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Teaching francophone culture to core French students in an extended program : a curriculum proposal Gudmundseth, Carole L. 1984

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TEACHING FRANCOPHONE CULTURE TO CORE FRENCH STUDENTS IN AN EXTENDED PROGRAM: A CURRICULUM PROPOSAL by CAROLE L. GUDMUNDSETH B.A., T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , D u b l i n , 1971 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( F a c u l t y of Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1984 (E) CAROLE L. GuTMJNDSETH, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT A c u r r i c u l u m i s proposed f o r t e a c h i n g francophone c u l -t u r e to French core program students. C u l t u r e i s i n e x t r i c a b -l y l i n k e d to language ye t o f t e n i s not taught. By o f f e r i n g a course i n francophone c u l t u r e as an e l e c t i v e , high s c h o o l students have an o p p o r t u n i t y to i n c r e a s e the i n t e n s i t y of time spent i n French while adding depth to t h e i r knowledge of the t a r g e t c u l t u r e . D e f i n i t i o n s of c i v i l i z a t i o n , formal and "deep" c u l t u r e and the importance of time spent i n language i n s t r u c t i o n are d i s c u s s e d . Models f o r the s e l e c t i o n of con-t e n t such as those proposed by Nostrand (1967), Seelye (1974) and Brooks (1974) are given. Egan's theory of e d u c a t i o n a l de-velopment (1979) i s seen as an a p p r o p r i a t e b a s i s f o r r e l a t i n g s e l e c t i o n of content to the needs of the adolescent l e a r n e r . A " f u n c t i o n a l " r a t h e r than a "formal" approach (Stern, 1976) i s p e r c e i v e d as the most e f f e c t i v e i n the teaching of c u l -t u r e . I t i s p o s i t e d t h a t extended programs o f f e r a f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to immersion and core programs and that f r a n c o -phone c u l t u r e i s a s u i t a b l e t o p i c f o r such a program. The c u r r i c u l u m proposed i s intended f o r high school s t u -dents s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e n r o l l e d i n core French program c l a s s e s and c o n s i s t s of three p a r t s : i i i 1. Quebec, past and present; 2. D i v e r s e themes presented and researched by students; and 3 . La Francophonie chez vous: i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by s t u -dents i n t o the l o c a l francophone community. The goal of the course i s to improve performance i n French and to i n c r e a s e the student's knowledge and a p p r e c i a -t i o n of francophone c u l t u r e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF APPENDICES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x Chapter I THE TEACHING OF FRANCOPHONE CULTURE 1 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 2. O b j e c t i v e s 7 3. L i m i t a t i o n s 9 4. Assumptions 9 5. Terms 10 6. J u s t i f i c a t i o n 13 7. Design 14 I I A REVIEW OF LITERATURE RELATED TO THE TEACHING OF CULTURE 17 1. D e f i n i t i o n s of C u l t u r e 17 2. C u l t u r e and Language 21 3. The Teaching of C u l t u r e 22 4. Content of a C u l t u r e Course 28 5. I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y S t u d i e s 32 6. C o n c l u s i o n 38 V I I I CONSIDERATIONS IN DEVELOPING A CURRICULUM FOR THE TEACHING OF FRANCOPHONE CULTURE TO FSL STUDENTS IN THE CORE PROGRAM 4 0 1. The Time F a c t o r 40 2. C u r r i c u l u m Models 42 3. The Student 49 4. The Teacher, the School and S o c i e t y 54 5. F i v e O r i e n t a t i o n s to the C u r r i c u l u m 58 6. A Course to Teach Francophone C u l t u r e 61 (a) C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 61 (b) D e s c r i p t i o n 64 (c) An o u t l i n e 67 IV SAMPLE UNITS 6 9 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 69 (a) Resource u n i t s 69 (b) Methodology 70 (c) Language d i f f i c u l t i e s 70 (d) "La No u v e l l e France" 74 2. Sample U n i t No. 1: La N o u v e l l e France 75 l e r e s e c t i o n : Geographie 75 2eme s e c t i o n : Jacques C a r t i e r 77 3eme s e c t i o n : Samuel de Champlain 79 4eme s e c t i o n : Systeme s e i g n e u r i a l 81 5eme s e c t i o n : V i e q u o t i d i e n n e de l ' h a b i t a n t 83 v i 6eme s e c t i o n : Les femmes en Nou v e l l e France 85 7eme s e c t i o n : Madeleine de Vercheres 88 Ressources: La Nou v e l l e France 94 3. Sample U n i t No. 2: Les grands personnages de l ' h i s t o i r e f r a n c a i s e 100 4. Sample U n i t No. 3: La Francophonie chez vous 103 V CONCLUSION 108 1. Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Study 108 a) M a t e r i a l s 108 b) Implementation and e v a l u a t i o n 111 2. Concluding Remarks 121 a) Extended programs: A v i a b l e o p t i o n 121 b) A broader c u r r i c u l a r base: towards c u l t u r a l c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p 122 BIBLIOGRAPHY 126 APPENDICES 140 v i i LIST OF TABLES Number Page I La geographie de l a No u v e l l e France e t Jacques C a r t i e r 90 I I Samuel de Champlain et l a c o l o n i e de peuplement 91 I I I Le systeme s e i g n e u r i a l e t l a v i e quotidienne de l ' h a b i t a n t 92 IV Les femmes en No u v e l l e France e t Madeleine de Vercheres 93 v i i i LIST OF APPENDICES Number Page l . A Mappemonde 140 l . B D e f i n i t i o n s 141 1..C Les Amerindiens du nord-est de l'Amerique 142 l.D T e s t : Les debuts de l a c o l o n i e 143 l . E Jacques C a r t i e r 144 l . F Voyages de Jacques C a r t i e r • 145 l.G T e s t : Jacques C a r t i e r 146 l.H Samuel de Champlain 147 1.1 Gravures: Champlain e t Quebec 149 l . J E x p l o r a t i o n s de Champlain 150 l.K T e s t : Samuel de Champlain 151 l . L D r o i t s et d e v o i r s 152 l.M Comparaison de l a v i e d'un seigneur a c e l l e d'un h a b i t a n t 153 1 .N La ferme d'un h a b i t a n t 154 1.0 Qu"est-ce que l e s h a b i t a n t s mangeaient? 155 l . P La n o u r r i t u r e des h a b i t a n t s 156 I.Q Les emplois en 1663 157 l.R V o i c i l e s femmes 158 l . S Madeleine de Vercheres 160 l . T Quelques t e x t e s humoristiques 162 l. U T e s t : La No u v e l l e France 163 i x 2.A Quelques personnages c e l e b r e s de l a France 165 2.B V e r c i n g e t o r i x 167 2.C P r o f i l d'un personnage c e l e b r e 168 2.D P r o f i l d'un personnage c e l e b r e 169 2.E La Gaule 171 2.F V e r c i n g e t o r i x : Aides v i s u e l l e s 173 2.G F i c h e d 1 e v a l u a t i o n : p r o f e s s e u r 174 2. H Ressources pour l ' e l e v e 175 3. A Organismes francophones a Vancouver 178 3.B F i c h e d ' e v a l u a t i o n de l ' e l e v e 181 3.C F i c h e d ' e v a l u a t i o n du p r o f e s s e u r 183 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My s i n c e r e thanks are extended to my s u p e r v i s o r , Pro-f e s s o r Robert R. Roy, f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and guidance and to P r o f e s s o r Graeme Chalmers and P r o f e s s o r V a l e r i e Raoul f o r t h e i r advice and support. 1 CHAPTER I THE TEACHING OF FRANCOPHONE CULTURE 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n Three approaches to the t e a c h i n g of French have been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the Canadian context: core French, extend-ed French and immersion (S t e r n et a l . , 1976, p. 5). Swain (1981) d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between the three programs as f o l l o w s : 1) Core French allows 20-40 minutes of i n s t r u c t i o n per day 2) Extended French supplements the core program by t e a c h i n g one or two s u b j e c t s i n French 3) Immersion teaches between 50-100 percent of the s t u -dents' s u b j e c t s i n French (p. 487). The G i l l i n r e p o r t 1 d e s c r i b e s each program i n terms of the language command expected of an average student at the end of secondary s c h o o l ( S t e r n et a l . , 1976, p. 12). G e n e r a l -l y s t a t e d , the ex p e c t a t i o n s f o r each program are t h a t the core program p r o v i d e s f o r a b a s i c or fundamental knowledge of French, the extended program f o r a working knowledge of French or p a r t i a l b i l i n g u a l i s m and the immersion program f o r O n t a r i o , M i n i s t r y of Education, Report of the M i n i s -t e r i a l Committee on the Teaching of French (Toronto, O n t a r i o : M i n i s t r y of Ed u c a t i o n , 1974). 2 f u l l b i l i n g u a l i s m (Stern et a l . , 1976, 5-10). I t i s impor-t a n t to d i s t i n g u i s h among these three approaches s i n c e , as Swain (1981) suggests, the e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d f o r any given program become the c r i t e r i a by which i t i s judged and t h e r e -f o r e high or u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s may w e l l doom a program to f a i l u r e (p. 486). However i t should be noted that there are many p o s s i b l e outcomes f o r each approach, few of them being mutually e x c l u s i v e , as the f o l l o w i n g diagram i l l u s -t r a t e s : Fu 11' b i l i n g u a l i s m / Core Extended Immersion No French Middle l e v e l Q u a s i - n a t i v e command/ Working knowledge Top l e v e l B a s i c French F u n c t i o n a l b i l i n g u a l i s m P a r t i a l b i l i n g u a l i s m ( S t e r n e t a l 1976, p. 13) S t e r n e t a l . (1976) s t a t e that . . . the extended programs do not r e p r e s e n t a r a d i -c a l departure from the t r a d i t i o n a l French program; r a t h e r they p r o v i d e one way of expanding and en-r i c h i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l program w i t h i n the frame-work of the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l (p. 60). For the purpose of t h i s study, the extended program w i l l be viewed as an expansion of and an o p t i o n w i t h i n the core program. In c o n t r a s t with immersion, core French programs (sometimes known as French as a Second Language or FSL) have been p e r c e i v e d by both p r o f e s s i o n a l s and the general p u b l i c as being, at the best, adequate and, at the worst, a waste of time. Kenney (1976) a t t r i b u t e s t h i s "unhappy s t a t e " i n the FSL classroom to a "misunderstanding of the time and e f f o r t t h a t i s needed by an average c h i l d i n an average school to develop any c o n t r o l of a second language" (p. 3). In f a c t , one of the major d i f f e r e n c e s among the d i f f e r e n t programs i s the amount of time spent i n the second language. Lazaruk (1981) s t r e s s e s t h a t "the amount of time a student spends ac-t i v e l y engaged i n language l e a r n i n g l a r g e l y determines h i s l e v e l of achievement" (p. 233 ) and t h a t , i n most Canadian programs, i n s t r u c t i o n a l time i n French i s inadequate f o r e f -f e c t i v e second language l e a r n i n g . Another major d i f f e r e n c e between immersion and core programs i s i n the focus of the courses: immersion p r o v i d e s i n s t r u c t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t sub-j e c t s through French whereas core programs focus on the l e a r n i n g of the French language. Jones (1981) a t t r i b u t e s the success of immersion programs to the use of language as a means r a t h e r than as an end i n i t s e l f (p. 229). S t e r n (1982) s t r e s s e s that "core French has been neg-l e c t e d because we have become mesmerized by immersion" (p. 137) and favours t a k i n g a f r e s h look a t core programs. A l -though immersion has been h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l , the m a j o r i t y of French language l e a r n e r s continue to l e a r n French i n a non-immersion s i t u a t i o n . Recent enrolment f i g u r e s f o r the Van-couver School Board D i s t r i c t are r e v e a l i n g : 2 Students e n r o l l e d i n Elementary Secondary French immersion 1,200 130 Core French programs 8,050 11,800 Although immersion enrolment i s i n c r e a s i n g , the m a j o r i t y of l o c a l students l e a r n French by means of a core r a t h e r than an immersion program. Educators are eager to f i n d methods of improving the q u a l i t y of core French programs i n order to produce students who can f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n a French-speaking e n v i r o n -ment. Teachers and students are i n t e r e s t e d i n o p t i o n s which would move away from the grammatical aspect of language l e a r n i n g towards an emphasis on the communicative and c u l t u r -a l components. One method of expanding the core c u r r i c u l u m i s to o f f e r other courses i n French. By p r o v i d i n g the student with a L e t t e r to author from O.A. Oldenhof, C o o r d i n a t o r of Modern Languages, School D i s t r i c t No. 39 (Vancouver), B.C., Feb. 15, 1983. 5 f u r t h e r o p t i o n to use French, one can i n c r e a s e the amount of time the student i s exposed to the language. The FLICS ( F o r e i g n Language In n o v a t i v e C u r r i c u l a S t u d i e s ) p r o j e c t , de-veloped i n Michigan i n the 1960s, i n v o l v e d the teaching of o t h e r s u b j e c t s through a second language. The aim of the program was to d i v e r s i f y the language l e a r n i n g experience by o f f e r i n g courses, g e n e r a l l y i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n nature, i n s u b j e c t s such as h i s t o r y or geography taught through the sec-ond language. Some of these courses are examined by O r t and Smith (1969) and JeKenta and F e a r i n g (1976) who i n d i c a t e t h a t content was a s s i m i l a t e d as w e l l as i f i n s t r u c t i o n had been i n the student's mother tongue while language s k i l l s a l s o im-proved. Although courses such as H i s p a n i c S t u d i e s or Prob-lems of Democracy i n Germany were c u l t u r a l i n nature, s e v e r a l o t h e r courses mentioned by these authors i n v o l v e d l i t t l e of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e , f o r example, Russian H i s t o r y and Ameri-can H i s t o r y taught through French. No doubt the language s k i l l s of the student improved but one must wonder whether the student l e a r n e d anything about the c u l t u r e of the people who speak the language. In a study on extended programs i n O n t a r i o (S t e r n e t a l . , 1976), one or more s u b j e c t s were taught through French i n a d d i t i o n to 20-40 minutes per day of core French i n s t r u c -t i o n . The aims of the program were to develop p r o f i c i e n c y and f l u e n c y i n French and to use the language as a means of communication i n a s u b j e c t matter (p. 8 ) . R e s u l t s from the 6 study suggest that students d i d not f a l l behind i n the acade-mic s u b j e c t taught i n French (p. 74). A s i m i l a r study (Hal-pern e t a l . , 1976) r e i t e r a t e s t h i s c o n c l u s i o n but adds t h a t mathematics may not be s u i t a b l e f o r promoting e i t h e r French language development or fa v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward French (p. 77). Both s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t extended French o f f e r s "a p romising approach to language i n s t r u c t i o n " (Halpern et a l . , 1976, p. 77) but the authors were unable to draw c o n c l u -s i o n s about which academic s u b j e c t i s most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r such a program (Stern e t a l . , 1976, p. 74). One of the c h i e f goals of second language i n s t r u c t i o n has been to p r o v i d e "a b e t t e r understanding of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e " ( G r i t t n e r , 1969, p. 266). However, the teaching of c u l t u r e has o f t e n been anecdotal and fragmented i n nature and, a l l too o f t e n , r eserved as a bonus f o r the student who has managed to s u r v i v e s e v e r a l y e ars of systematic language d r i l l s . C u l t u r e , however, i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a language and forms, with the l i n g u i s t i c component, the complete l a n -guage experience (Seelye, 1974; Ladu, 1974). Fluency i n French does not n e c e s s a r i l y guarantee an un-d e r s t a n d i n g or knowledge of francophone c u l t u r e . Immersion students from B r i t i s h Columbia who v i s i t e d Quebec commented t h a t , as a r e s u l t of the c u l t u r a l component taught p r i o r to t h e i r t r i p and the v i s i t i t s e l f , they had gained not only i n l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y but had a c q u i r e d an understanding and 7 knowledge of francophone c u l t u r e which they d i d not p r e v i o u s -l y have (Day, 1982, pp. 8-9). Debyser (1967) s t r e s s e s the f a c t t h a t a student l e a r n i n g a second language a s s i m i l a t e s . . . un nouveau code, un nouveau systeme . . . q u i n'est pas l e s i e n , mais q u i a p p a r t i e n t a une commu-naute l i n g u i s t i q u e d i f f e r e n t e ou 1'experience hu-maine s'organise et s'analyse differemment (p. 22 ). T h e r e f o r e not only the l i n g u i s t i c but a l s o the c u l t u r a l sys-tem must be taught and i t would seem l o g i c a l to look a t ways of d e v e l o p i n g a c u r r i c u l u m which would g i v e the student more knowledge about the c u l t u r e of the second language while a l s o improving the student's language s k i l l s . 2. O b j e c t i v e s The primary purpose of t h i s study i s to explore the q u e s t i o n of the t e a c h i n g of francophone c u l t u r e and to pro-pose a s u i t a b l e v e h i c l e f o r t e a c h i n g i t . By combining c u l -ture and language i n a course to be taught independently of the French language c l a s s , students have the o p t i o n of i n -c r e a s i n g t h e i r knowledge of francophone c u l t u r e and t h e i r language s k i l l s . The course taught i n French emphasizes con-ten t r a t h e r than language. The main focus of the course i s 8 i n f o r m a t i o n about the c u l t u r e of French speakers and the c o u n t r i e s where they l i v e . To use Ste r n ' s terminology (1976), the emphasis i s t h e r e f o r e more f u n c t i o n a l than formal (p. 5) and, to that extent, more s i m i l a r to an immersion than a t r a d i t i o n a l language program. To borrow terms from B i a l y -stok (1978), knowledge about the language i s acquired i m p l i -c i t l y and knowledge about the c u l t u r e i s a c q u i r e d e x p l i c i t l y . The c u r r i c u l u m allows f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n implementation and cou l d be o f f e r e d i n a v a r i e t y of time frames: over a year, a semester or even as a mini course. The needs of the student, the s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s of the teacher and members of the community, and the time a v a i l a b l e i n the sc h o o l schedule are a l l important f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the implementation of the c u r r i c u l u m . The concept of t e a c h i n g about francophone c u l t u r e through the French language remains but the a c t u a l content of the course could be manipulated i n d i f f e r e n t ways with f l e x i b i l i t y and imagination. The g o a l of the course i s to i n c r e a s e the student's knowledge of francophone c u l t u r e , to improve French language s k i l l s and to develop "a f a v o r a b l e f e e l i n g towards the French language and francophone peoples throughout the world" (Secondary French C u r r i c u l u m Guide, P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980, p. 14). 9 3 . L i m i t a t i o n s The study i s l i m i t e d to a d i s c u s s i o n of methods of teaching francophone c u l t u r e and o u t l i n e s one way of p r e s e n t -ing i t to students at the secondary l e v e l . Experimental t e a c h i n g of the c u r r i c u l u m or t e s t r e s u l t s based on such an experiment are not considered. A d e t a i l e d account of each component of the course i s not g i v e n but a sample u n i t , from each of the three s e c t i o n s , i s examined i n Chapter IV. 4. Assumptions The study assumes that students have a b a s i c knowledge of French (2-3 years of study i n a core French program) and that the course would t h e r e f o r e be s u i t a b l e as an e l e c t i v e f o r students i n grades 10-12. Students should have a b a s i c knowledge of the present, past and f u t u r e tenses. T h i s study presumes that an i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n of d i s c i -p l i n e s such as a r t , music, h i s t o r y , geography and s o c i o l o g y i s b e n e f i c i a l to a student's e d u c a t i o n a l development and t h a t a d d i t i o n a l time spent i n French language i n c r e a s e s the s t u -dent's p r o f i c i e n c y i n that language. I t i s a l s o hoped that a p o s i t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e w i l l improve a student's a t t i t u d e to the second language although i t i s ac-cepted t h a t t h a t a t t i t u d e change may vary from t o l e r a n c e to 10 understanding to a p p r e c i a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r student i n v o l v e d . 5. Terms S i n c e many of the f o l l o w i n g terms are examined i n more d e t a i l i n the next two chapters, only a b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n i s attempted here, a) The teaching of c u l t u r e Although teaching c u l t u r e i s a term which i s used exten-s i v e l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Seelye, 1974; L a f a y e t t e , 1978), one may ask whether a c u l t u r e can be "taught" as can f o r example a s k i l l such as t y p i n g or d r i v i n g . Yet t e a c h i ng about a c u l -t u re i m p l i e s an i m p a r t i a l , a n a l y t i c and perhaps somewhat com-p a r a t i v e approach which i s l i k e l y beyond the scope of a high school student. As t h i s author p e r c e i v e s i t , the teaching of c u l t u r e should combine both the experience of a second c u l -t u re with a knowledge about t h a t c u l t u r e . As Santoni (1976) s t a t e s : " S ' i l e s t v r a i que l ' e t u d i a n t a c q u i e r t c e t t e compre-hension en p a r t i e par une o p e r a t i o n i n t e l l e c t u e l l e , i l de-v r a i t a u s s i l a r e s s e n t i r d'une maniere a f f e c t i v e , v i s c e r a l e " (p. 355). For the purpose of t h i s study, the teaching of c u l t u r e and t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e are terms which w i l l be used i n t e r -changeably. 11 b) C u l t u r e C u l t u r e i s d e f i n e d as the ge n e r a l h a b i t s of a n a t i o n or "the d i s t i n c t i v e l i f e w a y of a people ... who are u n i t e d by a common language" (Brooks, 1975, p. 21). c) C i v i l i z a t i o n The products or ac t s of a n a t i o n , the " f l o w e r i n g of the c u l t u r a l l i f e w a y i n t o v a r i e d ... p a t t e r n s of thought, b e l i e f , a c t i o n and a e s t h e t i c e x p r e s s i o n " (Brooks, 1975, p. 22). C i v -i l i z a t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d as being p a r t of c u l t u r e and i s i n -cluded i n the term c u l t u r e when i t appears i n t h i s study. d) Formal c u l t u r e A term used by some language teachers to d e s c r i b e l i t e r -ary, a e s t h e t i c and other m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of a c u l t u r e . In g e n e r a l , t h i s aspect of c u l t u r e i s e a s i l y observable and r e -l a t e s to the s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements of a peo-p l e . e) "Deep" c u l t u r e A term used to d e s c r i b e those aspects of a c u l t u r e which are r e l a t e d to the inhe r e n t values and behaviour of a n a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , aspects such as taboos, a t t i t u d e s toward mar-r i a g e , e d u c a t i o n and law may not be e a s i l y observed. f ) C r o s s - c u l t u r a l A term used to d e s c r i b e elements which l i n k two c u l t u r e s i n understanding or communication. 12 g) Core French A synonym f o r FSL (French as a Second Language) or B a s i c French programs. When used i n t h i s study, i t d e s c r i b e s a program which p r o v i d e s i n s t r u c t i o n i n French as a second l a n -guage at the secondary l e v e l f o r approximately 100-120 hours per s c h o o l year. I t i s used as an o v e r a l l term i n c o n t r a s t with immersion programs. h) Extended French A program where i n a d d i t i o n to 20-40 minutes per day of core French, a student r e c e i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n i n one or more sch o o l s u b j e c t s through the medium of French. i ) Immersion A program where French i s the main language of i n s t r u c -t i o n to anglophone students, j ) Secondary s c h o o l A s c h o o l which teaches adolescent students and which i s known i n some c o u n t r i e s as a high s c h o o l , k) Francophone A term used to d e s c r i b e French-speaking people from Ca-nada, France or any other country i n the world. 1) C u r r i c u l u m A course of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a s u b j e c t , a " s e r i e s of p l a n -ned events that are intended to have e d u c a t i o n a l consequences f o r one or more st u d e n t s " ( E i s n e r , 1979, p. 39). 13 m) L o c a l l y - d e v e l o p e d A program developed, by one or more teachers, intended f o r s p e c i f i c students i n a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g , n) L]^, L 2 and t a r g e t language L^ r e f e r s to the student's mother tongue or n a t i v e l a n -guage and L2 r e f e r s to the second or t a r g e t language which that student i s l e a r n i n g . 6 . J u s t i f i c a t i o n A course i n francophone c u l t u r e i s an e f f e c t i v e means of p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and language p r a c t i c e i n French to s t u -dents who have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the e a r l y or l a t e immer-s i o n programs, and of i n c r e a s i n g s t u dents' knowledge of the c u l t u r e of francophone speakers. T h i s study d i s c u s s e s how the course can be used by teachers to p r o v i d e students with l e a r n i n g experiences beyond the realm of the core French or FSL program. The study examines how the c u r r i c u l u m proposed could expand the h o r i z o n of the FSL classroom by b r i n g i n g not o n l y the language, but a l s o the c u l t u r e c l o s e r to the s t u -dent. With francophone c u l t u r e as the focus of the course, students f i n d a more l o g i c a l complement to t h e i r s t u d i e s i n French than, f o r example, Mathematics or P h y s i c a l Education taught through French. R i v e r s s t a t e s i n a d i s c u s s i o n of ex-tended programs that she i s not "convinced that mathematics as a s u b j e c t matter i n French i s a means of g e t t i n g the most f o r one's expenditure of time and energy" (Halpern, 1976, p. 175), suggesting that such a s u b j e c t may i n f a c t be " c u l t u r -a l l y n e u t r a l . " The three stages of the c u r r i c u l u m proposed i n t h i s s t u -dy: the t e a c h e r - l e d study of Quebec; the s t u d e n t - d i r e c t e d r e s e a r c h of d i v e r s e themes; and the group i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the l o c a l francophone community, le a d the student from knowl-edge about to experience of the c u l t u r e and to an understand-ing and a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h a t c u l t u r e . T h i s author agrees with L a f a y e t t e and Schulz (1975) who s t a t e t h a t they "are not convinced t h a t i t i s the f u n c t i o n of the classroom teacher to manipulate a t t i t u d e s d i r e c t l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y toward a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e " (p. 109). The main g o a l s of the course are t h e r e f o r e c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c with an a t t i t u d i n a l g o a l i m p l i e d but not s t a t e d f o r t e s t i n g purposes. 7. Design Chapter II The review of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to c u l t u r e encompasses d e f i n i t i o n s of c u l t u r e and the c h o i c e of what aspects to teach, how c u l t u r e has been taught and how c u l t u r e can be l i n k e d to other s u b j e c t areas i n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y or extend-ed programs. 15 Chapter I I I C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n .developing a c u r r i c u l u m f o r the teach-ing of francophone c u l t u r e are examined. The importance of time i n language teaching i s looked at i n c o n j u n c t i o n with d i f f e r e n t ways of developing a c u r r i c u l u m . The needs of the a d o l e s c e n t l e a r n e r and Egan's (1979) t h e o r i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l development are d i s c u s s e d . The teacher, the s c h o o l and s o c i -ety a t l a r g e are shown to p l a y an important r o l e i n c u r r i c u -lum p l a n n i n g . E i s n e r ' s (1979) f i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s to c u r r i c u -lum are d i s c u s s e d with r e l a t i o n to the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of a course i n c u l t u r e . A c u r r i c u l u m to teach francophone c u l t u r e i s proposed with suggestions f o r content and time a l l o c a t i o n i n c l u d e d . Chapter IV A sample u n i t from each s e c t i o n i s g i v e n with d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , a c t i v i t i e s , m a t e r i a l s and e v a l u a t i o n f o r each u n i t . S e c t i o n Sample U n i t 1. Quebec, p a s t and La N o u v e l l e France p r e s e n t 2 . D i v e r s e themes Les grands personnages de l ' h i s -t o i r e f r a n c a i s e 3. La Francophonie chez Rencontre avec l a communaute vous francophone de Vancouver. A resource l i s t on "La N o u v e l l e France" i s i n c l u d e d at the end of the sample u n i t on that t o p i c and supplementary m a t e r i a l s f o r each sample u n i t are i n c l u d e d i n the appendices ("annexes") at the end of the study. Chapter V The f i n a l chapter suggests the areas of m a t e r i a l s , im-plementation and e v a l u a t i o n as s u i t a b l e t o p i c s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and suggests that " p l u r a l i s t i c " models of evalua-t i o n , as proposed by McNeil (1981) be c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s con-cluded t h a t an extended program i n francophone c u l t u r e o f f e r s a v i a b l e o p t i o n to and extends the c u r r i c u l a r base of t r a d i -t i o n a l core French programs by i n c r e a s i n g not only language p r o f i c i e n c y but a l s o knowledge of the t a r g e t c u l t u r e . 17 CHAPTER II A REVIEW OF LITERATURE RELATED TO THE TEACHING OF CULTURE The l i t e r a t u r e i s reviewed under the f o l l o w i n g headings: 1. D e f i n i t i o n s of c u l t u r e 2. C u l t u r e and language 3. The t e a c h i n g of c u l t u r e 4. Content of a c u l t u r e course 5. I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d i e s 6. C o n c l u s i o n . 