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Four year observational descriptive study of triplets to ascertain which measures best predict success.. James, Lydia Marie-France 1983

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FOUR YEAR OBSERVATIONAL DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF TRIPLETS TO ASCERTAIN WHICH MEASURES BEST PREDICT SUCCESS IN PRIMARY FRENCH  IMMERSION  BY LYDIA MARIE-FRANCE JAMES M a g i s t e r , Main School p f P l a n n i n g and S t a t i s t i c s , Warsaw, Poland, 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION  in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Department o f Language E d u c a t i o n  We accept t h i s to  THE  t h e s i s as  conforming  the r e q u i r e d standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE, 1983  c ) L y d i a Marie-France  James, 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by  department or by h i s o r her  the head of  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  LaR^t/LOge,  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  L<dLbLf/>,fjr>ri  Columbia  written  Abstract  This observational  study examines t h e f o u r - y e a r  development o f a s e t o f t r i p l e t s , attending  French immersion.  one g i r l  academic and s o c i a l  and two i d e n t i c a l  The p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s t h i s programme has  on a c h i l d ' s development a r e reviewed e x t e n s i v e l y c o n s i d e r i n g the test  l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d student.  Data f o r the case study  r e s u l t s from p s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l  ratings.  The sample s i z e d i d not p e r m i t a s t a t i s t i c a l  screening French  r e s u l t s were p r e d i c t o r s o f the t r i p l e t s '  immersion.  teachers'  analysis to  Cognitive  ( a t t i t u d e s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ) , and not  also  included  and i n f o r m a l t e s t s and  p r e d i c t Grade 3 performance i n French or E n g l i s h . motivation  boys  skills,  Kindergarten  success  i n primary  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  I.  PAGE  THE PROBLEM  1  Statement  o f the Problem  1  o f the Study  1  Background  II.  Q u e s t i o n s o f the Study  2  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  3  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study  4  Organization  4  o f the Thesis  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  5  D e f i n i n g French Immersion Major E v a l u a t i v e S t u d i e s  5 on French Immersion  7  S t . Lambert  7  Ottawa  15  Toronto  21  Elgin  24  Montreal  27  Coquitlam  28  Studies  Pertaining to Selected Factors A f f e c t i n g  Success i n French Immersion  Classrooms  31  Intelligence  31  C o g n i t i v e Development  38  Time o f Exposure t o Second Language T r a i n i n g Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s  and Other F a c t o r s  ....  46 55  The A c q u i s i t i o n o f E n g l i s h Language S k i l l s i n Primary French Immersion T r a n s f e r o f French Reading to E n g l i s h C l a s s e s  69 Skills 72  iii  CHAPTER III.  PAGE SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES Subjects  79  Background  IV.  79  79  Materials  81  Procedures and D i s c u s s i o n  82  Year One E v a l u a t i o n : K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g  82  Year Two E v a l u a t i o n : Grade 1 Performance  95  Year Three E v a l u a t i o n : Grade 2 Performance  103  Year Four E v a l u a t i o n : Grade 3 Performance  110  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis  117  FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY  123  Major F i n d i n g s o f t h e Study  123  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  124  D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s  125  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Study  129  School  level  129  Research l e v e l  130  REFERENCES  132  APPENDICES  158  A.  S t . Lambert  Tests Description  B.  The E l g i n Study:  Assessment  159  Instruments f o r  Grades 1 t o 3 E v a l u a t i o n s  162  C.  Parent Data Sheet  164  D.  Kindergarten Screening  E.  Linguistic Tests  F.  French D i a g n o s t i c Reading T e s t s f o r E a r l y French Immersion  Battery  174 179  Primary C l a s s e s  182  G.  Psychological Tests  185  H.  Gates-MacGinitie  189  Reading T e s t s iv  LIST OF  TABLES  TABLE 1.  PAGE Ottawa Study:  T e s t i n g Timetable  i n the  Evaluation  o f 1970-1976 Primary French Immersion Programmes w i t h i n the C a r l e t o n Board o f E d u c a t i o n  and  Ottawa  Board o f E d u c a t i o n 2.  Standardized Evaluate  and  16  Informal Measures U t i l i z e d  the T r i p l e t s '  to  Performance p e r Grade L e v e l ,  d u r i n g a Four-Year P e r i o d 3.  Boehm T e s t o f B a s i c Concepts: April  4.  83  and  Raw  September  86  L i s t o f Unknown Concepts as Measured by the Boehm T e s t o f B a s i c Concepts, B o o k l e t  5.  S c o r e s Form A,  Raw  Scores,  2 i n Kindergarten  Year  Test i n  Kindergarten  Year  89  L i s t o f Unknown Words on the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary  7.  Test  McCarthy S c r e e n i n g Kindergarten  8.  End  • Test Subtests  90 Results i n  Year  91  o f Grade 1 R e s u l t s on the French D i a g n o s t i c  T e s t f o r E a r l y French Immersion Primary C l a s s e s 9.  88  P e r c e n t i l e Ranks and Mental Ages Obtained  on the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary  6.  ..  Grade 1 T e a c h e r ' s Report Card E v a l u a t i o n  v  Reading 99 101  TABLE 10.  PAGE Psychoeducational  Tests R e s u l t s O b t a i n e d by  T r i p l e t s i n Beginning 11.  End  the  Grade 2  104  o f Grade 2 Results on the F r e n c h  Diagnostic  Reading T e s t f o r E a r l y French Immersion Primary Classes  106  12.  Grade 2 Teacher's Report Card E v a l u a t i o n  108  13.  R e s u l t s O b t a i n e d on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Reading T e s t s ,  L e v e l C, Form 2; F a l l P r e t e s t i n Grade 3 14.  R e s u l t s Obtained on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Ill Reading T e s t s ,  L e v e l C, Form 1; S p r i n g P o s t t e s t i n Grade 3 15.  End Test  16.  o f Grade 3 R e s u l t s on t h e French D i a g n o s t i c Reading f o r E a r l y French Immersion Primary C l a s s e s  114  Correlation Coefficients of Selected Predictor V a r i a b l e s to the P r e d i c t i o n o f the Reading T e s t s :  17.  112  P o s t t e s t and  Gates-MacGinitie  t h e Tourond Grade 3 T e s t  ....  118  C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s o f Each P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e (Tourond Grade 1 and  2) to the P r e d i c t i o n o f Tourond  Grade 3 T e s t  120  vi  Acknowledgments  I wish t o acknowledge the h e l p and guidance Dr. F l o r e n c e T. P i e r o n e k , I would a l s o Mrs.  i n the preparation o f t h i s  l i k e t o express my h e a r t f e l t  Irene Marchewicz, whose t i r e l e s s e f f o r t s  helped make t h i s study  o f my a d v i s o r ,  thanks  thesis. t o my moth  and support  have  possible.  I am very a p p r e c i a t i v e t o my dear husband, Robert, who has been so c o n s i d e r a t e and p a t i e n t toward me d u r i n g t h e many months s t r a i n e o u s work. And  finally,  I am t h a n k i n g t h e parents o f t h e t r i p l e t s f o r  g r a n t i n g me p e r m i s s i o n t o conduct  t h e study.  vii  1.  CHAPTER I  THE  PROBLEM  Statement o f the The  Problem  study f o c u s e s on an i n - d e p t h assessment and comparison  e d u c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r o f t r i p l e t s a t t e n d i n g a Canadian s i o n Elementary  s c h o o l over a p e r i o d o f 4 y e a r s .  French  of  immer-  Specifically,  the  case study i n v e s t i g a t e s which o f the numerous s u b s c a l e s w i t h i n the assessment t o o l s a d m i n i s t e r e d and r e l a t e d performance  f a c t o r s best predicts  their  both i n French and i n E n g l i s h up t o the end o f Grade  3,  the t r a n s i t i o n a l year when E n g l i s h Language A r t s becomes p a r t o f the curriculum. Background o f the The reality  Study  i d e a o f French immersion s c h o o l s or programmes has become a i n today's Canadian  e d u c a t i o n a l system.  In the programme i n  q u e s t i o n s t u d e n t s begin to be i n v o l v e d i n French immersion at the Kindergarten l e v e l  ( f o r o n e - h a l f day) where s c r e e n i n g takes p l a c e .  Then they e n t e r the Grade 1 programme d u r i n g which a l l the s u b j e c t s a r e taught i n the French language. a p p l i e s i n Grade 2 as w e l l .  The  same language o f i n s t r u c t i o n  Grade 3 i s c o n s i d e r e d the  transitional  y e a r w i t h the formal i n t r o d u c t i o n o f E n g l i s h Language A r t s , at the r a t e o f two hours p e r day.  The remainder  o f the time i s devoted  the a c q u i s i t i o n o f content m a t e r i a l through  to  i n s t r u c t i o n i n French.  2.  A l t h o u g h much r e s e a r c h has been done on the e v a l u a t i o n o f French and E n g l i s h s k i l l s at  different  the to  o f l a r g e groups o f b i l i n g u a l and immersion  students  grade l e v e l s , case s t u d i e s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y unknown.  expansion o f such programmes, the r e s e a r c h e r f e l t t h e r e was  With a need  examine i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g i n the p r o c e s s e s and  i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o the assessment  o f French immersion  students.  In  a d d i t i o n , i t appears t h a t c e n t r a l t o e v a l u a t i o n i s the p r e p a r a t i o n o f c a r e f u l s c r e e n i n g procedures and comprehensive  e v a l u a t i n g instruments  i n o r d e r to maximize student success i n any type o f French  immersion  programme i n t h e p r i m a r y grades. The few a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u m e n t s i n the F r e n c h language immersion  such as the French D i a g n o s t i c Reading T e s t s f o r E a r l y French  Immersion Primary C l a s s e s (Tourond, 1980) T e s t s , P r e - p r i m e r and Primer l e v e l s isfy  f o r French  and the French Comprehension  ( B a r i k , 1975), appear not t o s a t -  the p r e s e n t needs o f the programmes mainly because  of their  i n a b i l i t y to e v a l u a t e a wide a r r a y o f f o r e i g n language s k i l l s r e a d i n g , e t c . ) , p e r grade In  (oral  level.  t h i s s t u d y , the r e s e a r c h e r has examined not o n l y the s c r e e n i n g  instruments used on the sample but a l s o the e v a l u a t i o n t o o l s i n the subsequent  employed  years. Questions o f the Study  From h e r own er  set o f t r i p l e t s  level.  s e a r c h and i n q u i r i e s the w r i t e r has not found anothi n a Canadian French immersion  s c h o o l a t the p r i m a r y  3.  The o b s e r v a t i o n a l study attempted  t o p r o v i d e answers t o t h e  following questions: 1.  From the s c r e e n i n g instruments employed a t the K i n d e r g a r t e n  l e v e l , which i n s t r u m e n t s were the b e s t p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e t r i p l e t s ' success a t the end o f Grade 3? 2.  From the French t e s t s used a t the Grade 1 and 2 l e v e l s ,  which ones were the b e s t p r e d i c t o r s o f the t r i p l e t s '  success a t end  o f Grade 3? 3.  Were t h e r e sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r e d i c t o r  4.  What o t h e r v a r i a b l e s can be used as p r e d i c t o r s o f s u c c e s s at  the end o f t h e p r i m a r y 5.  variable?  grades?  To what extent s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a d i v e r s i t y  i n t h e development o f c e r t a i n academic and s o c i a l  skills  from K i n d e r -  g a r t e n t o Grade 3? D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The d e f i n i t i o n o f French immersion The term b i l i n g u a l o r immersion Canada.  i s essential f o r this  study.  s c h o o l i s used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n  However, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , French immersion  indicates  that  c h i l d r e n have r e c e i v e d 100% o f t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n i n French from Kinde r g a r t e n t o Grade 2 whereas i n Grade 3, 80% o f i n s t r u c t i o n was g i v e n i n French, and 20% i n E n g l i s h Language A r t s .  I t i s noteworthy  the percentage o f i n s t r u c t i o n time a l l o c a t e d t o each from one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t The  language  that varies  t o another.  t r i p l e t s a r e made up o f two i d e n t i c a l twin-boys  and one g i r l  4.  a l l o f whom have f o l l o w e d the aforementioned programme. S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study There are two  s i g n i f i c a n t outcomes o f the s t u d y .  study w i l l p r o v i d e g r e a t e r i n s i g h t t o the academic opment o f i n d i v i d u a l French immersion S e c o n d l y , the study may  First,  and s o c i a l  the devel-  children.  f o s t e r more i n t e r e s t  i n additional  r e s e a r c h i n areas o f concern: a)  the review o f s p e c i f i c s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e s a t the moment  o f e n t r y i n a French immersion K i n d e r g a r t e n ; b)  the implementation of r e l i a b l e performance  and  diagnostic  measures a t each grade l e v e l p a r t i c u l a r l y i n French Language A r t s (oral  language p r o f i c i e n c y ; r e a d i n g and comprehension;  where a p p l i c a b l e ,  writing  skills  etc.). O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the T h e s i s  The t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o f o u r c h a p t e r s . t h e s i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter one. pertinent  In Chapter two,  a review o f the  l i t e r a t u r e i s presented f o l l o w e d by Chapter t h r e e , the f o u r -  y e a r academic tains  The problem o f the  e v a l u a t i o n o f the sample.  F i n a l l y , Chapter f o u r  con-  conclusions. Chapter one d i s c u s s e d the major purpose  e v a l u a t i n g and comparing triplets  the academic  o f the study aimed a t  performance  o f a unique s e t o f  t o be found i n an elementary French immersion  school i n Canada.  The next c h a p t e r w i l l review the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to some problems  i n v o l v e d w i t h French immersion  programmes.  5,  CHAPTER  II  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o the s t u d y . information w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d under the f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s :  f i n i n g French immersion, immersion,  (a) De-  (b) Major e v a l u a t i v e s t u d i e s on French  (c) S t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s  a f f e c t i n g suc-  cess i n French immersion, and (d) The a c q u i s i t i o n o f E n g l i s h skills  The  language  i n p r i m a r y French immersion. D e f i n i n g French  Immersion  Some c o n f u s i o n e x i s t s between the terms " b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n " and "French immersion".  P a r t l y i t may be due t o the h i s t o r i c a l  dev-  elopment o f Canada. With t h e c r e a t i o n o f a Canadian n a t i o n i n 1867 a b i l i n g u a l c o u n t r y emerged.  A t t h a t time Francophones were encouraged t o l e a r n  E n g l i s h and w i t h the i n f l u x o f a d d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g and groups o f d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s the "Anglophone" became dominant.  population  The r e c o g n i t i o n o f two major c u l t u r e s and languages  i n Canada was acknowledged  by the Royal Commission  and B i c u l t u r a l i s m i n 1967 (Swain, 1972).  on B i l i n g u a l i s m  Thus "Canadian  s t r e s s i n g t h e importance o f language communication  bilingualism"  i n F r e n c h and  E n g l i s h brought about t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a French S c h o o l type] i n T o r o n t o i n 1962. bourhood  immigrants  Under the guidance o f W.H.  (Immersion  G i l e s , a neigh-  s c h o o l w i t h an enrolment o f 16 c h i l d r e n was founded.  In the  6.  following and  years the s c h o o l e n r o l l e d  some with s p e c i a l  abilities  needs.  As S t e r n (1973a) i n d i c a t e d , ents t o have t h e i r c h i l d r e n l y i n c r e a s e d " (p. 5 9 ) . second  c h i l d r e n with d i f f e r e n t  "The i n t e r e s t among Anglophone p a r -  taught e f f e c t i v e l y i n French has enormous-  A f t e r many decades o f t e a c h i n g French as a  language at d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s t h e r e s u l t s  o f which have  c l e a r l y been below e d u c a t o r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s , an a l t e r n a t i v e way was found t o make second  language a c q u i s i t i o n more e f f i c i e n t .  Between t h e  1960's and 1970's g r e a t e r emphasis has been p l a c e d on t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n i n Canada. How then i s b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n d e f i n e d ?  F o r Swain (1972), i t  i s " S c h o o l i n g p r o v i d e d f u l l y o r p a r t l y i n a second  language with the  o b j e c t i n view o f making s t u d e n t s p r o f i c i e n t i n t h e second w h i l e , at the same time, m a i n t a i n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r in the f i r s t  language and f u l l y  language proficiency  guaranteeing t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l -  opment"^. 1 ) .  S t e r n (1973a) c o n s i d e r s b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n "As a  means o f second  language l e a r n i n g  the f a c t t h a t  that  appears  i t o f f e r s the n e c e s s a r y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e a p p l i c a -  t i o n o f the language b e i n g l e a r n e d " (p.  61).  Swain (1980) has p r o v i d e d an up-to-date term:  interpretation  "Immersion means a s i t u a t i o n i n which c h i l d r e n  linguistic  language,  s e t t i n g i n which the second (p.  3).  I  o f the  from the same  and c u l t u r a l background, who have had l i t t l e  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e second  tion"  t o owe i t s s u c c e s s t o  o r no p r i o r  a r e put t o g e t h e r i n a c l a s s r o o m  language i s used as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c -  7.  Although t h e r e i s a myriad o f French immersion late, p a r t i a l ,  e t c . , they f e a t u r e two  o f a m a j o r i t y language t h e i r own  will.  programmes,  common denominators:  early,  children  c u l t u r e are i n a t t e n d a n c e , and they do so on  In t h i s study immersion  p e r t a i n s t o primary  grades.  In summary, the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between a b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , and an immersion  program i s t h a t i n the former, some s u b j e c t s are  taught i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s mother tongue, and i n immersion, tion.  the second language  Thus, French immersion  o t h e r s i n the second  i s the o n l y language  language  of i n s t r u c -  i s not t a u g h t , i t i s a means through  which i n s t r u c t i o n o f v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s i s g i v e n .  In a French  immersion  K i n d e r g a r t e n f o r example, i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t c h i l d r e n speak t o t h e i r t e a c h e r s and among themselves  i n English.  In t h i s s e t t i n g , the t e a c h -  er uses French o n l y and expects the p u p i l s t o r e p e a t o r a l e x p r e s s i o n s and b u i l d  a good French v o c a b u l a r y .  Consequently,  these c h i l d r e n  will  more r e a d i l y g i v e f o r example c o l o u r names, numbers i n French than i n E n g l i s h without b e i n g c o n s c i o u s o f i t .  In Grade 1 however, French i s  c o n s i d e r e d the main v e h i c l e o f communication through which a l l i n t e r a c t i o n takes p l a c e . Major E v a l u a t i v e S t u d i e s on F r e n c h St.  Immersion  Lambert The p o l i t i c a l  decades ago brought  development s u r f a c i n g i n the p r o v i n c e o f Quebec about  two  an urge t o equip E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n  with the n e c e s s a r y t o o l , a working knowledge o f French. s i x t i e s the C a t h o l i c S c h o o l Board o f M o n t r e a l was  In the e a r l y  unable t o o f f e r  French  i n s t r u c t i o n to Protestant c h i l d r e n .  Through much p r e s s u r e  from an o r g a n i z e d group o f parents the M o n t r e a l Board  f i n a l l y s e t up the f i r s t  Tucker,  1978).  P r o t e s t a n t School  K i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s i n 1965  When the group o f twelve p a r e n t s met  p r e s s f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g shortchanged  i n 1963  l i g h t e n e d by Vygotsky's  ex-  researchers  f a v o r e d the immersion concept were Drs. Lambert and  M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Montreal.  to  and t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n s h o u l d  have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o become b i l i n g u a l , the o n l y two who  (Lambert §  Penfield  from  The M c G i l l r e s e a r c h team had been en-  (1962) p o s i t i v e t r a n s f e r o f c o n c e p t u a l d e v e l -  opment from the f o r e i g n to the n a t i v e language and by p i o n e e r works o f P e a l and Lambert  (1962), and Lambert and A n i s f e l d  The p r e v i o u s l y - m e n t i o n e d  (1969).  E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p a r e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d to  the c r e a t i o n o f a b i l i n g u a l s c h o o l i n an E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e P r o t e s t a n t elementary Montreal The  s c h o o l i n S t . Lambert  suburb.  (not r e l a t e d t o Lambert, W.E.), a  M o t i v a t i o n p l a y e d an important p a r t i n i t s s u c c e s s .  s o - c a l l e d S t . Lambert experiment  i s c o n s i d e r e d to be  the  most e x t e n s i v e l y r e s e a r c h e d b i l i n g u a l programme i n Canada (Swain § B a r i k , 1978).  At i t s e a r l i e s t  o f numerous i n v e s t i g a t i o n s b e r t § Macnamara, 1969; 1973;  stage, the programme was  (Bruck et a l . , 1974;  Lambert § Tucker,  1972;  the s u b j e c t  Holden, 1975;  Lam-  Lambert et a l . ,  etc.). The  summary t o f o l l o w i s based p r i m a r i l y on t h e works o f Lambert  and Tucker p u b l i s h e d i n t h e i r book " B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n . The  S t . Lambert Experiment"  (1978).  9.  The  P i l o t Class  e n t e r e d K i n d e r g a r t e n i n September 1965  second group (Follow-up C l a s s ) fall. was this  The  s t a r t e d K i n d e r g a r t e n the  a  following  programme f o r the Experimental c h i l d r e n i n K i n d e r g a r t e n  conducted by  a French t e a c h e r from France who  language as a medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  native  and  would o n l y  use  M a t e r i a l s prepared f o r  French speakers were the o n l y ones a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s  group.  A growing i n t e r e s t toward t h i s Canadian experiment made the Quebec e d u c a t i o n a l  a u t h o r i t i e s approach the Language Research Group  of McGill University  (headed by  assess on a y e a r l y b a s i s quent c l a s s e s i n the arithmetic, t h e r e was  the  W.E.  a t t i t u d e s and  intellectual  concern as t o the and  Lambert) i n 1967,  o r i g i n a l Experimental C l a s s  a r e a s o f French and  s k i l l s , his intellectual tent  the  Professor  and  to  subse-  E n g l i s h Language A r t s ,  development.  At t h a t  development o f a c h i l d ' s n a t i v e  time language  c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g , mastery o f con-  i n r e l a t i o n t o p e e r s i n an E n g l i s h stream, and p r o f i c i e n c y i n learning of French. The  first  garten c l a s s e s  target population  was  two  French immersion K i n d e r -  ( s t a r t i n g i n September 1965  y e a r l y u n t i l they reached Grades 7 and  8.  and  In the s u c c e s s i v e  the Grade 1 p u p i l s were t e s t e d each s p r i n g by a s s i s t a n t s from M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y t h a t the  Experimental C l a s s e s '  a team o f  (Montreal).  a b i l i t i e s and  compared to t h a t o f F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g and pupils.  September 1966)  I t was  tested years  research  established  performance would  regular  be  English-speaking  A l l c l a s s e s were equated i n terms o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and  socio-  10.  economic s t a t u s .  No  i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g took p l a c e t h e r e f o r e , the pop-  u l a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a wide range o f  abilities.  In more s p e c i f i c terms, the assessment of  consisted of a battery  F r e n c h / E n g l i s h group and i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s t a p p i n g not o n l y c o g n i -  tive skills  but a l s o v e r b a l , nonverbal  IQ as w e l l as a t t i t u d e s .  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t e s t s used i n the S t . Lambert experiment  A  i s pro-  v i d e d i n Appendix A. S i n c e i t i s the f i r s t Canadian i t was  e v a l u a t i o n o f a unique  experiment,  o f i n t e r e s t t o examine the s t a n d i n g s o f the P i l o t C l a s s e s  upon completion o f K i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1: 1.  The E x p e r i m e n t a l s f e l l b e h i n d t h e i r E n g l i s h C o n t r o l s i n  E n g l i s h word knowledge, word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and r e a d i n g s k i l l s cause they have had no f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n o f the language. however, i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the t r a n s f e r o f s k i l l s lish  There a r e ,  from French t o Eng-  does take p l a c e . 2.  at  be-  The  Experimentals can communicate, understand spoken E n g l i s h  the same l e v e l as t h e i r E n g l i s h C o n t r o l s , but they made more gram-  m a t i c a l e r r o r s , were slower a t composing a s t o r y o r a l l y and were l e s s imaginative i n t h e i r English 3.  Associations.  In French s p e a k i n g s k i l l s ,  the E x p e r i m e n t a l s were lower  the French C o n t r o l s ; however, p r o g r e s s was 4.  noted.  The E x p e r i m e n t a l s were a t p a r w i t h t h e C o n t r o l s on t e s t s o f  French d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , sentence comprehension, 5.  than  and word o r d e r .  The E x p e r i m e n t a l s a r e a b l e t o compute and s o l v e mathematical  /  11.  problems p r e s e n t e d i n e i t h e r 6.  The b i l i n g u a l  experience does n o t f o s t e r a g e n e r a l s e n s i -  t i v i t y t o a f o r e i g n language's 7.  language.  sound  system.  T h i s type o f experience has no e f f e c t on a c h i l d ' s  intelligence. S i n c e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance  between  Pilot  and Follow-up E x p e r i m e n t a l C l a s s e s at the Grade 1 l e v e l were t o be found, Lambert and Tucker format  (1978) c o n s i d e r e d to f o l l o w the  as had been o r i g i n a l l y  The  proposed  planned.  r e s u l t s from the Grade 2 c l a s s e s i n d i c a t e d a b e n e f i c i a l  enrichment  o f n a t i v e - l a n g u a g e development.  posed a problem. on the f o l l o w i n g :  However, E n g l i s h  spelling  Immersion p u p i l s s c o r e d lower than French C o n t r o l s receptive vocabulary, l i s t e n i n g  comprehension,  v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n when r e t e l l i n g a s t o r y  (construction, contractions)  and grammar (gender, tense and s y n t a x ) .  In mathematics they p e r -  formed  as w e l l as the E n g l i s h  Controls.  At the end o f Grade 3, the E x p e r i m e n t a l were behind  their  E n g l i s h C o n t r o l s o n l y i n E n g l i s h p u n c t u a t i o n and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n .  They  had no p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s on the T e s t de Rendement en F r a n p a i s (C.E.C.M.:  1969-74) but s c o r e d lower i n l i s t e n i n g  comprehension  (presumably  caused by d i f f e r e n t t e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s ) , o v e r a l l e x p r e s s i v e  a b i l i t y , rhythm, i n t o n a t i o n , grammar, decoding d e s c r i p t i v e speech French-speaking c h i l d r e n  (due t o French i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a d u l t s  T h e i r r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y had a l r e a d y improved  of  only).  to the l e v e l o f the  12.  French Controls which was one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s . same performance as i n Grade 2 was seen i n mathematics.  The  Finally,  Experimentals showed imagination and p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the same way as e i t h e r E n g l i s h or French Controls. At the end of Grade 4, these p u p i l s d i d not show symptoms of i n t e l l e c t u a l r e t a r d a t i o n and there was a good mastery of English language s k i l l s .  They performed w e l l with French-speaking c h i l d r e n  in most areas of the French language except i n o v e r a l l expression ( r e t e l l i n g s t o r i e s ) and c e r t a i n grammatical concepts (genders and contraction).  They had the a b i l i t y to master mathematical s k i l l s i n  French and t r a n s f e r t h i s knowledge to E n g l i s h .  F i n a l l y , they d i d not  have more s e n s i t i v i t y to foreign language sounds than the monolinguals. A f t e r 5 years, the  LambeTt  team concluded that the a c q u i s i t i o n  of language s k i l l s i n both French and English was indeed taking place without negative e f f e c t s such as poor performance i n the mastery of English t h e i r mother-tongue, being introduced at a l a t e r age and no i n h i b i t i o n shown .in second-language  learning.  A l b e i t the team was  witnessing a slowing down i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of conceptual French vocabulary and French grammar i n Grades 5 and 8 which could have been the r e s u l t of lack of s u f f i c i e n t exposure to French.  The same obser-  v a t i o n had been made by Edwards (1976) i n r e l a t i o n to Grade 3 to 8 p u p i l s i n h i s Ottawa study. There remains many unknown reasons why immersion pupils make cert a i n types of errors when using French o r a l l y ; the concern i s not the  13.  amount o f words a young c h i l d i s a b l e t o generate but r a t h e r the c o r r e c t usage o f s i n g l e words, p h r a s e s and l o n g e r sentences. 1976,  S p i l k a wrote t h a t "A complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f the o r a l  w r i t t e n p r o d u c t i o n o f French immersion (p.  544).  and  s t u d e n t s i s not y e t a v a i l a b l e "  In l o o k i n g at the l e v e l o f speech p r o d u c t i o n sentence  complexity  (embelled s e n t e n c e s ) , f l e x i b i l i t y  as a measure o f second-language c h i l d r e n from the S t . Lambert group  In  and grammatical  a c q u i s i t i o n and p r o f i c i e n c y ,  Pilot  group  errors, 20  (Grade 6) and f o l l o w - u p  (Grade 5) were compared w i t h n a t i v e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g C o n t r o l s .  Immersion p u p i l s were slower at e x p r e s s i n g themselves o r a l l y a l t h o u g h they had had 7 y e a r s o f French; embedded sentences p r e s e n t e d a p r o b lem  ( t h e i r usage o f s e n t e n t i a l o b j e c t s was  i n f e r i o r t o C o n t r o l s ) and  more grammatical mistakes were noted i n the v a r i o u s areas (gender, verbs,  etc.).  Past the Grade 6 l e v e l , the immersion p u p i l s were making fewer grammatical e r r o r s i n French but i n c o m p o s i t i o n t h e y avoided vocabul a r y embellishments 4 and 6's  (Bruck et a l . , 1974).  grammatical development  Markman, P e l l e t i e r and Tucker  Comparisons  between Grade  have been r e s e a r c h e d by Hamayan,  (1978), who  c o u l d not conclude whether  Grade 6 Immersion p u p i l s ' e r r o r s were o f a developmental nature o r a r e g r e s s i o n i n grammatical  control.  As h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h e r e was much s o l i c i t u d e as t o the p r e d i c t i v e performance  o f the samples.  However, at the end o f the elementary  l e v e l the o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s proved t h a t t h i s  form o f l e a r n i n g a second  14.  language on the c o n t r a r y promotes skills.  The S t . Lambert  longitudinal development  the c h i l d ' s o v e r a l l  educational  experiment paved t h e way t o t h e d e s i g n o f  s t u d i e s on t h e l i n g u i s t i c ,  intellectual,  and a t t i t u d i n a l  o f c h i l d r e n i n French immersion programmes.  r e p o r t o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n s o f the S t . Lambert d'Anglejan and T u c k e r  An academic  experiment i s g i v e n by  (1971) who s t r o n g l y a d v i s e t o t e s t the g e n e r a l -  i z a b i l i t y o f t h i s approach u s i n g c h i l d r e n from d i v e r s e language and socio-economic backgrounds The S t . Lambert  (lower socio-economic s t a t u s ) .  experiment c o n s t i t u t e d a p o p u l a r model t o be  f o l l o w e d i n o t h e r immersion programmes. all  s u b j e c t s a r e taught i n French.  and w r i t i n g ) accompanies i n French a t t h e Grade  I n K i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1  E n g l i s h Language A r t s  (reading  t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e remainder o f the s u b j e c t s  2 level.  In Grades  3 and 4, music, a r t ,  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and language a r t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n E n g l i s h .  