Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Output, input and interaction in formal/informal teacher interactions and in NS, NNS children's interactions 1987

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1987_A8 M33_6.pdf [ 7.06MB ]
UBC_1987_A8 M33_6.pdf
Metadata
JSON: 1.0078366.json
JSON-LD: 1.0078366+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0078366.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0078366+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0078366+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0078366+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0078366.ris

Full Text

OUTPUT, INPUT AND INTERACTION IN FORMAL/INFORMAL TEACHER INTERACTIONS AND IN NS, NNS CHILDREN'S INTERACTIONS By V i c k i McRae B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1987 (c) V.L. McRae In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Eng l i sh Education The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 1987 ASTRACT Output, i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n are examined i n t h i s s t u d y f o r a n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g (NS) t e a c h e r and f o r n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g (NS, NNS) young c h i l d r e n i n two s i t u a t i o n s i n the c l a s s r o o m , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d and t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d . V i d e o t a p e s and t r a n s c r i p t s o f f o u r t e e n samples of i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s and f o u r t e e n samples o f n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , each l i m i t e d t o the f i r s t c o n s e c u t i v e one hundred u t t e r a n c e s , were a n a l y z e d . Output was a s s e s s e d i n terms o f v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n - u t t e r a n c e s and words. Input and i n t e r a c t i o n were a s s e s s e d b o t h f o r d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s ( t w e l v e n e g o t i a t i n g d e v i c e s ) and i n terms o f the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the c o n t e x t s t h a t e x i s t e d d u r i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n s - t h e i r d i s t a n c e from the speaker and the a c t i o n was a s s e s s e d w i t h measures o f e x o p h o r i c and a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e ( t w e n t y - f o u r r e f e r e n c e i t e m s ) . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e : 1) t h a t output o r v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i e s f o r the t e a c h e r and the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n w i t h s i t u a t i o n , 2 ) t h a t d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s , o f t e n used t o a s s e s s i n p u t , v a r y i n t h e i r use by the t e a c h e r and the c h i l d r e n w i t h the s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , i n c r e a s e w i t h v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and may not be u s e f u l measures o f i n p u t , and 3) t h a t the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the c o n t e x t s t h a t e x i s t d u r i n g t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n s and c h i l d o r g a n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n s v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n - the d i s t a n c e o f i i i t he language and the a c t i o n from the speaker as w e l l as the n a t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s amongst i t e m s , w i t h i n and a c r o s s groups are n o t e d . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t : 1) o u t p u t , i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n , 2) d a t a a n a l y s e s c o n c e r n i n g i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n are more m e a n i n g f u l i f t h e y are r e l a t e d t o the output o c c u r r i n g i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , and 3) L2 r e s e a r c h e r s w i l l b e n e f i t from moving beyond the a n a l y s i s o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s as the s o l e p r e d i c t o r s o f i n p u t d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n t o examine o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES . v i CHAPTER ONE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.2 Output t V e r b a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and L2 P r o f i c i e n c y . . . . 7 1.3 Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : Measures o f D i s c o u r s e F e a t u r e s and Measures o f S i t u a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4 Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : S t u d i e s o f D i s c o u r s e o r I n t e r a c t i o n a l F e a t u r e s o f C o n v e r s a t i o n s 21 1.5 Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : The S i t u a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e o f C o n v e r s a t i o n s 29 1.6 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 4l CHAPTER TWO A STUDY OF OUTPUT, INPUT AND INTERACTION IN FORMAL/INFORMAL TEACHER INTERACTIONS AND IN NS/NNS CHILDREN'S INTERACTIONS 2.1 Purpose and Res e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 43 2.2 Sample and Data C o l l e c t i o n 46 2.3 Measures and A n a l y s e s 47 CHAPTER THREE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 R e s u l t s : Experiment I 55 3.2 R e s u l t s : Experiment I I 69 3.3 D i s c u s s i o n 93 3.4 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 123 CHAPTER FOUR IMPLICATIONS 4.1 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r E d u c a t i o n 132 4.2 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Research 136 REFERENCES l 4 l V LIST OF TABLES Table I Summary o f Measures o f D i s c o u r s e / i n t e r a c t i o n a l F e a t u r e s o f C o n v e r s a t i o n s 16 Table I I P r o f i l e o f Teacher Output: A Comparison o f F r e q u e n c i e s o f U t t e r a n c e s and Words w i t h S i t u a t i o n 57 T a b l e I I I A Comparison o f the Teacher's Use o f Twelve D i s c o u r s e F e a t u r e s by Rank w i t h S i t u a t i o n . . . . . . . 6l Table IV P r o f i l e o f Teacher Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : A Comparison o f F r e q u e n c i e s o f Twelve D i s c o u r s e F e a t u r e s w i t h S i t u a t i o n . . . . 62 Table IV c o n t ' d . 6 3 Table V P r o f i l e o f Teacher Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : A Comparison o f F r e q u e n c i e s o f Two R e f e r e n c e C a t e g o r i e s w i t h S i t u a t i o n 66 Table VI P r o f i l e o f NS, NNS C h i l d r e n ' s Output: A Comparison o f F r e q u e n c i e s o f U t t e r a n c e s and Words w i t h S i t u a t i o n . . 71 Table V I I P r o f i l e o f NS, NNS C h i l d r e n ' s Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : A Comparison o f F r e q u e n c i e s o f Twelve D i s c o u r s e F e a t u r e s w i t h S i t u a t i o n 74 Table V I I I C h i l d r e n ' s O v e r a l l Use o f D i s c o u r s e F e a t u r e s by Rank A c r o s s S i t u a t i o n 75 Table IX P r o f i l e o f NS, NNS C h i l d r e n ' s Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : A Comparison o f Two C a t e g o r i e s o f R e f e r e n c e Items (1 t o 24) by P r o p o r t i o n w i t h S i t u a t i o n 81 Table X P r o f i l e o f NS, NNS C h i l d r e n ' s I n p u t and I n t e r a c t i o n : R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f E x o p h o r i c Items w i t h S i t u a t i o n . . . . . . 88 T a b l e XI P r o f i l e o f NS, NNS C h i l d r e n ' s Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f A n a p h o r i c Items w i t h S i t u a t i o n . . . . . . 9 2 v i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 P r o f i l e o f Teacher Output: R e l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h S i t u a t i o n . . 56 F i g u r e 2 P r o f i l e o f Teacher Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : R e l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l D i s c o u r s e F e a t u r e s w i t h S i t u a t i o n . . . . . 59 F i g u r e 3 P r o f i l e o f Teacher Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : P e r c e n t a g e Use o f Twelve D i s c o u r s e F e a t u r e s A c r o s s S i t u a t i o n 60 F i g u r e 4 P r o f i l e o f Teacher Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : R e l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e s o f R e f e r e n c e Items (1 t h r o u g h 24) w i t h S i t u a t i o n 65 F i g u r e 5 P r o f i l e o f NS, NNS C h i l d r e n ' s Output: R e l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h S i t u a t i o n . . 70 F i g u r e 6 P r o f i l e o f NS, NNS C h i l d r e n ' s Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : R e l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e s o f T o t a l D i s c o u r s e F e a t u r e s w i t h S i t u a t i o n 73 F i g u r e 7 P r o f i l e o f NS, NNS C h i l d r e n ' s Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : R e l a t i v e P e r c e n t a g e s o f Two R e f e r e n c e C a t e g o r i e s w i t h S i t u a t i o n 80 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges the a s s i s t a n c e of Dr. Bernard Mohani s p e c i a l thanks f o r h i s i n s i g h t f u l s u g ge s t i on s , c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , ongoing i n t e r e s t and encouragement. The a s s i s t a n c e o f the f o l l o w i n g i s a l s o acknowledged: . SCARL, S t a t i s t i c s C o n s u l t i n g and Research Lab, U . B . C , f o r sugges t i ons c o n c e r n i n g the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and ana l y se s . Dr . C a l v i n L a i , Computer S c i ence s C e n t r e , U . B . C , f o r sugges t i ons c o n c e r n i n g da ta p r o c e s s i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s T h i s s tudy was conducted through the C h i l d Study C e n t r e , U . B . C , Dr. G l en D ixon , D i r e c t o r , i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i th the Vancouver Schoo l Board . In t h i s r e g a r d , the author expres ses s i n c e r e thanks and a p p r e c i a t i o n to the f o l l o w i n g : The O f f i c e o f S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , D i r e c t o r a t e o f M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , Canada The Vancouver Schoo l Board and the Sexsmith Community Schoo l Don C u p i t , P r i n c i p a l W i l l i a m P r i c e , Community S choo l C o o r d i n a t o r The Demonst ra t ion P r e s c h o o l / E S L P r o j e c t Pe r sonne l P a t r i c i a W a k e f i e l d , P r o j e c t Manager Dr. G len D ixon , P r o j e c t Research C o o r d i n a t o r J u d i R i t c h i e , P r o j e c t A s s i s t a n t 1 CHAPTER ONE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Since the 1 9 7 0 ' s second language ( L 2 ) r e s e a r c h has g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n to the study of d i s c o u r s e (not sentence) l e v e l s t r u c t u r e s and processes i n g e n e r a l , and r e c e n t l y to the study of pragmatics and t e x t i n p a r t i c u l a r ( C a r r e l l , 1 9 8 2 : 4 7 9 ) . E a r l i e r s t u d i e s of the v e r b a l output of second language l e a r n e r s (product) have been r e p l a c e d by the phenomenal growth i n r e s e a r c h on input and i n t e r a c t i o n i n second language l e a r n i n g ( p r o c e s s ) . L 2 r e s e a r c h i s p r e s e n t l y concerned with the study of how t e x t ( o r a l and w r i t t e n ) v a r i e s i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and c o g n i t i v e contexts both i n and out of the classroom, w i t h the study of the many d i f f e r e n c e s i n the backgrounds, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and m o t i v a t i o n s of those who are p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n communication and with the study of v a r i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s of t a l k i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l exchanges (see, McLaughlin, 1 9 8 4 ) . I t i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d that r e s e a r c h on input and i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l l e a d to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with the L 2 l e a r n e r s ' p r o f i c i e n c y ( o r a l and w r i t t e n output) i n the second language, f a c t o r s which may h e l p to improve the q u a l i t y of second language i n s t r u c t i o n - both methodology and c u r r i c u l a . 2 Although there has "been t h i s phenomenal growth i n second language research on output, input and inte r a c t i o n , few studies d i r e c t l y investigate young children's interactions (ages three to seven years). Research i s primarily concerned with adults i n "foreign" language classrooms and/or with L2 students i n t h e i r l a t e r elementary and adolescent years. In addition, the r e s u l t s of studies of output, input and int e r a c t i o n with young children are scattered and somewhat contradictory. Discussions of L2 learner's output, l a r g e l y concerned with verbal p a r t i c i p a t i o n and proficiency i n English, are few and somewhat contradictory. It i s not presently clear what factor(s) are associated with increased proficiency i n English. L2 children's success i n speaking English has been associated with and attributed to a number and range of di f f e r e n t f a c t o r s . For some reseaarchers motivation and personality factors are key to success i n English, f o r others i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s o c i a l i z a t i o n with the target language group i s related to L2 success, s t i l l others note speaking one's native language to the v i r t u a l exclusion of English as s i g n i f i c a n t (Fillmore, 19?6>5 Chesterfield et a l . , 1982} Strong, 1983; Savi l l e - T r o i k e , 1984). Studies of output are also generally r e s t r i c t e d to teacher organized situations, though output may vary i n di f f e r e n t i n t e r a c t i o n situations such as those organized within the peer group (see, Halliday and Hasan, 1976). 3 The study of input - the features of the talk addressed to L2 learners has grown considerably (Long, 1 9 8 1 : 1 3 5 ) • Most research i s concerned with adults and older children and centres on the analysis of those i n t e r a c t i o n a l features of language that are used to acquire and hold attention, maintain and/or repair conversation and negotiate input during various conversational exchanges (see, f o r example, Freed, 1 9 8 0 j 19811 S c a r c e l l a and Higa, 1982a; 1982b> Long, 19811 Pica, and Long, 1982; Peck, 1985). These measures are used somewhat consistently i n that s i m i l a r measures are deemed appropriate by a number of researchers f o r a r r i v i n g at assessments of input and in t e r a c t i o n (see, part 1 . 3 )• And, measures of input and int e r a c t i o n may prove useful f o r a r r i v i n g at conclusions concerning the r e l a t i v e importance of various forms (e.g. "yes/no" questions, "display" questions, etc.) and t h e i r functions (e.g. confirmation checks, acquire attention, etc.) during conversation i n di f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . However, these measures neither relate input to output i n an e f f o r t to understand whether or not some measures are associated with increasing v e r b a l i z a t i o n (e.g. Do L2 learners use "yes/no" questions, c l a r i f i c a t i o n checks/requests, etc. more frequently as they become more p r o f i c i e n t i n English?), nor do they consider the contexts of i n t e r a c t i o n situations, s p e c i f i c a l l y the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the content of the discussions and/or tasks to L2 learners (e.g. t h e i r context dependence or independence). 4 L2 r e s e a r c h e r s are p r e s e n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between language f o r s o c i a l ve r su s academic purposes , the former g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as context bound or dependent and the l a t t e r i d e n t i f i e d as context reduced o r independent ( see , f o r example, Cummins, 1980} F i l l m o r e , 1983? Krashen and T e r r e l l , 1983J S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , 1984). At p resent the t r e n d i n r e s e a r c h f a v o u r s a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n i n the language l e a r n e r s ' a b i l i t i e s to i n f e r meaning from t e x t . In i t s e a r l i e r forms o f development o r i n c a s u a l / i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n communicat ion i s thought to be context dependent because the l e a r n e r r e l i e s h e a v i l y on the s i t u a t i o n a l l y bound cues tha t e x i s t i n the communicative exchange. L a t e r i n development and /o r i n academic / fo rma l c l a s s room s i t u a t i o n s communicat ion i s s a i d to be f r e e o f c o n t e x t u a l cues o r s i t u a t i o n a l l y i ndependent . The a b i l i t y to comprehend messages i n context reduced or t e x t dependent s i t u a t i o n s i s thought c e n t r a l to academic success and p o t e n t i a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r the L2 l e a r n e r i f the l e a r n e r does not have acces s to the a p p r o p r i a t e background knowledge assumed by the tex t and nece s s a r y f o r L2 p r o c e s s i n g - c u r r i c u l u m must be r e l e v a n t and a c c e s s i b l e to the l e a r n e r . Though L2 r e s e a r c h e r s have d i s c u s s e d d i f f e r e n c e s between context dependent and independent d i s c o u r s e at a r h e t o r i c a l l e v e l , the re has been l i t t l e a c t u a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i th young c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g a second language. Some s t u d i e s have been conducted w i t h f i r s t language l ea rner s } 5 however, these tend to focus on the w r i t t e n t e x t i n c l a s s room s i t u a t i o n s and seek l i t e r a c y r e l a t e d answers to d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h l i t e r a c y r a t h e r than e x p l o r i n g d i s c o u r s e i n g e n e r a l ( o r a l and w r i t t e n ) , i n c l u d i n g n o n - v e r b a l and v e r b a l exper ience i n a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . In sum, at p resent r e s e a r c h e r s have i d e n t i f i e d some v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i th output or v e r b a l p r o f i c i e n c y i n the L2, but these f a c t o r s are c o n t r a d i c t o r y and have n e i t h e r been examined i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s ( e . g . peer o r g a n i z e d ) , nor have been r e l a t e d to i n p u t . The s tudy o f i npu t f i n d s agreement i n the measures used by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s , but has tended to focus on the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , tha t i s , the forms ( e . g . "wh" q u e s t i o n s ) used d u r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s ( e . g . to check f o r comprehens ion, to con t inue the c o n v e r s a t i o n , to n e g o t i a t e f o r i n p u t , e t c . ) , r a t h e r than on the a c t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n or c o n t e x t . S tud i e s o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n w i th f i r s t language l e a r n e r s tend to focus on w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e and l i t e r a c y r e l a t e d i s s u e s wi thout g i v i n g adequate rega rd to the v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l background e x p e r i e n c e s o f the l e a r n e r s . And, f i n a l l y , s t u d i e s w i t h young c h i l d r e n are l a c k i n g i n a l l a r e a s . I t i s w i t h these d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t e d to s t u d i e s o f i n p u t , i n t e r a c t i o n and output tha t the p re sen t s tudy i s concerned . T h i s r e s e a r c h beg ins w i th an examinat ion o f the q u a n t i t y 6 o f the v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( o u t p u t ) o f n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n (NS, NNS) i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s ( c h i l d , t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d ) . I t t h e n examines d i f f e r e n c e s i n the q u a l i t y o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the s e s i t u a t i o n s by c o n s i d e r i n g not o n l y the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l exchanges (forms and f u n c t i o n s ) but a l s o the a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the r e l e v a n c e o f the s u b j e c t ( c o n t e n t / c o n t e x t ) o f t h e s e exchanges f o r the c h i l d second language l e a r n e r ( i . e . c o n t e x t dependence/independence). P r a c t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study The main g o a l s o f the ESL t e a c h e r i n o r g a n i z i n g a c u r r i c u l u m f o r NNS c h i l d r e n a r e : 1) t o p r o v i d e the c h i l d r e n w i t h c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t i n i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a re r e l e v a n t and a c c e s s i b l e t o them, 2) t o g i v e the NNSs many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use the L2 o r a l l y i n n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s so t h e y w i l l become e x p e r i e n c e d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s , 3) t o reduce the i n t e r a c t i o n a l burden t h r o u g h g r o u p i n g and o t h e r s t r a t e g i e s , and 4) t o p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a s s i s t c h i l d r e n t o p r o g r e s s from p r a c t i c a l ( e x p e r i e n t i a l ) t o t h e o r e t i c a l ( e x p o s i t o r y ) u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o f a c i l i t a t e f u t u r e academic s u c c e s s . T h i s s t u d y i s concerned w i t h t h e s e g o a l s i n t h a t i t examines v a r i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the c l a s s r o o m t o p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e on wh i c h t o base c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z a t i o n . Through u n d e r s t a n d i n g how c h i l d r e n s ' and t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s v a r y , L2 r e s e a r c h e r s w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e t o a s s i s t t e a c h e r s t o improve the way t h e y p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s t o L2 l e a r n e r s t h r o u g h the c o n t e n t o f v a r i o u s s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . 7 1.2 O u t p u t : V e r b a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d L 2 P r o f i c i e n c y The e a r l i e r s t u d i e s o f o u t p u t ( p r i o r t o t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s ) w e r e m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o d u c t s o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e r e f o r e s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f e r r o r s a n d / o r t h e o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f v a r i o u s morphemes ( M c L a u g h l i n , 1 9 8 4 : 2 2 1 ) . M o r e r e c e n t l y , ( s i n c e t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s ) r e s e a r c h h a s s h i f t e d t o m e t h o d a n d p r o c e s s , t h e r e f o r e s t u d i e s o f o u t p u t r e p o r t o n L 2 p r o f i c i e n c y a s a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e n u m e r o u s a n d d i v e r s e L 2 p r o g r a m s a n d t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s e m p l o y e d a n d i n a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t o c c u r i n L2 c l a s s r o o m s ( s e e , G a i e s , 1 9 8 3 ; L o n g , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h u s , a t p r e s e n t , r e s e a r c h o n o u t p u t d i s c u s s e s s u c h f a c t o r s a s t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r ' s v e r b a l i z a t i o n a n d s e c o n d l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y i n r e l a t i o n t o a n d a s a n o u t c o m e o f N S / N N S g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s ( s e e , f o r i n s t a n c e , F i l l m o r e , 1 9 7 6 ; S t r o n g , 1 9 8 3 ; S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , 1 9 8 4 ) . R e s e a r c h o n c h i l d r e n ' s o u t p u t i s p r e s e n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ( E S L ) . I n g e n e r a l , v e r b a l i z a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e d y n a m i c s o f g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n ( e . g . i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e g r o u p ) a n d / o r t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l e a r n e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n ( e . g . m o t i v a t i o n , p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s ) ( s e e , C h e s t e r f i e l d , C h a v e z e t a l . ; 1 9 8 2 ; S t r o n g , 1 9 8 3 ) . Few s t u d i e s d i s c u s s o u t p u t i n r e l a t i o n t o 8 input, the discourse features of conversation (forms and functions) are not related to verbal proficiency, neither i s the quantity of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the classroom, nor the s i t u a t i o n a l structure of conversations (e.g. context bound/ reduced) within various groups (peer, teacher) considered. Occasionally inferences about NNS output can be made from studies of input (see, for example, Scarcella and Higa, 1982a:184)} however, the f a i l u r e of most studies to consider output makes i t d i f f i c u l t to determine to what extent the language learner i s a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n various conversational interactions (e.g. c h i l d / c h i l d , a d u l t / c h i l d , NS/NNS), and i t i s equally d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h whether or not certain discourse features of conversation encourage the L2 learner to p a r t i c i p a t e more a c t i v e l y . For example, evidence suggests that NNS children do receive s i m p l i f i e d input} however, there may be a lack of verbal p a r t i c i p a t i o n by these children i n adult NS/child NNS conversations (Scarcella and Higa, 1982a«l84). In a study of input and age differences, Scarcella and Higa (1982a) note that L2 children did l i t t l e to receive input} adult NSs received l i t t l e verbal feedback from c h i l d NNSs. As Scarcella and Higa suggest, the children may not have even interacted enough to reveal t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c p r o f i c i e n c i e s . Why were the children not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t / c h i l d conversations? Were they p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n peer group interactions? S c a r c e l l a and Higa (1982a:184) note that age may be a factor, the younger children were not verbal because they were not 9 re spond ing as n a t u r a l l y as o l d e r s u b j e c t s i n the s tudy - the NNS c h i l d r e n were p robab l y l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s . In a d d i t i o n , the c h i l d r e n may have found the ta sk too d i f f i c u l t , t h e r e f o r e , they were unable to concen t ra te on i t . Some t a sk s do p re sen t d i f f i c u l t y f o r the L2 l e a r n e r . In Nemoianu's (1980) s tudy o f the c o n v e r s a t i o n s o f NNS c h i l d r e n , the c h i l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t y comp le t i ng s e v e r a l o f the t a s k s . Nemoianu (1980:102) conc ludes tha t the way i n which c h i l d r e n approach n o n - v e r b a l t a sk s may be as important as the a c t u a l r e s u l t s on these t e s t s . Bes ides hav ing d i f f i c u l t y w i th t a s k s , ESL c h i l d r e n may be b e t t e r c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s i n d i f f e r e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n s , such as those o c c u r r i n g w i th age p e e r s . There i s some e v i d e n c e , f o r i n s t a n c e , tha t NS peers p rov i de NNS c h i l d r e n w i t h a v e r y d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f i nput than a d u l t NSs (Peck, 1975; F i l l m o r e , 1976, S c a r c e l l a and H i ga , 1982). G i ven tha t the input p r o v i d e d d u r i n g peer group i n t e r a c t i o n s seems d i f f e r e n t , NNS output may a l s o d i f f e r i n spontaneous peer group i n t e r a c t i o n s . P r e s e n t l y , the r e s e a r c h tha t does d i s c u s s v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r o f i c i e n c y w i th the young NNS i s somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y . F i l l m o r e (1976) suggests tha t the more v e r b a l c h i l d i s the more p r o f i c i e n t L2 speaker and tha t m o t i v a t i o n to i d e n t i f y w i t h the NS t a r g e t group i s key to s u c c e s s f u l l y a c q u i r i n g an L 2 . C h e s t e r f i e l d , Chavez et a l . (1982j 1983) 10 support F i l l m o r e ' s c o n c l u s i o n s . In a s tudy of c h i l d NNS/ a d u l t NS i n t e r a c t i o n s , they found h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n c r e a s e d E n g l i s h language p r o f i c i e n c y and more f requen t i n t e r a c t i o n s between n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e E n g l i s h speak ing c h i l d r e n . Other s t u d i e s c o n t r a d i c t these f i n d i n g s ( S t rong , 1983J S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , 1984). S t rong (1983*250) a t t r i b u t e s success i n l e a r n i n g an L2 to p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s such as g rega r i ou sne s s or t a l k a t i v e n e s s } however, he makes no c l a ims as to whether added con tac t w i t h NSs causes g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y f o r NNSs, or whether NNS p r o f i c i e n c y i s the r e s u l t of t h i s c o n t a c t . S t rong (19831251/ 252) v iews the i s s u e as "not tha t the b e t t e r l e a r n e r s a re g e t t i n g more i npu t than t h e i r peers but r a t h e r they are making more a c t i v e use o f the E n g l i s h they are exposed t o " . Support f o r S t r o n g ' s p o s i t i o n i s found i n S a v i l l e - T r o i k e * s (1984) s tudy . She too found no c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r a c t i o n and i n c r e a s e d L2 p r o f i c i e n c y . In f a c t , i n S a v i l l e - T r o i k e ' s (1984:209) s i t u a t i o n , the m a j o r i t y o f the h i g h e r a c h i e v i n g s u b j e c t s "used t h e i r n a t i v e languages to the v i r t u a l e x c l u s i o n o f E n g l i s h " or " r a r e l y spoke at a l l i n any l anguage " . S a v i l l e - T r o i k e (1984:217) a t t r i b u t e s t h i s to the f a c t tha t t he re i s a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e between peer group and t e a c h e r group i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the "communicat ive t a c t i c s and s k i l l s " used by the c h i l d r e n . Though she i d e n t i f i e s the f a c t tha t t he re i s a d i f f e r e n c e , t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i s not e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r . 11 Some l i n k between the f o r e g o i n g s t u d i e s i s found i n the work of Nemoianu (1980). She agrees with Strong i n that p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the use of language and the r a t e of L2 l e a r n i n g . Nemoianu (1980:104) suggests that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c t i v e language use ( r a t i o of NNS u t t e r a n c e s to c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r u t t e r a n c e s ) and the r a t e of L2 l e a r n i n g . Those l e a r n e r s who made more a c t i v e use of the L2 seemed to l e a r n more q u i c k l y . And, although Nemoianu does not compare te a c h e r and peer group i n t e r a c t i o n s , she does i n d i r e c t l y i d e n t i f y what may be a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e between teacher and peer group i n t e r a c t i o n s - the dynamic nature of peer group i n t e r a c t i o n s between NS and NNS c h i l d r e n seems to f a c i l i t a t e L2 l e a r n i n g . In sum, i t appears that there are a number of f a c t o r s t h a t are a s s o c i a t e d with NNS v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and L2 p r o f i c i e n c y , r a n g i n g from those d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r (e.g. p e r s o n a l i t y ) to those r e l a t e d to NS/NNS i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s i n s p e c i f i c classroom s i t u a t i o n s (e.g. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the t a r g e t language group). And, although there are some c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s such as those p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i t i s p o s s i b l e to make some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s based on the a n a l y s i s of t h i s r e s e a r c h : (1) NS/NNS group i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s i n f l u e n c e the v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of L2 l e a r n e r s and t h e r e f o r e i n f l u e n c e the l e a r n i n g of a second language and the L2 l e a r n e r ' s p r o f i c i e n c y i n the second language, 12 (2) t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t o c c u r s i n p e e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s a n d i n t e a c h e r / a d u l t , o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e t h e v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d p r o f i c i e n c y o f L2 l e a r n e r s may v a r y w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a n y g i v e n s t u d y , a n d (3) o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h a s c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d , p e r s o n a l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n , a n d / o r l e a r n i n g s t y l e i n f l u e n c e o u t p u t o r v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , h e n c e mus t be c o n s i d e r e d i n s t u d i e s t h a t a s s e s s L2 l e a r n e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e L 2 . E a c h o f t h e s e t h r e e a r e a s r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h t o a r r i v e a t f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o L2 p r o f i c i e n c y . S t u d i e s r e l a t i n g o u t p u t t o i n p u t d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g v a r i o u s t a s k s / a c t i v i t i e s a n d i n t e r a c t a n t s may h e l p t o c l a r i f y e x i s t i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , r e s e a r c h e r s o f v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n m u s t b e g i n t o r e l a t e o u t p u t t o i n t e r a c t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s ( w i t h v a r i o u s t a s k s / a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c i p a n t s ) t o move r e s e a r c h b e y o n d a n a s s e s s m e n t o f l e a r n e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h ( a p r o d u c t ) t o w a r d a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t h i s p r o f i c i e n c y i s i n f l u e n c e d b y v a r i o u s p r o c e s s e s o f l e a r n i n g a n d t e a c h i n g a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . 