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An analysis of circling directionality as a factor relating to academic achievement, laterality, age,.. 1982

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AN ANALYSIS OF CIRCLING DIRECTIONALITY AS A FACTOR RELATING TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, LATERALITY, AGE, SEX, AND POINT OF CIRCLE COMMENCEMENT IN STUDENTS, GRADES K, 1, 2, 3 by MAITLAND MAC ISAAC B.A., S t . Thomas U n i v e r s i t y , 1966 B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f Moncton, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1982 @ M a i t l and Mac I s a a c , 1982 £ 3 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Reading Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 March 12, 1985. ABSTRACT This study sought to discover the relationship of torque to the academic performance and other variables of children from five to eight years old. Torque was defined as the production of clockwise circles during a writing task. The phenomenon was first reported by Theodore Blau (1977) who proposed that children who torqued past a certain age were predisposed to problems both academic and behavioural. To measure the torquing propensities of chi1dren, Blau developed a Torque Test which had children produce six circles around X's (fi) , three with the preferred hand and three with the non-preferred hand. The present study used the preferred writing hand only and two torque tests, the Circling Direction- ality Test developed by the researcher using an embedded task to detect torquing and a modified form of Blau's Torque Test. Variables of academ achievement, age, sex, point of circle commencement, laterality, neuro- muscular motor, control , test comparisons, and circling directionality were analysed. The population for the study consisted of 300 regular classroom children ages five to eight. Seventy-five children per grade were randomly selected by age from grade levels K-3. Significant relationships between torquing and low academic achieve ment were only found for the eight year old group who also had a higher incidence of 1eft-handedness and crossed hand/foot laterality. Signif- icantly more boys torqued than girls. As well, those who torqued in most instances commenced their circles at the bottom. Predictably i i significant relationships were found for hand and foot, but only left- handedness was significantly related to torque. No significant rela- tionships could be found for measures of eyedness. Both tests used to measure torque were equally effective. The rapidity of circle construc- tion did not alter the pattern of torquing in the children. There was a significant relationship between age and torquing with over 5Q% of the five year olds torquing with the preferred hand; by age eight this inci- dence had been reduced to 8% of the population. Torquing was then seen as a developmental trait found in a large percentage of five and six year olds but by age eight it was indicative of academic school difficulties. Recommendations for further study of the torquing phenomenon were made. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES .... v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . .... . • • • • • • • • • • • • • -.• v i ' C h a p t e r I THE PROBLEM 1 Background o f the P r o b l e m 2 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study 5 Def i n i t i o n s 8 P o p u l a t i o n .. . 8 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study ... 9 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the R e p o r t 9 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 10 R e s e a r c h o f Theodore B l a u 10 Torque and C e r e b r a l Dominance - 1 ̂+ T o r q u e , L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y and P s y c h o s i s 21 Torque and C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y 25 Torque and S e n s o r i m o t o r Development 30 F i n d i n g s o f Torque t o Date 3** I I I DESIGN OF STUDY 36 M a t e r i a l s — 36 The T e s t s 36 P o p u l a t i o n S e l e c t i o n 37 P r o c e d u r e s o f T e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 37 P i l o t Study **2 S c o r i n g and P r o j e c t e d A n a l y s i s o f Data kk IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA ^5 I n t r o d u c t i o n h5 C o n c l u s i o n 59 i v V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 59 Conclusions and I m p l i c a t i o n s 60 Recommendations 63 BIBILOGRAPHY 6 5 APPENDIX A 6 8 APPENDIX B 7 0 APPENDIX C ' 72 APPENDIX D 7 4 APPENDIX E 7 6 V LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1 Mean P e r c e n t i l e S c o r e s i n Academic Achievement Ages 6 - 7 - 8 . . . . 46 2 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f T o r q u i n g and Academic A c h i e v e m e n t 8 Year O l d Group k~] 3 P e a r s o n Product: Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s - - T o r q u i n g and Academic A c h i e v e m e n t f o r Ages 6 - 7 - 8 47 k F r e q u e n c y o f Ci r e l e Commencement 50 5 Frequency o f T o r q u i n g by Age 52 6 P o p u l a t i o n o f Boys and G i r l s by Age and Frequency o f T o r q u i n g , i n t h e Torque T e s t and the C i r c l i n g Di r e c t iona 1 i t y T e s t • • • • • 53 7 Hand and Foot P r e f e r e n c e s o f 8 y e a r o l d T o r q u e r s 54 8 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Hand, F o o t , and Eye f o r t h e T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 5 5 9 Examples o f C o r r e l a t i o n s Between C.D.T. and Torque T e s t 58 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To Dr. Ken S l a d e whose e n t h u s i a s m f o r 6:30 a.m. m e e t i n g s t o d i s - c o v e r why some o f us march t o a d i f f e r e n t d r u m m e i — a s i n c e r e t h a n k you - - y o u r f r i e n d s h i p and s k i l l s as an a d v i s o r w i l l be l o n g remembered and t o r q u e d about a c r o s s t h e m i l e s . To Dr. Lee G u n d e r s o n - - t h a n k s f o r l o o k i n g a t my d a t a and i m m e d i a t e l y s a y i n g " v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . " You made SPSS i n t e l 1 i g i b l e - - t o a n o v i c e — no mean f e a t . . . To Anne, Shane, C a t h y , and Jeana t h a n k you f o r g i v i n g me a y e a r t o f u l f i l l a dream--we have a l l l e a r n e d . To t h e s t u d e n t s and s t a f f o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C a t h o l i c S c h o o l Board who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y — y o u r h o s p i t a l i t y and i n t e r e s t made th e t a s k o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n much e a s i e i — t h a n k you. To N i n a T h u r s t o n whose s k i l l s as a t y p i s t , knowledge o f f o r m , and i n t e r e s t i n a word l i k e " c o n c o m i t a n t s " g r e a t e l y enhanced t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER ONE THE PROBLEM . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e c i r e l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f c h i l d r e n f i v e t o e i g h t y e a r s o l d , where c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y was d e f i n e d i n terms o f the use o f t h e dominant hand t o pro d u c e c i r c l e s i n t h e Torque T e s t ( B l a u , 1974) and t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t ( M a c l s a a c , 1981). S p e c i f i c a l l y answers were sought t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. Does a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t between academic a c h i e v e m e n t and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y as measured by a norm r e f e r e n c e d t e s t used i n g r a d e s one, two, and t h r e e ? 2. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n e s s f o r g r a d e one i n k i n d e r g a r t e n p o p u l a t i o n s as measured by t e a c h e r a s s e s s m e n t , and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? 3. Is t h e p o i n t o f commencement i n c i r c l e c o n s t r u c t i o n and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d ? 4. Is t h e r e an e q u i v a l e n t i n c r e a s e , a c c o r d i n g t o age, i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s as has been found in r e l a t e d s t u d i e s ? 5. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? 6. What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l a t e r a l i t y , as measured by f o o t , hand, and eye dominance, t o c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? 1 2 7. Does r a p i d i t y i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c i r c l e s a f f e c t d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? 8. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y when c i r c l e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d as O's embedded w i t h i n words o r as d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s ? 9. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Torque T e s t and t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t ? Background o f t h e P r o b l e m ' In h i s p r e s i d e n t i a l a d d r e s s o f 197^, t h e i n c o m i n g p r e s i d e n t o f t h e A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Theodore B l a u , s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f w r i t t e n c i r c l e s i n a c l o c k w i s e manner, p a s t a c e r t a i n age, was g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o a) mixed c e r e b r a l dominance, b) s i n i s t r a l i t y , and c) a " v a r i e t y o f b e h a v i o u r s . " In a l a t e r paper he made f u r t h e r s ug- g e s t i o n s t h a t t h e c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c t i o n o f c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s p a s t t h e age o f f i v e might be an e x t e r n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f n e u r a l d e f i c i t s i n t h e w r i t e r ' s c o r p u s c a l l o s u m ( B l a u , 1977c). These d e f i c i t s , B l a u s t a t e d , c o u l d p l a c e a c h i l d a t a d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i s a d v a n t a g e c a u s i n g abnormal s t r e s s and even a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o s c h i z o p h r e n i a . Such a s t a t e m e n t had an immediate and p r o f o u n d e f f e c t upon the p s y c h o l o g i c a l , m e d i c a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l community a t l a r g e . B l a u c o i n e d t h e term TORQUE f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s and d e v e l o p e d a Torque T e s t as a measure o f t h i s phenomenon. The t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s i x c i r c l e s . Each c i r c l e was drawn.around an X, t h r e e w i t h t h e dominant hand and t h r e e w i t h t h e non-dominant hand. D e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have had f o r many y e a r s an i n t e r e s t i n the r e p r o d u c t i o n o f g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s . One has o n l y t o t h i n k o f t h e Bender V i s u a l Motor G e s t a l t T e s t , the P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , and The C u l t u r e F a i r I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t a s examp l e s . Goodnow and L e v i n e ( 1 9 7 3 ) i n t h e i r work w i t h c h i l d r e n u s i n g a geo- m e t r i c p a t t e r n t e s t d e s i g n e d by Graham e t a 1 . ( I 9 6 0 ) r e f e r t o t h e d e v e l o p - mental p r o g r e s s i o n c h i l d r e n make i n d r a w i n g g e o m e t r i c shapes as "a l i m i t e d s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s o r r u l e s t h a t s p e c i f y where t o b e g i n and how t o p r o c e e d " (p. 8 2 ) . Lash l e y ( 1 9 5 1 ) p r o p o s e d t h a t a c t s r e q u i r i n g t h e use o f s k i l l e d motor b e h a v i o r d e m o n s t r a t e a " s y n t a x . . . o r g e n e r a l p a t t e r n imposed upon s p e c i f i c a c t s as the y o c c u r " (p. 1 1 9 ) . R e s t l e ( 1 9 7 0 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t we c a t e g o r i z e b e h a v i o r s f r o m " s i m p l e w a l k i n g t o the. c o m p l e x i t i e s o f d r i v - i n g an a u t o m o b i l e , s p e a k i n g , p l a y i n g t h e p i a n o , o r even p l a y i n g c h e s s " (p. 4 8 1 ) . S e n s o r i m o t o r and c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o r s a r e n o t seen by t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s b u t r a t h e r i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o r s , each dependent upon t h e o t h e r . The s t u d y o f c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y d i d n o t s t a r t w i t h B l a u . W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m a n u s c r i p t w r i t i n g t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1922 by M a r j o r i e W i s e , l e t t e r r e v e r s a l s became an i s s u e i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f hand- w r i t i n g ( H i l d r e t h , 1 9 3 4 ) . R e s e a r c h e r s began t o q u e s t i o n why, a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n and t i m e , some c h i l d r e n s t i l l r e v e r s e d c e r t a i n l e t t e r s . O p i n i o n s v a r i e d as t o t h e r o o t c a u s e . Some f e l t i t was poor t e a c h i n g ( W i l s o n & Flemming); o t h e r s , a n a t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e ( H i l d r e t h , 1 9 3 2 ) . Today one can f i n d as many as 13 d i f f e r e n t e x p l a n a - t i o n s t o why c h i l d r e n do t h i s p a s t a c e r t a i n age. As t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a 1 i s t movement grew, more s t u d i e s were u n d e r t a k e n c o n c e r n i n g a c h i l d ' s p o s t u r e , l e t t e r f o r m a t i o n , word p r o d u c t i o n , and even th e c o r r e l a t i o n between r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t and a l l t h e above b e h a v i o r s . In t h e i r r e s e a r c h on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s o f h a n d w r i t i n g , G e s e l l and Ames ( 1 9 4 6 ) and Ames and N g ( 1 9 5 1 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n do prod u c e c i r c l e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways a c c o r d i n g t o age. No comments as t o t h e r e a s o n b e h i n d t h e v a r i o u s c i r c l e c o n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n o t h e r than v i e w i n g i i t as a n o t h e r s t a g e t h e c h i l d goes t h r o u g h towards t h e m a s t e r y o f a mature handwr i t i n g s t y l e . . . . Res e a r c h by Thomassen and T e u l i n g s (1979) i n t h e development o f d i r e c t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e i n h a n d w r i t i n g movements i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e x t e n t t h a t d i r e c t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e was c a u s e d by n e u r o m u s c u l a r p r o p e r t i e s o f the motor s y s t e m and t o what e x t e n t i t was d e t e r m i n e d by h i g h e r c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s such as t h o s e f o u n d i n h a n d w r i t i n g . T h e i r f i n d i n g s enhanced th e i n i t i a l work o f G e s e l l and Ames (19̂ 6) and Ames and N g (1951) by i n v e s t i g a t i n g c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y not o n l y as a d e v e l o p m e n t a l f a c t o r , but a l s o e x p l o r i n g p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h might a c c o u n t f o r t h e v a r i a t i o n s t h a t o c c u r a c c o r d i n g t o age, c o g n i t i o n , and s e n s o r i m o t o r m a t u r i t y . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t o r q u e as pr o p o s e d by B l a u d i d n o t go u n n o t i c e d by t h e s c i e n t i f i c community. P e o p l e began t o q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r such a s i m p l e t e s t c o u l d be a r e l i a b l e measure o f such d i v e r s e a r e a s as handed- n e s s , mixed dominance, c e r e b r a l d e f i c i t s , l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , and s c h i z o p h r e n i a . The s u p p o r t f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n t o d a t e has been m i x e d . Zendal and P i h l (1980), i n t h e i r work w i t h e i g h t t o t e n y e a r o l d s c o u l d f i n d no a p p a r e n t l i n k between t o r q u e , d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r , abnormal psychomotor s c o r e s , o r mixed dominance. A l b e r t s and Tocco (1980) i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h w i t h o v e r 700 g r a d e t h r e e s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f t o r q u e among c h i l d r e n who e x h i b i t e d v a r i o u s forms o f l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r s . L u c h i n s e t a 1 . (l'98itt). s t u d i e d 55 s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s and f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n - s h i p between t o r q u i n g and p a t i e n t s w i t h m i l d e r ( a c u t e ) forms o f s c h i z o - 5 p h r e n i a , but not i n more advanced ( c h r o n i c ) c a s e s o f s c h i z o p h r e n i a . They s u g g e s t e d , however, t h a t 1eft-handedness might be, i n some i n d i v i d u a l s , a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o s c h i z o p h r e n i a . B l a i r (1980) , on th e o t h e r hand, found no s u p p o r t f o r B l a u ' s c l a i m t h a t t o r q u i n g was r e l a t e d t o l e f t h a n d dominance. B l a u ' s h y p o t h e s e s and t h e subsequent r e s e a r c h o f o t h e r s a r e , t h e n , f r a u g h t w i t h u n c e r t a i n t i e s . No one, a t p r e s e n t , i s p r e p a r e d t o s t a t e t h a t t o r q u e i s an a c t u a l measure o f a n y t h i n g . t h e r e i s a f e e l i n g among r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t t h o s e who t o r q u e have some k i n d o f a b n o r m a l i t y but a r e not p r e p a r e d t o go beyond t h e l e v e l o f s p e c u l a t i o n . Much more r e s e a r c h i s c l e a r l y needed b e f o r e we can say w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t t o r q u i n g i s a measure o f a p a r t i c u l a r , abnormal c o g n i t i v e o r s e n s o r i m o t o r p r o c e s s . I t i s i n t h i s s p i r i t o f e x p l o r a t i o n t h a t t h i s p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h was under- t a k e n . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study Kay (1979) s t a t e d t h a t " B l a u ' s h y p o t h e s e s a d m i t t e d l y f a r exceed t h e . d a t a " (p. 357). I t i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o examine t h e d i f f e r - e n t h y p o t h e s e s u s i n g d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n s , and even r e p l i c a t e B l a u ' s c o n - d i t i o n s . To d a t e , t h e ma j o r r e s e a r c h has f o c u s e d on e x c e p t i o n a l p o p u l a - t i o n s , o r p o p u l a t i o n s e i g h t y e a r s o f age o r o l d e r . T h i s c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h s t u d i e d t h e c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i n c h i l d r e n f i v e t o e i g h t y e a r s o l d fro m normal s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t s . Some r e s e a r c h ( T o r r i n g t o n , 1976; Thomassen & T e u l i n g s , 1979; Jarman & N e l s o n , 1981) d i d use younger s u b j e c t s than e i g h t y e a r s o f age but t h e r a t h e r r a d i c a l change i n c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y among c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age group makes t h e development s t u d y o f p o p u l a t i o n s o v e r s e v e r a l age l e v e l s a more u s e f u l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h w h i c h t o d e a l . B l a u ' s ( 1 9 7 7 ) com- ment d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e need t o s t u d y t h e age groups o f t h i s p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . C h i l d r e n who f a i l t o d e v e l o p c o m p l e t e c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e , o r l e f t t u r n i n g b e h a v i o r by t h e t i m e t h e y a r e f i v e may have some degr e e o f d i f f i c u l t y i n d e v e l o p i n g and r e s p o n d i n g t o the c u l t u r e ' s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c o g n i t i v e , l a n g u a g e , motor m o t i 1 i t y , peer group a c c e p t a n c e , and s u c c e s s / a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . Groups o f c h i l d r e n who e x h i b i t t o r q u e do not seem t o a d a pt as w e l l as g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n who do n o t e x h i b i t t o r q u e a f t e r t h e age of f i v e . (pp. 1 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 2 ) C i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y has been s t u d i e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h hand- w r i t i n g . I t i s common p r a c t i c e f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n and g r a d e one t e a c h e r s t o t e a c h m a n u s c r i p t h a n d w r i t i n g u s i n g what i s g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e d as t h e " b a l l and s t i c k " method. S t u d e n t s a r e t a u g h t , f o r t h o s e l e t t e r s r e q u i r - ing a c i r c l e , t o form t h e c i r c l e a t t h e t o p and p r o c e e d i n a c o u n t e r - c l o c k w i s e manner. I f , as t h e d a t a s u g g e s t , o v e r 5 0 % o f f i v e and s i x y e a r o l d s have a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o make c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s what does t h i s do f o r a c h i l d ' s "mind s e t " f o r h a n d w r i t i n g ? B l a u ' s Torque T e s t uses b o t h t h e dominant and non-dominant hand as measures f o r e l i c i t i n g p o s s i b l e c l o c k w i s e c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . Jarman and N e l s o n (1981) r e p o r t e d weak r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e l e f t and r i g h t hand and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . They s u g g e s t e d t h a t use o f t h e dominant hand o n l y i s a more r e l i a b l e measure of t o r q u e . The C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t used by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i n v o l v e d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f 24 c i r c l e s under v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s . Thus u s i n g the dominant hand o n l y p r o v i d e d a c o n t r a s t t o t h e Torque T e s t , e n a b l i n g an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t m ight e x i s t between d r a w i n g c i r c l e s w i t h i n words and i n i s o l a t i o n , as opposed t o t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n around a s e r i e s o f Xs. Thomassen and Teulings (1979) suggested that there may be two sen- sorimotor systems op e r a t i n g as we c o n s t r u c t some forms of p r i n t , one f o r rapid and n o n f i g u r a t i y e language and one f o r accurate and symbolic pur- poses. As part of the t e s t i n g procedure in t h i s study, c h i l d r e n were asked to produce c i r c l e s in a c o n t r o l l e d slow manner and, a g a i n , in a r a p i d f a s h i o n . This was done to assess i f there would be a d i f f e r e n c e in d i r e c t i o n a l i t y under these two c o n d i t i o n s . , In t h i s way c o n f i r m a t i o n of Thomassen and Teulings might be obtained. One of the p r i n c i p a l reasons f o r conducting t h i s study was to d e t e r - mine the academic achievement of students who torqued. In l i g h t of Blau's h y p o t h e s i s , i t would be of i n t e r e s t to know whether there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between torquing and academic performance at school f o r the age group 5~8 years o l d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t o r q u i n g was viewed a g a i n s t measures of reading, math, and language ( M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test, 1978). The s p e c u l a t i v e nature of Blau's proposal and the i n c o n s i s t e n c y of the data to date, c a l l s f o r f u r t h e r research of the torque phenomenon. A study that i n v o l v e s students 5-8 years o l d (the age of t h i s sample), would be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t as i t may provide i n s i g h t s as to the developmental nature of t o r q u i n g , i t s p o s s i b l e d i a g n o s t i c s t r e n g t h s , as w e l l as perhaps suggesting c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n of hand- w r i t i n g . 8 D e f i n i t i o n s For the purposes of t h i s study some terms are n e c e s s a r i l y d e f i n e d . 1. Torque i s the production of w r i t t e n c i r c l e s i n a c l o c k w i s e manner. 2. Torque Test i s a t e s t developed by Blau (197M as a measure of c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . (See Appendix A.) 3. C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y r e f e r s to the d i r e c t i o n a person draws a c i r c l e , c l o c k w i s e or counterclockwise. k. C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y Test (C.D.T.) was developed by the researcher as a measure of c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . (See Appendix B.) 5. S t a r t of C i r c l e r e f e r s to the place (top - bottom - side) that an i n d i v i d u a l begins to make a c i r c l e . 6 . Dominance r e f e r s to the p r e f e r e n t i a l use of the hand, f o o t , or eye when performing a s p e c i f i c task. 7. Age i s defined in terms of students who are: a) f i v e years o l d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , b) s i x years o l d in grade one, c) seven years o l d in grade two, d) e i g h t years o l d in grade three. No d i s t i n c t i o n i s made based on a c h i l d ' s age in months. 8. Academic Achievement was measured by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Tests, form JS, Primary I, Primary I I , and Elementary (1978) in reading, mathematics, and language. Populat ion Subjects f o r the study were drawn from the Greater Vancouver Cath- o l i c School Board. Intact c l a s s e s , kindergarten to grade three, were chosen. Sevent y - f i v e p u p i l s from each of four l e v e l s , who met the age c r i t e r i o n were randomly s e l e c t e d from a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of k32 students. The students came from low middle to middle income f a m i l i e s and were t e s t e d at the f o l l o w i n g s chools. St. Jude Elementary School Vancouver St. F r a n c i s of A s s i s i Elementary School Vancouver St. Marys Elementary School Vancouver St. F r a n c i s de Sales Elementary School Burnaby Holy Cross Elementary School Burnaby Limitations-' of the Study There were c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s to the study. These were: 1. The students were drawn from the C a t h o l i c Schools of the Greater Vancouver School Board. 2. Only students who completed the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s , the C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y Test, and the Torque Test were considered. O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Report The f i r s t chapter has given a general d e s c r i p t i o n of the problem, the s p e c i f i c questions to be answered by the study, the background of the problem, a statement about the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the study, d e f i n i t i o n s of terms used, a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , some statements about the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, and an o u t l i n e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the re p o r t . < Chapter two c o n s i s t s of a review of the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . Chap- ter three contains a d e s c r i p t i o n of the design of the research. Chapter four presents the r e s u l t s of the study and an a n a l y s i s of the data. The f i f t h and f i n a l chapter is a summary of the f i n d i n g and includes some con c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r research. CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The review of the. l i t e r a t u r e i s presented under the f o i l owing headings: a) Research of Theodore Blau, b) Torque and Cerebral Dominance c) Torque, Learning D i s a b i l i t y , and Psy c h o s i s , d) Torque and C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y , e) Torque and Sensorimotor Development, f ) Findings of Torque to Date. Research of Theodore Blau The f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n on c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y from a psych- l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e was conducted by Theodore Blau (1977a, 1977b). The purpose of h i s o r i g i n a l study was to "exp l o r e c e r t a i n b ehavioral manifes- t a t i o n s of l e f t handed c h i l d r e n and to develop a t e s t f o r handedness or ce r e b r a l dominance" (p. 6). His s p e c i f i c areas of c o n s i d e r a t i o n were: a) the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the chosen w r i t i n g hand and the Torque Test, b) the Torque Test and a v a r i e t y of behaviors, c) the chosen w r i t i n g hand and a v a r i e t y of behaviors. These behaviors included stubbornness, v a r i a b l e emotional behavior, excess energy, i n a b i l i t y to f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s , v a r i a b l e i n t e l l e c t u a l performance, bedwetting, kindness to animals, i r r i t a b l e without cause, being o v e r l y s e n s i t i v e , being s o c i a l l y embarrassing, performance below p o t e n t i a l , impulsiveness, c r e a t i n g "war" in f a m i l y , doesn't learn from experience, cannot complete 10 11 projects, and prefers swimming underwater. Blau's subjects were 463 children between the ages of k and 17 years who were seen by him in his private clinic between 1966 and 1 9 7 ^ . Of the sample, 8k% were considered to be right-handed, 1 3 % left-handed, and 3% of mixed dominant hand. The results of the study indicated that torque was "probably a reasonable measure of handedness defined as 'chosen writing hand1 and facility in using chosen hand" (p. 2 0 ) . The behaviors investi- gated were grouped into two categories, neurological and neurotical and were both shown to have a significant relationship with torque. The results regarding the effects of left or mixed dominance in children led Blau to the conclusion that the Torque Test was a reliable measure of lateral dominance. He recognized that his results were highly speculative and posed a series of questions which have formed the basis for the majority of subsequent research. These were: 1. How does the measure of torque relate to dichotic listening, evoked potentials and other more sophisticated measures of cerebral dominance? 2. What are the base rates of torque in various populations? 3. Does torque measure circling tendencies which are learned or develop- menta1? k. What neural mechanisms explain torque? 5. What neural mechanisms explain the tendency for left dominant children to continue to be neurotic longer than right dominant children? 6. Does handedness relate to a broader spectrum of functional disorders than heretofore believed? 7. What implications would these results have for motor training? 8. Should childrearing practices and early education methods be influenced 12 by the presence of s i n i s t r a l i t y ? 9. What are the cross c u l t u r a l base rates f o r torque? 10. Are there geophysical concomitants to torque (northern vs southern hemi sphere)? 11. How does torque r e l a t e to a d u l t behavior v a r i a b l e s ? In h i s second torque study, Blau (1977c) speculated as to the p o s s i - b i l i t y that torque may be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of some neural i n t e g r a t i v e de- f e c t which might be the root cause of a " v a r i e t y of c o g n i t i v e , language, behavior, and l e a r n i n g problems found among c h i l d r e n " (p. 999). He pos- t u l a t e d that t h i s defect might be the r e s u l t of improper development of the corpus callosum. While he presented no data to support h i s sugges- t i o n , researchers were eager to place what can be best termed s p e c u l a t i o n i n t o statements of f a c t a t t r i b u t e d to Blau. The research component of h i s second study involved 106 c h i l d r e n who had been seen by him between 1963 and 1969. I.n the s p r i n g and summer of 1977, personal i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with the parents or guardians of the c h i l d r e n in which questions of a s o c i a l , academic, v o c a t i o n a l , and personal nature were asked. Students were rated on a nine point s c a l e which ranged from having outstanding emotional adjustment to having been diagnosed as s c h i z o p h r e n i c . In those c h i l d r e n who e x h i b i t e d good to f a i r adjustment, torque was found in 36% of cases. In those who demonstrated poor to bad adjustment, torque was found in 11% of cases. Of the 106 c h i l d r e n in the study, 54 demonstrated no torquing and of t h i s group only one was diagnosed as s c h i z o p h r e n i c w h i l e in the torque group of 52, 11 c h i l d r e n had, ten or more years l a t e r , been diagnosed as s c h i z o p h r e n i c . The r e s u l t s , as Blau s t a t e d : 13 i n d i c a t e q u i t e c l e a r l y that c h i l d r e n who e x h i b i t torque during t h e i r developmental years are more l i k e l y to reach m a t u r i t y with a higher incidence of the c l i n i c a l symptoms of sc h i z o p h r e n i a than a s i m i l a r group of c h i l d r e n w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems who d i d not e x h i b i t torque behavior during t h e i r e a r l y years. (p. 1002) Of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e to t h i s present study i s Blau's comment concerning the f a i l u r e of c h i l d r e n to develop complete counterclockwise or l e f t t u r n i n g drawing behavior by the time they are f i v e . He suggested that such c h i l d r e n may experience some d i f f i c u l t y in developing and respond- ing to the cu1tura1 requirements f o r " c o g n i t i o n , language, motor m o t i l i t y , peer group acceptance, and success/accomplishment" (p. 1002). P r i o r to the examination of other research in the area of torque several comments are warranted. 1. Blau, by h i s own admission, wanted people to be aware o f the h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e nature of h i s s t u d i e s on torque. His comment "there are s e r i o u s methodological and base rat e problems in the present study . . . i f t h i s research is to serve as a c o n t r i b u t i o n to preven- t i v e a c t i v i t y with c h i l d r e n at r i s k " (p. 1002), serves as an i n d i - c a t o r of h i s awareness of the need f o r e x t e n s i v e research on the t o p i c . 2. In both s t u d i e s the su b j e c t s were excep t i o n a l c h i l d r e n in that they had been r e f e r r e d to Blau because of l e a r n i n g , developmental, o r behavior problems ranging from m i l d to severe. 3. Blau's measure of mixed dominance was the apparent a b i l i t y of c h i l - dren to have equal f a c i l i t y w i t h the r i g h t and l e f t hand when w r i t i n g . T his accounted f o r only 1% of h i s population.. k. L a t e r a l i t y was assessed by observing the use of the dominant hand during w r i t i n g t a s k s . 5. Mixed c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a 1 t t y us i ng the dominant and non-dominant hand i n t he Torque T e s t was t h e c r i t e r i o n used by B l a u as an i n d i c a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e d e f e c t s i n t h e c o r p u s c a l l o s u m . 6. In b o t h s t u d i e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% o f t h e s u b j e c t s t o r q u e d . In h i s f i r s t s t u d y 16% o f the s u b j e c t s were, c a t e g o r i z e d as l e f t o r mixed dominant. In h i s second s t u d y 2 1 % o f the s u b j e c t s were d i a g n o s e d as s c h i z o p h r e n i c . T h i s meant t h a t w h i l e t h e r e may be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o r q u i n g , handedness., and s c h i z o p h r e n i a , ; many p e o p l e who t o r q u e d d i d not f a l l i n t o e i t h e r c a t e g o r y . Torque and C e r e b r a l Dominance The terms h e m i s p h e r i c dominance and l a t e r a l i t y have been used s i m u l - t a n e o u s l y i n much o f t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g c e r e b r a l dominance. Dominance i s b e t t e r e q u a t e d w i t h s p e c i a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n one p a r t o f t h e b r a i n e x e r c i s i n g a . c o n t r o l o v e r t h e o t h e r (Leong, 1980) . A d e v i a t i o n i n t h e normal p a t t e r n o f c o n s i s t e n t p r e f e r e n c e f o r hand, e y e , e a r , and f o o t , r e f e r r e d t o as c r o s s e d dominance, i s s a i d by some r e s e a r c h e r s t o put a c h i l d " a t r i s k . " In c r o s s e d l a t e r a l i t y as opposed t o mixed l a t e r a l i t y , c o n s i s t e n t h e m i s p h e r i c p a t t e r n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d but r a t h e r than b e i n g t o t a l l y l e f t o r r i g h t d o m i n a n t , d i f f e r e n t body p a r t s ( e . g . , hand/eye) may be l e f t and r i g h t l a t e r a l i z e d . B l a u ' s r e s e a r c h f o c u s e d on mixed dominance, t h e tendency t o have e q u a l f a c i l i t y w i t h e i t h e r body p a r t when p e r f o r m i n g a s i m i l a r t a s k . He l e f t i t t o o t h e r s t o e x p l o r e i n d e t a i l t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n h i s c e r e b r a l dominance h y p o t h e s i s . The v a l i d i t y o f c r o s s e d l a t e r a l i t y as an a c c u r a t e measure o f c e r e - b r a l dominance has been q u e s t i o n e d . A base r a t e f o r 1 e f t - h a n d e d n e s s i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n has been e s t a b l i s h e d a t a p p r o x i m t e l y 8-10% ( B a k w i n , 1950; Z a n g w i l l , 1962; S a t z , 1973). K i n s b o u r n e and H i s c o c k (1978) 15 e s t i m a t e t h a t up t o 30% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n has l e f t eye dominance. T h i s means t h a t t h e r e a r e a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f p e o p l e who a r e r i g h t - h a n d e d and l e f t - e y e d dominant. U l l m a n ( 1 9 7 7 ) r e p o r t e d on a s t u d y i n w h i c h t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were g i v e n t e s t s o f ey e , f o o t , and hand dominance t o d e t e r m i n e c o n s i s t e n t l a t e r a l i z a t i o n ( s t a b l e and i p s i l a t e r a l ) , c r o s s e d 1 a t e r a l i z a t i o n ( s t a b l e but not c o n t r a l a t e r a l ) , and i n c o n s i s t e n t l a t e r a l i z a t i o n ( a b s e n c e o f s t a b i l i t y ) . He fo u n d t h a t 60% o f t h e younger c h i l d r e n and 35% o f t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n d e m o n s t r a t e d c r o s s e d l a t e r a l i z a t i o n w h i l e no d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n r e a d i n g , m a t h e m a t i c s , s p e l l i n g , and I.Q. s c o r e s among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s f o r e i t h e r s ex o r any age. Balow ( 1 9 6 3 , 1964) c o u l d f i n d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between hand/eye dominance and r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . H i s c o n c l u s i o n a t t h e tim e was " l a t e r a l dominance does not seem t o be a f r u i t f u l a r e a f o r s e e k i n g out d e t e r m i n e r s o f i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e m e n t " (p. 1 4 3 ) . A l b e r t s and Tocco ( 1 9 8 0 ) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y i n w h i c h 733 g r a d e t h r e e s t u d e n t s f r o m r e g u l a r and e x c e p t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d B l a u ' s Torque T e s t . Two hundred and n i n e t y - s i x n o n s p e c i a l s t u d e n t s f r o m t h i s p o p u l a t i o n were d e s i g n a t e d a c o n t r o l group. The r e - s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 60% o f t h e s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n t o r q u e d as opposed t o 37% o f t h e n o n s p e c i a l g r o u p . In t h e e x c e p t i o n a l group 79% o f t h e l e f t - handed c h i l d r e n t o r q u e d w h i l e o n l y 47% of the r i g h t - h a n d e r s t o r q u e d . In th e normal p o p u l a t i o n 57% o f t h e s i n i s t r a l s t o r q u e d and 34% o f t h e r i g h t - h a n d e r s showed t h e p r e s e n c e o f t o r q u e . A l b e r t s and Toc c o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f t o r q u e found i n t h e l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d , s p e e c h , and h e a r i n g group m i g h t be i n d i c a t i v e o f " i n t e r h e m i s p h e r i c a n o m a l i e s u n d e r - l y i n g some d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o b l e m s " (p. 1 5 9 ) . R e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t 18% o f t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d s u b j e c t s as opposed t o 13% o f t h e normal 16 popu1 a t i o n were l e f t - h a n d e d . S t u d e n t s d i a g n o s e d as " e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d " a l s o showed a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f t o r q u e t h a n d i d t h e normal p o p u l a t i o n . A l b e r t s and Tocco s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i r r e s u l t s f i t the h y p o t h e s i s s e t f o r t h by B l a u c o n c e r n i n g the c o r p u s c a l l o s u m but recommended t h a t a more d e f i n i t i v e e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s must a w a i t c l e a r e r base r a t e d a t a b e f o r e t o r q u e became a u s e f u l measurement d e v i c e . T o r r i n g t o n (1976) based h e r h y p o t h e s i s on t h e f a c t t h a t t o r q u e a p p e a r s t o be a measure o f l o b e dominance as w e l l as c e r t a i n o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s . Her s u b j e c t s , s e l e c t e d from f i r s t t h r o u g h s i x t h g r a d e , were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s and matched f o r l a t e r a l dominance, s e x , g r ade l e v e l , and i n t e l 1 i g e n c e . In two g r o u p s c h i l d r e n were g i v e n b i l a t e r a l e x e r c i s e s i n e i t h e r m o t o r - m o t i 1 i t y ( n o n - t u r n i n g and n o n - t w i s t i n g ) o r t o r q u e ( t u r n i n g and t w i s t i n g ) . The t h i r d group had no such e x e r c i s e s and became t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . P r e - a n d - p o s t Torque T e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n . B e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o m p l e t e d by t h e s t u d e n t s ' t e a c h - e r s b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o changes i n c e r e b r a l dominance o r b e h a v i o r . The a u t h o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t as a r e s u l t o f a t e n week program o f b i l a t e r a l p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s , d e m o n s t r a t e d c e r e b r a l dominance o r r e p o r t e d b e h a v i o r p r e v i o u s l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e f t o r mixed dominance d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y change. As t o r q u e a p p e a r s t o be both d e v e l o p m e n t a l a n d / o r permanent i n n a t u r e p a s t a c e r t a i n age, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a f t e r a mere t e n weeks few c h i l d r e n ' s c i r c l i n g p a t t e r n s w o u l d be a l t e r e d . I t c o u l d be t h a t any amount o f p r a c t i c e w i l l n o t a l t e r d i r e c t i o n a l i t y and t h a t a c h i l d w i l l not change u n t i l changes o c c u r i n c e r e b r a l f u n c - t i o n i n g - - w i t n e s s the t i m e a g r a d e one c h i l d spends w i t h t h e " b a l l and s t i c k " h a n d w r i t i n g . 