For  the subsequent y e a r s , c r e a t i v e a r t s and s c i e n c e c l a s s e s a r e taught i n English. A l s o , a p a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t was an i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y by C z i k o , Lambert,  S i d o t i and Tucker (1978), r e l a t i n g t o h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s  who a p p r a i s e d t h e e f f e c t s such an experiment had on t h e i r  lives.  In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e s u l t s o f paramount importance t o the programme a r e : 1.  C h i l d r e n do not s a c r i f i c e command o f E n g l i s h i n any form t o  t h e i r knowledge o f the new language; 2.  The knowledge o f a language appears t o be i n f e r i o r t o that  o f n a t i v e speakers, but  i t i s s u p e r i o r to t h a t o f p u p i l s who  taken French as a second  have  language;  3.  The  success i s a t t r i b u t e d to a strong p a r e n t a l  4.  With c o n f i d e n c e t h i s programme f u n c t i o n s v e r y w e l l with  r e s p e c t to" u p p e r - m i d d l e - c l a s s  involvement;  children.  Ottawa As p a r t o f the B i l i n g u a l Education P r o j e c t o f the O n t a r i o Ins t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education  (O.I.S.E.),  schools o f f e r i n g  immersion under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Ottawa Board and the C a r l e t o n Board  and  (1971-1975) .  s y n t h e s i s o f major r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s f o r the two  o f E d u c a t i o n i s o f f e r e d i n S t e r n and H a r l e y The  o f Education  o f E d u c a t i o n were s u b j e c t t o a y e a r l y e v a l u a -  t i o n o f t h e i r p u p i l s over a p e r i o d o f s i x years overview  first  French  Boards  (1976).  group o f K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n  (Cohort I) was  u n t i l Grade 6 as w e l l as the f o l l o w i n g Cohorts Swain, 1974a, 1975a, 1975c;  An  I I , and  tested  III (Barik §  Swain § B a r i k , 1976a, 1976b;  Barik §  Swain, 1977). Table 1 p r o v i d e s the time these  l i n e i n v o l v e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f  pupils.  I n s e r t T a b l e 1 about  here  In e v a l u a t i n g the performance o f Grade 1 t o 3 French  immersion  p u p i l s w i t h t h a t o f a r e g u l a r E n g l i s h programme (20-40 minutes o f  16.  Table 1 Ottawa Study:  T e s t i n g T i m e t a b l e i n the E v a l u a t i o n o f 1970-1976  Primary French  Immersion Programmes w i t h i n the C a r l e t o n  Board o f E d u c a t i on and Ottawa Board o f E d u c a t i o n  . Testing  Cohort  schedule I  II  III  Spring 1971  Kindergarten  1972  Grade 1  Kindergarten  1973  Grade 2  Grade 1  Kindergarten  1974  Grade 3  Grade 2  Grade 1  1975  Grade 4  Grade 3  Grade 2  1976  Grade 5  Grade 4  Grade 3  1977  Grade 6  Grade 5  Grade 4  -  d a i l y French i n s t r u c t i o n ) , Swain and B a r i k (1976a) aimed at e s t a b lishing  i f the l e a r n i n g o f academic s u b j e c t s through French  t i o n would have a harmful e f f e c t on f i r s t  language  skills  instruc-  (English),  r e a d i n g , a r i t h m e t i c , p u p i l ' s IQ and g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e development, and  i f t h e r e would be a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n French p r o f i c i e n c y between  immersion and r e g u l a r French i n s t r u c t i o n as a s u b j e c t . In Grade 1, 520 p u p i l s were a d m i n i s t e r e d the Otis-Lennon  Mental  17.  A b i l i t y Test  (Elementary I l e v e l ,  Metropolitan  Achievement T e s t s (Kindergarten  1976)  de  level,  the T e s t  1971-72), the  Test o f French as a F o r e i g n  negatively  (O.I.S.E., 1974)  of E d u c a t i o n a l  (International  II - 1970), E n g l i s h  administered.  seen i n t h e i r IQ s c o r e s .  no  Although i n Grade 1  no E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n , a t r a n s f e r o f  behind t h e i r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  hour o f E n g l i s h per day.  f o r s p e l l i n g , t h e y performed at the In d i s c u s s i n g the Grade 2-4 conducted i n the s p r i n g o f 1975,  peers o n l y  added t o  Achievement) L i s t e n i n g  Language ( P o p u l a t i o n  l i s h Language A r t s at the Grade 2 l e v e l  were o b t a i n e d .  IEA  was  and mathematics from French t o E n g l i s h d i d occur.  These p u p i l s were s t i l l  r e c e i v e d one  Grade 1  a f f e c t e d i n t h e i r c o g n i t i v e development s i n c e  French immersion p u p i l s had skills  1975,  e v a l u a t i o n showed t h a t French immersion p u p i l s  r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e was  reading  Barik,  (C.E.C.M.:  In Grade 3, the  French s t o r y w r i t i n g were  are not  the  1958), a French  Grade 1 l e v e l s :  de Lecture  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the E v a l u a t i o n  three-year  IQ measure,  l a t t e r o n l y to the F r e n c h c l a s s e s .  the above-mentioned b a t t e r y .  The  and  Rendement en F r a n c a i s  In Grade 2, the T e s t  and  f o r an  (Primary I B a t t e r y ,  Comprehension T e s t and  1967)  peers i n Eng-  as w e l l where they had By the end  o f Grade 3,  same l e v e l as the  evaluation  time, they show a h i g h e r  except  Controls.  ( B a r i k & Swain, 1975a)  s i m i l a r r e s u l t s as  i n former s t u d i e s  French immersion p u p i l s are behind t h e i r  in spelling.  only  Upon completion o f Grade 4,  "English"  f o r the  l e v e l o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y and  reach  first equiv-  18.  alent  l e v e l o f E n g l i s h and mathematical s k i l l s  their  counterparts.  i n comparison w i t h  In s p i t e o f t h e f a c t that the sample had a t t a i n e d a much h i g h e r l e v e l o f French p r o f i c i e n c y than t h e i r p e e r s l e a r n i n g French as a second language, and had p r o g r e s s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n r e a d i n g compreh e n s i o n , they remained behind n a t i v e speakers i n comprehension. The above r e p o r t e d study r e p l i c a t e s the S t . Lambert  results i n  terms o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a t l e a s t f o r o t h e r Canadian m i d d l e - c l a s s populations. Another s i g n i f i c a n t  l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t funded by t h e  O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n was conducted by the U n i v e r s i t y o f Ottawa,  f o r t h e Ottawa Roman C a t h o l i c Separate School Board  (Edwards  $ C a s s e r l y , 1972a, 1972b, 1973, 1976). In t h e i r s t u d y , Edwards and C a s s e r l y (1976) compared proficiency,  l i n g u i s t i c development,  language  i n t e l l i g e n c e , academic a c h i e v e -  ment and s o c i a l m a t u r i t y o f two groups o f c h i l d r e n  (immersion and 75  minutes o r l e s s o f French p e r day E n g l i s h group) from K i n d e r g a r t e n t o Grade  8.  To e v a l u a t e the s t u d e n t s , Edwards (1976) s e l e c t e d  t e s t s used by B a r i k and Swain M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Tests o f Basic S k i l l s ,  similar  (1976d) i n t h e i r Toronto study (The  T e s t s - MAT, 1958, 1970, and The Canadian  1968), which were used "To p r e d i c t whether t h e  immersion s t u d e n t s would be capable o f t r a n s f e r r i n g t o an E n g l i s h language c u r r i c u l u m , i f need be, o r a t t e n d secondary s c h o o l i n English"  (p.  138).  19.  Results  revealed  t h a t a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d t o the  tage o f the Grade 1 E n g l i s h Achievement T e s t s .  group, as seen on the  remained lower at the  end  I t was  found t h a t t h e i r s c o r e s  o f Grade 3 when E n g l i s h was  first  intro-  With a 50 p e r c e n t E n g l i s h / 5 0 p e r c e n t French programme i n  Grade 4 i t was scores.  Metropolitan  Grade 2 immersion p u p i l s made more p r o g r e s s i n  E n g l i s h w i t h no p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g .  duced.  advan-  found t h a t t h e s e students had  S u p e r i o r r a t i n g s by  c r e a t i o n and  word a s s o c i a t i o n  already  obtained higher  t h e s e p u p i l s were a s s i g n e d to  story  (taped i n d i v i d u a l l y ) as p a r t o f  assess-  ing oral s k i l l s i n English. Commenting on the apparent success d e r i v i n g from such a programme t h a t seems v i s i b l e , Edwards (1976) c a u t i o n s , from t h i s t h a t the end  suggested t h a t  t o be  conclude  that  to other l a r g e - s c a l e  from Grade 3 to  given i n t h i s studies,  the  French.  It  8  was  respect.  Edwards (1976) seemed  i s s u e o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s i n French  f o r t h i s r e a s o n proposed t h r e e supplementary s t a n d a r d -  i z e d measures:  the  I l l i n o i s Test  ITPA ( K i r k et a l . , 1968), t h e  o f P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s '-  Slingerland  with Special Learning D i s a b i l i t y Rating Scale  out  n o t e d i n o r a l as w e l l as w r i t t e n  s e n s i t i v e t o the  immersion and  He p o i n t s  some thought s h o u l d be  In c o n t r a s t  s h o u l d not  immersion c h i l d r e n are p e r f e c t l y b i l i n g u a l by  o f Grade F i v e " (p. 141).  l e s s p r o g r e s s was  "One  Screening Test  (1962-74) and  for  the Myklebust  Children Pupil  (Myklebust, 1971).  From the r e s u l t s , Edwards and  Casserly  (1973) i d e n t i f i e d a r e a s  20.  where Grade 3 E x p e r i m e n t a l ^ r a t e d h i g h e r than comparison groups o f students:  (a) a u d i t o r y  reception,  (b) a u d i t o r y  (c) v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i o n ,  (d) v e r b a l  expression,  (f) v i s u a l closure,  and, (g) v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l  association, (e) a u d i t o r y  closure,  memory.  However, no d i f f e r e n c e s were found on v i s u a l r e c e p t i o n , expression, blending.  grammatic c l o s u r e , a u d i t o r y  sequential  manual  memory and sound  Commenting on t h e study, t h e a u t h o r s s t a t e t h a t  "Exposure  to a French immersion program, f a r from r e s u l t i n g i n a p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c l a g , may, i n f a c t , enhance the development o f p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c skills"  (p.  75).  From t h e r e s u l t s i t appears t h a t  there was no d e t r i m e n t a l  effect  on t h e immersion p u p i l s ' l i n g u i s t i c development n o r an i n c r e a s e d incidence  of learning  disabilities.  F i n a l l y , r e s u l t s from the l a s t s p e c i a l i z e d t e s t ( P u p i l Scale) administered, revealed  Rating  t h a t the immersion group appears t o be  more independent, a s s e r t i v e and l e s s s o c i a b l e than t h e C o n t r o l The  group.  d i f f e r e n c e s a r e "Due l e s s t o t h e program than t o p r e s e l e c t i o n  f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the parents' choice t h e i r c h i l d r e n " (Edwards § C a s s e r l y ,  o f a second language o p t i o n f o r 1973, p. 58).  In some s t u d i e s , Edwards and C a s s e r l y  (1972a, 1972b, 1973)  i d e n t i f i e d the areas i n which the Ottawa r e s e a r c h from the S t . Lambert experiment.  The Ottawa immersion p u p i l s :  (a) a t t e n d e d a F r e n c h and an E n g l i s h K i n d e r g a r t e n , receive English  Language A r t s  project differed  i n s t r u c t i o n only  (b) began t o  i n Grade 3, and  21.  (c) were taught R e l i g i o u s s t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h at a l l grade  levels.  Toronto T o t a l F r e n c h immersion Grade 1 p u p i l s  groups  (Cohort I) o f K i n d e r g a r t e n and  e n r o l l e d i n a Toronto s c h o o l , l o c a t e d i n a middle  to upper-middle  c l a s s u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h a r e a , are compared t o  K i n d e r g a r t e n , Grade 1 and 2 p u p i l s r e c e i v i n g 20-40 minutes French as a second  of  language, and to t h e i r F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g peers  (Swain § B a r i k , 1978). immersion  a day  D e t a i l s on the p i l o t  programme are i n c l u d e d i n Sweet  K i n d e r g a r t e n French  (1974).  Swain and B a r i k ' s study (1978) concurs w i t h r e s u l t s o f o t h e r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , namely, t h a t , p u p i l s a f t e r completing K i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1 i n a t o t a l French immersion  programme, appear not to  s u f f e r any setback i n mental and c o g n i t i v e development. readiness s k i l l s  As f o r  a t the K i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l , Cohort I were e q u a l l y  p r e p a r e d t o e n t e r e i t h e r a r e g u l a r E n g l i s h programme or a French immersion  school.  Cohort I I ( K i n d e r g a r t e n ) were weaker on the  M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s (1964) i n r e l a t i o n t o the p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s sample  ( B a r i k § Swain, 1975b).  Cohort I I I , another sample o f K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , were a l s o s e l e c t e d i n accordance w i t h the B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n P r o j e c t ' s p l a n to e v a l u a t e t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e cohorts at each grade Swain, 1976a).  level  (Barik §  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s group showed a g r e a t e r degree  r e a d i n e s s than the r e g u l a r programme group and performed e a r l y s c h o o l achievement  tested i n English.  I t was  as w e l l  found t h a t  of on  these  22.  immersion  students had  learned more French than t h e i r E n g l i s h c o u n t e r -  p a r t s but t h e i r E n g l i s h s k i l l s were p o o r e r at the end o f Grade 1 (word knowledge, word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and r e a d i n g ) because t i o n had t a k e n p l a c e .  no i n s t r u c -  T h e i r l e v e l o f French had not y e t a t t a i n e d the  p r o f i c i e n c y e x h i b i t e d by n a t i v e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s but t h e y had mastered  mathematical  concepts p r e s e n t e d i n French.  In the second h a l f o f Grade 2, E n g l i s h Language A r t s i s i n t r o duced  at the r a t e o f 25 minutes p e r day  i n s p e l l i n g d i d immersion pupils  (Metropolitan  ( B a r i k § Swain, 1976d).  p u p i l s r a t e lower than r e g u l a r programme  Achievement T e s t ,  1970)  by l e s s than one y e a r .  S i n c e mathematics c o n s t i t u t e s another a r e a where immersion at  Only  p u p i l s are  p a r w i t h t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i f need be, a t r a n s f e r i n t o a  regular  programme i n Grade 3 s h o u l d be f e a s i b l e . In the f i n a l  r e p o r t o f the Toronto study at the Grade 3 l e v e l  ( B a r i k § Swain, 1976e),  no a n a l y s i s i s p r o v i d e d on the w r i t i n g  i n French and E n g l i s h .  At t h a t time an i n s t r u c t i o n a l change o c c u r r e d ;  2/3  o f i n s t r u c t i o n was  conducted  i n French, and  was  noted t h a t some d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g  c o h o r t over the l a s t two y e a r s may  1/3  i n English.  skills  It  i n the IQ data o f the same  have o n l y been a t t r i b u t e d t o  v a r i a t i o n s i n the composition o f the groups t e s t e d , and not t o t h e f a c t t h a t these p u p i l s were i n French immersion. i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l a g Cohort  I was  A l s o , the r e p o r t  exhibiting i n English  (Grade 2) i s not so marked at the Grade 3 l e v e l .  /  spelling  23.  S t a n i n e 4 was  o b t a i n e d by Grades 2 and 3 Toronto  immersion  p u p i l s on the T e s t de Rendement en F r a n p a i s (C.E.C.M.: " I n d i c a t i n g a l e v e l o f performance  1973-74)  e q u i v a l e n t to t h a t o f from 23% -  39% o f n a t i v e French-speaking p u p i l s o f the same grade l e v e l i n M o n t r e a l " ( B a r i k 5 Swain, 1976e, p. 4 0 ) . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t immersion  p u p i l s are a b l e t o perform  e q u i v a l e n t l y i n French i n a b i l i n g u a l as w e l l as i n a u n i l i n g u a l m i l i e u was  a c c e p t e d i n the study.  In t h e 1978  B a r i k and Swain study c i t e d e a r l i e r , on-going com-  p a r i s o n s were made between the Toronto and Ottawa immersion f u n c t i o n i n g i n two  different  as a f o r e i g n language.  pupils  s e t t i n g s , with students learning  French  Approximately t h e same r e s u l t s have been  o b t a i n e d upon examination o f these groups  though  e v a l u a t i o n , the Canadian T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s  i n the Toronto  (1968) and  IEA  L i s t e n i n g T e s t o f French as a F o r e i g n Language (1970), were not i n c l u d e d i n c o n t r a s t t o the Ottawa s t u d i e s  (Edwards § C a s s e r l y ,  1972a, 1972b). Cohort I I I s c o r e d s l i g h t l y lower than the Ottawa immersion i l s who  pup-  are c l o s e r t o the French i n f l u e n c e .  With  g r e a t e r time a l l o t t e d to F r e n c h , the T o r o n t o  immersion  students were s l i g h t l y ahead o f t h e i r Ottawa peers i n Grade 2 (French comprehension 60 minutes  and reading) who  o f French p e r day.  had j u s t begun to r e c e i v e  As t o French comprehension  (where a p p l i c a b l e ) they have been e q u a l l e d at a l l grade  and r e a d i n g levels  by  24.  both Toronto and Ottawa immersion Lastly, a different  pupils.  study by Tarone,  F r a u e n f e l d e r , and  Selinker  (1976) r e s u l t e d from a long-term d a t a c o l l e c t i o n process r e l a t e d t o the l o n g i t u d i n a l Toronto s t u d i e s i n Grades 1 and The authors d e v i s e d a system terns of s t a b i l i t y over t i m e . petence who  2 French  immersion.  f o r i d e n t i f y i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g p a t -  and i n s t a b i l i t y i n the l e a r n e r s ' i n t e r l a n g u a g e  Stability  i s seen i n i n d i v i d u a l s who  have a c q u i r e d com-  i n the language, whereas i n s t a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o i n d i v i d u a l s  are s t i l l  l e a r n i n g the language.  t h e o r e t i c a l model may  reflect  It i s ascertained that  this  on the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t e a c h e r  intervention. Elgin The implementation o f a b a l a n c e d b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n F r e n c h : morning;  50% i n E n g l i s h : a f t e r n o o n ) seemed t o be a n o v e l t y  compared w i t h t o t a l French immersion. mathematics,  (50% i n  music,  In Grades 1, 2, 3 and  and French Language A r t s  4,  (French r e a d i n g and  c o m p o s i t i o n s t a r t i n g i n Grade 2) are taught i n French and s u b j e c t s such as Language A r t s  ( E n g l i s h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g are taught i n  Grade 1 ) , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , s c i e n c e , s o c i a l in  s t u d i e s , a r t and  health,  English. The E l g i n County Board o f E d u c a t i o n i n i t i a t e d a. y e a r l y e v a l u a -  t i o n o f t h e i r b i l i n g u a l programme from Grade 1 t o Grade 6. o f the Grade 1 t o 4 s t u d i e s  ( B a r i k § Swain, 1974b, 1976c) are r e p o r t e d  h e r e , whereas Grade 5 and 6 e v a l u a t i o n s are given elsewhere al.,  1977;  B a r i k § Swain,  Findings  1978).  ( B a r i k et  25.  The  sample f o r the p r i m a r y grade s t u d i e s was  u a l p u p i l s who  t h a t there were no  the  (from K i n d e r g a r t e n ) ,  (where a p p l i c a b l e )  ability  (IQ)  biling-  were compared to r e g u l a r E n g l i s h programme c h i l d r e n ,  t o t a l French immersion pupils  made up o f  across  and  native-speaking  from Ottawa and T o r o n t o .  Results  revealed  d i f f e r e n c e s between groups i n terms o f mental a l l grades.  Thus, the programme d i d not  c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e development.  The  affect  same l e v e l o f a c q u i s i t i o n i s  reached at a l l l e v e l s i n a r i t h m e t i c which i s taught i n French  (tests  were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n E n g l i s h ) . In E n g l i s h language s k i l l s i t was  unusual t o see  the  partial  immersion p u p i l s p e r f o r m as w e l l as the r e g u l a r E n g l i s h p u p i l s  in  Grade 1 o n l y .  immer-  In Grade 2, however, they were b e h i n d the  s i o n p u p i l s and  the r e g u l a r E n g l i s h p u p i l s i n r e a d i n g .  t h a t they were s t i l l  lagging  i n Grade 3, but  E n g l i s h p u p i l s i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and However, by Grade 4, no  ils  f o r French s k i l l s  acquired  reading  I t was  noted  regular  comprehension.  r e s u l t s appeared to be more encouraging  r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e was As  at par with  total  since  seen. i n the  first  the same l e v e l as t o t a l  year, p a r t i a l  immersion pup-  immersion p u p i l s and  pupils  t a k i n g French as a second language from K i n d e r g a r t e n t o Grade 1, 40 minutes per scored  day.  In the second grade, p a r t i a l  lower than t o t a l  immersion p u p i l s  speaking Grade 1 s t u d e n t s , and second language i n Grades 1 and  immersion p u p i l s  (Grade 1 ) , as w e l l as  b e t t e r than p u p i l s t a k i n g 2 who  had  20-  native-  French as  taken French s i n c e  a  Kinder-  26.  garten.  Improvement was  "breakthrough"  i n French  e v i d e n t i n Grade 3 thus c o n s i d e r e d a comprehension and  i n t e r p r e t e d by a h i g h e r  m a t u r i t y l e v e l , p e r m i t t i n g the h a n d l i n g o f more complex t a s k s . The p a r t i a l  immersion p u p i l s were comparable t o Grade 1 t o t a l  immersion p u p i l s , w i t h 1% years o f French i n s t r u c t i o n and b e t t e r than p u p i l s t a k i n g French as a second Although  language i n Grades 1 and  the Grade 4 s c o r e s i n French comprehension were  below t o t a l  2.  still  immersion p u p i l s , r e a d i n g s c o r e s were b e t t e r than  total  immersion p u p i l s . The  above-mentioned d i f f e r e n c e s more c l e a r l y  evidenced i n  Grades 3 and 4 were p r o b a b l y due to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and factors.  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t i n Grades 1 and  would t e a c h i n b o t h languages.  I t may  pedagogical  2 the same t e a c h e r  be t h a t t h e m i x i n g o f l a n g -  uages would tend t o b r i n g about more c o n f u s i o n f o r the  pupils.  Another r e l e v a n t p o i n t to be c o n s i d e r e d i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f teaching  r e a d i n g i n the second  performance.  language f i r s t may  have r e s u l t e d i n h i g h e r  In the study, exposure to French took p l a c e i n Grade 1  and not i n K i n d e r g a r t e n as i t has been the "case i n o t h e r programmes. both  On  languages  the o t h e r hand, p a r e n t s ' involvement are taught  a t the same time.  h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t the problems encountered may  o n l y be temporary ones.  i n Appendix  B.  T e s t s used  Finally,  in partial  immersion  i s g r e a t e r when the  authors  immersion p u p i l s  i n the E l g i n study are  found  Montreal The first  P r o t e s t a n t School Board o f G r e a t e r Montreal  i n d e v e l o p i n g e a r l y , l a t e and p a r t i a l  programmes i n Canada. overview  French  (PSBGM) was  immersion  A f t e r a decade, Genesee (1979) p r e s e n t s  economic s t a t u s had been equated  and  Controls.  French-speaking  French and E n g l i s h s t a n d a r d i z e d language and some d e s i g n e d by the P r o t e s t a n t School Board  M o n t r e a l , measured d i f f e r e n t  socio-  immersion p u p i l s ' performance  compared with c a r e f u l l y matched E n g l i s h and  t e s t s and  an  i n the assessment o f these programmes by the PSBGM.  In the d e s i g n o f the l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n , IQ and  was  the  types o f s k i l l s  achievement of Greater  (Genesee e t a l . , 1977).  Genesee (1979) r e f e r r i n g t o the 6-year e v a l u a t i o n (Grade 1 t o 6) o f a French  immersion programme concurs with o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s (Lam-  b e r t § Tucker, and  1972), t h a t i n e a r l y immersion  2), a d e f i c i t  i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y i s t o be  l a c k o f formal i n s t r u c t i o n .  ( K i n d e r g a r t e n , Grade 1 found c o n s i d e r i n g the  Good readers i n French a r e g e n e r a l l y  a b l e t o decode E n g l i s h m a t e r i a l e a r l i e r on t h e i r own.  During the  y e a r p e r i o d (Grade 3 t o 5 ) , s p e l l i n g i s not y e t at grade l e v e l  two  but  p a s t the c r i t i c a l phase, immersion p u p i l s are a t par w i t h C o n t r o l students on a l l measures, i n c l u d i n g  writing.  Genesee a l s o found t h a t "Below-average s t u d e n t s i n immersion are a b l e t o a c h i e v e comparable l e v e l s o f competence i n t h e i r f i r s t uage" (Genesee, 1978a, p. 48).  The  lang-  same seemed to a p p l y f o r mathemat  i c s achievement when c o n t r a s t e d w i t h below-average s t u d e n t s i n the  28.  E n g l i s h programme.  The m a j o r i t y o f immersion  competence as t h e i r E n g l i s h peers i n In a d d i t i o n , i t was  p u p i l s a c q u i r e s the same  mathematics.  found t h a t t h e s e p u p i l s have s u p e r i o r know-  ledge o f the F r e n c h language over t h e i r E n g l i s h C o n t r o l s . o n l y i n l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g comprehension French C o n t r o l s t u d e n t s .  However,  are they at par w i t h  " D i s c r e t e - p o i n t " language  skills  p r e s s i o n and grammar) are weaker than decoding s k i l l s . have a c q u i r e d a p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f the language i n h i b i t e d and more c r e a t i v e i n u s i n g the language  (oral  In a l l ,  and are  they  less  than students  have f o l l o w e d the r e g u l a r French-as-a-second-language  ex-  who  programme.  The Grade 7 l a t e immersion  and the f o u r comparative e v a l u a t i o n s  o f t h e e a r l y and l a t e immersion  programmes f o r the P r o t e s t a n t S c h o o l  Board o f G r e a t e r M o n t r e a l are b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d i n Genesee's  overview  (1979) and e a r l i e r i n S t a n l e y (1974). Coquitlam In the B r i t i s h Columbia  c o n t e x t , t h e r e i s an agreement between  the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l government t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l the promotion  of b i l i n g u a l education.  s i o n programmes d i f f e r s  The  funds f o r  s t r u c t u r e o f French immer-  from p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  i n t h a t s t u d e n t s do  not have t h e same o p p o r t u n i t y as t h e i r p e e r s i n Quebec t o use  French  s i n c e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 99% o f the c h i l d r e n come from homes where o n l y E n g l i s h i s spoken. B i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n at the elementary i n the C o q u i t l a m s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  l e v e l was  o f B r i t i s h Columbia  f i r s t introduced i n 1968  (Shapson  29.  S Kaufman, 1978).  As a r e s u l t o f W i l t o n ' s  (1974) v i s i t s  to St.  Lambert and M o n t r e a l , the Coquitlam Board o f E d u c a t i o n d e c i d e d t o i n t r o d u c e , i n September 1973,  a 100%  F r e n c h K i n d e r g a r t e n and a Grade  1 c l a s s w i t h one more c l a s s added each y e a r . t r u e F r e n c h immersion  I t can be s a i d t h a t a  programme had been s e t up.  A r e p o r t o f the f i r s t  e v a l u a t i o n o f the Coquitlam programme  1973-74 s c h o o l y e a r f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1 c l a s s e s was by Kaufman and W i l t o n (1975). compared immersion basic s k i l l s , of  the f i r s t  The r e p o r t d i s c u s s e s the study t h a t  c l a s s e s t o E n g l i s h C o n t r o l c l a s s e s i n terms o f  mental  a b i l i t y and French comprehension.  study i n B r i t i s h Columbia  The  results  do n o t d i f f e r from the ones  p r e s e n t e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s such as the T o r o n t o study 1978) .  prepared  (Swain § B a r i k ,  Both e v a l u a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a f t e r one y e a r  immersion  s t u d e n t s i n K i n d e r g a r t e n are as p r e p a r e d as t h e i r E n g l i s h p e e r s , t o enrol  i n t o a Grade 1 c l a s s  class).  (French immersion  In French comprehension  o n l y b e t t e r than t h e i r E n g l i s h i n v o l v e d i n the Ottawa study  a t both grade  l e v e l s , they were not  (Swain § B a r i k , 1976a) who  development d i d not r e g r e s s because skills,  English  c o u n t e r p a r t s but s u p e r i o r t o c h i l d r e n  i n s t r u c t e d i n French f o r 20-40 minutes  language  or r e g u l a r  t h i s group who  p e r day.  Also,  o f the programme.  had been cognitive As f o r E n g l i s h  had o n l y r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n  F r e n c h c o u l d not match i t s p e e r s i n word r e c o g n i t i o n , word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and r e a d i n g , but performed to  t h e o t h e r , these immersion  b e t t e r i n mathematics.  From one  year  p u p i l s were becoming more p r o f i c i e n t i n  30.  the French  language.  A longitudinal to  (Shapson  e v a l u a t e the academic performance  students d u r i n g the f i r s t Cohort  I received  o f two  study was  s u c c e s s i v e cohorts of  f o u r years o f s c h o o l i n g (1972-1977).  II had  100% o f French u n t i l Grade 3 when E n g l i s h  i n t r o d u c e d f o r the f i r s t time.  R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on the  Cognitive A b i l i t i e s Test  (1974), showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  between French immersion  and E n g l i s h stream p u p i l s .  E n g l i s h language French s k i l l s  skills  to English s k i l l s  same l e v e l o f E n g l i s h language  performed  comparison,  Although b a s i c  i n c r e a s e d from one y e a r t o another p u p i l s had a l r e a d y a t t a i n e d the  skills  as t h e i r E n g l i s h c o u n t e r p a r t s . pupils  f a v o r a b l y a t the l e v e l o f t h e i r p e e r s i n Ottawa (Swain § ( B a r i k & Swain, 1975b).  II o b t a i n e d h i g h e r scores than Cohort  p r o b a b l y due t o a g r e a t e r exposure the Grade 3, Cohort s t u d e n t s who a day  differences  i n K i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1, immersion  B a r i k , 1976a) and T o r o n t o Cohort  Canadian  were low f o r both Cohorts, the t r a n s f e r o f  and by the end o f Grade 3 immersion  For  c a r r i e d out  80% o f French i n s t r u c t i o n i n K i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade  2, whereas Cohort was  § Kaufman, 1978)  In Grades 2 and  I i n French which  t o the language.  Interestingly,  II p u p i l s , were compared w i t h Grade 7 Coquitlam  were i n t h e i r t h i r d y e a r o f l e a r n i n g French 20  ( c o r e French programme).  The  B.C.  skills  f o r students who  minutes  F r e n c h Comprehension T e s t  ( E x p e r i m e n t a l v e r s i o n , 1976-77) "Developed French language  was  t o a s s e s s simple b a s i c  p r e v i o u s l y had a t l e a s t  years o f core F r e n c h " (p. 594), s e r v e d t o e v a l u a t e the Grade  3's  two  3,  31.  v o c a b u l a r y and comprehension.  I t was  found t h a t the immersion  pupils,  though much younger, had a t t a i n e d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p r o f i c i e n c y i h the F r e n c h language. S i n c e 1973,  a B.C.  Frency study i s conducted on a r e g u l a r b a s i s  by Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y s t a f f i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e the p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l o f F r e n c h a t t a i n e d by c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n t h i s type o f p r o gramme.  I n c l u d e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n i s the development  language s k i l l s .  of E n g l i s h  During the 1976-77 academic y e a r , 25 p a r t i c i p a t i n g  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were s u b j e c t to a d e t a i l e d s t u d y (B.C. French study) funded j o i n t l y by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and the Secretary of State.  A more recent e v a l u a t i o n o f an e a r l y  immersion  programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been conducted by Shapson and  Day  (1982) . The s u c c e s s o f t h i s type o f programme i n t h e west, paved the to the c r e a t i o n o f a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f immersion c l a s s e s  way  located  i n the most remote p l a c e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the Yukon and even the Northwest  Territories. S t u d i e s P e r t a i n i n g to S e l e c t e d F a c t o r s Success i n French Immersion  Affecting  Classrooms  Intelligence A l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w r e v e a l e d t h a t few number o f s t u d i e s have d e a l t s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e e f f e c t s F r e n c h language immersion programmes have on i n t e l l i g e n c e  (Samuels § G r i f f o r e ,  1979).  Whorfian's r e l a t i v i s m that t h e r e a r e two d i f f e r e n t  sorts of  32.  b i l i n g u a l s , coordinate uage a f t e r s c h o o l and  (late bilingualism:  l e a r n i n g a second  age, S e g a l o w i t z § Lambert, 1969;  compound ( e a r l y b i l i n g u a l i s m :  lang-  S t a f f o r d , 1968)  a c q u i r i n g both languages b e f o r e  going t o s c h o o l ) a r e u n j u s t i f i a b l e t o Macnamara (1970).  In t h i s  context he t i e s i n language a c q u i s i t i o n as t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f p r i o r n o n l i n g u i s t i c growth w i t h l i n g u i s t i c  functioning  showing "That t h e  majority  of l i n g u i s t i c universals  features  o f human i n t e l l i g e n c e " (p. 33); i n l i k e manner any language  can be t r a n s l a t e d  are due t o c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l  i n t o another.  