13 1.3 Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : Measures o f D i s c o u r s e F e a t u r e s and Measures o f S i t u a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e There are many ways o f measuring i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n i n L 2 c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s . Some measures o f i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n a r e more r e l a t e d t o p r o d u c t s o f second language a c q u i s i t i o n - the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s p e c i f i c forms i s c o n s i d e r e d and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s between NSs and NNSs i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . Other measures are more r e l a t e d t o p r o c e s s e s o f l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g a second language - the r e l e v a n c e and a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the i n p u t p r o v i d e d by v a r i o u s i n t e r a c t a n t s i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s i s c o n s i d e r e d , as i s the i n f l u e n c e o f the s t r u c t u r e o f v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s on the l e a r n i n g o f the new language, f o r i n s t a n c e , d i s t a n c e o f the s u b j e c t from the s p e a k e r / h e a r e r . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g s t u d i e s o f i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n i n terms o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s and s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ( p a r t s 1 .4 and 1 . 5 t o f o l l o w ) , a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the measures a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each form o f assessment i s p r e s e n t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . C o n s i d e r , f o r example, the k i n d s o f measures used t o a n a l y z e the d i s c o u r s e o r i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n and those measures used f o r a n a l y s i s o f a s p e c t s o f the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . Each i s b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d as f o l l o w s . 14 Measures of Discourse Features Studies of conversational i n t e r a c t i o n generally use measures of discourse features to arrive at an assessment of input. One way of examining the input received by the NNS from the NS i s to examine those conversation sustaining, negotiating and repairing devices used during an exchange between various partners. Measures of the discourse features of conversational interactions are usually concerned with speaker/hearer relationships and enable researchers to address issues such as: . Are there opportunities f o r the less competent NNS to i n i t i a t e conversation? negotiate f o r input? . Is the input provided f o r the NNS made more comprehensible through the use of questioning and other techniques by the NS? . Do NSs use techniques such as confirmation, c l a r i f i c a t i o n and comprehension checks to ensure NNS understanding? Studies of the discourse features of input and i n t e r a c t i o n give information about the dynamics of group interactions i n and out of classrooms i n terms of the features of the tal k addressed to L2 learners, about NS/NNS negotiation f o r input, and about NS attempts reduce the i n t e r a c t i o n a l burden f o r the NNS (see, Long, 1981). Thus, at present, research on input and int e r a c t i o n discusses products of L2 a c q u i s i t i o n - forms of utterances and t h e i r functions i n interactions, f o r example, the quantity and type of questions used by NSs i n addressing NNSs, the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of topics by NSs f o r NNSs and/or the use of r e p e t i t i o n by NSs and NNSs (see, for instance, Gaies, 1983). P r e s e n t l y , a l t h o u g h the f i n d i n g s from v a r i o u s s t u d i e s o f i n p u t are somewhat i n disagreement on most i s s u e s ( s e e , d i s c u s s i o n , p a r t 1.4), t h e r e i s agreement t o be found i n the k i n d s o f measures t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s o f i n p u t have found a c c e p t a b l e . I n f a c t , most i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n have used one o r more o f the same measures. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (Table I ) i l l u s t r a t e s some o f the measures commonly found i n s t u d i e s o f the f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a d u l t / a d u l t , a d u l t / c h i l d , and c h i l d / c h i l d exchanges between NSs and NNSs. As i l l u s t r a t e d i n the t a b l e , numerous r e s e a r c h e r s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t the same measures as s u i t a b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s agreement on the measures used t o a s s e s s the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , o t h e r f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n cannot be a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e s e measures. S p e c i f i c a l l y , measures o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s do not move beyond an a n a l y s i s o f t a l k i n e x a m i n i n g group dynamics; an e v a l u a t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s i s not p o s s i b l e ( e . g . c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e o f the s u b j e c t m a t t e r from the s p e a k e r / h e a r e r ) . Y e t , i n L I s t u d i e s o f m o t h e r / c h i l d c o n v e r s a t i o n s , t h e r e are a s p e c t s o f the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s L I a c q u i s i t i o n , and f u r t h e r , appear t o c h a r a c t e r i z e c h i l d / c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n ( s e e , C r o s s , 1977)- F o r example, m o t h e r / c h i l d and c h i l d / c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s T a b l e I Summary o f Measures o f D i s c o u r s e / i n t e r a c t i o n a l F e a t u r e s o f C o n v e r s a t i o n s D i s c o u r s e / I n t e r a c t i o n a l A d u l t / A d u l t , A d u l t / C h i l d , F e a t u r e and C h i l d / C h i l d I n t e r a c t i o n s Q u e s t i o n s ( d i s p l a y , r e f e r e n t i a l , " o r " c h o i c e , "wh", "yes/no", e t c . ) R e p e t i t i o n s ( s e l f , o t h e r ) Frame s D i r e c t i v e s I n c l u s i v e "we" C o n f i r m a t i o n . ( c h e c k s , r e q u e s t s ) H a t c h , 1978 Long, 1981 F r e e d , 1980j 198I S c a r c e l l a and H i g a , Long and S a t o , 1983 Peck, 1985 P i c a and Long, 1982 S c a r c e l l a and H i g a , F r e e d , I98O} 198I Peck, 1985 S c a r c e l l a and H i g a , Peck, 1985 S c a r c e l l a and H i g a , F r e e d , 1980; 198I Peck, 1985 S c a r c e l l a and H i g a , Peck, 1985 Long, 1981 P i c a and Long, 1982 S c a r c e l l a and H i g a . Peck, 1985 1982aj 1982b 1982a; 1982b 1982a; 1982aj 1982b 1982b 1982aj 1982b 1982a; 1982b C l a r i f i c a t i o n ( c h e c k s , r e q u e s t s ) Long, 1981 17 g e n e r a l l y take p l a c e i n s i t u a t i o n s tha t are context dependent, tha t i s , they take p l a c e i n the here and now. The language used i s e a s i l y unders tood by the NS c h i l d language l e a r n e r because i t i s used i n a c t i o n , c r e a t e d spontaneous ly to s u i t the s i t u a t i o n a l context as i t i s c r e a t e d , r e c r e a t e d or a l t e r e d by mother and c h i l d , or by c h i l d and c h i l d . And r e c e n t l y , L2 s t u d i e s have suggested tha t s i m i l a r c o n c r e t e r e f e r e n t s are nece s s a r y f o r beg inner s i n an L2 - " c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a c t i o n o r i e n t e d s o c i a l c on tex t s f a c i l i t a t e s L2 l e a r n i n g ( see, Mohan 1985). Measures of the i n t e r a c t i o n a l o r d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s need to be supplemented by measures tha t a l l o w the r e s e a r c h e r to move beyond the bounds o f the s p e a k e r / h e a r e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to c o n s i d e r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n , such as the d i s t a n c e o f the d i s c u s s i o n from the L2 l e a r n e r , and t h e r e f o r e , i t s r e l e v a n c e and a c c e s s i b i l i t y to h im/her f o r comprehension (as i n p u t ) . To move beyond the a n a l y s i s o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s to c o n s i d e r o t h e r a spec t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s d u r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s , measures such as those concerned w i th s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e are n e c e s s a r y . Measures o f the S i t u a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e o f I n t e r a c t i o n s S tud ie s o f the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of c o n v e r s a t i o n s are ma in l y found i n f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n ( f o r d e t a i l e d examples, see Garvey, 1984). These measures are used to 18 a s s e s s a s p e c t s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , t o e x a m i n e t he ' d e p e n d e n c e / i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e o n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e b y d e t e r m i n i n g i t s r e l e v a n c e a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r t h e l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r . A s a n e x a m p l e m e a s u r e s d e v e l o p e d b y H a l l i d a y a n d H a s a n (1976:333) a l l o w t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o c o d e v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e i t e m s ( e . g . p r o n o m i n a l s a n d d e m o n s t r a t i v e s ) a s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e c o n t e x t o f s i t u a t i o n f o r r e f e r e n c e ( e x o p h o r i c ) a n d / o r d e p e n d e n t o n t h e p r e c e e d i n g o r f o l l o w i n g t e x t f o r r e f e r e n c e ( a n a p h o r i c ) . A l t h o u g h t h e m e a s u r e s o f H a l l i d a y a n d H a s a n (1976 )have b e e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e a n a p h o r i c / e x o p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e c a t e g o r i e s a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e o f one a n o t h e r , a n d b e c a u s e t h e a n a p h o r i c i t e m s a r e s a i d t o i n d i c a t e c o h e r e n c e b e t w e e n p u r e l y l i n g u i s t i c i t e m s i g n o r i n g b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e ( s e e , C a r r e l l , 1982), n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e s e i t e m s do a l l o w t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o a r r i v e a t some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s e m e a s u r e s a l l o w t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o come t o some g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o u t t h e c o n t e x t o f a n i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e : 1) i f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n d u r i n g N S / N N S i n t e r a c t i o n d e a l s v / i t h r e a l o b j e c t s a n d v i s u a l a i d s i n t h e h e r e a n d n o w , a n d / o r 2) i f t h e N S / N N S c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s a s sume b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e o f a s p e c t s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e d i s c u s s i o n makes reference to things not phys i ca l l y present, therefore, they may or may not be f am i l i a r to the learner depending upon h i s / her background s o c i o - c u l t u r a l knowledge and experience, and/or 3) i f the i n te rac t i on taking place between NSs and NNSs i s mainly exper ien t i a l (context dependent, exophoric) and/or expository (context independent, anaphoric). It i s reasonable to pos i t that i n the case of anaphoric items, i t i s not c lear that these items ex i s t i n the here and now, and reference to them may indeed be found i n the text or i n an i n te rac t i on between the assumptions made by the text , the l ea rner ' s background knowledge about the text and cer ta in cognit ive processing s t ra teg ies . Only i n the case of the exophoric items i s i t l i k e l y that the input provided i s meaningful to the learner because the items used during d iscuss ion are immediately v i s i b l e and are being used during conversation i n an ongoing ac t ion context. Using these kinds of measures L2 researchers can begin to answer questions l i k e those that fol lowt . What i s i t the L2 learners are doing with language i n various communicative s i tuat ions? Is input re la ted to task? Is input re la ted to the context of s i tuat ion? . How f a r removed i s the d iscuss ion from the NNS i n time and space? Is the input provided relevant and access ib le to the NNS f o r comprehension? How e f fec t i ve i s the ins t ruct ion? . What happens during the d iscuss ion i n various groups? What i s important to teachers? learners? I n sum, s e v e r a l L2 w r i t e r s suggest t h a t the i n p u t a d d r e s s e d t o t h e NNS must be m e a n i n g f u l and com p r e h e n s i b l e t o f a c i l i t a t e L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . To be b o t h m e a n i n g f u l and comp r e h e n s i b l e the i n p u t p r o v i d e d f o r L2 l e a r n e r s i s thought t o be b e s t i f i t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f L I m o t h e r / c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s as r e p o r t e d i n s t u d i e s o f motherese ( s e e , C r o s s , 1977? Krashen and T e r r e l l , 1983). However, L2 r e s e a r c h e r s have based t h i s c o n c l u s i o n on s t u d i e s o f i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t a re l i m i t e d t o the a n a l y s i s o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and not on s t u d i e s o f the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . I t i s the l a t t e r , the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f m o t h e r / c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t makes the i n p u t p r o v i d e d f o r L2 l e a r n e r s m e a n i n g f u l and c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , i n a d d i t i o n t o the f o r m e r , the use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . S t u d i e s o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s o f second language l e a r n e r s i n t e r a c t i o n s must, t h e r e f o r e , move beyond the a n a l y s i s o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s t o an a n a l y s i s o f the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t the s t u d y o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i s not i m p o r t a n t , r a t h e r , t h a t some o f the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n the r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s may be r e f i n e d , and/or removed i f the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d . And, most i m p o r t a n t l y , a n a l y s i s o f the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f L2 l e a r n e r s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l move r e s e a r c h toward c o n s i d e r i n g a s p e c t s o f the p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g a second l a n g u a g e , r a t h e r t h a n s o l e l y r e s e a r c h i n g p r o d u c t s ( d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s ) o f i n t e r a c t i o n s . 21 l.k Input and Interaction? Studies of Discourse or Interactional Features of Conversations The study of discourse or i n t e r a c t i o n a l features of conversations between NSs and NNSs has occupied a prominent place i n L2 research i n recent years (McLaughlin, 1984t240). Relationships amongst input, i n t e r a c t i o n and L2 a c q u i s i t i o n are being sought to refine knowledge about the variables involved i n L2 processing. At present, the results of studies of the discourse or i n t e r a c t i o n a l features of conversation are somewhat contradictory and have resulted i n l i t t l e consistent evidence concerning how discourse features a f f e c t L2 processing, other than to note that there are a great many variables to consider and that the frequency or use of one or more items varies with s i t u a t i o n (see, Long, 1981). Part of the d i f f i c u l t y i n fin d i n g consistency i n reports of discourse features may be the re s u l t of gaps which exist i n the current research. Much of the ex i s t i n g research concerns NS, NNS conversational i n t e r a c t i o n . It i s generally f e l t that through studying input during conversational in t e r a c t i o n , suggestions w i l l arise f o r aiding teachers to provide optimal input i n classrooms, to f a c i l i t a t e L2 learning. Thus numerous studies focus on the discourse features of conversational i n t e r a c t i o n between adults and older learners, both i n and out of the classroom, i n e f f o r t s to understand how input i s related to the processing of an L2 (Long, 1981:136). However, few studies 22 d i r e c t l y examine young c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s . And, a l though r e s e a r c h has s h i f t e d from ma in l y emphas iz ing l i n g u i s t i c forms as sources of i n p u t , to c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the na ture o f the i n t e r a c t i o n through the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s these forms s e r v e , the s tudy o f i npu t and i n t e r a c t i o n has not moved beyond c o n s i d e r a t i o n of d i s c o u r s e o r i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s to the examinat ion o f o t h e r a spec t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s , namely the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f these i n t e r a c t i o n s ( see, Long, 1981; G a i e s , 1983). Most r e s e a r c h on the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f d i s c o u r s e concerns f o r e i g n e r t a l k (FTD) ( see , Wagner-Gough and Ha tch , 1975; Shap i r a and Gough, 1978; F r e e d , I98O5 19811 Long, 19811 S c a r c e l l a and H i g a , 1982aj 1982b; P i c a and Long, 1982; Long and Sato, 1983; Peck, 1985). FTD has been examined f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d e v i c e s used i n NS, NNS a d u l t s and/or o l d e r l e a r n e r s * i n t e r a c t i o n s . No c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been g i v e n to younger l e a r n e r s . And, a l though some e f f o r t s have been made to compare and c o n t r a s t NS mother/NS c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n w i th FTD, numerous v a r i a b l e s have been found i n examining the use of i n t e r a c t i o n a l d e v i c e s , some r e l a t e d to form, some f u n c t i o n and o ther s to both ( see, F r e e d , 1981). In g e n e r a l , r e s e a r c h on FTD has found tha t NSs make adjustments d u r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h NNSs to ensure NNS u n d e r s t a n d i n g , to m a i n t a i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , to i n c l u d e NNSs i n c o n v e r s a t i o n and to g e n e r a l l y reduce the i n t e r a c t i o n a l burden p l a c e d on the NNS ( see, Long, 1981:135)' Fo r i n s t a n c e , s t u d i e s have found t h a t many a d j u s t m e n t s a r e made i n the forms used t o a i d the NNS - t o p i c s a re s i m p l i f i e d , words and s e n t e n c e s a re c l a r i f i e d / r e p e a t e d , and s i m p l i f i e d t o ensure NNS u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c o n v e r s a t i o n c o n t i n u e r s , the i n c l u s i v e "we" and q u e s t i o n s a re used by NSs t o ensure NNS in v o l v e m e n t i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n , e t c . (Long, 1981; S c a r c e l l a and H i g a 1982ai 1982b). And, s t u d i e s r e p o r t on o t h e r a d j u s t m e n t s made i n the f u n c t i o n s t h a t these forms s e r v e d u r i n g v a r i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s . F o r example, m o t h e r / c h i l d , NS/NS t a l k and FTD has been c o n t r a s t e d f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s / d i f f e r e n c e s i n the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f t h i s t a l k ( s e e , F r e e d , I98I). Though some s i m i l a r i t i e s have been found i n the measures used t o a n a l y z e d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s (see d i s c u s s i o n 1.3» t h i s r e p o r t ) and though s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s have been found i n the use o f s p e c i f i c forms and/or t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , as Long (1981:136) comments, i t i s not even c l e a r from e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h how NS/NS i n t e r a c t i o n s d i f f e r i n s t r u c t u r e and c o n t e n t ( s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ) from NS/NNS i n t e r a c t i o n s . N e i t h e r i s i t c l e a r whether o r not c e r t a i n d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s a r e s p e c i f i c t o e i t h e r NS/NS i n t e r a c t i o n s and/or t o NS/NNS i n t e r a c t i o n s , n o r has e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h d e t e r m i n e d w h i c h forms and f e a t u r e s o f d i s c o u r s e are not i m p o r t a n t and, t h e r e f o r e , absent d u r i n g some c o n v e r s a t i o n s . F o r example, F r e e d (1981:25) argues t h a t the most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Ns/NNS FTD and NS mother/NS 24 c h i l d discourse operates at a functional l e v e l ; the functional intent of mother/child exchanges centres around the action or behaviour of the c h i l d while the intent of FTD interactions i s d i r e c t l y related to information exchange. For example, conversation continuers such as repetitions function i n mother/child interactions to maintain the in t e r a c t i o n , but with FTD these devices are used to aid the exchange of information through c l a r i f y i n g ideas (Freed, 1981:24). Although she does not develop t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n further, i t appears to be the s i t u a t i o n a l structure of the two i n t e r a c t i o n situations that d i f f e r s , the mother/child context f o r using language i s concrete, s p e c i f i c and action oriented (e x p e r i e n t i a l ) , the FTD context i s probably less dynamic, more abstract and general (expository). Long's (1981:136) assertion that FTD may d i f f e r i n structure and content from NS/NS interactions may be relevant i n Freed's s i t u a t i o n - the functional differences she recognizes, seem to be differences i n the s i t u a t i o n a l structure of the two inte r a c t i o n s . In addition to studying the i n t e r a c t i o n a l features of FTD and comparing/contrasting i t with mother/child exchanges some studies have attended to teacher t a l k i n classrooms (see, Gaies, 1983). Studies of teacher t a l k (adult NS or b i l i n g u a l adult to adolescent, adult or c h i l d NNS) are found less frequently i n the l i t e r a t u r e (McLaughlin, 1984:240). 25 As M c L a u g h l i n (1984) comments, i n s p i t e o f the l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s done i n c l a s s r o o m s , l i t t l e i s a c t u a l l y - known about t e a c h e r t a l k . Much o f the e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h examines the i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o f b i l i n g u a l t e a c h e r s f o r elements o f language use o r code s w i t c h i n g d u r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ( C h e s t e r f i e l d , Chavez, et a l . , 1983«40l/402). And, some r e s e a r c h has s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s o f i n p u t from t e a c h e r s on the NNSs subsequent ( a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n ) p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h (Snow and H o e f n a g e l - H o h l e , 1982; S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , 1984). Other s t u d i e s have compared/ c o n t r a s t e d d i s c o u r s e i n the c l a s s r o o m ( v a r i o u s forms and f u n c t i o n s ) w i t h NS/NS i n t e r a c t i o n s , w i t h FTD, and/or w i t h t a l k o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m ( s e e , G a i e s , 1977; Hatch et a l . , 1978; H e n z l e , 1979s Chaudron, 1979} G a i e s , 1983).. R e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s are s c a t t e r e d and have been somewhat i n c o n s i s t e n t and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . F o r i n s t a n c e , t e a c h e r s have been found t o s w i t c h codes i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s t o accommodate v a r i o u s l e a r n e r s ( s e e , C h e s t e r f i e l d e t a l . , 1983). W i t h r e s p e c t t o i n p u t and p r o f i c i e n c y , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p has been found amongst i n p u t , i n t e r a c t i o n and i n c r e a s e d p r o f i c i e n c y i n the L2 ( s e e , S t r o n g , 1983). And, a l t h o u g h FTD has been found t o be g r a m m a t i c a l l y more complex t h a n d i s c o u r s e i n the c l a s s r o o m , b o t h FTD and t e a c h e r t a l k have been found t o d i f f e r f u n c t i o n a l l y as w e l l as s y n t a c t i c a l l y from m o t h e r / c h i l d 26 i n t e r a c t i o n s ( s e e , Hatch et a l , 1978; F r e e d , 1981; G a i e s , 1983). At the same t i m e , however, i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t t e a c h e r t a l k c o n s t i t u t e s a s i m p l i f i e d code s i m i l a r t o c a r e g i v e r t a l k , w hich l i k e c a r e g i v e r t a l k , may f a c i l i t a t e L2 p r o c e s s i n g ( s e e , G a i e s , 1983*207). A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s w hich examine how d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s a r e r e l a t e d t o what the L2 l e a r n e r i s d o i n g i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s a r e needed t o c l a r i f y e x i s t i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n s t u d i e s o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s so t h a t the language o f the c l a s s r o o m may be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d . Research w i t h i n a n o t h e r a r e a o f s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s - the peer group - i s a l s o l a c k i n g (Nemoianu, 1980; S c a r c e l l a and H i g a , 1981a). Two a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t have emerged, though s t u d i e s w i t h i n each a r e few: 1) p e e r group i n t e r a c t i o n s i n n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s , and 2) peer t u t o r i n g i n c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s . S t u d i e s w i t h i n the peer group i n n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s have m a i n l y examined s o c i a l s t y l e s ( F i l l m o r e , 1980; 1983$ Nemoianu, 1980; S t r o n g , 1983), o r c o n v e r s a t i o n n e g o t i a t i n g d e v i c e s such as t u r n a l l o c a t i o n ( K e l l e r - C o h e n , 1979)• Some have examined i n p u t , i n t e r a c t i o n and the L2 p r o f i c i e n c y o f the l e a r n e r i n c h i l d / c h i l d d i s c o u r s e , however, no c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p has been found between f a c t o r s such as i n c r e a s e d p r o f i c i e n c y and L2 l e a r n e r a c c e s s t o s i m p l i f i e d i n p u t ( S t r o n g , I983j S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , 1984). 27 Others have c o n t r a s t e d d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s o f a d u l t s c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h o l d e r v e r s u s younger l e a r n e r s ( S c a r c e l l a and H i g a , 1982a: 1982b). And, a few have c o n s i d e r e d p e e r NS/NNS t u t o r i n g (Peck, 1985). A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s have been found i n the s p e c i f i c forms used (e . g . q u e s t i o n s ) and i n the f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e forms i n d i f f e r e n t - s i t u a t i o n s w i t h o l d e r v e r s u s younger l e a r n e r s ( e . g . n e g o t i a t e f o r i n p u t , a c q u i r e a t t e n t i o n ) , l i t t l e i s u n d e r s t o o d about how c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s d i f f e r i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s from NS/NNS c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s ( S c a r c e l l a and H i g a , 1982a). And, a l t h o u g h the q u a l i t y o f the i n t e r a c t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e i n the peer group w i t h L2 l e a r n e r s i s r e c o g n i z e d as d i f f e r e n t from a d u l t / a d u l t o r a d u l t / c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s , t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e and i t s e f f e c t on L2 p r o c e s s i n g i s not e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r ( S c a r c e l l a and H i g a , 1982a:194). I n sum, a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e numerous s t u d i e s o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s , i n v e s t i g a t o r s know l i t t l e about c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n e x cept t h a t the d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s (both forms and f u n c t i o n s ) o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s v a r y w i t h the s p e c i f i c NSs and NNSs who are p a r t i c i p a t i n g . A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h on c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n has moved from an emphasis on the n a t u r e o f i n p u t t h r o u g h the s t u d y o f l i n g u i s t i c f o rms, t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the n a t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n t h r o u g h the s t u d y o f the s e forms and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n , s t u d i e s o f d i s c o u r s e / i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s must be expanded to consider other aspects of the i n te rac t i on s i tua t i on during conversations. For instance, studies of discourse or i n te rac t i ona l features might be supplemented with studies of the s i t u a t i o n a l structure of conversations which consider, f o r example, the distance of the subject from the speaker/ hearer. To f i l l a gap i n ex i s t ing research, studies of discourse features must be supplemented with studies of how the s i t u a t i o n a l structure of conversations var ies i n d i f f e ren t i n te rac t i on s i tuat ions with various in teractants . And f i n a l l y , research i s needed with very young ch i ld ren , with teachers and with in the peer group, both i n and out of L2 classrooms. If researchers study how ch i ld ren learn an L2 i n d i f f e ren t s i tuat ions and compare/contrast th i s learn ing with the opportunit ies provided by teachers i n the classroom, then researchers w i l l begin to provide some of the answers needed f o r improving the qua l i t y of L2 i n s t ruc t i on i n classrooms. L2 researchers must begin to answer questions such as the fo l lowing! 1) Are discourse features important to the ch i ld ren themselves during conversat ional in teract ion? Are they more important to teachers or to learners?, 2) How does the qua l i t y of ch i l d ren ' s in terac t ions d i f f e r from that of teacher organized learn ing opportunit ies?, and 3) How might teachers bridge the gap, i f indeed there i s one, between what happens i n c h i l d organized s i tuat ions and what i s occurr ing i n s i tuat ions organized by the teacher? 29 1.5 Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : The S i t u a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e o f C o n v e r s a t i o n s Recent c o n c e r n w i t h d i s c o u r s e l e v e l p r o c e s s i n g has l e d t o i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n the s t u d y o f p r a g m a t i c s and t e x t ( o r a l and w r i t t e n ) ( s e e , C a r r e l l , 1982). R e s e a r c h e r s r e c o g n i z e t h a t the p r o c e s s i n g o f an L2 makes many complex s o c i a l and c o g n i t i v e demands o f the l e a r n e r : language i s used i n a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l c o n t e x t s f o r d i f f e r e n t p u r poses. As a r e s u l t o f t h i s t r e n d i n r e s e a r c h , and i n s p i r e d by s t u d i e s o f m o t h e r / c h i l d NS i n t e r a c t i o n s , f i r s t and second language d i s c u s s i o n s have made a d i s t i n c t i o n between the language o f the c l a s s r o o m , n e c e s s a r y f o r academic s u c c e s s , and the language o f spontaneous, n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n day t o day s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( s e e , f o r example, Cazden, 197^5 Donaldson, 1978? Cummins, 1983; 1984; Nemoianu, I98O5 W e l l s , 1981a; 1981b; 1983; 1984; F i l l m o r e , 1976; 1983; S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , 1982; 1984). I n v a r i o u s s o u r c e s the language o f the c l a s s r o o m has been.termed c o n t e x t i n d e p e n d e n t / r e d u c e d , f o r m a l / a c a d e m i c , and/or a n a p h o r i c language. The language and communication r e l a t e d t o l i t e r a c y and t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i n c l a s s r o o m s i s o f c o n c e r n i n the s e d i s c u s s i o n s . The language o f spontaneous i n t e r a c t i o n i s termed c o n t e x t dependent/ embedded/ bound, i n f o r m a l / s o c i a l , e x o p h o r i c and/or n a t u r a l . Here, r e s e a r c h e r s a re s p e a k i n g o f the language and communication r e l a t e d t o day t o day, s m a l l group i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s not o r g a n i z e d by a t e a c h e r . At the p re sen t t ime , LI and L2 s t u d i e s o f context dependent/ independent d i s c o u r s e a re somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y , l i m i t e d i n scope and g e n e r a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c . Many d i s c u s s i o n s o f academic d i s c o u r s e e x i s t on l y at a r h e t o r i c a l l e v e l and have not been f o l l o w e d up by r e s e a r c h ( see, f o r example, Krashen and T e r r e l l , 1983: F i l l m o r e , 1983; Cummins, 1984j S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , 1984). Some ( d i r e c t l y / i n d i r e c t l y ) advocate the use o f language i n s o c i a l c on tex t s because concre te r e f e r e n t s f a c i l i t a t e comprehension i n the L2 ( see, F i l l m o r e , 1976; Krashen and T e r r e l l , 1983; G a i e s , 1983). Others note tha t conc re te con tex t s do not n e c e s s a r i l y guarantee academic success because language i n c la s s rooms i s context reduced - r e f e r e n c e i s anaphor i c ( see , F i l l m o r e , 1983; S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , 1984). Some view L2 l e a r n e r s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s i n context dependent/ independent s i t u a t i o n s as i n t e r a c t i o n s w i th language and communicat ion a l ong a dynamic continuum ( see, Cummins, 1981). S t i l l o the r s v iew c l a s s room l i t e r a c y r e l a t e d s k i l l s as somehow d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s o c i a l / c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s ( see, Dona ldson, 1978; W e l l s , 1981a; 1981b). Some see the need to g i ve g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to the l e a r n e r s ' background s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e s or to what the l e a r n e r i s do ing w i t h the t e x t ( o r a l and w r i t t e n ) i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s ( C a r r e l l , 1982). And, f i n a l l y , o the r s see a need to v iew language as a medium of l e a r n i n g as w e l l as communicating - context dependent / independent d i s c o u r s e are i n te rdependent ( see, Dewey, 1916; M o f f e t t and Wagner, 1976; Mohan, 1985). 