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Drama in education : a classification of teacher questions as they contribute to the drama process Chizik, Sheila Marie 1985

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DRAMA IN EDUCATION: A CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER QUESTIONS AS THEY CONTRIBUTE TO THE DRAMA PROCESS By SHEILA MARIE CHIZIK B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F e b r u a r y , 1985 ©Sheila M a r i e C h i z i k , 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^L^AuSuQJL^ ^j./PAJl/Tnj The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date fyA'J <f. fl9& DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y has been t o examine and d e f i n e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s and q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n the drama p r o c e s s . I n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a p r a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s , t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y has i n v o l v e d the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e : c o l l e c t i n g d a t a from the f i e l d on q u e s t i o n s employed by two l e a d i n g drama •educators; a n a l y s i n g and d e s c r i b i n g r e c u r r e n t t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n i n g found i n t h e d a t a ; o r g a n i z i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s k i l f u l and complex ways i n which t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e drama e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, th e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were made: 1. Q u e s t i o n s were used e x t e n s i v e l y t o promote the drama p r o c e s s . 2. The t e a c h e r employed a wide range and d i v e r s i t y o f q u e s t i o n s . 3. D e f i n i t e p a t t e r n s emerged i n t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . 4. S p e c i f i c k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g were emphasized by t e a c h e r s w i t h i n t h e drama. C o n c l u s i o n s ; I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e use o f drama i n e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s a complex and unique s e t o f t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . I f such s t r a t e g i e s a r e t o be a c c e s s i b l e t o e d u c a t o r s , t h e y must f i r s t be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d and d e f i n e d . S i n c e t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s was i n t e n d e d as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p i n t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e f o c u s was e s s e n t i a l l y d i r e c t e d towards i d e n t i f y i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g t h e components o f methodology. However, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s , t h e r e were a number of broad c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s which emerged as a r e s u l t o f t h e r e s e a r c h : 1. Research c a r r i e d out d i r e c t l y i n t h e f i e l d has prove n t o be i n v a l u a b l e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t r i c a t e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n h e r e n t t o t h e drama p r o c e s s . W i t h o u t t h e r i c h n e s s o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , the s u b t l e t i e s o f t h e methods employed by t h e t e a c h e r c o u l d not have been a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e d . 2 . The e x t e n s i v e n e s s o f q u e s t i o n i n g s t r a t e g i e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the s o c i a l , c r e a t i v e , and e d u c a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e drama e x p e r i e n c e by s e t t i n g up p o t e n t i a l a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g and s h a p i n g t h e i d e a s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o d r a m a t i c form. S i n c e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g p l a y s such a v i t a l r o l e i n t h e p r o c e s s i t s h o u l d be a key element i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l development. Teachers need t o become aware o f t h e e x t e n s i v e range and d i v e r s i t y o f q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s as w e l l as o f s p e c i f i c terms w i t h which t o d i s c u s s t h e p r a c t i c e c r i t i c a l l y . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system p r o v i d e s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r d e a l i n g w i t h q u e s t i o n i n g i n c o n c r e t e terms. The arrangement o f t h e system i s not meant t o i m p l y , however, t h a t t h e r e i s a h i e r a r c h y f o r q u e s t i o n i n g , or t h a t t h e drama p r o c e s s i s based on a. l i n e a r o r s e q u e n t i a l t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g . Any one element o f t h e taxonomy i s as v i a b l e as a n o t h e r s i n c e q u e s t i o n s a r e asked i n response t o t h e needs o f t h e immediate s i t u a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n i n g p r a c t i c e cannot be reduced t o a means-end c h e c k l i s t - i t must be approached h o l i s t i c a l l y as a s k i l l , a p r o c e s s , an a t t i t u d e , an a r t . O nly i n t h i s way w i l l t h e t e a c h e r ' s use o f q u e s t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y s e r v e the needs o f drama i n e d u c a t i o n . V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ABSTRACT i i I THE NATURE OF THE STUDY . . . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Purpose o f the Study 2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Terms 3 Drama 3 The Drama P r o c e s s 4 Co n t e x t 6 S t r u c t u r e 7 Focus o r P a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n 8 C o n t r a s t 8 S y m b o l i z a t i o n 8 T e n s i o n 9 Dramatic A c t i o n 10 I n Role or T a k i n g on a Role 10 Teacher i n Role 11 T w i l i g h t Role 12 Commitment 13 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study 14 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study 15 I I A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 17 I n t r o d u c t i o n 17 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Changing P h i l o s o p h y 18 Theory t o P r a c t i c e 23 Techniques f o r Q u e s t i o n i n g 25 I I I THE DESIGN OF THE STUDY 29 I n t r o d u c t i o n 29 C r i t e r i a f o r the S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s 30 The S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s 31 A P r o f i l e o f Teacher A 32 A P r o f i l e o f Teacher B 33 The O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d s 34 S e s s i o n s w i t h Teacher A 34 R e c o r d i n g Equipment 36 G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e 37 O b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d e n t s 38 O b s e r v a t i o n s o f Teacher A 39 D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Teacher A 39 S e s s i o n s w i t h Teacher B 40 Re c o r d i n g Equipment 40 G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e f o r A n a l y s i s o f t h e Data .. 40 v i CHAPTER PAGE IV THE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 43 I n t r o d u c t i o n 43 C l a s s i f y i n g t h e Q u e s t i o n s 43 An O u t l i n e o f t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System 46 An Example of t h e Events i n a Drama S e s s i o n . 50 A D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System 52 I . E s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t e x t 52 I I . B u i l d i n g Commitment 64 I I I . A m p l i f y i n g C o n t e x t 89 IV. R e g u l a t i n g S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n (Management) 105 A Breakdown o f the Q u e s t i o n s 110 A Summary o f the F i n d i n g s 130 1. The e x t e n t t o which q u e s t i o n s promoted t h e drama p r o c e s s 130 2. The range and d i v e r s i t y o f q u e s t i o n s employed by t h e t e a c h e r 131 3. P a t t e r n s which emerged i n t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s 132 (a) Development of Meaning 132 (b) Q u e s t i o n i n g and an "Emerging C u r r i c u l u m " 133 (c) S e l e c t i v i t y i n Form 134 4. The k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g b e i n g emphasized by t h e t e a c h e r w i t h i n t h e drama 135 (a) Q u e s t i o n i n g and O b j e c t i v e s f o r Drama 135 (b) The Teacher and S t u d e n t s as C o - I n q u i r e r s 136 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 138 Summary 138 C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s 139 1. The V a l u e o f F i e l d Research i n Drama E d u c a t i o n 140 2. A s p e c t s o f Theory R e f l e c t e d i n Teacher Q u e s t i o n i n g 140 The F u n c t i o n o f t h e Drama Teacher 141 O b j e c t i v e s i n Drama E d u c a t i o n . 143 3. The Importance o f Q u e s t i o n i n g Techniques f o r Teacher T r a i n i n g and C u r r e n t Teaching P r a c t i c e ... 144 In C o n c l u s i o n 146 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research 147 CHAPTER PAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY 150 APPENDIX A A S y n t h e s i s o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Systems i n Other E d u c a t i o n a l S e t t i n g s 153 APPENDIX B A Summary o f Teacher A's S e s s i o n s ... 154 v i i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I E s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t e x t (Teacher A) I l l I I B u i l d i n g Commitment (Teacher A) 114 I I I A m p l i f y i n g C o n t e x t (Teacher A) 117 IV R e g u l a t i n g S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n (Management) (Teacher A) 119 V E s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t e x t (Teacher B) 121 VI B u i l d i n g Commitment (Teacher B) 123 V I I A m p l i f y i n g C o n t e x t (Teacher B) 125 V I I I R e g u l a t i n g S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n (Management) (Teacher B) 127 Chapter I THE NATURE OF THE STUDY I n t r o d u c t i o n I t i s i n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e a c c e p t e r o f what c h i l d r e n b r i n g t o t h e s i t u a t i o n -always t h e r e c e i v e r , t h e c u r i o u s one, the p l a y w r i g h t , t h e c r e a t o r o f t e n s i o n s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e d i r e c t o r and t h e a c t o r - t h a t I have t o f u n c t i o n . ( H e a t h c o t e , 1980) Drama t e a c h e r s c u r r e n t l y f a c e a number o f e x c i t i n g y e t somewhat f o r m i d a b l e c h a l l e n g e s a r i s i n g from t h e chan g i n g p h i l o s o p h y i n drama e d u c a t i o n . Perhaps t h e most s t r i k i n g o f t h e s e c h a l l e n g e s has emerged as a r e s u l t o f t h e s h i f t i n p e r s p e c t i v e r e g a r d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e drama t e a c h e r . I n t h e p a s t , t h e r o l e o f drama e d u c a t o r s has been t o p r o v i d e e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s and s u p p o r t f o r v a r i o u s s k i l l - b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Recent t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e s u g g e s t , however, t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o p l a y a more i n t e g r a l p a r t i n t h e e d u c a t i v e p r o c e s s i f t h e o b j e c t i v e s i n drama a r e t o be e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d o u t . O ' N e i l l e t a l (1976) p o i n t out t h a t " i t i s not enough t o p r o v i d e an i n i t i a l s t i m u l u s , t o 'throw a s w i t c h ' and t h e n s i t back and w a i t f o r t h e drama t o happen" (p. 9 ) . The t e a c h e r ' s f u n c t i o n i s t o enhance t h e meaning o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e by w o r k i n g from w i t h i n t h e group and by t a k i n g a p o s i t i v e and l e a d i n g share i n t h e group c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t . A c c o r d i n g t o B o l t o n (1982), a t e a c h i n g d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h i s n a t u r e " r e q u i r e s a s k i l l i n s t r u c t u r i n g a t a more r e f i n e d l e v e l o f p r e c i s i o n t h a n p r e v i o u s t r e n d s have r e q u i r e d " (p. 3 4 ) . The c h a l l e n g e f o r t e a c h e r s , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o d e v e l o p t h e s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h e new demands o f t h e work. Purpose o f t h e Study B e f o r e c o n t e m p l a t i n g ways t o i n c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o c l a r i f y p r e c i s e l y what t h e work e n t a i l s . A t t e n t i o n must be d i r e c t e d away from t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e r n s and towards i d e n t i f y i n g the s p e c i f i c components o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s . As t h e s e methods come t o be d e f i n e d , drama and non-drama e d u c a t o r s a l i k e w i l l b e g i n t o have a framework i n which t o t h i n k and speak c r i t i c a l l y about t h e work. One o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t elements o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n drama e d u c a t i o n appears t o be t h e s k i l f u l u t i l i z a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A l t h o u g h l e a d e r s i n t h e f i e l d have f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y , as y e t no i n - d e p t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been u n d e r t a k e n t o c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h e purposes which q u e s t i o n i n g might s e r v e . I t i s t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , t o i n i t i a t e an e x a m i n a t i o n i n t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s as t h e y p e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e drama p r o c e s s . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k , t h e work o f two l e a d i n g drama e d u c a t o r s i s o b s e r v e d and a n a l y s e d , and from t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n an i n i t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r c a t e g o r i s i n g t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s i s d e v e l o p e d . The system p r o v i d e s a framework f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s used i n a v a r i e t y o f drama c o n t e x t s and o f f e r s a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : 1. The e x t e n t t o which q u e s t i o n s promote th e drama p r o c e s s . 2. The range and d i v e r s i t y o f q u e s t i o n s employed by t h e t e a c h e r . 3. P a t t e r n s which emerge i n t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n -i n g . 4. The k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g b e i n g emphasized by t h e t e a c h e r w i t h i n t h e drama. D e s c r i p t i o n o f Terms Drama. Drama i s a means of s t r u c t u r i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r t o r e v e a l i m p l i c i t meanings. The s o u r c e f o r work i n drama i s t h e common s t o c k o f human u n d e r s t a n d i n g , s e l e c t e d so t h a t a s p e c i f i c e n c o u n t e r o r m a t t e r o f c o n c e r n i s b r o u g h t under s c r u t i n y . Watkins (1981) r e f e r s t o t h e s t r u c t u r i n g a s p e c t o f drama as "a c o m p l e x i v e b l u e p r i n t t h a t does not seek t o c o v e r a wide range o f human e x p e r i e n c e s but seeks t o p e n e t r a t e a s m a l l a r e a d e e p l y " (p. 4 1 ) . As t h e i n t e n t i s t o r e l e a s e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , t h e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n l i e s not so much w i t h t h e l i t e r a l as w i t h t h e s y m b o l i c meanings; t h a t i s , b r i n g i n g out t h e essence or u n i v e r s a l s i n t h e e v e n t . The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f drama i s t h a t i t can o c c u r o n l y "when one o r more human b e i n g s i s o l a t e d i n time and space p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s i n imagined a c t s t o a n o t h e r o r o t h e r s " (Beckerman 1970, p. 2 0 ) . Drama e x i s t s i n t h e p r e s e n t . I t i s c o n c r e t e a c t i o n q u a l i f i e d by a s p e c i a l s t a t e o f mind i n which t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f b o t h the r e a l and t h e imagined o p e r a t e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Drama has been c a l l e d a "metaphor i n a c t i o n " s i n c e , as B o l t o n (1979) m a i n t a i n s , " i t s meaning l i e s n o t i n t h e a c t u a l c o n t e x t nor i n t h e f i c t i t i o u s one b u t i n a d i a l e c t i c s e t up between t h e two" (p. 128). The p o t e n c y o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n , as w i t h any metaphor, i s i t s a b i l i t y t o b r i n g new t h i n g s i n t o f o c u s . The Drama P r o c e s s . "The Drama P r o c e s s " i s a term g i v e n t o t h e use o f drama i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s and, i n a g e n e r i c sense, i t i s i n c l u s i v e o f an e n t i r e range of drama a c t i v i t i e s . The common f e a t u r e s o f t h e s e 5 a c t i v i t i e s i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n an engagement w i t h imagined r o l e s and s i t u a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o b r i n g about t h e c o l l e c t i v e c r e a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f meaning. To f u l f i l t h i s p u r p o s e , s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o f u n c t i o n as i n v e n t o r s and i n t e r p r e t e r s a t t h e same t i m e : "engaged b o t h i n t h e making o f an e n c o u n t e r as w e l l as t h e i n - b u i l t s c r u t i n y o f i t i n o r d e r t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s outcomes" (Heathcote 1983, p. 2 6 ) . S i n c e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o c e s s i s s u b j e c t i v e as w e l l as o b j e c t i v e , t h e form t h e work t a k e s i s not based on a s i m p l e u n f o l d i n g o f a sequence o f e v e n t s ( t h a t i s , t h e " l i v i n g t h r o u g h " o f a p l o t l i n e ) , b u t e v o l v e s i n a manner which a l l o w s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i m p l i c i t meaning s u r r o u n d i n g t h e a c t i o n . Heathcote (1980a) m a i n t a i n s t h a t p r o g r e s s i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between a t t i t u d e s and e v e n t s : I n drama work i t seems as i f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e engaged i n e x p l o r i n g and showing how p e o p l e behave i n e v e n t s so we a n t i c i p a t e t h e r e w i l l be a l o g i c a l development o f a c e n t r a l i d e a and a s t o r y t o f o l l o w ... [however] A t t i t u d e s shape happenings and e v e n t s a r e t h e i r r e s u l t . Each event, which i s t h e r e s u l t o f a t t i t u d e s c r e a t e s a n o t h e r s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e ... and so c r e a t e s a n o t h e r e v e n t . So t h e s t o r y i s what we f i n d we have made as a r e s u l t o f t h e see-sawing between a t t i t u d e p r o d u c i n g a c t i o n , and a c t i o n c hanging a t t i t u d e . (p. 5) 6 C o n t e x t . C o n t e x t r e f e r s t o t h e f i e l d o f e n q u i r y f o r t h e drama; t h a t i s , t h e a r e a o f human i n t e r a c t i o n t o be examined. The c h o i c e o f a c o n t e x t may be de t e r m i n e d by t h e t e a c h e r o r by t h e s t u d e n t s , b u t i n e i t h e r case i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n i n c l u d e t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e theme t o t h e l e a r n e r . C o n t e x t i s composed o f two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f meaning - t h e f u n c t i o n a l and t h e a e s t h e t i c . From t h e f u n c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e c o n c e r n i s t o s e t t h e parameters o r bounds f o r t h e c o n t e x t . T h i s i n v o l v e s " c l o t h i n g " t h e theme i n " f i x i n g d e v i c e s " ( t o use Heat h c o t e ' s t e r m i n o l o g y ) such as p l a c e , p o i n t i n t i m e , p e o p l e p r e s e n t , a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n , season o f t h e y e a r . To c o n s i d e r c o n t e x t from an a e s t h e t i c p o i n t o f view i m p l i e s g i v i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g meanings o r t h e s u b t e x t o f the theme. Both f u n c t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c l e v e l s o p e r a t e c o n c u r r e n t l y i n d r a m a t i c engagement. However, t h e s t u d e n t f o c u s e s p r i m a r i l y on the f u n c t i o n a l c r e a t i o n o f c o n t e x t w h i l e t h e drama t e a c h e r ' s t h i n k i n g i s on t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s and o v e r t o n e s o f a e s t h e t i c i n v o l v e m e n t . The d u a l n a t u r e i n h e r e n t i n c o n t e x t i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o by drama e d u c a t o r s as "the p l a y f o r t h e s t u d e n t v e r s u s t h e p l a y f o r t h e t e a c h e r . " 7 S t r u c t u r e . S t r u c t u r e i s t h e form chosen t o b r i n g out a r e l a t i o n s h i p between elements i n t h e c o n t e x t . The components o f s t r u c t u r e a r e based on 'the v e r y elements of t h e a t r e t h a t a r e n o r m a l l y t h e t o o l s of t h e p l a y w r i g h t - f o c u s , c o n t r a s t , s y m b o l i z a t i o n and t e n s i o n ' ( B o l t o n 1980, p. 72). S i n c e t h e purpose o f s e l e c t i n g a s t r u c t u r e i s t o enhance t h e meaning o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e , t h e c h o i c e must not o n l y connect t h e f u n c t i o n a l elements o f c o n t e x t b u t must be a b l e t o r e v e a l t h e a e s t h e t i c d i m e n s i o n s as w e l l . The t e a c h e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o f i n d an o u t e r form c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g a r i c h i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e . H e athcote (1980) s t a t e s t h a t " n o t i o n s f o r drama a r e a t f i r s t c l o a k e d i n a k i n d o f web o f u n p e r c e i v e d i d e a s which g r a d u a l l y work themselves f r e e as t h e work p r o g r e s s e s " (p. 4 2 ) . Because o f t h i s q u a l i t y , s t r u c t u r i n g must o c c u r as an "emerging c u r r i c u l u m " which p e r m i t s e x p l o r a t i o n o f s u b t e x t s as t h e y a r i s e from t h e needs o f t h e c l a s s . T h i s i n v o l v e s c h a n g i n g t h e e x t e r n a l d e s i g n w h i l e t h e i n n e r d i r e c t i o n o r i n t e r n a l coherance remains th e same. Only e f f e c t i v e s e l e c t i o n and s e q u e n c i n g can a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k , and t h e r e f o r e , t h e t e a c h e r ' s s k i l l i n t h i s a r e a i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . 8 Focus or P a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n . Focus i s an element o f s t r u c t u r e which d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f t h e theme. The t e a c h e r uses f o c u s t o h i g h l i g h t a r e a s o f t h e c o n t e x t t h a t a r e l i k e l y t o c r e a t e t h e r e q u i r e d e x p e r i e n c e . B a r r s (1980) r e f e r s t o i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e drama p r o c e s s as t h e 'breakdown approach': Each t i m e a s i t u a t i o n i s e x p l o r e d i n drama i t has a b i a s i n i t , because i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o e x p l o r e a l l t h e a s p e c t s o f any human s i t u a t i o n a t once. The t e a c h e r must d e c i d e which b i a s t o g i v e a t t e n t i o n t o a t any tim e ... A r t a l l o w s us t o slow t i m e , e x p l o r e many meanings i n many c o n v e n t i o n s . So p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n i s r e a l l y two t h i n g s : c h o o s i n g an a s p e c t and c h o o s i n g which c o n v e n t i o n t o use. (p. 40) C o n t r a s t . C o n t r a s t r e f e r s t o t h e s p e c i f i c use o f sound, l i g h t , movement, or space t o h e i g h t e n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . S e t t i n g up a c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e s e elements produces what B o l t o n (1979, p. 82) would c a l l a " p h y s i c a l p o i n t e r " t o a s s i s t i n u n d e r l i n i n g meaning. S y m b o l i z a t i o n . S y m b o l i z a t i o n i s concerned w i t h t h e d e p t h o f meaning i n t h e drama p r o c e s s . C e r t a i n c a r e f u l l y chosen elements ( a c t i o n s , o b j e c t s , words, p e o p l e , use o f space, e v e n t s ) a r e i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e t o p r o v i d e a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e t o l e v e l s o f 9 meaning beyond t h e l i t e r a l . Wagner (1976) d e s c r i b e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f symbols i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: [Symbols] p r o v i d e a c o n c r e t e way o f e x p e r i -e n c i n g an event even when f e e l i n g s about t h e event have not y e t been aroused o r , i f a roused a r e not y e t e x p r e s s i b l e i n words. The symbol i t s e l f can h e l p t o g i v e r i s e t o t h e f e e l i n g , o r i f t h e f e e l i n g i s t h e r e p r o v i d e t h e group th e means of e x p r e s s i n g i t . (p. 96) S y m b o l i c meanings e v o l v e d u r i n g t h e drama p r o c e s s , t h e y cannot be p r e s c r i b e d . The t e a c h e r i n c o r p o r a t e s i n t o t h e drama t h o s e elements w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l t o evoke s y m b o l i c meanings i n t h e hopes t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l a t l e a s t sense t h e s e deeper l e v e l s , even i f t h e y do not c o n s c i o u s l y acknowledge and a t t e n d t o them. T e n s i o n . D r amatic t e n s i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e drama p r o c e s s . I t r e f e r s t o a p r e s s u r e t h a t i s f e l t by p a r t i c i p a n t s when something i n t h e drama i s l e f t t o chance. Langer (1953) s t a t e s : I t i s o n l y a p r e s e n t f i l l e d w i t h i t s own f u t u r e t h a t i s d r a m a t i c (p. 307) [ T h i s sense o f d e s t i n y ] c r e a t e s t h e p e c u l i a r t e n s i o n between the g i v e n p r e s e n t and i t s y e t u n r e a l i z e d consequent, 'form i n suspense', the e s s e n t i a l d r a m a t i c i l l u s i o n . (p. 311) I t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e drama t e a c h e r t o r e c o g n i z e t h e t e n s i o n s i m p l i c i t i n t h e m a t e r i a l , and t h e n t o choose a p p r o p r i a t e forms t o i n c o r p o r a t e them. 10 The c h o i c e w i l l depend on t h e l e v e l a t which the c l a s s i s w o r k i n g . Any s i t u a t i o n i s c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g a t e n s i o n t o s u i t t h e c l a s s , and f o r t h e t e a c h e r i t i s "a ma t t e r o f f i n d i n g a l e v e l from w i t h i n t h e s i t u a t i o n which i s c a p a b l e o f l a y i n g on a p r e s s u r e . . . [ s o t h a t ] s i t u a t i o n s s p r i n g i n t o new f o c u s and c r e a t e new awarenesses" (Heathcote 1972, p. 3 4 ) . Dramatic A c t i o n . Dramatic a c t i o n i s t h e f o r w a r d p r o g r e s s i o n o f a c o n c r e t e sequence o f events i n t h e d e p i c t e d w o r l d o f t h e drama. F or t h i s momentum t o o c c u r , a s t a t e o f t e n s i o n must be p r e s e n t . I n Role o r T a k i n g On a R o l e . The terms " t a k i n g on a r o l e " o r b e i n g " i n r o l e " r e f e r t o t h e p r o c e s s o f a d o p t i n g a mental s e t i n which one p r o j e c t s o n e s e l f i n t o a f i c t i t i o u s l i f e . Involvement i n r o l e may range from s i m p l y assuming an a t t i t u d e t o p r o j e c t i n g a t o t a l c h a r a c t e r - the o n l y c r i t e r i a i s t h a t t h e r o l e i s c r e d i b l e t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t and t o h i s / h e r c l a s s m a t e s w i t h i n t h e imagined s i t u a t i o n . When p a r t i c i p a n t s move i n t o the "as i f " mode o f r o l e t a k i n g t h e y a r e r e s p o n d i n g t o what B o l t o n (1982a) would c a l l "the l o g i c a l r u l e s o f the h y p o t h e t i c a l p r e s e n t " (p. 138). T h i s means t h a t s t u d e n t s have acknowledged and a r e a d a p t i n g t o t h e bounds s e t by t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t - t h e y a r e b e g i n n i n g t o s e l e c t i v e l y a p p l y t h e i r r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge so t h a t speech and a c t i o n c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e l o g i c o f t h e new s i t u a t i o n . However, even i n s u b m i t t i n g t o t h e imagined c o n t e x t , t h e d i a l e c t i c between t h e r e a l and t h e f i c t i t i o u s i s always i n b a l a n c e . B o l t o n (1979) e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e drama t e a c h e r : ... does not want c h i l d r e n o r a d u l t s t o escape from who t h e y a r e - r a t h e r t h e o p p o s i t e . He wants a q u a l i t y o f h y p e r -awareness t h a t i s g e n e r a t e d by t h i s v e r y a m b i v a l e n c e o f b e i n g o n e s e l f but a d o p t i n g an a t t i t u d e , not n e c e s s a r i l y one's own, r e l e v a n t t o some imagined c o n t e x t , (p. 64) Teacher i n R o l e . "Teacher i n r o l e " i s a t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e i n which t h e t e a c h e r t a k e s on a r o l e i n o r d e r t o s t r u c t u r e t h e work from w i t h i n t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . A d o p t i n g a r o l e p r o v i d e s t h e t e a c h e r w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s : 1. To c r e a t e drama e x p e r i e n c e s f o r t h e c l a s s as a whole group. 2. To p r o v i d e a model f o r t h e s t u d e n t use o f r o l e . 3. To e n a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o be t a k e n i n t o v e r y p r e c i s e s i t u a t i o n s . 4. To s u p p o r t , e x t e n d , and i f n e c e s s a r y , e l a b o r a t e on s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s . 5 . To use t h e a t r e form t o h e l p "frame" a s p e c t s of c o n t e x t . 6. To encourage s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n and s t u d e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . 7 . To c r e a t e r e f l e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n s h o r t , r o l e t a k i n g o f f e r s t h e t e a c h e r an e c o n o m i c a l way i n wh i c h t o shape t h e t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , and a c t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o d r a m a t i c form. An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s t e a c h i n g d e v i c e i s t h a t i t removes t h e u s u a l h e i r a r c h y of a t e a c h e r - c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The r o l e a l l o w s t h e t e a c h e r t o s h i f t away from t h e "one who knows" p o s i t i o n i n o r d e r t o h e l p t h e s t u d e n t s become r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . Heathcote (1978) m a i n t a i n s t h a t a b a l a n c e o f power i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e drama p r o c e s s ; " I must be a b l e t o g i v e power t o my s t u d e n t s and t o draw on t h e i r power. T h i s n e g o t i a t i o n , t h i s exchange o f power i s a r e a l i g n m e n t o f r e l a t i n g " (p. 5 ) . T w i l i g h t R o l e . T w i l i g h t r o l e i s a form o f t e a c h e r i n r o l e i n which the t e a c h e r p r o j e c t s o n l y an a t t i t u d e o r an i n t e r e s t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a s p e c i f i c , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o l e . The purpose o f u s i n g a t w i l i g h t r o l e i s t h a t i t a l l o w s t h e t e a c h e r t o 13 probe f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s as w e l l as t o e v a l u a t e t h e needs and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c l a s s b e f o r e he/she assumes a d i s t i n c t r o l e . Commitment. Commitment r e f e r s t o the degree o f p e r s o n a l i n v e s t m e n t t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s b r i n g t o t h e drama p r o c e s s . I n o r d e r f o r any depth o f l e a r n i n g t o o c c u r , t h e s t u d e n t s must become engaged i n c a r i n g about the work - t h e y must g e t d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n the outcome and meaning o f t h e m a t e r i a l . The i n i t i a l commitment comes w i t h a c c e p t i n g t h a t t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t i s t r u t h f u l f o r t h e p r e s e n t , o r as Wagner (1976) d e s c r i b e s i t : " t h a t we a r e a t t h i s moment l i v i n g a t a l i f e r a t e i n an agreed upon p l a c e , t i m e , and c i r c u m s t a n c e and a r e t o g e t h e r f a c i n g t h e same problem" (p. 6 7 ) . O b t a i n i n g t h i s commitment may t a k e some ti m e b u t t h e drama e x p e r i e n c e i s not p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t i t . I t r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r use v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s t o ease t h e s t u d e n t s from a s p e c t a t o r mode t o an e x p e r i e n t i a l mode i n which t h e y can b e g i n t o a c t i v e l y i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r r o l e s . "Once a c l a s s i d e n t i f i e s w i t h t h e p e o p l e i n a drama, t h e i r d r i v e i s r e l e a s e d and t h e s i t u a t i o n becomes what Heathcote terms ' e d u c a t i o n a l l y e x p l o s i v e ' " (Wagner 1976, p. 7 0 ) . 14 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study A problem i n h e r e n t i n a n a l y s i n g any a s p e c t o f the drama p r o c e s s i s t h a t a l t h o u g h c a t e g o r i z a t i o n a l l o w s f o r d e s c r i p t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i t a l s o produces a r e s t r i c t i v e and somewhat a r t i c i f i c a l s t r u c t u r e . S i n c e a q u e s t i o n can o p e r a t e on a v a r i e t y o f l e v e l s and i s c a p a b l e o f f u l f i l l i n g a number o f p u r p o s e s , i s o l a t i o n and l a b e l l i n g does not n e c e s s a r i l y do j u s t i c e t o t h e "whole" o f t h e q u e s t i o n ' s i n t e n t . For t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y , however, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o l i m i t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o what appeared t o be t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f each q u e s t i o n . S i n c e t h e s t u d y d e a l s o n l y w i t h two s u b j e c t s and a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sample o f t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e , i t cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a c o n c l u s i v e a c c o u n t o f work i n t h e f i e l d and, as a r e s u l t , g e n e r a l i z a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s may not be drawn. A l t h o u g h p r o v i s i o n was made f o r o b s e r v i n g a number o f d i f f e r i n g t y p e s o f drama s e s s i o n s , t h e range o f p o s s i b l e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t e c h n i q u e s was n e c e s s a r i l y narrowed by t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , by t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s , and by t h e dramas which e v o l v e d . The s t u d y i s n o t , t h e r e f o r e , i n t e n d e d t o be a f i n a l i z e d a c c o u n t of t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s ; r a t h e r , i t s purpose i s t o p r o v i d e a r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d e t a i l s o f b e h a v i o r a r i s i n g d i r e c t l y 15 from an i n - d e p t h e x a m i n a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e , and t o o f f e r a p r e l i m i n a r y taxonomy f o r subsequent r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study I n o r d e r t o e f f e c t i v e l y r e a c h s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s i n drama e d u c a t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r must be f a m i l i a r w i t h a wide spectrum of p o s s i b l e q u e s t i o n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . A g u i d e t o t h e m u l t i - f a c e t e d purposes which q u e s t i o n s can s e r v e s h o u l d h e l p t o prompt a r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n g p a t t e r n s w h i c h o f t e n s i m p l y check f a c t s , ask f o r o b v i o u s answers, o r produce o n l y yes/no r e s p o n s e s . T h i s s t u d y seeks t o i l l u s t r a t e how t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s can a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k c r e a t i v e l y about t h e scope o f p o s s i b l e responses i n s t e a d o f r e q u i r i n g t h a t t h e y v i e w i t h each o t h e r f o r t h e " c o r r e c t " r e s p o n s e . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e methodology i s c e n t r a l t o drama e d u c a t i o n . E x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d have f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d a c o n c e r n t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e not a d e q u a t e l y equipped w i t h t h e s k i l l s needed t o c o n t r o l t h e medium. A l t h o u g h c l e a r - c u t s t r a t e g i e s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o be d e v i s e d i n response t o t h i s c o n c e r n , a g r e a t d e a l o f what a c t u a l l y o c c u r s i n p r a c t i c e i s s t i l l ambiguous. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , a s s i s t i n 16 p r a c t i c e as w e l l as p r o v i d e an i n i t i a l p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e f o r d i s c u s s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . 17 Chapter I I A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n The f i e l d o f drama e d u c a t i o n has matured t h r o u g h a l o n g h i s t o r y o f changing p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e . A l t h o u g h t h i s e v o l u t i o n has been f r a u g h t w i t h much c o n t r o v e r s y , i t appears t h a t a g e n e r a l consensus r e g a r d i n g t h e o r y i s b e g i n n i n g t o emerge. B o l t o n (1982) comments t h a t t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f drama t e a c h e r s i n the 1980's i s such t h a t : ... we a r e no l o n g e r so c r i t i c a l o f a pparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n t h e work o f our p i o n e e r s ; we seem more a b l e t o c o n t a i n a d i a l e c t o f o p p o s i t e s i n our p h i l o s o p h y ; we a r e more i n c l i n e d t o see drama as m u l t i - f a c e t e d ; we can now c h a m e l e o n - l i k e adapt our s u b j e c t t o c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h o u t d e n y i n g i t s r e a l n a t u r e . (p. 31) I t would appear t h a t i n c o r p o r a t i n g s e e m i n g l y d i s p a r a t e elements i s seen t o be p o s s i b l e w i t h i n a s t r u c t u r e d b u t f l e x i b l e framework. N i x o n (1982) m a i n t a i n s , however, t h a t ' d i v i s i o n s may perhaps be p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y u n t e n a b l e b u t t h e supposed d i s t i n c t i o n between drama and t h e a t r e has e n t e r e d i n t o t h e f o l k l o r e o f the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n ' (p. 1 7 ) . H i s statement s e r v e s as a r e m i n d e r t h a t a l t h o u g h the t h e o r y may be encompassing, th e e f f e c t s o f c o n s t a n t p o l a r i z a t i o n a r e not e a s i l y shaken from e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e . 18 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Changing P h i l o s o p h y A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e development o f v a r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s i n drama i n e d u c a t i o n can be approached from a v a r i e t y o f a n g l e s . B o l t o n (1982) o f f e r s d i s t i n c t i o n s i n terms o f the r o m a n t i c and p r o g e s s i v e s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t : Thus we have i n a n u t s h e l l t h e d i v e r g e n t v i e w s o f t h e r o m a n t i c s c h o o l of such p e o p l e as M o n t e s s o r i , A. S. N e i l , and i n Drama, P e t e r S l a d e and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t B r i a n Way: and o f t h e p r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l o f p e o p l e l i k e John Dewey and J e a n P i a g e t and, i n drama, W i n n i f r e d Ward i n Am e r i c a and Dorothy Heathcote i n England, t h e former con-cerned t o c r e a t e a p r o p e r environment f o r n a t u r a l growth, t h e l a t t e r s t i m u l a t -i n g engagement w i t h t h e environment; t h e former e m p h a s i z i n g f r e e p l a y ; the l a t t e r s t r e s s i n g i n s i g h t and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . (p. 30) The b a s i s f o r b o t h t h e s e p h i l o s o p h i e s i s an emphasis on an a c t i v e engagement w i t h l e a r n i n g as opposed t o p a s s i v e l y r e c e i v i n g knowledge. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o r y become ap p a r e n t , however, upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h i s engagement - one a d v o c a t e s freedom o f p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n , and t h e o t h e r promotes t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l e a r n i n g i n a s o c i a l c o n t e x t . The view t h a t drama s h o u l d be concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n has had an e x t r e m e l y p e r v a s i v e e f f e c t on the development o f t h e f i e l d . Under the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e r o m a n t i c s c h o o l , t h e c h i l d came t o be t h o u g h t o f as a " p r e c i o u s seed" and t h e t e a c h e r as a 19 c a r i n g gardener who h e l p e d f o s t e r t h e growth o f t h e c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t s . F r e e p l a y , f r e e e x p r e s s i o n , s p o n t a n e i t y , s e n s i t i v i t y - a c t i v i t i e s a p p a r e n t l y w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c form o r c o n t e n t - were r e g a r d e d as t h e b a s i s f o r drama work. The a f f e c t i v e mode was t o t a l l y p redominant. A more s t r u c t u r e d approach appeared w i t h t h e advent o f " c r e a t i v e drama" o r " d e v e l o p m e n t a l drama". The f o c u s was s t i l l v e r y much c h i l d - c e n t e r e d b u t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c h a n n e l l e d i n t o s p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e s d e s i g n e d t o d e v e l o p p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s . Concern f o r t h e i n t e r n a l a s p e c t s o f drama became t r a n s l a t e d i n t o such a c t i v i t i e s as c o n c e n t r a t i o n , o b s e r v a t i o n , r e l a x a t i o n , image-making, and t r u s t e x e r c i s e s . L e a r n i n g was t o o c c u r t h r o u g h t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e s , and use o f t h e senses was p i v o t a l i n e f f e c t i n g t h i s p u rpose. Recent t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e has s t r o n g l y c h a l l e n g e d t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e e m o t i o n a l meaning o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e s h o u l d t a k e precedence i n drama e d u c a t i o n . B o l t o n (1984) m a i n t a i n s t h a t 'the c e n t r e o f g r a v i t y no l o n g e r r e s t s w i t h t h e c h i l d ( i n s p i t e o f appearances t o t h e c o n t r a r y ) b u t w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s engagement w i t h h i s c u l t u r e ' (p. 1 2 ) . Drama i s n o t , t h e r e f o r e , p r i m a r i l y s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d b u t group-c e n t e r e d ; t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f t h e work i s t h e c r e a t i o n 20 o f a d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t , not p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . An a c t i v e engagement w i t h form, c o n t e n t , and meaning has r e p l a c e d i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h d r a m a t i c s k i l l s and l i f e s k i l l s s i n c e the l a t t e r 'always seems t o p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r drama b u t never a c t u a l l y l e t s them do i t ' ( B o l t o n 1983, p. 6 ) . The change i n d i r e c t i o n from an a l l - c o n s u m i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e p e r s o n a l development of t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o an emphasis on t h e s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e has b r o u g h t about a major s h i f t i n t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r drama e d u c a t i o n . W i t h th e f o c u s now c e n t e r e d on t h e c r e a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a m e a n i n g f u l d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t , b o t h s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e ways o f knowing a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l . O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r immediate and spontaneous e x p e r i e n c i n g a r e s t i l l an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s b u t the " l i v i n g t h r o u g h " o f e v e nts i s not i n i t s e l f enough. To deepen t h e l e v e l o f meaning t h e r e must be some form o f what Heathcote (1983) r e f e r s t o as " c r i t i c a l s p e c t a t o r s h i p " ; t h a t i s , detachment o r d i s t a n c i n g from e v e n t s i n o r d e r t o see i m p l i c a t i o n s . A major g o a l i n t h e drama p r o c e s s , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o promote the development o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . H e athcote (1982) s t a t e s t h a t " i f we want q u a l i t y i n our s c h o o l s , q u a l i t y o f m o t i v a t i o n , q u a l i t y o f b e i n g w i t h t h e t a s k we have t o b r i n g about t h e r e f l e c t i v e element" (p. 1 3 ) . To e x p l o r e t h e i s s u e s , e v e n t s , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t t h e s t u d e n t s must: g r a s p c o n c e p t s , u n d e r s t a n d i s s u e s , f o c u s t h e i r t h o u g h t s , d e l i b e r a t e , n e g o t i a t e , s p e c u l a t e , make and implement d e c i s i o n s , draw c o n c l u s i o n s , and a s s e s s consequences. I n s h o r t , use t h e i r w i t s , r e s o u r c e s , and s k i l l s i n s o l v i n g v a r i o u s problems. An a c t i v e , p u r p o s e f u l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c q u i r i n g knowledge encourages s t u d e n t s t o a c c e p t a g r e a t e r degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g - t o become p r o d u c e r s r a t h e r t h a n consumers o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . The development o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' c r i t i c a l and r e f l e c t i v e c a p a c i t i e s may be d i r e c t e d t o an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e medium o f drama as w e l l . As s t u d e n t s work from w i t h i n d r a m a t i c form t h e y s h o u l d b e g i n t o a c q u i r e an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f the elements which make t h e d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e e f f e c t i v e . Heathcote (1974) m a i n t a i n s t h a t s t u d e n t s must be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o be i n v o l v e d i n form: I p e r s o n a l l y t r y from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g t o i n t r o d u c e c l a s s e s t o the use o f them [ e l e m e n t s o f form] so t h a t t h e y , from t h e f i r s t , b e g i n t o be s e l e c t i v e i n how t h e y w i l l make t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s , though I do not n e c e s s a r i l y t a l k about them i n any t e c h n i c a l way. (p. 12) A l t h o u g h c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f form may o n l y be "sensed a t a t a c i t l e v e l o f comprehension" ( B o l t o n 1982, p. 3 8 ) , t h e 22 more s t u d e n t s a r e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e b a s i c components o f drama, the more t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o g a i n b e t t e r c o n t r o l o f and s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e medium. The o b j e c t i v e s o f c u r r e n t t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a r e a c h i e v e d not t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s e s o f s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n b u t t h r o u g h the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f meaning. "Drama works from t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e group. I t draws on a common s t o c k o f e x p e r i e n c e s and i n t u r n e n r i c h e s t h e minds and f e e l i n g s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e group" ( O ' N e i l l and Lambert 1982, p. 1 3 ) . The d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e c o l l e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e and, t h e r e f o r e , as B o l t o n (1983) e x p l a i n s : W h i l e i t i s t r u e t o say t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s engagement i n t h e drama i s p e r s o n a l , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s the case t h a t h i s b e h a v i o r must be appro-p r i a t e t o t h e c o n t e x t and t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e meaning o f t h e drama i s s o c i a l , (p.30) I n summing up t h e p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n o f drama e d u c a t i o n , B o l t o n (1982) s t a t e s : The s t a t u s o f t h e s u b j e c t i t s e l f i s c r i t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from any p r e v i o u s t r e n d . I t i s no l o n g e r (as a m a t t e r of p r i o r i t y ) c oncerned w i t h t e c h n i q u e s , o r f r e e e x p r e s s i o n , o r l e a r n i n g about t h e a t r e b u t i s seen as a v e h i c l e f o r c o g n i t i v e development g i v i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h o s e k i n d s o f c o n c e p t s w h i c h , w h i l e c u t t i n g a c r o s s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t b a r r i e r s , a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s o f c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e t o l i v i n g . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h i s usage of drama s h o u l d o c c u r t h e t e a c h i n g ( o f t e n i n d i r e c t ) o f d r a m a t i c form a t ... a l e v e l t h a t d i s s o l v e s t h e r i g i d 23 d i s t i n c t i o n s drawn i n the p a s t between drama and t h e a t r e by h a r n e s s i n g what t h e y have i n common (p. 42) E s s e n t i a l l y , i t appears t h a t drama i n e d u c a t i o n i s now a t a p o i n t where t h e t h e o r y i s f l e x i b l e enough t o i n c l u d e t h e s e many a s p e c t s . "There a r e not d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f drama, b u t t h e drama p r o c e s s i s m u l t i f a c t e d . I t works t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y of media and a t a number of l e v e l s . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e a r e a number o f ways i n which drama can be used i n e d u c a t i o n - and t h e s e r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s e s t o be emphasized" (McGregor 1977, p. 2 4 ) . Theory t o P r a c t i c e A l t h o u g h i n r e c e n t y e a r s a g r e a t d e a l has been w r i t t e n about th e t h e o r y o f drama i n e d u c a t i o n , few t h e o r i s t s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s have equipped t e a c h e r s w i t h p r a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s f o r d e s c r i b i n g t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Dorothy H e a t h c o t e , G a v i n B o l t o n , and C e c i l y O ' N e i l l a r e some o f t h e l e a d e r s who have s t a r t e d a movement towards a t h e o r y grounded i n c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . E f f o r t s such as t h e i r s a r e s o r e l y needed by t h e many t e a c h e r s who l a c k c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r g r a s p o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e work, and who a r e "aware o f t h e r e t h e y s h o u l d be a i m i n g b u t have no s k i l l s t o g e t t h e r e " ( B o l t o n 1979, p. 3 1 ) . 24 As t h e r e a r e numerous complex s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i n t e a c h i n g drama, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t e d u c a t o r s a r e unsure o f t h e p r a c t i c e . The t e a c h e r must be a b l e t o g a t h e r t h e i d e a s , e n e r g i e s , and i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e c l a s s and h e l p t o shape them i n t o d r a m a t i c form. T h i s i n v o l v e s t r a n s l a t i n g i d e a s i n t o themes and themes i n t o a c t i o n , and t h e n i n j e c t i n g elements o f t e n s i o n , c o n t r a s t , s y m b o l i z a t i o n , and f o c u s i n t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e so t h a t a c t i o n i s framed t o r e v e a l meaning. The t e a c h e r must a l s o be a b l e t o p r o j e c t a ' f e e l i n g q u a l i t y ' i n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e as B o l t o n (1980) comments: ... d e l i c a t e l y t o a d j u s t t h e q u a l i t y , degree, and i n t e n s i t y o f e m o t i o n a l engagement t h a t t h e t o p i c a r o u s e s so t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s may w i t h i n t e g r i t y , s p o n t a n e i t y , and a sharpened c o n s c i o u s -ness e n t e r t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t , (p. 73) A l l o f t h i s i s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e t e a c h e r ' s use o f "minute n e g o t i a t i o n s " which Heathcote (1980) d e s c r i b e s a s : "a c h o i c e o f words, space s , s t y l e o f language, tone o f v o i c e , pace o f d e l i v e r y , t y p e o f p h r a s e , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , body s i g n a l s , and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y " (p. 4 0 ) . The need f o r guidance and s t r u c t u r e i s e v i d e n t . S t a b l e r (1979) s t r e s s e s t h i s p o i n t i n h i s s t u d y o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l s i n England i n which two o f t h e f o u r i s s u e s recommended f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n were: (1) How t o t a k e t e a c h e r s from t h e " s p r i n g b o a r d " s t a g e t o e s t a b l i s h an e f f e c t i v e r a t i o n a l e and work i n de p t h ; and (2) Support f o r t e a c h e r s newly u s i n g and d e v e l o p i n g drama. (p. 14) Teachers r e q u i r e methods f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r own p r a c t i c e . As N i x o n (1982) comments, we must "move away from a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e o r y f o r i t s own sake towards t h e q u e s t i o n o f what k i n d o f t h e o r e t i c a l framework would b e s t s u i t t h e needs o f p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r s " (p. 1 4 ) . Techniques f o r Q u e s t i o n i n g An a r e a demanding p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i n drama e d u c a t i o n i s t h e t e a c h e r ' s employment o f q u e s t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t e f f e c t i v e q u e s t i o n i n g i s seen t o be an e s s e n t i a l t e c h n i q u e i n t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s : "The drama t e a c h e r needs t o become a s k i l l e d q u e s t i o n e r . " ( O ' N e i l l e t a l . 1976, p. 19) " S k i l f u l q u e s t i o n i n g i s l i k e l y t o be one o f t h e drama t e a c h e r ' s most u s e f u l t o o l s . " ( O ' N e i l l and Lambert 1982, p. 14) " I spend much ti m e e x a m i n i n g t h e uses of q u e s t i o n s and the t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s which do d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s i n t h e drama." (Heathcote 1974, p. 21) " Q u e s t i o n i n g i s h e r [D. H e a t h c o t e ' s ] most i m p o r t a n t t o o l . " (Wagner 1976, p. 60) 26 I n s p i t e o f t h e h i g h p r i o r i t y p l a c e d on q u e s t i o n i n g s k i l l s , t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d e a l s w i t h t h e way i n which t h i s t o o l h e l p s shape t h e drama p r o c e s s . What i s o f f e r e d i n s t e a d i s a v a r i e t y o f g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n " t y p e s " which may be used t h r o u g h o u t t h e drama p r o c e s s depending on t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e moment. The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n t y p e s adapted from c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d i n H e a thcote (1974), Wagner (1976), and O ' N e i l l and Lambert (1982): 1. I n f o r m a t i o n - s e e k i n g q u e s t i o n s . 2. I n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g / s u g g e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s (new i n f o r m a t i o n i s embedded i n t h e wording o f t h e q u e s t i o n ) . 3. Q u e s t i o n s which s t i m u l a t e r e s e a r c h . 4. Upgrading q u e s t i o n s . 5. R e a s s u r i n g q u e s t i o n s . 6. B r a n c h i n g q u e s t i o n s ( t h e q u e s t i o n o f f e r s two c l e a r c h o i c e s ) . 7. Q u e s t i o n s which u n i t e o r c o a g u l a t e t h e group. 8. Q u e s t i o n s which d i v i d e t h e group. 9. Q u e s t i o n s which o f f e r a l t e r n a t i v e s . 10. Q u e s t i o n s which c h a l l e n g e s u p e r f i c i a l t h i n k i n g . 11. Q u e s t i o n s demanding v e r b a l language. 12. Q u e s t i o n s which c o n t r o l t h e c l a s s . 13. Q u e s t i o n s which g i v e s t a t u s . 14. Bad q u e s t i o n s ( t h e q u e s t i o n i s t o o wide, t o o d i f f i c u l t , t o o t e c h n i c a l , o r t o o t h r e a t e n i n g ) . The c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d below r e f e r more s p e c i f i c a l l y t o q u e s t i o n s as t h e y a r e used t o promote t h e drama p r o c e s s . Q u e s t i o n s w h i c h : 1. Seek out t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e group ( O ' N e i l l and Lambert. 2. E s t a b l i s h common ground ( H e a t h c o t e ) . 3. R e v e a l and d e f i n e l i m i t a t i o n s and r u l e s ( H e a t h c o t e ) . 4. L o c a t e group i n space and t i m e ( O ' N e i l l and Lamb e r t ) . 5. Set t h e scene ( O ' N e i l l and Lam b e r t ) . 6. E s t a b l i s h mood and f e e l i n g (Wagner). 7. E s t a b l i s h atmosphere ( O ' N e i l l and L a m b e r t ) . 8. S t r u c t u r e i n t o d r a m a t i c mode r a t h e r t h a n t a l k i n g about ( H e a t h c o t e ) . 9. E s t a b l i s h b e l i e f (Wagner). 10. Focus groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o a c t i o n s o r t a s k s ( H e a t h c o t e ) . 11. Determine t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e drama ( O ' N e i l l and L a m b e r t ) . 12. S t r e n g t h e n b e l i e f ( H e a t h c o t e ) . 13. Guide r e f l e c t i o n ( O ' N e i l l and L a m b e r t ) . 14. Deepen i n t o u n i v e r s a l a r e a s ( H e a t h c o t e ) . A l t h o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e purposes which q u e s t i o n s can s e r v e , i t does not p r o v i d e t h e d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s which t e a c h e r s need f o r a comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f q u e s t i o n i n g . I t i s hoped, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t by o f f e r i n g a framework w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e e x t e n s i v e range and purpose o f q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , t e a c h e r s w i l l have b e t t e r a c c e s s t o a c q u i r i n g e f f e c t i v e s k i l l s i n t h i s a r e a . 29 Chapter I I I THE DESIGN OF THE STUDY I n t r o d u c t i o n S i n c e t h e s t u d y was concerned w i t h an a r e a o f t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e which had not p r e v i o u s l y r e c e i v e d any i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s , t h e r e s e a r c h was n e c e s s a r i l y o f an e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e . Dunkin and B i d d l e (1974) recommend the use o f e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h i n c r e a t i n g " s i m p l e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r l i v e o b s e r v a t i o n " and suggest t h a t once v a l i d a t e d , t h e s e systems " f a c i l i t a t e t h e development o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d v o c a b u l a r y needed by t e a c h e r s f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r c r a f t " (p. 427). A l t h o u g h numerous c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems f o r q u e s t i o n i n g i n o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s a r e a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e y c o u l d not a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e q u e s t i o n i n g i n t h e drama p r o c e s s . I n a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s , G a l l (1970) r e p e a t e d l y s t a t e s t h a t d e v i s i n g a system f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c u r r i c u l u m w i l l p r o v i d e a more comprehensive and a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t o f the p r a c t i c e t h a n i f an a r t i f i c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i s imposed: For d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system d e v e l o p e d f o r a s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m i s p r e f e r a b l e (p. 708). 30 ... i t would seem p r e f e r a b l e t o i d e n t i f y q u e s t i o n s which a r e e f f e c t i v e f o r a s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m and c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g r a t h e r t h a n t o s e a r c h f o r g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n t y p e s (p. 711). These s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n t y p e s , as compared t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s of a g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system such as Bloom's Taxonomy, would have two advantages: t h e y would p r o v i d e a more p r e c i s e and p o s s i b l y c l e a r e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s e f f e c t i v e q u e s t i o n i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n ; and t h e y would be more u s e f u l i n t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s t o improve t h e i r c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n (p. 711). For the purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , i t appeared t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r a c t i c e i t s e l f would y i e l d q u e s t i o n i n g p a t t e r n s a c t u a l l y used i n drama, and t h a t once t h e s e were s t r u c t u r e d i n t o a workable c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system t h e y would p r o v i d e an i n i t i a l " s t a n d a r d i z e d v o c a b u l a r y " f o r q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e . C r i t e r i a f o r t h e S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s For t h e purposes o f d e t e r m i n i n g c o m m o n a l i t i e s i n q u e s t i o n i n g b e h a v i o r r a t h e r t h a n a n a l y s i n g an i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e o f t e a c h i n g , t h e s t u d y would r e q u i r e a t l e a s t two drama e d u c a t o r s who met t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. The s u b j e c t s s h o u l d h o l d a s i m i l a r p h i l o s o p h y o f drama e d u c a t i o n as w e l l as d i s p l a y s i m i l a r methods o f a p p r o a c h i n g t h e i r t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . 31 2. The s u b j e c t s s h o u l d have an e s t a b l i s h e d e x p e r t i s e i n t h e f i e l d ; t h a t i s , t h e y s h o u l d be h i g h l y r e g a r d e d , e x p e r i e n c e d , and c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r work i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t t h e d a t a c o n s i s t o f "model" q u e s t i o n i n g b e h a v i o r . The S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s In t h e s e a r c h f o r s u b j e c t s who would meet the e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was f o r t u n a t e t o have a c c e s s t o a s e r i e s o f s i x v i d e o - t a p e s o f t h e prominent drama e d u c a t o r G a v i n B o l t o n as he worked w i t h a c l a s s o f n i n e t o e l e v e n y e a r o l d s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. W i t h t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f Renee Norman who had d i r e c t e d t h e t a p i n g o f t h e drama s e s s i o n s , t h e s e u n e d i t e d r e c o r d i n g s were used as t h e sample o f t h e f i r s t s u b j e c t ' s work. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n was h e l d t o l o c a t e a t l e a s t one o t h e r p e r s o n w i t h t h e same c a l i b r e o f e x p e r t i s e i n the f i e l d and who was a v a i l a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . A c t i n g on t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f Dr. Pat V e r r i o u r ( A s s t . P r o f . Language E d u c a t i o n Dept., U.B.C.), Ms. C a r o l e T a r l i n g t o n ( t e a c h e r , workshop l e a d e r , s e s s i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r U.B.C.), Ms. Renee Norman ( t e a c h e r , workshop l e a d e r , s e s s i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r U.B.C.), and Mr. Dennis Tupman ( F i n e A r t s C o n s u l t a n t , Vancouver S c h o o l Board) a 32 t o t a l o f seven t e a c h e r s were c o n t a c t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s t u d y . Responses t o an i n i t i a l phone c a l l were s u f f i c i e n t t o i n f o r m t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t two o f t h e t e a c h e r s f e l t somewhat h e s i t a n t about b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h . S i n c e t h e o t h e r f i v e t e a c h e r s d i d not e x p r e s s t h i s c o n c e r n , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a r r a n g e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d s i n each o f t h e f i v e t e a c h e r ' s c l a s s r o o m s . In c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s a d v i s o r , i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t o n l y one o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s met the s e l e c t e d c r i t e r i a . A f t e r a g a i n r e c e i v i n g c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t t h i s t e a c h e r was w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s e n t a w r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h . P e r m i s s i o n was g r a n t e d , and v a r i o u s s e s s i o n s were t h e n s c h e d u l e d f o r p e r i o d s o f o b s e r v a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e s g i v e e v i d e n c e o f t h e e x p e r t i s e o f t h e two t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d as t h e s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y . A P r o f i l e o f Teacher A Ms. T a r l i n g t o n i s a well-known drama e d u c a t o r i n t h e c i t y o f Vancouver and i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B.C. Her work i n drama and e d u c a t i o n began i n Sydney, A u s t r a l i a where she t a u g h t v a r i o u s c l a s s e s i n drama, s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , E.S.L., and E n g l i s h as w e l l as p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l o c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e a t r e p r o d u c t i o n s . Ever s i n c e h e r a r r i v a l i n B.C. i n 1970, she has m a i n t a i n e d an a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h language and drama e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e . A f t e r r e c e i v i n g h e r masters degree from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a i n 1973, she worked f o r two y e a r s as a c o n s u l t a n t f o r t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board's " P r o j e c t B u i l d " , a speech and language a r t s implement-a t i o n program. Some o f h e r many accomplishments i n c l u d e : d e v e l o p i n g a language program f o r E.S.L. s t u d e n t s ; c o o r d i n a t i n g and d i r e c t i n g t h e p l a y "Immigrant C h i l d r e n Speak"; f o u n d i n g and d i r e c t i n g t h e Vancouver Youth T h e a t r e ; and c o - a u t h o r i n g the book O f f s t a g e : E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n Through Drama (C. T a r l i n g t o n and P. V e r r i o u r , O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1983). Her most r e c e n t work i n v o l v e s t e a c h i n g , d e m o n s t r a t i o n workshops, c o - e d i t i n g t h e J o u r n a l o f t h e A s s o c . o f B.C.  Drama E d u c a t o r s , and s e s s i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a t U.B.C. Ms. T a r l i n g t o n ' s work i s h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B.C., and h e r s k i l l and e x p e r t i s e i n drama e d u c a t i o n a r e i n c o n s t a n t demand. A P r o f i l e o f Teacher B Mr. B o l t o n has worked as a s p e c i a l i s t l e c t u r e r i n drama i n e d u c a t i o n a t t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Durham s i n c e 1964. He has s e r v e d on many n a t i o n a l committees and was one o f t h e a s s e s s o r s o f t h e " S c h o o l s C o u n c i l Drama Teaching P r o j e c t (10-16)." Mr. B o l t o n has an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n i n drama i n e d u c a t i o n h a v i n g l e c t u r e d i n B r i t a i n , Canada, A u s t r a l i a , and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . He i s well-known i n B.C. f o r t h e l e c t u r e s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n workshops he has g i v e n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a . He i s a u t h o r o f Towards a  Theory of Drama i n E d u c a t i o n (Longmans, 1980); Drama as  E d u c a t i o n (Longmans, 1984); and numerous a r t i c l e s on drama ' i n e d u c a t i o n . Mr. B o l t o n has c o n t r i b u t e d enormously t o b o t h t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n t h e f i e l d , and he i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f t h e l e a d i n g e x p e r t s i n drama i n e d u c a t i o n t o d a y . . -j The O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d s The sample f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f t h e a u d i o -r e c o r d i n g s o f f i v e drama s e s s i o n s w i t h Teacher A, and t h e v i d e o - r e c o r d i n g s o f s i x s e s s i o n s w i t h Teacher B. Data c o l l e c t i o n f o r Teacher A was from Oct. 1983 t o March 1984. Teacher B's s e s s i o n s were v i d e o - t a p e d i n J u l y , 1982. S e s s i o n s w i t h Teacher A Teacher A worked f o r two days a week i n an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l as a drama and language s p e c i a l i s t . S t u d e n t s from v a r i o u s c l a s s e s would e i t h e r come t o Teacher A's c l a s s r o o m once a week f o r a f o u r o r f i v e week s e r i e s o f drama s e s s i o n s , o r she would j o i n the s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m f o r t h e same amount of t i m e . D u r i n g t h e r e s t o f t h e week, Teacher A would h o l d d e m o n s t r a t i o n workshops i n o t h e r s c h o o l s and e i t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s would be s e n t t o a s p e c i a l room o r t h e y would work i n t h e i r own classroom.. The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i v e s e s s i o n s . S e s s i o n One P l a c e : Teacher A's c l a s s r o o m . Time e l a p s e d : 1 hour. P a r t i c i p a n t s : 15 grade s i x s t u d e n t s ( h a l f o f t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s ) L e s s o n No.: 4 t h and f i n a l s e s s i o n ( c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r not p r e s e n t ) S e s s i o n Two P l a c e : Teacher A's c l a s s r o o m . Time e l a p s e d : 1 1/2 h o u r s . P a r t i c i p a n t s : 30 grade 5 s t u d e n t s . Lesson No.: 4 t h and f i n a l s e s s i o n ( c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r p r e s e n t ) 36 S e s s i o n Three P l a c e : Time e l a p s e d : P a r t i c i p a n t s : L e sson No. : S e s s i o n Four P l a c e : Time E l a p s e d : P a r t i c i p a n t s : L e s s o n No. : S e s s i o n F i v e P l a c e : Time e l a p s e d : P a r t i c i p a n t s : L e sson No. : S t u d e n t ' s r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . 1 hour. 24 grade 2/3 s t u d e n t s . 1 s t s e s s i o n ( c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r p r e s e n t ) Teacher A's c l a s s r o o m . 1 hour. 14 grade seven s t u d e n t s ( h a l f o f t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s ) 3rd s e s s i o n ( c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r n ot p r e s e n t ) t h e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e o f an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . 1 1/2 h o u r s . 22 grade seven s t u d e n t s from v a r i o u s grade seven c l a s s e s . 3rd s e s s i o n (A group o f 10 a d u l t o b s e r v e r s p r e s e n t ) . R e c o r d i n g Equipment The a u d i o equipment used d u r i n g t h e s e s e s s i o n s c o n s i s t e d o f a p o r t a b l e c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r , and e i t h e r 37 an FM microphone a t t a c h e d t o t h e t e a c h e r 1 s c l o t h i n g o r a Model PL5 E l e c t r o V o i c e microphone s t r a t e g i c a l l y p l a c e d i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a r e a . The b u l k o f t h e equipment was s e t up i n a c o r n e r o f t h e room and w h i l e a s e s s i o n was i n p r o g r e s s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r m o n i t o r e d t h e r e c o r d i n g l e v e l as w e l l as made notes on t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e B e f o r e each s e s s i o n began, Teacher A would i n t r o d u c e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o t h e s t u d e n t s and e x p l a i n t o them t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s s t u d y was concerned w i t h l e a r n i n g about t h e drama t e a c h e r ' s method o f t e a c h i n g . D u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t r i e d t o "fade i n t o t h e background" as much as p o s s i b l e . For example, i f t h e s t u d e n t s were w o r k i n g near t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r o r g l a n c i n g i n h e r d i r e c t i o n , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r would l o o k as i f a t t e n t i o n was b e i n g g i v e n s o l e l y t o h e r notebook. S i n c e i t was i m p o r t a n t t o be a b l e t o r e c r e a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n s f o r l a t e r a n a l y s i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a u d i o r e c o r d i n g s a w r i t t e n r e c o r d was made o f s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r d u r i n g t h e drama s e s s i o n s , as w e l l as o f d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Teacher A b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r the c l a s s e s . The f o l l o w i n g summaries d e s c r i b e t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was no t e d . 38 O b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d e n t s . I n o r d e r t o a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t Teacher A's q u e s t i o n s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o have a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f the c o n t e x t i n which t h e q u e s t i o n s were embedded. The i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n was t h e r e f o r e d i r e c t e d t o such v i s u a l c l u e s as : 1. The manner i n which t h e s t u d e n t s e n t e r e d the room and approached Teacher A. ( F o r example i f t h e s t u d e n t s appeared e x c i t e d and j o c u l a r , and i m m e d i a t e l y advanced towards Teacher A, i t seemed l i k e l y t h a t t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y been i n v o l v e d i n drama and knew what t o e x p e c t ) . 2. Student i n t e r a c t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e drama s e s s i o n . (For example such t h i n g s as s t u d e n t g r o u p i n g s ; the emergence o f l e a d e r s ; t h e group's a b i l i t y t o c o - o p e r a t e , p l a n , and implement d e c i s i o n s ; b e h a v i o r a l problems and; responses a t t h e end o f t h e c l a s s h e l p e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e l e v e l o f commitment d e v e l o p i n g i n t h e drama.) 3. I n d i v i d u a l p h y s i c a l r e s p o n s e s . (For example, changes i n e x p r e s s i o n , g e s t u r e , and movement gave c l u e s as t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n h i s or h e r r o l e . ) 4. R e a c t i o n s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s . ( F o r example, when the s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s were h e s i t a n t , e x c i t e d , s u r p r i s e d , t h o u g h t f u l , p u z z l e d , i n c r e d u l o u s - what d i d t h i s i m p l y about th e q u e s t i o n Teacher A had posed?) 39 O b s e r v a t i o n s o f Teacher A. For a more complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f Teacher A's q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s t h a n a u d i o - r e c o r d i n g a l o n e would p r o v i d e , t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s were made: 1. G e s t u r e s which accompanied speech. 2. Use o f space and movement. 3. P h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h s t u d e n t s . 4. Eye c o n t a c t . 5. P h y s i c a l p o s i t i o n i n g ( f o r example: s i t t i n g , s t a n d i n g , p r o x i m i t y t o s t u d e n t s ) . 6. T i m i n g and p a c i n g o f q u e s t i o n i n g . 7. S t y l e o f speech and a c t i o n when i n r o l e . D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Teacher A. I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e s e s s i o n s , t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n was n o t e d : 1. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f what had t a k e n p l a c e i n p r e v i o u s drama s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s . 2. Teacher A's r e f l e c t i o n s about each s e s s i o n ( f o r example: t h e l e v e l o f r e s p o n s e , t h e a p p arent needs o f t h e c l a s s , where t o go next w i t h t h e drama). 3. R e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s i n t h e s e s s i o n s t o g e n e r a l t h e o r y i n drama e d u c a t i o n . 40 S e s s i o n s w i t h Teacher B O b s e r v a t i o n s o f Teacher B's work were made from u n e d i t e d v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s o f s i x d e m o n s t r a t i o n s e s s i o n s g i v e n as p a r t o f a U.B.C. summer co u r s e i n drama i n e d u c a t i o n . The s e s s i o n s were h e l d i n U.B.C.'s A r t s I b u i l d i n g . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e d s e v e n t e e n s t u d e n t s ages n i n e t o e l e v e n from v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s o f one s c h o o l , as w e l l as one Down's Syndrome boy age t e n . S e s s i o n s ranged from an hour t o an hour and a h a l f i n l e n g t h , and were o b s e r v e d by a group o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y t o f o r t y a d u l t s s e a t e d i n c h a i r s around t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e room. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t a p e s o f each s e s s i o n , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a l s o r e v i e w e d a v i d e o -r e c o r d e d d i s c u s s i o n / l e c t u r e w i t h Teacher B and h i s a d u l t s t u d e n t s as t h e y r e f l e c t e d on t h e s i x d e m o n s t r a t i o n s e s s i o n s . R e c o r d i n g Equipment The r e c o r d i n g equipment f o r Teacher B's s e s s i o n s c o n s i s t e d o f a V.H.S. P o r t a Pac - a l i g h t w e i g h t p o r t a b l e deck and one camera - on l o a n from t h e U.B.C. Aud i o V i s u a l Dept., F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n . G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e f o r A n a l y s i s o f t h e Data The f o l l o w i n g summary i n d i c a t e s t h e pr o c e d u r e used t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y : 41 1. The a u d i o - r e c o r d i n g s o f t h e f i v e s e s s i o n s w i t h Teacher A and t h e v o i c e - t r a c k o f t h e v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s o f t h e s i x s e s s i o n s w i t h Teacher B were t r a n s c r i b e d . 2. U s i n g Wagner's (1976) d e f i n i t i o n o f a q u e s t i o n : "any v e r b a l u t t e r a n c e t h a t s i g n a l s t h a t a response i s wanted" (which i m p l i e d t h a t a q u e s t i o n c o u l d t a k e any g r a m m a t i c a l form - d e c l a r a t i v e , i n t e r r o g a t i v e , o r i m p e r a t i v e ) , t h e t e a c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n s were i s o l a t e d f o r each s e s s i o n . V i s u a l c l u e s p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s p r o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 3. The n e x t p a r t o f t h e a n a l y s i s was t o l a b e l and c a t e g o r i z e t h e q u e s t i o n s . As a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p , a number o f e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems were examined t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o q u e s t i o n i n g i n t h e drama p r o c e s s . Appendix A (p. 154) p r o v i d e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e summary o f t h e v a r i o u s systems which were r e v i e w e d . A l t h o u g h t h e t y p o l o g i e s c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o some o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n s , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e y d i d not a d d r e s s s p e c i f i c methodology  f o r drama. Whereas t h e purpose o f t h e s t u d y was t o a n a l y s e q u e s t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n t h e d r a m a t i c medium, t h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems c e n t e r e d e x c l u s i v e l y on g e n e r a l l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . 4. The subsequent s t e p i n d e t e r m i n i n g how t h e 42 q u e s t i o n s would be c a t e g o r i z e d was t o draw up a l i s t o f elements which l e a d e r s i n t h e f i e l d c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n t e g r a l t o t h e work i n drama e d u c a t i o n . A condensed v e r s i o n o f t h i s l i s t was used as an i n i t i a l s t r u c t u r e from which t o b e g i n t o c l a s s i f y t h e q u e s t i o n s . 5. C a t e g o r i e s were r e f i n e d so t h a t each q u e s t i o n had a p l a c e i n t h e emerging model. 6. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was t h e n s u b m i t t e d t o Teacher A as w e l l as t o a n o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t i n drama e d u c a t i o n t o o b t a i n comments and r e a c t i o n s . The response from b o t h e d u c a t o r s was t h a t a l l t h e major components o f t h e drama p r o c e s s were t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t by t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. 43 Chapter IV THE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA I n t r o d u c t i o n The c o n t e n t s o f t h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e : a d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s e v o l v e d ; an o u t l i n e o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system; a summary o f one o f t h e drama s e s s i o n s p u t f o r w a r d as an example o f the c o n t e x t i n which t h e q u e s t i o n s were embedded; a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e components o f t h e system; a s e r i e s o f e i g h t t a b l e s w h i c h p r o v i d e a breakdown o f t h e q u e s t i o n s as t h e y were c a t e g o r i z e d f o r t h i s s t u d y ; an a c c o u n t of t h e g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s r e s u l t i n g from t h e a n a l y s i s . C l a s s i f y i n g t h e Q u e s t i o n s The d a t a c o l l e c t e d from t h e e l e v e n drama s e s s i o n s o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y y i e l d e d an e x t e n s i v e d i v e r s i t y o f t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s . Upon a n a l y s i n g t h e t r a n s c r i p t s o f each c l a s s , a t o t a l o f 1,535 q u e s t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d . As an i n i t i a l way o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e d a t a , a l i s t o f elements g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d by e x p e r t s as b e i n g i n t e g r a l t o t h e p r o c e s s was drawn up ( f o r example see D. H e a t h c o t e , G. B o l t o n , C. O ' N e i l l and A. Lambert, B.J.Wagner, C. Day, T. S t a b l e r , G. D a v i s , J . F i n e s and R. V e r r i e r , C. T a r l i n g t o n and P. V e r r i o u r ) . 44 U t i l i z i n g the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s own knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f i e l d , t h i s i n i t i a l l i s t was t h e n condensed i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e components: 1. E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c o n t e x t of t h e drama; t h a t i s , d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s u b j e c t o f f o c u s f o r t h e drama as w e l l as t h e parameters w i t h i n which the s u b j e c t would be c o n f i n e d . 2. B u i l d i n g - u p commitment and b e l i e f i n t h e  drama; t h a t i s , h e l p i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s d e v e l o p an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h some a s p e c t o f t h e drama. For example, t h e t e a c h e r might use r o l e , t a s k , o r s e t t i n g as t h e f o c u s f o r c r e a t i n g a bond between the s t u d e n t s and t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . 3. A m p l i f y i n g o r deepening th e p a r t i c i p a n t s '  i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e drama; t h a t i s , l e a d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s towards a deeper i n s i g h t i n t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e drama. P a r t i c i p a n t s a r e encouraged t o go beyond th e s u p e r f i c i a l t o r e f l e c t on t h e b r o a d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n . Based on t h e s e t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s , a p r e l i m i n a r y l a b e l l i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n s was u n d e r t a k e n . The c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g which o f t h e g e n e r a l purposes th e q u e s t i o n s appeared t o s e r v e . For example, i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g 45 whether t h e purpose o f t h e q u e s t i o n was t o a m p l i f y t h e drama o r b u i l d commitment i n t h e drama, the r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s (what t h e y s a i d , t h e i r tone o f v o i c e , and t h e i r p h y s i c a l a t t i t u d e ) c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l t o t h e c h o i c e o f c a t e g o r y . I f t h e s t u d e n t s ' p o s t u r i n g showed them t o be a l e r t and eager, i f t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s i n d i c a t e d i n t e n s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , i f t h e y had demonstrated p r i o r commitment i n t h e i r words and g e s t u r e s - t h e n t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r posed were presumably i n t e n d e d t o deepen and extend t h e e x p e r i e n c e . I n c o n t r a s t , when s p u r t s o f nervous g i g g l i n g o c c u r r e d ; i f s t u d e n t s responded h e s i t a n t l y , i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y , s u p e r f i c i a l l y ; i f b e h a v i o r i n c l u d e d t h e o c c a s i o n a l " c l o w n i n g around" w i t h f r i e n d s - t h i s t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t commitment had not y e t been f u l l y s e c u r e d , and t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s were t h e r e f o r e p l a c e d under t h e " B u i l d i n g Commitment" c a t e g o r y . A f t e r t h e p r e l i m i n a r y c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f t h e d a t a , i t was found t h a t a s m a l l number o f q u e s t i o n s appeared t o be o n l y m a r g i n a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i n g a d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h n e c e s s a r y f o r the g e n e r a l management r e q u i r e d i n a group s i t u a t i o n , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s d i d not seem t o a p p l y d i r e c t l y t o any o f t h e t h r e e d i s t i n c t i v e f u n c t i o n s mentioned above. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a f o u r t h major d i v i s i o n was added: 46 4. R e g u l a t i n g o r managing t h e g e n e r a l  i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e group; t h a t i s , d i r e c t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g e v e n t s r e l a t e d t o " c l a s s r o o m f u n c t i o n i n g " as opposed t o t h o s e which p u r p o s e f u l l y d e v e l o p t h e drama• Having c l a s s i f i e d the q u e s t i o n s under t h e f o u r main c a t e g o r i e s , i t was t h e n n e c e s s a r y t o narrow i n on the s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s o f the q u e s t i o n s w i t h i n each of t h e d i v i s i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e d a t a a t f i r s t appeared v e r y d i v e r s e , t h e a n a l y s i s began t o r e v e a l c o m m o n a l i t i e s i n t h e purposes which t h e q u e s t i o n s s e r v e d d e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e dramas and t h e t e a c h i n g s t y l e o f t h e two s u b j e c t s . The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e x t e n s i v e range o f purposes which were a c c o r d e d t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n s . An O u t l i n e o f t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s from t h e f i v e s e s s i o n s w i t h Teacher A and t h e s i x s e s s i o n s w i t h Teacher B y i e l d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The system i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r main s e c t i o n s , 17 c a t e g o r i e s , and 41 s u b c a t e g o r i e s - a l l r e f l e c t i n g t h e major components of t h e drama p r o c e s s o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y . 47 I . ESTABLISHING CONTEXT IA. S e t t i n g Out G i v e n C i r c u m s t a n c e s 1A1. C a l l i n g A t t e n t i o n t o C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Drama P r o c e s s . 1A2. C a l l i n g A t t e n t i o n t o t h e S u r r o u n d i n g s . I B . I d e n t i f y i n g a C e n t e r o f I n t e r e s t 1B1. R e v e a l i n g Group I n t e r e s t s . 1B2. A s s i s t i n g i n S e l e c t i o n . 1B3. R e q u e s t i n g Commitment t o T o p i c . IC. F a c i l i t a t i n g a C o l l e c t i v e Knowledge o f T o p i c 1C1. S p e c i f y i n g t h e Parameters o f t h e C o n t e x t . 1C2. R e l a t i n g T o p i c t o G e n e r a l E x p e r i e n c e . ID. D e t e r m i n i n g I n i t i a l Involvement 1D1. C a l l i n g A t t e n t i o n t o P r e v i o u s S e s s i o n s o r P r e - s e l e c t e d M a t e r i a l . 1D2. I d e n t i f y i n g S t a r t i n g R o l e s , Tasks, o r S i t u a t i o n . I I . BUILDING COMMITMENT I I A . P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g Role I I A 1 . Forming Images o f R o l e : (a) P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (b) Environment (c) R e l a t i o n s h i p s (d) Involvement i n A c t i o n s / E v e n t s . 48 I I A 2 . R e q u e s t i n g I n d i v i d u a l Commitment t o R o l e : (a) P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (b) Environment (c) R e l a t i o n s h i p s (d) Involvement i n a c t i o n s / e v e n t s I I A 3 . A l l o w i n g a C o l l e c t i v e I d e n t i t y t o Emerge I I A 4 . R e q u e s t i n g P h y s i c a l i z a t i o n o f R o l e . I I B . P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g S e t t i n g I I B 1 . P romoting I n d i v i d u a l Images of S e t t i n g . I I B 2 . R e f i n i n g a C o l l e c t i v e Image. I I B 3 . C l a r i f y i n g t h e Use o f R e a l Space and O b j e c t s . I I C . P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g a Task I I C 1 . A s s i s t i n g i n I n d i v i d u a l Commitment. I I C 2 . A s s i s t i n g i n C o l l e c t i v e Commitment. I I D . P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g an A t t i t u d e t o the Task I I D 1 . I m a g i n i n g an A t t i t u d e . I I D 2. F o c u s i n g I n d i v i d u a l Involvement. IID3. F o c u s i n g Group Invo l v e m e n t . IID4. Promoting I n i t i a l D ramatic A c t i o n . H E . I n t r o d u c i n g Dramatic T e n s i o n I I E 1 . A p p e a l i n g f o r A s s i s t a n c e . I I E 2 . I n t r o d u c i n g C h a l l e n g e s . I I E 3 . S u g g e s t i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s o r Consequences. I I F . C r e a t i n g C o n t r a s t s . I I G . E s t a b l i s h i n g S i g n s and Symbols. 49 I I I . AMPLIFYING CONTEXT I I I A . P r o b i n g f o r F u r t h e r C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Response I I I A 1 . R e q u e s t i n g an A n a l y s i s / E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Immediate S i t u a t i o n I I I A 2 . C o n f r o n t i n g A c t i o n s o r D e c i s i o n s I I I B . H e i g h t e n i n g R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I I I B 1 . P rompting G r e a t e r I n d i v i d u a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I I I B 2 . P rompting G r e a t e r Group R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I I I C . C o n t r o l l i n g Pace t o Re v e a l Meaning I I I C 1 . S u r p r i s i n g / S h o c k i n g i n t o New Awareness I I I C 2 . A p p l y i n g P r e s s u r e t o C o n s i d e r I m p l i c a t i o n s I I I C 3 . M a i n t a i n i n g L e v e l of Dramatic A c t i o n H I D . Promoting R e f l e c t i o n / E v a l u a t i o n I I I D 1 . D i r e c t i n g A t t e n t i o n t o O v e r a l l Events i n th e F i c t i t i o u s C o n t e x t I I I D 2 . Widening t h e A r e a o f R e f e r e n c e IV. REGULATING SOCIAL INTERACTION (MANAGEMENT) IVA. R e g u l a t i n g B e h a v i o r O u t s i d e t h e F i c t i t i o u s C o n t e x t IVA1. G i v i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s IVA2. M o n i t o r i n g Work IVA3. C o n t r o l l i n g B e h a v i o r IVB. R e g u l a t i n g B e h a v i o r I n s i d e t h e F i c t i t i o u s C o n t e x t IVB1. G i v i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s IVB2. M o n i t o r i n g Work IVB3. C o n t r o l l i n g B e h a v i o r 50 An Example o f t h e Events i n a Drama S e s s i o n In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l c o n t e x t i n which t o p l a c e t h e q u e s t i o n i n g a n a l y s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e sequence o f e v e n t s f o r each o f t h e e l e v e n s e s s i o n s has been summarized i n p o i n t form. The f o l l o w i n g i s o f f e r e d as an example o f t h e s e summaries, w i t h t h e remainder o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s b e i n g l o c a t e d i n Appendix B, p. 154. Teacher A's S e s s i o n s ; Teacher A's s e s s i o n s i n c l u d e d f i v e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s o f s t u d e n t s r a n g i n g from a grade 2/3 s p l i t t o a grade 7 c l a s s . Each s e s s i o n has been t i t l e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e " s t o r y " from which th e drama drew some o f i t s s t r u c t u r a l e l ements. 1. "Shadow o f a B u l l " P a r t i c u l a r s : 15 grade 6 s t u d e n t s ( h a l f o f t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s ) i n t h e i r f o u r t h and f i n a l one-hour s e s s i o n o f work on t h i s drama. The drama deals w i t h t h e i s s u e s and themes r a i s e d i n t h e book Shadow o f a B u l l by Maia Woejiechowska. V o c a b u l a r y r e v i e w o f S p a n i s h words e n c o u n t e r e d i n p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n s . S t u d e n t s p r i n t i m a g i n a r y S p a n i s h names on c a r d s and p i n t h e s e on t h e m s e l v e s . They agree t o go back i n t o r o l e as s t u d e n t s o f a b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l w i t h Teacher A as t h e i r p r o f e s s o r . The P r o f e s s o r i n t r o d u c e s t h e i d e a t h a t one s t u d e n t w i l l be chosen t o f i g h t t h e b u l l i n t h e " f i e s t a b r a v a " . S t u d e n t s w r i t e down whether t h e y would a c c e p t o r r e j e c t t h i s honor and why. They a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two groups - t h o s e who would w i s h t o f i g h t t h e b u l l and t h o s e who would n o t . Teacher A chooses one s t u d e n t ( E l Panthas) who does not want t o f i g h t and, i n r o l e as t h e P r o f e s s o r , e x p r e s s e s s u r p r i s e because she knows how keen h i s f a m i l y i s t h a t he be s e l e c t e d . They d i s c u s s what E l Panthas s h o u l d say t o h i s p a r e n t s , and the P r o f e s s o r r e q u e s t s t h a t each p e r s o n i n t u r n g i v e E l Panthas a d v i c e . The P r o f e s s o r speaks t o h e r s t u d e n t s as i f she were E l P a n t h a s 1 f a t h e r and d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e s t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s . The s t u d e n t s w r i t e down what t h e y t h i n k E l Panthas s h o u l d do and why. 52 The P r o f e s s o r asks each s t u d e n t why he o r she i s e n r o l l e d a t t h e b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l . Out o f r o l e , t h e group d i s c u s s e s r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e theme. Teacher A r e a d s out t h e s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t each s t u d e n t has w r i t t e n t o E l Panthas. As was p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h e r e m a i n i n g summaries a r e found i n Appendix B, p. 154. Examples drawn from t h e t r a n s c r i p t s o f t h e s e s e s s i o n s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system which f o l l o w s . A D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System I . ESTABLISHING CONTEXT The q u e s t i o n s t h a t f a l l w i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n i d e n t i f y t h e f i e l d o f e n q u i r y f o r t h e drama; t h a t i s , t h e y a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r t h e who, when, why, where, what, and how o f t h e p r o c e s s . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g o f a f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e f i c t i o n a l c o n t e x t comes t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e terms under wh i c h t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s w i l l o p e r a t e - the w o r k i n g c o n t e x t . Q u e s t i o n s seek t o convey t o s t u d e n t s t h a t r e s p o n s e s w i l l be g e n u i n e l y a c c e p t e d and a c t e d 53 upon, and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t s t u d e n t i n p u t w i l l have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e c o u r s e o f e v e n t s . 1A. S e t t i n g Out G i v e n C i r c u m s t a n c e s These q u e s t i o n s attempt t o h e i g h t e n an awareness o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e drama s e s s i o n s . They o f t e n a r e used a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e work t o p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r t h e p o s s i b l e n o v e l t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . An e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t h a t t h e y demonstrate t o s t u d e n t s t h a t a l l a s p e c t s o f the s i t u a t i o n w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d and d e a l t w i t h i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner. 1A1. C a l l i n g A t t e n t i o n t o C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Drama P r o c e s s  T h i s s u b c a t e g o r y d e s c r i b e s q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e d i r e c t e d t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e drama p r o c e s s ; t h a t i s , what can be e x p e c t e d , what t o s t r i v e f o r , g u a r a n t e e s t h a t can be made. S i n c e t h i s i s o f t e n a s i t u a t i o n i n which the t e a c h e r g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e q u e s t i o n s s e r v e m a i n l y t o r e i n f o r c e v a r i o u s s t a t e m e n t s about drama. (a) I n h i s f i r s t m eeting w i t h the c l a s s , Teacher B e x p l a i n s t h a t he has no p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s about 54 a theme f o r t h e drama, and t o u n d e r l i n e t h e p o i n t he a s k s , "Can you see my b l a n k mind?" He mentions t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l l i k e l y f i n d him p a r t i c i p -a t i n g i n the drama a l o n g w i t h them. I n a f r i e n d l y c o n f i d e n t i a l manner he a s k s , "Can you cope w i t h me  b e i n g i n t h e drama do you t h i n k ? " S i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s g l a n c e a t each o t h e r r a t h e r n e r v o u s l y he comments, " Y o u ' l l have t o see won't you?" (b) A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t h i r d s e s s i o n , t h e q u e s t i o n "Did we have a s l o w s t a r t ? " r e i n f o r c e s Teacher B's e a r l i e r comments t h a t t h e i n i t i a l work has t o proceed v e r y s l o w l y . (c) Responding t o a s t u d e n t ' s comment t h a t mimimg the s u r g i c a l g l o v e s f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n "won't seem as r e a l " , Teacher B s a y s , " W e l l t h a t ' s t h e s e c r e t o f  drama i s n ' t i t ? - t h a t you've got t o make i t r e a l i n your mind. And i f i t ' s r e a l i n your mind, i t ' s more r e a l t h a n r e a l . D i d you know t h a t ? " IA2. C a l l i n g A t t e n t i o n t o t h e S u r r o u n d i n g s The purpose o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o such elements as t h e space, t h e o b j e c t s , t h e p e o p l e , t h e g e n e r a l atmosphere - any a s p e c t o f t h e environment t h a t might have an e f f e c t on i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e drama. 55 (a) I n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n , Teacher B eases t h e p r e s s u r e b u i l t up from b e i n g t h e c e n t e r o f a t t e n t i o n as he a s k s , "We've got t h i s camera h e r e , have you  n o t i c e d ? " (b) A group o f t a b l e s have been a r r a n g e d p r i o r t o s e s s i o n two, and a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c l a s s , Teacher B c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o them by a s k i n g , "When  you came i n , t h e r e s t o f you, and l o o k e d a t t h o s e  t a b l e s , d i d you make a guess about them?" IB. I d e n t i f y i n g a C e n t e r o f I n t e r e s t Q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h t h e theme or t o p i c f o r t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . They appear t o be used a t any p o i n t i n t h e drama p r o c e s s where a new s t r u c t u r e i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . A s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t h e c a r e f u l and p e r s i s t e n t manner i n which t h e t e a c h e r checks and c l a r i f i e s r e s p o n s e s . I B 1 . R e v e a l i n g Group I n t e r e s t s These q u e s t i o n s i n v i t e t h e s t u d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r i d e a s f o r t h e group as a whole. The t e a c h e r appears t o remain r e l a t i v e l y n e u t r a l d u r i n g such exchanges t o ensure t h a t no one i d e a i s g i v e n precedence o v e r a n o t h e r . 