H i s key i s s u e i s , does b i l i n g u a l i s m a f f e c t IQ? ledge as one among many f a c t o r s , can i n f l u e n c e intelligence.  r e f l e c t e d on lower v e r b a l  skills  IQ but n o t nonverbal IQ.  "There i s no reason t o b e l i e v e  should a f f e c t school  an  language compared t o u n i l i n g u a l s as  h i s b e l i e f t h a t once b i l i n g u a l s a c q u i r e  (p. 34).  IQ but not n e c e s s a r i l y  In h i s 1966 study, Macnamara r e c o g n i z e d the poor com-  mand o f b i l i n g u a l s ' school  derives  Language know-  From t h i s he  adequate language  that b i l i n g u a l i s m o f i t s e l f  p r o g r e s s i n any way, a d v e r s e l y  Even Cummins (1978b) emphasized t h a t  or b e n e f i c i a l l y "  "Bilingualism  a n a l y t i c o r i e n t a t i o n t o both l i n g u i s t i c and p e r c e p t u a l  promotes  structures"  (p. 872). Peal  and Lambert  teachers' ratings  (1962), i n comparing the i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s ,  and a t t i t u d e s between a group o f 89 b i l i n g u a l  1 0 - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n and 75 monolingual 10-year-olds i n 6 Francophone s c h o o l s i n Montreal found t h a t  " B i l i n g u a l s performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  33,  better than the monolinguals on both verbal and non-verbal  intelli-  gence t e s t s " (p. 22) and i n general are b e t t e r i n academic achievement.  Thus b i l i n g u a l i s m seemed to have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the  i n t e l l e c t u a l development of c h i l d r e n .  The purpose of t h i s study was  to examine "The e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l i s m on the i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n ing of c h i l d r e n and to explore the r e l a t i o n s between b i l i n g u a l i s m , school achievement, and students' a t t i t u d e s to the second language community" (p. 7), and, f i n a l l y , to f i n d out where a b i l i n g u a l person f e l l behind. Lambert and A n i s f e l d (1969) i n a follow-up study from the earl i e r Peal and Lambert experiment of 1962, i n t e r p r e t e d that b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n score b e t t e r than monolinguals on i n t e l l i g e n c e measures e i t h e r because they are already of higher i n t e l l i g e n c e and tend to become b i l i n g u a l or b i l i n g u a l education enhances general i n t e l l i g e n c e , or both. They c o n t r a d i c t e d Macnamara (1966) who considered the  1962  experiment questionable, i n view of the sample being biased with more i n t e l l i g e n t subjects from the s t a r t and on t h i s account, "He  suggests  that i t i s more reasonable to argue that the more i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d ren become b i l i n g u a l than i t i s to argue that becoming b i l i n g u a l influences i n t e l l e c t u a l development" (Lambert & A n i s f e l d , 1969, p. 126). In a l a t e r study when Peal and Lambert (1967) tested a group of u n i l i n g u a l children c a r e f u l l y matched f o r equal i n t e l l i g e n c e scores and socio-economic  l e v e l s , the b i l i n g u a l s possessing a greater mental  f l e x i b i l i t y , were s u p e r i o r .  The authors quote e a r l i e r research as  34.  f a i l i n g to adjust f o r socio-economic status and other v a r i a b l e s thus c r e a t i n g a f a l s e image.  U n t i l that time, the negative e f f e c t s o f  b i l i n g u a l education had been stressed i n research studies (Saer, 1923; Pintner, 1932; Jones & Stewart, 1951).  During t h i s e a r l y period,  there were"already studies supporting the favorable e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l i s m on i n t e l l i g e n c e (Davies $ Hughes, 1927; Stark, 1940) and some that found no e f f e c t of b i l i n g u a l i s m on i n t e l l i g e n c e ( H i l l , 1936; Pintner § Arsenian, 1937). In the l a t e s i x t i e s , Lambert and Macnamara (1969) examined the language-learning  capacity (English and French), mathematics and  general i n t e l l i g e n c e of Grade 1 French immersion c h i l d r e n i n comparison with two E n g l i s h Controls and one French c l a s s . equated on i n t e l l i g e n c e and socio-economic s t a t u s .  A l l classes were Testing f o r IQ  (Raven's Progressive Matrices, 1956) took place during the f i r s t and l a s t month of schooling i n order to determine the e f f e c t a year's t r a i n i n g i n French, would have on Experimentals'  measured i n t e l l i -  gence as suggested (Peal § Lambert, 1962; A n i s f e l d § Lambert, 1964). I n i t i a l l y , no s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s among groups were shown, but i n June ( l a s t month of the year) b i l i n g u a l s scored lower than one English Control only.  Socio-economic r e s u l t s from interviews  revealed r e l i a b l e group d i f f e r e n c e s .  One E n g l i s h Control c l a s s scored  the highest on the emphasis placed on education and the French Control the lowest.  The other English Controls were the highest and French  Controls the lowest on the q u a l i t y of l i n g u i s t i c environment.  35.  The second report (Lambert et a l . , 1970) c o n s t i t u t e s a continu i t y of the Lambert and Macnamara's 1969 study mentioned e a r l i e r . At present, the performance of a new set of Grade 1 students and that of the P i l o t Class placed now i n Grade 2 i s described.  The authors'  main purpose of evaluating another Grade 1 class was "To assess the s t a b i l i t y and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of l a s t year's r e s u l t s and...to r e examine the e f f e c t s , on the l i n g u i s t i c and mental development o f f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n , of two years' schooling (Kindergarten and Grade 1) conducted e x c l u s i v e l y i n a foreign language" (p. 230). As i n the previous year, two d i f f e r e n t English classes and a French class served as Controls t o the b i l i n g u a l Experimental Class.  Certain  modifications were made i n the administration o f t e s t s to the Followup Classes such as the a d d i t i o n to the same b a t t e r y o f t e s t s given the preceeding year, o f an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t (Lorge-Thorndike I n t e l ligence Scale, 1959), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Dunn, 1959) and L i s t e n i n g Comprehension; the l a s t two i n both English and French. Follow-up Grade 1 Experimentals conversely to the P i l o t Class (Grade 1), show n e i t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l r e t a r d a t i o n nor i n t e l l e c t u a l advantage (Raven's Matrices Test, 1958).  No group d i f f e r e n c e s were  seen on the Lorge-Thorndike measure at the end of the year. For the f i r s t time, the P i l o t Class at Grade 2 received d a i l y i n s t r u c t i o n of E n g l i s h Language Arts (25 minutes) i n the same way given to English stream students. The same format as i n previous evaluations was maintained con-  36.  s i d e r i n g a difference i n grade l e v e l .  Students were tested for read-  ing s k i l l s , s p e l l i n g and vocabulary i n E n g l i s h and the same measures were u t i l i z e d .  Results revealed that a f t e r only a year of l i m i t e d  formal t r a i n i n g i n E n g l i s h , the Experimental group achieved equivalent scores to the Control groups.  I t i s not known i f maturation or some  other factors could have caused such a r a p i d development of s k i l l s . Whether tested i n French or English, Experimental c h i l d r e n ranked as well as the Controls.  There was no evidence of i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f i c i t  or advantage f o r t h i s group.  F i n a l l y , o v e r a l l performance r e s u l t s  have not been a f f e c t e d by changes of modes of t e s t i n g , a n a l y s i s , teachers and methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . Genesee (1976b) r a i s e d the issue of the s u i t a b i l i t y of immersion programmes f o r children with low IQ (low academic a b i l i t y ) .  In that  he saw no c o r r e l a t i o n between IQ and the a c q u i s i t i o n of speaking l i s t e n i n g comprehension.  and  As to e a r l i e r studies stated, they regarded  i n t e l l i g e n c e as a dependent v a r i a b l e , the influence of b i l i n g u a l i s m on general i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Whereas today, i t has become an independent  v a r i a b l e , the influence of general i n t e l l i g e n c e (IQ level) on performance i n French immersion. Since o r a l (verbal) s k i l l s are e s s e n t i a l , the higher the IQ,  the  higher the performance on tests of verbal s k i l l s , and the demands of an immersion programme are met  (high c o r r e l a t i o n between IQ and per-  formance on t e s t s of verbal s k i l l s ) .  Low  IQ i s no longer considered  an impediment i n s u c c e s s f u l l y learning a second language (Gardner §  Lambert, 1972;  Dockrell § Brosseau, 1967).  Other v a r i a b l e s such as  a t t i t u d e s and motivation have attenuated the importance of i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g when academic demands of a second language diminish. Furthermore, Genesee discovered that below-average students can acquire o r a l ( l i s t e n i n g and speaking s k i l l s )  language s k i l l s to the  same extent as average or above-average students.  I t appears that the  comprehension of a foreign language i s not r e l a t e d to a l e v e l of IQ (the  reverse happens when second language academic s k i l l s are consid-  ered) .  He suggests that a non-academic approach to teaching French  can meet the needs of a greater population with a wide range of abilities  (including below-average students) and consequently the  mother tongue w i l l not s u f f e r from an immersion programme. From her research, Swain (1975) found no c o r r e l a t i o n between IQ and measurements i n E n g l i s h , French, and mathematics of c h i l d r e n from Kindergarten to Grade 2.  She summarizes that "The c o r r e l a t i o n a l  analyses of the IQ and achievement data do not support the notion that IQ plays a more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the Immersion program than i n a regular E n g l i s h program.  Furthermore, learning to understand a second  language i s of a l l s k i l l s measured, the least dependent on IQ" (p. 15). As stated by Mackey (1971), the b i l i n g u a l learning s i t u a t i o n i s i n f l u enced by a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e , a t t i t u d i n a l , s o c i a l and educational factors. Macnamara, Edwards, and Bain (1978) approached the i n t e r r e l a t i o n ship between IQ and a b i l i n g u a l education by issuing such a statement:  38.  "There i s very l i t t l e evidence that would suggest that having a b i l i n g u a l education mental a b i l i t y .  automatically r e s u l t s i n someone having a greater But, by the same token, there i s very  little  evidence that suggests that having a b i l i n g u a l education has a detrimental e f f e c t on the i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s .  I f there i s a  reason f o r a c q u i r i n g the second language i t i s s o c i a l intercourse or opportunity, i t ' s not because of i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s " (p. 893). A d e f i n i t e conclusion was a r r i v e d by T r i t e s (1981) who stated that at the Kindergarten  l e v e l , academic achievement i n reading,  s p e l l i n g , and a r i t h m e t i c measures i n E n g l i s h was best predicted by IQ.  Besides, IQ was of greater importance when p r e d i c t i n g achievement  on measures i n the English language than when p r e d i c t i n g achievement i n French.  However, no f u r t h e r explanation was provided on t h i s  issue. Cognitive Development Some studies have attempted t o evaluate the area o f cognition as i t r e l a t e s t o b i l i n g u a l education.  From the l i t e r a t u r e surveyed  i t appears that e a r l y preschool b i l i n g u a l i s m whether i t be French or another second language stimulates c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e development and enhances t h e i r self-concept.  In h i s study, Oren (1981) adminis-  tered three t e s t s to f o r t y - n i n e preschool b i l i n g u a l (Hebrew and English) and monolingual c h i l d r e n :  Reading readiness  questionnaire  (Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test, 1951); object constancy t e s t ; naming and r e l a b e l i n g t e s t s .  The b i l i n g u a l group surpassed the other  39.  subjects i n the naming and r e l a b e l i n g tasks.  In a d d i t i o n the group  had attained a h i g h e r degree of p r o f i c i e n c y i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g objects and t h e i r corresponding symbols (Piaget's object constancy theory p r e d i c t i n g the a b i l i t y to name and label) as a r e s u l t of e a r l y exposure to t-wo d i f f e r e n t coding systems. A negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i l i n g u a l i s m and cognition was seen i n Macnamara's work (1966).  Previous studies have involved sub-  j e c t s from lower socio-economic status whereas l a t e r studies have focused on subjects from middle and upper-class.  This may have had  an impact on the IQ scores obtained when comparing groups.  Results  from Macnamara's study concluded on the basis of an immersion study conducted i n Ireland found that there i s a "balance e f f e c t " i n language l e a r n i n g ( c h i l d r e n learn a second language: L2 at the cost o f t h e i r f i r s t language: LI) when greater emphasis i s placed on the a c q u i s i t i o n of a second language (early French immersion) and also, when i n s t r u c t i o n i s given through a second language at a mediocre l e v e l r e s u l t s r e l a t e d to content w i l l be poor. But i n c a r r y i n g out more accurate research s t u d i e s , Lambert (1975) r e f e r r e d to "additiveness" as a process i n which subjects who are  now more "balanced" b i l i n g u a l s (same degree of competence i n  both languages) acquire a high l e v e l of second language without l o s i n g t h e i r l e v e l o f t h e i r f i r s t language. According to Cummins (1979b), a minimal l e v e l o f competence i n f i r s t language ("threshold hypothesis") i . e . the required c o g n i t i v e -  40.  linguistic skills, guage.  i s n e c e s s a r y f o r p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n second  The d a t a i s based on samples  l i t e r a c y s k i l l s a r e poor.  lan-  o f m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n whose  He i d e n t i f i e d t h a t t h e primary p r e d i c t o r s  o f s u c c e s s i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n f o r the c h i l d , a r e h i s / h e r c o g n i t i v e and l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s . t h a t "There may  He c o n c l u d e d e a r l i e r  be a t h r e s h o l d l e v e l o f l i n g u i s t i c  (1977)  competence which  a b i l i n g u a l c h i l d must a t t a i n both i n o r d e r t o a v o i d  cognitive  d e f i c i t s and a l l o w t h e p o t e n t i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l a s p e c t s o f becoming bilingual  t o i n f l u e n c e h i s c o g n i t i v e growth.  Immersion  program  If a child  i n an  a t t a i n s only a v e r y low l e v e l o f competence i n h i s  second language, h i s i n t e r a c t i o n through t h a t language w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g l y s y m b o l i c environment  i s u n l i k e l y t o o p t i m a l l y promote h i s  c o g n i t i v e and academic p r o g r e s s " (p. 10). Cummins' t h r e s h o l d h y p o t h e s i s was b e i n g s u p p o r t e d by B a r i k and Swain i n t h e i r Ottawa and Toronto s t u d i e s  (1976d, 1976e) i n which  the e f f e c t s o f b i l i n g u a l i s m on c o g n i t i v e development  have been r e -  affirmed. ' In a unique s t u d y , Maurice and Roy ment o f b i l i n g u a l i s m u s i n g Hunt's  (1976) d e a l t w i t h the measure-  (French and E n g l i s h languages i n French  T e r m i n a b l e - U n i t ( T - u n i t ) , and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s .  and E n g l i s h spoken and w r i t t e n languages were e v a l u a t e d on a  immersion) French sample  o f Grade 2, 4 and 6 p u p i l s i n terms o f the number o f words produced, T - u n i t s , and l i n g u i s t i c m a t u r i t y , mean T - u n i t l e n g t h .  The speech  samples were based on a s t o r y t o l d i n French and E n g l i s h , a f t e r  seeing  41.  a film.  A w r i t t e n composition was  mediate grade l e v e l s . linguistic reached;  Obtained  r e s u l t s suggest  i n French  measure s i n c e concepts  Downing (1978) looked at f i r s t s i d e r i n g a second  linguistic  i n a v a r i e t y o f ways.  concepts  con-  ( i . e . L2 phonemes i n r e a d -  In the Canadian s e t t i n g  p a r t i c u l a r l y , p a r e n t s e n r o l t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n a French programme v o l u n t a r i l y .  One  immersion  would be i n c l i n e d t o see the  and m o t i v a t i o n v a r i a b l e s become h i g h as "To  (p. 335).  affective  overcome the c o g n i t i v e  by the mismatch between the LI o f past  and the L2 o f i n s t r u c t i o n "  speech  authors  language a c q u i s i t i o n b e f o r e  ing) are unknown t o the c h i l d i n L I .  positive affect  T-  language by r e f e r r i n g to a " c o g n i t i v e c o n f u s i o n "  which i s bound t o o c c u r when new  c o n f u s i o n produced  The  to make an accurate  can be expressed  been  ( i n c r e a s e d mean l e n t h  be due to m o t i v a t i o n r a t h e r than competence.  do admit t h a t i t i s indeed d i f f i c u l t  inter-  that a t r a n s f e r o f  a b i l i t y i s f e a s i b l e once a m a t u r i t y l e v e l has  a l s o , the h i g h r e s u l t s  u n i t s ) may  then r e q u i r e d f o r the two  experience  In Downing's judgment, t h i s  does not e l i m i n a t e c o g n i t i v e c o n f u s i o n ( f e a t u r e s o f  and w r i t i n g ) nor the d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s o c i a t i n g r e a d i n g i n L2  with t h e i r past e x p e r i e n c e o f L I . young c h i l d r e n are i n i t i a l l y  B e t t e r p r o g r e s s i s noted when  taught i n t h e i r f i r s t  language,  however,  s i n c e the a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n immersion i t may some way  o v e r s t e p the c o g n i t i v e d e f i c i t s and h e l p e x p l a i n the  i n s t r u c t i o n can be g i v e n i n L2 a t f i r s t . c o n s i d e r p a s t experiments  in reason  In s h o r t , Downing does not  on Canadian French  immersion to be  too  42.  r e l i a b l e since the samples are above average i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and'in socio-economic s t a t u s . P o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n introducing a f o r e i g n language as stated by Stern (1973a) can even e n t a i l p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on cognitive processes Landry (1972) even hypothesized fluency and divergent t h i n k i n g tasks of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g a second language at the elementary school As an example, the St. Lambert Experiment proved that t h i n k i n g a b i l i t y was  divergent  even superior f o r the primary immersion p u p i l s  i n comparison with the Controls (Bruck et a l . , 1974; 1973)  level  Lambert et a l . ,  and t h i s may have been due to the f a c t that the s p e c i a l immer-  sion s e t t i n g influences the development of c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e processes . Lambert and Tucker (1978) r e l a t e d to four c o g n i t i v e happenings, not f u l l y understood to t h i s day.  The f i r s t c o g n i t i v e process  c a l l e d " i n c i p i e n t c o n t r a s t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s " r e f e r s to the comparison ( f i n d i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s ) and contrasting ( f i n d i n g differences) of two l i n g u i s t i c codes s t a r t i n g with t r a n s l a t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y ending by b u i l d i n g vocabulary, as seen from the p u p i l s ' performance on English t e s t s of vocabulary.  L i n g u i s t i c "detective" s k i l l s , as the second  process, were developing also spontaneously.  C h i l d r e n were indeed  attending to words, meanings and l i n g u i s t i c r e g u l a r i t i e s and  ob-  tained better-than-expected scores i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , l i s t e n i n g , comprehension, and reading i n French. the " t r a n s f e r of higher-order  In the t h i r d process c a l l e d  s k i l l s of reading and computation"  43.  acquired through the medium of French only, the school-learned concepts develop before the everyday concepts.  This b e l i e f follows  c l o s e l y with Vygotsky's (1962) work showing that "A c h i l d ' s strong points i n a f o r e i g n language are h i s weak points i n h i s native language, and v i c e versa" (pp. 109-110). At the i n i t i a l stage of learning a f o r e i g n language, the c h i l d i s already conscious of the grammatical forms and consequently develops an awareness of the l i n g u i s t i c operations i n h i s n a t i v e language.  The fourth and l a s t cognitive process i d e n t i f i e s s t r a t e -  gies these c h i l d r e n use to develop expressive competence i n French. The p u p i l s have greater ease to read and invent a story than r e t e l l a s t o r y they have heard because the w r i t t e n form i s a dependable frame of reference. In French verbal s k i l l s , immersion c h i l d r e n seem to use nonl i n g u i s t i c s t r a t e g i e s to make the content c l e a r as recognized by Bruck, Lambert, and Tucker (1976b).  The authors documented the  e f f e c t s French immersion has had on children's cognitive  development.  In a l o n g i t u d i n a l study that covered seven years, each spring P i l o t , Follow-up and Control Classes were evaluated.  Results showed no  signs of cognitive d i f f i c u l t y when comparing groups, but Grade 6 Experimentals scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on measures of c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y (Raven's Standard Progressive M a t r i c e s , 1958; Thorndike I n t e l l i g e n c e Test, Level 3, Form A, 1954-66).  LorgeExpressive  competence was evaluated on the basis of a f i l m children had seen.  Experimentals t o l d the story four times:  to a classmate i n French  and E n g l i s h , and to an adult i n both languages.  The immersion p u p i l s  presented fewer subdetails e l i m i n a t i n g p o s s i b l e embellishments i n the language the French Controls would presumably have brought i n . Experimentals'  communicative s t y l e d i f f e r e d from English Controls when  speaking to a peer and to an adult p r i m a r i l y because they "Have d e f i n i t e l y been educated i n a more adult-oriented classroom than the Controls since f o r them the teacher i s the main l i n g u i s t i c source" (p. 23). It follows that French Experimentals speak more to adults than to peers whereas the reverse i s observed i n the French Control  group  who a d d i t i o n a l l y would t e l l d i f f e r e n t types of s t o r i e s to peers and adults. Research i n the e a r l i e r grades of French immersion seemed to have focused i t s a t t e n t i o n on the treatment e f f e c t on the c h i l d ' s cognitive development and academic achievement.  As can be seen, no  evidence o f such an e f f e c t was demonstrated i n Barik, Swain and McTavish (1974) evaluation of Kindergarten and Grade 1 pupils (Experimentals and English stream students).  Both groups showed equal  pre-reading s k i l l s , i n other words, immersion p u p i l s were as ready as regular programme pupils to enter an English Grade 1 c l a s s .  In  s p i t e of the f a c t that the Experimentals were behind i n English when tested i n Grade 1, they were already capable of making the t r a n s f e r of reading and arithmetic s k i l l s from French to English.  The Exper-  45.  imentals had supremacy i n French over c h i l d r e n learning the language as a subject though not i n regard to t h e i r native French-speaking peers. Reference i s made to Neufeld (1974) who emphasized that b i l i n g ual children are not n e c e s s a r i l y superior to t h e i r peers i n terms of problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y , concept learning, abstract reasoning and general academic achievement.  Neufeld's research i n t h i s f i e l d sug-  gests one would see the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f b i l i n g u a l i s m and a l l i t e n t a i l s (attitudes and f e e l i n g s towards the new language philosophy). He f i n d s that supportive data as to the increase o f cognitive and verbal s k i l l s as a r e s u l t o f learning a foreign language were not sufficient. Some researchers have designed studies that have focused on both IQ and cognitive development o f students i n immersion classes. ings o f a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of b i l i n g u a l and c o g n i t i v e  Find-  development  by Barik and Swain (1976b), were presented at the Annual Conference of the Canadian Society f o r the Study on Education, Laval, Quebec i n June 1976.  For a period o f f i v e years, a sample o f French immersion  and regular English p u p i l s (Kindergarten to Grade 7) from Toronto and Ottawa (French as a second language was only taught f o r a short d a i l y p e r i o d ) , were administered IQ t e s t s (Canadian Cognitive A b i l i t i e s Test - Nonverbal Battery CCAT, 1974 f o r Group IV, and the Otis-Lennon Mental A b i l i t y Test, 1967, i n the primary grades).  Yearly IQ differences  were not seen between both groups though the immersion group scored  46.  higher over the 5-year period (through repeated measures a n a l y s i s ) , thus the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between b i l i n g u a l i s m and cognitive f u n c t i o n i n g were questioned. Time of Exposure to Second Language T r a i n i n g The question often asked i s :  When i s the best time f o r a c h i l d  to learn a f o r e i g n language or be placed i n a French immersion programme? From the l i t e r a t u r e i t seems that learning French i s best i n : (a) an e a r l y French immersion programme, or (b) a l a t e French immersion programme, or (c) also i n some s t u d i e s , the age f a c t o r or grade l e v e l was i r r e l e v a n t . To date studies on French immersion have not looked i n depth at the advantages of w e l l developed f i r s t - l a n g u a g e s k i l l s when learning a second language at an early age.  Among the e a r l i e r studies on  French E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l i s m , MacKay (1967) recognized that when using a l e s s f a m i l i a r language as a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n a sudden s h i f t from one language.to another may cause language interference.  To  some extent t h i s was evident i n the St. Lambert study. A l s o , no empirical support f o r the "optimal age" theory was found by B u r s t a l l , Jamieson, Cohen and Hargreaves (1974) i n a ten-year l o n g i t u d i n a l study of 18,000 B r i t i s h primary-school children with e a r l y t r a i n i n g i n French as a second language.  In a l i t e r a t u r e  review, Stern (1982) looked at core French (programmes of French as a second language taught as a subject) as opposed to immersion French  47.  i n terms of s t a r t i n g grade, i n s t r u c t i o n a l time and i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials.  S t a r t i n g age i s l e s s important than sometimes argued,  n e i t h e r s t a r t i n g age nor grade l e v e l should outweigh such considerations as the appropriateness of the curriculum, the c o n t i n u i t y of the  i n s t r u c t i o n , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of appropriate s t a f f , and the  p r o v i s i o n o f s u i t a b l e and adequate learning m a t e r i a l s . Results obtained from a comparative study by Cziko, Holobow, and Lambert (1977), that evaluated the e f f e c t s of early and Grade 7 immersion programmes on English and French language s k i l l s of students at the end o f Grade 7 showed that e a r l y immersion has indeed a greater impact on the development of French language s k i l l s than does seventh grade immersion, but that the former fostered the development of speaking s k i l l s . P e n f i e l d ' s view (1965) that a c h i l d can best learn a second language before the age of twelve to fourteen years ( i . e . before the f u n c t i o n a l connections of the uncommitted cortex become fixed) had o r i g i n a l l y been used i n support of e a r l y immersion.  Weininger (1982)  states Penfield's "Hypothesis of a 'switch mechanism' operating between the two cerebral hemispheres enabling the c h i l d to turn from one language to the other without confusion, t r a n s l a t i o n , or accent seems to provide a p h y s i o l o g i c a l p a r a l l e l to the t h e o r e t i c a l concept of co-ordinate b i l i n g u a l i s m " (p. 21).  The e a r l y stage f o r second-  language l e a r n i n g (optimal age) remained c r u c i a l .  However, w i t h new  f i n d i n g s r e l a t i v e to the language capacity of the r i g h t hemisphere  48  and the concept of innate language a b i l i t y p a r t i a l l y created by  the  c h i l d (Chomsky, 1959) , Penfield's model seems to have been ignored for the time being. Macnamara (1976) contradicted e a r l i e r studies ( P e n f i e l d § Robe r t s , 1959]  Lenneberg, 1967)  i n that the functions of a second  language i n a normal c h i l d or adult are located i n the same areas as the functions of the f i r s t language. nativists  ( P e n f i e l d , 1959;  I t seems c r i t i c a l f o r the  Lenneberg, 1967)  to take advantage of the  c h i l d ' s neural p l a s t i c i t y of the brain and the development of c e r e b r a l , hemispheric l a t e r a l i z a t i o n . need more time to learn a new  Immature learners (younger learners)  may  language because they must a l s o acquire  e s s e n t i a l l i n g u i s t i c perceptual, motor, s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l  skills.  The more "mature" f o r e i g n language learner has h i s c o g n i t i v e system already  organized.  As Taylor (1974) s a i d , a b i l i n g u a l c h i l d "Is b u i l d i n g h i s conceptual network at the same time as he i s learning h i s languages" (p. 116) .  In the c o g n i t i v e network, the c h i l d b u i l d s l a b e l s and  s y n t a c t i c programmes corresponding to both languages.  Also i t was  found that "A person who becomes b i l i n g u a l as an i n f a n t should have a greater opportunity to be t r u l y c r e a t i v e than one whose b i l i n g u a l ism was  acquired l a t e r " (p.  117).  Macnamara (1975) did believe that learning a second language depends on the age and the s e t t i n g i n that a young c h i l d encounters a d i f f e r e n t learning experience when he goes to school since he i s  :  49.  immersed and he/she i s able to learn a second language i n the same fashion as h i s mother tongue.  S i m i l a r l y , MacNab (1981) also d i s -  covered that "Second language learning i s much l i k e f i r s t language l e a r n i n g " (p. 42).  He explains the two overlapping phrases i n second  language l e a r n i n g :  f i r s t , the learning of vocabulary and s t r u c t u r e s  (already known i n one's f i r s t language) and second, the development of complex ideas and understandings ( s i m i l a r to f i r s t language learning) .  The speed o f l e a r n i n g depends on the maturation l e v e l and  ability. Anderson, Wallace Past and Cude Past (1978) provide evidence that young c h i l d r e n are able to learn two languages i n the same way that the u n i l i n g u a l c h i l d learns one.  The authors r e l a t e to the  e a r l y a c q u i s i t i o n of two languages i n i n d i v i d u a l case studies (Soderbergh, 1977;  Past A., 1976;  Past K., 1976;  C h r i s t i a n , 1976 £ 1977).  At a very e a r l y age, subjects achieved success not only i n o r a l expression but also i n reading.  The examples c i t e d i n these studies  "Give some i n s i g h t i n t o the tremendous language-learning c a p a b i l i t i e s of young c h i l d r e n and the great pleasure they derive from being able to develop these c a p a b i l i t i e s through reading" (p. 159). There were however, a number of studies strongly supporting the e a r l y immersion option as being the most b e n e f i c i a l to the c h i l d . The e f f i c a c y o f such a programme i n various countries i s reported by Morgan (1982).  I t seems therefore obvious that "harmful" e f f e c t s of  early exposure to a second language proposed by Jakobovits (1972)  50.  can no longer hold true. Schumann (1975) considered that there e x i s t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r ences i n learning a foreign language.  Among the many f a c t o r s con-  t r i b u t i n g to the success i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n , he discusses the problem" of age i n that the mastery can occur at a young age as well as i n adulthood.  He r e f e r s t o P e n f i e l d and Roberts (1959) who  maintained that once c o r t i c a l l a t e r a l i z a t i o n has been completed i n the l e f t cerebral cortex (language development) at puberty, adults f i n d i t more d i f f i c u l t t o learn a second language.  S o c i a l and psychologi-  cal maturation may also a f f e c t the development of b i l i n g u a l s k i l l s among the adult learner.  Children on the contrary are not threatened  by the sounds o f a d i f f e r e n t language.  They i m i t a t e t h e i r peers, and  can be s t r o n g l y motivated by the community (school, parents, etc.) where more opportunities to learn and use the target language are being o f f e r e d .  Since younger learners do not f e e l i n h i b i t e d they have  a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward learning a second language (Gardner ct Lambert, 1972).  