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Anticipating hephzibah rediscovering the fourth gospel Tyson, Janet Sylvia Bernadette 1997

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ANTICIPATING HEPHZIBAH R e d i s c o v e r i n g The F o u r t h Gospel  by  JANET SYLVIA BERNADETTE TYSON B.A.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1994  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1997 ©  Janet S y l v i a B e r n a d e t t e Tyson 1997  In  presenting  degree at the  this  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department  of  dfcUlC^javLSL  SjyQl  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  6r_S  /Abstract  The t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s paper i n v o l v e s t h e r e - e v a l u a t i o n of t h e F o u r t h Gospel's n a r r a t i v e i n l i g h t o f i n t e r t e x t u a l The  aim i s t o demonstrate  how  the author  of t h i s  analysis. gospel  has  e x p l o i t e d I s r a e l i t e s c r i p t u r a l and h i s t o r i c t r a d i t i o n t o d e p i c t t h e Jesus  Movement  as  one  motivated  by  a  desire  to  see  Israel  r e i n s t a t e d as t h e e l e c t o f Yahweh. T h i s , i t i s shown, i s m a n i f e s t e d i n a s e r i e s o f h i g h l y s y m b o l i c a c t i o n s which echo t h e p a t t e r n o f Ezek  16; t h i s  pattern  "bride".  Near  priestly  perspective,  reveals  the c y c l e  t h e end of t h i s  symbolically purified  cycle,  revealing  the  of I s r a e l  t h e Movement establishment  as Yahweh's takes of  a  on a new,  priesthood.  ii  Table o f C o n t e n t s Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  i i i  Abbreviations/Acknowledgements Introduction  iv 1  C h a p t e r One  Consent and Covenant Baptist Nathanael The M a r r i a g e Nicodemus Summary  8 8 11 14 18 23  Chapter Two  A n t i c i p a t i n g Hephzibah Samaritan Woman Adulteress Mary Summary  25 27 32 34 40  Chapter Three  The Temple Scenes Excursus Summary  41 47 48  Chapter Four  Mistaken I d e n t i t y Healings The Hunger Summary  49 49 57 64  Chapter F i v e  Election A Lack o f V i s i o n Emancipation P r i e s t l y Theme Summary  66 66 73 81 83  Chapter S i x  Replacement Barabbas Vestments and T r a n s f e r e n c e 153 F i s h Summary  85 93 96 101 10 2  Chapter Seven  Conclusions  104  Bibliography  108  iii  Abbreviations  Bibliographic BT CBQ JBL JJS JSNT JSNT SS NT NTS ZNW  The B i b l e T r a n s l a t o r C a t h o l i c B i b l i c a l QuarterlyJ o u r n a l of B i b l i c a l L i t e r a t u r e J o u r n a l of J e w i s h S t u d i e s J o u r n a l f o r the Study of the New Testament J o u r n a l f o r the Study of the New Testament/Supplement Series Novum Testamentum New Testament S t u d i e s Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft  P r i m a r y Sources Josephus: Ant. Life. J . W.  The A n t i q u i t i e s of the Jews L i f e of F l a v i u s Josephus The Wars of the Jews  Biblical/Apocryphal: BD FG Gos.Nic. Gos.Phil. Gos.Thorn. NRSV SGM  Beloved D i s c i p l e F o u r t h Gospel Gospel of Nicodemus Gospel of P h i l i p Gospel of Thomas New R e v i s e d S t a n d a r d V e r s i o n S e c r e t Gospel of Mark  Acknowledgements: S c r i p t u r a l r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s paper c o r r e s p o n d t o t h o s e w i t h i n the NRSV w i t h Apocrypha (Oxford: O x f o r d UP, 1989 c l 9 6 2 ) . LXX r e f e r e n c e s are t a k e n from The S e p t u a g i n t V e r s i o n of the Old Testament, (London: H a r p e r , [ ] ) . Greek r e f e r e n c e s p e r t a i n t o The Pocket I n t e r l i n e a r New Testament, J.P. Green, S r . , Ed., ( M i c h i g a n : Baker, 1988). A p o c r y p h a l New Testament and Qumran L i t e r a t u r e r e f e r e n c e s are t a k e n from The Other B i b l e : A n c i e n t A l t e r n a t i v e S c r i p t u r e s , W. Barnstone, Ed., (New York: Harper, 1984). Greek etymology i s a t t r i b u t e d t o G r e e k - E n g l i s h L e x i c o n of the New Testament and Other E a r l y C h r i s t i a n L i t e r a t u r e , W.F. A r n d t and F.W. G i n g r i c h , Eds., 2nd ed. (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1979); and, The A n a l y t i c a l Greek L e x i c o n , (London: B a g s t e r , 1969). Hebrew etymology, from James S t r o n g , " D i c t i o n a r y of the Words i n the Hebrew B i b l e " , i n S t r o n g ' s E x h a u s t i v e Concordance, ( M i c h i g a n : Baker, 1992, c l 8 9 0 ) . E x c e r p t s from Josephus a r e found i n Josephus: Complete Works, W. Whiston, Trans., ( M i c h i g a n : K r e g e l , 1960).  iv  Introduction  The  purpose of t h i s paper i s t o demonstrate how  the  Fourth  G o s p e l , t h r o u g h the employment of i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes, d e p i c t s the J e s u s Movement as a d i v i n e l y s a n c t i o n e d m i s s i o n t o p r e p a r e f o r i t s a n t i c i p a t e d r e u n i o n w i t h Yahweh under a new new  Israel  covenant and a  priesthood. A note on the method employed i n t h i s s t u d y i s n e c e s s a r y as i t  may  be  u n f a m i l i a r t o some, b e i n g  approach i n the Scholars  field  interested  of New in  a relatively recently  Testament  the  apparent  S c r i p t u r a l t e x t s have l o n g f o c u s e d  ( h e n c e f o r t h NT) relationship  accepted studies. between  ( p r i m a r i l y ) on t y p o l o g y , where  p e r s o n s , e v e n t s o r t h i n g s w i t h i n the O l d Testament ( h e n c e f o r t h ,  OT)  are i n t e r p r e t e d as p r e c u r s o r s , o r p r o t o t y p e s  NT.  What  an  intertextual  approach  does,  of those  simply,  is  i n the to  include  l i t e r a r y / i n t e r p r e t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s w i t h i n t h a t sphere of p o t e n t i a l precedents. Intertextual "ideological  and  transformation."  analysis cultural"  2  1  expresses  the  transference  concepts w i t h i n a c o n t e x t  of  of  "social  I t i s thus an ' o r g a n i c ' approach w h i c h a t t e m p t s  The term was c o i n e d by J u l i a K r i s t e v a , who n o t e d t h a t t e x t s w i t h i n a g i v e n c u l t u r e have more t h a n j u s t an ' i n f l u e n c e ' upon l a t e r t e x t s , they are a c t u a l l y r e l a t e d i n a much more o r g a n i c sense, i . e . , they are p a r t of "an ongoing p r o c e s s of a b s o r p t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and p e r m u t a t i o n . . . ." George A i c h e l e and Gary P h i l i p s , Eds., Semeia 69/70 (1995) 300. 1  George A i c h e l e & Gary A. P h i l i p s , " I n t r o d u c t i o n : E x e g e s i s , E i s e g e s i s , I n t e r g e s i s , " Semeia 69/70 (1995) 7-18 (Here, 9 ) . T h i s t r a n s f e r e n c e of i d e o l o g y , e t c . , i s i n e v i t a b l y preceded by a 2  1  t o i l l u m i n a t e the apparent p r o g r e s s i o n of i d e a s and b e l i e f s , e t c . , from one c i r c u m s t a n t i a l m a t r i x t o a n o t h e r . T h i s avenue of i n v e s t i g a t i o n has found f a v o u r amongst exegetes for  whom  conventional  methods  of  analysis  have  proved  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i s c e r n i n g the "meaning" o f a t e x t . One a r e a which does have sympathies w i t h i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i s t h a t of t h e f e m i n i s t approach, familiar  t e x t s by  interpretation.  f o r b o t h t e n d t o g l e a n new  removing  By  meaning  from  certain conventional r e s t r i c t i o n s  reading  the  text  more  from  an  on  intuitive,  r e f l e c t i v e and f l e x i b l e p e r s p e c t i v e , b o t h f e m i n i s t and i n t e r t e x t u a l a n a l y s e s r e v e a l a p l e t h o r a of new and s t i m u l a t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r "meaning". I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the p o t e n t i a l t e x t u a l l i n k s between the NT and the OT became more w i d e l y p r a c t i s e d a f t e r M i c h a e l article  on  established subsequent  "Inner-Biblical "law,  homily,  and  Exegesis". prophecy"  3  This were  Fishbane's  revealed manipulated  how 4  by  a u t h o r s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a new s i g n i f i c a n c e under t h e  changed c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the day.  5  Fishbane suggested t h a t these  " s o u r c e " , which Susan Graham d e s c r i b e s i n terms of a " c u l t u r a l code", i . e . , t h e r e i s a l e v e l a t which the new t e x t d e l i v e r s ' f a m i l i a r ' m a t e r i a l - m a t e r i a l the author expects the reader t o p e r c e i v e and t h r o u g h which the r e a d e r s h o u l d i n t e r p r e t the work. T h i s can be done i m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y ( " I n t e r t e x t u a l T r e k k i n g : V i s i t i n g the I n i q u i t y of the F a t h e r s Upon the 'Next G e n e r a t i o n ' , " Semeia 69/70 (1995) 195-219. Here 199-202). M i c h a e l Fishbane, " R e v e l a t i o n and T r a d i t i o n : A s p e c t s of I n n e r - B i b l i c a l E x e g e s i s , " JBL 99.3 (September, 1980) 343-361. 3  4  Fishbane,  343.  5  Fishbane,  346. 2  later  authors  perceived  the  revelation  of  Yahweh  within  the  l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e s , the words, and the h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s r e c o r d e d earlier  in  the  Hebrew  Bible.  Established  e v e n t s , m o t i f s , e t c . , c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d a way  as  to imply u t t e r  legitimacy  same time p r o v i d i n g them w i t h a new, More r e c e n t l y ,  24 and  Judg 19)  for  the  t e x t i n such whilst  at  analysis  variations  more contemporaneous c o n t e x t . importance  6  of  (i.e.,  allows  for  structure, extant  "interpretive text". recognizable etc.,  within  but  the  7  The  first  repetitions  also brings to latter  text;  attention.  8  Such d e v i a n c e s p o i n t  to  some  of the  these  d i f f e r e n c e s t o a g e n e r a l l y assumed p a t t e r n are a r e a s of c o n c e r n demand c l o s e r  the  D a v i d Penchansky made the d i s t i n c t i o n between  precedented vocabulary, fore  authority,  dialogues,  superficially similar stories  " l i t e r a r y t e x t " , " s o c i a l t e x t " and category  i n t o a new  i n h i s a r t i c l e c o n c e r n i n g the  s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s between two Gen  and  themes,  and  altered  s o c i a l f a c t o r o r i n f l u e n c e and t h i s l e a d s the a n a l y s t t o the second c a t e g o r y , which attempts t o d e f i n e a j u s t i f i a b l e s o c i a l c o n t e x t f o r the  composition.  9  The  third  category  introduces  a  degree  of  F i s h b a n e , 354. The example of Exod 3-11 and I s a 19 i s used h e r e ; F i s h b a n e suggests t h a t "the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n of Exod 3-11 had a l r e a d y become s u f f i c i e n t l y a u t h o r i t a t i v e so as t o p r o v i d e the f o i l f o r [an] a u d a c i o u s , t h e o l o g i c a l c o u n t e r p o i n t " i n I s a 19. See a l s o 347,349,353 . D a v i d Penchansky, " S t a y i n g the N i g h t : I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i n G e n e s i s and Judges," i n Reading Between T e x t s : I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y and the Hebrew B i b l e , Dana N o l a n F e w e l l , Ed. ( L o u i s v i l l e : W e s t m i n s t e r , 1992) 77-88. 7  8  Penchansky,  79.  9  Penchansky,  81f. 3  p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a group of t e x t s , w i t h the a t t a i n i n g a new  l e v e l of  "understanding".  intention  of  10  These t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s are complemented by t h r e e s e t s of c r i t e r i a which C r a i g Evans proposes most He  d e f i n e s t h e s e as  "exegetical and  coherence".  corresponds  than,  but  "verbal  to  11  The  coherence", " t h e m a t i c coherence" first  Penchansky s to  the  category i s s e l f  "literary  1  related  concisely.  idea  of  text";  "social  and  explanatory  more s p e c i f i c  text"  is  Evans'  c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e m a t i c c l a r i f i c a t i o n of one t e x t t h r o u g h a n o t h e r ( i . e . , where a passage from the OT  s e r v e s t o i l l u m i n a t e a passage  from the NT t h r o u g h f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g , a c t i o n , e t c . ) . T h i r d l y , Evans n o t e s the i n f l u e n c e of e a r l y e x e g e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of OT on  the  construction  texts.  D.A.  Carson,  (and  therefore,  working  interpretation)  s p e c i f i c a l l y with  the  texts of  NT  Johannine  t e x t s , imposes the t h r e e c r i t e r i a of " d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s " , " t h e m a t i c allusions"  and  "midrash".  categories  of  investigation  generally  1U  12  Whatever into  the  titles  given  intertextuality,  a c c e p t e d t r i a d of v e r b a l / s o c i a l / i n t e r p r e t i v e  Penchansky,  there  to  the is  a  analysis.  81.  C r a i g A. Evans, "The P h a r i s e e and the P u b l i c a n : Luke 18:9-14 and Deuteronomy 26," i n The Gospels and the S c r i p t u r e s of I s r a e l , C r a i g A. Evans and W. R. Stegner, Eds., JSNT SS 104 (Sheffield: S h e f f i e l d AP, 1994) 342-357 (here, 346-351). 11  D. A. Carson, "John and the Johannine E p i s t l e s , " i n I t Is W r i t t e n : S c r i p t u r e C i t i n g S c r i p t u r e , D.A. Carson and H. W i l l i a m s o n , Eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988) 245-264 (here, 245-256) . The f i r s t r e l a t e s t o v e r b a l / l i t e r a r y r e f l e c t i o n s ( i n t e n d e d ) , the second t o - t h e employment of f a m i l i a r themes i n a l t e r e d c o n t e x t s , and the t h i r d ( a r i s i n g from the second) t o the apparent r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and m a n i p u l a t i o n of precedent t e x t s i n o r d e r t o g i v e new "meaning". 12  4  The t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s (or c r i t e r i a ) which s h a l l be used i n t h i s paper f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes a r e : a) L i t e r a r y / V e r b a l  S i m i l a r i t y , i . e . , where t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e of a t e c h n i c a l f o r m u l a , such as the  "as  i t i s written,  repetition  syntax,  b)  evidence  of  (e.g., John 1:23,  1,13  precedented  Thematic/Contextual  of  comparable  12:38, 5:46),  or  n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , grammar  or  R e f l e c t i o n , i . e . , were  there  is  as  the  socio-religious ideology  such  1 4  r e j e c t i o n of a c o r r u p t p r i e s t h o o d , a m a r r i a g e ceremony, a Temple f u n c t i o n , a w e l l s c e n a r i o , e t c . , and i.e.,  where  observations  of  OT  c) E x e g e s i s / I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  passages  altered in  their  new  c o n t e x t by a s h i f t i n tense, the i n t e r j e c t i o n of a word not i n the original,  an  apparent  sentence,  etc.,  change  (e.g.,  John  i n the 1:23,  subject  51),  15  or  object  p e r s p e c t i v e i s r e f e r r e d t o as i n " i n v e r t e d q u o t a t i o n " the  original,  or  'source',  the  demand e x p l a n a t i o n  o r d e r t o j u s t i f y t h e i r e x i s t e n c e w i t h i n the n a r r a t i v e .  cases,  of  passage must be  1 6  in  A shift in and i n such analyzed  c o n t e x t i n o r d e r t o f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e i t s a d o p t i o n i n a new  text.  in 1 7  G a i l O'Day, "Jeremiah 9:22-33 and 1 C o r i n t h i a n s 1:26-31: A Study i n I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , JBL 109.2 (1990) 259-267 (here, 262). 13  14  O'Day ( " I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y " ) 265.  15  O'Day ( " I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y " ) 264.  P.C. B e e n t j e s , " D i s c o v e r i n g A New Path of I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y : I n v e r t e d Q u o t a t i o n s and T h e i r Dynamics," i n L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e and R h e t o r i c a l S t r a t e g i e s i n the Hebrew B i b l e , L. J . de Regt, e t a l , Eds., (Assen, The N e t h e r l a n d s : E i s e n b r a u n s , 1996) 31-50. Here, 32. 16  B e e n t j e s , 49. Fishbane (361) s t a t e s t h a t the 'secondary' t e x t s o f t e n use t h e i r sources "as t h e o l o g i c a l and l i t e r a r y f i c t i o n s t o obscure [ t h e i r ] own i n n o v a t i o n s . " Thus, the 'shift' in p e r s p e c t i v e , o r the change i n grammar may i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e t o show the o r i g i n a l prophecy, law, e t c . , as b e i n g ' u n f u l f i l l e d ' and so i t 17  5  These c r i t e r i a a r e not a p p l i e d c o l l e c t i v e l y , b u t i n d i v i d u a l l y as each case demands. F o r each example i n c l u d e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , t h e r e a r e many o t h e r p o s s i b l e " s o u r c e s " f o r t h e echo w h i c h c o u l d a l t e r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; r e p r e s e n t e d here, though, a r e t h o s e which best serve t o i l l u s t r a t e  a coherent and c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t r a i n o f  thought throughout t h e n a r r a t i v e . One p o s s i b l e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e method proposed here i s i t s s u b j e c t i v i t y . Readings from an i n t e r t e x t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e can o n l y be j u s t i f i e d " i n terms o f t h e r e a d e r s ' i n t e r e s t s o r d e s i r e s t o f i n d o r give  meaning and t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y  way."  18  of doing t h i s  i n any o t h e r  However, as t h e F o u r t h Gospel ( h e r e a f t e r , FG) p r o v i d e s t h e  exegete w i t h many ' r i d d l e s ' t h a t s t a n d a r d n a r r a t i v e c r i t i c i s m has not  succeeded  in  explaining,  the  present  application  of  i n t e r t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s may o f f e r a new i n s i g h t i n t o t h e "meaning" o f the FG.  This  "meaning", a d m i t t e d l y , as Magonet p o i n t s o u t ,  1 9  is  based on a r e l a t i v e l y s u b j e c t i v e r e a d i n g , and "the b e s t one can hope  f o r i s some  "probability"  degree  of  probability."  2 0  This  degree  of  i s a t t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e exegete's d e c i s i o n i n  c h o o s i n g one 'source' o v e r another. The  most fundamental a s p e c t o f J e w i s h i d e o l o g y ,  i t s Credo,  becomes a v i t a l p a r t o f t h e 'meaning' o f t h e new t e x t (3 60) - i . e . , i t i s now b e i n g f u l f i l l e d . 18  A i c h e l e & P h i l i p s 15.  Jonathan Magonet, " C h a r a c t e r / A u t h o r / R e a d e r " The Problem o f P e r s p e c t i v e i n B i b l i c a l N a r r a t i v e , " i n L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e and R h e t o r i c a l S t r a t e g i e s i n t h e Hebrew B i b l e , L . J . de Regt, e t a l . , Eds., 3-13. Here, 4-5. 19  20  Magonet 13 . 6  perhaps,  i s the a n t i c i p a t e d r e c o n s t i t u t i o n  o r renewal  of the  d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d " I s r a e l " ; i t i s l o g i c a l t h a t such a t r a d i t i o n of hope s h o u l d  find  i t s way  i n t o the l i t e r a t u r e  s o c i a l / r e l i g i o u s oppression,  so i t would be l e g i t i m a t e t o c l a i m  t h i s b e l i e f i s expressed i n the Fourth Gospel. an  apparently  ancient  o f a n a t i o n under  tradition  of  S i m i l a r l y , there i s  echoing  previous,  e s t a b l i s h e d i d e o l o g y and/or l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e s i n new texts;  potential  continues  adversaries  i n this  tradition,  of the c l a i m ,  here,  well  religious  that  t h e FG  have t h e onus p l a c e d upon them t o  demonstrate why such a w e l l used and e f f e c t i v e l i t e r a r y  heritage  had been abandoned. The areas of c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i l l be t h e seven semeia n o r m a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e FG, p l u s the p e r i c o p a e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e Temple and t h e more prominent male/female c h a r a c t e r s ; p e r i c o p a e which do not c o n t a i n s p e c i f i c i n t e r t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l , o r do not a s s i s t i n t h e d i s c l o s u r e o f t h e r e n e w a l / p r i e s t l y themes w i l l not be i n c l u d e d .  7  Chapter One:  As  the  Consent and Covenant  area  intertextuality, provide  enough  of  investigation  of  this  study  is  that  of  the aim of t h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r of a n a l y s i s i s t o evidence  of  intertextual  echoes  to  propose  an  i n t e n t i o n a l d e p i c t i o n of the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of J e s u s ' m i s s i o n , i t s purpose and the f o r m a l acceptance  of h i s endeavour t o f u l f i l  his  t a s k . Through the p o r t r a y a l of John the B a p t i s t , N a t h a n a e l , and the wedding a t Cana, and Nicodemus, the n a r r a t i v e c r e a t e s a  coherent  f o u n d a t i o n upon which the r e s t of the g o s p e l can expand.  The  Baptist There are t h r e e i n t e r t e x t u a l p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t i n the e a r l y  depiction  of  John  the  Baptist.  First,  almost  as  soon  n a r r a t i v e b e g i n s , the r e a d e r i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p r o f o u n d of a " t e c h n i c a l " echo, i n the r e n d e r i n g of I s a 40:3  as  the  example  i n John  1:23.  The t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e , "as the prophet s a i d " i s e x p l i c i t , making the echo a f u l l y  i n t e n t i o n a l one.  a n t i c i p a t i o n of the 'echo',  The  shift  i n p e r s p e c t i v e from  I s a i a h passage t o the  exemplifies  the  "inverted  fulfilment  quotation"  of the aspect  the FG of  i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y ; the o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t of the 'source', t h e n , must be  taken  into  consideration i n  an  interpretation  of  John's  proclamation. The  c o n t e x t of I s a 40  from o p p r e s s i o n and  i s one  of an a n t i c i p a t e d d e l i v e r a n c e  ' c a p t i v i t y ' f o r those who a t t e n d the "word" of  God and have p a t i e n c e i n a w a i t i n g h i s 'support'.  The " w i l d e r n e s s " 8  imagery  i n both  instances  i s figurative,  representing  not only  r e l a t i v e g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s , b u t a l s o the ' s t a t e ' i n w h i c h t h e 'captives' e x i s t , i . e . , i n a s p i r i t u a l  "wilderness".  There i s , however, an a l t e r n a t i v e echo 'source', prove i t s p o t e n t i a l l a t e r , e.g.,  which  will  i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e Temple scenes,  M a i 3:1, and t h e sending  o f a messenger  ( c f . John 1:6) t o  "prepare t h e way". Whichever p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e i s i n t e n d e d , "by making h i s c a r e e r ' i n the w i l d e r n e s s ' and so p r e s e n t i n g I s r a e l w i t h a charged symbol by which t o u n d e r s t a n d him,  John  [the B a p t i s t ]  p u r p o s e f u l l y evoke[s] themes o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l r e s t o r a t i o n . "  21  Second, i n the p r i m a r y i n s t a n c e o f t h e FG's c o n s i s t e n t use o f the  analogy  of " s i g h t " , the B a p t i s t  p r i e s t s and L e v i t e s , "Among you stands (John  declares  to the v i s i t i n g  one whom you do n o t know"  1:26). The employment o f t h e " s i g h t " m o t i f ,  the i m p l i c i t  r e f e r e n c e t o ' l e a d e r s ' (v.22), the i n f e r e n c e t h a t something/someone i s p r e s e n t whom some can see and o t h e r s e v i d e n t l y can not, and t h e "wilderness"  context,  a l l echo J e r 17:5-6, where i t i s d e c l a r e d  t h a t those who p u t t h e i r f a i t h i n " m o r t a l " l e a d e r s a r e l e d i n t o a " w i l d e r n e s s " and w i l l be unable t o "see when r e l i e f comes". The FG a f f i r m s that the saviour of I s r a e l i s not recognized, h i s o f f e r of "relief"  n o t n o t i c e d by those  who a r e b l i n d e d by t h e " m o r t a l "  l e a d e r s ( i n the FG's case, the P h a r i s e e s , p r i m a r i l y ) who g u i d e them "away from t h e L o r d " . T h i r d i s the p r o f o u n d statement i d e n t i f y i n g J e s u s as the "Lamb of God" (John 1:29), employing t h e term amnos. T h i s ' h a s  Ben  F. Meyer, The Aims o f J e s u s ,  l o n g been  (London: SCMP, 1979) 118. 9  understood  by e x e g e t e s  22  t o be an a l l u s i o n  t o I s a 53:6-7; i t  appears, though, t h a t t h e FG i s u s i n g t h e B a p t i s t ' s a l l e g e d c l a i m i n q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t John 1:29 i s not necessarily  an  intertextual  echo  of  I s a 53,  i d e o l o g i c a l r e f l e c t i o n o f Gen 22 i s g r e a t e r  and  that  the  ( i n t h e FG) t h a n t h a t  w h i c h r e s u l t s from an a l l e g e d echo o f I s a 53. C o n s i d e r t h e image o f the  "lamb" i n t h e ' S a c r i f i c e o f I s a a c ' p e r i c o p e o f Gen 22:1-19:  1) T h i s  i s t h e o n l y example o f a "lamb" coming from God. A l l 23  o t h e r lambs, e t c . , a r e o f f e r e d up t o God ( i n c l u d i n g t h e lamb o f I s a 53:7). 2) The lamb t a k e s t h e p l a c e o f t h e b e l o v e d "son". God does not  make o f f e r i n g s t o h i m s e l f , so t h e lamb i s seen as t h e redeeming  a n i m a l , n o t , s t r i c t l y , a s a c r i f i c i a l one.  24  3) Because o f Abraham's  l o y a l t y and f a i t h , God promises t h a t h i s " o f f s p r i n g s h a l l p o s s e s s the  g a t e o f t h e i r enemies...and by [them] . . . a l l t h e n a t i o n s o f t h e  earth  [ s h a l l ] g a i n b l e s s i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s " (Gen 22:17-18). In sum, then, i f we c o n s i d e r John 1:29,26 t o be an a l l u s i o n t o  Gen 22, we f i n d t h e c o n s i s t e n t themes o f i ) J e s u s b e i n g "from God", ii) iii)  t h e "son" ( i . e . ,  " I s r a e l " ) b e i n g saved by t h e "lamb" o f God,  t h e promise o f an i d e a l n a t i o n t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e r e s t o f t h e  E.g., John P a u l H e i l , "Jesus as t h e Unique H i g h P r i e s t i n the G o s p e l o f John," CBQ 57.4 (October, 1995) 729-745 (here, 732). A l s o , P e t e r Whale, "The Lamb o f John: Some Myths about t h e V o c a b u l a r y o f t h e Johannine L i t e r a t u r e , " JBL 106.2 (1987) 289-295 (here 2 91) . 22  I s a i a h 53:7 i n t h e LXX does use amnos, b u t i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e " s i l e n t " sheep, not t h e k i l l e d sheep ( t h e r e , p r o b a t o n ) ; G e n e s i s 22:13 uses k r i o s ; Exod 12:5, w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e P a s s o v e r lamb, uses p r o b a t o n . The s u p e r i o r i d e o l o g i c a l echo o f Gen 22 r e v e a l s a p o s s i b l e Hebrew-scriptural precedent. 23  Note t h a t Num 28: I f s t i p u l a t e s t h a t t h e b u r n t o f f e r i n g ( s a c r i f i c e ) i s t o be "two" male lambs, n o t one. I n i n s t a n c e s o f sheep b e i n g s a c r i f i c e d f o r t h e e x p i a t i o n o f " s i n " , as i n Lev-4:325:6, a female sheep i s o f f e r e d up. 24  10  w o r l d c a n be redeemed, and i v ) t h e e l e v a t i o n o f t h e a s 'smoke' i n Gen 22) t o God. of for  J e s u s as t h e P a s s o v e r s c h o l a r s have  With t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the  lamb  been  "lamb"  hard  a l s o becomes more  25  pushed  to  to  Exod  13:13f  the  reconcile  "firstborn"  of  concept  comprehensible, the apparently-  e x p i a t i n g nature of Jesus' death w i t h t h i s n o n - s a c r i f i c i a l According  (i.e.,  the  meal.  Israelites  2 6  are  "redeemed" t h r o u g h t h e s a v i n g b l o o d o f t h e lamb, w h i c h i s p u t u p o n the  door  p o s t s of each  Israelite  thus not o n l y a s a c r i f i c e , Jesus i s the t h e new  "sign"  Kingdom.  home  (Exod  but a l s o a " s i g n "  12:7);  (12:13).  f o r those seeking redemption  It i s , partly,  this  and  2 7  lamb i s  Similarly,  'freedom'  in  to t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of the blood  a n d e a t i n g o f t h e f l e s h o f t h e lamb t o t h a t w h i c h J e s u s a p p a r e n t l y alludes  i n John  smearing reject  of  6:52f; p a r t a k i n g i n t h e meal i s e q u a t e d  the blood  i t , reject  - a l l who  do  so w i l l  be  saved.  w i t h the Those  who  God.  Nathanael I t i s N a t h a n a e l who not  Jesus;  i t is  i s a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e p e r i c o p e 1:45-51,  Nathanael  who  questions  Jesus'  significance  F o r an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n on t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s a c r i f i c e o f I s a a c and t h e P a s s o v e r f e s t i v a l r e a d G e z a V e r m e s , "New L i g h t o n t h e S a c r i f i c e o f I s a a c f r o m 4Q225," J J S 67.1 ( S p r i n g 1996) 140-146 ( e s p e c i a l l y p g . 144) . a  J . L. M c K e n z i e , D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e B i b l e , (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1965) 644. The ' s a c r i f i c i a l ' a s p e c t o f J e s u s ' d e a t h i s d e a l t w i t h i n due c o u r s e . 26  Joachim Jeremias, Jerusalem in ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s , 1975 C 1 9 6 2 ) 78. 2 7  the  Time  of  Jesus 11  (1:46) . R i s i n g t o the ' t e s t ' , Jesus responds by making what Munro and von Wahlde  29  28  b o t h u n d e r s t a n d t o be a " c l a i r v o y a n t " d e c l a r a t i o n ;  he c l a i m s t h a t he has "seen" Nathanael "under the f i g t r e e " (v.48), b e f o r e P h i l i p had even c a l l e d him. The " f i g t r e e " , however, can be taken  as  a  thematic  or  symbolic  echo of  precedent  uses  which  d e s c r i b e the i d e a l of God's p r o t e c t i o n and mercy (e.g., J e r 24:1-8 and Dan  4:10), the n a t i o n (e.g., J o e l 1:7,  peace, p r o s p e r i t y and u n i t y  (1 Kgs 4:25,  12), and the image of  1 Mace 14:11-12, e t c ) .  3 0  One of the most p r o f o u n d l y e s c h a t o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s of t h i s theme i s that expressed  t h a t on the  day  when the o l d p r i e s t h o o d i s c l e a n s e d of i t s i n i q u i t i e s and the  new  high p r i e s t  i n Zech 3:10,  where God  crowned, e t c . , each  man  shall  under h i s " v i n e and f i g t r e e " , presumably unity.  T h i s example, more than  any  promises  invite  his  neighbour  as a s i g n of harmony and  o t h e r , perhaps,  a c t s as  an  i n t e r t e x t u a l 'source' f o r the episode i n John 1, f o r b o t h r e p r e s e n t a f u t u r e r a t h e r than a p a s t s t a t e of a f f a i r s , b o t h i n c o r p o r a t e a ' d i v i n e ' f i g u r e making the 'promise', and b o t h a l l u d e t o an i d e a l ,  Winsome Munro, "The P h a r i s e e and the S a m a r i t a n i n John: Polar or P a r a l l e l ? " CBO 57.4 (October 1995) 710-728 (here 717) . U.C. von Wahlde, The E a r l i e s t V e r s i o n of John's G o s p e l : R e c o v e r i n g the Gospel of S i g n s (Wilmington, Delaware: Glazier, 1989) 60. 29  Cf. B. C h a r e t t e , " 'To P r o c l a i m L i b e r t y t o the C a p t i v e s ' : Matthew 11:28-30 I n the L i g h t of OT P r o p h e t i c E x p e c t a t i o n , " NTS 38 (1992) 290-297 (here 291). C h a r e t t e ' s s t u d y of Matt 11:28-30 r e v e a l s s t r o n g a l l u s i o n s t o the OT d e p i c t i o n of the r e s t o r a t i o n of I s r a e l t h r o u g h the f a i t h f u l s e r v i c e of the "remnant", whose l o y a l t y t o "Torah" ( i . e . , God's 'yoke') u l t i m a t e l y redeems them from "the 'yoke' of f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n " . There i s no r e a s o n t o doubt t h a t the F o u r t h G o s p e l , a l s o , r e f e r s t o such an i d y l l i c p r o s p e c t . 30  12  d i v i n e l y sanctioned  kingdom.  