31 T h i s review of the r e s e a r c h on the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of v a r i o u s NS, NNS i n t e r a c t i o n s begins with a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the o r i g i n s of the c u r r e n t d i s t i n c t i o n between context dependent ( i n f o r m a l , s o c i a l , exophoric) and independent (f o r m a l , academic, anaphoric) t a l k . I t then r e l a t e s t h i s d i s c u s s i o n to i n t e r a c t i o n i n the peer group. And f i n a l l y , some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s with the numerous LI and L2 d i s c u s s i o n s of the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of NS and NNS i n t e r a c t i o n s (context dependence/independence, e t c . ) with v a r i o u s i n t e r a c t a n t s ( c h i l d , a d u l t , a d o l e s c e n t ) are c o n s i d e r e d . S t u d i e s of context dependent/independent t a l k have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n d i s c u s s i o n s of "motherese" or NS mother/NS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s (see, Cross, 1977)• One of the reasons NS mother/NS c h i l d t a l k f a c i l i t a t e s language l e a r n i n g i s because i t i s meaningful to the l e a r n e r , that i s , the i n f o r m a t i o n exchanged between mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s c o n c r e t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the immediate s o c i a l c ontexts of the i n t e r a c t i o n s and d e v i c e s are used, such as e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r e n t i a l d e i c t i c terms, to draw the c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n to aspects of the s i t u a t i o n d u r i n g the a c t i o n (see, Cross, 1977 or Garvey, 1984, f o r d e t a i l s ) . The l e s s competent NS c h i l d l e a r n s language because i n a d d i t i o n to r e c e i v i n g help from mothers through t h e i r use of numerous i n t e r a c t i o n a l ( d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s ) c o n v e r s a t i o n s u s t a i n i n g , r e p a i r i n g 32 a n d n e g o t i a t i n g d e v i c e s , l a n g u a g e i s u s e d i n a c o n t e x t t h a t i s n o t d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e r e s t o f l a n g u a g e f o r m e a n i n g . L a n g u a g e i s i n s t e a d c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e p a r t n e r s i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e a n d c o n t e x t s f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n a r e c r e a t e d , r e c r e a t e d a n d / o r a l t e r e d a s t h e a c t i o n p r o g r e s s e s . T h o u g h l i t t l e i s k n o w n a b o u t t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e p e e r g r o u p , t h e r e i s some r e a s o n t o e x p e c t t h a t i t i s s i m i l a r t o m o t h e r / c h i l d c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n i t s c o n t e x t d e p e n d e n c e . H a l l i d a y a n d H a s a n (1976s36) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e p e e r g r o u p i s l a n g u a g e i n a c t i o n , c h i l d r e n c o m m u n i c a t e d u r i n g c o n c r e t e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n v e y e d w h i l e i n t e r a c t i n g i s m a i n l y f o u n d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s a c t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e , e x o p h o r i c o r s i t u a t e d i n t h e h e r e a n d n o w . D i s c u s s i o n s o f c o n c r e t e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n a n d i t s c o n t e x t d e p e n d e n c e seem t o h a v e l e d r e s e a r c h e r s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h i s l a n g u a g e m a k e s f e w e r c o g n i t i v e demands o f t h e l e a r n e r a n d i s i n f a c t d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m w h i c h i s s a i d t o make more c o m p l e x demands o f t h e l e a r n e r . I n t h e c l a s s r o o m , t h e l a n g u a g e n e e d e d f o r a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s i s s a i d t o be c o n t e x t r e d u c e d o r i n d e p e n d e n t , t h a t i s , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n v e y e d f r o m t e a c h e r t o l e a r n e r i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e p r e c e e d i n g o r f o l l o w i n g t e x t r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n ( H a l l i d a y a n d H a s a n , 1976). T h i s makes more c o m p l e x demands o f t h e l e a r n e r b e c a u s e m e a n i n g o n l y b e c o m e s 33 comprehens ib le i f the l e a r n e r i s ab le to make i n f e r e n c e s from the t e x t , and i n the case of L2 l e a r n e r s , i f the l e a r n e r has the a p p r o p r i a t e background knowledge about the meaning o f the i n f o r m a t i o n con ta i ned i n the t e x t ( H a l l i d a y and Hasan, 1976j Krashen and T e r r e l l , 1983). Thus, i t appears from the r e s e a r c h tha t the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s may v a r y i n d i f f e r e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , the input p r o v i d e d d u r i n g these d i f f e r e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n s may a l s o v a r y , and be more or l e s s a c c e s s i b l e to the L2 l e a r n e r depending upon the demands o f the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . S tud i e s o f the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s are l a r g e l y f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n s t u d i e s , and the f o cu s has been on the d i f f e r e n c e s between context dependent and context reduced d i s c o u r s e . The c u r r e n t t r e n d i n LI r e s e a r c h seems to f a v o u r a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n or development i n c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to d e a l w i th i n f o r m a t i o n ( language) reduced from i t s immediate c o n t e x t . The n o t i o n as expressed i n r e p o r t s on l i n g u i s t i c / p r a g m a t i c awareness and emerging l i t e r a c y i s t ha t c h i l d r e n f i r s t i gno re " l i n g u i s t i c " meaning and i n f e r i t f rom the immediate a c t i o n , then c h i l d r e n become s k i l l e d at mapping p a r t i c u l a r con tex t s onto p a r t i c u l a r meanings, and f i n a l l y are ab le to c r e a t e context based s o l e l y on l i t e r a l meanings and/or on the use o f language based s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e t r i e v i n g meanings ( see, f o r example, Cazden, 197^: Donaldson, 1978: W e l l s , 1981a; 1981b). 3 4 A s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n i s f o u n d i n L 2 r e s e a r c h . F o r i n s t a n c e , S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , ( 1 9 8 2 : 2 4 1 ) comments t h a t b e c a u s e l a n g u a g e i s t h e m e d i u m o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e L 2 c h i l d r e n who s u c c e e d a t s c h o o l a r e t h o s e v/ho " l e a r n how t o l e a r n t h r o u g h a b s t r a c t l i n g u i s t i c a l l y m e d i a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n " . I n a l a t e r s t u d y ( 1 9 8 4 ) she f u r t h e r n o t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e t a c t i c s a n d s k i l l s w h i c h L 2 c h i l d r e n u s e f o r s o c i a l n e e d s a n d t h o s e n e c e s s a r y f o r a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t a t s c h o o l . H e r v i e v / s a r e r e i t e r a t e d b y o t h e r s ( f o r e x a m p l e , C u m m i n s , I 9 8 O ; 1 9 8 3 ; 1 9 8 4 ; F i l l m o r e , 1 9 8 3 ) . Cummins ( 1 9 8 4 ) , f o r i n s t a n c e , p r o p o s e s t h a t c o n t e x t embedded c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s more t y p i c a l o f t h e e v e r y d a y w o r l d o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m , h o w e v e r , t h e l i n g u i s t i c demands o f t h e c l a s s r o o m r e q u i r e o f t h e l e a r n e r s t h e a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s c o n t e x t r e d u c e d . The L 2 l e a r n e r moves a l o n g a c o n t i n u u m b e t w e e n c o n t e x t embedded a n d c o n t e x t r e d u c e d t a l k . A t t h e same t i m e , h o w e v e r , o t h e r L2 r e s e a r c h e r s s t r e s s t h e n e e d f o r m e a n i n g f u l a s w e l l a s c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t , a n d i n so d o i n g n o t e t h a t c o n t e x t d e p e n d e n t s i t u a t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e NNS t o f a c i l i t a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( C a z d e n , J o h n a n d H y m e s , 1972; N e m o i a n u , I98O; K r a s h e n a n d T e r r e l l , 1983). T h e r e f o r e , o n t h e one h a n d L2 r e s e a r c h e r s a r e a d v o c a t i n g t h e u s e o f l a n g u a g e i n c o n c r e t e c o n t e x t s t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n , a n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e s e a r c h e r s are noting that t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n does not necessarily a s s i s t L2 students i n academic situations because classroom language i s generally context reduced. This and several other contradictions make studies of context dependence and independence problematic. For instance, the use of context reduced t a l k i n the classroom i s often viewed as some specialized use of language that requires of the c h i l d the a b i l i t y to learn how l i n g u i s t i c propositions are used to be able to i n f e r intention. As Donaldson ( 1 9 7 8 ) and others put i t , children must be able to i n f e r "what i s meant" (communicative intention) from "what i s said" (propositional content). This view places importance on aspects of the underlying content (here, propositional) of the i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n and the text, but i t ignores the text processors and learning theory i n general. Some researchers have pointed out that the focus should not only be placed on aspects of the underlying propositional content of the text, but also on what the learner i s doing with the text, how the use of content varies i n d i f f e r e n t contexts, as well as on the background s o c i o - c u l t u r a l knowledge and experiences of the learner(s) ( C a r r e l l , 1982:482). In addition t h i s view appears to ignore learning theory i n general - language i s both a medium of learning and a medium of communication. It i s not only the chil d ' s a b i l i t y to i n f e r "what i s meant" from "what i s said" that i s important, i t i s also the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to make inferences (a thinking s k i l l ) i n general that i s e s s e n t i a l f o r l i t e r a c y and academic success Studies of context embedded/reduced language may also 36 be c r i t i c i z e d f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the meaning o f the t e x t o f a w r i t t e n passage i s somehow d i f f e r e n t from meaning i n g e n e r a l . F o r i n s t a n c e , W e l l s (1981a) n o t e s t h a t i n w r i t t e n language the meaning i s found i n the t e x t a l o n e . A g a i n , a q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : Can meaning e x i s t independent o f some background e x p e r i e n c e , o r i s i t the meaning o f e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t g i v e the w r i t t e n t e x t i t s meaning? M o f f e t t and Wagner (1976:10) see meaning as an i s s u e a t the l e v e l o f v e r b a l i z a t i o n - s o c i a l meanings are found i n a l l n o n v e r b a l e x p e r i e n c e , s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r meanings are o r g a n i z e d i n t o l i n g u i s t i c meanings. Perhaps c h i l d r e n h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y w i t h w r i t t e n language have d i f f i c u l t y a t the l e v e l o f n o n v e r b a l e x p e r i e n c e , i . e . t h e y may not u n d e r s t a n d the s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l meanings because t h e y have had v a r i o u s background e x p e r i e n c e s d i f f e r e n t ; from those o f the t e a c h e r , t h e r e f o r e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g the l i n g u i s t i c meanings r e q u i r e s e x p e r i e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a second language. S t u d i e s o f c o n t e x t dependence/independence a l s o t e n d t o vie w c l a s s r o o m l i t e r a c y r e l a t e d s k i l l s as d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s o c i a l / c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s (Donaldson, 1978? W e l l s , 1981a; 1981b). F o r i n s t a n c e , W e l l s (198la:265) sees a need t o h e l p b r i d g e the gap between what he c a l l s the " r e l a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t f o r m u l a t i o n of knowledge i n the c l a s s r o o m and the c h i l d ' s f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e s " . However, f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e s a re not s e p a r a t e from knowledge, t h e y a r e i n s t e a d r e l a t e d t o the a b s t r a c t f o r m u l a t i o n o f knowledge en c o u n t e r e d i n the c l a s s r o o m t h r o u g h l i t e r a c y r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ( s e e , M o f f e t t and 37 Wagner, 1 9 7 6 112). M o f f e t and Wagner (1976) v i e w l i t e r a c y as the end not the means, the means i s found i n n o n v e r b a l e x p e r i e n c i n g and i n v e r b a l i z a t i o n - v e r b a l i z i n g i n v o l v e s a b s t r a c t i n g knowledge from n o n v e r b a l e x p e r i e n c e . I n f a c t , t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t t h e r e are u n i v e r s a l c o g n i t i v e / a c a d e m i c components o f knowledge which are found i n a l l a c t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e s ( s e e , Mohan, 1985). Mohan (1985) has d e v e l o p e d a method f o r i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s t h a t h e l p s t o b r i d g e the gap between o r a l and w r i t t e n language by. f o c u s s i n g on the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s t h a t u n d e r l y b o t h o r a l and w r i t t e n language, and by h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p the s k i l l s common t o b o t h o r a l and w r i t t e n e x p e r i e n c e . There i s a tendency f o r s t u d i e s o f c o n t e x t independent language t o seek l i t e r a c y r e l a t e d answers f o r q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t e d t o l i t e r a c y . F o r example, W e l l s (1981a) a d v o c a t e s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the c o n v e n t i o n s o f l i t e r a c y as i m p o r t a n t f o r a s s i s t i n g c h i l d r e n t o d e a l w i t h the c o n t e x t independent t a l k o f the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r - i . e . p a r e n t s e x p o s i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o p r i n t t h r o u g h s t o r y b o o k s and o t h e r media f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p i n g l i t e r a c y . However, the o r i g i n o f d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h l i t e r a c y may be r e l a t e d t o i s s u e s o t h e r t h a n those t h a t d e a l w i t h p r i n t ( e . g . Does the l e a r n e r have the background e x p e r i e n c e s needed t o u n d e r s t a n d the meanings conveyed i n the t e x t ? ) . As Hr u s h o v s k i (1983*158) comments, language i s n ' t "an independent v e h i c l e f o r convey ing meaning, r a t h e r i t i s used to " ( r e - ) o r i e n t the under s tander i n a network o f i n f o r m a t i o n " . The p r i n t e d word c a r r i e s on l y a p o r t i o n o f a complete thought , to f u l l y grasp the thought c h i l d r e n must unders tand what the p e r s o n / t h i n g / e v e n t i s , how i t works, the r u l e s f o r u s i n g i t , and how to use i t s u c c e s s f u l l y i n d i f f e r e n t con tex t s (Wi l son , 1979)« C h i l d r e n need s k i l l s i n t h i n k i n g and i n u s i n g language to communicate about i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o the r s ( exper ience ) be fo re they can be expected to f u l l y unders tand p r i n t . Perhaps l i t e r a c y deve lops at an o l d e r age f o r some c h i l d r e n . Or, maybe the method(s) o f d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l a and i n s t r u c t i n g s tudent s have g r e a t e r e d u c a t i o n a l importance than i s p r e s e n t l y r e a l i z e d - language l e a r n e r s may need more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n nonverba l and v e r b a l e x p e r i e n c e s than those now o f f e r e d i n many c lass rooms ( e . g . more a c t i v e s m a l l group e x p e r i e n c e ) . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , L2 s t u d i e s of context are few, though d i s c u s s i o n s o f d i f f e r e n c e s between c la s s room language and i n f o r m a l , everyday speech are numerous. R e c e n t l y , Long (1981) has s t u d i e d the tempora l a spec t s of i n t e r a c t i o n s , though h i s f ocus has ma in l y been on l i n g u i s t i c forms, r a t h e r than on both the l i n g u i s t i c and n o n l i n g u i s t i c content o f d i f f e r e n t i n t e r a c t i o n c o n t e x t s . For example, he (1981s147) has found tha t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n FTD and i n NS/NS i n t e r a c t i o n s use s i m i l a r tempora l r e f e r e n c e i n marking v e r b s . And, a l though t h i s i s not the f ocus o f L o n g ' s s tudy , he i n d i r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e s one s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n t h a t may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r language l e a r n i n g and teach ings FTD i s more concerned w i th p resent issues than with past or future issues. Long (1981:147) views differences i n the s i t u a t i o n a l structure of interactions as quantitative ones rather than q u a l i t a t i v e ones, differences i n degree not absolutes. To what extent t h i s i s true of a l l i n t e r a c t i o n situations i s not presently understood. In sum, studies of context dependence/independence are concerned with the s i t u a t i o n a l structure of interactions. It i s not unreasonable to think that the s i t u a t i o n a l structure of interactions may vary, however, as Long (1981) notes these differences are l i k e l y ones of degree and not absolutes. Although there may be a greater emphasis on l i t e r a c y (quantitative difference) i n classrooms, the s k i l l s underlying academic achievement through l i t e r a c y related a c t i v i t i e s are not necessarily d i f f e r e n t from s k i l l s used during informal/non academic situations (in other words inferences are inferences etc.) From a research perspective, more attention should be given to various L2 i n t e r a c t i o n situations to discover what, i f any, quantitative/qualitative differences exist (e.g. Long' temporal/spatial r e l a t i o n s ) . From an i n s t r u c t i o n a l perspective i f L2 students are to be academically successful, then greater attention must be given to study of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l experiences provided (e.g. Are they relevant and accessible to the L2 learner? To what extent does the L2 learner share the same s o c i o - c u l t u r a l meanings (experiences) as the i n s t r u c t o r and have access to the information presented?). ko And, f i n a l l y g i v e n tha t the s k i l l s u n d e r l y i n g academic achievement and i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n are the same ( t h i n k i n g , d o i n g , communicating) t he re i s a need f o r L2 r e s e a r c h e r s to b r i d ge the gap they are c r e a t i n g i n r e s e a r c h between context dependent and independent language, to f o cu s on t h e i r i n te rdependence . As M o f f e t t and Wagner (1976:388-392) n o t e , i t i s a b s t r a c t i n g from exper i ence tha t makes i n f o r m a t i o n . Language shou ld not become a medium of l e a r n i n g cut o f f from l e a r n i n g by d o i n g , and s p l i t i n t o f o r m a l w r i t t e n l e a r n i n g ve r su s i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g i n s o c i e t y . L2 i n v e s t i g a t o r s need to seek ways o f improv ing L2 i n s t r u c t i o n wi thout removing i t from l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n g e n e r a l , o r from the i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l background e x p e r i e n c e s of the l e a r n e r s . For i n s t a n c e , Mohan (1985) has deve loped a method o f i n s t r u c t i n g s tudent s tha t f ocu se s on the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s u n d e r l y i n g a l l e x p e r i e n c e , on the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f a c t i v i t i e s and on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between language, content and l e a r n i n g . Through u s i n g t h i s method o f o r g a n i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n c l a s s rooms , d i s c r e p e n c i e s between context bound and reduced d i s c o u r s e can be e l i m i n a t e d - t eache r s b e g i n by p r o v i d i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r L2 l e a r n e r s which i n v o l v e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a c t i o n con tex t s w i th conc re te r e f e r e n t s to f a c i l i t a t e comprehension i n the L2, an g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e the d i s t a n c e o f the l e s s o n s and t o p i c ( s ) from the i n t e r a c t a n t s (as i s the case i n a l l l e a r n i n g ) through m a n i p u l a t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d to L2 (or L I ) l e a r n e r s . 41 1.6 Summary and Conclusions Although there has been a phenomenal growth i n second language research on output, input and in t e r a c t i o n i n recent years, few studies d i r e c t l y investigate young children's inte r a c t i o n s . Most research centres on the study of adults and/or adolescents and older elementary school children. Studies of output or verbal p a r t i c i p a t i o n are r a r e l y related to input and i n t e r a c t i o n . Some e f f o r t s have been made to assess NNS children's proficiency i n English a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a va r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t grouping situations; however, the re s u l t s of these studies are somewhat contradictory. Some report relationships between increased proficiency and classroom p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e r a c t i o n i n the L2 and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with NS peers, others refute these claims and att r i b u t e success i n English to personality, motivation or speaking i n one's native language. Interactional analyses used to arrive at assessments of input have examined is o l a t e d l i n g u i s t i c items and other discourse features of conversation both i n and out of the classroom. Although these measures may be useful i n a r r i v i n g at conclusions concerning speaker/hearer negotiation f o r input, they have not considered the s i t u a t i o n a l structure of various interactions and therefore remain contradictory and inconclusive i n t h e i r r e s u l t s concerning FTD and i t s relat i o n s h i p to mother/child and other interactions. 42 Some d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s may, f o r i n s t a n c e , be used more f r e q u e n t l y i n some s i t u a t i o n s (e.g. i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n or with c h i l d r e n ) than i n others (e.g. d u r i n g formal i n s t r u c t i o n or perhaps with a d u l t s ) . S t u d i e s of the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of i n t e r a c t i o n s are p r e s e n t l y concerned with c o n t r a s t i n g academic/context independent/formal d i s c o u r s e with i n f o r m a l / c o n t e x t dependent/ spontaneous d i s c o u r s e . Although the former has been i d e n t i f i e d as problematic f o r L2 l e a r n e r s , and the l a t t e r has been deemed necessary f o r a c h i e v i n g success w i t h the former, few s t u d i e s have a c t u a l l y examined both the f o r e g o i n g beyond the r h e t o r i c a l l e v e l . Some r e s e a r c h has been conducted by Long (1981), however, a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s needed before any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s can be reached. In a d d i t i o n , there i s a need f o r these s t u d i e s to r e a l i z e t h a t the knowledge s t r u c t u r e s and s k i l l s u n d e r l y i n g classroom and non-classroom i n t e r a c t i o n are the same, although there may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o g n i t i v e m a t u r i t y , background experiences, languages and i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and m o t i v a t i o n s of the l e a r n e r s . 43 CHAPTER TWO A STUDY OF OUTPUT, INPUT AND INTERACTION IN FORMAL/INFORMAL TEACHER INTERACTIONS AND IN NS/NNS CHILDREN'S INTERACTIONS 2.1 Purpose and Res e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s T h i s s t u d y a n a l y s e s the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n the c l a s s r o o m i n b o t h t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s and i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . F o r the purposes o f comparison, the t e a c h e r ' s i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the c h i l d r e n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . The s t u d y seeks t o b r i d g e gaps i n e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h by: 1) c o n s i d e r i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n s o f a t e a c h e r w i t h v e r y young c h i l d r e n (not a d u l t s and o l d e r c h i l d r e n ) , 2) moving the a n a l y s i s o f output beyond c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p r o d u c t a l o n e ( e . g . who says how much o f w h a t ) , t o c o n s i d e r the p r o c e s s ( e . g . how i s the q u a n t i t y o f output r e l a t e d t o the i n p u t p r o v i d e d , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r a c t i o n ) , and 3) moving the a n a l y s i s o f i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n beyond c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s ( p r o d u c t s ) , t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n such as the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s , here the d i s t a n c e o f the i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n from the s p e a k e r / h e a r e r i n t i m e / space ( e . g . e x p e r i e n t i a l / e x o p h o r i c , e x p o s i t o r y / a n a p h o r i c r e l a t i o n s ) , t o a s s i s t i n a c q u i r i n g the d a t a needed t o b e g i n i m p r o v i n g the p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g an L2 . T h i s s t u d y i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s as f o l l o w s : Experiment I i NS t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s a r e co m p a r e d / c o n t r a s t e d w i t h NS t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n c h i l d (NS, NNS) o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i n the c l a s s r o o m . R e s u l t s here a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h i s s t u d y - no attempt i s made t o g e n e r a l i z e beyond t h i s t e a c h e r i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m . The r e s e a r c h i s o f an e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e . Experiment I I i NS/NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i s co m p a r e d / c o n t r a s t e d w i t h NS/NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n c h i l d ( p e e r group) o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s a l s o e x p l o r a t o r y -though some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s may be made, t h e y s h o u l d be approached c a u t i o u s l y u n t i l f u r t h e r s t u d i e s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e a r e conducted. The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y a r e i Experiment I i NS t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e a c h e r and i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t ( 1 ) To what e x t e n t , i f any, does t e a c h e r output o r v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ( t e a c h e r , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) o f i n t e r a c t i o n s ? ( 2 ) To what e x t e n t , i f any, does t h e i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n o f the t e a c h e r v a r y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ( t e a c h e r , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) o f i n t e r a c t i o n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , (a) t o what e x t e n t does the t e a c h e r ' s use o f t w e l v e d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s ( s e e , "measures", p. 47) v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n , and (b) to what ex tent does the t e a c h e r ' s s p a t i a l / tempora l r e f e r e n c e ( twen ty - f ou r e x o p h o r i c / a n a p h o r i c i t ems , see , "measures" ) v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n ? Experiment I I » NS/NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e a c h e r and i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s : (1) To what e x t e n t , i f any, does NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s output or v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r y w i th the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ( t e a c h e r , c h i l d o r gan i zed ) o f i n t e r a c t i o n s ? (2) To what e x t e n t , i f any, does the input and i n t e r a c t i o n o f the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n v a r y w i th the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ( t e a c h e r , c h i l d o r gan i zed ) o f i n t e r a c t i o n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , (a) to what ex tent does the c h i l d r e n ' s use o f twelve p a r t i c u l a r d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s ( see, measures) v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n , and (b) to what extent does the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s s p a t i a l / tempora l r e f e r e n c e (twenty f o u r e x o p h o r i c / a n a p h o r i c i t ems , see , "measures " ) v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n ? Data was c o l l e c t e d and ana l yzed i n answer to these q u e s t i o n s as f o l l o w s . 46 2.2 Sample and Data C o l l e c t i o n : The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e : 1. Twenty c h i l d r e n f o r whom E n g l i s h i s a second language ( n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h , NNS), m a i n l y from P u n j a b i / H i n d i and Chinese f i r s t language backgrounds, mean age 3«74. 2. Ten c h i l d r e n f o r whom E n g l i s h i s a n a t i v e language ( n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h , NS), m a i n l y m o n o l i n g u a l s p e a k e r s , mean age 3«78. 3. One t e a c h e r , a m o n o l i n g u a l E n g l i s h s p e a k e r w i t h l i m i t e d ESL t r a i n i n g . The NS/NNS c h i l d r e n were g e n e r a l l y from m i d d l e c l a s s backgrounds. Many o f the NNS c h i l d r e n were f i r s t o r second g e n e r a t i o n Canadians who spoke t h e i r L I a t home ( o r whose p a r e n t s were L2 l e a r n e r s ) t h e r e f o r e , the c h i l d r e n were b e g i n n e r s i n E n g l i s h . A l l c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d e a r l y c h i l d h o o d c l a s s e s a t the S e x s m i t h s c h o o l on a d a i l y b a s i s . V i d e o t a p e d d a t a was c o l l e c t e d a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r . F o u r t e e n samples o f spontaneous NS/NNS c h i l d o r g a n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n s and f o u r t e e n samples of t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d . The v i d e o t a p e s were t r a n s c r i b e d and coded i n accordance w i t h the measures, as d e f i n e d i n p a r t 2.3. F o r the purposes o f a n a l y s i s , each sample was l i m i t e d t o the f i r s t c o n s e c u t i v e one hundred u t t e r a n c e s . 