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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The bipartite development of men's and women's field hockey in Canada in the context of separate international.. 1986

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THE BIPARTITE DEVELOPMENT OF MEN'S AND WOMEN'S F IELD HOCKEY IN CANADA IN THE CONTEXT OF SEPARATE INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY FEDERATIONS by JOHN McBRYDE B . E . , U n i v e r s i t y o f Q u e e n s l a n d , 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Schoo l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRIT ISH COLUMBIA J a n u a r y 1986 © John M c B r y d e , 1986 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of £j>UCA--?-/OTS £&,y> ua T'E. $TUJ>i€- S The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s thes i s was to descr ibe and exp la in the b i p a r t i t e development of men's and women's f i e l d hockey i n Canada. Because t h i s could not be done i n i s o l a t i o n from the context of separate i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey federa t ions , the thes i s was presented i n three p a r t s . In the f i r s t pa r t , the evo lu t ion of hockey i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , i nc lud ing the formation of separate federa t ions , was descr ibed . In the second par t , an h i s t o r i c a l account of the development of f i e l d hockey i n Canada was narrated . The t h i r d sec t i on descr ibed the complex i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , and the connect ion between development i n Canada and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l context . C r i t i c a l f ac to rs and pervading in f luences which shaped the course of development, both i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y and i n Canada, were i d e n t i f i e d . The b i p a r t i t e development of f i e l d hockey i n Canada occurred i n three phases. The i n i t i a l phase represented the per iod fo l lowing the foundation of an independent women's hockey a s s o c i a t i o n i n England, a phenomenon which occurred at the same time as organized f i e l d hockey was introduced to Canada. An intermediate phase began when f i e l d hockey organ izat ions i n Canada f i r s t made contact with i n t e r n a t i o n a l f edera t i ons . The f i n a l phase encompassed the years of cons iderab le i n t e r a c t i o n between the Canadian assoc ia t i ons and the i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l counterparts . The most s i g n i f i c a n t fac to r i n the c r e a t i o n of separate assoc ia t i ons in Canada was the fact that the Canadian F i e l d Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n and the Canadian Women's F i e l d Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n were founded at a time when the i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ions were proceeding not on ly independently, but with cont ras t ing p r a c t i c e s regarding a f f i l i a t i o n and compet i t ion . i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to acknowledge those whose ass is tance made the completion of t h i s thes i s p o s s i b l e . S incere thanks are extended to the members of the thes i s committee for the i r va luable adv ice : Dr. W. Robert Morford and Dr. E r i c Broom of the School of Phys i ca l Education and Recreat ion; and Dr. Charles Humphries of the H is tory Department. In p a r t i c u l a r , the author would l i k e to convey s p e c i a l thanks to Dr. Barbara Schrodt, thes i s superv isor , whose guidance, pat ience and encouragement throughout the course of the project were g rea t l y apprec iated . Acknowledgement i s a l so made of the va luable and e n t h u s i a s t i c help rece ived from the many i n d i v i d u a l s , both w i th in Canada and from overseas, whose c o n t r i b u t i o n of resource mater ia l — through generous access to personal f i l e s and c o l l e c t i o n s , grant ing of in terv iews, or correspondence — proved i n d i s p e n s i b l e . To the numerous a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s , as we l l as s t a f f and volunteers of amateur sports o rgan iza t ions , who provided courteous se rv i ce and ass i s tance , the author extends h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n . Thanks are a l so due to L o r i Montgomery whose typing and word process ing s k i l l s helped to produce the f i n i s h e d t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , the wr i te r wishes to thank h i s col leagues for t h e i r encouragement and h i s w i fe , June, for her support and understanding during the severa l years required to complete t h i s t h e s i s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of the Study 1 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 2 J u s t i f i c a t i o n 6 De l im i ta t ions of the Study 7 L im i ta t i ons of the Study 9 Procedure 9 Organizat ion of Thes is 11 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 12 Glossary of Abbreviat ions 15 PART I INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY 16 II EARLY HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF MODERN HOCKEY 16 Pre-Modern Hockey 16 Ancient Forms of Hockey Around the World 16 Ear l y Forms of Hockey i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s 18 Hockey i n B r i t a i n from 1750 to 1870 19 Modernizat ion of the Game of Hockey 20 The F i r s t Hockey Clubs and Matches 20 Rise and F a l l of the F i r s t Hockey Assoc ia t i on . . . . 21 Rev iva l of the Game and the Second Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n 22 E a r l y Development of Women's Hockey 24 i v CHAPTER PAGE I I I DEVELOPMENT OF HOCKEY INTERNATIONALLY TO WORLD WAR I 26 In ternat iona l Development of Men's Hockey 26 Other Home Countr ies and the F i r s t In ternat iona ls . . 26 Formation of the In ternat iona l Hockey Board 27 European Nations and Olympic Hockey 28 Internat iona l A f f i l i a t i o n s 29 Development of Women's Hockey 31 Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ions 32 Internat iona l Hockey 33 Women's Hockey Around the World 33 Re la t ionsh ip Between Men's and Women's Hockey 34 IV INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY BETWEEN THE WARS: EMERGENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATIONS 36 Men's Hockey 36 Olympic Hockey Tournaments 36 Creat ion of the Federation Internationale de Hockey 37 Rela t ionsh ip between the I .H .B . and the F . I .H 38 Women's Hockey 39 Conception and Creat ion of the In ternat iona l Federat ion of Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ions 40 F . I . H . Women's Committee 41 In te rna t iona l Conferences and Tournaments 41 Re la t ionsh ips Between Men's and Women's In ternat iona l Federat ions 43 Jo in t Meetings of the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . . . . 43 v CHAPTER PAGE Mutual A f f i l i a t i o n and Internat iona l compet i t ion . . . 44 Summary 46 V POST-WAR RESURGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY: FROM WORLD WAR II TO THE LATE 1960s 48 Men's Hockey I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y 48 Creat ion of the B r i t i s h Hockey Board 48 Growth of In te rnat iona l Hockey 49 Re la t ionsh ips Between the F . I .H and the I.H.B 51 Women's Hockey I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y 52 Olympic Asp i ra t ions and In ternat iona l Competit ion . . 52 Organ izat iona l Development of the I.F.W.H.A 54 Re la t ionsh ips between the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I .H 56 Ear l y Post-War In te rac t ion 56 Creat ion of the Jo in t Consu l ta t ive Committee 57 Consu l ta t ion and Co-operat ion: 1953-1967 59 Summary 62 VI INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY FROM 1970 TO 1983: UNIFICATION OF THE FEDERATIONS 64 Men's Hockey Development 64 R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the Organ izat iona l Structure . . . 65 World Cup and Olympic Competit ion 66 Women's Hockey Development 68 Int roduct ion of World Championships 69 Women's Hockey i n the Olympic Games 70 v i CHAPTER PAGE Re la t ionsh ips Between Men's and Women's Hockey 73 Status of Hockey at the Olympic Games 74 Divergences i n the Rules 76 Breakdown i n Re la t i onsh ips : F . I . H . and I .F.W.H.A. . . 77 Formation of the Supreme Counc i l 78 Inc lus ion of Women's Hockey i n the Olympic Games . . . 80 Funct ion of the Supreme Counc i l 82 Integrat ion of the I .F.W.H.A. i n to the F . I .H 84 PART II FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA 89 VII DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA TO WORLD WAR I 89 Men's Hockey i n B r i t i s h Columbia 90 Women's Hockey i n B r i t i s h Columbia 91 Men's and Women's Hockey i n Other Parts of Canada 93 Re la t ionsh ip Between Men's and Women's Hockey 94 VIII DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA DURING THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 96 Women's F i e l d Hockey 96 Vancouver F ix tures 96 School Hockey i n Vancouver 98 Vancouver Is land and I n t e r - C i t y Competit ion 100 School Hockey on Vancouver Is land 102 Women's Hockey i n Other Parts of Canada 103 Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n and In ternat iona l A f f i l i a t i o n 104 v i i CHAPTER PAGE Men's F i e l d Hockey 106 Mainland League 106 Vancouver Is land Hockey and I n t e r - C i t y Matches . . . . 108 Aspects of Development 109 In ternat iona l Contacts 110 Re lat ionsh ips Between Men's and Women's Hockey I l l IX DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA: WORLD WAR I I TO LATE 1960s 116 Women's F i e l d Hockey 117 The War Years 117 Ear l y Post-War Development 119 R e v i t a l i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 119 Women's F i e l d Hockey i n Other Parts of Canada . . 123 P a r t i c i p a t i o n at the I .F.W.H.A. Tournament . . . 124 Per iod of Expansion 125 Progress i n B r i t i s h Columbia 125 Developments i n Other Provinces 128 In ternat iona l Competit ion 130 Creat ion of the C.W.F.H.A 132 P r o v i n c i a l Development and Nat iona l U n i f i c a t i o n . . . 136 B r i t i s h Columbia 136 Ontar io and Quebec 140 Maritime Provinces 142 P r a i r i e Provinces 143 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE Nat ional Tournaments and Canadian Team S e l e c t i o n 145 Summary of Post-War Development 148 Men's F i e l d Hockey 149 Post War Recovery 149 Rev iva l i n B r i t i s h Columbia 149 Men's F i e l d Hockey i n Other Parts of Canada . . . 151 In te rna t iona l Competit ion 152 Per iod of Rapid Progress: 152 Expansion i n B r i t i s h Columbia 153 Development i n Other Provinces of Canada . . . . 156 I n t e r - C i t y and I n t e r - P r o v i n c i a l Competit ion . . . 158 Creat ion of the C . F . H . A . : In ternat iona l A f f i l i a t i o n 160 Nat ional and In ternat iona l Competit ion 165 Ear l y Development of the Nat iona l Assoc ia t i on . . . . 168 Progress i n B r i t i s h Columbia 169 Growth i n Other Provinces 169 I n t e r - P r o v i n c i a l Tournaments and Nat ional Championships 171 In te rna t iona l Competit ion 173 Other Aspects of Development 176 Summary of Men's Hockey Development 177 Re la t ionsh ips Between Men's and Women's Hockey 178 E a r l y Post-War Years 178 In ternat iona l Asp i ra t i ons and I n s p i r a t i o n 179 i x CHAPTER PAGE National Co-operation 180 Independent Development 182 X DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA: 1970 TO 1983 185 Women's Field Hockey 185 Domestic Development 185 Seniors 185 Juniors 189 Universities 190 Provincial Championships 191 National Development 192 National Championships 192 International Competition 193 Preparation of National Team 195 Organizational Aspects 196 Men's Field Hockey 199 Domestic Development 199 Seniors 199 Juniors 202 Universities 205 Provincial Championships 205 National Development 206 National Championships 206 International Competition 207 Preparation of the National Team 209 Organizational Aspects 210 x CHAPTER PAGE Re la t ionsh ips Between Men's and Women's F i e l d Hockey . . . 212 Independent but P a r a l l e l Development 212 In te rac t ion and Jo in t Considerat ions 217 Summary 223 PART I I I CANADIAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT . . . 224 XI DISCUSSION 224 Evo lu t ion of Hockey I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y 224 S t r u c t u r a l Ana lys i s of In ternat iona l Hockey Admin is t rat ion 227 Dynamics of the In te r -Re la t ionsh ip of In te rnat iona l Hockey Organizat ions 233 Dichotomy w i th in Men's Hockey Admin is t rat ion . . 234 Emergence of Autonomous Women's Hockey Organizat ions 235 Dichotomy w i th in Women's Hockey Admin is t rat ion . 236 Separate Development of Men's and Women's Hockey A c t i v i t i e s 237 Integrat ion of the I.F.W.H.A in to the F . I . H . . . 239 Independent Development of Men's and Women's F i e l d Hockey i n Canada i n the In ternat iona l Context 240 I n i t i a l Stage 240 Intermediate Stage 243 F i n a l Stage 245 Further Observations 251 E f f e c t s of Contrast ing Phi losophies of the I .F .W.H.A. and the F . I .H 251 x i CHAPTER PAGE Inf luence of the Olympic Games and the I.O.C 252 Role of Vancouver i n the Development of F i e l d Hockey i n Canada 253 Concluding Remarks 254 XII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 256 Summary 256 Conclusions 261 Recommendations 264 NOTES . 265 BIBLIOGRAPHY 325 x i i A P P E N D I C E S APPENDIX PAGE A. Minutes of the Inaugural Meeting of the In ternat iona l Hockey Board, Manchester, 25 J u l y 1900 336 B. Summary of I .F .W.H.A. and F . I . H . Tournaments: 1967-1981 339 C. Correspondence Confirming the Inc lus ion of Women's Hockey as an Olympic Sport 340 D. D iscuss ion of D i f fe rences between Men's and Women's Rules, 1973 342 E. Summary of the Evo lu t ion of the Hockey Rules Board 343 F. Mainland Championships and Thomson Cup Records, G i r l s ' Grass Hockey: 1919-1940 344 G. Summary of Events Leading to the Formation of the C.W.F.H.A 345 H. Vancouver W.F.H.A. and Vancouver Is land L . F . H . A . , League Teams: 1965-66 346 I . Summary of Events Leading to the Formation of the C.F .H.A 347 J . Telegram Correspondence Confirming the Inc lus ion of the Canadian Team i n the Olympic Hockey Tournament, Tokyo, 1964 348 x i i i T A B L E S TABLE PAGE 1. Number of Countr ies A f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . : 1946-1968 50 2. Number of Countr ies i n the Olympic Hockey Tournament: 1948-1968 51 3. Number of Teams at I .F .W.H.A. Tournaments and A f f i l i a t e d Countr ies : 1953-1967 55 4. Meetings of Jo in t Consu l ta t ive Committee: 1952-1968 . . . . 60 5. Number of Teams Competing i n the Vancouver Women's F i e l d Hockey League: 1956-1963 126 6. Number of Teams i n Bridgman Cup Tournament: 1938-1962 . . . 127 7. Number of Teams and D i v i s i o n s i n Vancouver Men's F i e l d Hockey League: 1957-1964 154 8. Senior Teams Registered with C.W.F.H.A. : 1969-1982 . . . . 188 9. Senior Teams Registered with C.W.F.H.A. : 1981-82 188 10. Federal Funding, C.W.F.H.A. Programmes: 1964-1983 198 11. sen ior Teams Registered with C . F . H . A . : 1969-1980 202 12. Senior and Junior Teams Registered with C . F . H . A . : 1969-1980 203 13. Senior and Junior Teams Registered with C . F . H . A . , by Prov ince: 1980 204 14. Senior Teams Registered with C .F .H .A ./C .W.F .H .A . : 1968-1981 213 x i v F I G U R E S FIGURE PAGE 1. Comparison of Member Countr ies and Tournament Teams, I .F.W.H.A. and F . I . H . : 1971-1981 71 2. In te rna t iona l Hockey Development: 1886-1983 225 3. Number of Hockey-Playing Countr ies : 1900-1980 226 4. Conf igurat ion of In te rna t iona l Hockey Organizat ions : 1930 228 5. Conf igurat ion of In ternat iona l Hockey Organizat ions : 1948 229 6. Conf igurat ion of In te rnat iona l Hockey Organizat ions : 1970 230 7. Conf igurat ion of In te rnat iona l Hockey Organizat ions : 1975 231 8. Conf igurat ion of In te rnat iona l Hockey Organizat ions : 1983 232 9. Number of A f f i l i a t e d Countr ies and Tournament Teams, Men/Women: 1948-1976 238 10. Canadian F i e l d Hockey Development i n the In ternat iona l Context: 1895-1983 241 11. Number of Adult F i e l d Hockey Teams i n Canada, Men/Women: 1900-1980 242 12. Expansion of F i e l d Hockey i n Canada i n the In ternat iona l Context: 1900-1980 247 xv P L A T E S PLATE PAGE I. England's First International Men's Team: 1895 349 II. Vancouver Ladies' Hockey Club: 1896 350 III. Vancouver Hockey Club (Men's): 1902-3 351 IV. Vancouver High School, Thomson Cup Girls' Hockey Team: 1905-6 352 V. Canadian Women's Touring Team, I.F.W.H.A. Tournament, Sydney, Australia: 1956 353 VI. Canadian Men's Olympic Hockey Team, Tokyo: 1964 354 xv i 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Hockey, or f i e l d hockey as i t i s c a l l e d i n Canada, i s a game which has i t s o r i g i n s i n a n t i q u i t y , was modernized by the B r i t i s h i n V i c t o r i a n t imes, and i s now widely played throughout the world by both men and women. While none of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may d i s t i n g u i s h hockey uniquely from other spor ts , there i s one feature which makes the study of t h i s game p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g , namely, the b i p a r t i t e development of men's and women's hockey, i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y and i n Canada. It i s t h i s phenomenon which a t t rac ted the author to pursue the subject fur ther as the top ic of t h i s t h e s i s . Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the development of f i e l d hockey i n Canada, from i t s emergence i n the 1890s as a d i s t i n c t game, to 1983. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n te res t i n t h i s study was the phenomenon of the separate development of men's and women's f i e l d hockey, both wi th in Canada and i n the broader i n t e r n a t i o n a l context . In order to e s t a b l i s h t h i s context , i t was a l so necessary to study the b i p a r t i t e development of men's and women's hockey i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . With in the l i m i t a t i o n s of source mater ia l a v a i l a b l e , the study inc luded: 1. A summary of the genesis of the game, and i t s evo lu t ion in to modern hockey i n the la te 1800s. 2. A ch rono log i ca l account of the development of men's and women's hockey i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . 2 3. A chrono log ica l account of the development of men's and women's hockey i n Canada. 4. An a n a l y s i s of the circumstances instrumental i n the formation of separate men's and women's na t iona l hockey assoc ia t ions and i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey federa t ions . 5. An examination of both the common and divergent experiences encountered by men and women i n the development of the game. 6. A study of the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between men's and women's o rgan i za t ions . Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Compared to the more popular spor ts , there i s a dearth of wr i t ten h i s t o r i c a l mater ia l on the subject of f i e l d hockey i n Canada, and indeed of world hockey genera l l y . Probably the most use fu l i n the review of that l i t e r a t u r e which ex is ted was The Book of Hockey, ed i ted by P a t r i c k Rowley, a recognized world author i ty on the game.* Th is book was a c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i c l e s with top ics ranging from the ancient o r i g i n s of the game, through the b i r t h of formal hockey, to the development of the modern game. Wr i ters of both men's and women's hockey were represented; c lub , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l aspects were inc luded; and numerous, wide and va r i ed perspect ives of the game were covered. Some of the a r t i c l e s were anecdotal i n nature, serv ing only to give an ins ight i n to the values assoc iated with the game; whi le others were we l l researched, or wr i t ten by persons of long-standing author i ty i n the spor t , such as the pres ident of the In ternat iona l Hockey Federat ion . Adding to the documentary value of the book were appendices g i v ing the complete and accurate 3 r e s u l t s of a l l Olympic competit ions and men's and women's i n t e r n a t i o n a l tournaments up to the date of the book's p u b l i c a t i o n . An e a r l y book wr i t ten on the game was The Complete Hockey P layer , 2 publ ished i n London i n 1909. I t s major a t t r i b u t e was that i t documented the evo lu t ion of the modern game, and the formation of the o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , from a contemporary perspec t i ve . Contr ibut ions by recognized a u t h o r i t i e s on var ious top ics such as "the H i s to ry of the Hockey Assoc ia t ion [England]" lent credence to the tex t . Coverage of the per iod up to 1909 was a l s o enhanced by o r i g i n a l research undertaken by N e v i l l Miroy i n England. Under the t i t l e "The H is tory of Hockey", t h i s work was publ ished (commencing i n September 1980) i n s e r i a l 3 form i n Hockey D igest , o f f i c i a l news medium of the Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n . While the e a r l y years i n the development of women's hockey were covered b r i e f l y i n the works of White and Miroy, the emphasis there was the evo lu t ion of hockey genera l l y , and men's hockey i n p a r t i c u l a r . A more comprehensive h i s t o r y of women's hockey was to be found i n Mar jor ie P o l l a r d ' s book, F i f t y Years of Women's Hockey, which re la ted the s tory of the founding and 4 development of the A l l England Women's Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n . The most a u t h o r i t a t i v e l i t e r a r y p iece on the women's i n t e r n a t i o n a l o rgan iza t ion was Janet Shaner's "The H is tory and Development of the 5 In te rnat iona l Federat ion of Women's Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n s " . A 1975 master 's t h e s i s , t h i s s c h o l a r l y work documented the h i s t o r y of the women's i n t e r n a t i o n a l body. In a d d i t i o n , i t was va luable i n prov id ing some information on the i n t e r a c t i o n of the men's and women's i n t e r n a t i o n a l o rgan iza t ions , achieved through the v e h i c l e of a j o i n t consu l ta t i ve committee. 4 F i e l d hockey i n Canada had an even more sparse her i tage than i t s Eng l i sh forebears and i n t e r n a t i o n a l counterparts . L inda Wi l l iams ' 1967 graduating essay "The Growth and Development of Women's F i e l d Hockey i n Canada" presented a good coverage of the formation of the Canadian Women's F i e l d Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , and the development of the game during the f i ve -year 6 per iod f o l l o w i n g . The background h i s t o r y of the game i n Canada, although inc luded , was scanty and drew l a r g e l y upon an e a r l i e r p u b l i c a t i o n . The Jub i l ee Booklet , ed i ted by Florence Strachan, was produced i n 1956 by the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Assoc ia t i on on the occas ion 7 of the ce l eb ra t i on of s i x t y years of women's hockey i n Vancouver. The booklet was a compi lat ion of a r t i c l e s cover ing severa l aspects of the h i s t o r y i i and development of the game i n Vancouver and env i rons . It e s s e n t i a l l y 1 addressed women's hockey but d id inc lude a s p e c i f i c a r t i c l e on, and numerous references to , men's hockey. Conversely, when the newly formed Canadian F i e l d Hockey Assoc ia t i on (men's) compiled F i e l d Hockey i n Canada i n 1963, the major i ty of a r t i c l e s deal t with the h i s t o r y and development of men's f i e l d hockey, with a separate a r t i c l e b r i e f l y summarizing the progress of women's f i e l d hockey over the g in terven ing years . The men's booklet was qu i te comprehensive, and r e f l e c t e d the momentous change that was taking p lace i n Canada, both i n men's and women's f i e l d hockey, dur ing those years . The a r t i c l e s covered the h i s t o r y of the game throughout Canada, the formation of a s s o c i a t i o n s , inc lud ing the Canadian F i e l d Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , and i t s a f f i l i a t i o n with the In ternat iona l Hockey Federat ion and the Canadian Olympic A s s o c i a t i o n , as we l l as the inc reas ing i n t r a - and i n t e r - n a t i o n a l compet i t ion. 5 Further mater ia l a v a i l a b l e on the game and i t s development inc luded: The Story of the A.E .W.H.A. , a s e r i e s of booklets produced by the A l l 9 England Women's Hockey Assoc ia t i on and spanning the per iod of 1895 to 1981; a b r i e f but comprehensive survey of the game i n England by Ida Webb, e n t i t l e d "Women's Hockey i n E n g l a n d " ; 1 0 and s i m i l a r works of a more s p e c i f i c nature, mostly cover ing women's hockey. A lso consu l ted , to provide a broad background, was l i t e r a t u r e of a more a l l -embrac ing and g loba l nature such as : The Oxford Companion to Sports and Games, ed i ted by John A r l o t t ; 1 1 The Olympic Games, ed i ted by K i l l a n i n and 12 13 Rodda; Sport Canadiana, ed i ted by Schrodt, Redmond and Baka; The New Encyclopedia of Sports , ed i ted by Ralph Hickok, and other sports 14 15 encyc lopedias; Henry Roxborough's One Hundred—Not Out; and Canada's Sport ing Heroes, by Wise and F i s h e r , 1 ^ to name the most prominent, as we l l as severa l theses and d i s s e r t a t i o n s on Canadian sport h i s t o r y . In order to gain fur ther ins igh t i n to subjects re levant to the study, a review of l i t e r a t u r e i n re la ted areas was conducted. On the top ic of women i n spor t , two recent p u b l i c a t i o n s , Women i n Canadian L i f e : Sports , by 17 Cochrane, Hoffman and K i n c a i d , and F a i r B a l l : Towards Sex Equa l i t y i n 18 Canadian Sport , by Ann H a l l and Dorothy Richardson, were reviewed. In the area of o rgan i za t i ona l and s o c i o l o g i c a l aspects , a r t i c l e s such as Barbara 19 Schrodt 's "Changes i n the Governance of Amateur Sport i n Canada", 20 Canadian Governments and Sport , by Broom and Baka, Richard Mor iarty s 21 "The Rise and F a l l of Sports Organ izat ions" , and "Soc ia l C lass and Voluntary Act ion i n the Admin is t rat ion of Canadian Sport" , by Hol land and 22 Gruneau, were consu l ted . For a study of the development of other 6 i n d i v i d u a l spor ts , such works as A .B . Rose's "An H i s t o r i c a l Account of 23 Canada's P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n In te rnat iona l Ice Hockey: 1948-70", S ix ty 24 Years of Canadian C r i c k e t , by J . E . H a l l and R.O. Mccul loch, Robert Bra t ton ' s "A H i s to ry of the Canadian V o l l e y b a l l Assoc ia t i on up to 1967", and s i m i l a r accounts for soccer , rugby and l ac rosse , proved to be use fu l sources. J u s t i f i c a t i o n In h i s recent a r t i c l e "Canadian Sport H i s t o r y : A C r i t i c a l Essay", the eminent Canadian sport h i s t o r i a n , Donald Morrow, observed that for the major i ty of Canadian sport h i s t o r y research, "the common bas is of methodology was n a r r a t i v e - d e s c r i p t i v e h i s t o r y . " Furthermore, he i d e n t i f i e d s i n g l e sport s tud ies as one of the four broad t o p i c a l headings which emerged from h i s 26 review of the leading journa ls i n the f i e l d . Morrow contended that "Canadian sport h i s t o r y i s s t i l l at the d e s c r i p t i v e stage of research" , with "Canadian sport h i s t o r i a n s , for the most par t , being t ra ined i n d e s c r i p t i v e research" . While he d id not foresee any change i n the next decade, ne i ther d id he consider d e s c r i p t i v e - n a r r a t i v e or descr ip t ive- themat i c h i s t o r y to be i n any way i n f e r i o r . Indeed, he s t ressed that t h i s methodology demanded the 27 a t t r i b u t e s of "meticulous research" and " l i t e r a r y s k i l l " . In an examination of over two hundred master 's theses and doctora l d i s s e r t a t i o n s on sport h i s t o r y emanating from Canadian and B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the l as t f i f t e e n years , the wr i te r of t h i s thes i s d iscovered 28 that near ly o n e - f i f t h (38 out of 214) were of the s ing le - spor t type. It i s thus apparent that sport h i s t o r y theses of n a r r a t i v e - d e s c r i p t i v e genre, s p o r t - s p e c i f i c i n nature, continue to enjoy considerable favour i n t h i s academic f i e l d . 7 Although over the past two decades numerous s tud ies have been completed on the h i s t o r y of other i n d i v i d u a l games, each of which has made some con t r ibu t ion to Canada's spor t ing her i tage , a review of the l i t e r a t u r e ind ica ted that there had been no comprehensive, s c h o l a r l y h i s t o r y wr i t ten on the development of f i e l d hockey i n Canada. Both from a Canadian viewpoint , and from a more g loba l perspec t ive , the study of men's and women's f i e l d hockey had many d i s t i n c t i v e features which commended i t for research . In i t s own r i g h t , f i e l d hockey was ranked as the 29 second most popular outdoor team sport i n the world ( s i x t h i n Canada). It was the second team spor t , of those c u r r e n t l y re ta ined , to be admitted to the Olympic programme. Therefore , such a study should represent a va luable c o n t r i b u t i o n to knowledge i n the f i e l d of sport h i s t o r y . More p a r t i c u l a r l y , the separate men's and women's development of t h i s sport was unusual . As an Olympic spor t , f i e l d hockey was unique i n t h i s respect . It was a l so the only team sport i n which men and women have developed separate ly , each with i t s own autonomous organ iza t ions , at na t iona l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . The examination of t h i s aspect should prove very use fu l from the perspect ive of sport admin i s t ra t ion . Upon cons iderat ion of the above f a c t o r s , the proposed top ic i s submitted as a worthwhile subject of study i n the f i e l d of sport h i s t o r y and sport management. De l im i ta t ions of the Study Chrono log i ca l l y , t h i s study was conf ined to the per iod from the 1890s to 1983. From the broader perspec t ive , the 1890s witnessed the formation of the f i r s t separate women's na t iona l assoc ia t ions and ushered i n the f i r s t 8 international matches for both men and women. From the Canadian viewpoint, the 1890s marked the founding of the Vancouver Hockey Club (men's) and the Vancouver Ladies' Hockey Club, the oldest known formal f i e l d hockey clubs in Canada. A logical point of termination for the study was 1983, the year in which, internationally, the men's and women's federations were amalgamated, with the Federation Internationale de Hockey (F.I.H.) absorbing the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations (I.F.W.H.A.) into i t s organization. This thesis was limited to the construction of an historical framework and to a discussion and interpretation of events occurring within that framework. While no attempt was made to write a definitive "history of hockey", the important landmarks in the history of the game, such as the formation of the world's f i r s t national associations and of the international federations, were necessary to provide the contextual framework. The history of f i e l d hockey in Canada was studied in greater detail, with the emphasis on the development of the sport governing bodies, their a c t i v i t i e s , and their organization. Although this study was not an attempt to trace the origins and development of every club or team ever formed in Canada or internationally, those individuals, teams, clubs, competitions, and other events which were crucial to the development and organization of the game, and particularly as they were relevant to the separate development of men's and women's hockey, were studied closely, such events as the formation of Canada's national associations, their a f f i l i a t i o n with their respective international bodies, and participation in national and international competition were considered of paramount importance. 9 Limitations o£ the Study One limitation in the study of the game of f i e l d hockey in Canada was the dearth of historical material available on the subject, especially with regard to men's hockey. A further limitation was the incompleteness of records of a documentary nature (minutes, correspondence, reports and the like) especially prior to World War I. In addition, most of the individuals associated with the game in the early days, and some of those involved in the formative years of the two national associations, were deceased. Also, as f i e l d hockey has traditionally been a l i t t l e publicized sport, there was, in general, scant mention of the game in newspapers and other forms of printed communications media. These limitations indicated that, to provide adequate information for completion of the study, a multi-directional search for source material was required to collate and substantiate the data. Procedure This research was conducted using the historical method. Data collected was rigorously subjected to c r i t i c a l examination to determine i t s validity and r e l i a b i l i t y . As well as establishing the authenticity of the material, corroborative evidence was obtained, whenever possible, to ensure that i t was trustworthy. Also, in assessing the importance of material, and interpreting i t s significance, these fundamental principles of objectivity were applied. While the methodology f a l l s generally into the descriptive-narrative genre, and the subject into the single-sport category, the several unusual aspects inherent in the topic, especially the bipartite nature of the 10 development of the game, suggested areas for fur ther research, as d iscussed i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n . P r i o r to World War I I , f i e l d hockey i n Canada was conf ined almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. Thus, as the s i t e of f i e l d hockey's ea r l y development, much of the m a t e r i a l , and most of the people assoc iated with the formative years of the game i n Canada, were to be found there . However, the author a l so v i s i t e d Toronto and Ottawa to research o r i g i n a l mater ia l on Canadian development, and t r a v e l l e d to England to obta in documents of i n t e r n a t i o n a l re levance. In a d d i t i o n to the mater ia l r e fe r red to i n the review of the l i t e r a t u r e , primary and secondary sources examined inc luded: 1. A l l i ssues of the Canadian F i e l d Hockey News (1963-1985) and World Hockey (1969-1985). 