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Anticipating hephzibah rediscovering the fourth gospel Tyson, Janet Sylvia Bernadette 1997

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ANTICIPATING HEPHZIBAH Rediscovering The Fourth Gospel by JANET SYLVIA BERNADETTE TYSON B.A. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1994 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of R e l i g i o u s Studies) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1997 © Janet S y l v i a Bernadette Tyson 1997 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of dfcUlC^javLSL SjyQl 6r_S The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) /Abstract The t h e s i s presented i n t h i s paper i n v o l v e s the r e - e v a l u a t i o n of the Fourth Gospel's n a r r a t i v e i n l i g h t of i n t e r t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s . The aim i s to demonstrate how the author of t h i s gospel has e x p l o i t e d I s r a e l i t e s c r i p t u r a l and h i s t o r i c t r a d i t i o n to de p i c t the Jesus Movement as one motivated by a d e s i r e to see I s r a e l r e i n s t a t e d as the e l e c t of Yahweh. This, i t i s shown, i s manifested i n a s e r i e s of h i g h l y symbolic a c t i o n s which echo the p a t t e r n of Ezek 16; t h i s p a t t e r n reveals the c y c l e of I s r a e l as Yahweh's "b r i d e " . Near the end of t h i s c y c l e , the Movement takes on a p r i e s t l y p e r s p e c t i v e , r e v e a l i n g the establishment of a new, s y m b o l i c a l l y p u r i f i e d priesthood. i i Table of Contents Ab s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i i i Abbreviations/Acknowledgements i v I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter One Consent and Covenant 8 B a p t i s t 8 Nathanael 11 The Marriage 14 Nicodemus 18 Summary 2 3 Chapter Two A n t i c i p a t i n g Hephzibah 25 Samaritan Woman 2 7 Adulteress 32 Mary 3 4 Summary 4 0 Chapter Three The Temple Scenes 41 Excursus 4 7 Summary 4 8 Chapter Four Mistaken I d e n t i t y 49 Healings 49 The Hunger 5 7 Summary 64 Chapter Five E l e c t i o n 66 A Lack of V i s i o n 66 Emancipation 73 P r i e s t l y Theme 81 Summary 83 Chapter S i x Replacement 8 5 Barabbas 93 Vestments and Transference 96 153 F i s h 101 Summary 10 2 Chapter Seven Conclusions 104 B i b l i o g r a p h y 108 i i i Abbreviations B i b l i o g r a p h i c BT CBQ JBL JJS JSNT JSNT SS NT NTS ZNW The B i b l e T r a n s l a t o r C a t h o l i c B i b l i c a l Quarterly-Journal of B i b l i c a l L i t e r a t u r e Journal of Jewish Studies Journal f o r the Study of the New Testament Journal f o r the Study of the New Testament/Supplement S e r i e s Novum Testamentum New Testament Studies Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r d i e neutestamentliche Wissenschaft Primary Sources Josephus: Ant. L i f e . J . W. B i b l i c a l / A p o c r y p h a l : BD FG Gos.Nic. G o s . P h i l . Gos.Thorn. NRSV SGM The A n t i q u i t i e s of the Jews L i f e of F l a v i u s Josephus The Wars of the Jews Beloved D i s c i p l e Fourth Gospel Gospel of Nicodemus Gospel of P h i l i p Gospel of Thomas New Revised Standard V e r s i o n Secret Gospel of Mark Acknowledgements: S c r i p t u r a l references i n t h i s paper correspond to those w i t h i n the NRSV wit h Apocrypha (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989 cl962) . LXX references are taken from The Septuagint V e r s i o n of the Old Testament, (London: Harper,[]). Greek references p e r t a i n to The Pocket I n t e r l i n e a r New Testament, J.P. Green, Sr., Ed., (Michigan: Baker, 1988). Apocryphal New Testament and Qumran L i t e r a t u r e references are taken from The Other B i b l e : Ancient A l t e r n a t i v e S c r i p t u r e s , W. Barnstone, Ed., (New York: Harper, 1984). Greek etymology i s a t t r i b u t e d to Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other E a r l y C h r i s t i a n L i t e r a t u r e , W.F. Arndt and F.W. G i n g r i c h , Eds., 2nd ed. (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1979); and, The A n a l y t i c a l Greek Lexicon, (London: Bagster, 1969). Hebrew etymology, from James Strong, " D i c t i o n a r y of the Words i n the Hebrew B i b l e " , i n Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, (Michigan: Baker, 1992, c l 8 9 0 ) . Excerpts from Josephus are found i n Josephus: Complete Works, W. Whiston, Trans., (Michigan: Kregel, 1960). i v I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose of t h i s paper i s to demonstrate how the Fourth Gospel, through the employment of i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes, d e p i c t s the Jesus Movement as a d i v i n e l y sanctioned mission to prepare I s r a e l f o r i t s a n t i c i p a t e d reunion w i t h Yahweh under a new covenant and a new p r i e s t h o o d . A note on the method employed i n t h i s study i s necessary as i t may be u n f a m i l i a r to some, being a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y accepted approach i n the f i e l d of New Testament (henceforth NT) s t u d i e s . Scholars i n t e r e s t e d i n the apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p between S c r i p t u r a l t e x t s have long focused ( p r i m a r i l y ) on typology, where persons, events or things w i t h i n the Old Testament (henceforth, OT) are i n t e r p r e t e d as precursors, or prototypes of those i n the NT. What an i n t e r t e x t u a l approach does, simply, i s to i n c l u d e l i t e r a r y / i n t e r p r e t a t i v e techniques w i t h i n that sphere of p o t e n t i a l precedents. I n t e r t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s 1 expresses the transference of " i d e o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l " concepts w i t h i n a context of " s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . " 2 I t i s thus an 'organic' approach which attempts 1 The term was coined by J u l i a K r i s t e v a , who noted that t e x t s w i t h i n a given c u l t u r e have more than j u s t an ' i n f l u e n c e ' upon l a t e r t e x t s , they are a c t u a l l y r e l a t e d i n a much more organic sense, i . e . , they are part of "an ongoing process of absorption, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and permutation... ." George A i c h e l e and Gary P h i l i p s , Eds., Semeia 69/70 (1995) 300. 2 George A i c h e l e & Gary A. P h i l i p s , " I n t r o d u c t i o n : Exegesis, E i s e g e s i s , I n t e r g e s i s , " Semeia 69/70 (1995) 7-18 (Here, 9). This transference of ideology, e t c . , i s i n e v i t a b l y preceded by a 1 to i l l u m i n a t e the apparent progression of ideas and b e l i e f s , e t c . , from one c i r c u m s t a n t i a l matrix to another. This avenue of i n v e s t i g a t i o n has found favour amongst exegetes f o r whom conventional methods of a n a l y s i s have proved u n s a t i s f a c t o r y w i t h respect to d i s c e r n i n g the "meaning" of a t e x t . One area which does have sympathies w i t h i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i s that of the f e m i n i s t approach, f o r both tend t o glean new meaning from f a m i l i a r t e x t s by removing c e r t a i n conventional r e s t r i c t i o n s on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . By reading the t e x t more from an i n t u i t i v e , r e f l e c t i v e and f l e x i b l e p e r s p e c t i v e , both f e m i n i s t and i n t e r t e x t u a l analyses r e v e a l a p l e t h o r a of new and s t i m u l a t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r "meaning". I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the p o t e n t i a l t e x t u a l l i n k s between the NT and the OT became more widely p r a c t i s e d a f t e r Michael Fishbane's a r t i c l e on " I n n e r - B i b l i c a l Exegesis". 3 This revealed how e s t a b l i s h e d "law, homily, and prophecy" were manipulated 4 by subsequent authors i n order t o achieve a new s i g n i f i c a n c e under the changed circumstances of the day. 5 Fishbane suggested that these "source", which Susan Graham describes i n terms of a " c u l t u r a l code", i . e . , there i s a l e v e l at which the new t e x t d e l i v e r s ' f a m i l i a r ' m a t e r i a l - m a t e r i a l the author expects the reader t o perceive and through which the reader should i n t e r p r e t the work. This can be done i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y ( " I n t e r t e x t u a l Trekking: V i s i t i n g the I n i q u i t y of the Fathers Upon the 'Next Generation'," Semeia 69/70 (1995) 195-219. Here 199-202). 3 Michael Fishbane, "Revelation and T r a d i t i o n : Aspects of I n n e r - B i b l i c a l Exegesis," JBL 99.3 (September, 1980) 343-361. 4 Fishbane, 343. 5 Fishbane, 346. 2 l a t e r authors perceived the r e v e l a t i o n of Yahweh w i t h i n the l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e s , the words, and the h i s t o r i c a l events recorded e a r l i e r i n the Hebrew B i b l e . E s t a b l i s h e d themes, dialogues, events, m o t i f s , e t c . , could be incorporated i n t o a new t e x t i n such a way as to imply u t t e r l e g i t i m a c y and a u t h o r i t y , w h i l s t at the same time p r o v i d i n g them wit h a new, more contemporaneous context. 6 More r e c e n t l y , i n h i s a r t i c l e concerning the importance of s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s between two s u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r s t o r i e s ( i . e . , Gen 24 and Judg 19) David Penchansky made the d i s t i n c t i o n between " l i t e r a r y t e x t " , " s o c i a l t e x t " and " i n t e r p r e t i v e t e x t " . 7 The f i r s t category f o r a n a l y s i s allows f o r recognizable r e p e t i t i o n s of precedented vocabulary, s t r u c t u r e , e t c . , but a l s o b r i n g s to the fore the v a r i a t i o n s extant w i t h i n the l a t t e r t e x t ; these d i f f e r e n c e s to a g e n e r a l l y assumed p a t t e r n are areas of concern and demand c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n . 8 Such deviances poin t to some a l t e r e d s o c i a l f a c t o r or i n f l u e n c e and t h i s leads the analyst to the second category, which attempts to define a j u s t i f i a b l e s o c i a l context f o r the composition. 9 The t h i r d category introduces a degree of Fishbane, 354. The example of Exod 3-11 and Isa 19 i s used here; Fishbane suggests that "the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n of Exod 3-11 had a l ready become s u f f i c i e n t l y a u t h o r i t a t i v e so as to provide the f o i l f o r [an] audacious, t h e o l o g i c a l counterpoint" i n Isa 19. See a l s o 347,349,353 . 7 David Penchansky, "Staying the Night: I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i n Genesis and Judges," i n Reading Between Texts: I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y and the Hebrew B i b l e , Dana Nolan Fewell, Ed. ( L o u i s v i l l e : Westminster, 1992) 77-88. 8 Penchansky, 79. 9 Penchansky, 81f. 3 personal i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a group of t e x t s , w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of a t t a i n i n g a new l e v e l of "understanding". 1 0 These three c a t e g o r i e s of t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s are complemented by three sets of c r i t e r i a which C r a i g Evans proposes most c o n c i s e l y . He d e f i n e s these as "verbal coherence", "thematic coherence" and " e x e g e t i c a l coherence". 1 1 The f i r s t category i s s e l f explanatory and corresponds to Penchansky 1s " l i t e r a r y t e x t " ; more s p e c i f i c than, but r e l a t e d to the idea of " s o c i a l t e x t " i s Evans' co n c e n t r a t i o n on thematic c l a r i f i c a t i o n of one t e x t through another ( i . e . , where a passage from the OT serves to i l l u m i n a t e a passage from the NT through f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g , a c t i o n , e t c . ) . T h i r d l y , Evans notes the i n f l u e n c e of e a r l y e x e g e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of OT t e x t s on the c o n s t r u c t i o n (and t h e r e f o r e , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) of NT t e x t s . D.A. Carson, working s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the Johannine t e x t s , imposes the three c r i t e r i a of " d i r e c t quotations", "thematic a l l u s i o n s " and "midrash". 1 2 Whatever the t i t l e s given to the c a t e g o r i e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , there i s a g e n e r a l l y accepted t r i a d of v e r b a l / s o c i a l / i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s . 1 U Penchansky, 81. 1 1 C r a i g A. Evans, "The Pharisee and the P u b l i c a n : Luke 18:9-14 and Deuteronomy 26," i n The Gospels and the S c r i p t u r e s of I s r a e l , C r a i g A. Evans and W. R. Stegner, Eds., JSNT SS 104 ( S h e f f i e l d : S h e f f i e l d AP, 1994) 342-357 (here, 346-351). 1 2 D. A. Carson, "John and the Johannine E p i s t l e s , " i n I t Is W r i t t e n : S c r i p t u r e C i t i n g S c r i p t u r e , D.A. Carson and H. Williamson, Eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988) 245-264 (here, 245-256) . The f i r s t r e l a t e s to v e r b a l / l i t e r a r y r e f l e c t i o n s (intended), the second to-the employment of f a m i l i a r themes i n a l t e r e d contexts, and the t h i r d ( a r i s i n g from the second) to the apparent r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and manipulation of precedent t e x t s i n order to give new "meaning". 4 The three c a t e g o r i e s (or c r i t e r i a ) which s h a l l be used i n t h i s paper f o r determining i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes are: a) L i t e r a r y / V e r b a l S i m i l a r i t y , i . e . , where there i s evidence of a t e c h n i c a l formula, such as "as i t i s w r i t t e n , 1 , 1 3 (e.g., John 1:23, 12:38, 5:46), or the r e p e t i t i o n of precedented n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , grammar or syntax, b) Thematic/Contextual R e f l e c t i o n , i . e . , were there i s evidence of comparable s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s i d e o l o g y 1 4 such as the r e j e c t i o n of a corrupt priesthood, a marriage ceremony, a Temple f u n c t i o n , a w e l l scenario, e t c . , and c) E x e g e s i s / I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i . e . , where observations of OT passages a l t e r e d i n t h e i r new context by a s h i f t i n tense, the i n t e r j e c t i o n of a word not i n the o r i g i n a l , an apparent change i n the subject or object of the sentence, e t c . , (e.g., John 1:23, 51), 1 5 demand ex p l a n a t i o n i n order to j u s t i f y t h e i r existence w i t h i n the n a r r a t i v e . A s h i f t i n p e r s p e c t i v e i s r e f e r r e d to as i n " i n v e r t e d q u o t a t i o n " 1 6 and i n such cases, the o r i g i n a l , or 'source', passage must be analyzed i n context i n order to f u l l y appreciate i t s adoption i n a new t e x t . 1 7 1 3 G a i l O'Day, "Jeremiah 9:22-33 and 1 C o r i n t h i a n s 1:26-31: A Study i n I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , JBL 109.2 (1990) 259-267 (here, 262). 1 4 O'Day ( " I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y " ) 265. 1 5 O'Day ( " I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y " ) 264. 1 6 P.C. Beentjes, "Discovering A New Path of I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y : Inverted Quotations and Their Dynamics," i n L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e and R h e t o r i c a l S t r a t e g i e s i n the Hebrew B i b l e , L. J . de Regt, et a l , Eds., (Assen, The Netherlands: Eisenbrauns, 1996) 31-50. Here, 32. 1 7 Beentjes, 49. Fishbane (361) s t a t e s that the 'secondary' t e x t s o f t e n use t h e i r sources "as t h e o l o g i c a l and l i t e r a r y f i c t i o n s to obscure [ t h e i r ] own innovations." Thus, the ' s h i f t ' i n p e r s p e c t i v e , or the change i n grammar may i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e to show the o r i g i n a l prophecy, law, e t c . , as being ' u n f u l f i l l e d ' and so i t 5 These c r i t e r i a are not a p p l i e d c o l l e c t i v e l y , but i n d i v i d u a l l y as each case demands. For each example included i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , there are many other p o s s i b l e "sources" f o r the echo which could a l t e r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; represented here, though, are those which best serve to i l l u s t r a t e a coherent and comprehensible t r a i n of thought throughout the n a r r a t i v e . One p o s s i b l e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the method proposed here i s i t s s u b j e c t i v i t y . Readings from an i n t e r t e x t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e can only be j u s t i f i e d " i n terms of the readers' i n t e r e s t s or d e s i r e s to f i n d or give meaning and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of doing t h i s i n any other way."18 However, as the Fourth Gospel (hereafter, FG) provides the exegete w i t h many ' r i d d l e s ' that standard n a r r a t i v e c r i t i c i s m has not succeeded i n e x p l a i n i n g , the present a p p l i c a t i o n of i n t e r t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s may o f f e r a new i n s i g h t i n t o the "meaning" of the FG. This "meaning", admittedly, as Magonet p o i n t s o u t , 1 9 i s based on a r e l a t i v e l y s u b j e c t i v e reading, and "the best one can hope f o r i s some degree of p r o b a b i l i t y . " 2 0 This degree of " p r o b a b i l i t y " i s at the foundation of the exegete's d e c i s i o n i n choosing one 'source' over another. The most fundamental aspect of Jewish ideology, i t s Credo, becomes a v i t a l part of the 'meaning' of the new t e x t (3 60) - i . e . , i t i s now being f u l f i l l e d . 1 8 A i c h e l e & P h i l i p s 15. 1 9 Jonathan Magonet, "Character/Author/Reader" The Problem of Pers p e c t i v e i n B i b l i c a l N a r r a t i v e , " i n L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e and R h e t o r i c a l S t r a t e g i e s i n the Hebrew B i b l e , L.J. de Regt, et a l . , Eds., 3-13. Here, 4-5. 2 0 Magonet 13 . 6 perhaps, i s the a n t i c i p a t e d r e c o n s t i t u t i o n or renewal of the d i v i n e l y ordained " I s r a e l " ; i t i s l o g i c a l that such a t r a d i t i o n of hope should f i n d i t s way i n t o the l i t e r a t u r e of a n a t i o n under s o c i a l / r e l i g i o u s oppression, so i t would be l e g i t i m a t e to c l a i m t h i s b e l i e f i s expressed i n the Fourth Gospel. S i m i l a r l y , there i s an apparently ancient t r a d i t i o n of echoing previous, w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d ideology and/or l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e s i n new r e l i g i o u s t e x t s ; p o t e n t i a l adversaries of the c l a i m , here, that the FG continues i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n , have the onus placed upon them to demonstrate why such a w e l l used and e f f e c t i v e l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e had been abandoned. The areas of concentration w i l l be the seven semeia normally a t t r i b u t e d to the FG, plus the pericopae p e r t a i n i n g to the Temple and the more prominent male/female char a c t e r s ; pericopae which do not c o n t a i n s p e c i f i c i n t e r t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l , or do not a s s i s t i n the d i s c l o s u r e of the r e n e w a l / p r i e s t l y themes w i l l not be in c l u d e d . 7 Chapter One: Consent and Covenant As the area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s study i s that of i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , the aim of t h i s f i r s t chapter of a n a l y s i s i s to provide enough evidence of i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes to propose an i n t e n t i o n a l d e p i c t i o n of the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of Jesus' mission, i t s purpose and the formal acceptance of h i s endeavour to f u l f i l h i s task. Through the p o r t r a y a l of John the B a p t i s t , Nathanael, and the wedding at Cana, and Nicodemus, the n a r r a t i v e creates a coherent foundation upon which the r e s t of the gospel can expand. The B a p t i s t There are three i n t e r t e x t u a l p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t i n the e a r l y d e p i c t i o n of John the B a p t i s t . F i r s t , almost as soon as the n a r r a t i v e begins, the reader i s presented w i t h a profound example of a " t e c h n i c a l " echo, i n the rendering of Isa 40:3 i n John 1:23. The t e c h n i c a l device, "as the prophet s a i d " i s e x p l i c i t , making the echo a f u l l y i n t e n t i o n a l one. The s h i f t i n p e r s p e c t i v e from the a n t i c i p a t i o n of the I s a i a h passage to the f u l f i l m e n t of the FG 'echo', e x e m p l i f i e s the " i n v e r t e d quotation" aspect of i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y ; the o r i g i n a l context of the 'source', then, must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of John's proclamation. The context of Isa 40 i s one of an a n t i c i p a t e d d e l i v e r a n c e from oppression and ' c a p t i v i t y ' f o r those who attend the "word" of God and have patience i n awaiting h i s 'support'. The "wilderness" 8 imagery i n both instances i s f i g u r a t i v e , r e p r e s e n t i n g not only r e l a t i v e geographical p o s i t i o n s , but a l s o the 'state' i n which the 'captives' e x i s t , i . e . , i n a s p i r i t u a l "wilderness". There i s , however, an a l t e r n a t i v e echo 'source', which w i l l prove i t s p o t e n t i a l l a t e r , i n the a n a l y s i s of the Temple scenes, e.g., Mai 3:1, and the sending of a messenger (cf. John 1:6) to "prepare the way". Whichever poin t of reference i s intended, "by making h i s career ' i n the wilderness' and so pr e s e n t i n g I s r a e l w i t h a charged symbol by which to understand him, John [the B a p t i s t ] p u r p o s e f u l l y evoke[s] themes of e s c h a t o l o g i c a l r e s t o r a t i o n . " 2 1 Second, i n the primary instance of the FG's c o n s i s t e n t use of the analogy of " s i g h t " , the B a p t i s t declares to the v i s i t i n g p r i e s t s and L e v i t e s , "Among you stands one whom you do not know" (John 1:26). The employment of the " s i g h t " motif, the i m p l i c i t reference to 'leaders' (v.22), the inference that something/someone i s present whom some can see and others e v i d e n t l y can not, and the "wilderness" context, a l l echo J e r 17:5-6, where i t i s declared that those who put t h e i r f a i t h i n "mortal" leaders are l e d i n t o a "wilderness" and w i l l be unable to "see when r e l i e f comes". The FG a f f i r m s that the saviour of I s r a e l i s not recognized, h i s o f f e r of " r e l i e f " not n o t i c e d by those who are b l i n d e d by the "mortal" leaders ( i n the FG's case, the Pharisees, p r i m a r i l y ) who guide them "away from the Lord". T h i r d i s the profound statement i d e n t i f y i n g Jesus as the "Lamb of God" (John 1:29), employing the term amnos. This'has long been Ben F. Meyer, The Aims of Jesus, (London: SCMP, 1979) 118. 9 understood by exegetes 2 2 to be an a l l u s i o n to Isa 53:6-7; i t appears, though, that the FG i s using the B a p t i s t ' s a l l e g e d c l a i m i n q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t context. I t i s suggested that John 1:29 i s not n e c e s s a r i l y an i n t e r t e x t u a l echo of Isa 53, and that the i d e o l o g i c a l r e f l e c t i o n of Gen 22 i s greater ( i n the FG) than that which r e s u l t s from an a l l e g e d echo of Isa 53. Consider the image of the "lamb" i n the ' S a c r i f i c e of Isaac' pericope of Gen 22:1-19: 1) This i s the only example of a "lamb" coming from God. 2 3 A l l other lambs, e t c . , are o f f e r e d up to God ( i n c l u d i n g the lamb of Isa 53:7). 2) The lamb takes the place of the beloved "son". God does not make o f f e r i n g s to himself, so the lamb i s seen as the redeeming animal, not, s t r i c t l y , a s a c r i f i c i a l one. 2 4 3) Because of Abraham's l o y a l t y and f a i t h , God promises that h i s " o f f s p r i n g s h a l l possess the gate of t h e i r enemies...and by [them] . . . a l l the nations of the ea r t h [ s h a l l ] gain b l e s s i n g f o r themselves" (Gen 22:17-18). In sum, then, i f we consider John 1:29,26 to be an a l l u s i o n to Gen 22, we f i n d the c o n s i s t e n t themes of i ) Jesus being "from God", i i ) the "son" ( i . e . , " I s r a e l " ) being saved by the "lamb" of God, i i i ) the promise of an i d e a l n a t i o n through which the r e s t of the 2 2 E.g., John Paul H e i l , "Jesus as the Unique High P r i e s t i n the Gospel of John," CBQ 57.4 (October, 1995) 729-745 (here, 732). Al s o , Peter Whale, "The Lamb of John: Some Myths about the Vocabulary of the Johannine L i t e r a t u r e , " JBL 106.2 (1987) 289-295 (here 2 91) . 2 3 I s a i a h 53:7 i n the LXX does use amnos, but i n the context of the " s i l e n t " sheep, not the k i l l e d sheep (there, probaton); Genesis 22:13 uses k r i o s ; Exod 12:5, wi t h respect to the Passover lamb, uses probaton. The su p e r i o r i d e o l o g i c a l echo of Gen 22 re v e a l s a p o s s i b l e Hebrew-scriptural precedent. 2 4 Note that Num 28: I f s t i p u l a t e s that the burnt o f f e r i n g ( s a c r i f i c e ) i s to be "two" male lambs, not one. In instances of sheep being s a c r i f i c e d f o r the e x p i a t i o n of " s i n " , as i n Lev-4:32-5:6, a female sheep i s o f f e r e d up. 10 w o r l d can be redeemed, and i v ) the e l e v a t i o n of the "lamb" ( i . e . , as 'smoke' i n Gen 22) t o God. W i t h t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e concept of J e s u s as the P a s s o v e r lamb 2 5 a l s o becomes more c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , f o r s c h o l a r s have been h a r d pushed t o r e c o n c i l e t h e apparently-e x p i a t i n g n a t u r e o f J e s u s ' d e a t h w i t h t h i s n o n - s a c r i f i c i a l m e a l . 2 6 A c c o r d i n g t o Exod 13:13f the " f i r s t b o r n " o f t h e I s r a e l i t e s a re "redeemed" t h r o u g h the s a v i n g b l o o d of the lamb, w h i c h i s put upon the door p o s t s o f each I s r a e l i t e home (Exod 12:7); t h i s lamb i s th u s not o n l y a s a c r i f i c e , but a l s o a " s i g n " ( 1 2 : 1 3 ) . 2 7 S i m i l a r l y , J e s u s i s the " s i g n " f o r t h o s e s e e k i n g redemption and 'freedom' i n the new Kingdom. I t i s , p a r t l y , t o t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e b l o o d and e a t i n g o f the f l e s h of the lamb t o t h a t w h i c h J e s u s a p p a r e n t l y a l l u d e s i n John 6:52f; p a r t a k i n g i n the meal i s equated w i t h the smearing o f the b l o o d - a l l who do so w i l l be saved. Those who r e j e c t i t , r e j e c t God. N a t h a n a e l I t i s N a t h a n a e l who i s a t the c e n t r e of the p e r i c o p e 1:45-51, not J e s u s ; i t i s N a t h a n a e l who q u e s t i o n s J e s u s ' s i g n i f i c a n c e a F o r an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n on the c o n n e c t i o n between the s a c r i f i c e o f I s a a c and the P a s s o v e r f e s t i v a l r e a d Geza Vermes, "New L i g h t on t h e S a c r i f i c e o f I s a a c from 4Q225," J J S 67.1 ( S p r i n g 1996) 140-146 ( e s p e c i a l l y pg. 144) . 2 6 J . L. McKenzie, D i c t i o n a r y o f the B i b l e , (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1965) 644. The ' s a c r i f i c i a l ' a s p e c t o f J e s u s ' d e a t h i s d e a l t w i t h i n due c o u r s e . 2 7 Joachim J e r e m i a s , J e r u s a l e m i n the Time of J e s u s ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s , 1975 C 1 9 6 2 ) 78. 11 (1:46) . R i s i n g to the ' t e s t ' , Jesus responds by making what Munro 2 8 and von Wahlde 2 9 both understand to be a " c l a i r v o y a n t " d e c l a r a t i o n ; he claims that he has "seen" Nathanael "under the f i g t r e e " (v.48), before P h i l i p had even c a l l e d him. The " f i g t r e e " , however, can be taken as a thematic or symbolic echo of precedent uses which describe the i d e a l of God's p r o t e c t i o n and mercy (e.g., J e r 24:1-8 and Dan 4:10), the n a t i o n (e.g., J o e l 1:7, 12), and the image of peace, p r o s p e r i t y and u n i t y (1 Kgs 4:25, 1 Mace 14:11-12, e t c ) . 3 0 One of the most profoundly e s c h a t o l o g i c a l contexts of t h i s theme i s that expressed i n Zech 3:10, where God promises that on the day when the o l d p r i e s t h o o d i s cleansed of i t s i n i q u i t i e s and the new high p r i e s t crowned, e t c . , each man s h a l l i n v i t e h i s neighbour under h i s "vine and f i g t r e e " , presumably as a s i g n of harmony and u n i t y . This example, more than any other, perhaps, acts as an i n t e r t e x t u a l 'source' f o r the episode i n John 1, f o r both represent a f u t u r e r a t h e r than a past s t a t e of a f f a i r s , both i n c o r p o r a t e a ' d i v i n e ' f i g u r e making the 'promise', and both a l l u d e to an i d e a l , Winsome Munro, "The Pharisee and the Samaritan i n John: P o l a r or P a r a l l e l ? " CBO 57.4 (October 1995) 710-728 (here 717) . 