Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Four year observational descriptive study of triplets to ascertain which measures best predict success.. 1983

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1983_A4_7 J35.pdf
UBC_1983_A4_7 J35.pdf [ 7.54MB ]
UBC_1983_A4_7 J35.pdf
Metadata
JSON: 1.0078351.json
JSON-LD: 1.0078351+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0078351.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0078351+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0078351+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0078351+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0078351.ris

Full Text

FOUR YEAR OBSERVATIONAL DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF TRIPLETS TO ASCERTAIN WHICH MEASURES BEST PREDICT SUCCESS IN PRIMARY FRENCH IMMERSION BY LYDIA MARIE-FRANCE JAMES Magister, Main School pf Planning and S t a t i s t i c s , Warsaw, Poland, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Language Education We accept t h i s t hesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE, 1983 c) Lydia Marie-France James, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of LaR^t/LOge, L<dLbLf/>,fjr>ri The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) Abstract This observational study examines the four-year academic and s o c i a l development of a set of t r i p l e t s , one g i r l and two i d e n t i c a l boys attending French immersion. The p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s t h i s programme has on a c h i l d ' s development are reviewed extensively considering also the learning disabled student. Data f o r the case study included test r e s u l t s from psychoeducational and informal tests and teachers' r a t i n g s . The sample size did not permit a s t a t i s t i c a l analysis to predict Grade 3 performance i n French or English. Cognitive s k i l l s , motivation (attitudes, personality t r a i t s ) , and not Kindergarten screening r e s u l t s were predictors o f the t r i p l e t s ' success i n primary French immersion. CHAPTER TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE I. THE PROBLEM 1 Statement of the Problem 1 Background of the Study 1 Questions of the Study 2 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 3 Sig n i f i c a n c e of the Study 4 Organization of the Thesis 4 II . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5 Defining French Immersion 5 Major Evaluative Studies on French Immersion 7 St. Lambert 7 Ottawa 15 Toronto 21 E l g i n 24 Montreal 27 Coquitlam 28 Studies Pertaining to Selected Factors A f f e c t i n g Success i n French Immersion Classrooms 31 Inte l l i g e n c e 31 Cognitive Development 38 Time of Exposure to Second Language Training .... 46 Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s and Other Factors 55 The A c q u i s i t i o n of English Language S k i l l s i n Primary French Immersion 69 Transfer of French Reading S k i l l s to English Classes 72 i i i CHAPTER PAGE III. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES 79 Subjects 79 Background 79 Materials 81 Procedures and Discussion 82 Year One Evaluation: Kindergarten Screening 82 Year Two Evaluation: Grade 1 Performance 95 Year Three Evaluation: Grade 2 Performance 103 Year Four Evaluation: Grade 3 Performance 110 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis 117 IV. FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY 123 Major Findings of the Study 123 Limitations of the Study 124 Discussion and Conclusions 125 Implications of the Study 129 School l e v e l 129 Research l e v e l 130 REFERENCES 132 APPENDICES 158 A. St. Lambert Tests Description 159 B. The E l g i n Study: Assessment Instruments f o r Grades 1 to 3 Evaluations 162 C. Parent Data Sheet 164 D. Kindergarten Screening Battery 174 E. L i n g u i s t i c Tests 179 F. French Diagnostic Reading Tests f o r Early French Immersion Primary Classes 182 G. Psychological Tests 185 H. Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests 189 i v LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Ottawa Study: Testing Timetable i n the Evaluation of 1970-1976 Primary French Immersion Programmes within the Carleton Board of Education and Ottawa Board of Education 16 2. Standardized and Informal Measures U t i l i z e d to Evaluate the T r i p l e t s ' Performance per Grade Level, during a Four-Year Period 83 3. Boehm Test of Basic Concepts: Raw Scores Form A, A p r i l and September 86 4. L i s t of Unknown Concepts as Measured by the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, Booklet 2 i n Kindergarten Year .. 88 5. Raw Scores, P e r c e n t i l e Ranks and Mental Ages Obtained on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test i n Kindergarten Year 89 6. L i s t of Unknown Words on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test • 90 7. McCarthy Screening Test Subtests Results i n Kindergarten Year 91 8. End of Grade 1 Results on the French Diagnostic Reading Test f o r Early French Immersion Primary Classes 99 9. Grade 1 Teacher's Report Card Evaluation 101 v TABLE PAGE 10. Psychoeducational Tests Results Obtained by the T r i p l e t s i n Beginning Grade 2 104 11. End of Grade 2 Results on the French Diagnostic Reading Test for Early French Immersion Primary Classes 106 12. Grade 2 Teacher's Report Card Evaluation 108 13. Results Obtained on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level C, Form 2; F a l l Pretest i n Grade 3 I l l 14. Results Obtained on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level C, Form 1; Spring Posttest i n Grade 3 112 15. End of Grade 3 Results on the French Diagnostic Reading Test f o r E a r l y French Immersion Primary Classes 114 16. C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of Selected Predictor Variables to the Prediction o f the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests: Posttest and the Tourond Grade 3 Test .... 118 17. C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of Each Predictor Variable (Tourond Grade 1 and 2) to the P r e d i c t i o n of Tourond Grade 3 Test 120 v i Acknowledgments I wish to acknowledge the help and guidance of my advisor, Dr. Florence T. Pieronek, i n the preparation of th i s t h e s i s . I would also l i k e to express my h e a r t f e l t thanks to my moth Mrs. Irene Marchewicz, whose t i r e l e s s e f f o r t s and support have helped make t h i s study possible. I am very appreciative to my dear husband, Robert, who has been so considerate and patient toward me during the many months straineous work. And f i n a l l y , I am thanking the parents of the t r i p l e t s f o r granting me permission to conduct the study. v i i 1. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The study focuses on an in-depth assessment and comparison of educational behavior of t r i p l e t s attending a Canadian French immer- sion Elementary school over a period of 4 years. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the case study investigates which of the numerous subscales within the assessment tools administered and r e l a t e d factors best predicts t h e i r performance both i n French and i n English up to the end of Grade 3, the t r a n s i t i o n a l year when English Language Arts becomes part of the curriculum. Background of the Study The idea of French immersion schools or programmes has become a r e a l i t y i n today's Canadian educational system. In the programme i n question students begin to be involved i n French immersion at the Kindergarten l e v e l (for one-half day) where screening takes place. Then they enter the Grade 1 programme during which a l l the subjects are taught i n the French language. The same language of i n s t r u c t i o n applies i n Grade 2 as well. Grade 3 i s considered the t r a n s i t i o n a l year with the formal introduction of English Language Arts, at the rate of two hours per day. The remainder of the time i s devoted to the a c q u i s i t i o n of content material through i n s t r u c t i o n i n French. 2. Although much research has been done on the evaluation of French and English s k i l l s of large groups of b i l i n g u a l and immersion students at d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s , case studies are p r a c t i c a l l y unknown. With the expansion of such programmes, the researcher f e l t there was a need to examine i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l differences occurring i n the processes and issues r e l a t e d to the assessment of French immersion students. In addition, i t appears that central to evaluation i s the preparation of careful screening procedures and comprehensive evaluating instruments in order to maximize student success in any type of French immersion programme i n the primary grades. The few a v a i l a b l e instruments in the French language for French immersion such as the French Diagnostic Reading Tests f o r Early French Immersion Primary Classes (Tourond, 1980) and the French Comprehension Tests, Pre-primer and Primer le v e l s (Barik, 1975), appear not to sat- i s f y the present needs of the programmes mainly because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to evaluate a wide array of foreign language s k i l l s (oral reading, e t c . ) , per grade l e v e l . In t h i s study, the researcher has examined not only the screening instruments used on the sample but also the evaluation tools employed in the subsequent years. Questions of the Study From her own search and i n q u i r i e s the writ e r has not found anoth- er set of t r i p l e t s i n a Canadian French immersion school at the primary l e v e l . 3. The observational study attempted to provide answers to the following questions: 1. From the screening instruments employed at the Kindergarten l e v e l , which instruments were the best predictors of the t r i p l e t s ' success at the end of Grade 3? 2. From the French tests used at the Grade 1 and 2 l e v e l s , which ones were the best predictors of the t r i p l e t s ' success at end of Grade 3? 3. Were there sex differences i n the p r e d i c t o r variable? 4. What other v a r i a b l e s can be used as pre d i c t o r s of success at the end of the primary grades? 5. To what extent s p e c i f i c factors contributed to a d i v e r s i t y i n the development of c e r t a i n academic and s o c i a l s k i l l s from Kinder- garten to Grade 3? D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The d e f i n i t i o n of French immersion i s e s s e n t i a l f o r th i s study. The term b i l i n g u a l or immersion school i s used interchangeably i n Canada. However, i n t h i s instance, French immersion indicates that children have received 100% of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n i n French from Kind- ergarten to Grade 2 whereas i n Grade 3, 80% of i n s t r u c t i o n was given i n French, and 20% i n English Language Arts. It i s noteworthy that the percentage of i n s t r u c t i o n time a l l o c a t e d to each language varies from one school d i s t r i c t to another. The t r i p l e t s are made up of two i d e n t i c a l twin-boys and one g i r l 4. a l l of whom have followed the aforementioned programme. Significance of the Study There are two s i g n i f i c a n t outcomes of the study. F i r s t , the study w i l l provide greater insight to the academic and s o c i a l devel- opment of i n d i v i d u a l French immersion c h i l d r e n . Secondly, the study may foster more i n t e r e s t i n additional research i n areas of concern: a) the review of s p e c i f i c screening procedures at the moment of entry i n a French immersion Kindergarten; b) the implementation of r e l i a b l e performance and diagnostic measures at each grade l e v e l p a r t i c u l a r l y i n French Language Arts (oral language p r o f i c i e n c y ; reading and comprehension; w r i t i n g s k i l l s where app l i c a b l e , e t c . ) . Organization of the Thesis The t h e s i s i s organized into four chapters. The problem of the thesis i s discussed i n Chapter one. In Chapter two, a review of the pertinent l i t e r a t u r e i s presented followed by Chapter three, the four- year academic evaluation of the sample. F i n a l l y , Chapter four con- tains conclusions. Chapter one discussed the major purpose of the study aimed at evaluating and comparing the academic performance of a unique set of t r i p l e t s to be found i n an elementary French immersion school i n Canada. The next chapter w i l l review the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to some problems involved with French immersion programmes. 5, CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE This chapter presents the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the study. The information w i l l be discussed under the following headings: (a) De- f i n i n g French immersion, (b) Major evaluative studies on French immersion, (c) Studies pertaining to selected f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g suc- cess i n French immersion, and (d) The a c q u i s i t i o n o f English language s k i l l s i n primary French immersion. Defining French Immersion Some confusion e x i s t s between the terms " b i l i n g u a l education" and "French immersion". Pa r t l y i t may be due to the h i s t o r i c a l dev- elopment of Canada. With the creation of a Canadian nation i n 1867 a b i l i n g u a l country emerged. At that time Francophones were encouraged to learn English and with the i n f l u x of additional English-speaking immigrants and groups of d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s the "Anglophone" population became dominant. The recognition of two major cultures and languages i n Canada was acknowledged by the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and B i c u l t u r a l i s m i n 1967 (Swain, 1972). Thus "Canadian b i l i n g u a l i s m " s t r e s s i n g the importance of language communication i n French and English brought about the establishment of a French School (Immersion type] i n Toronto i n 1962. Under the guidance of W.H. G i l e s , a neigh- bourhood school with an enrolment of 16 children was founded. In the 6. following years the school enrolled children with d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s and some with s p e c i a l needs. As Stern (1973a) indicated, "The i n t e r e s t among Anglophone par- ents to have t h e i r children taught e f f e c t i v e l y i n French has enormous- ly increased" (p. 59). Aft e r many decades of teaching French as a second language at d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s the r e s u l t s of which have c l e a r l y been below educators' expectations, an a l t e r n a t i v e way was found to make second language a c q u i s i t i o n more e f f i c i e n t . Between the 1960's and 1970's greater emphasis has been placed on the dissemination of b i l i n g u a l education i n Canada. How then i s b i l i n g u a l education defined? For Swain (1972), i t i s "Schooling provided f u l l y or p a r t l y i n a second language with the object i n view of making students p r o f i c i e n t i n the second language while, at the same time, maintaining and developing t h e i r p r o f i c i e n c y i n the f i r s t language and f u l l y guaranteeing t h e i r educational devel- opment"^. 1). Stern (1973a) considers b i l i n g u a l education "As a means of second language learning that appears to owe i t s success to the fact that i t o f f e r s the necessary opportunities f o r the applica- t i o n of the language being learned" (p. 61). Swain (1980) has provided an up-to-date i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the term: "Immersion means a s i t u a t i o n i n which c h i l d r e n from the same l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l background, who have had l i t t l e or no p r i o r contact with the second language, are put together i n a classroom se t t i n g i n which the second language i s used as the medium of i n s t r u c - t i o n " (p. 3). I 7. Although there i s a myriad of French immersion programmes, early, late, p a r t i a l , etc., they feature two common denominators: ch i l d r e n of a majority language culture are i n attendance, and they do so on t h e i r own w i l l . In t h i s study immersion pertains to primary grades. In summary, the basic difference between a b i l i n g u a l education, and an immersion program i s that i n the former, some subjects are taught i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s mother tongue, others i n the second language and i n immersion, the second language i s the only language of i n s t r u c - t i o n . Thus, French immersion i s not taught, i t i s a means through which i n s t r u c t i o n of various subjects i s given. In a French immersion Kindergarten for example, i t i s natural that c h i l d r e n speak to t h e i r teachers and among themselves i n English. In t h i s s e t t i n g , the teach- er uses French only and expects the pupils to repeat o r a l expressions and b u i l d a good French vocabulary. Consequently, these children w i l l more r e a d i l y give f o r example colour names, numbers i n French than i n English without being conscious of i t . In Grade 1 however, French i s considered the main v e h i c l e of communication through which a l l i n t e r - action takes place. Major Evaluative Studies on French Immersion St. Lambert The p o l i t i c a l development surfacing i n the province of Quebec two decades ago brought about an urge to equip English-speaking children with the necessary t o o l , a working knowledge of French. In the early s i x t i e s the Catho l i c School Board of Montreal was unable to o f f e r French i n s t r u c t i o n to Protestant chi l d r e n . Through much pressure from an organized group of parents the Montreal Protestant School Board f i n a l l y set up the f i r s t Kindergarten class i n 1965 (Lambert § Tucker, 1978). When the group of twelve parents met i n 1963 to ex- press f e e l i n g s of being shortchanged and that t h e i r c h i l d r e n should have the opportunity to become b i l i n g u a l , the only two researchers who favored the immersion concept were Drs. Lambert and Penfield from McGill U n i v e r s i t y , Montreal. The McGill research team had been en- lightened by Vygotsky's (1962) p o s i t i v e t r a n s f e r of conceptual devel- opment from the foreign to the native language and by pioneer works of Peal and Lambert (1962), and Lambert and A n i s f e l d (1969). The previously-mentioned English-speaking parents contributed to the creation of a b i l i n g u a l school i n an English-language Protestant elementary school i n St. Lambert (not r e l a t e d to Lambert, W.E.), a Montreal suburb. Motivation played an important part i n i t s success. The s o - c a l l e d St. Lambert experiment i s considered to be the most extensively researched b i l i n g u a l programme i n Canada (Swain § Barik, 1978). At i t s e a r l i e s t stage, the programme was the subject of numerous i n v e s t i g a t i o n s (Bruck et a l . , 1974; Holden, 1975; Lam- bert § Macnamara, 1969; Lambert § Tucker, 1972; Lambert et a l . , 1973; e t c . ) . The summary to follow i s based p r i m a r i l y on the works of Lambert and Tucker published i n t h e i r book " B i l i n g u a l Education of Children. The St. Lambert Experiment" (1978). 9. The P i l o t Class entered Kindergarten i n September 1965 and a second group (Follow-up Class) started Kindergarten the following f a l l . The programme for the Experimental ch i l d r e n i n Kindergarten was conducted by a French teacher from France who would only use t h i s language as a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . Materials prepared for native French speakers were the only ones a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s group. A growing i n t e r e s t toward t h i s Canadian experiment made the Quebec educational a u t h o r i t i e s approach the Language Research Group of McGill University (headed by Professor W.E. Lambert) i n 1967, to assess on a yearly basis the o r i g i n a l Experimental Class and subse- quent classes in the areas of French and English Language A r t s , arithmetic, attitudes and i n t e l l e c t u a l development. At that time there was concern as to the development of a child's native language s k i l l s , h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and cognitive functioning, mastery of con- tent i n r e l a t i o n to peers i n an E n g l i s h stream, and p r o f i c i e n c y i n the learning of French. The f i r s t target population was two French immersion Kinder- garten classes ( s t a r t i n g i n September 1965 and September 1966) tested yearly u n t i l they reached Grades 7 and 8. In the successive years the Grade 1 pupils were tested each spring by a team of research assistants from McGill U n i v e r s i t y (Montreal). It was established that the Experimental Classes' a b i l i t i e s and performance would be compared to that of French-speaking and regular English-speaking p u p i l s . A l l classes were equated i n terms of i n t e l l i g e n c e and socio- 10. economic status. No i n i t i a l screening took place therefore, the pop- u l a t i o n presented a wide range of a b i l i t i e s . In more s p e c i f i c terms, the assessment consisted of a battery of French/English group and i n d i v i d u a l tests tapping not only cogni- t i v e s k i l l s but also verbal, nonverbal IQ as well as a t t i t u d e s . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the tests used i n the St. Lambert experiment i s pro- vided i n Appendix A. Since i t i s the f i r s t Canadian evaluation of a unique experiment, i t was of i n t e r e s t to examine the standings of the P i l o t Classes upon completion of Kindergarten and Grade 1: 1. The Experimentals f e l l behind t h e i r English Controls i n English word knowledge, word di s c r i m i n a t i o n , and reading s k i l l s be- cause they have had no formal i n s t r u c t i o n of the language. There are, however, in d i c a t i o n s that the t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s from French to Eng- l i s h does take place. 2. The Experimentals can communicate, understand spoken English at the same l e v e l as t h e i r English Controls, but they made more gram- matical e r r o r s , were slower at composing a story o r a l l y and were les s imaginative i n t h e i r English Associations. 3. In French speaking s k i l l s , the Experimentals were lower than the French Controls; however, progress was noted. 4. The Experimentals were at par with the Controls on t e s t s of French discrimination, sentence comprehension, and word order. 5. The Experimentals are able to compute and solve mathematical / 11. problems presented in either language. 6. The b i l i n g u a l experience does not foster a general se n s i - t i v i t y to a foreign language's sound system. 7. This type of experience has no e f f e c t on a c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e . Since no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n performance between P i l o t and Follow-up Experimental Classes at the Grade 1 l e v e l were to be found, Lambert and Tucker (1978) considered to follow the proposed format as had been o r i g i n a l l y planned. The r e s u l t s from the Grade 2 classes indicated a b e n e f i c i a l enrichment of native-language development. However, English s p e l l i n g posed a problem. Immersion p u p i l s scored lower than French Controls on the following: receptive vocabulary, l i s t e n i n g comprehension, verbal expression when r e t e l l i n g a story (construction, contractions) and grammar (gender, tense and syntax). In mathematics they per- formed as well as the English Controls. At the end of Grade 3, the Experimental were behind t h e i r English Controls only i n English punctuation and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n . They had no p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s on the Test de Rendement en Franpais (C.E.C.M.: 1969-74) but scored lower i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension (presumably caused by d i f f e r e n t t e s t i n g conditions), o v e r a l l expressive a b i l i t y , rhythm, intonation, grammar, decoding descriptive speech of French-speaking children (due to French i n t e r a c t i o n with adults only). Their receptive vocabulary had already improved to the l e v e l of the 12. French Controls which was one of the most interesting findings. The same performance as i n Grade 2 was seen in mathematics. F i n a l l y , Experimentals showed imagination and productivity in the same way as either English or French Controls. At the end of Grade 4, these pupils did not show symptoms of i n t e l l e c t u a l retardation and there was a good mastery of English language s k i l l s . They performed well with French-speaking children in most areas of the French language except i n overall expression ( r e t e l l i n g stories) and certain grammatical concepts (genders and contraction). They had the a b i l i t y to master mathematical s k i l l s i n French and transfer this knowledge to English. F i n a l l y , they did not have more s e n s i t i v i t y to foreign language sounds than the monolinguals. After 5 years, the L a m b e T t team concluded that the acquisition of language s k i l l s i n both French and English was indeed taking place without negative effects such as poor performance i n the mastery of English t h e i r mother-tongue, being introduced at a later age and no i n h i b i t i o n shown .in second-language learning. Albeit the team was witnessing a slowing down i n the acquisition of conceptual French vocabulary and French grammar i n Grades 5 and 8 which could have been the r e s u l t of lack of s u f f i c i e n t exposure to French. The same obser- vation had been made by Edwards (1976) i n r e l a t i o n to Grade 3 to 8 pupils i n his Ottawa study. There remains many unknown reasons why immersion pupils make cer- tai n types of errors when using French o r a l l y ; the concern i s not the 1 3 . amount of words a young c h i l d i s able to generate but rather the correct usage of single words, phrases and longer sentences. In 1976, S p i l k a wrote that "A complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the o r a l and written production of French immersion students i s not yet a v a i l a b l e " (p. 544). In looking at the l e v e l of speech production sentence complexity (embelled sentences), f l e x i b i l i t y and grammatical e r r o r s , as a measure of second-language a c q u i s i t i o n and p r o f i c i e n c y , 20 c h i l d r e n from the St. Lambert P i l o t group (Grade 6) and follow-up group (Grade 5) were compared with native French-speaking Controls. Immersion pupils were slower at expressing themselves o r a l l y although they had had 7 years of French; embedded sentences presented a prob- lem ( t h e i r usage of sentential objects was i n f e r i o r to Controls) and more grammatical mistakes were noted i n the various areas (gender, verbs, e t c . ) . Past the Grade 6 l e v e l , the immersion p u p i l s were making fewer grammatical errors i n French but i n composition they avoided vocabu- lary embellishments (Bruck et a l . , 1974). Comparisons between Grade 4 and 6's grammatical development have been researched by Hamayan, Markman, P e l l e t i e r and Tucker (1978), who could not conclude whether Grade 6 Immersion p u p i l s ' errors were of a developmental nature or a regression i n grammatical control. As hypothesized, there was much s o l i c i t u d e as to the p r e d i c t i v e performance of the samples. However, at the end of the elementary l e v e l the obtained r e s u l t s proved that t h i s form of learning a second 14. language on the contrary promotes the c h i l d ' s o v e r a l l educational s k i l l s . The St. Lambert experiment paved the way to the design of longitudinal studies on the l i n g u i s t i c , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and a t t i t u d i n a l development of c h i l d r e n i n French immersion programmes. An academic report o f the evaluations of the St. Lambert experiment i s given by d'Anglejan and Tucker (1971) who strongly advise to test the general- i z a b i l i t y of t h i s approach using children from diverse language and socio-economic backgrounds (lower socio-economic s t a t u s ) . The St. Lambert experiment constituted a popular model to be followed i n other immersion programmes. In Kindergarten and Grade 1 a l l subjects are taught i n French. English Language Arts (reading and writing) accompanies the teaching of the remainder of the subjects i n French at the Grade 2 l e v e l . In Grades 3 and 4, music, a r t , physical education and language arts are presented i n English. For the subsequent years, creative arts and science classes are taught i n English. Also, a part o f the project was an i n t e r e s t i n g study by Cziko, Lambert, S i d o t i and Tucker (1978), r e l a t i n g to high school students who appraised the e f f e c t s such an experiment had on t h e i r l i v e s . In conclusion, the re s u l t s of paramount importance to the pro- gramme are: 1. Children do not s a c r i f i c e command of English i n any form to th e i r knowledge of the new language; 2. The knowledge of a language appears to be i n f e r i o r to that of native speakers, but i t i s superior to that of pupils who have taken French as a second language; 3. The success i s attributed to a strong parental involvement; 4. With confidence t h i s programme functions very well with respect to" upper-middle-class children. Ottawa As part of the B i l i n g u a l Education Project of the Ontario In- s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education (O.I.S.E.), schools o f f e r i n g French immersion under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Ottawa Board of Education and the Carleton Board of Education were subject to a yearly evalua- t i o n of t h e i r p u p i l s over a period of s i x years (1971-1975) . An overview and synthesis of major research projects f o r the two Boards of Education i s of f e r e d i n Stern and Harley (1976). The f i r s t group of Kindergarten c h i l d r e n (Cohort I) was tested u n t i l Grade 6 as well as the following Cohorts I I , and III (Barik § Swain, 1974a, 1975a, 1975c; Swain § Barik, 1976a, 1976b; Barik § Swain, 1977). Table 1 provides the time l i n e involved i n the evaluation of these p u p i l s . Insert Table 1 about here In evaluating the performance of Grade 1 to 3 French immersion pupils with that of a regular English programme (20-40 minutes of 16. Table 1 Ottawa Study: Testing Timetable i n the Evaluation of 1970-1976 Primary French Immersion Programmes within the Carleton Board of Educati on and Ottawa Board of Education . Testing schedule Cohort I II III Spring 1971 Kindergarten - 1972 Grade 1 Kindergarten - 1973 Grade 2 Grade 1 Kindergarten 1974 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 1975 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 1976 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 1977 Grade 6 Grade 5 Grade 4 d a i l y French i n s t r u c t i o n ) , Swain and Barik (1976a) aimed at estab- l i s h i n g i f the learning of academic subjects through French i n s t r u c - t i o n would have a harmful e f f e c t on f i r s t language s k i l l s ( E n g l i s h ) , reading, arithmetic, pupil's IQ and general cognitive development, and i f there would be a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n French pro f i c i e n c y between immersion and regular French i n s t r u c t i o n as a subject. In Grade 1, 520 pupils were administered the Otis-Lennon Mental 17. A b i l i t y Test (Elementary I l e v e l , 1967) f o r an IQ measure, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests (Primary I Battery, 1958), a French Comprehension Test (Kindergarten and Grade 1 l e v e l s : Barik, 1975, 1976) and the Test de Rendement en Francais (C.E.C.M.: Grade 1 l e v e l , 1971-72), the l a t t e r only to the French classes. In Grade 2, the Test de Lecture (O.I.S.E., 1974) was added to the above-mentioned battery. In Grade 3, the IEA (International Association f o r the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) Listening Test of French as a Foreign Language (Population II - 1970), English and French story w r i t i n g were administered. The three-year evaluation showed that French immersion pupils are not negatively affected i n t h e i r cognitive development since no r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e was seen i n t h e i r IQ scores. Although i n Grade 1 French immersion pupils had no English i n s t r u c t i o n , a transfer of reading s k i l l s and mathematics from French to E n g l i s h did occur. These p u p i l s were s t i l l behind t h e i r English-speaking peers i n Eng- l i s h Language Arts at the Grade 2 l e v e l as well where they had only received one hour of English per day. By the end of Grade 3, except for s p e l l i n g , they performed at the same l e v e l as the Controls. In d i s c u s s i n g the Grade 2-4 evaluation (Barik & Swain, 1975a) conducted i n the spring of 1975, s i m i l a r r e s u l t s as i n former studies were obtained. French immersion pupils are behind t h e i r "English" peers only i n s p e l l i n g . Upon completion of Grade 4, f o r the f i r s t time, they show a higher l e v e l of cognitive a b i l i t y and reach equiv- 18. alent l e v e l of English and mathematical s k i l l s i n comparison with t h e i r counterparts. In spite of the fact that the sample had attained a much higher l e v e l of French p r o f i c i e n c y than t h e i r peers learning French as a second language, and had progressed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n reading compre- hension, they remained behind native speakers i n comprehension. The above reported study r e p l i c a t e s the St. Lambert r e s u l t s i n terms of generalization at least f o r other Canadian middle-class populations. Another s i g n i f i c a n t l o n g i t u d i n a l research project funded by the Ontario M i n i s t r y of Education was conducted by the University of Ottawa, f o r the Ottawa Roman Catholi c Separate School Board (Edwards $ Casserly, 1972a, 1972b, 1973, 1976). In t h e i r study, Edwards and Casserly (1976) compared language p r o f i c i e n c y , l i n g u i s t i c development, i n t e l l i g e n c e , academic achieve- ment and s o c i a l maturity of two groups of children (immersion and 75 minutes or l e s s of French per day English group) from Kindergarten to Grade 8. To evaluate the students, Edwards (1976) selected s i m i l a r tests used by Barik and Swain (1976d) i n t h e i r Toronto study (The Metropolitan Achievement Tests - MAT, 1958, 1970, and The Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s , 1968), which were used "To predict whether the immersion students would be capable of t r a n s f e r r i n g to an English language curriculum, i f need be, or attend secondary school i n Eng- l i s h " (p. 138). 