2. A sampling of other hockey p e r i o d i c a l s from severa l countr ies spanning the l as t three decades of the study. 3. Minutes, repor ts , c o n s t i t u t i o n s , correspondence, and other mater ia l per t inent to the funct ions of the re levant a s s o c i a t i o n s . 4. Other re levant documents deposited i n the fo l lowing arch ives and l i b r a r i e s : Pub l i c Archives of Canada; Vancouver C i t y Arch ives ; B.C. Sports H a l l of Fame and Museum; Vancouver Pub l i c L i b r a r y ; and U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . 5. Newspapers and journa l s , as we l l as miscel laneous newslet ters , programmes, f i x t u r e booklets , and personal scrapbooks, photographs, and other memorabil ia. 6. Interviews with those men and women whose involvement i n f i e l d hockey i n Canada, and hockey i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , could o f f e r a va luable 11 c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s research . Where an interv iew was not f e a s i b l e , correspondence was s u b s t i t u t e d . Organizat ion of Thesis Th is study i s organized in to four sec t i ons : 1. In t roduct ion . 2. Narrat ive d e s c r i p t i o n of the development of men's and women's hockey, i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y and i n Canada. 3. D iscuss ion and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the game's development and the phenomenon of i t s b i p a r t i t e nature with respect to men and women. 4. Summary with conc lus ions and recommendations. The nar ra t i ve d e s c r i p t i o n , which forms the f a c t u a l framework of the study i s presented i n two p a r t s : Part I , the development of men's and women's hockey i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y ; and. Part I I , the development of men's and women's f i e l d hockey i n Canada. Chrono log i ca l l y , the nar ra t i ve i s d iv ided in to four 30 time per iods : 1890s to World War I ; the inter-war years ; post-World War II to la te 1960s; 1970 to 1983. Within each time p e r i o d , separate accounts of the development of the game for men and the development of the game for women are presented. These separate accounts are fol lowed by an examination of the i n t e r a c t i o n between men and women, and an i n v e s t i g a t i o n in to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i r respect ive o rgan i za t i ona l bodies . From a review of the l i t e r a t u r e i t can be observed that , with respect to the evo lu t ion of the game, no s i n g l e volume e x i s t s i n which desc r ip t i ons of men's and women's hockey development have been treated together, much less juxtaposed. Thus, the author deemed i t necessary to present a comprehensive 12 account of the development of men's and women's hockey i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y i n order to e s t a b l i s h the bas is on which d i s cuss ion could proceed. S i m i l a r l y , as no comprehensive h i s t o r y of the game i n Canada had prev ious ly been w r i t t e n , a chronology of f i e l d hockey i n Canada has been included as an i n t e g r a l part of t h i s study, i n producing t h i s chronology, severa l aspects of development were cons idered: the founding of c lubs ; the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of teams i n league f i x t u r e s and representat ive matches; the f o s t e r i n g of the game i n schools or i n jun ior programmes; the formation of assoc ia t ions at d i s t r i c t , p r o v i n c i a l and nat iona l l e v e l , a f f i l i a t i o n with i n t e r n a t i o n a l bodies, na t iona l championships,and i n t e r n a t i o n a l compet i t ion, to l i s t the most important. At each stage of t h i s expos i t i on , the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver) was regarded as the f o c a l point of 31 development, with Vancouver Is land ( V i c t o r i a ) i t s s a t e l l i t e . The r a t i o n a l e behind t h i s approach was, f i r s t l y , that these two centres were v i r t u a l l y the only areas of Canada where adult hockey was played p r i o r to the 1950s: and, secondly, that Vancouver was the l o c a t i o n at which both na t iona l assoc ia t ions had the i r i ncep t ion , and from which the nucleus of the f i r s t Canadian teams to p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l competit ion was s e l e c t e d . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The terms " b i p a r t i t e " , "separate", " p a r a l l e l " , and other approximately equivalent terms, are intended to descr ibe the s i t u a t i o n which ex is ted i n f i e l d hockey whereby the men's and women's games developed i n an e s s e n t i a l l y independent manner, not only compet i t i ve ly , but o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y , and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y . 13 The use of the terms "hockey", " f i e l d hockey", and "grass hockey" — and sometimes "ground hockey" — requires e l a b o r a t i o n . Because the establishment of the In te rnat iona l Hockey Board (the f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l body of any of the v a r i a n t s of the generic game of hockey) preceded the formation of the In te rna t iona l Ice Hockey Federat ion , and corresponding world organizat ions for r o l l e r hockey and indoor hockey, f i e l d hockey i s known i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y as "hockey". On the other hand, i n Canada, the name "hockey" usua l l y r e f e r s to i ce hockey, with the terras " f i e l d hockey" and "grass hockey" being required to i d e n t i f y the outdoor f i e l d game. Although i t has now been superseded by " f i e l d hockey", the term "grass hockey" was the o f f i c i a l name used i n B r i t i s h Columbia up u n t i l the formation of the Canadian assoc ia t ions i n the e a r l y 1960s. In t h i s t h e s i s , when the term "hockey" i s used, i t means f i e l d hockey. This convention i s adopted and genera l ly employed when the meaning i s c l e a r from the context . For instance, a mod i f i ca t ion of the game, known as "mixed hockey", r e f e r s to f i e l d hockey played by men and women together. When i t i s appropr iate from cons iderat ions of h i s t o r i c a l development, or i n cases of p o t e n t i a l ambiguity, the p re f i xed nomenclature " f i e l d hockey" or "grass hockey" i s used. During the per iod under study, severa l examples of over lap i n terminology occur: thus, some f requent ly used terms require d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . For example, although "team" and "club" were sometimes used interchangeably, a team was genera l ly regarded as the ac tua l group of p layers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a game, whi le a c lub was the o rgan i za t iona l body which entered one or more teams i n a compet i t ion . The fact that , e s p e c i a l l y before World War I I , most c lubs f i e l d e d only one team, no doubt contr ibuted to t h i s lack of 14 d i s t i n c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , whi le "league" usua l l y re fe r red to the competit ion amongst teams, and "assoc ia t ion" to the o v e r a l l o rgan i za t iona l body, the two terms were o f ten used synonymously. Even i n minutes, and on o f f i c i a l l e t te rhead , the t i t l e "League" appeared as f requent ly as "Assoc ia t ion" , both for the men's and women's o rgan i za t ions . The terms "match" and "game" were used interchangeably, too. However, the former usua l l y re fe r red to a more competit ive contest — an i n t e r - c i t y match between representat ive teams, as opposed to a f r i e n d l y game of mixed hockey, being an example of appropr iate usage. Other terms a l so require c l a r i f i c a t i o n . In women's hockey "women" or " lad ies" was used to d i s t i n g u i s h adul ts (p layers , teams, or c lubs) from " g i r l s " or " s c h o o l g i r l s " . The male equiva lents were "men" and " jun iors" (sometimes "schoolboys") , r e s p e c t i v e l y . In the 1970s, the term "junior" became common for younger p layers of both sexes, and the term "seniors" was concomitantly app l ied to a d u l t s . With respect to terminology genera l l y , an endeavour i s made i n t h i s thes i s to use contemporary terms wherever the meaning i s c l e a r from the context . Th is app l i es to such terms as " lad ies" for women, "rep" for representat ive , and "knock-out" for e l i m i n a t i o n , as we l l as to the t i t l e s of c lubs and a s s o c i a t i o n s . Where p o s s i b l e , the f u l l and contemporary name of a c lub or a s s o c i a t i o n i s used upon f i r s t re ference , and short forms t h e r e a f t e r . The Vancouver Lad ies ' Hockey C lub, for example, i s abbreviated to Vancouver L .H.C. a f t e r the i n i t i a l re ference; i n other cases, simply a name, such as Crusaders, i s used to re fe r to a team. 15 Glossary of Abbreviat ions A. E.W.H.A. A l l England Women's Hockey Assoc ia t i on B. C .F .H.A. B r i t i s h Columbia F i e l d Hockey Assoc ia t ion (men's) B. C.W.F.H.F. B r i t i s h Columbia Women's F i e l d Hockey Federat ion C. F.H.A. Canadian F i e l d Hockey Assoc ia t i on (men's) C O . A . Canadian Olympic Assoc ia t ion C.W.F.H.A. Canadian Women's F i e l d Hockey Assoc ia t i on F. I .H . Federat ion Internat iona le de Hockey ( In ternat iona l Hockey Federat ion) G. V.W.G.H.A. Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Assoc ia t ion H. A. [The] Hockey Assoc ia t i on [of England] I . F.W.H.A. In ternat iona l Federat ion of Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ions I .H .B . In ternat iona l Hockey Board ( for ru les) I .O .C . In ternat iona l Olympic Committee M.G.H.A. of B.C. Mainland Grass Hockey Assoc ia t ion of B r i t i s h Columbia (men's) Abbreviat ions of other o rgan i za t iona l bodies ( inc lud ing var ian ts of the above) are def ined throughout the tex t . 16 P A R T I INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY CHAPTER II EARLY HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF MODERN HOCKEY Although i t has been stated that the per iod for t h i s study extends from the 1890s to 1983, i t i s appropr iate , and to some extent necessary, that a b r i e f background of the game of hockey be presented. Th is chapter c o n s i s t s , there fore , of a review of the evo lu t ion of hockey, from i t s ancient o r i g i n s to i t s modern form. Pre-Modern Hockey Ancient Forms of Hockey around the World H i s t o r i a n s are genera l ly agreed that crude s t i c k and b a l l games, from which the game of hockey i s der ived , date back severa l thousands of years . The e a r l i e s t evidence of such a game was discovered at Beni Hasan i n the N i l e V a l l e y , i n a tomb which was b u i l t c a . 2000 B.C. On the wa l l i s a drawing which dep ic ts two f i g u r e s , whose r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n g resembles that of p layers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the modern " b u l l y " . 1 Further evidence of an e a r l y form of s t i c k and b a l l game played i n the western Mediterranean during the p r e - C h r i s t i a n era i s provided by a b a s - r e l i e f , d iscovered i n Athens i n 1922, i n a wa l l b u i l t dur ing the time of Themistocles, 514-449 B.C. At the base of 17 a statue are s i x a t h l e t e s , a l l ho ld ing curved s t i c k s , with two of the men 2 engaged i n an a c t i v i t y that suggests a b u l l y . There i s a l so evidence of a 3 s t i c k and b a l l game played i n Rome, and known as paganica. Several scho lars have l inked the o r i g i n s of b a l l games, i n many c i v i l i z a t i o n s throughout the world, to ancient r e l i g i o u s or f e r t i l i t y r i t e s . R i t u a l i s t i c precursors of the modern game of hockey have been discovered i n severa l parts of A s i a , i n Papua and New Guinea, and i n the Arab countr ies of 4 North A f r i c a . Forms of such games were a l so played for many centur ies by the Indians of North and South America. As e a r l y as 1646, a Spanish f r i a r w r i t i n g a h i s t o r y of Ch i l e made reference to the Indian game of c ineca which he descr ibed as being s i m i l a r to what i s now known as hockey, and amongst North American Indians, a comparable game i s reported to have been played by 5 both men and women. On the continent of Europe, there ex is ted many examples of s t i c k and b a l l games, the most prevalent of which was the game of l a sou le , a l so o r i g i n a l l y assoc iated with r e l i g i o u s occasions and played i n France during the Middle Ages.** Several a r t i f a c t s provide sport h i s t o r i a n s with v i s u a l evidence of the existence of these games: d e t a i l from a metal-cut border i n a French church dep ic ts townsmen p lay ing l a soule i n 1497; a French a l t a r c ruet , dated 1333, and now r e s i d i n g i n the Copenhagen Museum, portrays two p layers i n an orthodox b u l l y ; and a Barcelona cathedra l i n which the chance l , 1 b u i l t i n 1394, d i sp lays a game s i m i l a r to l a sou le . Disseminat ion by the Roman legions to the i r conquered nat ions , and t ranpor ta t ion in to Spain by the Moorish invaders , are among the hypotheses advanced to exp la in the 8 i n t roduc t ion of s t i c k and b a l l games i n t o Europe. 18 Ear l y Forms of Hockey i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s As i t was i n B r i t a i n that hockey took root as a formal game, i t i s t h i s r e l a t i v e l y smal l corner of the world to which a t ten t ion i s now d i r e c t e d . In h i s book The Complete Hockey P layer , publ ished i n London i n 1909, Eustace E. White dec lared that "modern hockey i s a g l o r i f i e d form of that game, played at d i f f e r e n t times and i n d i f f e r e n t countr ies under such va r i ed names as hur ley , 9 sh in ty , bandy, hoquet and caman." Apart from the French hoquet, from which the terra hockey may have der ived , a l l the other forms are from the B r i t i s h I s l e s . The game of hur ley , or h u r l i n g , i s the I r i s h v e r s i o n , to which the f i r s t reference i s assoc iated with a b a t t l e fought i n County Mayo i n 1272 B .C . ; fur ther mention was made of hur ley i n the re ign of King Catha i r Mor, who d ied i n A.D. 1 4 8 . 1 0 In Scot land, the game was known as sh in ty , with e a r l i e s t references dat ing back to the time of Alexander I (d . 1124), who seems to have given h i s roya l patronage to the game. Descr ip t ions of sh in ty , as played at a l a t e r date, were provided by Pennant i n h i s Tour of Scot land, wr i t ten i n 1 7 6 9 . 1 1 Of the many references to the game i n England s ince the twel f th century, a few se lec ted examples should s u f f i c e to fo l low i t s course. The f i r s t documentation of b a l l games appeared i n an 1174 manuscript, the Chron ic les of F i t zs tephen , which re fe r red to "London B a l l e P laye" , then a 12 popular pastime among students . Over the next few cen tu r i es , e a r l y forms of hockey were be l ieved to have been played i n the schools assoc iated with the great cathedra ls of England. There are severa l examples of e x i s t i n g s ta ined g lass windows which v e r i f y such a c t i v i t y : one, of th i r t een th century o r i g i n , set i n Canterbury Cathedra l , dep ic ts boys p lay ing s t i c k and b a l l games; another, dat ing from a century l a t e r at G loucester , shows a f i gure s t r i k i n g at 19 a b a l l with a crooked s t i c k . The s t i c k and b a l l game was prevalent i n England and Wales during the medieval per iod under the name of bandy, and became so popular i n fourteenth century England that i t i n t e r f e r e d with the p r a c t i c e of archery . Together with other games, i t was forbidden by decree, 14 under a s ta tute (ca . 1363) of King Edward I I I . One of severa l a c t i v i t i e s he ld i n conjunct ion with r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s i n E l i zabethan times, and which l a t e r developed in to s p e c i f i c spor ts , was an embryonic form of hockey played 15 i n some Cornish towns on Ascension Day. Reference to hockey eventua l ly appeared i n Eng l i sh l i t e r a t u r e , where the famous 17th century w r i t e r , Lord Macaulay, i n desc r ib ing John Bunyan's pastimes, i s sa id to have asserted that b e l l r i ng ing and p lay ing at hockey on Sundays were Bunyan's worst v i c e s . ^ Hockey i n B r i t a i n from 1750 to 1870 During the 18th and 19th centur ies i n England, references to hockey and s i m i l a r games became more numerous. Joseph S t r u t t , i n The Sport and Pastimes of the People of England, o r i g i n a l l y produced i n 1801, re l a ted that h u r l i n g was f requent ly played by ir ishmen behind the B r i t i s h Museum i n London around 17 the year 1775. Lord Lytton was reputed to have wr i t ten i n 1853, "on the common were some young men p lay ing at hockey. That o ld- fash ioned game, now 18 very uncommon i n England, except at schools . . . ." A l so , C a s s e l ' s Popular Educator of 1867 i s sa id to have inc luded an a r t i c l e on hockey as i t 19 was played i n England. Thus i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that hockey should have been played i n the schools and co l l eges at that t ime. Indeed, from 1750, s t a r t i n g with Eton and Winchester, the game became prominent at such i n s t i t u t i o n s . By 1850, severa l other major pub l i c schools and the Royal M i l i t a r y Col lege at Sandhurst were 20 p lay ing hockey, and i n the next few decades many more schools took up the game. For instance , Rossa l l School and Marlborough Co l l ege , descr ibed as "two of the great nurser ies of hockey", were p lay ing the i r vers ions of the game, at 20 least by 1864 and 1874 r e s p e c t i v e l y . At about mid-century, too, i t would appear that hockey was a popular sport i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s , for i t i s recorded that i n 1847, H.C. Maiden, who was at T r i n i t y Co l l ege , Cambridge, " t r i e d to 21 get up some f o o t b a l l i n preference to hockey, then i n vogue." Around the middle of the n ineteeth century, hockey was a l so gaining i n favour as a game enjoyed outs ide of the schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s . In 1859, p layers partook of the game on Wimbledon Common i n South London and, by the 1860s, i t was being played i n many par ts of England. I t s form and name were s u f f i c i e n t l y well-known that when the f i r s t games of polo were played i n 22 London i n 1869-70, t h i s new sport was re fe r red to as "hockey on horseback". Modernizat ion of the Game of Hockey During the nineteenth century i n England, l a r g e l y as a consequence of severa l important s o c i a l developments which took place at that time, sport was transformed from the var ious t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k pastimes and recreat ions to the modern forms of organized a c t i v i t i e s played around the world today. Hockey was one of the games which underwent t h i s process . The F i r s t Hockey Clubs and Matches Several c lubs i n England were instrumental i n the c r e a t i o n of the modern game of hockey. Included i n these were the Blackheath, Teddington, Richmond, Surb i ton and Wimbledon hockey c lubs , a l l from the London area . While each of these c lubs made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n , i t i s Blackheath 21 and Teddington that can reasonably c la im to have been the f i r s t of the modern hockey c l u b s . Chrono log i ca l l y , Blackheath Hockey Club was the f i r s t ; from the informal games which had been played on the heath s ince 1840, the Blackheath 23 Hockey Club was founded i n 1861. A f u l l decade was to pass before members of the Teddington Cr i cket C lub, meeting at the end of a ra iny summer to d iscuss the p o s s i b i l i t y of p lay ing hockey, formed the Teddington Hockey Club 24 i n the autumn of 1871. The Teddington p layers "appear to have had about three years on the i r own to shape t h e i r game" before the f i r s t matches with outs ide c lubs were p layed. But by 1874, on the other s ide of the Thames, i n t e r e s t i n hockey was growing at Surb i ton and Richmond. With the help of some v i s i t i n g Teddington p l a y e r s , the Richmond Hockey Club was founded i n October 1874, and i n the autumn of that year "the f i r s t recorded game of modern hockey between two c lubs" took place when Teddington H.C. played Richmond H.C. i n the Old Deer 25 Park, Richmond. The Teddington versus Richmond game ushered i n many more encounters of an i n t e r - c l u b nature, f o r , dur ing the 1874-75 season, severa l other c lubs were formed and f i x t u r e s arranged. The h i s t o r y of the Richmond H.C. fo r that year recorded matches with The S t r o l l e r s , Hampstead, East Surrey, Upper Toot ing, and Surb i ton , i n a d d i t i o n to i t s f i x t u r e s with Teddington, for a t o t a l of 26 about a dozen games. Rise and F a l l of the F i r s t Hockey Assoc ia t i on By the end of t h i s f i r s t ac t i ve season of i n t e r - c l u b hockey f i x t u r e s , the time appeared r ipe for the formation of an o rgan i za t iona l body. With Richmond Hockey Club taking the i n i t i a t i v e , e ight c lubs met i n London on 22 16 A p r i l 1875 to form what came to be known as the f i r s t Hockey 27 A s s o c i a t i o n . Most of the c lubs played under reasonably s i m i l a r ru les which the Assoc ia t ion proposed to adopt. However, so t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t were the ru les of the Blackheath Hockey Club, that the Blackheath representat ive f e l t i t "per fec t l y use less for him to remain," thus leav ing the other seven 28 c lubs to be recorded as the founding members of the A s s o c i a t i o n . Proceeding without the Blackheath c lub , the Assoc ia t i on enjoyed severa l a c t i v e seasons, with numerous f i x t u r e s played by i t s member c l u b s . Even a match between s ides represent ing the count ies of Middlesex and Surrey took place — at Kennington Oval i n January 1876. However, i n the e a r l y 1880s, as a r e s u l t of d isputes over the ru les and i s o l a t i o n i s t elements i n some c lubs , the game gradual ly dec l i ned , and with many c lubs d isbanding, the f i r s t Hockey 29 Assoc ia t i on became moribund. Revival of the Game and the Second Hockey Association In the mid-1880s, a r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n organized hockey led to another attempt to form an a s s o c i a t i o n . At the i n s t i g a t i o n of the Wimbledon Hockey Club, a meeting was c a l l e d i n London on 18 January 1886, and on that day the present Hockey Association (H.A.) was founded. The representatives of s i x London clubs, a Cambridge college, and one school attended the meeting, but l a t e r , when the rules were discussed with a view towards standardization, 30 the Blackheath Hockey Club again withdrew from the Association. Indeed, the Blackheath Club, together with several others, formed the r i v a l Hockey Union. This body was active u n t i l the mid-1890s, at which point, with most 31 clubs having defected from the union, Blackheath joined the H.A. 23 Within the next decade, the game of hockey was dest ined to embrace a l l of England, i n the Midlands, the f i r s t c lub , S o l i h u l l H . C , was formed i n 1885, with other c lubs fo l lowing over the next few years . Almondbury H . C (1886) was the f i r s t to be founded i n the north of England. The add i t i on of other c lubs scon afterwards permitted the f i r s t matches to be played there i n 32 1887, and the Northern Counties Hockey Assoc ia t ion to be formed i n 1888. As we l l as f i x t u r e s between c lubs , representat ive matches were a l so p layed, 33 the fo l lowing events demonstrating the rap id development: 1887 — f i r s t county match (Surrey v Middlesex) 1888 — f i r s t county match i n the north (Cheshire v Lancashire) 1890 — f i r s t d i v i s i o n a l match (North v South). During t h i s p e r i o d , hockey continued to f l o u r i s h i n the schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s . Numerous p u b l i c schools had taken up the game, and the i r m a t r i c u l a t i n g scho lars were cont inuing to p lay a f t e r going to u n i v e r s i t y . The Cambridge co l l eges had been ac t i ve s ince 1883, and by 1889, hockey was being played at Oxford. In 1890, f i r s t Cambridge, then Oxford, formed u n i v e r s i t y c lubs , and i n March of that year , the f i r s t "Vars i ty Match" was played at Oxford. At t h i s time, hockey as a sport was increas ing i n p r e s t i g e . I t s popu la r i t y was p a r t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the p r i n c i p l e s of amateurism to which the H.A. s t r i c t l y adhered. Th is appealed to the V i c t o r i a n gentleman who, i n turning to hockey, could f i n d a game "played for i t s own sake, and not for any mater ia l rewards, because cups and s h i e l d s and trophies [were] unknown i n 35 hockey . . . ." O r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y , too, the sport matured during the f i r s t decade of the existence of the H.A. By 1895, t h i s o rgan iza t ion was the governing body c o n t r o l l i n g three d i v i s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , numerous county 24 a s s o c i a t i o n s , and approximately one hundred c lubs , i n add i t i on to schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s . Thus, w i th in a quarter of a century, hockey was transformed from an informal pastime to a game with we l l -de f ined ru les and a h igh ly s t ructured organ iza t ion embracing the whole country. Ear ly Development of Women's Hockey Up to the formation of the Hockey Assoc ia t i on i n 1886, there was no record of organized hockey for women. However, i n V i c t o r i a n England, when women were Just s t a r t i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n spor t ing a c t i v i t i e s , "hockey as a 36 country house and ho l iday game was very fash ionab le" . From t h i s per iod appeared the f i r s t reports of V i c t o r i a n l ad ies " s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y j o i n i n g i n the „37 men s games . . . . Formal development of women's hockey as an independent game occurred between 1887 and 1890, as ind ica ted by the fo l lowing summary of events: 1887 — Hockey played at Lady Margaret H a l l and Somervi l le Co l lege , Oxford Molesey Lad ies ' Hockey Club formed i n London 1888-89 - - E a l i n g L .H.C. and Wimbledon L.H.C. (both i n Greater London) formed 1890 — A l a d i e s ' hockey c lub formed at Newnham Co l lege , Cambridge Thus, by 1890, there were three p r i va te c lubs and two u n i v e r s i t i e s p lay ing 38 women's hockey. During the e a r l y 1890s, severa l schools began to recognize hockey as a winter game. Wimbledon House School ( l a t e r Roedean School , Brighton) and 25 S t . Leonard's School (S t . Andrews) were two famous g i r l s ' schools which adopted the game. At the u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n the c lubs , women's hockey continued to f l o u r i s h ; i n 1895, the f i r s t Oxford versus Cambridge V a r s i t y match was p layed, and by 1896 there were ten c lubs p lay ing women's hockey i n England. In less than a decade from the formation of the f i r s t formal c lub , 39 women's hockey had become a f i rm ly es tab l i shed game i n England. 26 CHAPTER III DEVELOPMENT OF HOCKEY INTERNATIONALLY TO WORLD WAR I The twenty years p r i o r to World War I represented a period during which important developments took place i n the evolution of hockey. Not only did the game share with many other sports the advent of i n t e r n a t i o n a l competition, but i t also experienced a phenomenon, unique to hockey, i n which the game for women began to follow a course d i s t i n c t from that of men. Thus, the h i s t o r y of hockey from t h i s point onwards becomes two separate s t o r i e s . International Development of Men's Hockey In the period between the formation of the H.A. i n 1886, and the onset of World War I i n 1914, men's hockey developed extensively. During that time, i t expanded from a game played, for the most part, by a handful of clubs i n the London area, to a sport with adherents i n many countries around the world. Furthermore, by the end of that era, i t s competition had included not only regular i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches, but also p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Olympic Games. Other Home Countries and the F i r s t Internationals While hockey was growing apace i n England, the game was also taking root i n the other Home Countries. 1 S t a r t i n g i n 1888 i n Wales, and i n the ear l y 1890s i n Ireland and Scotland, hockey clubs were formed and matches arranged. As well as wishing to promote the game i n t h e i r own country, the Welsh were eager to e s t a b l i s h f i x t u r e s with English clubs: during the period 1890-93 i n p a r t i c u l a r , the clubs of North Wales enjoyed a strong r i v a l r y with 27 the leading Lancashire and Cheshire c l u b s . In f a c t , i t was Wales that i n s t i g a t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey compet i t ion. In 1894, although no Welsh H.A. had yet been formed, Wales requested an i n t e r n a t i o n a l match with England; but as the Hockey Assoc ia t i on considered Wales too weak, no match was played at 2 that t ime. However, whi le England had dec l ined to p lay Wales, the I r i s h were not hes i tant to do so . Consequently, on 26 January 1895, an I r i s h team t r a v e l l e d to Wales, and played a Welsh team at Rhy l . Seven weeks l a t e r , on 3 16 March 1895, I re land v i s i t e d London to p lay England. Thus, the year 1895 4 marks the occas ion of the f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey match. Once e s t a b l i s h e d , i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey competit ion qu i ck ly expanded, for i n 1896, England consented to p lay a Welsh team, and by 1898, I re land and Wales were p lay ing true i n t e r n a t i o n a l s , the Welsh H.A. having by then been formed. Scot land 's f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l match, against the I r i s h i n 1902, 5 introduced the fourth Home Country to i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey. Formation of the In te rnat iona l Hockey Board Emanating from these i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches amongst the Home Countr ies of the B r i t i s h I s l e s , and such other advances as endeavours to form a referees a s s o c i a t i o n , there came a proposal from the Hockey Assoc ia t i on to create an 6 i n t e r n a t i o n a l ru les board. Th is proposal was accepted by Ire land and Wales, and on 25 J u l y 1900, the inaugural meeting of the In ternat iona l Hockey Board took place i n Manchester. At t h i s meeting regu la t ions were drawn up and the composition of the Board was e s t a b l i s h e d , with two representat ives from England, two from Wales, two from I re land , and an a d d i t i o n a l one from England as chairman.^ It was not long before the fourth Home Country j o i n e d , for on 18 February 1902, the S c o t t i s h H.A. was admitted to the I .H .B . with an 28 ent i t lement of two representa t ives , and the f i r s t meeting of the I .H .B . with representat ives from a l l four member countr ies of the board was held on 6 May 1903. In that year , the Home Countr ies Championship was inaugurated, with every member p lay ing each other once dur ing the hockey season. This became an annual s e r i e s which, apart from the war years , continued u n t i l the 8 mid-1970s. European Nations and Olympic Hockey Even before the turn of the century, hockey was being played i n Europe, as France, Denmark, Hol land and Germany had adopted the game by 1900. While i t was usua l l y Eng l i sh p layers who introduced the game to these count r i es , Eng l i sh teams d id not p lay European teams u n t i l the ear l y 1900s, when the f i r s t Eng l i sh c lub teams t r a v e l l e d to France. Moreover, i t was not u n t i l 1906 that the f i r s t French c lub team v i s i t e d England, and as l a te as 1907 that England played France, England's f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l match with a Cont inenta l 9 na t ion . Although Eng l i sh teams had not played against European teams by 1900, there i s evidence that hockey matches invo lv ing European countr ies formed part of the f e s t i v i t i e s of that y e a r ' s P a r i s E x h i b i t i o n . A l e t t e r rece ived by the H.A. from the organizers of the E x h i b i t i o n i n v i t i n g an Eng l i sh team to a match with a French team (dec l ined by the H.A. for reasons not revealed) ind ica ted that the French were endeavouring to arrange hockey matches i n conjunct ion with the E x h i b i t i o n . However, no champion was dec lared , as each v i s i t i n g team played only the French team, and hockey i s not inc luded i n the record of sports forming part of the 1900 Olympic Games assoc iated with the Par i s 10 E x h i b i t i o n . 