UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Inter-individual and intra-individual variations of the phase plane measurements of the brachial pulse… Whittaker, Sharon Anne 1969

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1969_A7_5 W45.pdf [ 5.67MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077269.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077269-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077269-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077269-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077269-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077269-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077269-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077269-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077269.ris

Full Text

INTER-INDIVIDUAL AND  INTRA-INDIVIDUAL  VARIATIONS  OF THE PHASE PLANE MEASUREMENTS OF THE BRACHIAL  PULSE WAVE  by SHARON ANNE WHITTAKER B.Sc,  University  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1962  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of Physical  Education  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s r e q u i r e d standard.  and R e c r e a t i o n  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1969  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  i n p a r t i a l fulfilment o f therequirements f o r  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e I further agree that permission  f o r extensive  I agree  that  and Study.  copying o f this  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It i sunderstood that copying or publication  of t h i s thes.is f o r f i n a n c i a l written  permission.  Department o f  P h y s i c a l Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  D  a  t  e  g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  April  3,  1969  Columbia  and  Recreation  ABSTRACT  The p u r p o s e o f reproducibility the  brachial  ment  of  pulse  wave f o r  p o s s i b l e use  was  variation  and p h a s e p l a n e  artery  and p h o t o g r a p h s were  minute  stepping test  rest,  at  minutes Selected  graphs were p , Q  first  beat  count,  second  thirty  in  relation  measurements  onto The  steps  derivative,  R  /  P  R  first (2-2:30  (3-3:30  assess-  or to  of  the  a  first  the  derivative,  oscilloscope  exercise  per  was  minute  on  a  taken  of  the  and p h a s e p l a n e  five  a  minutes  post  five  loop,  at  exercise,  exercise.  P  Q  (beats/minute),  third  the  taken.  measurements p /  future  of  occasions.  exercise,  post  rate  count,  small  and p h o t o g r a p h s were  immediate post  and t e n  in  intra-individual  l o o p were p r o j e c t e d  inch bench  loop measurements  pressure pulse,  screen  pulse,  in  testing  The b r a c h i a l  any  would be  variability  four  the  condition.  hypothesized that  on t h e  pressure  determine  phase plane  inter-individual  seventeen  to  selected  subject  subject  s t u d y was  of  cardiovascular It  within  this  /  on t h e P Q / P R *  (1-1:30 minutes)  minutes)  phase plane Pr/Pr.  Resting  minutes) recovery  recovery  loop  heart  heart  recovery heart beat  photo-  heart  beat count,  and  total An  recovery  analysis  nine  heart  of  variance  measurements  calculated  for  an  variation  also  'effect'  due t o  trend  the  of  subjects  inter-individual comparison  to  be  heart  and t o t a l  first beat  'were  for  all  the  twenty-  were  four  an  intertrials  indication  subjects at  were  be  no  of  any  systematic  the  variability .05  found t o  level. be  were The  large  in  differences.  recovery  for  heart  third  beat  between  seen to  coefficients  heart  or  calculated,  trials.  between  count,  was  resting  beat  recovery  count  were  heart  count, heart all  rate  second beat  over  count,  .900,  reproducibility.  quite  measures P Q  these  for  give  significant  The r e l i a b i l i t y p  the  differences  recovery  showing good  to  intra-individual  (beats/minute),  recorded.  of  F-ratio  variation  T h e r e was  for  The r e l i a b i l i t y  recovery  score  The F - r a t i o  over  seen t o  also  coefficients  variability  true  trials.  data  were  p e r f o r m e d on e a c h  calculated  The F - r a t i o s generally  of  variation. was  was  values  measurement.  indication  individual  count  and r e l i a b i l i t y  each  A between giving  beat  measures  low,  and p were  R  coefficients  for  whereas,  the  reliability  were  quite  all  reproducible.  measurements P Q  high,  and  coefficients  indicating  that  The r a t i o s reliability these  P Q / P R  and P r / P r  coefficients,  showing  also  had g e n e r a l l y  high  good r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y  of  measures. Of  selected, bility.  the only  six variables two  (p^ a n d p  (p , Q  R  p , Q  did not  P , R  P , R  P /P / Q  R  Pr/Pr)  show g o o d r e p r o d u c i -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  T h e  a u t h o r  t h a n k s o f  w i s h e s  t o D r .  S.R.  h i s v a l u a b l e  c o m p l e t i o n S t a d f e l d , h e l p o t h e r  o f a n d  d u r i n g  e x p r e s s  B r o w n  t i m e t h i s  s t u d y ,  t o M r .  o f  h e r  c r i t i c i s m .  w h o  h e r  g r a t e f u l  g a v e  m a n y  i n t h e p l a n n i n g  J o h n  t h e t e s t i n g  m e m b e r s  h e l p f u l  t o  t o M i s s C a r t m e l  p e r i o d  c o m m i t t e e  a n d f o r  h o u r s a n d  R o b e r t a f o r t o  t h e i r t h e  t h e i r  TABLE  OF C O N T E N T S  CHAPTER I.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION •I.  II.  .  1  Statement  of  II.  Definitions  III.  Limitations  the of  Problem  1  Terms Used  5 7  IV.  Delimitations  V.  Justification  .  8  R E V I E W OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E I.  12  Physiological  12  General  13  Clinical  15  Normal  16  Individuals  Physical  Education  17  Instrumentation II. III.  18  Statistical  19  METHODS AND P R O C E D U R E I. II. III. IV.  7  Group  Studied  Equipment Test  • • •  Used  Plane  6  26 28  and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  The Phase  2  Loop  V.  Measurement  of  the  Loop  VI.  Statistical  Treatment  29 32 32 35  vii  CHAPTER IV.  PAGE  R E S U L T S AND D I S C U S S I O N I.  Introduction  II.  Presentation  III. V.  Summary  of  39 39  of  Results  Results  SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S  BIBLIOGRAPHY  and D i s c u s s i o n  40 . . .  66 75 82  APPENDICES A.  Statistical  B.  Raw  C.  Operational Directions  Score  Treatment  Data  8U, 88 103  L I S T 'OF  TABLES  TABLE  PAGE  I.  Analysis  of Variance  o f PQ  (Resting)  42  II.  Analysis  of Variance  o f PQ  (Resting)  42  III.  Analysis  of Variance  o f p_  (Resting)  44  IV.  Analysis  of Variance  of p  (Resting)  44  V.  Analysis  of Variance  of PQ/P  VI.  Analysis  of Variance  of Pr/Pr  VII.  Analysis  of Variance  o f p^ ( I m m e d i a t e  r  (Resting)  46  (Resting)  46  Post  Exercise) VIII.  Analysis  of Variance  48 o f p^ ( I m m e d i a t e  Post  Exercise) IX.  Analysis  of Variance  48 of p  (Immediate  Post  Exercise) X.  Analysis  of Variance  49 of p  (Immediate  Post  R Exercise)  XI.  Analysis Post  XII.  XIII.  of P /P Q  R  (Immediate 51  Exercise)  Analysis Post  of Variance  49  of Variance  o f Pr/Pr  (Immediate 51  Exercise)  Analysis  of Variance  Exercise)  o f p^ (5 M i n s .  Post 53  TABLE  PAGE  XIV.  Analysis  of Variance  of  (5 M i n s .  Post  Exercise) XV.  Analysis  of Variance  53 of p  D  (5 M i n s .  Post  Exercise) XVI.  Analysis  of Variance  55 of p  (5 M i n s .  Post  R. Exercise) XVII.  Analysis  of Variance  55 o f PQ/P  R  (5 M i n s .  Post  Exercise) XVIII.  Analysis  of Variance  57 o f Pr/Pr  (5 M i n s .  Post  Exercise) XIX.  Analysis  of Variance  57 o f p^  (10 M i n s .  Post  Exercise) XX.  Analysis  of Variance  58 of p  Q  (10 M i n s .  Post  Exercise) XXI.  Analysis  of Variance  58 o f p - (10 M i n s . R  Post  Exercise) XXII.  Analysis  of Variance  60 of p  R  (10 M i n s .  Post  Exercise) XXIII.  Analysis  of Variance  60 of P /p Q  R  (10 M i n s .  Post  Exercise) XXIV.  Analysis  of Variance  Exercise)  62 o f Pr/Pr  (10 M i n s .  Post 62  ..X  TABLE XXV.  PAGE Analysis Rate  XXVI.  of  Analysis  of  Analysis  Analysis  Analysis Heart  XXX.  Summary  Heart  Heart  Beat  Beat  Heart  Heart  Variance  Beat  Count  .  Second  (1-1:30 .  Mins.)  .  64  (2-2:30  Mins.)  Count of  Beat  First  Count of  Variance  of  of  of  Variance  of  Recovery XXIX.  Resting  64  Variance  of  Recovery XXVIII.  of  (beats/minute)  Recovery XXVII.  Variance  65  Third  (3-3:30  Mins.)  Count of  65  Total  Recovery  {1% M i n s . )  F-Ratios  and  Coefficients  of  Measurements  on the  67  Reliability  Variance Phase  in  the  Plane  Selected Loop  . . .  68  LIST  OF  FIGURES  FIGURE  PAGE  1.  The-Phase'Plane'Loop  2.  A.  The  A.  Loop  B.  The  B.  Loop  3.  4.  Brachial Contour Brachial Contour  Application  of  Measurements  4  P u l s e Wave C o n t o u r of  the  Brachial  P u l s e Wave  P u l s e Wave C o n t o u r of  the  the  Brachial  Pressure  33 . . .  33  . . . . . . . .  34  P u l s e Wave  Transducer  and  . . . Cuff  34 .  105  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  I.  The  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  purpose of t h i s  reproducibility  o f t h e phase p l a n e  b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave w i t h plane  s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l o o p measurements o f t h e  a view t o t h e use o f t h e phase  i n t h e assessment of c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . The  phase p l a n e  loop d i s p l a y of the b r a c h i a l  wave i s a c l o s e d l o o p c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y one o r two loops on  and c r e a t e d b y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p l o t t i n g  one a x i s and i t s f i r s t  characteristics apparent  relative this  loop  ease.  t h e p u l s e wave  d e r i v a t i v e on t h e o t h e r .  examination,  a r e emphasized  and c a n b e measured on t h e l o o p The c a r o t i d  pulse It  Certain  i n the with  p r e s s u r e p u l s e was n o t u s e d i n  study because o f t h e poor r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y  carotid  secondary  o f t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave, w h i c h a r e  upon v i s u a l  phase p l a n e  pulse  of the  tracings.  i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e purpose o f t h i s  study t o  d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e measurements made on t h e p h a s e plane  loop d i s p l a y are s u f f i c i e n t l y  trial  t o be o f any s c i e n t i f i c  value.  s t a b l e from t r i a l t o  2 The 40 y e a r s  subjects  of  age)  of  male  British  C o l u m b i a who  varying  lengths to  of  were  able  inch  bench without Each  time  one week  tions.  On e a c h  of  exercise,  immediately  after  exercise)  be  counts  analyzed  least in  the  to  the  heart Four  graphs These of  pg,  beat  p , R  step  University  to  of  amounts  months)  test  be  tested  carefully the  screen  on a  on  four  and  for who  seventeen  occasions  standardized phase  was  plane  and a t  five  -  condi-  loop  photographed minute  (beats/minute)  and p o s t  2-2:30;  minute  additional for  or  that  before and  ten  3-3:30  measurements  any  trend  efficiency  these  of  in  exercise intervals  taken  and were  improvement  bench  improvements  in  stepping  would  be  to  (at  reflected  counts).  measurements  measurements  possible  (1-1:30;  extent  three  (25  exercise.  condition  pg,  to  afterwards,  statistically  physiological  least  occasions,  rates  were  the  adult  exhausted.  - under  after  heart  beat  minute  oscilloscope  intervals  heart  five  these  on the  Resting  at  men w a s  apart  eighteen  exercising varying  (for  becoming  displayed  minute  a  were  members o f  had been  these  exactly  study  faculty  complete  of  this  p , R  obtained  and r a t i o s  were  measurements  chosen which  from the  Po/PRr  phase  Pr/Pr  f r o m among a c o u l d have  plane  were  larger  b e e n made  loop  chosen. number from  photo-  3  the  photographs.  that  they  The main r e a s o n  represented  loop,  and r a t i o s  other  investigators  the in  phase future  plane  involving (1)  of  of  ten  following  loop  change = The x which  of  was the  phase  coordinate  = The y  R  size  it  It  was  selected they  on  was  the  thought  measures  might  be  condition.  necessary photographs loop  to  by on  useful  A l l  loop were brought  plane  measurements  of  take  and  to  a  into  amplifier  tracings  were  is  coordinate of  is  the  highest  positive  of  the  (Figure point  1):  of  the  maximum r a t e  of  the  highest  positive  point  of  the  maximum r a t e  of  pressure.  coordinate is  of  the  w e r e made  pressure.  loop which  p  as  the  which  change PQ  selection  1)  = The x  PQ  in  u s e d when  (Figure  phase plane  units  differences  The  these  cardiovascular  common s c a l e  obtained.  if  points.  l o o p were r e p r o d u c i b l e ,  assessment  values  these  that  made o n t h e  gain  their  maximum and m i n i m u m p o i n t s  measurements  account  for  the  of  the  negative  lowest  point  maximum r a t e  of  of  the  loop  change  of  pressure. p  = The y  R  which  coordinate is  the  of  the  negative  lowest  point  maximum r a t e  of  of  the  loop  change  of  pressure. Pr/Pr  = The r a t i o  of  the  minimum p r e s s u r e PQ/P  r  = The r a t i o the  origin  of  the  and  range  between  and between vertical  the  maximum a n d  Q and  R.  distance  of  vertical  distance  PQ of  above  p  below K.  MEASUREMENTS 1.  P  2.  Q  PQ  3.  PR  4.  PR  5.  PQ/PR  6.  Pr/Pr =  1 PQR  CODE A  Pr = OA = 10 (by normalization) = (PQ/ PQ)  Q R  THE PHASE PLANE LOOP MEASUREMENTS  =  (  P R ' PR)  -5  t h e o r i g i n , i . e . t h e r a t i o o f t h e maximum p o s i t i v e r a t e o f change o f p r e s s u r e and t h e maximum n e g a t i v e r a t e o f c h a n g e o f p r e s s u r e . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d within  t h a t any i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l o r  s u b j e c t v a r i a t i o n would be s m a l l i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e  inter-individual subject  variability  on t h e f o u r  II.  i n t h e measurements  of a  occasions.  DEFINITIONS  B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave  -  t r a c e made b y t h e p u l s a t i l e  OF TERMS USED  t h e changing p u l s e  flow of blood  pressure  through t h e  brachial artery.  Pulse Pressure the  systolic  -  and d i a s t o l i c  P h a s e P l a n e Loop brachial pulse pressure pressure a storage  the pressure pressures.  -  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  (X) and t h e r a t e o f c h a n g e o f  (Y) as shown b y a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c oscilloscope  formed by p l o t t i n g  First  (2).  l o o p d i s p l a y e d on  The c l o s e d c i r c u i t  the pressure  of change o f p r e s s u r e  loop i s  on t h e x - a x i s and t h e r a t e  on t h e y - a x i s .  D e r i v a t i v e o f t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave  r a t e o f change o f p r e s s u r e and  a t any p o i n t between  -  the  as i t moves f r o m maximum p o s i t i v e  negative values through zero along  a time base.  .6  R e p r o due xb i I i t y measuring the  the  study,  results  subject  using  will  be  the  on t h e  obtained.  and t h e  Accuracy  stability  be  only  considered here,  reliability  coefficient  recorded by  before  the  First beats tion  of  tion  the  Recovery  recorded of  an  of  period,  on t h e  in  there  occasions  instrument,  concern of  is  in  upon  similar  one p h a s e  this  always be  indication  of  case.  measurement  will  in  cannot  some  taken. as  to  The  the  repro-  the a  number  of  stethoscope  when t h e  heart  and  beats  per  stopwatch  individual  is  in  a  table.  Heart  Beat  interval  Count  1-1:30  -  the  minutes  number after  of  cessa-  exercise.  Second beats  Rate  Recovery  recorded  of  gives  means  exercise  supine p o s i t i o n  one  that  measurement.  Heart  minute  different  p h y s i o l o g i c a l measurement  each  Resting  four  Reproducibility  because  in  of  any  predictability  and p r e c i s i o n  variability  ducibility  the  same m e a s u r i n g  reliability or  -  in  the  Heart  Beat  interval  Count  2-2:30  -  the  minutes  number  after  of  cessa-  exercise.  Third  Recovery  Heart  Beat  Count  -  the  number  of  7  beats tion  recorded of  the  over  the  interval  Recovery  first,  the  Heart  second,  total  one  There  and  minute  the  specific  reproducibility  loop measurements  of  the  brachial  and  faculty  The  of  w e r e members o f class minute  the  requirements  of  in  investigation  the  pulse  phase were the  plane adult  into  design  of  the  or  phase  wave.  loop (25  University  of  to of  sufficiently  test  minutes  and at  selection  some o f the  of  the  on  British  conditioned them c o u l d pace. for  of  pulse  age)  male  C o l u m b i a who  some o f  subjects  selected  brachial  40 y e a r s  correct  the  inter-individual  differences  a conditioning class.  step  in  DELIMITATIONS  an  were n o t  five  limitations  intra-individual  subjects  members  for  was  counts  LIMITATIONS  the  study  beat  sum  period.  of  wave.  cessa-  recorded  heart  study  measurements  easily  -  this  of  differences  five  after  no  The  a  Count recovery  one h a l f  IV.  the  minutes  were  execution  of  Beat  and t h i r d  III.  plane  3-3:30  exercise.  