31  G r e a t e r t h i n g s t h a n t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n a l f o r e s i g h t , however, are p r o m i s e d by Jesus (John 1:50); not j u s t i d e a l s but a c t i o n s . imagery heaven  of v.51  draws on  Jacob's v i s i o n  of the  ladder  The  between  and e a r t h , upon which the a n g e l s a r e seen a s c e n d i n g and  descending  (Gen  28:10-17).  The  words  of  Jesus  incorporate  e x p l i c i t , i n t e n t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e t o an OT passage, j u s t as 1:23  an had  done, but t h i s l a c k s the b l a t a n t t e c h n i c a l f o r m u l a w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s o r j u s t i f i e s i t . By a d d r e s s i n g  t h i s v i s i o n t o N a t h a n a e l , the FG  i n f e r s , o r even i m p l i e s , some i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between t h i s c h a r a c t e r and Jacob. The  significance  of  Gen  28:10f  is  determined  by  the  i n f o r m a t i o n God r e l a y s and the subsequent response of Jacob: Yahweh declares  that  he  i s the God  of Abraham and  Isaac,  he  promises  p r o s p e r i t y f o r Jacob's descendants, and he c o n f i r m s the promise of a r e t u r n of the l a n d t o i t s r i g h t f u l  inheritors,  Jacob and h i s  o f f s p r i n g . God c l a i m s t h a t he w i l l be w i t h Jacob and w i l l  "keep"  him wherever he goes u n t i l the promise i s f u l f i l l e d . Jacob responds t o t h i s dream by p r o n o u n c i n g t h a t God has become m a n i f e s t a t t h i s site,  and t h a t t h i s i s t r u l y the "house of God and...the gate of  heaven." He seems s u r p r i s e d a t h i s own i g n o r a n c e of the s a n c t i t y of the p l a c e  (v.16).  Comparing  this  t o the FG v e r s i o n of the l a d d e r  image,  the  The word b a s i l e u s can mean any f o u n d a t i o n of power, r u l e r of a p a r t i c u l a r realm, e t c . , and may j u s t as e a s i l y r e f e r t o a r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r as t o a p o l i t i c a l one. There i s a l s o a sense i n w h i c h the t i t l e of " k i n g " can be a t t r i b u t e d t o a b r i d e g r o o m (G. L l o y d C a r r , The Song of Solomon, ( L e i c e s t e r : I n t e r - V a r s i t y P r e s s , 1984, 84), a p o s s i b l e a l l u s i o n made a l l the c l e a r e r i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. 31  13  s i m i l a r i t i e s b o t h i n format and i n i d e o l o g y become c l e a r ; N a t h a n a e l receives  the  vision  and  the  'promises',  he  reflects  Jacob's  astonishment and subsequent c o n v i c t i o n ( f o r i n h i s i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n on h e a r i n g t h a t J e s u s of N a z a r e t h has come (John 1:46), reveals  an  ignorance  of  the  true  nature  of  Jesus.  Nathanael After  his  'encounter', he r e a c t s i n a r e s p e c t f u l and devout manner, j u s t as Jacob had done), and Nathanael's e x c l a m a t i o n , "you are the Son of God,"  echoes Jacob's a f f i r m a t i o n of God's p r e s e n c e . The FG a u t h o r  intimates  he  is  p u r p o s e f u l l y r e f l e c t i n g h i s " f a t h e r " , the d i v i n e K i n g of I s r a e l  who  'stood  that  Jesus  beside'  'helping  i s acting  Jacob  hand'  in  and  the  as  God's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ,  promised meantime.  a u t h o r i t y and e x c l a i m s h i s f a i t h  him  an  ideal  Nathanael  future,  and  recognizes  i n J e s u s ' word - he  u n d e r s t a n d s . I n N a t h a n a e l ' s d e p i c t i o n i s foreshadowed  a  Jesus'  'sees',  he  the words of  J e s u s i n John 17:6-8.  The  Marriage The  r e a d e r i s i m m e d i a t e l y i n v i t e d , t o a wedding, one  most p r o f o u n d l y s y m b o l i c events i n I s r a e l i t e vehicle  f o r the  t h e o l o g y of  the  FG  society,  of the  where the  i s made apparent.  From  an  i n t e r t e x t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r e a r e , a g a i n , t h r e e c h i e f a r e a s of i n t e r e s t , namely, t h a t of the s a c r e d day of u n i o n , the concept of m a r r i a g e , and m o t i f of the good and bad wines. The p e r i c o p e ( 2 : I f ) b e g i n s w i t h the t e m p o r a l marker, t h i r d day."  "On  The i d e a of s e a l i n g a covenant on the t h i r d day  the first  appears i n Gen 22:4, w i t h Abraham's proposed s a c r i f i c e of I s a a c and the subsequent  promise  of p r o s p e r i t y .  I n Exod 19:9-15, t o o , the  t h i r d day i s s a c r o s a n c t ; i t i s the day of u n i o n and ceremony - i t 14  i s t h e day o f 'marriage' f o r God and h i s s a c r e d b r i d e , t h e o r i g i n a l p r i e s t l y kingdom o f I s r a e l . Note t h a t J e s u s i s seen t o be c a u t i o u s about p e r m i t t i n g h i s mother, a gyne, o r "woman" 'pure' v i r g i n , before  perhaps) near him b e f o r e h i s moment o f " g l o r y " ,  h i s "hour"  allegedly  on  (as opposed t o a  (John 2:4  the t h i r d  c f . Exod  day  after  19:11).  Jesus'  I n John  20:17,  crucifixion,  Mary  approaches him b u t i s warned n o t t o t o u c h him b e f o r e he ' ascends t o the  Father'.  T h i s r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e t h i r d day/purity/woman format  i s i n t e n d e d and s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r i t c r e a t e s an ' i n c l u s i o ' w h e r e i n the  n a r r a t i v e o f t h e FG i s p l a c e d between  t h e two a c t s o f u n i o n  between t h e d i v i n e and J e s u s . One i n i t i a t e s t h e m i s s i o n , t h e o t h e r ends i t . The " t h i r d day" marker, t h e n , a c t s as b o t h a ' t e c h n i c a l ' ( i . e . , v e r b a l ) and an i d e o l o g i c a l  ( i . e . , t h e concept o f covenant)  i n t e r t e x t u a l echo, i n t e n d e d t o convey t h e sense o f a s a c r e d u n i o n , a s e a l i n g o f a covenant. In  o r d e r t o shed some l i g h t on t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e 'wedding  couple',  t h e r e a d e r s h o u l d t u r n t o John 3:29, where t h e debate  concerning  the 'purity'  of Jesus  'baptist')  i s taking place.  (that  The word  i s , i n h i s role  as a  k a t h a r i s m o s i s employed,  here, w h i c h a l s o appears i n t h e wedding p e r i c o p e , w i t h r e s p e c t t o the  s t o n e j a r s o f ' p u r i f i c a t i o n ' water, and t h u s forms an i n t e r n a l  n a r r a t i v e echo o f 2:6. I n t h e B a p t i s t ' s words (vv.27,29) i s h e a r d a  subtle  purity  reminder t h a t  by v i r t u e  J e s u s has been  of h i s being  g r a n t e d such a l e v e l o f  'chosen' by God t o r e c e i v e t h e  "bride". The  wedding  format  employed  'commission' n a t u r e o f J e s u s '  i n John  role;  2,3  emphasizes t h e  where t h e 'world'  may n o t  15  acknowledge  Jesus' p r i e s t l y  status,  3 2  the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n  m i s s i o n by the H o l y S p i r i t has ensured  (or c r e a t e d ? ) i t . Note  the  B a p t i s t ' s r e f e r e n c e t o ' r e j o i c i n g ' over the b r i d e g r o o m  the  format  of  quotation".  I s a 62:4-5,  In I s a i a h ,  i n a subtle  of h i s  example of an  the p a t t e r n i s "bridegroom  how  echoes  "inverted  rejoices  over  b r i d e / God r e j o i c e s over I s r a e l " ; i n John 3, the B a p t i s t r e a f f i r m s not o n l y h i s own p o s i t i o n as J e s u s ' p r e c u r s o r , but a l s o the i d e a of fulfilment, the  f o r by t h i s e x p r e s s i o n of ' j o y o v e r the bridegroom',  r e a d e r i s l e d t o suppose  t h a t the p a t t e r n of I s a 62 w i l l  be  f o l l o w e d , p r o g r e s s i n g from the bridegroom's f r i e n d , t o the groom, to God, w i t h the u l t i m a t e e f f e c t b e i n g r e s t o r e d r e l a t i o n s between Yahweh and The  Israel. wedding  itself  can,  therefore,  be  understood  m e t a p h o r i c a l terms, w i t h J e s u s , the r e c o g n i z e d "Son of God"  in  (i.e.,  God's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) a c c e p t i n g h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I s r a e l .  The  symbolism of the ceremony, e s p e c i a l l y the s e v e n - f o l d b l e s s i n g which c u l m i n a t e s i n a p r a y e r f o r the r e u n i f i c a t i o n of I s r a e l , the  ideal  "marriage" of Yahweh and h i s p e o p l e .  33  reaffirms  The wedding thus  s u p p o r t s the c o n t e x t of renewal/redemption e s t a b l i s h e d i n John 1. W i t h the promise  of g r e a t e r t h i n g s t o come, and  the  vivid  In the case of John the B a p t i s t , of c o u r s e , he i s the son of a p r i e s t , and t h e r e f o r e of p r i e s t l y s t o c k . H i s ' r i g h t ' t o p e r f o r m such an a c t i s not q u e s t i o n e d . J . Neusner, The Way of Torah: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Judaism, (California: Wadsworth, 1988). 50-51. Some examples of the n u p t i a l imagery i n the OT i n c l u d e I s a 54:5; 62:4-5; J e r 2:2. Elsewhere, f o r i n s t a n c e i n the G o s . P h i l . , the H o l y of H o l i e s i s l i k e n e d t o a " B r i d a l Chamber", where o n l y the bridegroom, the h i g h priest, can e n t e r (Barnstone 92,94,95) . There i s a l s o the c o r r e l a t i o n of Jesus as the Lamb (John 1:29) and the b r i d e g r o o m (3:29), t o the i d e a l , e s c h a t o l o g i c a l m a r r i a g e w i t h the new I s r a e l as the b r i d e , i n Rev 21:9. 33  16  imagery o f t h e i d y l l i c f u t u r e s t a t e , i t can not be doubted t h a t t h e wedding  scenario  represents  the t r a d i t i o n a l ,  anticipated  union  between God and t h e f a i t h f u l remnant o f I s r a e l . The FG m a r r i a g e not only  makes  'official'  Jesus'  mission  to restore  Israel  to  its  former g l o r y , but i t s e t s t h e i d e o l o g y f o r much o f t h e subsequent narrative. Intertextuality  thrives  (political/religious)  crisis  in  a  context  (see I n t r o d u c t i o n ) ;  of  social  although  the  c o n t e x t e s t a b l i s h e d i n John 1 f u l f i l s t h i s , t h e f i r s t semeion, o r s i g n , o f t h e FG  r e i n f o r c e s t h e s i t u a t i o n i n terms o f J e s u s ' r o l e ,  and makes t h e problem f a r more p r a g m a t i c and immediate. The semeion at  Cana i l l u s t r a t e s  t h e degraded moral c o n d i t i o n o f I s r a e l and  i n t r o d u c e s t h e concept o f an ' a l t e r n a t i v e ' way o f l i f e by e c h o i n g the  "drunkenness" i d e o l o g y i n t h e OT.  34  The b a s i c i m p l i c a t i o n o f  the  t e a c h i n g s about wine and s t r o n g d r i n k i s t h a t t h e drunken s t a t e  is  self  imposed;  there  i s a subsequent  lack  o f knowledge  and  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , f o l l o w e d by an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e - e s t a b l i s h o n e s e l f on  a  righteous  path.  35  Here,  i n John  2,  the guests  are too  The concept o f wine, o r s t r o n g d r i n k , i n t h e OT can be c a t e g o r i z e d under t h r e e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g s , a) wine t h a t o f f e r s s o l a c e , o r i s used f o r c e l e b r a t i o n s , e t c . , (e.g., Exod 10:19, Judg 9:13, Ps 104:15, e t c . ) ; b) wine w h i c h d u l l s t h e senses t o t h e i m b i b e r ' s d i s a d v a n t a g e , making the w i l l weak, e t c . , (e.g., Gen 9:21f, Prov 4:17, 20:1, 31:4-6, Hos 4:11, e t c . ) ; and c) wine w h i c h a c t s as t h e medium f o r God's w r a t h o r mercy (e.g., Job 21:20, Ps 11:6, J e r 25:15, e t c . ) . Devora Steinmetz, "Vineyard, Farm and Garden: The Drunkenness o f Noah i n t h e Context o f P r i m a l H i s t o r y , " JBL 113.2 (Summer 1994) 193-207. 17  intoxicated  t o appreciate  t h e good w i n e ,  36  there  i s confusion  about where t h e new wine has come from (2:9; note t h e i n t e r n a l echo of t h e i n a b i l i t y wine i t s e l f  t o see ' r e l i e f '  coming, i n 1:26), and t h e good  represents the righteous path.  Such an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r redemption, however, demands a c e r t a i n degree o f "moral agency" - i t demands a " c h o i c e " between good and evil.  This i s p r e c i s e l y the s i t u a t i o n portrayed  3 7  i n t h e FG; a  c h o i c e has t o be made between J e s u s , t h e good wine, t h e l i g h t , t h e righteous wine)  3 8  path,  etc.,  and t h e c u r r e n t  w i t h i t s tendency toward p e r s o n a l  and even d e c e i t .  establishment advancement,  (the  arrogance  The c h o i c e w i l l be s e t b e f o r e t h e people  the m i s s i o n Jesus i s about t o undertake.  bad  through  I t w i l l culminate  i n the  p e r i c o p e i n v o l v i n g Jesus and Barabbas, i n John 18.  Nicodemus Because o f t h e unusual argued  from  one extreme  n a t u r e o f John 3:1-15, s c h o l a r s have  perspective  t o another  about  what i s  a c t u a l l y g o i n g on here, w i t h many a n a l y s e s c o n c l u d i n g e i t h e r t h a t Nicodemus i s i g n o r a n t o f t h e ' t r u t h ' i n J e s u s ' w o r d s / a c t i o n s , and  C f . Gos. Thorn. 2 8... I took my p l a c e i n t h e midst o f t h e w o r l d . . . I found a l l o f them i n t o x i c a t e d ; I found none o f them t h i r s t y . . . f o r the moment they are i n t o x i c a t e d . When t h e y shake o f f t h e i r wine, then they w i l l r e p e n t . 5(3  37  Steinmetz 207.  A c c o r d i n g t o I s a 1:22, "wine mixed w i t h water" wine) i s a s i g n o f a debauched s o c i e t y . 38  (bad/weak 18  that h i s s p i r i t u a l progress i s thwarted at t h i s e a r l y s t a g e , that  the  construction  "disjunctures" an  analysis  of  the  narrative,  itself,  which r e q u i r e e l a b o r a t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s . of  how  the  FG  pericope  demonstrates  39  or  presents 4 0  Through profound  v e r b a l / l i t e r a r y and i d e o l o g i c a l echoes ( i n t h i s example, o f 2 Esdr) Nicodemus i s g r a n t e d a new v i t a l i t y . The reason f o r i n c l u d i n g t h i s p e r i c o p e i n t h e "Consent and Covenant" c a t e g o r y i s t h a t Nicodemus' s t o r y i l l u s t r a t e s how Jesus i s g o i n g t o f u l f i l  h i s covenant w i t h  God. Symbolically,  t h e name Nicodemos i s o p t i m i s t i c ,  for i t  o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d t o mean " c o n q u e r o r / v i c t o r f o r t h e p e o p l e " ;  41  is he  i s immediately a s s o c i a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , w i t h the p o s i t i v e n o t i o n of "victory".  I t i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s an archon  (John 3:1), o r " l e a d e r " o f t h e "Jews" - a P h a r i s e e , y e t he i s a l s o described,  by  Jesus,  as  "the t e a c h e r  designation normally granted p r i e s t s  of  Israel"  (3:10),  a  ( c f . Deut 31:9-13, 33:10). A  c u l t u s which i s d e e p l y i n f l u e n c e d by P h a r i s a i c b e l i e f and a u t h o r i t y • Urban, C. von Wahlde ( i n " L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e and T h e o l o g i c a l Argument i n Three D i s c o u r s e s w i t h t h e Jews i n t h e F o u r t h G o s p e l , " JBL 103.4 (December, 1984) 575-584), f o r example, understands t h e d i s c u s s i o n between Nicodemus and Jesus as one which i s i n t e n d e d as a "critique of miracle f a i t h " , suggesting t h a t Nicodemus, r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e " a u t h o r i t i e s " , shows an i n t e r e s t b u t u l t i m a t e l y f a i l s t o "accept t h e c o n c l u s i o n s which t h e s i g n s . . . f o r c e upon [him] " (77) . Lee, on t h e o t h e r hand, sees a g r e a t d e a l o f symbolism i n t h e p e r i c o p e , d e s c r i b i n g t h e " b i r t h " imagery i n terms o f humanity's " s t r u g g l e " t o ascend t o t h e d i v i n e - t h e p a i n o f " t r a n s i t i o n from t h e o l d t o t h e new" (43f) , w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r u l t i m a t e l y comprehending " n o t h i n g a t a l l " ( 5 5 ) . The symbolism o f v. 8 c o n t a i n s elements o f both p e n e t r a t i o n / c o n c e p t i o n and b i r t h couched i n m e t a p h o r i c a l terms. 3V  W i l l i a m C. Grese, " 'Unless One I s Born A g a i n ' :' The Use o f a Heavenly Journey i n John 3," JBL 107.4 (December, 1988) 677-693. Here, 678. 40  41  McKenzie, 614. 19  i s thus i n f e r r e d .  The  " v i c t o r y " h i s name i m p l i e s i s not o n l y a  conquest o v e r h i s own i g n o r a n c e ; i t i s a l s o a s p i r i t u a l v i c t o r y f o r the p e o p l e  at  large,  whose  ' e d u c a t i o n ' Nicodemus i s a t t r i b u t e d  (3:10) - he can, and must, t e a c h by h i s example. I n t h i s r e g a r d he becomes a r e f l e c t i o n of J e s u s ' own The  thematic  context  judgement which w i l l  of  2  'conquest' of the 'world'. Esdr  i s the  day  of  from the c o r r u p t ,  the  I t i s a d i a t r i b e against a w i l f u l  and  s e p a r a t e the f a i t h f u l  "dead" from the " l i v i n g " .  imminent  w i c k e d p e o p l e , whose n e g l e c t of God has brought them d e s p a i r . I n 2 E s d r 3:28-36, E z r a has been q u e r y i n g the moral s t a t u s of I s r a e l in  God's eyes; he  i s under the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t  Israel  has  l o y a l and t r u e , but has not been rewarded f o r i t s goodness.  been  (Noting  the P h a r i s a i c c o n t e x t of Nicodemus' d e p i c t i o n , the 'echo' of t h i s p r e s u m p t i o n , i n d e e d a r r o g a n c e , i s i m p l i c i t w i t h i n the FG's g e n e r a l p o r t r a i t of the proud P h a r i s e e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e i n John  9:40-41) . In response  to t h i s ,  the a n g e l U r i e l  i s sent t o  o f f e r E z r a a p a t h t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t . At the o u t s e t , however, E z r a ' s understanding  i s weak:  "You  cannot  understand  the t h i n g s w i t h  which you have grown up; how then can your mind comprehend the of  the  Most  High?"  p a r a p h r a s e d i n John  demands  Uriel  (4:10).  This  is  way  simply  3:12.  Only those whose o r i g i n s are " i n heaven", the a n g e l c o n t i n u e s , can  truly  understand  heavenly  matters  (v.21).  P h a r i s e e , i s n o t , by FG s t a n d a r d s , "from God"  Nicodemus,  ( c f . John 8:47),  a and  thus can not comprehend 'heavenly' m a t t e r s u n l e s s he i s r e b o r n from 'above'  (3:7) .  42  E z r a i s confused,  claiming  he  does not  desire  The word f o r "you" here i s p l u r a l , i n f e r r i n g t h a t Nicodemus, l i k e N a t h a n a e l , i s r e p r e s e n t i n g a group. 42  20  knowledge o f h e a v e n l y t h i n g s , he merely wishes t o u n d e r s t a n d why I s r a e l appears t o have been f o r s a k e n . U r i e l responds by i n s i s t i n g t h a t the r o o t o f " e v i l " , t h e " p l a c e where e v i l has been sown", must "pass away" b e f o r e t h e " f i e l d where t h e good has been sown" c a n "come" (2 E s d r 4:29). T h i s theme, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d , i s apparent i n t h e concept o f t h e old/new wines and t h e old/new Temple, i n John 2. B e g i n n i n g t o p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e f a u l t may l i e w i t h i n itself,  a f a u l t which p r o l o n g s t h e advent o f t h e 'new e r a ' , E z r a  demands f u r t h e r i n s i g h t . fault  Israel  I n John  7:50-51, Nicodemus p e r c e i v e s a  i n the rash behaviour of h i s f e l l o w Pharisees, r e q u e s t i n g  clarification.  U r i e l uses t h e imagery o f a woman g i v i n g b i r t h a t  the end o f h e r term, i n s i n u a t i n g t h a t t h e ' d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e o l d w o r l d ' i s an i n e v i t a b i l i t y which cannot be a v o i d e d - t h a t t h e e v i l will  be e r a d i c a t e d and t h e r i g h t e o u s w i l l  be 'reborn' from t h e  "womb" o f Hades (4:41-42). The ' e a r t h l y ' woman cannot r e t r i e v e h e r "foetus"  (v.40), b u t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t God c a n ( i . e . , where  the " f o e t u s " i s u n d e r s t o o d t o be t h e s p i r i t u a l  "child",  Israel).  The r e p r o d u c t i v e theme i s echoed w i t h i n t h e b a s i c premise o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n between Jesus and Nicodemus. F o r E z r a (2 E s d r 4 : 5 2 f f ) , and  f o r Nicodemus  (John 3:2) t h e c e n t r a l  element  of a piqued  i n t e r e s t i s the m a t t e r o f " s i g n s " - s i g n s p o i n t i n g t o a new t r u t h , o r r e a l i t y , t h a t i s not e a s i l y comprehended. "Seeing" t h e s i g n s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g them r e q u i r e a degree o f h u m i l i t y and d i f f i c u l t y the r e b i r t h i s a p a i n f u l one ( c f . 2 E s d r 7:14; John 3:8). Ezra  i s asked,  "why a r e you d i s t u r b e d . . . why  have you n o t  c o n s i d e r e d i n your mind what i s t o come. . .?" (2 E s d r 7:15-16) . Such a q u e s t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n J e s u s ' astonishment over Nicodemus' l a c k 21  of  u n d e r s t a n d i n g even  "teach" I s r a e l  though  (John 3:9-10).  he  r e p r e s e n t s t h o s e who  claim  to  The  inadequacy of t h e s e " t e a c h e r s "  i s , once a g a i n , brought t o the f o r e of the n a r r a t i v e . The convey  underlying  'order' t o E z r a i s a commission  what he has  learnt  t o o t h e r s - he  f o r him  to  i s t o t e a c h from h i s  e x p e r i e n c e ( c f . 2 E s d r 14:22), t o show p e o p l e the "path" t o " L i f e " . J u s t as the this  'vision'  'commission'  Nicodemus,  the  g r a n t e d t o Nathanael echoes  of  Ezra's  " t e a c h e r of  is  echoed  Israel".  The  in  t h a t of Jacob,  the  depiction  only aspect  of  of J e s u s '  c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Nicodemus which does not appear t o have a d i r e c t p r e c e d e n t i n 2 E s d r i s the r e f e r e n c e t o the "Son of Man" "lifted  being  up."  In h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r o l e , the "Son of Man" up"  43  in a  sense  which  r a i s i n g "Nehushtan"  evokes  the  image  (John 3:14-15; Num  must be  (and meaning) of  "lifted Moses  2 1 : 4 f ) . T h i s i s an e x p l i c i t  use of i n t e r t e x t u a l e c h o i n g , i n t e n d e d t o d i r e c t the r e a d e r t o a p a r t i c u l a r OT p r e c e d e n t . I t i s c l a i m e d i n Num snakes l u r k i n the w i l d e r n e s s , and those who  21 t h a t  poisonous  are b i t t e n w i l l d i e  u n l e s s t h e y l o o k a t the bronze s e r p e n t . I n b o t h Num  21 and the FG,  i t i s suggested, the fundamental theme i s the r e c o n f i r m a t i o n of the power  of  Egyptians,  God. so  Just  as  God  "Nehushtan",  and  h i s people  i n the former  triumphed  instance,  over  the  s t a n d s as  a  The d i s c u s s i o n on the p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n s / r o l e of the Johannine "Son of Man" i s t o o l e n g t h y f o r t h i s paper; see e.g., John J . C o l l i n s , "The Son of Man i n F i r s t C e n t u r y Judaism," NTS 38 (1992) 448-466. Margaret Davies R h e t o r i c and R e f e r e n c e i n the F o u r t h G o s p e l , JSNT SS 69, ( S h e f f i e l d : S h e f f i e l d AP, 1992) 78) M a u r i c e Casey, From J e w i s h Prophet t o G e n t i l e God: The O r i g i n s and Development of New Testament C h r i s t o l o g y , (Cambridge: C l a r k e , 1991) 46-55. W.R.G. Loader, "The C e n t r a l S t r u c t u r e of Johannine C h r i s t o l o g y , " NTS 30.2 ( A p r i l 1984) 188-216, here 207-208). 4,5  22  reminder t h a t even i n t h e " w i l d e r n e s s " , where t e m p t a t i o n s abound, the s a v i n g power o f God i s t h e r e f o r a l l who seek i t out.  It i sa  beacon o f s a l v a t i o n i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s . The "Son o f Man" must be r a i s e d up i n a l i k e manner. 'He' must be s e t b e f o r e t h e n a t i o n as a s i g n by which t h e remnant, o r those "chosen"  ( c f . 2 E s d r 16:74:  "my e l e c t ones") may see t h e way t o an e v e r l a s t i n g " l i f e " . the  alternative  i s a spiritual  contemporaneous "snakes" but  "death"  Where  4 4  under t h e i n f l u e n c e  of  ( i . e . , t h e P h a r i s e e s and t h e c u l t u s a l l  r u l e d by them), J e s u s , as t h e d i v i n e l y s a n c t i o n e d agent f o r  Israel,  o f f e r s h i m s e l f as t h e new "Nehushtan" , as t h e r i g h t e o u s ,  p r e - o r d a i n e d a l t e r n a t i v e . T h i s may a l s o be i n t e n d e d as a c o n c e p t u a l echo o f t h e commission i n I s a 62:10-11: " . . . l i f t up an e n s i g n over the p e o p l e s ... see, The  your s a l v a t i o n comes."  significance  of  this,  perhaps  the  most  blatant  i n t e r t e x t u a l echo i n t h e FG, i s t o r e v e a l t h e manner i n w h i c h J e s u s i s g o i n g t o complete t h e 'work' g i v e n t o him by God: He w i l l use "signs",  and he w i l l a c t as a " s i g n " h i m s e l f .  I t i s possible  that  the c h a r a c t e r o f Nicodemus i s t o be t h e 'son o f man' (the "human") who i s s e t / r a i s e d up as an example f o r o t h e r s t o f o l l o w .  Summary The  i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes apparent i n t h e t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s o f  H. H o l l i s , i n "The Root o f t h e Johannine Pun - HYPSOTHENAI, " NTS 35 (1989) 475-478, suggests t h a t d e s p i t e any " t h e o l o g i c a l l i n k s " between Num 21 and John 3, a more f r u i t f u l l i n k s h o u l d be made on t h e l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l , where Gen 40:13,19 i s c i t e d as p r e c e d e n t f o r t h e i d e a o f b e i n g ' l i f t e d up'. Here, H o l l i s s t a t e s , the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f J e s u s ' impending d e a t h and e x a l t a t i o n can be p a r a l l e l e d w i t h t h e e x a l t a t i o n o f t h e b a k e r and t h e beheading o f the b u t l e r i n t h e "dream" n a r r a t i v e . T h i s i g n o r e s t h e s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n t e r t e x t u a l source b e i n g employed. 44  23  the B a p t i s t i n John 1 e s t a b l i s h the c o n t e x t u a l s e t t i n g o f J e s u s ' m i s s i o n . The emphasis i s upon the s p i r i t u a l waywardness of I s r a e l , the f a i l u r e of those who most r e q u i r e 'help' t o see t h a t which i s b e f o r e them, and the a n t i c i p a t e d redemption of the s i n f u l n a t i o n t h r o u g h the m i s s i o n of J e s u s . The o p t i m i s t i c v i s i o n of the f u t u r e is  related  through  the  vision  granted  to Nathanael,  which  p r e s e n t e d as an i d e o l o g i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l echo of Gen 28:12f. wedding at Cana i s u n d e r s t o o d affirmation  of  Jesus'  t o be  mission.  It  the p e r s o n a l , o r i s , i n effect,  a  is The  private, symbolic  'marriage' of J e s u s t o the w i l l of God, but a l s o i t echoes I s r a e l ' s a n t i c i p a t i o n of a r e u n i o n w i t h God under a new covenant. The wine motif  reiterates  (i.e.,  a  judgement  the s t a t e of the  spiritual of,  and  wilderness), ultimate  'world' a l l u d e d t o i n John  echoing  mercy on,  a  the  OT  theme of  people  1  God's  intoxicated  by  e v e r y t h i n g but 'the word of God' . The p o r t r a i t of Nicodemus and the c o n v e r s a t i o n he has w i t h Jesus are a p r o f o u n d echo of the d i a l o g u e between E z r a and U r i e l i n 2 E s d r , where the i n i q u i t y of the p e o p l e is  seen  to  be  o b s c u r i n g the  path  back  to  God.  Nicodemus,  a  P h a r i s e e , r e p r e s e n t s the o b s t a c l e Jesus must overcome i f he i s t o 'conquer the w o r l d ' ; a beacon of hope and e n l i g h t e n m e n t must be s e t b e f o r e the p e o p l e i f t h e y are t o f i n d the r i g h t e o u s p a t h a g a i n . The o p t i m i s t i c naming of Nicodemus, and h i s s i m i l a r i t y j u s t i f i e d i n h i s f i n a l appearance  t o E z r a , are  i n John 19, where he i s seen t o  have overcome the "darkness". To  understand  how  the  FG  expands  upon  the  concepts  of  m a r r i a g e , and ' r e g e n e r a t i o n ' , the next c h a p t e r f o c u s e s on what may c o n s t i t u t e the c e n t r a l l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e of the FG.  24  Chapter Two: A n t i c i p a t i n g Hephzibah  The  r h e t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n i t i a t i n g Jesus' mission i n  the c o n t e x t o f a marriage covenant i s made a l l t h e more p r o f o u n d by a c e r t a i n t r i a n g u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n i n v o l v i n g the d e p i c t i o n s of the t h r e e c h i e f female c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e g o s p e l , namely, t h e Samaritan woman, t h e a d u l t e r e s s , and Mary. In  his article,  Genesis  " 'Covenant'  and Exodus,"  Rolf  as a S t r u c t u r i n g Concept i n  Rendtorff  45  implies  that  biblical  r e s e a r c h has h i t h e r t o f o c u s e d on e i t h e r t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , or l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , combine  these  two approaches  s i g n i f i c a n c e through suggests  and t h a t c u r r e n t exegetes s h o u l d attempt t o  literary  that d i s t i n c t  i n a b i d to explain theological setting,  and v i c e v e r s a .  Rendtorff  t e x t s w i t h i n t h e canon o f t h e I s r a e l i t e  S c r i p t u r e s ( i n h i s case t h e s t o r y o f Noah i n Genesis and t h e S i n a i pericopae  o f Exodus) a r e p o t e n t i a l l y  t h r o u g h an a p p a r e n t l y i n t e n t i o n a l  related  i n their  theology  'echoing' o f a c e n t r a l  literary  s t r u c t u r e . This ' s t r u c t u r e ' , Rendtorff suggests, i s the p a t t e r n of 'covenant made / broken / remade', w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g t h e o l o g y o f each example b e i n g t h a t God adheres t o h i s p a r t o f t h e covenant even when humanity does not, covenant" . In  i . e . , he had promised an " e t e r n a l  46  the Fourth  Gospel,  there  appears  t o be  a  similar  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f a precedent " l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e " , which a c t s b o t h as  a  foundation 45  Genesis 46  f o r the theology  of  the gospel  and as a  R o l f R e n d t o r f f , "Covenant as a S t r u c t u r i n g Concept i n and Exodus," JBL 108.3 ( F a l l 1989) 385-393 (here, 3 8 5 ) . R e n d t o r f f , 392-393. 25  s y n t h e s i z i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r the l i t e r a r y n a r r a t i v e . The c r i t e r i a f o r determining  the i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes which s y n t h e s i z e  distinct  p o r t r a i t s into a recognizable central structure include  FG  comparable  s t r u c t u r e and i d e o l o g y t o a precedent 'prophecy' and, i n an o b l i q u e sense,  the apparent  within  the  shift  from t h i s prophecy  narrative, similar  to that  to i t s f u l f i l m e n t  e x h i b i t e d by  1:23.  This  ' t h r e e - s i d e d ' s t r u c t u r e a c t s as the c e n t r a l t h e o l o g i c a l i d e o l o g y of the  FG. There  is a  strong  tradition  i n the  Israel/God r e l a t i o n s h i p i n metaphorical "marriage-divorce-remarriage"  OT  of  depicting  the  terms, i n c l u d i n g t h a t of a  scenario.  4 7  The  initial  marriage i s  n u l l i f i e d by the i l l i c i t conduct of the ' b r i d e ' , but a new m a r r i a g e (i.e.,  a new  covenant)  her c h a r a c t e r .  4 8  i s promised based upon the r e f o r m a t i o n  of  I n such s c e n a r i o s , elements of symbolism a r e used  to depict a "harlot" f i g u r e ,  4 9  o r p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . The a n t i c i p a t i o n  of the r e - m a r r i a g e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n o p t i m i s t i c terms, as i n the passage of I s a 62:4-5, where Yahweh speaks t o h i s p e o p l e ,  Israel,  s a y i n g : ". . .you s h a l l be c a l l e d My D e l i g h t i s i n Her, and your l a n d Married." will  The  desperation  of the age,  a l l pass away, and i n t h a t day,  b e l o v e d b r i d e of her God.  the wickedness,  the f e a r ,  I s r a e l s h a l l become as the  T h i s redeemed and g l o r i f i e d n a t i o n i s  Seock-Tae Sohn i n The D i v i n e E l e c t i o n of I s r a e l , (Michigan: Eerdmans, 1991) 262-263. Sohn notes t h a t m o t i f s a r e a l s o t a k e n from nomadic t r a d i t i o n s , a g r i c u l t u r e , w a r f a r e , the r o y a l c o u r t , e t c . 