1. D e f i n i t i o n s of C u l t u r e To d i s c u s s c u l t u r e i t i s necessary to d e f i n e what i s meant by the term w i t h i n the framework of t h i s study and to draw d i s t i n c t i o n s between c u l t u r e , c i v i l i z a t i o n and other r e -l a t e d terms. A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s view " c u l t u r e " as a c a t c h - a l l term which encompasses a l l f e a t u r e s of man's l i f e ( R e b o u l l e t , 1973, p. 18) whereas s o c i o l o g i s t s view i t as a process which takes man 18 from a p r i m i t i v e to a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t a t e and i s there-f o r e opposed to barbarism (Thevenin, 1980, p. 16). Seelye (1974) contends that second language teachers have tended to p e r c e i v e c u l t u r e more as the study of l i t e r a t u r e , a r t and h i s t o r y and maintains t h a t f o r the purposes of teaching l a n -guages, i t should be seen from a more a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l view-p o i n t as i n v o l v i n g a l l "patterns of everyday l i f e " (p. 23). Wylie p o s i t s that c u l t u r e i s a system which can be le a r n e d and that "French c u l t u r e and c i v i l i z a t i o n are the same" (Santoni, 1981, p. 26). C l a r k ' s (1969) view of c i v i l i -z a t i o n may seem more ak i n to the . a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ' view of c u l t u r e : " ( C i v i l i z a t i o n ) means something more than energy and w i l l and c r e a t i v e power . . . ( i t means) a sense of perma-nence" (p. 14). O f t e n the terms c i v i l i z a t i o n and c u l t u r e are equated and d e f i n i t i o n s become a q u e s t i o n of mere semantics. Francophone educators tend to favour the term " c i v i l i s a -t i o n . " F i c h o u (1979) p e r c e i v e s c u l t u r e as being the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of " c i v i l i s a t i o n " which i s the g l o b a l term used to d e s c r i b e the way of l i f e of a people. Thevenin's (1980) view i s t h a t the two terms are almost synonymous: c i v i l i z a t i o n i s both the process of d e v e l o p i n g from a p r i m i -t i v e to a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t a t e and the d e s c r i p t i o n of how a s o c i e t y f u n c t i o n s (p. 16). C u l t u r e i s what makes man r e a c t i n a c e r t a i n way whereas " c i v i l i s a t i o n " i s what man a c t u a l l y does. For Berger (1962) c u l t u r e i s q u i t e simply " l e sens de l'humain" (p. 7 ) . Some w r i t e r s l i k e Benadava (1982) see " c i v i l i s a t i o n " as p a r t of the o v e r a l l concept of c u l t u r e . T h e i r view, i f t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the E n g l i s h language context, would probably approximate the idea of deep c u l t u r e or c u l -t u re w i t h a s m a l l "c" as d e f i n e d by Brooks, Seelye and other North American educators. For example, Benadava i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g elements i n a d e f i n i t i o n of " c i v i l i s a t i o n " : 1) l e s codes; 2) l e s informations; 3) l e s normes s o c i o - l a n g a g i e -r e s and 4) l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s de l a s o c i e t e (p. 37). L a f a y e t t e (1978) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between "Culture with a c a p i t a l C" as the g e o g r a p h i c a l / h i s t o r i c a l / a e s t h e t i c elements of a s o c i e t y and " c u l t u r e with a s m a l l c" as everyday customs. Morain (1971) sees c u l t u r e with a c a p i t a l C as f o c u s i n g on the p a s t whereas c u l t u r e with a s m a l l c i n v o l v e s a study of contemporary l i f e (p. 67). T u r i (1971) contends t h a t the d i f -f e rence between c i v i l i z a t i o n and c u l t u r e i s the d i s t i n c t i o n between "une e l i t e q u i pense et un peuple q u i v i t " (p. 16). One of the b e t t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of c u l t u r e i s advanced by Brooks (1975) who maintains t h a t c u l t u r e does not lend i t s e l f e a s i l y to one d e f i n i t i o n . He c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t using cognates (such as " c i v i l i s a t i o n " ) from other languages and l i m i t s h i s d e f i n i t i o n to the E n g l i s h language and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o the area of f o r e i g n language t e a c h i n g . Although s e v e r a l d i c -t i o n a r i e s equate c u l t u r e with c i v i l i z a t i o n Brooks s t a t e s t h a t , d e s p i t e an o v e r l a p between the two, each has i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : " c u l t u r e i s the d i s t i n c t i v e l i f e - w a y of a people . . . who are u n i t e d by a common language" (p. 21), 20 and " c i v i l i z a t i o n i s the f l o w e r i n g of the c u l t u r a l l i f e - w a y of a people i n t o v a r i e d . . . p a t t e r n s of thought, b e l i e f , a c t i o n and a e s t h e t i c e x p r e s s i o n " (p. 22). C i v i l i z a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e p e r c e i v e d as being " g r a f t e d upon c u l t u r e " (p. 22) and i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h a t term. He d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between the formal aspect of c u l t u r e or C u l t u r e M.L.A. (Music, L e t -t e r s , A r t s ) and the deep aspect of c u l t u r e or C u l t u r e B.B.V. ( B e l i e f , Behaviour, Values) (p. 21). I f a d i s t i n c t i o n must be made, one would l i n k c u l t u r e to the p e r s o n a l components of l i f e and c i v i l i z a t i o n to the i n -s t i t u t i o n a l areas. Brooks (1968) argues that " c i v i l i z a t i o n d e a l s with an advanced s t a t e of human s o c i e t y . . . with c u l -t u r a l r e f i n e m e n t s " (p. 209) whereas c u l t u r e d e a l s f i r s t and foremost with the i n d i v i d u a l (p. 210). In an a r t i c l e on a d e f i n i t i o n of the two terms Brooks (1974) l i s t s the parame-t e r s of each group. For example, language, l e a r n i n g , bond-in g , sex r o l e s , heroes and r e l i g i o n are seen as some of the parameters of c u l t u r e , whereas education, p o l i t i c s , t h e a t r e , dance and a r t are seen as the parameters of c i v i l i z a t i o n (p. 30). As Brooks (1974) s t a t e s , "Culture accompanies us as the a i r we breathe; c i v i l i z a t i o n i s a hei g h t we r i s e t o , a tempo-r a r y stance we assume from time to time and maintain as best we can" (p. 28). For the purpose of the r e s t of t h i s study, c u l t u r e w i l l i n c l u d e c i v i l i z a t i o n and w i l l be the general term used. 21 2. C u l t u r e and Language Morin (1969) s t a t e s t h a t " l a c u l t u r e se s i t u e au c a r r e -four de 1 ' i n t e l l e c t u e l e t de l ' a f f e c t i f " (p. 26), emphasizing the all-encompassing nature of c u l t u r e . Seelye (1976) s t r e s s e s the i n e x t r i c a b l e l i n k between language and c u l t u r e : "to p e n e t r a t e another c u l t u r e , knowledge of the f o r e i g n l a n -guage i s i m p e r a t i v e " (p. 38). T h i s connection i s u n d e r l i n e d by Ladu (1974) when she a f f i r m s that "language cannot be sep-arated from the c u l t u r e i n which i t i s deeply embedded" (p. 129). Brooks (1975) argues t h a t the best approach to l e a r n -ing a language i s a combination of the t e c h n i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n of language s k i l l s and the humanistic study of c u l t u r e , and suggests that the teacher must combine the a n a l y t i c s k i l l s of the s c i e n t i s t with the c a r i n g , r e s p o n s i v e approach of the hu-manist (p. 19). Beaujour and Ehrmann (1967) c a l l the teach-ing of c u l t u r e "a humanistic d i s c i p l i n e because i t s t u d i e s what i s c o n s t i t u t i v e of man, and of h i s l o c a l d i f f e r e n c e s " (p. 154). Although K e l l e r (1976), Klayman (1976), and P e t i t (1978) advocate teaching c u l t u r e i n E n g l i s h , they emphasize that t h i s should be done as a m o t i v a t i o n a l t o o l to i n t e r e s t s t u -dents i n the f o r e i g n language. Throughout the courses men-ti o n e d i n t h e i r a r t i c l e s , which i n c l u d e such t o p i c s as the s t r u c t u r e of language, geography, a r t , t h e a t r e and aspects of 22 the deep c u l t u r e of the language, the authors s t r e s s t h a t a knowledge of the language would g i v e students a deeper under-s t a n d i n g of these items (Klayman, p. 290). The courses are seen as an o r i e n t a t i o n , an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the l e a r n i n g of a f o r e i g n language. Brooks (1975) concludes that language and c u l t u r e come together i n meaning (p. 25); one cannot under-stand the true meaning of the words of a language unless one i s f a m i l i a r with the c u l t u r e of that language. Porcher (1976) recommends the i n t e g r a t i o n of language and c u l t u r e i n second language teaching because "une langue ne se s i t u e j a -mais n'importe ou, n'importe quand, hors de toute h i s t o i r e , independante des hommes q u i l a p a r l e n t " (p. 45). One sees t h e r e f o r e that c u l t u r e i s an a l l - i m p o r t a n t aspect of a l a n -guage, l i n k i n g a l l l e v e l s of the s o c i e t y which speaks i t . How then can such a v a s t area be encapsulated and brought w i t h i n the fou r w a l l s of the classroom? 3. The Teaching of C u l t u r e Seelye (1974) maintains that many teachers avoid the thorny problem of what and how to teach, with r e l a t i o n to c u l t u r e , by p l e a d i n g l a c k of time. Once students have mas-tered the b a s i c language s k i l l s they w i l l have time to l e a r n about the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e (p. 3). S t e r n (1982) i n a recent a r t i c l e on "French Core Programs Across Canada" a t t e s t s that " c u l t u r e i s i n p r i n c i p l e . . . widely r e c o g n i z e d i n most l a n -guage c u r r i c u l a but i s u s u a l l y very s u b s i d i a r y and i s o f t e n completely ignored" (p. 40). Both authors agree t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n must be remedied, even i f i t means that the teach-ing of c u l t u r e occurs i n E n g l i s h as Seelye advocates (p. 6) . F i c h o u (1979) s t a t e s t h a t c u l t u r e i s a v i t a l t o o l f o r the teacher both as an end i n i t s e l f and as a de v i c e f o r mo-t i v a t i n g student i n t e r e s t i n the second language: " l a c i v i l i -s a t i o n e s t un o u t i l pedagogique de premiere u t i l i t e c a r e l l e s o u t i e n t et motive l e t r a v a i l de l ' e l e v e t o u t en developpant sa c u r i o s i t e d ' e s p r i t " (p. 11). The p r e c a r i o u s balance be-tween language and c u l t u r e must be c a r e f u l l y manipulated by the teacher and, as Fichou suggests, g r e a t care must be taken to a v o i d g i v i n g the student a s u p e r f i c i a l overview of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e complete with l i s t s of u s e l e s s f a c t s and s i m p l i f i e d s t e r e o t y p e s . Thevenin (1980) advances the theory t h a t d i f f e r e n t types of t eachers w i l l i n f l u e n c e the teaching of c u l t u r e . He d i f -f e r e n t i a t e s between three types of teaching s i t u a t i o n s : 1) the "missionary" teacher who teaches abroad to students of a d i f f e r e n t language and c u l t u r e ; 2) the teacher who, belong-ing to the same c u l t u r e as h i s students, teaches a f o r e i g n language and c u l t u r e ; and 3) the teacher who, wh i l e remain-ing i n h i s own country, teaches immigrants eager to i n t e g r a t e i n t o h i s c u l t u r e (p. 13). To t h i s l i s t one must add a f o u r t h 24 category: 4) that of the teacher who, i n a b i l i n g u a l coun-t r y , teaches one language ( L 2 ) to u n i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n . These d i s t i n c t i o n s are important because they i n d i c a t e how d i f f e r -ent v a r i a b l e s , i nherent i n the l e a r n i n g / t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n , w i l l a f f e c t t h a t process. In h i s f o u r volume Background Data f o r the Teaching of  French, Nostrand (1967) o u t l i n e s an approach to the teaching of c u l t u r e which he c a l l s the Emergent Model. He groups 30 t o p i c s under the f o l l o w i n g f o u r headings. They are: 1) the c u l t u r e ; 2) the s o c i e t y ; 3) the i n d i v i d u a l ; and 4) the e c o l -ogy. Nostrand terms t h i s model emergent because he maintains t h a t c u l t u r e i s an ever-changing p r o c e s s . Although he i n -c l u d e s a l i s t of s e l e c t e d c u l t u r a l and s o c i e t a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s i n the model, he emphasizes t h a t teaching c u l t u r e should combine "experience of w i t h knowledge about the f o r -e i g n c u l t u r e " (p. 23). In a r e l a t e d a r t i c l e (1974) he advo-ca t e s the use of the model as an e x p e r i e n t a l base to form b r i d g e s from the student's own l i f e to the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e (p. 281). He updates the thematic l i s t from time to time and p r o v i d e s more re c e n t v e r s i o n s of the model upon request. S e e l y e (1974) i d e n t i f i e s seven areas which, when a c q u i r -ed by the student, help to develop an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e . They are: 1) the sense of c u l t u r a l l y con-d i t i o n e d behaviour; 2) i n t e r a c t i o n of language and s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s ; 3) c o n v e n t i o n a l behaviour i n common s i t u a t i o n s ; 4) c u l t u r a l connotations of words and phrases; 5) e v a l u a t i n g statements about the t a r g e t c u l t u r e ; 6) r e s e a r c h i n g the t a r -get c u l t u r e ; and 7) a t t i t u d e s of the student toward the t a r -get c u l t u r e (p. 7). Brooks' model i s based on f i v e aspects of c u l t u r e , 1) b i o l o g i c a l growth; 2) p e r s o n a l refinement; 3) l i t e r a t u r e and the f i n e a r t s ; 4) p a t t e r n s of l i v i n g ; and 5) the sum t o t a l of a way of l i f e (Seelye, 1974, p. 12). Debyser (1976) argues f o r an approach i n c o r p o r a t i n g three aspects: 1) "l'approche s o c i o l o g i q u e " - - t r e a t i n g the aspect of c u l t u r e i n q u e s t i o n as a s o c i a l phenomenon; 2) "l'approche a n t h r o p o l o g i q u e " — a n approach which would use genuine documents and r e a l i a to i n v e s t i g a t e man's everyday l i f e and 3) "l'approche semiologique" which would emphasize the m y t h i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l meanings behind c u l t u r a l phenomena (pp. 30-39). However, although an undue emphasis on h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e should be avoided, Debyser contends t h a t a course i n French c i v i l i s a t i o n / c u l t u r e "ne d o i t pas e t r e . . . une approche a n t i - h i s t o r i q u e ou coupee de l ' h i s t o i r e " (p. 37 ). From t h i s b r i e f review a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e begins to emerge about what i s meant by the term "the teaching of c u l -t u r e " : most experts i n the f i e l d agree t h a t c u l t u r e i s an e s s e n t i a l component of the language l e a r n i n g experience, t h a t i t i n c l u d e s e v e r y t h i n g from h i s t o r y to p a t t e r n s of everyday l i f e and t h a t there are a v a r i e t y of approaches a v a i l a b l e to 26 the teacher. However, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t o u t l i n e s or mod-e l s of t h i s type have appeared over the l a s t few decades, c u l t u r e i s s t i l l approached i n a haphazard f a s h i o n . Morain (1974 ) maintains that the problem i s not " i n our preaching but i n our t e a c h i n g " (p. 149). In other words, teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s advocate c u l t u r a l understanding but are i l l -equipped to pr o v i d e such education. Those who l a c k the back-ground and the m a t e r i a l s w i l l tend to teach on a " s p o r a d i c , h i t or miss, always-on-the-surface" b a s i s (p. 149). Ladu (1974 ) makes a p l e a f o r a more s t r u c t u r e d approach and sug-g e s t s t h a t "the c u l t u r a l content of a f o r e i g n language course should be as c a r e f u l l y planned and as s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p r e s e n t -ed as the language content" (p. 130). Many teachers, without prepared t e x t s and m a t e r i a l s , tend to leave c u l t u r e f o r the l a s t f i v e minutes of c l a s s . S t e r n (1982) acknowledges the f a c t t h a t "the c u l t u r a l compo-nent i s much harder to implement than i s o f t e n r e a l i z e d be-cause of a l a c k of s o l i d i n f o r m a t i o n and a c c e s s i b l e documen-t a t i o n " and he urges educators to develop t h i s " d e f i c i e n c y a r e a " (p. 40). Wilkes (1979) q u e s t i o n s B r i t i s h Columbia tea c h e r s on the c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e i n t h e i r classrooms and pro-poses t h a t c u l t u r e should be taught and t e s t e d r e g u l a r l y u s i n g the c u l t u r e web which takes a t o p i c and connects i t to other r e l a t e d themes. The Secondary French C u r r i c u l u m Guide f o r B r i t i s h Columbia (1980) p e r c e i v e s the understanding of c u l t u r e as a g o a l connected with two o t h e r s — l i n g u i s t i c and a t t i t u d i n a l , and r e p r e s e n t s t h i s p h i l o s o p h y by a diagram of three i n t e r l o c k i n g c i r c l e s . The authors of the guide main-t a i n t h a t by teaching toward the c u l t u r a l g o a l , students w i l l "develop an understanding of the v a l u e s , customs and other elements of French language c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y as e x p e r i -enced i n Canada" (p. 14). A l s o i n the B r i t i s h Columbia con-t e x t , Waters (1981) suggests u s i n g a i d e s and n a t i v e speakers to develop thematic u n i t s f o r use i n c l a s s . L a f a y e t t e and Schulz (1975), say t h a t time i s the teach-er's enemy,and suggest that our goals as educators must be r e a l i s t i c . We cannot expect students to analyze data them-s e l v e s , but we can expect them to show a knowledge of f a c t s , an understanding of events and an a b i l i t y to use c e r t a i n pat-te r n s of behaviour such as c o r r e c t forms of language used f o r g r e e t i n g s , f a r e w e l l s , e t c . (pp. 108-109). In order to f a c i l -i t a t e the t e a c h i n g of c u l t u r e , L a f a y e t t e (1978) advocates a core p l u s open-time model whereby a teacher would assess what must be covered, l e a v i n g enough time f o r enrichment/rein-forcement of c u l t u r a l items (p. 11). A r t i c l e s and books on the teaching of c u l t u r e are not i n s h o r t supply; Wylie acknowledges t h i s s i t u a t i o n by admitting that as teachers "we are a l r e a d y f l o o d e d with i n f o r m a t i o n : our b i g problem i s how to use i t i n t e a c h i n g " ( S a n t o n i , 1981, p. 7 ) . I t becomes apparent t h e r e f o r e t h a t s e l e c t i o n of con-t e n t i n the v a s t f i e l d of c u l t u r e i s of c r u c i a l importance. 28 4. Content of a C u l t u r e Course Having a r r i v e d at a d e f i n i t i o n of c u l t u r e and a view th a t language and c u l t u r e are c l o s e l y connected, one must next look at the s p e c i f i c content of a c u l t u r e course. Before l o o k i n g at some of the o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e , r e f e r e n c e should be made to the terms: c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding and communication. Seelye, Nostrand and other North American w r i t e r s such as Ladu, Morain and L a f a y e t t e , use the terms f r e q u e n t l y to r e f e r to the o b j e c t i v e s of s e n s i t i z i n g the student to the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e and of f a c i l i t a t i n g communica-t i o n between bearers of two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . The idea of an interconnectedness between the c u l t u r e of the student and the c u l t u r e being s t u d i e d i s c e n t r a l to the teaching of c u l -t u r e and i s a theme which has p a r a l l e l s i n the f i e l d of glob-a l e d u c a t i o n (see S e c t i o n 5 of t h i s c h a p t e r ) . With the goal of tea c h i n g the student not only about the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e but a l s o about h i s own, many prepackaged ma-t e r i a l s have been developed. Both Seelye (1974) and L a f a y e t -te (1978) d i s c u s s c u l t u r e a s s i m i l a t o r s - - s i t u a t i o n s b r i e f l y p r e s e n t e d i n L^ with a problem posed and three or fou r pos-s i b l e s o l u t i o n s ; the student must make a ch o i c e between these s o l u t i o n s and when the c o r r e c t answer i s presented to him absorb the i m p l i c a t i o n s and meaning behind t h i s aspect of the " f o r e i g n " c u l t u r e . A l s o d i s c u s s e d are c u l t u r e c a p s u l e s — o f t e n multi-media u n i t s which r e v o l v e around a p a r t i c u l a r f a c e t of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e , i . e . , death i n Mexico, bread i n France; and c u l t u r e c l u s t e r s , which may i n v o l v e three or more i n t e g r a t e d c a p s u l e s . The g o a l of such modules i s to s e n s i -t i z e students to d i f f e r e n c e s between the n a t i v e and the t a r -get c u l t u r e s and, although v a l i d enough i n t h i s context, i t i s f e l t by Nostrand (1974 ) that "the overemphasis on con-t r a s t " may be dangerous before students "have accomplished the b a s i c step of f e e l i n g at home i n t h e i r second c u l t u r e " (p. 274). There i s a d e f i n i t e danger t h a t , by emphasizing d i f f e r -ences r a t h e r than s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two c u l t u r e s , the c a p s u l e or a s s i m i l a t o r may promote an o v e r l y a n a l y t i c a l ap-proach on the p a r t of the student and may encourage a search f o r p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e . The goal of these m a t e r i a l s should be to emphasize, without g l o r i f i c a t i o n , the p o s i t i v e aspects of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e . These aspects need not n e c e s s a r i l y be s i m i l a r to aspects of the student's own c u l t u r e but should be capable of e l i c i t i n g understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n r a t h e r than d i s g u s t and i n t o l e r a n c e . The array of t o p i c s and themes f o r p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n i n a course on c u l t u r e i s d a z z l i n g . L i v i n g s t o n (1980) i n an a r -t i c l e on German c u l t u r e , suggests t o p i c s such as l i t e r a t u r e , music, media and a r t which, i n Brooks' terminology, would r e -f l e c t the formal aspects of a c u l t u r e . Morain (1968) sug-gests f o l k l o r e as a means of t r a n s m i t t i n g a more anthropolo-g i c a l view of c u l t u r e . Marquardt (1974) observes that 30 l i t e r a t u r e can pr o v i d e students with c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t s . Re-b o u l l e t (1973) s t r e s s e s the goal of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l under-s t a n d i n g by suggesting "une decouverte de sa propre c u l t u r e par 1"analyse comparative" (p. 53). Walz (1980) maintains t h a t "the French-speaking world i s a h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t o p i c f o r study i n French language, l i t e r a t u r e and c u l t u r e courses" (p. 99). On the q u e s t i o n of which of the many aspects of c u l -ture to teach, Debyser (1982) warns a g a i n s t overemphasizing a c e r t a i n f a c e t of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e and q u e s t i o n s the value of t e a c h i n g " l e monde p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s de l a f a m i l l e V i n c e n t , T h i b a u t ou Dupont" to young A f r i c a n s (p. 27). Fichou (1979) s i m i l a r l y c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t r e l y i n g on anecdotal and d e s c r i p -t i v e techniques; a c u l t u r e must always be shown i n a proper p e r s p e c t i v e and care should be taken to avoid s t e r e o t y p e s and f a c i l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Fichou suggests f i n d i n g "centres d ' i n t e r e t " a p p r o p r i a t e to the student's needs and e x p e r i -ences . Smithson (1971) warns a g a i n s t overwhelming students with a " t i d a l wave of d i s p a r a t e and d i s o r g a n i z e d f a c t s " (p. 84), and suggests t h a t three q u e s t i o n s should be used as c r i t e r i a f o r judging whether a t o p i c should be taught: i s the c u l t u r -a l concept v e r i f i a b l e ; i s i t g e n e r a l l y r e l e v a n t to the s t u -dents; i s i t t y p i c a l w i t h i n the t a r g e t c u l t u r e ? (p. 84) Nostrand (1977) suggests s i x approaches to the problem of o r g a n i z i n g and choosing content. One co u l d combine some of these approaches or use them i n d i v i d u a l l y . They are: 1) p e r s o n a l "apercus" chosen at random by the teacher; 2) an i n -ventory; 3) a model of s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n ; 4) main themes of the c u l t u r e ; 5) h i s t o r y and 6) c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison (p. 277). Few could d i s p u t e the comprehensiveness of Nos-trand 's own i n v e n t o r y (pp. 282-293) y e t teachers may q u e s t i o n the i n t e r e s t of t o p i c s such as h e a l t h care and a c c i d e n t p r e -v e n t i o n to adolescent students. One of the problems of using a f i x e d model or thematic l i s t i s t h a t not only does c u l t u r e change but so do the needs of students and the i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s of the t e a c h i ng s t a f f . Too r i g i d a s t r u c t u r e may e l i m i n a t e a wealth of s t i m -u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l i d e a l l y s u i t e d to an i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s . Faced with an over-abundance of i n f o r m a t i o n , the second language teacher may d e s p a i r . Instead of teaching "a con-t e n t - f r e e s u b j e c t " ( P h i l l i p s , 1977, p. 3 ) , he i s faced with a c o n t e n t - l a d e n s u b j e c t . Choice must be the key word. S e v e r a l educators o f f e r some s e n s i b l e a d v i c e . C a i l l a u d (1976) sug-gests f o u r p r i n c i p l e s of t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e : 1) " s a i s i r 1'eve-nement au v o l " — f o l l o w the calendar and use c u r r e n t events as " e n t r e e s " to t o p i c s , i . e . , use e l e c t i o n time to teach the c o n s t i t u t i o n ; 2) " l i e r l e p r e s e n t au p a s s e " — o f t e n a c u r r e n t p l a y or f i l m may r e c a l l h i s t o r y ; 3) "un cours de c i v i l i s a -t i o n n'est pas un cours de l i t t e r a t u r e " — u s e l i t e r a r y works f o r t h e i r documentary value; and 4) " f a i r e appel a l a r e f l e -x i o n e t au jugement personnel de l ' e l e v e " — u s e t h e i r e x p e r i -ence and thoughts i n debates, p r o j e c t s and essays (pp. 81-86). Wylie advises the teacher to be wary of h i s own person-a l enthusiasms and, i n s t e a d of t r y i n g to promote a f r a n c o -phone lo v e a f f a i r amongst students, to aim f o r a " l e s s s e n t i -mental, more a t t a i n a b l e , more i n t e l l e c t u a l " understanding of the c u l t u r e (Santoni, 1981, pp. 2-3). I t i s ev i d e n t t h a t more and more educators are s e e i n g the need to teach c u l t u r e and to communicate not onl y the language code but a l s o a knowledge of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e to stud e n t s . As Banathy and Lange (1972) maintain, "language i s a complex communication event which takes p l a c e i n the c u l -t u r a l and s i t u a t i o n a l contexts of i t s s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y " (p. 12). A language i s more than a mere system of sounds; i t i s connected to a people whose h e r i t a g e and way of l i f e must a l s o be communicated to the student. I t may be worthwhile to look at s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s which i n c o r p o r a t e study of the second language with study of a con-t e n t s u b j e c t and to see how knowledge about a t o p i c can be i n t e g r a t e d with experience of a language. 5. I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y S t u d i e s As one can see, the models p r o v i d e d by Seelye, Nostrand and o t h e r s i n v o l v e a v a s t array of knowledge, s k i l l s and be-h a v i o u r s to be a c q u i r e d by the student. The problem f a c i n g teachers i s the l a c k of time i n which to teach such knowl-edge. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t C a r r o l l (1975), i n h i s 33 study of FSL i n e i g h t c o u n t r i e s , concluded that the time spent s t u d y i n g French was the most important v a r i a b l e i n de-t e r m i n i n g success i n the language. Yet a t the secondary l e v -e l i n B r i t i s h Columbia, FSL i s s t i l l g e n e r a l l y taught i n hour long p e r i o d s three or f o u r times a week. JeKenta and F e a r i n g ' s (1976) statement about the p l a c e of modern l a n -guages i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m remains as true today as when i t was w r i t t e n : "Eighty percent of the j u n i o r and s e n i o r high s c h o o l s s t i l l adhere to r i g i d s c h e d u l i n g with c u r r i c u l u m p a t t e r n s based on f i v e hours per week" (p. 155). In f a c t , although Halpern (1978) r e i t e r a t e s t h at "the more time spent on l e a r n i n g , the more . . . i s l e a r n e d , " he comments t h a t too much time devoted to " s t r a i g h t language t e a c h i n g " may r e s u l t i n " d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s , " that i s , a l a c k of progress i n language a c q u i s i t i o n (p. 12). Yet i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , as f a r back as almost twenty ye a r s ago, there was a movement to d i v e r s i f y the language l e a r n i n g experience by o f f e r i n g s u b j e c t matter courses i n the f o r e i g n language. The courses were i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n na-ture and u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d a s o c i a l s c i e n c e s u b j e c t such as h i s t o r y or geography or a humanities course. The F o r e i g n Language Innovative C u r r i c u l a S t u d i e s course developed i n Michigan, i s reviewed by JeKenta and F e a r i n g (1976) who de-f i n e the dual o b j e c t i v e of such a course i n the s c h o o l cur-r i c u l u m . Not only does i t i n c r e a s e the student's l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s i n the f o r e i g n language, but i t a l s o g i v e s him s p e c i f -i c knowledge about another c u l t u r e or another t o p i c : "Lan-guage becomes the t o o l f o r f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g i n the v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s and widens h i s h o r i z o n s as w e l l as expands h i s working c a p a b i l i t i e s " (p. 168). O r t and Smith (1969) g i v e a r e p o r t of the FLICS p r o j e c t i n a comprehensive a r t i c l e which examines a v a r i e t y of cours-es f o r second language students that d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from the t y p i c a l f o r e i g n language c l a s s . The authors c l a i m t h a t the a r t i c l e "explores some of the avenues open to f o r e i g n language teachers i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a v i n g t h e i r secure and com-f o r t a b l e one-way s t r e e t s i n c l o s e d language programs" (p. 28). Courses d e s c r i b e d i n c l u d e Government, American H i s t o r y i n French, Advanced H i s p a n i c S t u d i e s and Problems of Democ-racy (taught i n German). Interdepartmental c o o p e r a t i o n and the amount of teacher p r e p a r a t i o n time emerge as v i t a l f a c -t o r s i n the development of such a program. Although much r e -search remains to be done i n t h i s area, mention can be made of one study done at Brandywine High S c h o o l , Wilmington, D e l -aware. The study i n v o l v e d two experimental groups who took a L a t i n American s t u d i e s course i n Spanish and one c o n t r o l group who took the same course i n E n g l i s h (Ort & Smith, 1969, pp. 42-51). A l l students had f o u r years of Spanish at the beginning of the p r o j e c t which l a s t e d f o r t h i r t y c l a s s e s ; each c l a s s was s i x t y - f i v e minutes i n l e n g t h , and met f o u r times a week. The c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from data which t e s t e d the students' knowledge of content (not language) i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the amount of content understood by a l l three groups. The b e n e f i t s ac-crued from such courses are s t a t e d by a p a r t i c i p a n t i n a sim-i l a r programme: The student, through using the language two p e r i o d s a day i n s t e a d of the present one p e r i o d , not only accomplishes the goals of h i s s o c i a l s t u d i e s pro-gram but a l s o extends h i s experience i n the f o r e i g n language (Ort & Smith, 1969, p. 29). What emerges from the a r t i c l e by O r t and Smith i s that "only l a c k of i m a g i n a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y l i m i t what can be done to extend the boundaries of f o r e i g n language pro-grams" (p. 67). T h i s i s not to say that the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems r a i s e d by i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y courses are s m a l l . On the con-t r a r y , the implementation of such a program i n v o l v e s c l o s e communication between a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s . However the very f a c t t h a t such programs do e x i s t seems to i n d i c a t e t h at they are f e a s i b l e . Champagne (1978) d e s c r i b e s courses which he has organ-i z e d a t the undergraduate l e v e l which allow students "to i n -v e s t i g a t e problems i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t areas using f o r e i g n l a n -guage as the t o o l " (p. 81). However, even at the secondary l e v e l , these i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y courses are not a t o t a l l y new concept. As Warriner (1971) s t a t e s "no f o r e i g n language pro-gram, however c o n v e n t i o n a l i t may be, i s p u r e l y u n i d i s c i p l i n -a r y " (p. 128). Indeed there have always been courses d e a l i n g with d i f f e r e n t aspects of a language and i t s c u l t u r e . Even the t e a c h i n g of a song or baking of a " t o u r t i e r e " c ould be viewed as i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y . How does one connect the n o t i o n of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d i e s with the teaching of c u l t u r e ? Warriner views the de-compartmentalization of the c u r r i c u l u m as a worthy g o a l i n the advancement of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding (p. 135). Re-viewing r e s u l t s of t e s t s administered to students i n d i f f e r -ent i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y programs, she observed both a b e t t e r o r a l and w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n i n the t a r g e t language and a heightened i n t e r e s t i n t h a t language (p. 156). Warriner con-cludes t h a t " i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s and programs move f o r e i g n language i n s t r u c t i o n c l o s e r to b i l i n g u a l i s m — i t s u l -timate g o a l " (p. 158). Str a s h e i m (1981) i s a l s o i n favour of more o v e r l a p be-tween f o r e i g n languages and other humanities s u b j e c t s . G l o b a l e d u c a t i o n , as she terms i t , i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n nature and touches on a l l aspects of education; the focus i s l e s s on method and more on content (p. 129). Teachers are urged to look a t c u l t u r e by f o l l o w i n g s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t angles: 1) r e - e v a l u a t i n g the textbooks' c u l t u r a l readings; 2) u s i n g c u l -t u r a l r e f e r e n t s to teach vocabulary; 3) d i s c u s s i n g the value system of the f o r e i g n c u l t u r e ; and 4) approaching readings from the standpoint of content r a t h e r than grammar (p. 135). Strasheim s t r e s s e s the importance of d e v i s i n g c u r r i c u l a f o r the a dolescent which i n c l u d e the te a c h i n g of c u l t u r e and which i n t e r c o n n e c t d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s (p. 143). In pursu-in g the go a l of g l o b a l education, one can show students t h a t "language i s the medium and c u l t u r e i s the message" (p. 143). Torney-Purta (1980) argues that "the i n c l u s i o n of a g l o b a l dimension i n language i n s t r u c t i o n . . . may be more i n t e r e s t -ing than re a d i n g about the d a i l y l i f e of middle c l a s s adoles-c e n t s " (p. 38). Herron (1980) o u t l i n e s one example of the l i n k i n g of c u l t u r e and' second languages i n the proposed core c u r r i c u l u m f o r undergraduate students at Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . The pro-gram c o n s i s t s of seven to ten courses drawn from s e v e r a l broad academic areas: l i t e r a t u r e , the a r t s , h i s t o r y , p h i l o s -ophy, s c i e n c e , mathematics, f o r e i g n languages and c u l t u r e (p. 70). T h i s program, as McNeil (1981) s t a t e s , aims . . . at h e l p i n g the student to see how the v a r i o u s p a r t s of education f i t together and at p r e s e n t i n g important l e g a c i e s f o r a c i t i z e n of the world--the knowledge of the past that i l l u m i n a t e s the prese n t (p. 61). The i n t e g r a t i o n of c u l t u r a l with l i n g u i s t i c knowledge i s seen as an e s s e n t i a l step i n g l o b a l understanding. Lambert (1974) emphasizes the m o t i v a t i o n a l aspect of l e a r n i n g about a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e ; l e a r n i n g about people i s 38 most l i k e l y to e l i c i t a n a t u r a l and deep i n t e r e s t among . . . students and i t i s around t h i s n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t t h at the m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n the l a n -guage(s) i n q u e s t i o n w i l l be generated (p. 60). T h i s connection between the language and the people who speak t h a t language i s one which can be explored through a course which would combine the two elements. C u l t u r e i s i n i t s e l f i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n nature, i s l i n k e d to language and i s an e s s e n t i a l element of language l e a r n i n g . 6. C o n c l u s i o n Throughout the l i t e r a t u r e , one f i n d s evidence of a need to i n t e g r a t e the te a c h i n g of c u l t u r a l themes i n a more sy s -tematic way i n t o second language t e a c h i n g . Teachers have be-gun to move away from b r i e f c u l t u r a l r e f e r e n c e s to a f u l l e r e x p l o r a t i o n of t o p i c s with t h e i r s t udents. As Nostrand (1974) s t a t e s " i n t e r e s t i n s u p e r f i c i a l d e t a i l s i s being r e -p l a c e d by a g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y to d i f f e r e n c e s i n peoples' v a l u e s , assumptions and modes of thought and f e e l i n g " (p. 319). By i n t e g r a t i n g c u l t u r e with language, both teacher and student stand to b e n e f i t g r e a t l y from the r e s u l t i n g e x p e r i -ence. F i c h o u (1979) s t r e s s e s t h a t teachers "disposent i c i de l a p o s s i b i l i t y de c r e e r l e u r propre technique (et) de person-n a l i s e r l e u r enseignement" (p. 43). The te a c h i n g of c u l t u r e opens a door i n the second language classroom which shows both teachers and students a l i k e a more humanistic way to language l e a r n i n g than the p a t t e r n d r i l l s of a u d i o - l i n g u a l theory. Yet the problem of s c h e d u l i n g , f i n d i n g time and choosing m a t e r i a l remain c r u c i a l i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the teaching of c u l t u r e . I t t h e r e f o r e seems worthwhile to spend time l o o k i n g at a way i n which secondary students of French as a second language c o u l d improve both t h e i r command of French and t h e i r understanding of francophone c u l t u r e . In the next chapter, c u r r i c u l u m design and the development of a course f o r the tea c h i n g of c u l t u r e to FSL students w i l l be examined. 40 CHAPTER I I I CONSIDERATIONS IN DEVELOPING A CURRICULUM FOR THE TEACHING OF FRANCOPHONE CULTURE TO FSL STUDENTS IN THE CORE PROGRAM 1. The Time F a c t o r The f a c t t h a t a v a r i e t y of o p i n i o n s on c u l t u r e e x i s t s has been demonstrated i n the p r e v i o u s chapter. Yet, whether one views c u l t u r e from the "formal" or the "deep" p o i n t of view, most people agree t h a t i t forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the language and t h e r e f o r e must be taught. However, the amount of time a l l o c a t e d to the FSL or Core c u r r i c u l u m i n most p a r t s of Canada means th a t c u l t u r e , although w i d e l y recognized i n p r i n c i p l e , i s o f t e n completely ignored ( S t e r n , 1982, p. 40). Most FSL teachers b e l i e v e that 100-120 hours per school year do not allow them to cover the l i n g u i s t i c requirements of the course adequately l e t alone the c u l t u r a l or a t t i t u d i n a l com-ponents. Kenney (1976) s t a t e s that the g o a l of b i l i n g u a l i s m i s u n r e a l i s t i c given the time allowed (p. 7). I n c r e a s i n g l y , s t u d i e s on p r o f i c i e n c y i n second languages r e v e a l that i t i s the amount of time spent s t u d y i n g a l a n -guage which most i n f l u e n c e s p r o d u c t i o n and comprehension i n t h a t language. C a r r o l l (1975) found t h a t l e n g t h of i n s t r u c -t i o n i n the second language was a more important f a c t o r than age of e n t r y i n t o a program. In f a c t , h i s study of FSL i n e i g h t c o u n t r i e s found t h a t the onset of i n s t r u c t i o n i n French "can be delayed more than normally i f more i n t e n s i v e i n s t r u c -t i o n i s g i v e n " (p. 277). The data from the P e e l study (Lap-k i n , Swain, Kamin & Hanna, 1983) suggests "that the p e r c e n t -age of time spent i n French ( i n t e n s i t y ) at a given grade l e v e l i s more important than the t o t a l accumulated hours of French i n s t r u c t i o n i n developing L2 s k i l l s " (p. 199). S i n c e i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t secondary schools w i l l d r a -m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e the amount of time a l l o c a t e d to FSL and s i n c e i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether students would want French c l a s s e s encroaching on E n g l i s h , Mathematics or S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s e s , i t would seem l o g i c a l to o f f e r a course on c u l t u r e as an e l e c t i v e — a n o p t i o n f o r those students i n t e r e s t e d i n improving t h e i r language s k i l l s i n French and i n a c q u i r i n g a deeper knowledge of francophone c u l t u r e : a d i v e r s e and mul-t i - f a c e t e d c u l t u r e which, f o r Canadian students, e x i s t s as f a r away as T a h i t i and as near as next door. T h i s concept has something i n common with L a f a y e t t e ' s (1978) core p l u s Open Time model, but whereas L a f a y e t t e advocates an assess-ment by the teacher of what must be covered, a l l o w i n g e x t r a 42 time f o r enrichment and reinforcement w i t h i n the core program (p. 11), the course proposed i n the p r e s e n t study would be added to the core" program as an e l e c t i v e . I n stead of deduct-ing time from language i n s t r u c t i o n i n order to teach c u l t u r e , one would add time spent i n the second language. F u r t h e r -more, r a t h e r than choosing any s u b j e c t to teach through French, francophone c u l t u r e would be taught i n order to l i n k the students to the speakers of the language t h a t they are l e a r n i n g . The course does not pretend to develop b i l i n g u a l s t udents. Instead i t s goals are to i n c r e a s e the student's a b i l i t y to understand and to communicate i n French, to expand h i s knowledge of francophone c u l t u r e and to encourage a f a -v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards speakers of French. 2. C u r r i c u l u m Models Each teacher and a d m i n i s t r a t o r has h i s own p e r c e p t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m and h i s o p i n i o n s on t h i s s u b j e c t w i l l determine the type of model or framework which he w i l l choose i n de-s i g n i n g a new course. I f he views c u r r i c u l u m as "a s t r u c t u r -ed s e r i e s of intended l e a r n i n g outcomes" (Johnson, 1977, p. 2 ) , he w i l l tend to favour a means/end type of model. Spe-c i f i c outcomes w i l l be expected f o r s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . Although t h i s type of model has been widely used i n second language programs i n the past, the c u r r e n t emphasis on commu-n i c a t i v e competence and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n tends to 43 l e a n away from a s i m p l i s t i c S-R, input/output model (Cha-s t a i n , 1976, pp. 37-38). Looking a t a r e c e n t l y developed c u r r i c u l u m guide one sees c u l t u r a l g o als being d e f i n e d i n terms of being able to d e s c r i b e , be aware o f , compare and c o n t r a s t , and develop an understanding of v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l phenomena (Secondary French C u r r i c u l u m Guide, B.C., 1980, pp. 14-15). The task of developing a c u r r i c u l u m to teach such s k i l l s i s more complex than p r o v i d i n g a c e r t a i n stimulus to g a i n a s p e c i f i c response. One way of t a c k l i n g the problem of c u r r i c u l u m design would be to answer T y l e r ' s four q u e s t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y ac-knowledged as the f a t h e r of modern c u r r i c u l u m design, T y l e r (1949) asked the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What e d u c a t i o n a l purposes should the s c h o o l seek to a t t a i n ? In t e a c h i n g francophone c u l t u r e , the school seeks to improve the student's knowledge of French, a b i l i t y to express h i m s e l f i n t h a t language and knowledge about the d i v e r s i t y of francophone c u l -t u r e . 2. What e d u c a t i o n a l experiences can be p r o v i d e d t h a t are l i k e l y to a t t a i n these purposes? The student would t a l k about d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l phenomena, l e a r n f a c t s about francophone c u l t u r e and would be exposed to the m u l t i p l i c i t y of modern francophone c u l t u r e i n d i f f e r -ent p a r t s of the world. How can these e d u c a t i o n a l experiences be e f f e c t i v e l y organized? The teacher, i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the s c h o o l and the community, develops a program which takes ,into account the needs of the students and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of resource m a t e r i a l s . The course i s t e a c h e r - c e n t r e d at the o u t s e t because the students are from an FSL program with two to three years of language i n s t r u c t i o n . The teacher s t i m u l a t e s commu-n i c a t i o n i n French, and as the students' language p r o d u c t i o n and comprehension improve so does t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the course. At the end of the course, the students p l a y a more a c t i v e r o l e i n the design and implementation of the t e a c h i n g u n i t s . How can the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these experiences be evaluated? The e v a l u a t i o n must be both of the l a n -guage l e v e l of the students and t h e i r knowledge and understanding of the c u l t u r a l phenomena. However, an undue emphasis on grammatical c o r r e c t n e s s may trauma-t i z e students' production; t h e r e f o r e a p r o g r e s s i o n from easy to more d i f f i c u l t types of t e s t s i s f o r e -seen. In the f i r s t u n i t , t e s t i n g w i l l be of the t r u e / f a l s e , m u l t i p l e choice v a r i e t y with s h o r t three minute t a l k s i n c l a s s as the means of o r a l assess-ment. However, as the students' confidence i n ex-p r e s s i o n b u i l d s , assessment of w r i t t e n r e p o r t s , o r a l 45 debates and longer o r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n c l a s s w i l l be i n c l u d e d as p a r t of the course. T e s t i n g the a t t i t u d i n a l g oal of developing a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e to speakers of French and francophone c u l t u r e does not form p a r t of the e v a l u a t i o n envisaged by t h i s author a l -though t h i s may prove an i n t e r e s t i n g p r o j e c t f o r f u t u r e r e -search once the course has been taught. By answering T y l e r ' s four q u e s t i o n s , one sees s e v e r a l stages emerging i n the process of d e s i g n i n g a c u r r i c u l u m , these are: 1. A g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g stage: G o a l s . 2. An a c t i v i t y stage: S p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s . 3. A c a t e g o r i z i n g of those a c t i v i t i e s : O r g a n i z a t i o n . 4. An assessment of those a c t i v i t i e s : E v a l u a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a r i s t s have d e f i n e d a v a r i e t y of steps which r e f l e c t t h i s l i n e a r , s ystematic approach to c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g . Taba (1962) o u t l i n e d seven s t e p s : 1. D i a g n o s i s of needs 2. Formulation of o b j e c t i v e s 3. S e l e c t i o n of content 4. O r g a n i z a t i o n of content 5. S e l e c t i o n of l e a r n i n g experiences 6. O r g a n i z a t i o n of l e a r n i n g experiences 7. Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing i t (p. 12). 46 However, not a l l educators view the process of c u r r i c u -lum p l a n n i n g as p u r e l y l i n e a r . Banathy and Lange (1972) r e -f e r to two bases which form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the process of p l a n n i n g a f o r e i g n language c u r r i c u l u m . The t h e o r e t i c a l base covers knowledge about the content of the course whereas the pragmatic base covers i n f o r m a t i o n about the l e a r n i n g s i t -u a t i o n . Once both bases have been exp l o r e d and e s t a b l i s h e d , the purpose of the course, (the g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c language o b j e c t i v e s ) may be pursued (p. 40). A. and H. N i c h o l l s (1978) see c u r r i c u l u m development as a c y c l i c a l r a t h e r than a l i n e a r process and r e p r e s e n t t h e i r model f o r course design by the f o l l o w i n g schema (p. 21): S e l e c t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s S e l e c t i o n and of content o r g a n i z a t i o n S i t u a t i o n a n a l y s i s E v a l u a t i o n S e l e c t i o n and organ-i z a t i o n of methods They maintain t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m should be dynamic not s t a -t i c , and t h a t each stage may w e l l be an ongoing process a t many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s — m i n i s t r y , s c h o o l board, school and teacher. The s i t u a t i o n a n a l y s i s , f o r example, may be made a t both the e a r l y and l a t e stages of c u r r i c u l u m design and may be an a n a l y s i s of the students, the teacher, the s c h o o l , en-vironment or m a t e r i a l s . Although the complexity of c u r r i c u -lum d e s i g n and the f u t i l i t y of s i m p l i f y i n g i t to three or four steps begins to emerge, one does see i n common with most models the notion s of examining the s i t u a t i o n , determining what i s to be taught and a s s e s s i n g the proc e s s . P l a n n i n g takes p l a c e at d i f f e r e n t times and on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . In a d i s c u s s i o n of the teacher's r o l e as c u r r i c u l u m maker, the A l -b e r t a Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n (1971) r e c o g n i z e s two types of pl a n n i n g : "the d e l i b e r a t e , c a r e f u l c h o i c e s made p r i o r to tea c h i n g (and) the spontaneous d e c i s i o n s made durin g the pro-cess of t e a c h i n g " (p. 15). T h i s b r i n g s us to the r o l e of the teacher as an a c t i v e , d i r e c t i v e f o r c e i n the c u r r i c u l u m de-velopment pr o c e s s . O b v i o u s l y , p l a n n i n g must precede a c t i o n , but i t i s i n the hands of the teacher t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m comes to l i f e - - " i n s t r u c t i o n puts the p l a n i n t o a c t i o n (and) breathes l i f e i n t o the p l a n f o r the l e a r n e r and the teacher" ( A l b e r t a Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1971, p. 15). Reading cer-t a i n r i g i d step-by-step c u r r i c u l u m models, one has the im-p r e s s i o n t h a t they were designed f o r machines r a t h e r than f o r 48 s t u d e n t s . The c u r r i c u l u m model must t h e r e f o r e make p r o v i -s i o n s f o r the f a c t t h a t the l e a r n i n g / t e a c h i n g process cannot be programmed or planned to the l a s t minute. E i s n e r (1979) expresses the viewpoint t h a t . . . e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , whether t e a c h i n g , e v a l -u a t i n g or c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , i s much l i k e the a r -t i s t i c a c t i v i t y a p a i n t e r engages i n as he or she copes with emerging v i s u a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s on a can-vas (p. i x , P r e f a c e ) . T h i s idea of c u r r i c u l u m as an emergent process r e f l e c t s Nos-trand's (1967) emergent model of c u l t u r e . There can be no r i g i d , d e f i n i t i v e statement about what to do s i n c e the very essence of l i f e i s change and movement. E i s n e r c r i t i c i z e s "the conceptual neatness that pervades much of the w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l concerning c u r r i c u l u m development" and argues t h a t i t seldom approximates the r e a l i t i e s of the l e a r n i n g s i t u a -t i o n (p. x i , P r e f a c e ) . Although he does not exclude the idea of a c u r r i c u l u m model i n which "plans are cr e a t e d i n p r o c e s s " (p. 41), the p o s i t i o n adopted i n the presen t study i s t h a t p l a n n i n g of some nature must be p a r t of the development of a c u r r i c u l u m . To conclude t h i s s e c t i o n , i t seems apparent not only t h a t there are as many models as there are d e f i n i t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m but th a t c e r t a i n steps are common to most models. These are: 1. A s s e s s i n g the s i t u a t i o n 49 2. Determining what i s to be taught 3. S t a t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s or outcomes 4. D e f i n i n g a means of c a r r y i n g out those o b j e c t i v e s 5. E v a l u a t i n g what has occur r e d . 3. The Student A course may be w e l l developed but i f i t has no r e l e -vance or i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the students t a k i n g i t , then i t i s w o r t h l e s s . Each aspect of the l e a r n i n g / t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n i s important: the student, the teacher, the s c h o o l , the edu-c a t i o n a l community, the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e and the s o c i e t y i n which they are s i t u a t e d . Each has i t s own r o l e i n the process but the most important of these i s the person f o r whom the e d u c a t i o n a l process i s intended: the student. F i r s t l y , i t i s assumed t h a t the student who e l e c t s to take a course i n francophone c u l t u r e wants to improve h i s French and knowledge of c u l t u r e . Perhaps he r e a l i z e s that . . . language s k i l l s , l i k e a l l p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , may never be p e r f e c t e d and may l a t e r be f o r g o t t e n , ye t the e n l a r g i n g and e n r i c h i n g r e s u l t s of the c u l -t u r a l experience endure throughout l i f e ( F i n o c c h i -aro & Bonomo, 1973, p. 39). Y e t the student, r e a l i z i n g that most s c h o o l m a t r i c u l a t i o n examinations are based on l i n g u i s t i c competence not c u l t u r a l knowledge, w i l l not see any purpose i n the course unless i t 50 i s g i v e n i n French. The student wants to expand h i s knowl-edge both l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y . The student at the secondary l e v e l has needs which must be s a t i s f i e d i n order f o r him to develop e m o t i o n a l l y as w e l l as a c a d e m i c a l l y . A l l too o f t e n , one f e e l s t h a t the a f f e c t i v e development of the c h i l d , so l o v i n g l y nurtured at the elemen-t a r y l e v e l , i s f o r g o t t e n at the secondary s c h o o l l e v e l . The compartmentalization of the secondary c u r r i c u l u m tends to break knowledge i n t o segments, taught by teachers i n t e n t on p u t t i n g t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r branch of knowledge across to a group of students. Recent second language c u r r i c u l a such as t h a t i n B r i t i s h Columbia (1980) emphasize the importance of the a f f e c t i v e and c u l t u r a l components but e x t e r n a l examina-t i o n s and u n i v e r s i t y requirements o f t e n d i c t a t e an e x c l u s i v e -l y l i n g u i s t i c approach. Egan's (1979) views on e d u c a t i o n a l development are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to every teacher. He claims t h a t there are f o u r b a s i c stages of e d u c a t i o n a l development and that knowledge must be organized and taught d i f f e r e n t l y at each of these stages. They are: 1. The Mythic Stage - Ages 4/5 - 9/10 2. The Romantic Stage - Ages 8/9 - 14/15 3. The P h i l o s o p h i c Stage - Ages 14/15 - 19/20 4. The I r o n i c Stage - Ages 19/20 through adulthood. For example, at the mythic stage, f a n t a s y and myths are advocated i n order to e x p l a i n " b a s i c emotions and m o r a l i t y " (p. 11) to the c h i l d . Egan maintains t h a t s i n c e a c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s are emotional r a t h e r than r a t i o n a l , knowl-edge must be presented a c c o r d i n g l y i . e . , by o r g a n i z i n g games and u n i t s around s t o r i e s which g i v e the c h i l d i n t e l l e c t u a l s e c u r i t y because they are not ambiguous, a sense of otherness because they d e a l with h i s t o r y and a moral sense because they show b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s ( l o v e / h a t e , g o o d / e v i l ) e a s i l y p e r c e i v e d by c h i l d r e n . The romantic stage, which i s most r e l e v a n t to the secon-dary s c h o o l , begins as a t r a n s i t i o n from the mythic when c h i l -dren s t a r t to understand the autonomous nature of the world and t h e i r c onnection with i t , and develop a sense of t h e i r own i d e n t i t y (p. 29). The romantic stage proper would appear to be a good time to l e a r n more about a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e , as t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n "otherness" peaks and they form "romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s " with the world (p. 30). A t t h i s stage, there i s a need f o r knowledge to be " d i f f e r e n t " but a l s o r e a l and d e t a i l e d (p. 32). How many language teachers d e s p a i r of the student who cannot remember a s i n g l e verb but who can r e c a l l w ith amazing accuracy the l a t e s t hockey scores or the i n t i -mate d e t a i l s of t h e i r f a v o u r i t e pop s t a r ' s l i f e ? The problem with t h i s a d o l e s c e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s not how to e l i m i n a t e i t but how "to harness i t to the mastery of the k i n d of mate-r i a l t h a t w i l l best help the student's e d u c a t i o n a l develop-ment" (p. 36). In a course on c u l t u r e , m a t e r i a l would be 52 a u t h e n t i c and i n t e r e s t i n g d e t a i l would provoke students' i n t e r e s t s . Romantic o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l i n v o l v e an e x p l o r a t i o n of r e a l i t y i n d e t a i l , concepts of otherness, access through something as d i f f e r e n t as p o s s i b l e from students' everyday experience, and connect i n t o the d i f f e r e n t element by means of a s s o c i a t i o n with some transcendent human q u a l i t y (p. 38). The key words here are "transcendent" and "human": s t o r i e s with beginnings and ends, i l l u s t r a t i n g c o n f l i c t s and t r i -umphs, form a v i t a l component of the te a c h i n g u n i t . Using h i s t o r i c a l or contemporary f i g u r e s , students transcend t h e i r own l i m i t e d surroundings and begin to comprehend the world beyond. J u n e l l (1974) emphasizes the r o l e of the teacher as a d r a m a t i s t u s i n g "such elements as n a r r a t i v e , c o n f l i c t and denouement" (p. I l l ) and c a l l s f o r a more s e n s i t i v e treatment of h i s t o r i c a l themes to accommodate the emotional aspect of a c h i l d ' s world (p. 113). Egan suggests t h a t r e l e v a n c y to the students' l i v e s may not be of i n t e r e s t to students; a com-p l e t e c o n t r a s t with t h e i r own l i v e s w i l l b e t t e r enable them to d e f i n e t h e i r own r e a l i t y (p. 48). At t h i s stage, the s t u -dent should focus . . . on the extremes, on the most f a s c i n a t i n g b i t s and p i e c e s , on v i v i d t r ue s t o r i e s , on dramatic events and ideas, on b i z a r r e f a c t s , on heroes and 53 h e r o i n e s and on some p a r t i c u l a r areas i n gre a t de-t a i l (p. 50). The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s approach to the teaching of c u l -ture i s t h a t , i n s t e a d of a n a l y z i n g g e n e r a l trends of behav-i o u r , as an a d u l t would, one acknowledges that "the immature r e q u i r e immature concepts and methods of i n q u i r y " (p. 48). Egan's t h e o r i e s have been d e a l t with a t some l e n g t h as the student's age and emotional needs are of v i t a l importance i n the development of a course and the ch o i c e of content. I t must be s t a t e d t h a t the c o n c l u s i o n s reached by Egan are based on p h i l o s o p h i c a l r a t h e r than experimental data. C r i t i c s may j u s t i f i a b l y p o i n t out t h a t h i s theory of e d u c a t i o n a l develop-ment l a c k s e m p i r i c a l support y e t , as Egan hi m s e l f s t a t e s , "ideas must precede data" (p. 163) and i t seems that h i s ideas serve as an a p p r o p r i a t e s t a r t i n g p o i n t when c r e a t i n g a c u r r i c u l u m f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . F o l l o w i n g Egan's advice one would emphasize the s t o r y , f o c u s i n g on heroes and heroines and, from that angle, would l e a d students toward a comprehension of ge n e r a l c u l t u r a l con-cepts such as "La F a m i l l e " or " L ' i n d i v i d u a l i s m e . " Con-cepts such as "The Sense of F u n c t i o n a l i t y of C u l t u r a l l y Con-d i t i o n e d Behaviour" (Seelye, 1974, p. 7) or " S t r a t i f i c a t i o n and M o b i l i t y " (Nostrand, 1967, pp. 30-38) are too ge n e r a l and a b s t r a c t f o r the adolescent mind. They must be p e r s o n a l i z e d and r e p r e s e n t e d i n a f a s h i o n which students can i d e n t i f y as being r e l e v a n t to t h e i r l i v e s and a s p i r a t i o n s . 