Total of  in  the to  members complete  step The this  quite  only study  8  were t h a t they could  step f o r f i v e minutes at a speed o f  t h i r t y steps per minute on a seventeen i n c h bench and t h a t they agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e study.  V.  JUSTIFICATION  I t i s only r e c e n t l y  (3,4) t h a t t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e has  been used by p h y s i c a l educators as a means o f cardiovascular  condition  studying  of normal i n d i v i d u a l s .  Dr. Dower of t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia was the f i r s t person t o p u t the phase p l a n e a n a l y s i s i n t o use and  i t i s under h i s c l o s e guidance t h a t the p h y s i c a l educa-  t i o n s t u d i e s making use o f the phase p l a n e a n a l y s i s are b e i n g c a r r i e d out i n the Human Performance L a b o r a t o r y o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. S t u d i e s by Jackson  (5) and Boyd  (6) a r e t h e two  major s t u d i e s which have made use of the phase p l a n e a n a l y s i s t o study c a r d i o v a s c u l a r individual.  Boyd  c o n d i t i o n o f t h e normal  (7) conducted an i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o study  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s e l e c t e d measurements o f t h e phase p l a n e loop of t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave t o p h y s i c a l working capacity. Jackson used s i x world c l a s s oarsmen i n h i s study and,  u s i n g b a s i c a l l y the same t e s t s as i n t h i s p r e s e n t  9  study, tive,  explored the  and p h a s e p l a n e  changes over  in  a  the  short All  assessing  of  attempted  be  the  to  show there  over the  as  the  pressure  pulse,  first  a p o s s i b l e means condition  of  of  these  deriva-  assessing individuals  training. have  looked  oscilloscope  plane  There  repeatedly,  result,  of  cardiovascular  another.  the  loop  investigators  compared phase  measures  of  cardiovascular  period  measurements  of  use  images  as  contours a means  of  subjects  contours  of  one  however,  that,  if  the  would  be  no  series  the  condition  loop  has,  at  of  been  subject  study  were  significant  trials.  reproducibility  no  of  the  In  have with  which  those  has  tested  variation  the  data  of  and  subject  and  event  would,  in  of  such  a  therefore,  high. This  bility  of  study  the  investigator  phase looked  be r e p r o d u c i b l e , be p r i m a r i l y differences individual  was  the  an  investigation  plane at  the  data  variation  in  variability  significant not  the  loop measurements.  inter-individual -  into  at  terms  of  the  variation the  being  .05  of  reproduci-  The variance.  measurements  these  results  were  level)  significant  found,  it  should  (individual with (at  the  the  would  then  intra-  .05  level) . If  To  be  10  p o s s i b l e t o proceed w i t h f u r t h e r s t u d i e s t o  investigate  whether or not the phase p l a n e loops would prove t o u s e f u l i n assessing i n varying  cardiovascular  degrees of  training.  be  c o n d i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s  11  REFERENCES  1  Brown,  S.R.  Pulse  et  al.  Wave and P h a s e  Condition", British  2  Boyd,  William  Physical April  Working  E.W.  Athletic,  4  Brown,  5  Jackson,  al.  Wave  Normal  1966.  loc.  et  Pulse  Sports  June  Capacity",  Including  Brachial  Pulse  7  Ibid.  of  Master's  Columbia,  Study  of  Vancouver,  the  Time D e r i v a t i v e s Subjects",  Fitness  "A F i t n e s s  6:  among  Journal  92-99,  Analysis  Wave and I t s  Thesis,  Columbia, Vancouver,  cit.  of  Appraisal  of  Champion  Maximum O x y g e n  E l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m C o m p l e x e s and  Unpublished Master's  loc.  Unpublished  and P h y s i c a l  Charles.  Consumption,  Boyd,  of  cit.  Oarsmen,  6  Cardiovascular  Plane Analysis  British  its  of  Carotid  1965.  "A Comparative and  the  The U n i v e r s i t y  and P a t h o l o g i c a l  Medicine  Roger  British  of  of  Analysis  "A Phase  The U n i v e r s i t y  •Brachial of  Robert.  1967.  Banister,  Plane  Unpublished Paper,  Columbia, Vancouver,  Thesis,  3  "Time D e r i v a t i v e s  Time  the  Derivatives",  The U n i v e r s i t y  April  1967.  of  CHAPTER  R E V I E W OF T H E  I.  There have to  the  pulsatile  in  this  chapter  II  LITERATURE  PHYSIOLOGICAL  b e e n many b o o k s flow  have  of  blood.  used  but  relatively  few  and  scientific  usefulness  (1,2,3) Many  of  the  intra-arterial  investigators  written  that  studies  pressure  refer cited  recording,  have  explored  applications  external  pressure  pulse  peripheral  arterial  pressure  of  recording. The main pulses  is  picture  whether  of  pressure  the  or  in  not  central  they  are  pressure  reflecting  pulse  or  of  the the  in  Physical  investigations  Education  on human  research  subjects the  to  the  arterial  pressure  recordings  since  arterial  pressure  recordings  (catheterization)  not  true aortic  pulse.  Workers their  concern  taking  must use of is  confine of  extra-  intrausually  possible.  Uses pulse  of 'the  represents  Pulse  changes  Pressure in  Wave.  diameter  of  Clinically, the  vessels  the  13  produced trace,  by  internal  length  of  systole  give  information  does  the of  area,  intra-arterial for  tracings  pressure  diagnosis are  more  measurements  (5) .  Workers of  the  external  1.  Predict  pulse the  both  Encourage to  with  the  (4).  In  error  than  Physical  pressure  tracings  state  relative in  the  immediate  the  time  are  primarily  external  pulse  internal  make  functional  cardio-  person. training  out  of  of  an  training.  cardiovascular  condition  an  abnormal p u l s e  pressure  of  use  to:  in  referral  as  clinical  Education  of  and  cycle  filling  the  normal  state  training  detect  of  pulse  cycle  cardiac  tracings the  The  whole  diastolic  pulse  in  the  the  of  interest  possibly  of  as  relative  the  to  of  disease  to  field  condition  athlete 3.  the  Determine  events  trace  heart  pressure.  diastole  pressure  of  pulse  time  pulse  subject  in  vascular 2.  and  ejection  ratio  used  in  on t e m p o r a l  measured the  changes  the  subject  to  and wave a  physician. 4.  To the  illustrate  the  cardiovascular  effect  of  different  system.  exercises  on  (6)  General Cureton  (7)  suggested that  the  pulse  wave c o u l d  be  14  used t o p r e d i c t " t h e r e l a t i v e vascular  state of 'functional cardio-  c o n d i t i o n ' i n subjects without  explained  fully  heart  disease".  He  i n subsequent pages, t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s as a d e t e r m i n a n t o f ' f u n c t i o n a l c a r d i o vascular  condition'.  Wiggers pressure  pulse  Rushmer  (8) d i s c u s s e d  i n transmission  ejections that Hyman  the  arterial  that  flow  particular location  c l i n i c a l value  arterial  pulse  approaches curve.  He  i n d i s c o v e r i n g t h e p r e s e n c e and  (13), i n studying  tree".  the patterns  of the  p u l s e b o t h i n a n i m a l s and i n humans, s o u g h t t o  " d e s c r i b e t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e s e f o r m and t o p r e s e n t physically in  pulse.  a n a l y s i s o f p u l s e waves i s o f  of obstruction i n the a r t e r i a l  Hamilton  the v e n t r i -  upon d i f f e r e n t  a single pressure  "a c a r e f u l  the origins  on 'What c a n be f o u n d i n  p u l s e wave' r e f l e c t e d  (12) t h a t  in detail  the pressure  (11) i n h i s a r t i c l e  a r e used t o analyze  stated  (10) d e s c r i b e d  and e x p l a i n e d initiate  of the  away f r o m t h e h e a r t .  (9) and A t t i n g e r  of the p u l s a t i l e cular  the transformation  hypothesis  that w i l l  f o r t h e v a r i a t i o n s seen i n t h e p r e s s u r e  different  summarized  a simple  t y p i c a l patterns  arteries  and u n d e r d i f f e r e n t  from h i s study  that the pulse  take  account pulses  conditions".  He  f o r m c o u l d be u s e d  15  t o assess t h e r o l e o f v a s o d i l a t i o n i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f hypertension.  Clinical Four s t u d i e s a r e c i t e d here r e l a t i n g t o t h e v a l u e of the p r e s s u r e p u l s e f o r d i a g n o s t i c purposes.  A l l studies are  r e l a t e d t o t h e d e t e c t i o n of a o r t i c s t e n o s i s , a o r t i c v a l v u l a r d i s e a s e , or muscular s u b a o r t i c s t e n o s i s .  In t h e case o f  a o r t i c s t e n o s i s t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e was not r e l i a b l e i n d i a g n o s i s , so the c a r o t i d p u l s e was used. Robinson  (14) concluded  that a diagnosis of a o r t i c  s t e n o s i s c o u l d be made from t h e p u l s e t r a c i n g s and i n a f u r t h e r paper  (15) comparing r e c o r d i n g s of the c a r o t i d ,  a o r t i c , and b r a c h i a l p u l s e s , found t h a t t h e b r a c h i a l a r t e r y was  of l e s s v a l u e i n d i a g n o s i s as many o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f  the c e n t r a l p u l s e were e i t h e r l o s t or g r e a t l y changed a t this  level. Hancock (16), on t h e other hand, d i d not completely  d i s c a r d t h e p e r i p h e r a l p r e s s u r e p u l s e as a d i a g n o s t i c t e s t . He s a i d t h a t t h e b r a c h i a l a r t e r y may h e l p i n t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n of a o r t i c stenosis. Wigle  (17) found, however, t h a t t h e b r a c h i a l  arterial  p r e s s u r e p u l s e s d i d serve t o diagnose muscular s u b a o r t i c  16  stenosis. Studies and  Starr  tive and of  of  (20)  the  were u n d e r t a k e n on t h e  pressure  second p u l s e certain  "derivative pulse  and  difficult become any  to  abnormalities  in of  of  on t h e the  the  the  value  (18),  of  the  Starr  in  deriva-  the  first  differentiation (21)  aspects  of  conventional  He  that  said  derivative.  cardiac  first  (19),  stated  pressure  first  Mason  concluded that  were h e l p f u l  others".  recognize  Gleason  Mason  conditions.  suppresses  incoordination  the  that  phenomena,  pulse  recording,  Starr  concluded  derivative  the  indicated  that  an  contraction.  Individuals Kroeker  peripheral  by  striking  transit  to  the  Dontas volume  considered pressure  changes  that  a comparison of  pulse  intra-arterial the  recordings  methods pulse  and  central in  and  normal  demonstrated  wave u n d e r g o e s  on  the its  periphery. (23),  and p r e s s u r e  described -femoral  (22)  arterial  individuals main  pulse.  emphasizes c e r t a i n  conspicuous  Normal  diagnostic  derivatives  abnormal  by  in  his  investigation  pulse  contours,  found  pressure-volume  relations  of  arteries  of  the  young male  are  into  the  that  the  arterial  "the  brachial  consistent  and  with  their  17  n a t u r e as v i s c o - e l a s t i c t u b e s " . I n two s t u d i e s o f c o m p a r i s o n between  intra-arterially  and e x t r a - a r t e r i a l l y r e c o r d e d p u l s e w a v e s , Heyman Dontas  (25) b o t h f o u n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n  and e x t r a - a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e at pressures  pulses  (24) and  intra-arterial  but Dontas d i d s t a t e  s l i g h t l y below d i a s t o l i c pressure  was a r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o p r e s s u r e A s t u d y was done b y W i l l i a m s  levels  there  pulses.  (26) on t h e u s e o f t h e  a r t e r i a l p u l s e wave v e l o c i t y a s a p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l with the conclusion  that  t h a t i t was a m e a s u r e o f h i g h  measure  relia-  bility.  P h y s i c a l Education.  Banister  e t a l . (27) c o m p a r e d  t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave and i t s t i m e d e r i v a t i v e s among a t h l e t i c , n o r m a l , and p a t h o l o g i c a l s u b j e c t s t h e most  s i g n i f i c a n t measurements  and f o u n d  that  between t h e groups were  i n s y s t o l i c u p s t r o k e t i m e and t h e d i a s t o l i c  filling  time.  Brown e t a l . (28) i n t h e i r p a p e r o n t i m e d e r i v a t i v e s and p h a s e p l a n e a n a l y s i s h y p o t h e s i z e d ments o f t h e phase p l a n e l o o p  that ratio  d i m e n s i o n s c o u l d be  q u a n t i t a t i v e measures o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r Boyd  measurevaluable  condition.  (29) i n v e s t i g a t e d a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between s e l e c t e d measurements  o f t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p and  18  physical  working  capacity  and c o n c l u d e d t h a t  with higher  working  in  changing pulse  terms  of  Jackson explored  the  (30)  use  and p h a s e p l a n e vascular  capacities  in  of  condition  of  and p o s t - t r a i n i n g  five  minutes, step  and t e n  test.  returned  faster  training  waves.  with  to  use  of  six  world  pulse,  first  of  plane  completing  that  the  the  wave  form than  that  PQ/P  He  also  noted  cardiorecorded  immediately  He o b s e r v e d resting  oarsmen,  derivative,  Jackson  loops  after  class  assessing  individuals.  minutes  electronic  a  after,  five  post-training  R  the  (+P/-P)  loops  preincreased  all  in  electrical  (31) ,  have  differentiating  Babskii  agreement  that  also  been w r i t t e n  devices  particularly instantaneous  means with  of  the  records  (32) , N o b l e the  differentiating  accurate  tives.  Articles  in  on  physio-  studies. Tavel  most  characteristics  training.  logical  are  on  a means  phase  Instrumentation. the  as  these  pre-  minute  study  pressure  analysis  certain  subjects  pressures.  his  the  had  the  cathode-ray  unit,  analyzing ability of  the  (33) ,  of  is  one  of  and N e a l  oscilloscope, with the  physiological the  first  recorder  and  (34)  best  and  processes to  give  second p u l s e  deriva-  an  19  II.  STATISTICAL  The s t a t i s t i c a l concepts of prime concern i n t h i s study are r e l i a b i l i t y , errors.  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e , and measurement  Numerous authors  have d i s c u s s e d these areas of  s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. R e l i a b i l i t y i s u s u a l l y d e f i n e d as being r e l a t e d t o e r r o r and i s the r a t i o of t r u e score  (inter-individual)  v a r i a n c e t o t o t a l v a r i a n c e which i s composed of i n t r a individual  ( " b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n " ) and e r r o r v a r i a n c e as  w e l l as the t r u e score v a r i a n c e . Three authors who have d i s c u s s e d r e l i a b i l i t y . , , t h e o r y i n d e t a i l are K e r l i n g e r  (35), K r o l l  (36), and Henry (37).  I t i s now g e n e r a l l y considered  t h a t the b e s t method  of e s t i m a t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y of a t e s t i s not by the product-moment r or by v a r i a t i o n s of i t but r a t h e r by analysis of variance methods)  (38,39).  (and by u s i n g i n t r a c l a s s  R e l i a b i l i t y determination  correlation by these  methods allows a breakdown of v a r i a n c e i n t o components. T o t a l v a r i a n c e i s composed o f : t r u e score v a r i a n c e or i n t e r i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e , i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e , and e r r o r variance  (40) .  Henry (41) hypothesized  t h a t "the v a r i a t i o n of motor  20  performance commonly .  .  .  within  called  this  to  Henry  eliminate  result this  error  variance  variation". not  in  individuals variance  is  not  (42)  error  to  and  error  also  clarify  —  to  of  moment  so t r e a t e d rather  stated  - rather  misinterpretation  article,  f r o m moment t o  that  statistically  it  is  "the  avoid  He  how u n n e c e s s a r y  biological  problem  error  results".  is  that  is  will  continued,  error  might  in  be  eliminated. Henry of  (43)  and L e r s t e n  intra-individual  commented i n  the  his  The major  response  measurement. and  also  and  test.  Reliability areas  in  physical  determine various  the  physical  individuals bility  error,  order  or  nature  differences.  Henry  gives  that is  in  one  carried It  to  determine  is  their  true  out  another,  in  of  several  important  to  on  usefulness  between  The of  in  with  variations  differences.  of  distinguished  itself  measure  in  are  performance  concerns  a relative  error  a characteristic  individual  are  variation  than  s h o u l d be  of  which  is  between  (45,46).  inter-individual  coefficient  as  have been  Reliability  differences  the  both variations  which  education  in  rather  vary  behavior  studies  education.  individual  of  reliability  measures  unreliability  individual  themselves;  from measurement  the  of  the  Individuals  characteristics  described  that:  source  within  have  inter-individual  papers  of  (44)  relia-  individual  21  differences. differences  These, however, a r e n o t t h e o n l y t y p e o f as i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l  f r o m moment t o moment.  