17 As a t e s t o f B l a u ' s h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g handedness, r i g h t dominance and mixed l a t e r a l i t y , B l a i r (1980) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y u s i n g 198 s t u d e n t s between t h e ages o f 8 and 13 y e a r s from s p e c i a l and r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s . Each c h i l d was a d m i n i s t e r e d measures o f manual p r e f e r e n c e , manual d e x t e r - i t y , eye dominance, and c i r c l e and t r i a n g l e d r a w i n g b e h a v i o r . The p a r e n t s were a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h c o n t a i n e d items c o n c e r n i n g a f a m i l y h i s t o r y o f handedness and t h e c h i 1 d 1 s d e v e l o p m e n t a l b a c k g r o u n d . The r e s u l t s o f B l a i r ' s d a t a d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t t o r q u e had a low t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . As w e l l , weak r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between t o r q u e and th e measures o f manual p r e f e r e n c e o f t h e b o y s . He s u g g e s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e i s 1 i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t o r q u e was a r e a s o n a b l e measure o f hand dominance o r f a c i l i t y . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g - n i f i c a n t b u t weak r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between mixed c i r c l i n g b e h a v i o r ( t o r q u i n g and n o n - t o r q u i n g ) and t h e measures o f manual d e x t e r i t y and c r o s s e d hand/eye dominance. The r e s u l t s o f h i s r e s e a r c h a l s o l e d B l a i r t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t l i t t l e i f any s u p p o r t c o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t mixed c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y was a v a l i d measure o f mixed l a t e r a l i t y . I t s h o u l d be em p h a s i z e d t h a t B l a u n e v e r d i d i n c l u d e mixed hand/eye dominance i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Demarest and Demarest (1980) i n a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d u s i n g 7̂  v o l u n t e e r s f r o m a c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n , used the d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t e s t as a measure o f h e m i s p h e r i c dominance o f language a b i l i t i e s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t o r q u e , s i n i s t r a l i t y , and mixed c e r e b r a l dominance were r e l a t e d . F o r t y - o n e sub- j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d as r i g h t - h a n d e d and 33 as l e f t - h a n d e d . S u b j e c t s were f i r s t g i v e n handedness t a s k s and the Torque T e s t . They th e n were a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e d i c h o t i c l i s t e n i n g t e s t i n w h i c h t h e y h e a r d a s e r i e s o f words i n groups o f s i x and a s k e d t o w r i t e them down i n w h a t e v e r o r d e r 18 they f o u n d e a s i e s t . H a l f w a y t h r o u g h t h e t e s t t h e headphones were r e v e r s e d and t h e s u b j e c t s h e a r d t h e words a g a i n . The word l i s t i n each e a r on t h e second t r i a l was o p p o s i t e o f t h a t h e a r d i n each e a r i n t h e f i r s t t r i a l . The r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l but one o f t h e r i g h t - handed p e o p l e e x h i b i t e d c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e c i r c l i n g b e h a v i o r , w h i l e \k o f t h e l e f t - h a n d e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o r q u e d . Torque by e a r p r e f e r e n c e was n o t , however, s t a t i s t i c a i 1 y s i g n i f i c a n t . In each e a r p r e f e r e n c e c a t e g o r y , a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same number o f s u b j e c t s p r o d u c e d c i r c l e s i n a c l o c k w i s e manner. The r e s e a r c h e r s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i r s t u d y l e n t s u p p o r t t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t o r q u e and 1 e f t - h a n d e d n e s s . A f a i l u r e t o f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o r q u e and l a n g u a g e l a t e r a l - i z a t i o n s i n a d u l t s may be an i n d i c a t o r t h a t " t o r q u e and c e r e b r a l domin- ance may be r e l a t e d d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d but i n d e p e n d e n t and u n c o r r e l a t e d i n a d u l t s " (p. 157). They f e l t t h a t a more v i a b l e . a l t e r n a t i v e m i g h t be to e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o r q u e and t h e m u s c l e m e c h a n i c s o f the hand. They s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l m e chanics o f d r a w i n g a c i r c l e i n a c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e manner was more e f f i c i e n t i n r i g h t - h a n d e r s and v i c e v e r s a f o r l e f t - h a n d e r s . T h i s b e i n g the c a s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f n o n - t o r q u i n g among s i n i s t r a l s was r a i s e d . C o u l d i t be, th e y a s k e d , t h a t s o c i o c u l t u r a 1 f a c t o r s have i n f l u e n c e d l e f t - h a n d e r s t o a c t l i k e r i g h t - h a n d e r s and t h a t n o n - t o r q u i n g on t h e i r p a r t i s a r e f l e c - t i o n o f t h i s ? C o n j u g a t e l a t e r a l eye movement r e s p o n s e s o f 225 male u n d e r g r a d u a t e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s were i n v e s t i g a t e d t o see i f t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - f e r e n c e i n eye movement between t h o s e s t u d e n t s who t o r q u e d and t h o s e who d i d n ot (Woods S Oppenheimer, 1980). C o n j u g a t e l a t e r a l eye movement i s t h e t e n d e n c y o f a s u b j e c t t o b r e a k eye c o n t a c t and l o o k e i t h e r l e f t i 19 o r r i g h t when a s k e d a r e f l e c t i v e q u e s t i o n . C o n s i s t e n c y i n r i g h t o r l e f t l o o k i n g i s t a k e n t o r e f l e c t h e i g h t e n e d h e m i s p h e r i c c o n t r a l a t e r a l a c t i v i t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y l a t e r a l dominance ( B a l k i n , I969). In t h e s t u d y , s u b j e c t s were a s k e d 20 q u e s t i o n s o f bot h an e m o t i o n a l and n e u t r a l n a t u r e . T e s t s f o r handedness were c o n d u c t e d t o see i f B l a u ' s h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g t o r q u e and s i n i s t r a l i t y c o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d . As wel1 a s b e i n g a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e Torque T e s t , s t u d e n t s were g i v e n t e s t s o f s o c i a l competence and l e v e l s o f a n x i e t y t o see i f t h o s e who t o r q u e s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n a n x i - e t y r a t i n g and l o w e r i n s o c i a l s k i l l s . Of the 225 s t u d e n t s t e s t e d , 76 (33.8%) t o r q u e d a t l e a s t o n c e . Of t h o s e who d i d t o r q u e , 17 (22.4%) t o r q u e d w i t h t h e dominant hand o n l y (hand used i n w r i t i n g ) . F i f t y - t w o (68.4%) t o r q u e d w i t h t h e non-dominant hand o n l y and 7 (9.2%) d i s p l a y e d t o r q u e w i t h b o t h hands. The handedness q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used t o c l a s s i f y , i n a more e x t e n s i v e manner than p r e f e r r e d w r i t i n g hand, t h e l e f t and r i g h t dominance o f th e s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c l a s s i f i e d sub- j e c t s i n t o t h o s e who used l e f t - r i g h t o r bot h hands f o r t e n b e h a v i o r s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 124 (55.1%) were r i g h t hand d o m i n a n t , 95 (42.2%) were mixed-hand d o m i n a n t , and 6 (2.7%) were l e f t - d o m i n a n t a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i a . I t was fou n d t h a t 41 o f t h e 124 r i g h t - d o m i n a n t s u b j e c t s (33%) and 35 o f t h e 101 l e f t - d o m i n a n t (34.7%) t o r q u e d . These r e s u l t s p r o d u c e d a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t r e g a r d i n g l e f t and r i g h t dominance. T o r q u i n g d i d o c c u r more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h t h e non-dominant hand, w i t h r i g h t - h a n d e d s u b j e c t s t e n d i n g t o have more t o r q u e w i t h t h e i r non-dominant hand, th a n l e f t - h a n d e d s t u d e n t s . Torque s u b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d a g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y (p < .06) towards r i g h t l o o k i n g t h a n d i d n o n - t o r q u e r s a c r o s s a l l q u e s t i o n s b u t s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t r o n g e r t e n d e n c i e s toward r i g h t l o o k - in g (p. < .02) d u r i n g e m o t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s . Non-torque s u b j e c t s 20 d i s p l a y e d an e q u a l r i g h t / l e f t eye movement w i t h b o t h t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s . Torque s u b j e c t s d e m o n s t r a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t b i a s towards r i g h t l o o k i n g when q u e s t i o n s o f an e m o t i o n a l n a t u r e were a s k e d . I t s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s i n d i c a t e s g r e a t e r l e f t h e m i s p h e r i c i n v o l v e m e n t , and as e m o t i o n i s a r i g h t h e m i s p h e r e a c t i v i t y ( S c h w a r t z e t a l . , 1975) t h i s l e n t f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t o B l a u ' s h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g t o r q u i n g and c e r e b r a l dominance. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d be found between t o r q u e and t h e mea- s u r e s o f a n x i e t y l e v e l and s o c i a l competence. The r e s u l t s o f Woods and Opperi h e i m e r 1 s s t u d y a f f o r d e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between t o r q u e and c e r e b r a l dominance. U s i n g t h e i r c r i t e r i a f o r dominance i t was found t h a t when s u b j e c t s drew c i r c l e s w i t h t h e i r dominant hand, t o r q u e o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y among l e f t - d o m i n a n t s u b j e c t s . The o p p o s i t e e f f e c t o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e non-dominant hand where more r i g h t - d o m i n a n t s t o r q u e d t h a n l e f t - h a n d e r s . The f a c t t h a t t o r q u e o c c u r r e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y w i t h r i g h t - h a n d e d s u b j e c t s u s i n g t h e i r dominant hand and f a r more o f t e n when t h e l e f t hand was u s e d , p l u s t h e i r f i n d i n g s t h a t l e f t - h a n d e r s t o r q u e more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h b o t h hands, " i n d i c a t e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o r q u e and c e r e b r a l dominance" (p. 570- The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t h e r e d i t y m i ght have a b e a r i n g on c i r c l i n g d i r e c - t i o n a l i t y was p r o p o s e d by Matheny (1979). H i s sample p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 289 t w i n c h i l d r e n and t h e i r s i b l i n g s . F o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f g e n e t i c i n f l u e n c e s o f t o r q u e , t h e t o r q u e s c o r e s o f 5k i d e n t i c a l and 30 f r a t e r n a l t w i n s o f t h e same sex were examined. Due t o sample s i z e , t h e r e s u l t s o f ages were c o l l a p s e d f o r i d e n t i c a l and f r a t e r n a l t w i n s . C o r r e l a t i o n d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t i d e n t i c a l t w i n s had h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s than d i d f r a t e r n a l t w i n s . However, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r t h e l e f t hand o n l y . G e n e t i c a n a l y s i s was done ( t w i n t o t w i n ) t o d e t e r m i n e 21 i f i d e n t i c a l t w i n s had g r e a t e r c o n s i s t e n c y o f between hand c i r c l i n g d i r e c - t i o n a l i t y than d i d f r a t e r n a l t w i n s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e " i d e n t i c a l t w i n s were more c o n c o r d a n t than t h e f r a t e r n a l p a i r s f o r t h e p a t t e r n o f s c o r e s a c r o s s hands" (p. 75* 0 . .Torque, L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y and P s y c h o s i s In a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by Ze n d e l and P i h l ( 1 9 8 0 ) , kj c h i l d r e n l a b e l l e d " l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d " and kl c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r e d normal (between t h e ages o f e i g h t and t e n y e a r s o f age) were a d m i n i s t e r e d a b a t t e r y o f t e s t s t o d e t e r m i n e i f a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f t o r q u e would be f o u n d among t h o s e e x- p e r i e n c i n g l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s , and w h e t h e r lower i n t e l 1 i g e n c e s c o r e s , more d e v i a n t p e r s o n a l i t y s c o r e s , below a v e r a g e a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l s , and below a v e r a g e p e r c e p t u o m o t o r t a s k s c o r e s w o u l d be found i n t h o s e c h i l d r e n who t o r q u e d . As w e l l , handedness and c o m p l e t e c r o s s e d l a t e r a l i z a t i o n d a t a were o b t a i n e d t o see i f a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o u l d be f o u n d . The c r i t e r i a f o r " l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d " c o n s i s t e d o f h a v i n g normal i n t e l l i g e n c e and f a i l u r e on a t l e a s t one s u b t e s t o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t . S u b j e c t s were, c o n s i d e r e d normal i f they p a s s e d a l l t h e s u b t e s t s o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t and had normal i n t e l l i g e n c e . S t u d e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e Torque T e s t , WISC-R, n e u r a l p a t h o l o g y t e s t s , and m o d a l i t y i n t e g r a t i o n a s s e s s m e n t s . Mixed l a t e r a l i t y was d e f i n e d as i n c o n - s i s t e n c i e s among e y e , hand, and f o o t . One s h o u l d c a u t i o n t h a t t h e a u t h o r s r e f e r r e d t o c r o s s e d l a t e r a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r than mixed l a t e r a l i z a t i o n . As would be e x p e c t e d t o r q u e was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r measure of mixed l a t e r - a l i t y as 3 0 % o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e a r e l e f t - e y e d and between 8 and 1 3 % l e f t - h a n d e d . Less c l e a r e v i d e n c e c o u l d be f o u n d (p < .07) f o r 22 t o r q u e and handedness. Torque was not found t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a - t i o n s h i p w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y and on t h e WISC-R t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i n t h e math s u b t e s t i n w h i c h t h e t o r q u e group s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e n o n - t o r q u e g r o u p . As w e l l , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d be f o u n d on measures o f t h e Ha 1 s t e a d - R e i t a n B a t t e r y o r t h e m o d a l i t y i n t e g r a t i o n t a s k s . Based on t h e i r f i n d i n g s t h e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e " u s e f u l n e s s o f a s s e s s i n g t o r q u e , e i t h e r by i t s e l f o r . i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a l a r g e r b a t t e r y , i s not a p p a r e n t , and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n must be f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r e d " (p.604 ) . To d a t e o n l y one s t u d y i n v o l v i n g s c h i z o p h r e n i a and t o r q u e has. been r e p o r t e d ( L u c h i n s e t a l . , 1979). In t h i s s t u d y , 55 s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s were d i a g n o s e d as b e i n g c h r o n i c ( c u r r e n t e p i s o d e o f a t l e a s t one y e a r ' s d u r a t i o n , o r i n c o m p l e t e r e c o v e r y f r o m p r e v i o u s e p i s o d e s ) , n = 49; o r a c u t e ( c u r r e n t e p i s o d e o f l e s s t h a n one y e a r ' s d u r a t i o n o r c o m p l e t e r e c o v e r y from p r e v i o u s e p i s o d e s ) , n = 6. The sample was admin- i s t e r e d t h e Torque T e s t . As w e l l , a subgroup o f 66 s i m i l a r s c h i z o p h r e n i a p a t i e n t s were g i v e n t e s t s l a t e r a l i t y u s i n g measures o f hand, f o o t , and eye dominance. Of t h e 55 p a t i e n t s t e s t e d f o r t o r q u e , 34 (62%) showed no t o r q u e and 21 (38%) t o r q u e d . A l l 34 s u b j e c t s w i t h o u t t o r q u e were f r o m t h e c h r o n i c c a t e g o r y . The s i x a c u t e p a t i e n t s a l l showed t o r q u e . Those p a t i e n t s who d i d not t o r q u e had a l o n g e r d u r a t i o n o f i l l n e s s , more y e a r s i n h o s p i t a l compared t o t h o s e who d i d t o r q u e . In t h e l a t e r a l i t y group o f 66 p a t i e n t s , 55 (83%) were r i g h t - h a n d e r s and 11 (17%) were l e f t hand dominant. A l l but 3 (95%) o f t h e 55 r i g h t - h a nders were i n t h e c h r o n i c c a t e g o r y w h i l e o n l y 7 (64%) o f t h e l e f t - h a n d e r s were s i m i l a r l y c a t e g o r i z e d . In t h i s group t h e r i g h t - h a n d e d group s p e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e i n t h e h o s p i t a l due t o i l l n e s s and 23 had a t r e n d toward more y e a r s i n h o s p i t a l . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t mixed ( c r o s s e d ) l a t e r a l i z a t i o n and t o r q u i n g a p p e a r e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a m i l d e r form o f s c h i z o p h r e n i a . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t " i n s e v e r e l y i l l s c h i z o p h r e n i c p a t i e n t s l a t e r a l i t y d i s t u r b a n c e s may n o t be more p r e v a l e n t than i n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n " (p. 1598). O t h e r i m p l i - c a t i o n s o f t h e i r s t u d y r e l a t e d t o handedness as t h e y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s i n i s t r a l s w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e i l l - n e s s and i n some c a s e s l e f t - h a n d e d n e s s may be a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o s c h i z o - p h r e n i a . Kay (1979) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y i n w h i c h 39 p a t i e n t s who had been d i a g - nosed as h a v i n g b o t h c l e a r c u t p s y c h o t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s and mental r e t a r d a - t i o n s were g i v e n the Torque T e s t . By s t u d y i n g t o r q u e i n r e l a t i o n t o " m u l t i d i m e n t i o n a l , h i s t o r i c a l , p s y c h o m e t r i c , and p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l e v a l u a t i o n " (p. 358) i t was hoped t h a t B l a u ' s p r o p o s a l might be c l a r i f i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r o l e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l , n e u r o l o g i c a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . Formal c a s e r e c o r d s were examined by a p s y c h o l o g i s t t o e v a l u - a t e t h r e e a r e a s o f p a t h o l o g y : n e u r o l o g i c a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s , e a r l y c h i l d - hood p s y c h o s i s , and p r e n a t a l and p e r i n a t a l p r o b l e m s . L e v e l s o f s o c i a l and c o g n i t i v e m a t u r a t i o n were o b t a i n e d by a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t s o f v e r b a l f u n c t i o n i n g , p e r c e p t u a l motor d e v e l o p m e n t , e a r l y c o n c e p t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t , m a t u r a t i o n o f l e f t - r i g h t p o s i t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , and s o c i a l age. O t h e r a r e a s o f c l i n i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g were a s s e s s e d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o d e v e l o p - mental o r i g i n t h r o u g h t h e use of r a t i n g s and p s y c h o m e t r i c and p s y c h o - p h y s i o l o g i c a l methods. The s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s used were: ward b e h a v i o r as r a t e d by a p a t i e n t ' s p r i m a r y t h e r a p i s t , an i n d e x o f d i s t r a c t i b i 1 i t y , and a l e v e l o f s l e e p a r o u s a l . Torque was o b s e r v e d i n 25 (64.1%) o f t h e sample, w h i c h was more t h a n t w i c e t h e r a t e s u g g e s t e d by B l a u f o r s u b j e c t s o f t h i s age. S t a t i s - t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were not f o r t h c o m i n g on measures o f handedness, s e x , r a c e , age o f f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , o r d u r a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y . A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d , however, i n p a t i e n t age w i t h t h e t o r q u e group b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y y ounger t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s . The n e u r o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t o r q u e were not s u p p o r t e d ; t o the c o n - t r a r y , f e w e r documented c a s e s o f o r g a n i c i n v o l v e m e n t and b i r t h problems o c c u r r e d \ i n t h e t o r q u e g r o u p . A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p o c c u r r e d be- tween t o r q u i n g and a h i s t o r y o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p s y c h o s i s . Torque was p r e s e n t i n 32% o f t h e p a t i e n t s w i t h t h i s p r i o r c o n d i t i o n . T h i s l e d t h e a u t h o r s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e " a n t e c e d e n t c o n d i t i o n o f p s y c h o s i s r a t h e r t h a n n e u r o l o g i c a l d y s f u n c t i o n . . . seemed t o p r e s a g e a d u l t mani- f e s t a t i o n o f t o r q u e " (p. ). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o r q u e and d e v e l o p m e n t a l f a c t o r s showed t h a t t h o s e s u b j e c t s who t o r q u e d s c o r e d c o n - s i s t e n t l y l o w e r on a l l measures of f u n c t i o n a l age w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g i n the a r e a s o f p e r c e p t u a l motor d e v e l o p m e n t , c o n c e p - t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and m a t u r i t y o f p o s i t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The measures o f p s y c h i a t r i c a d j u s t m e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t h a t c u r - r e n t p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t o r q u e . Kay s u g g e s t e d t h a t t o r q u e was "an abnormal phenomenon o f b o t h de- v e l o p m e n t a l and c l i n i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e " ( p . 3 6 1 ) . H i s d a t a , however, d i d not s u p p o r t B l a u ' s h y p o t h e s i s o f n e u r a l d e f e c t s , but t o t h e c o n t r a r y , f o und t h a t t h e t o r q u e group had f e w e r i n c i d e n c e s o f p e r i n a t a l p roblems and known b r a i n d i s o r d e r s . As w e l l , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d be f o u n d between handedness and t o r q u e . What d i d d i s t i n g u i s h t o r q u e p a t i e n t s was a h i s t o r y o f a u t i s m o r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d s c h i z o p h r e n i a . i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a d u l t t o r q u i n g may d e r i v e f r o m o n t o g e n i c d e f i c i t s 25 s p e c i f i c t o p o s i t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , and p e r c e p t u a l motor f u n c t i o n i n g d e f i c i t s t h a t have been i n c r e a s i n g l y l i n k e d t o c h i l d - hood a u t i s m ( O r n i t z , 1979; R u t t e r e t a l . , 1971). The r e s u l t s o f Kay's r e s e a r c h l e d him t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t o r q u e was r e l a t e d t o e a r l y c h i l d - hood p s y c h o s i s and development b u t n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d u l t p s y c h o t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n , n o r p a s t o r p r e s e n t n e u r o l o g i c a l i m p a i r m e n t s . I t was a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t p r e s e n t d e f e c t s i n s e n s o r i m o t o r and e a r l y c o g n i t i v e development o f b o t h t o r q u e and c h i l d h o o d p s y c h o s i s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r s i m u l t a n e o u s o c c u r r e n c e . Kay f e l t t h a t h i s r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s t u d i e s t h a t showed t h a t t o r q u e was more p r e v a l e n t among c h i l d r e n w i t h b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s and t h o s e who were e v e n t u a l l y d i a g n o s e d as s c h i z o p h r e n i c . However, r a t h e r than r e l a t e causa 1ity t o n e u r o l o g i c a l d y s f u n c t i o n , Kay su g g e s t e d t o r q u i n g m i ght be th e r e s u l t o f i m p a i r e d d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e s o u r c e o f w h i c h might be m u l t i d i m e n t i o n a l . Torque and C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t y The s t u d i e s t o d a t e r e g a r d i n g t o r q u e and c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s i n normal p o p u l a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n a r e l i m i t e d . Jarman and N e l s o n (1980) s t u d i e d B l a u ' s p r o p o s a l s o f c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i n r e f e r e n c e t o c o g - n i t i v e a b i l i t y i n c h i l d r e n . T h r e e h y p o t h e s e s were examined: a) i n com- p l e x s p a t i a l and language p r o c e s s e s c h i l d r e n who do not t o r q u e would p e r - f o r m s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than t h o s e who do t o r q u e , b) i n s p a t i a l and langua g e t a s k s , due t o h e m i s p h e r i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , g i r l s who t o r q u e s h o u l d n o t p e r f o r m as w e l l as boys who t o r q u e , c) the v a r i a n c e i n s c o r e s on s p a t i a l and language t a s k s s h o u l d be g r e a t e r i n c h i l d r e n who t o r q u e . Jarman and N e l s o n ' s sample c o n s i s t e d o f kS boys and 61 g i r l s i n gra d e t h r e e from two suburban s c h o o l s . C h i l d r e n were g i v e n t h r e e t e s t s : 26 P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s (Raven, 1965), Jarman's S e q u e n t i a l Shapes (measures o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y ) , and t h e Torque T e s t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e Torque T e s t i n d i c a t e d that; 45.28% o f t h e c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t e d some t o r q u e w i t h e i t h e r hand. Torque t e s t i n g w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand, showed 15•09% o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o r q u e d , and t h i s i n c r e a s e d t o 22.64% when t h e mixed c a t e - g o r y ( t o r q u i n g and n o n - t o r q u i n g ) was I n c l u d e d . . T e s t i n g w i t h the non- p r e f e r r e d hand i n d i c a t e d t h a t 23.58% t o r q u e d and when t h e mixed c a t e g o r y was i n c l u d e d , 34.90% t o r q u e d . A n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a r e g a r d i n g t o r q u i n g w i t h e i t h e r hand i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b u t m a r g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d ( r = .21, p < .05) between t h e t o r q u e measures t a k e n w i t h e i t h e r hand. In l i g h t o f t h e low c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e p r e f e r r e d and n o n - p r e f e r r e d hand, s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o i d e n - t i f y "any e f f e c t s t h a t were u n i q u e t o e i t h e r hand" ( p . 461). The r e s u l t s based on t h e p r e f e r r e d hand were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f the n o n - p r e f e r r e d hand a l t h o u g h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d d i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t o r q u e c h i l d r e n would have lower c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y was not s u p p o r t e d . In f a c t , t h e r e was some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e o p p o s i t e may have been t r u e . In r e g a r d t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e by s e x , a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t both boys and g i r l s who t o r q u e d o u t - p e r f o r m e d t h e s t u d e n t s who p r o d u c e d c i r c l e s i n a c o u n t e r - c l o c k w i s e f a s h i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was f o u n d , however, w i t h t h e mixed group where t h e boys produced t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s and t h e g i r l s t h e l o w e s t . The a u t h o r s f e l t t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e B l a u p l a c e d on t h e d i r e c t i o n chosen f o r c i r c l i n g . By u s i n g t h e t o r q u e , n o n - t o r q u e g r o u p s , t h e t h i r d hypo- t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be more v a r i a n c e i n s c o r e s between g i r l s who t o r q u e d and boys who t o r q u e d was not s u p p o r t e d . I t was n o t e d , however, 27 t h a t i f t h e mixed c i r c l i n g group was i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s t h e r e w o u l d have been a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . Jarman and N e l s o n s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s u b j e c t s who t o r q u e a minimum o f one t i m e c a u s e s an a r t i f i - c i a l e f f e c t t h a t c a n n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o c l o c k w i s e c i r c l i n g p e r se and a l l o w s f o r an i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . The r e s u l t s o f t h e i r f i r s t s t u d y were so c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o B l a u and y e t i n d i c a t i v e o f p o s s i b l e c l i n i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t Jarman and N e l s o n c o n d u c t e d a n o t h e r s t u d y r e g a r d i n g t o r q u e (1981). The f i r s t p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o r e p l i c a t e t h e i r e a r l i e r s t u d y . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t were t h e r e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e t o r q u e , n o n - t o r q u e g r o u p s and t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i n b o t h g r o u p s . A second r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s t u d y was t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f p a r t i c - u l a r c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s t h a t m i ght r e l a t e t o t o r q u e , namely, v i s u a l s p a t i a l and p e r c e p t u a l motor d e v e l o p m e n t . A f i n a l p u r p o s e was t o exam- in e t h e age r e l a t e d c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t o r q u e . These a s p e c t s o f t o r q u i n g were c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t because B l a u ' s t h e o r y i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l i n n a t u r e i n t h a t c o g n i t i v e p roblems were t h o u g h t t o be due t o a d e v e l o p - mental l a g o r some p r o g r e s s i v e d e f e c t s i t u a t i o n . The i s s u e then was not w h e t h e r t o r q u e v a r i e d w i t h age but whether i t v a r i e d i n i t s r e l a t i o n - s h i p w i t h age a c c o r d i n g t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l l a g o r c o g n i t i v e d e f e c t . The sample c o n s i s t e d o f 180 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n d i v i d e d e q u a l l y i n t o two age g r o u p s , seven and n i n e . In each o f t h e two l e v e l s t h e r e were 45 boys and 45 g i r l s . The t a s k s c o n s i s t e d o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : a) t h a t p a r t o f t h e Torque T e s t t h a t c o n s i s t e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c i r c l e s a r o u n d s i x X's, t h r e e w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand, and t h r e e w i t h t h e non- p r e f e r r e d hand; b) V i s u a l S p a t i a l : t e n t e s t s w h i c h examined i n d e t a i l t h e p r o c e s s e s used by Jarman and N e l s o n (1980) i n t h e i r f i r s t s t u d y . The 28 t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d were v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d and s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t . The Torque T e s t a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e s e components as w e l l as a p e r c e p t u a l motor t a s k ( d r a w i n g t h e c i r c l e s ) . The r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l n a t u r e (age and f r e q u e n c y o f t o r q u e ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r the seven y e a r o l d b o y s , 42.44% t o r q u e d c o m p l e t e l y w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand and t h i s i n c r e a s e d t o 55.55% i f t h o s e who produced ;both c l o c k w i s e and c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s (mixed c a t e g o r y ) were i n c l u d e d . Of t h e g i r l s , 15-55% t o r q u e d c o m p l e t e l y w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand and t h i s i n c r e a s e d t o 24.44% i f mixed c i r c l i n g was c o n s i d e r e d . When a l l t y p e s o f t o r q u i n g were c o n s i d e r e d , 67.08% o f t h e s u b j e c t s t o r q u e d w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B l a u ' s p r o j e c t i o n s f o r t h i s age g r o u p . F o r n i n e y e a r o l d b o y s , t o r q u i n g w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand p r o d u c e d an i n c i d e n c e o f 17-77% c o m p l e t e t o r q u i n g , 26.66% m i x e d . The g i r l s were f a r l o w e r w i t h .04% and .08% r e s p e c t i v e l y . When a l l t o r q u i n g f o r t h i s age group was c o n s i d e r e d , 41.87% t o r q u e d , w h i c h a g a i n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B l a u ' s p r o p o s a 1 . When d i s c u s s i n g the q u e s t i o n o f the c o n s i s t e n c y o f measurements between t h e p r e f e r r e d and n o n - p r e f e r r e d hand, Jarman and N e l s o n s t a t e d , " t h a t w i t h t h e advances i n age, c i r c l i n g b e h a v i o r i n c r e a s e s i n c o n s i s t e n c y between t h e p r e f e r r e d and n o n p r e f e r r e d hand. However . . . even w i t h i n t h e o l d e r group i t does not appear w a r r a n t e d t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e hands a r e e q u i v a l e n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f c l i n i c a l a s s e s s m e n t " (p. 458). T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was g i v e n more d i r e c t s u p p o r t when the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c i r c l i n g b e h a v i o r and c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y were examined as a f u n c t i o n o f hand p r e f e r e n c e i n t h e main a n a l y s i s . Jarman and N e l s o n were c o n v i n c e d t h a t " f o r c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age group a t l e a s t , measures a p p a r e n t l y s h o u l d be c o n f i n e d t o t h e p r e f e r r e d hand" (p. 553). 29 The measures o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y i n Jarman and N e l s o n ' s second s t u d y (1981) i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n t r a r y t o t h e i r f i r s t s t u d y i n which a mar- g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d was fo u n d s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t o r q u e may be a s s o c i - a t e d w i t h h i g h e r c o g n i t i v e a b i 1 i t i e s , such was n o t t h e c a s e t h i s t i m e . Both o f t h e i r s t u d i e s , however, do not s u p p o r t B l a u ' s t h e o r y o f d i m i n - i s h e d c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g by t h o s e who t o r q u e . As i n t h e i r f i r s t s t u d y , t h e a u t h o r s f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g - n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between males and f e m a l e s who were " f u l l - t o r q u e r s , " t h a t i s , a l l t h e i r c i r c l e s were drawn i n a c l o c k w i s e manner. S i g n i f i - c a n t r e s u l t s o n l y o c c u r r e d f o r Jarman and N e l s o n when t h e mixed c a t e g o r y was i n c l u d e d . The c o g n i t i v e t a s k s were s e p a r a t e d i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s , v i s u a l - s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and v i s u a 1 - s p a t i a l motor. D i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e s were produced f o r sex group s when th e y were d i v i d e d i n t o t o r q u e r s , n o n - t o r q u e r s , and mixed c a t e g o r i e s . I t was t h e mixed group who d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e g r e a t - e s t i n t e r a c t i o n , w i t h t h e boys b e i n g , as i n t h e i r f i r s t s t u d y , n o t a b l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e g i r l s . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s a p p a r e n t a d v a n t a g e o f boys may be due t o h e m i s p h e r i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . M ixed c i r c l i n g , Jarman and N e l s o n f e l t , may be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f d e f i c i e n c i e s i n f r o n t a l l o b e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h show up as d i s r u p t i o n s i n p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n making and do not p r e s e n t problems t o boys due t o t h e i r r i g h t h e m i s p h e r i c s p e c i a l - i z a t i o n a t t h i s s t a g e i n t h e i r d e v e l opment. T h i s i s not t h e c a s e f o r g i r l s who may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as h a v i n g more i n t e r h e m i s p h e r i c symmetry. If B l a u ' s h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g d e f e c t s o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l l a g i n t h e c o r p u s c a l l o s u m were t r u e t h i s would be more d i s r u p t i v e t o g i r l s who t o r q u e i n t a s k s t h a t i n v o l v e b o t h language and s p a t i a l p r o c e s s e s . F u r t h e r s p e c u l a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d as t o why boys who e x h i b i t e d mixed c i r c l i n g behavior scored higher than the other groups, male and female, f o r t h e i r age. The authors suggested that mixed c i r c l i n g i n d i c a t e d a tendency to code s p a t i a l data from a l l perspectives r e s u l t i n g in a super- io r a b i l i t y to code s p a t i a l m a t e r i a l s . Further a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that mixed c i r c l i n g was a f a c t o r of age and when combined with sex e f f e c t s , as was mentioned e a r l i e r , may be an i n d i c a t i o n of developmental lag in g i r l s r e l a t i v e to boys f o r the seven year o l d group. This was not the case in the nine year o l d s as g i r l s had no disadvantage r e l a t i v e to the other two female groups. Based on t h e i r two s t u d i e s , Jarman and Nelson make the f o l l o w i n g suggest ions: 1. Assessments based on the use of the pr e f e r r e d hand and non-preferred hand do not make behavioral 1 y s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s . 