56 (a) A f t e r a few i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks, Teacher B a s k s , "What k i n d o f t h i n g would make an  i n t e r e s t i n g drama e x p e r i e n c e f o r us? What t o p i c  would we want i t t o be about?" A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no immediate response from t h e s t u d e n t s , he doesn't r u s h them. R a t h e r , he t e l l s them t o ponder over i t f o r a w h i l e , and i n an e f f o r t t o put them a t ease, comments, " I s n ' t i t a w f u l when  somebody asks you a q u e s t i o n l i k e t h i s ? " A l l t h e t o p i c s you've e v e r had i n your head f l y o u t . " L a t e r , a f t e r numerous s u g g e s t i o n s , t h e f i n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o comment i s g i v e n f u r t h e r w e i g h t as Teacher B asks (good n a t u r e d l y s t r e s s i n g t h e word " b u r n i n g " ) " I s t h e r e anybody who's b u r n i n g t o add  one - a good one they've j u s t t hought o f and  d i d n ' t have a chance? ... I t ' s a b s o l u t e l y b u r n i n g  i n s i d e you i s i t ? " (b) A t t h e end o f a l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n i n s e s s i o n f o u r , t h e s t u d e n t s ( i n r o l e as f o u r concerned mothers, and t h e d o c t o r s and n u r s e s o f a h o s p i t a l ) have made i t c l e a r t h a t p r o o f o f t h e r o b o t ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s n e c e s s a r y . Teacher B a s s e s s e s t h e s t u d e n t s ' d e s i r e t o pursue t h i s d i r e c t i o n by a s k i n g , " T h i n k i n g i n terms o f what would go on  ne x t i n our drama, would i t be i n t e r e s t i n g f o r you  t o p r e p a r e the d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e g o i n g t o see?" 57 (c) S i m i l a r l y i n Teacher A's s e s s i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s ( i n r o l e as a d v i s o r s t o the Queen) r e a c h a p o i n t where t h e y a r e r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o g i v e t h e l i t t l e man r e s i d e n c y i n t h e p a l a c e ( s i n c e i t might provoke t h e K i n g ' s d i s p l e a s u r e ) . To d e t e r m i n e whether t h e s t u d e n t s want t o e x p l o r e t h i s s i t u a t i o n , Teacher A i n q u i r e s , "Would you l i k e t o  f i n d out what happens when the K i n g h e a r s about  t h i s ? " I B 1 . A s s i s t i n g i n S e l e c t i o n The n a t u r e o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o narrow t h e range o f c h o i c e s f o r t h e c o n t e x t i n o r d e r t o g r a d u a l l y c r e a t e a c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a s i n g l e f o c u s . O f t e n t h e t e a c h e r w i l l w r i t e t h e r e s p o n s e s on t h e bo a r d so t h a t s t u d e n t s may see t h e t o t a l o f what t h e y ' v e o f f e r e d . (a) A f t e r w r i t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' s u g g e s t i o n s on t h e boa r d , Teacher B s a y s , " J u s t t e l l me, l o o k i n g a t t h a t l o n g l i s t now, j u s t say o f f t h e t o p o f your head - which one or two would you choose more t h a n  any o f t h e o t h e r s ? " (b) The s t u d e n t s have been r e q u e s t e d t o draw a p i e c e 58 o f m e d i c a l equipment t h a t d o c t o r s would use i n 2132 AD and t h a t i s not p r e s e n t l y i n o p e r a t i o n . L a t e r i n t h e s e s s i o n t h e s e drawings a r e examined, and Teacher B a s k s , " I s t h e r e any one o f t h e s e  machines t h a t you t h i n k would make p a r t i c u l a r l y  e x c i t i n g drama?" (c) As t h e s t u d e n t s s t a n d by t h e drawing o f t h e i r c h o i c e , t h e y make s u g g e s t i o n s about how t h e v a r i o u s machines c o u l d be employed i n a drama. Teacher B l i s t e n s c a r e f u l l y t o a l l o f f e r s and t h e n remarks, "But a r e you t e l l i n g me t h a t t h a t ' s what  you'd l i k e t h e drama t o do - t o go i n t o f a n t a s y - o r do you want i t t o be about r e a l t h i n g s ? " IB3. R e q u e s t i n g Commitment t o T o p i c The f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o v e r i f y t h a t t h e group i s w i l l i n g t o work w i t h t h e chosen t o p i c and t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o m m i t t i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e d e c i s i o n . (a) I n d e c i d i n g who w i l l t a k e on t h e r o l e s o f t h e Queen and t h e l i t t l e man, Teacher A s u g g e s t s t h a t i f t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l c o n s e n t , she w i l l t a k e on t h e r o l e o f F r e d Simpson. I f t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o go a l o n g w i t h t h i s t h e y a r e t o put up t h e i r hands, and as a f u r t h e r check, Teacher A a s k s i n a f i r m 59 b u t n e u t r a l v o i c e , "Are t h e r e some p e o p l e who do  not w i s h me t o do t h a t ? " She l o o k s around i n q u i r i n g l y , and a g a i n a s k s , "Are t h e r e ? " (b) When a grade 2/3 c l a s s i s h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y f o c u s i n g on t h e t a s k o f g o i n g t o meet w i t h t h e Queen, Teacher A asks each c h i l d f o r an i n d i v i d u a l commitment t o t h e c o n t e x t : "Are you c a p a b l e o f  be h a v i n g l i k e t h e grown-up p e o p l e o f t h i s v i l l a g e  and t h i n k i n g l i k e them? I t ' s h a r d . I f you're not ca p a b l e o f i t j u s t say 'no I'm n o t ' , i t ' s a l l r i g h t . " I n each case she checks t h a t t h e s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d s t h e q u e s t i o n and t h a t he or she makes a d e c i s i o n . When t h i s i s complete, she asks t h e c h i l d r e n who f e l t i t was t o o d i f f i c u l t , t o s i m p l y l i s t e n q u i e t l y w h i l e t h e o t h e r s work. As t h e drama p r o g r e s s e s , t h e few who s a i d t h e y c o u l d n ' t do i t , n e v e r t h e l e s s appear t o be drawn i n t o t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . (c) I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , Teacher B uses a more i n d i r e c t approach t o e s t a b l i s h i n g commitment. When t h e s t u d e n t s have v o t e d on a t o p i c he a s k s , "Are you t h e k i n d o f c h i l d r e n who can, you know  f o r g e t t h e t h i n g s you wanted and get c r a c k i n g on  the t h i n g s t h e group have chosen?" 60 IC. F a c i l i t a t i n g a C o l l e c t i v e Knowledge o f T o p i c The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y s e r v e t o d e f i n e g e n e r a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t o p i c so t h a t t h e group may b e g i n t h e work from a common p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e . O f t e n such q u e s t i o n s h e l p t o i m p l a n t images which emerge l a t e r i n t h e drama. I C 1 . S p e c i f y i n g t h e Parameters o f t h e C o n t e x t The f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o a s s i s t t h e group i n d e c i d i n g on c e r t a i n bounds ( t i m e , p l a c e , c i r c u m s t a n c e , a t t i t u d e , e t c . ) w i t h i n which t h e f i c t i o n w i l l o c c u r . The t e a c h e r n a r r o w s - i n on i d e a s g e n e r a t e d by t h e s t u d e n t s and probes f o r g r e a t e r d e t a i l . (a) A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e s s i o n , Teacher A d i r e c t s t h e c l a s s t o t h i n k about t h e a t t i t u d e / manner of a b u l l f i g h t e r : "What a r e the a t t r i b u t e s ,  o r what k i n d o f t h i n g s s h o u l d a b u l l f i g h t e r be?" (b) Teacher A asks t h e grade 2/3 s t u d e n t s , " I f you're  g o i n g t o t a k e on t h e r o l e o f one o f t h e s e p e o p l e ,  one o f t h e s e grown-up p e o p l e , what do you t h i n k  your j o b might be i n a v i l l a g e l i k e t h a t ? " ( I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e y a r e s t i l l e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t e x t , and t h e q u e s t i o n i s thrown out t o s t i m u l a t e i d e a s r a t h e r t h a n seek i n d i v i d u a l commitment.) 61 (c) A f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s have d e c i d e d on t h e t o p i c ' h o s p i t a l i n t h e f u t u r e ' , Teacher B asks a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t o f o c u s t h e i r t h i n k i n g : "How i s some  h o s p i t a l o f t h e f u t u r e g o i n g t o be d i f f e r e n t from  some h o s p i t a l t o d a y I ask? [ f a n c i e r t h i n g s ] What  do you mean by f a n c i e r ? ... W i l l t h e r e be  d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f d i s e a s e s ? ... S h a l l we g i v e  t h i s f u t u r e a d a t e ? . . . I s i t g o i n g t o mean t h a t i n  150 y e a r s time t h a t p e o p l e a r e g o i n g t o be more  dependent on t h e h o s p i t a l ? . . . I s t h e r e g o i n g t o be  some r e a s o n t h a t makes h o s p i t a l s more i m p o r t a n t  t h a n t h e y a r e now?" IC2. R e l a t i n g T o p i c t o G e n e r a l E x p e r i e n c e Q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s u b c a t e g o r y l i n k t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y images i n t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . (a) I n a d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e n e x t s e s s i o n and what t h e v i l l a g e r s might b r i n g t h e Queen, Teacher A d e s c r i b e s a p r i z e p o s s e s s i o n o f h e r s , and asks t h e s t u d e n t s , "Have you got a p r i z e p o s s e s s i o n a t  home?" (b) B e f o r e t h e s t u d e n t s b e g i n t o imagine what t h e i r c o u n c i l chambers w i l l l o o k l i k e , Teacher A i n q u i r e s , "Who's been t o t h e town h a l l h e r e , t o  t h e c i t y h a l l ? " (c) Teacher B h e l p s t h e s t u d e n t s g r a s p t h e concept o f 150 y e a r s hence w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : "So I ' l l be dead and gone - w i l l you be dead and gone? W i l l your c h i l d r e n be dead and gone?" (d) D u r i n g a d i s c u s s i o n about a machine t h a t might c u r e c a n c e r , Teacher B asks i n a m a t t e r o f f a c t v o i c e , "Can I j u s t ask you, do you know anybody  t h a t ' s had c a n c e r ? " Some hands go up ( i n c l u d i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s ) and he acknowledges t h e i r response w i t h a nod. W i t h o u t d i s c u s s i n g i t f u r t h e r , t h e y go back i n t o r o l e as d e s i g n e r s e x p l a i n i n g t h e new equipment. (e) I n o r d e r t o g e t a more p e r s o n a l l i n k w i t h t h e f i c t i t i o u s s i x y e a r o l d Theresa, Teacher B a s k s , "Do any o f you have any younger b r o t h e r s and  s i s t e r s much younger t h a n y o u r s e l v e s ? " ID. D e t e r m i n i n g I n i t i a l Involvement The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y move the c o n t e x t t o t h e c o n c r e t e by r e q u i r i n g t h a t s t u d e n t s d e c i d e upon th e r o l e s / a t t i t u d e s t h e y w i l l t a k e on, o r t h e t a s k t h e y w i l l c a r r y o u t , o r t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t w i l l prompt d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . 63 ID1. C a l l i n g A t t e n t i o n t o P r e v i o u s S e s s i o n s o r P r e s e l e c t e d M a t e r i a l I n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n s o r t o m a t e r i a l t h a t s t u d e n t s have been r e q u e s t e d t o c o v e r e a r l i e r . (a) Teacher A r e v i e w s t h e e v e n t s o f t h e p a s t l e s s o n and c o n c l u d e s by s a y i n g t h a t as she remembers, t h e y were a n x i o u s t o f i n d out what happened i n t h e c o u n c i l m e e t i n g a f t e r t h e t r a g e d y w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n : "We d i d d e c i d e we wanted t o f i n d t h a t  out d i d n ' t we?" (b) A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s e s s i o n two, Teacher B reminds t h e s t u d e n t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t was posed on t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n : "Did we want e x t r a o r d i n a r y  t h i n g s t o happen and d i d we want the h o s p i t a l , or  d i d we want t h e h o s p i t a l t o be v e r y r e a l ? " (c) A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o c c u r s a t t h e s t a r t o f s e s s i o n f i v e as Teacher B r e f e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "Does  Theresa know t h a t she's coming i n t o h o s p i t a l  because she has, might have, c a n c e r ? " ID2. I d e n t i f y i n g S t a r t i n g R o l e s , Tasks, o r S i t u a t i o n  These q u e s t i o n s f u r t h e r d e f i n e t h e parameters o f t h e c o n t e x t by r e q u e s t i n g t h a t s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r what form t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l t a k e . 64 (a) Teacher A asks t h e c l a s s , "Could you agree t h e n  f o r t h i s morning t h a t we can go back a g a i n i n t o  r o l e and t h a t you w i l l a g a i n be my s t u d e n t s i n t h e  b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l and I w i l l be your p r o f e s s o r ? " (b) I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e n e x t meeting, Teacher A poses th e q u e s t i o n : "Who would l i k e t o  t a k e on t h e r o l e o f t h e Queen?" For t h e f i n a l m eeting ( t h i s t i m e w i t h t h e K i n g ) she a s k s , "Do  you t h i n k t h i s l i t t l e man would be t h e r e a t t h i s  meeting or n o t ? " (c) Teacher B f o c u s e s t h e s t u d e n t s on the r o l e s t h e y w i l l t a k e by a s k i n g i n a b r i s k b u s i n e s s - l i k e manner, "Are you t h e d o c t o r s who've d e s i g n e d t h e s e  ( t h e machines) o r a r e you t h e d o c t o r s who a r e  g o i n g t o have t o use them?... Can you t a l k as  though you're s t i l l l e a r n i n g about them? Which? I t makes a d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e way you're g o i n g t o t a l k . Now which do you want i t t o be?" I I . BUILDING COMMITMENT T h i s s e c t i o n encompasses tho s e q u e s t i o n s which h e l p t h e s t u d e n t s become committed t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . The t e a c h e r a t t e m p t s t o move th e s t u d e n t s away from a s p e c t a t o r p o s i t i o n o f t h i n k i n g about th e c o n t e x t t o a more p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e engage-ment w i t h t h e f l o w o f t h e drama. The f u n c t i o n o f t h e 65 q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s e s t a b l i s h a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r work. The t e a c h e r encourages t h i s c o n c e r n by p r o b i n g f o r d e t a i l s o f s t u d e n t i n v o l v e -ment, and by p r o v i d i n g an a c c e s s f o r e m o t i o n a l engage-ment w i t h t h e c o n t e x t . H A . P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g Role The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y r e q u e s t t h a t s t u d e n t s examine t h e i r l i v e s as t h e y p e r c e i v e them i n t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . C r e a t i n g a s p e c i f i c background a s s i s t s i n p r o m o t i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h and commitment t o t h e r o l e . The t e a c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n s c o n t i n u a l l y push t h e s t u d e n t s t o c r e a t e f u r t h e r d e t a i l s about th e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y o f f e r . I I A 1 . Forming Images of Role I n o r d e r t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n onto t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e i r r o l e s , t h e t e a c h e r asks t h e s t u d e n t s t o form d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r minds o f who t h e y a r e and what t h e y do. Q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e appear t o be used as an i n t e r m e d i a r y s t e p p r i o r t o v e r b a l commit-ment. A f u r t h e r breakdown i s l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : (a) P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( Q u e s t i o n s which ask s t u d e n t s t o imagine such t h i n g s as age, p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s , h a b i t s , g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e , o c c u p a t i o n ) . For example, Teacher A asks h e r s t u d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g : " I want you t o t h i n k f o r  a minute - how o l d am I ? " "What's my l i f e l i k e a t  the p a l a c e ? " "What do you do f o r a l i v i n g ? " "What t i m e do you g e t up i n t h e morning?" "What  k i n d o f p e r s o n a r e you?" "What would a p i c t u r e o f  t h i s p e r s o n be l i k e ? " (b) Environment ( Q u e s t i o n s which ask s t u d e n t s t o imagine t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s ) . Examples from Teacher A's s e s s i o n s : "What's the p a r t o f t h e p a l a c e l i k e t h a t you l i v e i n ? " "How i s i t  f u r n i s h e d ? " "What i s your house l i k e ? " "Where i s i t i n the v i l l a g e ? " (c) R e l a t i o n s h i p s ( Q u e s t i o n s which ask the s t u d e n t s t o imagine t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to. o t h e r p e o p l e ) . Examples from Teacher A's s e s s i o n s : "Do I l i v e a l o n e , do I  have a w i f e or husband?" "Do I have c h i l d r e n and  i f so how o l d a r e t h e y ? " (d) Involvement i n A c t i o n s / E v e n t s ( Q u e s t i o n s which ask s t u d e n t s t o imagine t h e t h i n g s t h e y ' v e done i n t h e i r l i v e s ) . Examples from Teacher A's s e s s i o n s : "What d i d I s t u d y a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y ? " "How l o n g  have you worked f o r t h e Queen?" "What's t h e h a r d e s t problem you've ever had t o s o l v e f o r h e r ? " "What do you do a l l day?" 67 I I A 2 . R e q u e s t i n g I n d i v i d u a l Commitment t o R o l e The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s u b c a t e g o r y r e q u i r e t h a t s t u d e n t s v e r b a l l y o r p h y s i c a l l y b e g i n t o commit thems e l v e s t o t h e i r r o l e s . The t e a c h e r uses t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t o m o n i t o r , r e i n f o r c e , and extend t h e i n f o r -m a t i o n g e n e r a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a f u r t h e r breakdown: (a) P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( Q u e s t i o n s which r e q u e s t a d e c l a r a t i o n o f such t h i n g s as age, p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s , h a b i t s , g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e , o c c u p a t i o n ) . Examples from Teacher A's S e s s i o n s : "You're t h i r t y y e a r s o l d and what do you do f o r a  l i v i n g ? " "So you're l e a r n i n g t o be a cook l i k e  y our f a t h e r a r e you?" A d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f example i s t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h s i m p l y asks t h e s t u d e n t s t o d e c l a r e t h e m s e l v e s : (Teacher A) "Where's our  mayor?" " I s t h e t r e a s u r e r o f t h e c o u n c i l h e r e a t  a l l ? " ; (Teacher B) "Nurses w i l l you p l e a s e s t a n d  up?" " D o c t o r s w i l l you p l e a s e s t a n d up?" (b) Environment ( Q u e s t i o n s which r e q u e s t i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s ) . For example, from Teacher A's s e s s i o n s : "Do you l i v e i n t h e p a l a c e  s i r o r o u t s i d e ? " "Whereabouts i n t h e p a l a c e ? " "Do you have a n i c e view from up t h e r e ? " " I t ' s  l i k e a h u n t i n g lodge do you mean?" "So you have a  f o r e s t nearby do you?" 68 (c) R e l a t i o n s h i p s ( Q u e s t i o n s which r e q u e s t i n f o r m a t i o n about r e l a t i o n s t o o t h e r s ) . F or example, from Teacher A's s e s s i o n s : "So a r e you f r i e n d s o r  s i s t e r s ? " "Are you m a r r i e d ? " "Do you have  c h i l d r e n o f your own?" "Do you l i v e h e r e a l o n e ? " (d) Involvement i n A c t i o n s / E v e n t s ( Q u e s t i o n s which r e q u e s t i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e e v e n t s i n t h e i r l i v e s ) . F o r example, from Teacher A's s e s s i o n s : "How l o n g have you worked i n t h e p a l a c e ? " "Were  you a d v i s i n g somewhere e l s e b e f o r e t h e n ? " "Are  t h e r e many problems o r a r e t h i n g s p r e t t y smooth  h e r e ? " "Do you have t o do a l l t h e housework and  e v e r y t h i n g y o u r s e l f ? " I I A 3 . A l l o w i n g a C o l l e c t i v e I d e n t i t y t o Emerge These q u e s t i o n s promote t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a group sense o f i d e n t i t y i n t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . A l t h o u g h t h e y h e l p t o r e i n f o r c e i n d i v i d u a l commitment, t h e i r p r i m a r y purpose i s t o g e t c h i l d r e n l i s t e n i n g t o one a n o t h e r so t h a t subsequent p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be i n r e l a t i o n t o a c o l l e c t i v e awareness o f c o n t e x t . O f t e n a p r o c e d u r e i s used whereby s t u d e n t s l i s t e n q u i e t l y as th e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s each s t u d e n t i n t u r n about the s p e c i f i c s o f h i s o r h e r r o l e . (a) Teacher A f o r m a l i z e s h e r language and assuming a t w i l i g h t r o l e says t o a grade two g i r l , "Good 69 morning madame. Whereabouts do you l i v e i n t h e  v i l l a g e ? " (The c h i l d r e n have been r e q u e s t e d t o f r e e z e i n t h e m i d d l e o f an a c t i v i t y so t h a t t h e group w i l l h e a r each r e s p o n s e ) . Teacher A, i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r , w a l k s among t h e group o f c o u n c i l l o r s as t h e y w a i t o u t s i d e t h e c o u n c i l chambers. A d o p t i n g a b r i s k , e f f i c i e n t manner, she approaches them w i t h such q u e s t i o n s a s : "Good morning s i r , how l o n g have you been on  th e c o u n c i l ? " "I'm sure you've had problems  b e f o r e i n Hamelin, have you?" Teacher A r e i n f o r c e s t h e group i d e n t i t y when, as t h e P i e d P i p e r , she a s k s , "You a l l do l i v e i n  Hamelin do you?" "Some o f you a r e p a r e n t s y o u r - s e l v e s I presume?" U s i n g a d e m o n s t r a t i o n d e v i c e , Teacher B ( i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r ) i n t e r v i e w s one o f t h e s t u d e n t s ( i n r o l e as a d o c t o r ) w h i l e t h e r e s t o f the c l a s s o b s e r v e s . C o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y i s d e v e l o p e d as s t u d e n t s a re r e q u e s t e d t o d e c i d e upon d e t a i l s o f t h e s e r o l e s : "He's coming from s u r g e r y and so what  i s he d r e s s e d i n ? ... What c o l o r i s t h i s mask and  robe? What i s i t ? Ah w h i t e w i t h a l i t t l e b l o o d on i t . " 70 I I A 4 . R e q u e s t i n g P h y s i c a l i z a t i o n o f Role As a means of p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g r o l e , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t t h a t s t u d e n t s a d j u s t t h e i r b o d i e s i n a manner t h a t p h y s i c a l l y d e p i c t s t h e i r images o f who t h e y a r e . (a) To h e l p s t u d e n t s b u i l d b e l i e f i n t h e i r r o l e s as a d v i s o r s , Teacher A checks t o see i f t h e y can s t a n d i n a way t h a t makes them f e e l t h e age of t h e i r r o l e s . She warns them t h a t she doesn't want t o see "people d o i n g p r e t e n d i n g t h i n g s o f what t h e y t h i n k an o l d e r p e r s o n would be." R a t h e r , she wants a s t a n c e t h a t makes them " f e e l l i k e a w i s e and i n t e l l i g e n t 30 y e a r o l d o r 60 y e a r o l d o r whatever ... So c o u l d you j u s t e x periment a l i t t l e  w i t h your body and see i f you can f i n d a way o f  s t a n d i n g t h a t w i l l be r i g h t f o r you?" (b) W h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s work out d e t a i l s o f t h e i r r o l e s as members of t h e town c o u n c i l , Teacher A remarks, " I f a photograph were t a k e n o f you when you  weren't w o r k i n g , what might, i t l o o k l i k e ? " L a t e r , t o h e l p w i t h the t a s k s , she asks a s t u d e n t t o c o n s i d e r , "How can I s i t t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from  t h e way I , t h i s 12 o r 13 y e a r o l d , s i t ? " I I B . P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g S e t t i n g These q u e s t i o n s a s s i s t i n d e f i n i n g p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e f i c t i t i o u s environment. Components o f t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e s t o b o t h r e a l and im a g i n e d space and o b j e c t s . By p r o b i n g f o r s p e c i f i c s , t h e t e a c h e r works toward r e f i n i n g and c l a r i f y i n g images o f the s e t t i n g . (The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d under b u i l d i n g an environment f o r r o l e (see I I A l ( b ) and I I A 2 ( b ) ) i n t h a t t h e y a r e meant p r i m a r i l y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s e t t i n g i n which d r a m a t i c a c t i o n w i l l o c c u r . I I B 1 . P r o m o t i n g I n d i v i d u a l Images o f S e t t i n g The purpose o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o encourage i n d i v i d u a l commitment t o t h e drama by p r o m o t i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c images o f t h e s e t t i n g . (a) Teacher A asks s t u d e n t s t o c l o s e t h e i r eyes and t o imagine what t h e c o u n c i l l o r s ' m eeting room would l o o k l i k e . They a r e r e q u e s t e d not t o respond v e r b a l l y - j u s t t o keep t h e p i c t u r e i n t h e i r heads: "How b i g would t h e room be?" ... What a r e t h e w a l l s made " o f ? . . . What c o l o r s a r e i n t h e room? ... What k i n d o f f u r n i t u r e i s t h e r e ? ... What's"the f l o o r l i k e ? ... What k i n d of"mood i s i n  t h a t room?" (b) I n s e s s i o n s i x , a group o f s t u d e n t s ( i n r o l e as n u r s e s ) a r e i n v o l v e d i n a " p r a c t i c e " f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n . Teacher B probes f o r an i n d i v i d u a l 72 commitment t o t h e imagined o b j e c t s o f t h e s e t t i n g as he asks one g i r l , " I s t h a t a s p e c i a l c o n t a i n e r  t h a t you p u t i t ( t h e swab) i n ? ... So Amy i s i t  (t h e c o n t a i n e r ) g o i n g t o be i n your r i g h t hand o r  your l e f t ? " I I B 2 . R e f i n i n g C o l l e c t i v e Images Q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e e n a b l e t h e group t o form a common p i c t u r e o f t h e f i c t i t i o u s environment. (a) Teacher A asks a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t o h e l p t h e grade 2/3 c l a s s form a c o l l e c t i v e image o f t h e Queen's meeting room. Examples from t h e s e a r e : "Can anyone t e l l me what t h i s room s h o u l d l o o k  l i k e i f t h e Queen's g o i n g t o meet p e o p l e t h e r e ? ... P i c t u r e s w i t h g o l d frames, i s t h a t what you  mean? ... Where w i l l t h e g o l d e n cups be?... Can  you imagine t h e r e ' s a t a b l e i n t h e m i d d l e because  we don't have one?" (b) A f t e r a number o f imaging q u e s t i o n s , Teacher A t e l l s t h e c l a s s t h a t t o form a p i c t u r e o f t h e c o u n c i l chambers, " W e ' l l t a k e whatever p e o p l e g i v e us and make our c o l l e c t i v e room even though we've had d i f f e r e n t i d e a s . " Her q u e s t i o n s t h e n h e l p t o r e f i n e t h e images t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s o f f e r . F o r example: "What are t h e w a l l s made o f ? ... I s i t  t h a t g o l d e n oak or t h e v e r y dark oak? ... Are t h e y i n p a n e l s ? What's on t h e f l o o r ? ... I s i t w h i t e marble o r b l a c k marble or ...? What c o l o r o f v e l v e t s e a t s a r e we g o i n g t o . . . ? What about th e  l i g h t i n t h e room, where does i t come from? (c) I n t h e d o c t o r / r e p o r t e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n s e s s i o n one, Teacher B r e q u e s t s t h a t t h e group d e c i d e where t h e exchange w i l l t a k e p l a c e : "What would  you l i k e t h i s p l a c e t o be where I'm d o i n g t h e  i n t e r v i e w ? " I I B 3 . C l a r i f y i n g the Use o f R e a l Space and O b j e c t s The purpose of thee q u e s t i o n s i s t o d e f i n e r e a l space and o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o how t h e y w i l l be used i n the f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . (a) B e f o r e t h e p e o p l e o f C a r c l e w meet w i t h t h e Queen, Teacher A asks t h e s t u d e n t s , "Now c o u l d you  agree t h a t t h i s a r e a h e r e on t h e mat w i l l be t h e  Queen's meeting room? ... And would you agree f o r  now t h a t t h i s o r d i n a r y l i t t l e c h a i r w i l l now  become the Queen's g o l d e n t h r o n e ? " (b) Teacher B, i n r o l e as head d o c t o r , l e a d s t h e way from t h e o p e r a t i n g t a b l e t o an open a r e a i n the m i d d l e o f t h e room. S i g n a l l i n g t h a t t h e space has now become s e p a r a t e from t h e o p e r a t i n g room he a s k s , "Would you come i n t h i s room p l e a s e ? " (c) As t h e s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e t a i l s o f 74 t h e o p e r a t i o n , Teacher B a s k s , "Would i t be u s e f u l  i f on t h a t t a b l e t o p you drew a l l the i n s t r u m e n t s  i n rows?" ( t h e y d e c i d e t o draw o n l y t h e t r a y s ) . L a t e r , he checks t o see i f t h e y need t h e s u r g i c a l g l o v e s t o h e l p them w i t h t h e i r r o l e s : "Can we  make a d e c i s i o n what t o do about t h e s e g l o v e s ? Are t h e y g o i n g t o h e l p you?" I I C . P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g a Task Q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y d i r e c t the s t u d e n t s a t t e n t i o n t o s p e c i f i c s o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h a t a s k i n the f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . The t e a c h e r seeks t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e t a s k so t h a t s t u d e n t s f e e l t h e y a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e drama. I I C 1 . A s s i s t i n g i n I n d i v i d u a l Commitment These q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s c l a r i f y t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e t a s k . (a) A f t e r Teacher A c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e manner i n which she undertook h e r r o l e as Queen, she t h e n i n q u i r e s o f t h e s t u d e n t who i s about t o t a k e over t h e r o l e , "Do you t h i n k you a r e a b l e t o behave i n  a s u i t a b l e way f o r t h e Queen?" (b) I n s e s s i o n t h r e e , a s t u d e n t has v o l u n t e e r e d t o 75 d e p i c t Theresa's mother as she l i s t e n s t o Theresa's dream. To h e l p w i t h t h i s t a s k , Teacher B a s k s : "Are you g o i n g t o do a n y t h i n g w i t h  Theresa as you s t a n d t h e r e ? ... W i l l you have  Theresa on your knee?... What w i l l you do w i t h t h e  d o l l ? ... Where i s Theresa?" (c) I n s e s s i o n f i v e , as t h e s t u d e n t s a r e p r e p a r i n g f o r a r u n - t h r o u g h o f t h e o p e r a t i o n , Teacher B h e l p s them f o c u s on t h e t a s k . A d o p t i n g an e f f i c i e n t t o n e , he a s k s : "For i n s t a n c e , t h e p a t i e n t w i l l  have t o be b r o u g h t i n t o the a n a e s t h e t i c room - i s  one o f you i n charge o f t h a t ? . . . A d i n a , S a n d r i a ,  J e n n i f e r what k i n d o f t h i n g a r e you g o i n g t o be  d o i n g d u r i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n ? ... So you 1 r e  c o n s t a n t l y c h e c k i n g b l o o d p r e s s u r e ? ... Who a r e  t h e a n a e s t h e t i s t s ? ... What i n s t r u c t i o n s do you  g i v e about t h e a n a e s t h e t i c ? ... I s i t n e c e s s a r y t o  c u t i n t h a t way? ... What a r e you a c t u a l l y l o o k i n g  f o r when you l o o k a t t h e l i v e r o r the s p l e e n o r  t h e stomach?" I I C 2 . A s s i s t i n g i n C o l l e c t i v e Commitment The purpose o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o e l i c i t group p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i d i n g on t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f a t a s k . (a) When the s t u d e n t t a k i n g t h e r o l e o f the Queen i s h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y c h o o s i n g what she w i l l say t o 76 h e r a d v i s e r s , Teacher A asks t h e c l a s s , "Can you  h e l p h e r out? What c o u l d she say t h a t would be  c o n v i n c i n g as Queen?" (b) B e f o r e t h e y go i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e P i e d P i p e r , Teacher A i n q u i r e s , "How much money the n  s h o u l d we have i n t h e c o f f e r s ? . . . I mean when we  say w e ' l l g i v e him a n y t h i n g he wants, what i f he  wants a hundred m i l l i o n g u i l d e r s ? I don't know  t h a t he does b u t I t h i n k we s h o u l d know as a group  don't you?" (c) Teacher B h e l p s t h e group p a r t i c u l a r i z e t h e t a s k o f c r e a t i n g a d o c t o r / r e p o r t e r i n t e r v i e w as he a s k s : "So do I come i n from t h e o u t s i d e ? When I  meet t h i s d o c t o r where's he coming from? Now i f  I'm a r e p o r t e r and I'm g o i n g t o s t o p t h i s v e r y  busy man, what k i n d o f t h i n g must I do? So am I  s i t t i n g o r s t a n d i n g i n t h e l o b b y when he wa l k s by? " (d) Teacher B, i n r o l e as head d o c t o r , f o c u s e s the s t u d e n t s on some o f t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e : " W i l l you p l e a s e go i n th r o u g h t h e  o p e r a t i n g door and would you p l e a s e t a k e your  p o s i t i o n s by t h e t a b l e ? . . . T h i s i s a s c r u b b i n g  down room and w i l l you p l e a s e draw your s l e e v e s  back as I'm dr a w i n g mine, and w i l l you p l e a s e make  sure t h a t you're washing your hands i n h o t water? 77 Can I j u s t check, i s t h e r e any s i n k t h a t does not  have a s c r u b b e r ? " I I D . P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g an A t t i t u d e t o t h e Task Q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y h e l p t o promote a concerned i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t by e s t a b l i s h i n g and e x t e n d i n g a v a l u e d i m e n s i o n c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e t a s k . I I D 1 . I m a g i n i n g an A t t i t u d e These q u e s t i o n s f o c u s on t h e a f f e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f the t a s k by a s k i n g t h a t s t u d e n t s imagine t h e s p e c i f i c t h o u g h t s and/or f e e l i n g s o f t h e p e o p l e who a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . (a) B e f o r e t h e s t u d e n t s ( i n r o l e as a d v i s o r s ) e n t e r t h e Queen's meeting room, Teacher A remarks: "I_ wonder what t h e s e p e o p l e a r e t h i n k i n g as t h e y w a i t  o u t s i d e ? . . . What a r e th e y t h i n k i n g b e f o r e t h e y go  i n t o t h e Queen?" (b) The v i l l a g e r s o f C a r c l e w a r e asked t o c o n s i d e r t h e Queen's summons when Teacher A a s k s , "Everybody i n your own head as v i l l a g e r t h i n k - what does she  want us f o r ? " (c) S t u d e n t s i n r o l e as c o u n c i l l o r s p r e p a r e f o r the meeting w i t h the P i e d P i p e r , and as t h e y mime such t h i n g s as combing t h e i r h a i r o r t y i n g a t i e , 78 Teacher A asks t h a t t h e y t h i n k what would be g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e minds o f t h e s e p e o p l e . She f o c u s e s them w i t h such comments a s : " I f you don't get t h e c h i l d r e n back t h i s t ime t h e n I suppose t h e town's g o i n g t o be w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n . And what's t h a t  g o i n g t o do t o your p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r ? And a l s o  your s t a t u s i n t h e town? You have t o l i v e h e r e . W i l l you have t o move away o r what? I d o n 1 1 know." (d) Teacher B has the s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r t h e q u e s t i o n s 'Mommy what i s c a n c e r ? ' and 'Mommy am I g o i n g t o d i e ? ' as he a s k s , "What a r e t h e answers t h a t you would want A r i a n n a t o g i v e t o Theresa?" IID2. F o c u s i n g I n d i v i d u a l Involvement The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s u b c a t e g o r y h e l p t o p a r t i c u l a r i z e an a t t i t u d e t o the t a s k by r e q u i r i n g t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s make some form o f commitment t o the concerns o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . (a) I n r o l e as the mayor, Teacher A l e a d s t h e d i s c u s s i o n about how t o r e t r i e v e t h e town's c h i l d r e n . I n response t o the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e army c o n t i n u e t o d i g i n t o t h e mountain, she s i n g l e s out a s t u d e n t and a s k s , " I mean do you  t h i n k we s h o u l d C o u n c i l l o r MacDonald?" (b) I n groups o f 3 o r 4, t h e s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s what 79 t h e y w i l l say t o c o n v i n c e t h e l i t t l e man not t o t a k e t h e baby. Teacher A goes around t o t h e groups and asks each member such q u e s t i o n s a s : "Have you f i g u r e d out what you're g o i n g t o ask? What e l s e perhaps might you say? ... What a r e you  a s k i n g him then? ... Can you f i g u r e out something  you c o u l d say t o him t h a t might make him not t a k e  t h e Queen's baby?" Teacher B, i n r o l e as head d o c t o r , e x p l a i n s t h a t a newspaper a r t i c l e has g i v e n t h e h o s p i t a l some bad p u b l i c i t y . He goes on t o say t h a t as a r e s u l t , some a n x i o u s p a r e n t s a r e w a i t i n g f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n : "Doctor do you have any i d e a o f what  you might say t o t h e p a r e n t s ? ... Judy what do you  t h i n k ? I s t h a t a good l i n e t o t a k e w i t h a p a r e n t ? ( t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n w i l l be e n t e r t a i n e d by r o b o t s ) ... Leonna what do you t h i n k ? W i l l p a r e n t s  u n d e r s t a n d t h a t l i n e ? ... Judy what a r e you g o i n g  t o say though i f t h e p a r e n t s say 'what do t h e s e  r o b o t s l o o k l i k e ' ? " L a t e r , i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r , Teacher B asks t h e f o u r "mothers" such q u e s t i o n s as" "Are you w a i t i n g t h i s a f t e r n o o n f o r any  p a r t i c u l a r reason? Would you l i k e t o t e l l us what  you're v i s i t i n g about?" 