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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Canadian Indian policy and development planning theory Cunningham, Alain MacAlpine 1995

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C A N A D I A N INDIAN POLICY A N D DEVELOPMENT PLANNING  THEORY  By  ALAIN MACALPINE  CUNNINGHAM  D i p l o m a in T o w n a n d C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g  (Distinction)  N o t t i n g h a m C o l l e g e of A r t a n d D e s i g n , 1 9 6 6 M . A . , History, S i m o n Fraser University,  1980  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E O F DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  S c h o o l of C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  W e a c c e p t this thesis as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required s t a n d a r d  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A September 1995 ©  Alain MacAlpine Cunningham, 1 9 9 5  OF  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by his or her representatives.  It  is understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  p^ptfftrnent of g O ^ ' * ' ^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  '2-  e*f • %  ^  t  o  w  ^  /3S5t*M-'*^  II  Abstract: C A N A D I A N INDIAN POLICY A N D D E V E L O P M E N T PLANNING  THEORY  T h i s t h e s i s a d d r e s s e s q u e s t i o n s of h o w d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g t h e o r y h a s i n f l u e n c e d policym a k i n g for Indians in C a n a d a a n d h o w it c o u l d be i m p r o v e d for m a k i n g better p o l i c i e s in the future. relations.  T h e s e q u e s t i o n s are c o n s i d e r e d a r o u n d a n e x u s of c e n t r a l s t a t e - I n d i a n T h e r e is a f o c u s o n t h e m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l p r o b l e m s of p o v e r t y f a c e d b y m a n y  r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y of t h o s e l o c a t e d in m o r e rural a n d r e m o t e r e g i o n s .  The  t h e s i s c r i t i c i z e s t h e s e r i o u s d u a l i s m w i t h i n a n d b e t w e e n prevailing d e v e l o p m e n t d o c t r i n e s and proposes remedies through a 'relational' approach.  A n original t y p o l o g y c a t e g o r i z e s ' s u b s t a n t i v e ' d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g t h e o r i e s into t w o opposing doctrines.  T h e m o r e d o m i n a n t liberal a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t d o c t r i n e c e n t e r s o n  m o d e r n i z a t i o n t h e o r y a n d internalizes b l a m e o n Indians for their " o w n " p r o b l e m s , but is c h a l l e n g e d by radical a u t o n o m i s t d o c t r i n e w h i c h c e n t e r s o n u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t (UDT)  theory  a n d its 'internal c o l o n y ' v a r i a n t , a n d contrarily e x t e r n a l i z e s b l a m e o n t o t h e s t a t e .  third b o d y of r e f o r m i s t p l a n n i n g is g r o u n d e d in t h e p r a c t i c e s of w e l f a r e s t a t i s m .  R e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of t h e h i s t o r y of Indian p o l i c y s h o w s t h a t u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t of Indian c o m m u n i t i e s h a s b e e n c a u s e d by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of b o t h e x t e r n a l a n d internal c a u s e s . Liberal d o c t r i n e s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e c e n t r a l s t a t e ' s a s s i m i l a t i v e a g e n d a during t h e ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' era of Indian p o l i c y , i n c l u d i n g its o p p r e s s i v e ' r e s e r v e s y s t e m ' a n d l a n d m a r k 1 9 6 9 White Paper.  