t e d Death  of  of  in  the  also  capable  one's  death  has  more  implies  the  and  and  (Wood of  point  Bagley,  because  integration  congruence  measure  It  the  constructs The  the  measure;  1994a).  modified  self-administered  p a r t i c u l a r  (Neimeyer,  threat,  of  u t i l i z e d  development Test  a  orientation  second  then  standardized, measure  constructs death  interview,  from  identity  such  a  perspective. To  the  extent  that  e x i s t e n t i a l  identity  research  the  on  the  Threat  domain,  correlates  of  there such  Index is a  a  is  r e f l e c t i v e  substantial  domain.  of  amount  Integration  an of (Threat)  12 has  been  linked  r e l i g i o u s  b e l i e f s  (Ingram  and  (Rainey  &  Epting,  and  Epting,  and  There  study  j u s t i f y  a  arguments sequence with  age  The as  A  of  as  and  succeeding  according  approach  &  been  or  way  that  this  of  in  of  self  of  on  rest self  narrative  authors,  sequence would  be  they  on can  other the be  could for  the  a l .  (1989) .  a b i l i t y  (1987)  to  three on  be  of the  have  are  p o s s i b l y  & go  individuals  correlated  over  are  time.  referred  to  that  functionally (Ball  This  assumption  constant hand,  to  adequate  these  assumption  framework  a  s e l f - c o n t i n u i t y .  rest  remains the  with  Chandler  is  shown  f i r s t  a l ,  identity  et  of  et  p o s i t i v e  increasingly  favour  The  a  death  unity  five  1988);  (Holcomb  and  of  empirically  1989).  they  B a l l  aspect  and  1994a).  and  Chandler  arguments:  arguments:  the  time.  arguments,  causal  identity  funeral  bereavement  (Neimeyer,  (Neimeyer,  diachronic  make  aspect  a  to  of  sequence  Chandler,  f i f t h  on  (Hendon  only)  b e l i e f s  one's  1994),  showing  conducted by  over  has  i l l n e s s  (Greyson,  studies  fear  study  individuals  with  t r a d i t i o n a l  r e l i g i o u s  planning  content  diachronic  manifestations  in  and  was  the  of  many  prerequisite  structural  One  a  structural  functional  1989).  been  of  with  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n terms  threat  arguments  (Ball  fourth  together  also  existence  that  some  (in  developmental  c l a s s i f i e d that  experiences  addresses  one's  proposed  near-death  example  development.  experience  1994);  variables:  unambivalent  experiences  between  c o n s t r u c t i v i s t  different  1977);  have  Another  of  1984),  1989);  differences  correlation  This  number  (Tobacyk,  Leitner,  gender  1993).  a  Leitner,  1989)  (Meshot  with  linked  Chandler, wrong, too  mature  to  13 accept Such can  one  individuals j u s t i f y  unable to  argument,  to  may  their  orient  that  result  (n=16)  not  or  a  While is  in  shared group  this  supportive  view  of  existence  and  conducted  Kegan's  a  third  Kegan  certainty of  and of  i n s t i t u t i o n a l  sense  not of  between  -  of  not  which  when  the  is  for  Each  B a l l  and  they  may  more  majority  be  prone  Chandler of  adolescents  attitudes  identity  the  (n=13)  -  patients  by  is  d i r e c t l y ,  associated  it  with  hopelessness  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  to  identity  study,  and  addressing  of  self,  of  the  balance has  the  between  between  balance  and  identity. lost  to one can,  The  the  was  was  themes based  focus  of  proposed  which  stages  which  one  one  moves  from  As  fourth  stage  gradually  sense  of of  is the  of  realizes  therefore,  of  on  that  periods  one's  death  the  main  theory's  (object).  example,  has  which  diminished.  This  of  be  adolescent  death  that  one.  (n=29).  characterized  one  one  study,  risk  upon  and  separation/connection,  type  and  low  successive  consequently,  s u i c i d a l  assess  relationships,  authorship stages  risk  evolution  balance,  their  controls  interpersonal  one's  In  approach  balance.  that  the  d i f f u s i o n ,  and  the  grounds  characterized  is  (1982).  different  stage  is  l i f e  any  future,  contention  identity  subject-object  (subject)  one  the  find  toward  matched does  the  and,  group  nonexistence  theory  involves  a  for  existence,  high  constructivst  by  existential  of  When  with  Another  is  of  of  by  study  death.  associated  group  ready  to  behaviour.  predicament a  yet  unable  themselves  this  individuals  be  not  continued  s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e  found  a  but  that  experience  a  t r a n s i t i o n subject-object  14 balance  -  however,  characterized Kegan, his  be  by  a  examining  t r a n s i t i o n a l  stage  characterized individuals  by  a  would  depression  was  quite  of  with this  d i f f i c u l t .  self,  these  feelings link,  particular  type  on  only  phases  of  of  that  p i l o t  and  to  confusion.  because  s e l f - l o s s ,  In  each uncertainty  depressed  different  which  stage  the  results  study,  are  according  existential  qualitatively on  they  can,  depression  period  depending a  Because  proposed  a  experience  of  he  represents  depending  this  be  loss  associated  study  Although  can  types  they  of  were  were  i n .  quite  intriguing. Based Kegan  and  types  of  on  interviews  his  colleagues  depression:  s a t i s f a c t i o n threatened  of  one's  needs),  self-authorship).  of  meaning-construction,  depression)  of  death  than  is  study  those  of  who  does  a  loss  Such  in  construct define  a  (relating  type not  of  of  can  death  of  in  themselves  the  can  of  lost to  or a  subjects' was  a  loss stage strong  of  be  give  considered one  their  clues death.  on  (i.e. as as  a to  their  type type how  Individuals  relationships,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  based  death  orientation  conceptualize  a  a  there  examine  one's  context  to  loss  depression.  because  study  a  ward,  different  (relating  that  d i r e c t l y  self  to  (relating  determined  might  the  p s y c h i a t r i c  q u a l i t a t i v e l y  examination  was  and  people  themselves  might  it  a  self-evaluative  blind  informative  toward  groups  a  in  three  dependent  and  stage  orientation.  define  example,  this  it  of  who  In  between  Although  different  identified  relationship),  association  patients  39  s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g  of  attitudes,  with  different  occupation.  for way  15 Eriksonian  Psychosocial  Erikson's  developmental  psychoanalytic  theory.  His  difference  in  the  id  intrapsychic  and  the  relationship  the  ego  as  and  deriving  he  emphasis.  energy  role  believed,  world]  in  focusses eight  an on  the  development  and  Erikson  is  methods  a  that  and  1980,  22).  development from  Ego  identity  (Marcia,  previous  based  has  1993a, on  a  from  of  more  ego's  main  to  old  both  the  the  context  than  role, the  theory  -  through  age  -  as  the  b i o l o g i c a l  "awareness to  the  effective  meaning identity  for  of  in  theory fact  safeguarding  into  balance  p.  3).  In  Erikson's  of  synthesizing  of  that  synthesizing  others"  takes  the  the  ego's  overall  toward  his  of  the  psychosocial stages  viewed  and  His  lifespan  infancy by  self  p.15).  ego  Rather a  [between  the  He  playing  the  1963,  the  society.  for  process  on  on  norms.  are  one's  and  Freudian  emphasis  c o n f l i c t - f r e e .  over  continuity  definition  placed  world,  ego  within is  more  constantly  the  social  methods of  placed  determined  identity  these  This  is  roles  and  a  (Erikson, the  identity  r e f l e c t s  experience  spanning  new  continuity  consequences processes"  to  selfsameness  and  one's  of  however,  and  and  and  manner"  stages  defines  sameness p.  "unify  in  individual  i d ,  id  age-graded  development.  there  the  embedded  Erikson  autonomous  evolution  adapts  the  the  firmly  Freud's  c o n f l i c t ;  from  adaptive  age-graded  individual  ego  to  is  approach,  between  between  is  theory  Whereas  fundamentally  i t s  mediating  Theory  of  the  (Erikson, account  "the  psychodynamic  theory,  identity  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  further  development  16 of  the  ego.  Erikson  viewed  adolescence. and  In  cognitive  attainments  situation  in  phase  one's  healthy l i f e ,  ego  and  Erikson, that  it  adolescence,  a  out  sense  of  the  it  i n t r o j e c t i o n  is  in  for  as  (the  from  to to  commitment for  it  during  and  the  stages  following  adolescence,  for  roles  identity  manifests  lifespan, stage  require  it  colour  is the  in  also  case  roles  is  the  ego  from of in  to strength  the  in  a  role  stages  the  forms  mother's  during in  of  preceding of  image)  and  each  during  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  phases  of  childhood.  identity  exists  as  a  of  forms  that  own  is  school  extension  different the  In  the  elementary  an  standpoint  According  play  toddlerhood,  preschool  that  above,  manifests  the  It  individuates  psychosocial issue  of  an  identity.  one's  that  b i o l o g i c a l  creates  the  them.  of  identity.  scheme.  incorporation  individuation  follow  of one  determine  suggested  example,  sense  necessary  dominant  Erikson's  a  issue  between  as  struggle the  does,  of  central  adulthood,  one  commitment  this  stages  adolescence,  during  make  identity  eight  becomes  the  expectations  develop  to  for  as  interaction  social  to  transition it  the  and  which  that  is  emerges  infancy,  in  development  to  While  the  of  parents,  formation  adolescence,  optimal this  identity  self in  the  psychosocial c r i s i s  of  to  each  central  foundation  others. stage  identity  While  of  issues  the of  each  during  adolescence. In Erikson  addition also  to  this  explores  its  structural  d e f i n i t i o n  phenomenological  of  aspect  identity, -  In  the  sense  of  17 core  self  and  identity  meaningful  (Marcia,  1993a).  psychobiographies Luther who  these to not  (Erikson,  have  of  identity merely  1958), a  Erikson  and  continually  does  of  appears  product  it  is  constructed,  a  this  to  figures  through  take From  the (e.g  a  more  this  something  process  of  with  having  p a r t i c u l a r l y  identity  1993).  -  associated  h i s t o r i c a l  also  loss  (Grotevant, a  He  prominent  experienced  works,  existence  in  as  narratives  Martin  of  hermeneutical  is  .  In  approac  identity  actively  s e l e c t i v e l y  those  1970)  perspective,  that  his  such  Erikson,  an  is  and  owning  our  experience. The  most  successful  operationalize  Erikson's  Marcia's  identity  examines  the  exploration b e l i e f s  -  c r i t i c i s m  and  Marcia  researchers  (e.g.  & Huh,  interpersonal Marcia's an  independent -  aspect  that  (1993)  have that  status occupy,  underlying commitment  (1966,  of  identity  identity are  and  number  of  are  more  model based  on  the of  exploration  and  four  (or  been  approach  i d e o l o g i c a l paramount  response  to  male  to  identity  identity 1982;  status Adams,  focussing  on  women. possible  interaction  the  has  of  of  Meyer,  to  to  In  domains  relevant  identifies  terms  other  and  included  This  being  relevant  Thorbecke,  also  as  formation.  more  a  in  roles  cited  attempt  formation  1980).  vocational  dimensions and  validated  identity  Erikson  Grotevant,  issues  can  to  domains  1989)  identity  individual  identity  these  of  approach  adolescents'  that  extensively  theory  commitment  domains  to  development,  Bennion,  status  behavioural  two  importance  and  of  behavioural c r i s i s ) .  statuses  the  two  aspect  The  of  dimension  18 of  exploration  a c t i v e l y of  questioned  commitment  made  a  according  not high  not in in  one's  These  or  endured  a  high  exploration, Such  themselves  achievement, dimensions.  this  and  process.  In l i v e s  of  (high  low  in  or  low)  one.  have  made  (usually  exploration. commitment  are  engaged are  particular  path.  The  final  have  have  resolved  particular  the  they  engaged  been  i d e o l o g i c a l ,  who  are score  as  based  without who  on  the  having score  c l a s s i f i e d  as  process  a c t i v e l y  ready  able  high  process  that  have  to  commit  identity  score a  of  to  status,  who in  and  c l a s s i f i e d  not  questions  have  lifepath,  Individuals  but  individuals  individuals  Individuals  a  has  c l a s s i f i e d  parents)  in  one  paths.  These  are  has  dimension  which  commitments  l i f e ,  individuals  are  are  in  upon  l i f e  one  The  to  p a r t i c u l a r  find  that  l i f e .  particular  any to  on  low)  d i f f u s i o n s .  others  individuals roles  roles  exploration  personal but  or  dimensions  as to  in  Consequently,  to  vocational  low  conferred  These  commitments  the  any is  exploration,  of  their  to  both  individuals  expectation  for  pursue  searching  but  example  searching  to  typology  of  commitment  moratoriums.  extent  on  (high  and  the  themselves  process  process  extent  beliefs  low  Marcia's  foreclosures.  on  to  score  committed  the  the  decision  who  to  to  refers  definite  Individuals  have  refers  of  both  s e l f -  emerged  make  interpersonal,  on  in  firm  and/or  lifepaths. Erikson's of  theory,  individuals  midlife  and  old  e a r l i e r  stages,  age.  This  however.  in  death the  does As  was  becomes  final not  two  mean  stated  an  important  stages  that  it  of is  previously,  the  factor  l i f e s p a n  irrelevant a l l  in  eight  in of  -  19 Erikson's later  stages  stages  can  stages.  This  who  for  whatever  for  older  is  age  l i v e  sense  of  focus  from  towards  growth.  with  others. a  the  case are  for  r e a l i z a t i o n  and  to  e a r l i e r  individuals  more  normative  of  of  versus lead  is  an  of  underlies  expansion  of  process,  that  (which, and  or  are  one's  oriented  indulged  those  particular children  if  the  one's  overnight  impulses  w i l l  The  changing  death  this  one  by  stagnation)  of  that  stagnation.  to  an  between  and  and  mortality  not  denying  of  one's  theory,  past  developmental attempt  l i f e  This  to  to  review,  that  c r i s i s  is  through  l i f e  integrity  in,  lead  to  care  -  other  the  r e a l i t y  In  the  face  task. make  sense  one's one's  to  evaluate  requires  an  even  picture.  Through  p.86),  a  sense  own an of  more l i f e ,  of  of  of  and  one's  1994,  versus  and  understand  bigger  (Bigner,  midlife  one's  rearing  must  order the  of  Erikson's  humanity. in  deep  work.  of  central  to  can  This  the  one  a  issue  struggle  stage  a  self:  mankind"  be  during  that  strength  in  process  understanding  to  forms  relevant  that  transcend  one's  death,  the  issues  experiences  mortal  acceptance  contribution of  is  youth  in  last  becomes  through  sense  to  as  the  -  rudimentary  generativity  can  manifest  inevitable  of  adaptive  the  despair,  have  self-absorption  such  other  l i k e l y  central  involves  The  In  death  one  self  to  can  a  one  retaining  lead  means,  is  that  It  each  more  suggests  c r i s i s  self:  however.  which  reason  forever  recognition  in  p a r t i c u l a r l y  (1982)  psychosocial  can  emerge  with  groups.  Erikson not  interact  l i f e ,  expanded one  needs  an  " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n integrity  emerges.  20 This  sense  as  result  a  of  integrity  of  one's  d i a l e c t i c  is  with  i t s e l f ,  &  l i f e  Kivnick,  involved by  Sterling  and  the of  relevant  of to  attitudes  is  a  might  threat a  hypothesis, commitment resolving on  male  the  function might  respondents.  study  on  from  this concern  (Erikson, as  being  Erikson,  "truly  characterized  issue  in  of  of  of  of  which  in  a  from  individuals of  threat.  Scale,  had in  -  of  is  more  who more  to  in  related  to  death  from  discontinuity" that a  because  sense with  lack  a  of  63  of  death identity  this  sense  concerned  s i g n i f i c a n t l y sample  relevant  individual  Consistent  a  confusion  d i r e c t l y  is  lacking  are  interaction  s i g n i f i c a n t  claim  moratoriums,  identity)  is  "the  this  which  interaction,  identity  sense  diffusions,  Anxiety  way  in  identity  identity,  other  death  perspective  versus  death  and  interstage  This  protecting  result  that  the  identity  The  identity  Eriksonian  aspect  -  sense  unlike  Death  of  experiences  "detached  wisdom  state  despair.  reasoned  found  questions  as  to  involves  of  versus  analysis  greater  (and,  Templer's  stage  continuity,  they  a  an  One  purpose.  authors to  from  death.  l i f e ' s  which  The  feel  ways  because  its  -  one  strength  itself"  refers  (1989)  ideological  their  experiences (p.321).  to  the  (p.51)  despair  defines  death  also  Horn's  integrity  attitudes  questions  van  adolescent  representing  is  He  the  emerging  Erikson of  by  openness.  two  relates  that  death  and  The  face  37).  and  suggests  identity between  the  disinvolvement"  s e l f l e s s n e s s  anxiety  which  in p.  balanced  regrets.  wisdom,  1986,  is  of  about  higher  scores  undergraduate  21 While  identity  perspective, adults  as  issues  -  the  well.  the l i f e ,  which  an  the  and  of  sense own  the  of  and  only  Older  l i f e to  it  & Witte,  Anxiety A  of  1981)  sense  in  these  Scale more  recently  -  and this  complex,  to  to an  or  l i f e  of  the  are of  the  had  in  results  of  two  appear  in  a  E g l i ,  In  The -  this of  extent  to  p a r t i c u l a r l y for  and, To  s u c c e s s f u l l y  needs  have  be  of  implications  and  to  have  identity  of  a  one's  become that,  (Erikson,  should  facing  context  "acceptance  who  to  integrity,  by  1980,  p.104).  development, theoretically,  death.  This  studies.  published  hypothesis  The  f i r s t  journal  (Woods  revealed  identity,  as  assessed  by  the  Ego  anxiety,  as  assessed  by  the  Death  however,  multidimensional by  death.  individual  lacking  death  death.  for  identity  the  integrity,  -  relevant  s i g n i f i c a n c e  definite  substitutions"  relationship,  undertaken  the  people  that  in  identity  face  stage,  between  global  of  of  is  despair.  one's  has  sense  d i f f i c u l t y  the  relationship  Scale,  and  -  it  experience  versus  sense  her  Eriksonian  experienced  with  a b i l i t y  who  greater  of  her  no  also  determine  a  something  a  supported  has  his  cycle as  to  an  adolescents,  are  terms  this  of  permitted  have  negative  Identity  her  of  consequently,  been  to  or  individuals  therefore,  men.  or  acceptance  necessity,  has  his  for  continuity  his  c r i s i s  s i g n i f i c a n t  and,  come  of  from  integrity  are  individual  development  resolve  of  tasks  h i s t o r i c a l  consequently,  issue  issues  c r i s i s  to  i s ,  individuals  these  primary  older  terms  was  Elderly  although  one's  a  central  psychosocial  stage,  in  the  development  was  approach  Peake,  only to  Borduin,  supported  this and  for  question  Fleck  (1994) .  22 This  study,  assessed  with  the  different  sample  Status  and Grid  s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  subscales Fear  of  Diffusions higher  Dying  similar  s e n s i t i v i t y  scores  grieving  the  a  of  hypervigilant  and  Spilka  et  scores  that  Death, -  showed  some  scored  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the  of  to  and  the  with  Dependents-Guilt.  This  finding  fact  foreclosures  parenthood  u n r e a l i s t i c  view  consequently, being  unable  Sterling  than  and  of  feel to van  foreclosures  used  in  higher  scores  a  or  the  more  statuses.  this  of  guilt  role.  is on  did,  subscales  on  on  the  response  authors  however,  on  a  death:  have  they  subscale with  the  them,  to  the  of  role  an  on  not  and also  authoritative  were  and  high  syndrome)  the  the  evidence  Indifference  The  "both  of  to  measure  and  Foreclosures  might  contrast  the  death  the  consistent  dependence  study,.moratoriums  diffusions They  In  in  the  thought  They  in  Death  have  authors  11).  of  some  despair.  statuses  value  children's  sense  Horn's  study. on  other  their  enact  from  this  do  the  the  Forsaking  of  as  of  (p.  other  number  L o n e l i n e s s - F a i l u r e ,  to  than  place  to  71.5),  (1973)  find  "time-is-too-short"  d i f f i c u l t y  a  statuses  views,  future"  =  (1977)  statuses  descriptions  according  and  to  example,  higher  that  able  other  Pain  (Eriksonian  quality  for  age  Protter's  a l . ' s  identity  reflecting  Erikson's  past  the  found,  suggest,  degree  Using  were  (mean  status  death.  between  Process to  identity  researchers  to  people  of  were  S e n s i t i v i t y  the  suggest,  these  older  between  Measure  Scale,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  200  attitudes  Perspective  attitudes.  of  relationship  views  Identity  a  and,  thought  results  of  of  discriminated  death  anxiety  s i g n i f i c a n t l y Unknown.  The  23 result the  involving  the  Indifference  results  of  Sterling  consequence  of  the  seemed  the  status  p o s i t i v e  terms:  different  from  of  Death  and  and  older most  they the  Horn's  is  not  (1989)  of  respondents.  inclined  in  this  other  the  highest  statuses,  of  study  the  -  with  perhaps  Lastly,  to  scores,  on  consistent  study  sample  had  A f t e r l i f e  van  subscale  view  a  achievers  death  in  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  subscales  Lack  of  Fear  Reward-Courage.  Limitations  There in  this  or  vague  these  are  section:  death  that  more  identity Most  d i v e r s i t y structural  of  be  examined  fear be  on  at to  aspects  of to  exploration  and  that  the  of  death  in  this  attitudes  the of  also  The  findings  of  the  complexities  of  -  have the  that not  1974;  constructs of formation.  considered  such meanings.  on  of  identity  individuals,  1994a)  focussed  & Najman,  for  (Neimeyer,  of  aspects  perspective  not  global  section.  has  death  Each  between  (Ray  discussed  overly  contemplation  from  has  of  exclusively  fear  processes  death  death  use  shortcomings.  almost  than  least the  its  research  relationship  has  or  the  addressed  the  rather  1994)),  identity  meanings  scope;  independent  relate,  of  theoretical  b r i e f l y  research,  responses  influence  of  & Gesser,  status  its  of  attitudes  may  d i r e c t l y  research  complex  death  (which  Reker,  and  has  attitude  limitations  narrowness  w i l l  that  and  acceptance Wong,  its  limitations  identity  the  general  constructs;  Research of  three  or  the  the  people seemed  have to  relationships  24 between  these  two  terms.  different  constructions  personal,  interpersonal,  perspectives related  to  questions A  on  the  has  been  the  too  global  identity  way  have  serious  and  be  The  very  death.  the  which  questionable  actualization  has,  1987;  Tomer,  quality,  observable  behaviour  of  assessed  existential  assesses best  measure  be  on  and  between  d i s t i n g u i s h  l i t t l e  many  is  a  attention  the  p a r t i c u l a r l y death  in  1994),  includes  emphasizing  threat,  the  the  self an  and  death  indirect  rather two  of  than  terms.  conferred  a  a  for  on  of  s e l f -  identity studies -  experience in  most  the  as  both  of  s e l f -  over cases  a  measure  Threat it  Index  can  integration. used  s p e c i f i c  Secondly,  (acquired  of  vagueness  constructs the  on  concept,  independently,  the  are  p r e s c r i p t i v e ,  a l l ,  measure  or  involves  As  paper  research  limitations of  this  integration  Integration,  f i r s t  s i m i l a r i t y  these  having  in  Such  literature.  global  review and  several  Because,  death,  between  has  and  subjective  1994).  the  constructs  c r i t i c i z e d  for  identity  structured?  of  identity.  been  and  (Tomer,  of  of  of  v a l i d i t y  context  to  ideological  in  lack  relate  temporal,  discussed  anxiety,  l i t e r a t u r e  and  sense  either  in  identity  cognitively  studies  that  example,  considered  self  connections  of  identity.  focusses  construct  not  as  agentic,  are  constructs  and  constructs  only  very  does  r e f l e c t i n g  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n  for  moralistic  actually  meanings  This  of  those  moreover,  integration,  bulk  example, -  meaningful  measures' of  (Phares,  How,  constructs  u t i l i z i n g are  death  given  of  for  generative,  limitation  use  to  of  death  been  actualization, status.  death?  How,  this  through  at This  to  conceptual  measure b l i n d  does  25 acceptance (acquired other  as  Index  the  temporal  Threat  right  Such  now.  diachronic  one  assuming  that  accept  1994; some  may  do  scales scale)  types  of  in  have were  A  1982).  sense  a  high  to  one's fear  of  number and  that -  and  into  one  global  score.  Scale,  this  has  been  practice  number  of  1986;  studies  Durlak,  1982)  have .  found  lack  ratings  that not  with of  of  death  a  death  is  account  to  occur  for  in  time.  acceptance  present  moment,  another  one  s t i l l  Scale,  (e.g. these  Regarding that  and  of  different as  well  i s o l a t i o n ,  are  continued  1994),  Fear  denial)  b u r i a l ,  factors  (Neimeyer,  (Tomer,  assessed  items  anxiety  Boyar's  Templer's  has  different  term  grounding  have  vaguely  death  this  avoidance,  yet  often  u t i l i z e d  Anxiety  anxiety  summed  a  is  that  fear,  its  death  theoretical  items  foreclosed  fate.  commonly  Death  (conscious  measure  of  the  death)  of  is  In  the  problem  existing  concisely define  included  of  does self  in  ultimate  Templer's  same  notion  level  status,  Another  assesses  of  occur  Lacking  objects  the  Index  integration.  