19. Results revealed that a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e existed to the advan- tage of the Grade 1 En g l i s h group, as seen on the Metropolitan Achievement Tests. Grade 2 immersion pupils made more progress i n English with no previous t r a i n i n g . It was found that t h e i r scores remained lower at the end of Grade 3 when English was f i r s t i n t r o - duced. With a 50 percent English/50 percent French programme i n Grade 4 i t was found that these students had already obtained higher scores. Superior r a t i n g s by these p u p i l s were assigned to story c r e a t i o n and word asso c i a t i o n (taped i n d i v i d u a l l y ) as part of assess- ing o r a l s k i l l s i n English. Commenting on the apparent success d e r i v i n g from such a programme that seems v i s i b l e , Edwards (1976) cautions, "One should not conclude from t h i s that the immersion c h i l d r e n are p e r f e c t l y b i l i n g u a l by the end of Grade Fiv e " (p. 141). He points out that from Grade 3 to 8 l e s s progress was noted i n o r a l as well as written French. I t was suggested that some thought should be given i n t h i s respect. In contrast to other large-scale studies, Edwards (1976) seemed to be s e n s i t i v e to the issue of learning d i s a b i l i t i e s i n French immersion and for t h i s reason proposed three supplementary standard- iz e d measures: the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s '- ITPA (Kirk et a l . , 1968), the Slingerland Screening Test f o r Children with Special Learning D i s a b i l i t y (1962-74) and the Myklebust Pupil Rating Scale (Myklebust, 1971). From the r e s u l t s , Edwards and Casserly (1973) i d e n t i f i e d areas 20. where Grade 3 Experimental^ rated higher than comparison groups of students: (a) auditory reception, (b) auditory association, (c) v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i o n , (d) verbal expression, (e) auditory closure, (f) v i s u a l closure, and, (g) v i s u a l sequential memory. However, no differences were found on v i s u a l reception, manual expression, grammatic closure, auditory sequential memory and sound blending. Commenting on the study, the authors state that "Exposure to a French immersion program, f a r from r e s u l t i n g i n a psycholinguist- i c l a g , may, i n f a c t , enhance the development of p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s " (p. 75). From the r e s u l t s i t appears that there was no detrimental e f f e c t on the immersion p u p i l s ' l i n g u i s t i c development nor an increased incidence of learning d i s a b i l i t i e s . F i n a l l y , r e s u l t s from the l a s t s p e c i a l i z e d t e s t (Pupil Rating Scale) administered, revealed that the immersion group appears to be more independent, a s s e r t i v e and less sociable than the Control group. The differences are "Due less to the program than to prese l e c t i o n factors a f f e c t i n g the parents' choice of a second language option f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n " (Edwards § Casserly, 1973, p. 58). In some studies, Edwards and Casserly (1972a, 1972b, 1973) i d e n t i f i e d the areas i n which the Ottawa research project d i f f e r e d from the St. Lambert experiment. The Ottawa immersion p u p i l s : (a) attended a French and an English Kindergarten, (b) began to receive English Language Arts i n s t r u c t i o n only i n Grade 3, and 21. (c) were taught Religious studies i n Eng l i s h at a l l grade l e v e l s . Toronto Total French immersion groups (Cohort I) of Kindergarten and Grade 1 pupils enrolled i n a Toronto school, located i n a middle to upper-middle class u n i l i n g u a l English area, are compared to Kindergarten, Grade 1 and 2 pupils r e c e i v i n g 20-40 minutes a day of French as a second language, and to t h e i r French-speaking peers (Swain § Barik, 1978). Details on the p i l o t Kindergarten French immersion programme are included i n Sweet (1974). Swain and Barik's study (1978) concurs with r e s u l t s of other s i m i l a r s tudies, namely, that, pupils a f t e r completing Kindergarten and Grade 1 i n a t o t a l French immersion programme, appear not to s u f f e r any setback i n mental and cogni t i v e development. As for readiness s k i l l s at the Kindergarten l e v e l , Cohort I were equally prepared to enter e i t h e r a regular English programme or a French immersion school. Cohort II (Kindergarten) were weaker on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests (1964) i n r e l a t i o n to the previous year's sample (Barik § Swain, 1975b). Cohort I I I , another sample of Kindergarten c h i l d r e n , were also selected i n accordance with the B i l i n g u a l Education Project's plan to evaluate three successive cohorts at each grade l e v e l (Barik § Swain, 1976a). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s group showed a greater degree of readiness than the regular programme group and performed as well on early school achievement tested i n English. It was found that these 22. immersion students had learned more French than t h e i r English counter- parts but t h e i r English s k i l l s were poorer at the end of Grade 1 (word knowledge, word discrimination, and reading) because no i n s t r u c - t i o n had taken place. Their l e v e l of French had not yet attained the p r o f i c i e n c y exhibited by native French-speaking students but they had mastered mathematical concepts presented i n French. In the second h a l f of Grade 2, English Language Arts i s i n t r o - duced at the rate of 25 minutes per day (Barik § Swain, 1976d). Only i n s p e l l i n g did immersion pupils rate lower than regular programme pup i l s (Metropolitan Achievement Test, 1970) by l e s s than one year. Since mathematics constitutes another area where immersion p u p i l s are at par with t h e i r counterparts i f need be, a t r a n s f e r into a regular programme i n Grade 3 should be f e a s i b l e . In the f i n a l report of the Toronto study at the Grade 3 l e v e l (Barik § Swain, 1976e), no analysis i s provided on the writing s k i l l s i n French and English. At that time an i n s t r u c t i o n a l change occurred; 2/3 of i n s t r u c t i o n was conducted i n French, and 1/3 i n English. It was noted that some differences occurring i n the IQ data of the same cohort over the l a s t two years may have only been a t t r i b u t e d to v a r i a t i o n s i n the composition of the groups tested, and not to the fact that these pupils were i n French immersion. Also, the report indicates that the lag Cohort I was e x h i b i t i n g i n English s p e l l i n g (Grade 2) i s not so marked at the Grade 3 l e v e l . / 23. Stanine 4 was obtained by Grades 2 and 3 Toronto immersion pupils on the Test de Rendement en Franpais (C.E.C.M.: 1973-74) "Indicating a l e v e l of performance equivalent to that of from 23% - 39% of native French-speaking pupils of the same grade l e v e l i n Montreal" (Barik 5 Swain, 1976e, p. 40). The hypothesis that immersion p u p i l s are able to perform equivalently i n French i n a b i l i n g u a l as well as i n a u n i l i n g u a l m i l i e u was accepted i n the study. In the 1978 Barik and Swain study c i t e d e a r l i e r , on-going com- parisons were made between the Toronto and Ottawa immersion pupils functioning i n two d i f f e r e n t s e ttings, with students learning French as a foreign language. Approximately the same r e s u l t s have been obtained upon examination of these groups though i n the Toronto evaluation, the Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s (1968) and IEA L i s t e n i n g Test of French as a Foreign Language (1970), were not included i n contrast to the Ottawa studies (Edwards § Casserly, 1972a, 1972b). Cohort III scored s l i g h t l y lower than the Ottawa immersion pup- i l s who are closer to the French influence. With greater time a l l o t t e d to French, the Toronto immersion students were s l i g h t l y ahead of t h e i r Ottawa peers i n Grade 2 (French comprehension and reading) who had just begun to receive 60 minutes of French per day. As to French comprehension and reading (where applicable) they have been equalled at a l l grade levels by 24. both Toronto and Ottawa immersion p u p i l s . L a s t l y , a d i f f e r e n t study by Tarone, Frauenfelder, and Selinker (1976) resu l t e d from a long-term data c o l l e c t i o n process r e l a t e d to the l o n g i t u d i n a l Toronto studies i n Grades 1 and 2 French immersion. The authors devised a system for i d e n t i f y i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g pat- terns of s t a b i l i t y and i n s t a b i l i t y i n the learners' interlanguage over time. S t a b i l i t y i s seen i n i n d i v i d u a l s who have acquired com- petence i n the language, whereas i n s t a b i l i t y r e f e r s to i n d i v i d u a l s who are s t i l l learning the language. It i s ascertained that t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l model may r e f l e c t on the appropriateness of teacher i n t e r v e n t i o n . E l g i n The implementation of a balanced b i l i n g u a l i n s t r u c t i o n (50% i n French: morning; 50% i n English: afternoon) seemed to be a novelty compared with t o t a l French immersion. In Grades 1, 2, 3 and 4, mathematics, music, and French Language Arts (French reading and composition s t a r t i n g i n Grade 2) are taught i n French and subjects such as Language Arts (English reading and w r i t i n g are taught i n Grade 1), physical education, science, s o c i a l studies, art and health, i n E n g l i s h . The E l g i n County Board of Education i n i t i a t e d a. yearly evalua- t i o n of t h e i r b i l i n g u a l programme from Grade 1 to Grade 6. Findings of the Grade 1 to 4 studies (Barik § Swain, 1974b, 1976c) are reported here, whereas Grade 5 and 6 evaluations are given elsewhere (Barik et a l . , 1977; Barik § Swain, 1978). 25. The sample for the primary grade studies was made up o f b i l i n g - ual pupils who were compared to regular English programme c h i l d r e n , t o t a l French immersion (from Kindergarten), and native-speaking pupils (where applicable) from Ottawa and Toronto. Results revealed that there were no differences between groups i n terms of mental a b i l i t y (IQ) across a l l grades. Thus, the programme did not a f f e c t the c h i l d ' s cognitive development. The same l e v e l of a c q u i s i t i o n i s reached at a l l l e v e l s i n arithmetic which i s taught i n French (tests were administered i n E n g l i s h ) . In English language s k i l l s i t was unusual to see the p a r t i a l immersion pupils perform as well as the regular English p u p i l s i n Grade 1 only. In Grade 2, however, they were behind the t o t a l immer- sion pupils and the regular English pupils i n reading. It was noted that they were s t i l l lagging i n Grade 3, but at par with regular English p u p i l s i n word discrimination and reading comprehension. However, by Grade 4, r e s u l t s appeared to be more encouraging since no r e l i a b l e difference was seen. As for French s k i l l s i n the f i r s t year, p a r t i a l immersion pup- i l s acquired the same l e v e l as t o t a l immersion pupils and p u p i l s taking French as a second language from Kindergarten to Grade 1, 20- 40 minutes per day. In the second grade, p a r t i a l immersion pupils scored lower than t o t a l immersion pupils (Grade 1), as well as native- speaking Grade 1 students, and better than pupils taking French as a second language i n Grades 1 and 2 who had taken French since Kinder- 26. garten. Improvement was evident i n Grade 3 thus considered a "breakthrough" i n French comprehension and interpreted by a higher maturity l e v e l , permitting the handling of more complex tasks. The p a r t i a l immersion pupils were comparable to Grade 1 t o t a l immersion p u p i l s , with 1% years of French i n s t r u c t i o n and better than pupils taking French as a second language i n Grades 1 and 2 . Although the Grade 4 scores i n French comprehension were s t i l l below t o t a l immersion p u p i l s , reading scores were better than t o t a l immersion p u p i l s . The above-mentioned differences more c l e a r l y evidenced i n Grades 3 and 4 were probably due to organizational and pedagogical f a c t o r s . It should be noted that in Grades 1 and 2 the same teacher would teach i n both languages. It may be that the mixing o f lang- uages would tend to bring about more confusion f o r the p u p i l s . Another relevant point to be considered i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of teach- ing reading i n the second language f i r s t may have r e s u l t e d i n higher performance. In the study, exposure to French took place i n Grade 1 and not in Kindergarten as i t has been the "case i n other immersion programmes. On the other hand, parents' involvement i s greater when both languages are taught at the same time. F i n a l l y , the authors hypothesize that the problems encountered i n p a r t i a l immersion pupils may only be temporary ones. Tests used i n the E l g i n study are found in Appendix B. Montreal The Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal (PSBGM) was the f i r s t i n developing early, l a t e and p a r t i a l French immersion programmes i n Canada. A f t e r a decade, Genesee (1979) presents an overview i n the assessment of these programmes by the PSBGM. In the design of the longitudinal evaluation, IQ and socio- economic status had been equated and immersion p u p i l s ' performance was compared with c a r e f u l l y matched English and French-speaking Controls. French and English standardized language and achievement t e s t s and some designed by the Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal, measured d i f f e r e n t types of s k i l l s (Genesee et a l . , 1977). Genesee (1979) r e f e r r i n g to the 6-year evaluation (Grade 1 to 6) of a French immersion programme concurs with other researchers (Lam- bert § Tucker, 1972), that i n early immersion (Kindergarten, Grade 1 and 2), a d e f i c i t i n English l i t e r a c y i s to be found considering the lack of formal i n s t r u c t i o n . Good readers in French are generally able to decode English material e a r l i e r on t h e i r own. During the two year period (Grade 3 to 5), s p e l l i n g i s not yet at grade l e v e l but past the c r i t i c a l phase, immersion pupils are at par with Control students on a l l measures, including writing. Genesee also found that "Below-average students i n immersion are able to achieve comparable levels of competence i n t h e i r f i r s t lang- uage" (Genesee, 1978a, p. 48). The same seemed to apply f o r mathemat i c s achievement when contrasted with below-average students i n the 28. English programme. The majority of immersion pupils acquires the same competence as t h e i r English peers i n mathematics. In addition, i t was found that these pupils have superior know- ledge of the French language over t h e i r English Controls. However, only i n l i s t e n i n g and reading comprehension are they at par with French Control students. "Discrete-point" language s k i l l s ( o r a l ex- pression and grammar) are weaker than decoding s k i l l s . In a l l , they have acquired a p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f the language and are less i n h i b i t e d and more creative i n using the language than students who have followed the regular French-as-a-second-language programme. The Grade 7 la t e immersion and the four comparative evaluations of the e a r l y and l a t e immersion programmes for the Protestant School Board o f Greater Montreal are b r i e f l y outlined i n Genesee's overview (1979) and e a r l i e r i n Stanley (1974). Coquitlam In the B r i t i s h Columbia context, there i s an agreement between the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l government to provide f i n a n c i a l funds f o r the promotion of b i l i n g u a l education. The structure of French immer- sion programmes d i f f e r s from previously mentioned i n that students do not have the same opportunity as t h e i r peers i n Quebec to use French since approximately 99% of the ch i l d r e n come from homes where only English i s spoken. B i l i n g u a l education at the elementary l e v e l was f i r s t introduced i n the Coquitlam school d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1968 (Shapson 29. S Kaufman, 1978). As a r e s u l t of Wilton's (1974) v i s i t s to St. Lambert and Montreal, the Coquitlam Board of Education decided to introduce, i n September 1973, a 100% French Kindergarten and a Grade 1 class with one more class added each year. It can be said that a true French immersion programme had been set up. A report of the f i r s t evaluation of the Coquitlam programme 1973-74 school year for Kindergarten and Grade 1 classes was prepared by Kaufman and Wilton (1975). The report discusses the study that compared immersion classes to English Control classes i n terms of basic s k i l l s , mental a b i l i t y and French comprehension. The r e s u l t s of the f i r s t study i n B r i t i s h Columbia do not d i f f e r from the ones presented i n other studies such as the Toronto study (Swain § Barik, 1978) . Both evaluations indicated that a f t e r one year immersion students i n Kindergarten are as prepared as t h e i r English peers, to enrol into a Grade 1 class (French immersion or regular English c l a s s ) . In French comprehension at both grade l e v e l s , they were not only better than t h e i r English counterparts but superior to ch i l d r e n involved i n the Ottawa study (Swain § Barik, 1976a) who had been in s t r u c t e d i n French for 20-40 minutes per day. Also, cognitive development did not regress because of the programme. As for English language s k i l l s , t h i s group who had only received i n s t r u c t i o n i n French could not match i t s peers i n word recognition, word d i s c r i m i n - a t i o n and reading, but performed better i n mathematics. From one year to the other, these immersion pupils were becoming more p r o f i c i e n t i n 30. the French language. A l o n g i t u d i n a l (Shapson § Kaufman, 1978) study was c a r r i e d out to evaluate the academic performance of two successive cohorts of students during the f i r s t four years of schooling (1972-1977). Cohort I received 80% of French i n s t r u c t i o n i n Kindergarten and Grade 2, whereas Cohort II had 100% of French u n t i l Grade 3 when English was introduced f o r the f i r s t time. Results obtained on the Canadian Cognitive A b i l i t i e s Test (1974), showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between French immersion and English stream p u p i l s . Although basic E n g l i s h language s k i l l s were low for both Cohorts, the transfer of French s k i l l s to English s k i l l s increased from one year to another and by the end o f Grade 3 immersion pupils had already attained the same l e v e l of English language s k i l l s as t h e i r English counterparts. For comparison, in Kindergarten and Grade 1, immersion pupils performed favorably at the l e v e l of t h e i r peers i n Ottawa (Swain § Barik, 1976a) and Toronto (Barik & Swain, 1975b). In Grades 2 and 3, Cohort II obtained higher scores than Cohort I i n French which was probably due to a greater exposure to the language. Interestingly, the Grade 3, Cohort II p u p i l s , were compared with Grade 7 Coquitlam students who were i n t h e i r t h i r d year of learning French 20 minutes a day (core French programme). The B.C. French Comprehension Test (Experimental v e r s i o n , 1976-77) "Developed to assess simple basic French language s k i l l s f o r students who previously had at least two years of core French" (p. 594), served to evaluate the Grade 3's 31. vocabulary and comprehension. It was found that the immersion p u p i l s , though much younger, had attained a higher l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y i h the French language. Since 1973, a B.C. Frency study i s conducted on a regular basis by Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y s t a f f i n order to evaluate the p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l of French attained by children e n r o l l e d i n t h i s type of pro- gramme. Included i n the evaluation i s the development of English language s k i l l s . During the 1976-77 academic year, 25 p a r t i c i p a t i n g school d i s t r i c t s were subject to a d e t a i l e d study (B.C. French study) funded j o i n t l y by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education and the Secretary of State. A more recent evaluation of an e a r l y immersion programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been conducted by Shapson and Day (1982) . The success o f t h i s type of programme i n the west, paved the way to the creation of a s i g n i f i c a n t number of immersion classes located i n the most remote places of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Yukon and even the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . Studies Pertaining to Selected Factors A f f e c t i n g Success i n French Immersion Classrooms I n t e l l i g e n c e A l i t e r a t u r e review revealed that few number of studies have dealt s p e c i f i c a l l y with the effects French language immersion programmes have on i n t e l l i g e n c e (Samuels § G r i f f o r e , 1979). Whorfian's r e l a t i v i s m that there are two d i f f e r e n t sorts of 32. b i l i n g u a l s , coordinate ( l a t e b i l i n g u a l i s m : learning a second lang- uage a f t e r school age, Segalowitz § Lambert, 1969; St a f f o r d , 1968) and compound (early b i l i n g u a l i s m : acquiring both languages before going to school) are u n j u s t i f i a b l e to Macnamara (1970). In t h i s context he t i e s i n language a c q u i s i t i o n as the integration of p r i o r n o n l i n g u i s t i c growth with l i n g u i s t i c functioning showing "That the majority of l i n g u i s t i c universals are due to c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l features of human i n t e l l i g e n c e " (p. 33); i n l i k e manner any language can be tr a n s l a t e d i n t o another. His key issue i s , does b i l i n g u a l i s m a f f e c t IQ? Language know- ledge as one among many f a c t o r s , can influence IQ but not n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e l l i g e n c e . In h i s 1966 study, Macnamara recognized the poor com- mand of b i l i n g u a l s ' school language compared to un i l i n g u a l s as r e f l e c t e d on lower verbal IQ but not nonverbal IQ. From t h i s he derives h i s b e l i e f that once b i l i n g u a l s acquire adequate language s k i l l s "There i s no reason to believe that b i l i n g u a l i s m of i t s e l f should a f f e c t school progress i n any way, adversely or b e n e f i c i a l l y " (p. 34). Even Cummins (1978b) emphasized that "Bilingualism promotes an a n a l y t i c o r i e n t a t i o n to both l i n g u i s t i c and perceptual s t r u c t u r e s " (p. 872). Peal and Lambert (1962), i n comparing the i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s , teachers' ratings and atti t u d e s between a group of 89 b i l i n g u a l 10-year-old ch i l d r e n and 75 monolingual 10-year-olds i n 6 Francophone schools i n Montreal found that " B i l i n g u a l s performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y 33, better than the monolinguals on both verbal and non-verbal i n t e l l i - gence tes t s " (p. 22) and i n general are better i n academic achieve- ment. Thus bilingualism seemed to have a positive effect on the i n t e l l e c t u a l development of children. The purpose of this study was to examine "The effects of bilingualism on the i n t e l l e c t u a l function- ing of children and to explore the relations between bilingualism, school achievement, and students' attitudes to the second language community" (p. 7), and, f i n a l l y , to find out where a b i l i n g u a l person f e l l behind. Lambert and Anisfeld (1969) i n a follow-up study from the ear- l i e r Peal and Lambert experiment of 1962, interpreted that b i l i n g u a l children score better than monolinguals on i n t e l l i g e n c e measures either because they are already of higher i n t e l l i g e n c e and tend to become b i l i n g u a l or b i l i n g u a l education enhances general i n t e l l i g e n c e , or both. They contradicted Macnamara (1966) who considered the 1962 experiment questionable, i n view of the sample being biased with more i n t e l l i g e n t subjects from the start and on this account, "He suggests that i t i s more reasonable to argue that the more i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d - ren become b i l i n g u a l than i t i s to argue that becoming b i l i n g u a l influences i n t e l l e c t u a l development" (Lambert &Anisfeld, 1969, p. 126). In a l a t e r study when Peal and Lambert (1967) tested a group of unilingual children c a r e f u l l y matched for equal i n t e l l i g e n c e scores and socio-economic l e v e l s , the b i l i n g u a l s possessing a greater mental f l e x i b i l i t y , were superior. The authors quote e a r l i e r research as 34. f a i l i n g to adjust for socio-economic status and other variables thus creating a false image. U n t i l that time, the negative effects of bi l i n g u a l education had been stressed i n research studies (Saer, 1923; Pintner, 1932; Jones & Stewart, 1951). During t h i s early period, there were"already studies supporting the favorable effects of b i - lingualism on intelligence (Davies $ Hughes, 1927; Stark, 1940) and some that found no effect of bilingualism on i n t e l l i g e n c e ( H i l l , 1936; Pintner § Arsenian, 1937). In the late s i x t i e s , Lambert and Macnamara (1969) examined the language-learning capacity (English and French), mathematics and general i n t e l l i g e n c e of Grade 1 French immersion children i n compari- son with two English Controls and one French class. A l l classes were equated on in t e l l i g e n c e and socio-economic status. Testing for IQ (Raven's Progressive Matrices, 1956) took place during the f i r s t and la s t month of schooling i n order to determine the effect a year's training in French, would have on Experimentals' measured i n t e l l i - gence as suggested (Peal § Lambert, 1962; Anisfeld § Lambert, 1964). I n i t i a l l y , no s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e differences among groups were shown, but i n June (last month of the year) b i l i n g u a l s scored lower than one English Control only. Socio-economic results from interviews revealed r e l i a b l e group differences. One English Control class scored the highest on the emphasis placed on education and the French Control the lowest. The other English Controls were the highest and French Controls the lowest on the quality of l i n g u i s t i c environment. 