29 The f i r s t Olympics i n which hockey was o f f i c i a l l y included i n the programme of sports was the 1908 Games i n London. S ix count r i es , England, I re land , Scot land, Wales, Germany and France, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s tournament. The fac t s that England defeated Ire land 8-1 i n the f i n a l to win the gold medal, and that the Home Countr ies f i l l e d the top four p laces , give some i n d i c a t i o n of the strength of B r i t i s h hockey at that time, and p a r t i c u l a r l y of the s u p e r i o r i t y of E n g l a n d . 1 1 This was to be the l as t Olympic Hockey Tournament u n t i l a f t e r World War I . A proposal that hockey should be included i n the Inter im Games planned for Athens i n 1910 was dec l i ned , the B r i t i s h Olympic Counc i l i n consu l ta t i on with the Hockey Assoc ia t i on dec id ing to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the o f f i c i a l Olympics on ly . Hockey was not inc luded i n the programme of the next Olympic Games, 12 held i n Stockholm i n 1912, because no s u i t a b l e ground could be found. In ternat iona l A f f i l i a t i o n s The In ternat iona l Hockey Board was not designed for the ro l e of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o rgan iza t ion to which na t iona l assoc ia t ions might a f f i l i a t e , because i t was not a c o n t r o l l i n g admin is t ra t ive body. I t s so le purpose was to ensure s tandard iza t ion of the ru les by which i n t e r n a t i o n a l compet i t ion, i n i t i a l l y amongst the Home Countr ies , could be conducted, and by the time of the 1908 Olympics i n London, the I .H .B . was we l l es tab l i shed and, with respect 13 to the r u l e s , was considered "the supreme author i ty i n a l l hockey matters ." Therefore , regarding o rgan iza t ion and admin i s t ra t ion , i t was the o f f i c i a l s of the H.A. who, together with the Olympic Counc i l , were responsib le for the management of the Olympic Hockey Tournament i n 1908. Furthermore, the H.A. was the dominant partner i n the I . H . B . ; whi le Scot land, I re land and Wales were e n t i t l e d to two representat ives each, England's membership va r i ed from 30 three to f i v e . When steps were taken towards the end of 1907 to formal ize the ru les and regu lat ions of the I .H .B . i n preparat ion for the 1908 Olympics, i t was the H.A. which took the i n i t i a t i v e i n c i r c u l a t i n g ru les to the other Home C o u n t r i e s . 1 4 The H.A. played a s p e c i a l ro l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey; c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , i t was the o ldest of a l l hockey a s s o c i a t i o n s , and 15 numer ica l ly , i t was by far the s t rongest . As a r e s u l t , i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l matters, the H.A. c a r r i e d the greatest i n f luence , and i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that , i n the absence of an o f f i c i a l world admin is t ra t ive body, the Hockey Assoc ia t ion was regarded as "the parent body of the game i n a l l the 16 wor ld ." While the I r i s h Hockey Union, the Welsh H.A., and the S c o t t i s h H.A. were autonomous nat iona l assoc ia t ions independent of England, other countr ies considered the Hockey Assoc ia t i on as the de facto governing body. C o l o n i a l and fo re ign a s s o c i a t i o n s , and even c lubs , appl ied for a f f i l i a t i o n to the H.A. i n the same way that Eng l i sh c lubs , count ies and d i v i s i o n a l assoc ia t ions had done. I n i t i a l l y , the H.A. d id not consider i t appropr iate to accept a p p l i c a t i o n s fo r a f f i l i a t i o n from na t iona l a s s o c i a t i o n s . When the Canterbury (New Zealand) Hockey Club app l ied for membership i n 1901, i t was admitted as an honorary member of the H.A.; but i n 1902, when the New Zealand Hockey Assoc ia t ion requested to be a f f i l i a t e d with the H.A., i t was turned down because the H.A. considered i t improper to e lec t a na t iona l a s s o c i a t i o n as an a f f i l i a t e member. However, New Zealand was accepted as an honorary member and, s i m i l a r l y , Transvaal i n 1906 and Western A u s t r a l i a i n 1907. By 1910, a f f i l i a t i o n s to the H.A. by overseas countr ies were cons idered, and a p p l i c a t i o n s from Argent ina , B r i t i s h East A f r i c a , Transvaa l , New Zealand and 17 V i c t o r i a were accepted. 31 While the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s , and fo re ign countr ies overseas, may have considered the H.A. to be the wor ld 's governing body, i t would appear that by 1910, the Cont inenta l countr ies no longer d i d . Moreover, the countr ies of Europe, severa l of which had now formed nat iona l a s s o c i a t i o n s , recognized the need for an i n t e r n a t i o n a l admin is t ra t ive body. Fol lowing a suggestion by the Be lg ian Hockey Assoc ia t i on to inves t iga te the formation of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l f edera t i on , the Honorary Secretary of the H.A. was ins t ruc ted to d iscuss the 18 matter with French, Be lg ian and German o f f i c i a l s i n B r u s s e l s . However, although b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s continued between the H.A. and the countr ies of Europe, no i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey federat ion was created at t h i s t ime. Seventy years l a t e r , a s c r i be was to judge that "[the B r i t i s h ] f a i l e d to r e a l i s e the need for an i n t e r n a t i o n a l body to cont ro l a l l the aspects of a rapid ly-expanding game."^ Development of Women's Hockey It has already been narrated that , i n England, women began to p lay hockey i n a formal way during the la te 1880s and ear l y 1890s. In the l a t t e r part of t h i s pe r iod , women's hockey was a l so becoming es tab l i shed i n I re land . By the mid-1890s, the g i r l s of Alexandra Col lege i n Dubl in were p lay ing the game and, having formed a c lub , took the i n i t i a t i v e i n i n v i t i n g a team from England. Consequently, dur ing the Christmas vacat ion of 1894-95, the Newnham Col lege g i r l s v i s i t e d Dubl in for a s e r i e s of games with Alexandra Co l lege , the f i r s t women's hockey competit ion i nvo lv ing teams from d i f f e r e n t count r i es . The p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches i n s p i r e d the capta in of the Molesey Club of London to arrange a t r i a l game from which an Eng l i sh team would be se lec ted to p lay I r e l a n d . The subsequent match between an Eng l i sh and an 20 I r i s h team was played at Br ighton on 10 A p r i l 1895. 32 Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ions It was i n I re land that women's hockey was f i r s t es tab l i shed on a na t iona l b a s i s , for i n 1894, the I r i s h Lad ies ' Hockey Union was formed. The E n g l i s h , however, were quick to fo l low the I r i s h example and, a f t e r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l match i n A p r i l 1895, an informal meeting was held at a Br ighton tea-shop for the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g a women's hockey a s s o c i a t i o n i n England. Fol lowing fur ther d i s cuss ion and correspondence, the f i r s t formal meeting of the Lad ies ' Hockey Assoc ia t i on was held at the Westminster Town H a l l , London, on 23 November 1895. By September 1896, "Ladies" had disappeared from the t i t l e of the A s s o c i a t i o n , which was thenceforth known as 21 the A l l England Women's Hockey Assoc ia t i on (A .E .W.H .A . ) . During the f i r s t decade of the existence of the A s s o c i a t i o n , women's hockey i n England expanded at every l e v e l . By 1898, county and t e r r i t o r i a l assoc ia t ions had been formed; i n that same year , severa l county matches were contested and the f i r s t t e r r i t o r i a l match. North versus South, was p layed. From ten member c lubs of the f l e d g l i n g a s s o c i a t i o n i n 1896, there were, by 1904, four t e r r i t o r i e s , t h i r t y - f o u r count ies and three hundred c lubs 22 a f f i l i a t e d with the A.E.W.H.A. Within t h i s same per iod , na t iona l bodies had been es tab l i shed for women's hockey i n Wales and Scot land . The Welsh Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ion was formed i n 1898, i n i t i a l l y as the Lad ies ' Sect ion of the men's A s s o c i a t i o n , and two years l a t e r the S c o t t i s h Women's Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , "the l as t of the Home Countr ies to become organised" , was founded. Thus, by 1902, the year that the S c o t t i s h Hockey Assoc ia t i on for men was accepted as the fourth member of the I . H . B . , there a l so ex is ted i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s four f u l l y autonomous 23 women's hockey a s s o c i a t i o n s . 33 In ternat iona l Hockey As na t iona l assoc ia t ions for women became e s t a b l i s h e d , so too d id i n t e r n a t i o n a l competit ion become more formal . The f i r s t t r u l y representat ive women's i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey match took p lace i n 1896, when England played Ire land i n Dub l in . The return match i n 1897 was the f i r s t f u l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l played on Eng l i sh s o i l ; England f i r s t played Wales i n 1900; and when Scotland played i t s f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l against I re land i n 1901, a l l four Home 24 Countr ies had experienced i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey. In 1904 the concept of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ion was f i r s t mooted, the purpose foreseen being the d i s c u s s i o n of ru les and standards for games 25 amongst the four B r i t i s h a s s o c i a t i o n s . While a fur ther two decades were to pass before the concept was formal ly proposed, i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches 26 amongst the teams of the Home Countr ies continued on an annual b a s i s . Women's Hockey around the World A f ter the turn of the century, women's hockey expanded beyond the conf ines of the B r i t i s h I s l e s . By 1910, Eng l i sh teams were p lay ing c lubs from Hol land , but the ru les of Dutch hockey were so d i f f e r e n t from the Eng l i sh ru les that no representat ive matches between the two nat ions were p layed. During the per iod 1904-1914, women's hockey was known to have been played i n severa l other countr ies throughout the world, i nc lud ing Germany, Switzer land, Russ ia , U.S.A. and South A f r i c a , although these countr ies d id not p lay at an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand, however, were introduced to 27 " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " hockey when an Eng l i sh tour ing team v i s i t e d them i n 1914. Thus, by the outbreak of war, women's hockey had become a world-wide sport and, a l b e i t there i s no mention of i t i n most reference m a t e r i a l , by 28 t h i s time women's hockey had been played i n Canada for near ly two decades. 34 Re la t ionsh ip between Men's and Women's Hockey As has been re la ted above, i n the years encompassing the formation of d i s t i n c t women's hockey c lubs , women were d i s c r e e t l y j o i n i n g i n men's games. Records ind i ca te that mixed hockey continued to be played i n England and Wales 29 throughout the 1890s, and i t a l so became popular i n Scot land. When the quest ion of ru les arose at the informal meeting of Eng l i sh hockey women i n Br ighton i n 1895, i t was considered natura l that "the ru les of 30 the Hockey Assoc ia t i on . . . should be adopted." However, when the lad ies made a p p l i c a t i o n to a f f i l i a t e with the Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , they were rebuf fed , the rep ly received from the Honorary Secretary of the H.A. s t a t i n g : the Hockey Assoc ia t i on has been formed e n t i r e l y i n the i n t e r e s t s of men's c lubs , [and could not] o f f i c i a l l y recognise the existence of the new assoc iat ion .3^ As a reac t ion to t h i s , at the f i r s t formal meeting of the Lad ies ' Hockey Assoc ia t ion i n November 1895 when t h i s correspondence was read, the p r i n c i p l e was adopted that no man could hold executive o f f i c e i n any a s s o c i a t i o n 32 a f f i l i a t e d with the Lad ies ' Hockey Assoc ia t i on ( l a t e r A .E .W.H .A . ) . This ed i c t was to have long-term, world-wide r a m i f i c a t i o n s , for i n time i t was incorporated in to the p r i n c i p l e s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f edera t ion ; i t was a l s o inc luded i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n s of the many nat iona l assoc ia t ions which became a f f i l i a t e d to the A.E.W.H.A. and, l a t e r , the In te rnat iona l Federat ion of Women's Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n s . However, although there was no a f f i l i a t i o n with the H.A. , the A.E.W.H.A. i m p l i c i t l y regarded i t s opposite number as the r u l i n g body. For the f i r s t ten years of the existence of the A.E .W.H.A. , women's games were played according to men's r u l e s , and o f ten umpired by men. Up to t h i s po in t , the only adaptat ions had been to subs t i tu te "she" for "he" and to make some 35 modi f i ca t ions concerning dress , but i n 1906, the S c o t t i s h W.H.A. introduced a s u b s t a n t i a l change i n the r u l e s , one which the Eng l i sh women fol lowed i n 1907. Th is d r a s t i c change i n one of the major ru les of the game ( p r o h i b i t i n g the hooking of s t i c k s ) severed the t a c i t a l l eg iance to the H.A., and thus d isp layed the courageous and independent nature of the women's a s s o c i a t i o n s . From t h i s time, too, the women a l so i n t e n s i f i e d the i r e f f o r t s to t r a i n the i r 33 own umpires. In s p i t e of these ru les d i f f e r e n c e s , one p r i n c i p l e which the women, who were l a r g e l y drawn from the l e i s u r e d c l a s s e s , continued to share with the men was the conf i rmat ion of amateurism. Cups and t rophies were shunned, and leagues for po ints and competit ions for p r i z e s were anathema to the women's hockey a s s o c i a t i o n s . Such p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c l a s s i f i e d as misconduct, and 34 o f f i c i a l l y discouraged by the r u l e s . Long a f t e r the formation of the A.E .W.H.A. , mixed hockey games were s t i l l p layed, and severa l mixed c lubs were founded. For some years , women's p u b l i c a t i o n s continued to pub l i sh a weekly summary of the matches of the H.A., as we l l as not i ces of important men's f i x t u r e s . Conversely, as women's hockey became more popular , men attended women's matches, and "the A l l England Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ion . . . by 1914 had become . . . recognised by the 36 CHAPTER IV INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY BETWEEN THE WARS: EMERGENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATIONS The per iod between the two wars amounted to bare ly two decades, yet t h i s short span was dest ined to be a momentous one i n terms of world hockey o r g a n i z a t i o n . At the beginning of that e r a , there was jus t one i n t e r n a t i o n a l body, the In ternat iona l Hockey Board, at mid-term, there were three separate o rgan iza t ions , and by the end of the e r a , i t was c l e a r that t h i s was tantamount to four d i f f e r e n t e n t i t i e s . Men's Hockey Because of the devastat ion caused by World War I and the in f luenza epidemic of 1919, i t was not u n t i l the 1919-20 season that hockey c lubs began to re- form. Some c lubs had los t so many of t h e i r members that they never were r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . However, despi te such d i f f i c u l t i e s domest i ca l ly , the Olympic Games were resurrected and held i n war-torn Belgium i n 1920. Olympic Hockey Tournaments Hockey was inc luded i n the programme of the 1920 Olympics i n Antwerp, with four count r i es , England, Denmark, Belgium and France, competing i n the Tournament. England was again dominant, winning the gold medal h a n d i l y . 1 There i s no evidence to suggest that the tournament d id not proceed according to t r a d i t i o n , under the auspices of the In ternat iona l Hockey Board, inso far as the ru les and regu la t ions were concerned. However, t h i s was not to be the case at the next Olympic Games, for "the organisers of the 1924 Olympics i n 37 P a r i s decided to omit hockey, g i v ing as the major reason, that hockey, un l i ke 2 the other Olympic spor t s , had no representat ive i n t e r n a t i o n a l body." Creat ion of the Federat ion Internat iona le de Hockey Fol lowing t h i s a c t i o n to preclude hockey from the 1924 Olympic Games, the representat ives of seven European countr ies — A u s t r i a , Belgium, France, Czechoslovakia , Hungary, Spain and Switzer land — met i n P a r i s on 7 January 3 1924 to found the Federat ion Internat iona le de Hockey ( F . I . H . ) . This i n t e r n a t i o n a l o rgan iz ing body was formed without the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of any of the Home Countr ies ; even the H.A., the wor ld 's senior na t iona l a s s o c i a t i o n , took no part i n the formation of the F . I . H . The reason for i t s non-attendance 4 i s not recorded i n any of the sources examined; however, i t seems that the H.A. , together with the representat ive assoc ia t ions from the other Home Countr ies , having been respons ib le a quarter of a century e a r l i e r for forming the In ternat iona l Hockey Board, "thought the F . I . H . was an upstart body and 5 usurping t h e i r author i ty over the game". Upon i t s foundation i n 1924, the F . I . H . app l ied for and received o f f i c i a l recogn i t ion from the I .O .C . as the i n t e r n a t i o n a l body c o n t r o l l i n g hockey. As such, the F . I . H . became respons ib le for the organ iza t ion of the Olympic Hockey Tournament; and concomitant ly, p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a country i n 6 the Olympics was poss ib le only through membership i n the F . I . H . The declared purpose behind the P a r i s meeting of January 1924, and the foundation of the F . I . H . , had been to secure the i n c l u s i o n of hockey in to future Olympic programmes. This was f u l f i l l e d when hockey was added to the l i s t of sports to be contested i n the Amsterdam Olympics i n 1928. Over the intervening Olympiad, four more count r i es , Denmark, Ho l land , Germany and 38 Ind ia , app l ied for membership i n the F . I . H . Thus, a t o t a l of nine teams were 7 able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the 1928 Olympic Hockey Tournament. In 1928, for the f i r s t time, the F . I . H . assumed author i ty over the o rgan iza t ion of an Olympic hockey tournament, and a techn i ca l committee was created w i th in the F . I . H . for t h i s purpose. For the f i r s t time, too, no B r i t i s h team p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Olympic Hockey Tournament. Rowley suggests the explanat ion for t h i s absence was that B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s , who were respons ib le for founding the I .H .B . to administer the ru les of the game, d id g not accept the author i ty of the F . I . H . But now there were two world bodies, for the B r i t i s h s t i l l c o n t r o l l e d the In ternat iona l Hockey Board, even though, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y , there was an i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey f edera t i on . Hockey-playing countr ies around the world acknowledged the author i ty of the I .H .B . with respect to the ru les of the 9 game, yet jo ined the F . I . H . so as to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Olympic Games. Re lat ionsh ip between the I.H.B and the F . I . H . For the per iod up u n t i l World War I I , the F . I . H . continued to cont ro l the Olympic Games Hockey Tournament, and the I .H .B . remained the guardian of 10 the r u l e s . During t h i s t ime, according to George C r o f t , Honorary Secretary to the Hockey Rules Board, "there was some dialogue between I .H .B . and F . I . H . , but not too m u c h " . 1 1 Indeed, there was d i ssens ion wi th in the I .H .B . i t s e l f , brought about by the a t t i t u d e of the (Engl ish) H.A. which enjoyed greater representat ion than each of the other three Home Country a s s o c i a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of long-standing disagreements, both the S c o t t i s h H.A. and the I r i s h H.U. resigned from the Board i n 1928, and t h i s d ispute was 12 not resolved u n t i l 1931. It was recorded i n the programme of the 1976 Olympic Hockey Tournament that i n 1931 the I .H .B . made some modi f i ca t ions i n 39 consonance with broader membership; but no d e t a i l s were given as to the nature 13 of the mod i f i ca t ions , or the s tatus of membership a f t e r 1931. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the top ic of disagreement amongst the Home Countr ies was the i n t e r n a t i o n a l funct ion of the Board as d i s t i n c t from i t s r o l e as a ru les au thor i t y . As e a r l y as 1905, the vo t ing strength of the H.A. on the Board had vetoed French representat ion , despi te the approval of Scot land and I re land . Again i n the 1930s, when the F . I . H . app l ied for representat ion on the I . H . B . , even the F . I . H . was rebuffed i n s p i t e of the support of the S c o t t i s h and I r i s h a s s o c i a t i o n s . It has been suggested that "the h i s t o r y of i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey throughout the world might we l l have been d i f f e r e n t had the Board widened i t s membership when the opportunity 14 o f f e r e d . " The inter-war per iod witnessed two more Olympics, at both of which hockey was inc luded . Due to the world-wide economic depress ion, only three teams, Ind ia , Japan and U .S .A . , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 1932. In 1936, e leven teams competed, India defeat ing Germany 8-1 i n the f i n a l to win i t s t h i r d 15 consecutive gold medal. Olympic hockey was by now wel l e s tab l i shed , and the F . I . H . ind isputab ly i t s c o n t r o l l i n g body. Women's Hockey Although women had been p lay ing organized hockey s ince the la te 1880s, and autonomous nat iona l assoc ia t ions had been founded by the mid-1890s, i t was not u n t i l the mid-1920s that a women's i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ion was formed. 40 Conception and Creat ion of the In te rnat iona l Federat ion of Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ions There i s evidence that the concept of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ion for women's hockey was discussed i n the e a r l y 1900s. However, Mrs. Heron-Maxwell, President of the A.E.W.H.A. from 1912, i s c red i ted with having "planted the seed" of the idea upon her retirement from o f f i c e i n 1922. At the time of Heron-Maxwell's ret i rement, severa l countr ies had es tab l i shed na t iona l women's hockey bodies: by 1902, the four Home Countr ies had independent a s s o c i a t i o n s : i n 1910, the A l l A u s t r a l i a Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ion was founded; i n January 1922, the American women met to form the United States F i e l d Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n ; and i n many other countr ies throughout the world, women were 16 known to be p lay ing the game. In 1924, the opportunity arose to hold a pre l iminary meeting, on the occas ion of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l match between England and the U .S .A . , played at Merton Abbey, near London. O f f i c i a l s of the other three Home Countr ies were present at that match and, at what has sometimes been r e f e r r e d to as "the 17 Merton Tea Par ty" , the representat ives of f i v e count r i es , England, I re land , Scot land, Wales and U .S .A . , resolved to form an i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ion. 1 ** The inaugural meeting of the In te rnat iona l Federat ion of Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ions (I .F .W.H.A .) was held i n January 1927, the eight charter members of the federat ion being A u s t r a l i a , Denmark, South A f r i c a , U.S.A, and the four 19 Home Countr ies — with a l l except Denmark Eng l i sh-speak ing . The aims of the new Federat ion inc luded "to work for un i formity of r u l e s " ; "to promote i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches"; and, perhaps even more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , "to fur ther the 20 best i n t e r e s t s of the game among women of a l l na t i ons . " Since the I .F.W.H.A. was a women's hockey o rgan i za t ion , men's hockey assoc ia t ions were 41 denied membership; furthermore, the A.E.W.H.A. p r i n c i p l e , that a l l o f f i c e r s 21 must be women, was embodied in to the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the I .F.W.H.A. Thus, by 1927, just three years a f t e r the c rea t ion of the F . I . H . , a t h i r d i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey body, independent of e i the r the F . I . H . or the I . H . B . , had emerged. Within a few years , the existence of the I .F.W.H.A. was to impinge upon the funct ion ing of the F . I . H . F . I .H Women's Committee According to L . J . Quarles van U f f o r d , F . I . H . President from 1946 to 1966, the F . I . H . was designed to look a f t e r the i n t e r e s t s of young people a l l over the world, men and women a l i k e . The assoc ia t ions which comprised the 22 F . I . H . at i t s incept ion represented both men and women hockey p l a y e r s . In 1929, a Women's Committee was es tab l i shed s p e c i f i c a l l y to fos te r the game for the female hockey p layers of i t s a f f i l i a t e d count r i es , and at the time of i t s foundation, there were twelve Cont inenta l countr ies — of which Germany, Ho l land, Belgium and France were prominent — whose women's sect ions became 23 members of t h i s Committee. With the formation of the Women's Committee of the F . I . H . , there was now, de f a c t o , an a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l body, the t h i r d to be created i n a span of s i x years . Th is committee was not an autonomous e n t i t y , but i t was d i s t i n c t from the I.F.W.H.A, and i n that respect , e f f e c t i v e l y created a fourth world hockey o rgan i za t i on . In ternat iona l Conferences and Tournaments One feature of women's hockey which endured for over ha l f a century was the staging of regular conferences and tournaments i n which a l l women's hockey-playing countr ies were i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . The I.F.W.H.A. held i t s 42 f i r s t conference i n 1930. At t h i s conference, i n Geneva, delegates of i t s various member countries met, and two e x h i b i t i o n matches were played on that 24 occasion. In keeping with one of the aims of the federation, a committee was set up to consider the r u l e s . Furthermore, i n pursuance of a second aim, i t was suggested that, i n future, at each of the proposed t r i e n n i a l 25 conferences, a tournament should be held. This l a t t e r suggestion was implemented at subsequent conferences. As e a r l y as the second Conference, held i n Copenhagen i n 1933, countries were i n v i t e d to enter teams, as well as sending delegates to the Conference. In addition to eight p a r t i c i p a t i n g countries, a team, known as the overseas XI, was formed to allow v i s i t o r s from other countries the opportunity to play i n 26 f r i e n d l y matches. When the t h i r d Conference was held i n P h i l a d e l p h i a i n 1936, again eight countries sent teams, and again an a d d i t i o n a l team was formed to allow other players to p a r t i c i p a t e . It was also i n Philadelphia that, for the f i r s t time, a l l eight founding members of the I.F.W.H.A. were 27 able to send teams to the Tournament. At t h i s time, nearly ten years a f t e r the inaugural meeting of the Federation, these eight o r i g i n a l countries were s t i l l the only members of the I.F.W.H.A. However, by the time the next conference was due to be held i n Bournemouth, England, i n September 1939, two more countries had joined; Canada (Vancouver) was accepted i n 1937 and B r i t i s h Guiana ( l a t e r Guyana) i n 1938, to 28 bring the t o t a l membership of the I.F.W.H.A. to ten. But while the number of countries a f f i l i a t e d with the I.F.W.H.A. did not increase s u b s t a n t i a l l y during the f i r s t decade of i t s existence, the number of teams and clubs within each member country c e r t a i n l y d i d . The following figures i n d i c a t e t h i s growth for England, largest of the 29 I.F.W.H.A.'s a f f i l i a t e d associations: 43 1922 — 800 c lubs and schools 1929 — 1,200 c lubs and schools 1931 — 1,400 c lubs and schools 1939 — 2,100 c lubs and schools As events t ransp i red , the Bournemouth Conference d id not take p lace , for the world was plunged in to war i n the opening days of the very month for which the Conference had been planned. Re la t ionsh ips Between Men's and Women's In ternat iona l Federat ions In the e a r l y years of t h e i r ex is tence , the two newly-formed i n t e r n a t i o n a l federa t ions , the F . I . H . and the I .F .W.H.A. , proceeded independently and without any o f f i c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . However, by 1930, t h e i r development had progressed to the point where the hold ing of a j o i n t meeting was f e l t to be mutually advantageous. Jo in t Meetings of the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . In the h i s t o r y of women's hockey i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , 1930 was an important landmark, f o r , i n that year , the F . I . H . Women's Committee had just been formed, and the I .F.W.H.A. held i t s f i r s t conference. A f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . were twelve European a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l l of which had women members; whi le the e ight a f f i l i a t e s of the I .F.W.H.A. were, with the exception of 30 Denmark, a l l autonomous women's hockey a s s o c i a t i o n s . The s i g n i f i c a n t fac tor which led to the d e s i r a b i l i t y of s taging a j o i n t meeting between the two federat ions was a c o n f l i c t between the aims of the I .F.W.H.A. and the p r i n c i p l e s of the F . I . H . On the one hand were the important aims of the I .F.W.H.A. to fur ther the best i n t e r e s t s of the game 44 among the women of a l l na t ions , and to promote i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches; whi le on the o ther , was the p r i n c i p l e that the F . I . H . had been es tab l i shed to fos te r both men's and women's hockey, with the resu l t that i t would not permit i t s 31 members to j o i n the I .F.W.H.A. Countr ies he ld d i f f e r i n g views on the s i t u a t i o n . The a t t i t u d e of some countr ies was a r t i c u l a t e d by the President of the Deutscher Hockey Bund (Germany), who be l ieved that a l l hockey, men's and women's, should be c o n t r o l l e d by one i n t e r n a t i o n a l governing body. Conversely, one o f f i c i a l of the K.N.H.B. (Hol land) , was even reputed to have doubted the value of e i the r 32 f edera t i on . With such c o n f l i c t i n g aims, b e l i e f s and asp i ra t i ons e x i s t i n g between the two federat ions and amongst t h e i r member na t iona l a s s o c i a t i o n s , i t i s c l e a r that a meeting at that time was opportune. Therefore , at the 1930 I.F.W.H.A. Conference i n Geneva, such a meeting was arranged. Here the I .F.W.H.A. C o u n c i l , together with three members of the F . I . H . , d iscussed the poss ib le amalgamation of the two federa t ions , with a view to increas ing membership. The issues were those of equal recogn i t ion of men and women, and the independence of women i n t e r n a l l y . This 1930 j o i n t meeting concluded with the observat ion that , whi le no reso lu t ions emerged from the d i s cuss ions , the sess ions had produced " f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s " . Th is i n i t i a l meeting was fol lowed by fur ther d i scuss ions i n 1931, when an I .F.W.H.A. de legat ion met with 33 o f f i c e r s of the F . I . H . i n P a r i s . Mutual A f f i l i a t i o n and In ternat iona l Competit ion Although the I .F.W.H.A. d id not achieve a l l of i t s o b j e c t i v e s , i t appears that an accord was reached regarding the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of F . I . H . countr ies i n I .F.W.H.A. Tournaments, for i t was through the F . I . H . that 45 Germany and Hol land were i n v i t e d to p lay at the Tournament held i n conjunct ion 34 with the 1933 Conference i n Copenhagen. At the 1933 Conference, and for the remainder of the decade, every e f f o r t was made to encourage the cont inenta l women to a f f i l i a t e with the I .F .W.H.A. It was reported that expectat ions were ra i sed when women's s e c t i o n a l committees began to be formed i n some European a s s o c i a t i o n s ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , the I .F.W.H.A. deserved c r e d i t for he lp ing to e s t a b l i s h a women's committee w i th in the Deutscher Hockey Bund i n 1935, Germany being regarded 35 as the strongest power i n the F . I . H . at that time. Throughout the m i d - t h i r t i e s , the reports of Miss W.A. Baumann, Hon. S e c , A .E .W.H.A. , r e f l e c t e d optimism, as hopes ran high w i th in the I .F.W.H.A. that women's sect ions of the Cont inenta l assoc ia t ions would achieve autonomy and v o l u n t a r i l y j o i n the I .F.W.H.A. In Baumann's report of 1939, however, i t was sadly regret ted that the I .F.W.H.A. was fur ther than ever from obta in ing the membership of the cont inenta l count r i es . She noted that at a recent meeting of the Women's Committee of the F . I . H . , attended by the representat ives of Belgium, France, Germany and Ho l land , a r e s o l u t i o n was passed to the e f f e c t that no country could belong to more than one i n t e r n a t i o n a l o rgan i za t i on , and furthermore, that the four countr ies present at the meeting dec lared the i r i n t e n t i o n to r e t a i n t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n with the 36 F . I . H . Member nat ions of the I .F.W.H.A. lamented that the Cont inenta l countr ies never took up membership. The I .F.W.H.A. countr ies perceived that the European women were r e a l l y only sect ions of men's a s s o c i a t i o n s , anxious to b u i l d a European b loc w i th in the F . I . H . On the other hand, i t was admitted 37 that the I .F .W.F .A . was, i n e f f e c t , an Engl ish-speaking f edera t i on . Whatever may have been the under ly ing reasons, i t i s a matter of fact that 46 there was now a c l e a r dichotomy i n the o rgan i za t iona l s t ruc ture of women's hockey at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . F i n a l l y , there i s evidence that there was an attempt to inc lude women's hockey i n the Olympics even i n these e a r l y days. In 1930, the F . I . H . made representat ions to have hockey es tab l i shed as an Olympic sport for women, but i t was recorded at that time that the I .F.W.H.A. d id not pursue the i s sue , as the Olympics were, for them, at the wrong time of the year . Several years l a t e r , the matter of Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n was again ra i sed at a 1935 I .F.W.H.A. Counc i l meeting, when a committee was formed to inves t iga te the connection between the Federat ion and the Olympics. No Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n 38 for women resu l ted from the formation of t h i s committee. Summary The inter-war years represented an event fu l per iod i n the development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey. The exc lus ion of hockey from the programme of sports at the P a r i s Olympic Games resu l ted i n the formation of the F . I . H . i n 1924. While acceptance of t h i s body by the I .O .C . ensured that hockey was r e - i n s t a t e d as an Olympic spor t , the F . I . H . was not success fu l i n secur ing cont ro l of the ru les of the game, or indeed, even of ga in ing representat ion on the I .H .B . Hence, there were, as e a r l y as 1924, two i n t e r n a t i o n a l bodies which remained d i s t i n c t throughout the inter-war p e r i o d . In 1927, the I .F.W.H.A. was formed to un i te autonomous women's hockey assoc ia t ions i n t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l f edera t ion ; but as the assoc ia t ions of the member countr ies of the F . I . H . represented both men and women hockey p layers , the F . I . H . Women's Committee was es tab l i shed i n 1929. Thus, there were now two world organ izat ions represent ing the i n t e r e s t s of women; and although meetings between the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . were success fu l i n reso lv ing 47 that F . I . H . member countr ies could p a r t i c i p a t e i n an I .F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, a decade of e f f o r t to encourage the women's sect ions from these countr ies to a f f i l i a t e with the I .F.W.H.A. proved unsuccess fu l . By the outbreak of World War I I , whi le men's hockey as an Olympic sport was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , attempts to inc lude women's hockey on the Olympic programme had met with f a i l u r e . Nevertheless , by then, i n the form of the I . F .W.H .A . ' s t r i e n n i a l tournaments, i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey played i n the Olympic s p i r i t had become a r e a l i t y for women. 48 CHAPTER V POST-WAR RESURGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY: FROM WORLD WAR II TO THE LATE 1960s Upon the conc lus ion of World War I I , dur ing which a l l formal i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y had ceased, men's and women's hockey continued to fo l low the course of b i p a r t i t e development charted dur ing the inter-war years . Men's Hockey I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y The War was not long over before na t iona l assoc ia t ions were rev ived and i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey competit ion r e - a c t i v a t e d . When the F . I . H . resumed i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n 1946, i t s membership comprised twenty-one a f f i l i a t e d c o u n t r i e s . 1 The next twenty years were s i g n i f i c a n t i n the development of men's hockey i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , not only by v i r t u e of the large increase i n the number of countr ies which a f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . dur ing t h i s per iod , but a l so as a r e s u l t of events which were u l t i m a t e l y to lead to the re -o rgan i za t ion of men's i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey admin i s t ra t i on . Creat ion of the B r i t i s h Hockey Board One event of major importance was the c r e a t i o n of a body which permitted B r i t i s h hockey p layers to p a r t i c i p a t e i n Olympic compet i t ion, f o r , up to t h i s t ime, none of the Home Countr ies was a f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . Both the 1940 and 1944 Olympic Games had been cance l led because of World War I I , but when London was awarded the 1948 Olympics, the B r i t i s h were desirous of enter ing a team i n the Hockey Tournament to be held i n t h e i r own c a p i t a l . In order to be e l i g i b l e to do so, Great B r i t a i n a f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . i n 49 1947. Th is was achieved through the formation of a body c a l l e d the B r i t i s h Hockey Board ( B . H . B . ) , of which the i n d i v i d u a l Home Countr ies were the const i tuent members. This s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , which i n e f f e c t created a unique two-t ier i n t e r n a t i o n a l s tatus for the B r i t i s h , was negot iated l a r g e l y 2 through the diplomacy of the President of the F . I . H . h imse l f . A record t h i r t e e n countr ies p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Olympic Hockey Tournament of the 1948 London Games. India and Great B r i t a i n , both prev ious ly undefeated i n Olympic hockey compet i t ion, met for the f i r s t time to contest 3 the f i n a l . India won t h i s match, to capture the gold medal for the fourth 4 consecutive time, and to dismiss any doubts concerning i t s world supremacy. At subsequent Olympic Games throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Great B r i t a i n continued to compete i n the Hockey Tournament under t h i s arrangement. Outside of the Olympics, however, the B r i t i s h a l so played as i n d i v i d u a l Home 5 Countr ies , not only amongst themselves, but with other nat ions as w e l l . Growth of In te rnat iona l Hockey The twenty-year per iod fo l lowing the f i r s t post-war Olympics i n 1948 witnessed a considerable expansion of the game throughout the world. Although, with the except ion of I re land , the Home Countr ies d id not j o i n the F . I . H . as i n d i v i d u a l na t iona l a s s o c i a t i o n s , many other countr ies d id become members of t h i s I .O .C . - recogn ized i n t e r n a t i o n a l f edera t i on . An i n d i c a t i o n of the growth of i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey may be der ived from the number of countr ies 6 a f f i l i a t e d to the F . I . H . as shown i n Table 1. It can be seen that w i th in a decade of the resumption of post-war a c t i v i t i e s , the number of member countr ies of "the F . I . H . had doubled, and by 1968, almost t r e b l e d . In a d d i t i o n , the Olympic Hockey Tournament, the prime motive i n the o r i g i n a l foundation of the F . I . H . , had at ta ined cons iderable 50 TABLE 1 NUMBER OF COUNTRIES AFFILIATED WITH THE F . I . H . : 1946-1968 Year F . I . H . Member Countr ies 1946 21 1956 43 1962 51 1968 58 pres t ige by the 1950s and 1960s. Almost i n v a r i a b l y , dur ing that per iod of two decades, e l im ina t ion competit ions or assessment of i n t e r n a t i o n a l match records were required to determine the f i n a l s ix teen countr ies for the Olympics. The number of p a r t i c i p a t i n g nat ions which a c t u a l l y competed i n the Olympic Hockey 7 Tournaments from 1948 to 1968 appears i n Table 2. Furthermore, by the 1960s, hard ly a non-Olympic year would pass without the staging of a major world tournament i nvo lv ing from eight to twelve na t ions . Regional games were a l so becoming e s t a b l i s h e d , with the quadrennial As ian Games commencing i n 1958, and the Pan American Games, a l so held every four years , s t a r t i n g i n 1967. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y , s i m i l a r advances had been made with the c r e a t i o n of committees represent ing four cont inenta l hockey g reg ions: A s i a ; A f r i c a ; Europe; and Pan-America. 51 TABLE 2 NUMBER OF COUNTRIES PARTICIPATING IN OLYMPIC HOCKEY TOURNAMENT: 1948-1968 Year Venue No. of Countr ies 1948 London 13 1952 H e l s i n k i 12 1956 Melbourne 12 1960 Rome 16 1964 Tokyo 15 1968 Mexico 16 Re la t ionsh ips between the F . I . H . and the I .H .B . In 1947, when the B r i t i s h Hockey Board was created to permit Great B r i t a i n to a f f i l i a t e with the F . I . H . and thereby p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Olympic Games, the r e c i p r o c a l agreement emanating from the negot ia t ions gave the F . I . H . representat ion on the In ternat iona l Hockey Board. According to Quarles van U f fo rd , President of the F . I . H . from 1946 to 1966, t h i s heralded a per iod 9 of l o y a l co-operat ion between the F . I . H . and Great B r i t a i n . At f i r s t , F . I . H . representat ion on the I .H .B . was sma l l , amounting to three out of a t o t a l of fourteen members. Gradua l ly , however, the F . I . H . increased i t s i n f luence ; i n 1957, the F . I . H . representat ion was increased to four , and by the mid-1960s the balance of representat ion was ten from the B r i t i s h Home 10 Countr ies and eight from the F . I . H . The in f luence of the F . I . H . was manifest i n forms other than numerical s trength of representa t ion . During the long per iod of separat ion of the F . I . H . and the I . H . B . , acceptance of I .H .B . ru les by the F . I . H . was l i t t l e 52 more than a t a c i t understanding. A f te r 1948, the F . I . H . and a l l of i t s member countr ies o f f i c i a l l y recognized the I .H .B . Furthermore, by 1968, i t was the F . I . H . which was empowered to set up a s p e c i a l sub-committee for ru les experimentat ion, formerly the exc lus ive preserve of the I .H .B . The s o l i d a r i t y of the I .H .B . i t s e l f a l so began to f a l t e r . In 1950, the I r i s h Hockey Union jo ined the F . I . H . as an independent member, and by 1968, when the Welsh H.A. app l ied f o r , and was granted, i n d i v i d u a l membership i n the F . I . H . , i t was c l e a r that the very existence of the I .H .B . was near ing i t s e n d . 1 1 Women's Hockey I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y I f the per iod from the end of World War II to the l a te 1960s was, for men's hockey, an era of i n t e r n a t i o n a l expansion st imulated by Olympic compet i t ion, so too was i t a time of growth for women's hockey i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . Olympic Asp i ra t ions and In ternat iona l Competit ion The immediate post-war per iod was one of renewed Olympic asp i ra t i ons for women's hockey. There i s evidence that , as ea r l y as Ju ly 1946, e f f o r t s were under way i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . Then, on 8 August 1946, at the i n s t i g a t i o n of England, I re l and , Wales and the U .S .A . , a l e t t e r was dispatched from the I.F.W.H.A. to the I .O .C . request ing the a d d i t i o n of women's hockey to the 12 programme of the 1948 Olympic Games to be held i n London. The fo l lowing month, the I .F.W.H.A. rece ived what was descr ibed by a leading women's hockey o f f i c i a l as "the d i sappo in t ing d e c i s i o n of the In te rnat iona l Olympic Committee to exclude women's hockey" from the o f f i c i a l programme of the Olympic Games. The consequence of the I .O .C . d e c i s i o n was f a r - r e a c h i n g , and doubly so . F i r s t , t h i s rebuff contr ibuted to a negative stance soon to be taken by 53 the I .F.W.H.A. towards Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; secondly, i t i n s p i r e d the F . I . H . to propose a World F e s t i v a l of Women's Hockey to replace the Olympics. Th is World F e s t i v a l , organized by the K.N.H.B. (Holland) and staged at Amsterdam i n May 1948, was open to a l l countr ies a f f i l i a t e d with e i the r the F . I . H . or the 14 I .F .W.H.A. It i s recorded that "the Dutch women were charming hostesses" to e leven count r i es ; Ho l land, Denmark, Belgium, France, A u s t r i a , Spain, 15 England, I re l and , Scot land, Wales and the U.S.A. Thus, i t was the largest women's world tournament yet h e l d , and the most comprehensively representat ive of F . I . H . - and I . F . W . H . A . - a f f i l i a t e d na t iona l a s s o c i a t i o n s . A few years l a t e r a fur ther attempt was made to introduce women's hockey in to the Olympic Games. Again, adherents of the game were to be d issappointed, for the I .O .C . decided that women's hockey would not be inc luded i n the 1952 Olympics. At the 1950 I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, held i n Johannesburg, South A f r i c a , i t had been proposed that , s ince women's hockey-playing countr ies had the opportunity to attend a t r i e n n i a l conference, there was no need to press for women's hockey i n the Olympics. It was recorded that , on t h i s i s sue , "the Conference voted 16 unanimously against p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Olympic Games." Thus, with Olympic asp i ra t i ons now shat tered , and Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n re jec ted , the I .F.W.H.A. T r i e n n i a l Tournament became the mecca of i n t e r n a t i o n a l competit ion for women's hockey p lay ing countr ies throughout the world. The Fourth Conference and Tournament had been a long time i n coming, for the I .F.W.H.A. had been l a r g e l y i n a c t i v e from 1939 to 1946, operat ing 17 during the war years through a ske leton committee i n the U.S.A. When t h i s Fourth Conference was f i n a l l y h e l d , i n Johannesburg i n 1950, fourteen years had elapsed s ince the P h i l a d e l p h i a Conference and Tournament of 1936. Only s i x teams p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the 1950 Tournament; England, I re land , Scot land, 54 U.S.A. and South A f r i c a were the member countr ies represented, whi le 18 In ternat iona l Wanderers was the t r a d i t i o n a l composite team. From t h i s modest resumption, however, the I .F.W.H.A. Tournament gained r a p i d l y In s t rength . The F i f t h I .F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, held i n Folkestone, England, i n 1953, brought together the teams of s ix teen hockey countr ies from around the wor ld . This was twice the number that had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n each of the l as t two pre-war tournaments, for both at Copenhagen i n 1933, and i n P h i l a d e lp h ia i n 1936, e ight teams had competed. Furthermore, on t h i s occas ion , there r e a l l y was a wel l -balanced representat ion from a l l corners of the ear th . P a r t i c i p a t i n g were seven nat ions from Cont inenta l Europe, four from the B r i t i s h I s l e s , and f i v e from overseas: Ind ia , U .S .A . , South A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand. The I .F.W.H.A. t r u l y 19 was a g loba l o r g a n i z a t i o n . For the next two decades, the I .F.W.H.A. Tournament was to become the v e r i t a b l e Olympics of women's hockey: the code of e t h i c s , the amateur ethos, and the s p i r i t of competit ion and cameraderie were a l l true to the Olympic i d e a l s . By the 1960s, even the in ter -conference per iod had been changed to one of four years . Table 3 i nd i ca tes the popu la r i t y of the Tournament during 20 the 1950s and 1960s. Organ izat iona l Development of the I .F.W.H.A. From an o rgan i za t i ona l perspec t ive , the post-war per iod was one of susta ined growth and development. As shown i n Table 3, the number of countr ies a f f i l i a t e d with the I .F .W.H.A. increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y . Standing at ten i n 1947, i t had doubled by 1953, and t reb led to reach t h i r t y by 1967. To a large extent , t h i s increase i n membership was a t t r i b u t a b l e to the concerted e f f o r t s of the Federat ion and i t s a f f i l i a t e d assoc ia t ions to promote the game of women's hockey i n non-member c o u n t r i e s . A s p e c i a l sess ion at each 55 TABLE 3 NUMBER OF TEAMS AT I.F.W. .H.A.TOURNAMENTS 1953-1967 AND COUNTRIES AFFILIATED Year Venue No. of Teams A f f i l i a t e d Countr ies 1953 Folkestone 16 20 1956 Sydney 10 20 1959 Amsterdam 15 23 1963 Balt imore 17 26 1967 Cologne 19 30 Conference was devoted to t h i s endeavour. However, the o rgan i za t iona l s t rength of the I .F .W.H.A . , and i t s i n t e g r i t y of purpose were r e f l e c t e d i n i t s r e s o l u t i o n to accept as members only those countr ies which could provide s a t i s f a c t o r y evidence of the independence of a women's hockey s e c t i o n . For example, when the Pakistan Hockey Federat ion , which was respons ib le for men's and women's hockey i n that country, sought a f f i l i a t i o n i n 1953, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n was denied because the Pakistan Federat ion d id not comply with the 22 I . F .W.H .A . ' s cond i t ions of membership. There were severa l features of the I .F.W.H.A. Conferences and Tournaments which d i s t ingu i shed women's hockey from other sports and made manifest the non-exclus ive p a r t i c i p a t o r y nature of the event. Every member country was welcome to enter a team i n the Tournament and i n v i t e d to send a delegate to the Conference. One of the funct ions of the host country was to arrange for each of the v i s i t i n g teams a tour that inc luded matches, not only w i th in the host country i t s e l f , but a l so with I .F.W.H.A. countr ies on the route of the v i s i t i n g team. Furthermore, en thus ias t i c supporters could 56 r e g i s t e r as o f f i c i a l v i s i t o r s , and thus be inc luded as an i n t e g r a l part of the a c t i v i t i e s , i nc lud ing p r o v i s i o n for accommodation and attendance at matches, 23 meetings and s o c i a l func t ions . A l l of these fac tors combined to create an atmosphere that moved a former capta in of a p a r t i c i p a t i n g team to observe that "no one who has ever attended an IFWHA Tournament and Conference w i l l deny the 24 unique s p i r i t that p r e v a i l s " . Thus, the I . F .W.H .A . ' s dec lared aims of f u r t h e r i n g women's hockey throughout the world, and promoting f r i e n d l y competit ion were being a c t i v e l y pursued and l a r g e l y f u l f i l l e d . E f f o r t s were a l so made to standardize the r u l e s . In 1956, the Rules and Umpiring Sub-Committee recommended that the I .F.W.H.A. adopt the ru les of the Women's Hockey Board of Great B r i t a i n and I re land . Uni formity of the ru les continued to be an important issue of the 1959 Conference i n Amsterdam, where i t was passed unanimously that the C o n s t i t u t i o n be amended to provide for a code of ru les for Tournament matches and other i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i x t u r e s . F i n a l l y , at the 1967 Conference i n Leverkusen (Cologne), " i t was by unanimous agreement that the Conference set up an Independent Rules-Making Body," which 25 became the Women s In te rnat iona l Hockey Rules Board. Re la t ionsh ips Between the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . Ea r l y Post-War In te rac t ion At the 1948 Amsterdam World F e s t i v a l , the Dutch were asked to arrange a meeting between the Women's Committee of the F . I . H . , (or representat ives of Cont inenta l Assoc ia t ions present) , and delegates of the I .F .W.H.A. The an t i c ipa ted important items on the agenda were Olympic Games recogn i t i on , and 26 the d e s i r a b i l i t y of re-opening negot ia t ions with the F . I . H . The outcome of a r e s o l u t i o n to pursue further the recogn i t ion of 27 women's hockey as an Olympic sport has already been nar ra ted . On the 57 p o s i t i v e s i d e , however, d i scuss ions with the F . I . H . Women's Committee led to f r u i t f u l negot ia t ions with the President and Honorary General Secretary of the 28 F . I . H . A long-standing aim of the I .F.W.H.A. had been to embrace wi th in i t s membership the women's sect ions of the F . I . H . a s s o c i a t i o n s . In October, 1948, the I .F.W.H.A. received n o t i f i c a t i o n from the F . I . H . that permission had been granted; women's sect ions of F . I . H . member countr ies that so wished could a f f i l i a t e with the I .F.W.H.A. Even before the end of the year , the women's sec t ions of the Be lg ian and Aust r ian Hockey Assoc ia t ions had app l ied for 29 membership i n the I .F.W.H.A. and were accepted. Ever s ince the f i r s t of the Conference tournaments (Copenhagen, 1933), the F . I . H . - a f f i l i a t e d countr ies had been permitted by t h e i r federat ion and na t iona l assoc ia t ions to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the I .F .W.H.A. compet i t ions; now they could and d id a c t u a l l y a f f i l i a t e with the I .F.W.H.A. At l a s t , the way appeared open for a true world federat ion for women's hockey. Th is optimism was supported by an increase , dur ing the per iod 1948 - 1950, of eight countr ies a f f i l i a t e d to the I .F .W.H.A . , a phenomenon a t t r i b u t e d to the 30 success fu l negot ia t ions between the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . Creat ion of the Jo in t Consu l ta t ive Committee Spec ia l problems confronted the I . F .W.H .A . ' s Cont inenta l members, who were, through t h e i r j o i n t na t iona l a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l so a f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . When p lay ing i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches amongst themselves, they played i n accordance with the ru les approved by the F . I . H . ; but when p lay ing against I .F.W.H.A. count r i es , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , when p a r t i c i p a t i n g at an I .F.W.H.A. tournament, they were ob l iged to p lay according to the p r e v a i l i n g ru les of that f edera t i on . In 1952, those European countr ies with dual membership 58 requested that o f f i c i a l s of the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . should meet for 31 d i scuss ions aimed at r e s o l v i n g these problems. Fol lowing informal t a lks between the I .F.W.H.A. o f f i c i a l s and the F . I . H . Women's Committee i n A p r i l of that year , the Secretary General of the F . I . H . , M. Rene Frank, and the President of the I .F .W.H.A . , Miss H i l d a L i g h t , met u n o f f i c i a l l y with a view to br ing ing the two federat ions c l o s e r together. D iscuss ion centred around the phenomenon that hockey had two i n t e r n a t i o n a l federa t ions , one for men, and one for women; and, according to Frank, hockey was the only sport for which t h i s was so . It was agreed that regular contact should be es tab l i shed to reso lve p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ; for example, i f there were no connection between the two federa t ions , the ru les could diverge to the 32 point of c o n s t i t u t i n g two separate games. The F . I . H . submitted that shared concerns could best be addressed through the formation of a consu l ta t i ve committee composed of delegates of both federa t ions . The Counc i l of the I .F.W.H.A. agreed with t h i s proposa l , and i n May 1953, a pre l iminary meeting of the Jo in t Consu l tat ive Committee ( J . C . C . ) took p lace . The minutes of t h i s pre l iminary meeting ou t l i ned the aims and ob jec t i ves of the Committee, which inc luded: to s t r i v e for c l ose r co-operat ion between the two federa t ions ; to secure un i formity of ru les and regu la t ions ; and to deal with quest ions a r i s i n g out of i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches. It was recorded that the I .F.W.H.A. welcomed the J . C . C . and approved i t s 33 aims. The c o n s t i t u t i o n of the J . C . C . made p r o v i s i o n for three delegates from each federa t ion , and s t i p u l a t e d that i t should meet at least once every three years . Furthermore, the F . I . H . i n v i t e d the I .F.W.H.A. to hold the key p o s i t i o n s of Chairman and Honorary Secretary of the J . C . C . for the f i r s t three-year term. H i l d a L i g h t , r e t i r i n g President of the I .F .W.H.A . , and a 59 v i s i o n a r y who had forseen the necess i ty of such a committee, was appointed the 34 f i r s t Chairman of the J . C . C . Consu l ta t ion and Co-operat ion: 1953 - 1967 On a formal b a s i s , the J . C . C . met once i n about every three years . These meetings were timed to occur dur ing the mid-term per iod of the major events of each federat ion (Olympics for the F . I . H . ; Conference and Tournament 35 for the I . F . W . H . A . ) . Table 4 revea ls t h i s aspect of J . C . C . meetings. The i n i t i a l s t ruc ture of the J . C . C . permitted three delegates from the I .F.W.H.A. and three delegates from the F . I . H . ; represent ing the F . I . H . dur ing the f i r s t three-year term were two members of the Women's Committee and the Honorary General Secretary . By 1958, the number of delegates from each federat ion had been increased to four , the Secretary of the I .H .B . ( l a t e r the In te rnat iona l Hockey Rules Board) being the fourth F . I . H . representa t ive , and 36 h i s counterpart i n women s hockey, the four th I .F.W.H.A. de legate . As wel l as consu l ta t i on through the J . C . C . , t h i s era was marked by the degree of co-operat ion and mutual respect and admirat ion which the two i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ions accorded each other . An exce l lent s t a r t to t h i s atmosphere of goodwil l was the presentat ion i n 1953 of the F . I . H . ' s most p r e s t i g i o u s award, the Leautey Cup, to the I .F .W.H.A. " in recogn i t ion of i t s 37 outstanding work for the game . . . ." A fur ther i n d i c a t i o n of the co-operat ive s p i r i t was the i n v i t a t i o n extended by the F . I . H . , and accepted by the I .F .W.H.A . , for two delegates to attend the 1954 Congress of the F . I . H . In 1958, the I .F .W.H.A. requested the o f f i c e r s of the F . I . H . to encourage the women's sec t ions of t h e i r a f f i l i a t e d assoc ia t ions to apply for membership of I .F.W.H.A, a r e f l e c t i o n of improved r e l a t i o n s s ince pre-war days. Conversely, i n 1964, the I .F.W.H.A. agreed to support an a r t i c l e i n the F . I . H . 38 c o n s t i t u t i o n regarding suspension of c lubs and i n d i v i d u a l s . 60 TABLE 4 MEETINGS OF THE JOINT CONSULTATIVE COMMITEE: 1952-1968 Year F . I . H . J . C . C I .F.W.H.A. 1952 O 1953 P C 1954 1955 J 1956 O C 1957 1958 J 1959 C 1960 O 1961 J 1962 1963 C 1964 O 1965 1966 J 1967 C 1968 O O = Olympic Tournament C = Conference & Tournament J = J . C . C . Meeting P = Pre l iminary Meeting 61 As we l l as the formal meetings of the J . C . C . , by the la te 1950s, j o i n t meetings of a t echn i ca l nature were being conducted under the Committee's ausp ices . In 1958, the F . I . H . Technica l Commitee met with i t s I .F.W.H.A. counterpart to d iscuss r u l e s , for the issue of ru les was c r u c i a l . Upon the r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s problem depended the outcome of the s i n g l e most important matter, that of i n t e r n a t i o n a l competit ion between I .F.W.H.A. and F . I . H . c o u n t r i e s . By the time of the second meeting of the J . C . C . i n 1958, the F . I . H . expressed i t s f i rm b e l i e f that i t was time to standardize men's and women's r u l e s . F i r s t l y , however, un i formity of women's ru les was requ i red , for up u n t i l that time each country played i t s own v a r i a t i o n of the r u l e s , n e c e s s i t a t i n g adjustments when i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches were played under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the I .F.W.H.A. Despite severa l meetings of the I .F .W.H.A 's Rules and Umpiring Committee i n the in terven ing per iod , when the J . C . C . met again i n 1961, the F . I . H . i n s i s t e d that the matter of ru les could not be l o g i c a l l y d iscussed u n t i l the I .F.W.H.A. es tab l i shed a body s i m i l a r to the I .H .B . — an independent committee of experts , rather than a sub-committee dependent on the dec i s ions of a conference. It came as a disappointment to the I .F.W.H.A. that the F . I . H . was not w i l l i n g to recognize the Code of Rules 40 used for I .F.W.H.A. Tournament matches, as had been hoped. At the I .F.W.H.A. Counc i l Meeting convened i n conjunct ion with the 1963 Conference he ld i n the United States , a proposal was advanced that the F . I . H . be requested, at the next meeting of the J . C . C . , to recognize the I . F .W.H .A . ' s Rules and Umpiring sub-Committee as I . F .W.H .A . ' s rules-making body. This r e s o l u t i o n was s h o r t - l i v e d , f o r , by 1965, a j o i n t meeting of the F . I . H . Technica l Committee and the I .F.W.H.A. Rules and Umpiring Sub-Commitee led to the I .F .W.H.A. C o u n c i l ' s agreeing i n p r i n c i p l e to the formation of an 62 independent rules-making body. When the J . C . C . met next i n 1966, an autonomous body, soon to be known as the Women's In te rnat iona l Hockey Rules Board (W.I .H .R .B . ) , was i n the process of being c reated . This independent rules-making body was approved unanimously by the membership of the I .F.W.H.A. at the 1967 I .F.W.H.A. Conference i n Cologne. From then on, a l l women's sec t ions of the F . I . H . which were a f f i l i a t e d with the I .F.W.H.A. had to p lay 41 to t h i s Code of Ru les . With t h i s acceptance of the c r e a t i o n of the W.I .H .R .B . , came "the dec i s ions [which standardized] the ru les of the game for l a d i e s . " 4 2 The minutes of the 1967 I .F.W.H.A. Conference revealed that t h i s advance had been achieved by the combined operat ions of i t s Sub-Committees, the fores ight of i t s o f f i c e r s , and the co-operat ive a t t i t u d e of the F . I . H . Furthermore, the J . C . C . "could con f ident l y s ta te that [ i t ] had f u l f i l l e d i n the main the aims and objects as set out i n i t s C o n s t i t u t i o n and i n the sphere 43 of achiev ing c lose r co-operat ion and d i r e c t exchange of in format ion ." Summary The quarter-century from World War II to the l a te 1960s was a time of world-wide expansion and increased competit ion both for the F . I . H . and the I .F.W.H.A. For the men, the p innac le of competit ion was the Olympic Hockey Tournament, whi le for the women, the u l t imate goal was p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the I .F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament. These p a r a l l e l but separate paths were set e a r l y i n t h i s p e r i o d . Within the f i r s t f i v e post-war years , the women were f i r s t denied, then they themselves r e j e c t e d , entry i n to the Olympic Games. On the other hand, the B r i t i s h Hockey Board was created as the v e h i c l e through which the men of the B r i t i s h I s l e s could compete i n the Olympic Games. Th is a l so es tab l i shed the 63 connect ion, a l b e i t i n d i r e c t l y , between the Home Country Assoc ia t ions and the F . I . H . , and by v i r t u e of three members appointed to the I . H . B . , the F . I . H . gained representat ion on the rules-making body. While men's and women's hockey thus proceeded separate ly , the two i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ions enjoyed f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s . Very ea r l y on, as a r esu l t of meetings between the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . at the 1948 Women's World F e s t i v a l , women's sect ions of F . I . H . - a f f i l i a t e d assoc ia t ions were permitted to j o i n the I .F.W.H.A. as w e l l , thus acqu i r ing dual membership. In 1953, the J . C . C . was es tab l i shed to maintain a working r e l a t i o n s h i p between the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . , e s p e c i a l l y for the benef i t of those member assoc ia t ions which were a f f i l i a t e d to both federa t ions . The major ob jec t i ve was to ensure the opportunity for i n t e r n a t i o n a l compet i t ion. Thus, the un i formity of ru les became a concern, the r e s o l u t i o n of which was made a high p r i o r i t y by the J . C . C . Towards the end of the 1960s, prospects for i t s s o l u t i o n , i n the form of the W.I .H .R .B . , appeared promising. 