also vary within  I t i s i m p o r t a n t when  themselves  considering  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y between i n d i viduals or i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l differences son  t o the within i n d i v i d u a l variance  c o e f f i c i e n t measures t h i s r a t i o . related t o true variance study of r e l i a b i l i t y  are large  (47). T h e r e l i a b i l i t y  Since r e l i a b i l i t y i s  and t o t a l o b t a i n e d  gives  i n compari-  variance,  an e s t i m a t e o f t h e t r u e  a  score or  inter-individual variation i n relation to the total variation which includes  i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n and e r r o r  as w e l l a s t h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e .  variance  A breakdown c a n  b e made o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s c o r e s a n d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r can  t h e n d e t e r m i n e what p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i s t r u e  s c o r e v a r i a t i o n , what p o r t i o n and  what p o r t i o n  i s due t o " b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n " ,  i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o measurement  error.  22  REFERENCES  1  A t t i n g e r , E.O., ed. P u l s a t i l e Blood Flow, (Proceedings of the F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on P u l s a t i l e Blood Flow, A p r i l 11-13, 1963). New York: McGrawH i l l Book Company, 1964.  2  Rushmer, Robert F. Cardiovascular W.B. Saunders Company, 1961.  3  Wiggers, C a r l J . C i r c u l a t o r y Dynamics. and s t r a t t o n , 1952.  4  Rushmer, op_. c i t .  5  B a n i s t e r , E.W., et a l . "A Comparative Study of the B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave and i t s Time D e r i v a t i v e s among A t h l e t i c , Normal and P a t h o l o g i c a l Subjects", J o u r n a l of s p o r t s Medicine and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s 6: 92-99, June 1966.  6  Cureton, Thomas K i r k , J r . Guidance. I b i d . , p.  8  Wiggers, OJD. ext., p.  9  Rushmer, l o c . c i t .  New  Philadelphia:  York:  Grune  Physical Fitness Appraisal  St. L o u i s : The  7  Dynamics.  C.V.  and  Mosby Company, .1947.  232. 6.  10  Attinger, loc. c i t .  11  Hyman, Chester, and Winsor, T r a v i s . "What can be found i n A r t e r i a l P u l s e Waves", American Heart J o u r n a l 61 (No. 3): 424-426, March 1961.  12  I b i d . , p.  13  Hamilton, W.F. "The P a t t e r n s of the A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e " , American J o u r n a l of P h y s i o l o g y 141:235, 1944.  14  Robinson, B r i a n . "The C a r o t i d P u l s e - I . D i a g n o s i s of A o r t i c S t e n o s i s by E x t e r n a l Recordings", B r i t i s h Heart J o u r n a l 25: 51-60, 1963.  426.  23  15  16  Robinson,  Brian.  "The C a r o t i d  External  Recordings  Pulses",  British  Hancock,  Ernest  Study  of  W.,  the  Circulation  to  Carotid,  Heart  18  Gleason,  William  Pulse (No. 19  Mason,  in  80-91, T.,  Morrow, and  Man",  1):  Dean  Starr,  the of  Clinical  Eugene,  "Diagnostic  Derivatives Valve  of  the  Disease  and  Derivative  of  21  Ibid.,  p.  22  Kroeker,  the  and A b n o r m a l i t i e s  American  Heart  of  41  in  the  and  First  Hypertrophic  30:  90-99,  Brachial  Pulse.  encountered 65  Jr.,  Pressure  "A C l i n i c a l  Journal  1963.  John,  Value  First  April  on  Pressure  Arterial  Shigeru.  482-494,  "Studies  Investigation  Ross,  and Ogawa,  Disease",  Form",  1962.  Isaac,  Standards  Clinical  1957.  Eugene.  Circulation  the  Brachial  1963. "A  Ventricular  Stenosis",  1964.  20  Journal  Braunwald,  in Aortic  Subaortic  of  H.  of  Pressure Pulse in B r i t i s h Heart Journal  and B r a u n w a l d ,  Andrew G.  Second  Pulse  L.  Derivative  and  61-68,  Pulse  October  W i g l e , E. D o u g l a s . "The A r t e r i a l Muscular Subaortic Stenosis", 25: 97-105, 1963.  First  25:  Arterial  572-581,  Relation  Aortic,  Journal  17  the  - II.  and A b e l m a n n , W a l t e r  Brachial 16:  Pulse  (No.  in  July  Study  of  Normal  Heart  4):  489. Edwin  J.,  Simultaneously  and Wood, Recorded  Arterial  Pressure  Pulses  623-632,  November  1955.  Tilted  Position  in  Earl  H.  Central  Man",  "Comparison and  During Rest,  Peripheral Exercise  C i r c u l a t i o n Research  of and  3:  23  D o n t a s , A . S . , and C o t t a s , C S . " A r t e r i a l Volume and P r e s s u r e P u l s e C o n t o u r s i n t h e Y o u n g Human S u b j e c t " , A m e r i c a n H e a r t J o u r n a l 61 ( N o . 5 ) : 6 8 2 , M a y 1 9 6 1 .  24  Heyman,  F.  "Comparison of  arterially Acta  Medica  Recorded  Intra-arterially  Pulse  Scandinavica  Waves 157  in  (No.  Man 6):  and  Extra-  and D o g " , 503-510,  1957.  24  25  Dontas,  A.S.  "Comparison of  Intra-Arterial in Man",  April  simultaneously  and E x t r a - A r t e r i a l  American Heart  Journal  1960.  59  Recorded  Pressure (No.  Pulses  4):  576-590,  26  Williams, James G . L . , and W i l l i a m s , Barbara. "Arterial P u l s e Wave V e l o c i t y a s a P s y c h o s o m a t i c M e a s u r e " , P s y c h o s o m a t i c M e d i c i n e 27 ( N o . 5 ) : 4 0 8 - 4 1 4 , 1 9 6 5 .  27  Banister,  28  Brown,  loc.  S.R.,  Pulse  cit.  et  Wave  vascular  Boyd,  William  Physical Thesis,  Jackson,  and P h a s e  of  Plane  British  Robert. Working  of  "A Phase  Charles.  Plane  of  British  "A F i t n e s s  Including  Pulse  Wave  Unpublished Master's British 31  Tavel,  External Medical 32  Babskii,  E.  E.B.,  et  al.  Differentiating  Noble,  Frank  W.  Recording.  Neal,  of  of  John  J.,  Pressure  "Use  Device  Appraisal  Its  of  in  et  of  Maximum  Complexes  and  Derivatives",  The U n i v e r s i t y  April  An  of  1967.  and  Year  Electronic  Physiological  102-110,  Methods  Springfield,  Change  Time  of  Book  1967.  4:  Electrical  Jr.,  of  Columbia,  Chicago:  Inc.,  (U.S.S.R.)  Thomas ^ P u b l i s h e r , 34  1965.  Master's  Phonocardiography  Recording.  Publishers,  Biophysics  33  and  Thesis,  Clinical  Pulse  The  Analysis  Analysis  Columbia, Vancouver,  Morton  Cardio-  Unpublished  Oxygen Consumption, E l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m Brachial  Carotid  1967.  Champion Oarsmen, the  the  Columbia, Vancouver,  Capacity",  April  Roger  Analysis  of  Unpublished Paper,  The U n i v e r s i t y  Vancouver, 30  "Time D e r i v a t i v e s  Condition",  University  29  al.  of  Illinois:  1959.  Studies",  Blood-Pressure Charles  C.  1953. al. in  Applied Physiology  "Velocity  Heart 15:  and  Acceleration  and A r t e r i e s " ,  747-749,  1960.  Journal  25  35  K e r l i n g e r , F r e d N. Foundations o f B e h a v i o r a l Research. New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, Inc., 1966, p. 429.  36  K r o l l , Walter. "A Note on t h e C o e f f i c i e n t of I n t r a c l a s s C o r r e l a t i o n as an Estimate o f R e l i a b i l i t y " , Research Q u a r t e r l y 33 (No. 2 ) : 313-315, May 1962.  37  Henry, F r a n k l i n M. " R e l i a b i l i t y , Measurement E r r o r and I n t r a - I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e " , Research Q u a r t e r l y 30 (No. 1) : 21-24, March 1959.  38  Kroll,  39  K r o l l , Walter. " R e l i a b i l i t y Theory and Research D e c i s i o n i n S e l e c t i o n o f a C r i t e r i o n Score", Research Q u a r t e r l y 38 (No. 3 ) : 412-419, October 1967.  40  L e r s t e n , Kenneth C. " I n t r a and I n t e r - I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a t i o n s During t h e P r o g r e s s of Motor L e a r n i n g " , Unpublished Paper, U n i v e r s i t y o f southern C a l i f o r n i a .  41  Henry, F r a n k l i n M. " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n I n t r a I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a b i l i t y " , An Address presented at A.A.H.P.E.R. Research S e c t i o n , Las Vegas, Nevada, March 13, 1967.  42  Henry, F.M. e t a l . " E r r o r s i n Measurement", i n S c o t t , M.G. ed. Research Methods A p p l i e d t o H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . Washington, D.C.: American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n , 1949, p. 459.  43  Henry, l o c . c i t .  44  Lersten,  45  Ibid.  46  K r o l l , Walter. " R e l i a b i l i t y V a r i a t i o n s of s t r e n g t h i n T e s t - R e t e s t S i t u a t i o n s " , Research Q u a r t e r l y 34 (No. 1) : 50-55, March 1963.  47  Carron, A.V. " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n Performance", Unpublished Paper, U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, December 4, 1967.  loc. c i t .  loc. c i t .  C H A P T E R  M E T H O D S  T h e a n d  s t u d y  w a s  a n  i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l  m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e  t a k e n  o f  p r o j e c t i n g  t h e  p h o t o g r a p h i n g m a c h i n e . a l s o h o w  i m a g e  r e c o r d e d c l o s e l y  o n t o a  a n d  t h e  o b t a i n e d  h y p o t h e s i z e d  I t  w a s  w o u l d  n o  s i g n i f i c a n t  t r i a l s c a n t  f o r  a n y  d i f f e r e n c e  g i v e n i n  T h e a g e ) c h o s e n t o  m a l e  U n i v e r s i t y  o f  f r o m  a  p a r t i c i p a t e  t o  h e a r t  i n  t h e  t o  t h e  w e r e d e t e r m i n e  t r u e t h a t  s c o r e s  w o u l d  t h e  r a t e  w a s  b y  a n d  i n v e s t i g a t o r  b e t w e e n  b e  t h e r e  b e t w e e n a  s i g n i f i -  s u b j e c t s .  S T U D I E D  B r i t i s h c l a s s t o  s c r e e n  s t u d y  t h e r e  e i g h t e e n  a b i l i t y  o b t a i n e d  a p p r o x i m a t e d  b u t  l o o p  m e a s u r e m e n t s  a t t a c h e d  t h e  t h e  G R O U P  c o n d i t i o n i n g a n d  b y  s c o r e s  w e r e  p l a n e  T h e  r e c o v e r y  d i f f e r e n c e  s u b j e c t s  p h a s e  w a v e .  o f  s c o r e s  I .  i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l  p h o t o g r a p h s  a n d  s u b j e c t t h e  t h e  c a m e r a  i n t e r e s t  t h e  o f  o s c i l l o s c o p e  m m .  r a t e  s c o r e s . b e  l o o p  t h e  3 5  h e a r t  o f  p u l s e  p l a n e  w i t h  R e s t i n g  P R O C E D U R E  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  b r a c h i a l  p h a s e  i t  A N D  v a r i a t i o n  t h e  f r o m  I I I  a d u l t  ( 2 5  C o l u m b i a o n  4 0  f a c u l t y  t h e  c o m p l e t e  t o  b a s i s a  f i v e  o f  y e a r s  o f  m e m b e r s w i l l i n g n e s s  m i n u t e  s t e p  27  test  on a s e v e n t e e n i n c h b e n c h  thirty  steps  fitness  practice  T h e y h a d a l l h a d some b e n c h  as p a r t  of the exercise  two  men f o u n d d i f f i c u l t y  one  was f o u r  minutes  to eight  stepping  steps  first  subject trial  steps  was g i v e n  Four t r i a l s  b y t h e same o p e r a t o r  p e r week).  selected  stepping classes.  Only  t h e c o r r e c t pace -  o u t a t t h e end o f t h e f i v e man was g e n e r a l l y  o u t a t t h e end o f t h e f i v e  trial.  being  done d u r i n g  i n maintaining  while the other  Each subject his  were a t v a r i o u s  c l a s s f o r s e v e r a l months b e f o r e  the study.  four  The s u b j e c t s  l e v e l s although they had a l l p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e  conditioning for  per minute).  ( p r e f e r a b l y a t a speed o f  three or  minutes.  one p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n p r i o r t o were a d m i n i s t e r e d over  t o each  a f o u r week p e r i o d  (one  T h e t e s t i n g was done a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e  same t i m e o f day and on t h e same d a y e a c h week. The coffee,  subjects  were a s k e d t o n o t h a v e any m o r n i n g  or c i g a r e t t e s p r i o r t o t h e morning t e s t p e r i o d .  was d i s c o v e r e d required  i n the practice session,  a light breakfast  t o be a b l e  otherwise they experienced nausea. allowed, therefore, breakfast The  temperature  subjects well  The s u b j e c t s  were  t o drink  and n o i s e  some  to perform  t o have something  b u t were f o r b i d d e n  that  light  It  to eat at  coffee.  f a c t o r were c o n t r o l l e d a s  28  well  as  possible  and  did  not  II.  The as  follows:  pick the  up arm.  the  tube.  The  energy  converted  The into  registered In  this  system, band of  are  then  of  screen.  display  the  When t h e  impulses  transducer, (DC  well "Two  power  the  or by  is  reach are  no  the  3C66  to  artery  in  into (Tektronix)  electrical  the  weak  impulses  recording impulses energy of  a  Photographic of  are  then  before  they  cathode-ray  frequency  means  used  converted  light means  is  brachial  a Type  the  the  limitation  in  recordings  a regular  are  apparatus  differentiated  giving  actual  channels  by  functions  35 mm.  apparatus.  they  amplifier) as  into  interest.  to  amplified f o r m as  there  attached  pressure  then  converts  graphically  the  the  amplify  mechanical  frequency  camera  to  study  the  incoming e l e c t r i c a l  the  made  to  in  of  are  fed  amplifier  necessary  (2). back  are  "functions  (1).  components  and  trials.  transducer  changes  changes  between  USED  used  pressure  pressure  impulses which  impulses"  be  equipment  The p r e s s u r e  amplifier  into  pulse  greatly  EQUIPMENT  An I n f r a t o n  the  electrical  can  recording  vary  the  brachial used to  first  as  the  well  as  derivative  pressure obtain  from  the  pulse phase  wave  on  the  plane  29  loop the  - the  horizontal  vertical  display  differentiation" and  stored  The  oscilloscope  of  5 cps.  in  will  The instructed table. ten  to  the  TEST  artery by  taken  transducer  and t h e  during  the  resting a  just means  cuff  exercise  displayed  input  signal  sine  phase  wave  plane  laboratory,  to  backs  rest  rates  stethoscope  loop.  and  a  transducer  was  of  Once t h e  on t h e screen  A  l o o p was fastened relaxed  period.  on  for  stop  the  a cuff.  left  in  placed  elbow best  slightly  on  joint  by to  The means  were  the and  pressure screen,  a pre-exercise  taken.  place  to  watch.  second photograph of also  the  five  oscilloscope and  were  (beats/minute)  proximal to  on t h e  was  after  564).  on t h e i r  heart  displayed  plane  is  and  (TEKTRONIX TYPE  the  were p e r m i t t e d  of  then  an  signal  loop  circular  and r e l a x  (Appendix C ) .  was  so  upon e n t e r i n g  frozen  phase  plane  signal  AND A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  Infraton pressure  i m a g e was  exercise  closed  down  p o s s i b l e was  graph  tape  III.  pressure  differential  calibrated a  lie  the  oscilloscope  yield  means  secured  trace  is  the  for  The phase  storage  and t h e  obtained by  was  (3).  subjects  minutes  The  for  subjects,  The  brachial  a  display  the  photopre-  pressure of  permit  adhesive comfort  30  The to  their  minute  subjects,  arms,  on  a  manner the  steps  subjects If  the  they  at  (necessary  of  were  the  number end o f  of the  were unable  to  were  few  only  a  After instructed breathe  deeply.  immediately  thirty  steps  under for  on  trace  was  according  then  and  the  the  the  in Appendix C - the  a p h o t o g r a p h was  immediately  taken  of  the  counted the  minute. pace,  were  two  able  recorded  subjects and  they  pace. the  the  subjects relax  were  and  pressure  cuff  pressure  pulse  screen.  When  i m a g e was A  they  minute  judgment  taken.  per  They  correct  keep  and t o  tightened brachial  and  proper  Only  minutes, table  lead).  b e h i n d were  per  oscilloscope to  to  as  required  the  operator  onto  screen  the  five  derivative  explained  fell  period.  first  as  quickly  minute  supine The  order  per  the  operator  the  they  steps  the  steps  to  attached  maintain  that  at  close  steps  steps  and p r o j e c t e d  good -  to  attached  thirty  thirty  as  step  lie  of  step  stepping  to  pace  in  to  five  the  exercise,  were u n a b l e  instructed  at  stepping pace  stepping  correct  transducer  step  of  about' the  and r h y t h m the  to  because  During  at  pressure  bench p l a c e d  stepping.  subjects  and t h e  inch  instructions  of  the  instructed  seventeen  oscilloscope received  were  with  of  the  frozen  and the  operator on  the  second photograph  phase plane  loop.  It  was  was  31  important since  for  these  immediate  the  two  loops.  the  first  seconds  The photographs  because  at  of  repeated  at  cessation their  of  the  the  screen. five  of  backs  The  stepping.  throughout  the  testing  completely  and  to  his  hands  or  experienced unable  to  legs  3:00-3:30 with  the  pictures.  or  obtain  during  heart the  procedure  of  be  taken  periods  the  the  s t i l l . his  minutes  time.  If  were  trials  on  remained  in  stepping.  four  ten  have  was  after  motionless  It  was  relax  subject  moved  a  the  good t r a c e s  on  important  subjects  muscles,  obtaining  operator or  was  all. counts  intervals  after  derivatives  the  images  at  this  to  very  beat  minutes  the  the  subjects  during  in  at  of  again  tightened  any  therefore,  each  period  difficulty  Recovery observer  The  remain  represent  first  of  point  same p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e d u r e and  table  this  post-exercise  freezing  minutes  on t h e  pulses,  cessation  in  at  supposed t o  immediate  in  quickly  must,  after  same t i m e  difficulty  oscilloscope  work  pressure  Both photographs sixty  taken  to  p h o t o g r a p h s were  post-exercise  and  not  operator  the  taking  were  taken  1:00-1:30,  exercise the  by  another  2:00-2:30,  period.  