48  Sohn, 264.  Jan Fekkes I I I , "His B r i d e Has P r e p a r e d H e r s e l f : R e v e l a t i o n 12-21 and I s a i a n N u p t i a l Imagery," JBL 109.2 (Summer 1990) 269287. A l s o , Mordechai A. Friedman, " I s r a e l ' s Response i n Hosea 2:17b: 'You a r e my Husband," JBL 99.2 (June, 1980) 199-204 (here, 200) . 49  26  personified  in  the  ideal,  "Hephzibah".  50  In  anticipation  of  Hephzibah's a c c e s s i o n t o the r i g h t hand of Yahweh, the n a r r a t i v e of the F o u r t h Gospel p r o v i d e s a m a t r i x from which such a can  circumstance  evolve. A c c o r d i n g t o Ezek 16, the p o r t r a i t of the u n f a i t h f u l b r i d e of  Yahweh  follows  the  pattern:  election,  bathing  (cleansing),  anointing, elevation, i n f i d e l i t y , g u i l t / t r i a l , forgiveness, eternal covenant.  51  Each  of  these  factors  is  represented  in  the  FG  n a r r a t i v e ; as the p e r i c o p a e of John the B a p t i s t and the wine a t the wedding have shown, I s r a e l state  corresponding  begins  The  i s 'currently' i n a sorry state - a  t o t h a t of  "infidelity".  Thus, the  pattern  i n medias r e s .  Samaritan Woman Modern e x e g e s i s on the Samaritan woman's p e r i c o p e (John 4)  centred,  largely,  upon two  p r o g r e s s i o n of f a i t h ,  distinct  factors,  namely,  the  i n comparison w i t h t h a t of Nicodemus,  the p o s s i b l e a t t r i b u t i o n of d i s t i n c t l y Samaritan  has  rapid 52  and  i n f l u e n c e s upon  Cf. J u l i a M. O'Brien, "Judah as Wife and Husband: D e c o n s t r u c t i n g Gender i n M a l a c h i , " JBL 115.2 (Summer, 1996) 241250. O ' B r i e n notes t h a t the d i v i n e - m a r r i a g e theme s h i f t s i n i t s a l l o c a t i o n of gender r o l e s ( f o r G o d / I s r a e l ) , as e v i d e n c e d i n M a l a c h i . In f a c t , the same c o u l d be s a i d of the FG, f o r a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s t h i s c e n t r a l "female" s t r u c t u r e , some elements of Ezek 16 c o r r e s p o n d w i t h "male" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of I s r a e l (e.g., the b l i n d man and L a z a r u s ) . 50  T h i s p a t t e r n i s condensed from the o u t l i n e g i v e n by W a l t h e r E i c h r o d t , i n E z e k i e l : A Commentary ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W e s t m i n s t e r , 1970) 205-220. 51  For example, Munro's a r t i c l e , "The P h a r i s e e and the S a m a r i t a n i n John,"; a l s o , R.E. Brown, The Community of the B e l o v e d D i s c i p l e , (New York: P a u l i s t P r e s s , 1979) 187, and C K . B a r r e t t , The G o s p e l According- t o S t . John, 2nd ed., ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W e s t m i n s t e r , 1978) 228. 52  27  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e g o s p e l .  5 3  What t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t  a n a l y s i s i s aimed a t r e v e a l i n g i s how t h e two f a c t o r s o f t h e " w e l l " and t h e woman's m a r i t a l s t a t u s support t h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e p a t t e r n p r e s c r i b e d by E z e k i e l . I n John 2, Jesus i s p r e s e n t i n g h i m s e l f t o an  'intoxicated'  w o r l d - a w o r l d i n which t h e i n h a b i t a n t s have been seduced cheap wine b u t have remained i n t o Samaria, t h e  'parched' . Here,  by a  we see him t r a v e l  ( a l l e g e d ) q u i n t e s s e n c e o f debauchery,  etc.  5 4  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the well/water s c e n a r i o a l l o w s f o r Jesus t o o f f e r h i m s e l f as t h e b e a r e r o f a s a t i a t i n g  alternative.  The w e l l p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e i n b o t h t h e FG and t h e P e n t a t e u c h , and i t does so i n much t h e same way i n each. of  the w e l l  tradition  i s well  established  The b a s i c and need  structure not be  r e p r o d u c e d h e r e ; what i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c a l l i s t h a t t h e u n d e r l y i n g theme o f these p e r i c o p a e i s t h a t o f t h e s e c u r i n g o f f a m i l y and t h e m a i n t a i n i n g o f t h e same, through m a r r i a g e .  ties,  55  The presence o f a woman a t t h e w e l l a t t h e " s i x t h hour", and i n "broad d a y l i g h t " , i n Gen 29:7 and John 4:6, r e s p e c t i v e l y , p o i n t s t o an i n t e n d e d c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e s t o r y o f Jacob, t e m p o r a l p r e c i s i o n o f t h e account  echoing the  ( c f . b o t h Gen 24:11 and 29:7  s t i p u l a t e t h e 'proper' time f o r u s i n g t h e w e l l i s i n t h e e v e n i n g ) .  See, e.g., Edwin Freed, " D i d John W r i t e H i s G o s p e l P a r t l y t o Win S a m a r i t a n C o n v e r t s ? " NT 12 (1970) 241-256; Pamment, " I s There C o n v i n c i n g Evidence o f Samaritan I n f l u e n c e on t h e F o u r t h G o s p e l ? " ZNW 73 (1982) 221-230. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n about t h e ways i n which Samaria i s p r e s e n t e d as t h e 'whoring' woman, see John J . S c h m i t t , "The V i r g i n of I s r a e l : R e f e r e n t and Use o f t h e Phrase i n Amos and J e r e m i a h , " CBO 53.1 (January, 1991) 365-387. Here, 377-383. 54  55  C f . a l s o , Gen 16:7-14, 21:25-35, Num 21:16-18. 28  R o b i n s o n c l a i m s t h a t by coming out a t "midday", the S a m a r i t a n woman r e v e a l s t h a t she was "was f o r c e d t o go t o [Jacob's] main t r a d e - r o u t e repute".  used by t h e caravans"  w e l l on t h e  because o f h e r "dubious  I n o t h e r words, she was a t Jacob's w e l l o n l y because she  happened t o be a v o i d i n g the o t h e r women, who would have s c o r n e d h e r as an ' a d u l t e r e s s ' . in  requesting  demonstrating  a  5 6  drink  ideals,  from  on t h e o t h e r hand, supposes t h a t this  Samaritan  woman,  Jesus i s  the "new o r d e r o f r e a l i t y which t r a n s c e n d s r a c i a l and  gender d i s t i n c t i o n s . " of  M. Davies,  5 7  T h i s i s , perhaps, a post-modern i m p o s i t i o n  f o r as t h i s  paper i s a t t e m p t i n g  t o demonstrate, t h e  e n t i r e t h e o l o g i c a l m a t r i x o f t h e FG i s dependant upon t h e r e  being  a " h a r l o t " - t y p e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n Ezek 16:51-52, however, i t i s the  S a m a r i t a n " s i s t e r " I s r a e l i t e s who a r e deemed more worthy o f  " f a v o u r a b l e judgement" than t h e i r Judean c o u n t e r p a r t s . Robinson may, t h e r e f o r e , be on the r i g h t t r a c k . p r o p h e t Hosea i s t o l d t o seek out an ' a d u l t e r o u s ' l o v e her. He i s t o do t h i s i n o r d e r t o s y m b o l i z e  I n Hos 3, t h e woman and t o  (and understand)  the t o l e r a n c e and f o r g i v e n e s s o f God's l o y a l t y t o I s r a e l , who has t u r n e d a g a i n s t him.  By p u r p o s e f u l l y d e p i c t i n g J e s u s as i n v i t i n g a  S a m a r i t a n woman i n t o t h e " f o l d " , t h e FG echoes t h e i d e o l o g y  behind  Hosea's commission, and echoes t h e ' f a v o u r i t i s m ' o f Ezek 16:51-52. The w e l l t r a d i t i o n i n Gen 24, though, p r o v i d e s f o r a s t r o n g e r intertextual  echo based on n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and theme.  58  Here,  John A.T. Robinson, The P r i o r i t y o f John, J.F. Coakley, Ed. (London: SCMP, 1985) 134, n.38. 56  57  M. D a v i e s 79.  C f . Margaret Pamment ("Is There C o n v i n c i n g E v i d e n c e o f S a m a r i t a n I n f l u e n c e on the F o u r t h Gospel?" ZNW 73 (1982) 222), who (continued...) 58  29  t h e r e a r e almost v e r b a t i m r e p e t i t i o n s o f d i a l o g u e (e.g., vv.17,33) but a l s o , o f t h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e ; l i k e t h e ' s e r v a n t ' i n t h e former story,  Jesus  i s on an " e r r a n d " o f s o r t s ,  doing  t h e "work" h i s  "master" has g i v e n him t o do (John 4:34) , he e n t e r s i n t o a d i a l o g u e w i t h a woman which  i s u l t i m a t e l y concerned  w i t h 'marriage', and  because he i s r e c o g n i z e d as God's "messiah",  t h e S a m a r i t a n woman  and  (vv.39-42),  h e r people  do, indeed,  "follow"  Jesus  Rebekah " f o l l o w s " t h e s e r v a n t o f Abraham.  59  j u s t as  The o n l y a s p e c t  which  i s c l e a r l y i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the g e n e r a l Gen 24 c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t h e r e l a t i v e d e p i c t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' m a r i t a l s t a t u s . The woman i n the FG i s e x p l i c i t l y p o r t r a y e d as one w i t h o u t m a i d e n l y v i r t u e , i n direct  c o n t r a s t t o Gen 24:16; she has "known" many men. Such a  d i g r e s s i o n from the o t h e r w i s e s t r o n g l y adhered t o t r a d i t i o n demands investigation. The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the number f i v e , i n John 4:18, example o f s y m b o l i c 17:24f,  Samaritan  numerology i n t h e FG.  Israelites  60  i s b u t one  According  t o 2 Kgs  have had " f i v e husbands":  Cuthah, Avva, Hamath and Sepharvaim.  Each o f t h e s e r e p r e s e n t one o f  the f i v e p e o p l e s who were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e I s r a e l i t e  ( . . . continued) notices the stronger s i m i l a r i t y explanation.  Babylon,  society  ba  to  Gen  24  but  offers  no  Thomas L . B r o d i e ( i n The Quest f o r t h e O r i g i n o f John's G o s p e l : A Source O r i e n t e d Approach, Oxford: O x f o r d UP, 1993. Here, 124). He suggests t h a t " i n p l a c e o f t h e p h y s i c a l t o g e t h e r n e s s o f m a r r i a g e t h e r e i s a p i c t u r e [ i n John 4] o f J e s u s ' a b i d i n g w i t h t h o s e who b e l i e v e i n him." 59  E.g., t h e number 153, i n John 21:11, i s a l s o s y m b o l i c and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . 60  30  remaining  after  t h e mass  d e p o r t a t i o n by t h e A s s y r i a n s .  6 1  A  'marriage' o f thought and o f c u l t u r e ensued which was o f f i c i a t e d , or  s u p e r v i s e d , by an I s r a e l i t e  (Samaritan)  priest.  6 2  Because o f  t h i s s a n c t i f i c a t i o n o f the p r e v i o u s u n i o n s , t h e i d e a o f 'Yahweh as husband' d u r i n g t h i s time i s c o m p a t i b l e . The ' c u r r e n t '  immigrant  i n t o Samaria, however, i s not c o n s i d e r e d a "husband", f o r t h e r e i s no m a r r i a g e , n o r p a r t n e r s h i p ; t h e "one" who i s n o t a "husband" i s Rome. T h i s u n i o n i s n o t s a n c t i f i e d Yahweh. illicit  That  63  union  situation.  and t h e r e f o r e can n o t i n c l u d e  t h e 'woman' i s a c q u i e s c e n t and admits (John  The scene  4:18)  reinforces  the c u l p a b i l i t y  a l s o echoes Hos 2:5-7 i n a sense,  theme o f m a r r i a g e , l o v e r s and m u l t i p l e husbands  64  to this of her f o r the  i s integral to  Ben W i t h e r i n g t o n , John's Wisdom: A Commentary on the F o u r t h G o s p e l , ( L o u i s v i l l e , Kentucky: Westminster, 1995) 120-121. He s u g g e s t s t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o e a r l y J e w i s h law t h r e e m a r r i a g e s were a l l o w e d i n a l i f e t i m e ; as t h e Samaritan woman was now w i t h y e t a s i x t h man, he c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d , l e g a l l y , a 'husband' . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e woman would then be l i v i n g i n a s t a t e o f L e v i t i c a l uncleanliness. 61  Cf. E z r a 4:2,10. McKenzie (764) makes t h e assumption t h a t the " a d v e r s a r i e s " i n v . l a r e y e t another n a t i o n o f p e o p l e s , sent i n t o Samaria by Esarhaddon, and t h a t t h e ' n a t i o n s ' o f Osnappar r e p r e s e n t y e t a n o t h e r group. However, Osnappar was t h e v i c e r o y o f B a b y l o n , and b o t h he and Esarhaddon were k i n g s o f A s s y r i a , so, a l t h o u g h t h e r e may have been waves o f e n t r y i n t o Samaria, t h e number o f v a r i a n t p e o p l e s i m m i g r a t i n g remains a t f i v e . 62  I t i s f o r t h i s reason Jesus i s heard t o say, "you w o r s h i p what you do n o t know", i . e . , l i k e t h e "Jews" i n John 7:29, e t c . , who a l s o "do n o t know" God, t h e Samaritans a r e i n a s t a t e o f ' d i v o r c e ' from Yahweh. C f . C r a i g R. K o e s t e r ( i n " 'The S a v i o u r o f the World' (John 4:42)," JBL 109.4 (Winter, 1990) 665-680. Here, p.669), who compares t h e " f i v e " husbands i n John 4 t o t h e "seven" gods mentioned i n 2 Kgs 17:24. K o e s t e r admits t o some d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (676-677), and s h i f t s t h e emphasis t o h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r o l e as t h e ' n a t i o n ' , w i t h h e r husbands, h e r "people". 63  Friedman (200) notes how the r e m a r r i a g e a n t i c i p a t e d i n Hosea i s c o n t i n g e n t upon I s r a e l r e t u r n i n g t o t h e " w i l d e r n e s s " , where t h e f i r s t 'marriage' ( i . e . , i n Exodus) had t a k e n p l a c e . Perhaps we can 64  31  the  portrait,  there,  o f Yahweh's ' b r i d e . 1  6 5  The d i s c u s s i o n  about  m a r r i a g e , and i t s s y m b o l i c i m p l i c a t i o n s , thus f u l f i l s the p r e c e d e n t pattern of the basic w e l l  The  tradition.  Adulteress The o b s c u r i t y o f t h e " a d u l t e r e s s " p e r i c o p e i s w e l l a t t e s t e d ,  and  6 6  a l t h o u g h some post-modern exegetes t e n d toward a s y m p a t h e t i c  interpretation interpreted  of  the  woman's  predicament,  67  she  i n terms o f h e r s e x u a l i t y because t h a t  c o n t e x t i n which she i s p r e s e n t e d ; we know n o t h i n g There can be l i t t l e  must  be  i s the only  e l s e of her.  doubt t h a t t h e s t o r y o f John 7:53-8:11  echoes t h a t o f Susanna, i n Sus vv.34-41. There i s a mutual element of  'catching'  t h e woman i n t h e a c t o f c o m m i t t i n g a d u l t e r y ,  there  are " e l d e r s " p r e s e n t a t each scene, t h e r e i s a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o put b o t h women t o death even b e f o r e h e r t r i a l , t h e r e i s a r e t i c e n c e i n  see t h i s c r i t e r i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s e t t i n g o f John 1. See a l s o : I s a 1:21; I s a 57:8; J e r 3:1, e t c . I n E.H. P a g e l s ' The Johannine Gospel i n G n o s t i c E x e g e s i s : Heracleon's Commentary on John, ( A t l a n t a : S c h o l a r s P r e s s , 1989) 88; H e r a c l e o n d e t e r m i n e d t h a t she r e p r e s e n t e d "wantonness" on a g r e a t e r s c a l e t h a n h e r i n d i v i d u a l d e p i c t i o n a t f i r s t i m p l i e d . Margaret D a v i e s ' r a t h e r f e m i n i s t (and thus a n a c h r o n i s t i c ) a p p r a i s a l o f t h e S a m a r i t a n woman's d e p i c t i o n "on t h e b a s i s o f h e r m a r i t a l s t a t u s " as b e i n g "the f a t e o f most women", and as p r o m o t i n g t h e i r " s u b s i d i a r y f u n c t i o n o f w a i t i n g o f men" (227) , does n o t do j u s t i c e t o t h e magnitude and p r o f u n d i t y o f h e r c h a r a c t e r . 65  E.g., P.W. Comfort, "The Greek Text o f t h e G o s p e l o f John A c c o r d i n g t o the E a r l y P a p y r i , " NTS 36 (1990) 625-629; B.D. Ehrman, "Jesus and t h e A d u l t e r e s s , " NTS 34 (1988) 24-44; G a i l R. O'Day, "John 7:53-8:11: A Study i n M i s r e a d i n g , " JBL (3.4 (Winter 1992) 631-640; D.B. W a l l a c e , " R e c o n s i d e r i n g 'The S t o r y o f J e s u s and t h e A d u l t e r e s s R e c o n s i d e r e d ' , " NTS 39 (1993) 290-296. 66  E.g., even as f a r as t o suggest t h a t t o u n d e r s t a n d h e r i n terms o f h e r s e x u a l i t y i s t o a c t l i k e t h e P h a r i s e e s and c a s t t h e dreaded "stone" (O'Day, "John 7:53-8:11", 6 3 4 ) . 67  32  each  o f t h e two l e a d i n g male c h a r a c t e r s ( D a n i e l  p a r t a k e i n the 'judgement',  68  and Jesus) t o  i n each case, the woman i s a c q u i t t e d ,  and i n each t h e a c c u s e r s a r e l e f t w i t h t h e ' g u i l t ' . In E z e k i e l ' s p o r t r a i t passes  from  'infidelity  of the bride  ' t o the p u b l i c  o f Yahweh, t h e p a t t e r n show o f g u i l t :  "I w i l l  judge you as women who commit a d u l t e r y . . . They s h a l l b r i n g up a mob a g a i n s t you and t h e y s h a l l stone you..."  (Ezek 16:38-40) . I n  John 8 t h e sequence i s adhered t o . A c c o r d i n g t o Num 5:13,  a woman  accused o f i n f i d e l i t y , whether "caught i n the a c t " o r n o t , i s t o be presented  before  the " p r i e s t " ;  i t i s possible  that  Jesus'  a p p a r e n t l y s e l f - a c c l a i m e d p r i e s t l y s t a t u s i s b e i n g t e s t e d i n John 7:53f. The NRSV makes a note r e g a r d i n g an a d d i t i o n a l phrase e x t a n t i n some a n c i e n t v e r s i o n s o f v.8; t h e a d d i t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t what J e s u s i n s c r i b e s i n the s o i l t r a d i t i o n was h e l d t o be, a t l e a s t , to  do w i t h  "the s i n s  intertextuality  o f each  o f t h e FG t h i s  o f them" . Keeping  something  i n mind t h e  study i s demonstrating,  and t h e  theme o f ' a d u l t e r y ' i n t h i s p e r i c o p e (as p a r t o f a p a t t e r n ) , i t i s proposed t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r an i n f l a m m a t o r y echo o f Hos 4:14,  W a l l a c e (295) argues t h a t as t h e v e r b k a t a k r i n o i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n John 8:10-11, and elsewhere t h e v e r b k r i n o , proponents f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s p e r i c o p e i n t o the main body o f the FG must e x p l a i n why such a v e r b i s employed so p e c u l i a r l y here and n o t i n 3:18 and 12:47, f o r example. I n these l a t t e r c a s e s t h e emphasis i s upon a d i v i n e judgement o f b e l i e v e r s and n o n - b e l i e v e r s . In 8:10, J e s u s i s f o r c e d i n t o a r o l e o f e a r t h l y judge, thus t h e s h i f t i n t e r m i n o l o g y i s j u s t i f i e d . J u r i d i c a l terms a r e employed i n the o v e r a l l d e p i c t i o n o f J e s u s ' m i s s i o n i n t h e FG (Robert Gordon M a c c i n i , "A Reassessment o f t h e Woman a t t h e W e l l i n John 4 i n L i g h t o f S a m a r i t a n C o n t e x t , " JSNT 53 (March 1994) 35-46. Here 35) . 33  is high:  I w i l l not p u n i s h your daughters when t h e y p l a y t h e whore, And your d a u g h t e r s - i n - l a w when t h e y commit a d u l t e r y ; For t h e men themselves go a s i d e w i t h whores, and s a c r i f i c e w i t h temple prostitutes; thus a p e o p l e w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g comes t o r u i n .  6 7  T h i s passage f o l l o w s the o r d e r t o Hosea t o " l o v e a woman...who i s an a d u l t e r e s s " bride,  (3:1); thus t h e c o n t e x t i s one o f t h e " h a r l o t "  but a l s o God's w i l l i n g n e s s  to forgive  t h o s e who a r e l e d  a s t r a y by o t h e r s who s h o u l d know b e t t e r . I f God does n o t condemn the  adulteress  this  ( i . e . , I s r a e l ) , n e i t h e r can J e s u s .  p e r i c o p e , then,  pattern,  anticipates  t h e next  7 0  stage  The outcome o f i n Ezekiel's  "forgiveness".  Mary Mary i s i n t r o d u c e d t w i c e i n the c o n t e x t o f an a n o i n t i n g (John 11:1, 12:3), s t r e s s i n g t h e importance o f t h e a c t i o n . p e r i c o p e o f John 12:1-3 a r e echoed a t l e a s t Cant  In the short  f o u r key terms  1: osme ("smell/odour"; Cant 1:3,4,12; John 1 2 : 3 )  71  from  / muron  T h i s may account f o r the e n t i r e p e r i c o p e h a v i n g been o m i t t e d from some e a r l y v e r s i o n s o f t h e t e x t . Cf. B. Ehrman, "Jesus and t h e A d u l t e r e s s " (43, n.62), who c l a i m s t h a t Jesus " i s n o t asked t o r e n d e r a v e r d i c t . " The s c e n a r i o would have no purpose, i t would seem, i f t h e a n t i c i p a t e d a c t o f judgement i s removed. 70  C f . J . F . Coakley, ( i n "The A n o i n t i n g a t Bethany and t h e P r i o r i t y o f John," JBL 107.2 (June 1988) 241-256) who proposes t h a t i t i s m e r e l y t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n o f a s t r o n g s m e l l , and need not be seen as b e i n g a n y t h i n g more p r o f o u n d (243, n.10); Sanders (83), who supposes t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e a c t i o n l i e s i n t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l use o f t h e o i l , where i t i s u n d e r s t o o d t o r e p r e s e n t a p r a y e r , as i n Ps 141:2; and L.W. Countryman, who sees t h e a c t as n  34  ("ointment";  Cant  r e c l i n e at t a b l e " ;  1:3,4;  Cant 1:12;  Cant 1:12; John 12:3). idea  the echo  one  12:3a,b) John 12:2)  /  anaklithesomai  / nardos  ("to  ("spikenard";  I m p l i c i t i n the c o n t e x t o f John 12 i s the  o f J e s u s as b a s i l e u s  making  John  ("king",  based on  c f . John 1:49;  comparable  Cant  characters,  1:12),  also.  The  f i g u r e of t h e " k i n g " , i n Cant 1, however, i s not d e p i c t e d as b e i n g a n o i n t e d w i t h the nard, he i s m e r e l y p r e s e n t . T h i s s h i f t  i n the  adopted p a t t e r n , l i k e t h a t i n the echoed w e l l t r a d i t i o n ,  demands  explanation. The s u p p l i c a t i o n of Mary a t the f e e t o f h e r master appears i n the FG n a r r a t i v e a t the j u n c t u r e before her e l e v a t i o n )  ( a f t e r her p u b l i c d i s g r a c e  where one would e x p e c t ,  according  and  to the  apparent e c h o i n g of Ezek 16, some a c t of r e p e n t a n c e , f o r g i v e n e s s , e t c . T h i s i d e a l a s c e n t t o g l o r y i s conveyed i n m a r i t a l t e r m i n o l o g y and  imagery, so Mary's a c t i o n  terms.  There  are two  should  instances  be  i n the OT  understood i n s i m i l a r where  "marriage" and  " f e e t " a r e i n t e r t w i n e d , namely, 1 Sam 25:41-42, and Ruth 2:10-13; 3:7f. I n the f i r s t  case, A b i g a i l o f f e r s h e r s e l f as a  s t o o p i n g down t o wash the mens' f e e t ;  "servant",  she i s seen as s u b m i t t i n g  h e r s e l f t o D a v i d , and i s t a k e n as h i s w i f e . Ruth 2:10-13 emphasizes the  'foreigner'  aspect of t h i s  c o n v e r s i o n t o the I s r a e l i t e f a i t h  female c h a r a c t e r ,  but  also  her  ( a l s o i n terms of a " s e r v a n t " ) .  In t h e l a t t e r scene, Ruth p r o s t r a t e s h e r s e l f a t the f e e t o f B o a z , an  action  which  is explicitly  connected w i t h  the  ritual  72  of  one o f "worship" (The M y s t i c a l Way i n t h e F o u r t h G o s p e l : C r o s s i n g Over t o God, Rev. ed. ( P e n n s y l v a n i a : T r i n i t y , 1994. Here, 87). Cf. Lee, who s t a t e s t h a t Mary's a c t i o n i s "a p r o c l a m a t i o n of J e s u s ' a u t h o r i t y . . . " (220). 72  35  betrothal  (v.9);  demonstrated In  she,  too,  is  taken  as  wife,  for  she  has  the i d e a l q u a l i t i e s of the I s r a e l i t e b r i d e .  t h e s e two examples,  e s p e c i a l l y the l a t t e r ,  can be seen a  p o t e n t i a l i d e o l o g i c a l source f o r the image of Mary a t t h e f e e t of Jesus  (cf. Acts  22:3).  I n the  anticipation  of  Hephzibah,  the  s u b m i s s i o n of I s r a e l b e f o r e God i s a n e c e s s a r y f a c t o r ; the b r i d e to-be must prove h e r s e l f  worthy.  The w i p i n g of J e s u s ' f e e t w i t h her h a i r i s a complex a s p e c t of Mary's d e p i c t i o n . Coakley, f o r i n s t a n c e , s u g g e s t s t h a t the a c t i o n i s "more a p p r o p r i a t e t o a d i s r e p u t a b l e woman," and y e t he f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o see the FG "Mary" c h a r a c t e r as f u l f i l l i n g . t h i s As  the  'converted'  "harlot"  representative,  indeed  role.  she  7 3  does.  C o a k l e y c o n c l u d e s t h a t the reason why the h a i r was used t o wipe the feet,  and  answered".  not 74  a  There  cloth,  for  i s , though,  example,  a potential  d u a l a n o i n t i n g t a k i n g p l a c e i n John In  Ps 141:5  "probably solution:  cannot  be  there i s a  12.  i s the a d j u r a t i o n ,  "Never l e t the o i l of the  w i c k e d a n o i n t my head". U n t i l t h i s j u n c t u r e i n the echo of Ezek 16, the b r i d e of Yahweh has been d e p i c t e d i n d e r o g a t o r y and terms; now  i t i s time t o b e g i n her e l e v a t i o n .  humbling  I t i s , therefore,  J e s u s ' f e e t which are the p r i m a r y o b j e c t of Mary's a t t e n t i o n ; the v e r b used t o r e f l e c t her a c t i o n of ' a n o i n t i n g ' i s a l e i p h o , which i s used i n the LXX i n the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l s of Gen 31:13 3:3  (Jacob's  p i l l a r ) , Exod 40:15  and Num  (the o r d i n a t i o n of p r i e s t s ) . Thus,  when J e s u s remarks  t h a t Mary has the o i l i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of h i s  Coakley,249-251. Coakley,  251. 36  burial,  her  deed  becomes  s a n c t i f i c a t i o n - the day has 1  y e t t o come, but  believes  disciples. Deut symbolize  i t will.  1  7 5  one  of  premature,  of c o n s e c r a t i o n  faith  intentional,  ( h i s "hour" of  i n her d e m o n s t r a t i o n Her  but  "glory")  Mary r e v e a l s t h a t  thus o u t s h i n e s  even t h a t of  she the  7 6  33:24 employs the p r o s p e r i t y and  analogy  'success';  of  an  o i l - c o v e r e d foot  to  i t i s used i n the c o n t e x t  of  Moses' p a r t i n g song t o the I s r a e l i t e s , and i n a t h e m a t i c c o n t e x t of a f i n a l v i c t o r y of God's chosen over t h e i r o p p r e s s o r s . a l s o f i t admirably  T h i s would  i n t o the p r e s e n t FG s c e n a r i o , f o r the ' f a r e w e l l  d i s c o u r s e ' i s soon t o f o l l o w , which f o c u s e s on a s i m i l a r theme. Secondary t o t h i s , however, i s Mary's own p o t e n t i a l a n o i n t i n g , exhibited  through  a  subtle  manipulation  r e g a r d i n g n a z a r i t e c o n s e c r a t i o n i n Num  of  6. The  the FG  stipulations  surreptitiously  d e p i c t s Mary as r e c e i v i n g the same o i l t h a t has j u s t s a n c t i f i e d the f e e t of the new  high p r i e s t ;  the h a i r i s deemed the most  a r e a of the n a z a r i t e ' s body, f o r i t r e p r e s e n t s the h o l y vow  sacred itself,  imbued, as i t i s , w i t h the o i l of c o n s e c r a t i o n . T h i s p u r g i n g symbolizes  rite  a " s e p a r a t i o n " from one way of l i f e and a ' c l e a v i n g ' t o  Lee suggests (219) Mary's performance i s a " p r o p h e t i c a c t i o n w h i c h f u n c t i o n s as a f a i t h c o n f e s s i o n . " Mary r e c o g n i z e s the s y m b o l i c p r e c e d e n t of L a z a r u s ' death, Lee c o n t i n u e s , and a n o i n t s J e s u s ' f e e t i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s death, t h r o u g h which b e l i e v e r s will gain "life" (221). See a l s o nn. 3,4, regarding the 'unconscious' a c t i o n t h e o r y ; i f the a c t i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d as a p r o f e s s i o n of f a i t h , though, the a n o i n t i n g would have t o be c o n s c i o u s l y done. The ' t r u e ' c o n s e c r a t i o n p r o b a b l y t a k e s p l a c e i n John 19:38f, i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the a n t i c i p a t e d a s c e n s i o n of J e s u s t o the F a t h e r ; t h i s concurs w i t h the i d e a , mentioned e a r l i e r , t h a t Jesus a v o i d s c o n t a c t b e f o r e he 'ascends' . F u r t h e r , i t i s done by r i g h t e o u s , male d i s c i p l e s , one of whom i s , p o t e n t i a l l y , the h e i r t o the p r i e s t h o o d , making t h i s a more l e g i t i m a t e s c e n a r i o of p r i e s t l y consecration. 76  37  another;  i f this  i s what  i s happening  i n John  12:3, i t would  complement t h e e n t i r e image o f t h e ' b r i d e - t o - b e ' as d e f i n e d h e r e . H a v i n g been  depicted  as t h e a d u l t e r o u s woman, and h a v i n g been  p u b l i c l y exposed, she i s , t h r o u g h the c h a r a c t e r o f Mary, and  7 7  " c o n v e r t e d " . The a n o i n t i n g i t s e l f 78  represents,  " a n o i n t i n g " a s p e c t o f t h e Ezek 16 p a t t e r n  "forgiven"  i n part, the  ( i t culminates i n the  ' b u r i a l ' s c e n a r i o , i n John 1 9 ) . I f John 12:1-3 i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n l i g h t o f t h e echoes o f v o c a b u l a r y from Cant 1, t h e r e a d e r i s j u s t i f i e d i n p r e d i c t i n g t h a t the  c h a r a c t e r o f Mary w i l l f u r t h e r echo t h a t o f t h e "Shulammite",  i.e.,  t h a t she, t o o , w i l l r i s e t o be t h e " w i f e " o f a " k i n g " . Now,  though, t h e " k i n g " i s Yahweh. F u l f i l l i n g t h e " f o r g i v e n e s s " element of  Ezek 16, t h e ' b r i d e ' i s ready t o come i n t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f God. In  John  Magdalene.  19:25,  at the foot  The name  "tower", stemming  "Magdalene"  of the cross, i s often  stands  translated  from t h e Hebrew word, m i q d a l a h .  79  Mary  t o mean  T h i s term, i s  used i n Cant. 4:4, 7:4, and 8:10, where t h e female f i g u r e o f t h e love  song i s a t t r i b u t e d  character  i s one  the q u a l i t i e s  which  denotes  o f a "tower"; h e r e n t i r e  strength,  resolution,  and,  u l t i m a t e l y , e l e v a t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e , then, that the e t y m o l o g i c a l  " Josephus (J.W. 2.15.1) remarks on " B e r n i c e " , a woman who undertook a s i m i l a r vow; he c l a i m s t h a t i t was o f t e n p e r f o r m e d by t h o s e h a v i n g undergone some d i s t r e s s , i l l n e s s , e t c . W i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g S y n o p t i c images o f Mary/the-woman-who-anointed, this element o f 'purging' o r c l e a n s i n g becomes a l l t h e more pronounced. Indeed, i n Luke 7:36, t h e woman c l e a r l y r e c e i v e s a b s o l u t i o n her 'sins' a f t e r performing t h i s submissive a c t . 78  for  McKenzie (534), however, s u g g e s t s "a p e r s o n from Magdala", b a s i n g t h i s upon t h e r e a d i n g o f Matt 15:39, presumably. 79  38  significance  of "Magdalene" l i e s i n the r o o t word, g a d a l ,  8 0  which  means " t o make l a r g e " , i . e . , t o magnify, t o i n c r e a s e , t o become great, etc.  That i s , Mary, now  r e p r e s e n t i n g the  "harlot" motif,  h a v i n g completed her r i t u a l i s t i c p u r i f i c a t i o n , has been r a i s e d t o the  height  'beloved'  of  -  she  becomes  and r e j o i c e d - i n ' b r i d e ' ,  'wicked' p a s t the  honour  and  expectations  has of  returned E z e k i e l 16  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Yahweh.  8 1  who  t o God. and  the  "tower"  has 82  the  of  God,  t u r n e d away from  This  fully  'pattern'  the her  concurs w i t h for  Israel's  83  The s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and importance of b i b l i c a l etymology, s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o 'commission names' ( i . e . , names a t t r i b u t e d to i n d i v i d u a l s according to t h e i r character, r o l e , etc.) i s s u p p o r t e d by H e r b e r t Marks ( i n " B i b l i c a l Naming and P o e t i c Etymology," JBL 114.1 ( S p r i n g , 1995) 21-42), who s u g g e s t s t h a t such names o f t e n r e t a i n e d a " c o v e r t meaning" (30) as w e l l as an o b v i o u s one; and R.L. Omanson, ( i n "What's i n a Name?" BT 4 0.1 (January, 1989) 109-119), who suggests t h a t a l l b i b l i c a l names r e q u i r e t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms of t h e i r i n t e n d e d , o r apparent, c o n t e x t . Cf. "tower". 81  S i r 26:22, where a  "married  woman" i s equated t o  a  One may say t h a t i n John 20:17 Jesus' c a u t i o n i n p e r m i t t i n g Mary t o touch him b e f o r e h i s u n i o n w i t h the F a t h e r i s j u s t as much a d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t Mary's p u r i t y as h i s own; he has been "dead", remember, and t o touch any aspect of the dead, the b u r i a l c l o t h e s , the tomb, e t c . , would be a c o n t a m i n a t i o n . Note t h a t Mary does not e n t e r the tomb. T h i s imagery echoes t h a t of J e s u s o u t s i d e the tomb of L a z a r u s . 