However, i t i s noted that motivated adolescents can  become more e f f i c i e n t learners o f a foreign language. It can be hypothesized  that the reason why e a r l y immersion stu-  dents are more p r o f i c i e n t i n French than the l a t e - s t a r t e r s may be considered i n terms of the duration f a c t o r rather than the s t a r t i n g age. Genesee (1978b) informs that research to t h i s day focuses on the comparison of age i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n i n terms- of E n g l i s h  as a second language and/or French as a second language.  Researchers  have been i n favor of beginning i n s t r u c t i o n e a r l i e r f o r c o g n i t i v e , neuropsychological and a f f e c t i v e reasons by emphasizing innate language learning mechanisms (Chomsky, 1972;  M c N e i l l , 1970) or c o g n i t i v e /  l i n g u i s t i c " p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s possessed by a l l c h i l d r e n which f a c i l i t a t e the n a t u r a l a c q u i s i t i o n of a second language.  However, i n a study i n  which a French cloze t e s t was used to evaluate the lead group of students i n e a r l y , p a r t i a l and l a t e immersion programmes, Swain (1978) draws a t e n t a t i v e conclusion i n favor of the e a r l y t o t a l immersion programme.  I t appears that more advantages seemed t o derive from  e a r l y a c q u i s i t i o n of a f o r e i g n language (Cummins, 1978a;  Swain §  Lapkin, 1981) since the i n i t i a l language b a r r i e r i s l e s s n o t i c e a b l e and L2 communicational s k i l l s develop more e f f i c i e n t l y . As Swain points out i n the Canadian context "The e a r l y immersion i s no longer i n the experimental stage.  I t i s an innovative pro-  gramme f o r the teaching of French as a second language which has met w i t h considerable success" (1976b, p. 187).  Weininger (1982) expands  by c l a r i f y i n g that should younger c h i l d r e n be i n f a c t exposed to a foreign language e a r l i e r , an attempt ought be made to "Devise methods which serve to introduce them to the second language and culture i n an informal way as a preparation f o r l a t e r intensive language l e a r n i n g " (p. 35). In another study dealing with e a r l y French immersion, Cummins (1981) hypothesized that future academic achievement i n immersion may  depend on exposure to French and/or E n g l i s h i n Kindergarten and that there are d i f f e r e n t i a l effects f o r f u l l - d a y b i l i n g u a l versus half-^ day French or E n g l i s h Kindergarten which are influenced by l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds and socio-economic  status.  Comparisons were made on the  basis o f data obtained from the Ottawa-Carleton major evaluations (Swain § B a r i k , 1976a;  Edwards § Casserly, 1976; Mclnnis § Donoghue  1976), only considered tentative according t o Cummins, since only Catholic and non-Catholic middle-class Anglophone children were involved.  Other l i m i t a t i o n s were the v a r i a t i o n i n the curriculum and  d i f f e r e n t teams of researchers as w e l l as i n evaluation instruments. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that no c l e a r trends emerged i n the comparison o f f u l l - d a y b i l i n g u a l (half-day French Kindergarten and h a l f day English Kindergarten) and half-day E n g l i s h Kindergarten.  At the  Grade 1 l e v e l nonetheless, exposure to French i n Kindergarten i n f l u enced subsequent performance i n French, so apparent i n Grades 2 and 3 No s u p e r i o r i t y i n outcomes was seen between f u l l - d a y b i l i n g u a l ( h a l f day French Kindergarten and half-day English Kindergarten) and h a l f day French Kindergarten. There were however, c e r t a i n proponents o f delaying exposure t o second language a c q u i s i t i o n who favored the l a t e immersion a l t e r n a tive.  Intermediate immersion (Edwards § Smyth, 1976) d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  the e a r l y French immersion option i n that i t begins as l a t e as Grade 3 or 5. Children have then already been given i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h Language A r t s .  Some fears had been expressed as to the impact delay-  53.  ing native language i n s t r u c t i o n would have on reading and w r i t i n g (LI).  Among the 168 school boards across Canada surveyed by the  authors, there were only four with t h i s type o f programme therefore, i t was found d i f f i c u l t to draw d e f i n i t e conclusions as to f e a s i b i l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y . The authors a l s o looked at the option o f implementing a l a t e immersion programme (a one or two-year programme i n Grades 6 to 9) for p u p i l s who did not have the opportunity o f learning French earlier.  Reference i s made to the Peel and other studies conducted i n  Brampton (Barik ct Swain, 1976a), Montreal (Genesee et a l . , 1974) and Ottawa (Edwards § Smyth, 1975).  Students progressed very well i n  French (which was not at a l l r e l a t e d to i n t e l l i g e n c e ) and they demons t r a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n learning the language and content mastery though not taught i n E n g l i s h , d i d not s u f f e r . In t h i s respect, a one-year immersion programme i s proposed by Bruck, Lambert and Tucker (1976a) f o r c h i l d r e n who did not have the opportunity o f learning French i n the primary grades.  The study i n  question assesses the l e v e l of French p r o f i c i e n c y between early immersion p u p i l s and those enrolled i n a one-year programme only.  The  former group achieved a higher l e v e l during that p a r t i c u l a r period but at a l a t e r date (high school f o r example) the competence l e v e l might have been equal. No firm conclusions were made as to the und e s i r a b i l i t y o f a l a t e immersion programme and i t remained an openended question.  54.  In describing the extent o f French immersion language programmes i n Canada over the past decade, Swain (1981) r e l a t e s to the o l d e r s ' tendency to be more e f f i c i e n t learners i n some aspects o f second language learning though there e x i s t advantages i n s t a r t i n g e a r l i e r i n an i n t e n s i v e programme. Hamayan et a l . (1978) found that Grade 6 b i l i n g ual students when tested f o r sentence r e p e t i t i o n or e l i c i t e d i m i t a t i o n outperformed the Grade 4 students. a maturity or age f a c t o r .  This could have been a t t r i b u t e d to  When these groups were compared with French  monolinguals a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l grammars ( s y n t a c t i c s t r u c tures) was markedly relevant.  Also Cummins (1979a) saw older learners  more capable of learning syntax and morphology o f a second language. I t i s the contrary f o r o r a l fluency, phonology (accent) and l i s t e n i n g comprehension. According to Taylor (1974), delaying the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a f o r eign language can be more b e n e f i c i a l .  He claims that "The adult's  more advanced c o g n i t i v e maturity would allow him to deal with the abstract nature o f language even better than c h i l d r e n " (pp. 32-33). Likewise Weininger (1982) favors the postponement o f immersion to a l a t e r stage when c h i l d r e n "Are able to make use o f a much l a r g e r r e p e r t o i r e of approaches to the new language and c u l t u r e .  It is  believed that t h e i r higher l e v e l of development i n the mother tongue and t h e i r greater l i t e r a c y would enable them to e x p l o i t c o n t r a s t i v e and s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s " (p. 35). To conclude, Cummins (1982) makes a point by s t a t i n g , "The  55.  p r i n c i p a l reason why immersion programs work well at any grade l e v e l derives from t h e i r use of the L2 to transmit meaningful academic and interpersonal content. The age of the learner may influence the a c q u i s i t i o n process i n a subtle way, but i t does not appear to be a major f a c t o r i n the success or f a i l u r e of the program" (p. 41).  To  MacNab (1981) s t a r t i n g age i s unimportant also since there are pract i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e s i n the end-result between e a r l y - e n t r y and late-entry students.  One must bear i n mind that as a r u l e of thumb  the e a r l y - e n t r y students have received twice as many hours of French i n s t r u c t i o n when compared with late-entry students at Grade 4 or 7. Five years e a r l i e r , Genesee (1976b) noted that whether a c h i l d i s exposed t o the French language i n Kindergarten, Grade 1, 4, 7 or 8, some most important factors to be considered are that the c h i l d r e n , (a) have no d i f f i c u l t y adjusting to the programme; (b) a l l learn French; (c) develop normal native language s k i l l s ; (d) acquire prescribed course m a t e r i a l ; and, (e) s u f f e r no i n t e l l e c t u a l impairment. Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s and Other Factors In the beginning 1970's, researchers began to focus on reasons why c e r t a i n p u p i l s were performing poorly i n a French immersion programme.  Some of the questions asked were:  (1) Was i t due to a lack of aptitude f o r second language learning?  (2) Was i t the c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e towards learning a second  language?  (3) Was the age inappropriate at which a c h i l d would s t a r t  to learn a second language?  (4) Was i t due to h y p e r a c t i v i t y , r e s t -  lessness, inattentiveness? tors?  (5) Was i t due to some inheritance fac-  (reading d i s a b i l i t i e s i n the f a m i l y ) . It i s normal to see cognitive d e f i c i t s and learning problems i n  every French immersion classroom.  I f a c h i l d i s referred f o r " b i l i n g -  ual  i n t e r f e r e n c e i n reading" (Wagner, 1976) i t does not c o n s t i t u t e  the  base o f the reading problem though the s o - c a l l e d d y s l e x i c syndrome  i s seen i n both languages i n varying degrees.  Remediation should  accordingly be achieved i n the two languages and English (LI) taught f i r s t (Strong, 1972).  Wagner quotes Lambert and Fillenbaum (1959)  who found b i l i n g u a l s having acquired the language at home (fused, compound) manifesting "A more general language d e f i c i t a f f e c t i n g t h e i r two languages when they become aphasic" (p. 96). In the case of separated (coordinate) b i l i n g u a l s who learned the language exclus i v e l y outside the home, they "Are more l i k e l y to lose the use o f only one o f t h e i r languages i f they become aphasic" (p. 96). The s i t u a t i o n can develop i n t o a p o l y g l o t aphasic system when a b i l i n g u a l aphasic c h i l d i s also exposed to d i f f e r e n t languages each parent may speak. Macnamara (1966) recognized that when a second language i s taught to a c h i l d f i r s t reading s k i l l s i n both languages (LI and L2) are delayed. Bruck negates the threshold l e v e l by favoring Cummins' "Hypothes i s that f i r s t language and p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s p r e d i c t achievement i n a second language program" (1980, p. 58). In t h i s respect, language of i n s t r u c t i o n or p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s seemed to have given way  57.  to s o c i a l psychological  conditions that can predict achievement i n a  French immersion environment.  With language disabled French immer-  sion pupils great stress i s l a i d and encouragement i s given i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of the French language. In her study, B u r s t a l l (1976) examined young B r i t i s h pupils although b r i g h t , were encountering major problems at the stage of learning French.  who,  initial  The emphasis on a c q u i r i n g a foreign lang-  uage o r a l l y made i t more d i f f i c u l t for these c h i l d r e n to learn French. Since no v i s u a l cues were given on the Tactual Performance test the French immersion group did s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorly.  The  following  analogy i s drawn between the B r i t i s h and Canadian c h i l d r e n who ience the same d i f f i c u l t i e s , language learning i s hampered by  experthe  lack of v i s u a l cues. Another study of considerable ducted by Bruck, Rabinovitch, study, which was  importance i n t h i s area was  con-  and Oates (1975) . In a preliminary  part of a l o n g i t u d i n a l project i n i t i a t e d i n  1970,  they evaluated the performance of children with learning d i s a b i l i t i e s i n French immersion from Kindergarten to Grade 2.  With a l i m i t e d  sample c o n s i s t i n g of s i x language disabled students placed i n an immersion school, r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that these students can progress l i n g u i s t i c a l l y i n the same way  as t h e i r English counterparts.  The  authors found that they were able to make the t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s from French to E n g l i s h and learn to read i n both languages.  S i m i l a r weak-  nesses e x i s t i n English or i n French, thus switching out of French  58.  immersion would not n e c e s s a r i l y eliminate the problems. In the second report of the p r o j e c t , Bruck (1978b) focused on the f o l l o w i n g four d i f f e r e n t groups o f c h i l d r e n who were screened each year (1970-76) at the Kindergarten l e v e l :  (1) c h i l d r e n with  language disorders i n French immersion programmes, (2) c h i l d r e n with language disorders i n French c l a s s e s , (3) c h i l d r e n with normal language development i n French immersion, and (4) c h i l d r e n with normal language development i n English c l a s s e s .  These groups were followed  on a y e a r l y basis i n the area of f i r s t and second language s k i l l s , c o g n i t i v e development and school achievement u n t i l the end of Grade 3 when reading, w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g and mathematics presumably have been acquired. D i f f i c u l t i e s t y p i c a l when dealing with t h i s type of study, were encountered because of a t t r i t i o n thus making i t necessary t o add more c h i l d r e n to f i l l ( u p ) the gap. The evaluation f o r each l e v e l included formal t e s t s and informal evaluations by teachers i n both English and French.  Bruck's report mentions assessment of French language  s k i l l s at the end of each school year (Grade 1, 2, and 3) based on teacher r a t i n g s / i n t e r v i e w , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of O.I.S.E. French L i s t e n i n g Comprehension Test Level I as w e l l as a P i l o t Battery i n French. Unf o r t u n a t e l y , neither French t e s t s ' s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s nor information regarding the P i l o t Battery i n French have been issued a f t e r the study. However, Bruck's f i n d i n g s suggest that c h i l d r e n with language learning d i s a b i l i t i e s i n French immersion:  59.  1.  Learn and develop academic s k i l l s at the same rate as c h i l d -  ren i n English programmes (dominant language); 2.  do not s u f f e r impairment to verbal and non-verbal aspects of  cognitive functioning due to French 3.  immersion;  acquire aural comprehension, and by the end o f Grade 3 are  p r o f i c i e n t i n French, although they have problems i n language learning; 4.  benefit more i n that s e t t i n g than i n a second language pro-  gramme (designated time per day) and t h i s i s even more important i n the Quebec environment; 5.  be taught English reading only a f t e r they have acquired more  s k i l l s i n French; 6.  ought not to be switched to an English programme because of  their d i f f i c u l t i e s ; 7.  should receive i d e n t i c a l remedial services i n French as pro-  vided i n the E n g l i s h s e t t i n g . Bruck (1978a) notes the advantages a learning disabled c h i l d can have from being i n a French programme but since no objective data are a v a i l a b l e , the issue of being "better o f f " once the c h i l d has moved into an English programme i s very d i f f i c u l t to assess.  T r i t e s and  P r i c e (1977) have recognized that children who switched out o f the immersion programme had a lower verbal IQ and had more academic d i f f i c u l t i e s than the "problem" c h i l d r e n who stayed i n the programme. In Bruck's study, the E n g l i s h "problems" exhibited a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower  60.  performance IQ scores i n Kindergarten and Grade 3 than the French immersion "problem" c h i l d r e n . For Bruck the problem evolved mainly around the n e c e s s i t y f o r switching i n t o the E n g l i s h stream and the appropriate time with a l l i t s implications.  A case study approach was undertaken i n order to  generate s p e c i f i c hypotheses f o r future studies regarding the advisab i l i t y of switching. Case h i s t o r i e s were c o l l e c t e d on 9 subjects previously assessed i n the research p r o j e c t (Bruck, 1978b) who  had  switched out of immersion because they were experiencing serious learning problems.  I t was found that once i n the English programme  the f i v e p u p i l s were s t i l l having d i f f i c u l t i e s while two were coping and one was doing extremely w e l l .  Bruck's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s obtained from switching can be considered as a subj e c t i v e judgment o f success on the parent and/or educator's part of the "Hawthorne e f f e c t " (changes bring about bursts of  improvement).  Furthermore i n t h i s new s i t u a t i o n parents are able to a s s i s t t h e i r c h i l d r e n with schpolwork presented i n E n g l i s h . More r e c e n t l y , Bruck (1982) contradicted the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c p o s i t i o n that "Assumes that a l l French immersion c h i l d r e n have i n t a c t or normal l i n g u i s t i c and cognitive a b i l i t i e s " (p. 47). ren  These c h i l d -  do indeed enter the programme because t h e i r parents have made  such a decision and no i n i t i a l screening eliminates those with de7  f i c i e n c i e s i n these areas.  In her study, Bruck examines how  children  from majority c u l t u r e backgrounds with impaired f i r s t - l a n g u a g e s k i l l s  61.  function i n a b i l i n g u a l educational m i l i e u . In the design of her study, immediately upon entry into French immersion and E n g l i s h Kindergarten c l a s s e s , the subjects were i n d i v i d u a l l y administered the Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of I n t e l l i gence - WPPSI (Wechsler, 1967), and a s p e c i f i c a l l y - d e s i g n e d d i a g n o s t i c screening t e s t (by a s p e c i a l i s t i n c h i l d language development) t h a t included:  object manipulation, s t o r y r e t e l l i n g , sentence  e c h o l a l i a t e s t s and an interview.  imitation  C h i l d r e n were then categorized as  language impaired i n French and E n g l i s h c l a s s e s and normal language a b i l i t i e s i n French and English c l a s s e s . During the Kindergarten year, a b a t t e r y c o n s i s t i n g of f i v e t e s t s assessed each c h i l d ' s IQ (WPPSI, Wechsler, 1967); receptive language (Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test - PPVT, Form a; Dunn, 1965); recept i v e and expressive a b i l i t i e s (The Northwest Syntax Screening Test NSST; Lee, 1971); a u d i t o r y / v i s u a l reception and a s s o c i a t i o n , grammatic c l o s u r e , auditory and v i s u a l sequential memory (The I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s - ITPA; Kirk et a l . , 1968), and a Sentence I m i t a t i o n Test (Golick, 1977). In Grade 1, apart from g i v i n g the Kindergarten and other supplementary t e s t s ( f o r example, the Math subtest of the Metropolitan Achievement Test - Battery 1, 1958), b i l i n g u a l subjects were asked to decode i n d i v i d u a l sounds i n French read o r a l l y , answer comprehension questions (French L i s t e n i n g Comprehension Test, Barik, 1975) and record d i c t a t e d words.  Using a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e , teachers rated the  62,  p u p i l ' s reading, w r i t i n g , r e c e p t i v e and expressive language s k i l l s as w e l l as mathematics. Results of her study i n d i c a t e d t h a t :  (1) the two problem groups  had poorer verbal s k i l l s than the Control c h i l d r e n , (2) E n g l i s h problems had poorer nonverbal s k i l l s than French problems, (3) on the Verbal Scale, Controls outperformed problem c h i l d r e n , (4) a l l c h i l d r e n performed b e t t e r i n Grade 1 than i n Kindergarten, (5) the l i n g u i s t i c or c o g n i t i v e functioning of a l l groups were not a f f e c t e d by the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , (6) a f t e r two years o f b i l i n g u a l education, the French problems' language s k i l l s equalled the E n g l i s h problems' s k i l l s , (7) on c e r t a i n subtests o f the ITPA (auditory closure, etc.) French problems were i n f e r i o r to Controls since they had not received any E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n , (8) a l l problem subjects scored lower on the mathematics t e s t , (9) French expressive s k i l l s were below average among French problems when compared with French Controls, (10) French problems exhibited also a delay i n t h e i r f i r s t language verbal express i o n , (11) except o r a l reading, French Controls outperformed French problems i n a l l French language s k i l l s , (12) educational i n t e r v e n t i o n was provided to 71% o f E n g l i s h problem c h i l d r e n versus 19% (although 54% required s p e c i a l assistance) t o French problem c h i l d r e n , and (13) French problems' comprehension l e v e l was the same as French Controls'. A d i f f e r e n t viewpoint on the question of the learning disabled c h i l d i n French immersion i s presented i n T r i t e s ' works.  In 1977,  63.  he attempted to draw a p r o f i l e of c h i l d r e n who are encountering problems i n French immersion and to discover i f there are s i m i l a r i t i e s between disabled readers i n French immersion and the regular E n g l i s h stream.  Thirty-two i d e n t i f i e d c h i l d r e n when compared to 7 groups  ("language" f a c t o r and nonlanguage groups) on measures o f academic achievement and language were unsuccessful i n primary immersion programme as a r e s u l t o f a mild s p e c i f i c maturational l a g i n temporal lobe regions (Trites § P r i c e , 1976).  In the cross v a l i d a t i o n ( T r i t e s  § P r i c e , 1977, 1979b) a n o n c l i n i c population was studied.  French and  reading t e s t s were given to immersion dropouts because of l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and t h e i r high immersion achiever counterparts.  With IQ  c o n t r o l l e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y , these groups continued to d i f f e r on behavior r a t i n g s c a l e s , s p e c i a l i z e d reading s u b s k i l l s t e s t s or o r a l reading, and reading comprehension.  The t a c t u a l performance d e f i c i t (Tactual  Performance Test, T r i t e s , 1977) r e s u l t i n g from the e a r l i e r found maturational lag was s t i l l e x i s t i n g i n the dropout group.  T r i t e s and  P r i c e (1977) concluded that c h i l d r e n who have been switched to an E n g l i s h language programme had made greater r e l a t i v e progress i n reading than the French immersion success group of c h i l d r e n maintained in French immersion i n s p i t e of having d i f f i c u l t i e s even though the scores were s t i l l below the norm f o r age and grade. These r e s u l t s concur w i t h B u r s t a l l et a l ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n (1974) who found that the l a g evident i n younger c h i l d r e n (below age 9) seems to  disappear a f t e r that age which may suggest that c h i l d r e n are b e t t e r  64.  being educated i n t h e i r native language f i r s t , and learn a second language at a l a t e r time. However, T r i t e s ' work has been analyzed by a number of i n t e r nationally-known researchers on b i l i n g u a l i s m and French immersion. C a r r o l l (1976) questioned i f the 32 subjects T r i t e s chose f o r h i s study (who  were taken from the c l i n i c ' s f i l e s ) , are a  sample of the t o t a l  representative  population.  Cummins (1979b) r e i n t e r p r e t e d T r i t e s ' data (1978) which i n d i c a t e d that any c h i l d who  i s experiencing  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e a r l y French immer-  s i o n should be switched to the regular English programme.  Trites'  studies do not show that the same d i f f i c u l t i e s would have p e r s i s t e d should a c h i l d be switched to the regular English stream.  Furthermore,  for T r i t e s , once these p u p i l s are placed i n t o the English stream they are capable of functioning s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .  T r i t e s ' findings tend to  contradict Bruck's r e s u l t s (1978) demonstrating that these c h i l d r e n can acquire English as w e l l as French language s k i l l s ( o r a l and w r i t t e n ) . Also environmental changes may  a f f e c t the c h i l d ' s self-esteem and con-  sequently have some psychological  implications.  Cummins finds T r i t e s '  data i n v a l i d since a f t e r c h i l d r e n have been transferred i n t o the u l a r English stream t h e i r reading s k i l l s lag behind. T r i t e s and Price's report  He  reg-  criticizes  (1977) because the authors do not i n t e r p r e t  n o n s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s as n o n s i g n i f i c a n t , and i t i s not w r i t t e n that once c h i l d r e n have switched to the English programme they repeated or dropped back a grade l e v e l .  The "gains" c h i l d r e n  achieve a f t e r switching appear to be r e a l because p e r c e n t i l e scores have not been used appropriately (they cannot be manipulated as or numbers) and "regression to the mean" has taken place.  scores  Children  do much b e t t e r i n terms of actual grade discrepancies than i n terms of what would be expected on the basis of t h e i r ages.  Trites'  "greater r e l a t i v e progress i n reading" i s consequently questionable. In the d i s c u s s i o n of learning d i s a b i l i t i e s i t becomes important to address other f a c t o r s that may contribute to a student becoming a disabled learner or on the other hand contribute to a student's success . Limited experiences and d e p r i v a t i o n i n the f i r s t four to f i v e years of l i f e have a great consequence and i t i s generally agreed that most learning problems do not develop suddenly, so evidence of a weakness i n an area should not be assumed to be the cause of a l e a r n i n g disability.  I t i s stressed that rescreening i s a necessary measure  i n order to ensure the v a l i d i t y of obtained scores.  I t may be that  the c h i l d ' s t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n and f e e l i n g s toward the t e s t administrator d i s t o r t e d the scores.  Differences i n screening and  rescreening  scores could equally l i e with a maturation l a g . With the immense p o p u l a r i t y of French immersion programmes e s p e c i a l l y at the primary l e v e l new researchers  are expressing  views on the l e a r n i n g disabled c h i l d ' s placement.  their  For Morgan (1982)  i t i s a matter of grave concern when he r e f e r s to "Children who  already  have problems (oral and printed) i n t h e i r f i r s t language coping with  66.  a second language.  There i s a need f o r e f f e c t i v e screening o f c h i l d -  ren who are l i k e l y to f a i l or be f r u s t r a t e d i n a 'direct' immersion program because of language and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , auditory weaknesses. Such screening w i l l be even more, important i f immersion programs become u n i v e r s a l " (p. 46). Another f a c t o r that may a f f e c t success i n French immersion classes and on which few studies have been reported i s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . A P i l o t study on p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and second language l e a r n i n g i n young c h i l d r e n was conducted by Swain and Burnaby  (1976)  on a sample o f 63 French immersion p u p i l s and 68 English programme p u p i l s (Kindergarten, Grades 1 and 2) i n 5 schools of the Ottawa Board of Education and the Carleton Board o f Education.  For the purpose o f  the study, the B i l i n g u a l Education P r o j e c t o f the Ontario I n s t i t u t e of Studies i n Education (O.I.S.E.) under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr. G. Neuf e l d developed a p e r s o n a l i t y assessment instrument composed of nine characteristics.  A battery o f French t e s t s was also given to the  subjects at d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s .  Using t - t e s t , i t was found that  French immersion children seemed happier, displayed p e r f e c t i o n i s t tendencies (considered t o c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y and frequently w i t h second language achievement) and were more t a l k a t i v e than English programme p u p i l s according to t h e i r teachers' r a t i n g s .  Quickness i n  grasping new concepts was a common t r a i t f o r both groups. Yet more research has been completed on the strategies and techniques good f o r e i g n language learners employ.  Based on Rubin's work  67.  (1975) the f o l l o w i n g  seven s t r a t e g i e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d ; these  are w i l l i n g and a c c u r a t e guessers, they have s t r o n g  learners  motivation to  communicate, a r e o f t e n n o t i n h i b i t e d , a r e p r e p a r e d t o attend (look f o r p a t t e r n s  t o form  i n language), p r a c t i c e t h e language, monitor t h e i r  own speech'and t h a t o f o t h e r s and, f i n a l l y ,  attend  t o meaning.  A c c o r d i n g t o R e i s s (1983), t h e v a r i a b l e s d e t e r m i n i n g success f o r the  foreign  language l e a r n e r  are t h r e e - f o l d :  (1) c o g n i t i o n ,  (2) p e r -  s o n a l i t y , and (3) l e a r n i n g s t y l e s and t e c h n i q u e s .  In accordance w i t h  cognitive  and Todesco  s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , Naiman, F r o h l i c h , S t e r n  found t h e s u c c e s s f u l  l e a r n e r t o demonstrate " f i e l d independence"  ( d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between r e l e v a n t generalization gory,  (1978)  and t o l e r a n c e  and i r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n ) ,  o f ambiguity.  over-  In t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  cate-  'adventuresomeness' p r e v a i l s as a p a r t i c u l a r common t r a i t .  However, t h i s i s t h e most complex u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e because the s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l i s not characterized  by a s p e c i f i c s e t o f p e r s o n a l i t y  traits. A most r e c e n t  study on a r e l a t e d s u b j e c t  examines the p e r s o n a l i t y  development i n n i n e case s t u d i e s o f b i l i n g u a l s from b i r t h .  Titone  (1983) e x p l o r e d simultaneous b i l i n g u a l i s m as e x p e r i e n c e d at home by these c h i l d r e n p r i o r t o r e a c h i n g the age o f s i x .  E n g l i s h , French o r  German was t h e language spoken i n d i f f e r e n t homes l o c a t e d Titone's not  conclusions  prejudice  personality"  are two-fold:  i n Italy.  f i r s t , " E a r l y b i l i n g u a l i s m does  o r handicap the normal s o c i a l development o f the c h i l d ' s (p. 177); and second, i t i s i d e n t i c a l t o Genesee and  68.  E. Hamayan's f i n d i n g s  (1980), p o i n t i n g out t h a t " I n d i v i d u a l s  on the b a s i s o f f i e l d  independent  differing  c o g n i t i v e s t y l e would l e a r n a second  language b e t t e r i f p l a c e d i n a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l o r n o n - c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g environment, are  t h a t i s , i n a s i t u a t i o n where l i n g u i s t i c  not t r a n s m i t t e d from the t e a c h e r t o the s t u d e n t but r e a l l y  ienced i n a n a t u r a l  communicative  A l s o , a f a c t o r t h a t may socio-economic  environment"  affect  s t a t u s and/or m i n o r i t y groups.  t h i r d language  pupils  (Grade  (p.  exper-  178).  success i n French immersion  conducted by Edwards and C a s s e r l y (1973) who of  roles  One  such study  compared the  1 and 3 m i n o r i t y groups)  is was  performance with  their  E n g l i s h and French peers i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n o f I t a l i a n descent i n Ottawa.  From t h e i r r e s u l t s they found t h a t when o n l y French  taught, t h i r d language skills  living  c h i l d r e n were weaker i n o r a l and a u r a l  was  language  (French and E n g l i s h ) but at the Grade 3 l e v e l these weaknesses  were o n l y r e l e v a n t exposure minutes  i n English.  t o E n g l i s h was  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e i r p r e v i o u s  o n l y i n a r e l i g i o n course and i n Grade 3  (75  a day o f i n s t r u c t i o n ) .  The  l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a French  immersion  programme f o r w o r k i n g - c l a s s E n g l i s h speaking c h i l d r e n  conducted by Bruck, J a k i m i k , and Tucker d'Anglejan  (1971).  Tucker, Lambert  (1973) a l s o examined the s u i t a b i l i t y o f French  for  students from w o r k i n g - c l a s s homes.  ren  can l e a r n a second  was and  immersion  They c o n c l u d e d t h a t these  child-  language when i n s t r u c t i o n s t a r t s a t the K i n d e r -  g a r t e n l e v e l as soon as E n g l i s h i s b e i n g f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d and  that  69.  there i s no lag i n comparison with t h e i r English peers category) .  (working-class  In a d d i t i o n , i t was found that they are able to a s s i m i l a t e  the content being taught i n French and make the t r a n s f e r o f s k i l l s into E n g l i s h . The A c q u i s i t i o n of English Language S k i l l s i n Primary French Immersion A number o f studies have focused upon the general a c q u i s i t i o n o f English language s k i l l s a f t e r the students have been i n French immersion c l a s s e s . Some e a r l i e r studies conducted i n the 1960's tended t o show the negative e f f e c t s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a foreign language would have on the mastery o f f i r s t language s k i l l s (English).  