UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Inter-individual and intra-individual variations of the phase plane measurements of the brachial pulse… Whittaker, Sharon Anne 1969

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INTER-INDIVIDUAL AND INTRA-INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS OF THE PHASE PLANE MEASUREMENTS OF THE BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE by SHARON ANNE WHITTAKER B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s . i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Physical Education and Recreation The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada D a t e A p r i l 3, 1969 ABSTRACT T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f s e l e c t e d p h a s e p l a n e l o o p m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave f o r p o s s i b l e u s e i n f u t u r e a s s e s s -ment o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t any i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l o r w i t h i n s u b j e c t v a r i a t i o n w o u l d b e s m a l l i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s o f a s u b j e c t on t h e f o u r t e s t i n g o c c a s i o n s . T h e b r a c h i a l a r t e r y p r e s s u r e p u l s e , f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e , and p h a s e p l a n e l o o p we re p r o j e c t e d o n t o t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e s c r e e n and p h o t o g r a p h s were t a k e n . T h e e x e r c i s e was a f i v e m i n u t e s t e p p i n g t e s t a t t h i r t y s t e p s p e r m i n u t e on a s e v e n t e e n i n c h b e n c h and p h o t o g r a p h s were t a k e n o f t h e p r e s s u r e p u l s e , f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e , and p h a s e p l a n e l o o p , a t r e s t , i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e , f i v e m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , and t e n m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e . S e l e c t e d m e a s u r e m e n t s on t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p p h o t o -g r a p h s w e r e p Q , p Q / P R / P R / P Q / P R * P r / P r . R e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e ( b e a t s / m i n u t e ) , f i r s t ( 1 - 1 : 3 0 m i n u t e s ) r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , s e c o n d ( 2 - 2 : 3 0 m i n u t e s ) r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , t h i r d ( 3 - 3 : 3 0 m i n u t e s ) r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , and t o t a l r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t v a l u e s were a l s o r e c o r d e d . A n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on e a c h o f t h e t w e n t y -n i n e m e a s u r e m e n t s and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s we re c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h m e a s u r e m e n t . A b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y F - r a t i o was c a l c u l a t e d , g i v i n g an i n d i c a t i o n o f t r u e s c o r e v a r i a t i o n o r i n t e r -i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n . T h e F - r a t i o f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d t o g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f any ' e f f e c t ' due t o t r i a l s . T h e r e was s e e n t o b e no s y s t e m a t i c t r e n d o f t h e d a t a o v e r t h e f o u r t r i a l s . T h e F - r a t i o s f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y we re g e n e r a l l y s e e n t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d t o b e l a r g e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e ( b e a t s / m i n u t e ) , f i r s t r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , s e c o n d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , t h i r d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , and t o t a l r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t we re a l l o v e r . 9 0 0 , s h o w i n g g o o d r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r m e a s u r e m e n t s P Q and p ' w e r e a l l q u i t e l o w , w h e r e a s , t h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r m e a s u r e s P Q and p R we re a l l q u i t e h i g h , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s e m e a s u r e s we re r e p r o d u c i b l e . T h e r a t i o s P Q / P R and P r / P r a l s o h a d g e n e r a l l y h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , s h o w i n g good r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s . O f t h e s i x v a r i a b l e s ( p Q , p Q , P R , P R , P Q / P R / P r / P r ) s e l e c t e d , o n l y two (p^ and p R d i d n o t show good r e p r o d u c i -b i l i t y . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h e a u t h o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h e r g r a t e f u l t h a n k s t o D r . S . R . B r o w n w h o g a v e m a n y h o u r s o f h i s v a l u a b l e t i m e i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y , t o M i s s R o b e r t a S t a d f e l d , a n d t o M r . J o h n C a r t m e l f o r t h e i r h e l p d u r i n g t h e t e s t i n g p e r i o d a n d t o t h e o t h e r m e m b e r s o f h e r c o m m i t t e e f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION . 1 •I. S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 I I . D e f i n i t i o n s o f T e r m s U s e d 5 I I I . L i m i t a t i o n s 7 I V . D e l i m i t a t i o n s . 7 V . J u s t i f i c a t i o n 8 I I . REVIEW OF THE L ITERATURE 12 I. P h y s i o l o g i c a l 12 G e n e r a l 13 C l i n i c a l 15 N o r m a l I n d i v i d u a l s 16 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 17 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 18 I I . S t a t i s t i c a l 19 I I I . METHODS AND PROCEDURE • • • 2 6 I. G r o u p S t u d i e d 26 I I . E q u i p m e n t U s e d 28 I I I . T e s t and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 29 I V . T h e P h a s e P l a n e L o o p 32 V . M e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e L o o p 32 V I . S t a t i s t i c a l T r e a t m e n t 35 v i i CHAPTER PAGE I V . RESULTS AND DISCUSS ION 39 I. I n t r o d u c t i o n 39 I I . P r e s e n t a t i o n o f R e s u l t s 40 I I I . Summary o f R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n . . . 66 V . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 75 BIBLIOGRAPHY 82 APPENDICES A . S t a t i s t i c a l T r e a t m e n t 8U, B. Raw S c o r e D a t a 88 C . O p e r a t i o n a l D i r e c t i o n s 103 L I S T 'OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. I I . I I I . I V . V . V I . V I I . V I I I . I X . X . X I . X I I . X I I I . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f PQ ( R e s t i n g ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f P Q ( R e s t i n g ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p_ ( R e s t i n g ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p ( R e s t i n g ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f P Q / P r ( R e s t i n g ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f P r / P r ( R e s t i n g ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p^ ( Immed ia t e P o s t E x e r c i s e ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p^ ( Immed ia t e P o s t E x e r c i s e ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p ( Immed ia t e P o s t E x e r c i s e ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p ( Immed ia t e P o s t R E x e r c i s e ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f P Q / P R ( Immed ia t e P o s t E x e r c i s e ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f P r / P r ( Immed ia t e P o s t E x e r c i s e ) A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p^ (5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 42 42 44 44 46 46 48 48 49 49 51 51 53 TABLE PAGE X I V . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f (5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 53 X V . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p D (5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 55 X V I . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p (5 M i n s . P o s t R. E x e r c i s e ) 55 X V I I . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f PQ / P R (5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 57 X V I I I . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f P r / P r (5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 57 X I X . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p^ (10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 58 XX . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p Q (10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 58 X X I . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f pR- (10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 60 X X I I . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f p R (10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 60 X X I I I . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f P Q / p R (10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 62 X X I V . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f P r / P r (10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e ) 62 . . X TABLE PAGE XXV . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f R e s t i n g H e a r t R a t e ( b e a t s / m i n u t e ) 64 X X V I . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f F i r s t ( 1 - 1 : 3 0 M i n s . ) R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t . . . 64 X X V I I . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f S e c o n d ( 2 - 2 : 3 0 M i n s . ) R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t 65 X X V I I I . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f T h i r d ( 3 - 3 : 3 0 M i n s . ) R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t 65 X X I X . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f T o t a l R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t {1% M i n s . ) 67 XXX . Summary o f F - R a t i o s and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f V a r i a n c e i n t h e S e l e c t e d M e a s u r e m e n t s on t h e P h a s e P l a n e L o o p . . . 68 L I S T OF F IGURES F IGURE PAGE 1. T h e - P h a s e ' P l a n e ' L o o p M e a s u r e m e n t s 4 2. A . T h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave C o n t o u r 33 A . L o o p C o n t o u r o f t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave . . . 33 3 . B. T h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave C o n t o u r . . . . . . . . 34 B. L o o p C o n t o u r o f t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave . . . 34 4 . A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e P r e s s u r e T r a n s d u c e r and C u f f . 105 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The purpose of t h i s study was to determine the r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of the phase plane loop measurements of the b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave w i t h a view t o the use of the phase p l a n e i n the assessment of c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . The phase plane loop d i s p l a y of the b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave i s a c l o s e d loop c h a r a c t e r i z e d by one or two secondary loops and c r e a t e d by sim u l t a n e o u s l y p l o t t i n g the p u l s e wave on one a x i s and i t s f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e on the ot h e r . C e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave, which are apparent upon v i s u a l examination, are emphasized i n the phase plane loop and can be measured on the loop w i t h r e l a t i v e ease. The c a r o t i d p r e s s u r e p u l s e was not used i n t h i s study because of the poor r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of the c a r o t i d p u l s e t r a c i n g s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , the purpose of t h i s study t o determine whether or not the measurements made on the phase plane loop d i s p l a y are s u f f i c i e n t l y s t a b l e from t r i a l t o t r i a l t o be of any s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e . 2 The s u b j e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y were e i g h t e e n a d u l t (25 t o 40 y e a r s o f age) m a l e f a c u l t y members o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who h a d b e e n e x e r c i s i n g v a r y i n g amounts f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f t i m e ( f o r a t l e a s t t h r e e months ) and who were a b l e t o c o m p l e t e a f i v e m i n u t e s t e p t e s t on a s e v e n t e e n i n c h b e n c h w i t h o u t b e c o m i n g e x h a u s t e d . E a c h o f t h e s e men was t o be t e s t e d o n f o u r o c c a s i o n s -e x a c t l y one week a p a r t - u n d e r c a r e f u l l y s t a n d a r d i z e d c o n d i -t i o n s . On e a c h o f t h e s e o c c a s i o n s , t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p d i s p l a y e d o n t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e s c r e e n was p h o t o g r a p h e d b e f o r e e x e r c i s e , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d s , and a t f i v e m i n u t e and t e n m i n u t e i n t e r v a l s a f t e r e x e r c i s e . R e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e s ( b e a t s / m i n u t e ) and p o s t e x e r c i s e h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s (1-1 :30 ; 2 - 2 : 3 0 ; 3-3 :30 m i n u t e i n t e r v a l s a f t e r e x e r c i s e ) we re a d d i t i o n a l m e a s u r e m e n t s t a k e n and we re t o be a n a l y z e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y f o r any t r e n d o f i m p r o v e m e n t i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n o r e f f i c i e n c y i n b e n c h s t e p p i n g ( a t l e a s t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e i m p r o v e m e n t s w o u l d be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s ) . F o u r m e a s u r e m e n t s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p p h o t o -g r a p h s p g , p g , p R , p R , and r a t i o s Po/PRr P r / P r we re c h o s e n . T h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t s we re c h o s e n f r o m among a l a r g e r number o f p o s s i b l e m e a s u r e m e n t s w h i c h c o u l d h a v e b e e n made f r o m 3 t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . T h e m a i n r e a s o n f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n was t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d maximum and min imum p o i n t s on t h e l o o p , and r a t i o s i n v o l v i n g t h e s e p o i n t s . I t was t h o u g h t b y o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s (1) t h a t i f t h e s e s e l e c t e d m e a s u r e s on t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p we re r e p r o d u c i b l e , t h e y m i g h t b e u s e f u l i n f u t u r e a s s e s s m e n t o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . A l l m e a s u r e m e n t s made on t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p we re b r o u g h t t o a common s c a l e o f t e n u n i t s a s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s and a m p l i f i e r g a i n v a l u e s u s e d when t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p t r a c i n g s were o b t a i n e d . ( F i g u r e 1) T h e f o l l o w i n g m e a s u r e m e n t s we re made ( F i g u r e 1 ) : P Q = T h e x c o o r d i n a t e o f t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t o f t h e l o o p w h i c h i s t h e p o s i t i v e maximum r a t e o f c h a n g e o f p r e s s u r e . P Q = T h e y c o o r d i n a t e o f t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t o f t h e l o o p w h i c h i s t h e p o s i t i v e maximum r a t e o f c h a n g e o f p r e s s u r e . p R = T h e x c o o r d i n a t e o f t h e l o w e s t p o i n t o f t h e l o o p w h i c h i s t h e n e g a t i v e maximum r a t e o f c h a n g e o f p r e s s u r e . p R = T h e y c o o r d i n a t e o f t h e l o w e s t p o i n t o f t h e l o o p w h i c h i s t h e n e g a t i v e maximum r a t e o f c h a n g e o f p r e s s u r e . P r / P r = T h e r a t i o o f t h e r a n g e b e t w e e n maximum and min imum p r e s s u r e and b e t w e e n Q and R. P Q / P r = T h e r a t i o o f t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e o f P Q above t h e o r i g i n and t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e o f p b e l o w K. THE PHASE PLANE LOOP MEASUREMENTS MEASUREMENTS 1. PQ 2. PQ 3. PR 4. PR 5. PQ/PR 6. Pr/Pr = 1 PQR CODE A Pr = OA = 10 (by norma-l i z a t i o n ) Q = (PQ/ PQ) R = (PR' PR) -5 the o r i g i n , i . e . the r a t i o of the maximum p o s i t i v e r a t e of change of p r e s s u r e and the maximum n e g a t i v e r a t e of change of p r e s s u r e . I t was hypo t h e s i z e d t h a t any i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l or w i t h i n s u b j e c t v a r i a t i o n would be s m a l l i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n the measurements of a su b j e c t on the four o c c a s i o n s . I I . DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave - the changing p u l s e p r e s s u r e t r a c e made by the p u l s a t i l e flow of bloo d through the b r a c h i a l a r t e r y . P u l s e P r e s s u r e - the p r e s s u r e at any p o i n t between the s y s t o l i c and d i a s t o l i c p r e s s u r e s . Phase Plane Loop - the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b r a c h i a l p u l s e p r e s s u r e (X) and the r a t e of change o f p r e s s u r e (Y) as shown by a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c loop d i s p l a y e d on a storage o s c i l l o s c o p e (2 ). The c l o s e d c i r c u i t loop i s formed by p l o t t i n g the p r e s s u r e on the x - a x i s and the r a t e of change of p r e s s u r e on the y - a x i s . F i r s t D e r i v a t i v e of the B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave - the r a t e of change of p r e s s u r e as i t moves from maximum p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e v a l u e s through zero along a time base. .6 R e p r o due xb i I i t y - t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y t h a t u p o n m e a s u r i n g t h e s u b j e c t on t h e f o u r d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s i n t h e s t u d y , u s i n g t h e same m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t , s i m i l a r r e s u l t s w i l l b e o b t a i n e d . R e p r o d u c i b i l i t y i s one p h a s e o f r e l i a b i l i t y and t h e o n l y one o f c o n c e r n i n t h i s c a s e . A c c u r a c y o r s t a b i l i t y and p r e c i s i o n o f measu remen t c a n n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d h e r e , b e c a u s e t h e r e w i l l a l w a y s b e some v a r i a b i l i t y i n any p h y s i o l o g i c a l measu remen t t a k e n . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n as t o t h e r e p r o -d u c i b i l i t y o f e a c h m e a s u r e m e n t . R e s t i n g H e a r t R a t e - t h e number o f h e a r t b e a t s p e r m i n u t e r e c o r d e d b y means o f a s t e t h o s c o p e and s t o p w a t c h b e f o r e t h e e x e r c i s e p e r i o d , when t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s i n a s u p i n e p o s i t i o n on t h e t a b l e . F i r s t R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t - t h e number o f b e a t s r e c o r d e d i n t h e i n t e r v a l 1-1 :30 m i n u t e s a f t e r c e s s a -t i o n o f e x e r c i s e . S e c o n d R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t - t h e number o f b e a t s r e c o r d e d i n t h e i n t e r v a l 2 - 2 : 3 0 m i n u t e s a f t e r c e s s a -t i o n o f e x e r c i s e . T h i r d R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t - t h e number o f 7 b e a t s r e c o r d e d i n t h e i n t e r v a l 3 - 3 : 3 0 m i n u t e s a f t e r c e s s a -t i o n o f e x e r c i s e . T o t a l R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t - t h e r e c o r d e d sum o f t h e f i r s t , s e c o n d , and t h i r d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s o v e r t h e t o t a l one and one h a l f m i n u t e p e r i o d . I I I . L IM ITAT IONS T h e r e were no s p e c i f i c l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e d e s i g n o r e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y o f t h e r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave . I V . DEL IMITAT IONS T h e s t u d y was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s on s e l e c t e d m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p o f t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave . T h e s u b j e c t s we re a d u l t (25 t o 40 y e a r s o f age) m a l e f a c u l t y members o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who we re members o f a c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s . some o f t h e members o f t h e c l a s s we re n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n d i t i o n e d t o c o m p l e t e a f i v e m i n u t e s t e p t e s t and some o f t hem c o u l d s t e p q u i t e e a s i l y f o r f i v e m i n u t e s a t t h e c o r r e c t p a c e . T h e o n l y r e q u i r e m e n t s i n s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y 8 were that they could step for f i v e minutes at a speed of t h i r t y steps per minute on a seventeen inch bench and that they agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. V. JUSTIFICATION It i s only recently (3,4) that the oscilloscope has been used by physical educators as a means of studying cardiovascular condition of normal in d i v i d u a l s . Dr. Dower of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia was the f i r s t person to put the phase plane analysis into use and i t i s under h i s close guidance that the physical educa-t i o n studies making use of the phase plane analysis are being ca r r i e d out i n the Human Performance Laboratory of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Studies by Jackson (5) and Boyd (6) are the two major studies which have made use of the phase plane analysis to study cardiovascular condition of the normal i n d i v i d u a l . Boyd (7) conducted an investigation to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p of selected measurements of the phase plane loop of the br a c h i a l pulse wave to physical working capacity. Jackson used six world class oarsmen i n h i s study and, using b a s i c a l l y the same tests as i n t h i s present 9 s t u d y , e x p l o r e d t h e u s e o f t h e p r e s s u r e p u l s e , f i r s t d e r i v a -t i v e , and p h a s e p l a n e l o o p as a p o s s i b l e means o f a s s e s s i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g . A l l i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a v e l o o k e d a t t h e c o n t o u r s and m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e images as a means o f a s s e s s i n g c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n o f s u b j e c t s and h a v e c o m p a r e d p h a s e p l a n e l o o p c o n t o u r s o f one s u b j e c t w i t h t h o s e o f a n o t h e r . T h e r e h a s , h o w e v e r , b e e n no s t u d y w h i c h h a s a t t e m p t e d t o show t h a t , i f t h e s u b j e c t we re t e s t e d r e p e a t e d l y , t h e r e w o u l d b e no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n m e a s u r e s o v e r t h e s e r i e s o f t r i a l s . I n t h e e v e n t o f s u c h a r e s u l t , t h e r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f t h e d a t a w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , b e h i g h . T h i s s t u d y was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e r e p r o d u c i -b i l i t y o f t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p m e a s u r e m e n t s . T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r l o o k e d a t t h e d a t a i n t e r m s o f v a r i a n c e . To b e r e p r o d u c i b l e , t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s s h o u l d b e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n ( i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s - s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ) w i t h t h e i n t r a -i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n n o t b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t ( a t t h e .05 l e v e l ) . I f t h e s e r e s u l t s we re f o u n d , i t w o u l d t h e n b e 10 possible to proceed with further studies to investigate whether or not the phase plane loops would prove to be useful i n assessing cardiovascular condition of individuals i n varying degrees of t r a i n i n g . 11 REFERENCES 1 B r o w n , S .R . e t a l . " T i m e D e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e C a r o t i d P u l s e Wave and P h a s e P l a n e A n a l y s i s o f C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n " , U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 6 5 . 2 B o y d , W i l l i a m R o b e r t . " A P h a s e P l a n e A n a l y s i s o f P h y s i c a l W o r k i n g C a p a c i t y " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 1 9 6 7 . 3 B a n i s t e r , E.W. e t a l . " A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e • B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave and i t s T i m e D e r i v a t i v e s among A t h l e t i c , N o r m a l and P a t h o l o g i c a l S u b j e c t s " , J o u r n a l  o f S p o r t s M e d i c i n e and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s 6 : 9 2 - 9 9 , J une 1 9 6 6 . 4 B r o w n , l o c . c i t . 5 J a c k s o n , R o g e r C h a r l e s . " A F i t n e s s A p p r a i s a l o f C h a m p i o n O a r s m e n , I n c l u d i n g A n a l y s i s o f Maximum O x y g e n C o n s u m p t i o n , E l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m C o m p l e x e s and t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave and I t s T i m e D e r i v a t i v e s " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 1 9 6 7 . 6 B o y d , l o c . c i t . 7 I b i d . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE L ITERATURE I. PHYS IOLOGICAL T h e r e h a v e b e e n many b o o k s ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) w r i t t e n t h a t r e f e r t o t h e p u l s a t i l e f l o w o f b l o o d . Many o f t h e s t u d i e s c i t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r h a v e u s e d i n t r a - a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e r e c o r d i n g , b u t r e l a t i v e l y few i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a v e e x p l o r e d a p p l i c a t i o n s and s c i e n t i f i c u s e f u l n e s s o f e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e p u l s e r e c o r d i n g . T h e m a i n c o n c e r n i n p e r i p h e r a l a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e p u l s e s i s w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y a r e r e f l e c t i n g t h e t r u e p i c t u r e o f t h e c e n t r a l p r e s s u r e p u l s e o r o f t h e a o r t i c p r e s s u r e p u l s e . W o r k e r s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h mus t c o n f i n e t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on human s u b j e c t s t o t h e u s e o f e x t r a -a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e r e c o r d i n g s s i n c e t h e t a k i n g o f i n t r a -a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e r e c o r d i n g s ( c a t h e t e r i z a t i o n ) i s u s u a l l y n o t p o s s i b l e . U s e s o f ' t h e P u l s e P r e s s u r e Wave . C l i n i c a l l y , t h e p u l s e r e p r e s e n t s c h a n g e s i n d i a m e t e r o f t h e v e s s e l s 13 p r o d u c e d b y i n t e r n a l c h a n g e s i n p u l s e p r e s s u r e . T h e p u l s e t r a c e , l e n g t h o f s y s t o l e and d i a s t o l e o f t h e w h o l e c y c l e g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on t e m p o r a l e v e n t s o f t h e c a r d i a c c y c l e as d o e s t h e m e a s u r e d e j e c t i o n t i m e t o d i a s t o l i c f i l l i n g t i m e r a t i o o f t h e p r e s s u r e p u l s e t r a c e ( 4 ) . I n t h e c l i n i c a l a r e a , i n t r a - a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e p u l s e t r a c i n g s a r e p r i m a r i l y u s e d f o r d i a g n o s i s o f h e a r t d i s e a s e as t h e e x t e r n a l p u l s e t r a c i n g s a r e more s u b j e c t t o e r r o r t h a n t h e i n t e r n a l m e a s u r e m e n t s (5) . W o r k e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n make u s e o f t h e e x t e r n a l p u l s e p r e s s u r e t r a c i n g s t o : 1. P r e d i c t t h e r e l a t i v e s t a t e o f f u n c t i o n a l c a r d i o -v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n i n t h e n o r m a l p e r s o n . 2. D e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e s t a t e o f t r a i n i n g o f an a t h l e t e b o t h i n t r a i n i n g and o u t o f t r a i n i n g . 3. E n c o u r a g e i n t e r e s t i n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n and t o p o s s i b l y d e t e c t an a b n o r m a l p u l s e p r e s s u r e wave w i t h t h e i m m e d i a t e r e f e r r a l o f t h e s u b j e c t t o a p h y s i c i a n . 4 . T o i l l u s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n t e x e r c i s e s on t h e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r s y s t e m . (6) G e n e r a l C u r e t o n (7) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p u l s e wave c o u l d b e 14 used t o p r e d i c t "the r e l a t i v e s t a t e of ' f u n c t i o n a l c a r d i o -v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n ' i n s u b j e c t s without h e a r t d i s e a s e " . He ex p l a i n e d f u l l y i n subsequent pages, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of v a r i o u s measures as a determinant of ' f u n c t i o n a l c a r d i o -v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n ' . Wiggers (8) d i s c u s s e d the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the p r e s s u r e p u l s e i n t r a n s m i s s i o n away from the h e a r t . Rushmer (9) and A t t i n g e r (10) d e s c r i b e d the o r i g i n s of the p u l s a t i l e flow and e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l the v e n t r i -c u l a r e j e c t i o n s t h a t i n i t i a t e the p r e s s u r e p u l s e . Hyman (11) i n h i s a r t i c l e on 'What can be found i n the a r t e r i a l p u l s e wave' r e f l e c t e d upon d i f f e r e n t approaches t h a t are used t o analyze a s i n g l e p r e s s u r e p u l s e curve. He s t a t e d (12) t h a t "a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of p u l s e waves i s of p a r t i c u l a r c l i n i c a l v a l u e i n d i s c o v e r i n g the presence and l o c a t i o n of o b s t r u c t i o n i n the a r t e r i a l t r e e " . Hamilton (13), i n stu d y i n g the p a t t e r n s of the a r t e r i a l p u l s e both i n animals and i n humans, sought t o " d e s c r i b e the manner i n which these t y p i c a l p a t t e r n s take form and to pr e s e n t a simple h y p o t h e s i s t h a t w i l l account p h y s i c a l l y f o r the v a r i a t i o n s seen i n the p r e s s u r e p u l s e s i n d i f f e r e n t a r t e r i e s and under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s " . He summarized from h i s study t h a t the p u l s e form c o u l d be used 15 to assess the r o l e of vasodilation in the production of hypertension. C l i n i c a l Four studies are c i t e d here r e l a t i n g to the value of the pressure pulse for diagnostic purposes. A l l studies are relat e d to the detection of a o r t i c stenosis, a o r t i c valvular disease, or muscular subaortic stenosis. In the case of ao r t i c stenosis the br a c h i a l pulse was not r e l i a b l e i n diagnosis, so the carotid pulse was used. Robinson (14) concluded that a diagnosis of ao r t i c stenosis could be made from the pulse tracings and i n a further paper (15) comparing recordings of the carotid, a o r t i c , and br a c h i a l pulses, found that the br a c h i a l artery was of less value i n diagnosis as many of the features of the c e n t r a l pulse were either l o s t or greatly changed at t h i s l e v e l . Hancock (16), on the other hand, did not completely discard the peripheral pressure pulse as a diagnostic t e s t . He said that the br a c h i a l artery may help i n the confirma-ti o n of a o r t i c stenosis. Wigle (17) found, however, that the bra c h i a l a r t e r i a l pressure pulses did serve to diagnose muscular subaortic 16 s t e n o s i s . S t u d i e s we re u n d e r t a k e n b y G l e a s o n ( 1 8 ) , Mason ( 1 9 ) , and S t a r r (20) on t h e d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e o f t h e f i r s t d e r i v a -t i v e o f t h e p r e s s u r e p u l s e . Mason c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d p u l s e d e r i v a t i v e s we re h e l p f u l i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f c e r t a i n a b n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n s . S t a r r s t a t e d (21) t h a t t h e " d e r i v a t i v e e m p h a s i z e s c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p u l s e and s u p p r e s s e s o t h e r s " . He s a i d t h a t p h e n o m e n a , d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o g n i z e on t h e p r e s s u r e p u l s e r e c o r d i n g , become c o n s p i c u o u s i n t h e d e r i v a t i v e . S t a r r c o n c l u d e d t h a t any a b n o r m a l i t i e s o f t h e f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e i n d i c a t e d an i n c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e c a r d i a c c o n t r a c t i o n . N o r m a l I n d i v i d u a l s K r o e k e r (22) c o n s i d e r e d a c o m p a r i s o n o f c e n t r a l and p e r i p h e r a l a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e p u l s e r e c o r d i n g s i n n o r m a l i n d i v i d u a l s b y i n t r a - a r t e r i a l m e t h o d s and d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e m a i n s t r i k i n g c h a n g e s t h a t t h e p u l s e wave u n d e r g o e s on i t s t r a n s i t t o t h e p e r i p h e r y . D o n t a s ( 2 3 ) , i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e a r t e r i a l v o l u m e and p r e s s u r e p u l s e c o n t o u r s , f o u n d t h a t " t h e d e s c r i b e d p r e s s u r e - v o l u m e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e b r a c h i a l and -femora l a r t e r i e s o f t h e y o u n g m a l e a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r 17 n a t u r e as v i s c o - e l a s t i c t u b e s " . I n two s t u d i e s o f comparison between i n t r a - a r t e r i a l l y and e x t r a - a r t e r i a l l y r e c o r d e d p u l s e waves, Heyman (24) and Dontas (25) b o t h found d i f f e r e n c e s between i n t r a - a r t e r i a l and e x t r a - a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e p u l s e s b u t Dontas d i d s t a t e t h a t a t p r e s s u r e s s l i g h t l y below d i a s t o l i c p r e s s u r e l e v e l s t h e r e was a resemblance between t h e two p r e s s u r e p u l s e s . A s t u d y was done by W i l l i a m s (26) on t h e use o f t h e a r t e r i a l p u l s e wave v e l o c i t y as a p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l measure w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t was a measure o f h i g h r e l i a -b i l i t y . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . B a n i s t e r e t a l . (27) compared t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave and i t s t i m e d e r i v a t i v e s among a t h l e t i c , n o r m a l , and p a t h o l o g i c a l s u b j e c t s and found t h a t t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t measurements between t h e groups were i n s y s t o l i c u p s t r o k e t i m e and t h e d i a s t o l i c f i l l i n g t i m e . Brown e t a l . (28) i n t h e i r paper on t i m e d e r i v a t i v e s and phase p l a n e a n a l y s i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t r a t i o measure-ments o f t h e phase p l a n e l o o p d imensions c o u l d be v a l u a b l e q u a n t i t a t i v e measures o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . Boyd (29) i n v e s t i g a t e d a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l e c t e d measurements of t h e phase p l a n e l o o p and 18 p h y s i c a l w o r k i n g c a p a c i t y and c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h e r w o r k i n g c a p a c i t i e s h a d c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t e r m s o f c h a n g i n g p u l s e p r e s s u r e s . J a c k s o n (30) i n h i s s t u d y on s i x w o r l d c l a s s o a r s m e n , e x p l o r e d t h e u s e o f t h e p r e s s u r e p u l s e , f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e , and p h a s e p l a n e a n a l y s i s as a means o f a s s e s s i n g c a r d i o -v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s . J a c k s o n r e c o r d e d p r e - and p o s t - t r a i n i n g p h a s e p l a n e l o o p s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r , f i v e m i n u t e s , and t e n m i n u t e s a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g a f i v e m i n u t e s t e p t e s t . He o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e p o s t - t r a i n i n g l o o p s r e t u r n e d f a s t e r t o t h e r e s t i n g wave f o r m t h a n t h e p r e -t r a i n i n g w a v e s . He a l s o n o t e d t h a t PQ/P R (+P/-P) i n c r e a s e d w i t h t r a i n i n g . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . A r t i c l e s h a v e a l s o b e e n w r i t t e n on t h e u s e o f e l e c t r o n i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g d e v i c e s i n p h y s i o -l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . T a v e l (31) , B a b s k i i (32) , N o b l e (33) , and N e a l (34) a r e a l l i n a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e c a t h o d e - r a y o s c i l l o s c o p e , w i t h an e l e c t r i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g u n i t , i s one o f t h e b e s t and mos t a c c u r a t e means o f a n a l y z i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e r e c o r d e r t o g i v e i n s t a n t a n e o u s r e c o r d s o f t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d p u l s e d e r i v a -t i v e s . 