54 4. The Teacher, the School and S o c i e t y S e v e r a l p o i n t s must be r a i s e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the teacher as an important f a c t o r i n the c u r r i c u l u m development pr o c e s s . F i r s t l y , a l l teachers are i n d i v i d u a l s , each with h i s or her own p e r s o n a l background and t h i s should be taken i n t o account when t o p i c s are s e l e c t e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . Teach-e r s , whether they be quebecois, French or anglophone, should use t h e i r background to motivate and i n t e r e s t s tudents. How-ever, they should a l s o expand and b u i l d upon t h a t background. For example, the teacher born i n France should l e a r n and teach about Quebec and other p a r t s of the world where French i s spoken. Secondly, the teacher w i l l probably be teaching r e g u l a r FSL c l a s s e s and has t h e r e f o r e l i m i t e d time to prepare and r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l . In these FSL c l a s s e s , teachers d i s -pose of a v a r i e t y of a i d s — t e x t b o o k s , tapes, readers, e t c . - -to supplement or j u s t teach the l i n g u i s t i c component; how-ever, when te a c h i n g c u l t u r e , they must invent, r e s e a r c h and prepare t h e i r own m a t e r i a l . The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n s e t t i n g up a separate e l e c t i v e i n francophone c u l t u r e are t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r a b l e s i n c e there i s no textbook on which to r e l y . A study of teachers' p l a n n i n g models (Zahorik, 1975) r e v e a l e d t h a t teachers are more concerned with the range and p a r t i c u l a r s of the s u b j e c t matter to be taught than with gen-e r a l o b j e c t i v e s or e v a l u a t i o n (p. 138). Teachers' p r i o r i t y i s content and the e f f e c t i v e communication of m a t e r i a l to the student. T h i s concern i s of prime importance s i n c e " c u r r i -culum's per d u r a b l e f a b r i c i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t of content" (Babin, 1981, p. 47). The teacher, of course, does not work i n i s o l a t i o n but i n a s c h o o l , which i s g e n e r a l l y p a r t of a l a r g e r system. There are v a r i o u s p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which must be taken i n t o account before the course i s implemented and i t i s v i t a l to e s t a b l i s h a c h e c k l i s t before proceeding. A boo k l e t such as Proposed L o c a l l y Developed Courses ( M i n i s t r y of Edu-c a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977) i s u s e f u l i n p o i n t i n g out the d i f f e r e n t elements which must be co n s i d e r e d . The process suggested i n the. b o o k l e t asks key q u e s t i o n s under the f o l l o w -ing ten headings: 1) S o c i e t a l and i n d i v i d u a l needs: The teacher and sc h o o l must ask whether f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n French i s per-c e i v e d by the community and s o c i e t y at l a r g e as a b e n e f i c i a l g o a l . I f the answer i s no, then the p r o j e c t would appear w o r t h l e s s . I s the f e d e r a l b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l concept per-c e i v e d as a worthwhile endeavour by the community or r a t h e r as a f u t i l e dream? Does s o c i e t y view the l e a r n i n g of French p o s i t i v e l y o r n e g a t i v e l y ? As f o r the i n d i v i d u a l student's needs, i t i s important that the teacher conduct a student i n t e r e s t survey and c o n s u l t with other s t a f f members about the content of the course. Many students are concerned with c r e d i t and marks. I t i s v i t a l t h a t the type of c r e d i t be 56 agreed on before the course i s implemented so t h a t the s t u -dent understands that he/she i s t a k i n g an academic course f o r academic c r e d i t t h a t w i l l be accepted by i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher l e a r n i n g . 2) P r o v i n c i a l philosophy of education: Does the course complement the goals of the French language program and w i l l support be forthcoming from government agencies? I s t h i s l o -c a l l y developed course s u b j e c t to the whims of a p r i n c i p a l , s c h o o l board or m i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s or w i l l i t be s o l i d l y sup-ported? 3) Examination of s i m i l a r courses: The teacher should c o n t a c t the l o c a l c u r r i c u l u m development branch i n order to d i s c o v e r i f other programs e x i s t and g a i n help from such pro-grams' s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. 4) Knowledge of l e a r n i n g and growing: The course may be s o l i d l y c o n s t r u c t e d but w i l l be w o r t h l e s s i f u n s u i t a b l e f o r the age l e v e l of the students. Surveys of student l a n -guage s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s w i l l h e l p the teacher c o n s t r u c t the course. 5) Goals and l e a r n i n g outcomes: The course o u t l i n e must be w r i t t e n with s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s ; the g e n e r a l g o a l may be to a c q u i r e an a p p r e c i a t i o n of francophone c u l t u r e and an i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y to communicate i n French but s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s must be s t a t e d f o r each l e a r n i n g e x p e r i -ence. For example, by the end of the u n i t on "La Nouvelle France, 11 the student should be able to: a) name three major e x p l o r e r s , b) d e s c r i b e the s e i g n e u r i a l system, c) l o c a t e the major towns and r i v e r s on a map. 5) Teaching s t r a t e g i e s : I s the teacher c l e a r how the course w i l l be taught? Can the teacher o u t l i n e the methodol-ogy to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? i . e . , the course w i l l be taught i n French, u s i n g a communicative approach. 6) L e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s : The teacher must d i s c o v e r the budgetary r e s t r a i n t s i n v o l v e d and must decide what the b a s i c l i b r a r y and textbook purchases are. For example, an i n d i s -pensable resource f o r both student and teacher a l i k e would be a j u n i o r e n c y c l o p e d i a i n simple French such as G r o l i e r ' s Le L i v r e des Connaissances (1974). I s there a commitment from the s c h o o l to fund speakers, f i l m s , f i e l d t r i p s and other r e -source m a t e r i a l ? 7) E v a l u a t i o n : The teacher must be c l e a r about what w i l l be e v a l u a t e d . Students w i l l be t e s t e d on t h e i r knowl-edge of content, on t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y , but not on t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n of francophone c u l t u r e . A language p r e -t e s t / p o s t t e s t would be u s e f u l to i n d i c a t e whether language s k i l l s improve over the l e n g t h of the course. 8) C l a s s composition: W i l l the enrolment be l i m i t e d or open to a l l ? The course proposed i n t h i s study i s envisaged as an e l e c t i v e f o r grades 10-12, with a p r e r e q u i s i t e of a good grade (C+) i n French, f o r a minimum of two y e a r s . 58 9) A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s : Does t h i s course a c t u a l l y i n t r o -duce new m a t e r i a l to the student or i s i t a r e p e t i t i o n of an-other course a l r e a d y being taught i n the s c h o o l ? Although the i n t r o d u c t o r y u n i t on Quebec covers h i s t o r i c a l and geo-g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l which the student may have p r e v i o u s l y met i n the S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s , i t has been chosen s p e c i f i c a l l y because i t i s f a m i l i a r and t h e r e f o r e w i l l l e s s e n the s t u -dent's l i n g u i s t i c a n x i e t y . As the course progresses u n i t s on u n f a m i l i a r t o p i c s i . e . , "Les legendes quebecoises" or "La po-l i t i q u e du Quebec" are introduced. 10) C o n s i s t e n c y : The c u r r i c u l u m proposed by the teach-er should be c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s o b j e c t i v e s and coherent as a comprehensive course. The r a d i a t i n g e f f e c t of a stone thrown i n a pond emerges: at the c e n t r e are the teacher and students i n the classroom, around them the s c h o o l , then the community and, beyond t h a t , s o c i e t y at l a r g e . The q u e s t i o n s posed under the ten headings must be answered before proceeding. 5. F i v e O r i e n t a t i o n s to the C u r r i c u l u m I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to examine E i s n e r ' s (1979) f i v e b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n s to the c u r r i c u l u m and to imagine f i r s t l y how s o c i e t y would p e r c e i v e these concepts and secondly how a course i n francophone c u l t u r e would f i t i n with these v a r y i n g concepts. E i s n e r suggests t h a t c u r r i c u l u m can develop the c o g n i t i v e p rocess of the c h i l d , by h e l p i n g him l e a r n how to l e a r n and by g i v i n g him the o p p o r t u n i t y to use and strengthen h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s (p. 51). I t can be argued then t h a t the course proposed i n t h i s study w i l l develop the s k i l l of absorbing i n f o r m a t i o n and of decoding and r e s e a r c h i n g i n a second language. By l e a r n i n g through another language, the student can absorb the s t r u c t u r e s not o n l y of t h a t language but of h i s own and can i n f a c t develop h i s g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c -t u a l s k i l l s (Cummins, 1977, p. 81). The second o r i e n t a t i o n to c u r r i c u l u m i s academic r a t i o n -a l i s m which maintains that the i n t e l l e c t u a l growth of the c h i l d i s f o s t e r e d by s t u d y i n g the s u b j e c t matter deemed by s o c i e t y to be the most worthy ( E i s n e r , 1979, p. 54). In the most narrow, t r a d i t i o n a l sense, the t e a c h i n g of francophone c u l t u r e has focused on France as the country of l i t e r a t u r e , c i v i l i z a t i o n , and "des b e l l e s l e t t r e s . " In today's m u l t i c u l -t u r a l s o c i e t y , many people would f i n d i t hard to j u s t i f y de-v o t i n g a year or even a semester to the study of a s i n g l e people and c u l t u r e . Y e t i s there not a broader d e f i n i t i o n of academic r a t i o n a l i s m ? I s i t not p o s s i b l e to view l e a r n i n g "the g r e a t e s t i d e a s " ( E i s n e r , 1979, p. 55) as l e a r n i n g more about the world and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s ? In the broadest sense of the term, a l i b e r a l education i s thus the p r o d u c t i o n of l i b e r a l , c u l t u r a l l y - t o l e r a n t people who can reach out i n t o 60 the world and understand other peoples' l i v e s . I t i s submit-ted t h a t knowledge of another c u l t u r e permits a c r o s s - c u l t u r -a l understanding. T h i s leads us to E i s n e r ' s t h i r d view, t h a t of c u r r i c u l u m as s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n (p. 62). O l i v a (1969) s t a t e s that second language t e a c h i n g i s o f t e n j u s t i -f i e d "on the g e n e r a l b a s i s of i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to i n t e r n a -t i o n a l understanding" (p. 163) y e t emphasis i s u s u a l l y p l a c e d on l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s . A course i n francophone c u l t u r e goes f a r t h e r than the core French program by emphasizing the u n i -f y i n g nature of l e a r n i n g more about francophone communities i n our country and throughout the world. E i s n e r s t a t e s that p e r s o n a l r e l e v a n c e "emphasizes the primacy of p e r s o n a l meaning and the s c h o o l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to develop programs t h a t make such meaning p o s s i b l e " (p. 57). The l o c a l l y developed course i n francophone c u l t u r e grows out of p u p i l / t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n and, through an i n q u i r y ap-proach, permits the student to g a i n a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g e xperience. F i n a l l y , there i s the view t h a t c u r r i c u l u m i s a techno-l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , u s i n g the means-end model (p. 67). S o c i e t y would view the t e a c h i n g of a c u l t u r e course as a means of a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r command of the French language. I t i s not uncommon to hear people complain t h a t , a f t e r s i x years of core Program French, they "can't speak a word" or "can't un-derstand the French T.V. channel." People i n a technology dominated s o c i e t y demand r e s u l t s . "What most people want from a course i n French i s to develop a c a p a b i l i t y of commu-n i c a t i n g i n French, not to develop Academie F r a n c a i s e p r e c i -s i o n i n d e s c r i b i n g the language" (Daneault, 1983, p. 12). Perhaps these same c r i t i c s may not have r e a l i z e d t h a t s t u -dents who wish to g a i n more than a rudimentary knowledge o f , say, Mathematics, have access, at the high s c h o o l l e v e l , to r e l a t e d courses which i n c r e a s e t h e i r b a s i c s k i l l s ( i . e . , A l -gebra, Business and Consumer Mathematics, C a l c u l u s , Geometry, Chemistry and P h y s i c s , f o r example). I t i s g e n e r a l l y acknowl-edged t h a t the s k i l l s l e a r n e d i n one of these c l a s s e s w i l l t r a n s f e r to the o t h e r . Yet what about the student i n t e r e s t e d i n improving h i s French? A course i n francophone c u l t u r e g i v e n i n French should improve h i s s k i l l s . 6. A Course to Teach Francophone C u l t u r e a) C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t has been shown that the d e c i s i o n t o o f f e r a course i n francophone c u l t u r e and the c h o i c e of content are s u b j e c t to many i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s : 1. Student 62 I t i s perhaps i d e a l i s t i c to hope t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i l l a l l o t one f u l l year to a course i n francophone c u l t u r e and t h a t students with a busy academic schedule w i l l e l e c t to devote time to such a course. In a world i n c r e a s i n g l y domi-nated by the s c i e n c e s and technology, languages o f t e n take second p l a c e f o r high s c h o o l students. For these reasons, the course envisaged could be g i v e n over v a r y i n g lengths of time, as an extended course l a s t i n g e i t h e r a q u a r t e r , a se-mester, or a f u l l academic year. The g o a l s of t h i s f l e x i b l e course would not change but the s p e c i f i c outcomes expected would be l i m i t e d by the amount of l e a r n i n g / t e a c h i n g time a v a i l a b l e . The o v e r a l l g o a l of the course i s to broaden the base of the student's l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l knowledge and whether t h i s i s accomplished over a year or s i x months i s a q u e s t i o n of how one adapts and l i m i t s the b a s i c model. One q u e s t i o n which must be broached here i s t h a t of t e a c h i n g a course i n French to non-immersion students. As the F o r e i g n Language Innovative C u r r i c u l a S t u d i e s (FLICS) program (Ort & Smith, 1969; Warriner, 1971) demonstrates, students w i t h three years p r i o r study of a second language were able to study an academic s u b j e c t through that language. E s s e n t i a l l y , the teacher and h i s back-up system of s c h o o l , parents and students must decide whether the p r i o r i t y i s l a n -guage or c u l t u r e . The i n c l u s i o n of E n g l i s h w i l l d i l u t e the language experience and, i f E n g l i s h i s used i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y 63 i n the classroom, the student may soon regard what he hears i n E n g l i s h as important and what he hears i n French as a " f r i l l . " G r i t t n e r (1977) d i s c u s s e s t h i s q u e s t i o n and out-l i n e s f i v e cases of acceptable use of E n g l i s h : 1) to convey meaning of d i a l o g u e m a t e r i a l ; 2) to e x p l a i n t e s t s and d r i l l s ; 3) to g i v e cues i n p a t t e r n d r i l l s ; 4) to g i v e c u l t u r a l notes and grammatical summaries and 5) to d i s p e l students' doubts (pp. 155-157). In most of these cases, e x p l a n a t i o n s can be made by g i v i n g examples and by p a r a p h r a s i n g or s i m p l i f y i n g u t t e r a n c e s . The f i f t h c a s e — t o d i s p e l students' d o u b t s — c o u l d be d e a l t with by a b r i e f q u e s t i o n / answer s e s s i o n i n E n g l i s h a t the end of the c l a s s when students could r a i s e any q u e r i e s they had about vocabulary and content. Some teachers may p r e f e r a b i l i n g u a l approach ( i . e . , a speech i n French but a w r i t t e n r e p o r t on the same t o p i c i n E n g l i s h ) . However, s i n c e the surrounding environment i s completely anglophone, t h i s seems to be unnecessary and may swerve the student's commitment to improving h i s French. The d e c i s i o n to teach the course i n French must be adhered to by the teacher and e x p l a i n e d to the students as an e s s e n t i a l element i n t h e i r u n d ertaking to speak French. Dependent on t h i s commitment i s the r e q u i s i t e t h a t s t u -dents e n r o l l e d i n the course must take the r e g u l a r French as a Second Language c l a s s at the same time. I t i s the " i n t e n -s i t y " of the language l e a r n i n g experience (Lapkin et a l . , 64 1983) which w i l l i n t e n s i f y h i s knowledge of French and f r a n -cophone c u l t u r e . b) D e s c r i p t i o n . The content of the c u r r i c u l u m proposed here i s s e l e c t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: f i r s t l y , i t s a t -i s f i e s the need of the adolescent to l e a r n about o t h e r s and t h e i r world (Egan, 1979); secondly, i t i n t r o d u c e s the student to l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l examples of francophone c u l t u r e ; and t h i r d l y , i t does not r e q u i r e numerous t e x t -books, f i e l d t r i p s or other expenses. The course s t a r t s w i t h a u n i t which g i v e s students an h i s t o r i c a l / g e o g r a p h i c a l / p o l i t -i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of French Canada before branching out i n t o more d i v e r s e themes. Quebec i s chosen as the focus of the f i r s t u n i t because, although r e l a t i v e l y f a m i l i a r to most Ca-nadian s t u d e n t s , i t has o f t e n been presented from an anglo-phone p e r s p e c t i v e and may h o l d many st e r e o t y p e d , emotive con-n o t a t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t s . As R i v e r s suggests (Halpern, 1976) "Canadian" s t u d i e s can " i n c r e a s e understanding and a p p r e c i a -t i o n of the other Canadian c u l t u r e and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n with the Canadian c u l t u r e of the students" (p. 175). The emphasis i s thus on the f a m i l i a r y e t viewed through the eyes of French speakers. The teacher i s seen as the p r o v i d e r of i n f o r m a t i o n but, by the end of the u n i t , the student w i l l l e a r n tech-niques which w i l l h e lp him d i s c o v e r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r h i m s e l f . The c e n t r a l s e c t i o n of the course r e v o l v e s around d i v e r s e themes, chosen from both formal and deep aspects of c u l t u r e , which r e f l e c t the i n t e r e s t s of both teacher and students. Students develop t h e i r own u n i t s and the emphasis i s on group and i n d i v i d u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n - s e e k i n g mis-s i o n s . As Jenks (1974) suggests, students should be shown how to d i s c o v e r f a c t s and knowledge about the c u l t u r a l group whose language they are l e a r n i n g (p. 97). In the f i n a l sec-t i o n of the course students examine the francophone elements i n t h e i r own community. As Roy (1978) emphasizes, "French c u l t u r e i s r e a l and near" and i t i s a r a r e community which does not possess even one francophone (p. 750 ). In f a c t Cowley (1979) i n d i c a t e s t h at there are between 35,000 and 50,000 Francophones i n B r i t i s h Columbia alone (p. 15). By being informed about the h e r i t a g e and language of the f r a n c o -phone community, students w i l l be b e t t e r equipped to c a r r y out t h e i r own "enquetes." Both the " d i v e r s e themes" and "su-j e t s d'enquetes" should be dependent on the students' i n t e r -e s t s and the teacher's c a p a c i t i e s but they should i n c l u d e both C u l t u r e MLA and C u l t u r e BBV (Brooks, 1975, p. 21). A h e l p f u l c r i t e r i o n f o r choosing m a t e r i a l i s proposed by Davoust (1976). The teacher should: 1) i n t e g r a t e language with c u l t u r e ; 2) be wary of r e l y i n g on h i s own p e r s o n a l en-thusiasms; 3) prepare m a t e r i a l so. that the student i s encour-aged not discouraged; and 4) emphasize the f a c t t h a t language and c u l t u r e are c o n s t a n t l y changing (pp. 75-79). C r i t i c s w i l l say t h a t , by g i v i n g the teacher and student c h o i c e s , one r i s k s a " p o t - p o u r r i , " fragmented approach. However, a se-quencing w i l l take p l a c e on the l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l as students advance i n t h e i r comprehension and p r o d u c t i o n of the l a n -guage. A t the c u l t u r a l l e v e l , the study of d i v e r s e themes i s j u s t i f i e d because the a t t e n t i o n span and a b i l i t y of the s t u -dent to comprehend ge n e r a l concepts i s l i m i t e d at the second-ary s c h o o l l e v e l . I t i s only at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l — E g a n ' s (1979) p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e - - t h a t students begin to crave gener-a l i t y , to see cause and e f f e c t and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s (p. 60 ). The themes should answer the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1) Can they be explored using r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the s c h o o l and/or community? 2) Are they s u i t e d to the i n t e r e s t s of the student and the teacher? 3) Do they p r o v i d e the student with knowledge t h a t he d i d not have bef o r e ? 4) Do they promote communication and i n t e r a c t i o n amongst students? L i s t s of t o p i c s such as those p r o v i d e d by Brooks (1974, p. 30), Nostrand (1977, pp. 282-293) or i n l o c a l c u r r i c u l u m guides ( i . e . , Secondary French Resource Book on C u l t u r e , B.C. 1981) are h e l p f u l but must never become mandatory. I f , f o r example, La Mode has no i n t e r e s t f o r a class, of teenage boys, i t should be dropped i n favour of t o p i c s of g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t t o them. The f o l l o w i n g themes have been s e l e c t e d here as 67 being a c c e p t a b l e on the b a s i s of p r e v i o u s experience of s t u -dent i n t e r e s t and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of res o u r c e s i n one i n d i v -i d u a l s c h o o l . S i n c e many students i n B r i t i s h Columbia view Quebec as a f a m i l i a r y e t f o r e i g n s u b j e c t , i t i s chosen here as a s u i t a b l e " p o i n t de depart" before s t u d y i n g other aspects of francophone c u l t u r e . The d i v e r s e themes have been chosen as a r e s u l t of an i n f o r m a l student i n t e r e s t survey conducted among st u d e n t s . Other teachers i n ot h e r schools may choose to pursue d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s . I t i s v i t a l t h a t teachers be s t i m u l a t e d r a t h e r than threatened by the c h a l l e n g e of i n d i v -i d u a l i z i n g the c u r r i c u l u m . The f i n a l s e c t i o n on l o c a l as-pects of francophone c u l t u r e i s a key p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m proposed here and should not be s u b s t i t u t e d or omitted i n the teaching of a course on francophone c u l t u r e . c) An o u t l i n e . For a y e a r - l o n g course (approximately 100 or 120 hours of i n s t r u c t i o n ) . 1. Quebec: P a s t and P r e s e n t — t e a c h e r centred (approximate-l y 35-40 hrs) a) La N o u v e l l e France ) a h i s t o r i c a l , geograph-b) La Conquete et apres f i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l c) Le Quebec d'aujourd'hui p e r s p e c t i v e d) La p o l i t i q u e du Quebec e) Personnages du Quebec d'aujourdhui. 68 2. D i v e r s e Themes—emphasis on student r e s e a r c h and presen-t a t i o n s (approx. 65-70 hrs) a) Les grands personnages de l ' h i s t o i r e f r a n c a i s e b) Les f e t e s c) L ' a l i m e n t a t i o n et l a r e s t a u r a t i o n d) S u r v o l de l a musique f r a n g a i s e e) Les legendes quebecoises f) Les A n t i l l e s . 3. La Francophonie chez vous--emphasis on student r e s e a r c h and i n t e r a c t i o n with francophone members of the communi-t y — b e i t by l e t t e r , telephone, i n t e r v i e w (approx. 10-20 h r s ) . For example: a) Embassies, c o n s u l a t e s of French-speaking c o u n t r i e s b) Shops s e l l i n g books, r e c o r d s , p a s t r i e s , c l o t h e s , e t c . c) Churches, community ce n t r e s d) Language s c h o o l s , immersion programs e) T e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o s t a t i o n s f) I n d i v i d u a l s of francophone background. Depending on the community around the s c h o o l , d i f f e r e n t sources of francophone c u l t u r e w i l l emerge. In the next chapter, a more d e t a i l e d view of a u n i t from each s e c t i o n w i l l be presented i n order to show what s o r t of a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s may be used. 69 CHAPTER IV SAMPLE UNITS 1. Introduction a) Resource Units: The three units of work outlined in this chapter are intended to be used as resource units by teachers who plan to teach a course in francophone culture to core French students. By using these units as a base, teachers can develop a topic and teach i t to t h e i r students, adding or deleting material according to the interests and needs of those students. The f i r s t unit on La Nouvelle France consti-tutes an i n i t i a t i o n stage to the study of h i s t o r i c a l and so-c i o l o g i c a l facts through French. I t must be emphasized that teachers may have to draw upon material which has been deve-loped for a younger age group ( i . e . , for native French speak-ers or Late or Early Immersion students). I t i s v i t a l that teachers keep th i s fact in mind and that they attempt to adapt material to the students' interests and needs. The f i r s t unit i s teacher-centred and i s f a i r l y lengthy since i t d e t a i l s not only the content but also the a c t i v i t i e s and 70 e v a l u a t i o n of the u n i t . The second and t h i r d u n i t s are s t u -dent-centred and somewhat l e s s d e t a i l e d s i n c e they c o n s t i t u t e more g u i d e l i n e s f o r rese a r c h p r o j e c t s than a c t u a l p r e s c r i p -t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g . S i n c e these u n i t s ai?e d i s c o v e r y - o r i e n t e d , i t i s impossible and u n d e s i r a b l e to d i c t a t e every step of the student's p r o j e c t . b) Methodology: Teachers should c l e a r l y e x p l a i n the objec-t i v e s of the u n i t to the students and should emphasize the f a c t t h a t the primary goal of the u n i t i s comprehension of the m a t e r i a l , and t h a t e x p r e s s i o n i n French w i l l be h a l t i n g and imperfect e s p e c i a l l y at the beginning. Teachers should r e s p e c t the a n x i e t y l e v e l of students who, eager to perform w e l l i n the new course, may experience d i f f i c u l t y with the no t i o n t h a t i t i s content r a t h e r than language which i s em-phasi z e d . Teachers should encourage communication and should not i n s i s t upon c o r r e c t grammar, accurate p r o n u n c i a t i o n or a p r e c i s e use of the French language. Students should be en-couraged to answer with s h o r t sentences o r phrases and i t should be e x p l a i n e d t h a t they should not be a f r a i d of making grammatical e r r o r s s i n c e i t i s more on the a c q u i s i t i o n of content t h a t they w i l l be assessed than the q u a l i t y of l a n -guage . c) Language d i f f i c u l t i e s : There are, of course, d i f f i c u -l t i e s i n communicating i n f o r m a t i o n to students through a second language. Many m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n a mixture of tenses guaranteed to b a f f l e even the b r i g h t e s t student. Wherever p o s s i b l e , i t i s suggested that a l i m i t e d use of tenses be imposed on m a t e r i a l s i n order to f a c i l i t a t e student compre-hension. Y e t one cannot and would not wish to c o n t r o l the language read or spoken by students. The teacher must teach techniques which help the student deduct or p r e d i c t meaning. For example, once a week, ten to 15 minutes c o u l d be devoted to word-meaning e x e r c i s e s . The purpose of such an a c t i v i t y i s to expose students to d i f f e r e n t verb forms i n order to f a c i l i t a t e a c o r r e c t understanding of t h a t verb e.g., Vous f a i t e s , j e f e r a i s , que tu f a s s e s , nous avons f a i t sont toutes des formes du verbe (a) f a l l o i r , (b) f a i r e , (c) fermer, .(d) f a r c i r . The same type of e x e r c i s e c o u l d be used with nouns; by p l a c i n g words i n context, students could deduct t h e i r meaning e.g., Le chasse-neige d e b l a i e l a route pour que l e s autos p u i s s e n t p asser. One of the most v a l u a b l e s k i l l s t h a t a teacher can give students i s to teach them how to ask q u e s t i o n s ; a q u e s t i o n i n i t i a t e s c o n v e r s a t i o n and thus forms the b a s i s of true com-munication. Simple l i s t e n i n g e x e r c i s e s added to c l a s s t i m e w i l l r e i n f o r c e these s k i l l s i f done o f t e n enough e.g., Student hears teacher give an answer and chooses the c o r r e c t q u e s t i o n from a l i s t on .the blackboard: Reponse " E l l e v i e n t de Rome." Questions (a) Ou e s t - c e q u ' i l e s t ne? (b) D'ou e s t - c e q u ' e l l e v i e n t ? (c) D'ou e s t - c e q u ' i l s viennent? In p r e p a r i n g each day's l e s s o n , the teacher should look through the m a t e r i a l and prepare a f i v e - m i n u t e language exer-c i s e a p p r o p r i a t e to t h a t l e s s o n . e.g., Pour l a premiere l e c o n ou l ' o n se s e r t de l a mappemonde Annexe IA. A l l e r a un pays mais V e n i r d'un pays Pays masculins--a, au, aux Pays m a s c u l i n s — d u , des Pays feminins--en Pays feminins--de 1', de l a Regie g e n e r a l e : La p l u p a r t des pays du "nouveau monde" sont masculins; l a p l u p a r t des pays de " l ' a n c i e n monde" sont femi-nins . 73 E x e r c i c e : 1. Je v a i s Canada mais tu v i e n s France. 2. I I va E t a t s - U n i s , mais vous venez Espagne. 