For example, a study  by Macnamara (1966) stressed that English-speaking  students i n Ireland  did not adequately learn I r i s h ; t h e i r p r o f i c i e n c y i n English suffered and r e t a r d a t i o n i n problem mathematics was evident.  However, he d i d  not show that b i l i n g u a l i s m was the cause o f such a d e f i c i t .  His known  "balance e f f e c t " hypothesis was based on the premise that while a c h i l d i s a c q u i r i n g L2 s k i l l s , i t i s at the cost o f LI s k i l l s . A s i m i l a r conclusion was made by Lambert and Macnamara (1969) i n t h e i r comparison o f Grade 1 French immersion and English Control groups on measures o f language and word s k i l l s , vocabulary reading, i n t e l l i g e n c e and a r i t h m e t i c .  They found that the Experimental group's  performance was lower than the English Controls i n English language s k i l l s (word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n knowledge, reading).  However, since the  70.  sample was small the authors advised the readers to i n t e r p r e t the r e s u l t s with caution. In the 1970's, a new trend negating previous hypotheses, seemed to have emerged and r e f l e c t e d i n l o n g i t u d i n a l evaluative studies. In an e x p l i c i t fashion Lambert and Tucker i n t h e i r follow-up study of the  St. Lambert c h i l d r e n (1972), concluded that "The Experimental  c h i l d r e n have acquired French language s k i l l s f a r beyond the l e v e l which they would have attained through t r a d i t i o n a l second language teaching methods and at no cost to t h e i r E n g l i s h language a b i l i t y " (p.. 101).  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were obtained by Swain (1978) who also con-  curred that middle-class majority language c h i l d r e n have t h e i r f i r s t language s k i l l s w e l l developed from the environment, and learning intensely a second language w i l l not endanger t h e i r n a t i v e language skills . Results from a study by Sweetman, Leblanc, and Lawton (1975) , coincide with the above f i n d i n g s .  In t h e i r studies which involved  Grade 5 Experimental and Control groups who were administered the Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s , CTBS (1968) and the Otis-Lennon Mental A b i l i t y Test, Elementary Level I I , Form K (1967) f o r adjusting IQ, that aimed at determining i f French immersion p u p i l s would become prof i c i e n t and develop E n g l i s h language s k i l l s they found that f i r s t language development of an English-speaking c h i l d i s not impaired because of being involved i n a French immersion programme.  In t h e i r  report, the authors posed the following questions that may be of value  i n conducting such studies: first-language s k i l l s ?  (a) W i l l c h i l d r e n f a l l behind i n t h e i r  (b) W i l l c h i l d r e n learn fewer words? and  (c) Will- c h i l d r e n ' s reading and comprehension be below t h e i r peers not learning a second  language?  Also s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were obtained from two studies (Toronto § Ottawa) by Swain and Barik (1978), and Barik and Swain (1974a).  From  the data a n a l y s i s of t e s t s r e s u l t s obtained from the Metropolitan Readiness Test (1964) that was administered to two groups of c h i l d r e n , one completing French immersion kindergarten and the other, English kindergarten, the authors concluded that English language s k i l l s were developing w e l l and the children's l e v e l of readiness s k i l l s enables them to l e a r n to read i n Grade 1. On the other hand, a c e r t a i n number of studies have examined the s p e c i f i c s k i l l s i n the shape of the English language programme.  These  studies have focused on the development o f English language s k i l l s at d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s that occurs i n the form of a t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s from French to E n g l i s h .  Swain (1974) views t h i s phenomenom as a p o s i -  t i v e t r a n s f e r o f reading s k i l l s when French i s taught before E n g l i s h since French possesses "A more systematic sound-symbol correspondence than does E n g l i s h " (p. 121). Of importance i s the study by Swain and Barik (1976b) that i n volved 600 Kindergarten c h i l d r e n , 600 Grade 1 c h i l d r e n , and 700 Grade 2 c h i l d r e n over a span of 3 years, 450 Grade 3 students over a twoyear period and 150 Grade 4 students over one year.  A l l students  72.  involved i n the study followed the immersion programme i n the Ottawa and Carleton Boards of Education.  Results revealed that at the  Kindergarten l e v e l immersion p u p i l s ' scores d i d not d i f f e r from students i n the E n g l i s h stream i n terms of English s k i l l s  (vocabulary,  l i s t e n i n g comprehension, v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , auditory perception of beginning sounds of words) although they only had i n s t r u c t i o n i n French.  However, word knowledge, word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and reading  caused more problems to the Grade 1 immersion p u p i l s but they d i d not score below the 35th p e r c e n t i l e and i n some instances had reached the 60th p e r c e n t i l e .  In Grade 2, these students had received 60 minutes  of English i n s t r u c t i o n per day.  They ranked lower than r e g u l a r stu-  dents i n reading and s p e l l i n g but were equal i n word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The lag manifested i n s p e l l i n g s t i l l remains i n Grade 3 since immers i o n p u p i l s scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the comparison group. The above r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r to e a r l i e r studies by Lambert and Tucker (1972) who found that Grade 1 French immersion p u p i l s d i d not f a l l behind i n speaking and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s but lagged i n reading. Therefore i t may be hypothesized that i f E n g l i s h i s only i n t r o duced at Grade 3 some p u p i l s are able to match t h e i r E n g l i s h counterparts whereas the majority have not attained the desired l e v e l i n the areas of s p e l l i n g and reading comprehension.  This may be due to lack  of previous formal exposure and p o s s i b l y the mastery of language r u l e s . Transfer of French Reading S k i l l s to English Classes A review of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed that there have not been  73.  many studies which have focused on the t r a n s f e r of reading s k i l l s , when a second language ( d i r e c t method) i s taught before the n a t i v e language.  One study that endeavored t o determine the interlanguage  t r a n s f e r of reading s k i l l s was conducted by Cziko (1976) who compared the French and English reading s k i l l s o f immersion students with those of English and French Controls.  Because o f the audio-  l i n g u a l French t r a i n i n g o f the l a t e immersion group i t was found that these students performed as w e l l i n French as the early immersion group.  He found that the E n g l i s h reading s k i l l s of both groups were  at the same l e v e l and that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s noted.  However, he stated that there was s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e cor-  r e l a t i o n s f o r these two groups who "Were able to t r a n s f e r the reading s k i l l s developed v i a one language t o the language introduced subsequently, regardless of whether they were f i r s t taught t o read i n n a t i v e o r second language" (p. 538). He f u r t h e r concluded that i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of b i l i n g u a l s k i l l s through the d i r e c t method or the n a t i v e language approach no preference seemed to emerge i n t h i s part i c u l a r study. Tucker (1975) stressed the easy t r a n s f e r of reading s k i l l s from French t o English occurring when reading achievement i n French i s a good p r e d i c t o r of reading achievement i n English at each grade l e v e l (Grades 1 and 2). In t h e i r study McDougall and Bruck (1976) compared "The e f f e c t s of delaying English reading u n t i l Grade 3 on native language s k i l l s "  74.  (p.  38). Their study i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t on f i r s t language s k i l l s  when second language i n s t r u c t i o n i s introduced at d i f f e r e n t times using as a sample, s i x groups o f Grade 3 and 4 p u p i l s who had received English reading i n s t r u c t i o n at d i f f e r e n t times from two-thirds of a year (2/3) to three and two-third years (3 2/3). IQ was measured by the Canadian Lorge-Thorndike  P u p i l s ' non-verbal I n t e l l i g e n c e Test  (1954-66) and t h e i r E n g l i s h reading a b i l i t y with the Spache Diagnostic Reading Scales (1972) .  Based on the r e s u l t s o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s , they  recommended that i t i s to the b e n e f i t o f the p u p i l s that the formal i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h Language Arts be delayed u n t i l Grade 3. A l though the data-analysis d i d not d e f i n i t e l y support the hypothesis of delaying English reading by a year, i n discussing t h e i r r e s u l t s two points were made:  f i r s t , l e a r n i n g t o read i n a second language does  not cause a delay i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f academic s k i l l s ; second, nat i v e language s k i l l s do not s u f f e r i f they are taught l a t e r on. At t h i s point i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o measure with accuracy the amount o f t r a n s f e r from French to E n g l i s h that has taken place over the preceeding years.  The study revealed that t r a n s f e r f o r immersion p u p i l s  occurs very r a p i d l y .  "In only 2/3 of a year they are able to catch  up t o the early French immersion group, who have been reading E n g l i s h for  1 2/3 years and to the English group who have been reading E n g l i s h  for 2 2/3 years" (p. 42). The same issue that of a n a t u r a l t r a n s f e r of reading s k i l l s was examined i n the context of I r i s h (L2) and English (LI) experience.  75.  Cummins' findings (1977) are p a r a l l e l to Canadian f i n d i n g s although teachers i n I r i s h immersion schools predicted long-term detrimental e f f e c t s f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s motivation to read (L2) since t h e i r Engl i s h vocabulary was  already established p r i o r to l e a r n i n g L2.  How-  ever, i t appears that there have been no s p e c i f i c study that has ascertained to which extent the delaying of L I i n s t r u c t i o n may a negative e f f e c t on a c h i l d ' s motivation to read i n L I .  have  Further  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was suggested as to children's i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e and reactions when LI and L2 are introduced. s i z e d that parental involvement may of reading s k i l l s (L2 to L I ) .  A l s o , i t was hypothe-  contribute to the r a p i d t r a n s f e r  In general, i t was  found that "immer-  sion parents" w i l l a s s i s t t h e i r c h i l d i n a c q u i r i n g LI reading  skills  even before i t i s formally taught at school. I t i s b e l i e v e d that there may be a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n e x i s t i n g i n the reading process between immersion and E n g l i s h programme students. Using "miscue a n a l y s i s " as a q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e measure, Dank and McEachern (1979) examined the o r a l reading s t r a t e g i e s employed by ten Grade 3 French immersion p u p i l s i n contrast to p u p i l s i n an English stream.  In order to obtain miscues ( o r a l reading  deviations) the sample read o r a l l y a fable i n E n g l i s h at the Grade 4 level.  Each miscue was then categorized (9 l i n g u i s t i c  questions)  according to h i g h , p a r t i a l or no s i m i l a r i t y between the correct response and the uttered one. recorded on tape.  F i n a l l y , each subject r e t o l d the story  Results demonstrated that the French immersion  76.  group used more e f f e c t i v e l y grapho-phonemic cues, s y n t a c t i c and semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  By being able t o correct i t s miscues, i t  achieved a higher degree of reading comprehension than i t s English counterparts.  Moreover, the main idea and supporting d e t a i l s as  expressed by the French immersion group when r e t e l l i n g a story showed higher p r o f i c i e n c y concluding that o f f e r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n a second language, French i n t h i s case, i s not detrimental t o the development o f reading and comprehension s k i l l s . The way i n which immersion p u p i l s perceive E n g l i s h and French words (recognition of s p e l l i n g patterns) and make use o f orthographic s t r u c t u r e while reading o r a l l y was examined r e c e n t l y by MesPrat and Edwards (1981).  In t h e i r study, two groups of Grade 3 and  6 boys, read and wrote l e t t e r s of words, pseudowords and nonwords. Results showed that the Grade 3 p u p i l s performed b e t t e r with the French pseudowords  ("muit" f o r example) than with the English ones  ("snick" f o r example).  However, at the Grade 6 l e v e l a s i g n i f i c a n t  difference between the pseudowords and nonwords (uitm: ftog:  French;  English) i n French and English tend to i n d i c a t e that ortho-  graphic s t r u c t u r e i s used when reading i n both languages.  "A capacity  to induce r e g u l a r i t i e s w i t h i n and across languages may help to explain the  high c o r r e l a t i o n found between the Grade Three's performance i n  English and French ... a t t r i b u t e d to t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s across languages" (p. 689). F i n a l l y , i n h i s two-year study, Roy (1980-81; 1981-82) evaluated  77.  the Grade 3 p u p i l s ' performance i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension, reading (French and E n g l i s h ) , speaking and w r i t i n g p r o f i c i e n c y , s o c i a l studies and science.  Among the various instruments used i n the  1980-81 study the French version of B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure, Bautier-Castairig (1977), Message Writing Test, interviews, questionnaires, and the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test: Reading (Tiegs § Clark, 1970) were administered  t o a sample of 36 p u p i l s .  The group who had been  attending an immersion school since Grade 1 was f o r the f i r s t time r e c e i v i n g one hour o f English Language Arts i n s t r u c t i o n per day. Results obtained from the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test placed the group at the Grade 4 l e v e l i n vocabulary  recognition and j u s t above  t h i s l e v e l i n comprehension and general English reading a b i l i t y .  A  p a r t i c u l a r strength was noted i n s y n t a c t i c a l a n a l y s i s . In 1981-82, the Canadian Test o f Basic S k i l l s (1976) was used and the students read i n English at approximately the same l e v e l as t h e i r E n g l i s h peers. A f t e r c a r e f u l examination o f the s t a t i s t i c a l data there were i n d i c a t i o n s showing that the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o read i n French i s r e l a t e d t o the a b i l i t y to read i n E n g l i s h .  Roy's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s  that "A p u p i l ' s achievement i n French reading may be predicted when s/he  s t a r t e d to read i n English the alphabet,  on stores and restaurants and s t r e e t signs.  candy wrappers, signs The p u p i l ' s achievement  i n E n g l i s h reading may be predicted by when s/he started to read i n English candy wrappers, color names and words i n paper headlines" (p. 36).  In summary, on the basis o f the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed, i t i s believed that a c h i l d ' s English s k i l l s w i l l not deteriorate when i n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s native language (English) takes place a f t e r a second language has been taught.  Since they have already developed  e s s e n t i a l s t r a t e g i e s while learning French (grapho-phonemic, synt a c t i c and semantic cues) many p u p i l s experience a rapid t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s .  79.  CHAPTER I I I SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES In t h i s chapter, background information on the subjects involved i n the study, procedures employed i n gathering and analyzing the data over a four-year period w i l l be described. Subj ects Background Information In t h i s English-speaking family there are 5 c h i l d r e n (3 boys and 2 g i r l s ) , the l a s t three being a set of t r i p l e t s with one g i r l and two i d e n t i c a l boys. The data sheet included i n Appendix B, was designed f o r the subj e c t s ' parents so as t o c o l l e c t valuable background information f o r the study.  The content was p a r t l y based on the works o f Berry and  Eisenson (1956). On both sides o f the f a m i l y there are no i n d i c a t i o n s o f h e a l t h problems, learning d i f f i c u l t i e s , or incidences of m u l t i p l e b i r t h s . When the mother was Sh months pregnant, the parents were informed that a set o f t r i p l e t s would be born.  At that time the expecting  mother was 32 years o l d and had had previous d i f f i c u l t pregnancies. She remained i n h o s p i t a l u n t i l giving b i r t h to the c h i l d r e n i n the f o l l o w i n g order:  (a) Joseph, (b) Jack, and (c) A l i c e .  The l a s t one  weighed the most {Sh lbs.) and the second one was the l i g h t e s t (4 l b s ) . These i n f a n t s premature by one month displayed n e i t h e r h e a l t h nor  80.  feeding problems.  They seemed to develop i n the same manner as other  children l i k e s i t t i n g alone at the age of 8 months and taking t h e i r f i r s t steps w i t h support at 12 months.  A l i c e took longer to walk  alone (18 months) i n comparison with both boys (16 months).  A l l three  had chicken pox at age 8 and the boys adenoids removed; tubes were inserted i n t h e i r ears due to hearing problems. At an early age the children developed right-handedness. Also the  boys communicated i n t h e i r own language using a l i m i t e d vocabulary  whereas A l i c e displayed more advanced verbal s k i l l s which f a c i l i t a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n with the r e s t of the family. When they were 3 years o l d the t r i p l e t s attended an English- . speaking pre-school before entering the French immersion programme. They enjoyed l i s t e n i n g to s t o r i e s rather than memorizing nursery rhymes.  Jack p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y i n a r t and poetry whereas Joseph  in science.  The 3 c h i l d r e n exhibited an average i n t e r e s t i n school  and i n the learning of the French language.  English was the only lan-  guage through which a l l communication took place i n the household. Since Grade 2 A l i c e has had private lessons i n French reading mainly, and also i n mathematics.  From Grade 1 she has been consid-  ered s o c i a l l y and emotionally well-adjusted.  I t appears that she  f a i l e d to develop her own expectations about school performance which u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t e d i n her f r u s t r a t i o n .  A f t e r a period o f 4 months  p r i v a t e t u t o r i n g i n mathematics, Joseph was functioning at grade l e v e l . He preferred to accomplish c e r t a i n tasks provided he was going to  '  81.  receive a reward at the end; hence, h i s own i n t e r e s t came f i r s t . Jack was seen as a high achiever s t r i v i n g to do w e l l . conservative subject he would be quite apprehensive  As a more  at exploring new  ideas unless he f u l l y understood the concepts involved. From an e a r l y age the c h i l d r e n have been t a k i n g v i o l i n lessons, played soccer and learned Hebrew.  In view of A l i c e ' s i n i t i a l language  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n E n g l i s h , Hebrew lessons had been discontinued f o r her only.  Constant exposure to t h e i r mother's a r t i s t i c works have made  the t r i p l e t s a p p r e c i a t i v e of a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o a r t which they t r u l y en j oy. No. p a r t i c u l a r behavior problems are seen by the parents however Joseph appears as a very nervous and possessive c h i l d who sometimes aggressive i n h i s m i l i e u .  can be  Jack i s sometimes possessive,  b i c k e r i n g and manifests a tendency to show o f f . The family as a u n i t o f f e r s love, s e c u r i t y , s o c i a b i l i t y , as w e l l as opportunities f o r expanding one's horizons i n various areas.  The  t r i p l e t s have developed d i f f e r e n t l y with t h e i r s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s hence s i m i l a r i t i e s appear to be uncommon. Materials Both formal and informal t e s t s were administered over a period of four years.  Beginning at the Kindergarten l e v e l , the screening  battery i s f u l l y o u t l i n e d i n Appendix D.  The l i n g u i s t i c t e s t s i n  English are included i n Appendix E, the French reading t e s t s i n Appendix  F, the psycho-educational t e s t s i n Appendix G and f i n a l l y Appendix H  82.  describes the English tests i n Grade 3. Procedures  and Discussion  The data c o l l e c t i o n took place over a period o f three years. All  formal and informal educational t e s t r e s u l t s as well as complete  a n a l y s i s o f performance and observations were gathered i n separate f o l d e r s f o r each subject per grade l e v e l .  Table 2 presents the l i s t  of a l l the standardized and informal t e s t s used f o r evaluating the sample during the four-year period.  Insert Table 2 about here  Year One E v a l u a t i o n :  Kindergarten Screening Battery  The Kindergarten screening r e c e n t l y introduced i n the school D i s t r i c t u s u a l l y takes place i n the f a l l and aims at i d e n t i f y i n g c h i l d ren suspected t o have p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s which could i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r success i n school.  I t i s f e l t that since the greatest emphasis  i s placed on the a s s i m i l a t i o n and manipulation o f o r a l language t o Grade 2 i n a b i l i n g u a l context, the r e c e p t i v e or l i s t e n i n g language problems o f some c h i l d r e n should be monitored.  The screening process  i s not designed as a diagnostic t o o l but rather provides some general i n d i c a t i o n s o f a p o s s i b l e problem without determining either i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e or i t s extent. In the second year screening procedures are comprised o f standardi z e d as w e l l as informal t e s t s .  Some are selected t o meet the needs of  Table 2 Standardized and Informal Measures U t i l i z e d to Evaluate the T r i p l e t s ' Performance per Grade Level, during a Four-year Period  Standardized Tests A.  Kindergarten: Screening Battery ( A l i c e , Jack, Joseph) 1. 2.  B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure (BSM); Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, Form A, Booklets 1 and 2 (BTBC); 3. McCarthy Screening Test (MST); 4. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test, Form a, . (PPVT).  B.  Informal Measures  1. 2. 3. 4.  Hearing; Speech; Language; Report card r a t i n g s and comments f o r the three terms; Notes and other observations .  1. 2.  Hearing ( A l i c e § Jack) Area c o u n s e l l o r c l a s s observations ( A l i c e ) Report card comments f o r the three terms.  Grade 1 1.  2.  Test i n French ( A l i c e , Jack, Joseph) Test Diagnostiques de Lecture pour les Classes d'Immersion, Premiere annee (French Diagnostic Reading Tests f o r E a r l y French Immersion Classes, Grade 1). L i n g u i s t i c tests i n English (Speech and hearing t h e r a p i s t ) a. I l l i n o i s Test o f P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s (I.T.P.A.); (Alice) b. Lindamood Test of Auditory Conceptualization (L.A.C.); (Alice) c. Test of Language Development (TOLD-P) (Jack)  3.  Informal Measures  Standardized Tests C.  D.  Grade 2 1.  Test i n French ( A l i c e , Jack, Joseph) Tests Diagnostiques de Lecture pour l e s Classes d'Immersion, Deuxieme annee (French Diagnostic Reading Tests f o r Early French Immersion Classes, Grade 2).  2.  Psychological t e s t s i n E n g l i s h ( A l i c e , Jack, Joseph) a. Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r C h i l d r e n , Revised (WISC-R); b. Beery and Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration; c. Draw-a-Person; d. Motor-Free V i s u a l Perception Test (MFVPT); e. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); f. Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT: Arithmetic)  1.  Report card r a t i n g s and comments f o r the three terms.  1.  Report card r a t i n g s and comments f o r the three terms.  Grade 3 1.  Test i n French ( A l i c e , Jack, Joseph) Tests Diagnostiques de Lecture pour les Classes d'Immersion, Troisieme annee (French Diagnostic Reading Tests f o r Early French Immersion Classes, Grade 3).  2.  Tests i n English ( A l i c e , Jack, Joseph) a. Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests (Level C, Forms 1 and 2); b. B r i t i s h Columbia Mathematics Achievement Tests (Grade 3/4, Revised 1980); i . Operations with whole numbers, i i . Sets and numbers.  85.  a b i l i n g u a l school.  A l l tests were given i n English only.  Involved i n the screening process, which began i n the spring were the school p s y c h o l o g i s t , speech and hearing t h e r a p i s t and nurse, assigned to the school, the l e a r n i n g assistance and Kindergarten teachers, and area counsellor. The schedule f o r administering the screening b a t t e r y i s presented below: April  Hearing  A p r i l 10  Boehm Test of Basic Concepts; Form A, Booklets 1 and 2  A p r i l 17  Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test, Form a  A p r i l 18  McCarthy Screening Test  A p r i l 20  B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure  May  Speech, A r t i c u l a t i o n , Language  Table 3 gives the raw scores obtained by the sample on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC).  The maximum score f o r each booklet i s  25.  Insert Table 3 about here  On Booklet 1, A l i c e a t t a i n e d a perfect score of 25 whereas her two brothers, an equal score o f 24. Booklet 2 presented more problems to Jack i n p a r t i c u l a r , who was the weakest i n a l l 4 categories: quantity, miscellaneous and time. middle socio-economic  space,  He was at the 30th p e r c e n t i l e (on  l e v e l ) i n contrast to A l i c e (60th p e r c e n t i l e )  86.  Table 3 Boehm Test o f Basic Concepts: Raw Scores Form A, A p r i l and September  -  Alice  Jack  Joseph  Maximum score 25 Form A April Booklet 1  25  24  24  Booklet 2  13  8  16  16  14  N.A.  September Booklet 2  and Joseph (70th p e r c e n t i l e ) .  Joseph surpassed A l i c e by 2 points on  t o t a l scores and was the strongest on t h i s instrument (Table 3). A l l 3 subjects had not mastered two concepts r e l a t e d t o space (#29 beginning, #39 forward) and two of quantity (#47 equal, #50 least). At that time the school psychologist, a member of the assessing team, suggested that c h i l d r e n achieving a raw score of 13 or under, ought t o be r e - t e s t e d at a l a t e r date w i t h f u r t h e r diagnosis i f warranted.  Therefore, A l i c e was considered b o r d e r l i n e , and Jack i n  serious d i f f i c u l t i e s .  A p o s t t e s t given 5 months l a t e r i n Grade 1  87.  (September) revealed an increase i n the knowledge of concepts of 33% by A l i c e , i n E n g l i s h .  The learning assistance teacher gave the  Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) to A l i c e i n French i n order to ascertain i f the concepts taught i n French were also unknown to her i n English.  The concepts not i d e n t i f i e d i n the September r e - t e s t i n  French (Grade 1) are marked with an a s t e r i s k on Table 4.  Insert Table 4 about here  Jack's score improved by 75% but upon c l o s e r examination of Jack's errors i n Booklet 2, i n A p r i l (Kindergarten screening), he had a ten-, dency to guess a number o f the presented items but would rather omit them when r e - t e s t e d i n September (Grade 1).  I t can be then assumed  that c e r t a i n concepts had not yet been mastered (center, zero, separated, equal, l e a s t ) .  Since he performed so poorly on t h i s t e s t i t was  not known i f he had a problem with a p a r t i c u l a r concept, or whether i t was a language d i f f i c u l t y ( l a b e l l i n g a concept), or i f the p i c t o r i a l representation was not part of h i s experience or none of these. For the purpose o f the school's Kindergarten screening, d i f f e r ences between the chronological and mental ages have been examined rather than IQ or p e r c e n t i l e scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) . Table 5 presents the r e s u l t s obtained on the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test.  88.  Table 4 L i s t o f Unknown Concepts as Measured by the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, Booklet 2 i n Kindergarten Year  Item D e s c r i p t i o n Item no.  Alice  Jack  26 27* 28* 29 30* 31* 32 33 34* 35* 36 37 38* 39* 40 41 42 43 44 45* 46 47* 48 49* 50*  center  center  Note.  -  side ,beginning  -  alike  -  never below  -  right forward  -  left  -  skip equal  -  third least  -  beginning other  -  -  never  -  matches always  -  right forward zero above  -  separated left pair  -  equal i n order third least  Joseph  -  as many  -  beginning _ _  -  -  _  -  medium-sized  -  forward  -  pair skip equal i n order  -  least  * Concepts not mastered i n French by A l i c e i n the Grade 1  r e - t e s t (September).  89.  Table 5 Raw Scores, P e r c e n t i l e Ranks and Mental Ages Obtained on the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test i n Kindergarten Year  Alice  Jack  Joseph  Raw Score  53  47  50  P e r c e n t i l e rank  37  16  24  Mental age  5-07  4-08  5-01  Chronological age  5-09  5-09  5-09  As can be seen from the above table Jack obtained a very low mental age l e v e l o f 4 years 8 months i n d i c a t i n g more than a one year delay i n receptive language a b i l i t y .  Joseph who had been superior  on the Boehm Test o f Basic Concepts, scored b e t t e r than Jack but was weak i n comparison with A l i c e who had reached a mental age o f 5 years 7 months.  As can be seen, a l l three c h i l d r e n were low on t h i s t e s t  suggesting that hearing acuity and/or comprehension i n English was p o o r l y developed.  of spoken words  The underlined concepts as shown on  Insert Table 6 about here  Table 6 i n d i c a t e the common errors i n the comprehension o f words made by the c h i l d r e n .  90.  Table 6 L i s t of Unknown Words on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test  Item Description Alice 15  -  18 22  Jack  Joseph  catching  -  tying  -  bush  -  -  23  -  pouring  pouring building  27  building  building  32  caboose  caboose  39  coach  coach  coach  freckle  freckle  _  42  -  45  -  -  shining  49  signal  -  -  53  projector  proj ector  55  -  56  -  transportation  57 58  -  counter  ceremony  ceremony  ceremony  59  pool  pool  pool  60  bronco  bronco  bronco  61  directing  -  62  funnel  -  64  lecturer  -  66  archer  -  tackling transportation  -  directing _  91.  Perceptual, v e r b a l , q u a n t i t a t i v e performance, perceptual grouping and motor of the t r i p l e t s were assessed u t i l i z i n g the McCarthy Screening Test (MST). As shown on Table 7, a l l subjects passed the 6 subtests at the 30th p e r c e n t i l e w i t h i n the age range o f 6 years.  Table 7 McCarthy Screening Test Subtests Results i n Kindergarten Year  Subtests  Right/left orientation (Perceptual performance)  Minimum raw score (age 6-0)  Alice  Jack  Joseph  Raw score  5  7  8  8  22  26  22  25  Draw-a-design (Perceptual performance)  7  7  9  7  Numerical memory (Quantitative)  6  9  8  10  Conceptual grouping (Perceptual grouping)  7  8  10  7  10  13  13  10  Verbal memory (Verbal)  Leg coordination (Motor)  More accurate analysis i n d i c a t e s that Jack was superior t o h i s  92.  siblings  i n Draw-a-design and Conceptual  V e r b a l and Numerical memory. the Draw-a-design s u b t e s t .  grouping b u t the lowest i n  A l s o A l i c e and Joseph b a r e l y passed A l i c e s c o r e d t h e lowest o f t h e t h r e e on  R i g h t - l e f t o r i e n t a t i o n , but above t h e minimum raw s c o r e f o r t h e corresponding  age range.  Joseph d i s p l a y e d a s t r e n g t h i n Numerical  memory. The  r e s u l t s tend t o i n d i c a t e normal f u n c t i o n i n g i n c o g n i t i v e  development w i t h The  little  f l u c t u a t i o n between s c o r e s .  s c r e e n i n g assessment team d e c i d e d t o a d m i n i s t e r the B i l i n -  gual Syntax Measure (BSM) which measures comprehension and p r o d u c t i o n of  spoken language t o the s u b j e c t s as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r performance  on t h e Boehm T e s t o f B a s i c Concepts and the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test. R e s u l t s showed t h a t A l i c e o b t a i n e d t h e t o p r a t i n g , L e v e l 5 , s i n c e she answered c o r r e c t l y grammatically, ignated questions.  a minimum o f 6 o f 8 des-  Both boys were e x p e r i e n c i n g  little  i n communicating i d e a s i n E n g l i s h but d i d not f u l l y b a s i c grammatical s t r u c t u r e s (verb endings, regular past only a c h i e v e d  c o n t r o l some  r e g u l a r p a s t , some i r -  forms, p a s t p a r t i c i p l e s and c o n d i t i o n a l "would"). Level 4 p r o f i c i e n c y .  by Joseph when r e s p o n d i n g  1 - Direction: - Question:  They  Below i s a sample o f e r r o r s made  to s e l e c t e d q u e s t i o n s based on i l l u s t r a -  tions : Question  difficulty  P o i n t to baby b i r d s . Why do they want food?  93.  - Response: Question 2 - D i r e c t i o n : - Question:  "Because they hungry." P o i n t to  dog.  What would have happened i f the hadn't eaten the  - Response:  food?  "eh, he might have a t e  H e a r i n g , A r t i c u l a t i o n , Language.  dog  it."  K i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s were  a d m i n i s t e r e d a h e a r i n g a c u i t y t e s t as p a r t o f the K i n d e r g a r t e n b a t tery.  Joseph passed the s c r e e n i n g but A l i c e f a i l e d on her l e f t  whereas Jack's  left  ear was  questioned.  ing f o r a r t i c u l a t i o n o f speech  In May  ear  of that year, screen-  showed a tongue t h r u s t f o r J a c k ,  and  i d e n t i c a l e r r o r s i n p r o d u c i n g the " t h / s " and " f / t h " sounds f o r a l l 3 children. On the language in a l l s k i l l s  s c r e e n i n g , Jack o b t a i n e d a below average  except o r a l v o c a b u l a r y where he r a t e d h i g h .  Joseph  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h syntax i n both comprehension and e x p r e s s i o n . a u d i t o r y memory and sequencing  rating  Both  s k i l l s were below norms' f o r age.  speech and h e a r i n g t h e r a p i s t had recommended a t t h a t time  to be reviewed  The  speech  therapy f o r Joseph and t r a n s f e r t o an E n g l i s h programme f o r b o t h A l i c e ' s case was  had  boys.  i n Grade 1 ( e a r l y i n the f a l l ) i n  view o f her low v o c a b u l a r y and poor a u d i t o r y l i s t e n i n g  skills.  At the team's y e a r end conference p a r e n t s were informed o f a l l test r e s u l t s .  At t h a t time a s e t o f s p e c i f i c r e m e d i a l e x e r c i s e s was  p r e s e n t e d and an i n - d e p t h language Joseph who  had  assessment suggested  f o r Jack  and  shown s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f i c u l t i e s on the Peabody P i c t u r e  94.  Vocabulary  T e s t and B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure.  the weakest o f the three on o v e r a l l  low on 3 t e s t s :  B a s i c Concepts, Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y  ment.  considered  s c r e e n i n g performance and the  most " a t r i s k " because he scored v e r y  Measure.  Jack was  Boehm T e s t o f  T e s t and B i l i n g u a l  The s c h o o l nurse r e f e r r e d him f o r f u r t h e r language  J a c k was f o l l o w e d by Joseph a l t h o u g h  F i n a l l y , A l i c e achieved  assess-  the s t r o n g e s t on t h e Boehm  T e s t o f B a s i c Concepts, had some language d i f f i c u l t i e s the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary  Syntax  i d e n t i f i e d on  T e s t and B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure.  the h i g h e s t  l e v e l on the Peabody P i c t u r e Voc-  a b u l a r y T e s t , McCarthy S c r e e n i n g T e s t and B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure but was b o r d e r l i n e on the Boehm T e s t o f B a s i c Concepts. t o be t h e s t r o n g e s t on the K i n d e r g a r t e n Kindergarten many y e a r s had  Teacher's E v a l u a t i o n .  o f experience  the t r i p l e t s  t u r e and capable  screening battery. The K i n d e r g a r t e n  teacher  i n t e a c h i n g French immersion a t that  i n one c l a s s . o f the 3.  with  level  She r a t e d A l i c e as b e i n g the most ma- -  A l i c e was r a t e d as s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , w i t h  c o o r d i n a t i o n as w e l l as f a c i l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n helped  She appeared  t o l e a r n o r a l French.  Good  h e r become independent b e f o r e h e r twin  Jack was r a t e d second by h i s t e a c h e r .  good  social  brothers.  She i n d i c a t e d that he had  good comprehension o f spoken French though he would be h e s i t a n t i n following directions. feel  Immaturity and l a c k o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e made him  i n s e c u r e i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g .  However, a good e f f o r t was  n o t i c e d on h i s p a r t t o l e a r n the language. caused d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n beginning  H i s poor fine-motor  skills  p r i n t i n g the l e t t e r s o f the a l p h a b e t .  95.  Joseph was calmer  the " s l o w e s t " one who  children.  He had a " b a b y i s h " a t t i t u d e and  o r d i n a t i o n and s p a t i a l awareness. difficulty The  l a c k e d some co-  In the same manner as J a c k , he  had  i n f o l l o w i n g o r a l d i r e c t i o n s i n French.  t e a c h e r remarked v e r y l i t t l e  l e t s s i n c e each was school-based t e a c h e r who  would p r e f e r to p l a y w i t h  i n t e r a c t i o n between the  s o c i a l i z i n g w i t h h i s / h e r own  friend(s).  tripThe  team i s s u e d the K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g r e s u l t s t o t h i s d i d not  f e e l any o f the 3 c h i l d r e n s h o u l d r e p e a t  the  Kindergarten year. Year Two  Evaluation:  Grade One  Linguistic Tests.  Due  r e - a s s e s s i n g h e a r i n g and was  the f i r s t  Performance  t o p e r s o n n e l change t h e r e was  a delay i n  language s k i l l s o f A l i c e and J a c k .  Jack  t o be seen o n l y i n December (Grade 1) as he was  mated t o be s e r i o u s l y  esti-  " a t r i s k " on the b a s i s o f h i s poor language  performance on the K i n d e r g a r t e n b a t t e r y .  He was  g i v e n the T e s t o f  Language Development, TOLD (Newcomer § Hammill, 1977).  For a d e s c r i p -  t i o n o f the l i n g u i s t i c t e s t s see Appendix E ( i n E n g l i s h o n l y ) . Jack performed  i n the f o l l o w i n g f a s h i o n on s e l e c t e d s u b t e s t s o f  the TOLD i n terms o f language age  ( c h r o n o l o g i c a l age was  6 years  8  months): 1.  Picture vocabulary:  the PPVT ( L i s t e n i n g , 2.  4 years 0 month (25 items)  s i m i l a r to  semantics);  Oral vocabulary:  6 years 3 months (20 items) s i m i l a r t o the  WICS-R (Vocabulary p a r t speaking,  semantics);  96.  3.  Grammatic understanding:  7 years 3 months (25 items):  Syntax, l i s t e n i n g ; 4.  Sentence i m i t a t i o n :  5 years 1 month (30 items):  Syntax  speaking; 5.  Grammatic completion:  6 years 9 months (30 items), s i m i l a r  to Grammatic closure of the ITPA:  Syntax, speaking.  For comparison purposes, Jack had a mental age of 4 years 8 months on the PPVT Kindergarten screening battery ( A p r i l ) and on the P i c t u r e Vocabulary subtest o f TOLD (December) a language age o f 4 years.  This was h i s lowest ranking on the TOLD from the subtests  presented to him.  An inderdental " s / z " also p e r s i s t e d at that time.  At t h i s p o i n t no other t e s t i n g took place since h i s classroom teacher f e l t he was progressing w e l l .  Results from posttests administered  at the end of Grade 1 (June), 6 months l a t e r , indicated improved vocabulary and w e l l developing E n g l i s h language s k i l l s . Both boys who were placed i n d i f f e r e n t classes had made s i g n i f i cant gains during t h e i r f i r s t year of formal academic t r a i n i n g and no p a r t i c u l a r concern had been r a i s e d as to t h e i r performance. On the other hand, A l i c e , who had been i d e n t i f i e d as the strongest on the Kindergarten screening battery showed some weaknesses. Hearing i n the l e f t ear was s t i l l questioned. May  On the TOLD, given i n  (Grade 1), she achieved a low average score on the subtest o f  expressive o r a l vocabulary.  According t o the speech and hearing ther-  apist during the performance on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r task, "She tended to  97.  ramble, make verbal a s s o c i a t i o n s , make quick guesses and t r y to change the subject. repeatedly  In fact throughout the t e s t i n g session, A l i c e  needed to be brought back to task.  verbal questioning  Her s t y l e o f constant  appeared somewhat a t t e n t i o n getting and her  attentiveness v a r i e d .  She seemed most anxious to do well and showed  a low tolerance f o r boredom and f a i l u r e " (Speech and hearing therap i s t ' s report, May). The therapist also commented that A l i c e ' s language s k i l l s appear to be developing w i t h i n the normal range f o r her age and any learning problems would not seem to be language based. She did have poor l i s t e n i n g behavior and her inattentiveness and a t t e n t i o n seeking behavior was of some concern. A l i c e was also given the Lindamood Test o f Auditory i z a t i o n (LAC) by Lindamood and Lindamood (1971).  Conceptual-  She scored at the  mid Grade 2 l e v e l on the a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e , sequence and pattern a u d i t o r i l l y presented phonemes. The t h i r d language test administered t o A l i c e , was the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s ,  ITPA (Kirk et a l . , 1968).  No  areas o f auditory weakness were apparent and even strengths were evident i n v i s u a l memory and v i s u a l closure. w i t h i n the auditory-vocal  Since a l l scores were  and visual-motor range, clustered f a i r l y  close t o the mean score, she achieved an o v e r a l l p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c age of 6 years 8 months (chronological age was 6 years 10 months) p l a c i n g her i n the average scale. A c l i n i c a l psychologist  dealing with p e r s o n a l i t y and behavior  98.  problems was room and pressed  considered  during a meeting between the t h e r a p i s t , c l a s s -  learning assistance teachers.  A l i c e ' s Grade 1 t e a c h e r  great concern as to her mathematics achievement, the  c o n c e n t r a t i o n and  the a t t e n t i o n s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r .  area c o u n s e l l o r observed her i n c l a s s i n May. v e r s a t i o n , A l i c e r e v e a l e d she mathematics she was l e g i b l e p r i n t i n g was quite outgoing,  l i k e d reading.  v e r b a l and  eager t o r e c e i v e one's a t t e n t i o n . She  No  At t h a t time she was  week, t a k i n g v i o l i n Upon m e d i c a l  She  lessons and  was  a t s c h o o l she had  found i t hard  found t h a t A l i c e ' s focused  (her s t r e n g t h )  difficulty  A new  Grade 1 c l a s s e s i n June.  s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f any r e a d i n g performance.  to  was  seen. be  left  on her  was  self-  and  success  to convey her  concentrating.  eye  The  problem  than academic.  (Tourond, 1980)  T h i s instrument  r e a d i n g programme but  and  feelings.  s e r i e s o f French D i a g n o s t i c Reading  f o r E a r l y Immersion Primary C l a s s e s  to the two  be  a r t i c u l a t e though she  t o be r a t h e r a t t i t u d i n a l and/or emotional  French Reading T e s t .  and  seemed t o  had become aware o f h e r b r o t h e r s ' progress  considered  Tests  She  Neat  swimming.  examination, i t was  used e x t e n s i v e l y o r a l e x p r e s s i o n At home and  found t h a t i n  a t t e n d i n g Hebrew s c h o o l t h r e e times a  weak, however, the p a r e n t s ' main i n q u i r y was esteem.  the  con-  peer problem i n c l a s s was  l i k e d t o do w e l l and be approved o f , but  second.  I t was  a casual  b e t t e r with a d d i t i o n than s u b t r a c t i o n .  a l e r t , squirming,  lack of  Consequently,  During  n o t i c e d i n h e r w r i t t e n work.  ex-  was  does not  evaluates  given assess  silent  See Appendix F f o r complete t e s t d e s c r i p t i o n .  99.  T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s raw  s c o r e s and p e r c e n t i l e ranks the s u b j e c t s  a c h i e v e d on the French Reading T e s t .  Table 8 End o f Grade 1 R e s u l t s on the French D i a g n o s t i c Reading Test  f o r E a r l y French Immersion Primary C l a s s e s  Alice Subtests  Raw score  Jack  Joseph  %tile rank  Raw score  %tile rank  Raw score  %tile rank  Reconnaissance des mots (Word r e c o g n i t i o n )  15  10  22  70  21  60  L e c t u r e de mots (Word meaning)  12  20  23  95  23  95  20  19  80  17  70  Comprehension de c o u r t s t e x t e s (Sentence and s h o r t s t o r y comprehension)  The  t e s t author suggests g i v i n g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l  d i f f e r e n c e s o f p e r c e n t i l e ranks b e f o r e they can be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i ficant.  As shown on T a b l e 8 t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l d i s c r e p a n c y  between A l i c e ' s performance  and h e r s i b l i n g s ' demonstrating t h a t  her  poor l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s mostly e v i d e n t i n the classroom and tapped i n the  earlier  formal E n g l i s h language t e s t s may  her achievement  have had an impact  on the French Word r e c o g n i t i o n s u b t e s t r e q u i r i n g  on the  100.  a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f spoken words by the t e a c h e r as  w e l l as p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l . The boys performed  very w e l l .  Jack had made an enormous p r o g r e s s  i n the mastery o f French concepts by the end o f Grade 1 . Teacher's  Evaluations.  Teacher's  e v a l u a t i o n s have been r e p o r t e d  on T a b l e 9 f o r each o f t h e 3 terms o f the s c h o o l y e a r .  I n s e r t T a b l e 9 about here  At f i r s t  g l a n c e t h e r e a r e not many "very good" r a t i n g s f o r the  s u b j e c t s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e i r performance was i n the average A l i c e p r e s e n t e d as a v e r y s o c i a b l e g i r l  range.  striving for popularity  among h e r peers by s e e k i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s constant a t t e n t i o n .  More  e f f o r t was recommended e s p e c i a l l y i n mathematics and r e a d i n g , as w e l l as i n the d e s i r e t o work i n d e p e n d e n t l y . and o r a l  She d i d improve i n l i s t e n i n g  comprehension, mathematics, h a n d w r i t i n g and p e r s o n a l  develop-  ment, but i n r e a d i n g comprehension, she d e c l i n e d d u r i n g the y e a r . Jack had shown marked improvement i n o r a l comprehension, mathem a t i c s , h a n d w r i t i n g , a r t and p e r s o n a l development w i t h o n l y a s l i g h t decrease  in listening skills.  He demonstrated an i n t e r e s t  i n learning.  Joseph made steady p r o g r e s s i n o r a l comprehension and r e a d i n g , mathematics, s c i e n c e , h a n d w r i t i n g and p e r s o n a l development.  In f a c t i n  no a r e a was t h e r e a d e c l i n e i n academic achievement. From the above comments i t can be concluded outperformed  the g i r l .  t h a t t h e two boys  A l l t h r e e students were promoted t o Grade 2 .  Table 9 Grade 1 Teacher's Report Card E v a l u a t i o n *  Skills  Term 1 : A l i c e Jack Joseph  Term 2  Term 3  A l i c e Jack Joseph  A l i c e J a c k Joseph  French Language A r t s Listening s k i l l s 1. L i s t e n s a t t e n t i v e l y 2. Comprehension  1 2  2+ 2-  2 - 2 2  2  2 2 + 2  2  2 2  2 2  2 2  C. Reading s k i l l s 1. Comprehension 2. O r a l r e a d i n g  1 2 + 2  2  1 2  2 2  2 2  D. W r i t i n g s k i l l s 1. S p e l l i n g 2. Sentence w r i t i n g  2-  2+  2  N/A 2  Speaking s k i l l s 1. Fluency o f e x p r e s s i o n 2. C l a r i t y o f speech  N/A 2  2 2+  2 2  2+ 2+  2 2 + 2  2  2 2  2+ 2+  2 2  2  2  2  1 2+  2+ 2 + 2 +  N/A 2  2+  Mathematics 1. Understanding o f p r i n c i p l e s 2. Computational s k i l l s 3. Problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s S o c i a l Studies  22N/A  2 2,  2 2 N/A  2+ 2+  2 2+ N/A  2+ 2+  Term 1  Term 2-  Term 3  A l i c e Jack Joseph  A l i c e J a c k Joseph  Skills A l i c e Jack  Joseph  Science  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2+  Handwriting  2-  2•  2+  2-  1  2+  2  1  1  Physical Education  2  2+  2  2+  2  2  2+  2+  2+  Art  2  2  2-  2  2+  2  2+  1  2  Music  2  2  2  2  2  2+  2  2  2+  2 2 2 2 22-  2 2 2+ 2 2 2  2 2 2+ 22 2  2 2 2 2 22  2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+  2 2 2 2+ 2+ 2  2 2+ 2+ 22 2  2+ 2+ 2+ 1 1 1  2  P e r s o n a l Development 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Respect f o r o t h e r s Sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Participation Independent work Work H a b i t s Self-control  Note:  1 2+ 2 23  v e r y good very s a t i s f a c t o r y satisfactory less satisfactory needs improvement  .6  2+ 2+ 2+ 2  103.  Grade 2 Performance  Year Three E v a l u a t i o n :  Psychological Tests. the  family physician, f o r psychological  District.  skills  and was  were low.  Her  i n problem areas.  not  two  former Grade 1 t e a c h e r  school  i t was  Her  During the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s , A l i c e was  had  reading  then engaged to t e s t e d and  upon  suggested to e v a l u a t e  to d i s t i n g u i s h s p e c i f i c s i m i l a r i t i e s  d i f f e r e n c e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the  behavior pattern.  was  I n i t i a l l y when A l i c e was  boys as w e l l i n o r d e r  the  i n French immersion she  oriented academically.  covery o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s  r e f e r r e d by  assessment o u t s i d e  While the boys were doing w e l l  poor s e l f - i m a g e  her  E a r l y i n Grade 2 A l i c e was  tutor disthe  and  triplets. the three m a n i f e s t e d a v a r i a t i o n i n  extremely " t e s t anxious" r e q u i r i n g con-  s t a n t r e a s s u r a n c e w h i l e J a c k was  " q u i t e nervous" o n l y  initially,  and  J o s e p h "more c o o l " w i t h g r e a t e r i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . Psychological In o r d e r  t e s t s are  to c o n s i d e r  described  i n Appendix G ( i n E n g l i s h o n l y ) ,  discrepancies  o f the above mentioned s k i l l s ,  emerging from the  assessment  i t i s n e c e s s a r y to examine the  l e t s ' r e s u l t s from the p s y c h o l o g i s t s '  r e p o r t as i l l u s t r a t e d  trip-  i n Table  10.  I n s e r t T a b l e 10 about here  On brothers  the who  first  two  scored  t e s t s , A l i c e was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y behind  i d e n t i c a l l y i n visual-motor  integration.  her On  the  104.  Table 10 Psychoeducational Tests Results Obtained by the T r i p l e t s i n Beginning Grade 2  Chronological age: 7 years 3 months Alice Joseph Jack Beery and Buktenica Developmental Test of V i s u a l Motor Integration  6yr.07mths.  9yr.04mths.  9yr.04mths.  6 yrs.  7yr.06mths.  8yr.06mths.  -  over 9 y r s .  _  Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test (PPVT)  7yr.03mths.  _  Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT)  grade l e v e l 2.6 standard score 105 % t i l e 63  -  8 7 11 8 9 9 average (low end)  10 12 10 11 13 10 average (high end)  Draw-a-Person Motor-Free V i s u a l Percept i o n Test (MFVPT)  Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale For C h i l d r e n , Revised (WISC-R) Verbal Information Similarities Vocabulary Arithmetic Comprehension D i g i t span Average verbal range Performance P i c t u r e completion Picture arrangement Block design Block assembly Coding Mazes Average performance range F u l l scale  10 14 12 13 13 -  above average (high end) s p l i t of 26 points  _  11 12 13 9 11 13 above average (low end) average (high end)  _  7 8 12 10 11 8 average (middle) 12 12 13 15 11 _  above average (high end) s p l i t of 21 points  105.  other  t e s t s only a few  similarities  are t o be  seen between the boys  whereas A l i c e and Jack are both c h a r a c t e r i z e d by depressed scores  and  considerable  Joseph was  s p l i t s between v e r b a l and  performance  regarded as h a v i n g extremely a p p r o p r i a t e  verbal scores.  A common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was  verbal areas.  v e r b a l and  non-  that a l l c h i l d r e n  had  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the S i m i l a r i t y s u b t e s t where they were r a t h e r conc e n t r a t i n g on I t was t o r e d but, brother.  finding differences.  recommended t h a t Jack's v e r b a l s k i l l s so f a r , no  i n t e r v e n t i o n was  required  With A l i c e j o i n i n g her b r o t h e r s  seemed t o have gained c o n f i d e n c e , ceiving after-class tutorial  f o r him  and  moni-  his  i n the same c l a s s ,  she  and became more r e c e p t i v e to r e -  c l a s s e s i n French r e a d i n g .  perceived  h e r s e l f as d i f f e r e n t from the other two  difficult  to accept t h a t her p a r e n t s '  among a l l c h i l d r e n .  ought to be  Since  boys she  a t t e n t i o n had  t o be  she  found i t shared  However, t h e r e were no major impairments  n i z e d at t h a t time though some developmental d i f f i c u l t i e s and  recogreading  performance were t o be watched c l o s e l y . French Reading T e s t . obtained  T a b l e 11  on the Grade 2 t e s t .  shows the standings  the  triplets  At t h i s l e v e l the t e s t measures word  I n s e r t T a b l e 11 about here  synthesis  (Word b l e n d i n g  and  grapheme d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) , s e l e c t i n g and  matching a word w i t h a v i s u a l cue  (Word meaning), f i l l i n g out  the  106.  Table  11  End o f Grade 2 R e s u l t s on the French D i a g n o s t i c Reading T e s t f o r E a r l y French Immersion Primary C l a s s e s  Alice Subtests  Jack Raw score  Joseph  Raw score  %tile rank  %tile rank  Raw score  %tile rank  La synthese de mots et l a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n de graphemes (Word b l e n d i n g and grapheme d i s c r i m i n a tion)  34  80  36  95  34  80  L e c t u r e de mots (Word meaning)  21  60  23  80  21  60  La comprehension de p h r a s e s (Sentence completion)  19  50  26  95  22  60  La comprehension de t e x t e s ( S t o r y comprehension)  18  60  19  70  20  80  b l a n k w i t h a word chosen from a s e t o f f o u r (Sentence completion)  and  s e l e c t i n g one answer from f o u r p o s s i b l e ones t o s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o a passage siblings  in overall  b l e n d i n g and  ( S t o r y comprehension). scores.  ,Again Jack s u r p a s s e d h i s  He showed remarkable s t r e n g t h i n Word  grapheme d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and Sentence  completion t h u s ,  a c h i e v i n g an equal p e r c e n t i l e rank f o r the two s u b t e s t s . how  lower than Joseph on S t o r y comprehension.  He was  A l i c e and Joseph  someranked  107.  the same on Word b l e n d i n g and grapheme d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as w e l l as Word meaning. comprehension.  A l i c e was  the weakest on Sentence completion  and  on Story  I t should a l s o be noted t h a t a marked d i f f e r e n c e i s  seen i n A l i c e ' s p e r c e n t i l e rank between Word b l e n d i n g and grapheme d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and Sentence completion  ( c h o o s i n g one o f f o u r words  to form a s e n t e n c e ) . Teacher's with one  Evaluations.  The t r i p l e t s were a l l i n the same c l a s s  t e a c h e r o n l y d u r i n g Grade 2.  formance w i l l  Comments r e g a r d i n g Year 3 p e r -  f o l l o w T a b l e 12 showing r a n k i n g s f o r the 3 terms.  I n s e r t Table 12 about here  A l i c e o b t a i n e d v e r y good s t a n d i n g i n l i s t e n i n g , o r a l r e a d i n g , handwriting  and p e r s o n a l development.  i d e n t i f i e d as i n need o f improvement.  In f a c t , not one She performed  area had  i n the  been  satis-  f a c t o r y and v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y range i n the remainder  subjects.  t e a c h e r c o n s i d e r e d the year as b e i n g a v e r y good one  for Alice i n that  she had m a i n t a i n e d her l e v e l o f s o c i a b i l i t y and had  Her  progressed.  L i k e w i s e Jack had v e r y good s t a n d i n g i n a l l areas o f French guage A r t s , h a n d w r i t i n g and p e r s o n a l development throughout His t e a c h e r r e f e r r e d to him as an e x c e l l e n t Grade 2 student. f a c t o r y performance was  o n l y seen i n s o c i a l  Lan-  the 3 terms. Satis-  s t u d i e s and p h y s i c a l  edu-  c a t i o n even though he continued to show m o t i v a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g . Joseph  d i d a c h i e v e an almost  e u q a l l y very good s t a n d i n g as h i s  Table  12  Grade 2 Teacher's Report Card  Evaluation*  Term 1  Term 2  Term 3  A l i c e Jack Joseph  A l i c e Jack Joseph  Skills A l i c e J a c k Joseph  French Language A r t s A. L i s t e n i n g s k i l l s 1. L i s t e n s a t t e n t i v e l y 2. Comprehension  1 2+  B. Speaking s k i l l s 1. Fluency o f e x p r e s s i o n 2. C l a r i t y o f speech C. Reading s k i l l s 1. Comprehension 2. O r a l r e a d i n g  2+ 1  1 2+  1 2+  2+ 2+  2+ 2+  2+ 1  2+ 1  D. W r i t i n g s k i l l s 1. S p e l l i n g 2. Sentence w r i t i n g  1 2+  1 2+  Mathematics 1. Understanding o f p r i n c i p l e s 2. Computational s k i l l s 3. Problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s S o c i a l Studies  1 2+ 2+  2 2 2+  1 2+ 2+  2 2 2+  1 2+ 2+  Term 1 Skills  A l i c e Jack Joseph  Term 2  Term 3  A l i c e Jack Joseph  A l i c e Jack Joseph  Science  2  2  1  1  2  1  1  Handwriting  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  Physical Education  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  Art  2  2  1  1  1  1  1  Music  2  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1  Personal Development 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Respect f o r others Sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Participation Independent work Work habits Self-control  * Note:  1 2+ 2 23  very good very s a t i s f a c t o r y satisfactory less s a t i s f a c t o r y needs improvement  110.  brother i n a l l subjects except sentence w r i t i n g i n French on which he obtained very s a t i s f a c t o r y r a t i n g .  I t was commented that he had  worked hard a l l year and had a p o s i t i v e approach to learning. During that year the two boys presented a s i m i l a r e x c e l l e n t performance whereas the g i r l f e l l i n the above average range.  From the  r e s u l t s Grade 2 can then be considered the best year the t r i p l e t s had at the primary l e v e l because of the high r a t i n g s accorded by t h e i r teacher. Year Four Evaluation: Grade 3 Performance E n g l i s h Reading Tests. particular bilingual setting.  Grade 3 i s the t r a n s i t i o n a l year i n t h i s For the f i r s t time the students r e c e i v e  E n g l i s h Language Arts i n s t r u c t i o n at the rate of two hours per day. There are some students who have learned to read on t h e i r own to being f o r m a l l y taught at s c h o o l .  prior  A n a t u r a l t r a n s f e r of reading  s k i l l s from French to E n g l i s h has indeed taken place.  Nevertheless,  a number of p u p i l s s t a r t at zero l e v e l i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e i r mother tongue. Early i n the school year, a pre-test i s given i n order to establ i s h the l e v e l of English p r o f i c i e n c y the p u p i l s have upon entry i n t o Grade 3.  The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level C, Form 2 (Mac-  G i n i t i e , 1980), i s administered i n the f a l l and the p o s t t e s t , Form 1, i n the s p r i n g of the f o l l o w i n g year. A short d e s c r i p t i o n of these t e s t s i s included i n Appendix H. Table 13 contains the r e s u l t s the t r i p l e t s obtained on the pretest given i n the f a l l .  Ill.  Table R e s u l t s Obtained  13  on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Reading T e s t s - L e v e l C, Form 2 F a l l P r e t e s t i n Grade 3  Vocabulary Alice Raw  score  Percentile Rank Grade Equivalent  Alice's  B.N.  s c o r e was  s c o r e s on V o c a b u l a r y There was  Jack  Joseph  20  Jack  Joseph  18  17  21  31  24  21  31  2.5  2.4  2.2  2.4  B.N.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than her b r o t h e r s .  h a r d l y any v a r i a t i o n  Both  between the boys who  Jack was  s l i g h t l y above  s u b t e s t but a t the same time a l i t t l e  Comprehension s u b t e s t .  like a  immersion c h i l d r e n managed t o a c h i e v e a Grade  r a n k i n g i n o v e r a l l performance.  on the Vocabulary  Alice  and Comprehension were below norms.  number o f o t h e r French 2.5  Comprehension  Joseph  lower on  The boys a c h i e v e d a much h i g h e r l e v e l  than  A l i c e on t h i s E n g l i s h r e a d i n g t e s t . By the s p r i n g Form 1 was the p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s Table  13.  administered.  the  T a b l e 14 r e p r e s e n t s  which can be compared w i t h the ones g i v e n i n  112.  Table R e s u l t s Obtained  14  on the  Gates-MacGinitie  Reading T e s t s - L e v e l C, Form 1 S p r i n g P o s t t e s t i n Grade 3  Vocabulary  Comprehension  Alice  Jack  Joseph  27  27  34  Percentile Rank  27  27  Grade Equivalent  3.1  3.1  Raw  score  Jack  Joseph  24  28  31  50  21  31  42  3.8  2.5  3.1  3.5  A l i c e had made the most remarkable  Alice  progress i n Vocabulary  opment t o the p o i n t o f p a r a l l e l i n g her s c o r e w i t h J a c k ' s . ancy o c c u r r e d i n h e r a c q u i s i t i o n  o f Vocabulary  and  devel-  A discrep-  Comprehension  s k i l l s w i t h more than a h a l f - y e a r d e l a y i n Comprehension.  Jack  was  i n the medium range among t h i s group with an equal grade l e v e l on subtests.  On the o t h e r hand, i t i s Joseph who  improving h i s o v e r a l l  French Reading T e s t . Primary  French  topped h i s s i b l i n g s  performance by a whole y e a r .  be r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g e r i n Vocabulary  both  He was  found  by  to  than i n Comprehension.  T h i s t e s t , d e v i s e d by Tourond  (1980) f o r  immersion c l a s s e s , e v a l u a t e s s i l e n t r e a d i n g p e r f o r -  mance s o l e l y t o Grade 3.  At t h i s  l e v e l the two  parts consist  e c t i n g a word from a s e t o f f o u r to complete a sentence  and  in sel-  finding  synonyms (Sentence  comprehension),  and c h o o s i n g the best answers  a set of four to questions p e r t a i n i n g to short s t o r i e s  from  ( S t o r y compre-  hension) . T a b l e 15 p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s o f the t e s t i n g .  A disparity  tween A l i c e ' s s c o r e s and her twin b r o t h e r s i s e v i d e n t .  I n s e r t Table 15 about  have r e g r e s s e d i n the mastery o f French and  score i n both  subtests.  Teachers'  evaluation.  A l i c e and Joseph ferent  e s p e c i a l l y i n synonyms  She had  T h i s time J a c k was  i n S t o r y comprehension but e q u a l l e d him  seemed t o  here  skills  finding relevant details of a story.  She  a t t a i n e d a very  low  b e t t e r than h i s b r o t h e r  i n Sentence comprehension.  In Grade 3, the t r i p l e t s had two  teachers.  were t o g e t h e r i n the same c l a s s , but Jack i n a d i f -  class.  The  format  o f r e p o r t i n g t o p a r e n t s had  changed from the 1, 2 and  3 r a t i n g s , t o more e l a b o r a t e w r i t t e n comments r e l a t e d t o the ent s k i l l s  taught a t t h a t grade  In French  Her  differ-  level.  Language A r t s A l i c e began the y e a r w i t h a s h o r t  c e n t r a t i o n span which had grade.  be-  s t r e n g t h was  slightly  lengthened  by the end o f t h i s  verbal expression evident i n o r a l  d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t went i n p a i r with her s o c i a l i n c l i n a t i o n . progress had been noted  con-  classroom Some  i n o r a l r e a d i n g though comprehension had  f e r e d i n view o f the decoding  difficulties  she was  encountering.  suf-  114.  Table 15 End of Grade 3 Results on the French Diagnostic Reading Test f o r Early French Immersion Primary Classes  Alice Subtests  Jack  Joseph  Raw score  %tile rank  Raw score  %tile rank  Raw score  %tile rank  La comprehension de phrases (Sentence comprehension)  20  20  27  70  27  70  La comprehension textes (Story comprehension)  12  20  20  80  19  70  de  A l s o , her sight vocabulary had been regarded as being l i m i t e d .  She  seemed to f e e l more comfortable i n s i l e n t reading i n d i c a t i n g that the auditory input may have i n t e r f e r e d with her comprehension.  Through-  out the year many copying mistakes were seen i n her written work (possibly careless l e t t e r omissions) as w e l l as poor o r g a n i z a t i o n a l skills. In a l l the other subjects taught i n French (mathematics, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , science, e t c . ) , A l i c e could produce some reasonably good work provided the presentation of new concepts and her p a r t i c i p a t i o n were at the o r a l l e v e l .  I t seems that her poor reading s k i l l s had a det-  rimental e f f e c t on the comprehension and completion of w r i t t e n work as w e l l .  The concept of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n had to be taught through the  115.  a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l and much work had been suggested i n o r d e r t o master the t i m e s t a b l e . The  acquisition of English s k i l l s  presented  initially  some prob-  lems t o A l i c e i n t h a t she c o u l d n o t f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s and h e r b a s i c s i g h t v o c a b u l a r y was weak.  Good p r o g r e s s  i n o r a l r e a d i n g and compre-  h e n s i o n had o c c u r r e d by the l a s t term, and as i n French, ing  silent  read-  e x e r c i s e s were not as p a i n f u l s i n c e she c o u l d d e r i v e meaning from  s e l e c t i o n s read.  However, s p e l l i n g remained a t a low l e v e l which  i n f l u e n c e d the q u a l i t y o f h e r w r i t t e n Her  sentences.  t e a c h e r viewed h e r as a v e r y v e r b a l c h i l d who needed  a t t e n t i o n and r e i n f o r c e m e n t .  constant  A c e r t a i n degree o f h y p e r a c t i v i t y was  n o t i c e a b l e which c o u l d have h i n d e r e d h e r a c q u i s i t i o n o f b a s i c  skills.  No r e f e r r a l had been made t o t h e a r e a c o u n s e l l o r as t o h e r b e h a v i o r and  a t t i t u d i n a l problems.  and  t h e r e was no c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f s k i l l s  academic l e a r n i n g . among boys.  The a s s i g n e d homework was done i r r e g u l a r l y t h a t would have  facilitated  She was s o c i a l l y i n c l i n e d and e s p e c i a l l y  popular  In f a c t she p r e f e r r e d t o p l a y w i t h h e r male c o l l e a g u e s  s i n c e she had an e x c e l l e n t r a p p o r t with h e r twin b r o t h e r s whom she was approaching Joseph,  i n a r a t h e r motherly  manner.  