19 I I . STATISTICAL The s t a t i s t i c a l concepts of prime concern i n t h i s study are r e l i a b i l i t y , analysis of variance, and measurement errors. Numerous authors have discussed these areas of s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. R e l i a b i l i t y i s usually defined as being related to error and i s the r a t i o of true score (inter-individual) variance to t o t a l variance which i s composed of i n t r a -i n d i v i d u a l ("biological variation") and error variance as well as the true score variance. Three authors who have discussed reliability.,,theory i n d e t a i l are Kerlinger (35), K r o l l (36), and Henry (37). I t i s now generally considered that the best method of estimating the r e l i a b i l i t y of a test i s not by the product-moment r or by variations of i t but rather by analysis of variance (and by using i n t r a c l a s s c o r r e l a t i o n methods) (38,39). R e l i a b i l i t y determination by these methods allows a breakdown of variance into components. Tot a l variance i s composed of: true score variance or i n t e r -i n d i v i d u a l variance, i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l variance, and error variance (40) . Henry (41) hypothesized that "the v a r i a t i o n of motor 20 p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m moment t o moment i s commonly c a l l e d e r r o r v a r i a n c e and so t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y . . . t h i s v a r i a n c e i s n o t e r r o r — r a t h e r i t i s b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n " . H e n r y (42) a l s o s t a t e d t h a t " t h e p r o b l e m i s n o t t o e l i m i n a t e e r r o r - r a t h e r t o a v o i d e r r o r t h a t w i l l r e s u l t i n m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s " . He c o n t i n u e d , i n t h i s a r t i c l e , t o c l a r i f y how u n n e c e s s a r y e r r o r m i g h t b e e l i m i n a t e d . H e n r y (43) and L e r s t e n (44) h a v e d e s c r i b e d t h e n a t u r e o f i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l and i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . H e n r y commented i n h i s p a p e r s t h a t : T h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f u n r e l i a b i l i t y i s v a r i a t i o n i n t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n i n e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t . I n d i v i d u a l s v a r y as b e t w e e n one a n o t h e r , and a l s o w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s ; b o t h v a r i a t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b e h a v i o r t h a t s h o u l d b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m measu remen t e r r o r , w h i c h i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e t e s t . R e l i a b i l i t y s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t i n s e v e r a l a r e a s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( 4 5 , 4 6 ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e on v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . R e l i a b i l i t y c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h a r e t r u e v a r i a t i o n s b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s o r i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e r e l i a -b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t g i v e s a r e l a t i v e m e a s u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l 21 d i f f e r e n c e s . These, however, a r e not t h e o n l y t y p e o f d i f f e r e n c e s as i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l a l s o v a r y w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s from moment t o moment. I t i s i m p o r t a n t when c o n s i d e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y between i n d i -v i d u a l s o r i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e l a r g e i n c o m p a r i -son t o t h e w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e (47). The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t measures t h i s r a t i o . S i n c e r e l i a b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o t r u e v a r i a n c e and t o t a l o b t a i n e d v a r i a n c e , a s t u d y o f r e l i a b i l i t y g i v e s an e s t i m a t e o f t h e t r u e s c o r e o r i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l v a r i a t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e s i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n and e r r o r v a r i a n c e as w e l l as t h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e . A breakdown can be made o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s c o r e s and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r can t h e n d e t e r m i n e what p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i s t r u e s c o r e v a r i a t i o n , what p o r t i o n i s due t o " b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n " , and what p o r t i o n i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o measurement e r r o r . 22 REFERENCES 1 Attinger, E.O., ed. P u l s a t i l e Blood Flow, (Proceedings of the F i r s t International Symposium on P u l s a t i l e Blood Flow, A p r i l 11-13, 1963). New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1964. 2 Rushmer, Robert F. Cardiovascular Dynamics. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1961. 3 Wiggers, C a r l J. C i r c u l a t o r y Dynamics. New York: Grune and stratton, 1952. 4 Rushmer, op_. c i t . 5 Banister, E.W., et a l . "A Comparative Study of the Brachial Pulse Wave and i t s Time Derivatives among A t h l e t i c , Normal and Pathological Subjects", Journal  of sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 6: 92-99, June 1966. 6 Cureton, Thomas Kirk, J r . Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance. St. Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company, .1947. 7 Ibid . , p. 232. 8 Wiggers, OJD. ext., p. 6. 9 Rushmer, loc. c i t . 10 Attinger, loc. c i t . 11 Hyman, Chester, and Winsor, Travis. "What can be found i n A r t e r i a l Pulse Waves", American Heart Journal 61 (No. 3): 424-426, March 1961. 12 Ibid., p. 426. 13 Hamilton, W.F. "The Patterns of the A r t e r i a l Pressure Pulse", American Journal of Physiology 141:235, 1944. 14 Robinson, Brian. "The Carotid Pulse - I. Diagnosis of A o r t i c Stenosis by External Recordings", B r i t i s h  Heart Journal 25: 51-60, 1963. 23 15 R o b i n s o n , B r i a n . " T h e C a r o t i d P u l s e - I I . R e l a t i o n o f E x t e r n a l R e c o r d i n g s t o C a r o t i d , A o r t i c , and B r a c h i a l P u l s e s " , B r i t i s h H e a r t J o u r n a l 2 5 : 6 1 - 6 8 , 1 9 6 3 . 16 H a n c o c k , E r n e s t W . , and A b e l m a n n , W a l t e r H . " A C l i n i c a l S t u d y o f t h e B r a c h i a l A r t e r i a l P u l s e F o r m " , C i r c u l a t i o n 1 6 : 5 7 2 - 5 8 1 , O c t o b e r 1 9 5 7 . 17 W i g l e , E . D o u g l a s . " T h e A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e i n M u s c u l a r S u b a o r t i c S t e n o s i s " , B r i t i s h H e a r t J o u r n a l 2 5 : 9 7 - 1 0 5 , 1 9 6 3 . 18 G l e a s o n , W i l l i a m L . and B r a u n w a l d , E u g e n e . " S t u d i e s on t h e F i r s t D e r i v a t i v e o f t h e V e n t r i c u l a r P r e s s u r e P u l s e i n M a n " , J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n 41 (No. 1 ) : 8 0 - 9 1 , 1 9 6 2 . 19 M a s o n , D e a n T . , B r a u n w a l d , E u g e n e , R o s s , J o h n , J r . , and M o r r o w , A n d r e w G . " D i a g n o s t i c V a l u e o f t h e F i r s t and S e c o n d D e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e i n A o r t i c V a l v e D i s e a s e and i n H y p e r t r o p h i c S u b a o r t i c S t e n o s i s " , C i r c u l a t i o n 3 0 : 9 0 - 9 9 , J u l y 1 9 6 4 . 20 S t a r r , I s a a c , and Ogawa, S h i g e r u . " A C l i n i c a l S t u d y o f t h e F i r s t D e r i v a t i v e o f t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e . N o r m a l S t a n d a r d s and A b n o r m a l i t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n H e a r t D i s e a s e " , A m e r i c a n H e a r t J o u r n a l 65 (No. 4 ) : 4 8 2 - 4 9 4 , A p r i l 1 9 6 3 . 21 I b i d . , p . 4 8 9 . 22 K r o e k e r , E d w i n J . , and Wood , E a r l H . " C o m p a r i s o n o f S i m u l t a n e o u s l y R e c o r d e d C e n t r a l and P e r i p h e r a l A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e s D u r i n g R e s t , E x e r c i s e and T i l t e d P o s i t i o n i n M a n " , C i r c u l a t i o n R e s e a r c h 3: 6 2 3 - 6 3 2 , November 1 9 5 5 . 23 D o n t a s , A . S . , and C o t t a s , C S . " A r t e r i a l V o l u m e and P r e s s u r e P u l s e C o n t o u r s i n t h e Y o u n g Human S u b j e c t " , A m e r i c a n H e a r t J o u r n a l 61 (No. 5 ) : 6 8 2 , May 1 9 6 1 . 24 Heyman, F . " C o m p a r i s o n o f I n t r a - a r t e r i a l l y and E x t r a -a r t e r i a l l y R e c o r d e d P u l s e Waves i n Man and D o g " , A c t a M e d i c a S c a n d i n a v i c a 157 (No. 6 ) : 5 0 3 - 5 1 0 , 1 9 5 7 . 24 25 D o n t a s , A . S . " C o m p a r i s o n o f s i m u l t a n e o u s l y R e c o r d e d I n t r a - A r t e r i a l and E x t r a - A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e s i n M a n " , A m e r i c a n H e a r t J o u r n a l 59 (No. 4 ) : 5 7 6 - 5 9 0 , A p r i l 1 9 6 0 . 26 W i l l i a m s , James G . L . , and W i l l i a m s , B a r b a r a . " A r t e r i a l P u l s e Wave V e l o c i t y a s a P s y c h o s o m a t i c M e a s u r e " , P s y c h o s o m a t i c M e d i c i n e 27 (No. 5 ) : 4 0 8 - 4 1 4 , 1 9 6 5 . 27 B a n i s t e r , l o c . c i t . 28 B r o w n , S . R . , e t a l . " T i m e D e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e C a r o t i d P u l s e Wave and P h a s e P l a n e A n a l y s i s o f C a r d i o -v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n " , U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 6 5 . 29 B o y d , W i l l i a m R o b e r t . " A P h a s e P l a n e A n a l y s i s o f P h y s i c a l W o r k i n g C a p a c i t y " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 1 9 6 7 . 30 J a c k s o n , R o g e r C h a r l e s . " A F i t n e s s A p p r a i s a l o f C h a m p i o n O a r s m e n , I n c l u d i n g A n a l y s i s o f Maximum O x y g e n C o n s u m p t i o n , E l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m C o m p l e x e s and t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave and I t s T i m e D e r i v a t i v e s " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 1 9 6 7 . 31 T a v e l , M o r t o n E . C l i n i c a l P h o n o c a r d i o g r a p h y and E x t e r n a l P u l s e R e c o r d i n g . C h i c a g o : Y e a r Book M e d i c a l P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 6 7 . 32 B a b s k i i , E . B . , e t a l . " U s e o f A n E l e c t r o n i c D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g D e v i c e i n P h y s i o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s " , B i o p h y s i c s ( U . S . S . R . ) 4 : 1 0 2 - 1 1 0 , 1 9 5 9 . 33 N o b l e , F r a n k W. E l e c t r i c a l M e t h o d s o f B l o o d - P r e s s u r e R e c o r d i n g . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C . Thomas ^ P u b l i s h e r , 1 9 5 3 . 34 N e a l , J o h n J . , J r . , e t a l . " V e l o c i t y and A c c e l e r a t i o n o f P r e s s u r e C h a n g e i n H e a r t and A r t e r i e s " , J o u r n a l  o f A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y 1 5 : 7 4 7 - 7 4 9 , 1 9 6 0 . 25 35 Kerlinger, Fred N. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1966, p. 429. 36 K r o l l , Walter. "A Note on the Co e f f i c i e n t of Intraclass Correlation as an Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y " , Research  Quarterly 33 (No. 2): 313-315, May 1962. 37 Henry, Franklin M. " R e l i a b i l i t y , Measurement Error and Intra-Individual Difference", Research Quarterly 30 (No. 1) : 21-24, March 1959. 38 K r o l l , loc. c i t . 39 K r o l l , Walter. " R e l i a b i l i t y Theory and Research Decision i n Selection of a C r i t e r i o n Score", Research  Quarterly 38 (No. 3): 412-419, October 1967. 40 Lersten, Kenneth C. "Intra and Inter-Individual Variations During the Progress of Motor Learning", Unpublished Paper, University of southern C a l i f o r n i a . 41 Henry, Franklin M. "Individual Differences in Intra-Individual V a r i a b i l i t y " , An Address presented at A.A.H.P.E.R. Research Section, Las Vegas, Nevada, March 13, 1967. 42 Henry, F.M. et a l . "Errors i n Measurement", i n Scott, M.G. ed. Research Methods Applied to Health, Physical Education and Recreation. Washington, D.C.: American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1949, p. 459. 43 Henry, lo c . c i t . 44 Lersten, loc. c i t . 45 I b i d . 46 K r o l l , Walter. " R e l i a b i l i t y Variations of strength i n Test-Retest Situations", Research Quarterly 34 (No. 1) : 50-55, March 1963. 47 Carron, A.V. "Individual Differences i n Performance", Unpublished Paper, University of Saskatchewan, December 4, 1967. C H A P T E R I I I M E T H O D S A N D P R O C E D U R E T h e s t u d y w a s a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l a n d i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n o f t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e w a v e . T h e m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e t a k e n f r o m p h a s e p l a n e l o o p p h o t o g r a p h s o b t a i n e d b y p r o j e c t i n g t h e i m a g e o n t o t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e s c r e e n a n d p h o t o g r a p h i n g i t w i t h a 3 5 m m . c a m e r a a t t a c h e d t o t h e m a c h i n e . R e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e a n d r e c o v e r y h e a r t r a t e w e r e a l s o r e c o r d e d a n d t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e s t u d y w a s t o d e t e r m i n e h o w c l o s e l y t h e o b t a i n e d s c o r e s a p p r o x i m a t e d t h e t r u e s c o r e s . I t w a s h y p o t h e s i z e d b y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s c o r e s b e t w e e n t r i a l s f o r a n y g i v e n s u b j e c t b u t t h e r e w o u l d b e a s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s c o r e s b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s . I . G R O U P S T U D I E D T h e s u b j e c t s w e r e e i g h t e e n a d u l t ( 2 5 t o 4 0 y e a r s o f a g e ) m a l e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f a c u l t y m e m b e r s c h o s e n f r o m a c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s o n t h e b a s i s o f w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e a n d a b i l i t y t o c o m p l e t e a f i v e m i n u t e s t e p 27 t e s t on a seventeen i n c h bench ( p r e f e r a b l y at a speed of t h i r t y steps per minute). The s u b j e c t s were at v a r i o u s f i t n e s s l e v e l s although they had a l l p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s f o r s e v e r a l months b e f o r e b e i n g s e l e c t e d f o r the study. They had a l l had some bench stepping p r a c t i c e as p a r t of the e x e r c i s e done d u r i n g c l a s s e s . Only two men found d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g the c o r r e c t pace -one was fou r t o e i g h t steps out at the end of the f i v e minutes st e p p i n g w h i l e the other man was g e n e r a l l y t h r e e or four steps out at the end of the f i v e minutes. Each s u b j e c t was giv e n one p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n p r i o r t o h i s f i r s t t r i a l . Four t r i a l s were administered t o each s u b j e c t by the same operator over a four week p e r i o d (one t r i a l per week). The t e s t i n g was done at approximately the same time of day and on the same day each week. The s u b j e c t s were asked t o not have any morning c o f f e e , or c i g a r e t t e s p r i o r t o the morning t e s t p e r i o d . I t was d i s c o v e r e d i n the p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n , t h a t some s u b j e c t s r e q u i r e d a l i g h t b r e a k f a s t t o be able t o perform w e l l otherwise they experienced nausea. The s u b j e c t s were allowed, t h e r e f o r e , t o have something l i g h t t o eat at b r e a k f a s t but were f o r b i d d e n t o d r i n k c o f f e e . The temperature and n o i s e f a c t o r were c o n t r o l l e d as 28 w e l l as p o s s i b l e and d i d n o t v a r y g r e a t l y b e t w e e n t r i a l s . I I . EQUIPMENT USED T h e r e c o r d i n g e q u i p m e n t u s e d i n t h e s t u d y f u n c t i o n s a s f o l l o w s : A n I n f r a t o n p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r i s u s e d t o p i c k up t h e p u l s e p r e s s u r e c h a n g e s o f t h e b r a c h i a l a r t e r y i n t h e a rm . T h e p r e s s u r e c h a n g e s a r e t h e n c o n v e r t e d i n t o e l e c t r i c a l i m p u l s e s and a r e f e d i n t o a T y p e 3C66 ( T e k t r o n i x ) a m p l i f i e r w h i c h " f u n c t i o n s t o a m p l i f y t h e e l e c t r i c a l i m p u l s e s " ( 1 ) . T h e a m p l i f i e r c o n v e r t s t h e weak i m p u l s e s i n t o t h e e n e r g y n e c e s s a r y t o power t h e r e c o r d i n g c o m p o n e n t s ( 2 ) . T h e i n c o m i n g e l e c t r i c a l i m p u l s e s a r e t h e n c o n v e r t e d b a c k i n t o m e c h a n i c a l o r l i g h t e n e r g y b e f o r e t h e y c a n b e r e g i s t e r e d g r a p h i c a l l y b y means o f a c a t h o d e - r a y t u b e . I n t h i s s y s t e m , t h e r e i s no f r e q u e n c y l i m i t a t i o n i n t h e f r e q u e n c y b a n d o f i n t e r e s t . P h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d i n g s a r e t h e n made o f t h e d i s p l a y b y means o f a r e g u l a r 35 mm. c a m e r a a t t a c h e d t o t h e a p p a r a t u s . When t h e i m p u l s e s r e a c h t h e a p p a r a t u s f r o m t h e p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r , t h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d as w e l l as a m p l i f i e d (DC a m p l i f i e r ) g i v i n g t h e f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e wave f o r m as w e l l as t h e a c t u a l b r a c h i a l p r e s s u r e p u l s e on t h e s c r e e n . "Two c h a n n e l s a r e u s e d t o o b t a i n t h e p h a s e p l a n e 29 l o o p - t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i s p l a y f o r t h e p r e s s u r e s i g n a l and t h e v e r t i c a l d i s p l a y f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l s i g n a l a f t e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n " ( 3 ) . T h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p i s d i s p l a y e d and s t o r e d i n a s t o r a g e o s c i l l o s c o p e (TEKTRONIX TYPE 5 6 4 ) . T h e o s c i l l o s c o p e i s c a l i b r a t e d s o an i n p u t s i n e wave s i g n a l o f 5 c p s . w i l l y i e l d a c l o s e d c i r c u l a r p h a s e p l a n e l o o p . I I I . TEST AND ADMINISTRATION T h e s u b j e c t s , u p o n e n t e r i n g t h e l a b o r a t o r y , we re i n s t r u c t e d t o l i e down and r e l a x on t h e i r b a c k s on t h e t a b l e . T h e s u b j e c t s we re p e r m i t t e d t o r e s t f o r f i v e t o t e n m i n u t e s and t h e r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e s ( b e a t s / m i n u t e ) we re o b t a i n e d b y means o f a s t e t h o s c o p e and a s t o p w a t c h . T h e I n f r a t o n p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r was p l a c e d on t h e b r a c h i a l a r t e r y j u s t p r o x i m a l t o t h e l e f t e l b o w j o i n t and was s e c u r e d b y means o f a c u f f . Once t h e b e s t p r e s s u r e t r a c e p o s s i b l e was d i s p l a y e d on t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e s c r e e n , t h e image was f r o z e n on t h e s c r e e n and a p r e - e x e r c i s e p h o t o -g r a p h t a k e n ( A p p e n d i x C ) . A s e c o n d p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e p r e -e x e r c i s e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p was a l s o t a k e n . T h e p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r was t h e n f a s t e n e d i n p l a c e b y means o f a d h e s i v e t a p e and t h e c u f f was r e l a x e d s l i g h t l y t o p e r m i t c o m f o r t d u r i n g t h e e x e r c i s e p e r i o d . 