2 9 U.C. von Wahlde, The E a r l i e s t V e r s i o n of John's Gospel: Recovering the Gospel of Signs (Wilmington, Delaware: G l a z i e r , 1989) 60. 3 0 Cf. B. Charette, " 'To Proclaim L i b e r t y to the Captives': Matthew 11:28-30 In the L i g h t of OT Prophetic Expectation," NTS 38 (1992) 290-297 (here 291). Charette's study of Matt 11:28-30 r e v e a l s strong a l l u s i o n s to the OT d e p i c t i o n of the r e s t o r a t i o n of I s r a e l through the f a i t h f u l s e r v i c e of the "remnant", whose l o y a l t y to "Torah" ( i . e . , God's 'yoke') u l t i m a t e l y redeems them from "the 'yoke' of f o r e i g n domination". There i s no reason to doubt that the Fourth Gospel, a l s o , r e f e r s to such an i d y l l i c prospect. 12 d i v i n e l y sanctioned kingdom. 3 1 Greater things than t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n a l f o r e s i g h t , however, are promised by Jesus (John 1:50); not j u s t i d e a l s but a c t i o n s . The imagery of v.51 draws on Jacob's v i s i o n of the ladder between heaven and earth, upon which the angels are seen ascending and descending (Gen 28:10-17). The words of Jesus inc o r p o r a t e an e x p l i c i t , i n t e n t i o n a l reference to an OT passage, j u s t as 1:23 had done, but t h i s l a c k s the b l a t a n t t e c h n i c a l formula which introduces or j u s t i f i e s i t . By addressing t h i s v i s i o n to Nathanael, the FG i n f e r s , or even i m p l i e s , some i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between t h i s c haracter and Jacob. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of Gen 28:10f i s determined by the i n f o r m a t i o n God r e l a y s and the subsequent response of Jacob: Yahweh decla r e s that he i s the God of Abraham and Isaac, he promises p r o s p e r i t y f o r Jacob's descendants, and he confirms the promise of a r e t u r n of the land to i t s r i g h t f u l i n h e r i t o r s , Jacob and h i s o f f s p r i n g . God claims that he w i l l be w i t h Jacob and w i l l "keep" him wherever he goes u n t i l the promise i s f u l f i l l e d . Jacob responds to t h i s dream by pronouncing that God has become manifest at t h i s s i t e , and that t h i s i s t r u l y the "house of God and...the gate of heaven." He seems s u r p r i s e d at h i s own ignorance of the s a n c t i t y of the place (v.16). Comparing t h i s to the FG v e r s i o n of the ladder image, the 3 1 The word b a s i l e u s can mean any foundation of power, r u l e r of a p a r t i c u l a r realm, e t c . , and may j u s t as e a s i l y r e f e r to a r e l i g i o u s leader as to a p o l i t i c a l one. There i s a l s o a sense i n which the t i t l e of "king" can be a t t r i b u t e d to a bridegroom (G. L l o y d Carr, The Song of Solomon, ( L e i c e s t e r : I n t e r - V a r s i t y Press, 1984, 84), a p o s s i b l e a l l u s i o n made a l l the c l e a r e r i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. 13 s i m i l a r i t i e s both i n format and i n ideology become c l e a r ; Nathanael r e c e i v e s the v i s i o n and the 'promises', he r e f l e c t s Jacob's astonishment and subsequent c o n v i c t i o n (for i n h i s i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n on hearing that Jesus of Nazareth has come (John 1:46), Nathanael r e v e a l s an ignorance of the true nature of Jesus. A f t e r h i s 'encounter', he r e a c t s i n a r e s p e c t f u l and devout manner, j u s t as Jacob had done), and Nathanael's exclamation, "you are the Son of God," echoes Jacob's a f f i r m a t i o n of God's presence. The FG author i n t i m a t e s that Jesus i s a c t i n g as God's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , he i s p u r p o s e f u l l y r e f l e c t i n g h i s " f a t h e r " , the d i v i n e King of I s r a e l who 'stood beside' Jacob and promised him an i d e a l f u t u r e , and a 'helping hand' i n the meantime. Nathanael recognizes Jesus' a u t h o r i t y and exclaims h i s f a i t h i n Jesus' word - he 'sees', he understands. In Nathanael's d e p i c t i o n i s foreshadowed the words of Jesus i n John 17:6-8. The Marriage The reader i s immediately i n v i t e d , to a wedding, one of the most profoundly symbolic events i n I s r a e l i t e s o c i e t y , where the v e h i c l e f o r the theology of the FG i s made apparent. From an i n t e r t e x t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e , there are, again, three c h i e f areas of i n t e r e s t , namely, that of the sacred day of union, the concept of marriage, and motif of the good and bad wines. The pericope (2:If) begins w i t h the temporal marker, "On the t h i r d day." The idea of s e a l i n g a covenant on the t h i r d day f i r s t appears i n Gen 22:4, w i t h Abraham's proposed s a c r i f i c e of Isaac and the subsequent promise of p r o s p e r i t y . In Exod 19:9-15, too, the t h i r d day i s sacrosanct; i t i s the day of union and ceremony - i t 14 i s the day of 'marriage' f o r God and h i s sacred b r i d e , the o r i g i n a l p r i e s t l y kingdom of I s r a e l . Note that Jesus i s seen to be cautious about p e r m i t t i n g h i s mother, a gyne, or "woman" (as opposed to a 'pure' v i r g i n , perhaps) near him before h i s moment of "g l o r y " , before h i s "hour" (John 2:4 c f . Exod 19:11). In John 20:17, a l l e g e d l y on the t h i r d day a f t e r Jesus' c r u c i f i x i o n , Mary approaches him but i s warned not t o touch him before he ' ascends t o the Father'. This r e p e t i t i o n of the t h i r d day/purity/woman format i s intended and s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r i t creates an ' i n c l u s i o ' wherein the n a r r a t i v e of the FG i s placed between the two acts of union between the d i v i n e and Jesus. One i n i t i a t e s the mission, the other ends i t . The " t h i r d day" marker, then, acts as both a ' t e c h n i c a l ' ( i . e . , verbal) and an i d e o l o g i c a l ( i . e . , the concept of covenant) i n t e r t e x t u a l echo, intended to convey the sense of a sacred union, a s e a l i n g of a covenant. In order to shed some l i g h t on the i d e n t i t y of the 'wedding couple', the reader should t u r n to John 3:29, where the debate concerning the ' p u r i t y ' of Jesus (that i s , i n h i s r o l e as a 'bap t i s t ' ) i s t a k i n g place. The word katharismos i s employed, here, which a l s o appears i n the wedding pericope, w i t h respect to the stone j a r s of ' p u r i f i c a t i o n ' water, and thus forms an i n t e r n a l n a r r a t i v e echo of 2:6. In the B a p t i s t ' s words (vv.27,29) i s heard a s u b t l e reminder that Jesus has been granted such a l e v e l of p u r i t y by v i r t u e of h i s being 'chosen' by God to r e c e i v e the "br i d e " . The wedding format employed i n John 2,3 emphasizes the 'commission' nature of Jesus' r o l e ; where the 'world' may not 15 acknowledge Jesus' p r i e s t l y s t a t u s , 3 2 the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of h i s mission by the Holy S p i r i t has ensured (or created?) i t . Note how the B a p t i s t ' s reference to ' r e j o i c i n g ' over the bridegroom echoes the format of Isa 62:4-5, i n a s u b t l e example of an " i n v e r t e d q u o t a t i o n " . In I s a i a h , the p a t t e r n i s "bridegroom r e j o i c e s over b r i d e / God r e j o i c e s over I s r a e l " ; i n John 3, the B a p t i s t r e a f f i r m s not only h i s own p o s i t i o n as Jesus' precursor, but a l s o the idea of f u l f i l m e n t , f o r by t h i s expression of 'joy over the bridegroom', the reader i s l e d to suppose that the p a t t e r n of Isa 62 w i l l be fo l l o w e d , p rogressing from the bridegroom's f r i e n d , to the groom, to God, w i t h the u l t i m a t e e f f e c t being r e s t o r e d r e l a t i o n s between Yahweh and I s r a e l . The wedding i t s e l f can, t h e r e f o r e , be understood i n metaphorical terms, w i t h Jesus, the recognized "Son of God" ( i . e . , God's representative) accepting h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I s r a e l . The symbolism of the ceremony, e s p e c i a l l y the seven-fold b l e s s i n g which culminates i n a prayer f o r the r e u n i f i c a t i o n of I s r a e l , r e a f f i r m s the i d e a l "marriage" of Yahweh and h i s people. 3 3 The wedding thus supports the context of renewal/redemption e s t a b l i s h e d i n John 1. With the promise of greater things to come, and the v i v i d In the case of John the B a p t i s t , of course, he i s the son of a p r i e s t , and th e r e f o r e of p r i e s t l y stock. His ' r i g h t ' to perform such an act i s not questioned. 3 3 J . Neusner, The Way of Torah: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Judaism, ( C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth, 1988). 50-51. Some examples of the n u p t i a l imagery i n the OT include Isa 54:5; 62:4-5; J e r 2:2. Elsewhere, f o r instance i n the Gos . P h i l . , the Holy of H o l i e s i s l i k e n e d to a " B r i d a l Chamber", where only the bridegroom, the high p r i e s t , can enter (Barnstone 92,94,95) . There i s a l s o the c o r r e l a t i o n of Jesus as the Lamb (John 1:29) and the bridegroom (3:29), to the i d e a l , e s c h a t o l o g i c a l marriage w i t h the new I s r a e l as the b r i d e , i n Rev 21:9. 16 imagery of the i d y l l i c f uture s t a t e , i t can not be doubted that the wedding scenario represents the t r a d i t i o n a l , a n t i c i p a t e d union between God and the f a i t h f u l remnant of I s r a e l . The FG marriage not only makes ' o f f i c i a l ' Jesus' mission to r e s t o r e I s r a e l to i t s former g l o r y , but i t sets the ideology f o r much of the subsequent n a r r a t i v e . I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y t h r i v e s i n a context of s o c i a l ( p o l i t i c a l / r e l i g i o u s ) c r i s i s (see I n t r o d u c t i o n ) ; although the context e s t a b l i s h e d i n John 1 f u l f i l s t h i s , the f i r s t semeion, or s i g n , of the FG r e i n f o r c e s the s i t u a t i o n i n terms of Jesus' r o l e , and makes the problem f a r more pragmatic and immediate. The semeion at Cana i l l u s t r a t e s the degraded moral c o n d i t i o n of I s r a e l and introduces the concept of an ' a l t e r n a t i v e ' way of l i f e by echoing the "drunkenness" ideology i n the OT.34 The b a s i c i m p l i c a t i o n of the teachings about wine and strong d r i n k i s that the drunken s t a t e i s s e l f imposed; there i s a subsequent l a c k of knowledge and understanding, followed by an opportunity to r e - e s t a b l i s h oneself on a righteous path. 3 5 Here, i n John 2, the guests are too The concept of wine, or strong d r i n k , i n the OT can be ca t e g o r i z e d under three general headings, a) wine that o f f e r s solace, or i s used f o r c e l e b r a t i o n s , e t c . , (e.g., Exod 10:19, Judg 9:13, Ps 104:15, e t c . ) ; b) wine which d u l l s the senses to the imbiber's disadvantage, making the w i l l weak, e t c . , (e.g., Gen 9:21f, Prov 4:17, 20:1, 31:4-6, Hos 4:11, e t c . ) ; and c) wine which acts as the medium f o r God's wrath or mercy (e.g., Job 21:20, Ps 11:6, J e r 25:15, e t c . ) . Devora Steinmetz, "Vineyard, Farm and Garden: The Drunkenness of Noah i n the Context of Primal H i s t o r y , " JBL 113.2 (Summer 1994) 193-207. 17 i n t o x i c a t e d to appreciate the good wine, 3 6 there i s confusion about where the new wine has come from (2:9; note the i n t e r n a l echo of the i n a b i l i t y to see ' r e l i e f ' coming, i n 1:26), and the good wine i t s e l f represents the righteous path. Such an opportunity f o r redemption, however, demands a c e r t a i n degree of "moral agency" - i t demands a "choice" between good and e v i l . 3 7 This i s p r e c i s e l y the s i t u a t i o n portrayed i n the FG; a choice has to be made between Jesus, the good wine, the l i g h t , the righteous path, e t c . , and the current establishment (the bad win e ) 3 8 w i t h i t s tendency toward personal advancement, arrogance and even d e c e i t . The choice w i l l be set before the people through the mission Jesus i s about to undertake. I t w i l l culminate i n the pericope i n v o l v i n g Jesus and Barabbas, i n John 18. Nicodemus Because of the unusual nature of John 3:1-15, s c h o l a r s have argued from one extreme perspective to another about what i s a c t u a l l y going on here, w i t h many analyses concluding e i t h e r that Nicodemus i s ignorant of the ' t r u t h ' i n Jesus' words/actions, and 5(3 Cf. Gos. Thorn. 2 8... I took my place i n the midst of the world. . . I found a l l of them i n t o x i c a t e d ; I found none of them t h i r s t y . . . f o r the moment they are i n t o x i c a t e d . When they shake o f f t h e i r wine, then they w i l l repent. 3 7 Steinmetz 207. 3 8 According to Isa 1:22, "wine mixed w i t h water" (bad/weak wine) i s a s i g n of a debauched s o c i e t y . 18 that h i s s p i r i t u a l progress i s thwarted at t h i s e a r l y stage, 3 9 or that the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e , i t s e l f , presents " d i s j u n c t u r e s " which r e q u i r e elaborate j u s t i f i c a t i o n s . 4 0 Through an a n a l y s i s of how the FG pericope demonstrates profound v e r b a l / l i t e r a r y and i d e o l o g i c a l echoes ( i n t h i s example, of 2 Esdr) Nicodemus i s granted a new v i t a l i t y . The reason f o r i n c l u d i n g t h i s pericope i n the "Consent and Covenant" category i s that Nicodemus' s t o r y i l l u s t r a t e s how Jesus i s going to f u l f i l h i s covenant w i t h God. S y m b o l i c a l l y , the name Nicodemos i s o p t i m i s t i c , f o r i t i s o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d to mean "conqueror/victor f o r the people"; 4 1 he i s immediately a s s o c i a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , w i t h the p o s i t i v e n o t i o n of " v i c t o r y " . I t i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d that t h i s c h aracter i s an archon (John 3:1), or "leader" of the "Jews" - a Pharisee, yet he i s a l s o described, by Jesus, as "the teacher of I s r a e l " (3:10), a de s i g n a t i o n normally granted p r i e s t s (cf. Deut 31:9-13, 33:10). A c u l t u s which i s deeply i n f l u e n c e d by P h a r i s a i c b e l i e f and a u t h o r i t y •3V Urban, C. von Wahlde ( i n " L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e and T h e o l o g i c a l Argument i n Three Discourses with the Jews i n the Fourth Gospel," JBL 103.4 (December, 1984) 575-584), f o r example, understands the d i s c u s s i o n between Nicodemus and Jesus as one which i s intended as a " c r i t i q u e of miracle f a i t h " , suggesting that Nicodemus, re p r e s e n t i n g the " a u t h o r i t i e s " , shows an i n t e r e s t but u l t i m a t e l y f a i l s to "accept the conclusions which the s i g n s . . . f o r c e upon [him] " (77) . Lee, on the other hand, sees a great deal of symbolism i n the pericope, d e s c r i b i n g the " b i r t h " imagery i n terms of humanity's " s t r u g g l e " to ascend to the d i v i n e - the p a i n of " t r a n s i t i o n from the o l d to the new" (43f) , w i t h the character u l t i m a t e l y comprehending "nothing at a l l " ( 5 5 ) . The symbolism of v. 8 contains elements of both penetration/conception and b i r t h couched i n metaphorical terms. 4 0 W i l l i a m C. Grese, " 'Unless One Is Born Again' :' The Use of a Heavenly Journey i n John 3," JBL 107.4 (December, 1988) 677-693. Here, 678. 4 1 McKenzie, 614. 19 i s thus i n f e r r e d . The " v i c t o r y " h i s name i m p l i e s i s not only a conquest over h i s own ignorance; i t i s a l s o a s p i r i t u a l v i c t o r y f o r the people at l a r g e , whose 'education' Nicodemus i s a t t r i b u t e d (3:10) - he can, and must, teach by h i s example. In t h i s regard he becomes a r e f l e c t i o n of Jesus' own 'conquest' of the 'world'. The thematic context of 2 Esdr i s the imminent day of judgement which w i l l separate the f a i t h f u l from the corru p t , the "dead" from the " l i v i n g " . I t i s a d i a t r i b e against a w i l f u l and wicked people, whose neglect of God has brought them despair. In 2 Esdr 3:28-36, Ezra has been querying the moral s t a t u s of I s r a e l i n God's eyes; he i s under the impression that I s r a e l has been l o y a l and t r u e , but has not been rewarded f o r i t s goodness. (Noting the P h a r i s a i c context of Nicodemus' d e p i c t i o n , the 'echo' of t h i s presumption, indeed arrogance, i s i m p l i c i t w i t h i n the FG's general p o r t r a i t of the proud Pharisees, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e i n John 9:40-41) . In response to t h i s , the angel U r i e l i s sent to o f f e r Ezra a path to enlightenment. At the outset, however, Ezra's understanding i s weak: "You cannot understand the t h i n g s w i t h which you have grown up; how then can your mind comprehend the way of the Most High?" demands U r i e l (4:10). This i s simply paraphrased i n John 3:12. Only those whose o r i g i n s are " i n heaven", the angel continues, can t r u l y understand heavenly matters (v.21). Nicodemus, a Pharisee, i s not, by FG standards, "from God" (cf. John 8:47), and thus can not comprehend 'heavenly' matters unless he i s reborn from 'above' (3:7) . 4 2 Ezra i s confused, c l a i m i n g he does not d e s i r e 4 2 The word f o r "you" here i s p l u r a l , i n f e r r i n g that Nicodemus, l i k e Nathanael, i s representing a group. 20 knowledge of heavenly th i n g s , he merely wishes to understand why I s r a e l appears to have been forsaken. U r i e l responds by i n s i s t i n g t hat the root of " e v i l " , the "place where e v i l has been sown", must "pass away" before the " f i e l d where the good has been sown" can "come" (2 Esdr 4:29). This theme, i t should be noted, i s apparent i n the concept of the old/new wines and the old/new Temple, i n John 2. Beginning to perceive that the f a u l t may l i e w i t h i n I s r a e l i t s e l f , a f a u l t which prolongs the advent of the 'new era', Ezra demands f u r t h e r i n s i g h t . In John 7:50-51, Nicodemus perceives a f a u l t i n the rash behaviour of h i s f e l l o w Pharisees, r e q u e s t i n g c l a r i f i c a t i o n . U r i e l uses the imagery of a woman g i v i n g b i r t h at the end of her term, i n s i n u a t i n g that the 'd e s t r u c t i o n of the o l d world' i s an i n e v i t a b i l i t y which cannot be avoided - that the e v i l w i l l be er a d i c a t e d and the righteous w i l l be 'reborn' from the "womb" of Hades (4:41-42). The 'earthly' woman cannot r e t r i e v e her "foetus" (v.40), but the i m p l i c a t i o n i s that God can ( i . e . , where the "foetus" i s understood to be the s p i r i t u a l " c h i l d " , I s r a e l ) . The reproductive theme i s echoed w i t h i n the b a s i c premise of the d i s c u s s i o n between Jesus and Nicodemus. For Ezra (2 Esdr 4 : 5 2 f f ) , and f o r Nicodemus (John 3:2) the c e n t r a l element of a piqued i n t e r e s t i s the matter of "signs" - signs p o i n t i n g to a new t r u t h , or r e a l i t y , that i s not e a s i l y comprehended. "Seeing" the signs and understanding them r e q u i r e a degree of h u m i l i t y and d i f f i c u l t y -the r e b i r t h i s a p a i n f u l one (cf. 2 Esdr 7:14; John 3:8). Ezra i s asked, "why are you di s t u r b e d . . . why have you not considered i n your mind what i s to come. . .?" (2 Esdr 7:15-16) . Such a question i s r e f l e c t e d i n Jesus' astonishment over Nicodemus' lack 21 of understanding even though he represents those who c l a i m to "teach" I s r a e l (John 3:9-10). The inadequacy of these "teachers" i s , once again, brought to the fore of the n a r r a t i v e . The u n d e r l y i n g 'order' to Ezra i s a commission f o r him to convey what he has l e a r n t to others - he i s to teach from h i s experience (cf. 2 Esdr 14:22), to show people the "path" to " L i f e " . Just as the ' v i s i o n ' granted to Nathanael echoes that of Jacob, t h i s 'commission' of Ezra's i s echoed i n the d e p i c t i o n of Nicodemus, the "teacher of I s r a e l " . The only aspect of Jesus' conversation w i t h Nicodemus which does not appear to have a d i r e c t precedent i n 2 Esdr i s the reference to the "Son of Man"43 being " l i f t e d up." In h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r o l e , the "Son of Man" must be " l i f t e d up" i n a sense which evokes the image (and meaning) of Moses r a i s i n g "Nehushtan" (John 3:14-15; Num 21:4f). This i s an e x p l i c i t use of i n t e r t e x t u a l echoing, intended to d i r e c t the reader to a p a r t i c u l a r OT precedent. I t i s claimed i n Num 21 that poisonous snakes l u r k i n the wilderness, and those who are b i t t e n w i l l d i e unless they look at the bronze serpent. In both Num 21 and the FG, i t i s suggested, the fundamental theme i s the r e c o n f i r m a t i o n of the power of God. Just as God and h i s people triumphed over the Egyptians, so "Nehushtan", i n the former instance, stands as a 4,5 The d i s c u s s i o n on the p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n s / r o l e of the Johannine "Son of Man" i s too lengthy f o r t h i s paper; see e.g., John J . C o l l i n s , "The Son of Man i n F i r s t Century Judaism," NTS 38 (1992) 448-466. Margaret Davies Rhetoric and Reference i n the Fourth Gospel, JSNT SS 69, ( S h e f f i e l d : S h e f f i e l d AP, 1992) 78) Maurice Casey, From Jewish Prophet to G e n t i l e God: The O r i g i n s and Development of New Testament C h r i s t o l o g y , (Cambridge: Clarke, 1991) 46-55. W.R.G. Loader, "The C e n t r a l S t r u c t u r e of Johannine C h r i s t o l o g y , " NTS 30.2 ( A p r i l 1984) 188-216, here 207-208). 22 reminder that even i n the "wilderness", where temptations abound, the saving power of God i s there f o r a l l who seek i t out. I t i s a beacon of s a l v a t i o n i n the wilderness. The "Son of Man" must be r a i s e d up i n a l i k e manner. 'He' must be set before the n a t i o n as a s i g n by which the remnant, or those "chosen" (cf. 2 Esdr 16:74: "my e l e c t ones") may see the way to an e v e r l a s t i n g " l i f e " . 4 4 Where the a l t e r n a t i v e i s a s p i r i t u a l "death" under the i n f l u e n c e of contemporaneous "snakes" ( i . e . , the Pharisees and the c u l t u s a l l but r u l e d by them), Jesus, as the d i v i n e l y sanctioned agent f o r I s r a e l , o f f e r s himself as the new "Nehushtan" , as the righte o u s , pre-ordained a l t e r n a t i v e . This may a l s o be intended as a conceptual echo of the commission i n Isa 62:10-11: " . . . l i f t up an ensign over the peoples ... see, your s a l v a t i o n comes." The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s , perhaps the most b l a t a n t i n t e r t e x t u a l echo i n the FG, i s to r e v e a l the manner i n which Jesus i s going to complete the 'work' given to him by God: He w i l l use "signs", and he w i l l act as a "sign" himself. I t i s p o s s i b l e that the c haracter of Nicodemus i s to be the 'son of man' (the "human") who i s s e t / r a i s e d up as an example f o r others to f o l l o w . Summary The i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes apparent i n the three statements of 4 4 H. H o l l i s , i n "The Root of the Johannine Pun - HYPSOTHENAI, " NTS 35 (1989) 475-478, suggests that despite any " t h e o l o g i c a l l i n k s " between Num 21 and John 3, a more f r u i t f u l l i n k should be made on the l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l , where Gen 40:13,19 i s c i t e d as precedent f o r the idea of being ' l i f t e d up'. Here, H o l l i s s t a t e s , the understanding of Jesus' impending death and e x a l t a t i o n can be p a r a l l e l e d w i t h the e x a l t a t i o n of the baker and the beheading of the b u t l e r i n the "dream" n a r r a t i v e . This ignores the s p e c i f i c reference to the i n t e r t e x t u a l source being employed. 23 the B a p t i s t i n John 1 e s t a b l i s h the contextual s e t t i n g of Jesus' mission. The emphasis i s upon the s p i r i t u a l waywardness of I s r a e l , the f a i l u r e of those who most req u i r e 'help' to see that which i s before them, and the a n t i c i p a t e d redemption of the s i n f u l n a t i o n through the mission of Jesus. The o p t i m i s t i c v i s i o n of the f u t u r e i s r e l a t e d through the v i s i o n granted to Nathanael, which i s presented as an i d e o l o g i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l echo of Gen 28:12f. The wedding at Cana i s understood to be the personal, or p r i v a t e , a f f i r m a t i o n of Jesus' mission. I t i s , i n e f f e c t , a symbolic 'marriage' of Jesus to the w i l l of God, but a l s o i t echoes I s r a e l ' s a n t i c i p a t i o n of a reunion w i t h God under a new covenant. The wine motif r e i t e r a t e s the s t a t e of the 'world' a l l u d e d to i n John 1 ( i . e . , a s p i r i t u a l w i l d e r n e s s ) , echoing the OT theme of God's judgement of, and u l t i m a t e mercy on, a people i n t o x i c a t e d by eve r y t h i n g but 'the word of God' . The p o r t r a i t of Nicodemus and the conversation he has w i t h Jesus are a profound echo of the dialogue between Ezra and U r i e l i n 2 Esdr, where the i n i q u i t y of the people i s seen to be obscuring the path back to God. Nicodemus, a Pharisee, represents the obstacle Jesus must overcome i f he i s to 'conquer the world' ; a beacon of hope and enlightenment must be set before the people i f they are to f i n d the righteous path again. The o p t i m i s t i c naming of Nicodemus, and h i s s i m i l a r i t y to Ezra, are j u s t i f i e d i n h i s f i n a l appearance i n John 19, where he i s seen to have overcome the "darkness". To understand how the FG expands upon the concepts of marriage, and 'regeneration', the next chapter focuses on what may c o n s t i t u t e the c e n t r a l l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e of the FG. 24 Chapter Two: A n t i c i p a t i n g Hephzibah The r h e t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n i t i a t i n g Jesus' mission i n the context of a marriage covenant i s made a l l the more profound by a c e r t a i n t r i a n g u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n i n v o l v i n g the d e p i c t i o n s of the three c h i e f female characters i n the gospel, namely, the Samaritan woman, the ad u l t e r e s s , and Mary. In h i s a r t i c l e , " 'Covenant' as a S t r u c t u r i n g Concept i n Genesis and Exodus," Rolf R e n d t o r f f 4 5 i m p l i e s that b i b l i c a l r esearch has h i t h e r t o focused on e i t h e r t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , or l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , and that current exegetes should attempt to combine these two approaches i n a b i d to e x p l a i n t h e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e through l i t e r a r y s e t t i n g , and v i c e versa. Rendtorff suggests that d i s t i n c t t e x t s w i t h i n the canon of the I s r a e l i t e S c r i p t u r e s ( i n h i s case the s t o r y of Noah i n Genesis and the S i n a i pericopae of Exodus) are p o t e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d i n t h e i r theology through an apparently i n t e n t i o n a l 'echoing' of a c e n t r a l l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e . This ' s t r u c t u r e ' , Rendtorff suggests, i s the p a t t e r n of 'covenant made / broken / remade', wi t h the un d e r l y i n g theology of each example being that God adheres to h i s part of the covenant even when humanity does not, i . e . , he had promised an " e t e r n a l covenant" . 4 6 In the Fourth Gospel, there appears to be a s i m i l a r e x p l o i t a t i o n of a precedent " l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e " , which ac t s both as a foundation f o r the theology of the gospel and as a 4 5 Rolf Rendtorff, "Covenant as a S t r u c t u r i n g Concept i n Genesis and Exodus," JBL 108.3 ( F a l l 1989) 385-393 (here, 385). 4 6 Rendtorff, 392-393. 25 s y n t h e s i z i n g technique f o r the l i t e r a r y n a r r a t i v e . The c r i t e r i a f o r determining the i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes which synthesize d i s t i n c t FG p o r t r a i t s i n t o a recognizable c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e comparable s t r u c t u r e and ideology to a precedent 'prophecy' and, i n an oblique sense, the apparent s h i f t from t h i s prophecy to i t s f u l f i l m e n t w i t h i n the n a r r a t i v e , s i m i l a r to that e x h i b i t e d by 1:23. This 'three-sided' s t r u c t u r e acts as the c e n t r a l t h e o l o g i c a l ideology of the FG. There i s a strong t r a d i t i o n i n the OT of d e p i c t i n g the Israel/God r e l a t i o n s h i p i n metaphorical terms, i n c l u d i n g that of a "marriage-divorce-remarriage" s c e n a r i o . 