80 I I D 3 . F o c u s i n g Group Involvement These q u e s t i o n s a l l o w p a r t i c i p a n t s t o l i s t e n t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e t h o u g h t s and a t t i t u d e s a r i s i n g from t h e group's i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e t a s k . They a s s i s t i n f o c u s i n g t h e group as w e l l as i n b r i n g i n g o u t s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e c o n t e x t . (a) B e f o r e the Queen's a d v i s o r s ( t h e grade 4 c l a s s ) e n t e r t h e meeting room, Teacher A a s k s t h a t t h e y s t a n d s t i l l , and as she touches t h e i r s h o u l d e r s t h e y speak t h e i r t h o u g h t s : "What a r e you t h i n k i n g  s i r ? [ t h e Queen's r e a l l y u p s e t ] What a r e you  t h i n k i n g ? . . . Why i s she so sad?" and so on u n t i l t h e y have each e x p r e s s e d t h e i r c o n c e r n s . (b) I n o r d e r t o f o c u s t h e s t u d e n t s on t h e i s s u e s t h e y w i l l l i k e l y e n c o u n t e r i n t h e town c o u n c i l m e e t i n g , Teacher A ( i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r ) adopts a b r i s k tone and asks t h e group o f c o u n c i l l o r s : "And what  do you t h i n k i s g o i n g t o happen about t h i s ? Who  do you t h i n k ' s r e s p o n s i b l e ? Have you got a  s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem s i r ? " (c) A f t e r one g i r l ( i n r o l e as a d e s i g n e r o f m e d i c a l equipment) has e x p l a i n e d t h e d e s i g n f o r a c a n c e r -c u r i n g machine, Teacher B comments: " I f G l o r i a  r e a l l y found a way o f c u r i n g c a n c e r , oh my good- ness, how would she be f e e l i n g ? " ["She would say 81 l i k e , i t ' s been p r o v e n , i t ' s been t e s t e d and e v e r y t h i n g " ] "And how would she be f e e l i n g ? " ["happy" " e x c i t e d " " p r o u d " ] , (d) A f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s (as Theresa) have t o l d each o t h e r about a f r i g h t e n i n g dream, Teacher B asks them t o c o n s i d e r how p a r e n t s would respond t o h e a r i n g t h i s dream: " I s Theresa a f r a i d ? " Anybody  e l s e know what t h e y ( t h e p a r e n t s ) might say? ... Does Theresa t h i n k i t happened?" L a t e r , as a s t u d e n t c r e a t e s a s t i l l image o f t h e mother l i s t e n i n g t o Theresa, Teacher B a s k s , "As t h i s  mother, can each o f you say i n t u r n t h e k i n d o f  t h i n g you want t h a t mother t o say? I f you were  s i t t i n g as Theresa's mother, what would you now  say when t h e dream i s t o l d ? " , and each s t u d e n t responds i n t u r n . I ID4. Promoting I n i t i a l D ramatic A c t i o n These q u e s t i o n s h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n i n i t i a l d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . By t a k i n g on a r o l e , t h e t e a c h e r i s a b l e t o ease s t u d e n t s i n t o t h e a c t i o n and t h u s s e c u r e t h e i r concerned i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e t a s k . U n t i l s t u d e n t s a r e ready t o c a r r y the a c t i o n them-s e l v e s , t h e t e a c h e r o f t e n must r e i n f o r c e i n v o l v e m e n t by a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s t h a t r e p e a t or r e i t e r a t e r e s p o n s e s . (a) Teacher A, i n r o l e as t h e Queen, e x p l a i n s h e r problem t o h e r a d v i s o r s ( t h e grade 4 c l a s s ) and t h e n asks them what she s h o u l d do. D u r i n g t h e subsequent d i s c u s s i o n , Teacher A echoes many o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s . For example: (S t u d e n t ) " F i r s t o f a l l I would f i n d o u t why he would want your f i r s t b o r n c h i l d . " (Teacher A) " F i n d out why he wants i t . I haven't asked him. I don't know why he wants i t . You t h i n k I s h o u l d f i n d t h a t  out? Yes an, an what w i l l I do t h e n ? " (b) To b e g i n t h e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n , Teacher A ( i n r o l e as t h e Queen) welcomes th e v i l l a g e r s o f C a r c l e w , and i n a f o r m a l manner a s k s , "Would you p l e a s e  e n t e r my meeting room?" (c) S i m i l a r l y , Teacher B c a l l s t h e s t u d e n t s t o t h e o p e r a t i n g t a b l e and, i n r o l e as head d o c t o r b r i s k l y a s k s : " W e l l now d o c t o r s and n u r s e s , a r e  we ready? Are we ready f o r t h e p a t i e n t now? Were  t h e s t e r i l i z e r s c o m p l e t e l y scrubbed up?" (d) I n t h e d o c t o r / r e p o r t e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n s e s s i o n one, Teacher B m a i n t a i n s and extends t h e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n , as w e l l as r e i n f o r c e s t h e t e n t a t i v e e f f o r t s o f t h e boy i n r o l e as t h e d o c t o r . For example, from Teacher B's h a l f o f t h e d i a l o g u e : ' "Oh excuse me d o c t o r ? ... I wondered i f I c o u l d  ask you a few q u e s t i o n s ? ... Would you mind  t e l l i n g me about i t ( t h e r o b o t ) i n a s i m p l e way 83 because t h e p u b l i c must be a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d what  i t ' s a l l a b o u t ? . . . So t h i s r o b o t w i l l r e a l l y  r e p l a c e a nurse i f n e c e s s a r y ? ... X-Ray eyes? ... What e l s e can i t do?" H E . I n t r o d u c i n g Dramatic T e n s i o n The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n t r o d u c e a t e n s i o n o r p r e s s u r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e c o n t e x t . T h i s sense o f urgency i s suggested l a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e t e a c h e r ' s use o f body language and tone o f v o i c e . G e n e r a l l y , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s o c c u r when t h e t e a c h e r i s i n r o l e . I I E 1 . A p p e a l i n g f o r A s s i s t a n c e The purpose o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o a p p e a l t o t h e s t u d e n t s f o r h e l p i n s o l v i n g a problem; t h a t i s , t h e q u e s t i o n s b r i n g about a p r e s s u r e t h a t "something must be done." (a) Teacher A, i n r o l e as t h e P r o f e s s o r o f a b u l l -f i g h t i n g s c h o o l , p r e s e n t s E l Panthas' dilemma t o th e s t u d e n t s and a s k s : "What w i l l he say t o h i s  f a m i l y ? ... What s h o u l d he do? ... (more e m p h a t i c a l l y ) What s h o u l d he do?" (b) A f t e r t e l l i n g h e r a d v i s o r s about the problem w i t h t h e l i t t l e man, t h e Queen (Teacher A) s o r r o w f u l l y a s k s , "What s h a l l I do?" The a d v i s o r s o f f e r v a r i o u s s u g g e s t i o n s , and e x c i t e d l y Teacher A s a y s , 84 " I f I b r i n g him h e r e would you meet w i t h him and  ask him ( t h e s e t h i n g s ) , and I ' l l see i f you can  s o l v e i t w i t h him h e r e ? " (c) I n r o l e as mayor o f Hamelin, Teacher A sums up t h e s i t u a t i o n , acknowledges t h a t t h e whole t h i n g was a t e r r i b l e m i s t a k e , and t h e n says t o t h e c o u n c i l l o r s , "But t h e problem i s - what a r e we  g o i n g t o do about i t ? " (d) Teacher B, i n r o l e as head d o c t o r , f a i l s t o e l i c i t a r e s ponse from one s t u d e n t , and t h e r e f o r e poses the q u e s t i o n t o t h e group: " I f I'm one o f t h o s e  mothers s i t t i n g t h e r e and s a y i n g 'what do t h e  r o b o t s do?' - and I say i t as s t r o n g l y as t h a t - what can Amy s a y ? " I I E 2 . I n t r o d u c i n g C h a l l e n g e s These q u e s t i o n s p r e s s u r e s t u d e n t s i n t o f o c u s i n g on s p e c i f i c s o f t h e problem by c h a l l e n g i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . (a) A f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s have made some i n i t i a l s u g g e s t i o n s as t o what E l Panthas s h o u l d do, t h e P r o f e s s o r o f t h e b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l (Teacher A) s a y s : "He ( E l Panthas) doesn't t h i n k he's r e a d y . So you t h i n k i f he goes and t e l l s h i s f a m i l y t h a t ,  t h a t ' l l be a l l r i g h t ? Do you t h i n k i t ' l l be a l l r i g h t ? " 85 (b) Teacher A, i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r , speaks w i t h t h e c o u n c i l l o r s o f Hamelin b e f o r e t h e y e n t e r t h e c o u n c i l chambers. Having found out t h a t t h e c o u n c i l c o u l d have a f f o r d e d t o pay t h e P i p e r , she a s k s , "Why d i d n ' t you?" (c) Teacher B t a k e s on t h e r o l e o f a r e p o r t e r and i n t e r v i e w s t h e f o u r groups o f h o s p i t a l s t a f f and p a r e n t s . He c h a l l e n g e s t h e i r r e sponses w i t h such remarks a s : " I f a i l t o u n d e r s t a n d how a r o b o t can have a n y t h i n g c o m f o r t i n g about t h e way i t t a l k s a t a l l . What k i n d o f t h i n g ? ... W e l l s u p p o s i n g some-t h i n g sudden happens. I t c a n ' t be programmed f o r  something sudden can i t ? ... [ r e f e r r i n g t o t h e mother] And you're r a t h e r l e s s t h a n s a t i s f i e d . What do t h e d o c t o r s have t o say t o t h a t ? 'Doctors have n o t h i n g t o say' - t h a t w i l l make a good s t o r y . I s t h a t r i g h t ? " I I E 3 . S u g g e s t i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s or Consequences I n t h i s s u b c a t e g o r y , q u e s t i o n s c r e a t e a t e n s i o n o r p r e s s u r e by h i n t i n g a t i m p l i c a t i o n s o r consequences t h a t s u r r o u n d th e problem. (a) I n s m a l l groups, s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s what t h e y w i l l say when t h e y meet w i t h t h e l i t t l e man. Teacher A q u e s t i o n s each group and p r e s s e s f o r f u r t h e r t h i n k i n g . For example, one s t u d e n t s u g g e s t s t h a t 86 t h e man s h o u l d be g i v e n a n o t h e r baby. Teacher A a s k s : "What i f he says no t o t h a t one t o o ? And  b e s i d e s , what i f he says 'yes' - where a r e you  g o i n g t o g e t t h e o t h e r baby from?" (b) I n r o l e as c o u n c i l l o r s , s t u d e n t s v o i c e t h e t h o u g h t s t h e y a r e t h i n k i n g b e f o r e g o i n g i n t o t h e meeting w i t h t h e mayor. Teacher A r e i n f o r c e s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n as she responds t o one o f t h e i r comments: "The townspeople a r e , o f  c o u r s e , not g o i n g t o t a k e t h i s l i g h t l y a r e t h e y ? " (c) Teacher B, i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r , p l a n t s seeds o f doubt as he asks a s t u d e n t , i n r o l e as a p a r e n t : "Have what th e y ' v e ( t h e h o s p i t a l s t a f f ) been  t e l l i n g you been s a t i s f a c t o r y ? ... Wouldn't you  t h i n k i t was b e t t e r madame t o change t o a  h o s p i t a l where t h e y do have n u r s e s ? ... Yes, i t ' s  not t o o l a t e i s i t t o change t o a n o t h e r h o s p i t a l  i f you were w o r r i e d ? " I I F . C r e a t i n g C o n t r a s t s The f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o m a n i p u l a t e elements o f l i g h t , sound, movement, and space (as w e l l as p e o p l e and/or o b j e c t s w i t h i n t h e space) t o produce a c o n t r a s t t h a t h e l p s t o 'frame' o r h e i g h t e n awareness o f a s i t u a t i o n , problem, o r t a s k . These q u e s t i o n s a s s i s t i n b u i l d i n g a sense o f atmosphere and o c c a s i o n i n t o t h e drama. 87 (a) The s t u d e n t s , i n r o l e as members o f t h e b u l l -f i g h t i n g s c h o o l , a r e s t a n d i n g on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e c a r p e t - one s i d e f o r t h o s e who do not w i s h t o f i g h t t h e b u l l , t h e o t h e r f o r t h o s e who would l i k e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y . From t h i s p o s i t i o n , t h e y d i s c u s s t h e problem o f what E l Panthas s h o u l d t e l l h i s f a m i l y . Teacher A t h e n says t o E l Panthas, "Could  you come o v e r h e r e a moment?", and g e s t u r e s t h a t he s t a n d a t t h e head and c e n t e r o f t h e two rows o f s t u d e n t s . Grouping t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s way h e l p s t o frame t h e s i t u a t i o n by v i s u a l l y u n d e r l i n i n g t h e dilemma E l Panthas f a c e s . (b) S i m i l a r l y , Teacher B ( i n r o l e as head d o c t o r ) s e t s t h e f o u r s t u d e n t s ( i n r o l e as mothers) a p a r t from t h e r e s t o f t h e c l a s s by a s k i n g : "Can you s t a n d i n  a row her e so you're a l l f a c i n g t h e d o c t o r s and  n u r s e s ? " The c o n t r a s t c r e a t e d by t h e f o u r s t u d e n t s s t a n d i n g c l o s e t o g e t h e r i n a l i n e , and the o t h e r s t u d e n t s s i t t i n g i n a s c a t t e r e d f o r m a t i o n around them h e l p s t o a c c e n t u a t e t h e t e n s i o n a r i s i n g from t h e mothers' p r e s e n c e . I I G . E s t a b l i s h i n g S i g n s and Symbols These q u e s t i o n s promote t h e employment o f a p e r s o n or an o b j e c t t o s t a n d f o r , r e p r e s e n t , o r p o i n t o ut some a s p e c t o r element o f t h e drama. 88 To h e l p b u i l d an image o f t h e s i x y e a r o l d Ther e s a , Teacher B t e l l s t h e c l a s s t h a t t h e y w i l l g i v e Theresa a d o l l . He p l a c e s a v a r i e t y o f d o l l s on t h e f l o o r , and has t h e s t u d e n t s walk around them i n o r d e r t o d e c i d e which one would be r i g h t f o r Theresa. He a s k s , "So which one? Which one?" He p i c k s up t h e most p o p u l a r d o l l and s a y s , "Theresa's d o l l - i s t h a t a l l r i g h t o r d i d you want t h a t one?" Teacher B t h e n s e t s t h e d o l l on the f l o o r i n f r o n t o f t h e c h a i r and remarks, "And Theresa s i t t i n g on t h i s c h a i r , has h e r d o l l a t h e r f e e t . " S i n c e some s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s p o s i t i o n i s n ' t r i g h t , he a s k s , "On t h e c h a i r  b e s i d e h e r ? I t wouldn't be on t h e f l o o r - t h a t  would be wrong would i t ? " A f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s ( a l l i n r o l e as Theresa) d e s c r i b e t h e i r dream t o a p a r t n e r , Teacher B g a t h e r s them i n a s e m i - c i r c l e i n f r o n t o f an empty c h a i r and a s k s , "Can one o f you v o l u n t e e r t o  do what I d i d y e s t e r d a y . - t o l o o k as though ... (you a r e b r u s h i n g Theresa's h a i r ) (he mimes t h i s  a c t i o n as he s t a n d s by t h e c h a i r ) and as t h e  l i s t e n e r t o t h e dream? Towards t h e end o f s e s s i o n f i v e , Teacher B s e t s up an imagined p i c t u r e o f Theresa i n h e r h o s p i t a l bed by p l a c i n g t h r e e c h a i r s t o g e t h e r and a s k i n g , 89 " A r i a n n a , would you go and s i t on t h a t c h a i r ? " A f t e r A r i a n n a i s s e a t e d , he g e s t u r e s t o th e c h a i r s and t h e s t u d e n t , and goes on t o e x p l a i n t h a t Theresa i s v e r y upset and has asked h e r mother two q u e s t i o n s - 'Mommy what i s c a n c e r ? ' and 'Mommy am I g o i n g t o d i e ? ' A r i a n n a remains s e a t e d w h i l e t h e o t h e r s g e t w i t h p a r t n e r s t o respond t o t h e two q u e s t i o n s . When i t comes time f o r A r i a n n a t o answer i n r o l e as Theresa's mother, Teacher B r e i n f o r c e s t h e image by s a y i n g , "Can you have i t  as i f Theresa i s l y i n g t h e r e ? ,And a c t u a l l y move up c l o s e i f you f e e l t h a t you want, as you answer, t o t o u c h h e r . " I I I . AMPLIFYING CONTEXT Once t h e c o n t e x t has been e s t a b l i s h e d and commit-ment i s f i r m l y s e c u r e d , t h e t e a c h e r moves towards e x t e n d i n g and deepening t h e s t u d e n t s ' awareness o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . Q u e s t i o n s a r e asked w i t h t h e purpose o f r e l e a s i n g t h e meaning t h a t l i e s b eneath t h e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . I I I A . P r o b i n g f o r F u r t h e r C o n s i d e r a t i o n of Response These q u e s t i o n s seek t o extend t h e l e v e l o f thoug h t by r e q u i r i n g t h a t s t u d e n t s t a k e a deeper l o o k a t t h e i r immediate responses i n the f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . 90 O f t e n , t h e q u e s t i o n s s e r v e t o r e p e a t o r upgrade r e s p o n s e s so t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s f o c u s on t h e impact o f t h e i r own words. (a) I n response t o t h e comment "maybe he ( E l Panthas) has a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n ( o f b u l l f i g h t i n g ) by now", Teacher A r e p l i e s , "You t h i n k b u l l f i g h t - i n g s c h o o l ' s changed him somewhat?" L a t e r , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o w r i t e down whether o r not E l Panthas s h o u l d f i g h t t h e b u l l . Because E l Panthas i s no l o n g e r s u r e o f h i s former d e c i s i o n t o a b s t a i n , Teacher A a s k s , "DO you mean t h e  s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e P r o f e s s o r were c o n v i n c i n g o r  your c l a s s m a t e s ' s u g g e s t i o n s ? " The boy answers " c l a s s m a t e s " , and t h e t e a c h e r t h e n a s k s , "So what  makes you t h i n k you s h o u l d change your mind?" I n a w h i s p e r e d v o i c e E l Panthas r e p l i e s , "The t h r i l l o f danger." (b) D u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s t o r e t r i e v e t h e c h i l d r e n o f Hamelin, t h e i s s u e a r i s e s t h a t ' l o v i n g ' n o t j u s t ' l i k i n g ' i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n . Teacher A, i n r o l e as t h e P i e d P i p e r , comments, "W e l l I don't know why. Why i s i t ? " L a t e r i n t h e same d i s c u s s i o n , one boy (as c o u n c i l l o r ) p roposes t o r e s i g n from t h e c o u n c i l i f the P i p e r w i l l r e t u r n t h e c h i l d r e n . I n r e s p o n s e , Teacher A a s k s , "You t h i n k you s h o u l d r e s i g n - why  i s t h a t s i r ? " (c) Teacher B has r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s respond as i f t h e y were Theresa's p a r e n t l i s t e n i n g t o Theresa t e l l about h e r dream. One 'mother' comments t h a t Theresa needn't worry because s h e ' l l o n l y be i n the h o s p i t a l f o r a day. Teacher B i n t e r j e c t s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n : "What made t h i s  mother say ' f o r a day'? ... Yes she thought i t sounded c o m f o r t i n g . And so do we u n d e r s t a n d t h e  mother s a y i n g ' j u s t f o r a day'? Do we u n d e r s t a n d  t h a t ? " I I I A 2 . C o n f r o n t i n g A c t i o n s o r D e c i s i o n s The f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e i r own r e s p o n s e s i n o r d e r t o p r e s s u r e them i n t o a more c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i m p l i c a t i o n s and consequences. (a) S i n c e E l Panthas has d e c i d e d not t o f i g h t the b u l l , h i s c l a s s m a t e s i n t h e b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l have been o f f e r i n g s u g g e s t i o n s as t o what he s h o u l d say t o h i s f a m i l y . Teacher A, i n r o l e as t h e P r o f e s s o r a s k s , "Are you g o i n g t o be a b l e t o  s t a n d up t o your f a t h e r and t e l l him t h e s e t h i n g s ? And your s i s t e r ? And your mother?" (b) I n a d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g how t h e members o f t h e 92 c o u n c i l a r e g o i n g t o g e t t h e P i e d P i p e r t o meet w i t h them, Teacher A, i n r o l e as the mayor, p o i n t e d l y a sks one s t u d e n t : "Are you s e r i o u s l y  c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t we go out and t e l l t h e p r e s s and  t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s town t h a t we're go i n g t o b r i n g  r a t s i n t o t h e town?" (c) Teacher B, i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r , moves from group t o group a s k i n g t h e 'mothers' i f t h e y a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e d o c t o r s ' and n u r s e s ' r e p o r t s o f t h e r o b o t s . One o f t h e mothers comments t h a t r o b o t s p r o v i d e e n t e r t a i n m e n t and a l t h o u g h t h e y c a n ' t hug t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e y can s t i l l t a l k t o them i n c o m f o r t i n g ways. Teacher B responds by a s k i n g : "Do you b e l i e v e t h a t ? That r o b o t s can  t a l k i n c o m f o r t i n g ways?" (d) A f t e r a d e m o n s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e r o b o t s , a s t u d e n t i n r o l e as a mother i n f o r m s t h e r e p o r t e r (Teacher B) t h a t he has two c h o i c e s - t o change th e s t o r y o r have no s t o r y a t a l l . Teacher B b r i s k l y a s k s , " A l l r i g h t what a r e t h e changes? ... So can I  i n c l u d e i n t h e s t o r y t h a t t h e h o s p i t a l i s  d e c e i v i n g c h i l d r e n ? " I I I B . H e i g h t e n i n g R e s p o n s i b i l i t y The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y seek t o promote g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l commitment i n t h e 93 drama. The s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o 'take b i g g e r r i s k s ' w i t h t h e degree o f t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t ; t h a t i s , t o become more d e m o n s t r a t i v e i n speech and a c t i o n . I I I B 1 . Prompting G r e a t e r I n d i v i d u a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y These q u e s t i o n s make demands t h a t r e q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l commitment from t h e s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r f o c u s e s on an a s p e c t o f t h e drama and asks t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s d e c l a r e t h e i r s t a n c e on t h e m a t t e r . (a) Each s t u d e n t i s r e q u e s t e d t o comment on what he or she t h i n k s E l Panthas s h o u l d t e l l h i s p a r e n t s . Teacher A a s k s , " E l Eugenio what w i l l you t e l l him  t o say? ... I s t h a t what y o u ' l l t e l l your p a r e n t s - t h a t you don't want t o do t h i s ? ... E l Jaguar  what would you say t o h i s p a r e n t s ? " (b) I n t h e meeting between t h e Hamelin c o u n c i l and the P i e d P i p e r , Teacher A ( t h e P i p e r ) s i n g l e s out t h e boy who i s i n r o l e as t h e mayor and a s k s , "What  about t h e mayor? How do you f e e l about t h a t s i r - t h e mass r e s i g n a t i o n ? You would a l s o r e s i g n ? " (c) Four s t u d e n t s i n r o l e as mothers a r e r e q u i r e d t o t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c a r r y i n g t h e drama f o r a s h o r t time when Teacher B ( i n r o l e as head d o c t o r ) a s k s , "Can you e x p l a i n t o a l l t h e s e  d o c t o r s and n u r s e s how you now f e e l as a r e s u l t o f  what you have l e a r n e d from them?" L a t e r , Teacher 94 B s t i l l i n r o l e pushes f o r f u r t h e r commitment by a s k i n g them: "Would you be p r e p a r e d t o r i n g t h e  l o c a l newspaper a t t h i s p o i n t and say t h a t you  want t o withdraw any s t a t e m e n t s t h a t you've so f a r  made? W i l l you do t h a t ? " (d) I n o r d e r t o prompt someone i n t o t a k i n g a p o s i t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e r o b o t d e m o n s t r a t i o n , Teacher B a s k s , "Who i s i n  c h a r g e ? " A s t u d e n t answers, "Adina" and Teacher B s a y s , "Now Nurse A d i n a do you want a r u n - t h r o u g h  b e f o r e t h e p a r e n t s a r r i v e ? " I I I B 2 . Prompting G r e a t e r Group R e s p o n s i b i l i t y These q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t t h a t t h e group t a k e on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e problem posed i n the drama. The t e a c h e r draws a t t e n t i o n t o the c i r c u m -s t a n c e s , and p r e s s e s t h e group t o make d e c i s i o n s and t o t a k e a c t i o n . (a) I n r o l e as t h e P r o f e s s o r , Teacher A asks t h e s t u d e n t s o f t h e b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l what E l Panthas s h o u l d do about t h e predicament he i s i n : "What s h a l l he say i f t h e y ( h i s f a m i l y ) say 'are  you a coward'? Can none o f you h e l p him out? So  how c o u l d we h e l p him o u t ? " (b) Teacher A, i n r o l e as t h e Queen, asks h e r a d v i s o r s : "Are you w i l l i n g t o t a l k w i t h him (the 95 l i t t l e man) because I don't want t o do i t on my  own? Are you s u r e ? " (c) One o f t h e s t u d e n t s , i n r o l e as a mother, comments t o t h e group t h a t t h e r o b o t s w i l l p u t a g r e a t many nurs e s o ut o f t h e i r j o b s . Teacher B l e a v e s i t t o the s t u d e n t s t o respond as he s a y s : "Yes, do you  nu r s e s t h a t a r e h e r e have an answer t o t h a t one?" A f t e r a l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n between t h e mothers and the h o s p i t a l s t a f f ( w i t h no i n t e r v e n t i o n from t h e t e a c h e r ) , one mother comments t h a t t h e y would l i k e t o see t h e r o b o t s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . As head d o c t o r , Teacher B a s k s : " W e l l I ... d o c t o r s can t h a t be  arranged? We c o u l d n ' t do i t s t r a i g h t away c o u l d  we? Can we t h e n a r r a n g e a d e m o n s t r a t i o n ? Would  t h a t meet your r e q u i r e m e n t s ? " L a t e r , o ut o f r o l e , he p l a c e s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' hands as he a s k s , " W e l l can I  l e a v e i t t o you t o s o r t i t a l l o u t ? " I I I C . C o n t r o l l i n g Pace t o R e v e a l Meaning I n t h i s c a t e g o r y , t h e q u e s t i o n s s e r v e t o ext e n d o r l i f t t h e l e v e l o f i n v o l v e m e n t by cha n g i n g o r m a i n t a i n -i n g t h e t e n s i o n o f t h e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . The t e a c h e r l e a d s t h e s t u d e n t s towards a deeper i n s i g h t i n t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f an a c t o r a s i t u a t i o n w h i l e a l l ( i n c l u d i n g t h e t e a c h e r ) a r e i n t h e p r e s s o f t h e 96 f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . I I I C 1 . S u r p r i s i n g / S h o c k i n g i n t o New Awareness These q u e s t i o n s h e i g h t e n t h e s u b j e c t i v e q u a l i t y o f t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t by i n t r o d u c i n g elements not p r e v i o u s l y t a k e n i n t o account by t h e s t u d e n t s . The purpose o f " s u r p r i s e q u e s t i o n s " i s t o push t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o a deeper awareness o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e problem o r s i t u a t i o n i n t h e drama. (a) The s t u d e n t s o f t h e b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l have been o f f e r i n g s u g g e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g what E l Panthas s h o u l d t e l l h i s f a m i l y . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e y propose t h a t E l Panthas has m e r e l y t o e x p l a i n t h e s i t u a t i o n t o h i s f a t h e r and e v e r y t h i n g w i l l be f i n e . Teacher A (as t h e P r o f e s s o r ) b r i n g s t h i s up s h o r t as she a s k s , "What i f t h e y c a l l him a coward  and say 'what a r e you - a coward? What do you  mean you're n ot r e a d y ? ' H i s f a t h e r was one o f t h e g r e a t e s t matadores. They expect him t o be t h e same." L a t e r i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n , Teacher A i n t r o d u c e s the element o f E l Panthas' s i s t e r by a s k i n g : "What w i l l he say when t h e s i s t e r shows  him t h e d r e s s t h a t she's making t o see him  appear?" She t h e n has the s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r t h e conc e p t o f f a m i l y honor when, as t h e P r o f e s s o r she a s k s , "But what w i l l he say t o h i s p a r e n t s - 'I'm 97 not s u r e ' ? And i f t h e y say 'are you not s u r e o f  your f a m i l y ' s honor'?" (b) I n response t o t h e town c o u n c i l ' s p l e a s t h a t t h e townspeople a r e i n n o c e n t , t h e P i e d P i p e r (Teacher A) a s k s , "How come t h e y ( t h e townspeople) e l e c t e d  a group o f p e o p l e who l i e and c h e a t ? " L a t e r , one o f t h e s t u d e n t s a s k s t h e P i p e r i f he l o v e s t h e c h i l d r e n , and t h e answer i s t h a t he l i k e s them. The boy p e r s i s t s and e x c l a i m s , "But t h e p a r e n t s l o v e t h e m i " Teacher A r e p l i e s , " W e l l i s t h a t so  i m p o r t a n t ? " (c) Teacher A c i r c u l a t e s among the groups o f s t u d e n t s as t h e y d i s c u s s why t h e man wants t h e Queen's baby. S t o p p i n g a t one group she s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e man might want t o k i l l t h e baby. Amazed, one s t u d e n t s a y s , " K i l l i t ? Why would he want t o g e t i t and t h e n k i l l i t ? " Teacher A r e p l i e s , " I don't know. Why do p e o p l e  t a k e c h i l d r e n away and t h e n k i l l them?" (d) A f t e r a group d i s c u s s i o n t o r e a s s u r e t h e "mothers" about t h e r o b o t s , Teacher B i n r o l e as head d o c t o r a s k s , " I hope you haven't s a i d a n y t h i n g t o t h e  p r e s s ? There's not been a r e p o r t e r around h e r e  i n t e r v i e w i n g you? I hope you haven't s a i d a n y t h i n g  d e r o g a t o r y t h a t c o u l d have t e e n t a k e n as a d v e r s e  c r i t i c i s m o f t h e h o s p i t a l ? " 98 I I I C 2 . A p p l y i n g P r e s s u r e t o C o n s i d e r I m p l i c a t i o n s The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s u b c a t e g o r y i n c r e a s e t h e t e n s i o n o f d r a m a t i c a c t i o n by c h a l l e n g i n g o r p r e s s u r i n g s t u d e n t s t o f u r t h e r e x p l a i n o r s u p p o r t any s t a t e m e n t s t h e y make. The t e a c h e r i n t e r v e n e s i n r o l e i n o r d e r t o s e t l i m i t s and push f o r immediate r e s p o n s e . (a) A p p l y i n g p r e s s u r e t o t h e group, Teacher A i n r o l e as p r o f e s s o r t h e b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l , a s k s : "What i f t h e y ( the p a r e n t s ) say 'what do you mean  you're not ready? You're our c h i l d - you must be  th e b e s t , Numero uno l i k e your f a t h e r . Everyone  i s e x p e c t i n g you t o be t h e b e s t ' ? What w i l l you  say?" L a t e r , she f u r t h e r h e i g h t e n s t h e t e n s i o n by t a k i n g a more d i r e c t approach i n whi c h t h e P r o f e s s o r speaks as t h e f a t h e r o f E l Panthas: " E l  Panthas what do you mean you're not g o i n g t o  f i g h t ? Are you a coward? ... What do you mean? No son o f mine i s ever s c a r e d ... A r e you s a y i n g  t h a t a son o f mine t h i n k s f o r h i m s e l f ? " (b) A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e meeting w i t h t h e town c o u n c i l , Teacher A, i n r o l e as t h e mayor, c h a l l e n g e s t h e c o u n c i l l o r s ' o p i n i o n t h a t t h e e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n i s t h e mayor's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : " I see we're g o i n g t o blame t h e l e a d e r a r e we? I s  t h a t what i t i s - blame t h e mayor? ... What a r e we 99 g o i n g t o t e l l t h e p r e s s and t h e townspeople o u t - s i d e ? Are we g o i n g t o walk out and say i t ' s t h e  mayor's f a u l t - t h a t ' s i t - f i n i s h ? " (c) D u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e P i e d P i p e r (Teacher A ) , a c o u n c i l l o r asks i f t h e P i p e r p l a n s on k e e p i n g t h e c h i l d r e n u n t i l t h e y d i e . The P i p e r c h a l l e n g e s , " W e l l y e s , why s h o u l d n ' t I ? " L a t e r , Teacher A a p p l i e s p r e s s u r e when she asks (as t h e P i p e r ) "But why s h o u l d I h e l p t h i s town s i r ? ... W e l l won't t h e y ( t h e c h i l d r e n ) g e t c o r r u p t e d by  t h e k i n d o f p e o p l e t h a t a r e h e r e ? . . . What w i l l be  t h e f i r s t t h i n g you w i l l do s i r ? What's t h e f i r s t  t h i n g t h a t you w i l l do t o show a good example t o  t h e s e c h i l d r e n - a c o n c r e t e a c t ? " (d) Teacher B, i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r , r e c e i v e s a phone c a l l from t h e "mothers" r e q u e s t i n g t h a t he h o l d t h e s t o r y on t h e h o s p i t a l . He t u r n s t o t h e boy who i s h e l p i n g him and s a y s , - "But we c o u l d n ' t  p o s s i b l y h o l d t h e s t o r y - he's n e a r l y f i n i s h e d i t  haven't you? You see?" D u r i n g t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s , Teacher B phones th e h o s p i t a l and asks t h e head n u r s e , "Would you j u s t t e l l them  (th e mothers) p l e a s e t h a t t h e y have j u s t t e n  minutes i n which t o make up t h e i r minds, and would  t h e y r i n g me b a c k ? " 100 I 1 I C 3 . M a i n t a i n i n g L e v e l o f Dramatic A c t i o n These q u e s t i o n s h e l p t o s u s t a i n b e l i e f and commit-ment by r e i n f o r c i n g and p r o m o t i n g t h e f l o w o f d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . O f t e n , the t e a c h e r s e r v e s as a sounding b o a r d - r e p e a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s 1 r e s p o n s e s - i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n f o c u s as w e l l as t o endow t h e exchanges w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e . (a) Teacher A, i n r o l e as t h e l i t t l e man, r e p e a t s t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s as t h e y q u e s t i o n h e r on t h e m a t t e r o f t h e Queen's baby: "Why do I want  t h e baby?... Why don't I have my own? ... Why  c a n ' t I s t a y a t t h e c a s t l e ? .. . C o u l d she adopt  one and g i v e i t t o me?" (b) S i m i l a r l y i n t h e meeting w i t h t h e town c o u n c i l , Teacher A i n r o l e as t h e mayor, v e r i f i e s what t h e c o u n c i l l o r s s uggest w i t h such q u e s t i o n s a s : "So we  s h o u l d remove t h e army you're s a y i n g ? . . . You t h i n k  we s h o u l d a d v e r t i s e t o g e t him d i d you s a y ? " (c) I n t h e s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n s between t h e f o u r mothers and t h e h o s p i t a l s t a f f , one o f t h e s t u d e n t s mentions t h a t t h e r o b o t s a r e d i s g u i s e d t o l o o k v e r y much l i k e n u r s e s . Teacher B i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r emphasizes t h i s p o i n t as he a s k s , "Oh,  t h e y ' r e i n d i s g u i s e ? " 101 H I D . Promoting R e f l e c t i o n / E v a l u a t i o n The purpose