3 0 T h e s u b j e c t s , w i t h t h e p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r a r m s , we re i n s t r u c t e d t o s t e p a t t h i r t y s t e p s p e r m i n u t e on a s e v e n t e e n i n c h b e n c h p l a c e d c l o s e t o t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e ( n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e o f t h e a t t a c h e d l e a d ) . T h e y r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s a b o u t ' t h e s t e p p i n g p a c e and c o r r e c t manner o f s t e p p i n g . D u r i n g e x e r c i s e , t h e o p e r a t o r c o u n t e d t h e s t e p s and r h y t h m o f s t e p p i n g i n o r d e r t o k e e p t h e s u b j e c t s a t t h e c o r r e c t p a c e o f t h i r t y s t e p s p e r m i n u t e . I f t h e s u b j e c t s we re u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e p r o p e r p a c e , t h e y we re i n s t r u c t e d t o s t e p as q u i c k l y as t h e y were a b l e and t h e number o f s t e p s t h a t t h e y f e l l b e h i n d were r e c o r d e d a t t h e end o f t h e f i v e m i n u t e p e r i o d . O n l y two s u b j e c t s w e r e u n a b l e t o s t e p a t t h i r t y s t e p s p e r m i n u t e and t h e y w e r e o n l y a few s t e p s u n d e r t h e r e q u i r e d p a c e . A f t e r s t e p p i n g f o r f i v e m i n u t e s , t h e s u b j e c t s we re i n s t r u c t e d t o l i e s u p i n e on t h e t a b l e and t o r e l a x and b r e a t h e d e e p l y . T h e o p e r a t o r t i g h t e n e d t h e p r e s s u r e c u f f i m m e d i a t e l y and p r o j e c t e d t h e b r a c h i a l p r e s s u r e p u l s e and f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e o n t o t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e s c r e e n . When t h e t r a c e was g o o d - a c c o r d i n g t o t h e j u d g m e n t o f t h e o p e r a t o r as e x p l a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x C - t h e image was f r o z e n on t h e s c r e e n and a p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n . A s e c o n d p h o t o g r a p h was t h e n i m m e d i a t e l y t a k e n o f t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p . I t was 31 i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e o p e r a t o r t o work q u i c k l y a t t h i s p o i n t s i n c e t h e s e two p h o t o g r a p h s were s u p p o s e d t o r e p r e s e n t i m m e d i a t e p o s t - e x e r c i s e p r e s s u r e p u l s e s , f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e s and l o o p s . B o t h p h o t o g r a p h s m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , b e t a k e n i n t h e f i r s t s i x t y s e c o n d s a f t e r c e s s a t i o n o f t h e s t e p p i n g . T h e p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e i m m e d i a t e p o s t - e x e r c i s e p e r i o d s were n o t t a k e n a t t h e same t i m e i n e a c h o f t h e f o u r t r i a l s b e c a u s e o f d i f f i c u l t y i n f r e e z i n g t h e i m a g e s on t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e s c r e e n . T h e same p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d a t f i v e m i n u t e s and a g a i n a t t e n m i n u t e s a f t e r c e s s a t i o n o f s t e p p i n g . T h e s u b j e c t s r e m a i n e d m o t i o n l e s s on t h e i r b a c k s on t h e t a b l e d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . I t was i m p o r t a n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e s t i n g p e r i o d t o h a v e t h e s u b j e c t s r e l a x c o m p l e t e l y and t o r e m a i n v e r y s t i l l . I f a s u b j e c t moved h i s h a n d s o r l e g s o r t i g h t e n e d h i s m u s c l e s , t h e o p e r a t o r e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g g o o d t r a c e s o r was u n a b l e t o o b t a i n any a t a l l . R e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s we re t a k e n b y a n o t h e r o b s e r v e r d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v a l s 1 : 0 0 - 1 : 3 0 , 2 : 0 0 - 2 : 3 0 , and 3 : 0 0 - 3 : 3 0 m i n u t e s a f t e r t h e e x e r c i s e p e r i o d . T h i s c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e p r o c e d u r e o f t a k i n g t h e i m m e d i a t e p o s t - e x e r c i s e p i c t u r e s . 32 IV. THE PHASE PLANE LOOP There are two types of waves which may form the peak p u l s e , ( F i g u r e s 2 and 3). The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the two p u l s e wave contours show themselves i n the phase plane loop which, as d e f i n e d e a r l i e r , i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b r a c h i a l p u l s e p r e s s u r e (X) on the h o r i z o n t a l d i s p l a y and the r a t e of change of p r e s s u r e (Y) on the v e r t i c a l d i s p l a y . One b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave loop i s d e f i n i t e l y smoother i n i t i a l l y than the other which i s deeply notched so t h a t i t almost forms two i n i t i a l p o r t i o n s . The former loop has two ne g a t i v e secondary loops and r e t u r n s t o the b a s e l i n e q u i t e q u i c k l y whereas the l a t t e r loop has o n l y one ne g a t i v e secondary loop and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a ve r y slow r e t u r n t o the b a s e l i n e (Figures 2 and 3) . V. MEASUREMENT OF THE LOOP (Figure 1) The f o l l o w i n g measurements were made on the loop: Q(PQ• PQ) = T n e h i g h e s t p o i n t o f the loop which i s the p o s i t i v e maximum r a t e of change of p r e s s u r e expressed as c o o r d i n a t e s x and y. R ( p R , p R) = The lowest p o i n t of the loop which i s the ne g a t i v e maximum r a t e of change of p r e s s u r e expressed as c o o r d i n a t e s x and y. Pr = The b a s e l i n e which goes through the two extreme p r e s s u r e p o i n t s at the extreme l e f t and r i g h t s i d e s of the loop. A. THE BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE CONTOUR A. LOOP CONTOUR OF THE BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE FIGURE 2 B. THE BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE CONTOUR 35 P r = T h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e two e x t r e m e r a t e s o f c h a n g e o f p r e s s u r e PQ and p R . P r / p r = T h e r a t i o o f t h e r a n g e b e t w e e n maximum and min imum p r e s s u r e s and b e t w e e n PQ and p R (4). PQ/PR = T h e r a t i o o f t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e o f PQ a b o v e t h e o r i g i n and t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e o f p b e l o w t h e o r i g i n . T h e a b s o l u t e m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e l o o p s c o u l d n o t be c o m p a r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e c h a n g e s i n g a i n s e t t i n g s o f t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e i n o b t a i n i n g t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . I t was t h u s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s t o b e i n r e l a t i v e u n i t s . P r was. a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n t o b e e q u a l t o 10 u n i t s i n a l l p h o t o -g r a p h s and a l l o t h e r m e a s u r e m e n t s we re n o r m a l i z e d b y d i v i d i n g a l l m e a s u r e m e n t s b y P r . V I . S T A T I S T I C A L TREATMENT A n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e one f a c t o r r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e -ment d e s i g n was u s e d ( 5 ) . T h i s d e s i g n was c h o s e n f r o m s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e d e s i g n s b e c a u s e v a r i a b i l i t y due t o i n d i -v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s was more e f f e c t i v e l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m e r r o r v a r i a n c e . A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r u s e o f t h e r e p e a t e d measu remen t d e s i g n was b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d number o f s u b j e c t s a v a i l a b l e . M y e r s (6) s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e p e a t e d measu remen t d e s i g n was t h e n a t u r a l one t o s e l e c t when t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e t r e n d s 36 o v e r t i m e . I n t h i s d e s i g n , e a c h s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e a t e a c h l e v e l i s b r o k e n down i n t o f o u r c o m p o n e n t s . ^ = g r a n d mean = ~/LA^ { / ° ^ = t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean o f a s c o r e s f o r t h e i t h s u b j e c t ) . c ^ = y M ^ — / ^ ( / ^ , - t h e mean o f t h e s c o r e s o f an i n f i n i t e 0 p r i p u l a t i d h o f s u b j e c t s t e s t e d u n d e r A j ) . .= T h e d e v i a t i o n o f Y^ j, f r o m y t ^ w h i c h i s n o t a c c o u n t e d "^f f o r b y t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t 'c<- o r b y i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . 0 T h e s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e amount o f v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s o f t h e same i n d i v i d u a l and b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t h e m s e l v e s on t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p m e a s u r e m e n t s . T h e same a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d o u t f o r t h e r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e ( b e a t s / m i n u t e ) and f o r t h e r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s . I t was i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t y p e s o f v a r i a t i o n h e r e ( i . e . i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l o r t r u e v a r i a n c e and i n t r a -i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n p l u s e r r o r v a r i a n c e ) . T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w a n t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a r i o u s c o m p o n e n t s o f i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n and t h i s was b e s t c a r r i e d o u t b y an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . A n F - r a t i o was t h e n o b t a i n e d f o r s u b j e c t s and t r i a l s on e a c h o f t h e v a r i a b l e s (PQ ; PQ,- p R ; p R ; PQ/P r ; P r / P r ; r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e ; 1 s t , 2 n d , 3 r d , and t o t a l r e c o v e r y 37 h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s ) and t h e r e s u l t i n g v a l u e was t h e n c o n s i d e r e d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t o r n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . M i s s i n g D a t a , T h e r e we re some m i s s i n g p h o t o g r a p h s and some p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h c o u l d n o t b e m e a s u r e d . O f a l l t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d , t h e r e we re o n l y a f ew r e s t i n g v a l u e s m i s s i n g f o r some o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s . T h e r e we re t h r e e r e s t i n g v a l u e s m i s s i n g on t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s f o r m e a s u r e m e n t PQ,- two r e s t i n g v a l u e s m i s s i n g f o r d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s f o r measu remen t PQ,- two r e s t i n g v a l u e s m i s s i n g f o r two d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s f o r measu remen t p R ; t h r e e r e s t i n g v a l u e s m i s s i n g f o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s f o r measu remen t p R ; one r e s t i n g v a l u e m i s s i n g f o r one s u b j e c t f o r m e a s u r e -ment P Q / P r " t h r e e r e s t i n g v a l u e s m i s s i n g f o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s f o r measu remen t P r / P r ; and t h r e e r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e v a l u e s ( b e a t s / m i n u t e ) m i s s i n g f o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . S i n c e p r e - e x e r c i s e m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h r e e o f t h e f o u r t r i a l s we re a v a i l a b l e , an e s t i m a t e was made o f t h e m i s s i n g t r i a l d a t a b y a v e r a g i n g t h e r e s t i n g v a l u e s o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e t r i a l s . 38 REFERENCES 1 T a v e l , Morton E. C l i n i c a l . P h o n o c a r d i o g r a p h y and E x t e r n a l P u l s e Recording. Chicago: Year Book M e d i c a l P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., 1967, p. 28. 2 I b i d . 3 Brown, S.R. et a l . "Time D e r i v a t i v e s of the C a r o t i d P u l s e Wave and Phase Plane A n a l y s i s of C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n " , Unpublished Paper, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1965. 4 I b i d . 5 Myers, Jerome L. Fundamentals of Experimental Design. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, Inc., 1967, p. 152. 6 I b i d . , p. 153. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSS ION I. INTRODUCTION A s m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y i n C h a p t e r I I I , t h e v a r i a n c e o f e a c h s c o r e o f e a c h s u b j e c t i n a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e m e n t s d e s i g n c a n b e p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o two i n d e p e n d e n t c o m p o n e n t s : t h e t r u e s c o r e v a r i a n c e and an e r r o r componen t t h a t i n c l u d e s i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n w h i c h c a n n o t b e s e p a r a t e d o u t f r o m t h e componen t o f measu remen t e r r o r ( 1 ) . I f t h e e r r o r componen t o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n , t h e n t h e F - r a t i o w i l l b e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s and t h e r e w i l l b e an ' e f f e c t ' o b s e r v e d o v e r t h e f o u r t r i a l s . S i m i l a r l y , i f t h e e r r o r componen t o f v a r i a b i l i t y i s s m a l l i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e v a r i a b i l i t y b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s , t h e n t h e F - r a t i o w i l l a g a i n b e s i g n i f i c a n t and t h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , b e m o s t l y i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l o r t r u e v a r i a t i o n . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a m e a s u r e i s t h a t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f s c o r e s w h i c h i s t r u e v a r i a n c e ( i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y ) (2) . I n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e m o d e l , t h e mean s q u a r e e r r o r t e r m e s t i m a t e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n 40 e r r o r v a r i a n c e and no i n t e r a c t i o n i s assumed t o e x i s t i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . A n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e one f a c t o r r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e -ment d e s i g n was u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s was e m p l o y e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f v a r i a b i l i t y d e s c r i b e d above and t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e i n c r e a s e d p r e c i s i o n a f f o r d e d due t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e i n g more e f f e c t i v e l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m e r r o r v a r i a n c e t h a n i n o t h e r p o s s i b l e d e s i g n s . I I . PRESENTATION OF RESULTS A n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on e a c h o f t w e n t y - n i n e m e a s u r e m e n t s : PQ, PQ , p R , p R / P Q / P R ' P r / P r ( r e s t i n g ) ; p Q / p Q , p R / i> R , P Q / P R ' P r / P r ( i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e ) ; p Q / P Q , p R , P R , P Q / p £ / P r / P r (5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) ; p Q / p Q , p R , p R , P Q / P R * P r / P r (10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) ; r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e ( b e a t s / m i n u t e ) ; f i r s t r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t ; s e c o n d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t ; t h i r d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t ; and t o t a l r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s I t o XX IX ( a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ) and i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s u n d e r h e a d i n g s i d e n t i f y i n g t h e m e a s u r e -ment and t h e t a b l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . E a c h s e c t i o n s t a t e s 41 t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e F - r a t i o b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s ; t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e F - r a t i o b e t w e e n t r i a l s and t h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t a b l e . T h e F - r a t i o f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e mean s q u a r e t e r m f o r s u b j e c t s o v e r t h e e r r o r mean s q u a r e t e r m . T h e F - r a t i o f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e mean s q u a r e t e r m f o r t r i a l s o v e r t h e e r r o r mean s q u a r e t e r m . PQ ( r e s t i n g ) - T a b l e I. The F - r a t i o o f 2 . 4 0 f o r t h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e F - r a t i o o f 0 . 3 6 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . F o r t h i s m e a s u r e m e n t , t h e amount o f i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e was l a r g e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s as shown b y t h e s i g n i f i c a n t b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s F - r a t i o . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r measu remen t p^ ( r e s t i n g ) was . 5 8 4 . PQ ( r e s t i n g ) - T a b l e I I . T h e F - r a t i o o f 8 . 0 4 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e F - r a t i o o f 0 . 6 9 f o r t h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . I n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s were l a r g e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h i s m e a s u r e m e n t . T h e 42 TABLE I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF p Q (RESTING) Source o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n df Sq. Sq. F Prob. SUBJECT 17 216470 12734 *2 .40 0.0082 TRIALS 3 5666.5 1888.8 0.36 0.7872 ERROR 51 270290 5299.7 TOTAL 71 492420 * S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l TABLE I I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE : OF p Q (RESTING) Source of Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n df Sq. Sq. F Prob. SUBJECT 17 1339500 78796 *8.04 0.0000 TRIALS 3 20206.0 6735.3 0.69 0.5677 ERROR 51 500070 9805.3 TOTAL 71 1859800 • S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l 4 3 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f P Q ( r e s t i n g ) was . 8 7 6 . p R ( r e s t i n g ) — T a b l e -III-. T h e r e we re no s i g n i f i c a n t F - r a t i o s f o r t h i s m e a s u r e . T h e F - r a t i o o f 0 . 6 4 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s was a l s o s m a l l ( 0 . 5 4 ) and was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . T h u s , t h e r e w e r e no i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s shown i n t h i s measu remen t and t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n p l u s t h e measu remen t e r r o r t e r m was l a r g e r t h a n t h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y and l a r g e r a l s o t h a n t h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r p D ( r e s t i n g ) was - . 5 3 0 . was 5 . 3 4 w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . T h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s F - r a t i o was 1 . 0 9 w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . T h e s e r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r -i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y b u t l i t t l e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a -b i l i t y f o r t h e m e a s u r e m e n t . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 8 1 3 . s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was 7 . 6 1 . a n d was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e p R ( r e s t i n g ) T a b l e I V . T h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s F - r a t i o T h e F - r a t i o f o r b e t w e e n 44 TABLE I I I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF p R (RESTING) Source of V a r i a t i o n df Sum Sq. Mean Sq. F Prob. SUBJECT 17 205430 12084.0 0.64 0.8453 TRIALS 3 30624.0 10208.0 0.54 0.6616 ERROR 51 965910 18939.0 TOTAL 71 1202000 TABLE IV ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF p R (RESTING) Source of V a r i a t i o n df Sum Sq. Mean Sq. F Prob. SUBJECT 17 93939.0 5525.8 *5.34 0.0000 TRIALS 3 3393.0 1131.0 1.09 0.3610 ERROR 51 52755.0 1034.4 TOTAL 71 150090.0 * S i g n i f i c a n t at the . 