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The bipartite development of men's and women's field hockey in Canada in the context of separate international.. McBryde, John 1986-12-31

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THE BIPARTITE DEVELOPMENT OF MEN'S AND WOMEN'S FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA IN THE CONTEXT OF SEPARATE INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY FEDERATIONS by JOHN McBRYDE B.E., University of Queensland, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1986 © John McBryde, 1986 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of £j>UCA--?-/OTS £&,y> ua T'E. $TUJ>i€- S The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis was to describe and explain the bipartite development of men's and women's field hockey in Canada. Because this could not be done in isolation from the context of separate international hockey federations, the thesis was presented in three parts. In the first part, the evolution of hockey internationally, including the formation of separate federations, was described. In the second part, an historical account of the development of field hockey in Canada was narrated. The third section described the complex international organizational structure, and the connection between development in Canada and the international context. Critical factors and pervading influences which shaped the course of development, both internationally and in Canada, were identified. The bipartite development of field hockey in Canada occurred in three phases. The initial phase represented the period following the foundation of an independent women's hockey association in England, a phenomenon which occurred at the same time as organized field hockey was introduced to Canada. An intermediate phase began when field hockey organizations in Canada first made contact with international federations. The final phase encompassed the years of considerable interaction between the Canadian associations and their international counterparts. The most significant factor in the creation of separate associations in Canada was the fact that the Canadian Field Hockey Association and the Canadian Women's Field Hockey Association were founded at a time when the international federations were proceeding not only independently, but with contrasting practices regarding affiliation and competition. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to acknowledge those whose assistance made the completion of this thesis possible. Sincere thanks are extended to the members of the thesis committee for their valuable advice: Dr. W. Robert Morford and Dr. Eric Broom of the School of Physical Education and Recreation; and Dr. Charles Humphries of the History Department. In particular, the author would like to convey special thanks to Dr. Barbara Schrodt, thesis supervisor, whose guidance, patience and encouragement throughout the course of the project were greatly appreciated. Acknowledgement is also made of the valuable and enthusiastic help received from the many individuals, both within Canada and from overseas, whose contribution of resource material — through generous access to personal files and collections, granting of interviews, or correspondence — proved indispensible. To the numerous archivists and librarians, as well as staff and volunteers of amateur sports organizations, who provided courteous service and assistance, the author extends his appreciation. Thanks are also due to Lori Montgomery whose typing and word processing skills helped to produce the finished thesis. Finally, the writer wishes to thank his colleagues for their encouragement and his wife, June, for her support and understanding during the several years required to complete this thesis. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of the Study 1 Review of the Literature 2 Justification 6 Delimitations of the Study 7 Limitations of the Study 9 Procedure 9 Organization of Thesis 11 Definition of Terms 2 Glossary of Abbreviations 15 PART I INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY 16 II EARLY HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF MODERN HOCKEYPre-Modern Hockey 1Ancient Forms of Hockey Around the World 16 Early Forms of Hockey in the British Isles 18 Hockey in Britain from 1750 to 1870 19 Modernization of the Game of Hockey 20 The First Hockey Clubs and MatchesRise and Fall of the First Hockey Association .... 21 Revival of the Game and the Second Hockey Association 22 Early Development of Women's Hockey 24 iv CHAPTER PAGE III DEVELOPMENT OF HOCKEY INTERNATIONALLY TO WORLD WAR I 26 International Development of Men's Hockey 2Other Home Countries and the First Internationals . . 26 Formation of the International Hockey Board 27 European Nations and Olympic Hockey 28 International Affiliations 29 Development of Women's Hockey 31 Women's Hockey Associations 2 International Hockey 33 Women's Hockey Around the World 3Relationship Between Men's and Women's Hockey 34 IV INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY BETWEEN THE WARS: EMERGENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATIONS 36 Men's Hockey 3Olympic Hockey Tournaments 36 Creation of the Federation Internationale de Hockey 37 Relationship between the I.H.B. and the F.I.H 38 Women's Hockey 9 Conception and Creation of the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations 40 F.I.H. Women's Committee 41 International Conferences and Tournaments 41 Relationships Between Men's and Women's International Federations 43 Joint Meetings of the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. ... 43 v CHAPTER PAGE Mutual Affiliation and International competition ... 44 Summary 46 V POST-WAR RESURGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY: FROM WORLD WAR II TO THE LATE 1960s 48 Men's Hockey InternationallyCreation of the British Hockey Board 48 Growth of International Hockey 49 Relationships Between the F.I.H and the I.H.B 51 Women's Hockey Internationally 52 Olympic Aspirations and International Competition . . 52 Organizational Development of the I.F.W.H.A 54 Relationships between the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H 56 Early Post-War Interaction 5Creation of the Joint Consultative Committee 57 Consultation and Co-operation: 1953-1967 59 Summary 62 VI INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY FROM 1970 TO 1983: UNIFICATION OF THE FEDERATIONS 4 Men's Hockey Development 6Rationalization of the Organizational Structure ... 65 World Cup and Olympic Competition 66 Women's Hockey Development 68 Introduction of World Championships 69 Women's Hockey in the Olympic Games 70 vi CHAPTER PAGE Relationships Between Men's and Women's Hockey 73 Status of Hockey at the Olympic Games 4 Divergences in the Rules 76 Breakdown in Relationships: F.I.H. and I.F.W.H.A. . . 77 Formation of the Supreme Council 78 Inclusion of Women's Hockey in the Olympic Games ... 80 Function of the Supreme Council 82 Integration of the I.F.W.H.A. into the F.I.H 84 PART II FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA 89 VII DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA TO WORLD WAR I 89 Men's Hockey in British Columbia 90 Women's Hockey in British Columbia 1 Men's and Women's Hockey in Other Parts of Canada 93 Relationship Between Men's and Women's Hockey 94 VIII DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA DURING THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 96 Women's Field HockeyVancouver Fixtures 96 School Hockey in Vancouver 98 Vancouver Island and Inter-City Competition 100 School Hockey on Vancouver Island 102 Women's Hockey in Other Parts of Canada 103 Vancouver Association and International Affiliation 104 vii CHAPTER PAGE Men's Field Hockey 106 Mainland LeagueVancouver Island Hockey and Inter-City Matches .... 108 Aspects of Development 109 International Contacts 110 Relationships Between Men's and Women's Hockey Ill IX DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA: WORLD WAR II TO LATE 1960s 116 Women's Field Hockey 7 The War Years 11Early Post-War Development 119 Revitalization in British Columbia 119 Women's Field Hockey in Other Parts of Canada . . 123 Participation at the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament . . . 124 Period of Expansion 125 Progress in British Columbia 12Developments in Other Provinces 128 International Competition 130 Creation of the C.W.F.H.A 132 Provincial Development and National Unification . . . 136 British Columbia 13Ontario and Quebec 140 Maritime Provinces 2 Prairie Provinces 143 viii CHAPTER PAGE National Tournaments and Canadian Team Selection 145 Summary of Post-War Development 148 Men's Field Hockey 149 Post War RecoveryRevival in British Columbia 149 Men's Field Hockey in Other Parts of Canada . . . 151 International Competition 152 Period of Rapid Progress: 15Expansion in British Columbia 153 Development in Other Provinces of Canada .... 156 Inter-City and Inter-Provincial Competition . . . 158 Creation of the C.F.H.A.: International Affiliation 160 National and International Competition 165 Early Development of the National Association .... 168 Progress in British Columbia 169 Growth in Other ProvincesInter-Provincial Tournaments and National Championships 171 International Competition 173 Other Aspects of Development 176 Summary of Men's Hockey Development 177 Relationships Between Men's and Women's Hockey 178 Early Post-War Years 17International Aspirations and Inspiration 179 ix CHAPTER PAGE National Co-operation 180 Independent Development 2 X DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA: 1970 TO 1983 185 Women's Field Hockey 18Domestic Development 185 Seniors 18Juniors 9 Universities 190 Provincial Championships 191 National Development 192 National Championships 19International Competition 193 Preparation of National Team 195 Organizational Aspects 196 Men's Field Hockey 199 Domestic Development 19Seniors 19Juniors 202 Universities 5 Provincial Championships 20National Development 206 National Championships 20International Competition 207 Preparation of the National Team 209 Organizational Aspects 210 x CHAPTER PAGE Relationships Between Men's and Women's Field Hockey . . . 212 Independent but Parallel Development 21Interaction and Joint Considerations 217 Summary 223 PART III CANADIAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT ... 224 XI DISCUSSION 22Evolution of Hockey Internationally 224 Structural Analysis of International Hockey Administration 227 Dynamics of the Inter-Relationship of International Hockey Organizations 233 Dichotomy within Men's Hockey Administration . . 234 Emergence of Autonomous Women's Hockey Organizations 235 Dichotomy within Women's Hockey Administration . 236 Separate Development of Men's and Women's Hockey Activities 237 Integration of the I.F.W.H.A into the F.I.H. . . 239 Independent Development of Men's and Women's Field Hockey in Canada in the International Context 240 Initial Stage 24Intermediate Stage 243 Final Stage 245 Further Observations 251 Effects of Contrasting Philosophies of the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H 251 xi CHAPTER PAGE Influence of the Olympic Games and the I.O.C 252 Role of Vancouver in the Development of Field Hockey in Canada 253 Concluding Remarks 4 XII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 256 Summary 25Conclusions 261 Recommendations 4 NOTES . 265 BIBLIOGRAPHY 32xii APPENDICES APPENDIX PAGE A. Minutes of the Inaugural Meeting of the International Hockey Board, Manchester, 25 July 1900 336 B. Summary of I.F.W.H.A. and F.I.H. Tournaments: 1967-1981 339 C. Correspondence Confirming the Inclusion of Women's Hockey as an Olympic Sport 340 D. Discussion of Differences between Men's and Women's Rules, 1973 342 E. Summary of the Evolution of the Hockey Rules Board 343 F. Mainland Championships and Thomson Cup Records, Girls' Grass Hockey: 1919-1940 344 G. Summary of Events Leading to the Formation of the C.W.F.H.A 345 H. Vancouver W.F.H.A. and Vancouver Island L.F.H.A., League Teams: 1965-66 346 I. Summary of Events Leading to the Formation of the C.F.H.A 347 J. Telegram Correspondence Confirming the Inclusion of the Canadian Team in the Olympic Hockey Tournament, Tokyo, 1964 348 xiii TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Number of Countries Affiliated with the F.I.H.: 1946-1968 50 2. Number of Countries in the Olympic Hockey Tournament: 1948-1968 1 3. Number of Teams at I.F.W.H.A. Tournaments and Affiliated Countries: 1953-1967 55 4. Meetings of Joint Consultative Committee: 1952-1968 .... 60 5. Number of Teams Competing in the Vancouver Women's Field Hockey League: 1956-1963 126 6. Number of Teams in Bridgman Cup Tournament: 1938-1962 . . . 127 7. Number of Teams and Divisions in Vancouver Men's Field Hockey League: 1957-1964 154 8. Senior Teams Registered with C.W.F.H.A.: 1969-1982 .... 188 9. Senior Teams Registered with C.W.F.H.A.: 1981-82 188 10. Federal Funding, C.W.F.H.A. Programmes: 1964-1983 198 11. senior Teams Registered with C.F.H.A.: 1969-1980 202 12. Senior and Junior Teams Registered with C.F.H.A.: 1969-1980 203 13. Senior and Junior Teams Registered with C.F.H.A., by Province: 1980 204 14. Senior Teams Registered with C.F.H.A./C.W.F.H.A.: 1968-1981 21xiv FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Comparison of Member Countries and Tournament Teams, I.F.W.H.A. and F.I.H.: 1971-1981 71 2. International Hockey Development: 1886-1983 225 3. Number of Hockey-Playing Countries: 1900-1980 226 4. Configuration of International Hockey Organizations: 1930 228 5. Configuration of International Hockey Organizations: 1948 9 6. Configuration of International Hockey Organizations: 1970 230 7. Configuration of International Hockey Organizations: 1975 1 8. Configuration of International Hockey Organizations: 1983 232 9. Number of Affiliated Countries and Tournament Teams, Men/Women: 1948-1976 238 10. Canadian Field Hockey Development in the International Context: 1895-1983 241 11. Number of Adult Field Hockey Teams in Canada, Men/Women: 1900-1980 242 12. Expansion of Field Hockey in Canada in the International Context: 1900-1980 247 xv PLATES PLATE PAGE I. England's First International Men's Team: 1895 349 II. Vancouver Ladies' Hockey Club: 1896 350 III. Vancouver Hockey Club (Men's): 1902-3 351 IV. Vancouver High School, Thomson Cup Girls' Hockey Team: 1905-6 352 V. Canadian Women's Touring Team, I.F.W.H.A. Tournament, Sydney, Australia: 1956 353 VI. Canadian Men's Olympic Hockey Team, Tokyo: 1964 354 xv i 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Hockey, or field hockey as it is called in Canada, is a game which has its origins in antiquity, was modernized by the British in Victorian times, and is now widely played throughout the world by both men and women. While none of these characteristics may distinguish hockey uniquely from other sports, there is one feature which makes the study of this game particularly interesting, namely, the bipartite development of men's and women's hockey, internationally and in Canada. It is this phenomenon which attracted the author to pursue the subject further as the topic of this thesis. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to examine the development of field hockey in Canada, from its emergence in the 1890s as a distinct game, to 1983. Of particular interest in this study was the phenomenon of the separate development of men's and women's field hockey, both within Canada and in the broader international context. In order to establish this context, it was also necessary to study the bipartite development of men's and women's hockey internationally. Within the limitations of source material available, the study included: 1. A summary of the genesis of the game, and its evolution into modern hockey in the late 1800s. 2. A chronological account of the development of men's and women's hockey internationally. 2 3. A chronological account of the development of men's and women's hockey in Canada. 4. An analysis of the circumstances instrumental in the formation of separate men's and women's national hockey associations and international hockey federations. 5. An examination of both the common and divergent experiences encountered by men and women in the development of the game. 6. A study of the inter-relationship between men's and women's organizations. Review of the Literature Compared to the more popular sports, there is a dearth of written historical material on the subject of field hockey in Canada, and indeed of world hockey generally. Probably the most useful in the review of that literature which existed was The Book of Hockey, edited by Patrick Rowley, a recognized world authority on the game.* This book was a collection of articles with topics ranging from the ancient origins of the game, through the birth of formal hockey, to the development of the modern game. Writers of both men's and women's hockey were represented; club, national, and international aspects were included; and numerous, wide and varied perspectives of the game were covered. Some of the articles were anecdotal in nature, serving only to give an insight into the values associated with the game; while others were well researched, or written by persons of long-standing authority in the sport, such as the president of the International Hockey Federation. Adding to the documentary value of the book were appendices giving the complete and accurate 3 results of all Olympic competitions and men's and women's international tournaments up to the date of the book's publication. An early book written on the game was The Complete Hockey Player, 2 published in London in 1909. Its major attribute was that it documented the evolution of the modern game, and the formation of the original associations, from a contemporary perspective. Contributions by recognized authorities on various topics such as "the History of the Hockey Association [England]" lent credence to the text. Coverage of the period up to 1909 was also enhanced by original research undertaken by Nevill Miroy in England. Under the title "The History of Hockey", this work was published (commencing in September 1980) in serial 3 form in Hockey Digest, official news medium of the Hockey Association. While the early years in the development of women's hockey were covered briefly in the works of White and Miroy, the emphasis there was the evolution of hockey generally, and men's hockey in particular. A more comprehensive history of women's hockey was to be found in Marjorie Pollard's book, Fifty Years of Women's Hockey, which related the story of the founding and 4 development of the All England Women's Hockey Association. The most authoritative literary piece on the women's international organization was Janet Shaner's "The History and Development of the 5 International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations". A 1975 master's thesis, this scholarly work documented the history of the women's international body. In addition, it was valuable in providing some information on the interaction of the men's and women's international organizations, achieved through the vehicle of a joint consultative committee. 4 Field hockey in Canada had an even more sparse heritage than its English forebears and international counterparts. Linda Williams' 1967 graduating essay "The Growth and Development of Women's Field Hockey in Canada" presented a good coverage of the formation of the Canadian Women's Field Hockey Association, and the development of the game during the five-year 6 period following. The background history of the game in Canada, although included, was scanty and drew largely upon an earlier publication. The Jubilee Booklet, edited by Florence Strachan, was produced in 1956 by the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association on the occasion 7 of the celebration of sixty years of women's hockey in Vancouver. The booklet was a compilation of articles covering several aspects of the history i i and development of the game in Vancouver and environs. It essentially 1 addressed women's hockey but did include a specific article on, and numerous references to, men's hockey. Conversely, when the newly formed Canadian Field Hockey Association (men's) compiled Field Hockey in Canada in 1963, the majority of articles dealt with the history and development of men's field hockey, with a separate article briefly summarizing the progress of women's field hockey over the g intervening years. The men's booklet was quite comprehensive, and reflected the momentous change that was taking place in Canada, both in men's and women's field hockey, during those years. The articles covered the history of the game throughout Canada, the formation of associations, including the Canadian Field Hockey Association, and its affiliation with the International Hockey Federation and the Canadian Olympic Association, as well as the increasing intra- and inter-national competition. 5 Further material available on the game and its development included: The Story of the A.E.W.H.A., a series of booklets produced by the All 9 England Women's Hockey Association and spanning the period of 1895 to 1981; a brief but comprehensive survey of the game in England by Ida Webb, entitled "Women's Hockey in England";10 and similar works of a more specific nature, mostly covering women's hockey. Also consulted, to provide a broad background, was literature of a more all-embracing and global nature such as: The Oxford Companion to Sports and Games, edited by John Arlott;11 The Olympic Games, edited by Killanin and 12 13 Rodda; Sport Canadiana, edited by Schrodt, Redmond and Baka; The New Encyclopedia of Sports, edited by Ralph Hickok, and other sports 14 15 encyclopedias; Henry Roxborough's One Hundred—Not Out; and Canada's Sporting Heroes, by Wise and Fisher,1^ to name the most prominent, as well as several theses and dissertations on Canadian sport history. In order to gain further insight into subjects relevant to the study, a review of literature in related areas was conducted. On the topic of women in sport, two recent publications, Women in Canadian Life: Sports, by 17 Cochrane, Hoffman and Kincaid, and Fair Ball: Towards Sex Equality in 18 Canadian Sport, by Ann Hall and Dorothy Richardson, were reviewed. In the area of organizational and sociological aspects, articles such as Barbara 19 Schrodt's "Changes in the Governance of Amateur Sport in Canada", 20 Canadian Governments and Sport, by Broom and Baka, Richard Moriarty s 21 "The Rise and Fall of Sports Organizations", and "Social Class and Voluntary Action in the Administration of Canadian Sport", by Holland and 22 Gruneau, were consulted. For a study of the development of other 6 individual sports, such works as A.B. Rose's "An Historical Account of 23 Canada's Participation in International Ice Hockey: 1948-70", Sixty 24 Years of Canadian Cricket, by J.E. Hall and R.O. Mcculloch, Robert Bratton's "A History of the Canadian Volleyball Association up to 1967", and similar accounts for soccer, rugby and lacrosse, proved to be useful sources. Justification In his recent article "Canadian Sport History: A Critical Essay", the eminent Canadian sport historian, Donald Morrow, observed that for the majority of Canadian sport history research, "the common basis of methodology was narrative-descriptive history." Furthermore, he identified single sport studies as one of the four broad topical headings which emerged from his 26 review of the leading journals in the field. Morrow contended that "Canadian sport history is still at the descriptive stage of research", with "Canadian sport historians, for the most part, being trained in descriptive research". While he did not foresee any change in the next decade, neither did he consider descriptive-narrative or descriptive-thematic history to be in any way inferior. Indeed, he stressed that this methodology demanded the 27 attributes of "meticulous research" and "literary skill". In an examination of over two hundred master's theses and doctoral dissertations on sport history emanating from Canadian and British universities in the last fifteen years, the writer of this thesis discovered 28 that nearly one-fifth (38 out of 214) were of the single-sport type. It is thus apparent that sport history theses of narrative-descriptive genre, sport-specific in nature, continue to enjoy considerable favour in this academic field. 7 Although over the past two decades numerous studies have been completed on the history of other individual games, each of which has made some contribution to Canada's sporting heritage, a review of the literature indicated that there had been no comprehensive, scholarly history written on the development of field hockey in Canada. Both from a Canadian viewpoint, and from a more global perspective, the study of men's and women's field hockey had many distinctive features which commended it for research. In its own right, field hockey was ranked as the 29 second most popular outdoor team sport in the world (sixth in Canada). It was the second team sport, of those currently retained, to be admitted to the Olympic programme. Therefore, such a study should represent a valuable contribution to knowledge in the field of sport history. More particularly, the separate men's and women's development of this sport was unusual. As an Olympic sport, field hockey was unique in this respect. It was also the only team sport in which men and women have developed separately, each with its own autonomous organizations, at national and international levels. The examination of this aspect should prove very useful from the perspective of sport administration. Upon consideration of the above factors, the proposed topic is submitted as a worthwhile subject of study in the field of sport history and sport management. Delimitations of the Study Chronologically, this study was confined to the period from the 1890s to 1983. From the broader perspective, the 1890s witnessed the formation of the first separate women's national associations and ushered in the first 8 international matches for both men and women. From the Canadian viewpoint, the 1890s marked the founding of the Vancouver Hockey Club (men's) and the Vancouver Ladies' Hockey Club, the oldest known formal field hockey clubs in Canada. A logical point of termination for the study was 1983, the year in which, internationally, the men's and women's federations were amalgamated, with the Federation Internationale de Hockey (F.I.H.) absorbing the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations (I.F.W.H.A.) into its organization. This thesis was limited to the construction of an historical framework and to a discussion and interpretation of events occurring within that framework. While no attempt was made to write a definitive "history of hockey", the important landmarks in the history of the game, such as the formation of the world's first national associations and of the international federations, were necessary to provide the contextual framework. The history of field hockey in Canada was studied in greater detail, with the emphasis on the development of the sport governing bodies, their activities, and their organization. Although this study was not an attempt to trace the origins and development of every club or team ever formed in Canada or internationally, those individuals, teams, clubs, competitions, and other events which were crucial to the development and organization of the game, and particularly as they were relevant to the separate development of men's and women's hockey, were studied closely, such events as the formation of Canada's national associations, their affiliation with their respective international bodies, and participation in national and international competition were considered of paramount importance. 9 Limitations o£ the Study One limitation in the study of the game of field hockey in Canada was the dearth of historical material available on the subject, especially with regard to men's hockey. A further limitation was the incompleteness of records of a documentary nature (minutes, correspondence, reports and the like) especially prior to World War I. In addition, most of the individuals associated with the game in the early days, and some of those involved in the formative years of the two national associations, were deceased. Also, as field hockey has traditionally been a little publicized sport, there was, in general, scant mention of the game in newspapers and other forms of printed communications media. These limitations indicated that, to provide adequate information for completion of the study, a multi-directional search for source material was required to collate and substantiate the data. Procedure This research was conducted using the historical method. Data collected was rigorously subjected to critical examination to determine its validity and reliability. As well as establishing the authenticity of the material, corroborative evidence was obtained, whenever possible, to ensure that it was trustworthy. Also, in assessing the importance of material, and interpreting its significance, these fundamental principles of objectivity were applied. While the methodology falls generally into the descriptive-narrative genre, and the subject into the single-sport category, the several unusual aspects inherent in the topic, especially the bipartite nature of the 10 development of the game, suggested areas for further research, as discussed in the final section. Prior to World War II, field hockey in Canada was confined almost exclusively to the Vancouver and Victoria areas of British Columbia. Thus, as the site of field hockey's early development, much of the material, and most of the people associated with the formative years of the game in Canada, were to be found there. However, the author also visited Toronto and Ottawa to research original material on Canadian development, and travelled to England to obtain documents of international relevance. In addition to the material referred to in the review of the literature, primary and secondary sources examined included: 1. All issues of the Canadian Field Hockey News (1963-1985) and World Hockey (1969-1985). 2. A sampling of other hockey periodicals from several countries spanning the last three decades of the study. 3. Minutes, reports, constitutions, correspondence, and other material pertinent to the functions of the relevant associations. 4. Other relevant documents deposited in the following archives and libraries: Public Archives of Canada; Vancouver City Archives; B.C. Sports Hall of Fame and Museum; Vancouver Public Library; and University of British Columbia Library. 5. Newspapers and journals, as well as miscellaneous newsletters, programmes, fixture booklets, and personal scrapbooks, photographs, and other memorabilia. 6. Interviews with those men and women whose involvement in field hockey in Canada, and hockey internationally, could offer a valuable 11 contribution to this research. Where an interview was not feasible, correspondence was substituted. Organization of Thesis This study is organized into four sections: 1. Introduction. 2. Narrative description of the development of men's and women's hockey, internationally and in Canada. 3. Discussion and interpretation of the game's development and the phenomenon of its bipartite nature with respect to men and women. 4. Summary with conclusions and recommendations. The narrative description, which forms the factual framework of the study is presented in two parts: Part I, the development of men's and women's hockey internationally; and. Part II, the development of men's and women's field hockey in Canada. Chronologically, the narrative is divided into four 30 time periods: 1890s to World War I; the inter-war years; post-World War II to late 1960s; 1970 to 1983. Within each time period, separate accounts of the development of the game for men and the development of the game for women are presented. These separate accounts are followed by an examination of the interaction between men and women, and an investigation into the relationship between their respective organizational bodies. From a review of the literature it can be observed that, with respect to the evolution of the game, no single volume exists in which descriptions of men's and women's hockey development have been treated together, much less juxtaposed. Thus, the author deemed it necessary to present a comprehensive 12 account of the development of men's and women's hockey internationally in order to establish the basis on which discussion could proceed. Similarly, as no comprehensive history of the game in Canada had previously been written, a chronology of field hockey in Canada has been included as an integral part of this study, in producing this chronology, several aspects of development were considered: the founding of clubs; the participation of teams in league fixtures and representative matches; the fostering of the game in schools or in junior programmes; the formation of associations at district, provincial and national level, affiliation with international bodies, national championships,and international competition, to list the most important. At each stage of this exposition, the Lower Mainland of British Columbia (Vancouver) was regarded as the focal point of 31 development, with Vancouver Island (Victoria) its satellite. The rationale behind this approach was, firstly, that these two centres were virtually the only areas of Canada where adult hockey was played prior to the 1950s: and, secondly, that Vancouver was the location at which both national associations had their inception, and from which the nucleus of the first Canadian teams to participate in international competition was selected. Definition of Terms The terms "bipartite", "separate", "parallel", and other approximately equivalent terms, are intended to describe the situation which existed in field hockey whereby the men's and women's games developed in an essentially independent manner, not only competitively, but organizationally, administratively, and philosophically. 13 The use of the terms "hockey", "field hockey", and "grass hockey" — and sometimes "ground hockey" — requires elaboration. Because the establishment of the International Hockey Board (the first international body of any of the variants of the generic game of hockey) preceded the formation of the International Ice Hockey Federation, and corresponding world organizations for roller hockey and indoor hockey, field hockey is known internationally as "hockey". On the other hand, in Canada, the name "hockey" usually refers to ice hockey, with the terras "field hockey" and "grass hockey" being required to identify the outdoor field game. Although it has now been superseded by "field hockey", the term "grass hockey" was the official name used in British Columbia up until the formation of the Canadian associations in the early 1960s. In this thesis, when the term "hockey" is used, it means field hockey. This convention is adopted and generally employed when the meaning is clear from the context. For instance, a modification of the game, known as "mixed hockey", refers to field hockey played by men and women together. When it is appropriate from considerations of historical development, or in cases of potential ambiguity, the prefixed nomenclature "field hockey" or "grass hockey" is used. During the period under study, several examples of overlap in terminology occur: thus, some frequently used terms require differentiation. For example, although "team" and "club" were sometimes used interchangeably, a team was generally regarded as the actual group of players who participated in a game, while a club was the organizational body which entered one or more teams in a competition. The fact that, especially before World War II, most clubs fielded only one team, no doubt contributed to this lack of 14 distinction. Similarly, while "league" usually referred to the competition amongst teams, and "association" to the overall organizational body, the two terms were often used synonymously. Even in minutes, and on official letterhead, the title "League" appeared as frequently as "Association", both for the men's and women's organizations. The terms "match" and "game" were used interchangeably, too. However, the former usually referred to a more competitive contest — an inter-city match between representative teams, as opposed to a friendly game of mixed hockey, being an example of appropriate usage. Other terms also require clarification. In women's hockey "women" or "ladies" was used to distinguish adults (players, teams, or clubs) from "girls" or "schoolgirls". The male equivalents were "men" and "juniors" (sometimes "schoolboys"), respectively. In the 1970s, the term "junior" became common for younger players of both sexes, and the term "seniors" was concomitantly applied to adults. With respect to terminology generally, an endeavour is made in this thesis to use contemporary terms wherever the meaning is clear from the context. This applies to such terms as "ladies" for women, "rep" for representative, and "knock-out" for elimination, as well as to the titles of clubs and associations. Where possible, the full and contemporary name of a club or association is used upon first reference, and short forms thereafter. The Vancouver Ladies' Hockey Club, for example, is abbreviated to Vancouver L.H.C. after the initial reference; in other cases, simply a name, such as Crusaders, is used to refer to a team. 15 Glossary of Abbreviations A. E.W.H.A. All England Women's Hockey Association B. C.F.H.A. British Columbia Field Hockey Association (men's) B. C.W.F.H.F. British Columbia Women's Field Hockey Federation C. F.H.A. Canadian Field Hockey Association (men's) CO.A. Canadian Olympic Association C.W.F.H.A. Canadian Women's Field Hockey Association F. I.H. Federation Internationale de Hockey (International Hockey Federation) G. V.W.G.H.A. Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association H. A. [The] Hockey Association [of England] I. F.W.H.A. International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations I.H.B. International Hockey Board (for rules) I.O.C. International Olympic Committee M.G.H.A. of B.C. Mainland Grass Hockey Association of British Columbia (men's) Abbreviations of other organizational bodies (including variants of the above) are defined throughout the text. 16 PART I INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY CHAPTER II EARLY HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF MODERN HOCKEY Although it has been stated that the period for this study extends from the 1890s to 1983, it is appropriate, and to some extent necessary, that a brief background of the game of hockey be presented. This chapter consists, therefore, of a review of the evolution of hockey, from its ancient origins to its modern form. Pre-Modern Hockey Ancient Forms of Hockey around the World Historians are generally agreed that crude stick and ball games, from which the game of hockey is derived, date back several thousands of years. The earliest evidence of such a game was discovered at Beni Hasan in the Nile Valley, in a tomb which was built ca. 2000 B.C. On the wall is a drawing which depicts two figures, whose relative positioning resembles that of players participating in the modern "bully".1 Further evidence of an early form of stick and ball game played in the western Mediterranean during the pre-Christian era is provided by a bas-relief, discovered in Athens in 1922, in a wall built during the time of Themistocles, 514-449 B.C. At the base of 17 a statue are six athletes, all holding curved sticks, with two of the men 2 engaged in an activity that suggests a bully. There is also evidence of a 3 stick and ball game played in Rome, and known as paganica. Several scholars have linked the origins of ball games, in many civilizations throughout the world, to ancient religious or fertility rites. Ritualistic precursors of the modern game of hockey have been discovered in several parts of Asia, in Papua and New Guinea, and in the Arab countries of 4 North Africa. Forms of such games were also played for many centuries by the Indians of North and South America. As early as 1646, a Spanish friar writing a history of Chile made reference to the Indian game of cineca which he described as being similar to what is now known as hockey, and amongst North American Indians, a comparable game is reported to have been played by 5 both men and women. On the continent of Europe, there existed many examples of stick and ball games, the most prevalent of which was the game of la soule, also originally associated with religious occasions and played in France during the Middle Ages.** Several artifacts provide sport historians with visual evidence of the existence of these games: detail from a metal-cut border in a French church depicts townsmen playing la soule in 1497; a French altar cruet, dated 1333, and now residing in the Copenhagen Museum, portrays two players in an orthodox bully; and a Barcelona cathedral in which the chancel, 1 built in 1394, displays a game similar to la soule. Dissemination by the Roman legions to their conquered nations, and tranportation into Spain by the Moorish invaders, are among the hypotheses advanced to explain the 8 introduction of stick and ball games into Europe. 18 Early Forms of Hockey in the British Isles As it was in Britain that hockey took root as a formal game, it is this relatively small corner of the world to which attention is now directed. In his book The Complete Hockey Player, published in London in 1909, Eustace E. White declared that "modern hockey is a glorified form of that game, played at different times and in different countries under such varied names as hurley, 9 shinty, bandy, hoquet and caman." Apart from the French hoquet, from which the terra hockey may have derived, all the other forms are from the British Isles. The game of hurley, or hurling, is the Irish version, to which the first reference is associated with a battle fought in County Mayo in 1272 B.C.; further mention was made of hurley in the reign of King Cathair Mor, who died in A.D. 148.10 In Scotland, the game was known as shinty, with earliest references dating back to the time of Alexander I (d. 1124), who seems to have given his royal patronage to the game. Descriptions of shinty, as played at a later date, were provided by Pennant in his Tour of Scotland, written in 1769.11 Of the many references to the game in England since the twelfth century, a few selected examples should suffice to follow its course. The first documentation of ball games appeared in an 1174 manuscript, the Chronicles of Fitzstephen, which referred to "London Balle Playe", then a 12 popular pastime among students. Over the next few centuries, early forms of hockey were believed to have been played in the schools associated with the great cathedrals of England. There are several examples of existing stained glass windows which verify such activity: one, of thirteenth century origin, set in Canterbury Cathedral, depicts boys playing stick and ball games; another, dating from a century later at Gloucester, shows a figure striking at 19 a ball with a crooked stick. The stick and ball game was prevalent in England and Wales during the medieval period under the name of bandy, and became so popular in fourteenth century England that it interfered with the practice of archery. Together with other games, it was forbidden by decree, 14 under a statute (ca. 1363) of King Edward III. One of several activities held in conjunction with religious festivals in Elizabethan times, and which later developed into specific sports, was an embryonic form of hockey played 15 in some Cornish towns on Ascension Day. Reference to hockey eventually appeared in English literature, where the famous 17th century writer, Lord Macaulay, in describing John Bunyan's pastimes, is said to have asserted that bell ringing and playing at hockey on Sundays were Bunyan's worst vices.