82  F r a n c o i s Bouvon ( i n "Le P r i v i l e g e P a s c a l De MarieM a d e l e i n e , " NTS 3 0.1 (January, 1984) 50-62; here, 58), i n h i s s t u d y of the v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Mary Magdalene o v e r the c e n t u r i e s , n o t e s t h i s i n t r i g u i n g "order" a l l e g e d l y g i v e n t o her by J e s u s from the c r o s s : "...ne l a i s s e pas l a f r a n g e de t o n vetement t r a i n e r p a r t e r r e . . . " ( f o r b i b l i o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n , see n.66). The i d e a of the f r i n g e , a c c o r d i n g t o Num 15:3 8f and Deut 22:12, was to remind the I s r a e l i t e s of the Commandments. In Matt 23:5, these t a s s e l s , now e l o n g a t e d , become a symbol of the a r r o g a n c e of the P h a r i s e e s ; a l l o w i n g the f r i n g e t o be l o n g enough t o t r a i l on the ground, Mary would be seen t o be 'proud', and t h i s she must a v o i d . T h i s t r a d i t i o n , then, s u p p o r t s the i d e a of the e l e v a t e d s t a t u s of Mary. 83  39  Summary The  basis  triangular  upon which  construction.  the theology The  first  o f t h e FG r e s t s  component  i s that  is a  of the  S a m a r i t a n woman, whose d e p i c t i o n f u l f i l s t h e " i n f i d e l i t y " s t a g e o f Ezekiel's  pattern  f o r the f a l l / a s c e n t of the d i v i n e  b r i d e . Her  s i t u a t i o n r e i t e r a t e s t h e c o n t e x t o f a n a t i o n i n need o f s p i r i t u a l help,  made so apparent  i n John 1 and 2. The main i n t e r t e x t u a l  themes which l i n k h e r t o the concept o f t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e - m a r r i a g e w i t h Yahweh a r e t h e " w e l l " t r a d i t i o n s o f G e n e s i s , w h i c h f o c u s on the  securing  o f t h e ' p e r f e c t ' b r i d e , and t h e c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y o f  Samaria, as r e c o r d e d i n 2 K i n g s . The " a d u l t e r e s s " the second b r a n c h o f t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  o f John 8 forms  e c h o i n g t h e format o f t h e  j u r i d i c a l s t o r y o f Susanna, w h i l s t s a t i s f y i n g t h e ' p u b l i c show o f g u i l t ' aspect ( n e c e s s a r i l y i n the context of adultery)  o f Ezek 16.  C o m p l e t i n g t h e t r i a d i s Mary, t h e l a s t female i n t h e FG t o r e c e i v e extensive  attention.  structure  stems  from  The  inclusion  the thematic  o f Mary  i n this  and v o c a b u l a r y  central  echoes o f  C a n t i c l e s and t h e i d e o l o g i c a l echo o f 1 Sam 25 and Ruth 2. I n h e r reflection completes  of the repentant, the pattern  forgiven  and e l e v a t e d  s e t out i n Ezek  woman, Mary  16 - she i s c l e a n s e d ,  a n o i n t e d , and i s 'married' t o God through a s y m b o l i c vow. With t h i s c e n t r a l structure e s t a b l i s h e d ,  t h e r e s t o f t h e FG  n a r r a t i v e can be a n a l y z e d i n an e f f o r t t o s y n t h e s i z e  the d i s t i n c t  p e r i c o p a e ; t h e aim i s t o demonstrate how each major event and/or character  i n the FG c o n t r i b u t e s t o the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s " i d e a l " .  40  Chapter Three: The Temple Scenes  The  c e n t r a l t h e o l o g i c a l concept  of the FG, w h i c h s y n t h e s i z e s  the e n t i r e g o s p e l n a r r a t i v e i s one based on the a n t i c i p a t e d 'remarriage'  of I s r a e l t o Yahweh and i t s e l f c o n s t i t u t e s a complex of  intertexual  echoes.  The  nature  of  Jesus'  mission,  as  revealed  t h r o u g h Nicodemus' s t o r y i s , e v i d e n t l y , t o be d e m o n s t r a t i v e Jesus  i s to perform  s i g n ) . The  signs)  o b j e c t i v e of  and  the  exemplary  mission,  (i.e.,  then,  he  (i.e.,  i s t o be  i s demonstrated  a in  J e s u s ' a c t i o n w i t h i n the Temple, i n John 2:13-22. There  have been many p e r s p e c t i v e s on  Jesus'  storming,  or  c l e a n s i n g , of the Temple (John 2 : 1 3 f ) , i n c l u d i n g Lee's view t h a t the p e r i c o p e r e v o l v e s around J e s u s ' r i s e n body as the t r u e and o n l y "sacred s i t e "  f o r worship,  an  destroy  intent  to  sacrificial  system,  85  not and  84  Neusner's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i t d e p i c t s the  Temple  Hamilton's  i m p l i e s a u s u r p i n g of " k i n g l y " power. Jesus' time,  itself theory  86  but that  the  Israelite  Jesus'  action  Where Neusner supposes t h a t  a c t i o n would have been "beyond a l l comprehension" a t t h r e a t e n i n g , as  i t seemed t o , the v e r y  life-blood  of  the the  Temple ( i . e . , i t s s a c r i f i c i a l f u n c t i o n ) , the i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes i n e v i d e n c e r e v e a l t h a t J e s u s ' a c t i o n had b o t h precedent meaning f o r any who E.  0it  P.  Lee,  Sanders  and  profound  knew the S c r i p t u r e s . proposes  that,  i f Jesus  i s interested  in  82-83 .  Jacob Neusner, "Money Changers i n the Temple: The Mishnah's E x p l a n a t i o n , " NTS 35 (1989) 287-290. 85  N e i l l H a m i l t o n , "Temple C l e a n s i n g and Temple Bank," JBL (1964) 365-372. 86  83.4 41  destroying another,  merely  the  priesthood  i n order  to  h i s a c t i o n s p l a c e him i n a comprehensible and  congruous h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t ,  87  action,  however,  provocative"  prove  symbolism.  a  completely threat  not  'purity'."  a  "startling  "demonstration",  8 8  If and  p o r t e n t of "imminent judgement and r e s t o r a t i o n " , as  Meyer i n f e r s , etc.,  is  i t with  but he p r e f e r s t o see J e s u s '  of d e s t r u c t i o n more i n terms of " 'eschaton', the  replace  the precedent p r o p h e c i e s  8 9  it  to  be  profoundly  of J e r 7:3-4, Ezek 14:21, imbued  with  "cleansing"  90  As H a m i l t o n p o i n t s out, the a c t i o n may  be seen as a p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of Zech 14:21, where i t i s p r o p h e s i e d of the g l o r i o u s r e t u r n t o God  and  t h a t , i n the days  the coming of the M e s s i a h ,  " t r a d e r s " w i l l be i n the "house of the L o r d " .  91  no  There a r e , however,  o t h e r i n t e r t e x t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which may o f f e r more i n s i g h t i n t o the FG  pericope.  The  P a s s o v e r s e t t i n g a t the o u t s e t of J e s u s ' p u b l i c m i s s i o n  9 2  forms an i n c l u s i o w i t h the Passover a t the end, as i f t o emphasize both  the  Exodic  regeneration  nature  of  the  mission,  and  the  sense  of  ( s i n c e the f e s t i v a l t a k e s p l a c e i n the S p r i n g ) ,  the  c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n , e t c . I t a l s o r e f l e c t s on the "Lamb" a s p e c t of the 87  E.P.  Sanders, Jesus and Judaism, (London: SCMP, 1985)  88  Sanders,  89  B. Meyer,  197.  90  B. Meyer,  198.  89-90.  89.  N e i l l Q. Hamilton, "Temple C l e a n s i n g and Temple Bank," JBL (1964) 365-372. Here, 372.  91  83.4  For a d i s c u s s i o n on the p l a c i n g of the Temple scene a t t h i s e a r l y stage of Jesus' c a r e e r , and on the p r a c t i c e of s e t t i n g up t a b l e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the Passover, see Robinson, 128. 92  42  B a p t i s t ' s words i n John 1, where Jesus i s f i r s t a t t r i b u t e d the r o l e of  "sign"  Passover,  i n the of  c o n t e x t of redemption.  course,  The  i s d e s c r i b e d i n Exod  b e h a v i o u r i n the Temple may  observance  12:1-28,  of  and  the  Jesus'  be i n t e n t i o n a l l y l i n k e d t o the Exodus  p r e c e d e n t . Moses, on s e e i n g h i s people w o r s h i p p i n g the g o l d e n c a l f , had d e s t r o y e d the s a c r e d t a b l e t s of stone (Exod 3 2 : 1 9 f ) ; l i k e w i s e , J e s u s performs t h i s v i o l e n t a c t of d e f i a n c e a g a i n s t the i m p r o p r i e t y of  the  'worship'.  In both  s c e n a r i o s the  Israelites  appear  as  i m p a t i e n t , l a c k i n g t r u e f a i t h , r e q u i r i n g t a n g i b l e 'proof' of t h e i r God,  e t c . The  Temple has,  c a l f " . D e s t r o y the f a l s e will  i n e f f e c t , become but a n o t h e r  "golden  ( t a i n t e d ) image of God and the t r u e  God  f o r g i v e and r e t u r n . T h i s i d e a i s echoed i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of  "Nehushtan", (Num  the b r a z e n s e r p e n t r a i s e d i n the w i l d e r n e s s by Moses  2 1 : 4 f ) ; a c c o r d i n g t o 2 Kgs  18:4-6, H e z e k i a h  t o r e down  d e m o l i s h e d the o b j e c t which had become an i d o l i n i t s own  and  right;  the p e o p l e were concerned more w i t h making " o f f e r i n g s " t o i t t h a n w i t h k e e p i n g the commandments i t r e p r e s e n t e d . T h i s p r o v e s t o be a major  aspect  demonstrated  of  the  pericope's  echoed  ideology,  as  will  be  below.  There i s a n o t h e r p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e which may be e n l i g h t e n i n g for  t h i s s t u d y , namely, J o s h 5:10f.  Just before Passover,  Joshua  p r e p a r e s the new  g e n e r a t i o n of I s r a e l i t e s f o r the e n t r y i n t o the  Promised  the  Land;  wilderness,  and  'wicked'  those who  c i r c u m c i s i o n of the  in  the  were born out of bondage r e c e i v e  the  'flesh',  generation  marking  has  perished  them as the new,  cleansed,  ' e l e c t ' of Yahweh. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the FG e n c a p s u l a t e s J e s u s ' p u b l i c m i s s i o n w i t h i n two Passover s c e n a r i o s because h i s m i s s i o n i s comparable  t o Joshua's,  i . e . , he i s t o l e a d the new s  'elect'  into 43  the is  spiritual  " P r o m i s e d Land",  projected  onto  t h e "Kingdom o f God". I f t h i s  the storming  o f t h e Temple  itself,  idea  t h e next  q u e s t i o n t h a t must be a s k e d i s , "who a r e t h e w i c k e d g e n e r a t i o n who must be r e p l a c e d ,  a n d who a r e t h e . ' c l e a n s e d ' , i n t h e e c h o  o f John  2? " The itself, "you"  first  'clue'  but from  i n John  perhaps,  Jesus'  comes  description  1:51 i s hymin,  not from  t h e Temple  of Nathanael.  The word f o r  suggesting a representative  nature  of Nathanael;  i t i s possible  that  Israel  i s intimated  i n his portrait.  9 3  the sacred  The i n i t i a l  original promise  and  a  term  context of t h i s of instruction  t h e m s e l v e s a n d admit The  word  101:7:  impression of  emphasis  control  the  t h e term  Ps  32:2b.  i s one o f " d e l i v e r a n c e " , "way"  The  and t h e  f o r t h o s e who w i l l  humble  also  appears  i n t h e NRSV  version  o f Ps  d o l o s does  not appear  i n t h e LXX v e r s i o n ,  i s on t h e a r r o g a n c e o r h a u g h t i n e s s o f t h o s e who assume  ("poion  followers FG  o f a new  echo  their, sins.  "deceit"  ("lalon adika"). the  Psalm  which  (1:47), a  No one who p r a c t i c e s d e c e i t s h a l l r e m a i n i n my h o u s e ; no one who u t t e r s l i e s s h a l l c o n t i n u e i n my p r e s e n c e .  Although the  (LXX, d o l o s ) ,  (plural)  "remnant" o f  N a t h a n a e l c a u s e s J e s u s t o remark on h i s l a c k o f " d e c e i t " sentiment  scene  hyperephanian") Taken  a n d on  a  speakers  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Jesus' condemnation o f  of the "father of l i e s "  i s making  the d e c e i t f u l  distinction  i n 8:44-45, i t a p p e a r s  between  the e s t a b l i s h e d  that  Temple  The l i n k between J a c o b , whose c o m m i s s i o n name i s " I s r a e l " (Gen 3 5 : 1 0 ) , a n d N a t h a n a e l , whose name i n f e r s t h o s e " g i v e n " t o J e s u s "by God" ( i . e . , t o r e - e s t a b l i s h a s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e 'new' Israel) i s provocative. 9 3  44  c u l t u s , which i s c o r r u p t , and who,  perhaps,  have  establishment. generation ideology  set  the  themselves  C e r t a i n l y , the  and a "pure" one, of  Ps  32,  any  "instruction  of  the  way"  "remnant" of devout opposition  narrative allows  and  who  in  for  to a  themselves  join  the  and  this  "wicked"  i n the i m p l i c i t a d o p t i o n  humble  will  Israelites  of  accept  "remnant"  in  the the  the  new  Kingdom. The i m p u l s i v e and f o r c e f u l n a t u r e of J e s u s ' a c t i o n i s p o s s i b l y a t h e m a t i c echo of I s a 10:20-27, where the s i t u a t i o n b e i n g d e p i c t e d i s one and  of d i r e c i r c u m s t a n c e ;  weary.  "Destruction  destruction,  one  the "remnant of I s r a e l " i s o p p r e s s e d  i s decreed", but  which w i l l ,  this  is a  ultimately, allow  "righteous"  the  remnant  to  escape the "rod" of t h e i r enemies. I t i s , then, a d e s t r u c t i o n which brings  about  regeneration,  toward the o p p r e s s o r s ,  renewal.  " w i e l d [ing]  94  God  will  turn  his  a whip a g a i n s t them"  wrath  (v. 26) .  95  As a r e s u l t , the oppressed w i l l be emancipated. In source  the Book.of M a l a c h i , however, i s a p o t e n t i a l l y f o r the  ideology  behind  Jesus'  demonstration.  stronger Here,  the  emphasis i s upon the c e s s a t i o n of meaningless o r t a i n t e d s a c r i f i c e s (N.B., not the r i t u a l  itself)  b e i n g performed as p a r t of a c o r r u p t  c u l t u s ( c f . J e r 7) . The covenant w i t h the p r i e s t s , 2:5  i m p l i e s , was  a covenant "of l i f e " ; t h i s was c o r r u p t e d , and I s r a e l l o s t f a v o u r i n the  eyes  of  God,  (i.e.,  "death").  M a l a c h i i n t r o d u c e s the "marriage"  At  this  juncture  (2:14-16),  motif, implying that I s r a e l  (the  T h i s echoes the d e s t r u c t i o n / r e n e w a l c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e of such p e r i c o p a e as Gen 7-10; Gen 18-19; Gen 22f; Jonah e t c . 94  I n the LXX, the term "plege" i s used, c o n n o t a t i o n of ' c a l a m i t y ' , as w e l l as ' s t r i k i n g ' . 95  which  has  the 45  once p r i e s t l y / h o l y kingdom) has his  been u n f a i t h f u l t o the w i f e  y o u t h , namely, Yahweh. D i v o r c e  i s not the i d e a l s t a t e  of  9  (v.16),  so I s r a e l must amend h i s ways and work f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . In o r d e r must  first  priesthood) ton  t o r e t u r n t o " h i s temple"  katharisei,  or  "purify"  the  hymon") . A g a i n ,  i n r e l a t i o n t o the  note  the  sons  of r e n e w a l a f t e r d e s t r u c t i o n (John 2:19: motif  here,  use  of  an  of  (the  implying' that  the  the  concept  As i n Jesus'  97  declaration  Note the use of the  'new'  Mai  4:2  b r i n g s the promise of  Temple w i l l  the  "bonds" t h a t b i n d the the  FG,  Jesus  " h e a l i n g " and  of  "father/son"  "third  involve  u n i o n w i t h the d i v i n e - the a n t i c i p a t e d e v e n t u a l i t y of Mai  In  angelos  Levi  this  Temple c u l t u s , and  r e l a t i o n s h i p Jesus a l l u d e s t o i n John 8.  day"  (3:1)  of t h e i r i n h e r i t e d i n i q u i t i e s ( c f . v. 7 "apo t o n a d i k i o n  pateron  'deceit'  f o r God  3),  a so  an e m a n c i p a t i o n from  righteous. is  seen  to  " m a r k e t p l a c e " ; the term naos i s u s e d ,  wield 98  a  whip  against  the  making the d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t  J e s u s ' h o s t i l i t y i s d i r e c t e d toward the Temple 'proper', the Temple built  by  priests  for  priests,  not  toward  the  general  Temple  M a l a c h i s h i f t s the genders here, but the e f f e c t i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t of E z e k i e l ' s , e t c . 96  See a l s o Job 36:8-9 and I s a 5:18-23 f o r s i m i l a r d e p i c t i o n s of the a r r o g a n t , wayward I s r a e l . Compare the decree of d e s t r u c t i o n p r e s e r v e d i n 1 Sam 2:27-36, where the p r i e s t h o o d i s t h r e a t e n e d w i t h imminent demise because of i t s i n i q u i t i e s ; i t i s d e c l a r e d t h a t a new, " f a i t h f u l p r i e s t " w i l l be " r a i s e Tdl up" who w i l l work a c c o r d i n g t o God's w i l l , who w i l l have a new "house" b u i l t f o r him, and who w i l l m i n i s t e r "before" the M e s s i a h (the " a n o i n t e d one"). 97  T h i s term i s used o n l y i n 2:19-21, but e l s e w h e r e i n the FG, when d e n o t i n g l o c a t i o n , the term h i e r o n i s employed (5:14, e t c . ) . John P. M e i e r ( i n A M a r g i n a l Jew: R e t h i n k i n g the H i s t o r i c a l J e s u s , Vol.1, (New York: Doubleday, 1991) 381) n o t e s o t h e r s c h o l a r s ' r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , but h i s d i s c u s s i o n c e n t r e s upon the d a t i n g of Jesus' m i n i s t r y (using the " f o r t y - e i g h t y e a r s " as the key i s s u e ) , r a t h e r than on the meaning b e h i n d the Temple a c t i o n . 98  46  complex, nor the a c t u a l tradesmen. T h i s term i s a l s o used i n Mai 3:1  (LXX).  The Temple, the s a c r e d house, not the p r e c i n c t , i s thus  identified cultus.  with  the  "marketplace",  and  i t s 'traders' with  the  9 9  Excursus Jesus'  p u b l i c appearance i n h i s r o l e as God's agent  w i t h a symbolic (and  s t a n d a g a i n s t the  t h u s the p r o f a n i n g  repeated  Temple  of the  setting  forms  begins  i m p u r i t y of the Temple c u l t u s  Temple i t s e l f ) . In John 10, a  contextual  inclusio  with  the John  2:13f. The  f e s t i v a l of D e d i c a t i o n i s an apt arena i n which t o p l a y  out J e s u s '  f i n a l p u b l i c s t a n d a g a i n s t h i s opponents, r e p r e s e n t i n g  as i t does the " r e c o v e r y and p u r i f i c a t i o n of the Temple" by Judas Maccabee, a f t e r the so, t o o ,  'abomination'  i s the r e f e r e n c e  Solomon s i g n i f i c a n t ,  of i l l e g i t i m a t e o c c u p a n t s .  t o h i s s t a n d i n g w i t h i n the p o r t i c o of  f o r i t was  Solomon's o r i g i n a l d e d i c a t i o n  Kgs 8) which i n a u g u r a t e d the new  age of the Temple.  Yahweh  long  would  dwell  there  commandments (see 1 Kgs of  the  Temple  But  so  8:6f;  enable[d]  f o l l o w i n g d i v i n e commands"  the  people  c f . John 10:27,28): "The  Israel 100  as  The  to  - this  refocus  (1  "name" of  heeded  the  dedication  i t s attention  i s p r e c i s e l y what the  FG  on is  Cf. B. Meyer (197), who suggests t h a t J e s u s ' a c t i o n i n the Temple was a d e m o n s t r a t i o n d i r e c t e d at " a l l I s r a e l " . A.E. Harvey, ( i n J e s u s and the C o n s t r a i n t s of H i s t o r y , (London: Duckworth, 1982) 131) s u g g e s t s t h a t Jesus "does not change t h i n g s by h i s a c t i o n s : but h i s a c t i o n s may r e p r e s e n t the change which God w i l l s t o b r i n g about and which [Jesus] i s charged t o p r o c l a i m " . T h i s "change" i s , t h i s paper contends, the replacement of one p r i e s t h o o d w i t h another. 99  Gary N. Knoppers, "Prayer and Propaganda: Solomon's D e d i c a t i o n of the Temple and the Deuteronomist's Program," CBQ 57 (1995) 229-254 (here, 250). 100  47  attempting  to r e i t e r a t e .  Standing  m  the f o o t s t e p s of Solomon,  J e s u s ' a u t h o r i t y and i n t e n t are r e a f f i r m e d .  1 0 1  Summary The  Temple p e r i c o p e  objective  of  anticipated  Jesus' return  intertextuality  of  of  mission: of this  John  2:13f  i s seen  to cleanse  Yahweh. pericope  The lies  the  to  holy  convey  site  significance i n the  for  the  of  the  allusions  P a s s o v e r c o n t e x t and the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e n t r y i n t o a new  the  to  the  "Promised  Land", and a l s o i n the r e f l e c t i o n of the f a l s e w o r s h i p and  tainted  s a c r i f i c e s of the c o r r u p t p r i e s t h o o d , as r e v e a l e d i n M a l a c h i .  The  " d e s t r u c t i o n " of the Temple i t s e l f , o r of the s a c r i f i c i a l  ritual,  i s not, t h e r e f o r e , a t the r o o t of J e s u s ' a c t i o n i n the FG;  i t has  more of a  'purging'  q u a l i t y and  i n the r e j o i n d e r a l l u d i n g  to a  renewal on the " t h i r d day", the d e m o n s t r a t i o n i s w h o l l y o p t i m i s t i c . Not o n l y i s t h i s theme of r e v i v a l i n t e g r a l t o the i d e o l o g y of M a l a c h i , but the a c t of " h e a l i n g " i s a l s o a n e c e s s a r y f a c t o r of the renewal  and e m a n c i p a t i o n  promised  i n Mai 4.  In the next  chapter,  the emphasis i s s t r o n g l y upon the m e t a p h o r i c a l n o t i o n of ' h e a l i n g ' , w i t h r e s p e c t t o d e b i l i t a t i n g o p p r e s s i o n , and how revival  i s m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by  those  d r i v e n by  t h i s message of a more  pragmatic  agenda.  Knoppers, e s p e c i a l l y 235-250, which r e v e a l s the s t r u c t u r e of Solomon's 'prayer' and d e d i c a t i o n . A l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i s the comment t h a t the Temple i n a u g u r a t e d a new e r a i n I s r a e l i t e h i s t o r y (251); f o r Jesus i n the FG, the 'new' Temple w i l l do l i k e w i s e . As Solomon was g r a n t e d the a u t h o r i t y t o e s t a b l i s h a new house, so Jesus c l a i m s a s i m i l a r a u t h o r i t y . 48  Chapter  The  Four: M i s t a k e n  Identity  rhetorical/theological  pattern  of  t h e FG  thus f a r  e s t a b l i s h e d i s one e c h o i n g t h a t p r e s e n t e d i n Ezek 16, where I s r a e l i s d e p i c t e d as t h e ' h a r l o t - b r i d e ' o f Yahweh, and whose r e t u r n t o g l o r y i s made c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e r e f o r m a t i o n o f h e r c h a r a c t e r (as demonstrated  by t h e t h r e e - f e m a l e s  central  structure)  and t h e  r e s u r g e n c e o f d e v o t i o n (demonstrated by the Temple p e r i c o p e o f John 2:13f) . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e combined i m p l i c a t i o n s o f J e s u s ' two  first  h e a l i n g s , t h e f e e d i n g o f t h e m u l t i t u d e and t h e appearance on  the Sea o f G a l i l e e , l e a d t h e r e a d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d mistaken  t h a t a case o f  i d e n t i t y has made J e s u s ' m i s s i o n a l l t h e more d i f f i c u l t .  The p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i n these p e r i c o p a e i s p r o f o u n d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o E x o d i c themes and m o t i f s p e r t a i n i n g t o the e m a n c i p a t i o n  o f t h e oppressed.  Healings I s t h e r e no balm i n G i l e a d ? I s t h e r e no p h y s i c i a n t h e r e ? Why then has t h e h e a l t h o f my poor people not been r e s t o r e d ? (Jer 8:28) The  r e t u r n t o the s i t e of Jesus' symbolic marriage  (and t h e  u n d e r t a k i n g o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r u n i t i n g t h e p e o p l e o f God), Cana  (John  4:46),  i s apparently  Samaria f o r two days, depicted  intentional.  Remaining  i n the  the entry i n t o the northern t e r r i t o r i e s i s  as o c c u r r i n g , s y m b o l i c a l l y , on t h e t h i r d  day, a d d i n g  t h e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the p e r i c o p e . I f t h e t h i r d day i s a day of u n i o n , covenant,  e t c . , perhaps t h e i n f e r e n c e here suggests an 49  a n t i c i p a t e d union a l s o ; a union, that i s , of the d i v i d e d  Israel  itself. Galilee Zebulun,  was once t h e t e r r i t o r y  N a p h t a l i , Asher,  affiliations  with  of the northern t r i b e s of  and I s s a c h a r ,  the northern  house  1 0 2  and thus  o f Joseph  has c l o s e r  than  w i t h the  s o u t h e r n house o f Judah ( c f . I s a 9:1). A l s o , a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l traditions  i n t h e Prophets,  houses o f Joseph  and Judah,  regarding the r e u n i f i c a t i o n  of the  i t i s t h e n o r t h e r n house which i s  ' c a l l e d ' f i r s t . The i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e l a s t days, t h a t i s , t h e l a s t days  of oppression  and d i s u n i t y ,  i s granted  t o the northern  I s r a e l i t e s i n J e r 3:11-4:2, where they a r e t h e f i r s t t o be i n v i t e d back i n t o God's presence, w i t h o u t punishment. I n Ezek 37:15-21, t h e g a t h e r i n g of the northern t r i b e s i n s t i g a t e s the r e s t o r a t i o n of the n a t i o n , w i t h t h e "rod o f Joseph" b e i n g t a k e n up f i r s t . T h i s first'  tradition  Jesus' f i r s t  i s thus  'North  echoed i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t e x t o f  ' h e a l i n g ' and i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the d e p i c t i o n o f t h e  object of Jesus' munificence, i . e . , the b a s i l i k o s . The term b a s i l i k o s "may denote e i t h e r a p e r s o n o f r o y a l b l o o d or  one i n s e r v i c e o f a k i n g , " , o b v i o u s l y i n t h i s case,  Herod.  103  In h i s a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h Rome, as t h e "King o f t h e Jews", Herod was obsequious, d e d i c a t i n g new c i t i e s t o emperors t o w i n f a v o u r , a c t i n g as "spy f o r T i b e r i u s upon Roman o f f i c e r s and s a t e l l i t e k i n g s i n t h e East," 102  etc.  1 0 4  He was, t o many, a  'foreign'  k i n g , , whose  Jewish  McKenzie 293-294 .  B.M. Newman & E.A. N i d a , A T r a n s l a t o r ' s Handbook on t h e Gospel o f John, (London: UBS, 1980) 136. 103  McKenzie, 356. C f . t h e 'despot' i n Dan 8:23-25; t h e elements of "deceit", "cunning", attempted conquest of the " p r i n c e " , e t c . , a l l p o i n t t o an uncanny a n t i c i p a t i o n o f H e r o d i a n 104  50  identity allusion  itself  was  a matter  of contention.  This  1 0 5  t o Herod and f o r e i g n r u l e i s , i t s e l f ,  implicit  an echo o f t h e  S a m a r i t a n woman's d e p i c t i o n , f o r i n h e r s t o r y , t o o , t h e ' s i x t h ' , illegitimate admitted  "husband"  her s i t u a t i o n  " f o l l o w i n g " Jesus.  was seen  t o represent  and s u b s e q u e n t l y  Rome. The woman  chose t o r e j e c t i t , by  In t h i s current pericope, a s i m i l a r  t a k e s p l a c e , but w i t h i n t h e v e r y h e a r t o f Herod's A "son" i s h i s f a t h e r ' s l i v i n g traits,  conversion  domain.  106  echo, t h e i n h e r i t o r  of h i s  b e l i e f s , n a t u r e , e t c . , as d e f i n e d i n S i r 30:4: When t h e f a t h e r d i e s he w i l l n o t seem t o be dead, f o r he has l e f t behind him one l i k e himself...  The "son" o f t h e b a s i l i k o s ,  i n John 4, then,  i s destined to  become a b a s i l i k o s i n h i s f a t h e r ' s f o o t s t e p s . I t i s J e s u s who makes this relationship explicit inevitability  of  i n 4:50 ( e.g., h u i o s ) , r e v e a l i n g t h e  'inheritance'  and, w i t h  the  royal/Herodian  a f f i l i a t i o n i n mind, t h e emphasis i s upon an i l l i c i t h e r i t a g e . The f a t h e r / s o n aspect o f t h e p e r i c o p e echoes t h e concept o f i n h e r i t e d sin  as r e c o r d e d  i n t h e b l a t a n t d e c l a r a t i o n o f Exod 20:5-6  (Deut  5:9-10) . Here, though, i n 4:43f, t h e i d e a seems t o be t h a t t h e "sins"  o f t h e f a t h e r can be e x p i a t e d  before  the c h i l d  becomes  m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them (before he become "of age"),  f o r the  use  age o f  of  paidon  (v. 49)  implies  a  child  under  the  rule. 105  McKenzie, 353 .  G a l i l e e was p a r t o f Herod t h e Great' s kingdom and a l s o p a r t of t h e t e t r a r c h y o f Herod A n t i p a s (McKenzie 2 94). 106  51  responsibility. The  1 0 7  vocabulary  throughout present  the  FG  of  and  "life"  and  "death"  i s understood,  interpretation,  to  be  reflects  g i v e n the  metaphorical.  that  context In  the  of  adhering  equates to  the  life  with  a  Commandments  steadfast brings  devotion  life  (Deut  this  OT,  m e t a p h o r i c a l essence of " l i f e " i s c l e a r i n many passages: explicitly  used  this  Deut  to  4:4  Yahweh;  6:24);  the  " c i r c u m c i s i o n " of the h e a r t t o Yahweh b r i n g s l i f e t o the b e l i e v e r and h i s "descendants"  (Deut 30:6) ; the ' t r u e ' I s r a e l i s seen as the  " l a n d of the l i v i n g "  ( I s a 38:11, 53:8,  covenant w i t h the life".  Thus, the  "life"  Jesus has  even i n the new  priests basilikos to o f f e r  i s said  e t c . ) ; and i n Mai 2:5,  t o have been a  d e s i r e s f o r h i s son - a share  i n the new  "covenant  a share  the of  i n the  kingdom, perhaps  priesthood.  As an echo w i t h i n the FG n a r r a t i v e , when Jesus says  "Unless  you see s i g n s and wonders you w i l l not b e l i e v e , " he i s r e a f f i r m i n g the  promise  statement  he  implies  understanding John  signs  6) . Except  Jesus'  work  had  made a  to  Nathanael  belief  back  contingent  upon  (an i m p l i c a t i o n r e p e a t e d  that  they  108  witness  (the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  of  the  in  1:50-51  -  "seeing"  most e x p l i c i t l y  signs  God's w i l l ) ,  and  wonders  they  can  the and in of not  For an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the young boy's c o n d i t i o n b e i n g 'caused' by " s i n " and not by some p h y s i c a l c o m p l a i n t , r e a d P a g e l s 83-85, where H e r a c l e o n ' s v i e w t h a t the p e r i c o p e d e p i c t s a d u a l - l e v e l c o n v e r s i o n of f a t h e r / s o n , i s e x p l a i n e d . H e r a c l e o n , t o o , saw a s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e s i t e and i n the s t a t u s of the o f f i c e r . w  108 rp-^g p ] _ ] _ i d e t e and p i s t e u s e t e r e f l e c t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r e of the o f f i c e r c h a r a c t e r . u r a  ;  52  "believe" .  109  From an i n t e r t e x t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e performance and  wonders"  i n the context  of a n t i c i p a t e d  of "signs  emancipation  from  o p p r e s s o r s i s w e l l p r e c e d e n t e d and i s r e c o r d e d , almost i n v a r i a b l y , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e Exodus. I n Exod 7:3, " s i g n s and wonders" a r e integral  t o t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Pharaoh's  " h e a r t " ; and i n  Deut 4:34, t h e y a r e r e c a l l e d as t h e means by which God took one n a t i o n "from t h e midst o f another n a t i o n " and as t h e i n c e n t i v e f o r the  people  t o "acknowledge  that  the Lord  i s God"  (v. 35) . The  performance o f such deeds, t h e r e f o r e , i s a l s o equated w i t h 'knowing God',  or 'believing' The  direct  ( c f . Num  adoption  of  14:11). t h e "semeia  k a i terata"  format  i n d i c a t e s an i n t e n t i o n a l a l l u s i o n t o E x o d i c themes; t h e c o n t e x t u a l echo, g i v e n t h e s u b t l e i n f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g Herod/Rome i n t h e i d e a of t h e b a s i l i k o s and G a l i l e e , s h i f t s t h e i d e a o f e m a n c i p a t i o n from Moses/Egypt t o J e s u s / " b e l i e v e r s " . Through " s i g n s and wonders" Jesus will  f r e e those under r e l i g i o u s / s p i r i t u a l o p p r e s s i o n  i n e f f e c t , be p l u c k i n g from t h e midst o f one ' n a t i o n '  1 1 0  ; he w i l l ,  (the s i n f u l  I s r a e l ) , a n o t h e r (the ' b e l i e v e r s ' ) . Thus, J e s u s ' words i n John 4:48 suggest an i n v i t a t i o n t o w i t n e s s , r a t h e r t h a n an a d m o n i t i o n a g a i n s t " s i g n s and wonders". The basilikos  "sign"  t o which  t h e people  h i m s e l f , f o r the 'healing'  a r e now  witness  i s the  t a k e s p l a c e some d i s t a n c e  Newman & N i d a (13 7) suggest t h a t t h e FG i s f o l l o w i n g t h e OT c o n s t r u c t i o n o f " s i g n s and wonders", where t h e two a r e t a k e n as "the e q u i v a l e n t o f a noun m o d i f i e d by an a d j e c t i v e . " Thus, we c o u l d r e a d , "wonderful s i g n s " , here. iuy  The c o n t e x t o f t h e o r i g i n a l "bondage" was one o f r e l i g i o u s r i g h t s o f w o r s h i p , a c c o r d i n g t o Exod 5:1. 