between  integration  hypothetical  (or  have  different  assess  domain.  the  c l e a r l y  anxiety  this  one's  constructed  identity  d i s t i n g u i s h  Threat  -  as  (e.g.  existential  within  and  contemplation)  i t s e l f  to  views)  operationalization  death  not  of  The  not  construct.  Durlak,  etc.)  an  anxiety  death  as  on  of  by  Index  death  Death  scales  not  identity  Although  normative  measure  dimension. based  defined  a  or  process  statuses  constructs  may  the  could  achieved  using  parental  through  words,  Threat and  of  nevertheless  Death even  (Lonetto  Anxiety though &  a  Templer,  26 Global construct obscures  identity in  the  constructs r e l i g i o u s death  the  and  discussed of  certain  did  and  attitudes  that  multidimensional approaches  need  components  of  identity  which  have  tended  evidently  to  not  covary  be  and  of  to  underlying with  have  attitude  lacked  a  could  on  observations  uncommon  in  hoc  be  thanatologial  studies  for  more  concise  constituent Studies  on  framework  Instead  a  self-  death  conceptual  -  l o c a l  the  the  derived.  they  practice  research  (Neimeyer,  1994b) . Lastly, associated of  there with  identity  theory, concepts  for  and  are  each  romanticized,  of  death  example,  are  a  often and  number the  three  presented integrates  too  vague,  religious  of  in  theoretical general this  review.  identity  global (Phares,  shortcomings  approaches  and  (Corey, 1987)  to  to  the  study  E x i s t e n t i a l  death  but  1991;  Ewen,  be  &  for  with of  or  on  control  death,  clear  (Woods  constructs  to  with  1994)  constructs.  predictions post  studies  Because  account  use  (e.g.  associated  associated  and  Its  which  a l . ,  the  f a i l e d  identity that  of  Eriksonian  identity.  death  be  et  death.  underlying  some  E g l i  nebulous  and  the  expected  variables  have  of -  along  with  somewhat  identity  1989;  -  both  and  a  identity  three  -  developed  death  rely  also  other  on  the  anxiety  nature  s p e c i f i c to  explore  and  identity  status  from  Horn,  death  could  more  & van  They  demographic  of  The  not  identity.  actualization  domains be  been  attitudes)  others.  Sterling  above  also  studies  death  would  than  has  of  (on  various  identity)  1981;  domains  context  effects  attitudes  Witte,  status  i t s 1993),  operationalized  27 for  s c i e n t i f i c  investigation.  actualization (1985)  has  (as  discussed  attempted  to  e x i s t e n t i a l  anxiety  necessarily  available  from  other  validate  these  E x i s t e n t i a l ignore  the  fear  of  -  it  of  -  appears  have  death  1994)  measures  of  been  death  (Phares, states this death  only  other  awareness  or  of  has  loosely  reliable based  on  made  also  only  based  of  on  the  Wong,  on  to  May's  focusses  the  Death  Reker,  e x i s t e n t i a l  adequately  an  not  to  tended  construct.  1987;  and  are  distinguishable  exception  & Reker,  as  questionable.  this  the  Westman  attitudes  been  have  example,  With  Wong,  such  such  is  s e l f -  attitudes.  because  anxiety  for  both  concepts  attempt  nature  1993).  is  to  of  has  for  the  several  theories:  subject  Personal  the  & theory  validated  existential  of  the  death  Constructs.  shortcomings:  assessment  of  only  perspective  one  that  has  attitudes  has  been  Unfortunately, it  has  identity  in  adequately  address  personal  history  1987);  it  not  enough  and  (Pervin,  last  death  v a l i d i t y  death  constructivist  theory  approach  not  of  attitudes  applied  methodology does  no  their  (Gesser,  no  but  to  devised.  e x p l i c i t l y  this  that  anxiety,  which  and  conscious  and  (Ewen,  that  Regarding  K e l l e y ' s  to  conceptions  P r o f i l e  Gesser,  denial,  measures,  nonbeing  Attitude  above)  multidimensional  discussion  pertains  operationalize  and  attitudes,  This  1975;  point,  (Holcomb  et  does  Bruner,  women  tend  a l . ,  1993)  give  1956;  to  have  and  Ewen, a  a and  general  any  sense;  it  development  With  emotional  more  however,  inspired  attention  1993).  more  display  not  been  fear  to  emotional  respect  to  reaction  to  than  men  28 (Neimeyer, captured  1994a; by  the  Regarding issues  that  order  Threat  Index  Erikson's  need  t e l e o l o g i c a l  Kastenbaum,  to  be  that  the  that  appear  to  universally  applicable  is  reliance  norms  and  roles  p a r t i c u l a r l y toward conform who  denial to  as  an  of  this  espouse  individuals'  death norm  explore  context  of  for  development  assessment  old  of  Because both  age,  death there  identity  and  is  may  conceptual  framework of  be  death  an  1973): as  aspect  consequently,  of  more  of has  generally  a  higher-  1993),  (Ewen,  Another  1993).  individuals  identity offered  applicable  issue  This  is  tendency who  diffused theory  is  defined  c u l t u r e ' s  this  and  not  c u l t u r a l l y  identity  Lastly,  and, a  to  -  does  1989).  western  labelled  as  (Ewen,  moratorium  (Kroger,  Becker,  theoretical  underlying  support  of  of  epigenesis  development  perspective.  number  its  adaptation  because  (e.g.  no  death  approach  relationship  of  not  do  by  does  except l i t t l e  not  those not  in  the  basis  approach  to  the  attitudes.  integrated  the  here  Erikson's  s p e c i f i c a l l y  the  index  a  of  adolescent  on  relevant  is  empirical  difference  1994a).  principle  considering  its  gender  are  One  questionable be  a  there  addressed.  lacks  -  (Neimeyer,  theory:  assumption,  assumption  1990)  is  theoretical in  a  thus  perspective  comprehensive needed  to  manner,  support  that  can  generate  these  two  concepts.  a  that  range  the of  a  deals  with  more  creation  of  predictions  a on  29 Existential  Theoretical  The  approach  measures These  compatible  1986) in  this  t r i a d  A  its  matrix is  the  its  nature  emphasis  are,  but  Erikson (e.g. E . ,  the  was  also  approach  existential  generally  themes  Marcia's  is  r e a l i t y  on  and how  are  has,  is  u t i l i z e d  in  conceptual  this  f a i r l y  1958) &  and  Kivnick,  identity  Status  in  fact,  J . ,  to  -  in  p a r t i c u l a r l y  approach  Identity  K e l l e y ' s  psychology  Erikson,  theory  of  speaking,  Erikson,  is  H.,  useful and  the  methodology.  framework  p a r t i c u l a r l y  complexity people  i t s e l f .  content  complement  to  of  Its  lack of  approaches  personal  Erikson's  of  on  of  His  which  the  in  experience  reality,  rather  the  the  analysis of  and of  death,  study  than  assumptions,  attitudes,  constructions  approach  in  value-laden  death to  useful  human  interpret  multidimensionality  structure good  Erikson's  approaches  Erikson's  methodological  and  these  emphasis  diversity  the  and  Erikson,  provides  on  constructivist  theory.  sophisticated  a  Model  based.  focus of  on  Proposed  1980),  comprehensive of  constructivist  because the  (e.g.  approach. for  study  addressing  A  based  theory,  of  Erikson's  v a l i d i t y  psychosocial present  the  constructivist  his  respectable  by  each  was  Erikson,  approaches  themes  into  (e.g.  from  two  incorporated  study  Constructs  with  existential  this  informed  Personal  study.  of  theory  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  fact,  -  Perspective  Psychosocial  (1955)  Identity  of  its the  make  it  identity  30 and  death. Lastly,  importance self, Most  an of  has  identity  Attitude scale  an  approach  of  this  a  both  identity This  and  section  and  the  psychosocial of  general  of  the  present  to  death w i l l  themes  has  also  considered.  this  1994), Reker,  these  a  of  of  The  the  Death  multidimensional  & Gesser,  death  framework  the  approach.  issue.  theoretical  and  on  .  approaches  has  from  1994)  promoted  which  the  to  resulted  in  the  i n c l u s i o n  of  approaches  in  the  assessment  of  attitudes.  present of  the  identity  After  to  study's  development  identity  conceptual  existential study  of  emphasis development  this  ignore  the  its  the  in  (Wong,  aspects  methodological  matrix.  and  of  in  & Gesser,  v a l i d i t y  It  to  inspired  Reker,  complex  death  tended  approach  subject.  established  be  (Wong,  incorporation  well  w i l l  also  with  with  informative  have  demonstrated  development  study,  terms  theories  Eriksonian  examine  to  perspective,  p a r t i c u l a r l y  Profile  with The  into  coming  been  existential  existential  a  basic  generated  description  identity,  Marcia's  model  the  (1966)  of  by  guiding  the  present  E r i k s o n ' s  the  different  application identity  of  status  themes the  model  approach  31 Model  Figure  A  1  Model  of  the  Relationship  between  Identity  and  Death  Integration  Existential Constructed  Identity  <-->  Points  of  >  Death  Integration  Reference  The  above  personal a l . , a  constructs  1974),  of  which,  a l l  (Marcia,  integration.  in  A  -  sense  with  and  definite  This one  more sense  can  of  of  more  to  one's  death  its  that  of  points  constructed  c l e a r l y sense  of  integrate  death one  points  incorporate  Integrating  the  above  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  of  reference,  proposed  model  into can  by  is of  to  self.  extending  into  an  et  identity to  core  and  -  the self  death  expected  to  be  reference  of  self,  from  nonexistence.  be  base  a  Having  transcend  one's  Krieger  refers  an  points  the  (e.g.  sense,  differentiation is  of  constructed  identity  defined  existence,  to  attitudes  between  represent  dichotomy  reference  elaboration  phenomenological  existence/nonexistence of  an  relationship  differentiation  proceed  d e f i n i t i o n  to  existential  associated a  a  elements  1993a)  representing  approach  proposes  variable  unity  diagram,  a  from  which  clearer  the  one's  e x i s t e n t i a l  death. Eriksonian  framework,  it  32 can (or  be  viewed  global)  as  nondirectional  identity  operationalized d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (death  a  here  as  on  of  from  identity.,  e x i s t e n t i a l  identity.  These of  self  identity.  domain  ideology points  and  model,  Erikson's  themes  l o c a l  death  this  generated  contexts  the  (existential  acceptance)  Elaborating  and  relationship  of  of  reflect  a  i d e o l o g i c a l  e x i s t e n t i a l  manifestation  reference)  and  identity, of  the  integration  death. a  series  psychosocial  points  -  of  between  of  matrix  reference, the  p a r a l l e l  themes  representing  and  interaction  can  general  e x i s t e n t i a l of  be  different  33 Table  1 Corresponding  Identity  Themes  Theme  Points  Identity  Interpersonal Generative  1  with  particular  death  reference  i d e n t i t y  and  associated is  to  associated  objective  acceptance  The Erikson's theory  Evolution  Transition  Acceptance  each  of  global  reference based  on  construction self  ideological  one's  the  death. i s ,  identity.  each  is  be  Ideology  is  existence,  Each  of  to  and  that  theme  however,  Each  also  can  theme  application  construct  identity,  because  of  of  death  Death  identity  construct  ideological  by  Identity  Acceptance  adjacent  moderated  construct  Connected  attitude,  with  Dying Acceptance Objective Acceptance Death Contemplation  Connectedness  point  the  Identity  Competence  associated  with  Existential  Meaning  one's  Identity  Death  indicates, a  Existential  Reference  Identity  Table  and  Competence/Control  Identity  associated  of  of  Identity  Ideological  As  Global  Continuity Definition Openness/Personal  Temporal Identity Individual Identity Role Experimentation Agentic  of  a point  of  only  the  extent  i d e n t i t y  expected  theme,  to  represented  that  predict  by  the  ' d e f i n i t i o n ' .  Themes  themes  of  identity  psychosocial  proposes  that  in  Table  matrix.  the  issues  As of  1  were  discussed each  generated above,  age-graded  from  Eriksonian psychosocial  it  34 stage  colour  themes  here  and  each  l i s t  of  with  the  current  represent  adolescence confusion  one's  -  is of  in  which  adolescent  with  c o n s t r u c t i v i s t  identity  formation:  interpersonal, identity these  is  matrix,  are  Erikson, more  or  representing  less  in  the  reflects  a  connectedness,  important  to  applicable foster  the  Kitayama, While  stage  identity  of  identity  psychosocial c r i s i s  They  were by  modified  Erikson  generally  as  processes  and  and  a  (1980)  more  -  to  consonant  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  temporal,  ideological theory  of  contexts  within  that  an  individuated  (if  at  all)  in  continuity,  identity,  individuals  of  a  in  agentic, which each  formation E r i k s o n ' s  approach may  cultural  identity  of  psychosocial  existence,  and  in  c o l l e c t i v e  different  be  (e.g. approach,  agency,  meaningfulness.  Erikson's  to  role  the  that  his  identity  and  and  implies  of  and  i n d i v i d u a l ,  conceptualized of  contents  exploration);  evolution,  however,  development  the  process  of  It  is  emphasizes less  settings (Markus  that  &  1991). these  -  from  applicable  consequently,  components  sense  openness,  development  and,  the  and  as  Identity,  note,  more  the  seven  versus  suggested  Erikson's  identity,  1980).  -  commitment  relevant  stages.  processes of  generative,  of  identity  central  them  both  constructed.  themes  the  between  The  approach.  the  (or  of  themes  making  reflect  domains,  be  adolescents  themes  experimentation content  to  remaining  of  as  These  as  issue  identity  intention well  interaction  the  seven  adults a  the  considered the  psychosocial c r i s i s .  themes  are  relevant  in  the  development  of  an  the  35 individuated of  these  social while each  themes  there domain  general  of  identity  of  Temporal  model,  the  theme  does  of  a  the  basic  integrity.  and  Wilson  one's  future  study  time  between  et  in  a l . ,  antecedents  others.  Most  s p e c i f i c  suggested  domains,  necessarily  Rogow  f i r s t  that  that,  development  in  occur  simultaneously  1983)  -  across  perhaps  domains,  due and  in  perspective  Marcia's  ego  identity  group  An  and  was  the  that  one's  context  of  lead  of  enable  to  endows  one  identity  identity  series  can  According  world  w i l l  temporal a  psychosocial  identity.  in  relationship  published  important  identity is  self  interaction  Erikson's  commitments a  the  one  establishes  future  one  to  to  selves  plan  a  -  and  events.  supporting  (1985) .  the  Having  framework  of  of  trust  in  one's  of  that  of  and,  present a  stage  and  sense  future,  and  One  roles has  manifestation  mistrust  fulfilment  providing  a  the  hope  anticipate  not  1988;  is  the  thereby  research  than  (Grotevant,1993).  versus  for  between  status  e x p l i c i t  s p e c i f i c  consistency  formation,  link  to  more  Themes  (1980),  hope  be  developmental  identity  trust  Erikson  in  may  refer  Kroger,  factors  Description  between  also  Identity  1993;  contextual  some  is  differences  with  can  contexts.  (Waterman, to  identity,  goal  by  of  between  Rappaport,  this  study  Enrich,  was  construct  by  demonstrating  characterized  by  a  particular  identity  to  that pattern  status  and  "expand each of  36 temporal  perspective"  relationship  between  moratoriums past  (both  high  in  seem  future"  The between This  so  so  for  to  have  (p.1618).  oriented,  seem  certainty  when  consciousness  one's when  identity status  has  measures The  As  is  of  seems  interaction  and  of  that  of  case  to  be  and  Erikson  is  strong,  Self body,  (p.127-128).  other  hand,  a  the  of  identity.  (1980), and  in  self  identity  sense  is  of  knowing  anticipated Identity  preoccupation  with  with  temporal  identity,  Individual  as  s p e c i f i c  domain  identity  a  represents  however, i m p l i c i t l y  it,  a  along  embedded  in  t h e o r e t i c a l l y with  temporal  within  global  status. between  identity,  the  the  interaction  certainty a  to  future  the  that  assuredness of  individuation  identity,  l i k e l y  identity  the  assessed  Because  to  one's  about  represents  transition.  count"  on  open.  future  according  while  the  achievers  the  c l a r i t y  more  shame  and  toward  hand,  identity  inner  who  the  been  component  perspective,  g u i l t ,  not  research.  important  those  an  toward  other  versus  in  oriented  Foreclosures,  as  strong and  foreclosures  identity  of  home  and  the  a  Diffusions  more  oriented  according  at  r e f l e c t s ,  identity.  of  in  going,  were  excessive  future  is  is  one's  on  it  where  consciousness  the  sense  "feeling  from  more  almost  manifests,  as  recognition  "an  autonomy  described one  were  indicated  commitment.  d i f f u s i o n s ) ;  domain  of  results  commitment)  for  view  stage  interaction  and  Achievers,  to  The  foreclosures).  individual  the  in  commitment)  (particularly authors,  futurity  low  (particularly  (both  (p.1611).  third  manifests  stage, as  role  i n i t i a t i v e  versus  experimentation  37 (Erikson,  1980)  of  assimilation  of  exploring  i t s e l f . to  This  the  of  In  adolescence  through roles  theme  is  donning  commitment  different  in  of in  possible  understanding  sense  acquaintanceship  of  process  requires  explore  new  The  interaction  i n f e r i o r i t y agentic  if  and  -  participant  in  identity  reflected  status  is  the  a  research,  operationalized  of  terms  more  the  others  as  it  a  of  More  and  s t a t i c  roles  a  not  of -  just  more  an  personal This  -  one  cannot  view  one's  world.  of  industry  can  be  said  as  an  active  s p e c i f i c a l l y , s o c i a l  identity  most  vocational  refers  honesty  instrumental  of  l i f e  process  involves but  it  the  a  process  in  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  of  has  that  to  is  role,  through  self  in  process  the  generally,  It  This  stage  in  different  constricted  the  childhood  opposed  playing  f l e x i b i l i t y  has  world. by  and  particular  with  view  is  typology.  by  identity  agentic in  is  the  between  that  identity  of  one  adapted  i d e n t i t i e s .  openness,  roles  play  exploration  one  abstract  the  from  Marcia's  who  beyond,  society,  different  process  discovering/creating  and  explorative  one's  dynamic  process  .  to  versus  manifest and  this  competent aspect  r o l e s .  often  as  In  of identity  been  exploration  and/or  commitment. The  interaction  that  of  been  operationalized  identity  identity  be  a  interaction  of  these  in  the  manifests  to  roles  of  in  theme as  of  intimacy  interpersonal  different  ways.  necessary prerequisite  adolescence  two  themes  and  a  sense  in of  terms  versus identity.  Erikson, of of  s o l i d a r i t y  This  and  has  b e l i e v i n g  intimacy, the  i s o l a t i o n  described  development in  young  of  the sex  adulthood  38 (Erikson, view  1980).  that  has  research  of  accepted v a l i d  not  relevant in  the  the  role  p o l i t i c a l shaping best  of  (1990),  -  is  a c t i v i t y is  by  to  a  defining  which In  it  in  be  terms  that  between  the  eighth  of  a  it  is  fusion in  r o l e s ) . to  by  creating,  scheme, is  an  and  and  reflected  stage,  identity  manifests  sense  ideological  identity  involves  unique  domains  e x p l i c i t l y  involves  approach  of  and  1983:  the  of  certain  McAdams study  of  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  sense  legacy.  interaction  greater  a  dating,  for  s o c i a l ,  (e.g.family  and  a  most  (which  could  direct it  caring  Marcia's  domain  identity more  of  a r t i s t i c ,  be.  p o l i t i c a l but  role  despair, of  as  a l . ,  friendship,  represented  any  generativity),  offers  It also  what  the  identity,  and  et  the  been  interpersonal  roles,  the  but  interpersonal  personal The  involves  generation.  by  as  generally  Rogow  a  within  adults,  (e.g.  -  by  (identity  emerges  as  different  family  confirmed  thus  well  intimacy  1993).  identity  however,  generative of  including  (Matteson,  represented  measures  as  of  nurturing  and  adolescents  that  has  number  involvement  ideology  self  relationships,  A  parenthood,  and  of  been  d e f i n i t i o n  e t c . ) .  next  of  l a t t e r  aspect  precedes  women)  research  explored:  Generative  for  status  have  guiding  to  identity  identity  1993,  intimacy  The  an  interpersonal  domain  been  1993).  r e f l e c t i n g  as  that  (particularly  Matteson,  and  believed  (Matteson,  s o l i d a r i t y ) , context  He  whole  -  element  that  one's  within  an  personal  as a  h i s t o r i c a l  ideological  view  story  integrity  of  self  represents  context.  This  versus identity.  as an  a  part  A of  coherent  domain  has  39 been  operationalized  exploration (Marcia, (e.g.  and  orientation, between  and  identity Cote  higher  purpose  Maholick  E x i s t e n t i a l  Points  one's  creates  involves  the  points  the  individual  of  of  is  domain.  not  one's  a  point  domain  self.  Having  and,  degree  to  which  death  identity which  in  of  identity  form,  to  of  the  of  perspectives  relationship in  found  other  Purpose  is  -  who  l i f e  that  achievers  statuses Life  on  scale  with the  because  given  constructed:  the  of  consequently, is  self  is  the  the  by  had  future  Crumbaugh  form the  content,  is  because  it  permanence.  interaction  defining  it  depends  more on  the  of each  development delineates  gives  death  integratable.  the  context  context  the  with  one  thus  the  transcendable),  to  self,  identity  larger  an  representative  relevant  makes  Having  relative  are  its  i s .  self  of  above  and  by  sense  for  something  table  its  ultimately  reference  identity  a  whatever  one  identity,  Individual  of  extent  the  of  philosophical  purpose  (1983)  identity,  existence  degree  which  than  of  for  terms  ideology  ideological  support  Levine  the  p o l i t i c a l  Regarding  sense  in  Reference  reference  existential  what  in  other  1989).  a  scores  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  The  of  and  research  (1969).  identity  content  and  factor  Fundamentally, represents  of  empirical  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and  number  there  is  status  r e l i g i o n ,  & Huh,  global  of  a  to  Bennion,  (meaningfulness):  sense  identity  commitment  1993a),  Adams,  in  more  (or l i k e l y  some The  in the it  is  40 to  encompass  E x i s t e n t i a l  aspects  Identity  E x i s t e n t i a l of  identity,  ideology.  l i f e  ultimate one 'the  and  issue  an  for  meaning  of  that  sophisticated, (Wass  Archer,  1993)  as  integrated  to  begin In  in  the  begins  of and  one's in  study  between  domain  as  death  existence  personal  the  and  acceptance  story  in  the  identity  as  and  s o c i a l  determination  and  unique  (Erikson  to  (Wass  formal  emerge  &  in  status late  a l . ,  1986),  adolescence.  1993b)  S t i l l i o n ,  (particularly  and  of  of  l i f e ' s  death,  context  of  1988)  are  appears  Both of  the with  adolescence.  l i t e r a t u r e  in  fact  adolescents)  have the  1988;  Noppe  & Noppe,  1991;  may  be  more  individuals,  indicates  nature  Marcia  tentative  the  to  the  in  and  older  it  thought  r e l i g i o n  of  central  associated  about  thoughts  a  theories  ideas  such  those  et  operational  identity  While as  of  ideological  present  existential  (Marcia,  S t i l l i o n , .  one's  the  interface  factor  described  abstract  &  the  contemplation  create  identity  adolescents  death  important  existence  Thanatological  the part  individuals  development  in  of  l i f e . '  that of  component  integral  or  of  older  development  a  Through  Erikson  something  the  an  discover  While  be  is  t o t a l i t y  Themes  representing  meaning.  can  death.  operationalized  Death,  story,  as  identity,  is  nonexistence,  such  process  of  & and  not  does  seem  adolescence. Identity  Status  Interview,  existential  identity  has  41 never been a  been  explored  addressed  e x i s t e n t i a l  the  central  Religious as  a  The is  the  focus  of  integration  coherent  of  of  personal  different  forms  a  l i f e  view  of  meaningful,  l i f e  each  of  to  death  existence.  To  the  associated  with  A  is  view  of  death  l i f e  as  ultimately  l i f e  that  meaningful r e l i g i o u s  to  as  be  as  social  roles.  to  one's  that  each  identity,  apply  to  if  is  as  l i k e l y it  death  example,  If  one  one  may  be  as  meaningful  is  undefined  of of  in  into  of  a  as  imply  general  are  a  meaningful  identity  corresponding  to  as be  s e l f  generalized  is  meaningless.  view  is  s e l f .  d i f f i c u l t  chooses  variety  Because  reference  well  one  assumes  l i f e .  death  they  implies  ultimate  roles  of  identity  as  is  might  such  not  i d e o l o g i c a l  meaninglessness can  integration. for  its  death  because  meaningful as  domain  is  always  issues  perspective  view  which  there  not  Meaningfulness  points  to  meaningful  viewed  doctrine,  extent  a  has  involvement.  one's  various  implies  it  orientation.  r e f l e c t i n g the  is  therefore,  what  from  meaningful  through  and  While  i d e o l o g i c a l  life)  death)  the  to  and,  (or  defined  existential  l i f e  other  existential  extent  view  may  and  the  expected of  self  meaningful  applicable  construct  (and  this  r e l i g i o u s  existential  story,  according as  however,  -  although  identity.  