^ Hockey in Britain from 1750 to 1870 During the 18th and 19th centuries in England, references to hockey and similar games became more numerous. Joseph Strutt, in The Sport and Pastimes of the People of England, originally produced in 1801, related that hurling was frequently played by irishmen behind the British Museum in London around 17 the year 1775. Lord Lytton was reputed to have written in 1853, "on the common were some young men playing at hockey. That old-fashioned game, now 18 very uncommon in England, except at schools . . . ." Also, Cassel's Popular Educator of 1867 is said to have included an article on hockey as it 19 was played in England. Thus it is not surprising that hockey should have been played in the schools and colleges at that time. Indeed, from 1750, starting with Eton and Winchester, the game became prominent at such institutions. By 1850, several other major public schools and the Royal Military College at Sandhurst were 20 playing hockey, and in the next few decades many more schools took up the game. For instance, Rossall School and Marlborough College, described as "two of the great nurseries of hockey", were playing their versions of the game, at 20 least by 1864 and 1874 respectively. At about mid-century, too, it would appear that hockey was a popular sport in the universities, for it is recorded that in 1847, H.C. Maiden, who was at Trinity College, Cambridge, "tried to 21 get up some football in preference to hockey, then in vogue." Around the middle of the nineteeth century, hockey was also gaining in favour as a game enjoyed outside of the schools and universities. In 1859, players partook of the game on Wimbledon Common in South London and, by the 1860s, it was being played in many parts of England. Its form and name were sufficiently well-known that when the first games of polo were played in 22 London in 1869-70, this new sport was referred to as "hockey on horseback". Modernization of the Game of Hockey During the nineteenth century in England, largely as a consequence of several important social developments which took place at that time, sport was transformed from the various traditional folk pastimes and recreations to the modern forms of organized activities played around the world today. Hockey was one of the games which underwent this process. The First Hockey Clubs and Matches Several clubs in England were instrumental in the creation of the modern game of hockey. Included in these were the Blackheath, Teddington, Richmond, Surbiton and Wimbledon hockey clubs, all from the London area. While each of these clubs made a significant contribution, it is Blackheath 21 and Teddington that can reasonably claim to have been the first of the modern hockey clubs. Chronologically, Blackheath Hockey Club was the first; from the informal games which had been played on the heath since 1840, the Blackheath 23 Hockey Club was founded in 1861. A full decade was to pass before members of the Teddington Cricket Club, meeting at the end of a rainy summer to discuss the possibility of playing hockey, formed the Teddington Hockey Club 24 in the autumn of 1871. The Teddington players "appear to have had about three years on their own to shape their game" before the first matches with outside clubs were played. But by 1874, on the other side of the Thames, interest in hockey was growing at Surbiton and Richmond. With the help of some visiting Teddington players, the Richmond Hockey Club was founded in October 1874, and in the autumn of that year "the first recorded game of modern hockey between two clubs" took place when Teddington H.C. played Richmond H.C. in the Old Deer 25 Park, Richmond. The Teddington versus Richmond game ushered in many more encounters of an inter-club nature, for, during the 1874-75 season, several other clubs were formed and fixtures arranged. The history of the Richmond H.C. for that year recorded matches with The Strollers, Hampstead, East Surrey, Upper Tooting, and Surbiton, in addition to its fixtures with Teddington, for a total of 26 about a dozen games. Rise and Fall of the First Hockey Association By the end of this first active season of inter-club hockey fixtures, the time appeared ripe for the formation of an organizational body. With Richmond Hockey Club taking the initiative, eight clubs met in London on 22 16 April 1875 to form what came to be known as the first Hockey 27 Association. Most of the clubs played under reasonably similar rules which the Association proposed to adopt. However, so totally different were the rules of the Blackheath Hockey Club, that the Blackheath representative felt it "perfectly useless for him to remain," thus leaving the other seven 28 clubs to be recorded as the founding members of the Association. Proceeding without the Blackheath club, the Association enjoyed several active seasons, with numerous fixtures played by its member clubs. Even a match between sides representing the counties of Middlesex and Surrey took place — at Kennington Oval in January 1876. However, in the early 1880s, as a result of disputes over the rules and isolationist elements in some clubs, the game gradually declined, and with many clubs disbanding, the first Hockey 29 Association became moribund. Revival of the Game and the Second Hockey Association In the mid-1880s, a revival of interest in organized hockey led to another attempt to form an association. At the instigation of the Wimbledon Hockey Club, a meeting was called in London on 18 January 1886, and on that day the present Hockey Association (H.A.) was founded. The representatives of six London clubs, a Cambridge college, and one school attended the meeting, but later, when the rules were discussed with a view towards standardization, 30 the Blackheath Hockey Club again withdrew from the Association. Indeed, the Blackheath Club, together with several others, formed the rival Hockey Union. This body was active until the mid-1890s, at which point, with most 31 clubs having defected from the union, Blackheath joined the H.A. 23 Within the next decade, the game of hockey was destined to embrace all of England, in the Midlands, the first club, Solihull H.C, was formed in 1885, with other clubs following over the next few years. Almondbury H.C (1886) was the first to be founded in the north of England. The addition of other clubs scon afterwards permitted the first matches to be played there in 32 1887, and the Northern Counties Hockey Association to be formed in 1888. As well as fixtures between clubs, representative matches were also played, 33 the following events demonstrating the rapid development: 1887 — first county match (Surrey v Middlesex) 1888 — first county match in the north (Cheshire v Lancashire) 1890 — first divisional match (North v South). During this period, hockey continued to flourish in the schools and universities. Numerous public schools had taken up the game, and their matriculating scholars were continuing to play after going to university. The Cambridge colleges had been active since 1883, and by 1889, hockey was being played at Oxford. In 1890, first Cambridge, then Oxford, formed university clubs, and in March of that year, the first "Varsity Match" was played at Oxford. At this time, hockey as a sport was increasing in prestige. Its popularity was partly attributable to the principles of amateurism to which the H.A. strictly adhered. This appealed to the Victorian gentleman who, in turning to hockey, could find a game "played for its own sake, and not for any material rewards, because cups and shields and trophies [were] unknown in 35 hockey . . . ." Organizationally, too, the sport matured during the first decade of the existence of the H.A. By 1895, this organization was the governing body controlling three divisional associations, numerous county 24 associations, and approximately one hundred clubs, in addition to schools and universities. Thus, within a quarter of a century, hockey was transformed from an informal pastime to a game with well-defined rules and a highly structured organization embracing the whole country. Early Development of Women's Hockey Up to the formation of the Hockey Association in 1886, there was no record of organized hockey for women. However, in Victorian England, when women were Just starting to participate in sporting activities, "hockey as a 36 country house and holiday game was very fashionable". From this period appeared the first reports of Victorian ladies "surreptitiously joining in the „37 men s games .... Formal development of women's hockey as an independent game occurred between 1887 and 1890, as indicated by the following summary of events: 1887 — Hockey played at Lady Margaret Hall and Somerville College, Oxford Molesey Ladies' Hockey Club formed in London 1888-89 -- Ealing L.H.C. and Wimbledon L.H.C. (both in Greater London) formed 1890 — A ladies' hockey club formed at Newnham College, Cambridge Thus, by 1890, there were three private clubs and two universities playing 38 women's hockey. During the early 1890s, several schools began to recognize hockey as a winter game. Wimbledon House School (later Roedean School, Brighton) and 25 St. Leonard's School (St. Andrews) were two famous girls' schools which adopted the game. At the universities and in the clubs, women's hockey continued to flourish; in 1895, the first Oxford versus Cambridge Varsity match was played, and by 1896 there were ten clubs playing women's hockey in England. In less than a decade from the formation of the first formal club, 39 women's hockey had become a firmly established game in England. 26 CHAPTER III DEVELOPMENT OF HOCKEY INTERNATIONALLY TO WORLD WAR I The twenty years prior to World War I represented a period during which important developments took place in the evolution of hockey. Not only did the game share with many other sports the advent of international competition, but it also experienced a phenomenon, unique to hockey, in which the game for women began to follow a course distinct from that of men. Thus, the history of hockey from this point onwards becomes two separate stories. International Development of Men's Hockey In the period between the formation of the H.A. in 1886, and the onset of World War I in 1914, men's hockey developed extensively. During that time, it expanded from a game played, for the most part, by a handful of clubs in the London area, to a sport with adherents in many countries around the world. Furthermore, by the end of that era, its competition had included not only regular international matches, but also participation in the Olympic Games. Other Home Countries and the First Internationals While hockey was growing apace in England, the game was also taking root in the other Home Countries.1 Starting in 1888 in Wales, and in the early 1890s in Ireland and Scotland, hockey clubs were formed and matches arranged. As well as wishing to promote the game in their own country, the Welsh were eager to establish fixtures with English clubs: during the period 1890-93 in particular, the clubs of North Wales enjoyed a strong rivalry with 27 the leading Lancashire and Cheshire clubs. In fact, it was Wales that instigated international hockey competition. In 1894, although no Welsh H.A. had yet been formed, Wales requested an international match with England; but as the Hockey Association considered Wales too weak, no match was played at 2 that time. However, while England had declined to play Wales, the Irish were not hesitant to do so. Consequently, on 26 January 1895, an Irish team travelled to Wales, and played a Welsh team at Rhyl. Seven weeks later, on 3 16 March 1895, Ireland visited London to play England. Thus, the year 1895 4 marks the occasion of the first international hockey match. Once established, international hockey competition quickly expanded, for in 1896, England consented to play a Welsh team, and by 1898, Ireland and Wales were playing true internationals, the Welsh H.A. having by then been formed. Scotland's first international match, against the Irish in 1902, 5 introduced the fourth Home Country to international hockey. Formation of the International Hockey Board Emanating from these international matches amongst the Home Countries of the British Isles, and such other advances as endeavours to form a referees association, there came a proposal from the Hockey Association to create an 6 international rules board. This proposal was accepted by Ireland and Wales, and on 25 July 1900, the inaugural meeting of the International Hockey Board took place in Manchester. At this meeting regulations were drawn up and the composition of the Board was established, with two representatives from England, two from Wales, two from Ireland, and an additional one from England as chairman.^ It was not long before the fourth Home Country joined, for on 18 February 1902, the Scottish H.A. was admitted to the I.H.B. with an 28 entitlement of two representatives, and the first meeting of the I.H.B. with representatives from all four member countries of the board was held on 6 May 1903. In that year, the Home Countries Championship was inaugurated, with every member playing each other once during the hockey season. This became an annual series which, apart from the war years, continued until the 8 mid-1970s. European Nations and Olympic Hockey Even before the turn of the century, hockey was being played in Europe, as France, Denmark, Holland and Germany had adopted the game by 1900. While it was usually English players who introduced the game to these countries, English teams did not play European teams until the early 1900s, when the first English club teams travelled to France. Moreover, it was not until 1906 that the first French club team visited England, and as late as 1907 that England played France, England's first international match with a Continental 9 nation. Although English teams had not played against European teams by 1900, there is evidence that hockey matches involving European countries formed part of the festivities of that year's Paris Exhibition. A letter received by the H.A. from the organizers of the Exhibition inviting an English team to a match with a French team (declined by the H.A. for reasons not revealed) indicated that the French were endeavouring to arrange hockey matches in conjunction with the Exhibition. However, no champion was declared, as each visiting team played only the French team, and hockey is not included in the record of sports forming part of the 1900 Olympic Games associated with the Paris 10 Exhibition. 29 The first Olympics in which hockey was officially included in the programme of sports was the 1908 Games in London. Six countries, England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Germany and France, participated in this tournament. The facts that England defeated Ireland 8-1 in the final to win the gold medal, and that the Home Countries filled the top four places, give some indication of the strength of British hockey at that time, and particularly of the superiority of England.11 This was to be the last Olympic Hockey Tournament until after World War I. A proposal that hockey should be included in the Interim Games planned for Athens in 1910 was declined, the British Olympic Council in consultation with the Hockey Association deciding to participate in the official Olympics only. Hockey was not included in the programme of the next Olympic Games, 12 held in Stockholm in 1912, because no suitable ground could be found. International Affiliations The International Hockey Board was not designed for the role of an international organization to which national associations might affiliate, because it was not a controlling administrative body. Its sole purpose was to ensure standardization of the rules by which international competition, initially amongst the Home Countries, could be conducted, and by the time of the 1908 Olympics in London, the I.H.B. was well established and, with respect 13 to the rules, was considered "the supreme authority in all hockey matters." Therefore, regarding organization and administration, it was the officials of the H.A. who, together with the Olympic Council, were responsible for the management of the Olympic Hockey Tournament in 1908. Furthermore, the H.A. was the dominant partner in the I.H.B.; while Scotland, Ireland and Wales were entitled to two representatives each, England's membership varied from 30 three to five. When steps were taken towards the end of 1907 to formalize the rules and regulations of the I.H.B. in preparation for the 1908 Olympics, it was the H.A. which took the initiative in circulating rules to the other Home Countries.14 The H.A. played a special role in international hockey; chronologically, it was the oldest of all hockey associations, and 15 numerically, it was by far the strongest. As a result, in international matters, the H.A. carried the greatest influence, and it is not surprising that, in the absence of an official world administrative body, the Hockey Association was regarded as "the parent body of the game in all the 16 world." While the Irish Hockey Union, the Welsh H.A., and the Scottish H.A. were autonomous national associations independent of England, other countries considered the Hockey Association as the de facto governing body. Colonial and foreign associations, and even clubs, applied for affiliation to the H.A. in the same way that English clubs, counties and divisional associations had done. Initially, the H.A. did not consider it appropriate to accept applications for affiliation from national associations. When the Canterbury (New Zealand) Hockey Club applied for membership in 1901, it was admitted as an honorary member of the H.A.; but in 1902, when the New Zealand Hockey Association requested to be affiliated with the H.A., it was turned down because the H.A. considered it improper to elect a national association as an affiliate member. However, New Zealand was accepted as an honorary member and, similarly, Transvaal in 1906 and Western Australia in 1907. By 1910, affiliations to the H.A. by overseas countries were considered, and applications from Argentina, British East Africa, Transvaal, New Zealand and 17 Victoria were accepted. 31 While the British colonies, and foreign countries overseas, may have considered the H.A. to be the world's governing body, it would appear that by 1910, the Continental countries no longer did. Moreover, the countries of Europe, several of which had now formed national associations, recognized the need for an international administrative body. Following a suggestion by the Belgian Hockey Association to investigate the formation of an international federation, the Honorary Secretary of the H.A. was instructed to discuss the 18 matter with French, Belgian and German officials in Brussels. However, although bilateral relationships continued between the H.A. and the countries of Europe, no international hockey federation was created at this time. Seventy years later, a scribe was to judge that "[the British] failed to realise the need for an international body to control all the aspects of a rapidly-expanding game."^ Development of Women's Hockey It has already been narrated that, in England, women began to play hockey in a formal way during the late 1880s and early 1890s. In the latter part of this period, women's hockey was also becoming established in Ireland. By the mid-1890s, the girls of Alexandra College in Dublin were playing the game and, having formed a club, took the initiative in inviting a team from England. Consequently, during the Christmas vacation of 1894-95, the Newnham College girls visited Dublin for a series of games with Alexandra College, the first women's hockey competition involving teams from different countries. The possibility of international matches inspired the captain of the Molesey Club of London to arrange a trial game from which an English team would be selected to play Ireland. The subsequent match between an English and an 20 Irish team was played at Brighton on 10 April 1895. 32 Women's Hockey Associations It was in Ireland that women's hockey was first established on a national basis, for in 1894, the Irish Ladies' Hockey Union was formed. The English, however, were quick to follow the Irish example and, after the international match in April 1895, an informal meeting was held at a Brighton tea-shop for the purpose of establishing a women's hockey association in England. Following further discussion and correspondence, the first formal meeting of the Ladies' Hockey Association was held at the Westminster Town Hall, London, on 23 November 1895. By September 1896, "Ladies" had disappeared from the title of the Association, which was thenceforth known as 21 the All England Women's Hockey Association (A.E.W.H.A.). During the first decade of the existence of the Association, women's hockey in England expanded at every level. By 1898, county and territorial associations had been formed; in that same year, several county matches were contested and the first territorial match. North versus South, was played. From ten member clubs of the fledgling association in 1896, there were, by 1904, four territories, thirty-four counties and three hundred clubs 22 affiliated with the A.E.W.H.A. Within this same period, national bodies had been established for women's hockey in Wales and Scotland. The Welsh Women's Hockey Association was formed in 1898, initially as the Ladies' Section of the men's Association, and two years later the Scottish Women's Hockey Association, "the last of the Home Countries to become organised", was founded. Thus, by 1902, the year that the Scottish Hockey Association for men was accepted as the fourth member of the I.H.B., there also existed in the British Isles four fully autonomous 23 women's hockey associations. 33 International Hockey As national associations for women became established, so too did international competition become more formal. The first truly representative women's international hockey match took place in 1896, when England played Ireland in Dublin. The return match in 1897 was the first full international played on English soil; England first played Wales in 1900; and when Scotland played its first international against Ireland in 1901, all four Home 24 Countries had experienced international hockey. In 1904 the concept of an international federation was first mooted, the purpose foreseen being the discussion of rules and standards for games 25 amongst the four British associations. While a further two decades were to pass before the concept was formally proposed, international matches 26 amongst the teams of the Home Countries continued on an annual basis. Women's Hockey around the World After the turn of the century, women's hockey expanded beyond the confines of the British Isles. By 1910, English teams were playing clubs from Holland, but the rules of Dutch hockey were so different from the English rules that no representative matches between the two nations were played. During the period 1904-1914, women's hockey was known to have been played in several other countries throughout the world, including Germany, Switzerland, Russia, U.S.A. and South Africa, although these countries did not play at an international level. Australia and New Zealand, however, were introduced to 27 "international" hockey when an English touring team visited them in 1914. Thus, by the outbreak of war, women's hockey had become a world-wide sport and, albeit there is no mention of it in most reference material, by 28 this time women's hockey had been played in Canada for nearly two decades. 34 Relationship between Men's and Women's Hockey As has been related above, in the years encompassing the formation of distinct women's hockey clubs, women were discreetly joining in men's games. Records indicate that mixed hockey continued to be played in England and Wales 29 throughout the 1890s, and it also became popular in Scotland. When the question of rules arose at the informal meeting of English hockey women in Brighton in 1895, it was considered natural that "the rules of 30 the Hockey Association . . . should be adopted." However, when the ladies made application to affiliate with the Hockey Association, they were rebuffed, the reply received from the Honorary Secretary of the H.A. stating: the Hockey Association has been formed entirely in the interests of men's clubs, [and could not] officially recognise the existence of the new association.3^ As a reaction to this, at the first formal meeting of the Ladies' Hockey Association in November 1895 when this correspondence was read, the principle was adopted that no man could hold executive office in any association 32 affiliated with the Ladies' Hockey Association (later A.E.W.H.A.). This edict was to have long-term, world-wide ramifications, for in time it was incorporated into the principles of the international federation; it was also included in the constitutions of the many national associations which became affiliated to the A.E.W.H.A. and, later, the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations. However, although there was no affiliation with the H.A., the A.E.W.H.A. implicitly regarded its opposite number as the ruling body. For the first ten years of the existence of the A.E.W.H.A., women's games were played according to men's rules, and often umpired by men. Up to this point, the only adaptations had been to substitute "she" for "he" and to make some 35 modifications concerning dress, but in 1906, the Scottish W.H.A. introduced a substantial change in the rules, one which the English women followed in 1907. This drastic change in one of the major rules of the game (prohibiting the hooking of sticks) severed the tacit allegiance to the H.A., and thus displayed the courageous and independent nature of the women's associations. From this time, too, the women also intensified their efforts to train their 33 own umpires. In spite of these rules differences, one principle which the women, who were largely drawn from the leisured classes, continued to share with the men was the confirmation of amateurism. Cups and trophies were shunned, and leagues for points and competitions for prizes were anathema to the women's hockey associations. Such participation was classified as misconduct, and 34 officially discouraged by the rules. Long after the formation of the A.E.W.H.A., mixed hockey games were still played, and several mixed clubs were founded. For some years, women's publications continued to publish a weekly summary of the matches of the H.A., as well as notices of important men's fixtures. Conversely, as women's hockey became more popular, men attended women's matches, and "the All England Women's Hockey Association ... by 1914 had become . . . recognised by the 36 CHAPTER IV INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY BETWEEN THE WARS: EMERGENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATIONS The period between the two wars amounted to barely two decades, yet this short span was destined to be a momentous one in terms of world hockey organization. At the beginning of that era, there was just one international body, the International Hockey Board, at mid-term, there were three separate organizations, and by the end of the era, it was clear that this was tantamount to four different entities. Men's Hockey Because of the devastation caused by World War I and the influenza epidemic of 1919, it was not until the 1919-20 season that hockey clubs began to re-form. Some clubs had lost so many of their members that they never were re-established. However, despite such difficulties domestically, the Olympic Games were resurrected and held in war-torn Belgium in 1920. Olympic Hockey Tournaments Hockey was included in the programme of the 1920 Olympics in Antwerp, with four countries, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, competing in the Tournament. England was again dominant, winning the gold medal handily.1 There is no evidence to suggest that the tournament did not proceed according to tradition, under the auspices of the International Hockey Board, insofar as the rules and regulations were concerned. However, this was not to be the case at the next Olympic Games, for "the organisers of the 1924 Olympics in 37 Paris decided to omit hockey, giving as the major reason, that hockey, unlike 2 the other Olympic sports, had no representative international body." Creation of the Federation Internationale de Hockey Following this action to preclude hockey from the 1924 Olympic Games, the representatives of seven European countries — Austria, Belgium, France, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Spain and Switzerland — met in Paris on 7 January 3 1924 to found the Federation Internationale de Hockey (F.I.H.). This international organizing body was formed without the participation of any of the Home Countries; even the H.A., the world's senior national association, took no part in the formation of the F.I.H. The reason for its non-attendance 4 is not recorded in any of the sources examined; however, it seems that the H.A., together with the representative associations from the other Home Countries, having been responsible a quarter of a century earlier for forming the International Hockey Board, "thought the F.I.H. was an upstart body and 5 usurping their authority over the game". Upon its foundation in 1924, the F.I.H. applied for and received official recognition from the I.O.C. as the international body controlling hockey. As such, the F.I.H. became responsible for the organization of the Olympic Hockey Tournament; and concomitantly, participation of a country in 6 the Olympics was possible only through membership in the F.I.H. The declared purpose behind the Paris meeting of January 1924, and the foundation of the F.I.H., had been to secure the inclusion of hockey into future Olympic programmes. This was fulfilled when hockey was added to the list of sports to be contested in the Amsterdam Olympics in 1928. Over the intervening Olympiad, four more countries, Denmark, Holland, Germany and 38 India, applied for membership in the F.I.H. Thus, a total of nine teams were 7 able to participate in the 1928 Olympic Hockey Tournament. In 1928, for the first time, the F.I.H. assumed authority over the organization of an Olympic hockey tournament, and a technical committee was created within the F.I.H. for this purpose. For the first time, too, no British team participated in the Olympic Hockey Tournament. Rowley suggests the explanation for this absence was that British officials, who were responsible for founding the I.H.B. to administer the rules of the game, did g not accept the authority of the F.I.H. But now there were two world bodies, for the British still controlled the International Hockey Board, even though, organizationally, there was an international hockey federation. Hockey-playing countries around the world acknowledged the authority of the I.H.B. with respect to the rules of the 9 game, yet joined the F.I.H. so as to participate in the Olympic Games. Relationship between the I.H.B and the F.I.H. For the period up until World War II, the F.I.H. continued to control the Olympic Games Hockey Tournament, and the I.H.B. remained the guardian of 10 the rules. During this time, according to George Croft, Honorary Secretary to the Hockey Rules Board, "there was some dialogue between I.H.B. and F.I.H., but not too much".11 Indeed, there was dissension within the I.H.B. itself, brought about by the attitude of the (English) H.A. which enjoyed greater representation than each of the other three Home Country associations. As a result of long-standing disagreements, both the Scottish H.A. and the Irish H.U. resigned from the Board in 1928, and this dispute was 12 not resolved until 1931. It was recorded in the programme of the 1976 Olympic Hockey Tournament that in 1931 the I.H.B. made some modifications in 39 consonance with broader membership; but no details were given as to the nature 13 of the modifications, or the status of membership after 1931. It is interesting to note that the topic of disagreement amongst the Home Countries was the international function of the Board as distinct from its role as a rules authority. As early as 1905, the voting strength of the H.A. on the Board had vetoed French representation, despite the approval of Scotland and Ireland. Again in the 1930s, when the F.I.H. applied for representation on the I.H.B., even the F.I.H. was rebuffed in spite of the support of the Scottish and Irish associations. It has been suggested that "the history of international hockey throughout the world might well have been different had the Board widened its membership when the opportunity 14 offered." The inter-war period witnessed two more Olympics, at both of which hockey was included. Due to the world-wide economic depression, only three teams, India, Japan and U.S.A., participated in 1932. In 1936, eleven teams competed, India defeating Germany 8-1 in the final to win its third 15 consecutive gold medal. Olympic hockey was by now well established, and the F.I.H. indisputably its controlling body. Women's Hockey Although women had been playing organized hockey since the late 1880s, and autonomous national associations had been founded by the mid-1890s, it was not until the mid-1920s that a women's international federation was formed. 40 Conception and Creation of the International Federation  of Women's Hockey Associations There is evidence that the concept of an international federation for women's hockey was discussed in the early 1900s. However, Mrs. Heron-Maxwell, President of the A.E.W.H.A. from 1912, is credited with having "planted the seed" of the idea upon her retirement from office in 1922. At the time of Heron-Maxwell's retirement, several countries had established national women's hockey bodies: by 1902, the four Home Countries had independent associations: in 1910, the All Australia Women's Hockey Association was founded; in January 1922, the American women met to form the United States Field Hockey Association; and in many other countries throughout the world, women were 16 known to be playing the game. In 1924, the opportunity arose to hold a preliminary meeting, on the occasion of an international match between England and the U.S.A., played at Merton Abbey, near London. Officials of the other three Home Countries were present at that match and, at what has sometimes been referred to as "the 17 Merton Tea Party", the representatives of five countries, England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and U.S.A., resolved to form an international federation.1** The inaugural meeting of the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations (I.F.W.H.A.) was held in January 1927, the eight charter members of the federation being Australia, Denmark, South Africa, U.S.A, and the four 19 Home Countries — with all except Denmark English-speaking. The aims of the new Federation included "to work for uniformity of rules"; "to promote international matches"; and, perhaps even more significantly, "to further the 20 best interests of the game among women of all nations." Since the I.F.W.H.A. was a women's hockey organization, men's hockey associations were 41 denied membership; furthermore, the A.E.W.H.A. principle, that all officers 21 must be women, was embodied into the constitution of the I.F.W.H.A. Thus, by 1927, just three years after the creation of the F.I.H., a third international hockey body, independent of either the F.I.H. or the I.H.B., had emerged. Within a few years, the existence of the I.F.W.H.A. was to impinge upon the functioning of the F.I.H. F.I.H Women's Committee According to L.J. Quarles van Ufford, F.I.H. President from 1946 to 1966, the F.I.H. was designed to look after the interests of young people all over the world, men and women alike. The associations which comprised the 22 F.I.H. at its inception represented both men and women hockey players. In 1929, a Women's Committee was established specifically to foster the game for the female hockey players of its affiliated countries, and at the time of its foundation, there were twelve Continental countries — of which Germany, Holland, Belgium and France were prominent — whose women's sections became 23 members of this Committee. With the formation of the Women's Committee of the F.I.H., there was now, de facto, an additional international body, the third to be created in a span of six years. This committee was not an autonomous entity, but it was distinct from the I.F.W.H.A, and in that respect, effectively created a fourth world hockey organization. International Conferences and Tournaments One feature of women's hockey which endured for over half a century was the staging of regular conferences and tournaments in which all women's hockey-playing countries were invited to participate. The I.F.W.H.A. held its 42 first conference in 1930. At this conference, in Geneva, delegates of its various member countries met, and two exhibition matches were played on that 24 occasion. In keeping with one of the aims of the federation, a committee was set up to consider the rules. Furthermore, in pursuance of a second aim, it was suggested that, in future, at each of the proposed triennial 25 conferences, a tournament should be held. This latter suggestion was implemented at subsequent conferences. As early as the second Conference, held in Copenhagen in 1933, countries were invited to enter teams, as well as sending delegates to the Conference. In addition to eight participating countries, a team, known as the overseas XI, was formed to allow visitors from other countries the opportunity to play in 26 friendly matches. When the third Conference was held in Philadelphia in 1936, again eight countries sent teams, and again an additional team was formed to allow other players to participate. It was also in Philadelphia that, for the first time, all eight founding members of the I.F.W.H.A. were 27 able to send teams to the Tournament. At this time, nearly ten years after the inaugural meeting of the Federation, these eight original countries were still the only members of the I.F.W.H.A. However, by the time the next conference was due to be held in Bournemouth, England, in September 1939, two more countries had joined; Canada (Vancouver) was accepted in 1937 and British Guiana (later Guyana) in 1938, to 28 bring the total membership of the I.F.W.H.A. to ten. But while the number of countries affiliated with the I.F.W.H.A. did not increase substantially during the first decade of its existence, the number of teams and clubs within each member country certainly did. The following figures indicate this growth for England, largest of the 29 I.F.W.H.A.'s affiliated associations: 43 1922 — 800 clubs and schools 1929 — 1,200 clubs and schools 1931 — 1,400 clubs and schools 1939 — 2,100 clubs and schools As events transpired, the Bournemouth Conference did not take place, for the world was plunged into war in the opening days of the very month for which the Conference had been planned. Relationships Between Men's and Women's International Federations In the early years of their existence, the two newly-formed international federations, the F.I.H. and the I.F.W.H.A., proceeded independently and without any official interaction. However, by 1930, their development had progressed to the point where the holding of a joint meeting was felt to be mutually advantageous. Joint Meetings of the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. In the history of women's hockey internationally, 1930 was an important landmark, for, in that year, the F.I.H. Women's Committee had just been formed, and the I.F.W.H.A. held its first conference. Affiliated with the F.I.H. were twelve European associations, all of which had women members; while the eight affiliates of the I.F.W.H.A. were, with the exception of 30 Denmark, all autonomous women's hockey associations. The significant factor which led to the desirability of staging a joint meeting between the two federations was a conflict between the aims of the I.F.W.H.A. and the principles of the F.I.H. On the one hand were the important aims of the I.F.W.H.A. to further the best interests of the game 44 among the women of all nations, and to promote international matches; while on the other, was the principle that the F.I.H. had been established to foster both men's and women's hockey, with the result that it would not permit its 31 members to join the I.F.W.H.A. Countries held differing views on the situation. The attitude of some countries was articulated by the President of the Deutscher Hockey Bund (Germany), who believed that all hockey, men's and women's, should be controlled by one international governing body. Conversely, one official of the K.N.H.B. (Holland), was even reputed to have doubted the value of either 32 federation. With such conflicting aims, beliefs and aspirations existing between the two federations and amongst their member national associations, it is clear that a meeting at that time was opportune. Therefore, at the 1930 I.F.W.H.A. Conference in Geneva, such a meeting was arranged. Here the I.F.W.H.A. Council, together with three members of the F.I.H., discussed the possible amalgamation of the two federations, with a view to increasing membership. The issues were those of equal recognition of men and women, and the independence of women internally. This 1930 joint meeting concluded with the observation that, while no resolutions emerged from the discussions, the sessions had produced "friendly relations". This initial meeting was followed by further discussions in 1931, when an I.F.W.H.A. delegation met with 33 officers of the F.I.H. in Paris. Mutual Affiliation and International Competition Although the I.F.W.H.A. did not achieve all of its objectives, it appears that an accord was reached regarding the participation of F.I.H. countries in I.F.W.H.A. Tournaments, for it was through the F.I.H. that 45 Germany and Holland were invited to play at the Tournament held in conjunction 34 with the 1933 Conference in Copenhagen. At the 1933 Conference, and for the remainder of the decade, every effort was made to encourage the continental women to affiliate with the I.F.W.H.A. It was reported that expectations were raised when women's sectional committees began to be formed in some European associations; in particular, the I.F.W.H.A. deserved credit for helping to establish a women's committee within the Deutscher Hockey Bund in 1935, Germany being regarded 35 as the strongest power in the F.I.H. at that time. Throughout the mid-thirties, the reports of Miss W.A. Baumann, Hon. Sec, A.E.W.H.A., reflected optimism, as hopes ran high within the I.F.W.H.A. that women's sections of the Continental associations would achieve autonomy and voluntarily join the I.F.W.H.A. In Baumann's report of 1939, however, it was sadly regretted that the I.F.W.H.A. was further than ever from obtaining the membership of the continental countries. She noted that at a recent meeting of the Women's Committee of the F.I.H., attended by the representatives of Belgium, France, Germany and Holland, a resolution was passed to the effect that no country could belong to more than one international organization, and furthermore, that the four countries present at the meeting declared their intention to retain their affiliation with the 36 F.I.H. Member nations of the I.F.W.H.A. lamented that the Continental countries never took up membership. The I.F.W.H.A. countries perceived that the European women were really only sections of men's associations, anxious to build a European bloc within the F.I.H. On the other hand, it was admitted 37 that the I.F.W.F.A. was, in effect, an English-speaking federation. Whatever may have been the underlying reasons, it is a matter of fact that 46 there was now a clear dichotomy in the organizational structure of women's hockey at the international level. Finally, there is evidence that there was an attempt to include women's hockey in the Olympics even in these early days. In 1930, the F.I.H. made representations to have hockey established as an Olympic sport for women, but it was recorded at that time that the I.F.W.H.A. did not pursue the issue, as the Olympics were, for them, at the wrong time of the year. Several years later, the matter of Olympic participation was again raised at a 1935 I.F.W.H.A. Council meeting, when a committee was formed to investigate the connection between the Federation and the Olympics. No Olympic participation 38 for women resulted from the formation of this committee. Summary The inter-war years represented an eventful period in the development of international hockey. The exclusion of hockey from the programme of sports at the Paris Olympic Games resulted in the formation of the F.I.H. in 1924. While acceptance of this body by the I.O.C. ensured that hockey was re-instated as an Olympic sport, the F.I.H. was not successful in securing control of the rules of the game, or indeed, even of gaining representation on the I.H.B. Hence, there were, as early as 1924, two international bodies which remained distinct throughout the inter-war period. In 1927, the I.F.W.H.A. was formed to unite autonomous women's hockey associations into an international federation; but as the associations of the member countries of the F.I.H. represented both men and women hockey players, the F.I.H. Women's Committee was established in 1929. Thus, there were now two world organizations representing the interests of women; and although meetings between the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. were successful in resolving 47 that F.I.H. member countries could participate in an I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, a decade of effort to encourage the women's sections from these countries to affiliate with the I.F.W.H.A. proved unsuccessful. By the outbreak of World War II, while men's hockey as an Olympic sport was firmly established, attempts to include women's hockey on the Olympic programme had met with failure. Nevertheless, by then, in the form of the I.F.W.H.A.'s triennial tournaments, international hockey played in the Olympic spirit had become a reality for women. 