64 CHAPTER VI INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY FROM 1970 TO 1983: UNIFICATION OF THE FEDERATIONS At the close of the 1960s, men's and women's hockey at the international level had experienced almost a quarter of a century of independent, albeit parallel, development. But, upon the dawn of a new decade, events were about to unfold which would catapult the game, and both i t s international federations, into a fresh and tumultuous era. This fi n a l section describes that episode. The major event of the period from 1970 to 1983 was the integration of the I.F.W.H.A. into the F.I.H., a phenomenon precipitated by the inclusion of women's hockey in the Olympic Games and the accompanying reduction in the number of men's teams in the Olympic Hockey Tournament. The process of unification, which evolved over this period, i s best described after the individual developments in men's and women's hockey are f i r s t narrated. Men's Hockey Development The early part of this era was notable for several reasons: f i r s t , i t was a period of rationalization within the men's international organizational structure i t s e l f ; secondly, at this time, a World Cup hockey competition was inaugurated; and thirdly, the retention of hockey as an Olympic sport was cast in doubt. 65 R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o£ the Organ izat iona l Structure A f f i l i a t i o n of the Home Countr ies with the F . I . H . and the i n tegra t i on of the ru les governing body in to the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the F . I . H . was a gradual process which culminated i n the l a te 1960s and e a r l y 1970s. 1 The anomaly which ex is ted up u n t i l 1970, despi te the co-operat ive r e l a t i o n s h i p s enjoyed, was that the F . I . H . held a minor i ty p o s i t i o n i n the formulat ion and mod i f i ca t i on of the ru les of the game which i t administered world-wide. Inex t r i cab ly l inked with t h i s anomaly was the phenomenon that , although England and the other Home Countr ies secured F . I . H . a f f i l i a t i o n through the B .H.B. , t h i s was an i n d i r e c t a f f i l i a t i o n , a p p l i c a b l e , for the most p a r t , to 2 Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In 1948, no B r i t i s h Home Country was i n d i v i d u a l l y a f f i l i a t e d to the F . I . H . The f i r s t to apply was I re land , which was accepted i n 1950; but i t was not u n t i l 1968 that the next Home Country, Wales, sought 3 and gained a f f i l i a t i o n . The Welsh a c t i o n , however, ushered i n a per iod of t r a n s i t i o n . Two years l a t e r came the h i s t o r i c occas ion when, at a Congress i n Brusse ls on 26 September 1970, the (Engl ish) H.A. a f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . So, at l a s t , the country which founded the modern game jo ined the ranks of the organ iza t ion which, by now, was recognized as the governing body of hockey. At the same meeting, the S c o t t i s h H.A. was a l so accepted, br ing ing a l l four 4 Home Countr ies , which had dominated the I .H .B . s ince 1900, i n to the F . I . H . As a resu l t of these a c t i o n s , i t was resolved that the I . H . B . , by now re-named the In te rna t iona l Hockey Rules Board ( I . H . R . B . ) should be absorbed i n t o the F . I . H . To a l low a smooth t r a n s i t i o n , i t was agreed that the ru les would remain under con t ro l of the I .H .R .B . u n t i l the end of 1971, with the F . I . H . taking over j u r i s d i c t i o n on 1 January 1972. Later i n that year the I .H .R .B . was r e - c o n s t i t u t e d as an autonomous committee w i th in the framework of the F . I . H . Thus, f i n a l l y , the body with author i ty over the ru les became an 66 i n t e g r a l part of the federat ion which c o n t r o l l e d the game throughout the wor ld . World CUP and Olympic Competit ion Over the quarter-century from the end of World War I I , i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey a c t i v i t y increased s u f f i c i e n t l y for the game to be able to support i t s own world championship. During that per iod , the a f f i l i a t e d membership of the F . I . H . v i r t u a l l y t r e b l e d , from twenty-one i n 1946 to s ix ty-one i n 1970. 6 At the same time, i n t e r n a t i o n a l competit ion expanded even more d r a m a t i c a l l y . It i s estimated that p r i o r to 1960, l i t t l e more that t h i r t y i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches were played i n an average year; by 1970, t h i s number had increased s i x - f o l d , for there were now four cont inenta l championships, i n a d d i t i o n to the Olympics and other major tournaments. The time was r ipe for the F . I . H . to launch i t s 7 own World Cup Tournament, the f i r s t of which was held i n Barcelona i n 1971. Although the game was burgeoning, and p res t i g ious hockey tournaments were being held throughout the world under the auspices of the F . I . H . , i t was hockey's i n c l u s i o n on the Olympic programme which had acted as the f o c a l point for i n t e r n a t i o n a l compet i t ion and provided the incent ive for nat ions to a f f i l i a t e with the F . I . H . Indeed, as the Honorary General Secretary of the F . I . H . was to remark on the occas ion of the Mexico Olympics i n 1968, "the Olympic competit ion remains the most important s ing le event of Hockey on a 8 world l e v e l . " Within two years , however, hockey's Olympic s tatus was i n jeopardy. In 1970, a move w i th in the I .O .C . to reduce the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n team sports prompted the President of the F . I . H . to express the fear "that hockey's 9 representat ion w i l l be reduced from 16 teams to 8 for the 1976 Olympics." The F . I . H . , i n concert with other members of the General Assembly of 67 In te rna t iona l Federat ions , r e s i s t e d the attempts of the I .O .C . to reduce the number of teams. When the I .O .C . met i n Luxembourg i n September 1971 to d i scuss the future of hockey and other team spor ts , the F . I . H . i n s i s t e d on r e t a i n i n g s ix teen teams i n the Olympics. But the outcome of the Luxembourg meetings d id not augur w e l l , as the very r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y emerged that hockey 10 might even be deleted from the Olympics. In 1972, the Munich Olympic Hockey Tournament proceeded with s ix teen teams, but despi te representat ions by the Pres ident of the F . I . H . to the I . O . C . , Munich was to be the l as t Olympics at which s ix teen men's teams took par t ; when the next Olympic Hockey Tournament was held i n Montreal i n 1976, only twelve teams were permitted to enter . By the mid-1970s, however, the c r i s i s of t o t a l expuls ion was over , and re tent ion of hockey as a sport on the Olympic programme seemed a s s u r e d . 1 1 Throughout the 1970s and i n t o the 1980s, men's hockey at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l continued to develop. One measure of i t s progress was the s u b s t a n t i a l increase i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l compet i t ion prov ided, not only by the Olympic Hockey Tournament, but a l s o by the success fu l implementation of the World Cup compet i t ion, together with i t s assoc iated cont inenta l and 12 i n t e r - c o n t i n e n t a l tournaments. A fur ther i nd i ca to r of advancement was the number of na t iona l assoc ia t ions a f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . , which rose from s ixty-one i n 1970 to ninety-two i n 1981, a f i f t y percent increase i n jus t over a decade. Furthermore, o rgan i za t iona l and techn i ca l matur i ty was manifest i n the planning and execut ion not only of hockey tournaments, but a l so of umpiring and coaching seminars which were conducted through F . I . H . sub-committees es tab l i shed to promote and develop these aspects of the 13 game. 68 Women's Hockey Development The per iod from 1970 to 1983 was remarkable i n the development of women's hockey i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . Of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e was the evo lut ion of tournaments played on a championship bas is and the i n c l u s i o n of women's hockey i n the Olympic Games. Both of these events created debate w i th in the women's hockey community i t s e l f , e s p e c i a l l y between the I .F.W.H.A. and the countr ies a f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . A review of the s a l i e n t features of the preceeding per iod i s h e l p f u l i n apprec ia t ing the circumstances surrounding these events. In the immediate post-war e ra , negot ia t ions between the two federat ions resu l ted i n women's sect ions of the F . I . H . being permitted to j o i n the I .F.W.H.A. and as a consequence of t h i s , the I .F.W.H.A. membership doubled, from ten to twenty, i n the next two years . A f te r r e j e c t i o n i n the i r b id to compete i n the Olympics, the member nat ions of the I .F.W.H.A. decided unanimously to abandon t h e i r e f f o r t s towards i n c l u s i o n , and concentrated instead on the I .F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, which, they f e l t , epitomized the Olympic i d e a l s . Between 1950 and 1967, s i x such tournaments were h e l d , and during that per iod 14 the I .F.W.H.A. grew s t e a d i l y i n numbers and i n s t a t u r e . By the 1970s, not only was the I .F .W.H.A. Tournament w e l l e s tab l i shed , but the number of women's hockey-playing countr ies was s u b s t a n t i a l . In 1971, when the Tournament was held i n Auckland, New Zealand, there were th i r ty - two countr ies a f f i l i a t e d with the I .F.W.H.A. and a fur ther ten countr ies known to 15 be p lay ing women's hockey. In add i t i on to the a c t i v i t i e s w i th in the I .F .W.H.A. , women's hockey i n F . I . H . - a f f i l i a t e d countr ies was a l so f l o u r i s h i n g , for at the 1970 F . I . H . Congress, the number of representat ives on the Women's Committee was increased, "because of the progress of women's hockey i n a s t i l l i nc reas ing number of c o u n t r i e s . " 1 6 In 1974, the number of 69 women's hockey-playing countr ies a f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . stood at 17 twenty-two. Introduct ion of World Championships The in t roduc t ion of World Championships, a phenomenon which occurred i n women's hockey during the f i r s t h a l f of the 1970s, as shown i n Appendix B, d id not take place without considerable anguish for adherents of the o r i g i n a l I .F .W.H.A. p r i n c i p l e s . One of the bas ic ph i losophies of the I .F.W.H.A. was that i n t e r n a t i o n a l matches should be played i n a s p i r i t of f r i e n d s h i p , for the game's sake, and the schedules of matches up to 1967 r e f l e c t e d t h i s phi losophy. In f a c t , the whole s t ruc ture of the I .F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament was based on the concept of non-exclus ive p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A l l countr ies were i n v i t e d to attend independent of the s i z e of i t s a s s o c i a t i o n or s trength of i t s team. The format of the tournament was such that each match was a game i n i t s own r i g h t : ne i ther by a round rob in league, nor by an e l i m i n a t i o n process , were teams c l a s s i f i e d ; no winner was dec la red . Furthermore, that important and unique adjunct of the Tournament, the p r o v i s i o n made by the host country for p a r t i c i p a t i n g teams to p lay matches with other countr ies whi le t r a v e l l i n g to or from the venue, and/or to tour w i th in the host country before or a f t e r the Tournament i t s e l f might be los t i f 18 a championship phi losophy p r e v a i l e d . However, i n 1971, whi le the p r i n c i p l e s of u n r e s t r i c t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t i l l a p p l i e d , the Tournament was s t ructured on championship l i n e s , an u n o f f i c i a l winner announced, and rankings 19 were acknowledged. In the e a r l y 1970s, pressure for d e c l a r i n g p lac ings — a phenomenon l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the inc reas ing government funding of na t iona l sports teams and, concomitant ly, the need to measure success — continued to be a p p l i e d . The t r a n s i t i o n was complete when the 1975 I.F.W.H.A. 70 Tournament i n Edinburgh, Scot land, was o f f i c i a l l y dec lared the f i r s t World 20 Hockey championship for Women. Meanwhile, the F . I . H . counterpart to the I .F.W.H.A. was moving even more r a p i d l y towards championship hockey. Not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d with the "home and away" i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i x t u r e s of the f i r s t de J o s s e l i n de Jong Cup competit ion of 1970, the F . I . H . Women's Committee i n 1972 held a tournament to contest the second Cup compet i t ion. Open to a l l women's hockey-playing countr ies i n the world, whether F . I . H . - a f f i l i a t e d or not, i t was "recognised as the F . I . H . World Women's Trophy" Tournament, and the winners were declared World Champions. By the time the next competit ion was held i n 1974, the women's terminology had been made cons is tent with the men's, and the 21 competit ion was known as the F . I . H . Women's World Cup. From 1975 onwards, a l l tournaments, whether organized under the auspices of the I .F.W.H.A. or the F . I . H . , were conducted according to a championship format. Furthermore, the number of teams p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n these tournaments was a l so very s u b s t a n t i a l , as membership i n the two federat ions continued to increase , as shown i n 22 F igure 1. Women's Hockey i n the Olympic Games At the same time as the in t roduc t ion of championship compet i t ion, there occurred a sequence of events which led to the i n c l u s i o n of women's hockey i n the Olympic Games. A f te r World War I I , app l i ca t i ons to inc lude women's hockey i n the Olympic Games were re jec ted by the I . O . C ; but twenty years l a t e r i t was the I .O .C . which approached the i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ion expressing the des i re to have more women's events i n the Olympics. The President of the F . I . H . reported i n 1970 that whi le there were fears for the future s tatus of 71 40 No. of Member 35 Countries 30 25 I.F.W.H.A. (O) 20 F.I.H. 15 - 10 5 - 1970 Countries I.F.W.H.A. F.I.H. Teams —3{-=^ I.F.W.H.A. H . F.I.H. -X - 2 5 20 No. of Tournament 15 Teams 10 I.F.W.H.A. (A) 5 F.I.H. (X) 72 74 76 YEAR 78 80 82 Figure 1 A COMPARISON OF MEMBER COUNTRIES AND TOURNAMENT TEAMS I.F.W.H.A. and F.I.H. : 1971-1981 (Women Members and Teams Only) 72 men's hockey i n the Olympics, "the door appear[ed] to have opened s l i g h t l y for the p o s s i b i l i t y of women's hockey being admitted to the Games." Th is was re in fo rced dur ing the Munich Olympics i n 1972, when the I .O .C . announced that 23 s i x women's teams might be allowed to compete at Montreal i n 1976. By now, however, women's hockey a u t h o r i t i e s had ser ious misgiv ings about Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In 1971, an A u s t r a l i a n correspondent was to express the f e e l i n g that i t was far bet ter to continue with the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament than to enter the Olympics, and other count r i es , i nc lud ing Canada, 24 expressed s i m i l a r doubts about Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In England, the reac t i on was s t rong ly a r t i c u l a t e d that "a f ter the temperamental d i s p l a y s at Munich the major i ty of IFWHA members [were] content with the i r own broadly-based quadrennial world touraments," and only when the Olympics returned to become "happy encounters between young f r i e n d l y a th le tes" would i t 25 be appropriate to inc lude women's hockey. Although the matter was d iscussed at the I .F.W.H.A. meetings held i n 1972 and 1973, i t was not u n t i l September 1974 that a consensus was reached by the I .F.W.H.A. regarding the d e s i r a b i l i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Olympics. Even at the 1974 meeting the d e c i s i o n was far from unanimous, for of the twenty-f ive countr ies rep ly ing to the prev ious ly c i r c u l a t e d p o l l (from a t o t a l membership of t h i r t y - f o u r ) , seventeen were i n favour, s i x were against and two were undecided. Moreover, of those countr ies i n favour, some expressed reservat ions , and considerable debate ensued. Many women were concerned whether the i dea l s of the I .F.W.H.A. would be maintained; but as one of the I .F.W.H.A. o f f i c e r s exp la ined, "Olympic i dea l s are the h ighest" , and i t was up to the women to ensure that they were e x h i b i t e d . It was suggested, as i t had been a quarter of a century e a r l i e r , that the I .F .W.H.A. should persuade the I .O .C . to accept the I .F.W.H.A. Tournament as the Women s Olympics. 73 Despite the fact that the issue of Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n had been decided, by a major i ty vote , at the 1974 I .F.W.H.A. meeting, the mer i ts of the case were s t i l l being d iscussed at the I .F.W.H.A. meeting of February 1975. But even as the matter was debated, a l e t t e r was being dispatched to the F . I . H . by the I .O .C . The fo l lowing month, the President of the I .F .W.H.A. received t h i s message from the Honorary General Secretary of the F . I . H . : I take pleasure i n enc los ing herewith copy of a l e t t e r of 4th. February, 1975, by which the I .O .C . informed the F . I . H . that Hockey had been added to the l i s t of those sports i n which women are allowed to compete at the Olympic Games.27 Because of the fur ther hurdle of having Women's Hockey added to the programme of a p a r t i c u l a r Olympics, i t was by now too la te for women to enter the 1976 Olympics i n Montreal . Another year was to pass before the I .O .C . wrote to the F . I . H . conf irming that s i x women's hockey teams would be 28 permitted to enter the 1980 Moscow Olympic Hockey Tournament. More than h a l f a century a f t e r the formation of the I .F.W.H.A. and the f i r s t a sp i ra t i ons by women to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Olympic Games, t h i s hope became a r e a l i t y , and i n s p i t e of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boycott , s i x teams d id contest t h e i r f i r s t 29 Olympic hockey medals that year . Re la t ionsh ips Between Men's and Women's Hockey The per iod between 1970 and 1983 was an event fu l one i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the men's and women's i n t e r n a t i o n a l f edera t ions . A f te r two decades of p a r a l l e l and e s s e n t i a l l y independent progress — the men with the Olympic Games as focus, the women with the I .F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament — t h i s r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f span was a time of cons iderable i n t e r a c t i o n , terminat ing with the i n t e g r a t i o n of the I .F.W.H.A. i n t o the F . I . H . 74 The c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p which ex is ted between the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . continued i n t o the 1970s, as a j o i n t sub-committee of the I .H .R .B . and the W.I .H.R.B. worked d i l i g e n t l y towards e s t a b l i s h i n g a common code of 30 r u l e s . In 1971, the J . C . C . reported that the Committee had completed a d ra f t of " a common set of ru les" for men and women, and progress was such 31 that hope of a f i n a l d ra f t by 1973 was expressed. So product ive was the work of j o i n t sub-committees, that the I .F.W.H.A. considered the J . C . C . to be 32 of inest imable va lue , even though only c o n s u l t a t i v e . Status of Hockey at the Olympic Games Even as these co-operat ive a c t i v i t i e s were cont inu ing , a move was taking place which would create d i f f i c u l t i e s for both federat ions i n the near fu tu re . Th is was the a c t i o n of the I .O .C . to reduce the number of teams p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Olympics. However, as announced at Munich i n 1972, reduct ion i n the number of men's teams from s ix teen to twelve was accompanied by the prospect of women's hockey being inc luded i n the Olympic programme. Although the I .O .C . hoped to inc lude women's hockey i n future Olympics, many problems were foreseen for i t s i n c l u s i o n by 1976. The President of the F . I . H . enumerated some of these i n a memorandum attached to the Munich Press Release: that the I .O .C . recognized only one i n t e r n a t i o n a l f edera t ion , the F . I . H . ; and, that many women's assoc ia t ions belonged only to the I .F .W.H.A. , 33 which had i t s own tournament, with no winner o f f i c i a l l y dec la red . In order to apprec iate f u l l y the events which fol lowed i n the next decade, i t i s necessary to review the three perspect ives of the s i t u a t i o n which ex is ted at t h i s p o i n t : f i r s t l y , that of the I .F .W.H.A. , e s p e c i a l l y with respect to the autonomous women's assoc ia t ions a f f i l i a t e d to i t ; secondly, that of the F . I . H . as i t r e l a ted to the women's sect ions of i t s const i tuent 75 n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s ; and t h i r d l y , that of the F . I . H . as i t represented men's a s s o c i a t i o n s . The I .F.W.H.A. was a very s p e c i a l body, un l ike almost any other i n the wor ld . Not only was i t a federa t ion composed e n t i r e l y of women's a s s o c i a t i o n s , but i t embraced severa l h igh ly-va lued p r i n c i p l e s , which included the " s p i r i t of f r i endsh ip and goodwil l which pervades the I .F.W.H.A. Tournament", where "the best hockey p lay ing team i s heralded whether or not they win ." At t h i s t ime, a strong element w i th in the I .F .W.H.A. membership was not i n favour of Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n , contending that "the I .F.W.H.A. Tournament today i s . . . fa r more true to Olympic i d e a l s than i s Olympic 34 competit ion i t s e l f . " In f a c t , as has a lready been narrated , severa l years 35 were to pass before the matter was conc lus i ve l y reso lved . On the other hand, the F . I . H . - a f f i l i a t e d women's assoc ia t ions wished to compete i n tournaments where a champion was determined. In response to t h i s expressed d e s i r e , the F . I . H . had i n s t i g a t e d the Women's World Tournament i n 1972, where the winner was dec lared World Champion. Although members of both federat ions were i n v i t e d to compete, the p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l l 36 F . I . H . - a f f i l i a t e d na t ions . Unl ike the I .F .W.H.A . , for whom the concept of pre-tournament e l i m i n a t i o n was anathema, the women's countr ies a f f i l i a t e d to the F . I . H . were a c t i v e l y support ive of the i n c l u s i o n of women's hockey i n the Olympic Games. The Olympic Hockey Tournament was regarded by the men's assoc ia t ions throughout the world, a l l of which were now a f f i l i a t e d with the F . I . H . , as the most p r e s t i g i o u s of compet i t ions, and countr ies strove to p a r t i c i p a t e . Indeed, almost f i f t y years e a r l i e r , the F . I . H . had been created to ensure hockey's p lace i n the programme. Now, the F . I . H . wished not only to safeguard 76 the men's tournament, but a l so to ensure the i n c l u s i o n of a women's hockey tournament i n the Olympics. Divergences i n the Rules Another area of concern perta ined to the ru les of p lay . At t h i s time there were severa l po ints of divergence between those of the I .F.W.H.A. and those of the F . I . H . , and although at the o f f i c i a l l e v e l both federat ions were co-operat ing , through the Jo in t Rules Committee, to e s t a b l i s h a common code, there was d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among the membership of the I .F.W.H.A. countr ies towards the experimentation of these common r u l e s . There were three major ob ject ions from the I .F .W.H.A . : f i r s t l y , that the members of the I .F.W.H.A. were expected to experiment with the F . I . H . (men's) ru les with no r e c i p r o c a l experimentation; secondly, that some of these ru les impl ied a code of conduct which d id not ex i s t i n women's hockey and which was considered undes i rab le ; and, t h i r d l y , that the way i n which the experimentation was imposed was 37 perceived to be a u t h o r i t a r i a n . On the one hand, a task force of i n t e r n a t i o n a l p layers who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n I .F.W.H.A. tournaments expressed concern that the character of the game would be adversely a f f e c t e d , and not be as s u i t a b l e for women p layers , i f women's ru les were a l t e r e d to compromise 38 with the men's r u l e s . But, on the other hand, a leading I.F.W.H.A. member of the Jo in t Rules Committee was persuaded i n the Tightness of common r u l e s . In a l e t t e r to the A .E .W.H.A . ' s Hockey F i e l d , she explained that the younger generation i n Europe, where mixed c lubs p r e v a i l e d , could not understand why they had to be coached to d i f f e r e n t r u l e s ; and men umpires, who helped the women cons iderab ly , had to use one set of ru les at a men's match and another at a women's. She cont inued: "The Jo in t Rules Committee has taken what i t 77 cons iders the bet ter from both sets of ru les and sometimes i t has compromised 39 . . . ." The debate continued for severa l years dur ing the mid-1970s. Breakdown i n Re la t i onsh ips ; F . I . H . and I .F .W.H.A. Controversy continued a f t e r the 1972 Munich announcement regarding the poss ib le i n c l u s i o n of women's hockey i n the Olympic Games, u n t i l , fo l lowing a dramatic d e c i s i o n by i t s Counc i l i n 1973, the F . I . H . announced that i t had decided "no longer to take in to cons idera t ion the In ternat iona l Federat ion of 40 Women's Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n s " . The F . I . H . broke o f f r e l a t i o n s with the I .F .W.H.A . ; and the J . C . C . was d i s s o l v e d . The major reasons c i t e d for t h i s d e c i s i o n were: the f e e l i n g of the F . I . H . that i t s own Olympic p o s i t i o n was i n jeopardy; the I . F .W.H .A . ' s i n d e c i s i o n regarding Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; a des i re that a more r a t i o n a l o rgan i za t ion for women's hockey should evolve; and 41 the slowness of progress i n ru les experimentat ion. The F . I . H . statement to the I .F.W.H.A. was f i r m , but not uncompromising. I t inc luded the fo l lowing concessions: that should any women's na t iona l hockey a s s o c i a t i o n apply for membership of the F . I . H . , i t would be welcomed and admitted without being asked to withdraw from the I .F .W.H.A. ; and, that women's sect ions of F . I . H . countr ies would p lay F . I . H . ru les among themselves, but they would be author ized to p lay non-F . I .H . nat ions , the ru les of p lay to be as mutually agreed. The F . I . H . a l so expressed the wish that the I .H .R .B . and the W.I.H.R.B. continue t h e i r j o i n t 42 work towards a common set of r u l e s . The F . I . H . announcement drew strong react ions of i nd ignat ion from severa l quarters w i th in the women's hockey community. The statement was descr ibed as "o f fens ive , arrogant , s i n i s t e r " and a r e f l e c t i o n of the a t t i tude of a d i c t a t o r s h i p . The very premise that there should be one organ iza t ion and 78 not two met with oppos i t i on ; and a warning was issued that i t should be "c lear to the IFWHA that the campaign begun by the FIH statement . . . i s . . . a b id 43 for e x t i n c t i o n of the IFWHA." C e r t a i n l y , a member of one of the European assoc ia t i ons (many of which belonged to both the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . ) made the fo l lowing appeal to her co l leagues : "Refuse to make any concession 44 to the F . I . H . : keep in tac t your i d e a l , o rgan i sa t ion , r u l e s , conferences". The s i t u a t i o n was exacerbated when, severa l weeks l a t e r , at i t s meeting i n September 1973, the I .F.W.H.A. decided to dec lare i t s 1975 Tournament a Women's World Championship. Th is was perceived by the F . I . H . as a r e v e r s a l , which now resu l ted i n the existence of two World Championships for women. It led the correspondent of World Hockey, the o f f i c i a l F . I . H . magazine, to dec lare that "such a s i t u a t i o n i s jus t another reason for a new endeavour to seek a r a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n to the problem of having two i n t e r n a t i o n a l 45 federat ions governing women's hockey". As the President of the I .F.W.H.A. was to observe i n retrospect some s i x years l a t e r , " i t was a d e l i c a t e . .. 46 time . Formation of the Supreme Counci l In the months fo l lowing the separate meetings of the two i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ions i n 1973, fur ther developments occurred . Rene Frank, i t s Pres ident , informed the F . I . H . Counc i l that senior o f f i c i a l s of the A u s t r a l i a n and New Zealand women's a s s o c i a t i o n s , members of the I .F.W.H.A. on ly , ind ica ted to him that they intended to propose to t h e i r members that the i r assoc ia t ions a f f i l i a t e with the F . I . H . as w e l l . Germany, one of the most powerful and i n f l u e n t i a l of the F . I . H . - a f f i l i a t e d count r i es , announced that i t could not accept two world championships, and dec l ined to enter the I . F .W.H .A . ' s 1975 Tournament. Furthermore, reported World Hockey, the 79 I .O .C . ind i ca ted that , as long as there were two federat ions c o n t r o l l i n g 47 women's hockey, i t was u n l i k e l y to be inc luded i n the Olympic programme. Apparent ly , the time had come for n e g o t i a t i o n . In December 1973, E i l e e n Hyndman, President of the I .F .W.H.A . , c i r c u l a t e d a l e t t e r to the member assoc ia t i ons of her federat ion s t a t i n g that "the p o s i t i o n of the F . I . H . with i t s 71 member countr ies as the governing body of hockey and, as such, 48 recognised by the Olympics Committee, can not be doubted"; and, i n March 1974, issued the statement: "In an e f f o r t to d i s p e l the mistrust which at present e x i s t s and to r e - e s t a b l i s h good r e l a t i o n s between the two Federat ions, the I .F.W.H.A. would welcome d i scuss ions at top l e v e l with i t s 49 counterpart ." Hyndman contended that she spoke from s t rength , as the I .F.W.H.A. had brought together women p layers from a l l over the world, from countr ies large and s m a l l , and with w e l l over twice as many p layers as the 50 women's sect ions of the F . I . H . The F . I . H . responded p o s i t i v e l y to the I . F .W.H .A . ' s i n i t i a t i v e i n suggesting a summit meeting, and accepted the o f f e r of the Netherlands Assoc ia t i on to host a round tab le conference. The meeting took place i n Baarn, Ho l land, on 8 June 1974, with three representat ives of each federat ion 51 at tend ing , and the President of the Dutch Assoc ia t i on i n the c h a i r . At the Baarn meeting, there were open d iscuss ions on areas of misunderstanding between the two federa t ions . The F . I . H . enumerated the reasons for the break i n r e l a t i o n s , which inc luded the slow progress towards a j o i n t code of ru l es and the I . F .W.H .A . ' s p o s i t i o n regarding the Olympics. According to the F . I . H . , s ince the I .O .C . had been informed that the I .F .W.H.A. was opposed to Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the chance of secur ing women's hockey for the 1976 Montreal Olympics had been l o s t . The I.F.W.H.A. took the opportunity to exp la in that i t had done "nothing to a f f e c t the F . I . H . 