110  53  away, out of s i g h t . The  man's open c o n f e s s i o n of f a i t h ,  and h i s  d e s i r e t o o b t a i n f o r h i s o f f s p r i n g a ' b e t t e r l i f e ' , are a p r o f o u n d risk,  t o say the l e a s t , and one which a n t i c i p a t e s the c o n t e x t of  the h e a l i n g of the b l i n d man (v. 48)  addressing  courageous  act  of  the  i n John 9. That Jesus makes h i s remark  many  may  conversion  suggest  i s the  that  this  wondrous  sign  selfless, they  must  recognize. R e t u r n i n g t o the s o u t h , Jesus i n i t i a t e s a ' h e a l i n g ' event i n J e r u s a l e m . By the "Sheep Gate", 5:2f)  await many who  a t t h e p o o l of B e t h - z a t h a  are  "blind"  The  first  (typhlon) , "lame"  "withered"  (xeron).  prohibition  o f Lev  p r i e s t s who  are b l e m i s h e d i n such a way may  21:18-21  two  categories  111  (John  (cholon)  appear  in  (LXX), where i t i s s t a t e d t h a t  and the no  e n t e r the s a n c t u a r y of  the h o l y p l a c e . " B l i n d n e s s " i s used m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n such passages as Ps 146:8, where i t s y m b o l i z e s a l a c k of "wisdom" ( c f . Isa-29:910; 35:5, will  e t c . ) , and i n I s a 35:6  b r i n g the e m a n c i p a t i o n  the dawning of a new  of the  "lame". The  third  "Holy  Way"  category,  x e r o n , i s f u l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the " l a m e n t a t i o n " f o r I s r a e l i n Ezek 19  (here, vv. 12,13  e s p e c i a l l y ) , and J o e l 1:8-18 (e.g., v . 1 2 ) .  In  b o t h t h e s e cases I s r a e l i s p i c t u r e d as a once f o r m i d a b l e n a t i o n ,  The Copper S c r o l l of Qumran s u p p o r t s the "Bethesda" r e n d i t i o n of the name (James, H. C h a r l e s w o r t h Jesus W i t h i n Judaism, (New York: Doubleday, 1988) 120) . The FG, however, employs a v a r i a t i o n , " B e t h - z a t h a " , perhaps more an employment o f assonance than t o p o g r a p h i c a l p r e c i s i o n (the i n t e n t i o n t o p l a c e the scene i n the a r e a known as "Bethesda" i s r e f l e c t e d i n the r e f e r e n c e t o the f i v e p o r t i c o e s , but the name i t s e l f i s a l t e r e d f o r s y m b o l i c purposes). "Beth-zatha" i s e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r r e d t o as a "Hebrew" name , w h i c h may i n d i c a t e a p h o n e t i c i m p l i c a t i o n , e t c . , e . g . , t s a r a h which can i n d i c a t e a d v e r s i t y , a f f l i c t i o n , o r t r o u b l e , o r t s a b a h which can mean t o "grow t u r g i d " , t o f i g h t , o r s w e l l up. T h i s would s u i t w e l l the ' r e b e l l i o n ' c o n t e x t of the FG. 111  54  now b e s i e g e d and near  ruin.  The " w i t h e r e d " d e s c r i p t i o n  m e t a p h o r i c a l and i s i n t e n d e d t o denote  i s thus  a sapping of strength, a  reduced e f f e c t i v e n e s s , e t c . , u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o b e i n g "parched" ( c f . I s a 5:13; 35:7) . toward (e.g.,  the p r i e s t s  I n J o e l ' s account, t h e lament  (v.13), and r e f l e c t s  v.8); Ezekiel's  'marriage' t e r m i n o l o g y  i s directed  consequences o f i n i q u i t i e s  i s targeted  toward  rulers  and t h e  ( c f . Ezek 18:30) .  The t h r e e groups a r e c a t e g o r i z e d , i n John 3, under t h e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g o f a s t h e n e i s , which description  i s used e x t e n s i v e l y  o f those who l a c k m o r a l i t y ,  i n t h e NT as a  authority,  or dignity,  etc.,  (e.g., Rom 6:19, 2 Cor 11:21, 13:4, Heb 5:2, e t c . , ) .  group  i s also  distinctly  Each  r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e FG n a r r a t i v e ; t h e  p e r i c o p e o f John 4:10-15 i n t i m a t e s t h a t t h e p e o p l e a r e 'parched', i n need o f t h e " l i v i n g water", i n John 5 t h e r e i s t h e lame man, and the b l i n d a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n John 9. Given perceived  this  understanding  o f how  i n t h e FG, t h e imagery  of  the " i n f i r m " John  a r e t o be  5:2-9 p r o v e s  t o be  e v o c a t i v e o f Ps 107:17-20: Some were s i c k through t h e i r s i n f u l ways, 'and because o f t h e i r i n i q u i t i e s endured affliction; ...and t h e y drew near t o t h e g a t e s o f d e a t h . ...he sent out h i s word and h e a l e d them, and d e l i v e r e d them from d e s t r u c t i o n . The i l l n e s s , o r weakness, i s thus a symptom o f a more p r o f o u n d ' i n s t a b i l i t y ' . The e x p l i c i t mention o f t h e "Sheep Gate", which was built 3:lf),  by t h e h i g h p r i e s t suggests  a priestly  Eliashib  and h i s f e l l o w p r i e s t s  (Neh  m a t r i x f o r t h e lame man's t a l e ;  he  r e p r e s e n t s , perhaps, t h e ' o r d i n a r y ' p r i e s t s whose o p p r e s s o r s t a k e  55  the form of P h a r i s e e s and t h e i r a c c o m p l i c e s , the c h i e f - p r i e s t s . The impotence of t h i s  1 1 2  'lower' f a c t i o n of the c u l t u s i s r e i t e r a t e d  i n t h e lame man's response t o J e s u s ' d i r e c t q u e s t i o n "Do you want t o be made w e l l ? "  (John 5:6). He r e p l i e s i n a weak and ambiguous  manner, b l a m i n g h i s f a i l u r e t o ' r i s e ' above h i s i n f i r m i t y on the l a c k of a ' h e l p e r '  (v.7; c f . Pss 72:12,14; 107:12, I s a 63:5, Amos  5:2, which speaks of " I s r a e l " h a v i n g f a l l e n , w i t h "no one t o r a i s e her up", and E c c l 4:1, which speaks of the "oppressed" who have no one t o comfort them). O t h e r s , he moans, r e a c h the water b e f o r e him, so h i s a n t i c i p a t i o n  of t r u e  'cleansing'  has been postponed f o r  " t h i r t y - e i g h t y e a r s " , the p e r i o d of time a p t l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the ' g e n e r a t i o n ' i n the w i l d e r n e s s , under Moses.  113  In the  comparable  s p i r i t u a l w i l d e r n e s s , the man a w a i t s the coming of the one who lead  him  into  messenger,  the  new  "Promised  Land"  -  God's  angelos,  can or  Jesus.  W i t h n o t h i n g but a commandment t o r i s e , p i c k up h i s 'bundle' and walk, J e s u s demonstrates the ease w i t h which the o p p r e s s e d , o r misled,  can  reject  their  oppressors.  1 1 4  This  appears  to  be  a  These were the p r i e s t s which formed an "hereditary community" which " t r a c e d i t s genealogy back t o Aaron" ( J e r e m i a s , 198) . A n i m o s i t y o r antagonism had begun t o be come between the h i g h e r l e v e l s of the c u l t u s and t h e s e ' o r d i n a r y ' priests; a c c u s a t i o n s of nepotism, greed, even c r u e l t y and t h e f t were r a i s e d a g a i n s t the c h i e f p r i e s t s (Jeremias, 180-181), who, t h e m s e l v e s , had become s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the P h a r i s e e s . Josephus (Ant. 4.4.1) uses the " t h i r t y - e i g h t " y e a r span, w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s was the g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d a l l o t m e n t f o r the Exodus g e n e r a t i o n . 113  The c o n t e x t of Ps 107:2,6 i s one of a p l e a f o r redemption from " t r o u b l e " and " d i s t r e s s " : the note, above, c o n c e r n i n g a p o t e n t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of " B e t h - z a t h a " i s a i d e d by t h i s s i m i l a r p e r s p e c t i v e i n the Psalm. 114  56  t h e m a t i c echo of J e r 10:17  (NRSV):  Gather up your bundle from the ground, O you who l i v e under s i e g e ! T h i s i s the f i r s t a c t i o n conducted d i r e c t l y toward the c u l t u s , thus f a r ; h i t h e r t o , t h e r e has o n l y been the s y m b o l i c g e s t u r e of the storming  of  incumbents.  the  Temple,  w i t h no  Now,  though,  Jesus  direct  i s seen  a u t h o r i t y of the P h a r i s e e s / c h i e f p r i e s t s c o n v i n c i n g one  9  are  with i t s  t o o p e n l y c h a l l e n g e the over the p r i e s t h o o d by  (or s e v e r a l ) p r i e s t ( s ) t o r e b e l ; the response i s an  e s c a l a t i o n i n the h o s t i l i t y toward Jesus John  involvement  also  foreshadowed  by  this  (v.18). The e v e n t s of daring demonstration  of  d i v i n e , as opposed t o mundane, 'power'.  The Hunger John 6 opens w i t h Jesus on a mountain, P a s s o v e r . The  two  near the time of the  s t r o n g images evoke the Exodus s t o r y ,  without  doubt, w i t h J e s u s ' p o s i t i o n e c h o i n g t h a t of Moses i n Exod 19,32-34, and the f e s t i v a l commemorating the o r i g i n a l P a s s o v e r which l e d t o the e m a n c i p a t i o n of the I s r a e l i t e s from Egypt  (Exod 12). S t r a i g h t  away, t h e p r e v a l e n t theme i s u n d e r s t o o d as one "freedom" In  o f "bondage", o f  and of God's d e s i r e t o redeem h i s f a i t h f u l p e o p l e .  115  the enumeration of the food (e.g., t h e r e are f i v e l o a v e s  John P a i n t e r ( i n " T r a d i t i o n and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n I n John 6," NTS 35.3 ( J u l y 1989) 421-450. Here 432), d i s c u s s e s the n a r r a t i v e i n terms of a "quest", s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the f i r s t s t a g e of the s c e n a r i o , the " f e e d i n g " , d e p i c t s a f a m i l i a r "quest" s t r u c t u r e (e.g., where Jesus i s f a c e d w i t h the c h a l l e n g e of overcoming " d i f f i c u l t i e s " ) and i s concerned w i t h " i n d i v i d u a l " r a t h e r than c o l l e c t i v e response. Von Wahlde ( " L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e " , 5 8 2 ) c o n c u r s w i t h t h i s " i n d i v i d u a l i s m " p e r s p e c t i v e of the FG. 115  57  and  two  fish)  there  is a  potential,  and p r o f o u n d  echo  of  s i g n i f i c a n t numbers i n t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f I s r a e l . According  t o Gen 41:50,  according  t o 1 Chr 2:4, f i v e  John 6, perhaps,  two sons  were  born  t o "Judah".  116  t o "Joseph", The f i v e  r e p r e s e n t "Judah", t h e two f i s h ,  (John  anticipated.  6:13), t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i d e a l The o r d e r  to collect  117  By  of I s r a e l i s  r e f l e c t e d , and i n t h e " g a t h e r i n g " o f t h e fragments i n t o baskets  loaves of  "Joseph".  d i s p e r s i n g t h e food, t h e " s c a t t e r i n g " o f t h e p e o p l e  and  the "fragments"  118  "twelve" Israel i s so t h a t  " n o t h i n g may be l o s t " s t r e n g t h e n s t h e t h e m a t i c c o n n e c t i o n between t h i s " s i g n " , t h e statement  o f Jesus i n John 17:12, 18:9 (where he  r e a s s u r e s God t h a t none e x c e p t i n g t h e one d e s t i n e d t o be l o s t has gone m i s s i n g ) , and another Jeremiah,  precedent  we hear God blaming  OT passage, J e r 23:1-4. I n  t h e bad "shepherds"  for scattering  The " l o a v e s " c o u l d be s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t Judah because Ephraim (i.e., Joseph) was once r e f e r r e d t o as "a cake ['hearthcake'] unturned" (Hos 7:8), i n s i n u a t i n g t h a t i t was n o t as p e r f e c t as Judah; t h e r e was a l s o t h e 'shewbread' which remained i n the s a n c t u a r y o f t h e Judean Temple. F i s h , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e more n o r t h e r l y t e r r i t o r i e s s i m p l y because o f t h e Sea o f G a l i l e e , where t h e f i s h i n g t r a d e was w e l l established. Newman and Nida (180), interpret the l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f " b a r l e y bread" and " f i s h " , w h i l s t o f f e r i n g no i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e numbers used. 116  The numbers 5 and 2, when combined, c r e a t e t h e number 7, the number o f p e r f e c t i o n . I t c o u l d be c l a i m e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t where t h e "Jews" c o u l d o n l y o f f e r " s i x " v e s s e l s o f w a t e r f o r t h e r i t e o f p u r i f i c a t i o n (John 2:6), Jesus i s now o f f e r i n g a means o f a t t a i n i n g a s p i r i t u a l p u r i t y which t r a n s c e n d s t h e i m p e r f e c t ' ritual. I n t h e FG Jesus has seven d i s t i n c t d i s c i p l e s even though he i s heard t o r e f e r t o t h e "twelve" i n 6:70; t h e r e a r e seven, a l s o , l i s t e d i n 21:2.. 117  1  Note t h a t i t i s o n l y t h e bread which i s c o l l e c t e d up, r e i n f o r c i n g t h e s u g g e s t i o n made here t h a t t h e " f i v e " loaves r e p r e s e n t the n o r t h e r n t r i b e s , i . e . , i t i s the n o r t h e r n p e o p l e s who have been s c a t t e r e d and r e q u i r e ' g a t h e r i n g ' . 58  the p e o p l e o f I s r a e l , and i n h i s promise t o g a t h e r them and r e t u r n them t o t h e " f o l d " , God a s s u r e s t h a t t h e y w i l l not be a f r a i d ( c f John 6:20), and none w i l l The  "be m i s s i n g " . (1:49)  r e a c t i o n o f t h e crowd p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f N a t h a n a e l  and  t h e Samaritans (4:42) i n t h a t t h e y r e c o g n i z e  or  actions,  authority  a messianic,  or prophetic  i s acknowledged.  I n John  i n J e s u s ' words,  quality 6,  - h i s 'divine'  however,  there  is a  d i f f e r e n c e , f o r t h e crowd m i s i n t e r p r e t s J e s u s ' " s i g n " ; i t appears that  they  perceive  him  t o be  the waited  (Davidic)  A n t i c i p a t i n g a s i m i l a r r e j e c t i o n of 'misinterpreted'  "king".  authority i n  John 8, however, Jesus i s seen here t o r e j e c t i t ( c f . Judg 8:22, where mundane k i n g s h i p The i.e.,  i s r e j e c t e d i n favour of d i v i n e  word used t o d e s c r i b e  kingship).  t h e a c t i o n o f t h e crowd i s h a r p a z i e n ,  t h e y attempt t o " s e i z e " him, t o t a k e him by f o r c e . The scene  s t r o n g l y echoes t h e theme o f I s a 3:6, f o r which t h e c o n t e x t i s a l s o one  o f an i n t e r n a l " o p p r e s s i o n "  o f t h e people  (v.5):  Someone w i l l even s e i z e a r e l a t i v e , a member o f t h e c l a n , s a y i n g , "You have a c l o a k ; You s h a l l be o u r l e a d e r , and t h i s heap o f r u i n s s h a l l be under your r u l e . " (Isa 3:6) In  this  I s a i a n passage,  t h e one " s e i z e d "  t o .be k i n g  also  refuses, blaming the i n i q u i t y of Jerusalem f o r the present s t a t e of the r u i n e d n a t i o n  (3:7-8).  There i s a l s o , perhaps, an i n t e r t e x t u a l echo i n t h i s p e r i c o p e (based upon t h e comparable a c t i o n b e i n g d e p i c t e d ) o f Deut  26.  119  Perhaps t h e i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n o f t h e r e a d e r i s t o compare t h i s semeion w i t h t h a t o f E l i s h a , i n 2 Kgs 4:42-44, b u t on c l o s e r a n a l y s i s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n E l i s h a ' s deed w h i c h c o u l d p o s s i b l y have any b e a r i n g on t h e FG's i d e o l o g y . 119  59  Here, we see the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a "basket" of food t o the who  i s i n o f f i c e a t t h a t time"  the b l e s s i n g many  (vv.2-3), the p r a y e r of thanks  and  (vv.11-15), and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f o o d amongst  (vv. 11-12) . The  f o c u s of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  c e l e b r a t i o n of the e m a n c i p a t i o n wonders"  "priest  (v. 8)  of God,  and  OT  passage i s the  from Egypt t h r o u g h the " s i g n s and  the  s e t t l e m e n t i n the  Promised  Land  (v.15). The d i s t i n c t i o n between the p h y s i c a l "bread" and the " t r u e bread"  (John 6:32)  corresponds t o the d i s t i n c t i o n between the t e r r a  f i r m a of the o r i g i n a l "Promised  "Promised  Land" of the FG.  Land" and  Jesus  i s seen  and  Miller  scholars polarize  rightly  "sign"  and  point  ( s u g g e s t i n g t h a t Jesus i s "downplaying"  "priest".  out  "spiritual  spiritual,  (through t h i s  a l l u s i o n t o Deut 26) t o assume the r o l e of Johns  the  that,  food"  ideal  apparent  1 2 0  although  in this  many  pericope  the f o r m e r ) , the n a r r a t i v e  a c t u a l l y p o r t r a y s J e s u s as b e i n g d i s t u r b e d by t h e crowd's i g n o r a n c e of the meaning, o r s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  of the s i g n s .  1 2 1  The p o l a r i t y  of  the p e r i c o p e , r a t h e r , s h o u l d be seen i n the c o n t r a s t between what J e s u s seems t o be i m p l y i n g and what the crowd comprehends; on the one hand, we see the people a t t e m p t i n g t o " s e i z e " Jesus t o be " k i n g " , and, on the o t h e r , we see Jesus r e t r e a t i n g ,  then a c c u s i n g  the crowd of s e e k i n g him out because they "ate [ t h e i r ] loaves"  (6:26) . T h e i r immediate d e s i r e ,  satisfaction,  has  remained  on  the  level  and of  f i l l of the  the source the  their  of  mundane  their -  the  T h i s f u n c t i o n of the " p r i e s t " i s r e f l e c t e d i n the Manual of D i s c i p l i n e , from Qumran (Barnstone 214), where i t i s r e q u i r e d t h a t i n a g a t h e r i n g of t e n o r more men (note the emphasis on "anthropos" i n John 6:10) a p r i e s t must be p r e s e n t , must s i t the men b e f o r e him, and pronounce a b l e s s i n g w i t h the f i r s t p o r t i o n of f o o d . 120  L.L. Johns & D.B. M i l l e r , "Signs As W i t n e s s e s i n t h e F o u r t h G o s p e l , " CBO 53.6 (1994) 519-535 (here 532). 121  60  a n a l o g y of the crowd t a k i n g t h e i r f i l l of p h y s i c a l f o o d w i t h t h e i r mundane e x p e c t a t i o n s and hunger t o see  Rome d e s t r o y e d ,  an  corresponds  immediate concerns,  e.g.,  e v e n t u a l i t y which demands  a the  prowess and a u t h o r i t y of the m e s s i a n i c k i n g . In  response  to  this  demonstration  of  'mistaken  identity',  Jesus r e t r e a t s , o n l y t o reappear i n a p r o f o u n d l y s y m b o l i c t o r e i t e r a t e h i s 'meaning' t o h i s d i s c i p l e s The  context,  (John 6:16-21) .  "Sea of G a l i l e e " r e c e i v e s two d i s t i n c t names i n John  6:1,  the o t h e r b e i n g the "Sea of T i b e r i a s " . The g r e a t c i t y of T i b e r i a s was  erected  by  Herod  Antipas  b i r t h d a y of T i b e r i u s C a e s a r . tetrarchy, devout  and  city.  It  had  been  defiling  v i t a l to understanding In John 6:1, t h a l a s s a , but was  proposes,  but  the  levitical  why  mark  the  showcase of s i t e was  65th  Antipas'  shunned  by  u n c l e a n l i n e s s due  to  upon  living  the  site  there.  1 2 3  of  a  This  cemetery,  animosity  is  'walking on water' s c e n a r i o .  the body of water i n G a l i l e e i s r e f e r r e d t o as a  Josephus r e f e r s t o i t as a l i m n e .  the 125  the  the  to  19:11) p r o h i b i t e d them from e n t e r i n g  built  anyone  C.E.,  I t was  Jews whose abhorrence of  perpetually  term  122  became h i s c a p i t a l ,  c o n t a c t w i t h the dead (cf . Num the  i n c.23  usual  hellenistic  should  the  M a r t i n Goodman, The Cambridge UP, 1987) 94-95. yii  FG  designation,  deviate  from  R u l i n g C l a s s of  124  I f the as  this?  Judea,  M.  latter Davies  Davies  is  (Cambridge:  Josephus (Ant. 18.2.3) remarks t h a t Herod b r i b e d "poor p e o p l e " w i t h houses, i n o r d e r t o r a i s e the p o p u l a t i o n , and many c o u n t r y d w e l l e r s were brought by f o r c e t o r e s i d e i n the c i t y . 123  124  M. D a v i e s , 34:11. 125  Num  Josephus Ant.  18.2.3; J.W.  268.  The  3.3.5.  d e s i g n a t i o n t h a l a s s a a l s o appears i n 61  c o r r e c t i n assuming  t h a t t h e r e i s an i n t e n d e d a l l u s i o n , here, t o  t h e Exodus s t o r y , w i t h t h e "menace of the sea" and theme o f " s a l v a t i o n " , r e v e a l a "mounting which f i r s t  1 2 6  the  related  but she suggests the p e r i c o p e i s used t o  hostility"  toward Jesus and a c t s as a d e v i c e  " d i v i d e s the p e o p l e i n t h e i r response t o J e s u s ,  [then] r e - u n i t e s them i n r e j e c t i o n of h i m . " of the "sea" element i s r a t h e r subdued.  127  Thus, the  and  impetus  128  The malevolence of the 'deep', however, i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of John 6, and i s p r e c e d e n t e d i n Pss 77:16-20; 114:5, Job 7:12,  Job 38:8-11, I s a 27:1, Jonah 1:17,  and Dan  7.  The major theme which runs through c o m p a r a b l e . d e p i c t i o n s of men  and the sea i s the power of God t o defend h i s p e o p l e from the  p e r i l s of the "sea" and the "storm", and the ' s a l v a t i o n ' of t h o s e who t r u s t i n him. Psalm 57:1,3, Prov 10:25, and Zech 10:11-12 each a l l u d e t o the sea i n terms of an enemy, o p p r e s s o r , e t c . , w h i c h God conquers f o r the sake of h i s I s r a e l . I n Psalm 107:23-30, the same Psalm  which  speaks  of  the  "distressed"  and  "afflicted"  at  the  " g a t e s " , whom God " h e a l s " , the " t h i r s t y " wanderers i n the " d e s e r t " who  a r e l e d t o s a l v a t i o n by the " s t r a i g h t " p a t h of God's  and the bondage of those who  making,  c l a i m t o have "no h e l p e r " , c o n t a i n s  what may be the s t r u c t u r a l / t h e m a t i c precedent f o r the p e r i c o p e of John 6:16-21. I n vv. 23-30 of the Psalm, the scene d e p i c t e d i s one of men  i n b o a t s on the t h a l a s s a , d i s t r e s s e d by a storm; t u r n i n g t o  God f o r s a l v a t i o n , the storm calms and they are l e d s a f e l y t o t h e i r 126  M. D a v i e s , 140.  127  M. D a v i e s , 128-129.  See a l s o P a i n t e r (430-431) , who as a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e of t r a n s i t i o n . . 128  sees t h i s p e r i c o p e merely 62  destination. One may  i n t e r p r e t the p e r i c o p e of John 6:16-21, t h e n , i n the  same l i g h t , i . e . , as b e i n g a d e m o n s t r a t i o n a g a i n s t o p p r e s s i o n , and of  God's power t o save. By t r e a d i n g upon the waves of the "Sea of  Tiberias",  Jesus  is  seen  to  place  the  enemy,  Rome  (and  by  e x t e n s i o n , Herod), under h i s f o o t , r e j e c t i n g the ' i n e v i t a b i l i t y ' of t h e i r supremacy. S i m p l y ' d e s t r o y i n g ' the Romans, w i t h o u t p e r c e i v i n g the  'internal'  iniquity  which  keeps  Israel  under  oppression,  however, i s no t r u e v i c t o r y , but i n J e s u s ' semeion i s the key t o a f u t u r e e m a n c i p a t i o n . When I s r a e l a c c e p t s God, once a g a i n , as t h e i r t r u e s a l v a t i o n , t h e y w i l l make themselves worthy i n h i s s i g h t once more,  and  the  'tools'  of  God's  wrath  will  be  destroyed.  By  f o l l o w i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l d e p i c t i o n of the "sea" s c e n a r i o , the FG a u t h o r has a l r e a d y i n t i m a t e d t h a t i t i s God who  i s i n c o n t r o l of  the s i t u a t i o n , w i t h Jesus merely the v e h i c l e of h i s w i l l . F u r t h e r , by e x c l a i m i n g "ego e i m i " , Jesus i s heard t o be e c h o i n g the d i v i n e "I Am"  of Exod 3:13-15, and t h i s i s i n complete concordance  with  the FG image of Jesus as God's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; i t does not i m p l y t h a t J e s u s i s c l a i m i n g t o be God, but t h a t God i s p r e s e n t ( c f . Ps 46:1) .  130  The  use  of  this  'name'  enforces  the  divine  The added element of "darkness" i n the FG scene i n d i c a t e s an i n t e n t i o n t o convey the i d e a of ' i g n o r a n c e ' , i . e . , of the disciples/people; i n every o t h e r use of the motif, the P h a r i s e e s / c h i e f p r i e s t s become i n v o l v e d (9:4; 11:10; 13:30), r e v e a l i n g t h e i r own i g n o r a n c e of who/what J e s u s i s . rdy  P a i n t e r (439-440) suggests t h a t the "ego e i m i " s a y i n g i n John 6 f o r c e s the theme of s a l v a t i o n onto the "person of J e s u s " . The t r a d i t i o n of the Psalms, e s p e c i a l l y , p o i n t s s t r o n g l y towards the p o t e n t power of the name of God i t s e l f - i t s i n v o c a t i o n i n such passages as Ps 54:1, 75:1, 79:6, e t c . , e t c . , suggests a c o r r e l a t i o n between k e e p i n g the "name" of God a l i v e , and " s a l v a t i o n " ; those who " f o r g e t " t o i n v o k e the name of God, p e r i s h . The use of the tetragrammaton by Jesus would, indeed, have been 'blasphemous, but 130  63  ' a u t h o r i z a t i o n ' of an agent of God,  as i n Exod 23:20-21:  131  I am g o i n g t o send an a n g e l i n f r o n t of you, t o guard you on the way and t o b r i n g you t o the p l a c e t h a t I have p r e p a r e d . Be a t t e n t i v e t o him and l i s t e n t o h i s v o i c e . . . ... f o r my name i s i n him. Summary By  a n a l y s i n g the  through  their  first  apparent  two  h e a l i n g semeia,  intertextual  echoes  i n John and  4-5,  political  i m p l i c a t i o n s , t h e r e can be observed a d i s t i n c t i o n between n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n I s r a e l , w i t h r e s p e c t t o the a n t i c i p a t e d r e u n i o n b e f o r e the  new  Kingdom  can  be  inaugurated.  Similarly,  there  is  a  d i s t i n c t i o n between the i m p o s i t i o n of f o r e i g n r u l e (which s u i t s the 'northern'  setting;  c f . the Samaritan  i n i q u i t o u s , or i n e f f e c t u a l , p r i e s t s  woman's p e r i c o p e )  (suitably,  and  the  i n the c o n t e x t of  the Temple s i t e ) . The concepts of " l i f e " ,  "death", and " s i g n s and  wonders"  and  are  seen  precedents  i n the  feeding  of  the  Israel,  and  the  to  be  context  multitude  metaphorical of  redemption  as  and  r e g a t h e r i n g of  strong  emancipation.  i n 6:2-14 r e p r e s e n t s  anticipated  having  the  division  The of  the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  t w e l v e t r i b e s , f o r m i n g a p o t e n t i a l c u l m i n a t i o n t o the m i s s i o n , but this  i s not  realized;  there i s a misunderstanding  about  Jesus'  m e s s i a n i c i d e n t i t y . As God's agent, Jesus i s d e p i c t e d as the l o c u s of d i v i n e power and a u t h o r i t y ; f a i t h i n him  (and t h e r e f o r e i n h i s  the p r o v o c a t i v e "ego ' sin' !  innuendo w i t h o u t  eimi"  offers  a l l the  the  Cf. I s a 6:8 i n the LXX; the prophet uses "ego e i m i " i n the c o n t e x t of "Here I am, send me", and t h i s i s s i m i l a r t o the c o n t e x t s i n which the FG "ego e i m i " s a y i n g s are used when t h e y are p r e d i c a t e d by "the door", "the way", e t c . I.e., Jesus i s seen t o be o f f e r i n g h i m s e l f as God's i n s t r u m e n t . 131  64  m i s s i o n ) equates t o f a i t h i n God - f a i t h i n God as t h e s a l v a t i o n o f Israel  i s t h e key t o s u p p r e s s i n g  the  'enemy , 1  Rome,  f o r by  r e t u r n i n g t o t h e ' r i g h t e o u s path', God's anger w i l l be q u e l l e d and his  p e o p l e ' s enemies  destroyed.  A f t e r t h e c e n t r a l branch o f t h e t h e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , e.g., the a d u l t e r e s s ' s t o r y , and i t s a s s o c i a t e d j u r i d i c a l debates, e t c . , the n a r r a t i v e o f t h e FG moves on toward t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e new priesthood. it  F o l l o w i n g t h e h e a l i n g o f t h e "lame" (which c o n d i t i o n ,  has been suggested,  relates metaphorically  t o t h o s e who a r e  " f e t t e r e d " , and t h e r e f o r e i n e f f e c t u a l , e.g., as p r i e s t s o f Yahweh), the h e a l i n g o f t h e " b l i n d " w i l l emphasize t h e m i s p l a c e d p r i d e and ignorance  o f the P h a r i s e e s ,  and t h e ' r a i s i n g '  of Lazarus,  the  emancipation of a l l the " i n f i r m " .  65  Chapter F i v e : E l e c t i o n  Preparing  f o r the s y m b o l i c  Yahweh, J e s u s i s d e p i c t e d , 'healing'  signs  in  both  're-marriage' between I s r a e l  i n the FG, northern  as p e r f o r m i n g the n e c e s s a r y and  southern  territories,  a n t i c i p a t i n g , i t seems, a ' p r e - n u p t i a l ' r e u n i f i c a t i o n , a of  the  nations' ,  necessity  for  as  exhibited  clarification,  i n the  as  and  'feeding'  demonstrated  'gathering  pericope.  in  John  The  6:16-21,  b r i n g s w i t h i t a sense of urgency, as the t h r e a t a g a i n s t J e s u s i s e s c a l a t e d . Here, the two c h a r a c t e r s of the " b l i n d man"  and  are  author  discussed,  i n an  attempt  to  reveal  how  the  FG  Lazarus uses  i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes t o i l l u s t r a t e the e l i m i n a t i o n of i g n o r a n c e  and  e m a n c i p a t i o n of a l l those who  and  f o l l o w J e s u s i n t o the new  d e s i r e t o break t h e i r  'bonds'  'Promised Land'. Through t h e s e d e p i c t i o n s  i s r e v e a l e d the g e n e s i s of the new  priesthood.  A Lack of V i s i o n Blindness quotation" future  of  is  I s a 6-.10.  132  "healing",  restoration.  1 3 3  mentioned  the  FG  in  John  Where the makes  12:40  initial  Jesus  the  in context  an  i s one  instrument  A l s o , the replacement of t e t y p h l o k e n  "inverted  ("he  of  of  a  that  has made  D. Moody Smith ( i n "The S e t t i n g and Shape of a Johannine N a r r a t i v e Source," JBL 95.2 (June, 1976) 231-241. Here, 239) s u g g e s t s t h a t because the FG r e n d i t i o n f o l l o w s n e i t h e r the LXX nor the Hebrew v e r s i o n s , i t s i n c l u s i o n must be a t t r i b u t e d t o a l a t e r " C h r i s t i a n " hand, and not t o the e v a n g e l i s t . The i d e a of an " i n v e r t e d q u o t a t i o n " makes the d i s c r e p a n c i e s p r o d u c t i v e , r a t h e r t h a n h i n d e r i n g , i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 132  Cf. J u d i t h M. Lieu ( i n "Blindness i n the Johannine T r a d i t i o n , " NTS 34.1 (January, 1988) 83-95. Here, 86), who proposes t h a t the s u b j e c t , "he", of John 12:40 i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d as J e s u s , i m p l y i n g t h a t he i s the c o u n t e r p a r t t o I s a i a h . 133  66  blind")  f o r t h e o r i g i n a l ekammusan ("they have c l o s e d " ) suggests  t h a t t h e q u o t a t i o n i s t o be understood i n l i g h t o f t h e " b l i n d n e s s " of John 9, i . e . , i t i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e w i l l o f God so t h a t those a f f l i c t e d w i l l be " c o n v e r t e d " and thus r e v e a l h i s g l o r y . C o n v e r s i o n , then, s h o u l d be t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s FG ' h e a l i n g ' pericope. 4:46f,  (A s i m i l a r  1 3 4  which  deduction  depicted  (divine/mundane)  a  from  conversion  monarchical a l l e g i a n c e ,  the a n a l y s i s in  the  of  John  context  of  complements t h i s ) .  The  lame man's s t o r y r e v e a l e d a c o n v e r s i o n i n t h e r e a l m o f t h e p r i e s t s , and h e r e , t h e b l i n d man i s shown t o have an i n t r i g u i n g  affiliation  w i t h t h e P h a r i s e e s , who a r e l a t e r d e p i c t e d i n terms o f " b l i n d n e s s " t h e m s e l v e s . I f t h e "lame" c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e ' f e t t e r e d ' p r i e s t s , t h e " b l i n d " , i t may be proposed, r e f e r t o t h e P h a r i s e e s . Lieu determines Jesus  supposes "sin".  removes  1 3 6  that  i t i s t h e "response  In the story  t h e concept  t o Jesus"  of the b l i n d  o f s i n from  1 3 5  man,  which  however,  t h e "son" b e f o r e any  a c t i o n / r e a c t i o n o c c u r s (9:3), and t h e i n h e r i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f Cf. Harvey (117 and n.73), who suggests t h a t t h e h e a l i n g o f a i l m e n t s was a s i g n o f e m a n c i p a t i o n from t h e " c o n s t r a i n t on human d i g n i t y and freedom"; i n c o n t e x t , though, Harvey's c o n c l u s i o n refers to real physical disabilities, not m o r a l / s p i r i t u a l 'bindings'. I n G a l 4:8-9, t h e l i f e b e f o r e ' c o n v e r s i o n ' i s seen as an enslavement, w i t h t h e o l d laws ( i . e . , t h e P h a r i s a i c laws) i m p o s i n g a "begging" s p i r i t upon men which t h e y must overcome. The i d e a o f the " p r o s a t o n " here, may i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r form o f 'bondage', where t h e b l i n d man, once beholden t o t h e P h a r i s e e s , i s seen t o be 'transformed'. 