3 . Tu vas Perou mais nous venons A n g l e t e r r e . Bowman, (1983) i n an a r t i c l e on t e a c h i n g French h i s t o r y i n French, s t r e s s e s the importance of r e p e t i t i o n i n a course where an i n c r e a s e both i n language p r o f i c i e n c y and knowledge of s p e c i f i c m a t e r i a l i s sought (p. 379). One suggestion made i s the p r o d u c t i o n of s l i d e and tape shows to accompany teach-ing u n i t s ; such a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s repeat vocabulary used i n c l a s s and r e i n f o r c e i t with images (p. 381). Bowman i d e n t i -f i e s two major problems i n v o l v e d i n t h i s type of a c t i v i t y ; time, energy and money to organize i t and the teacher's own i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s (p. 383). The c r e a t i o n of such u n i t s i s undoubtedly time-consuming y e t once completed pro-v i d e s a unique p e r s o n a l i z e d a i d f o r the teacher of the course i n francophone c u l t u r e . I t i s beyond the scope of the pre-sent study to produce such an a u d i o - v i s u a l u n i t y e t , as G a l -lagher (1982) suggests, by using a product such as the V i s u a l Maker by Kodak, a teacher can e a s i l y c r e a t e s l i d e s from books or magazines (p. 528). The technology now e x i s t s to f a c i l i -t a t e our task as teachers of French; i t i s up to us to use i t . The teacher who teaches the course i n francophone c u l -t u r e must be prepared to use new t o o l s , to rephrase e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l and even to mime i n order to communicate i n f o r m a t i o n to students. d) "La N o u v e l l e France": The t o p i c chosen f o r the i n t r o d u c -t o r y u n i t i n c l u d e s m a t e r i a l which w i l l be f a m i l i a r to many students. T h i s i s a d e l i b e r a t e choice as i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t students w i l l f e e l reassured d e a l i n g with f a c t s and p e r s o n a l -i t i e s a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r to them. In t h i s way, t h e i r a n xiety about new vocabulary and expressing themselves i n French should be somewhat dimi n i s h e d . The u n i t on "La Nouvelle France" i s an i n t r o d u c t o r y component and c o u l d be taught i n 8-10 hours. Many l o c a l s chool boards, teacher centres and m i n i s t r i e s of e d u c a t i o n have developed e x c e l l e n t u n i t s and resource m a t e r i a l s on t h i s t o p i c and teachers should check on what i s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s b efore p l a n n i n g the u n i t . S e v e r a l books of i n v a l u a b l e resource to the teacher are recommended: Marcel T r u d e l I n i t i a t i o n a l a N o u v e l l e  France, M. A l l a r d e t a l . , H i s t o i r e n a t i o n a l e du Quebec de sa  decouverte a aujourd'hui and Jacques L a c o u r s i e r e and Helene-Andree B i z i e r (eds.) Nos Racines (see "Ressources: La N o u v e l l e France" a t the end of the u n i t f o r d e t a i l s ) . 75 2. Sample U n i t No. 1: La Nou v e l l e France O b j e c t i f s generaux: & l a f i n de c e t t e u n i t e de t r a v a i l , l ' e -t u d i a n t d e v r a i t : i ) c o n n a l t r e p l u s i e u r s aspects de l a v i e quotidienne en N o u v e l l e France i i ) comprendre l ' o r i g i n e des Franco-Canadiens i i i ) c o n n a l t r e quelques personnages c e l e b r e s de l a N o u v e l l e France i v ) comprendre un nouveau v o c a b u l a i r e v) p o u v o i r s i t u e r p l u s i e u r s e n d r o i t s importants de l a Nou-v e l l e France. Premiere section: La geographie de l a N o u v e l l e France O b j e c t i f s : i ) s e n s i b i l i s e r l ' e l e v e aux noms de quelques p o i n t s geo-graphiques de l a Nou v e l l e France i i ) f a i r e comprendre a l ' e l e v e l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n des mots s u i v a n t s : c o l o n , c o l o n i e , mere-patrie, Amerindien, nouveau-monde, e x p l o r a t e u r , decouverte, Amerique sep-t e n t r i o n a l e i i i ) s e n s i b i l i s e r l ' e l e v e aux r a i s o n s de 1 ' e x p l o r a t i o n de l a N o u v e l l e France e t aux o r i g i n e s f r a n g a i s e s des gens du Quebec. 76 Renseignements a 1 1enseignant: i ) F a i r e remarquer l e f a i t que l a p l u p a r t des francophones canadiens h a b i t e n t au Quebec, i i ) S i t u e r sur une mappemonde (Annexe l.A) l a France ( l ' a n -c i e n monde) e t l a Nouv e l l e France ( l e nouveau monde). i i i ) F a i r e l e r a p p o r t entre l ' A n g l e t e r r e e t l a Nouvelle An-g l e t e r r e , l ' f i c o s s e e t l a No u v e l l e FJcosse. i v ) I d e n t i f i e r l e mode de t r a n s p o r t des e x p l o r a t e u r s e t l e s r a i s o n s de l e u r s voyages ( i . e . , une n o u v e l l e route vers 1'Orient, une m e i l l e u r e v i e qu'en Europe, l e s r i c h e s s e s du nouveau pays--des f o u r r u r e s , du b o i s , de l ' o r e t c . . v) E x p l i q u e r l a d i f f e r e n c e entre une c o l o n i e d ' e x p l o i t a -t i o n e t une c o l o n i e de peuplement (Annexe l . B ) . v i ) F a i r e remarquer 1'existence des Amerindiens, l e u r d i s -t r i b u t i o n sur l a c a r t e (Annexe l . C ) , l e s f l e u v e s , l a c s et r i v i e r e s ou i l s pechaient, l e u r s facons de v i v r e ( l e s nomades e t l e s s e d e n t a i r e s ) . v i i ) Apprendre a l ' e l e v e l e s noms des f l e u v e s , l a c s e t r i -v i e r e s t e l s que l e S t . Laurent, l e Saguenay, l e Riche-l i e u , l ' O u t a o u a i s , l e Lac Huron, e t c . . A c t i v i t e s e t e v a l u a t i o n : i ) & l ' a i d e d'une c a r t e muette du Canada ( l e departement des S c i e n c e s Humaines dans l ' e c o l e en aura p l u s i e u r s ) , demander l e s noms f r a n c a i s des f l e u v e s , r i v i e r e s et 77 l a c s de l a N o u v e l l e France. D i v i s e r l a c l a s s e en equi-pes; c e l l e q u i i d e n t i f i e l e p l u s grand nombre de p o i n t s geographiques gagne. i i ) E v a l u a t i o n : t e s t (Annexe l.D) a r e m p l i r l e s t i r e t s . Deuxieme s e c t i o n : Jacques C a r t i e r O b j e c t i f s : i ) s e n s i b i l i s e r l ' e l e v e aux p o i n t s cardinaux, aux a c c i -dents geographiques ( i . e . , cap, d e t r o i t ) e t a l a route de Jacques C a r t i e r l o r s de ses t r o i s voyages en Nouvel-l e France i i ) f a i r e comprendre a l ' e l e v e 1'importance de ces voyages i i i ) h a b i t u e r l ' e l e v e a l a l e c t u r e d'un, t e x t e p l e i n de de-t a i l s h i s t o r i q u e s . Renseignements a 1'enseignant: i ) X l ' a i d e d'une c a r t e du Canada, f a i r e une r e v i s i o n des p o i n t s cardinaux et des termes des a c c i d e n t s geographi-ques en e x p l i q u a n t : r i v i e r e , f l e u v e , a f f l u e n t , cap, b a i e , g o l f e , cote, i i ) S i t u e r S t . Malo sur une c a r t e de France e t t r a c e r l e premier voyage de C a r t i e r au nouveau monde. i i i ) L i r e l e t e x t e : Jacques C a r t i e r (Annexe l.E) et e x p l i -quer l e v o c a b u l a i r e d i f f i c i l e , i v ) Poser des q u e s t i o n s de comprehension. 78 v) A l ' a i d e d'une c a r t e muette (Annexe l . F ) t r a c e r l e s t r o i s voyages de C a r t i e r , l e p r o f e s s e u r p o u r r a i t l i r e l e t e x t e e t l ' e l e v e p o u r r a i t t r a c e r l a route, en u t i l i -sant une c o u l e u r d i f f e r e n t e pour chaque voyage, v i ) D i s c u t e r de 1'importance de ces voyages, v i i ) F a i r e remarquer q u ' i l s ' a g i t i c i d'une c o l o n i e d'ex-p l o i t a t i o n et d ' e x p l o r a t i o n p l u t o t que d'une c o l o n i e de peuplement. A c t i v i t e s e t e v a l u a t i o n : i ) L e c t u r e du t e x t e a haute v o i x i i ) P r e s e n t e r l e f i l m f i x e : Jacques C a r t i e r (Secas/ONF) e t r a c o n t e r l ' h i s t o i r e q u i 1'accompagne. (N.B. S i ce f i l m f i x e n'est pas d i s p o n i b l e dans v o t r e e c o l e , demandez au p r o f e s s e u r de S c i e n c e s Humaines un f i l m f i x e sur l e s e x p l o r a t e u r s ou Jacques C a r t i e r . Meme s i l e f i l m e s t en a n g l a i s , vous pouvez l e montrer, en cachant l e t e x t e a n g l a i s et en inventant vos propres commentaires.) i i i ) D i v i s e r l a c l a s s e en groupes e t demander a chaque grou-pe de p r e p a r e r une courte saynete, i . e . , Groupe 1: Une t r i b u algonquine d i s c u t e parmi eux l ' a r -r i v e e du n a v i r e f r a n c a i s dans l e u r f l e u v e ( l e u r peur, l e u r emerveillement, etc.) 79 Groupe 2: C a r t i e r e t ses marins d i s c u t e n t l e u r voyage e t l e s Amerindiens q u ' i l s v o i e n t sur l e s bords du f l e u -ve Groupe 3: La re n c o n t r e de Jacques C a r t i e r e t des Ame-r i n d i e n s (incomprehension, echange de cadeaux). Le p r o f e s s e u r aide l e s eleves dans l e u r s groupes et on pr e s e n t e l e s t r o i s saynetes apres une c l a s s e de r e p e t i -t i o n . i v ) E v a l u a t i o n : T e s t e c r i t (Annexe l.G) base sur l e s ques-t i o n s de comprehension deja posees en c l a s s e . T r o i s i e m e s e c t i o n : Samuel de Champlain e t l a c o l o n i e du peu-plement O b j e c t i f s : i ) montrer a l ' e l e v e l a d i f f e r e n c e e n t r e une c o l o n i e d'ex-p l o i t a t i o n / e x p l o r a t i o n et une c o l o n i e de peuplement i i ) amener l ' e l e v e a c o n n a i t r e l e s decouvertes de Champlain e t son importance dans l e developpement de l a c o l o n i e . Renseignements a 1'enseignant: i ) F a i r e l a d i s t i n c t i o n entre l a c o l o n i e d ' e x p l o r a t i o n sous C a r t i e r e t l a c o l o n i e de peuplement sous Cham-p l a i n . i i ) F a i r e remarquer a l ' e l e v e q u ' i l f a u t a v o i r des gens (des colons) pour developper une c o l o n i e . 80 i i i ) F J t a b l i r u n e l i s t e a u t a b l e a u n o i r d e s p r o f e s s i o n s d e s g e n s q u i s o n t v e n u s comme c o l o n s , i . e . , d e s p r e t r e s d e s r e l i g i e u s e s d e s m e d e c i n s d e s s o l d a t s d e s c o m m e r c a n t s d e s f e r m i e r s . i v ) D e m a n d e r a u x e l e v e s p o u r q u o i c e s g e n s - l a s o n t v e n u s i . e . , d e s p r e t r e s - p o u r c o n v e r t i r l e s A m e r i n d i e n s d e s f e r m i e r s - p o u r d e f r i c h e r / t r a v a i l l e r l a t e r r e . v ) E x p l i q u e r q u e S a m u e l d e C h a m p l a i n a e t e a p p e l e " l e p e r e d e l a N o u v e l l e F r a n c e " e t q u ' i l f u t t r e s i m p o r t a n t d a n s l e d e v e l o p p e m e n t d e l a c o l o n i e . A c t i v i t e s e t e v a l u a t i o n : i ) M o n t r e r e n c l a s s e l e f i l m f i x e S a m u e l d e C h a m p l a i n ( S e c a s / O N F ) o u l e s d i a p o s i t i v e s L e s E x p l o r a t i o n s d e  C h a m p l a i n ( O N F ) e t r a c o n t e r l ' h i s t o i r e q u i l ' a c c o m p a -g n e . i i ) P o s e r d e s q u e s t i o n s d e c o m p r e h e n s i o n b a s e e s s u r c e s i -m a g e s . i i i ) D e m a n d e r a u x e l e v e s d e s ' i n t e r r o g e r s u r l e s i m a g e s , m e -me a u n n i v e a u t r e s s i m p l e , ( i . e . , D e c r i v e z l e s v e t e -m e n t s d e C h a m p l a i n ) . i v ) L i r e e n c l a s s e l e t e x t e ( A n n e x e l . H ) e t e x p l i q u e r l e v o c a b u l a i r e d i f f i c i l e . 81 v) E v a l u a t i o n : Repondre aux qu e s t i o n s a l a f i n du tex t e (Annexe l . H ) . v i ) D i s c u t e r l e s images (Annexe 1.1) et demander aux el e v e s de d i r e une phrase au s u j e t des images ( i . e . , i l y a des canoes dans l a r i v i e r e , l e s Indiens ne p o r t e n t pas de vetements, e t c . ) . v i i ) A l ' a i d e des phrases inventees par l e s eleves,, e c r i r e l ' h i s t o i r e de 1'ambuscade (Annexe 1.1) au tabl e a u n o i r . v i i i ) E v a l u a t i o n : T r a v a i l e c r i t . L ' e l e v e se met dans l a peau de Champlain et raconte un de ses voyages d'explo-r a t i o n (Annexe l . J ) , i . e . , nous sommes en 1615. Je me rends au pays des Hurons. I l s me demandent de l e s a i -der contre l e u r s ennemis, l e s I r o q u o i s , e t c . ) . i x ) E v a l u a t i o n : T e s t V r a i ou Faux (Annexe l . K ) . Quatrieme sec t ion : Le systeme s e i g n e u r i a l . Au l i e u d ' e t u d i e r uniquement l e systeme s e i g n e u r i a l , on p o u r r a i t egalement c o n t r a s t e r l a v i e de ceux q u i c o l o n i s e n t e t c u l t i v e n t l a t e r r e ( l e s seigneurs e t l e s h a b i t a n t s ) avec c e l l e des coureurs de b o i s , l e s marchands de f o u r r u r e q u i f a i s a i e n t du commerce avec l e s Indiens, e t l e s voyageurs, q u i p a r t a i e n t p l u t o t a l a decouverte de l'Ouest. Le systeme s e i -g n e u r i a l a ete c h o i s i par ce p r o f e s s e u r parce que c e l a l u i 82 s e m b l a i t un i n t e r e s s a n t p o i n t de depart pour e x p l i q u e r l e s debuts de l a c o l o n i s a t i o n . O b j e c t i f s : F a i r e comprendre a l ' e l e v e : i ) l a n e c e s s i t e d ' o r g a n i s e r l e peuplement de l a c o l o n i e ; i i ) l a d i v i s i o n des t e r r e s et l e u r d i s t r i b u t i o n aux s e i -gneurs; i i i ) l e s r a i s o n s pour l e s q u e l l e s on a c h o i s i ce systeme. Renseignements a 1'enseignant: i ) Au Quebec, l e s t e r r e s , d i v i s e e s en s e c t i o n s de c i n q m i l l e s de f r o n t e t de h u i t a d i x m i l l e s de profondeur, e t a i e n t appelees l e s "rangs. " i i ) Le r o i donnait ces t e r r e s a quelqu'un q u ' i l v o u l a i t r e -compenser et on a p p e l a i t ce nouveau p r o p r i e t a i r e un seigneur et son domaine, une s e i g n e u r i e . i i i ) Le seigneur d i v i s a i t sa p r o p r i e t e en l o t s q u ' i l l o u a i t a d'autres colons appeles c e n s i t a i r e s . i v ) Le seigneur a v a i t des d r o i t s mais a u s s i des d e v o i r s a r e m p l i r (Annexe I . L ) . v) Le c e n s i t a i r e egalement p o s s e d a i t c e r t a i n s d r o i t s mais d e v a i t r e m p l i r c e r t a i n s d e v o i r s (Annexe I . L ) . v i ) Le c h a p i t r e V (deuxieme p a r t i e ) , pp. 183-196 de 1 ' I n i - t i a t i o n a l a Nouvelle-France de M. T r u d e l ( v o i r l a l i s -t e i n t i t u l e e "Ressources: LA NOUVELLE FRANCE") e x p l i -que tout ce systeme en d e t a i l . 83 A c t i v i t e s e t e v a l u a t i o n : i ) P r e s e n t e r l e f i l m f i x e ou l e s d i a p o s i t i v e s "Les S e i -g n e u r i e s " (ONF) e t r a c o n t e r , en l a s i m p l i f i a n t , l ' h i s -t o i r e q u i 1'accompagne. i i ) D i s c u t e r en c l a s s e l e systeme s e i g n e u r i a l e t e x p l i q u e r l e v o c a b u l a i r e , i . e . , seigneur, s e i g n e u r i e , c e n s i t a i r e , h a b i t a n t , manoir, moulin banal, rang, t e n i r feu et l i e u , banc s e i g n e u r i a l , e t c . . i i i ) D i v i s e r l a c l a s s e en quatre groupes. i v ) A s s i g n e r l e s recherches s u i v a n t e s : - l e s d e v o i r s du seigneur - l e s d r o i t s du seigneur - l e s d e v o i r s du c e n s i t a i r e - l e s d r o i t s du c e n s i t a i r e . v) En i n s c r i r e l a l i s t e au tableau n o i r . v i ) E v a l u a t i o n : d e v o i r e c r i t (Annexe l . M ) — r e p o n s e s cour-t e s . Cinquiente s e c t i o n : La v i e quot i d i e n n e de 1'habitant. O b j e c t i f s : F a i r e comprendre a l ' e l e v e : i ) l e s a c t i v i t e s q u o t i d i e n n e s de l ' h a b i t a n t , i i ) sa n o u r r i t u r e i i i ) l e s avantages et desavantages dans l a v i e d'un h a b i t a n t au dix-septieme s i e c l e . 84 Renseignements a 1'enseignant: i ) La r e s p o n s a b i l i t e de l ' h a b i t a n t e t a i t de d e f r i c h e r e t de c u l t i v e r l a t e r r e . ii) Sa maison e t a i t souvent une simple maison de b o i s . i i i ) Sa n o u r r i t u r e v e n a i t de sa propre t e r r e e t d i f f e r a i t beaucoup de l a n o u r r i t u r e d'aujourd'hui. i v ) La s a i s o n de p r o d u c t i o n e t a i t courte e t i l f a l l a i t c u l -t i v e r des p r o d u i t s q u i se c o n s e r v a i e n t . A c t i v i t e s et e v a l u a t i o n : i ) P r e s e n t e r l e f i l m f i x e 1'Habitant (ONF) et r a c o n t e r l ' h i s t o i r e q u i 1'accompagne. ii) Regarder l e p l a n d'une ferme (Annexe l.N) e t d i s c u t e r 1'importance de chaque p a r t i e de l a ferme ( i . e . , Pour-q u o i c u l t i v a i t - o n l e s p o i s ? Parce qu'on p o u v a i t l e s f a i r e secher e t l e s u t i l i s e r pendant l ' h i v e r ) . i i i ) L i r e l e t e x t e : Qu'est-ce que l e s h a b i t a n t s mangeaient? (Annexe 1.0) e t d i s c u t e r l e s d i f f e r e n c e s e n t r e l a nour-r i t u r e que l ' o n mange aujourd'hui e t c e l l e des h a b i -t a n t s d ' a l o r s . i v ) E v a l u a t i o n : T e s t des sources de n o u r r i t u r e (Annexe l . P ) . v) E v a l u a t i o n : Demander a l ' e l e v e d ' e c r i r e d i x phrases en imaginant q u ' i l e s t h a b i t a n t en N o u v e l l e France au d i x -septieme s i e c l e . 85 v i ) A c t i v i t e de groupe: O r g a n i s e r un repas d ' h a b i t a n t ( v o i r Annexe l . P ) . Sixieme s e c t i o n : Les Femmes en No u v e l l e France. O b j e c t i f s : S e n s i b i l i s e r l ' e l e v e i ) a 1'importance de l a femme dans une c o l o n i e de peuple-ment, i i ) aux r o l e s v a r i e s des femmes en N o u v e l l e France, i i i ) au t r a v a i l f a i t par l e s r e l i g i e u s e s , iv) aux mariages entre l e s h a b i t a n t s e t l e s f i l l e s du r o i . Renseignements a 1'enseignant: i ) La v i e c o l o n i a l e e t a i t s u r t o u t une v i e d'hommes mais l a presence de l a femme e t a i t n e c e s s a i r e s i on a l l a i t de-velopper une c o l o n i e de peuplement. i i ) Les hommes e t a i e n t souvent engages pour t r e n t e - s i x mois e t r e t o u r n a i e n t en France parce que l a v i e e t a i t trop dure sans f a m i l l e . i i i ) Quelques hommes epousaient des Amerindiennes mais en g e n e r a l , i l n'y a v a i t pas beaucoup de mariages mixtes. i v ) En 1659, l e r o i L o u i s XIV passa une l o i c o n t r e l e c e l i -bat pour encourager l e peuplement de sa c o l o n i e . v) B i e n t o t apres, Marguerite Bourgeoys a r r i v e avec l e pre-mier c o n t i n g e n t des f i l l e s du r o i — d e s f i l l e s a marier. 86 Le programme e s t encourage par l ' i n t e n d a n t T a l o n — "L" union c ' e s t bon." v i ) La p l u p a r t des f i l l e s e t a i e n t des o r p h e l i n e s et on c h o i s i s s a i t l e s p l u s robustes d'abord parce q u ' e l l e s d e v r a i e n t e x i s t e r dans un pays dur e t rigoureux. v i i ) Au debut, c e l u i q u i e p o u s a i t une f i l l e du r o i r e c e v a i t de 1'argent mais apres d i x ans, l e s canadiennes ont p r o t e s t e e t on a enleve c e t t e prime, v i i i ) Grace a l ' a r r i v e e des femmes, l a p o p u l a t i o n de l a c o l o -n i e a t r e s v i t e augmente, i . e . , 1608 28 personnes 1641 500 personnes 1689 12,000 personnes. A c t i v i t e s et e v a l u a t i o n : i ) Donner l a l i s t e des emplois (Annexe I.Q) aux e l e v e s e t l e u r demander de t r o u v e r l e s travaux q u i a u r a i e n t ete f a i t s par une femme a l'epoque, i . e . , domestique, r e l i -g i e use, sage-femme. i i ) fitablir l e f a i t q u ' i l y a v a i t t r e s peu de femmes dans l a c o l o n i e e t qu'en g e n e r a l , e l l e s se d i v i s a i e n t en deux g r o u p e s — r e l i g i e u s e s et femmes mariees. i i i ) Regarder d'abord l e s r e l i g i e u s e s . E x p l i q u e r 1'importan-ce de femmes t e l l e s que Marie de l ' I n c a r n a t i o n (fonda-t r i c e du couvent des U r s u l i n e s ) , Jeanne Mance (fonda-t r i c e de 1'Hotel-Dieu, h o p i t a l a Montreal) e t S a i n t e 8 7 Marguerite Bourgeoys ( f o n d a t r i c e des Soeurs de l a Con-g r e g a t i o n e t Notre Dame de Bon Secours a Montreal), i v ) Demander aux e l e v e s , t r a v a i l l a n t en p e t i t s groupes, de se r e n s e i g n e r a l ' a i d e d'encyclopedies e t de l i v r e s de r e f e r e n c e au s u j e t de ces t r o i s femmes e t d 1 e c r i r e c i n q phrases sur l e u r v i e en N o u v e l l e France, v) D i s c u t e r l a n e c e s s i t e du peuplement et l e s q u a l i t e s qu'une femme d e v a i t posseder pour s u r v i v r e dans l a nou-v e l l e c o l o n i e , i . e . , e t r e robuste, t r a v a i l l e u s e , eco-nome, f o r t e , g r a s s o u i l l e t t e . v i ) L i r e l e t e x t e " V o i c i l e s femmes" (Annexe l.R) e t d i s c u -t e r l e s q u e s t i o n s en c l a s s e . v i i ) E v a l u a t i o n : Questions e c r i t e s a l a f i n du t e x t e . v i i i ) A c t i v i t e et e v a l u a t i o n : D i v i s e r l a c l a s s e en groupes et l e u r demander de prepa-r e r une saynete, i . e . , Groupe 1: T a l o n et ses c o n s e i l l e r s d i s c u t e n t du pro-bleme de l 1 a b s e n c e de femmes a marier; Groupe 2: Le r o i decide d'envoyer des f i l l e s o r p h e l i -nes en N o u v e l l e France; Groupe 3: Les f i l l e s au bateau se demandent ce q u i l e s attend en N o u v e l l e France; Groupe 4: Les h a b i t a n t s c e l i b a t a i r e s regardent l ' a r r i -vee du bateau; Groupe 5: Les mariages sont o r g a n i s e s . 88 Septieme s e c t i o n : Madeleine de Vercheres. O b j e c t i f s : S e n s i b i l i s e r l ' e l e v e i ) au r o l e de l a femme ou f i l l e d'un h a b i t a n t i i ) aux dangers q u o t i d i e n s auxquels ces femmes deva i e n t s ' h a b i t u e r i i i ) a l ' i d e e q u ' i l e s t t r e s d i f f i c i l e de v e r i f i e r l e s h i s -t o i r e s q u i nous sont parvenues. Renseignements a 1 1enseignant: i ) Les h a b i t a n t s e t a i e n t souvent assez i s o l e s e t , s u r t o u t en h i v e r , on v o y a i t rarement de l a compagnie. i i ) Le r o l e de l'homme e s t de d e f r i c h e r l a t e r r e , c e l u i de l a femme e s t de garder l e s enfants e t l e s animaux, f a i -re l e menage et pr e p a r e r l a n o u r r i t u r e . i i i ) Le danger e t a i t constamment p r e s e n t - - i . e . , des animaux sauvages (ours, e t c . ) , des I r o q u o i s , e t jusqu'au c l i m a t meme. iv ) L ' h i s t o i r e de Madeleine de Vercheres i l l u s t r e l a p r o x i -mite du danger. A c t i v i t e s e t e v a l u a t i o n : i ) Demander aux e l e v e s de se d i v i s e r en groupes et de d i s -c u t e r des dangers q u i pouvaient e x i s t e r pour l e s co-l o n s . 8 9 i i ) S i t u e r sur une c a r t e de l a N o u v e l l e France l a p o s i t i o n de Vercheres e t sa p r o x i m i t e a l a r e g i o n des I r o q u o i s , i i i ) L i r e l e t e x t e : Madeleine de Vercheres (Annexe l.S) e t poser l e s q u e s t i o n s en c l a s s e . i v ) D i s c u t e r pourquoi c e t t e h i s t o i r e a ete racontee tant de f o i s au Quebec, i . e . , l e courage des h a b i t a n t e s , l a f e -r o c i t e des Amerindiens, e t c . . v) E x p l i q u e r l e danger de tout c r o i r e , e t l i r e avec l e s e l e v e s quelques r e c i t s humoristiques (Annexe l.T ) de C a r l Dubuc. v i ) E v a l u a t i o n : T e s t : La N o u v e l l e France (Annexe l.U) q u i couvre tout l e m a t e r i e l de l ' u n i t e . TABLEAU SEQUENTIEL, I La geographie de l a Nouvelle Prance et Jacques C a r t i e r O b j e c t i f s S e n s i b i l i s e r l'eleve: - a l a geographie de l a Nouvelle France A c t i v i t e s - I d e n t i f i e r l e s p r i n c i -paux fleuves et points geographiques de l a Nouvelle France Habiletes Comprendre l e contenu de l' u n i t e S'exprimer en f r a n c a i s Apprendre un vocabulaire h i s t o r ique/geograph i -que S'habituer a suivre un texte en frangais (Annexe E) Evaluation Remplir les t i r e t s (Annexe D) Repondre aux questions orales du professeur Reponses courtes sur un t e s t e c r i t ) Annexe G) Produire des phrases simples a l ' o r a l pour l a saynete - au vocabulaire de quel- - Tracer les t r o i s voya-ques accidents geogra- ges de Jacques C a r t i e r phiques - Saynete basee sur l a - aux r a i s o n s d e l'explo- rencontre de C a r t i e r r a t i o n et de l ' e x p l o i - avec les Amerindiens t a t i o n - Presentation du f i l m - aux voyages de Jacques f i x e sur Jacques Car-C a r t i e r et ses contacts t i e r avec l e s Amerindiens TABLEAU SEQUENTIEL II Samuel de Champlain et l a colonie de peuplement Object i f s Amener l'eleve a connaitre - l e s decouvertes de Sa-muel de Champlain - ses e x p l o i t s comme ex-plorateur, fondateur et gouverneur A c t i v i t e s Lecture du texte "Samuel de Champlain" (Annexe H) Presentation et dis-cussion du f i l m f i x e ou de diapositives Discussion des images de Champlain et l'habita-t i o n de Quebec Habiletes - Comprendre 1'importance de Champlain dans l ' h i s t o i r e de l a Nou-v e l l e France - L i r e et comprendre un texte Pouvoir d i s c u t e r l e s images du f i l m f i x e Evaluation ficrit et o r a l : Ques-tion s sur Champlain (Annexes H et K) TABLEAU SEQUENTIEL III Le systeme s e i g n e u r i a l et l a vie quotidienne de 1'habitant O b j e c t i f s F a i r e comprendre a l'eleve -- ce que c'est qu'une s e i -gneurie - pourquoi e l l e s ont ete developpees - l e u r fonctionneraent - l e s d r o i t s et devoirs des seigneurs et censi-t a i r e s - l e s produits d'une ferme d'un habitant A c t i v i t e s Discussion des films f i x e s "Les Seigneu-r i e s " et "L'Habitant et sa t e r r e au 18eme s i e c l e A c t i v i t e du groupe: trouver l e s d r o i t s et devoirs des seigneurs et des c e n s i t a i r e s Habiletes - Comprendre l e systeme se i g n e u r i a l - Le vocabulaire propre a .l'etude des seigneu-r i e s - Comprendre l a v i e q u o t i -dienne et l a n o u r r i t u -re des habitants Evaluation - Oral: A c t i v i t e du groupe (Faire l a l i s t e des d r o i t s et devoirs) - ficrit: 10 phrases sur l e u r journee comme habitant - Devoir e c r i t (Annexe M) - l a nourriture d'un habitant TABLEAU SEQUENTIEL IV Les Femmes en Nouvelle France et Madeleine de Vercheres O b j e c t i f s S e n s i b i l i s e r l'eleve A c t i v i t e s Habiletes Evaluation --Lecture de t r o i s textes (Annexes R, S, T) - aux r o l e s varies des femmes en Nouvelle - Jeu de rol e s France - Recherche au sujet de - au t r a v a i l f a i t par l e s t r o i s femmes celebres r e l i g i e u s e s - Discussion en classe - aux mariages entre l e s habitants et l e s f i l l e s du r o i - aux dangers quotidiens des habitants Commencer a f a i r e des - Questions orales et recherches en se ser- e c r i t e s basees sur les vant des encyclope- textes dies - Test d ' h i s t o i r e Apprendre l a s i g n i f i c a - (Annexe U) tion du vocabulaire propre a l a section L i r e et comprendre un texte Adapter un texte pour f a i r e une saynete o r i g i n a l e aux e x p l o i t s de Madeleine de Vercheres vo 94 Ressources: LA NOUVELLE FRANCE* L i v r e s A l l a r d f M. , C a p i s t r a n Phaneuf, Y., Dupuis, A., Francoeur, A., Moussette, P.-M., Savoie, R. H i s t o i r e n a t i o n a l e  du Quebec de sa decouverte a aujourd'hui .* Montreal: G u e r i n e d i t e u r l i m i t e e , 1980. B e a u l i e u , Andre, Hamelin, Jean, e t B e r n i e r , B e n o i t . Guide  d ' h i s t o i r e du Canada. Quebec: P.U.L., 1969. Bousquet, H., Dussault-Dumas, H., and Vaugeois, D. Cana- da—Quebec synthese h i s t o r i q u e . C a h i e r d ' h i s t o i r e ( e l e v e ) . C a h i e r d ' e x e r c i c e s (eleve e t m a i t r e ) . O t t a -wa: E d i t i o n s du Renouveau Pedagogique Inc., 1971. Cachat, Gerard. L'Aventure f r a n g a i s e en Amerique: un d e f i  1534-1976. Montreal: L i d e c Inc., 1977, 1978. Chagnan, (Bernard A s s i n i w i ) e t Ka-Hon-ttes (John Fadden). Les I r o q u o i s . * Ottawa: Les e d i t i o n s Lemeac, 1973. Chagnan, (Bernard A s s i n i w i ) e t Ka-Hon-ttes (John Fadden). Les Montagnais e t Naskapi.* Ottawa: Les e d i t i o n s Le-meac, 1979. Fumerton, H.S. P e t i t s Contes de l ' h i s t o i r e canadienne.* Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1963. *N.B. Les l i v r e s marques d'un a s t e r i q u e (*) peuvent e t r e u t i l i s e s par l ' e l e v e . 95 Guay, Fernande. Le Canada et son h i s t o i r e ; C a h i e r de r e - cherches et de travaux p r a t i q u e s . Ottawa: B r a u l t e t B o u t h i l l i e r , 1976. H e r i t a g e du Canada. S e l e c t i o n du Reader's D i g e s t . Mont-r e a l : S e l e c t i o n du Reader's D i g e s t L t e e , 1979. Hickman, W.H., Mentha, J.-P., Moreau, G. Le Quebec: T r a - d i t i o n e t e v o l u t i o n ( V o l . 1). Toronto: W.J. Gage Ltd . , 1967. Kenney, Morgan. Le Nouveau Monde.* (Health S t r u c t u r e d French Reading S e r i e s ) . Toronto: D.C. Heath Canada Ltd . , 1972. L a c o u r s i e r e , Jacques et B i z i e r , Helene-Andree (eds.) Nos Racines. Montreal: L a f f o n t , 1979. L a c o u r s i e r e , J . , Provencher, J . , e t Vaugeois, D. C a n a d a — Quebec Synthese H i s t o r i q u e . Ottawa: E d i t i o n s du Re-nouveau Pedagogique Inc., 1976. L a h a i s e , Robert e t V a l l e r a n d , Noel. H i s t o i r e du Canada: La N o u v e l l e - F r a n c e , 1524-1760. Montreal: E d i t i o n s Hur-t u b i s e HMH, 1977. La N o u v e l l e France, prepare par La commission s c o l a i r e Lakeshore P o i n t e - C l a i r e , Quebec, 1976. Le B o r e a l Express, J o u r n a l d ' H i s t o i r e du Canada 1524-1760. Mo n t r e a l : Les e d i t i o n s du B o r e a l Express, 1964. Les Indiens d'Amerique du Nord.* Montreal: E d i t i o n s Granger F r e r e s L i m i t e e / E d i t i o n s Gamma, 1974. 96 M a r t e l , Suzanne. Jeanne, F i l l e du roy.* Montreal: Les e d i t i o n s F i d e s , 1974. M a r t e l , Suzanne. Au temps de Marguerite Bourqeoys quand Montreal e t a i t un v i l l a g e . Montreal: M e r i d i e n , 1982. Mathieu-Loranger, F r a n c i n e : Les Memoires de Jean T a l o n . * M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s H e r i t a g e , 1981. Mathieu-Loranger, F r a n c i n e : Les Memoires de Samuel de Champlain.* Montreal: E d i t i o n s H e r i t a g e , 1981. Menard, M. McGrath, B., Comtois, D., and Robichaud, D. V i e en N o u v e l l e France. Programme d ' h i s t o i r e 7eme annee. Ottawa: Le c o n s e i l s c o l a i r e d'Ottawa/Le c o n s e i l des e c o l e s separees c a t h o l i q u e s d'Ottawa, J u i n 1978. N e e r i n g , R., Garrod, S. La V i e en Acadie.* Toronto: F i t z -henry and Whiteside, 1978. N e e r i n g , Rosemary, Garrod, Stan. La V i e en N o u v e l l e France.* D a n i e l R. B i r c h , ed. C o l l e c t i o n Une N a t i o n en Marche. Toronto: F i t z h e n r y & Whiteside, 1978. P e l l e r i n , Jean. D ' I b e r v i l l e . * Ottawa: Les e d i t i o n s Lemeac e t Les e d i t i o n s I c i Radio-Canada, 1967. Tremblay, Roger and Major, H e n r i e t t e . V i s a g e s du Q u e b e c * Montreal: Centre E d u c a t i f et C u l t u r e l Inc., 1980. T r u d e l , M. ( d i r e c t e u r ) . Dictio.nnaire Biographique du Cana- da de l ' a n 1000 a 1710 ( V o l . 1). Quebec: P.U.L., 1966. T r u d e l , M a r c e l . I n i t i a t i o n a l a N o u v e l l e - F r a n c e . Mont-r e a l : Les e d i t i o n s HRW L i m i t e e , 1971. 97 T r u d e l , M a r c e l . A t l a s de l a Nouvelle France. Quebec: Les p r e s s e s de l ' U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , 1973. Vachon, A. ( d i r e c t e u r ) . D i c t i o n n a i r e Biographigue du Cana- da de 1701 a 1740 ( V o l . 2). Quebec: P.U.L., 1969. Vander, Jacques. Je s a i s tout sur l ' H i s t o i r e . * P a r i s : L i -b r a i r i e Hachette, 1976. V e r r i e r , Claude (ed.). Sciences humaines a 1'elementaire:  C a h i e r D. Montreal: G u e r i n e d i t e u r l i m i t e e , 1977. Journaux Argue, V a l e r i e & Weinrib, A l i c e . Supplementary French Teaching M a t e r i a l s with Canadian content. Canadian  Modern Language Review 1979, 3_5(2), 248-268. Vid e o - P r e s s e . Montreal: E d i t i o n s P a u l i n e . D i a p o s i t i v e s Jacques C a r t i e r . O f f i c e N a t i o n a l du F i l m , 1968. La C o l o n i s a t i o n sous Champlain. O f f i c e N a t i o n a l du F i l m , 1969. La V i e du c e n s i t a i r e ( L i f e of the H a b i t a n t ) . O f f i c e Na-t i o n a l du F i l m , 1970. Les E x p l o r a t i o n s de Champlain. O f f i c e N a t i o n a l du F i l m , 1969. Les S e i g n e u r i e s . O f f i c e N a t i o n a l du F i l m , Canada, 1969. P i oneer L i f e i n French Canada. O f f i c e N a t i o n a l du F i l m , Canada, 1969. 98 T r a d i t i o n s of New France. O f f i c e N a t i o n a l du F i l m , Canada, 1969. E n c y c l o p e d i e s E n c y c l o p e d i e s de l a Jeunesse* ( V o l . 1-20). Montreal: Gro-l i e r L i m i t e e , 1979, 1982. Ency c l o p e d i e du L i v r e d'or pour garcons et f i l l e s * (Vo 1. 