i n the same c l a s s as A l i c e , p r e s e n t e d more d i f f e r e n c e s  than s i m i l a r i t i e s when compared w i t h h i s s i s t e r .  Interestingly,  d u r i n g o r a l q u e s t i o n i n g , t h e two c h i l d r e n would always h e l p each o t h e r and when r e a c h i n g a h i g h l e v e l o f f r u s t r a t i o n had a tendency o f e x h i b i t i n g temper tantrums with o t h e r s and p o u t i n g t o the p o i n t o f sobbing.  116.  As with Alice, the multiplication concept and mastery of timestable seemed to be a laborious task for Joseph, too.  However, he had good  concentration ability and was both courteous and considerate to others.  He possessed great internal self-discipline as well as an  interest in learning. His oral reading in French lacked fluency but he managed to grasp the content of stories.  Because of his organiz-  ational ability and greater effort he had improved in spelling, punctuation and capitalization. Joseph's English word attack skills and listening were satisfactory from the beginning of Grade 3.  During the year, oral reading and  spelling had improved significantly.  His performance in silent read-  ing although not at level in the second term, presumably caused by a certain degree of distractibility, had progressed considerably in the next term.  He was able to write sentences, respecting a l l the rules.  Joseph appeared to be more aware of his problems than Alice but, on the other hand, there was eagerness to do better and his behavior's stability explained his Grade 3 progress. Jack was on his own in a different class.  He was a good listen-  er and could follow teacher's directions without difficulty.  During  the f i r s t two terms he was reading and expressing himself quite well in French and his dictations had greatly improved.  By the end of the  year his performance in French deteriorated because less effort had been put in his work.  In mathematics he worked slowly at the begin-  ning but end-of-year results were encouraging since he had manifested  117.  a special  interest  i n the s u b j e c t .  H i s t e a c h e r had n o t i c e d c r e a t i v i t y  and c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a r t l e s s o n s p o s s i b l y due t o c o n s t a n t exposure t o his  mother's a r t i s t i c work.  Reading i n E n g l i s h came q u i t e e a s i l y to  Jack e a r l y i n the s c h o o l y e a r .  A c c o r d i n g to h i s t e a c h e r he  produced  h i g h q u a l i t y work i n a l l areas o f E n g l i s h Language A r t s . A l l the c h i l d r e n were promoted to Grade 4. Statistical  Analysis  The main s t a t i s t i c  a p p l i e d i n t h i s case study was  product-moment-correlation  (r) with o n l y raw  the  Pearson  scores included i n a l l  analyses. In o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h the b e s t p r e d i c t o r s i n r e l a t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n s o f the study, comparisons were made between s c o r e s on  the  K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y and the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s and the Tourond French r e a d i n g t e s t at the end o f Grade 3. r e l a t e d were s c o r e s o f the Grades 1 and 3 results.  An examination  2 Tourond s u b t e s t s w i t h Grade  o f the s t a t i s t i c a l  data shows a s c a t t e r o f  p a t t e r n s w i t h some p e r f e c t n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e ing  t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s i n c u r r e d g i v e unexpected  ticular  study.  Also cor-  For example, i t i s unusual  correlations  indicat-  results in this  t o have a n e g a t i v e  t i o n between the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t and the  par-  correla-  Gates-  M a c G i n i t i e Comprehension p o s t t e s t , -0.5695 (p_ = 0.307) both o f which are r e l a t e d t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f language.  Some e n t r i e s had  h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s but the p l e v e l was  significance.  not near  Table 16 p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f s e l e c t e d  very  T a b l e 16 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s o f Selected P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s to the P r e d i c t i o n o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  Reading T e s t s :  P o s t t e s t and the Tourond Grade 3 T e s t  Predictor variables Criterion variables KB  KPPVT  KM 2  KM 4  WISC 3  WISC 5  Gates-MacGinitie (posttest) V o c a b u l a r y Grade 3  0.7857 (p=0.212)  0.0 (p=0.500)  0.2774 (p=0.411)  0.8660 (p=0,167)  0.8660 (p=0.167)  0.0 (p=0.500)  Gates-MacGinitie (posttest) Comprehension Grade 3  0.2936 (p=0.405)  -0.5695 (p=0,307)  -0.3192 (p=0.397)  0.4271 (p=Q.360)  0.4271 (p=0,360)  0.5695 (p=0.307)  Tourond sentence comprehension Grade 3  -0.1429 (p=0.454)  -0.8660 (p=0.167)  -0.6934 (p=0.256)  0.0 (p=0.500)  0.0 (p=0.500)  0.8660 (p=0.167)  Tourond s t o r y comprehension Grade 3  -0.2554 (p=0.418)  -0.9177 (p=0.130)  -0.7715 (p=0.220)  -0.1147 (p=0.463)  -0.1147 (p=0.463)  0.9177 (p=0.130)  Note.  KB KPPVT KM 2 KM 4 WISC 3 WISC 5  K i n d e r g a r t e n Boehm T e s t o f B a s i c Concepts K i n d e r g a r t e n Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t K i n d e r g a r t e n McCarthy S c r e e n i n g T e s t V e r b a l Memory K i n d e r g a r t e n McCarthy S c r e e n i n g Test Numerical Memory Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d , V o c a b u l a r y Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d , Comprehension  119.  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s t o the p r e d i c t i o n o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s and t h e Tourond Grade 3 t e s t . R e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was no c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e GatesM a c G i n i t i e Vocabulary and t h e V o c a b u l a r y C h i l d r e n , Revised  s u b t e s t , t h e Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary  s u b t e s t o f t h e Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r (WISC-R).  The Grade 3 Tourond t e s t y i e l d e d  c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Boehm T e s t o f B a s i c Concepts, Vocabulary subtest.  Test  negative  the Peabody P i c t u r e  T e s t , the McCarthy S c r e e n i n g T e s t and the WISC-R V o c a b u l a r y However, the Tourond s u b t e s t (Comprehension) had t h e h i g h e s t  correlation  (0.9177, p_ = 0.130) w i t h t h e WISC-R V o c a b u l a r y b u t t h e  l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was not c l o s e t o .05. There was a n e g a t i v e o r no c o r r e l a t i o n between the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t , the McCarthy S c r e e n i n g T e s t V e r b a l memory subtest  and t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . A c o r r e l a t i o n o f 0.3592 (£ = 0.383) was observed between t h e  pre and p o s t t e s t G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e V o c a b u l a r y  s u b t e s t whereas the p r e  and p o s t Comprehension s u b t e s t y i e l d e d an r o f 0.9942 (p = 0.034). T a b l e 17 p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f Tourond Grade 1  I n s e r t T a b l e 17 about here  and  2 p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f Tourond Grade 3 t e s t . From t h e a n a l y s i s t h e r e appears  t o be a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n be-  tween the Grade 1 and 3 t e s t s than t h e Grade 2 and 3 t e s t s .  The  T a b l e 17 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s o f Each P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e  (Tourond Grade 1 and 2)  to the P r e d i c t i o n o f Tourond Grade 3 T e s t  Predictor  Criterion variables  Tourond sentence comprehension Grade 3  ONET ONET ONET TWOT TWOT TWOT TWOT  ONET 1  ONET 2  ONET 3  TWOT 1  TWOT 2  TWOT 3  TWOT 4  0.9912  1.0000  0.9820  0.5000  0.5000  Q.8220  0.8660  (p=0.042)  Tourond s t o r y comprehension Grade 3  0.9998 (p=0.006)  1 2 3 1 2 3 4  Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade  variables  1 1 1 2 2 2 2  Tourond Tourond Tourond Tourond Tourond Tourond Tourond  (p=0.000)  0.9934 (p=0.037)  (p=0.061)  0.9972 (p=0.024)  (p=0.333)  0.5960 (p=0.297)  (p=0.333)  0.5960 (p=0.297)  (p=0.193)  0.8819 (p=0.156)  t e s t - Word r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t - Word meaning t e s t - Sentence and s h o r t s t o r y comprehension t e s t - Word meaning t e s t - Word b l e n d i n g and grapheme d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t - Sentence completion t e s t - S t o r y comprehension  (p=0.167)  0.8030 (p=0.203)  121.  Sentence comprehension s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e s at the same l e v e l w i t h Grade 2 Word meaning and Word b l e n d i n g and subtests.  the  grapheme d i s c r i m i n a t i o n •  S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were o b t a i n e d on the S t o r y comprehension  subtest. On the b a s i s o f d e s c r i p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s and s t a t i s t i c a l q u e s t i o n s o f the study are addressed p o s s i b l e answers are a l s o Question  1:  analysis  i n the f o l l o w i n g t e x t and  their  presented.  From the s c r e e n i n g instruments  employed a t the  Kind-  e r g a r t e n l e v e l , which instruments were the best p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e triplets'  academic success at the end o f Grade 3?  I n f o r m a t i o n as t o the p r e d i c t i v e power o f the K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y and other t e s t s used, i s u n j u s t i f i a b l e i n t h i s study due  to the l i m i t e d sample.  particular  Based on the r e s u l t s d a t a , t h e Boehm  T e s t o f B a s i c Concepts c o r r e l a t e d the b e s t w i t h the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Vocabulary T e s t had ables.  s u b t e s t (0.7857, p_ = 0.212); the Peabody P i c t u r e  Vocabulary  e i t h e r a n e g a t i v e or no c o r r e l a t i o n with the c r i t e r i o n  vari-  The McCarthy S c r e e n i n g T e s t V e r b a l memory subtest had no  cor-  r e l a t i o n w i t h the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s but the Numerical memory s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e V o c a b u l a r y  p o s t t e s t (0.8660, £ =  0.167) . Q u e s t i o n 2:  From the French  t e s t s used at the Grade 1 and  l e v e l s , which ones were the b e s t p r e d i c t o r s o f the t r i p l e t s '  2  success  at end o f Grade 3? The  Grade 1 Tourond French r e a d i n g t e s t c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h  122.  the Grade 3 t e s t (from 1.000  p = 0.000 to 0.9998 p = 0.006) but  Grade 2 t e s t y i e l d e d a lower c o r r e l a t i o n (from 0.8660 p = 0.167  the to  0.5000 p = 0.333) . Question 3:  Were there sex differences i n the p r e d i c t o r v a r i -  able? The p o s s i b i l i t y of sex differences i n the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e with only one subject as a female and two subjects as males, could not be demonstrated. Question 4:  What other variables can be used as p r e d i c t o r s of  success at the end of the primary grades? Since a c h i l d ' s development i s modified by h i s immediate environment, a s p e c i f i c set of variables a f f e c t i n g success at the primary l e v e l may  not be possible f o r a general  There are c h i l d r e n who  population.  e x h i b i t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n learning both at  the Kindergarten and Grade 1 l e v e l , but a f t e r these grades they are able to f u n c t i o n adequately.  Reasons f o r success can only be tenta-  t i v e since they are unmeasurable.  In the case study, the instruments  used i n French and/or English were not good p r e d i c t o r s . Question 5:  To what extent s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s contributed to a  d i v e r s i t y i n the development of c e r t a i n academic and s o c i a l s k i l l s from Kindergarten to Grade 3? Factors which may  have contributed to the attainment of a spe-  c i f i c s k i l l are d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y i n an o b j e c t i v e manner therefore, any d e f i n i t e statements cannot be made.  123.  CHAPTER IV FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND  T h i s chapter  presents  IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY  the f i n d i n g s , conclusions,  l i m i t a t i o n s and  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the study. The  purpose o f the study was t o e v a l u a t e  of a set of t r i p l e t s  attending  a period o f four years.  level  a Primary French immersion s c h o o l  over  In a d d i t i o n t h e study sought t o a s c e r t a i n  whether any o f t h e formal garten  t h e academic achievement  and i n f o r m a l measures used a t t h e K i n d e r -  c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d as p r e d i c t o r s o f a student's  i n the French immersion programme.  Also, non-scholastic  skills  e r i n g a f o u r - y e a r p e r i o d have been examined i n terms o f t h e i r on o v e r a l l performance r e s u l t s i n r e s p e c t Major F i n d i n g s Based on t h e f o u r - y e a r  success cov-  impact  t o each s u b j e c t .  o f the Study  e v a l u a t i o n o f the t r i p l e t s  i t appears t h a t  l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y , p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s and a t t i t u d e s , and not IQ, were f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r success Cummins' " t h r e s h o l d h y p o t h e s i s " o f competence i n f i r s t  i n French  immersion.  i n t e r p r e t e d as the minimal  level  language ( c o g n i t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s ) may have  been a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the attainment o f French and E n g l i s h by t h e triplets.  Since  i t has been proven t h a t French immersion p u p i l s ac-  q u i r e the n e c e s s a r y E n g l i s h s k i l l s when E n g l i s h language i n s t r u c t i o n i s formally introduced,  the a c q u i s i t i o n o f French o r a l language ought  to be emphasized t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t .  A l s o a c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n on  124.  s c h o o l - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s may learning.  In A l i c e ' s case,  e x h i b i t i n g throughout her f a c t o r i n her  have some r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e  the  l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n span she has  e a r l y s c h o o l i n g seemed to be  subsequent academic performance.  a decisive  In f o c u s i n g on  achievement, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t h i s p e r f e c t i o n i s t tendency already and  i n Grade 1 has  E n g l i s h language For the t h r e e  be a key  Jack's  identified  c o n t r i b u t e d to h i s attainment o f good F r e n c h skills.  c h i l d r e n o f average a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n  f a c t o r i n t h e i r success.  Throughout the y e a r s ,  comprehension, v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n  seemed t o  the  developed d i f f e r e n t l y i n the a r e a o f r e c e p t i v e language,  triplets  listening  and i n t e r e s t s .  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the There are t h r e e  been  l i m i t a t i o n s o f the  Study  study.  F i r s t , the study i s r e s t r i c t e d to a small sample o f p u p i l s r a t h e r than to an e n t i r e c l a s s w i t h i n a g i v e n p e r i o d o f time. Second, the r e s e a r c h e r from v a r i o u s  has  r e l i e d h e a v i l y on i n f o r m a t i o n  sources as s t a t e d e a r l i e r s i n c e d i r e c t involvement  the t r i p l e t s o n l y o c c u r r e d  a t the time of the K i n d e r g a r t e n  T h i r d , i t becomes p r a c t i c a l l y f a c t o r s t h a t may ment o f s p e c i f i c  impossible  to d e s i g n a t e  a l l the attain-  skills. no  c o n t r o l over  following variables: The  with  screening.  have c o n t r i b u t e d to a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the  Hence, i t should be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e was  1.  obtained  instruments used  (test  administration);  the  125,  2.  The teachers' comments on report cards;  3.  O v e r a l l evaluation during the given period of time;  4. The i n s t r u c t i o n i n the classroom; 5.  V a l i d i t y of observations made by various i n d i v i d u a l s (teach-  ers' commitment to express t h e i r personal opinions, e t c . ) ; 6.  The fact that only a s i m i l a r standardized French d i a g n o s t i c  reading t e s t was given from Grade 1 t o 3 (one f o r each grade l e v e l ) may also be considered another l i m i t a t i o n . Discussion and Conclusions The discussion that follows i s made based on the mentioned l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. Testing measurements i n French are s t i l l i n an experimental stage. In the manual of the Tourond t e s t (1980), the author cautions that the French t e s t has not been u t i l i z e d f o r a s u f f i c i e n t length o f time, i . e . i t does not permit measures of p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y . Likewise, i t should be acknowledged that the sample entered a French immersion Kindergarten with poorly developed f i r s t language skills.  They mainly lacked conceptual base and receptive language  ability.  Since the test r e s u l t s d i d not i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t delay  i n l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e that the cognitive system of these c h i l d r e n was not yet organized i n t h e i r f i r s t year of formal schooling. It might be hypothesized that i f English language s k i l l s had been c l o s e l y monitored, with less emphasis on the a c q u i s i t i o n of  126.  French these c h i l d r e n would have had a f i r m e r grasp o f one language only.  In a d d i t i o n , i f they had attended a French p r e - s c h o o l t h e r e  might have been a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t R e s u l t s from Year  i n t h e l e a r n i n g o f French.  1 e v a l u a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t the t r i p l e t s  dis-  p l a y e d no major s t r e n g t h s but r a t h e r weaknesses i n v a r i o u s areas o f E n g l i s h language.  The t h r e e performed  on r e c e p t i v e language. p r e s s i n g themselves  below t h e mental  age l e v e l  Both boys e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n ex-  v e r b a l l y but i t i s Jack who caused t h e g r e a t e s t  concern due t o h i s l i n g u i s t i c d e f i c i t s and poor a u d i t o r y memory. A l i c e was a l r e a d y e x h i b i t i n g poor a u d i t o r y l i s t e n i n g and v o c a b u l a r y . And,  f i n a l l y , Joseph  d i s p l a y e d s u b t l e language  difficulties.  The p r o g n o s i s f o r these c h i l d r e n t o remain  i n a French  immersion  programme w i t h t h e above mentioned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i d not appear t o o optimistic.  Moreover, Jack's l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g was so low that on  the b a s i s o f t h e s c r e e n i n g r e s u l t s he was t h e one who would have c e r t a i n l y s t r u g g l e d throughout  the primary grades.  o f t h i s c r i t i c a l i n t r o d u c t o r y year, he improved t i o n s b e g i n n i n g i n Grade 1, and maintained comparison  Upon completion  beyond one's expecta-  a strong position i n  w i t h h i s s i s t e r and b r o t h e r .  When he e n t e r e d Grade 1 Jack's r e c e p t i v e language garten was s t i l l  weak.  In g e n e r a l i t appears  as i n Kinder-  t h a t some c h i l d r e n  advance t o Grade 1 w i t h some d i f f i c u l t i e s on t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g but do improve d u r i n g the summer p o s s i b l y as a r e s u l t o f s p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e s programmed f o r the home by s c h o o l p r o f e s s i o n a l  s t a f f and/or  127,  private tutoring.  H e a r i n g a c u i t y was not r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g t h e  cause o f h i s low language a b i l i t y .  A f t e r more exposure t o language-  o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s , Jack's v o c a b u l a r y and E n g l i s h s k i l l s much h i g h e r l e v e l by t h e end o f Grade 1.  were a t a  On the French r e a d i n g t e s t  he o b t a i n e d t h e h i g h e s t score o f t h e t h r e e . Although  he s t a r t e d the year w i t h s t r o n g e r E n g l i s h language  skills  and c o n t i n u e d t o p r o g r e s s d u r i n g t h a t grade i t was noted t h a t  Joseph  f o l l o w e d h i s b r o t h e r c l o s e l y a c a d e m i c a l l y b u t not s o c i a l l y .  In A l i c e ' s case no s p e c i f i c by t h e speech  language d i s a b i l i t y was i d e n t i f i e d  and h e a r i n g t h e r a p i s t though some b e h a v i o r and person-  a l i t y problems had been n o t i c e d .  She a c h i e v e d very low scores on t h e  French r e a d i n g t e s t and h e r y e a r l y performance was average.  Her  a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r may have been a drawback i n the l e a r n i n g o f b a s i c academic s k i l l s .  She indeed  lagged behind both boys s t a r t i n g  i n Grade 1. At t h e Grade 2 l e v e l , the t r i p l e t s o b t a i n e d the best r a t i n g s from t h e i r t e a c h e r  ( o n l y one) f o r the f o u r - y e a r p e r i o d .  A l i c e was  r e c e i v i n g p r i v a t e t u t o r i n g i n French r e a d i n g b u t h e r o v e r a l l p e r f o r mance was lower than h e r twin b r o t h e r s . and depressed  Poor v i s u a l - m o t o r  integration  v e r b a l s c o r e s c o u l d not be matched w i t h any b r o t h e r .  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were observed  f o r t h e attainment  o f French  language  skills. Jack has a l s o a low v e r b a l range on a p s y c h o l o g i c a l measure i n comparison w i t h h i s performance range.  He was t h e b e s t on the French  128.  r e a d i n g t e s t by r e a c h i n g a h i g h l e v e l o f French Although Joseph  d i d not meet J a c k ' s academic l e v e l he  q u i t e w e l l on the p s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l  G r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n was  observed  scored  t e s t s and d i d not encounter  problem i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f French  3) with two  language p r o f i c i e n c y .  language  skills.  i n e v a l u a t i n g the t r i p l e t s  t e a c h e r s a s s e s s i n g them.  any  (Grade  A l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n d i d not  c e l i n mathematics but r a t h e r were s t r u g g l i n g t o keep up w i t h  ex-  the  demands o f the c u r r i c u l u m . A l i c e kept up her h i g h v e r b a l s k i l l s i n both languages.  She  e n t e r e d t h i s grade w i t h n o n - e x i s t e n t E n g l i s h s k i l l s .  However, by  s p r i n g she had made more p r o g r e s s i n v o c a b u l a r y than  comprehension  and her range was  the  i n the mid Grade 2 t o b e g i n n i n g Grade 3 c a t e g o r y .  Poor s p e l l i n g s k i l l s hampered the development o f French and E n g l i s h sentence w r i t i n g . through  She had a l s o a p r e f e r e n c e t o approach a problem  the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l .  Jack and Joseph  s t a r t e d Grade 3 at an equal l e v e l o f E n g l i s h  language p r o f i c i e n c y . t i o n and  Jack had  a good academic y e a r due  to  motiva-  c o n c e n t r a t i o n which h e l p e d him improve i n French o r a l  p r e s s i o n and  spelling.  On the E n g l i s h language p o s t t e s t he  a b e g i n n i n g Grade 3 l e v e l but no major problems had been  ex-  achieved  identified  then. Joseph,  showing g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t  i n academic s u b j e c t s at the  o f Grade 3 l e v e l r a t e d the b e s t on the E n g l i s h language p o s t t e s t . However, he e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t i e s with mathematics.-  end  129.  In c o n c l u s i o n r e f e r e n c e i s made t o Cummins' (1979) b e l i e f t h a t minimal  cognitive-linguistic skills  s u c c e s s f u l i n second  are necessary  language l e a r n i n g .  i n order t o be  S i n c e the speed o f l e a r n i n g  i s r e l a t e d t o the r a t e o f m a t u r a t i o n and t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o grasp new concepts was slow i n comparison w i t h o t h e r p u p i l s i t may be t h a t t h e l a t e immersion concept might have been more s u i t a b l e f o r the  triplets. I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Study I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e study w i l l  and t h e r e s e a r c h School  level  level.  Level  The unusual  focus on both the s c h o o l  study p r e s e n t e d a s y s t e m a t i c developmental  p a t t e r n o f an  sample o f c h i l d r e n by o b s e r v i n g v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s emerging over a f o u r - y e a r span. On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s case s t u d y i t i s suggested  that early  v e n t i o n by s c h o o l s t a f f at the K i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l may reduce ficulties  some c h i l d r e n w i l l  inter-  the d i f -  e x p e r i e n c e i n the primary grades.  The  s u b j e c t s o f the study d i d not a t t e n d t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t e r f o r s p e c i f i c r e m e d i a t i o n but were b e i n g t u t o r e d p r i v a t e l y .  At t h i s  p o i n t , i t i s recommended t h a t t h e Grade 1 t e a c h e r s become more f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s and focus t h e i r on c h i l d r e n who have been i d e n t i f i e d I t i s suggested  attention  "at r i s k " .  t h a t a t e s t b a t t e r y such as T r i t e s '  Early-  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Assessment B a t t e r y be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o c h i l d r e n who d i d  130.  not perform s a t i s f a c t o r i l y on the s c h o o l ' s r e g u l a r  screening.  A l s o , t h a t a f o u r - y e a r programme i n s t e a d o f t h r e e - y e a r programme be o f f e r e d i n t h e French p r i m a r y grades f o r c h i l d r e n who have no l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y but need more time t o l e a r n a f o r e i g n and show a h i g h m o t i v a t i o n a l  language  l e v e l t o l e a r n French.  F i n a l l y , t h e r e appears t o be a need f o r t e a c h e r s ' i n p u t i n t h e development  o f a p p r o p r i a t e French immersion m a t e r i a l e s p e c i a l l y i n  reading content area. Research L e v e l To t h i s date r e s e a r c h has f o c u s e d on n a t i v e language second language a c q u i s i t i o n and g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . be a need 1.  development,  There seems t o  f o r research i n : The development  o f French immersion s t a n d a r d i z e d and d i a g n o s -  t i c t e s t s measuring a l l f a c e t s o f French Language A r t s a t each grade level  ( e a r l y and l a t e immersion 2.  option);  The improvement o f s c r e e n i n g procedures t a k i n g i n t o account  second-language l e a r n i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f K i n d e r g a r t e n ; 3.  The p r e p a r a t i o n o f a study on a group o f French immersion  K i n d e r g a r t e n e r s upon c o m p l e t i o n o f French p r e - s c h o o l l o n g e r language exposure and e a r l i e r language 4.  (effects of  training);  A c l o s e r examination o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f French  immersion  groups t o see more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t s and d i f f e r e n c e s / s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h i n the group; 5.  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f o r a l and w r i t t e n p r o d u c t i o n o f French  131.  immersion s t u d e n t s a t each grade 6.  The e v a l u a t i o n  level;  o f French immersion students  experiencing  l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s at the p r i m a r y l e v e l ; 7.  Reasons f o r dropping out o f F r e n c h immersion at a l l l e v e l s  (elementary and secondary s c h o o l s ) o f s t u d e n t s from v a r i o u s economic 8. French 9.  socio-  status; Psychological  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f below average p u p i l s  entering  immersion; Examining the impact F r e n c h immersion has on the  school  achievement o f below average p u p i l s ; 10.  S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to socio-economic, e t h n i c and  factors for minority  intellectual  group c h i l d r e n ( t h i r d language i s i n v o l v e d ) .  132.  References  Anderson, T.,  Wallace  Past, A.  § Cude P a s t , K.E.  The b e s t time to become b i l i n g u a l Education,  1978,  Early childhood:  and b i l i t e r a t e .  Childhood  _3, 155-161.  A n i s f e l d , E. S Lambert, W.E.  Cognitive aspects of b i l i n g u a l i s m .  Paper d e l i v e r e d at American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement o f S c i e n c e Symposium on B i l i n g u a l i s m , M o n t r e a l , B a r i k , H.C.  French  Comprehension T e s t - L e v e l 1.  Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, .  French  Comprehension T e s t - Primer.  I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, B a r i k , H.C. of  § Swain, M.  the 1973-74 French  .  Toronto:  The  Ontario  1976. Evaluation  Toronto:  (mimeo).  The  i n the  Ontario  Institute  (a)  E n g l i s h - F r e n c h b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n i n the e a r l y grades: Modern Language J o u r n a l , 1974,  B i l i n g u a l Education P r o j e c t :  French  C a r l e t o n Board o f E d u c a t i o n .  for  S t u d i e s i n Education,  S e r v i c e No.  ED  121  056)  E a r l y grade French  1975.  _8, 392-403.  The  (b)  E v a l u a t i o n o f the 1974-75  immersion program i n grades 2-4,  and  .  The  1975.  immersion program i n grades 1-3  S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1974  E l g i n study. .  Toronto:  B i l i n g u a l Education P r o j e c t :  Federal Capital's public schools. for  1964.  Ottawa Board of E d u c a t i o n  Toronto: (ERIC  The O n t a r i o  Document  Institute  Reproduction  (a) immersion c l a s s e s i n a u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h  133.  Canadian  setting:  imentalis, .  .  U,  153-177.  program:  The Ottawa study.  .  A Canadian  experiment  i n b i l i n g u a l education: 5_, 465-479.  11_, 251-263.  (b) The  Modem Language J o u r n a l , 1976,  1_,  (c) Primary-grade setting:  French immersion  in a unilingual  1_, 39-58.  Update on French immersion:  program i n grades  3-5,  C a r l e t o n Board o f E d u c a t i o n . S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1977  Canadian  (d)  The Toronto study through grade  B i l i n g u a l Education Project:  immersion  English-  The Toronto study through grade 2.  Canadian J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1976,  .  (a)  E n g l i s h - F r e n c h b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n i n the e a r l y grades.  J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1976,  .  The P e e l study.  A l o n g i t u d i n a l study o f b i l i n g u a l and c o g n i t i v e development.  Canadian  .  1_,  "(c)  E l g i n study through grade f o u r . 3-17.  French  Language L e a r n i n g , 1975,  I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f Psychology, 1976, .  Exper-  (b)  F o r e i g n Language A n n a l s , 1976, .  S c i e n t i a Paedagogica  Three y e a r e v a l u a t i o n o f a l a r g e s c a l e e a r l y grade  immersion 1-30.  1975,  The Toronto study.  4_, 33-42.  3.  (e)  E v a l u a t i o n o f the 1975-76 French  Ottawa Board o f E d u c a t i o n and  Toronto:  The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r  (mimeo).  Evaluation of a b i l i n g u a l  E l g i n study through grade s i x .  e d u c a t i o n program i n Canada: A c t s o f the Colloquium o f the  I n t e r u n i v e r s i t y Commission f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s .  The Swiss  B u l l e t i n CILA,  134.  1978,  27.  (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No.  B a r i k , H.C,  Swain, M.  lish setting:  One  tt McTavish, way  B a r i k , H.C,  Swain, M.  education:  The  1974,  ED 122  2_, 38-56.  Working  (ERIC Document Repro-  589)  § Nwanunobi, E.A.  Modern Language Review, 1977,  English-French b i l i n g u a l The  Canadian  4_, 459-475.  A c q u i s i t i o n comparee de l a syntaxe du  par des e n f a n t s francophones  et non francophones.  L i n g u i s t i q u e A p p l i q u e e , 1977, B.C.  Immersion c l a s s e s i n an Eng-  E l g i n study through grade f i v e .  B a u t i e r - C a s t a i n g , E.  174 043) .  f o r l e s A n g l a i s t o l e a r n French.  Papers on B i l i n g u a l i s m , d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No.  K.  ED  francais  Etudes  de  27, 19-41.  French Comprehension T e s t (Experimental v e r s i o n ) .  Burnaby,  B.C.:  Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1976-77. Beery, K.E.  Developmental  Test of Visual-Motor Integration  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s c o r i n g , and t e a c h i n g manual. Follett Beery, K.E.  P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  Beery and B u k t e n i c a Developmental  o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n - Manual.  Beery, M.F.  C h i c a g o , 111.:  t i c e s of therapy.  New  Speech d i s o r d e r s : York:  Follett  The  P r i n c i p l e s and p r a c -  Appleton-Century  B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n P r o j e c t S t a f f (O.I.S.E.).  597-605.  Test  1977.  § Eisenson, J .  grams i n Canada.  111.:  1982.  § B u k t e n i c a , N.A.  P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  Chicago,  (Rev. ed.).  Crofts,  1956.  French immersion  pro-  Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, S_,  135.  Boehm, A.E.  Boehm T e s t o f B a s i c Concepts - Manual.  