4 7 The i n i t i a l marriage i s n u l l i f i e d by the i l l i c i t conduct of the 'bride', but a new marriage ( i . e . , a new covenant) i s promised based upon the reformation of her c h a r a c t e r . 4 8 In such scenarios, elements of symbolism are used to d e p i c t a " h a r l o t " f i g u r e , 4 9 or p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . The a n t i c i p a t i o n of the re-marriage i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n o p t i m i s t i c terms, as i n the passage of Isa 62:4-5, where Yahweh speaks to h i s people, I s r a e l , saying: ". . .you s h a l l be c a l l e d My D e l i g h t i s i n Her, and your land Married." The desperation of the age, the wickedness, the f e a r , w i l l a l l pass away, and i n that day, I s r a e l s h a l l become as the beloved b r i d e of her God. This redeemed and g l o r i f i e d n a t i o n i s Seock-Tae Sohn i n The Divine E l e c t i o n of I s r a e l , (Michigan: Eerdmans, 1991) 262-263. Sohn notes that motifs are a l s o taken from nomadic t r a d i t i o n s , a g r i c u l t u r e , warfare, the r o y a l court, e t c . 4 8 Sohn, 264. 4 9 Jan Fekkes I I I , "His Bride Has Prepared H e r s e l f : R e v e l a t i o n 12-21 and I s a i a n N u p t i a l Imagery," JBL 109.2 (Summer 1990) 269-287. A l s o , Mordechai A. Friedman, " I s r a e l ' s Response i n Hosea 2:17b: 'You are my Husband," JBL 99.2 (June, 1980) 199-204 (here, 200) . 26 p e r s o n i f i e d i n the i d e a l , "Hephzibah". 5 0 In a n t i c i p a t i o n of Hephzibah's accession to the r i g h t hand of Yahweh, the n a r r a t i v e of the Fourth Gospel provides a matrix from which such a circumstance can evolve. According to Ezek 16, the p o r t r a i t of the u n f a i t h f u l b r i d e of Yahweh f o l l o w s the p a t t e r n : e l e c t i o n , bathing ( c l e a n s i n g ) , a n o i n t i n g , e l e v a t i o n , i n f i d e l i t y , g u i l t / t r i a l , f o r g i v e n e s s , e t e r n a l covenant. 5 1 Each of these f a c t o r s i s represented i n the FG n a r r a t i v e ; as the pericopae of John the B a p t i s t and the wine at the wedding have shown, I s r a e l i s ' c u r r e n t l y ' i n a s o r r y s t a t e - a s t a t e corresponding to that of " i n f i d e l i t y " . Thus, the p a t t e r n begins i n medias res. The Samaritan Woman Modern exegesis on the Samaritan woman's pericope (John 4) has centred, l a r g e l y , upon two d i s t i n c t f a c t o r s , namely, the r a p i d p r o g r e s s i o n of f a i t h , i n comparison w i t h that of Nicodemus, 5 2 and the p o s s i b l e a t t r i b u t i o n of d i s t i n c t l y Samaritan i n f l u e n c e s upon 5 0 Cf. J u l i a M. O'Brien, "Judah as Wife and Husband: Deconstructing Gender i n Malachi," JBL 115.2 (Summer, 1996) 241-250. O'Brien notes that the divine-marriage theme s h i f t s i n i t s a l l o c a t i o n of gender r o l e s (for G o d / I s r a e l ) , as evidenced i n Malachi. In f a c t , the same could be s a i d of the FG, f o r although there i s t h i s c e n t r a l "female" s t r u c t u r e , some elements of Ezek 16 correspond w i t h "male" representations of I s r a e l (e.g., the b l i n d man and Lazarus). 5 1 This p a t t e r n i s condensed from the o u t l i n e given by Walther E i c h r o d t , i n E z e k i e l : A Commentary ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : Westminster, 1970) 205-220. 5 2 For example, Munro's a r t i c l e , "The Pharisee and the Samaritan i n John,"; a l s o , R.E. Brown, The Community of the Beloved D i s c i p l e , (New York: P a u l i s t Press, 1979) 187, and CK. B a r r e t t , The Gospel According- to St. John, 2nd ed., ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : Westminster, 1978) 228. 27 the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the go s p e l . 5 3 What t h i s s e c t i o n of the present a n a l y s i s i s aimed at r e v e a l i n g i s how the two f a c t o r s of the " w e l l " and the woman's m a r i t a l s t a t u s support t h i s character's i n c l u s i o n i n the p a t t e r n p r e s c r i b e d by E z e k i e l . In John 2, Jesus i s presenting himself to an ' i n t o x i c a t e d ' world - a world i n which the i n h a b i t a n t s have been seduced by a cheap wine but have remained 'parched' . Here, we see him t r a v e l i n t o Samaria, the (alleged) quintessence of debauchery, e t c . 5 4 The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the well/water scenario allows f o r Jesus to o f f e r himself as the bearer of a s a t i a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e . The w e l l plays a v i t a l r o l e i n both the FG and the Pentateuch, and i t does so i n much the same way i n each. The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of the w e l l t r a d i t i o n i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and need not be reproduced here; what i s important to r e c a l l i s that the u n d e r l y i n g theme of these pericopae i s that of the securing of f a m i l y t i e s , and the maintaining of the same, through marriage. 5 5 The presence of a woman at the w e l l at the " s i x t h hour", and i n "broad d a y l i g h t " , i n Gen 29:7 and John 4:6, r e s p e c t i v e l y , p o i n t s to an intended c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the s t o r y of Jacob, echoing the temporal p r e c i s i o n of the account (cf. both Gen 24:11 and 29:7 s t i p u l a t e the 'proper' time f o r using the w e l l i s i n the evening). See, e.g., Edwin Freed, "Did John Write His Gospel P a r t l y to Win Samaritan Converts?" NT 12 (1970) 241-256; Pamment, "Is There Convincing Evidence of Samaritan Influence on the Fourth Gospel?" ZNW 73 (1982) 221-230. 5 4 For a d i s c u s s i o n about the ways i n which Samaria i s presented as the 'whoring' woman, see John J . Schmitt, "The V i r g i n of I s r a e l : Referent and Use of the Phrase i n Amos and Jeremiah," CBO 53.1 (January, 1991) 365-387. Here, 377-383. 5 5 Cf. a l s o , Gen 16:7-14, 21:25-35, Num 21:16-18. 28 Robinson claims that by coming out at "midday", the Samaritan woman re v e a l s that she was "was forced to go to [Jacob's] w e l l on the main trade-route used by the caravans" because of her "dubious repute". In other words, she was at Jacob's w e l l only because she happened to be avoiding the other women, who would have scorned her as an ' a d u l t e r e s s ' . 5 6 M. Davies, on the other hand, supposes that i n r equesting a d r i n k from t h i s Samaritan woman, Jesus i s demonstrating the "new order of r e a l i t y which transcends r a c i a l and gender d i s t i n c t i o n s . " 5 7 This i s , perhaps, a post-modern i m p o s i t i o n of i d e a l s , f o r as t h i s paper i s attempting to demonstrate, the e n t i r e t h e o l o g i c a l matrix of the FG i s dependant upon there being a " h a r l o t " - t y p e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In Ezek 16:51-52, however, i t i s the Samaritan " s i s t e r " I s r a e l i t e s who are deemed more worthy of "favourable judgement" than t h e i r Judean counterparts. Robinson may, the r e f o r e , be on the r i g h t t r a c k . In Hos 3, the prophet Hosea i s t o l d to seek out an 'adulterous' woman and to love her. He i s to do t h i s i n order to symbolize (and understand) the t o l e r a n c e and forgiveness of God's l o y a l t y to I s r a e l , who has turned against him. By p u r p o s e f u l l y d e p i c t i n g Jesus as i n v i t i n g a Samaritan woman i n t o the " f o l d " , the FG echoes the ideology behind Hosea's commission, and echoes the 'f a v o u r i t i s m ' of Ezek 16:51-52. The w e l l t r a d i t i o n i n Gen 24, though, provides f o r a stronger i n t e r t e x t u a l echo based on n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and theme. 5 8 Here, 5 6 John A.T. Robinson, The P r i o r i t y of John, J.F. Coakley, Ed. (London: SCMP, 1985) 134, n.38. 5 7 M. Davies 79. 5 8 Cf. Margaret Pamment ("Is There Convincing Evidence of Samaritan Influence on the Fourth Gospel?" ZNW 73 (1982) 222), who (continued...) 29 there are almost verbatim r e p e t i t i o n s of dialogue (e.g., vv.17,33) but a l s o , of thematic s t r u c t u r e ; l i k e the 'servant' i n the former s t o r y , Jesus i s on an "errand" of s o r t s , doing the "work" h i s "master" has given him to do (John 4:34) , he enters i n t o a dialogue w i t h a woman which i s u l t i m a t e l y concerned w i t h 'marriage', and because he i s recognized as God's "messiah", the Samaritan woman and her people do, indeed, " f o l l o w " Jesus (vv.39-42), j u s t as Rebekah " f o l l o w s " the servant of Abraham. 5 9 The only aspect which i s c l e a r l y i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the general Gen 24 c o n s t r u c t i o n i s the r e l a t i v e d e p i c t i o n of the characters' m a r i t a l s t a t u s . The woman i n the FG i s e x p l i c i t l y portrayed as one without maidenly v i r t u e , i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to Gen 24:16; she has "known" many men. Such a d i g r e s s i o n from the otherwise s t r o n g l y adhered to t r a d i t i o n demands i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the number f i v e , i n John 4:18, i s but one example of symbolic numerology i n the FG. 6 0 According to 2 Kgs 17:24f, Samaritan I s r a e l i t e s have had " f i v e husbands": Babylon, Cuthah, Avva, Hamath and Sepharvaim. Each of these represent one of the f i v e peoples who were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the I s r a e l i t e s o c i e t y b a ( . . . continued) n o t i c e s the stronger s i m i l a r i t y to Gen 24 but o f f e r s no exp l a n a t i o n . 5 9 Thomas L.Brodie ( i n The Quest f o r the O r i g i n of John's Gospel: A Source Oriented Approach, Oxford: Oxford UP, 1993. Here, 124). He suggests that " i n place of the p h y s i c a l togetherness of marriage there i s a p i c t u r e [ i n John 4] of Jesus' a b i d i n g w i t h those who b e l i e v e i n him." 6 0 E.g., the number 153, i n John 21:11, i s a l s o symbolic and w i l l be discussed l a t e r . 30 remaining a f t e r the mass deportation by the A s s y r i a n s . 6 1 A 'marriage' of thought and of c u l t u r e ensued which was o f f i c i a t e d , or supervised, by an I s r a e l i t e (Samaritan) p r i e s t . 6 2 Because of t h i s s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of the previous unions, the idea of 'Yahweh as husband' during t h i s time i s compatible. The 'current' immigrant i n t o Samaria, however, i s not considered a "husband", f o r there i s no marriage, nor pa r t n e r s h i p ; the "one" who i s not a "husband" i s Rome. This union i s not s a n c t i f i e d and th e r e f o r e can not in c l u d e Yahweh. 6 3 That the 'woman' i s acquiescent and admits to t h i s i l l i c i t union (John 4:18) r e i n f o r c e s the c u l p a b i l i t y of her s i t u a t i o n . The scene a l s o echoes Hos 2:5-7 i n a sense, f o r the theme of marriage, l o v e r s and m u l t i p l e husbands 6 4 i s i n t e g r a l to 6 1 Ben Witherington, John's Wisdom: A Commentary on the Fourth Gospel, ( L o u i s v i l l e , Kentucky: Westminster, 1995) 120-121. He suggests that according to e a r l y Jewish law three marriages were allowed i n a l i f e t i m e ; as the Samaritan woman was now w i t h yet a s i x t h man, he could not be considered, l e g a l l y , a 'husband' . He concludes that the woman would then be l i v i n g i n a s t a t e of L e v i t i c a l u n c l e a n l i n e s s . 6 2 Cf. Ezra 4:2,10. McKenzie (764) makes the assumption t h a t the "adversaries" i n v . l are yet another n a t i o n of peoples, sent i n t o Samaria by Esarhaddon, and that the 'nations' of Osnappar represent yet another group. However, Osnappar was the v i c e r o y of Babylon, and both he and Esarhaddon were kings of A s s y r i a , so, although there may have been waves of entry i n t o Samaria, the number of v a r i a n t peoples immigrating remains at f i v e . 6 3 I t i s f o r t h i s reason Jesus i s heard to say, "you worship what you do not know", i . e . , l i k e the "Jews" i n John 7:29, e t c . , who a l s o "do not know" God, the Samaritans are i n a s t a t e of 'divorce' from Yahweh. Cf. Cr a i g R. Koester ( i n " 'The Saviour of the World' (John 4:42)," JBL 109.4 (Winter, 1990) 665-680. Here, p.669), who compares the " f i v e " husbands i n John 4 t o the "seven" gods mentioned i n 2 Kgs 17:24. Koester admits to some d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (676-677), and s h i f t s the emphasis to her re p r e s e n t a t i v e r o l e as the 'nation', w i t h her husbands, her "people". 6 4 Friedman (200) notes how the remarriage a n t i c i p a t e d i n Hosea i s contingent upon I s r a e l r e t u r n i n g to the "wilderness", where the f i r s t 'marriage' ( i . e . , i n Exodus) had taken place. Perhaps we can 31 the p o r t r a i t , there, of Yahweh's ' b r i d e 1 . 6 5 The d i s c u s s i o n about marriage, and i t s symbolic i m p l i c a t i o n s , thus f u l f i l s the precedent p a t t e r n of the ba s i c w e l l t r a d i t i o n . The A d u l t e r e s s The o b s c u r i t y of the "adulteress" pericope i s w e l l a t t e s t e d , 6 6 and although some post-modern exegetes tend toward a sympathetic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the woman's predicament, 6 7 she must be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of her s e x u a l i t y because that i s the only context i n which she i s presented; we know nothing e l s e of her. There can be l i t t l e doubt that the s t o r y of John 7:53-8:11 echoes that of Susanna, i n Sus vv.34-41. There i s a mutual element of 'catching' the woman i n the act of committing a d u l t e r y , there are " e l d e r s " present at each scene, there i s a strong d e s i r e to put both women to death even before her t r i a l , there i s a r e t i c e n c e i n see t h i s c r i t e r i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n the s e t t i n g of John 1. 6 5 See a l s o : Isa 1:21; Isa 57:8; J e r 3:1, e t c . In E.H. Pagels' The Johannine Gospel i n Gnostic Exegesis: Heracleon's Commentary on John, ( A t l a n t a : Scholars Press, 1989) 88; Heracleon determined that she represented "wantonness" on a gr e a t e r s c a l e than her i n d i v i d u a l d e p i c t i o n at f i r s t i m p l i e d . Margaret Davies' r a t h e r f e m i n i s t (and thus anach r o n i s t i c ) a p p r a i s a l of the Samaritan woman's d e p i c t i o n "on the ba s i s of her m a r i t a l s t a t u s " as being "the f a t e of most women", and as promoting t h e i r " s u b s i d i a r y f u n c t i o n of w a i t i n g of men" (227) , does not do j u s t i c e to the magnitude and p r o f u n d i t y of her character. 6 6 E.g., P.W. Comfort, "The Greek Text of the Gospel of John According to the E a r l y P a p y r i , " NTS 36 (1990) 625-629; B.D. Ehrman, "Jesus and the Adult e r e s s , " NTS 34 (1988) 24-44; G a i l R. O'Day, "John 7:53-8:11: A Study i n Misreading," JBL (3.4 (Winter 1992) 631-640; D.B. Wallace, "Reconsidering 'The Story of Jesus and the Adult e r e s s Reconsidered'," NTS 39 (1993) 290-296. 6 7 E.g., even as f a r as to suggest that to understand her i n terms of her s e x u a l i t y i s to act l i k e the Pharisees and cast the dreaded "stone" (O'Day, "John 7:53-8:11", 634). 32 each of the two le a d i n g male characters (Daniel and Jesus) to partake i n the 'judgement', 6 8 i n each case, the woman i s a c q u i t t e d , and i n each the accusers are l e f t w i t h the ' g u i l t ' . In E z e k i e l ' s p o r t r a i t of the br i d e of Yahweh, the p a t t e r n passes from ' i n f i d e l i t y ' to the p u b l i c show of g u i l t : "I w i l l judge you as women who commit a d u l t e r y . . . They s h a l l b r i n g up a mob against you and they s h a l l stone you..." (Ezek 16:38-40) . In John 8 the sequence i s adhered t o . According to Num 5:13, a woman accused of i n f i d e l i t y , whether "caught i n the act" or not, i s to be presented before the " p r i e s t " ; i t i s p o s s i b l e that Jesus' apparently s e l f - a c c l a i m e d p r i e s t l y status i s being t e s t e d i n John 7:53f. The NRSV makes a note regarding an a d d i t i o n a l phrase extant i n some ancient v e r s i o n s of v.8; the a d d i t i o n i m p l i e s that what Jesus i n s c r i b e s i n the s o i l t r a d i t i o n was held to be, at l e a s t , something to do w i t h "the s i n s of each of them" . Keeping i n mind the i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y of the FG t h i s study i s demonstrating, and the theme of 'adultery' i n t h i s pericope (as part of a p a t t e r n ) , i t i s proposed that the p o t e n t i a l f o r an inflammatory echo of Hos 4:14, Wallace (295) argues that as the verb k a t a k r i n o i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n John 8:10-11, and elsewhere the verb k r i n o , proponents f o r the i n c l u s i o n of t h i s pericope i n t o the main body of the FG must e x p l a i n why such a verb i s employed so p e c u l i a r l y here and not i n 3:18 and 12:47, f o r example. In these l a t t e r cases the emphasis i s upon a d i v i n e judgement of b e l i e v e r s and non-beli e v e r s . In 8:10, Jesus i s forced i n t o a r o l e of e a r t h l y judge, thus the s h i f t i n terminology i s j u s t i f i e d . J u r i d i c a l terms are employed i n the o v e r a l l d e p i c t i o n of Jesus' mission i n the FG (Robert Gordon M a c c i n i , "A Reassessment of the Woman at the Well i n John 4 i n Li g h t of Samaritan Context," JSNT 53 (March 1994) 35-46. Here 35) . 33 i s h i g h : 6 7 I w i l l not punish your daughters when they p l a y the whore, And your daughters-in-law when they commit a d u l t e r y ; For the men themselves go aside w i t h whores, and s a c r i f i c e w i t h temple p r o s t i t u t e s ; thus a people without understanding comes to r u i n . This passage f o l l o w s the order to Hosea to "love a woman...who i s an a d u l t e r e s s " (3:1); thus the context i s one of the " h a r l o t " b r i d e , but a l s o God's w i l l i n g n e s s to f o r g i v e those who are l e d a s t r a y by others who should know b e t t e r . I f God does not condemn the a d u l t e r e s s ( i . e . , I s r a e l ) , n e i t h e r can Jesus. 7 0 The outcome of t h i s pericope, then, a n t i c i p a t e s the next stage i n E z e k i e l ' s p a t t e r n , "forgiveness". Mary Mary i s introduced twice i n the context of an a n o i n t i n g (John 11:1, 12:3), s t r e s s i n g the importance of the a c t i o n . In the short pericope of John 12:1-3 are echoed at l e a s t four key terms from Cant 1: osme ("smell/odour"; Cant 1:3,4,12; John 12:3) 7 1 / muron This may account f o r the e n t i r e pericope having been omitted from some e a r l y v e r s i o n s of the t e x t . 7 0 Cf. B. Ehrman, "Jesus and the Adu l t e r e s s " (43, n.62), who claims that Jesus " i s not asked to render a v e r d i c t . " The scenario would have no purpose, i t would seem, i f the a n t i c i p a t e d act of judgement i s removed. n Cf. J.F. Coakley, ( i n "The Ano i n t i n g at Bethany and the P r i o r i t y of John," JBL 107.2 (June 1988) 241-256) who proposes that i t i s merely the r e c o l l e c t i o n of a strong s m e l l , and need not be seen as being anything more profound (243, n.10); Sanders (83), who supposes that the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a c t i o n l i e s i n the metaphorical use of the o i l , where i t i s understood to represent a prayer, as i n Ps 141:2; and L.W. Countryman, who sees the act as 34 ("ointment"; Cant 1:3,4; John 12:3a,b) / anaklithesomai ("to r e c l i n e at t a b l e " ; Cant 1:12; John 12:2) / nardos ("spikenard"; Cant 1:12; John 12:3). I m p l i c i t i n the context of John 12 i s the idea of Jesus as b a s i l e u s ("king", c f . John 1:49; Cant 1:12), making the echo one based on comparable charact e r s , a l s o . The f i g u r e of the "king", i n Cant 1, however, i s not dep i c t e d as being anointed w i t h the nard, he i s merely present. This s h i f t i n the adopted p a t t e r n , l i k e that i n the echoed w e l l t r a d i t i o n , demands expl a n a t i o n . The s u p p l i c a t i o n of Mary at the feet of her master appears i n the FG n a r r a t i v e at the juncture ( a f t e r her p u b l i c disgrace and before her ele v a t i o n ) where one would expect, according to the apparent echoing of Ezek 16, some act of repentance, forgiveness, e t c . This i d e a l ascent to g l o r y i s conveyed i n m a r i t a l terminology and imagery, so Mary's a c t i o n should be understood i n s i m i l a r terms. There are two instances i n the OT where "marriage" and " f e e t " are i n t e r t w i n e d , namely, 1 Sam 25:41-42, and Ruth 2:10-13; 3:7f. In the f i r s t case, A b i g a i l o f f e r s h e r s e l f as a "servant", stooping down to wash the mens' f e e t ; she i s seen as submitting h e r s e l f to David, and i s taken as h i s wife. Ruth 2:10-13 emphasizes the 'foreigner' aspect of t h i s female character, but a l s o her conversion to the I s r a e l i t e f a i t h (also i n terms of a "se r v a n t " ) . In the l a t t e r scene, Ruth p r o s t r a t e s h e r s e l f at the feet of Boaz, 7 2 an a c t i o n which i s e x p l i c i t l y connected w i t h the r i t u a l of one of "worship" (The M y s t i c a l Way i n the Fourth Gospel: Crossing Over to God, Rev. ed. (Pennsylvania: T r i n i t y , 1994. Here, 87). 7 2 Cf. Lee, who s t a t e s that Mary's a c t i o n i s "a proclamation of Jesus' a u t h o r i t y . . . " (220). 35 b e t r o t h a l (v.9); she, too, i s taken as w i f e , f o r she has demonstrated the i d e a l q u a l i t i e s of the I s r a e l i t e b r i d e . In these two examples, e s p e c i a l l y the l a t t e r , can be seen a p o t e n t i a l i d e o l o g i c a l source f o r the image of Mary at the feet of Jesus (cf. Acts 22:3). In the a n t i c i p a t i o n of Hephzibah, the submission of I s r a e l before God i s a necessary f a c t o r ; the b r i d e -to-be must prove h e r s e l f worthy. The wiping of Jesus' feet w i t h her h a i r i s a complex aspect of Mary's d e p i c t i o n . Coakley, f o r instance, suggests that the a c t i o n i s "more appropriate to a d i s r e p u t a b l e woman," and yet he f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t to see the FG "Mary" character as f u l f i l l i n g . t h i s r o l e . 7 3 As the 'converted' " h a r l o t " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , indeed she does. Coakley concludes that the reason why the h a i r was used to wipe the f e e t , and not a c l o t h , f o r example, "probably cannot be answered". 7 4 There i s , though, a p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n : there i s a dual a n o i n t i n g t a k i n g place i n John 12. In Ps 141:5 i s the a d j u r a t i o n , "Never l e t the o i l of the wicked anoint my head". U n t i l t h i s juncture i n the echo of Ezek 16, the b r i d e of Yahweh has been depicted i n derogatory and humbling terms; now i t i s time to begin her e l e v a t i o n . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , Jesus' f e e t which are the primary object of Mary's a t t e n t i o n ; the verb used to r e f l e c t her a c t i o n of 'anointing' i s a l e i p h o , which i s used i n the LXX i n the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l s of Gen 31:13 (Jacob's p i l l a r ) , Exod 40:15 and Num 3:3 (the o r d i n a t i o n of p r i e s t s ) . Thus, when Jesus remarks that Mary has the o i l i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of h i s Coakley,249-251. Coakley, 251. 36 b u r i a l , her deed becomes one of premature, but i n t e n t i o n a l , s a n c t i f i c a t i o n - the day of consecration (his "hour" of "glory") has yet to come, but i n her demonstration Mary r e v e a l s that she 1 b e l i e v e s 1 i t w i l l . 7 5 Her f a i t h thus outshines even that of the d i s c i p l e s . 7 6 Deut 33:24 employs the analogy of an o i l - c o v e r e d foot to symbolize p r o s p e r i t y and 'success'; i t i s used i n the context of Moses' p a r t i n g song to the I s r a e l i t e s , and i n a thematic context of a f i n a l v i c t o r y of God's chosen over t h e i r oppressors. This would a l s o f i t admirably i n t o the present FG scenario, f o r the ' f a r e w e l l d i s c o u r s e ' i s soon to f o l l o w , which focuses on a s i m i l a r theme. Secondary to t h i s , however, i s Mary's own p o t e n t i a l a n o i n t i n g , e x h i b i t e d through a subtle manipulation of the s t i p u l a t i o n s r egarding n a z a r i t e consecration i n Num 6. The FG s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y d e p i c t s Mary as r e c e i v i n g the same o i l that has j u s t s a n c t i f i e d the f e e t of the new high p r i e s t ; the h a i r i s deemed the most sacred area of the n a z a r i t e ' s body, f o r i t represents the holy vow i t s e l f , imbued, as i t i s , w i t h the o i l of consecration. This purging r i t e symbolizes a "separation" from one way of l i f e and a ' c l e a v i n g ' to Lee suggests (219) Mary's performance i s a "prophetic a c t i o n which f u n c t i o n s as a f a i t h confession." Mary recognizes the symbolic precedent of Lazarus' death, Lee continues, and anoints Jesus' f e e t i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s death, through which b e l i e v e r s w i l l gain " l i f e " (221). See a l s o nn. 3,4, regarding the 'unconscious' a c t i o n theory; i f the act i s to be understood as a p r o f e s s i o n of f a i t h , though, the a n o i n t i n g would have to be c o n s c i o u s l y done. 7 6 The 'true' consecration probably takes place i n John 19:38f, i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the a n t i c i p a t e d ascension of Jesus to the Father; t h i s concurs w i t h the idea, mentioned e a r l i e r , that Jesus avoids contact before he 'ascends' . Further, i t i s done by ri g h t e o u s , male d i s c i p l e s , one of whom i s , p o t e n t i a l l y , the h e i r to the p r i e s t h o o d , making t h i s a more l e g i t i m a t e scenario of p r i e s t l y c o n s e c r a t i o n . 37 another; i f t h i s i s what i s happening i n John 12:3, i t would complement the e n t i r e image of the 'bride-to-be' as de f i n e d here. 7 7 Having been depicted as the adulterous woman, and having been p u b l i c l y exposed, she i s , through the character of Mary, " f o r g i v e n " and "converted". 7 8 The a n o i n t i n g i t s e l f represents, i n p a r t , the "ano i n t i n g " aspect of the Ezek 16 p a t t e r n ( i t culminates i n the ' b u r i a l ' scenario, i n John 19). I f John 12:1-3 i s to be understood i n l i g h t of the echoes of vocabulary from Cant 1, the reader i s j u s t i f i e d i n p r e d i c t i n g that the c h aracter of Mary w i l l f u r t h e r echo that of the "Shulammite", i . e . , that she, too, w i l l r i s e to be the "wife" of a "king". Now, though, the "king" i s Yahweh. F u l f i l l i n g the "forgiveness" element of Ezek 16, the 'bride' i s ready to come i n t o the presence of God. In John 19:25, at the foot of the cross, stands Mary Magdalene. The name "Magdalene" i s o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d to mean "tower", stemming from the Hebrew word, miqdalah. 7 9 This term, i s used i n Cant. 4:4, 7:4, and 8:10, where the female f i g u r e of the love song i s a t t r i b u t e d the q u a l i t i e s of a "tower"; her e n t i r e c h a r a c t e r i s one which denotes strength, r e s o l u t i o n , and, u l t i m a t e l y , e l e v a t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e , then, that the ety m o l o g i c a l " Josephus (J.W. 2.15.1) remarks on "Bernice", a woman who undertook a s i m i l a r vow; he claims that i t was o f t e n performed by those having undergone some d i s t r e s s , i l l n e s s , e t c . With the corresponding Synoptic images of Mary/the-woman-who-anointed, t h i s element of 'purging' or cl e a n s i n g becomes a l l the more pronounced. 7 8 Indeed, i n Luke 7:36, the woman c l e a r l y r e c e i v e s a b s o l u t i o n f o r her ' s i n s ' a f t e r performing t h i s submissive act. 7 9 McKenzie (534), however, suggests "a person from Magdala", basing t h i s upon the reading of Matt 15:39, presumably. 38 s i g n i f i c a n c e 8 0 of "Magdalene" l i e s i n the root word, gadal, which means " to make l a r g e " , i . e . , to magnify, to increase, to become great, e t c . That i s , Mary, now representing the " h a r l o t " motif, having completed her r i t u a l i s t i c p u r i f i c a t i o n , has been r a i s e d to the height of honour - she becomes the "tower" of God, the 'beloved' and r e j o i c e d - i n ' b r i d e ' , 8 1 who has turned away from her 'wicked' past and has returned to God. 8 2 This f u l l y concurs w i t h the expectations of E z e k i e l 16 and the 'pattern' f o r I s r a e l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Yahweh.83 The s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and importance of b i b l i c a l etymology, s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h respect to 'commission names' ( i . e . , names a t t r i b u t e d to i n d i v i d u a l s according to t h e i r character, r o l e , etc.) i s supported by Herbert Marks ( i n " B i b l i c a l Naming and P o e t i c Etymology," JBL 114.1 (Spring, 1995) 21-42), who suggests that such names o f t e n r e t a i n e d a "covert meaning" (30) as w e l l as an obvious one; and R.L. Omanson, ( i n "What's i n a Name?" BT 4 0.1 (January, 1989) 109-119), who suggests that a l l b i b l i c a l names r e q u i r e to be understood i n terms of t h e i r intended, or apparent, context. 