135  J u d i t h L i e u , " B l i n d n e s s i n t h e Johannine T r a d i t i o n , " NTS 34.1 (January 1988) 83-95 (here 84). However, w i t h t h e o f f i c e r ' s son, t h e m a t t e r was handled i n such a way as t o suggest a c e r t a i n d e s i r e t o r i d the c h i l d of the 'sins of the f a t h e r ' , i l l u s t r a t i n g an i n h e r i t e d ' s i n ' , and i n t h e lame man's case, i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e " s i n " about which Jesus warns i s a s t a t e o f e x i s t e n c e which precedes J e s u s ' i n v o l v e m e n t . 136  67  g u i l t , as e x p r e s s e d i n Exod 10:5-6, i s a l s o i m m e d i a t e l y in this case.  1 3 7  precluded  I t i s , then, something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , namely a  s t a t e o f mind imposed upon him by t h e s e c t . He may be a young Pharisee,  perhaps  describes. that  he  1 3 8  a  or postulant,  H i s age i s a l l u d e d  t o twice  i s "of age" i . e . , t o make  s e c t a r i a n membership. 9:22,  novice,  139  such  as  Josephus  (vv.21,23)  implying  h i s own  choice  regarding  The r e a c t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s ,  later, i n  suggests that the focus of the Pharisees'  'choice'  anger i s upon t h e  t h e son has made and t h e i r w r a t h i s r a i s e d as a t h r e a t  a g a i n s t any f u r t h e r ' r e b e l l i o n ' from t h e f a m i l y . That t h e P h a r i s e e s appear t o be t a k i n g t h i s event so ' p e r s o n a l l y ' i s t h u s a c l u e t o its interpretation. J e s u s s p i t s on t h e ground i n o r d e r t o make a s m a l l amount o f " c l a y " , w i t h which he a n o i n t s t h e b l i n d man's eyes. The term used for  'anointing'  i n d i v i d u a l s being LXX,  incorporates  here  i s epechrio,-  nearly  every  commissioned, chosen, d e l e g a t e d , or  specifies  the verb  chrio.  instance etc., 1 4 0  of  i n the  This  may  I n t h e case o f t h e o f f i c e r and t h a t o f t h e lame man, t h e p o s i t i o n o f a c h i l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y a "son", i s d e t e r m i n e d by h i s f a t h e r ; t h e nobleman w i l l g i v e r i s e t o noblemen, t h e p r i e s t t o p r i e s t s . I n t h e case o f t h e P h a r i s e e , t h e p o s i t i o n i s one o f c h o i c e , i . e . , i t i s not an i n h e r i t e d s t a t u s (Jeremias 2 5 1 f ) . w  138  Josephus, L i f e , 1.2.  Josephus ( i b i d ) c l a i m s t h a t he was a n o v i c e i n each o f t h e t h r e e s e c t s , P h a r i s e e s , Essenes, and Sadducees, b e f o r e making t h e c h o i c e , a t t h e age o f n i n e t e e n , t o adhere t o t h e P h a r i s e e s . l t i s no l o n g e r a m a t t e r f o r h i s p a r e n t s t o i n f l u e n c e ; t h a t t h e young man was b o r n i n t o a s t a t e o f " b l i n d n e s s " may ( m e t a p h o r i c a l l y ) r e f l e c t the i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e P h a r i s a i c s e c t , i n t h e manner o f , but i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e ' i l l u m i n a t i n g ' " b i r t h from above" ( i . e . , as t h e i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e new kingdom). 139  McKenzie 35; Geza Vermes, Jesus t h e Jew: A H i s t o r i a n ' s Reading o f t h e G o s p e l s , (London: C o l l i n s , 1973) 158-159. A l s o , i n Rev 3:18, a s i m i l a r c o n t e x t i s apparent f o r t h e employment o f t h e 140  68  i n d i c a t e t h a t i n John 9, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e wet c l a y i s t o be understood  i n terms o f an " e l e c t i o n " .  Having been a n o i n t e d / e l e c t e d , t h e man i s sent t o t h e p o o l o f S i l o a m t o wash away t h e c l a y . I n t h e e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e name of t h e p o o l , w i t h t h e added g l o s s emphasizing  t h e "sent" element,  an i n t e r t e x t u a l echo o f I s a 8:6 i s c r e a t e d .  Here, t h e people o f  Judah a r e seen as malcontents  and d e v i a n t s , " r e f u s i n g t h e w a t e r s o f  S h i l o a h " which f l o w g e n t l y . F o r t h i s they must endure t h e t o r r e n t from  the north  Euphrates;  (i.e.,  A s s y r i a , under  the guise  i n t h e FG echo, Rome), which w i l l  'judgement'  (vv.5-9).  of the River  a c t as a sweeping  I s a i a h i s warned n o t t o " c o n s p i r e "  with  p e o p l e who f e a r ( i . e . , r e g a r d , e t c . ) men r a t h e r than God ( v v . l 2 f ) . I n t h e FG, t h e b l i n d man i s t h e v e r y a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e "Judah" o f Isa  8, f o r he w i l l i n g l y  accepts  the gentle  c l e a n s i n g h i m s e l f i n i t s (metaphorical)  waters  depths.  of Siloam,  141  M. Davies notes t h a t t h e g i v e n t r a n s l a t i o n i s n o t t h e " p a s s i v e participial  form  o f t h e Hebrew v e r b  'to s e n d ' " .  142  This  term,  " S h i l o a h " , however, stems from t h e Hebrew v e r b s h a l a c h , sometimes t r a n s l a t e d as " t o s e n d " , but which a l s o c a r r i e s t h e c o n n o t a t i o n 143  of  g i v i n g up/leaving,  intertextual, ambiguity  thematic  e t c . , and, a p p o i n t i n g / s e n d i n g echo  i s an  intentional  o u t . The  one, b u t t h e  o f t h e name i s a l s o e x p l o i t e d f o r s y m b o l i c  purposes  c h r i o v e r b , e.g., a s t a t e o f ' b l i n d n e s s ' , an a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e eyes, and a p o t e n t i a l f o r ' s i g h t ' . The a l l u s i o n i n f e r s t h a t t h e d e f e a t o f Rome i s c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e complete 'submission' o f I s r a e l t o God, and thus expands on t h e i d e o l o g y o f John 6. 141  142  M. D a v i e s , 272.  143  Newman and N i d a , 302. 69  (e.g., as B e t h - z a t h a , e t c . ) . As w i t h t h e prophet I s a i a h , t h e b l i n d man's c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e P h a r i s e e s (who v a l u e t h e i r own d o c t r i n e s more than God's, e.g., John 8:39-47) a r e s e v e r e d . E f f e c t i v e l y , t h e blind  man  Jesus', "chosen". blind  renounces  becoming  the Pharisee's  one o f J e s u s '  authority  elect,  i n deference  and one o f God's  to new  Together w i t h t h e ' a n o i n t i n g ' aspect o f t h e " c l a y " , t h e  man's c o n v e r s i o n / e l e c t i o n f u l l y  satisfies  the " e l e c t i o n "  element o f Ezek 16. The immediate r e a c t i o n o f t h e "neighbours" and those who had seen t h e b l i n d man b e f o r e i s t o query whether t h i s changed man was t r u l y t h e "beggar" term "begging" in  (or "beggar") i s used i n a v e r y i l l u m i n a t i n g c o n t e x t  G a l 4:8-9;  enslavement, "begging"  t h e y had been a c q u a i n t e d w i t h . I n t h e NT t h e  the l i f e  before  w i t h t h e o l d laws  conversion  (i.e.,  Pharisaic  i s seen  as an  law) imposing a  s p i r i t upon men, which t h e y must overcome.  144  I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o see i n John 9 a s t r u c t u r a l / t h e m a t i c echo o f t h e t a l e o f Balaam, i n Num 22. Balaam, a 'seer' sent k i n g B a l a k o f t h e Moabs t o c u r s e t h e I s r a e l i t e s , a l o n g t h e r o a d on a donkey.  from  i s travelling  On t h r e e s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s t h e donkey  i s p r e v e n t e d from c o n t i n u i n g on h i s way by an a n g e l who s t a n d s i n the r o a d , u n n o t i c e d by Balaam ( c f . t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f John 1:26) .  The b l i n d man i s t a k e n not t o a p r i e s t , which was t h e a c c e p t e d procedure f o r t h e f i n a l assurance o f ' c l e a n l i n e s s ' a f t e r an a i l m e n t o r d i s e a s e ( a c c o r d i n g t o Lev 1 2 f f ) , b u t t o t h e P h a r i s e e s , whose f i r s t r e a c t i o n i s t o deny, o r r e f u s e t o b e l i e v e , t h a t t h e man was b l i n d i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e (v. 18) . T h i s demonstrates two t h i n g s , i . e . , t h e i r own i n a b i l i t y t o "see" and u n d e r s t a n d , and a l s o t h e i m p l i c i t a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e young man and t h e P h a r i s e e s . I f t h e youth i s , i n d e e d , a p o s t u l a n t P h a r i s e e , i t would make p e r f e c t sense f o r t h e concerned p e o p l e t o b r i n g him b e f o r e h i s mentors i f he has performed i n any way c o n t r a r y t o t h e i r laws and r e g u l a t i o n s . 144  70  Then, "the L o r d open[s]  the eyes of Balaam"  (v.31); he  sees  the  a n g e l t h e r e on t h e r o a d and f a l l s t o the ground b e f o r e him.  "I  have come out as an a d v e r s a r y , because your way i s p e r v e r s e b e f o r e me,"  warns the a n g e l .  Balaam i s 'converted' by the a n g e l of  God,  and he becomes I s r a e l ' s own prophet, b l e s s i n g r a t h e r than c u r s i n g the n a t i o n .  1 4 5  H i s "eye"  i s made " c l e a r " ; he  sees  "the v i s i o n  the A l m i g h t y " and knows the knowledge of the Most High"  of  (Num  24:3-4) . In  John 9,  the  c h a r a c t e r of  Balaam, i n the i n i t i a l , spiritual  the b l i n d  r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e s of  echoes t h a t  of  ' b l i n d n e s s ' , i n the  ' c o n v e r s i o n ' as a r e s u l t o f ' s e e i n g ' , and i n the t h r e e -  f o l d b l e s s i n g / c o n f e s s i o n each undertake. is  man  equated  with  'understanding';  the  receiving  of  In Balaam's case, divine  t h i s concurs w i t h the LXX  vision  knowledge,  v e r s i o n of Ps  of  146:8,  which d e p i c t s ' s i g h t ' i n terms of "wisdom" ( s o p h i a ) . The c h a r a c t e r of Balaam appears i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s the B i b l e , e.g., Pet 2:15,  Num  31:16, Deut 23:4,  J o s h 24:9,  throughout  Jude 11, and 2  y e t i n these i n s t a n c e s he i s d e p i c t e d i n l e s s  agreeable  terms - i n f a c t he i s q u i t e an unsavoury c h a r a c t e r . What t h e n , makes the p o r t r a i t i n Num c o n t e x t of Num  22 so unique? The answer, perhaps,  22, and the o v e r a l l i m p l i c a t i o n of the d e f e a t , o r  c o n v e r s i o n of Balaam.  Alleman suggests t h a t the r e a s o n Balaam i s  p r e s e n t e d so p o s i t i v e l y i n t h i s i n i t i a l m a n i p u l a t e d o r e x p l o i t e d by God how  God  l i e s i n the  scene, i s t h a t he i s b e i n g  f o r t h e purpose of  f r u s t r a t e s the d e s i g n s of those who  demonstrating  might do harm t o h i s  N o t i c e the s i m i l a r i t y t o the a l l e g e d c o n v e r s i o n of P a u l . 71  people.  146  Perhaps  there  is  p r e s e n t e d as a 'seer' who A a r o n i t e p r i e s t who to  misunderstand  more,  though,  in  that  Balaam  is  i n q u i r e s of Yahweh ( i n the manner o f the  h e l d the Urim and Thummim), but somehow seems  or  m i s i n t e r p r e t h i s d i v i n e messages  (cf.  Num  22:22) ; even though he i s p r o u d l y c l a i m i n g t o be d o i n g the w i l l God,  h i s stubbornness and  reveal  his true  demonstrative  ' b l i n d n e s s ' , w i t h r e s p e c t t o the a n g e l ,  nature.  p o r t r a y a l i s i n keeping  He  is. conceited  and  proud  (thus  this  w i t h the l a t e r ones) , which i s why  this  ' c o n v e r s i o n ' t a k e s on such a humbling a s p e c t .  The moral of the s t o r y seems t o be: Those who and c a r r y out the w i l l of God, it,  of  presume t o know  but f a i l t o a c t i n accordance w i t h  r e a l l y do not know i t at a l l , and must be t h w a r t e d  ( c f . John  10:8) . I s t h i s not the message of John 9:40-41, w i t h r e s p e c t t o the P h a r i s e e s ? I f the d e p i c t i o n of the b l i n d man echoes t h a t of Balaam, as i t appears t o , the p r o b a b i l i t y i s t h a t h i s comparable c o n v e r s i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n a s i m i l a r c o n t e x t . As a young P h a r i s e e , the man  blind  would be a p o t e n t i a l i n h i b i t e r of t h i s a n t i c i p a t e d g l o r y f o r  Israel,  just  as  Balaam's  curses  would  a t t r i b u t e d the r o l e of the angel who and who  been;  comes out as an  Jesus  is  'adversary'  opens the man's eyes (e.g., g i v e s him wisdom).  T h i s , i t seems, i s why openly  have  commissioning one  e f f e c t , h u m i l i a t i n g them.  the P h a r i s e e s take o f f e n s e : Jesus i s  of t h e i r own  f o r h i s cause.  He  i s , in  147  Casey sees problems i n the h i s t o r i c i t y of the a l l e g e d t h r e a t s H.C. Alleman and E.E. F l a c k , O l d ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s , 1978) 288-289. 146  Testament  Commentary,  In John 7, the P h a r i s e e s f i n d i t p r e p o s t e r o u s t h a t any of t h e r e own people s h o u l d f o l l o w J e s u s , the i r o n y of t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n i s r e v e a l e d here, i n John 9. 147  72  of  excommunication  Messiah, a  148  (9:22) a g a i n s t those who c o n f e s s e d J e s u s t h e  and t h i s i s c o r r e c t , f o r i t was n o t a c r i m e t o support  Messianic  contender.  Jesus,  i n t h e FG, however,  i s not a  M e s s i a n i c contender i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , o r common, sense; i t i s , perhaps,  because h i s f o l l o w e r s a r e seen  religious Jesus  i d e n t i t y t h a t they a r e d i s m i s s e d from t h e synagogues;  i s setting  disillusioned perceived  t o be a d o p t i n g a 'new'  up  an  alternative  and 'oppressed'  as a t h r e a t  authority  t o which  are beginning t o turn,  t o the status  the  so he i s  quo - by c r e a t i n g  a new  ' p r i e s t h o o d ' , w i t h h i m s e l f as t h e d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d h i g h p r i e s t , Jesus  symbolically  nullifies  the a u t h o r i t y  of the P h a r i s e e s ,  1 4 9  but he a l s o r e j e c t s t h e dominion o f t h e c u r r e n t h i g h p r i e s t and h i s i n t i m a t e c i r c l e . Anyone condoning such an a c t o f "blasphemy" would, indeed,  be censured  synagogues .  and e x p e l l e d  from  houses o f p r a y e r , i . e . ,  150  Emancipation Barnabas L i n d a r s defends an a p p a r e n t l y common t h e o r y t h a t t h e L a z a r u s s t o r y o f t h e FG i s but an amalgamation  o f S y n o p t i c themes  Casey, 31. C f . O'Day ("John 7") 636-637, who s u g g e s t s a s i m i l a r r e s u l t , w i t h respect t o the n u l l i f i e d a u t h o r i t y of the Pharisees (here, i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e a d u l t e r e s s ' p e r i c o p e ) . |i,y  R e g a r d i n g t h e ' e x p u l s i o n ' o f t h e b l i n d man h i m s e l f , Lee (178) suggests t h a t he was excommunicated, whereas Von Wahlde ( " L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e s " , 113, n.102) p r e f e r s t o see him as merely removed from t h e P h a r i s e e s ' immediate p r e s e n c e . Perhaps b o t h e v e n t u a l i t i e s t a k e p l a c e , t h e former, as e x p l a i n e d above, and t h e l a t t e r , perhaps, as an e x p u l s i o n from t h e s e c t i t s e l f . J e r e m i a s (251-252) e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e s e c t was governed i n t e r n a l l y , and such b e h a v i o u r as t h e b l i n d man e x h i b i t s would, i n d e e d , be cause f o r dismissal. 150  73  p l u s some, as y e t u n v e r i f i e d , unique dispute,"  he  writes,  " t h a t i t has  source. a  151  "There can be  theological  purpose  no  which  dominates the whole n a r r a t i v e , " but because of the p r o f u n d i t y of t h i s t h e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t , many attempts t o d i s c e r n the "source" of the c o m p o s i t i o n have been " g i v e n up as h o p e l e s s " .  152  As a r e s u l t ,  L i n d a r s c o n c l u d e s , the h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the work has a l s o been  lost.  1 5 3  By  reading  the  narrative  in  the  light  i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , however, the L a z a r u s p e r i c o p a e r e v e a l b o t h  of their  ' h i s t o r i c a l ' s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the Jesus Movement and the p o t e n t i a l sources f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . R e c o g n i t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between J e s u s which  and  Lazarus,  i s made so e x p l i c i t at the v e r y s t a r t of the n a r r a t i v e , i s  i m p o r t a n t . The phrase, implicitly  "he whom you l o v e " , as used i n John  e s t a b l i s h e s the  father/son  element  of  the  11:3, story.  P r e c e d e n t s f o r the use of such a s a y i n g i n the OT are few, and are as f o l l o w s : 22:2  Cant 3 : I f  ( l o v e r / h u s b a n d ) , E c c l 9:9  (wife),  and  Gen  ( f a t h e r / s o n ) . A l t h o u g h the f i r s t two are p o s s i b l e contenders  ( i . e . , i n the c o n t e x t of the d i v i n e - b r i d e s t r u c t u r e ) , the l a t t e r i s the  most  appropriate  for  this  pericope,  predominant themes of f a t h e r / s o n and  for  i t reflects  the  of ' s a c r i f i c e ' , which w i l l be  d i s c u s s e d i n a moment. In t h i s precedent  (Gen 22) i s the a d d i t i o n a l  Barnabas L i n d a r s , "Rebuking the S p i r i t : A New A n a l y s i s of the L a z a r u s S t o r y of John 11," NTS 38.1 (January 1992) 89-104 (here, 97;99) . 11,1  152  L i n d a r s , 89.  Cf. R.E. Brown Anchor B i b l e 29, (New c l a i m s t h a t the e n t i r e h a r m o n i z a t i o n w i t h the o n l y by i t s removal! 153  ( i n The Gospel A c c o r d i n g t o John, V o l 1., York: Doubleday, 1966) 414,427-430), who episode causes problems w i t h any attempted S y n o p t i c sequence, and would b e n e f i t the FG 74  a t t r i b u t i o n of t o n aqapeton, sense  of  divine  narrative  which i n f e r s uniqueness,  favouritism,  an  aspect  of  the  but a l s o  subsequent  FG  ( i . e . , the B e l o v e d D i s c i p l e , h e n c e f o r t h , BD. See below) .  T h i s f a t h e r / s o n p e r c e p t i o n of the "beloved" i s g r a d u a t e d , progressing  from God  12:1.  Each  154  t o Jesus/Abraham, t o L a z a r u s / I s a a c , and i s  f u r t h e r emphasized i n the r e l a t i v e t e r m i n o l o g y of John 3:14 11:23,  a  of  these  cases  r e f l e c t s the  nature  and  of  an  elevation;  f o r J e s u s , hupsos suggests c o n n o t a t i o n s of e x a l t a t i o n  and  whilst  glory,  f o r L a z a r u s , two  s e p a r a t e terms are  employed,  a n i s t e m i (11:23) and e g e i r o (12:1), b o t h of which i n d i c a t e a r a t h e r more mundane event awakening,  etc.  1 5 5  such  as  Jesus,  a rise  then,  i n stature  i s exalted  and/or a type  to  a  'divine'  of  level  (remember the c o n t e x t of Nehushtan, which r e p r e s e n t e d the power of God),  w h i l s t L a z a r u s ' e l e v a t i o n i s one,  perhaps,  of h i e r a r c h i c a l  ( e a r t h l y ) s t a t u s . S i m i l a r l y , the F a t h e r , Yahweh, must s a c r i f i c e the Son,  Jesus  Isaac,  the  (John 3:16f, e t c . ) , Abraham must s a c r i f i c e "beloved",  and  so too must Jesus  his  allow Lazarus,  son, his  b e l o v e d , t o " d i e " (e.g., by r e m a i n i n g a t a d i s t a n c e f o r two d a y s ) . However,  redemption  and  glorification  are  essential  to  each  scenario;  the s a c r i f i c e of Isaac s e c u r e d the I s r a e l i t e n a t i o n ,  the  ' s a c r i f i c e ' of L a z a r u s w i l l secure the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of J e s u s ,  and  i n t u r n , J e s u s ' s a c r i f i c i a l death w i l l secure the new Kingdom ( c f . John  1:29) .  This  continuity  implies  that  Lazarus  is  to  be  For a good d i s c u s s i o n on the G o d / J e s u s - I s r a e l r e l a t i o n s h i p , see M. D a v i e s , 129-132. Cf. 1 Cor 11:30, 15:18; the f i r s t example, i t s h o u l d be noted, however, bears a s t r i k i n g resemblance t o the FG i n i t s d e p i c t i o n of the "weak", the " i l l " and the "dead", whose c o n d i t i o n a r i s e s from a l a c k of s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t i o n / c o n v i c t i o n , e t c . 155  75  i n t e r p r e t e d as J e s u s ' s y m b o l i c "son"; i n t h i s sense, L a z a r u s , t o o , s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o f " e l e c t i o n " , and t h i s becomes more e v i d e n t as t h e g o s p e l c o n t i n u e s . L a z a r u s i s , i n i t i a l l y , d e c l a r e d an asthenon  (John 11:1); t h e  c a t e g o r y o f t h e " i n f i r m " , e.g., those who a n t i c i p a t e a " h e a l i n g " a t the P o o l o f B e t h - z a t h a , i s now r e p r e s e n t e d by L a z a r u s . There are OT examples o f i n f i r m i t y which  depict emotional  crises  (e.g.,  Prov  13:12; Dan 8:27, e t c . ) , and o t h e r s which denote t h e wayward n a t u r e of  Israel  (e.g., Ezek 34; Hos 5:13). Some s h i f t t h e emphasis o f a  s t o r y (to change a moral, s p i r i t u a l , o r c i r c u m s t a n t i a l d i r e c t i o n o f a c h a r a c t e r o r event) , such as i n 1 Kgs 14, where t h e c o n c e r n about the p o s s i b l e death o f an i n d i v i d u a l potential,  spiritual  i s s h i f t e d t o emphasize t h e  death o f I s r a e l .  Such i n f i r m i t i e s  1 5 6  as do  not a c t u a l l y r e s u l t i n p h y s i c a l "death" a r e , n o n e t h e l e s s , mourned as vehemently as death i t s e l f , Even  a  trial  "death". are  157  before  t h e Sanhedrin  ambiguous  moral/spiritual  another  state  raising  of m o r a l / s p i r i t u a l  'infirmity/death'  predicament.  debilitated Israel The  i s t r e a t e d as a k i n d o f  The i d e a s o f "mourning", o f "weeping" and " g r o a n i n g "  a l l applied to this  Lazarus'  as i n Ps 38:6,8 and Job 2:11-12.  itself.  predicament;  i s reflective  In effect,  Lazarus  of  reflects  this the  1 5 8  o f t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l l y "dead" from  as a s i g n o f God's  intention  one l i f e t o  t o restore the t a i n t e d  156 -phis p e r i c o p e a n t i c i p a t e s t h e format o f John 11:1-3, i n t h a t t h e one who i s b e l i e v e d t o be a b l e t o h e l p t h e s i c k boy i s sought o u t by a woman. See a l s o , 2 Kgs 20, Ps 41, e t c . 157  Josephus,  Where "elected". 158  Ant., 14.9.4.  Israel  i s the e l e c t  o f Yahweh,  Lazarus  i s also 76  r e l a t i o n s h i p between him and h i s p e o p l e , t o show mercy and  exalt  the r i g h t e o u s , i s s t r o n g i n the I s r a e l i t e t r a d i t i o n , as i n the FG: " . . . a l l who  are i n t h e i r graves w i l l hear h i s v o i c e and w i l l come  out - those who  have done good, t o the r e s u r r e c t i o n of l i f e . . . .."  (John 5:28-29. Cf. Deut 30:19, 2 Esdr 2:15-16, Ezek 37:12,14).  The  v i s u a l imagery i n these OT examples, of a "dead" I s r a e l , l y i n g i n its  'tomb' o r grave, a w a i t i n g the d i v i n e g i f t of the " s p i r i t "  o r d e r t o b r i n g i t back t o " l i f e " , would not have been a new for  the e a r l y r e a d e r s of the  in  concept  FG.  From the p a t t e r n of c o n f r o n t a t i o n thus f a r e x h i b i t e d between Jesus  and  the  'confrontation' daylight  and  Pharisees/chief context  night,  for this  i n vv.  6-10.  priests,  arises  pericope. Jesus  a  In the  answers  potential  allusion  the  to  disciples  w o r r i e d statement w i t h the c r y p t i c assurance, "Are t h e r e not t w e l v e hours of d a y l i g h t ? " e t c .  There are t w e l v e d i v i s i o n s of  "light";  t h e r e i s a d i v i n e l y e l e c t e d c i r c l e of t w e l v e d i s c i p l e s . Those walk i n the l i g h t do not "stumble"  because God  those who  because the  walk at  them" - God  " n i g h t " stumble  i s not i n them ( c f . 5:40-42, 8:47,  are p r o v i d e d a c o n t e x t of  ' b a t t l e ' , or  who  i s i n that l i g h t ; "light  i s not  in  etc.). Already  we  ' c o n t e s t ' ; God  i s on  the  s i d e of r i g h t e o u s n e s s and Jesus has f u l l c o n f i d e n c e i n the success of h i s 'army' of " l i g h t " . The a n t i c i p a t e d g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the of God" with  (John 11:4)  Jesus,  not  demonstrates the  FG  "Son  a b e l i e f t h a t God's a u t h o r i t y l i e s  "Jews";  the  ideology/theology  of  the  subsequent FG scene, then, p r o f o u n d l y echoes the r e l i g i o u s c o n t e s t between E l i j a h and the B a a l w o r s h i p p e r s i n 1 Kgs 18:17f. Even the tone, form and c o n t e x t of J e s u s ' p r a y e r i n John 11:41-42 s t r o n g l y  77  echoes t h a t of E l i j a h i n 1 Kgs  18:36-37.  159  I t s h o u l d be noted here t h a t t h i s g l o r i f i c a t i o n out  i n 17:5  from  the  as  " i s spelled  [the] r e t u r n t o the g l o r y shared w i t h the  foundation  of  the  w o r l d . . . ."  160  Such  a  Father  definition  r e f l e c t s J e s u s ' words r e g a r d i n g the r e t u r n o f the "Son o f Man" his  'original'  (spiritual)  high  'fall'  status of  "before"  Israel.  It  (6:62), also  e.g.,  reflects  before the  to the  central  t h e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the a n t i c i p a t e d 're-marriage' of I s r a e l t o God. T h i s f i n a l c o n t e s t i s a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the power of God.  It  t a k e s p l a c e i n an e x t r e m e l y s y m b o l i c c o n t e x t , which, when a n a l y z e d i n regard, t o i t s apparent i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes, d i s p l a y s a c l i m a c t i c s y n t h e s i s of r e u n i f i c a t i o n and p r i e s t l y themes. The  FG a u t h o r uses the phrase "enebrimesato  t o pneumati" t o  i l l u s t r a t e the r e a c t i o n of Jesus when he p e r c e i v e s t h a t Mary  has  a c c e p t e d the "mourning" of the "Jews", e c h o i n g S a u l ' s b e h a v i o u r i n 1  Sam  ll:4f  (LXX  1  Kgs  ll:4f).  1 6 1  When S a u l  sees  the  people  "weeping" because they f e a r they s h a l l never be emancipated from the Ammonites, h i s "anger [ i s ] g r e a t l y k i n d l e d " ( v . 6 ) . He sends out the message t h a t any who  do not  f o l l o w God's chosen l e a d e r s  are  For an a l t e r n a t i v e r e n d i t i o n of t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n aspect of the FG, see J u d i t h L. Kovacs, "Now S h a l l the R u l e r of T h i s World Be D r i v e n Out": J e s u s ' Death As Cosmic B a t t l e i n John 12:20-36," JBL 114.2 (Summer 1995) 227-247. Kovacs l i n k s the f i n a l day of judgement w i t h the coming of the p a r a k l e t o s and the u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y over Satan; hers i s an a n a l y s i s l e a n i n g more toward the g n o s t i c v i s i o n of a u n i v e r s a l b a t t l e , r a t h e r than one based on 'historical' figures. 1sy  160  Loader,  197.  Cf. L i n d a r s (92-96), who i n t e r p r e t s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n as a " r e b u k i n g " of an e v i l s p i r i t w i t h i n L a z a r u s (!). 161  78  d e s t i n e d f o r d e s t r u c t i o n ( v . 7 ) . I n J e s u s , as i n S a u l , anger a r i s e s i n the " s p i r i t " not  ( c f . 1 Sam 11:6; John 11:33), i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t i s  t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e p r o p h e t s , p e r se, but t o God h i m s e l f -  i t i s God, t h e s p i r i t w i t h i n , who i s enraged, because he has sent his  " h e l p e r " and t h e p e o p l e a r e s t i l l  "weeping" f o r t h e m s e l v e s !  162  In J e s u s ' own "weeping" (11:35), i s o b s e r v e d not t h e p e r s o n a l " g r i e f " t h e "Jews" see, but an a l l u s i o n t o J e s u s ' l a m e n t a t i o n f o r the  s i t u a t i o n a t hand, i . e . ,  t h e ' c a p t i v i t y ' o f God's chosen:  ...my s o u l w i l l weep i n s e c r e t f o r y o u r pride; my eyes w i l l weep b i t t e r l y and r u n down with tears, because t h e L o r d ' s f l o c k has been t a k e n captive. (Jer 13:17) The- " p r i d e " and t h e i n i q u i t y o f t h e a t t e n d a n t  "Jews" makes  t h e i r mourning b o t h i r o n i c , and an h y p o c r i s y : Yet  even now, says t h e L o r d , r e t u r n t o me w i t h a l l y o u r h e a r t , w i t h f a s t i n g , w i t h weeping and w i t h mourning; rend your h e a r t s and not y o u r c l o t h i n g . ( J o e l 2:12-13) The a c t u a l semeion o f t h e ' r a i s i n g ' o f L a z a r u s i s , i t s e l f , an example  o f an i n t e r t e x t u a l  'inversion',  this  time o f an e n t i r e  p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n , namely, Ezek 37:1-14. As i n John 11, i n Ezek 37 t h e r e i s a prophet who i s brought t o a p l a c e o f "death", a d i v i n e commission t o r e v e a l t h e g l o r y / k n o w l e d g e o f God (vv.4-6), and a m i r a c u l o u s r e s u s c i t a t i o n / r e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e dead, based on spoken commands  (vv.4,9). What makes t h i s v i s i o n so s i g n i f i c a n t  is its  C f . J e r 4:19f, where Yahweh speaks o f h i s broken h e a r t and a n g u i s h , because h i s p e o p l e a r e so f o o l i s h and f a i l t o u n d e r s t a n d . T h i s a l s o r e f l e c t s t h e f a i l u r e t o see t h e " s a v i o u r " i n John 1:26. 162  79  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n i n vv.11-14: this vision, may is  the "dead"  Through  the n a t i o n i s a s s u r e d of s a l v a t i o n , even from  seem t o be) the v e r y 'grave' i t s e l f equated  are I s r a e l .  with  a loss  of  (what  ( c f . 37:11, where "death"  "hope") . A f t e r  this  vision,  Ezekiel  s y m b o l i c a l l y u n i t e s the houses of Judah and Joseph (Ezek 37:15f) . G i v e n t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l echo (one which f u l l y complements those of  'salvation'  i n John  6:13f  resuscitation/resurrection fulfilled vision remains  and  of  of r e u n i o n i n John  Lazarus  can  be  interpreted  prophecy of redemption and r e u n i f i c a t i o n ,  of  the f u t u r e ,  beyond  the  but  'tomb',  a reality and  of the  calls  from h i s b o n d s  164  and t o l e t him go f r e e  no  Lazarus  from  as  163  a  Jesus  "death"  to  Lazarus i s  are t o l d t o r e l e a s e (John 11:44) .  the  longer a  'present' .  " l i f e " . M e t a p h o r i c a l l y bound i n the c l o t h s of the dead, r e s u r r e c t e d . The o b s e r v e r s , o r mourners,  4-5) ,  him  This order  to  ' r e l e a s e ' L a z a r u s from h i s 'bonds' thus a c t s as a p r o f o u n d echo  of  Exod 5:1  (et a l ) : "Let my people g o " !  165  Harvey (103) suggests t h a t the L a z a r u s semeion used as i t s frame of r e f e r e n c e the " c l i m a c t i c e x p r e s s i o n of a power o v e r l i f e and d e a t h , " and need not have been g i v e n credence, even i n i t s e a r l y days, as a " m i r a c l e " i n the sense of a " s u p e r n a t u r a l f e a t " . 165  Robinson (292), amongst o t h e r s , has commented on t h e k e i r i a i of John 11:44, which "are not ' l i n e n bands' but thongs o r c o r d s " . These a r e not mentioned i n the b u r i a l c l o t h s of John 19:40f, and thus have a s i g n i f i c a n c e unique t o L a z a r u s . I n t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t e of "bondage", the symbolism becomes c l e a r . 164  J.D. D e r r e t t , i n " B i n d i n g and L o o s i n g (Matt 16:9;18:18; John 20:23)," JBL 102.1 (March 1983) 112-117, notes the theme of r e l e a s e and bondage i n John 20:23, i n the c o n t e x t of the r e t e n t i o n or e x p i a t i o n o f " s i n " (113) . Cf. , a l s o , t h e d e c l a r a t i o n a g a i n s t "death" S a u l makes i n 1 Sam 11:13, i n d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the " d e l i v e r a n c e " of I s r a e l . Cf. M. D a v i e s (334) who c l a i m s t h a t "Lazarus i s r e s u s c i t a t e d t o an o r d i n a r y mundane e x i s t e n c e which i s v u l n e r a b l e t o death, not r e s u r r e c t e d t o a t r a n s f o r m e d l i f e . " The m o t i v a t i o n i s , i n s t e a d , one of redemption f o r a l l I s r a e l . 