New York:  The  P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1971. Bruck, M.  S w i t c h i n g out o f French immersion.  tional Policy, .  1978, 4, 86-94.  The s u i t a b i l i t y  .  (a)  o f e a r l y French immersion programs  language d i s a b l e d c h i l d . 1978, _5, 884-887.  Interchange on Educa-  f o r the  The Canadian Modern Language Review,  (b)  Language i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n ' s performance i n an a d d i t i v e b i -  l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n program.  Applied Psycholinguistics,  1982, 1_,  45-60. Bruck, M., J a k i m i k , J . 6, Tucker, R.G.  A r e French immersion  suitable f o r working-class children?  programs  A follow-up i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  Word, 1971, 21_, 311-341. Bruck, M., Lambert, W.E., the elementary grades:  § Tucker, G.R.  B i l i n g u a l s c h o o l i n g through  The S t . Lambert  p r o j e c t a t grade seven.  Language L e a r n i n g , 1974, 2_, 183-204. _.  A l t e r n a t i v e forms o f immersion f o r second language  Working .  Papers on B i l i n g u a l i s m ,  C o g n i t i v e consequences  1976, 1_0, 23-61.  of bilingual  b e r t p r o j e c t through grade s i x . linguistics,  1976, 6, 13-32.  report.  (a)  schooling;  The S t , Lam-  I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f Psycho-  (b)  Bruck, M., R a b i n o v i t c h , S. § Oates, M. s i o n programs  teaching.  The e f f e c t s o f French, immer-  on c h i l d r e n w i t h language d i s a b i l i t i e s - , a p r e l i m i n a r y -  Working  Papers on B i l i n g u a l i s m , 1975, 5_, 47-86,  (ERIC  136.  Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 125 242) Bruck, M. § Swain, M. Research c o n f e r e n c e on immersion the m a j o r i t y c h i l d :  Introduction.  education f o r  The Canadian Modern Language  Review, 1976, 5_, 490-493. Buros, K.O.  (Ed.) T e s t s & r e v i e w s :  F o r e i g n languages  The E i g h t h Mental Measurements Yearbook. P r e s s , 1978, V o l . I , 232-236. T e s t s § reviews: Measurements Yearbook. Vol. .  I , 252-253.  I , 318-322. C.  The Gryphon  (a)  New J e r s e y :  The E i g h t h Mental  The Gryphon P r e s s , 1978,  (b)  Tests § reviews:  Burstall,  New J e r s e y :  I n t e l l i g e n c e - Group.  Intelligence - Individual.  Mental Measurements Yearbook. Vol.  - Spanish.  New J e r s e y :  The E i g h t h  The Gryphon P r e s s , 1978,  (c)  Comments o f guest a n a l y s t s .  The Canadian Modern Lang-  uage Review, 1976, 2_, 208-215. Burstall,  C , Jamieson, M., Cohen, S. § Hargreaves, M.  i n the balance..  Slough, Berks.:  Primary  French  N a t i o n a l Foundation f o r E d u c a t i o n -  a l Research P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , 1974. B u r t , M.K., Manual. Canadian  Dulay, H.C. £ Hernandez, Ch. New York:  B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure -  H a r c o u r t , Brace § J o v a n o v i c h , I n c . , 1973.  C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s T e s t - Form 1.  Toronto:  Thomas Nelson  & Sons, 1974. 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Systematicity/variabil-  i t y and s t a b i l i t y / i n s t a b i l i t y i n i n t e r l a n g u a g e systems: from Toronto  immersion.  guage a c q u i s i t i o n .  Ann  In H.D.  More d a t a  Brown (Ed.) Papers i n second  Arbor, M i c h . :  Language L e a r n i n g  lan-  1976,  93-134/ T a y l o r , M.  S p e c u l a t i o n s on b i l i n g u a l i s m and  Working Papers on B i l i n g u a l i s m , Reproduction Terman, L.M.  S e r v i c e No.  ED  § M e r r i l l , M.A.  Houghton M i f f l i n ,  122  Education,  Toronto:  Insti-  1975. - Grade 3 l e v e l .  s i o n des E c o l e s C a t h o l i q u e s de M o n t r e a l , Grade 1 l e v e l .  l i q u e s de M o n t r e a l , Grade 2 l e v e l .  l i q u e s de M o n t r e a l , No  The O n t a r i o  The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n  grade l e v e l  Montreal:  Montreal:  La Commis-  1969-70.  T e s t de Rendement en F r a n g a i s - Grade 3 l e v e l .  .  Boston-  1974.  s i o n des E c o l e s C a t h o l i q u e s de M o n t r e a l ,  .  (ERIC Document  591)  3 levels.  Toronto:  T e s t s de Rendement en C a l c u l  .  network.  1937.  tute f o r Studies i n Education, Grade 4 l e v e l .  2, 68-124.  Measuring i n t e l l i g e n c e .  T e s t de L e c t u r e - Grade 2 and  .  1974,  the c o g n i t i v e  Montreal:  La Commis-  1969-74.  La Commission des E c o l e s Catho-  1971-72. Montreal:  La Commission des E c o l e s Catho-  1972-73. indicated.  C a t h o l i q u e s de M o n t r e a l ,  Montreal:  1974-75.  La Commission des  Ecoles  155.  T i e g s , E.W. II,  & C l a r k , W.  form A.  T i t o n e , R. tion  Monterey, C a l i f . :  Achievement  CTB, M c G r a w - H i l l ,  and p e r s o n a l i t y development.  Tourond, M.  Tourond, M. , Thomson, C ,  Ottawa:  Centre F r a n c o - O n t a r i e n de  Lokan, J . § Hendelman, T.A.  R.L.  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Tucker, G.R.  M i n i s t r y o f Education,  1980.  The development o f r e a d i n g s k i l l s w i t h i n a b i l i n g u a l  e d u c a t i o n a l program. Reading.  Toronto:  Grade  In S. Smiley £ J . Towner (Eds.) Language and  B e l l i n g h a m , WA.:  Western Washington S t a t e C o l l e g e , 1975,  51-62. •  Summary: majority c h i l d .  Research  conference on immersion  e d u c a t i o n f o r the  The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, _5,  585-591. .  The l i n g u i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e .  B i l i n g u a l education:  perspectives, Vol. 2 - Linguistics. for Applied Linguistics, Tucker, G.R., social  grams:  Lambert, W.E.  A pilot  Center  1977.  f a c t o r s i n second-language  Tucker, G.R.,  Arlington, Virginia:  Hamayan, E. § Genesee, F.H.  Language Review, 1976,  Current  Affective,  acquisition.  The  cognitive  and  Canadian Modern  3_, 214-226. 8, d'Anglejan, A.  investigation.  French immersion  Language S c i e n c e s , 1973,  pro-  2_5, 19-26.  157.  Vygotsky, L.A. chussets  Therapy, 1976,  Mass.:  1962. aphasia.  1_, 91-97.  The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n ,  1949.  Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n . Psychological Corporation, .  Massa-  Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - Manual.  York:  -  Cambridge,  B i l i n g u a l i s m , m u l t i p l e d y s l e x i a , and p o l y g l o t  Wechsler, D. New  and language.  I n s t i t u t e o f Technology,  Wagner, R.F. Academic  Thought  New  York:  1952.  Wechsler P r e s c h o o l and Primary S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e .  York:  The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n ,  W e i n i n g e r , 0.  New  1967.  L e a r n i n g a second language:  and the whole c h i l d .  The  The immersion  experience  Interchange on E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y , 1982, 2_,  20-40. Whitworth, J.R. Academic W i l t o n , F.  $ S u t t o n , D.L.  WISC-R C o m p i l a t i o n .  Novato,  Calif.:  Therapy P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978. I m p l i c a t i o n s o f a second-language program:  experience.  The C o q u i t l a m  The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1974,  2, 169-180  158.  APPENDICES  APPENDIX A  LAMBERT TESTS DESCRIPTION  160.  TESTS DESCRIPTION GRADE 1 LEVEL: PILOT AND  ST.  LAMBERT EXPERIMENT  FOLLOW-UP CLASSES (LAMBERT 5 TUCKER,  P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s (Raven, 1956), n o n - v e r b a l  1972)  IQ t e s t o f gen-  e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e a d m i n i s t e r e d a t the b e g i n n i n g and the end  of  the y e a r . Lorge-Thorndike  I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s , L e v e l I, 1954-66, measure o f  i n t e l l i g e n c e at the end o f the s c h o o l y e a r . Home-background schedules w i t h i n t e r v i e w s (Bloom, 1964; 1963;  Wolf, 1963)  child's linguistic  Dave,  and p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e (socio-economic environment  attitude  M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s (1959):  status,  profile). Primary  I B a t t e r y (word  knowledge, word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , r e a d i n g , and a r i t h m e t i c concepts and s k i l l s ) . The Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t  (Dunn, 1959):  E n g l i s h , Form  b; F r e n c h , Form a, ( a u d i t o r y v o c a b u l a r y , r e c e p t i v e language). L i s t e n i n g Comprehension i n E n g l i s h read  (comprehension  o f two  stories  orally).  French L i s t e n i n g Comprehension  (French v e r s i o n o f the t e s t i n  English). Word A s s o c i a t i o n A n a l y s i s :  French and E n g l i s h  (associational  l a t e n c y , p a r a d i g m a t i c , s y n t a g m a t i c , semantic c l u s t e r s , cratic,  idiosyn-  rhyming, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ) .  Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n French Achievement T e s t :  (French v e r s i o n o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) .  161.  10.  Phoneme P r o d u c t i o n , i n French ( a u d i t o r y memory:  r e p e t i t i o n of  sentences). 11.  Speaking S k i l l s Rat"  (story r e t e l l i n g :  enunciation, 12.  13.  rhythm,  Speaking S k i l l s eau"  in English,  f i l m s t r i p s t o r y o f "The  overall expressive a b i l i t y ,  L i o n and  the  grammar,  intonation).  i n French, f i l m s t r i p s t o r y o f "Le  Loup et  l'Ois-  (same d e s c r i p t i o n as i n E n g l i s h ) .  Phoneme D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  i n Russian  ( d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f phonemes  f o r e i g n to a l l g r o u p s ) . 14.  Test  de  Rendement en F r a n c a i s  word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 15.  Test  de  and  i n French:  sentence comprehension).  Rendement en C a l c u l  matics T e s t ,  (1969-70), r e a d i n g s k i l l s  (1969-70), School Commission Mathe-  i n French ( s o l v i n g i d e n t i t i e s ,  addition,  subtraction).  APPENDIX B  THE ELGIN STUDY  163.  The E l g i n Study: f o r Grades  Assessment  Instruments  1 to 3 E v a l u a t i o n s  Grades Tests  Otis-Lennon Mental A b i l i t y (Primary  Test  II L e v e l , Form J , 1967)  (Elementary Metropolitan  S  I L e v e l , Form J , 1967)  E  X  X  Readiness T e s t s  (Form A, 1964)  S  S t a n f o r d E a r l y School  Achievement  Test  ( L e v e l I) - SESAT (1969) M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement  S  Tests  (Primary  I B a t t e r y , Form A,  1958)  (Primary  I I B a t t e r y , Form A, 1970)  E X  (Elementary B a t t e r y , Form A, 1970) French Comprehension (Kindergarten  Test -  X  1973  Level)  (Grade 1 Level)  E E  X  X  X  X  X  N.A.  IEA L i s t e n i n g T e s t o f F r e n c h as a foreign  language  ( P o p u l a t i o n I L e v e l , 1970) T e s t de Rendement en F r a n c a i s (Grade 1 L e v e l , 1971-1972)  Note:  S  s t a r t o f the grade  E  end o f the grade  APPENDIX C  PARENT DATA SHEET  165.  PARENT DATA SHEET  A.  Family h i s t o r y  Mother  Father  Motor n o n - c o o r d i n a t i o n Speech d e f e c t s Reading problems Mental  deficiencies  Health  status  Frequent Chronic  illnesses disorders  Incidence o f multiple  B.  Prenatal  births  history  - age o f f a t h e r - age o f mother - h e a l t h o f mother d u r i n g pregnancy (when was i t diagnosed t h a t a s e t o f t r i p l e t s would be born?  Were t h e r e s p e c i a l  measures  undertaken t h e n , i f so, which o n e s ? ) .  C.  Natal h i s t o r y 1.  Premature  ,  Postmature  ,  At term Alice  2.  Order o f b i r t h Weight a t b i r t h  Jack  Joseph  166.  3.  Delivery: - head  ; breech  - l e n g t h o f hard  ;  Caesarean  ;  instruments  labor  - use o f a n e s t h e s i a  - a t y p i c a l behavior o f i n f a n t s : f e e d i n g problems r e s p i r a t i o n problems 4.  General h e a l t h index Alice  Jack  Joseph  - crying - reaction to stimuli  D.  Developmental 1.  history  Nutrition - Feeding:  breast  ;  bottle  - Gained Weight s t e a d i l y - S e n s i t i v i t y t o foods 2.  Responses to s t i m u l i : moving o b j e c t s  3.  Age  light  ;  sound  ;  ; people  i n months when the f o l l o w i n g took p l a c e : Alice  a.  r a i s i n g head  b.  rolling  c.  f i r s t tooth  d.  8 teeth  over  Jack  Joseph  e.  s a t alone  f.  crept  g.  took f i r s t  Alice  Jack  Joseph  Alice  Jack  Joseph  steps  - with support - alone h.  balanced  walking  i.  running  j.  established  laterality  ( h o l d i n g spoon, crayon, e t c . ) k.  gained v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l o f b l a d d e r and o f bowels  1.  from what age d i d c h i l d show p r e f e r e n c e f o r one hand  Health 1.  General h e a l t h  index  - high  2.  -  average  -  low  L i s t o f d i s e a s e s (note s e v e r i t y and d u r a t i o n ) a.  upper r e s p i r a t o r y infections bronchitis)  (cold,  age,  168.  3.  b.  influenza  c.  pneumonia  d.  mumps  e.  measles  f.  scarlet  g.  c h i c k e n pox  h.  small  i.  whooping  Alice  Jack  Joseph  Alice  Jack  Joseph  fever  pox cough  M e d i c a l problems and treatment (age and d e s c r i p t i o n )  4.  a.  ears  b.  nose  c.  eyes  d.  teeth  e.  surgical  Structural severe  F.  operations  anomalies and  injuries  Speech and Language  (date i n months)  1.  Random v o c a l i z a t i o n  2.  I m i t a t i o n o f sounds  3.  M e a n i n g f u l sounds  169.  4.  F i r s t words (when and which  5.  Who  6.  I n t e l l i g i b l e p h r a s e s (when, who  spoke  Jack  Joseph  Alice  Jack  Joseph  ones)  first  and which 7.  Alice  ones)  Rate o f development o f sounds - normal - retarded - accelerated  8.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f vocabulary o f c h i l d  9.  Need f o r speech  10.  Presence o f speech models - Reading and s p e a k i n g to c h i l d by o t h e r s - I m i t a t i o n o f baby t a l k by  Pre-school  1.  experiences  P r e - s c h o o l attendance ( d u r a t i o n , type)  2.  L e a r n i n g n u r s e r y rhymes (memory and Who  3.  listening)  l e a r n e d them  Interest heard  elders  first?  i n learning  things  170.  Alice  H.  4.  Interest  i n school  5.  Interest  i n l e a r n i n g French  1  Jack  E a r l y school experience i n parents' p e r s p e c t i v e (to comment f r e e l y )  I.  1.  S o c i a l ct Emotional adjustment  2.  Academic performance and p r i v a t e  3.  Expectations i n d i f f e r e n t areas  tutoring  S o c i a l h i s t o r y and adjustment 1.  Number o f i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g i n home ( r e l a t i v e s , servants, etc.)  2.  Communication - Languages  spoken i n home:  - Standard o f speech p r o f i c i e n c y - i n home:  low  - i n community:  average low  average  high high  Joseph  171.  - Amount o f speech i n home - much  average  little  - M o t i v a t i o n t o communicate i n home: Alice:  ___________  Jack: Joseph:  3.  Social interests  Alice  Jack  Joseph  Alice  Jack  Joseph  - clubs -  churches  - sports - music - art - recreation - games  4.  B e h a v i o r problems began, d e s c r i p t i o n ) a.  Nervousness  b.  Shyness  c.  Showing o f f  d.  Negation  e.  Rejection  f.  Aggression  g.  Prevarication  (age  172.  h.  Temper tantrums  i.  Excessive  j.  Extreme  6.  Jack  Joseph  Alice  Jack  Joseph  jealousy  possessiveness  - ( o b j e c t s , people,  5.  Alice  etc.)  k.  Enuresis  1.  Sleeplessness  m.  Nightmares  n.  Strange  o.  Talking, c r y i n g i n sleep  p.  Thumb s u c k i n g  q.  Food i d i o s y n c r a s i e s  and p e r s i s t e n t f e a r s  Child reflects a.  S t a b l e adjustment  b.  Excessive  c.  Great  d.  Overprotection  e.  General  tensions  insecurity  maladjustment  I n t r a - f a m i l y problems o f adjustment  (to comment  freely)  173.  7.  Discipline of children - a d m i n i s t e r e d by - usual  form  - most e f f e c t i v e - least  8.  form  effective  Atmosphere o f home c h a r a c t e r i z e d -  happiness  b  -  unhappiness  c  -  a  .  d. e  -  security love excess o f a f f e c t i o n  •  f  overprotection  &•  sternness  -  rigidity  i-  sociability  j-  silence  -  interest  h  k  by:  i n l i f e and events beyond home  APPENDIX D  KINDERGARTEN SCREENING BATTERY  175.  Boehm Best o f B a s i c Concepts  (BTBC)  A c c o r d i n g to the Manual, the Boehm T e s t o f B a s i c Concepts (Boehm, 1971)  i s an "Instrument  designed  t o assess b e g i n n i n g s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge o f f r e q u e n t l y used b a s i c concepts w i d e l y but sometimes m i s t a k e n l y assumed to be f a m i l i a r t o c h i l d r e n a t t h e i r o f entry i n t o Kindergarten or f i r s t  grade"  (p. 4 ) .  Buros  time  (1978b),  s t a t e s t h a t t h i s p i c t u r e t e s t i n t e n d e d f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n t o Grade 2 p u p i l s , i s based  on commonly found concepts  grade i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s .  i n p r e s c h o o l and  primary  I t i s known t h a t these concepts have  a d i r e c t impact  on a c h i l d ' s e a r l y s c h o o l performance s i n c e they  r e p e a t e d l y used  i n the d i r e c t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s .  Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t  (PPVT)  Buros (1978c) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d was  s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r students between the ages o f 2.5  o f 4 p i c t u r e s i s presented t o the c h i l d who p o i n t s t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p i c t u r e .  The  are  and  18.  test,  A set  upon h e a r i n g a word,  p l a t e s are ranked  i n order  o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n at the e a r l y p r e - s c h o o l  level,  from d i s s i m i l a r t o more s i m i l a r s u b j e c t s on the p l a t e s .  This test  p r o v i d e s "An  through  estimate of a subject's v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e  measuring h i s h e a r i n g v o c a b u l a r y " it  (Dunn, 1965,  p. 25).  Specifically,  demonstrates the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o hear and understand words. I t  i s s u i t a b l e f o r non-readers  and c h i l d r e n who  have a r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y  as w e l l as o t h e r handicaps  (physical, etc.)-  The  e x t e n t o f vocabu-  l a r y knowledge seems t o serve as a p r e d i c t o r o f s c h o o l s u c c e s s i s r e l a t e d to v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . w i t h language a r t s , s o c i a l (p. 41).  The  test "Correlates equally well  s t u d i e s , and mathematics achievement"  *  In terms o f p r e d i c t i n g s c h o o l s u c c e s s , Klaus and found  a c o r r e l a t i o n between the PPVT raw  knowledge s c o r e s : at the end  0.39,  This test d i f f e r s ligence  (Wechsler,  required. measure.  The  1949)  1937)  0.35,  (Dunn, 1965,  from the Revised  (Terman § M e r r i l l ,  Children  words.  word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n :  o f the s c h o o l year  Starke  scores o b t a i n e d  n i n g o f the year and M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s  0.39,  which  (1964)  at the  begin  (1958), word and  reading:  p.41).  Stanford-Binet Tests o f  Intel  and Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r  because no  o r a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f words i s  PPVT i s a r e c e p t i v e r a t h e r than an e x p r e s s i v e  language  A l l these t e s t s however, measure comprehension o f spoken In the PPVT, the o b t a i n e d raw  c e n t i l e scores mental age  ( p e r c e n t i l e norms), IQ  s c o r e s are c o n v e r t e d  into  per-  (standard s c o r e norms) and  (age norms).  McCarthy S c r e e n i n g T e s t  (MST)  T h i s t e s t d e v i s e d by McCarthy (1972), i s a c o m p i l a t i o n o f subt e s t s d e r i v e d from t h e McCarthy S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s (McCarthy, 1972)  which a s s e s s e s  Abilities  the c h i l d ' s l e v e l i n s u b s c a l e s o f per-  c e p t u a l , v e r b a l , q u a n t i t a t i v e performance, p e r c e p t u a l grouping motor.  and  177.  There a r e 6 s u b t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d 1.  Right-left orientation  individually:  (assessment o f o r i e n t a t i o n i n space  by r e c o g n i z i n g l e f t and r i g h t , on o n e s e l f and the r e v e r s e ) ; . 2.  V e r b a l memory ( r e p e a t i n g a graded word s e r i e s , c o n c r e t e  con-  c e p t s , a b s t r a c t words and s e n t e n c e s ) ; 3.  Draw-a-design  ( p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y t o copying  geometrical  designs); 4.  Numerical  memory (immediate memory by r e p e a t i n g s e r i e s o f  d i g i t s i n a c c u r a t e o r d e r and i n t h e r e v e r s e o f the o r d e r g i v e n ) ; 5.  Conceptual  grouping  ( a b i l i t y t o d e a l l o g i c a l l y by c l a s s i f y -  i n g b l o c k s on b a s i s o f shape, c o l o r , and s i z e ) ; 6.  Leg c o o r d i n a t i o n ( m a t u r i t y o f motor c o o r d i n a t i o n i n the lower  e x t r e m i t i e s , walking,  standing, skipping).  P a s s - f a i l s c o r i n g i s based on an a s s i g n e d s c o r e f o r each s u b t e s t as p e r c h i l d ' s age range.  Depending on the number o f t e s t s  failed,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a c h i l d may be i n the " a t r i s k " o r "not a t r i s k " category.  B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure (BSM)  Buros (1978a) r e f e r s t o t h i s o r a l f o r c h i l d r e n from K i n d e r g a r t e n through  language t e s t as one designed t o Grade 2.  I t assesses  second-  language o r a l p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h o r Spanish but t h e manual (Burt et a l . , 1975) o f f e r s t o use t h e t e s t w i t h c h i l d r e n from o t h e r n a t i v e language backgrounds.  I t i s one o f the few commercially  distributed  178.  t e s t s that pertains to b i l i n g u a l education. dominance and f a c i l i t a t e s  It indicates  language  grouping o f s t u d e n t s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l  programmes. The purpose o f t h i s i n d i v i d u a l l y - a d m i n i s t e r e d  test i s to e l i c i t  d e s i r e d s t r u c t u r e s , a c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t would c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t o f grammatical s t r u c t u r e s a c q u i r e d i n the p r o c e s s o f speech  development.  The t e s t a n a l y z e s o n l y syntax as an aspect o f l i n g u i s t i c  proficiency,  s i n c e i t i s more s t a b l e a c r o s s i d i o l e c t s and d i a l e c t s than v o c a b u l a r y , p r o n u n c i a t i o n o r the f u n c t i o n a l uses o f language.  There are seven  c a r t o o n s on the b a s i s o f which the t e s t e r poses q u e s t i o n s .  Recorded  responses are s c o r e d f o r t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l i t y o f sentence s t r u c t u r e . The t e s t has f i v e p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s r a n g i n g from non-speaking o r comprehension  o f the language t o p r o f i c i e n t s p e a k e r s .  APPENDIX E  LINGUISTIC TESTS  180.  The al.,  I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguistic. A b i l i t i e s ,  1968)  i s a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l used t o d e f i n e a c h i l d ' s  cognitive a b i l i t i e s processes, iation;  ITPA ( K i r k e t  (channels  o f communications, p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c  l e v e l s of organization)  and  i t taps a v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s :  deficits  t h a t r e q u i r e remed-  (1) A u d i t o r y r e c e p t i o n ,  V i s u a l r e c e p t i o n , (3) A u d i t o r y a s s o c i a t i o n , (4) V i s u a l (5) V e r b a l  expression,  (6) Manual e x p r e s s i o n ,  The 1982)  (10) V i s u a l c l o s u r e , and  (11)  expression,  supplementary  Sound b l e n d i n g .  T e s t o f Language Development, TOLD (Newcomer § Hammill,  i s an o r a l or spoken language t e s t t h a t diagnoses a  s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses i n h i s r e c e p t i v e and competencies.  The  s u b t e s t s are c l a s s i f i e d  (composites) t h a t serve to i d e n t i f y areas ing, speaking, The  (2)  (7) Grammatic c l o s u r e ,  (8) V i s u a l c l o s u r e , (9) A u d i t o r y sequence memory, and subtests  specific  semantics and  expressive  i n t o 4 broad  child's language  categories  o f concern such as  syntax.  Lindamood T e s t o f A u d i t o r y C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , LAC  mood 6i Lindamood, 1971)  listen-  i s an i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d  (Linda-  t e s t which  measures a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n , the a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e one from the o t h e r ,  and  sound  t o p e r c e i v e the o r d e r and number o f sounds found  i n a spoken p a t t e r n .  C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f speech p a t t e r n s i s accom-  p l i s h e d through the m a n i p u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t the "Two  o f wooden b l o c k s .  c a t e g o r i e s o f the LAC  s k i l l s b a s i c to r e a d i n g and  The  authors  T e s t p a r a l l e l the  s p e l l i n g , conceptualization of  two  isolated  181.  phonemic u n i t s and conceptualization of contrasts within and between s y l l a b e s , i n respect to i d e n t i t y and sequence" (p. 25).  This t e s t  has the power to p r e d i c t reading and s p e l l i n g achievement.  APPENDIX F  FRENCH DIAGNOSTIC READING TESTS FOR EARLY FRENCH IMMERSION PRIMARY CLASSES  183.  French D i a g n o s t i c  Reading T e s t s  French Immersion Primary C l a s s e s  for Early  (Tourond,  1980)  These group d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s o f French r e a d i n g are g i v e n  to  c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n p r i m a r y French immersion c l a s s e s where French i s taught:  (1) 80%-100% i n Grade 1,  (3) 50%-80% i n Grade For  each grade l e v e l , s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n has  r e a l and  and  imaginative  been g i v e n  to  i l l u s t r a t i o n s such as p e o p l e , a n i m a l s , s t o r i e s , f a m i l i a r and  u n f a m i l i a r words  (comprehension), v a r i o u s p a r t s o f speech, s p e c i f i c p h o n i c idiomatic expressions,  and  3.  the s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s nature,  (2) 70%-80% i n Grade 2,  paragraphs and d i a l o g u e s  skills,  varying i n length.  At the Grade 1 l e v e l , t h e r e are 3 s u b t e s t s :  Word r e c o g n i t i o n  ( a u d i t o r y / v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f words, 25 i t e m s ) , Word meaning ( s e l e c t i n g and matching a word w i t h and  Short  s t o r y comprehension  meaning o f a sentence and sentence, 22 The  Sentence  the c o r r e c t word to f i n i s h  the a  items).  Grade 2 l e v e l f o r e s e e s : and  S e l e c t i n g and matching a word w i t h Filling  Word s y n t h e s i s based on  sentences  grapheme d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , 12 a v i s u a l cue  (Word meaning,  items), 27  out the blank w i t h a word chosen from a s e t o f 4  (Sentence completion, s p e c i f i c questions items).  24 i t e m s ) ,  (marking a p i c t u r e i l l u s t r a t i n g  choosing  read by t e s t e r (Word b l e n d i n g  items),  a v i s u a l cue,  27  i t e m s ) , and  P i c k i n g one  answer (out o f 4)  r e l a t e d to a passage (Story comprehension,  24  to  184.  Finally,  t h e Grade 3 l e v e l has only  2 parts  consisting i n f i l l -  i n g out the b l a n k w i t h a word chosen from a s e t o f 4 (Sentence comprehension, 33 items) and f i n d i n g synonyms and s e l e c t i n g t h e best answers (among 4) t o q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g comprehension, 24  t o the short  stories  (Story  items).  P e r c e n t i l e ranks d e r i v e d the p u p i l ' s performance l e v e l .  from raw s c o r e s g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f Once c o r r e c t i o n , t a b u l a t i o n and  c o n v e r s i o n i n t o p e r c e n t i l e ranks have been a c h i e v e d , i t i s recommended to proceed t o the A n a l y s i s  o f E r r o r s Chart from t e s t s which w i l l  i n which a r e a o f r e a d i n g a c h i l d w i l l need s p e c i a l  assistance.  show  APPENDIX G  PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS  186.  A battery of 6 psychodiagnostic psychologists. to  In some i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e was  a particular child.  Integration prevent  The  by  two  no need to g i v e a t e s t  Developmental T e s t o f V i s u a l Motor that  helps  l e a r n i n g and b e h a v i o r a l d i s o r d e r s through e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a -  assessed  by having  difficult.  The estimated  (Beery,  1982).  Sensorimotor development i s  the c h i l d reproduce geometric forms, from  simple  A comparison i s then made between c h r o n o l o g i c a l  and v i s u a l - m o t o r  i n t e g r a t i o n age  Motor-Free V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n T e s t v i s u a l perceptual  age  equivalent.  ability  commonality w i t h s o c i a l achievement it  administered  (1977) i s a "Regular s c r e e n i n g instrument  t i o n of d i f f i c u l t i e s "  to  t e s t s was  (Colarusso § Hammill,  in children.  Though i t has  ( r e a d i n g , etc.) or  i s used f o r s c r e e n i n g d i a g n o s t i c , and  1972) little  intelligence,  r e s e a r c h purposes.  No  motor  involvement, o n l y p e r c e p t i o n i n the areas o f s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , visual  c l o s u r e , and  the c h i l d  v i s u a l memory i s t a k e n i n t o account.  i s r e q u i r e d t o match or s e l e c t geometric shapes,  l i k e and number-like forms, s t i c k The assessed and  realistic  designs.  r e a d i n g word r e c o g n i t i o n , p r o n u n c i a t i o n , w r i t t e n  naming l e t t e r s , and  In r e a d i n g ,  1978)  spelling  i t involves recognizing,  sounding words i n i s o l a t i o n .  subject writes a l i s t  The  f i g u r e s and  letter-  Wide Range Achievement T e s t , WRAT (Jastak § J a s t a k ,  a r i t h m e t i c computation.  counting,  In e s s e n c e ,  o f words from d i c t a t i o n and  In s p e l l i n g ,  the  i n arithmetic,  s o l v i n g o r a l problems and w r i t t e n computations a r e r e q u i r e d .  purpose o f t h i s t e s t i s to i d e n t i f y a s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y  187.  and t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l  level for children.  The Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n , WISC-Revised examined mental a b i l i t i e s , c u r r e n t i n t e l l e c t u a l This i n d i v i d u a l l y administered test  (1974)  capacities of children.  (Whitworth § S u t t o n , 1978) com-  p r i s e s 12 s u b t e s t s : 1. ular  I n f o r m a t i o n , which measures a s t u d e n t ' s knowledge o f p a r t i c -  facts; 2.  S i m i l a r i t i e s , which measures a b i l i t y  t o t h i n k and reason  l o g i c a l l y and a s s o c i a t i v e l y at c o n c r e t e and a b s t r a c t  levels;  3.  V o c a b u l a r y , which r e q u i r e s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f s p e c i f i c words;  4.  A r i t h m e t i c , which measures the a b i l i t y t o s o l v e a r i t h m e t i c  problems r e c e i v e d a u d i t o r i l y through mental computation; 5.  Comprehension, which measures the a b i l i t y t o e v a l u a t e p r o p e r -  ly a situation typical of real of  l i f e and determine the a p p r o p r i a t e s e t  responses; 6.  Digit  span, which measures^the r e t e n t i o n and r e p e t i t i o n i n  c o r r e c t sequence o f both forward and backward n u m e r i c a l received 7.  information  auditorily; P i c t u r e c o m p l e t i o n , which measures t h e a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y  v i s u a l l y a relevant part that i s missing within a p i c t u r e ; 8.  P i c t u r e arrangement, which measures the a b i l i t y t o p l a c e i n  c o r r e c t sequence a s e r i e s o f p i c t u r e s r e f l e c t i n g a r e a l - l i f e 9.  situation;  B l o c k d e s i g n , which measures the a b i l i t y t o look a t an  a b s t r a c t d e s i g n , a n a l y z e i t i n t o p a r t s and r e p r o d u c e i t u s i n g appro-  188.  p r i a t e l y colored blocks; 10.  Object assembly, which measures the a b i l i t y to assemble  i n d i v i d u a l concrete parts to make a recognizable whole; 11.  Coding, which measures the a b i l i t y to reproduce symbols  through p e n c i l manipulation as a part of a set code; 12.  Mazes, which measures the a b i l i t y to plan, use f o r e s i g h t  and p e r c e p t u a l l y organize according to a v i s u a l pattern.  APPENDIX H  GATES-MACGINITTE READING TESTS  190.  The  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s  ( M a c G i n i t i e , 1980)  a d i a n s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s which p r e s e n t the general l e v e l achievement o f i n d i v i d u a l students by measuring r e a d i n g and  comprehension.  I t a s s i s t s educators  i n grouping  are Can-  of reading vocabulary  students re-  q u i r i n g e i t h e r advanced i n s t r u c t i o n o r remedial a s s i s t a n c e . Vocabulary  s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s 45 items  from which the c h i l d  The  is required  to choose a c o r r e s p o n d i n g word, meaning the same as the t e s t word (synonyms).  Vocabulary  words r a n g i n g from easy to more  are r e a l words r e p r e s e n t i n g nouns, v e r b s , a d j e c t i v e s and There are 22 passages i n the Comprehension t e s t q u e s t i o n s t o answer.  V a r i o u s s u b j e c t matters  books have been i n c l u d e d i n the The students Raw and  adverbs.  f o l l o w e d by  taken from c h i l d r e n ' s  passages.  content has an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r and from v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l  difficult,  is suitable  backgrounds.  s c o r e s are converted t o p e r c e n t i l e ranks, T - s c o r e s ,  grade e q u i v a l e n t s .  to  stanines  

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