It is a g r e e d t h a t radical c r i t i c i s m properly r e v e a l s t h e r a c i s m a n d  A  Ill e c o n o m i c e x p l o i t a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g s t a t e - s p o n s o r e d p r o c e s s of 'internal c o l o n i z a t i o n , ' a n d a l s o h e l p s t o e x p l a i n t h e c o n s e q u e n t rise of Indian e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m .  H o w e v e r , it is  c o n c l u d e d t h a t radical c r i t i c i s m d o e s not a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n e v e n t s in t h e ' c o n t e m p o r a r y e r a ' w h e r e Indian l e a d e r s h a v e m o r e i n f l u e n c e o v e r p o l i c y - m a k i n g , but h a v e e x p e n d e d m u c h of their e n e r g i e s p u r s u i n g a ' m o d e r n i s t ' nationalist a g e n d a in a p o w e r s t r u g g l e w i t h the central state.  T h e resulting p o l i c y v a c u u m b e t w e e n t h e d e a d l o c k e d liberal s t a t e a n d  r a d i c a l Indian p o s i t i o n s h a s b e e n filled by d e f a u l t w i t h m i s g u i d e d r e f o r m i s t p r o g r a m s of w e l f a r e s t a t i s m , w i t h terribly d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s in m a n y r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t i e s .  T h e c r i t i c i s m of c u r r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t t h e o r i e s w h e n a p p l i e d in p r a c t i c e is r e i n f o r c e d b y their c r i t i c i s m a s t h e o r i e s .  T h e d e f i c i e n c i e s of c u r r e n t ' s u b s t a n t i v e ' d e v e l o p m e n t t h e o r i e s  are s h o w n t o be e n d e m i c b e c a u s e of s h o r t c o m i n g s in their u n d e r l y i n g ' p r o c e s s ' planning theories.  In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e d u c t i o n i s t d u a l i s m of e x t r e m e liberal a n d radical d e v e l o p m e n t  d o c t r i n e s , w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o polarization in p r a c t i c e , is r e v e a l e d .  Instead of t h e c u r r e n t  p r a c t i c e of a p p l y i n g s i n g l e e x p l a n a t i o n s a n d p r e s c r i p t i o n s t o Indian p o l i c y - m a k i n g , a relational a p p r o a c h is a d v o c a t e d w h i c h s e l e c t i v e l y c o m b i n e s liberal, r e f o r m i s t , a n d radical perspectives.  T h e t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s w i t h a n e x p o s i t i o n of h o w a relational a p p r o a c h c a n be a p p l i e d t o e x a m i n e w i d e s p r e a d p o v e r t y a n d d e p e n d e n c y in r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t i e s a s a n i n t e r c o n n e c t e d 'external/internal' problem, a n d , leading from this, to propose mutually-reinforcing and c o m m u n i t y actions.  state  IV  T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S  Abstract  II  List of Figure  VIII  Acknowledgements  Chapter One:  IX  Introduction  1.1 1.2  T h e Proposal  1.3  T y p o l o g y of D e v e l o p m e n t T h e o r i e s  1.4  A p p l i c a t i o n s of D e v e l o p m e n t T h e o r i e s t o Indian  Methodology  7 11  Policy  PART ONE:  19  HISTORICAL ANALYSIS  O F INDIAN D E V E L O P M E N T  POLICY  Chapter T w o :  The Roots of Canadian Indian Policy  2.1  Overview.  2.2  T h r e e P r i n c i p l e s of Indian P o l i c y - -  2.3  Setting Up the 'Reserve S y s t e m . '  2.4  W e s t w a r d E x p a n s i o n , T r e a t y - M a k i n g , a n d Indian  'Assimilation,"Civilization,'  28 and 'Protection.'  43  E c o n o m i c Exploitation. 2.5  50  Conclusions.  Chapter Three:  The Failure of the 1 9 6 9 White Paper  3.1  Overview.  3.2  Seeking N e w Directions: The Hawthorn  52 Report,  1966-1967. 3.3  31  54  A " F i n a l S o l u t i o n t o t h e Indian P r o b l e m : Planning the 1 9 6 9 W h i t e Paper.  62  3.4  W h a t t h e W h i t e P a p e r S a i d , a n d H o w it W a s Received.  71  3.5  Conclusions.  78  V  Chapter Four: The Decline of Reserve Communities Into Welfarism 4.1  Overview.  4.2  B a c k g r o u n d C o m m e n t s o n t h e Indian N a t i o n a l i s t  80  Movement.