o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o prompt r e f l e c t i o n on t h e e v e n t s o f t h e drama. S t u d e n t s a r e encouraged t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s and a p p r e c i a t e consequ-ences as t h e y e v a l u a t e i s s u e s from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f b o t h t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t and t h e w i d e r c o n t e x t o f bro a d human e x p e r i e n c e . I I I D l . D i r e c t i n g A t t e n t i o n t o O v e r a l l Events i n t h e F i c t i t i o u s C o n t e x t These q u e s t i o n s a s s i s t s t u d e n t s i n r e f l e c t i o n on th e 'whole' o f what has j u s t o c c u r r e d i n t h e drama r a t h e r t h a n on an a n a l y s i s o f s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s . The t e a c h e r asks r e f l e c t i v e / e v a l u a t i v e q u e s t i o n s b o t h i n and out o f r o l e . (a) A f t e r an i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n about what E l Panthas s h o u l d do, Teacher A i n r o l e as t h e p r o f e s s o r o f t h e b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l , q u i e t l y a s k s , "Do you t h i n k you a r e ev e r g o i n g t o be read y  ( t o f i g h t t h e b u l l ) E l Pan t h a s ? " I s t h i s what you  w i s h t o do w i t h your l i f e ? " Towards t h e end o f th e s e s s i o n Teacher A, now o u t o f r o l e , a s ks E l Pant h a s : "What do you t h i n k about i t ? " You d i d f e e l p r e s s u r e d d i d n ' t you?" To g i v e t h e s t u d e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t on t h e mesh o f i n t e r e s t s a r i s i n g from t h e problem i n t h e drama, she a s k s , " S h a l l we read out what p e o p l e s a i d ? " (Each s t u d e n t has w r i t t e n t h e d e c i s i o n he o r she f e l t E l Panthas s h o u l d make) "Would you l i k e t o hea r what  t h e y s a i d - t h e y ' l l be anonymous?" (b) A t t h e end o f t h e meeting between t h e town c o u n c i l and t h e P i e d P i p e r , Teacher A has t h e s t u d e n t s r e f l e c t on t h e e x p e r i e n c e by a s k i n g : "What do you  t h i n k t h e s e p e o p l e would w r i t e i n t h e i r own  j o u r n a l when t h e y went home t h a t e v e n i n g ? " Each s t u d e n t , i n r o l e as a c o u n c i l l o r , t h e n w r i t e s out a j o u r n a l e n t r y , and when t h i s i s complete and t h e s t u d e n t s have g a t h e r e d around h e r , Teacher A a s k s , "What do you t h i n k o f t h a t P i p e r ? . . . Do you t h i n k  i t was a good i d e a t o r e s i g n ? . . . What i f i t d i d n ' t  g e t t h e c h i l d r e n back? Would t h i s c o u n c i l r e s i g n  anyway?" (c) When t h e d i s c u s s i o n between t h e mothers and t h e h o s p i t a l s t a f f has c o n c l u d e d , Teacher B a s k s , " D i d tho s e p a r e n t s g i v e you a r e a l b a t t e r i n g ? . . . They  were tough weren't t h e y ? . . . What was t h e t o u g h e s t  q u e s t i o n t h a t you had t o f a c e ? ... What was t h e most d i f f i c u l t one f o r o t h e r s ? (d) As i f each was Th e r e s a , t h e s t u d e n t s pose q u e s t i o n s about t h e upcoming o p e r a t i o n t o the g i r l i n r o l e as Theresa's mother. Teacher B t h e n a s k s , "What i s g o i n g on i n h e r ( t h e mother's) mind as she answers a l l t h o s e q u e s t i o n s ? ... How t r u t h f u l 103 was t h i s mother? ... What k i n d o f p i c t u r e i s t h e  mother h a v i n g i n h e r mind w h i l s t a l l t h e s e  q u e s t i o n s a r e g o i n g on? What i s t h e mother s e e i n g  i n h e r mind?" I I I D 2 . Widening t h e Area o f Re f e r e n c e The f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n i s t o s t i m u l a t e t h e b r o a d e n i n g o f t h e s u b j e c t o r f i e l d o f e n q u i r y . S t u d e n t s a r e asked t o extend t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e drama t o c o n s i d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e r e a l w o r l d . (a) A t t h e end o f a d i s c u s s i o n i n which each s t u d e n t g i v e s h i s o r h e r re a s o n s f o r a t t e n d i n g t h e b u l l -f i g h t i n g s c h o o l , Teacher A comes out o f r o l e and a s k s , "Who f e e l s sometimes t h e r e a r e f a m i l i e s who  want t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o do t h i n g s , and t h e i r  c h i l d r e n don't want t o do i t ? ... Can any o f you  t h i n k o f t i m e s when t h e r e a r e p r e s s u r e s , not  a c t u a l l y f a m i l y p r e s s u r e s , b u t a r e p r e s s u r e s from  somebody e l s e t o do something i n r e a l l i f e . ... J u s t us as p e o p l e , where do you t h i n k most  p r e s s u r e comes from - your f a m i l y o r your  f r i e n d s ? " (b) Teacher A, i n r o l e as P i e d P i p e r , asks t h e c o u n c i l l o r s t h e r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n : "Hamelin  must know who t h e y ' r e e l e c t i n g and be r e s p o n s i b l e 104 f o r what t h e s e p e o p l e do because t h a t ' s democracy,  i s n ' t i t ? " A t t h e end o f t h e s e s s i o n , she responds t o a s t u d e n t ' s comment t h a t r e a l c o u n c i l l o r s would be u n w i l l i n g t o r e s i g n by a s k i n g : "So r e a l l y what you're s a y i n g i s t h a t  r e a l c o u n c i l l o r s a r e n ' t v e r y h o n o r a b l e p e o p l e i n  your eyes - your view o f them?" T h i s e l i c i t s v a r i o u s comments from t h e s t u d e n t s - one o f w h i c h i s t h a t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s as r e a l c o u n c i l l o r s would have been d i f f e r e n t . Teacher A r e p l i e s , " A l l o f you c o u l d grow up t o be c o u n c i l l o r s i n Vancouver. P r o b a b l y some o f you w i l l don't you t h i n k ? Or  p u b l i c o f f i c e ? " A f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s , i n r o l e as T h e r e s a , have t o l d each o t h e r o f t h e dream t h e y had had t h e n i g h t b e f o r e , Teacher B e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e y a r e now g o i n g t o t h i n k as i f t h e y were Theresa's p a r e n t s . He a s k s , "How do p a r e n t s r e a c t - how do p a r e n t s  respond - t o h e a r i n g somebody's dream? ... Now i f  a p a r e n t says ' i t ' s nonsense', i s t h a t a d i f f e r e n t  t h i n g from a p a r e n t s a y i n g ' n o t h i n g t o be a f r a i d  o f ' ? " L a t e r , as each o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t u r n say th e k i n d o f t h i n g t h e y would want the p a r e n t t o t e l l T h e r e s a , Teacher B i n t e r j e c t s w i t h : "So t h i s mother i s s a y i n g 'you're h e r e now' - here b e i n g home. And i s home s a f e f o r a s i x y e a r o l d ? " The 105 s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e t h e i r comments u n t i l one boy-sa y s , " F a t h e r s don't u s u a l l y go i n f o r t h a t k i n d o f s t u f f - t h e mothers u s u a l l y a r e t a l k i n g about t h a t ... L i k e I've known p e o p l e who don't t a l k t o t h e i r f a t h e r s about t h i n g s , t h e y o n l y t a l k t o t h e i r mothers." Teacher B a s k s him, "What k i n d o f  f a t h e r do you want t o be?" (d) B e f o r e t h e s t u d e n t i n r o l e as Theresa's mother answers q u e s t i o n s about t h e o p e r a t i o n , Teacher B asks t h e group, "What can a c h i l d o f s i x under- stand? " L a t e r , when d i s c u s s i n g t h e mother's r e p l i e s , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o c o n s i d e r i f t h e mother i s l y i n g when she t e l l s h e r daughter t h a t she won't d i e . Teacher B a s k s , " I s t h i s a v e r y  h a r d q u e s t i o n f o r a mother t o answer?" IV. REGULATING SOCIAL INTERACTION (MANAGEMENT) T h i s s e c t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e s t h o s e q u e s t i o n s which h e l p t o d i r e c t and m a i n t a i n t h e f l o w o f ev e n t s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . The t e a c h e r employs t h e s e management q u e s t i o n s b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t i n o r d e r t o g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s , m o n i t o r work, and c o n t r o l b e h a v i o r . 106 IVA. R e g u l a t i n g B e h a v i o r O u t s i d e t h e F i c t i t i o u s C o n t e x t IVA1. G i v i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s These q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n by t h e t e a c h e r . (a) The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f examples from Teacher A's s e s s i o n s : "Could you s i t on t h e c a r p e t ? " ; "Could you move back i n t o your p l a c e s ? " ; "Could  you come ov e r h e r e p l e a s e ? " ; and (more i n d i r e c t l y ) "When you go i n t o a c o u n c i l m e e t i n g nobody s i t s  down u n t i l t h e mayor does - d i d you know t h a t ? " (b) The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f examples from Teacher B's s e s s i o n s : " W i l l you g e t i n t o s m a l l groups o f  t h r e e o r f o u r , but no more t h a n f o u r ? " ; "Would you  come r i g h t o v e r h e r e f o r a moment?"; " W i l l you  t a k e your p l a c e s ? " ; "Each o f you who i s t h e  mother, w i l l you p l e a s e put your hand up?" IVA2. M o n i t o r i n g Work The purpose of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i s t o m o n i t o r t h e a c t i v i t i e s s u r r o u n d i n g a t a s k . They may be used t o o r g a n i z e , c l a r i f y , r e i n f o r c e , o r c o n t r o l s t u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t . (a) The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f examples from Teacher A's s e s s i o n s : "Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s though  b e f o r e you do t h i s ? " ; "Can you work w i t h t h i s 107 young man?"; "Anybody w i t h o u t a p a r t n e r now?"; "How's i t g o i n g - a l l r i g h t ? " ; "Has everybody got  t h e i r eyes c l o s e d ? " ; "Did we agree t o i t ? " ; "Are  t h e r e any o t h e r words you need?" (b) The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f examples from Teacher B's s e s s i o n s : "Do you mind b e i n g i n a group o f  two?"; "Do you n o t i c e how s e r i o u s he i s ? " ; "And  you d i d n ' t l a u g h a t t h a t so t h a t was a l l r i g h t ? " ; "Now can I have a word w i t h e v e r y b o d y ? " ; "Are  t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e I g i v e t h i s o u t ? " IVA3. C o n t r o l l i n g B e h a v i o r These q u e s t i o n s h e l p t o e n f o r c e s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o r t h a t a r e t o be m a i n t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e drama s e s s i o n . The t e a c h e r does not r a i s e h i s / h e r v o i c e when a s k i n g such q u e s t i o n s , r a t h e r t h e tone becomes c l i p p e d and t o t h e p o i n t . (a) The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f examples from Teacher A's s e s s i o n s : " I want t o see how s e r i o u s l y you  can do t h i s a l l r i g h t ? " ; "Luke d i d you h e a r what  I s a i d ? " ; "Mark a r e you h a v i n g g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y  d o i n g t h i s t a s k ? " ; " I s t h i s t o o h a r d f o r you?"; "You mean you've been h e r e 10 minutes and you  don't know y e t ? " (b) The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f examples from Teacher B's s e s s i o n s : "Now you made t h i s d o c t o r l a u g h a t 108 h i m s e l f , b u t i n f a c t he was d o i n g v e r y w e l l wasn't  he? So can you manage not t o make us l a u g h a t  o u r s e l v e s e l s e I s h a l l s t o p b e l i e v i n g I'm a r e p o r t e r and h e ' l l s t o p b e l i e v i n g he's a d o c t o r . " ; "What was wrong w i t h h i s answer t h e r e ? " ; "Did we  do something t h e r e t h a t made you l a u g h ? " ; "Are you g o i n g t o p l a y about?" IVB. R e g u l a t i n g B e h a v i o r I n s i d e t h e F i c t i t i o u s C o n t e x t The q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y r e g u l a t e b e h a v i o r w h i l e t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s a r e w o r k i n g i n r o l e . I V B l . G i v i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s W h i l e i n a s p e c i f i c r o l e o r an i n t e r m e d i a r y " t w i l i g h t r o l e " t h e t e a c h e r r e q u e s t s t h a t c e r t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e f o l l o w e d . F o r example, a f t e r t h e group has t r i e d on t h e i r s u r g i c a l masks and g l o v e s , Teacher B asks ( s t i l l i n r o l e as head d o c t o r ) , " W i l l  you now remove them ( t h e g l o v e s ) and p u t them on your  f o l d e r s ? " D u r i n g a n o t h e r s e s s i o n , Teacher B assumes a t w i l i g h t r o l e as he a s k s , "Now M i r i a m , can you come out  he r e because t h e d e s i g n e r i s g o i n g t o g i v e a  d e m o n s t r a t i o n ? " IVB2. M o n i t o r i n g Work These q u e s t i o n s h e l p t o manage pr o c e d u r e from w i t h i n t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t . (a) Teacher A, i n r o l e as p r o f e s s o r o f the b u l l -f i g h t i n g s c h o o l , a s k s : "Could you move down a  l i t t l e p l e a s e E l Eugenio?" " E l Panthas have you  f i n i s h e d ? " (b) The s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as a d v i s o r s t o t h e Queen. As Teacher A c i r c u l a t e s she s t o p s , and assuming a t w i l i g h t r o l e , a s k s , "Are you t h e  a d v i s o r s i r ? " (c) Teacher B, i n r o l e as head d o c t o r , i n q u i r e s , "Are  you managing a l l r i g h t ? ... Can you a l l h e a r me  even though I'm s p e a k i n g t h r o u g h a mask?" IVB3. C o n t r o l l i n g B e h a v i o r The t e a c h e r remains i n t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t w h i l e s i g n a l l i n g t h a t c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r i s t o s t o p . (a) When a boy i s f i d d l i n g w i t h some o b j e c t s i n a desk i n s t e a d o f w r i t i n g out h i s S p a n i s h name, Teacher A i n r o l e as t h e P r o f e s s o r a s k s , "Are you  t r a i n i n g t o be a b u l l f i g h t e r o r a mechanic s i r ? " (b) The s t u d e n t s a r e g i v i n g answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f why t h e y want t o be matadors. Teacher A s i g n a l s t h a t t h e mumbled response o f "something t o do" i s u n a c c e p t a b l e by r e p l y i n g : "Why not be a w a i t e r ,  i t ' s something t o do?" (c) Teacher B, i n r o l e as head d o c t o r , i s t a l k i n g w i t h h i s s t a f f b e f o r e t h e y go i n t o meet t h e mothers. 110 Two boys seem t o be p u s h i n g each o t h e r and Teacher B says t o them: "Are you l i s t e n i n g ? Goodness we don't e x p e c t t h i s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l d o c t o r s . " A Breakdown o f t h e Q u e s t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g e i g h t t a b l e s p r o v i d e a breakdown o f t h e 1535 t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s as t h e y were c a t e g o r i z e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . The i n t e n t o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o v i s u a l l y summarize t h e c l u s t e r i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n s f o r each drama s e s s i o n as w e l l as p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s d a t a . TABLET I. ESTABLISHING CONTEXT (TEACHER A) ""SHADOW OF A BULL: 1 "RUMPEL-STILTSKIN" 2 "CARCLEW" 3 "PIED PIPER 1" 4 "PIED PIPER II" 5 A. SETTING OUT OUT GIVEN CIRCUMSTANCES 1A1. CALLING ATTENTION TO CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRAMA PROCESS 2 II i 1 IA2. CALLING ATTENTION TO THE SURROUNDINGS B. IDENTIFYING A CENTER OF INTEREST IB1 . REVEALING GROUP INTERESTS II 1 11 IB2. ASSISTING IN SELECTION IB3. REQUESTING COMMITMENT TO TOPIC II C. FACILITATING A COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE OF TOPIC IC1 . SPECIFYING THE PARA-METERS OF THE CONTEXT •Hll. m n 7 1 IC2. RELATING CONTEXT TO GENERAL EXPERIENCE I •Hum ii 2 II I [ D. DETERMINING INITIAL INVOLVEMENT ID1. CALLING ATTENTION TO PREVIOUS SESSIONS OR PRESELECTED MATERIAL Z II 1 1 i 3 ill 111 I ID2. IDENTIFYING STARTING ROLES, TASK, OR SITUATION 5 m. tHi. HI 4 illl . 4 Illl 4 illl 112 G e n e r a l Comments: 1. On t h e whole, e x c e p t f o r s e s s i o n 3, t h e number o f q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t e d towards " E s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t e x t " i n Teacher A's sample was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . The l i k e l y r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e as f o l l o w s : (a) S e s s i o n s 1, 4, and 5 were c l a s s e s i n which t h e c o n t e x t had a l r e a d y been w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n o t h e r s e s s i o n s . (b) I n s e s s i o n 2, Teacher A i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n t e x t when she n a r r a t e d t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f the R u m p e l s t i l t s k i n s t o r y . S i n c e t h e c l a s s had p r e v i o u s l y e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k i n g i n a d r a m a t i c mode, t h e y seemed eager t o commit themselves t o the t o p i c and t o b e i n g i n r o l e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y q u i c k l y moved on t o " B u i l d i n g Commitment". (c) I n s e s s i o n 3, a l t h o u g h t h e theme was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e t e a c h e r t h r o u g h n a r r a t i o n (as i n s e s s i o n 2 ) , due t o t h e immature n a t u r e o f t h i s grade 2/3 group t h e s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e d s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l commitment t o t h e work. The "ground r u l e s " had t o be f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . 2. I n each s e s s i o n , p a r t o f " E s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t e x t " i n v o l v e d " c o n t r a c t i n g " w i t h t h e c l a s s e s ; t h a t i s , Teacher A always asked t h e s t u d e n t s f o r t h e i r agreement b e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g w i t h something. For example: (a) From S e s s i o n 1: "Could you agree t h e n f o r t h i s morning ... t h a t you w i l l a g a i n be my s t u d e n t s i n t h e b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l and I w i l l be your p r o f e s s o r ? " (b) From S e s s i o n 2: "Would you a l l agree, a l l o f you, t h a t you c o u l d be t h e Queen's a d v i s o r s ? Would you agree t o t a k e on t h a t r o l e ? " (c) From S e s s i o n 3: "We can f i n d o u t i f a l l o f you p e o p l e w i l l agree t o be p e o p l e i n C a r c l e w - c o u l d you do t h a t ? " (d) From S e s s i o n 4: "We d i d d e c i d e t o f i n d t h a t out d i d n ' t we? I t h i n k we agreed t h a t you would a l l p u t y o u r s e l v e s i n the r o l e o f c o u n c i l l o r s and I would p u t m y s e l f i n t h e r o l e o f mayor, i s t h a t r i g h t ? " 113 (e) From S e s s i o n 5: " I w i l l agree t o t a k e on the r o l e o f t h e P i e d P i p e r i f i t ' s a l l r i g h t w i t h you - i s i t a l l r i g h t ? " 3. " E s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t e x t " q u e s t i o n s d i d not always come a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s e s s i o n b u t appeared whenever a new s t r u c t u r e was b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d . For example: (a) I n s e s s i o n 2, t h e r o l e s o f t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s were r e v i e w e d and changed a t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t h e drama. (b) I n s e s s i o n 3, Teacher asked " E s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t e x t " q u e s t i o n s towards t h e end o f t h e c l a s s t o a s s i s t i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e n e x t s e s s i o n . 4. The m a j o r i t y o f q u e s t i o n s asked i n c a t e g o r y ID ( D e t e r m i n i n g I n i t i a l I nvolvement) c e n t e r e d on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r o l e as opposed t o t a s k o r s i t u a t i o n . P o s s i b l y t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s was t h a t t h e t a s k and s i t u a t i o n had been p r e d e t e r m i n e d by Teacher A i n t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r s e s s i o n s . TABLE II II. BUILDING COMMITMENT (TEACHER A) "SHADOW OF A BULL" 1 "RUMPEL-STILTSKIN" 2 "CARCLEW" 3 PIED PIPER I" 4 "PIED PIPER II" 5 IIA. PARTICULARIZING ROLE IIA1. FORMING IMAGES OF ROLE tt+Llll tut. I w 2 IIA2. REQUESTING INDIVIDUAL COMMITMENT TO ROLE •HU. iHt- llll •HU. HH t t U 4t 1 I IIA3. ALLOWING A COLLECTIVE IDENTITY TO EMERGE '"HU.I ' 4 HH- HU i+M. r III 11 2 IIA4. REQUESTING PHYSICALIZ-ATION OF ROLE 1 III • "m i 6 II 2 I IB. . PARTICULARIZING SETTING IIB1. PROMOTING INDIVIDUAL IMAGES OF SETTING IIB2. REFINING A COLLECTIVE IMAGE -H41-H44 2 2 4U1-H4U 1! iHf K IIB3. CLARIFYING THE USE OF REAL SPACE AND OBJECTS 1 ttw-1 h 1 IIC. PARTICULARIZING A TASK 11 CI. ASSISTING IN INDIVIDUAL COMMITMENT ttU II III 3 If •mi 5 IIC2. ASSISTING IN COLLECTIVE COMMITMENT 44U III S - t o 11 7 i 1 m 5 I ID. PARTICULARIZING AN ATTITUDE TO THE TASK I ID!. IMAGINING AN ATTITUDE HI 3 1 ' • tm- i 6 IID2. FOCUSING INDIVIDUAL INVOLVEMENT ii III HI 3 H 1103. FOCUSING GROUP INVOLVEMENT 1 llll 4 1 m in 8 mi 4 IID4. PROMOTING INITIAL DRAMATIC ACTION m 5 in in 5 HE. INTRODUCING DRAMATIC TENSION I IE 1 - APPEALING FOR ASSISTANCE til 3 III i 1 IIE2. INTRODUCING CHALLENGES 11 n 2 IIE3. SUGGESTING IMPLICAT-IONS OR CONSEQUENCES i i i I IF. CREATING CONTRASTS J IIG. ESTABLISHING SIGNS AND SYMBOLS 1 115 G e n e r a l Comments 1. The amount o f q u e s t i o n i n g d i r e c t e d t o " B u i l d i n g Commitment" appears t o have some c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h how f a r a l o n g i n t h e drama t h e c l a s s has p r o g r e s s e d . F o r example: (a) S e s s i o n s 1 and 5 have fewer q u e s t i o n s t h a n t h e o t h e r s l i k e l y because t h e s e were b o t h f i n a l s e s s i o n s on a p a r t i c u l a r drama and commitment had been w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n p r i o r s e s s i o n s . (b) S e s s i o n 4 was t h e t h i r d i n a s e r i e s o f f o u r c l a s s e s and compared t o s e s s i o n s 1 and 5, c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y more q u e s t i o n s were r e q u i r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . (c) Both s e s s i o n s 2 and 3 i n c l u d e d numerous q u e s t i o n s t o h e l p b u i l d commitment, and b o t h were c l a s s e s i n which a new c o n t e x t was b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d . 2. For each s e s s i o n , Teacher A s t r e s s e d d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e " B u i l d i n g Commitment" s e c t i o n . The n a t u r e o f the c l a s s and t h e chosen s t r u c t u r e appeared t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c h o i c e o f approach. F or example: (a) I n s e s s i o n 3, Teacher A chose t o e s t a b l i s h commitment p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h t h e d e v i c e o f p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g r o l e ( H A ) . A l s o , because t h e s t u d e n t s d i d not appear t o be a b l e t o work w e l l as a group, many q u e s t i o n s were asked t o h e l p b u i l d c o l l e c t i v e commitment (see I I A 3 , I I B 2 , and I I C 2 ) . (b) As a means o f b u i l d i n g commitment i n s e s s i o n 4, Teacher A f o c u s e d on p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g s e t t i n g ( I I B ) . (c) I n s e s s i o n 2 (as i n s e s s i o n 3) p a r t i c u l a r -i z i n g r o l e was chosen as one "way i n " t o t h e new c o n t e x t . Another v e h i c l e used i n t h i s s e s s i o n was t h e s t r o n g " t e a c h e r i n r o l e " d e v i c e o f t h e h e l p l e s s Queen who q u i c k l y b r o u g h t t h e s t u d e n t s i n t o t h e a c t i o n ; and t h e P i e d P i p e r who a g a i n drew s t u d e n t s i m m e d i a t e l y i n t o t h e a c t i o n as w e l l as p r o v i d e d i n i t i a l c h a l l e n g e s . 116 3. S i n c e Teacher A had a l r e a d y d e t e r m i n e d t h e t a s k i t s e l f , q u e s t i o n s were f r e q u e n t l y d i r e c t e d t o " P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g an A t t i t u d e t o t h e Task" ( H D ) . For example: (a) I n s e s s i o n 2, s t u d e n t s worked i n p a i r s t o de t e r m i n e what t h e y would say t o t h e l i t t l e man, and Teacher A c i r c u l a t e d and q u e s t i o n e d . (b) I n s e s s i o n 5, Teacher A q u e s t i o n e d s m a l l groups o f s t u d e n t s who were d e c i d i n g what s t r a t e g i e s t o use on t h e P i e d P i p e r . TABLE III III. AMPLIFYING CONTEXT (TEACHER A) "SHADOW OF A BULL" 1 "RUMPEL-STILTSKIN" 2 "CARCLEW" 3 "PIED PIPER I" 4 "PIED PIPER II" 5 IIIA. PROBING FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION OF RESPONSE IIIAI. REQUESTING AN ANALYSIS/EVALUATION OF IMMEDIATE SITUATION 9 H4JL I'll 5 4 Illl II1A2. CONFRONTING ACTIONS OR DECISIONS "mi 4 1 ' * 5 urn 6 IIIB. HEIGHTENING RESPONSIBILITY. 11161 . PROMPTING GREATER INDIVIDUAL RESPON-SIBILITY ^ , 4 0 - Illl 6 2 II 4 Illl IIIB2. PROMPTING GREATER GROUP RESPONSIBILITY -HWJ 'M II 7 i n c . CONTROLLING PACE TO REVEAL MEANING IIIC1. SURPRISING/SHOCKING INTO NEW AWARENESS 4 ID! 1 2 H IIIC2. APPLYING PRESSURE TO CONSIDER IMPLICATIONS m it 7 II! m ml 9 IIIC3. MAINTAINING LEVEL OF DRAMATIC ACTION HI 3 11 ID. PROMOTING REFLECTION/ EVALUATION IIID1. DIRECTING ATTENTION TO OVERALL EVENTS IN THE FICTITIOUS CONTEXT m m 2 2 3 III i I 5 IIID2. WIDENING THE AREA OF REFERENCE mi 9 118 G e n e r a l Comments: 1. S e s s i o n s 1 and 5 had t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r q u e s t i o n s a l l o t t e d t o t h i s s e c t i o n . I n b o t h c a s e s , t h e s e a r e t h e f i n a l s e s s i o n s o f work on a p a r t i c u l a r drama. 2. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s , s e s s i o n 3 had no q u e s t i o n s l i s t e d under " A m p l i f y i n g C o n t e x t " . Due t o t h e s o c i a l i m m a t u r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s , the c l a s s d i d not go i n t o much depth w i t h t h e c o n t e x t . " E s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t e x t " and " B u i l d i n g B e l i e f " appeared t o be t h e most the s t u d e n t s c o u l d manage a t t h a t p o i n t . 3. For each s e s s i o n ( e x c l u d i n g s e s s i o n 3) Teacher A s t r e s s e d a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s under " A m p l i f y i n g C o n t e x t . " For example: (a) I n s e s s i o n 1, " H e i g h t e n i n g R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " ( I I I B ) became the f o c u s when each s t u d e n t was r e q u e s t e d t o d e c l a r e h i s o r h e r s t a n c e on a number o f i s s u e s a r i s i n g from the d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . "Promoting R e f l e c t i o n / E v a l u a t i o n " ( H I D ) q u e s t i o n s o c c u r r e d b o t h i n and out o f r o l e . (b) The s t r e s s on " H e i g h t e n i n g R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " ( I I I B ) i n s e s s i o n 2 t o o k a d i f f e r e n t form t h a n i n s e s s i o n 1. Teacher A prompted i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e group t o t a k e g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n . She k e p t " p u t t i n g t h e b a l l i n t h e i r c o u r t " so t h a t t h e y had t o make th e d e c i s i o n s . (c) S e s s i o n s 4 and 5 had a f a i r l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s i n most o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s under t h i s s e c t i o n . The e x c e p t i o n i s i n c a t e g o r y H I D (Promoting R e f l e c t i o n / E v a l u a t i o n ) i n s e s s i o n 4, and a p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r l a c k o f q u e s t i o n i n g i n t h i s a r e a i s t h a t t h e c l a s s had not y e t completed t h e drama. 4. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n s e s s i o n s 1, 5, and t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t 4, Teacher A employed a " d e v i l ' s a d v o c a t e " r o l e i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e t h e s t u d e n t s . I t appeared t h a t commitment needed t o be f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e t h i s d e v i c e was used. TABLE IV IV. REGULATING SOCIAL INTERACTION (MANAGEMENT) (TEACHER A) "SHADOW OF A BULL" 1 "RUMPEL-STILTSKIN" 2 "CARCLEW" 3 "PIED PIPER I" 4 "PIED PIPER II" 5 IVA. REGULATING BEHAVIOR OUTSIDE THE FICTITIOUS CONTEXT IVA1. GIVING INSTRUCTIONS J 1 m i l 7 I I . I i . rl IVA2. MONITORING WORK mi mi is tUJ HU I m i m i " IVA3. CONTROLLING BEHAVIOR 4 llll ii IVB. REGULATING BEHAVIOR INSIDE THE FICTITIOUS CONTEXT IVB.1. GIVING INSTRUCTIONS / IVB2. MONITORING WORK m 5 i I ' ! il 2 IVB3. CONTROLLING BEHAVIOR 2 . 1 1 120 G e n e r a l Comments: 1. The numerous q u e s t i o n s i n s u b - c a t e g o r y IVA2 ( M o n i t o r i n g Work O u t s i d e t h e F i c t i t i o u s C o n t e x t ) i n s e s s i o n s 2, 3, and 4 can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e s e s s i o n s were more " a c t i v i t y based" t h a n t h e o t h e r s ( t h a t i s , t h e y i n v o l v e d p a i r work, miming, group t a b l e a u s , e t c . ) and c o n s e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e d a g r e a t e r amount of g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f " C o n t r o l l i n g B e h a v i o r " (IVA3) q u e s t i o n s i n s e s s i o n 2 o c c u r r e d m o s t l y when the s t u d e n t s were f i r s t w o r k i n g i n p a i r s . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e e x e r c i s e i n v o l v e d t a l k i n g t o each o t h e r i n r o l e and t h e s t u d e n t s had d i f f i c u l t y m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s on t h e i r own. 3. S e s s i o n 4 had a number o f q u e s t i o n s i n IVA3 ( C o n t r o l l i n g B e h a v i o r ) as w e l l . These were d i r e c t e d m o s t l y t o one boy who had missed t h e l a s t s e s s i o n and was h a v i n g problems i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n . Teacher A s t r e s s e d i n h e r q u e s t i o n i n g t h a t t h e t a s k was d i f f i c u l t , not t h a t t h e boy was b e i n g d i s r u p t i v e . F or example she a s k e d : "Do you t h i n k you a r e c a p a b l e o f d o i n g t h i s - i t ' s f a i r l y h a r d ? I s t h i s t o o h a r d f o r you?" 4. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t none o f t h e " C o n t r o l l i n g B e h a v i o r " q u e s t i o n s o c c u r r e d w h i l e t h e group was i n v o l v e d i n d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . I t appeared t h a t once th e s t u d e n t s were caught up i n t h e f l o w o f t h e drama, t h e y m o n i t o r e d t h e i r own b e h a v i o r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i c t a t e s o f t h e f i c t i t i o u s s i t u a t i o n . TABLE V I . ESTABLISHING CONTEXT (TEACHER B) 1 z 3 A 5 6 A. SETTING OUT OUT GIVEN CIRCUMSTANCES 1A1. CALLING ATTENTION TO CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRAMA PROCESS 5 2 11 I 1 IA2. CALLING ATTENTION TO THE SURROUNDINGS 2 il i. ' I I B. IDENTIFYING A CENTER OF INTEREST IB1 . REVEALING GROUP INTERESTS 1 1 IB2. ASSISTING IN SELECTION m m 2 C • IB3. REQUESTING COMMITMENT TO TOPIC 1 1 C. FACILITATING A COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE OF TOPIC IC1. SPECIFYING THE PARA-METERS OF THE CONTEXT m m it IC2. RELATING CONTEXT TO GENERAL EXPERIENCE HI. 11 1 1 D. DETERMINING INITIAL INVOLVEMENT ID1.'• CALLING ATTENTION TO PREVIOUS SESSIONS OR PRESELECTED MATERIAL 2 •I 1 1 ID2. IDENTIFYING STARTING ROLES, TASK, OR . . SITUATION to 122 G e n e r a l Comments: 1. S i n c e Teacher B d i d not s t a r t w i t h a p r e d e t e r m i n e d t o p i c f o r t h i s group o f n i n e t o e l e v e n y e a r o l d s , a g r e a t many " E s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t e x t " q u e s t i o n s were asked i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n . These t a p e r e d o f f markedly i n subsequent c l a s s e s so t h a t by s e s s i o n 6 none were needed. I t appeared t h a t once c o n t e x t was e s t a b l i s h e d Teacher B moved d i r e c t l y i n t o i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h e x t e n t i o n and a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e drama. 2. Teacher B's " E s t a b l i s h i n g C o n t e x t " q u e s t i o n s g e n e r a l l y f o c u s e d more on t a s k and s i t u a t i o n t h a n on i d e n t i f y i n g r o l e . TABLE VI II. BUILDING COMMITMENT (TEACHER B) 1 2 3 4 5 6 IIA. PARTICULARIZING ROLE IIAI . FORMING IMAGES OF ROLE I 1 IIA2. REQUESTING INDIVIDUAL COMMITMENT TO ROLE 11 2 II 2 \ ' 11 A3. ALLOWING A COLLECTIVE IDENTITY TO EMERGE llll A 111 3 IIA4. REQUESTING PHYSICALIZ-ATION OF ROLE I IB. PARTICULARIZING SETTING IIB1. PROMOTING INDIVIDUAL IMAGES OF SETTING 1 1 II 2 IIB2. REFINING A COLLECTIVE IMAGE III 3 II 2 IIB3. CLARIFYING THE USE OF REAL SPACE AND OBJECTS 1 ' III 3 1 ' III 5 IIC. PARTICULARIZING A TASK IIC1. ASSISTING IN INDIVIDUAL COMMITMENT I tHOU- 2i 111 3 •HOW mi 2s •mitvu \\\ i t tmL 1 0 IIC2. ASSISTING IN COLLECTIVE COMMITMENT llll 4 •minw. , 2 5 1HCHU, " TU1 11 IID. PARTICULARIZING AN ATTITUDE TO THE TASK I ID 1. IMAGINING AN ATTITUDE I 1 IID2. FOCUSING INDIVIDUAL INVOLVEMENT m m 1 3 in HI 5 IID3. FOCUSING GROUP INVOLVEMENT m . - 5 •HlL-HlLU -4UU h 11 2 IIU4. PROMOTING INITIAL DRAMATIC ACTION •ttJLittUU -HtU 11U" * HE. INTRODUCING DRAMATIC TENSION IIE1. APPEALING FOR ASSISTANCE \\ 2 IIE2. INTRODUCING CHALLENGES II 2 4ttL ti 7 IIE3. SUGGESTING IMPLICAT-IONS OR CONSEQUENCES -twu 1 " I IF. CREATING CONTRASTS I •' I 1 1 1 IIG. ESTABLISHING SIGNS AND SYMBOLS m 5 u 2 II 2 124 G e n e r a l Comments: 1. To " B u i l d Commitment" f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r drama, Teacher B's q u e s t i o n s f o c u s e d a g r e a t d e a l on t h e v a r i o u s t a s k s i n t h e s i x s e s s i o n s (see I I C " P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g a Task" and I I D " P a r t i c u l a r i z i n g an A t t i t u d e t o t h e T a s k " ) . 2. " B u i l d i n g Commitment" q u e s t i o n s make up t h e m a j o r i t y i n a l l b u t s e s s i o n l ' s t o t a l s . 3. The r o l e s t h a t Teacher B t o o k on d i d n o t d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e s t u d e n t r esponses u n t i l s e s s i o n 4 when commitment was becoming w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d . TABLE VII III. AMPLIFYING CONTEXT (TEACHER B) 1 z 3 4 3 6 IIIA. PROBING FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION OF RESPONSE IIIA1. REQUESTING AN ANALYSIS/EVALUATION OF IMMEDIATE SITUATION 1 ! 8 m in 3 111 5 IIIA2. CONFRONTING ACTIONS OR DECISIONS i i 111 IIIB. HEIGHTENING RESPONSIBILITY IIIB1 . PROMPTING GREATER INDIVIDUAL RESPON-SIBILITY m m 1 2 n M " l IIIB2. PROMPTING GREATER GROUP RESPONSIBILITY mum Ml 3 i n c . CONTROLLING PACE TO REVEAL MEANING IIIC1. SURPRISING/SHOCKING INTO NEW AWARENESS m 5 1 \ 1 IIIC2. APPLYING PRESSURE TO CONSIDER IMPLICATIONS Ml A IIIC3. MAINTAINING LEVEL OF DRAMATIC ACTION m i n i HID. PROMOTING REFLECTION/ EVALUATION IIID1. DIRECTING ATTENTION TO OVERALL EVENTS IN THE FICTITIOUS CONTEXT 2 "ll m 6 IHUU IIID2. WIDENING THE AREA OF REFERENCE 2 "ll H 2 in 3 ro 126 G e n e r a l Comments: 1. The m a j o r i t y o f " A m p l i f y i n g C o n t e x t " q u e s t i o n s d i d not o c c u r u n t i l s e s s i o n 4, and t h e l i k e l y r e a s o n f o r t h i s was the need t o ensure t h a t commitment had f i r s t been w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d . 