immediate  This  and coincided  post-exercise  32  IV.  T h e r e a r e two t y p e s  o f waves w h i c h may f o r m t h e p e a k  ( F i g u r e s 2 and 3 ) .  T h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e two p u l s e  pulse,  wave c o n t o u r s  show t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e p h a s e p l a n e  as d e f i n e d e a r l i e r , pulse pressure of  THE PHASE PLANE LOOP  i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e b r a c h i a l  (X) on t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i s p l a y and t h e r a t e  change o f p r e s s u r e  (Y) on t h e v e r t i c a l  b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave l o o p than  i s definitely  t h e other which i s deeply  f o r m s two i n i t i a l p o r t i o n s . negative  secondary  loops  to  V.  R  Pr  notched  One  initially  so t h a t i t almost  The f o r m e r  l o o p h a s two  l o o p h a s o n l y one n e g a t i v e slow r e t u r n  ( F i g u r e s 2 and 3) .  MEASUREMENT OF THE LOOP  ( F i g u r e 1)  f o l l o w i n g measurements were made on t h e l o o p :  Q ( P Q • PQ)  R(p ,  smoother  l o o p and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a v e r y  the baseline  The  display.  and r e t u r n s t o t h e b a s e l i n e q u i t e  q u i c k l y whereas t h e l a t t e r secondary  loop which,  =  T  h i g h e s t p o i n t o f t h e loop which i s t h e p o s i t i v e maximum r a t e o f c h a n g e o f p r e s s u r e e x p r e s s e d a s c o o r d i n a t e s x and y .  n  e  p ) = The lowest p o i n t o f t h e loop which i s t h e n e g a t i v e maximum r a t e o f c h a n g e o f p r e s s u r e e x p r e s s e d a s c o o r d i n a t e s x and y . R  = The b a s e l i n e which goes through  t h e two  extreme p r e s s u r e p o i n t s a t t h e extreme and  right  sides of the loop.  left  A.  THE BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE CONTOUR  A. LOOP CONTOUR OF THE BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE  FIGURE 2  B.  THE BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE CONTOUR  35  Pr  = The of  Pr/pr  distance  between  change  of  pressure  = The r a t i o  of  the  = The r a t i o  The  the  of  below  compared because  necessary  in  for  and  dividing  all  all  the  ment  chosen to other  vidual error  analysis  subjects  concern  of  (5).  was  d e s i g n was  investigator  maximum a n d PQ  and p  distance vertical  of  (4).  R  PQ  distance  loops  to  be  settings  in  to  It  units  of  was  relative  10  were  could not  be  the thus  units.  in  all  normalized  Pr  photo-  by  Pr.  TREATMENT  one  factor  d e s i g n was  (6)  for of  use  the  chosen  that  one  with  separated of  to  measurefrom  due t o  the  limited  stated  natural was  repeated  variability  effectively  because  the  the gain  equal  reason  Myers  d e s i g n was the  in  This  more  R  between  photographs.  variance  Another  available.  measurement  of  designs because  differences variance.  of  p .  and b e t w e e n  measurements by  and  and t h e  STATISTICAL  used  possible  measurement  be  measurements  d e s i g n was  several  the  PQ  rates  origin.  changes  measurements  VI.  An  the  extreme  vertical  measurements  of  the  the  origin  obtaining  was. a r b i t r a r i l y graphs  p  absolute  oscilloscope  of  above  two  range  minimum p r e s s u r e s PQ/PR  the  the  indi-  from  repeated number  of  repeated  select  performance  when  the  trends  36 over  time.  level  is  ^  In  this  design,  b r o k e n down i n t o  = grand =  four  subject's  mean o f  —  pripulatidh of  the  subjects  scores  tested  variation  s t u d y was between  and b e t w e e n  the  individuals  resting heart  (i.e.  rate  was  to  variation variance. trials resting  of  (beats/minute)  an  .  for  the  infinite  i s not accounted individual  the  the  themselves  same a n a l y s i s  important  to  inter-individual  individual variation wanted  each  same  on t h e was  amount  individual  phase  carried  and f o r  of  the  plane  out  for  recovery  counts.  It here  The  of  determine  successive t r i a l s  loop measurements.  beat  designed to  scores  under Aj)  .= T h e d e v i a t i o n o f Y^j, f r o m y t ^ w h i c h "^f f o r b y t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t 'c<- o r b y differences. 0  heart  a  L A  The  at  components.  ~/ ^{ / ° ^ = t h e p o p u l a t i o n m e a n o f ith subject). M  the  score  mean  c ^ =y ^ / ^ ( / ^ , - t h e 0  each  determine and t h i s  plus the  was  An F - r a t i o  on e a c h  of  the  heart  rate;  determine or  true  error  various best  was  1st,  2nd,  variance  and The  components o f out  obtained  variables  types  variance).  carried  then  the  (PQ ; PQ,-  3rd,  by  of  variation  intrainvestigator  individual  an a n a l y s i s  for p ; R  and t o t a l  subjects p ; R  of  and  PQ/P ;  recovery  r  Pr/Pr;  37  heart  beat  considered  counts) to  be  and t h e  resulting  significant  or  not  value  was  then  significant  at  the  .05  level.  Missing Data,  There  and  some p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h  the  data  collected,  missing  for  resting  values  measurement subjects two  p ; R  some o f  for  ment  r  subjects values Since  for  two  for  value  three  for  three  measurement  pre-exercise  were  available,  data  by  an  averaging  a  few  two  There  measurement  different for  values Pr/Pr;  missing  p ;  and  for  three  of  estimate  made o f  the  resting  for  three  measurements was  three  values  for  subject  of  measurement  for  measure-  three  different the  for  resting  resting  of  for  missing  three  R  missing  three  different  values  subjects one  were  for  all  values  subjects  missing  resting  Of  resting  different  values  missing  resting  (beats/minute)  trials.  only  be measured.  measurements.  resting  subjects  resting  PQ/P "  were  m e a s u r e m e n t PQ,-  missing  one  the  some m i s s i n g p h o t o g r a p h s  could not  m i s s i n g on t h r e e  PQ,-  different  values  there  were  different heart  rate  subjects.  four  the  missing  the  other  trials trial  three  38  REFERENCES  1  T a v e l , Morton E. Clinical.Phonocardiography and E x t e r n a l Pulse Recording. Chicago: Y e a r Book M e d i c a l P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1967, p . 28.  2  Ibid.  3  Brown, S.R. e t a l . "Time D e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e C a r o t i d P u l s e Wave and P h a s e P l a n e A n a l y s i s o f C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n " , U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1965.  4  Ibid.  5  M y e r s , Jerome L . Fundamentals of E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . , 1967, p . 152.  6  I b i d . , p.  153.  CHAPTER  IV  R E S U L T S AND D I S C U S S I O N  I.  INTRODUCTION  As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y of  each  design the  score  of  each  can be p a r t i t i o n e d  true  score  variance  intra-individual from the  the  of  between  significant observed  of  variability  variance  of  variability) model,  the  four  and t h e  of  error  then  small  in  then  In  mean s q u a r e  the  is  that  true  error  term  If  small  will  in  if  be  'effect'  the  will  again  will,  variation.  proportion of  the  (inter-individual  analysis  estimates  be  error  variation true  error  will an  to  out  comparison  the  F-ratio  or  includes  the  F-ratio  variance  appropriate  components:  separated  relation  subjects  is  measurements  (1).  the  the  inter-individual  a measure  be  Similarly,  between  scores which (2) .  is  subjects,  be m o s t l y  cannot  and t h e r e  trials.  variance  component t h a t  relatively  trials  variability  The r e l i a b i l i t y  is  the  independent  error  variation,  between  between  two  an  III,  a repeated  which  variation  the  significant  therefore,  and  Chapter  measurement  trials  for  over  component  be  the  in  into  variation  component o f  component to  subject  in  the  of  variance  population  40  error  variance  and  no  interaction  analysis  of  variance  is  assumed t o  exist  in  the  population. An ment  d e s i g n was  order  to  above  and  afforded  used  determine to due  separated  take to  the  analysis  twenty-nine  Q /  p ,  p  P , p ,  Q  exercise);  p  exercise);  p  exercise);  resting  third beat  Q /  recovery  Q  PQ,  was  increased  than  in  OF  in  described  precision  being other  measure-  employed  variability  differences  variance  repeated  more  effectively  possible  designs.  RESULTS  was  performed  PQ,  p ,  p  R  R /  on  each  PQ/P '  of  Pr/Pr  R  i> ,  P /P '  Pr/Pr  (immediate  post  p ,  P ,  P /p£/  Pr/Pr  (5  post  p ,  p ,  P /P *  Pr/Pr  (10  R  /  R  R  R  R  R  heart  beat  beat  R  Q  Q  rate  count;  heart  Q  R  minutes minutes  (beats/minute);  second recovery count;  and  total  post  first  heart  beat  recovery  count;  heart  count.  Tables  following ment  Q  heart  The in  Q /  This  of  the  PRESENTATION  measurements:  (resting) ; p  of  variance  of  factor  study.  components  individual  from error  An  this  advantage  II.  recovery  in  one  results I  to  XXIX  sections  and t h e  table  of  the  statistical  (analysis under  of  variance)  headings  associated  analysis  with  and  identifying it.  Each  are in the  presented the measure-  section  states  41  the  results  of  the  F-ratio  between  calculated  the  F-ratio trials  from the for  between  square  term  for  subjects  The F - r a t i o  for  between  square  for  trials  PQ between  (resting)  subjects of  0.36  significant  at  the  this  difference  was  differences F-ratio.  as  PQ  was  over  over  - Table  for .05  in  shown b y  is  the  mean  ratio  error  mean  I.  The F - r a t i o  of  coefficient  of  the  square  of at  table.  the  square of  significant trials  results  variance  ratio  error the  the  of  the  between  mean term.  mean term.  2.40  for  the  the  .05  level.  variability  was  not  level. the  amount  comparison to the  of  inter-individual  intra-individual  significant  coefficient  between  for  subjects  measurement  p^  .584.  (resting)  - Table  subjects  level.  The F - r a t i o  of  0.69  was  significant  at  the  variability  Inter-individual to  is  was  measurement, large  analysis  the  trials  between  not  reliability  the  subjects  The r e l i a b i l i t y  (resting)  and  variability  The F - r a t i o  For  subjects;  appropriate  The F - r a t i o  term  between  intra-individual  II. was for .05  The F - r a t i o  of  8.04  significant  at  the  the  trials  .05 variation  level.  differences  differences  between  for  for  were  large  in  comparison  this  measurement.  The  42  TABLE I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE  Sum Sq.  OF p  Source o f Variation  df  SUBJECT  17  216470  12734  3  5666.5  1888.8  ERROR  51  270290  5299.7  TOTAL  71  492420  *Significant  a t t h e .05  TRIALS  Mean Sq.  Q  (RESTING)  F  Prob.  *2 .40  0.0082  0.36  0.7872  level  TABLE I I ANALYSIS OF  VARIANCE: OF p  Q  Mean Sq.  Source o f Variation  df  Sum Sq.  SUBJECT  17  1339500  78796  3  20206.0  6735.3 9805.3  TRIALS ERROR  51  500070  TOTAL  71  1859800  •Significant  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  (RESTING)  F  Prob.  *8.04  0.0000  0.69  0.5677  43  reliability  p  coefficient  (resting)—  R  F-ratios  for  this  subjects  variability  the  F-ratio  for  was  not  significant  the  t e r m was larger  larger  also  p was  the  trials .05  than the  .05  was  was  Table  shown  p  D  in  plus  was  for  between  the  .05  level  small  Thus, this  the  were  measurement  was  no and  error  variability  The between  1.09  there  variation.  and  (0.54)  measurement  (resting)  at  significant  0.64  at  subjects  IV.  significant  F-ratio  of  also  level.  inter-individual  results  showed  individual  variability  bility  the  was  trials  between  for  were no  significant  variation the  There  .876.  and  The  -.530.  subjects  the  .05  level.  which  was  not  F-ratio  The  significant  level.  These  for  not  the  coefficient  which  between at  at  (resting)  R  5.34  was  was  The F - r a t i o  differences  than  reliability  T a b l e -III-.  between  intra-individual  (resting)  PQ  measure.  and  inter-individual  of  but  measurement.  that little  there  was  significant  intra-individual  The r e l i a b i l i t y  inter-  varia-  coefficient  .813.  The subjects  variability  was  7.61.and  was  F-ratio  for  significant  between at  the  44  TABLE I I I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF p  Sum  Source o f Variation  df  SUBJECT  17  TRIALS  3  Sq.  R  Mean Sq.  (RESTING)  F  Prob.  205430  12084.0  0.64  0.8453  30624.0  10208.0  0.54  0.6616  18939.0  ERROR  51  965910  TOTAL  71  1202000  TABLE IV ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF p  Source o f Variation  SUBJECT TRIALS  (RESTING)  df  Sum Sq.  Mean Sq.  F  Prob.  17  93939.0  5525.8  *5.34  0.0000  3393.0  1131.0  1.09  0.3610  1034.4  3  ERROR  51  52755.0  TOTAL  71  150090.0  *Significant  R  a t t h e .05  level  45  .05 l e v e l . bility  The F - r a t i o  o f 1.44 f o r between t r i a l s  was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t  a t t h e .05 l e v e l .  T h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t shown b y t h e l a r g e  F-ratio  Pr/Pr variation  (resting) was  - Table V I .  The between t r i a l s  The t r u e v a r i a t i o n thus large  for  i n comparison. .869.  The b e t w e e n  subjects  significant  variability F-ratio  at the was  0.25  a t t h e .05 l e v e l . or i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n  c o e f f i c i e n t was  (immediate p o s t  exercise)  t h e between s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n  significant F-ratio  as  was  i n comparison with t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r -  The r e l i a b i l i t y  PQ  small  11.17 w h i c h was  w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t  ences.  was v e r y  c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d was  F-ratio  .05 l e v e l .  inter-individual variation  f o r between s u b j e c t s b u t t h e  intra-individual variation The r e l i a b i l i t y  varia-  a t t h e .05 l e v e l .  was 0.72 w h i c h a l s o  .911.  - Table V I I . was  The  F-ratio  1.90 w h i c h was n o t  The between t r i a l s  variation  was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05  level. The i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y was s m a l l i n relation PQ  t o t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y f o r t h e measure  (immediate p o s t  subjects F-ratio.  exercise)  as shown b y t h e s m a l l between  The o b t a i n e d r e l i a b i l i t y  coefficient  46  TABLE A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  Sum  Source of Variation  df  SUBJECT  17  D  Mean  (RESTING)  Prob.  38285000  2252100  *7.61  0.0000  1273500  424510  1.44  0.2424  295830  15087000  TOTAL  71  54646000 the  n  F  51  at  P /p  Sq.  ERROR  *Significant  OF  Sq.  3  TRIALS  V  .05  level  TABLE VI A N A L Y S I S OF  V A R I A N C E OF  Sum  Pr/Pr  Mean  Source of Var i a t i o n  df  Sq.  Sq.  SUBJECT  17  9729800  572340  3  38458.0  12819.0  ERROR  51  2614200  51260.0  TOTAL  71  12383000  TRIALS  *Significant  at  t h e . .05  level  (RESTING)  F  Prob.  *11.17  -0.0000  0.25  0.8610  47  was  .474.  (immediate  PQ F-ratio  of  4.41  for  significant  at  the  between  trials  .05  level. The  large this  in  variability  was  The  variability subjects  5.15  at  the  not  R  of  of  1.74  in  the level  to  post  between and  the  the  the  The r e l i a b i l i t y post  the  between  true  between at  the  trials  score  intra-individual of  the  coefficient was  between of  the  .566.  variability trials  for  level.  e x e r c i s e ) - •-- T a b l e 'X.  subjects  very  .773.  The  between  or  the  thus  was  IX.  .05  size  exercise)  at  significant  the  variability  relation  was  for  variability  - Table was  was  1.41  significant  coefficient  for  at  of  variation  2.30  significant  (immediate  for .05  F-ratio  (immediate  D  true  The  variability  F-ratio  not  exercise)  demonstrated by  F-ratio.  measure p  of  post  F-ratio  large  as  was  VIII.  intra-individual  inter-individual was  the  The r e l i a b i l i t y  variability and t h e  the  or  - Table  subjects  and  variability  (immediate  variation  between  inter-individual  R  level  exercise)  level  comparison to  subjects  p  the .05  measurement.  p  .05  the  post  was  The  F-ratio  significant  variability  F-ratio  48  TABLE •ANALYSIS  Source  OF V A R I A N C E OF p  of  n  VII (IMMEDIATE POST  Sum  EXERCISE)  Mean  Variation  df  Sq.  Sq.  SUBJECT  17  120160  7068.3  1.90  0.0398  3  8022.1  2674.0  0.72  0.5485  ERROR  51  189670  3719.0  TOTAL  71  317850  TRIALS  TABLE A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E OF p  Source  n  *4.41  0.0000  53807.0  17936.0  1.41  0.2504  12744.0  SUBJECT  17  954880  ERROR  51  649920  TOTAL  71  1658600  at  the  .05  Mean  56169.0  Sq.  *Significant  EXERCISE)  Prob.  df  3  (IMMEDIATE POST  F  Variation  TRIALS  Prob.  VIII  Sum  of  F  level  Sq.  ANALYSIS  OF V A R I A N C E  Source of Variation  df  SUBJECT  17  IX  OF p  (IMMEDIATE POST  Mean  Sq.  22870  *2.30  0.0112  51915  17305  1.74  0.1684  9926.3  506240  TOTAL  71  946950  the  .05  level  TABLE ANALYSIS  Source  of  Prob.  388790  51  at  EXERCISE)  F  Sq.  ERROR  *Significant  R  Sum  3  TRIALS  TABLE  OF V A R I A N C E  OF  p  Sum  R  X (IMMEDIATE POST  EXERCISE)  Mean  Variation  df  Sq.  