Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cultural autonomy, dependency and university athletics in Canada Campbell, Steven Mark 1987

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1987_A7_5 C35.pdf [ 10.93MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077399.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077399-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077399-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077399-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077399-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077399-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077399-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077399-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077399.ris

Full Text

CULTURAL AUTONOMY, DEPENDENCY AND UNIVERSITY ATHLETICS IN CANADA by STEVEN M. CAMPBELL B.P.E., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard © THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1987 Copyright Steven M. Campbell, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6G/81) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s the issue of Canadian economic and c u l t u r a l dependence upon the United S t a t e s by f o c u s s i n g on the o r i g i n s of the Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program i n the mid 1960's. Simon F r a s e r was chosen f o r t h i s study because of the abrupt s h i f t i t s a t h l e t i c p o l i c y took from the t r a d i t i o n a l Canadian model of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s (no a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s , l e s s c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n ) towards the dominant American model f e a t u r i n g a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d coaching. The t h e s i s examines the h i s t o r i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l context i n which the u n i v e r s i t y was s i t u a t e d and p r o v i d e s an overview of Canadian-American s p o r t i n g r e l a t i o n s i n the commercial and non-commercial spheres. With regard to the Simon F r a s e r case study, a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of the development of a t h l e t i c s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia's o l d e s t and dominant u n i v e r s i t y , w i l l provide necessary background. As w e l l , r e s e a r c h centers upon how the SFU a t h l e t i c program was i n i t i a l l y c r e a t e d and who the key personnel were i n i t s founding. The concluding chapter e v a l u a t e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the Simon F r a s e r p o l i c y move i n l i g h t of developments i n government spending over the past two decades. — i i i — TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem 1 Method and O r g a n i z a t i o n 4 Notes 5 2 BACKGROUND CONSIDERATIONS: CANADIAN ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL DEPENDENCY ON THE UNITED STATES 6 The Issue of Canadian Economic and C u l t u r a l Dependency 6 For e i g n Ownership and Economic Dependency 9 Regional Economics and Dependency 13 Dependency, C u l t u r e and E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l A c t i v i t y . . 17 U.S. Fo r e i g n D i r e c t Investment and Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s 21 Dependency, the Media and Canadian C u l t u r e 26 Notes 38 3 THE INSTITUTIONAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF CANADIAN SPORT 42 Background to I n s t i t u t i o n a l and Economic Development 42 From Commodification to C a r t e l : The Case of the N a t i o n a l Hockey League 52 Economic Development of the Canadian F o o t b a l l league 63 Hockey, F o o t b a l l and Dependency: An Overview 89 Notes 92 - i v -Page 4 A COMPARISON BETWEEN AMERICAN AND CANADIAN UNIVERSITY ATHLETICS 99 American Univers i ty A t h l e t i c s 101 Canadian Univers i ty A t h l e t i c s 109 A Summary of Developmental Tendencies 130 Notes 136 5 THE SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY CASE 141 Development of A t h l e t i c s at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 144 The Development of Simon Fraser Univers i ty and I t s Sports Program 160 Simon Fraser and the Dependency Trap 18 6 Notes 190 6 CONCLUSIONS 2 01 REFERENCES 2 28 -v-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to extend my g r a t i t u d e to a l l of those who have a s s i s t e d me i n my academic c a r e e r . My t h e s i s committee members, Dr. Morford and Dr. Guppy, have each pr o v i d e d me wit h guidance, support and the i n t e r e s t t h a t a p r o j e c t of t h i s s i z e demands. To each of them I am plea s e d to o f f e r my s i n c e r e thanks and a p p r e c i a t i o n . My t h e s i s committee chairman, Dr. Rick Gruneau, has spent a co n s i d e r a b l e amount of time w i t h me on the s u b t l e t i e s of the t o p i c . H is conciseness and p r e c i s i o n of language and h i s pa t i e n c e and support were of gre a t a s s i s t a n c e to me i n accomplishing t h i s study. My g r a t i t u d e and debt to him are beyond words. F i n a l l y , I wish to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to my f a m i l y who have o f f e r e d t h e i r u n c o n d i t i o n a l support throughout my academic c a r e e r . -1-CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Problem; It has been over twenty years s i n c e the p u b l i c a t i o n of George Grant's Lament f o r a Nation i n i t i a t e d the beginnings of a n a t i o n a l debate on the Canadian-American r e l a t i o n s h i p . Canadian n a t i o n a l i s t s have been able to take some comfort i n the f a c t that the most d i r e of Grant's p r e d i c t i o n s concerning the f u t u r e of Canada have not come t r u e , at l e a s t i n the short term. Yet, i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h at the American economic and c u l t u r a l p e n e t r a t i o n of Canada has continued and broadened i n the l a s t two decades. As demonstrated i n recent s t r u g g l e s over f r e e trade p o l i c y , Canada's p o s i t i o n as an adjunct to the U.S. has never been more obvious. The c u r r e n t debate on f r e e trade has focussed a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y on Canada-United S t a t e s r e l a t i o n s i n economic matters. Lumber and automobile p r o d u c t i o n are j u s t two of the items on the agenda f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n the f r e e trade n e g o t i a t i o n s r e c e n t l y i n i t i a t e d by the Canadian f e d e r a l government. I n e v i t a b l y , however, the is s u e has s p i l l e d over i n t o the c u l t u r a l sphere, f o r the q u e s t i o n looms as to whether the Americans w i l l demand and r e c e i v e an expansion of the agenda to i n c l u d e Canada's n a t i o n a l c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s . Thus, f o r Canadians the problem of " f r e e t rade" has extended once more i n t o the broader i s s u e s of n a t i o n a l -2-i d e n t i t y , c u l t u r e , the a r t s , and the sense of who Canadians are. Within t h i s debate i t i s important to note that r a r e l y has the q u e s t i o n been r a i s e d of s p o r t ' s place i n Canadian c u l t u r e and the n a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n . Despite the f a c t that the development of. Canadian sport has been h i g h l y i n f l u e n c e d by American sport i t i s as i f Canadian s p o r t e x i s t s i n a kind of c o n t i n e n t a l i s t dreamland. D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s r a r e l y i n t r u d e s i n t o t h i s area of c u l t u r e . The most notable attempts to analyze s p o r t i n the context of Canada's c u l t u r a l dependency can be found i n the work of Bruce Kidd and Richard Gruneau.(l) However, both these authors have covered the i s s u e only i n a very general way which has r a r e l y i n v o l v e d any d e t a i l e d case s t u d i e s . Yet, i n my view, the t o p i c of sport and Canadian c u l t u r a l dependency i s an important one that deserves more in-depth study. What i s needed i s an examination of a case study that s p e c i f i c a l l y i l l u m i n a t e s the dependency problem as i t r e l a t e s to the development of sport and Canadian c u l t u r e . In t h i s t h e s i s I s h a l l argue that the world of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s p r o v i d e s a glimpse i n t o the processes whereby dependent c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s i n Canada are generated, f l o u r i s h and continue to reproduce themselves. With t h i s general argument i n mind the t h e s i s focusses upon the w e l l p u b l i c i z e d d e c i s i o n to o r i e n t the new Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s program [ i n 1965] towards an American model of i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t i c s f e a t u r i n g f i n a n c i a l payments to a t h l e t e s , a -3-c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of the s p o r t s program, and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of coaching. Simon F r a s e r was chosen f o r t h i s study because of the abrupt s h i f t i t s i n i t i a l a t h l e t i c p o l i c y took from the " t r a d i t i o n a l " Canadian model of l e s s emphasis on a t h l e t i c s (no a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s , l e s s c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n ) towards an Americanized v e r s i o n . Obviously, the formation of a t h l e t i c p o l i c y does not occur i n a vacuum but, i n s t e a d , occurs i n the context of broader s o c i a l p ressures and tendencies that were present before the p o l i c y debate began. I t seems l i k e l y that the SFU case bears some r e l a t i o n s h i p to the o v e r a l l Canadian dependency on the American economy and c u l t u r e but few f a c t s are a v a i l a b l e to o u t l i n e the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s and pressures that accumulated i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the course of the 20th century and which set the context f o r the b i r t h of the SFU a t h l e t i c program i n 1965. In conducting r e s e a r c h on the Simon F r a s e r case I have been guided by the f o l l o w i n g questions designed to s i t u a t e the a n a l y s i s i n the context of the broader i s s u e of c u l t u r a l dependency. These questions a r e : 1) What was the h i s t o r i c , economic, and c u l t u r a l context of the Simon F r a s e r d e c i s i o n ? 2) How d i d that context i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n s made by key ac t o r s i n the c r e a t i o n of Simon F r a s e r ' s s p o r t s programs? 3) Why were the proponents of an American s t y l e a t h l e t i c program s u c c e s s f u l at Simon F r a s e r at a time when no other Canadian -4-u n i v e r s i t y had such a program? 4) How do answers to these questions square with the p u b l i c reasons given by u n i v e r s i t y o f f i c i a l s f o r o r i e n t i n g SFU's a t h l e t i c program towards the American model? 5) What i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Canadian sport might be drawn from the SFU case? Method and O r g a n i z a t i o n ; The a n a l y s i s i s organized to flow from the g e n e r a l to the s p e c i f i c . The second chapter o u t l i n e s the broad "problem" of economic dependency and the economic and c u l t u r a l development of Canada. The t h i r d chapter provides a b r i e f overview of the h i s t o r i c a l development of Canadian sport as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n with s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to the i s s u e of dependency. Following t h i s the d i s c u s s i o n moves to c o n s i d e r the h i s t o r i c a l development of u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t i n Canada. T h i s s e t s the stage f o r the f i n a l chapter where the Simon F r a s e r case i s analyzed i n d e t a i l . Reseach m a t e r i a l generated i n response to the o r g a n i z i n g questions noted above has come from secondary sources, a r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h and personal i n t e r v i e w s . Secondary sources are r e l i e d upon p r i m a r i l y to examine the broad p o l i t i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l context of the mid-1960s and the r e l a t e d development of Canadian s p o r t . Interviews and a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s are brought i n t o p l a y i n the more s p e c i f i c d i s c u s s i o n of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s i n Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia. - 5 -Notes 1. See Bruce Kidd and John Macfarlane, The Death of Hockey (Toronto, new press, 1972); Bruce Kidd "Sport, Dependency, and the Canadian S t a t e " i n Hart Cantelon and R i c h a r d Gruneau (e d s . ) , Sport, C u l t u r e and the Modern S t a t e . (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1982); and Richard Gruneau, C l a s s , Sports and  S o c i a l Development (Amherst, Mass: U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts Press, 1983). - 6 -CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND CONSIDERATIONS: CANADIAN ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL DEPENDENCY ON THE UNITED STATES Th i s chapter t r a c e s the h i s t o r y of Canadian economic and c u l t u r a l dependency on the United S t a t e s up to the 1960's, the p e r i o d when Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y was founded and the d e c i s i o n made by i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to pursue an American " s t y l e " a t h l e t i c s program. D i s c u s s i o n of the development of economic and c u l t u r a l dependency p r o v i d e s necessary background f o r the case study o u t l i n e d l a t e r i n the t h e s i s . The chapter begins by d i s c u s s i n g the development of the North American c o n t i n e n t a l economy during the 20th century and pays p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the i s s u e s of f o r e i g n ownership, the r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n of the Canadian economy, and the r o l e of the entrepreneur w i t h i n Canadian s o c i e t y . I t then moves on to a d i s c u s s i o n of the development of the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y system w i t h i n the o v e r a l l s e t t i n g and f i n i s h e s with an examination of the r o l e the media play with r e s p e c t to the r e p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Canadian c u l t u r e . The Issue of Canadian Economic and C u l t u r a l Dependency Concern over a dependence on other s o c i e t i e s has been a major theme throughout Canadian h i s t o r y . The French, the -7-B r i t i s h , and Americans have a l l exerted major i n f l u e n c e s over Canada's economic and c u l t u r a l landscape. The French c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , l a s t i n g u n t i l the mid-eighteenth century, began Canada's s o c i a l development. T h i s was followed by the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of Canada i n t o the B r i t i s h Empire i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century and the beginnings of the s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n which culminated i n the B r i t i s h North America Act i n 1867. American power and i n f l u e n c e grew i n Canada during t h i s time, e s p e c i a l l y beginning i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century as American f o r e i g n d i r e c t investment i n Canada expanded. Since that time, as American economic i n f l u e n c e has grown, American c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e on Canadian s o c i e t y has expanded a c c o r d i n g l y . During the t w e n t i e t h century one can r e a d i l y observe the h i s t o r i c a l s h i f t from B r i t i s h to American economic i n f l u e n c e i n Canada by examining the h i s t o r y of Canada's f o r e i g n accounts. There, the d e c l i n e of B r i t i s h fortune worldwide during the f i r s t World War and the 1920's can be p e r c e i v e d i n the p a r a l l e l withdrawal of B r i t i s h f i n a n c e c a p i t a l from overseas markets. B r i t i s h p o r t f o l i o investment(1) i n Canada peaked i n 1913 with a t o t a l of $2.82 b i l l i o n — a t o t a l that was not to be exceeded u n t i l 1960 when B r i t i s h investment during the post-World War II g l o b a l economic boom reached $3.35 b i l l i o n . Changes i n longterm B r i t i s h investment during Canada's e x i s t e n c e as a n a t i o n s t a t e are noted by L e v i t t i n her book S i l e n t Surrender. From 1867-1900 B r i t i s h investment flows i n t o Canada t o t a l l e d $880 m i l l i o n while f o r a s h o r t e r time p e r i o d of -8-t h i r t e e n years (1900-1913)—during the Canadian wheat economy b o o m — B r i t i s h investment i n Canada doubled to a t o t a l of $1.75 b i l l i o n . T h i s accounted f o r almost 78% of a l l f o r e i g n investment i n Canada during that time frame.(2) At that p o i n t , World War I in t e r v e n e d and i n f l i c t e d s e r i o u s damage on Great B r i t a i n ' s economy. C a p i t a l flows from the i m p e r i a l centre r e v e r s e d during the 1920s as the need f o r funds to r e b u i l d the war-torn i n d u s t r i a l base r e s u l t e d i n a r e p a t r i a t i o n of B r i t i s h c a p i t a l to the E n g l i s h economy. L e v i t t notes how from 1913-1926 there was a net outflow of f i n a n c i a l investment i n Canada to B r i t a i n of $181 m i l l i o n , and that process continued i n t o the breakdown of the world economy from 1926-1939 (-$161 m i l l i o n ) . The economic d i s a s t e r of the second World War added to B r i t a i n ' s f i n a n c i a l problems. During the s i x war years, over $800 m i l l i o n of B r i t i s h investment i n Canada was d i s s o l v e d and returned to B r i t a i n to maintain the war e f f o r t . In the second World War the undamaged Canadian economy was a net ex p o r t e r of p o r t f o l i o c a p i t a l ( l o s i n g $265 m i l l i o n ) while d i r e c t c a p i t a l investment from e x t e r n a l sources continued on a slower but s t i l l i n c r e a s i n g pace adding a t o t a l of $530 m i l l i o n . ( 3 ) The process of B r i t i s h disinvestment was p a r a l l e l e d by a r i s e of i n t e r e s t i n the Canadian economy by American c a p i t a l i s t s . For the United S t a t e s , the l i m i t s to her i n t e r n a l markets were reached around the turn of the century and the scramble by her business i n t e r e s t s f o r f o r e i g n markets began. Canada was -9-i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r c e i v e d by her southern neighbours as a s t a b l e market f o r f o r e i g n investment while a l s o p r o v i d i n g an important a n c i l l a r y market f o r p r o f i t a b l e American s u r p l u s p r o d u c t i o n . United S t a t e s f o r e i g n accounts show the i n c r e d i b l e expansion i n t o f o r e i g n markets which the American c o r p o r a t i o n s i n i t i a t e d soon a f t e r 1900. For Canada, as the nearest e x t e r n a l market, t h i s meant a dramatic upsurge i n f o r e i g n investment (both d i r e c t and p o r t f o l i o ) t h a t has few modern h i s t o r i c a l p a r a l l e l s . L e v i t t notes, f o r example, that i n 1867, j u s t a f t e r the American C i v i l War, U.S. investment i n i t s northern neighbour t o t a l l e d j u s t $15 m i l l i o n . Within 33 years, that t o t a l i n c r e a s e d to $205 m i l l i o n and f o r the next twenty f i v e y ears, investment i n Canada continued to expand g e o m e t r i c a l l y to a t o t a l of $3.20 b i l l i o n by 1926.(4) At t h i s p o i n t the United S t a t e s h e l d over 53% of a l l f o r e i g n investment and was c l e a r l y the dominant f o r e i g n s u p p l i e r of c a p i t a l f o r the Canadian economy. In a c u l t u r a l sense, Canadian s o c i e t y was s t i l l very much a colony of B r i t a i n but there i s l i t t l e doubt that by the mid 1920's the North American c o n t i n e n t a l economy was a l r e a d y a r e a l i t y i n terms of the d i v e r s e i n d u s t r i a l and f i n a n c i a l l i n k a g e s between the two c o u n t r i e s . Foreign Ownership and Economic Dependency The i s s u e of f o r e i g n ownership i n the Canadian economy has been the focus of much a t t e n t i o n throughout Canadian h i s t o r y . Over the past 150 years p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n Canada has tended to be d i v i d e d on the b e n e f i t s of American d i r e c t f o r e i g n investment. -10-E a r l y on, the p o l i t i c s of f o r e i g n investment were evident i n the s t r a t e g i e s of the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n t h e i r e l e c t i o n campaigns. Michael B l i s s notes that the Conservative p r o t e c t i o n i s t e l e c t i o n p l a t f o r m of 1911 took aim to maintain Canadian t a r i f f s and i n c r e a s e the number of branch p l a n t s and Canadian jobs the American c o r p o r a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d behind the t a r i f f w a l l : By 1911, there were a l r e a d y enough American branch p l a n t s i n Canada to arouse concern when Canadians considered t a r i f f p o l i c y . That concern, though, was not to l i m i t what had a l r e a d y been c a l l e d an American " i n v a s i o n " of Canada (5), but r a t h e r to s u s t a i n and encourage the branch p l a n t phenomenom. Branch p l a n t s were o b v i o u s l y a c r e a t i o n of the t a r i f f , and i t was e q u a l l y obvious that t a r i f f r e d u c t i o n s under r e c i p r o c i t y (which was a L i b e r a l e l e c t i o n plank) might l e a d to an American withdrawal ac r o s s the border.(6) In f a c t , the r u l i n g L i b e r a l government under W i l f r i d L a u r i e r was a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s s i b l e l o s s of Canadian jobs that might occur under f r e e t r a d e . The F i n a n c i a l Post r e p o r t e d on the government's stance: Now our m i n i s t e r s at Ottawa have not the s l i g h t e s t d e s i r e to do anything, or to agree to anything, that w i l l have any tendency whatever to check the movement of United S t a t e s manufacturers to e s t a b l i s h l a r g e p l a n t s i n t h i s country. These American e s t a b l i s h m e n t s operate i m p o r t a n t l y to b u i l d our p o p u l a t i o n and t r a d e , and to b u i l d up a good market f o r the produce of our farms. And i t seems that the e x i s t e n c e of our moderate t a r i f f a g a i n s t United S t a t e s manufactured goods has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n many cases i n b r i n g i n g us these i n d u s t r i e s . Hence a strong argument e x i s t s f o r not meddling overmuch with the d u t i e s . ( 7 ) Support, however, f o r the t a r i f f goes back f u r t h e r i n time, to the 1880's and 1890's, when Canadian newspaper accounts of American branch p l a n t investment i n the Canadian economy h a i l e d - l i -the m as more successes f o r the 1879 N a t i o n a l P o l i c y formulated by John A. MacDonald.(8) Back i s s u e s of the Canadian  Manufacturer c o n t a i n many r e f e r e n c e s to the establishment of branch p l a n t s or ongoing n e g o t i a t i o n s towards the establishment of branch p l a n t s . The advantages of the p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f of Macdonald's N a t i o n a l P o l i c y would always r e c e i v e f u l l c r e d i t with comments such as "Score another f o r the N.P.", "the N.P. does i t again" and "another monument to the g l o r y and success of our N a t i o n a l P o l i c y . " ( 9 ) At l e a s t one s e c t i o n of the Canadian dominant c l a s s c l e a r l y supported American d i r e c t f o r e i g n investment i n Canada and the evidence lends support to the c o n c l u s i o n that a t r a d i t i o n of r e l i a n c e w i t h i n the Canadian economy on f o r e i g n investment c a p i t a l had been b u i l d i n g s i n c e before the turn of the century. The beachhead of American investment throughout the Canadian economy continued i t s expansion from the 1920's through to the 1960's. From an o v e r a l l t o t a l of $3.2 b i l l i o n i n 1926, through the economic slowdown i n the world economy to 1939 ( t o t a l American investment $4.15 b i l l i o n — u p $965 m i l l i o n ) U.S. d o l l a r s poured i n , d e s p i t e the c o l l a p s e of both the U.S. and Canadian economies during the Great Depression (1929-1939).(10) Through World War I I , American c o r p o r a t i o n s added another $1 b i l l i o n to t h e i r investment p o r t f o l i o s i n Canada, with the share of d i r e c t versus f i n a n c e investment being about 50/50.(11) An a n a l y s i s of Canadian f o r e i g n investment accounts i n the immediate post-World War II era o u t l i n e the stunning f a c t that American c o r p o r a t i o n s -12-and i n d i v i d u a l s held a t o t a l of 84% of a l l d i r e c t investment i n the Canadian economy while t h e i r accounts h e l d 70% of a l l f i n a n c i a l investment. Despite t h i s seemingly overwhelming dominance throughout many s e c t o r s of the Canadian economy American c a p i t a l investment north of the border was set to begin i t s b i g g e s t p e r i o d of expansionary growth. S t a r t i n g with the post-World War II g l o b a l economic boom, American investment i n Canada skyrocketed. L e v i t t notes a doubling of d i r e c t investment i n j u s t s i x years from 1946 to 1952 to $4.53 b i l l i o n and then another doubling again to 1960 to a t o t a l of $10.55 b i l l i o n . At that p o i n t c o r p o r a t i o n s from the United S t a t e s h e l d 82% of a l l d i r e c t and 75% of t o t a l f o r e i g n investment i n Canada. By 1964, that t o t a l f o r e i g n investment had inc r e a s e d to $21.44 b i l l i o n ($12.90 b i l l i o n of which was d i r e c t ) and e q u a l l e d a t o t a l of over 80% of a l l f o r e i g n investment i n Canada. Given t h a t economists c o n s i d e r the Canadian economy to be a moderately s i z e d market, i t i s a l s o worth n o t i n g that almost one t h i r d (31%) of a l l U.S. d i r e c t investment abroad was concentrated i n Canada—more than i n e i t h e r Europe or L a t i n America. By 1963, American c o r p o r a t i o n s were c o n t r o l l i n g most of the Canadian economy from head o f f i c e s l o c a t e d i n the United S t a t e s . Almost one h a l f of a l l manufacturing done i n Canada was c o n t r o l l e d by American c o r p o r a t i o n s while U.S. i n t e r e s t s c o n t r o l l e d 62% of the petroleum and n a t u r a l gas i n d u s t r i e s . They a l s o owned 52% of a l l mining and smelting companies i n Canada. -13-By c o n t r a s t , o n l y two and four per cent of r a i l w a y s and other u t i l i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y were c o n t r o l l e d by American i n t e r e s t s . These are only a sampling of data o u t l i n i n g the s c a l e of American economic i n f l u e n c e throughout the markets of the Canadian economy. However, they do show g r a p h i c a l l y the economic dependence that has been a keynote f e a t u r e of Canadian-American r e l a t i o n s throughout the t w e n t i e t h century. And they provide an important background towards g a i n i n g an understanding as to how the development and r e - c r e a t i o n of Canadian c u l t u r e i n the p e r i o d between 1900 and the 1970's was i n f l u e n c e d by the multitude of economic l i n k a g e s between the two n a t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y , these l i n k a g e s weakened the Canadian east-west economy and p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e through encouraging the expansion of north-south economic and c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s between neighbouring Canadian and American r e g i o n s . Regional Economics and Dependency The huge i n c r e a s e of American d i r e c t f o r e i g n investment i n Canada during the 20th century i n i t i a t e d and i n c r e a s e d a north-south network of trade and c u l t u r a l t i e s as the markets f o r goods and r e s o u r c e s have expanded between the v a r i o u s Canadian regions and t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s . But t h i s expansion i n the number of north-south t i e s a l s o acted to r e i n f o r c e and speed up the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the Canadian east-west p o l i t i c a l economy by p r e s e n t i n g r e g i o n a l economic l e a d e r s with American a l t e r n a t i v e s to Canadian markets. C e r t a i n l y , the r e g i o n a l -14-economic d i s p a r i t i e s set i n place by the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y s i n c e 1879 have done l i t t l e to maintain r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t i e s to a Canadian economic and p o l i t i c a l system h i s t o r i c a l l y weighted i n favour of high p r i c e d c e n t r a l Canadian manufacturing based i n O n t a r i o . In the west, a north-south p u l l i n the r e g i o n a l economy f i r s t became apparent i n the Red R i v e r settlement and i n B r i t i s h Columbia.(12) On the P a c i f i c c oast, B.C.'s dominant i n d u s t r y , f o r e s t r y , became t i e d to the expansion of the American r e s i d e n t i a l housing market. As w e l l , a number of B.C. resource i n d u s t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g h y d r o e l e c t r i c i t y , c o a l , and metals and minerals found r i s i n g p r i c e s and abundant markets i n the post-World War II g l o b a l boom. Despite a lack of secondary manufacturing i n d u s t r y , and helped by the expansion of p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n a l economic r e l a t i o n s with the American P a c i f i c Coast s t a t e s , B r i t i s h Columbians experienced l a r g e r e a l gains i n per c a p i t a income. P o l i t i c a l l y , the economic growth experienced through the r e g i o n a l s a l e of resources gave p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s some e l e c t o r a l advantage: as t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power and p r o v i n c i a l economies expanded, they sought to encourage the expansion of job c r e a t i n g American (and other) f o r e i g n investment i n t h e i r economies. As former B.C. Premier W.A.C. Bennett commented, "We had an empire to b u i l d . There were v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s to the south, more to the north...We're not going to s i t by and watch p o t e n t i a l development i n B.C. held back by any source."(13) The -15-p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s became, i n e f f e c t , agents f o r the e x t e n s i o n of American investment i n t o the p r o v i n c e s , attempting by t h e i r p o l i c i e s to a t t r a c t f o r e i g n investment d o l l a r s i n t o t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l economies. By c o i n c i d e n c e or not, on the P a c i f i c coast these e f f o r t s have been rewarded as s i n c e 1926 B.C. has c o n s i s t e n t l y scored f i r s t or second i n terms of per c a p i t a income among Canadian provinces.(14) B r i t i s h Columbia, however, i s f a r from the most e x p l o i t e d r e g i o n i n Canada as i t s resource based economy has l e f t i t comparatively wealthy. While the province depends l e s s on f o r e i g n d i r e c t investment than any other r e g i o n i n Canada, ou t s i d e groups ( e i t h e r i n c e n t r a l Canada or the United States) s t i l l have c o n t r o l l e d much of the f i n a n c e and mining s e c t o r s and some of the f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y . ( 1 5 ) The demand i n a resource s t a r v e d United S t a t e s f o r p l e n t i f u l and cheap western Canadian lumber, metals and minerals augmented the d e c l i n e of the power of the Canadian f e d e r a l s t a t e to i n f l u e n c e the course of the n a t i o n ' s economic development p a t t e r n . The gradual d e c l i n e i n f e d e r a l power l e f t the p r o v i n c e s i n c r e a s i n g l y to forge t h e i r own arrangements with American c o r p o r a t i o n s f o r the exchange of t h e i r economic r e s o u r c e s . H e a v i l y dependent on f o r e i g n markets and c a p i t a l , the provinces developed p a r o c h i a l outlooks and p o l i c y makers g r a d u a l l y became preoccupied with a primary concern of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r own p r o v i n c e ' s economic growth r a t h e r than with p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n any f e d e r a l n a t i o n a l s t r a t e g y f o r the development of the o v e r a l l -16-Canadian economy. As sub-regions of a Canadian h i n t e r l a n d economy, and f o r c e d to d e a l with l a r g e f o r e i g n c o r p o r a t i o n s , the provinc e s had even l e s s b a r g a i n i n g power than the n a t i o n a l government and, as independent economic agents, were s u s c e p t i b l e to the b a r g a i n i n g p r e s s u r e s of competing with each other f o r American investment d o l l a r s . The r e s u l t of these i n t e r l o c k i n g developments has been to r e i n f o r c e the o v e r a l l theme of the development of the Canadian economy during the 20th century. Put simply, t h i s theme has been the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the power of the Canadian n a t i o n a l government to i n f l u e n c e the d i r e c t i o n of the development of the Canadian economy i n the face of expanding American d i r e c t investment. Since the r e t u r n of non-renewal res o u r c e s to p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n 1930, the provin c e s have encouraged f o r e i g n i n v e s t o r s to i n v e s t i n t h e i r province and e x p l o i t the abundant n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s of Canada. The r e s u l t has been an a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l encouragement of the i n f l u x of f o r e i g n , p r i n c i p a l l y American, c a p i t a l . The baggage of American business and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , and a consequent s t i f l i n g of the growth of any indigenous Canadian business c u l t u r e , has accompanied t h i s n a t i o n a l dependency on imports of f o r e i g n investment c a p i t a l . The r e g i o n a l economic d i s p a r i t i e s i n i t i a t e d with the adoption of The N a t i o n a l P o l i c y as o f f i c i a l f e d e r a l government p o l i c y i n the 19th century have helped f o r e i g n investment i n t e r e s t s to augment the development of north-south economic l i n k s and the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the Canadian resource economy -17-through American d i r e c t investment. In the next s e c t i o n I w i l l o u t l i n e how the overwhelming domination of the Canadian economy by American investment i n t e r e s t s and American business c u l t u r e may w e l l have acted to suppress the growth of an indigenous e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s p i r i t c r u c i a l to the development of a n a t i o n a l economy and c u l t u r e . Dependency, C u l t u r e and E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l A c t i v i t y At t h i s p o i n t of the a n a l y s i s i t i s u s e f u l to c o n s i d e r the impact of f o r e i g n investment on a n a t i o n ' s business c u l t u r e . Conventional economic theory d i c t a t e s that 'underdeveloped* na t i o n s b e n e f i t from e x t e r n a l i n f u s i o n s of c a p i t a l investment because they cannot generate enough development c a p i t a l on an i n t e r n a l b a s i s . T h i s reasoning i s o f t e n a p p l i e d to the Canadian s i t u a t i o n . T y p i c a l l y , an i n f u s i o n of f o r e i g n investment i s expected to act to prime the l o c a l economy by s p u r r i n g the i n d i c e s of economic growth. There are two types of f o r e i g n investment: f i n a n c i a l , i n the form of bonds and loans of c a p i t a l to l o c a l entrepreneurs who are developing a b u s i n e s s , and d i r e c t , which occurs when f o r e i g n entrepreneurs decide to u t i l i z e t h e i r c a p i t a l to l o c a t e t h e i r own p l a n t s and f a c t o r i e s i n the host country. Each type of c a p i t a l import has i t s own set of e f f e c t s on the host country and, as we are c o n s i d e r i n g the development of a n a t i o n a l economy that i s dominated by both types, i t i s of c r u c i a l importance to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two. During the l a s t century when Canada was part of the B r i t i s h -18-Empire, most of the f o r e i g n investment i n Canada was B r i t i s h . Much of that investment was i n the form of f i n a n c i a l p o r t f o l i o instruments ( i e . commercial paper and government bonds) which were u t i l i z e d both by Canadian entrepreneurs and the n a t i o n a l government to b u i l d the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and other c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e development p r o j e c t s f o r the growing east-west Canadian economy. A key poin t to note about the f i n a n c i a l v a r i e t y of c a p i t a l import i s t h a t , i n K a r i L e v i t t ' s words, "The ( f o r e i g n ) i n v e s t o r was assured a safe r a t e of r e t u r n i n s o l i d pounds s t e r l i n g while the r i s k — a n d the c o n t r o l — r e m a i n e d with the borrowing entrepreneur and the government of the h i n t e r l a n d . " ( 1 6 ) An example of the l i m i t s of f o r e i g n f i n a n c e c a p i t a l investment to i n f l u e n c e the Canadian d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e can be seen i n the Great Depression during the 1930's, when a d i s a s t r o u s drop i n Canadian export earnings from a d e c l i n e i n the p r i c e of wheat m u l t i p l i e d throughout the e n t i r e economy. The i n t e r e s t burden of Canada's e x t e r n a l f o r e i g n debt rose to 6 1/2 % of G.N.P. (almost 25% of the n a t i o n ' s f o r e i g n exchange e a r n i n g s ) , which i s an extremely high amount.(17) But, due to the f i n a n c i a l v a r i e t y of the f o r e i g n investment p a t t e r n then p r e v a l e n t i n the Canadian economy, Canadian entrepreneurs remained f i r m l y i n c o n t r o l of the economy d e s p i t e the burden of i n t e r e s t payments to f o r e i g n e r s . The case of d i r e c t f o r e i g n investment o f f e r s a d i f f e r e n t set of i m p l i c a t i o n s . With the f o r e i g n c o r p o r a t i o n d i r e c t l y -19-e s t a b l i s h i n g a branch p l a n t i n the host country, the f o r e i g n i n v e s t o r / e n t r e p r e n e u r gains a f o o t h o l d i n the Canadian market. He or she, as the p r i n c i p a l owner of the f a c t o r y , makes the c r u c i a l a l l o c a t i v e d e c i s i o n s which determine which markets the business w i l l address w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l economy. As a r e s u l t , h i s or her l o c a l employees are reduced, f o r the most p a r t , to the r o l e of managerial a s s i s t a n t s who at best w i l l perform a d v i s o r i a l r o l e s i n the d e c i s i o n s of the e n t r e preneurs. L e v i t t argues that as f o r e i g n d i r e c t investment has expanded during the 20th century, through a r e d u c t i o n i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of indigenous investment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , Canada's e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l a s s has been s l o w l y squeezed away from e x p e r i e n c i n g many of the c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n making processes that provide important l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s f o r the n a t i o n ' s entrepreneurs.(18) As w e l l , i n the long run, the t r a d i t i o n of i n i t i a t i v e and d r i v e w i t h i n the n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r e that c h a r a c t e r i z e s the p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e of the entrepreneur has been underdeveloped. According to L e v i t t , a n a t i o n with l i t t l e indigenous but much f o r e i g n e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by high income growth, i s as economically underdeveloped as are many t h i r d world c o u n t r i e s today. During the e a r l y 1970's many p o l i t i c a l economists ( L e v i t t 1970, Gonick 1974, Clement 1975 to name a few) argued that Canada i s one such n a t i o n . In S i l e n t  Surrender L e v i t t o u t l i n e d the c o n d i t i o n of Canada's economic, c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l development by e x p l o r i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s - 2 0 -between entrepreneurs and managers w i t h i n the n a t i o n ' s business c u l t u r e . While every n a t i o n by n e c e s s i t y has both entrepreneurs and managers a l a c k of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n i t s s o c i e t y w i l l have a dramatic e f f e c t on n a t i o n a l development and on n a t i o n a l s e l f image. L e v i t t concludes that the f o r e i g n d i r e c t i n v e s t m e n t — a n d i t s subsequent l a c k of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h i n the Canadian economy—has been d i s a s t r o u s f o r indigenous entrepreneurs. Put simply, c o n t r o l of the m a j o r i t y of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and markets i n Canada by f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s means th a t t a l e n t e d Canadians with l i m i t e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y to c a p i t a l must compete with each other f o r the few business and c u l t u r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s that remain. In the end, they are 11 i n c r e a s i n g l y confronted with an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l complex which presents them with a c h o i c e e i t h e r of j o i n i n g t h e i r r e s o u r c e s with those of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n as a s a l a r i e d employee or c o n t e n t i n g themselves with a very l i m i t e d r o l e . " ( 1 9 ) In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the domination of Canada's economy by f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s means t h a t , g e n e r a l l y , Canadians have had fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s to express t h e i r c r e a t i v e s p i r i t and by doing so develop the economy i n the s u c c e s s f u l f a s h i o n e n v i s i o n e d by L e v i t t . Most must s e t t l e f o r a managerial r o l e somewhere i n s o c i e t y as the development of Canada's economy continues to be i n f l u e n c e d by groups l o c a t e d o u t s i d e of the n a t i o n a l boundaries. The net r e s u l t of t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s that a s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic landscape c r u c i a l to the -21-development of indigenous Canadian i n i t i a t i v e s i n s o c i e t y during the 20th century has been l a c k i n g . Whatever one makes of L e v i t t ' s argument about the underdevelopment of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n i t i a t i v e there can be no denying that American c o n t r o l over l a r g e s e c t o r s of the economy has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Canadian c u l t u r e (e.g. i n education, the a r t s , media, and s p o r t s ) . In the next s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter I examine the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y system i n view of the huge post-war expansion of American f o r e i g n d i r e c t investment i n Canada and the c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u e n c e of Canada's dependent economy on the d i r e c t i o n and development of Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s during the 20th century. U.S. Fo r e i g n D i r e c t Investment and Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s The post-war expansion i n American d i r e c t investment i n Canada c o i n c i d e d with an expansionary phase i n the development of the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y system. A dramatic i n c r e a s e i n per c a p i t a incomes combined with the baby boom (and a subsequent i n c r e a s e i n the number of u n i v e r s i t y age students)(20) provided the p o l i t i c a l impetus to p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments to g r e a t l y expand the number of u n i v e r s i t i e s and u n i v e r s i t y students throughout Canada. The a v a i l a b l e evidence suggests that during t h i s post-war p e r i o d of growth the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y system was not "developed" enough to handle the cha l l e n g e of producing the graduates and PhDs r e q u i r e d by the growing demands of the u n i v e r s i t y system f o r academics i n a l l su b j e c t a r e a s . Some s c h o l a r s a t t r i b u t e t h i s l a c k of p r e p a r a t i o n to the h i s t o r i c a l -22-development of the resource economy and the low needs of e x t r a c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s f o r u n i v e r s i t y graduates i n the economy.(21) John B. Macdonald's comments i n h i s 1962 book Higher  Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia were p r o p h e t i c when he noted the underdeveloped nature of the graduate education programs of the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s i n response to the needs of s o c i e t y f o r an expansion of the u n i v e r s i t y system: The most c r u c i a l problem f a c i n g us as a r e s u l t of t h i s enormous i n c r e a s e [of students] w i l l be that of producing and f i n d i n g s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s f o r our c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . In B r i t i s h Columbia alone, f o r example, the number of a d d i t i o n a l f u l l - t i m e s t a f f members r e q u i r e d to maintain the c u r r e n t s t a f f - s t u d e n t r a t i o w i l l be more than 1,000; t h a t i s , about 125 members of s t a f f must be added each year. The alarming f a c t , however, i s that the whole of Canada i s graduating a n n u a l l y only about 280 PhDs. (26) However, h i s c a l l f o r an expansion i n graduate schools and i n the number of PhDs developed i n Canada came much too l a t e : the l a r g e number of academic p o s i t i o n s i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s t h at became a v a i l a b l e during the 1960's were f i l l e d p r i n c i p a l l y by f o r e i g n born s c h o l a r s , most of whom were from the United S t a t e s . The f o l l o w i n g f a c t s o u t l i n e the process of the A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of the f a c u l t y w i t h i n the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y system and focus on a s i t u a t i o n t h a t l e f t Canadian f a c u l t y as m i n o r i t i e s w i t h i n some of t h e i r own u n i v e r s i t i e s . By 1968, the number of f o r e i g n u n i v e r s i t y s c h o l a r s immigrating to Canada had i n c r e a s e d from 539 i n 1963 to 1,986, a number that e q u a l l e d 12% of the e n t i r e group of u n i v e r s i t y -23-teachers i n Canada that year. American academics f i l l e d 857 of those p o s i t i o n s . ( 2 3 ) S t e e l e and Mathews estimate that of the 2,642 new f a c u l t y employed by Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 1968 o n l y 362 Canadians were h i r e d . The r e s t were non-Canadians, a group that i n c l u d e d a t o t a l of 1,013 from the United S t a t e s . O v e r a l l , i t i s estimated t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of Canadians to non-Canadians i n the f a c u l t i e s throughout the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y system d e c l i n e d by about 25% between 1961 and 1968.(24) The trend was l e s s apparent i n the f a c u l t i e s of the o l d e r , e s t a b l i s h e d Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s but much more p r e v a l e n t i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s founded during the 1960s. At Simon Fr a s e r U n i v e r s i t y a survey conducted two years a f t e r i t s 1965 establishment showed that 68 per cent of f a c u l t y were non-Canadians. At the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a the percentage of Canadians d e c l i n e d from 60.8% i n 1961-62 to 47.2% by 1968-69 while at the U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo the numbers were s i m i l a r : the percentage of Canadians on f a c u l t y d e c l i n e d from 68 per cent i n 1964 to 57 per cent i n 1968.(25) Of c r u c i a l importance concerning the l a r g e numbers of f o r e i g n born f a c u l t y at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s has been t h e i r power and i n f l u e n c e on the development of each s c h o o l ' s academic t r a d i t i o n s and program o f f e r i n g s . T h i s i n f l u e n c e extends r i g h t down to the type of courses o f f e r e d and the books l i s t e d f o r r e q u i r e d reading i n those courses. A r e d u c t i o n i n the number of courses d e a l i n g with Canadian s u b j e c t s and i n the use of American (as opposed to Canadian) textbooks i n the courses appears to be the most gr a p h i c example of t h i s s i t u a t i o n . At Waterloo i n 1969, -24-S t e e l e and Mathews found t h a t i n the F a c u l t y of A r t s e i g h t departments were c h a i r e d by U.S. c i t i z e n s and that about 50% of a l l f u l l p r o f e s s o r s were U.S. c i t i z e n s . The s i t u a t i o n i n the Soc i o l o g y department was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g : with about s i x Canadians among the twenty members, s i x t y two undergraduate and graduate courses are o f f e r e d . None i s de s c r i b e d i n the cale n d a r as d e a l i n g with Canadian problems. In the Department of E n g l i s h o n l y two courses i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e are l i s t e d among the n i n e t y or so undergraduate courses offered.{36) S t e e l e and Mathews go on to speculate t h a t : What, f o r example, i s the i n t e r e s t i n Canadian p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s of the Psychology Department at Simon Fr a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , which on January 1, 1969 had f i f t e e n members, t h i r t e e n of whom were non-Canadian, ten of whom were U.S. c i t i z e n s ? ( 2 7 ) While the a d d i t i o n of f o r e i g n born u n i v e r s i t y teachers to Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f s during the 1960's i n f l u e n c e d developments i n the n a t i o n a l system, the concommitant diminishment of academic and res e a r c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Canadian graduate students and s c h o l a r s a l s o provided evidence of what the Gray Report on Fore i g n D i r e c t Investment i n Canada termed the " c o l o n i a l m e n t a l i t y " i n the u n i v e r s i t y system whereby q u a l i f i e d Canadians were p e r c e i v e d to be i n f e r i o r to non-Canadians i n many areas of Canadian l i f e . ( 2 8 ) The evidence suggests t h a t , as i n the business system that has been dominated by the f o r e i g n d i r e c t investment of the American c o r p o r a t i o n s , too few Canadians r e c e i v e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to continue t h e i r e d u cations, be -25-c o n s i d e r e d f o r academic p o s i t i o n s at u n i v e r s i t i e s and g r a d u a l l y assume the i n f l u e n t i a l d e c i s i o n making r o l e s e x i s t i n g throughout the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y system. Instead, non-Canadians assumed these p o s i t i o n s . During the 1960's t h i s i s s u e was p a r t i c u l a r l y acute as the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s s t r u g g l e d to i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r o duction of t r a i n e d Canadian PhDs. While the u n i v e r s i t i e s can h a r d l y be blamed f o r the s h o r t f a l l and the almost c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n that developed, the s i t u a t i o n showed g r a p h i c a l l y the l a c k of f o r e s i g h t i n Canada duri n g the 1960's towards s e t t i n g a s i d e f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s the m a j o r i t y of the e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . I t i s hard to imagine that other c o u n t r i e s would allow t h e i r u n i v e r s i t i e s to be dominated by f o r e i g n s c h o l a r s to the extent that occurred i n Canada during the 1960's. Set a g a i n s t the l a r g e o v e r c a p a c i t y of the graduate schools of the m e t r o p o l i t a n American u n i v e r s i t y system,(29) the Canadian edu c a t i o n s i t u a t i o n e x h i b i t s how economic dependency upon the United S t a t e s has i n d i r e c t l y spawned dependent s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n Canadian s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s process of the A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of Canadian education a l s o manifested i t s e l f i n the e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e at the time. In f a c t , the i n f l u x of f o r e i g n born s c h o l a r s during the 1960s simply reduced the chances that indigenous Canadian problems, p e r s p e c t i v e s , and procedures would l a t e r become dominant i n the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . As S t e e l e and Mathews have noted, once e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada, the l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of -26-American f a c u l t y acted i n c o u n t l e s s ways, some minute, others more d i r e c t , to i n f l u e n c e l o c a l c u l t u r e towards American p e r s p e c t i v e s , s t y l e s and problems. The r e s u l t i n g new u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e would then reproduce i t s e l f and act to r e i n f o r c e the trend towards A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n i n other areas of Canadian s o c i e t y . In t h i s way, Canadian edu c a t i o n and c u l t u r e have been c o n t i n u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by the presence of the United S t a t e s , i t s s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s , as a r o l e model. While Americans educators have played an important r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g the development of Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s another important i n s t i t u t i o n of s o c i e t y a c t i n g to make American values and t r a d i t i o n s much more a v a i l a b l e to Canadians has been the Canadian media i n d u s t r y . In the next s e c t i o n I w i l l o u t l i n e the h i s t o r i c a l development of American economic domination i n the production of the Canadian media up to the 1970's and present some of the avenues whereby American c u l t u r a l norms and values have been extended to Canada through pr e s s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n . As i n the u n i v e r s i t y system, each of these areas has acted to r e i n f o r c e the o v e r a l l t rend among Canadians and t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s towards a growing dependency upon American c u l t u r e . Dependency, the Media and Canadian C u l t u r e An examination of the media i n d u s t r y i n Canada shows the same kind of American p e n e t r a t i o n and types of i n f l u e n c e s as d e s c r i b e d above i n the business and e d u c a t i o n a l spheres. A number of r o y a l commissions (Massey, 1951;0'Leary,1961) have -27-o u t l i n e d the extent of American domination i n magazines, l o c a l newspapers and major newspapers and s e p a r a t e l y each recommended that Canadians should begin to c o n s i d e r the media to be one of the most c e n t r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the maintainence of the n a t i o n and the n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . The Massey Report noted that "communications were e s s e n t i a l to promoting n a t i o n a l l i f e " ( 3 0 ) while the O'Leary Report commented t h a t : communications are the thread which bind together the f i b r e s of a n a t i o n . They can p r o t e c t a n a t i o n ' s values and encourage t h e i r p r a c t i c e . . . . T h e communications of a n a t i o n are as v i t a l to i t s l i f e as i t s defences, and should r e c e i v e at l e a s t as great a measure of n a t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n . ( 3 1 ) Yet, d e s p i t e these warnings about the c r u c i a l importance of the media to the support of the n a t i o n , an examination of some of the a v a i l a b l e evidence shows that much of the w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l i n the Canadian p r i n t media has o r i g i n a t e d from w i t h i n the United S t a t e s . The O'Leary Report noted that i n 1959 over three q u a r t e r s of a l l magazines s o l d i n Canada were American while 41% of t o t a l Canadian magazine a d v e r t i s i n g revenues i n 1959 went to j u s t two American based p u b l i c a t i o n s , Time and Reader's D i g e s t . Ten years l a t e r i n 1969, Time and Reader's D i g e s t ' s combined market share was w e l l over 50%. The advantages of those two magazines have been w e l l known. As mass c i r c u l a t i o n magazines based i n the huge markets of the United S t a t e s , t h e i r l a r g e p r oduction runs i n that country enabled them to e l i m i n a t e the c o s t s of overhead with which -28-Canadian based magazines had to contend. When Time had i t s Canadian content i n s e r t f o r the Canadian i s s u e , the onl y a d d i t i o n a l b i l l s i t d e a l t with were the i n s e r t ' s overhead c o s t s . On the other hand, Maclean's, Time's Canadian competitor, was faced with complete p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s to cover before i t co u l d break even. The d i f f e r e n c e i n a d v e r t i s i n g r a t e s was s t a g g e r i n g : Time was able to charge j u s t $2700 f o r a f u l l page ad i n Canada while Maclean's r e q u i r e d $4600 f o r an e q u i v a l e n t ad i n order to cover c o s t s . C e r t a i n l y , the domination of Time i n Canadian magazine p u b l i s h i n g was such that Macleans' change to the same page s i z e of Time (with the same a d v e r t i s i n g format as Time) i n the l a t e 1960s was e s s e n t i a l f o r the Canadian p u b l i c a t i o n i f i t was to convince Time a d v e r t i s e r s to change t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n . ( 3 2 ) Few Canadians were aware of the extent to which much of the w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l i n Canadian-based p u b l i c a t i o n s was w r i t t e n i n the United S t a t e s and simply s p i l l e d over i n t o Canada. For 75% of d a i l y newspapers i n Canada during the 1960's, the Canadian Press wire s e r v i c e s were the onl y source of news from the r e s t of Canada and from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . ( 3 3 ) B a s i c a l l y a news co o p e r a t i v e among Canadian newspapers, the Canadian Press i s p r i m a r i l y a c l e a r i n g house. They are paid a ccording to how much i s p r i n t e d and, as a r e s u l t , aim t h e i r s t o r i e s to appeal to as many p u b l i s h e r s as p o s s i b l e and are r e l u c t a n t to present any unorthodox viewpoints which may not be p r i n t e d . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the r e g i o n a l importance of business and c u l t u r a l d e a l i n g s with the U.S. P a c i f i c s t a t e s of Washington, -29-Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a l e d to the Canadian Press w r i t i n g general i n t e r e s t a r t i c l e s and making a v a i l a b l e to i t s B.C a f f i l i a t e s news s t o r i e s and f e a t u r e s about events i n those western s t a t e s . B r i t i s h Columbia's c l o s e geographic p r o x i m i t y to the western United S t a t e s n a t u r a l l y l e d to common i n t e r e s t s i n a v a r i e t y of areas, and i t was i n the business i n t e r e s t of Canadian Press to emphasize a r t i c l e s on those s t a t e s to f i t the needs of i t s B r i t i s h Columbia newspaper s u b s c r i b e r s . Economic t i e s l e a d n a t u r a l l y to media t i e s and a gradual t i g h t e n i n g of c u l t u r a l l i n k a g e s w i t h i n the g r e a t e r r e g i o n . John Warnock has argued that the postwar expansion i n Canada's trade with the United S t a t e s l e d s t r a i g h t to an i n c r e a s e i n media and c u l t u r a l t i e s . ( 3 4 ) With regard to the coverage of i n t e r n a t i o n a l news i n Canada, most of the f o r e i g n copy was w r i t t e n by non-Canadians with much of that coming from American sources. According to Warnock ( w r i t i n g about the l a t e 1960's), there i s "very l i t t l e d i r e c t news ga t h e r i n g by Canadians. T h i s i s true even of Canadian Pre s s . . . whose f o r e i g n copy o r i g i n a t e s from the New York o f f i c e , where a smal l group of e d i t o r s r e w r i t e the news r e l e a s e s they r e c e i v e from A s s o c i a t e d Press (U.S.) and Reuters ( B r i t a i n ) " . ( 3 5 ) Where CP d i d not r e w r i t e the s t o r y , l o c a l readers of newspapers d i d not even b e n e f i t from the Canadian s l a n t that Canadian Press would impart to the s t o r y . And " i t i s q u i t e c l e a r that the American wire s e r v i c e s c a r r y t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r b i a s e s . They c a t e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to the pr e f e r e n c e s of the l o c a l American p u b l i s h e r s who buy t h e i r s e r v i c e s . " ( 3 6 ) In s h o r t , the economics -30-of producing the news was (and s t i l l i s ) such that the Canadian media using American sources have l e f t Canada wide open to the impor t a t i o n of American c u l t u r a l values and t r a d i t i o n s v i a news s t o r i e s , s p o r t s and other f e a t u r e s t h a t are common media f a r e . The r e s u l t of these developments has been that Canadian newspapers i n the tw e n t i e t h century g r a d u a l l y came to be, f o r the most p a r t , b a r e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from those i n the United S t a t e s . As noted e a r l i e r , newspapers must be con s i d e r e d as a c r u c i a l medium of communication i n s o c i e t y and the a v a i l a b l e evidence lends credence to an inescapable c o n c l u s i o n : American o r i e n t e d news s t o r i e s , and c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s centered on events and p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the United S t a t e s with t h e i r concomittant promotion of American t r a d i t i o n s and b i a s e s , have been d i s t r i b u t e d much more o f t e n i n Canada than have been Canadian news s t o r i e s throughout the United S t a t e s . By the 1960's, the cumulative e f f e c t of t h i s s i t u a t i o n was s t a g g e r i n g : the predominance of U.S. newspaper m a t e r i a l i n the Canadian press had g r e a t l y reduced the p o s s i b i l i t y that made-in-Canada s t o r i e s about Canadian events would be p u b l i s h e d i n Canadian papers. As a s i d e e f f e c t , Canadian w r i t e r s have had l e s s c r e a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Canadian newspapers and i t has been i n c r e a s i n g l y argued t h a t l e s s Canadian m a t e r i a l and more imported s t o r i e s has acted to i n f l u e n c e the ongoing course of development of Canadian c u l t u r e towards American c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and f o l k l o r e . A p a r a l l e l argument i s that t h i s process a l s o acted to r e i n f o r c e and speed up the p e n e t r a t i o n of -31-American c a p i t a l i n the Canadian economy as Canadians a c q u i r e d American t a s t e s , and markets were developed (by American business!) to s a t i s f y those wants. To complement newspapers as a medium of communication throughout Canada, the powerful medium of t e l e v i s i o n came to the f o r e f r o n t i n the 1950s to the p o i n t where i t r i v a l l e d the press as a generator and formulator of i d e a s . The q u e s t i o n of "who d e c i d e s " i n Canadian media became a c e n t r a l i s s u e . C r u c i a l to t h i s q u e s t i o n was the f i n a n c i a l backing of the media. For, i f a s t a t i o n or a newspaper i s a commercial business that i s p r o f i t o r i e n t e d , i t becomes imperative f o r the s t a t i o n management to employ whatever c o s t c u t t i n g measures that w i l l u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n l a r g e r p r o f i t s to the s t a t i o n ' s owner. P r o x i m i t y to the United S t a t e s , with i t s g r e a t e r economy of s c a l e i n the entertainment i n d u s t r y , has meant that the h i s t o r y of Canadian commercial t e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c t i o n has been l a r g e l y a h i s t o r y of s t a t i o n s purchasing cheaper American shows r a t h e r than producing t h e i r own more expensive Canadian v e r s i o n s . Frank Peers has argued that u l t i m a t e l y , the import of r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive American programs r e s u l t s i n i n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s f o r the Canadian media but, a g a i n , r e s u l t s as w e l l i n decreased o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Canadians i n the n a t i o n a l entertainment i n d u s t r y . ( 3 7 ) T h i s s i t u a t i o n has provided a key theme i n the h i s t o r i c a l development of the Canadian media and has been countered only by attempts to r e g u l a t e the broadcast i n d u s t r i e s through the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a p u b l i c monopoly, the Canadian Broadcasting C o r p o r a t i o n . -32-An important landmark i n e a r l y e f f o r t s to exert c o n t r o l over the broadcast media was the c r e a t i o n of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC) by Prime M i n i s t e r R.B. Bennett i n 1932. In a speech to Parliament the Prime M i n i s t e r a s s e r t e d the importance of the broadcast media to the n a t i o n a l development e f f o r t s of the f e d e r a l government: The use of the a i r . . . t h a t l i e s over the s o i l or land of Canada i s a n a t u r a l resource over which we have complete j u r i s d i c t i o n under the recent d e c i s i o n of the p r i v y c o u n c i l . . . I cannot think that any government would be warranted i n l e a v i n g the a i r to p r i v a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n and not r e s e r v i n g i t f o r development f o r the use of the people. (38) The A i r d Commission Report of 1929 on P u b l i c Broadcasting had alr e a d y recommended complete n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n along the B r i t i s h model while the Canadian Radio League (whose o p i n i o n u l t i m a t e l y p r e v a i l e d ) was f o r p u b l i c r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l of the system r a t h e r than a complete takeover of a l l the p r i v a t e s t a t i o n s . L a t e r , i n 1936, the Canadian Broadcasting C o r p o r a t i o n was creat e d to oversee and r e g u l a t e a b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y that observers expected to be composed of a l a r g e p u b l i c network and many p r i v a t e low power s t a t i o n s . However, the ongoing development of p r i v a t e broadcast i n t e r e s t s combined with the potent p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the new i n d u s t r y gave r i s e to an inten s e lobbying e f f o r t to reduce the power of the CBC and open up the broadcast i n d u s t r y f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n by p r i v a t e companies. T h i s s i t u a t i o n remained e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged u n t i l September, 1957 when the Diefenbaker government (which h i s t o r i a n s -33-have c h a r a c t e r i z e d as being e s s e n t i a l l y n a t i o n a l i s t i n f o c u s ) , responded to the p r i v a t e business i n t e r e s t s and proclaimed a new broadcast act which separated the CBC from i t s r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s and gave them to a new Bureau of Broadcast Governors. In 1961, i t was the BBG which l i c e n s e d the f i r s t p r i v a t e network i n Canada, the Canadian T e l e v i s i o n Network (CTV). In 1962, CTV's Toronto f l a g s h i p s t a t i o n CFTO-TV outb i d the CBC f o r broadcast r i g h t s to the Grey Cup f o o t b a l l game, an i n c i d e n t which, viewed from p e r s p e c t i v e today, symbolized the gradual weakening of the CBC's and the f e d e r a l government's power over the Canadian broadcast i n d u s t r y . U.S. r a d i o programs were f i r s t added to the CBC's schedules i n 1936, p r i m a r i l y due to t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y from exposure v i a U.S. r a d i o s p i l l o v e r n o r t h of the border i n c e n t r a l Canada, the Maritimes, the p r a i r i e s and i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver was not r e c e i v i n g broadcast s i g n a l s from the Canadian s t a t i o n s . The geographic and economic f a c t o r s which had acted to i s o l a t e B r i t i s h Columbia from the r e s t of Canada throughout Canadian h i s t o r y a p p l i e d a l s o to the broadcast media. I t was much e a s i e r f o r B.C. to be reached by American s t a t i o n s a c r o s s the border than by the CBC i n c e n t r a l Canada. At that time, the CBC's main competition i n Vancouver was not p r i v a t e Canadian s t a t i o n s but American s t a t i o n s based down the P a c i f i c Coast i n S e a t t l e and San F r a n c i s c o . As w e l l , the s p i l l o v e r from the U.S. commercial r a d i o s t a t i o n s gave American a d v e r t i s e r s with expanding branch p l a n t s - 3 4 -i n Canada a f r e e a d v e r t i s i n g advantage over the a d v e r t i s i n g e f f o r s of t h e i r l o c a l Canadian c o m p e t i t i o n . To undermine the ex t r a a d v e r t i s i n g revenues gained by the s t a t i o n s south of the border the CBC i n i t i a t e d a p o l i c y of importing the popular American programs i n order to keep Canadian audiences tuned to Canadian s t a t i o n s . In the long term, t h i s s t r a t e g y f a i l e d . In preference to the idea of c r e a t i n g Canadian shows, the CBC u n w i t t i n g l y p rovided a long-term precedent to the s t r a t e g y of p r i v a t e s t a t i o n s importing American programs f o r the Canadian market. F o l l o w i n g the CBC's precedent, the stage was set f o r Canadian p r i v a t e s t a t i o n program d i r e c t o r s to a l s o import ready made U.S. programs i n s t e a d of producing t h e i r own. The net r e s u l t of those developments was that cheaper U.S. programs were able to d r i v e out more expensive Canadian shows. The economies of s c a l e allowed American b r o a d c a s t e r s to reap the b e n e f i t s of Canada's developing consumer markets i n the broadcast i n d u s t r y . The r e s u l t i n g l o s s of c r e a t i v e o u t l e t s f o r Canadian a r t i s t s , producers and w r i t e r s w i t h i n the Canadian n a t i o n a l entertainment c u l t u r e once again echos and r e i n f o r c e s the common theme o u t l i n e d i n t h i s chapter of a ge n e r a l ongoing lack of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Canadians i n b u s i n e s s , e d u c a t i o n , the media and many other aspects of s o c i e t y . O r i g i n a l l y , when p r i v a t e t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s were l i c e n s e d to broadcast i n Canada, t h e i r main aim was to act as a 'co-operative of Canadian p r o d u c t i o n ' but that o b j e c t i v e was q u i c k l y s i d e t r a c k e d as the s t a t i o n s imported cheaper, popular -35-American shows to provide the m a j o r i t y of the viewing f a r e which at the same time a l s o acted to i n c r e a s e revenues and p r o f i t s . During the 1950's and 1960's made i n Canada programming was almost n o n - e x i s t e n t . As Peers notes, i n 1968-69 at CFTO t e l e v i s i o n i n Toronto, (CTV's number one s t a t i o n i n Canada), a t y p i c a l viewing week c o n s i s t e d of 5 1/2 hours of Canadian programming between the hours of 7:30 pm and 11:30 pm. That was about 22% of the t o t a l . In breaking down that 5 1/2 hour t o t a l , 2 1/2 were devoted to NHL hockey,1 1/2 to v a r i e t y and 1 1/2 to p u b l i c a f f a i r s . The r e s t were American v a r i e t y , drama, and comedy shows, and movies, none of which were made i n Canada. Also worth n o t i n g i s t h a t i n 1967 B r i t i s h Columbia's CHAN-TV spent, along with the seven other p r i v a t e s t a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e , e x a c t l y $4,446 on l o c a l t a l e n t fees f o r the whole year.(39) The economic imperative of maintaining a p r o f i t a b l e business and the advantages of using cheaper U.S. t e l e v i s i o n shows had proved i r r e s i s t i b l e to the entrepreneurs c o n t r o l l i n g Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g and served to shape the dependent development of the Canadian entertainment and t e l e v i s i o n i n d u s t r i e s during the post-World War II e r a . As the Committee On Broadcasting (1965) noted: I t seems c l e a r t h a t the advent of p r i v a t e t e l e v i s i o n i n Canada, i n s t e a d of widening the scope of programs (whether American or Canadian) a v a i l a b l e to Canadian viewers, has merely i n c r e a s e d the b r o a d c a s t i n g of popular entertainment, mainly of American o r i g i n . . . P r i v a t e s t a t i o n s import about twice as many American programs as the CBC. This seems to be the most important f a c t o r i n the consumption of American programs by Canadians. (40) -36-Much the same s i t u a t i o n came to e x i s t with regard to t e l e v i s i o n news shows i n Canada. In the t e l e v i s i o n i n d u s t r y , the economics of b r o a d c a s t i n g l e d to the use of l e s s c o s t l y a l r e a d y produced American shows even i n news p r o d u c t i o n . Canadian s t a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y came to use cheaper American news f e a t u r e s and s t o r i e s . As Peers notes,(41) due to the l a r g e c o s t s of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r own f o r e i g n news bureaus Canadian t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o s t a t i o n s were a l s o f o r c e d to u t i l i z e the correspondents of the American networks to r e p o r t on f o r e i g n developments. They, of course, r e p o r t e d to American audiences with an American s l a n t and simply presented r e p o r t s that r a i s e d the a l r e a d y l a r g e awareness i n Canada of American f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n t e r e s t s . The s m a l l e r Canadian b r o a d c a s t e r s simply d i d not have the resources to send r e p o r t e r s a l l over the globe i n search of s t o r i e s and had to r e l y h e a v i l y on the b e t t e r c a p i t a l i z e d American media. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i n keeping with the l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the i n d u s t r y , i t i s simply e a s i e r and cheaper f o r Canadian news producers to use American s t o r i e s . The c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the American domination of the Canadian media are s t a g g e r i n g . As Peers concludes: "The American [news] media w i l l r e f l e c t t h e i r own n a t i o n a l concerns and n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and that these w i l l not always c o i n c i d e with Canadian needs and i n t e r e s t s . " ( 4 2 ) The r e s u l t i n the h i s t o r i c a l development of the p o l i t i c a l economy of the Canadian media i s p r i n c i p a l l y t h a t , due to the economics of media p r o d u c t i o n , American c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s (e.g. n a r r a t i v e themes, production -37-s ty les) and t r a d i t i o n s have quick ly extended a p ipe l ine into Canadian cul ture and have provided an encompassing context for the development of Canadian society during the 20th century. In summary, throughout the twentieth century, the process of economic dependency appears to have had an accumulated e f f ec t . The metropolitan cul ture of the United States has been extended into a l l pro f i tab l e areas of the Canadian nat ion . The s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n of Canadian sport has been one of these prof i tab le markets. In the next chapter I w i l l examine in much c loser d e t a i l the development of the i n s t i t u t i o n of Canadian sport f i r s t as a c o l o n i a l dependent of B r i t a i n during the 19th century and, l a t e r , during the 20th century as a dependent of American business and c u l t u r e . As in the case of the media (the two are quite c lo se ly l i n k e d ) , the development of sport in Canada was re inforced both by the Americanization of other i n s t i t u t i o n s and by the extension of the c a p i t a l i s t market process into the previously unexploited markets of organized phys ica l recreat ion and sporting spectac le . -38-Notes 1. P o r t f o l i o investment c o n s i s t s of f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t i e s , i . e . stocks or bonds i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y which pay d i v i d e n d s to the h o l d e r . Owning the s e c u r i t y permits the holder no r e a l input i n t o how the i n d u s t r i a l concern i s managed but simply e n t i t l e s him or her to a r e t u r n on the funds i n v e s t e d . 2. Source: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , The Canadian Balance  of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Payments, 1963, 1964 and 1965 and I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Investment P o s i t i o n , p.126, and Q u a r t e r l y Estimates of the  Canadian Balance of Payments , T h i r d Quarter 1968, p.17 as quoted by K a r i L e v i t t , S i l e n t Surrender (Toronto: Gage P u b l i s h i n g , 1970), p. 66-67. 3. I b i d . 4. I b i d . 5. F i n a n c i a l Post 11 June 1910 as quoted by Michael B l i s s , " C a n a d i a n i z i n g American Business," i n Close the 49th p a r a l l e l e t c  The A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of Canada , ed. Ian Lumsden (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1970), p.29. 6. B l i s s , " C a n a d i a n i z i n g American Business", p.29. 7. F i n a n c i a l Post 4 June 1910 as quoted by B l i s s , p.29. 8. The b a s i c i n t e n t of the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y was to provide an economic development s t r a t e g y f o r Canada. The three p o l i c i e s were: a) the i n s t i t u t i o n of p r o t e c t i o n i s t t a r i f f b a r r i e r s to provide jobs i n Canadian-based i n d u s t r y and to provide jobs i n the Canadian market; b) b u i l d a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y to t i e the Canadian economy together along an east-west a x i s ; and c) promote an immigration p o l i c y designed to augment the Canadian populaion i n the h i n t e r l a n d s ( s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the area of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s — w h a t i s now the p r o v i n c e s of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and A l b e r t a ) i n order to provide a l a r g e c a p t i v e market f o r c a p i t a l investment i n c e n t r a l Canadian manufacturing. 9. B l i s s , " C a n a d i a n i z i n g American Business", p.31. These quotes are from v a r i o u s i s s u e s of the Canadian Manufacturer p u b l i s h e d between 1882 and 1896. The Canadian Manufacturer was the f i r s t o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n of the Canadian Manufacturer's A s s o c i a t i o n . 10. L e v i t t , S i l e n t Surrender, p.60-61. I t i s estimated that the Canadian economy's gross n a t i o n a l product d e c l i n e d by 42% between 1929 and 1933. 11. The terms d i r e c t vs f i n a n c i a l investment w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. A f i n a n c i a l investment i n a -39-company means the f o r e i g n owners could remain at arms l e n g t h from the b u s i n e s s ; t h e i r main concern i s not with how the company i s run but only with p r o f i t s . A l a r g e share i n d i r e c t investment means t h a t the f o r e i g n i n v e s t o r can begin to exert c o n t r o l over the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l d e c i s i o n s that determine e x a c t l y how the p r o f i t w i l l be made. The d i f f e r e n c e between the two types of investment i s , as we s h a l l see l a t e r , s u b s t a n t i a l . For a d i s c u s s i o n of these d i f f e r e n c e s please see L e v i t t , p.59. 12. Wallace Clement, The Canadian Corporate E l i t e ; An A n a l y s i s of  Economic Power (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1975) p. 68. 13. Roger Kane and David Humphreys, eds. Conversations with  W.A.C. Bennett (1980) p.96, p.116. 14. P h i l i p Resnick, "B.C. C a p i t a l i s m and the Empire of the P a c i f i c " B.C. S t u d i e s No. 67 Autumn 1985, p.33. 15. P a t r i c i a Marchak, "Sources of S o c i a l C o n f l i c t i n B.C.", B.C.  S t u d i e s No. 27 Autumn 1975. 16. L e v i t t , S i l e n t Surrender, p.52. 17. I b i d . p.52-53. 18. I b i d . p.27. 19. L e v i t t , p. 104. 20. In h i s book, Higher Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia and a Plan  f o r the Future (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1962) p.8-10 ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as The Macdonald Report ), UBC P r e s i d e n t John B. Macdonald estimated that the number of students r e g i s t e r e d a t the u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia would expand from 14,710 i n 1961-62 to 37,000 i n 1970-71. 21. See Ian Lumsden, "Imperialism and Canadian I n t e l l e c t u a l s " , i n Close the 49th P a r a l l e l and S. Crean, Who's A r a i d of Canadian  C u l t u r e ? (Don M i l l s : General P u b l i s h i n g Company L i m i t e d , 1976). Also see R. Cole H a r r i s , " L o c a t i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia" B.C. S t u d i e s No.32 Winter 1976-77 f o r the debate concerning the needs of the p r o v i n c i a l resource e x t r a c t i o n economy f o r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and the subsequent development of the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. i n the e a r l y part of the t w e n t i e t h century. 22. Macdonald, The Macdonald Report, p.15. 23. James S t e e l e and Robin Mathews, "The u n i v e r s i t i e s : takeover of the mind," i n Close the 49th p a r a l l e l e t c The A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n - 4 0 -of Canada, ed. Ian Lumsden, (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1970) p. 170. 24. I b i d . p. 171. 25. I b i d . p. 171. 26. I b i d . p. 172. 27. As w e l l , when the U n i v e r s i t y was c l o s e to opening, the Department of H i s t o r y r e c e i v e d much p u b l i c i t y concerning i t s i n a b i l i t y to f i n d a s c h o l a r to teach Canadian h i s t o r y . See "They Can Teach You About Any Place Except Canada" The Vancouver  Province 29 May 1965. 28. Herb Gray, Fo r e i g n D i r e c t Investment i n Canada, (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1972) p. 296. 29. For an i l l u m i n a t i n g t a b l e on graduate students as a percentage of t o t a l enrolment at s e l e c t e d Canadian and American u n i v e r s i t i e s see The Macdonald Report , p. 14. For example, i n 1961-62 UBC had 12,602 students and 6.3% graduate students while i n 1958-59 the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington i n nearby S e a t t l e had 16,202 students but 22.9% graduate s t u d e n t s . The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s the underdeveloped s t a t e of the major Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s during the e a r l y 1960s. 30. Royal Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s ,  L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s , Vincent Massey chairman (Ottawa: 1951) p. 4 as quoted by John Warnock " A l l the News I t Pays to P r i n t , " i n Lumsden ed. , Close the 49th P a r a l l e l , p.123. 31. Royal Commission on P u b l i c a t i o n s , G ratton O'Leary chairman (Ottawa: 1961) p.4 as quoted by Warnock, p. 123. 32. Gary Dunford, "Why Are T h i s Magazine's Measurements Now 8 1/4 X 11 1/4?, Toronto S t a r , 11 January 1969, p. 31 as c i t e d by Warnock, p. 124. 33. John Dauphine, "The Canadian Press ..." Montreal Gazette, 19 September 1967, p.40 as c i t e d by Warnock, p. 124. 34. See John Warnock, " A l l the News I t Pays to P r i n t " , i n Lumsden, ed., Close the 49th P a r a l l e l . 35. Warnock, p. 124. 36. Warnock, p. 124. 37. Frank Peers, "Oh Say, Can You See?" i n Lumsden, Close the 49th P a r a l l e l . -41-38. Crean, p. 34. 39. Peers, p. 145. 40. Report of the Committee on Broadcasting (Ottawa:1965) p. 30 as c i t e d by Peers, p. 145. 41. Peers, p. 142. 42. Peers, p. 153-54. CHAPTER 3 THE INSTITUTIONAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF CANADIAN SPORT In the preceding chapter i t was argued that the two most important themes a f f e c t i n g the development of the Canadian economy and i t s c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s during the t w e n t i e t h century have been: (a) the gradual replacement of B r i t a i n by the United S t a t e s as the m e t r o p o l i t a n i n f l u e n c e on Canada, and (b) the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of new and p r o f i t a b l e areas of c u l t u r a l l i f e (e.g. media prod u c t i o n s ) i n t o the marketplace as a Canadian consumer c u l t u r e developed. In t h i s chapter, using mainly secondary source m a t e r i a l , I s h a l l use the examples of hockey and f o o t b a l l to argue that these two themes are r e f l e c t e d i n a s c a l e of commodification i n Canadian sport over the l a s t hundred years and the general movement away from c e r t a i n B r i t i s h middle c l a s s v alues i n sport and toward American "mass" c u l t u r a l standards. Background to I n s t i t u t i o n a l and Economic Development The i n s t i t u t i o n a l development of Canadian s p o r t began during the 19th century.(1) Changes i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of Canadian s o c i e t y brought about the antecedent c o n d i t i o n s necessary f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of s p o r t . P r i n c i p a l among these f a c t o r s were the development of wage labour, the s e p a r a t i o n of work and l e i s u r e , the growth of a p r o f e s s i o n a l and managerial middle c l a s s , and the accumulation of s u r p l u s c a p i t a l which provided the - 4 3 -d i s c r e t i o n a r y funds necessary f o r a consumer and l e i s u r e - o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . ( 2 ) Against t h i s background a number of s o c i o l o g i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s have argued that the dominant sport form i n Canada during the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century was the B r i t i s h V i c t o r i a n i d e a l of the gentleman-amateur.(3 ) T h i s s i t u a t i o n r e f l e c t e d the hold of the B r i t i s h m e t r o p o l i t a n c u l t u r e upon Canadian c o l o n i a l c u l t u r e and the constant r e j u v e n a t i o n of c e r t a i n B r i t i s h values v i a immigration. I t i s widely understood that amateurism i n t h i s p e r i o d developed 1 d i a l e c t i c a l l y 1 i n o p p o s i t i o n to a wide v a r i e t y of commercial s p o r t forms. Gruneau argues, f o r example, that the expansion of the c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l economy and the spread of l i b e r a l values had c r e a t e d c o n d i t i o n s f o r a more m e r i t o c r a t i c c l a s s s t r u c t u r e t h a t undermined the a s c r i p t i v e dominance of the upper c l a s s e s . Growing c l a s s i n s e c u r i t i e s and the needs to d i s c i p l i n e a d i s o r d e r l y labour f o r c e c r e a t e d p r e s s u r e s f o r more o r d e r l y and " c i v i l i z e d " games. The amateur code was a part of such i n i t i a t i v e s . ( 4 ) A somewhat s i m i l a r argument i s developed by Dunning and Sheard (5) i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s of the modernization of rugby f o o t b a l l i n England. They note that p r i o r to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , the dominant c l a s s e s i n England were secure i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . The power of s o c i a l a s c r i p t i o n i n s o c i e t y was such that dominant groups d i d not f e e l threatened by competing i n s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s with the working c l a s s e s : they were competing f o r "fun" and could e a s i l y r a t i o n a l i z e the c l a s s i n t e r a c t i o n inherent i n sport during -44-that era as having l i t t l e meaning i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s o c i a l standing w i t h i n p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . In an a s c r i p t i v e s o c i e t y the i d e n t i t i e s and s t a t u s e s of dominant groups were not at stake i n any type of a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t , and, as Gruneau suggests, " i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t they would have been very concerned about the symbolic consequences of l o s i n g to ' i n f e r i o r s 1 . " ( 6 ) For t h i s reason the dominant c l a s s e s i n p r e - i n d u s t r i a l western s o c i e t i e s were l i t t l e concerned about the presence of p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a y e r s i n s p o r t s of the e r a . C r i c k e t i s a prime example here. In that s p o r t ' s e a r l y years i n Great B r i t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s competed with upper c l a s s amateurs i n s p o r t s competition with few problematic consequences. C r i c k e t ' s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , as h i s t o r i a n s have o u t l i n e d , evolved and was i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d before the s e p a r a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l and amateur c o m p e t i t i o n o c c u r r e d i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the 19th century.(7) During t h a t e a r l y developmental p e r i o d , the dominant c l a s s e s e x e r c i s e d hegemony i n s o c i e t y as a whole and had the power to c o n t r o l the consequences of any p o t e n t i a l l y o p p o s i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l form. They had l i t t l e to f e a r from the presence i n t h e i r midst of b e t t e r s k i l l e d p aid c r i c k e t p l a y e r s from the lower c l a s s e s . In f a c t , during a time when c l a s s m o b i l i t y was s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d i n s o c i e t y , the presence of p r o f e s s i o n a l s was accepted i n the s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s of the s p o r t . I t has been argued, however, that with the changes in c l a s s r e l a t i o n s and the r i s e of a m e r i t o c r a t i c value s t r u c t u r e that arose out of the i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g process, the upper c l a s s e s began -45-to f e e l more threatened by i n t e r - c l a s s competition i n sport and the symbolic consequences of l o s i n g to t h e i r s o c i a l i n f e r i o r s . Many a n a l y s t s agree t h a t s o c i a l e x c l u s i o n became e s p e c i a l l y important f o r c e r t a i n fragments of the dominant c l a s s . Gruneau suggests two p o s s i b l e responses of the upper c l a s s e s to changes imposed upon them i n western s o c i e t y ' s c l a s s r e l a t i o n s : (1) withdraw completely from the world of c o m p e t i t i v e s p o r t s and e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l c l u b s which could be e a s i l y defended a g a i n s t the f o r c e s of d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n ; or (2) set up formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s designed to s t r u c t u r e p l a y i n a way which ensured that the " n o b i l i t y of p l a y " would remain uncontaminated by e i t h e r " c r a s s commercialism" or u n r e s t r i c t e d m e r i t o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e . ( 8 ) In Canada both t a c t i c s were u t i l i z e d . E x c l u s i v e "hunt and tandem" c l u b s emphasized a p o l i c y of r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y and maintained a s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l focus s o l e l y f o r the upper c l a s s e s . Other c l u b s were l e s s e x c l u s i v e but attempted to p r o t e c t the ' n o b i l i t y of p l a y ' through promoting the c u l t of the 'amateur' i n o p p o s i t i o n to the o f t e n more commercialized sport forms of the lower and middle classes. ( 9 ) I t was the adoption of the B r i t i s h amateur s p o r t s model i n Canada, as part of a whole set of c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s e r e c t e d by B r i t i s h immigrants (and those Canadians who used B r i t a i n as a r e f e r e n c e group) w i t h i n the developing Canadian s o c i e t y , which became the n a t i o n ' s dominant sport form and acted to shape the d i r e c t i o n of Canadian sport u n t i l w e l l i n t o the 20th century. These e x c l u s i o n a r y t a c t i c s were p r i m a r i l y developed i n response to changes i n the c a p i t a l i s t labour process which had - 4 6 -developed throughout the western i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g s o c i e t i e s i n the n i n e t e e n t h century. The e x t e n s i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l process throughout s o c i e t y continued to c r e a t e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n sport which simply c o u l d not be c o n t r o l l e d by the dominant c l a s s e s as the guardians of the amateur ethos. Most s i g n i f i c a n t here i s what Harry Braverman c a l l s the " u n i v e r s a l market" tendency of c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e . ( 1 0 ) In the c a p i t a l i s t p rocess, c a p i t a l i s set i n constant motion by entrepreneurs as they seek out and develop new areas f o r p o t e n t i a l p r o f i t . The development of the i n s t i t u t i o n of sport i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the 19th century presented a number of important new markets f o r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y . As Bruce Kidd notes, the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t labour market during the i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g process acted as a wedge i n many areas of s o c i e t y to open up other channels f o r p o t e n t i a l p r o f i t . Sport was one of these dynamic areas: The whole process i s r e i n f o r c e d by the d e c l i n e of i n d i v i d u a l competence and the a l i e n a t i n g nature of w o r k — a consequence of c a p i t a l i s m ' s r e l e n t l e s s d i v i s i o n and r e d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r — a n d the d e c l i n e of the sense of f a m i l y and community, as more and more of t h e i r f u n c t i o n s are assumed by the market. These very c o n d i t i o n s have a c c e l e r a t e d the p e n e t r a t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m i n t o sport.(11) How d i d s p o r t f i t i n t o a developing i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y ? As the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l l i f e continued to occur, the f o r m a l i z e d concepts of work and l e i s u r e developed. Modern organized s p o r t evolved as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d response to new c l a s s r e l a t i o n s , the i n c r e a s e i n l e i s u r e time, and r i s i n g d i s p o s a b l e incomes a v a i l a b l e i n the dynamic i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g -47-s o c i e t y . As w e l l , the c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of sport extended the p o l i t i c a l economy of c a p i t a l i s m i n a number of ways that b e n e f i t e d e n t r e p r e n e u r s . F i r s t , as a s p e c t a t o r event during l e i s u r e hours, i t presented p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l i n the s a l e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and from the event, b e t t i n g on the outcome(12), gate r e c e i p t s , concession s a l e s , souvenirs and payments to the a t h l e t e s themselves. Of c e n t r a l importance, remuneration to the a t h l e t e s was an ongoing i s s u e i n the developing s p o r t s markets as the e x t e n s i o n of labour markets thoughout the economy educated working c l a s s a t h l e t e s to the f a c t that t h e i r l e i s u r e s p o r t s s k i l l s were a v a i l a b l e to be purchased i n a number of p o t e n t i a l markets i n s o c i e t y . As i n the r e s t of the Canadian economy, those worker a t h l e t e s who were mobile g r a v i t a t e d to those s p o r t s which presented the best o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to make a l i v i n g . Most a n a l y s t s agree that i t was the development of the i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t economy with i t s d i v i s i o n of labour which made p o s s i b l e the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of sport and the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of i t s a t h l e t e s . ( 1 3 ) The f i r s t entrepreneurs to take advantage of the commercial p o t e n t i a l of sp o r t were e i t h e r a t h l e t e s themselves, e x - a t h l e t e s , or businessmen who re c o g n i z e d the market p o t e n t i a l of s p o r t . They formed teams, sponsored 'challenge' matches, went on barnstorming tours and g e n e r a l l y sought to make money wherever p o s s i b l e . ( 1 4 ) But, i n c r e a s i n g l y , as the p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l f o r spo r t became apparent to entrepreneurs throughout s o c i e t y , a l a r g e r number of them began competing f o r the l i m i t e d a v a i l a b l e - 4 8 -markets that were a v a i l a b l e and i n i t i a t e d a s t y l e of open, u n i n h i b i t e d c o m p e t i t i o n that i s u s u a l l y found i n the e a r l y stages of the economic development of a l l c a p i t a l i s t markets. T h i s process continued f o r a number of years as the f o r t u n e s of s p o r t s teams and owners rose and f e l l g e n e r a l l y with the expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n of the economy.(15) As the s p o r t s markets developed i n response to the needs of the l e i s u r e based consumer c u l t u r e and i t s i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , the promoters, owners and, to a c e r t a i n extent the a t h l e t e s , g r a d u a l l y adapted t h e i r knowledge and experiences to the economic r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t open competition with other entrepreneurs both i n the s p o r t s s p e c t a t o r market and, e s p e c i a l l y , i n the p l a y e r labour market, was r e s u l t i n g i n l e s s than optimal r e t u r n of p r o f i t s over the long run. The more p r e s c i e n t of these i n d i v i d u a l s foresaw a need to reduce competition with each other i n order to more r e g u l a r i z e s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s and present a b e t t e r product to t h e i r consumers. Gruneau(16) argues that the pressures during t h i s time of maintaining these systematic market r e l a t i o n s between groups r e s u l t e d i n a need to f o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e c l u b s and s p o r t s b u s i n e s s e s and a need to 'regulate "economic c o m p e t i t i o n " between teams and p r o t e c t the developing labour and product markets i n s p o r t . 1 ( 1 7 ) These were the important f i r s t steps towards the development of corporate sport i n Canada and they occurred i n i t i a l l y i n those s p o r t s which a t t r a c t e d the best s p e c t a t o r response and presented the best o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r entrepreneurs to make money. -49-Hockey was the f i r s t Canadian sport to organize and coales c e i n t o the corpora t e o r i e n t a t i o n noted above. Yet, p o s s i b l y i n response to the entrenchment of the amateur model i n Canada, the f i r s t openly p r o f e s s i o n a l team (the Portage Lakes) was a United S t a t e s based team which was c r e a t e d i n 1903 i n Houghton, Michigan by a Canadian d e n t i s t named J.L. Gibson. For h i s team he h i r e d some Canadian p l a y e r s he had played with i n Kitchener.(18) That Kit c h e n e r team had been e x p e l l e d from the On t a r i o Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1898 f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and pr o v i d e s some evidence f o r Bruce Kidd's a s s e r t i o n that i n s p i t e of the dominance of the amateur model i n some areas of s o c i e t y " p l a y e r s had been s e c r e t l y p a i d w e l l before 1903." (19) T h e r e a f t e r , d e s p i t e the o p p o s i t i o n of amateur o r g a n i z e r s and p l a y e r s , open p l a y between p r o f e s s i o n a l and amateur teams g r a d u a l l y became commonplace throughout both Canada and the United S t a t e s . Leagues p r o l i f e r a t e d i n North America but mainly on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . T h i s was due p r i n c i p a l l y to the high t r a v e l c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d with the l a r g e geographic d i s t a n c e s between c i t i e s . Other f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the e a r l y p r o f i t a b i l i t y of commercial s p o r t i n c l u d e d the presence of a s t a t e of chaos i n the e a r l y p l a y e r l a b o u r markets which made i t very d i f f i c u l t f o r team owners to develop s p e c t a t o r l o y a l t y to t h e i r teams. The e a r l y p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a y e r s o f t e n jumped leagues or were being traded or s o l d as teams' i n d i v i d u a l f o r t u n e s rose and f e l l . Indeed, when the N a t i o n a l Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n (the forerunner of the N a t i o n a l Hockey League) was formed i n 1909, the team owners bought many of -50-t h e i r p l a y e r s away from other leagues a c r o s s Canada. C o n t r a c t s purchased i n c l u d e d Cyclone T a y l o r from the Canadian Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n ' s Ottawa Senators f o r $5250 and L e s t e r and Frank P a t r i c k from B r i t i s h Columbia f o r $3000 a p i e c e . L a t e r , the P a t r i c k s formed another league, the P a c i f i c Coast League, i n B r i t i s h Columbia and began a s a l a r y war that e s c a l a t e d payments to p l a y e r s and l a s t e d ten years.(20) L a t e r , the owners, i n seeking to reduce labour c o s t s and maximize p r o f i t s , would organize to end the s a l a r y b a t t l e s and r e t u r n pay s c a l e s to t h e i r p revious low l e v e l s . The owners were g r a d u a l l y l e a r n i n g the unique r u l e s of busi n e s s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t . As Bruce Kidd noted: The new breed of hockey entrepreneur was quick to d i s c o v e r the c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e of commercial s p o r t : the teams i n a league may be competitors on the i c e but they are pa r t n e r s i n b u s i n e s s . So when there were commercial s t r u g g l e s , they were not so much between team and team but league and league.(21) The owners understood that i n t r a - l e a g u e commercial r i v a l r y c r e a t e s l a s t i n g and sometimes f a t a l economic damage. As an example, i n 1909 the Montreal Wanderers were dropped from the East e r n Canadian Hockey League when that league was i n the process of becoming the b a s i s f o r the Canadian Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n . That move b a c k f i r e d on the new league, however, when the Wanderers' owner, P.J. Doran, helped form the N a t i o n a l Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n which l a t e r put the CHA out of b u s i n e s s . L a t e r on, i n 1917, the NHA would r e c o n s t i t u t e i t s e l f as the N a t i o n a l Hockey League to exclude Eddie L i v i n g s t o n , the owner of -51-the Toronto f r a n c h i s e , because, a c c o r d i n g to Ottawa owner Tommy Gorman, he "was always a r g u i n g . Without him we can get down to the business of making money."(22) The co m p e t i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e a r l y development of c a p i t a l i s t markets had g r a d u a l l y reduced the number of owners who coul d s e r i o u s l y compete f i n a n c i a l l y to the po i n t where c o n s i d e r a t i o n c o u l d be given to forming an economic e n t e r p r i s e t h a t had the p o s s i b i l i t y of becoming the dominant f i r m i n hockey.(23) T h i s process i n sport was i n keeping with the general trend thoughout the c o n t i n e n t a l economy as a whole towards the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of l a r g e f irms out of the many s m a l l e r b u s i n e s s e s then e x i s t i n g . Access to the c a p i t a l a v a i l a b l e i n the major U.S. markets was an important f a c t o r i n determining which f i r m s would s u r v i v e . I t appears that the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a p i t a l to c o n t r o l markets was a p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r i n the r i s e of the NHL to dominate a l l of North American hockey. It i s u s e f u l at t h i s p o i n t to o u t l i n e how the NHL developed i t s economic c o n t r o l over hockey i n Canada and the United S t a t e s as an example of how the preceeding chapter's a n a l y s i s of American economic p e n e t r a t i o n of Canada during the 20th century was p a r a l l e l e d by a s i m i l a r process i n s p o r t . In the case of the NHL, the most important act i n i t s corporate h i s t o r y was i t s move during the 1920s to e s t a b l i s h i t s power base i n the c a p i t a l - r i c h n o r t h e a s t e r n United S t a t e s . From the r e , i t pursued p o l i c i e s which would harnass the Canadian hockey system as a t a l e n t feeder system to American markets. From Commodification to C a r t e l : The Case of the N a t i o n a l Hockey  League Since the i n c e p t i o n of the league i n 1917 NHL owners have promoted league p o l i c i e s t h a t would a c t to r e i n f o r c e the ongoing commodification of Canadian hockey while a t the same time a c t i n g to open up new areas f o r p r o f i t . The two p r o c e s s e s were i n t e r t w i n e d . Owners developed new areas (such as b r o a d c a s t i n g games on r a d i o which began during the 1920s) which acted to reproduce and extend the commodified nature of hockey i n Canadian s o c i e t y while a t the same time i n c r e a s i n g p r o f i t s . T h i s p u r s u i t of p r o f i t s l e d i n e v i t a b l y to a c o n t i n e n t a l r a t h e r than p u r e l y Canadian approach to league development. Of c r u c i a l importance, the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c a p i t a l accumulation from the s a l e of hockey i n the dominating n o r t h e a s t e r n r e g i o n of the United S t a t e s were more numerous and p r o f i t a b l e than they were i n Canada. The markets of the United S t a t e s presented such a r i c h p o t e n t i a l f o r p r o f i t t h a t f r a n c h i s e expansion would have to occur w i t h i n t h i s r e g i o n i f the league and i t s member teams were to develop t h e i r p o s i t i o n as the dominant f i r m i n North American hockey. In h i s c l a s s i c a n a l y s i s of "The Economics of the N a t i o n a l Hockey League" J.C.H.. Jones emphasized the i n t e g r a l importance of the d r i v e f o r p r o f i t s throughout the league's h i s t o r y . D espite team owners' p r o t e s t s to the c o n t r a r y , Jones demonstrates how the primary i n t e r e s t i n hockey has not been based on the "love of the game" -53-so much as the best way to make money.(29) Hockey was the f i r s t s p o rt i n Canada whose development was f i r s t i n f l u e n c e d by the les s o n s of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m . As such, i t pr o v i d e s a r i c h source of m a t e r i a l on the development of s p o r t s markets and the h i s t o r y of Canadian business e n t e r p r i s e . Examining these developments, some s c h o l a r s have speculated that the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1917 from a league composed of i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l f i r m s to an a s s o c i a t i o n (the NHL) dominated by a u n i t a r y corporate outlook r e p r e s e n t s an important e v o l u t i o n a r y step i n Canadian commercial sport.(30) I t s member f i r m s had begun the process of adhering to the b a s i c "modern" p r i n c i p l e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t . An e a r l y example of the league's corporate behavior o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the 1920 season when there was a wide disc r e p a n c y i n the com p e t i t i v e l e v e l s of the teams w i t h i n the league. That year the NHL broke up the league dominating Ottawa Senators and d i s p e r s e d i t s p l a y e r s to the other teams to improve the competitive s t r u c t u r e and provide a b e t t e r product f o r the s p e c t a t o r s . With i t s most important concern that the league maintain i t s p r o f i t l e v e l s , the NHL's move was a l s o good f o r Ottawa. As the runaway l e a d e r i n the league i t s attendance t o t a l s were s u f f e r i n g due to the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of winning. However, d e s p i t e Ottawa's e a r l y success i n the league, by the end of the 1930s the f r a n c h i s e had c o l l a p s e d , p o s s i b l y due to the small s i z e of the Ottawa hockey market and the e f f e c t s of the Great Depression. -54-While there was a developing measure of corporate s o l i d a r i t y within the NHL, there was considerable inter- league commercial r i v a l r y for players and spectator markets during th i s time. In the i r continuous attempts to upgrade the ir player ta l en t , various teams in the NHL raided other commercial and community leagues for p layers . Conn Smythe of the Toronto Maple Leafs decimated the Al lan Cup champion Port Arthur Bear Cats when he signed goal ie Lome Chabot and Danny Cox to pro contracts with the Maple Leafs in the middle twenties. The loss of the Bentley brothers , Max, Doug and Reg, to the profess ional league hurt the Drumheller Miners in the late t h i r t i e s . ( 3 1 ) As we l l , competition wih the Western Hockey League continued u n t i l the WHL's disbanding in 1926. In summary, the growing commodification of the player labour markets (and the wi l l ingness of hockey labourers to s e l l the ir s k i l l s ) led gradual ly to a domination of the labour market by the NHL, the firm with the greatest market c a p i t a l i z a t i o n . Other factors supporting the NHL's r i s e to dominance in profess ional hockey included the process of urbanization (which led to a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of r u r a l communities and the spectator support base for the NHL's r i v a l community sports teams), and the economic d i s loca t ions of the 1930s which acted to bankrupt the least pro f i tab l e hockey teams in the NHL and i t ' s competitor leagues as w e l l . Despite i t s own sometimes precarious short-term economic existence, the NHL, as a business with a long term corporate -55-p e r s p e c t i v e , took aim at maximizing p r o f i t s over the long run. An important f i r s t step f o r t h i s corporate o r g a n i z a t i o n was to extend i t s dominance as the top p r o f e s s i o n a l hockey league i n North America by seeking out p r o f i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r f r a n c h i s e s i n the United S t a t e s . T h i s p o l i c y would have the twin e f f e c t s of i n c r e a s i n g the NHL's share of the hockey s p e c t a t o r market while at the same time heading o f f any attempts by r i v a l leagues to place competing teams i n the best markets. The NHL's e a r l y expansionary p o l i c y took aim to monopolize the c o n t i n e n t a l hockey markets by harnassing the Canadian hockey development system to the p o t e n t i a l f o r c a p i t a l accumulation i n the l u c r a t i v e n o r t h e a s t e r n United S t a t e s s p o r t s s p e c t a t o r market. The 1920's were boom years f o r the c o n t i n e n t a l economy and sport entered what many c a l l e d 'The Golden Age of Sport'. American businessmen with s u r p l u s c a p i t a l a v a i l a b l e from the economic boom were w i l l i n g to purchase NHL f r a n c h i s e s . F r a n c h i s e s were s o l d to Boston (1924; $15,000), to P i t t s b u r g h (1925; $15,000), to New York ( i n 1925 the e n t i r e f i r s t p lace Hamilton team to Tex R i c k a r d f o r $75,000), to New York (1926; $15,000), Chicago (1926; $50,000) and D e t r o i t (1926; $50,000).(32) The onl y f r a n c h i s e s o l d i n Canada dur i n g t h i s p e r i o d came i n 1924 when a second Montreal f r a n c h i s e was s o l d f o r $15,000 to l o c a l businessmen. Two years l a t e r , Conn Smythe prevented the s a l e of the Toronto St. Pats to a P h i l a d e l p h i a group by c a l l i n g on the c i v i c p r i d e of the owners to keep the f r a n c h i s e i n Canada. He bought the f r a n c h i s e f o r $40,000 l e s s -56-than the American group was w i l l i n g to pay and renamed i t the Toronto Maple L e a f s . Expansion of the NHL i n the e a s t e r n p a r t of the c o n t i n e n t had r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r i t s r e g i o n a l r i v a l s i n the west. The high demand f o r q u a l i t y p l a y e r s to stock these new NHL f r a n c h i s e s was too much f o r L e s t e r P a t r i c k and h i s r e g i o n a l l y based Western Hockey League. On the l e s s developed west coast the WHL simply could not compete f o r p l a y e r s with the g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l r e sources a v a i l a b l e to the American based NHL so P a t r i c k disbanded the league i n 1926. A l l the p l a y e r s were s o l d to the NHL f o r $272,000.(33) The demise of the WHL p r o v i d e s evidence of the growing economic power of the NHL. As i t developed i n t o the dominant f i r m i n North American hockey, i t was able to u t i l i z e i t s economic power i n the r i c h urban markets of the United S t a t e s to provide i t with the resources to exert a measure of c o n t r o l over the a c t i o n s of i t s competitors i n other c i t i e s s c a t t e r e d throughout the c o n t i n e n t . S i m i l a r l y , the league moved to e s t a b l i s h a c o n t i n e n t a l t a l e n t feeder system which would allow i t to develop and c o n t r o l the best hockey t a l e n t as i t came a v a i l a b l e . At the same time, these p o l i c e s would a c t to undermine the attempts of other entrepreneurs to form r i v a l leagues by t a k i n g the best t a l e n t . In 1927, f i v e new North American r e g i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l leagues were formed as farm systems of the NHL. A l l had working agreements with the NHL that gave i t s teams s o l e r i g h t s to the best p l a y e r s i n the new leagues. The f i v e new leagues: The -57-Canadian P r o f e s s i o n a l League (based p r i m a r i l y i n O n t a r i o ) , The Canadian-American League (based i n the e a s t e r n U.S. and i n c l u d i n g Quebec C i t y ) , The American Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n (based i n the mid-west and i n c l u d i n g Winnipeg), The P r a i r i e League (centered on the Canadian p r a i r i e s ) , and the C a l i f o r n i a League (with four teams based i n Los Angeles) were a l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a t a l e n t feeder system t h a t e f f e c t i v e l y l ocked up the labour markets during the league's v u l n e r a b l e formative y e a r s . I t may p o s s i b l y have been those p o l i c i e s designed to e l i m i n a t e competition which enabled the NHL to s u r v i v e the economic d i s a s t e r of the 1930s. Nonetheless, the NHL's expansionary p o l i c i e s were undermined by the onset of the Great Depression i n the e a r l y t h i r t i e s . Instead, league owners were f o r c e d to enact p o l i c i e s to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r power and i n f l u e n c e during an era of d e c l i n i n g economic a c t i v i t y and a d i s a s t r o u s drop i n consumer d i s p o s a b l e income. The f i v e new p r o f e s s i o n a l leagues went bankrupt while four of the NHL's f r a n c h i s e s ( i n c l u d i n g the once powerful Ottawa Senators) c o l l a p s e d . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , as Kidd and Macfarlane argue, low c o s t community hockey t h r i v e d d u r i n g t h i s time of economic upheaval and i t was apparent that i t was these leagues and teams (with t h e i r modest s c a l e of payments to p l a y e r s ) that provided the l a r g e s t amount of o p p o s i t i o n to the NHL's domination of Canadian hockey.(34) I t i s important to p o i n t out that by the f o u r t h decade of the 20th century the Canadian Amateur Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n was p r i m a r i l y amateur i n name only. While the amateur t r a d i t i o n was -58-being c o n t i n u o u s l y upheld and reproduced i n the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s (a group of M c G i l l students had developed the f i r s t s et of r u l e s f o r hockey i n 1880), i n the p r i v a t e c l u b s and w i t h i n the m i l i t a r y by the middle and upper c l a s s people that i d e n t i f i e d with the B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n , the r a p i d commodification of hockey acr o s s the country d u r i n g the e a r l y part of the tw e n t i e t h century had r e s u l t e d i n a form of c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n i n the community leagues and teams t h a t provided f o r some form of payment to the p l a y e r s . As Bruce Kidd notes: 'by 1920 many amateur teams had begun to pay t h e i r p l a y e r s — a n d not i n the form of complimentary t i c k e t s , e i t h e r . ' ( 3 5 ) The p r a c t i c e of paying p l a y e r s even among the amateur teams became so widespread and accepted by the 1930's t h a t e v e n t u a l l y the CAHA was f o r c e d to l e g i t i m i z e i t i n 1935 by p e r m i t t i n g i t s member p l a y e r s to s i g n l e g a l l y b i n d i n g c o n t r a c t s and to accept compensation f o r time l o s t from work p l a y i n g hockey. In 1937, the CAHA withdrew from the Amateur A t h l e t i c Union of Canada i n f u r t h e r acknowledgement of the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the amateur t r a d i t i o n i n s e n i o r hockey played a c r o s s Canada. But, d e s p i t e the presence of community hockey as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the corporate hockey approach of the NHL, an important p o i n t to note during t h i s p e r i o d i s that the p o l i c y of paying s e n i o r p l a y e r s , even s m a l l amounts on an i r r e g u l a r b a s i s , acted as a support to the NHL's aim of commodifying the sp o r t and i t s labour markets. The payment of amateur p l a y e r s had the side e f f e c t of l e g i t i m i z i n g the p r a c t i c e of s e l l i n g labour s k i l l s i n hockey. I t -59-was t h i s gradual t r e n d , as pa r t of the general process of the exten s i o n of c a p i t a l i s t labour markets i n t o sport and many other areas of s o c i e t y d u r i n g the 20th century, that l e d slo w l y but i n e x o r a b l y to the post World War II harnassing of the CAHA and i t s hockey system as a r a t i o n a l i z e d t a l e n t feeder network to the American dominated N a t i o n a l Hockey League. The second World War r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d the s t r u c t u r e of Canadian hockey f o r the post-war e r a . The l o s s of p l a y e r s to the war e f f o r t weakened many of community teams while the war i n d u s t r i e s a c c e l e r a t e d the u r b a n i z a t i o n process that hurt the sma l l e r r u r a l communities. In 1940, i n the f i r s t of a s e r i e s of agreements with the cash poor CAHA, the NHL agreed to pay i t a r i g h t s fee f o r every p l a y e r signed by an NHL team. The aim of the agreement was to provide a cash subsidy to Canadian amateur hockey o p e r a t i o n s but a c r u c i a l s i d e e f f e c t of the arrangement was to encourage the CAHA to become c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n the development and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p l a y e r t a l e n t f o r the NHL's labour market. The CAHA and i t s member o r g a n i z a t i o n s became, i n e f f e c t , scouts and advance guards f o r the NHL.