48 CHAPTER V POST-WAR RESURGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY: FROM WORLD WAR II TO THE LATE 1960s Upon the conclusion of World War II, during which all formal international activity had ceased, men's and women's hockey continued to follow the course of bipartite development charted during the inter-war years. Men's Hockey Internationally The War was not long over before national associations were revived and international hockey competition re-activated. When the F.I.H. resumed its activities in 1946, its membership comprised twenty-one affiliated countries.1 The next twenty years were significant in the development of men's hockey internationally, not only by virtue of the large increase in the number of countries which affiliated with the F.I.H. during this period, but also as a result of events which were ultimately to lead to the re-organization of men's international hockey administration. Creation of the British Hockey Board One event of major importance was the creation of a body which permitted British hockey players to participate in Olympic competition, for, up to this time, none of the Home Countries was affiliated with the F.I.H. Both the 1940 and 1944 Olympic Games had been cancelled because of World War II, but when London was awarded the 1948 Olympics, the British were desirous of entering a team in the Hockey Tournament to be held in their own capital. In order to be eligible to do so, Great Britain affiliated with the F.I.H. in 49 1947. This was achieved through the formation of a body called the British Hockey Board (B.H.B.), of which the individual Home Countries were the constituent members. This special relationship, which in effect created a unique two-tier international status for the British, was negotiated largely 2 through the diplomacy of the President of the F.I.H. himself. A record thirteen countries participated in the Olympic Hockey Tournament of the 1948 London Games. India and Great Britain, both previously undefeated in Olympic hockey competition, met for the first time to contest 3 the final. India won this match, to capture the gold medal for the fourth 4 consecutive time, and to dismiss any doubts concerning its world supremacy. At subsequent Olympic Games throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Great Britain continued to compete in the Hockey Tournament under this arrangement. Outside of the Olympics, however, the British also played as individual Home 5 Countries, not only amongst themselves, but with other nations as well. Growth of International Hockey The twenty-year period following the first post-war Olympics in 1948 witnessed a considerable expansion of the game throughout the world. Although, with the exception of Ireland, the Home Countries did not join the F.I.H. as individual national associations, many other countries did become members of this I.O.C.-recognized international federation. An indication of the growth of international hockey may be derived from the number of countries 6 affiliated to the F.I.H. as shown in Table 1. It can be seen that within a decade of the resumption of post-war activities, the number of member countries of "the F.I.H. had doubled, and by 1968, almost trebled. In addition, the Olympic Hockey Tournament, the prime motive in the original foundation of the F.I.H., had attained considerable 50 TABLE 1 NUMBER OF COUNTRIES AFFILIATED WITH THE F.I.H.: 1946-1968 Year F.I.H. Member Countries 1946 21 1956 43 1962 51 1968 58 prestige by the 1950s and 1960s. Almost invariably, during that period of two decades, elimination competitions or assessment of international match records were required to determine the final sixteen countries for the Olympics. The number of participating nations which actually competed in the Olympic Hockey 7 Tournaments from 1948 to 1968 appears in Table 2. Furthermore, by the 1960s, hardly a non-Olympic year would pass without the staging of a major world tournament involving from eight to twelve nations. Regional games were also becoming established, with the quadrennial Asian Games commencing in 1958, and the Pan American Games, also held every four years, starting in 1967. Organizationally, similar advances had been made with the creation of committees representing four continental hockey g regions: Asia; Africa; Europe; and Pan-America. 51 TABLE 2 NUMBER OF COUNTRIES PARTICIPATING IN OLYMPIC HOCKEY TOURNAMENT: 1948-1968 Year Venue No. of Countries 1948 London 13 1952 Helsinki 12 1956 Melbourne 12 1960 Rome 16 1964 Tokyo 15 1968 Mexico 16 Relationships between the F.I.H. and the I.H.B. In 1947, when the British Hockey Board was created to permit Great Britain to affiliate with the F.I.H. and thereby participate in the Olympic Games, the reciprocal agreement emanating from the negotiations gave the F.I.H. representation on the International Hockey Board. According to Quarles van Ufford, President of the F.I.H. from 1946 to 1966, this heralded a period 9 of loyal co-operation between the F.I.H. and Great Britain. At first, F.I.H. representation on the I.H.B. was small, amounting to three out of a total of fourteen members. Gradually, however, the F.I.H. increased its influence; in 1957, the F.I.H. representation was increased to four, and by the mid-1960s the balance of representation was ten from the British Home 10 Countries and eight from the F.I.H. The influence of the F.I.H. was manifest in forms other than numerical strength of representation. During the long period of separation of the F.I.H. and the I.H.B., acceptance of I.H.B. rules by the F.I.H. was little 52 more than a tacit understanding. After 1948, the F.I.H. and all of its member countries officially recognized the I.H.B. Furthermore, by 1968, it was the F.I.H. which was empowered to set up a special sub-committee for rules experimentation, formerly the exclusive preserve of the I.H.B. The solidarity of the I.H.B. itself also began to falter. In 1950, the Irish Hockey Union joined the F.I.H. as an independent member, and by 1968, when the Welsh H.A. applied for, and was granted, individual membership in the F.I.H., it was clear that the very existence of the I.H.B. was nearing its end.11 Women's Hockey Internationally If the period from the end of World War II to the late 1960s was, for men's hockey, an era of international expansion stimulated by Olympic competition, so too was it a time of growth for women's hockey internationally. Olympic Aspirations and International Competition The immediate post-war period was one of renewed Olympic aspirations for women's hockey. There is evidence that, as early as July 1946, efforts were under way in this direction. Then, on 8 August 1946, at the instigation of England, Ireland, Wales and the U.S.A., a letter was dispatched from the I.F.W.H.A. to the I.O.C. requesting the addition of women's hockey to the 12 programme of the 1948 Olympic Games to be held in London. The following month, the I.F.W.H.A. received what was described by a leading women's hockey official as "the disappointing decision of the International Olympic Committee to exclude women's hockey" from the official programme of the Olympic Games. The consequence of the I.O.C. decision was far-reaching, and doubly so. First, this rebuff contributed to a negative stance soon to be taken by 53 the I.F.W.H.A. towards Olympic participation; secondly, it inspired the F.I.H. to propose a World Festival of Women's Hockey to replace the Olympics. This World Festival, organized by the K.N.H.B. (Holland) and staged at Amsterdam in May 1948, was open to all countries affiliated with either the F.I.H. or the 14 I.F.W.H.A. It is recorded that "the Dutch women were charming hostesses" to eleven countries; Holland, Denmark, Belgium, France, Austria, Spain, 15 England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and the U.S.A. Thus, it was the largest women's world tournament yet held, and the most comprehensively representative of F.I.H.- and I.F.W.H.A.-affiliated national associations. A few years later a further attempt was made to introduce women's hockey into the Olympic Games. Again, adherents of the game were to be dissappointed, for the I.O.C. decided that women's hockey would not be included in the 1952 Olympics. At the 1950 I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, it had been proposed that, since women's hockey-playing countries had the opportunity to attend a triennial conference, there was no need to press for women's hockey in the Olympics. It was recorded that, on this issue, "the Conference voted 16 unanimously against participation in the Olympic Games." Thus, with Olympic aspirations now shattered, and Olympic participation rejected, the I.F.W.H.A. Triennial Tournament became the mecca of international competition for women's hockey playing countries throughout the world. The Fourth Conference and Tournament had been a long time in coming, for the I.F.W.H.A. had been largely inactive from 1939 to 1946, operating 17 during the war years through a skeleton committee in the U.S.A. When this Fourth Conference was finally held, in Johannesburg in 1950, fourteen years had elapsed since the Philadelphia Conference and Tournament of 1936. Only six teams participated in the 1950 Tournament; England, Ireland, Scotland, 54 U.S.A. and South Africa were the member countries represented, while 18 International Wanderers was the traditional composite team. From this modest resumption, however, the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament gained rapidly In strength. The Fifth I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, held in Folkestone, England, in 1953, brought together the teams of sixteen hockey countries from around the world. This was twice the number that had participated in each of the last two pre-war tournaments, for both at Copenhagen in 1933, and in Philadelphia in 1936, eight teams had competed. Furthermore, on this occasion, there really was a well-balanced representation from all corners of the earth. Participating were seven nations from Continental Europe, four from the British Isles, and five from overseas: India, U.S.A., South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. The I.F.W.H.A. truly 19 was a global organization. For the next two decades, the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament was to become the veritable Olympics of women's hockey: the code of ethics, the amateur ethos, and the spirit of competition and cameraderie were all true to the Olympic ideals. By the 1960s, even the inter-conference period had been changed to one of four years. Table 3 indicates the popularity of the Tournament during 20 the 1950s and 1960s. Organizational Development of the I.F.W.H.A. From an organizational perspective, the post-war period was one of sustained growth and development. As shown in Table 3, the number of countries affiliated with the I.F.W.H.A. increased substantially. Standing at ten in 1947, it had doubled by 1953, and trebled to reach thirty by 1967. To a large extent, this increase in membership was attributable to the concerted efforts of the Federation and its affiliated associations to promote the game of women's hockey in non-member countries. A special session at each 55 TABLE 3 NUMBER OF TEAMS AT I.F.W. .H.A.TOURNAMENTS 1953-1967 AND COUNTRIES AFFILIATED Year Venue No. of Teams Affiliated Countries 1953 Folkestone 16 20 1956 Sydney 10 20 1959 Amsterdam 15 23 1963 Baltimore 17 26 1967 Cologne 19 30 Conference was devoted to this endeavour. However, the organizational strength of the I.F.W.H.A., and its integrity of purpose were reflected in its resolution to accept as members only those countries which could provide satisfactory evidence of the independence of a women's hockey section. For example, when the Pakistan Hockey Federation, which was responsible for men's and women's hockey in that country, sought affiliation in 1953, its application was denied because the Pakistan Federation did not comply with the 22 I.F.W.H.A.'s conditions of membership. There were several features of the I.F.W.H.A. Conferences and Tournaments which distinguished women's hockey from other sports and made manifest the non-exclusive participatory nature of the event. Every member country was welcome to enter a team in the Tournament and invited to send a delegate to the Conference. One of the functions of the host country was to arrange for each of the visiting teams a tour that included matches, not only within the host country itself, but also with I.F.W.H.A. countries on the route of the visiting team. Furthermore, enthusiastic supporters could 56 register as official visitors, and thus be included as an integral part of the activities, including provision for accommodation and attendance at matches, 23 meetings and social functions. All of these factors combined to create an atmosphere that moved a former captain of a participating team to observe that "no one who has ever attended an IFWHA Tournament and Conference will deny the 24 unique spirit that prevails". Thus, the I.F.W.H.A.'s declared aims of furthering women's hockey throughout the world, and promoting friendly competition were being actively pursued and largely fulfilled. Efforts were also made to standardize the rules. In 1956, the Rules and Umpiring Sub-Committee recommended that the I.F.W.H.A. adopt the rules of the Women's Hockey Board of Great Britain and Ireland. Uniformity of the rules continued to be an important issue of the 1959 Conference in Amsterdam, where it was passed unanimously that the Constitution be amended to provide for a code of rules for Tournament matches and other international fixtures. Finally, at the 1967 Conference in Leverkusen (Cologne), "it was by unanimous agreement that the Conference set up an Independent Rules-Making Body," which 25 became the Women s International Hockey Rules Board. Relationships Between the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. Early Post-War Interaction At the 1948 Amsterdam World Festival, the Dutch were asked to arrange a meeting between the Women's Committee of the F.I.H., (or representatives of Continental Associations present), and delegates of the I.F.W.H.A. The anticipated important items on the agenda were Olympic Games recognition, and 26 the desirability of re-opening negotiations with the F.I.H. The outcome of a resolution to pursue further the recognition of 27 women's hockey as an Olympic sport has already been narrated. On the 57 positive side, however, discussions with the F.I.H. Women's Committee led to fruitful negotiations with the President and Honorary General Secretary of the 28 F.I.H. A long-standing aim of the I.F.W.H.A. had been to embrace within its membership the women's sections of the F.I.H. associations. In October, 1948, the I.F.W.H.A. received notification from the F.I.H. that permission had been granted; women's sections of F.I.H. member countries that so wished could affiliate with the I.F.W.H.A. Even before the end of the year, the women's sections of the Belgian and Austrian Hockey Associations had applied for 29 membership in the I.F.W.H.A. and were accepted. Ever since the first of the Conference tournaments (Copenhagen, 1933), the F.I.H.-affiliated countries had been permitted by their federation and national associations to participate in the I.F.W.H.A. competitions; now they could and did actually affiliate with the I.F.W.H.A. At last, the way appeared open for a true world federation for women's hockey. This optimism was supported by an increase, during the period 1948 - 1950, of eight countries affiliated to the I.F.W.H.A., a phenomenon attributed to the 30 successful negotiations between the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. Creation of the Joint Consultative Committee Special problems confronted the I.F.W.H.A.'s Continental members, who were, through their joint national associations, also affiliated with the F.I.H. When playing international matches amongst themselves, they played in accordance with the rules approved by the F.I.H.; but when playing against I.F.W.H.A. countries, and in particular, when participating at an I.F.W.H.A. tournament, they were obliged to play according to the prevailing rules of that federation. In 1952, those European countries with dual membership 58 requested that officials of the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. should meet for 31 discussions aimed at resolving these problems. Following informal talks between the I.F.W.H.A. officials and the F.I.H. Women's Committee in April of that year, the Secretary General of the F.I.H., M. Rene Frank, and the President of the I.F.W.H.A., Miss Hilda Light, met unofficially with a view to bringing the two federations closer together. Discussion centred around the phenomenon that hockey had two international federations, one for men, and one for women; and, according to Frank, hockey was the only sport for which this was so. It was agreed that regular contact should be established to resolve potential difficulties; for example, if there were no connection between the two federations, the rules could diverge to the 32 point of constituting two separate games. The F.I.H. submitted that shared concerns could best be addressed through the formation of a consultative committee composed of delegates of both federations. The Council of the I.F.W.H.A. agreed with this proposal, and in May 1953, a preliminary meeting of the Joint Consultative Committee (J.C.C.) took place. The minutes of this preliminary meeting outlined the aims and objectives of the Committee, which included: to strive for closer co-operation between the two federations; to secure uniformity of rules and regulations; and to deal with questions arising out of international matches. It was recorded that the I.F.W.H.A. welcomed the J.C.C. and approved its 33 aims. The constitution of the J.C.C. made provision for three delegates from each federation, and stipulated that it should meet at least once every three years. Furthermore, the F.I.H. invited the I.F.W.H.A. to hold the key positions of Chairman and Honorary Secretary of the J.C.C. for the first three-year term. Hilda Light, retiring President of the I.F.W.H.A., and a 59 visionary who had forseen the necessity of such a committee, was appointed the 34 first Chairman of the J.C.C. Consultation and Co-operation: 1953 - 1967 On a formal basis, the J.C.C. met once in about every three years. These meetings were timed to occur during the mid-term period of the major events of each federation (Olympics for the F.I.H.; Conference and Tournament 35 for the I.F.W.H.A.). Table 4 reveals this aspect of J.C.C. meetings. The initial structure of the J.C.C. permitted three delegates from the I.F.W.H.A. and three delegates from the F.I.H.; representing the F.I.H. during the first three-year term were two members of the Women's Committee and the Honorary General Secretary. By 1958, the number of delegates from each federation had been increased to four, the Secretary of the I.H.B. (later the International Hockey Rules Board) being the fourth F.I.H. representative, and 36 his counterpart in women s hockey, the fourth I.F.W.H.A. delegate. As well as consultation through the J.C.C., this era was marked by the degree of co-operation and mutual respect and admiration which the two international federations accorded each other. An excellent start to this atmosphere of goodwill was the presentation in 1953 of the F.I.H.'s most prestigious award, the Leautey Cup, to the I.F.W.H.A. "in recognition of its 37 outstanding work for the game . . . ." A further indication of the co-operative spirit was the invitation extended by the F.I.H., and accepted by the I.F.W.H.A., for two delegates to attend the 1954 Congress of the F.I.H. In 1958, the I.F.W.H.A. requested the officers of the F.I.H. to encourage the women's sections of their affiliated associations to apply for membership of I.F.W.H.A, a reflection of improved relations since pre-war days. Conversely, in 1964, the I.F.W.H.A. agreed to support an article in the F.I.H. 38 constitution regarding suspension of clubs and individuals. 60 TABLE 4 MEETINGS OF THE JOINT CONSULTATIVE COMMITEE: 1952-1968 Year F.I.H. J.C.C I.F.W.H.A. 1952 O 1953 P C 1954 1955 J 1956 O C 1957 1958 J 1959 C 1960 O 1961 J 1962 1963 C 1964 O 1965 1966 J 1967 C 1968 O O = Olympic Tournament C = Conference & Tournament J = J.C.C. Meeting P = Preliminary Meeting 61 As well as the formal meetings of the J.C.C., by the late 1950s, joint meetings of a technical nature were being conducted under the Committee's auspices. In 1958, the F.I.H. Technical Commitee met with its I.F.W.H.A. counterpart to discuss rules, for the issue of rules was crucial. Upon the resolution of this problem depended the outcome of the single most important matter, that of international competition between I.F.W.H.A. and F.I.H. countries. By the time of the second meeting of the J.C.C. in 1958, the F.I.H. expressed its firm belief that it was time to standardize men's and women's rules. Firstly, however, uniformity of women's rules was required, for up until that time each country played its own variation of the rules, necessitating adjustments when international matches were played under the jurisdiction of the I.F.W.H.A. Despite several meetings of the I.F.W.H.A's Rules and Umpiring Committee in the intervening period, when the J.C.C. met again in 1961, the F.I.H. insisted that the matter of rules could not be logically discussed until the I.F.W.H.A. established a body similar to the I.H.B. — an independent committee of experts, rather than a sub-committee dependent on the decisions of a conference. It came as a disappointment to the I.F.W.H.A. that the F.I.H. was not willing to recognize the Code of Rules 40 used for I.F.W.H.A. Tournament matches, as had been hoped. At the I.F.W.H.A. Council Meeting convened in conjunction with the 1963 Conference held in the United States, a proposal was advanced that the F.I.H. be requested, at the next meeting of the J.C.C., to recognize the I.F.W.H.A.'s Rules and Umpiring sub-Committee as I.F.W.H.A.'s rules-making body. This resolution was short-lived, for, by 1965, a joint meeting of the F.I.H. Technical Committee and the I.F.W.H.A. Rules and Umpiring Sub-Commitee led to the I.F.W.H.A. Council's agreeing in principle to the formation of an 62 independent rules-making body. When the J.C.C. met next in 1966, an autonomous body, soon to be known as the Women's International Hockey Rules Board (W.I.H.R.B.), was in the process of being created. This independent rules-making body was approved unanimously by the membership of the I.F.W.H.A. at the 1967 I.F.W.H.A. Conference in Cologne. From then on, all women's sections of the F.I.H. which were affiliated with the I.F.W.H.A. had to play 41 to this Code of Rules. With this acceptance of the creation of the W.I.H.R.B., came "the decisions [which standardized] the rules of the game for ladies."42 The minutes of the 1967 I.F.W.H.A. Conference revealed that this advance had been achieved by the combined operations of its Sub-Committees, the foresight of its officers, and the co-operative attitude of the F.I.H. Furthermore, the J.C.C. "could confidently state that [it] had fulfilled in the main the aims and objects as set out in its Constitution and in the sphere 43 of achieving closer co-operation and direct exchange of information." Summary The quarter-century from World War II to the late 1960s was a time of world-wide expansion and increased competition both for the F.I.H. and the I.F.W.H.A. For the men, the pinnacle of competition was the Olympic Hockey Tournament, while for the women, the ultimate goal was participation in the I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament. These parallel but separate paths were set early in this period. Within the first five post-war years, the women were first denied, then they themselves rejected, entry into the Olympic Games. On the other hand, the British Hockey Board was created as the vehicle through which the men of the British Isles could compete in the Olympic Games. This also established the 63 connection, albeit indirectly, between the Home Country Associations and the F.I.H., and by virtue of three members appointed to the I.H.B., the F.I.H. gained representation on the rules-making body. While men's and women's hockey thus proceeded separately, the two international federations enjoyed friendly relations. Very early on, as a result of meetings between the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. at the 1948 Women's World Festival, women's sections of F.I.H.-affiliated associations were permitted to join the I.F.W.H.A. as well, thus acquiring dual membership. In 1953, the J.C.C. was established to maintain a working relationship between the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H., especially for the benefit of those member associations which were affiliated to both federations. The major objective was to ensure the opportunity for international competition. Thus, the uniformity of rules became a concern, the resolution of which was made a high priority by the J.C.C. Towards the end of the 1960s, prospects for its solution, in the form of the W.I.H.R.B., appeared promising. 64 CHAPTER VI INTERNATIONAL HOCKEY FROM 1970 TO 1983: UNIFICATION OF THE FEDERATIONS At the close of the 1960s, men's and women's hockey at the international level had experienced almost a quarter of a century of independent, albeit parallel, development. But, upon the dawn of a new decade, events were about to unfold which would catapult the game, and both its international federations, into a fresh and tumultuous era. This final section describes that episode. The major event of the period from 1970 to 1983 was the integration of the I.F.W.H.A. into the F.I.H., a phenomenon precipitated by the inclusion of women's hockey in the Olympic Games and the accompanying reduction in the number of men's teams in the Olympic Hockey Tournament. The process of unification, which evolved over this period, is best described after the individual developments in men's and women's hockey are first narrated. Men's Hockey Development The early part of this era was notable for several reasons: first, it was a period of rationalization within the men's international organizational structure itself; secondly, at this time, a World Cup hockey competition was inaugurated; and thirdly, the retention of hockey as an Olympic sport was cast in doubt. 65 Rationalization o£ the Organizational Structure Affiliation of the Home Countries with the F.I.H. and the integration of the rules governing body into the infrastructure of the F.I.H. was a gradual process which culminated in the late 1960s and early 1970s.1 The anomaly which existed up until 1970, despite the co-operative relationships enjoyed, was that the F.I.H. held a minority position in the formulation and modification of the rules of the game which it administered world-wide. Inextricably linked with this anomaly was the phenomenon that, although England and the other Home Countries secured F.I.H. affiliation through the B.H.B., this was an indirect affiliation, applicable, for the most part, to 2 Olympic participation. In 1948, no British Home Country was individually affiliated to the F.I.H. The first to apply was Ireland, which was accepted in 1950; but it was not until 1968 that the next Home Country, Wales, sought 3 and gained affiliation. The Welsh action, however, ushered in a period of transition. Two years later came the historic occasion when, at a Congress in Brussels on 26 September 1970, the (English) H.A. affiliated with the F.I.H. So, at last, the country which founded the modern game joined the ranks of the organization which, by now, was recognized as the governing body of hockey. At the same meeting, the Scottish H.A. was also accepted, bringing all four 4 Home Countries, which had dominated the I.H.B. since 1900, into the F.I.H. As a result of these actions, it was resolved that the I.H.B., by now re-named the International Hockey Rules Board (I.H.R.B.) should be absorbed into the F.I.H. To allow a smooth transition, it was agreed that the rules would remain under control of the I.H.R.B. until the end of 1971, with the F.I.H. taking over jurisdiction on 1 January 1972. Later in that year the I.H.R.B. was re-constituted as an autonomous committee within the framework of the F.I.H. Thus, finally, the body with authority over the rules became an 66 integral part of the federation which controlled the game throughout the world. World CUP and Olympic Competition Over the quarter-century from the end of World War II, international hockey activity increased sufficiently for the game to be able to support its own world championship. During that period, the affiliated membership of the F.I.H. virtually trebled, from twenty-one in 1946 to sixty-one in 1970.6 At the same time, international competition expanded even more dramatically. It is estimated that prior to 1960, little more that thirty international matches were played in an average year; by 1970, this number had increased six-fold, for there were now four continental championships, in addition to the Olympics and other major tournaments. The time was ripe for the F.I.H. to launch its 7 own World Cup Tournament, the first of which was held in Barcelona in 1971. Although the game was burgeoning, and prestigious hockey tournaments were being held throughout the world under the auspices of the F.I.H., it was hockey's inclusion on the Olympic programme which had acted as the focal point for international competition and provided the incentive for nations to affiliate with the F.I.H. Indeed, as the Honorary General Secretary of the F.I.H. was to remark on the occasion of the Mexico Olympics in 1968, "the Olympic competition remains the most important single event of Hockey on a 8 world level." Within two years, however, hockey's Olympic status was in jeopardy. In 1970, a move within the I.O.C. to reduce the number of participants in team sports prompted the President of the F.I.H. to express the fear "that hockey's 9 representation will be reduced from 16 teams to 8 for the 1976 Olympics." The F.I.H., in concert with other members of the General Assembly of 67 International Federations, resisted the attempts of the I.O.C. to reduce the number of teams. When the I.O.C. met in Luxembourg in September 1971 to discuss the future of hockey and other team sports, the F.I.H. insisted on retaining sixteen teams in the Olympics. But the outcome of the Luxembourg meetings did not augur well, as the very real possibility emerged that hockey 10 might even be deleted from the Olympics. In 1972, the Munich Olympic Hockey Tournament proceeded with sixteen teams, but despite representations by the President of the F.I.H. to the I.O.C., Munich was to be the last Olympics at which sixteen men's teams took part; when the next Olympic Hockey Tournament was held in Montreal in 1976, only twelve teams were permitted to enter. By the mid-1970s, however, the crisis of total expulsion was over, and retention of hockey as a sport on the Olympic programme seemed assured.11 Throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s, men's hockey at the international level continued to develop. One measure of its progress was the substantial increase in international competition provided, not only by the Olympic Hockey Tournament, but also by the successful implementation of the World Cup competition, together with its associated continental and 12 inter-continental tournaments. A further indicator of advancement was the number of national associations affiliated with the F.I.H., which rose from sixty-one in 1970 to ninety-two in 1981, a fifty percent increase in just over a decade. Furthermore, organizational and technical maturity was manifest in the planning and execution not only of hockey tournaments, but also of umpiring and coaching seminars which were conducted through F.I.H. sub-committees established to promote and develop these aspects of the 13 game. 68 Women's Hockey Development The period from 1970 to 1983 was remarkable in the development of women's hockey internationally. Of particular significance was the evolution of tournaments played on a championship basis and the inclusion of women's hockey in the Olympic Games. Both of these events created debate within the women's hockey community itself, especially between the I.F.W.H.A. and the countries affiliated with the F.I.H. A review of the salient features of the preceeding period is helpful in appreciating the circumstances surrounding these events. In the immediate post-war era, negotiations between the two federations resulted in women's sections of the F.I.H. being permitted to join the I.F.W.H.A. and as a consequence of this, the I.F.W.H.A. membership doubled, from ten to twenty, in the next two years. After rejection in their bid to compete in the Olympics, the member nations of the I.F.W.H.A. decided unanimously to abandon their efforts towards inclusion, and concentrated instead on the I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, which, they felt, epitomized the Olympic ideals. Between 1950 and 1967, six such tournaments were held, and during that period 14 the I.F.W.H.A. grew steadily in numbers and in stature. By the 1970s, not only was the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament well established, but the number of women's hockey-playing countries was substantial. In 1971, when the Tournament was held in Auckland, New Zealand, there were thirty-two countries affiliated with the I.F.W.H.A. and a further ten countries known to 15 be playing women's hockey. In addition to the activities within the I.F.W.H.A., women's hockey in F.I.H.-affiliated countries was also flourishing, for at the 1970 F.I.H. Congress, the number of representatives on the Women's Committee was increased, "because of the progress of women's hockey in a still increasing number of countries."16 In 1974, the number of 69 women's hockey-playing countries affiliated with the F.I.H. stood at 17 twenty-two. Introduction of World Championships The introduction of World Championships, a phenomenon which occurred in women's hockey during the first half of the 1970s, as shown in Appendix B, did not take place without considerable anguish for adherents of the original I.F.W.H.A. principles. One of the basic philosophies of the I.F.W.H.A. was that international matches should be played in a spirit of friendship, for the game's sake, and the schedules of matches up to 1967 reflected this philosophy. In fact, the whole structure of the I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament was based on the concept of non-exclusive participation. All countries were invited to attend independent of the size of its association or strength of its team. The format of the tournament was such that each match was a game in its own right: neither by a round robin league, nor by an elimination process, were teams classified; no winner was declared. Furthermore, that important and unique adjunct of the Tournament, the provision made by the host country for participating teams to play matches with other countries while travelling to or from the venue, and/or to tour within the host country before or after the Tournament itself might be lost if 18 a championship philosophy prevailed. However, in 1971, while the principles of unrestricted participation still applied, the Tournament was structured on championship lines, an unofficial winner announced, and rankings 19 were acknowledged. In the early 1970s, pressure for declaring placings — a phenomenon largely attributable to the increasing government funding of national sports teams and, concomitantly, the need to measure success — continued to be applied. The transition was complete when the 1975 I.F.W.H.A. 70 Tournament in Edinburgh, Scotland, was officially declared the first World 20 Hockey championship for Women. Meanwhile, the F.I.H. counterpart to the I.F.W.H.A. was moving even more rapidly towards championship hockey. Not entirely satisfied with the "home and away" international fixtures of the first de Josselin de Jong Cup competition of 1970, the F.I.H. Women's Committee in 1972 held a tournament to contest the second Cup competition. Open to all women's hockey-playing countries in the world, whether F.I.H.-affiliated or not, it was "recognised as the F.I.H. World Women's Trophy" Tournament, and the winners were declared World Champions. By the time the next competition was held in 1974, the women's terminology had been made consistent with the men's, and the 21 competition was known as the F.I.H. Women's World Cup. From 1975 onwards, all tournaments, whether organized under the auspices of the I.F.W.H.A. or the F.I.H., were conducted according to a championship format. Furthermore, the number of teams participating in these tournaments was also very substantial, as membership in the two federations continued to increase, as shown in 22 Figure 1. Women's Hockey in the Olympic Games At the same time as the introduction of championship competition, there occurred a sequence of events which led to the inclusion of women's hockey in the Olympic Games. After World War II, applications to include women's hockey in the Olympic Games were rejected by the I.O.C; but twenty years later it was the I.O.C. which approached the international federation expressing the desire to have more women's events in the Olympics. The President of the F.I.H. reported in 1970 that while there were fears for the future status of 71 40 No. of Member 35 Countries 30 25 I.F.W.H.A. (O) 20 F.I.H. 15 -10 5 -1970 Countries I.F.W.H.A. F.I.H. Teams —3{-=^ I.F.W.H.A. H. F.I.H. -X -25 20 No. of Tournament 15 Teams 10 I.F.W.H.A. (A) 5 F.I.H. (X) 72 74 76 YEAR 78 80 82 Figure 1 A COMPARISON OF MEMBER COUNTRIES AND TOURNAMENT TEAMS I.F.W.H.A. and F.I.H. : 1971-1981 (Women Members and Teams Only) 72 men's hockey in the Olympics, "the door appear[ed] to have opened slightly for the possibility of women's hockey being admitted to the Games." This was reinforced during the Munich Olympics in 1972, when the I.O.C. announced that 23 six women's teams might be allowed to compete at Montreal in 1976. By now, however, women's hockey authorities had serious misgivings about Olympic participation. In 1971, an Australian correspondent was to express the feeling that it was far better to continue with the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament than to enter the Olympics, and other countries, including Canada, 24 expressed similar doubts about Olympic participation. In England, the reaction was strongly articulated that "after the temperamental displays at Munich the majority of IFWHA members [were] content with their own broadly-based quadrennial world touraments," and only when the Olympics returned to become "happy encounters between young friendly athletes" would it 25 be appropriate to include women's hockey. Although the matter was discussed at the I.F.W.H.A. meetings held in 1972 and 1973, it was not until September 1974 that a consensus was reached by the I.F.W.H.A. regarding the desirability of participating in the Olympics. Even at the 1974 meeting the decision was far from unanimous, for of the twenty-five countries replying to the previously circulated poll (from a total membership of thirty-four), seventeen were in favour, six were against and two were undecided. Moreover, of those countries in favour, some expressed reservations, and considerable debate ensued. Many women were concerned whether the ideals of the I.F.W.H.A. would be maintained; but as one of the I.F.W.H.A. officers explained, "Olympic ideals are the highest", and it was up to the women to ensure that they were exhibited. It was suggested, as it had been a quarter of a century earlier, that the I.F.W.H.A. should persuade the I.O.C. to accept the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament as the Women s Olympics. 73 Despite the fact that the issue of Olympic participation had been decided, by a majority vote, at the 1974 I.F.W.H.A. meeting, the merits of the case were still being discussed at the I.F.W.H.A. meeting of February 1975. But even as the matter was debated, a letter was being dispatched to the F.I.H. by the I.O.C. The following month, the President of the I.F.W.H.A. received this message from the Honorary General Secretary of the F.I.H.: I take pleasure in enclosing herewith copy of a letter of 4th. February, 1975, by which the I.O.C. informed the F.I.H. that Hockey had been added to the list of those sports in which women are allowed to compete at the Olympic Games.27 Because of the further hurdle of having Women's Hockey added to the programme of a particular Olympics, it was by now too late for women to enter the 1976 Olympics in Montreal. Another year was to pass before the I.O.C. wrote to the F.I.H. confirming that six women's hockey teams would be 28 permitted to enter the 1980 Moscow Olympic Hockey Tournament. More than half a century after the formation of the I.F.W.H.A. and the first aspirations by women to participate in the Olympic Games, this hope became a reality, and in spite of the international boycott, six teams did contest their first 29 Olympic hockey medals that year. Relationships Between Men's and Women's Hockey The period between 1970 and 1983 was an eventful one in the relationships between the men's and women's international federations. After two decades of parallel and essentially independent progress — the men with the Olympic Games as focus, the women with the I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament — this relatively brief span was a time of considerable interaction, terminating with the integration of the I.F.W.H.A. into the F.I.H. 74 The cordial relationship which existed between the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. continued into the 1970s, as a joint sub-committee of the I.H.R.B. and the W.I.H.R.B. worked diligently towards establishing a common code of 30 rules. In 1971, the J.C.C. reported that the Committee had completed a draft of " a common set of rules" for men and women, and progress was such 31 that hope of a final draft by 1973 was expressed. So productive was the work of joint sub-committees, that the I.F.W.H.A. considered the J.C.C. to be 32 of inestimable value, even though only consultative. Status of Hockey at the Olympic Games Even as these co-operative activities were continuing, a move was taking place which would create difficulties for both federations in the near future. This was the action of the I.O.C. to reduce the number of teams participating in the Olympics. However, as announced at Munich in 1972, reduction in the number of men's teams from sixteen to twelve was accompanied by the prospect of women's hockey being included in the Olympic programme. Although the I.O.C. hoped to include women's hockey in future Olympics, many problems were foreseen for its inclusion by 1976. The President of the F.I.H. enumerated some of these in a memorandum attached to the Munich Press Release: that the I.O.C. recognized only one international federation, the F.I.H.; and, that many women's associations belonged only to the I.F.W.H.A., 33 which had its own tournament, with no winner officially declared. In order to appreciate fully the events which followed in the next decade, it is necessary to review the three perspectives of the situation which existed at this point: firstly, that of the I.F.W.H.A., especially with respect to the autonomous women's associations affiliated to it; secondly, that of the F.I.H. as it related to the women's sections of its constituent 75 national associations; and thirdly, that of the F.I.H. as it represented men's associations. The I.F.W.H.A. was a very special body, unlike almost any other in the world. Not only was it a federation composed entirely of women's associations, but it embraced several highly-valued principles, which included the "spirit of friendship and goodwill which pervades the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament", where "the best hockey playing team is heralded whether or not they win." At this time, a strong element within the I.F.W.H.A. membership was not in favour of Olympic participation, contending that "the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament today is . . . far more true to Olympic ideals than is Olympic 34 competition itself." In fact, as has already been narrated, several years 35 were to pass before the matter was conclusively resolved. On the other hand, the F.I.H.