8 1 Cf. S i r 26:22, where a "married woman" i s equated to a "tower". 8 2 One may say that i n John 20:17 Jesus' c a u t i o n i n p e r m i t t i n g Mary to touch him before h i s union w i t h the Father i s j u s t as much a d e s i r e to p r o t e c t Mary's p u r i t y as h i s own; he has been "dead", remember, and to touch any aspect of the dead, the b u r i a l c l o t h e s , the tomb, e t c . , would be a contamination. Note that Mary does not enter the tomb. This imagery echoes that of Jesus outside the tomb of Lazarus. 8 3 Francois Bouvon ( i n "Le P r i v i l e g e Pascal De Marie-Madeleine," NTS 3 0.1 (January, 1984) 50-62; here, 58), i n h i s study of the v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Mary Magdalene over the c e n t u r i e s , notes t h i s i n t r i g u i n g "order" a l l e g e d l y given to her by Jesus from the cross: "...ne l a i s s e pas l a frange de ton vetement t r a i n e r par t e r r e . . . " (for b i b l i o g r a p h i c information, see n.66). The idea of the f r i n g e , according to Num 15:3 8f and Deut 22:12, was to remind the I s r a e l i t e s of the Commandments. In Matt 23:5, these t a s s e l s , now elongated, become a symbol of the arrogance of the Pharisees; a l l o w i n g the f r i n g e to be long enough to t r a i l on the ground, Mary would be seen to be 'proud', and t h i s she must avoid. This t r a d i t i o n , then, supports the idea of the e l e v a t e d s t a t u s of Mary. 39 Summary The b a s i s upon which the theology of the FG r e s t s i s a t r i a n g u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n . The f i r s t component i s that of the Samaritan woman, whose d e p i c t i o n f u l f i l s the " i n f i d e l i t y " stage of E z e k i e l ' s p a t t e r n f o r the f a l l / a s c e n t of the d i v i n e b r i d e . Her s i t u a t i o n r e i t e r a t e s the context of a n a t i o n i n need of s p i r i t u a l help, made so apparent i n John 1 and 2. The main i n t e r t e x t u a l themes which l i n k her to the concept of the a n t i c i p a t e d re-marriage w i t h Yahweh are the " w e l l " t r a d i t i o n s of Genesis, which focus on the securing of the 'perfect' b r i d e , and the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of Samaria, as recorded i n 2 Kings. The "adulteress" of John 8 forms the second branch of t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n , echoing the format of the j u r i d i c a l s t o r y of Susanna, w h i l s t s a t i s f y i n g the 'publ i c show of g u i l t ' aspect ( n e c e s s a r i l y i n the context of adultery) of Ezek 16. Completing the t r i a d i s Mary, the l a s t female i n the FG to re c e i v e extensive a t t e n t i o n . The i n c l u s i o n of Mary i n t h i s c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e stems from the thematic and vocabulary echoes of C a n t i c l e s and the i d e o l o g i c a l echo of 1 Sam 25 and Ruth 2. In her r e f l e c t i o n of the repentant, f o r g i v e n and elevated woman, Mary completes the p a t t e r n set out i n Ezek 16 - she i s cleansed, anointed, and i s 'married' to God through a symbolic vow. With t h i s c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d , the r e s t of the FG n a r r a t i v e can be analyzed i n an e f f o r t to synthesize the d i s t i n c t pericopae; the aim i s to demonstrate how each major event and/or character i n the FG co n t r i b u t e s to the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s " i d e a l " . 40 Chapter Three: The Temple Scenes The c e n t r a l t h e o l o g i c a l concept of the FG, which synthesizes the e n t i r e gospel n a r r a t i v e i s one based on the a n t i c i p a t e d 're-marriage' of I s r a e l to Yahweh and i t s e l f c o n s t i t u t e s a complex of i n t e r t e x u a l echoes. The nature of Jesus' mission, as revealed through Nicodemus' s t o r y i s , e v i d e n t l y , to be demonstrative ( i . e . , Jesus i s to perform signs) and exemplary ( i . e . , he i s to be a sign) . The o b j e c t i v e of the mission, then, i s demonstrated i n Jesus' a c t i o n w i t h i n the Temple, i n John 2:13-22. There have been many persp e c t i v e s on Jesus' storming, or c l e a n s i n g , of the Temple (John 2:13f), i n c l u d i n g Lee's view that the pericope revolves around Jesus' r i s e n body as the true and only "sacred s i t e " f o r worship, 8 4 Neusner's suggestion that i t d e p i c t s an i n t e n t to destroy not the Temple i t s e l f but the I s r a e l i t e s a c r i f i c i a l system, 8 5 and Hamilton's theory that Jesus' a c t i o n i m p l i e s a usurping of " k i n g l y " power. 8 6 Where Neusner supposes that Jesus' a c t i o n would have been "beyond a l l comprehension" at the time, t h r e a t e n i n g , as i t seemed to, the very l i f e - b l o o d of the Temple ( i . e . , i t s s a c r i f i c i a l f u n c t i o n ) , the i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes i n evidence r e v e a l that Jesus' a c t i o n had both precedent and profound meaning f o r any who knew the S c r i p t u r e s . E. P. Sanders proposes that, i f Jesus i s i n t e r e s t e d i n 0it Lee, 82-83 . 8 5 Jacob Neusner, "Money Changers i n the Temple: The Mishnah's Explanation," NTS 35 (1989) 287-290. 8 6 N e i l l Hamilton, "Temple Cleansing and Temple Bank," JBL 83.4 (1964) 365-372. 41 d e s t r o y i n g merely the p r i e s t h o o d i n order to replace i t w i t h another, h i s a c t i o n s place him i n a comprehensible and completely congruous h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , 8 7 but he p r e f e r s to see Jesus' threat of d e s t r u c t i o n more i n terms of " 'eschaton', not ' p u r i t y ' . " 8 8 I f the a c t i o n , however, i s a "demonstration", a " s t a r t l i n g and p r o v o c a t i v e " portent of "imminent judgement and r e s t o r a t i o n " , as Meyer i n f e r s , 8 9 the precedent prophecies of J e r 7:3-4, Ezek 14:21, e t c . , prove i t t o be profoundly imbued w i t h " c l e a n s i n g " symbolism. 9 0 As Hamilton p o i n t s out, the a c t i o n may be seen as a p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of Zech 14:21, where i t i s prophesied t h a t , i n the days of the g l o r i o u s r e t u r n to God and the coming of the Messiah, no " t r a d e r s " w i l l be i n the "house of the Lord". 9 1 There are, however, other i n t e r t e x t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which may o f f e r more i n s i g h t i n t o the FG pericope. The Passover s e t t i n g at the outset of Jesus' p u b l i c m i s s i o n 9 2 forms an i n c l u s i o w i t h the Passover at the end, as i f to emphasize both the Exodic nature of the mission, and the sense of regeneration (since the f e s t i v a l takes place i n the S p r i n g ) , the c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n , e t c . I t a l s o r e f l e c t s on the "Lamb" aspect of the 8 7 E.P. Sanders, Jesus and Judaism, (London: SCMP, 1985) 89-90. 8 8 Sanders, 89. 8 9 B. Meyer, 197. 9 0 B. Meyer, 198. 9 1 N e i l l Q. Hamilton, "Temple Cleansing and Temple Bank," JBL 83.4 (1964) 365-372. Here, 372. 9 2 For a d i s c u s s i o n on the p l a c i n g of the Temple scene at t h i s e a r l y stage of Jesus' career, and on the p r a c t i c e of s e t t i n g up t a b l e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the Passover, see Robinson, 128. 42 B a p t i s t ' s words i n John 1, where Jesus i s f i r s t a t t r i b u t e d the r o l e of " s i g n " i n the context of redemption. The observance of the Passover, of course, i s described i n Exod 12:1-28, and Jesus' behaviour i n the Temple may be i n t e n t i o n a l l y l i n k e d to the Exodus precedent. Moses, on seeing h i s people worshipping the golden c a l f , had destroyed the sacred t a b l e t s of stone (Exod 32:19f); l i k e w i s e , Jesus performs t h i s v i o l e n t act of defiance against the i m p r o p r i e t y of the 'worship'. In both scenarios the I s r a e l i t e s appear as impatient, l a c k i n g true f a i t h , r e q u i r i n g t a n g i b l e 'proof' of t h e i r God, e t c . The Temple has, i n e f f e c t , become but another "golden c a l f " . Destroy the f a l s e (tainted) image of God and the true God w i l l f o r g i v e and r e t u r n . This idea i s echoed i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of "Nehushtan", the brazen serpent r a i s e d i n the wilderness by Moses (Num 21:4f); according to 2 Kgs 18:4-6, Hezekiah to r e down and demolished the object which had become an i d o l i n i t s own r i g h t ; the people were concerned more wi t h making " o f f e r i n g s " to i t than w i t h keeping the commandments i t represented. This proves to be a major aspect of the pericope's echoed ideology, as w i l l be demonstrated below. There i s another p o i n t of reference which may be e n l i g h t e n i n g f o r t h i s study, namely, Josh 5:10f. Just before Passover, Joshua prepares the new generation of I s r a e l i t e s f o r the entry i n t o the Promised Land; the 'wicked' generation has p e r i s h e d i n the wilderness, and those who were born out of bondage r e c e i v e the c i r c u m c i s i o n of the ' f l e s h ' , marking them as the new, cleansed, ' e l e c t ' of Yahweh. I t i s p o s s i b l e that the FG encapsulates Jesus' p u b l i c mission w i t h i n two Passover scenarios because h i s mission i s comparable to Joshua's, i . e . , he i s to lead the s new ' e l e c t ' i n t o 4 3 the s p i r i t u a l "Promised Land", the "Kingdom of God". I f t h i s i d e a i s p r o j e c t e d onto the storming of the Temple i t s e l f , the next q u e s t i o n t h a t must be asked i s , "who are the wicked g e n e r a t i o n who must be r e p l a c e d , and who are the.'cleansed', i n the echo of John 2? " The f i r s t 'clue' perhaps, comes not from the Temple scene i t s e l f , but from Jesus' d e s c r i p t i o n of Nathanael. The word f o r "you" i n John 1:51 i s hymin, suggesting a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ( p l u r a l ) nature of Nathanael; i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the sacred "remnant" of I s r a e l i s i n t i m a t e d i n h i s p o r t r a i t . 9 3 The i n i t i a l i m p ression of Nathanael causes Jesus to remark on h i s l a c k of " d e c e i t " (1:47), a sentiment and a term (LXX, dolos) , which echo Ps 32:2b. The o r i g i n a l context of t h i s Psalm i s one of " d e l i v e r a n c e " , and the promise of i n s t r u c t i o n of a new "way" f o r those who w i l l humble themselves and admit t h e i r , s i n s . The word " d e c e i t " a l s o appears i n the NRSV v e r s i o n of Ps 101:7: No one who p r a c t i c e s d e c e i t s h a l l remain i n my house; no one who u t t e r s l i e s s h a l l continue i n my presence. Although the term dolos does not appear i n the LXX v e r s i o n , the emphasis i s on the arrogance or haughtiness of those who assume c o n t r o l ("poion hyperephanian") and on the d e c e i t f u l speakers ( " l a l o n a d i k a " ) . Taken i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Jesus' condemnation of the f o l l o w e r s of the " f a t h e r of l i e s " i n 8:44-45, i t appears t h a t the FG i s making a d i s t i n c t i o n between the e s t a b l i s h e d Temple 9 3 The l i n k between Jacob, whose commission name i s " I s r a e l " (Gen 35:10), and Nathanael, whose name i n f e r s those "given" to Jesus "by God" ( i . e . , t o r e - e s t a b l i s h as the fo u n d a t i o n of the 'new' I s r a e l ) i s p r o v o c a t i v e . 44 c u l t u s , which i s corrupt, and the "remnant" of devout I s r a e l i t e s who, perhaps, have set themselves i n o p p o s i t i o n to t h i s establishment. C e r t a i n l y , the n a r r a t i v e allows f o r a "wicked" generation and a "pure" one, and i n the i m p l i c i t adoption of the ideology of Ps 32, any who humble themselves and accept the " i n s t r u c t i o n of the way" w i l l j o i n the "remnant" i n the new Kingdom. The impulsive and f o r c e f u l nature of Jesus' a c t i o n i s p o s s i b l y a thematic echo of Isa 10:20-27, where the s i t u a t i o n being depicted i s one of d i r e circumstance; the "remnant of I s r a e l " i s oppressed and weary. "Destruction i s decreed", but t h i s i s a "righteous" d e s t r u c t i o n , one which w i l l , u l t i m a t e l y , a l l o w the remnant to escape the "rod" of t h e i r enemies. I t i s , then, a d e s t r u c t i o n which b r i n g s about regeneration, renewal. 9 4 God w i l l t u r n h i s wrath toward the oppressors, "wield [ing] a whip against them" (v. 26) . 9 5 As a r e s u l t , the oppressed w i l l be emancipated. In the Book.of Malachi, however, i s a p o t e n t i a l l y stronger source f o r the ideology behind Jesus' demonstration. Here, the emphasis i s upon the c e s s a t i o n of meaningless or t a i n t e d s a c r i f i c e s (N.B., not the r i t u a l i t s e l f ) being performed as part of a corrupt c u l t u s (cf. J e r 7) . The covenant w i t h the p r i e s t s , 2:5 i m p l i e s , was a covenant "of l i f e " ; t h i s was corrupted, and I s r a e l l o s t favour i n the eyes of God, ( i . e . , "death"). At t h i s juncture (2:14-16), Malachi introduces the "marriage" motif, implying that I s r a e l (the 9 4 This echoes the destruction/renewal c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e of such pericopae as Gen 7-10; Gen 18-19; Gen 22f; Jonah e t c . 9 5 In the LXX, the term "plege" i s used, which has the connotation of 'calamity', as w e l l as ' s t r i k i n g ' . 45 once p r i e s t l y / h o l y kingdom) has been u n f a i t h f u l to the w i f e 9 of h i s youth, namely, Yahweh. Divorce i s not the i d e a l s t a t e (v.16), so I s r a e l must amend h i s ways and work f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . In order f o r God to r e t u r n to " h i s temple" (3:1) an angelos must f i r s t k a t h a r i s e i , or " p u r i f y " the sons of L e v i (the priesthood) of t h e i r i n h e r i t e d i n i q u i t i e s (cf. v. 7 "apo ton a d i k i o n ton pateron hymon") . Again, note the use of t h i s concept of 'deceit' i n r e l a t i o n to the Temple c u l t u s , and the "father/son" r e l a t i o n s h i p Jesus a l l u d e s to i n John 8.97 As i n Jesus' d e c l a r a t i o n of renewal a f t e r d e s t r u c t i o n (John 2:19: Note the use of the " t h i r d day" motif here, implying' that the 'new' Temple w i l l i n v o l v e a union w i t h the d i v i n e - the a n t i c i p a t e d e v e n t u a l i t y of Mai 3), so Mai 4:2 b r i n g s the promise of "healing" and an emancipation from the "bonds" that bind the righteous. In the FG, Jesus i s seen to w i e l d a whip against the "marketplace"; the term naos i s used, 9 8 making the d i s t i n c t i o n that Jesus' h o s t i l i t y i s d i r e c t e d toward the Temple 'proper', the Temple b u i l t by p r i e s t s f o r p r i e s t s , not toward the general Temple 9 6 Malachi s h i f t s the genders here, but the e f f e c t i s i d e n t i c a l to that of E z e k i e l ' s , e t c . 9 7 See a l s o Job 36:8-9 and Isa 5:18-23 f o r s i m i l a r d e p i c t i o n s of the arrogant, wayward I s r a e l . Compare the decree of d e s t r u c t i o n preserved i n 1 Sam 2:27-36, where the p r i e s t h o o d i s threatened w i t h imminent demise because of i t s i n i q u i t i e s ; i t i s d e c l a r e d that a new, " f a i t h f u l p r i e s t " w i l l be " r a i s e Tdl up" who w i l l work according to God's w i l l , who w i l l have a new "house" b u i l t f o r him, and who w i l l m i n i s t e r "before" the Messiah (the "anointed one"). 9 8 This term i s used only i n 2:19-21, but elsewhere i n the FG, when denoting l o c a t i o n , the term hieron i s employed (5:14, e t c . ) . John P. Meier ( i n A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the H i s t o r i c a l Jesus, Vol.1, (New York: Doubleday, 1991) 381) notes other s c h o l a r s ' r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , but h i s d i s c u s s i o n centres upon the d a t i n g of Jesus' m i n i s t r y (using the " f o r t y - e i g h t years" as the key i s s u e ) , r a t h e r than on the meaning behind the Temple a c t i o n . 46 complex, nor the a c t u a l tradesmen. This term i s a l s o used i n Mai 3:1 (LXX). The Temple, the sacred house, not the p r e c i n c t , i s thus i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the "marketplace", and i t s 'traders' w i t h the c u l t u s . 9 9 Excursus Jesus' p u b l i c appearance i n h i s r o l e as God's agent begins w i t h a symbolic stand against the i m p u r i t y of the Temple c u l t u s (and thus the profaning of the Temple i t s e l f ) . In John 10, the repeated Temple s e t t i n g forms a contextual i n c l u s i o w i t h John 2:13f. The f e s t i v a l of Dedication i s an apt arena i n which to p l a y out Jesus' f i n a l p u b l i c stand against h i s opponents, r e p r e s e n t i n g as i t does the "recovery and p u r i f i c a t i o n of the Temple" by Judas Maccabee, a f t e r the 'abomination' of i l l e g i t i m a t e occupants. But so, too, i s the reference to h i s standing w i t h i n the p o r t i c o of Solomon s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r i t was Solomon's o r i g i n a l d e d i c a t i o n (1 Kgs 8) which inaugurated the new age of the Temple. The "name" of Yahweh would dwell there so long as the people heeded the commandments (see 1 Kgs 8:6f; c f . John 10:27,28): "The d e d i c a t i o n of the Temple enable[d] I s r a e l to refocus i t s a t t e n t i o n on f o l l o w i n g d i v i n e commands"100 - t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what the FG i s 9 9 Cf. B. Meyer (197), who suggests that Jesus' a c t i o n i n the Temple was a demonstration d i r e c t e d at " a l l I s r a e l " . A.E. Harvey, ( i n Jesus and the C o n s t r a i n t s of H i s t o r y , (London: Duckworth, 1982) 131) suggests that Jesus "does not change things by h i s a c t i o n s : but h i s a c t i o n s may represent the change which God w i l l s to b r i n g about and which [Jesus] i s charged to proclaim". This "change" i s , t h i s paper contends, the replacement of one p r i e s t h o o d w i t h another. 1 0 0 Gary N. Knoppers, "Prayer and Propaganda: Solomon's Ded i c a t i o n of the Temple and the Deuteronomist's Program," CBQ 57 (1995) 229-254 (here, 250). 47 attempting to r e i t e r a t e . Standing m the f o o t s t e p s of Solomon, Jesus' a u t h o r i t y and i n t e n t are r e a f f i r m e d . 1 0 1 Summary The Temple pericope of John 2:13f i s seen to convey the o b j e c t i v e of Jesus' mission: to cleanse the holy s i t e f o r the a n t i c i p a t e d r e t u r n of Yahweh. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y of t h i s pericope l i e s i n the a l l u s i o n s to the Passover context and the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r entry i n t o a new "Promised Land", and a l s o i n the r e f l e c t i o n of the f a l s e worship and t a i n t e d s a c r i f i c e s of the corrupt priesthood, as revealed i n Malachi. The " d e s t r u c t i o n " of the Temple i t s e l f , or of the s a c r i f i c i a l r i t u a l , i s not, t h e r e f o r e , at the root of Jesus' a c t i o n i n the FG; i t has more of a 'purging' q u a l i t y and i n the r e j o i n d e r a l l u d i n g to a renewal on the " t h i r d day", the demonstration i s wholly o p t i m i s t i c . Not only i s t h i s theme of r e v i v a l i n t e g r a l to the ideology of Malachi, but the act of "healing" i s a l s o a necessary f a c t o r of the renewal and emancipation promised i n Mai 4. In the next chapter, the emphasis i s s t r o n g l y upon the metaphorical n o t i o n of 'healing', w i t h respect to d e b i l i t a t i n g oppression, and how t h i s message of r e v i v a l i s m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by those d r i v e n by a more pragmatic agenda. Knoppers, e s p e c i a l l y 235-250, which r e v e a l s the s t r u c t u r e of Solomon's 'prayer' and d e d i c a t i o n . A l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i s the comment that the Temple inaugurated a new era i n I s r a e l i t e h i s t o r y (251); f o r Jesus i n the FG, the 'new' Temple w i l l do l i k e w i s e . As Solomon was granted the a u t h o r i t y to e s t a b l i s h a new house, so Jesus claims a s i m i l a r a u t h o r i t y . 48 Chapter Four: Mistaken I d e n t i t y The r h e t o r i c a l / t h e o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n of the FG thus f a r e s t a b l i s h e d i s one echoing that presented i n Ezek 16, where I s r a e l i s d e picted as the ' h a r l o t - b r i d e ' of Yahweh, and whose r e t u r n to g l o r y i s made contingent upon the reformation of her character (as demonstrated by the three-females c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e ) and the resurgence of devotion (demonstrated by the Temple pericope of John 2:13f) . In t h i s chapter, the combined i m p l i c a t i o n s of Jesus' f i r s t two h e a l i n g s , the feeding of the multitude and the appearance on the Sea of G a l i l e e , lead the reader to understand that a case of mistaken i d e n t i t y has made Jesus' mission a l l the more d i f f i c u l t . The p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i n these pericopae i s profound, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h respect t o Exodic themes and m o t i f s p e r t a i n i n g t o the emancipation of the oppressed. Healings Is there no balm i n Gilead? Is there no p h y s i c i a n there? Why then has the h e a l t h of my poor people not been restored? (Jer 8:28) The r e t u r n to the s i t e of Jesus' symbolic marriage (and the undertaking of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r u n i t i n g the people of God), Cana (John 4:46), i s apparently i n t e n t i o n a l . Remaining i n the Samaria f o r two days, the entry i n t o the northern t e r r i t o r i e s i s depic t e d as o c c u r r i n g , s y m b o l i c a l l y , on the t h i r d day, adding t h e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the pericope. I f the t h i r d day i s a day of union, covenant, e t c . , perhaps the inference here suggests an 49 a n t i c i p a t e d union a l s o ; a union, that i s , of the d i v i d e d I s r a e l i t s e l f . G a l i l e e was once the t e r r i t o r y of the northern t r i b e s of Zebulun, N a p h t a l i , Asher, and Is s a c h a r , 1 0 2 and thus has c l o s e r a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h the northern house of Joseph than w i t h the southern house of Judah (cf. Isa 9:1). A l s o , according to s e v e r a l t r a d i t i o n s i n the Prophets, regarding the r e u n i f i c a t i o n of the houses of Joseph and Judah, i t i s the northern house which i s ' c a l l e d ' f i r s t . The i n i t i a t i o n of the l a s t days, that i s , the l a s t days of oppression and d i s u n i t y , i s granted to the northern I s r a e l i t e s i n J e r 3:11-4:2, where they are the f i r s t to be i n v i t e d back i n t o God's presence, without punishment. In Ezek 37:15-21, the gath e r i n g of the northern t r i b e s i n s t i g a t e s the r e s t o r a t i o n of the na t i o n , w i t h the "rod of Joseph" being taken up f i r s t . This 'North f i r s t ' t r a d i t i o n i s thus echoed i n the geographical context of Jesus' f i r s t 'healing' and i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the d e p i c t i o n of the object of Jesus' munificence, i . e . , the b a s i l i k o s . The term b a s i l i k o s "may denote e i t h e r a person of r o y a l blood or one i n s e r v i c e of a ki n g , " , o b v i o u s l y i n t h i s case, Herod. 1 0 3 In h i s a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h Rome, as the "King of the Jews", Herod was obsequious, d e d i c a t i n g new c i t i e s to emperors to win favour, a c t i n g as "spy f o r T i b e r i u s upon Roman o f f i c e r s and s a t e l l i t e kings i n the East," e t c . 1 0 4 He was, to many, a 'foreign' k i n g , , whose Jewish 1 0 2 McKenzie 293-294 . 1 0 3 B.M. Newman & E.A. Nida, A T r a n s l a t o r ' s Handbook on the Gospel of John, (London: UBS, 1980) 136. 1 0 4 McKenzie, 356. Cf. the 'despot' i n Dan 8:23-25; the elements of "d e c e i t " , "cunning", attempted conquest of the "prince", e t c . , a l l p o i n t to an uncanny a n t i c i p a t i o n of Herodian 50 i d e n t i t y i t s e l f was a matter of c o n t e n t i o n . 1 0 5 This i m p l i c i t a l l u s i o n to Herod and f o r e i g n r u l e i s , i t s e l f , an echo of the Samaritan woman's d e p i c t i o n , f o r i n her s t o r y , too, the ' s i x t h ' , i l l e g i t i m a t e "husband" was seen to represent Rome. The woman admitted her s i t u a t i o n and subsequently chose to r e j e c t i t , by " f o l l o w i n g " Jesus. In t h i s current pericope, a s i m i l a r conversion takes place, but w i t h i n the very heart of Herod's domain. 1 0 6 A "son" i s h i s fa t h e r ' s l i v i n g echo, the i n h e r i t o r of h i s t r a i t s , b e l i e f s , nature, e t c . , as defined i n S i r 30:4: When the fa t h e r d i e s he w i l l not seem to be dead, f o r he has l e f t behind him one l i k e himself... The "son" of the b a s i l i k o s , i n John 4, then, i s des t i n e d to become a b a s i l i k o s i n h i s f a t h e r ' s f o o t s t e p s . I t i s Jesus who makes t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p e x p l i c i t i n 4:50 ( e.g., h u i o s ) , r e v e a l i n g the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of 'inheritance' and, wit h the royal/Herodian a f f i l i a t i o n i n mind, the emphasis i s upon an i l l i c i t h e r i t a g e . The father/son aspect of the pericope echoes the concept of i n h e r i t e d s i n as recorded i n the b l a t a n t d e c l a r a t i o n of Exod 20:5-6 (Deut 5:9-10) . Here, though, i n 4:43f, the idea seems to be that the " s i n s " of the f a t h e r can be expiated before the c h i l d becomes mor a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them (before he become "of age"), f o r the use of paidon (v. 49) i m p l i e s a c h i l d under the age of r u l e . 1 0 5 McKenzie, 353 . 1 0 6 G a l i l e e was part of Herod the Great' s kingdom and a l s o part of the t e t r a r c h y of Herod Antipas (McKenzie 2 94). 51 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 1 0 7 The vocabulary of " l i f e " and "death" r e f l e c t s that used throughout the FG and i s understood, given the context of t h i s present i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , to be metaphorical. In the OT, t h i s metaphorical essence of " l i f e " i s c l e a r i n many passages: Deut 4:4 e x p l i c i t l y equates l i f e w i t h a steadfast devotion to Yahweh; adhering to the Commandments brings l i f e (Deut 6:24); the " c i r c u m c i s i o n " of the heart to Yahweh brings l i f e to the b e l i e v e r and h i s "descendants" (Deut 30:6) ; the 'true' I s r a e l i s seen as the "land of the l i v i n g " (Isa 38:11, 53:8, e t c . ) ; and i n Mai 2:5, the covenant w i t h the p r i e s t s i s s a i d to have been a "covenant of l i f e " . Thus, the b a s i l i k o s d e s i r e s f o r h i s son a share i n the " l i f e " Jesus has to o f f e r - a share i n the new kingdom, perhaps even i n the new priesthood. As an echo w i t h i n the FG n a r r a t i v e , when Jesus says "Unless you see signs and wonders you w i l l not b e l i e v e , " he i s r e a f f i r m i n g the promise he had made to Nathanael back i n 1:50-51 - the statement i m p l i e s a b e l i e f contingent upon "seeing" and understanding signs (an i m p l i c a t i o n repeated most e x p l i c i t l y i n John 6) . Except that they 1 0 8 witness the signs and wonders of Jesus' work (the manifestations of God's w i l l ) , they can not w For an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the young boy's c o n d i t i o n being 'caused' by " s i n " and not by some p h y s i c a l complaint, read Pagels 83-85, where Heracleon's view that the pericope d e p i c t s a d u a l - l e v e l conversion of father/son, i s explained. Heracleon, too, saw a symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the s i t e and i n the status of the o f f i c e r . 108 rp-^g p ] _ u r a ] _ ; i d e t e and p i s t e u s e t e r e f l e c t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e nature of the o f f i c e r character. 52 " b e l i e v e " . 