35. The second report (Lambert et a l . , 1970) constitutes a contin- ui t y of the Lambert and Macnamara's 1969 study mentioned e a r l i e r . At present, the performance of a new set of Grade 1 students and that of the P i l o t Class placed now i n Grade 2 i s described. The authors' main purpose of evaluating another Grade 1 class was "To assess the s t a b i l i t y and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of la s t year's r e s u l t s and...to re- examine the eff e c t s , on the l i n g u i s t i c and mental development of f i r s t grade children, of two years' schooling (Kindergarten and Grade 1) conducted exclusively i n a foreign language" (p. 230). As i n the previous year, two dif f e r e n t English classes and a French class served as Controls to the b i l i n g u a l Experimental Class. Certain modifications were made i n the administration of tests to the Follow- up Classes such as the addition to the same battery of tests given the preceeding year, of an intelligence test (Lorge-Thorndike I n t e l - ligence Scale, 1959), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Dunn, 1959) and Listening Comprehension; the last two i n both English and French. Follow-up Grade 1 Experimentals conversely to the P i l o t Class (Grade 1), show neither i n t e l l e c t u a l retardation nor i n t e l l e c t u a l advantage (Raven's Matrices Test, 1958). No group differences were seen on the Lorge-Thorndike measure at the end of the year. For the f i r s t time, the P i l o t Class at Grade 2 received d a i l y instruction of English Language Arts (25 minutes) i n the same way given to English stream students. The same format as i n previous evaluations was maintained con- 36. sidering a difference i n grade l e v e l . Students were tested for read- ing s k i l l s , s p e l l i n g and vocabulary i n English and the same measures were u t i l i z e d . Results revealed that a f t e r only a year of limited formal t r a i n i n g i n English, the Experimental group achieved equivalent scores to the Control groups. It i s not known i f maturation or some other factors could have caused such a rapid development of s k i l l s . Whether tested i n French or English, Experimental children ranked as well as the Controls. There was no evidence of i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f i c i t or advantage for t h i s group. F i n a l l y , overall performance results have not been affected by changes of modes of t e s t i n g , analysis, teachers and methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . Genesee (1976b) raised the issue of the s u i t a b i l i t y of immersion programmes for children with low IQ (low academic a b i l i t y ) . In that he saw no correlation between IQ and the acquisition of speaking and l i s t e n i n g comprehension. As to e a r l i e r studies stated, they regarded inte l l i g e n c e as a dependent variable, the influence of bilingualism on general i n t e l l i g e n c e . Whereas today, i t has become an independent variable, the influence of general i n t e l l i g e n c e (IQ level) on per- formance i n French immersion. Since oral (verbal) s k i l l s are e s s e n t i a l , the higher the IQ, the higher the performance on tests of verbal s k i l l s , and the demands of an immersion programme are met (high correlation between IQ and per- formance on tests of verbal s k i l l s ) . Low IQ i s no longer considered an impediment i n successfully learning a second language (Gardner § Lambert, 1972; Dockrell § Brosseau, 1967). Other variables such as attitudes and motivation have attenuated the importance of i n t e l l e c - t u a l functioning when academic demands of a second language diminish. Furthermore, Genesee discovered that below-average students can acquire oral (listening and speaking s k i l l s ) language s k i l l s to the same extent as average or above-average students. It appears that the comprehension of a foreign language i s not related to a le v e l of IQ (the reverse happens when second language academic s k i l l s are consid- ered) . He suggests that a non-academic approach to teaching French can meet the needs of a greater population with a wide range of a b i l i t i e s (including below-average students) and consequently the mother tongue w i l l not suffer from an immersion programme. From her research, Swain (1975) found no correlation between IQ and measurements i n English, French, and mathematics of children from Kindergarten to Grade 2. She summarizes that "The correlational analyses of the IQ and achievement data do not support the notion that IQ plays a more si g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the Immersion program than i n a regular English program. Furthermore, learning to understand a second language i s of a l l s k i l l s measured, the least dependent on IQ" (p. 15). As stated by Mackey (1971), the b i l i n g u a l learning situation i s i n f l u - enced by a constellation of cognitive, a t t i t u d i n a l , social and educa- t i o n a l factors. Macnamara, Edwards, and Bain (1978) approached the i n t e r r e l a t i o n - ship between IQ and a b i l i n g u a l education by issuing such a statement: 38. "There i s very l i t t l e evidence that would suggest that having a b i - lingual education automatically results i n someone having a greater mental a b i l i t y . But, by the same token, there i s very l i t t l e evidence that suggests that having a b i l i n g u a l education has a det- rimental effect on the i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . I f there i s a reason for acquiring the second language i t i s social intercourse or opportunity, i t ' s not because of i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s " (p. 893). A d e f i n i t e conclusion was arrived by Trites (1981) who stated that at the Kindergarten l e v e l , academic achievement i n reading, s p e l l i n g , and arithmetic measures i n English was best predicted by IQ. Besides, IQ was of greater importance when predicting achievement on measures i n the English language than when predicting achievement in French. However, no further explanation was provided on t h i s issue. Cognitive Development Some studies have attempted to evaluate the area of cognition as i t relates to b i l i n g u a l education. From the l i t e r a t u r e surveyed i t appears that early preschool bilingualism whether i t be French or another second language stimulates children's cognitive development and enhances t h e i r self-concept. In his study, Oren (1981) adminis- tered three tests to forty-nine preschool b i l i n g u a l (Hebrew and English) and monolingual children: Reading readiness questionnaire (Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test, 1951); object constancy t e s t ; naming and relabeling tests. The b i l i n g u a l group surpassed the other 39. subjects i n the naming and relabeling tasks. In addition the group had attained a higher degree of proficiency i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g objects and t h e i r corresponding symbols (Piaget's object constancy theory predicting the a b i l i t y to name and label) as a res u l t of early ex- posure to t-wo dif f e r e n t coding systems. A negative relationship between bilingualism and cognition was seen i n Macnamara's work (1966). Previous studies have involved sub- jects from lower socio-economic status whereas l a t e r studies have focused on subjects from middle and upper-class. This may have had an impact on the IQ scores obtained when comparing groups. Results from Macnamara's study concluded on the basis of an immersion study conducted i n Ireland found that there i s a "balance e f f e c t " i n lang- uage learning (children learn a second language: L2 at the cost of t h e i r f i r s t language: LI) when greater emphasis i s placed on the acquisition of a second language (early French immersion) and also, when instruction i s given through a second language at a mediocre level results related to content w i l l be poor. But i n carrying out more accurate research studies, Lambert (1975) referred to "additiveness" as a process i n which subjects who are now more "balanced" b i l i n g u a l s (same degree of competence i n both languages) acquire a high level of second language without losing t h e i r level of t h e i r f i r s t language. According to Cummins (1979b), a minimal le v e l of competence i n f i r s t language ("threshold hypothesis") i.e. the required cognitive- 40. l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s , i s necessary for p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n second lan- guage. The data i s based on samples of minority children whose l i t e r a c y s k i l l s are poor. He i d e n t i f i e d that the primary predictors of success i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n f o r the c h i l d , are his/her cognitive and l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s . He concluded e a r l i e r (1977) that "There may be a threshold leve l of l i n g u i s t i c competence which a b i l i n g u a l c h i l d must a t t a i n both i n order to avoid cognitive d e f i c i t s and allow the p o t e n t i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l aspects of becoming b i l i n g u a l to influence h i s cognitive growth. I f a c h i l d i n an Immersion program attains only a very low l e v e l of competence i n his second language, h i s i n t e r a c t i o n through that language with an i n - creasingly symbolic environment i s u n l i k e l y to optimally promote h i s cognitive and academic progress" (p. 10). Cummins' threshold hypothesis was being supported by Barik and Swain i n t h e i r Ottawa and Toronto studies (1976d, 1976e) i n which the e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l i s m on cognitive development have been re- affirmed. ' In a unique study, Maurice and Roy (1976) dealt with the measure- ment of b i l i n g u a l i s m (French and English languages i n French immersion) using Hunt's Terminable-Unit (T-unit), and i t s implications. French and English spoken and written languages were evaluated on a sample of Grade 2, 4 and 6 pupils i n terms of the number of words produced, T-units, and l i n g u i s t i c maturity, mean T-unit length. The speech samples were based on a story t o l d i n French and English, a f t e r seeing 41. a f i l m . A written composition was then required for the two i n t e r - mediate grade l e v e l s . Obtained r e s u l t s suggest that a t r a n s f e r of l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y i s f e a s i b l e once a maturity leve l has been reached; also, the high r e s u l t s i n French (increased mean lenth T- units) may be due to motivation rather than competence. The authors do admit that i t i s indeed d i f f i c u l t to make an accurate l i n g u i s t i c measure since concepts can be expressed in a v a r i e t y of ways. Downing (1978) looked at f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n before con- s i d e r i n g a second language by r e f e r r i n g to a "cognitive confusion" which i s bound to occur when new concepts ( i . e . L2 phonemes i n read- ing) are unknown to the c h i l d i n LI. In the Canadian s e t t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y , parents enrol t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n a French immersion programme v o l u n t a r i l y . One would be i n c l i n e d to see the a f f e c t i v e and motivation variables become high as "To overcome the cognitive confusion produced by the mismatch between the LI of past experience and the L2 of i n s t r u c t i o n " (p. 335). In Downing's judgment, t h i s p o s i t i v e a f f e c t does not eliminate cognitive confusion (features of speech and writing) nor the d i f f i c u l t y i n associating reading i n L2 with t h e i r past experience of LI. Better progress i s noted when young c h i l d r e n are i n i t i a l l y taught i n t h e i r f i r s t language, however, since the a f f e c t i v e variable i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n immersion i t may i n some way overstep the cognitive d e f i c i t s and help explain the reason i n s t r u c t i o n can be given i n L2 at f i r s t . In short, Downing does not consider past experiments on Canadian French immersion to be too 42. r e l i a b l e since the samples are above average i n intelligence and'in socio-economic status. Positive results i n introducing a foreign language as stated by Stern (1973a) can even en t a i l positive effects on cognitive processes Landry (1972) even hypothesized fluency and divergent thinking tasks of children learning a second language at the elementary school l e v e l As an example, the St. Lambert Experiment proved that divergent thinking a b i l i t y was even superior for the primary immersion pupils i n comparison with the Controls (Bruck et a l . , 1974; Lambert et a l . , 1973) and t h i s may have been due to the fact that the special immer- sion setting influences the development of certain cognitive proces- ses . Lambert and Tucker (1978) related to four cognitive happenings, not f u l l y understood to t h i s day. The f i r s t cognitive process called " i n c i p i e n t contrastive l i n g u i s t i c s " refers to the comparison (finding s i m i l a r i t i e s ) and contrasting (finding differences) of two l i n g u i s t i c codes s t a r t i n g with translation and ultimately ending by building vocabulary, as seen from the pupils' performance on English tests of vocabulary. L i n g u i s t i c "detective" s k i l l s , as the second process, were developing also spontaneously. Children were indeed attending to words, meanings and l i n g u i s t i c r e g u l a r i t i e s and ob- tained better-than-expected scores i n word discrimination, l i s t e n i n g , comprehension, and reading in French. In the t h i r d process called the "transfer of higher-order s k i l l s of reading and computation" 43. acquired through the medium of French only, the school-learned con- cepts develop before the everyday concepts. This b e l i e f follows closely with Vygotsky's (1962) work showing that "A child's strong points i n a foreign language are his weak points i n his native language, and vice versa" (pp. 109-110). At the i n i t i a l stage of learning a foreign language, the c h i l d i s already conscious of the grammatical forms and consequently de- velops an awareness of the l i n g u i s t i c operations i n his native language. The fourth and last cognitive process i d e n t i f i e s strate- gies these children use to develop expressive competence i n French. The pupils have greater ease to read and invent a story than r e t e l l a story they have heard because the written form i s a dependable frame of reference. In French verbal s k i l l s , immersion children seem to use non- l i n g u i s t i c strategies to make the content clear as recognized by Bruck, Lambert, and Tucker (1976b). The authors documented the effects French immersion has had on children's cognitive development. In a longitudinal study that covered seven years, each spring P i l o t , Follow-up and Control Classes were evaluated. Results showed no signs of cognitive d i f f i c u l t y when comparing groups, but Grade 6 Experimentals scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on measures of cognitive f l e x i b i l i t y (Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, 1958; Lorge- Thorndike Intelligence Test, Level 3, Form A, 1954-66). Expressive competence was evaluated on the basis of a f i l m children had seen. Experimentals t o l d the story four times: to a classmate i n French and English, and to an adult in both languages. The immersion pupils presented fewer subdetails eliminating possible embellishments i n the language the French Controls would presumably have brought i n . Ex- perimentals' communicative style differed from English Controls when speaking to a peer and to an adult primarily because they "Have d e f i n i t e l y been educated i n a more adult-oriented classroom than the Controls since for them the teacher i s the main l i n g u i s t i c source" (p. 23). It follows that French Experimentals speak more to adults than to peers whereas the reverse i s observed i n the French Control group who a d d i t i o n a l l y would t e l l different types of stories to peers and adults. Research i n the e a r l i e r grades of French immersion seemed to have focused i t s attention on the treatment effect on the child's cognitive development and academic achievement. As can be seen, no evidence of such an effect was demonstrated i n Barik, Swain and McTavish (1974) evaluation of Kindergarten and Grade 1 pupils (Exper- imentals and English stream students). Both groups showed equal pre-reading s k i l l s , i n other words, immersion pupils were as ready as regular programme pupils to enter an English Grade 1 class. In spite of the fact that the Experimentals were behind i n English when tested i n Grade 1, they were already capable of making the transfer of reading and arithmetic s k i l l s from French to English. The Exper- 45. imentals had supremacy i n French over children learning the language as a subject though not in regard to their native French-speaking peers. Reference i s made to Neufeld (1974) who emphasized that b i l i n g - ual children are not necessarily superior to th e i r peers in terms of problem solving a b i l i t y , concept learning, abstract reasoning and general academic achievement. Neufeld's research i n this f i e l d sug- gests one would see the positive effects of bilingualism and a l l i t entails (attitudes and feelings towards the new language philosophy). He finds that supportive data as to the increase of cognitive and verbal s k i l l s as a result of learning a foreign language were not su f f i c i e n t . Some researchers have designed studies that have focused on both IQ and cognitive development of students i n immersion classes. Find- ings of a longitudinal study of b i l i n g u a l and cognitive development by Barik and Swain (1976b), were presented at the Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for the Study on Education, Laval, Quebec i n June 1976. For a period of five years, a sample of French immersion and regular English pupils (Kindergarten to Grade 7) from Toronto and Ottawa (French as a second language was only taught for a short daily period), were administered IQ tests (Canadian Cognitive A b i l i t i e s Test - Nonverbal Battery CCAT, 1974 for Group IV, and the Otis-Lennon Mental A b i l i t y Test, 1967, i n the primary grades). Yearly IQ differences were not seen between both groups though the immersion group scored 46. higher over the 5-year period (through repeated measures analysis), thus the positive relationships existing between bilingualism and cognitive functioning were questioned. Time of Exposure to Second Language Training The question often asked i s : When i s the best time for a c h i l d to learn a foreign language or be placed i n a French immersion pro- gramme? From the l i t e r a t u r e i t seems that learning French i s best i n : (a) an early French immersion programme, or (b) a late French immer- sion programme, or (c) also i n some studies, the age factor or grade level was i r r e l e v a n t . To date studies on French immersion have not looked i n depth at the advantages of well developed first-language s k i l l s when learning a second language at an early age. Among the e a r l i e r studies on French English bilingualism, MacKay (1967) recognized that when using a less f a m i l i a r language as a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n a sudden s h i f t from one language.to another may cause language interference. To some extent t h i s was evident in the St. Lambert study. Also, no empirical support for the "optimal age" theory was found by B u r s t a l l , Jamieson, Cohen and Hargreaves (1974) in a ten-year longitudinal study of 18,000 B r i t i s h primary-school children with early t r a i n i n g i n French as a second language. In a l i t e r a t u r e review, Stern (1982) looked at core French (programmes of French as a second language taught as a subject) as opposed to immersion French 47. in terms of s t a r t i n g grade, i n s t r u c t i o n a l time and i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. Starting age i s less important than sometimes argued, neither s t a r t i n g age nor grade level should outweigh such consider- ations as the appropriateness of the curriculum, the continuity of the i n s t r u c t i o n , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of appropriate s t a f f , and the provision of suitable and adequate learning materials. Results obtained from a comparative study by Cziko, Holobow, and Lambert (1977), that evaluated the effects of early and Grade 7 immersion programmes on English and French language s k i l l s of stu- dents at the end of Grade 7 showed that early immersion has indeed a greater impact on the development of French language s k i l l s than does seventh grade immersion, but that the former fostered the de- velopment of speaking s k i l l s . Penfield's view (1965) that a c h i l d can best learn a second language before the age of twelve to fourteen years ( i . e . before the functional connections of the uncommitted cortex become fixed) had o r i g i n a l l y been used i n support of early immersion. Weininger (1982) states Penfield's "Hypothesis of a 'switch mechanism' operating between the two cerebral hemispheres enabling the ch i l d to turn from one language to the other without confusion, translation, or accent seems to provide a physiological p a r a l l e l to the theoretical concept of co-ordinate bilingualism" (p. 21). The early stage for second- language learning (optimal age) remained c r u c i a l . However, with new findings r e l a t i v e to the language capacity of the right hemisphere 4 8 : and the concept of innate language a b i l i t y p a r t i a l l y created by the c h i l d (Chomsky, 1959) , Penfield's model seems to have been ignored for the time being. Macnamara (1976) contradicted e a r l i e r studies (Penfield § Rob- erts, 1959] Lenneberg, 1967) i n that the functions of a second language i n a normal c h i l d or adult are located i n the same areas as the functions of the f i r s t language. It seems c r i t i c a l for the n a t i v i s t s (Penfield, 1959; Lenneberg, 1967) to take advantage of the child's neural p l a s t i c i t y of the brain and the development of cerebral, hemispheric l a t e r a l i z a t i o n . Immature learners (younger learners) may need more time to learn a new language because they must also acquire essential l i n g u i s t i c perceptual, motor, social and i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s . The more "mature" foreign language learner has his cognitive system already organized. As Taylor (1974) said, a b i l i n g u a l c h i l d "Is building his con- ceptual network at the same time as he i s learning his languages" (p. 116) . In the cognitive network, the c h i l d builds labels and syntactic programmes corresponding to both languages. Also i t was found that "A person who becomes b i l i n g u a l as an infant should have a greater opportunity to be t r u l y creative than one whose b i l i n g u a l - ism was acquired l a t e r " (p. 117). Macnamara (1975) did believe that learning a second language depends on the age and the setting i n that a young c h i l d encounters a different learning experience when he goes to school since he i s 49. immersed and he/she i s able to learn a second language in the same fashion as his mother tongue. S i m i l a r l y , MacNab (1981) also d i s - covered that "Second language learning i s much l i k e f i r s t language learning" (p. 42). He explains the two overlapping phrases i n second language learning: f i r s t , the learning of vocabulary and structures (already known i n one's f i r s t language) and second, the development of complex ideas and understandings (similar to f i r s t language learn- ing) . The speed of learning depends on the maturation level and a b i l i t y . Anderson, Wallace Past and Cude Past (1978) provide evidence that young children are able to learn two languages i n the same way that the unilingual c h i l d learns one. The authors relate to the early acquisition of two languages i n indi v i d u a l case studies (Soder- bergh, 1977; Past A., 1976; Past K., 1976; Christian, 1976 £ 1977). At a very early age, subjects achieved success not only i n oral ex- pression but also i n reading. The examples ci t e d i n these studies "Give some insight into the tremendous language-learning c a p a b i l i t i e s of young children and the great pleasure they derive from being able to develop these c a p a b i l i t i e s through reading" (p. 159). There were however, a number of studies strongly supporting the early immersion option as being the most b e n e f i c i a l to the c h i l d . The efficacy of such a programme i n various countries i s reported by Morgan (1982). I t seems therefore obvious that "harmful" effects of early exposure to a second language proposed by Jakobovits (1972) 50. can no longer hold true. Schumann (1975) considered that there exist individual d i f f e r - ences i n learning a foreign language. Among the many factors con- t r i b u t i n g to the success i n second language acquisition, he discusses the problem" of age i n that the mastery can occur at a young age as well as i n adulthood. He refers to Penfield and Roberts (1959) who maintained that once c o r t i c a l l a t e r a l i z a t i o n has been completed i n the l e f t cerebral cortex (language development) at puberty, adults f i n d i t more d i f f i c u l t to learn a second language. Social and psychologi- cal maturation may also affect the development of b i l i n g u a l s k i l l s among the adult learner. Children on the contrary are not threatened by the sounds of a different language. They imitate t h e i r peers, and can be strongly motivated by the community (school, parents, etc.) where more opportunities to learn and use the target language are being offered. Since younger learners do not feel inhibited they have a more pos i t i v e attitude toward learning a second language (Gardner ct Lambert, 1972). However, i t i s noted that motivated adolescents can become more e f f i c i e n t learners of a foreign language. It can be hypothesized that the reason why early immersion stu- dents are more p r o f i c i e n t i n French than the late-starters may be considered i n terms of the duration factor rather than the st a r t i n g age. Genesee (1978b) informs that research to th i s day focuses on the comparison of age i n second language acquisition i n terms- of English as a second language and/or French as a second language. Researchers have been i n favor of beginning instruction e a r l i e r for cognitive, neuropsychological and affective reasons by emphasizing innate lang- uage learning mechanisms (Chomsky, 1972; McNeill, 1970) or cognitive/ l i n g u i s t i c " predispositions possessed by a l l children which f a c i l i t a t e the natural acquisition of a second language. However, i n a study i n which a French cloze test was used to evaluate the lead group of stu- dents i n early, p a r t i a l and late immersion programmes, Swain (1978) draws a tentative conclusion i n favor of the early t o t a l immersion programme. It appears that more advantages seemed to derive from early acquisition of a foreign language (Cummins, 1978a; Swain § Lapkin, 1981) since the i n i t i a l language barrier i s less noticeable and L2 communicational s k i l l s develop more e f f i c i e n t l y . As Swain points out i n the Canadian context "The early immersion i s no longer i n the experimental stage. It i s an innovative pro- gramme for the teaching of French as a second language which has met with considerable success" (1976b, p. 187). Weininger (1982) expands by c l a r i f y i n g that should younger children be i n fact exposed to a foreign language e a r l i e r , an attempt ought be made to "Devise methods which serve to introduce them to the second language and culture i n an informal way as a preparation for l a t e r intensive language learn- ing" (p. 35). In another study dealing with early French immersion, Cummins (1981) hypothesized that future academic achievement in immersion may depend on exposure to French and/or English i n Kindergarten and that there are d i f f e r e n t i a l effects for full-day b i l i n g u a l versus half-^ day French or English Kindergarten which are influenced by l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds and socio-economic status. Comparisons were made on the basis of data obtained from the Ottawa-Carleton major evaluations (Swain § Barik, 1976a; Edwards § Casserly, 1976; Mclnnis § Donoghue 1976), only considered tentative according to Cummins, since only Catholic and non-Catholic middle-class Anglophone children were involved. Other limitations were the va r i a t i o n i n the curriculum and different teams of researchers as well as i n evaluation instruments. The results indicated that no clear trends emerged i n the com- parison of full-day b i l i n g u a l (half-day French Kindergarten and half- day English Kindergarten) and half-day English Kindergarten. At the Grade 1 level nonetheless, exposure to French i n Kindergarten i n f l u - enced subsequent performance i n French, so apparent i n Grades 2 and 3 No superiority i n outcomes was seen between full-day b i l i n g u a l (half- day French Kindergarten and half-day English Kindergarten) and half- day French Kindergarten. There were however, certain proponents of delaying exposure to second language acquisition who favored the late immersion alterna- t i v e . Intermediate immersion (Edwards § Smyth, 1976) differentiates the early French immersion option i n that i t begins as late as Grade 3 or 5. Children have then already been given instruction i n English Language Arts. Some fears had been expressed as to the impact delay- 53. ing native language instruction would have on reading and writing (LI). Among the 168 school boards across Canada surveyed by the authors, there were only four with t h i s type of programme therefore, i t was found d i f f i c u l t to draw d e f i n i t e conclusions as to f e a s i b i l - i t y and ef f i c i e n c y . The authors also looked at the option of implementing a late immersion programme (a one or two-year programme i n Grades 6 to 9) for pupils who did not have the opportunity of learning French ear- l i e r . Reference i s made to the Peel and other studies conducted i n Brampton (Barik ct Swain, 1976a), Montreal (Genesee et a l . , 1974) and Ottawa (Edwards § Smyth, 1975). Students progressed very well i n French (which was not at a l l related to intelligence) and they demon- strated an interest i n learning the language and content mastery though not taught i n English, did not suffer. In t h i s respect, a one-year immersion programme i s proposed by Bruck, Lambert and Tucker (1976a) for children who did not have the opportunity of learning French i n the primary grades. The study i n question assesses the level of French proficiency between early im- mersion pupils and those enrolled i n a one-year programme only. The former group achieved a higher le v e l during that p a r t i c u l a r period but at a l a t e r date (high school for example) the competence level might have been equal. No firm conclusions were made as to the un- d e s i r a b i l i t y of a late immersion programme and i t remained an open- ended question. 54. In describing the extent of French immersion language programmes in Canada over the past decade, Swain (1981) relates to the olders' tendency to be more e f f i c i e n t learners i n some aspects of second lang- uage learning though there exist advantages in s t a r t i n g e a r l i e r i n an intensive programme. Hamayan et a l . (1978) found that Grade 6 b i l i n g - ual students when tested for sentence repetition or e l i c i t e d imitation outperformed the Grade 4 students. This could have been attributed to a maturity or age factor. When these groups were compared with French monolinguals a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of internal grammars (syntactic struc- tures) was markedly relevant. Also Cummins (1979a) saw older learners more capable of learning syntax and morphology of a second language. It i s the contrary f o r oral fluency, phonology (accent) and l i s t e n i n g comprehension. According to Taylor (1974), delaying the introduction of a for- eign language can be more b e n e f i c i a l . He claims that "The adult's more advanced cognitive maturity would allow him to deal with the abstract nature of language even better than children" (pp. 32-33). Likewise Weininger (1982) favors the postponement of immersion to a l a t e r stage when children "Are able to make use of a much larger repertoire of approaches to the new language and culture. I t i s believed that t h e i r higher level of development i n the mother tongue and t h e i r greater l i t e r a c y would enable them to exploit contrastive and structural analysis" (p. 35). To conclude, Cummins (1982) makes a point by s t a t i n g , "The 55. principal reason why immersion programs work well at any grade level derives from t h e i r use of the L2 to transmit meaningful academic and interpersonal content. The age of the learner may influence the acquisition process in a subtle way, but i t does not appear to be a major factor i n the success or f a i l u r e of the program" (p. 41). To MacNab (1981) s t a r t i n g age i s unimportant also since there are prac- t i c a l l y no differences i n the end-result between early-entry and late-entry students. One must bear i n mind that as a rule of thumb the early-entry students have received twice as many hours of French instruction when compared with late-entry students at Grade 4 or 7. Five years e a r l i e r , Genesee (1976b) noted that whether a c h i l d i s exposed to the French language i n Kindergarten, Grade 1, 4, 7 or 8, some most important factors to be considered are that the children, (a) have no d i f f i c u l t y adjusting to the programme; (b) a l l learn French; (c) develop normal native language s k i l l s ; (d) acquire pre- scribed course material; and, (e) suffer no i n t e l l e c t u a l impairment. Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s and Other Factors In the beginning 1970's, researchers began to focus on reasons why certain pupils were performing poorly i n a French immersion pro- gramme. Some of the questions asked were: (1) Was i t due to a lack of aptitude for second language learn- ing? (2) Was i t the child's attitude towards learning a second language? (3) Was the age inappropriate at which a c h i l d would start to learn a second language? (4) Was i t due to hyperactivity, rest- lessness, inattentiveness? (5) Was i t due to some inheritance fac- tors? (reading d i s a b i l i t i e s in the family). It i s normal to see cognitive d e f i c i t s and learning problems i n every French immersion classroom. I f a c h i l d i s referred for " b i l i n g - ual interference i n reading" (Wagner, 1976) i t does not constitute the base of the reading problem though the so-called dyslexic syndrome is seen i n both languages in varying degrees. Remediation should accordingly be achieved i n the two languages and English (LI) taught f i r s t (Strong, 1972). Wagner quotes Lambert and Fillenbaum (1959) who found b i l i n g u a l s having acquired the language at home (fused, compound) manifesting "A more general language d e f i c i t affecting th e i r two languages when they become aphasic" (p. 96). In the case of separated (coordinate) bilinguals who learned the language exclu- s i v e l y outside the home, they "Are more l i k e l y to lose the use of only one of t h e i r languages i f they become aphasic" (p. 96). The s i t u a t i o n can develop into a polyglot aphasic system when a b i l i n g u a l aphasic c h i l d i s also exposed to different languages each parent may speak. Macnamara (1966) recognized that when a second language i s taught to a c h i l d f i r s t reading s k i l l s in both languages (LI and L2) are delayed. Bruck negates the threshold l e v e l by favoring Cummins' "Hypothe- s i s that f i r s t language and preliteracy s k i l l s predict achievement i n a second language program" (1980, p. 58). In t h i s respect, language of i n s t r u c t i o n or psycholinguistic a b i l i t i e s seemed to have given way 57. to social psychological conditions that can predict achievement in a French immersion environment. With language disabled French immer- sion pupils great stress i s l a i d and encouragement i s given i n the acquisition of the French language. In her study, Bur s t a l l (1976) examined young B r i t i s h pupils who, although bright, were encountering major problems at the i n i t i a l stage of learning French. The emphasis on acquiring a foreign lang- uage o r a l l y made i t more d i f f i c u l t for these children to learn French. Since no v i s u a l cues were given on the Tactual Performance test the French immersion group did s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorly. The following analogy i s drawn between the B r i t i s h and Canadian children who exper- ience the same d i f f i c u l t i e s , language learning i s hampered by the lack of vi s u a l cues. Another study of considerable importance i n t h i s area was con- ducted by Bruck, Rabinovitch, and Oates (1975) . In a preliminary study, which was part of a longitudinal project i n i t i a t e d i n 1970, they evaluated the performance of children with learning d i s a b i l i t i e s i n French immersion from Kindergarten to Grade 2. With a limited sample consisting of s i x language disabled students placed i n an immer- sion school, results indicated that these students can progress l i n g u i s t i c a l l y i n the same way as th e i r English counterparts. The authors found that they were able to make the transfer of s k i l l s from French to English and learn to read i n both languages. Similar weak- nesses exist i n English or i n French, thus switching out of French 58. immersion would not necessarily eliminate the problems. In the second report of the project, Bruck (1978b) focused on the following four different groups of children who were screened each year (1970-76) at the Kindergarten l e v e l : (1) children with language disorders i n French immersion programmes, (2) children with language disorders i n French classes, (3) children with normal lang- uage development i n French immersion, and (4) children with normal language development i n English classes. These groups were followed on a yearly basis i n the area of f i r s t and second language s k i l l s , cognitive development and school achievement u n t i l the end of Grade 3 when reading, w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g and mathematics presumably have been acquired. D i f f i c u l t i e s t y p i c a l when dealing with t h i s type of study, were encountered because of a t t r i t i o n thus making i t necessary to add more children to f i l l ( u p ) the gap. The evaluation for each le v e l included formal tests and informal evaluations by teachers i n both English and French. Bruck's report mentions assessment of French language s k i l l s at the end of each school year (Grade 1, 2, and 3) based on teacher ratings/interview, administration of O.I.S.E. French Listening Comprehension Test Level I as well as a P i l o t Battery in French. Un- fortunately, neither French tests' s t a t i s t i c a l results nor information regarding the P i l o t Battery i n French have been issued after the study. However, Bruck's findings suggest that children with language learning d i s a b i l i t i e s i n French immersion: 59. 