-affiliated women's associations wished to compete in tournaments where a champion was determined. In response to this expressed desire, the F.I.H. had instigated the Women's World Tournament in 1972, where the winner was declared World Champion. Although members of both federations were invited to compete, the participants were all 36 F.I.H.-affiliated nations. Unlike the I.F.W.H.A., for whom the concept of pre-tournament elimination was anathema, the women's countries affiliated to the F.I.H. were actively supportive of the inclusion of women's hockey in the Olympic Games. The Olympic Hockey Tournament was regarded by the men's associations throughout the world, all of which were now affiliated with the F.I.H., as the most prestigious of competitions, and countries strove to participate. Indeed, almost fifty years earlier, the F.I.H. had been created to ensure hockey's place in the programme. Now, the F.I.H. wished not only to safeguard 76 the men's tournament, but also to ensure the inclusion of a women's hockey tournament in the Olympics. Divergences in the Rules Another area of concern pertained to the rules of play. At this time there were several points of divergence between those of the I.F.W.H.A. and those of the F.I.H., and although at the official level both federations were co-operating, through the Joint Rules Committee, to establish a common code, there was dissatisfaction among the membership of the I.F.W.H.A. countries towards the experimentation of these common rules. There were three major objections from the I.F.W.H.A.: firstly, that the members of the I.F.W.H.A. were expected to experiment with the F.I.H. (men's) rules with no reciprocal experimentation; secondly, that some of these rules implied a code of conduct which did not exist in women's hockey and which was considered undesirable; and, thirdly, that the way in which the experimentation was imposed was 37 perceived to be authoritarian. On the one hand, a task force of international players who had participated in I.F.W.H.A. tournaments expressed concern that the character of the game would be adversely affected, and not be as suitable for women players, if women's rules were altered to compromise 38 with the men's rules. But, on the other hand, a leading I.F.W.H.A. member of the Joint Rules Committee was persuaded in the Tightness of common rules. In a letter to the A.E.W.H.A.'s Hockey Field, she explained that the younger generation in Europe, where mixed clubs prevailed, could not understand why they had to be coached to different rules; and men umpires, who helped the women considerably, had to use one set of rules at a men's match and another at a women's. She continued: "The Joint Rules Committee has taken what it 77 considers the better from both sets of rules and sometimes it has compromised 39 . . . ." The debate continued for several years during the mid-1970s. Breakdown in Relationships; F.I.H. and I.F.W.H.A. Controversy continued after the 1972 Munich announcement regarding the possible inclusion of women's hockey in the Olympic Games, until, following a dramatic decision by its Council in 1973, the F.I.H. announced that it had decided "no longer to take into consideration the International Federation of 40 Women's Hockey Associations". The F.I.H. broke off relations with the I.F.W.H.A.; and the J.C.C. was dissolved. The major reasons cited for this decision were: the feeling of the F.I.H. that its own Olympic position was in jeopardy; the I.F.W.H.A.'s indecision regarding Olympic participation; a desire that a more rational organization for women's hockey should evolve; and 41 the slowness of progress in rules experimentation. The F.I.H. statement to the I.F.W.H.A. was firm, but not uncompromising. It included the following concessions: that should any women's national hockey association apply for membership of the F.I.H., it would be welcomed and admitted without being asked to withdraw from the I.F.W.H.A.; and, that women's sections of F.I.H. countries would play F.I.H. rules among themselves, but they would be authorized to play non-F.I.H. nations, the rules of play to be as mutually agreed. The F.I.H. also expressed the wish that the I.H.R.B. and the W.I.H.R.B. continue their joint 42 work towards a common set of rules. The F.I.H. announcement drew strong reactions of indignation from several quarters within the women's hockey community. The statement was described as "offensive, arrogant, sinister" and a reflection of the attitude of a dictatorship. The very premise that there should be one organization and 78 not two met with opposition; and a warning was issued that it should be "clear to the IFWHA that the campaign begun by the FIH statement ... is ... a bid 43 for extinction of the IFWHA." Certainly, a member of one of the European associations (many of which belonged to both the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H.) made the following appeal to her colleagues: "Refuse to make any concession 44 to the F.I.H.: keep intact your ideal, organisation, rules, conferences". The situation was exacerbated when, several weeks later, at its meeting in September 1973, the I.F.W.H.A. decided to declare its 1975 Tournament a Women's World Championship. This was perceived by the F.I.H. as a reversal, which now resulted in the existence of two World Championships for women. It led the correspondent of World Hockey, the official F.I.H. magazine, to declare that "such a situation is just another reason for a new endeavour to seek a rational solution to the problem of having two international 45 federations governing women's hockey". As the President of the I.F.W.H.A. was to observe in retrospect some six years later, "it was a delicate . .. 46 time . Formation of the Supreme Council In the months following the separate meetings of the two international federations in 1973, further developments occurred. Rene Frank, its President, informed the F.I.H. Council that senior officials of the Australian and New Zealand women's associations, members of the I.F.W.H.A. only, indicated to him that they intended to propose to their members that their associations affiliate with the F.I.H. as well. Germany, one of the most powerful and influential of the F.I.H.-affiliated countries, announced that it could not accept two world championships, and declined to enter the I.F.W.H.A.'s 1975 Tournament. Furthermore, reported World Hockey, the 79 I.O.C. indicated that, as long as there were two federations controlling 47 women's hockey, it was unlikely to be included in the Olympic programme. Apparently, the time had come for negotiation. In December 1973, Eileen Hyndman, President of the I.F.W.H.A., circulated a letter to the member associations of her federation stating that "the position of the F.I.H. with its 71 member countries as the governing body of hockey and, as such, 48 recognised by the Olympics Committee, can not be doubted"; and, in March 1974, issued the statement: "In an effort to dispel the mistrust which at present exists and to re-establish good relations between the two Federations, the I.F.W.H.A. would welcome discussions at top level with its 49 counterpart." Hyndman contended that she spoke from strength, as the I.F.W.H.A. had brought together women players from all over the world, from countries large and small, and with well over twice as many players as the 50 women's sections of the F.I.H. The F.I.H. responded positively to the I.F.W.H.A.'s initiative in suggesting a summit meeting, and accepted the offer of the Netherlands Association to host a round table conference. The meeting took place in Baarn, Holland, on 8 June 1974, with three representatives of each federation 51 attending, and the President of the Dutch Association in the chair. At the Baarn meeting, there were open discussions on areas of misunderstanding between the two federations. The F.I.H. enumerated the reasons for the break in relations, which included the slow progress towards a joint code of rules and the I.F.W.H.A.'s position regarding the Olympics. According to the F.I.H., since the I.O.C. had been informed that the I.F.W.H.A. was opposed to Olympic participation, the chance of securing women's hockey for the 1976 Montreal Olympics had been lost. The I.F.W.H.A. took the opportunity to explain that it had done "nothing to affect the F.I.H. 80 work in the matter of the Olympic Games", and requested the F.I.H. to pay no attention to individual statements, or articles in women's hockey journals, which were "not representing the feelings of the majority of the 52 I.F.W.H.A." Emerging from the summit meeting were the recommendations that the two federations form a supreme council of eight members, consisting of the President, Honorary Secretary and two other members of each federation; and that each federation remain independent, and continue to be administered 53 by its own governing body. Inclusion of Women's Hockey in the Olympic Games Events leading to the inclusion of women's hockey in the Olympics now moved rapidly. When officials of the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. met again in January 1975 to discuss details of the supreme Council, the I.F.W.H.A. had already decided, albeit with a consensus that was far from unanimous, in favour of Olympic participation. Thus, a major topic of the joint meetings was how the women might qualify at the Olympics. At their own meeting the following month, the I.F.W.H.A. officials revealed that women's participation in the Olympics could not be considered until the I.O.C. was satisfied that there existed a joint international structure which could assume responsibility; the Baarn meeting had presented the opportunity to accomplish 54 this, with Moscow, 1980, the earliest possible Olympics. Even as the I.F.W.H.A. met, however, the process was already in motion. Following the joint meeting in January, the Honorary Secretary General of the F.I.H. had written to the I.O.C; and on 4 February 1975, the Technical Director of the I.O.C. replied: Your letter of 31st January has been received and ... I have pleasure in confirming to you that Hockey is included in the Rules of the [I.O.C] titled "Participation of Women" . . . .55 81 This historic document confirmed the inclusion of women's hockey into the list of Olympic sports. Nevertheless, the I.O.C. required confirmation that there did exist a single body under whose auspices women's hockey could be added to the programme of a particular Olympics. The Technical Director of the I.O.C. had acknowledged reading press reports relating to the negotiations taking place between the F.I.H. and the I.F.W.H.A., and wished to learn the 56 actual situation. Thus, on 26 April 1975, the President of the F.I.H. wrote to Lord Killanin, President of the I.O.C, informing him of the new body, the Supreme Council, vested with all powers to represent men's and women's hockey at the international level. In Killanin's reply, he welcomed "the progress made in the single direction of hockey for world and Olympic 57 Games, for men and women." Following the I.F.W.H.A.'s acceptance of the Supreme Council as the body responsible for all matters at world and Olympic level, the Supreme Council met for the first time on 29 November 1975, with the matter of the 58 Olympics a major item on the agenda. The President of the F.I.H. was authorized to inform the I.O.C. of the decisions of the Supreme Council and, specifically, to request the addition of women's hockey onto the programme of the 1980 Olympic Games. There now existed considerable optimism, for in an editorial published in World Hockey, Frank was able to write: there is now one body at the summit to control both women's and men's hockey, and this coincides with the wishes of the International Olympic Committee President Lord Killanin. Accordingly, nothing now appears to stand in the way of having women's hockey included in the 1980 and subsequent Olympic Games. It is with great confidence therefore that we await the I.O.C.'s decision on this matter.59 Frank did not have long to wait, for, on 8 April 1976, a letter from the I.O.C. confirmed that a women's hockey competition would be included in the 82 sports programme of the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow. Finally, the way was clear for a women's Olympic Hockey Tournament. The I.O.C. announcement in 1976, confirming the inclusion of women's hockey in the Moscow Olympics, was warmly greeted by the President of the F.I.H. in an editorial to World Hockey where he reported: "this wonderful news, for which we thank the I.O.C. . . .;" but he also acknowledged the period of difficulty when he added: "for this success, certain difficulties, which appeared almost unsurmountable [sic], had first to be overcome."61 At the second meeting of the Supreme Council, held on 22 May 1976, the I.O.C. announcement was welcomed. Now it remained only to inform the National Olympic Committees that the I.O.C. had recognized the Supreme Council as the governing body of world hockey, so that the individual nations could apply to enter the Olympic Tournament. Consequently, in March 1977, a letter from the joint secretaries of the Supreme Council was sent out to the appropriate National Olympic Committees. Some initial difficulties experienced by I.F.W.H.A. members in dealing with their N.O.C.s were eventually resolved. In the case of the Canadian Women's Field Hockey Association, for example, a solution was achieved through negotiation with the Canadian Field Hockey Association (men's), resulting in shared representation on the Canadian 62 Olympic Association, the respective delegates alternating annually. Function of the Supreme Council After the formation of the Supreme Council, and the subsequent inclusion of women's hockey on the programme of the Moscow Olympics, there followed an extended period of co-operation between the F.I.H. and the I.F.W.H.A. In 1978, the President of the I.F.W.H.A. applauded the harmonious relations which now existed, and reported that the two federations were 83 working together to cover much common ground. These common areas were: Olympic competition, mutual participation in each other's tournaments, and 63 joint rules. One of the mandates of the Supreme Council was the selection of countries to participate in the Moscow Olympics. As early as February 1977, the I.F.W.H.A. Council supported the concept "of naming the top teams in the world, regardless of geographical location" and that the teams should "be 64 selected on their international record". The matter of the women's competition was discussed at a Supreme Council meeting in November 1977, but no firm date was set for selection until 1979, when it was announced that a Council meeting would be held in February 1980 to choose the teams which would participate. A member of the Supreme Council later revealed that, during this pre-Olympic period, the selection criteria were never made explicit as no real, objective criteria were ever established. This created a feeling of uncertainty among the I.F.W.H.A. nations, and there was some dissension when the Olympic selections were announced. As events transpired, because of the boycott, which was supported by all of the strongest hockey-playing nations, none of the countries selected by the Supreme Council in February 1980 65 competed in the Olympics. Mutual participation in each other's tournaments was an internal matter within the sport itself, and thus could be resolved by the supreme Council representing both the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. An amicable agreement was negotiated during the course of several meetings between 1975 and 1977. That this arrangement was accepted, is supported by the entry of two exclusively 66 I.F.W.H.A. countries at the F.I.H. European Cup the very next year. Progress with the development of a common set of rules, and towards a single joint body with jusrisdiction over them, was continuous throughout this 84 period. In 1975, the first common Rule Book was published and, by 1979, all differences in men's and women's rules had been eliminated, concomitantly, in 1977, the joint Hockey Rules Board was established as a full committee of the F.I.H., and on 1st January 1980 became an autonomous committee under the 6*7 jurisdiction of the Supreme Council. During the period from 1976 to 1980, the organizational structure of the F.I.H. underwent some changes. Up until 1977, the F.I.H. Women's Committee, which was elected by the Women's Congress (comprising delegates from all women's sections of F.I.H.-affiliated countries), met independently of the full Committee of the F.I.H.; but by 1978, the Women's Congress ceased to exist, all elections taking place within the Congress (men and women), and 68 the Women's Committee became a component committee of the F.I.H. This change in status of the Women's Committee was discussed at the next meeting of the I.F.W.H.A., where there was concern that if this committee were dissolved, and national associations did not have effective women's sections, there would no longer be any established contact with such affiliate members. This situation bore some relevance to an important constitutional condition of membership in the I.F.W.H.A. — the stipulation that there must exist an effective women's committee within an association. Here appeared yet another 69 example of the loss of autonomy of women's organizational bodies. Integration of the I.F.W.H.A. into the F.I.H. The early 1980s witnessed the integration of the I.F.W.H.A. into the F.I.H., and the final unification of the two world bodies. This process was not devoid of difficulties, nor was it achieved without the reluctance of a substantial proportion of the I.F.W.H.A. membership. Moreover, relative to the period of co-existence of the two federations since their inception, the 85 integration phase was short. Indeed, to the I.F.W.H.A. membership at large, the absorption of their federation into the F.I.H. seemed to occur suddenly, a perception partly due to the fact that the delicate negotiations involved at the level of the Supreme Council were entrusted to the Officers of the I.F.W.H.A., and the proceedings of confidential meetings were not widely disseminated. In 1979, based on the premise that each federation was still autonomous, the I.F.W.H.A. considered the Supreme Council "a satisfactory 70 working relationship". However, even at this time, at least those countries which were members of both the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H. were aware that the two international federations were moving closer together, and that important decisions regarding union were being made by the F.I.H. By 1980, as the course towards integration became more clearly defined, there was a 71 progressive deterioration of relations between the two federations. The President of the I.F.W.H.A. explained to her membership that the circumstances which had led to worsening relations pertained to the question of the impending integration of the I.F.W.H.A. and the F.I.H., and she hoped that fruitful discussions on the integration of the two international federations would take place at the next meeting of the Supreme Council, set for April 72 1981. So advanced was the process that, at this meeting, the F.I.H. tabled proposals which it felt could lead to integration. In these proposals, the details of which were to be issued to all member associations of the 73 I.F.W.H.A. before its June Council meeting, the F.I.H. offered the I.F.W.H.A. representation on every committee. Circulation of the proposals generated considerable discussion within and between member associations of the I.F.W.H.A. Concern was expressed whether, indeed, there was any "room for 86 negotiation", or if the I.F.W.H.A. simply had the choice whether to accept or 74 reject, without the opportunity to offer counter-proposals. The difficult decision was taken at a Council meeting of the I.F.W.H.A. in June 1981 for, when the F.I.H. met that September, its membership was informed that the terms of integration of the I.F.W.H.A. within the F.I.H. "had been presented to the I.F.W.H.A. which had accepted them unanimously." The F.I.H. Council then approved the scheme to complete integration by the end of the next year. This integration of the I.F.W.H.A. with the F.I.H. would therefore bring to an end the existence of the Supreme Council, for which there was no longer any need.^~* In an editorial to World Hockey, Rene Frank, the President of the F.I.H., gave pride of place to the news of integration when he wrote: "... negotiations are now concluded, and the integration terms . . . have been accepted." Frank, who had been Honorary General Secretary of the F.I.H. from 1950 before taking over the presidency in 1966, went on to say: "The importance of this achievement cannot be minimized. Integration has been one of the F.I.H.'s aims for over thirty years, and at last it has come about." He explained that as a result of the integration, the I.F.W.H.A. would disappear from the scene, and from then on, all hockey would be managed by one single body, the F.I.H. While expressing gratitude that there would no longer exist divergences and difficulties which had been encountered, Frank paid tribute to the great service which the I.F.W.H.A. had rendered to hockey over a long period. Not all in women's hockey cirlces perceived integration in such glowing terms. A hockey scribe, writing in Hockey Field, saw the absorption of the I.F.W.H.A. as "the perishing of a great purpose," and described the process as 77 "the ultimate takeover" rather than "a true merger." The feelings of 87 these women were well-founded. Lost now was the participatory ethos of the I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament; gone were the tours which formed such an integral part of this event; no more was there the forum for teams, delegates and visitors from all over the world to meet in the traditional atmosphere of friendship and shared aspirations. Nevertheless, the act of integration had been executed; the process needed only to be implemented. It was necessary now for members of the I.F.W.H.A. to affiliate with the F.I.H. When the full Congress met in August 1982, one hundred and three national associations were affiliated to the F.I.H., and it was reported that the integration of the I.F.W.H.A., which had "been carried out in a truly remarkable sporting spirit," was now practically 78 complete. In April 1983, the Women's World Cup and Inter-Continental Cup competitions were held in Malaysia, organized jointly by the two federations. 79 After these Cup Tournaments, the I.F.W.H.A. formally ceased to exist. Etienne Glichitch, Honorary General Secretary of the F.I.H., described this momentous occasion in an editorial in World Hockey: As had been planned, the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations held its final conference, which marked its dissolution and was the last act in confirming its incorporation into the F.I.H.80 He saw this, not as the end of a women's federation, but the start of a new era in which women's hockey would expand in all directions. While adherents of the F.I.H. view may have agreed with Glichitch's perception, there were many that were saddened by the disappearance of the I.F.W.H.A. Here was the demise of a great enterprise, conceived through the vision of its pioneers, and continued by their successors for over half a century. However, in the global perspective, perhaps it could be said that, after almost six decades of separate existence of these two great federations, the game of 88 hockey could now move forward into the future with all women and men united within the one controlling body, which through shared expertise, experience and endeavour, would be able to fulfil the aims, hopes and aspirations of both. 89 PART II FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA CHAPTER VII DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA TO WORLD WAR I The first hockey association was founded in England in 1875, with a set of rules which formed the basis of fixture matches. By the time of the creation of the present (English) Hockey Association in 1886, not only were the rules discussed and formalized, but they were also published and widely distributed. Furthermore, at this time, the equipment for playing the game had evolved roughly into its modern form.1 Thus, by the mid-1880s, hockey was sufficiently well-developed to be exported; and, from this time onwards, the game of modern hockey was disseminated throughout the British Empire. In 1885, British soldiers established the first hockey club in India, and in 1892, the first club was founded in Ceylon. By the late 1890s and early 2 1900s, hockey was being played in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. By 1909, the Honorary Secretary of the Hockey Association was able to include "the Dominion of Canada" in his list of countries which recognized the 3 H.A. as the ruling body of the game. Indeed, field hockey was being played in Canada even before the turn of the century. In the raid-1890s, as the first men's and women's international hockey matches were being played in the British Isles, and during the same period as the Ladies' Hockey Association was being formed independently of its male counterpart, so too was the game taking root in Vancouver, both for men and for women. 90 Men's Hockey in British Columbia Men's hockey was firmly established in British Columbia before the end of the nineteenth century and continued to flourish both in Vancouver and Victoria until the 1914-15 season, when World War I "put an immediate stop to 4 hockey". Amongst the sports clubs which appeared in the Vancouver Directory for 1896 was: Vancouver Hockey Club, -President, C M Beecher Secretary, R M Fripp Captain, W F K Flinton 5 Inclusion of the hockey club in this directory, published in March 1896, would suggest that a team had been in existence at least for the 1895-96 season, since the playing season in those times extended from about October to March. One of the Vancouver Hockey Club's earliest rivals was a team from Victoria, 6 against whom several matches were played in the 1897-98 season. After the turn of the century, men's hockey continued to be an actively pursued sport in British Columbia, and even in those early years, a provincial championship was inaugurated, with Vancouver, Victoria, and the Esquimalt 7 Garrison vying to become "Champions of British Columbia." In fact, the competition expanded in 1910 when North Vancouver and James Bay entered the Provincial League, and for the next few years five teams competed for the Challenge Cup. The North Vancouver Hockey Club's fixture list for the 1910-11 season indicated that all teams played each other twice, one match at home, 8 and one away. In men's hockey, most of the competition during the pre-World War I era 9 was amongst adults; nevertheless, some hockey was played in schools, colleges and universities. The earliest record of schoolboys playing hockey was on 14 February 1903, at Vancouver High School, when the Provincial 91 Superintendent of Education granted the school a half-holiday "to witness a match played between the girls' hockey team and a boys' eleven."10 During the academic year 1911-12, McGill University College of B.C. had a "Men's Ground Hockey Club", to which the men of the Arts Class ostensibly aspired, and for some years prior to World War I, hockey was also played by boys at St. Michael's University School in Victoria.11 Women's Hockey in British Columbia In the same year as the Vancouver Hockey Club and its officers were first listed in the Vancouver City Directory, the Captain of the Vancouver H.C., W.J.K. "Polly" Flinton, approached the "Victorian-minded" citizens of Vancouver with a view to allowing their daughters to play the game. Thus it 12 was that, in 1896, the Vancouver Ladies' Hockey Club was founded. During the first few years after the formation of the Vancouver Ladies' Hockey Club, matches were arranged with the Ladies' Hockey Clubs of Victoria, Nanaimo, and Wellington, in which the mainland team was usually victorious. Matches were also played between Vancouver Island teams, for in 1905, a game between the Victoria Ladies' Hockey Club and the Nanaimo Club was reported in 13 the social notes of Victoria's daily newspaper. In the season 1902-3, a team from the Vancouver High School was formed. While the Vancouver Ladies' H.C. was too strong to provide competition for the students' team, many excellent matches were played with the Atlantas from New Westminster, which was in existence by the early years of the new century. Other teams with which Vancouver High School could arrange fixtures around this time were Granville Private School and Provincial Normal School. When Thomson Cup matches were established in several sports 92 between Vancouver High School and Victoria High School in 1905-6, hockey was 14 the only sport in which girls participated in this competition. In 1906, the university classes of the Vancouver High School and College became the McGill University College of British Columbia. By 1908-9, there was a sufficient number of students to form a girls' hockey team at the college and over the next few seasons, the McGill University College Girls' Hockey Club included amongst its opponents teams from King Edward High School, Normal School, New Westminster High School, Victoria High School, Westminster Ladies' Hockey Club, Victoria Ladies' Hockey Club, and Uneeda Club. Clearly, during this pre-war era, there was considerable overlap amongst ladies' teams, college teams and school girls' teams. This interaction amongst teams of 15 several age groups continued until World War I. At the onset of war, while the ladies' hockey clubs disbanded, the University Club maintained its fixtures with school teams, and the competition 16 at college and high school level actually expanded. The construction of five new high schools in Vancouver between 1908 and 1918 led to an increase in schoolgirl hockey activity. For instance. King George High School, established in 1914, had founded a girls' grass hockey team as early as 1915. Furthermore, as well as in Vancouver itself. North Vancouver High School formed a team during this period, and schoolgirls were being introduced to grass hockey in Burnaby where it was taught at Kingsway West School. The Greater Vancouver High Schools competed with one another for the Mainland Championship. South Vancouver High School, the 1914-15 winner, was the first to displace King Edward High School as Vancouver's representative to play 17 against Victoria High School for the Thomson Cup. While high school girls' hockey competition for the Mainland Championship continued for the duration of the War, 1915 was the last of the 93 war years in which Thomson Cup matches between Mainland and Island teams took place. Then, during the 1918-19 academic year, the high schools, and the university as well, ceased to play. The world was gripped by an influenza epidemic and the disruption to mens' and ladies' hockey caused by the War now extended to the students during the pandemic which followed. There is no record of any hockey being played in what might normally have been the 1918-19 18 season. Men's and Women's Hockey in Other Parts of Canada Although Vancouver was destined to become the major centre of men's and women's field hockey in the country, even in the years prior to World War I there had been some hockey development in other parts of Canada. A rival to Vancouver, around the turn of the century and beyond, was Vancouver Island, with ladies' teams in Victoria, Nanaimo and Wellington, men's teams from Victoria, James Bay and the Esquimalt Garrison, and schoolgirls at Victoria 19 High School. In 1914, a men s grass hockey club was organized in Calgary, with two teams which played at least one game in early April of that year. An article in the local newspaper which recorded the result of that game also reported: "A Club has been properly organized, and games will be played 20 regularly until the hot weather arrives." It was around 1905 when an English instructor at the University of Toronto introduced "Ground Hockey" to the women at Toronto's University College, and two years later, the women at the University's victoria College took up the sport. However, there was no record of any games being played by 21 local women's teams, and it would seem that interest waned. There is also evidence that girls played hockey in Nova Scotia prior to 1900. Halifax Ladies' College, founded in 1887, made provision for afternoon recreational 94 sessions which included ground hockey, and Edgehill, a private school for girls, also had a ground hockey team in the late 1800s. By the early 1900s, ground hockey was being played at Dalhousie University, which, as well as 22 playing the private schools, also competed against college teams. Although Newfoundland did not become a province of Canada until after World War II, it is worthy of note that schoolgirls' hockey was played there prior to World War I. English games mistresses taught hockey at both the Church of England and the Methodist girls' colleges and inter-school matches 23 were played regularly. Relationship between Men's and Women's Hockey Up to the time of World War I, hockey had been played by both men and women in several cities across Canada. In the smaller centres, the men's and women's games developed independently, but in Vancouver and on Vancouver Island, there was considerable interaction. While in general, men's and women's fixtures were arranged separately, there was a good deal of mixing between men and women hockey players. During the early days of the game in Vancouver, a match between men's and ladies' teams would occasionally be arranged "as a special event", and up to the 24 outbreak of war, hockeyists held an Annual Ball at the Hotel Vancouver. Similar matches, or games of actual "mixed hockey", were also played on 25 Vancouver Island. The Vancouver High School boys versus girls match of 1903, and the several games between the Men's and Women's Ground Hockey Clubs of McGill University College of British Columbia during the 1911-12 season, 26 were the student counterparts of the adult events. Appearing in the photograph of the "First Vancouver Women's Hockey Team - 1896" are two men, identified as Mr. W.J.K. Flinton, and Mr. Fred Crickmay. 95 Flinton, Captain of the Vancouver Hockey Club (men's) at the time, was 27 acknowledged as the founder of the Vancouver Ladies' Hockey Club. But Flinton and Crickmay were not the only men to promote women's hockey. The first Vancouver High School girls' hockey team of 1902-3 "owed its beginning 28 in large measure to the support of Mr. Ed. O'Callaghan," and teaching at the same school in its formative years were A.E.W. Sault and Thomas Pattison, who coached the team and umpired the girls' games. In 1912, Pattison introduced "hitting the hockey ball for distance" as the first event in the High School Sports Meet in which girls could compete, and three years later, as first principal of the new school, he formed and coached the King George 29 High School girls' grass hockey team. South Vancouver High School enjoyed a ten-year era of Mainland Championships and Thomson Cup girls' grass hockey successes which began in 1914, the team having been coached by J.T.E. Palmer, school principal. Several other men were also active in coaching high school girls' grass hockey teams in later years, while at McGill University College, 30 one of the men on faculty umpired regularly. Thus, in those first twenty years of the game in Vancouver, while competition on a regular and organized basis was, for the most part, conducted separately, men's hockey and women's hockey did not develop in total isolation from one another. Considerable interaction was evident on the field itself in the form of mixed or special games, in the formation of teams at club and school level, in assistance with coaching and umpiring, and socially, too. 96 CHAPTER VIII DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA DURING THE INTER-WAR PERIOD In the international context, the development of field hockey in Canada took place in relative Isolation for the first four decades of its existence. The 1930s, however, was a period of international contact for both the men's and women's associations. During this era, the men aspired to Olympic competition, and the women, to participation in the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament. Although neither association achieved its declared objective of sending a team to compete, the women were able to arrange matches of an international nature, and did, in fact, affiliate with their international body. Therefore, the development of the women's game is narrated first in this chapter. Women's Field Hockey While Vancouver was not the only city in Canada where women's hockey was played during the inter-war period, it was the major centre of activity. Not only were most of the teams located there, but it was also within Greater Vancouver that a formal league was organized and an association founded — an association that was to become affiliated with the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations. Vancouver Fixtures The re-emergence of women's hockey in Vancouver, after World War I and the influenza epidemic which followed, may be gauged through the activities of the U.B.C. Women's Grass Hockey Club as recorded in the University's annual publication, The Totem. When play resumed in 1919-20, the Vancouver Ladies' 97 Hockey Club does not appear to have re-formed, as the only fixtures which the U.B.C. team was able to arrange locally in that season were against the South Vancouver teachers and the South Vancouver High School team. Even In 1922-23, the fourth active post-war season, the U.B.C. club was forced "to rely on practice games with local high schools" for its competition. However, commencing in 1923, there was a revival of adult teams for, during the 1923-24 season, the U.B.C. Women's Grass Hockey Club played matches with the Auroras (a Vancouver team) and with a team from New Westminster.1 In the mid-twenties, adult teams of former high school players began to appear. In 1924, past pupils of the Falrview High School of Commerce formed a team, and the next year, the ex-Kitsilano Women's Field Hockey Club was 2 formed. It was at this time, too, that the need for a league, in which senior teams would have a fixed schedule, was recognized. For several years, The Totem reported that the prospects of such a league appeared bright, but even in the 1926-27 season, when the U.B.C. Women's Grass Hockey Club expanded to two teams, no adult league had materialized, and the majority of U.B.C.'s games continued to be with high school teams. The Totem provided evidence that in the 1928-29 season some type of league, albeit not formalized, was instituted, as the U.B.C. club was reported to have entered a team in this 3 league. However, it was not until the commencement of the 1929-30 season that, "primarily through the efforts of Marjorie McKay, a Women's Lower 4 Mainland League was formed, and put on a firm basis." In the first official year of the Vancouver Women's League, six teams participated: U.B.C, Varsity, Ex-South Vancouver, Ex-North Vancouver, Britannia Grads and Normal School. Ex-South Vancouver won the competition in 1929-30, and thus was the first team to have its name inscribed on the Bentham Cup, emblematic of the league championship. By 1930-31, the Women's Mainland 98 League, considered experimental in its inaugural year, was now regarded as 5 definitely established, seven teams competing for the cup in that year. In 1934-35, after years of steady growth, the Lower Mainland Women's Grass Hockey Association split into two divisions, with an unprecedented total of twelve teams.6 Following this record season, there was a gradual decline in the number of teams. Several disbanded, or chose not to participate, and only one new team, Pro-Rec, joined the League during the next few seasons. As a result, by 1937-38, the League had been reduced to a single division of 7 eight teams, a situation which was to remain stable until World War II. School Hockey in Vancouver During the Inter-War period, girls' high school grass hockey continued to flourish. In Vancouver, the 1920s witnessed the addition of several new schools, and the Mainland Championship for high school girls' grass hockey resumed in 1919-20. Thomson Cup games between Vancouver and Vancouver Island 8 teams, re-instituted in 1922, were discontinued after 1928. Of the Vancouver schools, South Vancouver High School and Britannia High School were clearly the dominant teams (See Appendix F), a phenomenon further reflected by the success of ex-South Vancouver and Britannia Grads in the Women's League competition. Up until the mid-thirties, no other school had won the Mainland Championship since before World War I, but in 1934-35, there emerged a new power: North Vancouver High School gained the title for the first time in that year and, with one exception, was champion until the 9 end of the decade. Even in the early days of expansion of the Vancouver High School system, an organization to oversee inter-school sport came into being with the 10 formation of the Vancouver Inter-High School Athletic Association in 1915, 99 and from that time on, girls' high school hockey grew considerably. In 1923, a junior division was formed, and by 1925, a total of eighteen teams, drawn from ten schools, competed in the two divisions. In 1931, the Junior Division was separated into two sections, and a year later the Intermediate Division was also formed. By 1935, there were thirty-three teams representing thirteen schools participating in the Mainland competition.11 Through the successful inter-high school programme, a large number of players were being developed. Some would proceed to the University or the Vancouver Normal School to provide players for these clubs. It is not surprising, however, that by the mid-1920s, many of the former pupils not entering tertiary education institutions should want to continue to play for a team associated