1 0 9 From an i n t e r t e x t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the performance of "signs and wonders" i n the context of a n t i c i p a t e d emancipation from oppressors i s w e l l precedented and i s recorded, almost i n v a r i a b l y , i n r e l a t i o n to the Exodus. In Exod 7:3, "signs and wonders" are i n t e g r a l to the transformation of the Pharaoh's "heart"; and i n Deut 4:34, they are r e c a l l e d as the means by which God took one n a t i o n "from the midst of another na t i o n " and as the i n c e n t i v e f o r the people to "acknowledge that the Lord i s God" (v. 35) . The performance of such deeds, t h e r e f o r e , i s a l s o equated w i t h 'knowing God', or ' b e l i e v i n g ' (cf. Num 14:11). The d i r e c t adoption of the "semeia k a i t e r a t a " format i n d i c a t e s an i n t e n t i o n a l a l l u s i o n to Exodic themes; the contextual echo, given the su b t l e inferences regarding Herod/Rome i n the idea of the b a s i l i k o s and G a l i l e e , s h i f t s the idea of emancipation from Moses/Egypt to J e s u s / " b e l i e v e r s " . Through "signs and wonders" Jesus w i l l f r e e those under r e l i g i o u s / s p i r i t u a l o p p ression 1 1 0; he w i l l , i n e f f e c t , be p l u c k i n g from the midst of one 'nation' (the s i n f u l I s r a e l ) , another (the 'believers') . Thus, Jesus' words i n John 4:48 suggest an i n v i t a t i o n to witness, r a t h e r than an admonition against "signs and wonders". The "sign" to which the people are now witness i s the b a s i l i k o s himself, f o r the 'healing' takes place some dis t a n c e i u y Newman & Nida (13 7) suggest that the FG i s f o l l o w i n g the OT c o n s t r u c t i o n of "signs and wonders", where the two are taken as "the equivalent of a noun modified by an a d j e c t i v e . " Thus, we could read, "wonderful signs", here. 1 1 0 The context of the o r i g i n a l "bondage" was one of r e l i g i o u s r i g h t s of worship, according to Exod 5:1. 53 away, out of s i g h t . The man's open confession of f a i t h , and h i s d e s i r e to o b t a i n f o r h i s o f f s p r i n g a 'better l i f e ' , are a profound r i s k , to say the l e a s t , and one which a n t i c i p a t e s the context of the h e a l i n g of the b l i n d man i n John 9. That Jesus makes h i s remark (v. 48) addressing the many may suggest that t h i s s e l f l e s s , courageous act of conversion i s the wondrous s i g n they must recognize. Returning to the south, Jesus i n i t i a t e s a 'healing' event i n Jerusalem. By the "Sheep Gate", at the pool of Beth-zatha 1 1 1 (John 5:2f) await many who are " b l i n d " (typhlon) , "lame" (cholon) and "withered" (xeron). The f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s appear i n the p r o h i b i t i o n of Lev 21:18-21 (LXX), where i t i s s t a t e d t h a t no p r i e s t s who are blemished i n such a way may enter the sanctuary of the h o l y place. "Blindness" i s used m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n such passages as Ps 146:8, where i t symbolizes a l a c k of "wisdom" ( c f . Isa-29:9-10; 35:5, e t c . ) , and i n Isa 35:6 the dawning of a new "Holy Way" w i l l b r i n g the emancipation of the "lame". The t h i r d category, xeron, i s f u l l y represented i n the "lamentation" f o r I s r a e l i n Ezek 19 (here, vv. 12,13 e s p e c i a l l y ) , and J o e l 1:8-18 (e.g., v.12). In both these cases I s r a e l i s p i c t u r e d as a once formidable n a t i o n , 1 1 1 The Copper S c r o l l of Qumran supports the "Bethesda" r e n d i t i o n of the name (James, H. Charlesworth Jesus W i t h i n Judaism, (New York: Doubleday, 1988) 120) . The FG, however, employs a v a r i a t i o n , "Beth-zatha", perhaps more an employment of assonance than topographical p r e c i s i o n (the i n t e n t i o n to place the scene i n the area known as "Bethesda" i s r e f l e c t e d i n the reference to the f i v e p o r t i c o e s , but the name i t s e l f i s a l t e r e d f o r symbolic purposes). "Beth-zatha" i s e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r r e d to as a "Hebrew" name , which may i n d i c a t e a phonetic i m p l i c a t i o n , e t c . , e.g.,tsarah which can i n d i c a t e a d v e r s i t y , a f f l i c t i o n , or t r o u b l e , or tsabah which can mean to "grow t u r g i d " , to f i g h t , or s w e l l up. This would s u i t w e l l the ' r e b e l l i o n ' context of the FG. 54 now besieged and near r u i n . The "withered" d e s c r i p t i o n i s thus metaphorical and i s intended to denote a sapping of strength, a reduced e f f e c t i v e n e s s , e t c . , u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to being "parched" (cf. Isa 5:13; 35:7) . In J o e l ' s account, the lament i s targeted toward the p r i e s t s (v.13), and r e f l e c t s 'marriage' terminology (e.g., v.8); E z e k i e l ' s i s d i r e c t e d toward r u l e r s and the consequences of i n i q u i t i e s (cf. Ezek 18:30) . The three groups are categorized, i n John 3, under the general heading of astheneis, which i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the NT as a d e s c r i p t i o n of those who lack m o r a l i t y , a u t h o r i t y , or d i g n i t y , e t c . , (e.g., Rom 6:19, 2 Cor 11:21, 13:4, Heb 5:2, e t c . , ) . Each group i s a l s o d i s t i n c t l y represented i n the FG n a r r a t i v e ; the pericope of John 4:10-15 intimates that the people are 'parched', i n need of the " l i v i n g water", i n John 5 there i s the lame man, and the b l i n d are represented i n John 9. Given t h i s understanding of how the " i n f i r m " are to be perceived i n the FG, the imagery of John 5:2-9 proves to be evocative of Ps 107:17-20: Some were s i c k through t h e i r s i n f u l ways, 'and because of t h e i r i n i q u i t i e s endured a f f l i c t i o n ; ...and they drew near to the gates of death. ...he sent out h i s word and healed them, and d e l i v e r e d them from d e s t r u c t i o n . The i l l n e s s , or weakness, i s thus a symptom of a more profound ' i n s t a b i l i t y ' . The e x p l i c i t mention of the "Sheep Gate", which was b u i l t by the high p r i e s t E l i a s h i b and h i s f e l l o w p r i e s t s (Neh 3 : l f ) , suggests a p r i e s t l y matrix f o r the lame man's t a l e ; he represents, perhaps, the 'ordinary' p r i e s t s whose oppressors take 55 the form of Pharisees and t h e i r accomplices, the c h i e f - p r i e s t s . 1 1 2 The impotence of t h i s 'lower' f a c t i o n of the c u l t u s i s r e i t e r a t e d i n the lame man's response t o Jesus' d i r e c t question "Do you want to be made w e l l ? " (John 5:6). He r e p l i e s i n a weak and ambiguous manner, blaming h i s f a i l u r e to ' r i s e ' above h i s i n f i r m i t y on the l a c k of a 'helper' (v.7; c f . Pss 72:12,14; 107:12, Isa 63:5, Amos 5:2, which speaks of " I s r a e l " having f a l l e n , w i t h "no one to r a i s e her up", and E c c l 4:1, which speaks of the "oppressed" who have no one to comfort them). Others, he moans, reach the water before him, so h i s a n t i c i p a t i o n of true 'cleansing' has been postponed f o r " t h i r t y - e i g h t years", the p e r i o d of time a p t l y corresponding to the 'generation' i n the wilderness, under Moses. 1 1 3 In the comparable s p i r i t u a l wilderness, the man awaits the coming of the one who can lead him i n t o the new "Promised Land" - God's angelos, or messenger, Jesus. With nothing but a commandment to r i s e , p i c k up h i s 'bundle' and walk, Jesus demonstrates the ease w i t h which the oppressed, or misled, can r e j e c t t h e i r oppressors. 1 1 4 This appears to be a These were the p r i e s t s which formed an " h e r e d i t a r y community" which "traced i t s genealogy back to Aaron" (Jeremias, 198) . Animosity or antagonism had begun to be come between the higher l e v e l s of the c u l t u s and these 'ordinary' p r i e s t s ; accusations of nepotism, greed, even c r u e l t y and t h e f t were r a i s e d against the c h i e f p r i e s t s (Jeremias, 180-181), who, themselves, had become s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the Pharisees. 1 1 3 Josephus (Ant. 4.4.1) uses the " t h i r t y - e i g h t " year span, which suggests that t h i s was the g e n e r a l l y accepted allotment f o r the Exodus generation. 1 1 4 The context of Ps 107:2,6 i s one of a p l e a f o r redemption from " t r o u b l e " and " d i s t r e s s " : the note, above, concerning a p o t e n t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "Beth-zatha" i s aided by t h i s s i m i l a r p e r s p e c t i v e i n the Psalm. 56 thematic echo of Jer 10:17 (NRSV): Gather up your bundle from the ground, O you who l i v e under siege! This i s the f i r s t a c t i o n conducted d i r e c t l y toward the c u l t u s , thus f a r ; h i t h e r t o , there has only been the symbolic gesture of the storming of the Temple, w i t h no d i r e c t involvement w i t h i t s incumbents. Now, though, Jesus i s seen to openly challenge the a u t h o r i t y of the P h a r i s e e s / c h i e f p r i e s t s over the p r i e s t h o o d by convincing one (or several) p r i e s t ( s ) to r e b e l ; the response i s an e s c a l a t i o n i n the h o s t i l i t y toward Jesus (v.18). The events of John 9 are a l s o foreshadowed by t h i s d aring demonstration of d i v i n e , as opposed to mundane, 'power'. The Hunger John 6 opens w i t h Jesus on a mountain, near the time of the Passover. The two strong images evoke the Exodus s t o r y , without doubt, w i t h Jesus' p o s i t i o n echoing that of Moses i n Exod 19,32-34, and the f e s t i v a l commemorating the o r i g i n a l Passover which l e d to the emancipation of the I s r a e l i t e s from Egypt (Exod 12). S t r a i g h t away, the prevalent theme i s understood as one of "bondage", of "freedom" and of God's d e s i r e to redeem h i s f a i t h f u l people. 1 1 5 In the enumeration of the food (e.g., there are f i v e loaves 1 1 5 John P a i n t e r ( i n " T r a d i t i o n and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n In John 6," NTS 35.3 (July 1989) 421-450. Here 432), discusses the n a r r a t i v e i n terms of a "quest", suggesting that the f i r s t stage of the scenario, the "feeding", d e p i c t s a f a m i l i a r "quest" s t r u c t u r e (e.g., where Jesus i s faced with the challenge of overcoming " d i f f i c u l t i e s " ) and i s concerned w i t h " i n d i v i d u a l " r a t h e r than c o l l e c t i v e response. Von Wahlde ("L i t e r a r y Structure",582) concurs w i t h t h i s " i n d i v i d u a l i s m " p erspective of the FG. 57 and two f i s h ) there i s a p o t e n t i a l , and profound echo of s i g n i f i c a n t numbers i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n of I s r a e l . According to Gen 41:50, two sons were born to "Joseph", and according to 1 Chr 2:4, f i v e to "Judah". 1 1 6 The f i v e loaves of John 6, perhaps, represent "Judah", the two f i s h , "Joseph". 1 1 7 By d i s p e r s i n g the food, the " s c a t t e r i n g " of the people of I s r a e l i s r e f l e c t e d , and i n the "gathering" of the fragments i n t o "twelve" baskets (John 6:13), the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the i d e a l I s r a e l i s a n t i c i p a t e d . The order to c o l l e c t the "fragments" 1 1 8 so that "nothing may be l o s t " strengthens the thematic connection between t h i s " s i g n " , the statement of Jesus i n John 17:12, 18:9 (where he reassures God that none excepting the one destined to be l o s t has gone mi s s i n g ) , and another precedent OT passage, J e r 23:1-4. In Jeremiah, we hear God blaming the bad "shepherds" f o r s c a t t e r i n g 1 1 6 The "loaves" could be s a i d to represent Judah because Ephraim ( i . e . , Joseph) was once r e f e r r e d to as "a cake ['hearthcake'] unturned" (Hos 7:8), i n s i n u a t i n g that i t was not as p e r f e c t as Judah; there was a l s o the 'shewbread' which remained i n the sanctuary of the Judean Temple. F i s h , on the other hand, are commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the more n o r t h e r l y t e r r i t o r i e s simply because of the Sea of G a l i l e e , where the f i s h i n g trade was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Newman and Nida (180), i n t e r p r e t the l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of "barley bread" and " f i s h " , w h i l s t o f f e r i n g no i n s i g h t i n t o the p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the numbers used. 1 1 7 The numbers 5 and 2, when combined, create the number 7, the number of p e r f e c t i o n . I t could be claimed, t h e r e f o r e , that where the "Jews" could only o f f e r " s i x " v e s s e l s of water f o r the r i t e of p u r i f i c a t i o n (John 2:6), Jesus i s now o f f e r i n g a means of a t t a i n i n g a s p i r i t u a l p u r i t y which transcends the 1 imperfect' r i t u a l . In the FG Jesus has seven d i s t i n c t d i s c i p l e s even though he i s heard to r e f e r to the "twelve" i n 6:70; there are seven, a l s o , l i s t e d i n 21:2.. Note that i t i s only the bread which i s c o l l e c t e d up, r e i n f o r c i n g the suggestion made here that the " f i v e " loaves represent the northern t r i b e s , i . e . , i t i s the northern peoples who have been s c a t t e r e d and re q u i r e 'gathering'. 58 the people of I s r a e l , and i n h i s promise to gather them and r e t u r n them to the " f o l d " , God assures that they w i l l not be a f r a i d (cf John 6:20), and none w i l l "be missing". The r e a c t i o n of the crowd p a r a l l e l s that of Nathanael (1:49) and the Samaritans (4:42) i n that they recognize i n Jesus' words, or a c t i o n s , a messianic, or prophetic q u a l i t y - h i s 'd i v i n e ' a u t h o r i t y i s acknowledged. In John 6, however, there i s a d i f f e r e n c e , f o r the crowd m i s i n t e r p r e t s Jesus' " s i g n " ; i t appears that they perceive him to be the waited (Davidic) "king". A n t i c i p a t i n g a s i m i l a r r e j e c t i o n of 'misinterpreted' a u t h o r i t y i n John 8, however, Jesus i s seen here to r e j e c t i t (cf. Judg 8:22, where mundane kin g s h i p i s r e j e c t e d i n favour of d i v i n e k i n g s h i p ) . The word used to describe the a c t i o n of the crowd i s harpazien, i . e . , they attempt to "s e i z e " him, to take him by f o r c e . The scene s t r o n g l y echoes the theme of Isa 3:6, f o r which the context i s a l s o one of an i n t e r n a l "oppression" of the people (v.5): Someone w i l l even s e i z e a r e l a t i v e , a member of the c l a n , saying, "You have a cloak; You s h a l l be our leader, and t h i s heap of r u i n s s h a l l be under your r u l e . " (Isa 3:6) In t h i s I s a i a n passage, the one "seized" to .be k i n g a l s o r e f u s e s , blaming the i n i q u i t y of Jerusalem f o r the present s t a t e of the r u i n e d n a t i o n (3:7-8). There i s a l s o , perhaps, an i n t e r t e x t u a l echo i n t h i s pericope (based upon the comparable a c t i o n being depicted) of Deut 26. 1 1 9 1 1 9 Perhaps the i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n of the reader i s to compare t h i s semeion wi t h that of E l i s h a , i n 2 Kgs 4:42-44, but on c l o s e r a n a l y s i s , there i s l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n E l i s h a ' s deed which could p o s s i b l y have any bearing on the FG's ideology. 59 Here, we see the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a "basket" of food to the " p r i e s t who i s i n o f f i c e at that time" (vv.2-3), the prayer of thanks and the b l e s s i n g (vv.11-15), and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the food amongst many (vv. 11-12) . The focus of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r OT passage i s the c e l e b r a t i o n of the emancipation from Egypt through the "signs and wonders" (v. 8) of God, and the settlement i n the Promised Land (v.15). The d i s t i n c t i o n between the p h y s i c a l "bread" and the "true bread" (John 6:32) corresponds to the d i s t i n c t i o n between the t e r r a f i rma of the o r i g i n a l "Promised Land" and the s p i r i t u a l , i d e a l "Promised Land" of the FG. Jesus i s seen (through t h i s apparent a l l u s i o n to Deut 26) to assume the r o l e of " p r i e s t " . 1 2 0 Johns and M i l l e r r i g h t l y point out t h a t , although many sch o l a r s p o l a r i z e "sign" and " s p i r i t u a l food" i n t h i s pericope (suggesting that Jesus i s "downplaying" the former), the n a r r a t i v e a c t u a l l y p o r t r a y s Jesus as being d i s t u r b e d by the crowd's ignorance of the meaning, or s i g n i f i c a n c e , of the s i g n s . 1 2 1 The p o l a r i t y of the pericope, r a t h e r , should be seen i n the c o n t r a s t between what Jesus seems to be implying and what the crowd comprehends; on the one hand, we see the people attempting to " s e i z e " Jesus to be t h e i r "king", and, on the other, we see Jesus r e t r e a t i n g , then accusing the crowd of seeking him out because they "ate [ t h e i r ] f i l l of the loaves" (6:26) . Their immediate d e s i r e , and the source of t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n , has remained on the l e v e l of the mundane - the 1 2 0 This f u n c t i o n of the " p r i e s t " i s r e f l e c t e d i n the Manual of D i s c i p l i n e , from Qumran (Barnstone 214), where i t i s r e q u i r e d that i n a gathering of ten or more men (note the emphasis on "anthropos" i n John 6:10) a p r i e s t must be present, must s i t the men before him, and pronounce a b l e s s i n g w i t h the f i r s t p o r t i o n of food. 1 2 1 L.L. Johns & D.B. M i l l e r , "Signs As Witnesses i n the Fourth Gospel," CBO 53.6 (1994) 519-535 (here 532). 60 analogy of the crowd t a k i n g t h e i r f i l l of p h y s i c a l food corresponds w i t h t h e i r mundane expectations and immediate concerns, e.g., a hunger to see Rome destroyed, an e v e n t u a l i t y which demands the prowess and a u t h o r i t y of the messianic k i n g . In response to t h i s demonstration of 'mistaken i d e n t i t y ' , Jesus r e t r e a t s , only to reappear i n a profoundly symbolic context, to r e i t e r a t e h i s 'meaning' to h i s d i s c i p l e s (John 6:16-21) . The "Sea of G a l i l e e " r e c e i v e s two d i s t i n c t names i n John 6:1, the other being the "Sea of T i b e r i a s " . The great c i t y of T i b e r i a s was erected by Herod Antipas i n c.23 C.E., to mark the 65th b i r t h d a y of T i b e r i u s Caesar. 1 2 2 I t was the showcase of Antipas' t e t r a r c h y , and became h i s c a p i t a l , but the s i t e was shunned by devout Jews whose abhorrence of l e v i t i c a l u n c l e a n l i n e s s due to contact w i t h the dead (cf . Num 19:11) p r o h i b i t e d them from e n t e r i n g the c i t y . I t had been b u i l t upon the s i t e of a cemetery, p e r p e t u a l l y d e f i l i n g anyone l i v i n g t h e r e . 1 2 3 This animosity i s v i t a l to understanding the 'walking on water' scenario. In John 6:1, the body of water i n G a l i l e e i s r e f e r r e d to as a t h a l a s s a , but Josephus r e f e r s to i t as a limne. 1 2 4 I f the l a t t e r term was the usual h e l l e n i s t i c d e s i g n a t i o n , as M. Davies proposes, 1 2 5 why should the FG deviate from t h i s ? Davies i s y i i M a r t i n Goodman, The R u l i n g Class of Judea, (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987) 94-95. 1 2 3 Josephus (Ant. 18.2.3) remarks that Herod b r i b e d "poor people" w i t h houses, i n order to r a i s e the p o p u l a t i o n , and many country d w e l l e r s were brought by force to r e s i d e i n the c i t y . 1 2 4 Josephus Ant. 18.2.3; J.W. 3.3.5. 1 2 5 M. Davies, 268. The designation t h a l a s s a a l s o appears i n Num 34:11. 61 c o r r e c t i n assuming that there i s an intended a l l u s i o n , here, to the Exodus s t o r y , w i t h the "menace of the sea" and the r e l a t e d theme of " s a l v a t i o n " , 1 2 6 but she suggests the pericope i s used to r e v e a l a "mounting h o s t i l i t y " toward Jesus and acts as a device which f i r s t " d i v i d e s the people i n t h e i r response to Jesus, and [then] r e - u n i t e s them i n r e j e c t i o n of him." 1 2 7 Thus, the impetus of the "sea" element i s r a t h e r subdued. 1 2 8 The malevolence of the 'deep', however, i s an i n t e g r a l part of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of John 6, and i s precedented i n Pss 77:16-20; 114:5, Job 7:12, Job 38:8-11, Isa 27:1, Jonah 1:17, and Dan 7. The major theme which runs through comparable.depictions of men and the sea i s the power of God to defend h i s people from the p e r i l s of the "sea" and the "storm", and the ' s a l v a t i o n ' of those who t r u s t i n him. Psalm 57:1,3, Prov 10:25, and Zech 10:11-12 each a l l u d e t o the sea i n terms of an enemy, oppressor, e t c . , which God conquers f o r the sake of h i s I s r a e l . In Psalm 107:23-30, the same Psalm which speaks of the " d i s t r e s s e d " and " a f f l i c t e d " at the "gates", whom God "heals", the " t h i r s t y " wanderers i n the "desert" who are l e d to s a l v a t i o n by the " s t r a i g h t " path of God's making, and the bondage of those who c l a i m to have "no helper", contains what may be the s t r u c t u r a l / t h e m a t i c precedent f o r the pericope of John 6:16-21. In vv. 23-30 of the Psalm, the scene d e p i c t e d i s one of men i n boats on the t h a l a s s a , d i s t r e s s e d by a storm; t u r n i n g to God f o r s a l v a t i o n , the storm calms and they are l e d s a f e l y to t h e i r 1 2 6 M. Davies, 140. 1 2 7 M. Davies, 128-129. 1 2 8 See a l s o P a i n t e r (430-431) , who sees t h i s pericope merely as a l i t e r a r y device of t r a n s i t i o n . . 62 d e s t i n a t i o n . One may i n t e r p r e t the pericope of John 6:16-21, then, i n the same l i g h t , i . e . , as being a demonstration against oppression, and of God's power to save. By t r e a d i n g upon the waves of the "Sea of T i b e r i a s " , Jesus i s seen to place the enemy, Rome (and by extension, Herod), under h i s foot, r e j e c t i n g the ' i n e v i t a b i l i t y ' of t h e i r supremacy. Simply 'destroying' the Romans, without p e r c e i v i n g the ' i n t e r n a l ' i n i q u i t y which keeps I s r a e l under oppression, however, i s no true v i c t o r y , but i n Jesus' semeion i s the key to a f u t u r e emancipation. When I s r a e l accepts God, once again, as t h e i r true s a l v a t i o n , they w i l l make themselves worthy i n h i s s i g h t once more, and the ' t o o l s ' of God's wrath w i l l be destroyed. By f o l l o w i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l d e p i c t i o n of the "sea" scenario, the FG author has already intimated that i t i s God who i s i n c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n , w i t h Jesus merely the v e h i c l e of h i s w i l l . Further, by exclaiming "ego e i m i " , Jesus i s heard to be echoing the d i v i n e "I Am" of Exod 3:13-15, and t h i s i s i n complete concordance w i t h the FG image of Jesus as God's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; i t does not imply that Jesus i s c l a i m i n g to be God, but that God i s present (cf. Ps 46:1) . 1 3 0 The use of t h i s 'name' enforces the d i v i n e r d y The added element of "darkness" i n the FG scene i n d i c a t e s an i n t e n t i o n to convey the idea of 'ignorance', i . e . , of the d i s c i p l e s / p e o p l e ; i n every other use of the motif, the P h a r i s e e s / c h i e f p r i e s t s become in v o l v e d (9:4; 11:10; 13:30), r e v e a l i n g t h e i r own ignorance of who/what Jesus i s . 1 3 0 P a i n t e r (439-440) suggests that the "ego e i m i " saying i n John 6 forces the theme of s a l v a t i o n onto the "person of Jesus". The t r a d i t i o n of the Psalms, e s p e c i a l l y , p o i n t s s t r o n g l y towards the potent power of the name of God i t s e l f - i t s i n v o c a t i o n i n such passages as Ps 54:1, 75:1, 79:6, e t c . , e t c . , suggests a c o r r e l a t i o n between keeping the "name" of God a l i v e , and " s a l v a t i o n " ; those who " f o r g e t " to invoke the name of God, p e r i s h . The use of the tetragrammaton by Jesus would, indeed, have been 'blasphemous, but 63 ' a u t h o r i z a t i o n ' of an agent of God, as i n Exod 23:20-21: 1 3 1 I am going to send an angel i n f r o n t of you, to guard you on the way and to b r i n g you to the place that I have prepared. Be a t t e n t i v e to him and l i s t e n to h i s v o i c e . . . ... f o r my name i s i n him. Summary By a n a l y s i n g the f i r s t two h e a l i n g semeia, i n John 4-5, through t h e i r apparent i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes and p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , there can be observed a d i s t i n c t i o n between northern and southern I s r a e l , w i t h respect to the a n t i c i p a t e d reunion before the new Kingdom can be inaugurated. S i m i l a r l y , there i s a d i s t i n c t i o n between the i m p o s i t i o n of f o r e i g n r u l e (which s u i t s the 'northern' s e t t i n g ; c f . the Samaritan woman's pericope) and the i n i q u i t o u s , or i n e f f e c t u a l , p r i e s t s ( s u i t a b l y , i n the context of the Temple s i t e ) . The concepts of " l i f e " , "death", and "signs and wonders" are seen to be metaphorical and as having strong precedents i n the context of redemption and emancipation. The feeding of the multitude i n 6:2-14 represents the d i v i s i o n of I s r a e l , and the a n t i c i p a t e d regathering of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e twelve t r i b e s , forming a p o t e n t i a l c ulmination to the mission, but t h i s i s not r e a l i z e d ; there i s a misunderstanding about Jesus' messianic i d e n t i t y . As God's agent, Jesus i s depicted as the locus of d i v i n e power and a u t h o r i t y ; f a i t h i n him (and t h e r e f o r e i n h i s the provocative "ego eimi" o f f e r s a l l the innuendo without the ' s i n ' ! 1 3 1 Cf. Isa 6:8 i n the LXX; the prophet uses "ego e i m i " i n the context of "Here I am, send me", and t h i s i s s i m i l a r to the contexts i n which the FG "ego eimi" sayings are used when they are p r e d i c a t e d by "the door", "the way", e t c . I.e., Jesus i s seen to be o f f e r i n g himself as God's instrument. 64 mission) equates to f a i t h i n God - f a i t h i n God as the s a l v a t i o n of I s r a e l i s the key to suppressing the 'enemy1, Rome, f o r by r e t u r n i n g to the 'righteous path', God's anger w i l l be q u e l l e d and h i s people's enemies destroyed. A f t e r the c e n t r a l branch of the t h e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , e.g., the a d u l t e r e s s ' s t o r y , and i t s a s s o c i a t e d j u r i d i c a l debates, e t c . , the n a r r a t i v e of the FG moves on toward the inauguration of the new prie s t h o o d . F o l l o w i n g the h e a l i n g of the "lame" (which c o n d i t i o n , i t has been suggested, r e l a t e s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y to those who are " f e t t e r e d " , and ther e f o r e i n e f f e c t u a l , e.g., as p r i e s t s of Yahweh), the h e a l i n g of the " b l i n d " w i l l emphasize the misplaced p r i d e and ignorance of the Pharisees, and the ' r a i s i n g ' of Lazarus, the emancipation of a l l the " i n f i r m " . 65 Chapter F i v e : E l e c t i o n Preparing f o r the symbolic 're-marriage' between I s r a e l and Yahweh, Jesus i s depicted, i n the FG, as performing the necessary 'healing' signs i n both northern and southern t e r r i t o r i e s , a n t i c i p a t i n g , i t seems, a ' p r e - n u p t i a l ' r e u n i f i c a t i o n , a 'gathering of the nations' , as e x h i b i t e d i n the 'feeding' pericope. The n e c e s s i t y f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , as demonstrated i n John 6:16-21, br i n g s w i t h i t a sense of urgency, as the threat against Jesus i s e s c a l a t e d . Here, the two characters of the " b l i n d man" and Lazarus are discussed, i n an attempt to r e v e a l how the FG author uses i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes to i l l u s t r a t e the e l i m i n a t i o n of ignorance and emancipation of a l l those who d e s i r e to break t h e i r 'bonds' and f o l l o w Jesus i n t o the new 'Promised Land'. Through these d e p i c t i o n s i s revealed the genesis of the new priesthood. A Lack of V i s i o n Blindness i s mentioned i n John 12:40 i n an " i n v e r t e d quotation" of I s a 6-.10.132 Where the i n i t i a l context i s one of a f u t u r e "healing", the FG makes Jesus the instrument of that r e s t o r a t i o n . 1 3 3 A l s o , the replacement of tetyphloken ("he has made 1 3 2 D. Moody Smith ( i n "The S e t t i n g and Shape of a Johannine N a r r a t i v e Source," JBL 95.2 (June, 1976) 231-241. Here, 239) suggests that because the FG r e n d i t i o n f o l l o w s n e i t h e r the LXX nor the Hebrew v e r s i o n s , i t s i n c l u s i o n must be a t t r i b u t e d to a l a t e r " C h r i s t i a n " hand, and not to the e v a n g e l i s t . The idea of an " i n v e r t e d quotation" makes the d i s c r e p a n c i e s p r o d u c t i v e , r a t h e r than h i n d e r i n g , i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 1 3 3 Cf. J u d i t h M. L i e u ( i n "Blindness i n the Johannine T r a d i t i o n , " NTS 34.1 (January, 1988) 83-95. Here, 86), who proposes that the subject, "he", of John 12:40 i s to be understood as Jesus, i m p l y i n g that he i s the counterpart t o I s a i a h . 66 b l i n d " ) f o r the o r i g i n a l ekammusan ("they have closed") suggests that the quotation i s to be understood i n l i g h t of the "blindness" of John 9, i . e . , i t i s a ma n i f e s t a t i o n of the w i l l of God so that those a f f l i c t e d w i l l be "converted" and thus r e v e a l h i s g l o r y . Conversion, then, should be the context of t h i s FG 'healing' p e r i c o p e . 