corresponds with  of  is  l i f e  to  different  that  view  relationship  concern  one's  ideology;  religious  l i f e s t y l e  of  what  meaningful  of  death  r e l i g i o n ,  also  construct A  of  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  and  measurement  self  to  an  morality,  form  domain  can  meaningfulness.  the  the  component  identity  e t h i c s ,  concise  in  in  to  to  a  j u s t i f y Aspects  of  ultimately  be  made  to  in  a  believe  the  unknowable  42 aspects  of  r e l i g i o u s  r e a l i t y b e l i e f s ,  within  the  social  history. a  by  of  number  Rauchway, This  The  view  is  The  of  of  of  death  death  and  of  reflected One  can  of  as  of  meaning  natural  or  meaningful  i n d i r e c t l y  (Durlak,  1978; by  of  supported  1972;  Neimeyer,  findings  of  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n  come  dying  themes  to  terms  in  These  connected  reflect  As  the  Aronow, 1988).  negative  and  with  of one's  based  the  a  fear  of  themes  six  other  of  are  a  with  themes  p a r t i c u l a r  style  of  presented  as  objective  acceptance, the  identity, and  on  p a r t i c u l a r  process  existential  types  and  acceptance,  contemplation  different  is  integration  manifesting  processes of  the  the  contemplation.  are  themes  identity  contemplation.  death  identity, by  Bolt,  identity  competence,  existential  general  is  1980;  supported  or  l i f e  studies  represents  attitudes:  acceptance,  The  of  based  existential  theme  or  death  identity.  view  absence  ultimate  existence  meaningful  measures  construct,  acceptance,  themes,  as  existential  acceptance  p a r t i c u l a r  death  a  find  the  Themes  Each  death  that  to  In  1988).  of  and  existence.  current  i n d i r e c t l y  between  identity.  of  attempt  & DeVitto,  interactions  self  one's  between  l i s t  might  e x i s t e n t i a l l y  (Neimeyer,  Description  mystery  claim  also  relationships death  of  Peller,  claim  a  one  context  encompasses a  as  t r a n s i t i o n  general  and  identity  contents  p a r a l l e l i n g  acceptance.  of those  Content  is  acceptance. nonexistence  in  two  general  43 ways:  by  c o n s t r i c t i n g  i l l u s i o n s  of  existence  and  Both  of  f i r s t  death,  these  is  is  or  approaches  that  more it  If  one's  certain  experiences,  disorganization  ideology.  themes  and  The  the  self  of  one's  existence  death  (the  w i l l  in  manifest  be  as  i t s  process The  examine  representing  clearest  the  evidence  of  the  drawback, to  contextual  may  by  experience  system.  greater  death  detail  the  existential of  the  themes domain  and of  relationships  represented  theme may  in  within  or  temporal  Table  a  self.  continuity. already This  by  evolving evidence  is  each  in  the  of  death between  these  It  the  an be  would  place  -  of  as  the  range an  be  integration of  of  sequence  of  domain,  incorporated  experienced  rather  A  event  e x i s t e n t i a l more  acceptance  acceptance.  the  death  end  would  dying  span  of  Within  temporal  acceptance:  view  at  discontinuity) of  1  conceivably  place  future.  one's  in  although  disconfirmed  one  of  contemplation.  Its  example,  construct  of  vulnerable  bereavement,  one  the  of  for  constructs  acceptance, 1994).  more  giving  something  dying  one  thus  sense  process  death  (Tomer,  i s ,  continuous -  the  p o s i t i v e  presented.  -  as  through  empirical  ultimate  one's  process  event  one's  representing  within a  in  bipolar  as  existential  sense  occurring  the  make  aspects  also  f i r s t  integrating  reflect  such  constructs  w i l l  events  in  Relevant  identity  u t i l i z i n g  viewpoint  section  underlying  and  common  can  change.  This  by  awareness  nonexistence  probably  however,  one's  than of  an  death  death  as  more  as  i s o l a t e d would a  thus  dynamic  identity. of  a  relationship  between  identity  and  44 dying  acceptance  respondents  from  correlations inverse  of  is  represented  different  between  death  (Neimeyer  & Dingemans,  Wood,  1984;  (Ray  reflect  & Najman,  moreover,  studies been  are  shown  of  to  between  the  There  a  is  as  studies  with  sense  s u i c i d a l  of  ideation  could  acceptance, continuous  imply  is -  orientation.  a  Of -  can  they  Reker,  of  low  of  terms.  however,  correlated as  Robinson do  suggest  (1994)  have,  denial  f a c t o r i a l  results  of  fear  indirect  the  above  at  least  has  (Wong,  Reker,  evidence  of  evidence a  greater  above,  The  fear  diachronic (Ball that  more  l a t t e r  an  orientation  of  certain  fear, with  death  identity  and a  represented suggests  a  may  1989).  of by  view  a a of  of  be  p o s s i b l y  lack  toward  (Pollack,  populations  & Chandler,  associated view  that  a  & link  a  present escape  1979),  prone  f i r s t  lack  sense  second existential  theme  in  the  model  is  past and  individuals  more The  the  of  of  of  having  these  death  self  or  to  as  future  from  hopelessness. The  &  not  fact  acceptance  with  e x i s t e n t i a l  scores  the  The  because  regarded  in  the  scale  1982;  Gesser  evidence  of  Self  fear  could  and  (reflecting  measure  & Robinson,  general  be  Index  Dying  course,  s t a t i s t i c a l two  of  p o s i t i v e  terms.  discussed a  Wong,  negatively  also  associated  lacking  .  They  two  Fear  involving  showing  indirect  Wood  1985).  these  be  1994).  that,  1980;  informative,  Gesser,  is  1974)  studies,  Threat  an  acceptance  presented  independence  the  -  C o l l e t - L e s t e r ' s  Neimeyer,  necessarily  on  integration  and  four  populations,  scores  identity)  by  objective  45 acceptance.  A  implies,  discussed  self  as  sense  and other.  differences  of  individuated above,  content  rather  than  s i m i l a r i t i e s ,  paradoxes,  boundaries  of  self.  'other',  indifference,  based  alternatively, Objective  entails  -  Objective  thus  on a  sense  on denial  that  a  on the  or  does  sense  of  imply  occurs  within  found  neutral  acceptance,  with  both  (1994) and  study  status  being  extent  to  The role  next  'something' is  worthy  this  of  the  viewpoint,  only  supports as  i s  existential involves  the  well  with  result  however,  territory.  this  in  the  i s  r e f l e c t i o n .  or  i s  context  finding to  of  a  and  death  as  associated  et  a l . ' s  between  death to  of  measure E g l i  of  Reker,  acceptance  generalizable  identity  d i f f u s i o n subscale  young  and  (the middle-  unknown). theme the  i s act  The c o n s t r u c t  has emotional  the  death  What  Wong,  relationship  s e n s i t i v i t y  as  acceptance,  the  acceptance  i t s  death  what  l i f e .  and psychological well-being.  associated  exploration  personal  be  acceptance  which  adults,  to  p a r t i a l l y  objective  aged  l i f e ,  physical  of  that of  of  view  i s  support  part  a  of  In  strong  i l l u s i o n s .  aspect  l i f e .  of  the  self-transcendence,  natural  meaningful  natural  detached  i s  death  (1994)  existence  i t  about  between  suggests  implicating  of  positive  i t  boundaries  emphasizes  meaningful  not  s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n  integration  acceptable  Gesser  which  acceptance,  suggests  acceptance  just  domain,  and depends  and  delineated  this  of  or,  c l e a r l y  In  acceptance  ultimate  identity  contemplation. of  bringing  'personal'  significance Viewing  The p r o c e s s  something implies  into  that  for  an  individual  something  as  personal,  of one's  this -  that  does  it  not,  46 however,  n e c e s s a r i l y  of  self  is  expected  but  -  just  s t i l l  While  be  personal In  has  not  the  death  unresolved  been  who  than  considers  meaning  one's  the  one's  with  sense  theorists,  of  The  e x i s t e n t i a l competence of  the  next  is  a b i l i t y  not to  death  death  such  it  a  is  dealing in  agentic with  dealing  integrated  defeat  death.  into  as  be  i t s  death  manifest  contemplating  of  and  of  one's  one's honestly  l i f e  experience  a s s i m i l a t i o n  constructed quite  number  to  aspect  openly  can  be  of  depth  of  in  terms  into  that  threatening of  openness  to  e x i s t e n t i a l to  nonbeing  that  be.  is  death  identity,  competence. r e f l e c t i n g  environment,  that self,  Because  it  said  an  depth  one's  with  be  the  f u l l y  theme  more  everyday  one's  evidence  view  one's  through  l i f e .  of  as  The  one  a  personal,  one's is  This  philosophy  process  death  can  aspect  l i f e .  as  in  there  in  process  to  death  can  the  which  an  1993).  concept.  According to  freedom  context,  competence  death  of  existential  in  understand  identity.  however,  acquires  to  to  to  theme  through  extent  Because  a l . ,  is  abstract  meaning  a  as  one's  its  tend  It  determines  self,  this  to  view  developed  et  it  can  explored,  commitment)  domain,  the  ultimately  identity.  c o n f l i c t  one  or  about  fact  accepted  relevance  one  (Holcomb,  an  -  in  and  attempts  rather  has  empirically  have  contemplation  what  death:  contemplation.  identity  is  for  purposeful  one  one  concrete  existential  that  that  has  case  exploration and  death  it  quite  individuals  (implying  as  to  feel  this  that  that  imply  which  this  is  one's  represents  threatens  competence  In  sense a  to  of  sense  existence.  refers  ultimately  an  If  one's  unattainable,  -  47 death  in  this  tends  to  be  more  deeply  recognition that  death  a  integrated  view  of  of  death  self;  1994)  can  be  the  f u l l e s t ,  what  is  its  has  in  a  are  identity been  by  Coping  to  be  as  assessed  (Robbins, next  e x i s t e n t i a l  represents  l i f e  death  l i v i n g  .  A  something can  work  The  cope  with  competency  controllable, each  moment  etc.  it  to  This  is  competence (Bugen,  by  with  the  an  to  -  in  (Robbins,  the  a  the  measure form  1994)  .  relationship  locus  of  fear  of  with  represented  1981),  identity  POI  be  been  1980  internal  shown  has  negatively  of  While  between  control  has  death related  to  1994). theme  corresponds A  as one  to  arrangements,  associated  variable  existential  that  'connection'.  a  e.g.  1994)  against.  a b i l i t y  and  greater  that  ultimately  assessments of  negatively -  -  associated  competence,  1988)  not  Scale  death  construct  an  Death  to  and  be  is  a  than  than  of  -  competency.  direct  to  and  funeral  approach  found  rather  concept  ways  other  (Neimeyer,  The  of  death  with  the  involve  rather  defeat  (Bigner,  something  s k i l l  death  no  found  coping  one's  necessary  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , there  of  number  integrated  self  as  and  culture  would  of  therefore,  Although  making  been  aspect  failure  this  death  addressed by  reflected  Bugen's  an  in  by  inevitability)  sense  .  managed  This  that  a  as  and,  quality  (Robbins,  by  such  implies -  represented  with  (recognizing  former  is  associated  opposes  with  context  sense context -  and  of  to  connected  interpersonal  interpersonal  becomes to  is  a  a  sense  greater  or  acceptance. identity  connection of  self  is  generalized  connection  lesser  The  degree  to that  a l l  to  the  includes  48 one's in  conceptions  diverse  ways  integration the view can  of  of  self,  an  as  view  of  death  love  and  Such  support  of  one's  family  or  a  as  reunion more  experience  with  also  separation,  include While  a  the  an  internalized is  'other'  is  has  interpersonal  topic:  have one  in  view a  of  equivalent is  larger  been  very  identity appeared  being  of  to  to  Westman's  hand,  be  the  it  to  integrated  of  death  one's  reflect  a  of  the  is  reflect  a  transcendent  of  this  theme  loss  as  an  view being,  A  conception  From  in  a  or  the  showing  death  one  in  as as  which  of  two  a  of  l o s t .  area  deal  example,  perspective,  is  Only  i n d i r e c t l y  -  of  continuation  for  self  such  dies  or  the  perhaps,  of  would,  experience  -  attitudes.  study  about  friends.  view  which  its  connection  one  emphasizes  form  that  an  of  could a  of  context  If  viewed  research  (1985)  has  example,  with  self.  death  date  for  manifest  b e l i e f s  means  friends.  death  that  l i t t l e and  death  within  broader  than  one  interpersonal  can  the  one's  acceptance  identity.  a  of  application  of  of  complexity  the  and/or  different  experience  reflective  identity There  contexts  bereavement  relationship  connection  family  can  -  communion  integrated  connected  of  and  death  sense  could,  occurs  of  one's  (what  other  of  deceased  complexly  bereavement.  studies  acceptance  the  and  that  death,  that  an  one's  and  extent  event  death  the  the  an  of  degree  attitude  on  view  orientation  as  i n c l i n e d ,  however,  the  perspective an  s p i r i t u a l l y  A  To  separation  r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) .  connected  the  self  interpersonal  A  on  and  existence.  interpersonal  manifest  from  death.  depending  with  nature  of  published  with  this  negative  49 association other,  by  between  Meshot  association (the  Both  proposals a  global  and  the  of  of in  death  this  sense) l a t t e r  studies  suggests  last  associated 'evolution'  -  s e l f .  Through  one's  world:  one's  care,  in and  identity  thus  creation.  act  bereavement  on  the  link  between  theme  of  is  identity  role  an  object(s).  individual  as  emphasizes  one's  which  an  appreciation  of  the  this  manifests.  self  continues  This  could  mean  is  responsible  Transition to  l i f e  fear  and  (in  death;  of of  death  into  for  transition  the  through into  is  regeneration the  evolution  'object(s)'  care,  and  sense  of of  of  through  of  creator  the  generative  and  object  of  recognition  of  personal  world,  finite  It  the  number  of  goals.  acceptance  grow/evolve  the  one's  the  A  both  one's  meet  of  personal  of  one  lower  construct  the  f a c i l i t a t e s  evolution  (those)  also  to  self  one  creation  has  the  caring,  the  Ultimately,  the  acceptance.  representing  through  one  of  threat  Repertory  for  integration  process  oneself, that  and  in  opportunities  death  experience  transition  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y involves  and  that  view  the  the  the  negative  v a l i d a t i o n  connected  and  and  Interpersonal  suggests  a  of  a  a  of  former  the  defines  Such  death;  indicating  some  particular,  with  of  identity.  creative  the  fear  with  generative  a  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  the  a  existential  with  offer  (bereavement)  (interpersonal) The  (1994),  integration)  linked  loss  and  experience  section:  is  self  Leitner the  these  interpersonal one's  and  between  inverse  Grid.  extended  a  evolution is the  based  of  on  s e l f ,  the  experience  non-physical  however  view of  that  death.  r e a l i t y ;  or,  50 more  figuratively,  culture  -  the  children, A would  object  involve  one's  experience personal be not  changed. be  by  Wong,  extension  behind  of  -  in  youth of  the  as  (1990)  a  as  a  i n d i r e c t l y  of  of  an  let  one's to  personal  correlate  go  or  of  a  a  that  and/or  self  or  the  of  cannot  that  may  expectations. a f t e r l i f e ,  i s  represented  acceptance' i n  an  (Drolet,  culture  acceptance. death  which  glorious  believe  with  experiences  future  hopes  -  vicarious  evolution,  immortality  of  acceptance  impermanence  'approach  who may n o t  transition  culture).  the  of  and  one's  d i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  to  (1994)  (e.g.  transition  individual,  with  family  one's  general),  need  family  one's  personal  acceptance  symbolic  of  to of  transition  negatively  -  In  actual 1990)  may be support  the  a  more  of  attitudes,  it  correlated  with  anxiety  Identity  Status  death  -  was  the  found  to  i n  study.  Identity  Marcia's  of  in  alignment  through  measure  sense  such  and the  death  self  one  contributions  and Gesser's  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  In  losses  b i o s o c i a l  E x i s t e n t i a l  (or  individuals  measure  Drolet's  leaves  manifestation  For  appropriate  is  of  Reker,  a f t e r l i f e ,  self  experiences  implies  completely  subscale.  be  This  possible  l a t t e r  care  the  view  in  recognition  by  stagnation  The one  of  legacy  integrated  a  heightened of  of  personal  and other  complexly  also  perhaps  aspects  work,  more  one's  from  (1966)  assessed  an  identity in  the  status  domain  of  Perspective  approach, r e l i g i o n .  death  ideology  The q u e s t i o n  of  51 death's to  meaning  r e l i g i o u s  ideology one's  in  for  generally  broadened  there age  to to  is  some  determine  as  surveyed  whether  -  The  above  relevant should,  as  greater  cultural  ideology  one  makes  for  death  could  is  also  in  example,  however,  c r i t e r i a identity  being  of  that  death  older.  One  is  and  not  in as  consistent the  Wong,  tendency  relevant  the  of  present  response  population  adult  university  and with  global  populations  & Gesser, denial  group  1994),  (e.g. and  (Becker,  to  being  students. is  a  and  and  attitude  is  p a r t i c u l a r  identity,  to  older  death  younger  study  identity  ideological  earlier, in  in  the  existential  be  differences),  is  of  of  probably  ideology goal  a  is  discussed  in  toward  could  cultural  evidence  Reker  it  As  that  be  (this  that  of  response.  young  ideological  i n c l u s i o n  status:  and  amongst  of  for  tested  v a r i a b i l i t y  implies  relevance  1990;  two  attitudes  Considering  that  ideological  Death  investment,  relevant  representing  particular  individual  adolescent  model  domain,  commitment,  of  group other  and  therefore,  Kastenbaum, western  measure  there  component  measures. death's  late  a  issues  therefore,  commitments  one's  Such  evidence  constructs  e x p l i c i t  v a r i a b i l i t y  well  of  of  r e l i g i o n .  age  is  role  suggests  include  there  groups  death  the  distinct  death.  as  a  a  the  legacy.  in  as  -  track  conceivable,  to  death  (1993a)  importance  is  important  commitments  of  one's  domain  that  and  relevant  Marcia  one  assessed  terms  personal  content  It  concerning  preparing  and  be  exploration  assessed  one's  identity.  could  viewpoints be  represents  that  it  global research Kalish,  of 1976;  considering  1973),  it  i s ,  52 however, is  expected  less In  other  relevant certain  hand,  this  might  accepts of  other  more  relevant  escape  from  more  l i k e l y  be  of  given  and  i n d i v i d u a l ,  take  existential  associated  with  therefore,  function  for  and  t h i s : many  everyday  it  probably  domains.  chronic  it  would  to  l i f e ' s of  domain  over in  is of  coming  identity,  of  i l l n e s s such  a  who view  one's  with (such  status  expected it  the  could  r o l e s .  For  death as  measures. to  be  also,  independently. approach it  meaning  the  above  emphasizes does  not  something  commitments.  It  construction  model.  Not  to the  role  that  i s ,  is  that  is  by  the  quality more  the  is  with role  of a  chosen;  a  more  subtle  represented  Death  these  i d e o l o g i c a l  aspects  associated  For  'assigned'  as  a l l  nevertheless,  everyone.  captured  e x p l i c i t capture  a  be  (or  global  with  roles  generally  not  better  lower  terms  on  example  terminal  identity  generally  that  An  immediate  to  some  commitments.  here  behind  could,  Ordinarily,  more  and  relevant  or  c o n f l i c t  choices  people,  ultimately suggested  is  a  represented  existential  e x p l i c i t  lags  domain  suffering.  process  commitments,  in  that  associated with  domains  Marcia's  attitudes  reflect of  of  other  other  precedence  Although  exploration  that  the  t y p i c a l l y  an  with  commitment  occupation)  death  than  an  statuses  identity  existential  as  conceivably  aspects  an  death would  of  domains.  individual  Because a  than)  domain  populations,  be  exploration  could  a  an  death  dying  be  be  identity  a  to  example  it  is  not,  concrete that  is  reasons,  it  of  identity  death  implicit  the  identity  good and  by  is  constructs  would of  53 acceptance this could in  domain be  and of  contemplation. identity,  analyzed  p a r a l l e l  the  alongside  analyses.  To  get  death  a  more  attitudes  s p e c i f i c  complete in  the  explorations  picture above  and  of  model  commitments  54 E x i s t e n t i a l  Table  Identity  Status  Identity  Statuses  2  E x i s t e n t i a l  Exploration/Contemplation Low  Low  High  Undifferentiated  Differentiated  Commitment/Acceptance High  E x i s t e n t i a l p r o f i l i n g  them  Simple-integrated  identity in  terms  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  and  Vries  1996).  & Lehman,  p a r t i c u l a r statuses  the  Diffusions, commitment to  have  to  clear  statuses.  a  sense  for  their  -  existence,  could they  they  of of  for  of  death  low  in  of example,  reflect  by  de  the  Marcia's  four  exploration -  would  be  than  described  and  less  the  low  in  l i k e l y  other  as  would  tend  to  be  less  aware  Because  they  don't  have  a  have  a  cannot  by  ideology.  reference  be  described  processes  each  ideology of  f u l l y  descriptions  being  points  death.  more  described,  death  death  orientation  to  (as  domain  example  be  underlying  toward  because  can  following  particular  relationship of  The  existential  Their  the  hypothetical  "undifferentiated" s e l f ' s  of  integration  orientations  in  statuses  Complex-integrated  clear  sense  of  clear of  their  55 death,  and,  consequently,  s u p e r f i c i a l  to  have  them,  but  one  having that  normative  death  dimensions  only  able  to  integrate  death  in  way.  Foreclosures, ideology  are  is in  is  a not  beliefs  attempt  of  based  commitment on  regarding  integrated an  sense  without to  to  a  exploration,  are  more  meaning  of  death.  consideration  of  i t s  enable  the  death  them  to  make  sense  l i k e l y  For  many of  their  world. Moratoriums, to  any  contemplating  p a r t i c u l a r  viewpoint,  have  described  as  ' d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ' .  relevance  of  death  sense They  of are  n i h i l i s m locate  it,  and,  perhaps and  meaning  their  more the  most  on  the  achievers,  aware  lives  p a r t i c u l a r  death  ideology,  integrated  orientation. death,  relationship  to  self.  f l e x i b l e of  d e f i n i t i o n  reality.  incompatible  of  and  of  are  the in  between  to  considered a  meaning should  and be  to  role  make in  l i f e .  extremes of  trying  of to  extremes.  exploring)  have  foreclosures,  they  process  be  the  how  commitment  developed  could  of  sure  these  (or  said  have  that  ultimate  the  can  have  uncommitted  philosophical  a  be  but  .aware  not  their  explored  death's  information.  but  very  made  Unlike  Consequently,  are  having  They and  meaning,  orientation  engaged  having  their  of  of  continuum  in  perspectives  lives  and  an  They  generally,  eternalism,  themselves  Lastly,  in  death's  a  death's  to  a  complex  -  different coherent  they a  less  have  less  theory a  of  more  constricted  threatened  i t s  by  view  56 Determinants There others of  is  to  their  effects This  empirically  that  some  on  identity  section  list)  and/or  of  in  associated  a  of  the  death  examine  conceptually are  more  a  linked  constructs  number  to  that  both.  to  in  of  be  than terms  and  have  To  it  is  not  been  the  extent  that  (ideological)  demographic  expected  -  (although  representative  are  conducive  identity  variables  population,  former  are  existential  demographic  particular  with  contexts  and/or  w i l l  constructs/attitudes  identity  Identity-  c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n  exhaustive  death  Existential  evidence  the  attitudes. an  of  variables  associated  with  the  l a t t e r .  Gender  Thanatological differences  in  results  that  anxiety an  are  death  also  Reker,  emerged  has  and  social  & Gesser, include:  construction  of  death  greater  of  the  fear  been  for  and  & Bolin,  found  greater  in  (Holcomb, of  More  clear  to  have  tendency  Regarding different have  s p e c i f i c  tendency Neimeyer,  significant  gender  consistently  example,  d e s i r a b i l i t y  greater  death  a  most  1989).  1994).  a  indicated  The  appear,  1991),  (Klenow  s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e (Wong,  women  difference  has  attitudes.  (Kastenbaum,  a f t e r l i f e  gender  literature  greater to  death  been  anxiety: and  in this  when  controlled  results an  Moore,  others  death  believe  cultures,  toward and  found  that  have  emotional 1993);  (Neimeyer  &  Moore,  57 1994);  and,  (Neimeyer, greater as  in  a  number  1988).  Men,  tendency  something  of  low  avoidance  of  of  The  due  to  gender  and  fear  a l . ,  1986;  1985),  to  f a c i l i t a t e  of  death. a  no  These  results  ideological therefore, from  than .  In  be  general  and  in  variable  ideological  of  their  women  that  more  Belenky  et  (Brody,  also  to  ideology,  emerged  more  interpersonally that  differentiates  occupy  (Marcia,  have  identity.  both  emotional  tend  and  -  fear  death.  