with their old school. Thus, it was a natural extension that several ex-high school teams emerged in the late 1920s to provide competition for the U.B.C. and Normal School teams; when the Mainland League officially came into existence at the end of the decade, these ex-school teams were able to form an integral part. This is reflected in the composition of the League which, in its first year, had three ex-high school teams out of a total of six. In 1934-35, when League membership was at its highest, eight of the 12 twelve entries were high school graduate teams. The importance of this close relationship between the high schools and the Vancouver League was immediately recognized by the Executive of the Lower Mainland Women's Grass Hockey Association. As early as 1929-30, the first season of formal league fixtures, a representative team was chosen from the 13 Women's Association to play a team selected from the schools. This competition became an annual event and was of sufficient significance to warrant mention in the U.B.C. Club's year-end reports, and inclusion in the 100 first Report of the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association to the 14 International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations in 1939. Another successful venture was the establishment of Field Day, which was initiated as the result of a suggestion at the 1936 I.F.W.H.A. Conference, to which Vancouver had sent a representative. The first Field Day was held during the 1937-38 season, and was organized on a format of short, friendly matches amongst teams from the Vancouver League and the high schools. At the second Field Day, held on 4 March 1939, it was reported that twenty-five teams turned out in friendly competition, playing twenty-minute matches which extended over four pitches. Interaction between "League" and "School" was important, for it created a means of introducing girls to the adult teams on the one hand, and a vehicle for recruitment of players by the senior teams on the other. Vancouver Island and Inter-City Competition Women's hockey competition between Vancouver and Vancouver Island teams resumed soon after the War. As early as the 1919-20 season, The Totem reported that a U.B.C. team travelled to the Island to play a Victoria team, and during the 1920s, exchange matches between Victoria college and U.B..C. 16 became an annual event. In the 1925-26 season, for example, two matches were played on a home-and-home basis, as it was recorded by the U.B.C. scribe that " the return game with Victoria College" was the first opportunity to 17 play at the University's own ground at Point Grey. Furthermore, women's club teams soon re-emerged on Vancouver Island. Such a club was reported to have been active at Duncan, up-island from Victoria, in the early twenties, and in the 1927-28 season, U.B.C.'s schedule 18 of fixtures included a game with the Victoria Ladies' Team. By the end of 101 the 1920s, the ladies' clubs on Vancouver Island were beginning to re-form in an organized way. The programme of the first Canadian Women's National Championships recognized 1929-30 as the date of post-war formation of the 19 Victoria Ladies' Grass Hockey Club. By the mid-1930s, both Victoria and Duncan had well-established ladies' hockey clubs which, as well as arranging matches with each other, competed with outside teams. In the 1935-36 season, for instance, the Victoria Ladies' Grass Hockey Club played a match against the Vancouver Reps. However, it was the Duncan Ladies' Grass Hockey Club upon whom fell the honour of hosting and 20 playing the visiting Australian team in the autumn of 1936. The next few years witnessed a considerable increase in organized activity on Vancouver Island. Until the mid-thirties, the Victoria Ladies' Grass Hockey Club, a group of keen enthusiasts, had few teams against which it could match its skills. To redress this situation, Commander Montague Bridgman, husband of the club captain, presented a trophy which could be contested each year by the teams in the district. This annual competition, the first of which took place in 1937, attracted teams from the local high schools and private schools, as well as the ladies' clubs. In the first two years of Bridgman Cup competition, the adult clubs proved too strong for the school teams. The Victoria Ladies' Grass Hockey Club won the Cup in 1937 and 1938, with Duncan Ladies' Grass Hockey Club close runners-up in the latter 21 year. In the 1938-39 season, upon the instigation of the Vancouver Association, an Inter-City Tournament, known as the Triangle League, was initiated. In its inaugural year, Victoria was to play Duncan on the Island, with the winning team travelling to Vancouver at Easter-time to play the premier club of the Lower Mainland League. Victoria duly defeated Duncan and 102 proceeded to Vancouver to play the Lower Mainland premiers. On Good Friday of 1939, General America defeated first, U.B.C., and then, the Victoria L.G.H.C. 22 to win the Inter-City Cup. With the advent of war in 1939, the number of adult hockey players declined. Although correspondence passed between officials of the Mainland Association and the Vancouver Island clubs, the Triangle League competition could not be continued beyond 1940. Indeed, by the 1941-42 season the ladies' 23 clubs on the Island had disbanded. School Hockey on Vancouver Island As on the Lower Mainland, school hockey competition for girls was an important contributor to the development of the game on Vancouver Island during the Inter-War years. The Victoria Ladies' G.H.C. drew many of its active players from the high schools and private schools in the Victoria area, and similarly, the Duncan Ladies' G.H.C. recruited its members from the local high school and Queen Margaret's School, a private school located in the 24 district. Victoria High School enjoyed the greatest participation in inter-city schoolgirl competition. During the 1920s, this school represented Vancouver Island in Thomson Cup matches on every occasion, except in the final year, 25 1927-28, when Courtenay High School ended the domination. In the 1930s, however, other schools began to extend strong opposition. When the first Bridgman Cup Tournament was contested in 1937, Oak Bay High School finished runners-up to the Victoria Ladies' G.H.C, a creditable performance considering that the tournament was played on Victoria High School's home grounds; and in fact, Oak Bay High School won the Bridgman Trophy in 1939-40 and 1940-41.26 103 In addition to the high schools, private schools participated in this competition, Norfolk House School and Queen Margaret's School entering the first Bridgman Cup Tournament. Later, during the war years, the private schools were the strongest contenders, Queen Margaret's School winning the 27 trophy on five consecutive occasions from 1941-42 to 1945-46. Women's Hockey in Other Parts of Canada During the inter-war years, women's hockey at the adult level was played only in British Columbia; but at the student level, it was fostered in other provinces as well. In Nova Scotia, the "ground hockey" played in the pre-World War I era by college teams extended, after the War, to the universities. In the autumn of 1923, field hockey was re-introduced at Dalhousie University, Halifax, and within a few years, Dalhousie's opponents comprised not only Halifax and Edgehill ladies' colleges, but also Halifax Academy, Acadia University and the University of Maine. It is worthy of note that Dalhousie's match with the University of Maine, played in November 1925 was described as "— the first international game in this branch of sport 28 that has ever been played in Halifax." Competition amongst the colleges and universities continued until the outbreak of World War II. Saskatchewan is another province in which schoolgirls were playing field hockey during the inter-war years, for the students of Central Collegiate Institute in Regina had been playing the game for two years, when, in the autumn of 1923, their team established home and away games with a 29 similar institution in Moose Jaw. 104 Vancouver Association and International Affiliation The creation of a women's grass hockey association in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia evolved over a period of several years. From the mid-1920s, F.J. Mayers of Britannia High School had been urging its formation and, for many years, U.B.C, especially in the late 1920s under the leadership of Marjorie McKay, had been anxious that a league should exist in which the club could participate. In the 1928-29 season, an informal league was operating; and, finally, in 1929, with Mayers as Honorary President, the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association (G.V.W.G.H.A.) was organized, and the League formalized. Adult hockey clubs on Vancouver Island were re-formed in the 1920s, and matches between similar teams from the Lower 30 Mainland and Vancouver Island were established by the mid-1930s. Up to this point, there had been no contact with teams from outside British Columbia. However, in 1936, there began a sequence of events which was to catapult the Vancouver Association into the international sphere. The I.F.W.H.A Conference and Tournament of 1936 was scheduled to be held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the significance of this was fully appreciated by the Executive of the Vancouver Association. It was reported that there were "hopes of sending a team to Pennsylvania to take part in the [Tournament] in October". At the very least the Executive was determined to send one or two representatives to the Conference, so as not to miss this chance of a 31 lifetime. Although no team was sent to Philadelphia, an introduction to international hockey was achieved. The Australian team, en route to Philadelphia, was hosted to two matches; the first of these was played at Brockton Point against a Vancouver XI on 3 October 1936, and the second two days later against the Duncan All-Stars on Vancouver Island. Australia won 105 both matches easily, but the enthusiasm that was generated as a result of this 32 visit had long-lasting beneficial effects. So successful was the fund-raising effort associated with the visit of the Australian team that all expenses were covered, including the cost of sending the President of the G.V.W.G.H.A. as a representative to the I.F.W.H.A. Conference. On her return from the Conference, the President recommended that the Association apply to join the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations, and in 1937, the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association was accepted as an 33 Associate Member into the Federation. Attendance at the Conference by its President had allowed the G.V.W.G.H.A. to establish international contact. As a result of discussions with the United States Field Hockey Association (U.S.F.H.A.), matches between California and Vancouver teams were arranged. In April 1938, a Los Angeles team played in Vancouver, and in November of that year, the Vancouver Canucks paid a return visit to California. Early in 1939, there were also prospects of again hosting touring teams from other countries, as the I.F.W.H.A. 34 Conference was to have been held in England in October of that year. Although it was the Women's Association located in Greater Vancouver that became officially registered as Canada's affiliate with the I.F.W.H.A., the clubs from Vancouver Island were not disregarded by the G.V.W.G.H.A. The Australian team had played in Duncan in October 1936, even though the local members themselves felt it was somewhat audacious that a club of eighteen players should invite the Australian team to the Island for a game. Several players from Vancouver Island also joined the Vancouver Canucks team which 35 toured California in November 1938. Indeed, when the Triangle League was set up to establish inter-city competition involving Victoria, Duncan and the clubs of the Lower Mainland League, it was seen as a step towards extending 106 grass hockey activities in the province of British Columbia, thus creating a 36 B.C. Association with its pivot in the Lower Mainland. Men's Field Hockey Men's field hockey was actively played during the inter-war years in British Columbia, both in the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver Island. Certainly, by the 1930s, the Mainland Grass Hockey Association of B.C. had become the dominant organizational body in the province, and indeed in all of Canada, and it was from this association that international correspondence emanated. Mainland League Although World War I and the influenza epidemic which followed had brought a cessation of activities for a period of five playing seasons, it was not long before enthusiasts re-started men's hockey in Vancouver. As early as 1919, although it was not possible to field two full teams, informal games of 37 four- or five-a-side were played. In the 1920-21 season, a competition with at least three teams was resumed, and a meeting of the "Mainland Grass 38 Hockey League" convened. At the time of the League's Annual General Meeting in October 1921, the representatives of five teams, Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby, R.C.M.P. and Shamrocks were present to discuss the schedule for the 1921-22 season; and when a University of British Columbia team first entered the League in 1923, there were four teams participating, 39 each team playing the others three times. Throughout the mid-twenties, the League continued to comprise four or five teams. Some of the stronger clubs of earlier years, including R.C.M.P., had disbanded by 1925, but other teams were formed to take their place. For 107 example, in the 1925-26 season, a new team, Cricketers, joined the League, and a substantial increase in membership that year enabled the U.B.C. club to 40 enter two teams. The late 1920s was a period of growth, both in numbers of participating teams, and in competitive activity. Expansion in numbers culminated in a 41 seven-team league during the 1929-30 season: and by this time, as well as the traditional round-robin competition, the schedule now included matches 42 played on a "knock-out" basis. With the 'thirties came the years of economic depression during which, it is recorded, club fees were hard to collect. The effect of the Depression was reflected in the playing strength, for as early as the 1930-31 season the League was reduced to six teams, and the next season, to five. As the decade progressed, the number of teams continued to decline and, for most of the remainder of that decade, only four teams participated in the Mainland League 43 competition. One new team which did emerge, however, was that of the India Hockey Club. These hardy newcomers, described as "turbanned Sikhs [some 44 of whom] played in bare feet", added a novelty to the game in British Columbia when they first entered the League in the 1933-34 season. It was not long before the India Hockey Club began to assert its supremacy, for this team won the Challenge Cup for three consecutive seasons between 1934 and 1937, and 45 the O.B. Allen Cup, for the "knock out" competition, on two occasions. As the 1930s drew to a close, men's field hockey in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia showed promise of a resurgence, with the addition of two 46 new clubs in the 1938-39 season. Any potential for sustained growth in the number of competing teams, however, was extinguished by the onset of war. From five teams competing in the last pre-war season, the League was reduced to two teams in 1941-42. In that year, 108 it was found increasingly difficult to field teams as the season progressed, so much so, that at the end of the first half of the normal season, it was decided to cease play.47 Vancouver Island Hockey and Inter-City Matches Men's hockey on Vancouver Island was also revived soon after World War I, and remained active throughout the inter-war period. As early as the 1919-20 season, Victoria was able to field a strong team and, by the 1920s, an association known as the Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands Hockey Association was in existence. Sufficient teams were playing in the area to establish what the executive members of the Lower Mainland Association referred to as "the 48 Victoria League." During this period, teams were active both in Victoria itself and in the neighbouring districts. In the 1923-24 season, for example, The Totem reported that the newly formed U.B.C. club visited the Island to play a local Victoria club, and three seasons later, the Cricketers club from Vancouver 49 arranged a match with the hockey team from Duncan. During the 1930s, a strong team was based at Shawnigan Lake School, also located outside of Victoria. Playing as the Optimists Hockey Club, this team travelled annually to Vancouver to compete with club teams from the Lower Mainland League. Similarly, on numerous occasions, Vancouver teams visited Duncan and Shawnigan Lake School, as well as Victoria, to play matches with teams from Vancouver 50 Island. So popular was the competition among the clubs of Vancouver Island and the Mainland that, in 1936, the Executive of the Mainland Grass Hockey Association of B.C. suggested a tournament "between Victoria, 51 Shawnigan, Duncan and local teams of the [Mainland Association]." However, the matches of "principal interest [were] the representative games between the Mainland and Island Associations in which home and away 52 games [were] played" annually. Between 1919 and 1939, regular matches 109 between Vancouver and Victoria were a traditional feature of the season's fixture list. Usually, Victoria visited Vancouver in the late fall, and Vancouver travelled to Victoria in the spring, to contest what were invariably outstanding games between chosen representative teams. A typical Vancouver representative team, for instance, would contain several players from each of the club teams competing in the Mainland League. The matches, and selections, were taken sufficiently seriously to warrant trial games of "Possibles" versus "Probables".53 Aspects of Development While the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island were the major centres of men's field hockey between the wars, the game was also played in other areas of British Columbia. In 1929, the Secretary of the Lower Mainland League was instructed to write to Vernon and Kelowna, two cities in the interior, Okanagan region, of the province, "to ascertain if games [could] be arranged 54 with the Okanagan teams during the coming season." Although a reply was received from the Secretary of the Vernon Grass Hockey Club, there was no 55 record of any ensuing matches between the Mainland and Okanagan teams. At that time, men's hockey was a game played predominantly by senior teams, for, despite efforts by the Mainland Association "to try and get the 56 boys in High School interested in the game", there was no formalized school competition. Only a few private schools introduced the game to boys. These included St. Michael's University School in Victoria, which conducted inter-house hockey both before and after World War I, and Mackie's Preparatory 57 School, near Vernon, where boys played hockey during the inter-war years. Of the U.B.C. teams of that period, it could be said that "most of the players 58 [had] learned their hockey since coming to University." For instance, 110 only three members of U.B.C.'s inaugural team of the 1923-24 season had any 59 previous hockey experience. However, the contribution from the private schools and from U.B.C was substantial. Many Old Macovians played for Lower Mainland clubs, and in one season were sufficient in numbers to form an ex-Mackies team which competed in 60 the League. Of even greater significance was the U.B.C. club which, from its inception in 1923, always fielded at least one team in the Lower Mainland League. Furthermore, many of its members continued to play after graduation, enlisting with the "City" teams. An additional feature of the University Club was the active involvement of members of faculty and staff, not only as players and coaches, but also as patrons, both of the U.B.C. Club and of the ,^61 League itself. International Contacts The inter-war period was one of little contact with teams from outside the two major centres of the game, the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island, but every opportunity was taken to arrange matches where possible. Several games were recorded involving teams from visiting Royal Navy ships, including 62 H.M.S. Dauntless in 1930 and H.M.S. Orion in 1939. An invitation was also extended to the Southern California Wanderers in 1933, "guaranteeing three 63 games on the Mainland and two games on Vancouver Island." Although there is no further mention in the records of any games resulting from this invitation, a match arranged between teams from Southern California and British Columbia was played in San Francisco at the time of the Golden Gate 64 Exposition in 1939. Of all the business transacted during the inter-war years by the Executive of the Mainland Grass Hockey Association of British Columbia, none Ill was of greater international significance than this extract from the Secretary's Report of the 1931-32 season: Having been advised that seven nations were entering grass hockey teams in the Olympic Games [Los Angeles], we wired Mr. Robinson at Hamilton, and subsequently, receiving no reply, wrote to Ottawa. We were advised that nothing in the way of a subsidy could be expected but that some arrangements might be made for us to enter, if we could guarantee our entire expenses. A general canvass of the situation showed that the money was not going to be forthcoming, so we regretfully had to pass up the opportunity.g5 While not successful in entering a team in Olympic competition, the Association did establish an "international" liaison. During the 1939-40 season, the Mainland Grass Hockey Association of British Columbia affiliated 66 with the Hockey Association (England). Relationships Between Men's and Women's Hockey Between the wars, marked differences existed in certain areas in the development of men's and women's field hockey. The post-war emergence of competitive leagues in Vancouver was one example. Whereas four or five men's teams were participating in a formal league by the early 1920s, it was not until the very end of the decade, after several years of informal adult competition, that a women's league comprising six senior teams was finally established. On the other hand, while there were very few schools in the entire province of British Columbia at which boys had the opportunity to play hockey, girls' hockey in the schools was very strong indeed, in Vancouver and on Vancouver Island. Even in the early 1920s, the Mainland Championships attracted teams from several schools and, by the mid-thirties, thirty-three teams representing thirteen schools participated in this competition. In other aspects the men's and women's games developed in parallel. During the 1930s, both associations sought to experience international hockey 112 and to secure international affiliation. The women were successful in arranging matches with the visiting Australian team in 1936 and in being accepted to the I.F.W.H.A. the following year. The aspirations of the men to play in the 1932 Olympic Games were not fulfilled, but the Mainland Grass Hockey Association of British Columbia did affiliate with the Hockey Association (England) at the end of the decade. Both men's and women's teams had, by then, also played matches in California. Furthermore, the considerable interaction between men and women in the development of the game before World War I continued during the inter-war period. Mixed hockey matches, where men and women played together in the same teams, provided such a source of interaction. When women's hockey was in its rebuilding stages, in the years prior to the formation of a senior league in Vancouver, adult competition was made possible through games of mixed hockey. In the mid-1920s in Vancouver, for example, the Crusaders club staged a mixed game, and the Auroras team arranged mixed hockey matches, in which both the men's and women's U.B.C. teams were involved. On Vancouver Island, too, mixed hockey was played during the 1920s, the Staples Cup having been presented in 1926 to foster competition. The Staples Cup Mixed Hockey Tournament, held on Vancouver Island in November 1938, attested to the continued popularity of 6*7 this aspect of the game. From time to time, too, as had been the case prior to World War I, men's and women's teams played matches against one another. In the 1923-24 season, the U.B.C. Women's Grass Hockey Club arranged a match with the newly-formed university men's team. Later, in the 1929—30 season, The Totem reported that, in Vancouver, the women were co-operating with the men 68 in playing practice matches. The explanation of this situation is 113 recorded in the minutes of an executive committee meeting of the men's association. The U.B.C. member of the executive: had been asked to ascertain the views of the League as regards the University Ladies Hockey Team. They desire admittance into our League to indulge in regular games with the men's teams. It was decided that this was not practicable, but . . . that friendly games could be arranged between the team having a bye & the ladies team.59 Co-operative ventures at club and association level also extended to competition between Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island teams. In the 1929-30 season, for instance, men and women players from Vancouver visited Duncan for a mixed game. The next season, a men's and a women's team from U.B.C. travelled to Duncan to play against their respective counterparts, these 70 matches being followed by a mixed game. It is recorded in the minutes of the men's Mainland Association that "the League accepted the request to field a team to oppose the Women's Association Representative Team" in preparation for its match with the 71 visiting Australian Women's Touring Team in 1936. indeed, at that time, interaction between the men's and women's Mainland Associations was such that the President of the men's Association "suggested a closer co-operation among the two associations on occasions such as Inter-City games of both leagues and 72 the like . . . ." While a proposal for a jointly sponsored annual Easter tournament for men's and women's club teams from the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island did not materialize, the women's Triangle League appears to 73 have emanated from these discussions. Before, during, and after World War I, many dedicated men gave their services in the development of the game for women and girls. Two outstanding examples were F.J. Mayers of Britannia High School and J.T.E. Palmer of South Vancouver High School, whose coaching and leadership guided their teams to 114 numerous successes in the schoolgirls' Mainland Championships. These committed schoolteachers continued to assist the girls after they had left school. For example, Palmer later coached the U.B.C. Women's Grass Hockey Club, and when the ex-Britannia High School Team had its inaugural meeting in October 1929, Mayers was asked to act as coach. Indeed, he was given credit for his perseverance in urging the formation of a women's grass hockey association, and when the six-team league was eventually formalized in the 1929-30 season, Mayers was elected as the first Honorary President of the 74 Association. But it was Thomas Pattison who was regarded as the "mentor 75 of the Women's Grass Hockey Association". While Vice-Principal of Kitsilano High School in 1925, Pattison founded the Ex-Kitsilano team. Even when he retired from teaching in 1934, he maintained his interest in coaching and umpiring, not only with the club which he had founded a decade earlier, 76 but also with the Vancouver Women's League. A measure of the degree to which men were involved in assisting with the development of women's hockey is indicated by the observation that of nineteen umpires officiating at the women's Field Day in 1939, ten were men. Their contribution was acknowledged, not only in honorary positions on the Executive, but also in being included as honoured guests on the head table at the Annual Banquet. For instance, at such a banquet to celebrate the 77 conclusion of the 1938-39 season, four of the eight speakers were men. The inter-war period was one of particularly significant advancement in women's field hockey. Whereas, for the men, it was a time when leagues and inter-city competition were quickly re-established and maintained, for the women it was an era, not only of the creation of a formal league and the formation of an association, but also one in which "international" competition 115 was experienced, and affiliation with the I.F.W.H.A. achieved. Furthermore, it was a period during which interaction between men's and women's clubs and associations, and the assistance of individuals, contributed towards the welfare of both organizations, especially the women's. 116 CHAPTER IX DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA: WORLD WAR II TO LATE 1960s For men and women alike, the period from World War II to the late 1960s was a momentous one in the development of field hockey in Canada. Domestically, not only did the game grow appreciably in its established areas, but it expanded to other regions, resulting in national competition which brought together players from across the country. It was also a time when Canadian teams began to participate in prestigious international tounaments, the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament for the women, the Olympics for the men. Organizationally, both the men's and the women's national associations were formed during this period and, in the case of the men, affiliation with the international federation was achieved.1 The overall time-span examined in this chapter is conveniently divided into sub-periods, each representing a distinct phase of development. Partly by chance, and partly because the same external and internal factors were operating, the sub-periods in men's and women's development co-incide. The war years themselves may be considered the initial phase. For the women, this was a time of difficulty in keeping field hockey competition alive; for the men, it included several years of total dormancy of the game. The second phase comprised about ten years immediately following the end of World War II, at which time field hockey, which was largely confined to the Greater Vancouver area, experienced a period of re-building and consolidation. The third phase extended from the mid-1950s to the early 1960s, and as well as a dramatic increase in the number of adult teams playing in the Vancouver area, these years witnessed the inception of field hockey in many centres across 117 Canada. It was during this period that both the men's and the women's national associations were created and Canadian teams first participated in international competition. The fourth phase, encompassing the middle to late 1960s, saw the organization of provincial associations, and the formalization of competition amongst the regions of Canada. These competitive and organizational activities of national scope were assisted by the advent of jet-age airline schedules and the introduction of government funding, phenomena of the decade of the sixties. Women's Field Hockey For several reasons, it is again logical to present first, an account of the development of women's hockey: initially, because women's hockey activity continued throughout the war years; next because it was a women's team that first represented Canada in international hockey competition; and finally, because, by the end of this era, women's hockey was more widely played across Canada than was the men's game. The War Years Although the outbreak of World War II in September 1939 led to the immediate cancellation of the I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, scheduled to be held in England that year, the War did not have such an immediate impact 2 on the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association s activities. Entering its 1939-40 season at that time, the League started with nine teams, the same number as in the previous year. As a result of women joining the armed services, the Association gradually felt the effects of the War until, by 1941-42, the number of teams had decreased to five. For the balance of the war years the G.V.W.G.H.A. continued to function, with from five to seven 118 teams participating in the League. As only a few clubs were able to sustain teams for the duration of the War, this was a difficult time for the Executive of the G.V.W.G.H.A. Miss Myrne Nevison, President of the Association for many of these years, was given credit for "holding-the-League 4 together" during this period. During the War, girls' high school hockey continued, a total of thirteen junior and senior high schools participating in the 1940-41 season of the Vancouver and District inter-high school competition. These matches were played at Vancouver Park Board fields on Saturday mornings, with the stronger high schools fielding as many as four teams; for example, North Vancouver High School entered two teams in the Junior Division, and one in each of the Intermediate and Senior Divisions. Furthermore, throughout this period, the close relationship with the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association was maintained. The event known as "Field Day", held towards the end of each season, and the annual fixture between representative teams from the Women's 5 Association and the high schools were continued. On Vancouver Island, women's grass hockey clubs remained active during the first wartime season, 1939-40, for the Victoria Ladies' Grass Hockey Club not only entered a team in the 3rd Bridgman Cup Tournament, but also defeated the Duncan Ladies' team in the Vancouver Island play-off of the Triangle League. When Pro-Rec I, winners of the Vancouver League for 1939-40, visited Victoria, they defeated the Victoria L.G.H.C. in the inter-city final. This was the last season of the Triangle League competition, for, by 1940-41, war services had taken its toll on the Vancouver Island women's clubs and neither Victoria nor Duncan ladies' grass hockey clubs was able to raise a team that 6 season. 119 As in Vancouver, schoolgirl hockey competition continued on Vancouver island. Despite wartime difficulties such as fuel rationing, the Bridgman Cup Tournament remained an annual event, attracting more student teams from year to year. These were drawn from the private schools and the high schools, until, starting in 1941-42, Victoria College became an entrant in the tournament. There was even an inter-city match between student teams during the latter part of the War, when, in the 1943-44 season, a U.B.C. team visited the Island to play the Victoria College team. During the early War years, officers of the G.V.W.G.H.A. maintained international contacts by corresponding with the U.S.F.H.A. and with the I.F.W.H.A. Hopes were expressed that Vancouver might continue its competition with American teams, including sending a team to represent the Association at several competitions to which it was invited, but no matches of an 8 international nature materialized. Early Post-War Development In the ten-year period after the conclusion of World War II, women's field hockey was revived in several parts of Eastern Canada. However, until 1955, it was only in British Columbia that adult hockey was played on a regular basis. Revitalization in British Columbia. Once the War was over, there was a consolidation of women's grass hockey activity in British Columbia. The Vancouver League comprised seven teams in the first post-War season, 1945-46, and from then until the mid-1950s, continued to maintain an average of six 9 teams. Forming a stable nucleus of the League during this decade of competition were five teams: Ex-Kitsilano, Ex-North Vancouver, Britannia 120 Grads, Varsity and U.B.C. The fact that three of these were ex-high school teams and the other two were university teams indicated the close relationship between the high school grass hockey programme and the Women's League. Joining the League, to raise the number of participating teams to seven in the 1954-55 season, was U.B.C. Alumnae (Alums), which added strength and expertise . , 10 to the competition. During the first decade following World War II, girls' grass hockey continued to flourish in the high schools of Vancouver and its surrounding suburbs; in 1948, there were forty-eight teams from seventeen schools in Senior, Intermediate and Junior Divisions of the inter-school grass hockey competition. In this post-war period, John Oliver and Magee High Schools were consistently strong in all divisions, while Burnaby South and North Vancouver were also prominent.11 Even within the schools, grass hockey participation during the 1950s was offered to girls in the form of intramural games; a typical hockey school, as well as entering teams in each of the inter-school divisions, would also establish competition amongst houses within the 12 school. By this time, the annual fixtures between representative teams from the Women's League and representative teams from the high schools had been in existence for over twenty years, and the Play-Day event (formerly called Field Day), where representative high school teams played in a series of friendly games with women's league teams, was well established. The Vancouver League and the high school competitions were interdependent, with the adult players passing down their skills and experience to the younger girls through coaching and games, and conversely, with the school teams 13 providing a major source of players for the Women's League. On Vancouver Island, in the immediate post-war years, women's grass hockey was active at the schools and colleges. Matches between Vancouver and 121 Victoria high schools, between Vancouver Normal School and Victoria Normal School, and between U.B.C. and Victoria College were played regularly. In 1947, for instance, the school champions for Vancouver, Magee High School, visited Vancouver Island to contest a match with the Island premiers, Mount 14 View School, Saanich. Furthermore, the Bridgman Cup competition remained an annual event, with Queen Margaret's School, Norfolk House School, Oak Bay High School and Victoria High School sharing the honours between 1945-46 and 1953-54. During this first post-war decade, however, there was no formal league competition in Victoria. In fact, the first mention of a participating adult club team appeared in the account of the 1954-55 Bridgman Cup Tournament, where it was recorded that "Oak Bay High defeated Victoria Ladies 15 in the final". As early as the first post-war season, the Executive members of the G.V.W.G.H.A. had made an effort to re-activate inter-city competition between Vancouver and Victoria, through correspondence directed to Victoria College, which was known to have had an active women's grass hockey club. However, the Captain of the Victoria team wrote to say that an inter-city grass hockey match in the Spring (of 1946) would not be possible, as every week-end was 16 committed to Vancouver Island hockey matches and other activities. A further attempt made the following year also proved unsuccessful, and during the late 1940s and early 1950s, adult inter-city competition was confined to 17 informal visits. Vancouver experienced its first post-war competition of an international nature when a representative team from the G.V.W.G.H.A. participated in a tournament staged in conjunction with the U.S.F.H.A.'s Pacific North West (P.N.W.) Conference, held in Portland, Oregon, in December 1946. Although invited to this event since its inception in 1940, the 122 G.V.W.G.H.A. was unable to send teams, or even delegates, to the tournaments and conferences held during the war years. From 1946 onwards, however, participation by Vancouver teams became an annual activity, not only for representative teams from the Association, but for the U.B.C. club team as well. The relative strength of teams from British Columbia was reflected by the fact that they were rarely beaten, and often won their games by large margins. For many years, the P.N.W. Conferences and associated tournaments were held at Portand, Oregon, but in the late 1940s, a policy of rotating the venue 19 amongst participating regions was adopted. In November 1950, when it was Vancouver's turn to reciprocate the hospitality enjoyed over several years, the G.V.W.G.H.A. and U.B.C. jointly hosted the P.N.W. Field Hockey Conference 20 and its tournament, an arrangement which was repeated in 1955. During the period 1950-55, the P.N.W. Conference and its tournament flourished. On average, sixteen teams from Idaho, Washington and Oregon participated in the tournament and, typically, an additional two teams from Vancouver — a Vancouver representative team and a U.B.C. team — entered the Tournament. However, in 1953, when the Conference was held in Seattle, four teams from Vancouver were entered: Vancouver Reps, the North Vancouver club 21 team, and two U.B.C. teams. For Vancouver players who participated in the annual P.N.W. tournaments, the event was a highlight of the season, but, even by the late 1940s, senior players were looking further afield. In 1948 and in 1949, a Vancouver representative team visited California to compete in the U.S.F.H.A. Sectional Tournament. Again, in 1954, a Vancouver team travelled to California, on this occasion to participate in a Thanksgiving tournament held 22 at Stanford University. 123 Women's Field Hockey in other parts of Canada. Although field hockey had been played in Toronto and Nova Scotia prior to World War I, and indeed was actively pursued by the schools and colleges in the Halifax area between the wars, the first recorded post-World War II matches in Eastern Canada did not take place until 1949, when the universities and colleges of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia engaged in competition. In 1950, the game was re-introduced at the University of Toronto, and by 1953, field hockey was also being played at 23 McMaster University in Hamilton. However, at this time, the G.V.W.G.H.A. knew few details of the activity in these or other parts of the country, for it was stated in Canada's report to the 1953 I.F.W.H.A. Conference that "in Eastern Canada one or two Universities teach hockey to the physical education 24 students". In 1955, women's field hockey began to expand in Ontario. Two adult club teams were formed, reportedly made up mostly of non-Canadians, and in that year played Toronto's first club match. Also in 1955, Scarborough, in the Greater Toronto area, became the first of the Ontario school districts to 25 include field hockey in its sports programme. Once again, if the G.V.W.G.H.A. was aware of these developments, there was no mention of them in the report to the 1956 I.F.W.H.A. Conference. Such an omission was not attributable to any lack of interest displayed by the G.V.W.G.H.A. towards the existence of women's field hockey in other parts of Canada, for between November 1954 and March 1955, amongst considerable correspondence to many parts of the world, letters were written by the G.V.W.G.H.A. Correspondence Secretary to the University of Toronto, the University of Western Ontario, and 26 Mount Allison University (New Brunswick). 