2. The d i s t i n c t i o n between f u l l clockwise and counterclockwise c i r c l i n g appears to be unimportant. 3. The most important d i s t i n c t i o n in regard to c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i s between c o n s i s t e n t c i r c l i n g and mixed c i r c l i n g (clockwise and counterclockwise c i r c l e production). 4. Mixed c i r e l ing appears to be r e l a t e d to some d i s t i n c t types of cog- n i t i v e processes and very l i t t l e to others. Torque and Sensorimotor Development P r i o r to the study of torque in r e l a t i o n to ne u r o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t s , c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y was researched in conjunction with handwriting. The 1930 1s and 40 1 s brought about a great i n t e r e s t among educators in handwriting due in no small measure to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of manuscript handwriting to North America from England by Ma r j o r i e Wise (Conrad, 1935). P r i o r to t h i s time c u r s i v e w r i t i n g had been the p r i n c i p a l method of handwriting by school c h i l d r e n and one can imagine the impact that such a r a d i c a l departure from the norm would have had. Manuscript w r i t i n g soon became popular and with i t controversy as to the b e n e f i t s and problems of both s t y l e s ( L i t t l e , 19^3). Due to the inherent separation of l e t t e r s in manuscript w r i t i n g the tendency to reverse l e t t e r s i s sai d to be present in the e a r l y stages of handwriting development. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon in the 1930's led to a rash of r a t i o n a l e s as to the cause(s) of these r e v e r s a l s . Some f e l t r e v e r s a l s were due to f a u l t y teaching and/or learn- ing (Wilson, 1935). Others, that the l e t t e r r e v e r s a l s were a develop- mental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c common to c h i l d r e n ( H i l d r e t h , 1935). As part of a study on handwriting, Ames and Mg (1950) looked at the c r r c l i n g patterns of c h i l d r e n three to nine, years of age. Their r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : 1. 3 years c i r c l e drawn counterclockwise s t a r t i n g at the top 2. 3.5 c i r c l e drawn clockwise s t a r t i n g at the top 3. 4 c i r c l e drawn clockwise s t a r t i n g at the bottom k. 5 c i r c l e drawn clockwise s t a r t i n g at the top 5. 5.5 c i r c l e drawn clockwise s t a r t i n g at the top 6. 6 c i r c l e drawn (and from now on) counterclockwise s t a r t i n g at the top Due to the nature of the subjects and the method of data c o l l e c t i o n , these r e s u l t s are questionable. What was i n t e r e s t i n g was the conclusion that c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y was developmental in nature and should not be viewed as any more or less than a natural part of a c h i l d ' s maturation 32 process. The work of Thomassen and Teulings (1979) was the f i r s t research that could be found that r e l a t e d c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y to handwriting. The purpose of t h e i r study was to determine whether or not d i r e c t i o n a l i t y and w r i t i n g (drawing) had common a t t r i b u t e s . In p a r t i c u l a r they explored to what extent d i r e c t i o n a l i t y was a f a c t o r of neuromuscular development and to what extent i t was determined by higher c o g n i t i v e processes which are subject to i n f l u e n c e s such as handwriting. Although the authors viewed neuromuscular and c o g n i t i v e processes as being on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , t h e i r view i s not shared by a wide body of p s y c h o l o g i s t s , e t c . , who see the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two as being a r t i f i c a l (Goodnow & Levine, 1973). Thomassen and Teulings suggest " i t may be that the neuromuscular processes involved in the sequential i n t e r v e n t i o n of the muscle system play an important part in the o r i g i n of d i r e c t i o n a l preferences" (p. 303). Thomassen and Teulings' contention was that the scope of handwriting a c t i v - i t i e s ranges from s c r i b b l i n g to accurate handwriting and i t i s l i k e l y , they say, that along t h i s continuum there is an increase in c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l . It was suggested that in the case of mechanical continuous w r i t i n g t a s k s , d i r e c t i o n a l i t y is determined more by the motor system than by c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l . The experiment of Thomassen and Teulings involved subjects from four age groups ranging from 4.5 years to 7-6 years. The s i z e of each group was s m a l l , s i x or seven students in each. As well there was one adult group. The c h i l d r e n performed four w r i t i n g and drawing tasks, two p r e c i s e and symbolic r e q u i r i n g a high degree of c o g n i t i v e control and two ra p i d n o n - f i g u r a t i v e movements representing pure motor performance. 33 A l l t h e t a s k s were p e r f o r m e d on an XY w r i t i n g t a b l e t hooked up t o a com- p u t e r . The e x p e r i m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r p a r t s : a) d r a w i n g c i r c l e s and c r o s s e s , b) d r a w i n g a rhombus, a t r i a n g l e , and an i n v e r t e d V, c) p r o l o n g e d r a p i d s c r i b b l i n g , d) c o n t i n u a l l y d r a w i n g c i r c l e s a t r a p i d s p e e d s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e i r s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t : V. T h e r e was an i n c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y t o draw c i r c l e s i n a c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e d i r e c t i o n between t h e ages of 5 and 7 y e a r s . A d e v i a t i o n i n development was r e p o r t e d w i t h f i v e y e a r o l d r e s u l t s . Here Thomassen and T e u l i n g s f o und t h a t w i t h the l e f t hand t h e s u b j e c t s showed a t e n d e n c y t o p r o d u c e c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s . Due t o t h e sample s i z e o f t h e s t u d y one w o u l d have t o q u e s t i o n t h i s f i n d i n g as B l a u (1977c) i n d i c a t e s t h a t o v e r 75% o f f i v e y e a r o l d s t o r q u e and w i t h a sample s i z e o f s i x t h e y c o u l d have e a s i l y o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t t o r q u i n g p o p u l a t i o n . 2. The a u t h o r s employed and added t o t h e r e s e a r c h o f Goodnow and L e v i n e (1973) who had p r o p o s e d a s e t o f r u l e s d e s c r i b i n g t h e sequence f o l l o w e d when a g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n i s drawn. R u l e one, the s t a r t i n g r u l e , s t a t e s t h a t t h e apex w i l l be s e l e c t e d as t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t . R u l e two, t h e p r o g r e s s i o n r u l e , s t a t e s t h a t i f r u l e one i s f o l l o w e d t h e f i r s t l i n e w i l l be drawn i n a l e f t downward d i r e c t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f Thomassen and T e u l i n g s 1 s t u d y showed s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s , t o p c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e l e f t p r o - g r e s s i o n , f o r t h e c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y t a s k . 3. In s c r i b b l i n g , t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s t r o n g age e f f e c t depended e n t i r e l y on t h e hand p e r f o r m i n g the s c r i b b l i n g . " I f a c h i l d ' s r i g h t hand p r e f e r - a b l y makes c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s h i s l e f t hand seems t o p r e f e r the e x a c t o p p o s i t e " (p. 310). 4. Only t h e o l d e s t g r o u p s p r o d u c e d c i r c l e s a t a r a p i d s p e e d . I t was f o und t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n had a t e n d e n c y t o make n o n - t o r q u i n g c i r c l e s w i t h 34 t h e i r r i g h t hand w h i l e t h e a d u l t group made t h e most r a p i d c o u n t e r c l o c k - w i s e c i r c l e s w i t h t h e i r l e f t hand. Based on t h e s e r e s u l t s t h e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t " a l t h o u g h a f u l l y d e v e l o p e d c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e p r e f e r e n c e has been shown t o e x i s t i n d r a w i n g s i n g l e c i r c l e s a c c u r a t e l y , t h e l a t t e r t u r n s i n t o a c l o c k w i s e p r e f e r e n c e when more l i b e r a l and r a p i d movements a r e p e r f o r m e d " (p. 302). To e x p l a i n ' t h j s phenomenon Thomassen and T e u l i n g s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e may be two motor s y s t e m s , one f o r r a p i d and n o n - f i g u r a t i v e t a s k s and t h e o t h e r f o r a c c u r a t e and s y m b o l i c p u r p o s e s . The f i r s t was d e s c r i b e d as more p r i m i t i v e i n n a t u r e and i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h an e a r l y n e u r o - m u s c u l a r t e n d e n c y w h i c h t e n d s towards " f l e x i o n f i r s t " and f r o m a b o u t t h e age o f f o u r o r f i v e d e v e l o p s i n t o an " e x t e n s i o n f i r s t " t e n d e n c y . F l e x i o n f i r s t s y s t e m p r o d u c e s c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s and t h e e x t e n s i o n f i r s t s y s t e m c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s . T h i s c o u l d be, t h e a u t h o r s s t a t e , why v e r y young c h i l d r e n p r o d u c e c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s , and a d u l t s , when s c r i b - b l i n g , make c i r c l e s c l o c k w i s e . The second motor system t h e y s u g g e s t has a b i a s t o w a r d a c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e movement and i s l e s s dependent on the p e r f o r m i n g hand. F i n d i n g s o f Torque t o Date H a r t l a g e and Mains (1981) have s t a t e d , "we may be e n t e r i n g a second e r a o f n e u r o p s y c h o l o g y i n w h i c h many more new i n s t r u m e n t s w i l l be a v a i l - a b l e f o r v a l i d a t i o n a g a i n s t newer a s s e s s m e n t a p p r o a c h e s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d by n e u r o l o g y , n e u r o r a d i o l o g y and n e u r o s u r g e r y " (p. 161). They see t h e Torque T e s t as an i n s t r u m e n t o f t h i s second e r a and comment, " t h e Torque T e s t , f o r example, w h i c h i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g s t u d i e d i n more than a dozen 35 t h e s e s and d i s s e r t a t i o n s ( B l a u , 1980) i s one o f t h e more r e c e n t a p p r o a c h e s and h o p e f u l l y h e r a l d s an e r a o f many such new e x p e r i m e n t a l a p p r o a c h e s " (p. 161). The r e s e a r c h t o d a t e has examined t o r q u e under a v a r i e t y o f c o n d i t i o n s w i t h a d i v e r s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s have been drawn by r e s e a r c h e r s , t o r q u e does a p p e a r t o be i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. T h e r e i s an age r e l a t e d d e c r e a s e i n t o r q u i n g as measured by t h e Torque T e s t . A t age f i v e up t o 80% o f c h i l d r e n t o r q u e u s i n g b o t h hands, t h i s d e c r e a s e s u n t i l a base r a t e o f about 30% o f t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n p r o d u c e one o r more c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s u s i n g t h e Torque T e s t . 2. There i s . a p o s s i b l e g e n e t i c i n f l u e n c e r e l a t i n g t o t o r q u e . 3. There i s a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f t o r q u e i n e x c e p t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n s . 4. Those who t o r q u e have a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y toward r i g h t l o o k i n g eye movement f o r q u e s t i o n s o f an e m o t i o n a l n a t u r e . 5. T o r q u i n g i s l i k e l y not changed by h a v i n g s u b j e c t s make c o u n t e r c l o c k - w i s e c i r c l e s o r p e r f o r m c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e c i r c l i n g e x e r c i s e s . 6. There i s a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o r q u i n g and 1 e f t - h a n d e d n e s s . 7. To r q u e might be i n d i c a t i v e o f b e h a v i o r d i f f i c u l t i e s and peer r e l a t i o n s . 8. A l i n k may e x i s t between t o r q u i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l a g i n g i r l s . 9. T h e r e may be a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h o s e who t o r q u e p a s t a c e r t a i n age a r e more prone t o s c h i z o p h r e n i c t e n d e n c i e s but o f a m i l d f o r m . 10. Torque might be a measure o f l a t e r a l dominance. 11. Torque may be an i n d i c a t i o n o f d e f e c t s i n t h e c o r p u s c a l l o s u m . 12. Mixed c i r c l i n g . b e h a v i o r may be the b e s t i n d i c a t o r o f t h e t o r q u i n g phenomenon. 13. The q u e s t i o n o f Torque T e s t t e s t - r e l i a b i l i t y has been r a i s e d . 14. Torque does not appear t o be a measure of e a r dominance. 15. Q u e s t i o n s have been r a i s e d as t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t o r q u i n g d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d and t o r q u i n g as an a d u l t . 16. T o r q u i n g does not ap p e a r t o be a measure o f h e i g h t e n e d a n x i e t y l e v e l s and s o c i a l competence i n normal a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s . 17. Torque may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h i l d h o o d a u t i s m . 18. Torque may be a f a c t o r o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p s y c h o s i s r a t h e r t h a n n e u r o l o g i c a l d e f e c t s . 19. Torque might be i n d i c a t i v e o f p o s s i b l e s e n s o r i m o t o r d e f e c t s . CHAPTER THREE DESIGN O F STUDY In t h i s c h a p t e r , i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d on m a t e r i a l s , p o p u l a t i o n s e l e c t i o n , p r o c e d u r e s o f t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e p i l o t s t u d y , and s c o r i n g , and p r o j e c t e d a n a l y s i s o f d a t a . Ma t e r i a 1 s The m a t e r i a l s f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f two t o r q u e t e s t s ( t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t and a m o d i f i e d B l a u T e s t ) , m a t e r i a l s f o r l a t e r a l i t y t e s t i n g , a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s i n l a n g u a g e , r e a d i n g and mathemat- i c s . The T e s t s 1. The C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t (C.D.T.) was d e s i g n e d t o t e s t c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y under t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s . a) The p r o d u c t i o n o f s i x c i r c l e s i n t h e fo r m o f t h e l e t t e r 0 embedded w i t h i n a word i n as a c c u r a t e a manner as p o s s i b l e . b) The p r o d u c t i o n o f s i x c i r c l e s as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s i n as a c c u r a t e a manner as p o s s i b l e . c) The p r o d u c t i o n o f s i x c i r c l e s i n t h e form o f t h e l e t t e r 0 embedded w i t h i n a word i n as r a p i d a manner as p o s s i b l e . d) The p r o d u c t i o n o f s i x c i r c l e s as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s i n as r a p i d a manner as p o s s i b l e . For an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e C.D.T. (see A p p e n d i x B ) . 36 37 2. L a t e r a l i t y ( H a r r i s m o d i f i e d ) . L a t e r a l i t y t e s t s f o r hand, f o o t , and eye were a d m i n i s t e r e d . 3. The Torque T e s t ( m o d i f i e d B l a u ) . In t h i s t e s t c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d t o draw t h r e e c i r c l e s w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand aro u n d t h r e e X's (see Append i x A ) . k. The M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t ( P r i m a r y I, I I , and E l e m e n t a r y ) . T e s t s i n r e a d i n g , l a n g u a g e , and m a t h e m a t i c s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e s one, two, and t h r e e P o p u l a t i o n S e l e c t i o n As t o r q u i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a d e v e l o p m e n t a l phenomenon, and as t h e t e s t s had been a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o g r a d e l e v e l i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s were e n r o l l e d , a d e c i s i o n was made t o s e l e c t 75 f i v e y e a r o l d s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , t h e same number o f s i x y e a r o l d s i n g r a d e one, 75 s e v e n y e a r o l d s i n g r a d e two, and 75 e i g h t y e a r o l d s i n g r a d e t h r e e . A t a l l l e v e l s t h e r e were more th a n 75 t o c h o o s e f r o m so random s e l e c t i o n was used t o o b t a i n t h e r e q u i r e d number ( K i r k , 1 9 7 8 ) . P r o c e d u r e s o f T e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1. The C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t (C.D.T.). In t h i s t e s t each s u b j e c t was t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . A p e n c i l was p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s and t h e y were a s k e d t o p i c k i t up. In the f i r s t p i c t u r e , t h e y were shown a p i c t u r e o f a t r a i n and b e s i d e i t t h e words, " t o o t , t o o t , t o o t . " The i n s t r u c t o r p o i n t e d t o t h e t r a i n and s a i d , " T h i s i s a t r a i n . The t r a i n goes t o o t , t o o t , t o o t " (he t h e n p o i n t e d t o t h e words t o o t , t o o t , t o o t ) . Below and t o t h e l e f t o f t h e t r a i n were the " t o o t " words minus t h e O's ( t ' 7 - t ) . The c h i l d was asked t o p r i n t i n t h e m i s s i n g O's. I f t h e c h i l d was unaware o f what was m i s s i n g , t h e t e a c h e r coached him/her u n t i l t he i n s t r u c t i o n s were u n d e r s t o o d . In t h e n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h e C.D.T. t h e c h i l d was shown a p i c t u r e o f a c i r c l e and a s k e d t o r e p r o d u c e s i x o f them i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s l o t s . A g a i n , i f t h e r e was u n c e r t a i n t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d , f u r t h e r c o a c h i n g was g i v e n . S e c t i o n t h r e e o f the C.D.T. was s i m i l a r t o s e c t i o n one e x c e p t t h i s t i m e the c h i l d was shown t h e p i c t u r e o f a s q u i r r e l and b e s i d e i t were w r i t t e n t h e w o r d s , " l o o k , l o o k , l o o k . " A g a i n , t he i n s t r u c t o r p o i n t e d t o t h e p i c t u r e and s a i d , " T h i s i s a s q u i r r e l . The s q u i r r e l s a y s , ' l o o k , l o o k , l o o k 1 . " Below and t o t h e l e f t o f t h e a n i m a l were the " l o o k " words minus t h e O's ( 1 — k ) . The c h i l d was asked i f he knew what was m i s s i n g from t h e words and i f he knew he was g i v e n t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : "When I t a p my hand on t h e desk I want you t o f i l l i n t h e m i s s i n g O's as q u i c k l y as you c a n . A r e you ready? Go!" I f t h e c h i l d was u n c e r t a i n as t o t h e p r o c e d u r e , f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n and t e a c h i n g were g i v e n u n t i l t h e c h i 1 d u n d e r s t o o d what was e x p e c t e d . In t h e f o u r t h and f i n a l s e c t i o n o f the t e s t t h e c h i l d was shown a c i r c l e and a s k e d t o r e p r o d u c e i t i n as r a p i d a manner as p o s s i b l e . The i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n were: "Do you see t h e c i r c l e ? I want you t o make a c i r c l e h e r e , h e r e , h e r e , h e r e , h e r e , and he r e ( p o i n t i n g t o t h e s i x d i f - f e r e n t s l o t s ) as q u i c k l y as you can when I t a p t h e desk. A r e you ready? Go!" As i n the o t h e r t e s t s i f t h e r e was a prob l e m w i t h t h e c h i l d know- ing what was e x p e c t e d , f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n and c o a c h i n g was g i v e n . F o r each s e c t i o n , t h e t e s t e r o b s e r v e d the number o f c i r c l e s t h a t were c o n s t r u c t e d i n a c l o c k w i s e manner and n o t e d the t o t a l 0 t o 6. 