(36) Once the war ended, the NHL's most s i g n i f i c a n t labour agreement was signed by the CAHA i n 1947. I t was the sponsorship system which allowed teams i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l league to sponsor two j u n i o r hockey teams and hold the p l a y i n g r i g h t s to the team members as w e l l . As w e l l , the agreement s t i p u l a t e d t h a t : No c o n t r a c t or agreement other than simple r e g i s t r a t i o n as a p l a y e r , made between a p l a y e r and any member clu b of the CAHA - 6 0 -s h a l l be b i n d i n g upon or have any e f f e c t whatsoever upon the NHL or i t s d u l y a f f i l i a t e d or a s s o c i a t e d minor leagues. (37) The agreement f o r m a l i z e d the establishment of a c l a s s i c a l monopsonistic p o s i t i o n with regard to the NHL and i t s labour markets. With the new arrangement, the NHL, a corporat e o r g a n i z a t i o n composed mainly of American f i r m s , became the so l e determinant of the ca r e e r s of every Canadian hockey p l a y e r and achieved t o t a l domination over the CAHA and i t s member teams. The development of the NHL as the dominant f i r m i n North American hockey was aided by the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t e s t a b l i s h e d with the media. The r e g u l a r i t y of NHL competition and thus i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y to r o u t i n i z e d p r o f i t a b l e coverage by newspapers, t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o , the t h r i l l of NHL teams paying p l a y e r s f o r p l a y i n g hockey, i t s constant promotion i n the media through a d v e r t i s i n g and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s enabled i t to gain the favour of many of the s p o r t s media. As w e l l , at a time when newspaper r e p o r t e r s were not w e l l p a i d , the advantages of w r i t i n g the r i g h t kinds of s t o r i e s were not to be passed up. For the r e p o r t e r who tended to r e p o r t c r i t i c a l l y on the team's a c t i v i t i e s and the game, being barred from e n t e r i n g the team's d r e s s i n g room f o r i n t e r v i e w s a f t e r the game was not uncommon. (38) From a marketing s t a n d p o i n t , media o u t l e t s i n major Canadian and American urban markets found the d a i l y e x p l o i t s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t s teams to be e x c e l l e n t m a t e r i a l to in c r e a s e t h e i r l i s t e n i n g or viewing audiences. A winning team s o l d more -61-papers and drew more l i s t e n e r s to a p l a y by play broadcast than d i d a l o s i n g team. For the broadcast's a d v e r t i s i n g sponsors, more l i s t e n e r s and viewers meant l a r g e r s a l e s of t h e i r products and i n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s while the o r i g i n a t i n g s t a t i o n s a l s o i n c r e a s e d t h e i r revenues from a d v e r t i s i n g and from the i n c r e a s e d audience. Media dependence has played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n determining the d i r e c t i o n of the NHL's development. Evidence of media i n f l u e n c e i n determining the p o s i t i o n of the NHL i n Canada's hockey c u l t u r e can be seen i n the gradual development of the Toronto Maple Leafs i n t o E n g l i s h Canada's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e team with i t s domination of the Hockey Night i n Canada r a d i o broadcasts from the 1920's to the 1950's. As w e l l , i t i s w e l l known that Vancouver was denied an NHL f r a n c h i s e i n the mid 1960's because the League was determined to l o c a t e f r a n c h i s e s i n those American c i t i e s which would give i t a chance at a l u c r a t i v e n a t i o n a l American t e l e v i s i o n c o n t r a c t with a l l of i t s attendant p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l . A t h i r d Canadian f r a n c h i s e l o c a t e d i n Vancouver would not help i n the quest f o r an American TV c o n t r a c t and, i n s t e a d , would on l y serve to s l i c e i n t o the monopoly p r o f i t s of the Toronto and Montreal f r a n c h i s e s over the CBC Hockey Night i n Canada t e l e c a s t s . Due s t r i c t l y to the NHL's d e s i r e to i n c r e a s e o v e r a l l c o r p o r a t e p r o f i t s , the f r a n c h i s e was awarded to Oakland, an underdeveloped hockey market where poor s p e c t a t o r response q u i c k l y l e t the team f a l l i n t o bankruptcy. The development of the N a t i o n a l Hockey League from i t s -62-Canadian base i n t o an American dominated c o n t i n e n t a l league was a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the development and ext e n s i o n of a c a p i t a l i s t labour market to Canadian s p o r t and throughout the Canadian economy. The r i s e o f , f i r s t , community based hockey teams, then l o o s e l y based r e g i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l leagues and a s s o c i a t i o n s and, f i n a l l y , a c o n t i n e n t a l league, followed h i s t o r i c a l developments throughout the Canadian p o l i t i c a l economy as a whole. The shaping of Canadian hockey was i n f l u e n c e d f i r s t by the B r i t i s h , with t h e i r amateur ethos, and l a t e r by the Americans as t h e i r economic power began to dominate Canadian commerce. The dynamic achievement-oriented economic and c u l t u r a l values of American s o c i e t y g r a d u a l l y came to d i s p l a c e and dominate the o l d e r values of the B r i t i s h a s c r i p t i v e model. In hockey, the search f o r new areas of p r o f i t making p o t e n t i a l l e d the N a t i o n a l Hockey League i n t o the r i c h markets of the northeast United S t a t e s during the 1920's where the p o t e n t i a l f o r c a p i t a l accumulation was much g r e a t e r than i n Canada. I t s development as a c o n t i n e n t a l league l e d to p o l i c i e s ( i n labour r e l a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y ) which had as t h e i r primary aim to i n c r e a s e the p r o f i t s of the NHL through i t s c o n t i n u a l domination of Canadian hockey. The h i s t o r i c a l development of the NHL as a commercialized form of sp o r t has a l s o provided a l e a d i n g i n f l u e n c e on the commodification of a l l Canadian s p o r t during the past seventy years and t y p i f i e s the c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e that American economic p e n e t r a t i o n has engendered throughout Canadian s o c i e t y . The next s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter w i l l d e al with the sport of f o o t b a l l -63-where, h i s t o r i c a l l y , supporters of the amateur t r a d i t i o n i n sport were able to delay the r i s e to dominance of the commercializing f o r c e s f o r a longer p e r i o d of time. However, once supporters of those B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s were overwhelmed by the commercializing f o r c e s , the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of Canadian corporate f o o t b a l l could proceed to the p o i n t where the Canadian F o o t b a l l League i s now dominant i n i t s s p o r t i n Canada. However, i n comparison with the NHL's development, the a s s o c i a t i o n of the CFL with the c o n t i n e n t a l economy and American c u l t u r e has occu r r e d i n a d i f f e r e n t f a s h i o n . Economic Development of the Canadian F o o t b a l l League Despite i t s c o n t i n e n t a l base, the N a t i o n a l Hockey League i s the predominant p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t s league i n Canada. The sport of f o o t b a l l , l e d by the Canadian F o o t b a l l League which i s now c l e a r l y dominant i n i t s s p o r t , has d i f f e r e d from hockey i n i t s commercial development. Regional i n t e r e s t s , r i v a l r i e s and comparatively sma l l r e g i o n a l markets f o r c e r t a i n f r a n c h i s e s have g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the d i r e c t i o n and extent of f o o t b a l l ' s development.(39) Viewed a l o n g s i d e the h i s t o r i c a l development of the NHL, the CFL's l a c k of p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o the major U.S. markets must stand as a important f a c t o r f o r Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l ' s l a c k of c a p i t a l accumulation. The entrenchment and c o n t r o l of the amateur model and i t s supporters i n u n i v e r s i t y and c l u b rugby f o o t b a l l during the formative years of the s p o r t a l s o appears to have been an important f o r c e a c t i n g to delay the i m p o s i t i o n of a p r o f e s s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e upon the -64-game.(40) Another f a c t o r may have been the r e g i o n a l r i v a l r i e s between western and e a s t e r n f o o t b a l l i n t e r e s t s . The e a s t e r n rugby f o o t b a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s tendency to ignore pressures from western f o o t b a l l i n t e r e s t s to change the game's s t r u c t u r e s towards a more commercialized setup must stand as an important sub-theme w i t h i n the game's o v e r a l l h i s t o r i c a l development.(41) Overcoming the f r a c t i o n a l i z i n g tendencies of these r i v a l r i e s was the primary o r g a n i z a t i o n a l focus of Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l d u r i n g much of the 20th century. I t i s widely noted t h a t the f i r s t game of rugby f o o t b a l l i n Canada took place i n Montreal i n 1865 between "a team of o f f i c e r s from E n g l i s h regiments g a r r i s o n e d i n Montreal and a team of c i v i l i a n s mostly from M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . " ( 4 2 ) A f t e r a n a t i o n a l union was formed i n 1882 (which subsequently f a i l e d i n 1886 due to r u l e d i f f e r e n c e s among the v a r i o u s u n i o n s ) , the Canadian Rugby Union was r e c o n s t i t u t e d i n 1891 with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Quebec and O n t a r i o unions present. An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t to note i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d i s t h a t t h i s ' n a t i o n a l ' body was n a t i o n a l i n name only, no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from o u t s i d e c e n t r a l Canada were present at i t s founding.(43) In f a i r n e s s to c e n t r a l Canadian o r g a n i z e r s the economic and demographic development of the western r e g i o n had o n l y j u s t begun but the l a c k of n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s e a r l y o r g a n i z a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y from the more developed A t l a n t i c region) i s an e a r l y i n d i c a t i o n of the r e g i o n a l r i v a l r i e s t h a t were p r e v a l e n t i n Canadian economic and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s d u r i n g the 20th century. -65-In 1897, the Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Rugby F o o t b a l l Union (CIRFU) was orga n i z e d i n response to amateur f o o t b a l l ' s r i s e to prominence i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n c e n t r a l Canada. Behind the move towards an i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e union was the p e r c e i v e d need f o r a governing s t r u c t u r e to check the r i s e of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n f o o t b a l l and to allow u n i v e r s i t y o f f i c i a l s a mechanism to c o n t r o l the development of the game. Again t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was n a t i o n a l i n name only as i t was focussed p r i m a r i l y on the c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . A f t e r the CIRFU was accepted i n t o the Canadian Rugby Union, the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto entered the n a t i o n a l playdowns but l o s t . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , f e e l i n g " u n f a i r l y c h a l l e n g e d by near p r o f e s s i o n a l s " ( 4 4 ) , the amateur I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Union r e s i g n e d from the CRU and d i d not r e t u r n u n t i l 1905. I t i s important to note, however, i n f a i r n e s s to the other c l u b s i n the CRU, t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s themselves were not unanimously c o n s i d e r e d as pure amateurs. During the 1890's, Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s were the t a r g e t ( l i k e t h e i r American co u n t e r p a r t s ) of a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t t h e i r teams were a l l o w i n g r i n g e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s to compete f o r them.(45) Meanwhile, the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s t h a t dominated the e a r l y years of c e n t r a l Canadian f o o t b a l l continued as v a r i o u s s e t s of r u l e s were promoted and used by the Unions. The s t r u g g l e s t h a t o c c u r r e d were a r e s u l t of the confluence of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the popular but b r u t a l American c o l l e g i a t e game to the south, the landed Canadian game, and the i n f l u e n c e of B r i t i s h immigrants who saw l i t t l e reason to tamper with the s u c c e s s f u l -66-rugby game imported from B r i t a i n . At one point in 1905, the rules in the Ontario union and the Quebec union were so d i s s i m i l a r as to make playoff competition nearly impossible . With the return of the Interco l l eg ia te Union to the fo ld that year, the p o s s i b i l i t y arose of three sets of rules with which to contend. As Frank Cosentino points out, "It thus became necessary to have two referees for each match in which two d i f f erent s ty les were played."(46) It was not u n t i l 1909 that a uniform code of rules was eventual ly adopted by the CRU for a l l championship games. Within the nat ional organizat ion , however, the sanct i ty of the CRU's amateur code was unanimously agreed upon by a l l the Unions. The CRU's s tr ingent e l i g i b i l i t y rules also provided a large measure of protect ion against the club teams i n s t i t u t i n g a process of r e c r u i t i n g players from other towns by ensuring that each team's players must be residents of the c i t y in which they played. The u n i v e r s i t i e s , however, held an advantage. In the ir case, they needed only to prove that the i r players were c e r t i f i e d students and had been successful in the previous year's examinations. Thus, the i r players could come from any town. This ear ly ru le gave the u n i v e r s i t i e s a decided advantage for t h e i r f o o t b a l l programs and was an important reason for the i r success during the f i r s t quarter of the century.(47) The residency requirement provided reinforcement to an already surging community spectator interes t in the various teams. With the emphasis on the representative nature of the - 6 7 -v a r i o u s c i t i e s ' f o o t b a l l teams (a p r i d e of p l a c e , community f e e l i n g ) , t h e i r l o c a l newspapers were not above the o c c a s i o n a l j i b e at t h e i r town's r i v a l s . The Ottawa J o u r n a l noted the e a r l y l a c k of success of the Toronto Argonauts f o o t b a l l team i n t h i s comment from a 1909 e d i t o r i a l : i t i s strange t h a t with a l l the f o o t b a l l m a t e r i a l there i s t r a i n i n g around Toronto, the Argonauts cannot develop a winning team.(48) In f a c t , due to the l i b e r a l e l i g i b i l i t y requirements at the u n i v e r s i t i e s , i t was the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto which became the s t r o n g e s t team i n Toronto and which a l s o became the f i r s t ever winner of the Grey Cup Trophy before l a r g e crowds i n Toronto i n 1909. The commercial p o t e n t i a l of f o o t b a l l was a l r e a d y evident during those e a r l y days as the V a r s i t y Blues and the Ottawa Rough Riders each gained $3100 i n gate r e c e i p t s f o r t h e i r part i n the s e m i - f i n a l game.(49) The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto went on to win two c o n s e c u t i v e Grey Cups. During t h i s e r a , the u n i v e r s i t i e s were the p r i n c i p a l i n n o v a t o r s of the game, probably i n c o n j u n c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n with proponents of the popular American u n i v e r s i t y game south of the border. In 1912, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y h i r e d the f i r s t p r o f e s s i o n a l coach i n Canadian amateur f o o t b a l l when Frank "Shag" Shaughnessy, a Notre Dame alumnus and former coach at Clemson, a r r i v e d to take over the program. I t was Shaughnessy who added such American i n n o v a t i o n s as the t r a i n i n g t a b l e and e a r l y departure f o r road games to prevent t r a i n - l a g . He a l s o was the -68-f i r s t to demand complete c o n t r o l of the team and s o l i d i f i e d an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e which placed the coach i n p o s i t i o n as the dominant power i n the program. Yet, as powerful as Shaughnessy appears to have been, even he c o u l d not i n f l u e n c e h i s amateur p l a y e r s at M c G i l l to overcome the e d u c a t i o n a l mores of t h e i r B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e d s p o r t s c u l t u r e . Sports were c e r t a i n l y not more important than academic s t u d i e s . In h i s f i r s t year, M c G i l l ' s team members iss u e d a n o t i c e t h a t , d e s p i t e winning the i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e championship, they d i d not want to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a y o f f s i n "an a l r e a d y lengthened f o o t b a l l season, which has cost us c o n s i d e r a b l e s a c r i f i c e i n r e s p e c t to our academic work."(50) The very next year the team repeated t h i s move. Despite Shaughnessy 1s " r a t i o n a l i z e d " ( 5 1 ) modern t a c t i c s , M c G i l l ' s a t h l e t i c outlook was s t i l l very much i n the s t y l e of the 19th century B r i t i s h amateur t r a d i t i o n . For the 1914 season came t h i s announcement came from Montreal: The c l u b wishes to have as l i t t l e to do with the I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Union as p o s s i b l e . In a d d i t i o n to the d i f f e r e n c e i n p l a y i n g r u l e s , the p l a y e r s of the Big Four have not always been f r e e from the t a i n t of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and n a t u r a l l y the U n i v e r s i t y p l a y e r s do not want to run the r i s k of being h e l d up by the C.A.A.U. [Canadian Amateur A t h l e t i c Union] f o r p l a y i n g a g a i n s t p r o f e s s i o n a l s . ( 5 2 ) But along s i m i l a r l i n e s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d coaching methods of Shaughnessy were coming under i n c r e a s i n g s c r u t i n y from the c e n t r a l Canadian s p o r t s community. His techniques of evading the l e t t e r of the r u l e s r a t h e r than c o n s i d e r i n g the s p i r i t was both c r i t i c i z e d and acclaimed by o b s e r v e r s . "Shaughnessy has -69-done nothing not permitted by the r u l e s . . . U n q u e s t i o n a b l y , the game has been improved by the a s t u t e Montreal coach," e d i t o r i a l i z e d the Toronto Globe ( 5 3 ) but " I f Shaughnessy has played f a s t and loose with the r u l e s , as i s contended by some of h i s c r i t i c s , he should be checked up now. " ( 5 4 ) The Shaughnessy i s s u e appears to mark a noteworthy i n c i d e n t i n the c u l t u r a l s t r u g g l e f o r dominance i n f o o t b a l l between the B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e and i t s amateur o r i e n t a t i o n i n sport and the more r a t i o n a l i z e d approach to sport adopted from south of the border. Shaughnessy, an American and Notre Dame f o o t b a l l alumnus, c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t s the l a t t e r set of values r a t h e r than the former. H i s t o r i c a l accounts present an i n t e r e s t i n g compromise i n amateur M c G i l l ' s acquiescence i n Shaughnessy's r a t i o n a l i z e d search f o r methods to win games w i t h i n the r u l e s . I t appears that M c G i l l a t h l e t i c o f f i c i a l s ignored the moral t r a d i t i o n s of amateurism i n a l l o w i n g him to implement h i s t a c t i c s i n the M c G i l l f o o t b a l l program. Als o worth n o t i n g i s that the success of h i s e a r l y e f f o r t s a l s o p u b l i c i z e d to c e n t r a l Canadians how 'advanced' American u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l e x p e r t i s e was and acted to promote i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y to the Canadian f o o t b a l l community. Shaughnessy's presence i n Canada foreshadowed the important r o l e American coaches and p l a y e r s would assume i n the development of Canadian f o o t b a l l . And i t was i n the west that the A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of f o o t b a l l would proceed at i t s q u i c k e s t pace. Although the Manitoba Union was f i r s t admitted as an -70-honourary member i n the CRU i n 1892, the f i r s t formal s t r u c t u r e i n the West was the Western Canada Rugby F o o t b a l l Union, e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1912. I t s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e n t r y i n t o the CRU to compete f o r the Grey Cup was denied but i t was accorded honourary s t a t u s . But, r e g a r d l e s s of the s t a t u s of the west w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the trend towards a r i s e of American i n f l u e n c e s i n Canadian f o o t b a l l was pronounced i n western Canada i n the pre-World War I era where a l a r g e number of Americans were a l r e a d y p l a y i n g on the teams i n Edmonton, Saskatoon and Regina.(55) Regional economic and c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s on the Canadian and American p r a i r i e s had l e d to the r e c r u i t i n g of northern U.S. c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s to come north to p l a y on the f o o t b a l l teams. T h i s i n f r a c t i o n l e d to an A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of the western game and a l s o l e d to western e f f o r t s to implement changes i n the n a t i o n a l Canadian r u l e book. G e n e r a l l y , however, these attempts were s i d e t r a c k e d and delayed by the c o n s e r v a t i v e East and l e d to f r i c t i o n between both groups. The development of a game i n the west more c l o s e l y resembling American f o o t b a l l would a c t to inflame s p o r t s r e l a t i o n s between the western and c e n t r a l Canadian r e g i o n s f o r the next four decades.(56) A f t e r World War I, a renewal of the p r o f e s s i o n a l coach i s s u e w i t h i n u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c c i r c l e s o c c u r r e d i n 1921 when Queen's U n i v e r s i t y h i r e d a coach, George Awrey, and b u i l t a new stadium to accomodate the l a r g e crowds that i t ' s f o o t b a l l team was drawing. The very next season, Queen's came under f i r e amid charges t h a t the team was composed of paid ' r i n g e r s ' . The f u r o r -71-was such that the P r i n c i p a l of Queen's was f o r c e d to deny a l l a l l e g a t i o n s i n a p u b l i c statement: There have been no pecuniary or m a t e r i a l allowances, d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t , made to any man on the grounds of a t h l e t i c s . There has been no such k i n d of arrangement entered i n t o by the U n i v e r s i t y or by the A t h l e t i c Board of C o n t r o l . (57) T h i s statement, of course, d i d not preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of a group o u t s i d e the U n i v e r s i t y p r o v i d i n g money to the p l a y e r s , an a c c u s a t i o n which would become commonplace i n a t h l e t i c r e l a t i o n s between the c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s during the ensuing decades. F u r t h e r evidence of the growing c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l came the next year when Queen's pressured i t s opponents who had l a r g e r stadiums to share the gate r e c e i p t s when Queen's v i s i t e d . The usual p r a c t i c e i n a l l the leagues was f o r the home team to keep a l l r e c e i p t s but, because of t h e i r l a r g e r stadiums, the f o o t b a l l revenues of M c G i l l and Toronto f a r exceeded those of Queen's. As a r e s u l t , the Queen's a t h l e t i c department began a campaign f o r the r i g h t s of the v i s i t i n g team to r e c e i v e one t h i r d of the r e c e i p t s i n a l l league games. The development of c l u b f o o t b a l l d u r i n g the 1920s shows a more pronounced p a t t e r n of c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n than d i d the u n i v e r s i t i e s . The gradual implementation i n Canadian sport ( e s p e c i a l l y the NHL) of a more c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d achievement-oriented value system l e d observers i n c r e a s i n g l y to promote the use of p r o f e s s i o n a l coaches and the value of 'expert -72-i n s t r u c t i o n ' i n enhancing the q u a l i t y of performance. But the Toronto Globe noted the problems that tended to accompany p r o f e s s i o n a l coaching: The q u e s t i o n of employment of p r o f e s s i o n a l coaches i s a moot one, not because of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of having the expert i n s t r u c t i o n but because of the abuses which very o f t e n f o l l o w the pro system...If i t can be shown that the abuses, which seem to be a concomitant of pro coaching, cannot be e l i m i n a t e d , the argument a g a i n s t the p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r w i l l be g r e a t l y strengthened.(58) Yet, once implemented, i t was d i f f i c u l t to e l i m i n a t e the concept of the p a i d coach as being e s s e n t i a l to the process of mai n t a i n i n g the q u a l i t y of the team's performance. The r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of coaching i n the e a r l y Canadian f o o t b a l l programs can be p e r c e i v e d as an important s i g n p o s t of the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of the s p o r t . Constant p r e s s u r e s to e l i m i n a t e the non-instrumental t r a d i t i o n s of 'pure' amateurism and sportsmanship i n the s o c i a l system of Canadian f o o t b a l l continued during the 1920's. In 1926 Queen's again came under f i r e f o r s c o u t i n g Toronto and M c G i l l i n t h e i r three team I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e league. T h i s contravened a league r e g u l a t i o n that c l a s s i f i e d the t a c t i c of advance sc o u t i n g of opponents as being w i t h i n the realm of unsportsmanlike behavior. But of more concern, o u t s i d e the u n i v e r s i t i e s , the amateur code was coming under i n c r e a s i n g s t r a i n with the growing c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of c l u b f o o t b a l l and, of course, the precedent s e t t i n g model of the commercialized c o n t i n e n t a l hockey league. F o o t b a l l i n c e n t r a l Canada, l i k e the case of the NHL years e a r l i e r , was g r a d u a l l y e v o l v i n g r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e market r e l a t i o n s t h at enabled the teams and leagues to budget f o r expected revenue at the gate. In the context of t h i s c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n , again with the precedent of p r o f e s s i o n a l hockey, p l a y e r s soon came to expect to gain some b e n e f i t from t h e i r f o o t b a l l a b i l i t y . More o f t e n , i t was only the prospect of l a n d i n g a w e l l paying job i n the team's c i t y r a t h e r than s t r a i g h t cash payments t h a t p r o v i d e d the i n c e n t i v e as former Hamilton T i g e r Bruce I n k s e t t e r noted i n an i n t e r v i e w many years l a t e r : I f a p l a y e r made a r e g u l a r p l a c e on the team and looked l i k e a good prospect, he would be o f f e r e d a job i n l o c a l i n d u s t r y or on the C i t y p a y r o l l . Thus we had E r n i e Cox, Bert Gibb, French and Languay on the f i r e department. Sprague was a policeman, Seymore Wilson and Fred Veale i n the C i t y H a l l . B r i a n Timmis had the best job of a l l as a foreman with Piggot C o n s t r u c t i o n Company. (59) I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l continued to grow and expand throughout Canada. In 1927, u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the western p r o v i n c e s formed the Western I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Union. The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a had s t a r t e d p l a y i n g f o o t b a l l i n 1919 and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t f o o t b a l l program i n rugby-dominated B r i t i s h Columbia by adding a team i n time f o r the 1924 season while the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan had began p l a y i n 1921. O v e r a l l , a t o t a l of 14 c l u b and i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e teams were competing i n the West while 16 were a c t i v e i n the East.(60) The advent of the forward pass i n the e a r l y t h i r t i e s h eralded a major development i n the impact of American f o o t b a l l -74-on Canada. While by 1931 most Unions were i n broad agreement to implement the r u l e changes necessary to b r i n g the American forward pass to Canada few people r e a l i z e d the wide ranging impact i t would e v e n t u a l l y have on the development of the game. Frank Shaughnessy, the M c G i l l coach, f e l t t h a t i n the long run, having the o p t i o n of the forward pass " i s s u f f i c i e n t to open up the game as a whole and to bear down on the mass formations that we have had i n the past."(61) Another important e f f e c t , though, was t h a t the implementation of t h i s American t a c t i c would a l s o act to move the Canadian game even c l o s e r towards a t r a d i t i o n of t e s t i n g and implementing American f o o t b a l l techniques and t a c t i c s . The s t r a t e g y i n v o l v i n g the pass was not that complex but i t s advent gave a decided advantage to the American import who had more t r a i n i n g with i t . I t was Warren Stevens, an American graduate student at M c G i l l and fu t u r e a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, who exposed Canadian f o o t b a l l to the r e a l uses of the pass and r e v o l u t i o n i z e d the game.(62) Stevens j o i n e d the Montreal Winged Wheelers and l e d them through an undefeated s i x game schedule. The o f f e n s i v e p o t e n t i a l of the new r u l e s l e d the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto to import an American passing coach to b u i l d up t h e i r o f f e n s i v e system. Some observers a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d t h a t the implementation of the American p a s s i n g r u l e i n Canadian f o o t b a l l would act as a c a r r i e r of "American s p o r t i n g v a l u e s " i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y and in c r e a s e the d e s i r e of team managers to import s k i l l e d Americans -75-to p l a y a sp o r t that was a l r e a d y resembling American f o o t b a l l . The Hamilton Herald noted these p o i n t s i n an e d i t o r i a l t h a t concerned the prospect of the passing r u l e h e l p i n g to Americanize Canadian f o o t b a l l : When the Canadian Rugby F o o t b a l l Union turned Yankee and accepted the forward pass i n t o the Canadian game, i t was the i n t e n t i o n of th a t governing body t h a t the pass be le a r n e d by Canadians and developed i n t h i s country without the a i d of exponents of i t from acr o s s the border. (63) S i m i l a r l y , the Toronto Globe p r e d i c t e d that the passing r u l e would l e a d to the im p o r t a t i o n of more Americans who were f a m i l i a r with the t e c h n i c a l aspects of the pass. But that prophecy was al r e a d y a r e a l i t y i n the West to the extent t h a t American p l a y e r s were present i n numbers l a r g e enough to enable the Winnipeg Free Press to r e p o r t a f t e r one f o o t b a l l game that "post-game discussion...was t h a t the Regina amateurs were b e t t e r than the Winnipeg amateurs and the Regina Americans were b e t t e r than the Winnipeg Americans." (64) The move towards open p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n amateur cl u b f o o t b a l l i n Canada r e c e i v e d a boost i n 1932 when L i o n e l Conacher c r e a t e d the f i r s t p r o f e s s i o n a l team i n Canada, the Cross and Bl a c k w e l l C h i e f s . Afterwards he s t a t e d , i n r e f e r e n c e to the development of the p r o f e s s i o n a l N a t i o n a l F o o t b a l l League i n the United S t a t e s t h a t , " P r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l i s going ahead by leaps and bounds i n the United S t a t e s and we inten d to have a shot at i t . " ( 6 5 ) Conacher may p o s s i b l y have been a f f e c t e d by the success of the commercialized NHL i n c e n t r a l Canada. The next -76-year there was a n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the number of Americans p l a y i n g and coaching i n Canada, a s i t u a t i o n which prompted an e d i t o r i a l by the Toronto Globe: B e l i e v e i t or not, f o o t b a l l was once the most amateur of a l l s p o r t s i n the Dominion and the f i n g e r of s u s p i c i o n was seldom po i n t e d i n i t s d i r e c t i o n . C u p i d i t y , the d e s i r e to win at any cost and the coming of the forward pass have, however, made a vast d i f f e r e n c e . The Big Four c l u b s have become the main o f f e n d e r s i n i g n o r i n g the r u l e s . Are they to be allowed to do as they please? The Montreal and Ottawa cl u b s are c h i e f l y to blame and they were the advocates of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the forward pass and a l l because they couldn't win t i t l e s under the Canadian code. Had the pass been adopted and the United S t a t e s p l a y e r s b a r r e d , the obnoxious c o n d i t i o n s t h a t e x i s t at the present time, would not have been p o s s i b l e . The abuses now are many and they are bound to i n c r e a s e . (66) Meanwhile, pressure w i t h i n the Canadian Rugby Union to Americanize the f o o t b a l l r u l e s continued to emanate from western c l u b s which wanted to make b e t t e r use of t h e i r American p l a y e r s and coaches. But the east was s t i l l f i r m l y i n c o n t r o l of the c o u n c i l s of the CRU and enacted p o l i c i e s t h a t o n l y inflamed r e g i o n a l c o n f l i c t . The d e c i s i o n of the CRU to hold the Grey Cup game i n i n the West i n 1934 was l a t e r r e v e r s e d at a s p e c i a l meeting c a l l e d by the e x e c u t i v e , an a c t i o n which enraged the Western teams. L a t e r that same year, the West voted to implement r u l e changes o r i e n t e d towards the American game ( i n c l u d i n g the 'pro' pass) f o r the 1935 season whether or not the CRU adopted them. Only one of the changes was approved l a t e r by the n a t i o n a l body. A few months l a t e r , the Winnipeg team made a much p u b l i c i z e d r e c r u i t i n g t r i p south of the border and brought back seven Americans to add to the two that they a l r e a d y had. A l l -77-were p a i d f o r the season and promised jobs i n Winnipeg, a c t i o n s t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to the r u l e s of the CRU as they were then c o n s t i t u t e d , would v i o l a t e the p l a y e r ' s amateur s t a t u s and that of anyone they played a g a i n s t . In the e a s t , meanwhile, the l i m i t s of the amateur r u l e were t e s t e d c o n s t a n t l y by the commercializing f o o t b a l l c l u b s . The Ottawa Rough Ri d e r s were found to have paid an American to play f o r the 1935 season. The l o c a l branch of the Amateur A t h l e t i c Union of Canada suspended every man who played i n the I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Union t h a t season and a l s o every p l a y e r who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n e x h i b i t i o n games a g a i n s t Ottawa. While the suspensions were e v e n t u a l l y l i f t e d through the i n t e r v e n t i o n of the P r e s i d e n t of the A.A.U. of C., the i s s u e e x h i b i t e d the f a c t t h a t the t h r e a t of the l o s s of amateur p l a y i n g s t a t u s s t i l l p resented a v e r y powerful and r e a l t h r e a t i n c e n t r a l Canadian sport during the 1930's. The entrenched power of the amateur t r a d i t i o n i n Canadian f o o t b a l l prevented the implementation of any r a d i c a l changes i n the e l i g i b i l i t y r e g u l a t i o n s that would allow p r o f e s s i o n a l s to compete i n f o o t b a l l a l o n g s i d e amateurs. The t h r e a t of s a n c t i o n s c a r r i e d l e s s weight i n the west. There, f o o t b a l l o r g a n i z e r s were beginning to f e e l more a l l e g i a n c e to t h e i r neighbours south of the border than to the " f a m i l y compact"(67) i n c e n t r a l Canada. Winnipeg, the western champion, t r a v e l l e d east to compete i n the 1935 Grey Cup. They a r r i v e d three weeks e a r l y to scout the o p p o s i t i o n and Frank Cosentino noted the a n i m o s i t y of Winnipeg general manager Joe Ryan towards -78-the e a s t e r n f o o t b a l l i n t e r e s t s : i f Winnipeg d i d not win the Grey Cup game, i t would be the l a s t time a team from Winnipeg would compete f o r the Canadian t i t l e . His [Ryan's] reasons, p r i n t e d i n the Winnipeg Free P r e s s , December 4, 1935, were based on the f a c t t h a t : "The West i s moving ahead r a p i d l y with i t s f o o t b a l l . We're swinging more to the American code each year and the customers are with us. Our season i s much s h o r t e r than i n the East and we're j u s t about fed up with e f f o r t s to keep pace with the a u t h o r i t y f l a u n t e d over us by the Canadian Rugby Union."(68) Winnipeg d i d manage to win the Grey Cup with an 18-12 win over the Hamilton T i g e r s to gain the West's f i r s t ever v i c t o r y i n the 26 year h i s t o r y of the Grey Cup playdowns. The t i t l e added f u r t h e r impetus to community e f f o r t s to promote f o o t b a l l i n the western r e g i o n with the r e s u l t t h at a new Union, the Western I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l F o o t b a l l Union, was formed f o r the 1936 season. Teams from Ca l g a r y , Winnipeg and Regina were the f i r s t e n t r a n t s . In 1936, the trend towards the i n c r e a s e d use of non-amateur p l a y e r s was t e m p o r a r i l y h a l t e d as the CRU approved s t r i n g e n t new r e g u l a t i o n s which made i l l e g a l the use of many of the Americans imports p l a y i n g f o r Canadian teams. Yet, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , during the same meeting, m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the p l a y i n g r u l e s towards the American game gave s t i l l f u r t h e r advantage to the imports remaining and had the e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g the value of the a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d imports to t h e i r c l u b s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the a l l o w i n g of pass p r o t e c t i o n i n the b a c k f i e l d , a r u l e t h at was copied from American f o o t b a l l , gave an advantage to the imports who were w e l l experienced i n those b l o c k i n g t e chniques. In e f f e c t , the t r a d i t i o n a l use of Americans i n the b a c k f i e l d that -79-became so common i n the Canadian game was again r e i n f o r c e d by the implementation of t h i s r u l e i n 1936. That year, i n d e f i a n c e of the n a t i o n a l body, the western teams continued using i n e l i g i b l e p l a y e r s but d i d not c h a l l e n g e f o r the Grey Cup. But that year's CRU annual ge n e r a l meeting was a l s o marked by c o n c i l i a t o r y r e l a t i o n s between the regions and a l s o showed some promise that n a t i o n a l l y c o n s o l i d a t i n g f o r c e s were at work w i t h i n the game. The 1936 meeting marked the o f f i c i a l end of unequal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n between the east and west i n the e x e c u t i v e committees of the Canadian Rugby Union. P r e v i o u s l y , the west had always been outvoted by the east and, i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e matters, i t appeared f r e q u e n t l y that the east was b u l l y i n g the west. F e e l i n g s on the matter i n the West were such t h a t had the request f o r equal votes been turned down, the Western c l u b s would have r e s i g n e d from the CRU.(69) The r i s i n g i n f l u e n c e of American f o r e i g n d i r e c t investment i n Canada, d e s c r i b e d i n the previous chapter, was p a r a l l e l e d by the A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of Canadian s p o r t . The west became the f i r s t r e g i o n i n the country to l e g i t i m i z e the use of American p l a y e r s by i n s t i t u t i n g a r u l e r e s t r i c t i n g the number of imports allowed to p l a y . Beginning i n 1937, a maximum of e i g h t Americans per team would be allowed.(70) As w e l l , the Western I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l F o o t b a l l Union brought back the 1935 r u l e s which the CRU had o v e r r u l e d . The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the r u l e s a c r o s s Canada continued to be a major p o i n t of c o n t e n t i o n between the reformers (the west) and the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s (the east) and the two -80-r e g i o n a l f a c t i o n s were f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t to reach common ground. I t was not to be u n t i l 1941 th a t the CRU would f i n a l l y agree to accept the western changes i n the n a t i o n a l r u l e book. American f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s were i n even g r e a t e r demand i n Canada a t the begining of World War I I . The d e c l a r a t i o n of war by Canada i n 1939 in c r e a s e d the need f o r f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s as many Canadian p l a y e r s e n l i s t e d i n the armed f o r c e s . That year the West a l s o expanded to a twelve game schedule and played games a t n i g h t and as o f t e n as p o s s i b l e i n order to reduce team c o s t s . As i n the development of hockey, World War I I became a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n e f f e c t i n g change i n the sp o r t of f o o t b a l l and the people i n v o l v e d i n i t s n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y , the war appears to have aided i n the removal of some of the t r a d i t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s that kept Canadian f o o t b a l l focussed on i t s B r i t i s h h e r i t a g e . Canadian t i e s with Great B r i t a i n weakened f u r t h e r a f t e r the g l o b a l c o n f l i c t while those with the United S t a t e s increased as the two North American c u l t u r e s and economies moved c l o s e r together through the growing media based consumer c u l t u r e . In t h i s context the B r i t i s h v a l u e s of amateurism i n Canadian f o o t b a l l were c o n t i n u o u s l y undermined by the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z i n g v a l u e s espoused i n American f o o t b a l l and the presence i n Canada of the p r o f e s s i o n a l N a t i o n a l Hockey League and i t s a f f i l i a t i o n s . During the post-war e r a , the clubs chose simply to ignore the amateur code i n the p e r i o d before i t was o f f i c i a l l y removed. L a t e r , there was l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n to the code's e l i m i n a t i o n . -81-The c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of Canadian f o o t b a l l l e d to dramatic changes i n the immediate post-war y e a r s . The CRU approved r u l e changes promoted by the West t h a t were designed to enhance the marketing and promotion of the game while l e g i t i m i z i n g and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g the recruitment of p l a y e r s from the U.S. Schedules i n the east were doubled to twelve games (as they had been i n the West) and teams began to take s e r i o u s aim a t winning the Grey Cup. The i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of the n a t i o n a l championship game meant i n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s f o r the two cl u b s that made the f i n a l . These r u l e changes r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d attendance a t games held throughout the country i n 1946.(71) Al s o , other r u l e changes were implemented to move the Canadian game c l o s e r to the American v e r s i o n i n order to make b e t t e r use of the s k i l l e d imported American p l a y e r s . The reverse s i d e of t h i s development was that the r u l e changes would a l s o make the continued use of the best a v a i l a b l e American p l a y e r s much more c r u c i a l to the commercial success of the v a r i o u s teams. By t h i s time, however, the s p o r t ' s primary need f o r h i g h l y s k i l l e d Americans was a l r e a d y acknowledged and conceded by the team managements. Consumer markets and s p e c t a t o r appeal were too important to the commercial success of the teams f o r general managers to ignore the abundant supply of t a l e n t e d p l a y e r s r i g h t a c r o s s the border. Thus, the Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l t a l e n t feeder system began to extend south of the border. With the increase i n the number of Americans i n the game, American f o o t b a l l terminology i n c r e a s i n g l y began to d i s p l a c e -82-Canadian. T h i s may have been due p a r t i a l l y to the media. Interviews w i t h American coaches and p l a y e r s l i k e l y p i cked up and t r a n s m i t t e d t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s to the Canadian audience and r e a d e r s h i p . As w e l l , though, the growing U.S. media dominance of Canada was r e s u l t i n g i n an i n f l u x of s p o r t s p u b l i c a t i o n s that c i r c u l a t e d American f o o t b a l l slang and e x p r e s s i o n s to the Canadian p u b l i c , i n c l u d i n g the media. An a r t i c l e i n Maclean's magazine s t a t e d : The process [of Americanizing Canadian f o o t b a l l e x p r e s s i o n s ] has been hastened by the steady stream of American reading m a t e r i a l which g l o r i f i e s the U.S. g r i d i r o n hero. I think our own r a d i o commentators are u n w i t t i n g l y strengthening the trend by the use of American f o o t b a l l terminology.(72) The teams a l s o f u r t h e r r a t i o n a l i z e d t h e i r r e c r u i t i n g p r a c t i c e s south of the border by t a k i n g aim a t r e c r u i t i n g seasoned American p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a r s . T h i s was a step up from the former p r a c t i c e of l i m i t i n g the s c o u t i n g of Americans to c o l l e g e f o o t b a l l graduates from northern U.S. u n i v e r s i t i e s . The Calgary Stampeders began the process by r e c r u i t i n g American pros from the N a t i o n a l F o o t b a l l League as d i d the Hamilton T i g e r s who signed Frank F i l c h o c k , a New York Giant who had been banned f o r one year f o r f a i l i n g to r e p o r t a b r i b e o f f e r . The l u r e of the Grey Cup and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n c r e a s e d gate revenues brought an urgency to r e c r u i t e r s designed to a c q u i r e the best t a l e n t a v a i l a b l e i n the U.S. market, even though sometimes i t meant d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n with the much more powerful N a t i o n a l F o o t b a l l League i n the b i d d i n g f o r American s t a r s . ( 7 3 ) -83-R e i n f o r c i n g the demand f o r American p l a y e r s was the p u b l i c i t y given to American c o l l e g e and p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l s t a r s i n the U.S. s p o r t s media. I n c r e a s i n g l y , a Canadian team's connections i n the American p l a y e r market i n c o l l e g e and p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l was p e r c e i v e d as an important f a c t o r i n the s u c c e s s f u l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s i g n i n g of import p l a y e r s . Coaches' networks of c o n t a c t s i n f o o t b a l l south of the border were c r u c i a l i n t h i s regard and played a v i t a l r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s of the coaching s t a f f s . In f a c t , most coaches and general managers i n Canadian f o o t b a l l were American and i t was t h e i r coaching experiences and c o n t a c t s south of the border that helped them get and keep t h e i r jobs and maintain s u c c e s s f u l programs f o r the v a r i o u s Canadian clubs.(74) C o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of the game meant i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r budgets f o r the v a r i o u s c l u b s and i t became more d i f f i c u l t to deny the p r o f e s s i o n a l nature of the teams. Managers admitted t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e i r c l u b ' s o f f i c i a l amateur s t a t u s , they were paying p l a y e r s . ( 7 5 ) Cosentino notes an a r t i c l e i n Canadian Business which a s s e r t e d t h a t over f i f t y per cent (an estimated $35,000 to $50,000) of the 1948 Montreal A l o u e t t e s ' budget of $75,000 was composed of p l a y e r s a l a r i e s . ( 7 6 ) As w e l l , the amount of f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n v e s t e d by the clubs meant that the managers g r a d u a l l y came to p e r c e i v e that a c e r t a i n degree of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s would be needed to s t a b i l i z e c l u b r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r p l a y e r s and w i t h the other teams. I n i t i a l l y , f r e e agency among the p l a y e r s -84-kept labour c o s t s r i s i n g as teams b i d up the s a l a r i e s of the best p l a y e r s . In 1950, to reduce the f i n a n c i a l c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f r e e movement of p l a y e r s i n 1950 the CRU i n s t r u c t e d a l l c l u b s to i n s e r t a reserve clause i n t h e i r p l a y e r c o n t r a c t s . ( 7 7 ) E s s e n t i a l l y , the reserve clause r e s t r i c t e d the p l a y e r s ' r i g h t to b a r g a i n and d r a m a t i c a l l y c u r t a i l e d t h e i r freedom to change teams. I t a l s o gave the weaker teams a measure of p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t r a i d i n g from the high powered teams from the r i c h e r markets. To provide backing f o r the reserve c l a u s e , the CRU agreed to f i n e clubs $1000 i f they were caught tampering w i t h the a c t i v e p l a y e r s of another team. The i m p o s i t i o n of the reserve clause i n a l l p l a y e r c o n t r a c t s and many of the post-war commercializing developments i n d i c a t e d t h a t the CRU was g r a d u a l l y becoming c a r t e l i z e d , a process that had occurred i n the NHL almost t h i r t y years p r e v i o u s . The 1950's and 1960's were a p e r i o d of c o n s o l i d a t i o n f o r the corporate e n t i t y of Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l . Led by the West, the c o n d i t i o n s f o r maintaining a p r o f e s s i o n a l league were g r a d u a l l y put i n t o p l a c e . In 1953, at the CRU annual meetings the Western d e l e g a t e s moved t h a t the name of the CRU be changed to the the Canadian F o o t b a l l Union "because we're not p l a y i n g rugby but f o o t b a l l . " ( 7 8 ) The Western Union a l s o moved t h a t G. Sydney H a l t e r be named as the f i r s t league commissioner. In response to the e a s t e r n c o l l e g e d r a f t the West a l s o i n s t i t u t e d a " n e g o t i a t i o n " l i s t to d i s p e r s e the t a l e n t from the western Canadin u n i v e r s i t i e s and j u n i o r c l u b s . Edmonton was the f i r s t -85-team to have a f u l l time general manager i n 1952 while the long awaited B.C. L i o n s f r a n c h i s e began play i n Vancouver i n 1954 w i t h f u l l - t i m e s t a f f p r e s e n t . C a l g a r y , Regina and Winnipeg a l l f o l l o w e d s u i t by the mid f i f t i e s . In the East, the new management s t y l e was slower to be adopted but the success of the Montreal A l o u e t t e s on the g r i d i r o n as they won Grey Cups i n 1954, 1955, and 1956 was a t t r i b u t e d p a r t l y to t h e i r c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e . The i n c r e a s e d value p l a c e d on the new corporate s t y l e of management during the 1950's and 1960's was e v i d e n t i n the approach to management techniques that general managers were promoting to t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s . Hamilton T i g e r Cat P r e s i d e n t (and f u t u r e CFL commissioner) Jake Gaudaur a r t i c u l a t e d t h i s management p e r s p e c t i v e i n a 1955 quote from the F i n a n c i a l Post: The time has come when the league should be set up p r o f i t making c o r p o r a t i o n s . We need owners who have a l a r g e enough c a p i t a l investment i n t h e i r team and t h e i r league that they w i l l be ready to look a f t e r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s as they would any other b u s i n e s s . (79) In 1956, i n an e f f o r t to f u r t h e r r a t i o n a l i z e t h e i r corporate development the western and e a s t e r n p r o f e s s i o n a l leagues re-formed themselves under the Canadian F o o t b a l l C o u n c i l as a type of loose f e d e r a t i o n g u i d i n g common i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the Canadian Rugby Union. Another example of the A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of the game came at that year's annual meeting when the p r o f e s s i o n a l leagues pushed through a change i n the value of a touchdown to the American s i x p o i n t s outmoding the t r a d i t i o n a l Canadian f i v e . -86-There was l i t t l e opposit ion to the move.(80) In 1958, the renaming of the Counci l to the present Canadian Footba l l League as a means to organize the two profess ional leagues under one corporate ident i ty out l ined the measure of nat ional unity within f o o t b a l l that was fast becoming apparent. At the same time, the broadcast media were a lso becoming interested in the league's a v a i l a b i l i t y as cheap, l i v e Canadian production and i t s potent ia l for increasing audiences and p r o f i t s . In 1952 CBLT-TV of Toronto paid $7500 to te lev ise the Grey Cup game l i v e in the f i r s t ever broadcast of the Grey Cup. The f i r s t t e l e v i s i o n contract for Canadian f o o t b a l l was signed in 1954 when the Big Four received a t o t a l of $350,000 from the CBC and NBC (American) networks for the r ight s to te lev ise the i r league games.(81) Because the Grey Cup was becoming a Canadian symbol of nat ional unity there was growing pressure for nat ional coverage of the game. In 1957 the f i r s t Grey Cup game was te lev i sed coast to coast with the CBC making technica l arrangements with U.S. t e l e v i s i o n and cable companies to carry the game through American transmission cables in order to get the broadcast s ignal to the Canadian A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c coasts. A t o t a l of t h i r t y one s tat ions carr i ed the game l i v e across Canada.(82) In 1961, the new, p r i v a t e l y owned Canadian T e l e v i s i o n network became a competitor to the monopoly on CFL t e l e v i s i o n r i g h t s that the CBC had developed through the 1950s. By 1962 they successful ly bid for the r ight s to both the Eastern and the -87-Western Conference league games. John B a s s e t t ' s CFTO-TV s t a t i o n i n Toronto, the f l a g s h i p of the nine s t a t i o n CTV network, caused a n a t i o n a l f u r o r when i t o u t b i d the CBC f o r the 1962 Grey Cup t e l e c a s t r i g h t s . CFTO signed a number of sponsors and the t e l e c a s t appeared to be extremely p r o f i t a b l e f o r them but t h e i r low number of s t a t i o n s meant that the Grey Cup, as a n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , would not be seen by f i v e m i l l i o n other Canadian viewers out of CTV's range a c r o s s Canada. To a l l e v i a t e the problem, CTV o f f e r e d to l e t the CBC c a r r y the s i g n a l f r e e of charge. However, the CBC, s u s p e c t i n g t h a t i t had been used to help s e l l the sponsor's r i g h t s , d e c l i n e d while o u t l i n i n g a counter o f f e r of a r e - t e l e c a s t without the CTV commercials. P u b l i c o p i n i o n was d i v i d e d on the issue of p r i v a t e versus p u b l i c t e l e v i s i o n . CTV's P i e r r e Berton d e c l a r e d : "I've never been prouder of the CBC" while CFCN's Chairman Gordon Love (of the CTV a f f i l i a t e i n Calgary) s t a t e d t h a t the c o n t r o v e r s y showed the CBC was a "monster r i d d l e d wih communist-type t h i n k i n g . " ( 8 3 ) E v e n t u a l l y , the CBC agreed to c a r r y the broadcast s i g n a l but the competition f o r the n a t i o n a l game e x h i b i t e d the p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l of the league and the i n c r e a s i n g economic power of t e l e v i s i o n w i t h i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t . The Grey Cup t e l e c a s t was a l s o a success i n the United S t a t e s where ABC broadcast i t on i t s Wide World of Sports program. As w e l l , the p o p u l a r i t y of the t e l e v i s e d f o o t b a l l games gained an added boost l a t e r i n the 1960's when, as the Canadian content b r o a d c a s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s were intr o d u c e d , the -88-a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l r e a d y cheaply produced f o o t b a l l games helped the networks f u l f i l l the content r e g u l a t i o n s a t lower c o s t than i f they had to produce complete shows from s c r a t c h . At that p o i n t , the dominant commercialized model of Canadian f o o t b a l l was v i r t u a l l y complete. Included i n i t s h i s t o r y have been many of the i s s u e s and events which were s i g n p o s t s of the A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of the s p o r t . I t was the s p o r t of f o o t b a l l r a t h e r than hockey which most i n f l u e n c e d the d i r e c t i o n of the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c system by, on the one hand, f o l l o w i n g the lead of the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the i n i t i a l commercial development of the s p o r t and, l a t e r , on the other hand, p r o v i d i n g a commercialized and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d r o l e model f o r the u n i v e r s i t i e s to emulate. The h i s t o r y of the development of the Canadian F o o t b a l l League can be presented as the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a s p o r t i n f l u e n c e d by the dominant economic themes of the 2 0 t h century. The search f o r new sources of p r o f i t i n the developing post-World War II consumer c u l t u r e took hold of f o o t b a l l d e s p i t e the game's longst a n d i n g 'amateur' t r a d i t i o n s and acted to i n f l u e n c e i t s development as a s p e c t a t o r s p o r t . J u s t as hockey, decades e a r l i e r , had become commodified and c a r t e l i z e d , so too d i d f o o t b a l l g r a d u a l l y e n t e r the world of corporate c a p i t a l i s m . However, f o o t b a l l ' s powerful amateur t r a d i t i o n and the r e g i o n a l c o n f l i c t s between e a s t e r n and western f o o t b a l l acted to reduce the p o t e n t i a l f o r c a p i t a l accumulation with the r e s u l t t h a t the s p o r t ' s "progress" towards assuming a commercial model occurred -89-a t a much slower pace than occurred i n hockey. In t h i s r e s p e c t , hockey's lac k of competition f o r c a p i t a l accumulation i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n United S t a t e s enabled i t to become the dominant commercialized s p o r t i n Canada. Hockey, F o o t b a l l and Dependency; An Overview The i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n and economic development of Canadian s p o r t occurred i n tandem with the r i s e of the United S t a t e s to r e p l a c e B r i t a i n as the economic metropole f o r Canada. The A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of the Canadian economy duri n g the 20th century l e d to an i n c r e a s i n g American i n f l u e n c e i n a l l aspects of Canadian s o c i e t y . In t h i s chapter I have argued that the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of Canadian s p o r t was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d (although not f u l l y determined) by the precedents set w i t h i n c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s south of the border. In hockey, c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n occurred w i t h l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n and i t s subsumption to American c a p i t a l during the 1920*s r e f l e c t e d the economic power of the American m e t r o p o l i s . Harnassed to the American economy, the NHL proceeded to enact p o l i c i e s that would enable i t to dominate and c o n t r o l the Canadian Amateur Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n i n i t s quest f o r a r e l i a b l e t a l e n t feeder system. The s t o r y i n f o o t b a l l was d i f f e r e n t . Unable to expand i n t o the United S t a t e s as the NHL had done, Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l imported coaches, p l a y e r s , techniques, t a c t i c s and r u l e s from American f o o t b a l l i n order to develop the game i n a more -90-marketable f a s h i o n . G r a d u a l l y , the game evolved to become roughly s i m i l a r to American f o o t b a l l . The primary aim of t h i s e v o l u t i o n a r y process was to harnass the s p e c t a t o r appeal of the American game to the growth of Canadian consumer c u l t u r e . While American c a p i t a l d i d not pl a y a c e n t r a l r o l e i n the development of the CFL, the process of A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n occurred through the use of American r u l e s and t a c t i c s imported to Canada by s u r p l u s American coaches, p l a y e r s and managers. To sum up, the evidence suggests that the process of Canadian dependence upon American s p o r t can be e x h i b i t e d i n a multitude of ways given the c u l t u r a l , economic, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y of the s p o r t . In hockey, the p l a y e r s , coaches and general managers have been Canadian but the c a p i t a l i s American and c o n t r o l occurs w i t h i n an American business s e t t i n g . In sh o r t , the Canadians have adapted t h e i r hockey c u l t u r e to the American s e t t i n g w i t h i n which the s p o r t must market i t s e l f . But i n f o o t b a l l , the c a p i t a l and c u l t u r a l context has been Canadian but the American managers, coaches and p l a y e r s c o n s t a n t l y have adapted the game to f i t the dominant American f o o t b a l l c u l t u r e from which they came. In both cases, Canadians have witnessed a common homogenizing tendency towards enhancing the commodified nature of the s p o r t , i t s o v e r a l l r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , and i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the worlds of mass marketing and mass entertainment. In Canada, t h i s has l e d n a t u r a l l y to dependence upon American c a p i t a l and markets and upon c u l t u r a l s t y l e s generated i n the American s p o r t and entertainment i n d u s t r i e s . -91-Sports i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s have not been immune from these kinds of p r e s s u r e s . But, as upper c l a s s i n s t i t u t i o n s supported by i n f u s i o n s of government c a p i t a l , Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s have not been f u l l y s u s e p t i b l e to the emerging commercial p r e s s u r e s i n s p o r t . However, the c l o s e p r o x i m i t y of the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d American u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s programs combined with the r a t i o n a l i z i n g tendencies i n Canadian s p o r t l e d g e n e r a l l y to a process of c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c system. I t i s i n order to g a i n an idea of the h i s t o r i c a l background of the Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y d e c i s i o n to implement an American s t y l e u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program that we now t u r n to an o u t l i n e of the h i s t o r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the development of the Canadian and American u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c systems. -92-Notes 1. For an account of the h is tory of games and sports in Canada see Howell and Howell, Sports and Games in Canadian L i f e , (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1969). 