1-16). P a r i s : E d i t i o n s deux coqs d'or, 1966. L'Ency c l o p e d i e G r o l i e r : Le L i v r e des connaissances* (Vo 1. 1-15). Montreal: G r o l i e r L i m i t e e , 1974. L a c o u r s i e r e , J . et Bouchard, C. Notre H i s t o i r e Quebec—Ca- nada ( V o l s . 1, 2, 3).Montreal: E d i t i o n s Format, 1972. S e r i e : E n c y c l o p e d i e de l a Jeunesse.* P a r i s : Hachette, 1971. Sept t i t r e s : Qui es t - c e ? D i s , pourquoi? Qu'est-ce que c ' e s t ? Ou e s t - c e ? D i s , comment ga marche? Que f e r a i - j e p l u s tard? C'est a r r i v e ce j o u r - l a . F ilms (16 mm) Quebec, 1603 (Samuel de Champlain). O f f i c e N a t i o n a l du F i l m , 1964. (14 mins.) The Newcomers: 1740. O f f i c e N a t i o n a l du F i l m , 1978. (59 mins.) 99 Films F i x e s S e r i e de l ' O f f i c e N a t i o n a l du F i l m : La N o u v e l l e France. Jacques C a r t i e r . 205C0256710. Samuel de Champlain. 235C0263710. L ' h a b i t a n t et sa t e r r e au 18ieme s i e c l e . 205C0265700. Seigneurs e t s e i g n e u r i e s . 235C0263712. Les c e n s i t a i r e s . 947133. N o u v e l l e France. 947131. En vente chez Secas, Mont-r e a l , Quebec. Jeu: S e i g n e u r i e s . Ottawa: Gerard Cachat, 1976. Ensembles pedagogiques B i r c h , D., Neering, R. L i f e i n E a r l y North America. To-ronto: F i t z h e n r y & Whiteside L t d . , 1973. (Trousse d'images) B i r c h , D., Stephens, H. Voyages of D i s c o v e r y . Toronto: F i t z h e n r y & Whiteside L t d . , 1973. (Trousse d'images) Guay, Fernande. Le Canada et son h i s t o i r e : C a r t e s r e d u i -t e s . Montreal: B r a u l t e t B o u t h i l l i e r , 1976. Howard, R i c h a r d . C a r t i e r of S t . Malo. Jackdaw No. C l l . Toronto: C l a r k , I r w i n & Co., 1968. Windsor, Kenneth. Champlain Jackdaw No. C23. Toronto: C l a r k , I r w i n & Co., 1971. 100 3. Sample U n i t No. 2: Les grands personnages de l ' h i s t o i -re f r a n c a i s e . But: Avec c e t t e u n i t e de t r a v a i l , l ' e l e v e commence a f a i r e ses propres recherches et a p r e s e n t e r oralement et a l ' e c r i t de c o u r t s p r o f i l s de personnages c e l e b r e s . O b j e c t i f s : L ' e l e v e apprendra a i ) f a i r e une courte p r e s e n t a t i o n en c l a s s e a propos d'un personnage de l ' h i s t o i r e f r a n c a i s e . i i ) se r e n s e i g n e r s e u l a l a b i b l i o t h e q u e en se servant des l i v r e s de r e f e r e n c e en f r a n c a i s . i i i ) s'exprimer simplement en f r a n c a i s sans c o p i e r des pages e n t i e r e s des l i v r e s . i v ) communiquer au p r o f e s s e u r e t a ses c o n f r e r e s quelques d e t a i l s q u i 1 ' i n t e r e s s e n t a propos de "son" personna-ge. Methodologie: Le p r o f e s s e u r commence c e t t e u n i t e avec "une le c o n de demonstration;" c ' e s t - a - d i r e , i l presente l e pro-f i l d'un personnage c e l e b r e e t montre a l ' e l e v e ce q u ' i l d o i t f a i r e lui-meme a son tour. E n s u i t e l ' e l e v e c h o i s i t un personnage d'une l i s t e f o u r n i e par l e p r o f e s s e u r (Annexe 2.A). C e t t e l i s t e n'est qu'un exemple; on p o u r r a i t a j o u t e r ou supprimer c e r t a i n s noms s e l o n l a d i s p o n i b i l i t e des l i -v r e s de r e f e r e n c e s a l ' e c o l e . Le p r o f e s s e u r f e r a a t t e n t i o n 101 a l a v a r i e t e des personnages, i . e . , un melange d'hommes et de femmes, de s o l d a t s et d ' a r t i s t e s , d 'inventeurs et d'hom-mes d ' E t a t . Les e l e v e s , a l e u r tour, p o u r r a i e n t a j o u t e r des noms de personnages sur l e s q u e l s i l s aimeraient en con-n a i t r e davantage. Done, au l i e u d'essayer d ' i n t e r e s s e r l ' e -l e v e aux e x p l o i t s de personnages i m a g i n a i r e s , l e p r o f e s s e u r p resente a l ' e l e v e des personnages " r e e l s , " e t l e u r s h i s -t o i r e s vecues, avec q u i i l peut former des a s s o c i a t i o n s ro-mantiques ("Romantic A s s o c i a t i o n s " concept c i t e par Egan (1979, p. 30)), e t s a t i s f a i r e son besoin de c o n n a i t r e beau-coup de d e t a i l s . Renseignements a l ' e n s e i g n a n t i ) Le premier personnage c h o i s i e s t V e r c i n g e t o r i x . i i ) Le pays que nous appelons aujourd'hui l a France e t a i t a u t r e f o i s connu sous l e nom de l a Gaule et ses h a b i -t a n t s , des t r i b u s c e l t i q u e s , l e s G a u l o i s . i i i ) L'annee 58 avant J e s u s - C h r i s t marque l a date de 1'in-v a s i o n de l a Gaule par l e s Romains. i v ) La conquete romaine e s t montee par J u l e s Cesar, v) Le probleme a commence a i n s i : M a r s e i l l e e t a i t , a l'epoque, un p o r t grec, appele M a s s i l i a . Les G a u l o i s l ' o n t attaque e t l e s " M a r s e i l l a i s " ont f a i t appel aux Romains de l e s a i d e r . 1 0 2 v i ) J u l e s Cesar e s t venu; i l a p r i s M a r s e i l l e e t l a r e -g i o n a l e n t o u r e t l e s a appelees P r o v i n c i a Romana (La Provence). v i i ) Cesar a v i t e p r i s p o s s e s s i o n de tout l e pays e t on peut l i r e l e r e c i t de ses e x p l o i t s dans son l i v r e De  B e l l o G a l l i c o . v i i i ) Un chef g a u l o i s du pays d'Auvergne ( a u t r e f o i s A r v e r -nes) appele V e r c i n g e t o r i x mene l a l u t t e contre Cesar mais n'a aucune chance contre l e s l e g i o n s romaines. Dans sa f o r t e r e s s e d ' A l e s i a , i l r e s i s t e aux attaques pendant p l u s i e u r s mois mais d o i t se rendre quand ses hommes meurent de faim. I l e s t f a i t p r i s o n n i e r , em-mene a Rome ou, apres s i x ans passes en p r i s o n , i l e s t execute. On l e considere comme l e premier heros n a t i o n a l ' d e ce q u i deviendra p l u s t a r d l a France. A c t i v i t e s i ) S i t u e r sur une c a r t e de l'Europe l a France, Rome, M a r s e i l l e , l'Auvergne. i i ) S e n s i b i l i s e r l ' e l e v e a 1 'importance du Rhone, a l a p o s i t i o n de M a r s e i l l e a l'epoque e t meme aujour-d ' h u i . i i i ) Raconter l ' h i s t o i r e de l a conquete de Cesar e t l a r e -s i s t a n c e des G a u l o i s menes par V e r c i n g e t o r i x . iv ) L i r e l e tex t e de R. de Roussy de S a l e s (Annexe 2.B) et d i s c u t e r des q u e s t i o n s . 103 v) D i s t r i b u e r l e p r o f i l (Annexe 2.C) e t l e r e m p l i r en-semble a l ' a i d e du tableau n o i r ou du r e t r o p r o j e c -t e u r . Le r e s u l t a t s e r a comme a l'Annexe 2.D. v i ) D i s t r i b u e r d'autres materiaux au s u j e t de V e r c i n g e t o -r i x (Annexes 2.E, 2.F) pour montrer aux el e v e s ou l'o n peut t r o u v e r des renseignements sur un person-nage. v i i ) F a i r e l a v i s i t e de l a b i b l i o t h e q u e de l ' e c o l e a f i n d ' e x p l i q u e r ou e t comment se r e n s e i g n e r . I d e n t i f i e r tous l e s l i v r e s de r e f e r e n c e d i s p o n i b l e s aux e l e v e s , et l e u r montrer comment se s e r v i r de 1"index, v i i i ) Montrer l a f i c h e d ' e v a l u a t i o n (Annexe 2.G) a l ' e l e v e p o u r q u ' i l p u i s s e comprendre exactement ce qu'on a t -tend de l u i . ix) D i s t r i b u e r l a l i s t e des re s s o u r c e s a l ' e l e v e (Annexe 2.H). 4. Sample U n i t No. 3: La Francophonie chez vous. But: C e t t e u n i t e termine l e cours sur l a c u l t u r e f r a n c o -phone e t envoie l ' e l e v e dans l a communaute francophone q u i e x i s t e localement. Ayant eu de l a p r a t i q u e a f a i r e des r e -cherches a l ' a i d e des l i v r e s e t des d i c t i o n n a i r e s , l ' e l e v e va maintenant aborder une ressource beaucoup p l u s v i v a n t e — l a p o p u l a t i o n francophone de sa v i l l e . La composition de 104 c e t t e u n i t e changera s e l o n l e nombre d'organismes f r a n c o -phones q u i e x i s t e n t dans l a communaute. La l i s t e q u i s u i t (Annexe 3.A) s'applique a l a v i l l e de Vancouver. O b j e c t i f s : L ' e l e v e , t r a v a i l l a n t avec un ou deux p a r t e n a i -res d e v r a i t i ) c r e e r son propre q u e s t i o n n a i r e i i ) r e n c o n t r e r un francophone i i i ) f a i r e un r a p p o r t de c e t t e rencontre a l a c l a s s e . Renseignements a 1'enseignant: i ) Le p r o f e s s e u r avec l ' a i d e de ses e l e v e s e t a b l i t une l i s t e des organismes francophones a Vancouver (Annexe 3.A) i i ) Le p r o f e s s e u r demande aux e l e v e s de c h o i s i r un orga-nisme de c e t t e l i s t e e t de prendre c o n t a c t s o i t par t e l e -phone s o i t en personne avec quelqu'un de c e t organisme. Les e l e v e s d e v r a i e n t prendre un rendez-vous pour quelques semaines p l u s t a r d . i i i ) En attendant l e j o u r de c e t t e rencontre p r o j e t e e l e s e l e v e s preparent l e u r s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Chaque q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e r a un peu d i f f e r e n t . Par exemple: • Pour 1'ecole b i l i n g u e , on demandera: -Quand e s t - c e que 1'ecole a ouvert ses p o r t e s pour l a pre-- miere f o i s ? -Pourquoi a - t - e l l e ete fondee? -Combien d'eleves y a - t - i l ? 105 * Pour un r e s t a u r a n t , on demandera egalement -Quand e s t - c e que ce r e s t a u r a n t a ouvert ses p o r t e s pour l a premiere f o i s ? -Quel genre de repas s e r t - o n dans ce r e s t a u r a n t ? - E s t - c e que tous l e s employes sont francophones? D'ou v i e n n e n t - i l s ? i v ) Le j o u r du rendez-vous l e s eleves se servent de l e u r s q u e s t i o n s a i n s i que, s i p o s s i b l e , d'un magnetophone a cas-s e t t e et d'un a p p a r e i l a photo. v) Apres l ' e n t r e v u e , l e s eleves o r g a n i s e n t l e u r r a p p o r t e t l e p r e s e n t e n t a l a c l a s s e oralement. Chaque groupe de-v r a i t p r e p a r e r une page de renseignements e t de v o c a b u l a i -re pour l e r e s t e de l a c l a s s e . v i ) Pour b i e n terminer c e t t e s e c t i o n , l e s e l e v e s f e r o n t une b e l l e a f f i c h e de l'organisme q u ' i l s auront e t u d i e . Ces a f f i c h e s p o u r r a i e n t e t r e montees dans l e s c o u l o i r s de l ' e -c o l e . A c t i v i t e s : Pour l ' e l e v e , l e s a c t i v i t e s de c e t t e s e c t i o n se d i v i -sent en c i n q p a r t i e s . i ) La p r e p a r a t i o n : l e v o c a b u l a i r e a p p r o p r i e a l ' o r g a -nisme ( r e s t a u r a n t , e c o l e , t e l e v i s i o n ) d e v r a i t e t r e b i e n r e -cherche par l e s e l e v e s et a u s s i l a l i s t e des q u e s t i o n s . Chaque e l e v e d e v r a i t t r o u v e r au moins d i x q u e s t i o n s a po-s e r . Une methode pour trouver des q u e s t i o n s s e r a i t de 106 prendre tous l e s mots-questions que l ' o n c o n n a i t (quand, q u i , pourquoi, comment, etc.) e t d'ebaucher une q u e s t i o n en se servant de ce mot. Le p r o f e s s e u r c o r r i g e r a l e s f a u t e s d'orthographe et de grammaire avant que l'e n t r e v u e a i t l i e u . i i ) L'entrevue: au s u j e t de l ' e n t r e v u e , l e s el e v e s de-v r a i e n t s i g n a l e r que l a rencontre s e r a conduite en f r a n -g a i s . I l e x i s t e une t e n t a t i o n l o r s q u e tout l e monde p a r l e a n g l a i s de poser l e s qu e s t i o n s en a n g l a i s e t de l e s t r a d u i -re apres. I l f a u t que tout l e monde se rende compte du f a i t que c e t t e r e n c o n t r e e s t un e x e r c i c e de communication en f r a n g a i s . i i i ) La p r e p a r a t i o n du rapport: l e s e l e v e s e c r i r o n t un t e x t e q u ' i l s s u i v r o n t pendant l e u r p r e s e n t a t i o n o r a l e et o r g a n i s e r o n t l e u r s a i d e s v i s u e l l e s - - p h o t o s , d i a p o s i t i v e s , a f f i c h e s , o b j e t s r e e l s . Le but de c e t t e p r e p a r a t i o n e s t de tr o u v e r une p r e s e n t a t i o n v i v a n t e q u i p l a i r a aux autres e l e v e s . i v ) La p r e s e n t a t i o n : l e s eleves d e v r a i e n t d i s t r i b u e r une l i s t e de v o c a b u l a i r e e t 1'expliquer avant de f a i r e l a pre-s e n t a t i o n . I l s demanderont aux autres e l e v e s de l e u r poser des q u e s t i o n s l o r s q u ' i l s ne comprendront pas. Apres l a p r e s e n t a t i o n , i l s d i s t r i b u e r o n t a chaque membre de l a c l a s -se une page de renseignements sur l'organisme. v) Les a f f i c h e s : c e t t e aide v i s u e l l e montrera au r e s t e de 1'ecole qu'une communaute francophone e x i s t e dans l e u r v i l l e e t qu'une rencontre entre l e s e l e v e s des membres de c e t t e communaute peut e t r e meme amusante. E v a l u a t i o n : Deux s o r t e s d ' e v a l u a t i o n sont prevues pour c e t t e s e c t i o n ; l ' e v a l u a t i o n par l e s e l e v e s et c e l l e f a i t e par l e p r o f e s s e u r . i ) L ' e v a l u a t i o n par l e s eleves se f e r a sous forme de q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Annexe 3.B) d i s t r i b u e apres chaque presenta-t i o n . Le but de ce genre d ' e v a l u a t i o n e s t de c r e e r un sens c r i t i q u e chez l ' e l e v e e t l e f o r c e r a bi e n s u i v r e l a presen-t a t i o n de son c o l l e g u e . Se rendant compte du f a i t q u ' i l va e t r e "juge" par ses p a i r s , l ' e l e v e f e r a peut e t r e p l u s d * e f f o r t s pour b i e n p r e s e n t e r son ra p p o r t . i i ) L ' e v a l u a t i o n par l e p r o f e s s e u r (Annexe 3.C) s u i v r a l e meme format que c e l u i u t i l i s e dans l a deuxieme s e c t i o n "Les grands personnages de l ' h i s t o i r e f r a n g a i s e . " Le but de c e t t e e v a l u a t i o n e s t de recompenser l ' e l e v e a chaque etape de son t r a v a i l , autrement d i t , l a p r e p a r a t i o n vaut autant que l a p r e s e n t a t i o n . 107 anglophones e t i n t e r e s s a n t e e t 108 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION 1. Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Study The three sample u n i t s i n the preceding chapter i l l u s -t r a t e a c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d study of francophone h e r i t a g e and present-day l i f e t h a t may s t i m u l a t e an i n t e r e s t both i n francophone c u l t u r e and i n the French language. The c u r r i -culum proposed here i s f a r from being a f i n a l ready-to-teach v e r s i o n and s e v e r a l items emerge which merit f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . a) M a t e r i a l s The l a c k of m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e to teachers may prove daunting and may d e t e r many from t e a c h i n g t h i s course. As Walker (1977) s t a t e s , there i s a d e f i n i t e need f o r French-Canadian c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l which can be used i n second-lan-guage l e a r n i n g (p. 535). I t would be u s e f u l to have mate-r i a l s u i t a b l e f o r ad o l e s c e n t L 2 l e a r n e r s which d e a l s with r e a l people and r e a l events i n the francophone world, be they c u r r e n t o r h i s t o r i c a l , r a t h e r than imaginary j u v e n i l e d e t e c t i v e s , monsters or f l y i n g saucers. Canadian and other 109 p u b l i s h e r s must r e a l i z e t h at m a t e r i a l produced f o r n a t i v e francophones i s o f t e n n e i t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e nor comprehens-i b l e to anglophone l e a r n e r s of French due to complexity of language or maturity of m a t e r i a l . However the f a c t remains that even i f m a t e r i a l s were a v a i l a b l e , s chools may not be able to a f f o r d t h e i r pur-chase. The course proposed i n t h i s study o b v i o u s l y r e -q u i r e s a c e r t a i n minimum of m a t e r i a l s ( d i c t i o n a r i e s , ency-c l o p e d i a s , etc.) but the l a c k of a ready-made textbook to accompany the course should not d e t e r the teacher. As sug-gested i n the second and t h i r d s e c t i o n s of the course, the student should be encouraged to f i n d out f a c t s and r e l a y them to the c l a s s . Cudecki et a l . (1971) argue t h a t l a c k of m a t e r i a l s may not n e c e s s a r i l y be d e t r i m e n t a l to the e f -f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g of c u l t u r e i n the classroom (p. 21). T h i s p o i n t of view i s echoed by G r i t t n e r (1977) who s t a t e s that the process of examining c u l t u r a l data i s more durable than the i n f o r m a t i o n i t s e l f and that "engaging i n the i n v e s t i -gatory process w i l l o f t e n l e a d students to the formation of new a t t i t u d e s " (p. 284). The development of m a t e r i a l s which r e l a t e the process of l e a r n i n g to the i n f o r m a t i o n would be h e l p f u l . The f o l l o w i n g s e q u e n t i a l mode of i n s -t r u c t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g c u l t u r a l data, suggested by P a p a l i a (1976), i n d i c a t e s how t h i s approach might work. 1. S e n s a t i o n : Teacher introduces student to c u l t u r -a l item ( i . e . , l e c t u r e , s l i d e s , f i l m ) . 110 2. P e r c e p t i o n : Student r e a c t s to c u l t u r a l phenome-non ( i . e . , l e a r n s vocabulary, w r i t e s s k i t s ) . 3. Concept: Student formulates c u l t u r a l concept ( i . e . , w r i t e s a r e p o r t , does r e s e a r c h or r o l e -p l a y ). 4. P r i n c i p l e : Student analyzes c u l t u r a l data ( i . e . , i n t e r v i e w s n a t i v e speaker). ( P a p a l i a , 1976, pp. 122-123) C u l t u r a l data on i t s own i s not s u f f i c i e n t ; m a t e r i a l s must i n d i c a t e an approach which goes from exposure to under-standing or, i n P a p a l i a ' s terms, from s e n s a t i o n to p r i n c i -p l e . Doyle and Ponder (1977) suggest t h a t g e t t i n g teachers to r e i n v e n t the wheel, to develop t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s , i s i n f a c t c r u c i a l to the success of any teaching p r o j e c t (p. 78). No matter how s p e c i f i c or d e t a i l e d a textbook or k i t , there i s no teacher who w i l l f o l l o w i t to the l e t t e r w i t h -out i n j e c t i n g a p e r s o n a l touch, be i t i n the form of an ac-t i v i t y , song or added m a t e r i a l . The c u r r i c u l u m proposed i n the p r e s e n t study promotes h a b i t s of d i s c o v e r y and i n q u i r y and p r o v i d e s h e u r i s t i c techniques which prepare the student f o r l i f e beyond s c h o o l . S e l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c content i s not, i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the s i n g l e most important element; d e s p i t e nume-rous models (Nostrand, 1967; Brooks, 1974), there i s no one I l l d e f i n i t i v e l i s t of what should or should not be taught. As Hutchins (1953) s t a t e s , the o b j e c t . . . i s not to teach the young a l l they w i l l ever need to know. I t i s to g i v e them the h a b i t s , ideas and techniques t h a t they need to continue to educate themselves (p. 74). To conclude the q u e s t i o n of m a t e r i a l s , I would advo-c a t e the continued development of c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d L 2 mate-r i a l s f o r ado l e s c e n t students and encourage teachers to b u i l d r e s o u r c e - k i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n and to use an i n q u i r y -based approach which helps students ask q u e s t i o n s u s i n g the second language. b) Implementation and e v a l u a t i o n As Doyle and Ponder (1977) s t a t e , any c u r r i c u l u m p r o -p o s a l , r e g a r d l e s s of i t s merit, w i l l have l i t t l e impact on s c h o o l i n g u n t i l i t i s used (p. 74) and, one might add, un-t i l i t i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y evaluated. Y e t i t must be noted t h a t the process i s not s t r i c t l y l i n e a r ; as A. and H. N i c h o l l s (1978) p o s i t , c u r r i c u l u m development i s a c y c l i c a l process and i n p r a c t i c e one does not move d i r e c t l y from one a c t i v i t y to the next u n t i l one reaches e v a l u a -t i o n . I n stead there i s a constant moving back-wards and forwards ( N i c h o l l s , 1978, p. 96). 112 The course proposed here has not y e t been f o r m a l l y taught; the next step i s c l e a r l y to teach and e v a l u a t e i t . In the case of t h i s teacher, the s t a r t i n g p o i n t was con-tent; the impromptu i n t r o d u c t i o n of c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l i n the classroom r e c e i v e d e n t h u s i a s t i c feedback and r e s u l t e d i n improved language performance. The f i v e stages of cur-r i c u l u m development o u t l i n e d by A. and H. N i c h o l l s (1978) are c l o s e l y i n t e r c o n n e c t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of a dynamic, emergent course. 1. S i t u a t i o n a n a l y s i s 2. S e l e c t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s 3. S e l e c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of content 4. S e l e c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of methods 5. E v a l u a t i o n . Working backwards from a s u c c e s s f u l , i n f o r m a l t e a c h i n g event to a s i t u a t i o n a n a l y s i s ( i . e . , Why were the students r e c e p t i v e to the c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l ? ) occurs i n c l o s e asso-c i a t i o n with working forwards to a summative assessment of the course ( i . e , Did the students' i n c r e a s e d understanding of the t a r g e t c u l t u r e a f f e c t t h e i r performance i n the t a r -get language?) E v a l u a t i o n at a l l stages of c u r r i c u l u m de-velopment p r o v i d e s a guide not only f o r f u t u r e development but f o r adjustments to e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l . Halpern e t a l . (1976) i d e n t i f y three stages at which e v a l u a t i o n occurs: development, i n s t a l l a t i o n and maintenance. As they i n d i -c a t e, the f i n a l p i c t u r e may not emerge f o r s e v e r a l years 113 s i n c e the p e r i o d of i n s t a l l a t i o n with teachers adapting and changing m a t e r i a l may take up to three years (p. 143). Teachers implementing the course o u t l i n e d here may wish to pursue d i f f e r e n t avenues of e v a l u a t i o n . S i n c e the primary purpose of t h i s study has been the development of the course and a d i s c u s s i o n of the importance of c u l t u r e i n language l e a r n i n g , c e r t a i n f a c t o r s c r u c i a l to the implemen-t a t i o n of the course have not been considered and would m e r i t f u r t h e r study. These are: i ) E v a l u a t i o n of language performance i i ) E v a l u a t i o n of knowledge of content i i i ) E v a l u a t i o n of a t t i t u d i n a l changes i v ) P l u r a l i s t i c models of e v a l u a t i o n v) Cost of implementing the course. The d i s c u s s i o n of each of these areas which f o l l o w s i s l i m i t e d to a b r i e f review of what might be attempted by f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s . i ) E v a l u a t i o n of language performance: In order to e v a l -uate one of the major g o a l s of the c o u r s e — a n improvement i n French language p e r f o r m a n c e — a French language p r o f i c i -ency t e s t c o u l d be administered both to' the group t a k i n g the course and to a c o n t r o l group, p r e f e r a b l y students i n the same s c h o o l t a k i n g a course i n French as a second l a n -guage. U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s d i f f i c u l t to recommend any one 114 s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t because many are outdated, not s u i t a b l e f o r a d o l e s c e n t s or too advanced f o r high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . In the case of t h i s teacher, s u i t a b l e t e s t s would be the Achievement T e s t s i n French as a Second Language (1980) de-veloped by the c r e a t o r s of Le F r a n c a i s I n t e r n a t i o n a l s i n c e a l l students i n her s c h o o l use t h i s method. However s t u -dents who have used another method would have some d i f f i -c u l t y i n f o l l o w i n g the format of these t e s t s . The B a s i c  P r o f i c i e n c y i n French t e s t s (1976) developed i n England as a School's C o u n c i l p r o j e c t and reviewed by C l a r k (Buros, 1978, pp. 191-201) appear to be s u i t a b l e f o r the age group proposed i n the pr e s e n t study ( i . e . , 14-16 y e a r s ) . These t e s t s are based on the f i r s t and second "degre" ( l e v e l ) of Le F r a n g a i s Fondamental (Gougenheim, 1964), a l i s t of the most f r e q u e n t l y used words i n French, and are intended f o r students who have had fou r years of French language study. The f a c t t h a t the t e s t s are based on a word frequency l i s t such as Le F r a n g a i s Fondamental r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c textbook or method would appear to make i t more a p p r o p r i a t e as an instrument f o r measuring French language performance. Other instruments which may be of i n t e r e s t are those d e v e l -oped and used by C a r r o l l (1975) i n h i s study of French i n e i g h t c o u n t r i e s . These t e s t s are a v a i l a b l e through ERIC ( E d u c a t i o n a l Resources Information Center) and are p r o f i -c i e n c y t e s t s . 115 OISE ( O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n Education) con-t i n u e s to develop t e s t s of i n t e r e s t to Canadian teachers of French. The O n t a r i o Assessment Instrument P o o l t e s t s (1980) were developed by OISE f o r the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o and p r o v i d e h e l p f u l g u i d e l i n e s f o r t e s t i n g com-municative competence i n French as a second language. The instruments are u n i t s t h a t can be used on t h e i r own or i n c o n j u n c t i o n with each o t h e r to assess knowledge and p e r f o r -mance. Each u n i t r e p r e s e n t s a s p e c i f i c t a s k — s p e a k i n g , l i s t e n i n g , r e a d i n g , or w r i t i n g — a n d the format ranges from m u l t i p l e c h o i c e to open-ended q u e s t i o n s . The instruments appear s u i t a b l e f o r the course o u t l i n e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u -dy because they allow the teacher f l e x i b i l i t y i n e v a l u a t i n g s p e c i f i c areas of performance, are u n r e l a t e d to a p a r t i c u -l a r textbook or method and have been developed f o r two s p e c i f i c l e v e l s , grade 6 and grade 10. One t e s t of i n t e r e s t to high s c h o o l students would be the Je s a i s . . . ? French L i s t e n i n g Comprehension t e s t developed by OISE and p u b l i s h e d by Maclean-Hunter which i s based on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of phonemes and comprehension of s t r u c t u r e s and i s intended f o r core French students i n grades 9-10. A comparison between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t scores may r e v e a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n understanding and p e r f o r -mance i n the second language between a c o n t r o l and the ex-p e r i m e n t a l group. 116 i i ) E v a l u a t i o n of knowledge of content: The a c q u i s i t i o n of content should be evaluated as the course i s taught and examples of such e v a l u a t i o n have been given i n Chapter IV of the prese n t study. One i n t e r e s t i n g avenue of r e s e a r c h would be to teach the course i n French and i n E n g l i s h to d i f f e r e n t groups and to t e s t knowledge of content upon com-p l e t i o n of the course. A s i m i l a r p r o j e c t undertaken at Brandywine High S c h o o l , Wilmington, Deleware and reviewed by O r t and Smith (1969) (see Chapter II of the pr e s e n t study) i n d i c a t e s t h a t there may be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence i n the amount of content understood by groups s t u d y i n g the same m a t e r i a l through d i f f e r e n t languages. i i i ) E v a l u a t i o n of a t t i t u d i n a l changes: C l a r k ' s study (1978) of the a t t i t u d e s of two groups of students taught c u l t u r e from two d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s — a n t h r o p o l o g y and f i n e a r t s — s u g g e s t s another i n t e r e s t i n g avenue of r e s e a r c h . Using Gardner and Lambert's modified Ethnocentrism s c a l e , the F o r e i g n Language A t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e (FLAQ) and a seven-point F r a n c o p h i l i a s c a l e , she t e s t e d s i x hypotheses: that students taught with an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach would (1) be l e s s e t h n o c e n t r i c ; (2) have more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward French c u l t u r e ; (3) have l e s s negative s t e r e o t y p e d ideas of Francophones; (4) have l e s s s u p e r i o r concepts of t h e i r own c u l t u r a l group; (5) have more p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n -cepts and (6) be more i n t e g r a t i v e l y o r i e n t e d than students taught w i t h a f i n e a r t s approach. The study's f i n d i n g s supported only hypotheses (2) and (4) and i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r h y p o t h e s i s (5) the r e v e r s e was true ( i . e . , t h a t s t u -dents taught with a f i n e a r t s approach had more p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t s ) . C l a r k was unable to make any c o n c l u s i v e statements as a r e s u l t of her experiment but her study c o u l d p r o v i d e a h e l p f u l model f o r those wishing to t e s t the a t t i t u d i n a l f a c t o r . i v ) " P l u r a l i s t i c " models of e v a l u a t i o n : I t must be remem-bered t h a t t e s t i n g student performance i s only one form of e v a l u a t i o n which i s i t s e l f a m u l t i - f a c e t e d p r o c e s s . McNeil (1981) d e f i n e s the humanistic view of e v a l u a t i o n as p l u -r a l i s t i c ; t h i s all-encompassing view of e v a l u a t i o n s h i f t s the focus from the e v a l u a t o r to the p a r t i c i p a n t (p. 153). P l u r a l i s t s a c c o r d i n g to McNeil tend to base t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s more on program a c t i v i t y than on program i n t e n t and to accept a n e c d o t a l accounts and other n a t u r a l i s t i c data r a t h e r than to r e l y on numerical data and exper-imental designs (p. 153). T e s t i n g language p r o f i c i e n c y and a c q u i s i t i o n of con-te n t are h e l p f u l i n determining the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the course but p l u r a l i s t i c models of e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d be used to assemble a more composite p i c t u r e of the course. S t u -dent q u e s t i o n n a i r e s would be u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r s of the 118 courses s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses; q u e s t i o n s could be both s p e c i f i c ( i . e . , name one t h i n g you have l e a r n t about a l o -c a l francophone o r g a n i z a t i o n ) or open-ended (Has the course changed your a t t i t u d e to French speakers?). D e s c r i p t i v e measures such as d i s c u s s i o n groups, student essays or com-mentaries may p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e feedback to the c u r r i c u l u m developer. The s c h o o l ' s S o c i a l S t u d i e s teachers may pro-v i d e feedback on o b s e r v i n g student a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s when Canadian h i s t o r y i s d i s c u s s e d i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s -es. Peer assessment may p r o v i d e another means of ev a l u a -t i o n ; students could be asked to assess each o t h e r ' s per-formance i n French. An example of t h i s type of e v a l u a t i o n i s Annexe 3.B of the pr e s e n t study. Educators who adopt a humanistic approach to e d u c a t i o n p l a c e emphasis on the q u a l i t a t i v e as w e l l as the q u a n t i t a -t i v e aspects of e v a l u a t i o n . Rather than r e l y i n g s o l e l y on t e s t s cores to e v a l u a t e a course, one can use techniques such as e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m , a term used by E i s n e r (1976), which i n c l u d e s d e s c r i p t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of a t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n (p. 142). E i s -ner sees e d u c a t i o n a l c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i -cism as two modes which o f f e r promising p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r broadening the base of e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n (p. 149). He d e f i n e s these two modes thus: C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p p r o v i d e s c r i t i c i s m with i t s sub-j e c t matter. C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p i s p r i v a t e , but c r i t i c i s m i s p u b l i c . Connoisseurs simply need to a p p r e c i a t e what they encounter. C r i t i c s , how-ever, must render these q u a l i t i e s v i v i d by the a r t f u l use of c r i t i c a l d i s c l o s u r e . E f f e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m r e q u i r e s the use of c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p , but c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p does not r e q u i r e the use of c r i t i c i s m (p. 141). McNeil (1981) d e f i n e s E i s n e r ' s view of c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p as a way of seeing r a t h e r than a way of measuring (p. 160). In my o p i n i o n , a comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n of the course proposed here would r e l y not only on t e s t i n g but a l s o on student e x p r e s s i o n and teacher r e a c t i o n , i n the form of d e s c r i p t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n . Teacher and student, as educa-t i o n a l c o n n o i s s e u r s , share the r o l e of e v a l u a t o r of the course. v) Costs of implementing the course: F a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n implementing a course i n French are reviewed by Partlow (1977) i n h i s study The Costs of p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n  French to students s t u d y i n g French as a second language. The c o s t of p r o v i d i n g a program can be d i v i d e d i n t o t hree areas: environment, d e l i v e r y and ongoing program develop-ment. Environment covers such items as a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , b u i l d i n g maintenance, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; d e l i v e r y i n v o l v e s consumable s u p p l i e s , t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s ; ongoing program development covers the c r e a t i o n of a "bank" of a u d i o - v i s u a l 120 a i d s and- equipment and the p r o f e s s i o n a l development of the French department (p. 48). In a d d i t i o n to these b a s i c c o s t s , Partlow suggests t h a t there are e x t r a c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a new program; among these a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s are the p r e p a r a t i o n of the program, s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , p r o d u c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l f o r s t u -dents and parents and the c o s t of employing a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f (pp. 154-157 ). The t h r u s t of the present study has been to suggest t h a t the r e g u l a r French teacher be used as the teacher f o r the new course; i n Partlow's terminology, t h i s would be an " i n t e g r a t e d " teacher. However i n some cases i t might be necessary to employ an i t i n e r a n t teacher, g e n e r a l l y a more expensive p r o p o s i t i o n . Even when, as i n the case of the p r e s e n t study, the r e g u l a r French teacher i s used to teach the new course, i t must be noted t h a t ad-d i t i o n a l s t a f f may be needed to teach the course(s) which t h a t teacher no longer has the time to teach. I t i s sug-gested t h a t as complete an a n a l y s i s as p o s s i b l e be worked out i n advance by the teacher and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f i n v o l v e d before the course i s implemented. To review t h i s s e c t i o n , the present study leads me to suggest t h a t t e a c h e r s : 1. Remember t h e i r dual goals of developing p r o f i c i e n c y i n French and of i n c r e a s i n g the students' knowledge and appre-c i a t i o n of francophone c u l t u r e . 