1 3 4 (A s i m i l a r deduction from the a n a l y s i s of John 4:46f, which depicted a conversion i n the context of (divine/mundane) monarchical a l l e g i a n c e , complements t h i s ) . The lame man's s t o r y revealed a conversion i n the realm of the p r i e s t s , and here, the b l i n d man i s shown to have an i n t r i g u i n g a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the Pharisees, who are l a t e r depicted i n terms of "blindness" themselves. I f the "lame" correspond to the ' f e t t e r e d ' p r i e s t s , the " b l i n d " , i t may be proposed, r e f e r to the P h a r i s e e s . 1 3 5 L i e u supposes that i t i s the "response to Jesus" which determines " s i n " . 1 3 6 In the s t o r y of the b l i n d man, however, Jesus removes the concept of s i n from the "son" before any a c t i o n / r e a c t i o n occurs (9:3), and the i n h e r i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Cf. Harvey (117 and n.73), who suggests that the h e a l i n g of ailments was a s i g n of emancipation from the " c o n s t r a i n t on human d i g n i t y and freedom"; i n context, though, Harvey's c o n c l u s i o n r e f e r s to r e a l p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , not m o r a l / s p i r i t u a l 'bindings'. 1 3 5 In Gal 4:8-9, the l i f e before 'conversion' i s seen as an enslavement, w i t h the o l d laws ( i . e . , the P h a r i s a i c laws) imposing a "begging" s p i r i t upon men which they must overcome. The idea of the "prosaton" here, may i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r form of 'bondage', where the b l i n d man, once beholden to the Pharisees, i s seen to be 'transformed'. 1 3 6 J u d i t h L i e u , "Blindness i n the Johannine T r a d i t i o n , " NTS 34.1 (January 1988) 83-95 (here 84). However, wi t h the o f f i c e r ' s son, the matter was handled i n such a way as to suggest a c e r t a i n d e s i r e to r i d the c h i l d of the 'sins of the f a t h e r ' , i l l u s t r a t i n g an i n h e r i t e d ' s i n ' , and i n the lame man's case, i t was determined that the " s i n " about which Jesus warns i s a s t a t e of existence which precedes Jesus' involvement. 67 g u i l t , as expressed i n Exod 10:5-6, i s a l s o immediately precluded i n t h i s case. 1 3 7 I t i s , then, something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , namely a s t a t e of mind imposed upon him by the sect. He may be a young Pharisee, perhaps a novice, or pos t u l a n t , such as Josephus d e s c r i b e s . 1 3 8 His age i s a l l u d e d to twice (vv.21,23) implying that he i s "of age" i . e . , to make h i s own choice regarding s e c t a r i a n membership. 1 3 9 The r e a c t i o n of the parents, l a t e r , i n 9:22, suggests that the focus of the Pharisees' anger i s upon the 'choice' the son has made and t h e i r wrath i s r a i s e d as a thr e a t against any f u r t h e r ' r e b e l l i o n ' from the f a m i l y . That the Pharisees appear t o be t a k i n g t h i s event so 'personally' i s thus a cl u e t o i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Jesus s p i t s on the ground i n order to make a small amount of " c l a y " , w i t h which he anoints the b l i n d man's eyes. The term used f o r 'anointing' here i s epechrio,- n e a r l y every instance of i n d i v i d u a l s being commissioned, chosen, delegated, e t c . , i n the LXX, incorporates or s p e c i f i e s the verb c h r i o . 1 4 0 This may w In the case of the o f f i c e r and that of the lame man, the p o s i t i o n of a c h i l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y a "son", i s determined by h i s f a t h e r ; the nobleman w i l l give r i s e to noblemen, the p r i e s t to p r i e s t s . In the case of the Pharisee, the p o s i t i o n i s one of choice, i . e . , i t i s not an i n h e r i t e d status (Jeremias 251f). 1 3 8 Josephus, L i f e , 1.2. 1 3 9 Josephus (ibid) claims that he was a novice i n each of the three s e c t s , Pharisees, Essenes, and Sadducees, before making the choice, at the age of nineteen, to adhere to the P h a r i s e e s . l t i s no longer a matter f o r h i s parents to i n f l u e n c e ; that the young man was born i n t o a s t a t e of "blindness" may (metaphorically) r e f l e c t the i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the P h a r i s a i c sect, i n the manner of, but i n con t r a s t to the ' i l l u m i n a t i n g ' " b i r t h from above" ( i . e . , as the i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the new kingdom). 1 4 0 McKenzie 35; Geza Vermes, Jesus the Jew: A H i s t o r i a n ' s Reading of the Gospels, (London: C o l l i n s , 1973) 158-159. A l s o , i n Rev 3:18, a s i m i l a r context i s apparent f o r the employment of the 68 i n d i c a t e that i n John 9, the a p p l i c a t i o n of the wet c l a y i s to be understood i n terms of an " e l e c t i o n " . Having been anointed/elected, the man i s sent to the pool of Siloam to wash away the c l a y . In the e x p l i c i t reference to the name of the pool, w i t h the added gloss emphasizing the "sent" element, an i n t e r t e x t u a l echo of Isa 8:6 i s created. Here, the people of Judah are seen as malcontents and deviants, " r e f u s i n g the waters of Shi l o a h " which flow g e n t l y . For t h i s they must endure the t o r r e n t from the north ( i . e . , A s s y r i a , under the guise of the R i v e r Euphrates; i n the FG echo, Rome), which w i l l act as a sweeping 'judgement' (vv.5-9). I s a i a h i s warned not to "conspire" w i t h people who f e a r ( i . e . , regard, etc.) men r a t h e r than God (vv.l2f) . In the FG, the b l i n d man i s the very a n t i t h e s i s of the "Judah" of Isa 8, f o r he w i l l i n g l y accepts the gentle waters of Siloam, c l e a n s i n g himself i n i t s (metaphorical) depths. 1 4 1 M. Davies notes that the given t r a n s l a t i o n i s not the "passive p a r t i c i p i a l form of the Hebrew verb 'to send'". 1 4 2 This term, "Shiloah", however, stems from the Hebrew verb shalach, sometimes t r a n s l a t e d as "to send" 1 4 3, but which a l s o c a r r i e s the connotation of g i v i n g up/leaving, e t c . , and, appointing/sending out. The i n t e r t e x t u a l , thematic echo i s an i n t e n t i o n a l one, but the ambiguity of the name i s a l s o e x p l o i t e d f o r symbolic purposes c h r i o verb, e.g., a s t a t e of 'blindness', an a p p l i c a t i o n to the eyes, and a p o t e n t i a l f o r ' s i g h t ' . 1 4 1 The a l l u s i o n i n f e r s that the defeat of Rome i s contingent upon the complete 'submission' of I s r a e l to God, and thus expands on the ideology of John 6. 1 4 2 M. Davies, 272. 1 4 3 Newman and Nida, 302. 69 (e.g., as Beth-zatha, e t c . ) . As wi t h the prophet I s a i a h , the b l i n d man's connections with the Pharisees (who value t h e i r own d o c t r i n e s more than God's, e.g., John 8:39-47) are severed. E f f e c t i v e l y , the b l i n d man renounces the Pharisee's a u t h o r i t y i n deference to Jesus', becoming one of Jesus' e l e c t , and one of God's new "chosen". Together w i t h the 'anointing' aspect of the " c l a y " , the b l i n d man's c o n v e r s i o n / e l e c t i o n f u l l y s a t i s f i e s the " e l e c t i o n " element of Ezek 16. The immediate r e a c t i o n of the "neighbours" and those who had seen the b l i n d man before i s to query whether t h i s changed man was t r u l y the "beggar" they had been acquainted w i t h . In the NT the term "begging" (or "beggar") i s used i n a very i l l u m i n a t i n g context i n Gal 4:8-9; the l i f e before conversion i s seen as an enslavement, w i t h the o l d laws ( i . e . , P h a r i s a i c law) imposing a "begging" s p i r i t upon men, which they must overcome. 1 4 4 I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e to see i n John 9 a s t r u c t u r a l / t h e m a t i c echo of the t a l e of Balaam, i n Num 22. Balaam, a 'seer' sent from k i n g Balak of the Moabs to curse the I s r a e l i t e s , i s t r a v e l l i n g along the road on a donkey. On three separate occasions the donkey i s prevented from c o n t i n u i n g on h i s way by an angel who stands i n the road, unnoticed by Balaam (cf. the i m p l i c a t i o n of John 1:26) . 1 4 4 The b l i n d man i s taken not to a p r i e s t , which was the accepted procedure f o r the f i n a l assurance of ' c l e a n l i n e s s ' a f t e r an ailment or disease (according to Lev 12ff) , but t o the Pharisees, whose f i r s t r e a c t i o n i s to deny, or refuse to b e l i e v e , that the man was b l i n d i n the f i r s t place (v. 18) . This demonstrates two t h i n g s , i . e . , t h e i r own i n a b i l i t y to "see" and understand, and a l s o the i m p l i c i t a f f i r m a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the young man and the Pharisees. I f the youth i s , indeed, a postula n t Pharisee, i t would make p e r f e c t sense f o r the concerned people to b r i n g him before h i s mentors i f he has performed i n any way con t r a r y to t h e i r laws and r e g u l a t i o n s . 70 Then, "the Lord open[s] the eyes of Balaam" (v.31); he sees the angel there on the road and f a l l s t o the ground before him. "I have come out as an adversary, because your way i s perverse before me," warns the angel. Balaam i s 'converted' by the angel of God, and he becomes I s r a e l ' s own prophet, b l e s s i n g r a t h e r than c u r s i n g the n a t i o n . 1 4 5 His "eye" i s made " c l e a r " ; he sees "the v i s i o n of the Almighty" and knows the knowledge of the Most High" (Num 24:3-4) . In John 9, the character of the b l i n d man echoes that of Balaam, i n the i n i t i a l , r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e s of 'blindness', i n the s p i r i t u a l 'conversion' as a r e s u l t of 'seeing', and i n the three-f o l d b l e s s i n g / c o n f e s s i o n each undertake. In Balaam's case, v i s i o n i s equated w i t h the r e c e i v i n g of d i v i n e knowledge, of 'understanding'; t h i s concurs w i t h the LXX v e r s i o n of Ps 146:8, which d e p i c t s 's i g h t ' i n terms of "wisdom" (sophia). The character of Balaam appears i n s e v e r a l places throughout the B i b l e , e.g., Num 31:16, Deut 23:4, Josh 24:9, Jude 11, and 2 Pet 2:15, yet i n these instances he i s depicted i n l e s s agreeable terms - i n f a c t he i s q u i t e an unsavoury character. What then, makes the p o r t r a i t i n Num 22 so unique? The answer, perhaps, l i e s i n the context of Num 22, and the o v e r a l l i m p l i c a t i o n of the defeat, or conversion of Balaam. Alleman suggests that the reason Balaam i s presented so p o s i t i v e l y i n t h i s i n i t i a l scene, i s that he i s being manipulated or e x p l o i t e d by God f o r the purpose of demonstrating how God f r u s t r a t e s the designs of those who might do harm to h i s Notice the s i m i l a r i t y to the a l l e g e d conversion of Paul. 71 people. 1 4 6 Perhaps there i s more, though, i n that Balaam i s presented as a 'seer' who i n q u i r e s of Yahweh ( i n the manner of the A a r o n i t e p r i e s t who held the Urim and Thummim), but somehow seems to misunderstand or m i s i n t e r p r e t h i s d i v i n e messages (cf. Num 22:22) ; even though he i s proudly c l a i m i n g to be doing the w i l l of God, h i s stubbornness and 'blindness', w i t h respect to the angel, r e v e a l h i s true nature. He is. conceited and proud (thus t h i s p o r t r a y a l i s i n keeping w i t h the l a t e r ones) , which i s why t h i s demonstrative 'conversion' takes on such a humbling aspect. The moral of the s t o r y seems to be: Those who presume to know and c a r r y out the w i l l of God, but f a i l to act i n accordance w i t h i t , r e a l l y do not know i t at a l l , and must be thwarted (cf. John 10:8) . Is t h i s not the message of John 9:40-41, w i t h respect to the Pharisees? I f the d e p i c t i o n of the b l i n d man echoes that of Balaam, as i t appears to, the p r o b a b i l i t y i s that h i s comparable conversion takes place i n a s i m i l a r context. As a young Pharisee, the b l i n d man would be a p o t e n t i a l i n h i b i t e r of t h i s a n t i c i p a t e d g l o r y f o r I s r a e l , j u s t as Balaam's curses would have been; Jesus i s a t t r i b u t e d the r o l e of the angel who comes out as an 'adversary' and who opens the man's eyes (e.g., gives him wisdom). This, i t seems, i s why the Pharisees take offense: Jesus i s openly commissioning one of t h e i r own f o r h i s cause. He i s , i n e f f e c t , h u m i l i a t i n g them. 1 4 7 Casey sees problems i n the h i s t o r i c i t y of the a l l e g e d t h r e a t s 1 4 6 H.C. Alleman and E.E. Flack, Old Testament Commentary, ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s , 1978) 288-289. 1 4 7 In John 7, the Pharisees f i n d i t preposterous that any of there own people should f o l l o w Jesus, the i r o n y of t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n i s r e v ealed here, i n John 9. 72 of excommunication (9:22) against those who confessed Jesus the Messiah, 1 4 8 and t h i s i s c o r r e c t , f o r i t was not a crime to support a Messianic contender. Jesus, i n the FG, however, i s not a Messianic contender i n the t r a d i t i o n a l , or common, sense; i t i s , perhaps, because h i s f o l l o w e r s are seen to be adopting a 'new' r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i t y that they are dismissed from the synagogues; Jesus i s s e t t i n g up an a l t e r n a t i v e a u t h o r i t y to which the d i s i l l u s i o n e d and 'oppressed' are beginning t o t u r n , so he i s perceived as a threat to the status quo - by c r e a t i n g a new 'priesthood', w i t h himself as the d i v i n e l y ordained high p r i e s t , Jesus s y m b o l i c a l l y n u l l i f i e s the a u t h o r i t y of the P h a r i s e e s , 1 4 9 but he a l s o r e j e c t s the dominion of the current high p r i e s t and h i s i n t i m a t e c i r c l e . Anyone condoning such an act of "blasphemy" would, indeed, be censured and e x p e l l e d from houses of prayer, i . e . , synagogues . 1 5 0 Emancipation Barnabas Lindars defends an apparently common theory that the Lazarus s t o r y of the FG i s but an amalgamation of Synoptic themes Casey, 31. |i,y Cf. O'Day ("John 7") 636-637, who suggests a s i m i l a r r e s u l t , w i t h respect to the n u l l i f i e d a u t h o r i t y of the Pharisees (here, i n the context of the adu l t e r e s s ' p e r i c o p e ) . 1 5 0 Regarding the 'expulsion' of the b l i n d man himse l f , Lee (178) suggests that he was excommunicated, whereas Von Wahlde (" L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e s " , 113, n.102) p r e f e r s to see him as merely removed from the Pharisees' immediate presence. Perhaps both e v e n t u a l i t i e s take place, the former, as explained above, and the l a t t e r , perhaps, as an expulsion from the sect i t s e l f . Jeremias (251-252) e x p l a i n s that the sect was governed i n t e r n a l l y , and such behaviour as the b l i n d man e x h i b i t s would, indeed, be cause f o r d i s m i s s a l . 73 plus some, as yet u n v e r i f i e d , unique source. 1 5 1 "There can be no d i s p u t e , " he w r i t e s , "that i t has a t h e o l o g i c a l purpose which dominates the whole n a r r a t i v e , " but because of the p r o f u n d i t y of t h i s t h e o l o g i c a l content, many attempts to d i s c e r n the "source" of the composition have been "given up as hopeless". 1 5 2 As a r e s u l t , L i n d a r s concludes, the h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the work has a l s o been l o s t . 1 5 3 By reading the n a r r a t i v e i n the l i g h t of i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , however, the Lazarus pericopae r e v e a l both t h e i r ' h i s t o r i c a l ' s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the Jesus Movement and the p o t e n t i a l sources f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . Recognition of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Jesus and Lazarus, which i s made so e x p l i c i t at the very s t a r t of the n a r r a t i v e , i s important. The phrase, "he whom you love", as used i n John 11:3, i m p l i c i t l y e s t a b l i s h e s the father/son element of the s t o r y . Precedents f o r the use of such a saying i n the OT are few, and are as f o l l o w s : Cant 3 : I f (lover/husband), E c c l 9:9 ( w i f e ) , and Gen 22:2 (father/son). Although the f i r s t two are p o s s i b l e contenders ( i . e . , i n the context of the d i v i n e - b r i d e s t r u c t u r e ) , the l a t t e r i s the most appropriate f o r t h i s pericope, f o r i t r e f l e c t s the predominant themes of father/son and of ' s a c r i f i c e ' , which w i l l be discussed i n a moment. In t h i s precedent (Gen 22) i s the a d d i t i o n a l 11,1 Barnabas Li n d a r s , "Rebuking the S p i r i t : A New A n a l y s i s of the Lazarus Story of John 11," NTS 38.1 (January 1992) 89-104 (here, 97;99) . 1 5 2 L i n d a r s , 89. 1 5 3 Cf. R.E. Brown ( i n The Gospel According to John, V o l 1., Anchor B i b l e 29, (New York: Doubleday, 1966) 414,427-430), who claims that the e n t i r e episode causes problems w i t h any attempted harmonization w i t h the Synoptic sequence, and would b e n e f i t the FG only by i t s removal! 74 a t t r i b u t i o n of ton aqapeton, which i n f e r s uniqueness, but a l s o a sense of d i v i n e f a v o u r i t i s m , an aspect of the subsequent FG n a r r a t i v e ( i . e . , the Beloved D i s c i p l e , henceforth, BD. See below) . This father/son perception of the "beloved" i s graduated, 1 5 4 p r o g r e s s i n g from God to Jesus/Abraham, to Lazarus/Isaac, and i s f u r t h e r emphasized i n the r e l a t i v e terminology of John 3:14 and 11:23, 12:1. Each of these cases r e f l e c t s the nature of an e l e v a t i o n ; f o r Jesus, hupsos suggests connotations of e x a l t a t i o n and g l o r y , w h i l s t f o r Lazarus, two separate terms are employed, anistemi (11:23) and egeiro (12:1), both of which i n d i c a t e a r a t h e r more mundane event such as a r i s e i n s t a t u r e and/or a type of awakening, e t c . 1 5 5 Jesus, then, i s e x a l t e d to a ' d i v i n e ' l e v e l (remember the context of Nehushtan, which represented the power of God), w h i l s t Lazarus' e l e v a t i o n i s one, perhaps, of h i e r a r c h i c a l (earthly) s t a t u s . S i m i l a r l y , the Father, Yahweh, must s a c r i f i c e the Son, Jesus (John 3:16f, e t c . ) , Abraham must s a c r i f i c e h i s son, Isaac, the "beloved", and so too must Jesus a l l o w Lazarus, h i s beloved, to "die" (e.g., by remaining at a distance f o r two days). However, redemption and g l o r i f i c a t i o n are e s s e n t i a l to each sce n a r i o ; the s a c r i f i c e of Isaac secured the I s r a e l i t e n a t i o n , the ' s a c r i f i c e ' of Lazarus w i l l secure the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of Jesus, and i n t u r n , Jesus' s a c r i f i c i a l death w i l l secure the new Kingdom (cf. John 1:29) . This c o n t i n u i t y i m p l i e s that Lazarus i s to be For a good d i s c u s s i o n on the God/Jesus-Israel r e l a t i o n s h i p , see M. Davies, 129-132. 1 5 5 Cf. 1 Cor 11:30, 15:18; the f i r s t example, i t should be noted, however, bears a s t r i k i n g resemblance to the FG i n i t s d e p i c t i o n of the "weak", the " i l l " and the "dead", whose c o n d i t i o n a r i s e s from a lack of s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t i o n / c o n v i c t i o n , e t c . 75 i n t e r p r e t e d as Jesus' symbolic "son"; i n t h i s sense, Lazarus, too, should be understood i n terms of " e l e c t i o n " , and t h i s becomes more evident as the gospel continues. Lazarus i s , i n i t i a l l y , d eclared an asthenon (John 11:1); the category of the " i n f i r m " , e.g., those who a n t i c i p a t e a "healing" at the Pool of Beth-zatha, i s now represented by Lazarus. There are OT examples of i n f i r m i t y which depict emotional c r i s e s (e.g., Prov 13:12; Dan 8:27, e t c . ) , and others which denote the wayward nature of I s r a e l (e.g., Ezek 34; Hos 5:13). Some s h i f t the emphasis of a s t o r y (to change a moral, s p i r i t u a l , or c i r c u m s t a n t i a l d i r e c t i o n of a character or event) , such as i n 1 Kgs 14, where the concern about the p o s s i b l e death of an i n d i v i d u a l i s s h i f t e d to emphasize the p o t e n t i a l , s p i r i t u a l death of I s r a e l . 1 5 6 Such i n f i r m i t i e s as do not a c t u a l l y r e s u l t i n p h y s i c a l "death" are, nonetheless, mourned as vehemently as death i t s e l f , as i n Ps 38:6,8 and Job 2:11-12. Even a t r i a l before the Sanhedrin i s t r e a t e d as a k i n d of "death". 1 5 7 The ideas of "mourning", of "weeping" and "groaning" are a l l a p p l i e d to t h i s s t a t e of m o r a l / s p i r i t u a l predicament; Lazarus' ambiguous ' i n f i r m i t y / d e a t h ' i s r e f l e c t i v e of t h i s m o r a l / s p i r i t u a l predicament. In e f f e c t , Lazarus r e f l e c t s the d e b i l i t a t e d I s r a e l i t s e l f . 1 5 8 The r a i s i n g of the metap h o r i c a l l y "dead" from one l i f e to another as a s i g n of God's i n t e n t i o n to r e s t o r e the t a i n t e d 156 -phis pericope a n t i c i p a t e s the format of John 11:1-3, i n that the one who i s b e l i e v e d to be able to help the s i c k boy i s sought out by a woman. See a l s o , 2 Kgs 20, Ps 41, e t c . 1 5 7 Josephus, Ant., 14.9.4. 1 5 8 Where I s r a e l i s the e l e c t of Yahweh, Lazarus i s a l s o " e l e c t e d " . 76 r e l a t i o n s h i p between him and h i s people, to show mercy and e x a l t the r i g h t e o u s , i s strong i n the I s r a e l i t e t r a d i t i o n , as i n the FG: " . . . a l l who are i n t h e i r graves w i l l hear h i s v o i c e and w i l l come out - those who have done good, to the r e s u r r e c t i o n of l i f e . . . .." (John 5:28-29. Cf. Deut 30:19, 2 Esdr 2:15-16, Ezek 37:12,14). The v i s u a l imagery i n these OT examples, of a "dead" I s r a e l , l y i n g i n i t s 'tomb' or grave, awaiting the d i v i n e g i f t of the " s p i r i t " i n order to b r i n g i t back to " l i f e " , would not have been a new concept f o r the e a r l y readers of the FG. From the p a t t e r n of c o n f r o n t a t i o n thus f a r e x h i b i t e d between Jesus and the P h a r i s e e s / c h i e f p r i e s t s , a r i s e s a p o t e n t i a l ' c o n f r o n t a t i o n ' context f o r t h i s pericope. In the a l l u s i o n t o d a y l i g h t and night, i n vv. 6-10. Jesus answers the d i s c i p l e s w orried statement w i t h the c r y p t i c assurance, "Are there not twelve hours of d a y l i g h t ? " e t c . There are twelve d i v i s i o n s of " l i g h t " ; there i s a d i v i n e l y e l e c t e d c i r c l e of twelve d i s c i p l e s . Those who walk i n the l i g h t do not "stumble" because God i s i n that l i g h t ; those who walk at "night" stumble because the " l i g h t i s not i n them" - God i s not i n them (cf. 5:40-42, 8:47, e t c . ) . Already we are provided a context of ' b a t t l e ' , or 'contest'; God i s on the side of righteousness and Jesus has f u l l confidence i n the success of h i s 'army' of " l i g h t " . The a n t i c i p a t e d g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the "Son of God" (John 11:4) demonstrates a b e l i e f that God's a u t h o r i t y l i e s w i t h Jesus, not the FG "Jews"; the ideology/theology of the subsequent FG scene, then, profoundly echoes the r e l i g i o u s contest between E l i j a h and the Baal worshippers i n 1 Kgs 18:17f. Even the tone, form and context of Jesus' prayer i n John 11:41-42 s t r o n g l y 77 echoes that of E l i j a h i n 1 Kgs 18:36-37. 1 5 9 I t should be noted here that t h i s g l o r i f i c a t i o n " i s s p e l l e d out i n 17:5 as [the] r e t u r n to the g l o r y shared w i t h the Father from the foundation of the world. . . ." 1 6 0 Such a d e f i n i t i o n r e f l e c t s Jesus' words regarding the r e t u r n of the "Son of Man" to h i s ' o r i g i n a l ' high s t a t u s "before" (6:62), e.g., before the ( s p i r i t u a l ) ' f a l l ' of I s r a e l . I t a l s o r e f l e c t s the c e n t r a l t h e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the a n t i c i p a t e d 're-marriage' of I s r a e l to God. This f i n a l contest i s a demonstration of the power of God. I t takes place i n an extremely symbolic context, which, when analyzed i n regard, to i t s apparent i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes, d i s p l a y s a c l i m a c t i c s y n t h e s i s of r e u n i f i c a t i o n and p r i e s t l y themes. The FG author uses the phrase "enebrimesato to pneumati" to i l l u s t r a t e the r e a c t i o n of Jesus when he perceives that Mary has accepted the "mourning" of the "Jews", echoing Saul's behaviour i n 1 Sam l l : 4 f (LXX 1 Kgs l l : 4 f ) . 1 6 1 When Saul sees the people "weeping" because they f e a r they s h a l l never be emancipated from the Ammonites, h i s "anger [is] g r e a t l y k i n d l e d " (v.6). He sends out the message that any who do not f o l l o w God's chosen leaders are 1 s y For an a l t e r n a t i v e r e n d i t i o n of t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n aspect of the FG, see J u d i t h L. Kovacs, "Now S h a l l the Ruler of This World Be Driven Out": Jesus' Death As Cosmic B a t t l e i n John 12:20-36," JBL 114.2 (Summer 1995) 227-247. Kovacs l i n k s the f i n a l day of judgement w i t h the coming of the p a r a k l e t o s and the u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y over Satan; hers i s an a n a l y s i s l e a n i n g more toward the g n o s t i c v i s i o n of a u n i v e r s a l b a t t l e , r a t h e r than one based on ' h i s t o r i c a l ' f i g u r e s . 1 6 0 Loader, 197. 1 6 1 Cf. Lindars (92-96), who i n t e r p r e t s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n as a "rebuking" of an e v i l s p i r i t w i t h i n Lazarus (!). 78 d e s t i n e d f o r d e s t r u c t i o n (v.7). In Jesus, as i n Saul, anger a r i s e s i n the " s p i r i t " (cf. 1 Sam 11:6; John 11:33), i n d i c a t i n g that i t i s not to be a t t r i b u t e d to the prophets, per se, but to God himself -i t i s God, the s p i r i t w i t h i n , who i s enraged, because he has sent h i s "helper" and the people are s t i l l "weeping" f o r themselves! 1 6 2 In Jesus' own "weeping" (11:35), i s observed not the personal " g r i e f " the "Jews" see, but an a l l u s i o n to Jesus' lamentation f o r the s i t u a t i o n at hand, i . e . , the ' c a p t i v i t y ' of God's chosen: ...my soul w i l l weep i n secret f o r your p r i d e ; my eyes w i l l weep b i t t e r l y and run down with t e a r s , because the Lord's f l o c k has been taken ca p t i v e . (Jer 13:17) The- "pride" and the i n i q u i t y of the attendant "Jews" makes t h e i r mourning both i r o n i c , and an hypocrisy: Yet even now, says the Lord, r e t u r n to me wit h a l l your heart, w i t h f a s t i n g , w i t h weeping and w i t h mourning; rend your hearts and not your c l o t h i n g . (Joel 2:12-13) The a c t u a l semeion of the ' r a i s i n g ' of Lazarus i s , i t s e l f , an example of an i n t e r t e x t u a l ' i n v e r s i o n ' , t h i s time of an e n t i r e p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n , namely, Ezek 37:1-14. As i n John 11, i n Ezek 37 there i s a prophet who i s brought to a place of "death", a d i v i n e commission to r e v e a l the glory/knowledge of God (vv.4-6), and a miraculous r e s u s c i t a t i o n / r e s u r r e c t i o n of the dead, based on spoken commands (vv.4,9). What makes t h i s v i s i o n so s i g n i f i c a n t i s i t s 1 6 2 Cf. J e r 4:19f, where Yahweh speaks of h i s broken heart and anguish, because h i s people are so f o o l i s h and f a i l to understand. This a l s o r e f l e c t s the f a i l u r e to see the "saviour" i n John 1:26. 79 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n given i n vv.11-14: the "dead" are I s r a e l . Through t h i s v i s i o n , the n a t i o n i s assured of s a l v a t i o n , even from (what may seem to be) the very 'grave' i t s e l f (cf. 37:11, where "death" i s equated w i t h a l o s s of "hope") . A f t e r t h i s v i s i o n , E z e k i e l s y m b o l i c a l l y u n i t e s the houses of Judah and Joseph (Ezek 37:15f) . Given t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l echo (one which f u l l y complements those of ' s a l v a t i o n ' i n John 6:13f and of reunion i n John 4-5) , the r e s u s c i t a t i o n / r e s u r r e c t i o n of Lazarus can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a f u l f i l l e d prophecy of redemption and r e u n i f i c a t i o n , no longer a v i s i o n of the f u t u r e , but a r e a l i t y of the 'present' . 1 6 3 Jesus remains beyond the 'tomb', and c a l l s Lazarus from "death" to " l i f e " . M e t a p h o r i c a l l y bound i n the c l o t h s of the dead, Lazarus i s r e s u r r e c t e d . The observers, or mourners, are t o l d to r e l e a s e him from h i s bonds 1 6 4 and to l e t him go free (John 11:44) . This order to 'release' Lazarus from h i s 'bonds' thus acts as a profound echo of Exod 5:1 (et al) : "Let my people go"! 