165  80  P r i e s t l y Theme From a p r i e s t l y p e r s p e c t i v e , what i s most s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s pericope days,  166  i s t h e use o f s y m b o l i c numbers. Jesus d e l a y s f o r TWO y e t , when he a r r i v e s  a t t h e c r o s s r o a d s where Martha meets  him, L a z a r u s has a l r e a d y been dead f o r FOUR days. Without i n v e n t i n g complex  reconstructions,  illuminating; specific  what  there are at least  time  reference.  i s received  from  two s i g n i f i c a n t  Fundamentally,  the text i s  aspects of t h i s  the stay  o f two  days  r e f l e c t s t h a t o f John 4:40, where Jesus s t a y s i n Samaria f o r two days b e f o r e t r a v e l l i n g n o r t h t o conduct t h e f i r s t h e a l i n g on t h e t h i r d day. I n John 11, we f i n d J e s u s ' a r r i v a l on t h e scene t o be, once more, on t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t , r i t u a l i s t i c day, a n t i c i p a t i n g  some  form o f s a c r e d ( r e - ) u n i o n , and, as demonstrated above, t h i s p r o v e s t o be t h e case. By combining t h e two s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e , e.g., TWO p l u s FOUR, which would make SIX, J e s u s ' a c t o f ' r e s u r r e c t i o n ' o c c u r s on the  s e v e n t h day. These two numbers, " t h r e e " and "seven", echo t h e  day o f t h e S i n a i covenant for  (Exod 19:16f) and t h e p e r i o d p r e s c r i b e d  the s e q u e s t r a t i o n / o r d i n a t i o n of p r i e s t s  comparable  S e c r e t Gospel o f M a r k  167  (Lev 9:33) .  (In the  t h i s same seven-day p e r i o d i s  Some, such as Von Wahlde ( " L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e " , 120), and Lee (194, n . 3 ) , have supposed t h e two day d e l a y i n 11:6 t o r e p r e s e n t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Jesus t o prove t h a t L a z a r u s i s t r u l y ( p h y s i c a l l y ) dead, d e f e r r i n g t o t h e J e w i s h b e l i e f i n t h e r e t e n t i o n of t h e s p i r i t i n t h e body f o r t h r e e days, as e v i d e n c e d i n Hos 6:2, e t c . Lee s u g g e s t s t h a t L a z a r u s i s a l r e a d y dead, i . e . , n o t " i l l " , when J e s u s r e c e i v e s t h e message, and t h a t J e s u s w i t h h o l d s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from h i s d i s c i p l e s u n t i l he i s ready t o l e a v e . See a l s o Robinson, 220, n.16 f o r o t h e r a s s e r t i o n s . 166  For the text "Acknowledgements"). 167  of  t h e SGM  see B a r n s t o n e ,  342 (See  81  employed i n the c o n t e x t of an i n i t i a t i o n  rite).  1 6 8  Having deduced from t h i s use of numbers t h a t the semeion i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d  i n terms o f p r i e s t l y i n i t i a t i o n ,  there i s , i n the  imagery of John 11:44, a consequent echo of the the this  ' o b s e r v e r s ' i n Zech 3:4: precedent  pericope  'order' g i v e n t o  "Take o f f h i s f i l t h y c l o t h e s " .  i s depicted  the  purification  In  1 6 9  of  the  p r i e s t h o o d , s y m b o l i z e d by the removal of the " f i l t h y c l o t h e s " ( c f . " s t e n c h " i n John 11:39?) and the donning of a " c l e a n t u r b a n " . In  c o n t r a s t t o Lee's c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the a u t h o r  s i g n i f i c a n t etymology i n the case of " L a z a r u s " , this  i n t e r t e x t u a l approach  171  1 7 0  intends  no  the f i n d i n g s of  t o the p e r i c o p e i n d i c a t e t h a t the  FG  name echoes t h a t of " E l e a z a r " , the name g i v e n t o the "son" and h e i r  E.g., a f t e r s i x days, i . e . , on the seventh, Jesus g i v e s o r d e r s t o the ' r e s u r r e c t e d ' youth, who then comes t o him l a t e r t h a t e v e n i n g ( c f . Lev 9:1), d r e s s e d i n l i n e n . He undergoes some s o r t of i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , where he r e c e i v e s the "knowledge" of God. The emphasis on the " l i n e n " garment i s noted by M a r v i n Meyer ( i n "The Youth i n the S e c r e t Gospel of Mark," Semeia 49 (1990) 129-153. Here 145) , who suggests i t i s a " r i t u a l garment". The 'under t u n i c ' of the p r i e s t i s a l s o of a f i n e l i n e n . J.D. Crossan ( i n The H i s t o r i c a l J e s u s : The L i f e of a M e d i t e r r a n e a n J e w i s h Peasant, (San F r a n c i s c o : Harper, 1991) 330), suggests t h a t the s i x - d a y p e r i o d mentioned i n the SGM i s a r e f l e c t i o n of " C o p t i c " b a p t i s m a l r i t e s . 160  For a d i s c u s s i o n on the p r i e s t l y i n v e s t i t u r e w i t h r e s p e c t to t h i s passage, see James C. Vanderkam, "Joshua the H i g h P r i e s t and t h e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Z e c h a r i a h 3," CBQ 53.1 (January, 1991) 553-570. Here, 556-558 and n.16. 169  B a r b a r a T h i e r i n g , ( i n Jesus the Man, (London: C o r g i , 1993) 134) suggests t h a t the c l o t h which i s s a i d t o be "wrapped" around L a z a r u s ' f a c e i s , i n f a c t , the t u r b a n of a p r i e s t . A l t h o u g h t h i s remark would h e l p support the h y p o t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d here, i t does not t a l l y w i t h J e s u s ' apparent o r d e r f o r a l l the b u r i a l - c l o t h s t o be removed. Ezek 24:17 commands the p r i e s t t o " b i n d on [ h i s ] t u r b a n " , but Josephus, Ant. 3.7.3 d e s c r i b e s the p r i e s t l y t u r b a n as b e i n g wound about the top of the head, l i k e a crown, not as b e i n g bound about the f a c e . The t r a n s f e r e n c e of the p r i e s t l y t u r b a n comes, as w i l l be shown, l a t e r i n the n a r r a t i v e . 170  171  Lee 192, n . l . 82  of  Aaron  the  priest,  i n Exod  6:23ff.  Jesus'  172  r e a d e r i s now w e l l aware, i s i n j e o p a r d y ; the  Movement  i s , in  fact,  to  create  life,  as  i f the m o t i v a t i o n an  alternative,  the  behind  purified  p r i e s t h o o d t h r o u g h which the repentant I s r a e l can r e t u r n t o God, i t i s p e r f e c t l y understandable should  he  himself  be  t h a t Jesus w i l l  have t o p l a n  unable t o l e a d them i n t o  the  new  ahead,  Promised  Land. J u s t as Aaron had passed the p r i e s t h o o d on t o E l e a z a r 20:25-26), and  as Moses had  handed over the  "spirit"  to  (Num  Joshua  (Deut 34:9), so Jesus w i l l , at the a p p r o p r i a t e j u n c t u r e , pass h i s authority  over  to  h i s chosen  successor.  Again,  the  concept  of  " e l e c t i o n " i s paramount.  Summary The  concept  metaphorical, shown t o be  of  "blindness"  in  the  FG  is  seen  to  be  i m p l y i n g a l a c k of knowledge o r wisdom, and t h i s i s a p t l y demonstrated i n the c o n t e x t  of the  Pharisees'  i n v o l v e m e n t i n the b l i n d man's s t o r y . In the s t r u c t u r a l / t h e m a t i c echo of Num  22, where the c o n v e r s i o n of Balaam i s i n s t i g a t e d by the  messenger of God who to  comes as an "adversary",  the b l i n d man  undergo a s i m i l a r f a t e i n t h a t he appears t o c o n v e r t  'ignorance'  of  the  application  of  the  Pharisees "clay"  t o the  , the  act  "Siloam" combine t o c r e a t e the n e c e s s a r y aspects  of the  Ezek 16 p a t t e r n . T h i s  'wisdom' of of  bathing,  i s seen from the  Jesus/God. and  the  The term  " e l e c t i o n " and " c l e a n s i n g " e l e c t i o n seems t o be  of  a  young P h a r i s e e , complementing the ' p r i e s t l y ' c o n v e r s i o n i n John 5.  Robinson (218, n . l l ) suggests t h a t the v i l l a g e named " E l A z a r i y e h " was named a f t e r L a z a r u s ; the comparable etymology Robinson a c c e p t s i s an a t t e s t a t i o n of the "EL-AZAR" c o n n e c t i o n . 83  Lazarus'  revival  i s found  to  be  depicted  in a  symbolic,  m e t a p h o r i c a l c o n t e x t which i n v o l v e s two main concerns, namely, the r e u n i f i c a t i o n and redemption of I s r a e l , and the i n a u g u r a t i o n of the priesthood. tradition  In  the  are  first  noted,  case,  with  echoes  respect  of to  the the  Abraham/Isaac father/son  s a c r i f i c e / g l o r i f i c a t i o n themes, r e v e a l i n g a c o n t i n u i t y w h i c h i n f e r s an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Jesus and L a z a r u s . The c h a r a c t e r ' s predicament  is  moral/spiritual "battle"  shown  to  be  metaphorical,  s t a t e of I s r a e l .  i n which s t r u c t u r a l and  p e r t a i n i n g to  the  This provides f o r a context i d e o l o g i c a l echoes of 1 Sam  Ezek 37 and Exodus i l l u s t r a t e the s a l v i f i c and emancipatory  of 11,  nature  of the semeion. In the s y m b o l i c employment of h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t numbers (3,7), a l l u s i o n s are made t o the day of covenant and ordination  ritual  of p r i e s t s .  An  echo of  Zech 3 s u p p o r t s  the this  p r i e s t l y p e r s p e c t i v e , a n t i c i p a t i n g the next c h a p t e r , which r e v e a l s the a c t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n of the new the FG  p r i e s t h o o d i n the remainder of  narrative.  84  Chapter S i x : Replacement  Prepare t o meet your 0 Israel! (Amos In "blind former, story  4:12)  the l a s t c h a p t e r " e l e c t i o n " man"  and  "Lazarus"  ' c o n v e r s i o n ' , and initiates  escalates  an  i n the  God,  formed the f o u n d a t i o n of the  pericopae, of the  additional  remainder  of  w i t h the  latter,  emancipation.  'priestly' the  context  gospel  context,  of  Lazarus'  which  narrative.  the  1 7 3  In  now the  c e n t r a l t h e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , which a c t s as a 'support' f o r the r e s t of the t e x t , guilt,  the b a s i c 'condensed' v e r s i o n of  f o r g i v e n e s s , and  elevation,"  allows  for a  "infidelity, satisfactory  r e s o l u t i o n of the echo. However, the b l i n d man's p e r i c o p e r e v e a l e d the b e g i n n i n g s  of a d e v i a t i o n from  this  fundamentally  feminine  p e r s p e c t i v e of I s r a e l , and s h i f t e d the p a t t e r n of Ezek 16 i n t o the masculine  sphere.  From the  "election",  through  " c l e a n s i n g " and  " e l e v a t i o n " , a p a r a l l e l p a t t e r n i s i n e v i d e n c e , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n and f u l l i n a u g u r a t i o n of the p r i e s t h o o d . A week b e f o r e the f i n a l Passover w i t h the Passover of John 2:13,  (which w i l l form an i n c l u s i o  and which w i l l f u l f i l  the word of  the B a p t i s t i n 1:29), a d i n n e r i s g i v e n , where L a z a r u s i s "one those a t the t a b l e w i t h " Jesus the  redemptive/emancipatory  of  ( 1 2 : I f ) . The meal s c e n a r i o , g i v e n context  of  Lazarus'  'raising',  Lee, however, remarks t h a t "While L a z a r u s seems a t f i r s t t o be the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r , h i s r o l e i s a p a s s i v e one and the t e x t has l i t t l e t o say about h i s f a i t h . " ( 1 8 9 . See a l s o 197, n . l ) . She d e c l a r e s t h a t John 11 i s the end of L a z a r u s , and t h a t "To ask q u e s t i o n s of [ h i s ] f a t e . . . i s t o move beyond t h e t e x t " (194 n . l ) , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t i t must be the women who are most s i g n i f i c a n t i n the L a z a r u s p e r i c o p e ( 1 8 9 f f ) . T h i s c h a p t e r i s aimed a t d i s p e l l i n g such c o n c l u s i o n s . 173  85  functions  as  a  ideological  echo  of  I s a 25:6-10.  Here,  the  'redeemed' o f I s r a e l a r e t o r e c e i v e a " f e a s t " i n c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e conquest  o f God over the ( f i g u r a t i v e )  "death" o f t h e p e o p l e . I n  a n o t h e r OT t r a d i t i o n where t h e r e i s a c e l e b r a t o r y 'meal', t h e r e i s u s u a l l y t o be seen t h e e l e c t i o n o f a new " l e a d e r " . I n t h e case o f Aaron and h i s sons, b o t h b e f o r e (Lev 9:31f) and a f t e r a  week o f p r e p a r a t i o n , t h e new p r i e s t s  symbolic rite  engage  (Lev 10:12f)  i n a number o f  s a c r i f i c e s and share i n s p e c i f i c o r d i n a t i o n meals.  s e r v e s t o e s t a b l i s h them as the e l i t e o f I s r a e l .  The  In Saul's  case, t h e meal t a k e s on a more p r o f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n c e , b e i n g a t t h e very  core  9:15ff) : (9:19) .  o f Samuel's " f o r today  election  you s h a l l  and e l e v a t i o n e a t w i t h me",  of Saul Samuel  (1 Sam predicts  174  In t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p r i e s t l y h i e r a r c h y , i t was t h e d u t y o f t h e o f f i c i a t i n g h i g h p r i e s t t o a p p o i n t h i s "deputy" one week b e f o r e t h e traditional  Day o f Atonement, " i n case o f [ h i s being]  from c a r r y i n g out h i s d u t i e s on t h a t d a y . " to  be  the s e t t i n g  of  Jesus'  own  175  atoning  prevented  I f the Passover i s 'sacrifice',  1 7 6  the  e l e c t i o n o f a s u c c e s s o r / r e p l a c e m e n t a week b e f o r e would be f i t t i n g . Only t h e a n o i n t e d h i g h p r i e s t o r t h e p r i e s t " c o n s e c r a t e d as p r i e s t  ^ Great ceremony i s made about t h e s e r v i n g a t t h e meal ( 1 Sam 9:23-24; c f . John 12:2) and the s h a r i n g o f t h e f o o d w i t h t h e guests (1 Sam 9:24; c f . John 13:26). Saul is then a n o i n t e d / a p p o i n t e d as " r u l e r over [God's] h e r i t a g e " (1 Sam 10:1). Cf. Heb 10:21. 175  J e r e m i a s 161 and n.47.  The death o f the h i g h p r i e s t c o u l d a l s o atone; c f . Num 35:27f; Deut 1 9 : I f . T h i s makes Caiaphas' speech even more i r o n i c ! 176  86  i n h i s father's place this  [could] make atonement"  (Lev 1 6 : 3 2 ) .  177  In  t i m e l y p o r t r a y a l o f t h e c e l e b r a t o r y meal i s seen not o n l y  Lazarus' Jesus'  apparent acceptance o f h i s new s t a t u s , but a l s o an echo o f own  'beginnings',  where he a c c e p t e d h i s own d u t y a t t h e  'wedding f e a s t ' , back i n John 2 . It  i s as a consequence  178  of the ' r a i s i n g '  of Lazarus  that  Caiaphas i s heard t o pronounce t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h e 'scapegoat' (John 11:49-50); t h i s emphasizes t h e 'atonement' q u a l i t y o f Jesus' f i n a l a c t i o n s , foreshadowing t h e imagery o f t h e two ' s a c r i f i c i a l ' men b e f o r e  Pilate  i n John 18:38-40. A l s o ,  a t t e n t i o n of the Pharisees vested  j u s t as t h e e x c e s s i v e  i n John 9 i n t i m a t e d t h a t t h e i r ' s was a  i n t e r e s t , so t h e concerns o f t h e c h i e f p r i e s t s i n d i c a t e a  p e r c e p t i o n o f a ' t h r e a t ' t o t h e i r own s e c u r i t y ( i . e . i t c o u l d make sense i n t h e c o n t e x t quo) .  179  of a challenge  t o the p r i e s t l y  status  Not o n l y i s t h i s i r o n i c because t h e ' c o r r u p t ' h i g h p r i e s t  i s f i n a l l y s p e a k i n g t h e ' t r u t h ' (prophecy), words l i e s  but a l s o because i n h i s  h i s own f a t e ; he, as t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l  ' d i e ' so t h a t t h e n a t i o n may  leader,  must  'live'.  In John 12:9 c u r i o u s people now come t o see L a z a r u s , Jesus.  only  not only  By 12:10-11, t h e " c h i e f p r i e s t s " p l a n t o k i l l L a z a r u s .  Note  t h a t t h e a u t h o r does not say t h a t t h i s i s because o f what J e s u s d i d Note t h e use o f " f a t h e r " here; a l t h o u g h t h i s a l l u d e s t o Aaron and h i s sons, i t a l s o a p p l i e s t o s u c c e e d i n g h i g h p r i e s t s and t h e i r "sons". Not o n l y does t h i s support t h e i d e a o f L a z a r u s b e i n g Jesus' ' h e i r ' , i t a l s o p r o v i d e s a precedent f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of John 8:44, i . e . , t h e " f a t h e r o f l i e s " (as t h e c o r r u p t h i g h p r i e s t o f t h e Temple). 177  And, o f c o u r s e , t h i s i s t h e s e t t i n g f o r t h e ' a n o i n t i n g ' o f Mary; t h a t she i s not t h e one " s e r v i n g " i m p l i e s t h a t she, t o o , perhaps, i s b e i n g t r e a t e d as a guest, a ' c e l e b r i t y ' . 178  179  E s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o Roman 'appeasement' . 87  t o L a z a r u s , but because of Lazarus h i m s e l f . He i s seen as the cause of o t h e r  "Jews" l e a v i n g t h e i r p o s t s , i . e . , " d e s e r t i n g " .  possible  to i n f e r  because  of  his  priesthood?  from t h i s  example,  that other p r i e s t s  hoping  to  find  a  Is i t  1 8 0  are " d e s e r t i n g "  place  in  the  new  1 8 1  John 13:3-17 d e p i c t s Jesus b a t h i n g the f e e t of h i s d i s c i p l e s . Segovia  rightly  ("bathing") who  are  asserts  fully  'converted'  further.  cleansing,  Peter  allegiance, "one"  the  distinction  between  louo  and n i p t o ("washing") i s i n t e n t i o n a l , s e g r e g a t i n g those  themselves  the  that  1 8 3  who  1 8 2  In  and his  those" who request  unwittingly reveals  to his  require  to  receive  additional  own  perhaps  submit  dubious  and p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r Jesus t o remark on i s wholly  'clean'/converted,  namely, L a z a r u s ,  the  An i n t e r e s t i n g s c e n a r i o i s d e p i c t e d i n Josephus (J.W. 2.17.1) , where a c e r t a i n E l e a z a r , a " b o l d youth" and son of a h i g h p r i e s t , i s reckoned amongst the s e d i t i o u s who r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t the e s t a b l i s h e d h i g h - p r i e s t h o o d . Josephus r e c o u n t s t h a t the c h i e f p r i e s t s and 'men of power' j o i n e d f o r c e s i n an attempt t o thwart the r e b e l , but he escaped. E l e a z a r ' s a c t i o n s are blamed f o r i n s t i g a t i n g the War w i t h the Romans. C o n s i d e r R.A. H o r s l e y ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the " p r i e s t l y o r i e n t a t i o n and s c h o l a r l y - s c r i b a l s t y l e of the community a t Qumran [ i n d i c a t e s t h a t ] many of the members may have been J e r u s a l e m e x p a t r i a t e s f o r p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l reasons" ( S o c i o l o g y and the J e s u s Movement, 2nd ed. New York: Continuum, 1994) 53. The f l i g h t of p r i e s t s from one f a c t i o n t o another i s thus p r e c e d e n t e d . 181  F.F. Segovia, "John 13:1-20: The Footwashing i n the Johannine T r a d i t i o n , " ZNW 73 (1982) 31-51. Here, 44 and n.34. S e g o v i a sees t h i s statement as addressed t o P e t e r , even though the sentence i s i m p l i e s the p l u r a l , i . e . , t o a m u l t i p l e audience, as i n 4:48. 182  The a n a l y s i s of P e t e r i n t h i s r e g a r d proved t o be v e r y l e n g t h y and c o n v o l u t e d , so i t was o m i t t e d from t h i s paper. The r i v a l r y and p o t e n t i a l 'deviance' of P e t e r , though, i s w e l l a t t e s t e d i n the FG, and i s a f f i r m e d by r e c e n t works such as: A r t h u r J.Droge, "The S t a t u s of P e t e r i n the F o u r t h G o s p e l : John 18:10-11," JBL 109.2 (Summer, 1990) 307-311), and A.H. Maynard, "The R o l e of P e t e r i n the F o u r t h G o s p e l , " NTS 30.4 (October, 1984) 531-548. 183  88  "Beloved".  184  As  the a n t i c i p a t i o n  provides the s e t t i n g elected  successor  of  sacrificial  atonement  f o r t h i s "washing", i t i s f i t t i n g f o r J e s u s '  , h i s symbolic  "son",  t o be r e f e r r e d  a g a i n i n terms which echo h i s own redemption the Abraham/Isaac echo) .  185  from "death"  t o once (e.g., i n  I n t h i s r e g a r d L a z a r u s had r e p r e s e n t e d  I s r a e l , t h e "Beloved" o f Yahweh, and i n h i s new r o l e , t h i s honour is re-established. T h i s 'atonement' aspect i s f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d i n t h e echo o f Lev 16:4, which s t i p u l a t e s t h e r i t u a l i s t i c c l e a n s i n g o f t h e h i g h p r i e s t b e f o r e t h e Day o f Atonement; here, t h e term l o u o i s employed. I n contrast,  according  t o Exod  30:18-21,  the high  priest  and h i s  m i n i s t e r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o wash t h e i r hands and f e e t i n a b a s i n o f water b e f o r e approaching, the  tabernacle) ,  intertextual terminology.  o r e n t e r i n g t h e h o l y s i t e ( i n t h i s case,  and here,  t h e term  nipto  echo i s one based on precedented Jesus'  i s used.  Thus t h e  p r i e s t l y r i t u a l and  e l e c t e d body o f m i n i s t e r s  1 8 6  receive  their  Mark, W.G. S t i b b e ( i n John as S t o r y t e l l e r : N a r r a t i v e C r i t i c i s m and t h e F o u r t h Gospel, (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992) i s c o n v i n c e d o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f L a z a r u s and t h e B e l o v e d D i s c i p l e , r e m a r k i n g on t h e f a c t t h a t p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s who have proposed t h i s " r a d i c a l t h e s i s " have "not been t a k e n seriously enough" (78); he observes t h a t t h e "BD passages make much b e t t e r sense" i f L a z a r u s i s t h e BD ( 7 9 ) . 184  Casey (25) sees no h i s t o r i c a l a c c u r a c y i n t h e use o f t h e FG's "Father/Son" theme, b a s i n g h i s c o n c l u s i o n on t h e f a c t t h a t i t does not appear i n t h e S y n o p t i c s . Droge (307, n.3) , on t h e o t h e r hand, a l s o sees a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e Jesus (son)/God ( f a t h e r ) r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e BD/Jesus d e p i c t i o n . F o r t h e r u l i n g on a d o p t i o n f o r t h e sake o f i n h e r i t a n c e see Nu 27:1-11. Note a l s o t h a t i n 1 Pet 5:13 P e t e r seems t o have 'adopted' Mark as h i s h e i r , i f t h i s i s not a c t u a l l y h i s t r u e "son". 185  C f . John 18:36, where Jesus a c t u a l l y refers to h i s d i s c i p l e s as h i s h u p e r e t a i , r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r r o l e as s e r v a n t s o f the new h i g h p r i e s t , and, most i m p o r t a n t l y , i n a c o n t e x t which emphasizes t h e misapprehension r e g a r d i n g J e s u s ' a c c l a i m e d i d e n t i t y ( i . e . , e a r t h l y k i n g s h i p v e r s u s d i v i n e kingdom, e t c . ) . 186  89  f o o t washing i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e ' g l o r i o u s ' e n t r y i n t o t h e new Kingdom, a n t i c i p a t e d by the s y m b o l i c e n t r y i n t o J e r u s a l e m In  this,  the  "bathing"/"cleansing"  aspect  of  i n 12:12.  Ezek  16 i s  represented. In Jesus'  f a r e w e l l speech, he r e i t e r a t e s  death which b r i n g s l i f e of  a  woman  t h e concept o f a  (15:2f; c f . 12:24), and speaks o f the p a i n  i n childbirth  1 8 7  and t h e consequent,  s e n s a t i o n o f j o y once t h e c h i l d i s born (16:20),  overriding  echoing  not only  the ' b i r t h ' theme o f John 4, but a l s o t h e mourning/re j o i c i n g theme of t h e r a i s i n g o f Lazarus  pericope.  The i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t  h i m s e l f has s t r u g g l e d through a d i f f i c u l t  ' b i r t h ' and h i s  the new p r i e s t h o o d , i s t o be t h e cause o f j o y which w i l l the l o s s o f h i s p r e s e n c e .  Jesus  'child', override  188  P r e p a r a t i o n o f the p r i e s t h o o d p a r a l l e l s the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e topos (John 14:2-4). The r e f e r e n c e  "te o i k i a t o u p a t r o s " , i n 14:2  echoes "tov o i k o n t o u p a t r o s " i n 2:16,  strongly suggesting that the  "house" b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e l a t e r statement i s , indeed, t h e Temple ( p r o p e r ) . I n 8:35, their  d u r i n g t h e debate w i t h t h e "Jews" about  l e g i t i m a c y as t h e " c h i l d r e n o f Abraham" and t h e i r  devotion  t o God, Jesus i n s i n u a t e s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t  dubious  incumbents o f  t h e Temple are " s l a v e s " who do not see the " t r u t h " w h i c h c a n " f r e e " them. The " s l a v e s " , Jesus d e c l a r e s , w i l l n o t remain i n t h e "house"  The s c e n a r i o o f t h e woman i n c h i l d b i r t h i s o f t e n l i n k e d w i t h o p p r e s s i o n and t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f redemption; see f o r example: I s a 13:8, 21:3; J e r 4:31; M i c 4:10. 187  Casey (67) c l a i m s t h a t " t h e r e i s ample e v i d e n c e t h a t J e s u s e x p e c t e d God t o v i n d i c a t e him a f t e r h i s a t o n i n g death... . [Some] s a y i n g s l o o k t o t h e kingdom of God, i n which J e s u s and h i s d i s c i p l e s would be prominent." Does n o t t h e s e c u r i n g o f t h e new p r i e s t h o o d / t e m p l e i m p l y j u s t such a prominence? 188  90  f o r ever, b u t , on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e "Son" w i l l . In  12:12f,  Jesus  enters  the holy  city  in a  celebratory  atmosphere, as i f t o acknowledge h i s conquest over t h e c o r r u p t world/cultus  there;  1 8 9  the entry  into  Jerusalem,  though,  is  d e p i c t e d i n terms o f h e a v e n l y k i n g s h i p ( i m p l i c i t l y r e i t e r a t i n g t h e r e j e c t i o n o f H e r o d i a n r u l e ) , and Jesus does n o t e n t e r t h e Temple i t s e l f . The Temple has been p r o f a n e d a r k o f t h e covenant no l o n g e r longer  follow  resides there  t h e Commandments;  t h e r e f o r e , n e i t h e r does God.  by t h e c o r r u p t c u l t u s ;  1 9 0  the  (and t h e p e o p l e no  c f . J e r 3:16; 2  Mace 2:5),  191  There i s one aspect o f t h e " e n t r y " s c e n a r i o (12:13) i n t h e FG which makes i t unique i n t h e NT; i t employs t h e word b a i o n , d i r e c t echo o f t h e o n l y precedent,  i n 1 Mace 13:51.  192  a  The c o n t e x t  t h e r e i s t h e e n t r y o f t h e Simon Maccabeus i n t o J e r u s a l e m  and t h e  subsequent r e d e d i c a t i o n o f t h e Temple; i n t h e FG such an a c t i s  Johns and M i l l e r (53) d e s c r i b e s Jesus' d e c l a r a t i o n i n 16:33, " I have overcome t h e w o r l d " as meaning " t o emerge v i c t o r i o u s and j u s t i f i e d from a debate." Sanders (336) s t a t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h Jesus' m i s s i o n was one aimed a t I s r a e l , and was e x e c u t e d i n t h e name o f t h e God o f I s r a e l , J e s u s j u s t i f i e d l e n i e n c y i n t h e e n f o r c i n g o f t h e laws, i n h i s m i s s i o n t o "admit t h e wicked" i n t o t h e new kingdom. Casey (73) has a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n , c l a i m i n g t h a t Jesus 'made i t e a s i e r ' f o r t h e average p e r s o n t o r e t u r n t o God, by r e l a x i n g t h e law. A p e r f e c t p r i e s t h o o d would f o l l o w t h e law p e d a n t i c a l l y , as t h e c o r r u p t one had n o t ; as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e people, i f t h e p r i e s t s were p u r e , t h e p o s i t i v e f a t e o f t h e n a t i o n would be s e a l e d . 190  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t i n b o t h Heb 9:4 and Rev 11:19, i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i d e a l Temple, t h e a r k has p r i d e o f p l a c e , once a g a i n , s u g g e s t i n g t h e r e t u r n o f I s r a e l t o t h e commandments o f God and t h e consequent r e t u r n o f t h e S p i r i t t o d w e l l t h e r e ( c f . J e r 7:5-7) . 191  John Spencer H i l l , "Ta b a i a t o n p h o i n i k o n " (John 12:13) : Pleonasm o r P r o l e p s i s ? JBL 101.1 (March, 1982) 133-135. Here, 135 and n.4. 192  91  a n t i c i p a t e d i n the d e m o n s t r a t i o n of 2:13f fulfilled,  and  i s now  symbolically  here, i n 12:13. I f you w i l l walk i n my ways and keep my r e q u i r e m e n t s , then you s h a l l r u l e my house and have charge of my c o u r t s , and I w i l l g i v e you the r i g h t of a c c e s s among those who are s t a n d i n g here. (Zech  I n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s , Jesus'  3:7)  c l a i m t h a t the F a t h e r ' s  "house"  has many " d w e l l i n g p l a c e s " i s t a k e n t o be an echo of Ezek 45:4f. In the  ideal  abode of  there w i l l  be  "oppression"  God,  a place will  the  (topos)  of  16:3). J e s u s '  the  Temple of  for a l l Israel  cease. T h i s o p p r e s s i o n ,  from w i t h i n I s r a e l i t s e l f perception  divine  eschaton,  (v. 9) ; i n t h a t  i t i s implied,  nation  statement i n John 13:16, then,  Num  with respect  the  until  to  1 9 4  w i l l d w e l l t h e r e ; Jesus i s , i n e f f e c t , the 3:6)  derives  ( c f . Exod 19:6;  When the ark i s r e i n s t a l l e d i n the i d e a l Temple, the  Heb  day  anticipates this necessity for equality,  s i n c e r i t y , tolerance, etc.  (cf.  193  ( v . 8 ) , and p e r t a i n s t o the e q u a l i t a r i a n  d i v i n e l y ordained  exemplary f o o t - w a s h i n g ,  the  such a time as  "spirit"  'steward of the house'  J e r u s a l e m becomes h o l y  once  more. He, and by e x t e n s i o n h i s e l e c t e d s u c c e s s o r (s) , has become the 'portable tabernacle'  w h e r e i n the s p i r i t  of God  will  temporarily  rest.  Note t h a t E z e k i e l ' s Temple f o l l o w s a p l a n , much l i k e t a b e r n a c l e of Exodus. 19:5  the  As the t e x t of 1 Pet 2:5 i m p l i e s , the f o l l o w e r s of J e s u s are t o emulate the d i s c i p l e s ( j u s t as t h e y emulate J e s u s ) , i . e . , t h e y are t o see themselves as a " h o l y p r i e s t h o o d " , i n which " m a l i c e . . . g u i l e , i n s i n c e r i t y . . . " e t c . , ( v . l ) are washed away i n a s p i r i t u a l 'rebirth'. 194  92  Barabbas Back i n John 10:8, Jesus i s heard t o rebuke the " t h i e v e s and robbers"  who  l e a d the "sheep"  away from s a f e t y and i n t o  danger  (v.12). The two terms, k l e p t a i and l e s t a i and the i d e a of ' l e a d i n g a s t r a y ' i s a s t r o n g echo of Hos 7:1 employed  (LXX), where the two terms a r e  i n a d i a t r i b e a g a i n s t the s e l f  Israel.  I f Barabbas  i s t o be  d e s c r i p t i o n i n John 19:40  seen  destructive iniquity  i n the  suggests  (i.e.,  same l i g h t ,  he was  of  as h i s  a lestes) ,  f o l l o w s t h a t he i s i n a f f i l i a t i o n e i t h e r w i t h the P h a r i s e e s  it  1 9 5  o r the c h i e f p r i e s t s , the two a n t a g o n i s t s i n the FG. In  an  pericope, i t was  attempt  Robert  E.  clarify  Merritt  1 9 6  the and  'meaning'  H.Z.  of  the  C h r i s t i a n s from the Jews. that  that  197  'prisoner-  i n t e n d e d t o " d e f l e c t the blame f o r J e s u s ' d e a t h  t h e Romans t o t h e Jews"  S.L. D a v i e s  Barabbas  Maccoby , propose  o r i g i n a l l y a Marcan i n t e r p o l a t i o n of an a c t u a l  r e l e a s e ' custom, from  to  the  198  and  thereby to d i s a s s o c i a t e  the  Maccoby i s i n f u r t h e r agreement w i t h  character  of Barabbas  i s , i n fact,  to  be  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h J e s u s , based on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "Barabbas" as "son of the F a t h e r " o r "son of the T e a c h e r " . interpretation,  however, cannot  be  199  This etymological  a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t the  lestes  a t t r i b u t i o n , a d e s c r i p t i o n which does not s u i t J e s u s i n the FG. I f M. Pharisees.  Davies  195  Robert E. JBL 104.1  196  Pardon,"  H.Z.  197  198  M  (237) makes the c o n n e c t i o n e x p l i c i t l y  e  r  r  i  M e r r i t t , "Jesus Barabbas (March 1985) 57-68.  Maccoby, "Jesus and Barabbas," NTS t  t  /  16  the  Paschal  (1969) 55-60.  67.  S.L.Davies, "Who 262. Here, 262. 199  and  t o the  I s C a l l e d Bar Abbas?"  NTS  27  (1981)-26093  the " f a t h e r / t e a c h e r " r e f e r r e d t o here, though, r e f l e c t s t h e " f a t h e r of l i e s " , Barabbas becomes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l - h i g h priesthood,  and  this  provides  for  some  very  interesting  ' h i s t o r i c a l ' as w e l l as i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes. The  idea of the Paschal  Pardon has l o n g remained a bone o f  contention  amongst NT s c h o l a r s , w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y s u p p o r t i n g t h e  view  t h e apparent  that  implies  that  Judea.  Merritt,  2 0 0  on  no  the ancient  Babylonian  such  lack  of evidence  custom  ever  i n external  sources  i n Roman  occupied  existed  f o r one, supposes o t h e r w i s e ,  basing  record of the release of the King  h i s claim  o f Judah from  c u s t o d y , i n 2 Kgs 25:27-30 and J e r 52:31-34.  