Sq.  F.  SUBJECT  17  114750  6750.1  *5.15  0.0000  3  2025.2  675.06  0.52  0.6774  1309.9  TRIALS ERROR  51  66803  TOTAL  71  183580  *Significant  at  the  .05  level  Prob.  50  was  0.52,  which  The to  the  between this  intra-individual subjects  at  variation  variation  variation  the was  as  .05  level.  large  shown b y  The r e l i a b i l i t y  post  exercise)  variability  the  at  in  relation  the  large  coefficient  for  .806.  (immediate  .05  was  level  1.06  - Table  F-ratio  was  and t h e  F-ratio  which  was  not  4.62  XI.  The  which  was  of  between  significant  at  the  level. Thus,  variation  the  was  inter-individual  large  variability. was  was  subjects  significant trials  significant  F-ratio.  measurement  between  not  inter-individual  PQ/PR  .05  was  The  in  variation  comparison to  reliability  the  or  true  score  intra-individual  coefficient  for  the  measure  .784.  Pr/Pr F-ratio  of  significant trials  5.25 at  for  post  between .05  level  variability  was  not  inter-individual  e x e r c i s e ) " -- T a b l e i  subjects  the  The larger  (immediate  and  the  variability F-ratio  significant  at  variation  was,  than  the  intra-individual  coefficient  was  .809.  XII.  the  variation.  0.95 .05  was for  between  level.  therefore, The  The  much  reliability  51  TABLE ANALYSIS  Source  OF V A R I A N C E  OF  P /p Q  XI R  Sum  of  Variation  df  SUBJECT  17  Sq.  F  98740000  5808200  *4.62  0.0000  3986200  1328700  1.06  0.3762  1256500  ERROR  51  6408,'uOOO.  TOTAL  71  166810000  *Significant  at  the  .05  Prob.  level  TABLE OF V A R I A N C E  EXERCISE)  Mean  Sq.  3  TRIALS  ANALYSIS  (IMMEDIATE POST  OF  Pr/Pr  Sum  XII (IMMEDIATE POST  EXERCISE)  Mean  Source of Variation  df  Sq.  Sq.  F.  SUBJECT  17  2164900  127350  *5.25  0.0000  TRIALS  3  69103.0  23034.0  0.95  0.4253  ERROR  51  1237200  24258.0  TOTAL  71  3471200  *Significant  at  the  .05  level  Prob.  52  (5  PQ F-ratio  of  2.71  significant between  minutes  at  trials  for the  post  exercise)-  between .05  subjects  level  variability  - Table  and  was  variability  the  not  The  XITI.  F-ratio  was  of  significant  1.24 at  for  the  .05  level. The much  component of  larger  bility  than  for  the  reliability  coefficient  of  11.32  significant had .05  at  an F - r a t i o  larger  the of  this  between  which  the was  was  variaThe  .631.  XIV.  variability  between not  was  exercise).  - Table  subjects  .05'riLevel; 0.40  post  measure  exercise)  inter-individual  than  the  measure.  p  (5  R  subjects  trial  The was variability  significant  variation level.  variability  intra-individual The r e l i a b i l i t y  minutes  variability  significant  .05  for  post  intra-individual  (5 m i n u t e s  of  variability  at  the  level. The  this  component o f  m e a s u r e p^  (5 m i n u t e s  PQ F-ratio  the  inter-individual  at  the  F-ratio  post  .05 was  level 0.42  variability  coefficient  exercise)  F-ratio  c o m p o n e n t was  was  1.89  and t h e  which  was  which between not  component  was  - Table  much for  .914.  XV. was  The  between  not  trials  significant  at  the  5.3  TABLE ANALYSIS  OF V A R I A N C E  OF p  (5 M I N S .  n  Sum  Source of Variation  df  SUBJECT  17  F.  Prob.  208670  12274.0  *2.71  0.0032  16845.0  5614.9  1.24  0.3054  51  231300  TOTAL  71  456810  the  .05  '  Source  OF  VARIANCE  OF  p  Sum  of  4535.3  level  TABLE ANALYSIS  XIV Q  (5 M I N S . P O S T  df  Sq.  Sq.  SUBJECT  17  1459900  85876.0  3  9003.0  3001.0  ERROR  51  386970  7587.6  TOTAL  71  1855900  *Significant  at  the  .05  level  EXERCISE)  Mean  Variation  TRIALS  EXERCISE)  Sq.  ERROR  at  POST  Mean  Sq.  3  TRIALS  *Significant  XIII  F.  Prob.  *11.32  -0.0000  0.40  0.7598  54  For  this  measurement  intra-individual reliability  p of the  3.96 .05  for  between  the  coefficient  PQ/P F-ratio ficant  of at  between  of  0.05  significant  at  the  .05  was  between  and  small.  .05  The  The  F-ratio  significant between  at  trials  level. c o m p o n e n t was  The  large  component  for  reliability  .747.  exercise)  the  was  XVI.  variability  subjects  and  variation  for  exercise).  post  level  was  variability  measure  minutes for  trials  variation of  post  were  Table  F-ratio  this  5.89 the  variability  intra-individual  (5  R  inter-individual  exercise)  subjects  minutes  (5  R  the  .472.  inter-individual  compared t o p  not  of  was  post  and t h e  was  The  measure  minutes  level  variation  components  coefficient  (5  R  both  XVII.  variability  F-ratio  not  - Table  of  0.06  significant  at  The  was  signi-  for  the  the  .05  level. The  greatest  portion  inter-individual  variation  contributed  only  to  ratio  95  PQ/P  R  coefficient  was  a  minutes .830.  small post  of and  the  variability  intra-individual  portion  of  exercise).  the The  was  due  to  variability  variability reliability  for  55  TABLE  XV  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E OF p Source  of  R  (5 M I N S .  POST  EXERCISE)  Sum  Mean  sq.  Sq.  F.  Prob.  Variation  df  SUBJECT  17  234790  13811.0  1.89  0.0408  3  9196.0  3065.3  0.42  0.7427  ERROR  51  372210  7298.2  TOTAL  71  616200  TRIALS  TABLE ANALYSIS  Source  OF V A R I A N C E OF p  of  SUBJECT  17  98964.0  5821.4  *3.96  0.0001  229.69  76.563  0.05  1470.9  75017.0  TOTAL  71  174210  .05  EXERCISE)  Prob.  51  the  POST  F.  ERROR  at  MINS.  Sq.  sq.  *Significant  (5  Mean  df  3  p  Sum  Variation  TRIALS  XVI  level  0.9787  56  P r / P r -(-5 m i n u t e s F-ratio  of  11.78  significant  at  F-ratio  0.38  was The  larger Pr/Pr was  for  the  post  between  .05  which  the  post  variability  The  was  trials  variation  was  significant  at  .05  not  variability  c o m p o n e n t was  variation  exercise).  The  the  of  level. much  the  measurement  reliability  coefficient  .915.  (10  F-ratio  of  cant  the  at  trials  than  minutes  5.97  for  .05  that  post  exercise)-  between  level  variation The  was  and t h e  between  subjects  coefficient  of  measure  (10  PQ subjects the  variability  .05  2.31  level  which  The larger  minutes  than  and  was  post  not  the  F-ratio.  was  .05  was for  signifibetween  level.  c o m p o n e n t was as The  shown b y  larger  the  reliability  - Table  XX.  10.57 which  was  trials  significant  at  variation  the  variability  intra-individual  2.98  The  .833.  exercise)  between  inter-individual  the  variation  was  F-ratio the  of  variability  intra-individual  this  at  XIX.  variation  F-ratio  significant  inter-individual of  - Table  subjects  significant  was  XVITI.  The between  intra-individual  (5 m i n u t e s  PQ  at  subjects  - Table  level.  inter-individual  than  exercise)  .05  The  significant F-ratio.  level.  c o m p o n e n t was  variation  for  between  measure  much PQ  57  TABLE A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  Source  OF P / P Q  3  ERROR  51  TOTAL  71  *Significant  POST  EXERCISE)  Mean Sq.  F.  Prob.  92244000  5426100  *5.89  0.0000  153030  51011.0  0.06  0.9772  46973000  921050  139370000  at t h e .05  level  TABLE A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  Source  (5 M I N S .  Sq.  17  TRIALS  R  Sum  of  Variation  SUBJECT  XVII  XVIII  OF P r / P r  Sum  of  (5 M I N S .  POST  EXERCISE)  Mean  df  Sq.  SUBJECT  17  4907400  288670  *11.78  -0.0000  3  27744.0  9248.0  0.38  0.7724  ERROR  51  1249500  24500.0  TOTAL  71  TRIALS  *Significant  ,  .  a t t h e .05  6184700  level  Sq.  F.  Prob.  Variation  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  TABLE  XIX  OF p  (10 M I N S .  Q  Sum  POST E X E R C I S E )  Source of Variation  df  Sq.  Sq.  F.  SUBJECT  17  239260  14074.0  *5.97  0.0000  21085.0  7028.4  *2.98  0.0393  2357.6  3  TRIALS ERROR  51  120240  TOTAL  71  380590  *Significant  at  the  .05  Mean  level  TABLE ANALYSIS  Source  of  OF V A R I A N C E  OF p  Q  Sum  XX (10 M I N S .  POST E X E R C I S E )  Mean  Variation  df  Sq.  Sq.  F.  SUBJECT  17  1087400  63963.0  *10.57  3  41932.0  13977.0 6054.1  TRIALS ERROR  51  308760  TOTAL  71  1438100  *Significant  at  the  Prob.  .05  level  2.31  Prob.  -0.0000 0.0862  59  (10 m i n u t e s p o s t for  t h i s measure was  p F-ratio  R  and t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  o f 1.52  exercise)  f o r between  variation  was  the intra-individual  o f 0.49 f o r  a l s o not s i g n i f i c a n t  v a r i a b i l i t y was  variation  f o r between s u b j e c t s .  at the  small  compared  a s shown b y t h e s m a l l  The r e l i a b i l i t y  coefficient  .340.  p F-ratio cant  The  level.  F-ratio was  XXI.  s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t  The i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l with  - Table  a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o  between t r i a l s  coefficient  .905.  (10 m i n u t e s p o s t  significant  .05  exercise)  R  (10 m i n u t e s p o s t  o f 5.50  exercise)  f o r between  variation  XXII.  subjects variation  a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o  between t r i a l s  - Table  was  o f 1.42  not s i g n i f i c a n t  The  was  signifi-  f o r the at the  .05  level. The i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l compared w i t h  t h a t due t o i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l  the r e l i a b i l i t y  pg/p F-ratio  R  v a r i a b i l i t y component  coefficient  o f 1.14  f o r between  exercise)  large  d i f f e r e n c e s and  o f t h i s measure was  -(-10 -minutes p o s t  was  .818.  - Table XXIII.  s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t  The  60  TABLE"XXI A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E OF p  D  (10  Sum  MINS.  POST  EXERCISE)  Mean  Source of Variation  df  Sq.  Sq.  F .  Prob.  SUBJECT  17  314860  18521.0  1.52  0.1266  17944.0  5981.3  0.49  0.6949  12219.0  3  TRIALS ERROR  51  623180  TOTAL  71  955990  TABLE A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E OF p  Source  of  XXII R  Sum  *5.50  0.0000  7435.0  2478.3  1.42  0.2460  1742.3  SUBJECT  17  162760  3  ERROR  51  88859.0  TOTAL  71  259050  the  .05  Mean  9574.2  Sq.  at  EXERCISE)  Prob.  df  *Significant  MINS.- POST  F.  Variation  TRIALS  (10  level  Sq.  significant between  at  the  trials  .05  level  variability  and  was  the  not  F-ratio  of  significant  1.18 at  for  the  .05  level. The  intra-individual  individual the  variation  small F-ratio  coefficient  for  Pr/Pr F-ratio  of  between  between  at  trials  the  the  post  between  .05  level  variation  was  and  the  same  subjects.  m e a s u r e was  (10 m i n u t e s  12.19 for  significant  were n e a r l y  for  this  variation  inter-  size The  as  shown  by  reliability  .119.  exercise) subjects and t h e also  — Table  XXIV.  variability F-ratio  of  significant  The  was  3.06  for  the  .05  at  level. The  inter-individual  compared w i t h  the  the  large  extremely  reliability  F-ratio  of  Heart  12.15  ficant  at  trials  variation The  the  intra-individual F-ratio  coefficient  Resting  the  .05  variability  for  Rate  not  between  the  m e a s u r e was  subjects  plus  variation  error  as  at  shown  of  1.85  the  by  The  .918.  - Table  was  variance  large  subjects.  variation  F-ratio  significant  inter-individual  intra-individual  for  and t h e  very  variation  (beats/minute)-  between  level was  for  was  .05  XXV. was  signi-  for  between  level.  much l a r g e r term.  The  The  than  62  TABLE A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  Source  of  XXIII  OF P / P Q  R  (10  MINS.  Sum  Mean  Sq.  Sq.  POST  EXERCISE)  Variation  df  SUBJECT  17  592130000  34831000  1.14  0.3490  3  108680000  36226000  1.18  0.3263  30675000  TRIALS ERROR  51  1564400000  TOTAL  71  2265200000  TABLE  ANALYSIS  Source  (10  MINS.  Sum  Mean  POST  Variation  df  sq.  Sq.  SUBJECT  17  5892200  346600  260570  86856.0 28422.0  TRIALS  3  ERROR  51  1449500  TOTAL  71  7602300  •Significant  at  the  .05  level  Prob.  XXIV  OF V A R I A N C E OF P r / P r  of  F.  EXERCISE)  F. *12.19 *3.06  Prob. -0.0000 0.0361  reliability  coefficient  First F-ratio  of  Recovery  26.83  ficant  at  the  trials  variation The  for  .05  was  Heart between  level was  .918.  Beat  subjects  and t h e  also  the  variance  The r e l i a b i l i t y  was  XXVI.  The  variation  was  signi-  for  between  intra-individual  of  at  variation  comparison with  - Table  F-ratio  significant  inter-individual  term.  Count  3.43  the  was  .05  very  variation  coefficient  of  level.  large  in  plus  error  this  measure  .963.  Second F-ratio  of  Recovery  36.90  ficant  at  the  trials  variation The  relation  .05  to  the  Third of  level; was  the  also  27.11 the  .05  trials  variation  for  Heart between  level was  and  also  Count  subjects F-ratio  of  Beat  the  inter-individual  between  the  .05  level.  was  variation  large  error was  in  variance  term.  .973.  T a b l e -XXVIII. variation  F-ratio  significant  signi-  for  Count  subjects  was  The  3.85  at  plus  obtained  - T a b l e -XXVII.  variation  variability  intra-individual  Recovery  at  Beat  significant  coefficient  ficant  The  between  inter-individual  The r e l i a b i l i t y  F-ratio  for  Heart  of  at was  3.56  the  .05  The  was  signi-  for  between  level.  much l a r g e r  than  64  TABLE A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  Source  of  XXV  OF R E S T I N G H E A R T R A T E  Sum  (BEATS/MINUTE)  Mean  Variation  df  SUBJECT  17  4442.6  261.33  *12.15  -0.0000  3  119.15  39.717  1.85  0.1490  ERROR  51  1097.1  21.512  TOTAL  71  5658.9  TRIALS  *Significant  at  Sq.  the  .05  Sq.  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E RECOVERY  of  Prob.  level  TABLE  Source  F.  XXVI OF F I R S T  ( 1 - 1 : 30  MINS.)  H E A R T B E A T COUNT  Sum  Mean F.  Prob.  Variation  df  Sq.  Sq.  SUBJECT  17  5465.5  321.50  *26.83  -0.0000  3  123.33  41.111  *3.43  0.0235  ERROR  51  611.17  11.984  TOTAL  71  6200.0  TRIALS  *Significant  at  the  .05  level  65  TABLE  XXVII  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E OF SECOND (2-2 : 3 0 R E C O V E R Y H E A R T B E A T COUNT  Sum  MINS. )  Mean  Source of Variation  df  SUBJECT  17  4410.9  259.46  *36.90  -0.0000  3  81.152  27.051  *3.85  0.0147  ERROR  51  358.60  7.0313  TOTAL  71  4850.7  TRIALS  •Significant  at  Sq.  the  .05  Source  F.  XXVIII  ( 3 - 3 : 30 OF V A R I A N C E OF T H I R D R E C O V E R Y H E A R T B E A T COUNT  Sum  of  Prob.  level  TABLE ANALYSIS  Sq.  MINS.)  Mean F.  Prob.  Variation  df  Sq.  SUBJECT  17  3400.1  200.01  *27.11  -0.0000  3  78.779  26.260  *3.56  0.0203  ERROR  51  376.22  7.3769  TOTAL  71  3855.1  TRIALS  •Significant  at  the  .05  level  Sq. .  66  the  intra-individual  The r e l i a b i l i t y  Total F-ratio  of  coefficient  Recovery  32.83  at  the  trials  variability  to  the  .05  Table  the  F-ratios  not  the  XXX  .05  for  level.  statistically  5 minutes  exercise,  -' T a b l e  XXIX.  The  variation  was  signi-  for  between  of  3.95  significant  at  the  .05  large  in  variation  was  error.  .963.  F-ratio  all  was  plus  error  level. relation  variance.  .970.  and p / p n  Also  resting  heart  can be  seen  subjects  There  only  significant. R  exercise, R  (F  -  (F p  1.14)  between of  R  the  included rate,  from the  five  measurements the  all  at  (F  = 1.52)  at  at  10 m i n u t e s  which  (F  rest,  that  most  significant  F-ratios Q  table  recovery  table  were  These were p = 0.64  subjects  in  and  variability  were  p  for  variation  loop.  exercise,  post  F-ratios  trials  It  between  immediate post at  shows  counts.  for  m e a s u r e was  variability  phase plane  F-ratios  beat  this  Count  due t o  SUMMARY OF R E S U L T S AND D I S C U S S I O N  and b e t w e e n  made o n t h e  at  also  coefficient  III.  heart  was  variation  subjects  and t h e  inter-individual  The r e l i a b i l i t y  are  level  plus  Beat  between  intra-individual  variation  of  Heart  for  ficant  The  variation  p  = R  1.90) (F  =  10 m i n u t e s post  were  1.89) post  exercise.  67  TABLE  XXIX  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E OF T O T A L R E C O V E R Y HEART B E A T COUNT ( 1 % M I N S . )  Sum  Mean  Variation  Source  of df  Sq.  Sq.  SUBJECT  17  38856  2285.6  *32.83  -0.0000  3  825.83  275.28  *3.95  0.0130  ERROR  51  3550.4  69.616  TOTAL  71  43232.0  TRIALS  *Significant  at  the  .05  level  F.  Prob.  TABLE SUMMARY OF F - R A T I O S AND R E L I A B I L I T Y MEASUREMENTS  XXX  COEFFICIENTS  ON T H E P H A S E  REST  MEASUREMENT  ~1"0P'E'  REST  RELIABILITY  5PE  ' IPE  COEFFICIENT  VARIATION 10PE  REST  IPE  5PE  10PE  *2.71  *5.97  0.36  0.72  1.24  *2.98  .584  .474  .631  .833  PQ  *8.04  *4.41  *11.32  *10.57  0.69  1.41  0.40  2.31  .876  -.773  .914  .905  0.64  *2.30  1.89  1.52  0.54  1.74  0.42  0.49  -.530  .566  .472  .340  *5.34  *5.15  *3.96  *5.50  1.09  0.52  0.05  1.42  .813  .806  .747  .818  *7.61  *4.62  *5.89  1.14  1.44  1.06  0.06  1.18  .869  . 7 84  .830  .119  *11.17  *5.25  *11.78  *12.19  0.25  0.95  0.38  *3.06  .911  .809  .915  .918  Pr/Pr Resting Rate  *12 .15  1. 85  .918  *26 .83  * 3 . 43  .963  *36 .90  * 3 . 85  .973  *27 .11  * 3 . 56  .963  *32 .83  * 3 . 