05 l e v e l 45 .05 l e v e l . The F - r a t i o of 1.44 f o r between t r i a l s v a r i a -b i l i t y was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . There was s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n as shown by the l a r g e F - r a t i o f o r between s u b j e c t s but the i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n was v e r y s m a l l i n comparison. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t obtained was .869. Pr/Pr ( r e s t i n g ) - Ta b l e V I . The between s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n F - r a t i o was 11.17 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The between t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y F - r a t i o was 0.25 which was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The t r u e v a r i a t i o n or i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n was thus l a r g e i n comparison w i t h the i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r -ences. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was .911. PQ (immediate post e x e r c i s e ) - T a b l e V I I . The F - r a t i o f o r the between s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n was 1.90 which was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The between t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n F - r a t i o was 0.72 which a l s o was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y was s m a l l i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y f o r the measure PQ (immediate po s t e x e r c i s e ) as shown by the s m a l l between s u b j e c t s F - r a t i o . The obtained r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t 46 TABLE V ANALYS I S OF VARIANCE OF P n/p D (RESTING) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F P r o b . SUBJECT 17 38285000 2252100 * 7 . 6 1 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 1273500 424510 1 .44 0 . 2 4 2 4 ERROR 51 15087000 295830 TOTAL 71 54646000 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l TABLE V I ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF P r / P r (RESTING) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F P r o b . SUBJECT 17 9729800 572340 * 1 1 . 1 7 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 3 8 4 5 8 . 0 1 2 8 1 9 . 0 0 . 2 5 0 . 8 6 1 0 ERROR 51 2614200 5 1 2 6 0 . 0 TOTAL 71 12383000 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . .05 l e v e l 47 was . 4 7 4 . PQ ( i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - T a b l e V I I I . T h e F - r a t i o o f 4 . 4 1 f o r t h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 1.41 f o r t h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l o r t r u e v a r i a t i o n was t h u s v e r y l a r g e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y f o r t h i s m e a s u r e m e n t . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 7 7 3 . p R ( i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - T a b l e I X . T h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y F - r a t i o o f 2 .30 was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 1 .74 f o r t h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y o r t r u e s c o r e v a r i a t i o n was l a r g e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y as d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e s i z e o f t h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s F - r a t i o . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e m e a s u r e p D ( i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e ) was . 5 6 6 . p R ( i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - •-- T a b l e 'X. T h e F - r a t i o o f 5 .15 f o r t h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y F - r a t i o 48 TABLE V I I • ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p n ( IMMEDIATE POST EXERCISE) S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d f Sum S q . Mean S q . F P r o b . SUBJECT 17 120160 7 0 6 8 . 3 1 .90 0 . 0 3 9 8 TR IALS 3 8 0 2 2 . 1 2 6 7 4 . 0 0 . 7 2 0 . 5 4 8 5 ERROR 51 189670 3 7 1 9 . 0 TOTAL 71 317850 TABLE V I I I ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p n ( IMMEDIATE POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d f Sum S q . Mean S q . F P r o b . SUBJECT 17 954880 5 6 1 6 9 . 0 * 4 . 4 1 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 5 3 8 0 7 . 0 1 7 9 3 6 . 0 1.41 0 . 2 5 0 4 ERROR 51 649920 1 2 7 4 4 . 0 TOTAL 71 1658600 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l TABLE IX ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p R ( IMMEDIATE POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F P r o b . SUBJECT 17 388790 22870 * 2 . 3 0 0 . 0 1 1 2 TR IALS 3 51915 17305 1 .74 0 . 1 6 8 4 ERROR 51 506240 9 9 2 6 . 3 TOTAL 71 946950 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l TABLE X ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p R ( IMMEDIATE POST EXERCISE) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 114750 6 7 5 0 . 1 * 5 . 1 5 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 2 0 2 5 . 2 6 7 5 . 0 6 0 . 5 2 0 . 6 7 7 4 ERROR 51 66803 1 3 0 9 . 9 TOTAL 71 183580 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l 50 was 0 . 5 2 , w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n was l a r g e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n as shown b y t h e l a r g e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s F - r a t i o . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h i s m e a s u r e m e n t was . 8 0 6 . PQ/PR ( i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - T a b l e X I . T h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y F - r a t i o was 4 . 6 2 w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was 1 .06 w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h u s , t h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n o r t r u e s c o r e v a r i a t i o n was l a r g e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e m e a s u r e was . 7 8 4 . P r / P r ( i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e ) " --i T a b l e X I I . T h e F - r a t i o o f 5 .25 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o 0 . 9 5 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n w a s , t h e r e f o r e , much l a r g e r t h a n t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 8 0 9 . 51 TABLE X I ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF P Q / p R ( IMMEDIATE POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F P r o b . SUBJECT 17 98740000 5808200 * 4 . 6 2 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 3986200 1328700 1.06 0 . 3 7 6 2 ERROR 51 6408,'uOOO. 1256500 TOTAL 71 166810000 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l TABLE X I I ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF P r / P r ( IMMEDIATE POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 2164900 127350 * 5 . 2 5 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 6 9 1 0 3 . 0 2 3 0 3 4 . 0 0 . 9 5 0 . 4 2 5 3 ERROR 51 1237200 2 4 2 5 8 . 0 TOTAL 71 3471200 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l 52 PQ (5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - - T a b l e X I T I . T h e F - r a t i o o f 2 .71 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 1 .24 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e componen t o f i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y was much l a r g e r t h a n t h e componen t o f i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a -b i l i t y f o r t h e m e a s u r e p^ (5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h i s m e a s u r e was . 6 3 1 . PQ (5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - T a b l e X I V . T h e F - r a t i o o f 1 1 . 3 2 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 ' r i L e v e l ; t h e b e t w e e n t r i a l v a r i a b i l i t y h a d an F - r a t i o o f 0 . 4 0 w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y componen t was much l a r g e r t h a n t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y componen t f o r t h i s m e a s u r e . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 9 1 4 . p R (5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - T a b l e XV. T h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y F - r a t i o was 1 .89 w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n F - r a t i o was 0 . 4 2 w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 5.3 TABLE X I I I ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p n (5 MINS. POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 208670 1 2 2 7 4 . 0 * 2 . 7 1 0 . 0 0 3 2 TR IALS 3 1 6 8 4 5 . 0 5 6 1 4 . 9 1 .24 0 . 3 0 5 4 ERROR 51 231300 ' 4 5 3 5 . 3 TOTAL 71 456810 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 05 l e v e l TABLE X IV ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p Q (5 MINS .POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 1459900 8 5 8 7 6 . 0 * 1 1 . 3 2 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 9 0 0 3 . 0 3 0 0 1 . 0 0 . 4 0 0 . 7 5 9 8 ERROR 51 386970 7 5 8 7 . 6 TOTAL 71 1855900 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l 5 4 F o r t h i s measu remen t b o t h t h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l and i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l c o m p o n e n t s o f v a r i a b i l i t y we re s m a l l . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 4 7 2 . p R ( 5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) T a b l e X V I . The F - r a t i o o f 3 . 9 6 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 0 . 0 5 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y componen t was l a r g e c o m p a r e d t o t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y componen t f o r m e a s u r e p R ( 5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h i s m e a s u r e was . 7 4 7 . P Q / P R ( 5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - T a b l e X V I I . T h e F - r a t i o o f 5 . 8 9 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i -f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 0 . 0 6 f o r t h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l . T h e g r e a t e s t p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y was due t o i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n and i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y c o n t r i b u t e d o n l y t o a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y f o r r a t i o P Q / P R 9 5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 8 3 0 . 55 TABLE XV ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p R (5 MINS. POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f sq. S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 234790 1 3 8 1 1 . 0 1 .89 0 . 0 4 0 8 TR IALS 3 9 1 9 6 . 0 3 0 6 5 . 3 0 . 4 2 0 . 7 4 2 7 ERROR 51 372210 7 2 9 8 . 2 TOTAL 71 616200 TABLE XVI ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p p (5 MINS. POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f sq. S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 9 8 9 6 4 . 0 5 8 2 1 . 4 * 3 . 9 6 0 . 0 0 0 1 TR IALS 3 2 2 9 . 6 9 7 6 . 5 6 3 0 . 0 5 0 . 9 7 8 7 ERROR 51 7 5 0 1 7 . 0 1 4 7 0 . 9 TOTAL 71 174210 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l 56 P r / P r -(-5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - T a b l e X V I T I . T h e F - r a t i o o f 1 1 . 7 8 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n F - r a t i o was 0 . 3 8 w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y componen t was much l a r g e r t h a n t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n o f t h e measu remen t P r / P r (5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 9 1 5 . PQ (10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - - T a b l e X I X . T h e F - r a t i o o f 5 .97 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n was s i g n i f i -c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 2 . 9 8 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y componen t was l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n a s shown b y t h e s i g n i f i c a n t b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s F - r a t i o . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h i s m e a s u r e was . 8 3 3 . PQ (10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) - T a b l e X X . T h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y F - r a t i o was 1 0 . 5 7 w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n F - r a t i o . was 2 . 3 1 w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y componen t was much l a r g e r t h a n t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n f o r m e a s u r e PQ 57 TABLE XV I I ANALYS I S OF VARIANCE OF P Q / P R (5 MINS. POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 92244000 5426100 * 5 . 8 9 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 153030 5 1 0 1 1 . 0 0 . 0 6 0 . 9 7 7 2 ERROR 51 46973000 921050 TOTAL 71 139370000 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l T A B L E X V I I I ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF P r / P r (5 MINS. POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 4907400 288670 * 1 1 . 7 8 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 2 7 7 4 4 . 0 9 2 4 8 . 0 0 . 3 8 0 . 7 7 2 4 ERROR 51 1249500 2 4 5 0 0 . 0 TOTAL 71 , . 6184700 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l TABLE X IX ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p Q (10 MINS . POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 239260 1 4 0 7 4 . 0 * 5 . 9 7 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 2 1 0 8 5 . 0 7 0 2 8 . 4 * 2 . 9 8 0 . 0 3 9 3 ERROR 51 120240 2 3 5 7 . 6 TOTAL 71 380590 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l TABLE XX ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p Q (10 MINS. POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 1087400 6 3 9 6 3 . 0 * 1 0 . 5 7 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 4 1 9 3 2 . 0 1 3 9 7 7 . 0 2 .31 0 . 0 8 6 2 ERROR 51 308760 6 0 5 4 . 1 TOTAL 71 1438100 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l 59 (10 minutes p o s t e x e r c i s e ) and the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h i s measure was .905. p R (10 minutes po s t e x e r c i s e ) - Ta b l e XXI. The F - r a t i o of 1.52 f o r between s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l and the F - r a t i o of 0.49 f o r between t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was a l s o not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y was s m a l l compared w i t h the i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n as shown by the s m a l l F - r a t i o f o r between s u b j e c t s . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was .340. p R (10 minutes po s t e x e r c i s e ) - Ta b l e XXII. The F - r a t i o of 5.50 f o r between s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n was s i g n i f i -cant at the .05 l e v e l and the F - r a t i o o f 1.42 f o r the between t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y component was l a r g e compared wi t h t h a t due t o i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of t h i s measure was .818. pg/p R -(-10 -minutes post e x e r c i s e ) - T a b l e X X I I I . The F - r a t i o of 1.14 f o r between s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was not 60 T A B L E " X X I ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF p D (10 MINS. POST EXERCISE) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 314860 1 8 5 2 1 . 0 1 .52 0 . 1 2 6 6 TR IALS 3 1 7 9 4 4 . 0 5 9 8 1 . 3 0 . 4 9 0 . 6 9 4 9 ERROR 51 623180 1 2 2 1 9 . 0 TOTAL 71 955990 TABLE XX I I ANALYS I S OF VARIANCE OF p R (10 MINS.- POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d f Sum S q . Mean S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 162760 9 5 7 4 . 2 * 5 . 5 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 7 4 3 5 . 0 2 4 7 8 . 3 1.42 0 . 2 4 6 0 ERROR 51 8 8 8 5 9 . 0 1 7 4 2 . 3 TOTAL 71 259050 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 1 .18 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n and t h e i n t e r -i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n we re n e a r l y t h e same s i z e as shown b y t h e s m a l l F - r a t i o f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h i s m e a s u r e was . 1 1 9 . P r / P r (10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ) — T a b l e X X I V . T h e F - r a t i o o f 1 2 . 1 9 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 3 .06 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y was v e r y l a r g e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n as shown b y t h e e x t r e m e l y l a r g e F - r a t i o f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e m e a s u r e was . 9 1 8 . R e s t i n g H e a r t R a t e ( bea t s /m inu t e ) - - T a b l e XXV . T h e F - r a t i o o f 1 2 . 1 5 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n was s i g n i -f i c a n t a t t h e . 05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 1 .85 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n was much l a r g e r t h a n t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l p l u s e r r o r v a r i a n c e t e r m . T h e 62 TABLE X X I I I ANALYS I S OF VARIANCE OF P Q / P R (10 MINS. POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 592130000 34831000 1 .14 0 . 3 4 9 0 TR IALS 3 108680000 36226000 1 .18 0 . 3 2 6 3 ERROR 51 1564400000 30675000 TOTAL 71 2265200000 TABLE XX IV ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF P r / P r (10 MINS . POST EXERCISE ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f sq. S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 5892200 346600 * 1 2 . 1 9 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 T R I A L S 3 260570 8 6 8 5 6 . 0 * 3 . 0 6 0 . 0 3 6 1 ERROR 51 1449500 2 8 4 2 2 . 0 TOTAL 71 7602300 • S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 9 1 8 . F i r s t R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t - T a b l e X X V I . T h e F - r a t i o o f 2 6 . 8 3 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n was s i g n i -f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 3 .43 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n was v e r y l a r g e i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n p l u s e r r o r v a r i a n c e t e r m . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h i s m e a s u r e was . 9 6 3 . S e c o n d R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t - T a b l e -XXVI I . T h e F - r a t i o o f 3 6 . 9 0 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n was s i g n i -f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ; t h e F - r a t i o o f 3 .85 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y was l a r g e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l p l u s e r r o r v a r i a n c e t e r m . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d was . 9 7 3 . T h i r d R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t T a b l e -XXVI I I . T h e F - r a t i o o f 2 7 . 1 1 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n was s i g n i -f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 3 .56 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n was much l a r g e r t h a n 64 TABLE XXV ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF REST ING HEART RATE (BEATS/MINUTE) S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d f Sum S q . Mean S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 4 4 4 2 . 6 2 6 1 . 3 3 * 1 2 . 1 5 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 1 1 9 . 1 5 3 9 . 7 1 7 1.85 0 . 1 4 9 0 ERROR 51 1 0 9 7 . 1 2 1 . 5 1 2 TOTAL 71 5 6 5 8 . 9 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l TABLE XXVI ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF RECOVERY HEART F I R S T ( 1 - 1 : BEAT COUNT 30 MINS. ) S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d f Sum S q . Mean S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 5 4 6 5 . 5 3 2 1 . 5 0 * 2 6 . 8 3 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 1 2 3 . 3 3 4 1 . 1 1 1 * 3 . 4 3 0 . 0 2 3 5 ERROR 51 6 1 1 . 1 7 1 1 . 9 8 4 TOTAL 71 6 2 0 0 . 