80 work i n the matter of the Olympic Games", and requested the F . I . H . to pay no a t ten t ion to i n d i v i d u a l statements, or a r t i c l e s i n women's hockey journa l s , which were "not represent ing the f e e l i n g s of the major i ty of the 52 I .F .W.H.A." Emerging from the summit meeting were the recommendations that the two federat ions form a supreme counc i l of e ight members, c o n s i s t i n g of the Pres ident , Honorary Secretary and two other members of each federa t ion ; and that each federat ion remain independent, and continue to be administered 53 by i t s own governing body. Inc lus ion of Women's Hockey i n the Olympic Games Events leading to the i n c l u s i o n of women's hockey i n the Olympics now moved r a p i d l y . When o f f i c i a l s of the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . met again i n January 1975 to d i scuss d e t a i l s of the supreme C o u n c i l , the I .F .W.H.A. had a lready decided, a l b e i t with a consensus that was far from unanimous, i n favour of Olympic p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Thus, a major top ic of the j o i n t meetings was how the women might q u a l i f y at the Olympics. At t h e i r own meeting the fo l lowing month, the I .F.W.H.A. o f f i c i a l s revealed that women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Olympics could not be considered u n t i l the I .O .C . was s a t i s f i e d that there ex is ted a j o i n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t ruc ture which could assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; the Baarn meeting had presented the opportunity to accomplish 54 t h i s , with Moscow, 1980, the e a r l i e s t poss ib le Olympics. Even as the I .F.W.H.A. met, however, the process was already i n motion. Fol lowing the j o i n t meeting i n January, the Honorary Secretary General of the F . I . H . had wr i t ten to the I . O . C ; and on 4 February 1975, the Technica l D i rec tor of the I .O .C . r e p l i e d : Your l e t t e r of 31st January has been rece ived and . . . I have pleasure i n conf i rming to you that Hockey i s inc luded i n the Rules of the [ I . O . C ] t i t l e d " P a r t i c i p a t i o n of Women" . . . . 5 5 81 This h i s t o r i c document confirmed the i n c l u s i o n of women's hockey in to the l i s t of Olympic spor t s . Nevertheless , the I .O .C . required conf i rmat ion that there d id ex i s t a s i n g l e body under whose auspices women's hockey could be added to the programme of a p a r t i c u l a r Olympics. The Technica l D i rec tor of the I .O .C . had acknowledged reading press reports r e l a t i n g to the negot iat ions taking p lace between the F . I . H . and the I .F .W.H.A . , and wished to learn the 56 ac tua l s i t u a t i o n . Thus, on 26 A p r i l 1975, the President of the F . I . H . wrote to Lord K i l l a n i n , Pres ident of the I . O . C , informing him of the new body, the Supreme C o u n c i l , vested with a l l powers to represent men's and women's hockey at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . In K i l l a n i n ' s r e p l y , he welcomed "the progress made i n the s i n g l e d i r e c t i o n of hockey for world and Olympic 57 Games, for men and women." Fol lowing the I . F .W.H .A . ' s acceptance of the Supreme Counc i l as the body respons ib le for a l l matters at world and Olympic l e v e l , the Supreme Counci l met for the f i r s t time on 29 November 1975, with the matter of the 58 Olympics a major item on the agenda. The President of the F . I . H . was author ized to inform the I .O .C . of the dec i s ions of the Supreme Counci l and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , to request the a d d i t i o n of women's hockey onto the programme of the 1980 Olympic Games. There now ex is ted cons iderable optimism, fo r i n an e d i t o r i a l publ ished i n World Hockey, Frank was able to w r i t e : there i s now one body at the summit to con t ro l both women's and men's hockey, and t h i s co inc ides with the wishes of the In ternat iona l Olympic Committee President Lord K i l l a n i n . Accord ing ly , nothing now appears to stand i n the way of having women's hockey inc luded i n the 1980 and subsequent Olympic Games. It i s with great confidence therefore that we await the I . O . C . ' s d e c i s i o n on t h i s matter.59 Frank d id not have long to wai t , f o r , on 8 A p r i l 1976, a l e t t e r from the I .O .C . confirmed that a women's hockey competit ion would be inc luded i n the 82 sports programme of the 1980 Olympic Games i n Moscow. F i n a l l y , the way was c l e a r for a women's Olympic Hockey Tournament. The I .O .C . announcement i n 1976, conf irming the i n c l u s i o n of women's hockey i n the Moscow Olympics, was warmly greeted by the President of the F . I . H . i n an e d i t o r i a l to World Hockey where he reported: " th i s wonderful news, for which we thank the I .O .C . . . . ;" but he a l so acknowledged the per iod of d i f f i c u l t y when he added: "for t h i s success, c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s , which appeared almost unsurmountable [ s i c ] , had f i r s t to be overcome." 6 1 At the second meeting of the Supreme C o u n c i l , he ld on 22 May 1976, the I .O .C . announcement was welcomed. Now i t remained only to inform the Nat ional Olympic Committees that the I .O .C . had recognized the Supreme Counci l as the governing body of world hockey, so that the i n d i v i d u a l nat ions could apply to enter the Olympic Tournament. Consequently, i n March 1977, a l e t t e r from the j o i n t s e c r e t a r i e s of the Supreme Counci l was sent out to the appropr iate Nat ional Olympic Committees. Some i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by I .F.W.H.A. members i n dea l ing with t h e i r N.O.C.s were eventua l ly reso lved . In the case of the Canadian Women's F i e l d Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , for example, a s o l u t i o n was achieved through negot ia t ion with the Canadian F i e l d Hockey Assoc ia t ion (men's), r e s u l t i n g i n shared representat ion on the Canadian 62 Olympic A s s o c i a t i o n , the respect ive delegates a l t e r n a t i n g annual ly . Funct ion of the Supreme Counci l A f te r the formation of the Supreme C o u n c i l , and the subsequent i n c l u s i o n of women's hockey on the programme of the Moscow Olympics, there fol lowed an extended per iod of co-operat ion between the F . I . H . and the I .F.W.H.A. In 1978, the President of the I .F.W.H.A. applauded the harmonious r e l a t i o n s which now e x i s t e d , and reported that the two federat ions were 83 working together to cover much common ground. These common areas were: Olympic compet i t ion, mutual p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each o t h e r ' s tournaments, and 63 j o i n t r u l e s . One of the mandates of the Supreme Counci l was the s e l e c t i o n of countr ies to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Moscow Olympics. As e a r l y as February 1977, the I .F .W.H.A. Counc i l supported the concept "of naming the top teams i n the wor ld , regard less of geographical l oca t ion" and that the teams should "be 64 se lec ted on the i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l record" . The matter of the women's competit ion was d iscussed at a Supreme Counc i l meeting i n November 1977, but no f i rm date was set for s e l e c t i o n u n t i l 1979, when i t was announced that a Counc i l meeting would be held i n February 1980 to choose the teams which would p a r t i c i p a t e . A member of the Supreme Counc i l l a t e r revealed that , dur ing t h i s pre-Olympic p e r i o d , the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a were never made e x p l i c i t as no r e a l , ob jec t i ve c r i t e r i a were ever e s t a b l i s h e d . Th is created a f e e l i n g of uncer ta inty among the I .F.W.H.A. nat ions , and there was some d issens ion when the Olympic s e l e c t i o n s were announced. As events t ransp i red , because of the boycott , which was supported by a l l of the strongest hockey-playing nat ions , none of the countr ies se lec ted by the Supreme Counci l i n February 1980 65 competed i n the Olympics. Mutual p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each o t h e r ' s tournaments was an i n t e r n a l matter w i th in the sport i t s e l f , and thus could be resolved by the supreme Counci l represent ing both the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . An amicable agreement was negot iated dur ing the course of severa l meetings between 1975 and 1977. That t h i s arrangement was accepted, i s supported by the entry of two e x c l u s i v e l y 66 I .F.W.H.A. countr ies at the F . I . H . European Cup the very next year . Progress with the development of a common set of r u l e s , and towards a s i n g l e j o i n t body with j u s r i s d i c t i o n over them, was continuous throughout t h i s 84 per iod . In 1975, the f i r s t common Rule Book was publ ished and, by 1979, a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n men's and women's ru les had been e l iminated , concomitant ly, i n 1977, the j o i n t Hockey Rules Board was es tab l i shed as a f u l l committee of the F . I . H . , and on 1st January 1980 became an autonomous committee under the 6*7 j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Supreme C o u n c i l . During the per iod from 1976 to 1980, the o rgan i za t iona l s t ruc ture of the F . I . H . underwent some changes. Up u n t i l 1977, the F . I . H . Women's Committee, which was e lec ted by the Women's Congress (comprising delegates from a l l women's sect ions of F . I . H . - a f f i l i a t e d c o u n t r i e s ) , met independently of the f u l l Committee of the F . I . H . ; but by 1978, the Women's Congress ceased to e x i s t , a l l e l e c t i o n s taking p lace w i th in the Congress (men and women), and 68 the Women's Committee became a component committee of the F . I . H . This change i n s tatus of the Women's Committee was d iscussed at the next meeting of the I .F .W.H.A . , where there was concern that i f t h i s committee were d i s s o l v e d , and nat iona l assoc ia t ions d id not have e f f e c t i v e women's sec t i ons , there would no longer be any es tab l i shed contact with such a f f i l i a t e members. This s i t u a t i o n bore some relevance to an important c o n s t i t u t i o n a l cond i t i on of membership i n the I .F.W.H.A. — the s t i p u l a t i o n that there must ex i s t an e f f e c t i v e women's committee w i th in an a s s o c i a t i o n . Here appeared yet another 69 example of the loss of autonomy of women's o rgan i za t i ona l bodies. In tegrat ion of the I .F.W.H.A. i n to the F . I . H . The e a r l y 1980s witnessed the i n t e g r a t i o n of the I .F.W.H.A. i n to the F . I . H . , and the f i n a l u n i f i c a t i o n of the two world bodies . This process was not devoid of d i f f i c u l t i e s , nor was i t achieved without the re luctance of a subs tan t i a l proport ion of the I .F.W.H.A. membership. Moreover, r e l a t i v e to the per iod of co-ex istence of the two federat ions s ince the i r i ncept ion , the 85 i n t e g r a t i o n phase was shor t . Indeed, to the I .F.W.H.A. membership at l a rge , the absorpt ion of t h e i r federat ion in to the F . I . H . seemed to occur suddenly, a percept ion p a r t l y due to the fact that the d e l i c a t e negot ia t ions involved at the l e v e l of the Supreme Counci l were entrusted to the O f f i c e r s of the I .F .W.H.A. , and the proceedings of c o n f i d e n t i a l meetings were not widely d isseminated. In 1979, based on the premise that each federat ion was s t i l l autonomous, the I .F.W.H.A. considered the Supreme Counci l "a s a t i s f a c t o r y 70 working r e l a t i o n s h i p " . However, even at t h i s time, at least those countr ies which were members of both the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . were aware that the two i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ions were moving c lose r together, and that important dec i s ions regarding union were being made by the F . I . H . By 1980, as the course towards i n t e g r a t i o n became more c l e a r l y de f ined , there was a 71 progress ive d e t e r i o r a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s between the two federa t ions . The President of the I .F.W.H.A. explained to her membership that the circumstances which had led to worsening r e l a t i o n s perta ined to the quest ion of the impending i n t e g r a t i o n of the I .F.W.H.A. and the F . I . H . , and she hoped that f r u i t f u l d i scuss ions on the i n t e g r a t i o n of the two i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ions would take place at the next meeting of the Supreme C o u n c i l , set for A p r i l 72 1981. So advanced was the process that , at t h i s meeting, the F . I . H . tabled proposals which i t f e l t could lead to i n t e g r a t i o n . In these proposals , the d e t a i l s of which were to be issued to a l l member assoc ia t ions of the 73 I.F.W.H.A. before i t s June Counci l meeting, the F . I . H . o f f e red the I .F.W.H.A. representat ion on every committee. C i r c u l a t i o n of the proposals generated cons iderable d i s c u s s i o n w i th in and between member assoc ia t ions of the I .F.W.H.A. Concern was expressed whether, indeed, there was any "room for 86 negot i a t i on" , or i f the I .F.W.H.A. simply had the choice whether to accept or 74 r e j e c t , without the opportunity to o f f e r counter-proposa ls . The d i f f i c u l t dec i s i on was taken at a Counc i l meeting of the I .F.W.H.A. i n June 1981 f o r , when the F . I . H . met that September, i t s membership was informed that the terms of i n t e g r a t i o n of the I .F.W.H.A. w i th in the F . I . H . "had been presented to the I .F .W.H.A. which had accepted them unanimously." The F . I . H . Counc i l then approved the scheme to complete i n t e g r a t i o n by the end of the next year . Th is i n t e g r a t i o n of the I .F.W.H.A. with the F . I . H . would therefore br ing to an end the existence of the Supreme C o u n c i l , for which there was no longer any need.^~* In an e d i t o r i a l to World Hockey, Rene Frank, the President of the F . I . H . , gave pr ide of p lace to the news of i n t e g r a t i o n when he wrote: " . . . negot ia t ions are now concluded, and the i n t e g r a t i o n terms . . . have been accepted." Frank, who had been Honorary General Secretary of the F . I . H . from 1950 before taking over the presidency i n 1966, went on to say: "The importance of t h i s achievement cannot be minimized. Integrat ion has been one of the F . I . H . ' s aims for over t h i r t y years , and at l as t i t has come about." He explained that as a r e s u l t of the i n t e g r a t i o n , the I .F.W.H.A. would disappear from the scene, and from then on, a l l hockey would be managed by one s i n g l e body, the F . I . H . While expressing grat i tude that there would no longer e x i s t divergences and d i f f i c u l t i e s which had been encountered, Frank paid t r i b u t e to the great se rv i ce which the I .F.W.H.A. had rendered to hockey over a long p e r i o d . Not a l l i n women's hockey c i r l c e s perceived i n t e g r a t i o n i n such glowing terms. A hockey s c r i b e , w r i t i n g i n Hockey F i e l d , saw the absorpt ion of the I .F.W.H.A. as "the per i sh ing of a great purpose," and descr ibed the process as 77 "the u l t imate takeover" rather than "a true merger." The f e e l i n g s of 87 these women were wel l - founded. Lost now was the p a r t i c i p a t o r y ethos of the I .F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament; gone were the tours which formed such an i n t e g r a l part of t h i s event; no more was there the forum for teams, delegates and v i s i t o r s from a l l over the world to meet i n the t r a d i t i o n a l atmosphere of f r i endsh ip and shared a s p i r a t i o n s . Neverthe less , the act of i n t e g r a t i o n had been executed; the process needed only to be implemented. It was necessary now for members of the I .F.W.H.A. to a f f i l i a t e with the F . I . H . When the f u l l Congress met i n August 1982, one hundred and three na t iona l assoc ia t ions were a f f i l i a t e d to the F . I . H . , and i t was reported that the i n t e g r a t i o n of the I .F .W.H.A . , which had "been c a r r i e d out i n a t r u l y remarkable spor t ing s p i r i t , " was now p r a c t i c a l l y 78 complete. In A p r i l 1983, the Women's World Cup and Inter -Cont inenta l Cup competit ions were held i n Malays ia , organized j o i n t l y by the two federa t ions . 79 Af te r these Cup Tournaments, the I .F.W.H.A. formal ly ceased to e x i s t . Et ienne G l i c h i t c h , Honorary General Secretary of the F . I . H . , descr ibed t h i s momentous occas ion i n an e d i t o r i a l i n World Hockey: As had been planned, the In te rnat iona l Federat ion of Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ions held i t s f i n a l conference, which marked i t s d i s s o l u t i o n and was the l as t act i n conf i rming i t s incorporat ion in to the F . I . H . 8 0 He saw t h i s , not as the end of a women's f edera t ion , but the s t a r t of a new era i n which women's hockey would expand i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . While adherents of the F . I . H . view may have agreed with G l i c h i t c h ' s percept ion , there were many that were saddened by the disappearance of the I .F.W.H.A. Here was the demise of a great e n t e r p r i s e , conceived through the v i s i o n of i t s p ioneers , and continued by t h e i r successors for over h a l f a century. However, i n the g loba l perspec t i ve , perhaps i t could be sa id that , a f t e r almost s i x decades of separate existence of these two great federa t ions , the game of 88 hockey could now move forward i n t o the future with a l l women and men united w i th in the one c o n t r o l l i n g body, which through shared exper t i se , experience and endeavour, would be able to f u l f i l the aims, hopes and asp i ra t i ons of both. 89 P A R T I I FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA CHAPTER VII DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA TO WORLD WAR I The f i r s t hockey a s s o c i a t i o n was founded i n England i n 1875, with a set of ru les which formed the bas is of f i x t u r e matches. By the time of the c r e a t i o n of the present (Engl ish) Hockey Assoc ia t ion i n 1886, not only were the ru les d iscussed and formal ized , but they were a l s o publ ished and widely d i s t r i b u t e d . Furthermore, at t h i s time, the equipment for p lay ing the game had evolved roughly i n to i t s modern f o r m . 1 Thus, by the mid-1880s, hockey was s u f f i c i e n t l y wel l -developed to be exported; and, from t h i s time onwards, the game of modern hockey was disseminated throughout the B r i t i s h Empire. In 1885, B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s es tab l i shed the f i r s t hockey c lub i n Ind ia , and i n 1892, the f i r s t c lub was founded i n Ceylon. By the la te 1890s and ear l y 2 1900s, hockey was being played i n A u s t r a l i a , South A f r i c a and New Zealand. By 1909, the Honorary Secretary of the Hockey Assoc ia t i on was able to inc lude "the Dominion of Canada" i n h i s l i s t of countr ies which recognized the 3 H.A. as the r u l i n g body of the game. Indeed, f i e l d hockey was being played i n Canada even before the turn of the century. In the raid-1890s, as the f i r s t men's and women's i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey matches were being played i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s , and during the same per iod as the Lad ies ' Hockey Assoc ia t ion was being formed independently of i t s male counterpart , so too was the game taking root i n Vancouver, both for men and for women. 90 Men's Hockey i n B r i t i s h Columbia Men's hockey was f i r m l y es tab l i shed i n B r i t i s h Columbia before the end of the nineteenth century and continued to f l o u r i s h both i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a u n t i l the 1914-15 season, when World War I "put an immediate stop to 4 hockey". Amongst the sports c lubs which appeared i n the Vancouver D i rec to ry for 1896 was: Vancouver Hockey Club, - Pres ident , C M Beecher Secretary , R M Fr ipp Capta in , W F K F l i n t o n 5 Inc lus ion of the hockey c lub i n t h i s d i r e c t o r y , publ ished i n March 1896, would suggest that a team had been i n existence at least for the 1895-96 season, s ince the p lay ing season i n those times extended from about October to March. One of the Vancouver Hockey C lub ' s e a r l i e s t r i v a l s was a team from V i c t o r i a , 6 against whom severa l matches were played i n the 1897-98 season. A f te r the turn of the century, men's hockey continued to be an a c t i v e l y pursued sport i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and even i n those e a r l y years , a p r o v i n c i a l championship was inaugurated, with Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and the Esquimalt 7 Garr i son vy ing to become "Champions of B r i t i s h Columbia." In f a c t , the competit ion expanded i n 1910 when North Vancouver and James Bay entered the P r o v i n c i a l League, and for the next few years f i v e teams competed for the Challenge Cup. The North Vancouver Hockey C lub ' s f i x t u r e l i s t for the 1910-11 season ind i ca ted that a l l teams played each other twice, one match at home, 8 and one away. In men's hockey, most of the competit ion during the pre-World War I era 9 was amongst a d u l t s ; never the less , some hockey was played i n schoo ls , co l l eges and u n i v e r s i t i e s . The e a r l i e s t record of schoolboys p lay ing hockey was on 14 February 1903, at Vancouver High School , when the P r o v i n c i a l 91 Superintendent of Education granted the school a h a l f - h o l i d a y "to witness a match played between the g i r l s ' hockey team and a boys' e l e v e n . " 1 0 During the academic year 1911-12, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y Col lege of B.C. had a "Men's Ground Hockey C lub", to which the men of the Arts C lass o s t e n s i b l y asp i red , and for some years p r i o r to World War I , hockey was a l s o played by boys at S t . M ichae l ' s U n i v e r s i t y School i n V i c t o r i a . 1 1 Women's Hockey i n B r i t i s h Columbia In the same year as the Vancouver Hockey Club and i t s o f f i c e r s were f i r s t l i s t e d i n the Vancouver C i t y D i rec to ry , the Captain of the Vancouver H.C. , W.J.K. "Po l ly" F l i n t o n , approached the "Victorian-minded" c i t i z e n s of Vancouver with a view to a l lowing t h e i r daughters to p lay the game. Thus i t 12 was that , i n 1896, the Vancouver Lad ies ' Hockey Club was founded. During the f i r s t few years a f t e r the formation of the Vancouver Lad ies ' Hockey Club, matches were arranged with the Lad ies ' Hockey Clubs of V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, and Wel l ington, i n which the mainland team was usua l l y v i c t o r i o u s . Matches were a l so played between Vancouver Is land teams, for i n 1905, a game between the V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' Hockey Club and the Nanaimo Club was reported i n 13 the s o c i a l notes of V i c t o r i a ' s d a i l y newspaper. In the season 1902-3, a team from the Vancouver High School was formed. While the Vancouver Lad ies ' H.C. was too strong to provide competit ion for the students ' team, many exce l lent matches were played with the At lantas from New Westminster, which was i n existence by the e a r l y years of the new century. Other teams with which Vancouver High School could arrange f i x t u r e s around t h i s time were G r a n v i l l e P r i va te School and P r o v i n c i a l Normal School . When Thomson Cup matches were es tab l i shed i n severa l sports 92 between Vancouver High School and V i c t o r i a High School i n 1905-6, hockey was 14 the only sport i n which g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s compet i t ion. In 1906, the u n i v e r s i t y c l asses of the Vancouver High School and Col lege became the McG i l l U n i v e r s i t y Co l lege of B r i t i s h Columbia. By 1908-9, there was a s u f f i c i e n t number of students to form a g i r l s ' hockey team at the co l l ege and over the next few seasons, the McG i l l U n i v e r s i t y Col lege G i r l s ' Hockey Club inc luded amongst i t s opponents teams from King Edward High School , Normal School , New Westminster High School , V i c t o r i a High School , Westminster Lad ies ' Hockey Club, V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' Hockey C lub, and Uneeda C lub. C l e a r l y , dur ing t h i s pre-war e r a , there was cons iderable over lap amongst l a d i e s ' teams, co l l ege teams and school g i r l s ' teams. Th is i n t e r a c t i o n amongst teams of 15 severa l age groups continued u n t i l World War I . At the onset of war, whi le the l a d i e s ' hockey c lubs disbanded, the U n i v e r s i t y Club maintained i t s f i x t u r e s with school teams, and the competit ion 16 at co l l ege and high school l e v e l a c t u a l l y expanded. The const ruc t ion of f i v e new high schools i n Vancouver between 1908 and 1918 led to an increase i n s c h o o l g i r l hockey a c t i v i t y . For ins tance . King George High School , es tab l i shed i n 1914, had founded a g i r l s ' grass hockey team as e a r l y as 1915. Furthermore, as we l l as i n Vancouver i t s e l f . North Vancouver High School formed a team during t h i s per iod , and s c h o o l g i r l s were being introduced to grass hockey i n Burnaby where i t was taught at Kingsway West School . The Greater Vancouver High Schools competed with one another for the Mainland Championship. South Vancouver High School , the 1914-15 winner, was the f i r s t to d i sp lace King Edward High School as Vancouver's representat ive to p lay 17 against V i c t o r i a High School for the Thomson Cup. While high school g i r l s ' hockey competit ion for the Mainland Championship continued for the durat ion of the War, 1915 was the l as t of the 93 war years i n which Thomson Cup matches between Mainland and Is land teams took p lace . Then, dur ing the 1918-19 academic year , the h igh schoo ls , and the u n i v e r s i t y as w e l l , ceased to p l a y . The world was gripped by an in f luenza epidemic and the d i s r u p t i o n to mens' and l a d i e s ' hockey caused by the War now extended to the students dur ing the pandemic which fo l lowed. There i s no record of any hockey being played i n what might normally have been the 1918-19 18 season. Men's and Women's Hockey i n Other Parts of Canada Although Vancouver was dest ined to become the major centre of men's and women's f i e l d hockey i n the country, even i n the years p r i o r to World War I there had been some hockey development i n other parts of Canada. A r i v a l to Vancouver, around the turn of the century and beyond, was Vancouver Is land , with l a d i e s ' teams i n V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo and Wel l ington, men's teams from V i c t o r i a , James Bay and the Esquimalt Gar r i son , and s c h o o l g i r l s at V i c t o r i a 19 High School . In 1914, a men s grass hockey c lub was organized i n Calgary, with two teams which played at least one game i n ea r l y A p r i l of that year . An a r t i c l e i n the l o c a l newspaper which recorded the resu l t of that game a l so reported: "A Club has been proper ly organized, and games w i l l be played 20 r e g u l a r l y u n t i l the hot weather a r r i v e s . " It was around 1905 when an Eng l i sh i n s t r u c t o r at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto introduced "Ground Hockey" to the women at Toronto 's U n i v e r s i t y Co l l ege , and two years l a t e r , the women at the U n i v e r s i t y ' s v i c t o r i a Col lege took up the spor t . However, there was no record of any games being played by 21 l o c a l women's teams, and i t would seem that i n te res t waned. There i s a l so evidence that g i r l s played hockey i n Nova Scot ia p r i o r to 1900. H a l i f a x Lad ies ' Co l l ege , founded i n 1887, made p r o v i s i o n for afternoon r e c r e a t i o n a l 94 sess ions which inc luded ground hockey, and E d g e h i l l , a p r i v a t e school for g i r l s , a l so had a ground hockey team i n the l a te 1800s. By the ear l y 1900s, ground hockey was being played at Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , which, as we l l as 22 p lay ing the p r i v a t e schoo ls , a l so competed against co l l ege teams. Although Newfoundland d id not become a province of Canada u n t i l a f t e r World War I I , i t i s worthy of note that s c h o o l g i r l s ' hockey was played there p r i o r to World War I . Eng l i sh games mistresses taught hockey at both the Church of England and the Methodist g i r l s ' co l l eges and i n t e r - s c h o o l matches 23 were played r e g u l a r l y . Re la t ionsh ip between Men's and Women's Hockey Up to the time of World War I , hockey had been played by both men and women i n severa l c i t i e s across Canada. In the smal ler cent res , the men's and women's games developed independently, but i n Vancouver and on Vancouver Is land , there was considerable i n t e r a c t i o n . While i n genera l , men's and women's f i x t u r e s were arranged separate ly , there was a good deal of mixing between men and women hockey p l a y e r s . During the ear l y days of the game i n Vancouver, a match between men's and l a d i e s ' teams would o c c a s i o n a l l y be arranged "as a s p e c i a l event", and up to the 24 outbreak of war, hockeyists he ld an Annual B a l l at the Hotel Vancouver. S im i la r matches, or games of ac tua l "mixed hockey", were a l so played on 25 Vancouver I s l and . The Vancouver High School boys versus g i r l s match of 1903, and the severa l games between the Men's and Women's Ground Hockey Clubs of McG i l l U n i v e r s i t y Co l lege of B r i t i s h Columbia during the 1911-12 season, 26 were the student counterparts of the adult events. Appearing i n the photograph of the " F i r s t Vancouver Women's Hockey Team - 1896" are two men, i d e n t i f i e d as Mr. W.J.K. F l i n t o n , and Mr. Fred Crickmay. 95 F l i n t o n , Captain of the Vancouver Hockey Club (men's) at the time, was 27 acknowledged as the founder of the Vancouver Lad ies ' Hockey C lub. But F l i n t o n and Crickmay were not the only men to promote women's hockey. The f i r s t Vancouver High School g i r l s ' hockey team of 1902-3 "owed i t s beginning 28 i n large measure to the support of Mr. Ed. O 'Ca l laghan," and teaching at the same school i n i t s formative years were A.E.W. Sault and Thomas P a t t i s o n , who coached the team and umpired the g i r l s ' games. In 1912, Pa t t i son introduced " h i t t i n g the hockey b a l l for d is tance" as the f i r s t event i n the High School Sports Meet i n which g i r l s could compete, and three years l a t e r , as f i r s t p r i n c i p a l of the new schoo l , he formed and coached the King George 29 High School g i r l s ' grass hockey team. South Vancouver High School enjoyed a ten-year era of Mainland Championships and Thomson Cup g i r l s ' grass hockey successes which began i n 1914, the team having been coached by J . T . E . Palmer, school p r i n c i p a l . Several other men were a l so ac t ive i n coaching high school g i r l s ' grass hockey teams i n l a t e r years , whi le at McG i l l U n i v e r s i t y Co l l ege , 30 one of the men on f a c u l t y umpired r e g u l a r l y . Thus, i n those f i r s t twenty years of the game i n Vancouver, while competit ion on a regular and organized bas is was, for the most par t , conducted separate ly , men's hockey and women's hockey d id not develop i n t o t a l i s o l a t i o n from one another. Considerable i n t e r a c t i o n was evident on the f i e l d i t s e l f i n the form of mixed or s p e c i a l games, i n the formation of teams at c lub and school l e v e l , i n ass is tance with coaching and umpiring, and s o c i a l l y , too. 96 CHAPTER VIII DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA DURING THE INTER-WAR PERIOD In the i n t e r n a t i o n a l context , the development of f i e l d hockey i n Canada took p lace i n r e l a t i v e I s o l a t i o n for the f i r s t four decades of i t s ex is tence . The 1930s, however, was a per iod of i n t e r n a t i o n a l contact for both the men's and women's a s s o c i a t i o n s . During t h i s e ra , the men asp i red to Olympic compet i t ion, and the women, to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the I .F.W.H.A. Tournament. Although ne i ther a s s o c i a t i o n achieved i t s dec lared ob jec t i ve of sending a team to compete, the women were able to arrange matches of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l nature, and d i d , i n f a c t , a f f i l i a t e with t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l body. Therefore , the development of the women's game i s narrated f i r s t i n t h i s chapter . Women's F i e l d Hockey While Vancouver was not the only c i t y i n Canada where women's hockey was played during the inter-war p e r i o d , i t was the major centre of a c t i v i t y . Not only were most of the teams located there, but i t was a l so w i th in Greater Vancouver that a formal league was organized and an a s s o c i a t i o n founded — an a s s o c i a t i o n that was to become a f f i l i a t e d with the In ternat iona l Federat ion of Women's Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n s . Vancouver F ix tures The re-emergence of women's hockey i n Vancouver, a f t e r World War I and the in f luenza epidemic which fo l lowed, may be gauged through the a c t i v i t i e s of the U.B.C. Women's Grass Hockey Club as recorded i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s annual p u b l i c a t i o n , The Totem. When p lay resumed i n 1919-20, the Vancouver Lad ies ' 97 Hockey Club does not appear to have re-formed, as the only f i x t u r e s which the U.B.C. team was able to arrange l o c a l l y i n that season were against the South Vancouver teachers and the South Vancouver High School team. Even In 1922-23, the fourth a c t i v e post-war season, the U.B.C. c lub was forced "to r e l y on p r a c t i c e games with l o c a l high schools" for i t s compet i t ion . However, commencing i n 1923, there was a r e v i v a l of adult teams f o r , dur ing the 1923-24 season, the U.B.C. Women's Grass Hockey Club played matches with the Auroras (a Vancouver team) and with a team from New Westminster . 