95  .970  Recovery  Heart  Beat  Count  Recovery  Heart 3rd  '  BETWEEN T R I A L S  1.90  PQ/PR  2nd  VARIATION  SELECTED  *2.40  PR  1st  5PE^  THE  PQ  PR  Heart  IPE  IN  LOOP  F-RATIO  F-RATIO BETWEEN[ S U B J E C T S  OF V A R I A N C E  PLANE  Beat  Count  Recovery  Heart  Beat  Count  Total  Recovery  Heart  Beat  Count  *Significant  at  the  .05  level  CODE:  IPE  = Immediate  Post  Exercise  5PE  = 5 Minutes  Post  Exercise  10PE  = 10 M i n u t e s  Post  Exercise  69  With variation small F there  level Pr/Pr  exceptions, not  significant  values  for  subjects  in  general,  trials  w e r e PQ (F  for  (F  beat  count  (F  = 3.95)  Pr/Pr  either did  that  these  any over  not  change the  changes  four in  increased  for  the  = 3.06)  show  any  the  for  trends.  It  between  subjects  trials.  XXX  also  twenty-nine were  B)  data  It  in  trials.  post  beat (F  trials  these  showed  that The  the  .05  exercise,  and  exercise, count  = 3.85),  for  also  at  and (F  the  =  3.43),  third  recovery  (F  Q  apparent  recovery  heart  did  trials  not  = 2.98) trend  recovery  beat  appear  were  due  to  the  includes  the  measurements  for  the  data counts  therefore,  reflected  training  not  and  beat  appear,  F-ratios of  of  heart  did  with  determined  p  degrees  values  familiarization  coefficients  to  and t o t a l  showed no  The raw  measurement  Table  level;  significant  post  count  between  trials  due  heart  (Appendix  significant in  beat  .05  four  were  for  .  case.  also  the  10 m i n u t e s  = 3.56),  data  (F  at  recovery  (F  at  'effect'  10 m i n u t e s  heart  count  The raw  in  at  F-ratios  over  which  = 2.98)  first  second recovery heart  no  F-ratios  = 3.06)  F-ratios  ratio  the  were  was,  between  two  that  or  fitness  these  experience  or  test. reliability  taken.  coefficients  These  f r o m mean v a l u e s  reliability of  subjects'  70  scores  over  bility  coefficients  for  the  series  measurements  5 minutes (.340), rest  post  PQ/P  of  were  p„  trials..  above  exercise  p  (.472), post  Most The  .500.  immediate post  10 m i n u t e s  R  four  of  were  (.474),  10 m i n u t e s  exercise  relia-  exceptions  exercise  R  the  p  post  exercise  and p  (.119),  D  at  R  (-.530). The r e l i a b i l i t y This  -.530. obtained  was  and  it  the  coefficient  only  probably  for  negative resulted  p  (at  D  rest)  reliability from p  was  coefficient  occurring  in  some  R instances  on t h e  (reflected i.e.  of  two  bility point regard  and  lower  wave.  in of to  in  the  position  It  of  site  on t h e  the  R  the of  m  ay#  x-axis,  the  incisura  below  of  therefore,  thus  slope  incisura, of  the  fall  on  creating  change  least  the  slope  measurement.  rate  at  the  catacrotic  R  catacrotic  be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  above  instances  (P /P )  maximum n e g a t i v e  of  of  one  varia-  Choosing  the  pressure  without  the  from the  pulse point  wave of  view  reproducibility. The r e l i a b i l i t y  all  R  below  slope  other  portion  The p o i n t  low p o i n t s  seems t o of  wave)  on t h e  pulse  catacrotic  conditions would  appear  investigation.  of  rest  that It  is  coefficients  for  and e x e r c i s e  were r e l a t i v e l y  this  measurement  difficult  to  p_,  obtained  should receive  locate  the  exact  under low. further points  71  of  greatest  positive  of  pressure  on t h e  and p  appear  R  assessment reliability  likely  coefficients  exercise,  exercise as  is  tently,  true  of  of  ratio  reproducible potentially to  assess  of  training.  that  measures  p ,  recovery  count, heart  third beat  extremely resting recovery amounts F-ratios  heart  beat  heart all  and  between  beat  for  counts  trials  their  of  low  measurement.  a resting, and  immediate  10 m i n u t e s  post  Pr/Pr,  and,  less  consis-  appear  consideration possible in  for  future  different  resting  count, i.e.  second,  indicated  .900.  subjects third,  the  variation; variability  of  attempts degrees  rate,  heart  beat  recovery The  variation and  presence  the  be  heart  and t o t a l  above  to  as  second recovery  between  first,  future  reproducibility  persons  high,  inter-individual  for  for  coefficients  F-ratios  rate,  heart of  were  error  Pg  high  in  count,  change  has  deserve  between  beat  recovery  large  R  measurements  heart  count  Pg  of  any  due t o  These measurements  and t h e r e f o r e  differences  in  exercise,  showed  The r e l i a b i l i t y first  condition  post  Pg/PR-  useful  be u s e f u l  coefficients  rate  The measurements  and p o s s i b l e  5 minutes  conditions  also  to  cardiovascular  The r e l i a b i l i t y post  negative  loop photographs.  least  of  and g r e a t e s t  total of  large  significant these  of  same  72 measures This  showed  'effect'  subject's  some  'effect'  may h a v e  efficiency  been  of  due  to  caused  stepping,  the  by or  trials  themselves.  random changes in  in  the  cardiovascular  condition. Cureton used  for  predicting  cardiovascular He  suggested  (3)  explained  "the  the  relative  condition'  the  that  in  state  subjects  significance  of  of  Brown e t  (4) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t  the  phase  tive in had  plane  measures  his  study  certain  returned  increased  subjects  waves.  with  wave  and  measurements  is  to  in  for  'are  in  He  the also  training.  individual.  however,  with  terms  to  use  assessing  these  noted these  these in  the  important  that  condition'.  Boyd  working  quantita-  pulse  post-training form than  PQ/P  r  the  (+p/-p)  indicate  differences  observed  phase  plane  cardiovascular  question  measurements  that  found  (5)  studies  the  of  capacities  changing  wave  that  as  valuable  the  be  disease".  measurements  be  of  resting  A l l  particular  An  ratio  higher  heart  measures  condition.  (6) o b s e r v e d  faster  may b e p o s s i b l e  pulse  an  that  without  dimensions might  cardiovascular  Jackson  pre-training  it  of  wave c o u l d 'functional  cardiovascular  characteristics  pressures. loops  loop  of  various  determinants al.  'functional  pulse  that in  loop  condition  must  the  be  reproducible'?  of  asked,  73  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  study,  determine the r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y measurements o f t h e b r a c h i a l  as s t a t e d  o f the phase p l a n e p u l s e wave w i t h  future  assessment o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  bility  coefficients  of the  true variation measurements  e a r l i e r , was t o loop  a view t o the  condition.  o f t h e measurements g a v e an  The  relia-  indication  i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l v a r i a b i l i t y of and, g e n e r a l l y ,  most o f t h e s e l e c t e d  were h i g h ,  indicating  measurements o f t h e p h a s e p l a n e  loop,  were r e a s o n a b l y r e p r o d u c i b l e measures f o r t h e group o f f a c u l t y men  used  in this  study.  that  74  REFERENCES  1  Myers,  Jerome L.  Boston: 2  Allyn  Cureton,  4  Brown,  Thomas K i r k ,  Guidance. S.R.,  Pulse  St. et  Wave  Condition", British  Bacon,  Experimental Design.  Inc.,  Boyd,  William  Working  Jackson,  Jr.  1967.  Louis:  al.  Physical  Fitness  The C V .  Mosby Company,  "Time D e r i v a t i v e s  and Phase  Plane Analysis  Unpublished Paper,  Columbia, Vancouver, Robert.  Capacity",  University  6  and  of  ibid.  3  5  Fundamentals  Roger  of  "A Phase  Charles.  Including  Brachial  Pulse  Consumption,  of  Thesis,  Columbia, Vancouver, Appraisal  Vancouver,  and  its  of  Thesis,  April  1967.  the  Derivatives",  The U n i v e r s i t y  1967.  The  Champion  Maximum O x y g e n  Time  Physical  April  E l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m Complexes and Wave  of  1965.  of  1947.  Cardiovascular  Plane Analysis  Analysis  and  Carotid  The U n i v e r s i t y  "A F i t n e s s  Unpublished Master's Columbia,  of  the  Unpublished Master's  British  Oarsmen,  of  Appraisal  of  British  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY AND  The  p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  reproducibility the of  o f s e l e c t e d p h a s e p l a n e l o o p measurements o f  brachial pulse cardiovascular The  years)  CONCLUSIONS  wave f o r p o s s i b l e u s e i n f u t u r e condition.  group s t u d i e d  were e i g h t e e n a d u l t  ability  c l a s s who were c h o s e n f o r t h e i r  t o complete a f i v e minute step  t e s t on a s e v e n t e e n  i n c h b e n c h and a l s o f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s  to participate i n  study. The  carefully for  (ages 25 t o 40  m a l e f a c u l t y members o f a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia c o n d i t i o n i n g  the  assessment  four  testing  conditions as p o s s i b l e ;  f o r t e s t i n g were s t a n d a r d i z e d each s u b j e c t  weeks and was g i v e n  was t e s t e d  one p r a c t i c e t r i a l  as  o n c e a week p r i o r t o the  period. The  transducer attached  apparatus used attached  i n t h e t e s t i n g was a p r e s s u r e  t o an o s c i l l o s c o p e .  A 35 mm.  camera,  t o t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e , p h o t o g r a p h e d t h e images on t h e  oscilloscope The  screen.  images f o r m e d on t h e s c r e e n were t h e b r a c h i a l  76  pressure pulse  and  time  of change o f p r e s s u r e  derivative.  along  t h e y - a x i s and  along  the x - a x i s , a c l o s e d c i r c u i t  plane  l o o p , was The  pace of t h i r t y The  a l s o d i s p l a y e d on  test  u s e d was  the  the  the  rate  pressure  loop, c a l l e d  the  phase  screen.  a f i v e minute s t e p p i n g t e s t  s t e p s p e r m i n u t e on  s u b j e c t remained  By p l o t t i n g  a seventeen  i n a supine p o s i t i o n  on  at  a  i n c h bench.  a table  except  during the exercise period. B r a c h i a l p u l s e p r e s s u r e wave, f i r s t phase plane rest,  l o o p p h o t o g r a p h s were t a k e n  post  e x e r c i s e , and  four  occasions.  a t 10 m i n u t e s p o s t  Measurements p , Q  and  p ,  p ,  Q  immediate p o s t  10 m i n u t e s p o s t  R  image due  apparatus  R  e x e r c i s e on  p / p , Pr/Pr Q  each  of  were made  R  (Figure 1).  These  to adjust for differences  t o changes i n the g a i n  s e t t i n g s of  the  ( F i g u r e 1) .  counts  (1-1:30,  as w e l l as t h r e e  2-2:30,  exercise)  were a l s o r e c o r d e d  count  calculated.  was  p ,  e x e r c i s e loops  Resting heart rate values h e a r t beat  f o r each s u b j e c t at  e x e r c i s e , 5 minutes post e x e r c i s e ,  measurements were a l l n o r m a l i z e d i n the  and  upon c e s s a t i o n o f e x e r c i s e , a t 5 m i n u t e s  immediately  on r e s t i n g ,  derivative,  and  3-3:30  minutes  recovery after  a t o t a l recovery heart  T h e s e r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e s and  beat  recovery  77  heart  beat  counts  measurements of  the  time  of  were used  the  consistency  course  of  Since  the  considering  the  data  was  one  factor  was  the  variation trials,  due  and  subjects  to  each  measurements  means  of  one  an  design.  available  individual  each measure  coefficient  gave  over an  or  the  measures were  four  indication  score for  (Tables  calculated  of  This the  I  selected out  this  between Between  thus  indi-  variation  or  trials  'effect',  was  if  performed  XXIX)  on t h e  the  process,  due t o  the  to  trials,  variance  between  variance  terms  four  design  In  in  in  separated.  indicate  trials.  and  of  calculated,  of  at  separating  variation  true  to  analysis  coefficients  over  The  for  F-ratios  calculated  twenty-nine  weeks  differences.  subjects,  variation.  An  looking  analysis  of  reliability for  the  measurement  trials.  in  variability  proportion  of  over  of  were  to  subjects  components  F-ratios  also  the  four  variability  were  of  of  term were  variation  on  by  between  relative  monitoring  testing  was  variance  inter-individual  due  to  error  the  an  to  unfitness  response  or  period  of  effective due  or  interest  the  various  repeated  variability  any,  over  analyzed  most  control  study.  reproducibility  the  cating  their  principal  trends  the  of  the  performance  of  fitness  as  and  mean  values  reliability-  reproducibility  of  78  each measure  (Table  XXX).  The F - r a t i o s heart  beat  recovery count .05  count,  heart  were  data  in  the  stated  that  degree  of  the  quite  There  there  did  immediately  after at  heart any  or  the  and were  not  .05  the  level  exercise,  5 minutes  be  between except  p  post  any  (F  R  so of  the  count,  third  heart  beat  trend it  p_  of  the be  subjects  in  trials.  subjects  = 0.64)  the  could not  the  (F  PQ  at  inter-individual  four  for  exercise,  recovery  significant  large  counts  over  beat  all  improvement  fitness  first  recovery  of  seem t o beat  rate,  heart  presence  measures,  at  = 1.89)  the  was  training  twenty-nine  heart  and t o t a l  large  recovery  significant  (F  count,  indicating  differences.  resting  second r e c o v e r y  beat  all  level,  for  For  F-ratios =  were  1.90)  at  rest,  p  (F  = 1.52)  R  at  10  R minutes post  post  exercise,  exercise.  relative  The  twenty-nine except Pr/Pr  for (F  F-ratios second  of  (F  = 3.06) for  at  / P  = 1.14)  F-ratios  variability  at  recovery beat  at  post  heart count  (F  minutes  indicated  at  post  count  = 3.85),  the  differences. for  the  the  .05  exercise,  exercise,  beat  10  F-ratios  significant  10 m i n u t e s  10 m i n u t e s  heart  (F  R  inter-individual  were not  = 2.98)  first  recovery  the  trials  measures PQ  Q  significant  importance  The between  and P  and (F  =  third  level and  the 3.43), recovery  heart  beat  count  (F  level  indicating  cases. for  count  (F  = 3.95).  = 3.56), These were  an  'effect'  On e x a m i n a t i o n  ratio  appear  to  Pr/pr be  (F  any  of  recovery  count, heart  third beat  post  count  p  R  it  the  seemed t o  another of  only  the  of  result  brachial  R  at  rest,  all  p  R  beat  over  beat  the  these  for  p^  (F  not,  in  either  data did  at  in  for  resting  .05 few  = 2.98)  and  case,  p  R  count,,and  .900 thus  at  rest  5 minutes  The  showing  good reliability  p^  exercise  and P Q / P  reliability  immediate  (.472);  10  r  beat  recovery  low  (-.530);  rate,  heart  total  Very  post  (.340); other  heart  second recovery  measurements.  coefficient reliability  from p  R  pulse  of  -.530  minutes  coefficients  for  coefficient  being measured  possible positions  The r e l i a b i l i t y p  trials  heart  reproducibility.  negative  two  heart  exercise  The r e l i a b i l i t y was  raw  count,  these  (.119).  good  due t o  there  found for  post  exercise  indicated  for  (.474);  10 m i n u t e s  post  were  were  exercise  significant  coefficients  beat  recovery  coefficients  recovery  trend.  heart  reproducibility  all  the  = 3.06),  The r e l i a b i l i t y first  and t o t a l  on t h e  at  p  (at  R  obtained one  rest) and  or  phase plane  loop  wave. coefficients  immediate post  exercise,  for  measurements  5 minutes  post  PQ  and  exercise,  and 10 minutes p o s t e x e r c i s e were a l l q u i t e low.  The p o i n t s  Q and R were d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e on the photograph as i t was hard t o f i n d t h e exact g r e a t e s t maximum r a t e o f change o f pressure  point.  The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r measures pg and p  R  at r e s t , immediate post e x e r c i s e , 5 minutes post e x e r c i s e , and 10 minutes post e x e r c i s e were a l l q u i t e h i g h  indicating  t h a t these measures were r e p r o d u c i b l e . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of the r a t i o R - . / F * vi  at R  r e s t , immediate post e x e r c i s e , 5 minutes p o s t e x e r c i s e , and 10 minutes post e x e r c i s e were a l l h i g h except f o r the 10 minutes post e x e r c i s e v a l u e .  good  This r a t i o P /P n  D  y  R  a l s o showed  reproducibility. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e r a t i o Pr/Pr at  r e s t , immediate post e x e r c i s e , 5 minutes p o s t e x e r c i s e , and 10 minutes p o s t e x e r c i s e were a l l h i g h i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s measure was a l s o a r e p r o d u c i b l e The success plane  measure.  of f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u s i n g t h e phase  loop as a p o s s i b l e means of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between  people i n v a r i o u s degrees o f t r a i n i n g w i l l depend upon the use of s t a b l e or r e p r o d u c i b l e measurements.  Although  f u r t h e r s t u d i e s might consider the use o f other measures o f the phase p l a n e  loop, i t seems reasonable,  i n t h e meantime,  81  to proceed  w i t h measurements p  , p Q  were f o u n d p  Q  , P /p / Pr/Pr W R  as t h e s e  n  R  t o be r e p r o d u c i b l e i n t h i s  study.  The m e a s u r e s  and p „ were n o t r e p r o d u c i b l e b e c a u s e o f c e r t a i n R  culties  i n measurement.  diffi-  T h e s e measurements, however,  should  be i n v e s t i g a t e d more c l o s e l y b e f o r e b e i n g d i s c a r d e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s determine  s t u d y , as s t a t e d  earlier,  the r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f t h e phase plane  was t o  loop  measurements o f t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave w i t h a v i e w t o t h e f u t u r e assessment o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n .  