0 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l 65 TABLE XXV I I ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF RECOVERY HEART SECOND (2-2 BEAT COUNT : 3 0 MINS . ) S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d f Sum S q . Mean S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 4 4 1 0 . 9 2 5 9 . 4 6 * 3 6 . 9 0 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 8 1 . 1 5 2 2 7 . 0 5 1 * 3 . 8 5 0 . 0 1 4 7 ERROR 51 3 5 8 . 6 0 7 . 0 3 1 3 TOTAL 71 4 8 5 0 . 7 • S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l TABLE X X V I I I ANALYS IS OF VARIANCE OF RECOVERY HEART THIRD ( 3 - 3 : BEAT COUNT 30 MINS. ) S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n d f Sum S q . Mean S q . . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 3 4 0 0 . 1 2 0 0 . 0 1 * 2 7 . 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 7 8 . 7 7 9 2 6 . 2 6 0 * 3 . 5 6 0 .0203 ERROR 51 3 7 6 . 2 2 7 . 3 7 6 9 TOTAL 71 3 8 5 5 . 1 • S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l 66 t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n p l u s v a r i a t i o n due t o e r r o r . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h i s m e a s u r e was . 9 6 3 . T o t a l R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t -' T a b l e X X I X . T h e F - r a t i o o f 3 2 . 8 3 f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n was s i g n i -f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and t h e F - r a t i o o f 3 .95 f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n was l a r g e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y p l u s e r r o r v a r i a n c e . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 9 7 0 . I I I . SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND DISCUSS ION T a b l e XXX shows a l l F - r a t i o s f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n and b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s made on t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e t a b l e a r e t h e F - r a t i o s f o r r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e , and a l l r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s . I t c a n b e s e e n f r o m t h e t a b l e t h a t mos t F - r a t i o s f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y we re s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e r e were o n l y f i v e F - r a t i o s w h i c h were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e s e we re p Q (F = 1.90) i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e , p R (F = 0 . 6 4 a t r e s t , p R (F = 1.89) a t 5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , p R (F = 1.52) a t 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , and p n / p R (F - 1.14) a t 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e . 67 TABLE XX IX ANALYS I S OF VARIANCE OF TOTAL RECOVERY HEART BEAT COUNT (1% MINS. ) S o u r c e o f Sum Mean V a r i a t i o n d f S q . S q . F . P r o b . SUBJECT 17 38856 2 2 8 5 . 6 * 3 2 . 8 3 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 TR IALS 3 8 2 5 . 8 3 2 7 5 . 2 8 * 3 . 9 5 0 . 0 1 3 0 ERROR 51 3 5 5 0 . 4 6 9 . 6 1 6 TOTAL 71 4 3 2 3 2 . 0 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l TABLE XXX SUMMARY OF F-RATIOS AND R E L I A B I L I T Y COEFF IC I ENTS OF VARIANCE IN THE SELECTED MEASUREMENTS ON THE PHASE PLANE LOOP F-RATIO F-RATIO R E L I A B I L I T Y BETWEEN [ SUBJECTS VARIAT ION BETWEEN TR IALS VAR IAT ION COEFF IC I ENT MEASUREMENT REST I PE 5PE^ ' ~1"0P'E' REST ' I P E 5PE 10PE REST I P E 5PE 10PE PQ * 2 . 4 0 1 .90 * 2 . 7 1 * 5 . 9 7 0 . 3 6 0 . 7 2 1 . 2 4 * 2 . 9 8 . 5 8 4 . 4 7 4 . 631 .833 PQ * 8 . 0 4 * 4 . 4 1 * 1 1 . 3 2 * 1 0 . 5 7 0 . 6 9 1.41 0 . 4 0 2 .31 . 8 7 6 -.773 . 9 1 4 .905 PR 0 . 6 4 * 2 . 3 0 1 .89 1.52 0 . 5 4 1.74 0 . 4 2 0 . 4 9 - . 5 3 0 . 5 6 6 .472 .340 PR * 5 . 3 4 * 5 . 1 5 * 3 . 9 6 * 5 . 5 0 1 .09 0 . 5 2 0 . 0 5 1.42 .813 . 8 0 6 . 747 . 8 1 8 PQ/PR * 7 . 6 1 * 4 . 6 2 * 5 . 8 9 1 .14 1 .44 1.06 0 . 0 6 1 .18 . 8 6 9 .7 84 . 8 3 0 . 1 1 9 P r / P r * 1 1 . 1 7 * 5 . 2 5 * 1 1 . 7 8 * 1 2 . 1 9 0 . 2 5 0 . 9 5 0 . 3 8 * 3 . 0 6 . 911 . 8 0 9 . 915 . 9 1 8 R e s t i n g H e a r t R a t e *12 .15 1. 85 . 9 1 8 1 s t R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t * 2 6 .83 * 3 . 43 .963 2nd R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t *36 .90 * 3 . 85 .973 3 r d R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t *27 .11 * 3 . 56 .963 T o t a l R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t *32 .83 * 3 . 95 .970 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l CODE : I P E = I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5PE = 5 M i n u t e s P o s t E x e r c i s e 10PE = 10 M i n u t e s P o s t E x e r c i s e 69 W i t h two e x c e p t i o n s , t h e F - r a t i o s f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n we re n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ; t h e s e s m a l l F v a l u e s f o r s u b j e c t s o v e r f o u r t r i a l s showed t h a t t h e r e w a s , i n g e n e r a l , no ' e f f e c t ' due t o t r i a l s . T h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s F - r a t i o s w h i c h were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l we re PQ (F = 2 .98 ) a t 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , and P r / P r (F = 3 .06) a t 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , and t h e F - r a t i o s f o r f i r s t r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t (F = 3 . 4 3 ) , s e c o n d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t (F = 3 . 8 5 ) , t h i r d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t (F = 3 . 5 6 ) , and t o t a l r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t (F = 3 .95) . T h e raw d a t a ( A p p e n d i x B) f o r p Q (F = 2 .98) and f o r r a t i o P r / P r (F = 3 .06) showed no a p p a r e n t t r e n d o f t h e d a t a i n e i t h e r c a s e . T h e raw d a t a f o r r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s a l s o d i d n o t show any t r e n d s . I t d i d n o t a p p e a r , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t b e t w e e n t r i a l s F - r a t i o s r e f l e c t e d any c h a n g e i n t h e s u b j e c t s i n d e g r e e s o f t r a i n i n g o r f i t n e s s o v e r t h e f o u r t r i a l s . I t a l s o d i d n o t a p p e a r t h a t t h e s e c h a n g e s i n m e a s u r e m e n t v a l u e s we re due t o e x p e r i e n c e o r i n c r e a s e d f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h t h e t e s t . T a b l e XXX a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e t w e n t y - n i n e m e a s u r e m e n t s t a k e n . T h e s e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s we re d e t e r m i n e d f r o m mean v a l u e s o f s u b j e c t s ' 70 s c o r e s o v e r t h e s e r i e s o f f o u r t r i a l s . . M o s t o f t h e r e l i a -b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s we re above .500. T h e e x c e p t i o n s w e r e f o r m e a s u r e m e n t s p „ i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e (.474) , p D 5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e (.472), p R 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e (.340), PQ/P R 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e (.119), and p R a t r e s t (-.530). T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r p D ( a t r e s t ) was -.530. T h i s was t h e o n l y n e g a t i v e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d and i t p r o b a b l y r e s u l t e d f r o m p o c c u r r i n g i n some R i n s t a n c e s on t h e c a t a c r o t i c s l o p e above t h e i n c i s u r a ( r e f l e c t e d wave) and i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s b e l o w t h e i n c i s u r a , i . e . on t h e l o w e r p o r t i o n o f t h e c a t a c r o t i c s l o p e o f t h e p u l s e wave . T h e p o i n t R ( P R / P R ) m ay# t h e r e f o r e , f a l l on one o f two l ow p o i n t s b e l o w t h e x - a x i s , t h u s c r e a t i n g v a r i a -b i l i t y i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t . C h o o s i n g t h e p o i n t o f maximum n e g a t i v e r a t e o f c h a n g e o f p r e s s u r e w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o s i t e on t h e c a t a c r o t i c s l o p e o f t h e p u l s e wave seems t o b e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a t l e a s t f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r p_, o b t a i n e d u n d e r a l l c o n d i t i o n s o f r e s t and e x e r c i s e we re r e l a t i v e l y l o w . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h i s measu remen t s h o u l d r e c e i v e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e t h e e x a c t p o i n t s 71 o f g r e a t e s t p o s i t i v e and g r e a t e s t n e g a t i v e r a t e o f c h a n g e o f p r e s s u r e on t h e l o o p p h o t o g r a p h s . T h e m e a s u r e m e n t s Pg and p R a p p e a r l e a s t l i k e l y t o b e u s e f u l i n any f u t u r e a s s e s s m e n t o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n due t o t h e i r l ow r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s and p o s s i b l e e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r a r e s t i n g , i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e , 5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , and 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n s showed t h a t Pg h a s h i g h r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y as i s a l s o t r u e o f m e a s u r e s p R , P r / P r , a n d , l e s s c o n s i s -t e n t l y , o f r a t i o Pg/PR- T h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t s a p p e a r t o be r e p r o d u c i b l e and t h e r e f o r e d e s e r v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n as p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l m e a s u r e m e n t s i n p o s s i b l e f u t u r e a t t e m p t s t o a s s e s s d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p e r s o n s i n d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f t r a i n i n g . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e , f i r s t r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , s e c o n d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , t h i r d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , and t o t a l r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t we re a l l h i g h , i . e . above . 9 0 0 . T h e e x t r e m e l y l a r g e F - r a t i o s f o r b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s v a r i a t i o n o f r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e , and f i r s t , s e c o n d , t h i r d , and t o t a l r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f l a r g e amounts o f i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n ; t h e s i g n i f i c a n t F - r a t i o s f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e same 72 m e a s u r e s showed some ' e f f e c t ' due t o t h e t r i a l s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s ' e f f e c t ' may h a v e b e e n c a u s e d b y r a n d o m c h a n g e s i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s e f f i c i e n c y o f s t e p p i n g , o r i n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . C u r e t o n (3) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p u l s e wave c o u l d b e u s e d f o r p r e d i c t i n g " t h e r e l a t i v e s t a t e o f ' f u n c t i o n a l c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n ' i n s u b j e c t s w i t h o u t h e a r t d i s e a s e " . He e x p l a i n e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s as d e t e r m i n a n t s o f ' f u n c t i o n a l c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n ' . B rown e t a l . (4) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t r a t i o m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p d i m e n s i o n s m i g h t b e v a l u a b l e q u a n t i t a -t i v e m e a s u r e s o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . Boyd (5) f o u n d i n h i s s t u d y t h a t s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h e r w o r k i n g c a p a c i t i e s h a d c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t e r m s o f c h a n g i n g p u l s e p r e s s u r e s . J a c k s o n (6) o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e p o s t - t r a i n i n g l o o p s r e t u r n e d f a s t e r t o t h e r e s t i n g wave f o r m t h a n t h e p r e - t r a i n i n g w a v e s . He a l s o n o t e d t h a t P Q / P r (+p/-p) i n c r e a s e d w i t h t r a i n i n g . A l l t h e s e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t may b e p o s s i b l e t o u s e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v e d i n t h e p u l s e wave and i n p a r t i c u l a r i n t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p m e a s u r e m e n t s f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l . A n i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n t h a t mus t b e a s k e d , h o w e v e r , i s ' a r e t h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t s r e p r o d u c i b l e ' ? 73 The purpose of t h i s study, as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , was t o determine the r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of the phase plane loop measurements of the b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave wit h a view t o the f u t u r e assessment of c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . The r e l i a -b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of the measurements gave an i n d i c a t i o n of t r u e v a r i a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the t o t a l v a r i a b i l i t y of the measurements and, g e n e r a l l y , were h i g h , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t most of the s e l e c t e d measurements of the phase plane loop, were r e a s o n a b l y r e p r o d u c i b l e measures f o r the group of f a c u l t y men used i n t h i s study. 74 REFERENCES 1 M y e r s , J e rome L . F u n d a m e n t a l s o f E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n . B o s t o n : A l l y n and B a c o n , I n c . , 1 9 6 7 . 2 i b i d . 3 C u r e t o n , Thomas K i r k , J r . P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A p p r a i s a l and G u i d a n c e . S t . L o u i s : T h e C V . Mosby Company , 1 9 4 7 . 4 B rown , S . R . , e t a l . " T i m e D e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e C a r o t i d P u l s e Wave and P h a s e P l a n e A n a l y s i s o f C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n " , U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 6 5 . 5 B o y d , W i l l i a m R o b e r t . " A P h a s e P l a n e A n a l y s i s o f P h y s i c a l W o r k i n g C a p a c i t y " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 1 9 6 7 . 6 J a c k s o n , R o g e r C h a r l e s . " A F i t n e s s A p p r a i s a l o f C h a m p i o n O a r s m e n , I n c l u d i n g A n a l y s i s o f Maximum O x y g e n C o n s u m p t i o n , E l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m C o m p l e x e s and t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave and i t s T i m e D e r i v a t i v e s " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 1 9 6 7 . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of t h i s study was t o determine the r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of s e l e c t e d phase p l a n e loop measurements of the b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave f o r p o s s i b l e use i n f u t u r e assessment of c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . The group s t u d i e d were eighteen a d u l t (ages 25 to 40 years) male f a c u l t y members of a U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia c o n d i t i o n i n g c l a s s who were chosen f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o complete a f i v e minute step t e s t on a seventeen i n c h bench and a l s o f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. The c o n d i t i o n s f o r t e s t i n g were st a n d a r d i z e d as c a r e f u l l y as p o s s i b l e ; each s u b j e c t was t e s t e d once a week f o r four weeks and was giv e n one p r a c t i c e t r i a l p r i o r t o the t e s t i n g p e r i o d . The apparatus used i n the t e s t i n g was a p r e s s u r e transducer attached t o an o s c i l l o s c o p e . A 35 mm. camera, attached t o the o s c i l l o s c o p e , photographed the images on the o s c i l l o s c o p e screen. The images formed on the screen were the b r a c h i a l 76 p r e s s u r e p u l s e and time d e r i v a t i v e . By p l o t t i n g the r a t e of change of p r e s s u r e along the y - a x i s and the p r e s s u r e along the x - a x i s , a c l o s e d c i r c u i t loop, c a l l e d the phase pl a n e loop, was a l s o d i s p l a y e d on the screen. The t e s t used was a f i v e minute st e p p i n g t e s t at a pace of t h i r t y steps per minute on a seventeen i n c h bench. The s u b j e c t remained i n a supine p o s i t i o n on a t a b l e except d u r i n g the e x e r c i s e p e r i o d . B r a c h i a l p u l s e p r e s s u r e wave, f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e , and phase plane loop photographs were taken f o r each s u b j e c t at r e s t , immediately upon c e s s a t i o n of e x e r c i s e , at 5 minutes p o s t e x e r c i s e , and at 10 minutes po s t e x e r c i s e on each of f o u r o c c a s i o n s . Measurements p Q , p Q , p R , p R , p Q / p R , Pr/Pr were made on r e s t i n g , immediate po s t e x e r c i s e , 5 minutes po s t e x e r c i s e , and 10 minutes p o s t e x e r c i s e loops (Figure 1 ) . These measurements were a l l normalized t o a d j u s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the image due t o changes i n the g a i n s e t t i n g s of the apparatus (Figure 1) . R e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e v a l u e s as w e l l as t h r e e r e c o v e r y h e a r t beat counts ( 1 - 1 : 3 0 , 2 - 2 : 3 0 , 3-3 :30 minutes a f t e r e x e r c i s e ) were a l s o r e c o r d e d and a t o t a l r e c o v e r y h e a r t beat count was c a l c u l a t e d . These r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e s and r e c o v e r y 77 h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s we re u s e d as c o n t r o l o r m o n i t o r i n g m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e f i t n e s s o r u n f i t n e s s o f t h e s u b j e c t s o r o f t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o t e s t i n g o v e r t h e t i m e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y . S i n c e t h e p r i n c i p a l i n t e r e s t was i n l o o k i n g a t p e r f o r m a n c e t r e n d s o v e r t h e p e r i o d o f f o u r weeks and i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a r i o u s c o m p o n e n t s o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n t e r m s o f t h e r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s o v e r f o u r t r i a l s , t h e d a t a was a n a l y z e d b y means o f an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e one f a c t o r r e p e a t e d measu remen t d e s i g n . T h e d e s i g n s e l e c t e d was t h e mos t e f f e c t i v e one a v a i l a b l e f o r s e p a r a t i n g o u t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y due t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I n t h i s p r o c e s s , v a r i a t i o n due t o b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s , v a r i a t i o n due t o b e t w e e n t r i a l s , and an e r r o r v a r i a n c e t e r m we re s e p a r a t e d . Be tween s u b j e c t s v a r i a b i l i t y F - r a t i o s were c a l c u l a t e d , t h u s i n d i -c a t i n g t h e r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f t r u e s c o r e v a r i a t i o n o r i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n . F - r a t i o s f o r b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a t i o n we re a l s o c a l c u l a t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e ' e f f e c t ' , i f a n y , due t o t r i a l s . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on e a c h o f t w e n t y - n i n e m e a s u r e s ( T a b l e s I t o XXIX) and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s we re c a l c u l a t e d on t h e mean v a l u e s f o r e a c h m e a s u r e o v e r f o u r t r i a l s . T h i s r e l i a b i l i t y -c o e f f i c i e n t g a v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f 78 e a c h m e a s u r e ( T a b l e X X X ) . T h e F - r a t i o s f o r r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e , f i r s t r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , s e c o n d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , t h i r d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , and t o t a l r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t we re a l l q u i t e l a r g e and were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 05 l e v e l , i n d i c a t i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f l a r g e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e r e d i d n o t seem t o b e any t r e n d o f t h e d a t a i n t h e r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t s s o i t c o u l d n o t b e s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was any i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n d e g r e e o f t r a i n i n g o r f i t n e s s o v e r t h e f o u r t r i a l s . F o r t h e t w e n t y - n i n e m e a s u r e s , t h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s F - r a t i o s we re s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l e x c e p t f o r P Q (F = 1.90) i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r e x e r c i s e , p R (F = 0 .64 ) a t r e s t , p R (F = 1.89) a t 5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , p_ (F = 1.52) a t 10 R m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , and P Q / P R (F = 1.14) a t 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e . T h e s i g n i f i c a n t F - r a t i o s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e b e t w e e n t r i a l s v a r i a b i l i t y F - r a t i o s f o r t h e t w e n t y - n i n e m e a s u r e s we re n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l e x c e p t f o r P Q (F = 2 .98) a t 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , and P r / P r (F = 3 .06) a t 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , and t h e F - r a t i o s f o r f i r s t r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t (F = 3 . 4 3 ) , s e c o n d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t (F = 3 . 8 5 ) , t h i r d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t (F = 3 . 5 6 ) , and t o t a l r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t (F = 3 . 9 5 ) . T h e s e were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l i n d i c a t i n g an ' e f f e c t ' due t o t r i a l s i n t h e s e few c a s e s . On e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r aw d a t a f o r p^ (F = 2 .98 ) and f o r r a t i o P r / p r (F = 3 . 0 6 ) , t h e r e d i d n o t , i n e i t h e r c a s e , a p p e a r t o b e any t r e n d . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e , f i r s t r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , s e c o n d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , t h i r d r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t , , a n d t o t a l r e c o v e r y h e a r t b e a t c o u n t we re a l l o v e r . 900 t h u s s h o w i n g g o o d r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y f o r t h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t s . V e r y l ow r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s we re f o u n d f o r p R a t r e s t ( - . 5 3 0 ) ; p^ i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e ( . 4 7 4 ) ; p R 5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ( . 4 7 2 ) ; p R 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ( . 3 4 0 ) ; and PQ / P r 10 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e ( . 1 1 9 ) . T h e o t h e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e d g o o d r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f - . 5 3 0 f o r p R ( a t r e s t ) was t h e o n l y n e g a t i v e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d and i t seemed t o r e s u l t f r o m p R b e i n g m e a s u r e d a t one o r a n o t h e r o f two p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s on t h e p h a s e p l a n e l o o p o f t h e b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r m e a s u r e m e n t s PQ and p R a t r e s t , i m m e d i a t e p o s t e x e r c i s e , 5 m i n u t e s p o s t e x e r c i s e , and 10 minutes post exercise were a l l quite low. The points Q and R were d i f f i c u l t to locate on the photograph as i t was hard to f i n d the exact greatest maximum rate of change of pressure point. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s for measures pg and p R at r e s t , immediate post exercise, 5 minutes post exercise, and 10 minutes post exercise were a l l quite high indicating that these measures were reproducible. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of the r a t i o R - . / F * at vi R r e s t , immediate post exercise, 5 minutes post exercise, and 10 minutes post exercise were a l l high except for the 10 minutes post exercise value. This r a t i o P n/P D also showed y R good r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s for the r a t i o Pr/Pr at res t , immediate post exercise, 5 minutes post exercise, and 10 minutes post exercise were a l l high i n d i c a t i n g that t h i s measure was also a reproducible measure. The success of future investigations using the phase plane loop as a possible means of distinguishing between people i n various degrees of t r a i n i n g w i l l depend upon the use of stable or reproducible measurements. Although further studies might consider the use of other measures of the phase plane loop, i t seems reasonable, i n the meantime, 81 t o proceed w i t h measurements p , p , P n/p / Pr/Pr as these Q R W R were found t o be r e p r o d u c i b l e i n t h i s study. The measures p and p„ were not r e p r o d u c i b l e because of c e r t a i n d i f f i -Q R c u l t i e s i n measurement. These measurements, however, should be i n v e s t i g a t e d more c l o s e l y b e f o r e being d i s c a r d e d . The purpose of t h i s study, as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , was t o determine the r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f the phase plane loop measurements of the b r a c h i a l p u l s e wave wit h a view to the f u t u r e assessment of c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n . The r e l i a -b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of the measurements gave an i n d i c a t i o n o f t r u e v a r i a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l v a r i a b i l i t y o f the measurements and, g e n e r a l l y , were h i g h , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t most of the s e l e c t e d measurements of the phase plane loop, were reasonably r e p r o d u c i b l e measures f o r the group o f f a c u l t y men used i n t h i s study. BIBLIOGRAPHY A t t i n g e r , E . O . , e d . P u l s a t i 1P: B l o o d F l o w , ( P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sympos ium on P u l s a t i l e B l o o d F l o w , A p r i l 1 1 - 1 3 , 1 9 6 3 ) . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company , 1 9 6 4 . B a b s k i i , E . B . , V . L . K a r p m a n , G . M . P e t r o v , and A . I . s k a c h k o v a . " U s e o f A n E l e c t r o n i c D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g D e v i c e i n P h y s i o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s " , B i o p h y s i c s ( U . S . S . R . ) 4 : 1 0 2 - 1 1 0 , 1 9 5 9 . B a n i s t e r , E .W . , T . K . C u r e t o n , B . C . A b b o t t , and J . W . P o l l a r d . " A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave and i t s T i m e D e r i v a t i v e s among A t h l e t i c , N o r m a l and P a t h o l o g i c a l S u b j e c t s " , J o u r n a l o f s p o r t s M e d i c i n e  and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s 6 : 9 2 - 9 9 , J une 1 9 6 6 . B e r g e r , R i c h a r d A . , and A r t h u r B. Sweney . " V a r i a n c e and C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 36 (No. 3 ) : 3 6 8 - 3 7 0 , O c t o b e r 1 9 6 5 . B o y d , W i l l i a m R o b e r t . " A P h a s e P l a n e A n a l y s i s o f P h y s i c a l W o r k i n g C a p a c i t y " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 1 9 6 7 . B r o w n , S . R . , E.W. B a n i s t e r , and G . E . Dowe r . " T i m e D e r i v a -t i v e s o f t h e C a r o t i d P u l s e Wave and P h a s e P l a n e A n a l y s i s o f C a r d i o v a s c u l a r C o n d i t i o n " , U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , . V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 6 5 . C a r r o n , A . V . " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n P e r f o r m a n c e " , U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , December 4 , 1 9 6 7 . C o n s o l a z i o , C . F r a n k , R o b e r t E . J o h n s o n , and L o u i s . J . :: P e c o r a . P h y s i o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e m e n t s o f M e t a b o l i c F u n c t i o n s i n M a n . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company , I n c . , 1 9 6 3 . C u r e t o n , Thomas K i r k , J r . P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A p p r a i s a l and G u i d a n c e . S t . L o u i s : T h e C . V . M o s b y Company , 1 9 4 7 . 83 D o n t a s , A . S . " C o m p a r i s o n o f S i m u l t a n e o u s l y R e c o r d e d I n t r a -A r t e r i a l and E x t r a - A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e s i n M a n " , A m e r i c a n H e a r t J o u r n a l 59 (No. 4 ) : 5 7 6 - 5 9 0 , A p r i l 1 9 6 0 . D o n t a s , A . S . , and C S . C o t t a s . " A r t e r i a l V o l u m e and P r e s s u r e P u l s e C o n t o u r s i n t h e Y o u n g Human S u b j e c t " , A m e r i c a n  H e a r t J o u r n a l 61 (No. 5 ) : 6 7 6 - 6 8 3 , May 1 9 6 1 . F e r g u s o n , G e o r g e A . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n P s y c h o l o g y and  E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company , 1 9 6 6 . F r i e s t a d t , H a n s . " T h e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f L e f t A t r i a l P r e s s u r e C u r v e s i n t h e D i a g n o s i s o f M i t r a l V a l v u l a r D i s e a s e " , U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 1 9 5 9 . G a r r e t t , H e n r y E . , and R . S . W o o d w o r t h . S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : D a v i d McKay Company , I n c . , 1 9 6 6 . G l e a s o n , W i l l i a m L . , and E u g e n e B r a u n w a l d . " s t u d i e s on t h e F i r s t D e r i v a t i v e o f t h e V e n t r i c u l a r P r e s s u r e P u l s e i n M a n " , J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n 41 (No. 1 ) : 8 0 - 9 1 , 1 9 6 2 . H a m i l t o n , W . F . " T h e P a t t e r n s o f t h e A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y 1 4 1 : 2 3 5 - 2 4 1 , 1 9 4 4 . H a n c o c k , E r n e s t W . , and W a l t e r H . A b e l m a n n . " A C l i n i c a l . .Study o f t h e B r a c h i a l A r t e r i a l P u l s e F o r m " , C i r c u l a t i o n 1 6 : 5 7 2 - 5 8 1 , O c t o b e r 1 9 5 7 . H a y s , W i l l i a m L . S t a t i s t i c s f o r P s y c h o l o g i s t s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 3 . H e n r y , F . M . e t a l . " E r r o r s i n M e a s u r e m e n t " , i n S c o t t , M . G . , e d . R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s A p p l i e d t o H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , 1 9 4 9 , p p . 4 5 9 - 4 7 7 . 84 H e n r y , F r a n k l i n M. " R e l i a b i l i t y , M e a s u r e m e n t E r r o r and I n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 30 (No. 1) : 2 1 - 2 4 , M a r c h 1 9 5 9 . H e n r y , F r a n k l i n M. " I n f l u e n c e o f M e a s u r e m e n t E r r o r and I n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l V a r i a t i o n on t h e R e l i a b i l i t y o f M u s c l e S t r e n g t h and V e r t i c a l Jump T e s t s " , R e s e a r c h  Q u a r t e r l y 30 (No. 2 ) : 1 5 5 - 1 5 9 , 1 9 5 9 . H e n r y , F r a n k l i n M. " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n I n t r a -i n d i v i d u a l V a r i a b i l i t y " , A n A d d r e s s p r e s e n t e d a t A . A . H . P . E . R . R e s e a r c h S e c t i o n , L a s V e g a s , N e v a d a , M a r c h 1 3 , 1 9 6 7 . Heyman , F . " C o m p a r i s o n o f I n t r a - a r t e r i a l l y and E x t r a -a r t e r i a l l y R e c o r d e d P u l s e Waves i n Man and D o g " , A c t a M e d i c a S c a n d i n a v i c a 157 (No. 6 ) : 5 0 3 - 5 1 0 , 1957 Hyman, C h e s t e r , and T r a v i s W i n s o r . "What c a n b e f o u n d i n A r t e r i a l P u l s e W a v e s " , A m e r i c a n H e a r t J o u r n a l 61 (No. 3 ) : 4 2 4 - 4 2 6 , M a r c h 1 9 6 1 . J a c k s o n , R o g e r C h a r l e s . " A F i t n e s s A p p r a i s a l o f C h a m p i o n O a r s m e n , I n c l u d i n g A n a l y s i s o f Maximum O x y g e n C o n s u m p t i o n , E l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m C o m p l e x e s and t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e Wave and I t s ' T i m e D e r i v a t i v e s " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1 s T h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , . A p r i l 1 9 6 7 . K e n y o n , G e r a l d S. " M u l t i p l e C o m p a r i s o n s and A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : A n E m p i r i c a l I l l u s t r a t i o n " , R e s e a r c h  Q u a r t e r l y 36 (No. 4 ) : 4 1 3 - 4 1 9 , December 1 9 6 5 . K e r l i n g e r , F r e d N . F o u n d a t i o n s o f B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1 9 6 6 . K r o e k e r , E d w i n J . , and E a r l H . Wood . " C o m p a r i s o n o f S i m u l t a n e o u s l y R e c o r d e d C e n t r a l and P e r i p h e r a l A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e s D u r i n g R e s t , E x e r c i s e and T i l t e d P o s i t i o n i n M a n " , C i r c u l a t i o n R e s e a r c h 3 : 6 2 3 - 6 3 2 , November 1 9 5 5 . K r o l l , W a l t e r . " A N o t e on t h e C o e f f i c i e n t o f I n t r a c l a s s C o r r e l a t i o n as an E s t i m a t e o f R e l i a b i l i t y " , R e s e a r c h  Q u a r t e r l y 33 (No. 2 ) : 3 1 3 - 3 1 5 , May 1 9 6 2 . 85 K r o l l , W a l t e r . " R e l i a b i l i t y V a r i a t i o n s o f S t r e n g t h i n T e s t -R e t e s t S i t u a t i o n s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 34 (No. 1 ) : 5 0 - 5 5 , M a r c h 1 9 6 3 . K r o l l > W a l t e r . " R e l i a b i l i t y T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h D e c i s i o n i n S e l e c t i o n o f a C r i t e r i o n s c o r e " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 38 (No. 3 ) : 4 1 2 - 4 1 9 , O c t o b e r 1 9 6 7 . L e r s t e n , K e n n e t h C . " I n t r a and I n t e r - I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a t i o n s D u r i n g t h e P r o g r e s s o f M o t o r L e a r n i n g " , U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . M a s o n , D e a n T . , E u g e n e B r a u n w a l d , J o h n R o s s J r . , and A n d r e w G . M o r r o w , " D i a g n o s t i c V a l u e o f t h e F i r s t and S e c o n d D e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e i n A o r t i c V a l v e D i s e a s e and i n H y p e r t r o p h i c S u b a o r t i c S t e n o s i s " C i r c u l a t i o n 3 0 : 9 0 - 9 9 , J u l y 1 9 6 4 . M o r e h o u s e , L a u r e n c e E . , and A u g u s t u s T . M i l l e r , J r . P h y s i o l o g y o f E x e r c i s e . S a i n t L o u i s : T h e C . V . M o s b y Company , 1 9 6 7 . M o s c o v i c h , M . D . " P h a s e P l a n e S t u d i e s o f I n t r a c a r d i a c and I n t r a v a s c u l a r P r e s s u r e s " , U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 5 9 . M y e r s , J e rome L . F u n d a m e n t a l s o f E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n . B o s t o n : A l l y n and B a c o n , I n c . , 1 9 6 7 . N ' ea l , J o h n J . , J r . , W i l l i a m H a l p e r n , a n d . ' T . J . R e e v e s . " V e l o c i t y and A c c e l e r a t i o n o f P r e s s u r e Change i n H e a r t >and A r t e r i e s " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y 15 7 4 7 - 7 4 9 , 1 9 6 0 . N o b l e , F r a n k W. E l e c t r i c a l M e t h o d s o f B l o o d ^ P r e s s u r e R e c o r d i n g . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C . Thomas P u b l i s h e r , 1 9 5 3 . , R o b i n s o n , B r i a n . " T h e C a r o t i d P u l s e - I. D i a g n o s i s o f A o r t i c S t e n o s i s b y E x t e r n a l R e c o r d i n g s " , B r i t i s h  H e a r t J o u r n a l 2 5 : 5 1 - 6 0 , 1 9 6 3 . R o b i n s o n , B r i a n . " T h e C a r o t i d P u l s e - I I . R e l a t i o n o f E x t e r n a l R e c o r d i n g s t o C a r o t i d , A o r t i c , and B r a c h i a l P u l s e s " , B r i t i s h H e a r t J o u r n a l 2 5 : 6 1 - 6 8 , 1 9 6 3 . R u s h m e r , R o b e r t F . C a r d i o v a s c u l a r D y n a m i c s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : W.B . S a u n d e r s Company , 1 9 6 1 . S t a r r , I s a a c , and S . Ogawa. " Q u a n t i t a t i v e S t u d i e s on t h e ' Q u i c k n e s s ' o f t h e P u l s e " , T h e A m e r i c a n j o u r n a l o f  t h e M e d i c a l S c i e n c e s 2 4 3 : 3 0 9 - 3 2 1 , M a r c h 1 9 6 2 . S t a r r , I s a a c , and S h i g o r u Ogawa. " A C l i n i c a l S t u d y o f t h e F i r s t D e r i v a t i v e o f t h e B r a c h i a l P u l s e . N o r m a l S t a n d a r d s and A b n o r m a l i t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n H e a r t D i s e a s e " , A m e r i c a n H e a r t - J ou rna l 65 (No. 4 ) : 4 8 2 - 4 9 4 , A p r i l 1 9 6 3 . T a v e l , M o r t o n E . C l i n i c a l P h o n o c a r d i o g r a p h y and E x t e r n a l  P u l s e R e c o r d i n g . C h i c a g o : Y e a r Book M e d i c a l P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 6 7 . V a n D a l e n , D . B . " H y p o t h e s e s and D e d u c e d C o n s e q u e n c e s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 33 (No. 2 ) : 3 1 4 - 3 1 7 , May 1 9 6 2 . W i g g e r s , C a r l J . C i r c u l a t o r y D y n a m i c s . New Y o r k : G r u n e and S t r a t t o n , 1 9 5 2 . W i g l e , E . D o u g l a s . " T h e A r t e r i a l P r e s s u r e P u l s e i n M u s c u l a r S u b a o r t i c S t e n o s i s " , B r i t i s h H e a r t J o u r n a l 2 5 : 9 7 -1 0 5 , 1 9 6 3 . W i l l i a m s , James G . L . , and B a r b a r a W i l l i a m s . " A r t e r i a l P u l s e Wave V e l o c i t y as a P s y c h o s o m a t i c M e a s u r e " , P s y c h o s o -m a t i c M e d i c i n e 27 (No. 5 ) : 4 0 8 - 4 1 4 , 1 9 6 5 . . APPENDIX ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THIS REPEATED MEASUREMENT DESIGN S of V SUBJECTS (S) df -1 SS t MS EMS cr +t <r; e s, M S . TRIALS (T) ss r t - 1 MS. MS, r ERROR (ST) (E) ss s r c r e ,2. C = 2 2 \ R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t = M S ^ Y\S& _ ^ — M S APPENDIX A S T A T I S T I C A L TREATMENT APPENDIX B RAW SCORES SUBJECT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 INITIALS Y S R P M McM MACD LL KU KE F C BRE BJ A LE BR D RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p n (AMENDED) SUBJECT I 2. . 3 -R ' " IPE - 5PE - 10PE - - R - : IPE ' - - 5PE - -10PE - ' -R - - - IPE - *' - 5PE 10PE TRIALS 1 *4 .416 3.837 3.793 4.023 5 .493 4.204 2.587 3.860 4 .641 4.2.13 3.596 3.948 2 3 .967 3.851 3.820 3.790 2 .824 4.556 4.459 5.000 4 .763 3.826 3.426 4.097 •3 ;4 .591 4.050 4.365 4.332 2 .480 4.152 5.309 5.238 5 .000 3.870 3.532 3.830 4 4 .690 4.128 4.270 3.390 4 .478 4.430 4.414 4.623 3 .975 4.075 3.951 3.833 SUBJECT -•• - - • 4 - -- 5 • - .