1 In the mid-twenties, adult teams of former high school p layers began to appear. In 1924, past p u p i l s of the Fa l rv iew High School of Commerce formed a team, and the next year , the e x - K i t s i l a n o Women's F i e l d Hockey Club was 2 formed. It was at t h i s time, too, that the need for a league, i n which senior teams would have a f i xed schedule, was recognized. For severa l years , The Totem reported that the prospects of such a league appeared b r i g h t , but even i n the 1926-27 season, when the U.B.C. Women's Grass Hockey Club expanded to two teams, no adult league had m a t e r i a l i z e d , and the major i ty of U .B .C . ' s games continued to be with high school teams. The Totem provided evidence that i n the 1928-29 season some type of league, a l b e i t not formal ized , was i n s t i t u t e d , as the U.B.C. c lub was reported to have entered a team i n t h i s 3 league. However, i t was not u n t i l the commencement of the 1929-30 season that , "pr imar i l y through the e f f o r t s of Mar jor ie McKay, a Women's Lower 4 Mainland League was formed, and put on a f i rm b a s i s . " In the f i r s t o f f i c i a l year of the Vancouver Women's League, s i x teams p a r t i c i p a t e d : U . B . C , V a r s i t y , Ex-South Vancouver, Ex-North Vancouver, B r i t a n n i a Grads and Normal School . Ex-South Vancouver won the competit ion i n 1929-30, and thus was the f i r s t team to have i t s name i n s c r i b e d on the Bentham Cup, emblematic of the league championship. By 1930-31, the Women's Mainland 98 League, considered experimental i n i t s inaugural year , was now regarded as 5 d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d , seven teams competing for the cup i n that year . In 1934-35, a f t e r years of steady growth, the Lower Mainland Women's Grass Hockey Assoc ia t i on s p l i t i n to two d i v i s i o n s , with an unprecedented t o t a l of twelve teams. 6 Fol lowing t h i s record season, there was a gradual dec l ine i n the number of teams. Several disbanded, or chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e , and only one new team, Pro-Rec, jo ined the League during the next few seasons. As a r e s u l t , by 1937-38, the League had been reduced to a s i n g l e d i v i s i o n of 7 e ight teams, a s i t u a t i o n which was to remain s tab le u n t i l World War I I . School Hockey i n Vancouver During the Inter-War per iod , g i r l s ' h igh school grass hockey continued to f l o u r i s h . In Vancouver, the 1920s witnessed the a d d i t i o n of severa l new schoo ls , and the Mainland Championship for high school g i r l s ' grass hockey resumed i n 1919-20. Thomson Cup games between Vancouver and Vancouver Is land 8 teams, r e - i n s t i t u t e d i n 1922, were d iscont inued a f t e r 1928. Of the Vancouver schoo ls , South Vancouver High School and B r i t a n n i a High School were c l e a r l y the dominant teams (See Appendix F ) , a phenomenon fur ther r e f l e c t e d by the success of ex-South Vancouver and B r i t a n n i a Grads i n the Women's League compet i t ion. Up u n t i l the m i d - t h i r t i e s , no other school had won the Mainland Championship s ince before World War I , but i n 1934-35, there emerged a new power: North Vancouver High School gained the t i t l e for the f i r s t time i n that year and, with one except ion, was champion u n t i l the 9 end of the decade. Even i n the e a r l y days of expansion of the Vancouver High School system, an o rgan iza t ion to oversee i n t e r - s c h o o l sport came i n t o being with the 10 formation of the Vancouver Inter-High School A t h l e t i c Assoc ia t i on i n 1915, 99 and from that time on, g i r l s ' h igh school hockey grew cons iderab ly . In 1923, a jun ior d i v i s i o n was formed, and by 1925, a t o t a l of e ighteen teams, drawn from ten schoo ls , competed i n the two d i v i s i o n s . In 1931, the Junior D i v i s i o n was separated in to two sec t i ons , and a year l a t e r the Intermediate D i v i s i o n was a l s o formed. By 1935, there were t h i r t y - t h r e e teams represent ing th i r t een schools p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Mainland c o m p e t i t i o n . 1 1 Through the success fu l i n t e r - h i g h school programme, a large number of p layers were being developed. Some would proceed to the U n i v e r s i t y or the Vancouver Normal School to provide p layers for these c l u b s . It i s not s u r p r i s i n g , however, that by the mid-1920s, many of the former p u p i l s not enter ing t e r t i a r y education i n s t i t u t i o n s should want to continue to p lay for a team assoc iated with the i r o l d s choo l . Thus, i t was a na tura l extension that severa l ex-high school teams emerged i n the la te 1920s to provide competit ion for the U.B.C. and Normal School teams; when the Mainland League o f f i c i a l l y came in to existence at the end of the decade, these ex-school teams were able to form an i n t e g r a l p a r t . Th is i s r e f l e c t e d i n the composit ion of the League which, i n i t s f i r s t year , had three ex-high school teams out of a t o t a l of s i x . In 1934-35, when League membership was at i t s h ighest , e ight of the 12 twelve e n t r i e s were high school graduate teams. The importance of t h i s c lose r e l a t i o n s h i p between the high schools and the Vancouver League was immediately recognized by the Executive of the Lower Mainland Women's Grass Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n . As ea r l y as 1929-30, the f i r s t season of formal league f i x t u r e s , a representat ive team was chosen from the 13 Women's A s s o c i a t i o n to p lay a team se lec ted from the schoo ls . This competit ion became an annual event and was of s u f f i c i e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e to warrant mention i n the U.B.C. C lub ' s year-end repor ts , and i n c l u s i o n i n the 100 f i r s t Report of the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Assoc ia t ion to the 14 In ternat iona l Federat ion of Women's Hockey Assoc ia t ions i n 1939. Another success fu l venture was the establishment of F i e l d Day, which was i n i t i a t e d as the resu l t of a suggestion at the 1936 I .F.W.H.A. Conference, to which Vancouver had sent a representa t ive . The f i r s t F i e l d Day was held during the 1937-38 season, and was organized on a format of shor t , f r i e n d l y matches amongst teams from the Vancouver League and the h igh schoo ls . At the second F i e l d Day, he ld on 4 March 1939, i t was reported that twenty-f ive teams turned out i n f r i e n d l y compet i t ion, p lay ing twenty-minute matches which extended over four p i t c h e s . In te rac t ion between "League" and "School" was important, for i t created a means of in t roduc ing g i r l s to the adult teams on the one hand, and a v e h i c l e for recruitment of p layers by the senior teams on the o ther . Vancouver Is land and I n t e r - C i t y Competit ion Women's hockey competit ion between Vancouver and Vancouver Is land teams resumed soon a f t e r the War. As e a r l y as the 1919-20 season, The Totem reported that a U.B.C. team t r a v e l l e d to the Is land to p lay a V i c t o r i a team, and during the 1920s, exchange matches between V i c t o r i a co l l ege and U .B . .C . 16 became an annual event. In the 1925-26 season, for example, two matches were played on a home-and-home b a s i s , as i t was recorded by the U.B.C. s c r i be that " the return game with V i c t o r i a Col lege" was the f i r s t opportunity to 17 p lay at the U n i v e r s i t y ' s own ground at Point Grey. Furthermore, women's c lub teams soon re-emerged on Vancouver I s l and . Such a c lub was reported to have been ac t i ve at Duncan, up- i s land from V i c t o r i a , i n the e a r l y twenties, and i n the 1927-28 season, U . B . C . ' s schedule 18 of f i x t u r e s inc luded a game with the V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' Team. By the end of 101 the 1920s, the l a d i e s ' c lubs on Vancouver Is land were beginning to re-form i n an organized way. The programme of the f i r s t Canadian Women's Nat ional Championships recognized 1929-30 as the date of post-war formation of the 19 V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' Grass Hockey C lub. By the mid-1930s, both V i c t o r i a and Duncan had w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d l a d i e s ' hockey c lubs which, as we l l as arranging matches with each other , competed with outs ide teams. In the 1935-36 season, for instance, the V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' Grass Hockey Club played a match against the Vancouver Reps. However, i t was the Duncan Lad ies ' Grass Hockey Club upon whom f e l l the honour of host ing and 20 p lay ing the v i s i t i n g A u s t r a l i a n team i n the autumn of 1936. The next few years witnessed a considerable increase i n organized a c t i v i t y on Vancouver I s l and . U n t i l the m i d - t h i r t i e s , the V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' Grass Hockey Club, a group of keen enthus ias ts , had few teams against which i t could match i t s s k i l l s . To redress t h i s s i t u a t i o n , Commander Montague Bridgman, husband of the c lub cap ta in , presented a trophy which could be contested each year by the teams i n the d i s t r i c t . This annual compet i t ion, the f i r s t of which took place i n 1937, a t t rac ted teams from the l o c a l high schools and p r i va te schoo ls , as we l l as the l a d i e s ' c l u b s . In the f i r s t two years of Bridgman Cup compet i t ion, the adult c lubs proved too strong for the school teams. The V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' Grass Hockey Club won the Cup i n 1937 and 1938, with Duncan Lad ies ' Grass Hockey Club c lose runners-up i n the l a t t e r 21 year . In the 1938-39 season, upon the i n s t i g a t i o n of the Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n , an I n t e r - C i t y Tournament, known as the T r iang le League, was i n i t i a t e d . In i t s inaugural year , V i c t o r i a was to p lay Duncan on the Is land , with the winning team t r a v e l l i n g to Vancouver at Easter-t ime to p lay the premier c lub of the Lower Mainland League. V i c t o r i a duly defeated Duncan and 102 proceeded to Vancouver to p lay the Lower Mainland premiers. On Good Fr iday of 1939, General America defeated f i r s t , U .B .C . , and then, the V i c t o r i a L .G.H.C. 22 to win the I n t e r - C i t y Cup. With the advent of war i n 1939, the number of adult hockey p layers d e c l i n e d . Although correspondence passed between o f f i c i a l s of the Mainland Assoc ia t i on and the Vancouver Is land c lubs , the T r iang le League competit ion could not be continued beyond 1940. Indeed, by the 1941-42 season the l a d i e s ' 23 c lubs on the Is land had disbanded. School Hockey on Vancouver Is land As on the Lower Mainland, school hockey competit ion for g i r l s was an important cont r ibutor to the development of the game on Vancouver Is land during the Inter-War years . The V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' G.H.C. drew many of i t s ac t i ve p layers from the high schools and p r i v a t e schools i n the V i c t o r i a area, and s i m i l a r l y , the Duncan Lad ies ' G.H.C. r e c r u i t e d i t s members from the l o c a l h igh school and Queen Margaret 's School , a p r i va te school located i n the 24 d i s t r i c t . V i c t o r i a High School enjoyed the greatest p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r - c i t y s c h o o l g i r l compet i t ion . During the 1920s, t h i s school represented Vancouver Is land i n Thomson Cup matches on every occas ion , except i n the f i n a l year , 25 1927-28, when Courtenay High School ended the domination. In the 1930s, however, other schools began to extend strong oppos i t i on . When the f i r s t Bridgman Cup Tournament was contested i n 1937, Oak Bay High School f i n i s h e d runners-up to the V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' G . H . C , a c r e d i t a b l e performance cons ider ing that the tournament was played on V i c t o r i a High Schoo l ' s home grounds; and i n f a c t , Oak Bay High School won the Bridgman Trophy i n 1939-40 and 1 9 4 0 - 4 1 . 2 6 103 In a d d i t i o n to the high schoo ls , p r i v a t e schools p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s compet i t ion, Norfo lk House School and Queen Margaret 's School enter ing the f i r s t Bridgman Cup Tournament. La ter , dur ing the war years , the p r i va te schools were the strongest contenders, Queen Margaret 's School winning the 27 trophy on f i v e consecutive occasions from 1941-42 to 1945-46. Women's Hockey i n Other Parts of Canada During the inter-war years , women's hockey at the adult l e v e l was played only i n B r i t i s h Columbia; but at the student l e v e l , i t was fostered i n other provinces as w e l l . In Nova S c o t i a , the "ground hockey" played i n the pre-World War I era by co l l ege teams extended, a f t e r the War, to the u n i v e r s i t i e s . In the autumn of 1923, f i e l d hockey was re- introduced at Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , H a l i f a x , and w i th in a few years , Da lhous ie 's opponents comprised not only H a l i f a x and E d g e h i l l l a d i e s ' c o l l e g e s , but a l so H a l i f a x Academy, Acadia U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of Maine. It i s worthy of note that Dalhous ie 's match with the U n i v e r s i t y of Maine, played i n November 1925 was descr ibed as " — the f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l game i n t h i s branch of sport 28 that has ever been played i n H a l i f a x . " Competit ion amongst the co l l eges and u n i v e r s i t i e s continued u n t i l the outbreak of World War I I . Saskatchewan i s another province i n which s c h o o l g i r l s were p lay ing f i e l d hockey dur ing the inter-war years , for the students of Centra l C o l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t e i n Regina had been p lay ing the game for two years , when, i n the autumn of 1923, t h e i r team es tab l i shed home and away games with a 29 s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n i n Moose Jaw. 104 Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n and In ternat iona l A f f i l i a t i o n The c r e a t i o n of a women's grass hockey a s s o c i a t i o n i n the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia evolved over a per iod of severa l years . From the mid-1920s, F . J . Mayers of B r i t a n n i a High School had been urging i t s formation and, for many years , U . B . C , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a te 1920s under the leadership of Mar jor ie McKay, had been anxious that a league should ex i s t i n which the c lub could p a r t i c i p a t e . In the 1928-29 season, an informal league was operat ing ; and, f i n a l l y , i n 1929, with Mayers as Honorary Pres ident , the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Assoc ia t ion (G.V.W.G.H.A.) was organized, and the League formal i zed . Adult hockey c lubs on Vancouver Is land were re-formed i n the 1920s, and matches between s i m i l a r teams from the Lower 30 Mainland and Vancouver Is land were es tab l i shed by the mid-1930s. Up to t h i s po in t , there had been no contact with teams from outs ide B r i t i s h Columbia. However, i n 1936, there began a sequence of events which was to catapul t the Vancouver Assoc ia t i on in to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l sphere. The I.F.W.H.A Conference and Tournament of 1936 was scheduled to be held i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pennsylvania, and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s was f u l l y appreciated by the Executive of the Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n . It was reported that there were "hopes of sending a team to Pennsylvania to take part i n the [Tournament] i n October". At the very least the Execut ive was determined to send one or two representat ives to the Conference, so as not to miss t h i s chance of a 31 l i f e t i m e . Although no team was sent to P h i l a d e l p h i a , an in t roduc t ion to i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey was achieved. The A u s t r a l i a n team, en route to P h i l a d e l p h i a , was hosted to two matches; the f i r s t of these was played at Brockton Point against a Vancouver XI on 3 October 1936, and the second two days l a t e r against the Duncan A l l - S t a r s on Vancouver I s l and . A u s t r a l i a won 105 both matches e a s i l y , but the enthusiasm that was generated as a resu l t of t h i s 32 v i s i t had l o n g - l a s t i n g b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s . So success fu l was the f u n d - r a i s i n g e f f o r t assoc iated with the v i s i t of the A u s t r a l i a n team that a l l expenses were covered, inc lud ing the cost of sending the President of the G.V.W.G.H.A. as a representat ive to the I .F.W.H.A. Conference. On her return from the Conference, the President recommended that the A s s o c i a t i o n apply to j o i n the In ternat iona l Federat ion of Women's Hockey Assoc ia t i ons , and i n 1937, the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Assoc ia t ion was accepted as an 33 Assoc iate Member i n to the Federat ion . Attendance at the Conference by i t s President had allowed the G.V.W.G.H.A. to e s t a b l i s h i n t e r n a t i o n a l contact . As a resu l t of d iscuss ions with the United States F i e l d Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n ( U . S . F . H . A . ) , matches between C a l i f o r n i a and Vancouver teams were arranged. In A p r i l 1938, a Los Angeles team played i n Vancouver, and i n November of that year , the Vancouver Canucks paid a return v i s i t to C a l i f o r n i a . Ea r l y i n 1939, there were a l so prospects of again host ing tour ing teams from other count r i es , as the I .F.W.H.A. 34 Conference was to have been held i n England i n October of that year . Although i t was the Women's Assoc ia t i on located i n Greater Vancouver that became o f f i c i a l l y reg i s te red as Canada's a f f i l i a t e with the I .F .W.H.A. , the c lubs from Vancouver Is land were not d isregarded by the G.V.W.G.H.A. The A u s t r a l i a n team had played i n Duncan i n October 1936, even though the l o c a l members themselves f e l t i t was somewhat audacious that a c lub of eighteen p layers should i n v i t e the A u s t r a l i a n team to the Is land for a game. Several p layers from Vancouver Is land a l so jo ined the Vancouver Canucks team which 35 toured C a l i f o r n i a i n November 1938. Indeed, when the T r iang le League was set up to e s t a b l i s h i n t e r - c i t y competit ion invo lv ing V i c t o r i a , Duncan and the c lubs of the Lower Mainland League, i t was seen as a step towards extending 106 grass hockey a c t i v i t i e s i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, thus c rea t ing a 36 B.C. Assoc ia t i on with i t s p ivot i n the Lower Mainland. Men's F i e l d Hockey Men's f i e l d hockey was a c t i v e l y played during the inter-war years i n B r i t i s h Columbia, both i n the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver I s l and . C e r t a i n l y , by the 1930s, the Mainland Grass Hockey Assoc ia t i on of B.C. had become the dominant o rgan i za t i ona l body i n the prov ince , and indeed i n a l l of Canada, and i t was from t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n that i n t e r n a t i o n a l correspondence emanated. Mainland League Although World War I and the in f luenza epidemic which fol lowed had brought a cessa t ion of a c t i v i t i e s for a per iod of f i v e p lay ing seasons, i t was not long before enthus iasts r e - s t a r t e d men's hockey i n Vancouver. As ea r l y as 1919, although i t was not poss ib le to f i e l d two f u l l teams, informal games of 37 four - or f i v e - a - s i d e were p layed. In the 1920-21 season, a competit ion with at least three teams was resumed, and a meeting of the "Mainland Grass 38 Hockey League" convened. At the time of the League's Annual General Meeting i n October 1921, the representat ives of f i v e teams, Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby, R.C.M.P. and Shamrocks were present to d iscuss the schedule for the 1921-22 season; and when a U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia team f i r s t entered the League i n 1923, there were four teams p a r t i c i p a t i n g , 39 each team p lay ing the others three t imes. Throughout the mid-twenties, the League continued to comprise four or f i v e teams. Some of the stronger c lubs of e a r l i e r years , i n c lud ing R.C.M.P., had disbanded by 1925, but other teams were formed to take t h e i r p lace . For 107 example, i n the 1925-26 season, a new team, C r i c k e t e r s , jo ined the League, and a s u b s t a n t i a l increase i n membership that year enabled the U.B.C. c lub to 40 enter two teams. The l a te 1920s was a per iod of growth, both i n numbers of p a r t i c i p a t i n g teams, and i n competit ive a c t i v i t y . Expansion i n numbers culminated i n a 41 seven-team league during the 1929-30 season: and by t h i s time, as we l l as the t r a d i t i o n a l round-robin compet i t ion, the schedule now inc luded matches 42 played on a "knock-out" b a s i s . With the ' t h i r t i e s came the years of economic depress ion dur ing which, i t i s recorded, c lub fees were hard to c o l l e c t . The e f f e c t of the Depression was r e f l e c t e d i n the p lay ing s t rength , for as e a r l y as the 1930-31 season the League was reduced to s i x teams, and the next season, to f i v e . As the decade progressed, the number of teams continued to dec l ine and, for most of the remainder of that decade, only four teams p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Mainland League 43 compet i t ion. One new team which d id emerge, however, was that of the India Hockey C lub. These hardy newcomers, descr ibed as "turbanned Sikhs [some 44 of whom] played i n bare fee t" , added a novelty to the game i n B r i t i s h Columbia when they f i r s t entered the League i n the 1933-34 season. It was not long before the India Hockey Club began to assert i t s supremacy, for t h i s team won the Challenge Cup for three consecutive seasons between 1934 and 1937, and 45 the O.B. A l l e n Cup, for the "knock out" compet i t ion, on two occas ions . As the 1930s drew to a c l o s e , men's f i e l d hockey i n the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia showed promise of a resurgence, with the add i t i on of two 46 new c lubs i n the 1938-39 season. Any p o t e n t i a l for susta ined growth i n the number of competing teams, however, was ext inguished by the onset of war. From f i v e teams competing i n the l as t pre-war season, the League was reduced to two teams i n 1941-42. In that year , 108 i t was found i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to f i e l d teams as the season progressed, so much so, that at the end of the f i r s t h a l f of the normal season, i t was decided to cease p l a y . 4 7 Vancouver Is land Hockey and I n t e r - C i t y Matches Men's hockey on Vancouver Is land was a l so revived soon a f t e r World War I , and remained ac t i ve throughout the inter-war p e r i o d . As e a r l y as the 1919-20 season, V i c t o r i a was able to f i e l d a strong team and, by the 1920s, an a s s o c i a t i o n known as the Vancouver Is land and Gul f Is lands Hockey Assoc ia t ion was i n ex is tence . S u f f i c i e n t teams were p lay ing i n the area to e s t a b l i s h what the executive members of the Lower Mainland Assoc ia t i on r e f e r r e d to as "the 48 V i c t o r i a League." During t h i s p e r i o d , teams were a c t i v e both i n V i c t o r i a i t s e l f and i n the neighbouring d i s t r i c t s . In the 1923-24 season, for example, The Totem reported that the newly formed U.B.C. c lub v i s i t e d the Is land to p lay a l o c a l V i c t o r i a c lub , and three seasons l a t e r , the C r i c k e t e r s c lub from Vancouver 49 arranged a match with the hockey team from Duncan. During the 1930s, a strong team was based at Shawnigan Lake School , a l so located outs ide of V i c t o r i a . P lay ing as the Opt imists Hockey Club, t h i s team t r a v e l l e d annual ly to Vancouver to compete with c lub teams from the Lower Mainland League. S i m i l a r l y , on numerous occas ions , Vancouver teams v i s i t e d Duncan and Shawnigan Lake School , as we l l as V i c t o r i a , to p lay matches with teams from Vancouver 50 I s l a n d . So popular was the competit ion among the c lubs of Vancouver Is land and the Mainland that , i n 1936, the Executive of the Mainland Grass Hockey Assoc ia t i on of B.C. suggested a tournament "between V i c t o r i a , 51 Shawnigan, Duncan and l o c a l teams of the [Mainland A s s o c i a t i o n ] . " However, the matches of " p r i n c i p a l i n t e r e s t [were] the representat ive games between the Mainland and Is land Assoc ia t ions i n which home and away 52 games [were] played" annual ly . Between 1919 and 1939, regular matches 109 between Vancouver and V i c t o r i a were a t r a d i t i o n a l feature of the season's f i x t u r e l i s t . Usua l l y , V i c t o r i a v i s i t e d Vancouver i n the la te f a l l , and Vancouver t r a v e l l e d to V i c t o r i a i n the s p r i n g , to contest what were i n v a r i a b l y outstanding games between chosen representat ive teams. A t y p i c a l Vancouver representat ive team, for instance, would conta in severa l p layers from each of the c lub teams competing i n the Mainland League. The matches, and s e l e c t i o n s , were taken s u f f i c i e n t l y s e r i o u s l y to warrant t r i a l games of "Poss ib les" versus " P r o b a b l e s " . 5 3 Aspects of Development While the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Is land were the major centres of men's f i e l d hockey between the wars, the game was a l so played i n other areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1929, the Secretary of the Lower Mainland League was ins t ruc ted to wr i te to Vernon and Kelowna, two c i t i e s i n the i n t e r i o r , Okanagan reg ion , of the prov ince , "to a s c e r t a i n i f games [could] be arranged 54 with the Okanagan teams during the coming season." Although a rep ly was rece ived from the Secretary of the Vernon Grass Hockey C lub, there was no 55 record of any ensuing matches between the Mainland and Okanagan teams. At that time, men's hockey was a game played predominantly by senior teams, f o r , despi te e f f o r t s by the Mainland Assoc ia t i on "to t ry and get the 56 boys i n High School in te res ted i n the game", there was no formal ized school compet i t ion . Only a few p r i v a t e schools introduced the game to boys. These inc luded S t . M ichae l ' s U n i v e r s i t y School i n V i c t o r i a , which conducted inter-house hockey both before and a f t e r World War I , and Mackie's Preparatory 57 School , near Vernon, where boys played hockey during the inter-war years . Of the U.B.C. teams of that p e r i o d , i t could be sa id that "most of the p layers 58 [had] learned t h e i r hockey s ince coming to U n i v e r s i t y . " For instance, 110 only three members of U .B .C . ' s inaugural team of the 1923-24 season had any 59 previous hockey exper ience. However, the c o n t r i b u t i o n from the pr iva te schools and from U.B.C was s u b s t a n t i a l . Many Old Macovians played for Lower Mainland c lubs , and i n one season were s u f f i c i e n t i n numbers to form an ex-Mackies team which competed i n 60 the League. Of even greater s i g n i f i c a n c e was the U.B.C. c lub which, from i t s incept ion i n 1923, always f i e l d e d at least one team i n the Lower Mainland League. Furthermore, many of i t s members continued to p lay a f t e r graduat ion, e n l i s t i n g with the "City" teams. An a d d i t i o n a l feature of the U n i v e r s i t y Club was the ac t i ve involvement of members of f a c u l t y and s t a f f , not only as p layers and coaches, but a l so as patrons, both of the U.B.C. Club and of the , ^ 6 1 League i t s e l f . In ternat iona l Contacts The inter-war per iod was one of l i t t l e contact with teams from outs ide the two major centres of the game, the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Is land , but every opportunity was taken to arrange matches where p o s s i b l e . Several games were recorded invo lv ing teams from v i s i t i n g Royal Navy sh ips , i nc lud ing 62 H.M.S. Dauntless i n 1930 and H.M.S. Or ion i n 1939. An i n v i t a t i o n was a l so extended to the Southern C a l i f o r n i a Wanderers i n 1933, "guaranteeing three 63 games on the Mainland and two games on Vancouver I s l a n d . " Although there i s no fur ther mention i n the records of any games r e s u l t i n g from t h i s i n v i t a t i o n , a match arranged between teams from Southern C a l i f o r n i a and B r i t i s h Columbia was played i n San Franc isco at the time of the Golden Gate 64 Expos i t ion i n 1939. Of a l l the business transacted during the inter-war years by the Executive of the Mainland Grass Hockey Assoc ia t ion of B r i t i s h Columbia, none I l l was of greater i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e than t h i s extract from the Sec re ta ry ' s Report of the 1931-32 season: Having been advised that seven nat ions were enter ing grass hockey teams i n the Olympic Games [Los Ange les] , we wired Mr. Robinson at Hamilton, and subsequently, r ece iv ing no r e p l y , wrote to Ottawa. We were advised that nothing i n the way of a subsidy could be expected but that some arrangements might be made for us to enter , i f we could guarantee our e n t i r e expenses. A general canvass of the s i t u a t i o n showed that the money was not going to be forthcoming, so we r e g r e t f u l l y had to pass up the o p p o r t u n i t y . g 5 While not success fu l i n enter ing a team i n Olympic compet i t ion, the A s s o c i a t i o n d id e s t a b l i s h an " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " l i a i s o n . During the 1939-40 season, the Mainland Grass Hockey Assoc ia t i on of B r i t i s h Columbia a f f i l i a t e d 66 with the Hockey Assoc ia t i on (England). Re la t ionsh ips Between Men's and Women's Hockey Between the wars, marked d i f f e rences ex is ted i n c e r t a i n areas i n the development of men's and women's f i e l d hockey. The post-war emergence of competit ive leagues i n Vancouver was one example. Whereas four or f i v e men's teams were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a formal league by the e a r l y 1920s, i t was not u n t i l the very end of the decade, a f t e r severa l years of informal adult compet i t ion, that a women's league comprising s i x senior teams was f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . On the other hand, whi le there were very few schools i n the e n t i r e province of B r i t i s h Columbia at which boys had the opportunity to p lay hockey, g i r l s ' hockey i n the schools was very strong indeed, i n Vancouver and on Vancouver I s l a n d . Even i n the e a r l y 1920s, the Mainland Championships a t t rac ted teams from severa l schools and, by the m i d - t h i r t i e s , t h i r t y - t h r e e teams represent ing t h i r t e e n schools p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s compet i t ion . In other aspects the men's and women's games developed i n p a r a l l e l . During the 1930s, both assoc ia t ions sought to experience i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey 112 and to secure i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n . The women were success fu l i n arranging matches with the v i s i t i n g A u s t r a l i a n team i n 1936 and i n being accepted to the I .F.W.H.A. the fo l lowing year . The a s p i r a t i o n s of the men to p lay i n the 1932 Olympic Games were not f u l f i l l e d , but the Mainland Grass Hockey Assoc ia t i on of B r i t i s h Columbia d id a f f i l i a t e with the Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n (England) at the end of the decade. Both men's and women's teams had, by then, a l so played matches i n C a l i f o r n i a . Furthermore, the considerable i n t e r a c t i o n between men and women i n the development of the game before World War I continued during the inter-war p e r i o d . Mixed hockey matches, where men and women played together i n the same teams, provided such a source of i n t e r a c t i o n . When women's hockey was i n i t s r ebu i l d ing stages, i n the years p r i o r to the formation of a senior league i n Vancouver, adult compet i t ion was made poss ib le through games of mixed hockey. In the mid-1920s i n Vancouver, for example, the Crusaders c lub staged a mixed game, and the Auroras team arranged mixed hockey matches, i n which both the men's and women's U.B.C. teams were invo lved . On Vancouver I s land , too, mixed hockey was played during the 1920s, the Staples Cup having been presented i n 1926 to fos te r compet i t ion . The Staples Cup Mixed Hockey Tournament, held on Vancouver Is land i n November 1938, a t tes ted to the continued popu la r i ty of 6*7 t h i s aspect of the game. From time to time, too, as had been the case p r i o r to World War I , men's and women's teams played matches against one another. In the 1923-24 season, the U.B.C. Women's Grass Hockey Club arranged a match with the newly-formed u n i v e r s i t y men's team. La ter , i n the 1929—30 season, The Totem reported that , i n Vancouver, the women were co-operat ing with the men 68 i n p lay ing p r a c t i c e matches. The explanat ion of t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s 113 recorded i n the minutes of an executive committee meeting of the men's a s s o c i a t i o n . The U.B.C. member of the execut ive: had been asked to a s c e r t a i n the views of the League as regards the U n i v e r s i t y Ladies Hockey Team. They des i re admittance in to our League to indulge i n regular games with the men's teams. It was decided that t h i s was not p r a c t i c a b l e , but . . . that f r i e n d l y games could be arranged between the team having a bye & the l ad ies team.59 Co-operat ive ventures at c lub and a s s o c i a t i o n l e v e l a l so extended to compet i t ion between Lower Mainland and Vancouver Is land teams. In the 1929-30 season, for instance, men and women p layers from Vancouver v i s i t e d Duncan for a mixed game. The next season, a men's and a women's team from U.B.C. t r a v e l l e d to Duncan to p lay against t h e i r respect ive counterparts , these 70 matches being fol lowed by a mixed game. It i s recorded i n the minutes of the men's Mainland Assoc ia t i on that "the League accepted the request to f i e l d a team to oppose the Women's Assoc ia t i on Representat ive Team" i n preparat ion for i t s match with the 71 v i s i t i n g A u s t r a l i a n Women's Touring Team i n 1936. indeed, at that time, i n t e r a c t i o n between the men's and women's Mainland Assoc ia t ions was such that the President of the men's Assoc ia t i on "suggested a c l o s e r co-operat ion among the two assoc ia t ions on occasions such as I n t e r - C i t y games of both leagues and 72 the l i k e . . . ." While a proposal for a j o i n t l y sponsored annual Easter tournament for men's and women's c lub teams from the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Is land d id not m a t e r i a l i z e , the women's T r iang le League appears to 73 have emanated from these d i s c u s s i o n s . Before, dur ing , and a f t e r World War I , many dedicated men gave t h e i r se rv i ces i n the development of the game for women and g i r l s . Two outstanding examples were F . J . Mayers of B r i t a n n i a High School and J . T . E . Palmer of South Vancouver High School , whose coaching and leadership guided t h e i r teams to 114 numerous successes i n the s c h o o l g i r l s ' Mainland Championships. These committed schoolteachers continued to a s s i s t the g i r l s a f t e r they had l e f t s choo l . For example, Palmer l a t e r coached the U.B.C. Women's Grass Hockey Club, and when the ex-Br i tann ia High School Team had i t s inaugural meeting i n October 1929, Mayers was asked to act as coach. Indeed, he was given c r e d i t for h i s perseverance i n urging the formation of a women's grass hockey a s s o c i a t i o n , and when the s ix-team league was eventua l ly formal ized i n the 1929-30 season, Mayers was e lec ted as the f i r s t Honorary President of the 74 A s s o c i a t i o n . But i t was Thomas P a t t i s o n who was regarded as the "mentor 75 of the Women's Grass Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n " . While V i c e - P r i n c i p a l of K i t s i l a n o High School i n 1925, P a t t i s o n founded the E x - K i t s i l a n o team. Even when he r e t i r e d from teaching i n 1934, he maintained h i s i n t e r e s t i n coaching and umpiring, not only with the c lub which he had founded a decade e a r l i e r , 76 but a l so with the Vancouver Women's League. A measure of the degree to which men were involved i n a s s i s t i n g with the development of women's hockey i s ind ica ted by the observat ion that of nineteen umpires o f f i c i a t i n g at the women's F i e l d Day i n 1939, ten were men. Their con t r ibu t ion was acknowledged, not only i n honorary p o s i t i o n s on the Execut ive , but a l so i n being inc luded as honoured guests on the head table at the Annual Banquet. For instance , at such a banquet to ce lebrate the 77 conc lus ion of the 1938-39 season, four of the e ight speakers were men. The inter-war per iod was one of p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t advancement i n women's f i e l d hockey. Whereas, for the men, i t was a time when leagues and i n t e r - c i t y compet i t ion were qu i ck ly re -es tab l i shed and maintained, for the women i t was an e r a , not only of the c r e a t i o n of a formal league and the formation of an a s s o c i a t i o n , but a l so one i n which " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " competit ion 115 was experienced, and a f f i l i a t i o n with the I .F.W.H.A. achieved. Furthermore, i t was a per iod during which i n t e r a c t i o n between men's and women's c lubs and a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the ass is tance of i n d i v i d u a l s , contr ibuted towards the wel fare of both o rgan iza t ions , e s p e c i a l l y the women's. 116 CHAPTER IX DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA: WORLD WAR II TO LATE 1960s For men and women a l i k e , the per iod from World War II to the l a te 1960s was a momentous one i n the development of f i e l d hockey i n Canada. Domest ica l ly , not only d id the game grow apprec iab ly i n i t s es tab l i shed areas, but i t expanded to other regions, r e s u l t i n g i n na t iona l compet i t ion which brought together p layers from across the country. It was a l s o a time when Canadian teams began to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r e s t i g i o u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l tounaments, the I .F.W.H.A. Tournament for the women, the Olympics for the men. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y , both the men's and the women's na t iona l assoc ia t ions were formed during t h i s per iod and, i n the case of the men, a f f i l i a t i o n with the i n t e r n a t i o n a l federat ion was a c h i e v e d . 1 The o v e r a l l time-span examined i n t h i s chapter i s convenient ly d iv ided in to sub-per iods, each represent ing a d i s t i n c t phase of development. P a r t l y by chance, and p a r t l y because the same externa l and i n t e r n a l fac tors were operat ing , the sub-periods i n men's and women's development c o - i n c i d e . The war years themselves may be considered the i n i t i a l phase. For the women, t h i s was a time of d i f f i c u l t y i n keeping f i e l d hockey competit ion a l i v e ; for the men, i t inc luded severa l years of t o t a l dormancy of the game. The second phase comprised about ten years immediately fo l lowing the end of World War I I , at which time f i e l d hockey, which was l a r g e l y conf ined to the Greater Vancouver area , experienced a per iod of r e - b u i l d i n g and c o n s o l i d a t i o n . The t h i r d phase extended from the mid-1950s to the e a r l y 1960s, and as we l l as a dramatic increase i n the number of adult teams p lay ing i n the Vancouver area, these years witnessed the incept ion of f i e l d hockey i n many centres across 117 Canada. It was during t h i s per iod that both the men's and the women's na t iona l assoc ia t ions were created and Canadian teams f i r s t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l compet i t ion . The fourth phase, encompassing the middle to l a te 1960s, saw the o rgan iza t ion of p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the fo rma l i za t i on of compet i t ion amongst the regions of Canada. These competit ive and o rgan i za t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s of na t iona l scope were a s s i s t e d by the advent of je t -age a i r l i n e schedules and the in t roduc t ion of government funding, phenomena of the decade of the s i x t i e s . Women's F i e l d Hockey For severa l reasons, i t i s again l o g i c a l to present f i r s t , an account of the development of women's hockey: i n i t i a l l y , because women's hockey a c t i v i t y continued throughout the war years ; next because i t was a women's team that f i r s t represented Canada i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l hockey compet i t ion; and f i n a l l y , because, by the end of t h i s e ra , women's hockey was more widely played across Canada than was the men's game. The War Years Although the outbreak of World War II i n September 1939 led to the immediate c a n c e l l a t i o n of the I .F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, scheduled to be held i n England that year , the War d id not have such an immediate impact 2 on the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Assoc ia t i on s a c t i v i t i e s . Enter ing i t s 1939-40 season at that time, the League s ta r ted with nine teams, the same number as i n the previous year . As a resu l t of women j o i n i n g the armed s e r v i c e s , the Assoc ia t i on gradual ly f e l t the e f f e c t s of the War u n t i l , by 1941-42, the number of teams had decreased to f i v e . For the balance of the war years the G.V.W.G.H.A. continued to func t ion , with from f i v e to seven 118 teams p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the League. As only a few c lubs were able to sus ta in teams for the durat ion of the War, t h i s was a d i f f i c u l t time for the Executive of the G.V.W.G.H.A. Miss Myrne Nevison, President of the Assoc ia t i on for many of these years , was given c r e d i t for "holding-the-League 4 together" dur ing t h i s p e r i o d . During the War, g i r l s ' h igh school hockey cont inued, a t o t a l of t h i r t e e n jun ior and senior high schools p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the 1940-41 season of the Vancouver and D i s t r i c t i n t e r - h i g h school compet i t ion. These matches were played at Vancouver Park Board f i e l d s on Saturday mornings, with the stronger high schools f i e l d i n g as many as four teams; for example, North Vancouver High School entered two teams i n the Junior D i v i s i o n , and one i n each of the Intermediate and Senior D i v i s i o n s . Furthermore, throughout t h i s p e r i o d , the c lose r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Assoc ia t i on was maintained. The event known as " F i e l d Day", held towards the end of each season, and the annual f i x t u r e between representat ive teams from the Women's 5 Assoc ia t i on and the high schools were cont inued. On Vancouver I s l a n d , women's grass hockey c lubs remained ac t i ve during the f i r s t wartime season, 1939-40, for the V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' Grass Hockey Club not only entered a team i n the 3rd Bridgman Cup Tournament, but a l so defeated the Duncan Lad ies ' team i n the Vancouver Is land p l a y - o f f of the T r iang le League. When Pro-Rec I , winners of the Vancouver League for 1939-40, v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a , they defeated the V i c t o r i a L .G.H.C. i n the i n t e r - c i t y f i n a l . This was the las t season of the T r iang le League compet i t ion, f o r , by 1940-41, war serv i ces had taken i t s t o l l on the Vancouver Is land women's c lubs and ne i ther V i c t o r i a nor Duncan l a d i e s ' grass hockey c lubs was able to r a i s e a team that 6 season. 119 As i n Vancouver, s c h o o l g i r l hockey competit ion continued on Vancouver i s l a n d . Despite wartime d i f f i c u l t i e s such as f u e l r a t i o n i n g , the Bridgman Cup Tournament remained an annual event, a t t r a c t i n g more student teams from year to year . These were drawn from the p r i va te schools and the high schoo ls , u n t i l , s t a r t i n g i n 1941-42, V i c t o r i a Co l lege became an entrant i n the tournament. There was even an i n t e r - c i t y match between student teams during the l a t t e r part of the War, when, i n the 1943-44 season, a U.B.C. team v i s i t e d the Is land to p lay the V i c t o r i a Co l lege team. During the e a r l y War years , o f f i c e r s of the G.V.W.G.H.A. maintained i n t e r n a t i o n a l contacts by corresponding with the U .S .F .H .A . and with the I .F.W.H.A. Hopes were expressed that Vancouver might continue i t s competit ion with American teams, i nc lud ing sending a team to represent the A s s o c i a t i o n at severa l competit ions to which i t was i n v i t e d , but no matches of an 8 i n t e r n a t i o n a l nature m a t e r i a l i z e d . Ear ly Post-War Development In the ten-year per iod a f t e r the conc lus ion of World War I I , women's f i e l d hockey was revived i n severa l parts of Eastern Canada. However, u n t i l 1955, i t was only i n B r i t i s h Columbia that adult hockey was played on a regular b a s i s . R e v i t a l i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Once the War was over , there was a conso l i da t i on of women's grass hockey a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Vancouver League comprised seven teams i n the f i r s t post-War season, 1945-46, and from then u n t i l the mid-1950s, continued to maintain an average of s i x 9 teams. Forming a s tab le nucleus of the League during t h i s decade of competit ion were f i v e teams: E x - K i t s i l a n o , Ex-North Vancouver, B r i t a n n i a 120 Grads, V a r s i t y and U.B.C. The fact that three of these were ex-high school teams and the other two were u n i v e r s i t y teams ind ica ted the c lose r e l a t i o n s h i p between the high school grass hockey programme and the Women's League. Jo in ing the League, to r a i s e the number of p a r t i c i p a t i n g teams to seven i n the 1954-55 season, was U.B.C. Alumnae (Alums), which added strength and expert ise . , 10 to the compet i t ion . During the f i r s t decade fo l lowing World War I I , g i r l s ' grass hockey continued to f l o u r i s h i n the high schools of Vancouver and i t s surrounding suburbs; i n 1948, there were f o r t y - e i g h t teams from seventeen schools i n Senior , Intermediate and Junior D i v i s i o n s of the i n t e r - s c h o o l grass hockey compet i t ion. In t h i s post-war p e r i o d , John O l i v e r and Magee High Schools were c o n s i s t e n t l y strong i n a l l d i v i s i o n s , whi le Burnaby South and North Vancouver were a l so p r o m i n e n t . 1 1 Even w i th in the schoo ls , grass hockey p a r t i c i p a t i o n during the 1950s was o f fe red to g i r l s i n the form of intramural games; a t y p i c a l hockey schoo l , as we l l as enter ing teams i n each of the i n t e r - s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , would a l s o e s t a b l i s h compet i t ion amongst houses wi th in the 12 schoo l . By t h i s t ime, the annual f i x t u r e s between representat ive teams from the Women's League and representat ive teams from the high schools had been i n existence for over twenty years , and the Play-Day event (formerly c a l l e d F i e l d Day), where representat ive high school teams played i n a s e r i e s of f r i e n d l y games with women's league teams, was we l l e s t a b l i s h e d . The Vancouver League and the high school competit ions were interdependent, with the adult p layers passing down t h e i r s k i l l s and experience to the younger g i r l s through coaching and games, and converse ly , with the school teams 13 prov id ing a major source of p layers for the Women's League. On Vancouver I s l and , i n the immediate post-war years , women's grass hockey was a c t i v e at the schools and c o l l e g e s . Matches between Vancouver and 121 V i c t o r i a high schoo ls , between Vancouver Normal School and V i c t o r i a Normal School , and between U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a Col lege were played r e g u l a r l y . In 1947, fo r instance, the school champions for Vancouver, Magee High School , v i s i t e d Vancouver Is land to contest a match with the Is land premiers, Mount 14 View School , Saanich. Furthermore, the Bridgman Cup competit ion remained an annual event, with Queen Margaret 's School , Norfo lk House School , Oak Bay High School and V i c t o r i a High School shar ing the honours between 1945-46 and 1953-54. During t h i s f i r s t post-war decade, however, there was no formal league competit ion i n V i c t o r i a . In f a c t , the f i r s t mention of a p a r t i c i p a t i n g adult c lub team appeared i n the account of the 1954-55 Bridgman Cup Tournament, where i t was recorded that "Oak Bay High defeated V i c t o r i a Ladies 15 i n the f i n a l " . As ea r l y as the f i r s t post-war season, the Executive members of the G.V.W.G.H.A. had made an e f f o r t to r e - a c t i v a t e i n t e r - c i t y competit ion between Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , through correspondence d i rec ted to V i c t o r i a Co l lege , which was known to have had an ac t i ve women's grass hockey c lub . However, the Captain of the V i c t o r i a team wrote to say that an i n t e r - c i t y grass hockey match i n the Spr ing (of 1946) would not be p o s s i b l e , as every week-end was 16 committed to Vancouver Is land hockey matches and other a c t i v i t i e s . A fur ther attempt made the fo l lowing year a l so proved unsuccess fu l , and during the la te 1940s and e a r l y 1950s, adult i n t e r - c i t y compet i t ion was conf ined to 17 informal v i s i t s . Vancouver experienced i t s f i r s t post-war competit ion of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l nature when a representat ive team from the G.V.W.G.H.A. p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a tournament staged i n conjunct ion with the U . S . F . H . A . ' s P a c i f i c North West (P.N.W.) Conference, he ld i n Por t land , Oregon, i n December 1946. Although i n v i t e d to t h i s event s ince i t s incept ion i n 1940, the 122 G.V.W.G.H.A. was unable to send teams, or even delegates , to the tournaments and conferences he ld during the war years . From 1946 onwards, however, p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Vancouver teams became an annual a c t i v i t y , not only for representat ive teams from the A s s o c i a t i o n , but for the U.B.C. c lub team as w e l l . The r e l a t i v e strength of teams from B r i t i s h Columbia was r e f l e c t e d by the fact that they were r a r e l y beaten, and o f ten won t h e i r games by large margins. For many years , the P.N.W. Conferences and assoc iated tournaments were held at Portand, Oregon, but i n the l a te 1940s, a p o l i c y of r o t a t i n g the venue 19 amongst p a r t i c i p a t i n g regions was adopted. In November 1950, when i t was Vancouver's turn to rec iprocate the h o s p i t a l i t y enjoyed over severa l years , the G.V.W.G.H.A. and U.B.C. j o i n t l y hosted the P.N.W. F i e l d Hockey Conference 20 and i t s tournament, an arrangement which was repeated i n 1955. During the per iod 1950-55, the P.N.W. Conference and i t s tournament f l o u r i s h e d . On average, s ix teen teams from Idaho, Washington and Oregon p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the tournament and, t y p i c a l l y , an a d d i t i o n a l two teams from Vancouver — a Vancouver representat ive team and a U.B.C. team — entered the Tournament. However, i n 1953, when the Conference was held i n S e a t t l e , four teams from Vancouver were entered: Vancouver Reps, the North Vancouver c lub 21 team, and two U.B.C. teams. For Vancouver p layers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the annual P.N.W. tournaments, the event was a h i g h l i g h t of the season, but, even by the l a te 1940s, senior p layers were looking fur ther a f i e l d . In 1948 and i n 1949, a Vancouver representat ive team v i s i t e d C a l i f o r n i a to compete i n the U .S .F .H.A . Sec t iona l Tournament. Again, i n 1954, a Vancouver team t r a v e l l e d to C a l i f o r n i a , on t h i s occas ion to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a Thanksgiving tournament held 22 at Stanford U n i v e r s i t y . 123 Women's F i e l d Hockey i n other parts of Canada. Although f i e l d hockey had been played i n Toronto and Nova Sco t i a p r i o r to World War I , and indeed was a c t i v e l y pursued by the schools and co l l eges i n the H a l i f a x area between the wars, the f i r s t recorded post-World War II matches i n Eastern Canada d id not take place u n t i l 1949, when the u n i v e r s i t i e s and co l l eges of New Brunswick and Nova Sco t i a engaged i n compet i t ion. In 1950, the game was re- introduced at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, and by 1953, f i e l d hockey was a l s o being played at 23 McMaster U n i v e r s i t y i n Hamilton. However, at t h i s time, the G.V.W.G.H.A. knew few d e t a i l s of the a c t i v i t y i n these or other parts of the country, for i t was s tated i n Canada's report to the 1953 I.F.W.H.A. Conference that " in Eastern Canada one or two U n i v e r s i t i e s teach hockey to the phys i ca l education 24 students" . In 1955, women's f i e l d hockey began to expand i n Ontar io . Two adult c lub teams were formed, reported ly made up mostly of non-Canadians, and i n that year played Toronto 's f i r s t c lub match. A l so i n 1955, Scarborough, i n the Greater Toronto area , became the f i r s t of the Ontar io school d i s t r i c t s to 25 inc lude f i e l d hockey i n i t s sports programme. Once aga in , i f the G.V.W.G.H.A. was aware of these developments, there was no mention of them i n the report to the 1956 I .F.W.H.A. Conference. Such an omission was not a t t r i b u t a b l e to any lack of i n t e r e s t d isp layed by the G.V.W.G.H.A. towards the existence of women's f i e l d hockey i n other parts of Canada, for between November 1954 and March 1955, amongst cons iderable correspondence to many parts of the wor ld , l e t t e r s were wr i t ten by the G.V.W.G.H.A. Correspondence Secretary to the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, the Un ive rs i t y of Western Ontar io , and 26 Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y (New Brunswick). 124 P a r t i c i p a t i o n at the I .F.W.H.A. Tournament. Since 1936, i t had been an ambition of the G.V.W.G.H.A. to send a team to represent Canada at the tournament assoc iated with the I .F.W.H.A. Conference. Having become an Assoc iate Member of the I .F.W.H.A. i n 1937, the G.V.W.G.H.A. rece ived an i n v i t a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Women's World Hockey F e s t i v a l held i n Amsterdam i n 1948, and i n the fourth I .F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament at 27 Johannesburg i n 1950. Canada was unable to send a team, or even a representa t ive , to these events. However, when the f i f t h I .F.W.H.A. Conference took p lace i n Folkestone, England, i n 1953, an e n t h u s i a s t i c Vancouver hockey p layer , F lorence Strachan, was on exchange teaching i n England, and although no team could be sent , Strachan represented Canada as 28 Delegate. Upon Strachan's return to Vancouver i n 1954, a meeting of the G.V.W.G.H.A. was he ld , at which her repor ts , souvenirs , and desc r ip t ions of the event gave Vancouver members a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of the I .F .W.H.A. , i t s conference, i t s tournament, and i t s assoc iated a c t i v i t i e s . In 1983, Strachan r e c a l l e d that , when the meeting f i n i s h e d i n the e a r l y hours of the morning, the membership was i n s p i r e d with great enthusiasm. Thus, at a Spec ia l General Meeting of the G.V.W.G.H.A., he ld i n January 1955, when Canada's p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the 1956 T r i e n n i a l I .F .W.H.A. Tournament to be held i n A u s t r a l i a was 29 d iscussed , the membership voted i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . In an endeavour to ensure a t r u l y representat ive team, the G.V.W.G.H.A. dispatched l e t t e r s to a l l known women's hockey organ izat ions across Canada, informing them of i t s d e c i s i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the I .F.W.H.A. Tournament i n 30 Sydney. The only p o s i t i v e response came from the V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' Grass Hockey C lub, which was i n v i t e d to a f f i l i a t e with the G.V.W.G.H.A. and thereby q u a l i f y for t r i a l games. When the Canadian team was f i n a l l y s e l e c t e d , a l l 125 eight a f f i l i a t e d c l u b s , seven from the Vancouver League and the V i c t o r i a L . G . H . C had at least one representa t i ve . F i n a l l y , a f t e r eighteen months of p reparat ion , the major tasks of which were f u n d - r a i s i n g , team s e l e c t i o n , 31 coaching, and p r a c t i s i n g , the team departed for A u s t r a l i a . The I .F.W.H.A. tournament took place i n Sydney, with ten countr ies competing from 23 May to 2 June 1956. However, Canada a l s o t r a v e l l e d through severa l A u s t r a l i a n s t a t e s , p lay ing numerous matches against l o c a l teams, a cher ished t r a d i t i o n of I .F.W.H.A. Tours. On much of t h i s tour , the Canadian team was accompanied by the Eng l i sh team, with whom Canada played severa l 32 e x h i b i t i o n matches. Per iod of Expansion The per iod from the mid-1950s to the e a r l y 1960s was one of rap id growth of women's f i e l d hockey, not only In the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, but i n other provinces as w e l l . An increase i n numbers i n Ontar io and the Marit imes was accompanied by the formation of c lubs i n A lber ta and Quebec. Th is expansion of the game across Canada, together with regular p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l compet i t ion, led to the formation of a na t iona l a s s o c i a t i o n . Progress i n B r i t i s h Columbia. For the ten years p r i o r to 1956, the Vancouver League had remained s tab le at s i x or seven teams; but, from 1957 to 1963, as shown i n Table 5, the League experienced a steady increase which resu l ted i n a 33 doubl ing of the number of competing teams w i th in s i x years . 126 TABLE 5 NUMBER OF TEAMS COMPETING IN VANCOUVER WOMEN'S LEAGUE: 1956-1963 Season Number of Teams 1956-57 8 1958-59 9 1960-61 10 1962-63 14 This expansion, a n t i c i p a t e d as e a r l y as 1958 when the Secretary of the G.V.W.G.H.A. wrote to the Vancouver Parks Board request ing a d d i t i o n a l p i t c h e s , led to a s p l i t t i n g of the League in to d i v i s i o n s : i n the 1960-61 season, s i x teams competed i n D i v i s i o n I and four i n D i v i s i o n I I ; and i n 1962-63, the 34 League's two d i v i s i o n s each comprised seven teams. The expansion which occurred i n the Vancouver Women's League was matched by a s i m i l a r growth i n g i r l s ' hockey. E f f o r t s were begun to fos te r jun ior hockey i n the la te 1950s, when experienced p layers from the Vancouver Women's Assoc ia t i on conducted coaching sess ions and es tab l i shed teams for g i r l s i n severa l areas of Greater Vancouver. By December 1959, these a c t i v i t i e s had progressed to the stage where a proposal to form a jun ior g i r l s ' league was put forward at the Christmas General Meeting of the 35 A s s o c i a t i o n . G i r l s f i e l d hockey a l s o increased i n popu la r i t y w i th in the schoo ls , for during the ear l y 1960s, c l i n i c s for h igh school p layers and coaches were organized. One such c l i n i c was held at U .B .C . ; another was conducted i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, where severa l jun ior high 127 schools were in t roduc ing f i e l d hockey i n t o the curr i cu lum. Whereas i n the mid-1950s, a t o t a l of twenty jun io r and senior high schools i n Greater Vancouver had entered about f o r t y - f i v e teams i n four d i v i s i o n s of the Inter-High School compet i t ion, by 1963, these f igures had reached f o r t y - t h r e e 36 schools and e ighty- three teams, a v i r t u a l doubl ing i n numbers. This s t a t i s t i c allowed the G.V.W.G.H.A. to c la im that "on the bas is of the number of students p a r t i c i p a t i n g grass hockey ranks ahead of a l l other sports at the 37 present t ime." The progress of women's f i e l d hockey on Vancouver Is land can be judged by studying p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the popular and p r e s t i g i o u s annual Bridgman Cup Tournament, i n which teams were entered from pr i va te schoo ls , from high 38 schools , from V i c t o r i a Co l l ege , and i n some years from the "Ladies ' C lubs" . TABLE 6 VANCOUVER ISLAND TEAMS IN BRIDGMAN CUP TOURNAMENT: 1938-1962 Year Number of Teams To ta l P r i va te Schools High Schools Co l lege Ladies 1938 6 2 2 - 2 1943 7 3 3 1 - 1958 10 * * * * 1960 12 5 6 1 1 1962 15 6 7 1 2 * D e t a i l s not recorded. 128 It can be c l e a r l y seen from Table 6 that , whi le the number of teams only increased from seven to ten i n the f i f t e e n - y e a r per iod from 1943 to 1958, jus t four years l a t e r , i n 1962, the t o t a l number of Vancouver Is land teams 39 competing had r i s e n to f i f t e e n . While hockey i n the schools was growing s t e a d i l y stronger dur ing the l a te f i f t i e s and e a r l y s i x t i e s , so, too, was women's hockey becoming f i rm ly es tab l i shed on Vancouver I s l and . From the s ing le " V i c t o r i a Ladies" team which had a f f i l i a t e d with the G.V.W.G.H.A. i n the 1955-56 season, by 1958, i n t e r e s t had increased to the point where two women's teams, Mariners and Grasshoppers, could be formed to become the founding members of the V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' F i e l d Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , es tab l i shed i n that year . Within the next few years , a t h i r d women's team, Ravens L .G .H .C . , jo ined the f l e d g l i n g Assoc ia t i on ; and when, i n 1960, the P.N.W. Tournament was held at U .B .C . , the V i c t o r i a L .F .H .A . 40 was able to send a representat ive team to compete. The year 1962 marked the c r e a t i o n of a new Cowichan Lad ies ' Grass Hockey Club, which was strong enough to f i e l d two teams i n i t s f i r s t season. Together with the other women's hockey c lubs and the Un ive rs i t y of V i c t o r i a (formerly V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e ) , the V i c t o r i a Lad ies ' F i e l d Hockey Assoc ia t ion was able to organize a s ix-team schedule of f i x t u r e s i n the 1962-63 season; i n 1963, i n order to embrace i t s broader membership, the Assoc ia t ion was re-named 41 the Vancouver Is land Lad ies ' F i e l d Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n . Developments i n Other Prov inces . The f i r s t women's f i e l d hockey c lub matches 42 i n Toronto were played i n 1955. For the next two years , c lub matches were played r e g u l a r l y between the two founding teams: Toronto Lad ies ' F i e l d Hockey Club, which p r a c t i s e d at Havergal Co l lege (a g i r l s ' school) and played 43 f r i e n d l y matches with the school team; and the Nomads C lub. From 1958, 129 developments occurred r a p i d l y : i n that year , O n t a r i o ' s f i r s t women's f i e l d hockey tournament was staged i n Toronto: i n 1959, the Toronto Lad ies ' F i e l d Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n was formed: and the fo l lowing year , with three inaugural teams inc lud ing the newly-formed Beavers, the Ontar io Women's F i e l d Hockey 44 Assoc ia t i on was founded. In the ear l y 1960s, the Ontar io Women's F i e l d Hockey Assoc ia t ion (O.W.F.H.A.) made e f f o r t s to expand the game beyond the conf ines of the three women's c lub teams. At the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, where the game had been played i n the 1950s but had s ince lapsed, f i e l d hockey was re- introduced i n 1962 and by the end of that season, twelve intramural teams were competing. Short ly afterwards, the f i r s t i n t e r - u n i v e r s i t y match was p layed, between the Un ive rs i t y of Toronto and McMaster U n i v e r s i t y (Hamilton), and by 1964, severa l 45 other u n i v e r s i t i e s had jo ined the compet i t ion. School hockey expanded, too, when the Etobicoke and Port Cred i t School D i s t r i c t s , both i n Greater Toronto, introduced