1. Learn and develop academic s k i l l s at the same rate as c h i l d - ren i n English programmes (dominant language); 2. do not suffer impairment to verbal and non-verbal aspects of cognitive functioning due to French immersion; 3. acquire aural comprehension, and by the end of Grade 3 are pro f i c i e n t i n French, although they have problems i n language learn- ing; 4. benefit more i n that setting than i n a second language pro- gramme (designated time per day) and th i s i s even more important i n the Quebec environment; 5. be taught English reading only after they have acquired more s k i l l s i n French; 6. ought not to be switched to an English programme because of th e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s ; 7. should receive i d e n t i c a l remedial services i n French as pro- vided i n the English setting. Bruck (1978a) notes the advantages a learning disabled c h i l d can have from being i n a French programme but since no objective data are available, the issue of being "better o f f " once the c h i l d has moved into an English programme i s very d i f f i c u l t to assess. T r i t e s and Price (1977) have recognized that children who switched out of the immersion programme had a lower verbal IQ and had more academic d i f - f i c u l t i e s than the "problem" children who stayed i n the programme. In Bruck's study, the English "problems" exhibited a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower 60 . performance IQ scores i n Kindergarten and Grade 3 than the French im- mersion "problem" children. For Bruck the problem evolved mainly around the necessity for switching into the English stream and the appropriate time with a l l i t s implications. A case study approach was undertaken i n order to generate s p e c i f i c hypotheses for future studies regarding the advisa- b i l i t y of switching. Case hist o r i e s were collected on 9 subjects previously assessed i n the research project (Bruck, 1978b) who had switched out of immersion because they were experiencing serious learning problems. I t was found that once i n the English programme the f i v e pupils were s t i l l having d i f f i c u l t i e s while two were coping and one was doing extremely well. Bruck's interpretation of the positive results obtained from switching can be considered as a sub- jective judgment of success on the parent and/or educator's part of the "Hawthorne e f f e c t " (changes bring about bursts of improvement). Furthermore i n t h i s new situation parents are able to assist t h e i r children with schpolwork presented i n English. More recently, Bruck (1982) contradicted the psycholinguistic position that "Assumes that a l l French immersion children have intact or normal l i n g u i s t i c and cognitive a b i l i t i e s " (p. 47). These c h i l d - ren do indeed enter the programme because t h e i r parents have made such a decision and no i n i t i a l screening eliminates those with de- 7 f i c i e n c i e s i n these areas. In her study, Bruck examines how children from majority culture backgrounds with impaired first-language s k i l l s 61. function i n a b i l i n g u a l educational milieu. In the design of her study, immediately upon entry into French immersion and English Kindergarten classes, the subjects were i n d i - v i d u a l l y administered the Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of I n t e l l i - gence - WPPSI (Wechsler, 1967), and a specifically-designed diagnostic screening test (by a s p e c i a l i s t i n c h i l d language development) that included: object manipulation, story r e t e l l i n g , sentence imitation e c h o l a l i a tests and an interview. Children were then categorized as language impaired i n French and English classes and normal language a b i l i t i e s i n French and English classes. During the Kindergarten year, a battery consisting of f i v e tests assessed each child's IQ (WPPSI, Wechsler, 1967); receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - PPVT, Form a; Dunn, 1965); recep- t i v e and expressive a b i l i t i e s (The Northwest Syntax Screening Test - NSST; Lee, 1971); auditory/visual reception and association, grammatic closure, auditory and visual sequential memory (The I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguistic A b i l i t i e s - ITPA; Kirk et a l . , 1968), and a Sentence Imitation Test (Golick, 1977). In Grade 1, apart from giving the Kindergarten and other supple- mentary tests (for example, the Math subtest of the Metropolitan Achievement Test - Battery 1, 1958), b i l i n g u a l subjects were asked to decode individual sounds i n French read o r a l l y , answer comprehension questions (French Listening Comprehension Test, Barik, 1975) and re- cord dictated words. Using a five-point scale, teachers rated the 6 2 , pupil's reading, writing, receptive and expressive language s k i l l s as well as mathematics. Results of her study indicated that: (1) the two problem groups had poorer verbal s k i l l s than the Control children, (2) English prob- lems had poorer nonverbal s k i l l s than French problems, (3) on the Verbal Scale, Controls outperformed problem children, (4) a l l children performed better i n Grade 1 than i n Kindergarten, (5) the l i n g u i s t i c or cognitive functioning of a l l groups were not affected by the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , (6) after two years of b i l i n g u a l education, the French problems' language s k i l l s equalled the English problems' s k i l l s , (7) on certain subtests of the ITPA (auditory closure, etc.) French problems were i n f e r i o r to Controls since they had not received any English i n s t r u c t i o n , (8) a l l problem subjects scored lower on the mathematics t e s t , (9) French expressive s k i l l s were below average among French problems when compared with French Controls, (10) French problems exhibited also a delay i n th e i r f i r s t language verbal expres- sion, (11) except oral reading, French Controls outperformed French problems i n a l l French language s k i l l s , (12) educational intervention was provided to 71% of English problem children versus 19% (although 54% required special assistance) to French problem children, and (13) French problems' comprehension level was the same as French Controls'. A different viewpoint on the question of the learning disabled c h i l d i n French immersion i s presented i n T r i t e s ' works. In 1977, 63. he attempted to draw a p r o f i l e of children who are encountering prob- lems i n French immersion and to discover i f there are s i m i l a r i t i e s between disabled readers i n French immersion and the regular English stream. Thirty-two i d e n t i f i e d children when compared to 7 groups ("language" factor and nonlanguage groups) on measures of academic achievement and language were unsuccessful i n primary immersion pro- gramme as a result of a mild s p e c i f i c maturational lag i n temporal lobe regions (Trites § Price, 1976). In the cross validation (Trites § Price, 1977, 1979b) a nonclinic population was studied. French and reading tests were given to immersion dropouts because of learning d i f f i c u l t i e s and t h e i r high immersion achiever counterparts. With IQ controlled s t a t i s t i c a l l y , these groups continued to d i f f e r on behavior rating scales, specialized reading su b s k i l l s tests or oral reading, and reading comprehension. The tactual performance d e f i c i t (Tactual Performance Test, T r i t e s , 1977) resulting from the e a r l i e r found maturational lag was s t i l l e x i sting i n the dropout group. Trites and Price (1977) concluded that children who have been switched to an English language programme had made greater r e l a t i v e progress i n reading than the French immersion success group of children maintained in French immersion i n spite of having d i f f i c u l t i e s even though the scores were s t i l l below the norm for age and grade. These results concur with B u r s t a l l et al's investigation (1974) who found that the lag evident in younger children (below age 9) seems to disappear after that age which may suggest that children are better 64. being educated i n t h e i r native language f i r s t , and learn a second language at a l a t e r time. However, T r i t e s ' work has been analyzed by a number of i n t e r - nationally-known researchers on bilingualism and French immersion. C a r r o l l (1976) questioned i f the 32 subjects Trites chose for his study (who were taken from the c l i n i c ' s f i l e s ) , are a representative sample of the t o t a l population. Cummins (1979b) reinterpreted T r i t e s ' data (1978) which indicated that any c h i l d who i s experiencing d i f f i c u l t i e s i n early French immer- sion should be switched to the regular English programme. T r i t e s ' studies do not show that the same d i f f i c u l t i e s would have persisted should a c h i l d be switched to the regular English stream. Furthermore, for T r i t e s , once these pupils are placed into the English stream they are capable of functioning s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . T r i t e s ' findings tend to contradict Bruck's results (1978) demonstrating that these children can acquire English as well as French language s k i l l s (oral and written). Also environmental changes may affect the child's self-esteem and con- sequently have some psychological implications. Cummins finds T r i t e s ' data i n v a l i d since after children have been transferred into the reg- ular English stream the i r reading s k i l l s lag behind. He c r i t i c i z e s T r i t e s and Price's report (1977) because the authors do not interpret nonsignificant s t a t i s t i c a l differences as nonsignificant, and i t i s not written that once children have switched to the English programme they repeated or dropped back a grade l e v e l . The "gains" children achieve after switching appear to be real because percentile scores have not been used appropriately (they cannot be manipulated as scores or numbers) and "regression to the mean" has taken place. Children do much better i n terms of actual grade discrepancies than i n terms of what would be expected on the basis of t h e i r ages. T r i t e s ' "greater r e l a t i v e progress i n reading" i s consequently questionable. In the discussion of learning d i s a b i l i t i e s i t becomes important to address other factors that may contribute to a student becoming a disabled learner or on the other hand contribute to a student's suc- cess . Limited experiences and deprivation i n the f i r s t four to f i v e years of l i f e have a great consequence and i t i s generally agreed that most learning problems do not develop suddenly, so evidence of a weak- ness i n an area should not be assumed to be the cause of a learning d i s a b i l i t y . It i s stressed that rescreening i s a necessary measure in order to ensure the v a l i d i t y of obtained scores. It may be that the child's testing situation and feelings toward the test administra- tor distorted the scores. Differences i n screening and rescreening scores could equally l i e with a maturation lag. With the immense popularity of French immersion programmes especially at the primary level new researchers are expressing t h e i r views on the learning disabled child's placement. For Morgan (1982) i t i s a matter of grave concern when he refers to "Children who already have problems (oral and printed) i n t h e i r f i r s t language coping with 66. a second language. There i s a need for effective screening of c h i l d - ren who are l i k e l y to f a i l or be frustrated i n a 'direct' immersion program because of language and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , auditory weaknesses. Such screening w i l l be even more, important i f immersion programs be- come universal" (p. 46). Another factor that may affect success i n French immersion classes and on which few studies have been reported i s personality t r a i t s . A P i l o t study on personality ch a r a c t e r i s t i c and second language learning i n young children was conducted by Swain and Burnaby (1976) on a sample of 63 French immersion pupils and 68 English programme pupils (Kindergarten, Grades 1 and 2) i n 5 schools of the Ottawa Board of Education and the Carleton Board of Education. For the purpose of the study, the B i l i n g u a l Education Project of the Ontario I n s t i t u t e of Studies i n Education (O.I.S.E.) under the direction of Dr. G. Neu- fe l d developed a personality assessment instrument composed of nine cha r a c t e r i s t i c s . A battery of French tests was also given to the subjects at different grade levels. Using t - t e s t , i t was found that French immersion children seemed happier, displayed perfectionist tendencies (considered to correlate s i g n i f i c a n t l y and frequently with second language achievement) and were more ta l k a t i v e than English pro- gramme pupils according to t h e i r teachers' ratings. Quickness i n grasping new concepts was a common t r a i t for both groups. Yet more research has been completed on the strategies and tech- niques good foreign language learners employ. Based on Rubin's work 67. (1975) the following seven strategies are i d e n t i f i e d ; these learners are w i l l i n g and accurate guessers, they have strong motivation to communicate, are often not i n h i b i t e d , are prepared to attend to form (look for patterns i n language), p r a c t i c e the language, monitor t h e i r own speech'and that of others and, f i n a l l y , attend to meaning. According to Reiss (1983), the variables determining success f o r the foreign language learner are thr e e - f o l d : (1) cognition, (2) per- so n a l i t y , and (3) learning s t y l e s and techniques. In accordance with cognitive s t y l e v a r i a b l e s , Naiman, Fro h l i c h , Stern and Todesco (1978) found the successful learner to demonstrate " f i e l d independence" ( d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between relevant and i r r e l e v a n t information), over- generalization and tolerance o f ambiguity. In the personality cate- gory, 'adventuresomeness' p r e v a i l s as a p a r t i c u l a r common t r a i t . However, t h i s i s the most complex unresolved issue because the success- f u l i n d i v i d u a l i s not characterized by a s p e c i f i c set of personality t r a i t s . A most recent study on a related subject examines the personality development i n nine case studies of b i l i n g u a l s from b i r t h . Titone (1983) explored simultaneous bi l i n g u a l i s m as experienced at home by these c h i l d r e n p r i o r to reaching the age of s i x . English, French or German was the language spoken i n d i f f e r e n t homes located i n I t a l y . Titone's conclusions are two-fold: f i r s t , "Early b i l i n g u a l i s m does not prejudice or handicap the normal s o c i a l development of the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y " (p. 177); and second, i t i s i d e n t i c a l to Genesee and 68. E. Hamayan's findings (1980), pointing out that "Individuals d i f f e r i n g on the basis of f i e l d independent cognitive s t y l e would learn a second language better i f placed in a non-traditional or non-conventional teaching environment, that i s , i n a s i t u a t i o n where l i n g u i s t i c roles are not transmitted from the teacher to the student but r e a l l y exper- ienced i n a natural communicative environment" (p. 178). Also, a f a c t o r that may a f f e c t success i n French immersion i s socio-economic status and/or minority groups. One such study was conducted by Edwards and Casserly (1973) who compared the performance of t h i r d language p u p i l s (Grade 1 and 3 minority groups) with t h e i r English and French peers in v o l v i n g children of I t a l i a n descent l i v i n g i n Ottawa. From t h e i r r e s u l t s they found that when only French was taught, t h i r d language c h i l d r e n were weaker i n o r a l and aural language s k i l l s (French and English) but at the Grade 3 l e v e l these weaknesses were only relevant i n English. It should be noted that t h e i r previous exposure to English was only i n a r e l i g i o n course and i n Grade 3 (75 minutes a day of i n s t r u c t i o n ) . The l o n g i t u d i n a l evaluation on the effectiveness of a French immersion programme f o r working-class English speaking children was conducted by Bruck, Jakimik, and Tucker (1971). Tucker, Lambert and d'Anglejan (1973) also examined the s u i t a b i l i t y of French immersion for students from working-class homes. They concluded that these c h i l d - ren can learn a second language when i n s t r u c t i o n s t a r t s at the Kinder- garten l e v e l as soon as English i s being formally introduced and that 69. there i s no lag i n comparison with t h e i r English peers (working-class category) . In addition, i t was found that they are able to assimilate the content being taught in French and make the transfer of s k i l l s into English. The Acquisition of English Language S k i l l s i n Primary French Immersion A number of studies have focused upon the general acquisition of English language s k i l l s after the students have been i n French immer- sion classes. Some e a r l i e r studies conducted i n the 1960's tended to show the negative effects the introduction of a foreign language would have on the mastery of f i r s t language s k i l l s (English). For example, a study by Macnamara (1966) stressed that English-speaking students i n Ireland did not adequately learn I r i s h ; t h e i r proficiency i n English suffered and retardation i n problem mathematics was evident. However, he did not show that bilingualism was the cause of such a d e f i c i t . His known "balance e f f e c t " hypothesis was based on the premise that while a chil d i s acquiring L2 s k i l l s , i t i s at the cost of LI s k i l l s . A s i m i l a r conclusion was made by Lambert and Macnamara (1969) i n the i r comparison of Grade 1 French immersion and English Control groups on measures of language and word s k i l l s , vocabulary reading, int e l l i g e n c e and arithmetic. They found that the Experimental group's performance was lower than the English Controls i n English language s k i l l s (word discrimination knowledge, reading). However, since the 70. sample was small the authors advised the readers to interpret the results with caution. In the 1970's, a new trend negating previous hypotheses, seemed to have emerged and reflected i n longitudinal evaluative studies. In an e x p l i c i t fashion Lambert and Tucker i n t h e i r follow-up study of the St. Lambert children (1972), concluded that "The Experimental children have acquired French language s k i l l s far beyond the level which they would have attained through t r a d i t i o n a l second language teaching methods and at no cost to t h e i r English language a b i l i t y " (p.. 101). Similar results were obtained by Swain (1978) who also con- curred that middle-class majority language children have thei r f i r s t language s k i l l s well developed from the environment, and learning intensely a second language w i l l not endanger t h e i r native language s k i l l s . Results from a study by Sweetman, Leblanc, and Lawton (1975) , coincide with the above findings. In t h e i r studies which involved Grade 5 Experimental and Control groups who were administered the Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s , CTBS (1968) and the Otis-Lennon Mental A b i l i t y Test, Elementary Level I I , Form K (1967) for adjusting IQ, that aimed at determining i f French immersion pupils would become pro- f i c i e n t and develop English language s k i l l s they found that f i r s t - language development of an English-speaking c h i l d i s not impaired because of being involved i n a French immersion programme. In t h e i r report, the authors posed the following questions that may be of value i n conducting such studies: (a) W i l l children f a l l behind i n t h e i r first-language s k i l l s ? (b) W i l l children learn fewer words? and (c) Will- children's reading and comprehension be below t h e i r peers not learning a second language? Also s i m i l a r results were obtained from two studies (Toronto § Ottawa) by Swain and Barik (1978), and Barik and Swain (1974a). From the data analysis of tests results obtained from the Metropolitan Readiness Test (1964) that was administered to two groups of children, one completing French immersion kindergarten and the other, English kindergarten, the authors concluded that English language s k i l l s were developing well and the children's level of readiness s k i l l s enables them to learn to read i n Grade 1. On the other hand, a certain number of studies have examined the sp e c i f i c s k i l l s i n the shape of the English language programme. These studies have focused on the development of English language s k i l l s at different grade levels that occurs i n the form of a transfer of s k i l l s from French to English. Swain (1974) views t h i s phenomenom as a posi- tive transfer of reading s k i l l s when French i s taught before English since French possesses "A more systematic sound-symbol correspondence than does English" (p. 121). Of importance i s the study by Swain and Barik (1976b) that i n - volved 600 Kindergarten children, 600 Grade 1 children, and 700 Grade 2 children over a span of 3 years, 450 Grade 3 students over a two- year period and 150 Grade 4 students over one year. A l l students 72. involved in the study followed the immersion programme i n the Ottawa and Carleton Boards of Education. Results revealed that at the Kindergarten le v e l immersion pupils' scores did not d i f f e r from stu- dents i n the English stream i n terms of English s k i l l s (vocabulary, l i s t e n i n g comprehension, visual discrimination, auditory perception of beginning sounds of words) although they only had instruction i n French. However, word knowledge, word discrimination and reading caused more problems to the Grade 1 immersion pupils but they did not score below the 35th percentile and i n some instances had reached the 60th percentile. In Grade 2, these students had received 60 minutes of English instruction per day. They ranked lower than regular stu- dents i n reading and s p e l l i n g but were equal i n word discrimination. The lag manifested i n s p e l l i n g s t i l l remains in Grade 3 since immer- sion pupils scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the comparison group. The above results are si m i l a r to e a r l i e r studies by Lambert and Tucker (1972) who found that Grade 1 French immersion pupils did not f a l l behind i n speaking and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s but lagged i n reading. Therefore i t may be hypothesized that i f English i s only i n t r o - duced at Grade 3 some pupils are able to match t h e i r English counter- parts whereas the majority have not attained the desired level i n the areas of s p e l l i n g and reading comprehension. This may be due to lack of previous formal exposure and possibly the mastery of language rules. Transfer of French Reading S k i l l s to English Classes A review of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed that there have not been 7 3 . many studies which have focused on the transfer of reading s k i l l s , when a second language (direct method) i s taught before the native language. One study that endeavored to determine the interlanguage transfer of reading s k i l l s was conducted by Cziko (1976) who com- pared the French and English reading s k i l l s of immersion students with those of English and French Controls. Because of the audio- lingual French training of the late immersion group i t was found that these students performed as well i n French as the early immersion group. He found that the English reading s k i l l s of both groups were at the same level and that there were no sig n i f i c a n t group differences noted. However, he stated that there was sig n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e cor- relations for these two groups who "Were able to transfer the reading s k i l l s developed v i a one language to the language introduced subse- quently, regardless of whether they were f i r s t taught to read i n native or second language" (p. 538). He further concluded that i n the acquisition of b i l i n g u a l s k i l l s through the direct method or the native language approach no preference seemed to emerge i n t h i s par- t i c u l a r study. Tucker (1975) stressed the easy transfer of reading s k i l l s from French to English occurring when reading achievement i n French i s a good predictor of reading achievement in English at each grade l e v e l (Grades 1 and 2). In t h e i r study McDougall and Bruck (1976) compared "The effects of delaying English reading u n t i l Grade 3 on native language s k i l l s " 74. (p. 38). Their study investigated the effect on f i r s t language s k i l l s when second language instruction i s introduced at different times using as a sample, s i x groups of Grade 3 and 4 pupils who had received English reading instruction at different times from two-thirds of a year (2/3) to three and two-third years (3 2/3). Pupils' non-verbal IQ was measured by the Canadian Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test (1954-66) and their English reading a b i l i t y with the Spache Diagnostic Reading Scales (1972) . Based on the results of t h e i r findings, they recommended that i t i s to the benefit of the pupils that the formal introduction of English Language Arts be delayed u n t i l Grade 3. A l - though the data-analysis did not d e f i n i t e l y support the hypothesis of delaying English reading by a year, i n discussing t h e i r results two points were made: f i r s t , learning to read in a second language does not cause a delay i n the acquisition of academic s k i l l s ; second, na- t i v e language s k i l l s do not suffer i f they are taught l a t e r on. At th i s point i t i s d i f f i c u l t to measure with accuracy the amount of transfer from French to English that has taken place over the preceed- ing years. The study revealed that transfer for immersion pupils occurs very rapidly. "In only 2/3 of a year they are able to catch up to the early French immersion group, who have been reading English for 1 2/3 years and to the English group who have been reading English for 2 2/3 years" (p. 42). The same issue that of a natural transfer of reading s k i l l s was examined i n the context of I r i s h (L2) and English (LI) experience. 75. Cummins' findings (1977) are p a r a l l e l to Canadian findings although teachers in I r i s h immersion schools predicted long-term detrimental effects for the children's motivation to read (L2) since t h e i r Eng- l i s h vocabulary was already established p r i o r to learning L2. How- ever, i t appears that there have been no s p e c i f i c study that has ascertained to which extent the delaying of L I i n s t r u c t i o n may have a negative effect on a child's motivation to read i n LI. Further investigation was suggested as to children's ind i v i d u a l difference and reactions when LI and L2 are introduced. Also, i t was hypothe- sized that parental involvement may contribute to the rapid transfer of reading s k i l l s (L2 to L I ) . In general, i t was found that "immer- sion parents" w i l l a s s i s t t h e i r c h i l d i n acquiring LI reading s k i l l s even before i t i s formally taught at school. It i s believed that there may be a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n existing i n the reading process between immersion and English programme students. Using "miscue analysis" as a quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e measure, Dank and McEachern (1979) examined the oral reading strategies em- ployed by ten Grade 3 French immersion pupils i n contrast to pupils in an English stream. In order to obtain miscues (oral reading deviations) the sample read o r a l l y a fable i n English at the Grade 4 l e v e l . Each miscue was then categorized (9 l i n g u i s t i c questions) according to high, p a r t i a l or no s i m i l a r i t y between the correct response and the uttered one. F i n a l l y , each subject ret o l d the story recorded on tape. Results demonstrated that the French immersion 76. group used more e f f e c t i v e l y grapho-phonemic cues, syntactic and semantic relationships. By being able to correct i t s miscues, i t achieved a higher degree of reading comprehension than i t s English counterparts. Moreover, the main idea and supporting details as expressed by the French immersion group when r e t e l l i n g a story showed higher proficiency concluding that offering instruction i n a second language, French i n this case, i s not detrimental to the development of reading and comprehension s k i l l s . The way i n which immersion pupils perceive English and French words (recognition of s p e l l i n g patterns) and make use of ortho- graphic structure while reading o r a l l y was examined recently by Mes- Prat and Edwards (1981). In thei r study, two groups of Grade 3 and 6 boys, read and wrote l e t t e r s of words, pseudowords and nonwords. Results showed that the Grade 3 pupils performed better with the French pseudowords ("muit" for example) than with the English ones ("snick" for example). However, at the Grade 6 lev e l a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the pseudowords and nonwords (uitm: French; ftog: English) i n French and English tend to indicate that ortho- graphic structure i s used when reading i n both languages. "A capacity to induce r e g u l a r i t i e s within and across languages may help to explain the high corre l a t i o n found between the Grade Three's performance i n English and French ... attributed to transfer of s k i l l s across lang- uages" (p. 689). F i n a l l y , i n his two-year study, Roy (1980-81; 1981-82) evaluated 77. the Grade 3 pupils' performance i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension, reading (French and English), speaking and wri t i n g proficiency, s o c i a l studies and science. Among the various instruments used in the 1980-81 study the French version of B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure, Baut- ier-Castairig (1977), Message Writing Test, interviews, questionnaires, and the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test: Reading (Tiegs § Clark, 1970) were administered to a sample of 36 pupils. The group who had been attending an immersion school since Grade 1 was for the f i r s t time receiving one hour of English Language Arts instruction per day. Results obtained from the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test placed the group at the Grade 4 level i n vocabulary recognition and just above this l e v e l i n comprehension and general English reading a b i l i t y . A p a r t i c u l a r strength was noted i n syntac t i c a l analysis. In 1981-82, the Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s (1976) was used and the students read i n English at approximately the same lev e l as t h e i r English peers. After careful examination of the s t a t i s t i c a l data there were indications showing that the child's a b i l i t y to read i n French i s related to the a b i l i t y to read i n English. Roy's interpretation i s that "A pupil's achievement i n French reading may be predicted when s/he started to read i n English the alphabet, candy wrappers, signs on stores and restaurants and street signs. The pupil's achievement in English reading may be predicted by when s/he started to read i n English candy wrappers, color names and words i n paper headlines" (p. 36). In summary, on the basis of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed, i t i s believed that a child's English s k i l l s w i l l not deteriorate when instruction of his native language (English) takes place after a second language has been taught. Since they have already developed essential strategies while learning French (grapho-phonemic, syn- t a c t i c and semantic cues) many pupils experience a rapid transfer of s k i l l s . 