47 2.3 M e a s u r e s a n d A n a l y s e s The m e a s u r e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e d e f i n e d a s f o l l o w s ( n o t e : t h e same m e a s u r e s a r e u s e d i n b o t h e x p e r i m e n t s , 1 a n d 11)« (1) O u t p u t o r V e r b a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n O u t p u t i s m e a s u r e d b y t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( a ) u t t e r a n c e s / s u b j e c t : f r e q u e n c y c o u n t - t u r n s / s p e a k e r e . g . t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u n t s t h r e e t u r n s ( S p e a k e r A = 2 t u r n s , S p e a k e r B = 1 t u r n ) S p e a k e r A : What comes n e x t ? S p e a k e r B : B l u e . S p e a k e r A : S u r e ? ( b ) w o r d s / s u b j e c t : f r e q u e n c y c o u n t - w o r d s / s p e a k e r e . g . t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u n t s t h r e e w o r d s S p e a k e r A : What comes n e x t ? N o t e : T h e r e w e r e no n o n v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y . E a c h s u b j e c t t o o k a t l e a s t one t u r n o f one o r more w o r d ( s ) . B o t h m e a s u r e s ( a ) a n d ( b ) a b o v e w e r e a p p l i e d t o a l l g r o u p s ( N S / N N S c h i l d r e n a n d NS t e a c h e r ) i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s ( t e a c h e r / c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) . 48 (2) Input and I n t e r a c t i o n Speech input and i n t e r a c t i o n was measured i n two p a r t s , with two d i f f e r e n t s e t s of measures. The f i r s t measurement c o n s i s t e d of an a n a l y s i s of the d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s of the i n t e r a c t i o n s and the second measurement was an a n a l y s i s of the use of exophoric/anaphoric ( s p a t i a l / t e m p o r a l ) r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n s . Both s e r i e s of measurements are d e f i n e d and d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s . D iscourse Features The d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s of c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n were coded and analyzed f o r each of the twelve items presented below. These measures of input and i n t e r a c t i o n are adapted from a number of L2 r e s e a r c h e r s , S c a r c e l l a and Higa, 1982aj 1982b; Freed, 1980; 1981j B r u l h a r t , 1 9 8 5 ; Peck, 1985. 1. C l a r i f i c a t i o n Checks - ques t i o n s which v e r i f y , rephrase or r e s t a t e an item or an a c t i o n e.g. speaker A: I l i k e red and green p a i n t , speaker B: Red or green? speaker As I'm p u t t i n g t h i s here, speaker Bs On the t a b l e or on the s h e l f ? 2. Comprehension Checks - q u e s t i o n s which h e l p to check the addressee's understanding of an a c t i o n or an item e.g. Do you know what I mean? Do you know why I want you to s i t there? 49 3. Confirmation Checks - short tag questions which follow utterances and confirm preceeding items of speech or action e.g. Yeah? Huh? 4. Self Repetitions - utterances which are the exact sequential repetition of the previous utterance (may or may not he accompanied by some action which is also repeated) e.g. I have this book. This book. This book. I'm skating on ice. Skating. Skating. . 5. Other Repetitions - utterances which are an exact sequential repetit ion of the preceeding speaker's utterance (may or may not be accompanied by action which is also repeated) e.g. speaker A: It's superman, speaker B: Superman, speaker A: He's f lying away, speaker B: Flying away. 6. Corrections - utterances which correct the speech or action of the addressee e.g. speaker A: I'm putting this here, speaker B: No, put i t there! speaker A: I put i t on the table, speaker B: No, you put i t on the desk. 7. "You" in Directives - utterances which the speaker uses to direct the speech or action of the addressee e.g. You do that. You t e l l him. 8 . I n c l u s i v e "We" - "we" w h i c h d e s i g n a t e s t h e s p e a k e r a n d a d d r e s s e e a r e i n c l u d e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d / o r a c t i o n e . g . 17e a r e g o i n g t o p u t t h i s h e r e . We w a n t t o t a l k t o y o u . 9 . N e e d S t a t e m e n t - d i r e c t i v e s e x p r e s s i n g t h e p e r s o n a l n e e d s o f t h e s p e a k e r / a d d r e s s e e , c o n t a i n i n g t h e v e r b s " n e e d " o r " w a n t " e . g . I w a n t a n o t h e r o n e . We n e e d t o s i t d o w n . 10. " O r " C h o i c e Q u e s t i o n s - q u e s t i o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e a c h o i c e two o r more r e s p o n s e s a n d / o r a c t i o n s e . g . I s i t b l u e o r g r e e n ? A r e y o u p l a y i n g o r a r e y o u l e a v i n g ? 11. "Wh" Q u e s t i o n s - a l l " w h " q u e s t i o n s e . g . Who i s i t ? What i s i t ? 12. " Y e s / N o " Q u e s t i o n s - c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e t h e a d d r e s s e e t o r e s p o n d w i t h t h e w o r d s y e s a n d / o r no (may o r may n o t be a c c o m p a n i e d b y a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n ) e . g . W i l l y o u h o l d t h i s ? I s t h i s b l u e ? Do y o u wan t a n o t h e r o n e ? F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f a n a l y s i s , a l l t w e l v e m e a s u r e s w e r e a p p l i e d t o a l l g r o u p s , N S / N N S c h i l d r e n a n d t h e t e a c h e r , i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s ( t e a c h e r / c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) . 51 b) E x o p h o r i c / A n a p h o r i c ( S p a t i a l / T e m p o r a l ) Reference Reference was measured w i t h a c o d i n g scheme d e v i s e d by H a l l i d a y and Hasan (197^)• T h i s scheme was chosen because (1) i t g i v e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s ( e x o p h o r i c / a n a p h o r i c i t e m s ) , and (2) i t a l l o w s f o r the a n a l y s i s o f g e n e r a l o r more s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n t s (by g r o u p i n g ) where a p p r o p r i a t e t o the d a t a . As p r e v i o u s l y acknowledged ( p a r t 1.3) a l t h o u g h H a l l i d a y and Hasan (1976) suggest t h a t the c a t e g o r i e s e x o p h o r i c / a n a p h o r i c a re m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , the w r i t e r a c c e p t s the n o t i o n t h a t some i t e m s a re ambiguous and may be c l a s s i f i e d as b o t h e x o p h o r i c and a n a p h o r i c . I n t h i s s t u d y , ambiguous i t e m s were too few t o be s i g n i f i c a n t ( l e s s t h a n t e n i t e m s ) , however, i t e m s were counted as b o t h e x o p h o r i c and a n a p h o r i c where ambiguous t o a v o i d e r r o r . " E x o p h o r i c " i s used, i n t h i s s t u d y , t o mean t h a t r e f e r e n c e t o the i t e m s (one t h r o u g h t w e n t y - f o u r , p r e s e n t e d below) i s s i t u a t i o n a l l y dependent, t h a t i s , the here and now ( a c t i o n ) c o n t e x t o f the i n t e r a c t i o n i s needed t o u n d e r s t a n d what the i t e m ( s ) used by the speaker " r e f e r " t o . ( S i m i l a r j a r g o n used i n o t h e r s o u r c e s is« c o n t e x t dependent/bound/ embedded, s o c i a l o r i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n / i n t e r a c t i o n , c o n c r e t e i n t e r a c t i o n , here and now o r d e i c t i c t e r m s ) . " A n a p h o r i c " i s used t o mean t h a t r e f e r e n c e t o the i t e m s (one t h r o u g h t w e n t y - f o u r , p r e s e n t e d below) i s s i t u a t i o n a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t , t h a t i s , the i t e m ( s ) b e i n g " r e f e r r e d " t o 52 cannot be discerned from the immediate concrete interaction, but rather requires background knowledge of the text (preceeding or following, past or future) and experience (non-verbal, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l ) to be f u l l y understood. Halliday and Hasan's o r i g i n a l code (1976:333) was modified f o r t h i s study to include only the items i n the f i r s t tv/o categories, pronominals and demonstratives. The s p e c i f i c measures used were: Spatial/Temporal Reference - Anaphoric/Exophoric Items (adjusted from Halliday and Hasan (1976:333)) A. Pronominals 1. Speech Roles Items Exophoric and/or Anaphoric Speaker (1) I (2) Me (3) My Addressee (4) You (5) Your Inclusive (6) We Other Roles Sing. masc. (7) he (8) him (9) his Sing fern. (10) she (11) her Sing, neuter (12) i t P l u r a l (13) they (14) them (15) t h e i r : the items " hers" , " i t s included i n Halliday and Hasan's (1976:333) code were excluded i n t h i s study because they were not used by any of the speakers i n t h i s study). B. D e m o n s t r a t i v e s Items E x o p h o r i c and/or A n a p h o r i c 2. C i r c u m s t a n c e 1. P a r t i c i p a n t (16 (17 (18 (19 (20 (21 (22 t h i s t h a t t h e s e those here t h e r e t h e n now the 3. Def. A r t i c l e Each o f the samples was coded f o r it e m s one t h r o u g h t w e n t y - f o u r f o r a l l groups (NS, NNS c h i l d r e n and the t e a c h e r ) i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s ( t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) . A n a l y s e s The d a t a was a n a l y z e d as f o l l o w s . a) Experiment I NS t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s and i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s were a n a l y z e d w i t h p a i r e d t - t e s t s : c a t e g o r y A ( t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d samples one t o n) p a i r e d w i t h c a t e g o r y IA ( c h i l d o r g a n i z e d samples one t o n) = two t a i l e d p r o b a b i l i t y , F v a l u e . A p a i r e d t - t e s t was used t o a n a l y z e the d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y because: 1) i n t h i s s t u d y the s u b j e c t was the same f o r bo t h c a t e g o r y A and IA above. Even though t h e r e a re n s e s s i o n s i n each case (A, IA) the s e a re not e n t i r e l y independent because the t e a c h e r i s the same, t h e r e f o r e , the s u b j e c t s cannot be randomly a s s i g n e d t o two groups, a re q u i r e m e n t o f o t h e r a n a l y s e s ( e . g . one way ANOVA), and 2) a p a i r e d t - t e s t i s s l i g h t l y more p o w e r f u l t h a n a s t a t i c group comparison ( e . g . one way ANOVA). 5^ b) Experiment I I NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s and i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s were analyzed with a two way ANOVA: f a c t o r s - category (teacher organized, c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) , by group (NS, NNS), by sex with age = F., s i g n i f i c a n c e of F, p < .05. A two way ANOVA was used over non-parametric a n a l y s e s because: 1) the data i s " c l o s e " to continuous and not c a t e g o r i c a l or dichotomous as r e q u i r e d f o r non-parametric a n a l y s e s , and 2) the i n t e r a c t i o n of v a r i o u s groups and/or sub-groups on one or more f a c t o r s cannot be r u l e d out a p r i o r i , v a r i o u s f a c t o r s may i n t e r a c t as w e l l as d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from one another, a two way ANOVA b e t t e r f a c i l i t a t e s the a n a l y s i s of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t than do v a r i o u s non-parametric measures. CHAPTER THREE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s o f Exper iments I and II a re p re sen ted i n f i g u r e s and t a b l e s on the pages tha t f o l l o w . Subsequent ly , these r e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f the purpose o f the s tudy , i n answer to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s proposed i n chap te r two. 3.1 R e s u l t s : Exper iment I The r e s u l t s o f Experiment I, NS t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d and i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s a r e : a) Teacher Output or V e r b a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Output o r v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d r e l a t i v e to the r e s u l t s p re sen ted i n f i g u r e one and i n t a b l e two. F i g u r e one shows the r e l a t i v e percentage (of grand t o t a l ) o f t e a c h e r u t t e r a n c e s and words i n t e a c h e r o r gan i zed and i n c h i l d o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s . Tab le two shows the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f u t t e r a n c e s and words f o r the NS t e a c h e r i n each o f the two s i t u a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s show tha t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s must be r e j e c t e d f o r u t t e r a n c e s , the d i f f e r e n c e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r u t t e r a n c e s , F (26, 19-7) = 3.61, p <.03» However, a l though p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s l i g h t l y more words were used i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s ( see, f i g u r e one ) , the r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s f o r words d i d not prove s i g n i f i c a n t (ns), F (26, 25.9) = 1.14, p > .05. Figure 1 Pro f i l e of Teacher Output- Relative Percentage of Part ic ipation Uith Situation W////////////A •ZJ Uords T/O c/o vim Utterances T/0=teacher organized situations (n=14) C/0=child organized situations (n=14) 57 Table II P r o f i l e of Teacher Output: A Comparison of Frequencies of Utterances and Words with S i t u a t i o n V a r i a b l e n X F p r o b a b i l i t y * u t t e r a n c e s group 1 n = 14 group 2 n = 14 2.86 6.43 3.61 .028 words group 1 n = 14 group 2 n = 14 498.86 351.14 1.14 ns *two t a i l e d t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e group 1 = NS, NNS c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s group 2 = t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s 58 b) Teacher Input and Interaction: Discourse Features Teacher input and int e r a c t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y the discourse features (forms and functions) of interactions, i s discussed r e l a t i v e to the r e s u l t s presented i n figures two and three, and i n tables three and four. Figure two shows the r e l a t i v e percentage of the teacher's use of the t o t a l discourse features (items one through twelve) i n teacher organized and i n c h i l d organized si t u a t i o n s . Figure three gives a breakdown of t h i s use by item, one to twelve. Table three shows the rank order of the means f o r each of the discourse features, one to twelve. Table four shows the r e l a t i v e frequencies of discourse features i n each of the two situations, teacher and c h i l d organized, both i n terms of the teacher's use of the t o t a l items (one through twelve) and for each feature, one to twelve. The r e s u l t s presented i n table three show that t h i s teacher's percentage use of discourse items ( t o t a l of a l l items one through twelve) i s greater i n teacher organized situations than i t i s i n c h i l d organized si t u a t i o n s . However, the r e l a t i v e frequencies of the t o t a l discourse features (i n d i v i d u a l features, one, two etc.) does not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the two situations, F (26, 24.6) = I . 6 3 , P >»05i (see, table, f o u r ) . 59 Figure 2 P ro f i l e of Teacher Input & Interaction: Relative Percentage of Total Discourse Features uith Situation 1001 : VO = teacher organized situations C/0 = ch i ld organized situations 6o Figure 3 Prof i le of Teacher Input & Interact ion • Percentage Use of Tuelve Discourse Features Across Situation 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 P P S T I Iroc 1 u u \ u l > f 1. c l a r i f i c a t i o n checks 7. "you" in d i rec t i ve s 2. comprehension checks 8. inc lus ive "we" 3. confirmation checks 9. need statements 4. s e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s 1.0. "or choice" questions 5. other repet i t ions 11. "wh" questions 6. correct ions 12. "yes/no" questions 61 Table III A Comparison of the Teacher's Use of Twelve Discourse Features by Rank with Situation TEACHER ORGANIZED SITUATIONS CHILD ORGANIZED Rank Features Means* Rank Features Means* high 1 "yes/no" questions 6.00 1 "yes/no" questions 7.57 2 "you" in directives 3.93 2 "wh" questions 5.86 3 "wh" questions 2.71 3 "you" in directives 4.57 4 need statements 1.56 4 confirmation checks 3.00 5 clarification checks 1.43 5 self-repetitions 2.71 6 confirmation checks 1.14 6 inclusive "we" 2.29 7 self-repetitions .93 7 need statements 2.21 8 inclusive "we" .93 8 clarification checks 1.50 9 "or choice" questions .64 9 "or choice" questions .86 10 other repetitions .36 10 other repetitions .71 11 comprehension checks .21 11 comprehension checks .11 12 low corrections .00 12 corrections .00 Means reported are those adjusted for t - t e s t analyses. 62 Table IV Profile of Teacher Input and Interaction: A Comparison of Frequencies of Twelve Discourse Features with Situation Var iab les n df X F p robab i l i t y Feature 1. c l a r i f i c a t i o n group 1 checks n=14 26 1.42 group 2 1.55 ns n=14 25 1.50 2. comprehension group 1 checks n=14 26 0.21 group 2 2.06 ns n=14 23 0.29 3. confirmation group 1 checks n=14 26 1.14 group 2 2.02 ns n=14 23 3.00 4. s e l f - group 1 repet i t ions n=14 26 0.93 group 2 2.26 ns n=14 23 2.71 5. other group 1 repet i t ions n=14 26 0.63 group 2 6.68 .002 n=14 17 1.64 6. correct ions group 1 n=14 26 0.0 group 2 0.00 ns n=14 0 0.0 7. "you" in group 1 d i rec t i ve s n=14 26 3.47 group 2 1.25 ns n=14 26 3.88 8. inc lus ive group 1 "we" n=14 26 0.93 group 2 1.65 ns n=14 25 2.29 63 Table IV continued Var iab les n df X F p robab i l i t y 9. need group 1 statements n=14 26 1.57 group 2 1.61 ns n=14 25 2.21 10. "or choice" group 1 questions n=14 26 0.64 group 2 1.79 ns n=14 25 0.86 11. "wh" group 1 questions n=14 26 2.71 group 2 2.68 ns n=14 22 5.86 12. "yes/no" group 1 questions n=14 26 6.00 group 2 1.22 ns n=14 26 5.86 Tota l features group 1 one through n=14 26 19.86 twelve group 2 1.63 ns n=14 25 31.57 The r e s u l t s of the rank o r d e r i n g of the means of d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s one through twelve i s somewhat s i m i l a r i n both teacher and i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s (see, t a b l e t h r e e ) . T h i s r e s u l t i s somewhat s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l f e a t u r e s (each item one through t w e l v e ) , as presented "in t a b l e f o u r . Only one item proved s i g n i f i c a n t - d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e "other r e p e t i t i o n s " was used s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r e q u e n t l y i n the teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s over c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s , F ( 2 6 , 1 6 . 8 ) = 6 . 6 8 , p < . 0 0 2 . c) Teacher Input and I n t e r a c t i o n s Exophoric/Anaphoric ( S p a t i a l / T e m p o r a l Reference) T h i s t e a c h e r ' s use of exophoric and anaphoric r e f e r e n c e items i s d i s c u s s e d r e l a t i v e to the r e s u l t s g i v e n i n f i g u r e f o u r and i n t a b l e f i v e . F i g u r e f o u r shows the r e l a t i v e percentages of the use of exophoric/anaphoric items (of grand t o t a l ) by t h i s t eacher i n each of the two s i t u a t i o n s , t e a c h e r organized and c h i l d o r g a n i z e d . Table f i v e shows the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s of teacher use of the t o t a l exophoric to anaphoric items ( p r o p o r t i o n ) f o r the t o t a l items, and f o r the i n d i v i d u a l items (one through twenty-four) f o r each of the two s i t u a t i o n s , teacher and c h i l d o r g a n i z e d . 65 Figure 4 Profile of Teacher Input & Interaction: Relative Percentages of Reference Items (1 through 24) Uith Situation IRnaphoric ^ F x n e h n r i r VO- LVO VO = teacher organized situations OO = child organized situations Table V Profile of Teacher Input and Interaction: A Comparison of Frequencies of Two Reference Categories with Situation Variables: (Exophoric to SITUATIONS Anaphoric Ratio) Teacher Organized Child Organized Reference (difference) (difference) Item (1-24) X df T probability X df T probability 1 I 6.36 13 4.27 .001 3.57 13 4.02 .001 2 me 1.36 13 3.98 .002 0.79 13 3.02 .01 3 my 0.86 13 1.19 ns 1.14 13 1.32 ns 4 we 4.93 13 4.39 .001 0.93 13 2.74 .017 5 you 17.57 13 7.96 .001 12.57 13 5.16 .001 6 your 4.86 13 4.76 .001 3.21 13 4.61 .001 7 he -0.07 13 -0.14 ns 0.57 13 2.28 .04 8 him 0.00 13 0.00 ns 0.29 13 1.75 ns 9 his -0.21 13 -1.38 ns 0.07 13 0.37 ns 10 she -0.50 13 -0.23 ns 0.43 13 1.71 ns 11 her -1.36 13 -2.14 .05 0.21 13 0.90 ns 12 i t -7.86 13 -2.81 .02 -0.43 13 -0.33 ns 13 they 0.29 13 0.50 ns -0.43 13 -1.31 ns 14 them 0.00 13 0.00 ns 0.07 13 0.29 ns 15 their -0.29 13 -1.75 ns 0.00 13 0.00 ns 16 these 0.43 13 1.15 ns 0.57 13 2.83 .01 17 this 3.14 13 3.44 .004 2.21 13 3.25 .006 18 here 1.43 13 3.55 .004 0.93 13 3.24 .006 19 now 0.93 13 2.62 .02 0.29 13 1.30 ns 20 those 0.14 13 1.47 ns 0.21 13 0.90 ns 21 there 0.43 13 0.52 ns 0.86 13 2.75 .017 22 that -2.21 13 -2.30 .04 1.64 13 3.63 .003 23 then -1.00 13 -1.87 ns 0.29 13 1.30 ns 24 the -9.50 13 -4.75 .001 -2.93 13 -2.15 .05 Total Items X df T probability 1 through 24 5.25 12 1.81 ns EX/AN Ratio 1.66 The r e s u l t s show t h a t : 1) the teacher's percentage use of r e f e r e n c e items i s more exophoric than anaphoric i n both teacher and c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s (see, f i g u r e f o u r ) , 2) the percentage of anaphoric items used by the teacher i n c r e a s e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n the teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s over the c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s (see, t a b l e f o u r ) , however, 3) p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y (exophoric to anaphoric r a t i o ) the teacher's use of items does not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y with s i t u a t i o n , t = 1.81, df =12, p > . 0 5 (see, t a b l e f i v e ) , and k) the r e l a t i v e use of i n d i v i d u a l exophoric and anaphoric items v a r i e s somewhat with s i t u a t i o n (see, t a b l e f i v e ) , s p e c i f i c a l l y : i ) some items (pronominals and demonstratives) are used by t h i s teacher c o n s i s t e n t l y more e x o p h o r i c a l l y than a n a p h o r i c a l l y - items " I , me, we, you, your, t h i s and here" were more exophoric i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s i i ) some items were used more e x o p h o r i c a l l y by the t e a c h e r i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s o n l y and not i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s - items "he, these and t h e r e " i i i ) one item was more exophoric than anaphoric only i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s , i t was not used i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s - "now" 68 i v ) one i t e m was u s e d c o n s i s t e n t l y more a n a p h o r i c a l l y . t h a n e x o p h o r i c a l l y b y t h e t e a c h e r i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s - " t h e " v ) one i t e m was u s e d more e x o p h o r i c a l l y b y t h e t e a c h e r i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s a n d n o t i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s = " t h a t " v i ) two i t e m s v/ere u s e d more a n a p h o r i c a l l y i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s a n d n o t i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s - " h e r , i t " v i i ) t h e t e a c h e r s u s e o f t h e r e m a i n i n g i t e m s d i d n o t v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n - "my , h i m , h i s , s h e , t h e y , t h e m , t h e i r , t h o s e , t h e n " - w e r e e i t h e r n o t u s e d e n o u g h t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a n d / o r w e r e u s e d b y t h e t e a c h e r a s f r e q u e n t l y e x o p h o r i c a l l y a s a n a p h o r i c a l l y i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s , t e a c h e r a n d c h i l d o r g a n i z e d . 69 3.2 R e s u l t s : Experiment II The r e s u l t s o f Experiment I I, NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e a c h e r o r gan i zed and i n c h i l d o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s a r e j a) NS, NNS C h i l d r e n ' s Output o r V e r b a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Output or v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n i s d i s c u s s e d r e l a t i v e to the r e s u l t s p re sen ted i n f i g u r e f i v e and i n t a b l e s i x . F i g u r e f i v e shows the r e l a t i v e percentages (o f grand t o t a l ) o f v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n terms o f u t t e r a n c e s and words f o r each group (NS, NNS) i n each o f the two s i t u a t i o n s ( teacher o r g a n i z e d , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) . Tab le s i x shows the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f u t t e r a n c e s and words f o r the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (output ) i n each o f the two s i t u a t i o n s , t e a c h e r and c h i l d o r g a n i z e d . The r e s u l t s show tha t the r e l a t i v e percentage o f u t t e r a n c e s and words f o r the c h i l d r e n , both n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e speakers o f E n g l i s h , was much g r e a t e r i n c h i l d o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s than i t was i n t e a c h e r o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s ( see , f i g u r e f i v e ) . V e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n or output v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n ( see , t a b l e s i x ) : 1) the f requency o f occur rence o f u t t e r a n c e s was g r e a t e r i n c h i l d o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s than i n t e a c h e r o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s , F = 4.62, p < . 0 3 , and 2) the f r equency o f o ccu r rence o f words was 70 Figure 5 Pro f i l e of NS, NNS Children's Output Percentage of Part ic ipation With Situation words ^ U t t e r a n c e s NNS NNS NS NS NNS NNS NS NS T/0=teacher organized situations (n=14) C/0=child organized situations (n=14) NS = native Eng l i sh speakers NNS = non-native Eng l i sh speakers •Proportion of words to utterances: T/O NS = 3.7 NNS = 2.5 C/O NS = 3.8 NNS = 3.2 71 Table VI Profile of NS, NNS Children's Output: A Comparison* of Frequencies of Utterances and Words with Situation Variables: Verbal Sources of Participation Variation SS df ms significance F of F 1. Utterances situation (T/O, C/0) group (NS, NNS) sex 1357.85 0.02 277.89 1 1 1 1357.85 0.02 277.89 23.75 0.00 4.86 .001 ns .03 covariates above with age 263.99 1 263.99 4.62 .03 (situation x group) (situation x sex) (group x sex) 86.94 60.37 97.85 1 1 1 86.94 60.37 97.85 1.52 1.06 1.71 ns ns ns (situation x group x sex) 235.47 1 235.47 4.12 .04 2. Words situation group sex 20569.64 1379.02 4514.02 1 1 1 20569.64 1379.02 4514.02 27.91 1.87 6.12 .001 ns .01 covariates above with age 6809.37 1 6809.37 9.24 .01 (situation x group) (situation x sex) (group x sex) 1355.79 2126.93 1591.76 1 1 1 1355.79 2126.93 1591.76 1.84 2.89 2.16 ns ns ns (situation x group x sex) 2537.04 1 2537.04 3.44 ns *Two way ANOVA 72 greater i n c h i l d organized situations than i n teacher organized situations, F = 9.24, p< . 003 . This increase i n c h i l d organized situations was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater for either the NS or the NNS children, however, age and sex both emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o rs. Both the frequency of occurrence of utterances (F = 4.62, p<.03) and of words (F = 9-24, p<.003) increased with age. In general, boys used s i g n i f i c a n t l y more utterances (F = 4.86, p<.03) and more words (F = 6.12, p<.01) than g i r l s . In addition, English speaking boys used s i g n i f i c a n t l y more utterances than English speaking g i r l s i n c h i l d organized situations, F = 4.12, p<.04. b) NS, NNS Children's Input and Interaction: Discourse Features Results of the analysis of the discourse features used during NS, NNS children's interactions i n teacher •and i n c h i l d organized situations are presented i n figure six and i n table seven and eight. Figure six shows the percentage use (of grand t o t a l ) of discourse items (one through twelve) i n each of the two situations, teacher and c h i l d organized by the NS and NNS children. Table seven gives a summary of the re s u l t s of the two way ANOVA concerning the r e l a t i v e frequencies of the t o t a l discourse items and of each of the twelve items as used by the NS and NNS children i n the two situations. Table eight shows the rank order of the grand means f o r each of the twelve discourse features used by these children. 73 100 80 60 40 20 0 P ro f i l e of NS, NNS Children's Input 6 Interaction: Relative Percentages of Total Discourse Features uith Situation M v/////////m T/0 (NS+NNS) T/0 NS c/o (NS+NNS) c/o NNS T/0 = teacher organized situations C/0 = ch i ld organized situations NS = n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers NNS = n o n - n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers 74 Table VII Profile of NS, NNS Children's Input and Interaction: A Comparison* of Frequencies of Twelve Discourse Features with Situation Variables: 12 Discourse Sources Significance Features of variation SS df MS F of F Total Features (1 through 12 below) 1. clarification situation (T/O, checks C/O) 196.72 1 196.72 16.91 .001 2. comprehension checks group (NS, NNS) 12.42 1 12.42 1.07 ns 3. confirmation checks sex covariates 35.14 1 35.14 3.02 ns 4. self- repetitions above with age 39.76 1 39.76 3.42 ns 5. other (situation x repetitions group) 9.56 1 9.56 0.82 ns 6. corrections 7. "you" in (situation x directives sex) 0.02 1 0.02 .002 ns 8. inclusive "we" 9. need statements (group x sex) 38.65 1 38.65 3.32 ns 10. "or choice" questions 11. "wh" questions (situation x 12. "yes/no" questions group x sex) 53.65 1 53.65 4.61 .03 Summary of significant items 1 to 12 above 1. see above situation 1.75 1 1.75 13.55 .001 2. (situation x group) 0.04 1 0.04 4.36 .04 3. situation 7.51 1 7.51 13.50 .001 4. situation 7.24 1 7.24 4.69 .03 7. situation 5.90 1 5.90 15.42 .001 8- (situation x group x sex) 0.28 1 0.28 4.50 .04 11. situation 6.26 1 6.26 12.01 .001 12. group (situation x group x sex 10.48 1 10.48 11.97 .001 with age) 8.38 1 8.38 9.58 .002 *Two way ANOVA Table VIII (NS + NNS) Children's Overall Use of Discourse Features by Rank Across Situation Ranks Features Grand Means X high 1 S e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s .81 2 "yes/no" questions .37 3 confirmation checks .30 4 "wh" questions .30 5 "you" in d i rec t i ve s .18 6 other repet i t ions .12 7 need statements .11 8 c l a r i f i c a t i o n checks .10 9 inc lus i ve "we" .05 10 correct ions .03 11 comprehension checks .01 12 "or choice" questions .00 *Means reported are those adjusted for two-way ANOVA 76 The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s i x show t h a t the c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e n t a g e use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i n c r e a s e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s over t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s - f o r b o t h the NS and NNS c h i l d r e n . Table seven g i v e s the l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s one t h r o u g h t w e l v e as used d u r i n g the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s . Table seven a l s o shows the l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the o v e r a l l use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s by the c h i l d r e n , NS and NNS. The r e s u l t s show t h a t the main e f f e c t was i n d e e d s i t u a t i o n , F = 16.91, p < . 0 0 1 , the use o f the t o t a l d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s by the c h i l d r e n was f a r g r e a t e r i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n i t was i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . Age and sex were not s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n t h i s c a s e , however, f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d a t h r e e way i n t e r a c t i o n ( s i t u a t i o n x group (NS, NNS) x s e x ) , F = 4 . 6 l p < . 0 3 , boys used more d i s c o u r s e i t e m s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s and g i r l s used more i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . As f a r as the i n d i v i d u a l d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s (one t h r o u g h t w e l v e ) were co n c e r n e d , o n l y one s p e c i f i c i t e m emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h the c o v a r i a t e s and age ( s e e , t a b l e seven) - "yes/no" q u e s t i o n s , F = 9 ' 5 ° t p < . 0 0 2 . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h i s f i n d i n g r e v e a l e d t h a t NSs used s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i s c o u r s e i t e m s t h a n NNSs, F = 5«24, p<;,002, and 77 that age was s i g n i f i c a n t a c r o s s groups, that i s the use of "yes/no" que s t i o n s i n c r e a s e d f o r both NS and NNS c h i l d r e n with age. In a d d i t i o n , the use of "yes/no" questions was most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r NS boys i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s , F = 11 .97 ' P <«001. The use of other d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s by the c h i l d r e n v a r i e d i n l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l items. For i n s t a n c e , c l a r i f i c a t i o n checks (F = 13«56, p<.001), c o n f i r m a t i o n checks (F = 13.50, p<.001), and s e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s (F= 4 .69, p< . 03 ) proved s i g n i f i c a n t with s i t u a t i o n - both NS and NNS c h i l d r e n used more of these items i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s over teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s . S e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s a l s o proved s i g n i f i c a n t f o r group (NS, NNS), F = 10.18, p<.002. T h i s i s a t t r i b u t e d to a g r e a t e r use of s e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s by NNS c h i l d r e n i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s , both t e a c h e r and c h i l d o r g a n i z e d . The a n a l y s i s of some d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t two v/ay i n t e r a c t i o n s : i ) Comprehension checks proved s i g n i f i c a n t f o r s i t u a t i o n (teacher, c h i l d organized) x group (NS, NNS), F = 4 .36, p<.04. T h i s was due to the NNS c h i l d r e n ' s use of these items which was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s than i t was i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s . i i ) The use of the i n c l u s i v e "we" r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t f o r group x sex, F = 4.18, p< .04. T h i s was due to a greater use of th i s item by NS boys. Further analysis of t h i s item revealed a three way int e r a c t i o n ( s i t u a t i o n x group x sex) - NS boys used more instances of i n c l u s i v e "we" i n c h i l d organized situations, F = 4.50, p< .04. i i i ) "You" i n di r e c t i v e s proved s i g n i f i c a n t f o r si t u a t i o n x group, F = 5*31» p<.002 , and f o r si t u a t i o n by sex, F = 15.42, p< ,001 . NS boys used t h i s item more frequently i n c h i l d organized si t u a t i o n s . iv) "V/h" questions yielded s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r si t u a t i o n x group, F = 4.13, P <.007, and f o r si t u a t i o n x sex, F = 12.00, p <.001. Again t h i s was explained by the more frequent use of "wh" questions by NS boys i n c h i l d organized sit u a t i o n s . The remaining discourse features (not previously discussed as s i g n i f i c a n t ) were either not s i g n i f i c a n t and/or used too infrequently by a l l children i n a l l situations to make t h e i r analysis feasible. 