occupation  created  in  women's  may  of  is  with  recognition  domains  a  levels  s u f f i c i e n t l y  1985;  moreover,  with  and  1993);  higher  that  interpersonal  unless  scale  is  (Surrey,  aware  terms,  differences  associated  generally,  differences -  and  dying  a  Moore,  been  gender  affect  orientation,  domains  suggest  a  open  status:  men  gender  identity  an  greater  of  .  not  p o s s i b i l i t y  knowing  and  1994)  is  fear  general  1994);  have  that  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  identity  1993)  consistent  more  Such  greater  statuses  Matteson,  them  of  and  more  of  evidenced:  Neimeyer,  which  Another way  have  & Moore,  control,  death.  levels  & Gesser,  suggests  1986),  make  (Holcomb,  in  differences  (1988) of  hand,  death  (Neimeyer  these  higher  other  Reker,  connected  Regarding higher  for  M i l l e r ,  might  response  (Wong,  locus  interpersonal,  the  impact  Neimeyer  be  studies,  viewing  unknown  reasons  explored. may  the  on  toward  greater fear  of  however,  (Matteson,  gender  1993b;  1993)  .  oriented  may,  e x i s t e n t i a l  identity  58  Acre  Most  studies  relationship indicating  in  this  between  an  (Kastenbaum,  age  inverse 1991;  category and  have  anxiety  -  relationship  between  these  two  1994).  Age  Wong,  Reker,  & Gesser,  associated  with  avoidance  p o s i t i v e l y  associated  with  the  (Kalish,  1977),  acceptance  (Wong,  A  of  number  results.  part in  of  the  the  also  as  death  lifespan.  personal  (possibly (Wong,  a  Age  the  1976);  the  also  pattern  satiation  in  the  s i g n i f i c a n t  changes  adulthood  p a r t i c u l a r l y  -  in  death  has  age  and  and  s o c i a l  of  the  with  that  factors  of  possibly  death  individuals  health  higher  problems  amount  of  1976).  with  global  and  local  attitude  research,  however,  during  college  .  identity  1993)  occur  phase  toward  older  of  -  could  involving  s o c i a l i z a t i o n  degree  been  1963)  Waterman,  amongst  escape  these  (Erikson,  r e l i g i o s i t y  and  for  1989;  status  been  about  generally  experiences  (Kalish,  & Huh,  also  and  neutral,  associated  greater  associated  has  thoughts  suggested  old  degree  the  1994);  Bennion,  of  greater  e f f e c t ) ;  been  of  situational  greater  a  one's  fear)  integration  loss;  variables.  1994). been  task  of  majority  1979),  approach,  lower  frequency  & Gesser,  (Adams,  (and  greater  and/or  has  ego  Specific  cohort  Reker,  exhaustion  status  a  (Kalish,  have  developmental of  of  & Gesser,  acceptance  process  include:  and/or  to  a  Reker,  (Nelson,  frequency  levels  explanations  Greater  theorized  and  the  the  death  negatively  death  f o c u s s e d on  In  adolescence  students.  In  contrast  and a  young  survey  of  59 identity a  status  consistent  students Amongst stable  research  pattern  were  Ethnic  older  terms  of  of  death 1980)  is  . of  suggested  for  i s ,  it  death  is  reflected 1984). not  in in  been  be  appear  achieved.  to  1993)  found  Older  identity  (Waterman,  with is  the  l i f e  more  be  more  .  the  most  of  death  that  studies  that  (Marcia,  1993b).  While  Fleming,  that  Bunting,  been  continuous  as  continuous  with  that  be  being  scores  it  in  is  construct.  .  In  (McMordie  may  Kumar,  global  examined  identity  is  identity  status:  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l expected  to  be  play  a  role  there  are  differences a  have  do,  attitudes.  and  l i f e  whether  results  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  &  constructs  uncertain Such  eastern  could  death  what  s o c i a l  has  either  in  1984)  differences  ethnic  and  different  as  difference  however,  death  have  a  death  cross-  & Kumar,  anxiety  relevant  ethnicity  numerous  -  reflect  are  1988)  Mercer,  difference of  viewed  cultures  lower  suggest  view  there  (Neimeyer,  l i k e l y  (McMordie  often  that  Lonetto,  possible  explored,  development  Regarding  One  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  d i r e c t l y is  anxiety  (e.g.  example,  their  nevertheless, the  to  indicates  differences  western  Because  continuity  in  (1993)  differences.  generally  status  death  death,  discontinuous  cultures,  in  feared  Such  constructions  than  l i k e l y  individuals  literature  differences  Clare,  or  year  Waterman  Identification  cultural  &  more  identity  Thanatological  aspect  samples,  age/college  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  adults, in  of  on.college  universal  60 phenomenon, cultures  there  foster  c o l l e c t i v e Marcia  preclude  but the  some  luxury  services, a  guidelines  for  is  some  p a r t i c u l a r  death  study,  example,  predicted also  integration  link  on  the  extent  to  individual  1993c).  which  or  According  exist  "struggles  in  for  to  western  survival  (p.274).  death  a  to  between  be  is  & no  one's  from  as  ethical  represents  predictive  of  both  to  the  existence  and a  at  identity,  commitment  such  and  former  attendance  religious  and  issues  l i f e ,  of  moral  p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s  (and  constructs/attitudes. that  religious  integration  belief  (Rigdon there  be  ideology.  predicted  in  The  death  to  questioning  religious  evidence  with  for  of  could  and  associated  a  the  moratoria'  referring  purpose  which  identity  There  of  in an  (Marcia,  distinguished  behaviour.  context  While  either  moratorium"  process  ultimate  one's  has  a  is  God,  It  societies  involvement,  viewpoints  that  of  identity  of  p a r t i c u l a r  global)  differences  Involvement  involves  social  be  ' i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  in  Religious r e l i g i o u s  to  development  (foreclosed)  Religious  which  the  (1993c),  cultures,  appear  and  Church one  in  lower  an  religious  only  two  a f t e r l i f e of  is  development  attendance  levels  Epting, clear  of  the  involvement  was  found  variables  (Klenow  threat  -  of  and  in  of  and  a one  r e l i g i o s i t y  Bolin, thus,  1989)  .  higher  1985). evidence  in  involvement  the and  published identity  l i t e r a t u r e  status,  it  61 seems may to  reasonable  be  more  explore  to  predict  inclined the  subject)  r e l i g i o u s  identity  r e l i g i o u s  commitment  associated  with  Bereavement  There  been  and  between  these  lack  evidence  of  topic  the  two  death  however,  has  who  experienced  of  incorporate  the  not  -  ideological is  to  r e l i g i o n  (and  and  p o s s i b l y  because  identity,  expected  commitment  research  the  small  has  not  produced  death  (and  to  high  be  exploration).  general  study of  (more  Repertory  a  who  self.  be  that  parent  self-death Grid  Threat  fact  Index  evidence  One  than  (Meshot group  and of  this  and  a  measure  constructs,  result  was  .  students  the  loss their  1994)  experienced  result  into  This  narrow  Leitner,  on  This  however,  1988).  study,  adolescence  controls.  focus  relationship  college  integration)  does  the  interpersonal  during  suggests,  of  recent  interpersonal  that  a  Neimeyer,  bereavement  a  death  that  of  consequence  results  existential  The  a  and  l i t e r a t u r e  1985;  between  experience  more  any  anxiety.  found a  bereavement of  u t i l i z i n g  positive  death  body  however,  on  on  (Tokunuga,  relationship  this  individuals  interpersonal on  of  exposed  commitment  are  exploration)  variables  threat  Interpersonal  to  who  of  yielded  authors  that  those  threat/integration  death  religious  subscale  could,  the  The  less  than  l i t t l e  research  investigating of  a  ideological  most  this  focus  a  make  (and  high  explore  of  is  individuals  Experience  has  attitudes;  to  that  may  implies be  i n c l i n e d  conception not  that  it  of  replicated may  only  be  62 pertinent  to  While  interpersonal  there  relationship some  between  indirect  of  in  self-worth  feelings Balk,  of  1983,  be  and  low  of  such  a  &  f a c i l i t a t e  is  suffer  from  self-concept  (Balk,  1990;  similar  peers  While  growth, that  long  a  term  Fanos  is amongst  reported:  an  r e l i g i o u s  or  their  evidence  there  exist  higher  following  psychological  there  may  1996)  1991).  adolescents  Greenfield,  1991);  the  example,  (suggesting  than  Campos,  for  of  status,  relationship  Balmer,  mature  identity  have,  (Balk,  and  examinations  and  r e l i g i o n  lives  more  that  direct  adolescents  Martinson  noted  bereaved  that  (Fleming  being  conceivably also  their  no  bereavement  Bereaved  importance  commitment)  been  evidence  adolescents. increased  have  identity.  higher their  levels  loss;  (Davies,  and  1991,  bereavement  can  however,  should  it  s i g n i f i c a n t symptoms  of  & Nickerson,  subset  of  depression  1991;  Hogan  1991).  Hypotheses  Although model  a  broad  presented  s p e c i f i c a l l y several  death  objective death  of  on  range in  of  this  paper,  hypotheses  attitudes the  predictions  present  i d e o l o g i c a l / e x i s t e n t i a l  current  involving  and/or study  constructs/attitudes  the  is  of  to be  be  derived  study  ideological  underlying  could  domain  could  w i l l  considered identity.  whether  the  focus  identity  constructs.  determine  from  The  and main  p a r t i c u l a r  representative  of  &  63 Exploration  and  Because  model  the  associated clear  how  results terms  -  as  status  with  either  the  main  focus  independent  different  similar  a  sense  toward  consequence  of  ideological  exploration  the  view  d i s s o l u t i o n  some  degree  that  requires,  Although culture  a  death  of  death  be  two  terms  present  the  openness  death  as  implies,  is  not  a  of  in  the  could  not  the  on  these  identity to  scores  toward  death,  the  note,  across  mask  very  as  l i f e ' s  least,  an  phenomenon  This  discussed It  study  and  is  an  embraced  to  the  degree  of  r e f l e c t i o n  in  a  exploration  is  also  openness moreover,  purpose  acknowledgement  centrality  an  implies,  ultimate  is  be  because  above,  also  that  to  behavioural  personal.  identity. of  present  its  some  is  important  statuses  contemplation,  very  it  death.  of  the  effects is  be  effect be  It  to  and  w i l l  attitude/construct  predicted  at  -  could  study  explored).  is  one's  1973),  exploration  exploration  contemplation  (Becker,  necessitates  of  of  or  (although  death  exploration with  the  toward  orientation  to  on  or  orientations  associated  attitudes/constructs  these  factors  commitment  Ideological  of  nevertheless,  that  low  death  commitment  interaction  w i l l ,  or  predicts  the  therefore, high  Commitment  of  of  an  issue  death.  in  question  process  -  western of  identity  i d e o l o g i c a l  exploration. Ideological predict more  lower  complex  levels than  a  of  death  simple  expected  avoidance.  lack  of  in  the  present  Avoidance  exploration  -  it  i s ,  of  study  to  course,  suggests  a  64 more  active  negative a  lack  fear  evaluation  of  (r  process  interest.  =  .47,  p  <  Nevertheless,  death,  then  who  are  disinvolvement,  or  emotional  It  has  .001)  study.  the  of  exploring  in  if  least  in  feelings  fact  Wong,  there  l i k e l y  is  a  existential  with  of  purposeful  as  This  is  p a r t i c u l a r l y  individuals  with  an  e x p l i c i t  natural  ideology.  consequence of  regardless been  of  1983),  extended  to  Death  (1987;  1994)  an  from  attitudes  within  the  do  however,  so,  to  transition -  reflect  in  a  a  a  ways joyful  (escape d i s t i n c t  more  the a  tendency do  so  by  rather  correlated  a  than  with  (1994) to  avoid  should  model  general to  be  sense to  to  be  sense true  be  those  as  of  associated of  death  for  commitment,  l i f e  such  as  however,  a  seems  a  meaningful, that  commitment  future  assume  that  purpose this  has  (Cote  could  &  be  death.  in  (Wong, which  Reker, death  a f t e r l i f e  acceptance),  l i f e .  death  meaningful,  Revised  representing  suffering  of  -  motivated  Gesser's  Considering  eventual  several  portal  context  as  one's  with  Profile  acceptance  escape  these  a  and  reasonable  one's  assesses as  viewing  seems  include  representing  (neutral  it  by  existential death  associated  to  expected  s p i r i t u a l i t y .  Attitude  meaningful: -  one's  empirically  Levine,  The  Viewing  be  and  cultural  predicted  acceptance.  r e l i g i o u s  be  issues.  is  death  may  about to  individuals  commitment,  view  found Reker,  Ideological a  that  as  a  acceptance). views  of  Gesser,  be  (approach  viewed  The  part  death  e x p l i c i t  f i r s t  as  as  acceptance of  acceptance),  Approach acceptance i d e o l o g i c a l l y  can  natural  objective  and  l i f e  and  two  as  of  meaningful  probably manner  tends -  it  to  65 represents Neutral  a  more  based  either  last  view  r e f l e c t i v e on  death  however,  it  of  as  with  e x i s t e n t i a l  identity,  ideological  commitment.  acceptance  is  ideological represents odds  with Fear  Reker,  and  1980;  Bolt, Temporal  component  of  be  which  be  death),  with In  death the  regarded  existential  domain as  a  of  type  of  a  escape  associated This  a  combined  implies  however,  commitment.  r e f l e c t s  attitudes,  generally  negatively  the  also  two  s e l f .  could  identity  operationalized  the  basis  (1994)  with  attitude  domain  and  global  of  studies,  1972;  has  this  thus  could  different  as  Aronow,  -  be  at  however,  -  because  of  number  of  A  above,  sense  Rauchway,  Wong,  explore  v a l i d i t y .  a  ways.  to  identity  discussed  between  i s ,  study  psychometric  Neimeyer,  identity  many  ideological  relationship  Durlak,  1978;  of  its  in  operationalization  objectives  oriented  (e.g.  corporeal  -  distancing.  identity.  negative  death  to  other  view,  commitment)  cognitive  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  opposed to  components  e x i s t e n t i a l l y  of  in  been  for  as  e x i s t e n t i a l  a  way  Gesser's  appropriate  found  (as  passive or  b e l i e f .  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  acceptance  the  attitude  interpersonal  global has  the  Because  predicted  one  and  attitudes  l i f e  this  (or  escape  of  p a r t i c u l a r  n a t u r a l i s t i c  Unlike  sense  a  fulfilment -  purposeful. a  to  indifference  attitude  d i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  to  a  psychological  involves  commitment  commitment  reflecting  acceptance  of  with  tangible  acceptance,  seems  The  more  of  have  meaning  Peller,  death  in  fact  and  &  i t s  fear  DeVitto,  1988). been  identity.  proposed  to  Rappaport's  be  an  (1985)  i m p l i c i t study  of  identity  66 and  temporal  association high the at  in  perspective -  in  particular,  commitment.  future  and  various  offers  a  A  points  on  of  individuals  are  future,  more  of  a  point  of  death)  future  and (at  sense  expected  expectation  a  (1984)) as  -  of  occurring  sequence  of  Identity  As  is  does  Regarding  within  the  earlier,  not  everyday  a  between  to  selves  committed of  their  current  long-term  a  future  sense  more  of  commitment  Highly  individuals  by  individuals  one's  better  self  and  are,  temporal  Neimeyer,  expectation  context  might  Fontana,  r e f l e c t s  predictable  l i f e  -  predict  than and  a  constructs  the  direction  for  greater  possibly  hand,  example, as  be  a  a  view  and  could  and of  Gold  death  foreseeable  the  have  present  of  commitment  and  attitudes.  of  such  toward  a  could more  have r i g i d  dogmatism;  stronger  relevant  and  e f f e c t s .  foreclosures  integration  more  of  consequence of  tendency  greater  might  approach  interaction  achievers  other  death  the  death  acceptance,  the  their  theoretical  how  effect  to  style, on  the  propose  b e l i e f s  achievers, of  a  a  Such  suggested  Temporal  death  cognitive  result  self.  death.  with  continuity  have  construct  d i f f i c u l t  stronger  implies  of  an  Status  exploration It  to  of  have  such  f u t u r i t y  trajectory.  to  of  events.  discussed  study  greater  identity  l i f e  expected  consequently, -  of  evidence  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  one's  thus  the  sense  sense  some  of and  b e l i e f s  death  as  a  with  s i g n i f i c a n t  for  . them. who of  Similarly,  do  not  have  individuals  (commitment)  who  to  could  be  a  Whether  of  having  from  of  a  it  of  of  lack  individuals  different of  from  that  identity  contemplate  commitment);  or  death that,  discourages  relevant  the  of  e x i s t e n t i a l  to  insulation  less  because  sense  one  religious of  quite  feelings  empowers  sense  and  of  personal),  empirical  it  is  evidence  alternative.  identity the  status  effects  existential  other  and  both  one  makes  predict  with  moratoriums whether  commitments  case  (i.e.  which  synchrony  contemplation  the  either  analysis to  death  do.  such  contemplation  extent  of  therefore,  in  alternatively,  An  any  and,  (particularly  supporting  quality  insulates  uncertainty  d i f f i c u l t  the  67  domains  achievers  global  -  are  (death i.e.  and  help  in  determine  ideology)  whether  high  achievers  can  domain  both  death  the  is  in  global  contemplation,  foreclosures  are  high  and  in  death  acceptance. The in  order  effects, dependent  Identity  This of  effects  identity  to  determine  or  whether  variables  status  whether  either not  are  there  identity  expected  to  is  also  worthwhile  evidence  construct be  related  of  is to  to  explore  interaction  associated  with  it.  Domain  study  identity  death  of  -  w i l l  which  constructs  and  focus is  p a r t i c u l a r l y  expected  to  orientations  have  on  the  the  tested.  i d e o l o g i c a l  strongest  link  Interpersonal  domain with  identity  68 w i l l and  also  be  explored  as  a  because  of  its  attitudes  identity  and  r e l a t i v e l y identity present then  high  have  found  (Adams,  construct  expected  between  using  Bennion,  however,  ideological  commitment  because  e x i s t e n t i a l  component,  and  with  to  be  ideological  personal  In  sum,  to  the  may  the  logic  various  predictions  involving  relationships  Determinants  The predict identity  of  Death  questions death  are  to  it  the  an  is  the  and  interpersonal l i k e l y  to  be  explored  and  whether  It  lack  is  The  case  an  implicit  expected lack  of  of  this  ideological in  an  the  of of  for  e x p l i c i t  be  is  less  exploration:  as  associated  with  e x i s t e n t i a l  association  commitment  attitudes identity  here  certainty  ideology  to  the  with  attitudes  the of  t h i s ,  proposed  fear).  was  of  and  associated  with  ideological  u t i l i z e d  death  and  should  as  well.  exploration also  constructs  -  apply  here  are  also these  and  Identity  whether  predict  variables  that  i d e o l o g i c a l  variables  confound  to  although  weaker.  Constructs/Attitudes  be  support  interpersonal  ideological  constructs/attitudes  development,  the  the  strength  constructs  be  than  Regarding  linking  death  and  of  although  diminish  1989).  w i l l  because  exploration,  involvement,  component  the  articulated.  In  constructs  with  interpersonal  & Huh,  lower  death  association  associated is  of  instrument  commitment  negatively  p r e d i c t i o n ,  l i k e l y  the  'purposefulness'  (and  correlate  meaningfulness.  correlations  interpersonal  acceptance this  construct  been  study  that  death  the  possible  the  relationship  between  identity  and  death  constructs/attitudes.  70 METHOD  Subj e c t s  Recruitment  Young classes  adult  (3  family  intermediate Vancouver, in  these  response the  and  intention and  B.C.  also  rate  about  3  under.  75%.  they  This  because to  the  psychology  200  Six  did  on  an  age  of  155  respondents meet  was  set  the  were age  30  (Adams,  returned, not  of  for  included  the  adult  and  distributed  c r i t e r i o n  because  designed  and  Columbia,  were  were  adolescent/young was  undergraduate  B r i t i s h  questionnaires  not  E0M-EIS2  the  six  introductory  of  students.  c r i t e r i o n  focussing  from  University  interested  because  demographic  participated  majority  (79.9%)  female/male 54.4%  the  recruited  of  in  3 0  study's  population,  recommended  Bennion,  a  & Huh,  for  1989)  .  Characteristics  The who  of  up  and  Approximately to  individuals  Sample  at  classes  of  were  science  courses)  analyses  years  subjects  of  European;  ratio  the and  characteristics  in  this  of  the  in  sample 18.1%  study sample  the  were  classes  identified as  are  of  the  summarized, women  Of  the  in  of  young  Table  3.  as  Regarding Asian;  remaining  of  the  ethnicity,  9.4%  18.1%  adults The  (representative  selected).  themselves  Canadian.  sample  as of  the  • sample, as  one  members  of  i d e n t i f i e d of  subject  as  skewed mean  themselves  21.69  Post-secondary  mean  of  3.31  Most  of  the  sample  SE did  Skewness so  less  reported  was =  the  the  a  death  were  of  threatening  not  40.9%  once  a  death  pet;  i l l n e s s .  and  of  death  only  Argentinian),  compatible  study  (mostly  18 was 0  Skewness  to  28  -6  years; the  attended Lastly,  friend; 10.1%  a  was  a  =  .20) SD  =  skewed  of  p o s i t i v e l y  =  with  the  ever  the  a  1.98 with  a  years). attendance =  services;  member;  reported  system  (Skewness  religious  reported  the  most  categories  1.21  r e l i g i o u s  family 57%  with  but  distributed SD  79.2%  themselves  r a c i a l  years;  normally  p o s i t i v e l y  of  Age  SE  r e l i g i o u s :  never  a  (e.g.  not  .80,  from  month).  the  i d e n t i f i e d  etcetera).  from  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  experiencing  experiencing  =  education  (ranging  .20).  than  this  black,  (ranging  years).  years  in  several  groups  categories  (Skewness  years  d i s t r i b u t i o n  in  white,  d i s t r i b u t i o n  respond,  ethnic  u t i l i z e d  Caucasian,  of  not  different  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  such  did  71  .98, 29.5%  sample 18.1%  reported  experiencing  having  a  l i f e -  Table  3  Selected  Demographic  Characteristics  Variable  Gender Men Women Ethnic Id Asian European Canadian Other Missing Religious Involvement Never L e s s than once a month About once a month 2 o r 3 times a month Once a week More t h a n o n c e a week Death of a Friend No Yes Missing Death of a Pet No Yes Missing D e a t h o f a F a m i l y Member No Yes Illness No Yes Missing  n  %  30 119  20 . 1 79 . 9  81 14 27 26 1  54 9 18 17 0  .4 .4 . 1 . 4 . 7  61 44 4 9 14 17  40 29 2 6 9 11  . 9 . 5 . 7 . 0 .4 .4  121 27 1  81 .2 18 . 1 0 . 7  63 85 1  42 . 3 57 . 0 0 . 7  31 118  20 . 8 79 .2  133 15 1  89 . 3 10 . 1 0 . 7  Ideological Identity Status Diffused 64 Foreclosed 10 Moratorium 45 Achieved 30 Interpersonal Identity Status Diffused 22 Foreclosed 4 Moratorium 76 Achieved 46 Note.  n  =  149.  of  43 6 30 20  . 0 . 7 .2 . 1  14 2 51 30  . 8 . 7 . 0 . 9  Sample  73 Instruments  The  questionnaire  background  information,  instruments: assessing death  The  sections  Objective  Extended  of  64  as  the  item  is  rated  respondent's  identity by  dating  status  cut-off be  for  are  can  high  commitment  by  the  assessing  four the  separate other  identity  within  the  three  status  and  death  on  is  six  or  -  the  30, -  each  development.  the  Scores  (focussing  the  extent  for  each  status  by  on  domains.  is  exploration  four  represented  ideological  philosophical  content  overall  consists  within  r e f l e c t i n g  and  it  d i f f u s i o n s ,  interpersonal  commitment  are  to  p o l i t i c s ,  scale  (EOM-  Marcia's  statuses  recreation)  dichotomizing  individuals  14  disagreement. and  on  Status  identity  aged  r e l i g i o n ,  point  of  of  achievers  and  Identity  based  theory  and  Status  Ego  identity  and  obtained,  obtained  of  1989)  four  Levels  of  scales  individuals  roles, a  section  and  Identity  Measure  agreement  scores.  low)  on  status,  the  orientation) sex  a  including  order  Ego  Erikson's  focussing work  and  of  moratoriums,  and  friendship, Each  of  The  & Huh,  representing  subscales  l i f e s t y l e ,  section  of  counterbalanced.  Objective  measure  foreclosures, (with  was  Bennion,  a  items  -  -  Measure  operationalization Intended  a  orientations.  section  (Adams,  and  consisted  assessing identity  orientation  orientation  EIS2)  one  death  Extended  package  identity  of  determined (high  and  statuses:  foreclosures  and  74 achievers;  low  moratoriums; achievers;  commitment  high  and  individuals,  exploration  low  by  d i f f u s i o n s  individuals,  exploration  by  individuals,  and  moratoriums  and  d i f f u s i o n s  and  by  foreclosures. The status  disadvantages interview)  d i f f u s i o n &  Huh,  and  different greater bigger  and  (and  exploration  that  that  might  people).  samples),  Its  in  in the  r e l i a b i l i t y ) .  The  developed  validated  (Adams,  1993a). Bennion,  (and  demonstrating  to  correspondence  EIS in  and a  Marcia's  number  of  (e.g.  different  and  scoring  thus  it  can  and  avoids  in  be  questionnaire  1989),  and  predictive  is  the  assessing  estimates  indicate  there  are  v a l i d i t y  a  status  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Identity  Status  Interview  (Adams,  Bennion,  has  & Huh,  for  l i e  in  for  it  has  inter-rater  most  highly  identity high  status  consistency  large  number  1994).  