79. CHAPTER III SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES In t h i s chapter, background information on the subjects involved in the study, procedures employed i n gathering and analyzing the data over a four-year period w i l l be described. Subj ects Background Information In t h i s English-speaking family there are 5 children (3 boys and 2 g i r l s ) , the la s t three being a set of t r i p l e t s with one g i r l and two i d e n t i c a l boys. The data sheet included i n Appendix B, was designed for the sub- jects' parents so as to c o l l e c t valuable background information for the study. The content was partly based on the works of Berry and Eisenson (1956). On both sides of the family there are no indications of health problems, learning d i f f i c u l t i e s , or incidences of multiple b i r t h s . When the mother was Sh months pregnant, the parents were informed that a set of t r i p l e t s would be born. At that time the expecting mother was 32 years old and had had previous d i f f i c u l t pregnancies. She remained i n hospital u n t i l giving b i r t h to the children i n the following order: (a) Joseph, (b) Jack, and (c) A l i c e . The la s t one weighed the most {Sh lbs.) and the second one was the lig h t e s t (4 l b s ) . These infants premature by one month displayed neither health nor 80. feeding problems. They seemed to develop i n the same manner as other children l i k e s i t t i n g alone at the age of 8 months and taking th e i r f i r s t steps with support at 12 months. Al i c e took longer to walk alone (18 months) i n comparison with both boys (16 months). A l l three had chicken pox at age 8 and the boys adenoids removed; tubes were inserted i n t h e i r ears due to hearing problems. At an early age the children developed right-handedness. Also the boys communicated i n t h e i r own language using a l i m i t e d vocabulary whereas A l i c e displayed more advanced verbal s k i l l s which f a c i l i t a t e d interaction with the rest of the family. When they were 3 years old the t r i p l e t s attended an English- . speaking pre-school before entering the French immersion programme. They enjoyed l i s t e n i n g to stories rather than memorizing nursery rhymes. Jack participated actively i n art and poetry whereas Joseph in science. The 3 children exhibited an average interest i n school and i n the learning of the French language. English was the only lan- guage through which a l l communication took place i n the household. Since Grade 2 A l i c e has had private lessons i n French reading mainly, and also i n mathematics. From Grade 1 she has been consid- ered s o c i a l l y and emotionally well-adjusted. I t appears that she f a i l e d to develop her own expectations about school performance which ultimately resulted i n her fr u s t r a t i o n . After a period of 4 months private tutoring i n mathematics, Joseph was functioning at grade l e v e l . He preferred to accomplish certain tasks provided he was going to ' 81. receive a reward at the end; hence, his own interest came f i r s t . Jack was seen as a high achiever s t r i v i n g to do well. As a more conservative subject he would be quite apprehensive at exploring new ideas unless he f u l l y understood the concepts involved. From an early age the children have been taking v i o l i n lessons, played soccer and learned Hebrew. In view of Alice's i n i t i a l language d i f f i c u l t i e s i n English, Hebrew lessons had been discontinued for her only. Constant exposure to t h e i r mother's a r t i s t i c works have made the t r i p l e t s appreciative of a c t i v i t i e s related to art which they t r u l y en j oy. No. p a r t i c u l a r behavior problems are seen by the parents however Joseph appears as a very nervous and possessive c h i l d who can be sometimes aggressive i n his milieu. Jack i s sometimes possessive, bickering and manifests a tendency to show o f f . The family as a unit offers love, security, s o c i a b i l i t y , as well as opportunities for expanding one's horizons i n various areas. The t r i p l e t s have developed d i f f e r e n t l y with t h e i r s p e c i f i c personalities hence s i m i l a r i t i e s appear to be uncommon. Materials Both formal and informal tests were administered over a period of four years. Beginning at the Kindergarten l e v e l , the screening battery i s f u l l y outlined i n Appendix D. The l i n g u i s t i c tests in English are included i n Appendix E, the French reading tests i n Appen- dix F, the psycho-educational tests i n Appendix G and f i n a l l y Appendix H 82. describes the English tests i n Grade 3. Procedures and Discussion The data c o l l e c t i o n took place over a period of three years. A l l formal and informal educational test results as well as complete analysis of performance and observations were gathered i n separate folders for each subject per grade l e v e l . Table 2 presents the l i s t of a l l the standardized and informal tests used for evaluating the sample during the four-year period. Insert Table 2 about here Year One Evaluation: Kindergarten Screening Battery The Kindergarten screening recently introduced i n the school D i s t r i c t usually takes place i n the f a l l and aims at ident i f y i n g c h i l d - ren suspected to have potential d i f f i c u l t i e s which could interfere with their success i n school. It i s f e l t that since the greatest emphasis i s placed on the assimilation and manipulation of oral language to Grade 2 i n a b i l i n g u a l context, the receptive or l i s t e n i n g language problems of some children should be monitored. The screening process i s not designed as a diagnostic tool but rather provides some general indications of a possible problem without determining either i t s significance or i t s extent. In the second year screening procedures are comprised of standard- ized as well as informal tests. Some are selected to meet the needs of Table 2 Standardized and Informal Measures U t i l i z e d to Evaluate the T r i p l e t s ' Performance per Grade Level, during a Four-year Period Standardized Tests Informal Measures A. Kindergarten: Screening Battery ( A l i c e , Jack, Joseph) Hearing; Speech; Language; Report card ratings and comments for the three terms; Notes and other observa- tions . Hearing (Alice § Jack) Area counsellor class observations (Alice) Report card comments for the three terms. 2. Linguistic tests i n English (Speech and hearing therapist) a. I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguistic A b i l i t i e s (I.T.P.A.); (Alice) b. Lindamood Test of Auditory Conceptualization (L.A.C.); (Alice) c. Test of Language Development (TOLD-P) (Jack) 1. Bilingual Syntax Measure (BSM); 1. 2. Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, Form A, 2. Booklets 1 and 2 (BTBC); 3. 3. McCarthy Screening Test (MST); 4. 4. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Form a, . (PPVT). B. Grade 1 1. Test in French (Alice, Jack, Joseph) 1. Test Diagnostiques de Lecture pour les Classes 2. d'Immersion, Premiere annee (French Diagnostic Reading Tests for Early French Immersion 3. Classes, Grade 1). Standardized Tests Informal Measures C. Grade 2 1. Test in French (Alice, Jack, Joseph) Tests Diagnostiques de Lecture pour les Classes d'Immersion, Deuxieme annee (French Diagnostic Reading Tests for Early French Immersion Classes, Grade 2). 2. Psychological tests i n English (Alice, Jack, Joseph) a. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Revised (WISC-R); b. Beery and Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration; c. Draw-a-Person; d. Motor-Free Visual Perception Test (MFVPT); e. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); f. Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT: Arithmetic) 1. Report card ratings and comments for the three terms. D. Grade 3 1. Test in French (Alice, Jack, Joseph) 1. Report card ratings and Tests Diagnostiques de Lecture pour les Classes comments for the three d'Immersion, Troisieme annee (French Diagnostic terms. Reading Tests for Early French Immersion Classes, Grade 3). 2. Tests in English (Alice, Jack, Joseph) a. Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests (Level C, Forms 1 and 2); b. B r i t i s h Columbia Mathematics Achievement Tests (Grade 3/4, Revised 1980); i . Operations with whole numbers, i i . Sets and numbers. 85. a b i l i n g u a l school. A l l tests were given i n English only. Involved i n the screening process, which began i n the spring were the school psychologist, speech and hearing therapist and nurse, assigned to the school, the learning assistance and Kinder- garten teachers, and area counsellor. The schedule for administering the screening battery i s presented below: A p r i l Hearing A p r i l 10 Boehm Test of Basic Concepts; Form A, Booklets 1 and 2 A p r i l 17 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Form a A p r i l 18 McCarthy Screening Test A p r i l 20 Bil i n g u a l Syntax Measure May Speech, A r t i c u l a t i o n , Language Table 3 gives the raw scores obtained by the sample on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC). The maximum score for each booklet i s 25. Insert Table 3 about here On Booklet 1, Al i c e attained a perfect score of 25 whereas her two brothers, an equal score of 24. Booklet 2 presented more problems to Jack i n p a r t i c u l a r , who was the weakest i n a l l 4 categories: space, quantity, miscellaneous and time. He was at the 30th percentile (on middle socio-economic level) in contrast to Al i c e (60th percentile) 86. Table 3 Boehm Test of Basic Concepts: Raw Scores Form A, A p r i l and September - A l i c e Jack Joseph Maximum score 25 Form A A p r i l Booklet 1 25 24 24 Booklet 2 13 8 16 September Booklet 2 16 14 N.A. and Joseph (70th percentile). Joseph surpassed A l i c e by 2 points on t o t a l scores and was the strongest on th i s instrument (Table 3). A l l 3 subjects had not mastered two concepts related to space (#29 beginning, #39 forward) and two of quantity (#47 equal, #50 le a s t ) . At that time the school psychologist, a member of the assessing team, suggested that children achieving a raw score of 13 or under, ought to be re-tested at a l a t e r date with further diagnosis i f warranted. Therefore, A l i c e was considered borderline, and Jack i n serious d i f f i c u l t i e s . A posttest given 5 months l a t e r i n Grade 1 87. (September) revealed an increase in the knowledge of concepts of 33% by A l i c e , i n English. The learning assistance teacher gave the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) to A l i c e i n French in order to ascertain i f the concepts taught in French were also unknown to her i n English. The concepts not i d e n t i f i e d i n the September re-test i n French (Grade 1) are marked with an asterisk on Table 4. Insert Table 4 about here Jack's score improved by 75% but upon closer examination of Jack's errors in Booklet 2, i n A p r i l (Kindergarten screening), he had a ten-, dency to guess a number of the presented items but would rather omit them when re-tested i n September (Grade 1). It can be then assumed that certain concepts had not yet been mastered (center, zero, separ- ated, equal, l e a s t ) . Since he performed so poorly on this test i t was not known i f he had a problem with a p a r t i c u l a r concept, or whether i t was a language d i f f i c u l t y ( l a b e l l i n g a concept), or i f the p i c t o r i a l representation was not part of his experience or none of these. For the purpose of the school's Kindergarten screening, d i f f e r - ences between the chronological and mental ages have been examined rather than IQ or percentile scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) . Table 5 presents the results obtained on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. 88. Table 4 L i s t of Unknown Concepts as Measured by the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, Booklet 2 in Kindergarten Year Item Description Item no. Alice Jack Joseph 26 center center - 27* - - as many 28* side - -29 ,beginning beginning beginning 30* - other _ 31* al i k e - _ 32 - - - 33 never never - 34* below - _ 35* - matches - 36 - always - 37 - - medium-sized 38* right right - 39* forward forward forward 40 - zero - 41 - above -42 - - - 43 - separated - 44 l e f t l e f t -45* - pair pair 46 skip - skip 47* equal equal equal 48 - i n order in order 49* t h i r d t h i r d - 50* least least least Note. * Concepts not mastered in French by A l i c e i n the Grade 1 re-test (September). 89. Table 5 Raw Scores, Percentile Ranks and Mental Ages Obtained on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test in Kindergarten Year Alice Jack Joseph Raw Score 53 47 50 Percentile rank 37 16 24 Mental age 5-07 4-08 5-01 Chronological age 5-09 5-09 5-09 As can be seen from the above table Jack obtained a very low mental age lev e l of 4 years 8 months indicating more than a one year delay i n receptive language a b i l i t y . Joseph who had been superior on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, scored better than Jack but was weak i n comparison with A l i c e who had reached a mental age of 5 years 7 months. As can be seen, a l l three children were low on this test suggesting that hearing acuity and/or comprehension of spoken words in English was poorly developed. The underlined concepts as shown on Insert Table 6 about here Table 6 indicate the common errors i n the comprehension of words made by the children. 90. Table 6 L i s t of Unknown Words on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Item Description A l i c e Jack Joseph 15 - catching - 18 - tying - 22 bush - - 23 - pouring pouring 27 building building building 32 caboose caboose _ 39 coach coach coach 42 - freckle freckle 45 - - shining 49 signal - - 53 projector proj ector 55 - - tackling 56 - transportation transportation 57 - counter - 58 ceremony ceremony ceremony 59 pool pool pool 60 bronco bronco bronco 61 directing - directing 62 funnel - _ 64 lecturer - 66 archer 91. Perceptual, verbal, quantitative performance, perceptual group- ing and motor of the t r i p l e t s were assessed u t i l i z i n g the McCarthy Screening Test (MST). As shown on Table 7, a l l subjects passed the 6 subtests at the 30th percentile within the age range of 6 years. Table 7 McCarthy Screening Test Subtests Results in Kindergarten Year Minimum Alice Jack Joseph raw score Subtests (age 6-0) Raw score Rig h t / l e f t orientation 5 7 8 8 (Perceptual performance) Verbal memory 22 26 22 25 (Verbal) Draw-a-design 7 7 9 7 (Perceptual performance) Numerical memory 6 9 8 10 (Quantitative) Conceptual grouping 7 8 10 7 (Perceptual grouping) Leg coordination 10 13 13 10 (Motor) More accurate analysis indicates that Jack was superior to his 92. s i b l i n g s i n Draw-a-design and Conceptual grouping but the lowest i n Verbal and Numerical memory. Also A l i c e and Joseph barely passed the Draw-a-design subtest. A l i c e scored the lowest of the three on R i g h t - l e f t o r i e n t a t i o n , but above the minimum raw score for the corresponding age range. Joseph displayed a strength i n Numerical memory. The r e s u l t s tend to indicate normal functioning i n cognitive development with l i t t l e f l u c t u a t i o n between scores. The screening assessment team decided to administer the B i l i n - gual Syntax Measure (BSM) which measures comprehension and production of spoken language to the subjects as a r e s u l t of t h e i r performance on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts and the Peabody Picture Vocabu- lary Test. Results showed that A l i c e obtained the top r a t i n g , Level 5, since she answered c o r r e c t l y grammatically, a minimum of 6 of 8 des- ignated questions. Both boys were experiencing l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y in communicating ideas i n English but d i d not f u l l y control some basic grammatical structures (verb endings, regular past, some i r - regular past forms, past p a r t i c i p l e s and conditional "would"). They only achieved Level 4 p r o f i c i e n c y . Below i s a sample of errors made by Joseph when responding to selected questions based on i l l u s t r a - tions : Question 1 - D i r e c t i o n : Point to baby b i r d s . - Question: Why do they want food? 93. - Response: "Because they hungry." Question 2 - D i r e c t i o n : Point to dog. - Question: What would have happened i f the dog hadn't eaten the food? - Response: "eh, he might have ate i t . " Hearing, A r t i c u l a t i o n , Language. Kindergarten classes were administered a hearing acuity test as part of the Kindergarten bat- tery. Joseph passed the screening but A l i c e f a i l e d on her l e f t ear whereas Jack's l e f t ear was questioned. In May of that year, screen- ing for a r t i c u l a t i o n of speech showed a tongue thrust f o r Jack, and i d e n t i c a l errors i n producing the "th/s" and " f / t h " sounds f o r a l l 3 chi l d r e n . On the language screening, Jack obtained a below average r a t i n g i n a l l s k i l l s except o r a l vocabulary where he rated high. Joseph had d i f f i c u l t y with syntax i n both comprehension and expression. Both auditory memory and sequencing s k i l l s were below norms' for age. The speech and hearing therapist had recommended at that time speech therapy for Joseph and trans f e r to an English programme f o r both boys. A l i c e ' s case was to be reviewed in Grade 1 (early i n the f a l l ) i n view of her low vocabulary and poor auditory l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . At the team's year end conference parents were informed of a l l test r e s u l t s . At that time a set of s p e c i f i c remedial exercises was presented and an in-depth language assessment suggested for Jack and Joseph who had shown s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f i c u l t i e s on the Peabody Picture 94. Vocabulary Test and Bil i n g u a l Syntax Measure. Jack was considered the weakest of the three on o v e r a l l screening performance and the most "at r i s k " because he scored very low on 3 t e s t s : Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure. The school nurse referred him for further language assess- ment. Jack was followed by Joseph although the strongest on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, had some language d i f f i c u l t i e s i d e n t i f i e d on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure. F i n a l l y , A l i c e achieved the highest l e v e l on the Peabody Picture Voc- abulary Test, McCarthy Screening Test and B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure but was borderline on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts. She appeared to be the strongest on the Kindergarten screening battery. Kindergarten Teacher's Evaluation. The Kindergarten teacher with many years of experience i n teaching French immersion at that l e v e l had the t r i p l e t s i n one cl a s s . She rated A l i c e as being the most ma- - ture and capable of the 3. A l i c e was rated as se l f - c o n f i d e n t , with good coordination as well as f a c i l i t y to learn o r a l French. Good s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n helped her become independent before her twin brothers. Jack was rated second by his teacher. She indicated that he had good comprehension of spoken French though he would be hesitant i n following d i r e c t i o n s . Immaturity and lack of self-confidence made him f e e l insecure i n the school s e t t i n g . However, a good e f f o r t was noticed on h i s part to learn the language. His poor fine-motor s k i l l s caused d i f f i c u l t i e s i n beginning p r i n t i n g the l e t t e r s of the alphabet. 95. Joseph was the "slowest" one who would prefer to play with calmer children. He had a "babyish" a t t i t u d e and lacked some co- ordination and s p a t i a l awareness. In the same manner as Jack, he had d i f f i c u l t y i n following o r a l directions i n French. The teacher remarked very l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n between the t r i p - l e t s since each was s o c i a l i z i n g with his/her own f r i e n d ( s ) . The school-based team issued the Kindergarten screening r e s u l t s to t h i s teacher who did not f e e l any of the 3 ch i l d r e n should repeat the Kindergarten year. Year Two Evaluation: Grade One Performance L i n g u i s t i c Tests. Due to personnel change there was a delay i n re-assessing hearing and language s k i l l s of A l i c e and Jack. Jack was the f i r s t to be seen only i n December (Grade 1) as he was e s t i - mated to be s e r i o u s l y "at r i s k " on the basis of h i s poor language performance on the Kindergarten battery. He was given the Test of Language Development, TOLD (Newcomer § Hammill, 1977). For a descrip- t i o n of the l i n g u i s t i c tests see Appendix E (in English only). Jack performed i n the following fashion on selected subtests of the TOLD i n terms o f language age (chronological age was 6 years 8 months): 1. Picture vocabulary: 4 years 0 month (25 items) s i m i l a r to the PPVT (Listening, semantics); 2. Oral vocabulary: 6 years 3 months (20 items) s i m i l a r to the WICS-R (Vocabulary part speaking, semantics); 96. 3. Grammatic understanding: 7 years 3 months (25 items): Syntax, l i s t e n i n g ; 4. Sentence imitation: 5 years 1 month (30 items): Syntax speaking; 5. Grammatic completion: 6 years 9 months (30 items), s i m i l a r to Grammatic closure of the ITPA: Syntax, speaking. For comparison purposes, Jack had a mental age of 4 years 8 months on the PPVT Kindergarten screening battery (April) and on the Picture Vocabulary subtest of TOLD (December) a language age of 4 years. This was his lowest ranking on the TOLD from the subtests presented to him. An inderdental "s/z" also persisted at that time. At t h i s point no other testing took place since his classroom teacher f e l t he was progressing well. Results from posttests administered at the end of Grade 1 (June), 6 months l a t e r , indicated improved vocabulary and well developing English language s k i l l s . Both boys who were placed i n different classes had made s i g n i f i - cant gains during t h e i r f i r s t year of formal academic training and no pa r t i c u l a r concern had been raised as to th e i r performance. On the other hand, A l i c e , who had been i d e n t i f i e d as the strong- est on the Kindergarten screening battery showed some weaknesses. Hearing i n the l e f t ear was s t i l l questioned. On the TOLD, given i n May (Grade 1), she achieved a low average score on the subtest of expressive oral vocabulary. According to the speech and hearing ther- apist during the performance on th i s p a r t i c u l a r task, "She tended to 97. ramble, make verbal associations, make quick guesses and t r y to change the subject. In fact throughout the testing session, A l i c e repeatedly needed to be brought back to task. Her style of constant verbal questioning appeared somewhat attention getting and her attentiveness varied. She seemed most anxious to do well and showed a low tolerance for boredom and f a i l u r e " (Speech and hearing thera- pist's report, May). The therapist also commented that Alice's language s k i l l s appear to be developing within the normal range for her age and any learning problems would not seem to be language based. She did have poor l i s t e n i n g behavior and her inattentiveness and attention seeking behavior was of some concern. A l i c e was also given the Lindamood Test of Auditory Conceptual- i z a t i o n (LAC) by Lindamood and Lindamood (1971). She scored at the mid Grade 2 lev e l on the a b i l i t y to discriminate, sequence and pat- tern a u d i t o r i l l y presented phonemes. The t h i r d language test administered to A l i c e , was the I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguistic A b i l i t i e s , ITPA (Kirk et a l . , 1968). No areas of auditory weakness were apparent and even strengths were evident i n visua l memory and visual closure. Since a l l scores were within the auditory-vocal and visual-motor range, clustered f a i r l y close to the mean score, she achieved an overall psycholinguistic age of 6 years 8 months (chronological age was 6 years 10 months) placing her in the average scale. A c l i n i c a l psychologist dealing with personality and behavior 98. problems was considered during a meeting between the therapist, c l a s s - room and learning assistance teachers. A l i c e ' s Grade 1 teacher ex- pressed great concern as to her mathematics achievement, the lack of concentration and the attention seeking behavior. Consequently, the area counsellor observed her in class i n May. During a casual con- versation, A l i c e revealed she l i k e d reading. It was found that i n mathematics she was better with a d d i t i o n than subtraction. Neat and l e g i b l e p r i n t i n g was noticed i n her written work. She seemed to be quite outgoing, a l e r t , squirming, verbal and a r t i c u l a t e though she was eager to receive one's attention. No peer problem i n class was seen. She l i k e d to do well and be approved of, but found i t hard to be second. At that time she was attending Hebrew school three times a week, taking v i o l i n lessons and swimming. Upon medical examination, i t was found that A l i c e ' s l e f t eye was weak, however, the parents' main inquiry was focused on her s e l f - esteem. She had become aware of her brothers' progress and success and used extensively o r a l expression (her strength) to convey her f e e l i n g s . At home and at school she had d i f f i c u l t y concentrating. The problem was considered to be rather a t t i t u d i n a l and/or emotional than academic. French Reading Test. A new s e r i e s of French Diagnostic Reading Tests f o r Early Immersion Primary Classes (Tourond, 1980) was given to the two Grade 1 classes in June. This instrument does not assess s p e c i f i c objectives of any reading programme but evaluates s i l e n t reading performance. See Appendix F f o r complete test d e s c r i p t i o n . 99. Table 8 presents raw scores and p e r c e n t i l e ranks the subjects achieved on the French Reading Test. Table 8 End of Grade 1 Results on the French Diagnostic Reading Test for Early French Immersion Primary Classes Subtests A l i c e Jack Joseph Raw % t i l e Raw % t i l e Raw % t i l e score rank score rank score rank Reconnaissance des mots (Word recognition) Lecture de mots (Word meaning) Comprehension de courts textes (Sentence and short story comprehen- sion) 15 12 10 22 20 23 20 19 70 21 95 23 80 17 60 95 70 The test author suggests giving s p e c i a l attention to i n d i v i d u a l differences of p e r c e n t i l e ranks before they can be considered s i g n i - f i c a n t . As shown on Table 8 there i s a substantial discrepancy between A l i c e ' s performance and her sib l i n g s ' demonstrating that her poor l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s mostly evident in the classroom and tapped i n the e a r l i e r formal English language tests may have had an impact on her achievement on the French Word recognition subtest r e q u i r i n g the 1 0 0 . auditory and v i s u a l discrimination of spoken words by the teacher as well as paying attention to d e t a i l . The boys performed very well. Jack had made an enormous progress i n the mastery of French concepts by the end of Grade 1 . Teacher's Evaluations. Teacher's evaluations have been reported on Table 9 for each of the 3 terms of the school year. Insert Table 9 about here At f i r s t glance there are not many "very good" ra t i n g s f or the subjects suggesting that t h e i r performance was i n the average range. A l i c e presented as a very sociable g i r l s t r i v i n g f o r popularity among her peers by seeking the teacher's constant a t t e n t i o n . More e f f o r t was recommended e s p e c i a l l y i n mathematics and reading, as well as i n the desire to work independently. She did improve i n l i s t e n i n g and o r a l comprehension, mathematics, handwriting and personal develop- ment, but in reading comprehension, she declined during the year. Jack had shown marked improvement i n oral comprehension, mathe- matics, handwriting, art and personal development with only a s l i g h t decrease i n l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . He demonstrated an i n t e r e s t i n learning. Joseph made steady progress i n oral comprehension and reading, mathematics, science, handwriting and personal development. In fact in no area was there a decline i n academic achievement. From the above comments i t can be concluded that the two boys outperformed the g i r l . A l l three students were promoted to Grade 2 . Table 9 Grade 1 Teacher's Report Card Evaluation* Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 S k i l l s : A l i c e Jack Joseph A l i c e Jack Joseph A l i c e Jack Joseph French Language Arts Listening s k i l l s 1. Listens a t t e n t i v e l y 2. Comprehension 1 2+ 2 2- 2 - 2 1 2 2 2 + 2 2 2+ 2 2+ 2+ Speaking s k i l l s 1. Fluency of expression 2. C l a r i t y of speech 2 2 2 2 + 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 + 2 2 C. Reading s k i l l s 1. Comprehension 2. Oral reading 1 2 1 2 + 2 2 2 2 2+ 2 2 2+ 2 2 2+ 2 2 + 2 + D. Writing s k i l l s 1. S p e l l i n g 2. Sentence writing N/A 2- 2 2+ N/A 2 2 2 N/A 2 2 2 + Mathematics 1. Understanding of p r i n c i p l e s 2. Computational s k i l l s 3. Problem solving s k i l l s 2- 2- N/A 2 2, 2 2 N/A 2+ 2 2+ 2 + N/A 2 + 2+ S o c i a l Studies S k i l l s Term 1 Term 2- Term 3 A l i c e Jack Joseph A l i c e Jack Joseph A l i c e Jack Joseph Science 2 Handwriting 2- Physical Education 2 Art 2 Music 2 Personal Development 1. Respect for others 2 2. Sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 2 3. P a r t i c i p a t i o n 2 4. Independent work 2 5. Work Habits 2- 6. S e l f - c o n t r o l 2- 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2+ 2 • 2+ 2- 1 2 + 2 1 1 2+ 2 2+ 2 2 2+ 2+ 2 + 2 2- 2 2+ 2 2+ 1 2 2 2 2 2 2+ 2 2 2+ 2 2 2 2+ 2 2 2 + 2 2 2 2 2+ 2 2+ 2+ .6 2+ 2+ 2 2 + 2 2 + 2+ 2+ 2 2- 2 2+ 2+ 2- 1 2+ 2 2 2- 2+ 2+ 2 1 2+ 2 2 2 2+ 2 2 1 2 Note: 1 very good 2+ very s a t i s f a c t o r y 2 s a t i s f a c t o r y 2- less s a t i s f a c t o r y 3 needs improvement 103. Year Three Evaluation: Grade 2 Performance Psychological Tests. Early i n Grade 2 A l i c e was r e f e r r e d by the family physician, for psychological assessment outside the school D i s t r i c t . While the boys were doing well in French immersion she had poor self-image and was not oriented academically. Her reading s k i l l s were low. Her former Grade 1 teacher was then engaged to tutor her in problem areas. I n i t i a l l y when A l i c e was tested and upon d i s - covery of s i g n i f i c a n t discrepancies i t was suggested to evaluate the two boys as well i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h s p e c i f i c s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the t r i p l e t s . During the t e s t i n g sessions, the three manifested a v a r i a t i o n i n behavior pattern. A l i c e was extremely "test anxious" r e q u i r i n g con- stant reassurance while Jack was "quite nervous" only i n i t i a l l y , and Joseph "more c o o l " with greater i n t e r n a l control. Psychological tests are described i n Appendix G ( i n English only), In order to consider discrepancies emerging from the assessment of the above mentioned s k i l l s , i t i s necessary to examine the t r i p - l e t s ' r e s u l t s from the psychologists' report as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 10. Insert