2. By t h e same t o k e n , i t was not u n t i l s e s s i o n 4 t h a t Teacher B began p r e s s i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g t h e s t u d e n t s i n h i s r o l e s as r e p o r t e r and head d o c t o r . 3. I n s e s s i o n s 4 and 5, Teacher B d i r e c t e d many o f h i s q u e s t i o n s towards " H e i g h t e n i n g R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " ( I I I B ) . I t appeared t h a t when he f e l t t h e y were rea d y he "handed o v e r t h e power" t o t h e s t u d e n t s as much as p o s s i b l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , by s e s s i o n 6 the s t u d e n t s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out t h e o p e r a t i o n . TABLE VIII IV. REGULATING SOCIAL INTERACTION (MANAGEMENT) (TEACHER B) 1 z 3 4. 5 6 IVA. REGULATING BEHAVIOR OUTSIDE THE FICTITIOUS CONTEXT IVA1. GIVING INSTRUCTIONS m i l 7 m i m t n u 4 nu IVA2. MONITORING WORK tHUHL 23 "Hil TUL IU WW 4 m mi 9 m i fc i t 10 m m mi IVA3. CONTROLLING BEHAVIOR i i 2 11 3 III IVB. REGULATING BEHAVIOR INSIDE THE FICTITIOUS CONTEXT IVB1 . GIVING INSTRUCTIONS I 1 i ' w 2 w 2 IVB2. MONITORING WORK i 1 n\i A m i n i 9 IVB3. CONTROLLING BEHAVIOR i 128 G e n e r a l Comments: 1. S i n c e t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f each s e s s i o n were so v a r i e d , t h e "Management" q u e s t i o n s d i f f e r e d a c c o r d i n g l y . F o r example: (a) S e s s i o n 1: Teacher B d i r e c t e d a number o f q u e s t i o n s t o " M o n i t o r i n g Work" ( I V A 2 ) : when he i n i t i a l l y checked t h e s t u d e n t s ' names; when he went t o each group of s t u d e n t s as t h e y drew t h e m e d i c a l equipment; and when he asked the group f o r t h e i r a p p r o v a l o f t h e d o c t o r / r e p o r t e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n ( f o r example, "Are we b o t h d o i n g a l l r i g h t ? " ) . T h i s s e s s i o n i n c l u d e d t h e most " C o n t r o l l i n g B e h a v i o r " q u e s t i o n s and t h e s e o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e d o c t o r / r e p o r t e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n t o ensure t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s took t h e work s e r i o u s l y ( f o r example, "So can you manage not t o make us l a u g h a t o u r s e l v e s ? " ) . (b) S e s s i o n 2: A number o f i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s s e s s i o n as Teacher B asked f o r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e name game and i n t h e "machines" e x e r c i s e . (c) S e s s i o n 3: Teacher B gave i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : d r a wing around a p a r t n e r ' s shoes, l a b e l l i n g t h e "mats", t r a c i n g t h e o u t l i n e o f a body, miming th e g l o v e s , and d e m o n s t r a t i n g r o b o t movements. Q u e s t i o n s were t h e n d i r e c t e d towards m o n i t o r i n g t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . (d) S e s s i o n 4: I n t h i s s e s s i o n , Teacher B m o n i t o r e d t h e work as head d o c t o r by a s k i n g such q u e s t i o n s a s : D i f f i c u l t i s n ' t i t ? " ; "When somebody says something ... your mind o f t e n goes b l a n k doesn't i t ? " ; " I t ' s awkward i s n ' t i t ? " . T a k i n g a t w i l i g h t r o l e , Teacher B a l s o m o n i t o r e d t h e p r a c t i c e f o r t h e r o b o t d e m o n s t r a t i o n . (e) S e s s i o n 5: S i n c e t h i s s e s s i o n i n c l u d e d t h e " p r a c t i c e " o p e r a t i o n , Teacher B gave a number of i n s t r u c t i o n s and m o n i t o r e d t h e work so as t o a s s i s t i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l elements o f t h e group t a s k . " M o n i t o r i n g " q u e s t i o n s were asked when s t u d e n t s were r e q u i r e d t o f i n d p a r t n e r s f o r an a c t i v i t y . 129 S e s s i o n 6: The " M o n i t o r i n g " q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s e c t i o n o c c u r r e d p r i m a r i l y when Teacher B was c h e c k i n g on any o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e t a i l s which needed t o be c l a r i f i e d b e f o r e t h e o p e r a t i o n t o o k p l a c e . 130 A Summary o f t h e F i n d i n g s I n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a a l l o w e d an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g : 1. The e x t e n t t o which q u e s t i o n s promoted th e drama p r o c e s s Upon a n a l y s i n g t h e e l e v e n drama s e s s i o n s i t became s t r i k i n g l y e v i d e n t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s use o f q u e s t i o n s was one o f t h e major v e h i c l e s t h r o u g h which d r a m a t i c form was r e a l i z e d . Both s u b j e c t s employed q u e s t i o n s e x t e n s i v e l y t o e s t a b l i s h , e x t e n d , and deepen v a r i o u s d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t s f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . Whether i n s i d e o r o u t s i d e t h e f i c t i t i o u s c o n t e x t , q u e s t i o n i n g was v i t a l i n g e t t i n g t h e c l a s s i n v o l v e d i n , committed t o , and r e f l e c t i v e about th e drama. The n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s used by t h e two t e a c h e r s c o u l d be l i k e n e d t o t h a t o f t h e p l a y w r i g h t ' s c r a f t . B o l t o n (1980) e l a b o r a t e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g passage: As t h e p l a y w r i g h t f o c u s e s the meaning f o r t h e a u d i e n c e , so t h e t e a c h e r h e l p s f o c u s the meaning f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ; as t h e p l a y w r i g h t b u i l d s t e n s i o n f o r t h e a u d i e n c e , t h e t e a c h e r b u i l d s t e n s i o n f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ; as t h e p l a y w r i g h t and d i r e c t o r and a c t o r h i g h l i g h t meaning f o r t h e a u d i e n c e by use o f c o n t r a s t i n sound, l i g h t , and movement, so does t h e t e a c h e r - f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ; as t h e p l a y w r i g h t chooses w i t h g r e a t c a r e t h e s y m b o l i c a c t i o n and o b j e c t s t h a t w i l l o p e r a t e a t many 131 l e v e l s o f meaning f o r t h e a u d i e n c e , so w i l l t h e t e a c h e r h e l p t h e c h i l d r e n f i n d symbols i n t h e i r work. (p. 73) In a l l t h e s e s s i o n s , t h e t e a c h e r s u t i l i z e d t h e s e s k i l l s from w i t h i n t h e group. T h e i r q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s e n a b l e d them t o a c t as f a c i l i t a t o r s and c o o r d i n a t o r s , c o n t r o l l i n g t h e s t r u c t u r i n g o f e v e n t s b u t not the c o n t e n t o r i d e a s which emerged. 2. The range and d i v e r s i t y o f q u e s t i o n s employed by t h e t e a c h e r s The numerous c a t e g o r i e s and s u b c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system a l o n g w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c examples which i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e terms b r i n g i n t o f o c u s t h e complex s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were used by t h e t e a c h e r s t o c r e a t e m e a n i n g f u l d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t s . Throughout a l l o f t h e s e s s i o n s i t was c l e a r l y e v i d e n t t h a t an e x t e n s i v e range and d i v e r s i t y o f q u e s t i o n i n g s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s were a v a i l a b l e t o b o t h l e a d e r s . T a k i n g t h e s e c t i o n o f " B u i l d i n g Commitment" as an example, th e t e a c h e r s e x h i b i t e d e x p e r t i s e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n o f r o l e , s e t t i n g , t a s k , and a t t i t u d e ; i n t r o d u c i n g d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n ; c r e a t i n g c o n t r a s t s ; e s t a b l i s h i n g s i g n s and symbols. W i t h i n each o f t h e s e a r e a s i t was apparent t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e t e a c h e r s ' approaches and s t y l e s o f q u e s t i o n i n g d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , t h e i r q u e s t i o n s were d i r e c t e d t o s e r v i n g the same g e n e r a l purpose - t h a t o f d e v e l o p i n g a m e a n i n g f u l d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . 132 3. P a t t e r n s which emerged i n t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s D e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g s t y l e and i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v a r i o u s c l a s s e s , c e r t a i n b a s i c elements o f q u e s t i o n i n g were common t o b o t h t e a c h e r s ' work. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n s c e n t e r on t h r e e main a r e a s o f q u e s t i o n i n g p a t t e r n s : (a) Development o f Meaning One o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s t o emerge from t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s was t h e m e t i c u l o u s c a r e and a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l e x h i b i t e d i n the q u e s t i o n i n g f o r each a s p e c t o f t h e drama. Through t h e i r q u e s t i o n s t h e t e a c h e r s were a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e e v e n t s so t h a t t h e drama was b u i l t s l o w l y , a l l o w i n g t i m e f o r e l a b o r a t i o n . Heathcote (1983) m a i n t a i n s t h a t "drama i s a d e t a i l e d a r t - i t p r e c i s e l y examines a t any moment t h e minute p a r t i c u l a r s o f a s i t u a t i o n " (p. 2 5 ) . C e r t a i n l y t h i s s t a tement h o l d s t r u e f o r t h e q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s o f the t e a c h e r s o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I t was apparent from t h e r e f l e c t i v e t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s which t h e y posed t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s t h a t b o t h t e a c h e r s were concerned w i t h b r i n g i n g out t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e b e h i n d t h e e v e n t s r a t h e r t h a n i n c r e a t i n g t h e mere sequ e n c i n g o f p l o t . The manner i n which meaning was de v e l o p e d i n t h e s e s s i o n s appeared t o be connected t o a l a r g e e x t e n t w i t h t h e v a r i o u s c o n v e n t i o n s chosen f o r t h e drama. For 133 example, b o t h t e a c h e r s would s t o p o r slow down t h e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n by a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s which r e q u i r e d each s t u d e n t t o respond i n t u r n , such as t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e : "Could we h e l p him by d e c i d i n g what you t h i n k he s h o u l d say t o h i s p a r e n t s when he g e t s home? And I'm g o i n g t o ask t h a t each p e r s o n t e l l us what t h e y t h i n k s h o u l d be s a i d . " " I wonder what t h e s e p e o p l e a r e t h i n k i n g as t h e y w a i t o u t s i d e ? What are t h e y t h i n k i n g b e f o r e t h e y go i n t o t h e Queen?" " I f you were s i t t i n g as Theresa's mother, what would you now say when the dream i s t o l d ? " " D o c t o r s and Nurses, one by one w i l l you say what you t h i n k i s g o i n g on i n t h e mother's mind now?" Other c o n v e n t i o n s used t o h i g h l i g h t meaning such as t a b l e a u x , movement a c t i v i t i e s , work i n p a i r s , j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , and t a s k s i n v o l v i n g d r awing and l a b e l l i n g were i n i t i a t e d and extended t h r o u g h t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s . I t appeared t h a t from t h e s e s o r t o f a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as from t h e r e f l e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s posed i n r o l e t h a t much o f t h e i m p l i c i t meaning i n t h e drama was drawn t o the s u r f a c e . (b) Q u e s t i o n i n g and an "Emerging C u r r i c u l u m " A nother p a t t e r n t h a t was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h i s s t u d y was the t e a c h e r s ' c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e 134 r e s p o n s e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . T a k i n g what t h e s t u d e n t s s a i d as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i n g , t h e t e a c h e r s c l a r i f i e d and extended t h e s t u d e n t s ' i d e a s , l e t t i n g t h e drama e v o l v e from whatever t h e s t u d e n t s had t o o f f e r . I n a d d i t i o n t o r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e i d e a s o f t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e t e a c h e r s r e a c t e d t o t h e a p p a r e n t needs o f the immediate s i t u a t i o n as w e l l . F or example, w i t h an immature grade 2/3 c l a s s Teacher A found i t n e c e s s a r y t o use many d i r e c t , s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s such as t h o s e found under t h e c a t e g o r y o f p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g r o l e . I n c o n t r a s t , o t h e r groups were a b l e t o d e a l w i t h more s u b t l e t y i n t h e q u e s t i o n i n g - q u e s t i o n s which suggested i m p l i c a t i o n s . (c) S e l e c t i v i t y i n Form I n each s e s s i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s e x h i b i t e d a sense o f s t y l e i n speech and movement which seemed t o v a r y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e needs o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e when the t e a c h e r s were i n r o l e : a t t i m e s t h e y c h a l l e n g e d , a t t i m e s t h e y a p p e a l e d ; on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s t h e y appeared t h o u g h t f u l , i m p a t i e n t , a n x i o u s , b r i s k , i n q u i s i t i v e , u n y i e l d i n g , concerned - whatever seemed a p p r o p r i a t e t o enhance th e meaning o f t h e c o n t e x t . By s h i f t i n g t h e dynamics o f t h e i r r o l e s , t h e t e a c h e r s were a b l e t o f o c u s t h e 135 i n v o l v e m e n t , i d e n t i f y and b u i l d on t e n s i o n s , c r e a t e moments o f s u r p r i s e , c h a l l e n g e the t h i n k i n g , and sl o w t h e pace t o a l l o w f o r r e f l e c t i o n . 4. The k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g b e i n g emphasized by t h e t e a c h e r w i t h i n t h e drama  The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y suggest much about t h e k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g which t h e t e a c h e r s appeared t o encourage i n the drama s e s s i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n s d e a l w i t h t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g p r a c t i c e as i t r e l a t e s t o c o n c e p t s about knowledge, t h e s t a t u s o f t h e l e a r n e r , and t h e s t a t u s o f t h e t e a c h e r . (a) Q u e s t i o n i n g and O b j e c t i v e s f o r Drama From t h e t y p e o f q u e s t i o n i n g found i n the d a t a i t was ap p a r e n t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s were a t t e m p t i n g n ot o n l y t o d e v e l o p s t u d e n t responses b u t a l s o t o d e v e l o p s t u d e n t c a p a c i t y t o respond . By c r e a t i n g a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g which c e n t e r e d on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n making, p r o c e s s e s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g were b r o u g h t i n t o f o c u s . S t u d e n t s were r e q u i r e d t o examine and c l a r i f y t h e i r i d e a s ; e v a l u a t e t h e consequences and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r s o l u t i o n s ; defend t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as w e l l as c o n s i d e r t h e v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e s e p o s i t i o n s ; a n a l y s e a v a r i e t y o f v i e w p o i n t s ; and r e f l e c t on t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f o t h e r s . The t e a c h e r ' s f u n c t i o n appeared t o be t o r e v e a l t h e mesh o f i n t e r e s t s i n any s i t u a t i o n . T h i s was f r e q u e n t l y a c c o m p l i s h e d by 136 q u e s t i o n i n g s t r a t e g i e s w hich c r e a t e d a s t a t e o f " d i s e q u i l i b r i u m " , p r o m p t i n g s t u d e n t s t o r e t h i n k and r e s t r u c t u r e p r e v i o u s knowledge. To use D. H e a t h c o t e 1 s p h r a s e , t h e t e a c h e r s appeared t o be w o r k i n g towards "awakening t h e s p e c t a t o r i n t h e p a r t i c i p a n t . " In a d d i t i o n t o e n c o u r a g i n g t h e use o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , t h e t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n s were a l s o d i r e c t e d t o d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s i n s h a r e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . By f o c u s i n g on t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f meaning, p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e q u i r e d t o examine t h e a t t i t u d e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and v a l u e s t h a t a r o s e from b e i n g p a r t o f a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The a b i l i t y t o work p u r p o s e f u l l y as a group - a c c e p t i n g , r e s p e c t i n g , and b u i l d i n g on t h e i d e a s o f o t h e r s - was an a r e a o f l e a r n i n g t h a t was c o n t i n u a l l y r e i n f o r c e d by q u e s t i o n i n g . (b) The Teacher and S t u d e n t s as C o - I n q u i r e r s An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e drama p r o c e s s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by t h e t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s was t h e concept o f t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s as c o - i n q u i r e r s . Both t e a c h e r s encouraged s t u d e n t s t o g e n e r a t e i d e a s , a p p a r e n t l y p r e f e r r i n g t o ask f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n d i r e c t l y i n s t r u c t i n g i n a s u b j e c t . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s which appeared t o d e v e l o p an atmosphere f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g . I n t h e i r q u e s t i o n s the t e a c h e r s : T r i e d t o ensure t h a t s t u d e n t s f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s . B u i l t up a "non-judgemental" atmosphere t o encourage a f r e e exchange o f i d e a s . D i d not show i m p a t i e n c e over a l a c k o f immediate r e s p o n s e ; r a t h e r t h e y paused and a l l o w e d t i m e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e l a x and r e f l e c t on t h e i r t h o u g h t s . E x h i b i t e d r e s p e c t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Used t e a c h e r i n r o l e as a d e v i c e t o "hand over t h e power" t o t h e s t u d e n t s ; t h a t i s , a l l o w e d s t u d e n t s t o t a k e g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e drama. Prompted s t u d e n t s t o t a k e an i n c r e a s i n g amount o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e drama. 138 Chapter V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS Summary A l t h o u g h e x t e n s i v e p r o g r e s s has been made i n c l a r i f y i n g c u r r e n t p h i l o s o p h y and t h e o r y i n drama i n e d u c a t i o n , a g r e a t d e a l remains t o be done i n d e v e l o p i n g methodology t o t r a n s l a t e t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e . G a l l (1970) p u t s f o r w a r d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t : ... t e a c h e r s cannot be e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n ... any new pedagogy i f i t i s p r e s e n t e d t o them i n vague, g e n e r a l , u n d e f i n e d terms; t h e y can be e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n new methods i f t h e methods a r e p r e s e n t e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , as s e t s o f s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s asked i n s p e c i f i c c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s . (p. 719) The c o n c e r n o f t h i s s t u d y has been t o examine and d e f i n e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s and q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n t h e drama p r o c e s s . I n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a p r a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s , t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y has i n v o l v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e : c o l l e c t i n g d a t a from t h e f i e l d on t h e q u e s t i o n s employed by two l e a d i n g drama e d u c a t o r s ; a n a l y s i n g and d e s c r i b i n g r e c u r r e n t t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n i n g found i n t h e d a t a ; o r g a n i z i n g t h i s i i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s k i l f u l and complex ways i n which 139 t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e drama e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were made as w e l l : 1. Q u e s t i o n s were used e x t e n s i v e l y t o promote the drama p r o c e s s . 2. The t e a c h e r s employed a wide range and d i v e r s i t y o f q u e s t i o n s . 3. D e f i n i t e p a t t e r n s emerged i n t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . 4. S p e c i f i c k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g were emphasized by t e a c h e r s w i t h i n t h e drama. C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e use o f drama i n e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s a complex and unique s e t o f t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . I f such s t r a t e g i e s a r e t o be a c c e s s i b l e t o e d u c a t o r s , t h e y must f i r s t be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d and d e f i n e d . S i n c e t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s was i n t e n d e d as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p i n t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e f o c u s was e s s e n t i a l l y d i r e c t e d towards i d e n t i f y i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g t h e components o f methodology. However, i n a d d i t i o n t o the s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s , t h e r e were a number o f b r o a d c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s which emerged as a r e s u l t o f t h e r e s e a r c h . 140 1. The V a l u e o f F i e l d Research i n Drama E d u c a t i o n The n a t u r e o f drama i n e d u c a t i o n i s such t h a t t h e t e a c h e r must c o n t i n u a l l y respond t o t h e needs o f t h e immediate s i t u a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n o r d e r t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e purposes b e h i n d t h e t e a c h e r ' s b e h a v i o r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e i n t o account t h e d e t a i l s o f the s u r r o u n d i n g c o n t e x t . Research c a r r i e d o ut d i r e c t l y i n t h e f i e l d has p r o v e n t o be i n v a l u a b l e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t r i c a t e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r -a c t i o n i n h e r e n t t o t h e drama p r o c e s s . Without the r i c h n e s s o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e s u b t l e t i e s o f t h e methods employed by t h e t e a c h e r c o u l d not have been a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e d . F i e l d w o r k i s i m p o r t a n t not o n l y f o r t h e many-l a y e r e d p e r s p e c t i v e i t p e r m i t s , b u t a l s o f o r t h e b r i d g e i t c r e a t e s between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . D i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e drama p r o c e s s a l l o w s an assessment o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c e r n s : t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e o r y a r e r e a l i z e d i n t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e ; t h e methods by which t h e o r y i s implemented i n t h e drama p r o c e s s ; and t h e a r e a s o f p r a c t i c e which need t o be g i v e n f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n drama e d u c a t i o n . 2. A s p e c t s o f Theory R e f l e c t e d i n Teacher Q u e s t i o n i n g T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t fundamental p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e o r y were 141 r e f l e c t e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s used. The c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' f u n c t i o n i n t h e drama p r o c e s s as w e l l as t h e r e f i n e d s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o f u l f i l t h i s f u n c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e t y p e o f q u e s t i o n s which were asked and t h e manner i n which t h e y were posed i m p l i e d d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e s f o r drama e d u c a t i o n : The F u n c t i o n o f t h e Drama Teacher I t appeared t h a t the f u n c t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e drama p r o c e s s was not t o d i r e c t , nor t o i n s t r u c t , b u t t o open up a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g f o r the s t u d e n t s . T h i s i s not t o i m p l y t h a t t h e t e a c h e r a c t e d m e r e l y as an i n i t i a l c a t a l y s t , l e t t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s "do t h e i r own t h i n g " . I n s t e a d , h i s o r h e r t a s k seemed t o be t o work a l o n g s i d e t h e s t u d e n t s , a s s i s t i n g i n s t r u c t u r i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , and e x t e n d i n g t h e d r a m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . Q u e s t i o n s were d i r e c t e d towards g a t h e r i n g i d e a s and t h e n s t i m u l a t i n g i n - d e p t h t h i n k i n g so t h a t s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s i t u a t i o n . W ithout t h i s i n t e g r a l i n v o l v e m e n t from t h e t e a c h e r , i t seemed u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e c l a s s would have been a b l e t o h e i g h t e n t h e work on t h e i r own. The t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , appeared t o be an e s s e n t i a l element o f t h e p r o c e s s . 142 In c o n s i d e r i n g t h e range o f q u e s t i o n i n g o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e was l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e d s p e c i f i c s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o use t h e s e q u e s t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y . B e i n g a l e r t t o t h e nuances o f s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s and f r a m i n g subsequent q u e s t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y seemed t o be a v i t a l a s p e c t o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s . S i n c e t h e f l o w o f t h e drama was not p r e d e t e r m i n e d b u t r a t h e r something which e v o l v e d , t h e t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e d a keen awareness o f and s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e needs o f t h e immediate s i t u a t i o n as w e l l as t h e a b i l i t y t o respond t o t h e s e needs. In a d d i t i o n t o e x e r c i s i n g f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s were a l s o w o r k i n g w i t h i n an o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e . From t h e c o n t e n t , t h e manner o f d e l i v e r y , and t h e t i m i n g o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n s i t was e v i d e n t t h a t h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e c h o i c e s were b e i n g made. F i r s t l y , t h e t e a c h e r s c o n t i n u a l l y d i r e c t e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n s towards d e v e l o p i n g a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t - a t e a c h i n g approach which demands s k i l l i n making c o n n e c t i o n s , t h i n k i n g around a s u b j e c t , and c o n s i d e r i n g t h e b r o a d u n i v e r s a l themes i n h e r e n t i n t h e drama. S e c o n d l y , t h e t e a c h e r s worked w i t h i n t h e parameters o f t h e a t r e form which meant u s i n g elements of c o n t r a s t , f o c u s , t e n s i o n , and s y m b o l i z a t i o n t o h e i g h t e n t h e meaning. The t e a c h e r s , t h e r e f o r e , had t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s 143 o f t h e theme, as w e l l as "know" t h e e s s e n t i a l components o f t h e a t r e i n o r d e r t o s t r u c t u r e and ex t e n d t h e dramas as t h e y d i d . O b j e c t i v e s i n Drama E d u c a t i o n The r e s e a r c h i n t o t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s u n d e r s c o r e d a number o f i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e s i n drama i n e d u c a t i o n . One o f the most prominent g o a l s b r o u g h t t o l i g h t was t h e concept o f t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r as c o - i n q u i r e r s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s approach i s t h a t s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y p o s s e s s s y s t e m a t i c and r e l e v a n t knowledge from which t o make sense o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e - knowledge t h a t t h e t e a c h e r v a l u e s , r e s p e c t s , and i s w i l l i n g t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o t h e drama p r o c e s s . A f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n o f s h a r e d l e a r n i n g i s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r i s not c o n s i d e r e d t o be a " s p e c i a l a u t h o r i t y p e r s o n . " T h i s becomes e s p e c i a l l y a p p a r e n t when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e use o f t e a c h e r i n r o l e . W i t h t h i s d e v i c e t h e t e a c h e r can r e a d i l y be q u e s t i o n e d , c r i t i c i z e d , c h a l l e n g e d , o f f e r e d a d v i c e , g i v e n h e l p , o r p r o v i d e d w i t h r e a s s u r a n c e . Out o f r o l e , t h e t e a c h e r i s an adept l i s t e n e r , and t h e q u e s t i o n s he o r she asks a r e h o n e s t s o l i c i t a t i o n s , not q u e s t i o n s t o which t h e answers a r e a l r e a d y known. A second o b j e c t i v e which was h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h e t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n i n g was t h e p r o m p t i n g o f s t u d e n t s t o 144 t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n t h e drama. O f t e n i n s c h o o l s t u d e n t s come t o r e l y on t h e t e a c h e r t o do t h e i r t h i n k i n g f o r them. I n t h e drama p r o c e s s , as t h e f o c u s i s q u i c k l y s h i f t e d from t h e t e a c h e r t o t h e s h a r e d problem o r t a s k , p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e c h a l l e n g e d t o produce i d e a s u s i n g t h e p o o l e d r e s o u r c e s o f the group. Thus, t h e onus i s on t h e s t u d e n t s t o become t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e and t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e drama. T h i r d l y , s i n c e t h e t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n s were f o r t h e most p a r t u t i l i z i n g b a s i c elements o f t h e d r a m a t i c medium, t h e s t u d e n t s were p r o v i d e d w i t h models f o r speech, a c t i o n , and t h e a t r e form. The work appeared t o be based on t h e assu m p t i o n t h a t t h e more s t u d e n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n form, t h e more l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w i l l become aware o f t h e s e l e c t i v i t y r e q u i r e d t o c r e a t e t h a t form. 3. The Importance o f Q u e s t i o n i n g Techniques f o r Teacher T r a i n i n g and C u r r e n t T e a c h i n g P r a c t i c e T h i s a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t q u e s t i o n i n g i s one o f t h e major v e h i c l e s t h r o u g h which t h e drama p r o c e s s i s r e a l i z e d . Because o f t h i s p r ominent r o l e , t h e development o f q u e s t i o n i n g s k i l l s w a r r a n t s s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n b o t h f o r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and f o r c u r r e n t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . I n g e n e r a l , t h e o r y i n drama e d u c a t i o n has p r o v i d e d l i t t l e 145 i n t h e way o f s p e c i f i c s t o e q u i p t e a c h e r s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e medium. G i v e n t h e dynamics and s u b t l e t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n i n g p r o c e s s , however, i t i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t t h a t t e a c h e r s would b e n e f i t from c l a r i f i c a t i o n and r e f i n e m e n t o f s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s f o r q u e s t i o n i n g . The c a t e g o r i e s o f a n a l y s i s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t u d y o f f e r a way o f t h i n k i n g about q u e s t i o n i n g and about systems of a p p r o a c h i n g t h e p r a c t i c e . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e range o f o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h e t e a c h e r w i t h g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n p r e s e n t i n g problems e f f e c t i v e l y t o s t u d e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t e a c h e r s a r e l i k e l y t o adapt more r e a d i l y t o t h e changing and u n p r e d i c t a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e work i f t h e y have a wide s e l e c t i o n o f s t r a t e g i e s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l . As t h e complex f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e methodology come t o be r e c o g n i z e d and d e f i n e d , drama t e a c h e r s w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e t o convey a more comprehensive under-s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r a c t i c e t o t h e m s e l v e s and t o t h o s e not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h drama i n e d u c a t i o n . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s has t h e p o t e n t i a l o f s e r v i n g as a p r e l i m i n a r y p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e - a g u i d e t o t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e s t r a t e g i e s which t h e drama t e a c h e r employs. I n f o c u s i n g on t h e s p e c i f i c c o n c r e t e terms a p p l i e d t o q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , e d u c a t o r s have t h e b e g i n n i n g s 146 o f a "common language" w i t h which t o d i s c u s s and e v a l u a t e t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . I n C o n c l u s i o n By c l o s e l y e xamining and d e s c r i b i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s use o f q u e s t i o n s i t becomes apparent t h a t a complex network o f q u e s t i o n i n g s t r a t e g i e s u n d e r p i n s e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h e drama p r o c e s s . The e x t e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l , c r e a t i v e , and e d u c a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e by s e t t i n g up p o t e n t i a l a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g and s h a p i n g t h e i d e a s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o d r a m a t i c form. S i n c e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g p l a y s such a v i t a l r o l e i n t h e p r o c e s s i t s h o u l d be a key element i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l development. Teachers need t o become aware o f t h e e x t e n s i v e range and d i v e r s i t y o f q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s as w e l l as o f s p e c i f i c terms w i t h which t o d i s c u s s t h e p r a c t i c e c r i t i c a l l y . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system p r o v i d e s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r d e a l i n g w i t h q u e s t i o n i n g i n c o n c r e t e terms. The arrangement o f t h e system i s not meant t o i m p l y , however, t h a t t h e r e i s a h i e r a r c h y f o r q u e s t i o n i n g , o r t h a t t h e drama p r o c e s s i s based on a l i n e a r o r s e q u e n t i a l t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g . Any one element o f t h e taxonomy i s as v i a b l e as a n o t h e r s i n c e q u e s t i o n s a r e 147 asked i n response t o t h e needs o f t h e immediate s i t u a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n i n g p r a c t i c e cannot be reduced t o a means-end c h e c k l i s t - i t must be approached h o l i s t i c a l l y as a s k i l l , a p r o c e s s , an a t t i t u d e , an a r t . Only i n t h i s way w i l l t h e t e a c h e r ' s use o f q u e s t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y s e r v e t h e needs of drama i n e d u c a t i o n . Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research 1. Because t h i s s t u d y has been an i n i t i a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o r e f i n i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f a n a l y s i s which have been d e f i n e d t h u s f a r . A n a l y s i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s o f o t h e r l e a d i n g drama t e a c h e r s o r l o o k i n g a t f u r t h e r samples o f Teacher A and Teacher B's work would de t e r m i n e whether c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d be added t o t h e system and i f e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d be made more d e t a i l e d : f o r example, d e v e l o p i n g s u b c a t e g o r i e s under " C r e a t i n g C o n t r a s t s " and " E s t a b l i s h i n g S i g n s and Symbols." 2. A f t e r f o r m a l v a l i d a t i o n , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system c o u l d be employed t o examine a v a r i e t y o f a r e a s : (a) A g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f t h e t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g p a t t e r n s o c c u r r i n g i n a l a r g e sample o f drama c l a s s e s . 148 (b) T r a c i n g t h e changes i n q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s such a s : w i t h one group o f s t u d e n t s and one t e a c h e r , o r w i t h a number o f c l a s s e s o f v a r y i n g age l e v e l s . (c) S e t t i n g up a t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g program which would f o c u s s p e c i f i c a l l y on q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . 3. A n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r r e s e a r c h would be t o examine th e a r e a o f " s e l e c t i v i t y " i n q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . For example: (a) A s t u d y o f t h e f a c t o r s which appear t o prompt c e r t a i n t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n i n g : f o r example, how do c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l a s s such as age, m a t u r i t y , s k i l l i n drama, e x p e r i e n c e i n o t h e r a r e a s a f f e c t t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n s ? ; t o what e x t e n t does t h e n a t u r e o f t h e m a t e r i a l a f f e c t q u e s t i o n i n g s t r a t e g i e s ? ,(b) Research i n t o what d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r as a r e s u l t o f s e l e c t i n g one l i n e o f f o c u s o v e r a n o t h e r : f o r example, c h o o s i n g t o c o n c e n t r a t e on p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n o f r o l e as opposed t o p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g t h e t a s k . 4. I n l o o k i n g a t t h e concept o f " m o d e l l i n g " and t h e t e a c h e r , i t would be w o r t h w h i l e t o s t u d y how t h e t e a c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n s a f f e c t t h e s t u d e n t s ' use o f language as w e l l as s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n i n g b e h a v i o r . 149 5. I n v e s t i g a t i o n i s needed i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g found i n a drama s e s s i o n and i n o t h e r " r e g u l a r " c l a s s e s . What would t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s be f o r u s i n g "drama t y p e " q u e s t i o n s i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s ? 150 B i b l i o g r a p h y -A l l e n , John. Drama i n S c h o o l s : I t s Theory and P r a c t i c e . London: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books, 1979. B a r r s , Myra ( e d . ) . Drama as C o n t e x t . G r e a t B r i t a i n : Aberdeen U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980. Beckerman, P h i l l i p . Dynamics o f Drama. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf I n c . , 1970. B o l t o n , G a v i n . Towards a Theory o f Drama i n E d u c a t i o n . London: Longman L t d . , 1979. B o l t o n , G a v i n . "Theatre Form i n Drama Te a c h i n g . " I n E x p l o r i n g T h e a t r e and E d u c a t i o n . Ed. Ken Robinson. London: H u t c h i n s o n L t d . , 1980. B o l t o n , G a v i n . " P h i l o s o p h i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on Drama and t h e C u r r i c u l u m . " I n Drama and t h e Whole  C u r r i c u l u m . Ed. Jon N i x o n . London: H u t c h i n s o n L t d . r 1982. B o l t o n , G a v i n . "Drama as L e a r n i n g , as A r t , and as A e s t h e t i c E x p e r i e n c e . " I n The Development o f  A e s t h e t i c E x p e r i e n c e . Ed. Malcolm Ross. O x f o r d : Pergamon P r e s s , 1982a. B o l t o n , G a v i n . "Drama as N e g o t i a t i o n o f Meaning." Un-p u b l i s h e d p a p er, Lansdowne L e c t u r e , V i c t o r i a , 1983 . B o l t o n , G a v i n . Drama as E d u c a t i o n . London: Longman L t d . , 1984. D a v i e s , G e o f f . P r a c t i c a l P r i m a r y Drama. London: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books, 1983. Day, C h r i s t o p h e r . Drama i n t h e Upper and M i d d l e  S c h o o l • London: B a t s f o r d , 1975. Duncan, M i c h a e l and Bruce B i d d l e . The Study o f T e a c h i n g . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston I n c . , 1974. E s s l i n , M a r t i n . An Anatomy o f Drama. London: Temple Smith L t d . , 1976. F i n e s , John and Raymond V e r r i e r . The Drama o f H i s t o r y . London: New U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974. 151 G a l l , M e r e d i t h D. "The Use o f Q u e s t i o n s i n T e a c h i n g . " Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 40 (1970), 707-721. H e a t h c o t e , Dorothy. " T r a i n i n g Teachers t o Use Drama as E d u c a t i o n . " 1972; r p t . i n S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f  Dorothy H e a t h c o t e . Ed. C e c i l y O ' N e i l l and L i z Johnson. London: H u t c h i n s o n L t d . , 1983. H e a t h c o t e , Dorothy. "Drama as E d u c a t i o n . " U n p u b l i s h e d paper. U n i v e r s i t y o f Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1974. H e a t h c o t e , Dorothy. " E x c e l l e n c e i n T e a c h i n g . " A b r i d g e d l e c t u r e . C h r i s t c h u r c h , August 1978. H e a t h c o t e , Dorothy. "From th e P a r t i c u l a r t o t h e U n i v e r s a l . " I n E x p l o r i n g T h e a t r e and E d u c a t i o n . Ed. Ken R o b i n s o n . London: Heinmann E d u c a t i o n a l Books, 1980. H e a t h c o t e , Dorothy. "Drama as C o n t e x t f o r T a l k i n g and W r i t i n g . " I n Drama as C o n t e x t . Ed. Myra B a r r s . G r e a t B r i t a i n : Aberdeen P r e s s , 1980a. H e a t h c o t e , Dorothy. "Drama as E d u c a t i o n : Why I s n ' t I t Happening?" U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . F a i r v i e w A l b e r t a , 1982 . H e a t h c o t e , Dorothy. "The A u t h e n t i c Teacher and t h e F u t u r e . " U n p u b l i s h e d paper. A p r i l , 1983. Langer, Susanne. F e e l i n g and Form. London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1953. McGregor, Lynn, Maggie Tate, and Ken Robinson. L e a r n i n g Through Drama. London: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books, 1977. N i x o n , Jon ( E d . ) . Drama and the Whole C u r r i c u l u m . London: H u t c h i n s o n L t d . , 1982. O ' N e i l l , C e c i l y , A l a n Lambert, Rosemary L i n n e l l , and J a n e t Warr-Wood. Drama G u i d e l i n e s . London: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books, 1976. O ' N e i l l , C e c i l y and A l a n Lambert. Drama S t r u c t u r e s . London: H u t c h i n s o n L t d . , 1982. O ' N e i l l , C e c i l y and L i z Johnson ( e d s . ) . S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f Dorothy H e a t h c o t e . London: H u t c h i n s o n L t d . , 1983. Rosen, Connie and H a r o l d . The Language o f P r i m a r y S c h o o l C h i l d r e n . London: Penguin E d u c a t i o n , 19 S t a b l e r , Tom. Drama i n P r i m a r y S c h o o l s . London: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h e r s , 1979. T a r l i n g t o n , C a r o l e and P a t r i c k V e r r i o u r . O f f s t a g e :  E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n Through Drama. T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983. Wagner, B e t t y Jane. Drama as a L e a r n i n g Medium. Washington: N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c . , 1976. W a t k i n s , B r i a n . Drama and E d u c a t i o n . London: B a t s f o r d , 1981. W i t k i n , Robert W. The I n t e l l i g e n c e o f F e e l i n g . London: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books, 1974. 153 APPENDIX A The fol lowing figure i s a synthesis of the components of eight c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems examined for t he i r possible use in the analysis of the data: Bloom, Taba, Gu i l fo rd , Barnes, Hughes, Simon and Boyer, Aschner-Gal1ager, and the Social Substantive Schedule. Question Functions Teacher Approach I Promote Classroom Routine/Management/Procedure - i dent i ty numbers (nosecount) - c a l l for questions ('any questions '?) - aside (gratuitous content) - feedback (response as to understanding the speaker) di rects control s remains neutral appeals reproves II Control Learning C r i t e r i a (Data Recall) - structure (foundation bui lding) - regulate - check/verify - set standards - recapitulate - c l a r i f y di rects judges quali f i es demonstrates re i terates III Extend Learning C r i t e r i a (Data Processing) - t rans late - c o l l e c t , enumerate, l i s t - interpret - group, c l a s s i f y , label - analyse, compare, contrast - expla in, summarize, generalize - extrapolate c l a r i f i es checks probes pursues informs IV L i f t (Data Generating) - elaborate - associate - synthesize - evaluate - hypothesize - in fer - implicate (extrapolate beyond the given) challenges probes e l i c i t s 154 Appendix B A Summary o f Teacher A's S e s s i o n s The sample o f Teacher A's s e s s i o n s i n c l u d e d f i v e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s o f s t u d e n t s r a n g i n g from a grade 2/3 s p l i t t o a grade 7 c l a s s . Each s e s s i o n has been t i t l e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e " s t o r y " from which t h e drama drew some o f i t s s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s . 1. "Shadow of a B u l l " P a r t i c u l a r s : 15 grade 6 s t u d e n t s ( h a l f o f t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s ) i n t h e i r 4 t h and f i n a l one-hour s e s s i o n o f work on t h i s drama. The drama d e a l s w i t h t h e i s s u e s and themes r a i s e d i n t h e book Shadow o f a B u l l by Maia Woejiechowska. V o c a b u l a r y r e v i e w o f S p a n i s h words e n c o u n t e r e d i n p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n s . S t u d e n t s p r i n t i m a g i n a r y S p a n i s h names on c a r d s and p i n t h e s e on t h e m s e l v e s . They agree t o go back i n t o r o l e as s t u d e n t s o f a b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l w i t h Teacher A as t h e i r p r o f e s s o r . The P r o f e s s o r i n t r o d u c e s t h e i d e a t h a t one s t u d e n t w i l l be chose t o f i g h t t h e b u l l i n t h e ' f i e s t a b r a v a . ' S t u d e n t s w r i t e down whether t h e y would a c c e p t o r r e j e c t t h i s honor and why. They a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two groups - t h o s e who would w i s h t o f i g h t t h e b u l l and t h o s e who would n o t . Teacher A chooses one s t u d e n t ( E l Panthas) who does not want t o f i g h t and, i n r o l e as t h e P r o f e s s o r , e x p r e s s e s s u r p r i s e because she knows how keen h i s f a m i l y i s t h a t he be s e l e c t e d . They d i s c u s s what E l Panthas s h o u l d say t o h i s p a r e n t s , and t h e P r o f e s s o r r e q u e s t s t h a t each p e r s o n i n t u r n g i v e E l Panthas a d v i c e . 155 The P r o f e s s o r speaks t o h e r s t u d e n t s as i f she were E l Panthas' f a t h e r and d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e s the s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s . The s t u d e n t s w r i t e down what t h e y t h i n k E l Panthas s h o u l d do and why. The P r o f e s s o r asks each s t u d e n t why he o r she i s e n r o l l e d a t t h e b u l l f i g h t i n g s c h o o l . Out o f r o l e , t h e group d i s c u s s e s r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e theme. Teacher A reads out t h e s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t each s t u d e n t has w r i t t e n t o E l P a n t h a s . 2. " R u m p e l s t i l t s k i n " P a r t i c u l a r s : 30 grade 5 s t u d e n t s (accompanied by t h e i r t e a c h e r ) i n a 1 1/2 hour " o n e - s e s s i o n " drama. They have p r e v i o u s l y worked w i t h Teacher A f o r f o u r s e s s i o n s on a drama about i m m i g r a n t s . Teacher A s i t s on a r o c k i n g c h a i r and t h e s t u d e n t s s i t on t h e f l o o r around h e r . She n a r r a t e s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e R u m p e l s t i l t s k i n s t o r y i n t r o d u c i n g t h e m i l l e r , t h e m i l l e r ' s d a u g h t e r , t h e k i n g , t h e dilemma o f s p i n n i n g g o l d i n t o s t r a w , t h e l i t t l e man who s o l v e s t h e problem, and t h e queen's problem a y e a r l a t e r when the man comes t o c o l l e c t h e r baby. The group a g r e e s t o t a k e on t h e r o l e o f t h e Queen's a d v i s o r s w i t h Teacher A as t h e Queen. I n p a i r s , t h e y q u e s t i o n each o t h e r about t h e i r l i v e s as a d v i s o r s . They form a group t a b l e a u ( s t i l l p i c t u r e ) o f t h e a d v i s o r s o u t s i d e t h e Queen's meeting room. Teacher A t a p s one s t u d e n t a t a t i m e and asks what t h e y (as a d v i s o r s ) a r e t h i n k i n g as t h e y w a i t o u t s i d e . The Queen and h e r a d v i s o r s d i s c u s s what she s h o u l d do about t h e promise t o g i v e h e r f i r s t - b o r n c h i l d t o t h e l i t t l e man. 156 Out o f r o l e , t h e y d e c i d e t h a t t h e y want t o b r i n g i n t h e l i t t l e man. A v o l u n t e e r i s chosen t o t a k e over t h e r o l e o f t h e Queen, and Teacher A t a k e s on the r o l e o f t h e l i t t l e man. In s m a l l groups, t h e s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s what t h e y w i l l ask t h e man when t h e y meet w i t h him. They form a second t a b l e a u o f t h e a d v i s o r s w a i t i n g o u t s i d e the meeting room, and a g a i n speak t h e i r t h o u g h t s when Teacher A touches them. D u r i n g t h e meeting w i t h t h e l i t t l e man, a compromise i s re a c h e d ; t h e man w i l l l i v e i n t h e p a l a c e and h e l p t o t e a c h t h e baby. Out o f r o l e , t h e s t u d e n t s d e c i d e t h a t t h e K i n g s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d . The c l a s s t e a c h e r t a k e s on t h e r o l e o f t h e K i n g , and w i t h a s t u d e n t as t h e Queen and t h e r e s t o f t h e c l a s s as a d v i s o r s , t h e y d i s c u s s t h e p r o s and cons o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . 3. "Carclew" P a r t i c u l a r s : 24 s t u d e n t s i n a s p l i t grade 2/3 c l a s s . T h i s was t h e i n i t i a l s e s s i o n (1 hour) d e a l i n g w i t h t h e theme, and f o r a l l but t h r e e o f t h e s t u d e n t s i t was t h e i r f i r s t exposure t o work o f t h i s n a t u r e . Teacher A s i t s on a r o c k i n g c h a i r and t h e s t u d e n t s s i t on t h e f l o o r around h e r . She b e g i n s a s t o r y about a v i l l a g e c a l l e d " C arclew" - a v i l l a g e where t h e poor v i l l a g e r s a r e happy and c o n t e n t , and t h e r i c h queen i s unhappy and d i s s a t i s i f i e d w i t h l i f e . The s t u d e n t s agree t o t a k e on t h e r o l e s o f t h e grown-up p e o p l e o f t h e v i l l a g e . I n p a i r s , t h e y d i s c u s s d e t a i l s o f who t h e y a r e w h i l e Teacher A c i r c u l a t e s a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s . The s t u d e n t s t a k e p o s i t i o n s t o show s t a t u e s o f thems e l v e s as t h e v i l l a g e r s o f C a r c l e w . Teacher A q u e s t i o n s each c h i l d as t h e r e s t l i s t e n . Teacher A l e a d s a d i s c u s s i o n about what t h e Queen's meeting room would l o o k l i k e . 157 The s t u d e n t s a r r a n g e c h a i r s around an i m a g i n a r y t a b l e . As t h e y s t a n d o u t s i d e t h e Queen's meeting room, Teacher A asks t h e s t u d e n t i n d i v i d u a l l y i f t h e y can behave l i k e grown-ups o f C a r c l e w . Teacher A asks t h e v i l l a g e r s why t h e y t h i n k t h e Queen wants t o meet w i t h them. They go over how t h e y would e n t e r t h e Queen's meeting room. The Queen asks i f t h e y would b r i n g h e r something t h a t t h e y p r i z e d . Out o f r o l e , t h e y d i s c u s s p r i z e p o s s e s s i o n s . The s t u d e n t s draw what t h e y t h i n k t h e y w i l l b r i n g t o t h e ne x t meeting w i t h t h e Queen. 4. " P i e d P i p e r " P a r t i c u l a r s : 14 grade 7 s t u d e n t s ( h a l f o f t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s ) . T h i s i s t h e i r t h i r d drama s e s s i o n on the P i e d P i p e r o f Hamelin. The s t u d e n t s e s t a b l i s h t h e i r ages as c o u n c i l l o r s o f t h e town c o u n c i l o f Hamelin. Teacher A demonstrates t h e co n c e p t o f s t i l l image or " t a b l e a u " . S t u d e n t s f r e e z e i n s t i l l images o f " c o u n c i l l o r s i n t h e i r f r e e t i m e . " A second t a b l e a u i s shown, t h i s t ime i n p a i r s i f t h e y choose. They w r i t e t h e i r names preceeded by " c o u n c i l l o r " on l a r g e c a r d s and p l a c e t h e s e where t h e y w i l l be s e a t e d . D e t a i l s o f t h e c o u n c i l chambers a r e d e c i d e d upon. Teacher A, i n r o l e as a p h o t o g r a p h e r , t a k e s a p i c t u r e o f t h e c o u n c i l j u s t a f t e r t h e y were e l e c t e d . Each s t u d e n t comments on what he o r she i s t h i n k i n g (as c o u n c i l l o r ) on t h e momentous day. 158 A n other p i c t u r e i s t a k e n b e f o r e t h e emergency c o u n c i l meeting on t h e P i e d P i p e r i n c i d e n t , and a g a i n t h e c o u n c i l l o r s a r e asked t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r t h o u g h t s . I n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r , Teacher A q u e s t i o n s t h e c o u n c i l l o r s b e f o r e t h e y go i n t o t h e m e e t i n g . The mayor (Teacher A) a s ks th e c o u n c i l what t h e y propose can be done about t h e m i s s i n g c h i l d r e n , and a l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n ensues. They d e c i d e t o mount an a d v e r t i s i n g campaign t h a t w i l l h o p e f u l l y c o n v i n c e t h e P i p e r t o meet w i t h them. Each s t u d e n t draws up a rough d r a f t f o r an ad. 5. " P i e d P i p e r I I " P a r t i c u l a r s : 22 grade 7 s t u d e n t s g a t h e r e d from a number o f d i f f e r e n t grade 7 c l a s s e s . T h i s i s t h e i r t h i r d and f i n a l 1 l / 2 hour s e s s i o n w i t h a drama on t h e P i e d P i p e r . Teacher A reads out the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s have completed from a p r e v i o u s drama s e s s i o n . I t i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e P i e d P i p e r w i l l meet w i t h t h e town c o u n c i l and t h a t Teacher A w i l l t a k e on the r o l e o f t h e P i p e r and one o f t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l t a k e on t h e r o l e o f t h e mayor. I n s m a l l groups, s t u d e n t s p l a n s t r a t e g i e s on what t o say t o t h e P i p e r , and Teacher A c i r c u l a t e s a s k i n g f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f i d e a s . S t a n d i n g i n t h e i r own spaces, s t u d e n t s d e p i c t t h e c o u n c i l l o r s p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e m e e t i n g . As t h e y mime v a r i o u s a c t i o n s Teacher A poses q u e s t i o n s t h a t t h e c o u n c i l l o r s might be c o n s i d e r i n g as t h e y get r e a d y . Teacher A e s t a b l i s h e s a " s t o p - f r a m e " c o n v e n t i o n i n w hich t h e f o l l o w i n g sequence o c c u r s : The P i p e r e n t e r s t h e meeting and f r e e z e s , t h e c o u n c i l l o r s f r e e z e , and one by one b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e P i p e r , each p e r s o n e x p r e s s e s h i s o r h e r t h o u g h t s . 159 I n t h e meet i n g , t h e c o u n c i l l o r s t r y v a r i o u s ways t o c o n v i n c e t h e P i p e r t o r e t u r n the c h i l d r e n . One o f t h e c o u n c i l l o r s s u g g e s t s he w i l l r e s i g n and t h i s i d e a i s t a k e n up by o t h e r s . The P i p e r remarks t h a t t h i s g i v e s him something t o t h i n k about, and on t h a t note l e a v e s t h e meet i n g . Teacher A r e q u e s t s t h a t each s t u d e n t w r i t e a j o u r n a l e n t r y as c o u n c i l l o r . Out o f r o l e , t h e y d i s c u s s t h e town c o u n c i l ' s d e c i s i o n . A Summary o f Teacher B's S e s s i o n s The sample o f Teacher B's s e s s i o n s c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s o f s i x c l a s s e s w i t h 17 c h i l d r e n ages n i n e t o e l e v e n . The c h i l d r e n were from s e v e r a l d i v i s i o n s o f one s h c o o l as w e l l as one Down's Syndrome boy, age t e n . The s e s s i o n s were from an hour t o an hour and a h a l f i n l e n g t h . S e s s i o n One Teacher B i n t r o d u c e s h i m s e l f and reads out each s t u d e n t ' s name c h e c k i n g t o make sure h i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s c o r r e c t . He t e l l s them a few t h i n g s t h e y might e x p e c t o f h i s way o f d o i n g drama. A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n and v o t i n g , t h e group a r r i v e s a t the t o p i c " h o s p i t a l o f t h e f u t u r e " . V a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h i s c o n t e x t a r e d e t a i l e d . S t u d e n t s d i v i d e i n t o s m a l l groups t o draw a p i e c e o f m e d i c a l equipment t h a t d o c t o r s w i l l use i n 2123 A.D. Teacher B, i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r , and a s t u d e n t who v o l u n t e e r s t o t a k e on t h e r o l e o f a d o c t o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n a b r i e f meeting t h a t demonstrates the t y p e o f a c t i v i t y s t u d e n t s might e n c o u n t e r " i n r o l e " . S t u d e n t s d e c i d e on r o l e s as d o c t o r s and d e s i g n e r s . 160 D e s i g n e r s e x p l a i n t h e drawings t o Teacher B ( i n r o l e as head d o c t o r ) and t h e r e s t o f t h e c l a s s ( i n r o l e as d o c t o r s ) . The group d e c i d e s on two machines t h a t would make e x c i t i n g drama - t h e c a n c e r - c u r i n g machine and t h e r o b o t n u r s e . S t u d e n t s make s u g g e s t i o n s as t o what might happen i n t h e nex t s e s s i o n . Teacher B summarizes by s a y i n g i t w i l l have something t o do w i t h f a n t a s y and the two machines. S e s s i o n Two Teacher B r e v i e w s d e c i s i o n s made i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n . S i t t i n g i n a c i r c l e , t h e group p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a name game. Stu d e n t s work t h r o u g h v a r i a t i o n s o f a drama e x e r c i s e i n which t h e y use t h e i r b o d i e s t o make machines ( i n d i v i d u a l l y , i n p a i r s , i n s m a l l groups, as a whole g r o u p ) . Teacher B, i n r o l e as head d o c t o r , w i t h s t u d e n t s as d o c t o r s and n u r s e s i n t r o d u c e s t h e o p e r a t i n g t a b l e , t h e s u r g i c a l g l o v e s , and t h e s u r g i c a l masks. As t h e y s t a n d around t h e o p e r a t i n g t a b l e , each s t u d e n t t r i e s on a mask and a p a i r o f g l o v e s . Teacher B i n t r o d u c e s t h e s c r u b b i n g - u p p r o c e d u r e and, i n r o l e , everyone mimes t h i s a c t i v i t y . Out o f r o l e , Teacher B e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e group i s g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d i n a k i n d o f s t o r y . The s t o r y i n c l u d e s a s i x y e a r o l d g i r l who may o r may not have c a n c e r . The s t u d e n t s d e c i d e t h a t t h e g i r l w i l l be named The r e s a , and from a number o f d o l l s t h a t Teacher B has p l a c e d on t h e f l o o r , t h e y choose one f o r t h e f i c t i t i o u s s i x y e a r o l d . 161 In s m a l l groups, s t u d e n t s work t h r o u g h a drama e x e r c i s e which d e p i c t s a dream Theresa i s h a v i n g (one s t u d e n t i n t h e group i s Theresa and t h e r e s t ar e p a r t s o f h e r dream). Teacher B, i n r o l e as Theresa's p a r e n t , mimes b r u s h i n g Theresa's h a i r as t h e s t u d e n t s ( i n r o l e as Theresa) t e l l Teacher B about t h e dream t h e y have had. The group r e t u r n s t o t h e o p e r a t i n g t a b l e . The head d o c t o r (Teacher B) asks one o f t h e nu r s e s t o i n f o r m t h e ward t h a t t h e y a r e ready f o r t h e p a t i e n t . Out o f r o l e , Teacher B mentions t h a t f o r ne x t c l a s s t h e y w i l l c a r r y on from t h i s p o i n t . S e s s i o n Three Teacher B t a l k s about t h e s l o w s t a r t t h e y ' v e had. He l i k e n s drama t o a j i g s a w p u z z l e . The group t a k e s t h e i r p l a c e s a t t h e o p e r a t i n g t a b l e . Teacher B s u g g e s t s t h e i d e a o f miming t h e g l o v e s and a s t u d e n t d e m o n s t r a t e s . I n p a i r s , t h e y mime p u t t i n g g l o v e s on each o t h e r . On i n d i v i d u a l s h e e t s o f paper, s t u d e n t s t r a c e around each o t h e r ' s shoes. S t u d e n t s w r i t e t h e i r names preceded by "Doctor" o r "Nurse" on t h e s e "mats" and p l a c e them on t h e f l o o r around t h e o p e r a t i n g t a b l e . A s t u d e n t v o l u n t e e r s t o l i e on a l o n g s h e e t o f paper so t h a t t h e shape o f h i s body can be t r a c e d . I n p a i r s , s t u d e n t s d e s c r i b e Theresa's dream t o one a n o t h e r . The group g a t h e r s i n a s e m i - c i r c l e around a c h a i r , and a s t u d e n t v o l u n t e e r s t o d e p i c t Theresa's mother. She s i t s on t h e c h a i r and mimes h o l d i n g Theresa on h e r knee. Teacher B r e q u e s t s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s say i n t u r n th e k i n d o f t h i n g t h a t t h e mother would t e l l h e r daughter a f t e r h e a r i n g about the dream. 162 The group d i s c u s s e s t h e s i t u a t i o n i n which a mother l i e s i n o r d e r t o r e a s s u r e h e r c h i l d . Teacher B asks t h e r o b o t d e s i g n e r s t o s t a n d up. A s t u d e n t , i n r o l e as the d e s i g n e r , e x p l a i n s t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e r o b o t n u r s e . Teacher B asks t h a t a s t u d e n t h e l p t h e d e s i g n e r demonstrate t h e r o b o t . The whole group demonstrates v a r i o u s r o b o t movements and t h e d e s i g n e r d e t e r m i n e s which movements a r e s u i t a b l e . I n s m a l l groups, s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s what a s p e c t s o f the r o b o t might be r e d e s i g n e d t o make i t s appearance l e s s f r i g h t e n i n g . On a l o n g s h e e t o f paper, each group redraws t h e r o b o t and i n t u r n e x p l a i n s t h e diagram t o t h e r e s t o f t h e c l a s s . S e s s i o n Four Teacher B asks f o u r g i r l s who had l e f t e a r l y l a s t s e s s i o n t o s i t i n t h e f o u r " w a i t i n g rooms" ( c h a i r s a r r a n g e d i n f o u r s m a l l c i r c l e s ) . I n r o l e as head d o c t o r , Teacher B remarks t h a t bad p u b l i c i t y about t h e r o b o t s has made some p a r e n t s a n x i o u s , and t h a t f o u r mothers a r e i n t h e w a i t i n g rooms r e q u e s t i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n from t h e s t a f f . The head d o c t o r a s k s t h e group o f d o c t o r s and nu r s e s f o r i d e a s o f what t h e y might say t o t h e p a r e n t s . Teacher B d e l e g a t e s each s t u d e n t t o one o f t h e w a i t i n g rooms, and t h e groups d i s c u s s t h e i s s u e o f the r o b o t n u r s e s . Teacher B, i n r o l e as a r e p o r t e r , goes around t o th e groups c h e c k i n g t o see i f t h e mothers a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s . S t a n d i n g i n f r o n t o f t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s , t h e f o u r mothers a r e r e q u e s t e d t o r e l a t e t h e t h o u g h t s t h e y had b e f o r e t h e d i s c u s s i o n , as w e l l as what t h e y now f e e l a f t e r t h e d o c t o r s ' and n u r s e s ' e x p l a n a t i o n s . 163 The head d o c t o r opens t h e f l o o r t o comments from t h e s t a f f , and a l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n t a k e s p l a c e . The mothers e x p r e s s a d e s i r e t o see t h e r o b o t s , and i t i s d e c i d e d t h a t a d e m o n s t r a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n . The head d o c t o r asks i f t h e mothers would be w i l l i n g t o phone t h e r e p o r t e r . W h i l e th e mothers t a l k w i t h the r e p o r t e r (Teacher B ) , t h e r e s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s o r g a n i z e a p r a c t i c e d e m o n s t r a t i o n . The f o u r mothers go i n t o a d i f f e r e n t room w h i l e a b r i e f p r a c t i c e i s h e l d . The mothers a r e b r o u g h t i n f o r t h e r e a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n . The r e p o r t e r a g a i n speaks w i t h the mothers o v e r t h e phone. The group r e t u r n s t o the o p e r a t i n g t a b l e and t h e head d o c t o r mentions t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t o r y . He f i n i s h e s t h e s e s s i o n by a s k i n g i f t h e c h i l d was t o l d t h a t she might have c a n c e r . S e s s i o n F i v e Teacher B i n f o r m s the c l a s s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f e v e n t s f o r t h e s e s s i o n - h a l f t h e t i m e t o be spent on d e t a i l i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n , and t h e o t h e r i n a t t e n d i n g t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "Does Theresa know she has c a n c e r ? " The s t u d e n t s d e c i d e t o t a k e on t h e f o l l o w i n g r o l e s : Theresa's mother, t h r e e r o b o t s , a r o b o t c o n t r o l l e r , two d o c t o r s i n charge o f t h e o p e r a t i o n , and d o c t o r s and n u r s e s a s s i s t i n g i n t h e o p e r a t i o n . Teacher B h e l p s s t u d e n t s d e t a i l t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e o p e r a t i o n . (The two head d o c t o r s r e f e r t o a d i a g r a m o f t h e organs o f t h e body f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . ) 164 The s t u d e n t s go th r o u g h a p r a c t i c e o p e r a t i o n u s i n g the o u t l i n e o f th e body from t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n . The surgeon r e p r e s e n t s t h e i n c i s i o n by dra w i n g on the f i g u r e . Out o f r o l e , t h e group d i s c u s s e s any problems a r i s i n g from t h e p r a c t i c e . The s t u d e n t who i s t a k i n g t h e r o l e o f Theresa's mother s i t s on a c h a i r w h i l e t h e o t h e r s s i t i n p a i r s (one p a r t n e r as t h e mother, t h e o t h e r as Theresa) on t h e f l o o r around h e r . A l l t h e "Theresas" ask t h e i r "mothers" i n t u r n "Mommy what i s c a n c e r ? " and "Mommy am I g o i n g t o d i e ? " and t h e mothers r e p l y . S peaking as i f t h e y were Theresa t a l k i n g t o h e r mother, t h e group v o i c e s Theresa's c o n c e r n s about t h e o p e r a t i o n . The s t u d e n t i n t h e r o l e o f mother re s p o n d s . Out o f r o l e , t h e group d i s c u s s e s t h e mother's p e r s p e c t i v e . S e s s i o n S i x Teacher B mentions some f a c t s about c a n c e r . He has th e s t u d e n t s d e c i d e on how t h e y want t h e drama t o f i n i s h by a s k i n g t h a t t h e y check one o f t h r e e c h o i c e s on a s e c r e t b a l l o t . The two head surgeons go t o a n o t h e r room t o work out d e t a i l s w h i l e Teacher B h e l p s t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s c l a r i f y t h e i r v a r i o u s t a s k s . The n u r s e s and o t h e r d o c t o r s demonstrate t o t h e two head surgeons what t h e y w i l l be d o i n g i n t h e o p e r a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s d e c i d e t h e y want t o use t h e r e a l s u r g i c a l g l o v e s . Teacher B g i v e s a s h o r t n a r r a t i o n t o b e g i n t h e a c t i o n . The r o b o t c o n t r o l l e r t a k e s over by s p e a k i n g out commands t o t h e r o b o t s from a c r o s s t h e room. 165 The i m a g i n a r y Theresa i s p i c k e d up, p l a c e d on a t r o l l e y , a n a e s t h e t i z e d , o p e r a t e d on. At a p r e - a r r a n g e d s i g n a l , one s t u d e n t checks a s l i p o f paper t h a t g i v e s t h e outcome o f t h e o p e r a t i o n ( p r e v i o u s l y t a l l i e d from t h e s t u d e n t s ' v o t e s ) . Theresa has c a n c e r b u t i t can be removed. The surgeon s t a t e s t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n i s complete and t h e r o b o t s t a k e Theresa back t o t h e ward where h e r mother i s w a i t i n g . The s t u d e n t s who remain a t t h e o p e r a t i n g t a b l e a r e asked t o say i n t u r n what t h e y t h i n k i s g o i n g on i n t h e mother's mind as she now l o o k s a t h e r da u g h t e r . The mother t h e n speaks h e r t h o u g h t s . A s t u d e n t s u g g e s t s t h a t as an a l t e r n a t e e n d i n g , t h e mothers c o u l d a g a i n phone t h e r e p o r t e r . T h i s same s t u d e n t v o l u n t e e r s t o be t h e r e p o r t e r , and the mothers phone t o t e l l h i m t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d s of t h e h o s p i t a l a r e v e r y h i g h . Out o f r o l e , t h e y d i s c u s s t h e breakdown o f t h e v o t e s and Teacher B c o n c l u d e s w i t h some b r i e f words about t h e e v e n t s o f t h e s i x s e s s i o n s . 

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