2. Richard S. Gruneau, C l a s s , Sports , and S o c i a l Development, (Amherst, Mass: Univers i ty of Massachusetts Press , 1983). 3. See John Mal lea , "The V i c t o r i a n Sporting Legacy," M c G i l l  Journal of Education (10:2) 1975; Richard S. Gruneau, "Sport, Soc ia l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and Soc ia l Inequal i ty ," in Sport and  S o c i a l Order, edited by D. B a l l and J .W. Loy, (Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1975; and S . F . Wise, "Sport and Class Values in Old Ontario and Quebec" in His Own Man: Essays in Honour of  A . R . M . Lower edited by W.H. Heick and R. Graham, (Montreal: McGil l -Queen's Press, 1974). 4. Gruneau, 1975, 1983. 5. E r i c Dunning and Kenneth Sheard, Barbarians, Gentlemen and  Players , (New York: New York Univers i ty Press , 1979) p.176-182. 6. Gruneau, C l a s s , Sports , and Soc ia l Development, p. 108. 7. Dunning and Sheard, p. 176-82. 8. Gruneau, p. 109. 9. I b i d . , p. 109. For an exce l lent d iscuss ion on the B r i t i s h c u l t u r a l impact on the development of Canadian sport see John Mal lea , "The V i c t o r i a n Sporting Legacy," M c G i l l Journal of  Education (10:2) 1975:p. 184-96. 10. Harry Braverman, Labor and Monopoly C a p i t a l (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974) p. 278-279 as quoted by Bruce Kidd, The P o l i t i c a l Economy of Sport (Ottawa: Canadian Associat ion of Health, Physical Education and Recreation Sociology of Sport Ser ies , 1979) p. 30-31. 11. Kidd, P o l i t i c a l Economy of Sport , p.30-31. 12. I b i d . , p. 31. Kidd notes that 'something l i k e $100,000' was wagered on the outcome of a rowing race between Ned Hanlon and Charles Courtney on the Potomac River in 1880. 13. Also worth noting in any examination of the centra l r e l a t i o n s h i p of sport in the p o l i t i c a l economy of capi ta l i sm must the symbolic value of sport as an area of l i f e where the r i s i n g mer i tocrat ic values of l i b e r a l democratic l i f e could re inforce the adoption of those values by the various s o c i a l c lasses and -93-the immigrants a r r i v i n g c o n s t a n t l y i n t o Canada. 14. For an i n f o r m a t i v e account of the e a r l y days of hockey see Bruce Kidd and John Macfarlane, The Death of Hockey (Toronto: new p r e s s , 1972). 15. I b i d . , p. 102-113. 16. Gruneau, C l a s s , S p o r t s , and S o c i a l Development, p.119. 17. I b i d . , p. 119. 18. Howell and Howell, p. 206. 19. Kidd and Macfarlane, p.103. 20. I b i d . , p. 107. 21. I b i d . , p. 108. 22. B r i a n McFarlane, 50 Years of Hockey, A H i s t o r y of the  N a t i o n a l Hockey League. As c i t e d by Kidd and Macfarlane p. 99-100. 23. There are f i v e economic c o n d i t i o n s which must be r e a l i z e d i f p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t i s to become a v i a b l e b u s i n e s s . These are: C a t e l i z a t i o n As N o l l (Governments and the Sports Business) and Jones ("The Economics of the N a t i o n a l Hockey League") note c a r t e l i z a t i o n i s a process whereby the i n d i v i d u a l team owners r e a l i z e t h a t the b a s i c u n i t of o p e r a t i n g p r o f i t i s the league not the team. To maximize team p r o f i t s , entrepreneurs must f i r s t maximize j o i n t p r o f i t s w i t h i n the league. C a r t e l i z a t i o n developed because before two teams compete on the f i e l d they must agree, o f f the f i e l d , on the c o n d i t i o n s of co m p e t i t i o n . Revenues can be enhanced i f competitors can agree to work together to develop and maximize the necessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o f i t a b l e exchange. The example of l e a v i n g Eddie L i v i n g s t o n e and h i s Toronto team out of the newly formed N a t i o n a l Hockey League i s one that demonstrates the advantages of a c a r t e l : i t enables the members to c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s f o r the common good of the group. Monopoly Many d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s a f f e c t the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of a commercial s p o r t s team but none more so than the presence or absence of co m p e t i t i o n . Monopoly i s the t o t a l l a c k of competition w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r market and means that a team can charge as much as p o s s i b l e f o r as many seats as i t can s e l l . Monopoly a l s o : causes revenues from n a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g r i g h t s to be -94-d i v i d e d among fewer teams; al l o w s the market p r i c e of both e x i s t i n g and expansion f r a n c h i s e s to be higher; p r e s e r v e s a few p o t e n t i a l l y l u c r a t i v e f r a n c h i s e s i t e s so that an e x i s t i n g team that begins to f a i l f i n a n c i a l l y has an a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e ; and, because of the t h r e a t of moving, g i v e s a team a d d i t i o n a l b a r g a i n i n g power when n e g o t i a t i n g stadium agreements or l o c a l b r o a d c a s t i n g r i g h t s . ( 2 4 ) Commercial s p o r t s teams and leagues want to monopolize t h e i r market n i c h e s f o r the same reason as do a l l b u s i n e s s e s : the a r b i t r a r y s e t t i n g of p r i c e s due to lac k of competition r e s u l t s i n w i n d f a l l p r o f i t s . Monopsony As a monopoly purchaser of labour, a monopsonistic s p o r t s league c r e a t e s an agreement w i t h i n i t s c a r t e l to d r i v e down s a l a r i e s ( i t s l a r g e s t expense) and determine working c o n d i t i o n s u n i l a t e r a l l y . The advantages of being i n a monopsonistic p o s i t i o n can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from Bruce Kidd: When the NHA c h a l l e n g e d the Canadian Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1909, i t p a i d $5,250 f o r a s i n g l e p l a y e r (Cyclone T a y l o r ) and average p l a y e r s a l a r i e s jumped to $1500. When the CHA f o l d e d a year l a t e r , the NHA s u c c e s s f u l l y l i m i t e d t o t a l s a l a r i e s to $5,000 per club and average s a l a r i e s f e l l to $500.(25) As the s i n g l e labour buyer, the s p o r t s league w i l l attempt to c o n t r o l e n t r y , p l a y i n g and e x i t c o n d i t i o n s f o r a l l p l a y e r s i n such a way as to maintain p r o f i t l e v e l s at t h e i r h i ghest p o s s i b l e l e v e l . Media Dependence When commercial s p o r t s leagues developed t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c emphasis on p r o f i t a b i l i t y they were f o r c e d i n t o having to market t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r product. In order to do t h i s these leagues developed a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n with the media. As an a r t i f i c i a l e n t i t y c r e a t e d f o r the purpose of marketing a p a r t i c u l a r product, the commercial s p o r t s league r e q u i r e s constant support and a t t e n t i o n from the media and two important p o i n t s are worth n o t i n g . F i r s t , support f o r the s p o r t s leagues by the media should not be s u r p r i s i n g f o r , as Clements notes: The economic and media e l i t e s are simply two s i d e s of the same upper c l a s s ; between them they hold two of the key sources of power i n Canadian s o c i e t y . ( 2 6 ) Secondly, t h i s media support has the e f f e c t of p r e s e n t i n g the developing s p o r t s league as the essence of modern s p o r t thus e n a b l i n g i t to e s t a b l i s h a strong p o s i t i o n i n the marketplace while a l l o w i n g the league time to upgrade and develop i t s -95-product. P u b l i c Subsidy P u b l i c s u b s i d i e s are an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the success of a l l commercial s p o r t . From the p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s b u i l t w i t h p u b l i c moneys to a t h l e t e s produced by the s t a t e supported e d u c a t i o n a l systems a t u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o l l e g e s and high schools and to the enforcement of monopoly through the system of law, the cash flow of comercial s p o r t s leagues are augmented by the p u b l i c . These s u b s i d i e s are g e n e r a l l y r e g r e s s i v e as Okner notes: In g e n e r a l , the b e n e f i t s from p u b l i c l y owned s p o r t s f a c i l i t i e s probably accrue d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y to the moderate-income or w e l l - t o - d o c i t i z e n s i n the community at the expense of the poor. (27) N o l l argues that " i t i s reasonable to conclude t h a t many teams are f i n a n c i a l l y v i a b l e only because of the s u b s i d i e s they r e c e i v e . " ( 2 8 ) B a s e b a l l i s an i n t e r e s t i n g example of a p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t where a s p e c i a l exemption from the United S t a t e s a n t i - t r u s t laws granted by Congress helps to maintain i t s p r o f i t a b i l i t y (or reduce i t s l o s s e s ) . Canada's Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act i s considered too weak to have any e f f e c t i n c o n t r o l l i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of monopolizing s p o r t s leagues. The framework f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n has been taken from Kidd, The  P o l i t i c a l Economy of Sport, p.40-44. 24. Roger G. N o l l , " A l t e r n a t i v e s i n Sports P o l i c y " i n Governments and the Sports Business, Ed. Roger G. N o l l , (Washington: The Brookings I n s t i t u t e , 1974) p.412. 25. Kidd, The P o l i t i c a l Economy of Sport, p.42. 26. Wallace Clement, The Canadian Corporate E l i t e , p.325. 27. Benjamin A. Okner "Subsides of Stadiums and Arenas" i n Governments and the Sports Business, p.347. 28. Roger G. N o l l " A l t e r n a t i v e s i n Sports P o l i c y " i n Governments and the Sports Business, p.413. 29. J.C.H. Jones, "The Economics of the N a t i o n a l Hockey League" i n Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics, February 1969. See a l s o J.C.H. Jones "The Economics of the NHL R e v i s i t e d : A p o s t s c r i p t on S t r u c t u r a l Change, Behavior and Government P o l i c y " i n Richard S. Gruneau and John G. A l b i n s o n ed. Canadian  S p o r t : S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s (Don M i l l s : Addison-Wesley Canada, 1976). 30. See the argument presented by Richard S. Gruneau i n C l a s s , -96-Sports , and S o c i a l Development, p. 118-120. 31. Kidd and Macfarlane, The Death of Hockey, p.109. 32. I b i d . , p.110. 33. I b i d . , p . l l l . 34. I b i d . , p.116. 35. I b i d . , p.104-105. 36. I b i d . , p.119. 37. I b i d . , p. 118. 38. For an in teres t ing anecdotal account of the p o l i t i c s hockey sportswrit ing see 'The Cheerleaders' in The Death of  Hockey, p. 133-160. 39. See note 105 in C las s , Sports , and S o c i a l Development, p. 188. 40. In the rest of th i s chapter the term f o o t b a l l w i l l re fer to Canadian f o o t b a l l as i t i s presently played and to a l l i t s precursor forms leading back to i t s separation from rugby during the 19th century; the term rugby w i l l re fer to the B r i t i s h and landed game in Canada from which f o o t b a l l made i t s s p l i t ; and American f o o t b a l l w i l l re fer to the American var ie ty of f o o t b a l l . 41. The h is tory of the evolut ion of Canadian f o o t b a l l i s , in large , part a r e f l e c t i o n of the h is tory of regional c o n f l i c t throughout Canada. 42. Howell and Howell, p.75. 43. Frank Cosentino, Canadian F o o t b a l l , (Toronto: The Musson Book Company, 1969) p. 13-14. 44. I b i d . , p. 16. 45. R . J . Mor iar ty , The Organizat ional History of the Canadian  In terco l l eg ia te A t h l e t i c Union Central (CIAUC) 1906-1955, Unpublished PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio State Univers i ty 1971, p. 42. 46. Cosentino, p. 17. 47. I b i d . , p.19. 48. Ottawa J o u r n a l , 21 October 1909 as quoted by Cosentino p. -97-27. 49. Toronto Globe, 30 November 1909 as quoted by Cosentino p. 28 50. Toronto Globe, 19 November 1912 as quoted by Cosentino p. 38. 51. A d e f i n i t i o n of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n by Max Weber i s "the process by which e x p l i c i t , a b s t r a c t , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c a l c u l a b l e procedures are i n c r e a s i n g l y s u b s t i t u t e d f o r sentiment, t r a d i t i o n , and r u l e of thumb i n a l l spheres of a c t i v i t y : i t leads to the displacement of r e l i g i o n by s p e c i a l i z e d s c i e n c e as the major source of i n t e l l e c t u a l a u t h o r i t y ; the s u b s t i t u t i o n of the t r a i n e d expert f o r the c u l t i v a t e d man of l e t t e r s ; the ous t i n g of the s k i l l e d handworker by machine technology; the replacement of t r a d i t i o n a l j u d i c i a l wisdom by a b s t r a c t , s ystematic s t a t u t o r y codes. I t d e m y s t i f i e s and i n s t r u m e n t a l i z e s l i f e , implying t h a t i n p r i n c i p l e one can master a l l t h i n g s by c a l c u l a t i o n s . " 52. Cosentino, p. 41. 53. Toronto Globe, 30 October 1920 as quoted by Cosentino p. 44. 54. Toronto Globe, 17 November 1919 as quoted by Cosentino p. 44. 55. Cosentino, p. 48. 56. Cosentino, p. 49,50. 57. Toronto Globe, 23 October 1922 as quoted by Cosentino p. 55. 58. Toronto Globe, 7 November 1923 as quoted by Cosentino p. 61-62. 59. Bruce I n k s e t t e r p e r s o n a l l e t t e r to Frank Cosentino 12 December 1968 as quoted by Cosentino p. 45. 60. Cosentino, p. 94. 61. Cosentino, p. 94. 62. Cosentino, p. 94. 63. Hamilton H e r a l d , 3 November 1931 as quoted by Cosentino p. 95. 64. Winnipeg Free Press, 9 November 1932 as quoted by -98-Cosentino p. 97. 65. Winnipeg Free Press, 10 December 1932 as quoted by Cosentino p. 98. 66. Toronto Globe, 7 September 1933 as quoted by Cosentino p. 99. 67. Statement by Joe Ryan i n personal i n t e r v i e w with Frank Cosentino A p r i l 1, 1968 as quoted by Cosentino p. 102. 68. Winnipeg Free P r e s s , 4 December 1935 as quoted by Cosentino p. 107. 69. Minutes of the 1936 Western Canadian Rugby Union Annual General Meeting as quoted by Cosentino p. 111. 70. Cosentino p. 112. 71. Cosention p. 128. 72. Maclean's, 15 September 1949 as quoted by Cosentino p. 135. 73. Cosentino p.133, 139-140. 74. Cosentino Chapter 6 "Post-War P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m 1945-1968". 75. See a r t i c l e i n the Toronto Globe and M a i l (8 September 1947) a d v i s i n g the Toronto Argonauts to openly acknowledge the f a c t t h at they were o p e r a t i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l team as quoted by Cosentino p. 130. 76. Andy O'Brien, " F o o t b a l l F i n a n c i n g " Canadian Business November 1948 as quoted by Cosentino p. 134-135. 77. "Those Rugby Ructions" Saturday Night 16 May 1950 as quoted by Cosentino p. 138. 78. Minutes of Canadian Rugby Union Annual General Meeting 1953 as quoted by Cosentino p. 147. 79. J . Gaudaur and J . Ki e r a n "Is t h i s Answer to B i g Four Muddle?" F i n a n c i a l Post 5 November 1955 p. 21. 80. Cosentino p. 154. 81. I b i d . , p.150. 82. I b i d . , p.159. 83. Time Magazine 30 Nov. 1962 as quoted by Cosentino p.174. - 9 9 -CHAPTER 4 A COMPARISON BETWEEN AMERICAN AND CANADIAN UNIVERSITY ATHLETICS Any attempt to present a comparison between the American and Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c systems would n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e e l a b o r a t i o n of p h i l o s o p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s d e t a i l i n g not only the s i t u a t i o n of a t h l e t i c s w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s but a l s o the changing p l a c e of the u n i v e r s i t i e s w i t h i n the h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g of the two s o c i e t i e s i n g e n e r a l . Such a d e t a i l e d comparison i s beyond the scope of the p r o j e c t at hand. However t h i s chapter w i l l present a b r i e f overview of some of the key themes that have acted throughout the h i s t o r y of both n a t i o n s to l e a d to a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the development p a t t e r n s of the two n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c systems. In the American case, the evidence appears to suggest that a model of h i g h - l e v e l commercialized a t h l e t i c s became entrenched throughout the major u n i v e r s i t i e s before an all-encompassing philosophy concerning the p l a c e of i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t i c s w i t h i n the American u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g c o u l d be f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e d . In the United S t a t e s , as the dynamic centre of a c a p i t a l i s t process that g r a d u a l l y extended i t s i n f l u e n c e i n t o most as p e c t s of s o c i e t y — a process which r e i n f o r c e d the r i s i n g m e r i t o c r a t i c v a l u e s that today provide a g a l v a n i z i n g symbol f o r American c u l t u r e - - t h e r e were few f a c t o r s to a f f e c t the commodification of u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t during the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century. -100-For Canada, as a dependent n a t i o n whose development was i n f l u e n c e d f i r s t by Great B r i t a i n and l a t e r by the United S t a t e s , the development of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s o c c u r r e d during an era when the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and mores of the B r i t i s h upper c l a s s model of the gentleman amateur he l d the dominant p o s i t i o n i n n a t i o n a l s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The development of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s occurred w i t h i n an upper c l a s s m i l i e u t h a t i d e a l i z e d the B r i t i s h concept of the gentleman-amateur as the dominant s p o r t form i n s o c i e t y . E s s e n t i a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e i n nature, t h a t philosophy r e - a f f i r m e d the ' n o b i l i t y of p l a y ' and acted to maintain i t s separateness from the dynamic commercial sphere of l i f e . ( l ) I t s entrenchment i n the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s ( p r i m a r i l y upper c l a s s i n s t i t u t i o n s a l l ) delayed the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t u n t i l such time as the f a c u l t y and s t a f f w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s c o u l d b e t t e r p e r c e i v e the b e n e f i t s and detriments of the more commercialized American system. F a c u l t y and s t a f f i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s a r t i c u l a t e d a p hilosophy of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s t h a t would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r o l e that the dominating B r i t i s h c u l t u r e a s s i g n e d to u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 19th century Canadian s o c i e t y . Since t h a t time, however, the growing dominance of American economic and c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s over Canada during the t w e n t i e t h century has been r e f l e c t e d i n a gradual d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of B r i t i s h - o r i e n t e d c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and v a l u e s i n a l l walks of l i f e . In u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s , t h i s process can be seen i n the gradual acceptance of key elements of the American u n i v e r s i t y -101-a t h l e t i c system as models f o r the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s to emulate. I t i s to a p r o v i s i o n of an o u t l i n e of the b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the two systems t h a t we now tu r n w i t h the i n t e n t of g a i n i n g a b e t t e r understanding of the h i s t o r i c a l context w i t h i n which the Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y d e c i s i o n makers found themselves i n the middle 1960's. American U n i v e r s i t y A t h l e t i c s The r i s e of a t h l e t i c s a t the American u n i v e r s i t i e s d i d not precede t h a t of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s by very many yea r s . But i t i s c l e a r from the a v a i l a b l e evidence t h a t i n the United S t a t e s an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t i c s o c c u r r e d very r a p i d l y i n the years l e a d i n g up to 1870.(2) In tha t year the f i r s t American c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l game was played between Rutgers and P r i n c e t o n . Competition i n soccer, b a s e b a l l , and rowing soon f o l l o w e d w i t h the formation of the Rowing A s s o c i a t i o n of American C o l l e g e s that same year. However, the s p i r i t of competition between the u n i v e r s i t i e s was soon marred by an outbreak of poor sportsmanship between the competitors and the s p e c t a t o r s a t the games.(3) Concerning t h i s h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d , i n 1929, The Carnegie Report on American C o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c s noted: The long standing r i v a l r y between Harvard and Yale d i s r u p t e d the membership of the A s s o c i a t i o n . F e e l i n g s ran high and c o n t e s t s among the s p e c t a t o r s were not i n f r e q u e n t l y more b i t t e r than those between the crews...Thus the c o n d i t i o n s engendered and f o s t e r e d by i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e competition l e d to the formation of a s s o c i a t i o n s to that end and th a t teams and crews might meet each -102-o t h e r i n a t h l e t i c competition on a uniform and accepted b a s i s . At the same time, the r i v a l r i e s which grew out of one such a s s o c i a t i o n i n the course of years proved to be i t s undoing, f o r p a r t i s a n s h i p r e p l a c e d sportmanship, and o r g a n i z a t i o n broke under the s t r e s s of r i v a l r y . ( 4 ) Harvard and Yale l a t e r withdrew from the A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1876. P r i o r to the 1880's, the s p o r t i n g t r a d i t i o n s of the American u n i v e r s i t i e s l o o s e l y resembled the p r a c t i c e s of u n i v e r s i t i e s i n England. In the United S t a t e s , v o l u n t e e r coaches were the norm wi t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l l e r s being, i n the main, student managers. Absent were the conspicuous t r a i n i n g t a b l e s and other s i g n s of p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d s p o r t that would appear on u n i v e r s i t y campuses w i t h i n a very few y e a r s . While the u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s d i d , on o c c a s i o n , e x e r t t h e i r power to i n f l u e n c e the d i r e c t i o n and development of u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t ( i n 1871, f o r i n s t a n c e , the Harvard and Yale f a c u l t i e s banned soccer matches), g e n e r a l l y , i t seems that they had l i t t l e f o r e s i g h t of the commodification of a t h l e t i c s t h a t was about to occur. As The  Carnegie Report noted, these groups s u f f e r e d "a general l a c k of comprehension r e s p e c t i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o l l e g e s p o r t and a complete f a i l u r e to foresee the development t h a t i t was d e s t i n e d to undergo."(5) A f t e r 1880, the a t t e n t i o n p a i d to s p o r t s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y at many u n i v e r s i t i e s . A t h l e t i c programs at u n i v e r s i t i e s throughout the United S t a t e s went through a p e r i o d of expansion t h a t l e d to l a r g e a t h l e t i c budgets and i n c r e a s e d complexity f o r the student managers. The p r o d u c t i o n of commercial a t h l e t i c programs i n v o l v e d a process of -103-r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n t h a t acted to r e v o l u t i o n i z e the s p o r t s o f f e r i n g s . V o l u n t e e r coaches became p r o f e s s i o n a l as the demand f o r winning teams i n c r e a s e d , while the growing complexity of the programs l e d to the replacement of the student managers of a t h l e t i c s w i t h f u l l - t i m e a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s . The c o l l e g e alumni became i n v o l v e d f i n a n c i a l l y — t h i s was very important f o r the young u n i v e r s i t i e s ' s t r u g g l e with f i n a n c i a l problems during a p e r i o d of expansion and growth--and attempted to g a i n i n f l u e n c e i n the a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s of the school.(6) Observers agree that most alumni i n v o l v e d i n the a t h l e t i c programs were responding to a sense of l o y a l t y to t h e i r alma mater. They were a l s o a t t r a c t e d by the i n f l u e n t i a l power and s o c i a l prominence gained by being i n v o l v e d with a s u c c e s s f u l u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program. As w e l l , the concept of s e r v i c e to youth was important f o r some while other r a t i o n a l e s supported the moral, p h y s i c a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s to be gained by students from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n campus sports. ( 7 ) But the intense alumni i n t e r e s t combined wi t h a f a c u l t y a t t i t u d e of hands o f f , 'study of the lamp, r a t h e r than with the a f f a i r s of c o l l e g e l i f e ' , l e d to the assumption of graduate c o n t r o l of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s with l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or f a c u l t y . The i n c r e a s e d complexity of a h i g h l y r a t i o n a l i z e d a t h l e t i c program reduced the scope of student c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n ; with f a c u l t y i n t e r e s t i n the program almost n o n - e x i s t e n t , there was l i t t l e concerted o p p o s i t i o n to the alumni g a i n i n g control. ( 8 ) Thus, the t r a n s i t i o n of c o n t r o l from the -104-students to the alumni passed very q u i c k l y as the Carnegie Report concluded almost 40 years l a t e r : In consequence, there was s c a r c e l y a s t r u g g l e f o r the c o n t r o l of c o l l e g e a t h l e t i c s : the alumni, or such of them as concerned themselves a c t i v e l y w i t h the matter, achieved dominion almost by d e f a u l t . (9) At a time f e a t u r i n g great debate about the mission of American u n i v e r s i t i e s , i t seems i r o n i c t h a t u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s programs were not s h i e l d e d from the e f f e c t s of commercialization.(10) However, at the t u r n of the century l a i s s e z f a i r e c a p i t a l i s m was at i t s height i n the United S t a t e s , and the amateur t r a d i t i o n was not n e a r l y as powerful as i t was i n neighbouring Canada. In t h i s context, the marketing and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p o t e n t i a l of u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s teams proved i r r e s i s t i b l e to alumni entrepreneurs. Lack of f a c u l t y l e a d e r s h i p i n c o n t r o l l i n g the development of a p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d model of a t h l e t i c s l e d to an u n c o n t r o l l e d commodification of u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s i n i t i a l l y under the management of the students and l a t e r under the i n f l u e n c e of the alumni. Of c r u c i a l importance, d u r i n g an expansionary p e r i o d of academic development the u n i v e r s i t i e s had a heavy r e l i a n c e on c a p i t a l i n f u s i o n s from alumni and community b o o s t e r s . Curbing the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n and success of the a t h l e t i c program could have l e d to a corresponding drop i n alumni support f o r a t h l e t i c s s p e c i f i c a l l y , ( 1 1 ) and the u n i v e r s i t y i n g e n e r a l . U l t i m a t e l y , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e f f o r t s to r e c r u i t a n a t i o n a l l y r ecognized f a c u l t y -105-and develop p r e s t i g i o u s academic programs c o u l d be a f f e c t e d q u i t e s e v e r e l y . C l e a r l y , the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s value of a s u c c e s s f u l a t h l e t i c program was p e r c e i v e d by many American u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s during the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century. In t u r n , the commercial b a s i s of those b e n e f i t s a l s o acted to r e i n f o r c e the commodification of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s and p o s s i b l y played a r o l e i n p r e v e n t i n g any concerted o p p o s i t i o n to the commercial approach.(12) Some evidence of the problems i n the American u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s programs f i r s t became apparent during the 1880's when p u b l i c i z e d r e p o r t s of rampant r e c r u i t i n g of 'tramp' a t h l e t e s and ' r i n g e r s ' f o r the high p r o f i l e c o l l e g e f o o t b a l l teams became p u b l i c . ( 1 3 ) F o o t b a l l uniforms e a s i l y concealed imposters who were r e c r u i t e d s t r i c t l y f o r the purpose of winning games and i n c r e a s i n g gate r e c e i p t s . As an o f f s h o o t of the d e s i r e to win and f i n a n c i a l need to have l a r g e gate r e c e i p t s , the value of t a l e n t e d a t h l e t e s to the team's success rose and the issue of paying p l a y e r s to p l a y f o r the u n i v e r s i t y came to the f o r e . The p r a c t i c e of s u b s i d i z i n g c o l l e g e a t h l e t e s became widespread and g r a d u a l l y extended down the t a l e n t feeder system to the high schools where h i s t o r i c a l r e p o r t s note that high school s e n i o r a t h l e t e s 'shopped around' f o r the best b i d from a u n i v e r s i t y . ( 1 4 ) A l s o , of c e n t r a l importance to the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' s c h o l a r l y r e p u t a t i o n s , a t h l e t e s who had no academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were entered i n t o u n i v e r s i t y o s t e n s i b l y to play s p o r t s and, among other t a c t i c s , r e c e i v e d complimentary t i c k e t s as payment. -106-Coaches were pressured to make winning the number one p r i o r i t y f o r t h e i r teams and t h i s , i n t u r n , l e d to g r e a t e r pressure on the a t h l e t e s to develop t h e i r s k i l l s w i t h i n the program.(15) As a r e s u l t of t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , team p r a c t i c e s became more frequent and l o n g e r and l e d to r e d u c t i o n s i n the amount of time a v a i l a b l e i n the students' t i m e t a b l e f o r t h e i r academic work. The s c o u t i n g of opponents, long considered an unsportsmanlike p r a c t i c e , became accepted as the r a t i o n a l i z i n g process overturned many t r a d i t i o n s t h a t were becoming outmoded i n the face of the r i s i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s of American c u l t u r e . ( 1 6 ) The p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m of a t h l e t e s a l s o became more overt throughout u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s as a t h l e t e s accepted jobs or under-the-table payments from alumni to attend t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y and p l a y f o r i t s s p o r t s teams. I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t the p r e s s u r e s to win l e d to an i n c r e a s i n g b r u t a l i z a t i o n of f o o t b a l l with deaths and many i n j u r i e s o c c u r r i n g every season. In summary, the evidence i s c l e a r t h at the s o c i a l problems i n e x i s t e n c e i n American u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s i n the l a t e t w e n t i e t h century were l a r g e l y i n p l a c e by the end of the n i n e t e e n t h century. In e f f e c t , the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the dominant model of American c o l l e g e a t h l e t i c s was v i r t u a l l y complete before u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s were able to c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n . Harvard U n i v e r s i t y ' s P r e s i d e n t E l i o t d e s c r i b e d the e n t i r e issue when he wrote i n h i s 1892-93 annual r e p o r t of the disadvantages of the 'wanton exaggeration' of the u n i v e r s i t y -107-a t h l e t i c s p o r t s programs. The Carnegie Report a l s o provided comment on the issue from a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e : The a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t a t h l e t i c s c u r r e n t i n the l a s t decade of the century might e a s i l y have served as a sourcebook f o r t h e i r l a t e r opponents. They i n c l u d e d charges of over-exaggeration, d e m o r a l i z a t i o n of the c o l l e g e and of academic work, dis h o n e s t y , b e t t i n g and gambling, p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , r e c r u i t i n g and s u b s i d i z a t i o n , the employment and payment of the wrong kind of men as coaches, the e v i l e f f e c t s of c o l l e g e a t h l e t i c s upon [high] school a t h l e t i c s , the roughness and b r u t a l i t y of f o o t b a l l , extravagant expenditures of money, and the general c o r r u p t i o n of youth by the monster of a t h l e t i c i s m . ( 1 7 ) The anarchy of American u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s a t the tu r n of the century was apparent i n the f o o t b a l l c r i s i s of 1905 when observers noted alarming i n c r e a s e s i n the numbers of i n j u r i e s and deaths a t games durin g the f a l l season. A f t e r evidence appeared to suggest that the u n i v e r s i t i e s were unable to e f f e c t i v e l y p o l i c e the s p o r t , many i n s t i t u t i o n s dropped the game and the p o s s i b i l i t y loomed of a nationwide banning of the s p o r t . Only i n t e r v e n t i o n by American P r e s i d e n t Theodore Roosevelt l e d to the necessary reforms i n the s p o r t ' s t e c h n i c a l s t r u c t u r e being made and the c o l l e g e game "saved".(18) One development of the c r i s i s was the n o t i o n that u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t i e s had to take g r e a t e r c o n t r o l of a t h l e t i c s . T h i s p r o p o s a l was reformulated and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n the u n i v e r s i t y system and l e d d i r e c t l y to the formation of the N a t i o n a l C o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1910. I t was t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n that had as i t s broad mandate to e x e r t g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over the development of American u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s . -108-In r e t r o s p e c t , however, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c o n t r o l e s t a b l i s h e d by the e a r l y NCAA appears to have been too l i t t l e , too l a t e . U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c programs were a l r e a d y deeply embedded i n the web of commercializing f o r c e s that were present i n American s o c i e t y . With regard to the adoption of the B r i t i s h concept of the amateur a t h l e t e as the dominant s p o r t form w i t h i n the American u n i v e r s i t i e s , i t appears that the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l underpinnings of the B r i t i s h amateur model were simply modified and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o dynamic m e r i t o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s that were so c e n t r a l i n the development of American s o c i e t y . The dominance of l i b e r a l i s m w i t h i n the United S t a t e s combined w i t h a: l e g a l i s t i c , r a t i o n a l i z i n g a t t i t u d e of mind ... c o n t r i b u t e d to evasions of the convention. There can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t the m u l t i p l i c i t y of r u l e s a g a i n s t p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m has bred i n many a t h l e t e s , present and past , a strong p r e d i l e c t i o n to s a t i s f y the l e t t e r of the amateur r u l e while knowing f u l l w e l l that even i n the a ct of s a t i s f a c t i o n they were contravening i t s s p i r i t . (19) Yet, i t i s important to note, however, that d e s p i t e the evidence suggesting that the American a t h l e t i c programs were h e a v i l y commercialized, t h e i r development at that time was s t i l l , a c c o r d i n g to the standards of l a t e r e r a s , q u i t e crude and u n r e f i n e d . The area of rec r u i t m e n t , f o r i n s t a n c e , before 1917 was s t i l l l a r g e l y d e f i n e d by the e f f o r t s of the undergraduate manager or the a t h l e t e s themselves. I t was not u n t i l the immediate post-World War I era that r e c r u i t i n g and s u b s i d i z a t i o n -109-was taken out of the hands of the students and the idea of developing a r a t i o n a l i z e d / e f f i c i e n t t a l e n t feeder system u t i l i z i n g coaches, alumni and a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s became widespread throughout the American u n i v e r s i t y system. F o l l o w i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the development of a commodified model of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s i n the United S t a t e s was v i r t u a l l y complete, save i t s ongoing refinement and e x t e n s i o n as new techniques, concepts and s p o r t s were d i s c o v e r e d and developed. In the United S t a t e s , the e a r l y e x t e n s i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t market i n t o the s p o r t i n g sphere i n search of new p r o f i t o p p o r t u n i t i e s faced l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s and the interweaving of the a t h l e t i c programs w i t h the market process continued throughout the t w e n t i e t h century. From the s t u d i e s surveyed there appears to be l i t t l e doubt that the f o r t y years between 1870 and 1910 were seminal i n the formation of a commercially o r i e n t e d model of a t h l e t i c s a t most of the major American u n i v e r s i t i e s . Canadian U n i v e r s i t y A t h l e t i c s Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s a l s o have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n the 19th century when, as the number of students i n c r e a s e d a t the c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s (the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Queen's U n i v e r s i t y and M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y ) , many of the a t h l e t i c a l l y g i f t e d began to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s . There are r e p o r t s of track and f i e l d competitions i n the e a r l y 1800's while there are records of a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s a t Queen's, Toronto, and -110-Montreal i n the 1850's and I860's. (20) Rugby was being played a t Dalhousie i n 1860 and i t was M c G i l l which introduced the Canadian v a r i e t y of rugby to the United S t a t e s i n May 18 74 when they played two games a g a i n s t Harvard a t Cambridge, Massachusetts.(21) As a r e s u l t of t h i s and other i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n s , some changes were i n s t i t u t e d i n the r u l e s of rugby which were adopted throughout Canada. In t h i s sense, Canadian u n i v e r s i t y teams played a key r o l e i n the c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n of the game. Due to t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p i n r u l e making and game i n n o v a t i o n s , the u n i v e r s i t y teams became very s u c c e s s f u l i n the newly formed Canadian Rugby Union i n 1892 and won s i x championships i n a row before seceding i n 1898.(22) It i s s a i d t h a t a group of M c G i l l students a l s o developed and p u b l i c i z e d the f i r s t s e t of r u l e s f o r hockey and i t was i n the form of an upper c l a s s amateur s p o r t t h a t i t i n i t i a l l y spread r a p i d l y throughout Canada. M o r i a r t y argues that the new sp o r t of hockey was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i n g f o r c e i n the development of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s . ( 23) During the e a r l y p e r i o d , as b a s t i o n s f o r the middle and upper c l a s s s p o r t i n g e t h i c , the u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e i r students played key r o l e s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of Canadian amateur leagues i n a v a r i e t y of s p o r t s and were a l s o c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n . I t i s i n t h i s f a s h i o n t h a t Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s evolved as a r e s u l t of student i n i t i a t i v e during the l a t e 1800's. I t was only when the issue arose of qu e s t i o n a b l e p r a c t i c e s i n the area of r e c r u i t i n g a t h l e t e s , combined wi t h r i s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of - I l l -Canadian f o o t b a l l , that the f a c u l t i e s of the Canadian schools became involved with and assumed contro l of the a t h l e t i c programs. It appears that a t r a d i t i o n of facul ty influence in a t h l e t i c s at the B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s and publ ic schools played an important ro le in inf luencing Canadian un ivers i ty s ta f f to become c lose ly involved in the contro l of the un ivers i ty representative sports teams.(24) Moriarty out l ined the process of transfer of contro l in the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s : The gradual transfer of sports j u r i s d i c t i o n from student clubs to the s tudent- faculty a t h l e t i c assoc iat ion was t y p i c a l . . . . I t was a gradual process which saw a predominantly student contro l l ed committee exerc is ing loose contro l over the sports clubs on campus, give way by the turn of the century to a j o i n t s tudent-faculty a t h l e t i c committee exerc is ing t i gh t contro l over a l l campus a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t y . ( 2 5 ) Further attempts at extending administrat ive contro l over univers i ty a t h l e t i c s in Canada on an i n t e r - u n i v e r s i t y basis led to the formation of the Canadian In terco l l eg ia te A t h l e t i c Union in centra l Canada (1906), the Maritime In terco l l eg ia te A t h l e t i c Union (1910), and the Western Canadian In terco l l eg ia te A t h l e t i c Union (1920) in the ear ly part of the twentieth century. Separate and independent organizat ions , these unions were p r i m a r i l y regional in focus and served to out l ine the underdeveloped state of Canadian univers i ty sports r e l a t i o n s in a reg iona l i zed nat ion . A t r u l y nat ional organizat ion was not to be formed u n t i l the re -organizat ion of the Canadian In terco l l eg ia te A t h l e t i c Union in 1961.(26) -112-F o o t b a l l has always been the most important s p o r t i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , as has been the case i n the United S t a t e s , and developments south of the border were observed w i t h g r e a t i n t e r e s t by Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c p o l i c y makers.(27) The American u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l c r i s i s of 1905 was given c o n s i d e r a b l e coverage i n the Canadian p r e s s . One r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of M c G i l l a c t u a l l y attended the December, 1905 conference i n New York which l e d to the formation of the I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Conference ( l a t e r to be renamed as the N a t i o n a l C o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n ) . ( 2 8 ) On the f i e l d , c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the American schools i n i t i a l l y p r o vided an important o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of r u l e changes. For example, the Michigan-Harvard "open play system" became very popular w i t h the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s and i s considered to have been an i n t e g r a l f a c t o r s e p a r a t i n g the Canadian game from E n g l i s h rugby. The d e c i s i o n of Canadians not to implement the American forward pass u n t i l the 1930's was a l s o c r u c i a l to the development of a uniquely Canadian game. Even during the e a r l y years of the t w e n t i e t h century many Canadians were a l r e a d y w e l l aware of the impact of t h e i r geographic p r o x i m i t y to the United S t a t e s on the e v o l u t i o n of t h e i r s p o r t s . M o r i a r t y notes the comments of some e a r l y f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s : many f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s deplored what they c a l l e d " A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of rugby by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new r u l e s and p l a y s . " One who may have been p r o p h e t i c went so f a r as to p r e d i c t t h a t these changes i n the game's c h a r a c t e r would "unhappily tend to p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m r a t h e r than sport."(29) -113-Indeed, as the p o p u l a r i t y of the Canadian game rose, i t became more commercialized and presented problems f o r the amateur t r a d i t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s . Revenues from f o o t b a l l games were important to the u n i v e r s i t i e s . Funds were needed to support t h e i r non-revenue a t h l e t i c programs and, to maximize revenues, l a r g e stadiums were c o n s t r u c t e d a t s e v e r a l u n i v e r s i t i e s . ( 3 0 ) Molson Stadium was b u i l t at M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1919 ( c a p a c i t y 20,000), Richardson Stadium a t Queen's i n 1921 ( c a p a c i t y 10,000), L i t t l e Stadium a t Western O n t a r i o i n London i n 1929 ( c a p a c i t y 6,000) and V a r s i t y Stadium i n Toronto was expanded to 20,000 seat s i n 1930. L a t e r , V a r s i t y would reach 27,000 seat s and become the s i t e of some of the most important p r o f e s s i o n a l and u n i v e r s i t y p l a y o f f games i n Canadian f o o t b a l l . The revenue from p l a y i n g host to l u c r a t i v e f o o t b a l l games every f a l l became a steady source of income that the three major c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c programs came to budget f o r and expect. With the proceeds from the games, stadiums were maintained, coaches and support s t a f f s a l a r i e s p a i d and other s p o r t s budgets augmented. The gradual expansion of u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s programs over the f i r s t few decades of the t w e n t i e t h century l e d to the development of Big Three f o o t b a l l (and l a t e r B i g Four—Queen's, M c G i l l , Toronto and, i n 1928, Western Ontario) as an i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l monopoly which f i n a n c i a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e a t h l e t i c b usiness managers and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s c o u l d i l l a f f o r d to upset.(31) The o v e r r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l -114-imperative of the Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union during t h i s era appears from the evidence to have been c h i e f l y to m aintain the c o n t r o l of the B i g Three " a c t i v e " members (Toronto, Queen's, and M c G i l l ) i n the a l l - p o w e r f u l Board of Reference. I t was the Board of Reference which e x e r c i s e d a u t o c r a t i c c o n t r o l over the a f f a i r s of the revenue generating i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l league and the i n t e r e s t s of the " a s s o c i a t e " members (the r e s t of the s m a l l e r u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s ) . ( 3 2 ) T h e i r p o l i c i e s c o n s o l i d a t e d and r e i n f o r c e d the flow of f o o t b a l l p r o f i t s to the i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l powers and augmented t h e i r c o n t r o l i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the CIAU.(33) I t was a l s o the cornerstone f o r f u t u r e r e g i o n a l c o n f l i c t s over power, s t a t u s and f i n a n c e s w i t h i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s . The 'have-nots' among the c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s were very i n t e r e s t e d i n j o i n i n g the 'haves', e s p e c i a l l y i n f o o t b a l l as the memoirs of Sherwood Fox, who assumed the Presidency of the U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o i n 1928, e x p l a i n : By t h e i r f o o t b a l l f r u i t s ye s h a l l know them; seems to sum up the common t h i n k i n g of the fans...As f a r as the g eneral p u b l i c was concerned...only those u n i v e r s i t i e s that had teams competing i n the s e n i o r i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e league were known even to e x i s t . . . P r o b a b l y the most e x p e d i t i o u s way f o r Western to make h e r s e l f widely known was to put f o r t h a g r e a t deal of e f f o r t to advance her f o o t b a l l team as soon as p o s s i b l e from the unknown and unglamorous intermediate c o l l e g i a t e ranks to the s e n i o r ranks...In the autumn of 1928, Western won the championship of the Intermediate I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e s e r i e s . The time was r i p e f o r a c t i o n . A p p l i c a t i o n f o r admission to the s e n i o r s e r i e s was made without d e l a y . . . i t was accepted, the four teams r e n d e r i n g much e a s i e r the p r e p a r a t i o n of a season's schedule of games.(34) Western O n t a r i o ' s membership i n c r e a s e d the s i z e of the B i g Three -115-to a more adaptable f o u r team league. L a t e r , i n 1948, the London u n i v e r s i t y a l s o became the f o u r t h member of the Board of Reference.(35) Also i n c l u d e d among the have-nots wishing to ga i n e n t r y to the inner c i r c l e of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s were the r e g i o n a l u n i v e r s i t i e s l o c a t e d on the p e r i p h e r y of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y sport.(36) The members of the Western Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union made s e v e r a l attempts to j o i n the CIAU during the years 1920 to 1955 but a l l of these e f f o r t s were r e b u f f e d . The f i r s t attempt to extend the CIAU o u t s i d e of c e n t r a l Canada occu r r e d i n 1921 when the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba asked f o r membership i n the tra c k and f i e l d p l a y i n g union. The idea of i n c l u d i n g a l l u n i v e r s i t i e s throughout Canada i n the CIAU l e d to d i s c u s s i o n a t the CIAU annual general meeting t h a t year but the membership agreed t h a t the move would not be s u c c e s s f u l i n view of the problems of geography.(37) In 1928, the N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of Canadian U n i v e r s i t y Students became a c t i v e i n the issue and suggested the formation of a cross-Canada i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e union embracing the east and west as e i t h e r branches or d i v i s i o n s . ( 3 8 ) Once again there was c o n s i d e r a b l e support f o r the idea w i t h i n the CIAU but i n the end the proposal d i d not g a i n enough support and was r e j e c t e d . In 1931, the CIAU r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan asking i t to support the u n i v e r s i t y ' s b i d to bypass the p r o v i n c i a l b a s k e t b a l l c l u b championships i n favour of j o i n i n g i n w i t h the n a t i o n a l i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e p l a y o f f s t r u c t u r e . The CIAU -116-supported t h i s request i n a l e t t e r to the Canadian Amateur B a s k e t a l l A s s o c i a t i o n but wrote the s e c r e t a r y of the WCIAU p o i n t i n g out that such a p l a y o f f setup would mean th a t "the east c o u l d never e n t e r the Canadian play downs on account of the time at which they were held."(39) On these o c c a s i o n s , the CIAU showed l i t t l e o f f i c i a l i n t e r e s t i n forming a t r u l y n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t would encompass u n i v e r s i t i e s from both the western and e a s t e r n r e g i o n s . As M o r i a r t y notes, "This was c u r i o u s i n an era marked by so much openness and involvement i n n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a t h l e t i c s . " ( 4 0 ) But, i n view of the i n t r a - r e g i o n a l r i v a l r i e s i n c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s and the economic foundations of i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l , the CIAU had l i t t l e reason to chance a p o t e n t i a l upset of the s t a t u s quo by i n c l u d i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s from o u t s i d e c e n t r a l Canada. It appears from the evidence that the i n t e r n a l i s s u e s of power and c o n t r o l dominated CIAU meetings to such an extent that e x t e r n a l concerns such as forming a t r u l y n a t i o n a l union were of secondary importance. C h i e f among these i n t e r n a l i s s u e s i n the e a s t e r n Canadian u n i v e r s i t y system were the problems a s s o c i a t e d with a t h l e t i c s u b s i d i z a t i o n , the r e c r u i t i n g of a t h l e t e s , and the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l . While adherence to amateurism was espoused f o r p u b l i c consumption, evidence suggests t h a t the l e a d i n g c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s were innovators i n the i m p o r t a t i o n of American-style r e c r u i t i n g and s u b s i d i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s f o r Canadian u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l . ( 4 1 ) For example, the importing of American f o o t b a l l people (Frank Shaughnessy a t - 1 1 7 -M c G i l l , George Awrey at Queen's, and Warren Stevens at Toronto) to d i r e c t t h e i r a t h l e t i c programs appears to have been a product of the need to ensure l a r g e revenues from gate r e c e i p t s through the focus of a winning f o o t b a l l program. Winning teams, of course, r e q u i r e d t a l e n t e d p l a y e r s who, as i t was o f t e n a l l e g e d by many observers, were r e c r u i t e d and s u b s i d i z e d to p l a y a t the major c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . As B i l l Orban, the a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r a t Loyola C o l l e g e has noted: In terms of amateurism i t was somewhat h y p o c r i t i c a l , f o r everyone knew that there was help f o r a t h l e t e s a t Queen's, M c G i l l and Western O n t a r i o . . . I f the CIAU was amateur, i t was i n e v e r y t h i n g except f o o t b a l l . ( 4 2 ) On the same p o i n t , J . K i r k p a t r i c k of M c G i l l has suggested t h a t : Everyone suspected everybody e l s e of s u b s i d i z i n g a t h l e t e s and proclaimed h i s own innocence. I am sure t h a t a c e r t a i n amount of s u b s i d i z a t i o n of a t h l e t e s was p r a c t i c e d i n f o o t b a l l i n the major u n i v e r s i t i e s from funds ou t s i d e the c o n t r o l of the un i v e r s i t i e s . ( 4 3 ) In a d d i t i o n to t h i s i s s u e , the l a r g e r Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s faced p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t i n g competition f o r the best Canadian a t h l e t e s from American u n i v e r s i t i e s which had a l r e a d y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d t h e i r p o l i c i e s of p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l compensation to u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t e s through a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s and other means. Given the p o s i b i l i t y of such competition f o r the best s k i l l e d a t h l e t e s , i t was i n e v i t a b l e that the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s would have to compete f i n a n c i a l l y w i t h American r e c r u i t e r s f o r some of the best c e n t r a l Canadian a t h l e t e s . -118-Yet, i n Canada, the o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of the CIAU and i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s was to oppose the g r a n t i n g of any a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p , a p o l i c y that was f o r m a l l y endorsed by the member u n i v e r s i t i e s ' p r e s i d e n t s i n 1947.(44) A key theme i n t h i s argument was th a t American s t y l e s c h o l a r s h i p s s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r a t h l e t i c achievement were out of order. However, few a d m i n i s t r a t o r s saw any problems w i t h s c h o l a s t i c a l l y g i f t e d a t h l e t e s r e c e i v i n g academic awards or b u r s a r i e s based along the l i n e s of the Rhodes S c h o l a r s h i p s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the Rhodes S c h o l a r s h i p s are con s i d e r e d to be a c r u c i a l precedent i n the l e g i t i m a t i o n of the use of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s a t many U.S. un i v e r s i t i e s . ( 4 5 ) However, the pressure to succeed i n u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s on both s i d e s of the border was gre a t and some of the a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s , l e d by the commercialized example s e t by t h e i r s i s t e r American c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , saw l i t t l e reason not to promote t h e i r attempts to award a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s to t h e i r a t h l e t e s . As the comments of former M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r V i c Obeck to M o r i a r t y suggest, the support i n the community f o r such p o l i c i e s was e v i d e n t i n the a c t i v e i n t e r e s t of the M c G i l l alumni during the 1950's: We s t a r t e d w i t h the premise t h a t there was no such thi n g as an a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p but the q u e s t i o n of how many meals per day would come up. Then, of course, I had a group of former M c G i l l a t h l e t e s , i n t e r e s t e d M c G i l l alumni who were concerned because we weren't g e t t i n g f o o t b a l l boys s i n c e f o o t b a l l i s nothing i n Quebec. They gave some money and s a i d , 'go get some boys.' I p o i n t e d out that the r u l e s were a g a i n s t i t , but I s a i d , ' l e t me think about i t . ' E v e n t u a l l y , we set up the M a r t l e t t Fund whereby -119-a boy c o u l d borrow funds to go to s c h o o l and pay i t back a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n without i n t e r e s t . There was nothing under the t a ble.(46) M o r i a r t y went on to add t h a t : From these a c t i v i t i e s , Ted Reeve of the Toronto S t a r c a l l e d the o p e r a t i o n , 'Vic Obeck and h i s loan rangers*.(47) Other i n d i v i d u a l s i n the c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s were a l s o promoting the idea of l e g i t i m i z i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d to a t h l e t e s . According to J.B. K i r k p a t r i c k , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y ' s f a c u l t y a t h l e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from 1948 to 1956, O r r i n Carson of Queen's o c c a s i o n a l l y combined wi t h M c G i l l ' s Obeck to suggest t h a t 'open a s s i s t a n c e to a t h l e t e s be p e r m i t t e d , i n o r d e r to remove the p r a c t i c e or s u s p i c i o n of under-the-table d e a l s ' . But the u n i v e r s i t y p r e s i d e n t s were opposed to the move and r e p o r t e d l y asked t h e i r a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s to stop any under-the-table a i d to a t h l e t e s . ( 4 8 ) Much of the pressure to l e g i t i m i z e and increase the s u b s i d i z a t i o n and r e c r u i t i n g of a t h l e t e s was a r e s u l t of the c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of the Big Four f o o t b a l l league and i t s monopoly over c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s . A l s o , alumni p r e s s u r e s s i m i l a r to those encoutered a t the U.S. u n i v e r s i t i e s were a l s o p r e s e n t . Other commercializing p r e s s u r e s came from the i n t r u s i o n of the broadcast media i n t o u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l as a p o t e n t i a l source of p r o f i t f o r r a d i o . In 1948, f o r i n s t a n c e , the r a d i o r i g h t s f o r Big Four f o o t b a l l were s o l d f o r $5000 ($4000 f o r the r e g u l a r season and $1000 f o r the p l a y o f f s ) . London L i f e was the -120-major sponsor and Ward C o r n e l l , famous l a t e r f o r h i s work i n t e l e v i s e d hockey, was the commentator. By 1955 the d o l l a r f i g u r e had r i s e n to $20,000 and was p r o v i d i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l source of income to the Big Four u n i v e r s i t y programs. C e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l had become a s u b s t a n t i a l business.