124 Participation at the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament. Since 1936, it had been an ambition of the G.V.W.G.H.A. to send a team to represent Canada at the tournament associated with the I.F.W.H.A. Conference. Having become an Associate Member of the I.F.W.H.A. in 1937, the G.V.W.G.H.A. received an invitation to participate in the Women's World Hockey Festival held in Amsterdam in 1948, and in the fourth I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament at 27 Johannesburg in 1950. Canada was unable to send a team, or even a representative, to these events. However, when the fifth I.F.W.H.A. Conference took place in Folkestone, England, in 1953, an enthusiastic Vancouver hockey player, Florence Strachan, was on exchange teaching in England, and although no team could be sent, Strachan represented Canada as 28 Delegate. Upon Strachan's return to Vancouver in 1954, a meeting of the G.V.W.G.H.A. was held, at which her reports, souvenirs, and descriptions of the event gave Vancouver members a clearer picture of the I.F.W.H.A., its conference, its tournament, and its associated activities. In 1983, Strachan recalled that, when the meeting finished in the early hours of the morning, the membership was inspired with great enthusiasm. Thus, at a Special General Meeting of the G.V.W.G.H.A., held in January 1955, when Canada's participation at the 1956 Triennial I.F.W.H.A. Tournament to be held in Australia was 29 discussed, the membership voted in the affirmative. In an endeavour to ensure a truly representative team, the G.V.W.G.H.A. dispatched letters to all known women's hockey organizations across Canada, informing them of its decision to participate in the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament in 30 Sydney. The only positive response came from the Victoria Ladies' Grass Hockey Club, which was invited to affiliate with the G.V.W.G.H.A. and thereby qualify for trial games. When the Canadian team was finally selected, all 125 eight affiliated clubs, seven from the Vancouver League and the Victoria L.G.H.C had at least one representative. Finally, after eighteen months of preparation, the major tasks of which were fund-raising, team selection, 31 coaching, and practising, the team departed for Australia. The I.F.W.H.A. tournament took place in Sydney, with ten countries competing from 23 May to 2 June 1956. However, Canada also travelled through several Australian states, playing numerous matches against local teams, a cherished tradition of I.F.W.H.A. Tours. On much of this tour, the Canadian team was accompanied by the English team, with whom Canada played several 32 exhibition matches. Period of Expansion The period from the mid-1950s to the early 1960s was one of rapid growth of women's field hockey, not only In the Vancouver and Victoria areas of British Columbia, but in other provinces as well. An increase in numbers in Ontario and the Maritimes was accompanied by the formation of clubs in Alberta and Quebec. This expansion of the game across Canada, together with regular participation in international competition, led to the formation of a national association. Progress in British Columbia. For the ten years prior to 1956, the Vancouver League had remained stable at six or seven teams; but, from 1957 to 1963, as shown in Table 5, the League experienced a steady increase which resulted in a 33 doubling of the number of competing teams within six years. 126 TABLE 5 NUMBER OF TEAMS COMPETING IN VANCOUVER WOMEN'S LEAGUE: 1956-1963 Season Number of Teams 1956-57 8 1958-59 9 1960-61 10 1962-63 14 This expansion, anticipated as early as 1958 when the Secretary of the G.V.W.G.H.A. wrote to the Vancouver Parks Board requesting additional pitches, led to a splitting of the League into divisions: in the 1960-61 season, six teams competed in Division I and four in Division II; and in 1962-63, the 34 League's two divisions each comprised seven teams. The expansion which occurred in the Vancouver Women's League was matched by a similar growth in girls' hockey. Efforts were begun to foster junior hockey in the late 1950s, when experienced players from the Vancouver Women's Association conducted coaching sessions and established teams for girls in several areas of Greater Vancouver. By December 1959, these activities had progressed to the stage where a proposal to form a junior girls' league was put forward at the Christmas General Meeting of the 35 Association. Girls field hockey also increased in popularity within the schools, for during the early 1960s, clinics for high school players and coaches were organized. One such clinic was held at U.B.C.; another was conducted in the interior of British Columbia, where several junior high 127 schools were introducing field hockey into the curriculum. Whereas in the mid-1950s, a total of twenty junior and senior high schools in Greater Vancouver had entered about forty-five teams in four divisions of the Inter-High School competition, by 1963, these figures had reached forty-three 36 schools and eighty-three teams, a virtual doubling in numbers. This statistic allowed the G.V.W.G.H.A. to claim that "on the basis of the number of students participating grass hockey ranks ahead of all other sports at the 37 present time." The progress of women's field hockey on Vancouver Island can be judged by studying participation in the popular and prestigious annual Bridgman Cup Tournament, in which teams were entered from private schools, from high 38 schools, from Victoria College, and in some years from the "Ladies' Clubs". TABLE 6 VANCOUVER ISLAND TEAMS IN BRIDGMAN CUP TOURNAMENT: 1938-1962 Year Number of Teams Total Private Schools High Schools College Ladies 1938 6 2 2 -2 1943 7 3 3 1-1958 10 * * * * 1960 12 5 6 11 1962 15 6 7 1 2 * Details not recorded. 128 It can be clearly seen from Table 6 that, while the number of teams only increased from seven to ten in the fifteen-year period from 1943 to 1958, just four years later, in 1962, the total number of Vancouver Island teams 39 competing had risen to fifteen. While hockey in the schools was growing steadily stronger during the late fifties and early sixties, so, too, was women's hockey becoming firmly established on Vancouver Island. From the single "Victoria Ladies" team which had affiliated with the G.V.W.G.H.A. in the 1955-56 season, by 1958, interest had increased to the point where two women's teams, Mariners and Grasshoppers, could be formed to become the founding members of the Victoria Ladies' Field Hockey Association, established in that year. Within the next few years, a third women's team, Ravens L.G.H.C., joined the fledgling Association; and when, in 1960, the P.N.W. Tournament was held at U.B.C., the Victoria L.F.H.A. 40 was able to send a representative team to compete. The year 1962 marked the creation of a new Cowichan Ladies' Grass Hockey Club, which was strong enough to field two teams in its first season. Together with the other women's hockey clubs and the University of Victoria (formerly Victoria College), the Victoria Ladies' Field Hockey Association was able to organize a six-team schedule of fixtures in the 1962-63 season; in 1963, in order to embrace its broader membership, the Association was re-named 41 the Vancouver Island Ladies' Field Hockey Association. Developments in Other Provinces. The first women's field hockey club matches 42 in Toronto were played in 1955. For the next two years, club matches were played regularly between the two founding teams: Toronto Ladies' Field Hockey Club, which practised at Havergal College (a girls' school) and played 43 friendly matches with the school team; and the Nomads Club. From 1958, 129 developments occurred rapidly: in that year, Ontario's first women's field hockey tournament was staged in Toronto: in 1959, the Toronto Ladies' Field Hockey Association was formed: and the following year, with three inaugural teams including the newly-formed Beavers, the Ontario Women's Field Hockey 44 Association was founded. In the early 1960s, the Ontario Women's Field Hockey Association (O.W.F.H.A.) made efforts to expand the game beyond the confines of the three women's club teams. At the University of Toronto, where the game had been played in the 1950s but had since lapsed, field hockey was re-introduced in 1962 and by the end of that season, twelve intramural teams were competing. Shortly afterwards, the first inter-university match was played, between the University of Toronto and McMaster University (Hamilton), and by 1964, several 45 other universities had joined the competition. School hockey expanded, too, when the Etobicoke and Port Credit School Districts, both in Greater Toronto, introduced the game into the schools in 1960. Two years later, the Association's clinics and promotion were rewarded by the introduction of field hockey into the curriculum of junior high schools in the Greater Toronto 46 area. Women's field hockey was established in Alberta during this time, first in Calgary and a few years later in Edmonton. From games of mixed hockey originating in 1957, competition in Calgary gradually evolved into two separate leagues. When a women's league started in 1961 with two teams, Nomads and wanderers, it operated under the auspices of the men's organization; but, by 1962, the women had formed a separate body, the Calgary 47 Ladies' Field Hockey Club. A similar evolution occurred in Edmonton, where the women also separated from the men in 1962 to form the Edmonton Ladies' Field Hockey Club. In both the 1961 and 1962 seasons, inter-city 130 matches between Calgary and Edmonton were arranged on a home-and-away basis. In other provinces, women's field hockey was also developing. Competition among the colleges and universities of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick had been in existence for many years when the Maritimes Women's Field Hockey Association was formed In 1962 with an inaugural membership comprising four university teams and one women's club. Also in 1962, women's field hockey took root in Montreal with the formation of the Vagabonds Women's Field Hockey Club. As the only women's club in the province, the Vagabonds represented Quebec in tournaments, and maintained correspondence with other 49 International Competition. The late fifties and early sixties was a period of increased international participation by Canadians at various levels of competition. Teams from British Columbia continued to compete in the tournament associated with the P.N.W. Conference and, in addition, British Columbia and Ontario teams were invited to attend the U.S.F.H.A.'s national and regional tournaments. Furthermore, Canada was represented at both I.F.W.H.A. Tournaments held during this era. So successful was the P.N.W. Conference that, by 1958, the associated tournament had been divided into two sections, one for college and university teams, the other, known as the Alumnae Section, for adult teams. U.B.C. and Victoria College played in the student section, while representative teams 50 from Vancouver and Victoria competed in the Alumnae Section. The fact that a total of twenty teams participated when the event was hosted at U.B.C. in 1960, gives an indication of the popularity of the P.N.W. Conference at 51 this time. 131 During the early 1960s, teams from Canada were also invited to the U.S.F.H.A.'s national and regional tournaments. For example, in 1960, a representative team from the Vancouver Association was privileged to attend the U.S. National Tournament held in Berkeley, California; and both in 1960 and 1961, the Northeastern Section of the U.S.F.H.A. invited two teams from 52 Ontario to participate in their Thanksgiving Weekend Tournaments. The pinnacle of the international competition for Canadian players was, however, the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament. Once a Canadian team had attended such an event, future participation was never in doubt; for those who had been members of the 1956 Touring Team, the trip was an experience of a life-time. Thus, it is not surprising that, when Canada received an invitation to the Seventh I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament to be held in Holland in 1959, the minutes of the meeting of the G.V.W.G.H.A. of 25 June 1957 recorded that the motion to accept was carried. After a year of preparation, which included fund-raising, practices and trial games leading to team selection, the Canadian team travelled to Europe to compete in the 1959 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament in Amsterdam. In addition to the six matches in the Tournament itself, the Canadian Touring Team played numerous games in England and Scotland en 53 route. Again in 1963, a Canadian team attended the I.F.W.H.A. Conference, held in Baltimore, U.S.A. As well as the matches scheduled in conjunction with the Conference, and games on tour of the eastern states, the Canadian team played several matches in Canada. Of particular note was a triangular competition in Toronto, involving the Canadian, Scottish and Ontario teams; this was the 54 first opportunity for Ontario to compete against national opposition. 132 Creation of the C.W.F.H.A. A bulletin circulated to the members of the G.V.W.G.H.A., announcing a Special General Meeting of 22 March 1962, stated that the purpose of the meeting was to discuss two issues: one, the formation of a Canadian women's field hockey association; the other, the entry of a Canadian Touring Team in the 1963 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament to be held in Baltimore, U.S.A. The circular declared that the two issues were closely 55 related. In order to appreciate this relationship, one must review a quarter of a century of history of women's hockey in Canada. In 1937, the G.V.W.G.H.A. had been accepted as an Associate Member of the I.F.W.H.A. From then on, all correspondence from the I.F.W.H.A. was directed to the Vancouver Association, and this Association alone had the right to send delegates to the I.F.W.H.A. Conference, or a team to its accompanying Tournament. Included amongst the correspondence between these two organizations, reference was made to the G.V.W.G.H.A.'s hopes to participate in I.F.W.H.A. activities. However, until 1953, when a delegate was able to attend the Conference in Folkestone, the G.V.W.G.H.A. had not been able to accept the I.F.W.H.A.'s invitations. Finally, in 1956, a Canadian team competed in the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament held in Sydney, Australia, an 56 accomplishment repeated three years later in Amsterdam. Both the 1956 and 1959 Canadian teams were entered by the G.V.W.G.H.A., but neither team was selected until letters extending an invitation to participate in trials had been written to known hockey-playing centres across Canada. In 1956, the victoria Ladies' Grass Hockey Club accepted this invitation and affiliated with the G.V.W.G.H.A., subsequently contributing the sole member from outside Greater Vancouver to represent Canada on either 57 occasion. By 1962, the G.V.W.G.H.A., having been "in correspondence with a growing hockey league in Ontario" and other centres, was well aware of the 133 national aspirations of players from other parts of the country. Indeed, its report to the 1959 I.F.W.H.A. Conference stated: "it is hoped that by 1963 East and West will join together to send a nationally representative team 59 to the Conference to be held in Baltimore." Nineteen-sixty was the year in which positive steps were taken to achieve this objective. By this time, an Ontario association had been formed, and teams from Toronto had competed in the U.S.F.H.A.'s Sectional Tournament. As a result of a letter from the U.S.F.H.A. asking if the Toronto women would be willing to entertain international teams attending the 1963 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament in Baltimore, the Secretary of the O.W.F.H.A. wrote that "the Ontario W.F.H.A. are keen to participate in the I.F.W.H.A. venture in 1963 and are greatly looking forward to acting as hostess to 3 visiting teams."60 This activity prompted the Ontario Association to make one of its several enquiries regarding affiliation with the G.V.W.G.H.A. In response, in the fall of 1960, a committee was struck to investigate the formation of a Canadian women's field hockey association: and, furthermore, the Victoria L.F.H.A. affiliated with the G.V.W.G.H.A. with a view to creating such a 61 national association. Over the next year, no substantial progress was made. However, the Vancouver Association was informed by the I.F.W.H.A. that other associations in Canada were requesting international affiliation. To these requests the International Federation had replied that any change in the organization of women's hockey in Canada — and concomitantly, the right to enter a team in the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament — would have to be made through the G.V.W.G.H.A., 62 the existing recognized body. Then, in January 1962, the Vancouver Association received a letter from the O.W.F.H.A. requesting affiliation with the G.V.W.G.H.A. for the purpose of 134 establishing eligibility for the 1963 Touring Team. This correspondence appears to have provided the stimulus for immediate action: within ten days of the Executive Meeting at which this letter was read, a circular was sent to members of the G.V.W.G.H.A. on the subject of the formation of a Canadian association; and by March 1962, a paper outlining a resolution to create a Canadian women's field hockey association had been prepared. As well as documenting the affiliation of the Victoria L.F.H.A. and a specific request from the O.W.F.H.A. for the formation of a Canadian association, the resolution also revealed that groups in Calgary, Edmonton, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland had expressed interest in a Canadian association, trials for Canadian teams, and related matters. Another very important factor in the timing of the formation of a national organization was the availability of government assistance. The Fitness and Amateur Sport Act, passed in 1961, 64 made federal funding available for national sport governing bodies. Covering the period from the Winter General Meeting of the G.V.W.G.H.A. in January 1962, when the formation of a Canadian association was formally proposed, to September 1962, the date set for a Special General Meeting to approve the constitution of such an association, the chairman of the Constitution Committee had drawn up a demanding time-table, as shown in Appendix G. During this busy period for the Vancouver-based committee, considerable correspondence flowed across Canada, to and from Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes, concerning the hopes, aspirations, and purposes of a Canadian women's field hockey association; and, in addition, the Chairman of the Constitution Committee visited Ontario for discussions with an Executive 65 Member of the O.W.F.H.A. Finally, when a motion "that the Canadian Women's Field Hockey Association come into existence this very twenty-fourth day of September, 135 1962" was proposed at the Special General Meeting of the G.V.W.G.H.A. convened for this purpose, the motion was carried; and the inaugural meeting of the newly-formed Association, at which the first executive of the C.W.F.H.A. took office, was held in November 1962.66 In her annual report over a year later, the first President, Margaret McLean, stated: I am happy to say we were successful in having teams in the Maritimes unite to form the Maritimes Women's Field Hockey Association which joined with established associations in Ontario, Vancouver and Vancouver Island. Montreal's only team joined as an affiliate member and we started our National Association with thirty-three member teams. g-y The creation of the C.W.F.H.A. provided means by which a truly representative team could be chosen to compete for Canada at the 1963 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament in Baltimore. But this ideal, for which many had strived over a long period, was not completely fulfilled. Although the Canadian team, with two from the Maritimes, contained players from outside British Columbia for the first time, there were no Ontario players in the 1963 Touring Team. On the positive side, with the thirty-three registered teams in 1963, Canada now had sufficient numbers to qualify for full membership of the I.F.W.H.A. Consequently, in the roster of countries listed in the Report of the 1963 I.F.W.H.A. Conference, the "Canadian Women's [Field] Hockey Association" was entered as a Full Member, a quarter of a century after the G.V.W.G.H.A. had been accepted as an Associate Member. Now, at last, with the formation of the C.W.F.H.A., a vehicle existed through which the game could be developed nationally, and to which sub-national organizations could affiliate.6^ 136 Provincial Development and National Unification With the formation of the Canadian Women's Field Hockey Association in 1962, the game was in a strong position to develop nation-wide; as well as expanding in established centres, women's field hockey was introduced into new areas. A truly national team was now a more attainable goal, one that was achieved by bringing together players from across the country to compete at regional and national tournaments. British Columbia. When the C.W.F.H.A. submitted its report to the I.F.W.H.A. Conference in Baltimore in 1963, it declared a membership of thirty-three teams, a quadrupling of the eight teams registered by the G.V.W.G.H.A. at the I.F.W.H.A. Conference of 1956. While the Canadian Association was now a national body embracing several centres across the country, the relatively large increase in the number of teams was not entirely due to these other clubs and associations. With fourteen teams playing in its two-division League in the 1962-63 season, the Vancouver Association alone provided close to fifty percent of the total membership; and including the six teams in the Vancouver Island Association, and a team in the okanagan, British Columbia contributed almost two-thirds of the number of teams affiliated with the 70 C.W.F.H.A. Until the 1965-66 season, the Vancouver and Victoria Leagues remained stable (see Appendix H), but in the second half of the 1960s, the Vancouver Association began to expand until, in the autumn of 1968, eighteen teams competed in a league which, for the first time, comprised three divisions, each of six teams. However, according to the President of the Vancouver Women's Field Hockey Association, even more encouraging was the increasing number of high school girls eager to participate on Saturdays. Such a 137 statement testifies to the success of a Saturday morning Junior Division, 71 conceived three years earlier, and inaugurated during the 1966-67 season. By the mid-sixties field hockey in the high schools throughout British Columbia had reached the point where a tournament of provincial scope could be undertaken. In November 1964, after a series of matches to determine zone winners, the first B.C. School Girls' Field Hockey Tournament and Clinic was held at U.B.C. As well as a two-day competition amongst the twelve finalists, a clinic involving over five hundred participants was held to promote the game 72 to high school players and coaches. so successful was this first Tournament and Clinic that the activity became an annual event; in its second year, it was held at Vernon, in the interior of B.C., in order to broaden provincial participation. At the third and fourth annual tournaments, held in Victoria and Grand Forks (another interior city) in 1966 and 1967, sixteen 73 teams competed in the provincial finals. Even though women's field hockey was expanding across Canada, the participation of British Columbia teams in the Pacific Northwest Conference remained strong during the mid-1960s. Despite the fact that the two tournaments, one for college and university teams, and the other for non-collegiate teams, were now conducted under the auspices of the P.N.W. Section of the U.S.F.H.A., both tournaments were held in British Columbia in 1965. Over the first week-end in November, U.B.C. hosted the tournament in which "twenty-one enthusiastic teams from Idaho, Oregon, Washington and 74 British Columbia participated in 35 games during the conference," and the following weekend in Victoria the Vancouver Island L.F.H.A. sponsored the "Pacific Northwest Ladies' Field Hockey Conference" at which sixteen teams from Oregon, Washington, the Okanagan, Vancouver, and Vancouver Island 75 competed. In the latter part of the 1960s, the P.N.W. Tournament began to 138 diminish in importance for British Columbia teams, as more competition for senior players became available within Canada, and as the universities entered the W.C.I.A.U. women's field hockey tournaments. Indeed, it was not long 76 before intercollegiate competition in the U.S.A. was itself re-structured. During the mid-sixties, not only was women's field hockey in British Columbia growing numerically and expanding regionally, but it was also maturing organizationally. In 1962, when the C.W.F.H.A. came into existence, the Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association and the Vancouver Island Ladies' Field Hockey Association joined the national body as separate associations, but by 1966, a provincial organization had evolved which 77 subsumed these two individual associations. The idea of a provincial body, however, had been conceived long before the 1960s. The Triangle League, involving teams from Victoria, Duncan, and Vancouver, was instigated in 1939, with a thought in the background, that this League might be a step towards extending grass hockey activities in the Province of British Columbia, thus creating a B.C. Association which would have as its pivot the Lower Mainland Association.-yg In 1955, when the Victoria L.G.H.C. was invited to join the G.V.W.G.H.A. in order to qualify for trial games for selection to Canada's 1956 Touring Team to Australia, "their acceptance was welcomed and they became the eighth club 79 of the Association at this time." Shortly after the return of the Canadian team from Australia, the Development Committee of the G.V.W.G.H.A. recommended that a provincial body be established to foster hockey in the province. Although the Constitution Committee had drawn up a draft constitution for a B.C. association by February 1957, no further progress 80 towards its formation was made at that time. 139 It was after the foundation of the C.W.F.H.A. that another attempt was made to form a provincial association. In the Fall of 1963, the Executive of the Vancouver Women's Field Hockey Association (V.W.F.H.A., formerly the G.V.W.G.H.A.), appointed a small committee to work with representatives from the Vancouver Island L.F.H.A. with a view to investigating the establishment 81 of a B.C. organization. However, the process of creating a B.C. association, which entailed procedural formalities, such as presenting a proposal to the membership of the V.W.F.H.A., and holding meetings between representatives of the Vancouver and Vancouver Island Associations, was time-consuming. Consequently, it was not until February 1966 that the principles for the establishment of the British Columbia Women's Field Hockey Federation (B.C.W.F.H.F.) were ratified by the V.W.F.H.A. and the V.I.L.F.H.A., and a month later that the first Council Meeting of the 82 B.C.W.F.H.F. was held. The B.C.W.F.H.F., based on the two major Associations, Vancouver and Vancouver Island, was hailed as being the first truly provincial women's field hockey federation in Canada. The aims of the Federation were two-fold: to act as a liaison between local associations and the C.W.F.H.A.; and to promote 83 field hockey throughout British Columbia. Within months, the Federation had begun to implement projects designed to fulfil these aims. In September 1966, a Coaches' Master Clinic, with twelve coaches invited, was held at U.B.C.; by November 1966, the B.C.W.F.H.F. had assumed responsibility for the School Tournament; and in March 1967, as part of the provincial Festival of Sports, an Easter "Jamboree" was held. This event brought together twenty-eight teams (11 senior teams; 17 school teams) from California and Alberta as well as British Columbia, which participated in a total of ninety-nine games. The Jamboree was conceived to enable all hockey players, 140 regardless of age and experience, to participate in an informal gathering of as many teams as possible for hockey, enjoyment and friendship. Later that year, the B.C. Federation sponsored a hockey camp at the University of Victoria, and in the summer, under the auspices of the B.C.W.F.H.F., the 84 national coach held clinics in four centres throughout the province. Ontario and Quebec. Of the many provinces in which women's field hockey was developing in the mid-1960s, Ontario experienced the most rapid growth. Although the Ontario Women's Field Hockey Association had been founded in 1960, at the beginning of the 1962 season there were still only three club 85 teams and two university teams in active competition in Ontario. Over the next six years, a substantial increase was to take place, both in club and university activity. In 1964, the Hamilton Ladies' Field Hockey Club was formed, and by 1965, the Wanderers Club had entered the Toronto League. Two years later, in the annual tournament first staged in 1958, Ontario could field eight teams; six club teams from Toronto, the Hamilton Club team, and 86 the University of Toronto team. With eight clubs registered in Ontario in 1968, the numbers had doubled over the short span of five years; and, moreover, with the Hamilton club and several non-metropolitan universities competing, the game had expanded beyond the Greater Toronto area. In 1967, the Hamilton L.F.H.A. was able to host its first hockey tournament, with seven 87 teams from Hamilton, Toronto, and Montreal participating. Student hockey was also growing. The Universities of York (1962), Western Ontario (1963), and Waterloo (1965), had joined Toronto and McMaster to form an expanded university competition which, with McGill University of Montreal, comprised six teams in 1965. Hockey in the schools also expanded when two new districts, Chatham (1965) and Hawksbury (1966), each entered four 141 teams in the school competition. The first annual Ontario Junior Tournament, with sixteen teams of school girls from Toronto, Hamilton and Brampton, was held in 1966; and, by 1968, the number of teams participating in 89 this tournament had increased to twenty. Several initiatives contributed to development at the school level: an annual field hockey camp for coaches, inaugurated in 1964, with as many as eighty participants, mostly teachers; a student-teacher clinic held in conjunction with the 1967 Junior League to foster hockey in junior and senior high schools, as well as in private schools: and summer clinics, at which a total of 180 teachers were in 90 attendance in 1967 alone. Vagabonds Ladies' Field Hockey Club affiliated with the C.W.F.H.A. upon the national body's foundation, and for several years remained the only senior 91 women's club in Quebec. However, girls' hockey, with at least eight teams playing as early as 1963, was introduced into the schools; and the universities and colleges also formed women's field hockey teams. In 1966, for example, the McGill University team competed in Ontario's schedule of 92 inter-university fixtures. Canada's centennial year, 1967, was a year of increased activity. Two more teams competed at the inter-collegiate level, and an increasing number of schools participated in league and tournament play. Furthermore, a women's field hockey exhibition match was staged, during Montreal's World Exposition, with tens of thousands of spectators being introduced to the game. For this event Quebec's first representative side, chosen from trials involving five 93 teams, played the North East Section reserve team from the U.S.A. When a second senior club, Pioneers L.F.H.C., emerged from the eight-team West Island Girls' Field Hockey League in 1968, the time was ripe for the formation of a Quebec association: 142 At a general meeting of the Vagabonds, held early in 1968, it was suggested that the time had come to form an Association of our own which would take over what has now grown to be too great a task for one club. Such an Association would become an authoritative voice, a co-ordinating group and a responsible body in the area. It would be in a position to organize trials for the selection of Provincial teams to play in the 1968 National Tournament ... .94 A constitution having been drawn up, the first General Meeting of the Province of Quebec Women's Field Hockey Association was held on 3 April 1968. On its inauguration the Association comprised three clubs, Vagabonds, Pioneers, and Students, and in June of that year, the Association staged its first 95 Tournament, the three Quebec teams hosting two Toronto clubs. Maritime Provinces. When the Maritimes Women's Field Hockey Association was formed in 1962, there were four University teams and one women's club 96 (Halifax) in the Association. Over the next few years, while the Halifax Club team disbanded, the number of University teams increased, with six participating in the Intercollegiate League by 1966. It was within the high schools, however, that a dramatic increase in popularity occurred during this period. Between 1965 and 1966 alone, the number of school teams in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick increased from sixteen to twenty-six, and three 97 schools were also playing in Prince Edward Island in the latter year. In 1967, women's field hockey also became established in the fourth of the Maritime provinces, where it was reported that "the ladies in St. John's, Newfoundland have formed the St. John's Field Hockey Association and presently 98 have four senior teams and a junior programme for two teams." Consequently, it was hoped that they would soon join the Maritimes Women's Field Hockey Association and thus the C.W.F.H.A. The year of Canada's centennial also saw the revival of senior women's hockey in Nova Scotia, when 143 the Halifax Ladies' Team had three games with Petty Officers Teams from Royal 99 Navy ships visiting Halifax to celebrate the occasion. By 1968, each of the four Maritime provinces was sufficiently developed to permit the staging of an inter-provincial tournament. The 1968 Summer Edition of the c.F.H. News revealed that this tournament, planned for September 1968 in Truro, Nova Scotia, scheduled three matches between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and round robin games involving Newfoundland, P.E.I, and another invited team.100 Prairie Provinces. In 1962, the year in which both the Calgary and Edmonton Ladies' Field Hockey Clubs separated from the men's organization, the future of women's hockey in Alberta seemed bright. Over the next few years, however, both clubs experienced difficulties. The Edmonton L.F.H.C. enjoyed only one year of formal existence, disbanding in 1963 as a result of a decline in 101 membership. In 1964, the Calgary L.F.H.C. also disbanded, but competition was maintained by a women's league sponsored by three clubs of the men's Association. The demise of the Calgary L.F.H.C. was brought about, not because of insufficient numbers to sustain competition — as well as league games, Calgary played two inter-city matches with a visiting Vancouver team — but because the Calgary L.F.H.C. "was closed down in order to form and run" a 102 proposed Alberta association. Efforts to create a provincial association were finally rewarded with the formation of the Alberta Women's Field Hockey 103 Association in 1965. By 1967, the Alberta W.F.H.A. comprised four club teams, all from Calgary, in addition to a team from the University of Calgary which had entered the Calgary's City League a year earlier. Attempts made to revive the game in Edmonton in 1966 led to the re-institution of a "Mixed League" the 144 next year, but it was not until 1969 that the Edmonton Ladies' Field Hockey Association was formed.''"04 Competitively and developmentally, 1967 was an active year for women's hockey in Alberta. In the spring, an Alberta team visited Vancouver for the first time, where it played matches against B.C.and California teams. In May, the C.W.F.H.A. sponsored a coaching and umpiring clinic in the province. Over the Victoria Day weekend, an eight-team Centennial Tournament in Calgary attracted teams from B.C. and Manitoba as well as Alberta. In the fall, schools in Lethbridge and Grande Prairie began to teach the game, and a field hockey course was introduced at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, an 105 event which led to the formation of the University team in 1968. Women's field hockey in Manitoba was nurtured in the universities. In 1963, the game was introduced into the intramural programme at the University of Manitoba; the following year, field hockey was offered as a physical education course there; and, by 1966, this course was compulsory for the Bachelor of Physical Education degree. By this time, the game had spread to several other tertiary institutions, both in Winnipeg and in Brandon, as well , 106 as to several schools. From this point onwards, competitive hockey flourished. In the 1966 season, the first club competition was played in Manitoba, with six teams competing; five from the colleges and universities, and one referred to as the 107 "Ladies City Team". In the autumn of that year, an invitiational tournament was held at the University of Manitoba; of the five teams participating, three were from Manitoba, one from Alberta and one from Saskatchewan. Over the next few years, women's field hockey in Manitoba continued to develop. An annual hockey camp, which attracted as many as thirty participants, comprising physical education students from the 145 University of Manitoba and teachers from the Winnipeg high schools, was 108 established to promote the game. It was also through the schools and universities that women's field hockey developed in Saskatchewan. As early as 1960, the game was introduced to the physical education programme at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, but some years passed before the graduating students fostered the game widely, only two schools having started field hockey by 1966. However, in 1967, the game expanded; several more schools, including three collegiate institutions, adopted the game, and both the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon), and the University of Saskatchewan at Regina (later the University of Regina) entered teams in the first Western Canadian 109 Intercollegiate field hockey competition, played at Saskatoon. National Tournaments and Canadian Team Selection. The Canadian Touring Teams which participated in the I.F.W.H.A. Tournaments of 1956 and 1959 were not representative of the whole of Canada, the players having been drawn entirely from British Columbia on both occasions. At the 1963 Tournament, held a year after the formation of the C.W.F.H.A., the Canadian team, although it included 110 players from the Maritimes, was still not truly representative. Indeed, the President of the C.W.F.H.A. reported that. An application was made for a grant in 1963 from the Canada Fitness Council [National Advisory Council] to assist the Canadian Association in sending the National Team to Baltimore. However, the Council felt more attention should be paid to the promotion of hockey within the boundaries of Canada before such contributions to a travelling team could be approved.-^n Thus, in 1964, plans were formulated to promote the game within Canada, a Promotion Committee having been formed to achieve this objective. Of this Committee's plans, the President observed that "foremost [was] the idea of 146 holding the first Sectional and National Tournaments in Women's field hockey 112 in Canada." The plans envisaged a western sectional tournament, with teams from Vancouver, Vancouver Island, Calgary, Edmonton, and the Interior of B.C.; and an eastern sectional tournament with teams from the Maritimes, Ontario and Montreal. From each of these tournaments, two teams would be selected to compete at one centralized National Tournament. Finally, from the 113 National Tournament, a Canadian Team and a Reserve Team would be selected. These ambitious plans came to pass. In April 1965, six teams (Vancouver - 3, Vancouver Island - 2, Calgary - 1) played at U.B.C. in the Western Sectional Tournament, from which two Western Canada teams were selected. Similarly, the Eastern Trials, with teams from Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes, were held to select the two teams to represent Eastern 114 Canada. Finally, at Brockton Point, Stanley Park, in Vancouver, over the Victoria Day weekend of 22-24 May 1965, the first Canadian National Women's Field Hockey Tournament was held; and this tournament, which also constituted trials, "enabled the first truly representative [Canadian] team to be , .,115 selected. In 1966, the same format of staging Sectional Tournaments and selecting East and West teams to compete at the National Championships was applied. The Western Sectional Tournament, with six teams competing, was held in Victoria during April, and the five-team Eastern Sectional Tournament in Toronto in May.116 The National Tournament was held in Toronto in October 1966, and from this event, the team to represent Canada at the 1967 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament in Leverkusen, Germany, was selected. The Canadian contingent included a substantial proportion from the East, and the players from Eastern 117 Canada felt that it was, for the first time, a truly national team. 147 No Canadian Tournament was held in 1967, as the Canadian Team was participating in the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament and associated tours that year. Moreover, by this time, the structure of the National Tournament was being re-assessed. Proposals to replace the existing format by a single tournament with provincial representation gained favour with the membership, and this initiative corresponded with the wishes of the Fitness and Amateur Sport Directorate of the Department of National Health and Welfare, which assisted 118 in the funding of this aspect of the development of women's field hockey. Consequently, in 1968, when the third Canadian National Women's Field Hockey Tournament was held in Winnipeg, provinces participated for the first time. Although it was, in essence, an Inter-Provincial National Championship, not all provinces competed individually, and the two strongest provinces each entered two teams. The eight competing teams were: British Columbia (2); Ontario (2); Alberta; Quebec; Saskatchewan-Manitoba (combined team); and Nova 119 Scotia (representing the Maritimes). British Columbia I won the tournament, and thus became, in effect, National Champions. A plan to play a Canada versus U.S.A. match at the conclusion of the Tournament, conceived four years earlier, came to fruition in 1968, the U.S.A. narrowly defeating Canada 3-2. In 1969, inter-provincial competition was enhanced when women's field hockey was included in the first Canada Summer Games, a federally sponsored project designed to raise the standard of amateur sport across the country. The Games, held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, acted as a stimulus to progress, for the project provided a tournament which was independently funded. Teams and officials had the opportunity to prepare thoroughly for the event, at which all ten provinces, as well as the two territories, were represented. It was a 121 landmark in the development of women's field hockey in Canada. 148 It was in the late 1960s, too, that women's university hockey competition became more national in scope. In 1967, the Western Canadian Intercollegiate Athletic Association initiated a tournament which included the universities of the four western provinces. Seven teams participated in this first event, held in Saskatoon, and the next year the competition expanded to 122 include an eighth team. Summary of Post-War Development Between World War II and the late 1960s, women's field hockey in Canada made great progress in its development, not only in terms of participation and competition, but also with respect to its organization. In the early part of the period, adult play was largely confined to British Columbia, where Vancouver was the only centre in the country with a formal competitive league. It was the G.V.W.G.H.A. which, as an associate member of the I.F.W.H.A., organized the first Canadian team to participate at an I.F.W.H.A. Tournament. The late 1950s and early 1960s were marked by the growth in the number of teams in British Columbia, on the one hand, and the creation of clubs and associations in Ontario, the Maritimes, Alberta and Quebec, on the other. This was the era in which the Canadian Women's Field Hockey Association was founded, partly to unify the country for developmental purposes, but largely with a view towards establishing a medium through which a truly representative national team could be selected for participation in I.F.W.H.A. Tournaments and other international events. The latter objective was not fully achieved until the final phase of this period. The mid-sixties was a time of continued expansion in all parts of the country. By 1969, the game was established in every province; furthermore, the goal of a truly Canadian team was, at last, realized. 