2. E s t a b l i s h a c o n t r o l group with which to compare r e s u l t s on s t a n d a r d i z e d language t e s t s , a t t i t u d i n a l s c a l e s and con-t e n t q u i z z e s . 3. Employ d e s c r i p t i v e measures and student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e v a l u a t i n g the success of the course. 4. I n v o l v e other teachers i n the c r e a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s s t r u c t u r i n g of the course, a n a l y s i s of o b j e c t i v e s and e v a l -u a t i o n of the course. 2. Concluding Remarks a) Extended Programs: A V i a b l e Option T h i s study suggests t h a t extended programs o f f e r an a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to core or immersion programs f o r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s . Edwards and Smyth (1976) s t a t e t hat w h i l e such programs have not been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e v a l -uated, there i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t they i n t e r f e r e l i t t l e i f at a l l with the t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h language c u r r i c u l u m and t h a t they r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r French language competence i n comparison to t r a d i t i o n a l second-language programs (p. 530 ). S i n c e not a l l c h i l d r e n are w i l l i n g or able to undertake t h e i r e d u c a t i o n through the medium of French, extended pro-grams do appear to be a v i a b l e o p t i o n . In f a c t they may 122 become a popular choice i n the f u t u r e s i n c e immersion pro-grams have " a l l too o f t e n become the f o o t b a l l i n a p o l i t -i c a l game which may undermine the genuine long-term i n t e r -e s t s of the l e a r n e r s they are designed to h e l p " (Szymanski, 1983, p. 69). T h i s i s not to d e n i g r a t e the immersion ex-p e r i m e n t — " t h e Canadian c o n t r i b u t i o n to the c u r r i c u l u m de-bate of the 1970's" ( S t e r n , 1980, p. 1 4 ) — w h i c h has proved i n v a l u a b l e to the f i e l d of language l e a r n i n g by demonstrat-ing t h a t a second language i s o f t e n learned e f f e c t i v e l y when the emphasis i s not on language per se but on "the s u b s t a n t i v e (non-language) content and the experience of language i n use" ( S t e r n , 1980, p. 14). I t i s v i t a l to use the gains made i n the immersion f i e l d to broaden the c u r r i -c u l a r base of French as a second language. The p r e s e n t s t u -dy supports Loew (1980), who argues that "the f u t u r e of f o r e i g n language c u r r i c u l u m must s t r e s s the l e a r n i n g of content as much as i t does the l e a r n i n g of form" and sug-gests an " e x p l i c i t c u l t u r a l s y l l a b u s " which would focus on France and other francophone c o u n t r i e s (p. 34). b) A broader c u r r i c u l a r base: towards c u l t u r a l c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p The c u r r i c u l u m proposed i n t h i s study meets the c r i -t e r i a of the c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e d by S t e r n (1980): a c u r r i c u l u m which has f o u r f o c i : 1. Language ( L 2 ) ; 123 2. C u l t u r e ( C 2 ) ; 3. L 2 / C 2 Communicative a c t i v i t i e s ; 4. General language education (p. 15). Such a broad c u r r i c u l u m focus opens up the narrow f i e l d of second language education, a l l too o f t e n a " d u l l and s t e r i l e i n t e l l e c t u a l game" ( G r i t t n e r , 1977, p. 201), by l i n k i n g the study of the second language with the c o u n t r i e s i n which t h a t language i s spoken. Gaudiani's (1980) s t a t e -ment t h a t f o r e i g n language teachers are humanists whose g o a l i s to encourage "the development of r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i -zens with c u l t u r a l , a e s t h e t i c , and s p i r i t u a l s e n s i t i v i t i e s " (p. 6) r e f l e c t s t h i s move away from s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c ob-j e c t i v e s to a broader c u r r i c u l a r base where "ideas are guides not r e c i p e s " ( E i s n e r , 1977, p. 47). The l a c k of d e t a i l e d b e h a v i o u r a l l y - s t a t e d l e a r n e r outcomes i s d e l i b e r -ate i n order to f o s t e r student and teacher c r e a t i v i t y and to focus on e x p r e s s i v e and a f f e c t i v e student behaviour. Students have o f t e n been d i r e c t e d away from such a view of education toward a more "pragmatic, t e c h n i c a l v o c a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y " (Greene, 1979, p. 635). Yet, as Greene argues " s t i m u l a t i o n of c r i t i c a l approaches to our h e r i t a g e can . . help prepare the ground f o r the moment when the young person decides to undertake something new" (p. 635). The course proposed here does not t r a i n f u t u r e t r a n s -l a t o r s but r a t h e r p r o v i d e s a broad c u l t u r a l background which enables students to focus on "the l i b e r a t i n g q u a l i -t i e s of f o r e i g n language and c u l t u r e " ( Z a i s , 1979, p. 14). Instead of a r i g i d l i s t of s p e c i f i c and o f t e n s t a t i c l e a r n -er outcomes, the course proposed here suggests a c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m as an emergent, dynamic process with ample op-p o r t u n i t y f o r teacher c r e a t i v i t y and student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . J u s t as E i s n e r (1979) advocates e d u c a t i o n a l connois-s e u r s h i p as a p r e r e q u i s i t e to e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m (p. 193) so should c u l t u r a l c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p precede c u l t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . A student can n e i t h e r judge nor a p p r e c i a t e a second c u l t u r e without a knowledge of the background of that c u l t u r e . The c e n t r a l importance of content, which i s s t r e s s e d i n the course, may be unfashionable (Egan, 1979, p. 159) but m e r i t s f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the f i e l d o f second language i n s t r u c t i o n . To conclude, t h i s study advocates the f o l l o w i n g : 1. I n t e g r a t i n g c u l t u r a l knowledge with second language i n s t r u c t i o n . 2. A l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l time i n a student's t i m e t a b l e to teach c u l t u r e through French by means of an extended pro-gram. 3. U s i n g a f u n c t i o n a l r a t h e r than a formal approach to language t e a c h i n g by adapting developments made i n the im-mersion f i e l d to the core program. 4. Teaching a c u l t u r a l enrichment course which combines knowledge about French speakers, t h e i r h e r i t a g e and t h e i r 125 c o u n t r i e s with encounters with l o c a l francophone commu-n i t i e s . 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E x . : L a F r a n c e e n v o i e d e s v L a N o u v e l l e F r a n c e o u v r i e r s , d e s r e l i g i e u x - - e n d e v i e n t u n e e x t e n -s o m m e , d e s c o l o n s — s a l a n g u e , s i o n d e l a F r a n c e , s e s l o i s e t s a c u l t u r e . S o u r c e : M e n a r d , M . , C o m t o i s , D . , M c G r a t h , B . , R o b i c h a u d , D . V i e e n N o u v e l l e F r a n c e . O t t a w a : L e c o n s e i l s c o l a i -r e d ' O t t a w a e t l e c o n s e i l d e s e c o l e s s e p a r e e s C a t h o -l i q u e s d ' O t t a w a , 1 9 7 8 , 1 0 - 1 1 . ANNEXE l . C LES AMERINDIENS DU NORD-EST DE L'AMERIQUE Source: M. T r u d e l . I n i t i a t i o n a l a Nouyelle-France Montre-a l : Les e d i t i o n s HRW Ltee,. 1971, p..27. 143 Annexe l.D T e s t : Les debuts de l a c o l o n i e 1. La p l u p a r t des francophones au Canada h a b i t e n t dans l a p r o v i n c e de . . 2. Les ancetres des Quebecois sont venus de l a 3. Les gens q u i h a b i t a i e n t l e long du f l e u v e S t . Laurent avant l ' a r r i v e e des f r a n c a i s s ' a p p e l l e n t des 4. La c o l o n i s a t i o n de l a N o u v e l l e France a commence au s i e c l e . 5. Les premiers e x p l o r a t e u r s v o u l a i e n t d e c o u v r i r une nou-v e l l e route v e r s 6. Parmi l e s r i c h e s s e s n a t u r e l l e s au Canada, on t r o u v a i t des 7. La mere-patrie v o u l a i t s u r t o u t de sa c o l o n i e . 8. Dans une c o l o n i e d ' e x p l o i t a t i o n q u e l l e s s o r t e s de per-sonnes trouve-t-on? (2 exemples). ANNEXE)'1 .E : JACQUES CARTIER 144 J a c q u e s C a r t i e r nalt a S a i n t -Ma l o , port d e B r e t a g n e en 1491. A v ingt-huit ans. il est " m a i t r e p i l o te d u port de S a i n t - M a l o " . En 1534, le ro i F r a n c o i s 1e r l e cha r ge d ' u neexpe -d i t i o n en A m e r i q u e d u N o r d . L e but du v o y a g e est de decouv r i r un pas sage qu i per-met te aux nav i res d ' a t te indre la C h i n e et le J a p o n . L e depar t se fait le 20 avri l 1534 avec 2 nav i res . L e 10 ma i , il atteint C a p Bonav i s t a s u r la cd te de Te r re -Neuve . Apres un s e j o u r de q u e l q u e s jou r s , il met le c a p vers le n o r d et atteint le detroit de Bel le- Is le le 27 ma i . L e s g l a c e s et le mauva i s t emps le re t i ennent q u e l q u e s jou r s et il ne franchit le detro i t q u e le 9 ju in . L ' e xped i t i o n se d i r i ge en su i t e vers le s ud , e l le atteint bient6t les l i e s de la M a d e l e i n e et en su i t e I'lle d u P r i n c e - E d o u a r d . L e 10 jui l let, il atteint le fond de la ba ie des C h a l e u r s pu i s se d i r i ge vers G a s p e o u il pa s se 8 jours. Ap re s plus ieurs r e n c o n t r e s avec les Indiens, il e r ige le 24 ju i l let, u ne c ro i x au n o m du roi de France. C a r t i e r qu i t te G a s p e le 25 ju i l let en amenant a vec lui deux jeunes Indiens. II se dir ige ver s I'lle d ' A n t i c o s t i . De s vents cont ra i re s et un fort c ou r an t emp§chan t les navires de p e n e t r e r dan s le f leuve S a i n t - L au ren t il d e c i d e de r e tou rne r en F rance . C a r t i e r e n t r e p r e n d un s e c o n d v o yage vers I ' Amer ique d u N o r d le 19 mai 1535. II a ce t te fo i s t ro i s nav i res : L a G r a n d e H e r m i n e , la Pet i te H e r m i n e et I 'Emeri l lon. Cartier c h e r c h e un p a s s a g e sur la c o t e no rd du go l f e S a i n t - Lau ren t . Persuade" qu ' i l n'en e x i s t e a u c u n , il s ' e n gage dans le f leuve S a i n t - L a u r e n t le 24 aout. Le s trois navires attei g n e n t I'lle d ' O r l 6 a n s le 7 s ep tembre . Ca r t i e r r a m e n e les d e u x Ind iens ce s dernier! lu i se rvent d ' i n te rp re te s avec les Ind iens de I 'endroit. Q u e l q u e s jours p lus tard, le; F r a n c a i s a m e n e n t leurs nav i res a I ' embouchu re de la r iv iere S t - C h a r l e s ou s 'eleve l< v i l l a g e i nd i en de S t a d a c o n e . C 'e s t la qu ' i l d e c i d e de pa s se r I'hiver. Ca r t i e r profited< s o n s e j o u r d a n s la r e g i o n p o u r se rendre j u s q u ' a H o c h e l a g a o u il est b ien accue i l l i pa les Ind iens . Le f r o i d et une e p i d 6 m i e de s c o r b u t r enden t la v ie d i f f i c i le aux Francais V i n g t - c i n q meu ren t au c o u r s de I'hiver. Le 6 ma i , les F r a n c a i s font vo i le en d i rect ion di la F r a n c e . C ' e s t e n pas sant ent re I'lle du C a p B r e t o n et le s u d de Ter re -Neuve qui C a r t i e r se rend c o m p t e que cette de rn ie re est u n e Tie. II arr ive a S t -Ma lo le 16 juillet 153< L e 23 ma i 1541, Ca r t i e r qu i t te S t - M a l o avec c i n q nav i re s p o u r un t ro i s ieme voyage A p r e s une t raver see d i f f i c i le , il atteint T e r r e - N e u v e pu i s S t a d a c o n e . II r emonte le S L a u r e n t j u s q u ' a u x r ap ide s de L a c h i n e pu i s rev ient a C a p Rouge . II r e t o u r n e e n France I'ete 1542. J a c q u e s Ca r t i e r pa s se s emb le - t - i l les t re ize d e r n i e r e s a nnee s de sa vie a S t -Malo. meur t en 1557. Source: Claude V e r r i e r (ed.) S c i e n c e s humaines a 1'Elementaire, C a h i e r D (Montreal: Guerin fiditeur L i m i t e e , 1 9 7 7 ) , p,2 ANNEXE 1.F: VOYAGES DE JACQUES CARTIER f 1. Premier voyage 2. Deuxieme voyage 3. T r o i s i e m e voyage Couleur 146 Annexe l . G : T e s t : Jacques C a r t i e r (Reponses courtes) 1. D'ou v e n a i t Jacques C a r t i e r ? 2. Pourquoi a - t - i l f a i t son premier voyage? 3. Q u ' a - t - i l f a i t a Gaspe en 1534? 4. Pourquoi n ' e s t - i l pas r e s t e au Canada c e t t e annee-la? 5. Pourquoi s ' e n g a g e - t - i l dans l e f l e u v e S a i n t - L a u r e n t en 1535? 6. Donnez l e s noms i n d i e n s de: a) Quebec b) Montreal 7. Pourquoi l ' h i v e r e t a i t - i l d i f f i c i l e pour C a r t i e r et ses marins? 8. Ex p l i q u e z en f r a n g a i s : un f l e u v e un d e t r o i t un n a v i r e ........ 147 Annexe l . H : Samuel de Champlain En 1603 Samuel de Champlain, geographe, f a i t p a r t i e d'une e x p e d i t i o n au Canada. Le but de son voyage e s t d'ex-p l o r e r l'Amerique s e p t e n t r i o n a l e , d ' e t a b l i r des postes de t r a i t e e t de chercher l e passage q u i conduit aux Indes. En t r e 1603 e t 1607 i l exp l o r e l ' A c a d i e e t l a cote a t -l a n t i q u e , l e Saguenay e t l e S a i n t - L a u r e n t jusqu'a Montreal. Les h i v e r s sont longs e t durs e t , pour d i v e r t i r ses hommes, Champlain o r g a n i s e " l ' O r d r e du Bon Temps". Avec des f e t e s , des d i n e r s , des p i e c e s de t h e a t r e l e s hommes s'amusent un peu dans ce nouveau pays. En 1608 Champlain monte l e Sa i n t - L a u r e n t en cherchant un bon e n d r o i t pour e t a b l i r un f o r t . I l c o n s t r u i t l ' h a b i t a t i o n de Quebec au s i t e du v i l -l age i n d i e n , Stadacone. Pendant ses nombreux s e j o u r s au Canada, Champlain voy-age au pays des Hurons e t explore l e s l a c s O n t a r i o et Huron et l a r i v i e r e d'Outaouais. I l s ' a l l i e avec l e s Algonquins, l e s Montagnais e t l e s Hurons pour combattre l e s I r o q u o i s . En 1609 t r e n t e canots voyagent par l a r i v i e r e R i c h e l i e u vers l e grand l a c q u i s ' a p p e l l e aujourd'hui l e l a c Cham-p l a i n . A l ' a i d e des arquebuses f r a n c a i s e s , l e s Indiens e t Champlain parviennent f a c i l e m e n t a derouter l e s I r o q u o i s . 148 Pour mieux e t a b l i r une p o p u l a t i o n s t a b l e a Quebec, Champlain i n v i t e des f a m i l i e s a v e n i r c u l t i v e r l a t e r r e . En 1627 Champlain persuade l e C a r d i n a l R i c h e l i e u de fonder l a Compagnie des Cent A s s o c i e s . C e t t e compagnie d e v i e n t l e v e r i t a b l e gouvernement de l a c o l o n i e e t org a n i s e l a t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n des colons e t l a t r a i t e des f o u r r u r e s . C e t t e compagnie r e s t e en p l e i n pouvoir jusqu'en 1663 quand l a N o u v e l l e France d e v i e n t une c o l o n i e r o y a l e , gouvernee pour l e r o i par un intendant. C'est grace a Samuel de Cham-p l a i n , mort a Quebec en 1635, que l a N o u v e l l e France e s t devenue une c o l o n i e de peuplement e t , pour c e t t e r a i s o n , on l ' a p p e l l e l e pere de l a N o u v e l l e France. Questions 1. Pourquoi Champlain e s t - i l venu au Canada? 2. Qu'est-ce que Champlain a f a i t pour d i v e r t i r ses s o l -dats? 3. Ou a - t - i l fonde 1 ' h a b i t a t i o n de Quebec? 4. Avec q u e l l e s t r i b u s indiennes s ' e s t - i l a l l i e ? 5. Qu'est-ce que Champlain a f a i t pour e t a b l i r sa c o l o -n i e ? 6. Quel groupe f o r m a i t l e gouvernement de l a c o l o n i e ? 7. E x p l i q u e r en f r a n c a i s : une arquebuse l'Amerique s e p t e n t r i o n a l e l a t r a i t e des f o u r r u r e s . 149 ANNEXE 1.1 GRAVURES: CHAMPLAIN ET QUEBEC C h i m p l ' i n . il'apr^i unr i r i v u r r r t ' l pA f i u* ' C.'li.Mtipl:tin v>\ i t-t KiiiM|taVn («•!»*• t |n i f;i(t I;MT a m A c n i c r i , C r p n r t r a i l . c i t raft d 'une g u t v m c q u i i t l u i t r t !• I»;.i:»r!l.' it«> (((rut i n 11«- ( : i i : i t i i | i l : i j u , L ' t v r r t l i r r r ) . n i !s scute r c p r r i e n t n l i o n a u l h e n t f q u r C h a m p l a i n <|it mum Miit |i;irti*iiiir -150 ANNEXE 1.J f E X P L O R A T I O N S D E C H A M P L A I N ~ ^ • 1603: la riviere Saguenay et le fleuve Saint-Laurent entre Ta-doussac et Montreal • 1604: le littoral de l'Atlantique entre le Cap Breton et le Cap Blanc (Cape Cod) • 1609: la riviere des Iroquois (Richelieu) et le lac Champlain • 1613: la riviere des Outaouais jusqu'a I 'lie des Allumettes • 1615: la riviere des Outaouais, le lac Nipissing. le lac Huron et le lac Ontario Source: M. A l l a r d , Y. C a p i s t r a n Phaneuf, A. Dupuis, A. Francoeur, P.-M. Moussette, R. Savoie. H i s t o i r e N a t i o n a l e du  Quebec de sa decouverte a a u j o u r d ' h u i Montreal: Guerir e d i t e u r l i m i t e e , 1979 , p. 2 3 . Annexe l.K: T e s t : Samuel de Champlain VRAI ou FAUX? 1. Samuel de Champlain e t a i t medecin ' 2. Champlain a o r g a n i s e des f e t e s pour d i v e r t i r l e colons 3. La v i e e t a i t dure pendant I ' h i v e r 4. I l a fonde l a v i l l e de Montreal 5. Champlain c h e r c h a i t une route vers 1'Orient 6. Champlain s ' e s t a l l i e avec l e s I r o q u o i s 7. Les I r o q u o i s a v a i e n t peur des f u s i l s f r a n g a i s 8. Champlain a donne son nom a une r i v i e r e 9. Champlain e s t mort en France 10. Champlain a persuade l e C a r d i n a l R i c h e l i e u de fonde une compagnie de t r a i t e ANNEXE 1.L DROITS ET DEVOIRS 152 •s. as o -e J2 E c f l C as S I „ • a. — (/•, — o > o L. O u i J ft* JJ E S; E 3 — . ft - 3 E 3 "St 3 S L. C S Source: M. Allard, Y. Ca-" p i s t r a n Phaneuf, A. Du-.E pu i s , A. Francoeur, f P.-M. Moussette, R. Sa-| v o i e . H i s t o i r e Nat iona-J- l e du Quebec de sa d £ ~ '" couverte a au jou rd ' hu i •I Montrea l : Gu^rin ^d i teur | limit<Se, 1979., pp.42-43 . -o ' t 3s L. < c c * v. % 1*1 3 C , £ V. u w H H ~* e a. e • • E 8 -• 3 c 153 ANNEXE I . M : * C O M P A R A I S O N D E L A V I E D ' U N S E I G N E U R A C E L L E D ' U N H A B I T A f SEIGNEUR HABITANT De qui o b t e n a i t - i l sa terre? Quelle e t a i t l a s u p e r f i c i e de l a terre qu'on l u i a t t r i b u a i t ? Quelle sorte de maison h a b i t a i t - i l ? Quelle sorte de t r a v a i l f a i s a i t - i l ? Qu'est-ce q u ' i l s ' o b l i g e a i t a f a i r e ? A qui e t a i t - i l oblige? Source: La Nouvelle-France (Pointe-Claire, Quebec: La Commis-sion Scolaire Lakeshore, 1976), p. 65. ANNEXE 1.N 154' LA FERME D'UN HABITANT FORET <P(Bois de V A ehauffage iV ^sirop d'eral>i«\ HERBS :...f...J (Pour faire du fo pour ncurrir les' onioaux en hiver Kucbe des a b e i l l e s • » « , , . . , lAvoine: :.| Ble His : : Hari- -; 0 r C e . ..Melons 1 , 0 1 5 .'CitrQuilles TaJ>*5.' :.L<SV«se»..i o Foules, Dind^s te S Crarige pour Le plan £ gauche indique l'emplol qu'un certain habitant a fa i t de aa terre pendant une anhee: 1. rals une l i s te de* animaux de la ferae. Lequel ne fournissait pax la nourriture? 2. Quels legumes y avait- i l? 3. Quelle* eereales y avalt-11? 4. Qu'est-ce qu ' i l y avalt pour donner i manger aux animaux en hiver? S. Quel luxe y avait-11 pour plalre au fermier? 6. De quo 1 pouvait-on se servir pour sucrer la nourriture? 7. Qu'est-ce qu'on obtenait de la riviere? 8. Ouel prodult occupalt la plus grande partie du terrain? * ttivi'ere Poissons - Angullles Source: La Nouve l le -France ( P o i n t e - C l a i r e , Qu£-bee: La Commission S c o l a i r e Lakeshore, 1976), p. 46. 155 ANNEXE 1.0 Q U ' E S T - C E Q U E L E S H A B I T A N T S M A N G E A l E N T ? Les habitants devaient bien manger car i l s t r a v a l l l a i e n t tres f o r t . Pendar les bonnes annees i l s mangeaient tres bien. D'habitude on e l e v a i t beaucoup de cochons car i l s aimaient manger le bacon (le l a r d ) . Les vaches leur f o u r n i s s a i e n t du l a i t , du fromage, du beurre et aus£ de l a viande. On pouvait aussi manger de l a dinde, du poulet, de l ' o i e ou du canard, et les poules leur f o u r n i s s a i e n t des oeufs. Les fermiers semaient beaucoup de ble, car i l s aimaient manger du pain et des t a r t e s . I l s devaient aussi en donner au seigneur pour payer l e service d e son moulin et au cure de l a paroisse. D'habitude on a v a i t de l'orge pour en f a i r e d e l a b i e r e . I l s avaient beaucoup de pois et de feves q u ' i l s f a i s a i e n t secher pour manger en hiver. Comme les sauvages, i l s avaient du ble d'Inde, des melons et des c i t r o u i l l e s . II y a v a i t aussi du tabac que les hommes fumaient. Ou jar d l n potager on obtenait des oignons, des choux, des carottes, des navets e de fines herbes pour 1'assaisonnement de l a nourriture. On e l e v a i t des a b e i l l e s pour obtenir l e miel. Au printemps, i l s r e c u e i l l a i la seve de l ' e r a b l e q u ' i l s f a i s a i e n t b o u i l l i r pour obtenir du siro p et du sucre pour sucrer leur nourriture. Des baies sauvages, ramassees dans l a fo r e t et dan les champs, on f a i s a i t des conserves et des c o n f i t u r e s . Les pommes servaient a f a i r e du c i d r e . Les r i v i e r e s abondaient de poissons et d'anguilles qu'on prenait pour mange le vendredi quand on ne mangeait pas de viande et aussi pendant le careme. I l y avait toujours assez de g i b i e r dans l a fo r e t et on pouvait les prendre au piege ou les tuer a coups de f u s i l . On t r o u v a i t partout des l a p i n s , des c e r f s , des perdrix. II y a v a i t aussi des tourtes, des oiseaux qui ressemblaient aux pigeon et dont on f a i s a i t d'excellents pates ou t o u r t i e r e s . Dans ton cahier, e c r i s : 1. Sources de nourriture des habitants de Nouvelle France Alors associe les mots et le s e x p l i c a t i o n s qui se trouvent dans l e s deux l i s t e s suivantes: E c r i s - l e s dans ton cahie r . bacon - p r i s dans l a r i v i e r e pain - du j a r d i n potager fromage - f r u i t plante premierement par les Indien biere - de l a farine de ble c i t r o u i l l e s - de l a seve des erables au printemps miel - f a i t de pommes sucre - f a i t de l'orge a n g u i l l e s - pate f a i t de l a viande des pigeons t o u r t i e r e s - obtenu dans une ruche cidre - produit l a i t i e r Source: La Nouvelle-France (Pointe-Claire, Quebec: La Commis-sion Scolaire Lakeshore, 19 76), p. 47. ANNEXE 1.p 156 l i noui Source: Soupe au pois: 500 grammes de pois verls Keches 1 gros oignon coup* 500 d 1 000 grammes de lard sali du sel de mer Lover les pois. Loisser tremper durant Io nuit dons assez d'eou pour couvrir les pois. Au matin, o/ouler /'eou nices-saire pour atteindrequotre litres. A/outer 1'oignon el du lord salt (en un seul morceau). Suspendre lechaudron ou dessus du feu el omener 6 ebullition. Loisser boisser le /eu et mi-/oler (a soupe pendant deux ou trois heures jusqu'a ce que les pois soient tendres. (Retirer le lord opres environ 90 minutes). Presser les pois sur le bora* du choudron pour les icraser. CoQter la soupe. A/outer du sel de mer si njces-saire. Servir ovec du poin. Si disirt. loisser refroidir le lard soli et le servir en tronches comme second service, avec des cornichons et du pain. Tourte: Preparer une pate o (arte. Remplir la pdle d'un milonge de viandes. tel que decrj't plus bos. Placer dans une four cnaud ou tuire sur le feu pendant d peu pris une demi-heure. Ingredients pour la tourte: 500 grammes de pore, coup* en petils morceaux 1 oignon coupe une pincee de sel de I'eau bouiliante. Meianger le (out. utilisont su//isomment d'eou bouiliante pour omollir la vionde. Loisser mijoter environ vingt mi-nutes ou-dessus du feu dons une marmite non recouverte et remuer selon les besoins. Loisser refroidiret enleverlegros. (On peut utiliser du lopin. du cerf ou toute outre sorte de viande disponiblej Eii iyez de trouver d'autrea recettet canadiennes-fran-ciises dont les premiers colons auralent pu se itrvir en Nouvelle France. Prepare! un repaa a l'alde de cea aeulea recettea. Neer lng , S. Garrod. La v i e en Nouve l le France (Toronto: F i t zhen ry and Whites ide, 1978), p. 47. ANNEXE 1.Q 157 LES EMPLOIS EN 1663 Nombrt Source: R. Neering, S. Garrod. La v i e en  Nouvelle France (To-ronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1978), pp. 32-33. Armurier Mollre ormurier Arpenleur Arquebusier Bedeou Boucher Mollre boueher Mollrt boulonger Bourgeois Bros seur Briquelier Mollre col'oleur Coporol Chopelier Chorbonnier Chorpenlier Mollre chorpenlier Chorpenlier dt novire Mollre chorpenlier de novire Chorron Mollre chorron Choudronnier Crtirurgien Mollre chirurgien Commis Cordonnier Mollre cordonnier Coulelier Cutsinier Otfrichcur Oomesiique Oropier Engoge Forinier Ftrmier Gouverneur Creffier Huisiier Inginieur Inlerprele /ordinier /ournolier Juge Loboureur l.ir:i/li.'nunl ' Kiiuvurneur Muffin Muilrc mocun Mollre de boruue Mo/or Monoeuvre Morchond Molelol M«nui»itr Mollre mcnuitier Me'loyrr Meunier Mouieur Muiicien Noloire Polimer Mollre polissier Pilolc Mollre pilole Prelre Procureur /ncol He'igieusc Socrixioin S'oge-femmir Scieur Sellier S'crgeni Serrurier Servonl Serviieur Soldo I Tailtnndmr Moilre laiiliindtcr Toifleur d'itobils Moilri- lailtcur d'hobils Tombuurini'ur Tonnirur Tiiserond Tixier Tonnelier Mollre lonnelier Travoilieur Vole I 158 ANNEXE l.R VOICI LES FEMMES L'intendant^de l a Nouvelle-France, Jean T a l o n , n ' e t a i t pas content. C 1 e t a i t 1'an 1666 e t l a c o l o n i e a v a i t une po-p u l a t i o n de seulement 3215 personnes. T a l o n s a v a i t que l a Nouvelle-France ne s e r a i t jamais s t a b l e sans une grande po-p u l a t i o n . A l o r s , i l a e c r i t l a l e t t r e s u i v a n t e au r o i de France: Quebec, l e 1 mai, 1666 V o t r e Majeste, Permettez-moi de vous e x p l i q u e r mon grand pro-bleme. V o t r e c o l o n i e de l a Nouvelle-France e s t f a i -b l e e t peu developpee a cause de sa p e t i t e p o p u l a t i -on. Je d e s i r e encourager des i n d u s t r i e s e t des f e r -ities mais c ' e s t impossible sans une p o p u l a t i o n nom-breuse. Je demande a v o t r e Majeste d'envoyer des femmes avec q u i nos hommes peuvent se marier. Comme c e l a nous aurons des f a m i l i e s e t une p o p u l a t i o n s t a -b l e . V o t r e s e r v i t e u r l e p l u s devoue, Jean T a l o n Le r o i de France e t a i t d'accord e t ses o f f i c i e r s ont commence a chercher p a r t o u t en France des jeunes f i l l e s q u i v o u l a i e n t t r a v e r s e r 1 ' A t l a n t i q u e . Apres p l u s i e u r s mois, un bateau q u i p o r t a i t l e s " F i l -l e s du R o i " e s t a r r i v e a Quebec. Q u e l l e s e n s a t i o n dans l a v i l l e ! Tous l e s c e l i b a t a i r e s e t a i e n t l a pour admirer l e s femmes et p e u t - e t r e pour c h o i s i r c e l l e s q u i s e r a i e n t l e u r s epouses. N a t u r e l l e m e n t ces hommes c h e r c h a i e n t des femmes f o r t e s et robustes c a r l e t r a v a i l de l a ferme e t a i t d i f f i -c i l e . Les femmes sont a l l e e s au Couvent des U r s u l i n e s ou e l -l e s sont r e s t e e s sous l a p r o t e c t i o n des soeurs, q u i e t a i e n t t r s s t r i c t e s dans l e u r d e v o i r . Avant de r e c e v o i r l a per-m i s s i o n de se marier, l'homme e t a i t o b l i g e de montrer q u ' i l a v a i t bon c a r a c t e r e e t q u ' i l a v a i t assez d'argent. P u i s i l f a i s a i t son choix et apres l e mariage l a femme accompagnait son mari a l a ferme. Toutes l e s fermes e t a i e n t s i t u e e s sur l e f l e u v e , c a r l e S a i n t - L a u r e n t e t a i t l a seule route de l a c o l o n i e . Pour c e t t e r a i s o n l e s fermes e t a i e n t longues et e t r o i t e s avec l e u r s p e t i t e s maisons groupees pres du f l e u v e . 