between also  its  anonymously  that  of  to  and  (allowing  (Marcia,  in  studies  hand,  fact  problem  furthermore,  Bennion,  interview  completed  that  the  Adams,  meanings  administration that  between  commitment  other  fact  identity  well  an  the  R e l i a b i l i t y & Huh,  than  on  E0M-EIS2,  studies high  differences  effects),  items  an  1993a;  sensitive  advantages,  standardized  (Marcia,  less  to  d i s t i n g u i s h  (Marcia,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  experimenter  and  is  (compared  doesn't  statuses  it  have  scale  it  population)  convenience  (reducing  this  moratorium  1989),  individual  are  of  been  1989).  of  Moderate  the  EOM-  reported  75 Death  Attitude  The  Death  is  32  in  existential  orientations escape  are  by  the  personal  Profile  death: and  assessed with  authors meaning  an as  a  for  one's  model  of  death  be  feared  or  as  a  gateway  implies  a  to  view  Avoidance  was  independent  authors  have  v a l i d i t y  -  examination  of  r e l i a b i l i t y , (Wong, scale  as  have  e x p l i c i t l y  a  to  of  which  Fear  these  look  low  although alpha  (p.  of  a  was  a  to  the  (.65).  The  -  of  to death  existence. to  be  an  subscale.  devised, its  i t s  r e l i a b i l i t y  week very  not  acceptance  death  In  and  an  test-retest. good  neutral A  implies  view  promising.  four  to  three-  expected  on  is  "failure  123).  painful  of  death  l i f e  escape  quite  good  of  one's  implies  recently  and  fear  acceptance  part  of•analyses  evidenced  1994),  but  only  consistency  moderately  from  the  was  number  subscales  & Gesser,  grounded  acceptance,  authors'  Lastly,  defined,  instrument  the  Neutral  escape  related  internal  a  an  of  death"  acceptance  death  results  and  integral  of  the  Reker, did  Approach  conducted  the  natural,  a f t e r l i f e .  this  of  approach,  comprise  happy  dimension  Although  l i f e  a  not  Gesser,  different  approach Each  &  loosely  five  outcome  acceptance.  a  welcomed.  acceptance.  possible  component  is  avoidance,  existential  acceptance  death  explores  Reker,  independently.  of  that  (Wong,  instrument,  that  neutral  types  view  Revised  fear,  different  the  -  perspective,  accordance  defined  Revised  multidimensional  acceptance,  In  find  item  toward  orientations  -  Attitude  1994) an  a  Profile  r e l i a b i l i t y  acceptance  factor  analysis  of  76 items, the  and  five  item  an  assessment  dimensions  loads  of  primarily  of  subscale  this  on  to  scale one  correlations,  are  r e l a t i v e l y  dimension  at  a  indicated  that  independent.  level  of  at  Each  least  .40 . A scale.  number The  of  analyses  Fear  of  death  also  subscale,  strongly  related  Templer's  <  .001);  Neutral  acceptance  et  a l . ' s  (1976)  Indifference  .001);  and  approach  and  semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l  .59,  .001,  p  <  concurrent  -  fear,  more  young  people  this,  neutral  =  .21,  with  p  <  that  neutral -  being  as (r  p  was  p  <  .001, an  and  p  < be  .001);  with  (r  =  and .01).  found  to  (r  associated subscale were  =  (r  =  of  .27,  p  <  with  a  (r  Regarding age  acceptance In  addition  as  to  be  expected, p  <  Lastly,  .001)  escape  physical  was  physical  predicted,  (r  associated  acceptance  with  to  moderately  negatively  related as  and  less  than  predictions.  .21,  =  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  escape  p  Spilka  death  of  be  .61,  with  correlated  experience  moderately  not,  this  Scale  examination  negatively but  of  respectively).  more  found,  well-being,  -.20,  <  consistent  to  death  acceptance  acceptance,  (-.17,  was  Anxiety  moderately  individuals  acceptance  v a l i d i t y  example,  Death  from  .001)  extensively as  .42,  older  the  assessing evaluation  psychological  Although  (such  scale  to  for  toward  with  psychological  as  was  results  predicted, =  (1970)  escape  =  were  depression  found,  r  v a l i d i t y ,  differences  associated  and  attest  was well-  with  well-being. these  results  validated  Templer's  Death  as  are  promising,  certain  Anxiety  other  Scale).  the  DAP-R  death Its  has  attitude  advantages  not  been  scales l i e  in  its  77 multidimensionality  (not  theoretical  orientation,  properties.  Another  death  acceptance  underexplored, study  because  -  of  f o c u s s i n g on  and  in  advantage a  and  just  death  one  its  its  is  r e l a t i v e l y  its  attitude  that  is  fear),  focus that  p a r t i c u l a r l y  conceptual  good  on  has  s i m i l a r i t y  i t s  having  psychometric  different  types  d e f i n i t e l y  of  been  appropriate to  a  in  this  i d e o l o g i c a l  commitment.  D i c k s t e i n ' s  Death  Dickstein  defines  contemplation that  score.  of  a to  both  from  of  have  good  this  loaded  in  sample  of  items  these  construct  the  a 671  sample)  r e l i a b i l i t y  on  the  1972)  and  .  of  are  highly  the  to  analysis  (mean  good  all-female There  convergent  Klug  Death  is  and  Boss  163;  sample  was  v a l i d i t y  the  has  obtain  a  Scale  two  evidence  (Dickstein,  two global  study. to  this  done  with  has  been  on  four  shown  administrations  Test-retest  also  of  were  present  (1976),  r e l i a b i l i t i e s =  thus  corresponding  r=.85).  some  to  of  (above  also  scale  evaluation  contemplation  Concern  n  "conscious  however,  factor  S p l i t - h a l f  scale  were  by  a  This  purposes the  Factor)  negative  conscious  the  on  The  and  summed,  for  both  p.564).  representing scale  as  death  1972,  which  r e l i a b i l i t y . of  (Contemplation  concern  r e a l i t y  students.  female-only  construct  death  factor  administrations  (Dickstein,  Scale  (Dickstein,  Eight  extracted A l l  of  reality"  components,  Concern  good  (r=  of  the  1972)  .  .87). s c a l e ' s  on  78 Semantic  Differential  The items  semantic  representing  involvement, Fontana,  and Gold's  of  1140  Threat  Index  inductively studies,  interjudge 28  Repertory  Grids  T h e mean  for  this  to  a  -  coded  an  from  were  of  study,  constructs  43  adults.  because  of  low  of  derived  of  a  the  were  r e l i a b i l i t y  hundred  constructs.  In  undergraduates,  from  Three  the  Death  from  categories  Death  Attitude  categories  interjudge of  Neimeyer,  interjudge  two  of  personal  administration  several  agreement  consisted  Analysis  Nineteen  by  interjudge  taken  Content  series  r e l i a b i l i t y  study  purposefulness,  by  c l a s s i f y  this  manual  students.  and i n  completed  dropped  -  f o r  e l i c i t e d  categories,  subsequently  were  agreement  remaining  (below  categories  87.05%. Most  items  from  Neimeyer  make  a  It  Manual  college  u t i l i z e d  u t i l i z i n g  was  (1984)  derived,  were  f i n a l  38  for  perspective  constructs  to  created  constructs  The categories  sample  70%).  three  and temporal  Constructs.  the  d i f f e r e n t i a l  i s  few  i n et  Neimeyer One analysis content  et  however,  a l . ' s  death  analysis  constructs  (1984)  d i f f e r e n t i a l  manual,  modifications  drawback of  semantic  a l . ' s  minor  expected,  the  rather  that  intended of  the  than  the  semantic  it  i s  although  purposes new  meanings  constructs because  for  i t  of  conceptual  the  selected  of  i t  him or  i s the her  to  c l a r i t y .  deviate  from  constructs.  approach  less  to  the  conservative  respondent to  d i r e c t l y  was n e c e s s a r y  do not  d i f f e r e n t i a l that  taken  items  "provides"  requiring  were  generate  than  with h i s  or  her  79 own.  Constructs  i n d i v i d u a l ' s the  other  hand,  therefore,  reveal  It  more  which thus use  a of  could  f i r s t a  of  that  Lastly,  individual  these  death  constructs  a l l ,  less  as  that  time  it  can  is  salient  better to  approach  very  able  -  are  or to  are  p a r t i c u l a r  and  because  an  On  and, samples  and  respondent  the  degree  differences identity  approach  to  to  construct.  associated with such  a  assess  the  several  d i f f i c u l t  a  subtle,  has  bigger  prime  in  generated.  consuming,  Secondly, not  important  approach  u t i l i z e  constructs,  c o n c e i v a b l y be  be  d i f f e r e n t i a l  subscribes  sensitive  not  to  are  it  may  researcher  constructs.  more  as  semantic  enable  constructs  an  selected  system  the i s ,  can  a r t i c u l a t e .  are  belief  advantages.  examine  that  to It  is  in  the  status,  seems  warranted. To  improve  d i f f e r e n t i a l , were  A  of  on  items  item  version also  the  had  f i f t e e n on  to  "purpose"  a  ("personal  the  involvement")  expectation"  items  had  high  was  loading  semantic selected  the  items  psychometric  eliminated.  factors  factor. on  to  A l l the  f a c t o r i a l  (.30)  loadings  varimax  eliminated  its  Four  with  four  loadings  of  the  f i f t e e n  affected  predicted  factor.  high  the  yielded  because  high  on  of  analysis  however,  subscale  moderately  be  factor  their  ("meaningful"), of  to  items  had  v a l i d i t y  adversely  were  components  a l l  and  analyses  that  scale  loaded  representing One  items  p r i n c i p a l  conducted  r e l i a b i l i t y  s t a t i s t i c a l  conducted:  properties  Most  the  of on  on  to  the to  the  (see  Table  five  items  f i r s t  from  the  5).  factor. f i n a l  complexity:  the  five  rotation  it  t h i r d "temporal  second  factor.  One  80 item  ("prepared")  subscale  because  however,  the  factors  and  i t s  eliminated  f a c t o r i a l  had  higher  predicted  involvement"  factor  it";  of  item  than  "personal  was  4).  The  from  the  as  being  were  judged  this  p a r t i c u l a r  death  -  than  final  ("I  items  myself more  dying/can't  r e f l e c t i v e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n Eleven  items  expectation" subscale) of  these  internal  (4  thus  three  involvement", individual  had  an  on  affected  the  by  presence.  their  to  well  to  the  by  this  4  (factors care  because  about  they  d e f i n i t i o n  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of  with  3 from  me";  eliminated  response  3  were  intended  factor  The  case,  other  don't  subscale  the  this  this  factors  it/I  me/distant  affective  in  three  factor  personal by  -  of  representing  two  about  dying").  the  and  "purpose" 3  on  maintained  the  to  death  in  ("purpose" alpha was  this  internal  of  the  had  .72).  rather  "can  see  items than  6  provides  on  the  seem  one's  "temporal  involvement" version  of  an  alpha  of  .82;  The  alpha  of  "personal  or  a  moderate  the  have  low  subscale,  final  4  to  consistencies of  Table  subscale,  "personal  subscales proved  however,  items  myself  on  consistency  expectation"  as  items  of  version  it.  subcale,  were  one's  "close  one's  with  of  represented  see  of  -  f i n a l  representing  reflective  construct  the  The  care  version  less  on  represented  items  ("personal/impersonal";  Two  loadings  "concerned/unconcerned")  eliminated  the  complexity  factor.  were  two  from  (.50). on  the  their summary  None  of  other  to  the  two,  the  good  "temporal  respective of  scale.  adversely subscales  scale  alphas.  81 Table  4  Principal Constuct  Components Items  Analysis  (with  Varimax  Rotation)  of  Loading Item  Factor  1  (Purpose)  Factor  Factor  Factor  (Temporal Expectation)  (Personal Involvement)  Purposeful/ Purposeless  .81  10  . 14  - . 08  Necessary/ Unnecessary  .73  08  . 06  - . 13  Useful/Useless  .87  05  .01  Having a reason/Having no reason  .74  11  . 15  - . 09  . 04  63  . 04  - . 08  Predictable/ Unpredictable  .04  72  . 18  . 11  Has  warning/  .10  74  . 10  05  Has  no  . 03  06  Sudden/ Not sudden  . 02  warning  Foreseeable/ Unforeseeable  .06  Can see myself dying/Can't see myself dying  .19  06  .68  . 04  Personal/ Impersonal  .09  12  . 53  10  -.02  01  . 78  04  C l o s e to me/ Distant from  me  Death  82 Table  5  R e l i a b i l i t y  SubScale  Purpose  Analyses  of  Semantic  Alpha  .82  Personal Involvement  Temporal Expectation  .50  D i f f e r e n t i a l  Subscales  83 Procedure  Questionnaire interested objective  students of  opportunity were in  the to  instructed  which  p r i n c i p a l  packages  it  was  after  proposed  complete to  it  distributed,  distributed  preliminary  study.  the  return  researcher.  numerically.  a  were  questionnaire  or  to  to  the  o f f i c e  Questionnaires  classtime  explanation  Students  either  during  were  were on  of  given  their  mailbox  anonymous  general  the  own  professor or  the  to  of of and  time, the  and course  the were  coded  84 RESULTS  Missing  Data  For  the  most  d i s t r i b u t e d .  There  (representing scales. the  For  "death  cases,  of  the  a  cases,  no  friend",  and  identity  "religion"  attended.  mean  score  of  the  "N/A")  the  p o s s i b i l i t y  mentioned relevant  items  subscales)  and  ("I  of  one  attend  a  with  values  on  pet").  on  items  in  for  the control one  these  the  why."). the  found  tests  foreclosure  the  cases  church  may  have  from  in  no  i d e o l o g i c a l  same  items,  items:  three  was  my  As  were  family  was  the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  imputed. the  Because  above-  conducted  on  the  subscale;  moratorium, in  In  variable  subscale  items  score  "education",  on  and  the  variable  mean  inserted.  questioned  foreclosure, the  of  variable  item  on  given  item  r e l i a b i l i t y  (ideological  (two  subscale;  respondents  without  missing  was  was  randomly  values  the  independent  the  be  dependent  on  "death  r e a l l y  remainder  d i f f u s i o n ,  with  on  dependent  confusing,  subscales  interpersonal  never  of  variable  "dating"  that  on  from  given  a l l  imputed  "N/A")  subscale  I've  the  (or  was  missing  for  the  missing  analysis  one  to  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  cases  the  values  identity  (or  with  of  response  response  case  four  in  missing  interpersonal  always  were  on  the  was  appeared  five  items)  subscale  mean  of  cases,  u t i l i z e d  sample  Regarding four  the  values  total  these  There  items  a  different  of  of  value.  variable on  each  missing  were  five  remainder  missing  part,  question:  and no  achiever s i g n i f i c a n t  85 differences One had  a  in  Adams  of  that  respondents (1989)  -  it  approval)  Lastly,  randomly  item had  could  been  and  given  the  eliminated  Upon  not  have  this  the  item  of  a  much  was  on it  cases in  coin  became  in  (with were  two  case,  to Adams  means  where  each  E0M-EIS2)  sense  deleted  subscale  several  means  (#14  transcribed  respondent,  (by  item  made  incorrectly  also  found.  examination,  individual's  were by  were  subscale  values.  Consequently,  there  were  identity  missing  this  manual.  values  consistency  interpersonal  number  evident  internal  et  a l ' s  Gerald imputed.  adjacent one  value  was  f l i p ) .  Correlations  Correlations  Table  6  variables  found  to  be  equal  to  the  intercorrelations  modest.  number level,  l e v e l .  higher  appropriate  the  concept  than for  an  of  between  acceptance.  death a l l  Overall,  Because  between  the  dependent these  familywise  multiplied  the  significance  level  This the  order  to  resulted  in  traditional  exploratory  keep a .05  the  was  set 1  familywise  investigation  Table  but of  7  variables  error  by  Type  level,  dependent  correlations  correlations  in  a l l  contemplation.  of  correlations  acceptable -  death quite  signficance  .09  summarizes  intercorrelations  representing  of  DVs  representing  summarizes  sets  between  the at error  error  were  rate chosen .001 at  in  rate  sort.  both  an  considered this  is  of  p  =  86 Regarding conscious  the  death  contemplation  contemplation subscale  correlated  with  avoidance  correlated  with  personal  was  negatively  . 001)  p o s i t i v e l y  found  p  .001),  <  involvement  correlated  the  acceptance  .001),  and  fear  with  (.33,  personal  (-.49,  study:  fear  .30,  <  to was  .001)  acceptance  was  p  (.19,  <  acceptance  with  negatively  similar  p  death  correlated  escape  were  was  to  be  and p  D i c k s t e i n ' s  <  negatively p o s i t i v e l y  .001).  involvement  Avoidance (.33,  p  <  . Regarding  and  (-.27,  variables:  p  approach <  .001). found  and  neutral  with  Wong,  escape  with  and  (-.28, DAP-R  <  p  acceptance  p  <  .001), (.33, <  <  .001),  (1994)  acceptance .001); (.50,  p  variables  Gesser's  neutral  (-.47,  p  was  acceptance  between  Reker,  acceptance  with  (.37,  avoidance  correlated  approach  correlated  in  purpose  acceptance  Correlations  negatively and  .01),  correlated  those  subscales,  p  (-  approach <  .001)  .  Table  6  Correlations  1.  Avoidance  2.  Conscious Contemp,  between  1.  Death  Contemplation  00  1.  Variables  2V  .33-  00  33-  3. Personal Involvement  Note.  n  =  2 - t a i l e d  Table  1 . 00  149.  significance:  *  <  .001  7  Correlations  1.Approach Acceptance  2.Escape Acceptance  between  Death  1.  Acceptance  00  50*  4.  5.  -.47'  1.00  3.Fear  Neutral Acceptance Purpose  Note. n = 149. ns i n d i c a t e s nonsignificance 2 - t a i l e d signficance: * < .001  Variables  1.  ns  37  ns  ns  ns  00  .30'  .49  00  .33  1.  1 . 00  88 Correlations  In  order  correlation for of  between  to  the  reduce  matrix  covariates  DVs  of  that  dependent  and  the a l l  Several  were  the  because  death  they  of  identity  (dichotomized  correlations  were  significance  level  of  an  not  occurance  chosen,  variable  of  a  included  more  problematic.  that  of  pet"  and  <  .001)  .  variables  of  was  were  Because have  and this  not  1  in  not,  .01,  the  of  a  education  c l e a r l y  been  lower  with  ethnic  a  and  an not  that  a  error,  2  conducted  on  these  differentiated  100%  the  chance  level  was  high, as  the  should  have  would  be  variables  included  "education"  rather  that  distort  variable Type  81  uncorrelated  and  intercorrelated  was  a  signficance of  any  rejected  and  almost  would  redundant:  correlation  were  MANCOVA  Considering  were  were  the  analysis.  of  friend";  in  respondents).  was  any  v a r i a b l e s ) .  non-Asian  MANCOVAs  analyses  with  of  correlated  that  inclusion  because  summary  " i l l n e s s " ,  A  whereas  examined  uncorrelated  covariates  there  error.  the -  vs. this  conceivably  "death age  in  because  correlation  l i s t  variables  Type  a  a  was  dependent  Those  member",  at  or  for  and  variables,  variables  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Asian  analyses  but  this  not  set  covariate  been  a  a  8  as  variables.  to  was  Table  included  conducted  of  these  Pearson  not  family  however,  as  results  a  Control  covariates  orientation  "death  control  redundant  (see  were  include:  of  and  either  between  of  DVs  were  intercorrelations  analyses  number  measures  variables  Covariates  at and  from  "death  "age". r  =  The  .58  that  predictors  (p  these of  89 identity  status  redundant there with  is  for  1988),  the  more  death  purposes  extensive  attitudes  the  l a t t e r  multivariate Five  (Waterman,  control  involvement,  gender  covariate at  least  in one  not  variables  death  men  of  present  the  consistent  is  the  case  included  as  variables study.  evidence for a  were  judged  Considering that  age  education  variable  in  is  as that linked  (Neimeyer, the  analyses.  elimination:  between  these  and  than  was  1993),  and a  of  a  friend,  (which  women  thus  was  emerged death  included  respondents),  multivariate  associated  of  and  analysis  dependent  (or  from a  this  pet,  because age.  of  r e l i g i o u s of  Each  analyses)  variable.  process  the was  d i s p a r i t y entered  which  as  included  a  90 Table  8  Correlations  (two-tailed)  Between  Death  Control  Variables  and  DVs.  Constructs/Attitudes  Approach  Avoid  Contemplation  Escape  Fear  Neutral  Pers. Inv.  Purpose  Temp, Expect.  Age  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  .24*  ns  ns  ns  Death Fam. Member  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  ns  -.40**  ns  ns  Death Friend  .29**  Death Pet Educat  -.20* ns  -.25*  .26**  Ethnic Ident.  ns  Gender  ns  Illness  ns  Religious Involvement .68**  ns -.20* ns  -.22*  .26** ns  ns  Note. n = 149 ns i n d i c a t e s nonsignificance 2 - t a i l e d significance: * < .01;  .52**  **  <  .001.  .31**  ns  91 Interpersonal  Identity  Pearson  correlation  relationships associated  and  between  with  interpersonal acceptance.  Multivariate  Attitudes  analyses  were  interpersonal  death  and  significant  Analyses  of  the  conducted  exploration  contemplation;  commitment  No  Death  and  were  explore  and  between  variables  results  to  the  the  the  variables  variables  associated  with  of  death  found.  Covariance  Outliers  There residual than  were  value  four was  predicted.  dependent  values  was  The  -  and  four  The this  personal  o u t l i e r s , three  outlying  temporal  was  than  (approach  transformed  predicted. o u t l i e r  greater  variables  involvement,  multivariate  to  residuals  acceptance,  three  involvement  remedied,  Each  case by  where  deviations  represented  purpose,  standard  however,  cases  standard  expectation). be  or  of  the  above  four  outlying  deviations also  less  personal  these  was  the  a  less  than  univariate transformation.  Assumptions  For variable  each and  homogeneity  MANCOVA, each  of  interaction  covariate  regression.  were None  effects examined  of  the  between to  the  determine  results  were  independent the  s i g n i f i c a n t  at  92 the  .05  been  level  of  v i o l a t i o n s large  normality,  enough  a  to  (or  few  meets  the  cases  in  above  foreclosure  -  negatively square  root  create  a  which  and  This  this  assumption  the that  a l l  dispersion  was  skewed  [z  function)  matrices  the  and n  the  of  this  had  independent  but  has  moreover,  had  cause  less  for  sampling  10  seven  of  dependent  that  were  normal,  of was  p  =  normal  MANCOVAs, not  only  that  p o s i t i v e l y which  .00]),  was  were  that  of  in  in  the  the  means.  weakens  It them  variables  had  the  two  other [z  =  3.36,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  transformed  the  2 0  sizes.  cases  skewed  d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  confidence not  and  more  that  than  sample  d i s t r i b u t i o n  nine  or  The  confidence  it  sizes  is  more  only  the  variable  -  out  in  20  exploration".  unequal  is  sample  study  has  modest  size  about  only  commitment"  to  error  however  3.39,  were  for  analyses,  into  normality three  -  sample  in  expectation,  degree  an  robust  size  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  =  1984), has  is  the  freedom  "ideological  gives  of  temporal  greater  multivariate For  -  the  group  distributions  (avoidance .00]  fact  sample  is  when  of  sample  status",  normality  The  univariate  =  that  MANCOVA  F i d e l l ,  "ideological  smallest  sample.  &  149),  c r i t e r i a  invalidate  somewhat.  the =  identity  multivariate  p  (n  variable  their  degrees  smallest  While  large  "Ideological  not  the  DVs).  independent  20  (Tabachnick  if  s u f f i c i e n t l y  normality:  p a r t i c u l a r l y  produce  case  equal  with  multivariate  of  univariate  does  implying  met. Regarding  are  significance,  does,  (with  the  however,  assumption  of  violated.  multivariate significant:  tests  for  homogeneity  ideological  of  exploration  93 had  a  Boxs  M  of  1.61  had  a  Boxs  M  of  16.44  had  a  Boxs  status tests the  for  commitment  not  of  of  C  the  =  p  .74,  192.75  escape  because  .26,  =  .95);  p (F  = =  .80);  were  acceptance  as  .64,  p  univariate  =  p  =  also a  .01).  results  commitment  ideological  1.11,  variance  =  ideological  .18). not  identity  A l l  univariate  s i g n i f i c a n t ,  with  function  of  This  inconsequential,  for  was  i d e o l o g i c a l  escape  acceptance  were  s i g n i f i c a n t .  random  sample  revealed  no  Tabachnick should  the of  and  only  MANCOVA  of  linearity:  an  within-cell  (DVs  and  deviations  from  l i n e a r i t y .  F i d e l l  reduce  (1984),  power  of  data  of  minor  the  were  Covariates)  as  of  a  scatterplots  According  violations  MANCOVA.  deemed  examination  of  to  this  Therefore,  assumption  no  necessary.  Results  Multivariate effects  constructs  of and  conducted  status  assumption  gross  transformations  also  M of  (Cochrans  Regarding  the  =  (F  homogeneity  exception  however,  (F  on  death  Significant commitment ( P i l l a i s  =  ideological  analyses  of  ideological attitudes. to  assess  covariance  exploration An  the  constructs  (Pillais  =  .32,  1.79,  F  =  .12,  exploration  p  effects  ideological  was  of  to  on  examine death  MANCOVA  was  identity  attitudes.  = =  commitment  exploratory  effects  F  and  conducted  additional  and  multivariate  were  3.12, .01).  not  were p The  =  found .01)  for  and  identity  multivariate  significant  i d e o l o g i c a l  ( P i l l a i s  effect =  .03,  status for F  =  94 1.60,  p  =  .19)  .  Significant s i g n i f i c a n t of  9),  5.41, was  =  p  acceptance =  also  .02), found  commitment .06)  In  death  in  found  the  (F  p  =  =  6.41,  dependent lower  in  p  two  of  the  effects  attitudes higher  (see  levels  of  neutral  acceptance  (F  =  A  effect  variable on  and  reported  .01),  levels  the  analysis  constructs  commitment  7.20,  purpose the  were  .01). fear:  this  marginal  individuals  subscale  (F  =  =  high 3.61,  p  .  s i g n i f i c a n t =  =  evidenced  Regarding  (F  for  on  high (F  and  effects  analyses.  