1 6 5 1 6 5 Harvey (103) suggests that the Lazarus semeion used as i t s frame of reference the " c l i m a c t i c expression of a power over l i f e and death, " and need not have been given credence, even i n i t s e a r l y days, as a "miracle" i n the sense of a "supernatural f e a t " . 1 6 4 Robinson (292), amongst others, has commented on the k e i r i a i of John 11:44, which "are not ' l i n e n bands' but thongs or cords" . These are not mentioned i n the b u r i a l c l o t h s of John 19:40f, and thus have a s i g n i f i c a n c e unique to Lazarus. In t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t e of "bondage", the symbolism becomes c l e a r . 1 6 5 J.D. D e r r e t t , i n "Binding and Loosing (Matt 16:9;18:18; John 20:23)," JBL 102.1 (March 1983) 112-117, notes the theme of r e l e a s e and bondage i n John 20:23, i n the context of the r e t e n t i o n or e x p i a t i o n of " s i n " (113) . Cf. , a l s o , the d e c l a r a t i o n against "death" Saul makes i n 1 Sam 11:13, i n d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the "deliverance" of I s r a e l . Cf. M. Davies (334) who claims that "Lazarus i s r e s u s c i t a t e d to an o r d i n a r y mundane exist e n c e which i s v u l n e r a b l e to death, not r e s u r r e c t e d to a transformed l i f e . " The m o t i v a t i o n i s , i n s t e a d , one of redemption f o r a l l I s r a e l . 80 P r i e s t l y Theme From a p r i e s t l y p e r s p e c t i v e , what i s most s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s pericope i s the use of symbolic numbers. Jesus delays f o r TWO days, 1 6 6 yet, when he a r r i v e s at the crossroads where Martha meets him, Lazarus has already been dead f o r FOUR days. Without i n v e n t i n g complex r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , what i s r e c e i v e d from the t e x t i s i l l u m i n a t i n g ; there are at l e a s t two s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of t h i s s p e c i f i c time reference. Fundamentally, the stay of two days r e f l e c t s that of John 4:40, where Jesus stays i n Samaria f o r two days before t r a v e l l i n g north to conduct the f i r s t h e a l i n g on the t h i r d day. In John 11, we f i n d Jesus' a r r i v a l on the scene to be, once more, on t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t , r i t u a l i s t i c day, a n t i c i p a t i n g some form of sacred (re-)union, and, as demonstrated above, t h i s proves to be the case. By combining the two s p e c i f i e d periods of time, e.g., TWO plus FOUR, which would make SIX, Jesus' act of ' r e s u r r e c t i o n ' occurs on the seventh day. These two numbers, "three" and "seven", echo the day of the S i n a i covenant (Exod 19:16f) and the p e r i o d p r e s c r i b e d f o r the s e q u e s t r a t i o n / o r d i n a t i o n of p r i e s t s (Lev 9:33) . (In the comparable Secret Gospel of Mark 1 6 7 t h i s same seven-day p e r i o d i s 1 6 6 Some, such as Von Wahlde ("L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e " , 120), and Lee (194, n.3), have supposed the two day delay i n 11:6 to represent the determination of Jesus to prove that Lazarus i s t r u l y ( p h y s i c a l l y ) dead, d e f e r r i n g to the Jewish b e l i e f i n the r e t e n t i o n of the s p i r i t i n the body f o r three days, as evidenced i n Hos 6:2, etc . Lee suggests that Lazarus i s already dead, i . e . , not " i l l " , when Jesus receives the message, and that Jesus withholds t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from h i s d i s c i p l e s u n t i l he i s ready to leave. See a l s o Robinson, 220, n.16 f o r other a s s e r t i o n s . 1 6 7 For the t e x t of the SGM see Barnstone, 342 (See "Acknowledgements"). 81 employed i n the context of an i n i t i a t i o n r i t e ) . 1 6 8 Having deduced from t h i s use of numbers that the semeion i s to be understood i n terms of p r i e s t l y i n i t i a t i o n , there i s , i n the imagery of John 11:44, a consequent echo of the 'order' given to the 'observers' i n Zech 3:4: "Take o f f h i s f i l t h y c l o t h e s " . 1 6 9 In t h i s precedent pericope i s depicted the p u r i f i c a t i o n of the p r i e s t h o o d , symbolized by the removal of the " f i l t h y c l o t h e s " (cf. "stench" i n John 11:39?) and the donning of a "clean t u r b a n " . 1 7 0 In c o n trast to Lee's conclusion that the author intends no s i g n i f i c a n t etymology i n the case of "Lazarus", 1 7 1 the f i n d i n g s of t h i s i n t e r t e x t u a l approach to the pericope i n d i c a t e that the FG name echoes that of "Eleazar", the name given to the "son" and h e i r 1 6 0 E.g., a f t e r s i x days, i . e . , on the seventh, Jesus gives orders to the 'resurrected' youth, who then comes to him l a t e r that evening (cf. Lev 9:1), dressed i n l i n e n . He undergoes some s o r t of i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , where he receives the "knowledge" of God. The emphasis on the " l i n e n " garment i s noted by Marvin Meyer ( i n "The Youth i n the Secret Gospel of Mark," Semeia 49 (1990) 129-153. Here 145) , who suggests i t i s a " r i t u a l garment". The 'under t u n i c ' of the p r i e s t i s a l s o of a f i n e l i n e n . J.D. Crossan ( i n The H i s t o r i c a l Jesus: The L i f e of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant, (San F r a n c i s c o : Harper, 1991) 330), suggests that the six-day p e r i o d mentioned i n the SGM i s a r e f l e c t i o n of "Coptic" baptismal r i t e s . 1 6 9 For a d i s c u s s i o n on the p r i e s t l y i n v e s t i t u r e w i t h respect to t h i s passage, see James C. Vanderkam, "Joshua the High P r i e s t and the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Zechariah 3," CBQ 53.1 (January, 1991) 553-570. Here, 556-558 and n.16. 1 7 0 Barbara T h i e r i n g , ( i n Jesus the Man, (London: C o r g i , 1993) 134) suggests that the c l o t h which i s s a i d to be "wrapped" around Lazarus' face i s , i n f a c t , the turban of a p r i e s t . Although t h i s remark would help support the hypothesis presented here, i t does not t a l l y w i t h Jesus' apparent order f o r a l l the b u r i a l - c l o t h s to be removed. Ezek 24:17 commands the p r i e s t to "bind on [his] turban", but Josephus, Ant. 3.7.3 describes the p r i e s t l y turban as being wound about the top of the head, l i k e a crown, not as being bound about the face. The transference of the p r i e s t l y turban comes, as w i l l be shown, l a t e r i n the n a r r a t i v e . 1 7 1 Lee 192, n . l . 82 of Aaron the p r i e s t , i n Exod 6:23ff. 1 7 2 Jesus' l i f e , as the reader i s now w e l l aware, i s i n jeopardy; i f the m o t i v a t i o n behind the Movement i s , i n f a c t , to create an a l t e r n a t i v e , p u r i f i e d p r i e s t h o o d through which the repentant I s r a e l can r e t u r n to God, i t i s p e r f e c t l y understandable that Jesus w i l l have to p l a n ahead, should he himself be unable to lead them i n t o the new Promised Land. Just as Aaron had passed the p r i e s t h o o d on to E l e a z a r (Num 20:25-26), and as Moses had handed over the " s p i r i t " to Joshua (Deut 34:9), so Jesus w i l l , at the appropriate juncture, pass h i s a u t h o r i t y over to h i s chosen successor. Again, the concept of " e l e c t i o n " i s paramount. Summary The concept of "blindness" i n the FG i s seen to be metaphorical, implying a lack of knowledge or wisdom, and t h i s i s shown to be a p t l y demonstrated i n the context of the Pharisees' involvement i n the b l i n d man's st o r y . In the s t r u c t u r a l / t h e m a t i c echo of Num 22, where the conversion of Balaam i s i n s t i g a t e d by the messenger of God who comes as an "adversary", the b l i n d man i s seen to undergo a s i m i l a r f a t e i n that he appears to convert from the 'ignorance' of the Pharisees to the 'wisdom' of Jesus/God. The a p p l i c a t i o n of the " c l a y " , the act of bathing, and the term "Siloam" combine to create the necessary " e l e c t i o n " and " c l e a n s i n g " aspects of the Ezek 16 p a t t e r n . This e l e c t i o n seems to be of a young Pharisee, complementing the ' p r i e s t l y ' conversion i n John 5. Robinson (218, n . l l ) suggests that the v i l l a g e named " E l -Azariyeh" was named a f t e r Lazarus; the comparable etymology Robinson accepts i s an a t t e s t a t i o n of the "EL-AZAR" connection. 83 Lazarus' r e v i v a l i s found to be depicted i n a symbolic, metaphorical context which i n v o l v e s two main concerns, namely, the r e u n i f i c a t i o n and redemption of I s r a e l , and the inauguration of the p r i e s t h o o d . In the f i r s t case, echoes of the Abraham/Isaac t r a d i t i o n are noted, w i t h respect to the father/son s a c r i f i c e / g l o r i f i c a t i o n themes, r e v e a l i n g a c o n t i n u i t y which i n f e r s an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Jesus and Lazarus. The character's predicament i s shown to be metaphorical, p e r t a i n i n g to the m o r a l / s p i r i t u a l s t a t e of I s r a e l . This provides f o r a context of " b a t t l e " i n which s t r u c t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l echoes of 1 Sam 11, Ezek 37 and Exodus i l l u s t r a t e the s a l v i f i c and emancipatory nature of the semeion. In the symbolic employment of h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t numbers (3,7), a l l u s i o n s are made to the day of covenant and the o r d i n a t i o n r i t u a l of p r i e s t s . An echo of Zech 3 supports t h i s p r i e s t l y p e r s p e c t i v e , a n t i c i p a t i n g the next chapter, which r e v e a l s the a c t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n of the new p r i e s t h o o d i n the remainder of the FG n a r r a t i v e . 84 Chapter S i x : Replacement Prepare to meet your God, 0 I s r a e l ! (Amos 4:12) In the l a s t chapter " e l e c t i o n " formed the foundation of the " b l i n d man" and "Lazarus" pericopae, w i t h the context of the former, 'conversion', and of the l a t t e r , emancipation. Lazarus' s t o r y i n i t i a t e s an a d d i t i o n a l ' p r i e s t l y ' context, which now e s c a l a t e s i n the remainder of the gospel n a r r a t i v e . 1 7 3 In the c e n t r a l t h e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , which acts as a 'support' f o r the r e s t of the t e x t , the b a s i c 'condensed' v e r s i o n of " i n f i d e l i t y , g u i l t , f orgiveness, and e l e v a t i o n , " allows f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n of the echo. However, the b l i n d man's pericope revealed the beginnings of a d e v i a t i o n from t h i s fundamentally feminine p e r s p e c t i v e of I s r a e l , and s h i f t e d the p a t t e r n of Ezek 16 i n t o the masculine sphere. From the " e l e c t i o n " , through " c l e a n s i n g " and " e l e v a t i o n " , a p a r a l l e l p a t t e r n i s i n evidence, i n c o r p o r a t i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n and f u l l inauguration of the p r i e s t h o o d . A week before the f i n a l Passover (which w i l l form an i n c l u s i o w i t h the Passover of John 2:13, and which w i l l f u l f i l the word of the B a p t i s t i n 1:29), a dinner i s given, where Lazarus i s "one of those at the t a b l e with" Jesus ( 1 2 : I f ) . The meal scenario, given the redemptive/emancipatory context of Lazarus' ' r a i s i n g ' , 1 7 3 Lee, however, remarks that "While Lazarus seems at f i r s t to be the c e n t r a l character, h i s r o l e i s a passive one and the t e x t has l i t t l e to say about h i s f a i t h . " ( 1 8 9 . See a l s o 197, n . l ) . She de c l a r e s that John 11 i s the end of Lazarus, and that "To ask questions of [his] f a t e . . . i s to move beyond the t e x t " (194 n.l) , concluding that i t must be the women who are most s i g n i f i c a n t i n the Lazarus pericope (189ff). This chapter i s aimed at d i s p e l l i n g such conclusions. 85 f u n c t i o n s as a i d e o l o g i c a l echo of Isa 25:6-10. Here, the 'redeemed' of I s r a e l are to receive a " f e a s t " i n c e l e b r a t i o n of the conquest of God over the ( f i g u r a t i v e ) "death" of the people. In another OT t r a d i t i o n where there i s a c e l e b r a t o r y 'meal', there i s u s u a l l y to be seen the e l e c t i o n of a new "leader". In the case of Aaron and h i s sons, both before (Lev 9:31f) and a f t e r (Lev 10:12f) a week of pr e p a r a t i o n , the new p r i e s t s engage i n a number of symbolic s a c r i f i c e s and share i n s p e c i f i c o r d i n a t i o n meals. The r i t e serves to e s t a b l i s h them as the e l i t e of I s r a e l . In Saul's case, the meal takes on a more profound s i g n i f i c a n c e , being at the very core of Samuel's e l e c t i o n and e l e v a t i o n of Saul (1 Sam 9:15ff) : " f o r today you s h a l l eat w i t h me", Samuel p r e d i c t s (9:19) . 1 7 4 In the e s t a b l i s h e d p r i e s t l y h ierarchy, i t was the duty of the o f f i c i a t i n g high p r i e s t to appoint h i s "deputy" one week before the t r a d i t i o n a l Day of Atonement, " i n case of [his being] prevented from c a r r y i n g out h i s du t i e s on that day." 1 7 5 I f the Passover i s to be the s e t t i n g of Jesus' own atoning ' s a c r i f i c e ' , 1 7 6 the e l e c t i o n of a successor/replacement a week before would be f i t t i n g . Only the anointed high p r i e s t or the p r i e s t "consecrated as p r i e s t ^ Great ceremony i s made about the s e r v i n g at the meal ( 1 Sam 9:23-24; c f . John 12:2) and the sharing of the food w i t h the guests (1 Sam 9:24; c f . John 13:26). Saul i s then anointed/appointed as " r u l e r over [God's] h e r i t a g e " (1 Sam 10:1). Cf. Heb 10:21. 1 7 5 Jeremias 161 and n.47. 1 7 6 The death of the high p r i e s t could a l s o atone; c f . Num 35:27f; Deut 19:If. This makes Caiaphas' speech even more i r o n i c ! 86 i n h i s f a t h e r ' s place [could] make atonement" (Lev 16:32). 1 7 7 In t h i s t i m e l y p o r t r a y a l of the c e l e b r a t o r y meal i s seen not only Lazarus' apparent acceptance of h i s new s t a t u s , but a l s o an echo of Jesus' own 'beginnings', where he accepted h i s own duty at the 'wedding f e a s t ' , back i n John 2 . 1 7 8 I t i s as a consequence of the ' r a i s i n g ' of Lazarus that Caiaphas i s heard to pronounce the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the 'scapegoat' (John 11:49-50); t h i s emphasizes the 'atonement' q u a l i t y of Jesus' f i n a l a c t i o n s , foreshadowing the imagery of the two ' s a c r i f i c i a l ' men before P i l a t e i n John 18:38-40. Al s o , j u s t as the excessive a t t e n t i o n of the Pharisees i n John 9 int i m a t e d that t h e i r ' s was a vested i n t e r e s t , so the concerns of the c h i e f p r i e s t s i n d i c a t e a per c e p t i o n of a 'threat' to t h e i r own s e c u r i t y ( i . e . i t could only make sense i n the context of a challenge to the p r i e s t l y s t a t u s quo) . 1 7 9 Not only i s t h i s i r o n i c because the 'corrupt' high p r i e s t i s f i n a l l y speaking the ' t r u t h ' (prophecy), but a l s o because i n h i s words l i e s h i s own f a t e ; he, as the i n s t i t u t i o n a l leader, must 'die' so that the nat i o n may ' l i v e ' . In John 12:9 curious people now come to see Lazarus, not only Jesus. By 12:10-11, the "chief p r i e s t s " p l a n to k i l l Lazarus. Note that the author does not say that t h i s i s because of what Jesus d i d 1 7 7 Note the use of "father " here; although t h i s a l l u d e s to Aaron and h i s sons, i t a l s o a p p l i e s to succeeding high p r i e s t s and t h e i r "sons". Not only does t h i s support the idea of Lazarus being Jesus' ' h e i r ' , i t a l s o provides a precedent f o r the understanding of John 8:44, i . e . , the "fa t h e r of l i e s " (as the corrupt high p r i e s t of the Temple). 1 7 8 And, of course, t h i s i s the s e t t i n g f o r the 'anointing' of Mary; that she i s not the one "serving" i m p l i e s that she, too, perhaps, i s being t r e a t e d as a guest, a ' c e l e b r i t y ' . 1 7 9 E s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard to Roman 'appeasement' . 87 to Lazarus, but because of Lazarus himself. He i s seen as the cause of other "Jews" l e a v i n g t h e i r posts, i . e . , " d e s e r t i n g " . 1 8 0 Is i t p o s s i b l e to i n f e r from t h i s that other p r i e s t s are " d e s e r t i n g " because of h i s example, hoping to f i n d a place i n the new p r i e s t h o o d ? 1 8 1 John 13:3-17 d e p i c t s Jesus bathing the feet of h i s d i s c i p l e s . Segovia r i g h t l y a s s e r t s that the d i s t i n c t i o n between louo ("bathing") and n i p t o ("washing") i s i n t e n t i o n a l , segregating those who are f u l l y 'converted' and those" who r e q u i r e to submit themselves f u r t h e r . 1 8 2 In h i s request to r e c e i v e a d d i t i o n a l c l e a n s i n g , Peter u n w i t t i n g l y r e v e a l s h i s own perhaps dubious a l l e g i a n c e , 1 8 3 and provides the opportunity f o r Jesus to remark on the "one" who i s wholly 'clean'/converted, namely, Lazarus, the An i n t e r e s t i n g scenario i s depicted i n Josephus (J.W. 2.17.1) , where a c e r t a i n Eleazar, a "bold youth" and son of a high p r i e s t , i s reckoned amongst the s e d i t i o u s who r e b e l l e d against the e s t a b l i s h e d high-priesthood. Josephus recounts that the c h i e f p r i e s t s and 'men of power' j o i n e d forces i n an attempt to thwart the r e b e l , but he escaped. Eleazar's a c t i o n s are blamed f o r i n s t i g a t i n g the War w i t h the Romans. 1 8 1 Consider R.A. Horsley's suggestion that the " p r i e s t l y o r i e n t a t i o n and s c h o l a r l y - s c r i b a l s t y l e of the community at Qumran [ i n d i c a t e s that] many of the members may have been Jerusalem e x p a t r i a t e s f o r p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l reasons" (Sociology and the Jesus Movement, 2nd ed. New York: Continuum, 1994) 53. The f l i g h t of p r i e s t s from one f a c t i o n to another i s thus precedented. 1 8 2 F.F. Segovia, "John 13:1-20: The Footwashing i n the Johannine T r a d i t i o n , " ZNW 73 (1982) 31-51. Here, 44 and n.34. Segovia sees t h i s statement as addressed to Peter, even though the sentence i s i m p l i e s the p l u r a l , i . e . , to a m u l t i p l e audience, as i n 4:48. 1 8 3 The a n a l y s i s of Peter i n t h i s regard proved to be very lengthy and convoluted, so i t was omitted from t h i s paper. The r i v a l r y and p o t e n t i a l 'deviance' of Peter, though, i s w e l l a t t e s t e d i n the FG, and i s a f f i r m e d by recent works such as: Arthur J.Droge, "The Status of Peter i n the Fourth Gospel: John 18:10-11," JBL 109.2 (Summer, 1990) 307-311), and A.H. Maynard, "The Role of Peter i n the Fourth Gospel," NTS 30.4 (October, 1984) 531-548. 88 "Beloved". 1 8 4 As the a n t i c i p a t i o n of s a c r i f i c i a l atonement provides the s e t t i n g f o r t h i s "washing", i t i s f i t t i n g f o r Jesus' e l e c t e d successor , h i s symbolic "son", to be r e f e r r e d to once again i n terms which echo h i s own redemption from "death" (e.g., i n the Abraham/Isaac echo) . 1 8 5 In t h i s regard Lazarus had represented I s r a e l , the "Beloved" of Yahweh, and i n h i s new r o l e , t h i s honour i s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . This 'atonement' aspect i s f u r t h e r revealed i n the echo of Lev 16:4, which s t i p u l a t e s the r i t u a l i s t i c c l e a n s i n g of the high p r i e s t before the Day of Atonement; here, the term louo i s employed. In c o n t r a s t , according to Exod 30:18-21, the high p r i e s t and h i s m i n i s t e r s are re q u i r e d to wash t h e i r hands and fe e t i n a b a s i n of water before approaching, or e n t e r i n g the holy s i t e ( i n t h i s case, the tabernacle) , and here, the term n i p t o i s used. Thus the i n t e r t e x t u a l echo i s one based on precedented p r i e s t l y r i t u a l and terminology. Jesus' e l e c t e d body of m i n i s t e r s 1 8 6 r e c e i v e t h e i r 1 8 4 Mark, W.G. Stibbe ( i n John as S t o r y t e l l e r : N a r r a t i v e C r i t i c i s m and the Fourth Gospel, (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992) i s convinced of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Lazarus and the Beloved D i s c i p l e , remarking on the f a c t that previous s c h o l a r s who have proposed t h i s " r a d i c a l t h e s i s " have "not been taken s e r i o u s l y enough" (78); he observes that the "BD passages make much b e t t e r sense" i f Lazarus i s the BD (79). 1 8 5 Casey (25) sees no h i s t o r i c a l accuracy i n the use of the FG's "Father/Son" theme, basing h i s c o n c l u s i o n on the f a c t that i t does not appear i n the Synoptics. Droge (307, n.3) , on the other hand, a l s o sees a r e f l e c t i o n of the Jesus (son)/God (father) r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the BD/Jesus d e p i c t i o n . For the r u l i n g on adoption f o r the sake of i n h e r i t a n c e see Nu 27:1-11. Note a l s o that i n 1 Pet 5:13 Peter seems to have 'adopted' Mark as h i s h e i r , i f t h i s i s not a c t u a l l y h i s true "son". 1 8 6 Cf. John 18:36, where Jesus a c t u a l l y r e f e r s to h i s d i s c i p l e s as h i s huperetai, r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r r o l e as servants of the new high p r i e s t , and, most importantly, i n a context which emphasizes the misapprehension regarding Jesus' acclaimed i d e n t i t y ( i . e . , e a r t h l y k i n g s h i p versus d i v i n e kingdom, etc.) . 89 foot washing i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the ' g l o r i o u s ' entry i n t o the new Kingdom, a n t i c i p a t e d by the symbolic entry i n t o Jerusalem i n 12:12. In t h i s , the "bathing"/"cleansing" aspect of Ezek 16 i s represented. In Jesus' f a r e w e l l speech, he r e i t e r a t e s the concept of a death which brings l i f e (15:2f; c f . 12:24), and speaks of the p a i n of a woman i n c h i l d b i r t h 1 8 7 and the consequent, o v e r r i d i n g sensation of joy once the c h i l d i s born (16:20), echoing not only the ' b i r t h ' theme of John 4, but a l s o the mourning/re j o i c i n g theme of the r a i s i n g of Lazarus pericope. The inference i s that Jesus himself has str u g g l e d through a d i f f i c u l t ' b i r t h ' and h i s ' c h i l d ' , the new priesthood, i s to be the cause of joy which w i l l o v e r r i d e the l o s s of h i s presence. 1 8 8 P r e p a r a t i o n of the priesthood p a r a l l e l s the p r e p a r a t i o n of the topos (John 14:2-4). The reference "te o i k i a tou patros", i n 14:2 echoes "tov oikon tou patros" i n 2:16, s t r o n g l y suggesting that the "house" being r e f e r r e d to i n the l a t e r statement i s , indeed, the Temple (proper). In 8:35, during the debate w i t h the "Jews" about t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y as the " c h i l d r e n of Abraham" and t h e i r dubious devotion to God, Jesus i n s i n u a t e s that the present incumbents of the Temple are "slaves" who do not see the " t r u t h " which can "f r e e " them. The "slaves", Jesus declares, w i l l not remain i n the "house" 1 8 7 The scenario of the woman i n c h i l d b i r t h i s o f t e n l i n k e d w i t h oppression and the a n t i c i p a t i o n of redemption; see f o r example: Isa 13:8, 21:3; J e r 4:31; Mic 4:10. 1 8 8 Casey (67) claims that "there i s ample evidence t h a t Jesus expected God to v i n d i c a t e him a f t e r h i s atoning death... . [Some] sayings look to the kingdom of God, i n which Jesus and h i s d i s c i p l e s would be prominent." Does not the securing of the new priesthood/temple imply j u s t such a prominence? 90 f o r ever, but, on the contrary, the "Son" w i l l . In 12:12f, Jesus enters the holy c i t y i n a c e l e b r a t o r y atmosphere, as i f to acknowledge h i s conquest over the corrupt w o r l d / c u l t u s t h e r e ; 1 8 9 the entry i n t o Jerusalem, though, i s depic t e d i n terms of heavenly k i n g s h i p ( i m p l i c i t l y r e i t e r a t i n g the r e j e c t i o n of Herodian r u l e ) , and Jesus does not enter the Temple i t s e l f . The Temple has been profaned by the corrupt c u l t u s ; 1 9 0 the ark of the covenant no longer r e s i d e s there (and the people no longer f o l l o w the Commandments; c f . J e r 3:16; 2 Mace 2:5), th e r e f o r e , n e i t h e r does God. 1 9 1 There i s one aspect of the "entry" scenario (12:13) i n the FG which makes i t unique i n the NT; i t employs the word baion, a d i r e c t echo of the only precedent, i n 1 Mace 13:51. 1 9 2 The context there i s the entry of the Simon Maccabeus i n t o Jerusalem and the subsequent r e d e d i c a t i o n of the Temple; i n the FG such an act i s Johns and M i l l e r (53) describes Jesus' d e c l a r a t i o n i n 16:33, "I have overcome the world" as meaning "to emerge v i c t o r i o u s and j u s t i f i e d from a debate." 1 9 0 Sanders (336) st a t e s that although Jesus' mission was one aimed at I s r a e l , and was executed i n the name of the God of I s r a e l , Jesus j u s t i f i e d l e n i e n c y i n the en f o r c i n g of the laws, i n h i s mission to "admit the wicked" i n t o the new kingdom. Casey (73) has a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n , c l a i m i n g that Jesus 'made i t e a s i e r ' f o r the average person to r e t u r n to God, by r e l a x i n g the law. A p e r f e c t p r i e s t h o o d would f o l l o w the law p e d a n t i c a l l y , as the corrupt one had not; as the re p r e s e n t a t i v e of the people, i f the p r i e s t s were pure, the p o s i t i v e f a t e of the n a t i o n would be sealed. 1 9 1 I t should be noted that i n both Heb 9:4 and Rev 11:19, i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the i d e a l Temple, the ark has p r i d e of place, once again, suggesting the r e t u r n of I s r a e l to the commandments of God and the consequent r e t u r n of the S p i r i t to dwell there (cf. J e r 7:5-7) . 1 9 2 John Spencer H i l l , "Ta bai a ton phoinikon" (John 12:13) : Pleonasm or P r o l e p s i s ? JBL 101.1 (March, 1982) 133-135. Here, 135 and n.4. 91 a n t i c i p a t e d i n the demonstration of 2:13f and i s now s y m b o l i c a l l y f u l f i l l e d , here, i n 12:13. If you w i l l walk i n my ways and keep my requirements, then you s h a l l r u l e my house and have charge of my courts, and I w i l l give you the r i g h t of access among those who are standing here. (Zech 3:7) In r e l a t i o n to t h i s , Jesus' c l a i m that the Father's "house" has many "dwe l l i n g places" i s taken to be an echo of Ezek 45:4f. In the i d e a l abode of God, the d i v i n e Temple of the eschaton, 1 9 3 there w i l l be a place (topos) f o r a l l I s r a e l (v. 9) ; i n that day "oppression" w i l l cease. This oppression, i t i s i m p l i e d , d e r i v e s from w i t h i n I s r a e l i t s e l f (v.8), and p e r t a i n s to the e q u a l i t a r i a n p e r c e p t i o n of the d i v i n e l y ordained n a t i o n (cf. Exod 19:6; Num 16:3). Jesus' statement i n John 13:16, then, w i t h respect to the exemplary foot-washing, a n t i c i p a t e s t h i s n e c e s s i t y f o r e q u a l i t y , s i n c e r i t y , t o l e r a n c e , e t c . 1 9 4 When the ark i s r e i n s t a l l e d i n the i d e a l Temple, the " s p i r i t " w i l l d well there; Jesus i s , i n e f f e c t , the 'steward of the house' (cf. Heb 3:6) u n t i l such a time as Jerusalem becomes holy once more. He, and by extension h i s e l e c t e d successor (s) , has become the 'portable tabernacle' wherein the s p i r i t of God w i l l t e m p o r a r i l y r e s t . 19:5 Note that E z e k i e l ' s Temple f o l l o w s a plan, much l i k e the tabernacle of Exodus. 1 9 4 As the t e x t of 1 Pet 2:5 i m p l i e s , the f o l l o w e r s of Jesus are to emulate the d i s c i p l e s (just as they emulate Jesus), i . e . , they are to see themselves as a "holy p r i e s t h o o d " , i n which "malice... g u i l e , i n s i n c e r i t y . . . " e t c . , (v.l) are washed away i n a s p i r i t u a l ' r e b i r t h ' . 92 Barabbas Back i n John 10:8, Jesus i s heard to rebuke the "thieves and robbers" who lead the "sheep" away from s a f e t y and i n t o danger (v.12). The two terms, k l e p t a i and l e s t a i and the idea of 'leading a s t r a y ' i s a strong echo of Hos 7:1 (LXX), where the two terms are employed i n a d i a t r i b e against the s e l f d e s t r u c t i v e i n i q u i t y of I s r a e l . I f Barabbas i s to be seen i n the same l i g h t , as h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n John 19:40 suggests ( i . e . , he was a l e s t e s ) , i t f o l l o w s that he i s i n a f f i l i a t i o n e i t h e r w i t h the P h a r i s e e s 1 9 5 or the c h i e f p r i e s t s , the two antagonists i n the FG. In an attempt to c l a r i f y the 'meaning' of the Barabbas pericope, Robert E. M e r r i t t 1 9 6 and H.Z. Maccoby 1 9 7, propose that i t was o r i g i n a l l y a Marcan i n t e r p o l a t i o n of an a c t u a l 'prisoner-r e l e a s e ' custom, intended to " d e f l e c t the blame f o r Jesus' death from the Romans to the Jews" and thereby t o d i s a s s o c i a t e the C h r i s t i a n s from the Jews. 1 9 8 Maccoby i s i n f u r t h e r agreement w i t h S.L. Davies that the character of Barabbas i s , i n f a c t , to be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Jesus, based on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "Barabbas" as "son of the Father" or "son of the Teacher". 