79 c) NS, NNS C h i l d r e n ' s Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : S i t u a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e - Exophoric/Anaphoric (Spatial/Temporal) Reference The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of the r e f e r e n c e items f o r NS and NNS c h i l d r e n i n t e a c h e r . o r g a n i z e d and i n c h i l d o rganized s i t u a t i o n s are presented i n f i g u r e seven and i n t a b l e n i n e . F i g u r e seven shows the r e l a t i v e percentage (of grand t o t a l ) of exophoric and anaphoric r e f e r e n c e items used by the NS and NNS c h i l d r e n i n teacher and c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s . Table nine shows the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s of exophoric and anaphoric r e f e r e n c e items i n teacher and c h i l d o rganized s i t u a t i o n s as used by the two groups of c h i l d r e n , NS and NNS. The r e s u l t s as presented i n f i g u r e seven show that a l l groups of c h i l d r e n (NS and NNS) use a g r e a t e r percentage of exophoric and anaphoric r e f e r e n c e items i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s than they do i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s presented on t a b l e nine s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s f i n d i n g , s i g n i f i c a n t l y more items, both exophoric (F = 15.68, p<.002) as w e l l as anaphoric (F = 15.68, p< . 0 0 1 ) , were used i n c h i l d o rganized s i t u a t i o n s over teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s f o r a l l groups of c h i l d r e n , NS and NNS. In a d d i t i o n , the p r o p o r t i o n of exophoric to anaphoric items was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n c h i l d o r ganized s i t u a t i o n s , F = 16.56, p< . 0 0 1 . A group (NS and NNS c h i l d r e n ) e f f e c t a l s o emerged as 80 100 80 60 40 20 0 F i g u r e 7 Prof i le of NS, NNS Children's Input & interact ion: Relative Percentages of Tuo Reference Categories uith Situation *NS + NNS a) • FIN T/0 C/0 EX AN EX AN (NS+NNS) (NS+NNS) (NS+NNS) (NS+NNS) NS, NNS = n a t i v e s p e a k e r s , n o n - n a t i v e speakers AN, EX = a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e , e x o p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e 100 80 60 40 ?n 0 *NS, NNS MM W777I77A V//////A V//////// /// b) ]RN T/0 NS NS T/0 NNS NNS c/o NS NS c/o NNS NNS T /0 - t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , C/O = c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s 81 Table IX Profile of NS, NNS Children's Input and Interaction: A Comparison of Two Categories of Reference Items (1 to 24) by Proportion with Situation Variables: Reference Sources Significance Items of variation SS df MS F of F (Exophoric to Anaphoric Proportion) a) Total items 1 through 24 below 1. 13 situation 170.09 1 170.09 16.56 .001 2. 14 group 17.42 1 17.42 1.70 ns 3. 15 sex 16.90 .1 16.90 1.65 ns 4. 16 covariates 5. 17 above with age 58.00 1 58.00 5.65 .02 6. 18 (situation x group) 39.89 1 39.89 3.89 .05 7. 19 (situation x sex) 1.03 1 1.03 0.10 ns 8. 20 9. 21 (group x sex) 28.58 1 28.58 2.78 ns 10. 22 11. 23 (situation x 12. 24 group x sex) 89.15 1 89.15 8.68 .004 Summary of significance of above proportion for individual items 1 to 24 above 1 sex 0.34 1 0.34 4.06 .05 3 (group x sex) (situation x group 0.06 1 0.06 4.29 .04 sex with age) 0.09 1 0.09 6.86 .009 4 group (situation x sex 0.05 1 0.05 4.27 .04 x group) 0.09 1 0.09 8.06 .005 5 (situation x sex x group with age) 0.11 1 0.11 5.30 .02 6 situation 0.04 1 0.04 6.16 .01 group 0.04 1 0.04 5.41 .02 (situation x group) 0.05 1 0.05 7.32 .007 8 (situation x sex) 0.02 1 0.02 3.78 .05 10 (situation x group) 0.01 1 0.01 4.27 .04 17 situation 0.15 1 0.15 8.11 .005 group 0.08 1 0.08 4.20 .04 19 situation 0.01 1 0.01 5.42 .02 23 situation 0.00 1 0.00 4.31 .04 24 sex 0.11 1 0.11 4.28 .04 s i g n i f i c a n t . For the NNS English children, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t exophoric to anaphoric e f f e c t : NNS children's proportion of exophoric to anaphoric reference items was greater i n c h i l d organized situations over teacher organized situations than was the proportion of exophoric to anaphoric items for NS children, F = J.Q9, p< .05 . In addition, a three way in t e r a c t i o n ( s i t u a t i o n x group x sex) proved s i g n i f i c a n t , F = 8.68, p<.004. Further scrutiny of the data revealed that t h i s could be attributed to the NNS children's interactions: NNS boys had a greater r a t i o of exophoric to anaphoric reference items i n teacher organized situations (more boys scored more items), whereas the NNS g i r l s recorded a greater proportion of exophoric to anaphoric reference items i n c h i l d organized situations (more g i r l s scored more items). This was not a s i g n i f i c a n t factor f o r the NS English children,•boys and g i r l s scored equally i n the two sit u a t i o n s . The s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s for each of the s p e c i f i c reference items, one through twenty-four, are presented below under three headings: exophoric to anaphoric proportion, exophoric (not anaphoric) items and anaphoric (not exophoric) items. Each s i g n i f i c a n t reference item i s numbered under these three headings and the re s u l t s of the analysis are b r i e f l y reported. These are: 83 Exophoric to Anaphoric P r o p o r t i o n The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of exophoric to anaphoric items f o r each i n d i v i d u a l item, one through twenty-four, i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t a b l e n i n e . The r e s u l t s show s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the f o l l o w i n g items: Item 3 - "my" a) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the c o v a r i a t e s - s i t u a t i o n x group (NS, NNS) x sex, F = 6.86, p<.01. The frequency of exophoric to anaphoric r e f e r e n c e items was g r e a t e r i n c h i l d organized than teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s , NSs used "my" more f r e q u e n t l y than NNSs and males r e l a t i v e l y more f r e q u e n t l y than females. In g e n e r a l , males used more items i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s and females i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s . b) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the c o v a r i a t e s and age, F = 6.86, p - c.Ol. The use of both exophoric and anaphoric items i n c r e a s e d with age f o r both males and females, and f o r NSs and NNSs acr o s s both s i t u a t i o n s - teacher as w e l l as c h i l d o r g a n i z e d . c) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with group (NS, NNS) by sex, F = 4 . 2 9 , p<.04. The r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of "my" f o r NNS males was g e n e r a l l y more anaphoric than the frequency f o r NNS females, and f o r both NS males and females. 84 I t e m 4 - "we" a ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h g r o u p ( N S , N N S ) , F = 4.27, p < . 0 4 . The p r o p o r t i o n o f e x o p h o r i c t o a n a p h o r i c i t e m s was more e x o p h o r i c f o r N S s , n e i t h e r N S s n o r NNSs o f E n g l i s h u s e d a n y a n a p h o r i c i t e m s . b ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n ( t e a c h e r , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) x g r o u p ( N S , NNS) x s e x , F = 8.06, p < . 0 0 5 . NS m a l e s h a d a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f e x o p h o r i c t o a n a p h o r i c i t e m s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n e i t h e r NNS m a l e s o r ( N S , NNS) f e m a l e s . I t e m 5 - " y o u " a ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e c o v a r i a t e s , s i t u a t i o n x g r o u p x s e x , F = 5 '30, p < .02 . T h e r e w e r e no a n a p h o r i c i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s i t e m . O v e r a l l t h e f r e q u e n c y o f e x o p h o r i c i t e m s was g r e a t e r i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , g r e a t e r f o r m a l e s t h a n f o r f e m a l e s , a n d g r e a t e r f o r N S s t h a n NNSs i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s . b ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a g e , F = 5.30, p < . 0 2 . The f r e q u e n c y o f t h i s i t e m i n c r e a s e s w i t h age f o r a l l g r o u p s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e NNSs who u s e d t h e i t e m w e r e s l i g h t l y o l d e r t h a n t h e N S s , a n d b o t h m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s a c r o s s g r o u p s ( N S , NNS) w e r e s l i g h t l y o l d e r i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d o v e r t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . 85 Item 6 - "your" a) varied s ignif icantly with situation by group, F = 7.32, p ^ . 01 . NNSs used this item more frequently than NSs in child organized situations over teacher organized situations. There were no examples of "your" in teacher organized situations by NS or NNS children, and no anaphoric examples in either situation. Item 10 - "she" a) varied s ignif icantly with situation by group, F = 4.27, p <.04. This item was used more frequently by NSs in teacher organized situations. There were no anaphoric instances in any situation. Item 17 - "this" a) varied s ignif icantly with situation, F = 8.11, p < .005« A l l examples of this item were exophoric. The use of exophoric examples was far greater in child organized situations than i t was in teacher organized situations. b) varied s ignif icantly with group, F = 4.20, p<.04. NS and NNS children used this item equally in teacher organized situations (not at a l l ) , and there were far more examples of use in child organized situations. In addition, the use of the item by NNS children in child organized situations was greater than the use by NS children in child organized situations. 86 Item 23 - "then" a) varied s i g n i f i c a n t l y with s i t u a t i o n , F = 4.31, p< .04 . There were more instances of exophoric reference items i n c h i l d organized situations than there were i n teacher organized sit u a t i o n s . None of the examples that were recorded for reference item "then" were anaphoric examples. Item 24 - "the" a) varied s i g n i f i c a n t l y with sex, F = 4.28, p< .04. This reference item was used most frequently by males across a l l situations and groups - the item was used more frequently i n exophoric reference i n c h i l d organized situations and i n anaphoric reference i n teacher organized situ a t i o n s . The remaining items, not l i s t e d above as s i g n i f i c a n t i n the proportion of exophoric to anaphoric reference items, are shown on table nine. These items were either used equally i n teacher and c h i l d organized situations and/or were r a r e l y used i n either s i t u a t i o n . In some cases, a much larger sample may y i e l d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t . 87 Exophoric Items Table ten shows the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of exophoric items (not anaphoric f r e q u e n c i e s ) f o r the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n each of the two s i t u a t i o n s , t e acher and c h i l d o r g a n i z e d . The s i g n i f i c a n t exophoric r e f e r e n c e items are: Item 1 - " I " a) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with sex, F = 4.06, p < . 0 5 . Exophoric " I " was used most f r e q u e n t l y by males r a t h e r than females i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s , t e a c h e r and c h i l d organized and a c r o s s a l l groups, NS and NNS. Item 3 "my" a) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with s i t u a t i o n x group x sex, and with the f o r e g o i n g c o v a r i a t e s and age, F = 7-31 > p<C«01. There were more exophoric i n s t a n c e s of "my" i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s , and more frequent use of t h i s pronominal was recorded f o r the NNS c h i l d r e n and not the NS c h i l d r e n . The use of "my" by NNS c h i l d r e n was more f r e q u e n t l y female usage and t h i s frequency of occurrence i n c r e a s e d with age. Item 4 - "we" a) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with s i t u a t i o n x group x sex, F = 6.05, p - ^ . 02 . Exophoric "we" was most f r e q u e n t l y used by NS males i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s . 88 Table X P r o f i l e of NS, NNS Ch i l d ren ' s Input and In teract ion: Re lat ive Frequencies of Exophoric Items with S i tua t ion Variables: Exophoric Sources Significance Items of variation SS df MS F of F a) Total items 1 through 24 below (See Table IX) situation 2.95 1 2.95 15.68 .001 group 0.01 1 0.01 0.01 ns sex 0.08 1 0.08 0.43 ns covariates with age 0.59 1 0.59 3.13 ns (situation x group) 0.00 1 0.00 0.01 ns (situation x sex) 0.53 1 0.53 2.80 ns (group x sex) 0.04 1 0.04 0.23 ns (situation x group x sex) 0.24 1 0.24 1.30 ns b) Summary of significance of exophoric items 1 to 24 1 sex 0.34 1 0.34 4.06 .05 3 (group x sex) 0.05 1 0.05 3.82 .05 (situation x group x sex with age) 0.09 1 0.09 7.31 .01 4 sex 0.05 1 0.05 5.28 .02 (situation x group x sex) 0.06 1 0.06 6.05 .02 5 (situation x group x sex with age) 0.11 1 0.11 5.39 .02 6 situation 0.05 1 0.05 7.98 .005 group 0.05 1 0.05 7.67 .006 (situation x group) 0.04 1 0.04 6.91 .009 11 group 0.001 1 0.001 3.79 .05 17 situation 0.16 1 0.16 8.46 .004 group 0.07 1 0.07 3.94 .05 19 situation 0.01 1 0.01 5.42 .02 22 situation 0.07 1 0.07 9.07 .003 23 situation 0.00 1 0.00 4.31 .04 89 I t e m 5 - " y o u " a ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n x g r o u p x s e x a n d w i t h t h e f o r e g o i n g c o v a r i a t e s a n d a g e , F = 5•39» p <.02. T h e r e w e r e more e x o p h o r i c i n s t a n c e s o f " y o u " i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , a n d t h i s u s e was more f r e q u e n t l y made b y NS m a l e c h i l d r e n . Use o f t h i s i t e m a l s o i n c r e a s e d f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , NSs a n d N N S s , w i t h a g e . I t e m 6 - " y o u r " a ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n x g r o u p , F = 6.91, p <.01. A l l e x a m p l e s o f t h i s i t e m w e r e u s e d e x o p h o r i c a l l y i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . A n d , NS c h i l d r e n u s e d t h i s i t e m more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n NNS c h i l d r e n . I t e m 11 - " h e r " a ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h g r o u p ( N S , N N S ) , F = 3.79, p <.05» NS c h i l d r e n u s e d more e x o p h o r i c i n s t a n c e s o f " h e r " i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s . I t e m 17 - " t h i s " a ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n , F = 8.46, p<.004. " T h i s " was u s e d o n l y e x o p h o r i c a l l y b y t h e c h i l d r e n , a n d more f r e q u e n t l y i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . b ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h g r o u p , F = 3.94, p < . 0 5 . A l t h o u g h NS a n d NNS c h i l d r e n u s e d " t h i s " e q u a l l y i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , t h e u s e o f " t h i s " was f a r g r e a t e r f o r NNS c h i l d r e n o v e r NS c h i l d r e n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . Item 19 -"now" a) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n , F = 5-^2, p<.02. Most i n s t a n c e s of "now" o c c u r r e d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n , "now" was used s u b s t a n t i a l l y more by NNS c h i l d r e n but not enough t o prove s i g n i f i c a n t (a l a r g e r sample may y i e l d a s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g h e r e ) . Item 22 - " t h a t " a) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n , F = 9.07, p <.003. There were f a r more i n s t a n c e s of e x o p h o r i c " t h a t " i n c h i l d o ver t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . Other r e f e r e n c e i t e m s , not r e p o r t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y e x o p h o r i c f o r some s p e c i f i c f a c t o r among the f o r e g o i n g i t e m s , were e i t h e r m a i n l y a n a p h o r i c , and/or were too i n f r e q u e n t t o y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s , and/or were used s i m i l a r l y f o r the f a c t o r s under s t u d y i n t h i s r e p o r t , see t a b l e t e n . A n a p h o r i c I t e m s T a b l e e l e v e n shows t h e r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f a n a p h o r i c ( n o t e x o p h o r i c f r e q u e n c i e s ) i t e m s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n e a c h o f t h e two s i t u a t i o n s , t e a c h e r a n d c h i l d o r g a n i z e d , f o r NS a n d NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s . The s i g n i f i c a n t i t e m s a r e : I t e m 10 - " s h e " a ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n x g r o u p , F = 3-94, p <.05« M o s t a n a p h o r i c i n s t a n c e s o f " s h e " w e r e f o u n d i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , a n d w e r e u s e d b y NS c h i l d r e n a n d n o t b y NNS c h i l d r e n . I t e m 12 - " i t " a ) v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n , F = 10.62, p < . 0 0 1 . A l t h o u g h t h e o v e r a l l f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e p r o n o m i n a l " i t " was s i m i l a r i n b o t h t e a c h e r a n d c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s f o r b o t h NS a n d f o r NNS c h i l d r e n , t h e r e w e r e more a n a p h o r i c i n s t a n c e s o f t h e r e f e r e n c e i t e m i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d r a t h e r t h a n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . A l l o t h e r r e f e r e n c e i t e m s , n o t d i s c u s s e d a b o v e w e r e e i t h e r m a i n l y e x o p h o r i c , a n d / o r t o o i n f r e q u e n t t o y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s , a n d / o r u s e d e q u a l l y a c r o s s t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s u n d e r s t u d y h e r e . 92 Table XI P r o f i l e of NS f NNS Ch i l d ren ' s Input and In teract ion: Relat ive Frequencies of Anaphoric Items with S i tua t ion Variables: Anaphoric Sources Significance Items of variation SS df MS F of F a) Total items 1 through 24 below (See Table IX) situation 1.19 1 1.19 15.68 .001 group 0.04 1 0.04 0.53 ns sex 0.04 1 0.04 0.51 ns covariates with age 0.00 1 0.00 0.002 ns (situation x group) 0.02 1 0.02 0.20 ns (situation x sex) 0.01 1 0.01 0.05 ns (group x sex) 0.02 1 0.02 0.26 ns (situation x group x sex) 0.09 1 0.09 1.17 ns b) Summary of significance of anaphoric items 1 to 24 4 situation 0.003 1 0.003 4.06 .05 (situation x group) 0.003 1 0.003 3.82 .05 10 (situation x group) 0.006 1 0.006 3.94 .05 12 situation 0.27 1 0.27 10.62 .001 3.3 D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g t a b l e s and f i g u r e s o f f e r some p r e l i m i n a r y answers t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . These r e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n terms o f the s e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , f o r both e x p e r i m e n t s , I and I I . A. Output o r V e r b a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Experiment I sought an answer t o the q u e s t i o n : To v/hat e x t e n t , i f any, does NS t e a c h e r output o r v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ( t e a c h e r , o r g a n i z e d , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) o f i n t e r a c t i o n s ? The d a t a from t h i s s t u d y shows t h a t NS t e a c h e r o u t p u t / v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m w i t h t h i s t e a c h e r i s i n f l u e n c e d by the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s , v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( u t t e r a n c e s , words) v a r i e s w i t h s i t u a t i o n . I n terms o f u t t e r a n c e s , o r the t o t a l t u r n s per s p e a k e r , t h i s t e a c h e r dominated the t a l k i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , y e t spoke f a r l e s s when s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n t e r a c t i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s o r g a n i z e d by the NS/NNS c h i l d r e n . I n terms o f the number o f words used by the t e a c h e r , she used f a r more words i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n she d i d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s ; however, the p r o p o r t i o n a t e use o f words t o u t t e r a n c e s d i d not v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y whether t h i s t e a c h e r was i n t e r a c t i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s she o r g a n i z e d , o r i n s i t u a t i o n s the c h i l d r e n themselves o r g a n i z e d . 94 The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h i s t e a c h e r t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t v / i t h g e n e r a l l y h e l d n o t i o n s a b o u t t e a c h e r s : t e a c h e r s t a l k t o o much i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , d o m i n a t i n g t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n g e t t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t o t a l k . The l a t t e r , e n c o u r a g i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t o t a l k , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , a n d / o r f o r b u i l d i n g s k i l l s i n u s i n g a f i r s t l a n g u a g e . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e two s i t u a t i o n s ( t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) s u g g e s t s t h a t g r o u p i n g may be a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r . T h i s t e a c h e r g e n e r a l l y o r g a n i z e d a n d t a u g h t i n l a r g e g r o u p s ( w h o l e c l a s s ) , w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n o r g a n i z e d t h e i r g r o u p s s p o n t a n e o u s l y , h e n c e g r o u p s w e r e s m a l l e r . A l s o , t h e t e a c h e r a s w e l l a s t h e N S / N N S c h i l d r e n e n t e r e d a n d l e f t c h i l d o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s a t w i l l . I t was p r o b a b l y more d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o d o m i n a t e t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d i n t h e v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h i s t e a c h e r i n t h e two s i t u a t i o n s ( t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) , t h e r e i s a l s o a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e d b y t h e r e s u l t s . The f a c t t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r d s t o u t t e r a n c e s d i d n o t v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r t h i s t e a c h e r i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d a n d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t : 1) e i t h e r 95 t h i s t e a c h e r was not a d j u s t i n g the u t t e r a n c e l e n g t h t o accommodate i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h NS/NNS c h i l d r e n i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , and/or 2 ) t e a c h e r t a l k d u r i n g i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o n g e r u t t e r a n c e s . Though t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s a re t e n t a t i v e , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on the number and l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e s i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s may prove v a l u a b l e . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f the fo r m e r i s t r u e , i n t h i s s t u d y t h i s t e a c h e r was not a d j u s t i n g the l e n g t h o f h e r u t t e r a n c e s t o accommodate i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h NS/NS c h i l d r e n i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , t h e n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g may need i m p r o v i n g ( i . e . , Do t e a c h e r s accommodate L 2 l e a r n e r s by a d j u s t i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s as L I mothers do t o accommodate c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e s ? ) I n f a c t , t h i s t e a c h e r had some, but l i m i t e d L 2 t r a i n i n g . I n the case o f the l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y , i f t e a c h e r t a l k i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o n g e r u t t e r a n c e s d u r i n g i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e n t h e r e may be a need t o a l t e r t e a c h i n g methodology t o g i v e t e a c h e r s the s k i l l s needed t o s t i m u l a t e i n f o r m a l , s m a l l group i n t e r a c t i o n - a g a i n , t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g may be i n f l u e n c e d by r e s e a r c h o f t h i s s o r t ( i . e . , I s the q u a l i t y o f t e a c h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n b e t t e r i n i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h c h i l d r e n t h a n i n f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s ? ) . I n f a c t , t h i s t e a c h e r d i d appear t o have b e t t e r q u a l i t y c o n v e r s a t i o n s d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e NS/NNS c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n i n 9 6 t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . I t may have been more n a t u r a l f o r the t e a c h e r t o speak i n spontaneous s i t u a t i o n s o r g a n i z e d by the c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s , hence t e a c h e r u t t e r a n c e s were l o n g e r i n the s e s i t u a t i o n s . Experiment I I sought an answer t o the same q u e s t i o n , but here the emphasis was on NS, NNS c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n : To what e x t e n t , i f any, does NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s o u t p u t / v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ( t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) o f i n t e r a c t i o n s ? The d a t a from t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s o utput does v a r y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s . The NS, NNS c h i l d r e n were f a r more v e r b a l , b o t h i n the q u a n t i t y o f u t t e r a n c e s used and i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f words t o u t t e r a n c e s i n the c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , t h a n t h e y were i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . Whereas i n the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f experiment I , the t e a c h e r dominated the c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , the c h i l d r e n dominated the c o n v e r s a t i o n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . The NS, NNS c h i l d r e n not o n l y used more u t t e r a n c e s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , t h e y a l s o used u t t e r a n c e s t h a t were much l o n g e r w h i l e s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n t e r a c t i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s t h e y t h e m s e l v e s c r e a t e d and o r g a n i z e d . A l t h o u g h the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f b o t h NS and NNS c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f 97 NS v e r s u s NNS c h i l d r e n d i d n o t e m e r g e ; t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f NS u t t e r a n c e s a n d NNS u t t e r a n c e s , a n d t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r d s t o u t t e r a n c e s f o r b o t h NS a n d NNS c h i l d r e n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d v e r s u s c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . A t f i r s t g l a n c e , t h i s may a p p e a r s u r p r i s i n g ( i . e . , t h e NS c h i l d r e n s h o u l d t a l k m o r e ) , h o w e v e r , i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m t h e c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d f a i r l y w e l l b a l a n c e d i n t e r m s o f l a n g u a g e . a b i l i t y . The E n g l i s h L I l e a r n e r s a p p e a r e d t o r a n g e g r e a t l y i n p r o f i c i e n c y a s d i d t h e E n g l i s h L2 c h i l d r e n . I t m u s t be r e m e m b e r e d w i t h c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age t h a t L I l e a r n e r s a r e a l s o l e a r n i n g l a n g u a g e a n d may r a n g e g r e a t l y i n p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s . The d a t a was a n a l y z e d f o r age d i f f e r e n c e s a n d f o r s e x d i f f e r e n c e s i n b o t h t e a c h e r a n d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . Age p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n b o t h u t t e r a n c e s a n d w o r d s u s e d b y t h e c h i l d r e n . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y o f u t t e r a n c e s a s w e l l a s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r d s t o u t t e r a n c e s i n c r e a s e d w i t h age f o r b o t h NS a n d f o r NNS c h i l d r e n . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t a n d / o r p r a c t i c e may be i m p o r t a n t - a l t h o u g h NNS c h i l d r e n may be b e g i n n e r s a t a n y a g e a n d NS c h i l d r e n may v a r y g r e a t l y i n t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , a l l c h i l d r e n become b e t t e r c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s w i t h a g e . S e x d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e a l s o f o u n d f o r b o t h u t t e r a n c e s a n d f o r t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r d s t o u t t e r a n c e s . I n g e n e r a l , NS a n d NNS m a l e s i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m w e r e more v e r b a l t h a n N S / N N S g i r l s . 98 I n the case o f u t t e r a n c e s , sex was s i g n i f i c a n t as a main e f f e c t , i n d i c a t i n g males were more v e r b a l t h a n f e m a l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was a t h r e e way i n t e r a c t i o n among s i t u a t i o n ( t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) , group (NS, NNS) and sex, i n d i c a t i n g f u r t h e r t h a t i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m the E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g (LI) males were more v e r b a l t h a n the E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g f e m a l e s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . These sex d i f f e r e n c e s may be due t o p e r s o n a l i t y and/or m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , and may prove a u s e f u l p u r s u i t f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h ( i . e . , Are males more a c t i v e language u s e r s t h a n f e m a l e s a r e ? ) . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i t appeared t h a t the male c h i l d r e n , b o t h NS and NNS males, were more g r e g a r i o u s and o u t g o i n g t h a n the female c h i l d r e n . T h i s may be an i n d i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s ( p a r e n t a l ) i Are males e x p e c t e d t o be more o u t g o i n g t h a n g i r l s ? I n terms o f the p r o p o r t i o n o f words t o u t t e r a n c e s , sex was a l s o a main e f f e c t due t o the i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the boys. Here, however, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t two o r t h r e e way i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m the p r o p o r t i o n o f words t o u t t e r a n c e s ( u t t e r a n c e l e n g t h ) was g r e a t e r f o r males i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s ( t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) f o r b o t h groups (NS, NNS) t h a n f o r females - NS males d i d not dominate d i s c u s s i o n i n any s i t u a t i o n w i t h NS fem a l e s as i n the case o f u t t e r a n c e s mentioned above. A g a i n , t h i s may w i t h a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h prove t o be a c u l t u r a l ( i . e . , Are males r e a r e d d i f f e r e n t l y from females a c r o s s c u l t u r e s ? ) 99 and/or a s o c i a l ( i . e . s e x i sm - are g i r l s g e n e r a l l y e x p e c t e d t o be more shy and q u i e t ? ) f a c t o r . A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h on sex d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n and a c r o s s c u l t u r e s i s recommended i n terms o f the c h i l d r e n ' s v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r output i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . I n summary, v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r output v a r i e s w i t h s i t u a t i o n and i t appears t o be the s t r u c t u r e o f the s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o o u t p u t . T h i s t e a c h e r was more v e r b a l i n s i t u a t i o n s she o r g a n i z e d and l e d t h a n she was when s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the c h i l d r e n i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t t h e y o r g a n i z e d and l e d . The c h i l d r e n on the o t h e r hand were more v e r b a l l y a c t i v e i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n t h e y were i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s was t r u e f o r b o t h n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h . I t appears t h a t the s t r u c t u r e o f c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s f o s t e r e d the v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the c h i l d l e a r n e r s w h i l e the s t r u c t u r e o f t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i n h i b i t e d the c h i l d r e n s ' v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , f o r b o t h f i r s t and second language l e a r n e r s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n examining c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n s . F o r example, i n S a v i l l e - T r o i k e ' s (1984:21?) s t u d y the c h i l d r e n who were u n s u c c e s s f u l a c a d e m i c a l l y were thos e most s u c c e s s f u l a t i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication. I n t h i s s t u d y a l l c h i l d r e n were more s u c c e s s f u l a t i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . 100 B. Input and I n t e r a c t i o n : D i s c o u r s e F e a t u r e s The r e s u l t s o f the d a t a a n a l y s i s f o r experiment I , t e a c h e r i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n : d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s , g i v e some p r e l i m i n a r y answers t o the second r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the t e a c h e r : To what e x t e n t , i f any, does the NS t e a c h e r ' s use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s v a r y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n ? T h i s t e a c h e r ' s use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m does i n f a c t v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n : the o v e r a l l use o f f e a t u r e s ( t o t a l i t e m s ) was f a r g r e a t e r i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . The f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e f o r d i s c o u r s e i t e m s may i n c r e a s e w i t h v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n - t h i s t e a c h e r was a l s o f a r more v e r b a l i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t t h i s t e a c h e r ' s use o f i n d i v i d u a l d i s c o u r s e i t e m s appears t o i n c r e a s e w i t h v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t the use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s may be r e l a t e d t o the amount o f v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h might a d d r e s s the q u e s t i o n : To what e x t e n t does the t e a c h e r s ' use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i n c r e a s e w i t h t e a c h e r s ' v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? I n a d d i t i o n , i t might be t h a t the i n c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e f o r some ite m s may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e more i m p o r t a n t i n some s i t u a t i o n s / a c t i v i t i e s t h a n i n o t h e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m the t e a c h e r ' s o v e r a l l use ( p e r c e n t a g e o f grand t o t a l ) o f i t e m s was g r e a t e r i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t : 1) t h i s t e a c h e r may 101 u s e more i t e m s i n " t e a c h i n g " s i t u a t i o n s t h a n she u s e s i n n o n - t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s , a n d / o r 2 ) i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n s u c h a s t h i s t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e u s e o f f e w e r i t e m s . F u t u r e s t u d i e s m i g h t s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l w i t h t h e s e i s s u e s . A l t h o u g h t h e t e a c h e r ' s u s e o f i t e m s was g r e a t e r i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n a t e u s e o f s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s d i d n o t v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n . T h i s t e a c h e r u s e d s p e c i f i c d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s a s f r e q u e n t l y i n t e a c h e r a n d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s ( s e e , f i g u r e t h r e e , t a b l e s t h r e e a n d f o u r ) . T h i s i s somewhat s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r a n k o r d e r f o r t h e u s e o f s p e c i f i c d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i s s i m i l a r i n e a c h o f t h e two s i t u a t i o n s , t e a c h e r a n d c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ( s e e , t a b l e t h r e e ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r t h i s t e a c h e r t h e same d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s w e r e i m p o r t a n t no m a t t e r w h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n s h e was i n t e r a c t i n g i n , t e a c h e r o r c h i l d o r g a n i z e d . T h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s b e h a v i o u r : 1) t h e s e d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a d u l t s p e e c h i n g e n e r a l , a n d / o r 2 ) t h e s e d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s a r e g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t e a c h e r s ' s p e e c h . A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n o t h e r c l a s s r o o m s w i l l h e l p t o c l a r i f y t h i s t e a c h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r . O b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l a t t e r may be a p o s s i b i l i t y . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r a n k e d means f o r t h e v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s ( s e e , t a b l e t h r e e ) l i s t s f e a t u r e s " y e s / n o " q u e s t i o n s a n d " w h " q u e s t i o n s a s m o s t i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s 102 t e a c h e r i n b o t h s i t u a t i o n s , t e a c h e r and c h i l d o r g a n i z e d . Long (1981), B r u l h a r t (1985), Peck (1985) and o t h e r s , l i s t "yes/no" and "wh" q u e s t i o n s as means o f s e e k i n g p r e s p e c i f i e d answers and/or as i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n l i g h t o f the f a c t t h a t the answers a re a l r e a d y known t o t h e t e a c h e r . T h i s t e a c h e r ' s use o f thes e q u e s t i o n s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s seemed t o do one or more o f the f o l l o w i n g j a) i n i t i a t e / c o n t i n u e d i s c u s s i o n ( e . g . "Who's t h i s , do you t h i n k ? " o r "Are t h e r e n u r s e s i n the h o s p i t a l ? " ) , b) s i g n a l a s p e a k i n g t u r n f o r the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ( e . g . "What does y o u r mom do, G e r r y ? " o r "Who do you want t o b e ? " ) , c) make an i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ( e . g . "Today i s Monday. What day i s i t t o d a y ? " o r " I t ' s c l e a n up t i m e . Are yo u r c l e a n i n g u p ? " ) , and d) a c q u i r e / m a i n t a i n the c h i l d r e n ' s a t t e n t i o n ( e . g . What are you d o i n g now? o r Are you l o o k i n g up h e r e , S t e f a n i e ? " ) . I n t h i s c l a s s r o o m the t e a c h e r ' s use o f "yes/no" and "wh" q u e s t i o n s appears t o be a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e , t h e s e d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s seemed t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s t e a c h e r ' s speech (though the u s e f u l n e s s o f th e s e f e a t u r e s f o r t e a c h i n g i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , see, Long I 9 8 I ) . A l s o , as n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h i s t e a c h e r does not appear t o a d j u s t the l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e s t o accommodate the s i t u a t i o n . I n l i k e manner, t h i s t e a c h e r appears t o use the same d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a d j u s t m e n t s t o accommodate the s i t u a t i o n a r e p r o b a b l y not b e i n g made. 103 Both t h e s e f i n d i n g s may i n d i c a t e i n s u f f i c i e n t t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and/or e x p e r i e n c e i n the c l a s s r o o m w i t h L2 l e a r n e r s . The i n c r e a s e d ( p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y ) use o f " o t h e r r e p e t i t i o n s " ( s e e , t a b l e f o u r , p. 62) i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s somewhat s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h i s - t h i s t e a c h e r o f t e n r e p e a t e d what the NS/NNS c h i l d r e n s a i d , not as a means o f r e i n f o r c i n g the word i n E n g l i s h t o f a c i l i t a t e t he c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , r a t h e r t o h e l p c l a r i f y t he t e a c h e r ' s own u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i t was t h a t the c h i l d r e n s a i d . Perhaps t e a c h e r s need t o be made more aware o f what i t i s t h a t t h e y a r e d o i n g i n p l a n n i n g and im p l e m e n t i n g c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s . The d a t a f o r experiment I I was a n a l y z e d i n answer t o th e same r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n f o r the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n : To what e x t e n t , i f any, does NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s v a r y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n ( t e a c h e r , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) ? The r e s u l t s o f the d a t a a n a l y s i s o f f e r some p r e l i m i n a r y r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . The c h i l d r e n ' s o v e r a l l use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r b o t h NS E n g l i s h and NNS c h i l d r e n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s by a l l c h i l d r e n (NS, NNS) does i n d e e d v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n , one o r more i t e m s may be o f g r e a t e r / l e s s e r importance i n some s i t u a t i o n s and not i n o t h e r s . The more f r e q u e n t use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s o v e r t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s may be a r e s u l t o f t h e i n c r e a s e d v e r b a l 104 p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f b o t h NS and NNS E n g l i s h c h i l d r e n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s - t h e r e may have been more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the c h i l d r e n t o produce th e s e i t e m s . Or, the a c t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n , the s p o n t a n t e i t y and i n f o r m a l i t y i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s may prove more co n d u c i v e t o the use o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s t h a n f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d " t e a c h i n g " s i t u a t i o n s . Though t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e t e n t a t i v e , t h i s w r i t e r s u s p e c t s i t i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h o f the f o r e g o i n g : a) the use o f a g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y o f d i s c o u r s e i t e m s w i l l appear i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s because the c h i l d r e n f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e s p e a k i n g i n t h e i r p e er group, and because t h e y have more f r e q u e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n about c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a n t h e y do i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s where t e a c h e r s t e n d t o dominate the c o n v e r s a t i o n , and b) i t i s the s p o n t a n e i t y o f c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s and the f l e x i b i l i t y o f the g r o u p i n g ( c h i l d r e n move i n and out o f groups a t w i l l ) t h a t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o the c h i l d r e n ' s i n c r e a s e d use o f i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s . Age and sex d i d not prove s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the c h i l d r e n ' s o v e r a l l use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s } however, f u r t h e r s c r u t i n y o f the d a t a r e v e a l e d a t h r e e way i n t e r a c t i o n amongst s i t u a t i o n , sex and group. I n g e n e r a l , males produced more d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s t h a n f e m a l e s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s w h i l e f e m a l e s produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f e a t u r e s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s may be 105 a t t r i b u t e d t o p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s ( e . g . A r e b o y s more a g g r e s s i v e a n d / o r g r e g a r i o u s t h a n g i r l s , t h e r e f o r e , more c o m f o r t a b l e i n f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a n g i r l s ? ) , m o t i v a t i o n ( e . g . A r e b o y s more m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n t h a n g i r l s ? ) , a n d / o r s e x d i f f e r e n c e s ( e . g . A r e g i r l s s o c i a l l y a n d / o r c u l t u r a l l y e n c o u r a g e d t o s p e a k f o r c e f u l l y i n f o r m a l g r o u p s ? ) . A l t h o u g h no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s a r e o f f e r e d h e r e b e c a u s e t h i s was n o t t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y , a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h o n s e x d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s may y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r L 2 r e s e a r c h e r s . A s f a r a s t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s (one t h r o u g h t w e l v e , s e e m e a s u r e s , c h a p t e r t w o ) w e r e c o n c e r n e d a f e w e m e r g e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t a n d v a r i e d i n t h e i r u s e b y NS a n d NNS c h i l d r e n i n t h e two s i t u a t i o n s . C l a r i f i c a t i o n c h e c k s , c o n f i r m a t i o n c h e c k s , s e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s , " y o u " i n d i r e c t i v e s a n d " w h " q u e s t i o n s w e r e more p r e v a l e n t i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n t h e y v/ere i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n v e r b a l l y o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . S e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s w e r e b y f a r t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e f o r NS a n d NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s , t e a c h e r a n d / o r c h i l d o r g a n i z e d . I n a d d i t i o n , NNS c h i l d r e n u s e d t w i c e a s many s e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s a s NS c h i l d r e n d i d , t h e r e f o r e , g r o u p p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t . The 106 g r e a t u s e o f s e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s b y a l l c h i l d r e n i s p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o a p r a c t i c e ( i n c l u d i n g p l a y w i t h l a n g u a g e ) e f f e c t w h i c h w o u l d p r o v e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t o NNS c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e b u t n o n e t h e l e s s i m p o r t a n t t o f i r s t l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s t i l l l e a r n i n g a n d d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r k n o w l e d g e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e . I t i s a p p a r e n t f r o m t h i s r e s u l t t h a t o r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r u s i n g l a n g u a g e a r e i m p o r t a n t a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s , b o t h NS a n d NNS o f E n g l i s h . The u s e o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n c h e c k s w h i c h p r o v e d m o s t i m p o r t a n t f o r NNS c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t i n g i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s a r e p r o b a b l y a l s o r e l a t e d t o L2 l e a r n i n g : NNS c h i l d r e n w e r e i n f o r m a l l y c h e c k i n g t h e i r own c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e L2 w h i l e i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e i r age p e e r s . A s n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e r e s u l t s , o n l y one f e a t u r e was r e l a t e d t o a g e , " y e s / n o " q u e s t i o n s . NS c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y u s e d more " y e s / n o " q u e s t i o n s t h a n NNS c h i l d r e n . A t f i r s t g l a n c e t h i s a p p e a r s t o be a NS a d j u s t m e n t w h i l e i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h NNS c h i l d r e n ( e . g . i t i s e a s i e r t o a s k q u e s t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e one w o r d a n s w e r s ) , h o w e v e r , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f u s e o f " y e s / n o " q u e s t i o n s b y b o t h NS a n d NNS c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e s w i t h a g e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e q u e s t i o n s may be more i m p o r t a n t t o o l d e r c h i l d r e n , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e d p r a c t i c e a t s o c i a l i z i n g ( e . g . t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n o t h e r ' s f e e l i n g s , w i s h e s ) a n d / o r b e c a u s e t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e u s e d 107 f r e q u e n t l y by the t e a c h e r , t h e r e f o r e l e a r n e d by the c h i l d r e n . The l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y may be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the i n c r e a s e d use o f "yes/no" q u e s t i o n s w i t h age - o l d e r l e a r n e r s a r e more concerned w i t h a d u l t b e h a v i o u r s and adopt the r u l e s and b e h a v i o u r s i m p o r t a n t t o the a d u l t s w i t h whom t h e y i n t e r a c t ( s e e , Garvey, 1977)• The i n c r e a s e d use o f "you" i n d i r e c t i v e s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s by b o t h NS and NNS c h i l d r e n s u g g e s t s t h a t the c h i l d r e n f i n d i t e a s i e r t o use t h i s f e a t u r e d u r i n g spontaneous i n t e r a c t i o n s , perhaps due t o the g r e a t e r amount o f a c t i o n t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t y but not n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h the t e a c h e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s p r o b a b l y much e a s i e r t o d i r e c t y o u r age pee r s i f t h e r e i s c o n t i n u o u s a c t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The i n c r e a s e d use o f " c o n f i r m a t i o n c h e c k s " i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t the c h i l d r e n may be c h e c k i n g one a n o t h e r ' s r e s p o n s e s t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e y a r e bo t h heard and u n d e r s t o o d . T h i s may o r may not be r e l a t e d t o the language d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m , NS v e r s u s NNS, and/or i t may be an adjustment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c h i l d r e n ' s speech i n g e n e r a l ( s e e , C l a r k , 1977)• A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h w i l l c l a r i f y t h i s f i n d i n g . I n sum, the use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s , f r e q u e n t l y used as an assessment o f i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n , i s i n f l u e n c e d by the s i t u a t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . B e f o r e 108 the re s u l t s of studies of discourse features can come to any firm conclusions, they must compare/contrast the use of these features across may d i f f e r e n t situations with d i f f e r e n t groups. For instance, Long (1981:150) found questions were more widely used i n FTD than i n NS-NS in t e r a c t i o n . In t h i s study, questions were: 1) more widely used by the teacher than the children, 2) more widely used by NNS children i n the c h i l d organized situations than i n teacher organized situations, 3) used with some frequency by the NS children i n both teacher and i n c h i l d organized situations, and 4) used s l i g h t l y more by a l l children i n c h i l d organized si t u a t i o n s . S e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s were more important to and more widely used by the NNS children than were questions, on the other hand, questions were f a r more widely used by the teacher than were re p e t i t i o n s , and, the NS children used more questions than re p e t i t i o n s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s . Like Long and Sato (1983:208) who found out that questions d i f f e r e d i n function i n and out of the classroom, questions seemed to serve d i f f e r e n t functions within t h i s classroom. The teacher's questions were aimed at having learners give prespecified answers - b i t s of information (e.g. What colour i s t h i s ? , What's the weather l i k e today?) while the learners (NS and NNS) used questions to understand each others' actions (e.g. Why are you doing that?, What are we gonna do with i t ? ) . 109 L i k e P e c k (1985») i n t h i s s t u d y q u e s t i o n s a n d r e p e t i t i o n s a r e t h e two m o s t v / i d e l y u s e d f e a t u r e s , i n t h i s c a s e b y a l l g r o u p s , t e a c h e r , N S , NNS c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h L I s t u d i e s t h a t s u g g e s t t h a t a n e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d i s f o r c h i l d l e a r n e r s t o p r a c t i c e a n d r e p a i r t h e i r own s p e e c h w h i l e l e a r n i n g l a n g u a g e ( s e e , C l a r k , 1978). S e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s l i k e l y f u n c t i o n e d f o r p r a c t i c e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y ; h o w e v e r , t h e t e a c h e r u s e d s e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y . S e l f - r e p e t i t i o n s w e r e o f t e n u s e d a s a r e s u l t o f a c h i l d ' s n o n - r e s p o n s e t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n s ( e . g . W h a t ' s t o d a y ? W h a t ' s t o d a y ? , L o o k o u t s i d e . L o o k o u t s i d e . ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f o r e g o i n g d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h s i t u a t i o n , some i t e m s a n a l y z e d a s d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s may J 1) n o t be w o r t h s t u d y i n g b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t i m p o r t a n t i n a n y s i t u a t i o n , 2) i m p o r t a n t o n l y a t c e r t a i n t i m e s i n d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d / o r 3) n o t u s e f u l f o r t e a c h i n g , t h e r e f o r e , q u e s t i o n a b l e s o u r c e s o f r e s e a r c h s t u d y . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h i s s t u d y c o r r e c t i o n s w e r e n o t w i d e l y u s e d i n a n y s i t u a t i o n a n d w e r e n o t i m p o r t a n t i n a n y g r o u p . Some s u p p o r t f o r t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c o r r e c t i o n s i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s i s f o u n d i n P e c k ' s w o r k (1985) - c o r r e c t i o n s r a n k e d n e a r t h e b o t t o m o f t h e t h i r t e e n f e a t u r e s t h a t s h e s t u d i e d . The u s e o f " y e s / n o " q u e s t i o n s may i n d i c a t e a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d i n t h a t t h e y i n c r e a s e d i n u s e w i t h age f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . A n d , t h e u s e o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s b y c h i l d r e n b e c a u s e t h e y h e a r t h e i r t e a c h e r 110 u s i n g them, a l t h o u g h c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r work ( s e e , G a i e s , 1983:207/208) and/or the use o f s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s t h a t r e q u i r e the l e a r n e r t o g i v e p r e s p e c i f i e d answers t o q u e s t i o n s a r e poor t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n L2 c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s where i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t c h i l d r e n t a l k as t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s i n c o n v e r s i n g i n the new language. F i n a l l y , t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n must he g i v e n t o the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s by v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n th e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s . The g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n the use o f s p e c i f i c d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s w i t h i n and a c r o s s s t u d i e s depending upon the s p e c i f i c i n t e r a c t a n t s and s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e d s u g g e s t s t h a t : 1) perhaps l a r g e r samples are r e q u i r e d t o determine t o what e x t e n t any o f thes e f e a t u r e s i s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t , 2) perhaps more e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g numerous d i f f e r e n t i n t e r a c t a n t s ' use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s a r e needed t o c l a r i f y e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h , and 3) perhaps i t i s time t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s i n ex a m i n i n g the i n p u t a v a i l a b l e t o L2 l e a r n e r s . I n t h i s s t u d y the s t r u c t u r e o f t e a c h e r and c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d not o n l y the p r o d u c t i o n o f v a r i o u s d i s c o u r s e forms and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s by a l l i n t e r a c t a n t s ( t e a c h e r , NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ) but a l s o the i n p u t a v a i l a b l e f o r comprehension and the n a t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s t h r o u g h which L2 l e a r n i n g o c c u r r e d . I l l C. Input and I n t e r a c t i o n s S i t u a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e - Exophoric/Anaphoric (Spatial/Temporal) Reference The data i n t h i s study helped a r r i v e at some p r e l i m i n a r y answers to the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s concerning exophoric/anaphoric ( s p a t i a l / t e m p o r a l ) r e f e r e n c e . Experiment I sought an answer to the questions To what extent, i f any, does the teacher's exophoric/anaphoric ( s p a t i a l / t e m p o r a l ) r e f e r e n c e vary with the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e (teacher organized, c h i l d organized) of i n t e r a c t i o n s ? The data from t h i s study shows that exophoric/anaphoric ( s p a t i a l / t e m p o r a l ) r e f e r e n c e i s indeed i n f l u e n c e d by s i t u a t i o n f o r t h i s teacher i n t h i s classroom. Much of the teacher's input d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n with the c h i l d r e n i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s was anaphoric - removed from the c h i l d r e n ' s immediate experience i n space and time. Though t h i s teacher used more exophoric items o v e r a l l , the r e l a t i v e frequency of anaphoric items was f a r g r e a t e r i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s . In s i t u a t i o n s t h a t the c h i l d r e n organized themselves, however, t h i s t e acher's use of anaphoric items was g r e a t l y reduced and the input p r o v i d e d d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n was more immediate and concrete. In a d d i t i o n , the frequency of occurrence of a l l items was g r e a t e r i n the teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s . And, p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , the use of exophoric to anaphoric items ( r a t i o ) d i d not v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . 112 T h e s e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t a n u m b e r o f t h i n g s . F i r s t , t h e r e may be a d i f f e r e n c e , i n g e n e r a l , i n t h e s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d a n d o f c h i l d o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w e r e g e n e r a l l y more d i s t a n t f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n i n t i m e a n d s p a c e . A l t h o u g h she u s e d some c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s d u r i n g h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n i n s i t u a t i o n s s h e o r g a n i z e d , t h i s t e a c h e r o f t e n made r e f e r e n c e t o t h i n g s , p e o p l e a n d e v e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s b u t r e m o v e d f r o m t h e i m m e d i a t e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n . The i n p u t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n b y t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s was a s e x o p h o r i c a s a n a p h o r i c . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s v/as more i m m e d i a t e a n d c o n c r e t e - t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n p u t i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d a f a r g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f e x o p h o r i c i t e m s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s p o n t a n e o u s n a t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s , t h e s m a l l g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f movement o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a n d o u t o f t h e g r o u p s a n d t h e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e c o n c r e t e n e s s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s ( t h i n g s a n d p e o p l e ) , t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d t o i n t e r a c t a n d t h e a c t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e - a n d t h e d y n a m i c n a t u r e o f t h e e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r , demands a n d e n c o u r a g e s t h e u s e o f more e x o p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e i t e m s b y t h e t e a c h e r . N e x t , t h e u s e o f b o t h e x o p h o r i c a n d a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e 113 i t e m s seemed t o i n c r e a s e w i t h v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The t e a c h e r was more v e r b a l (see f i g u r e one, p. 56) i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n she was i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h the i n c r e a s e d use o f a n a p h o r i c i t e m s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s may be r e l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e d v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the t e a c h e r i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s ( e . g . Does a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e i n c r e a s e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y w i t h v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? ) , a d d i t i o n a l r e s u l t s suggest t h a t t h i s i s not the c a s e . The r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f e x o p h o r i c t o a n a p h o r i c i t e m s i n t e a c h e r and c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s does not v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h t h i s t e a c h e r uses more e x o p h o r i c i t e m s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s and more a n a p h o r i c i t e m s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , and a l t h o u g h the t e a c h e r i s more v e r b a l i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , the p r o p o r t i o n o f e x o p h o r i c t o a n a p h o r i c i t e m s does not v a r y i n the two s i t u a t i o n s . There a r e two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s 1 1) the t e a c h e r was not a d j u s t i n g the d i s t a n c e o f h e r speech from the i n t e r a c t a n t s t o accommodate i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the l e a r n e r i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s , and/or 2) " t e a c h e r t a l k " i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y the same i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a c r o s s c l a s s r o o m s may h e l p t o c l a r i f y t h i s f i n d i n g . The f a c t t h a t t h i s t e a c h e r d i d not make a d j u s t m e n t s i n the l e n g t h o f h e r u t t e r a n c e s t o accommodate d i f f e r e n c e i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t the forme r i s a p o s s i b i l i t y . 114 Many p r e l i m i n a r y answers to the same r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n were a r r i v e d at i n a d d r e s s i n g i t to the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s : to what extent, i f any, does the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n ' s exophoric/anaphoric ( s p a t i a l / t e m p o r a l ) r e f e r e n c e v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n ( teacher, c h i l d organized)? NS and NNS E n g l i s h c h i l d r e n ' s exophoric/anaphoric ( s p a t i a l / t e m p o r a l ) r e f e r e n c e does indeed vary with s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s study, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t L2 r e s e a r c h e r s should c o n s i d e r aspects of the i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n as important r e s e a r c h f a c t o r s that p l a y a r o l e i n L2 t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . The r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of exophoric to anaphoric items (pronominals and demonstratives) v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n - NS and NNS c h i l d r e n produce more items (both exophoric and anaphoric) i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s than i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned f i n d i n g on v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n - both NS and NNS c h i l d r e n were more v e r b a l i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s , there was, t h e r e f o r e , more o p p o r t u n i t y to produce items. In a d d i t i o n , the spontaneous and dynamic nature of c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s appears to encourage the c h i l d r e n ' s v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the p r o d u c t i o n of r e f e r e n c e items i n g e n e r a l . In g e n e r a l the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s (both NS and NNS) were c o n s i s t e n t l y more exophoric than anaphoric a c r o s s a l l s i t u a t i o n s ( teacher, c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) , i n a l l groups (NS,NNS) 115 f o r a l l ages and sexes. Spatial/temporal reference was concrete, the children's input to one another during t h e i r interaction(s) i n c h i l d organized situations was close to the actual i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n ( s ) . Like the interactions of NS mothers and t h e i r children (see, f o r example, Cross, 1 9 7 7 ) , peer group interactions i n t h i s classroom between native and non-native English speaking children was dynamic - created, modified, replayed and recreated as the action of the group progressed - and the verbal i n t e r a c t i o n was language-in-action, language and content were cl o s e l y t i e d to the i n t e r a c t i o n contexts the learner's organized. Neither group (NS, NNS), nor age, nor sex proved a factor f o r the o v e r a l l use of the exophoric reference items by the children. The children also used more anaphoric items i n c h i l d organized situations than they did i n teacher organized situations (however, verbal p a r t i c i p a t i o n was generally exophoric) probably due to the increased verbal p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l children i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s . Neither age, nor sex, nor group was a factor i n the o v e r a l l use of the anaphoric reference items by the children. There were i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n the use of some of the reference items f o r the exophoric to anaphoric r a t i o , and f o r both the i n d i v i d u a l use of exophoric and of anaphoric demonstratives and pronominals. These are b r i e f l y discussed i n the paragraphs that follow under the headings: exophoric to anaphoric r a t i o , exophoric items, anaphoric items. 