Table 10 about here On the f i r s t two t e s t s , A l i c e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y behind her brothers who scored i d e n t i c a l l y i n visual-motor i n t e g r a t i o n . On the 104. Table 10 Psychoeducational Tests Results Obtained by the Tr i p l e t s i n Beginning Grade 2 Chronological age: 7 years 3 months Alice Joseph Jack Beery and Buktenica Devel- 6yr.07mths. 9yr.04mths. 9yr.04mths. opmental Test of Visual- Motor Integration Draw-a-Person 6 yrs. 7yr.06mths. 8yr.06mths. Motor-Free Visual Percep- - over 9 yrs. _ t i o n Test (MFVPT) Peabody Picture Vocabulary 7yr.03mths. _ Test (PPVT) Wide Range Achievement grade level _ Test (WRAT) 2.6 standard score 105 % t i l e 63 - _ Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children, Revised (WISC-R) Verbal Information 8 10 7 S i m i l a r i t i e s 7 12 8 Vocabulary 11 10 12 Arithmetic 8 11 10 Comprehension 9 13 11 Digit span 9 10 8 Average verbal range average average average (low end) (high end) (middle) Performance Picture completion 10 11 12 Picture arrangement 14 12 12 Block design 12 13 13 Block assembly 13 9 15 Coding 13 11 11 Mazes - 13 _ Average performance above average above average above average range (high end) (low end) (high end) F u l l scale s p l i t of average s p l i t of 26 points (high end) 21 points 105. other tests only a few s i m i l a r i t i e s are to be seen between the boys whereas A l i c e and Jack are both characterized by depressed verbal scores and considerable s p l i t s between verbal and performance areas. Joseph was regarded as having extremely appropriate verbal and non- verbal scores. A common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was that a l l children had d i f f i c u l t y with the S i m i l a r i t y subtest where they were rather con- centrating on f i n d i n g differences. It was recommended that Jack's verbal s k i l l s ought to be moni- tored but, so f a r , no intervention was required for him and his brother. With A l i c e j o i n i n g her brothers i n the same c l a s s , she seemed to have gained confidence, and became more receptive to re- ceiving a f t e r - c l a s s t u t o r i a l classes i n French reading. Since she perceived h e r s e l f as d i f f e r e n t from the other two boys she found i t d i f f i c u l t to accept that her parents' attention had to be shared among a l l children. However, there were no major impairments recog- nized at that time though some developmental d i f f i c u l t i e s and reading performance were to be watched c l o s e l y . French Reading Test. Table 11 shows the standings the t r i p l e t s obtained on the Grade 2 t e s t . At t h i s l e v e l the test measures word Insert Table 11 about here synthesis (Word blending and grapheme discrimination), s e l e c t i n g and matching a word with a v i s u a l cue (Word meaning), f i l l i n g out the 106. Table 11 End of Grade 2 Results on the French Diagnostic Reading Test for Early French Immersion Primary Classes A l i c e Jack Joseph Subtests Raw % t i l e Raw % t i l e Raw % t i l e score rank score rank score rank La synthese de mots et 34 l a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n de graphemes (Word blending and grapheme discrimina- tion) Lecture de mots 21 (Word meaning) La comprehension de 19 phrases (Sentence completion) La comprehension de 18 textes (Story com- prehension) 80 36 60 23 50 26 60 19 95 34 80 21 95 22 70 20 80 60 60 80 blank with a word chosen from a set of four (Sentence completion) and s e l e c t i n g one answer from four possible ones to s p e c i f i c questions r e l a t e d to a passage (Story comprehension). ,Again Jack surpassed his s i b l i n g s i n o v e r a l l scores. He showed remarkable strength i n Word blending and grapheme discrimination, and Sentence completion thus, achieving an equal p e r c e n t i l e rank for the two subtests. He was some- how lower than Joseph on Story comprehension. A l i c e and Joseph ranked 107. the same on Word blending and grapheme discrimination as well as on Word meaning. A l i c e was the weakest on Sentence completion and Story comprehension. It should also be noted that a marked difference i s seen i n A l i c e ' s p e r c e n t i l e rank between Word blending and grapheme dis c r i m i n a t i o n and Sentence completion (choosing one of four words to form a sentence). Teacher's Evaluations. The t r i p l e t s were a l l i n the same c l a s s with one teacher only during Grade 2. Comments regarding Year 3 per- formance w i l l follow Table 12 showing rankings for the 3 terms. Insert Table 12 about here A l i c e obtained very good standing i n l i s t e n i n g , o r a l reading, handwriting and personal development. In f a c t , not one area had been i d e n t i f i e d as in need of improvement. She performed in the s a t i s - factory and very s a t i s f a c t o r y range i n the remainder subjects. Her teacher considered the year as being a very good one for A l i c e i n that she had maintained her l e v e l of s o c i a b i l i t y and had progressed. Likewise Jack had very good standing in a l l areas of French Lan- guage Arts, handwriting and personal development throughout the 3 terms. His teacher referred to him as an excellent Grade 2 student. S a t i s - factory performance was only seen i n s o c i a l studies and physical edu- cation even though he continued to show motivation for learning. Joseph did achieve an almost euqally very good standing as his Table 12 Grade 2 Teacher's Report Card Evaluation* S k i l l s Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 A l i c e Jack Joseph A l i c e Jack Joseph A l i c e Jack Joseph French Language Arts A. L i s t e n i n g s k i l l s 1. Listens a t t e n t i v e l y 2. Comprehension B. Speaking s k i l l s 1. Fluency of expression 2. C l a r i t y of speech C. Reading s k i l l s 1. Comprehension 2. Oral reading 1 2+ 2+ 1 1 2+ 2 + 2+ 2+ 1 1 2+ 2 + 2+ 2 + 1 D. Writing s k i l l s 1. S p e l l i n g 2. Sentence writing 1 2+ 1 2+ Mathematics 1. Understanding of p r i n c i p l e s 2. Computational s k i l l s 3. Problem solving s k i l l s 1 2+ 2+ 2 2 2+ 1 2 + 2+ 2 2 2 + 1 2+ 2+ S o c i a l Studies S k i l l s Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Ali c e Jack Joseph Al i c e Jack Joseph Al i c e Jack Joseph Science 2 Handwriting 1 Physical Education 2 Art 2 Music 2 Personal Development 1. Respect for others 1 2. Sense of res p o n s i b i l i t y 1 3. Participation 1 4. Independent work 1 5. Work habits 1 6. Self-control 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 * Note: 1 very good 2+ very satisfactory 2 satisfactory 2- less satisfactory 3 needs improvement 110. brother i n a l l subjects except sentence writing in French on which he obtained very satisfactory rating. It was commented that he had worked hard a l l year and had a p o s i t i v e approach to learning. During that year the two boys presented a similar excellent per- formance whereas the g i r l f e l l i n the above average range. From the results Grade 2 can then be considered the best year the t r i p l e t s had at the primary le v e l because of the high ratings accorded by t h e i r teacher. Year Four Evaluation: Grade 3 Performance English Reading Tests. Grade 3 i s the t r a n s i t i o n a l year i n this p a r t i c u l a r b i l i n g u a l setting. For the f i r s t time the students receive English Language Arts instruction at the rate of two hours per day. There are some students who have learned to read on t h e i r own p r i o r to being formally taught at school. A natural transfer of reading s k i l l s from French to English has indeed taken place. Nevertheless, a number of pupils start at zero l e v e l i n the acquisition of t h e i r mother tongue. Early i n the school year, a pre-test i s given in order to estab- l i s h the le v e l of English proficiency the pupils have upon entry into Grade 3. The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level C, Form 2 (Mac- G i n i t i e , 1980), i s administered i n the f a l l and the posttest, Form 1, in the spring of the following year. A short description of these tests i s included in Appendix H. Table 13 contains the results the t r i p l e t s obtained on the pre- test given i n the f a l l . I l l . Table 13 Results Obtained on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Level C, Form 2 F a l l Pretest i n Grade 3 Vocabulary Comprehension A l i c e Jack Joseph A l i c e Jack Joseph Raw score Percentile Rank Grade Equivalent B.N. 20 31 2.5 18 24 2.4 17 21 B.N. 2.2 21 31 2.4 A l i c e ' s score was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than her brothers. Both scores on Vocabulary and Comprehension were below norms. There was hardly any v a r i a t i o n between the boys who l i k e a number of other French immersion children managed to achieve a Grade 2.5 ranking i n o v e r a l l performance. Jack was s l i g h t l y above Joseph on the Vocabulary subtest but at the same time a l i t t l e lower on the Comprehension subtest. The boys achieved a much higher l e v e l than A l i c e on t h i s English reading t e s t . By the spring Form 1 was administered. Table 14 represents the posttest r e s u l t s which can be compared with the ones given i n Table 13. 112. Table 14 Results Obtained on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Level C, Form 1 Spring Posttest i n Grade 3 Vocabulary Comprehension A l i c e Jack Joseph A l i c e Jack Joseph Raw score 27 27 34 24 28 31 Pe r c e n t i l e Rank 27 27 50 21 31 42 Grade Equivalent 3.1 3.1 3.8 2.5 3.1 3.5 A l i c e had made the most remarkable progress i n Vocabulary devel- opment to the point of p a r a l l e l i n g her score with Jack's. A discrep- ancy occurred i n her a c q u i s i t i o n of Vocabulary and Comprehension s k i l l s with more than a half-year delay i n Comprehension. Jack was i n the medium range among t h i s group with an equal grade l e v e l on both subtests. On the other hand, i t i s Joseph who topped his s i b l i n g s by improving h i s o v e r a l l performance by a whole year. He was found to be r e l a t i v e l y stronger i n Vocabulary than i n Comprehension. French Reading Test. This t e s t , devised by Tourond (1980) f o r Primary French immersion classes, evaluates s i l e n t reading perfor- mance s o l e l y to Grade 3. At this l e v e l the two parts consist i n s e l - ecting a word from a set of four to complete a sentence and finding synonyms (Sentence comprehension), and choosing the best answers from a set of four to questions pertaining to short s t o r i e s (Story compre- hension) . Table 15 presents the r e s u l t s of the t e s t i n g . A d i s p a r i t y be- tween A l i c e ' s scores and her twin brothers i s evident. She seemed to Insert Table 15 about here have regressed i n the mastery of French s k i l l s e s p e c i a l l y i n synonyms and f i n d i n g relevant d e t a i l s of a story. She had attained a very low score i n both subtests. This time Jack was better than h i s brother in Story comprehension but equalled him i n Sentence comprehension. Teachers' evaluation. In Grade 3, the t r i p l e t s had two teachers. A l i c e and Joseph were together i n the same c l a s s , but Jack i n a d i f - ferent c l a s s . The format of reporting to parents had changed from the 1, 2 and 3 ratings, to more elaborate written comments related to the d i f f e r - ent s k i l l s taught at that grade l e v e l . In French Language Arts A l i c e began the year with a short con- centration span which had s l i g h t l y lengthened by the end of t h i s grade. Her strength was verbal expression evident i n o r a l classroom discussions that went i n p a i r with her s o c i a l i n c l i n a t i o n . Some progress had been noted i n o r a l reading though comprehension had suf- fered in view of the decoding d i f f i c u l t i e s she was encountering. 114 . Table 15 End of Grade 3 Results on the French Diagnostic Reading Test for Early French Immersion Primary Classes A l i c e Jack Joseph Subtests Raw score % t i l e rank Raw score % t i l e rank Raw score % t i l e rank La comprehension de phrases (Sentence comprehension) 20 20 27 70 27 70 La comprehension de textes (Story comprehension) 12 20 20 80 19 70 Also, her sight vocabulary had been regarded as being limited. She seemed to feel more comfortable i n s i l e n t reading indicating that the auditory input may have interfered with her comprehension. Through- out the year many copying mistakes were seen i n her written work (possibly careless l e t t e r omissions) as well as poor organizational s k i l l s . In a l l the other subjects taught i n French (mathematics, s o c i a l studies, science, etc . ) , Alice could produce some reasonably good work provided the presentation of new concepts and her participation were at the oral l e v e l . It seems that her poor reading s k i l l s had a det- rimental effect on the comprehension and completion of written work as well. The concept of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n had to be taught through the 115. a p p l i c a t i o n of concrete material and much work had been suggested i n order to master the timestable. The a c q u i s i t i o n of English s k i l l s presented i n i t i a l l y some prob- lems to A l i c e i n that she could not follow directions and her basic sight vocabulary was weak. Good progress i n or a l reading and compre- hension had occurred by the l a s t term, and as in French, s i l e n t read- ing exercises were not as p a i n f u l since she could derive meaning from selections read. However, s p e l l i n g remained at a low l e v e l which influenced the q u a l i t y of her written sentences. Her teacher viewed her as a very verbal c h i l d who needed constant attention and reinforcement. A c e r t a i n degree of h y p e r a c t i v i t y was noticeable which could have hindered her ac q u i s i t i o n of basic s k i l l s . No r e f e r r a l had been made to the area counsellor as to her behavior and a t t i t u d i n a l problems. The assigned homework was done i r r e g u l a r l y and there was no consolidation of s k i l l s that would have f a c i l i t a t e d academic learning. She was s o c i a l l y i n c l i n e d and e s p e c i a l l y popular among boys. In fact she preferred to play with her male colleagues since she had an excellent rapport with her twin brothers whom she was approaching i n a rather motherly manner. Joseph, i n the same class as A l i c e , presented more diff e r e n c e s than s i m i l a r i t i e s when compared with his s i s t e r . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , during o r a l questioning, the two ch i l d r e n would always help each other and when reaching a high l e v e l of f r u s t r a t i o n had a tendency of exhib- i t i n g temper tantrums with others and pouting to the point of sobbing. 116. As with Alice, the multiplication concept and mastery of timestable seemed to be a laborious task for Joseph, too. However, he had good concentration ability and was both courteous and considerate to others. He possessed great internal self-discipline as well as an interest in learning. His oral reading in French lacked fluency but he managed to grasp the content of stories. Because of his organiz- ational ability and greater effort he had improved in spelling, punctuation and capitalization. Joseph's English word attack skills and listening were satisfact- ory from the beginning of Grade 3. During the year, oral reading and spelling had improved significantly. His performance in silent read- ing although not at level in the second term, presumably caused by a certain degree of distractibility, had progressed considerably in the next term. He was able to write sentences, respecting all the rules. Joseph appeared to be more aware of his problems than Alice but, on the other hand, there was eagerness to do better and his behavior's stability explained his Grade 3 progress. Jack was on his own in a different class. He was a good listen- er and could follow teacher's directions without difficulty. During the first two terms he was reading and expressing himself quite well in French and his dictations had greatly improved. By the end of the year his performance in French deteriorated because less effort had been put in his work. In mathematics he worked slowly at the begin- ning but end-of-year results were encouraging since he had manifested 117. a special i n t e r e s t i n the subject. His teacher had noticed c r e a t i v i t y and concentration i n art lessons possibly due to constant exposure to his mother's a r t i s t i c work. Reading i n English came quite e a s i l y to Jack early i n the school year. According to h i s teacher he produced high q u a l i t y work i n a l l areas of English Language Arts. A l l the c h i l d r e n were promoted to Grade 4. S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis The main s t a t i s t i c applied in t h i s case study was the Pearson product-moment-correlation (r) with only raw scores included i n a l l analyses. In order to e s t a b l i s h the best predictors i n r e l a t i o n to the questions of the study, comparisons were made between scores on the Kindergarten screening battery and the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Tourond French reading test at the end of Grade 3. Also cor- related were scores of the Grades 1 and 2 Tourond subtests with Grade 3 r e s u l t s . An examination of the s t a t i s t i c a l data shows a scatt e r of patterns with some perfect negative and p o s i t i v e correlations i n d i c a t - ing that the l i m i t a t i o n s incurred give unexpected r e s u l t s i n t h i s par- t i c u l a r study. For example, i t i s unusual to have a negative c o r r e l a - t i o n between the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Gates- MacGinitie Comprehension posttest, -0.5695 (p_ = 0.307) both of which are related to the understanding of language. Some entries had very high c o r r e l a t i o n s but the p l e v e l was not near s i g n i f i c a n c e . Table 16 presents the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of selected Table 16 Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s of Selected Predictor Variables to the Prediction of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests: Posttest and the Tourond Grade 3 Test Predictor v a r i a b l e s C r i t e r i o n variables KB KPPVT KM 2 KM 4 WISC 3 WISC 5 Gates-MacGinitie (posttest) 0.7857 0.0 0.2774 0.8660 0.8660 0.0 Vocabulary Grade 3 (p=0.212) (p=0.500) (p=0.411) (p=0,167) (p=0.167) (p=0.500) Gates-MacGinitie (posttest) 0.2936 -0.5695 -0.3192 0.4271 0.4271 0.5695 Comprehension Grade 3 (p=0.405) (p=0,307) (p=0.397) (p=Q.360) (p=0,360) (p=0.307) Tourond sentence comprehension Grade 3 -0.1429 (p=0.454) -0.8660 (p=0.167) -0.6934 (p=0.256) 0.0 (p=0.500) 0.0 (p=0.500) 0.8660 (p=0.167) Tourond story comprehension Grade 3 -0.2554 (p=0.418) -0.9177 (p=0.130) -0.7715 (p=0.220) -0.1147 (p=0.463) -0.1147 (p=0.463) 0.9177 (p=0.130) Note. KB Kindergarten Boehm Test of Basic Concepts KPPVT Kindergarten Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test KM 2 Kindergarten McCarthy Screening Test Verbal Memory KM 4 Kindergarten McCarthy Screening Test Numerical Memory WISC 3 Wechsler Intelligence Scale f o r Children - Revised, Vocabulary WISC 5 Wechsler Intelligence Scale f o r Children - Revised, Comprehension 119. p r e d i c t o r variables to the p r e d i c t i o n of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Tourond Grade 3 t e s t . Results revealed that there was no c o r r e l a t i o n between the Gates- MacGinitie Vocabulary subtest, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler In t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children, Revised (WISC-R). The Grade 3 Tourond test yielded negative c o r r e l a t i o n s with the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the McCarthy Screening Test and the WISC-R Vocabulary subtest. However, the Tourond subtest (Comprehension) had the highest c o r r e l a t i o n (0.9177, p_ = 0.130) with the WISC-R Vocabulary but the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was not close to .05. There was a negative or no c o r r e l a t i o n between the Peabody P i c - ture Vocabulary Test, the McCarthy Screening Test Verbal memory sub- test and the predictor v a r i a b l e s . A c o r r e l a t i o n of 0.3592 (£ = 0.383) was observed between the pre and posttest Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary subtest whereas the pre and post Comprehension subtest y i e l d e d an r of 0.9942 (p = 0.034). Table 17 presents the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of Tourond Grade 1 Insert Table 17 about here and 2 pr e d i c t o r variables to the p r e d i c t i o n of Tourond Grade 3 t e s t . From the analysis there appears to be a higher c o r r e l a t i o n be- tween the Grade 1 and 3 tests than the Grade 2 and 3 tests . The Table 17 Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s of Each Predictor Variable (Tourond Grade 1 and 2) to the Prediction of Tourond Grade 3 Test C r i t e r i o n variables Predictor variables ONET 1 ONET 2 ONET 3 TWOT 1 TWOT 2 TWOT 3 TWOT 4 Tourond sentence comprehension Grade 3 0.9912 1.0000 0.9820 0.5000 0.5000 Q.8220 0.8660 (p=0.042) (p=0.000) (p=0.061) (p=0.333) (p=0.333) (p=0.193) (p=0.167) Tourond story comprehension Grade 3 0.9998 0.9934 0.9972 0.5960 0.5960 0.8819 0.8030 (p=0.006) (p=0.037) (p=0.024) (p=0.297) (p=0.297) (p=0.156) (p=0.203) ONET 1 Grade 1 Tourond test - Word recognition ONET 2 Grade 1 Tourond test - Word meaning ONET 3 Grade 1 Tourond test - Sentence and short story comprehension TWOT 1 Grade 2 Tourond test - Word meaning TWOT 2 Grade 2 Tourond test - Word blending and grapheme d i s c r i m i n a t i o n TWOT 3 Grade 2 Tourond test - Sentence completion TWOT 4 Grade 2 Tourond test - Story comprehension 121. Sentence comprehension subtest c o r r e l a t e s at the same l e v e l with the Grade 2 Word meaning and Word blending and grapheme dis c r i m i n a t i o n • subtests. Similar findings were obtained on the Story comprehension subtest. On the basis of d e s c r i p t i v e observations and s t a t i s t i c a l a n alysis questions of the study are addressed i n the following text and t h e i r possible answers are also presented. Question 1: From the screening instruments employed at the Kind- ergarten l e v e l , which instruments were the best predictors of the t r i p l e t s ' academic success at the end of Grade 3? Information as to the p r e d i c t i v e power of the Kindergarten screen- ing battery and other tests used, i s u n j u s t i f i a b l e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study due to the l i m i t e d sample. Based on the results data, the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts correlated the best with the Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary subtest (0.7857, p_ = 0.212); the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test had e i t h e r a negative or no c o r r e l a t i o n with the c r i t e r i o n v a r i - ables. The McCarthy Screening Test Verbal memory subtest had no cor- r e l a t i o n with the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s but the Numerical memory subtest correlated with the Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary posttest (0.8660, £ = 0.167) . Question 2: From the French tests used at the Grade 1 and 2 l e v e l s , which ones were the best predictors of the t r i p l e t s ' success at end of Grade 3? The Grade 1 Tourond French reading test correlated h i g h l y with 122. the Grade 3 test (from 1.000 p = 0.000 to 0.9998 p = 0.006) but the Grade 2 test yielded a lower correlation (from 0.8660 p = 0.167 to 0.5000 p = 0.333) . Question 3: Were there sex differences i n the predictor v a r i - able? The p o s s i b i l i t y of sex differences i n the predictor variable with only one subject as a female and two subjects as males, could not be demonstrated. Question 4: What other variables can be used as predictors of success at the end of the primary grades? Since a child's development i s modified by his immediate envi- ronment, a s p e c i f i c set of variables affecting success at the primary level may not be possible for a general population. There are children who exhibit d i f f i c u l t i e s in learning both at the Kindergarten and Grade 1 l e v e l , but after these grades they are able to function adequately. Reasons for success can only be tenta- ti v e since they are unmeasurable. In the case study, the instruments used i n French and/or English were not good predictors. Question 5: To what extent s i g n i f i c a n t factors contributed to a diver s i t y i n the development of certain academic and social s k i l l s from Kindergarten to Grade 3? Factors which may have contributed to the attainment of a spe- c i f i c s k i l l are d i f f i c u l t to identify i n an objective manner there- fore, any d e f i n i t e statements cannot be made. 123. CHAPTER IV FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY This chapter presents the f i n d i n g s , conclusions, l i m i t a t i o n s and implications of the study. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the academic achievement of a set of t r i p l e t s attending a Primary French immersion school over a period of four years. In addition the study sought to asce r t a i n whether any of the formal and informal measures used at the Kinder- garten l e v e l could be i d e n t i f i e d as predictors of a student's success i n the French immersion programme. Also, non-scholastic s k i l l s cov- ering a four-year period have been examined i n terms of t h e i r impact on o v e r a l l performance r e s u l t s i n respect to each subject. Major Findings of the Study Based on the four-year evaluation of the t r i p l e t s i t appears that l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y , personality factors and att i t u d e s , and not IQ, were factors a f f e c t i n g t h e i r success i n French immersion. Cummins' "threshold hypothesis" interpreted as the minimal l e v e l of competence i n f i r s t language (cognitive l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s ) may have been a fa c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the attainment of French and English by the t r i p l e t s . Since i t has been proven that French immersion pupils ac- quire the necessary English s k i l l s when English language i n s t r u c t i o n i s formally introduced, the a c q u i s i t i o n of French o r a l language ought to be emphasized to a greater extent. Also a child's attention on 124. school-oriented a c t i v i t i e s may have some ramifications f o r future learning. In A l i c e ' s case, the l i m i t e d attention span she has been exh i b i t i n g throughout her e a r l y schooling seemed to be a d e c i s i v e factor in her subsequent academic performance. In focusing on Jack's achievement, i t i s l i k e l y that h i s p e r f e c t i o n i s t tendency i d e n t i f i e d already i n Grade 1 has contributed to his attainment of good French and English language s k i l l s . For the three c h i l d r e n of average a b i l i t y , motivation seemed to be a key factor i n t h e i r success. Throughout the years, the t r i p l e t s developed d i f f e r e n t l y i n the area of receptive language, l i s t e n i n g comprehension, verbal expression and i n t e r e s t s . Limitations of the Study There are three l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. F i r s t , the study i s r e s t r i c t e d to a small sample of pupils rather than to an entire class within a given period of time. Second, the researcher has r e l i e d heavily on information obtained from various sources as stated e a r l i e r since direct involvement with the t r i p l e t s only occurred at the time of the Kindergarten screening. Third, i t becomes p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to designate a l l the factors that may have contributed to a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the a t t a i n - ment of s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . Hence, i t should be noted that there was no control over the following variables: 1. The instruments used (test administration); 125, 2. The teachers' comments on report cards; 3. Overall evaluation during the given period of time; 4. The instruction in the classroom; 5. V a l i d i t y of observations made by various individuals (teach- ers' commitment to express t h e i r personal opinions, etc.); 6. The fact that only a si m i l a r standardized French diagnostic reading test was given from Grade 1 to 3 (one for each grade level) may also be considered another l i m i t a t i o n . Discussion and Conclusions The discussion that follows i s made based on the mentioned l i m i - tations of the study. Testing measurements i n French are s t i l l i n an experimental stage. In the manual of the Tourond test (1980), the author cautions that the French test has not been u t i l i z e d for a s u f f i c i e n t length of time, i.e. i t does not permit measures of predictive a b i l i t y . Likewise, i t should be acknowledged that the sample entered a French immersion Kindergarten with poorly developed f i r s t language s k i l l s . They mainly lacked conceptual base and receptive language a b i l i t y . Since the test results did not indicate a sig n i f i c a n t delay in l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , i t i s possible that the cognitive system of these children was not yet organized i n their f i r s t year of formal schooling. It might be hypothesized that i f English language s k i l l s had been closely monitored, with less emphasis on the acquisition of 126. French these c h i l d r e n would have had a firmer grasp of one language only. In ad d i t i o n , i f they had attended a French pre-school there might have been a greater in t e r e s t i n the learning of French. Results from Year 1 evaluation revealed that the t r i p l e t s d i s - played no major strengths but rather weaknesses i n various areas of English language. The three performed below the mental age level on receptive language. Both boys experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s i n ex- pressing themselves v e r b a l l y but i t i s Jack who caused the greatest concern due to h i s l i n g u i s t i c d e f i c i t s and poor auditory memory. A l - ice was already e x h i b i t i n g poor auditory l i s t e n i n g and vocabulary. And, f i n a l l y , Joseph displayed subtle language d i f f i c u l t i e s . The prognosis f o r these children to remain i n a French immersion programme with the above mentioned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s did not appear too opt i m i s t i c . Moreover, Jack's l e v e l of functioning was so low that on the basis of the screening r e s u l t s he was the one who would have c e r t a i n l y struggled throughout the primary grades. Upon completion of t h i s c r i t i c a l introductory year, he improved beyond one's expecta- tions beginning i n Grade 1, and maintained a strong p o s i t i o n i n comparison with h i s s i s t e r and brother. When he entered Grade 1 Jack's receptive language as i n Kinder- garten was s t i l l weak. In general i t appears that some children advance to Grade 1 with some d i f f i c u l t i e s on the Kindergarten screen- ing but do improve during the summer possibly as a r e s u l t of s p e c i f i c exercises programmed f o r the home by school professional s t a f f and/or 127, private t u t o r i n g . Hearing acuity was not recognized as being the cause of h i s low language a b i l i t y . A f t e r more exposure to language- oriented a c t i v i t i e s , Jack's vocabulary and English s k i l l s were at a much higher l e v e l by the end of Grade 1. On the French reading test he obtained the highest score of the three. Although he started the year with stronger English language s k i l l s and continued to progress during that grade i t was noted that Joseph followed h i s brother c l o s e l y academically but not s o c i a l l y . In A l i c e ' s case no s p e c i f i c language d i s a b i l i t y was i d e n t i f i e d by the speech and hearing therapist though some behavior and person- a l i t y problems had been noticed. She achieved very low scores on the French reading t e s t and her yearly performance was average. Her attention-seeking behavior may have been a drawback i n the learning o f basic academic s k i l l s . She indeed lagged behind both boys s t a r t i n g i n Grade 1. At the Grade 2 l e v e l , the t r i p l e t s obtained the best ratings from t h e i r teacher (only one) for the four-year period. A l i c e was rece i v i n g p r i v a t e t u t o r i n g i n French reading but her ove r a l l perfor- mance was lower than her twin brothers. Poor visual-motor i n t e g r a t i o n and depressed verbal scores could not be matched with any brother. Similar r e s u l t s were observed for the attainment of French language s k i l l s . Jack has also a low verbal range on a psychological measure i n comparison with h i s performance range. He was the best on the French 128. reading test by reaching a high l e v e l of French language p r o f i c i e n c y . Although Joseph did not meet Jack's academic l e v e l he scored quite well on the psychoeducational tests and did not encounter any problem i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of French language s k i l l s . Greater v a r i a t i o n was observed i n evaluating the t r i p l e t s (Grade 3) with two teachers assessing them. A l l three children d i d not ex- cel i n mathematics but rather were struggling to keep up with the demands of the curriculum. A l i c e kept up her high verbal s k i l l s i n both languages. She entered t h i s grade with non-existent English s k i l l s . However, by the spring she had made more progress i n vocabulary than comprehension and her range was i n the mid Grade 2 to beginning Grade 3 category. Poor s p e l l i n g s k i l l s hampered the development of French and English sentence w r i t i n g . She had also a preference to approach a problem through the manipulation of concrete material. Jack and Joseph started Grade 3 at an equal l e v e l of E n g l i s h language p r o f i c i e n c y . Jack had a good academic year due to motiva- t i o n and concentration which helped him improve i n French o r a l ex- pression and s p e l l i n g . On the English language posttest he achieved a beginning Grade 3 l e v e l but no major problems had been i d e n t i f i e d then. Joseph, showing greater i n t e r e s t i n academic subjects at the end of Grade 3 l e v e l rated the best on the English language posttest. However, he experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s with mathematics.