(49) The e x p e c t a t i o n of high and r e g u l a r p r o f i t s from f o o t b a l l gate r e c e i p t s had become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n the u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c programs. The f i n a n c i a l h e a l t h of the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' o v e r a l l s p o r t s programs was dependent on the success of f o o t b a l l a t the gate. In t h i s manner, the twin p r e s s u r e s of a u n i v e r s i t y community's d e s i r e to win p l u s the f i n a n c i a l need f o r success a t the gate l e d to a g r e s s i v e r e c r u i t i n g and s u b s i d i z a t i o n t a c t i c s . I t was t h i s a l l e g e d " t r a d i t i o n " of the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y p r a c t i c e of p r o v i d i n g under-the-table f i n a n c i a l a i d to a t h l e t e s t h a t would l e a d i n 1965 to Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y o f f i c i a l s promoting an 'honesty i s the best p o l i c y ' approach to t h e i r openly p r o v i d i n g a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s to u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t e s . On top of these events, as the complexity of the programs' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , the power of c o n s e r v a t i v e f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s to c o n t r o l the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s d e c l i n e d . Yet, from the a v a i l a b l e h i s t o r i c a l evidence, i t appears l i k e l y t h a t the entrenchment of powerful f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on a t h l e t i c c o u n c i l s a t Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s was a c o n s e r v a t i v e f o r c e i n u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t . That s i t u a t i o n , combined wi t h a r e s i d u a l B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n of c l o s e f a c u l t y involvement i n the program, helped to slow c o n s i d e r a b l y -121-the adoption of commercializing methods i n the a t h l e t i c departments. In B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r example, both alumni and a t h l e t i c department a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had long experienced extremely strong o p p o s i t i o n from U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f a c u l t y to any form of ' a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p ' . T h i s i n s t r a n s i g e n c e was a l s o matched by a general l a c k of support f o r attempts to increase funding to the a t h l e t i c program. The o p p o s i t i o n to a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s a t UBC was p a r t i c u l a r l y v i r u l e n t . "We fought s c h o l a r s h i p s , " commented one r e t i r e d UBC f a c u l t y member who, as a Rhodes S c h o l a r s h i p winner, s p r i n t e d a t Oxford during the 1920s, "I've never been p a i d . . . I was an amateur and f e e l very s t r o n g l y about i t . . . Y o u ' r e being, i n a sense, bribed."(50) T h i s f e e l i n g appears to have been widespread throughout Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . While the power and s t r e n g t h of the amateur t r a d i t i o n ebbed and flowed a c r o s s p r o v i n c e s and from u n i v e r s i t y to u n i v e r s i t y , there i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t i n the e a r l y years of the post-World War I I e r a i t continued to r e p r e s e n t a c r e d i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to the more p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d model of i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t i c s i n the United S t a t e s . Notwithstanding the ongoing i n f l u e n c e of the amateur t r a d i t i o n i n the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , the growing complexity of a t h l e t i c program management and the high v i s i b i l i t y of s u c c e s s f u l American programs l e d to f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s g r a d u a l l y being l e f t behind i n the development of a t h l e t i c s . In the e a s t , the r o l e of f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e seemed i n c r e a s i n g l y to be 'a watchdog of academics s i n c e some a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s wanted to make a t h l e t i c s -122-a business.'(51) The growing f i n a n c i a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l complexity of the a t h l e t i c programs e v e n t u a l l y l e d to the appointment of f u l l - t i m e a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s . Part-time f a c u l t y a t h l e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s simply l a c k e d the depth of understanding of the s p o r t system necessary to i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n making. C o n f l i c t between the two groups i n c r e a s e d as f u l l - t i m e a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s and part-time f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s t r u g g l e d f o r c o n t r o l of the d e c i s i o n making pro c e s s . As M c G i l l ' s a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r V i c Obeck summed up the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two groups: The o l d school t i e boys from Eton, Cambridge, and Oxford d i d n ' t r e a l l y know competition...The a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s were r e a l i s t i c ; the o l d school t i e boys were l i k e Brundage today, not l i v i n g i n the 20th century...Regarding our f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , K i r k p a t r i c k , our p h i l o s o p h i e s were m i l e s a p a r t . He was f o r e x e r c i s e not competition.(52) But Canadian f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , u n l i k e t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s a h a l f century e a r l i e r , had developed and maintained t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s from the very beginning and continued to augment t h a t i n f l u e n c e during the course of the 20th century. Many of them had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s p o r t s i n t h e i r youth and were committed to the remnants of a V i c t o r i a n s p o r t i n g c u l t u r e . They sought to maintain the framework of the ' n o b i l i t y of p l a y ' throughout u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s programs. N e v e r t h e l e s s , they faced continued o p p o s i t i o n i n each u n i v e r s i t y from a growing f a c t i o n t h a t supported p o l i c i e s emphasizing not only f i n a n c i a l remuneration designed to a t t r a c t -123-t a l e n t e d a t h l e t e s to the u n i v e r s i t i e s but a l s o the enhanced coaching and f a c i l i t i e s needed to b u i l d c ompetitive i n t e r - u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c programs. In many cases these l a t t e r i n d i v i d u a l s looked to the example se t by the major American u n i v e r s i t y programs f o r guidance i n advocating an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on a t h l e t i c s . As events during the post-World War II era subsequently d i s c l o s e d , some of the American u n i v e r s i t i e s d i d not r i s e to the ch a l l e n g e of l e a d e r s h i p . Negative p u b l i c i t y from c o l l e g i a t e b a s k e t b a l l gambling scandals during the 1950's g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n s of American u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s both i n the United S t a t e s and i n Canada. One of the most important gambling scandals i n q u e s t i o n here oc c u r r e d i n 1951 when four NCAA u n i v e r s i t y p l a y e r s were sent to j a i l . ( 5 3 ) A s e c t i o n of Judge S a u l . S. S t r e i t ' s c oncluding judgement i n the case was widely p u b l i c i z e d i n the New York Times.(54) In B r i t i s h Columbia, the New York Times a r t i c l e was even d i s t r i b u t e d by UBC P r e s i d e n t Norman McKenzie to the members of the UBC Senate a t i t s meeting of February 13, 1952. The r e v e l a t i o n s about the s t a t e of a t h l e t i c s a t the American c o l l e g e s were shocking and served as e x c e l l e n t m a t e r i a l f o r those i n d i v i d u a l s wishing to prevent a p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e s p o r t a t UBC. These i n d i v i d u a l s found a number of sympathetic ears i n the membership of the UBC Senate. Within a year, the Senate's d i s a p p r o v a l of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s — a l r e a d y noted i n the 1949 minutes—was e l a b o r a t e d -124-upon and c o d i f i e d w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y r e g u l a t i o n s . As w e l l , s t r i n g e n t e l i g i b i l i t y r u l e s were brought i n to e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of ac a d e m i c a l l y u n q u a l i f i e d people p a r t i c i p a t i n g as students on the U n i v e r s i t y ' s s p o r t s teams.(55) L a t e r , the i n s t i t u t i o n of these tough p o l i c i e s a t the p r o v i n c e ' s premier u n i v e r s i t y would l e a d to a r e a c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia when SFU's C h a n c e l l o r Dr. Gordon Shrum announced i n 1964 h i s p o l i c y of awarding a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s to the U n i v e r s i t y ' s a t h l e t e s . On a n a t i o n a l s c a l e , the evidence accumulated a g a i n s t the American c o l l e g i a t e s p o r t s system served to c o a l e s c e the o p i n i o n of many Canadian u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y a g a i n s t s c h o l a r s h i p s i n p a r t i c u l a r and a l s o acted to b o l s t e r t h e i r s t r u g g l e w i t h the a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s f o r c o n t r o l of the a t h l e t i c program. Nonetheless, the impact of f a c u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c programs continued to recede during the 1950's and I960's. While the problems of c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n and s u b s i d i z a t i o n have always been an important and c o n t e n t i o u s issue a c r o s s the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c scene, the u n i v e r s i t i e s west of the Great Lakes were a l s o beset by the problem of an ongoing l a c k of a v a i l a b l e u n i v e r s i t y competition i n the west. The Western Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union was formed i n 1920 but, c o n s i d e r i n g the great d i s t a n c e s , r e g u l a r c o m p e t i t i o n among the membership was d i f f i c u l t to maintain and the conference encountered many problems i n attempting to e s t a b l i s h c o n s i s t e n t s p o r t s r e l a t i o n s between u n i v e r s i t i e s . In f a c t , i t was not to be -125-u n t i l a f t e r World War I I t h a t the Western Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union organized a r e g u l a r s l a t e of competition.(56) The problem was simply t h a t i n one of the l a r g e s t a t h l e t i c conference i n North America t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s ( i n terms of time spent away from s c h o o l and money spent f o r t r a v e l ) were extremely high. As an example, UBC r a i l journeys to the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s during the 1930s to compete a g a i n s t both A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan f o r f o o t b a l l ' s Hardy Cup o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n t r i p s of ten days or more.(57) The advent of commercial a i r t r a v e l i n the post-war era helped c o n s i d e r a b l y to reduce the s i z e of the conference to a more manageable s t r u c t u r e and i t was t h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n i n a i r t r a v e l , more than any other s i n g l e f a c t o r , which l e d to a r o u t i n i z a t i o n of conference schedules i n western Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t . However, mainta i n i n g conference t r a v e l was s t i l l very c o s t l y and l a t e r p r o v i d e d an important r a t i o n a l e f o r Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y o f f i c i a l s to spurn an expensive western Canadian conference i n favour of cheaper north-south r e g i o n a l t r a v e l to compete a g a i n s t American teams. At the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a i n Edmonton the lac k of a v a i l a b l e u n i v e r s i t y competition i n f o o t b a l l f o r c e d the a t h l e t i c department to schedule games a g a i n s t a v a r i e t y of p r a i r i e p r o f e s s i o n a l teams before the s p o r t was f i n a l l y dropped as an i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the years 1949 to 1959. On the P a c i f i c Coast, a t UBC, the Thunderbirds competed a g a i n s t -126-u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s south of the border i n the U.S. P a c i f i c Northwest during many of the post World War I I y e a r s . I t was only i n 1959 th a t UBC decided to leave the American "Evergreen Conference" i n order to e s t a b l i s h conference f o o t b a l l r e l a t i o n s w i t h the western Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . However, years of competing a g a i n s t American u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s l e f t t h e i r mark i n B r i t i s h Columbia c u l t u r e i n the form of a r e s i d u a l l o y a l t y to r e g i o n a l P a c i f i c Northwest c o m p e t i t i o n . There was s c a t t e r e d o p p o s i t i o n towards the prospect of UBC j o i n i n g the western Canadian schools i n competition i n a Canadian conference as t h i s comment from a former UBC a s s i s t a n t f o o t b a l l coach i n d i c a t e s : In 1963, we [UBC] were t h i n k i n g of going i n t o Canadian co m p e t i t i o n . At that time we [ f o o t b a l l ] were doing q u i t e w e l l a g a i n s t American schools...[we had] s t r i c t l y an American schedule. The people who voted decided t h a t we would go i n t o the Western Canadian com p e t i t i o n . I thought i t was a horrendous mistake. (58) For UBC, the two most important f a c t o r s a g a i n s t j o i n i n g i n a rejuvenated Western Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n were the t r a v e l c o s t s and the continued p e r c e p t i o n of a lack of com p e t i t i o n i n f o o t b a l l and, e s p e c i a l l y , i n b a s k e t b a l l . ( 5 9 ) Teams from B r i t i s h Columbia had long been powers i n Canadian b a s k e t b a l l winning many n a t i o n a l championships. Along w i t h the Thunderbirds, s e n i o r amateur teams l i k e the Vancouver C l o v e r l e a f s and V i c t o r i a Dominoes were r e g u l a r n a t i o n a l champions and c o n t r i b u t e d i n d i v i d u a l s to the n a t i o n a l team program and -127-a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . At one p o i n t before World War I I the competitive l e v e l of the western u n i v e r s i t i e s was so f a r behind UBC t h a t former Thunderbird coach Maury Van V l i e t f e l t t h a t "I wouldn't be s u r p r i s e d i f UBC b a s k e t b a l l would beat A l b e r t a or Saskatchewan by 50 or 60 p o i n t s . " ( 6 0 ) S t i l l , a t UBC a c o n t i n u i n g and powerful l o y a l t y to the n a t i o n f o s t e r e d a strong d e s i r e to defy the seemingly i r r e s i s t i b l e economic t r a v e l e f f i c i e n c i e s a v a i l a b l e from north-south comp e t i t i o n . Instead, the U n i v e r s i t y e s t a b l i s h e d and i n c r e a s e d i t s program of more expensive s p o r t i n g r e l a t i o n s with her s i s t e r Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s . The development of t h i s C a n a d i a n i z a t i o n p o l i c y was a r t i c u l a t e d c l e a r l y i n the 1958 Report  of the UBC Senate Committee on R e c r e a t i o n , A t h l e t i c s and P h y s i c a l  Education which supported the idea t h a t : the f u t u r e of UBC's i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e competition undoubtedly l i e s i n the d i r e c t i o n of the Western Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Union...We look f a v o u r a b l y , a l s o , on the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a high standard of i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e competition can be expected to assume a p l a c e of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance i n amateur competition i n Canada.(61) But, g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d from the r e s t of Canada throughout the h i s t o r y of the i n s t i t u t i o n , UBC had by n e c e s s i t y developed e x t e n s i v e (and l e s s c o s t l y ) s p o r t i n g t i e s w i t h American u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s throughout the U.S. s t a t e s of Washington, Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a . The Senate Report a l s o acknowledged the value of these c o n t i n e n t a l s p o r t i n g r e l a t i o n s by recommending that t h e i r development continue i n the future.(62) -128-Regardless of these p o l i c y pronouncements, there i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t during much of the two decades a f t e r World War I I UBC had a very nebulous s p o r t s competition t r a d i t i o n as i t wavered between a r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l s p o r t s s t r a t e g y . T h i s l a c k of a comprehensive western Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c t r a d i t i o n would l a t e r p l a y an important r o l e i n s e t t i n g the context f o r Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ' s a t h l e t i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n makers i n the middle 1960's. The p r i n c i p a l UBC p o l i c y of encouraging Canadian competition p r o v i d e s a strong i n d i c a t i o n of the o v e r a l l f e e l i n g throughout the west t h a t a cohesive western r e g i o n a l conference was a paramount step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n : The u l t i m a t e aim was to form a n a t i o n a l c o l l e g i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t would provide the western u n i v e r s i t i e s with, as Maury Van V l i e t put i t , "something to shoot a t . . . t h e CIAU would never have e x i s t e d i f i t weren't f o r the West. We almost had to have i t . . . t h e y [the E a s t e r n s c h o o l s ] d i d n ' t need us but our own competition was p r e t t y feeble."(63) However, d e s p i t e constant support and lobbying from the west, progress towards implementing the idea of a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n proceeded s l o w l y . Funding was a c r u c i a l concern but c e n t r a l to the issue were the p o l i t i c s t h a t had dominated c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s (and had been a c a u s a l f a c t o r i n the breakup of the o r i g i n a l CIAU i n 1955) and which a l s o a p p l i e d to d e a l i n g s with the western and A t l a n t i c r e g i o n s . According to Van V l i e t , the a l o o f n e s s of the Big f o u r f o o t b a l l powers emphasized the f r a c t i o n a l i z e d s t a t e of east-west s p o r t s -129-r e l a t i o n s : They wouldn't even think of speaking to us. They were the B i g Four and t h a t was i t . I f you t a l k e d to anybody i n the East they d i d n ' t know anything happened west of the Lakehead. They knew th a t UBC had some b a s k e t b a l l teams i n the pas t . They wouldn't even think t h a t we were anything l i k e the c a l i b r e of the B i g Four. (64) The issue p r o v i d e s a graphic example of Canadian r e g i o n a l c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s s e t t i n g . However, buoyed by the prospect of f u t u r e funding support by a f e d e r a l government which was becoming aware of the u n i f y i n g a s p e c t s of s p o r t f o r a n a t i o n threatened by the pressure of the m e t r o p o l i t a n economy, the western u n i v e r s i t i e s continued t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e towards the founding of a new CIAU. Progress was made but preceding the r e - f o r m a t i o n of the Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union i n June, 1961 there were c o n t i n u i n g c o n f l i c t s r e g arding the implementation of r e g u l a t i o n s governing u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t throughout the country. Uniform e l i g i b i l i t y r u l e s were an important concern.(65) De s p i t e these o b s t a c l e s , the re-emergence of the Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union i n 1961 p r o v i d e d a n a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c c o m p e t i t i o n . Suppressed f o r the time being were the r e g i o n a l r i v a l r i e s and i n t e r - and i n t r a - c o n f e r e n c e competition t h a t had been an enduring legacy of the landscape of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t during the 20th century. The f i r s t p r i o r i t y of the new o r g a n i z a t i o n was to inaugurate n a t i o n a l championships i n a v a r i e t y of s p o r t s . -130-A c c o r d i n g l y , due i n major p a r t to funding from the f e d e r a l government, Canadian n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y championships began i n b a s k e t b a l l and hockey (1963) and i n f o o t b a l l (1965) w i t h other s p o r t s f o l l o w i n g as funding allowed. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p o l i t i c a l weakness of the young CIAU o r g a n i z a t i o n i n governing the fragmented n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s t r u c t u r e during the 1960s pr o v i d e d an opening f o r the emergence of a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y which promoted a program of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s which was a n t i t h e t i c a l to the o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by the CIAU membership as a whole. A Summary of Developmental Tendencies The development of Canadian and American u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s over the past 150 years have f o l l o w e d s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s but a l s o have some important d i f f e r e n c e s which have r e q u i r e d e l a b o r a t i o n . In the United S t a t e s , the commodification of u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t a f t e r 1870 r e s u l t e d i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of f o o t b a l l , which was alre a d y becoming the u n i v e r s i t i e s 1 s most important s p o r t . The d e s i r e of alumni f o r c o n t r o l of the c o l l e g e s p o r t s programs was given a t best only token o p p o s i t i o n by other groups w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y community. With l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n a v a i l a b l e to counter the trend to c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n , the dominant form of American c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t i c s r a p i d l y assumed a commercial model and was f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the market process (save f o r minor i n n o v a t i o n s ) by the end of World War I. In Canada, the same kinds of commercializing p r e s s u r e s were -131-a l s o i n evidence. However, the i m p l a n t a t i o n w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s of a powerful B r i t i s h value system i n amateur a t h l e t i c s (a c u l t u r a l legacy of the economic and c u l t u r a l power the i m p e r i a l c e n t r e had h e l d over i t s c o l o n i e s ) combined w i t h the negative p u b l i c i t y o f t e n r e c e i v e d by the American system to produce a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t attempted to a v o i d the excesses of the American model. Considered most s e r i o u s of these excesses was the i d e a of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s or f i n a n c i a l a i d given to a t h l e t e s at American u n i v e r s i t i e s . Numerous adherents to the amateur model were adamantly opposed to paying a t h l e t e s f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s and i t was t h i s group which promoted p o l i c i e s p r e v e n t i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s i n Canada. Canadian academics of the p e r i o d were g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by a s t r a i n of a t h l e t i c i s m which f e a t u r e d two important i d e a l s : (a) amateur a t h l e t e s d i d not r e c e i v e remuneration f o r competing and (b) a t h l e t i c s , while "morally u s e f u l " i n the e d u c a t i o n a l process, were c e r t a i n l y not equal to any other academic area of the u n i v e r s i t y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i t s e l f was to be the most important goal i n any u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was t h i s group of i n d i v i d u a l s , imbued w i t h a B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n of amateur s p o r t , who assumed c o n t r o l of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s e a r l y i n i t s h i s t o r y and used t h e i r power and i n f l u e n c e to promote p o l i c i e s to f i t t h e i r value s t r u c t u r e . The presence of t h i s powerful f a c t i o n a t the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s prevented a r a p i d d u p l i c a t i o n i n Canada of the American development p a t t e r n . -132-However, d e s p i t e the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' amateur a t t i t u d e s towards s p o r t , a f i n a n c i a l monopoly developed i n Big Four f o o t b a l l i n c e n t r a l Canada t h a t a f f e c t e d the s t r u c t u r e of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s throughout the country. Regional t e n s i o n s were exacerbated by the a u t o c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t y l e of the B i g Four u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e to o v e r t u r e s from the s m a l l e r O n t a r i o and Quebec c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and to the attempts of the h i n t e r l a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s to become i n v o l v e d i n the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . D e s p i t e the best e f f o r t s of the supporters of the amateur model, the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of Canadian s p o r t spread to the u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c system and brought w i t h i t the v a l u e s and mores which f o r c e d compromises w i t h the amateur t r a d i t i o n and the c u l t u r e w i t h i n which i t was embedded. The western u n i v e r s i t i e s faced i n t e r n a l i s s u e s as w e l l . Huge d i s t a n c e s separated the v a r i o u s schools and t r a v e l c o s t s f o r r e g u l a r competition were con s i d e r e d almost insurmountably high. As w e l l , the a t h l e t i c programs at the v a r i o u s schools were a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of development and a c o n s i s t e n t q u a l i t y of c o m p e t i t i o n was l a c k i n g . At the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s were the h i g h e s t and the i s o l a t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y f o r c e d the a t h l e t i c department to develop r e g i o n a l competitive t i e s w i t h American u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s throughout the P a c i f i c Northwest. I t was the western u n i v e r s i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y UBC, i s o l a t e d on the p e r i p h e r y of c e n t r a l Canada, that had much to g a i n from the formation of a -133-n a t i o n a l governing body f o r u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t , the Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union, i n 1961. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the CIAU pr o v i d e d n a t i o n a l championships and gave the western u n i v e r s i t i e s "something to shoot f o r . " But a c o n t i n u i n g p e r c e i v e d l a c k of competition w i t h i n the western conference and the economics of t r a v e l c o s t s i n the western r e g i o n were important l o c a l i s s u e s f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A l s o , the l a c k of a c o n s i s t e n t t r a d i t i o n of cross-Canada competition (as opposed to a f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n of r e g i o n a l P a c i f i c Northwest competition) a f f e c t e d the d i r e c t i o n of the a t h l e t i c programs at the B r i t i s h Columbia u n i v e r s i t i e s . Given the above h i s t o r i c a l circumstances, they had the p o t e n t i a l to become the s e t t i n g of a r o l e c o n f l i c t as to the nature and d i r e c t i o n of a u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program i n B r i t i s h Columbia and, indeed, i n the r e s t of Canada. In essence, the r o l e c o n f l i c t centered around the economically i n e f f i c i e n t idea of maintaining and f o s t e r i n g expensive c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h other Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s as opposed to the p o s s i b i l i t y of o r g a n i z i n g a c o s t - e f f i c i e n t a t h l e t i c program i n a r e g i o n a l P a c i f i c Coast setup. In a sense, the issue was the same as that which has faced Canada and Canadians s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n . Could an east-west n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and n a t i o n a l l o y a l t i e s overcome the overwhelming n a t u r a l n o r t h - s o u t h economic and i n c r e a s i n g l y c u l t u r a l r e g i o n a l tendencies? Complicating the issue were the r e g i o n a l t e n s i o n s t h a t had developed a l o n g s i d e the Canadian -134-economy during the 20th century and with the north-south commercial l i n k a g e s that had developed as American f o r e i g n investment i n Canada expanded a f t e r World War I I . In economics and i n c u l t u r e , the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia was very s i m i l a r to the s t a t e s of Washington, Oregon, and C a l i f o r n i a d i r e c t l y south. I f there were weak t i e s i n cross-Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t and geography d i c t a t e d high t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s to maintain those t i e s , why not c o n s i d e r the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of r e g i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h schools i n the U.S. Northwest? A c o n t i n e n t a l i s t p h ilosophy which promoted the idea t h a t economic e f f i c i e n c i e s should r e g u l a t e p u b l i c p o l i c y p r o v i d e d a strong argument f o r those i n d i v i d u a l s arguing f o r a r e g i o n a l , North-South s p o r t s c o m p e t i t i o n t r a d i t i o n f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia un i v e r s i t i e s . Furthermore, many asp e c t s of the American model of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s were h i g h l y appealing f o r Canadians, e s p e c i a l l y i n the West. North-south r e g i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the b e t t e r coached, b e t t e r s k i l l e d and h i g h l y p u b l i c i z e d teams i n the United S t a t e s seemed an a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e to expensive c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h weaker, l e s s p u b l i c i z e d Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . Such views p r o v i d e d a focus f o r e f f o r t s to implement change i n the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y model towards a more p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d outlook. As a r e s u l t , the h i s t o r y of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s i n Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia during the 20th century can be understood as h i g h l y contested t e r r a i n . The f o l l o w e r s of the American-style program ( r e p r e s e n t i n g the s o - c a l l e d 'modernizing' -135-viewpoint) were i n constant c o n f l i c t w i t h p a r t i s a n s of the entrenched B r i t i s h 'amateur* model. The h i s t o r y of these s t r u g g l e s , shaped by broader and l a r g e r q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r o l e of s p o r t i n a Canadian s o c i e t y i n f l u e n c e d so g r e a t l y by American c u l t u r e , p r o v i d e s an important context f o r the Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y case d i s c u s s e d i n the next chapter. -136-Notes 1. R i c h a r d S. Gruneau, C l a s s , S p o r t s , and S o c i a l Development (Amherst, Mass.: U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts P r e s s , 1983) p. 109. 2. See Guy Lewis "The Beginning of Organized C o l l e g i a t e Sport" i n American Q u a r t e r l y V o l . 22:1 (September 1970), F r e d e r i c L. Paxson "The Rise of Sport" i n The M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y H i s t o r i c a l  Review V o l IV No. 2 (September 1917), and Howard J . Savage, American C o l l e g e A t h l e t i c s (New York: The Carnegie Foundation, 1929) 3. American C o l l e g e A t h l e t i c s , p. 20. 4. I b i d . , P- 20-21. 5. I b i d . , P. 22. 6. I b i d . , P. 22-23. 7. I b i d . , P. 22-23. 8. I b i d . , P- 2 3-2 4. The importance of alumni a c t i v i t i e s to the development of U.S. c o l l e g e s and t h e i r a t h l e t i c programs a t the t u r n of the century cannot be s t r e s s e d enough. "With Americans e p a s s i v e c o l l e g e l o y a l t y i s not enough. True l o y a l t y to a u n i v e r s i t y must act u a t e to p r i d e , and p r i d e to a c t i v i t y . Nor must that a c t i v i t y be merely nominal. I t must not stop w i t h p o l i t e u n e s s e n t i a l s . I t must dominate and c o n t r o l . Once the seeming n e c e s s i t y to c o n t r o l emerges, the c o n f l i c t of the i n t e r e s t s begin." American C o l l e g e A t h l e t i c s , p. 81. 9. I b i d . 2 3-2 4. 10. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the i s s u e s concerning the p l a c e of American u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s i n American e d u c a t i o n a l ideology see Hal Lawson and Alan Ingham " C o n f l i c t i n g I d e o l o g i e s Concerning the U n i v e r s i t y and I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c s : Harper and Hutchins at Chicago, 1892-1940" J o u r n a l of Sport H i s t o r y V o l . 7 No.7 (Winter 1980). 11. "The r e p u t a t i o n of a c o l l e g e came to be regarded as uncomfortably low unless i t s teams won more than a f a i r share of v i c t o r i e s . " American C o l l e g e A t h l e t i c s , p. 24. 12. See Lawson and Ingham, op. c i t . f o r U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s i d e n t W i l l i a m Rainey Harper's pronouncements on the value of a t h l e t i c s to a u n i v e r s i t y ' s r e p u t a t i o n . 13. American C o l l e g e A t h l e t i c s , p. 28-29. -137-14. I b i d . , p. 67-71. 15. I b i d . , "The Coach i n C o l l e g e A t h l e t i c s " , p. 161-189. 16. I b i d . , p. 180-82. 17. I b i d . , p. 24-25. 18. See Ronald A. Smith "Harvard and Columbia and a R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the 1905-06 F o o t b a l l C r i s i s " , J o u r n a l of Sport  H i s t o r y Vol.8 No.3 (Winter 1980) and John. S. Watterson I I I "The F o o t b a l l C r i s i s of 1909-10: The Response of the E a s t e r n B i g Three", J o u r n a l of Sport H i s t o r y Vol.8 No.l (Spring 1981). As w e l l , Guy Lewis, "Theodore Roosevelt's Role i n the 1905 F o o t b a l l Controversy," Research Q u a r t e r l y , 4 0 (December 19 69) p r o v i d e s a good account of the c r i s i s . 19. American C o l l e g e A t h l e t i c s , p. 50-51. 20. For a h i s t o r i c a l overview of the development of s p o r t s and games i n Canadian l i f e see Nancy Howell and Maxwell Howell, Sports and Games i n Canadian L i f e : 1700 to the Present, (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1969). 21. R.J. M o r i a r t y , The O r g a n i z a t i o n a l H i s t o r y of the Canadian  I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union C e n t r a l (CIAUC) 1906-1955, Unpublished PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1971, p. 37. 22. I b i d . , p. 41. 23. I b i d . , p. 44-46. 24. See Howard J . Savage, Games and Sports i n B r i t i s h Schools  and U n i v e r s i t i e s , (New York: The Carnegie Foundation, 1926) f o r in f o r m a t i o n on the development of a t h l e t i c s i n the B r i t i s h un i v e r s i t i e s . 25. R.J. M o r i a r t y , p.56. 26. J.P. Loosemore, " I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c s i n Canada: I t s O r g a n i z a t i o n and Development" CAHPER XXVIII December 1961—January 19 62. 27. I b i d . , p. 78. 28. I b i d . , p. 78. 29. T.A. Reed, The H i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of T r i n i t y C o l l e g e ,  Toronto, 1852-1952 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press 1952) p. 273 as c i t e d by R.J. M o r i a r t y , p.39. 30. R.J. M o r i a r t y , p. 132-33. -138-31. R.J. M o r i a r t y , p. 184, 193-94. A l s o see "McMaster F o o t b a l l F i a s c o " the account of how the i n c l u s i o n of McMaster U n i v e r s i t y to B i g Four f o o t b a l l n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d gate r e c e i p t s and the subsequent s u c c e s s f u l dumping of McMaster from the league by the o r i g i n a l B i g Four members. 32. I b i d . , p. 177. 33. I b i d . , p. 216. 34. Sherwood Fox Sherwood of Western (Toronto: Burns and McEachern, 1964) p. 159-163 as quoted by M o r i a r t y , p. 181. 35. R.J. M o r i a r t y , p. 227. 36. I b i d . , p. 168-70. 37. I b i d . , p. 168. 38. I b i d . , p. 168-69. 39. CIAU Minutes 28 November 1931 V o l I I p.89 as quoted by M o r i a r t y , p.164. 40. CIAU Minutes 31 March 1951 V o l I I I p. 152 as quoted by M o r i a r t y , p.170. The CIAU r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s v o l t e d t h a t the proposal of forming a Canada wide n a t i o n a l i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n "be t a b l e d i n d e f i n i t e l y . " See M o r i a r t y p. 258-260 f o r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s i s s u e . 41. See Frank Cosentino Canadian F o o t b a l l (Don M i l l s : Musson Book Company L t d . 1969) and M o r i a r t y , op. c i t . , f o r accounts of the commercialized development of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l . 42. Statement by W. Orban to R.J. M o r i a r t y 3 June 1971 as quoted by M o r i a r t y p. 224. 43. L e t t e r from J . K i r k p a t r i c k to R.J. M o r i a r t y 9 September 1971 as quoted by M o r i a r t y p. 224. 44. Minutes of the CIAU March 29, 1947 V o l . I l l p.38. 45. The Carnegie Report on American C o l l e g e A t h l e t i c s noted t h a t 'No s i n g l e f a c t o r has c o n t r i b u t e d more d i r e c t l y to the use of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s i n American c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s than the second q u a l i f i c a t i o n s et by the w i l l of C e c i l Rhodes f o r r e c i p i e n t s of the Oxford s c h o l a r s h i p s t h a t bear h i s name.' p. 253-54. The second of fo u r c r i t e r i a f o r the s c h o l a r s h i p winner was ' h i s fondness f o r and success i n manly outdoor s p o r t s , such as c r i c k e t , f o o t b a l l , and the l i k e . . . ' -139-46. Statement by V i c Obeck to R.J. M o r i a r t y 9 J u l y 1971 as quoted by M o r i a r t y p. 222-223. 47. M o r i a r t y , p. 223. 48. Statements by D. McLarty 8 October 1970, J.P. Metras 1 September 1971 to R.J. M o r i a r t y as quoted by M o r i a r t y p. 224. 49. M o r i a r t y , p. 272. 50. Statement by Dr. Harry Warren to Steve Campbell i n personal i n t e r v i e w , 11 August 1985. 51. L e t t e r from J . K i r k p a t r i c k to R.J. M o r i a r t y 9 September 1971 as quoted by M o r i a r t y p. 225. 52. Statement by V i c Obeck to R.J. M o r i a r t y 8 J u l y 1971 as quoted by M o r i a r t y p. 225. 5 3. For an account of the 1951 NCAA scandal see Stanley Cohen's The Game They Played ,(Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson L t d 1977). 54. UBC Senate Minutes November 20, 1951. 55. See UBC Senate Minutes February 13, 1952 and May 13, 1952. 5 6. Statement by Maury Van V l i e t to Steve Campbell i n pe r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w 22 September 1985. 57. Statement by Maury Van V l i e t to Steve Campbell i n personal i n t e r v i e w 22 September 1985. 58. Statement by Lome Davies to Steve Campbell i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w 14 August 1985. 59. An annual r e p o r t of the UBC Men's A t h l e t i c D i r e c t o r a t e (undated c i r c a 1945-1950) on competition w i t h s m a l l e r c o l l e g e s noted t h a t Canadian u n i v e r s i t y c o mpetition was not p o s s i b l e 'with l a c k of adequate competition and long d i s t a n c e s f o r t r a v e l . ' p.2. 60. Statement by Maury Van V l i e t to Steve Campbell i n personal i n t e r v i e w 22 September 1985. 61. Report of the UBC Senate Committee on R e c r e a t i o n , A t h l e t i c s  and P h y s i c a l Education May 14, 19 58. 62. I b i d . 63. Statement by Maury Van V l i e t to Steve Campbell i n personal i n t e r v i e w 22 September 1985. -140-64. Statement by Maury Van V l i e t to Steve Campbell i n per s o n a l i n t e r v i e w 22 September 1985. 65. As Maury Van V l i e t noted l a t e r , " I t was the West's pr e s s u r e t h a t c r e a t e d the CIAU. I f you were Toronto o r Queen's you d i d n ' t want to deal with these country bumpkins. I t took us a g r e a t many years to get them to agree. We had tremendous d i s c u s s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h e l i g i b i l i t y and, b e l i e v e me, Toronto and Queen's r e s i s t e d t h a t l i k e mad. Queen's always had a very strong alumni medical group and they l i k e d to have some of t h e i r medical boys p l a y i n g f o o t b a l l . They weren't g i v i n g up t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y r u l e s to s a t i s f y the West." Statement by Maury Van V l i e t to Steve Campbell i n per s o n a l i n t e r v i e w 22 September 1985. -141-CHAPTER 5 THE SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY CASE Any examination of p o l i c y formation must delve deeply i n t o the s o c i a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l context of d e c i s i o n makers. In the case of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , d i s c u s s i o n of the f o r m u l a t i o n of an i n i t i a l a t h l e t i c p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n during 1964-65 which emulated a " p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d " American model of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s must take i n t o account the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : (a) the ed u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s of the key d e c i s i o n makers, (b) important h i s t o r i c a l events and trends that may have a f f e c t e d t h e i r p e r s o n a l outlooks on u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t , (c) the examples set by r e l e v a n t model i n s t i t u t i o n s and (d) the i n f l u e n c e of community groups and i n d i v i d u a l s on the p o l i c y s e t t i n g . ( 1 ) T h i s chapter e x p l o r e s the impact of these f a c t o r s on the development of Simon F r a s e r ' s a t h l e t i c program i n the mid 1960's. C e n t r a l i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n the chapter i n c l u d e an examination of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the formation of a t h l e t i c p o l i c y a t Simon F r a s e r and the a t h l e t i c program a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the key r o l e p l a y e d by the f i r s t C h a n c e l l o r and Chairman of the Board of Governors, Dr. Gordon Shrum.(2) Shrum's i n f l u e n c e cannot be overestimated. P e r s o n a l l y s e l e c t e d to b u i l d the u n i v e r s i t y by then B.C. Premier, W.A.C. Bennett, f o r whom he had been a very s u c c e s s f u l p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r during h i s 60*s,(3) Shrum s e l e c t e d the f i r s t P r e s i d e n t , a f r i e n d and former -142-student of h i s (and 1936 Rhodes S c h o l a r s h i p winner a t UBC), P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan.(4) He a l s o i n f l u e n c e d the v a r i o u s appointments of the members of the Board of Governors.(5) I t was the Board of Governors which d i s c u s s e d , e l a b o r a t e d , and implemented many of Shrum's ideas of what a new u n i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia should be. While Shrum was an important a c t o r i n the development of the u n i v e r s i t y , other members of the Board of Governors had t h e i r own agendas regarding the development of the u n i v e r s i t y and were able to e x e r t i n f l u e n c e on the subsequent course of events.(6) Nonetheless, the impact of Shrum's c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r s h i p on Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ' s p o l i c y making apparatus was s t r i k i n g . An examination of h i s e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy and ex p e r i e n c e s c o l l e c t e d during h i s tenure as a campus power broker i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a t h l e t i c s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (1925-61) w i l l provide many i n s i g h t s i n t o subsequent developments a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y (1963-1971). Dr. Gordon Shrum has a l s o been widely acknowledged as one of the most powerful men a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia during h i s time there as a member of the Science f a c u l t y . ( 7 ) From the time he a r r i v e d on campus i n 1925 from the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, u n t i l he r e t i r e d from the UBC f a c u l t y i n 1961, Shrum's power and i n f l u e n c e as an e x p e d i t e r , o r g a n i z e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r par e x c e l l e n c e grew with the r e p u t a t i o n and growth of the U n i v e r s i t y . Legends of h i s prowess ' f o r g e t t i n g t h i n g s done' a t the P o i n t Grey campus abound and made h i s r e p u t a t i o n . During the -143-course of h i s u n i v e r s i t y c a r e e r he assumed many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a number of campus departments. Among them, Shrum became the head of the Department of P h y s i c s (where h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a r e c r u i t e r of f a c u l t y was w e l l known i n u n i v e r s i t i e s throughout Canada and the United S t a t e s ) , the head of the Department of Extension (off-campus c o u r s e s ) , the head of Graduate S t u d i e s , chairman of the i n f l u e n t i a l B u i l d i n g and Grounds Committee (which oversaw a l l campus b u i l d i n g s , the a t h l e t i c p r a c t i c e f i e l d s and the campus Stadium), and the head of the U n i v e r s i t y c ontingent of the Canadian O f f i c e r ' s T r a i n i n g Corps during World War I I . Most important f o r the chapter a t hand was h i s r o l e as a behind-the-scenes power broker i n the i n i t i a t i o n , d i r e c t i o n and development of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a t h l e t i c program. (8) In p a r t i c u l a r , h i s i n t e r e s t i n and support of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s f o o t b a l l teams during h i s 36 year UBC c a r e e r was w e l l known.(9) I s h a l l argue t h a t an examination of the a v a i l a b l e evidence supports the argument t h a t i t was Shrum's ex p e r i e n c e s i n the campus p o l i t i c s of e d u c a t i o n a l committee meetings and a t h l e t i c board room s e s s i o n s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia which tempered h i s t h i n k i n g on u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n and s e t the stage f o r h i s formation and subsequent adoption of American-style a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . I t i s to an examination of the h i s t o r i c a l development of a t h l e t i c s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and Gordon Shrum's r o l e i n ' t h a t h i s t o r y t h a t we now t u r n . -144-Development of A t h l e t i c s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia There have been a t h l e t i c teams a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y a t i t s o r i g i n a l F a i r v i e w s i t e i n 1915.(10) During those e a r l y y e a r s , the a t h l e t i c program f o l l o w e d the e a r l y development p a t t e r n s of most North American u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c programs. Most n o t a b l y i t was p r i m a r i l y student i n i t i a t e d and organized, and was fi n a n c e d from the budget of the student o r g a n i z a t i o n , the Alma Mater S o c i e t y (A.M.S.). O r g a n i z a t i o n was provided through the Men's and Women's A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n s which were s u b s i d i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the A.M.S. From the e a r l i e s t days, as student a c t i v i t i e s the a t h l e t i c teams were extremely s u c c e s s f u l as d e v i c e s f o r the student body to focus on as a source of campus u n i t y and p r i d e a t a young, growing u n i v e r s i t y . Front page coverage i n the student newspaper, the Ubyssey, was t y p i c a l f o r UBC's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e teams and coverage from the Vancouver press was a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e . Gordon Shrum became i n v o l v e d i n the U n i v e r s i t y i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t i c program very e a r l y i n h i s academic c a r e e r as a s e l f acknowledged h e l p e r to Dr. Gordon Burke, one of UBC's e a r l i e s t coaches.(11) I n i t i a t e d i n 1924, the UBC program was the f i r s t f o o t b a l l program i n the prov i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. While evidence from the pre-World War I I era i s sparse, i n t e r v i e w s w i t h people i n v o l v e d i n the a t h l e t i c program durin g the time suggest t h a t Dr. Shrum became i n v o l v e d w i t h and i n f l u e n c e d the completion of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s s p o r t s stadium i n -145-1937( 12) ( s i t u a t e d a t the s i t e of the present Student Union B u i l d i n g ) . He i s a l s o s a i d to have s e l e c t e d an American, Maury Van V l i e t , as the U n i v e r s i t y ' s f i r s t f u l l - t i m e men's p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t o r (and l a t e r coach of many of the a t h l e t i c teams on campus).(13) In a d d i t i o n , Shrum ap p a r e n t l y p l a y e d a key r o l e i n the formation of the Department of P h y s i c a l Education a t the end of World War I I as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e to house the U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program's teams and coaches.(14) He can a l s o be con s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h i r i n g of Robert F. Osborne as the f i r s t member of f a c u l t y to oversee the development of the Department of P h y s i c a l Education and i t s a t h l e t i c program.(15) Osborne, w i t h the t a c i t approval of Shrum, l a t e r h i r e d the U n i v e r s i t y ' s f i r s t members of the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f a c u l t y i n 1946. A l l of t h i s suggests the scope of Shrum's i n f l u e n c e a t the U n i v e r s i t y i n general and i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a t h l e t i c s s p e c i f i c a l l y . Harry F r a n k l i n , a former Thunderbird b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r and former D i r e c t o r of the UBC Alumni A s s o c i a t i o n noted Shrum's power a t UBC: In those days Gordon Shrum was on s e v e r a l committees and you j u s t wouldn't do anything without i n v o l v i n g Gordon Shrum. He was very powerful, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l a t e t h i r t i e s and e a r l y f o r t i e s . ( 1 6 ) The post-World War I I anomaly of student o r g a n i z a t i o n and f i n a n c i n g of the a t h l e t i c program through i t s Men's and Women's A t h l e t i c D i r e c t o r a t e s while the U n i v e r s i t y h i r e d the coaches through the Department of P h y s i c a l Education was not l o s t on the -146-campus community. The i n c r e a s i n g complexity of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the a t h l e t i c teams i n the post-war era was beginning to weigh h e a v i l y on the graduate student managers of the program. As w e l l , the r i s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of the u n i v e r s i t y ' s s p o r t s teams ( e s p e c i a l l y f o o t b a l l ) as a source of entertainment f o r the u n i v e r s i t y and the c i t y of Vancouver meant t h a t gate r e c e i p t s allowed student p l a n n e r s some l a t i t u d e i n expanding the program.(17) The need f o r a f u l l - t i m e A t h l e t i c D i r e c t o r or C o o r d i n a t o r became apparent i n the students' promotion of the Ostrom Plan (named a f t e r i t s student chairman, Brock Ostrom) which, when i t was accepted by the A.M.S. i n November, 1950, recommended th a t the U n i v e r s i t y take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to h i r e a f u l l - t i m e A t h l e t i c D i r e c t o r and t h a t t h i s person r e p o r t to a committee composed of students and f a c u l t y which would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e t t i n g a t h l e t i c p o l i c y . ( 1 8 ) The U n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n subsequently endorsed the p roposal and i n 1951, Dr. Shrum and P r o f e s s o r Osborne h i r e d an American, Bob R obinette, as the U n i v e r s i t y ' s f i r s t d i r e c t o r of a t h l e t i c s . ( 1 9 ) The s e l e c t i o n of Robinette was not the f i r s t time the U n i v e r s i t y had h i r e d Americans to s t a f f i t s a t h l e t i c program. I t i s r e a d i l y apparent to most Vancouver s p o r t s observers t h a t there has always been a l a r g e supply of s k i l l e d American a t h l e t i c coaches and s p o r t s personnel a v a i l a b l e i n the s t a t e s of Washington, Oregon, and C a l i f o r n i a only a few hours d r i v e south from Vancouver. The i n t e r v i e w and s e l e c t i o n d u r i n g the 1930's of Maury Van V l i e t - - a n American c o l l e g e f o o t b a l l s t a r from -147-O r e g o n — a s the U n i v e r s i t y ' s p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t o r had r a i s e d a storm of p r o t e s t i n the community. (20) But by the 1950's enough precedent had been set a t UBC and i n other u n i v e r s i t i e s a c r o s s Canada (more s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the l e a d i n g U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto where an American, Warren Stevens, had been a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r s i n c e 1933) th a t o p p o s i t i o n to the move was f a i r l y l i m i t e d . R o b i n e t t e ' s agenda as UBC's f i r s t a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r appears to have been f a i r l y s t r a i g h t forward.(21) His idea was to move the U n i v e r s i t y i n t o the realm of b i g time u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t , e s p e c i a l l y i n f o o t b a l l , where UBC al r e a d y had a dominant presence i n the Vancouver community f o o t b a l l s p e c t a t o r market wi t h l a r g e attendances a t Thunderbird home games.(22) Community, u n i v e r s i t y and p e r s o n a l p r i d e were a l s o a t stake. The post-war years saw, d e s p i t e e x c e l l e n t attendance f i g u r e s , UBC beaten r e p e a t e d l y a t American f o o t b a l l by much s m a l l e r c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Washington and Oregon. At one p o i n t during the post-war e r a , UBC won only two games i n four seasons, and i t was the i m p l i c i t aim of some of the a t h l e t i c department p o l i c y makers and t h e i r s upporters to l i f t the Thunderbird f o o t b a l l team to the s p o r t s pre-eminence that many people f e l t a u n i v e r s i t y the s i z e of UBC deserved. Such a f o o t b a l l program would have to compete w i t h ot h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s (American as w e l l as Canadian) f o r the s k i l l e d f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s t h a t would be e s s e n t i a l t o a s u c c e s s f u l program.(23) Viewed from p e r s p e c t i v e , the issue of u t i l i z i n g some form of remuneration to r e c r u i t outstanding a t h l e t e s to play -148-s p o r t s f o r the Thunderbirds seemed i n e v i t a b l e . In the 1940's, s i n g l e cases of U n i v e r s i t y alumni-sponsored a t h l e t i c b u r s a r i e s c o u l d be found a t UBC. These were modelled along the l i n e s of the Rhodes S c h o l a r s h i p where academic standing was the predominant c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n an important f a c t o r as well.(24) One such o f f i c i a l award a t UBC was the F l y i n g O f f i c e r Reverend George Robert P r i n g l e Memorial Bursary which was allowed by the UBC Senate because i t honoured the memory of a h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d member of the U n i v e r s i t y community who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n Thunderbird a t h l e t i c s . ( 25) G e n e r a l l y , however, d e s p i t e these s i n g u l a r cases, during the u n i v e r s i t y ' s e a r l y years the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s u c c e s s f u l l y r e b u f f e d a l l e f f o r t s to e s t a b l i s h any U n i v e r s i t y p o l i c i e s supporting and a l l o w i n g the concept of " s c h o l a r s h i p s " o r f i n a n c i a l awards t h a t were based on the prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t students p a r t i c i p a t e on a U n i v e r s i t y team. Of course, the p o l i c y of no " f i r s t p a r t y " s c h o l a r s h i p s a t UBC c o u l d not preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of " t h i r d p a r t y " awards giv e n by i n t e r e s t e d persons from without the U n i v e r s i t y . ( 2 6 ) T h i s was a l l e g e d to be a widespread p r a c t i c e i n many of the i n s t i t u t i o n s which had b u i l t winning teams i n Canada s i n c e the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century.(27) At UBC, the d i f f e r e n t s e t s of v a l u e s represented on each s i d e of the a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p issue p r o v i d e d a focus f o r a c l a s h between e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s i n Canada. C e n t r a l to t h i s long standing issue was the r o l e s p o r t s and -149-a t h l e t i c s ought to perform i n the education of u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . At the r i s k of c o n s i d e r a b l e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y three d i f f e r i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s about the r o l e of a t h l e t i c s i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , a l l of which were important f a c t o r s during 20th century development. The f i r s t view was rooted i n the r e s i d u e s of a Methodist a s c e t i c i s m on Canadian u n i v e r s i t y campuses. From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , s p o r t was o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d as an e s s e n t i a l l y f r i v o l o u s s i d e l i g h t to the more s e r i o u s side of academic l i f e . A r e l a t e d s e t of arguments i d e n t i f i e d s p o r t s as products of mass c u l t u r e ; forms of s p e c t a c l e which had developed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h 20th century mass s o c i e t i e s and which c o u l d be counterposed to more e d u c a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t forms of "high c u l t u r e " such as music and the a r t s . In marked c o n t r a s t to t h i s p o s i t i o n was a view which saw s p o r t as an a c t i v i t y of c e n t r a l value to e d u c a t i o n and the " s p i r i t " of u n i v e r s i t y l i f e . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t was argued t h a t s p o r t s should be promoted as much as p o s s i b l e . Proponents of t h i s view found t h e i r o r i g i n s i n the 19th century games masters of the E n g l i s h p u b l i c schools and the " c u l t " of a t h l e t i c i s m which they engendered and d i f f u s e d . The middle ground i n t h i s s t r u g g l e over the p l a c e of a t h l e t i c s was occupied by a m o d i f i e d philosophy of "amateur a t h l e t i c s " which s t r e s s e d v e r s a t i l i t y and valued the f u n c t i o n of s p o r t i n a well-rounded l i f e . For supporters of t h i s v iewpoint, s p o r t s were co n s i d e r e d morally u s e f u l i n education but d e f i n i t e l y secondary to the a r t s and humanities as p a r t of an o v e r a l l well-rounded " v e r s a t i l e " education. Of some importance -150-to t h i s paper, i t i s important to note t h a t i t was i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the needs of students f o r t h i s k i n d of " a l l - r o u n d " e d u c a t i o n t h a t compulsory p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g was i n s t i t u t e d i n the s c h o o l s . Yet, the goal of v e r s a t i l i t y was plagued by i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e s f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n . In s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s meant, on the one hand, t h a t f u l l y "amateur" teams c o u l d not compete f a i r l y with the p r o f e s s i o n a l , s p e c i a l i z e d teams which they o f t e n opposed. As w e l l , during t h i s time the value of p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g to e d u c a t i o n was c h a l l e n g e d as demand on student's time from s p e c i a l i z e d academic s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d . With the subsequent e l i m i n a t i o n of compulsory t r a i n i n g came the i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of v o l u n t a r y a c t i v i t y i n the form of i n t r a m u r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As w e l l , there was an ensuing development i n the q u a l i t y of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e teams and the r e s o u r c e s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l and t h i s found i t s element i n the p r e s s u r e f o r e x c e l l e n c e and the s p e c t a t o r support base which developed i n both Canada and the United S t a t e s i n the l a t e 1800's. These, then, were the major p h i l o s o p h i e s and i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s which guided the debate on the r o l e of a t h l e t i c s i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s during the 20th century. At UBC, during the mid 1940s, debate over these p h i l o s o p h i e s and p r e s s u r e s was overlapped by the high v i s i b i l i t y of u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l as a commercial s p e c t a c l e a t r i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n e a s t e r n Canada and i n the United S t a t e s . The apparent "successes" of these f o o t b a l l programs l e d to p r e s s u r e s to -151-i n i t i a t e a p r a c t i c e of g i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d to a t h l e t e s i n order to produce a team which would be a t t r a c t i v e to s p e c t a t o r s while a t the same time garnering p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s b e n e f i t s f o r the u n i v e r s i t y . ( 2 8 ) In Canada, the process of paying a t h l e t e s was extremely d i s t a s t e f u l to p r a c t i t i o n e r s of the amateur i d e a l and ran counter to t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t a t h l e t e s should not r e c e i v e any form of e x t r i n s i c compensation f o r t h e i r s p o r t s s k i l l s . But the gradual development of the American major u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c system as the dominant u n i v e r s i t y model i n North America during the t w e n t i e t h century p r o v i d e d an a l t e r n a t i v e . In both Canada and the United S t a t e s , supporters of t h i s model o f t e n saw themselves as " p r o g r e s s i v e " f o r c e s a t odds with more a r c h a i c models of s p o r t o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n f l i c t s such as these were a l s o t a k i n g p l a c e at e a s t e r n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s and, to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , i n the American c o l l e g e s (where the B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e was c o n s i d e r a b l y weaker). However, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, l o c a t e d on the p e r i p h e r y of the Canadian c u l t u r a l c e n t r e , the s t r u g g l e was a l s o a f f e c t e d by the geographic i s o l a t i o n of the p r o v i n c e and i t s growing economic, media and c u l t u r a l t i e s w i t h the American P a c i f i c Coast s t a t e s of Washington, Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a . B r i t i s h Columbian s o c i e t y was i n f u s e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l v a l u e s but i t s c u l t u r a l development during the 20th century was i n f l u e n c e d by the i m p o s i t i o n of v a l u e s and images t r a n s m i t t e d from the United S t a t e s through the American media. As w e l l , the immigration of Americans i n t o the province during the 20th century brought a -152-constant flow of "American" ideas and prac t i ce s into western Canada. It i s within the context of these c o n f l i c t i n g phi losophies and value systems that the development of the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia a t h l e t i c program during the 1940's, 50's and 60's must be viewed. The post-World War II era at UBC saw the establishment of an academic Department of Phys ica l Education under the d i r e c t o r Robert F . Osborne. The Department's mission was to provide a degree granting program of coursework, oversee the U n i v e r s i t y ' s compulsory phys ica l education program and provide an organizat ional framework for the U n i v e r s i t y ' s a t h l e t i c teams. The expansion of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s a t h l e t i c program, which i n i t i a l l y was financed and contro l l ed by the students themselves, was outgrowing the capacity of the Alma Mater Society budget. To augment the a t h l e t i c budget and ensure the continued growth of the sports program, student organizers lobbied the Univers i ty adminis trat ion to increase i t s f i n a n c i a l contr ibut ion to the a t h l e t i c progam, e spec ia l l y considering the publ ic r e la t ions value of the Thunderbird teams. This desire for increased spending on phys ica l education and a t h l e t i c s by the Univers i ty was not without i t s c r i t i c s . Some facul ty thought that the students' sports teams were an important part of the educational process but that enhanced Univers i ty support for sports should not be forthcoming.(29) Other ind iv idua l s i n the Univers i ty senate were against the i n s t i t u t i o n of a degree granting program i n Phys ica l Education for people -153-' p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s and games'.(30) These comments r e f l e c t e d v a r i a t i o n s both of a l i n g e r i n g p r o t e s t a n t s u s p i c i o n of games and of the legacy of the V i c t o r i a n amateur s p o r t s ethos. P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and a t h l e t i c s was seen to be "acceptable" i n Canadian e d u c a t i o n , perhaps even important, but only as i n moderation and i n c o n j u c t i o n w i t h more " s e r i o u s " academic a c t i v i t i e s . F u r t h e r evidence of the power these ideas h e l d i n Canadian s o c i e t y throughout the 20th century can be found i n the g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y e s t a b l i s h i n g degree g r a n t i n g programs i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n u n i v e r s i t i e s throughout the country. I t was not u n t i l 1941 t h a t the f i r s t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program i n Canada was i n s t i t u t e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto. Nonetheless, the complex process of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of UBC's a t h l e t i c program continued i n the 1940s. Yet, without the comprehensive support of the U n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t s development floundered i n comparison w i t h the other u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the P a c i f i c r e g i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , the f o o t b a l l team, w i t h l a r g e crowds at every home game d i d very p o o r l y a g a i n s t the s m a l l e r American P a c i f i c Northwest schools l i k e Western Washington. In 1950 the student body, with some alumni invo lvement ( 31) began i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n s t i t u t i n g some form of s c h o l a r s h i p or award system f o r a t h l e t e s i n order to enable the U n i v e r s i t y to a t t r a c t the s k i l l e d p l a y e r s needed to f i e l d winning f o o t b a l l teams. Reaction by the UBC f a c u l t y and senate to these developments was slow to c o a l e s c e . L a t e r t hat s c h o o l year, however, the UBC senate responded to -154-support i n the community f o r a s t r o n g e r a t h l e t i c program by forming a committee to i n v e s t i g a t e a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s w i t h the i d e a of r e p o r t i n g back with p o l i c y recommendations f o r senate.(32) However, a t about the same time i n the United S t a t e s , the f i x i n g of c o l l e g e b a s k e t b a l l games i n New York and Kentucky had become a p u b l i c and w e l l p u b l i c i z e d s c a n d a l . T h i s scandal p r o v i d e d evidence f o r opponents to o u t l i n e the negative e f f e c t s t h a t payments to a t h l e t e s and i n c r e a s e d U n i v e r s i t y expenditures on a t h l e t i c s might b r i n g to the U n i v e r s i t y ' s r e p u t a t i o n . In the l i g h t of these developments, and w i t h access to v a r i o u s r e p o r t s of other North American u n i v e r s i t i e s ' p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s concerning t h e i r own a t h l e t i c programs, the committee recommended "t h a t the Senate not approve of the e stablishment of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s . " ( 3 3 ) As w e l l , i t a l s o recommended t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y t i g h t e n up the e l i g i b i l i t y r u l e s f o r f i r s t y ear a t h l e t e s so as to prevent a t h l e t e s from competing f o r the U n i v e r s i t y f o r a season and subsequently dropping out of s c h o o l . Both p o l i c i e s were adopted by senate and served to s e v e r e l y c o n s t r a i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s a t h l e t i c program. In f a c t , these precedent s e t t i n g senate r u l i n g s appear to have been the most i n f l u e n t i a l developments i n the h i s t o r y of UBC a t h l e t i c s and, by deed of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s p o s i t i o n as the l a r g e s t i n the p r o v i n c e , f o r a t h l e t i c s a t a l l three B r i t i s h Columbia u n i v e r s i t i e s . There appears to be l i t t l e doubt t h a t -155-they had a g r e a t impact on supporters of a t h l e t i c s province-wide, i n c l u d i n g Dr. Shrum, mentor of the UBC a t h l e t i c program. D e s p i t e UBC's i n t e r n a l p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s , o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s continued to make an impact on the development and d i r e c t i o n on the U n i v e r s i t y teams, e s p e c i a l l y f o o t b a l l . The Quarterback Club, composed of s u p p o r t i v e alumni and community businessmen, media and i n t e r e s t e d supporters ( i n c l u d i n g Dr. Gordon Shrum who r a r e l y missed a meeting), was a lobby group f o r upgrading the a t h l e t i c program and met almost every Friday.(34) As Harry F r a n k l i n , a former s e c r e t a r y of the c l u b noted, the Quarterback Club was "the f i r s t attempt to get behind a team w i t h an organization...1948 to 1953 were our best years and we even o r g a n i z e d a Nanaimo branch."(35) One p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t i n the Club's e f f o r t s on b e h a l f of UBC f o o t b a l l appears to have had a s t r i k i n g impact on Shrum(36) and h i s p e r c e p t i o n on the key f a c t o r s i n the development of a major u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program. T h i s was the attempted r e c r u i t i n g of John Henry Johnson, a running back from C a l i f o r n i a who would l a t e r go on to s t a r i n the N a t i o n a l F o o t b a l l League. R o b i n e t t e , the a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r , was from C a l i f o r n i a and knew of Johnson's f o o t b a l l e x p l o i t s a t S a i n t Mary's and A r i z o n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . The Quarterback Club convened and q u i c k l y r a i s e d $6000 i n order to b r i n g the f u t u r e N a t i o n a l F o o t b a l l League gr e a t to Vancouver to run roughshod through the Evergreen Conference.(37) Problems a p p a r e n t l y rose with regard to h i s admission to the U n i v e r s i t y and Johnson never d i d come to UBC. -156-The Thunderbird f o o t b a l l program continued i n the doldrums (although i t continued to supply a number of f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s to the Canadian F o o t b a l l League during the ensuing decades). Yet, the s i t u a t i o n p r o v i d e s a clue to Shrum 1s t h i n k i n g on the t o p i c . Some observers c l o s e to Shrum's involvement i n a t h l e t i c s during h i s academic c a r e e r a t both UBC and SFU f e l t t h a t he d i d not know the 'nuts and b o l t s ' of a top notch a t h l e t i c program.(38) I t c o u l d very w e l l have been h i s growing f e e l i n g from h i s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the s c h o l a r s h i p laden u n i v e r s i t i e s and s m a l l c o l l e g e s to the south that f i n a n c i a l a i d to a t h l e t e s was the p r i n c i p a l i n g r e d i e n t i n the mix of a powerful a t h l e t i c program. C e r t a i n l y , the roadblocks p r e v e n t i n g UBC from a c q u i r i n g a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s during the 1950's co u l d e a s i l y have seemed to Shrum to be the p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r i n the poor showings of the team and may only have served to spur h i s d e s i r e to have them. The i n s t i t u t i o n of them at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y would be the f i r s t a t h l e t i c p o l i c y he would announce f o r the new u n i v e r s i t y i n 1964. Through the decade of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of UBC's p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a t h l e t i c program from 1945 to 1955, the issue of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s had served as a g a l v a n i z i n g symbol f o r those i n d i v i d u a l s who wished to emphasize the e n t i r e a t h l e t i c program. But i t a l s o p r o v i d e d a t a r g e t f o r those i n d i v i d u a l s who, as former B.C. L i o n s general manager (and former UBC f o o t b a l l s t a r ) Herb Capozzi commented, ' p r e f e r r e d the B r i t i s h concept of a t h l e t i c s with p a r t i c i p a t i o n the key t h i n g as opposed to e x c e l l e n c e . ' ( 3 9 ) For these i n d i v i d u a l s , remuneration to -157-a t h l e t e s s t r u c k r i g h t a t the heart of t h e i r e n t i r e b e l i e f system. Moreover, s c h o l a r s h i p s were only one important p a r t of a whole program of a q u e s t i o n a b l e i n c r e a s e d emphasis on a t h l e t i c s . The a v a i l a b l e evidence i s c l e a r on the f a c t t h a t , during h i s years a t UBC, Dr. Goron Shrum was one of those i n d i v i d u a l s who a v i d l y supported the expansion and enhancement of UBC's p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a t h l e t i c s program.(40) Why he was such a staunch advocate of these kinds of p o l i c i e s i s not so c l e a r . An examination of Shrum's autobiography demonstrates that h i s exposure to Canada's B r i t i s h s p o r t i n g t r a d i t i o n s and i d e a l s was a t a minimum during h i s e a r l y y e a r s . Raised i n r u r a l O n t a r i o of German a n c e s t r y , Shrum came from a p r o t e s t a n t f a m i l y and c r e d i t e d h i s grandmother f o r encouraging him to g a i n a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . He p a r t i c i p a t e d l i t t l e i n s p o r t s and, although he 'played a l i t t l e rugby'(41) he c e r t a i n l y d i d not become immersed i n the dominant Canadian rugby c u l t u r e and i t s amateur t r a d i t i o n as had h i s student compatriots a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto. Nonetheless, upon h i s a r r i v a l a t UBC i n August, 1925 as a new f a c u l t y member he promptly became i n v o l v e d i n promoting the f l e d g l i n g UBC f o o t b a l l program. At t h a t time, as l a t e r during the 1940's and 50's, the teams were f a r i n g p o o r l y w i t h i n a schedule of both American and Canadian c o m p e t i t i o n . In a l a t e r i n t e r v i e w Shrum commented on how impressed he was a t the time w i t h the d i s c i p l i n e and q u a l i t y of the American teams, both on and o f f the f i e l d as compared wi t h the behavior of the Canadian squads: -158-my o b s e r v a t i o n was that the American teams were the best...These American teams came up here by bus and were w e l l coached, they had n i c e uniforms, good boots and they were w e l l d i s c i p l i n e d . . . C a n a d i a n f o o t b a l l teams from Regina and Manitoba weren't w e l l d i s c i p l i n e d and they were o f t e n coached by somebody i n the community l i k e Dr. Burke who was not a member of the UBC s t a f f , who r e a l l y had no c o n t r o l over them. A f t e r the game, some of them would go w i l d i n town. But the Americans never d i d . . . I c o u l d n ' t help but f e e l t h a t American f o o t b a l l was r e a l l y the l o g i c a l t h i n g f o r us to play out here.(42) During h i s years a t UBC, Shrum became i n v o l v e d i n other areas of the U n i v e r s i t y . He became a h i r i n g a d v i s o r to UBC's second P r e s i d e n t , Dr. Leonard K l i n c k (1918-44), and, as noted e a r l i e r , i t was Dr. Shrum who conducted the scre e n i n g process and s e l e c t e d Maury Van V l i e t and Gertrude Moore as the U n i v e r s i t y ' s men's and women's p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s i n January, 1936. At t h a t time, there was c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the community wi t h regard to the h i r i n g of an American during a time of high unemployment i n Vancouver and e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g the prospect t h a t the UBC a t h l e t i c program would be " t a i n t e d " w i t h American p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . ( 4 3 ) Despite the o p p o s i t i o n , the appointment was r a t i f i e d and Van V l i e t served the U n i v e r s i t y i n the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a t h l e t i c s areas u n t i l he moved to the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a near the end of World War I I . As Chairman of the i n f l u e n t i a l B u i l d i n g s and Grounds Committee, Shrum played an important r o l e i n a c q u i r i n g s p o r t s f i e l d s f o r the U n i v e r s i t y . The Stadium was completed i n October, 1937 and p r o v i d e d one of the f i n e s t f o o t b a l l stadiums i n Canada.(4 4) L a t e r t h a t same year, Shrum was announced as the new -159-D i r e c t o r of U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n (which ensures that u n i v e r s i t y courses and f a c u l t y knowledge are made a v a i l a b l e to the community surrounding the u n i v e r s i t y ) and i n that r o l e , l e s s than twelve months l a t e r , he e x h i b i t e d h i s keen i n t e r e s t as an advocate of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a t h l e t i c s by e s t a b l i s h i n g a summer sch o o l i n a t h l e t i c s . The f i r s t r e s i d e n t i n s t r u c t o r was a w e l l known American, Hec Edmundson, from the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, who a r r i v e d to teach t r a c k and f i e l d and b a s k e t b a l l coaching. A r e p o r t i n the Vancouver Sun newspaper quoted Shrum's r a t i o n a l e f o r the program: The i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t h l e t i c s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , the continued successes of B r i t i s h Columbia teams i n Dominion co m p e t i t i o n and the records e s t a b l i s h e d by men and women from t h i s p r o v i n c e i n the Olympic and B r i t i s h Empire Games have a t t r a c t e d widespread a t t e n t i o n to p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g work c a r r i e d on i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia hopes to make some c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d . ( 4 5 ) But Shrum's main i n t e r e s t was the s p o r t of f o o t b a l l and h i s (and o t h e r s ' ) ardent support of i t drew o p p o s i t i o n from advocates of other s p o r t s , ( p a r t i c u l a r l y rugby) which o f t e n competed w i t h f o o t b a l l f o r p l a y e r s . ( 4 6 ) Dr. Harry Warren, UBC's f i r s t g reat a t h l e t e - - h e ran the s p r i n t s f o r Canada i n the 1928 Olympic Games i n Amsterdam—and l a t e r a p r o f e s s o r of Geophysics a t the U n i v e r s i t y , remembers c l e a r l y the rugby vs f o o t b a l l issue and he and Shrum's c o n f l i c t s over the d i r e c t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s s p o r t s program: Dr. Shrum was a g r e a t proponent of Canadian f o o t b a l l . He was -160-t e r r i b l y keen and he and I fought about i t . I was u s u a l l y on the l o s i n g s i d e as he was a very prominent person and a b i g g e r person i n the U n i v e r s i t y than 1.(47) Des p i t e such o p p o s i t i o n , Shrum maintained a l a r g e measure of power and i n f l u e n c e over the development of a t h l e t i c s a t UBC. When Van V l i e t l e f t UBC near the end of the second World War to go to Edmonton to begin an academic program of p h y s i c a l education a t the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , i t was Shrum who appointed Robert F. Osborne, a former student of h i s and member of h i s World War I I C.O.T.C. group, as d i r e c t o r of UBC p h y s i c a l education.(48) I t was a l s o Shrum who promoted the h i r i n g of another American, Bob Robinette, as a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r i n the e a r l y 1950's and i t was he who was i n f l u e n t i a l i n ensuring t h a t f u t u r e N a t i o n a l F o o t b a l l League coach Don C o r y e l l became coach of the Thunderbirds i n 1953. L a t e r , i n 1955, when C o r y e l l r e s i g n e d as coach, Shrum u t i l i z e d h i s e a s t e r n connections w i t h I v o r Wynne a t McMaster U n i v e r s i t y to i n t e r v i e w and oversee the appointment of Frank Gnup as the new UBC f o o t b a l l coach, a p o s i t i o n which Gnup r e t a i n e d u n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1971. The Development of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y and I t s Sports Program In o r d e r to assess Simon F r a s e r ' s r e j e c t i o n of the e s t a b l i s h e d model of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s , Shrum's r e l a t i o n s h i p with McMaster U n i v e r s i t y ' s Ivor Wynne i s worth examining more c l o s e l y . I v o r Wynne was one of Shrum's c o n t a c t s i n the east.(49) As head of Physics a t UBC, Shrum was w e l l known -161-as a 'head hunter' who r e c r u i t e d world c l a s s s c h o l a r s to come to Vancouver to work a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and the evidence suggests that he u t i l i z e d the same procedure i n a t h l e t i c s to maintain a network of c o n t a c t s throughout the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . Dick M i t c h e l l , a former UBC a s s i s t a n t f o o t b a l l coach, commented l a t e r on Shrum's network: Gordon Shrum kept i n touch with what was going on i n the r e s t of Canada, p a r t i c u l a r y i n regard to f o o t b a l l . I'm sure he knew Warren Stevens [ a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r a t the U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o ] . . . i f Ivor Wynne had not t o l d Gordon Shrum about Frank Gnup he'd s t i l l be i n a s t e e l f a c t o r y . One of the reasons Shrum went back eas t was to look f o r coaches.(50) One can reasonably assume t h a t w i t h h i s e a s t e r n u n i v e r s i t y connections Shrum was aware of the s i t u a t i o n i n c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he had to be aware of the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n the Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union, e s p e c i a l l y the McMaster U n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l problem of 1953-55—when Ivor Wynne's McMaster was admitted to the Big Four f o o t b a l l league and then unceremoniously dropped by the CIAU--and of the rumours surrounding the r e c r u i t i n g and s u b s i d i z a t i o n of f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s i n the Big Four. Given h i s own experiences i n d e a l i n g w i t h the issue of r e c r u i t i n g f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s to UBC, i t seems reasonable to assume that Shrum was w e l l aware of the issue of r e c r u i t i n g and s u b s i d i z a t i o n throughout the c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c system. T h i s knowledge, combined w i t h h i s long and o f t e n f r u s t r a t i n g involvement w i t h a t h l e t i c s a t UBC, molded h i s t h i n k i n g on u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s and l e d to the -162-development of an " i d e a l " model based on h i s p e r s o n a l experiences with both the Canadian and American a t h l e t i c models.(51) The h y p o c r i s y t hat he p e r c e i v e d w i t h i n the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g must have had a great e f f e c t on him f o r , l e s s than ten years l a t e r , as c h a n c e l l o r and chairman of the Board of Governors at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y Shrum would t u r n maverick and lobby f o r and achieve a l e g i t i m i z e d u n i v e r s i t y p o l i c y t h a t would openly p o s i t i o n the a t h l e t i c program as a centre of importance w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y . The r a p i d development of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y (which opened on September 1, 1965) has i t s o r i g i n s i n the dramatic i n c r e a s e i n u n i v e r s i t y age students i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the post World War I I e r a . The doubling of UBC's student p o p u l a t i o n base from 1955 to 1962 to a t o t a l of 12,950 (52) r e f l e c t e d the p r o j e c t i o n t h at the number of students r e g i s t e r e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia's u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s would almost t r i p l e from 14,710 i n 1962 to some 37,000 i n 1971. With the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia as the p r o v i n c e ' s l a r g e s t u n i v e r s i t y , the m a j o r i t y of these high school students wishing to g a i n a post-secondary education would have to attend u n i v e r s i t y a t UBC. T h i s l a r g e bulge i n the B r i t i s h Columbia student p o p u l a t i o n base r e f l e c t e d a nationwide trend where the number of students throughout Canada were p r o j e c t e d to almost t r i p l e from 114,000 i n 1960 to 312,000 i n 1970.(53) Undoubtedly, the s t r a i n on the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s a t UBC and a t other u n i v e r s i t i e s a c r o s s the -163-country would have been enormous had they been f o r c e d to take i n the b u l g i n g student p o p u l a t i o n . Instead, to accomodate the p r o j e c t e d i n c r e a s e i n student enrolments i n B.C. the Macdonald Report recommended i n 1962 t h a t a new f o u r year degree g r a n t i n g u n i v e r s i t y be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the western lower F r a s e r V a l l e y w i t h the aim of e n r o l l i n g 2000 f i r s t year students f o r September, 1965.(54) That u n i v e r s i t y would be Simon F r a s e r . Meanwhile, upon h i s r e t i r e m e n t from the UBC f a c u l t y a t age 65 i n 1961, Dr. Shrum was approached by the Premier of B r i t i s h Columbia, W.A.C. Bennett, to become co-Chairman of B.C. E l e c t r i c (now B.C. Hydro) where he remained u n t i l 1972. I t was Bennett who, a f t e r r e c e i v i n g the Macdonald Report, c a l l e d upon Shrum to take charge of c o n s t r u c t i n g the new u n i v e r s i t y . Shrum recounts the telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n he had w i t h Bennett: Premier Bennett s a i d : "You know, Dr. Shrum, we've got the Macdonald Report and we've accepted i t and I want you to be c h a n c e l l o r of the new u n i v e r s i t y . S e l e c t a s i t e and b u i l d i t and get i t going. I want i t open i n September 1965."(55) Shrum was an obvious c h o i c e to l e a d the p r o j e c t . His academic and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e experience a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. and h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l prowess a t B.C. E l e c t r i c gave him the confidence of the Premier and the government. He began work immediately. Time being of the essence, the c o n s t r u c t i o n process of SFU was a f a s t track p r o j e c t where, i n the f i r s t of many c o n t r o v e r s i a l moves, Shrum c a l l e d f o r tenders f o r the c o n t r a c t s f o r the a t h l e t i c f a c i l i t i e s (a gymnasium and swimming pool) -164-f i r s t . I t was only the f i r s t s i g n a l of a number of s u r p r i s i n g , unorthodox moves by the new U n i v e r s i t y . A f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n began Shrum encountered o p p o s i t i o n towards h i s e a r l y p o l i c i e s from a member of the r e g i o n a l b u s i n e s s e l i t e . As he e x p l a i n s i n h i s autobiography the e a r l y c o n s t r u c t i o n of the gymnasium and pool complex d i d not s i t w e l l w i t h p o t e n t i a l donors to the new Un i v e r s i t y : The f i r s t concrete was poured f o r the gymnasium i n the s p r i n g of 1964 with a good deal of p u b l i c i t y . Some people disapproved. One prominent Vancouver businessman I met on the s t r e e t one day s a i d , "Well, Gordon, y o u ' l l never get any money out of me. I won't c o n t r i b u t e to any u n i v e r s i t y where the f i r s t b u i l d i n g they b u i l d i s a gymnasium." In f a c t , the gym was f i r s t only because of i t s s i m p l i c i t y compared wi t h some of the other b u i l d i n g s . I d i d f e e l , however, that a gymnasium was an important f a c i l i t y to i n c l u d e i n the i n i t i a l phase of c o n s t r u c t i o n . ( 5 6 ) But the new U n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s involvement i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n process i n d i c a t e d h i s long-time experience i n d e a l i n g w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i t i c s of a u n i v e r s i t y . L a t e r , he e x p l a i n e d the c r u c i a l importance of i n c o r p o r a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r a t h l e t i c s and the a r t s i n the i n i t i a l p l ans f o r the new U n i v e r s i t y because: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia opened i n 1915 without a gymnasium, and i t d i d not get a proper one u n t i l a f t e r the Second World War. Before then, they had to make do wi t h a l i t t l e wooden a f f a i r b u i l t w i t h student funds. I t had taken UBC f i f t y years to get a t h e a t r e , and i n 1963 i t s t i l l d i d not have an indoor swimming p o o l . A f t e r a u n i v e r s i t y i s e s t a b l i s h e d , and someone t r i e s to get a swimming pool or a t h e a t r e , there are always f i f t e e n academic departments whose demands f o r funds seem to take p r i o r i t y . I i n c l u d e d a gym, a t h e a t r e , and a swimming pool i n my SFU p l a n because I knew from experience how d i f f i c u l t i t was to -165-o b t a i n such f a c i l i t i e s l a t e r on.(57) But other s u r p r i s i n g i n n o v a t i o n s a t the new u n i v e r s i t y i n c l u d e d the prospect of using the t r i m e s t e r system to maximize the e f f i c i e n t use of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s r e s o u r c e s , o r g a n i z i n g the U n i v e r s i t y ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n so as to provide f o r s u c c e s s i v e , organized phases of expansion i n the decades to f o l l o w ( u n l i k e the haphazard development that had been a hallmark of the uneven growth of UBC), a l l o w i n g f o r daycare and t u t o r i a l s e r v i c e s and, g e n e r a l l y , ensuring that experimentation and academic i n n o v a t i o n would be the order of the day w i t h i n Simon F r a s e r . However, the i n n o v a t i o n which a t t r a c t e d the l a r g e s t amount of p u b l i c i t y nationwide f o r the new U n i v e r s i t y was C h a n c e l l o r Shrum's announcement on March 13, 1964 t h a t Simon F r a s e r would i n s t i t u t e a p o l i c y of awarding a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s to a t h l e t e s i n i t s new a t h l e t i c program.(58) The announcement r e c e i v e d h e a d l i n e s r i g h t a c r o s s Canada, something t h a t probably d i d n ' t s u r p r i s e Shrum f o r he was w e l l aware of the impact h i s r a d i c a l p o l i c y announcements generated f o r SFU, e s p e c i a l l y i n the competition f o r p u b l i c i t y w i t h the other new u n i v e r s i t i e s opening a c r o s s the country. He had a p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g about the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s value of h i s pronouncements: T h i s announcement [on a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s ] got us a l o t of p u b l i c i t y because i t was so c o n t r a r y to the c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . Most Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y UBC, were opposed to a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s ( 5 9 ) . . . I was the P.R. man. SFU got more p u b l i c i t y i n O n t a r i o than d i d the f i v e new u n i v e r s i t i e s opening at the same time t h e r e . SFU had the r e p u t a t i o n as an i n n o v a t o r . (6 0) -166-And p u b l i c image was important. As a new u n i v e r s i t y competing f o r funding, students, f a c u l t y and p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n , Simon F r a s e r needed to e s t a b l i s h a strong p o s i t i o n i n the minds of the p u b l i c . The value to the new U n i v e r s i t y of promoting a high l e v e l program of a t h l e t i c e x c e l l e n c e , i n c l u d i n g s c h o l a r s h i p s was a l s o not l o s t on v a r i o u s members of the SFU Board of Governors, who supported Shrum's p o l i c i e s . A member of the Board of Governors, Alan Eyre, who was a l s o a D i r e c t o r of the B.C. Lio n s p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l team, commented l a t e r : The a t h l e t i c program was b a s i c a l l y designed to b u i l d student l o y a l t y and pre-eminence on a f a s t e r b a s i s than you c o u l d get by t u r n i n g out graduates. Simon F r a s e r , we f e l t , would get a q u i c k e r image through a t h l e t i c s than you cou l d get through s c h o l a s t i c achievements. I t takes a long time to produce academics.(61) Arnold Hean, another Board of Governors member who had f i r s t met Shrum when Shrum t r a i n e d him as a radar t e c h n i c i a n a t UBC i n 1940, adds t h a t : SFU was t r y i n g to be i n the vanguard and we thought that s p o r t s would h i g h l i g h t who we were and b r i n g us to the a t t e n t i o n of a l o t of people i n academic areas.(62) I t appears that Hean was r i g h t . From the response to Shrum's announcements there i s l i t t l e doubt that Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y gained v a l u a b l e i n i t i a l p u b l i c i t y about i t s new programs and inn o v a t i v e p o l i c i e s . Unquestionably, the p u b l i c i t y campaign was a step ahead of the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s e f f o r t s of the other new -167-u n i v e r s i t i e s under c o n s t r u c t i o n throughout Canada. I t a l s o served to r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e the new school over the o l d e r u n i v e r s i t i e s which had developed a r e p u t a t i o n and image of downgrading s p o r t s and a t h l e t i c s . SFU had moved to f i l l a s p o r t s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s v o i d to q u i c k l y become the best known s p o r t s u n i v e r s i t y i n the country. O v e r a l l , an examination of the a t t i t u d e s of the i n d i v i d u a l s on the f i r s t Board of Governors a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y leads to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t they were sympathetic to Shrum's push f o r a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s and the development of an a t h l e t i c model s t y l e d on a modified American format a t the U n i v e r s i t y . I t a l s o appears t h a t Shrum i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r s e l e c t i o n to the Board of Governors as a r e s u l t of t h e i r support of h i s a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s and h i s u n i v e r s i t y p o l i c i e s i n g e n e r a l . Shrum c h a r a c t e r i z e d SFU's f i r s t P r e s i d e n t McTaggart-Cowan, an e x - o f f i c i o member of the Board of Governors, "as a very strong supporter of a t h l e t i c s . . . e s p e c i a l l y f o o t b a l l " while Fred D i e t r i c h and Alan Eyre were "strong s u p p o r t e r s " . Eyre, a member of the B.C. L i o n s Board of D i r e c t o r s , supported Shrum's p l a n p o s s i b l y because " i t was a g r e a t deal of help to the L i o n s to get a few p l a y e r s from SFU."(63) McTaggart-Cowan noted Eyre's i n t e r e s t i n the a t h l e t i c program when he commented l a t e r t h a t i f he had to s i n g l e out one person who was most sup p o r t i v e of Shrum's a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s "aside from Shrum and myself i t would be Alan Eyre."(64) Another Board of Governors member, Arn o l d Hean, noted t h a t the new P r e s i d e n t was "keenly i n t e r e s t e d i n s p o r t s and there were -168-a number of others on the board who were e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d . . . A l a n Eyre was very e n t h u s i a s t i c . . . n o one was negative [on the emphasis on a t h l e t i c s ] p r o v i d e d academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were maintained."(65) And, as a l r e a d y mentioned, Fred B o l t o n and Fred D i e t r i c h had been, along w i t h Shrum, members of the UBC Quarterback Club. Of c e n t r a l importance to the maintainence of U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c p o l i c y must be the r o l e of the u n i v e r s i t y P r e s i d e n t who, i n Shrum's words, " i s the one w i t h the r e a l power."(66) His s e l e c t i o n ( 6 7 ) f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n was a long time f r i e n d , P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan, who was a former Science student of h i s a t UBC. McTaggart-Cowan, a 1936 Rhodes s c h o l a r s h i p winner, had had l i t t l e e xperience i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a u n i v e r s i t y but h i s academic and s p o r t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s a t Oxford U n i v e r s i t y where he was i n v o l v e d i n rowing and badminton,(68) h i s long term r e l a t i o n s h i p with Shrum and h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e xperiences as the head of the M e t e o r o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e of Canada l e d Shrum to the o p i n i o n t h a t , "I thought he c o u l d do the job."(69) C e r t a i n l y i n s t a l l i n g as the new P r e s i d e n t a man who was inexperienced i n academic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would give Shrum, who a l r e a d y h e l d two powerful p o s i t i o n s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a decided measure of i n f l u e n c e i n the day to day d u t i e s of a t h i r d and p o s s i b l y most powerful p o s i t i o n of a l l . McTaggart-Cowan c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s p l a y e d f u l l support of the Simon F r a s e r p o l i c y of o f f e r i n g a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s to the U n i v e r s i t y ' s incoming a t h l e t e s . From the very announcement of - 1 6 9 -h i s a p p o i n t m e n t a s P r e s i d e n t he c o n s t a n t l y a r t i c u l a t e d h i s s u p p o r t of t h e e n t i r e r a n g e of Shrum*s a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s . H i s r a t i o n a l e f o c u s s e d on t h e argument t h a t C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s s h o u l d s u p p o r t th e p u r s u i t of e x c e l l e n c e i n a l l s p h e r e s o f l i f e , n o t j u s t the c e n t r a l c o r e o f a c a d e m i c s t u d y . In a s p e e c h t o t h e Men's C a n a d i a n C l u b o f V a n c o u v e r he commented: Any s t u d e n t who has some a r e a o f e x c e l l e n c e - - I d o n ' t c a r e how s m a l l — a n d has once t a s t e d s u c c e s s , w i l l have the d e s i r e t o go a l l t h e way t o g e t it....Why s h o u l d n ' t s u c h s t u d e n t s g e t s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s [ i n a t h l e t i c s ] j u s t a s a s t u d e n t good i n m a t h e m a t i c s c a n g e t a s c h o l a r s h i p i n m a t h e m a t i c s ? ( 7 0 ) A l s o , t h e new P r e s i d e n t f e l t t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f t a l e n t e d a t h l e t e s on campus " m o t i v a t e s th e whole s t u d e n t body t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e a t h l e t i c p r o g r a m . " ( 7 1 ) In t h e s e e a r l y d a y s , i t was i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o meet c r i t i c i s m head on and p u b l i c l y d i s p u t e t h e n o t i o n t h a t a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s w o u l d mean t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s a c a d e m i c q u a l i t y w o u l d s u f f e r . In a s p e e c h t o t h e Lower M a i n l a n d P a r k s A d v i s o r y A s s o c i a t i o n McTaggart-Cowan commented t h a t a l t h o u g h SFU w o u l d be p r o m o t i n g p o l i c i e s a imed a t e m p h a s i z i n g i t s a t h l e t i c p r o g r a m , the a d v e n t o f a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y w o u l d d e - e m p h a s i z e i t s a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m s . He a s s e r t e d t h a t "We a r e n o t l o o k i n g f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h th e body o f G o l i a t h and t h e b r a i n s of a t h r e e y e a r o l d . " ( 7 2 ) And i n a l e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r , he s t r o n g l y r e i t e r a t e d h i s b e l i e f t h a t SFU's i n i t i a l s c h o l a r s h i p a t h l e t e s were "above a v e r a g e a c a d e m i c a l l y . " ( 7 3 ) The s u p p o r t of t h e P r e s i d e n t a s t h e l i n k between the -170-p o l i c i e s of the C h a n c e l l o r and the f a c u l t y and other community i n t e r e s t groups appears to be a c r u c i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n a l l o w i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of Shrum's v i s i o n of an American-style u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c model to take p l a c e a t Simon F r a s e r w i t h l i t t l e o r ganized o p p o s i t i o n . The P r e s i d e n t ' s key r o l e i n the promotion of c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s was to a c t to m a r s h a l l a base of support f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s p o l i c i e s while a t the same time a c t i n g to f r a c t i o n a l i z e any o p p o s i t i o n t h a t may have a r i s e n . A c t u a l l y , McTaggart-Cowan's f u l l support of Shrum*s a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s might have been expected. As a Shrum appointee w i t h l i t t l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e experience i n u n i v e r s i t y systems, g e n e r a l l y he c o u l d be expected to support Shrum's e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s during h i s l e a r n i n g phase on the job while a t the same time d e f e r r i n g to the 40 years of Shrum's experience a t UBC i n d e a l i n g w i t h academic matters. In a r e c e n t l e t t e r to the author, SFU's f i r s t p r e s i d e n t d e t a i l e d h i s inexperience--and t h a t of the f i r s t Board of Governors—when he noted t h a t he and t h a t group "were developing our philosophy as we went along."(74) Shrum, of course, had a decided advantage over the others i n h i s UBC e x p e r i e n c e s and t h i s gave him an i n c r e a s e d measure of i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the Board of Governors i n the shaping of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s i n i t i a l e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y and a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s . What s p e c i f i c a l l y was Simon F r a s e r ' s a t h l e t i c p o l i c y as enunciated by Shrum i n March, 1964? E s s e n t i a l l y , he promoted a program c o n s i s t i n g of three major t h r u s t s . These were (1) the o f f e r i n g of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s to a t t r a c t t a l e n t e d a t h l e t e s to -171-the s c h o o l , (2) upgrading coaching to the best p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l a v a i l a b l e and (3) p r o v i d i n g t u t o r i a l s to give the a t h l e t e s e x t r a help with t h e i r academic work.(75) E l a b o r a t i n g on h i s p o l i c y i n a newspaper i n t e r v i e w Shrum d e c l a r e d : We must have a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s . We cannot use our government grant [academic] funds f o r t h i s but I am sure there are ou t s i d e funds f o r t h i s . I would not lower our academic standards but f o r any a t h l e t e capable of doing u n i v e r s i t y work, I am i n favour of s c h o l a r s h i p s and b u r s a r i e s . . . I would be i n favour of b r i n g i n g i n coaches from the United S t a t e s u n t i l our own program s u p p l i e s us with our own coaches...I would not f o r one moment condone the development of a t h l e t i c s a t the expense of academics nor would I ever push a student through h i s exams simply because he pl a y s f o o t b a l l . ( 7 6 ) He a l s o went on to e x p l a i n t h a t a c r u c i a l problem i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t was to stop the flow of the best a t h l e t e s to a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p o f f e r s from American c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . He d e c l a r e d t h a t Simon F r a s e r would compete wit h those American u n i v e r s i t i e s to keep t a l e n t e d Canadians a t home. In a newspaper i n t e r v i e w he noted t h a t "we must t r y to keep our a t h l e t e s i n our country and we must give them every o p p o r t u n i t y to r e c e i v e an education."(77) During a decade of r i s i n g n a t i o n a l i s m i n Canada, t h i s r a t i o n a l e s t r u c k a responsive chord i n B r i t i s h Columbia and ac r o s s the country. In Toronto, the l e a d paragraph i n a s t o r y i n the Toronto Telegram on SFU's a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s began, "Canada's a t h l e t e s should stay i n Canada, says Dr. Gordon Shrum."(78) and many newspapers emphasized t h i s appeal to Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m to t h e i r r e a d e r s h i p as one of the most important r a t i o n a l e s f o r SFU's -172-unique a t h l e t i c p o l i c y . American domination of Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s during the post-war era had l e f t many Canadians f e e l i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y h e l p l e s s to c o n t r o l the development of t h e i r s o c i e t y . SFU's move had popular appeal as a seemingly noble attempt to stem the 'brawn d r a i n ' to the United S t a t e s . Yet, d e s p i t e the c e r t a i n t y of Shrum's p u b l i c pronouncements on p o l i c y , h i s v i s i o n of a w e l l developed a t h l e t i c program c o u l d not be implemented a t Simon F r a s e r u n l e s s i t r e c e i v e d i n t e r n a l support throughout the u n i v e r s i t y from the f a c u l t y , senate, and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e apparatus. To a l a r g e e x t e n t , the need f o r support from these groups was circumvented as some of the p o l i c i e s were announced be f o r e many of the f a c u l t y and s t a f f were appointed. E a r l y on, the Board of Governors had s i g n a l l e d i t s approval of the new a t h l e t i c setup i n t h e i r formal and i n f o r m a l meetings while the P r e s i d e n t had a l s o demonstrated h i s support of Shrum's pl a n s i n p u b l i c speeches throughout the p r o v i n c e . A major concern f o r the backers of an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on a t h l e t i c s , however, was g a i n i n g the support of the members of f a c u l t y , some of whom were p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l s u n l i k e l y to be sympathetic to the o r g a n i z a t i o n and implementation of an American-style a t h l e t i c program at SFU. Yet, the r a d i c a l element on campus d i d not provide any noteworthy o p p o s i t i o n to the new p l a n . T h i s was probably due to the f a c t t h a t i n the mid-1960's the i n s t i t u t i o n of s p o r t had not y e t become the s u b j e c t of i n t e l l e c t u a l a t t a c k s as had other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . In f a c t , few i n t e l l e c t u a l s h e l d w e l l thought out and c r i t i c a l views on the -173-nature of s p o r t i n the United S t a t e s , Canada o r elsewhere.(79) Instead, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the r a d i c a l s of 'Berkeley North' p e r c e i v e d the U n i v e r s i t y ' s a t h l e t i c program as being t r i v i a l to t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l a t t a c k s on s o c i e t y ( i f they thought about i t a t a l l ) and so ignored i t completely.(80) T h i s appears, g e n e r a l l y , to have been the case i n most u n i v e r s i t i e s throughout the United S t a t e s and Canada up u n t i l the l a t e 1960s. As w e l l , s i n c e a l a r g e percentage of the SFU f a c u l t y were American, a p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s t h a t the adoption of an a t h l e t i c program s i m i l a r to the ones that the f a c u l t y experienced during t h e i r undergraduate and graduate student days may have provided a reason f o r them to t a c i t l y support, by not opposing, the adoption of an a t h l e t i c program s t y l e d along an American model.(81) In any case, as Shrum e x p l a i n e d l a t e r , he faced l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n i n g e t t i n g the idea of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s approved by the senate. His a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a i d e d the achievement of t h i s goal by i n c o r p o r a t i n g them i n t o an i n n o v a t i v e p o l i c y of rewarding student a c t i v i t i e s i n a wide v a r i e t y of areas w i t h a c t i v i t y s c h o l a r s h i p s from the U n i v e r s i t y ' s academic s c h o l a r s h i p funding base. On t h i s p o i n t Shrum noted: The reason was because we a l s o o f f e r e d a c t i v i t y s c h o l a r s h i p s so t h a t students who were a c t i v e , not n e c e s s a r i l y i n a t h l e t i c s , but perhaps i n the student c o u n c i l , music, drama or some other campus a c t i v i t y c o u l d win awards as w e l l . I f we had been recommending only a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s , I would never have been ab l e to get the support of the f a c u l t y . ( 8 2 ) The e l e v a t i o n of the SFU a t h l e t i c program to a higher -174-p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the o v e r a l l aims of the U n i v e r s i t y was augmented by the development, a r t i c u l a t i o n , and implementation of an e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy t h a t sought to e l i m i n a t e the b a r r i e r s i n e d u c a t i o n between mind and body. Commenting l a t e r on t h i s key theme as a mainstay of the a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s , Dr. A.R. MacKinnon, the u n i v e r s i t y ' s f i r s t Dean of Education, noted t h a t : Simply, the U n i v e r s i t y was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n where mind and body were not separated...The [ a t h l e t i c ] program was embedded d i r e c t l y i n the e d u c a t i o n program of the U n i v e r s i t y . ( 8 3 ) Within t h i s r e c o n s t i t u t e d model of e a r l i e r a t h l e t i c i s m , s p o r t was to bridge the t r a d i t i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t s e p a r a t i o n from the u n i v e r s i t y ' s wide range of programs and e n t e r a realm where i t became j u s t another p a r t , a l b e i t an important one from a f i n a n c i a l and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p o i n t of view, of the U n i v e r s i t y . Gone would be any t r a d i t i o n of separate mind and body. In p l a c e would be an i d e a l b a l a n c i n g of the two w i t h i n a modern u n i v e r s i t y model. McTaggart-Cowan d i s p l a y e d h i s thoughts on the matter i n a l e t t e r to a 1971 a t h l e t i c review board when he noted: In the case of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s we have had i r r a t i o n a l and emotional o p p o s i t i o n which dates back c e r t a i n l y as long as I have been a l i v e . Why, on the one had, one should be d e l i g h t e d to have a student win a music s c h o l a r s h i p f o r muscular d e x t e r i t y w i t h the f i d d l e and y e t be i n v i o l e n t o p p o s i t i o n to a s c h o l a r s h i p being g i v e n to someone who can swim f a s t e r on h i s back than anyone e l s e i n Canada--! j u s t do not understand. (84) W i t h i n the F a c u l t y of Education s e t t i n g , the development of the a t h l e t i c program u t i l i z e d an e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy which -175-allowed the Department of A t h l e t i c s to be p l a c e d i n an in n o v a t i v e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y P h y s i c a l Development Centre. Education Dean MacKinnon s t a t e d l a t e r t h a t under t h i s s t r a t e g y : "the seamless code of l e a r n i n g c o u l d not be d i v i d e d . Thus, the U n i v e r s i t y had to give as much a t t e n t i o n i n the l i v i n g f i e l d s i t u a t i o n as to study i n the academic classroom."(85) The a t h l e t i c teams would be expected to provide t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f o r Canadian coaches and t r a i n e r s as w e l l as the t a l e n t e d a t h l e t e s t h a t would e n r o l . In the case of the a t h l e t i c department personnel each would become a member of the U n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y w i t h complete academic standing and be accorded the f u l l s t a t u s of f a c u l t y . In a w r i t t e n statement, the U n i v e r s i t y o u t l i n e d the r a t i o n a l e behind the new P h y s i c a l Development Centre: I t i s our b e l i e f t h a t a w e l l organized a t h l e t i c team p r o v i d e s more than j u s t a p l a c e to d i s c u s s and t e s t s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and achievement t h e o r i e s , i t f u r n i s h e s a l a b o r a t o r y f o r a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . . . A t h l e t i c s provide students w i t h a unique experience which i s both p h y s i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g . ( 8 6 ) The c i r c l e , then, was complete. Shrum 1s v i s i o n had been transformed i n t o p o l i c y and from there a process of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n had fo l l o w e d , complete w i t h a r e c o n s t i t u t e d e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy t h a t p r o v i d e d a r a i s o n d ' e t r e f o r the defence of the a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s . In s h o r t , the a t h l e t i c p o l i c y c o n s t r u c t was f i n i s h e d . With t h i s complete model, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e was i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to defend i t s e l f a g a i n s t c r i t i c i s m from the s p o r t s community, the p r o v i n c i a l government or from w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . -176-Response from the B r i t i s h Columbia s p o r t s community to Shrum's p o l i c y announcements came f a i r l y q u i c k l y . At UBC, a t h l e t i c program o f f i c i a l s downplayed the value of s c h o l a r s h i p s i n a s u c c e s s f u l a t h l e t i c program. Robert Osborne, D i r e c t o r of the School of P h y s i c a l Education and a key member of the p o l i c y - s e t t i n g Men's A t h l e t i c Committee, commented to the Vancouver Sun t h a t : S c h o l a r s h i p s and b u r s a r i e s w i l l help, but the q u e s t i o n of t o t a l environment must be taken i n t o a c c o u n t . . . I t takes coaching, competition and even acceptance by the newspapers to make a s u c c e s s f u l program....The UBC senate i s not opposed to a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s but i t i s a g a i n s t r e c r u i t i n g of the high p r e s s u r e , market p l a c e type t h a t has sometimes occurred i n the U.S. c o l l e g e s b i d f o r outstanding a t h l e t e s the way the B.C. L i o n s b i d f o r t h e i r p l a y e r s . The inducements are very s i m i l a r . ( 8 7 ) In a d d i t i o n , the Department of A t h l e t i c s q u i c k l y made p u b l i c the f a c t t h a t the Men's A t h l e t i c Committee had had the q u e s t i o n of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r some time. A t h l e t i c D i r e c t o r Bus P h i l l i p s commented to the Ubyssey student newspaper that "We are p l e a s e d t h a t Dr. Shrum pl a n s to implement our ideas i n t o Simon F r a s e r ' s a t h l e t i c program."(88) C l e a r l y , though, Simon F r a s e r had taken the " l e a d " away from UBC w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l s p o r t s community and provoked responses from people who were unhappy with p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n a t the o l d e r , t r a d i t i o n bound U n i v e r s i t y . I t was annoying f o r many t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o r c e s t h a t had prevented the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. from i n s t i t u t i n g a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s a decade e a r l i e r now appeared to be h o l d i n g back the u n i v e r s i t y ' s a t h l e t i c program. -177-Community s p o r t s l e a d e r s were quick to express t h e i r o p i n i o n s on Simon F r a s e r ' s break wi t h Canadian and B r i t i s h Columbian t r a d i t i o n . Herb Ca p o z z i , an alumnus of UBC and general manager of the B.C. L i o n s , p u b l i c l y c r i t i c i z e d the a t h l e t i c e f f o r t of UBC i n a speech to the meeting of the B.C. Teachers F e d e r a t i o n n o t i n g t h a t "By the encouragement of an a t h l e t i c program, SFU w i l l r e c e i v e p u b l i c acceptance t h a t UBC has never had....Sports i s the great p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s t o o l of a un ive rs i t y . " ( 8 9) Yet, h i s support was not shared unanimously by a l l members of the community. In an e d i t o r i a l e n t i t l e d "We Lost-Hooray" the Vancouver Sun took the s i d e of the p r o v i n c i a l taxpayer emphasizing the f i n a n c i a l c o s t of an American major c o l l e g e s t y l e a t h l e t i c program: For the o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n on the paying end there must seem something out of k i l t e r w i t h Mr. Capozzi's dream. Most of us think a u n i v e r s i t y i s a p l a c e where the mind i s c u l t i v a t e d and the understanding improved. I f , as he i m p l i e s , i t needed stadiums, h a l f b a c k s , high jumpers and gymnastic marvels to achieve p u b l i c acceptance, i t would be a f a r , f a r d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n . And r e a l l y not worth p i n c h i n g our pennies for.(90) L o c a l coaches and a t h l e t e s (many of whom a t th a t time were at t e n d i n g American u n i v e r s i t i e s on a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s ) a l s o expressed q u a l i f i e d approval of the p r i n c i p l e of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l i n B r i t i s h Columbia.