116 E x o p h o r i c t o A n a p h o r i c R a t i o ( P r o p o r t i o n ) I n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s f o r t h e e x o p h o r i c t o a n a p h o r i c r a t i o i n v o l v e d s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g s e v e n i t e m s : "my , w e , y o u , y o u r , s h e , t h i s , a n d t h e " . The r e s u l t s f o r e a c h i t e m a r e b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d a s f o l l o w s , a ) "my" M a l e s u s e d "my" more f r e q u e n t l y i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s a n d f e m a l e s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r a t i o v/as g r e a t e r f o r NS c h i l d r e n t h a n i t was f o r NNS c h i l d r e n a n d g r e a t e r f o r m a l e s t h a n f o r f e m a l e s . The u s e o f "my" a l s o seemed t o i n c r e a s e w i t h a g e f o r b o t h m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s a c r o s s a l l g r o u p s ( N S , NNS) a n d s i t u a t i o n s ( t e a c h e r , c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) . T h i s r e s u l t i s e i t h e r due t o m o t i v a t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l i t y ( e . g . t h e b o y s w e r e more m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n a n d / o r more o u t g o i n g ) a n d / o r due t o s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s ( e . g . t h e r e a r i n g o f b o y s v e r s u s g i r l s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s ) . T h o u g h no c o n c l u s i o n s a r e o f f e r e d h e r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e s e x d i f f e r e n c e s , a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s r e c o m m e n d e d . F o r e x a m p l e , i t may be t h a t g i r l s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o be s h y / q u i e t , t h e r e f o r e , p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . B o y s , h o w e v e r , may be e n c o u r a g e d t o be g r e g a r i o u s a n d o u t g o i n g , t h e r e f o r e , f i n d t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g . 117 T h e r e i s a l s o some e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e u s e o f t h e p r o n o m i n a l "my" i n c r e a s e s w i t h a g e , p e r h a p s i n d i c a t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t a l / g r o w t h f a c t o r w h i c h i s l i k e l y due t o p r a c t i c e i n u s i n g "my" o v e r t i m e . b ) "we" The u s e o f "we" was g r e a t e r o v e r a l l f o r NS c h i l d r e n t h a n f o r NNS c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s u s e b y NSs i n c r e a s e d w i t h a g e . T h e r e w e r e no i n s t a n c e s o f a n a p h o r i c i t e m s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s f o r t h i s p r o n o m i n a l may i n d i c a t e t h a t "we" i s more d i f f i c u l t f o r NNS c h i l d r e n t o u s e , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h i s s t u d y t h e u s e o f "we" i n c r e a s e s f o r N S s w i t h a g e . A l s o , t h e u s e o f "we" r e q u i r e s e x p e r i e n c e i n s o c i a l i z i n g w h i c h may be more f a m i l i a r f o r NS c h i l d r e n who a r e o l d e r t h a n f o r NNS c h i l d r e n new t o t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . c ) " y o u " I t e m " y o u " was u s e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e i t i s o f t e n u s e d i n d i r e c t i v e s a n d t h e r e was more a c t i o n i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , more o p p o r t u n i t y t o u s e " y o u " a s a d i r e c t i v e . T h e r e w e r e no a n a p h o r i c i n s t a n c e s o f " y o u " , b u t h e r e a l s o NS u s a g e was g r e a t e r t h a n NNS u s a g e , a n d t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f " y o u " g r e a t e r f o r m a l e s t h a n f o r f e m a l e s . H o w e v e r , w i t h " y o u " t h e u s e b y a l l c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d w i t h a g e . A n d , i n 118 f a c t , o l d e r NNS c h i l d r e n u s e d more i t e m s t h a n o l d e r NS c h i l d r e n . S o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s ( c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s f o r b o y s v e r s u s g i r l s ) a n d / o r g r o w t h i n u s i n g t h e i t e m ( p r a c t i c e , p l a y w i t h l a n g u a g e ) may be f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c a s e . A l s o , t h e f a c t t h a t o l d e r NNS c h i l d r e n u s e d more i t e m s t h a n o l d e r NS c h i l d r e n may i n d i c a t e a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d , p e r h a p s N S s ' s k i l l s a t s o c i a l i z i n g f a c i l i t a t e d t h e u s e o f " y o u " a t a n e a r l i e r p o i n t i n t i m e t h a n NNS c h i l d r e n who a r e new t o t h e l a n g u a g e , t h e c u l t u r e a n d t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . d ) " y o u r " " Y o u r " was n o t u s e d i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s - t h e r e w e r e p r o b a b l y no o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o u s e i t . T h i s i s somewhat s u p p o r t e d b y t h e d a t a i n t h a t t h e u s e o f " y o u r " b y NNS c h i l d r e n was g r e a t e r i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e c a p a b l e o f u s i n g " y o u r " g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o do s o . e ) " s h e " A l l i n s t a n c e s o f t h e p r o n o m i n a l " s h e " w e r e a n a p h o r i c a n d w e r e u s e d b y NS c h i l d r e n i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . The u s e o f " s h e " i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m a p p e a r s t o be more r e l a t e d t o t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a n t o n o n - t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s - t h e c h i l d r e n u s e d " s h e " when t h e t e a c h e r t a u g h t l e s s o n s u s i n g t h e w o r d " s h e " . 119 f ) " t h i s " The o v e r a l l use of " t h i s " was exophoric, there were no anaphoric i n s t a n c e s . " T h i s " o c c u r r e d most f r e q u e n t l y i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , and was used f a r more o f t e n by NNS c h i l d r e n than by NS c h i l d r e n . T h i s r e s u l t i s probably because c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s are concrete, t h e r e f o r e , there are more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to use " t h i s " . " T h i s " i s a l s o e a s i e r f o r NNS c h i l d r e n to comprehend i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s because the t h i n g s , people and events are immediately t a k i n g p l a c e or c l o s e i n time and space. g) "the" Use of "the" v a r i e d with s i t u a t i o n , i t was used more e x o p h o r i c a l l y i n c h i l d organized s i t u a t i o n s which are g e n e r a l l y concrete, and more a n a p h o r i c a l l y i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s which, i n t h i s classroom, were more d i s t a n t from the c h i l d r e n i n time and space. "The" was a l s o used more f r e q u e n t l y by males than by females i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s and f o r a l l groups (NS, NNS). Again, p e r s o n a l i t y , and/or m o t i v a t i o n and/or sex d i f f e r e n c e s may be f a c t o r s here. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed on sex d i f f e r e n c e s and the c h i l d r e n ' s use of exophoric and anaphoric items i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n the classroom. A d d i t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s were found i n a n a l y z i n g only the i n d i v i d u a l exophoric as w e l l as the anaphoric items. A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of these f i n d i n g s f o l l o w s . 120 E x o p h o r i c I t e m s The d a t a f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g e x o p h o r i c i t e m s was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s : " I , my, w e , y o u , y o u r , h e r , t h i s , n o w , a n d t h a t " . The f o l l o w i n g i t e m s w e r e u s e d m o s t o f t e n e x o p h o r i c a l l y a n d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s : " w e , y o u , y o u r , t h i s , now a n d t h a t " . T h e s e i t e m s a r e a l l r e l a t e d t o n e a r n e s s i n t i m e a n d s p a c e , t h e r e f o r e , more l i k e l y t o he u s e d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h a r e more c o n c r e t e , l a n g a u g e i s u s e d i n a c t i o n a n d n o t i n a m a n n e r d i s t a n t f r o m t h e i m m e d i a t e i n t e r a c t i o n . NS c h i l d r e n u s e d " y o u r " a n d " h e r " more o f t e n t h a n NNS c h i l d r e n b e c a u s e t h e s e p r o n o m i n a l s a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o u s e , t h e r e f o r e , e a s i e r f o r NS t o g r a s p t h a n f o r NNS o f E n g l i s h . The NNS c h i l d r e n may u s e t h e s e p r o n o m i n a l s a s f r e q u e n t l y a s NS i n t h e i r L I - t h e r e i s no way o f k n o w i n g i n t h i s s t u d y , h o w e v e r , f u t u r e L 2 s t u d i e s o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s m i g h t c o m p a r e a n d c o n t r a s t c h i l d r e n ' s u s e o f e x o p h o r i c a n d a n a p h o r i c i t e m s i n t h e i r L I w i t h u s e i n t h e L 2 . NNS c h i l d r e n u s e d " m y " , " t h i s " a n d "now" more o f t e n t h a n NS c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h e s e p r o n o m i n a l s a n d d e m o n s t r a t i v e s a r e e a s i e r f o r NNS c h i l d r e n t o u s e , t h e y u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e i m m e d i a t e i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e y do n o t r e f e r t o p a s t o r f u t u r e e v e n t s , o r t o t h i n g s t h a t may be u n f a m i l i a r t o t h e c h i l d r e n b e c a u s e t h e t h i n g s a r e n o t p r e s e n t - i n p u t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e h e r e a n d now i n t e r a c t i o n . 121 A few sex d i f f e r e n c e s were found w i t h the e x o p h o r i c i t e m s . " I " was used more by males t h a n f e m a l e s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s f o r a l l groups. And, "we" and "you" were used more by NS males t h a n by NNS males. The use o f " I " , "we" and "you" seemed t o be r e l a t e d t o the i n t e r a c t i o n s o f males i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m . The male c h i l d r e n i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m seemed g e n e r a l l y more o u t g o i n g t h a n the female c h i l d r e n (though t h e r e were a l s o shy male c h i l d r e n ) . The NS males used "we" and "you" t o i n c l u d e and d i r e c t male NNS i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h them. Oddy enough "my" was used more f r e q u e n t l y by a l l f e m a les i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s may be a d e v e l o p m e n t a l f a c t o r ( e . g . a p r a c t i c e e f f e c t - p l a y w i t h language) and/or i t may be r e l a t e d t o sex d i f f e r e n c e s ( e . g . fe m a l e s mature m o r e / l e s s q u i c k l y t h a n male c h i l d r e n d o ) . "You" was used more f r e q u e n t l y by a l l c h i l d r e n w i t h age, i n d i c a t i n g perhaps t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n use "you" more o f t e n because t h e y a r e more c a p a b l e o f d i r e c t i n g t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a n a re younger c h i l d r e n ( s e e , Garvey, 1977)• No f i r m e x p l a n a t i o n s o r c o n c l u s i o n s can be reached i n t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s because t h e s e were not the f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y . A n a p h o r i c Items Two a n a p h o r i c i t e m s proved s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s f o r re a s o n s d i s c u s s e d belows "she" and " i t " . B o th i t e m s were more f r e q u e n t l y used as a n a p h o r i c i t e m s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a n t h e y were i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . 122 T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n tha t both i tems are used i n s i t u a t i o n s removed from immediate i n t e r a c t i o n and t e a c h e r o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s proved to be more a n a p h o r i c . "She" was a l s o used more by NS c h i l d r e n p r o b a b l y because they were more expe r i enced c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t s i n the E n g l i s h language. In c o n c l u s i o n , the use o f v a r i o u s e x o p h o r i c / a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e i tems by the t e a c h e r and by NS and NNS c h i l d r e n i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e . s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s . The t e a c h e r ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n was more anaphor i c i n s i t u a t i o n s she o r g a n i z e d , but more exophor i c i n s i t u a t i o n s the c h i l d r e n - o r g a n i z e d . O v e r a l l the t e a c h e r used more i tems i n t e a c h e r o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s ( r e c a l l tha t she a l s o used more d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s and was more v e r b a l i n these s i t u a t i o n s ) . The c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s were ma in l y exophor i c a c ro s s a l l groups (NS/NNS), i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s ( t e a c h e r / c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) . And, the c h i l d r e n ' s use o f both exophor i c and anaphor i c i tems was g r e a t e r i n c h i l d o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s over t e a c h e r o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s (as was the use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s and v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , ment ioned p r e v i o u s l y ) . Some v a r i a t i o n s w i t h group, s i t u a t i o n , sex and age were found f o r the use of s p e c i f i c exophor i c and anaphor i c i t ems . F i n a l l y , the f a c t tha t (1) the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s were ma in l y contex t dependent, and (2) the t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s were ma in l y context reduced but became more context bound i n spontaneous i n t e r a c t i o n s i n c h i l d o r gan i zed s i t u a t i o n s , has c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h and f o r e d u c a t i o n ( d i s c u s s e d i n p a r t s 4.1 and 4 .2, t h i s r e p o r t ) . 123 3 . 4 Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s The p r e s e n t s t u d y e x a m i n e d o u t p u t ( v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) , a n d i n p u t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n ( d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s , s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ) i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n E x p e r i m e n t I , t h e NS t e a c h e r ' s o u t p u t , i n p u t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n was e x a m i n e d i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d a n d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n E x p e r i m e n t I I , o u t p u t , i n p u t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d i n E n g l i s h N S , NNS c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s b o t h i n t e a c h e r a n d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . The d a t a o n w h i c h t h e s t u d y i s b a s e d c o n s i s t e d o f v i d e o t a p e d c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n s . M e a s u r e s o f v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s a n d e x o p h o r i c / a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e w e r e u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a f o r o u t p u t , i n p u t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n i n b o t h t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d a n d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t b o t h ( N S ) t e a c h e r a n d l e a r n e r ( N S , NNS) o u t p u t o r v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n may v a r y w i t h s i t u a t i o n . I n t h i s c l a s s r o o m t h e t e a c h e r was f a r more v e r b a l i n s i t u a t i o n s she o r g a n i z e d a n d t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e more v e r b a l i n s i t u a t i o n s t h e y t h e m s e l v e s o r g a n i z e d . F r o m t h e s e r e s u l t s i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r L2 r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e l a t e o u t p u t t o i n p u t i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . J u s t a s t h e t e a c h e r was more v e r b a l i n t e a c h e r 124 o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , she a l s o used more d i s c o u r s e i t e m s and more r e f e r e n c e i t e m s i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s t h a n she d i d w h i l e s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n t e r a c t i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s o r g a n i z e d . The c h i l d r e n on the o t h e r hand used more d i s c o u r s e i t e m s amd more r e f e r e n c e i t e m s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s when t h e y were more v e r b a l . To examine o u t p u t , i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n i n the v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r i s e i n c l a s s r o o m s c o u l d y i e l d m i s l e a d i n g r e s u l t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t o examine the n o n - n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y o n l y i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t o a s s e s s t h e i r v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n would show t h a t t h e y were not s p e a k i n g as s u c c e s s f u l l y i n E n g l i s h as t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the peer group s u g g e s t . To c o n s i d e r the c h i l d r e n ' s use o f d i s c o u r s e and r e f e r e n c e i t e m s o n l y i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i g n o r i n g c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s would r e v e a l t h a t the c h i l d r e n were u s i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y f ewer i t e m s t h a n i s i n d i c a t e d by e x a m i n i n g the c h i l d r e n ' s own spontaneous i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h each o t h e r . Input and i n t e r a c t i o n , the use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s a l s o v a r i e d w i t h s i t u a t i o n . The t e a c h e r used more i t e m s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s ; however, the same f e a t u r e s were used no m a t t e r what the s i t u a t i o n she was i n t e r a c t i n g i n ( t e a c h e r o r c h i l d o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t c e r t a i n i n t e r a c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n may be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f e i t h e r t e a c h e r or a d u l t t a l k i n g e n e r a l . I t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f d i s c o u r s e i t e m s u s e d may i n c r e a s e w i t h v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e may be a n e e d f o r L2 r e s e a r c h e r s t o i n v e s t i g a t e d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i n L2 l e a r n e r ' s a n d t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h l a r g e r s a m p l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e may be a n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h e r s t o s t o p s t u d y i n g some d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s a s i t b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y a r e r a r e l y u s e d i n a n y s i t u a t i o n . Some f e a t u r e s i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e n o t i m p o r t a n t t o t h e t e a c h e r a n d / o r t o t h e l e a r n e r s . O t h e r s w e r e more i m p o r t a n t t o t h e t e a c h e r t h a n t h e l e a r n e r s . The u s e o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s b y t h e NS a n d NNS c h i l d r e n t o o v a r i e d w i t h s i t u a t i o n . The c h i l d r e n u s e d more i t e m s i n s i t u a t i o n s t h e y t h e m s e l v e s o r g a n i z e d t h a n t h e y u s e d i n s i t u a t i o n s t h e t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d , a n d i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e t e a c h e r t h e c h i l d r e n a l s o u s e d more f e a t u r e s i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . W i t h t h e c h i l d r e n t h e r e was a s i m i l a r i n c r e a s e i n t h e u s e o f d i s c o u r s e i t e m s w i t h v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A n d , some i t e m s w e r e more i m p o r t a n t t o e i t h e r NS a n d / o r NNS c h i l d r e n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t n a t i v e a n d n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h v a r y i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t t h e y p l a c e o n v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s due t o l a n g u a g e a n d o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y . Some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t s e x d i f f e r e n c e s may be a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r i n c o n d u c t i n g L2 r e s e a r c h i n c l a s s r o o m s was a l s o i n d i c a t e d b y v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e u s e o f f e a t u r e s by male and female c h i l d r e n a c r o s s groups (NS and NNS), as w e l l as w i t h i n groups (NS, NNS). I n a d d i t i o n , the t e a c h e r ' s f r e q u e n t use o f f e a t u r e s t h a t r e q u i r e d o f the l e a r n e r s p r e s p e c i f i e d answers t o q u e s t i o n s , and/or i n s i n c e r e r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n may have l i m i t e d b o t h the NS and NNS c h i l d r e n ' s use o f f e a t u r e s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n i n terms of the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r e x o p h o r i c / a n a p h o r i c ( s p a t i a l / t e m p o r a l ) r e f e r e n c e i t e m s a l s o v a r i e d w i t h s i t u a t i o n . B oth NS and NNS c h i l d r e n were f a r more c o n c r e t e i n t h e i r use o f r e f e r e n c e i t e m s , whereas the t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h them o f t e n assumed t h a t the c h i l d r e n had background knowledge o f the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was conveyed and/or t h a t the c h i l d r e n were f a m i l i a r enough w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s p r e s e n t e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e f e r t o l i n g u i s t i c i t e m s i n the p r e c e d i n g o r f o l l o w i n g t e x t o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , most c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s were e x t r e m e l y a c t i v e , c o n s i s t e d o f f l e x i b l e s m a l l groups, and were dynamic i n t h a t the a c t i o n changed as the a c t i v i t y p r o g r e s s e d o r r e g r e s s e d . The language used by the c h i l d r e n , b o t h NS and NNS was l a n g u a g e - i n - a c t i o n , l i n g u i s t i c i t e m s were used t o r e f e r t o t h i n g s , people and e v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e o r v e r y c l o s e i n time and space t o the immediate a c t i o n . The t e a c h e r g e n e r a l l y o r g a n i z e d more s e d e n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s w i t h few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c t i o n and 127 presented, the c h i l d r e n w i t h l i n g u i s t i c i t e m s i n absence o f the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s i n wh i c h t h e y a r e used, assuming t h a t the c h i l d r e n would comprehend t h e s e i t e m s and be a b l e t o r e f e r t o them. The t e a c h e r o f t e n used v i s u a l a i d s , such a s , p i c t u r e s , c h a r t s and r e a l i a ; however, even when t h e s e m a t e r i a l s were p r e s e n t , the c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the c h i l d r e n was o f t e n removed from the immediate e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e a i d s and was more d i s t a n t i n time and space t h a n the c h i l d r e n ' s own spontaneous i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h m a t e r i a l s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n the s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s and the i n t e r a c t i o n s o f the c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s a f f e c t e d the n a t u r e o f the i n p u t p r o v i d e d f o r L2 l e a r n e r s and must be c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t r e s e a r c h v a r i a b l e i n s t u d y i n g L2 i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n i n c l a s s r o o m s . These c h i l d r e n chose t o i n t e r a c t i n c o n c r e t e , a c t i o n o r i e n t e d c o n t e x t s which p r o v i d e d them w i t h m e a n i n g f u l and co m p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t (as i n d i c a t e d by the l e a r n e r s t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h t h e i r i n c r e a s e d v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the L2 i n the peer group and i n c r e a s e d use o f d i s c o u r s e and r e f e r e n c e i t e m s ) . M e a n i n g f u l and com p r e h e n s i b l e i n p u t f o r the c h i l d r e n was; however, not the same as the i n p u t p r o v i d e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r . F o r the t e a c h e r m e a n i n g f u l i n p u t was o f t e n d i s t a n t from the l e a r n e r s and r e q u i r e d o f them an U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e o p l e , t h i n g s and e v e n t s t h a t were o f t e n o n l y p r e s e n t i n the language o f the t e a c h e r . Whether o r not the NNS c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t o o d them i s unknown, as i s t h e i r v a l u e f o r h e l p i n g young c h i l d r e n (whose i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e m a i n l y e x o p h o r i c ) l e a r n a second language. 128 Some v a r i a t i o n s were found i n t h e use o f i n d i v i d u a l e x o p h o r i c and a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e i t e m s b o t h a c r o s s and w i t h i n groups (NS, NNS) f o r age and sex. Some ite m s were used more f r e q u e n t l y by males t h a n f e m a l e s , and/or by fe m a l e s t h a n by males. Some i t e m s were used more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h age w i t h i n one sex, o r a c r o s s the s e x e s . These v a r i a t i o n s suggest t h a t the use o f some i t e m s may f o l l o w t r e n d s i n development u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age ( e . g . p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l development, e t c . ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f female c h i l d r e n mature more q u i c k l y t h a n male c h i l d r e n do, as i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d , some sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the use o f f e a t u r e s , such a s , the i n c l u s i v e "we" may be the r e s u l t o f t h i s e a r l i e r m a t u r i t y . L2 r e s e a r c h needs t o g i v e g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o sex and age v a r i a t i o n s i n s t u d y i n g o u t p u t , i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n . The r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s s t u d y need t o be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h some c a u t i o n ; t h e r e a r e a number o f l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . F i r s t , c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e and the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the i n t e r a c t i o n ( s ) may v a r y g r e a t l y from one s i t u a t i o n t o a n o t h e r , p r o d u c i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d a t a o b t a i n e d . F o r example, the t r a i n i n g / e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h e r s v a r i e s , the number o f L I and L2 l e a r n e r s i n c l a s s e s v a r i e s , the background knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e o f the language l e a r n e r s i n u s i n g a second language v a r i e s , as does t h e i r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l background l i f e e x p e r i e n c e ( s ) . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d here s h o u l d be viewed as e x p l o r a t o r y and need t o be v a l i d a t e d by a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s . 129 S e c o n d , e a c h s a m p l e i n t h i s s t u d y was l i m i t e d t o t h e f i r s t c o n s e c u t i v e one h u n d r e d u t t e r a n c e s o f e a c h t a p e d s e s s i o n . The d a t a may c h a n g e i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s i f s h o r t e r / l o n g e r s e g m e n t s a r e u s e d f o r e a c h s a m p l e . F o r e x a m p l e , L o n g (1981:154) l i m i t e d h i s s a m p l e t o f i v e m i n u t e s a n d r e p o r t s t h a t m o s t i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n NSs a n d s t u d e n t s o f l i m i t e d E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y w e r e s h o r t e r t h a n f i v e m i n u t e s . T h i s was n o t t h e c a s e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e l i m i t e d s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h , many N S , NNS i n t e r a c t i o n s l a s t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h o f t i m e (much l o n g e r t h a n f i v e m i n u t e s ) p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . The s p o n t a n e o u s , d y n a m i c n a t u r e o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s may a c c o u n t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e ( i . e . I s i t e a s i e r t o c a r r y o n a c o n v e r s a t i o n i f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s c o n c r e t e a n d t h e c o n t e x t f o r u s i n g l a n g u a g e i s c r e a t e d , a n d / o r a l t e r e d a s t h e t a l k p r o g r e s s e s ? ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t NS t e a c h e r a n d NNS c h i l d r e n ' s o u t p u t , i n p u t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i e s w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n u n d e r s t u d y a n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d a t a may e x i s t i f s i t u a t i o n s a r e o r g a n i z e d b y t h e t e a c h e r a n d / o r t h e c h i l d r e n . The s i t u a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f N S / N N S c h i l d o r g a n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n s , i t s s p o n t a n e i t y a n d c o n c r e t e n e s s may . n a t u r a l l y l e n d i t s e l f t o c o n v e r s a t i o n , w h e r e a s t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n may i n d i r e c t l y d i s c o u r a g e c o n v e r s a t i o n 130 due t o the t e a c h e r ' s d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n , and because o f h e r i n f l e x i b i l i t y and f a i l u r e t o a d j u s t what she i s d o i n g t o accommodate the l e a r n e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , c e r t a i n d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i m p o r t a n t t o the t e a c h e r i n t h a t t h e y are used r e g u l a r l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y a c r o s s s i t u a t i o n s a r e not i m p o r t a n t t o the c h i l d r e n i n NS, NNS c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n - some d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s used by t e a c h e r s may not a s s i s t the L2 l e a r n e r . There i s a l s o some r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t the rank o r d e r o f use o f some d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s may be s i m i l a r a c r o s s L2 s t u d i e s . The o r d e r o f importance o f v a r i o u s d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m , f o r i n s t a n c e , c l o s e l y resembled t h a t r e p o r t e d by Long (1981) and Peck (1985). As f a r as e x o p h o r i c and a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e i s concerned, the NS and NNS c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y used more e x o p h o r i c i t e m s i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s - language was used i n a c t i o n . F o r c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age, s m a l l group, dynamic, c o n c r e t e i n t e r a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r l e a r n i n g and u s i n g a second language as i n d i c a t e d by the c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s . Even the c o n v e r s a t i o n s between the NS, NNS c h i l d r e n and the t e a c h e r when o r g a n i z e d by the c h i l d r e n were n e a r e r t o the a c t i o n i n time and space. The dynamic, s m a l l group n a t u r e o f c h i l d o r g a n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n a l s o encourages c o n v e r s a t i o n . Both the NS and the NNS c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y were f a r more v e r b a l i n the s i t u a t i o n s t h e y t h e m s e l v e s o r g a n i z e d , t h e y a l s o produced 131 more r e f e r e n c e and d i s c o u r s e i t e m s . Many L2 r e s e a r c h e r s (s e e , Long, 1981 o r Krashen and T e r r e l l , 1983) have suggested t h a t L2 l e a r n e r s l e a r n b e s t i n s m a l l groups and i n s i t u a t i o n s where language i s c l o s e l y t i e d t o a c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e easy t o comprehend. The b e s t s i t u a t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g an L2 are s a i d t o m i r r o r NS mother/NS c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h e r s o f t e n suggest t h a t t h i s i s the cas e , few s t u d i e s have been conducted w i t h L2 l e a r n e r s t o v a l i d a t e t h i s c l a i m . The i n t e r a c t i o n s o f the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y o f f e r some v a l i d i t y t o t h i s c l a i m - c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s were v e r y much l i k e t h o s e o f n a t i v e s p e a k i n g mothers and c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the c h i l d ' s f i r s t language. The two d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s s t u d i e d here ( t e a c h e r v e r s u s c h i l d o r g a n i z e d ) p r o v i d e d two v e r y d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s f o r the c h i l d L2 l e a r n e r . The c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m c e r t a i n l y appeared t o be more u s e f u l e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a i d i n g L2 l e a r n e r s t o l e a r n E n g l i s h as t h e i r second language, t h a n were tho s e second language l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the t e a c h e r i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m - g i v e n the recommendation of L2 r e s e a r c h e r s f o r s m a l l group, c o n c r e t e and dynamic c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n . I t i s hoped t h a t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be g i v e n t o a n a l y s i s o f the i n t e r a c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s p r o v i d e d f o r L2 l e a r n e r s i n v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g and n o n - t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t c o n c l u s i o n s about L2 l e a r n e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n the L2 and b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g o u t p u t , i n p u t and i n t e r a c t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m . 132 CHAPTER FOUR IMPLICATIONS The present study suggests a number of i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r improving classroom p r a c t i c e w i t h young second language l e a r n e r s and f o r conducting r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d of second language a c q u i s i t i o n . These i m p l i c a t i o n s are presented i n the p a r t s that f o l l o w with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on young c h i l d r e n ' s (NS, NNS) i n t e r a c t i o n s i n classrooms. 4.1 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Educat i o n The main g o a l f o r ESL teachers i s to get NNS c h i l d r e n to use the second language so that the c h i l d r e n w i l l develop competence i n communicating i n a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , r a n g i n g from i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n to academic and/or other p u r s u i t s . With young c h i l d r e n t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important because v e r b a l experiences with language ( t h i n k i n g , doing, t a l k i n g communicating) form the fo u n d a t i o n f o r l a t e r l i t e r a c y . As i n d i c a t e d by the r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s study there i s a gap between what i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n s i t u a t i o n s o rganized by the teacher and i n those s i t u a t i o n s organized by the c h i l d r e n themselves. To narrow t h i s gap and make the l e a r n i n g of a second language, an e a s i e r task f o r young c h i l d r e n , the f o l l o w i n g suggestions f o r improving classroom p r a c t i c e are o f f e r e d : 1) Teacher output or v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n should be reduced i n teacher organized s i t u a t i o n s so that the c h i l d r e n are 133 encouraged to par t i c ipa te ve rba l l y . In th i s study the teacher t o t a l l y dominated the conversation i n teacher organized s i tuat ions leav ing l i t t l e opportunity fo r the ch i ld ren to pa r t i c ipa te ve rba l l y . 2) The length and number of teacher utterances should be adjusted to accommodate: a) a range of s i tuat ions ranging from informal, interpersona l i n te rac t i on through to group i n te rac t i on i n more formal ly organized s i tua t ions , and b) a range of learner a b i l i t i e s i n the second language from beginners, through intermediate, to more advanced second language learners . In th i s study, few adjustments were made to accommodate ESL ch i ld ren e i ther i n con t ro l l i n g length of teacher utterances, or i n recogn i t ion that learners have d i f f e ren t a b i l i t i e s and that some s i tuat ions require more/less formal conversations. This teacher ' s intent ions may have been sound, but ana lys i s of the data i n th i s study revealed that adjustments were not being made to accommodate e i ther learner or s i t ua t i on . 3) The use of discourse features by teachers should be a l t e red : a) so that d i sp lay questions, questions requ i r ing learners to give prespec i f ied answers and/or ins incere requests f o r information are reduced and replaced with questions i n s i tuat ions that encourage problem solv ing and hypothesizing (e.g. rather than: What colour i s th i s ? , questions such as What i s the best way to . . . ?, or How would you . . .?, or Can anyone guess . . . .?, etc . ) b) so that f e a t u r e s s u c h a s c o r r e c t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t i m p o r t a n t t o t e a c h e r s o r l e a r n e r s i n a n y s i t u a t i o n s a r e n o t e m p h a s i z e d , a n d c ) so t h a t t h e u s e o f f e a t u r e s t o a c q u i r e a n d h o l d a t t e n t i o n , a n d / o r t o m a i n t a i n i n t e r a c t i o n a r e r e d u c e d a n d / o r r e p l a c e d b y n o n - l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s t h a t r e d u c e t h e n e e d f o r t h e s e f e a t u r e s , n a m e l y A C T I O N . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e t e a c h e r u s e d f e w q u e s t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e d t h e l e a r n e r s t o p r o v i d e t h e i r own i d e a s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s s h e h a d o r g a n i z e d . O f t e n much o f t h e t e a c h i n g t i m e was s p e n t t r y i n g t o m a i n t a i n a n d c o n t r o l t h e l e a r n e r s a t t e n t i o n , o r t r y i n g t o i n v o l v e t h e l e a r n e r s i n t h e m a t e r i a l she h a d s c h e d u l e d t o be t a u g h t w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d , r a t h e r t h a n p i c k i n g up o n l e a r n e r i n t e r e s t s a n d u s i n g a p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h t o a c t i v i t i e s . 4) T e a c h e r s s h o u l d c o n t r o l t h e i r t a l k t o make t h e c o n t e x t s o f v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s c l e a r t o y o u n g s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s b y : a ) u s i n g m a i n l y e x o p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e i t e m s , i t e m s c l o s e t o t h e a c t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e i n t i m e a n d s p a c e , c o n c r e t e a n d i m m e d i a t e , b ) r e d u c i n g t h e q u a n t i t y o f a n a p h o r i c i t e m s u s e d i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , a n d u s i n g a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e o n l y when i t i s v e r y o b v i o u s t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n h a v e t h e b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e n e e d e d t o g r a s p t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . The c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e m a i n l y e x o p h o r i c i n d i c a t i n g 135 t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s p r e f e r t o i n t e r a c t i n h e r e a n d now c o n t e x t s , c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r w h i l e t h e y a r e i n v o l v e d i n a c t i o n . A l a r g e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e a n a p h o r i c i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e y w e r e more d i s t a n t f r o m t h e i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n i n t i m e a n d s p a c e a n d i t was d i f f i c u l t t o know how much o r how l i t t l e c o n t e n t t h e L2 l e a r n e r s w e r e a b l e t o g r a s p a s a r e s u l t . 5) T e a c h e r s s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e p u p i l i n v o l v e m e n t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a t i n v o l v e t h e t e a c h e r a n d t h e l e a r n e r s i n f l e x i b l e , s m a l l g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n a s w e l l a s w h o l e c l a s s i n t e r a c t i o n . One o f t h e u n i q u e a s p e c t s o f t h e c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h e n a t u r e o f g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n . The c h i l d r e n ' s g r o u p s w e r e s m a l l , h o w e v e r , i n d i v i d u a l s moved i n a n d o u t o f t h e s e s m a l l g r o u p s a t w i l l c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e a c t i v i t y a s t h e a c t i o n p r o g r e s s e d . T e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m v/ere m a i n l y w h o l e c l a s s s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n s a t , l i s t e n e d a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d w h e n c o n v e n i e n t t o t h e t e a c h e r . When t h e o c c a s i o n a l s m a l l g r o u p s i t u a t i o n was p l a n n e d i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m t h e w h o l e c l a s s was p l a c e d i n s m a l l g r o u p s g i v i n g t h e t e a c h e r l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t y w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . The c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s i n t h i s c l a s s , ( p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r E S L c h i l d r e n ) n e e d e d t o be r e o r g a n i z e d s o t h a t t h e r e was t i m e t o f o c u s o n one s m a l l g r o u p . 6) T e a c h e r s s h o u l d p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c r e a t i n g , m o d i f y i n g a n d r e c r e a t i n g t h e i r own c o n t e x t s f o r l e a r n i n g a s a c t i v i t i e s p r o g r e s s a n d d e v e l o p i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s . Many " t e a c h a b l e m o m e n t s " came a n d w e n t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m u n d e r s t u d y h e r e i n f a v o u r o f p r e p l a n n e d l e s s o n s . 7) T e a c h e r s c a n i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n b y k e e p i n g t h e l a n g u a g e a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g k e y v i s u a l s a n d / o r r e a l i a c l o s e t o t h e i m m e d i a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n a n d t h e m a t e r i a l s . I n t h e c l a s s r o o m s t u d i e d i n t h i s r e p o r t v i s u a l a i d s a n d c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s w e r e o f t e n u s e d , h o w e v e r , t h e t e a c h e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n a r o u n d t h e s e m a t e r i a l s o f t e n r a n g e d f a r a f i e l d . A s a r e s u l t t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s f o r b r i d g i n g t h e g a p b e t w e e n l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s a n d t h e p r e s e n t c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n was l i m i t e d . 4.2 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r R e s e a r c h I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f o r e g o i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e f o r L2 l e a r n e r s , t h i s s t u d y a l s o h a s a n u m b e r o f i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . Some s u g g e s t i o n s a r i s i n g o u t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h f o r i m p r o v i n g s e c o n d l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n a n d i n g e n e r a l a r e s 137 1) t h e s t u d y o f i n p u t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n i n v o l v e s f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h e a n a l y s i s o f n e g o t i a t i n g d e v i c e s a n d o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . M e a s u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n a r e p r e s e n t l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e s t u d y o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s , y e t , t h e r e a r e o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t . F o r e x a m p l e , m e a s u r e s o f l a n g u a g e - i n - a c t i o n , s u c h a s t h o s e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s t u d y o f i n p u t . A n d t h e u s e o f s p e c i f i c d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s b y e i t h e r t h e t e a c h e r o r l e a r n e r s may v a r y f r o m one s i t u a t i o n t o a n o t h e r a s was t h e c a s e i n t h i s s t u d y . 2) t h e r e may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e d u r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n p u t p r o v i d e d d u r i n g t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . R e s e a r c h e r s mus t move b e y o n d t h e s t u d y o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s t o s t a r t e x a m i n i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s a n d t a s k s i n w h i c h L2 l e a r n e r s a r e e n g a g e d d u r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n v e y e d t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n how i t was t r a n s m i t t e d a s i n p u t i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . T h e r e i s a l s o some e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n ' s u s e o f some i t e m s may m i r r o r t h o s e o f t h e t e a c h e r , f o r s o c i a l r e a s o n s a n d / o r p e r h a p s b e c a u s e c h i l d r e n l e a r n w h a t t h e y a r e t a u g h t . 3) s t u d i e s o f i n p u t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n may be more m e a n i n g f u l i f t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o o u t p u t o r v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r a n d t h e l e a r n e r s was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h i s o u t p u t ( t h e y i n c r e a s e d / d e c r e a s e d w i t h v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) . k) T e s t s o f l e a r n e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d a c r o s s a r a n g e o f s i t u a t i o n s b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t a s s e s s m e n t s o f l e a r n e r ' s a b i l i t i e s a n d s k i l l s i n t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . The E S L c h i l d r e n ' s p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h i n t h i s s t u d y ( a s w e l l a s NS E n g l i s h ) v a r i e d w i t h s i t u a t i o n . I f E S L c h i l d r e n w e r e a s s e s s e d f o r t h e i r l e v e l o f p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h w i t h i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s a n d n o t w i t h i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d w o u l d i n a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e p r o f i c i e n c y o f t h e s e l e a r n e r s i n E n g l i s h . 5) The u s e o f some r e f e r e n c e i t e m s a n d d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s i n t h i s s t u d y v a r i e d w i t h age a n d c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s g r o w t h . S t u d i e s w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n s h o u l d c o n s i d e r age a s a f a c t o r i n a s s e s s i n g t h e u s e o f s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s a n d r e f e r e n c e i t e m s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e i n c r e a s e d u s e o f d i r e c t i v e s a n d i n c l u s i v e s w i t h age f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n may be r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s i n s o c i a l i z i n g . 6) S o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s ( s u c h a s s e x d i f f e r e n c e s , c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s ) may i n f l u e n c e t h e o u t p u t o r v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s w e l l a s t h e i n p u t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n o f m a l e s a n d / o r f e m a l e s i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . G r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the s e f a c t o r s i n c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h i n L2 c l a s s r o o m s . I n t h i s s t u d y a number o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s were observed t h a t c o u l d have been r e l a t e d t o the r e a r i n g o f males v e r s u s f e m a l e s i n v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s , however, i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t o r was beyond the scope o f the s t u d y . L2 r e s e a r c h e r s who r e p o r t on sex d i f f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be c a r e f u l i n making comparisons between males and fem a l e s w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r n a t i v e c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s . 7) G i v e n the i n c r e a s e d v e r b a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f L2 l e a r n e r s (and L I l e a r n e r s ) i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y , and g i v e n t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n the use o f d i s c o u r s e f e a t u r e s and r e f e r e n c e i t e m s was a l s o r e c o r d e d i n c h i l d o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s o v er t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s need t o be asked o f ESL cl a s s r o o m s and r e s e a r c h programs f o r young c h i l d r e n : a) Does L2 i n s t r u c t i o n make a d i f f e r e n c e i n a s s i s t i n g L2 l e a r n e r s t o l e a r n the second language o r i s i t peer group i n t e r a c t i o n i n and around the c l a s s r o o m / s c h o o l t h a t makes the d i f f e r e n c e ? , b) How does the c u r r i c u l u m make a d i f f e r e n c e i f the c h i l d r e n a re p a r t i c i p a t i n g more v e r b a l l y i n t h e i r p eer group, t h e r e f o r e , a c q u i r i n g the v e r b a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y need w i t h language ( p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r l a t e r l i t e r a c y ) from t h e i r peers and not from i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n s ? , and c) Do t e a c h e r s , the main i n p u t p r o v i d e r s i n the c l a s s r o o m , m o d i f y and a d j u s t 140 t h e i r use o f language, t h e i r communicative s t r a t e g i e s , and the r a n g e / t y p e o f a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d t o NNS c h i l d r e n t o accommodate the l e a r n e r s , o r a r e the c h i l d r e n making the ad j u s t m e n t s t o accommodate the t e a c h e r ? The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l t h a t t h i s t e a c h e r made few a d j u s t m e n t s t o accommodate the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m . The t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s , a c t i v i t i e s and g r o u p i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed seemed l e s s t h a n s a t i s f a c t o r y because the NNS c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d more o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e v e r b a l l y and n o n - v e r b a l l y i n t h e i r p eer group ( a l s o the NS c h i l d r e n ) and i n a way b e s t f a c i l i t a t e s l e a r n i n g f o r young c h i l d r e n ( e . g . e x p e r i e n t i a l / c o n c r e t e / s m a l l f l e x i b l e group a c t i v i t y / o r a l language p r a c t i c e , e t c . ) . D i d the i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m make a d i f f e r e n c e i n h e l p i n g young NNS c h i l d r e n l e a r n a second language? I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y how language t e a c h i n g i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m made a d i f f e r e n c e , beyond t e a c h i n g the c h i l d r e n t o e x e r c i s e p a t i e n c e , t o s i t i n a c t i v e l y f o r extended p e r i o d s o f t i m e , t o f o r e g o c h a n g i n g the s u b j e c t by p r o v i d i n g i n p u t o f i n t e r e s t t o o n e s e l f , t o g i v e p r e s p e c i f i e d answers t o q u e s t i o n s when t h e y a re asked o f you, and t o e i t h e r work a l o n e o r t o l e a r n t o s o c i a l i z e i n a l a r g e group (whole c l a s s ) s i t u a t i o n . I n c o n c l u s i o n , the w r i t e r does not i n t e n d t o s t a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e u n n e c e s s a r y i n c l a s s r o o m s where c h i l d r e n a r e l e a r n i n g an L2 because the NNS c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y were more v e r b a l , r e c e i v e d more i n p u t and used more d i s c o u r s e and r e f e r e n c e i t e m s i n t h e i r p eer group. R a t h e r i t i s hoped t h a t the u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( s ) d e v e l o p e d w i l l h e l p t o improve the q u a l i t y o f L2 r e s e a r c h and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g . 141 REFERENCES Brulhart, M. 1985. Foreigner Talk i n the ESL Classroom: Interactional Adjustments to Adult Students at Two Language Proficiency Levels. Unpublished M.A. thesis. University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Bruner, J . 1983. Child's Talk. Learning to Use Language. Oxford University Press. C a r r e l l , P. 1982. Cohesion i s not coherence. TESOL Q. 16:4. 479-487. Cazden, C , John, V. and Hymes, D. 1972. Functions of Language i n the Classroom. New York: Teacher's College Press. Cazden, C. 1974. Play with Language and Metalinguistic Awareness: One Dimension of Language Experience. Urban Review. 7 *1. 28-39. Chaudron, C. 1979• Complexity of teacher speech and vocabulary explanation/elaboration. On TESOL ' 79 . Boston. Chaudron, C. 1983. Foreigner t a l k i n the classroom - an aid to learning? In Seliger, H. and Long, M. (eds.) Classroom Language Acq u i s i t i o n and Use: New Perspectives. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. Chesterfield, R. and Chavez, R., et a l . 1982. Peer Interaction, Language Proficiency and Language Preference i n B i l i n g u a l Preschool Classrooms. Hispanic Journal of Behavioural Sciences. 4:4. 467-486. Chesterfield, R., Chavez, R., et a l . 1983. The Influence of Teachers and Peers on Second Language Acquisition i n B i l i n g u a l Preschool Programs. TESOL Q. 17*3. 401-420. Clark, E. 1977• Awareness of Language: Some Evidence From What Children Say and Do. In S i n c l a i r , A. et a l . (eds.). The Child's Conception of Language. B e r l i n : Springer-Verlag. Cooper, C , Marquis, A. and Ayers-Lopez, S. 1982. Peer learning i n the classroom: tr a c i n g developmental patterns and consequences of children's spontaneous interactions. In Wilkinson, L. (ed.). Communicating i n the Classroom. New York: Academic Press. 69-83. 142 Cummins, J. 1979• Cognitive/academic language proficiency, l i n g u i s t i c interdependence, the optimal age question and some other matters. Working Papers i n Bilingualism. 19. 197-205. TorontozOISE. Cummins, J. 1980. Entry and exit f a l l a c y i n b i l i n g u a l education. NABE Journal. 4i3. 25-59. Cummins, J. I98O. The cross l i n g u i s t i c dimensions of language proficiencyt Implications for b i l i n g u a l education and the optimal age issue. TESOL Q. 14. I75-I87. Cummins, J. 1983' Language proficiency and academic achievement. In O i l e r , J. (ed). Issues i n Language Testing Research. Rowley, Mass.t Newbury House. 108. Cross, E. 1977* Motherese!its association with rate of syntactic a c q u i s i t i o n i n young children. In Waterson, N. and Snow, C. (eds.). The Development of Communication. London: Wiley and Sons. Donaldson, M. 1978. Children's Minds. London: Fontana (Flamingo E d i t i o n ) . Ferguson, C. and Snow, C. (eds.). 1977. Talking to Children: Language Input and A c q u i s i t i o n . London: Cambridge University Press. Fillmore, L. W. 1976. The second time around: cognitive and s o c i a l strategies i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n . Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n . Stanford University. Fillmore, L. W. I98O. Learning a second language: Chinese children i n the American classroom. In Alates, J . (ed.) Current Issues i n B i l i n g u a l Education. Washington: Georgetown University Press. 309-325. Fillmore, L. W. 1982. Language minority students and school p a r t i c i p a t i o n : What kind of English i s needed? Journal of Education. (Boston). 164:2. 143-156. Fillmore, L. W. 1983« Instru c t i o n a l language as l i n g u i s t i c input: second language learning i n the classroom. In Wilkinson, L. (ed.) Communicating i n the Classroom. New York: Academic Press. Foster, S. 1982. Discourse Topic and Children's Emerging A b i l i t y to Hande I t . Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Conference on Language and L i n g u i s t i c s . Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a . 597-606. 143 Freed, B. 1980. Talking to foreigners versus t a l k i n g to childreni s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences. In Krashen, S. and S c a r c e l l a , R. Research i n Second Language Acquisit i o n. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. Freed, B. 1981. Foreigner Talk, Baby Talk, Native Talk. Journal of the Socoiology of Language. 28. 19-39• Gaies, S. 1977• The nature of l i n g u i s t i c input i n formal second language learning: l i n g u i s t i c and communicative strategies i n ESL teachers classroom language. On TESOL ' 77 . Washington, D.C. Gaies, S. 1983» Classroom Centred Research: State of the Art. The Investigation of Language Classroom Processes. TESOL Q. 17«2. 205-217. Garvey, C. 1984. Children's Talk. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Halliday, M. 1975• Learning How to Mean: Explorations i n the Development of Language. London: Edward Arnold. Halliday, M. and Hasan, R, 1976. Cohesion i n English. London: Longman. Hamayan, E. and Tucker, R. 1980. Language input i n the b i l i n g u a l classroom and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to second language achievement. TESOL Q. 14:4. 453-468. Hatch, E., Shapira, R. and Gough, J . 1978. Foreigner talk discourse. IRAL. 17:1. 39-60. Hatch, E. 1978. Discourse analysis and second language a c q u i s i t i o n . In Hatch, E (ed.) Second Language Acquisition: A Book of Readings. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. Henzle, V. 1979• Foreigner Talk i n the Classroom. IRAL. 17*1. 159-167. Hrushovski, B. 1983- Integrational Semantics: An Understander's Theory of Meaning i n Context. Georgetown University Roundtable on Language and L i n g u i s t i c s . Washington, D. C. Georgetown University Press. 159-190. Keller-Cohen, D. 1979. Systematicity and Variation i n the Non-Native Child's Acqui s i t i o n of Conversational S k i l l s . Language Learning. 29:1. 27-44. 144 Krashen, S., Scarc e l l a , R. and Long,. M. (eds.) Child- Adult Differences i n Second Language Acquisition. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. Krashen, S. and T e r r e l l , T. 1983. The Natural Approach. Language Acquis i t i o n i n the Classroom. Toronto, Ont.: Pergamon Press. Kreckel, M. 1981. Communicative acts and shared knowledge i n natural discourse. New York* Academic Press. Long, M. 1981. Questions i n Foreigner Talk Discourse. Language Learning. J l i l . 135-157• Long, M. 1982. Input, i n t e r a c t i o n and second language a c q u i s i t i o n . In Winitz, H. (ed.). Native Language And Foreign Language Acq u i s i t i o n . New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 258-278. Long, M. 1983- Does second language i n s t r u c t i o n make a difference? A review of research. TESOL Q. 14. 358-382. Long, M. and Sato, C. 1983. Classroom foreigner talk discourse: forms and functions of teachers' questions. In Seliger, H. and Long, M. (eds.) Classroom Oriented Research on Second Language Acquisi t i o n . Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. Long, M. 1984. Process and Product i n ESL program Evaluation. TESOL Q. 18:3 409-425. McLaughlin, B. 1982. Second Language Learning and Bilingualism i n Children and Adults. In Rosenburg, S. Handbook of Applied Psycholinguistics: Major Thrusts of Research and Theory. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. 217-248. McLaughlin, B. 1984. Second language a c q u i s i t i o n i n childhood. Volume 1. Preschool Children. H i l l s d a l e , New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. McLaughlin, B. 1985' Second language a c q u i s i t i o n i n childhood. Volume 2. School age children. H i l l s d a l e , New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Moffett, J . and Wagner, J. 1976. student centred language arts and reading k -13. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n . Mohan, B. 1985« Language and Content. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. 145 Nemoianu, A. 1980. The b o a t ' s gonna l e a v e : a s t u d y o f c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g a second language from c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n . P r a g m a t i c s and Beyond 1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V. Peck, S. 1978. C h i l d - c h i l d d i s c o u r s e i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n . I n Hat c h , E. (ed.) Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n . Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. Peck, S. 1980. Language P l a y i n C h i l d Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n . I n Larsen-Freeman, D. (ed.) D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s i n Second Language R e s e a r c h . Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. Peck, S. 1985' F o r e i g n e r T a l k D i s c o u r s e and Pe e r T u t o r i n g i n the C l a s s r o o m . Paper prewsented a t TESOL. New Yo r k . P i c a , T. and Long, M. 1982. The l i n g u s i t i c and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l performance o f e x p e r i e n c e d and i n e x p e r i e n c e d ESL t e a c h e r s . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t TESOL. H a w a i i . S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , M. 1982. The Ethnography o f Communication. An I n t r o d u c t i o n . O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l . S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , M. 1984. What R e a l l y M a t t e r s i n Second Language L e a r n i n g f o r Academic Achievement? TESOL Q. 18 : 2 . 199-219. S c a r c e l l a , R. and H i g a , C. 1982a. Input and age d i f f e r e n c e s i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n . I n Krashen, S., S c a r c e l l a , R. and Long, M. (eds.) C h i l d - A d u l t D i f f e r e n c e s i n Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n . Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. 175-201. S c a r c e l l a , R. and H i g a , C. 1982b. I n p u t , n e g o t i a t i o n and age d i f f e r e n c e s i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n . Language L e a r n i n g . 31:1. 409-433. S e l i g e r , H. and Long, M. 1983. ( e d s . ) . C l assroom O r i e n t e d R esearch on Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n . Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. Shugar, G. 1979« Face t o Face I n t e r a c t i o n a t ages 3 t o 5. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y . 5-4:12. 17-37. Snow, C. and H o e f n a g e l - H o h l e , M. 1982. School-Age Second Language L e a r n e r s Access t o S i m p l i f i e d I n p u t . Language L e a r n i n g . 32:2. 411 -430. 146 S t r o n g , M. 1983. S o c i a l S t y l e s and the Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n o f S p a n i s h S p e a k i n g K i n d e r g a r t n e r s . TESOL Q. 17:2. 241 -258. Wagner-Gough, J . and Hat c h , E, 1975' The importance o f i n p u t d a t a i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n s t u d i e s . Language L e a r n i n g . 2511. 297-308. W e l l s , G. 1979« V a r i a t i o n i n c h i l d language. I n Lee, V. (ed.) Language Development. New York: John W i l e y and Sons. 382-409. W e l l s , G. (ed.) 1981. L e a r n i n g Through I n t e r a c t i o n . The s t u d y o f language development. New York: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . W e l l s , G. 1983• Language, l e a r n i n g and the c u r r i c u l u m . E a r l y C h i l d Development and Care. 12. 277-302. W i l l e s , M. 1983. C h i l d r e n i n t o P u p i l s . A Study o f Language i n E a r l y S c h o o l i n g . London: Routeledge and Kegan P a u l . W i l s o n , J . 1979. T h i n k i n g w i t h C oncepts. London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 5 0
Russia 4 0
Sweden 1 0
China 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 7 0
Mountain View 1 0
Shenzhen 1 0
Stockholm 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items