- 129. In conclusion reference i s made to Cummins' (1979) b e l i e f that minimal c o g n i t i v e - l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s are necessary i n order to be successful i n second language learning. Since the speed of learning i s r e l a t e d to the rate of maturation and the children's a b i l i t y to grasp new concepts was slow i n comparison with other pupils i t may be that the la t e immersion concept might have been more sui t a b l e f o r the t r i p l e t s . Implications of the Study Implications of the study w i l l focus on both the school l e v e l and the research l e v e l . School Level The study presented a systematic developmental pattern of an unusual sample of children by observing various in d i v i d u a l character- i s t i c s emerging over a four-year span. On the basis of t h i s case study i t i s suggested that early i n t e r - vention by school s t a f f at the Kindergarten l e v e l may reduce the d i f - f i c u l t i e s some children w i l l experience i n the primary grades. The subjects of the study did not attend the learning assistance center for s p e c i f i c remediation but were being tutored p r i v a t e l y . At t h i s point, i t i s recommended that the Grade 1 teachers become more f a m i l - i a r with the Kindergarten screening process and focus t h e i r attention on c h i l d r e n who have been i d e n t i f i e d "at r i s k " . It i s suggested that a test battery such as T r i t e s ' Early- I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Assessment Battery be administered to children who did 130. not perform s a t i s f a c t o r i l y on the school's regular screening. Also, that a four-year programme instead of three-year programme be offered i n the French primary grades f o r children who have no learning d i s a b i l i t y but need more time to learn a foreign language and show a high motivational l e v e l to learn French. F i n a l l y , there appears to be a need f or teachers' input i n the development of appropriate French immersion material e s p e c i a l l y i n reading content area. Research Level To t h i s date research has focused on native language development, second language a c q u i s i t i o n and general i n t e l l i g e n c e . There seems to be a need for research i n : 1. The development of French immersion standardized and diagnos- t i c t e s t s measuring a l l facets of French Language Arts at each grade l e v e l (early and la t e immersion option); 2. The improvement of screening procedures taking into account second-language learning at the beginning of Kindergarten; 3. The preparation of a study on a group of French immersion Kindergarteners upon completion of French pre-school ( e f f e c t s of longer language exposure and e a r l i e r language t r a i n i n g ) ; 4. A closer examination of the composition of French immersion groups to see more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t s and d i f f e r e n c e s / s i m i l a r i t i e s within the group; 5. The de s c r i p t i o n of oral and written production of French 131. immersion students at each grade l e v e l ; 6. The evaluation of French immersion students experiencing learning d i s a b i l i t i e s at the primary l e v e l ; 7. Reasons for dropping out of French immersion at a l l l e v e l s (elementary and secondary schools) of students from various socio- economic status; 8. Psychological implications of below average pupils entering French immersion; 9. Examining the impact French immersion has on the school achievement of below average p u p i l s ; 10. Special attention to socio-economic, ethnic and i n t e l l e c t u a l factors for minority group c h i l d r e n ( t h i r d language i s involved). 132. References Anderson, T., Wallace Past, A. § Cude Past, K.E. Early childhood: The best time to become b i l i n g u a l and b i l i t e r a t e . Childhood Education, 1978, _3, 155-161. A n i s f e l d , E. S Lambert, W.E. Cognitive aspects of bil i n g u a l i s m . Paper de l i v e r e d at American Association for the Advancement of Science Symposium on Bilingualism, Montreal, 1964. Barik, H.C. French Comprehension Test - Level 1. Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f or Studies i n Education, 1975. . French Comprehension Test - Primer. Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1976. Barik, H.C. § Swain, M. B i l i n g u a l Education Project: Evaluation of the 1973-74 French immersion program i n grades 1-3 i n the Federal Capital's public schools. Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education, 1974 (mimeo). (a) . English-French b i l i n g u a l education i n the early grades: The E l g i n study. Modern Language Journal, 1974, _8, 392-403. (b) . B i l i n g u a l Education Project: Evaluation of the 1974-75 French immersion program i n grades 2-4, Ottawa Board of Education and Carleton Board of Education. Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1975. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 121 056) (a) . Early grade French immersion classes i n a unili n g u a l English 133. Canadian s e t t i n g : The Toronto study. S c i e n t i a Paedagogica Exper- imentalis, 1975, U, 153-177. (b) . Three year evaluation of a large scale early grade French immersion program: The Ottawa study. Language Learning, 1975, 1_, 1-30. "(c) . A Canadian experiment i n b i l i n g u a l education: The Peel study. Foreign Language Annals, 1976, 5_, 465-479. (a) . A lon g i t u d i n a l study of b i l i n g u a l and cognitive development. International Journal of Psychology, 1976, 11_, 251-263. (b) . English-French b i l i n g u a l education i n the early grades. The E l g i n study through grade four. Modem Language Journal, 1976, 1_, 3-17. (c) . Primary-grade French immersion i n a u n i l i n g u a l English- Canadian s e t t i n g : The Toronto study through grade 2. Canadian Journal of Education, 1976, 1_, 39-58. (d) . Update on French immersion: The Toronto study through grade 3. Canadian Journal of Education, 1976, 4_, 33-42. (e) . B i l i n g u a l Education Project: Evaluation of the 1975-76 French immersion program i n grades 3-5, Ottawa Board of Education and Carleton Board of Education. Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1977 (mimeo). . Evaluation of a b i l i n g u a l education program i n Canada: The E l g i n study through grade s i x . Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Inter u n i v e r s i t y Commission for Applied L i n g u i s t i c s . B u l l e t i n CILA, 134. 1978, 27. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 174 043) . Barik, H.C, Swain, M. tt McTavish, K. Immersion classes i n an Eng- l i s h s e t t i n g : One way for les Anglais to learn French. Working Papers on B i l i n g u a l i s m , 1974, 2_, 38-56. (ERIC Document Repro- duction Service No. ED 122 589) Barik, H.C, Swain, M. § Nwanunobi, E.A. English-French b i l i n g u a l education: The E l g i n study through grade f i v e . The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1977, 4_, 459-475. Bautier-Castaing, E. A c q u i s i t i o n comparee de l a syntaxe du francais par des enfants francophones et non francophones. Etudes de Linguistique Appliquee, 1977, 27, 19-41. B.C. French Comprehension Test (Experimental ve r s i o n ) . Burnaby, B.C.: Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1976-77. Beery, K.E. Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Rev. ed.). Administration, scoring, and teaching manual. Chicago, 111.: F o l l e t t Publishing Co., 1982. Beery, K.E. § Buktenica, N.A. Beery and Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration - Manual. Chicago, 111.: F o l l e t t Publishing Co., 1977. Beery, M.F. § Eisenson, J . Speech disorders: P r i n c i p l e s and prac- t i c e s of therapy. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1956. B i l i n g u a l Education Project S t a f f (O.I.S.E.). French immersion pro- grams i n Canada. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, S_, 597-605. 135. Boehm, A.E. Boehm Test of Basic Concepts - Manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1971. Bruck, M. Switching out of French immersion. Interchange on Educa- t i o n a l P o l i c y , 1978, 4, 86-94. (a) . The s u i t a b i l i t y of early French immersion programs f o r the language disabled c h i l d . The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, _5, 884-887. (b) . Language impaired children's performance i n an additive b i - l i n g u a l education program. Applied P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , 1982, 1_, 45-60. Bruck, M., Jakimik, J . 6, Tucker, R.G. Are French immersion programs suitable for working-class children? A follow-up i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Word, 1971, 21_, 311-341. Bruck, M., Lambert, W.E., § Tucker, G.R. B i l i n g u a l schooling through the elementary grades: The St. Lambert project at grade seven. Language Learning, 1974, 2_, 183-204. _. A l t e r n a t i v e forms of immersion f o r second language teaching. Working Papers on Bilin g u a l i s m, 1976, 1_0, 23-61. (a) . Cognitive consequences of b i l i n g u a l schooling; The St, Lam- bert project through grade s i x . International Journal of Psycho- l i n g u i s t i c s , 1976, 6, 13-32. (b) Bruck, M., Rabinovitch, S. § Oates, M. The e f f e c t s of French, immer- sion programs on c h i l d r e n with language d i s a b i l i t i e s - , a preliminary- report. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 1975, 5_, 47-86, (ERIC 136. Document Reproduction Service No. ED 125 242) Bruck, M. § Swain, M. Research conference on immersion education for the majority c h i l d : Introduction. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 5_, 490-493. Buros, K.O. (Ed.) Tests & reviews: Foreign languages - Spanish. The Eighth Mental Measurements Yearbook. New Jersey: The Gryphon Press, 1978, Vol. I, 232-236. (a) Tests § reviews: I n t e l l i g e n c e - Group. The Eighth Mental Measurements Yearbook. New Jersey: The Gryphon Press, 1978, Vol. I, 252-253. (b) . Tests § reviews: I n t e l l i g e n c e - Individual. The Eighth Mental Measurements Yearbook. New Jersey: The Gryphon Press, 1978, Vol. I, 318-322. (c) B u r s t a l l , C. Comments of guest analysts. The Canadian Modern Lang- uage Review, 1976, 2_, 208-215. B u r s t a l l , C , Jamieson, M., Cohen, S. § Hargreaves, M. Primary French i n the balance.. Slough, Berks.: National Foundation f o r Education- a l Research Publishing Co. Ltd., 1974. Burt, M.K., Dulay, H.C. £ Hernandez, Ch. B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure - Manual. New York: Harcourt, Brace § Jovanovich, Inc., 1973. Canadian Cognitive A b i l i t i e s Test - Form 1. Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1974. Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s - Form 2. Toronto: Thomas Nelson § Sons (Canada) Ltd., 1968. 137. . Level 8 - Form 3M. Toronto: Thomas Nelson § Sons, 1976. C a r r o l l , J.B. Comments of guest analysts. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 2, 208-215. Chomsky, N. Review of "verbal behavior" by B.F. Skinner. Language, 1959," 35, 26-58. . Language and mind. New York: Harcourt § Brace, 1972. C h r i s t i a n , C.C. J r . , Social and psychological implications of b i l i n - gual l i t e r a c y . In A. Simoes (Ed.) The B i l i n g u a l c h i l d . New York: Academic Press, 1976, 17-39. . Minority language s k i l l s before age three. In W.F. MacKey § T. Anderson (Eds.) Bil i n g u a l i s m i n early childhood. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers, 1977, 94-108. Colarusso, R.P. § Hammill, D.D. Motor-Free V i s u a l Perception Test - Manual. Novato, C a l i f . : Academic Therapy Publications, 1972. Cummins, J . Cognitive factors associated with the attainment of intermediate le v e l s of b i l i n g u a l s k i l l s . Modern Language Journal, 1977, 1-2, 3-12. .' Educational implications of mother tongue maintenance i n minority-language groups. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 3, 395-416. (a) . The cognitive development of chi l d r e n i n immersion programs. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 5_, 855-883. (b) . Cognitive/academic language p r o f i c i e n c y , l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r - dependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. Work- 138. ing Papers on Bili n g u a l i s m, 1979, 19, 198-205. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 184 334) (a) . L i n g u i s t i c interdependence and the educational development of b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n . Review of Educational Research, 1979, 2_, 222-251." (b) . Should the c h i l d who i s experiencing d i f f i c u l t i e s i n early immersion be switched to the regular English program? A r e i n t e r - pretation of T r i t e s ' data. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1979, 1, 139-143. (c) . The c r o s s - l i n g u a l dimensions of language p r o f i c i e n c y : i m p l i - cations f or b i l i n g u a l education and the optimal age issue. TESOL Quarterly, 1980, 14_, 175-188. . E f f e c t s of kindergarten experience on academic progress i n French immersion programs. Review and Evaluation B u l l e t i n s , 1981, 6, 1-57. . Through the looking glass: What r e a l l y happens i n an immersion classroom. Interchange on Educational Po l i c y , 1982, 2_, 40-44. Cziko, G.A. The e f f e c t s of language sequencing on the development of b i l i n g u a l reading s k i l l s . The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, _5, 534-539. Cziko, G.A., Holobow, N. $ Lambert, W.E. E a r l y and l a t e French immer- sion: A comparison of children at grade seven. McGill U n i v e r s i t y , Department of Psychology, 1977. (ERIC Document Reproduction Ser- vice No. ED 153 461) 139. Cziko, G.A., Lambert, W.E., S i d o t i , N. § Tucker, R. Graduates of early immersion: Retrospective views of grade 11 students and t h e i r parents, 1978, 1-116. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 153 462) d'Anglejan, A. § Tucker, G.R. Academic report: The St. Lambert pro- gram of home-school language switch. Modern Language Journal, 1971, 8, 99-101. Dank, M. § McEachern, W. A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n comparing the native language or a l reading behaviour of French immersion students with t r a d i t i o n a l English language students. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1979, 3>, 366-371. Davies, M. § Hughes, A.G. An in v e s t i g a t i o n into the comparative i n - t e l l i g e n c e and attainments of Jewish and non-Jewish school c h i l d r e n . B r i t i s h Journal of Psychology, 1927, 18, 134-146. Derrick, W. § Randeria, K. Early immersion i n French. Today's Educa- t i o n , 1979, 1_, 38-40. Dockrell, W.B. § Brosseau, J.F. The correlates of second language learning by young c h i l d r e n . Alberta Journal of Education Research, 1967, 13, 295-298. Downing, J . B i l i n g u a l i s m and learning to read. The I r i s h Journal of Education, 1974, 8̂, 77-88. . Strategies of b i l i n g u a l teaching. International Review of Education, 1978, 24-, 329-360. Dunn, L.M. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. F r a n k l i n , Tenn.: Ameri- can Guidance Service, 1959. 140. . Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. C i r c l e Pines, Minn.: Amer- can Guidance Services, 1965. Edwards, H.P. Evaluation of the French immersion program offered by the Ottawa Roman Catholic Separate School Board. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 2_, 137-150. Edwards, H.P. § Casserly, M.C. Research and evaluation of second language programs, 1970-71 annual report. Ottawa: Ottawa Roman Cat h o l i c Separate School Board, 1971. . Research and evaluation of second language programs, 1971-72 annual report. Ottawa: Ottawa Roman Ca t h o l i c Separate School Board, 1972. (a) . Research and evaluation of the French program, 1970-71 Report: English schools. Ottawa: Ottawa Roman Ca t h o l i c Separate School Board, 1972. (b) . Research and evaluation of second language programs, 1972-73 annual report. Ottawa: Ottawa Roman Ca t h o l i c Separate School Board, 1973. . Research and evaluation of second language (French) programs. Toronto: M i n i s t r y of Education, Ontario, 1976. Edwards, H.P. § Smyth, F. Evaluation of second language programs, 1974-75 annual report. Toronto: M i n i s t r y of Education, 1975. . A l t e r n a t i v e s to early immersion programs f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of French as a second language. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 5_, 524-533. 141. French Comprehension Test (Experimental edition) - Kindergarten Level, grade 1 l e v e l . Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education, 1973. Gardner, R. § Lambert, W.E. Attitudes and motivation i n second- language learning. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers, 1972. Genesee, F. A long i t u d i n a l evaluation of an early immersion school program. Canadian Journal of Education, 1978, 4_, 31-50. (a) . Is there an optimal age for s t a r t i n g second language i n s t r u c - tion? McGill Journal of Education, 1978, 2_, 145-154. (b) . Scholastic e f f e c t s of French immersion: an overview a f t e r ten years. Interchange, 1979, 4_, 20-29. . The r o l e of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n second language learning. Language Learning, 1976, 26, 267-280. (a) . The s u i t a b i l i t y of immersion programs for a l l children. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 3_, 494-515. (b) Genesee, F. § Hamayan, E. Individual differences i n second language learning. Applied P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , 1980, 1_, 95-100. Genesee, F., Morin, S. § A l l i s t e r , T. Evaluation of the 1973-74 grade 7 French immersion c l a s s . Montreal: Protestant School Board of Greater Montreal, 1974. Genesee, F., Tucker, G.R. § Lambert, W.E. Communicational e f f e c t i v e - ness of English children i n French schools. Canadian Journal of Education, 1977, _3, 15-24. Golick, M. Language disorders i n c h i l d r e n : A l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 142. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n . McGill U n i v e r s i t y , 1977. Hamayan, E., Markman, B., P e l l e t i e r , S., § Tucker, G. Differences in performance i n e l i c i t e d i m i t a t i o n between French monolingual and English-speaking b i l i n g u a l ' c h i l d r e n . International Review of Applied L i n g u i s t i c s i n Language Teaching (IRAL), 1978, 4_, 330-339. Hefferman, P.J. "French Immersion" au Canada: Programme a l t e r n a t i f pour des contextes varies (French immersion i n Canada: An A l t e r - native program f o r various contexts). Language Problems and Language Planning, 1980, 2, 122-130. H i l l , H.S. The e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l i s m on the measured i n t e l l i g e n c e of elementary school c h i l d r e n of I t a l i a n parentage. Journal of Experimental Education, 1936, _5, 75-79. Holden, L. An experiment with b i l i n g u a l i s m . Alberta Modern Language Journal, 1975, 1_, 17-23. IEA Listening Test of French as a Foreign Language (Population I I ) . Stockholm: International Association for the Evaluation of Educa- t i o n a l Achievement, 1970. Jacobs, G.H.L. An American foreign language immersion program: How to. Foreign Language Annals, 1978, 4_, 405-413. Jakobovits, L.A. The dilemna of b i l i n g u a l education. In M. Swain (Ed.) B i l i n g u a l schooling - Some experiences i n Canada and the United States. Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Edu- cation Symposium Se r i e s , 1972, 73-75. Jastak, J.F. § Jastak, S.R. The Wide Range Achievement Test - Manual of i n s t r u c t i o n s . Wilmington, Delaware: Guidance Associates, 1965. . The Wide Range Achievement Test - Manual of i n s t r u c t i o n s . Wilmington, Delaware: Jastak Associates, Inc., 1978. Jones, W.R. § Stewart, W.A. Bilingualism and verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e . B r i t i s h Journal of Psychology, 1951, £, 3-8. Kaufman, D. § Wilton, F. Primary kids do everything i n French. B.C. Teacher, 1975, 2_, 54-56. Kirk, S., McCarthy, J . , $ Kirk, W. The I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholin- g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s - Examiner's manual (Rev. ed.). Urbana, 111.: Un i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1968. Klaus, R.A. § Starke, C. Experimental r e v i s i o n of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test as a predictor of f i r s t grade reading a b i l i t y . Unpublished paper. Nashville, Tenn.: Peabody College Psychology Department, 1964. Klinck, P. What you always wanted to ask about immersion and were a f r a i d to know. Alberta Modem Language Journal, 1981, 2_, 21-27. Lambert, W.E. Culture and language as factors i n learning and educa- t i o n . In A. Wolfgang (Ed.) Education of immigrant students. Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies in Education, 1975. Lambert, W.E. § A n i s f e l d , E.A. A note on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of b i l i n - gualism and i n t e l l i g e n c e . Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 1969, 1_, 123-128. Lambert, W.E. § Fillenbaum, S. A p i l o t study of aphasia among b i l i n - 144. guals. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1959, 13, 23-24. Lambert, W.E., Just, M. § Segalowitz, N. Some cognitive consequences of following the c u r r i c u l a of grades one and two i n a foreign lan- guage. Georgetown Monograph Series on Languages and L i n g u i s t i c s , 1970, 23, 229-279. Lambert, W.E. § Macnamara, J . Some cognitive consequences of follow- ing f i r s t - g r a d e curriculum i n a second language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1969, 60_, 86-96. Lambert, W.E. § Tucker, G.R. B i l i n g u a l education of c h i l d r e n : The St. Lambert experiment. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers, 1972. . B i l i n g u a l education of c h i l d r e n : The St. Lambert experiment. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers, Inc., 1978. Lambert, W.E., Tucker, G.R. and d'Anglejan, A. Cognitive and a t t i t u d - i n a l consequences of b i l i n g u a l schooling: The St. Lambert p r o j e c t through grade s i x . Journal of Educational Psychology, 1973, 2_, 141-159. Landry, R.G. Research report: Some research conclusions regarding the learning of a second language and c r e a t i v i t y . Behavioral Science, 1972, 3_, 309. Lapkin, S. & Kamin, J . (Eds.) A Survey of French immersion materials (K-6). Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1977. Lapkin, S. § Swain, M. The use of English and French cloze tests i n 145. a b i l i n g u a l education program evaluation: V a l i d i t y and error an- a l y s i s . Language Learning, 1977, _2, 279-314. LaTorre, R.A., Hawkhead, F., Kawahira, R. § Bilow, L. Kindergarten screening p i l o t project i n Vancouver schools 1979-1980: A two- year foilow-up of the McCarthy Screening Test. Vancouver School Board Educational Research B u l l e t i n , 1982, 4_, 2-4. Lee, L.L. The Northwestern Syntax Screening Test. Evanston, 111.: Northwestern University Press, 1971. Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test - Manual, Kindergarten and grade one (Rev. ed.). Los Angeles, C a l i f . : C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1951.' Lenneberg, E. B i o l o g i c a l foundations of language. New York: Wiley, 1967. Lindamood, CH. § Lindamood, P.C., Lindamood Auditory Conceptualiza- t i o n Test - Preliminary manual. Boston, Mass.: Teaching Resources Corporation, .1971. Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Tests - Primary battery, l e v e l 2, l e v e l 3, Form A (1954-66). Toronto: Thomas Nelson $ Sons Ltd., 1967. MacGinitie, W.H. Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Canadian e d i t i o n - Teacher's manual ( l e v e l C, forms 1, 2). Toronto: Nelson Canada Ltd., 1980. Mackay, W.F. The lesson to be drawn from b i l i n g u a l i s m . In P.R. Leon (Ed.) Linguistique appliqu6e et enseignement du fr a n c a i s. Mont- r e a l : Centre Educatif et C u l t u r e l , 1967. Mackey, W.F. B i l i n g u a l education i n a b i n a t i o n a l school. Rowley, 146. Mass.: Newbury House, 1971. MacNab, G.L. French immersion programs across Canada: The influence of cumulative amounts of time, s t a r t i n g age and yearly time a l l o t - ment on the learning of French - Research report 81-82. Ottawa: The Ottawa Board of Educational Research Center, 1981. Macnamara, J . B i l i n g u a l i s m i n primary education: A study of I r i s h experience. Edinburgh: University Press, 1966. . B i l i n g u a l i s m and thought. Georgetown Monograph Series on Languages and L i n g u i s t i c s , 1970, 23_, 25-45. . Comparison between f i r s t and second language learning. Work- ing Papers on B i l i n g u a l i s m , 1975, 1_, 71-95. (ERIC Document Repro- duction Service No. ED 125 265) . F i r s t and second language learning: Same or d i f f e r e n t . Journal of Education, 1976, 2_, 39-54. Macnamara, J . , Edwards, H.P. § Bain, B. The balance e f f e c t . The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 5, 890-894. Maurice, L.J. § Roy, R.R. The e f f e c t of a French immersion program on student achievement i n English vocabulary, reading, l i s t e n i n g comprehension, mathematics, and French. French immersion i n Winnipeg. Research Monograph, 1976, 1_. McCarthy, D., McCarthy Scales of Children's A b i l i t i e s - Manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1972. McDougall, A. § Bruck, M. English reading within the French immersion program: A comparison of the e f f e c t s of the int r o d u c t i o n of English reading at d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s . Language Learning, 1976, 1_, 37-43. McEachern, W. Parental decision f o r French immersion: A look at some i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s . The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1980, 2, 238-246. Mclnnis, C E . £ Donoghue, E.E. Research and evaluation of second language programs - F i n a l report. Toronto: Ontario M i n i s t r y of Education, 1976. McNeill, D. The a c q u i s i t i o n of language: The study of development a l p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s . New York: Harper § Row, 1970. Mes-Prat, M. § Edwards, H.P. Elementary French immersion c h i l d r e n use of orthographic structure f o r reading. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1981, 4_, 682-691. Metropolitan Achievement Tests - Primary I battery, forms A § B. New York: Harcourt, Brace § Jovanovich, Inc., 1958. . Primary II battery, forms A & F. New York: Harcourt, Brace § Javanovich, Inc., 1970. . Elementary battery, forms A § F. New York: Harcourt, Braci § Javanovich, Inc., 1970. Metropolitan Readiness Tests - Form A. New York: Harcourt, Brace I World, Inc., 1964. Morgan, G.A.V. Yes! we should have b i l i n g u a l immersion programs: A dialogue with Professor Weininger. Interchange on Educational P o l i c y , 1982, 2, 44-49. 148. Myklebust, H.R. The Pupil Behaviour Rating Scale. New York: Grune tr Stratton, 1971. Naiman, N., F r o h l i c h , M., Stern, H.H. § Todesco, A. The good language learner. Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1978. - Neufeld, G.G. A t h e o r e t i c a l perspective on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of b i l i n - gualism and thought: r e v i s i t e d . Working Papers on B i l i n g u a l i s m, 1974, 2, 25-29. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 122 592) Newcomer, P.L. § Hammill, D.D. Test of Language Development - Primary. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed, 1977. Oren, D.L. Cognitive advantages o f b i l i n g u a l children r e l a t e d to l a - be l i n g a b i l i t y . Journal of Educational Research, 1981, 3_, 163-169. Otis-Lennon Mental A b i l i t y Test - Primary II l e v e l , form J ; s t a r t of grade 1. New York: Harcourt, Brace § World, Inc., 1967. . Elementary I l e v e l , form J ; grades 1, 2, 3. New York: Har- court, Brace § World, Inc., 1967. . Elementary I l e v e l , form K; grade 3. New York: Harcourt, Brace § World, Inc., 1967. . Elementary II l e v e l , form K. New York: Harcourt, Brace § World, Inc., 1967. i Past, A.W. Preschool reading i n two languages as a f a c t o r of b i l i n - gualism. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of Texas at Austin, 1976. Past, K.C. A case study of preschool reading and speaking a c q u i s i t i o n 149. of two languages. In R. Lado § T. Anderson (Eds.) Georgetown University Papers on Languages and L i n g u i s t i c s - Number 13: Early Reading. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1976. Peal, E. & Lambert, W.G. The r e l a t i o n of b i l i n g u a l i s m to i n t e l l i - gence. Psychological Monographs, General and Applied, 1962, 76, (27 Whole No. 546). Penfield, W. Conditioning the uncommitted cortex f o r language learn- ing. Brain, 1965, 88_, 787-798. Penfield, W. § Roberts, L. Speech and brain mechanisms. Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959. Pintner, R. The influence o f language background on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . Journal of So c i a l Psychology, 1932, _3, 235-240. Pintner, R. § Arsenian, S. The r e l a t i o n of b i l i n g u a l i s m to verbal i n - t e l l i g e n c e and school adjustment. Journal of Educational Research, 1937, 31_, 255-263. Raven, J.C. Coloured Progressive Matrices - Sets A, Ab, B. London: H.C. Lewis £ Co. Ltd., 1956. _. Standard Progressive Matrices - Sets A, B, C, D, and E. London: H.C. Lewis £ Co. Ltd., 1958. Reiss, M.-A., Helping the unsuccessful language learner, The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1983, 2, 257-266. Roy, R.R. Richmond grade III French immersion program - An assessment. Vancouver, B.C.: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 (mimeo). . Richmond grade III French immersion program - An Assessment. 150. Vancouver, B.C.: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 (mimeo). Royal Commission on B i l i n g u a l i s m and B i c u l t u r a l i s m Report. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967, 1_; 1968, 2. Rubin, J . What the "good language le a r n e r " can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 1975, 1, 41-51. Saer, D.J. The e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l i s m on i n t e l l i g e n c e . B r i t i s h Journal of Psychology, 1923, 1_4, 25-38. Samuels, D.D. § G r i f f o r e , R.J. The Plattsburg French language immer- sion program: Its influence on i n t e l l i g e n c e and self-esteem. Language Learning, 1979, 1_, 45-52. Schumann, J.H. A f f e c t i v e factors and the problem of age i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n . Language Learning, 1975, 1_, 209-235. Segalowitz, N. 6j Lambert, W.E. Semantic generalization i n B i l i n g u a l s . Journal o f Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 1969, 8̂, 559-566. Shapson, S.M. § Day, E.M. A l o n g i t u d i n a l evaluation of an early immersion program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Journal of M u l t i l i n g u a l and M u l t i c u l t u r a l Development, 1982, ^, 1-16. Shapson, S.M. § Kaufman, D. Overview of elementary French programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 3_, 586-603. Slinge r l a n d , B.H. § Ansara, A.S. Screening Tests for I d e n t i f y i n g Children with S p e c i f i c Language D i s a b i l i t y . Cambridge, Mass.: Educators Publishing Service, Inc., 1962-74. Soderbergh, R. Reading i n early childhood. Washington, D.C: 151. Georgetown University Press, 1977. Spache Diagnostic Reading Scales. Monterey, C a l i f . : McGraw-Hill, 1972. Spilka, I.V. Assessment of second-language performance i n immersion programs. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 5_, 543-561. Sta f f o r d , K.R. Problem solving as a function of language. Language and Speech, 1968, U, 104-112. Stanford Early School Achievement Test. New York: Harcourt, Brace £ Jovanovich, Inc., 1969. Stanley, M.H. French immersion programs: The experience of the Prot- estant School Board of Montreal. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1974, 2, 152-160. Stark, W.A. The e f f e c t of b i l i n g u a l i s m on i n t e l l i g e n c e : An i n v e s t i - gation c a r r i e d out i n c e r t a i n Dublin primary schools. B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology, 1940, 10, 78-79. Stern, H.H. B i l i n g u a l education: A review of recent North American experience. Modern Languages, 1973, 2_, 57-62. (a) . Report on b i l i n g u a l education. Study E7 prepared for the Commission of Inquiry on the p o s i t i o n of the French language and language r i g h t s i n Quebec (Gendron Commission). Quebec: Quebec O f f i c i a l Publisher, 1973. (b) . French immersion i n Canada: Achievements and d i r e c t i o n s . The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 5_, 836-854. . French core programs across Canada: How can we improve them? 152. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1982, 1_, 34-47. Stern, H.H. § Harley, B. The Ottawa-Carleton French p r o j e c t : issues, conclusions and-policy implications. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 2_, 216-243. Strong, L.R. The Spanish-speaking dyslexic c h i l d . B u l l e t i n of the Orton Society, 1972, 22_, 164-165. Swain, M. (Ed.) B i l i n g u a l schooling: Some experiences i n Canada and the United States. Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1972. . French immersion programs across Canada: Research f i n d i n g s . The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1974, 1_, 117-129. . More about primary French immersion classes. Orbit, 1975, 6_, 13-15. . Biliiography: Research on immersion education f o r the major- i t y c h i l d . The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 5_, 592-596. (a) . English-speaking c h i l d + early French immersion = b i l i n g u a l child? The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 2_, 180-192. (b) ______ French immersion: Earl y , l a t e or p a r t i a l ? The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 3_, 577-585. . French immersion programs i n Canada. M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , 1980, 2, 3-6. . L i n g u i s t i c expectations: Core, extended and immersion pro- grams. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1981, 3, 486-497. 153. Swain, M. § Barik, H.D. French immersion classes: A promising route to b i l i n g u a l i s m . Orbit, 1973, 4_, 1-3. . A large scale program i n French immersion: The Ottawa study through grade three. ITL Review of Applied L i n g u i s t i c s , 1976, 33, 1-25. (a) . Five years o f primary French immersion: Annual reports of the B i l i n g u a l Education Project to the Carleton Board of Education and the Ottawa Board of Education up to 1975. Toronto: The Ontario Instit u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1976. (b) . B i l i n g u a l education i n Canada: French and English. In Spolsky § R.L. Cooper (Eds.) Case studies i n b i l i n g u a l education. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers, 1978. Swain, M. § Burnaby, B. Personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and second lan- guage learning i n young ch i l d r e n : A p i l o t study. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 1976, 11_, 115-128. Swain, M. § Lapkin, S. B i l i n g u a l education i n Ontario: A decade of research. Toronto: Min i s t r y of Education, 1981. Swain, M., Lapkin, S. § Barik, H.C. The cloze t e s t as a measure of second language p r o f i c i e n c y f o r young c h i l d r e n . Working Papers on Bilingualism, 1976, 1_1, 32-42. Sweet, R.J. The p i l o t immersion program at Allenby Public School, The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1974, 2_, 161-168. Sweet, C , Leblanc, M. 5 Lawton, S. A French immersion program's impact on f i r s t language s k i l l s . Ontario Education, 1975, S, 6-10. \ 154. Tarone, E., Frauenfelder, U. § S e l i n k e r , L. S y s t e m a t i c i t y / v a r i a b i l - i t y and s t a b i l i t y / i n s t a b i l i t y i n interlanguage systems: More data from Toronto immersion. In H.D. Brown (Ed.) Papers i n second lan- guage a c q u i s i t i o n . Ann Arbor, Mich.: Language Learning 1976, 93-134/ Taylor, M. Speculations on b i l i n g u a l i s m and the cognitive network. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 1974, 2, 68-124. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 122 591) Terman, L.M. § M e r r i l l , M.A. Measuring i n t e l l i g e n c e . Boston- Houghton M i f f l i n , 1937. Test de Lecture - Grade 2 and 3 l e v e l s . Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i - tute f o r Studies i n Education, 1974. . Grade 4 l e v e l . Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1975. Tests de Rendement en Calcul - Grade 3 l e v e l . Montreal: La Commis- sion des Ecoles Catholiques de Montreal, 1969-70. Test de Rendement en Frangais - Grade 3 l e v e l . Montreal: La Commis- sion des Ecoles Catholiques de Montreal, 1969-74. . Grade 1 l e v e l . Montreal: La Commission des Ecoles Catho- liques de Montreal, 1971-72. . Grade 2 l e v e l . Montreal: La Commission des Ecoles Catho- liques de Montreal, 1972-73. . No grade l e v e l indicated. Montreal: La Commission des Ecoles Catholiques de Montreal, 1974-75. 155. Tiegs, E.W. & Clark, W. C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test - Reading, l e v e l I I , form A. Monterey, C a l i f . : CTB, McGraw-Hill, 1970. Titone, R. Psycholinguistic variables of c h i l d b i l i n g u a l i s m : Cogni- t i o n and personality development. The Canadian Modern Language Review," 1983, 2, 171-181. Tourond, M. French Diagnostic Reading Tests for Early French Immer- sion Primary Classes. Ottawa: Centre Franco-Ontarien de Res- sources Pedagogiques, 1980. Tourond, M. , Thomson, C , Lokan, J . § Hendelman, T.A. A v a l i d a t i o n of the Checklist of French Immersion Kindergarten Teacher-Observa- ti o n s . Unpublished research report No. 77-03. Ottawa: Carleton Board of Education Research Centre, 1977. T r i t e s , R.L. Children with learning d i f f i c u l t i e s i n primary French immersion. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 2_, 193-215. . Tactual Performance Test - Neuropsychological te s t manual. Montreal: Ronalds Federated, 1977. . Learning d i s a b i l i t i e s i n immersion. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 5_, 888-889. . A reply to Cummins. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1979, 1, 143-146. . Primary French immersion: D i s a b i l i t i e s and pr e d i c t i o n of success. Toronto: Ministry o f Education, 1981. T r i t e s , R.L. § P r i c e , M.A. Learning d i s a b i l i t i e s found i n ass o c i a t i o n with French immersion programming. Toronto: Ministry of Education, 1976. 1 . Learning d i s a b i l i t i e s found i n association with French immer- sion programming: A cross v a l i d a t i o n . Toronto: M i n i s t r y of Education, 1977. . Assessment of readiness for primary French immersion. Toronto Ministry of Education, 1979. (a) . S p e c i f i c learning d i s a b i l i t y i n a primary French immersion. Interchange on Educational Pol i c y , 1979, 4_, 73-85. (b) . Assessment of readiness f o r primary French immersion: Grade one follow-up assessment. Toronto: M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980. Tucker, G.R. The development of reading s k i l l s within a b i l i n g u a l educational program. In S. Smiley £ J . Towner (Eds.) Language and Reading. Bellingham, WA.: Western Washington State College, 1975, 51-62. • Summary: Research conference on immersion education for the majority c h i l d . The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, _5, 585-591. . The l i n g u i s t i c perspective. B i l i n g u a l education: Current perspectives, V ol. 2 - L i n g u i s t i c s . A r l i n g t o n , V i r g i n i a : Center for Applied L i n g u i s t i c s , 1977. Tucker, G.R., Hamayan, E. § Genesee, F.H. A f f e c t i v e , cognitive and s o c i a l factors i n second-language a c q u i s i t i o n . The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 3_, 214-226. Tucker, G.R., Lambert, W.E. 8, d'Anglejan, A. French immersion pro- grams: A p i l o t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Language Sciences, 1973, 2_5, 19-26. 157. Vygotsky, L.A. Thought and language. Cambridge, Mass.: Massa- chussets I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1962. Wagner, R.F. Bilingualism, multiple d y s l e x i a , and polyglot aphasia. Academic Therapy, 1976, 1_, 91-97. Wechsler, D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale f or Children - Manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1949. - Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f or Children. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1952. . Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of I n t e l l i g e n c e . New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1967. Weininger, 0. Learning a second language: The immersion experience and the whole c h i l d . Interchange on Educational P o l i c y , 1982, 2_, 20-40. Whitworth, J.R. $ Sutton, D.L. WISC-R Compilation. Novato, C a l i f . : Academic Therapy Publications, 1978. Wilton, F. Implications of a second-language program: The Coquitlam experience. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 1974, 2, 169-180 158. APPENDICES APPENDIX A LAMBERT TESTS DESCRIPTION 160. TESTS DESCRIPTION GRADE 1 LEVEL: ST. LAMBERT EXPERIMENT PILOT AND FOLLOW-UP CLASSES (LAMBERT 5 TUCKER, 1972) Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1956), non-verbal IQ t e s t of gen- era l i n t e l l i g e n c e administered at the beginning and the end of the year. Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Tests, Level I, 1954-66, measure of i n t e l l i g e n c e at the end of the schoolyear. Home-background schedules with interviews (Bloom, 1964; Dave, 1963; Wolf, 1963) and parent questionnaire (socio-economic status, c h i l d ' s l i n g u i s t i c environment attitu d e p r o f i l e ) . Metropolitan Achievement Tests (1959): Primary I Battery (word knowledge, word discr i m i n a t i o n , reading, and arithmetic concepts and s k i l l s ) . The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Dunn, 1959): English, Form b; French, Form a, (auditory vocabulary, receptive language). Lis t e n i n g Comprehension i n English (comprehension of two s t o r i e s read o r a l l y ) . French Listening Comprehension (French version of the test i n E n g l i s h ) . Word Association Analysis: French and English (associational latency, paradigmatic, syntagmatic, semantic c l u s t e r s , idiosyn- c r a t i c , rhyming, transformations). Word Discrimination i n French (French version of the Metropolitan Achievement Test: word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) . 161. 10. Phoneme Production, i n French (auditory memory: r e p e t i t i o n of sentences). 11. Speaking S k i l l s i n English, f i l m s t r i p story of "The Lion and the Rat" (story r e t e l l i n g : o v e r a l l expressive a b i l i t y , grammar, enunciation, rhythm, intonation). 12. Speaking S k i l l s i n French, f i l m s t r i p story of "Le Loup et l ' O i s - eau" (same d e s c r i p t i o n as i n English). 13. Phoneme Discrimination i n Russian (discrimination of phonemes foreign to a l l groups). 14. Test de Rendement en Francais (1969-70), reading s k i l l s i n French: word di s c r i m i n a t i o n and sentence comprehension). 15. Test de Rendement en Calcul (1969-70), School Commission Mathe- matics Test, i n French (solving i d e n t i t i e s , addition, subtraction). APPENDIX B THE ELGIN STUDY 163. The E l g i n Study: Assessment Instruments for Grades 1 to 3 Evaluations Grades Tests Otis-Lennon Mental A b i l i t y Test (Primary II Level, Form J , 1967) S (Elementary I Level, Form J , 1967) E X X Metropolitan Readiness Tests (Form A, 1964) S Stanford E a r l y School Achievement Test (Level I) - SESAT (1969) S Metropolitan Achievement Tests (Primary I Battery, Form A, 1958) E (Primary II Battery, Form A, 1970) X (Elementary Battery, Form A, 1970) X French Comprehension Test - 1973 (Kindergarten Level) E (Grade 1 Level) E X X IEA Listening Test of French as a foreign language (Population I Level, 1970) X X Test de Rendement en Francais (Grade 1 Level, 1971-1972) X N.A. Note: S s t a r t of the grade E end of the grade APPENDIX C PARENT DATA SHEET 165. PARENT DATA SHEET A. Family h i s t o r y Mother Father Motor non-coordination Speech defects Reading problems Mental d e f i c i e n c i e s Health status Frequent i l l n e s s e s Chronic disorders Incidence of multiple b i r t h s B. Prenatal h i s t o r y - age o f father - age o f mother - health of mother during pregnancy (when was i t diagnosed that a set of t r i p l e t s would be born? Were there s p e c i a l measures undertaken then, i f so, which ones?). C. Natal h i s t o r y 1. Premature , Postmature , At term A l i c e Jack Joseph 2. Order of b i r t h Weight at b i r t h 166. 3. Delivery: - head ; breech ; Caesarean - length of hard labor - use of anesthesia ; instruments - a t y p i c a l behavior of i n f a n t s : feeding problems r e s p i r a t i o n problems 4. General health index A l i c e Jack Joseph - crying - reaction to s t i m u l i D. Developmental h i s t o r y 1. N u t r i t i o n - Feeding: breast ; b o t t l e - Gained Weight s t e a d i l y - S e n s i t i v i t y to foods 2. Responses to s t i m u l i : l i g h t ; sound ; moving objects ; people 3. Age in months when the following took place: A l i c e Jack Joseph a. r a i s i n g head b. r o l l i n g over c. f i r s t tooth d. 8 teeth A l i c e Jack Joseph e. sat alone f. crept g. took f i r s t steps - with support - alone h. balanced walking i . running j . established l a t e r a l i t y (holding spoon, crayon, etc.) k. gained voluntary control of bladder and of bowels 1. from what age d i d c h i l d show preference f o r one hand Health A l i c e Jack Joseph 1. General health index - high - average - low 2. L i s t of diseases (note age, s e v e r i t y and duration) a. upper r e s p i r a t o r y i n f e c t i o n s (cold, bronchitis) 168. A l i c e Jack Joseph b. influenza c. pneumonia d. mumps e. measles f. s c a r l e t fever g. chicken pox h. small pox i . whooping cough 3. Medical problems and treatment (age and description) a. ears b. nose c. eyes d. teeth e. s u r g i c a l operations 4. St r u c t u r a l anomalies and severe i n j u r i e s F. Speech and Language (date i n months) A l i c e Jack Joseph 1. Random v o c a l i z a t i o n 2. Imitation of sounds 3. Meaningful sounds 169. A l i c e Jack Joseph 4. F i r s t words (when and which ones) 5. Who spoke f i r s t 6. I n t e l l i g i b l e phrases (when, who and which ones) 7. Rate of development of sounds - normal - retarded - accelerated 8. Description of vocabulary of c h i l d 9. Need f o r speech 10. Presence of speech models - Reading and speaking to c h i l d by others - Imitation of baby t a l k by elders Pre-school experiences 1. Pre-school attendance (duration, type) 2. Learning nursery rhymes (memory and l i s t e n i n g ) Who learned them f i r s t ? 3. Interest i n learning things heard A l i c e Jack Joseph 170. A l i c e 1 Jack Joseph 4. Interest i n school 5. Interest i n learning French H. Ea r l y school experience i n parents' perspective (to comment freely) 1. S o c i a l ct Emotional adjustment 2. Academic performance and priv a t e tutoring 3. Expectations i n d i f f e r e n t areas I. S o c i a l h i s t o r y and adjustment 1. Number of i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g i n home ( r e l a t i v e s , servants, etc.) 2. Communication - Languages spoken i n home: - Standard of speech p r o f i c i e n c y - i n home: low average high - i n community: low average high 171. - Amount of speech i n home - much average l i t t l e - Motivation to communicate i n home: A l i c e : ___________ Jack: Joseph: 3. S o c i a l i n t e r e s t s A l i c e Jack Joseph - clubs - churches - sports - music - art - rec r e a t i o n - games 4. Behavior problems (age A l i c e Jack Joseph began, description) a. Nervousness b. Shyness c. Showing o f f d. Negation e. Rejection f. Aggression g. Prev a r i c a t i o n 172. A l i c e Jack Joseph h. Temper tantrums i . Excessive jealousy j . Extreme possessiveness - (objects, people, etc.) k. Enuresis 1. Sleeplessness m. Nightmares n. Strange and persistent fears o. Talking, crying i n sleep p. Thumb sucking q. Food id i o s y n c r a s i e s 5. C h i l d r e f l e c t s A l i c e Jack Joseph a. Stable adjustment b. Excessive tensions c. Great i n s e c u r i t y d. Overprotection e. General maladjustment 6. Intra-family problems of adjustment (to comment freely) 173. 7. D i s c i p l i n e of children - administered by - usual form - most e f f e c t i v e form - l e a s t e f f e c t i v e 8. Atmosphere of home characterized by: a- happiness b - unhappiness c- . sec u r i t y d. love e- excess of a f f e c t i o n f • overprotection &• sternness h - r i g i d i t y i - s o c i a b i l i t y j - s i l e n c e k- i n t e r e s t i n l i f e and events beyond home APPENDIX D KINDERGARTEN SCREENING BATTERY 175. Boehm Best of Basic Concepts (BTBC) According to the Manual, the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (Boehm, 1971) i s an "Instrument designed to assess beginning school children's knowledge of frequently used basic concepts widely but sometimes mistakenly assumed to be f a m i l i a r to children at t h e i r time of entry into Kindergarten or f i r s t grade" (p. 4). Buros (1978b), states that t h i s picture t e s t intended for Kindergarten to Grade 2 p u p i l s , i s based on commonly found concepts i n preschool and primary grade i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. I t i s known that these concepts have a d i r e c t impact on a child's e a r l y school performance since they are repeatedly used in the di r e c t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to curriculum materials. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) Buros (1978c) indicates that t h i s i n d i v i d u a l l y administered t e s t , was standardized for students between the ages of 2.5 and 18. A set of 4 pi c t u r e s i s presented to the c h i l d who upon hearing a word, points to the corresponding p i c t u r e . The plates are ranked i n order of d i f f i c u l t y with a heavy concentration at the early pre-school l e v e l , from d i s s i m i l a r to more s i m i l a r subjects on the plates. This t e s t provides "An estimate of a subject's verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e through measuring his hearing vocabulary" (Dunn, 1965, p. 25). S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t demonstrates the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to hear and understand words. It i s s u i t a b l e f o r non-readers and c h i l d r e n who have a reading d i s a b i l i t y as well as other handicaps (physical, et c . ) - The extent of vocabu- la r y knowledge seems to serve as a predictor of school success which i s r e l a t e d to verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e . The t e s t "Correlates equally well with language a r t s , s o c i a l studies, and mathematics achievement" (p. 41). * In terms of p r e d i c t i n g school success, Klaus and Starke (1964) found a c o r r e l a t i o n between the PPVT raw scores obtained at the begin ning of the year and Metropolitan Achievement Tests (1958), word knowledge scores: 0.39, word discrimination: 0.35, and reading: 0.39, at the end of the school year (Dunn, 1965, p.41). This test d i f f e r s from the Revised Stanford-Binet Tests o f Intel ligence (Terman § M e r r i l l , 1937) and Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale for Children (Wechsler, 1949) because no o r a l d e f i n i t i o n s of words i s required. The PPVT i s a receptive rather than an expressive language measure. A l l these t e s t s however, measure comprehension of spoken words. In the PPVT, the obtained raw scores are converted into per- c e n t i l e scores (pe r c e n t i l e norms), IQ (standard score norms) and mental age (age norms). McCarthy Screening Test (MST) This test devised by McCarthy (1972), i s a compilation of sub- t e s t s derived from the McCarthy Scales of Children's A b i l i t i e s (McCarthy, 1972) which assesses the c h i l d ' s l e v e l i n subscales of per- ceptual, verbal, q u a n t i t a t i v e performance, perceptual grouping and motor. 177. There are 6 subtests administered i n d i v i d u a l l y : 1. R i g h t - l e f t o r i e n t a t i o n (assessment of ori e n t a t i o n i n space by recognizing l e f t and r i g h t , on oneself and the reverse); . 2. Verbal memory (repeating a graded word s e r i e s , concrete con- cepts, abstract words and sentences); 3. Draw-a-design (perceptual a b i l i t y to copying geometrical designs); 4. Numerical memory (immediate memory by repeating s e r i e s of d i g i t s i n accurate order and i n the reverse of the order given); 5. Conceptual grouping ( a b i l i t y to deal l o g i c a l l y by c l a s s i f y - ing blocks on basis o f shape, c o l o r , and s i z e ) ; 6. Leg coordination (maturity of motor coordination i n the lower extremities, walking, standing, skipping). P a s s - f a i l scoring i s based on an assigned score f o r each subtest as per child's age range. Depending on the number of tests f a i l e d , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a c h i l d may be i n the "at r i s k " or "not at r i s k " category. B i l i n g u a l Syntax Measure (BSM) Buros (1978a) r e f e r s to t h i s o r a l language test as one designed for children from Kindergarten through to Grade 2. It assesses second- language oral p r o f i c i e n c y i n English or Spanish but the manual (Burt et a l . , 1975) offers to use the tes t with children from other native language backgrounds. It i s one of the few commercially d i s t r i b u t e d 178. t e s t s that pertains to b i l i n g u a l education. It indicates language dominance and f a c i l i t a t e s grouping of students i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l programmes. The purpose of t h i s individually-administered test i s to e l i c i t desired structures, a conversation that would constitute a part of grammatical structures acquired i n the process of speech development. The t e s t analyzes only syntax as an aspect of l i n g u i s t i c p r o f i c i e n c y , since i t i s more stable across i d i o l e c t s and d i a l e c t s than vocabulary, pronunciation or the functional uses of language. There are seven cartoons on the basis o f which the tester poses questions. Recorded responses are scored f o r t h e i r grammaticality of sentence structure. The test has f i v e p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s ranging from non-speaking or comprehension of the language to p r o f i c i e n t speakers. APPENDIX E LINGUISTIC TESTS 180. The I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguistic. A b i l i t i e s , ITPA (Kirk et a l . , 1968) i s a diagnostic t o o l used to define a c h i l d ' s s p e c i f i c cognitive a b i l i t i e s (channels of communications, p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c processes, l e v e l s of organization) and d e f i c i t s that require remed- i a t i o n ; i t taps a v a r i e t y of s k i l l s : (1) Auditory reception, (2) Visual reception, (3) Auditory association, (4) V i s u a l expression, (5) Verbal expression, (6) Manual expression, (7) Grammatic closure, (8) V i s u a l closure, (9) Auditory sequence memory, and supplementary subtests (10) V i s u a l closure, and (11) Sound blending. The Test of Language Development, TOLD (Newcomer § Hammill, 1982) i s an o r a l or spoken language te s t that diagnoses a c h i l d ' s strengths and weaknesses i n h i s receptive and expressive language competencies. The subtests are c l a s s i f i e d into 4 broad categories (composites) that serve to i d e n t i f y areas of concern such as l i s t e n - ing, speaking, semantics and syntax. The Lindamood Test of Auditory Conceptualization, LAC (Linda- mood 6i Lindamood, 1971) i s an i n d i v i d u a l l y administered t e s t which measures auditory perception, the a b i l i t y to discriminate one sound from the other, and to perceive the order and number of sounds found i n a spoken pattern. Conceptualization of speech patterns i s accom- plished through the manipulation of wooden blocks. The authors indicate that the "Two categories of the LAC Test p a r a l l e l the two s k i l l s basic to reading and s p e l l i n g , conceptualization of i s o l a t e d 181. phonemic units and conceptualization of contrasts within and between syllabes, i n respect to id e n t i t y and sequence" (p. 25). This test has the power to predict reading and s p e l l i n g achievement. APPENDIX F FRENCH DIAGNOSTIC READING TESTS FOR EARLY FRENCH IMMERSION PRIMARY CLASSES 183. French Diagnostic Reading Tests f o r Early French Immersion Primary Classes (Tourond, 1980) These group diagnostic tests of French reading are given to children enrolled i n primary French immersion classes where French i s taught: (1) 80%-100% i n Grade 1, (2) 70%-80% i n Grade 2, and (3) 50%-80% in Grade 3. For each grade l e v e l , s pecial consideration has been given to the s e l e c t i o n of subjects and i l l u s t r a t i o n s such as people, animals, nature, r e a l and imaginative s t o r i e s , f a m i l i a r and unfamiliar words (comprehension), various parts of speech, s p e c i f i c phonic s k i l l s , idiomatic expressions, paragraphs and dialogues varying i n length. At the Grade 1 l e v e l , there are 3 subtests: Word recognition (auditory/visual d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of words, 25 items), Word meaning (se l e c t i n g and matching a word with a v i s u a l cue, 24 items), Sentence and Short story comprehension (marking a picture i l l u s t r a t i n g the meaning of a sentence and choosing the correct word to f i n i s h a sentence, 22 items). The Grade 2 l e v e l foresees: Word synthesis based on sentences read by t e s t e r (Word blending and grapheme discr i m i n a t i o n , 12 items), Selecting and matching a word with a v i s u a l cue (Word meaning, 27 items), F i l l i n g out the blank with a word chosen from a set of 4 (Sentence completion, 27 items), and Picking one answer (out of 4) to s p e c i f i c questions r e l a t e d to a passage (Story comprehension, 24 items). 184. F i n a l l y , the Grade 3 l e v e l has only 2 parts c o n s i s t i n g i n f i l l - ing out the blank with a word chosen from a set of 4 (Sentence com- prehension, 33 items) and f i n d i n g synonyms and s e l e c t i n g the best answers (among 4) to questions pertaining to the short s t o r i e s (Story comprehension, 24 items). Percentile ranks derived from raw scores give an i n d i c a t i o n of the pupil's performance l e v e l . Once correction, tabulation and conversion into p e r c e n t i l e ranks have been achieved, i t i s recommended to proceed to the Analysis of Errors Chart from tests which w i l l show in which area of reading a c h i l d w i l l need s p e c i a l assistance. APPENDIX G PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS 186. A battery of 6 psychodiagnostic tests was administered by two psychologists. In some instances, there was no need to give a t e s t to a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d . The Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (1977) i s a "Regular screening instrument that helps prevent learning and behavioral disorders through early i d e n t i f i c a - t i o n of d i f f i c u l t i e s " (Beery, 1982). Sensorimotor development i s assessed by having the c h i l d reproduce geometric forms, from simple to d i f f i c u l t . A comparison i s then made between chronological age and visual-motor integration age equivalent. The Motor-Free Visual Perception Test (Colarusso § Hammill, 1972) estimated v i s u a l perceptual a b i l i t y i n c h i l d r e n . Though i t has l i t t l e commonality with s o c i a l achievement (reading, etc.) or i n t e l l i g e n c e , i t i s used for screening diagnostic, and research purposes. No motor involvement, only perception i n the areas of s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , v i s u a l closure, and v i s u a l memory i s taken into account. In essence, the c h i l d i s required to match or s e l e c t geometric shapes, l e t t e r - l i k e and number-like forms, s t i c k figures and r e a l i s t i c designs. The Wide Range Achievement Test, WRAT (Jastak § Jastak, 1978) assessed reading word recognition, pronunciation, written s p e l l i n g and arithmetic computation. In reading, i t involves recognizing, naming l e t t e r s , and sounding words i n i s o l a t i o n . In s p e l l i n g , the subject writes a l i s t of words from d i c t a t i o n and i n arithmetic, counting, solving o r a l problems and written computations are required. The purpose of t h i s test i s to i d e n t i f y a s p e c i f i c learning d i s a b i l i t y 187. and the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l for c h i l d r e n . The Wechsler Intelligence Scale f or Children, WISC-Revised (1974) examined mental a b i l i t i e s , current i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s of c h i l d r e n . This i n d i v i d u a l l y administered test (Whitworth § Sutton, 1978) com- prises 12 subtests: 1. Information, which measures a student's knowledge of p a r t i c - ular f a c t s ; 2. S i m i l a r i t i e s , which measures a b i l i t y to think and reason l o g i c a l l y and a s s o c i a t i v e l y at concrete and abstract l e v e l s ; 3. Vocabulary, which requires the d e f i n i t i o n of s p e c i f i c words; 4. Arithmetic, which measures the a b i l i t y to solve arithmetic problems received a u d i t o r i l y through mental computation; 5. Comprehension, which measures the a b i l i t y to evaluate proper- l y a s i t u a t i o n t y p i c a l of r e a l l i f e and determine the appropriate set of responses; 6. D i g i t span, which measures^the retention and r e p e t i t i o n i n correct sequence of both forward and backward numerical information received a u d i t o r i l y ; 7. Picture completion, which measures the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y v i s u a l l y a relevant part that i s missing within a p i c t u r e ; 8. Pi c t u r e arrangement, which measures the a b i l i t y to place i n correct sequence a seri e s of pictures r e f l e c t i n g a r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n ; 9. Block design, which measures the a b i l i t y to look at an abstract design, analyze i t into parts and reproduce i t using appro- 188. p r i a t e l y colored blocks; 10. Object assembly, which measures the a b i l i t y to assemble individual concrete parts to make a recognizable whole; 11. Coding, which measures the a b i l i t y to reproduce symbols through pencil manipulation as a part of a set code; 12. Mazes, which measures the a b i l i t y to plan, use foresight and perceptually organize according to a visual pattern. APPENDIX H GATES-MACGINITTE READING TESTS 190. The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests (MacGinitie, 1980) are Can- adian standardized tests which present the general l e v e l of reading achievement of i n d i v i d u a l students by measuring reading vocabulary and comprehension. It a s s i s t s educators i n grouping students re- quiring either advanced i n s t r u c t i o n or remedial assistance. The Vocabulary section contains 45 items from which the c h i l d i s required to choose a corresponding word, meaning the same as the t e s t word (synonyms). Vocabulary words ranging from easy to more d i f f i c u l t , are r e a l words representing nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. There are 22 passages i n the Comprehension test followed by questions to answer. Various subject matters taken from children's books have been included i n the passages. The content has an i n t e r n a t i o n a l character and i s s u i t a b l e to students from various c u l t u r a l backgrounds. Raw scores are converted to p e r c e n t i l e ranks, T-scores, stanines and grade equivalents.

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Japan 2 0
Germany 2 2
China 2 0
United States 1 0
City Views Downloads
Tokyo 2 0
Unknown 2 2
Beijing 2 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items