commitment  individuals  approach  in  multivariate  ideological  Table  univariate  3.70,  purpose  (F  conducted report 3.19, -2.78,  ideological  univariate p  =  =  2.96,  at  .01),  the  = p  .00), =  .01),  effects  personal p  .05  s i g n i f i c a n t l y p  identity  =  .04).  level higher  personal and  were  found  hoc  for (F  levels  of  (t  =  =  -2.97,  10):  2.72,  p  acceptance =  comparisons  showing  approach (t  Table approach  Scheffe  significance,  involvement  purpose  (see  involvement Post  of  status  .05),  and  were  achievers  acceptance  (t  to =  -  = p  =  .00)  than  d i f f u s i o n s .  Table  9  Death Construct Commitment  and A t t i t u d e  Means  as  a  Function  of  Ideological  Means  Variable  Low Commitment (n = 109)  High Commitment (N = 4 0 )  F ( l ,  142)  Significance  F  APPROACH ACCEPTANCE  44.96  50.06  7.20  .01  ESCAPE ACCEPTANCE  18.62  16.77  2.60  .11  FEAR  27.02  23.78  3.61  .06  NEUTRAL ACCEPTANCE  27.97  29.80  5.41  .02  PURPOSE  19.93  21.99  6.41  .01  3.23  3.15  0.54  .46  3.12  .01  TEMPORAL EXPECTATION* MULTIVARIATE Note.  *transformed  means.  96 Table  10  Death Construct Identity Status  and Attitude  Means  as  a  Function  of  Ideological  Means Variable  D i f f . (n=64)  APPROACH ACCEPT.  Fore. Mor. A c h . F(3,140) (n=10)(n=45)(n=30)  44 . 1 7 a  4 9 . 02  48 . 17  51 . 7 3 b  1 8 . 02  16 . 84  17 . 5 5  18 . 3 3  ESCAPE ACCEPT.  19 . 50  19 . 00  18 . 16  16 . 4 1  FEAR  28 . 2 1 a  23 . 8 9  24 . 5 1  NEUTRAL ACCEPT.  27 . 65  29 .34  PERSONAL INVOLVE.  14 . 3 8 a  PURPOSE  19 . 5 9 a  CONTEMPLATION  3  70  . 01  42  . 74  1  54  .20  23 . 2 4 b  2  40  . 07  28 . 3 6  29 . 4 5  1  67  . 18  14 . 2 2  15 . 08  16 . 3 1 b  2  72  20 . 6 8  20 . 73  22 . 6 3 b  2  -3  19  . 00  2  34  . 02  . 05  -2  78  . 01  96  . 04  -2  97  . 00  2  57  . 01  AVOID*  3 . 78  4 . 02  3 . 73  3 .46  1  15  .33  TEMPORAL * EXPECT.  3 . 23  3 . 56a  3 .22  3 . 00b  2  36  . 07  1  79  . 01  MULTIVARIATE Note. a & b Means s i g n i f i c a n t l y •transformed means.  Scheffe t S i g t  S i g . F  different,  97  Regression  Analyses  Another  exploratory  examination  of  relationships  variables  (death  r e l i g i o u s  involvement)  of  a  construct/attitude the  MANCOVA  between  between  friend, and  procedures)  were  were  demographic  this  of  Multiple examined  and  involved  to  to  pet,  age,  and  death  explore  gender,  the  (from  relationships l o g i s t i c  the  ideological  and  analyses  attitudes;  examine  the  (control)  regression  death  conducted  variables  a  identity  and  study  demographic  death  both  variables  analyses  of  between  variables.  demographic  regression  component  relationships  exploration  and  commitment. For  the  l o g i s t i c  association  between  exploration  (see  s i g n i f i c a n t : death  of  with  a  a  the  11),  religious  pet  five  Table  (R  =  between  commitment,  the  equation  demographic three  involvement  (R  The  model  level  of  .00.  regression the  model  five  =  variables  was  not  and  age  chi-square  equation  the ideological  variables  .24),  demographic  chi-square  assessing  predictor  .20).  l o g i s t i c  association  .34)  the  significance  For  regression  (R  emerged =  equalled  assessing variables  .12)  as  and  28.54,  the and  significant  ideological  (5.62  p  =  . Regarding  procedures found  to  "temporal  (see  be  the  regression  Tables  s i g n i f i c a n t .  expectation",  12  analyses  through With  a l l  the  19),  taken a l l  exception  univariate  from  the  MANCOVA  multivariate of  analyses  the were  tests  were  variable also  found  to  98 be  s i g n i f i c a n t .  were  Four  s i g n i f i c a n t l y Religious  predictor  of  .66),  escape  (Beta  =  .30),  s i g n i f i c a n t l y personal Age .21).  death  of  (Beta  and avoidance associated  death  with  personal  at  fear  -.19) .  conscious .18),  associated a  =  friend  one death  to  be  a  (Beta  (Beta  -.39),  to  (Beta  =.28).  a  =  purpose  (.26), =  acceptance be  (Beta  was  contemplation  was f o u n d  orientation  s i g n i f i c a n t  =  Gender  neutral  moreover,  acceptance  and avoidance  with  involvement  variables,  approach  .54),  (Beta  =  least  was f o u n d  =  with  (Beta  of  demographic  orientations:  acceptance  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  predictor  five  involvement  involvement  Lastly,  the  associated  variable.  five  of  -.18) . (Beta  s i g n i f i c a n t  =  Table  11  L o g i s t i c Regression Exploration  Dependent  Variable  Model  Demographic  "Ideological  Variables  Wald  Sig  .46 32 . 22 - . 03  . 87 9 . 90 5 . 08 . 00  .35 . 00 . 02 . 95  . 00 .20 . 12 . 00  .46 - 6 . 59  13 . 52 9 . 14  . 00 . 00  . 24  1.  Chi-Square  =  28.54,  df  =  on  Ideological  Exploration"  B  Variable DEATH/FRIEND DEATH/PET AGE GENDER RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT Constant  of  5,  R  Sig  =  .00,  n  =  149  Table  12  Multiple Regression Contemplation  Dependent  variable  Variable DEATH/FRIEND GENDER  2  RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT  F  (3,  Table  144)  =  Dependent  "Conscious  B  Beta  . 99 .67  .09 .26  . 12  . 05  3.40,  Variables  on  Conscious  Contemplation"  Significance  Regression  variable  t  F  Sig.  t  1.12 3 .19  .27 . 00  . 62  . 53  =  .01,  n  =  149  DEATH/FRIEND GENDER RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT  144)  =  -  4  of  Demographic  Beta  .26 .41  - . 11  - . 10  32 ,  Variables  on  Avoidance  "Avoidance"  B  Variable  (3,  Demographic  13  Multiple  F  of  t  Sig.  t  - . 18  -1 -2  33 28  . 18 . 02  - . 19  -2  32  . 02  Significance  F  =  . 00,  n  =  149  Table  14  Multiple Regressions Involvement  Dependent  variable  DEATH/FRIEND GENDER RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT  (3,  Table  144)  =  Personal  Significance  -.  58  =  . 00 ,  F  Sig.t  56 28  3 2  - . 05  Regressions  Dependent  variable  . 00 . 02 .57  n =  149  DEATH/PET AGE RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT  144)  - . 72 . 15 . 78  =  6.10  of  Demographic  Variables  on  Purpose  "Purpose"  B  Variable  (3,  t  .28 . 18  - . 08  on  Involvement  Beta  2.31 1.41  4 .38  Variables  15  Multiple  F  Demographic  Personal  B  Variable  F  of  Beta  t  Sig.  - . 08 . 06  - . 95 . 82  .34 .41  .30  3 . 72  .00  Significance  F  =  .00,  n  =  149  t  102 Table  16  Multiple Regression Acceptance  Dependent  V ar i a b l e  DEATH/PET AGE RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT  (3,  Table  144)  = 42  Dependent  t  .66  Significance  Regression  variable  DEATH/PET  . 90  AGE RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT  144)  =  of  F  Sig.  t  - . 36 - .48  . 71 . 64  10 . 60  . 00  =  Demographic  "Escape  B  Variable  (3,  Approach  .00,  n  ==  149  17  Multiple  F  on  Acceptance"  - . 02 - . 03  .23  .45  Variables  Beta  - . 64 - .21 5  Demographic  "Approach  B  Variable  F  of  on  Escape  Acceptance"  Beta  - . 10  . 06 - . 03  2 . 17  . 54  18.66  Variables  Significance  t  -  Sig.  . 84  .40  .40  .69  7.28  F  =  .00,  .00  n  =  149  t  Acceptance  103 Table  18  Multiple  Regression  Dependent  variable  Variable  (3,  Table  144)  - 2 . 15  -  t  on  Fear  Sig.  t  . 03 . 00  .35 - . 06  . 73 . 95  .39  - 4 . 89  . 00  Significance  Regression  Dependent  variable  DEATH/PET AGE RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT  144)  =  2.62  of  F  =  Demographic  "Neutral  B  Variable  (3,  Beta  . 54 - . 02  =9.12  Variables  .00,  n  =  149  19  Multiple  F  Demographic  "Fear"  B  DEATH/PET AGE RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT  F  of  Variables  on  Neutral  Acceptance"  t  Beta  Sig.  t  . 56 .43  . 07 .21  . 84 2 .65  .40 . 01  . 14  . 06  . 78  . 44  Significance  F  =  .05,  n  =  149  Acceptance  104 DISCUSSION  Exploration  Of  and  the  two  exploration death  case  of  a  status  hoc  achiever  and  there  however,  for  was was  that  a  main  of  across is  -  was  the  to  be  found  not  however,  identity  associated  not  with  moreover,  a  between  i d e o l o g i c a l  clear.  status  in  of  analysis,  or  is  identity  only  lack  difference  whether  associated  exploration,  this  however,  in  (and  ideological  predicted  statuses  variable  the  In  i d e o l o g i c a l  purpose,  effect  significant  effect,  and  ideological in  of  constructs  Despite  involvement.  variation this  death  multivariate  variable  a  effects  involvement  obtained  revealed  d i f f u s i o n  the  commitment.  was  one  the  personal  analysis  personal  scheffe  exploration that  the  result  -  on  s i g n i f i c a n t  in  MANCOVA  exploration post  of  ideological  s i g n i f i c a n t  assessing  commitment  orientations)  significance a  MANCOVAs,  and  respectively, the  Commitment  The  does  synchrony with  fact  suggest,  identity  development. It  should  consistency, was  not  could  perhaps  though  r e l a t i v e l y in  be  death  with a  that  this  unestablished  the  variables.  associated  This  noted  supported  established is  be  analyses  The  death  of  evidence  v a l i d i t y , related,  that  contemplation  consequence of  contemplation  is  variable  the  age  not  a  had and  seems  range  relevant  a  internal  result  that  psychometrically  ideological  thus  low  of  exploration  rather  the  weak.  sample:  component  of  105 identity  development  generally). hand,  have  analysis. two  The been  of  in  the  and  influenced  ideological  may  by  other  also  have  multivariate  i s ,  Like  -  as  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  fear,  more  not,  different  context  than  suggests  simple  is  fact  with  a  other  avoidance  The  that  than  other  the a  which  factors.  rather  than  1994),  correlated  the  exploration  more  with  more  on  complex  & Gesser,  by  s o c i a l  may  even  ideological  variable  negatively  a  less of be  ideological  to  death-related more  could  in  may  that  it  r e l i g i o u s is  a  behaviour  general  represent  (correlation  contemplation  =  integrate  The  it.  neutral  p o s i t i v e  .25,  p  fact  <  one  not  between  .01)  that  acceptance correlation  with there  and  choice  the  sense  of  context  on  In  the  terms  to  an  anxious  escape death was  a  come  mean  to  terms  of  an  goal  of  productive  escapist  acceptance than  negative (r  than  identity  the  or  rather  escape  Rather  quantity of  -  the  of  necessarily  contemplation  between  contemplation  for  attempts  focusses  do  conscious  exploration.  thoughts.  thoughts fact  in  which  simply  -  adequate  expected  extent scale  variable  than  preoccupation  a  a  Reker,  of  perhaps  represents  importance  the  contemplation,  and  the  religious  would  this  death,  between  for  example,  (Wong,  study  (or  variables  consequently,  analysis  with  and  for  number  been  -  -  dependent  nonsignificant  development  ones  adults  identity.  The  assessing  a  present  involvement more  and,  young  choices  correlated  determined  was  ideal  exploration.  moderately be  three  Avoidance,  variables,  lack  for  and an  attempt  to  c o r r e l a t i o n =  -.19,  acceptance  p  and  <  .05),  106 contemplation Whether  (r the  ideological  =  ideological  scales  certainly  cannot  involving  personal  needs  to  better  be  be  an  were  and  in  out.  in  three  of  construct  purpose)  -  and  variable  that  a  sense  associated  with  a  view  acceptable  -  a  bridge  the to  a  natural  aspect  independence be  other.  of  s i g n i f i c a n t l y Neutral  associated involvement This  -  or  does  of  a  was  of  weakly these  six  of  of  between be  conclusion of  the  supports  result  the  hypothesis  two  variables  -  using  variables  with  was  it  as  l i f e  (neutral  two  forms  correlated was,  approach  imply,  another  results  support  commitment  moreover,  acceptance  not -  the be  hence,  In  acceptance, but  death  (involving  acceptance)  acceptance).  purpose,  the  would  and  (approach  of  with  and  in  purposeful,  eternity  these  found  These  s i g n i f i c a n t (those  acceptance,  ideological death  commitment:  predictions  neutral  to  religious not  l a t t e r  studies  trend  of  acceptance  as  i n c l u s i o n  cannot  significance  the  "fear").  contention  as  the  association  involving  acceptance,  as  of  analysis  properties.  approach  dependent  claim.  multivariate  The  between  involving  the  a  contemplation  only  predictions  found  of  The  future  such  result  study.  association  the  the  a  death  this  in  of  lack  involvement  replicated  Regarding  supports  more  the  ruled  psychometric  results  was  than  answered  is  <.01)  nonsignificance  exploration  d e f i n i t i v e l y  there  p  exploration  inappropriate  that  .25,  support  both  not  and/or  so  were  found  with  each  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  with  religious  attitude. however,  that  there  is  no  of  s p i r i t u a l  107 component  to  as  do  most  It  implies  found  in  greater As  more  n a t u r a l i s t i c  current  l i f e  rather  In  sense  without  in  the  of  this  as  relevance  i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y ,  he  (i.e.  death  the  threats  value). variable high  of  motivation The  to  fact  scores,  however,  have  even  an  because  of  ideological neutral  neutral  acceptance death. the  -  one  r e f l e c t ,  t r a n s i t i o n .  meaning  promise  (1994),  of  that  is  is a  future  finding  acceptance  an to  adds,  that that  an  and'  was  probably  related  statuses could  higher  their  is  to  a  view.  acceptance  The is  p.  present".  Such  a  strengthened  by  have it  not is  could  be  even that to  sense  level  a  high  repeated  mean  maintain  investment between  of  of  such  a  of false  alarms  because  its  adaptive on  tendency.  this That  acceptance these  a  statuses -  perhaps  p a r t i c u l a r  two  contemplation  and  future,  and  belief  in  these  death  scores  neutral  individuals  of  of  widespread  higher  own  belief  (because  have  states,  remote  materialized),  low  or  13)  the  belonging  difference the  (1994,  also  denial  to  have  tendency  greater  Tomer  statuses  imply  reflect  is  their  their  this  may  it  of  event  that  a l l  As  however,  i n e v i t a b i l i t y  disconfirm  suggests  commitment  as  that  the  not  psychological well-being  introduction,  acknowledge  any  and  in  does  death  Gesser  acceptance  neutral  distancing  consider  and  of  view  than  concluded that of  view  it  fulfilment.  that  may  Reker,  physical  type  of  discussed  "people  Wong,  between  conceivable  s t i l l  fact,  a  that  the  adaptive  cognitive  just  instead  acceptance,  most  -  r e l i g i o n s ,  association  the  acceptance  traditional  one's  existence.  neutral  neutral  depictions  that  is  of  108 associated and  with  foreclosed  d i s s o l u t i o n insulation  from  differentiated  of  The  that  involvement  of  acceptance  difference  associated  associated  approach  along  a  the  with  between  with a  achieve  openness  sense  to  of  death.  the  adoption  reflect  acceptance  levels  representing  They  statuses:  versus  Higher  fact  them.  the  dimension  results  of  widespread this  was  acceptance  a  controlled  s p i r i t u a l  (Kastenbaum,  emerged  even  attests  also  be  contemplation/exploration  sincere  view  result  of  could  to  1986)  though the  quest, that  or  -  the  is  adaptive  r e l i g i o u s  pervasiveness  of  this  b e l i e f . A of  more  death  as  dogmatic, whether factor  personally a  t h e i s t i c ,  The  one's  with  toward  lower  levels  of  of  E g l i  Sterling  and  lower  levels  et  fear  that of  fear  amongst  (1994),  is  most  significant  lower  created  this  fear.  study,  identity),  it  should  view  rather  be  a  than -  secondary  could a  death.  result  and  is  be  more  There  not  who  was had  concurs  Witte  of  of  an  death  e x p l i c i t  implicit  sense  the  of  a  be  trend  high  and  in  identity  perspective  may  with  (1981),  determined  component  the  commitment  individuals  This  What  From  and/or  of  Woods  (1989).  to  the  r e l i g i o s i t y  ideological  commitment.  al  growth,  one's -  emphasize  change.  Horn  contributes  (religious  to  for  atheistic  Van  study  for  or  suggest  of  would  opportunity  also  levels  view  Ultimately,  agnostic,  ideological  findings  an  belief.  openness  results  associated  present  transition,  sectarian  to  contemplated  the that model  ideology  109 meaningfulness, expected  to  be  achievement. between 1989);  associated  Most  but  there  general  between  agency  (Neimeyer,  to  focus  of  the  on  styles which  of a  general  with of  death  results,  the  achievers' was  of  despite  the  domains' to  found  a  fear  to  be  acceptance, r e f l e c t i n g  research  gain  and  and  p o s s i b l y  Future  it  of  three of  paradox put  be  did  did,  be  w i l l  clearer  a  have picture  not  one  -  to  in  a  escape  this  an  the  the  anomaly  other way  alignment  in  with  the  univariate  s i g n i f i c a n t  appear  or  of  possible  perhaps  Whether  in  of  y i e l d  however,  concerning  negatively  somewhat  While  examined  forward  be  contrast  out  statuses  agency.  to  In  represents could  to  was  identity.  mean  have  hypothesis  expected  commitment,  variable  sense  w i l l  1972),  approach  these  variables.  domain  other  greater  of  was  domain  this  interesting the  local  which  achievement  s i g n i f i c a n t One  of  was  purpose,  Gesser,  a s s o c i a t i o n  control)  fear  be  and/or  &  Durlak,  of  would  relationships Reker,  (e.g.  locus  which  commitment  negative  study,  last  of  factor(s).  ideology  involving  a  fear as  a l l  (Wong,  orientation.  acceptance,  ideological  those  the  acceptance  death  of  (death)  ideological  analysis  from  -  effects  relevant  l i s t  and  present  with  -acceptance,  associated the  the  -  negative  fear  evidence  ideological  the  most  Escape  in  .• I n  acceptance  i m p l i c i t  and  purpose  associated  neutral  more  l i f e  shown  (operationalized  1988)  negatively  also  agency  ideological  has  ideologies is  and  with  research  r e l i g i o u s  between  and  s e l f - c e r t a i n t y ,  to  an  not  be  i n d i c a t i o n this  future  an  of  difference  a n a l y s i s .  acceptance  study,  d i s t i n c t  is  opposite  that one  110 could  be  generated  if  populations.  Escape  with  of  a  sense  psychosocial adaptation a  young  however,  another  that  religious  (r  .19,  p  evidence in  <  that  one's  of  are can  the  high as  a  in  on  sign  not  the of  of  unless  death  (Beta  associated  represent  just  a  =  with  he  or  she  in  was  ideological  integrated.  p  escape  meaningful  acceptance  perspective,  be  .56,  Erikson's  or  another  can  of  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  physical  adaptive  certain  inconsistent  escape  c o n s t r u c t i v i s t i c  which  to  perspective  levels  represents  acceptance  an may  theory  that  positive  older make  what  no  one's  l e t t i n g  age it  a  suggests more  should  resolution  commitment  =  .00)  The  and  purpose  acceptance  construction  is of  death  of  longer most  be  bracket. more  that  have  as  central  one  been  tie  For  relevant such  ages,  (Erikson,  c r i s i s  to  more  prominent  general  the  has  might  of  one  commitment  as  individuals,  aspect  of  one's  Erikson  the  identity.  commitments  1980).  i n t e g r i t y  If  one  accepts  describes versus  exclusively may  for  involve  to  despair  l i f e .  the  a  act  At  this  of  go.  Such similar  way  necessarily  From  involvement  increasingly  as  stage,  of  of  l i f e  Erikson's  l i f e  it  type  individuals  become  more  not  administered  l i f e .  This  pains  .01)  -  (i.e.  a  were  emphasis  viewed  acceptance  fact =  its  demands be  is  l i f e .  with  From  escape -  in  i l l - h e a l t h  i l l ) .  commitment  -  would  psychological terminally  purpose  s o c i a l  adult  scales  acceptance  theory  to  these  a  commitment  existential  may  also  situation,  be in  relevant terms  of  to  young  physical  people health,  in as  a  I l l older  i n d i v i d u a l s .  involving being <  young  tended  .01).  individuals acceptance r e f l e c t  a  adults  to  While  Results  have  this  i n does  higher  does  from  finding  a  Reker,  that  escape  & Gesser's  those  lacking  acceptance  not  ideological  seem,  way o f  Wong,  indicated  result  low  of  appear  commitment  to  integrity  i n  scores be  one's  study  physical (r  =  well  -.26,  generalizable  statuses,  constructivist  (1994)  to  escape  perspective, l i f e  p  i n  to  d i f f i c u l t  circumstances. The  death  p a r t i c u l a r l y  construct associated  considered  on  associated  with  status  i t s  suggesting  appeared  orientation  than  the  findings  foreclosures) this  result  lifepath death (than their  as  predictable f i t s  foreclosures, temporal  comparable  to  a  found  to  be  found  i n  the  trend  possible i n  a  for  more  the In  that  -  that  events  i n  Post  hoc  of  light  of  Rappaport (and  not  death,  the  et  imply,  however,  seem  them,  p r e d i c t a b i l i t y .  and  a l ' s  others,  one may v i e w  integrated for  status  and  p a r t i c u l a r l y  than  Achievers  have  Scheffes  achiever  achiever  Because  identity  temporal  of  does  to  identity  means  orientation  be  was  effect:  means  statuses  view.  particularly)  the  to  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  long-term  between  future  into  interaction  foreclosures.  and l i n e a r  l i f e  was  surprising.  perspective other  was n o t  commitment  of  somewhat  n e c e s s a r i l y  attitudes,  combined.  high  expected  death  and between  h a d more  was  a  case  statuses that  a  not  the  differences  statuses,  three  it  result  was t h e  s i g n i f i c a n t  other  (1985)  to  expectation,  any of  own. While  achievement  foreclosure  with  commitment,  analysis  revealed  temporal  i s  more death more  one's that l i k e l y into  112 Identity  Status  The  results  s i g n i f i c a n t analyses  (and  that  diminish  the  was  no  have  evidence  foreclosures low (n  10)  of  c e l l was  were to  death  a  of  death in  statuses  is  the  perhaps  group,  This  was  in  the  exploration however, analyses  the an  number  been  higher  issue of and  among  does  an  t  for  The  the  necessary  to  moratoriums,  respondents d i f f u s i o n  in  may  fact  that  scores  than  small  sample  reach however  the  c e l l s .  diffusions  there  there  different to  -  interaction  means,  due  not  commitment.  expectation).  have  and  uncertain  of  three  represent  or  of  in  -  moratorium  Whether  toward  more  hypothesis  that  there negative  uncertain.  identity that  does  lags might  not  as  relevant  prime  of  their of  achievers  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and  d i f f u s i o n s  interaction  differences  well  revealing  foreclosures)  temporal  achiever  research  because  the  may  tendency  is  why  of  not  comparable  future  reasons  the  evidence  greater  e x i s t e n t i a l  on  of  not  attitudes If  any  did  those  thus  i s ,  case  this  a  based  effects  the  significance. there  in  of  -  and  between  and  effects  in  commitment =  achievers  such  tests  achievers  exploration-commitment  enhances  one  scheffe  difference  between  an  hoc  between  marginal  (although,  been  post  independent  clear  effect  a  and  evidence  it  the  differences  d i f f u s i o n s ,  Whether  of  a  support  behind  other  domains,  be  case:  perhaps  or  the as  physical lack  the  of  immediate health  personal  a  there simply  concern  (Noppe  to  & Noppe,  experience  with  are  a  number  because young 1991); death;  adults  113 perhaps  because  defenses lack  have  of  it  is  been  s o c i a l  not  deeply  explored  established;  support  for  or  such  until  adequate  ego  perhaps,  because  there  is  exploration  amongst  younger  a  populations. Although d i f f u s i o n three  the  another),  there for  being is  between  of  converge  death  of  tendency ratings  reflect no  evidence  implicit E0M-EIS2.  results.  that  Such  different whether  than  the  death  ideology,  or  views.  It  diffusion  domain,  and  other  foreclosure  results  personal  each  was  in  in  more of  either  statuses  as  well.  differences achievers'  a l l  toward  statuses  statuses  d i f f u s i o n s '  in  other  consist  tendency  that  ideological  views  and/or  would  represent  be  and  different  status  diffusions'  and  from  significant  could  that  n i h i l i s t i c  either  evidence  status  tend  in  the  greater  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  lower  involvement.  Identity  absence "its  the  acceptance  Interpersonal  The  evidence  (and  d i f f u s i o n  towards of  marginally  no  the  achiever  analyses  and  upon  that  different  was  normative  ideology  indicated  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  uncertain  achieved  development  to  were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  thus  rejection  scheffes  univariate  responsible  It  hoc  statuses  of  status  post  lack in  of of  the  component  significant an  e x p l i c i t  present of  results  the  study  in  existential that  this  domain  component.  existential  interpersonal  identity  l i k e l y There  identity domain  of  was  was the  an  114 Although couple of  of  this  than  there  points  study  were  should  was  the  no be  significant considered.  local  domain  of  that  of  interpersonal  identity.  construct  to  interpersonal  identity  "connection", Individuals formed death  an as  was,  with  ideology more  effects  death,  identity.  