(91) Many, however, were q u i t e concerned t h a t there were other f a c t o r s b e s i d e s s c h o l a r s h i p s i n v o l v e d i n the development of a high l e v e l u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program. Some, l i k e Vancouver's Harry -178-Jerome, who a t the time was the co-holder of the World Record i n the 100 yard dash, and a t t e n d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon on a s c h o l a r s h i p , expressed c a u t i o n a t the Simon F r a s e r developments, no t i n g t h a t : I would have attended s c h o o l i n B.C. i f the top coaching and competition had be a v a i l a b l e . . . I think U.S. schools sometimes s t r e s s a t h l e t i c s too much...As f a r as I am concerned my r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h U.O. i s s t r i c t l y b u s i n e s s . They're u t i l i z i n g my name; i n r e t u r n I'm g e t t i n g educated. I'd l i k e to see a good system implemented i n Canada, i n which a t h l e t e s would get a chance to get an e d u c a t i o n and c o n t r i b u t e to campus s p i r i t . ( 9 2 ) The a t h l e t e s f e l t t h a t the Simon F r a s e r move would act to spur the development of high school s p o r t s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . The need f o r high c a l i b r e a t h l e t e s to help make SFU competitive w i t h U.S. u n i v e r s i t i e s c o u l d be accomplished by awarding a s t i p e n d to high s c h o o l coaches. The f e e l i n g a t the time was that a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s and the whole i n c r e a s e d emphasis on a t h l e t i c s a t the new u n i v e r s i t y "would k i l l f o r e v e r the vacuum of apathy t h a t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s among prep a t h l e t e s . " ( 9 3 ) L o c a l coaches were i n favour of the p l a n as w e l l . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia a s s i s t a n t f o o t b a l l coach Lorne Davies termed Shrum's proposals "a b i g step forward." According to the Vancouver Sun UBC head f o o t b a l l coach Frank Gnup supported the move while a s s i s t a n t coach Bob Hindmarch commented t h a t , "I'm i n favour of g e t t i n g as many k i d s to go to u n i v e r s i t y as possible...why shouldn't there be a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s ? " Cal Murphy, head coach of the strong Vancouver C o l l e g e high s c h o o l f o o t b a l l team, who had helped h i s p l a y e r s get U.S. u n i v e r s i t y -179-a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s , s a i d " I f a boy c o u l d get h i s t u i t i o n p a i d , which i s about $400, of course he would go to a B.C. s c h o o l . " A year l a t e r , however, two of Vancouver C o l l e g e ' s best f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s would accept s c h o l a r s h i p s to play a t Washington S t a t e i n s t e a d of e n r o l l i n g a t the soon to open new B.C. u n i v e r s i t y . ( 9 4 ) On a c a u t i o n a r y note, coaches were concerned about the other a s p e c t s of a high q u a l i t y u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program. B.C. L i o n s minor f o o t b a l l c o - o r d i n a t o r Denny V e i t c h echoed the comments of UBC's Osborne when he noted t h a t "There are other f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n a f i r s t c l a s s a t h l e t i c program. S c h o l a r s h i p s are not the t o t a l answer."(95) Simon F r a s e r ' s a t h l e t i c program began i n e a r n e s t the f o l l o w i n g year when on March 11, 1965, a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n s had been taken f o r the p o s i t i o n , Lome Davies was announced as the f i r s t a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r and f o o t b a l l coach. He would take up h i s new p o s i t i o n on May 1, 1965 i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the September opening of the U n i v e r s i t y . ( 9 6 ) His f i r s t task as a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r was to begin planning f o r the f o o t b a l l season j u s t ahead. As the U n i v e r s i t y had no a t h l e t i c board to c o n t r o l p o l i c y making, w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of h i s appointment, the new a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r had g r e a t l a t i t u d e to develop the program as he saw f i t . P u b l i c l y , h i s p o s i t i o n was c l e a r : "Our e n t i r e program w i l l be p a t t e r n e d a f t e r those i n the s u c c e s s f u l U.S. c o l l e g e s . " ( 9 7 ) Davies c l e a r l y expected to adopt a step l a d d e r approach to making a planned r i s e to the top l e v e l s of American u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l . When the s c h o o l opened he -180-o u t l i n e d those s t e p s i n a newspaper i n t e r v i e w : T h i s year [1965] w e ' l l play a f i v e game schedule a g a i n s t U.S. j u n i o r c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t y freshmen teams and minor f o o t b a l l teams on the P a c i f i c Coast. In 1966 we should be able to compete a g a i n s t some small f o u r year s c h o o l s , as w e l l as j u n i o r c o l l e g e s . By 1967 w e ' l l be p l a y i n g Evergreen Conference schools i n Washington, then i n 1968 the S k y l i n e Conference... I t w i l l be 1969 or 1970 before we can t a c k l e - l i t e r a l l y or f i g u r a t i v e l y - t e a m s on the Big Ten or major independent l e v e l . ( 9 8 ) The process of b u i l d i n g such a high performance u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program i n v o l v e d r e c r u i t i n g l o c a l and n a t i o n a l p l a y e r s using s c h o l a r s h i p s e i t h e r awarded by the Univers i t y (99) o r by p r i v a t e donors. The f i r s t p r i v a t e awards came from the B.C. L i o n s f o o t b a l l c l u b (three were a v a i l a b l e a t $300 each per year)(100) while a Board of Governors member, Fred D i e t r i c h of D i e t r i c h - C o l l i n s , put forward a $500 s c h o l a r s h i p . These were the f i r s t o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d American s t y l e a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s ever i n s t i t u t e d a t a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y . Yet, d e s p i t e these o p t i m i s t i c f i n a n c i a l developments, s e v e r a l problems threatened to s i d e t r a c k Davies' program to develop Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s i n t o one of the "best" programs on the P a c i f i c Coast. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , d e s p i t e the p r o f e s s e d d e s i r e of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to have a f o o t b a l l team competitive enough to compete wit h the best west coast American u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l programs, (the c o s t of which c o u l d reach $1 m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y ) the i n i t i a l budget f o r o p e r a t i n g the a t h l e t i c program (exc l u d i n g s a l a r i e s ) was j u s t $25,110—a sum f a r below the the one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s that Davies estimated would be needed -181-a n n u a l l y to f i e l d a top u n i v e r s i t y team. (101) Without q u e s t i o n , the amount of u n i v e r s i t y funds d e d i c a t e d to the a t h l e t i c program was the c r u c i a l determinant a f f e c t i n g the l e v e l of competition a t which the SFU s p o r t s teams would e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e . Thus, the r a t i o n a l e s supporting the a l l o c a t i o n of such a s m a l l amount of money to fund the U n i v e r s i t y ' s program of a t h l e t i c e x c e l l e n c e are w e l l worth e x p l o r i n g . The budgetary process a t Simon F r a s e r was democratic i n nature with each Dean submitting h i s proposed budget to a meeting of a l l the Deans f o r d i s c u s s i o n . In t h i s open f a s h i o n the formation of the i n i t i a l a t h l e t i c budget was i n f l u e n c e d and approved by the U n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y b e f o r e being submitted to the Board of Governors f o r a p p r o v a l . From the a v a i l a b l e evidence i t i s u n c l e a r as to whether the upper echelon of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d have a l l o c a t e d more U n i v e r s i t y funds i n t o the a t h l e t i c program i n order to reach i t s w e l l p u b l i c i z e d goal f o r the f o o t b a l l team. C e r t a i n l y , the enthusiasm among the Board of Governors f o r an enhanced a t h l e t i c program d i d not extend to the p o i n t where the f i n a n c i n g of the endeavour would never be a major concern. With regard to the prospect of the Board u n i l a t e r a l l y i n c r e a s i n g the budget f o r a t h l e t i c s i n o p p o s i t i o n to the f a c u l t y d e c i s i o n s , the o p i n i o n of Board member Arnold Hean r e p r e s e n t s the o p i n i o n of the m a j o r i t y . He s t a t e d t h a t : "from my viewpoint what money there i s should be spent on the c o r r e c t academic programs and not on sports."(102) On the q u e s t i o n of the Board .providing -182-l e a d e r s h i p by p u t t i n g up the l a r g e amount of funds necessary to maintain a high l e v e l a t h l e t i c program he notes that "we d i s c u s s e d t h a t , but no way c o u l d we do i t . " ( 1 0 3 ) SFU P r e s i d e n t McTaggart-Cowan f e l t t h a t the budgetary process was a f a i r one and "a matter of s t r i k i n g a balance. The f o o t b a l l p o r t i o n was t h e i r f a i r share."(104) In a l e t t e r to the author, Education Dean MacKinnon thought t h a t the i n i t i a l a t h l e t i c budget "was enough to get the program i n o p e r a t i o n . . . I n f a c t , a l a r g e r a t h l e t i c budget c o u l d very e a s i l y have c r e a t e d the impression t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y was now embarked on what you [the author] have r e f e r r e d to as an American s t y l e c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t i c program."(105) In summary, the Board of Governors a c t i v e l y supported the idea of m a i n t a i n i n g the SFU a t h l e t i c program a t a h i g h l e v e l p r o v i d e d t h a t there were no negative e f f e c t s f i n a n c i a l l y or a c a d e m i c a l l y . I t appears t h a t the c o s t of f i n a n c i n g an expensive P a c i f i c Coast a t h l e t i c program was too g r e a t a p r i c e f o r the SFU Board to pay. As Arnold Hean put i t : We were i n c l i n e d to agree with Gordon [Shrum] t h a t we wanted r e c o g n i t i o n f o r the u n i v e r s i t y and, as long as i t d i d n ' t d e t r a c t from the U n i v e r s i t y i n any way d o l l a r w i s e or a c a d e m i c a l l y , we wanted to push i t as f a r as we could.(106) Thus, the c o n s t r a i n t s on the emergence of the SFU a t h l e t i c program become apparent. The U n i v e r s i t y ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r s were w i l l i n g to support the u p l i f t i n g of a t h l e t i c s to a more c e n t r a l p l a c e w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s academic program but they a l s o would not allow a high l e v e l a t h l e t i c program to become a -183-s i g n i f i c a n t d r a i n on the academic funding base. Viewed from p e r s p e c t i v e , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t SFU's a d m i n i s t r a t o r s would have funded an a t h l e t i c program on the s c a l e of a U n i v e r s i t y of Washington or UCLA unl e s s i t was supported by o u t s i d e money. Along these l i n e s , i t appears t h a t the d e c i s i o n makers were expecting gate r e c e i p t s to provide some of the f i n a n c i n g to help the a t h l e t i c department expand i t s budgets. In view of funding and f a c i l i t y c o n s t r a i n t s , the U n i v e r s i t y ' s o f f i c i a l s decided to produce a l i m i t e d program of i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e s p o r t s , a t l e a s t u n t i l more funding became a v a i l a b l e . ( 1 0 7 ) To make use of the newly b u i l t gymnasium and swimming p o o l f a c i l i t i e s , b a s k e t b a l l and swimming i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e programs were e s t a b l i s h e d while the r e l a t i v e l y more expensive f o o t b a l l program was i n i t i a t e d because, a c c o r d i n g to McTaggart-Cowan, "as much as anything, i t was the competition from w e l l coached teams immediately south of the border, p l u s the f a c t t h a t f o o t b a l l ranked higher than rugby or s o c c e r i n the completely i l l o g i c a l s c a l e of i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e a c t i v i t i e s both i n Canada and the United States."(108) As w e l l , the f a c t t h a t some of the Board members (Gordon Shrum, Alan Eyre, Fred D i e t r i c h , and Fred Bolton) were a v i d supporters of f o o t b a l l may have a l s o p l a y e d a r o l e i n the d e c i s i o n . A l s o of i n t e r e s t concerning the i n i t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the a t h l e t i c program was that there was no student input on the p o l i c y making l e v e l ( i . e . on an a t h l e t i c board s i m i l a r to UBC's Men's A t h l e t i c Committee).(109) The U n i v e r s i t y d i d not l e v y a -184-student a t h l e t i c fee but i n s t e a d p a i d f o r the e n t i r e a t h l e t i c program out of general U n i v e r s i t y funds. An examination of the backgrounds of the coaches i n the three s p o r t s i n s t i t u t e d i n 1965 shows that they were e i t h e r American t r a i n e d Canadians ( f o o t b a l l : L ome Davies; b a s k e t b a l l : John Kootnekoff) o r American c i t i z e n s (swimming: Paul Savage). A l s o , there was no " t r a d i t i o n a l " academic model of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . One reason f o r t h i s was the U n i v e r s i t y ' s c e n t r a l mandate which was to a v o i d d u p l i c a t i n g UBC's course o f f e r i n g s i n the same area. A d d i t i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n to a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program came from Education Dean A r c h i e MacKinnon who p e r c e i v e d the t r a d i t i o n a l Canadian model of u n i v e r s i t y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n to be "an amalgram of q u e s t i o n a b l e p r a c t i c e s , which i n general had a very low repute i n most u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g s . " ( 1 1 0 ) W i t h i n MacKinnon's o v e r a l l aim to r a i s e the academic image of a t h l e t i c s i n the U n i v e r s i t y , an important sub-concern was the s t a t u s of the coaches and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s s t r u c t u r e . MacKinnon f e l t t h a t they should be regarded as " i n t r i n s i c a l l y important members of the t o t a l f a c u l t y . " and c r e d i t s the P r e s i d e n t , as a former Rhodes S c h o l a r , w i t h supporting him completely on the e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy behind the P h y s i c a l Development C e n t r e . ( I l l ) Once Davies was s e l e c t e d as a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r and head f o o t b a l l coach, and had i n i t i a t e d the development of the a t h l e t i c program, the v i s i o n of a powerful U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program had to be grounded i n the r e a l i t y of a u n i v e r s i t y s t i l l i n the -185-c o n s t r u c t i o n phase. Problems arose. The campus wasn't even a v a i l a b l e f o r p o t e n t i a l a t h l e t e s to view. Probably the most p r e s s i n g concern i n the summer of 1965 was the l a c k of d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the U n i v e r s i t y ' s academic programs wi t h which coaches c o u l d r e c r u i t a t h l e t e s . Compounding the problem was t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c awards were not even l e g i t i m i z e d by the Board of Governors u n t i l June 21st. These events acted to delay Davies's moves towards b u i l d i n g a c r e d i b l e f o o t b a l l program q u i c k l y . An important concern f o r f i r s t year a t h l e t e s was the daunting prospect t h a t they would have to wait three seasons of t h e i r four year c a r e e r before Simon F r a s e r would begin to play f o u r year c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . Faced w i t h these and other o b s t a c l e s , a number of t a l e n t e d B.C. high s c h o o l f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s accepted o f f e r s to attend u n i v e r s i t i e s south of the border ( n o t a b l y , Henry Grenda, Bob F i t z p a t r i c k and Dave G o l i n s k y accepted o f f e r s to Washington S t a t e to play f o o t b a l l ) . Yet, d e s p i t e these problems, t h i r t y f i n a n c i a l awards were accepted by f i r s t year SFU a t h l e t e s and the a t h l e t i c department moved i n t o i t s f i r s t season. While the f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s were the f i r s t students on the new campus i t was Dr. Shrum who continued i n h i s s e l f - a p p o i n t e d r o l e as 'the U n i v e r s i t y ' s p . r . man'. At the o f f i c i a l opening of the U n i v e r s i t y he promised the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t SFU would have winning teams, "even i f we have to buy them. "(112) The plaques f o r the b u i l d i n g s were then u n v e i l e d and, i n a f o o t n o t e worth r e c o r d i n g f o r p o s t e r i t y , i t was Shrum -186-who u n v e i l e d the plaque f o r the gymnasium.(113) The process of b u i l d i n g the new U n i v e r s i t y was complete save f o r the ongoing development of campus c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a l l areas of u n i v e r s i t y l i f e . Simon F r a s e r and the Dependency "Trap" At t h a t p o i n t , the development of the SFU a t h l e t i c program was v i r t u a l l y complete w i t h a l l of i t s major f e a t u r e s present. However, one key component t h a t would act to mold i t s f u t u r e development was the conference a f f i l i a t i o n , which would determine i t s s c h e d u l i n g of competition f o r years to come. A l l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s belonged to t h e i r r e g i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , membership i n which e n t i t l e d them to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union, the n a t i o n a l governing body. Thus, to become a member of the CIAU and compete f o r the Canadian n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y championships, Simon F r a s e r had f i r s t to apply f o r membership i n the Western Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n and agree to abide by i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n and bylaws. There i s no evidence to suggest that Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y made any plans during i t s e a r l y years to become a conference member of the WCIAA. F i r s t , the key a c t o r s i n the development of the SFU a t h l e t i c program (Shrum, McTaggart-Cowan, and Davies) were very much opposed to the a n t i - s c h o l a r s h i p s p o l i c i e s and t r a d i t i o n a l de-emphasis of a t h l e t i c s espoused by the western Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . They were not w i l l i n g to give up the core -187-concept of s c h o l a r s h i p s i n order to j o i n the conference. (114) A t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s were much too c e n t r a l to the whole philosophy of an a t h l e t i c program t h a t was al r e a d y w e l l p u b l i c i z e d by Gordon Shrum and o t h e r s . For P r e s i d e n t McTaggart-Cowan the issue was c l e a r c u t : "We r e a l l y d i d not care about the CIAU because we had no i n t e n t i o n of competing i n th a t league." For him a p e r c e i v e d l a c k of q u a l i t y competition f o r SFU and poor coaching among the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s were key reasons f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . As w e l l , McTaggart-Cowan was i n f l u e n c e d by the huge t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h competing i n the CIAU as opposed to the lower c o s t t r a v e l i n v o l v e d w i t h p l a y i n g i n a north-south competition c o n f i g u r a t i o n w i t h very competitive u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s i n Washington and Oregon.(115) The P r e s i d e n t g i v e s p a r t of the c r e d i t f o r h i s support of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s to the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e he r e c e i v e d as a Rhodes S c h o l a r s s t u d e n t - a t h l e t e a t Oxford during the 1930"s. At SFU he a l s o wanted to 'remove the f e e l i n g of g u i l t ' i n v o l v e d i n h y p o c r i t i c a l under-the-table payments to a t h l e t e s and wanted 'to make the system honest.'(116) 'I was determined t h a t Simon F r a s e r would be honest and t h a t i t would be f a r b e t t e r to take the c r i t i c i s m from the d i s h o n e s t than to j o i n them.'(117) Wi t h i n the a t h l e t i c department, the comments of Lome Davies as the a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r echoed these sentiments but f o r him, i n the summer of 1965, the q u e s t i o n of conference a f f i l i a t i o n was not an important concern. More important to a new a t h l e t i c -188-department with young teams composed mainly of f i r s t year p l a y e r s was the need to arrange games a g a i n s t freshman and j u n i o r c o l l e g e teams during the next two y e a r s . In h i s f i r s t year as a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r with a budget of only $25,110 f o r three teams Davies "wasn't c e r t a i n what we were going to do but we c e r t a i n l y weren't going to l o c k o u r s e l v e s i n t o an expensive conference."(118) As w e l l , h i s p e r s o n a l stand a g a i n s t the p o l i c i e s of the other Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g . He a l l e g e d t h a t t h e i r under-the-table payments were "teaching the k i d s to cheat."(119) He a l s o r a i l e d a g a i n s t : The h y p o c r i s y of so many i n s t i t u t i o n s saying they don't have any a t h l e t i c awards yet we have had people from our campus r e c r u i t e d by other i n s t i t u t i o n s from r i g h t o f f our campus. By i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t supposedly don't have a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s . ( 1 2 0 ) With the western u n i v e r s i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y UBC, being s i n g u l a r l y opposed to the idea of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s both s i d e s r e f u s e d to budge on the i s s u e . Simon F r a s e r was a l r e a d y p u b l i c l y committed to a p o l i c y of 'honest' a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s and enhanced a t h l e t i c e x c e l l e n c e but f o r the other u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o n s t r a i n e d as much as anything by i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n to the awarding of f i n a n c i a l a i d to a t h l e t e s , there was l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they c o u l d concede to the SFU p o s i t i o n . Such a move would be tantamount to c o n f i r m a t i o n that they were h y p o c r i t i c a l i n t h e i r a t h l e t i c p o l i c i e s . Thus, lo c k e d i n t o these p o s i t i o n s , and r e i n f o r c e d by p e r s o n a l acrimony and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s , the two groups -189-were unable and u n w i l l i n g to come to some form of agreement whereby SFU c o u l d j o i n the WCIAA. Despite t h i s ongoing i s s u e , Simon F r a s e r continued the development of i t s a t h l e t i c program as an independent and, i n 1968, three years a f t e r the opening of the u n i v e r s i t y on September 1, 1965, the a t h l e t i c department a p p l i e d f o r , and was accepted as the second Canadian member of the United S t a t e s based N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c s . (121) As Lome Davies noted a t the time, 'We f e e l t h a t being asked to j o i n the NAIA i s another b i g step towards reaching our goal of being r e c o g n i z e d as having the f i n e s t a t h l e t i c program i n the country.'(122) Thus, the major p o r t i o n of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the a t h l e t i c model t h a t would c o n t r o l the development of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ' s i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t i c program f o r the next few decades was complete. A product of a unique h i s t o r i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , and c u l t u r a l context and of one man's personal v i s i o n , the SFU program g l o r i f i e d imported American techniques and t a c t i c s i n i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t i c s . American s u p e r i o r i t y i n s p o r t was seen to l i e i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c system. According to SFU planners, t h i s s u p e r i o r i t y c o u l d be countered by a Canadian "adaptation" of those t a c t i c s i n p u r s u i t of a n o b l e r cause than the Americans'. The SFU model took aim a t reducing the 'brawn d r a i n ' to the U.S. u n i v e r s i t i e s and claimed to champion a Canadian n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y which was under a t t a c k i n a l l areas of Canadian c u l t u r a l l i f e . However, the s t r a t e g y employed to do t h i s was i n i t s e l f a major concession -190-to the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z i n g f o r c e s inherent i n American c u l t u r e . C l e a r l y , the wisdom of Canadians using the t a c t i c s and ideas of the dominant m e t r o p o l i t a n c u l t u r e t h r e a t e n i n g to subsume Canadian s o c i e t y i n order to prevent that subsumation must be quest i o n e d . The d e c i s i o n makers a t Simon F r a s e r , themselves i n f l u e n c e d through a l i f e l o n g exposure to United S t a t e s c u l t u r e , p e r c e i v e d a f a u l t i n the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c system through the l e n s of c u l t u r a l dependency. In t h e i r eyes American s t y l e a t h l e t i c p r a c t i c e s were seen to be 'modern' and ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' . The t r a d i t i o n a l Canadian program by c o n t r a s t was viewed as a r c h a i c and h y p o c r i t i c a l . C u l t u r a l power s u b t l y entered a debate about the d e f i n i t i o n of q u a l i t y i n a t h l e t i c programs and the irony of the Simon F r a s e r s t r a t e g y was ignored. -191-Notes 1. For a f i r s t person account of the b i r t h of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y see Gordon Shrum; An Autobiography w i t h Peter S t u r s b e r g , e d i t e d by CLive Cocking. (Vancouver: UBC Press 1986). 2. One of the o r i g i n a l SFU Board of Governors, Alan Eyre, who was a l s o i n v o l v e d w i t h the B.C. L i o n s as a d i r e c t o r , commented i n an i n t e r v i e w t h a t the SFU a t h l e t i c program "was a response to what we thought UBC would have been n i c e to have been." Statement by Alan Eyre i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w with Steve Campbell 31 J u l y 1985. 3. Shrum c h a i r e d a Royal Commission on the B.C. Power Commission, accepted Bennett's o f f e r of the B.C. Energy Board and l a t e r became head of B.C. E l e c t r i c ( l a t e r B.C. Hydro) from 1961-72. 4. Gordon Shrum: An Autobiography, p.107. A l s o see statement by A r n o l d Hean i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w with Steve Campbell 23 J u l y 1985. McTaggart-Cowan f i r s t met Shrum i n 1929 i n h i s f i r s t y ear as a combined honours math and p h y s i c s student at UBC. Statement by P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan 6 May 1986 i n l e t t e r to Steve Campbell 6 May 1986. 5. Statement by Gordon Shrum i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w with Steve Campbell 9 August 1983. 6. Statements by Gordon Shrum i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983, Alan Eyre i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 31 J u l y 1985. 7. Statements by Robert F. Osborne i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 11 September 1985, Dr. Harry Warren i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 11 August 1985, Harry F r a n k l i n i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 22 J u l y 1985. 8. Statements by Maury Van V l i e t i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 22 September 1985, and Robert F. Osborne i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 11 September 1985. As h i r i n g a d v i s o r to UBC P r e s i d e n t Leonard S. K l i n c k (1918-44) Shrum i n t e r v i e w e d and s e l e c t e d both Van V l i e t and Osborne to become members of the u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f d e a l i n g w i t h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a t h l e t i c s . Osborne's m i s s i o n , however, was academic i n nature. He was to organize and develop UBC's f i r s t academic program i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 9. Statements by Robert F. Osborne, 11 September 1985, Harry F r a n k l i n , 22 J u l y 1985. See G.M. Shrum's l e t t e r to the e d i t o r of the Ubyssey 14 February 1928 p.2 i n which he entered the u n i v e r s i t y wide debate as to whether the students should grant f o o t b a l l the s t a t u s of major s p o r t . He noted t h a t ' I t i s my p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n t h a t any minor s p o r t t h a t a t t r a c t s a squad of p l a y e r s f o r p r a c t i c e f i v e times per week at 7:45 am f o r a p e r i o d of n e a r l y three y e a r s , and a t the end of t h i s p e r i o d can t u r n out -192-a r e c o r d twenty three men f o r an int e r m e d i a t e game, should be r a i s e d to a major s t a t u s . The winners of the L i p t o n Cup t h i s y ear were v i r t u a l l y i n t e r - c o l l e g i a t e champions of Western Canada. I f the students decide to make t h i s game a major s p o r t , then i t i s no s t r a i n upon my imagin a t i o n to look forward and see UBC winning the I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Championship of Canada from M c G i l l , Queen's and Toronto V a r s i t y . ' 10. See UBC Totems (1915-66) f o r h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and photographs on a t h l e t i c s and other student a c t i v i t i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC L i b r a r y . For an i n t e r e s t i n g study on the p r e h i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and the r o l e of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , games and s p o r t s i n the debate about where the u n i v e r s i t y should be l o c a t e d see R. Cole H a r r i s , "Locating the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia" B.C. S t u d i e s No.32 Winter 1976-77. 11. Statement by Gordon Shrum i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983. SFU Board of Governor Alan Eyre c o n s i d e r e d Shrum and Gordon Burke to be the two p r o g e n i t o r s of UBC f o o t b a l l . Statement i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 31 J u l y 1985. 12. Statements by Maury Van V l i e t i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 22 September 1985, Robert F. Osborne i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 11 September 1985. 13. Statements by Maury Van V l i e t i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 22 September 1985, Gordon Shrum i n personal i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983. 14. Statement by Robert F. Osborne i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 11 September 1985. 15. Statements by Robert F. Osborne i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 11 September 1985, Gordon Shrum i n personal i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983. 16. Statements by Harry F r a n k l i n i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 22 J u l y 1985. 17. The h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l Thunderbird b a s k e t b a l l team of 1945-46 was used to spearhead a province-wide f u n d r a i s i n g campaign to b u i l d the War Memorial Gymnasium a t UBC. The b u i l d i n g was completed i n 1951. 18. The f i r s t meeting of the Men's A t h l e t i c Committee, as the p o l i c y making apparatus f o r the men's a t h l e t i c program, was h e l d on March 17, 1952. 19. Robinette subsequently r e s i g n e d as a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r and an i n t e r i m d i r e c t o r , Dick Penn, was appointed u n t i l R.J. P h i l l i p s was appointed to the permanent p o s i t i o n i n J u l y , 1953. -193-20. Statements by Gordon Shrum i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983, and Maury Van V l i e t i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 22 September 1985. A p r i n c i p a l concern here was that Van V l i e t would t a i n t the U n i v e r s i t y ' s a t h l e t e s w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d approach of the American u n i v e r s i t y system from which he emigrated. 21. Statements by Gordon Shrum i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983, and Dick M i t c h e l l i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 24 J u l y 1985. 22. Estimates of attendances a t UBC f o o t b a l l games range from one to e i g h t thousand fans per game. At t h a t time the p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l B.C. L i o n s were not i n e x i s t e n c e and UBC dominated the Vancouver market. 23. See the comments of Robert F. Osborne, UBC head of P h y s i c a l Education, on the value of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s i n competing f o r f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s i n the c o l l e g i a t e labour market. Don McClean " A t h l e t i c D i r e c t o r UBC's Cry i n g Need", Vancouver News Herald, 31 October 1950, p. 6. 24. See note 26 i n Chapter 3. The Rhodes S c h o l a r s h i p s are c o n s i d e r e d to be the major precedent f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s a t many American u n i v e r s i t i e s s i n c e the S c h o l a r s h i p s were f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d by C e c i l Rhodes i n 1902. 25. In 1936 P r i n g l e was the f i r s t r e c i p i e n t of the Bobby Gaul Trophy as UBC's outstanding male graduating a t h l e t e . See P r i n g l e Memorial Bursary i n the UBC Calendar Appendix-Awards d e s c r i p t i o n . There are a number of these types of awards at UBC. 26. F i r s t p a r t y awards r e f e r to the u n i v e r s i t y c o n t r o l l i n g the awarding of f i n a n c i a l a i d to the student who i s the second p a r t y . T h i r d p a r t y a i d r e f e r s to the process whereby the student r e c e i v e s f i n a n c i a l support from i n d i v i d u a l s or groups o u t s i d e the u n i v e r s i t y ' s f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l . 27. R.J. M o r i a r t y , The O r g a n i z a t i o n a l H i s t o r y of the Canadian  I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union C e n t r a l (CIAUC) 1906-1955, Unpublished PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1971. S c a t t e r e d throughout t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n are a number of events d e t a i l i n g the concern of v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s w i t h regard to a l l e g e d under-the-table payments to a t h l e t e s . 28. Guy Lewis, i n h i s a r t i c l e 'The Beginning of Organized C o l l e g i a t e Sport' American Q u a r t e r l y Vol.22:1 (September 1970) c r e d i t e d p u b l i c i t y from the media as i n t e g r a l to the beginning of u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t i n the United S t a t e s . " I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e s p o r t was i n l a r g e measure the product of a f a v o r a b l e p r e s s during the decade f o l l o w i n g the C i v i l War. T h i s p u b l i c i t y encouraged p a r t i c i p a t i o n because the outcome of events was considered ' s a c r e d l y connected w i t h the g l o r y of Alma Mater h e r s e l f . ' No other f a c t o r was more important i n determining the nature and -194-ex t e n t of organized c o l l e g i a t e s p o r t . " P.229. 29. Statement by Harry Warren i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 11 August 1985. 30. Statement by J.V. Clyne (member of UBC Senate). UBC Senate Minutes, 17 October 1951. The minutes read "Mr. J u s t i c e Clyne questioned the reasons f o r recommending a change i n s t a t u s i n t h i s Department [of P h y s i c a l Education] and c r i t i c i z e d the p o l i c y of g i v i n g degrees f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s and games, and the emphasis given by the Department of P h y s i c a l Education to American f o o t b a l l . " 31. Three members of the Quarterback Club, a community and alumni a t h l e t i c support group, appeared a t the c o n t e n t i o u s AMS C o u n c i l Meeting of 16 October, 1950 demanding to know, "What are you going to do about f o o t b a l l ? " The i n c i d e n t f o l l o w e d on the heels of a 47-7 home l o s s to Western Washington and a post-game student demonstration demanding g r e a t e r a s s i s t a n c e to a team which had only won two games i n four seasons. The agenda item a t the meeting was the issue of f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s . 32. UBC Senate Minutes, 13 December 1950. 33. UBC Senate Minutes, 13 May 1952. One member of the committee, a UBC b a s k e t b a l l alumnus, Mr. Harry F r a n k l i n , noted l a t e r t h a t the committee was h e a v i l y weighted w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s l i n e d up on the amateur s i d e of the i s s u e . Statement by Harry F r a n k l i n i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 22 J u l y 1985. 34. Statement by Harry F r a n k l i n , former s e c r e t a r y of the Quarterback Club, i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 22 J u l y 1985. In f a c t , a membership l i s t f o r the Quarterback Club dated 12 February 1949 shows two f u t u r e Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y Board of Governors, Fred D i e t r i c h and Fred B o l t o n , as members. Source: Alma Mater S o c i e t y A r c h i v e s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 35. Statement by Harry F r a n k l i n i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 22 J u l y 1985. 36. A number of p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s have confirmed t h a t the s t o r y was p e r c e i v e d by many to be a s i g n i f i c a n t h i s t o r i c a l precedent i n the s t r u g g l e over UBC's a t h l e t i c program. In an i n t e r v i e w Shrum him s e l f brought up the s t o r y without prompting and considered i t a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n h i s own h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h UBC a t h l e t i c s . A number of others r e c a l l b a s i c a l l y the same s t o r y . See note 37. 37. Personal anecdotes from that meeting i n c l u d e the s t o r y that R o b i n e t t e went to the telephone to confirm w i t h Johnson the arrangement but j u s t as he was d i a l i n g the number Shrum r e p o r t e d l y asked, w i t h an eye towards UBC's entrance standards, -195-"Wait/ can he speak French?" to which Rob i n e t t e r e p l i e d , "French? I'm not even sure he has E n g l i s h ! " Statement by Gordon Shrum i n pe r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983. Separate p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Gordon Shrum (August 9, 1983), former a s s i s t a n t f o o t b a l l coach Dick M i t c h e l l ( J u l y 24, 1985) and Quarterback Club s e c r e t a r y Harry F r a n k l i n ( J u l y 22, 1985) a l l acknowledge the John Henry Johnson s t o r y , a s t o r y which q u i c k l y assumed almost m y t h i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s as Johnson went on to s t a r i n the CFL and the NFL. He i s s t i l l the e i g h t h l e a d i n g a l l - t i m e rusher i n the NFL. 38. Maury Van V l i e t , Robert Osborne, Harry F r a n k l i n , P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan and Lome Davies. 39. Statement by Herb Capozzi i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 18 September 1985. 40. Statements by Gordon Shrum i n pe r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983, Dick M i t c h e l l i n personal i n t e r v i e w , 24 J u l y 1985, Harry F r a n k l i n i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 22 J u l y 1985, and Harry Warren i n perso n a l i n t e r v i e w , 11 August 1985. 41. Gordon Shrum: An Autobiography, p. 14. 42. Statement by Gordon Shrum i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983. 43. Statement by Gordon Shrum i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983. 44. For a h i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia see Tuum  E s t : A H i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Co l o n e l Harry T. Logan (Vancouver: M i t c h e l l Press, 1958) P. 132. 45. "UBC W i l l Teach Teachers i n Sport" Vancouver Sun 15 June 1938. p. 14. 46. See the 1928 s e l e c t i o n of l e t t e r s to the e d i t o r , i n c l u d i n g Shrum's, i n the Ubyssey newspaper debating as to whether the students should make the growing s p o r t of f o o t b a l l a major s p o r t i n the u n i v e r s i t y as was rugby. The vehemence of the debate i n d i c a t e s the depth of f e e l i n g w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y community on the i s s u e . The Ubyssey 14 February 1928 p. 2. 47. Statement by Harry Warren i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 11 August 1985. 48. Statements by Robert F. Osborne i n pe r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 11 September 1985, Gordon Shrum i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983. 49. Statements by Gordon Shrum i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August -196-1983, Dick M i t c h e l l i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 24 J u l y 1985. 50. Statement by Dick M i t c h e l l i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 24 J u l y 1985. 51. "[Dr. Shrum] had a very s u b s t a n t i a l involvement w i t h u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s a t UBC. He had a l s o had i n the l a t t e r e xperience intense moments of f r u s t r a t i o n where he saw a t h l e t i c s being r e l e g a t e d to a p e r i p h e r a l p o s i t i o n w i t h the attendant r e s u l t s . " L e t t e r A.R. MacKinnon to Steve Campbell 12 May 1986. 52. John B. Macdonald, Higher Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia and a  Plan f o r the Future a l s o known as The Macdonald Report. (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1962) p.8. 53. I b i d . p.14. 54. I b i d . p. 64, 75. 55. Gordon Shrum: An Autobiography, p. 97. 56. I b i d . , p. 105. 57. I b i d . , p. 105. 58. Shrum f i r s t p u b l i c l y announced h i s a t h l e t i c p o l i c y plans during a speech a t the UBC Men's Big Block Awards Banquet on March 11, 1964. An a r t i c l e i n The Ubyssey noted t h a t 'He s a i d t h a t Simon F r a s e r Academy w i l l have a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s as long as the students have the academic requirements. "I don't f e e l t h a t a student should be r e f u s e d an a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p or bursary i f he needs the money," he s a i d . ' The Ubyssey 15 March 1964 p.6. 59. I b i d . 60. Statement by Gordon Shrum i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983. 61. Statement by Alan Eyre i n personal i n t e r v i e w , 31 J u l y 1985. 62. Statement by A r n o l d Hean i n personal i n t e r v i e w , 23 J u l y 1985. 63. Statement by Gordon Shrum i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983. 64. Statement by P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan i n l e t t e r to Steve Campbell, 6 May 1986. 65. Statement by Arnold Hean i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 23 J u l y 1985. 6 6. Gordon Shrum: An Autobiography, p. 9 7. -197-67. There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t Shrum s e l e c t e d the P r e s i d e n t and presented the appointment to the Board of Governors f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n , a process which he considered a f o r m a l i t y . Statement by Alan Eyre i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 31 J u l y 1985. 68. Statement by P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan i n l e t t e r to Steve Campbell, 6 May 1986. 69. Gordon Shrum: An Autobiography, p. 107. 70. Vancouver Province March 24, 1964. 71. Canadian Weekly August 29-September 4, 1964 p.4. 72. Vancouver Sun March 20, 1964. 73. Statement by P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan i n l e t t e r to Steve Campbell, 6 May 1986. 74. Statement by P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan i n l e t t e r to Steve Campbell, 6 May 1986. 75. Shrum was hoping to a t t r a c t Minnesota V i k i n g s head coach Bud Grant (statement i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w 9 August 1983) o r Russ Jackson, quarterback of the Ottawa Roughriders ( New Westminster  Columbian, 28 May 1964), as the new SFU head f o o t b a l l coach. 76. Vancouver Sun, 13 March 1964. A c t u a l l y , Shrum"s announcement on a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s occurred a few days e a r l i e r a t the UBC Men's Big Block Awards Banquet but was only r e l e a s e d by the media i n time f o r March 13th. 77. I b i d . 78. Toronto Telegram, 14 March 1964. 79. See Richard S. Gruneau, John G. A l b i n s o n , Canadian Sport:  S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s (Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Addison-Wesley Canada L t d . 1976) Preface p . x i . 80. In i t s e a r l y years Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y s u f f e r e d from student r a d i c a l i s m and f a c u l t y u n rest and thus earned the media nickname 'Berkeley North'. 81. At Simon F r a s e r , a survey conducted i n 1967 showed t h a t 68% of i t s f a c u l t y were non-Canadian. The m a j o r i t y of these i n d i v i d u a l s were American. 82. Gordon Shrum: An Autobiography, p. 108. The f i r s t a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p fund a t SFU was a l l o c a t e d $10,950 which was the same amount r e c e i v e d by the a c t i v i t y s c h o l a r s h i p fund. The approval -198-of these awards occurred on June 21, 1965. 83. A.R. MacKinnon l e t t e r to Steve Campbell, 12 May 1986. 84. P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan l e t t e r to J.H. Wyman, Chairman, I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Review Committee, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 9 December 1971. 85. A.R. MacKinnon l e t t e r to Steve Campbell, 12 May 1986. 86. Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y Department of A t h l e t i c s statement quoted i n the Toronto Globe and M a i l , 14 October 1965 p. 35. 87. Vancouver Sun, 17 March 1964. 88. The Ubyssey, 26 March 1964. 89. Vancouver Sun, 3 A p r i l 1964. "Capozzi Raps UBC Over Lack of Leadership." 90. Vancouver Sun, 9 A p r i l 1964. 91. See survey comments from the s p o r t s community i n Vancouver  Sun, 14 March 1964 " A t h l e t e s Endorse SFU's Program", 17 March 1964 "Shrum on Right Track". 92. Vancouver Sun, 14 March 1964. Vancouver Sun, 14 Ma rch 19 64. Vancouver Sun, 17 Ma rch 19 64. Vancouver Sun, 17 Ma rch 19 64. 96. Davies, a s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n t coach w i t h the B.C. L i o n s had a l s o coached the Vancouver Blue Bombers to three B.C. J u n i o r championships. He a l s o played f o o t b a l l at Western Washington U n i v e r s i t y i n Bellingham and had been an a s s i s t a n t coach there and a l s o w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon freshmen. Davies a l s o r e c e i v e d h i s u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n i n the United S t a t e s and obtained a Master of Science degree i n P h y s i c a l Education from the U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon. He was an a s s i s t a n t f o o t b a l l coach a t UBC when he accepted the SFU p o s i t i o n . 97. Vancouver Times, 11 March 1965. 98. T r a i l D a i l y Times, 8 September 1965. The s t o r y was from the Canadian Press wire s e r v i c e and was e n t i t l e d " F o o t b a l l Fever Running High a t newly b u i l t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y " . 99. The f i r s t fund f o r a t h l e t i c awards a t SFU was a l l o c a t e d $10,950 by the Board of Governors f o r the 1965-66 sc h o o l year -199-w i t h the p r o v i s i o n t h a t each a t h l e t i c award c o u l d be l e s s than but not more than $219. SFU Board of Governors Minutes 21 June 1965. Also passed a t the same time were u n i v e r s i t y academic funds f o r general a c t i v i t y awards ($10,950), s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r f i r s t c l a s s students ($10,950) and general b u r s a r i e s ($35,150). Included i n the minutes was t h i s addendum concerning the maintainence of u n i v e r s i t y academic standards: " S a t i s f a c t o r y academic standards must be maintained a t a l l times. I f the student f i n d s i t necessary to c u r t a i l h i s a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s i n order to maintain academic standards, he w i l l not be r e q u i r e d to r e l i n q u i s h any p a r t of the award." 100. These s c h o l a r s h i p s had been o f f e r e d e a r l i e r to the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a on the s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t V i c t o r i a h i r e a f o o t b a l l coach as a t h l e t i c d i r e c t o r . As V i c t o r i a c o u l d not a f f o r d a f o o t b a l l coach or a program the o f f e r was turned down. The move was p a r t of a general L i o n s s t r a t e g y to upgrade t h e i r t a l e n t feeder system from the l o c a l p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t i e s . V i c t o r i a Times, 27 March 1965. 101. Lome Davies' s t o r y of h i s meeting wi t h C h a n c e l l o r Shrum subsequent to h i s r e c e i v i n g h i s f i r s t a t h l e t i c budget of $25,110 i s i l l u m i n a t i n g i n t h i s r e gard. 'When I got my budget I went down to see Dr. Shrum, he was the Chairman of B.C. Hydro a t t h a t time, and I asked him i f he knew what i t c o s t to p l a y i n the Rose Bowl. So I e x p l a i n e d to him t h a t the Rose Bowl teams are chosen as the winner of the B i g Ten and the winner of the Pac 8 and to get there you had to be a member of e i t h e r of those conferences. I t would c o s t us roughly one m i l l i o n a year. I think he was q u i t e shocked a t the amount of money i t would c o s t . He j u s t s a i d "Do the best you can." He wasn't a g a i n s t i t , i t was j u s t t h a t he d i d n ' t have the money to pump out an a d d i t i o n a l $900,000.' Statement by Lome Davies i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 14 August 1985. 102. Statement by A r n o l d Hean i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 23 J u l y 1985. 103. Statement by Arnold Hean i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 23 J u l y 1985. 104. Statement by P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan i n l e t t e r to Steve Campbell, 6 May 1986. 105. L e t t e r A.R. MacKinnon to Steve Campbell 12 May 1986. 106. Statement by A r n o l d Hean i n personal i n t e r v i e w , 23 J u l y 1985. 107. See Lome Davies comments to the Board of Governors on the c o n s t r a i n t s of the f a c i l i t i e s on the developing a t h l e t i c program i n the Minutes of the S p e c i a l Meeting of the Board of Governors, -200-Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 26 March 1965. A l s o A.R. MacKinnon l e t t e r to Steve Campbell 12 May 1986. 108. P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan l e t t e r to J.H. Wyman 3 December 1971. 109. Statement by Lome Davies i n personal i n t e r v i e w , 29 A p r i l 1986. 110. A.R. MacKinnon l e t t e r to Steve Campbell 12 May 1986. 111. A.R. MacKinnon l e t t e r to Steve Campbell 12 May 1986. 112. New Westminster Columbian, 10 September 1965. 113. New Westminster Columbian, 10 September 1965. 114. Statement by Gordon Shrum i n pe r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 August 1983. 115. P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan l e t t e r to I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Review Committee a t SFU 9 December 1971; Statement by P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan i n l e t t e r to Steve Campbell, 6 May 1986. 116. Statement by P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan i n l e t t e r to Steve Campbell, 6 May 1986. 117. P a t r i c k McTaggart-Cowan l e t t e r to I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Review Committee a t SFU 9 December 1971. 118. Statement by Lome Davies i n personal i n t e r v i e w , 29 A p r i l 1986. 119. Statement by Lome Davies i n pers o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 29 A p r i l 1986. 120. Statement by Lome Davies i n personal i n t e r v i e w , 29 A p r i l 1986. 121. The f i r s t Canadian u n i v e r s i t y to j o i n the NAIA was Lakehead U n i v e r s i t y i n Thunder Bay, O n t a r i o which j o i n e d i n 1967 and remained there u n t i l the formation of the Great P l a i n s A t h l e t i c Conference as a p r a i r i e r e g i o n a l conference w i t h i n the CIAU i n the e a r l y 1970s. 122. Lome Davies memorandum to Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y Bursar Don Ross, 9 May 1968. -2 01-CHAPTER 6  CONCLUSIONS T h i s chapter summarizes m a t e r i a l d i s c u s s e d throughout the t h e s i s i n order to pro v i d e answers to the f i v e problem que s t i o n s s t a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . 1) What was the h i s t o r i c a l , economic, and c u l t u r a l context of the Simon F r a s e r d e c i s i o n ? 2) How d i d t h a t context i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n s made by key a c t o r s i n the c r e a t i o n of Simon F r a s e r 1 s s p o r t s program? 3) Why were the proponents of an American s t y l e a t h l e t i c s program s u c c e s s f u l a t Simon F r a s e r a t a time when no other Canadian u n i v e r s i t y had such a program? 4) How do answers to these q u e s t i o n s square wi t h the p u b l i c reasons given by u n i v e r s i t y o f f i c i a l s f o r o r i e n t i n g SFU's a t h l e t i c program towards the American model? 5) What i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Canadian s p o r t can be drawn from the SFU d e c i s i o n ? -202-What was the h i s t o r i c a l / economic and c u l t u r a l context of the  Simon F r a s e r d e c i s i o n ? I have argued t h a t he d e c i s i o n of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c p o l i c y makers to o r i e n t t h e i r a t h l e t i c program along an "American s t y l e " model occurred i n the context of i n t e n s i f y i n g American domination a c r o s s the spectrum of Canadian s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e . In economics, the evidence examined i n chapter one i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y the dominance of American b u s i n e s s c u l t u r e during the 20th century expressed through the mechanisms of f o r e i g n d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t investment. The c l o s e geographic l o c a t i o n of Canada to the United S t a t e s made i t an extremely v a l u a b l e market f o r the s u r p l u s p r o d u c t i o n of American c o r p o r a t i o n s and i t q u i c k l y became America's l a r g e s t and most important f o r e i g n market. P r e s s u r e s on Canadian business were p a r a l l e l e d by s i m i l a r developments i n the c u l t u r a l realm. Mass produced magazines, newspapers, f i l m s and other c u l t u r a l events i n the United S t a t e s s p i l l e d over n o r t h of the border as the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l s a l e s l e d e ntrepreneurs to a g g r e s s i v e l y pursue Canadian markets. The Canadian media were g r a d u a l l y overwhelmed by c o s t e f f i c i e n t U.S. media which, w i t h t h e i r g r e a t e r economies of s c a l e of p r o d u c t i o n , came to dominate Canadian r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n programming w i t h cheaper American sitcoms, dramas and news coverage. The ascendency of American i n f l u e n c e over the Canadian economy and c u l t u r e s i g n a l l e d a r e d u c t i o n of Canadian dependency on B r i t a i n f o r her economic and c u l t u r a l l e a d . While B r i t a i n was -203-s t i l l a powerful actor on the global scene, the f i n a n c i a l e f fec ts of two world wars during the twentieth century acted to force the B r i t i s h to f a l l back economically and establ i shed the United States as the developing new world economic power. In Canada, American economic growth during the 20th century resul ted in an expansion of American foreign d i r e c t investment to the point during the 1960's where American corporations contro l l ed many of the markets in the Canadian economy and exerted a c o n t r o l l i n g influence on the d i r e c t i o n and development of the nat ional economy from outside i t s boundaries. Within the c u l t u r a l context, the re treat of B r i t i s h influence over Canadian anglophone cul ture occurred at a much slower pace. The legacy of B r i t i s h imperial cul ture pers i s ted wel l into the 20th century and, in a res idua l form, continues to ex i s t today. However, U .S . economic influence acted to ensure that American c u l t u r a l prac t i ce s and a t t i tudes would be continuously offered to the Canadian population as acceptable and 'modern 1 . The development of a Canadian consumer cul ture p a r a l l e l to that of the Americans has t i ed Canada even c loser to American capi ta l i sm during the twentieth century. In th i s consumer c u l t u r e , the c a p i t a l i s t market process rap id ly expanded to include many untapped areas of soc ie ty , inc luding a wide range of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , sport . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l development of Canadian sport began during the c o l o n i a l per iod large ly under the d i r e c t i o n of an imported B r i t i s h middle-class sports cu l ture . By the la te nineteenth -204-century, the philosophy of amateurism had become the dominant element i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r i n g of s p o r t . Amateurism continued to e x e r t a r e s i d u a l i n f l u e n c e on the d i r e c t i o n and development of Canadian s p o r t f o r much of the 20th century. Yet, the p r e s s u r e s of c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e i n Canada l e d entrepreneurs to attempt to harnass s p o r t as an area f o r p o t e n t i a l p r o f i t . I t was the e a r l y entrepreneurs who developed commercialized s p o r t forms i n Canada as areas f o r c a p i t a l accumulation. In hockey, the p a t t e r n of paying p l a y e r s to p a r t i c i p a t e f i r s t developed i n the r u r a l towns and communities of Canada before the t u r n of the century where the townspeople were w i l l i n g to pay to watch t h e i r community teams. There, i n the hard working c o n d i t i o n s of mining towns, the upper c l a s s c u l t u r e of the amateur i d e a l i n s p o r t h e l d l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the working c l a s s e s . Furthermore, when commercialized hockey presented an o p p o r t u n i t y to s k i l l e d p l a y e r s to add to the meager wages of resource i n d u s t r y work few were i n a p o s i t i o n to t u r n i t down i n order to maintain t h e i r amateur s t a t u s . The c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of hockey and the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of i t s p l a y e r labour market developed r a p i d l y . The formation of the N a t i o n a l Hockey League i n 1917 and i t s c o n t i n e n t a l i z a t i o n during the 1920's r e f l e c t e d the A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of the n a t i o n a l economy and c u l t u r e . The NHL ( i n i t i a l l y based i n Canada) assumed c o n t r o l of the p o t e n t i a l l y l u c r a t i v e hockey market i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n United S t a t e s during the 1920's and faced l i t t l e c o m p etition i n promoting the s p o r t -205-t h e r e . Once the m a j o r i t y of the f r a n c h i s e s were l o c a t e d i n the United S t a t e s , the NHL became c o n t r o l l e d by American c a p i t a l . I t s development as the dominant hockey o r g a n i z a t i o n i n North America l e d to p o l i c i e s which g r a d u a l l y extended i t s domination and c o n t r o l of the Canadian hockey labour markets i n Canada and the e n t i r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of Canadian hockey. In summary, i t was the NHL, as the f i r s t c o r p o r a t e form of commercialized s p o r t i n Canada, which p r o v i d e d the l e a d e r s h i p i n the expansion and refinement of a commercialized s p o r t s c u l t u r e and i t s attendant v a l u e s . The development of Canadian f o o t b a l l occurred along d i f f e r e n t time l i n e s . Dominated by the B r i t i s h amateur rugby t r a d i t i o n and by the growth and development of u n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l i n c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , the commodification of f o o t b a l l occurred l a t e r than i n hockey. The r e s i d u a l c u l t u r a l s t r e n g t h of the amateur t r a d i t i o n delayed the o v e r t p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of the game u n t i l a f t e r the second World War and d i d not allow the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l u n t i l w e l l i n t o the 1950s. As w e l l , an important p o i n t i n the development of Canadian f o o t b a l l as a c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e was i t s i n a b i l i t y to break i n t o the l u c r a t i v e American p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l market. T h i s stands as an important reason why p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l i n Canada has f a i l e d to reach the p r o f i t a b i l i t y standards of the N a t i o n a l Hockey League. The h i s t o r i c a l development of Canadian f o o t b a l l has a l s o been g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by r e g i o n a l c o n f l i c t s between western and -206-e a s t e r n f o o t b a l l i n t e r e s t s . During the course of f o o t b a l l ' s development, the west c o n t i n u a l l y l e d the east i n attempts to i n s t i t u t e r u l e changes and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e the game. But the i n t r a n s i g e n c e of the c o n s e r v a t i v e e a s t e r n f o o t b a l l e stablishment i n t e r e s t s to many of the changes acted to delay the r a t i f i c a t i o n of any new r u l e s . While t h i s o c c urred, the importing of b e t t e r s k i l l e d f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s and coaches from the United S t a t e s l e d to the adoption and a d a p t a t i o n of techniques, s l a n g , and t a c t i c s from south of the border. I t i s w e l l known t h a t the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s played important r o l e s i n the development and refinement of the s p o r t s of hockey and f o o t b a l l . As i n s t i t u t i o n s which l a r g e l y served the p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s e s , Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s were the fountainhead of the amateur i d e a l . The i n d i v i d u a l s they graduated assumed r o l e s i n the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which enabled them to reproduce and develop Canada's amateur s p o r t i n g t r a d i t i o n s . Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , l i k e t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s , were the dominant agents i n f o o t b a l l during i t s e a r l i e s t p e r i o d s u n t i l the 1920's when the commercialized c l u b o p e r a t i o n s began to dominate c e n t r a l Canadian f o o t b a l l . The amateur t r a d i t i o n was extremely powerful i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s programs. Yet, nowhere were the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of amateur s p o r t more e v i d e n t . Many u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t programs were a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by under-the-table " p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m " . Furthermore, a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of the e a r l y p r o f e s s i o n a l i z i n g i n n o v a t i o n s i n f o o t b a l l , p r i m a r i l y i n response to developments i n the popular, - 2 0 7 -commercialized c o l l e g i a t e game south of the border, o r i g i n a t e d i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . F o o t b a l l soon came to be dominated by the major s c h o o l s , a l l of which g r a d u a l l y came to depend upon the revenues from i t s continued c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n . The need to maintain gate r e c e i p t s l e d to the i m p o s i t i o n of an a u t o c r a t i c i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n (the Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union) whose p o l i c i e s exacerbated the i n t e r - and i n t r a - r e g i o n a l c o n f l i c t s t h a t o c c a s i o n a l l y developed i n response to attempts by s m a l l e r u n i v e r s i t i e s to g a i n more power w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Accompanying these changes, American c o l l e g i a t e a t h l e t i c s continued to ga i n s i g n i f i c a n c e as a r o l e model f o r people working i n u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s programs. American u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c programs became commercialized and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d during the n i n e t e e n t h century w i t h l i t t l e e f f e c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n from w i t h i n the schools themselves. Yet, i n the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s the same development was prevented by a more e f f e c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n . In the United S t a t e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l coaches, t r a i n i n g t a b l e s , a h i g h l y r a t i o n a l i z e d system of r e c r u i t i n g , a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s and s u b s i d i z a t i o n of a t h l e t e s a l l became standard p r a c t i c e s f o r the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the American system before the f i r s t World War. The weakness of the B r i t i s h amateur t r a d i t i o n i n the United S t a t e s and the f i n a n c i a l needs of p r i v a t e l y funded c o l l e g e s combined wi t h a l a c k of f a c u l t y c o n t r o l of a t h l e t i c s to allow a r a p i d p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of a t h l e t i c programs. The ext e n s i o n of the American c o l l e g e s ' t a l e n t feeder network i n t o Canada during - 2 0 8 -the post-World War I I era g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n s i n Canada of a "brawn d r a i n " of a t h l e t e s to the United S t a t e s which resembled c l o s e l y the economic r e l a t i o n s h i p of Canada and the United S t a t e s . In Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , however, the entrenchment of v a l u e s of v e r s a t i l i t y i n u n i v e r s i t y l i f e , coupled w i t h a romantic conception of amateurism and a strong t r a d i t i o n of f a c u l t y involvement and guidance i n student a f f a i r s , presented a s t r u c t u r e d impediment to p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . In the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , the f a c u l t y became i n v o l v e d i n the a t h l e t i c a f f a i r s of the students and enacted c o n t r o l s on the development of a t h l e t i c s which delayed and d e f l e c t e d the i m p o s i t i o n of a p r o f e s s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e on u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s f o r much of the t w e n t i e t h century. Amateur a t t i t u d e s p r e v a i l e d on Canadian campuses and opposed a l l attempts to l e g i t i m i z e a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s and r e c r u i t i n g networks as i n t e g r a l u n i v e r s i t y techniques f o r a t t r a c t i n g top a t h l e t e s to a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y and play f o r u n i v e r s i t y teams. Furthermore, as Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s began to r e c e i v e s t a t e funding the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and alumni f u n d r a i s i n g a s p e c t s of s p o r t s programs were l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t . On an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l , the a u t o c r a t i c b ehavior of the powerful c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s (Toronto, M c G i l l , and Queen's) w i t h i n the misnamed Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c U n i o n — t h e r e were no members from the west or the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n s — l e d to hard f e e l i n g s i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . T h i s was true both w i t h i n the c e n t r a l Canadian r e g i o n as w e l l as i n -209-the outer r e g i o n s which, as i n the case of western p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t b a l l i n t e r e s t s , f e l t t h a t they were being ignored by the c e n t r a l Canadian " f a m i l y compact." The breakup of the CIAU i n 1955 was l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of the unbending behavior of the major u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the face of the growth and development of many Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s i n the post-war p e r i o d . In the west, the u n i v e r s i t i e s were faced w i t h other important i s s u e s i n t h e i r conference r e l a t i o n s . Although o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1920 the Western Canadian I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union was unable to m a i n tain a c o n s i s t e n t schedule due p r i n c i p a l l y to two f a c t o r s : t r a v e l c o s t s and geography. The huge d i s t a n c e s between the western u n i v e r s i t i e s simply c o u l d not be b r i d g e d by r a i l on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . The time spent away from s t u d i e s and the c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h long journeys l e d to ad hoc s c h e d u l i n g t h a t depended p r e c a r i o u s l y on a v a r i e t y of funding sources that d i f f e r e d from year to year. As w e l l , the l e v e l of c o m petition v a r i e d from u n i v e r s i t y to u n i v e r s i t y and i t was d i f f i c u l t to ensure q u a l i t y c o m p etition between t h e i r a t h l e t i c programs. These f a c t o r s p l u s the i n t r a c t a b i l i t y of the CIAU i n c e n t r a l Canada l e d u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the west to e x p l o r e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s f o r t h e i r a t h l e t i c development. At UBC, i n Vancouver, these problems were p a r t i c u l a r l y acute because the n earest Canadian u n i v e r s i t y was the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a i n Edmonton. As w e l l , the competitive s i t u a t i o n between UBC and the p r a i r i e u n i v e r s i t i e s up u n t i l the l a t e 1960's was -210-disparate with UBC teams considered much stronger. This s i t u a t i o n , combined with the U n i v e r s i t y ' s close geographic p o s i t i o n to the state of Washington and the large number of American u n i v e r s i t i e s and col leges there led to the adoption of an a t h l e t i c po l i cy advocating competition against schools from the P a c i f i c Northwest, in the absence of any regular ized Canadian a l t e r n a t i v e s . The lack of consistent and predic tab le competition within a western Canadian conference did not r e a l l y end u n t i l the la te 1960's. The importing of f o o t b a l l coaches from the United States strengthened UBC's North-South t i e s . These coaches brought with them American techniques, a t t i tudes , and ideals and attempted to implement American models of c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l against the opposit ion of ind iv idua l s supporting B r i t i s h sports t r a d i t i o n s . A key agent in the development of the UBC f o o t b a l l program was a member of the UBC f a c u l t y , Dr. Gordon Shrum. He was a notable fac tor during his 36 year career in the importating of American sporting values into the d i r e c t i o n and development of a t h l e t i c s at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia. The post-war economic and baby booms resul ted in two key processes relevant to the arguments put forward i n e a r l i e r chapters. F i r s t , the univers i ty system in Canada expanded very rap id ly with student enrollments doubling and doubling again. Second, the dramatic increase i n student enrollments at the u n i v e r s i t i e s caught many academic planners unaware. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the 1962 Macdonald Report to Premier W.A.C. Bennett, -211-recommended an urgent, immediate planned expansion of the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y system, i n c l u d i n g an e n t i r e l y new f o u r year u n i v e r s i t y l o c a t e d somewhere i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y . In response to the r e p o r t , the Bennett government awarded the task of b u i l d i n g the u n i v e r s i t y to Dr. Gordon Shrum. A f t e r h i s re t i r e m e n t from UBC a t age 65, Shrum had worked e x c e p t i o n a l l y hard f o r the p r o v i n c i a l government and Premier W.A.C. Bennett on a number of government p r o j e c t s . Because of the p e r c e i v e d urgency of u n i v e r s i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n , Shrum was gi v e n a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of autonomy to b u i l d the u n i v e r s i t y as he saw f i t . Evidence suggests t h a t Shrum was the s o l e person i n charge of the i n i t i a l development phase of the u n i v e r s i t y and, g e n e r a l l y , was able to s u c c e s s f u l l y manipulate the course of the u n i v e r s i t y ' s development towards f u l f i l l i n g h i s own i d e a l model of a modern u n i v e r s i t y . During the i n i t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y Shrum h e l d great power i n the s e l e c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l s who would form the upper a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s of the U n i v e r s i t y . G e n e r a l l y , he appointed or recommended the appointment of people to the Board of Governors who were from o u t s i d e the u n i v e r s i t y system. He a l s o chose to work with people he alr e a d y knew and, i n some cases, who were a l s o sympathetic to h i s ideas on u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s . These f a c t o r s , combined w i t h Shrum's domineering p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s command over the powerful p o s i t i o n s of C h a n c e l l o r and Chairman of the Board of Governors, and h i s long academic and a t h l e t i c experience gave him a d e c i s i v e advantage i n -212-c o n t r o l l i n g the outcome of the u n i v e r s i t y d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . I t was t h i s broad context of economic, c u l t u r a l and ge o g r a p h i c a l f a c t o r s which p r o v i d e d the s e t t i n g w i t h i n which Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y made i t s d e c i s i o n to implement an American s t y l e model of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s . How d i d th a t context i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n s made by key a c t o r s  i n the c r e a t i o n of Simon F r a s e r ' s s p o r t s program? There are two important p o i n t s to c o n s i d e r w i t h regard to the e f f e c t of the h i s t o r i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l context on the d e c i s i o n making process a t Simon F r a s e r . F i r s t , w e l l worth no t i n g i s th a t the time p e r i o d of the SFU d e c i s i o n during the 1960's presented a wide range of p o l i c y o p t i o n s f o r Canadian d e c i s i o n makers. The post-war g l o b a l economic boom, and the r i s e of the United S t a t e s and American c u l t u r e to a pre-eminent r o l e model p o s i t i o n f o r Canadians throughout Canadian s o c i e t y had not yet been encumbered by the Vietnam War and the 1960's American student r i o t s and race d i s t u r b a n c e s . There were d r a m a t i c a l l y few negative a s p e c t s to the p u b l i c image i n Canada of American c u l t u r e and no obvious reason f o r Canadian decisionmakers to oppose forms of dependency which seemed l i n k e d to a f f l u e n c e and c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n . Nonetheless, r e s i d u a l B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s i n Canadian c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s continued to o f f e r p o l i c y o ptions f o r Canadian d e c i s i o n makers. Indeed, Canadian u n i v e r s i t y p o l i c y makers appeared to have had a wider and more v a r i e d range of p o l i c y o p t i o n s during the 19 60's than they have had a t any time -213-s i n c e , given the c o n s t r a i n t s of n a t i o n a l i s t f e e l i n g which grew i n the decades s i n c e that time. Second, the student masses rushing to u n i v e r s i t y i n the 1960's c r e a t e d an almost c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n f o r the p r o v i n c i a l government. In order to deal w i t h what was p e r c e i v e d as a growing p o l i t i c a l problem, a new u n i v e r s i t y would have to be b u i l t u r g e n t l y . In i t s haste, the government handed the job of o r g a n i z i n g and developing Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y to Gordon Shrum, who past experience had shown them, had the c r e d e n t i a l s to complete the job on time. In a r e a l sense, due to the nature of h i s appointment and the task he faced, Shrum was g i v e n almost complete c o n t r o l of the U n i v e r s i t y through h i s appointment as C h a n c e l l o r and c h i e f developer of the U n i v e r s i t y . I t was t h i s unprecedented c o n t r o l t h a t enabled him to d i r e c t the development of the U n i v e r s i t y and, c e n t r a l to t h i s study, p o s i t i o n i t s a t h l e t i c program towards a U n i v e r s i t y model t h a t s u i t e d h i s e d u c a t i o n a l b e l i e f s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , Shrum 1s power and i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the i n c i p i e n t U n i v e r s i t y s t r u c t u r e was the d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n determining the d i r e c t i o n to be taken by SFU's a t h l e t i c program. Another important development w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s a t h l e t i c p o l i c y was Shrum's p e r s p i c a c i o u s use of a d v e r t i s i n g and promotional techniques to p o s i t i o n Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y w i t h i n the p u b l i c eye. E a r l y on i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s development Shrum p e r c e i v e d himself as the U n i v e r s i t y ' s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s man and managed to u t i l i z e the ongoing development of the a t h l e t i c -214-program to keep the U n i v e r s i t y (and h i m s e l f ) i n the p u b l i c eye. At a time when a number of other u n i v e r s i t i e s throughout Canada were a l s o i n the process of being c o n s t r u c t e d , Shrum's pronouncements and media ' s t y l e ' helped SFU to g a i n a handsome share of a l l the new s c h o o l s ' p u b l i c i t y . There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t h i s f l a i r f o r promotion u t i l i z e d the f a c t t h a t the growing media, e s p e c i a l l y t e l e v i s i o n , were expanding r a p i d l y and developing an eye f o r i n t e r e s t i n g news f e a t u r e s f o r t h e i r audience. The theme of r e g i o n a l east-west c o n f l i c t i n Canadian s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y , and i n u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s s p e c i f i c a l l y a l s o p l a y e d an important r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g a range of p o l i c i e s and an economic and c u l t u r a l m i l i e u t h a t favoured Simon F r a s e r ' s n orth-south r e l a t i o n s i n u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t . The U n i v e r s i t y of B.C.'s t r a d i t i o n a l s p o r t i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h the P a c i f i c Northwest u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l precedent f o r Simon F r a s e r to f o l l o w (and one of which Shrum was w e l l aware having been i n v o l v e l y so c l o s e l y w i t h UBC a t h l e t i c s f o r so many y e a r s ) . The idea that high c o s t i n t r a - p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s competition should be maintained a t the expense of the more economic l o c a l r e g i o n a l t r a v e l was a l s o l o s i n g i t s f o r c e i n the face of " c o n t i n e n t a l i z a t i o n " i n other areas of economic and c u l t u r a l l i f e . On an i n d i v i d u a l note, there i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t Shrum's per s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s as an a t h l e t i c power broker a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia during the formative years of the -215-a t h l e t i c program played a key r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g the development of Simon F r a s e r 1 s a t h l e t i c model away from the i s s u e s that had a f f e c t e d Shrum at the P o i n t Grey campus. C h i e f among these concerns was the c o n f l i c t t h a t centered around a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s and f i n a n c i a l a i d to a t h l e t e s . I t was the confluence of a l l of these c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s which pr o v i d e d the opening f o r Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y to i n s t i t u t e i t s a t h l e t i c program. Why were the proponents of an American s t y l e a t h l e t i c s program  s u c c e s s f u l at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y at a time when no other  Canadian u n i v e r s i t y had such a program? The proponents of an American s t y l e program were s u c c e s s f u l i n i n s t a l l i n g t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c model a t Simon F r a s e r because of the unique circumstances surrounding the b u i l d i n g of the U n i v e r s i t y - - c i r c u m s t a n c e s that allowed l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n to the U n i v e r s i t y ' s development p a t t e r n . E s s e n t i a l l y , the speed r e q u i r e d to b u i l d the U n i v e r s i t y i n time f o r September, 1965 gave Shrum and h i s appointees a l a r g e amount of power and scope i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n . W i t h i n t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n phase, and as W.A.C. Bennett's per s o n a l appointment, Shrum was able to p l a y a primary l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n d i r e c t i n g the development of a l l f a c e t s of the academic i n s t i t u t i o n . UBC had always had strong r e g i o n a l t i e s w i t h American u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h i s f a c t , combined w i t h the a l o o f n e s s of the c e n t r a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s prevented western a t h l e t i c p o l i c y -216-makers from r e a l i z i n g a t r u l y n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t would ground B r i t i s h Columbian u n i v e r s i t i e s i n a s o l i d t r a d i t i o n of n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y support. A l a c k of t h a t n a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n i n the B r i t i s h Columbia s p o r t s community gave Simon F r a s e r p o l i c y makers a d d i t i o n a l l a t i t u d e to enable them to f a s h i o n an a t h l e t i c p o l i c y t h a t emulated the American model. I t i s important to note here t h a t , a t the time of the SFU p o l i c y d e c i s i o n towards implementing a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s the e s t a b l i s h e d B.C. u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c t r a d i t i o n was a l r e a d y s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the American model. UBC, f o r i n s t a n c e , had played American r u l e s f o o t b a l l f o r a number of years and i n f l u e n c e d the d e c i s i o n of B.C. High School o f f i c i a l s to i n s t i t u t e American r u l e s f o o t b a l l i n the high schools w i t h i n UBC's t a l e n t feeder network. T h i s p o l i c y would a i d i n the development of a t h l e t e s f o r UBC's f o o t b a l l program. As w e l l , the m a j o r i t y of UBC's f o o t b a l l coaches have been e i t h e r American o r American t r a i n e d . The c o n d i t i o n s present at Simon F r a s e r during the e a r l y days of the s c h o o l simply provided the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r key a c t o r s to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e t endencies and p r a c t i c e s t h a t had been given only p a r t i a l e x p r e s s i o n a t UBC. The number one i s s u e a t stake i n the development of the u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c model was the concept of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s . Prevented from seeing t h e i r implementation a t UBC, Shrum wanted to l e g i t i m i z e a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s w i t h i n the b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e . To overcome any o p p o s i t i o n to t h e i r adoption, i t was recommended t h a t they be i n c l u d e d i n a system of -217-awards c a l l e d a c t i v i t y s c h o l a r s h i p s . F o l l o w i n g along Simon F r a s e r ' s p o l i c i e s of encouraging " e x c e l l e n c e " i n a wide v a r i e t y of areas w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y , not j u s t academics, the a c t i v i t y s c h o l a r s h i p s were to be awarded to students s e r v i n g the u n i v e r s i t y i n areas such as t h e a t r e , student a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , peforming a r t s and a t h l e t i c s . Couched i n the democratic wrapping of general a c t i v i t y s c h o l a r s h i p s , the i n c l u s i o n of a t h l e t i c awards i n the new U n i v e r s i t y ' s f i n a n c i a l a i d program f o r students faced l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n from the U n i v e r s i t y ' s f a c u l t y , the l a s t group to p o s s i b l y a c t i v e l y a f f e c t Shrum's p o l i c i e s . How do answers t o these que s t i o n s square with the p u b l i c reasons  given by u n i v e r s i t y o f f i c i a l s f o r o r i e n t i n g SFU's a t h l e t i c  program towards the American model? The main p u b l i c reasons g i v e n by U n i v e r s i t y o f f i c i a l s f o r o r i e n t i n g the a t h l e t i c program towards an American model were as f o l l o w s : 1) The need f o r Canada to keep her u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t e s a t home. Shrum and McTaggart-Cowan appealed to the n a t i o n a l i s t urgings of Canadians by noting t h a t the adoption of American s t y l e a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s would act to keep Canada's a t h l e t e s a t home, f o r the betterment of Canada and the f u t u r e development of the n a t i o n . 2) The r i g h t to develop a t h l e t i c s as a centre of e x c e l l e n c e w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y . As McTaggart-Cowan noted i n one of h i s p u b l i c speeches, why shouldn't e x c e l l e n c e i n a t h l e t i c s be supported i n the same way as e x c e l l e n c e i n mathematics, p h y s i c s -218-and music? 3) A need to counter the h y p o c r i s y of the amateurs i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s and f i n a n c i a l payments to a t h l e t e s . The U n i v e r s i t y ' s p o l i c y makers appeared to want to take a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n e l i m i n a t i n g what they viewed as an "outmoded" amateur t r a d i t i o n i n the U n i v e r s i t i e s . S c h o l a r s h i p s were represented as a necessary component i n the "modernization" of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s . 4) A d e s i r e to have the U n i v e r s i t y respond to the needs of young people, i n a v a r i e t y of areas t h a t weren't s t r i c t l y academic i n the c l a s s i c a l sense. Shrum r e f e r r e d to u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s as being "as important to young people as sex" and i n h i s p o l i c y statements he a s s e r t e d t h a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y would respond to the importance that students p l a c e d on a t h l e t i c s by e l e v a t i n g t h e i r p l a c e w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y . E l i m i n a t i n g some of the anomalies regarding amateurism by i n s t i t u t i n g a p o l i c y of e x c e l l e n c e i n u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s was one of h i s responses. From p e r s p e c t i v e , there are a number of s a l i e n t p o i n t s worth no t i n g concerning the r a t i o n a l e s u t i l i z e d by Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y o f f i c i a l s while bearing i n mind the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s e l f s e r v i n g p o s t u r i n g may creep i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s about one's own r e c e n t a c t i o n s . F i r s t , the reasons o f f e r e d by the Simon F r a s e r d e c i s i o n makers stem p r i n c i p a l l y from t h e i r adoption of i d e a s on the development of e d u c a t i o n i n s o c i e t y and on the s a l e of sport i n s o c i a l l i f e t h a t were p r e v a l e n t i n the United S t a t e s and i n American e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the 1960's. For example, -219-the e x t e n s i o n of the concept of " e x c e l l e n c e " w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y sphere to i n c l u d e the area of a t h l e t i c s r e f l e c t s to some degree the l i b e r a l n o t i o n p r e v a l e n t i n the United S t a t e s t h a t s p o r t (mass c u l t u r e ) was e q u i v a l e n t to the a r t s and music (high c u l t u r e ) . American u n i v e r s i t i e s accepted s p o r t s as a v a l u a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l experience while Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s s t i l l p e r c e i v e d i t as important, but secondary to academics. F i n a l l y , i t a l s o r e f l e c t s the corporat e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t a market based f i r m r e q u i r e s good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f o r i t to succeed i n i t s c o r p o r a t e m i s s i o n . P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , the key d e c i s i o n makers a t SFU, i n f l u e n c e d f i r s t by the d e s i r e to e l i m i n a t e the a l l e g e d outmoded i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t t e r n c o n t r o l l i n g the development of a t h l e t i c s i n Canada and, second, by the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and f i n a n c i a l value of a high l e v e l u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c program to a newly founded and growing u n i v e r s i t y , acted i n what they p e r c e i v e d were the best i n t e r e s t s of the u n i v e r s i t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an American s t y l e a t h l e t i c program. I t appears from the a v a i l a b l e evidence t h a t the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s component was a very important concern f o r SFU. In t h i s area, the shock value of the p o l i c y move was an unmitigated success as the U n i v e r s i t y was very s u c c e s s f u l i n p o s i t i o n i n g i t s e l f w i t h i n the Canadian p u b l i c ' s eyes as a predominant Canadian s p o r t s u n i v e r s i t y . The p o l i c y move a l s o c u l t i v a t e d the change o r i e n t e d image the new U n i v e r s i t y r e q u i r e d to a t t r a c t top, young s c h o l a r s to i t s Burnaby Mountain campus. -220-What i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Canadian sport can be drawn from the SFU  d e c i s i o n ? F i r s t , the Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y d e c i s i o n to o r i e n t i t s a t h l e t i c program along the l i n e s of an American u n i v e r s i t y model p r o v i d e s an i l l u m i n a t i n g account of how the development of Canadian s p o r t has proceeded a c c o r d i n g to the c u l t u r a l context i n which i t i s s i t u a t e d . An examination of the h i s t o r i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l context p r o v i d e s a glimpse of the s o c i a l f o r c e s impacting on the d e c i s i o n and an o u t l i n e of the range of d e c i s i o n making o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y system. I t appears t h a t t r a d i t i o n and embedded philosophy s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t change o r i e n t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s can be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented i n s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . At SFU, t r a d i t i o n was not present i n l a r g e measure during i t s e a r l y y e a r s . As w e l l , the t r a d i t i o n a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n a l model and value s t r u c t u r e was s i g n i f i c a n t by i t s notable absence. Given the o v e r a l l c o n t i n e n t a l i z a t i o n of the Canadian economy and c u l t u r e , a much l a r g e r range of p o l i c y o p t i o n s was p o s s i b l e at t h i s new B r i t i s h Columbian u n i v e r s i t y . I would argue t h a t c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of the Simon F r a s e r case provide a glimpse of the f u t u r e of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t . By t h i s I am not suggesting t h a t Simon F r a s e r 1 s d i r e c t connection w i t h American leagues and i t s i n house f i n a n c i a l awards program w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be r e p l i c a t e d a t other Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . I note only t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e that the Canadian programs w i l l be caught up i n p r e s s u r e s to adopt a more p r o f e s s i o n a l approach i n -221-t h e i r a t h l e t i c programs ( i n c l u d i n g more remuneration to t h e i r a t h l e t e s and some form of a t i e - i n w i t h p r i v a t e a d v e r t i s e r s , and the p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a g u e s ) . These types of p o l i c i e s were f i r s t promulgated by Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y during the mid 1960's. The l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n the o f f e r i n g of i n t e r - u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c programs i s , of course, f i n a n c i a l . The development of the i n i t i a l SFU program was (and c o n t i n u e s to be) s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d by budgetary c o n s t r a i n t s and serves to o u t l i n e the needs of Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r e x t r a funds i f they are to develop t r u l y Canadian programs wi t h expensive cross-Canada c o m p e t i t i o n . T h i s , of course, i s the case f o r a l l Canadian s p o r t , but i s most e s p e c i a l l y the case i n western Canada where t r a v e l c o s t s are so high. To a i d the development of n a t i o n a l s p o r t , which the f e d e r a l government has considered an important f a c t o r i n the maintainence of the n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , Ottawa stepped i n during the 1960's and 1970's to c r e a t e governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s which would channel f e d e r a l funding to the o r g a n i z a t i o n s which needed a d d i t i o n a l funds. The Canadian I n t e r u n i v e r s i t y A t h l e t i c Union has been a key r e c i p i e n t of f e d e r a l funding earmarked f o r t r a v e l and f o r supporting e x c e l l e n c e i n u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s . C e n t r a l to the r a t i o n a l e s used by the CIAU to g a i n f e d e r a l support f o r t r a v e l s u b s i d i e s was the s i t u a t i o n of the western u n i v e r s i t i e s ' a t h l e t i c teams and the t r a v e l c o s t s t h a t they faced i n m a i n t a i n i n g conference schedules. A l s o , i r o n i c a l l y , p r e s e n t i n g a case f o r CIAU t r a v e l s u b s i d i e s was the s i t u a t i o n of Simon F r a s e r -222-U n i v e r s i t y , which o s t e n s i b l y was f o r c e d to e l i m i n a t e the i n i t i a l p o s s i b i l i t y of e n t e r i n g i n t o Canada West u n i v e r s i t y c o m p e t i t i o n due to the l a r g e t r a v e l c o s t s i t would have i n c u r r e d had i t j o i n e d the western o r g a n i z a t i o n . In keeping w i t h a long-standing Canadian t r a d i t i o n of s t a t e supported c u l t u r e , i t has been the f e d e r a l government which has p r o v i d e d f o r the maintainence of Canadian s p o r t and which c o n t r o l s the funding d i r e c t i o n of s p o r t ' s development. In f a c t , i t i s f a i r to say t h a t had the f e d e r a l government not committed i t s e l f to f i n a n c i a l l y supporting the a c t i v i t i e s of the Canadian I n t e r u n i v e r s i t y A t h l e t i c Union and i t s n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y championships, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d have been maintained i n i t s present form. An important f u t u r e concern f o r Canadian s p o r t must be the a b i l i t y of the f e d e r a l government to continue a l l o c a t i n g budget funds to u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t i n the years to come. Since the r a p i d expansion of f e d e r a l spending during the 1970's, the n a t i o n a l government has entered i n t o an extended p e r i o d of budget d e f i c i t s and f i n a n c i a l c r i s e s . E v e n t u a l l y , i t w i l l have to r e i n i n i t s spending. Due to these budgetary c o n s t r a i n t s , the government has n o t i f i e d s p o r t s groups that they must develop a l t e r n a t e means of funding, e s p e c i a l l y from the co r p o r a t e s e c t o r . I f f e d e r a l budget support f o r u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t remains constant, the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s can maintain t h e i r broadbased p a t t e r n towards developing s p o r t s to r e i n f o r c e the n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . I f , however, budgets d e c l i n e and s p o r t must tu r n toward the p r i v a t e s e c t o r f o r funding and sponsorship, s p o r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s may not -2 2 3-r e c e i v e as much response from the c o r p o r a t i o n s as one might be l e d to t h i n k . The h i s t o r i c a l development of the Canadian economy as a branch p l a n t of the American economy w i l l w e l l i n f l u e n c e the d i s p e r s a l of c o r p o r a t e d i s c r e t i o n a r y income. By t h i s statement I mean t h a t the high percentage of f o r e i g n ownership i n Canadian i n d u s t r y may f o s t e r c o r p o r a t e ownership behaviors t h a t are not conducive towards supporting c u l t u r a l endeavours i n the host country and may have negative e f f e c t s on e f f o r t s to r a i s e funds f o r the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' a t h l e t i c programs. In any case, the "rush to market" by the u n i v e r s i t i e s s p o r t s programs may r e s u l t i n a s t i l t e d v e r s i o n of the American model where the "market" s p o r t s and market valu e s predominate i n the a t h l e t i c program. U l t i m a t e l y , due to f e d e r a l funding cutbacks, Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s may have to r e t r e n c h t h e i r s p o r t s programs and become the type of r e g i o n a l l y based a t h l e t i c program t h a t was o f f e r e d by Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y when i t opened. Budgetary r e s t r a i n t s w i l l l e a d to non-revenue s p o r t s being cut and coaches l e t go w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t only the s p o r t s that o f f e r some chance of b r i n g i n g i n revenue and/or p u b l i c i t y f o r the U n i v e r s i t y w i l l be l e f t . A t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s would s t i l l be a p o s s i b i l i t y i n those s p o r t s where community donations would fund them. G e n e r a l l y , with reduced funding f o r Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t , r e g i o n a l s p o r t s programs of the type predominant during the pre-1960's may w e l l become the dominant u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t s model i n Canada. The Simon F r a s e r d e c i s i o n i n the mid-1960's sought to r e s o l v e a Canadian r e g i o n a l problem with a c o n t i n e n t a l i s t -224-s o l u t i o n . C o l l a p s e of f e d e r a l funding might w e l l c r e a t e new p r e s s u r e s f o r such an i n i t i a t i v e elsewhere. In terms of a n a t i o n a l s p o r t s i d e n t i t y o r model, the r i s e of a model of a t h l e t i c s a t Simon F r a s e r a n t a g o n i s t i c to the dominant Canadian a t h l e t i c model acted to spur u n i v e r s i t y d e c i s i o n makers i n t o a n a l y s i s of what the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c system should be and how d i s t i n c t i t was from the American and Simon F r a s e r models. S t r a d d l i n g between a domineering American c u l t u r e and a r e s i d u a l , but s t i l l powerful, B r i t i s h s e t of c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , Canadians have had to decide j u s t what c o n s t i t u t e d the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c model. But Canadians have never r e a l l y had a d i s t i n c t i v e model t h a t was u n a f f e c t e d by a m e t r o p o l i t a n s p o r t s c u l t u r e . The c u l t u r e of Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t has always i n v o l v e d a s e t of compromises between B r i t i s h amateur t r a d i t i o n s , l o c a l market p r e s s u r e s , and American c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s . In t h i s context Canadians have a r t i c u l a t e d what i s con s i d e r e d to be a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian model of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s and attempted to put i t i n t o p l a c e w i t h i n the CIAU. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s model i s , i n the middle term, p r e c a r i o u s l y dependent on o u t s i d e f i n a n c i n g from a f e d e r a l government whose economic c o n s t r a i n t s may f o r c e i t to reduce i t s f i n a n c i a l support f o r Canadian c u l t u r e . And, as i n the case of any compromise, there w i l l always be d i s a t i s f i e d p a r t i e s and ongoing c h a l l e n g e s to the l e g i m i t a c y of the s t r u c t u r e i n p l a c e . The Simon F r a s e r case a l s o leads to a l a r g e r i s s u e . The exodus of Canadian a t h l e t e s to u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the United S t a t e s -225-which the i n s t i t u t i o n of a t h l e t i c s c h o l a r s h i p s a t the new u n i v e r s i t y took aim a t e l i m i n a t i n g i s a r e s u l t of the g r e a t emphasis on a t h l e t i c s w i t h i n the United S t a t e s . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , the c a p i t a l a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the r i c h markets f o r s p o r t w i t h i n the U.S. makes p o s s i b l e the highest s a l a r i e s f o r coaches and a t h l e t e s and enhances the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t Canadians w i l l emigrate to the United S t a t e s to compete or coach. In s h o r t , as i n the case of NHL hockey, and i n business and e d u c a t i o n , Canada has become a second p l a c e n a t i o n i n which u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t e s can t r a i n or Canadians can l e a r n to coach. L i k e most of the dominant f e a t u r e s of the r e s t of i t s s o c i e t y , Canadian s p o r t has developed i n t o an attachment or resource base to the more powerful American s p o r t s c u l t u r e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Canadians may simply decide not to accord s p o r t s the value or emphasis t h a t they c u r r e n t l y hold i n American s o c i e t y . However, should Canadians want to compete w i t h American s p o r t f o r the best a t h l e t e s and coaches, a d d i t i o n a l funds and programs must be committed to the e f f o r t . Since about 1960, the f e d e r a l government has been c o n t r i b u t i n g a measure of funds to support t h i s e f f o r t but t h i s money cannot be guaranteed f o r the f u t u r e . C e r t a i n l y , while the f e d e r a l s t a t e can make a s u b s t a n t a l committment to fund a c t i v i s t o b j e c t i v e s i n a number of c u l t u r a l areas, i t s ongoing f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s must l e a d a n a l y s t s e v e n t u a l l y to recommend a r e d u c t i o n i n government support f o r those a c t i v i t i e s . While the importance of n a t i o n a l s p o r t s teams i n r e p r e s e n t i n g the n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y i s c r u c i a l , the p o l i t i c s of -226-budget making are such that no one can p r e d i c t i f and when funds f o r s p o r t w i l l be cut. In an o p t i m i s t i c v e i n , i t co u l d very w e l l be t h a t s p o r t ' s value to the n a t i o n i s so g r e a t t h a t even i f f e d e r a l budgets are cut, that p a r t of the budget devoted to s p o r t may r e c e i v e i n c r e a s e d funding. In the Simon F r a s e r case i t i s c l e a r t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i d not a n t i c i p a t e f e d e r a l funding support f o r u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s i n Canada and i n s t i t u t e d a program based on a c o s t - e f f i c i e n t north-south r e g i o n a l model. In the sh o r t and middle terms t h i s p o l i c y was s u c c e s s f u l i n terms of r a i s i n g the competitive l e v e l s of the u n i v e r s i t y ' s s p o r t s teams but, f i n a n c i a l l y , i t prevented the u n i v e r s i t y from t a k i n g p a r t i n the renewed n a t i o n a l programs t h a t the f e d e r a l government was sponsoring. In the long term the s t a t e of continued f e d e r a l funding support f o r u n i v e r s i t y s p o r t w i l l be paramount i n any e v a l u a t i o n of the Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y d e c i s i o n to implement a north-s o u t h model of u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s r e p l e t e w i t h the i r o n i e s of t u r n i n g to the market. For Canadian u n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s , the r e j e c t i o n of the American model i s s u b s t a n t i a l . Yet, w i t h i n t h a t r e j e c t i o n , the adoption and a d a p t a t i o n of marketing v a l u e s i n p u r s u i t of " e x c e l l e n c e " i n sp o r t had l e d d i r e c t l y back towards domination by American c u l t u r e . The value of the o r i g i n a l Simon F r a s e r d e c i s i o n to adopt American methods to stay Canadian must be question e d . Nonetheless, the onrush of h i s t o r y , the weeding out of economic i n e f f i c i e n c i e s , and the ongoing advance of A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n i n many Canadian c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s leads to -227-the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s t a y i n g C a n a d i a n — o r not becoming American—may w e l l be im p o s s i b l e . The market would seem to d i c t a t e and Graham Spry's well-known o b s e r v a t i o n made long ago seems true today: " I t i s e i t h e r the St a t e o r the S t a t e s . " -228-REFERENCES B a i l e y , P e t e r . L e i s u r e and C l a s s i n V i c t o r i a n England. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1978. Brohm, Jean-Marie. S p o r t : A P r i s o n of Measured Time. T r a n s l a t e d by Ian F r a s e r . London: Ink L i n k s L t d . , 1978. Broom, E r i c F; and Baka, Richard S. P. Canadian Governments and  Sport. Ottawa: CAHPER S o c i o l o g y of Sport S e r i e s , 1979. Cady, Edwin H. The Big Game. K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee: The U n i v e r s i t y of Tennessee Press, 1978. Cantelon, Hart; and Gruneau, R i c h a r d ; ed. Sport, C u l t u r e and the  Modern S t a t e . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1982. C a p o z z i , Herb. Former General Manager, B.C. L i o n s F o o t b a l l Club. Vancouver, B.C. Interview w i t h Steve Campbell 18 September 1985. Clement, Wallace. The Canadian Corporate E l i t e : An A n a l y s i s of  Economic Power. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1975. Clement, Wallace. C o n t i n e n t a l Corporate Power. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1977. Cohen, S t a n l e y . The Game They Played. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson L t d . , 1977. Cosentino, Frank. Canadian F o o t b a l l . Toronto: The Musson Book Company, 19 69. Crean, Susan. Who's A f r a i d of Canadian C u l t u r e . Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : General P u b l i s h i n g Company L i m i t e d , 1~976. Davies, Lome. D i r e c t o r of A t h l e t i c s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, B.C. Interview with Steve Campbell 14 August 1985. Davies, Lome. D i r e c t o r of A t h l e t i c s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, B.C. Interview with Steve Campbell 29 A p r i l 1986. Dunning, E r i c ; and Sheard, Kenneth. Barbarians, Gentlemen and  P l a y e r s . New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979. Ewen, S t u a r t . Captains of Consciousness. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976. Eyre, Alan. Former member of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y Board of Governors, Burnaby, B.C. Interview with Steve Campbell 31 J u l y 1985. F r a n k l i n , Harry. Former member of UBC Senate, Vancouver, B.C. -229-Interview w i t h Steve Campbell 22 J u l y 1985. Grant, George. Lament For A Nation: The Defeat of Canadian  N a t i o n a l i s m . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1965. Gray, Herb. F o r e i g n D i r e c t Investment i n Canada. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1972. Gruneau, R i c h a r d . "Sport, S o c i a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and S o c i a l I n e q u a l i t y . " In Sport and S o c i a l Order e d i t e d by D. B a l l and J.W. Loy. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1975. Gruneau, R i c h a r d ; and A l b i n s o n , John G., ed. Canadian Sp o r t :  S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s . Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Addison-Wesley Canada L t d . , 1976. Gruneau, R i c h a r d . "Power and Play i n Canadian S o c i e t y . " In Power  and Change i n Canada, e d i t e d by Richard J . Ossenberg. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1980. Gruneau, R i c h a r d . C l a s s , S p o r t s , and S o c i a l Development. Amherst, Mass.: The U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts Press, 1983. Guttmann, A l l e n . From R i t u a l to Record. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978. H a r r i s , R. C o l e . " L o c a t i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia." B.C. S t u d i e s 32 (Winter 1976-77) : 106-125. Hoch, P a u l . Rip Off the Big Game. Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1972. Howell, Nancy; and Howell, Maxwell L. Sports and Games i n  Canadian L i f e : 1700 to the Present. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1969. Hughes, Thomas. Tom Brown's School Days. New York: Airmont P u b l i s h i n g Company, Inc., 1968. H u i z i n g a , Johan. Homo Ludens. Boston: The Beacon Press, 1985. Jones, J.C.H. "The Economics of the N a t i o n a l Hockey League," Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics, February, 19 69. Jones, J.C.H. "The Economics of the NHL R e v i s i t e d : A p o s t s c r i p t on S t r u c t u r a l Change, Behavior and Government P o l i c y . " In Canadian S p o r t : S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , e d i t e d by Richard Gruneau and John A l b i n s o n . Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Addison-Wesley Canada, 1976. Kefauver, E s t e s . In a Few Hands: Monopoly Power i n America. London: Cox and Wyman L t d . , 1965. -2 30-Kidd, Bruce. "That Great American I n s t i t u t i o n - T h e Grey Cup." Weekend November 29, 1969. Kidd, Bruce; and Macfarlane, John. The Death of Hockey. Toronto: new p r e s s , 1972. Kidd, Bruce. The P o l i t i c a l Economy of Sport. Ottawa: CAHPER So c i o l o g y of Sport S e r i e s , 1979. Kidd, Bruce. "Sport, Dependency and the Canadian S t a t e , " In Sport, C u l t u r e and the Modern S t a t e , e d i t e d by Hart Cantelon and R i c h a r d Gruneau. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s : 1982. K i r c h n e r , Glenn. Member of F a c u l t y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, B.C. Interview w i t h Steve Campbell 9 A p r i l 1986. Koppett, Leonard. Sports I l l u s i o n , Sports R e a l i t y . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1981. Kurtzmann, Joseph B. "A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the CIAU: 1961-1966." CAHPER J o u r n a l (April-May 1969) :20-23. Lalonde, Marc, P.C. M.P. Speech dur i n g Second Reading - B i l l C-22 "Canadian P r o f e s s i o n a l F o o t b a l l . " House of Commons Debates. 18 A p r i l 1974. Lasch, C h r i s t o p h e r . The C u l t u r e of N a r c i s s i s m . New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1979. Lawson, Hal A.; and Ingham, Alan G. " C o n f l i c t i n g I d e o l o g i e s Concerning the U n i v e r s i t y and I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c s : Harper and Hutchins a t Chicago, 1892-1940." J o u r n a l of Sport H i s t o r y . Volume 7 (Winter 1980) 37-67. Loosemore, J.P. " I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c s i n Canada: I t s O r g a n i z a t i o n and Development." CAHPER J o u r n a l (December 1961-January 1962) p. 9-10, 40. L e v i t t , K a r i . S i l e n t Surrender. Toronto: Gage P u b l i s h i n g , 1970. Lewis, Guy. "Theodore Roosevelt's Role i n the 1905 F o o t b a l l Controversy." Research Q u a r t e r l y Volume 40 (December 1969). Lewis, Guy. "The Beginning of Organized C o l l e g i a t e Sport." American Q u a r t e r l y . Volume 22 (September 1970) : 222-229. Logan, Harry T. Tuum E s t : A H i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia. Vancouver: M i t c h e l l Press, 1958. Lumsden, Ian, ed. Close the 49th p a r a l l e l e t c . : The  A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n of Canada. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1970. -231-Macdonald, John B. Higher Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia and a  Plan f o r the Future. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1962. MacKinnon, A.R. Former Dean of Education, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, B.C. L e t t e r to Steve Campbell 12 May 1986. Macpherson, C B . The Real World of Democracy. Toronto: The Hunter Race Company, 1965. M a l l e a , John R. "The V i c t o r i a n S p o r t i n g Legacy." M c G i l l J o u r n a l  of Education. Volume 10:2 (1975) :184-196. Mangan, J.A. A t h l e t i c i s m i n the V i c t o r i a n and Edwardian P u b l i c  School. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981. Marchak, P a t r i c i a . " C l a s s , R e g i o n a l , and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Sources of S o c i a l C o n f l i c t i n B.C." B.C. S t u d i e s . Volume 27 (Autumn 1975) :30-49. Marchak, P a t r i c i a . In Whose I n t e r e s t s . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1979. Marchak, P a t r i c i a . I d e o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on Canada. 2d ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson L i m i t e d , 1981. Mathews, Robin, "the D e s t r u c t i v e Image: Canada and the Lessons of the Incas." Canadian Forum. Ju n e / J u l y , 1985 :19-23. Matthews, A.W.; and Osborne, Robert F. A B r i e f on the s u b j e c t of  f e d e r a l support f o r a n a t i o n a l programme to s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n  amateur sport and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s - and the p o s i t i o n of the  u n i v e r s i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t h e r e t o . Submitted to The Hnourable J . Waldo Monteith, M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare. February, 19 61. Matthew, A.W. A t h l e t i c s i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s . Ottawa: The A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s of Canada, 1974. McTaggart-Cowan, P.D. Former P r e s i d e n t of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, B.C. L e t t e r to J.H. Wyman, Chairman, I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Review Committee, SFU. 9 December 1971. McTaggart-Cowan, P.D. Former P r e s i d e n t of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, B.C. L e t t e r to Steve Campbell 7 May 1986. Meggysey, Dave. Out of T h e i r League. New York: Paperback L i b r a r y , 1971. Michener, James A. Sports i n America. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett P u b l i c a t i o n s , Inc., 1976. -232-M i t c h e l l , Dick. Former a s s i s t a n t f o o t b a l l coach a t UBC. Interview w i t h Steve Campbell 24 J u l y 1985. M o r i a r t y , R.J. The O r g a n i z a t i o n H i s t o r y of the Canadian  I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e A t h l e t i c Union C e n t r a l (CIAUC) 1906-1955. Unpublished PhD d i s s e r t a i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1971. M o r r i s , W i l l i e . The C o u r t i n g of Marcus Dupree. New York: D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., Inc., 1983. N o l l , Roger G., ed. Governments and the Sports Business. Washington: The Brookings I n s t i t u t e , 1974. Novak, M i c h a e l . The Joy of S p o r t s . New York: B a s i c Books, 1976. Okner, Benjamin A. " S u b s i d i e s of Stadiums and Arenas." In Governments and the Sports Business, e d i t e d by Roger G. N o l l . Washington: The Brookings I n s t i t u t e , 1974. Osborne, Robert F. Former D i r e c t o r of UBC School of P h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n . Interview with Steve Campbell 11 September 1985. Paxson, F r e d e r i c L. "The Rise of Sport." The M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y  H i s t o r i c a l Review. Volume 4 (September 1917) : 143-168. P a n i t c h , Leo. "Dependency and C l a s s i n Canadian P o l i t i c a l Economy." S t u d i e s i n P o l i t i c a l Economy. 6 (Autumn 1981) : 7-33. P e t e r s , J.E.; and Shearer, R.A. "The S t r u c t u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia's E x t e r n a l Trade, 1939 and 1963." B.C. S t u d i e s . 8 (Winter 1970-71) : 34-46. Rea, W. Harold; DesRuisseaux, Dr. Paul W i n t l e ; and Greene, Nancy. Report of the Task Force on Sports f o r Canadians. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1969. Reisman, David and Denney, Reuel. " F o o t b a l l i n American: A Study i n C u l t u r a l D i f f u s i o n . " In Sport i n the S o c i o c u l t u r a l Process, e d i t e d by M. Marie Hart. Dubuque, Iowa: WM. C. Brown Company P u b l i s h e r s , 1972. Resnick, P h i l i p . The Land of C a i n : C l a s s and N a t i o n a l i s m i n  E n g l i s h Canada, 1945-75. Vancouver: New S t a r Books, 1977. Resnick, P h i l i p . "B.C. C a p i t a l i s m and the Empire of the P a c i f i c . " B.C. S t u d i e s 67 (Autumn 1985) : 29-46. Ri c h a r d s , John; and P r a t t , L a r r y . P a r i r i e C a p i t a l i s m : Power and  I n f l u e n c e i n the New West. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1979. -233-Rooney, John F. The R e c r u i t i n g Game. L i n c o l n , Nebraska: U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska Press, 1980. S a f a r i a n , A.E. The Canadian Economy i n the Great Depression. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1970. Savage, Howard J . Games and Sports i n B r i t i s h Schools and  U n i v e r s i t i e s . New York: The Carnegie Foundation, 192 6. Savage, Howard J . American C o l l e g e A t h l e t i c s . New York: The Carnegie Foundation, 1929. S c o t t , Jack. The A t h l e t i c R e v o l u t i o n . New York: The Free Press, 1971. Shrum, Gordon. Former C h a n c e l l o r of Chairman of the Board of Governors of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, B.C. Interview with Steve Campbell 9 August 1983. Shrum, Gordon; and S t u r s b e r g , P e t e r . Gordon Shrum:An  Autobioghraphy. E d i t e d by C l i v e Cocking. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1986. Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . Burnaby, B.C. Board of Governors, Minutes of Meetings 1963-1969. Smith, Ronald A. "Harvard and Columbia and a R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the 1905-06 F o o t b a l l C r i s i s . " J o u r n a l of Sport H i s t o r y . 8 (Winter 1980). Smith, Ronald A. "The H i s t o r i c Amateur-Professional Dilemma i n American C o l l e g e Sport." The B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Sport H i s t o r y . 2 (December 1985) : 221-231. Suart, George. V i c e - P r e s i d e n t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, B.C. Interview with Steve Campbell 18 August 1985. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. UBC Senate Minutes of Meetings 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Report of the UBC Senate Committee on R e c r e a t i o n , A t h l e t i c s and P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n . May, 1958. Van Der Kroef, J u s t u s M. "The U.S. and the World's B r a i n D r a i n . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Comparative S o c i o l o g y . 2 (1970) 220-239. Van V l i e t , Maury. Former Dean of P h y s i c a l Education, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . Edomonton, A l b e r t a . Interview with Steve Campbell 22 September 1985. -234-Vancouver P r o v i n c e . C l i p p i n g s from 1963-1968. Vancouver Sun. C l i p p i n g s from 1963-1968. Veblen, T h o r s t e i n . The Theory of the L e i s u r e C l a s s . New York: Mentor Books, 1953. Warren, Dr. Harry. Former member of UBC Senate, Vancouver, B.C. Interview with Steve Campbell 11 August 1985. Watterson, John S. I I I . "The F o o t b a l l C r i s i s of 1909-10: The Response of the E a s t e r n Big Three." J o u r n a l of Sport H i s t o r y . 8 (Spring 1981). Weber, Max. The P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c and the S p i r i t of C a p i t a l i s m . T r a n s l a t e d by T a l c o t t Parsons. New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1958. Wolf, David. F o u l ! The Connie Hawkins S t o r y . New York: Warner Books, Inc., 1972. Wolf, David. "The Growing C r i s i s i n C o l l e g e S p o r t s . " I n Sport i n  the S o c i o - C u l t u r a l Process, e d i t e d by M. Marie Hart. Dubuque, Iowa: WM. C. Brown Company P u b l i s h e r s , 1972. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077399/manifest

Comment

Related Items