1 9 9 This ety m o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, cannot be accepted without the l e s t e s a t t r i b u t i o n , a d e s c r i p t i o n which does not s u i t Jesus i n the FG. I f 1 9 5 M. Davies (237) makes the connection e x p l i c i t l y to the Pharisees. 1 9 6 Robert E. M e r r i t t , "Jesus Barabbas and the Paschal Pardon," JBL 104.1 (March 1985) 57-68. 1 9 7 H.Z. Maccoby, "Jesus and Barabbas," NTS 16 (1969) 55-60. 198 M e r r i t t / 67. 1 9 9 S.L.Davies, "Who Is C a l l e d Bar Abbas?" NTS 27 (1981)-260-262. Here, 262. 93 the "father/teacher" r e f e r r e d to here, though, r e f l e c t s the "fa t h e r of l i e s " , Barabbas becomes ass o c i a t e d w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n a l - h i g h -p r i e s t h o o d , and t h i s provides f o r some very i n t e r e s t i n g ' h i s t o r i c a l ' as w e l l as i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes. The idea of the Paschal Pardon has long remained a bone of contention amongst NT sc h o l a r s , with the m a j o r i t y supporting the view that the apparent lack of evidence i n e x t e r n a l sources i m p l i e s that no such custom ever e x i s t e d i n Roman occupied Judea. 2 0 0 M e r r i t t , f o r one, supposes otherwise, basing h i s c l a i m on the ancient record of the release of the King of Judah from Babylonian custody, i n 2 Kgs 25:27-30 and J e r 52:31-34. 2 0 1 He a l s o draws a p a r a l l e l between a s i m i l a r custom of r e l e a s i n g p r i s o n e r s i n Greece during c e r t a i n f e s t i v a l s . 2 0 2 The l i n k to a penal t r a d i t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y Roman/Jewish, however, i s tenuous. Perhaps the answer to t h i s paradox l i e s elsewhere. I t may be that what i s t r a n s p i r i n g i n the FG, i s not the re l e a s e of a "prisoner" , f o r the word i s never used by P i l a t e i n John 18:39, but something analogous. Consider, i n s t e a d , what Josephus w r i t e s (added emphasis): . . . V i t e l l i u s came i n t o Judea, and went up to Jerusalem; i t was at the time of that f e s t i v a l which i s c a l l e d the Passover. V i t e l l i u s was there m a g n i f i c e n t l y received, and released the i n h a b i t a n t s of Jerusalem from a l l the taxes upon the f r u i t s that were bought and s o l d , and gave them leave t o have the care of the high p r i e s t ' s vestments, w i t h a l l t h e i r ornaments, and to have them under the custody of the priests i n the temple ... 2 0 3 S.L. Davies 260; Maccoby 55-56, e t c . . M e r r i t t , 61-62. M e r r i t t , 62f. Josephus, Ant. 18.4.3. 94 He continues by e x p l a i n i n g that V i t e l l i u s p e t i t i o n e d Rome ( i . e . , T i b e r i u s ) to have the ban on the vestments, which allowed them to be removed from the f o r t r e s s of Antonia o n l y on f e a s t days, 2 0 4 permanently removed. This act took place i n 3 7 C. E. , 2 0 5 w e l l w i t h i n the l i f e t i m e of some of the d i s c i p l e s ; i t i s p o s s i b l e that such a monumental event i n f l u e n c e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the FG. The s i t u a t i o n , w i t h both Barabbas (the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Temple high p r i e s t ) and Jesus (the leader, or "Rabbi" of the Movement against the current cultus) c a p t i v e s of the Roman procur a t o r , could w e l l have i n s p i r e d the analogous r e f l e c t i o n of the handing over of the high p r i e s t ' s vestments. The FG author p o s s i b l y e x p l o i t e d the t r a d i t i o n of t h i s once customary, and u l t i m a t e l y 'Paschal', "release" to convey the profound i m p l i c a t i o n s of the 'choice' the people i n the n a r r a t i v e make. By choosing Barabbas, they choose the way of ' d e s t r u c t i o n ' and 'darkness'. 2 0 6 Making the i r o n y of t h i s choice a l l the more profound i s the f a c t t h a t , although the Romans are seen to r e l e a s e the vestments of the Jewish p r i e s t h o o d i n t o the custody of the Temple, the emancipation i s s u p e r f i c i a l , f o r those who don them are themselves corrup t , and t h e i r i n i q u i t y has been, or w i l l be, the ' d e s t r u c t i o n ' 2 0 4 Jeremias, 14 8-149. 2 0 5 Jeremias, 14 9, n.4. 2 0 6 In John 3:19, note that i t i s claimed, i n the past tense, that "men loved the darkness more than the l i g h t " , a r e t r o s p e c t i v e c l a i m to the p e r s i s t e n t d i v i s i o n between those who chose to f o l l o w Jesus (the l i g h t ) and those who d i d not. J.D. Crossan makes a s i m i l a r assessment of the s i t u a t i o n i n Mark (with Barabbas as an armed r e b e l versus Jesus as the unarmed ' s a v i o u r ' ) : The " n a r r a t i v e about Barabbas was...a symbolic dramatization of Jerusalem's f a t e , as he saw i t " (Who K i l l e d Jesus?, (New York: Harper, 1995) 112) . 95 of the Temple (as expressed f i g u r a t i v e l y i n John 2:19) . 2 0 7 Jerusalem w i l l never be f r e e , nor the 'new' Temple manifested u n t i l "Jesus" i s chosen over and against "Barabbas" (the " l i g h t " over the "darkness") . Further, i n connection with the "atonement" aspect of Jesus' impending demise, the symbolic image of these two men, one f i g u r a t i v e l y 'released' and one ' k i l l e d ' , r e i n f o r c e s the echo of Lev 16. The one 'released', Barabbas, indeed bears the s i n s of the n a t i o n , whereas the one ' k i l l e d ' , Jesus, i s elevated to God. The echo of Lev 16 i s complete. Vestments and Transference The FG n a r r a t i v e subsequent to the r a i s i n g of Lazarus r e v e a l s a keen i n t e r e s t i n the 'vestments' of Jesus, the ( a l t e r n a t i v e ) high p r i e s t . According to Lev 8:6-9, the i n v e s t i t u r e of the p r i e s t s i n c l u d e d : t u n i c , sash, robe, ephod, br e a s t - p i e c e , turban and "crown", seven pieces i n a l l . 2 0 8 Before the foot-washing Jesus i s described as p u t t i n g aside h i s garments (note the NRSV t r a n s l a t i o n as "removing" an "outer robe") and wrapping around himself a l e n t i o n , or l i n e n c l o t h . H e i l emphasizes the use of the verb theo i n the FG account, making the a c t i o n of Jesus preparing f o r the washing of h i s d i s c i p l e s feet d u r Cf . Kovacs (247) , who suggests that the day of judgement i s not at the Parousia, but now, at the c r u c i f i x i o n . 2 0 8 Jeremias (148, n.2) suggests e i g h t , but t h i s i n c l u d e s the ' t r o u s e r - l i k e ' undergarment mentioned only i n Exod 28:42, not i n the i n v e s t i t u r e ceremony. The number "seven" i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the FG, and t h i s L e v i t i c a l " l i s t " may s u i t the o v e r a l l symbolism of the n a r r a t i v e b e t t e r . 96 analogous to h i s " l a y i n g down" of h i s l i f e f o r them. 2 0 9 However, the verb theo does not n e c e s s a r i l y t r a n s l a t e to mean " l a y i n g down", as, f o r example keimai would, but i t can mean "to put aside", "to pla c e " , e t c . , which f i t s w e l l the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the garment, which r e s t r i c t s manual labour. Compare t h i s to Josephus' d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r i e s t l y vestments and the doing of p h y s i c a l ( r i t u a l i s t i c ) labour: [The "kethoneth"] i s gir d e d to the breast a l i t t l e above the elbows, by a g i r d l e o f t e n going round, four f i n g e r s broad... the warp was nothing but f i n e l i n e n . ...when i t has gone o f t e n round, i t i s there t i e d , and hangs l o o s e l y there down to the ankles: I mean t h i s a l l the time the p r i e s t i s not about any lab o r i o u s s e r v i c e . . . that he may not be hindered i n h i s operation by i t s motion, he throws i t t o h i s l e f t and bears i t on h i s shoulder. 2 1 0 The f a c t that i n John 13:4-12 reference to Jesus garments i s made three times (vv.4,5,12) i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the p r e c i s i o n , f o r m a l i t y and importance a t t r i b u t a b l e to Jesus' ( p r i e s t l y ) a c t i o n s . In the Passion n a r r a t i v e , the s i x remaining vestments are p o t e n t i a l l y accounted f o r . The Roman s o l d i e r s place upon Jesus' head a "wreath" (Stephanos), and place about him a "purple" garment (John 19:2) i n t h e i r b i d to r i d i c u l e him as a self-imposed "king". This i s profoundly i r o n i c , f o r not only i s purple a l s o the col o u r of the a l t a r c l o t h i n Num 4:13 (making Jesus' imminent s a c r i f i c e H e i l 741. See a l s o R.A. Culpepper ( i n "The Johannine HYPODEIGMA: A Reading of John 13," Semeia 53 (1991) 133-152. Here 146), who o f f e r s a s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 2 1 0 Josephus, Ant. 3.7.2. 97 a l l the more symbolic); i n the NRSV v e r s i o n of Job 29:14, 2 1 1 "righteousness" and " j u s t i c e " are worn l i k e a "robe" and a "turban". With the four garments (himatia) of v.23a, s i x a r t i c l e s are apparent, and wit h the c h i t o n of v. 23b, the vestments are complete. This c h i t o n p u r p o s e f u l l y described to invoke the image of the high p r i e s t ' s robe, as described by Josephus: " . . . t h i s vesture was not composed of two pieces, nor was i t sewed together upon the shoulders and the si d e s , but i t was one long vestment... . " 2 1 2 In an " i n v e r t e d quotation" of Exod 28:32, the garment i s seen not to be t o r n because i t i s s t i p u l a t e d that the "robe" of the high p r i e s t i s to have a "woven binding around the [neck] opening...so that i t may not be t o r n . 1 , 2 1 3 The d i r e c t quotation from Ps 22:18 (John 19:24) i s preceded by a t e c h n i c a l formula, implying a f u l f i l m e n t of s c r i p t u r e . When the o r i g i n a l context of t h i s Psalm i s taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the ' f u l f i l m e n t ' aspect becomes c l e a r . Ps 22 e x h i b i t s s e v e r a l of the major FG themes, such as desperation ( v . l ) , weakness and i n f i r m i t y (vv.11,14-16), f a i t h i n the s a l v a t i o n of God (vv.19-21), ' b e l i e f which b r i n g s 'food' to the ' h u n g r y ' / ' a f f l i c t e d ' and an e v e r l a s t i n g 2 1 1 In the LXX i t reads: ". . . i s a d i p l o i d i " , or " l i k e a mantle" . 2 1 2 Josephus, Ant. 3.7.4. 2 1 3 H e i l notes the obvious discrepancy between the "robe" of the high p r i e s t and the " t u n i c " of Jesus, and r a t i o n a l i z e s t h i s by c l a i m i n g both are "undergarments"; the former s i t s under the ephod, the l a t t e r under Jesus' four garments (742). I t may j u s t as e a s i l y be that the FG author, i n making a d i s t i n c t i o n between the i n s t i t u t i o n a l high p r i e s t and Jesus, i n t e n t i o n a l l y a p p l i e s the symbolic d e s c r i p t i o n of one a r t i c l e , t o another. Thus, l i k e the renaming of Bethesda, w h i l s t r e t a i n i n g the " f i v e p o r t i c o e s " d e s c r i p t i o n , t h i s s h i f t i n g device allows f o r a symbolic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and an i m p l i e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 98 " l i f e " (v.26), the supremacy of God (v.28), and a f u t u r e devoted to teaching new "generations" about God (vv.29-31). The ascension from despondency to e l a t i o n i s echoed i n the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of the FG n a r r a t i v e , and a l s o i n the c e n t r a l t h e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the ' a n t i c i p a t i o n of Hephzibah'. F i t t i n g l y , the z e n i t h of Jesus' career i s at t h i s p o i n t - t h i s i s h i s e l e v a t i o n , both i n terms of the cross and i n terms of the atonement/redemption, i . e . , the "lamb" i s returned to God (as i n Gen 22). From the cross Jesus i s seen to hand h i s "beloved" over to the character known as Jesus' "mother", who remains anonymous. In t h i s scene of mutual "adoption" the relevant themes of replacement and i n h e r i t a n c e are emphasized, a n t i c i p a t i n g the d i s c i p l e ' s own (mundane) e l e v a t i o n . As a consequence of t h i s adoption, the BD apparently assumes Jesus' f a m i l y name, "Joseph" (14:26; c f . 6:42) . 2 1 4 The a c t i o n performed by the character i n John 19:38 echoes that of Joseph, son of Jacob, i n Gen 50:4f; both Josephs ^14 R.E. Brown ( i n "The B u r i a l of Jesus (Mark 15:42-47)," CBQ 50 (1988) 233-245. Here, 241) suggests that "...a governor would have given the body to the f a m i l y of the c r u c i f i e d , but no Gospel suggests t h a t . In John alone the mother of Jesus i s at Golgotha; but she and the d i s c i p l e whom Jesus loved seem to depart before Jesus' death (19:27) , and they are absent from the b u r i a l account." As "Joseph", however, Jesus' s p i r i t u a l "son" does r e c e i v e the "body". Another s u b t l e point to mention here i s t h a t , according to Num 27:5-11, i f a man died w i t h no c h i l d r e n , h i s i n h e r i t a n c e was to be passed on to h i s brothers: As there seems to be no i n t e r e s t i n Jesus' 'blood-brothers' i n the FG, i t may be assumed that i n passing the BD over to h i s mother, i . e . , as her son, Jesus i s c r e a t i n g f o r himself a "brother" worthy of t h i s i n h e r i t a n c e . As an adopted brother, "Joseph" would a l s o f u n c t i o n as a ' r e l a t i v e ' . Cf. "Joseph" i n the Gos.Nic. (Barnstone 3 6 8 f f ) : Joseph alone tends to Jesus i n the tomb, he i s i n c a r c e r a t e d by the "Jews", i n a " b u i l d i n g without a window" (and i s sentenced to death), he i s emancipated, he i s r e f e r r e d to as "Father" as a s i g n of s t a t u s , he i s anointed, and he witnesses the ' r i s e n ' Jesus. 99 approach a ' f o r e i g n ' leader w i t h a request to remove the body of one who i s much loved. In Genesis, the dead person i s Joseph's b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r ; i n the FG, i t i s the BD' s s p i r i t u a l f a t h e r . Both are granted t h e i r request. 2 1 5 When the BD and Peter reach the tomb, i n John 20:4-7, they f i n d Jesus' head d r e s s i n g on one s i d e ; i t i s s a i d to be " r o l l e d up", f o r which the verb t u l i s s o i s employed, which means "to entwine/wind up"; i t i s described i n t h i s instance as being "epi tes kephales", i . e . , on/around the head, r a t h e r than around the face, as i n Lazarus' case. Being "twisted" or " r o l l e d " , t h i s object i s , perhaps, the p r i e s t l y t u r b a n . 2 1 6 According t o Exod 29:29, the sacred vestments should be passed on to the succeeding high p r i e s t ; i n the symbolic gesture of l a y i n g the 'turban' to one s i d e , Jesus (or those who had taken the body, etc.,) i s shown to be t r a n s f e r r i n g h i s h i g h - p r i e s t l y o f f i c e to h i s successor. This i s the moment of the BD 1s (mundane) e l e v a t i o n , f u l f i l l i n g the father/son emulation p a t t e r n . The p a t t e r n of Ezek 16 i s complete; the r e l a t i v e e l e v a t i o n of Jesus and the BD m i r r o r the i d e o l o g i c a l e l e v a t i o n of Mary Magdalene, p r o v i d i n g the 'perfect' p l a t f o r m from which the new p r i e s t h o o d of I s r a e l w i l l commence i t s work. 2 1 5 A l s o , the f a t e of both run p a r a l l e l ; e.g., c f . the o u t l i n e of Joseph i n Ps 105.18: he was i n bondage, enslaved, e t c . , then he was r e l e a s e d by a "king" and consequently elevated to an important p o s i t i o n at the king's r i g h t hand. 2 1 6 This "twisted" appearance r e f l e c t s the " i n t e r t w i n e d " d e s c r i p t i o n of the wreath of thorns i n 19:2 (e.g., p l e k o ) , making the i r o n y of the Romans' a c t i o n a l l the more apparent. 100 153 F i s h The p r e c i s e number of "153" i n John 21:11 has long been an enigma to researchers of the NT,217 but, given that the FG d e p i c t s a p r i e s t l y Movement, one which i s aimed at the r e c o n s t i t u t i o n , or renewal of the i d e a l I s r a e l ( i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the true kingdom of God, e t c . ) , the number "153" may w e l l p e r t a i n to these general themes. I t i s the sum of seventy, seventy, and t h i r t e e n , a p e r f e c t l y simple, yet profound example of symbolic numerology: Seventy was the number "born to Jacob" i n Egypt (Exod 1:5) , and thus r e f l e c t s the pre-Exodic, u n i f i e d I s r a e l . 2 1 8 I f Jesus e l e c t s a f u r t h e r seventy to c a r r y on the mission he had s t a r t e d (cf. Luke 10:1), t h i s a c t i o n would f u l l y echo that of Num l l : 1 6 f , where Moses i s t o l d by Yahweh that seventy of h i s e l d e r s are to share i n the " s p i r i t " w i t h him. 2 1 9 E.g., Robinson (117, and n.356) o f f e r s a breakdown of the v a r i a t i o n i n terminology f o r " f i s h " w i t h i n the FG, but o f f e r s no exp l a n a t i o n f o r the numerology used i n 21:11. M. Davies (343) o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g summary of p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s over the years: a) The number represents the various types of f i s h i n the area ( !) , b) i t i s the sum of the numbers one to seventeen (Augustine n o t i c e d t h i s ) , the l a t t e r being the sum of seven and ten. Seven then represents the G e n t i l e s , and ten the Jewish n a t i o n , the a d d i t i o n of the two representing a world-wide mission. Davies h e r s e l f o f f e r s the idea that the e n t i r e number stands f o r the-"non-Jews" who w i l l enter the new community. 2 1 8 James G. Williams ( i n "Number Symbolism and Joseph as Symbol of Completion," JBL 98.1 (March, 1979) 86-87) r e v e a l s that through the use of numbers ( e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard to the ages of i n d i v i d u a l s ) Joseph i s found to be depicted i n Genesis as the "completion" or p e r f e c t i o n of the p a t r i a r c h s . Joseph, W i l l i a m s concludes, symbolizes "the d i v i n e providence that w i l l b r i n g the s t o r y of I s r a e l to a blessed conclusion" (87) . Not only i s t h i s "conclusion" i n the FG depicted through the ascent of a "Joseph", but a l s o the symbolism inherent i n the number 153 suggests a s i m i l a r t h e o l o g i c a l ' r e s o l u t i o n ' . 2 1 9 This 'sending out' of emissaries i s a l s o precedented i n Isa 66:19, where i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d that the p u r i f i e d I s r a e l w i l l be ordered by Yahweh to send f o r t h messengers i n t o the surrounding 101 The two seventies r e i t e r a t e both the innocence and p u r i t y of the e a r l y n a t i o n and the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of the new n a t i o n which w i l l be born ("from above") out of Jesus' work. The number t h i r t e e n , of course, then represents the new priest h o o d , w i t h i t s body of twelve m i n i s t e r s and i t s high p r i e s t . I t i s remarked that, although the net held so many " f i s h " , the "net was not t o r n " , a phrase echoing that of 19:24, which p e r t a i n s , as we have suggested, to the high p r i e s t ' s garment. Thus, the net corresponds w i t h the i n d e s t r u c t i b l e mantle of the pr i e s t h o o d ; a l l i t encompasses i s made sacred. Summary In the meal scenario of John 12 are echoed both a t r a d i t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the c e l e b r a t i o n of v i c t o r y over the "death" of I s r a e l and one p e r t a i n i n g to the e l e c t i o n of new leaders. The t i m i n g and the nature of t h i s gathering are found to be r e f l e c t i v e of the l e v i t i c a l r u l e s regarding the e l e c t i o n of a s u b s t i t u t e h i g h p r i e s t before the Day of Atonement, and Lazarus i s seen to be t h i s s u b s t i t u t e . The keen h o s t i l i t y demonstrated by the c h i e f p r i e s t s r e v e a l s a vested i n t e r e s t , f o r Lazarus appears to be the reason f o r other ( p r i e s t l y ? ) 'conversions'/"desertions". F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the washing of the feet of the d i s c i p l e s serves to r e i t e r a t e the choice of successor, to introduce the 'vestments' motif, and to f u l f i l the "bathing/" c l e a n s i n g " aspect of the Ezek 16 p a t t e r n . The new m i n i s t e r s are thus cleansed f o r t h e i r symbolic entry i n t o the new Kingdom. c o u n t r i e s who have not l e a r n t of h i s "fame" and " g l o r y " . 102 Continuing the 'atonement' theme, Barabbas and Jesus are placed together i n the custody of the Roman pro c u r a t o r i n a symbolic echo of the "scapegoat" r i t u a l . The scene i s a l s o i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of the Roman custody of the high p r i e s t ' s vestments, and thus acts as a profound example of the "choice" u l t i m a t e l y made by the people of I s r a e l . The 'vestments' motif i s c a r r i e d through to the c r u c i f i x i o n , where the quota of 'seven' p r i e s t l y a r t i c l e s i s met. Linked to t h i s i s the d i r e c t echo of Ps 22 which acts as a 'summary' i n i t s own r i g h t , e ncapsulating the e n t i r e ideology of the FG. In the r e i t e r a t i o n of the son/successor concept, the BD re c e i v e s Jesus' 'family' name, Joseph, during the mutual adoption scene under the cross, and t h i s a n t i c i p a t e s h i s e l e v a t i o n to the sta t u s of high p r i e s t on Jesus' departure. The handing over of the p r i e s t l y o f f i c e i s s y m b o l i c a l l y represented by the headcovering l e f t i n the tomb. Both the BD' s and Jesus' e l e v a t i o n serve to complete the masculine pattern-echo of Ezek 16. The pr i e s t h o o d i s thus inaugurated. In the Epilogue i s found a numeric reference (153) to the two main concepts of the FG - the u n i f i e d , p e r f e c t I s r a e l (old and new), and the new priesthood. 103 Chapter Seven: Conclusions In the a n a l y s i s of the Fourth Gospel through i t s apparent i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes, the f o l l o w i n g deductions have been made: A) The context, or s e t t i n g , i n which the n a r r a t i v e begins i s one which conveys the m o r a l / s p i r i t u a l s t a t e of I s r a e l . The "wilderness" theme, the i n a b i l i t y to "see" s a l v a t i o n when i t comes, and the "preparation" of the way a l l a n t i c i p a t e the coming of one who w i l l rescue I s r a e l from i t s despondency. The a n t i c i p a t e d r e t u r n to g l o r y i s introduced e a r l y i n the n a r r a t i v e , and i s couched i n P a t r i a r c h a l a l l u s i o n s , g i v i n g the mission of Jesus both a sense of a u t h o r i t y and an agenda - to r e v i v e an i d e a l I s r a e l , a " p r i e s t l y kingdom". In the dialogue w i t h Nicodemus, the nature of Jesus' mission i s revealed, w i t h respect to both the 'obstacles' he i s to overcome (e.g., ignorance, the Pharisees, etc.) and the manner i n which he w i l l overcome these (through "signs and wonders", s e t t i n g himself up as a 'beacon', e t c . ) . As a symbolic demonstration of h i s i n t e n t , Jesus i s seen to be "cleansing" the Temple, but the s u b t l e t i e s of t h i s d e p i c t i o n r e v e a l an i n t e r e s t i n the p r i e s t h o o d i t s e l f ; the i n t e n t i o n i s to " p u r i f y " the p r i e s t h o o d so that God w i l l 'return' and I s r a e l w i l l become holy once more. This agenda i s f o r m a l i z e d through the symbolic "marriage" ceremony, and t h i s , i n t u r n , sets the foundation f o r the c e n t r a l t h e o l o g i c a l / i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the gospel. B) The i d e o l o g i c a l 'core' of the FG i s a t r i a n g u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g of the three s i g n i f i c a n t female d e p i c t i o n s , i . e . , the Samaritan woman, the a d u l t e r e s s , and Mary. This i l l u s t r a t i o n of feminine characters i s found to be a thematic 104 echo of the v i c i s s i t u d e s of I s r a e l , the "bride of Yahweh", as found i n Ezek 16. This p a t t e r n runs from the i n i t i a l marriage of I s r a e l to Yahweh, through her i n f i d e l i t y , d i v orce, h u m i l i t y , forgiveness and joyous re-marriage. In the c o n t e x t / s e t t i n g already e s t a b l i s h e d , the Samaritan woman provides the ' s t a r t i n g p o i n t ' f o r the p a t t e r n -the s t a t e of " i n f i d e l i t y " . Commencing from t h i s p o i n t , the p a t t e r n of Ezek 16 i s f u l l y represented i n the n a r r a t i v e , p r i m a r i l y through the women, but a l s o s h i f t i n g to a p a r a l l e l d e p i c t i o n i n the male characters from John 9 onward. The e s c a l a t i o n of t h i s symbolic " b r i d e " culminates i n three major characters; Mary becomes the Magdalene, representing the re-married b r i d e , Jesus i s e l e v a t e d to the Father, at the c r u c i f i x i o n , and the Beloved D i s c i p l e (who i s found to be the character of Joseph i n t h i s regard) , i s ele v a t e d to the p o s i t i o n of high p r i e s t i n Jesus' stead. The f i n a l stage, that of " e t e r n a l covenant" i s i m p l i c i t throughout the n a r r a t i v e , e.g., i n the " l i f e " / " d e a t h " motif, the father/son p r o g r e s s i o n , e t c . , and acts as the motivation, or i n c e n t i v e f o r the mission. C) F u l f i l l i n g the t r a d i t i o n of a d i v i n e "healing" before the r e t u r n of I s r a e l to g l o r y , Jesus 'performs' a 'healing' semeion i n both the northern provinces and i n the v i c i n i t y of the Temple. This act symbolizes the r e u n i f i c a t i o n of the d i v i d e d I s r a e l , but i t a l s o r e v e a l s the d i s t i n c t i o n between the r e l a t i v e 'obstacles' there, i . e . , f o r e i g n r u l e and p r i e s t l y i n e f f e c t u a l i t y . B u i l d i n g on t h i s , the two semeia of John 6 b r i n g the messianic nature of Jesus' r o l e i n t o question, f o r he i s seen, once again, to in t i m a t e t h i s a n t i c i p a t e d reunion of I s r a e l (through the gathering of the fragments, etc.) - the people perceive him to be the awaited m i l i t a r y or Davidic Messiah. R e j e c t i n g t h i s i d e n t i t y , Jesus 105 c l a r i f i e s h i s p o s i t i o n f o r the sake of the d i s c i p l e s , i m p l y i n g that i f the n a t i o n t r u s t s i n God again and becomes devout again, God w i l l rescue them, and that only i n t h i s way can the oppression of Rome cease. D) The p a t t e r n of Ezek 16 branches o f f i n t o the arena of the male charact e r s , beginning w i t h the " e l e c t i o n " of the b l i n d man. Echoing the a n t i c i p a t e d v i c t o r y over 'ignorance' i n Nicodemus' s t o r y , the h e a l i n g occurs w i t h i n the sphere of the Pharisees. A conversion takes place, which e s c a l a t e s h o s t i l i t i e s toward Jesus and any who support him. F o l l o w i n g t h i s i s the r a i s i n g of Lazarus, which occurs i n the context of a divine/mundane b a t t l e of power; Lazarus, representing the s p i r i t u a l l y "dead" I s r a e l , i s c a l l e d to a new " l i f e " by Jesus. This ' r a i s i n g ' , though, i s p a r a l l e l e d by the e l e v a t i o n of Lazarus to the status of Jesus' p r i e s t l y successor. E) From John 11 onward, p r i e s t l y themes increase i n frequency, e.g., through the use of symbolic numbers, references to vestments, o r d i n a t i o n r i t u a l s , e t c . The c r u c i f i x i o n scenario r e a f f i r m s the i n t e n s i f y i n g d e p i c t i o n of Lazarus/BD as Jesus' successor; i n the act of 'adoption' which occurs between the BD and Jesus' mother, t h i s f a v o u r i t e d i s c i p l e assumes not only Jesus' p o s i t i o n as "son", but a l s o the f a m i l y name, Joseph. The o f f i c i a l t ransference of o f f i c e i s s y m b o l i c a l l y represented by the 'removed' p o s i t i o n of the head covering i n Jesus' tomb, i . e . , the p r i e s t l y turban has been passed on to the successor. F) In the Epilogue, the number "153" symbolizes completion, p e r f e c t i o n , and, u l t i m a t e l y , success, f o r i t u n i t e s the o r i g i n a l ("virgin") I s r a e l ( i . e . , 70) with the new, redeemed I s r a e l ( i . e . , 70), under the p r o t e c t i v e 'mantle' of the p u r i f i e d p r i e s t h o o d 106 ( i . e . , 13) When read i n l i g h t of i t s c o n s i s t e n t , coherent i n t e r t e x t u a l echoes, the FG e x h i b i t s a profound d e s i r e to continue the quest begun by Jesus, that i s , to i l l u m i n a t e the path back to God. I t i s a gospel which, perhaps most l o y a l l y , d e p i c t s the t e n a c i t y and endurance of a 'man of God' i n h i s mission to r i g h t the wrongs of I s r a e l . . . t o make her, once more the "Delight" of Yahweh. Rise, stand erect and see the number of those who have been sealed at the feast of the Lord. 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