of  conjunction  of  with  in  ideological  terms  identity, least  research  this  i s  the  identity  a  focus  rather  death  content,  f o r  this  who h a v e have,  study. not  yet  however,  lacking  could  domain,  that  relevant of  devised  individuals  Future  interpersonal  f i r s t  The most  may a t  than  The  f o r  ideological  not  interpersonal  'connected'  interpersonal the  consequently,  an  results  separately  identity,  on t h i s  view  of  an  focus  identity,  a  on  examining  and  and  i n  related  variables. Westman be  and Cantor's  associated  present  with  study.  assessed  by  of  extended  self  could  also  sense  of  fear  of  could  indicate  E0M-EIS2  i n  fear  terms  does  of  that  not  empathic  connection  may be  of  death  of  other  death,  aspects,  others.  Hoelter's  of  (1979)  with  A multidimensional  be  i n  there  were  no  significant  results  sense  others.  of  It  while  with  a  lower with  death,  death  fear  examining  this  p o s s i b i l i t y . While  a  associated  measure  i s  the  consequences of  useful  self,  commitment  fear:  associated  the  be  i n  reflect  variable  may a l s o  as  MFODS m i g h t  supported  interpersonal  the  it  such  extended  connection  interpersonal aspects  an  necessarily  of  certain  that  was n o t  complexity  or  as  death  finding  the  fear  such  the  reflect  higher the  lower  This  as  (1985)  involving  115 interpersonal variable  "death  associated fact  identity,  that  with  view  death  an  integration of  "death". of  an  a  personal  a  i n  more  of  interesting was  i s  to  (Beta  who h a v e  experienced  personal  terms  supports  a s s o c i a t i o n between  to be =  note  that  .31,  such  suggests  p  that  =  .00).  i t  may  The  as  a  tend reflect  identity:  and L e i t n e r ' s  bereavement  control  bereavement  and experienced  Meshot  the  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and interpersonal  internalized  result  found  involvement  existential  friend  This  i s  friend"  individuals  to  death  of  it  that  the  personal  (1994)  and i n t e r p e r s o n a l  finding death  integration.  Determinants  of  Religious exploration different a  friend  and death of  but  finding as  Threat  Index,  a  assessed  and age were  bereavement  not of  with  the  death  of  exploration  i n  negatively  correlated  variable  regression with  a  each.  would  but  any death  not  analyses  of  a  with  of  L e i t n e r ' s  Grid  but  was  death  not  of  the i n  associated or a  pet  Considering  r e l i g i o u s  and  identity  attitudes  acceptance).  Death  bereavement  pet  (although  correlated  and  predict  Death  although  personal  between  domain.  approach  was n e g a t i v e l y  with  Repertory  friend  i d e o l o g i c a l  well,  c o n s i d e r i n g Meshot  Interpersonal  of as  construct  relationship  constructs  this  the  death  negative by  was  associated  -  perhaps  ideological  Bereavement  were  the  predictive  identity  interpersonal-existential  with  Identity'  attitudes.  was a s s o c i a t e d  threat  an  involvement  types  involvement (1994)  ' E x i s t e n t i a l  was  that  116 involvement, motivation  perhaps  to  a  explore and  interpersonal  identity.  of  identity  per  be  associated  representatives  question  whether se  explored  Future  means  death  gender  was  variables,  Because of  is  these  may  more  but  not  future  research.  global  one's  with  ideological  variables  may  not  be  however,  predictive  or  increase  associated  contemplation,  ideological  distinctiveness  warrants  The  might  commitment  and  univariate  analyses  s i g n i f i c a n t  analyses  If  be  the  have from  an  of  the  the  In  of  or the  the  e x i s t e n t i a l  identity  three  or of  approach  that  on  in  w i l l  have  to  of  are  each  could  an the  or  escape means  statuses used,  a  and  that  examination five  MANCOVA  variable  help  of  suggest  these than  s i g n i f i c a n t that  revealed  d i f f u s i o n  combined,  achievement  effects  study  achievement  other  the  d i f f u s i o n  constructs  to  acceptance,  and  death  status  statuses  the  of  such  addition  exploration  effects  achiever  current  identity  neutral  and  the  between  means  the  examination  applicable  d i f f u s i o n the  determine -  in  other  commitment  together  more  of  d i f f u s i o n  exploration.  (involving  different  and  differences  of  avoidance)  future  results  constructs  means  a  achievement  orientations.  could  Gender  than  apparent  ideological  the  r e l i g i o s i t y  Research  The status  in  of  meaning.  contemplation  ideal  lack  several  means  and  other  acceptance,  and  that  to  appear  be  combined. two-way  MANCOVA  independently  determine  whether  and either  117 variable the  is  a  effects  Because  the  d i s t i n c t MANCOVA  as  better  compared  thus  be  identity  in  an  is  more  a  predicted  the  variable,  interaction did  both  not be  dependent  ideology  or  whether  between  prove  to  included  variables  be  in  the  two.  as  a  two  used  in  way the  Future  in  dimensions  be  to  age  -  age)  results  groups  than  between  synchrony  ranges  for  stages  between  for  could  issue  may  death  predicted  in  lifespan  synchrony  with and  different  the test  be  in  could the  indicate  younger and  general  individuals  This  of  identity  on  some  present versions  of  study of  would  model the  developed of  be  -  on  who  useful  death  attitudes.  the  death  ideology  these  connected  dimensions.  explore  have  for  the  local -  some current  domains  alone  or  corresponding  on  (e.g.  to  generative)  domain  could  be  effects  interpersonal,  ideological  attitudes.  focus the  the  direction  of  could  agentic,  effects  also  old  greater  future  research  (e.g.  conjunction  implicit  (midlife  these  also  potential  untested  constructs  in  domains  not  different  Individuals  synchrony  could  is  bereavement.  Another  identity  identity for  domain  adults,  evidence  greater  domains  experienced  young  central  effects A  ideology  analysis.  to  death  individuals.  as  could  death  for  such  main  tested  of  the  domains  stronger  could  constructs  they  most  that  and  study.  an  predicted,  death  the  on  two  ideology  of  dependent  death  study.  other  which  each  more  Assuming with  of  are  involving  current  predictor  in  more  research  dimensions  acceptance),  in  death  assessing Future  of  not as  well  118 The model  theme  to  be  of  continuity  represented  acceptance.  A  measure  attitude.  The  construct  'temporal  nevertheless of  such  a  result  offer  -  p a r t i c u l a r  The  theme  of  the  death  ideology  l e v e l s ,  scale  sense  greater  feeling  Coping  with  properties p a r t i c u l a r l y a  more  higher  agentic  greater  a  experience  Death  Scale,  (Robbins, captures  integrated  such  over  1994), the  is  face  to  have  one  second of  understanding  of  or  be  of  a  a  in  from  very  of  death's  have  a  high  variable:  translate that  one  Bugen's  into  interpersonal  identity:  the  a  (1980-81)  psychometric measure  viewpoints terms  most  a  can  of  -  that r e f l e c t i n g  s e l f -  e f f i c a c y . Regarding  in  or  sense  this  sense  death.  in  involve.  range  who  in  than  represented  or  should  established  death  an  rather  b e l i e f  adequate  these  -  'competence' could  a  creation  should  might  to  higher  l i f e  the  l i f e  Individuals  death,  the  shown  model  this• death  continuity  that  r e f l e c t i n g  for  does  for  orientation  score  -  the dying  the  items  one's  variables  everyday  in  of  constructs  should  control  its  what  the  preventability.  in  marginal  in  by  devised  involving  in  of  in  levels,  control of  process  the  domain  j u s t i f i c a t i o n  f a t a l i s t i c  identity  of  while  notion  measuring  and/or  one's  a  by  study  construct  proposed  r e f l e c t i n g  -  been  constructed, the  as  domain  manageability  maximize  with  is  to  of  is  preconceived  helplessness,  sense  present  proposed  ideology  however,  empirical  one  example,  death  not,  the  death  agency  A  the  for  expectation'  If  of  any  low  in  consistent  acknowledgement  "control".  has  some  measure.  emphasize  in  i s ,  relevant  death  119 attitude  to  this  not  included  not  yet  in  of  dimension  of  self death  that  happens  (if  theme, not  variable or  but,  could  a  probably  more  than  p a r t i c u l a r l y adults. young  While  w i l l  expected  a  with  God  measure,  or  the  a  individual  could  be  more  as  or  higher who  w i l l  of an  a  tend  to  something  sectarian  death  new of  identity. as  -  a  and  of  one's  personal  relevant  for  type  of  personal  it  is  more  As  discussed  relevant  central in  the  focus  in  in  This  and  someone is  older  adolescence  midlife  introduction,  who  are  with  death.  middle-aged theme  those  transition-  their  a  legacy,  individuals  beyond  is  growth  interesting  Such  for  that  'glorious  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  case  by  either  their  the  of  individuals  reflected  in  some  explored  representative  experience  terms  death  is  f u l l y  of  be  was  deceased,  conception)  p a r t i c u l a r l y  because  generativity  1990).  is  view  to  that  believes as  in  generative  endure  or  an  a  -  involving  relationships  somewhat  as  one  or  acceptance  adulthood,  (McAdams,  death  1980)  Such  as  l i v i n g  that  her  view  viewed  ending  or  is  be  to  death  Approach acceptance  not  of  study.  communion  that  or  l i k e l y  an  that  theme  Whether  sense  of  acceptance  relationship.  view  can  of  either  into  particular  (Rogers,  evidence  a  s t i l l  Transition  thing  to  present  view  his  integrated and  the  death  experience  of  connected  feasible  nevertheless,  hold  a f t e r l i f e ' ,  or  is  a  seems  acceptance.  evolution.  rather  It  -  the  experience  existential  t r a n s i t i o n  do  it  of  friends,  context  within  Another  this  the  the  identity  reflect  and/or  reality.  in  view  who  as  of  analyses  would  family  alternatively,  is  the  devised,  presence  views  domain  one  and  and  later  established  120 variable  that  construct  of  acceptance symbolic extent  response  (not  the  death...that of  potented,  sense  b i o s o c i a l the  other  theme  works  creation).  symbolically  live  An  alternative  analyze  constructs  approach  questions  about  respondent approach  could  constructs  i n  are  a  peak  sense  the  death h i s  represent actually  or a  i s (a  what sense  with  p.  means her more  being  an  analysis the  Of  relevance (1990)  and  by  an  creative  one's  approach  oral  measure  one's  work. used  open-ended of  to  one can  or  one.  to Such  written  Because  constructs,  conservative  refers  though  d i e , or  to  transcendence  respondent.  own d e a t h  u t i l i z e d  s p i r i t u a l  death  d i f f e r e n t i a l  to  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  through  Drolet  d u a l i s t i c  Symbolic  transcendence  i s  Drolet  f u l l y  through  descendants  content  be  and culture)  study  the  of  the  149).  one may p e r s o n a l l y one's  death.  r e a l i t y  to  of  of  anticipatory  experiences.  semantic  a  or  death  current  involve  ways:  family of  i s ,  t r a n s i t i o n  assessing  over  deal  1990,  nature;  with  the  that  number  of  of  individual  or  on through  what  of  the  measure  frightening  (Drolet,  Although  generates  might  the  immortality  to  (1990)  "an adaptive  generativity  (a  in  as  condition,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  immortality  Drolet's  and often  types  symbolic  attitude  self  work,  of  and the  with  transcendence  beings"  culture,  associated  measure  help  can manifest  or  i s  be  multidimensional  enigmatic  finite  to  growth  immortality  symbolic  an  of  yet  identity  of  a  existential  family,  though  -  the  attainments  as  or  devised)  can best  immortality  the  yet  symbolic to  expected  evolution  one's  describes  with  be  immortality  of  nature  would  the  this of  individual  what -  although  121 differences be a  lost. more  more  in  the  degree  Given  the  results  integrated  of  the  Such getting  a  i n d i v i d u a l ' s exploration identity themes  One the  goal  factor  of  index  of  and  in  the  of  that  a  in  from of  value  is  that  that which  death. in  context  the of  between  integrated  and  predict  death-relevant  was  focus  -  a  allowing  is  or  lay  could  reflects  This  would,  context research  the  of -  A  the  One  it  behaviours.  (or  combining into  such  that  themes  acceptance,  and  measures  of  a  index  single advantage  death  might  a  two  of death  integrated  give  in  of  of  as  genuinely  it,  number  s u p e r f i c i a l  or  for  scored  significant  more  a  unique  could  counselling  constricted  •  foundations  consequently,  given  each  analyzing  scale  distinguish a  deeper for  different  exploration  statuses. it  -  an  a  in  in  (1990).  that  identity  than  of  manifest  introduction.  scale  having  evidence  effective  approach  to  on  model  context  that  P o l l i o  the  contemplation four  death  be  multidimensional  would  such  of  an  the  also  narrative  such  probably  would  statuses.  of  study  existential  Marcia's  understanding p r a c t i c a l  present  of  instrument  acceptance  and  discussed  feature  p a r a l l e l i n g an  in  of  subscribed achievers,  would  identity could  is  study,  death,  themes  of  Ross  construct  others)  approach  example  the  scales)  acceptance  and  found  ideology  important  An  of  other  existential  a  present  (and  meanings  development  individual  such  the  be  future  death  personal of  the  understanding  status.  can  by  qualitative  better  of  constructs  represented a  which  understanding  eight  individuals  to  it  more  education,  differentiating better  122 An  alternative  construction Items  of  from  such  the  a  scale  much.  a  either  variables  could  identity.  What  i n d i v i d u a l ' s what  more  generic could  subscale  subscale  very If  a  r e l i g i o n  d i f f u s i o n death  of  p o s s i b i l i t y  might,  It  is  death be  be:  to  scale  predictors  integration  of  death,  to  associations  personality,  behaviours),  and  cognitive,  experiential  An "I  of are  such  the  item  E0M-EIS2. of  on  don't  devised,  particular  do  the  those the  think  about  me".  is  and  to  be  modifications  in  demographic,  be  on  E0M-EIS2.  important  as  could  similar  example,  ideology  tested  above  variables  conditions  could  based the  for  not  the  scale,  be of  to  this  variety  aspect  associated what  exist?  A  whole  (e.g.  and  range  (e.g.  peak  of  of with  extent,  behavioural  variables  a  an under of  h i g h - r i s k  experiences)  explored.  Limitations  There sample, of  the  are  the  the  analyses. were  target  in  the  been  are  area  shown  of  of  the  volunteers, of  f i r s t and  family  attitudes by  of  may  v a l i d i t y  influenced  in  s t a t i s t i c a l  representative  death be  limitations  sample,  External  not  to  The  population  undergraduates. students  number  instruments,  respondents of  a  of and  this  approach,  a l l , not  was  have  science is  also  a l l  an  identity  regarding  and  the  nonrandom been  and  young  education  study  the  depth  -  representative  psychology  issue: adults,  u n i v e r s i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y  status,  which  (Neimeyer,  1988;  have  123 Waterman,  1993).  screened  for  purposes  of  identity  section  under  Another  married the  t h i r t y  problem  individuals  present was  years  was  study  age.  respondents  were  married,  considering  that  no  who  because  designed  of  -  for  It  is  not  were  the  were the  single  although  results  that  E0M-EIS2  in  the  for  and  whether  rather  not the  interpersonal  adolescents  is  found  was  unsuitable  certain  it  sample  adults  any  inconsequential interpersonal  domain. A  more  the  target  and  young  the  case  1994). one's  lack  ideology  even  to if  be  Perhaps  Two proved  to  control be  Because  the  of  that  a  to  involved  a  close  by  vast  Wong,  this  adolescents  of  &  Gesser, of  finding  r e l a t i v e of  other  sophisticated  been  p a r t i c u l a r l y  stage  most  of  is  the  a  aspects  adolescents  demands  and  number  to  concerned  Reker,  normative  during  express  have  This  than  additional  variables  family  (e.g.  study  relevant  adults.  identity,  l i k e l y  would  the  older  gender  present  less  immediate  explored  been  the  much  experience  problematic.  member'. loss  and  for  in  acceptance  less  analysis had  is to  more  able  support  participants  is  death  deeply are  it  the  path of  death  death  seems  they  theoretical of  than  regarding  and  domains  it.  adults  vocational  death  limitation  population:  Considering  health  -  significant  and  l i f e , content  young  thoughts  the  good  adults  about  present  obtained  if  an  included  in  the  older  sample  employed. that One  were was  majority  member  -  relative  and was  the of the  variable  'death  respondents proportion  unknown  -  questionnaire  had of  of  a  experienced  these  however,  family  this  losses  124 variable  should  member'.  As  to  have  had  ' i l l n e s s exclude  loved -  was  and  in  for  involvement univariate  contemplation represented Such to  a  which  one  frequency measure, not  of  Two  of  quite  not,  as  concept  study  did  The  low  (alpha  these  study  not,  for  =  for  their  relevant  involve  example, of  and  have  convergent and  expectation,  consistency of  .50).  the  purpose,  temporal  personal  Unsupported  variables  thus  need  instruments,  discussed  above,  the  scale  have  to  be  depicted  s h o u l d more  appropriately  have  one's  to  come  thoughts intended  existential scales  to  on as  terms  the a  with  subject. component  of  in  the  assessed  death,  death  model.  the  rather  D i c k s t e i n ' s of  conscious  adequately  contemplation  this  not  d i f f e r e n t i a l  evidence  internal  did  bereavement.  involvement  v a l i d i t y  it  semantic  was  broad  variable,  the  of  attempts  the  study.  established  o r i g i n a l l y  reflect  three  too  following)  whether  present  there  construct  (or  of  family  probably  control  of  The  close  because  known  the  a  caution.  may  measure  to  personal  involving  the  the  Another  result  of  of  was  experience  this  for  'death  deleted  a  although  this  results  Regarding  as  the  in  -  also  with  be  u t i l i z e d .  use  of  of  was  interpreted  or  v a l i d i t y  results  data.  to  died  to  variable  impossible  were  evidence  the  limitations  v a l i d i t y  construct  the  of  that  devised  marginal  who it  this  had  i l l n e s s  set  established  on  one',  one's  the  changed  written,  making  instruments  been  impact  loved  Another  scales  was  any  of  i l l n e s s e s factor  it  have  extent than  (1972)  concern,  objective.  u t i l i z e d  in  the  present  study  are  the  also  does  125 somewhat  limited  subscale  of  Christian, not  in  approach western  p a r t i c u l a r l y  anticipate  EIS2, and  this  scale  respondents practice  on  in  domain  parents  conceivably in  such  more  a  what's  One  could  s t i l l  blatant  appropriate  those A  such  may  a  Judeo-  general  viewpoint  is  p o s i t i v e l y  sectarian  following  more a  who  view  r e l i g i o n s  approach  might  its  frequent  religious  present use  of  have  been  single-parent  religious the of  best  a  more  for  base the  me  is  one's  -  seem  to  younger  term  EOM-  'parents'  (e.g.  that  some  families  it  and/or  may  p a r t i c u l a r l y u n i v e r s i t y  lack  sophisticated  the  how  identity  on  parental  such  as  adolescents  the  not  to  choose  (e.g.  views,  above  u n i v e r s i t y  "My  my  acknowledge  example  than  the  students.  population  of  to  in  necessary  terms  sophistication Items  that  undergraduate  in  the  paths.  foreclosures  items  the  acknowledge  E0M-EIS2  amongst  study,  i n s t i t u t i o n s  from  manner. for  the  come  for  have  in  to  about  -  used  seem  representative  know  as  the  DAP-R  consequently,  not  number  appropriate  friends").  do  fact  interpersonal  subtlety  in  western  concern  the  (such  to  The  emphasizes  and,  individuals  adhere  scale  bias  the  of  example,  groups.  u t i l i z e d .  underestimate  Some  across  a f t e r l i f e ,  world).  alternative  Another  for  for  imposing  authors  may  the  not  status  emphasis It  do  this  not  r e f l e c t s  "church").  of  scale  in  identity  also  its  may  view  appropriately The  acceptance,  but  rebirth  acceptance more  in  a p p l i c a b i l i t y  appropriate  death,  represented espousing  their  but this  seem students.  126 The a  low  number  problem  in  terms  normality  in  the  is  not  certain  analysis  was  interpreted the  whether  of  attitudes existed.  the  the  Because  present  was  the  this  study,  present  status  assumption and  the  assumption  identity  weakened,  important  in The  base  the  study of  met,  this  results  however,  Because  it  p a r t i c u l a r  should was  this  represent  multivariate  a n a l y s i s .  analysis  of  main  attitudes. the  effects More  model  multivariate number  of  of  in  the  between based  two-factor as  on  identity was  an  be  secondary  issue  intended  interaction  adequate  is  to  not  a  effects  not  based  on  and could  of  death  prelude  for  such  to  an  examination  constructs  could  on  death  not  be  predicted  determined  in  the  able,  because  of  of  denial.  acceptance) this  The  index  the  small  death  moreover,  contemplation  remedy  and  r e a l l y  measures  or  lack  not  (mainly  i l l u s i o n s  (contemplation above,  nor  established were  a  i t s  has  identity  analysis  study  positive  as  is  empirical  analyses  limited  literature,  The  study  development  underlying  acceptance  discussed  present  sophisticated  status  this  the  consequently,  existing  identity  used  d i s t i n g u i s h  ideology,  was,  complex or  of  study  foreclosures).  acceptance  acceptance  more  context  It  of  Unfortunately,  for  present  research.  the  limitation  assessment.  future  a  s t a t i s t i c a l  caution.  of  methodological  of  the  in  concern.  depth  from  of  ideological  with  Another of  foreclosures  somewhat  objective  major  of  to and development  of  problem.  death,  127 Strengths  While  there  are  also  a  the  c e l l  sizes  research the  a  number  and  number  gender,  were  rate  the  Regarding was  selected  (Neimeyer,  (and  two  of  the  two  of  acceptable played some  were  inform The  a l l  was  have,  v a l i d i t y .  a  three of  retained  three as  study,  Regarding  commitment  of  van  and  religious  there  sample: main  exploration; included  Horn's  demographic  the  the  respondents  and  and  this  assessment  the  confounding  l i s t  of  of  a  devised  1984),  death  attitudes A l l ,  for  empirically  & Gold,  and  1989  both  study);  factors  and  (e.g.  involvement)  the  in  devised  age,  were  question were  internal  consistency.  in  temporal  exploratory  the  taken  to  analyses  role  were  represent in  the  model  the  present  their  had constructs study,  v a l i d i t y .  their  by  independent,  these  despite  an  represented  While  in  each  categories  expectation)  maximize -  to  f a c t o r i a l l y  and  study:  content  proposed  (purpose  and  present  derived  attitudes  moreover,  nevertheless  future  of  Sterling  instruments  supportive  care  three to  a  the  acceptable;  three  levels  factors.  to  analyses.  scales). the  for  experience,  the from  limitations  effects  (unlike  construct  established and  was  Fontana,  underlying  the  potentially  in  of  adequate  bereavement  controlled  number  compensating  -  females of  a  of  questions  response  males  are  A l l  shortcomings  research.  established discussed  S i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  scales  above, a l l  u t i l i z e d  in  demonstrated measures  in  the  present  r e l i a b i l i t y  the  study  are  study  and also  -  128 t h e o r e t i c a l l y of  such  research  scales, a  grounded  the  factor  is  and  Regarding were  for  the  robustness  of  the  potential  multivariate in  the  acceptance  area  that  were  did  of  study  identity,  underlying  permitted  the  to  constructs study  on  quantitative  was and  domain and/or  type  of  A l l  y i e l d  prepares  main  also  error  in  in  qualitative  the  the as  well  -  in  an  and  as  a  future  1984), of  of  to  and  number  relevant  appear  skewed  considering  result  case  to  have  the been  escape  exploring  b e l i e f s of  and  and  new  theory  and  While  identity the  present  development  sophisticated  research.  in  that  attitudes.  underlying  the  ground  assumptions,  attitudes,  for  more  and  F i d d e l l ,  value-laden  ground and  &  integrated  effects  procedures  r e s u l t s ) .  scope:  constructs  identity,  prudent,  moreover,  complex  the  of  lack  nuances  o u t l i e r s ,  assumptions  u t i l i z i n g  the  data,  positive  broad  death  of  A  (except  of  subtle  conservative  (Tabachnick  teleological  simple  nevertheless  e x i s t e n t i a l  not  examination  analyses  was  variance,  -  minimized  limited  MANCOVA  analyses  which  missing  tested.  of  Two  the  multidimensional  approach:  high  1994a).  determining  s t a t i s t i c of  are  considering  groups.  with  primary  the  in  across  of  this  analyses  Lastly, the  use  factor  (Neimeyer,  DAP-R,  s t a t i s t i c a l  problem  hypotheses  the  dealing  The  met  and  attitudes  d i s t r i b u t i o n s .  