39 Commencement o f c i r c l e . A f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n had c o m p l e t e d t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t , each c i r c l e was a s s e s s e d as t o i t s s t a r t - ing p o i n t . F i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s were c o n s i d e r e d : 1) Over 80% o f t h e c i r c l e s drawn f r o m the t o p ; 2) o v e r 80% o f t h e c i r c l e s drawn from t h e bottom; 3) o v e r 80% o f the c i r c l e s drawn f r o m t h e l e f t s i i d e ; k) o v e r 80% o f t h e c i r c l e s drawn f r o m t h e r i g h t s i d e ; and 5) an e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c i r c l e s top and bottom. 2. L a t e r a l i t y ( H a r r i s ' t e s t o f l a t e r a 1 i t y was m o d i f i e d and a b b r e v i a t e d ) . a) T e s t f o r handedness. The measure o f handedness was t h e p r e - f e r r e d hand used d u r i n g t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t . T h i s i n f o r m a - t i o n was n o t e d and e n t e r e d on t h e c h i l d ' s p r o f i l e . b) Foot dominance t e s t . Each c h i l d was a s k e d t o s t a n d i n f r o n t o f the t e s t e r . A s m a l l p i l l o w was h e l d i n f r o n t o f t h e t e s t e r , knee h i g h , and t h e c h i l d was as k e d t o k i c k i t . i f t h e r e was any h e s i t a t i o n t h e c h i l d was g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o k i c k t h e p i l l o w s e v e r a l t i m e s and the most c o n s i s t e n t f o o t used w a s e n t e r e d a s t h e dominant f o o t . T h i s needed t o be done w i t h v e r y few c h i l d r e n as most were q u i t e a n x i o u s t o g i v e the p i l l o w a good k i c k and knew f u l l w e l l what f o o t t h e y were g o i n g t o u s e . The dominant f o o t used was e n t e r e d i n t h e c h i l d ' s p r o f i l e . c) Eye dominance t e s t . The degr e e o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y between t h e p r e f e r r e d hand and f o o t and t h e p r e f e r r e d hand/eye w a r r a n t e d t h a t a second eye t e s t ( m o d i f i e d H a r r i s ) be a d m i n i s t e r e d . In t h e f i r s t t e s t t h e c h i l d was t o l d t o l o o k a t a l a r g e o b j e c t on the w a l l o p p o s i t e t o t h e one he/she was n e a r . He/she was then asked t o c o v e r one eye and l o o k a t t h e o b j e c t on t h e w a l l . The use o f the l e f t o r r i g h t eye was no t e d and r e c o r d e d . In t h e second t e s t , t h e c h i l d was a g a i n a s k e d t o l o o k a t a ko p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t on a f a r w a l l . T h i s t i m e he/she was g i v e n a c a r d b o a r d t e l e s c o p e and t o l d t o put i t up t o one eye and l o o k a t t h e o b j e c t on t h e w a l l . The r e a s o n f o r g i v i n g a second eye t e s t was because t h e r e a p p e a r e d to be a h i g h v a r i a n c e between hand and eye i n t h e f i r s t eye t e s t , and t h i s l e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o s u s p e c t t h a t perhaps t h e f i r s t t e s t was not a c c u r a t e and a t e s t w i d e l y used t o t e s t eye dominance s h o u l d be a p p l i e d . 3. The Torque T e s t ( B l a u ' s o r i g i n a l Torque T e s t was m o d i f i e d ) . H i s t e s t f o r t o r q u e had t h e s u b j e c t use bo t h t h e dominant and non-dominant hand. In t h e t e s t , a c h i l d was r e q u i r e d t o draw s i x c i r c l e s , t h r e e w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand and t h r e e w i t h t h e n o n - p r e f e r r e d hand. Each o f t h e c i r c l e s was drawn around an X and t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c i r c l i n g n o t e d . In l i g h t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d by Jarman and N e l s o n (1981) and d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r two, t h e c h i l d r e n were a s k e d t o draw c i r c l e s a r o u n d t h r e e X's u s i n g t h e p r e f e r r e d hand o n l y and t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c i r c l i n g n o t e d (see A p p e n d i x A ) . k. The M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s (Form JS) were a d m i n i s t e r e d : a) Grade One P r i m a r y One S u b t e s t s R e a d i n g , Language, M a t h e m a t i c s ; b) Grade Two P r i m a r y Two S u b t e s t s R e a d i n g , Language, M a t h e m a t i c s ; c) Grade T h r e e E l e m e n t a r y S u b t e s t s R e a d i n g , Language, M a t h e m a t i c s . The a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s were g i v e n t o t h e home room t e a c h e r s t o admin- i s t e r i n as many s i t t i n g s as was t h o u g h t n e c e s s a r y , p r o v i d e d they d i d not e x c e e d t h e maximum recommended ti m e f o r any one t e s t i n g p e r i o d . Teach- e r s were g i v e n manuals f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n c l u d e d w i t h t h e manual were i n s t r u c t i o n s a s t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f n o t e x c e e d i n g t h e t i m e l i m i t s , not a s s i s t i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r a n s w e r s , and t h e f a c t t h a t some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s would be m e a n i n g l e s s t o t h e c h i l d r e n due t o such f a c t o r s as the money q u e s t i o n s i n t h e ma t h e m a t i c s s e c t i o n showing A m e r i c a n c o i n a g e k] and b i l l s . Some t e a c h e r s wanted t o s c o r e t h e t e s t s t h e m s e l v e s as i n many i n s t a n c e s t h i s was the f i r s t t i m e . t h e i r c h i l d r e n had been exposed t o norm r e f e r e n c e d t e s t s and t h e y were a n x i o u s t o f i n d o u t how t h e i r c h i l d r e n would do. I n c l u d e d were e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s on how t o s c o r e t h e t e s t s as w e l l as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n u m e r i c a l d a t a t o t r a n s f o r m raw s c o r e s . In c a s e s where t h e t e s t s were c o r r e c t e d by t h e t e a c h e r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r checked t h e r e s u l t s t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e y were s c o r e d a c c u r a t e l y . R a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was t o the maximum. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 30% o f t h e t e s t s were c o r r e c t e d by t h e t e a c h e r s . A l l t h e o t h e r t e s t s were c o r r e c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . S i m i l a r c r o s s c h e c k i n g o f s c o r i n g w i t h t h e s e t e s t s r e v e a l e d maximum r e l i - ab i 1i t y e f f i c i ency. For t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e s t u d y , p e r c e n t i l e s c o r e s i n each o f t h e s u b t e s t s and i n t h e t o t a l , formed t h e b a s i s o f aca d e m i c a s s e s s m e n t . K i n d e r g a r t e n a s s e s s m e n t . K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n were g i v e n no f o r m a l t e s t s o f aca d e m i c a s s e s s m e n t . The t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o r a t e t h e c h i l d r e n on a s c a l e o f one t o f o u r u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. V e r y ready f o r g r a d e one, i s r e a d i n g now o r i s on t h e v e r g e o f r e a d i n g . 2. Ready f o r g r a d e one and'wi 11' p r o b a b l y p r o c e e d t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t g r a d e a t a normal pace. 3. W i l l need some r e a d i n e s s b e f o r e s t u d e n t i s ready t o p r o c e e d w i t h g r a d e one work. k. W i l l need e x t e n d e d r e a d i n e s s o f a t l e a s t one h a l f o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o grade one work. P i l o t S t u d y A p i l o t s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . 1. To a s s e s s t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t . Two t e s t i n g s g i v e n s i x weeks a p a r t and c o e f f i c i e n t s o f s t a b i l i t y were o b t a i ned. 2. To p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e v i s i o n o f t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t . 3. To become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t o r q u i n g phenomenon a c r o s s t h e v a r i o u s g r a d e l e v e l s . k. To see i f f a c t o r s such as t h e s i z e o f t h e p e n c i l , a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e t e s t b o o k l e t , i n c l a s s t e s t i n g a s s e s s m e n t , s i m i l a r i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n s t o a l l age groups would make a d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k s . 5. To 'see i f hand p r e f e r e n c e changed when a c h i l d p r i n t e d h i s / h e r name and t h e n c o n s t r u c t e d a s e r i e s o f c i r c l e s . A l l s t u d e n t s f o r t h e p i l o t s t u d y were s e l e c t e d from T i l l i c u m S c h o o l i n V a n c o u v e r (n = 85, K, g r a d e s 1 and 2 ) . I n t a c t c l a s s r o o m s were s e l e c t e d . C l a s s s i z e s v a r i e d but t h e a v e r a g e a s s e s s m e n t t i m e per c l a s s was kO m i n u t e s . T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e s t u d y . S t u d e n t s came one a t a t i m e t o t h e t e s t e r a t t h e back o f t h e c l a s s and were a s k e d t o s i t down. Two p e n c i 1 s were p i a c e d i n f r o n t o f t h e c h i l d , a b i g one, t h e k i n d used i n some g r a d e one c l a s s r o o m s , and a r e g u l a r one o f t h e same c o l o u r . When a p e n c i l had been s e l e c t e d , t h e c h i l d was a s k e d t o l o o k a t t h e two l i n e s n e ar t h e t o p o f t h e page ( t e s t e r p o i n t e d t o l i n e s ) . They were th e n asked t o p r i n t t h e i r names between t h e l i n e s . In some c a s e s where t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d not do t h e t a s k t h e y were a s k e d t o p r e t e n d t o m a k e . t h e i r name. 43 They were then asked t o l o o k a t t h e p i c t u r e o f a clown." Below t h e clown was w r i t t e n t h e word boozo. S u b j e c t s were t o l d " T h i s i s boozo, say boozo. I would l i k e you t o w r i t e t h e word boozo h e r e ( p o i n t s t o s p o t ) . " The purpose o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e was t o see whether some c h i l d r e n w o u l d have d i f f i c u l t y i n p r i n t i n g t h e word and whether t h i s might become a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y a s s e s s m e n t . (See Appendix D.) C h i l d r e n were then shown a c i r c l e and asked t o make s i x c i r c l e s . The t e s t e r o b s e r v e d t h e d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f t h e c i r c l e and r e c o r d e d t h e r e s u 1 t s . The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s were made based on the f i n d - i n g s o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y : 1 . The s i z e o f the p e n c i l d i d not make a d i f f e r e n c e as c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d e i t h e r one on an e q u a l b a s i s . ( B i g p e n c i l 3 6 , r e g u l a r p e n c i l 4 9 . ) 2. C h i l d r e n c o n s i s t e n t l y used t h e same hand t o produce t h e i r name and c i r c l e s , making i t u n n e c e s s a r y t o have them p r i n t t h e i r name i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e handedness. 3. C h i l d r e n o f a l l ages c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n had some d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e arrangement o f t a s k s on the page and f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l r e s e a r c h changes i n t e s t f o r m a t were made a c c o r d i n g l y . 4 . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r t o r q u e p r o d u c e t h e f o l l o w i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s o f s t a b i l i t y : k i n d e r g a r t e n r = . 7 1 , g r a d e one r = . 5 9 , grade two r = .83. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f s t a b i l i t y were s t r o n g enough t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e t e s t i n g u s i n g a m o d i f i e d f o r m a t w h i c h would be q u i c k e r t o a d m i n i s t e r and g i v e more d a t a . Data o b t a i n e d i n t h e p i l o t t e s t i n g a r e t o be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x c. 44 Dates o f t e s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The f i r s t p i l o t t e s t s were admin- i s t e r e d t h e l a s t week o f O c t o b e r 1981 . T h i s was f o l l o w e d s i x weeks l a t e r ( t h e week o f December 6th t o 12th) by a second t e s t i n g t o a s s e s s t e s t s t a b i 1i t y . The s c h e d u l e f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l s t u d y was as f o l l o w s : 1. C i r c l i ng D i r e c t iona 1i t y T e s t . Monday, A p r i l 5, S t . J u d e ; Monday, A p r i l 5, S t . M a r y s ; Tuesday, A p r i l 6, S t . F r a n c i s de S a l e s ; Wednesday, A p r i l 7, H o l y C r o s s ; Wednesday, A p r i l 12, S t . F r a n c i s o f A s s i s i . 2. M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s . A l l t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d between' Apri 1 20th t o t h e 29th. 3. Torque T e s t ( m o d i f i e d B l a u ) . . T h i s t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n two days (May 24th and 25th) t o t h e e n t i re sample. S c o r i n g and P r o j e c t e d A n a l y s i s o f Data C i r c l i n g . D i r e c t i o n a 1 i t y T e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d and s c o r e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r and a team o f t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n t s . The Torque T e s t was admin- i s t e r e d and s c o r e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s were a l T. •admin, i s t e r e d .by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . S c o r i n g was done by the r e s e a r c h e r and t e a c h e r s . In c a s e s o f t e a c h e r s c o r i n g , r e s u l t s were v e r i f i e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . The p l a n f o r t h e a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a was by t h e use o f t h e P e a r s o n P r o d u c t Moment C o r r e l a t i o n . Where a p p r o p r i a t e , mean s c o r e s , n, and p e r c e n t a g e were t o be p r e s e n t e d . CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF THE DATA I n t r o d u c t i o n The U.B.C. computer program MTS/SPSS v e r s i o n H. was used t o c a l c u - l a t e P e a r s o n P r o d u c t s Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s . A d e c i s i o n was made t o a c c e p t a .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a c c e p t i n g o r r e j e c t i n g t h e r e l a - t i o n s h i p s . I t was t h o u g h t t h a t t h e l a c k o f c l a r i t y i n t h e r e s e a r c h t o d a t e on t h e t o r q u e phenomenon made t h i s an a c c e p t a b l e c r i t e r i o n w i t h w h i c h t o work. T h i s r e s e a r c h e r was aware t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n does not i m p l y c a u s a l i t y and t h i s f i t t e d t h e s t a t i s t i c a l model f o r t h i s s t u d y . Torque was view e d as a phenomenon i n d i c a t i v e o f c e r t a i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l and c e r e b r a l f a c t o r s but n ot t h e cause o f such f a c t o r s . Where a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e number o f s u b j e c t s , a p e r c e n t a g e r a t i n g , and mean s c o r e s a r e g i v e n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a r e d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e q u e s t i o n s posed i n c h a p t e r one. Quest i o n s Q u e s t i o n . 1. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between academic a c h i e v e m e n t and t o r q u i n g i n c h i l d r e n s i x , s e v e n , and e i g h t y e a r s o f age? One o f t h e p r i n c i p a l q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o d e t e r m i n e i f a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e - ment and t o r q u i n g . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e 45 46 M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t and t o r q u i n g i n s i x y e a r o l d s i n gr a d e one and seven y e a r s o l d s i n g r a d e two i n any measures o f academic a c h i e v e m e n t . T h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t f o r t h e s e age groups t h e f a c t t h a t a c h i l d t o r q u e s i s not l i k e l y t o a f f e c t h i s ac a d e m i c s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l . T a b l e 1 p r e s e n t s mean s c o r e s o f t h e s e g r o u p s . •• T a b l e 1 Mean P e r c e n t i l e S c o r e s i n Academic A c h i e v e m e n t Ages 6-7-8 T o t a l Language Mathemat i c s Read i ng Grand Mean, n=225 50,4 51.9 47.0 50.1 C.D.T. T o r q u i n g , n=4l 46.6 44.4 43.0 49.6 Torque T e s t T o r q u i n g , n=50 45.6 47.5 43.2 46.9 T o t a l Mean by Age Age 6 44.8 45.7 41 .2 48.6 Age 7 50.8 50.4 46.7 50.0 Age 8 55.6 59.5 53-3 52.8 C.D.T. T o r q u e r s Age 6, n=26 45.5 42.8 43.0 51 .0 Age 7, n=l1 54.7 53.8 46.5 50.0 Age 8, n=4 32 29.5 34.2 38.0 Torque T e s t T o r q u e r s Age 6, n=27 41.4 44.2 39.0 44.6 Age 7, n=17 55.7 55.7 51.4 52.8 Age 8, n=6 35.8 39.3 35.0 40.0 In t h e e i g h t y e a r o l d g r o u p , however, s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found ( T a b l e 2). T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t c h i l d r e n e i g h t y e a r s o l d who t o r q u e do have a s i g n i f i c a n t t e n d e n c y t o have lower academic a c h i e v - ment. The C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t (C.D.T.) pr o d u c e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n t o t a l s c o r e s and r e a d i n g o n l y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between th e M e t r o p o l i t a n A chievement T e s t and t o r q u i n g f o r t h e s i x y e a r o l d s i n 47 g r a d e one and seven y e a r o l d s i n g r a d e two, pr o d u c e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e - s u l t s i n any measures o f academic a c h i e v e m e n t ( T a b l e 3 ) • T h i s would s u g g e s t t h a t f o r . t h e s e age groups t h e f a c t t h a t a c h i 1 d t o r q u e s i s not l i k e l y t o a f f e c t h i s academic s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l . T a b l e s one, two, and t h r e e as th e y r e l a t e d t o t h e e i g h t y e a r o l d t o r q u e r s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e T a b l e 2 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f T o r q u i n g and Academic Achievement--8 Y e a r O l d Group T o t a l Language Mathemat i cs Read i ng Ci r c l i n g Di r e c t i o n - a l i t y T e s t r=-.19(p=.05)-»- r=-.23(p=.02)* .r=-. 08 (p*. 23-) r=-.12(p=.15) Torque T e s t r = - . 2 5 ( p = . 0 l ) * r=-.21(p=.03)* r=-.19(p=.05)- r=-.19(p=.05)--" T a b l e 3 Pear s o n P r o d u c t Academic Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s - - T o r q u i n g and Achievement f o r Ages 6-7-8 T o t a l Language Mathemat i c s Read i ng C.D.T. Age 6 r=.01 (P- • 43) r=.08 (P- • 32) r=. 06 (P- .28) r=.05 (p= .24) Age 7 r=.06 (P- .13) r=.04 (P- .34) r=. 01 (p= kk) r=.02 (P- .43) Age 8 r=-.19 (P= . 0 5 ) * r— .23 (P= .02)* r=- .08 (p= .23) r=-.12 (P= .15) T o t a l r=-.05 (P- .20) r=-.03 (P- . 0 3 ) * r=- .06 (P- .18) r=-.00 (P- .44) Torque T e s t Age 6 r=-.08 (P- .33) r=-.09 (P- .20) r=- .00 (P- 49) r=-.08 (P- .24) Age 7 r=.15 (P- .09) r=.15 (P- .09) r=. 08 (P- 22) r=. 1 1 (P- .15) Age 8 r=-.25 (P- . 0 1 ) * r=-.21 (P- . 0 3 ) * r=- .19 (P» .05)* r=-.19 (P- . 0 5 ) * T o t a l r=.17 (P- .12) r=.13 (P= .19) r=. 12 (p= 21) r=.00 (P- .49) d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h i s group from the r e s t o f th e e i g h t y e a r o l d s i n t h e sample. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t o r q u i n g i n e i g h t y e a r o l d s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a p o t e n t i a l f o r l o w e r academic a c h i e v e m e n t . Q u e s t i o n 2. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n e s s f o r g r a d e one, as measured by t e a c h e r a s s e s s m e n t and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? B l a u commented t h a t a s young as age f i v e , c h i l d r e n who t o r q u e might e x p e r i e n c e a c a d e m i c a n d / o r s o c i a l p r o b l e m s ( B l a u , 1977c). T h i s l e d the r e s e a r c h e r i n t h i s s t u d y t o q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e f i v e y e a r o l d s i n t h e p r e s e n t sample who t o r q u e d would d e m o n s t r a t e any s i g n i f i c a n t m a n i f e s t a - t i o n o f acad e m i c d i f f i c u l t y . A t age f i v e , a l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n p roduce c i r c l e s i n a c l o c k - w i s e manner. In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , u s i n g t h e p r e f e r r e d hand o n l y , hi (56%) o f the c h i l d r e n t o r q u e d i n t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t and kk (58.67%) t o r q u e d i n B l a u ' s Torque T e s t . R e l i a b l e measures o f s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n a t t h i s age l e v e l due t o r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes t h a t a r e o c c u r r i n g . R a t h e r than depend on measures f r o m a group t e s t a d e c i s i o n was made t o meet w i t h each k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r and by u s i n g a f o u r l e v e l r a t i n g s e a l ( s e e A p p e n d i x E) come t o a d e c i s i o n as t o the r e a d i n e s s f o r g r a d e one o f each c h i l d . As th e t e a c h e r s were a l l e x p e r i e n c e d and knew the c h i l d r e n w e l l i t was f e l t t h a t t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t would p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l e a c a d - emic r a t i n g o f each s t u d e n t . C o r r e l a t i o n a l d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o r q u i n g and grade one r e a d i n e s s as measured by t e a c h e r a s s e s s m e n t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , C.D.T. and a s s e s s m e n t s c o r e s showed r=-.10 (p=.l8). The Torque T e s t r e s u l t s showed even l e s s c o r r e l a t i o n r=-.04 (p=.36)• I t can be c o n c l u d e d t h e r e f o r e t h a t t o r q u e does not a p p e a r t o be an a c c u r a t e measure o f g r a d e one r e a d i n e s s as a s s e s s e d by k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s . Q u e s t i o n 3- Is t h e p o i n t o f commencement i n c i r c l e c o n s t r u c t i o n and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d ? As an a d j u n c t t o t h e main t h r u s t o f t h e s t u d y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r was i n t e r e s t e d i n d i s c o v e r i n g i f a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between t h e commencement o f a c i r c l e and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . The impor- t a n c e o f t h e q u e s t i o n was t w o f o l d , i t s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s and i t s r o l e i n t h e h a n d w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . No s t u d i e s u s i n g l a r g e sample d a t a c o u l d be f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h r e l a t e d c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y t o t h e p o i n t of commencement. I t i s beyond t h e scope of t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o do any more than r e p o r t t h e f i n d i n g s and i t i s l e f t t o o t h e r s t o e x p l o r e t h e phenomenon i n more d e p t h . From a h a n d w r i t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f m a n u s c r i p t h a n d w r i t i n g . I t i s common p r a c t i c e t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n m a n u s c r i p t u s i n g what i s r e f e r r e d t o as the " b a l l and s t i c k " method. In t h i s s y s t e m , s t u d e n t s a r e i n s t r u c t e d t o draw b o t h t h e b a l l and t h e s t i c k ( l i n e ) s t a r t i n g a t the t o p , and i n t h e c a s e o f the c i r c l e p r o c e e d i n a l e f t downward m o t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t most t o r q u e r s commenced t h e i r c i r c l e s a t t h e bottom and p r o c e e d e d i n a c l o c k w i s e r i g h t upward m o t i o n ( r = . 5 1 , p=0.000). The c o r r e l a t i o n would have been h i g h e r i f t h e l e f t and r i g h t s i d e commence- ment group were i n c l u d e d w i t h t h o s e who b e g i n making t h e i r c i r c l e s a t t h e b o ttom. T h i s r e s u l t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e many f i v e and s i x y e a r o l d c h i l - d ren b e i n g i n s t r u c t e d i n h a n d w r i t i n g i n a manner t h a t i s b e h a v i o u r a l l y 50 o p p o s i t e t o t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a t u s . No s t u d i e s c o u l d be fo u n d w h i c h d i s c u s s e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t o r q u i n g t o t h e long term e f f e c t s on t h e q u a l i t y o f penmanship. C o u l d i t be t h a t the i n i t i a l h a n d w r i t i n g e x p e r i - ences o f some c h i l d r e n s e t t h e s t a g e f o r poor penmanship i n consequent y e a r s ? R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 60 ( o r 7 2 . 3 % ) o f t h e 84 s t u d e n t s who t o r q u e d produced c i r c l e s n ot b e g i n n i n g a t the t o p , w i t h the g r e a t e s t m a j o r i t y , 5 2 ( o r 62%) b e g i n n i n g t h e i r c i r c l e s a t t h e bottom. As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 4 t h e r e was a d e c r e a s e i n the number o f t o r q u e r s who began t h e i r c i r c l e s a t t h e bottom. A p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h i s d e c r e a s e i s t h a t s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n may have had an e f f e c t . Of t h e 216 n o n - t o r q u i n g s t u d e n t s , 210 (97.2%) began t h e i r c i r c l e s i n a c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e manner. T h i s sug- g e s t s t h a t i f a p e r s o n p r o d u c e s c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s he w i l l a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y commence a t t h e t o p . T a b l e 4 Fre q u e n c y o f C i r c l e Commencement S t a r t o f C i r c l e Age f r e q . 5 % Age 6 f r e q . % Age f r e q . 7 % Age f r e q . 8 % l=Top 35 46.7 56 75 70 93.3 72 96 2=Bottom 30 40.0 16 21.3 5 6.7 1 1 .4 3=Left s i d e 3 4 2 2.6 0 - 0 - 4=Right s i d e 5 6.7 0 0 - 0 - 5=Top S Bottom 2 2.7 1 1 .4 0 - 2 2.6 S t a r t c i r c l e a t Bottom & Torque 34 81 19 73 5 45.5 1 16.7 Question k. Is there an equivalent increase, according to age, in the production of counterclockwise c i r c l e s as has been found in r e l a t e d studies? As was reported in other s t u d i e s , the r e s u l t s of t h i s research indi cated a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and torquing As the subjects in t h i s study used the p r e f e r r e d hand only, the number of subjects who torqued was less than that found in most other studies and i s more in l i n e with the r e s u l t s of Jarman and Nelson (1981), who measured r e s u l t s using the preferred hand. The decrease in torquing (Table 5) demonstrates that by the time they are e i g h t most c h i l d r e n produce counterclockwise c i r c l e s in tasks i n v o l v i n g p r i n t i n g , the production of independent c i r c l e s , and c i r c l e s constructed around shapes. The r e s u l t s of Blau's study and other re- search produced a higher incidence of torquing compared to the sample used in t h i s study. These s t u d i e s , however, used both preferred and non-preferrred hands w h i l e the current study used the p r e f e r r e d hand only and produced a more rapid decrease than was found in other s t u d i e s . Table 5 gives a breakdown of torque, non-torque by age f o r t h i s study and c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s a rapid decrease in the torquing phenomenon f o r the age group 5 to 8. 52 T a b l e 5 Frequency o f T o r q u i n g by Age Age 5 Age 6 Age 7 Age 8 f req % f r e q . % f r e q . % f r e q % C.D.T. T e s t 0-6 Non-Torque 33 44 49 65.3 64 85.3 71 94.7 7~24 Torque 42 " . 56 26 34.7 1 1 14.7 4 5.33 Torque T e s t 0 Non-Torque 31 41.3 48 64 58 77.3 69 92 1-3 Torque 44 58.7 27 36 17 22.7 6 8 Quest i on 5. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l l a t i o n s h i p between gender and c i r e l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e sex o f t h e s u b j e c t s and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . In b o t h the C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t and the Torque T e s t , c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more boys t o r q u e d than g i r l s f o r the f i v e , s i x , and e i g h t y e a r o l d s (C.D.T., r=-.15, p=.005; Torque T e s t , r=-.l8, p=.001). As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 6, t h e seven y e a r o l d s were an e x c e p t i o n where a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same number o f boys and g i r l s t o r q u e d . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y i s t h e f i n d i n g t h a t i n t h e e i g h t y e a r o l d group 75% o f t h e t o r q u e r s were b o y s . As t h e s c o r e s o f academic a c h i e v e m e n t i n d i c a t e d , a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e f o r the t o r q u e group and a l l but one were b o y s , we have a p o s s i b l e c l i n i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n f o r male t o r q u e r s o f t h i s age gr o u p . 53 T a b l e 6 P o p u l a t i o n o f Boys and G i r l s by Age and Frequency o f T o r q u i n g , i n t h e Torque T e s t and t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t P o p u l a t i o n Torque T e s t C.D.T. Age 5 M 34 (45%) 24 (57.1%) 26 (62%) '. F 41 (54%) 18 (42.9%) 16 (38%) Age 6 M 34 (45%) 19 (70.4%) 16 (61.5%) F. 41 (54%) 8 (29.6%) 10 (38.5%) Age 7 . M 35 (46.7%) 8 (44.4%) 5 (45.5%) F 40 (53.3%) 9 (55.6%) 9 (54.5%) Age 8 . M 34 (45.3%) 5 (83-3%) 3 (75%) F 41 (54.7% 1 (16.7%) 1 (25%) Q u e s t i o n 6. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a t e r a l i t y and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? The r e s e a r c h e r was i n t e r e s t e d t o d i s c o v e r i f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h would s u p p o r t t he h y p o t h e s e s t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n - s h i p between t o r q u i n g and measures o f hand, f o o t , and eye dominance. In bot h the C.D.T. ( r = . l l , p=.03) and t h e Torque T e s t (r=.20, p=.000) t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o r q u i n g and handedness, and sug- g e s t e d t h a t t he i n c i d e n c e o f c l o c k w i s e c i r c l i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r among l e f t - h a n d e d s u b j e c t s . T h e r e was, however, no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n - s h i p f o u n d between t o r q u i n g and f o o t e d n e s s i n both t h e C.D.T. (r=.03, p=.25) and t h e Torque T e s t (r=.05, p=.l8). The d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between hand and f o o t (r=.4l, p=0.000). I t was somewhat s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e , t o d i s c o v e r t h a t o n l y handedness a p p e a r s t o r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t o r q u e f o r t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . 5k Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t were the e i g h t y e a r o l d s (n=6) who t o r q u e d i n e i t h e r t h e C.D.T. o r the Torque T e s t . The d e g r e e o f v a r i a t i o n between hand and f o o t dominance ( T a b l e 7) s u g g e s t s a s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n from the norm f o r t h i s age g r o u p . A l l but k o f t h e 69 n o n - t o r q u e r s {Sk.2%) as opposed t o k o f the 6 t o r q u e r s (66.6%) had i d e n t i c a l h a n d / f o o t dominance. Of the 6 e i g h t y e a r o l d t o r q u e r s , k (66.7%) were l e f t - h a n d e d . T h i s f i n d i n g l e n d s s t r o n g s u p p o r t t o o t h e r s t u d i e s w h i c h r e l a t e l e f t - h a n d e d n e s s t o t o r q u i n g f o r t h i s age g r o u p . T a b l e 7 Hand and Foot P r e f e r e n c e s o f 8 y e a r o l d T o r q u e r s S t u d e n t Hand Foot 1 R i g h t R i g h t 2 R i g h t R i g h t 3 L e f t L e f t k L e f t L e f t 5 L e f t R i g h t 6 L e f t R i g h t As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , two eye t e s t s were done t o i n s u r e t h a t the l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n w h i c h seemed a p p a r e n t i n t h e f i r s t eye t e s t was not due t o f a u l t y d e s i g n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t eyedness i n b o t h t e s t s had no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h e i t h e r hand, f o o t , t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t , o r the Torque T e s t ( T a b l e 8 ) . U n l i k e o t h e r s t u d i e s w h i c h found t o r q u e r e l a t e d t o c r o s s e d l a t e r a l i t y u s i n g t h e p r e f e r r e d eye and t h e p r e f e r r e d hand, such was not t h e c a s e i n t h i s s t u d y . 55 T a b l e 8 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Hand, F o o t , and Eye f o r the T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n Hand F i r s t Eye T e s t Second Eye T e s t Foot r=.4l (p=0.000)* r=-.03 (p=.25) r = . l l (p=.02)*, Foot F i r s t Eye T e s t Second Eye T e s t r=.03 (p=.29) r=-.03 (p=.26) Eye Second Eye T e s t r = . l 8 (p=.001)* *p <_ .05 Q u e s t i o n 7. Does r a p i d i t y i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c i r c l e s a f f e c t d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? Thomassen and T e u l i n g s (1979) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e may be two motor systems o p e r a t i n g i n d r a w i n g . One s y s t e m , " f l e x i o n f i r s t " i s used i n t a s k s such as s c r i b b l i n g and r a p i d c i r c l i n g and becomes " e x t e n s i o n f i r s t " between the ages o f f i v e r a n d seven . The second s y s t e m i s more c o n t r o l l e d and i s used i n h i g h e r l e v e l c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s such as hand- w r i t i n g . They found t h a t w i t h the o l d e r group o f c h i l d r e n age s e v e n , and a d u l t s , c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e c i r c l i n g was p r e d o m i n a n t but when r a p i d c i r c l ing o c c u r r e d t h i s t u r n e d i n t o a c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n ( s ee c h a p t e r t w o ) . To t e s t Thomassen and T e u l i n g s ' (1979) r e s u l t s , s t u d e n t s were a s k e d to draw 2k c i r c l e s , t a s k one r e q u i r e d c h i l d r e n t o draw 12 c i r c l e s u nder no t i m e r e s t r a i n t s ( s i x O's w i t h i n a word and s i x c i r c l e s ) . Task two r e q u i r e d the c h i l d r e n t o draw 12 c i r c l e s as r a p i d l y as t h e y c o u l d ( s i x O's w i t h i n a word and s i x c i r c l e s ) (see A p p e n d i x A ) . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t a s k , the c h i l d r e n were encouraged t o t a k e t h e i r t i m e and make the b e s t c i r c l e s they c o u l d . In t h e second t a s k , speed was o f t h e e s s e n c e and t h e y were e n c o u r a g e d t o go as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e . 56 • H a v i n g c o m p l e t e d t a s k one w i t h a h i g h degree o f c o g n i t i v e awareness (O's made as a c c u r a t e l y as poss i b l e ) , t h e second a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t a s k (O's made as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e ) s h o u l d , i t was t h o u g h t , have e l i c i t e d t he more p r i m i t i v e motor s y s t e m d e s c r i b e d by Thomassen and T e u l i n g s . I f t h i s s h o u l d o c c u r i t would s u p p o s e d l y r e s u l t i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o u n t e r - c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s by some t o r q u e c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d , t h a t no age group showed any t e n d e n c y to change d i r e c t i o n from t a s k one t o t a s k two. The r=.98 (p=0.000) c o r r e l a t i o n between c i r c l e s drawn i n t a s k one and t a s k two o f t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n - a l i t y T e s t c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i n a l m o s t a l l c a s e s s t u d e n t s produced c i r c l e s i n a s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n , c l o c k w i s e o r c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e when p e r f o r m - i n g e i t h e r t a s k (r=.98, p=0.000). No s u p p o r t , t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d be f ound f o r Thomassen and T e u l i n g s 1 h y p o t h e s i s . One s h o u l d n o t e , however, t h a t t h e d a t a were g a t h e r e d i n Thomassen and T e u l i n g s 1 s t u d y and i n t h i s s t u d y under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . Thomassen and T e u l i n g s used a f r e e s c r i b b l i n g and c o n t i n u o u s r a p i d c i r c l i n g t a s k s , w h i l e t h i s s t u d y had c h i l d r e n e x e c u t e r a p i d c i r c l i n g i n the manner d e s c r i b e d . Q u e s t i o n 8. Is t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e i n c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y when c i r c l e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d as O's embedded w i t h i n words o r as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s ? ^ The a r t i f i c i a l n a t u r e o f c i r c l i n g i n B l a u ' s Torque T e s t l e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r to q u e s t i o n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c i r c l e s under t h a t c o n d i t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v i s e d an a l t e r n a t i v e means o f a s s e s s i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y u s i n g an embedded t a s k w i t h i n words ( t h e l e t t e r 0) and a s e r i e s of f r e e c i r c l e s . The two c i r c l i n g a p p r o a c h e s t h a t were t h e b a s i s f o r t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t were compared. The r e s u l t s o f the r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y 57 showed (r=.91, p=0.000) t h a t d i r e c t i o n a l i t y was n o t i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p a r t i c u l a r t a s k t h a t t h e c h i l d p e r f o r m e d . T h i s r e s u l t l e d t o the c o n c l u - s i o n t h a t t o r q u i n g i s n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r c i r c l i n g t a s k and t h a t i f a p e r s o n i s g o i n g t o t o r q u e t h e p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a t under w h i c h t h e c i r e l e i s drawn w i l l not a l t e r the d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . Q u e s t i o n 9'....- Is. t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Torque T e s t and the C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t ? The l i t e r a t u r e t o d a t e r e f e r s t o the Torque T e s t as t h e o n l y measure o f c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c i r c l e s around a s e r i e s o f X's i s not a u s u a l a c t i v i t y f o r young c h i l d r e n and t h e r e s e a r c h e r wanted t o see i f t h e r e was an e q u i v a l e n t t r a n s f e r o f c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y d u r i n g o t h e r c i r c l i n g t a s k s . A C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t was d e v e l o p e d w h i c h i n v o l v e d the p r o d u c t i o n o f 2k c i r c l e s under d i f f e r i n g c o n d i t i o n s as opposed t o the Torque T e s t w h i c h has t h e s u b j e c t s produce t h r e e c i r c l e s w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand and t h r e e c i r c l e s w i t h t h e n o n - p r e f e r r e d hand. B l a u ' s Torque T e s t was m o d i f i e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t c h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d c i r c l e s o n l y w i t h t h e i r p r e f e r r e d w r i t i n g hand. The two t e s t s were compared. The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e C.D.T. and Torque T e s t (r=.73, p=0.000). T h i s h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n l e d t o the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. The need t o have t h e c h i l d r e n p r o d u c e 2k c i r c l e s t o a d e q u a t e l y v e r i f y t h e p r e s e n c e t o t o r q u e i s not n e c e s s a r y . 2. The need t o have c h i l d r e n p r o d u c e c i r c l e s a r o u n d an X as opposed t o s i m p l y d r a w i n g a s e r i e s o f c i r c l e s i s q u e s t i o n e d . 3. Both the C.D.T. and t h e Torque T e s t produced s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s 58 on most o f t h e same measures. T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g as t h e c o r r e - l a t i o n between measurements on the same f a c t o r i s h i g h ( T a b l e 9). ,k... I f a c h i l d i s g o i n g t o t o r q u e he/she w i l l u s u a l l y t o r q u e under al1 c o n d i t i o n s where t h e r e i s no e x t e r n a l f a c t o r p r e v e n t i n g what i s a normal c i r c l i n g p a t t e r n . • T a b l e 9 Examples o f C o r r e l a t i o n s Between C.D.T. and Torque T e s t STCIR Age Sex Eye Foot Hand CTBS Read Math Lang C.D.T. r=.51 r=-.M r=.15 r = . l l r=-.12 n nnnj. n nnn' n nnr' nSC nSC nSC nSC nSC p=0.000" p=0.0G0'- p=0.005" p=. 