201  He a l s o  draws a p a r a l l e l between a s i m i l a r custom o f r e l e a s i n g p r i s o n e r s i n Greece d u r i n g c e r t a i n f e s t i v a l s .  202  The l i n k t o a p e n a l  s p e c i f i c a l l y Roman/Jewish, however, i s tenuous.  tradition  Perhaps t h e answer  t o t h i s paradox l i e s elsewhere. I t may be t h a t what i s t r a n s p i r i n g i n t h e FG, i s n o t t h e r e l e a s e o f a " p r i s o n e r " , f o r t h e word i s never  used  Consider,  by P i l a t e  i n John  18:39,  i n s t e a d , what Josephus w r i t e s  b u t something  analogous.  (added emphasis):  . . . V i t e l l i u s came i n t o Judea, and went up t o J e r u s a l e m ; i t was a t t h e time o f t h a t f e s t i v a l which i s c a l l e d t h e Passover. V i t e l l i u s was t h e r e m a g n i f i c e n t l y r e c e i v e d , and r e l e a s e d t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of J e r u s a l e m from a l l t h e t a x e s upon t h e f r u i t s t h a t were bought and s o l d , and gave them l e a v e t o have t h e c a r e o f t h e h i g h p r i e s t ' s vestments, w i t h a l l t h e i r ornaments, and t o have them under t h e c u s t o d y o f t h e priests i n t h e temple ... 203  S.L.  Davies 260; Maccoby 55-56, e t c . .  M e r r i t t , 61-62. M e r r i t t , 62f. Josephus, A n t . 18.4.3. 94  He  c o n t i n u e s by  explaining  that  Vitellius  petitioned  Rome  ( i . e . , T i b e r i u s ) t o have the ban on the vestments, w h i c h a l l o w e d them t o be days,  204  removed from  the f o r t r e s s  permanently removed.  of A n t o n i a o n l y on  feast  T h i s a c t took p l a c e i n 3 7 C. E. ,  205  w e l l w i t h i n the l i f e t i m e of some of the d i s c i p l e s ; i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t such a monumental event i n f l u e n c e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the FG. The  s i t u a t i o n , w i t h b o t h Barabbas  Temple h i g h p r i e s t ) Movement  against  procurator,  and  the  Jesus  current  (the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  (the l e a d e r , cultus)  or  "Rabbi"  captives  of  the  the  Roman  c o u l d w e l l have i n s p i r e d the analogous r e f l e c t i o n of  the handing over of the h i g h p r i e s t ' s vestments. possibly  of  exploited  the  tradition  of  this  once  The  FG  author  customary,  and  u l t i m a t e l y ' P a s c h a l ' , " r e l e a s e " t o convey the p r o f o u n d i m p l i c a t i o n s of  the  'choice'  the people  i n the n a r r a t i v e  make. By  Barabbas, t h e y choose the way of ' d e s t r u c t i o n ' and  choosing  'darkness'.  206  Making the i r o n y of t h i s c h o i c e a l l the more p r o f o u n d i s the f a c t t h a t , a l t h o u g h the Romans are seen t o r e l e a s e the vestments of the  Jewish  priesthood into  the  custody  of  the  Temple,  the  e m a n c i p a t i o n i s s u p e r f i c i a l , f o r those who don them a r e themselves c o r r u p t , and t h e i r i n i q u i t y has been, o r w i l l be, the ' d e s t r u c t i o n ' 204  205  J e r e m i a s , 14 8-149. J e r e m i a s , 14 9, n.4.  I n John 3:19, note t h a t i t i s c l a i m e d , i n the p a s t t e n s e , t h a t "men l o v e d the darkness more than the l i g h t " , a r e t r o s p e c t i v e c l a i m t o the p e r s i s t e n t d i v i s i o n between those who chose t o f o l l o w J e s u s (the l i g h t ) and those who d i d not. J.D. C r o s s a n makes a s i m i l a r assessment of the s i t u a t i o n i n Mark ( w i t h Barabbas as an armed r e b e l v e r s u s Jesus as the unarmed ' s a v i o u r ' ) : The " n a r r a t i v e about Barabbas was...a s y m b o l i c d r a m a t i z a t i o n of J e r u s a l e m ' s f a t e , as he saw i t " (Who K i l l e d J e s u s ? , (New York: Harper, 1995) 112) . 206  95  of  the  Temple  (as  expressed  figuratively  J e r u s a l e m w i l l never be f r e e , nor the 'new'  in  John  2:19) .  207  Temple m a n i f e s t e d u n t i l  "Jesus" i s chosen over and a g a i n s t "Barabbas"  (the " l i g h t " over the  "darkness") . F u r t h e r , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the "atonement" a s p e c t of J e s u s ' impending  demise,  figuratively Lev 16.  the  symbolic  ' r e l e a s e d ' and one  image  of  'killed',  these  two  men,  one  r e i n f o r c e s the echo of  The one ' r e l e a s e d ' , Barabbas, i n d e e d b e a r s the s i n s of the  n a t i o n , whereas the one  'killed',  J e s u s , i s e l e v a t e d t o God.  The  echo of Lev 16 i s complete.  Vestments  and T r a n s f e r e n c e  The FG n a r r a t i v e subsequent t o the r a i s i n g of L a z a r u s r e v e a l s a keen i n t e r e s t i n the 'vestments' of J e s u s , the ( a l t e r n a t i v e ) h i g h priest.  A c c o r d i n g t o Lev  included: "crown",  tunic,  sash,  8:6-9, the i n v e s t i t u r e robe,  seven p i e c e s i n a l l .  ephod,  of the  breast-piece,  priests  turban  and  2 0 8  B e f o r e the f o o t - w a s h i n g Jesus i s d e s c r i b e d as p u t t i n g a s i d e his  garments  (note the NRSV t r a n s l a t i o n as  "removing"  an " o u t e r  robe") and wrapping around h i m s e l f a l e n t i o n , o r l i n e n c l o t h . emphasizes  Heil  the use of the v e r b theo i n the FG account, making the  a c t i o n of J e s u s p r e p a r i n g f o r the washing  of h i s d i s c i p l e s  feet  Cf . Kovacs (247) , who suggests t h a t the day of judgement i s not a t the P a r o u s i a , but now, at the c r u c i f i x i o n . dur  J e r e m i a s (148, n.2) suggests e i g h t , but t h i s i n c l u d e s ' t r o u s e r - l i k e ' undergarment mentioned o n l y i n Exod 28:42, not the i n v e s t i t u r e ceremony. The number "seven" i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n FG, and t h i s L e v i t i c a l " l i s t " may s u i t the o v e r a l l symbolism of narrative better. 208  the in the the 96  analogous t o h i s " l a y i n g down" o f h i s l i f e  f o r them.  209  However,  the  v e r b theo does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t r a n s l a t e t o mean " l a y i n g down",  as,  f o r example k e i m a i would, but i t can mean " t o p u t a s i d e " , " t o  p l a c e " , e t c . , which f i t s w e l l t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e garment, which  restricts  manual  labour.  Compare  this  to  Josephus'  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r i e s t l y vestments and t h e d o i n g o f p h y s i c a l (ritualistic)  labour:  [The "kethoneth"] i s g i r d e d t o t h e b r e a s t a l i t t l e above t h e elbows, by a g i r d l e o f t e n g o i n g round, f o u r f i n g e r s b r o a d . . . the  warp was n o t h i n g but f i n e  linen.  ...when i t has gone o f t e n round, i t i s t h e r e t i e d , and hangs l o o s e l y t h e r e down t o t h e a n k l e s : I mean t h i s a l l t h e time t h e p r i e s t i s n o t about any l a b o r i o u s s e r v i c e . . . t h a t he may not be h i n d e r e d i n h i s o p e r a t i o n by i t s motion, he throws i t t o h i s l e f t and b e a r s i t on h i s s h o u l d e r . 2 1 0  The f a c t t h a t i n John 13:4-12 r e f e r e n c e t o J e s u s garments i s made t h r e e times  (vv.4,5,12)  i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e c i s i o n ,  f o r m a l i t y and importance a t t r i b u t a b l e t o J e s u s ' ( p r i e s t l y ) a c t i o n s . In  the Passion n a r r a t i v e ,  t h e s i x r e m a i n i n g vestments a r e  p o t e n t i a l l y accounted f o r . The Roman s o l d i e r s p l a c e upon J e s u s ' head a "wreath" (Stephanos), and p l a c e about him a " p u r p l e " garment (John 19:2) i n t h e i r b i d t o r i d i c u l e him as a s e l f - i m p o s e d " k i n g " . T h i s i s p r o f o u n d l y i r o n i c , f o r not o n l y i s p u r p l e a l s o t h e c o l o u r of  t h e a l t a r c l o t h i n Num 4:13 (making J e s u s ' imminent  sacrifice  H e i l 741. See a l s o R.A. Culpepper ( i n "The Johannine HYPODEIGMA: A Reading o f John 13," Semeia 53 (1991) 133-152. Here 146), who o f f e r s a s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 210  Josephus, A n t . 3.7.2. 97  all  t h e more  symbolic);  "righteousness"  i n t h e NRSV v e r s i o n o f Job 29:14,  and " j u s t i c e "  a r e worn  like  a  "robe"  " t u r b a n " . With t h e f o u r garments (himatia) o f v.23a, s i x are  apparent,  and w i t h t h e c h i t o n o f v. 23b,  211  and a articles  t h e vestments a r e  complete. T h i s c h i t o n p u r p o s e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d t o i n v o k e the image o f the h i g h p r i e s t ' s robe, as d e s c r i b e d by Josephus: " . . . t h i s v e s t u r e was n o t composed o f two p i e c e s , n o r was i t sewed t o g e t h e r upon t h e s h o u l d e r s and t h e s i d e s , b u t i t was one l o n g vestment... . "  212  In  an " i n v e r t e d q u o t a t i o n " o f Exod 28:32, t h e garment i s seen n o t t o be t o r n because i t i s s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e "robe" o f t h e h i g h p r i e s t i s t o have a "woven b i n d i n g around t h e [neck] opening...so t h a t i t may n o t be t o r n .  1,213  The d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n from Ps 22:18 (John 19:24) i s preceded by a t e c h n i c a l f o r m u l a , i m p l y i n g a f u l f i l m e n t o f s c r i p t u r e . When t h e original  context of t h i s  Psalm i s t a k e n  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the  ' f u l f i l m e n t ' aspect becomes c l e a r . Ps 22 e x h i b i t s s e v e r a l o f t h e major FG themes, such as d e s p e r a t i o n ( v . l ) , weakness and i n f i r m i t y (vv.11,14-16),  f a i t h i n t h e s a l v a t i o n o f God (vv.19-21),  'belief  w h i c h b r i n g s 'food' t o t h e ' h u n g r y ' / ' a f f l i c t e d ' and an e v e r l a s t i n g  211  mantle" . 212  I n t h e LXX i t reads:  ". . . i s a d i p l o i d i " , o r " l i k e  a  Josephus, A n t . 3.7.4.  H e i l notes t h e obvious d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e "robe" o f the h i g h p r i e s t and t h e " t u n i c " o f J e s u s , and r a t i o n a l i z e s t h i s by c l a i m i n g b o t h are "undergarments"; t h e former s i t s under the ephod, the l a t t e r under J e s u s ' f o u r garments (742). I t may j u s t as e a s i l y be t h a t t h e FG a u t h o r , i n making a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l h i g h p r i e s t and Jesus, i n t e n t i o n a l l y a p p l i e s t h e s y m b o l i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f one a r t i c l e , t o another. Thus, l i k e t h e renaming o f Bethesda, w h i l s t r e t a i n i n g the " f i v e p o r t i c o e s " description, this shifting device allows for a symbolic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and an i m p l i e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 213  98  "life"  (v.26), the supremacy of God  (v.28), and a f u t u r e devoted t o  t e a c h i n g new " g e n e r a t i o n s " about God (vv.29-31). The a s c e n s i o n from despondency t o e l a t i o n i s echoed i n the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of the FG narrative,  and a l s o i n the c e n t r a l t h e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the  ' a n t i c i p a t i o n of Hephzibah'. F i t t i n g l y , the z e n i t h of J e s u s ' c a r e e r i s at t h i s point  - this  i s h i s e l e v a t i o n , b o t h i n terms of the  c r o s s and i n terms of the atonement/redemption, r e t u r n e d t o God  i . e . , the "lamb" i s  (as i n Gen 22).  From the c r o s s Jesus i s seen t o hand h i s "beloved" o v e r t o the c h a r a c t e r known as J e s u s ' "mother", who remains anonymous.  In t h i s  scene of mutual " a d o p t i o n " the r e l e v a n t themes of replacement  and  inheritance  disciple's  own  a d o p t i o n , the  BD  are  emphasized,  (mundane) e l e v a t i o n . apparently 6:42) .  214  echoes  The  assumes action  As  anticipating  a consequence  Jesus'  family  performed  by  of t h i s  name, the  the  "Joseph"  (14:26;  c h a r a c t e r i n John  t h a t of Joseph, son of Jacob, i n Gen  50:4f; b o t h  cf. 19:38  Josephs  ^ R.E. Brown ( i n "The B u r i a l of J e s u s (Mark 15:42-47)," CBQ 50 (1988) 233-245. Here, 241) suggests t h a t "...a g o v e r n o r would have g i v e n the body t o the f a m i l y of the c r u c i f i e d , but no Gospel s u g g e s t s t h a t . In John a l o n e the mother of J e s u s i s a t G o l g o t h a ; but she and the d i s c i p l e whom Jesus l o v e d seem t o d e p a r t b e f o r e J e s u s ' d e a t h (19:27) , and t h e y are absent from the b u r i a l account." As "Joseph", however, J e s u s ' s p i r i t u a l "son" does r e c e i v e the "body". Another s u b t l e p o i n t t o mention here i s t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o Num 27:5-11, i f a man d i e d w i t h no c h i l d r e n , h i s i n h e r i t a n c e was t o be p a s s e d on t o h i s b r o t h e r s : As t h e r e seems t o be no i n t e r e s t i n J e s u s ' ' b l o o d - b r o t h e r s ' i n the FG, i t may be assumed t h a t i n p a s s i n g the BD over t o h i s mother, i . e . , as her son, J e s u s i s c r e a t i n g f o r h i m s e l f a " b r o t h e r " worthy of t h i s i n h e r i t a n c e . As an adopted b r o t h e r , "Joseph" would a l s o f u n c t i o n as a ' r e l a t i v e ' . Cf. "Joseph" i n the Gos.Nic. (Barnstone 3 6 8 f f ) : Joseph a l o n e tends t o J e s u s i n the tomb, he i s i n c a r c e r a t e d by the "Jews", i n a " b u i l d i n g w i t h o u t a window" (and i s sentenced t o d e a t h ) , he i s emancipated, he i s r e f e r r e d t o as " F a t h e r " as a s i g n of s t a t u s , he i s a n o i n t e d , and he w i t n e s s e s the ' r i s e n ' J e s u s . 14  99  approach  a ' f o r e i g n ' l e a d e r w i t h a r e q u e s t t o remove the body of  one  i s much l o v e d . In G e n e s i s ,  who  the dead p e r s o n  i s Joseph's  b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r ; i n the FG, i t i s the BD' s s p i r i t u a l f a t h e r . Both are g r a n t e d t h e i r r e q u e s t .  215  When the BD and P e t e r r e a c h the tomb, i n John 20:4-7, t h e y f i n d J e s u s ' head d r e s s i n g on one up",  f o r which  entwine/wind  the  up";  tes kephales",  verb  s i d e ; i t i s s a i d t o be  tulisso  i s employed,  which  "rolled  means  "to  i t i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e as b e i n g " e p i  i . e . , on/around the head, r a t h e r than around  the  f a c e , as i n L a z a r u s ' case. B e i n g " t w i s t e d " o r " r o l l e d " , t h i s o b j e c t i s , perhaps,  the p r i e s t l y t u r b a n .  2 1 6  A c c o r d i n g t o Exod 29:29, t h e  s a c r e d vestments s h o u l d be passed on t o the s u c c e e d i n g h i g h p r i e s t ; i n the s y m b o l i c g e s t u r e of l a y i n g the 'turban' t o one s i d e , (or  those  who  had  taken  the  body,  etc.,)  is  shown  Jesus to  be  t r a n s f e r r i n g h i s h i g h - p r i e s t l y o f f i c e t o h i s s u c c e s s o r . T h i s i s the moment of the BD s 1  (mundane) e l e v a t i o n , f u l f i l l i n g the f a t h e r / s o n  emulation pattern. The p a t t e r n of Ezek 16 i s complete; the r e l a t i v e e l e v a t i o n of Jesus  and  the  BD  mirror  Magdalene, p r o v i d i n g the  the  ideological  'perfect'  elevation  p l a t f o r m from  which  of the  Mary new  p r i e s t h o o d of I s r a e l w i l l commence i t s work.  A l s o , the f a t e of b o t h run p a r a l l e l ; e.g., c f . the o u t l i n e o f Joseph i n Ps 105.18: he was i n bondage, e n s l a v e d , e t c . , then he was r e l e a s e d by a " k i n g " and c o n s e q u e n t l y e l e v a t e d t o an i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n at the k i n g ' s r i g h t hand. 215  T h i s " t w i s t e d " appearance r e f l e c t s the " i n t e r t w i n e d " d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e wreath of t h o r n s i n 19:2 (e.g., p l e k o ) , making the i r o n y of the Romans' a c t i o n a l l the more apparent. 216  100  153  Fish The p r e c i s e number o f "153" i n John 21:11 has l o n g been an  enigma t o r e s e a r c h e r s of the NT,  217  but, g i v e n t h a t t h e FG d e p i c t s  a p r i e s t l y Movement, one which i s aimed a t t h e r e c o n s t i t u t i o n , o r renewal of t h e i d e a l I s r a e l ( i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e t r u e kingdom of God,  etc.),  themes. perfectly  t h e number "153" may w e l l p e r t a i n  I t i s t h e sum  of  seventy,  simple, yet profound  and  example o f s y m b o l i c  Seventy was t h e number "born t o Jacob" thus r e f l e c t s  seventy,  t o these general  the pre-Exodic, u n i f i e d  i n Egypt Israel.  2 1 8  thirteen,  a  numerology:  (Exod 1:5) , and I f Jesus  elects  a f u r t h e r s e v e n t y t o c a r r y on t h e m i s s i o n he had s t a r t e d ( c f . Luke 10:1), t h i s a c t i o n would f u l l y echo t h a t o f Num l l : 1 6 f , where Moses i s t o l d by Yahweh t h a t s e v e n t y of h i s e l d e r s a r e t o share i n t h e " s p i r i t " with him.  219  E.g., Robinson (117, and n.356) o f f e r s a breakdown o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t e r m i n o l o g y f o r " f i s h " w i t h i n t h e FG, but o f f e r s no e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e numerology used i n 21:11. M. D a v i e s (343) o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g summary of p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o v e r t h e y e a r s : a) The number r e p r e s e n t s t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f i s h i n t h e a r e a ( !) , b) i t i s t h e sum of t h e numbers one t o seventeen (Augustine n o t i c e d t h i s ) , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e sum o f seven and t e n . Seven then r e p r e s e n t s t h e G e n t i l e s , and t e n t h e J e w i s h n a t i o n , the a d d i t i o n o f t h e two r e p r e s e n t i n g a world-wide m i s s i o n . D a v i e s h e r s e l f o f f e r s t h e i d e a t h a t t h e e n t i r e number stands f o r the-"nonJews" who w i l l e n t e r t h e new community. James G. W i l l i a m s ( i n "Number Symbolism and Joseph as Symbol o f C o m p l e t i o n , " JBL 98.1 (March, 1979) 86-87) r e v e a l s t h a t t h r o u g h t h e use of numbers ( e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e ages o f i n d i v i d u a l s ) Joseph i s found t o be d e p i c t e d i n G e n e s i s as t h e " c o m p l e t i o n " o r p e r f e c t i o n of t h e p a t r i a r c h s . Joseph, W i l l i a m s c o n c l u d e s , s y m b o l i z e s "the d i v i n e p r o v i d e n c e t h a t w i l l b r i n g t h e s t o r y o f I s r a e l t o a b l e s s e d c o n c l u s i o n " (87) . Not o n l y i s t h i s " c o n c l u s i o n " i n t h e FG d e p i c t e d through t h e a s c e n t of a "Joseph", but a l s o t h e symbolism i n h e r e n t i n t h e number 153 s u g g e s t s a similar theological 'resolution'. 218  T h i s 'sending out' of e m i s s a r i e s i s a l s o p r e c e d e n t e d i n I s a 66:19, where i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e p u r i f i e d I s r a e l w i l l be o r d e r e d by Yahweh t o send f o r t h messengers i n t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g 219  101  The  two s e v e n t i e s r e i t e r a t e b o t h t h e innocence and p u r i t y o f  the e a r l y n a t i o n and t h e s a n c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e new n a t i o n which will  be b o r n  ("from  t h i r t e e n , o f course,  above")  out of Jesus'  work.  The number  then r e p r e s e n t s t h e new p r i e s t h o o d , w i t h i t s  body o f t w e l v e m i n i s t e r s and i t s h i g h p r i e s t . I t i s remarked t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e net h e l d so many " f i s h " , t h e "net was not t o r n " , a phrase echoing t h a t o f 19:24, which p e r t a i n s , as we have suggested, t o t h e h i g h p r i e s t ' s garment. Thus, t h e n e t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e i n d e s t r u c t i b l e mantle o f t h e p r i e s t h o o d ; a l l i t encompasses i s made s a c r e d .  Summary In t h e meal s c e n a r i o o f John 12 a r e echoed b o t h a t r a d i t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f v i c t o r y over t h e "death" o f I s r a e l and one p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e e l e c t i o n o f new l e a d e r s . The t i m i n g and the  nature  of t h i s gathering  a r e found t o be r e f l e c t i v e  of the  l e v i t i c a l r u l e s regarding the e l e c t i o n of a s u b s t i t u t e high p r i e s t before  t h e Day o f Atonement,  and Lazarus  i s seen  t o be  this  s u b s t i t u t e . The keen h o s t i l i t y demonstrated by t h e c h i e f p r i e s t s r e v e a l s a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t , f o r Lazarus appears t o be t h e r e a s o n f o r other  (priestly?)  'conversions'/"desertions".  Following t h i s , the  washing o f t h e f e e t o f t h e d i s c i p l e s s e r v e s t o r e i t e r a t e t h e c h o i c e of s u c c e s s o r , t o i n t r o d u c e t h e 'vestments' m o t i f , and t o f u l f i l t h e "bathing/" cleansing"  aspect  o f t h e Ezek  16 p a t t e r n .  m i n i s t e r s a r e thus c l e a n s e d f o r t h e i r s y m b o l i c  The new  e n t r y i n t o t h e new  Kingdom.  c o u n t r i e s who have not l e a r n t o f h i s "fame" and " g l o r y " . 102  Continuing placed  t h e 'atonement'  together i n the custody  symbolic  echo  interpreted vestments,  theme,  and J e s u s a r e  o f t h e Roman p r o c u r a t o r i n a  o f t h e "scapegoat"  i n terms  Barabbas  ritual.  The  scene  i s also  o f t h e Roman c u s t o d y o f t h e h i g h p r i e s t ' s  and thus a c t s as a p r o f o u n d example o f t h e " c h o i c e "  u l t i m a t e l y made by t h e people o f I s r a e l . The 'vestments' m o t i f i s carried  through t o the c r u c i f i x i o n ,  where t h e quota o f 'seven'  p r i e s t l y a r t i c l e s i s met. L i n k e d t o t h i s i s t h e d i r e c t echo o f Ps 22 w h i c h a c t s as a 'summary' i n i t s own r i g h t , e n c a p s u l a t i n g t h e e n t i r e i d e o l o g y o f t h e FG. In  the r e i t e r a t i o n  of the son/successor  concept,  t h e BD  r e c e i v e s J e s u s ' ' f a m i l y ' name, Joseph, d u r i n g t h e mutual a d o p t i o n scene under t h e c r o s s , and t h i s a n t i c i p a t e s h i s e l e v a t i o n t o t h e s t a t u s o f h i g h p r i e s t on J e s u s ' d e p a r t u r e . The handing o v e r o f t h e priestly left  office  i s s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e h e a d c o v e r i n g  i n t h e tomb. Both t h e BD' s and J e s u s ' e l e v a t i o n  serve t o  complete t h e m a s c u l i n e p a t t e r n - e c h o o f Ezek 16. The p r i e s t h o o d i s t h u s i n a u g u r a t e d . I n t h e E p i l o g u e i s found a numeric r e f e r e n c e (153) t o t h e two main concepts o f t h e FG - t h e u n i f i e d , Israel  perfect  ( o l d and new), and t h e new p r i e s t h o o d .  103  Chapter Seven:  In  the  Conclusions  a n a l y s i s of the  Fourth  Gospel through  i t s apparent  i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes, the f o l l o w i n g d e d u c t i o n s have been made:  one  A) The  c o n t e x t , or s e t t i n g , i n which the n a r r a t i v e b e g i n s i s  which  conveys  the  moral/spiritual  state  of  Israel.  The  " w i l d e r n e s s " theme, the i n a b i l i t y t o "see" s a l v a t i o n when i t comes, and the " p r e p a r a t i o n " of the way  a l l a n t i c i p a t e the coming of  one  who w i l l rescue I s r a e l from i t s despondency. The a n t i c i p a t e d r e t u r n to  g l o r y i s i n t r o d u c e d e a r l y i n the n a r r a t i v e , and  i s couched i n  P a t r i a r c h a l a l l u s i o n s , g i v i n g the m i s s i o n of Jesus b o t h a sense of a u t h o r i t y and an agenda - t o r e v i v e an i d e a l I s r a e l , a kingdom".  In the  dialogue  w i t h Nicodemus, the  nature  "priestly of  Jesus'  m i s s i o n i s r e v e a l e d , w i t h r e s p e c t t o b o t h the ' o b s t a c l e s ' he i s t o overcome (e.g., i g n o r a n c e ,  the P h a r i s e e s , e t c . ) and the manner i n  which he w i l l overcome these  (through " s i g n s and wonders", s e t t i n g  h i m s e l f up as a 'beacon', e t c . ) . As his  i n t e n t , Jesus  i s seen t o be  a symbolic demonstration  " c l e a n s i n g " the Temple, but  of the  s u b t l e t i e s of t h i s d e p i c t i o n r e v e a l an i n t e r e s t i n the p r i e s t h o o d itself; will  the  i n t e n t i o n i s t o " p u r i f y " the p r i e s t h o o d so t h a t  God  ' r e t u r n ' and I s r a e l w i l l become h o l y once more. T h i s agenda i s  f o r m a l i z e d through the s y m b o l i c  "marriage"  t u r n , s e t s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the c e n t r a l  ceremony, and t h i s , i n theological/ideological  s t r u c t u r e of the g o s p e l . B)  The  ideological  construction, depictions,  consisting  'core' of  i . e . , the Samaritan  of  the  the three  FG  is  a  triangular  significant  woman, the a d u l t e r e s s , and  female Mary.  T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n of f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r s i s found t o be a t h e m a t i c 104  echo o f t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s o f I s r a e l , t h e " b r i d e o f Yahweh", as found i n Ezek 16. T h i s p a t t e r n runs from t h e i n i t i a l m a r r i a g e o f I s r a e l to Yahweh, t h r o u g h h e r i n f i d e l i t y , and joyous r e - m a r r i a g e .  divorce, humility, forgiveness  In the c o n t e x t / s e t t i n g already e s t a b l i s h e d ,  the S a m a r i t a n woman p r o v i d e s t h e ' s t a r t i n g p o i n t ' f o r t h e p a t t e r n the s t a t e o f " i n f i d e l i t y " . Commencing from t h i s p o i n t , t h e p a t t e r n of Ezek 16 i s f u l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the n a r r a t i v e , p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h the women, but a l s o s h i f t i n g t o a p a r a l l e l d e p i c t i o n i n t h e male characters "bride"  from John 9 onward. The e s c a l a t i o n o f t h i s  culminates  i n three  symbolic  major c h a r a c t e r s ; Mary becomes t h e  Magdalene, r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e - m a r r i e d b r i d e , J e s u s i s e l e v a t e d t o the F a t h e r ,  a t t h e c r u c i f i x i o n , and t h e B e l o v e d  Disciple  (who i s  found t o be t h e c h a r a c t e r o f Joseph i n t h i s regard) , i s e l e v a t e d t o the p o s i t i o n o f h i g h p r i e s t i n Jesus' s t e a d . The f i n a l s t a g e , t h a t of " e t e r n a l covenant" i s i m p l i c i t throughout t h e n a r r a t i v e , e.g., i n t h e " l i f e " / " d e a t h " m o t i f , t h e f a t h e r / s o n p r o g r e s s i o n , e t c . , and a c t s as t h e m o t i v a t i o n , o r i n c e n t i v e f o r t h e m i s s i o n . C) F u l f i l l i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n o f a d i v i n e " h e a l i n g " b e f o r e t h e r e t u r n o f I s r a e l t o g l o r y , Jesus 'performs' a ' h e a l i n g ' semeion i n b o t h t h e n o r t h e r n p r o v i n c e s and i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e Temple. T h i s a c t s y m b o l i z e s t h e r e u n i f i c a t i o n o f the d i v i d e d I s r a e l , but i t a l s o reveals i.e.,  t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e r e l a t i v e  'obstacles'  there,  f o r e i g n r u l e and p r i e s t l y i n e f f e c t u a l i t y . B u i l d i n g on t h i s ,  the two semeia o f John 6 b r i n g t h e m e s s i a n i c n a t u r e o f J e s u s '  role  into  this  question,  anticipated fragments, military  f o r he i s seen,  reunion  once  again,  of I s r a e l  (through  e t c . ) - t h e people  perceive  or Davidic  Messiah.  Rejecting  to intimate  the gathering  of the  him t o be t h e a w a i t e d this  identity,  Jesus 105  c l a r i f i e s h i s p o s i t i o n f o r the sake of the d i s c i p l e s , i m p l y i n g t h a t if  the n a t i o n t r u s t s i n God  a g a i n and becomes devout a g a i n ,  w i l l r e s c u e them, and t h a t o n l y i n t h i s way  God  can the o p p r e s s i o n of  Rome cease. D) The p a t t e r n of Ezek 16 branches o f f i n t o the arena of the male c h a r a c t e r s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the Echoing story,  the  anticipated  victory  " e l e c t i o n " of the b l i n d  over  'ignorance'  man.  i n Nicodemus'  the h e a l i n g o c c u r s w i t h i n the sphere of the P h a r i s e e s . A  c o n v e r s i o n t a k e s p l a c e , which e s c a l a t e s h o s t i l i t i e s toward and any who  Jesus  support him. F o l l o w i n g t h i s i s the r a i s i n g of L a z a r u s ,  w h i c h o c c u r s i n the c o n t e x t of a divine/mundane b a t t l e of power; L a z a r u s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the s p i r i t u a l l y "dead" I s r a e l , i s c a l l e d t o a new  " l i f e " by J e s u s . T h i s ' r a i s i n g ' , though, i s p a r a l l e l e d by the  e l e v a t i o n of L a z a r u s t o the s t a t u s of J e s u s ' p r i e s t l y  successor.  E) From John 11 onward, p r i e s t l y themes i n c r e a s e i n frequency, e.g., t h r o u g h the use of s y m b o l i c numbers, r e f e r e n c e s t o ordination rituals,  e t c . The  crucifixion  vestments,  s c e n a r i o r e a f f i r m s the  i n t e n s i f y i n g d e p i c t i o n of Lazarus/BD as J e s u s ' s u c c e s s o r ; i n the a c t of  'adoption' which o c c u r s between the BD and J e s u s ' mother,  t h i s f a v o u r i t e d i s c i p l e assumes not o n l y J e s u s ' p o s i t i o n as but  a l s o the  f a m i l y name, Joseph.  The  official  "son",  t r a n s f e r e n c e of  o f f i c e i s s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by the 'removed' p o s i t i o n of the head c o v e r i n g i n J e s u s ' tomb, i . e . , the p r i e s t l y t u r b a n has  been  passed on t o the s u c c e s s o r . F)  In the E p i l o g u e , the number "153"  p e r f e c t i o n , and,  u l t i m a t e l y , success,  ("virgin") I s r a e l 70),  under  the  completion,  f o r i t u n i t e s the  ( i . e . , 70) w i t h the new,  p r o t e c t i v e 'mantle'  symbolizes  of  original  redeemed I s r a e l the  purified  (i.e.,  priesthood 106  ( i . e . , 13) When r e a d i n l i g h t o f i t s c o n s i s t e n t , coherent echoes,  intertextual  t h e FG e x h i b i t s a p r o f o u n d d e s i r e t o c o n t i n u e t h e quest  begun by J e s u s , t h a t i s , t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e p a t h back t o God. I t i s a g o s p e l which,  perhaps  most  loyally,  depicts  t h e t e n a c i t y and  endurance o f a 'man o f God' i n h i s m i s s i o n t o r i g h t t h e wrongs o f I s r a e l . . . t o make h e r , once more t h e " D e l i g h t " o f Yahweh. R i s e , s t a n d e r e c t and see t h e number o f those who have been s e a l e d a t t h e f e a s t o f t h e L o r d . Those who have d e p a r t e d from t h e shadow o f t h i s age have r e c e i v e d g l o r i o u s garments from t h e L o r d . Take a g a i n your f u l l number, O Z i o n , and c l o s e t h e l i s t of your p e o p l e who a r e c l o t h e d i n w h i t e who have f u l f i l l e d t h e law o f t h e L o r d . The number o f y o u r c h i l d r e n , whom you d e s i r e d , i s now complete; i m p l o r e the L o r d ' s a u t h o r i t y t h a t your p e o p l e , who have been c a l l e d from t h e b e g i n n i n g , may be made h o l y . (2 E s d r 2:38-41)  107  Bibliography A l l e m a n , H.C. and E.E. F l a c k . O l d Testament P h i l a d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s , 1962 c l 9 4 8 .  Commentary.  A i c h e l e , George, and Gary A. 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"The Lamb of John: Some Myths about the V o c a b u l a r y of the Johannine L i t e r a t u r e . " JBL 106.2 (1987) 289-295. W i l l i a m s , James, G. "Number Symbolism and Joseph as Symbol of C o m p l e t i o n . " JBL 98.1 (March, 1979) 86-87. W i t h e r i n g t o n , Ben. John's Wisdom: A Commentary on the F o u r t h G o s p e l . L o u i s v i l l e , Kentucky: Westminster, 1995.  113  

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