The  bility  indication  coefficients  of true v a r i a t i o n t h e measurements  o f t h e measurements gave an  in relation  to the t o t a l  relia-  v a r i a b i l i t y of  a n d , g e n e r a l l y , were h i g h , i n d i c a t i n g  most o f t h e s e l e c t e d measurements o f t h e p h a s e p l a n e  loop,  were r e a s o n a b l y r e p r o d u c i b l e m e a s u r e s f o r t h e g r o u p o f f a c u l t y men  used  i n this  study.  that  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Attinger, E.O., ed. P u l s a t i 1P: B l o o d F l o w , (Proceedings of t h e F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on P u l s a t i l e Blood Flow, A p r i l 11-13, 1963). New Y o r k : McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964. Babskii,  E.B.,  "Use  V.L.  of  Karpman,  Physiological 102-110,  Banister,  "A  1959.  E.W.,  its  T.K.  Comparative  and P h y s i c a l Richard 3):  William  Brown,  A.,  Correlation (No.  Boyd,  Cureton, Study  Working  of  the  and A r t h u r  B.  6:  92-99,  Coefficients",  "A Phase  Capacity",  S.R.,  E.W.  Banister,  tives  of  of  of  June  and  British  Pulse  sports  Sweney.  Research  1965.  1966.  Cardiovascular  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  Pollard.  Wave  and  and  "Variance  Dower.  Wave  4:  Medicine  of  and  36  Physical  Thesis,  Columbia, Vancouver,  and G . E .  in  Quarterly  Plane Analysis  Carotid Pulse  skachkova.  J.W.  Normal  Unpublished Master's  of  Analysis  Brachial  among A t h l e t i c ,  Fitness  Device  (U.S.S.R.)  Abbott,  Journal  University  Paper,  B.C.  Subjects",  Robert.  and A . I .  Biophysics  368-370, October  the  Petrov,  Differentiating  Studies",  Time D e r i v a t i v e s  Pathological  Berger,  G.M.  An E l e c t r o n i c  April  "Time  and P h a s e  The  1967.  Deriva-  Plane  Condition", Unpublished  British  Columbia,. Vancouver,  1965. Carron,  A.V.  Unpublished  Paper,  December  1967.  Consolazio, ::  "Individual  C.  4,  Frank,  Differences University  Robert  Pecora.  Physiological  Company,  Inc.,  Functions  Cureton,  i n Man.  Thomas K i r k ,  Guidance.  St.  E.  in of  Performance", Saskatchewan,  Johnson,  and L o u i s .  Measurements  New Y o r k :  of  J.  Metabolic  McGraw-Hill  Book  1963. Jr.  Physical  Louis:  Fitness  The C . V .  Appraisal  Mosby Company,  and 1947.  83  Dontas,  A.S.  "Comparison of  Arterial  and E x t r a - A r t e r i a l  American Heart  Journal  1960.  Dontas,  A.S.,  and C S .  Pulse  Contours  Heart  Journal  Ferguson,  George A.  Education. 1966.  Friestadt,  Hans.  Curves  in  Gleason,  80-91, Hamilton,  Pressure  (No.  4):  Pulses  "Arterial  Volume May  Statistical  Analysis  in  McGraw-Hill  Diagnosis  April  of  of  Mitral  The U n i v e r s i t y  and R.S.  and  Woodworth.  and E d u c a t i o n .  Pressure  American  Psychology  Left  Atrial  Pressure  Disease",  British  Statistics  New Y o r k :  and  Company,  Valvular  1959.  Man",  1961.  Book  of  Intra-  April  Y o u n g Human S u b j e c t " ,  (No.  Paper,  in  576-590,  676-683,  Columbia,  in  David  McKay  1966.  L.,  and Eugene  Derivative  in Man",  the  Recorded  5):  Inc.,  William  First  in  New Y o r k :  E.,  Psychology Company,  Cottas.  61  the  Vancouver, Henry  59  "The Interpretation  Unpublished  Garrett,  Simultaneously  Journal  Braunwald.  of  the  of  Clinical  Ventricular  "studies Pressure  Investigation  on  the  Pulse  41  (No.  1):  1962.  W.F.  "The Patterns  Pulse",  American  of  Journal  the A r t e r i a l of  Physiology  Pressure 141:  235-241,  1944. Hancock,  Ernest  of  the  W.,  Brachial  572-581, Hays,  William Holt,  Henry,  F.M. ed.  and W a l t e r  al.  Research  Education  Abelmann.  Pulse  Form",  for  Circulation  Psychologists.  and W i n s t o n ,  "Errors  16:  in  Measurement",  and R e c r e a t i o n .  American A s s o c i a t i o n  for  1949, p p .  New  York:  1963.  Methods A p p l i e d to  and R e c r e a t i o n ,  " A C l i n i c a l ..Study  1957.  Statistics  Rinehart et  Arterial  October  L.  H.  Washington,  Health,  in  Health,  M.G.,  Physical  D . C :  Physical  459-477.  Scott,  Education  84  Henry,  Franklin  M.  "Reliability,  Intra-individual (No. Henry,  1) :  21-24,  Franklin  M.  Franklin  30  M.  individual  Heyman,  F.  Medica  Chester,  Jackson,  Research  3):  Roger  Oarsmen,  Consumption, Brachial  Wave  Gerald  S.  6):  "What  can  1961.  Thesis,  Quarterly Fred  An E m p i r i c a l 36  N.  New Y o r k :  (No.  4):  of  503-510,  1957  be  found  of  Champion  Journal  C o m p l e x e s and  61  in  the  Derivatives", 1967.  of  and A n a l y s i s  Illustration",  Rinehart  Extra-  Maximum O x y g e n  Comparisons  Foundations Holt,  Nevada,  The U n i v e r s i t y  413-419,  at  and D o g " ,  Appraisal  of  and I t s ' T i m e  "Multiple  and  Man  Columbia, Vancouver,.April  Variance:  Kerlinger,  in  (No.  Electrocardiogram  Pulse  Intra-  Vegas,  American Heart  Analysis  1  Kenyon,  157  "A F i t n e s s  Unpublished Master s British  Las  Waves  Winsor.  March  Including  in  of  Research  1959.  Section,  Waves",  Charles.  Reliability  Differences  Scandinavica  424-426,  30  and  An A d d r e s s p r e s e n t e d  Pulse  and T r a v i s  Error  Jump T e s t s " ,  Intra-arterially  Recorded  Pulse  on t h e  155-159,  Variability",  "Comparison of  Arterial (No.  2):  1967.  arterially  Acta Hyman,  13,  and  Quarterly  Measurement  Variation  "Individual  A.A.H.P.E.R. March  of  and V e r t i c a l  (No.  Error  Research  1959.  "Influence  Strength  Quarterly  Henry,  March  Intra-individual  Muscle  Measurement  Difference",  Research  December  Behavioral  and W i n s t o n ,  of  1965.  Research. Inc.,  1966.  K r o e k e r , Edwin J . , and E a r l H. Wood. "Comparison of S i m u l t a n e o u s l y R e c o r d e d C e n t r a l and P e r i p h e r a l A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e s D u r i n g R e s t , E x e r c i s e and T i l t e d P o s i t i o n i n M a n " , C i r c u l a t i o n R e s e a r c h 3: 623-632, November 1 9 5 5 . Kroll,  Walter.  "A Note  Correlation Quarterly  33  as  on t h e  Coefficient  an E s t i m a t e  (No.  2):  of  313-315,  of  Intraclass  Reliability", May  1962.  Research  85  Kroll,  Walter. Retest  50-55,  Kroll>  March  Walter.  Selection 38  Lersten,  Mason,  "Reliability  Situations",  (No.  1963.  "Reliability of  3):  Kenneth  412-419,  C.  Paper,  University  G.  Progress  Eugene  Morrow,  of  Disease  Circulation Morehouse,  Physiology  Moscovich,  of  Intravascular  Myers,  N'eal,  Arterial in  Exercise.  the  John  J.,  Jr.,  Plane  British  "Velocity  William  T.  and  Andrew  and  Second  in  Aortic  Pulse  Miller,  The C . V .  Intracardiac  Unpublished Paper,  Halpern,  of  and.'T. J .  Pressure  Frank  Methods  of  Publisher, Robinson,  Brian.  Aortic Heart Robinson,  Springfield,  Brian.  by  25:  "The  and  The  1959.  Design.  Reeves.  Change  in  15  Blood^Pressure  Illinois:  Charles  C.  Thomas  ,  "The C a r o t i d  Journal  Mosby  Applied Physiology  1953.  Stenosis  Stenosis"  Jr.  Columbia, Vancouver,  of  Recording.  Variations  Subaortic  of  Journal  Electrical  in  Jr.,  Louis:  Studies  and A c c e l e r a t i o n  W.  Quarterly  1964.  H e a r t >and A r t e r i e s " , 1960.  Decision  First  Pressure  Saint  Pressures",  of  of  Hypertrophic July  Test-  1):  Unpublished  Jerome L. Fundamentals of Experimental Boston: A l l y n and B a c o n , I n c . , 1967.  747-749,  Noble,  John Ross  Value  in  (No.  California.  and A u g u s t u s  "Phase  University  Learning",  southern  90-99,  E.,  1967.  M.D.  the  Research  1967.  Motor  Braunwald,  30:  Laurence  Company,  of  and  34  and I n t e r - I n d i v i d u a l of  "Diagnostic  Derivatives Valve  Strength  and R e s e a r c h  score",  October  "Intra  the  of  Quarterly  Theory  a Criterion  During  Dean T . ,  Variations  Research  Pulse  External 51-60,  Carotid  External  Recordings  Pulses",  British  to  Heart  - I.  Diagnosis  Recordings",  of  British  1963. Pulse  - II.  Carotid, Journal  Relation  Aortic, 25:  and  61-68,  of Brachial  1963.  Rushmer,  Robert  W.B. Starr,  Isaac,  and  'Quickness'  Medical  Isaac, First  and  S.  of  Ogawa. the  "Quantitative  Pulse",  Sciences  Shigoru  243:  the  and A b n o r m a l i t i e s American Heart  E.  Clinical  Recording.  Publishers, Van D a l e n , D.B. Research  E.  Carl  J.  Study  of  the  Normal in  (No.  Phonocardiography  Chicago:  Heart  4):  482-494,  Year  Book  and  External  Medical  1967.  Circulatory  Douglas.  Dynamics.  New Y o r k :  Grune  1952. "The A r t e r i a l  Stenosis",  Pressure  British  Heart  Pulse Journal  in  Muscular  25:  97-  1963.  James G . L . ,  Wave V e l o c i t y matic  65  of  1962.  Pulse.  encountered  -Journal  the  " H y p o t h e s e s and Deduced C o n s e q u e n c e s " , Q u a r t e r l y 33 ( N o . 2 ) : 3 1 4 - 3 1 7 , M a y 1 9 6 2 .  Subaortic  Williams,  Inc.,  Stratton,  105,  March  on  journal  1963.  Morton  and  Studies  "A C l i n i c a l  Brachial  Standards  Wiggers,  Philadelphia:  The American  309-321,  Ogawa.  of  Dynamics.  1961.  Disease",  Pulse  Wigle,  Company,  Derivative  April Tavel,  Cardiovascular  Saunders  the Starr,  F.  Medicine  and B a r b a r a as 27  Williams.  a Psychosomatic (No.  5):  "Arterial  Measure",  408-414,  1965..  Pulse  Psychoso-  APPENDIX  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THIS REPEATED MEASUREMENT DESIGN  S of V  SUBJECTS (S)  df  MS  SS  EMS  cr + t <r;  -1  e  t  s,  ss r  TRIALS (T)  MS.  r  t-1  MS,  ss s r  ERROR (ST) (E)  cr e  C  =  22  Reliability  \  ,2.  Coefficient  =  MS^  MS.  Y\S  &  _  ^  —  M S  APPENDIX A S T A T I S T I C A L TREATMENT  APPENDIX B RAW  SCORES  SUBJECT  INITIALS  1  Y  2  S  3  R  4  P  5  M  6  McM  7  MACD  8  LL  9  KU  10  KE  11  F  12  C  13  BRE  14  BJ  15  A  16  LE  17  BR  18  D  RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p  -R ' "  T R I A L S 1 *4 .416 2 3 .967 •3 4 .591 4 4 .690 ;  SUBJECT  -••  -  ....  .  -  •  R  T R I A L S 1 3 .503 2 3 .440 3 3 .449 4 *3 .464 SUBJECT TRIALS 1 2 3 4  R 3.085 3.444 3.589 4.489  IPE 3.837 3.851 4.050 4.128  -  5PE - 10PE 3.793 3.820 4.365 4.270  4 -• I P E / 5PE 2.955 3.030 2.866 2.577  :IPE  3.896 4.330 2.680 2.725  -  4.023 3.790 4.332 3.390  R-  4.204 4.556 4.152 4.430 -  -  . 3  : I P E '- - 5PE - -10PE - '  5 .493 2 .824 2 .480 4 .478 -  10PE -  -  (AMENDED)  2.  I  SUBJECT  n  •R - - - I P E  2.587 4.459 5.309 4.414  4 .641 4 .763 5 .000 3 .975  3.860 5.000 5.238 4.623  5 • - .- - -10PE 5PE  -R - - - I P E - *-' 5PE  -  -  -  -  3.596 3.426 3.532 3.951  4.2.13 3.826 3.870 4.075 6  -R -  - IPE  10PE  -  "  :  '  3.948 4.097 3.830 3.833 -  ...  - 5PE '- 10PE  3.059 2.943 3.200 3.293  3.268 3.386 3.191 3.218  5 .000 4 .384 3 .355 3 .567  4.034 4.343 4.487 3.498  3.415 4.404 4.252 3.245  3.546 4.292 4.380 2.980  4 .665 4 .610 4 .559 3 .527  4.171 4.191 4.095 4.293  4.272 3.879 4.493 4.282  4.351 4.344 3.996 4.177  5PE  10PE  R  IPE  5PE  10PE  R  IPE  5PE  10PE  3.067 4.037 4.087 2.763  2.858 3.475 3.531 2.761  2.656 3.038 3.339 5.000  3.653 3.173 4.048 3.395  4.231 3.705 3,554 3.508  3.525 3.745 3.610 3.329  3.424 3.353 3.338 3.419  3.378 3.532 3.392 3.925  KEY:  R IPE 5PE 10PE *  2.820 3.202 3.861 3.571  Pre Exercise Immediate P o s t E x e r c i s e 5 Mins. Post Exercise 10 M i n s P o s t E x e r c i s e Estimated Value  3.472 3.282 3.446 3.369  RAW  10 5PE R - ' -IPE . •.  SUBJECT  TRIALS 1 * 4 .714 2 4 .617 3 5 .000 4 4 .524 SUBJECT TRIALS 1 2 3 4 SUBJECT . TRIALS 1 ". 2 3 4  DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p  -  -  -  3.997 4.404 3.611 2.871 -  R -  5 .731 3 .215 2 .897 3 .290  ...  .  ;  3.494 3.730 3.752 3.427  5 .653 5 .853 5 •480 5 .466  10PE "  5PE  3.745 2.918 4-585 5.898  5.409 5.702 4.610 4.628  -  -  -  -  -  10PE 4.707 5.942 4.618 5.285 KEY:  -  -R - - ..  •4.245 3 .476 3 .205 3 . 348  • • -  -  I  P  E  3.781 3.698 3.795 3.167  5PE  lOPE -  R  12 - IPE  3.899 3.726 3.714 '3.672  4.076 3.897 3.345 3.651  3 .323 2 .901 4 .077 3 .508  3.244 3.852 3.688 4.017  14 IPE • 5PE  R -"  2 .721 3 .893 4 .508 3 .623  3.133 3.690 4.377 3.887 -  IEE  -  2.503 5.470 3.392 3 .558  6.243 3.634 3.042 3.889 16  R " '  -10PE  13 IPE - ' 5PE  (AMENDED) - Continued  11  .• - -  3.465 5.393 2.712 3.850  n  3.202 5.000 4.796 3.457  10PE  3.213 5.351 4.269 3.136  3.669 3.191 4. 541 3.289  17 -R • - :'IPE .- •-. 5PE 10PE  '•  '•  - -' -  -  4 .051 3.607 3 . 190 4.084 3 .662 4.162 5 .000 3.969 R I P E 5PE 1 0 P E *  = = = = =  -  -' - • - ••  3.272 3.750 4.365 4.231  -  -  -  4.004 3.954 3.7.29 3.575  3 .091 4 .674 5 .350 3 .283  3.654 5.937 3.257 5.388  - - 18 •-R - - -- IPE : •-  3 .599 3 .612 3 .601 3 . 730.  Pre Exercise I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5 Mins. Post Exercise 1 0 M i n s P o s t E x e r c i s e E s t i m a t e d V a l u e  3.364 4.118 . 3.472 3.259  3.573 4.359 3.681 3.362  : IPE - - 5PE - 10PE  R  .-  • 5PE - -10PE  4.474 3.533 4.325 2.978  4.568 4.574 6.022 5.863 4.744 5.7 80 5r9774..5.562 .  „...".  5PE  . ..  10PE  3.379 3.891 3.768 3.529 3.133 . 4.165 3.346 3.872  RAW D A T A T A B L E  crrg TF'C'T  1  TRIALS  1  —  R  1  9.971  ".'3  10.095  2 4  SUBJECT TRIALS  1  2  3  4  -  -— — 5PE - - IQPE  — — ..— „. . ,. • R -'. - I P E  p  (AMENDED)  n  — . 5PE - - IQPE ~ ' ~ R  .  IPE  -  5PE  IQPE 9.464  12.499 11.872 12.665  12.638  11.470  9.308  11.744  10.486  8.609  9.252  10.719  9.456  8.820  9.097  13.389  12.978  12.110  8.911  14.170  14.363  13.886  9.374  10.134  9.465  9.273  -R  IPE  -5PE  R  IPE  '-•'-5PE  -10PE -  R  IPE  5PE  9.128  10.212  9.936  8.599  10.712  9.892  9.926  8.796  12.923  11.343  *8.841 10.237  12.629  11.449  10.518  9.324  13.788  - -10PE  12.644  13.586  10.753  9.944  10.086  8.996  9.826  8.772  9.784  11.502  9.641  8.929  10PE  9.322  9.044  11.342  10.430  9.175  9.335  12.467  9.247  12.600  10.580  11.602  9.988  10.294  12.196  9.456  11.511  9.907  9.993  9.249  8.378  10.090  9.644  8.745  10.706  9.616  8.387  9.242  12.590  9.366  8.979  10PE  -R  IPE  5PE  9.448  12.891  9.088  12.163  9.709  9.710  9.550  12.051  9.349  12.012  9.564  9.328 8.838  -8  SUBJECT TRIALS  ,-„— — IPE  FOR MEASUREMENT  1  •2 3  4  R  IPE  -5PE  9.133  11.648  9.340  8.475  8.968  8.455  9.515  9.381  10.297  9.046  8.960  9.657  10PE 8.113  9.084  8.617  8.874  9.520  8.820  8.311  8.668  10.702  9.356  8.604  8.713  10.889  9.172  8.777  8.580  8.791 KEY:  5PE  IPE  R  11.605  = Pre  9.012  8.740  Exercise  IPE  = Immediate P o s t  10PE  = 10 M i n s .  5PE  *  = 5 Mins.  Post  = Estimated  Post  9.878 9.736  Exercise  Exercise  Exercise  Value  13.177  13.107  10.645  11.066 10.486  11.231  10PE 9.760  9.827  9.438  10.170  RAW -  SUBJECT  -  -  TRIALS 1 2 3 4  -  -  -  -  -  -R  -  '  IPE  11.738 14.304 10.985 10.157  TRIALS 1 2 3 4  .  R  - IPE  10  -  . . . .  -  - .  R  5PE - - 10PE  11 .452 9.190 13 .619 13.032 10 .220 11.216 11 .735 10.768  11  -  - IPE "  9 .708 9 .094 9 .872 9 .231  12 .451 11 .996 12 .338 13 .290  R  - - -  .  I  P  E  R  5PE - - 10PE -  ;  16 -  11 .746 13.133 12 .760 12.418 13 .242 16.158 12 .747 15.793  -  -  5PE  -  - -  -  10PE  -  -  -  -  -  I  p  -  12  -  - - -  R  1  9.948 10 .714 9 .653 10 .487 10.143 9 .486 11 .349 10.116 9 .115 10 .782 9.854 10 .044  E  "1-  5PE 13 .399 13 .186 12 .700 12 .716  -  :  -  -  - 10PE 11.993 12.272 12.209 12.990 KEY:  :.  -  12 .367 15 .326 12 .112 12 .570  .  R  9 .896 8 .751 11 .418 8 .747 10 .586 9 .100 10 .955 = = = = =  -R - • - I P E  9.914 10 .234 10 .676 10.124 12 .958 13 .961 10 .849 10.150 13 .320 9.744 10 .735 9 .423 17  IPE  8 .870  R IPE 5PE 10PE *  5PE - - -10PE -  IPE  - •-  . .  10.504 12.483 11.812 11.752  14  9 .709 10.497 12 .945 9.819 9.504 9 .427 9 .896 11.645 11.242 9 .724 11.952 13 .622 9.624 10 .967 11.166 9 .980  8 .026 9 .046 8 .703 9 .610  (AMENDED) - C o n t i n u e d  n  - - - - - -  13 ;  - - - - - - -  SUBJECT  -  -  TRIALS 1*13 .623 2 13 .660 3 14 .189 4 13 .020 SUBJECT  -  DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p  -  ...  - - -  5PE  -  9 .289 9 .869 9 .032 9 .376  10PE  .  Pre Exercise Immediate P o s t E x e r c i s e 5 Mins. Post Exercise 10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e Estimated Value  -  -  - - -  • ••  -5PE -  10PE  10.193 9.623 10.830 9.982 10.166 10.909 10.144 9.421 c  15  11.373 15.419 11.396 16.225  18 R - - - IPE -  9.023 10 .405 9.215 9 .432 9.063 9 .438 9.246 10 .606  •  -  -5PE -  10PE -  15.363 13.979 14.425 14.885  14.212 12.898 13.414 13.516  -5PE  10PE  13.422 11.131 11.677 11.354 11.929 10.853 10.905 11.799  10.891 10.660 10.095 10.336  RAW D A T A T A B L E F O R MEASUREMENT  SUBJECT  : R  TRIALS  ^ I P E 5 P E  -  IOPE  R  IPE  :  - 5PE - - IOPE - - -  R  - -- i p  E  -  - 5PE  7.754  5.000  5.665  5.601  9.435  7.478  5.525  6.416  7.131  5.960  7.061  3  7.541  4.878  5.997  5.747  9.047  4.832  6.128  3.022  6.672  6.393  7.094  R  IPE  1  7.115  5.860  5.767  6.642  3  6.800  5.717  6.513  6.845  SUBJECT  2  8.080  7.642  7.106  4 *7.007  4.731 7.923  4.612 5.914  3.993  5.548  4.718  8.057  5.839  5.950  6.417  5.932  5.907  7.218  6.208  7.191  6.375  6.271  6.293  5.913  7.788  6.199  7.062  3.586  6.961  6.664  6.172  6.481  5.157  IOPE  6.114  5.000  R  IPE  5PE  6.544  6.274  R  7.081  4.264  -IPE  6.083  6.049  5PE  8.236  9.375  5.561  IPE  5.429  6.241  6.940  5.965  8.186  6.156  4.847  6.280  5PE - " IOPE  6.294  6.552  - IOPE  -5PE  7.615  ~ IOPE 7.506  6.127  6.578  7.383  6.544 5.907  6.461  6.884  7.837  5.548  IOPE  R  IPE  6.604  -8  SUBJECT TRIALS  (AMENDED)  R  1  2 4  TRIALS  p  IPE  5PE  IOPE  -5PE - - I O P E  1  9.133  6.350  7.446  7.105  8.654  7.750  7.754  7.391  7.667  6.473  6.638  6.497  2  0.565  7.208  8.328  7.376  8.540  7.161  6.999  6.136  6.919  4.078  5.682  4.584  4  7.676  7.429  6.796  7.328  8.207  7.388  7.564  7.448  9.520  6.730  6.328  6.683  3  8.777  7.140  6.706  7.791  KEY:  7.970  6.615  7.239  R  = Pre  IPE  == I m m e d i a t e  5PE  = 5 Mins.  