149 Men's Field Hockey Post-War Recovery The decade from World War II to the mid-1950s can be considered as one of recovery from the disruption caused by World War II. It was a period during which men's field hockey competition was firmly re-established in British Columbia, and during which the game began to be introduced to other parts of Canada. Revival in British Columbia. For the last three war years, there was no organized men's hockey in British Columbia, the Vancouver League having terminated its activities before the end of 1942. It was not long after the cessation of hostilities, however, that the game was revived, for the first post-war U.B.C. Annual, The Totem, reported: Though grass hockey was one of the first victims of the war, its return to campus this year was as prompt as it was welcome. With increased enrolment at U.B.C., little difficulty was met in forming two teams, Varsity and U.B.C, and with competition provided by those two well-known Vancouver Squads, the Oldtimers and the East Indians, a city hockey league was quickly instituted.123 The League appears not to have been deemed official in this 1945-46 season, for there is no inscription on the Challenge Cup for that year. However, for the following season, when the Vancouver-based Mainland Grass Hockey League again comprised four teams, the Challenge Cup bears the engraving of U.B.C. as 124 League Champions. After two years of post-war rebuilding, field hockey in Vancouver had expanded to the point where the President of the Mainland Grass Hockey Association of B.C., Bill Melhuish, was able to write, "there are 8 teams in our main League, 6 intermural [sic] teams playing 3 times a week at the 150 University, and a junior division of 6 teams being formed." At U.B.C. especially, the game had grown rapidly. In the first two years after the war, the U.B.C. Club entered two teams in the League: and by the 1947-48 season, four teams — three undergraduate teams and a faculty team — were entered. These, together with four "city teams", constituted an eight-team League, which was split into two divisions. From 1948 until the mid-1950s, although the League reverted to a single division, it continued to comprise between six 126 and eight teams. In the early post-war years, an effort was made to introduce youngsters to the game. Commencing in 1946, a junior boys' hockey programme was maintained, with teams being drawn from the University Hill area, North Vancouver, and St. George's School; games were played on Saturday mornings at U.B.C. or on North Vancouver parks. Many of these boys continued to play field hockey after they enrolled at the University of British Columbia, thus 127 attesting to the success of this junior development programme. Men's field hockey was also revived on Vancouver Island soon after the end of World War II. As early as the 1946-47 season, "the Varsity [U.B.C. 128 team] journeyed to Victoria and beat the Victoria College", and for the next several years, U.B.C. teams continued to visit Vancouver Island to play college, school and club teams. However, inter-city hockey between Vancouver and Victoria representative teams took longer to re-start. Although efforts were initiated in 1946, it was not until the 1948-49 season that two Inter-City games were played at Shawnigan Lake School. Vancouver retained the O.B. Allan Inter-City Cup by defeating the Island eleven by 1-0 and 3-2, after two closely fought games. This [marked] a revival of Inter-City games which were last played in 1939.129 These games did not herald in regular competition between the two centres, for it was not until the mid-1950s that further inter-city matches were arranged. 151 Nevertheless, competition of a less formal nature did occur; for example, during the early 1950s, teams of junior boys travelled from Vancouver to the 130 Island to play against boys and girls' private schools there. Men's Field Hockey in Other Parts of Canada. By the mid-1950s, the game had taken root in the province of Ontario. Men's field hockey in Toronto had its origins in the early 1950s, perhaps dating back as far as 1951. By 1954, although competition was quite informal, two distinct clubs had emerged, Toronto Field Hockey Club and Gymkhana Field Hockey Club. While Toronto F.H.C. is generally recognized as "Toronto's parent club", at least one player of that era claimed that the Gymkhana Club, founded ca. 1952, pre-dated 131 Toronto F.H.C. The years from 1954 to 1956 were active ones for Toronto field hockey players. With sufficient members to form three teams, two from the Toronto F.H.C. and one from Gymkhana F.H.C, it was possible to hold a competition described as the "First Annual Toronto International Field Hockey Tournament", at which three Toronto teams and three U.S. teams 132 participated. It was also in the early 1950s that men's field hockey began in Quebec. One of the earliest adherents of the game was a team of predominantly British ex-patriate Rolls Royce employees, who, by 1954, even had their own playing field near Montreal's Dorval Airport. At this time, a second club, comprising mostly Dutch immigrants, formed a team which played the Rolls Royce 133 contingent on a regular basis. It was in the mid-1950s that Toronto and Montreal teams started to participate in American tournaments. In fact, when the Toronto Club travelled to Philadelphia in 1955 to compete in its first tournament in the United 152 States, it even won the final. Shortly afterwards, a tournament in Rye, New York, was added to the Toronto players' out-of-town fixtures, and from 1956 onwards, Montreal teams were also represented at Rye and Philadelphia. These annual tournaments were very popular amongst the clubs from Toronto and Montreal. Indeed, the Annual Spring Tournament of the Field Hockey Association of America held in Rye, New York, became recognized as an event 135 which brought together the leading club sides of Eastern Canada. International Competition. Fifteen years after its unsuccessful bid to enter a team in the 1932 Olympic Games at Los Angeles, the Mainland Grass Hockey Association of British Columbia once again discussed the matter. At its 1947 Annual General Meeting, "the Secretary was instructed to communicate with Mr. Osborne, Olympic Representative of B.C., in the matter of a B.C. team 136 going to represent Canada in the next and future Olympic Games . . . ." A positive response was not forthcoming, for, in January 1948, the Executive of the Association "considered the rejection by the C.A.A.U. of the entering of a Grass Hockey Team from the Mainland League to the Olympic Games this 137 year." Ensuing correspondence failed to accomplish the Association's objective, but did lead to a discussion of a national organization at the Annual General Meeting later that year. It was recorded, however, that no decisions were reached, and almost a decade was to pass before these issues were raised again. Period of Rapid Progress During the late 1950s and the early 1960s, men's field hockey in Canada experienced a dramatic evolution. From a single eight-team league in 153 Vancouver, and a handful of teams playing in a few other centres across the country, the game was transformed in the span of less than a decade to one which had a national association based on seven major centres, including a multi-divisional Vancouver league of more than twenty teams. Furthermore, by the end of this period, not only had the national association affiliated with the F.I.H., but the long-nurtured ambition of entering a Canadian team in Olympic competition had also been fulfilled. Expansion in British Columbia. In the annals of Canadian demographic statistics, 1957 stands out as a year of extremely heavy immigration; over 280,000 immigrants arrived in Canada that year, more than double the average 139 annual figure. This immigration led to an expansion of the game in several parts of the country, with the greatest impact felt in British Columbia. The number of teams playing field hockey in Vancouver reflected this phenomenon, for it was recorded that "no great increase in the League's number of teams occurred . . . until the 1957-58 season, when heavy immigration 140 caused a sudden surge from 8 to 13 teams." The rapid expansion continued and, by the 1958-59 season, there were eighteen teams altogether, necessitating the creation of two divisions within the league for regular Saturday afternoon fixtures — five games among the ten teams of Division I, and four games among the eight teams from Division II, were played each 141 weekend. Although the increase in the number of participating teams never again matched the very high rate of the first two years of this period, 142 the Vancouver League continued to expand, as shown in Table 7. 154 TABLE 7 NUMBER OF TEAMS AND DIVISIONS IN MEN'S VANCOUVER LEAGUE: 1957-1964 Season Number of Teams Number of Divisions 1956-57 8 1 1957-58 13 1 -1958-59 18 2 1959-60 18 2 1960-61 20 3 1961-62 21 3 1962-63 22 3 1963-64 22 3 The organizational structure was adapted to accommodate the growth in membership. Some new clubs were founded; additional teams were formed within existing clubs; and in the 1960-61 season, a third division was created to establish more even competition. In the early 1960s, several clubs were very strong. The Vancouver and Redbirds Clubs each fielded three teams; the Grasshoppers club, founded in 1957-58 with a single team, was able to raise four teams by the 1963-64 season: and the U.B.C. Club, which averaged five 143 teams between 1960 and 1964, reached a record six teams in 1962-63. During this period efforts were continued, primarily under the direction of Dr. H.V. Warren, to develop junior boys' hockey. Several senior players, some of them immigrants chiefly from the British Isles, responded to Warren's appeals to foster the game among Canadian boys. By the late 1950s, 155 it was reported that one hundred young men between the ages of ten and eighteen were playing regularly. Although there was no official junior competition at this time, junior teams began to participate in the Vancouver League, which, up to then, had comprised only senior teams; one junior team 144 was entered in the 1958-59 season, two in the 1959-60 season. In the early 1960s, increased efforts were made to promote the game amongst youngsters. During the 1960-61 season, a "Junior Hockey Co-ordinator" 145 of the B.C.G.H.A. was appointed to oversee junior development. This may have been the catalyst required to formalize the junior programme because, by September 1961, six junior teams were playing every week. The junior programme was not without its setbacks, however, as the Co-ordinator frequently reported to the Executive of the Association the difficulties experienced in recruiting coaches, a situation which led to the disbanding of 146 some junior teams. While the coaching of juniors and their integration into the Men's League continued, the emphasis between 1962 and 1964 was on introducing the game into the schools. As early as February 1962, considerable progress was reported, with five boys' teams formed by the high schools participating in a league, the coaches drawn from the senior teams of the Vancouver League. At the end of the season it was recorded that "a High School series of games were 147 being played .... About six to eight teams participated." During this period, too, efforts were made to teach the game to undergraduates in the U.B.C. Education Faculty so that, as graduates, they could disseminate it in the schools, a concept previously implemented in 1959, when the Pedagogues team had been formed at U.B.C. with this declared intention. In the 1963-64 season, the Association planned a hockey clinic which, through the training of teachers and youth leaders, was intended to stimulate the game in the high 156 148 schools. Although this venture did not materialize, the Junior Co-ordinator "managed to get a Schools' league started again [that] 149 season. The late fifties and early sixties also witnessed progress in the development of men's field hockey on Vancouver Island. At the beginning of that period, there were insufficient numbers to sustain a formal league. However, the game was played on a regular basis in the Victoria area, a major source of competition being matches with visiting Vancouver club teams. For several seasons in the late 1950s, "Mainland teams" travelled to Victoria for 150 friendly inter-club matches arranged on an invitational basis. By the 1960-61 season, visits to Victoria by Vancouver teams were scheduled into the clubs' fixtures, and every week a team from one of Vancouver's three divisions 151 travelled to the Island to give Victoria teams varied competition. During the 1961-62 season, Vancouver Island clubs were able to function independently, for the minutes of the B.C.F.H.A. recorded that "Victoria are 152 now organised into four teams and have their own League competitions." By the end of the season, five teams participated in this League: one team from the Victoria F.H.C., two teams from the University of Victoria, and two 153 teams from Shawnigan Lake School, a private school not far from Victoria. Development in Other Provinces of Canada. Although suffering a set-back in the late 1950s, men's field hockey in Ontario was well established by the end of this period. The Toronto F.H.C. and Gymkhana F.H.C. competed with one another in local matches and continued to send strong teams to the annual tournaments in the U.S.A. until, in 1959, Gymkhana lost its playing field, and the Club disbanded. For the next two years, competition was severely weakened, and it was left to "the parent club", as Toronto F.H.C. was 157 regarded, to keep the game alive. By 1961, however, the game had revived, for in that year, after not having registered a single victory at the Rye Tournament during the previous two years, the Toronto team won the competition convincingly. In the same year, a tournament was held in Toronto. As well as teams from Toronto and Montreal, competing at the tournament was a team from 154 Guelph, the first city from outside Toronto, to field a team. Credit for this achievement was attributed to "those stalwarts of the Toronto FHC who .... have striven consistently to popularize the game in other Ontario 155 centres." The next three years were momentous ones in the annals of men's field hockey in Ontario. In the autumn of 1962, two new clubs, Hamilton F.H.C. and Oshawa F.H.C, played their first scheduled matches. Then, after several years of inactivity. Gymkhana F.H.C re-emerged. Thus, as the season drew to 156 a close, sufficient teams existed to support an organized league. This competition, comprising six teams, was soon formalized, for the year 1963 proved to be a milestone in the history of Field Hockey in Ontario. Locally, it marked the formation of the Ontario Field Hockey Federation and, under its auspices, the successful inauguration of the first regularly scheduled League competitions in eastern Canada. ^5-7 By 1964, a total of eight teams actively participated; a measure of the progress of the game was the fact that individual teams from within the ranks of the Toronto F.H.C. were strong enough to break away and form separate clubs. Montreal remained an active centre for men's field hockey during these years. As domestic competition progressed from its formative stages in the early 1950s, the composition of the two original teams diversified to include players of many nationalities. In competition with outside clubs, the players participated under the aegis of the Montreal Field Hockey Club. Throughout 158 this period, the Montreal F.H.C. entered tournaments in Rye and Philadephia in the U.S.A., Toronto and Hamilton (from 1963) in Ontario, as well as those 159 hosted by the Montreal Club itself. Although field hockey had been played in Calgary both prior to World War I and between the Wars, the game was not re-started there immediately after World War II. It was not until 1957 that Ambrose Gregg assembled nine players for a game of mixed hockey, and it was in the form of mixed hockey that players participated for the first two years. From 1959 onwards, however, development was rapid, in that year, there were sufficient numbers to establish two men's teams in Calgary, and in 1961 the Calgary Field Hockey Club organized a four-team league. By that time, too, Edmonton could field 160 two teams and Red Deer, one. Efforts to develop junior hockey in Calgary, begun in the early sixties, succeeded in producing two or three teams by 1964, while in Edmonton the game was introduced into the schools in 1963. Reflecting the organizational maturity of the game in the province, the Alberta Field Hockey Federation was founded in 1964.161 Inter-City and Inter-Provincial Competition. Although hockey competition between Vancouver and Victoria representative teams had been an annual feature of the game prior to World War II, it was some years after the War before these inter-city matches were re-instituted. The first post-war match was 162 played on Vancouver Island in April 1949. During the 1950s, while many games were arranged between the two centres at the club level, "rep" matches were infrequent. An indication of the dearth of such competition is evident from a bulletin distributed by the Executive of the B.C.F.H.A. in the 1960-61 season which declared that "there will be an Inter-City match between 159 Vancouver and Victoria in April 1961 for the Inter-City Cup, dormant for some time. The early 1960s, however, was a period of rejuvenation of inter-city hockey, with several cities participating. The Vancouver-Victoria match was the forerunner of many more, for, between 1961 and 1964, numerous inter-city matches were arranged amongst teams representing Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver and Victoria. Some of these matches were organized on a bilateral basis, others in tournaments involving several cities. For example, in 1963, a tournament held in Vancouver included teams from all four centres, as well as 164 an invitational team from California. And it could be argued that inter-city hockey was also in existence in "the East" at this time — albeit the Toronto and Montreal teams which participated annually in tournaments held in the U.S.A. and Eastern Canada from the mid-1950s onwards were organized on a club rather than a representative basis. From teams representing cities, provincial representative teams evolved, eventually leading to inter-provincial competition. However, the first provincial representative team, selected by the British Columbia Association in 1958, competed not against another province, but against the officers and crew of the Royal Navy Ship, H.M.S. Newcastle, which visited British Columbia as part of the province's centenary celebrations that 165 year. It was not until October 1960, when a Calgary team travelled to Vancouver, that a British Columbia representative side first played against a team from another province. Although this Calgary team was not truly representative of Alberta, the matches played were considered inter-provincial by the players participating at that time, and were taken sufficiently seriously that a selection committee was appointed to choose the B.C. 166 team. 160 By 1962, both provincial teams had become representative in nature, for when a tournament was held in Vancouver that year to select a team to represent the West of Canada, the participating teams were referred to as B.C. 16*7 All Stars and Alberta All Stars. Inter-provincial competition was now a reality. In an effort to extend it more widely, an inter-provincial tournament, with provincial teams from across Canada invited to participate, was planned to be held in Vancouver in September 1963. However, due to insufficent funds, the event failed to materialize, and it was not until 1964, when Olympic trials were held in Vancouver, that such a tournament became Canada-wide, with players from B.C., Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Despite the fact that not all teams were truly provincial, with Ontario and Quebec players combining to form a team called "Eastern Canada", the competition was 168 officially referred to as the Inter-Provincial Tournament. Creation of the C.F.H.A.: International Affiliation. Before the story of representative hockey competition at higher levels can be related, it is necessary to review organizational aspects of the game in Canada, and in particular, the creation of the Canadian Field Hockey Association. In the 1950s, those field hockey bodies which had been formed existed basically as club teams which arranged invitational fixtures and participated in tournaments. The exception was Vancouver, which had a sufficient number of teams to support a structured league with regularly scheduled matches. The organization of the league was administered by the Mainland Grass Hockey Association of B.C., its title reflecting the jurisdictional mandate of the 169 Association at this time. However, in 1957, the vision of the Association's Executive began to extend beyond the confines of its own region, for, in January of that year, a meeting was held "to discuss the formation of 161 a Canadian Grass Hockey Association with a view to joining the Federation 170 Internationale de Hockey." At this meeting, the President and Secretary of the Association were instructed to initiate correspondence with the Eastern Canadian hockey organization regarding the formation of a national association capable of representing the country as a whole in all matters pertaining to the game. At the same time, a committee was named to review the formation of 171 such an association, and to draft its constitution. Even more revealing than the records of the men's January meeting were the minutes of a meeting of the Vancouver Women's Association, held in early February 1957, which shed further light on the situation: The Men's League are in the process of setting up a B.C. Body from which they hope to set up a Canadian Body because Toronto have such a large following in the Men's Grass Hockey. The men are contemplating sending a Canadian team to the Olympics in 1960 . . . '\q2 During the following months, there ensued considerable activity directed towards achieving these objectives. An initial step in the overall process of forming a national association was taken at the Annual General Meeting of the Mainland Grass Hockey Association of B.C., held in Vancouver on 18 September 1957, when an amendment was passed to change the name of that body to the British Columbia Grass Hockey Association. At this A.G.M., the membership was informed of the actions of the Executive and its appointed Committee. Preliminary work had been done on drafting a constitution for a national association. A letter had been written to the Honorary General Secretary of the F.I.H. advising him of the intention to form a Canadian Association, and submitting a tentative application for membership in the international organization; and to this letter, the Secretary of the F.I.H. 173 had replied, providing information regarding national associations. Considerable correspondence with other parts of the country had also been 162 initiated to ensure that the proposed Canadian Field Hockey Association would represent all of Canada. The general response was somewhat negative, and as a result, the Secretary of the British Columbia Association concluded that, It would appear that since we have about 90% of the available strength of Field Hockey in Canada right here in our own Association, we should go ahead with plans to form a Canadian Field Hockey Association on our own if we wish to move forward towards Federation. ^-74 The President of the B.C. Association, in his report to the A.G.M., reiterated the aspiration that Canada be represented at the 1960 Olympic Games to be held in Rome. He explained that, in order for Canada to enter a team in the Olympic Hockey Tournament, it was necessary to form a national association which could then affiliate with the International Hockey Federation, 175 membership of which was a prerequisite of Olympic eligibility. His statement regarding the time that it might take to complete this procedure and achieve the Olympic ambition was prophetic when he said: "This matter is still being explored, and progress has been made but it will be well 176 understood that an arrangement of this magnitude is bound to take time." Following this meeting, the Secretary, assisted by a Committee appointed by the B.C.G.H.A., proceeded to prepare a draft constitution for the proposed national body. After a first revision was completed in April 1959, the Canadian Olympic Association (CO.A.) was informed of the Association's 177 plans. Finally, in September 1959, the President of the B.C. Association was able to report that the Constitution of the proposed Canadian Field Hockey Association had been completed, and sent to the authorities concerned for approval and ratification. He added that "when this has been received, the way will be clear for Canada to enter a hockey team for the Olympic 178 Games." However, the prospect of participating in the 1960 Olympics in Rome was no longer discussed. When it was proposed that a fund be opened for 163 the purpose of assisting a Canadian team to the Olympic Games, the revised 179 goal was "perhaps to Tokyo in 1964." Evidence of a further setback to Olympic aspirations was revealed in the minutes of a meeting of the Executive of the B.C.G.H.A. held in May 1960, when "Olympic prospects were again discussed in the light of disappointing 180 news received from the Hockey Federation [F.I.H.]." Apparently, the constitution of the proposed Canadian Field Hockey Association was not totally acceptable to the F.I.H., for the meeting decided to proceed with amendments as requested by the international body. On the positive side, in 1960, the B.C.G.H.A. established contact with the Calgary Field Hockey Club and the Toronto Field Hockey Club, the latter of which had also been communicating with the F.I.H. The officers of the B.C.G.H.A. welcomed the interest expressed by these two clubs, as they were anxious to solicit the membership 181 of at least three provinces in the proposed national association. The next twelve months proved to be an active period in the formation of the C.F.H.A. The B.C.G.H.A. and the Calgary F.H.C. established contact when the Calgary team visited Vancouver in October 1960 to play matches with B.C. representative teams. In the first three months of 1961, further correspondence passed between the B.C.G.H.A., the Toronto F.H.C. and the F.I.H. concerning the revised constitution of the proposed Canadian Field Hockey Association. Then, in April 1961, the B.C.G.H.A. Executive met again to draw up the programme for a meeting to establish a Canadian Association. It was the Inter-Cities Tournament in Vancouver during the May long weekend which provided the opportunity for an organizatonal meeting of the 183 Canadian Field Hockey Association. At this inaugural meeting, held on 20 May 1961, on the proposal "that the Canadian Field Hockey Association be 164 184 formed," the C.F.H.A. was founded. On the following day, the first Executive Meeting of the C.F.H.A., with Dr. Harry Warren, President, in the chair, was attended by representatives of the Calgary F.H.C. and the Toronto 185 F.H.C, as well as members of the B.CG.H.A. Within the next two years, other hockey playing centres joined the newly formed C.F.H.A. In September 1961, the President of the C.F.H.A. reported "that the members of the Association now included Calgary and 186 Toronto, with Montreal and Edmonton soon coming in." His report a year later stated that: "Calgary, Victoria, Montreal and Toronto are now paid-up members of the Association and it now represents approximately 500 playing 187 members or over 90% of all hockey players in the country." Finally, in February 1963, Hamilton F.H.C, the most recently formed club, was unanimously 188 admitted to membership in the Association. With the formation of the Canadian Field Hockey Association in 1961, four years after correspondence had been initiated with the F.I.H., at last the time was appropriate for Canada to join the international organization. After having been accepted as a provisional member of the F.I.H. in September 189 1961, the C.F.H.A.'s affiliation with the international body became official early the following year, for as the Honorary General Secretary of the F.I.H. was to write, It was at the New Delhi Congress in January 1962 that the Canadian Field Hockey Association was made a member of the International Hockey Federation .... Having first obtained agreement of all concerned, Statutes had to be drawn up and approved by the International Federation and it was only when the C.F.H.A. had been accepted as a [provisional] member of the Canadian Olympic Association, that they could at last join the family of World Hockey . . . .^QQ The C.F.H.A.'s status with the Canadian Olympic Association had been only provisional up to this point, but now, as a nationally organized governing body of a sport on the programme of the Olympic Games, having become 165 affiliated as a member of the F.I.H., the C.F.H.A. satisfied the criteria necessary for membership of the CO.A. Thus, at its Annual General Meeting, on 14 April 1962, the Canadian Olympic Association was "pleased to accept the application of the Canadian Field Hockey Association for full membership in 191 the CO.A." When, in 1963, an application to join the Canadian Amateur Sports Federation was successful, the C.F.H.A. could claim to be a truly representative national association, as it now comprised seven affiliated 192 bodies drawn from Canada's four largest provinces. National and International Competition. Once the Canadian Field Hockey Association had been formally constituted and accepted as a member of the F.I.H., Canada became eligible to participate officially in F.I.H.-sanctioned international competition. In November 1961, the C.F.H.A. approached the Field Hockey Association of America (U.S.A.) to investigate the possibility of an international 193 match. With the prospect of such a match came the need for a vehicle to select a team to represent Canada. Up to this time, club, city, and even representative teams had competed interprovincially, but only between adjacent provinces — B.C. and Alberta in the West, Ontario and Quebec in the East. However, in 1962, teams were chosen to represent the East and the West, and "then came the Canadian Hockey Association's first big effort, the East-West game played on the Toronto club ground, with 11 Toronto men representing 194 East". While the East was represented on this occasion by players drawn entirely from the one club, Toronto F.H.C, the West team had been chosen from matches between B.C. and Alberta teams in a Tournament held in Vancouver a month earlier. Thus, as well as being Canada's first real National 166 Championship, the 1962 East-West match constituted the final trial game for 195 selecting a Canadian Team. Following this match, Canadian 'A' and 'B' teams travelled to the U.S.A. to play their American counterparts. A total of four games were played, of which the Americans won three. However, in the match between the full sides of the two countries, Canada emerged victorious, thereby winning its first-ever international hockey match. This match was a prelude of more international competition yet to come. With hopes of Olympic participation in mind, the C.F.H.A. took steps to prepare a national team, and laid plans to stage an inter-provincial tournament in Vancouver in September 1963. As well as matching teams from Eastern Canada, Alberta, Vancouver Island and Vancouver, this tournament would also serve as trials to select a Canadian team to compete at the 1964 Olympic 197 Games in Tokyo. But events at the international level now superseded these plans. In February 1963, the C.F.H.A. learned that three Pan American countries — Argentina, U.S.A. and Canada — had applied to compete at Tokyo, and that, as a result, the F.I.H. required a play-off, to take place in conjunction with a major international tournament to be held at Lyon, France, in 198 September-October 1963. Despite the short notice, the C.F.H.A. undertook to prepare a Canadian team for this competition. The daunting challenge of raising $16,000, the sum necessary to fund a national team to Lyon, was faced and overcome. Following a tournament held in Vancouver in early September 1963, with teams from Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver Island and Vancouver competing, a Canadian team was selected to participate in the Lyon Tournament. En route to Lyon, the team assembled in Toronto, where an East versus West match was contested and, 167 the next day, Canada played Ontario in a final practice match before going overseas. After playing several practice matches in England, the Canadian Touring Team proceeded to Lyon to compete in its first major international 199 tournament. There, against the best teams in the world, Canada acquitted itself admirably. As Argentina had withdrawn from the Lyon Tournament, America's entry to the Olympics was to be determined from the results of two matches played between Canada and the U.S.A. In these all-important games, Canada won the first and drew the second. The C.F.H.A. report of the Lyon Tournament best expressed the significance of this historic occasion: Wednesday, October 2nd, will be marked in Canadian field hockey circles as the day Canada qualified for a berth in the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo as a result of a 1-1 tie with the United States.2oo Having won the right to compete in the Tokyo Olympics, Canada started 201 its team preparation as early as November 1963. But the path to Tokyo was not yet clear; it was still necessary to convince the CO.A. that a field hockey team should be included in the Canadian Olympic contingent. At a meeting of the CO.A. in Toronto in early April 1964, C.F.H.A. President, Dr. Harry Warren, was invited to present his Association's case. His efforts did not go unrewarded, as the CO.A. announced the decision that, for the first 202 time in history, Canada would send a field hockey team to the Olympics. A final administrative hurdle was yet to be surmounted. The C.F.H.A. was required to raise a CO.A. assessment of $5,000 before 15 September 1964, or the hockey team's Olympic entry would be withdrawn. Through a combination of private and corporate donations, as well as player contributions, the , 203 target was achieved. Now, at last, the C.F.H.A. could prepare its team for Olympic competition. The Olympic Trials to select the Canadian team for Tokyo consisted of a series of matches held at U.B.C. in July 1964, with teams from 168 Eastern Canada, Alberta and British Columbia competing. In August 1964, against the Japanese team returning home from a pre-Olympic world tour, the Canadian team played two international matches, the first in Toronto, the second in Vancouver, "the first ever staged in Canada between our national 205 field hockey squad and that of a touring side." A month later, the Canadian team competed in the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo, and achieved the 206 following results: Canada 1 V Germany 5 Canada 0 V Holland 5 Canada 2 V Hong Kong 1 Canada 0 V Spain 3 Canada 1 V Belgium 5 Canada 0 V India 3 Canada 1 V Malaysia 3 In his report, the coach rated Canada's participation in the Games an unqualified success, and at the same time acknowledged the team's debt to the C.F.H.A. and its officials, without whose support and enthusiasm Canada would 207 not have been in Tokyo. Early Development of the National Association As well as continued growth of the game in the provinces where it had already been played, the middle to late 1960s witnessed the introduction of men's field hockey into other provinces. This was also a time of organizational development, during which provincial associations became fully functional to the point where national competition was established on an inter-provincial basis. Furthermore, it was an era when the C.F.H.A. assumed a leadership role in the international sphere, hosting the first Pan American 169 Games Hockey Tournament, and thereby establishing the Olympic Qualifying Tournament for the Americas. Progress in British Columbia. Whereas the number of teams in the Vancouver League had risen from eight in 1957 to twenty-two in 1962, no such dramatic increase took place over the balance of the sixties. In fact, several years were to pass before further growth was recorded. Then, in the 1966-67 season, partly as a result of junior players maturing and advancing into senior teams, and partly due to an upsurge in immigration, the number of teams rose from 208 twenty-two to twenty-five. In order to accommodate this increase, the Vancouver League was split into five divisions. Another important milestone was the introduction of a formal competition during the summer months; in 1965, Vancouver's Summer League, a feature destined to become an annual event, was successfully launched.20^ During this period, little change occurred in the game on Vancouver Island, as the League, first formed in the 1961-62 season, maintained its membership at four teams. For most of these seasons, as well as playing in their own local club fixtures, the Vancouver Island players entered a representative team in the Vancouver League. However, because of the disparity in the standard of hockey between the two centres, matches between Victoria and a full representative team from Vancouver were not played on a 210 regular basis. Growth in Other Provinces. Early in this period, the Ontario Field Hockey Association (O.F.H.A.) was officially constituted, and recognized by the C.F.H.A. Thus, Toronto F.H.C. and Hamilton F.H.C, originally affiliated directly to the national body, now became members of the O.F.H.A. along with 170 more recently formed Ontario clubs. In 1965, five clubs fielding a total of eight teams were playing regularly, and by 1968, the total number of teams in the Ontario Association, including six at the junior level, was approaching - 211 twenty. Men's field hockey developed appreciably in Quebec during this period. Although boasting forty-five members, the game in 1965 was still played under the aegis of a single club, the Montreal F.H.C. A landmark year was 1966 when, not only was the Montreal F.H.C. able to field two teams, but also a new club, Ambassadors F.H.C., was formed, and plans were laid to establish a Montreal league. In that year, too, Quebec was able to send a representative provincial team to compete at the Inter-Provincial Tournament in Vancouver. By 1968, development had advanced to the stage where, at the A.G.M. of the Montreal F.H.C, discussions took place to plan the formation of the Quebec Field Hockey Association. In 1969, Quebec became the fifth province to 212 affiliate with the C.F.H.A. Only a modest increase was recorded during this time in the numbers playing field hockey in Alberta. From five teams registered the previous season, the Calgary League expanded to six teams in 1965, and remained stable at this level throughout the period. Meanwhile, in Edmonton, two senior teams and a junior team were reported to be playing regularly on the campus of the University of Alberta, and the game was sufficiently strong there that 213 Inter-City games with Calgary could be arranged. Field hockey gained a foothold in Manitoba during this period. As early as 1964, the game was introduced to juniors through coaching clinics; and a further series of clinics was conducted in conjunction with the 1965 Inter-Provincial Tournament, staged in Winnipeg. The impetus provided by this tournament and the 1967 Pan American Games, also held in Winnipeg, produced a 171 sufficient number of players to field two men's teams in 1967. In fact, such was the progress of the game, that the Manitoba Field Hockey Association was formed in 1967. At the completion of the Association's first full year in 1968, the President reported a very active season. Manitoba participated for the first time in the Inter-Provincial (Senior) Tournament, and having fostered competition for its own juniors, hosted Canada's first 214 Inter-Provincial Junior Tournament. The first record of men's field hockey in Saskatchewan appeared in the July 1966 edition of the Canadian Field Hockey News, where it was reported that interest in field hockey was becoming evident in Regina, and plans were under way to form a team there. By the end of the 1966 season, not only had a team been formed in Regina, but a Saskatchewan provincial team had competed in the Inter-Provincial Tournament held in Vancouver that September. Hopes were high for continued development of the game at the new University in Regina and in the schools, but within a year interest had waned, and the game in 215 Saskatchewan lapsed. This was a period when every endeavour was made to introduce the game to new areas. In March 1965, the C.F.H. News reported that the former Secretary of the Ontario Field Hockey Association had moved to Nova Scotia, and that he would "start Field Hockey in Nova Scotia" towards which his 216 colleagues wished him every success. However, there was no record of any men's field hockey activity in Nova Scotia in the 1960s. Inter-Provincial Tournaments and National Championships. The introduction of inter-provincial tournaments and national championships was an evolutionary process which was formalized during this period. From 1960 onwards, inter-provincial matches were played in Canada. On several occasions these 172 matches took place within a tournament format at which city teams such as Vancouver, or regional teams such as Eastern Canada, participated. Furthermore, the East versus West games of 1962 and 1963 constituted a form of national championship. But it was not until May 1965, when the C.F.H.A. staged a tournament in Winnipeg, that a true inter-provincial tournament was held. This was the first competition in which all the participating teams were provincial representative sides. Furthermore, the three competing provinces, Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia, had by now formed provincial 217 associations, all of which were affiliated with the C.F.H.A. From this time onwards, development occurred rapidly. In September 1966, when the Inter-Provincial Tournament was held in Vancouver, the event was officially described as the Canadian Championships. Participating were provincial representative teams from Ontario, Alberta, Quebec, Saskatchewan and British Columbia and, in addition, a second B.C. side was entered to bring 218 the number of teams to six. No Canadian Championship was held in 1967, as the Pan American Games in Winnipeg extended to capacity the resources of the C.F.H.A. By the time the next tournament was held in Toronto in 1968, the format was adjusted to permit two championships to be staged. The Open Championship attracted select teams from five provinces — B.C., Ontario, Alberta, Quebec and Manitoba — while a second championship, for players eligible to represent Canada in international competition, was a two-team event, as only B.C. and Ontario were capable of fielding a 219 team. Nineteen sixty-eight was also a memorable year at the junior level, as "the first Interprovincial Under 16 Tournament to be played in 220 Canada was held in Winnipeg" in June 1968. The three provinces competing 221 at this tournament were Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia. 173 International Competition. The Pan American Games Hockey Tournament formed an integral part of Canada's international involvement during this period. Many years before field hockey became one of the sports played at the Pan American Games, Canadian hockey enthusiasts had expressed an interest in the formation of a Pan American field hockey federation. In 1960, before the founding of the C.F.H.A., the President and Honorary Secretary of the B.C. Association met with the Vice-President of the Field Hockey Association of America to discuss a "suggested Constitution for the formation of a Pan American Field Hockey 222 Association." In addition, it was an ambition of Tony Boyd, the C.F.H.A.'s first Secretary-Treasurer, to have field hockey included in the Pan 223 American Games. He made public this aspiration in 1963 when he wrote in Field Hockey in Canada: "One of our next major tasks is to attempt to have Field Hockey included in the program of the Pan American Games. Our opportunity might arise if Winnipeg is selected as the host city in 224 1967." considerable optimism was generated when the Canadian hockey community was advised that, during its 1963 Games, the Pan American Sports Organization (P.A.S.O.) had announced that Winnipeg was selected as the site for the 1967 Games, and that field hockey would be added to the agenda for the first time. It was soon learned, however, that field hockey's inclusion was not automatic, for although the P.A.S.O. had added field hockey to the list of recognized sports, the Pan American Games Organizing Society in Winnipeg had yet to include it in the actual programme. According to the Director of the Society, field hockey was one of the twenty-six approved sports, from which twenty were to be chosen; thus, it was possible, but by no means definite, 225 that field hockey would be included. As early as May 1963, the C.F.H.A. had been informed that it was first necessary to secure signatures from five participating countries, and the 174 Secretary had been instructed to take appropriate action. When, in January 1965, it was reported that limited progress had been made in recruiting countries willing to make a commitment to participate in a Pan American hockey tournament, the C.F.H.A. decided to write to all countries where hockey was played, to obtain confirmation that they would take 227 part. At the same time, it was also resolved that the F.I.H. should be requested to declare the Pan American Games the qualifying tournament for the 228 Olympics. Considerable progress was made during the next few months. By June 1965, while some associations had yet to obtain confirmation from their National Olympic Committees, a commitment to participate had been expressed by approximately ten countries. Success was achieved in August 1965, for then the Secretary of the C.F.H.A. was able to report: that a chairman of the field hockey section of the Pan American Games had been appointed; that a circular letter had been sent to all hockey playing countries in the Americas inviting them to the Games; and, that the hockey tournament would be the 229 official Olympic play-off for the one place allocated to the Americas. Minutes, correspondence and reports attest to the considerable effort that was involved over the next two years to ensure the smooth functioning of the 1967 Pan American Games Hockey Tournament. The organization of the event itself, the formalities associated with the participating countries, and the preparation of the Canadian team, were all demanding tasks. But the goal had been achieved, and the first Pan American Hockey Tournament was held under the 230 auspices of the F.I.H. with eight countries participating. Once Canada had successfully competed at the 1964 Olympic Games, it became the aim of the C.F.H.A. to enter a team in the 1968 Olympic Hockey Tournament, and towards this end plans were formulated in early 1965. 