03" p=.03-; Torque T e s t r=.39 r=.39 r=.18 r=.20 r=-.08 P=o.ooo* P=o.ooo* P=o.001^ n s c n s c P=o.ooo* n s c P=.09 n s c n s c p <_ .05 nsc = no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n C o n c l u s i o n The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h i s s t u d y c o v e r e d a wide range o f f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . T h e . c o n c l u s i o n s based on t h e d a t a and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a d d r e s s e d i n c h a p t e r f i v e d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e t o r q u i n g phenomenon i s i n d i c a t i v e o f c e r t a i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l f a c t o r s , c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , neuro m u s c u l a r f u n c t i o n s , and c e r e b r a l a n o m a l i e s t h a t w a r r a n t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s s t u d y sought t o f i n d answers t o t h e f o l 1 o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : Does a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t between academic a c h i e v e m e n t and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y as measured by a norm r e f e r e n c e d t e s t used i n g r a d e s one, two, and t h r e e ? Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n e s s f o r grade one, as measured by t e a c h e r a s s e s s m e n t , and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? Is t he p o i n t o f commencement i n c i r c l e c o n s t r u c t i o n and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d ? Is t h e r e an e q u i v a l e n t i n c r e a s e , a c c o r d i n g t o age, i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e c i r c l e s as has been found i n r e l a t e d s t u d i e s ? Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l a t e r a l i t y , as measured by f o o t , hand, and eye dominance, t o c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? Does r a p i d i t y i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c i r c l e s a f f e c t d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ? Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y when c i r c l e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d as O's embedded w i t h i n words o r as d i s c r e t e e n t i t i es? Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Torque T e s t and t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t ? 59 60 The p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 300 c h i l d r e n ; f i v e y e a r o l d s i n k i n d e r - g a r t e n , s i x y e a r o l d s i n g r a d e one, seven y e a r o l d s i n g r a d e two, and e i g h t y e a r o l d s i n g r a d e f o u r (n=75 per age l e v e l ) . C o r r e l a t i o n a l s t a t - i s t i c s were used t o see i f s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d between f a c - t o r s o f age, c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , a cademic a c h i e v e m e n t , h a n d - f o o t - eye dominance, commencement o f c i r c l e , two d i f f e r e n t t o r q u e t e s t s , sex,, and r e a d i n e s s f o r grade one. C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t o r q u e t o aca d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t was a major c o n - c e r n o f t h i s s t u d y . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r t h e f i v e y e a r o l d k i n d e r g a r t e n group t o r q u e was not an a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t o r o f r e a d i n e s s f o r gr a d e one as a s s e s s e d by t e a c h e r judgement. As w e l l , f o r t h e s i x y e a r o l d group i n grade one, no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s c o u l d be found i n measures o f c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y and academic a c h i e v e m e n t . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were f o u n d f o r t h e seven y e a r o l d group i n g r a d e two. The a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s o f the e i g h t y e a r o l d t o r q u e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y below t h e academic norm f o r t h e i r age g r o u p . The h i g h I n c i d e n c e o f 1 e f t - h a n d e d n e s s and c r o s s e d 1 a t e r a 1 i t y a l o n g w i t h t h e i r l o w e r l a n g u a g e , m a t h e m a t i c s , and r e a d i n g s c o r e s l e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t perhaps f o r t h i s age gr o u p , t o r q u i n g i s an i n d i c a t o r o f p o s s i b l e c e r e b r a l d y s f u n c t i o n and w a r r a n t s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t may be t h a t l i k e so many o t h e r t r a i t s t o r q u i n g i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l and q u i t e w i t h i n normal p a r a m e t e r s t o a c e r t a i n age. At t h a t t i m e the phenomenon would be i n d i c a t i v e o f abnormal development. T h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t g r a d e t h r e e ( e i g h t y e a r o l d s ) i s t h a t t i m e . ( Q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2) 61 The d a t a c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t o r q u e r s had a p r o p e n s i t y t o com- mence t h e i r c i r c l e a t the bottom, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f i v e and s i x y e a r o l d age group. The n o n - t o r q u e r s i n a l m o s t a l l c a s e s began t h e i r c i r c l e s a t t h e t o p . The c o n s i s t e n c y o f e i t h e r t o p o r bottom c i r c l e commencement i s e x t r e m e l y h i g h as o n l y 15 o f the 300 c h i l d r e n a l t e r e d from t h i s p a t t e r n . ( Q u e s t i o n 3) t The d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a d r a m a t i c d e c r e a s e i n t o r q u i n g f r o m age f i v e t o age e i g h t . The l o w e r base r a t e o f t o r q u i n g i n t h i s s t u d y compared t o o t h e r s t u d i e s can p o s s i b l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r e f e r r e d hand o n l y was used i n b o t h the C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t and t h e Torque T e s t . T h i s r e s u l t l e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o t h e c o n c l u - s i o n t h a t t o r q u i n g w i t h the p r e f e r r e d hand produced a p r o p o r t i o n a l l y e q u a l d e c r e a s e i n t o r q u i n g f o r age g r o u p s 5, 6, and 7 compared t o t h o s e s t u d i e s i n w h i c h b o t h hands were used t o d e t e r m i n e the p r e s e n c e o f t o r q u e . In the e i g h t y e a r o l d g r o u p , however, the i n c i d e n c e o f t o r q u i n g was s i g n i f i - c a n t l y lower than t h a t found i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . ( Q u e s t i o n k) In a l l but t h e seven y e a r o l d g r o u p , boys had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f t o r q u e . For t h e f i v e and s i x y e a r o l d group no academic c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn as t o t o r q u e and g e n d e r . In the e i g h t y e a r o l d g r o u p , however, t h e l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t o r q u e r s were boys. T h i s com- b i n e d w i t h t h e i r academic a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l , 1eft-handedness, and h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f c r o s s e d l a t e r a l i t y w a r r a n t s t h e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t o r q u e r s i n t h i s age group. ( Q u e s t i o n 5) 62 T here was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between 1 e f t - h a n d e d n e s s and t o r q u e i n b oth t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t and t h e Torque T e s t . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r the e i g h t y e a r o l d group o f t o r q u e r s . Of t h e s i x t o r q u e r s i n t h i s age group f o u r were l e f t - h a n d e d . There was a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between measures o f hand and f o o t but t h i s d i d not e x t e n d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n measures o f t o r q u e and f o o t e d n e s s . . In b o t h eye t e s t s no s i g n i f i c a n t measures c o u l d be f o und between any v a r i a b l e dominance o r t o r q u i n g . ( Q u e s t i o n 6) The l i n k between th e n e u r o m u s c u l a r motor system and t o r q u e was a d d r e s s e d t o see i f c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y w o u l d be a l t e r e d under d i f - f e r e n t l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n d i d not a l t e r t h e i r c i r c l i n g p a t t e r n s under d i f f e r i n g r a t e s of c i r c l i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o r w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t c i r c l i n g t a s k s . ( Q u e s t i o n 7) The r e s e a r c h e r w i s h e d t o d i s c o v e r i f c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y would change as a r e s u l t o f c i r c l e s b e i n g drawn as O's embedded i n words o r as d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y no change o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t a s k s . T h i s l e d the r e s e a r c h e r t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c i r c l i n g d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i s p r o b a b l y not a l t e r e d by a p a r t i c u l a r t a s k and t h a t a c i r c l i n g p a t t e r n w i l l remain c o n s i s t e n t u n t i l c e r e b r a l changes o f a d e v e l o p m e n t a l n a t u r e o c c u r . A t t h i s p o i n t i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t f o r some c h i l d r e n t h i s may n e v e r change. ( Q u e s t i o n 8) 63 As no s t u d i e s c o u l d be found t h a t used t h e p r e f e r r e d hand o n l y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i s h e d t o f i n d o u t i f t o r q u i n g w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand o n l y would p r o d u c e l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the v a r i o u s measures. As w e l l , f o r the p u r p o s e o f c o m p a r i s o n , t h e f a c t o r s o f age, handedness, and s e x , w h i c h had been r e p o r t e d as h a v i n g a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , were o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t h e s e v a r i a b l e s o f age, handedness, and s e x , and t h i s l e d the r e s e a r c h e r t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t perhaps c i r c l i n g w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d hand o n l y w i l l p r o d u c e r e s u l t s t h a t a r e l e s s s u s c e p - t i b l e t o c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f t o r q u i n g d a t a b r o u g h t about by t h e use o f t h e non-dominant hand. . . . . . . Recommendat i o n s 1. T o r q u i n g a p p e a r e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o academic p e i — f ormance f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n , g r a d e one, and two c h i l d r e n . W i t h e i g h t y e a r o l d s i t p r o v e d t o be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s need t o be u n d e r t a k e n p a s t t h i s age by c o n s e q u e n t age l e v e l s t o c o n f i r m t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h i s t e n d e n c y . B e n e f i t s c o u l d a c c r u e f r o m c a s e s t u d i e s o f t o r q u e r s a c r o s s a cademic measures. 2. The s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f c i r c l i n g by t o r q u e r s m e r i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Why i s i t t h a t the p o i n t o f o r i g i n i n the c i r c l e s o f t o r q u e r s a r e so p r e - d o m i n a n t l y s t a r t e d a t the bottom? Does t h i s p r o p e n s i t y t r a n s f e r t o t he c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f o t h e r shapes? 3. The h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f t o r q u i n g i n boys o v e r g i r l s i n t h i s s t u d y m e r i t s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Is the t o r q u i n g phenomenon s i m p l y one more t r a i t e x h i b i t e d by a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f males o v e r f e m a l e s ? 64 In the group o f e i g h t y e a r o l d s who t o r q u e d and had d e p r e s s e d academic measures, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c i d e n c e o f l e f t - h a n d e d and c r o s s e d h a n d - f o o t dominance. As t h e s e t r a i t s a r e s u g g e s t i v e o f and f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n e u r o l o g i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t i t would seem t h a t n e u r o - l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t o f t o r q u e r s a t t h i s age and beyond might f l e s h o u t t h e t r a i t p r o f i l e o f t h o s e who t o r q u e . To d a t e t o r q u i n g has been a s s e s s e d b e f o r e t h i s s t u d y by the use of t h e p r e f e r r e d and n o n - p r e f e r r e d hand u s i n g B l a u ' s Torque T e s t . T h i s s t u d y q u e s t i o n e d t h e use o f t h e n o n - p r e f e r r e d hand as a v a l i d measure and used the p r e f e r r e d hand i n a l l measures. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n v o l v - ing t h e p r e f e r r e d hand o n l y i s j u s t i f i e d and recommended. V e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t o r q u e t h r o u g h t h e C i r c l i n g D i r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t needs t o be made. 6 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l b e r t s , F. L., & To c c o , T. S. T o r q u e , l a t e r a l dominance and handedness i n n o r m a l , d i s t u r b e d , and l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . C I i n i c a l N e u r o p s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 8 0 , U_, 157-160. Ames, L. B., & l l g , F. L. Deve l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s i n w r i t i n g b e h a v i o r . J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 1 , 7 9 , 2 9 -46 . Bakwin, H. P s y c h i a t r i c a s p e c t s o f p e d i a t r i c s : L a t e r a l dominance, r i g h t and l e f t - h a n d e d n e s s . J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s , . 1 9 5 0 , 3 6 , 3 8 5 - 3 9 1 . Balow, I. H, L a t e r a l dominance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n t he f i r s t g r a d e . The J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 3 , 5_5_, 3 2 - 3 2 8 . Balow, I. H., & Balow, B. L a t e r a l dominance and r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n the second g r a d e . A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 4 , j _ , 1 3 9 - 1 4 4 . B l a i r , . D. W. Torque as a measure o f handedness and mixed dominance ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f U t a h , I98O). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . B l a u , T. E. The s i n i s t e r ch i 1 d . C a t a l o g u e o f S e l e c t e d Documents i n P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 7 , 7 . , 1 1 0 . (Ms. No. 1 5 9 5 ) (a) B l a u , T. E. The Torque T e s t : A measurement o f c e r e b r a l dominance. C a t a l o g u e o f S e l e c t e d Documents i n P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 7 , 7_, 1 6 - 1 7 . (Ms. No. 1 4 3 1 ) (b) B l a u , T. E. Torque and s c h i z o p h r e n i c v u l n e r a b i l i t y : As t h e w o r l d t u r n s . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1 9 7 7 , 3 _ 2 , 9 9 7 - 1 0 0 5 . (c) B l a u , T. E. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . C l i n i c a l N e u r o p s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 8 1 , . 2, 1 6 1 . C o n r a d , E. U. The-growth o f m a n u s c r i p t w r i t i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Chi Id E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 5 , J J _ , 1 7 0 - 1 7 4 . G e s e l l , A., & Ames, L. B. The development o f d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i n d r a w i n g . J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 4 6 , 6 8 _ , 4 5 - 6 1 . Goodnow, J . J . , & L e v i n e , R. A. "The grammar o f a c t i o n " : Sequence and s y n t a x i n c h i l d r e n ' s c o p y i n g . Cogni t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 3 , 4_, 8 2 - 9 8 . Graham, F. K., Berman, P. W., & E r n h a r t , C. B. Development i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f t h e a b i l i t y t o copy f o r m s . C h i l d Development, I 9 6 0 , 3 J _ , 3 3 9 - 3 5 9 . H a r r i s , A. J . The H a r r i s T e s t o f L a t e r a l Dominance. New Y o r k : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p . , 1 9 5 8 . 66 H a r t l a g e , L. C., & M a i n s , M. Novel d i a g n o s t i c a p p r o a c h e s t o neu r o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . C l i n i c a l N e u r o p s y c h o l o g y , 1981, .2, 161. H i l d r e t h , G. H. 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J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y , 1938, 53, 3~31 - Woods, D. J . , & Oppenheimer, K. D. Torque, h e m i s p h e r i c dominance, and p s y c h o s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y , 1980, 89, 567-572. Z a n g w i l l , 0. L. Handedness and dominance. In J . Money ( E d . ) , R e a d i n g d i s a b i 1 i t i e s . B a l t i m o r e : John H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1962. Z e n d e l , I. H., & P i h l , R. 0. Torque and l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r problems in c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1980, 48, 602-604. 68 Ap p e n d i x A 69 TORQUE TEST BLAU MODIFIED x x x h l a m a y x x v i a m e . X 70 A p p e n d i x B  72 Appendix C 73 P i l o t Study C i r c l i n g Di Grade Two T e s t T e s t T e a c h e r Two One E v a l u a t i o n Yoon 0 0 B Dan i e l 0 0 B D a r r i u s 0 0 C T i f f n e y 0 0 B Andrew 0 0 A G e r r y 0 0 D N i k i 0 0 C V a h i d 0 0 B J o s e p h 1 9 B V i c k i 0 0 C N i c k i 9 9 D S t e p h a n i a 0 9 D Lex i e 0 0 B Bobby 9 9 C Jenny 0 0 B A l t e n 0 0 B Ang i e 0 0 B Sean 9 9 D Av i n a s h 0 0 B Eva 9 9 B L o r e n a 9 9 B Brandy 0 0 B K i n g s l e y 0 0 B Jenn i f e r 0 0 A F l e u r 0 0 A V i t a 0 0 B Bonny 0 0 A J e s s i c a 0 0 A John 7 9 D Grade One Danny 0 0 B Ral ph 9 9 D Des i e r e 8 8 C To ra 9 9 D A r t h u r 9 7 C Jenny 0 0 B Stephen 0 0 B Nancy 0 0 B Tomoko 0 0 B Kenny 9 9 C L i sa 0 9 B R a j a b k 9 C R a c h e l 9 9 A Jamey 3 9 C r e c t i o n a l i t y T e s t R e s u l t s T e s t T e s t T e a c h e r Two One E v a l u a t i o n Grade One ( c t d . ) West l e y 9 0 B Hoi l y 0 0 B S t e v e 0 3 C Chew N i g 0 0 B J e n n i f e r 0 0 C K e i r s t e n 0 0 A T e r r a 9 9 D Edna 9 9 B B r a d l e y 9 3 A Roseabe 1 0 8 C Jonney 0 0 C B r e t t 0 9 C M i c h a e l .6 0 D L i s a P. 0 6 B P e t e r 0 0 B Fa r e e z 0 0 C Emely 9 9 C C r i s t i n i a 0 0 B L i sa 0 0 A Ki n d e r g a r t e n Jerem i e 0 9 B Card i n e 0 2 B G u i d o 6 0 D Ken 0 0 C D a v i d 9 7 B Jenn i f e r 0 0 A Nessa 0 0 D Au Tung 0 0 B S t a c y 1 9 C Phung 9 9 B L i sa 0 1 B L e x i e 9 9 C M a r g a r e t 5 2 B Amanda 9 9 D J a k e 9 9 C Ami e 9 9 C Lenn i e 9 9 B Eren 9 9 D S u z i e 9 9 B Sana 0 0 C Cr i s t ine 9 9 S Ayesha 9 9 B Lee 6 0 B 74 Appendix D F i r s t N a m e _ K i n d e r g a r t e n G r a d . i u n e b r a a e i wu i \ . n . L . . 1 1 . " • " • . 75 Boy_ G i r l T o r que^ o f s i x B.P. N.P. T e a c h e r Eva l . A — B C D M e _ 76 Append i x E 7 7 TO KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS I w o u l d l i k e t o o b t a i n a r a t i n g o f where you f e e l y o u r p u p i l s would f i t a s f a r a s r e a d i n e s s f o r g r a d e one i s c o n c e r n e d . To do t h i s I do not want t o g i v e them a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t but w i l l r e l y on y o u r e x p e r i e n c e as t e a c h e r s o f young c h i l d r e n . The l i s t \ have p r o v i d e d c o n t a i n s s c o r e s r e l a t i n g t o my s t u d y . In t h e column marked r e a d i n g w o u l d you p l e a s e r a t e t h e c h i l d r e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s c a l e below. 1. V e r y ready f o r grade one r e a d i n g now o r on t h e v e r g e o f r e a d i n g . 2. Average s t u d e n t w i l l have t h e u s u a l p r o b l e m s w i t h g r a d e one but w i l l n o t e n c o u n t e r any v e r y s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y . 3. Not q u i t e r eady f o r g r a d e one, w i l l need s e v e r a l months o f e x t e n d e d r e a d i n e s s but w i l l c a t c h up. k. T h i s s t u d e n t w i l l need a l o n g term r e a d i n e s s program and i s n o t ready t o cope w i t h g r a d e one work u n t i l w e l l i n t o t h e second s c h o o l term.

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