IOPE  = 10 M i n s .  *  = Estimated  6.608  6.778  Exercise Post  Post Post  Exercise  Exercise Exercise  Value  4.808  5.752  5.950  RAW D A T A T A B L E  -  SUBJECT  TRIALS  R  —  -  -  -  10  -  -  IPE  -  •  ..  .  .  .  5PE - - 10PE - '  -  - - - - -  -  -  R  7.455  6.622  .6.618 6.507  6.528  , 5 ..547, 7 .652  4.203  4.603  6 ; 346  4  7.846  8.251  7.285  .7 . 5 9 8 7 .131  8 .705 -  R  -  •  -  13  -  -  IPE  1 2  7 .806 8 .998  5.000 6.084  6.135 5.773  3  7 .436 6 .792  4.639  6.458  4.235  5.873 -16  -  SUBJECT  1 2 3  4  .  -5PE -  '  5.896  4.600  5.000  6.017  8 .145 5 .148  3.723  7.658  6 .140  8.800  4.273  5.542  11  .  -  - lOPE -  5PE - - l O P E -  "'  5.892 . 5.885  5.502  5.899  5.882  7 .082  5.933  6.938  6.376  6.47 5  6.216  11.354  6 .778  5.417  5.858  5.333  5.915  6.410  7 .904  5.769  5.000  -  -  -  -  -  14  -  - - -  7.626 7.008  7 .186  4.721  4.447  8.312  7 .339  6.716  8.180  4.345  —  -  -  4.410 5.483  17 -  -  5  P  E  R  -10PE  7 .318 7 .582 6 .594  6 .165 -• -  -  - "10PE -  .  6.143  6.070  8.906  7.943  7 .838  7.054  6.756  7 .698  5. 916 6.564  6.439  7 .138  6.615  7.558  6.8.73 5.101  6.656  R  = Pre  IPE  = Immediate Post  5PE  = 5 Mins.  10PE  = 10 M i n s .  *  = Estimated  Post  Exercise  Value  L  6 .711  6 .458 6 .503  7 .494  Exercise  Exercise  -  R  Exercise Post  -  I  P  6.194  7.300  1  -  5 .646  KEY:  12  - IPE  6.599  R - - -- I P E "  5.227  R  5 . 3 5 6 , 6 . 658 .  4.667 4.674  '-  - Continued  -  5PE -  lOPE  7 .168  ..  IPE "  ;  IPE  -  7 .743 8 .386  7 .829  R  5.905  bPE  7.731 5.745  -  (AMENDED)  R  5 .3,81 . 5 . 5 9 5 ,  R "  lOPE  .  :.  p  - - I P E " - - 5PE  7.843  4  TRIALS  -  -  1 *7 . 957 2 7 .574 7 .592 3  SUBJECT TRIALS  -  FOR MEASUREMENT  -  5  E  -  5PE - - l O P E '  -  3.882 3.839  5,873 6.022  6.670 6.629  4.153  4.169  5.195  4.369  5.358  5.789  18  -  - -THD  If  - -  -  .  .  -  .  5  P  E  tl  .  -10P-E  3.982  5.326  5.083 5.362  5.260  4.874  6.221  6.030  5.572  6.548  5.375  6.391  RAW D A T A T A B L E  SUBJECT  5PE - - IOPE  (AMENDED)  : R  :  IPE  :  5PE - - IOPE  R ~ ~' ~ IPE -  5PE -  IOPE -  1 *3.534  2.822  2.980  2.995  3.831  2.522  3.456  3.498  3.956  2.851  3.596  3.453  2.950  2.960  2.927  3.651  2.738  3.287  3.480  4.093  3.109  3.082  3.488  3.587  3  3.417  2.913  3.036  2.895  3.736  1.894  1.659  3.048  3.885  3.630  3.809  3.936  4  3.597  2.615  3.284  2.702  3.622  2.632  3.414  3.431  4.189  2.667  3.231  3.690  IOPE -  R  IPE  R  IPE  5PE  1  4.120  2.487  3.121  3  3.961  2  3.950  4 *4.010  2.285 3.012  3.014  4.009  2.806  3.050  3.167  3.014  3.050  3.155  4.035  3.128  3.488  3.465  3.268  3.415  3.134  R  IPE  5PE  1  4.190  2.844  3.363  3.729  3.906  3.700  3  4.343  3.624  3.640  3.684  4.170  2.987  3.898  2 4  4.328 3.832  3.288  3.471  -5PE - - I O P E  3.370  2.720  SUBJECT TRIALS  IPE  p„  2  SUBJECT TRIALS  •  ±  - - - -R TRIALS  FOR MEASUREMENT  3.368  3.408  3.246  3.999  IPE  3.812  4.045  3.515 R  3.745  3.606 8  - IOPE  KEY:  2.569  3.504  3.744  5PE  3.540  3.284  R  -5PE - - I O P E  3.007  3.489  3.519  2.702  3.302  3.164  3.015  3.396  2.858 2.633  IPE  3.156  -5PE 3.609  3.462  IOPE 3.596  3.396  3.318  4.032  3.794  3.257  3.214  3.150  3.745  3.166  3.619  3.590  3.573  3.053  3.366  3.414  3.954  3.583  3.792  3.578  = Pre  3.426  3.098  Exercise  = Immediate Post  IOPE  = 10 M i n s .  *  3.690  3.454  IOPE  IPE  5PE  IPE  = 5 Mins.  Post  = Estimated  Post  3.845  Exercise  Exercise  Exercise  Value  3.338  3.655  RAW D A T A T A B L E  10  SUBJECT  TRIALS  -R - - -- I P E 1 *3 . 2 7 7 2 3 .278  3.300  3  3.045 3.494  4  3 .542 •  -  -  R  1  2  3  4  3 .694  2 .250 2 .588  2 . 875  -  -  -  -  -  -  - -  -  -  -  -  -  R  3.534 3.556 3.604  -  3.064  2.632  2.690 2.864  2.907  2.816 2.732  2.073  2.933  3.156 KEY:  -  -  -  -  -  -  3 .553  2.992  3 .051 4 .148  3.236  -  R  14  .  4 . 152 4 .122 3 .60.4  3 .540 4 .005  2.511 2.550  .  .  .  .  .  .  -  -  .  .  3 .440  3.311  3.536  17  3.571  3.078 2 .196  3.511  3 .271 •  -  -  - -IPE  1.425  2.266 1.432  18 -  -  3.079  2.845  2.903 3.658  3.084  3.215  3.611  15  2.209  .  .  " IOPE  3.158  .  .  -  5  P  -  E  IOPE -  -  2.064 1.834  1.987  2.124  2.313 1.894  1.808  2.106  .  .  .  .  .  .  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  5PE '  IOPE -  R  - IPE '  3.373  3.755  4.863  3 .599  2.649  3.216  2.781  3.427 3.352  3.635  3.656 3.729  3.877  2.898 2.957  3.385  3.335  3.789 3 .585  3.117  - IPE  4 .044  2.304  3.348  3.575  .  2.374  3.598  3.202  3.284 .  3.536  R  2.992  .  0.201 2.885  .  I P E - ' - 5PE  - IOPE - -  2.716  .  R  3.386  .  - 5PE  12  -  2.915  3.378 2.979  -  •  - Continued  IOPE ' '  3.230  -IPE  .  1.878  2.885  -  3 .717  3.805  -5PE - •I O P E  . . . .  3.105  3.032  16 IPE  11  . . . .  -  (AMENDED)  p  -R - - -- I P E - - -5PE -  3.254  13 - • - - I P E - - -5PE - - I O P E  -  _  -  -  3.219 2.552  3.553 3.502  R  -  3 .860 4 .830  2.947 3.222 .  -  2.981 3.136  3.195  .  -  3.137 1.816  4 .109  .  -  3.019  3  -  -  3 .336 3 .442  2.000 3.454  -  —  2.150  3.093  SUBJECT  -  2.198  3 .687 4 .357 4 .328  -  - IOPE  3.430  1 2 4  TRIALS  -  5PE  2.153  3 .010  SUBJECT TRIALS  -  FOR MEASUREMENT  -  3.317  R  = Pre  IPE  = Immediate  3.705  3 .513  Exercise  5PE  = 5 Mins.  IOPE  = 10 M i n s .  *  = Estimated  Post•Exercise  Post Post  Exercise Exercise  Value  2.373 2.420  5PE - " IOPE -  2 .880 2.742  2.831  RAW D A T A T A B L E  i  SUBJECT TRIALS  R  (AMENDED)  - O  IPE -  2. -5PE -  1 0 P E - -- - -R - -  2.430  4.657  3.034  2.461  - -  4.429  3.984  2  2.758  4.293  4.270  3.912  2.554  4.618  3.271  2.857  2.198  3.147  2.862  2.608  3  2.954  4.596  4.275  4.183  2.385  7.482  8.658  4.556  2.413  2.792  2.485  2.356  4  2.760  4.942  3.846  3.893  3.807  5.162  2.954  2.864  2.094  4.313  2.984  2.420  R  IPE  5PE  IPE  5PE  R  IPE  5PE  2.216  4.106  4.042  3.420  2.530  4.146  3.111  3.829  10PE  R '  2.853  2.648  2.227  4.964  2.881  2.200  3.764  3.556  3.275  3.220  2.971  2.187  4.167  IPE  5PE  10PE  R  IPE  5PE  2.171  2.920  2.090  2.932  2.367  4.180 3.853  10PE 3.044  3.019  2.645  3.300  2.971  2.667 8  2.339  2.240  3.531  2.641  3.760  2.630  2.848  4.059  3.166  4.446  2.896  2.814  4.782  R  IPE  10PE  - 5PE  -10PE  2.824  - - R - --  -IPE -  - -  1  SUBJECT TRIALS  5PE - - 10PE  n  IPE  1 2 3 4  -  1  P /p  R  SUBJECT TRIALS  FOR MEASUREMENT  3.106  2.741  10PE 2.651  2.731 2.793  2.644  -5PE - " 1 0 P E  1  2.180  4.096  2.777  2.436  2.077  2.573  2.597  2.505  2.343  3.398  2.950  2.714  2 3 4  1.958 2.065 2.206  2.894 2.589 2.967  2.686 2.462 2.834  2.260 2.409 2.501  2.143 2.089 2.201  3.286 3.645 3.801  2.911 2.677 2.677  2.731 2.833 2.560  2.638 2.364 2.462  4.162 3.644 3.658  3.058 2.935 2.962  2.737 2.638 2.782  KEY:  R  = Pre  IPE  = Immediate P o s t  Exercise  5PE  = 5 Mins.  10PE  = 10 M i n s .  Post Post  Exercise  Exercise Exercise  RAW D A T A  -  SUBJECT  TRIALS  -  -  -  -  io - -  -  IPE - - -  -R - - -  5PE  -  -  TABLE  -  -  -  -  -  FOR  -  -  MEASUREMENT  -  -  -  (AMENDED)  n  11  -  . -R - - - - - I P E - - -  IOPE  p /p„  5PE- -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  Continued  12  -  R - - - -  IOPE - -  1  *4 . 1 8 6  3.557  3.339  2.824  2 .910  4.124  3 . 4 5 1  3.413  2 .730  2  4 .167  6.644  6.196  6 . 0 6 1  2 .642  3.956  3.247  2.996  3  4 .714  3.608  3.258  3.762  2 .558  3.833  3.360  4  3 .676  2.907  6.462  3.434  1 .911  5.208  3.619  - -5PE - -  I P E  IOPE  4 . 4 2 5  3.310  3.382  2 .636  5 . 4 1 8  3.429  3.105  5.033  2 .575  4 . 7 0 4  3.502  3.537  3.416  2 .508  4 . 6 0 9  2.773  2.609  _  13  SUBJECT -  TRIALS  •R - - - -  I P E -  1  2 .177  3.394  2  2 .076  3  2 .118  4  2 .220  -  SUBJECT  TRIALS  -  -  -R - - 1 2  3 .180 5 .671  :  5PE  IOPE  -  I P E  - - -5PE - -  IOPE -  2 .733  4.133  3.334  2.961  2 .975  5.148  -  -  R  -  -  R - - - -  I P E --  5PE  -  7.152  6.473  2.778  3.645  2.865  2.673  2 .536  5.643  4.666  2.835  4 .210  10.820  7 . 6 2 2  5.576  3.815  2.737  3.316  4 .465  3.743  3.277  2.870  6 .066  5.029  6 . 7 9 1  7.082  3.466  2.850  2.529  2 .644  3.828  3.003  2.775  2 .881  11.330  8.233  6.418  -  -  -  -  -  16  -  -  —  -  R  IOPE  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  18  17  I P E  5PE  R  IOPE  ' - -  I P E  5PE - -  IOPE  IPE  5PE  6.993  4.373  4.557  2 .193  2.934  2.474  1.855  2 .891  5.067  3 . 4 6 1  3.916  4 . 5 3 6  4 . 3 5 8  2 .108  3.332  2.715  2 . 5 2 1  2 .489  3.012  3.643  3.678  4 . 6 1 6  - '  -  7.443  IOPE -  3  5 .117  5.642  4.402  4 . 4 6 9  2 .122  3.158  2.723  2.430  2 .633  5.027  3.768  3.414  4  4 .434  7.604  4.335  4 . 1 1 6  2 .525  3.236  2 . 8 1 1  2.496  3 .019  4 . 5 0 6  4.303  3 . 6 5 1  KEY:  R  = Pre  IPE  = Immediate  Exercise  5PE  =  5 Mins.  IOPE  =  10 Mins.  *  = Estimated  Post  Post Post  Exercise  Exercise Exercise  value  RAW D A T A T A B L E  _ -\  SUBJECT  TRIALS  - - -  IPE  4  1 .580  R  '  1  5PE -  .o -- --- -  2 - - -5PE -  R - - - IPE  -10PE ' " 11.180  1 .825 1 .762  1.006  1.173  1.085  1 .932  0.814  0.787  1.547  0.955  0.923  0.970  1.070  1.280  0 .984  0.913  1.499  1.564  1.029  - IPE  1.422  4 — - 5PE - - I Q P E R  - -5 IPE  -  2  1 .889  1.956  1.340  1.009  R  l O P E - --  1.125 1.033  1.033  1.084  Pr/Pr  -  IPE  -  -5PE  - 10PE -  1.707  1.664  2 .040 1 .822  1.271 1.498  1.743  1.783 1.874  2 .181  1.768  1.132  1.560  1.909  1.542  -. . -  '5PE -  IQPE  - -  R  IPE  --  5PE  - IQPE -  1  1.997  1.295  1.518  1.652  1.776  1.17.1  1.355  1.623  1.772  1.057  1.551  1.722  3  2.156  1.299  1.441  1.641  1.813  1.121  1.246  1.464  1.722  1.074  1.597  1.763  2  4 SUBJECT TRIALS  R  1 *1 . 5 5 4 2 1 .586 1 .497 3  SUBJECT TRIALS  FOR MEASUREMENT  2.064  1.104  *2.072  R  I  1.330  P  E  1.578  1.438  - 5PE  1.644  2.288  1.563  1.043  2.107  10PE  R  1.229  -  1.413  1.664 8  IPE  1.623  2.154  1.144  1.678  5PE - - IQPE  1.143  1.004  R - - -- IPE  1.463  1.574  5PE -  1.668  1.791  IQPE  1  2.031  1.136  1.673  1.868  2.377  1.718  1.844  2.003  1.846  1.099  1.421  1.622  2  2.411  1.606  1.761  2.081  2.162  1.343  1.629  1.833  1.631  0.999  1.343  1.603  4  2.163  1.465  1.601  1.895  2.136  1.169  1.771  1.878  1.730  1.050  1.344  3  2.162  1.737  1.880  1.927  KEY:  2.200  1.265  1.741  R  = Pre  IPE  = Immediate  5PE  = 5 Mins.  10PE  = 10 M i n s .  *  = Estimated  1.760  1.906  Exercise Post  Post Post  Exercise  Exercise Exercise  Value  1.133  1.447  1.707  1.535  RAW D A T A T A B L E  SUBJECT  -  —  1  R TRIALS  0 .895 1 .055  TRIALS  1 2  TRIALS  •  1  2  3  4  1.684 0.919  1.412  1.215  1.501  1.008  1.310  -  -  -  -  1.351 1.183  - -  13  -  2 .305 2 .133  -  SUBJECT  5PE  1.552  1.259 - - - - -  1.544  1.719  16  ' -  - - - - -  5PE  IOPE  -  "  -  -  R  IPE  1 .242  0.888  0.967  1.068  2 .073  1.533  0 .951 0 .938  1.028 0.752  0.973 1.019  1.057  2 .174  1 .013  0.729  1.017  1 .819  1.022  2 .162  1.055  KEY:  -  1.377 1.542  1.721  1 .794  -- -  -  IOPE  -  0 .885  1.604 -  -  1 .472 1 .012  1.526 1.512  -  -  R  1.523  5PE  1 .625  -  -  -  -  -  1.087 -  -  5PE -  1.091  0.752  1.095  0.813  0.715  0.823  0.676  0.765  18 R  IPE  -5PE -  1 .469  0.928  1.251  1.604  1.799 1.875  1 .772 1 .709  1.282  1.214  1.750  1.321  1.656  1.805  1.179  1.104  Exercise  5PE  = 5 Mins.  *  = Estimated  = Immediate  = 10 M i n s .  Post  Post  Post  1 .410  Exercise  Exercise  Exercise  Value  1.278  1.047  0.818 0.945  0.868 0.876 -  1.855  1.382  IOPE  - - - - - - 15 - -5PE - - I O P E IPE  1.807  = Pre  IOPE  1 .656  1.075  1.435  1.397  R  IPE  1.476 1.478  1.008  17 '  1.405 1.303  1.326  1.077  IPE  1.230 0.983  0.912  1.127  R  • -  1 .635 1 .698  1.338  1.066  - -  1.479  5PE - - IOPE  0.793  0 .946 1 .466  IPE  1.282 14  12  R  1.422  1.254  IPE -  1 .751  - IOPE  1.314 1.378  1.097  - Continued  - -  5PE  0.931 - - - - -  Pr/Pr  --  -  1.060  1 .625  1.681  E  1.115  R  1.591  1.198  P  -  IOPE  1.621  I  1 .663 2 .272 -  0.914  1.206  -  1 .570 1 .770  1.247  IPE  1 .893  4  R  0.876  R  2 .177  3  IOPE  0.823 1.259  -  SUBJECT  " 5PE  1.185  0 .963  3 4  II  0  IPE  *o . 9 7 1  1 2  FOR MEASUREMENT  1.263  1.254  -  IOPE 1.233 1.289 1.401 1.332  RAW  DATA TABLE FOR RESTING HEART RATE (BEATS/MINUTE) AND RECOVERY HEART BEAT COUNTS  SUBJECT  :  1 2 3 4  :  - - RHR  1RB  2RB  3RB  TRB  RHR  lRB  2RB  3RB  TRB  RHR  lRB  2RB  3RB  TRB  66 70 73 70  70 70 72 75  61 62 60 68  57 60 59 64  188 192 191 207  56 60 56 58  61 58 57 56  52 52 48 48  49 47 44 45  162 157 149 149  68 66 63 61  63 60 57 55  56 53 51 48  53 50 47 44  172 163 155 147  4  SUBJECT  • -'  -5  - -6 - - -  - - - - - -  1RB  2RB  -3RB  TRB  RHR  lRB  2RB  3RB  54 52 56 58  66 58 58 61  56 53 52 52  51 49 49 49  173 160 159 162  94 72 74 66  69 57 64 65  60 51 56 55  57 48 54 51  RHR  lRB  2RB  3RB  TRB  RHR  l R B - 2RB  48 56 58 60  50 49 48 48  43 42 43 43  40 41 40 43  133 132 131 134  60 54 54 52  41 42 39 42  RHR  TRIALS 1 2 3 4  -  TRB -  - RHR  -1RB  186 156 174 171  59 54 56 54  54 56 53 56  3RB  TRB  - RHR  41 41 37 39  136 134 125 131  2RB 47% 48 45 46  —  3RB 44 44 42 42  -  -  -  -  •  TRB 145% 148 140 144  -8  SUBJECT 1 2 3 4  KEY:  RHR lRB 2RB 3RB TRB *  = = = = = =  54 51 49 50  *57 58 56 56  l R B - 2RB  3RB  TRB  39 42 40 35  39 40 41 34  123 133 130 108  45 51 49 39  Resting Heart Rate 1-1:30 R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t s 2-2:30 R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t s 3-3:30 R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t s T o t a l Recovery Heart Beat counts Estimated Value  RAW D A T A T A B L E  FOR  AND R E C O V E R Y .-  SUBJECT  TRIALS  .  RHR 1 2  *54  35  55  52  35  3  4  36  52  31  .  . .  .  HEART  .  3RB - T R B - "  RHR  lRB  58  55  104  54  94  47  57  54  T R B  RHR  lRB  35 32  35  105  33  100  31  37  32  BEAT  31  54  R H R 1 2  46 44  3  4  .  S U B J E C T  1 2 3 4  l R B  • - - • 11 2RB -3RB - T R B -  50  3 R B  44  48  43 43 42  39 42  132 135  42  42  39  129  47  39  R H R  1 R B  1 6 2 R B  5 6 6 6  5 6 5 5  4 5 5 5  .  .  8 0 0 0  .  6 0 7 8  7 0 0 0  12 - RHR " l R B - 2RB .  -•  152  47  68  55  49  45  44  139  64  53  45  43  60  51  45  48  44  133 146  2RB  3RB  TRB  51 55  47 48  44 47  142 150  74 82  149  63  37  36  109  66  50  43  52  42  46  14  2 R B  50 50  .  (BEATS/MINUTE)  COUNTS — C o n t i n u e d  13  SUBJECT  T R I A L S  10 l R B - -2RB  R E S T I N G HEART R A T E  -  -  -  3 R B 4 4 4 4  5 8 4 8  58 52  64  128  *59  1 R B  1 7 -2RB  5 4 4 5  4 3 3 4  • -  T R B 1 1 1 1  KEY:  4 5 5 5  RHRii  8 8 1 6  5 5 4 5  6 2 8 6  1 6 8 1  47  36 .  4 3 3 4  5 9 9 3  = Resting  2RB  = 2-2:30  TRB  = T o t a l Recovery  3RB *  = 3-3:30  Heart  1 7 6 1  1 1 1 1  3 2 2 3  Recovery  Heart  Recovery  Heart  Heart  Value  61  55 57  R H R  1 R B  7 6 7 6  6 6 6 6  6 6 6 6  Beat  Beat Beat  Beat  64 62  63 .  7 2 3 5  Heart  72 68  1 8 2 R B  —  .  Rate  Recovery  = Estimated  .  R H R - -1RB - 2 R B  3 R B - T R B  RHR  1RB = 1 - 1 : 3 0  48  152  44  142  41  137  39  127  15  49  53  -3RB - T R B  6 8 2 8  .  . .  .  7 1 8 8  Counts  Counts  Counts  Counts  .  0 0 1 1  3 R B • T R B 62 58  198 188  56  176  50  3 R B 5 5 5 5  6 6 6 6  166  T R B 1 1 1 1  8 7 8 8  3 7 5 5  APPENDIX C OPERATIONAL  DIRECTIONS  103  OPERATIONAL  The  subject  was  lying  The  left  two  2 x 4 x 4  wooden  and  one b e l o w  the  the  arm r e s t e d  arm o f  the  position  arterial  pulse  surface  in  proximal  to  strongest fingers  adhesive place  left  over  and  the  of  an  pressure  under signal  the of  adjusting two  of  the  cuff  transducer pick of  fingers  oscilloscope  artery  up  the gave  joint  of  placing above  weight  of  hyper-  the  was  the  screen.  was  brachial  pushed t o  the  and  too  to the  the  desired  be  secured cuff  just  where  felt  be  was  by  the the  place moved  little  to  results  roll  thumb an  out  gave  screen.  -  into  carefully  pressure  the  by  4).  adjusted  artery  with  in  (Figure  oscilloscope  slowly,  crease  point  could  transducer had  the  4) .  then  caused  on t h e cuff  pulse  (Figure  to  at  arm t e n s i o n  pressure  The p r e s s u r e excess  the This  up  applied  pressure  operator  the  the  was  elbow  transducer  tape  so t h a t  pick  by  arm - one  blocks.  easy  as  the  position.  position.  the  The p r e s s u r e  -  wooden  anatomical  hyperextended  under  joint  allowed  transducer  the  supine was  blocks  elbow  brachial  of  the  subject  pressure  this  The p r e s s u r e  in  on t h e s e  extended  DIRECTIONS  from  no  The and  image  first on  as  the  104  6.  Once the p r e s s u r e  c u f f was i n p l a c e , the s u b j e c t was  instructed to l i e s t i l l  and t o r e l a x completely  as any  movement at t h i s p o i n t a f f e c t e d the t r a c e on t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e screen.  Any i n t e r f e r e n c e i n o b t a i n i n g a  good t r a c e was due t o t h e e x e r c i s e and t o heavy b r e a t h i n g of the s u b j e c t . 7.  The t r a c e was considered  good when:  a.  I t was centered  on t h e screen.  b.  I t covered as much o f the screen  c.  Two p u l s e contours r a t h e r than one were p r o j e c t e d on the screen at r e s t  as p o s s i b l e .  ( d e s i r a b l e ) and more p u l s e  contours a f t e r the e x e r c i s e p e r i o d due t o the increased  frequency of the p u l s e .  105  NOTE:  The s e n s i t i v e  placed  over  of  the pressure  brachial in  this  the  pulse  figure.  portion  transducer strongest  marked  as  was  an X  FIGURE  4  A P P L I C A T I O N OF T H E P R E S S U R E TRANSDUCER  AND C U F F  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077269/manifest

Comment

Related Items