159 B i e n t o t l a v a l l e e du Sa i n t - L a u r e n t a v a i t beaucoup d 1 e n f a n t s . Aujourd'hui encore l a t r a d i t i o n des grandes f a m i l i e s e s t respectee dans l a p r o v i n c e de Quebec. I l y a des f a -m i l i e s de d i x , de quinze et meme de v i n g t e n f a n t s . T a l o n a e t a b l i a u s s i des l o i s sur l e mariage. Une jeune femme e t a i t o b l i g e e de se marier a l'age de s e i z e ans et un jeune homme a l'age de v i n g t ans. Sinon l e u r s pa-ren t s p a y a i e n t une amende. En 1700 l a c o l o n i e a v a i t une p o p u l a t i o n de 16,000. Questions: 1. Qui e t a i t l ' i n t e n d a n t de l a Nouvelle-France en 1666? 2. Pourquoi l a c o l o n i e e t a i t - e l l e f a i b l e ? 3. A q u i T a l o n a - t - i l e c r i t ? 4. Ou l e s femmes r e s t a i e n t - e l l e s apres l e u r a r r i v e e ? 5. Qu'est-ce que l e s hommes e t a i e n t o b l i g e s de montrer avant l e mariage? 6. Q u e l l e s l o i s T a l o n a - t - i l e t a b l i e s ? 7. Q u e l l e e t a i t l a p o p u l a t i o n de l a c o l o n i e en 1700? Source: H.S. Fumerton. P e t i t s Contes de l ' h i s t o i r e cana- dienne (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1963), pp. 18-20. 160 Annexe l . S : Madeleine de V e r c h e r e s Madeleine de Vercheres e s t nee l e 3 mars 1678 a Ver-cheres, au Quebec. E l l e e t a i t l a quatrieme de douze en-f a n t s dans sa f a m i l l e . Grace a l ' i n t e n d a n t T a l o n , son pere a v a i t recu v e r s 1672 une s e i g n e u r i e sur l a r i v e sud du f l e u v e S a i n t - L a u r e n t . Ce domaine e t a i t malheureusement as-sez expose a cause de sa p r o x i m i t e a l a r i v i e r e R i c h e l i e u ( a u s s i appelee l a r i v i e r e des I r o q u o i s ) . La s e i g n e u r i e e t a i t f o r t i f i e e d'une p a l i s s a d e et l a f a m i l l e p o s s e d a i t quelques armes. Un jour l o r s q u e Madeleine a v a i t quatorze ans, l e s I r o -q u o i s ont attaque l e f o r t . Madeleine, ses f r e r e s e t soeurs e t quelques h a b i t a n t s se sont sauves d e r r i e r e l a p a l i s s a d e . Les sauvages a v a i e n t 1 ' i n t e n t i o n d'attaquer l e f o r t e t d'en tuer tous l e s h a b i t a n t s . Pendant h u i t j o u r s , i l s ont entoure l e f o r t e t pendant h u i t j o u r s , l a jeune f i l l e a r e -s i s t e , en d i s t r i b u a n t des f u s i l s a ses f r e r e s e t soeurs. Madeleine, un chapeau de s o l d a t sur l a t e t e , marchait der-r i e r e l a p a l i s s a d e pour donner l ' i d e e aux I r o q u o i s q u ' i l y a v a i t des s o l d a t s dans l e f o r t . E l l e c h a r g e a i t un canon e t t i r a i t sur l e s I n d i e n s q u i , apres h u i t j o u r s d'attaque, ont d e c i d e de p a r t i r . 161 Madeleine a survecu e t en 1706 s ' e s t mariee avec P i e r -re-Thomas de l a Perade. En 1722 e l l e a sauve l a v i e de son mari l o r s d'une attaque indienne et e s t morte en 1747. Femme i n v i n c i b l e , e l l e a a f f i r m e q u ' e l l e n ' a v a i t jamais p l e u r e de sa v i e ! Source: A. Vachon. D i c t i o n n a i r e Biographique du Canada, V o l . 1. Quebec: P r e s s e s de l ' U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , 1966, pp. 331-336. Questions: 1. Pourquoi e s t - c e que l a s e i g n e u r i e e t a i t en p o s i t i o n de danger? 2. Quel age Madeleine a v a i t - e l l e au moment de l ' a t t a q u e ? 3. Pourquoi l e s Indiens p e n s a i e n t - i l s q u ' i l y a v a i t beau-coup d ' h a b i t a n t s au f o r t ? 4. Combien de j o u r s l ' a t t a q u e a - t - e l l e dure? 5. Trouvez dans v o t r e d i c t i o n n a i r e deux a d j e c t i f s q u i p o u r r a i e n t d e c r i r e Madeleine. ANNEXE 1.T QUELQUES TEXTES HUMORISTIQUES 162 Jacques Cartier Cartier est probablement le seul touriste qui ait mis le pied a Gaspl sans se donner la peine d'aller a Perce\ II prit possession de la Gaspesie au nom du Roy de France, y ajoutant pour faire bonne mesure toutes les terres qui pouvaient se trouver a I'ouest, au nord et au sud. Les Indiens le regardaient, mifduse's, planter vine croix. Ils n'avaient jamais vu de clous. Jacques Cartier est alle un peu partout, mais il n'a jamais fondi quoi que ce soil. Comme le soulignait un historien anglais: "Jacques Cartier went everywhere, but he never settled down". Samuel de Champlain Mes souvenirs sur Samuel de Champlain sont mauviis. Le personnage ne m'a jamais tres impressionnc. Jacques Cartier avait pris la peine dc dtfcouvrir le Ca-nada en 1534: Champlain a attendu prcs de 75 ans avunt dc fonder Quebec. Le moins qu'on puissc dire de Samuel dc Champlain, c'est qu'il n'eiait pas presse. Negligent, a part ca! Pendant qu'il y eftatt, il me semble qu'il aurait pu fonder Montreal . . . Montreal, e'etait bien aussi important que Quebec I Mais non: Champlain avait fonde- Quebec; il a decide de nr pas bouger de Quebec. C'auraii pourtant i i i bien plus gai pour lui s'il y avait eu Montreal. II aurait pu y venir passer un week-end de temps a autre! Champlain, d'ailleurs, etait totalement depourvu d'imagi-nation. II remonte le Saint-Laurent, remonte le Richelieu et arrive I un lac, (qui, par hasard, le lendemain s'est appeli le lac Champlain ... Pourquoi se gener?) C'itait le temps ou jamais, il me semble, d'aller fonder les Etats-Unis. Mais non: Henri IV lui ivait dit d'aller fonder la Nouvelle-France. Pas deux ecus d'initiative! Quand on ne sait plus que dire de Champlain, on parle d'Helene Boulli. On laisse toujours entendre qu'ils formaient un couple modele. Fidelcs, que ca en faisait I'admiration de tous. Au fond, ils n'avaient pas tant de me'rite que ca. Avec le peu de monde qu'il y avait a Quebec, est-ce qu'ils avaient vraiment le choix? II faut dire aussi qu'HcIine Boulle dtait trop jeune pour sortir. Elle avait douze ans. On n'a jamais dit combien de temps elle les avait eus! Source: C a r l Dubuc. L e t t r e a un F r a n c a i s q u i veut emigrer au Qu< (Montreal: E d i t i o n s du j o u r , 1968), pp. 55, 57-58. 163 Annexe l . U : T e s t : La N o u v e l l e France 1. Remplis l e s t i r e t s avec l e mot j u s t e : a) La France se s i t u a i t a l ' a n c i e n monde; l a N o u v e l l e -France se s i t u a i t au b) Les premiers e x p l o r a t e u r s c h e r c h a i e n t une n o u v e l l e c) Jacques C a r t i e r a e r i g e a Gaspe. d) Les gens q u i h a b i t a i e n t d e j a au Canada s ' a p p e l a i e n t des e) a ete appele l e pere de l a N o u v e l l e -France. (5) 2. E x p l i q u e dans une phrase l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n des mots s u i v a n t s : a) une s e i g n e u r i e b) un moulin banal c) un c e n s i t a i r e d) une c o l o n i e e) d e f r i c h e r (10) 3. E c r i v e z un c o u r t paragraphe sur t r o i s des s u j e t s s u i -vants: a) Jacques C a r t i e r b) Samuel de Champlain c) La v i e d'un c e n s i t a i r e d) Les f i l l e s du r o i e) Madeleine de Vercheres (15) 164 4. Dessinez l e p l a n d'une s e i g n e u r i e en i n d i q u a n t quel-ques batiments importants. (5) ANNEXE 2.A QUELQUES PERSONNAGES CELEBRES DE LA FRANCE* Personnages h i s t o r i q u e s V e r c i n g e t o r i x C l o v i s C l o t i l d e Charlemagne Guillaume l e Conquerant Eleonore d'Aquitaine Le r o i S a i n t - L o u i s Jeanne d'Arc L o u i s XI F r a n c o i s l e r E c r i v a i n s R a b e l a i s LaFontaine M o l i e r e Racine V o l t a i r e Madame de La F a y e t t e Voyageurs/Explorateurs Dumont d ' U r v i l l e La Perouse Jean B a r t A l a i n G e r b a u l t B e r t r a n d du G u e s c l i n Inventeurs Les f r e r e s M o n t g o l f i e r L o u i s B r a i l l e Clement Ader Andre C i t r o e n L o u i s Renault Nicephore Niepce A r t i s t e s et Musiciens Debussy Saint-Saens S a t i e Ingres Monet Manet Renoir Cez anne Diane de P o i t i e r s H e n r i IV L o u i s XIII Louis XIV Lo u i s XV L o u i s XVI M a r i e - A n t o i n e t t e Napoleon Bonaparte Josephine Beauharnais Alexandre Dumas Honore de Ba l z a c J u l e s Verne Antoine de St-Exupery Jean-Paul S a r t r e Simone de Beauvoir L o u i s B l e r i o t Roland Garros Helene Boucher Jean Mermoz Jacques Daguerre L o u i s e t Auguste Lumiere Andre e t Edouard M i c h e l i n Gustave E i f f e l P i e r r e de C o u b e r t i n Le C o r b u s i e r Gauguin P i c a s s o Rodin Sarah Bernhardt Maurice C h e v a l i e r M i r e i l l e Mathieu Jean F e r r a t Johnny H a l l y d a y 166 Hommes de Science L o u i s Pasteur Marie e t P i e r r e C u r i e Hommes de P o l i t i q u e Clemenceau De G a u l l e P e t a i n Foch Antoine L a v o i s i e r Jacques-Yves Cousteau Pompidou M i t t e r a n d L e c l e r c * C e r t a i n s noms p o u r r a i e n t e t r e ajoutes ou supprimes a vo-l o n t e , s e l o n l a d i s p o n i b i l i t e des l i v r e s de r e f e r e n c e et l e s p r e f e r e n c e s des e l e v e s e t du p r o f e s s e u r . ANNEXE 2.B: Vercingetorix tutour, around le barbare, barbarian le cachot, cell; prison le char, chariot le chef, chief le cheval. horse chotsir, to choose dont, whose: of which enchatne. chained enrahir, to invade la faim, hunger fier, proud lutter, to fight; struggle manger, to cat le mois, month mourir, to die le pays, country plusieurs, several porter, to wear; to carry se rendre. to surrender unir, to unite le vainqueur, victor Les livres d'histoire de France commencent generalement par cette phrase: "Les Gaulois. nos ancetres . . . " Qui sont ces Gaulois que les Francais sont si fiers d'avoir pour ancetres? Ce sont des Celtes venus des plaines d'Europe centralc vers Tan mille cinq cents avant Jesus-Christ'. Une fois etablis cn France, ils.prennent le nom de Gaulois. La France s'appelait la Gaule, et Paris, Lutece. Les Gaulois sont des barbares sympalhiques. lis ont les cheveux blonds, les yeux bleus et portent de longues moustaches pendantes comme en portent certains hippies de nos jours. Ils aiment les chansons, les discours et les batailles. et surtout bien boire et bien manger. En l'an cinquante-huit avant Jesus-Christ, Jules Cesar envahit la Gaule avec une armee disciplinee. Les Gaulois. qui ont toujours passe leur temps a se disputer entre eux et n'ont pas le caractere militairc, s'unissent pour la premiere fois pour lutter contre les Romains. lis choisissent pour chef un jeune brave nomme Vercin-getorix. du pays d'Auvergne.* Vercingetorix est le premier heros national francais. Les Gau-lois, unis autour de lui. resistent a Cdsar. lis le battent a Gergo-vie,1 ville de la Gaule, en Auvergnc. Mais a la fin, Vercingetorix ' In French, inert it no abbreviation for "Before Chml " I enccrcle dans sa forteressc a Alesia,4 resiste pendant plusieurs mois; mais comme ses soldats commencent a mourir de faim, il est finalemcnt obligd de se rendre. Apres avoir mis son plus bel habit, montd sur un cheval ma-gnifique, Vercingdtorix sort de la forteresse et vient jeter ses armes aux pieds de C6sar, son vainqucur. Apres cette victoire, Jules Cesar retourne a Rome en triompha-teur, avec Vercingetorix enchatnd derriere son char. II le garde* pendant six ans dans un cachot; puis, tl le fait executer. Vercingetorix est celebre pour son herolsme. II s'est sacrifie pour sauver la vie de ses soldats. Les Francais honorent encore son nom aujourd'hui et considerent que leur histoire prend forme a partir du jour oil il s'est rendu a A16sia, cinquante-deux ans avant Je-sus-Christ. Questions 1. Qui etait le premier heros national francais? 2. Pourquoi est-ce que les Francais I'admirent et le respectent? 3. De quelle partie de la France venait-il? 4. Est-ce que les Gaulois etaicnt des gens sympathiques? 5. Quel est I'ancien nom de Paris? 6. Pourquoi est-ce que Vercingetorix s'est rendu a Alesia? 7. D'ou venaient les Gaulois? 8. Ou est-ce que Jules Cesar a emmene Vercingetorix? 9. Est-ce que les Gaulois portaient des moustaches? 10. En quelle annee est-ce que Jules Cesar a envahi la Gaule? * MHIn, the Ginb* fori m*t4 to be aear the lows of Albc-Sainlc-Reinc in the Cote-d"Or Source: R. de Roussy de S a l e s . Les Grands.Per-sonnages de l a France (Sk.nk.ie, I l l i n o i s : Na-t i o n a l Textbook Co.>* 1971), pp. 1-2. oV -J 168 ANNEXE 2.C: PROFIL D'UN PERSONNAGE CELEBRE Nom: Date et l i e u de naissan c e : Apparence: P r o f e s s i o n / o c c u p a t i o n : Pourquoi c e t t e personne e s t - e l l e connue? (5 phrases) Date e t l i e u de sa mort: Images, d e s s i n s , a i d e s (audio) v i s u e l l e s : B i b l i o g r a p h i e ( i n d i q u e z l e s l i v r e s et l e s en c y c l o p e d i e s que vous avez c o n s u l t e s pour ce t r a v a i l ) . 169 ANNEXE 2.D: PROFIL D'UN PERSONNAGE CELEBRE Nora: V e r c i n g e t o r i x Date e t l i e u de na i s s a n c e : i l e s t ne en l ' a n 72 avant J e -s u s - C h r i s t en Arverne, une r e g i o n habitee par des t r i b u s g a u l o i s e s . Apparence: Selon l e s images des bandes des s i n e e s , i l e t a i t grand avec des cheveux roux q u ' i l p o r t a i t assez longs e t i l a v a i t l'apparence assez barbare. On n'a pas une image ex-act e de V e r c i n g e t o r i x . I l e t a i t s o l d a t et done, p o r t a i t de l'armure, se defendant avec un b o u c l i e r rond e t une lan c e . P r o f e s s i o n : I l e t a i t s o l d a t ou g u e r r i e r et l e chef des G a u l o i s contre l e s Romains. Pourquoi e s t - i l connu? I l a monte l a defense de l a Gaule c o n t r e J u l e s Cesar. Dans sa f o r t e r e s s e d ' A l e s i a , i l a r e s i s t e aux attaques romaines mais lo r s q u e ses hommes ont commence a mourir de faim, i l s ' e s t rendu aux Romains. I l e s t emmene a Rome en chain e s . S i x ans p l u s t a r d , i l e s t execute. On se s o u v i e n t de l u i comme ayant ete l e premier chef g a u l o i s . Images, d e s s i n s , e t c . : V o i r Annexes 2.E, 2.F e t 2.G. 170 B i b l i o g r a p h i e : L i v r e s De Roussy de S a l e s , R. Les Grands Hommes de l a France. Skokie, I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l Textbook Co., 1971. Gabalda, J . e t B e a u l i e u , R. Je s a i s t o u t sur l e s hommes de 1'aventure. S e r i e Les d i c o s de D i s Pourquoi? P a r i s : Hachette, 1977, p. 111. G a r d a i r e , E l i a n a . La France, vous connaissez? P a r i s : L i -b r a i r i e Marcel D i d i e r , 1976. Goscinny e t Uderzo. A s t e r i x l e G a u l o i s . P a r i s : Dargaud, 1961. Goscinny et Uderzo. Le b o u c l i e r arverne. Montreal: Dargaud, Canada, 1968. Lenard, Yvonne. T r e s o r s du temps (niveau avance). New York: Harper & Row, 197 6. P l a c e , Robin. Les C e l t e s . S e r i e Comment v i v a i e n t ? Sau-t r o n , France: E d i t i o n s Fernand Nathan, 1979, p. 50. En c y c l o p e d i e s E n c y c l o p e d i e G r o l i e r : Le l i v r e des connaissances. V o l . 14. Montreal: G r o l i e r , 1978, p. 310. La N o u v e l l e E n c y c l o p e d i e du L i v r e d'Or, V o l . 15. P a r i s : E-d i t i o n s des Deux Coqs d'Or, 1976, pp. 3038-3039. Nouveau Larousse filementaire. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1969, pp. 979-980. ANNEXE 2.E L a G a u l e De nombreuses races tres differentes occupent le pays. Un peuple. venu probablement d'Europe centrale. envahit la Gaule au cours du premier millenaire avant J . -C, ce sont les Celtes ou Gaels. Ils s'installent au Nord puis finissent par se meler aux Ligures et aux Iberes qui dominent dans le Sud. Des peuples plus civilises ont etabli de petites colonies dans le Sud. Les Grecs, des le VI* siecle avant J.-C. avaient fonde Marseille (Massilia) et 120 avant J.-C. les Romains se sont installes dans une region dont Narbonne est la capitate. C'est aux Commentates de Cesar, general romain gouvernant certe province, que nous devons I'es-sentiel de nos connaissances sur la Gaule et les Gaulois. La vie en Gaule Les Gaulois occupent un territoire plus vaste que la France actuelle. avec des limites naturelles : La mer : au nord la Mer du Nord et la Manche. a I'Ouest I'Atlantique. au Sud la Mediterranee. Un fleuve : a I'Est le Rhin. Des montagnes : les Pyrenees au Sud, les Alpes au Sud-Est. La Gaule n'est pas une nation unie. Elle comprend une centaine de petits peuples Qui vivent sans aucune entente. Entre les chefs de nations, de tribus, c'est la division, ('opposition, la guerre. II en est de la vie sociale comme de la vie politique. Chaque petit peuple a ses coutumes et ses lois. Chez certains, la tribu posSede la terre et les hommes vivent en communaute. Ailleurs. de grandes families vivent avec leurs guerriers dans de vastes domaines qui sont de veritables camps fortifies. Tantot on vit en harmonie. tantot c'est d'un cote le tyran et de I'autre les esclaves. Au sommet. deux classes dominent. celle des Che-valiers, celle des Druides. G L H I H I etlliQut Multt dt Saint-Gtr—.am-en-Lave Yaie dt V I I Htjttuf 1.74 m VIS1TES TOURISTIQUES Mute* de St-Germain-en-Laye : (pre* d* Pari*) : Casques, armurei gsuloites. Objett sculpt** (V* siecle avant J.-C). Statues celtiquet. Terres cuites. Ceramiques. Muse* de Chatillon-sur-Seine (Cote-d'Or) : Vase de Via XV* siecl* avant J.-C). ANNEXE 2.E (Cont.) 172 Les Chevaliers sont des chefs militaires. Les Gau-lois sont des guerriers, its aiment la violence et la Querelle. Aucune discipline ne regne parmi eux; ils ne supportent l'autorite d'un chef qu'en temps de guerre. Souvent ce « roi de guerre » les entratne en Espagne ou vers I'Est, parfois ils ont inquiete Rome. Les Druides sont des pretres gaulois. ils occupent une place privilegiee. lis interviennent a tous les degres, dans tous les actes de la cite et de la famille. Ils ont sur le peuple, une grande influence. Les Gaulois croient en plusieurs divinites. On pro-cede chez eux a des sacrifices d'animaux et aussi d'etres humains. L'Art gaulois II n'y a pas de villes en Gaule, les constructions sont rudimentaires. Une seule exception connue, Oppi-dum. ville fortifiee d'Enserune. dans I'Herault, que Jules Cesar a decrite avec precision. Les Gaulois ont le goGt des parures et des bijoux. Ils aiment les colliers de metal. Les Chevaliers portent des ceintures d'or. La tombe de la « princesse de Vix » (Chatillon-sur-Seine) contenait des objets d'or et la decou-verte du fameux « vase de Vix >, de 1,74 m de hauteur, temoigne de I'influence etrangere et en particulier de celle des Grecs. ' Les fouilles de Roquepertune et d'Entremont, en Provence, ont permis de decouvrir des sculptures caracteristiques de I'art gaulois. Les Gaulois sont tres inventifs et les Romains ont ete etonnes de decouvrir en Gaule I'emploi d'outils de labour et de culture fort ingenieux. Bien avant la conquete romaine. les hommes exploitent des gisements de fer et de cuivre, a cic! ouvert ou par puits. La conquete de la Gaule Les Gaulois, menaces a I'Est par les Germains, avaient fait appel a Jules Cesar, general romain. Cette intervention est, pour lui, I'occasion d'entre-prendre la conquete de la Gaule. Jules Cesar force les Germains a repasser le Rhin, mais ses armees demeurent en Gaule. Les legions romaines ont facilement raison des tribus gauloises qu'elles battent les unes apres les autres. En 57 avant J.-C. les peuples beiges sont soumis, en 56 ceux d'Aquitaine et de I'Ouest. Pourtant un chef gaulois du nom de Vercingetorix parvient a regrouper les tribus dont il prend le commandement. C'est la premiere'fois qu'un sem-blant d'unite se realise. Vercingetorix resiste a Jules Cesar, il le bat a Ger-govie mais. assiege dans Alesia, il est oblige de se rendre. Jules Cesar se montre sans pitie. Vercin-getorix est conduit a Rome. II sera mis a mort au bout de six ans de prison et apres avoir ete contraint de tigurer au triomphe de Cesar. En 51 avant J.-C. la Gaule est proclamee « province romaine ». La Gaule Gallo-Romaine Tant que Rome conserve ses conquetes, on peut parler de « paix romaine a et de civilisation. Cela durera cinq siecles. Autant la guerre de conquete avait ete dure, autant ('occupation romaine a ete pacifique. Les Gaulois s'adaptent et participent reellement au developpement de la Gaule Gallo-Romaine. Avant la conquete ils ne connaissaient qu'une vie rurale autour de leurs villages et un artisanat local. La civilisation romaine, riche de son heritage grec, leur plait. II y aura un art et une civilisation gallo-romaine. La vie sociale Une nouvelle vie socials apparalt, en Gaule, a ('image de la societe romaine. Le latin se repand rapidement et remplace la langue celte. L'evolution est considerable, les villes naissent et se deve-loppent; panout on construit des routes, des marches, des batiments administratifs, des aque-ducs qui vont transformer la vie rurale et permettre a I'agriculture, a I'industrie et au commerce de, s'organiser et de prosperer, et cela grace a des-techniques nouvelles. A cet effort les Gaulois |S'associent avec interet. Dans les campagnes les terres sont defrichees et les cultures deviennent nombreuses et variees. Le vignoble s'etend, les vins de Bordeaux se font connaitre. L'industrie du bois et celle des metaux se developpent. Source: E l i a n a G a r d a i r e . La France, vous co n n a i s s e z ? ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e M arcel D i d i e r , 1976), pp. 5-7 ANNEXE 2.F VERCINGETORIX: AIDES VISUELLES V e r c i n g e t o r i x (!•' s. av. J . - C ) , chef arverne du centre de la France. Des chefs rivaux, jaloux du pouvoir grandis-sant de son pere, avaient mis ce der-nier a mort. Vercingetorix tStait un chef n£ ' e t un brillant meneur d 'hommes. En 52 ' av . J . - C , it leva une immense arm6e contre Cesar, et aurait reussi a chasser les. Romains de la Gaule si toutes les tribus avaient accepte de se reuhir sous son commandement. Ses ordres ne furent pas tous suivis. et les quelques tribus qui lui etaient encore hostiles se dec i -derent trop tard a le rejoindre. Apres des, batailles nombreuses et sanglantes, puis un long siege a Alexia, Vercingg-A Monnaie frappee i I'effigie de Vercingetorix. tdrix se rendit de lui-m§me aux Romains. C6sar le garda en prison a Rome pendant - ; six ans, puis le fit mettre a mort. Source: R. Place. Les Celtes (Sau.tron, Franc Edit ion s F. Na than,1979), p. 50. Source: Goscinny e t Uderzo. Le B o u c l i e r Arverne (Montreal: Dargaud, Canada, 1968) p. 5. Vucinotlori 174 ANNEXE 2 .G: FICHE D'EVALUATION: PROFESSEUR Nom de l ' e l e v e Trouver des f a i t s , des d e t a i l s . C l a s s e r ces f a i t s . E x p l i q u e r des images, des c a r t e s . Se s e r v i r de l a b i b l i o -theque . Mettre l e r e c i t dans un langage simple. L i r e et bien prononcer. D i s t i n g u e r l'important du non p e r t i n e n t . Resumer l e r e c i t . Communiquer l e message aux aut r e s e l e v e s . 10. E x p l i q u e r l e nouveau voca-b u l a i r e aux a u t r e s . 11. B i e n e c r i r e . 12. Montrer des images, des ai d e s (audio) v i s u e l l e s . \ 175 ANNEXE 2.H: RESSOURCES POUR L'ELEVE L i v r e s B r i e r e , E l o i s e , A., Fromner, J u d i t h , & Wolshinsky, Barbara A. La France e t l a francophonie. New York: Random House, 1982. Denoeu, F r a n c o i s . French C u l t u r a l Reader. Toronto: D.C. Heath & Co., 1972. DeRoussy de S a l e s , R. Les Grands Hommes de l a France. Skokie, I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l Textbook Co., 1971. G a r d a i r e , , E l i a n a . La France, vous connaissez? P a r i s : L i -b r a i r i e Marcel D i d i e r , 1976. Gabalda, J . et B e a u l i e u , R. Je s a i s t o u t sur l e s hommes de 1'aventure, S e r i e Les Dicos de D i s Pourquoi? P a r i s : Hachette, 1977. K e l l e t t , A r n o l d . Heros de France. London: J.M. Dent & Sons L t d . , 1973. Le f e b v r e , Andre. Enfants t e r r i b l e s de l ' H i s t o i r e . Madrid: Touret, 1975. Lenard, Yvonne. T r e s o r s du temps (niveau avance). New York: Harper & Row, 1976. L i f s h i t z , D. e t Lamblin, I . La France: un pays e t son peuple. Montreal: Granger F r e r e s Limitee/Gamma, 1976. 176 Mountjoy, M.E. Passeport pour l e passe. London: E . J . Ar-nold L t d . , 1971. En c y c l o p e d i e s Encyclopedie G r o l i e r : Le L i v r e des connaissances. Montre-a l : G r o l i e r , 1978. Nouveau Larousse e l e m e n t a i r e . P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1969. La N o u v e l l e E n c y c l o p e d i e du l i v r e d'or. P a r i s : E d i t i o n s des Deux Coqs d'Or, 1976. A l a decouverte de l ' H i s t o i r e . Hachette Encyclopedique pour l e s jeunes. P a r i s : Hachette, 1981. Encyclopedie de l a jeunesse. Qui e s t - c e ? P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Hachette, 1971. S e r i e s L ' A r t pour l e s e n f a n t s . Geneve: Weber. Parmi l e s t i t r e s : R enoir, C h a g a l l , P i c a s s o , Rousseau, Toulouse-Lautrec. C o l l e c t i o n Personnages C e l e b r e s . Montreal: Les e d i t i o n s e-c o l e a c t i v e / E d i t i o n s Gamma. Parmi l e s t i t r e s : Jeanne d'Arc, Cousteau l e plongeur. Les Grandes F i g u r e s . Madrid: Touret. Parmi l e s t i t r e s : Le Roi S o l e i l , Monsieur d'Artagnan, Le P e t i t C a p o r a l , Mademoiselle Jeanne. 177 S e r i e s de d i a p o s i t i v e s Documentation a u d i o v i s u e l l e : L i t t e r a t u r e . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s D i a p o f i l m . Parmi l e s t i t r e s : R a b e l a i s , Ronsard, Mo-l i e r e , V o l t a i r e , V i c t o r Hugo, Georges Sand, Emile Z o l a , A l b e r t Camus. D i s p o n i b l e a: Wible Language I n s t i t u t e , 24 S. E i g h t h S t r e e t , Allentown, Pennsylva-n i a , 18105, U.S.A. 178 ANNEXE 3.A: ORGANISMES FRANCOPHONES A VANCOUVER 1. Radio Canada: CBUF-FM 700 Hamilton S t r e e t T e l . : 665-8000, 665-8039 2. T e l e v i s i o n : CBUFT 700 Hamilton S t r e e t T e l . : 665-8000, 665-8039. 3. Con s u l a t s : Consulat de Be l g i q u e 701 W. Georgia S t r e e t T e l . : 682-1878. Consulat de France 736 G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t T e l . : 681-2301, 681-5875. Consulat de S u i s s e 505 Bu r r a r d S t r e e t T e l . : 684-2231. 4. La F e d e r a t i o n des Franco-Colombiens 853 Richards S t r e e t T e l . : 669-5264. 5. F e d e r a t i o n Jeunesse Colombienne 1084 Homer S t r e e t T e l . : 683-2501. 6. P a r o i s s e Saint-Sacrement 3196 Heather S t r e e t T e l . : 874-3636. ficole Saint-Sacrement 3020 Heather S t r e e t T e l . : 876-7211. 7. Le S o l e i l de Colombie 3213 Cambie S t r e e t T e l . : 879-6924, 879-6656. 8. S o c i e t e H i s t o r i q u e Franco-Colombienne 9 E a s t Broadway T e l . : 879-3911. 179 9. A l l i a n c e F r a n c a i s e 6161 Cambie S t r e e t T e l . : 327-0201. 10. Centre C u l t u r e l Colombien 795 West 16th Avenue T e l . : 874-9105. 11. La Troupe de l a Seizieme 280 East Cordova S t r e e t T e l . : 682-2628. 12. E c o l e s L'lScole B i l i n g u e 1166 West 14th Avenue T e l . : 738-3191. E c o l e Anne Hebert 6350 T i s d a l l S t r e e t T e l . : 261-4247. Vancouver B i l i n g u a l P r e s c h o o l 949 West 49th Avenue T e l . : 261-1221. **A l i s t of s c h o o l s with immersion c l a s s e s may be ob-t a i n e d from the Vancouver School Board, 1595 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, T e l . : 731-1131. 13. Restaurants Le Cafe de P a r i s 751 Denman S t r e e t T e l . : 687-1418. Le Chef et sa Femme 2003 Macdonald S t r e e t T e l . : 738-2424. La cote d'Azur 1216 Robson S t r e e t T e l . : 685-2629. La S i r e n e 5555 West Boulevard T e l . : 263-2388. Chez J o e l 217 C a r r a l l S t r e e t T e l . : 685-4910. 180 Le Napoleon 869 Hamilton Street T e l . : 688-7436. La Quebecoise 2537 Granville Street T e l . : 733-5522. 14. Magasins La Baguette et l ' E c h a l o t e (boulangerie/patisserie) 1680 Johnston Street T e l . : 684-1351.Magasins Le Bouquineur ( l i b r a i r i e ) 1222 Robson Street T e l . : 687-5936. Boutique Croque Bouquins ( l i b r a i r i e ) 795 West 16th Avenue T e l . : 874-9433. La Madrague (boucherie) 1669 Johnston Street T e l . : 683-1824. La Mouette ( l i b r a i r i e ) 3980 Moncton Street Richmond T e l . : 274-1242. The following publications also provide information on l o c a l francophone speakers and their organizations. Quoi f a i r e in Vancouver? a handbook published by Ca-nadian Parents for French (a revised edition should be available by the end of 1984). Repertoire des ressources c u l t u r e l l e s francophones en  Colombie-britannique 1983-1984, a handbook published by La federation des franco-colombiens which l i s t s contact people in d i f f e r e n t categories, i . e . , cinema, peinture, graphies, video, etc. 181 ANNEXE 3.B: FICHE D'EVALUATION DE L'ELEVE Nom: E V A L U A T I O N DE L A P R E S E N T A T I O N DE ( i n s e r e z l e s noms i c i ) . Analysez l a p r e s e n t a t i o n s e l o n l ' e c h e l l e s u i v a n t e : 1 . pas t r e s b i e n 2. s u f f i s a n t 3. bien 4. t r e s b i e n 5. e x c e l l e n t . 1. La p r e s e n t a t i o n e t a i t c l a i r e e t bien organisee 1 2 3 4 5 2. Le langage u t i l i s e par l e s e l e v e s e t a i t simple et f a -c i l e a s u i v r e . 1 2 3 4 5 3.^ Le nouveau v o c a b u l a i r e e t a i t b i e n e x p l i q u e avant l a p r e s e n t a t i o n . 1 2 3 4 5 4. La p r o n o n c i a t i o n des e l e v e s e t a i t d i s t i n c t e et compre-h e n s i b l e . 1 2 3 4 5 5. Vous avez a p p r i s beaucoup de choses i n t e r e s s a n t e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6. Les qu e s t i o n s posees par l e s eleves e t a i e n t v a l a b l e s . 1 2 3 4 5 182 Annexe 3.B 2 7. La l i s t e du nouveau v o c a b u l a i r e e t a i t s u f f i s a n t e pour b i e n comprendre l a p r e s e n t a t i o n . 1 2 3 4 5 8. La l i s t e des renseignements vous semble comprehensive. 1 2 3 4 5 9. Les aides a u d i o - v i s u e l l e s (enregistrements, photos, d i a p o s i t i v e s , a f f i c h e s , etc.) e t a i e n t bien e x p l i q u e e s e t coordonnees avec l a p r e s e n t a t i o n . 1 2 3 4 5 10. La p r e s e n t a t i o n e t a i t v i v a n t e . 1 2 3 4 5 183 ANNEXE 3.C: FICHE D'EVALUATION DU PROFESSEUR Nom de l'eleve (Chaque numero sera note sur l a meme echelle que 1'evalua-t i o n par l'eleve, i . e . , 1 a 5) Habiletes et performance Note La preparation 1. Chercher le vocabulaire approprie au sujet. 2. Aider et ecouter les autres membres de l'equipe. 3. Trouver dix questions valables au sujet de l ' o r -ganisme en question. 4. Poser des questions dans un francais correct. 5. Organiser l a date et l'heure de l a rencontre. L'entrevue; Puisque le professeur n'est pas present a l'entrevue, cette section de 1'evaluation est basee sur l a presentation en classe, ou sur un enregistrement ( s i possible) de l'entrevue. 6. L'entrevue a eu l i e u en francais. 7. L'intervieweur a bien ecoute les reponses de son sujet. 8. Toutes les questions preparees ont ete posees. La preparation du rapport: 9. Les aides audio-visuelles sont bien organisees. 10. Le t r a v a i l est d i v i s e parmi l'equipe. 184 Annexe 3.C , Note 11. Les l i s t e s du v o c a b u l a i r e e t des renseignements sont preparees et remises a l'avance au p r o f e s s e u r . La p r e s e n t a t i o n : 12. La l i s t e du v o c a b u l a i r e e s t c l a i r e e t bi e n e x p l i q u e e aux e l e v e s . 13. Chaque membre de l' e q u i p e p a r l e durant l a p r e s e n t a t i o n . 14. Les o r i g i n e s e t l ' h i s t o i r e de l'organisme f r a n c o -phone sont b i e n e x p l i q u e e s . 15. Les f o n c t i o n s de l'organisme sont b i e n e x p l i q u e e s . 16. Le r o l e que joue l a personne q u ' i l s ont ren-contree dans c et organisme e s t c l a i r . 17. La l i s t e des renseignements e s t c l a i r e e t com-prehensive. 18. La p r e s e n t a t i o n e s t v i v a n t e . Les a f f i c h e s : 19. Les c a r a c t e r e s ( l ' e c r i t u r e ) sont (est) l i s i b l e s . 20. Les images (photos, etc.) sont b i e n exposees. 21. Le t e x t e e s t ap p r o p r i e aux images q u i l'accom-pagnent. 22. L ' a f f i c h e e s t a t t r a y a n t e . Note f i n a l e sur 110 = 

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