175 Although it was sometimes necessary to modify specific projects — for example, a Commonwealth hockey tournament, planned to be held in London in 1966, was cancelled — the Canadian team followed the course of the original programme closely. From the Inter-Provincial Tournament held in Winnipeg in May 1965, a Canadian team was selected to participate in an international tournament held in Jamaica in September-October of that year. This tournament, at which Canada played matches against Jamaica, British Guiana (later Guyana), and Argentina, was perceived as a forerunner of the Pan 231 American Games, now confirmed. Because of the cancellation of the Commonwealth Hockey Tournament, the Canadian team did not experience any international competition in 1966. However, in September 1966, an Inter-Provincial Tournament held in Vancouver served also as trials to select a national squad from which a Canadian team would be selected. The following projects formed part of the programme outlined by the National Coach under the 232 caption "steps to Mexico City": 1967 May Tour to Europe including International Tournament, Madr id. 1967 July Pan American Games Hockey Tournament, Winnipeg 1968 October Olympic Games, Mexico Canada's participation at the Madrid Tournament in May 1967, with full international matches against top European teams, as well as against Mexico, provided the national team with first-class competition prior to the Pan American Games. At the first Pan American Games Hockey Tournament, held in Winnipeg during July-August 1967, eight countries from North and South America took part. Canada, although completing the seven-game round-robin series undefeated, lost both the semi-final and bronze medal matches, to finish 176 fourth in the Tournament; thus, Canada failed to qualify for the 1968 Olympic 233 Games in Mexico City. In May 1968, a Canadian team embarked on a five-country tour of the Caribbean, on which it played six full international matches. Because Canada had been named third reserve for the Mexico Olympics, a Canadian Olympic team was announced in the summer of 1968; but this team had the opportunity to play only one international match, against the visiting Japanese Olympic Team in 234 Vancouver in August 1968, and did not compete in the Mexico Olympics. Other Aspects of Development. Throughout the mid-1960s, the promotion of juniors within the club system, as well as attempts to foster the game in schools and universities, remained an important aspect of men's field hockey development in Canada. In Vancouver, always a strong centre of junior hockey, four teams played regularly in a junior league during the 1965-66 season. At this time, too, junior teams existed in other parts of British Columbia and in neighbouring Alberta. Over Easter 1966, a B.C. junior tournament was held in Vancouver, with nine teams from Vancouver and Vancouver Island competing in two divisions. From this event, two junior representative teams, one under-19 and one under-16, were selected to travel to Calgary in May 1966 to play the 235 first inter-provincial matches held in Canada at the junior level. Over the next few years, junior competition extended to other parts of the country. In 1967, junior teams were established in Manitoba, and a six-team junior league was formed in Ontario. By 1968, all four provinces could field a junior representative team, and although Alberta withdrew its entry, the first Inter-Provincial Junior Tournament was held in Winnipeg in June of that year, with teams from Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia 236 competing. 177 While many of the junior field hockey teams in existence during the mid-sixties were fostered by clubs, several were associated with schools. In British Columbia, two leading private schools — St. George's School in Vancouver and Shawnigan Lake School on Vancouver Island — had adopted the game and, from time to time, one or more of the public schools could raise a team. Some of the junior teams in Calgary and other centres across the 237 country were also school-based. Although competition was initially restricted to participation with other local clubs, several universities fielded teams. The University of Alberta at Calgary (later the University of Calgary) and Victoria College (later the University of Victoria), were early additions to the leagues in their respective centres; U.B.C. had competed in the Vancouver League since 1923, and the University of Alberta in Edmonton could assemble a team by 1963. It was not until 1966, however, when U.B.C. played a number of matches with the University of Alberta at Calgary, that inter-university competition 238 of an inter-provincial nature first took place. Summary of Men's Hockey Development In the quarter-century between World War II and the late 1960s, men's field hockey in Canada experienced remarkable progress. Development occurred, not only in the domestic expansion of the game all across the country, but in national and international competition as well. Leagues flourished, inter-city and inter-provincial competition expanded, and national championships at senior and junior level were inaugurated. Most significantly, however, was the creation of a national association, the C.F.H.A., its affiliation with the F.I.H. and the CO.A., and the participation of a Canadian team in international competition, especially the 178 Olympic Games and Pan American Games Hockey Tournaments. Organizationally, too, the game matured, and by the late 1960s, five provinces had established associations which were affiliated with the C.F.H.A. Relationships Between Men's and Women's Hockey In the period from World War II to the late 1960s, while some facets of the two organizations followed separate courses, many aspects of men's and women's hockey programmes operated in parallel and also enjoyed benefits derived from mutual support. Early Post-War Years In Vancouver, the only centre in Canada with an active league during this period, the Women's Grass Hockey Association continued to receive support in areas of coaching, umpiring and sponsorship, by such men as Thomas Pattison, whose contribution was acknowledged through invitations to attend 239 Annual General Meetings, banquets, and similar functions. conversely, women assisted in the development of junior boys' hockey; for example, two members of the North Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Club assisted Dr. Harry Warren in coaching a North Shore boys' team to particiate in junior competition, and private girls' schools on Vancouver Island regularly hosted 240 Warren s teams. During the 1950s, interaction between the men's and women's organizations increased. As well as co-operative activities at junior and school level, mixed hockey matches were played in Vancouver and other parts of British Columbia. In 1955, for instance, a mixed team from Vancouver played matches at Penticton and Vernon in the Okanagan Valley, and in the mid-1950s 179 men's and women's teams travelled together to play matches on Vancouver T 1 A 241 Island. International Aspirations and Inspiration In the mid-1950s, a strong co-operative spirit existed between the men's and women's Associations in Vancouver. When an invitation was extended for the G.V.W.G.H.A. to send a team to represent Canada at the 1956 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament in Sydney, it was Dr. Harry Warren, Honorary President of the Women's Association, who exhorted the women to accept. Furthermore, it was Warren who secured a fifty percent discount on the air-fare to Australia and 242 encouraged the team in fund-raising efforts generally. When the G.V.W.G.H.A. came to prepare a team to represent Canada, it was acknowledged that "through the kindness and interest of the men's Hockey Association in 243 Vancouver a Selection Committee and a Coach were secured . . . ." The men's Association also provided opposition for practice matches, supported social and fund-raising functions, and made a donation towards the 244 venture. The late 1950s to early 1960s was a period of great advancement in men's field hockey in Canada, and it was in the early part of this era that the men derived inspiration from the women. The assistance rendered by members of the men's Association to the G.V.W.G.H.A. in encouraging and realizing its ambition of sending a team to represent Canada at the 1956 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament in Sydney, Australia, was widely acknowledged. However, it has not been recognized that the catalyst which spurred the men's Association on to its ultimately successful bid to compete in the Olympic Games came, at least in part, from the Women's Association and the participation of the Canadian women's team in the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament. On 180 congratulating the G.V.W.G.H.A. on the departure of its Touring Team to Australia, the President of the Mainland Grass Hockey Association of B.C. (men's) observed that this initial break into international play should act as 245 a stimulus "for others of us interested in Hockey." After its return from Australia, the Canadian women's team, as a gesture of appreciation, invited a team from the men's Association to a match. This well-reported event, which took place on 5 January 1957, provided further impetus to the men's Association for, at the end of that month, an Executive meeting was called to discuss the formation of a Canadian men's 246 grass hockey association, with a view to joining the F.I.H. With respect to international aspirations, these co-operative ventures between the two organizations continued. In 1958, as part of its preparations for the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament to be held in Amsterdam the following year, the G.V.W.G.H.A. appointed a man to the selection committee; the Association also requested the men's Association to assist by supporting a social function to raise funds, and by assembling a team to play a match against the women's 247 Canadian Touring Team. National Co-operation At this time, interaction extended to the committee level. In 1957, when both the men's and women's Associations were endeavouring to broaden the scope of their organizations, steps were taken to ensure that this task was approached co-operatively. At a meeting of the Executive of the G.V.W.G.H.A., it was recommended "that a Committee of three from the Women's and three from the Men's Leagues set up a constitution to be on a parallel with one 248 another." After functioning for several months, this committee appears to have disbanded, and although some years were to pass before a women's 181 constitution committee was re-activated, the men's constitution committees, both provincial and national, continued to operate. At the local level in Vancouver, these co-operative efforts also prevailed, as substantiated by several examples. In 1957, the Redbirds (men's) Club of Vancouver was authorized to raise a mixed team and arrange a 249 game in Victoria with a Vancouver Island mixed team. During that year, meetings took place between representatives of the men's and women's Associations "regarding proposals for joint exhibition games to be staged 250 around Easter, 1958, in celebraton of B.C.'s Centennial year," and in 1958, plans were laid to celebrate the opening of a new hockey field at U.B.C. by staging a "double header", involving teams from the men's and women's 251 leagues. By the late 1950s, mixed hockey matches had become an annual tradition, and joint dances and social functions were frequently held. Youngsters, too, benefitted from this interaction, as junior boys' teams 252 played regularly against girls' high school teams. The close ties between men's and women's organizations extended to parts of the country outside Vancouver. In Victoria, mixed hockey helped sustain the game during the mid-fifties. Field hockey was revived in Calgary in the form of mixed hockey when Ambrose Gregg assembled a group of men and women to play the game in 1957, and for several years, mixed hockey was the 253 only source of participation. Although separate men's and women's leagues had been established in Alberta by 1961, when the women's Club experienced difficulties in 1964, it was reported that "the ladies have disbanded the Calgary Ladies' Field Hockey Club, and three of the men's clubs 254 . . . have agreed to sponsor ladies teams." A similar situation occurred during the early 1960s in Edmonton, where men's and women's teams were also mutually supportive in these formative years. Meanwhile, in Ontario, mixed 182 hockey was played during the 1960s; indeed, women's hockey in Hamilton was nurtured with the assistance of the men's club which, early in 1963, expressed 255 its intention "to develop a ladies' team." There were instances, however, where differences arose between the men's and women's bodies. One such difference was the problem of ground markings, as the rules of the game were not the same for men's and women's hockey at that time. This resulted in considerable correspondence with the Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, but as long as fields were shared, it 256 remained an issue that could not easily be resolved. A further example of an occasion where the rapport between the two organizatons was not so harmonious was revealed at an Executive meeting of the B.C.F.H.A. in February 1962, when the Secretary was directed to make a suitable reply to the Women's Association in regard to a press report that, it was said, "belittle[d] 257 women's hockey." Generally, however, during the period from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, the relationship was one of mutual co-operation. After the two national Associations had been formed, even though each was a distinct organizational entity, a cordial interaction existed between the two for, in 1963, it was recorded that: At present the C.F.H.A. has no formal affiliation with the Canadian Women's Field Hockey Association, however close liaison is maintained and perhaps in a few years time a closer relationship will be established. Independent Development By 1965, both the men's and women's bodies had formed their own national associations which were affiliated with their respective international federations, and both had entered teams in their most prestigious international competitions, the Olympic Games and the I.F.W.H.A. 183 Tournament. Organizationally, competitively, and in many aspects of development, the two bodies operated separately, for the most part, during this period. This phenomenon was particularly evident in B.C. where, by the mid-1960s, the social functions which had been a feature of the 1950s and early 1960s had become less frequent. Indeed, instead of the traditional April dance run jointly by the two Associations in earlier years, the Executive of the B.C.F.H.A. favoured the holding of a "Stag" in that month of 1965. Similarly, although a dance was held the following year, there is no mention, in the report of the function, of any official involvement by the 259 women's Association. However, although separate in most respects, the two organizations still provided support and inspiration for each other at various levels of participation. A most successful schoolgirls' tournament and clinic, held at U.B.C. in November 1964, and involving twelve schools and over 700 girls, prompted the President of the C.F.H.A. to draw attention in his Annual Report 260 to this "splendid challenge to our C.F.H.A." Over the next few years, an attempt was made by the men's Association to meet this challenge, and considerable success was achieved in junior development, albeit not to a 261 significant extent through the schools. Despite the apparent reduction in interaction between men's and women's associations, there was still considerable evidence of co-operative activities during the latter half of the sixties. For example, in 1965, when the C.F.H.A. was considering the chartering of a flight to the proposed Commonwealth Tournament in London in April 1966, the Women's Association expressed interest in participating. Also, during these years, mixed hockey was still played in Calgary, by now on a more formal basis, for the Gregg 262 Shield. Furthermore, even in the latter part of this period, men 184 remained prominent in the development of women's hockey. Instances of their involvement were reported in B.C., Ontario, and Nova Scotia, not only in coaching girls' and women's teams, but also in organizing school tournaments. As a final example, towards the end of the period, the Women's Association in Toronto was invited to join the men's Association in acquiring playing facilities at Sunnybrook Park, a co-operative venture which greatly benefitted 263 the development of both bodies for years to come. At least one field hockey player at this time believed that the men's and women's national organizations should unite. A member of Montreal's Vagabonds Ladies' Field Hockey Club was prompted to write to the Editor of the Canadian Field Hockey News in 1967: "the time has come for the women and the men to join together 264 in one Canadian Field Hockey Association". The overall period from World War II to the late sixties was a time of great advancement in the development of both men's and women's field hockey in Canada. Club teams proliferated, provincial representative teams were selected, and national tournaments held. Both organizations formed national associations and engaged in international competition during these years. To a great extent, development took place separately, although largely in parallel. Throughout these years, however, there was considerable interaction and co-operation. Mixed hockey, and the social aspects surrounding it, played an important part in initiating or sustaining the game in several areas; and, at other times, organizational support was invaluable in maintaining continuity of development. Finally, with respect to international competition, mutual inspiration and assistance played a significant part in the realization of these ambitions, both for men and for women. 185 CHAPTER X DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD HOCKEY IN CANADA: 1970 TO 1983 In the 1960s, under the auspices of the C.F.H.A. and the C.W.F.H.A., the game of field hockey expanded to embrace all of Canada. As the 1970s approached, the two organizations could anticipate the new decade with optimism of continued growth and expansion, as well as increased national and international competition. Women's Field Hockey During this last period under study, the C.W.F.H.A. was destined to make its mark on the international hockey community; in particular, by hosting the I.F.W.H.A. Conference and Tournament, and by the success of its national team in World Championship competition. These events did not begin to take place, however, until the latter part of the 1970s. On the other hand, the whole of this period is notable for its continuous domestic development, which is thus narrated first. Domestic Development It was during the 1960s and early 1970s that women's field hockey associations were established in every province. Through these bodies, the game was to grow nation-wide at both senior and junior level. Seniors. Although women's field hockey had developed considerably in all provinces of Canada during the 1960s, British Columbia was still clearly the foremost province, with the Vancouver Women's Field Hockey Association having 186 the greatest number of adult teams. In the 1969-70 season, for example, of a Canadian total of just over fifty registered senior club teams, twenty-six were from British Columbia. The Vancouver League, fielding eighteen teams from three six-team divisions, was easily the biggest contributor.1 Throughout the seventies and into the early eighties, the number of teams in British Columbia increased steadily. Even by the 1971-72 season, the Vancouver Association had included a fourth division in its league schedule to accommodate more than twenty teams, and the Vancouver Island Ladies' Field 2 Hockey Association expanded to two divisions with a total of eleven teams. Also, it was during this period, in the Greater Vancouver suburb of Burnaby, that a separate association was formed; from a six-team competition in 1969, the Burnaby League grew to fourteen teams in the 1981-82 season. Altogether, by 1983, there were about sixty registered senior teams in British Columbia, 3 more than double the number at the beginning of this period. Next to British Columbia, Ontario maintained the greatest number of club teams, centred largely in the Greater Toronto area, and numbering eight in 1969. Even by 1970, the competition had expanded to include twelve teams, three of which were from Hamilton, while four were drawn from the universities. The number of Ontario teams continued to increase, with a total 4 of twenty-three registered in 1982. Another province which experienced rapid growth was Alberta where, from only five in 1969, the number of teams rose to eleven in 1971, approximately equally divided between Calgary and Edmonton. Through the mid-seventies, the league competition grew stronger in both cities, reaching a total of nineteen Alberta teams registered with the C.W.F.H.A. in 1978. From this point, however, coinciding with an exodus of elite players and able administrators, the number of teams in Edmonton declined; consequently, of the thirteen 187 registered teams in Alberta in 1982, most were from Calgary, which had been 5 able to maintain a strong league competition. The number of senior teams in Quebec rose from three in 1968, the year of the foundation of the P.Q.W.F.H.A., to almost treble by 1974, when an eight-team league was flourishing in Montreal. Contributing to this strong competition was the Ottawa Field Hockey Club, founded in March 1969, whose ladies' section, the Valiants, entered two teams in the League during this period. In later years, partly as a result of Ottawa becoming a region within the Ontario Association, the number of Quebec senior teams registered with the C.W.F.H.A. declined, to stand at five in 1982.6 Other provinces were also able to sustain senior teams of a club nature. In Nova Scotia, as early as 1969, the Halifax Ladies' F.H.C. existed, and by 1972 women's hockey in the Halifax area had expanded into a five-team Metropolitan Ladies' Field Hockey League. Similarly, by the late 1960s, a senior women's club was formed in Winnipeg, and in 1972, the Winnipeg Ladies' F.H.C. and a club team from Brandon participated with University teams in a five-team Manitoba competition. On the other hand, in New Brunswick, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, senior teams registered with the C.W.F.H.A. usually only numbered two or three, and were largely based 7 on university clubs or representative teams. The figures in Table 8 reveal that, although the rate of increase in numbers of teams was not constant in all provinces, the overall growth of senior women's teams playing field hockey in Canada during the period from the 8 late 1960s to 1983 was reasonably steady. Furthermore, as shown in Table 9, women's field hockey was played in every province of Canada, albeit 9 only British Columbia, Ontario and Alberta had more than a handful of teams. 188 TABLE 8 SENIOR TEAMS REGISTERED WITH THE C.W.F.H.A.: 1969 - 1982 Year B.C. Ontario Alberta Canada 1969 26 8 5 54 1974 33 17 12 77 1978 50 22 19 103 1982 56 23 13 115 TABLE 9 C.W.F.H.A. - REGISTERED SENIOR TEAMS: 1981-82 Province Number of Teams Newfoundland 3 Prince Edward Island 2 Nova Scotia 4 New Brunswick 3 Quebec 5 Ontario 23 Manitoba 4 Saskatchewan 2 Alberta 13 British Columbia 56 Canada 115 189 Moreover, the extent of the increase was substantial, amounting to more than a doubling between 1969 and 1982. The contribution of each of the major provinces, including British Columbia, which consistently provided about half the total number of teams, is also demonstrated. Clearly, this was a period of sustained domestic development of women's field hockey in Canada. Several factors were instrumental in maintaining this steady growth. Immigration of women from Great Britain and other hockey-playing countries continued to be of significance during this period. Government funding provided unprecedented financial support towards both elite and developmental programmes. In addition, women's field hockey benefitted from the overall societal trend towards increased women's participation in post-school sporting activities. Juniors. Senior teams contributed only a relatively small proportion of the total number of female field hockey players in Canada. Very large numbers of girls and young women played regularly every year in junior, school and university competition, and the number of teams participating continued to increase between 1970 and 1983.11 Several clubs and associations across the country promoted junior competition. Greater Vancouver was an area of considerable activity. Commencing in the mid-1960s, the Burnaby Women's Field Hockey Association fostered junior girls' teams, fifteen by 1969. Within a few years, similar associations had been formed in the three neighbouring suburbs of Coquitlam, Delta, and West Vancouver, and by 1973, these associations fielded seventy-six teams in four age divisions ranging from under-eleven to over-fifteen. In other provinces, although the number of teams was small by comparison, junior development was also taking place. In Calgary, a junior league was started in 190 the summer of 1971; and in 1972, the Ottawa club, just three years after its 12 formation, supported two junior girls teams. In general, though, it was through the schools that field hockey for girls continued to develop. Again, it was British Columbia which led the way. At the fifth annual B.C. School Girls' Field Hockey Championship in 1968, the sixteen zone finalists were drawn from over one hundred teams competing in regional tournaments, and in 1978, a second echelon competition comprising eight finalists was established. In Ontario, as early as 1969, thirty-one teams competed in a schoolgirls' tournament; four years later this 13 number had grown to fifty-three. Substantial numbers of high school teams were also playing in the Maritimes, with New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island raising a total of twenty-three in 1970. By 1978, New Brunswick 14 alone could field twelve teams at a high school jamboree. The December 1974 edition of the Quebec Federation's newsletter reported a high school 15 tournament with ten participating schools in that province. Meanwhile in the Prairies, Calgary schools fielded nine teams in 1972, and in 1978, Manitoba held its first official High School Tournament with twelve schools 16 competing. As an indication of the extent of the game at the school level during this period, the Canadian Federation of Provincial School Athletic Associations reported that over 10,000 girls participated in high school field 17 hockey leagues across Canada in 1976-77. Universities. University hockey also remained strong during this period. Following a long-established tradition, the Atlantic Women's Colleges maintained an active competition of interlocking matches involving five universities from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. In Ontario, the inter-university competition grew until, in 1973, thirteen teams were able to 191 participate in a university tournament. The Western Canadian Intercollegiate Athletic Association's tournament, embracing the universities of the four western Provinces, continued to thrive. Although the format changed slightly over the years, women's inter-university field hockey competition flourished in all regions of Canada throughout the 1970s. When the first Canadian inter-university tournament was held at U.B.C. in 1975, the participating teams represented every region of Canada. This competition 19 expanded, and grew increasingly prestigious over time. Provincial Championships. During the 1970s, the domestic competitive programme within the provinces expanded beyond the local leagues and informal inter-city games. In 1972, the B.C.W.F.H.F. held its first annual provincial tournament, in which teams representing the Vancouver, Burnaby and Vancouver Island Associations competed. A year later, Alberta initiated an annual provincial tournament; and by 1979, Ontario had created regions, ten of which 20 were able to field representative teams. Also towards the end of the decade, provincial summer games were instigated, with field hockey included on the roster of sports. In 1977, six women's teams competed in the Ontario Summer Games; and in 1978, under-21 teams from each of eight zones were 21 permitted to participate in the B.C. Summer Games. Later, similar competitions were established in other provinces. At an even more basic developmental level were the festivals known as Jamborees, the first of these taking place in British Columbia in the late 1960s. By the 1970s, over fifty teams from several provinces and states, across a wide range of age and ability, participated in this annual event. Indeed, in 1972, the Jamboree was already sufficiently well-known to include a team from Australia, in addition 22 to other visitors from California, Oregon and Alberta. 192 National Development During the 1970s and early 1980s, with national and provincial associations firmly established, women's field hockey enjoyed a period of substantial progress at the national level. This development was reflected in the advancement of national championships, the improvement in standard of players, coaches and officials, and Canada's successful participation in international competition. National Championships. The principle of a national tournament structured to permit competition amongst provincial representative teams, first adopted in 1968, was continued at the 1969 Canada Summer Games, where all provinces were represented. However, for several years the trend towards provincial teams was interrupted, as, in order to qualify for federal grants, the competing teams had to be selected on a regional basis. In 1970, for instance, the regions were British Columbia, the Prairies, Ontario/Quebec, and the 23 Maritimes. This regional format was not very popular, especially with the Alberta Association, which was endeavouring to develop a strong provincial team. Thus, in 1971, when the Tournament was held in Calgary, a compromise was reached whereby provincial representative teams were declared regional winners; Nova Scotia, for instance, under the name Atlantic, represented the Maritimes; and, in addition to the Prairies team from Manitoba, Alberta was able to enter a provincial team. The 1972 Tournament in Montreal saw a return to funding based on provincial representative teams, and eight provinces were able to compete. Then, in 1973, for the first time, all ten provinces were present at the National Tournament, and with few exceptions, this continued to be the case. 193 By the mid-seventies, women's field hockey in Canada had developed to the point where National under-age tournaments could be sustained. The first such competition, the National Junior Tournament for girls under the age of nineteen, was held in Toronto in 1974, with eight provinces competing. This also became an annual event, with the number of participating provinces ranging from five to ten. In 1978, under-23 regional competitions were introduced, Fredericton and Calgary hosting the first Canada East and Canada West Tournaments respectively. All ten provinces, four in the West and six in 25 the East, competed. The Canada Summer Games Women's Field Hockey Tournaments have, quadrennially, provided the equivalent of an inter-provincial championship. At the first tournament, in 1969, all provinces and territories were represented at what was, in effect, a senior national championship. In 1973, as well as conditions of eligibility related to citizenship and residency, the tournament was restricted to players under the age of twenty-one, and age limits or other restrictions were applied at subsequent Canada Games tournaments.26 International Competition. Since 1956, Canada had been represented at I.F.W.H.A. Tournaments, but between these events, the Canadian team did not have the opportunity to play many international matches. Even before 1970, in order to address this situation, the C.W.F.H.A. established closer relationships with the U.S.F.H.A. and, for several years, international matches were held in conjunction with national tournaments, the first in 1968. In 1969, staged in conjunction with the U.S.F.H.A.'s National Tournament held in Amherst, Canada played the U.S.A. and an Irish touring 194 team; and, reciprocally, the U.S.A. played Canada after the conclusion of the 27 1970 Canadian National Tournament in Hamilton. After 1971, when the team representing Canada at the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament in New Zealand played ten international matches, Canada's competitive programme began to expand. Since Canada had been accepted as host for the 1979 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament, and since I.F.W.H.A. tournaments were evolving into World Championships, it was necessary for the Canadian team to obtain more international competition. Consequently, between 1971 and the 1975 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament in Scotland, as well as playing matches against the U.S.A. and Australia, the Canadian team toured Great Britain (1973), and invited England to participate in a cross-Canada tour (1974) during which a total of seven international matches were played. Then, at the 1975 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament, Canada played eight matches, in addition to two full 28 international games on tour. Canada's international programme, which had been steadily increasing during the first half of the 1970s, now intensified. Over the next two years, from a combination of national team visits and overseas tours, the Canadian team played almost twenty international matches. This included a three-match series with Mexico, played in Vancouver in July 1978 and won by Canada, to determine the North American country qualifying to enter the third Women's World Cup. Within the next twelve months, the Canadian team participated in two major international tournaments, the F.I.H. World Cup, held in Madrid in September 1978, and the I.F.W.H.A. Tournament, staged in Vancouver in August 1979. In these prestigious tournaments, both conducted in a championship format, Canada placed fifth and eighth respectively. From 1979 onwards, the national team programme expanded to include several international tours or 195 tournaments every year, and culminated in a second place finish in the World 29 Cup in Malaysia in 1983. Preparation of National Team. During the 1970s, the Canadian team programme, as well as expanding to include increased match participation, also incorporated more intensive preparation for international competition. In order to achieve this, modifications to the existing structure were required. In 1969, the C.W.F.H.A. had not appointed a national coach, and even in the early 1970s, no comprehensive national team training programme had been formulated. Selection to the Canadian team which played in the 1971 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament in New Zealand was conducted through trials held in conjunction with the National Tournament, and although the Touring Team assembled for a ten-day training camp in Vancouver before its departure for New Zealand, the coach did not accompany the team on tour. Furthermore, there was some disparity amongst the attitudes of the players at that time regarding the importance of winning, a factor which was to assume greater significance 30 in world competitions. After the 1971 I.F.W.H.A. Tournament, the C.W.F.H.A. began to implement changes. As well as expanding the Canadian team's international fixtures, the planning and administration of the national team programme was also undertaken more seriously. A permanent committee of selectors was established at once, and in 1974, the Canadian Team Development Committee (C.T.D.C.) was formed to administer the activities of the national team, including its selection, * . 31 preparation, and competition. By this time, the national team programme had become a top priority of the C.W.F.H.A. The 1974 Canadian team was the first to be coached by a Canadian, rather than an overseas coach recruited on a short-term assignment. 196 In 1975 and 1976. the C.T.D.C. adopted procedures designed to prepare the team for serious international competition, including the selection of squads, interim training camps, and final trials; and, by 1977, a four-year national team development plan had been formulated, the national coach was re-appointed for an extended tenure, and players were expected to make long-term commitments. Thus, the foundation was laid for the intensive competition necessary for the Canadian team to acquit itself creditably in the 1978 World Cup and the 1979 World Championship. As a result of this thorough preparation at all levels - playing, training, coaching and administration - the Canadian National Team improved from a ranking of fifteenth in 1975 to a second place 32 finish in the 1983 Women's World Cup. Organizational Aspects This period witnessed a refining of the organizational structure of women's field hockey in Canada. When, in 1971, the Maritimes Women's Field Hockey Association was disbanded to allow the four Atlantic provinces to establish separate bodies, all ten provinces had a women's field hockey association. It was in this period, too, that some organizational re-structuring occurred within the provinces. In 1970, the Edmonton club broadened its mandate and formed the Northern Alberta W.F.H.A. which affiliated with the Alberta W.F.H.A. By 1974, Ontario had decentralized to become a federation of regional hockey associations; for example, the Ottawa Club now formed the basis of a regional sub-association within the jurisdication of the Ontario Women's Field Hockey Association. The British Columbia Field Hockey Federation, from its inception an umbrella body for local associations, by 1976 encompassed three local associations and six 33 affiliated regional sub-associations. 197 The composition of the Executive of the C.W.F.H.A. itself underwent a transformation in the early part of this period. For the first five years after its foundation in 1962, the C.W.F.H.A. elected its executive officers from British Columbia, other associations being represented by proxy. In 1967, when it was intended that the Executive should move to Eastern Canada, no province or region was in a position to accept this responsibility as their own organizations demanded all available personnel. However, in October 1968, the Annual General Meeting of the C.W.F.H.A. was held in Winnipeg in conjunction with the National Tournament in order to allow representatives from across the country to attend. At this meeting the members of the C.W.F.H.A. Executive were "elected from coast to coast," with effect from the 1st January 1969. Thus, the Canadian body itself entered a new era of truly 34 national representation. At this time, too, the C.W.F.H.A. moved towards becoming an incorporated society. Initiated in 1967 at the instigation of the federal government's Fitness and Amateur Sport Directorate, the process was not complete for several years, as considerable discussion and debate took place before the mechanics of voting to accept the constitution could occur. With a constitution based on individual membership, the articles of incorporation were enacted and passed by the Directors in September 1970, and then the following month, the C.W.F.H.A. became a legally incorporated body. Soon afterwards, however, the basis of registration with the C.W.F.H.A. changed from individual membership to team membership, which was found easier to ... 35 administer. In other areas too, the C.W.F.H.A. advanced considerably, for, as well as the preparation of the national team, other facets of development were addressed seriously. In 1971, the C.W.F.H.A. appointed