of  important  advantageous  the  u t i l i z e d  an  thanatology  E0M-EIS2  that  constructs  in  -  of  an  129 Implications  The of  present  identity  education  could  and  educational one's in  study's have  tool  that to  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g and  those  illusions)  creation  of  be  more  The  results  (although approach in  of  perspective, emphasis  on  education  of  in  these the  from  may  achievers  results  process  of  in  one  come  result  be  to  of  a  of  useful  terms  (based  the  higher  with  on The who  might  constricted  v u l n e r a b i l i t y scores  personal and  the From  being  western engages  meaning  than  e x i s t e n t i a l for  a  greater  an  aspect  neglected  as  a  than  a  to  status  -  culture.  those  to  identity  need  fear  vulnerable  status  an  in  involvement,  purpose  only  the  l i f e ' s  currently  which  the  highlight  could  p a r t i c u l a r l y  variables.  saturating in  had in  be  were  and/or  f l e x i b i l i t y  determining  indicate  they  may  a  death  foreclosures).  acceptance,  they  dependent  be  and  scores  Diffusions  exploration  materialism a  lower  neutral  as  in  of  diagnostic  and  have  domain  area  s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n .  useful  study  commitment:  a  commitments  c r i s i s  present  of  the  ideology  who  create be  future  and  d i f f e r  that  could  attitudes:  these  to  e x i s t e n t i a l in  depth  death  shallow  diffusions  the  commitment.  analyses  more  of low  death  a  (i.e.  marginal),  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the  to  the  individuals  order  an  development  explore  made  scale  acceptance,  negative  of  a  f i e l d  individuals  high  in  vulnerable  phenomenal  of  such  have  of  implications  particular  between  p o s i t i v e  The  could a  who  support  important  counselling.  commitments  death  p a r t i a l  consequence  Because product  of  meaning that  one  is  130 acquires one's  and  (Corey,  existence While  those  higher  fear,  pathology. assessing labelled  A  considered more  may  potential  i l l u s i o n s  that  or  way. an  differences danger is  of  the  that  remedy  diffusions  in  a  diffused  acceptance  might  simply  concern  the  mean  determination  status  should  respondent,  and  of  thus  not  imply  in  a  fact  be  be have  statuses. p o s i t i v e  meaning  more  could  should  may  better  be  the  acceptance  it  other  the  of  answer.  p a r t i c u l a r  individual of  meaning  instrument  tendency,  that  an  n e c e s s a r i l y an  such  the  lower  of  than  The  not use  of  finding  evidence  do  death  denial.  question than  do  of  identity  the  commitment  To  view  the  important  identity  existential for  more  ideology  this  death  addressing  in  these  ' r e a l i s t i c '  Greater  be  low  death in  1991),  of  matter  individual  one's of  administering  scale.  Conclusion  The  goal  ideology young a  adults.  ideological purposeful was  ideology meaning  the  present  represented  s o c i a l l y  There  of  The  a  relevant  results (or  commitment  was  only domain  a  sense  weak  of  construction:  that  foreclosed) found  to  approach  indirect  involves  a  was  to  content  suggest  constructed  and  study  ideological  domain it  is  form  predict and  evidence,  process  determine  of  of  at of a  least  view  however,  identity  identity  death for  relevant  as  identity:  neutral  personal  whether  of  death that  death  acceptance. the  death  exploration  status  was  as  found  and to  a  131 predict  the  death  underlying be  variable  interpreted  r e l i a b i l i t y , There  one  was  the  marginal had  Several  identity It of  a  is  evidence  of  effect  was  on  death of  bereavement constructs the  -  development  no  needs  to  low  and  statuses  a l l  but  interpersonal  r e l i g i o u s  found  consistent  death  in  attitudes.  (age,  were  amongst d i f f u s i o n s  that  and  attitudes  finding  effects  evidence  constructs  of  i t s  achievers  experience) a  proposed  result  of  interaction  also  a  v a l i d i t y .  different  death  This  because  although  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  suggested  that  multidimensional four  constructs  death  that  however,  established  There  involvement,  to  predict  with  ideology  is  the  an  aspect  of  development.  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Personal meanings of death: A content a n a l y s i s of free-response narratives. Death Studies, 17, 299-318. Ingram, B . J . , & Leitner, L.M. (1989). Death t h r e a t , r e l i g i o s i t y , and f e a r of death: A repertory grid investigation. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Journal of Personal Construct Psychology, 2, 199-214. Kalish, R.A. (1976). Death and dying i n a s o c i a l c o n t e x t . In R.H. Binstock, G. Shanas (Eds.) Handbook of a g i n g i n the s o c i a l sciences (pp. 483 - 507). New Y o r k : Van Nostrand Reinhold. Kalish,  R.A.  (1977).  Education,  1,  The  role  of  age  in  death  attitudes.  Death  205-230.  Kastenbaum, R . J . (1986) . D e a t h , ed.). Columbus: Charles E.  society, and human e x p e r i e n c e Merril Publishing Co.  (3rd  Kegan, R. (1982). The E v o l v i n g S e l f : Problem and P r o c e s s i n Human Development, Cambridge, MA: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y Press. Kelley, G. (1955) . The p s y c h o l o g y o f p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s . New York: W.W. Norton. Klenow, D . J . , national Klug,  L.,  Bolin, R.C. (1989). B e l i e f survey. Omega, 20, 63-74.  Boss,  M.  (1976).  Factorial  in  an  structure  a f t e r l i f e :  of  the  A  death  136 concern  scale.  Psychological  Reports,  38,  107-112.  Krieger, S.R., Epting, F.R., r e l i a b i l i t y of provided Omega, 20, 87-95.  & Hays, L.H (1979). V a l i d i t y and constructs in assessing death threat  Krieger, S.R., Epting, F.R., constructs, threat, and 299-310.  & Leitner, L.M. (1974). attitudes toward death.  Personal Omega, 5,  Kroger, J . (1988). A l o n g i t u d i n a l study of ego i d e n t i t y status interview domains. J o u r n a l of A d o l e s c e n c e , 11, 49-64. Kroger, Jane ( 1 9 8 9) . self and o t h e r .  Identity in Adolescence: New Y o r k : Routledge.  Lester, D., Colvin, L.M. s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n .  (1977). Fear of death, Psychological Reports,  Loevinger, J . (1976). Ego Development: San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass. Lonetto, R., (1980) . Ireland  The  balance  alienation 41, 526.  Conceptions  and  Mercer, G.W., Fleming, S., Bunting, B., D e a t h a n x i e t y among u n i v e r s i t y students and C a n a d a . J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y , 104,  Lonetto, Richard., Templer, D o n a l d I. (1986). Death Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. Washington. Marcia, J . E . status. 558 . Marcia,  J . E .  (1966). Journal  (1993a).  Identity. In Archer, J . L . Psychosocial Verlag.  between  and  Theories,  Clare, M. in Northern 75-82. Anxiety.  Development and v a l i d a t i o n of ego i d e n t i t y of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 3, 551  The  Ego  Identity  Status  Approach  J . E . Marcia, A . S . Waterman, D.R. Orlofsky (Eds.), Ego I d e n t i t y : A Research (pp. 3 - 21). New Y o r k :  to  Ego  Matteson, S.L. 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Washington,  DC:  Hemisphere.  of bereavement upon Omega, 16, 267-280.  death  Tomer, A. (1994) . D e a t h A n x i e t y in Adult Life -Theoretical Perspectives. In R . A . Neimeyer (Ed.) Death Anxiety Handbook (pp. 3 - 30). Washington, D . C : Taylor & Francis. Vargo, M.E., Batsel, W.M. (1981). R e l a t i o n s h i p between death a n x i e t y and components of the s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n process. Psychological Reports, 48, 89-90. Wass,  H., S t i l l i o n , J.M. (1988). Death i n the lives of and a d o l e s c e n t s . In H. Wass, F . M . B e r a r d o , & R.A. (Eds.), Dying: F a c i n g the facts (2nd e d . , pp. 201 Washington, D . C : Hemisphere Publishing Corporatio  children Neimeyer 228).' n.  Waterman, A . C . (1993). Developmental P e r s p e c t i v e s on Identity Formation: From A d o l e s c e n c e to A d u l t h o o d . In J . E . Marcia, A.S. Waterman, D.R. Matteson, S.L. Archer, J . L . 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Death attitude p r o f i l e - revised: a multidimensional measure of attitudes toward death. In R . A . Neimeyer (Ed.) Death Anxiety Handbook (pp. 121 - 148). Washington, D . C : Taylor & Francis.  Wood,  K., & Robinson, death: Retesting 243 .  P . J . (1982). A c t u a l i z a t i o n an e x i s t e n t i a l hypothesis.  Woods, N . , Witte, K.L. (1981). L i f e satisfaction, and ego i d e n t i t y i n e l d e r l y adults. B u l l e t i n Psychonomic Society, 18 (4), 165-168.  and the fear Essence, 5,  fear of of the  of 235-  death,  142 Part  1:  Please  Background t e l l  us  Information  about  yourself:  1.  What  is  your  sex?  2.  What  is  your  age  3.  What  is  your  ethnic  4. How m a n y completed? 5.  Are If  6.  you  (in  of  currently  yes,  How  years  for  often  how  do  Male  Female  years)? identification?  college  in  a  and/or  ;  university  relationship?  education  Yes  have  No  long?  you  usually  attend  2  '. In g e n e r a l , how i m p o r t a n t in your day-to-day l i f e ?  religious  services?  more t h a n once a week once a week or 3 times a month about once a month l e s s than once a month never  are  religious  or  s p i r i t u a l  b e l i e f s  very important f a i r l y important not too important not at a l l important 8.  Have a.  you  the  ever  death  experienced: of  a  family  member?  please identify who y o u (can be more t h a n one) How  long  loss(es) the  death  How l o n g loss(es) the  death  How  long  ago  did  this  Yes  No  Yes  No  Yes  No  lost  (these)  happen? of  a  close  ago d i d happen? of ago  you  a  this  friend? (these)  pet?  did  this  (these)  loss(es)  happen?  a life-threatening or injury? How  long  ago  did  i l l n e s s  this  happen?  a f a m i l y member o r c l o s e friend with a life-threatening i l l n e s s or injury? How l o n g a g o d i d was (these) incident(s)?  (were)  this  144 PART  2  INSTRUCTIONS: Read e a c h i t e m and i n d i c a t e t o what d e g r e e it r e f l e c t s y o u r own t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s . If a statement has more than one p a r t , please i n d i c a t e your r e a c t i o n to the statement as whole. Indicate y o u r answer on the l i n e preceding the question number.  a  l=strongly agree 4=disagree 2=moderately agree 5=moderately disagree 3=agree 6=strongly disagree 1.  I haven't c h o s e n the o c c u p a t i o n I r e a l l y want t o get into, a n d I'm just working at whatever is available u n t i l something better comes a l o n g .  2.  When i t comes anything that need to look.  3.  My i d e a s a b o u t m e n ' s a n d t o my p a r e n t s ' . What h a s o b v i o u s l y work f o r me.  4.  T h e r e ' s no s i n g l e " l i f e more than another.  5.  There's a lot of d i f f e r e n t kinds e x p l o r i n g t h e many p o s s i b i l i t i e s kinds of friends for me.  of to  6.  I sometimes j o i n in asked, but I rarely  a c t i v i t i e s o n my o w n .  7.  I haven't r e a l l y thought about a not too concerned whether I date  8.  P o l i t i c s is something that I c a n n e v e r be t o o about because things change so f a s t . But I do i t ' s important t o know what I c a n p o l i t i c a l l y f o r and b e l i e v e i n .  9.  I'm s t i l l t r y i n g t o d e c i d e how c a p a b l e p e r s o n and what j o b s w i l l be r i g h t for  10.  I don't' give b o t h e r me o n e  11.  There are marriage,  12.  I'm  to r e l i g i o n , I just appeals and I d o n ' t  haven't found r e a l l y feel the  women's r o l e s are i d e n t i c a l worked f o r them w i l l  style"  which  recreational try anything  appeals  me  people. I'm s t i l l f i n d the right  "dating or not.  r e l i g i o n much t h o u g h t way o r t h e other.  to  and  when  s t y l e . "  I am me. it  as  sure think stand  a  doesn't  s o many ways t o d i v i d e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I'm t r y i n g t o d e c i d e what w i l l work f o r  looking  for  an  acceptable  perspective  I'm  for  my  in me. own  145 " l i f e s t y l e "  view,  but  I  haven't  found  it  yet.  13.  T h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s f o r f r i e n d s h i p , b u t I choose my c l o s e f r i e n d s o n t h e b a s i s o f c e r t a i n v a l u e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s that I've personally decided on.  14.  While I d o n ' t have one r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y I'm r e a l l y committed to, I'm s t i l l e x p e r i e n c i n g numerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s in marriage, I'm trying to decide what w i l l work f o r me.  15.  Based on past e x p e r i e n c e s , d a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p I want  16.  I haven't e x c i t e me  17.  I might have thought about a l o t of d i f f e r e n t jobs, b u t t h e r e ' s n e v e r r e a l l y b e e n a n y q u e s t i o n s i n c e my parents s a i d what t h e y wanted.  18.  A person's faith is unique to each i n d i v i d u a l . c o n s i d e r e d and r e c o n s i d e r e d i t m y s e l f a n d know can believe.  r e a l l y much.  I've now.  chosen  considered p o l i t i c s .  the  It  type  just  of  doesn't  I've what  19.  I've never r e a l l y s e r i o u s l y considered men's and women's r o l e s i n m a r r i a g e . It just d o e s n ' t seem to c o n c e r n me.  20  After considerable thought I've developed individual viewpoint o f w h a t i s f o r me a n " l i f e s t y l e " and d o n ' t b e l i e v e anyone w i l l t o c h a n g e my p e r s p e c t i v e .  21.  My  parents  choose 22.  I've  my  know  best  for  in  terms  of  how  to  one  or  more  recreational  a c t i v i t i e s  to  in.  23.  I don't think about it as i t comes.  24.  I g u e s s I'm pretty m u c h l i k e my to p o l i t i c s . I f o l l o w what t h e y and such.  25.  I'm r e a l l y not interested in any job w i l l do. I just seem available.  26.  I'm  not  me  my own ideal be l i k e l y  friends.  chosen  engage  what's  I  so  sure  what  dating  much.  r e l i g i o n  I  just  folks do i n  finding to flow  means  kind  of  take  when i t comes terms of voting  the r i g h t w i t h what  to  me.  I'd  job, is  like  146 to  make  up  my  mind  but  I'm  not  done  looking  yet.  27.  My i d e a s a b o u t m e n ' s a n d w o m e n ' s r o l e s c a m e right f r o m my p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l y . I haven't seen any need t o q u e s t i o n what t h e y t a u g h t me.  28.  My own v i e w s o n a d e s i r a b l e l i f e s t y l e were taught to me b y m y p a r e n t s a n d I d o n ' t see any need to question what t h e y t a u g h t me.  29.  I d o n ' t have any r e a l think I'm looking for  30.  Sometimes I j o i n don't see a need do regularly.  31.  I'm t r y i n g out relationships. f o r me .  in to  close friends, one r i g h t now.  and  I  don't  '  leisure a c t i v i t i e s , but I r e a l l y look for a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y to  different types of dating I just haven't d e c i d e d what  is  best  32.  T h e r e a r e s o many d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l parties and ideals. I can't decide which to follow u n t i l I figure it a l l out.  33.  It t o o k me a w h i l e to figure it know what I want f o r a career.  34.  Religion changing  is my  out,  but  c o n f u s i n g t o me r i g h t now. v i e w s on what i s r i g h t and  now  I  r e a l l y  I keep wrong f o r  me.  35.  I've s p e n t some t i m e t h i n k i n g about men's and women's roles in marriage and I've d e c i d e d what w i l l work best for me.  36.  In f i n d i n g an a c c e p t a b l e v i e w p o i n t to l i f e i t s e l f , find myself engaging in a lot of discussions with o t h e r s a n d some s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n .  37.  I  38.  I've always l i k e d doing the same recreational a c t i v i t i e s my p a r e n t s d o a n d h a v e n ' t ever s e r i o u s l y considered anything else.  39.  40.  I  only  pick  friends  only  go  out  expect  me  to  with  my  the  parents  type  of  would  people  approve  my  I  of.  parents  date.  I've t h o u g h t my p o l i t i c a l I c a n a g r e e w i t h some a n d my p a r e n t s believe.  b e l i e f s through and not other aspects of  realize what  147 41.  My p a r e n t s d e c i d e d a l o n g t i m e a g o w h a t I s h o u l d g o into f o r employment and I'm following through their plans.  42.  I've gone through f a i t h a n d c a n now as an individual.  43.  I've been t h i n k i n g about the wives play a lot these days, f i n a l decision.  r o l e s that husbands and a n d I'm trying t o make a  44.  My p a r e n t s don't need  good  45.  I've t r i e d many a c l e a r idea of  46.  After trying a lot of d i f f e r e n t recreational a c t i v i t i e s , I've f o u n d one o r more I r e a l l y enjoy doing by myself or with friends.  47.  My of  48.  I'm n o t s u r e a b o u t my p o l i t i c a l t r y i n g t o f i g u r e out what I c a n  49.  It t o o k me a l o n g t i m e s u r e what d i r e c t i o n t o  50.  I a t t e n d t h e s a m e c h u r c h my attended. I've never r e a l l y  51.  T h e r e a r e many ways t h a t m a r r i e d c o u p l e s c a n divide up f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I've thought about lots o f w a y s a n d now I know e x a c t l y how I w a n t i t to happen for me.  52.  I guess I don't see to l i f e .  53.  I d o n ' t have any c l o s e around with the crowd.  54.  I've been experiencing a v a r i e t y of recreational a c t i v i t i e s i n the hopes of f i n d i n g one o r more I e n j o y f o r some t i m e t o c o m e .  55.  a p e r i o d of s e r i o u s questions about s a y I u n d e r s t a n d what I b e l i e v e in  views on anything  preferences developing.  l i f e are else.  enough  for  me,  different f r i e n d s h i p s a n d now what I l o o k f o r i n a friend.  about dating are s t i l l i n the I haven't f u l l y decided yet.  I  have  process  b e l i e f s , but truly believe  to decide but move i n f o r a  I'm i n .  now I know career.  f a m i l y has questioned  I  for  always why.  just kind of enjoy l i f e in general, and I myself l i v i n g by any p a r t i c u l a r view point  friends.  I  just  like  to  hang  can  I've dated different t y p e s o f p e o p l e a n d now know e x a c t l y w h a t my o w n " u n w r i t t e n r u l e s " for dating are  148 and  who  I  w i l l  date.  56.  I r e a l l y have never t o h a v e made a f i r m  57.  I just can't There are so  58.  I've never r e a l l y questioned right f o r my p a r e n t s i t must  59.  O p i n i o n s on men's and women's that I d o n ' t t h i n k much about  60.  After a lot of self-examination I very definite v i e w o n w h a t my own  61.  I r e a l l y don't me. I'm trying means t o me.  62.  A l l o f my r e c r e a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s parents and I haven't r e a l l y tried  63.  I  64.  My f o l k s h a v e a l w a y s h a d t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l moral b e l i e f s about issues l i k e a b o r t i o n and k i l l i n g and I've always gone a l o n g a c c e p t i n g they have.  date  only  been i n v o l v e d s t a n d one way  d e c i d e what t o many t h a t have  know what to figure  people  my  in or  p o l i t i c s enough the other.  do f o r an o c c u p a t i o n . p o s s i b i l i t i e s . my be  r e l i g i o n . right for  roles it.  seem  If i t ' s me. so  varied  have e s t a b l i s h e d a l i f e s t y l e w i l l be.  kind of friend is best for out e x a c t l y what friendship  parents  would  I got f r o m my anything else. approve  of. and mercy what  The t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n manual c a n be o b t a i n e d from D r . G e r a l d R. Adams, Department of Family Studies, U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, C a n a d a NIG 2W1. S e n d a w r i t t e n r e q u e s t a n d a $25 US money order to that address or order through gadams@uoguelph.ca  149 INSTRUCTIONS: Below i s a l i s t of f i f t e e n dimensions, each of which i s made up o f a p a i r o f o p p o s i t e a d j e c t i v e s or phrases. For each dimension, please indicate the extent to which e i t h e r the right or the l e f t term r e f l e c t s y o u r view of d e a t h by p l a c i n g an X on one of the seven spaces between the two t e r m s . If both sides reflect your view of death equally, then p l a c e an X i n the m i d d l e box. P l e a s e be s u r e to p l a c e o n l y one X between each p a i r of terms. It is important not to s k i p any of the dimensions. EXAMPLE: Individual  A:  Serious  _X  T r i v i a l  I n d i v i d u a l B: Serious _X ( I n d i v i d u a l A thus views death as something serious; individual B, however, views it as mildly t r i v i a l ) . 1.  Purposeful  2.  Personal  3 .  Not  4.  Impersonal Sudden  I  I  care it  Useless warning  7.  Foreseeable  8.  Concerned  Has  Unnecessary  Unpredictable  12.  Can  14 . 15.  Predictable  myself  a  Can't  dying  myself  to  Distant  me  Prepared Having  warning  Meaningless  Necessary  Close  no  Unconcerned  11.  13.  it  Unforeseeable  Meaningful  see  care  Useful  Has  10.  don't  about  6.  9.  is  Purposeless  sudden  about 5.  T r i v i a l that is very something that  reason  __  see dying from  me  Unprepared Having  no  reason  150 INSTRUCTIONS: The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s a number of statements related to different attitudes toward death. Read each statement carefully, and then i n d i c a t e the extent to which you agree or d i s a g r e e . For example, an item might read: "Death i s a f r i e n d . " Indicate how w e l l y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e b y s e l e c t i n g a number from the seven p o i n t s c a l e below and i n d i c a t i n g your answer on the l i n e p r e c e d i n g the q u e s t i o n number. l=strongly agree 2=agree 3=moderately agree 4=undecided 5=moderately disagree 6=disagree 7=strongly disagree Thus, if you s t r o n g l y agreed with the statement, you would "1" next to the q u e s t i o n number. If you strongly disagreed would w r i t e a "7" next to the q u e s t i o n number. If you are undecided, you would write a "4". However, try to use the Undecided category sparingly.  write you  It is important t h a t y o u work t h r o u g h the s t a t e m e n t s and answer e a c h o n e . Many o f the s t a t e m e n t s w i l l seem a l i k e , but a l l are n e c e s s a r y t o show s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n attitudes.  1.  Death  is  no  doubt  2 .  The  3.  I  avoid  4.  I  believe  5.  Death  w i l l  6.  Death  should  prospect  of  death  7.  I  am  8.  Death  an  I  own  w i l l  bring be  an  experience.  death at be  end  viewed  a l l in  to as  arouses  in  me.  costs.  heaven a l l  a  anxiety  my  after  I  die.  troubles.  natural,  undeniable,  and  event.  disturbed is  my  grim  thoughts  that  unavoidable  a  by  the  entrance  f i n a l i t y to  a  of  place  of  death. ultimate  s a t i s f a c t i o n . 9.  Death  provides  an  escape  from  this  t e r r i b l e  world.  a  151 For a l l the responses:  questions  on  this  l=strongly agree 2=agree 3=moderately agree 4=undecided  10.  Whenever to  push  the it  11.  Death  12.  I  always  13 .  I  believe  than  is  page,  thought  not  that  to  is  a  natural  15.  Death  is  a  union  16.  Death  brings  17 .  I  would  18.  I  have  19.  I  avoid  20.  The  subject  21.  The  fact  22.  enters  pain  think  and  about  w i l l  of  that it  I  die.  23.  I  view  fear  be  my  mind,  I  try  s u f f e r i n g .  death.  a  24.  Death  is  25.  I  death  a  of  much  better  place  w i l l  eternal  new nor  and  b l i s s .  glorious  welcome  l i f e .  it.  death. altogether.  death mean  troubles  the  end  of  me  greatly.  everything  me.  reunion  a  r e l i e f  simply  a  part  a  l i f e .  death  as  as  a  after  frightens to  of  death  about  death  of  God and  fear  l i f e  forward  death  aspect  promise  thinking  look  place.  death  from  with  intense  I  see  a  neither  know  following  world.  Death  I  of  heaven  14.  as  the  away.  try  an  from  5=moderately agree 6=disagree 7=strongly disagree  deliverance  this  choose  of  passage  with  my  loved  ones  from  earthly  s u f f e r i n g .  the  process  of  to  an  eternal  after  l i f e .  and  blessed  152 For a l l the responses:  questions  on  this  l=strongly agree 2=agree 3=moderately agree 4=undecided  26.  I  try  to  page,  choose  from  the  following  5=moderately agree 6=disagree 7=strongly disagree  have  nothing  to  do  with  the  subject  of  death. 27.  Death  28.  One  offers  thing  belief 29.  I  see  30.  Death  31.  I  32.  The  look  in  wonderful  that  gives  the  a f t e r l i f e .  death  is  a  as  a  worries  good  to  uncertainty  death  r e l i e f  neither  forward  me  of  me.  l i f e not  release comfort  from  nor  of in  the  the  soul.  facing  burden  death  of  this  is  l i f e .  bad.  after  death.  knowing  what  happens  my  after  153 INSTRUCTIONS: r e f l e c t s your below. Please number.  Read each item and i n d i c a t e the extent to which it thoughts and f e e l i n g s , u s i n g the four point scale w r i t e your answer on the l i n e preceding the item  l=never 2=rarely 3o c c a s i o n a l l y 4=often 1.  I  think  about  my  2 .  I  think  about  the  3 .  I  think  about  dying  4.  I  have  5.  I  think  6 .  I think of die within  7.  I think u p o n my  8.  When  I  fantasies about  death.  death  of  death  of  loved  sick  I  my  ones.  young. my  own  just  death.  before  how I w o u l d a c t i f a given p e r i o d of  a b o u t how death. am  own  relatives  think  about  I  go  I knew time. would  death.  to I  sleep. were  act  and  going  feel  to  


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