- - -- - - 6 - " : ' - . . . .... . R -• IPE / 5PE 10PE - •R - - - IPE 5PE 10PE - - -R - - IPE - 5PE '- 10PE TRIALS 1 3 .503 2.955 3.059 3.268 5 .000 4.034 3.415 3.546 4 .665 4.171 4.272 4.351 2 3 .440 3.030 2.943 3.386 4 .384 4.343 4.404 4.292 4 .610 4.191 3.879 4.344 3 3 .449 2.866 3.200 3.191 3 .355 4.487 4.252 4.380 4 .559 4.095 4.493 3.996 4 *3 .464 2.577 3.293 3.218 3 .567 3.498 3.245 2.980 3 .527 4.293 4.282 4.177 SUBJECT R : IPE 5PE 10PE R I PE 5PE 10PE R IPE 5PE 10PE TRIALS 1 3.085 3.896 3.067 2.858 2.656 2.820 3.653 4.231 3.525 3.424 3.378 3.472 2 3.444 4.330 4.037 3.475 3.038 3.202 3.173 3.705 3.745 3.353 3.532 3.282 3 3.589 2.680 4.087 3.531 3.339 3.861 4.048 3,554 3.610 3.338 3.392 3.446 4 4.489 2.725 2.763 2.761 5.000 3.571 3.395 3.508 3.329 3.419 3.925 3.369 KEY: R IPE 5PE 10PE * P r e E x e r c i s e Immediate P o s t E x e r c i s e 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e 10 M i n s P o s t E x e r c i s e E s t i m a t e d V a l u e RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p n (AMENDED) - Continued SUBJECT 10 . •. ... . . • - - 11 12 R - ' -IPE - 5PE ; -10PE - - -R - - -. . I P E 5PE lOPE - R - IPE • 5PE - -10PE TRIALS 1 * 4 .714 3.997 3.465 2.503 •4 .245 3.781 3.899 4.076 3 .323 3.244 3.364 3.573 2 4 .617 4.404 5.393 5.470 3 .476 3.698 3.726 3.897 2 .901 3.852 4.118 . 4.359 3 5 .000 3.611 2.712 3.392 3 .205 3.795 3.714 3.345 4 .077 3.688 3.472 3.681 4 4 .524 2.871 3.850 3 .558 3 . 348 3.167 '3.672 3.651 3 .508 4.017 3.259 3.362 SUBJECT - - - 13 14 - 10PE - 5PE - 10PE - - R - IPE - ' 5PE 10PE " • • - R - " IPE • 5PE R : IPE - TRIALS 1 5 .731 3.494 6.243 3.133 2 .721 3.202 3.213 3.669 3 .091 3.654 4.568 4.574 2 3 .215 3.730 3.634 3.690 3 .893 5.000 5.351 3.191 4 .674 5.937 6.022 5.863 3 2 .897 3.752 3.042 4.377 4 .508 4.796 4.269 4. 541 5 .350 3.257 4.744 5.7 80 4 3 .290 3.427 3.889 3.887 3 .623 3.457 3.136 3.289 3 .283 5.388 5r9774. .5.562 SUBJECT . 16 - - - - - - - '• '• - -' - - -' - • - •• 17 - - - - .- •- - - 18 . „...". . .. R " ' IEE 5PE 10PE -R • - ' : IPE .- •-. 5PE 10PE •-R - - -- IPE : 5PE 10PE TRIALS 1 5 .653 3.745 5.409 4.707 4 .051 3.607 3.272 4.004 3 .599 4.474 3.379 3.891 ". 2 5 .853 2.918 5.702 5.942 3 . 190 4.084 3.750 3.954 3 .612 3.533 3.768 3.529 3 5 •480 4-585 4.610 4.618 3 .662 4.162 4.365 3.7.29 3 .601 4.325 3.133 . 4.165 4 5 .466 5.898 4.628 5.285 5 .000 3.969 4.231 3 . 5 7 5 3 . 730. 2.978 3.346 3.872 K E Y : R = P r e E x e r c i s e I P E = I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5 P E = 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e 1 0 P E = 1 0 M i n s P o s t E x e r c i s e * = E s t i m a t e d V a l u e RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p n (AMENDED) crrg TF'C'T1 1 — ,-„— — - — — — — ..— „. . ,. • — - . . R I PE - 5PE - - IQPE R -'. - I P E 5PE - - IQPE ~ ' ~ R I P E - 5PE IQPE TR IALS 1 9 . 9 7 1 1 2 . 4 9 9 1 1 . 8 7 2 1 1 . 4 7 0 9 . 3 0 8 1 1 . 7 4 4 1 0 . 4 8 6 8 . 6 0 9 9 .252 1 0 . 7 1 9 9 . 4 5 6 9 . 4 6 4 2 9 .892 1 2 . 6 6 5 1 2 . 6 3 8 1 1 . 4 4 9 9 . 3 2 4 1 2 . 6 4 4 1 0 . 7 5 3 9 . 9 4 4 8 . 9 9 6 9 . 7 8 4 8 .820 9 . 0 9 7 ".'3 1 0 . 0 9 5 1 3 . 3 8 9 1 2 . 9 7 8 1 2 . 1 1 0 8 . 9 1 1 1 4 . 1 7 0 1 4 . 3 6 3 1 3 . 8 8 6 9 . 3 7 4 1 0 . 1 3 4 9 .465 9 . 2 7 3 4 9 . 9 2 6 1 2 . 9 2 3 1 2 . 6 2 9 1 0 . 5 1 8 1 3 . 7 8 8 1 3 . 5 8 6 1 0 . 0 8 6 9 . 8 2 6 8 .772 1 1 . 5 0 2 9 .641 8 . 9 2 9 SUBJECT -R I P E -5PE - -10PE R I PE '-•'-5PE -10PE - R I PE 5PE 10PE TR IALS 1 9 . 1 2 8 1 0 . 2 1 2 9 . 7 0 9 2 8 . 7 9 6 1 1 . 3 4 3 9 . 7 1 0 3 8 . 5 9 9 1 0 . 7 1 2 9.988 4 * 8 . 8 4 1 1 0 . 2 3 7 1 0 . 0 9 0 9 .322 9 . 0 4 4 1 1 . 3 4 2 1 0 . 4 3 0 9 .175 9 . 3 3 5 1 2 . 4 6 7 9 .247 8 . 3 7 8 1 2 . 6 0 0 1 0 . 5 8 0 9 .907 1 2 . 1 9 6 1 1 . 6 0 2 9 . 2 4 9 9 . 5 5 0 1 2 . 0 5 1 1 1 . 5 1 1 1 0 . 2 9 4 9 . 3 4 9 1 2 . 0 1 2 9 . 6 4 4 8 .745 1 0 . 7 0 6 9 . 6 1 6 8 . 3 8 7 9 .242 1 2 . 5 9 0 9 . 9 3 6 9 . 3 2 8 9 . 9 9 3 9 . 4 5 6 9 . 5 6 4 8 . 8 3 8 9 . 3 6 6 8 . 9 7 9 SUBJECT -8 R I PE -5PE 10PE I PE 5PE 10PE -R I P E 5PE 10PE TR IALS 1 9 . 1 3 3 1 1 . 6 4 8 9 . 3 4 0 9 . 0 8 4 •2 8 . 4 7 5 9 . 5 1 5 9 . 0 4 6 8 .617 3 8 . 9 6 8 9 . 3 8 1 8 . 9 6 0 8 . 8 7 4 4 8 . 4 5 5 1 0 . 2 9 7 9 . 6 5 7 8 .791 8 . 1 1 3 9 . 5 2 0 8 . 8 2 0 8 .311 8 . 6 6 8 1 0 . 7 0 2 9 . 3 5 6 8 .604 8 .713 1 0 . 8 8 9 9 .172 8 . 7 7 7 8 . 5 8 0 1 1 . 6 0 5 9 .012 8 .740 9 . 4 4 8 1 2 . 8 9 1 1 0 . 6 4 5 9 . 7 6 0 9 . 8 7 8 1 3 . 1 7 7 1 1 . 0 6 6 9 . 8 2 7 9 . 0 8 8 1 2 . 1 6 3 1 0 . 4 8 6 9 . 4 3 8 9 . 7 3 6 1 3 . 1 0 7 1 1 . 2 3 1 1 0 . 1 7 0 K E Y : R = P r e E x e r c i s e I P E = I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5PE = 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e 10PE = 10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e * = E s t i m a t e d V a l u e RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p n (AMENDED) - Continued - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -SUBJECT - 10 . . . . - - 11 - - - - 12 • • •• - - --R ' IPE . - . 5PE - - 10PE R - IPE " 5PE 10PE - - - R 1 - I p E . . -5PE - 10PE TRIALS 1*13 .623 11.738 11 .452 9.190 9 .708 12 .451 10 .714 9.948 9 .653 10.504 10.193 9.623 2 13 .660 14.304 13 .619 13.032 9 .094 11 .996 10 .487 10.143 9 .486 12.483 10.830 9.982 3 14 .189 10.985 10 .220 11.216 9 .872 12 .338 11 .349 10.116 9 .115 11.812 10.166 10.909 4 13 .020 10.157 11 .735 10.768 9 .231 13 .290 10 .782 9.854 10 .044 11.752 10.144 9.421 13 14 "1- c SUBJECT 15 R - IPE ; - - -5PE -- 10PE - R IPE 5PE - - -10PE - -R - • - IPE -5PE - 10PE -TRIALS 1 8 .026 10.497 12 .945 9.819 9 .709 12 .367 10 .676 9.914 10 .234 11.373 15.363 14.212 2 9 .046 11.645 9 .896 9.504 9 .427 15 .326 13 .961 10.124 12 .958 15.419 13.979 12.898 3 8 .703 11.242 9 .724 11.952 13 .622 12 .112 10 .849 10.150 13 .320 11.396 14.425 13.414 4 9 .610 11.166 9 .980 9.624 10 .967 12 .570 10 .735 9.744 9 .423 16.225 14.885 13.516 SUBJECT - - - - - - - 16 ; - : - - :. - . 17 - - - - ... . 18 R . I P E - 5PE - 10PE R IPE - •- -5PE 10PE R - - - IPE - -5PE 10PE TRIALS 1 11 .746 13.133 13 .399 11.993 8 .870 9 .896 9 .289 9.023 10 .405 13.422 11.131 10.891 2 12 .760 12.418 13 .186 12.272 8 .751 11 .418 9 .869 9.215 9 .432 11.677 11.354 10.660 3 13 .242 16.158 12 .700 12.209 8 .747 10 .586 9 .032 9.063 9 .438 11.929 10.853 10.095 4 12 .747 15.793 12 .716 12.990 9 .100 10 .955 9 .376 9.246 10 .606 10.905 11.799 10.336 KEY: R = Pre E x e r c i s e IPE = Immediate Post E x e r c i s e 5PE = 5 Mins. Post E x e r c i s e 10PE = 10 Mins. Post E x e r c i s e * = Estimated Value RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p R (AMENDED) SUBJECT : ^ : R I P E 5 P E - IOPE R I P E - 5PE - - IOPE - - - R - - - i p E - - 5PE - IOPE TR IALS 1 7 .754 5 .000 5 .665 5 .601 9 . 4 3 5 7 . 4 7 8 5 .525 6 . 4 1 6 7 . 1 3 1 5 .960 7 . 0 6 1 6 . 0 8 3 2 8 . 0 8 0 4 . 7 3 1 3 .993 4 . 7 1 8 8 . 0 5 7 6 . 5 5 2 4 . 8 4 7 5 .907 6 . 9 4 0 5 .561 6 . 0 4 9 7 . 2 1 8 3 7 . 5 4 1 4 . 8 7 8 5 .997 5 .747 9 . 0 4 7 4 . 8 3 2 6 . 1 2 8 3 .022 6 . 6 7 2 6 . 3 9 3 7 . 0 9 4 7 . 6 1 5 4 7 .642 7 .923 5 .548 5 .839 5 .950 6 . 2 8 0 5 .965 6 . 2 4 1 9 . 3 7 5 4 . 2 6 4 6 . 2 0 8 7 . 1 9 1 SUBJECT R I PE 5PE - " IOPE I P E 5PE IOPE R -IPE -5PE ~ IOPE TR IALS 1 7 .115 5 .860 5 .767 6 . 6 4 2 6 . 3 7 5 6 . 2 7 1 6 . 2 9 3 5 .913 7 . 7 8 8 6 . 1 9 9 2 7 .106 4 . 6 1 2 6 . 2 9 4 5 .932 8 . 1 8 6 5 . 4 2 9 6 . 1 1 4 6 . 5 4 4 7 .081 6 . 1 2 7 3 6 . 8 0 0 5 .717 6 . 5 1 3 6 . 8 4 5 3 .586 6 . 9 6 1 6 . 6 6 4 6 .172 6 . 4 8 1 5 .157 4 * 7 . 0 0 7 5 .914 6 . 4 1 7 6 . 1 5 6 8 . 2 3 6 5 .000 6 . 2 7 4 6 . 8 8 4 7 .837 5 . 5 4 8 7 .062 7 . 5 0 6 6 . 5 7 8 7 .383 6 . 5 4 4 6 . 4 6 1 5 .907 6 . 6 0 4 SUBJECT -8 I P E 5PE IOPE R I P E 5PE IOPE R IPE -5PE - - IOPE TR IALS 1 9 . 1 3 3 6 . 3 5 0 7 . 4 4 6 7 .105 8 . 6 5 4 7 . 7 5 0 7 .754 7 .391 7 . 6 6 7 6 . 4 7 3 6 . 6 3 8 6 . 4 9 7 2 0 . 5 6 5 7 . 2 0 8 8 . 3 2 8 7 . 3 7 6 8 . 5 4 0 7 . 1 6 1 6 . 9 9 9 6 . 1 3 6 6 . 9 1 9 4 . 0 7 8 5 .682 4 . 5 8 4 3 8 .777 7 .140 6 . 7 0 6 7 .791 7 .970 6 . 6 1 5 7 . 2 3 9 6 . 6 0 8 6 . 7 7 8 4 . 8 0 8 5 .752 5 .950 4 7 . 6 7 6 7 . 4 2 9 6 . 7 9 6 7 . 3 2 8 8 . 2 0 7 7 . 3 8 8 7 . 5 6 4 7 . 4 4 8 9 . 5 2 0 6 . 7 3 0 6 . 3 2 8 6 . 6 8 3 K E Y : R = P r e E x e r c i s e I P E == I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5PE = 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e IOPE = 10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e * = E s t i m a t e d V a l u e RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p R (AMENDED) - C o n t i n u e d SUBJECT - - - - - - - 10 - • .. . . . - - - - - - :. - .. . 11 - - 12 — R - I P E - 5PE - - 10PE - ' - - R - - I PE " - - 5PE - l O P E - R - I P E " ' 5PE - - l O P E -TR IALS 1 *7 . 957 7 .843 . 6 . 6 1 8 7 .455 , 5 ..547, 5 .3,81 . 5 .595, 5 .356 , 6 . 658 . 5 .892 . 5 .885 5 .502 2 7 . 5 7 4 6 . 6 2 2 6 . 5 0 7 6 . 5 2 8 7 .652 6 . 5 9 9 5 . 8 9 9 5 .882 7 .082 5 .933 6 . 9 3 8 6 . 3 7 6 3 7 .592 4 . 2 0 3 4 . 6 0 3 6 ; 346 .7 . 5 9 8 6 . 4 7 5 6 . 2 1 6 1 1 . 3 5 4 6 . 7 7 8 5 .417 5 .000 5 . 8 5 8 4 8 . 705 7 . 8 4 6 8 . 2 5 1 7 .285 7 . 131 5 .333 5 .915 6 . 4 1 0 7 .904 5 .769 7 . 3 0 0 6 . 1 9 4 SUBJECT - - • - 13 . - - - - - - - - 14 - - - - 1 5 - -R - - I PE -5PE - l O P E R " I P E " 5PE - -10PE R - I P E - 5PE - - l O P E ' TR IALS 1 7 . 8 0 6 5 .000 6 . 1 3 5 7 .731 7 . 743 4 . 6 6 7 7 . 6 2 6 4 . 4 1 0 7 . 318 3 .882 5 ,873 6 . 6 7 0 2 8 . 9 9 8 6 . 0 8 4 5 .773 5 .745 8 . 3 8 6 4 . 6 7 4 7 . 0 0 8 5 .483 7 .582 3 . 8 3 9 6 .022 6 . 6 2 9 3 7 . 4 3 6 4 . 6 3 9 6 . 4 5 8 7 . 8 2 9 7 . 186 4 . 7 2 1 4 . 4 4 7 8 .312 6 .594 4.153 4.169 5.195 4 6 .792 4 . 2 3 5 5 .873 5 .896 7 . 3 3 9 6 . 7 1 6 8 . 1 8 0 4 . 3 4 5 6 .165 4 . 3 6 9 5 . 3 5 8 5 .789 SUBJECT - -16 . ; ' - — - - 17 - - - • - - L - 18 - . . l O P E R - - - I P E " - 5 P E . - "10PE - - - T H D - - . - 5 P E . -10P-E R I P E ' bPE R I f tl TR IALS 1 7 . 1 6 8 4 . 6 0 0 5 .000 6 . 0 1 7 5 . 6 4 6 6 . 1 4 3 6 . 0 7 0 8 . 9 0 6 6 .711 3 .982 5 .326 5 .375 2 8 . 145 3 .723 7 . 6 5 8 7 .943 7 . 8 3 8 5. 916 6 . 4 3 9 7 . 0 5 4 6 . 4 5 8 5 .083 5 .260 4 . 8 7 4 3 5 . 1 4 8 5 .905 5 .542 5 .227 7 . 6 9 8 6 . 5 6 4 6.8.73 7 . 5 5 8 6 .503 5 .362 6 . 5 4 8 6 . 3 9 1 4 6 . 1 4 0 8 . 8 0 0 4 . 2 7 3 6 . 7 5 6 7 . 1 3 8 6 . 6 1 5 5 .101 6 . 6 5 6 7 . 494 5 .572 6 . 2 2 1 6 . 0 3 0 K E Y : R = P r e E x e r c i s e I PE = I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5PE = 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e 10PE = 10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e * = E s t i m a t e d V a l u e RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p „ (AMENDED) SUBJECT ± • : : :  - - - -R I PE 5PE - - IOPE R I PE 5PE - - IOPE R ~ ~ ' ~ I P E - 5PE - IOPE -TR IALS 1 * 3 . 5 3 4 2 .822 2 . 9 8 0 2 . 9 9 5 3 .831 2 .522 3 .456 3 . 4 9 8 3 .956 2 .851 2 3 . 5 8 7 2 . 9 5 0 2 . 9 6 0 2 .927 3 . 6 5 1 2 . 7 3 8 3 .287 3 .480 4 . 0 9 3 3 . 1 0 9 3 3 .417 2 .913 3 . 0 3 6 2 . 8 9 5 3 . 7 3 6 1 .894 1 .659 3 . 0 4 8 3 .885 3 .630 4 3 .597 2 .615 3 .284 2 .702 3 .622 2 .632 3 .414 3 .431 4 . 1 8 9 2 .667 3 . 5 9 6 3 .453 3 .082 3 . 4 8 8 3 . 8 0 9 3 .936 3 . 2 3 1 3 .690 SUBJECT R I PE 5PE IOPE - R I PE -5PE - - IOPE I PE -5PE - - IOPE TR IALS 1 4 . 1 2 0 2 .487 3 .121 3 . 2 6 8 2 3 .950 2 .285 3 .370 3 .167 3 3 .961 3 .012 3 . 0 5 0 3 .155 4 * 4 . 0 1 0 2 . 7 2 0 3 .134 3 . 2 4 6 3 . 4 1 5 2 . 8 0 6 4 . 0 0 9 3 .014 4 . 0 3 5 3 .128 3 . 9 9 9 2 . 5 6 9 3 .050 3 . 0 1 4 3 .690 3 .007 3 .504 3 .745 3 .454 2 . 8 5 8 3 .488 3 .465 3 .540 2 .702 3 .606 3 .744 3 .284 2 .633 3 . 4 8 9 3 . 5 1 9 3 . 1 5 6 3 .462 3 .302 3 .164 3 .015 3 .396 SUBJECT 8 R I P E 5PE - IOPE I PE 5PE IOPE R I P E -5PE - IOPE TR IALS 1 4 . 1 9 0 2 . 8 4 4 3 .363 3 . 7 2 9 3 . 9 0 6 3 .700 2 4 . 3 2 8 3 .288 3 . 3 6 8 3 .812 4 . 0 4 5 3 .257 3 4 . 3 4 3 3 .624 3 .640 3 . 6 8 4 4 . 1 7 0 2 .987 4 3 .832 3 .471 3 . 4 0 8 3 .515 3 . 8 9 8 3 .053 3 .396 3 . 3 1 8 4 . 0 3 2 3 .794 3 .214 3 .150 3 . 7 4 5 3 .166 3 .426 3 . 0 9 8 3 .845 3 .338 3 .366 3 .414 3 . 9 5 4 3 .583 3 . 6 0 9 3 .596 3 . 6 1 9 3 .590 3 .573 3 . 5 7 8 3 .792 3 .655 K E Y : R = P r e E x e r c i s e I P E = I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5PE = 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e IOPE = 10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e * = E s t i m a t e d V a l u e RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT p (AMENDED) - C o n t i n u e d SUBJECT 10 - - - — - - - - - - - - -. . . . 11 . . . . • - 12 . . . -R - - -- I P E 5PE - IOPE -R - - -- I P E - - -5PE - IOPE ' ' R I P E - ' - 5PE " IOPE TR IALS 1 *3 . 277 3 .300 3 . 4 3 0 3 . 2 5 4 3 . 3 3 6 3 . 0 1 9 3 .105 2 . 9 1 5 3 . 5 3 6 2 . 3 7 4 3 . 0 7 9 2 .845 2 3 . 2 7 8 2 .153 2 . 1 9 8 2 . 1 5 0 3 .442 3 .032 3 .230 3 . 3 8 6 3 . 5 9 8 2 . 3 0 4 3 . 1 5 8 3 .215 3 3 . 010 3 .045 3 .137 2 . 9 8 1 3 .860 3 . 2 1 9 3 . 3 7 8 0 . 2 0 1 3 . 540 2 . 5 1 1 2 . 9 0 3 3 .084 4 3 .542 3 .494 1 .816 3 . 1 3 6 4 . 830 2 .552 2 . 9 7 9 2 . 8 8 5 4 .005 2 . 5 5 0 3 . 6 5 8 3 .611 SUBJECT • - - - - 13 - • - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 . . . . . . . - - . . 15 R - I P E - - -5PE - - IOPE R - -IPE - 5PE - IOPE - - R - - -IPE . - 5 P E - - IOPE -TR IALS 1 3 .687 3 .093 2 . 0 0 0 3 .534 3 .553 2 .992 3 .202 3 . 3 4 8 3 . 440 2 . 2 0 9 2 . 0 6 4 1.987 2 4 .357 3 .195 3 .454 3 .556 3 .717 2 . 7 1 6 2 .992 3 .571 3 . 0 7 8 1 .425 1 .834 2 .313 3 4 . 1 0 9 2 .947 3 .553 3 .604 3 .051 3 .236 3 .311 3 . 5 3 6 2 . 1 9 6 2 . 2 6 6 2 . 1 2 4 1 .894 4 4 . 3 2 8 3 .222 3 .502 3 .805 4 . 1 4 8 3 .284 3 .575 3 .511 3 .271 1.432 1 .808 2 . 1 0 6 SUBJECT -- . . . _ 16 . . . . . . 17 - • - 18 - . . . . . . . - - - - - - -R - I PE - -5PE - • IOPE - - R - I P E - 5PE ' IOPE - R - I P E ' 5PE - " IOPE -TR IALS 1 3 .694 1 .878 3 .064 2 .632 4 .044 3 .373 3 .755 4 . 8 6 3 3 . 5 9 9 2 . 6 4 9 3 .216 2 . 7 8 1 2 2 . 250 2 . 6 9 0 2 .907 2 . 8 1 6 4 . 152 3 .427 3 .635 3 . 6 5 6 3 . 7 8 9 3 .877 3 .117 2 . 8 9 8 3 2 . 5 8 8 2 . 8 6 4 2 . 8 8 5 2 .732 4 .122 3 .352 3 .317 3 . 7 2 9 3 .585 2 . 3 7 3 2 . 880 2 .957 4 2 . 875 2 . 0 7 3 2 . 9 3 3 3 . 1 5 6 3 .60.4 3 .385 3 . 3 3 5 3 .705 3 .513 2 . 4 2 0 2 . 7 4 2 2 . 8 3 1 K E Y : R = P r e E x e r c i s e I P E = I m m e d i a t e P o s t • E x e r c i s e 5PE = 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e IOPE = 10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e * = E s t i m a t e d V a l u e RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT P n / p R (AMENDED) i - O - - - -SUBJECT 1 2. R I PE - 5PE - - 10PE - - R - -- I P E - -5PE - 10PE - -- - -R - - -IPE - - 5PE -10PE TR IALS 1 2 . 8 2 4 4 . 4 2 9 3 .984 3 . 8 2 9 2 . 4 3 0 4 . 6 5 7 3 .034 2 . 4 6 1 2 . 3 3 9 3 . 7 6 0 2 . 6 3 0 2 . 7 4 1 2 2 . 7 5 8 4 . 2 9 3 4 . 2 7 0 3 .912 2 . 5 5 4 4 . 6 1 8 3 .271 2 . 8 5 7 2 . 1 9 8 3 .147 2 .862 2 . 6 0 8 3 2 . 9 5 4 4 . 5 9 6 4 . 2 7 5 4 . 1 8 3 2 .385 7 .482 8 . 6 5 8 4 . 5 5 6 2 . 4 1 3 2 .792 2 . 4 8 5 2 . 3 5 6 4 2 . 7 6 0 4 . 9 4 2 3 . 8 4 6 3 .893 3 .807 5 .162 2 . 9 5 4 2 . 8 6 4 2 . 0 9 4 4 . 3 1 3 2 . 9 8 4 2 . 4 2 0 SUBJECT R I PE 5PE 10PE R ' I P E 5PE 10PE R I P E 5PE 10PE TR IALS 1 2 3 4 2 . 2 1 6 2 . 2 2 7 2 . 1 7 1 2 . 2 0 0 4 . 1 0 6 3 .111 2 . 8 5 3 2 . 6 4 8 4 . 0 4 2 3 .420 3 . 0 4 4 2 . 5 3 0 4 . 1 4 6 2 . 8 4 8 2 . 6 5 1 4 . 9 6 4 2 . 8 8 1 2 . 9 2 0 2 . 0 9 0 4 . 1 8 0 3 . 0 1 9 2 . 6 4 5 3 .531 4 . 0 5 9 3 . 1 6 6 2 . 7 3 1 3 .556 3 .275 2 .932 2 .367 3 .853 3 .300 2 . 9 7 1 2 . 6 4 1 4 . 4 4 6 2 . 8 9 6 2 . 7 9 3 3 .764 3 .220 2 . 9 7 1 2 . 1 8 7 4 . 1 6 7 2 . 6 6 7 2 . 2 4 0 2 . 8 1 4 4 . 7 8 2 3 . 1 0 6 2 . 6 4 4 SUBJECT 8 IPE 5PE 10PE R I PE 5PE 10PE R I P E -5PE - " 10PE TR IALS 1 2 . 1 8 0 4 . 0 9 6 2 .777 2 . 4 3 6 2 .077 2 . 5 7 3 2 . 5 9 7 2 . 5 0 5 2 .343 3 . 3 9 8 2 . 9 5 0 2 . 7 1 4 2 1 .958 2 . 8 9 4 2 . 6 8 6 2 . 2 6 0 2 .143 3 .286 2 . 9 1 1 2 . 7 3 1 2 . 6 3 8 4 . 1 6 2 3 . 0 5 8 2 .737 3 2 . 0 6 5 2 . 5 8 9 2 .462 2 . 4 0 9 2 . 0 8 9 3 .645 2 . 6 7 7 2 . 8 3 3 2 . 3 6 4 3 . 6 4 4 2 . 9 3 5 2 . 6 3 8 4 2 . 2 0 6 2 .967 2 . 8 3 4 2 . 5 0 1 2 . 2 0 1 3 .801 2 . 6 7 7 2 . 5 6 0 2 .462 3 . 6 5 8 2 .962 2 .782 K E Y : R = P r e E x e r c i s e I P E = I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5PE = 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e 10PE = 10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT pn/p„ (AMENDED) - C o n t i n u e d S U B J E C T - - - - - - io - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - 1 2 - R - - - I P E - - - 5 P E - I O P E . - R - - - - - I P E - - - 5 P E - - I O P E - - R - - - - I P E - - 5 P E - - I O P E T R I A L S 1 * 4 . 1 8 6 3 . 5 5 7 3 . 3 3 9 2 . 8 2 4 2 . 9 1 0 4 . 1 2 4 3 . 4 5 1 3 . 4 1 3 2 . 7 3 0 4 . 4 2 5 3 . 3 1 0 3 . 3 8 2 2 4 . 1 6 7 6 . 6 4 4 6 . 1 9 6 6 . 0 6 1 2 . 6 4 2 3 . 9 5 6 3 . 2 4 7 2 . 9 9 6 2 . 6 3 6 5 . 4 1 8 3 . 4 2 9 3 . 1 0 5 3 4 . 7 1 4 3 . 6 0 8 3 . 2 5 8 3 . 7 6 2 2 . 5 5 8 3 . 8 3 3 3 . 3 6 0 5 . 0 3 3 2 . 5 7 5 4 . 7 0 4 3 . 5 0 2 3 . 5 3 7 4 3 . 6 7 6 2 . 9 0 7 6 . 4 6 2 3 . 4 3 4 1 . 9 1 1 5 . 2 0 8 3 . 6 1 9 3 . 4 1 6 2 . 5 0 8 4 . 6 0 9 2 . 7 7 3 2 . 6 0 9 _ S U B J E C T 1 3 -- - •R - - - - I P E - : 5 P E I O P E - - R - I P E - - - 5 P E - - I O P E - - - R - - - - I P E - - 5 P E - I O P E -T R I A L S 1 2 . 1 7 7 3 . 3 9 4 6 . 4 7 3 2 . 7 7 8 2 . 7 3 3 4 . 1 3 3 3 . 3 3 4 2 . 9 6 1 2 . 9 7 5 5 . 1 4 8 7 . 4 4 3 7 . 1 5 2 2 2 . 0 7 6 3 . 6 4 5 2 . 8 6 5 2 . 6 7 3 2 . 5 3 6 5 . 6 4 3 4 . 6 6 6 2 . 8 3 5 4 . 2 1 0 1 0 . 8 2 0 7 . 6 2 2 5 . 5 7 6 3 2 . 1 1 8 3 . 8 1 5 2 . 7 3 7 3 . 3 1 6 4 . 4 6 5 3 . 7 4 3 3 . 2 7 7 2 . 8 7 0 6 . 0 6 6 5 . 0 2 9 6 . 7 9 1 7 . 0 8 2 4 2 . 2 2 0 3 . 4 6 6 2 . 8 5 0 2 . 5 2 9 2 . 6 4 4 3 . 8 2 8 3 . 0 0 3 2 . 7 7 5 2 . 8 8 1 1 1 . 3 3 0 8 . 2 3 3 6 . 4 1 8 S U B J E C T - - - - - - - 1 6 - - - — - - - - - - - 1 7 1 8 -R - - - I P E 5 P E - ' I O P E R - I P E 5 P E I O P E R ' - - I P E 5 P E - - I O P E T R I A L S 1 3 . 1 8 0 6 . 9 9 3 4 . 3 7 3 4 . 5 5 7 2 . 1 9 3 2 . 9 3 4 2 . 4 7 4 1 . 8 5 5 2 . 8 9 1 5 . 0 6 7 3 . 4 6 1 3 . 9 1 6 2 5 . 6 7 1 4 . 6 1 6 4 . 5 3 6 4 . 3 5 8 2 . 1 0 8 3 . 3 3 2 2 . 7 1 5 2 . 5 2 1 2 . 4 8 9 3 . 0 1 2 3 . 6 4 3 3 . 6 7 8 3 5 . 1 1 7 5 . 6 4 2 4 . 4 0 2 4 . 4 6 9 2 . 1 2 2 3 . 1 5 8 2 . 7 2 3 2 . 4 3 0 2 . 6 3 3 5 . 0 2 7 3 . 7 6 8 3 . 4 1 4 4 4 . 4 3 4 7 . 6 0 4 4 . 3 3 5 4 . 1 1 6 2 . 5 2 5 3 . 2 3 6 2 . 8 1 1 2 . 4 9 6 3 . 0 1 9 4 . 5 0 6 4 . 3 0 3 3 . 6 5 1 K E Y : R = P r e E x e r c i s e I P E = I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5 P E = 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e IOPE = 1 0 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e * = E s t i m a t e d v a l u e RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT P r / P r _ -\ . o - - - - - -SUBJECT 1 2 - - - R I PE ' 5PE - -10PE ' " R - - - I PE - - -5PE - l O P E - -- R - I P E - -5PE - 10PE -TR IALS 1 *1 . 5 5 4 1 .033 1 .125 11.180 1 .825 1 .084 1.422 1 .956 1 . 8 8 9 1 .271 1 .707 1 .664 2 1 . 5 8 6 1 .029 1 .033 1 .173 1 .762 1 .009 1 .340 1.547 2 . 0 4 0 1 .498 1 .743 1 .783 3 1 .497 0 . 9 5 5 1 .006 1.085 1 .932 0 . 8 1 4 0 . 7 8 7 0 . 9 2 3 1 . 822 1.542 1 .768 1 .874 4 1 . 580 0 . 9 7 0 1 .070 1 .280 0 .984 0 . 9 1 3 1 .499 1 .564 2 . 181 1.132 1 .560 1 .909 4 - -5 - . . -SUBJECT — 2  R - I P E - 5PE - - I Q P E R I PE - '5PE - IQPE - - R I P E - - 5PE - IQPE -TR IALS 1 1 .997 1 .295 1 .518 1.652 1 .776 1.17.1 1 .355 1 .623 1 .772 1 .057 1 .551 1.722 2 2 . 0 6 4 1 .104 1 .578 1 .644 2 . 2 8 8 1 .043 1 .413 1 .623 1 .144 1 .143 1 .463 1 .668 3 2 . 1 5 6 1 .299 1 .441 1 .641 1 .813 1 .121 1 .246 1 .464 1 .722 1 .074 1 .597 1 .763 4 * 2 . 0 7 2 1 .330 1 .438 1 .563 2 .107 1 .229 1 .664 2 . 1 5 4 1 .678 1 .004 1 .574 1 .791 SUBJECT 8 R I P E - 5PE 10PE R - I P E 5PE - - IQPE R - - - - I P E 5PE - IQPE TR IALS 1 2 . 0 3 1 1 .136 1 .673 1 .868 2 .377 1 .718 1 .844 2 . 0 0 3 1 .846 1 .099 1 .421 1 .622 2 2 . 4 1 1 1 .606 1 .761 2 . 0 8 1 2 .162 1 .343 1 .629 1 .833 1 .631 0 . 9 9 9 1 .343 1 .603 3 2 .162 1 .737 1 .880 1.927 2 . 2 0 0 1 .265 1 .741 1 .760 1 .906 1 .133 1 .447 1 .707 4 2 . 1 6 3 1 .465 1 .601 1.895 2 . 1 3 6 1 .169 1 .771 1 .878 1 .730 1 .050 1 .344 1 .535 K E Y : R = P r e E x e r c i s e I P E = I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5PE = 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e 10PE = 10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e * = E s t i m a t e d V a l u e RAW DATA TABLE FOR MEASUREMENT P r / P r - C o n t i n u e d SUBJECT - — 1 0 I I - - - - 12 R I PE " 5PE IOPE R I P E - 5PE - IOPE R I PE - 5PE - IOPE TR IALS 1 *o . 971 1 .185 1.247 1 .684 1 . 570 1 .060 1 .314 1 .422 1 .635 1 .230 1.405 1 .476 2 0 .963 0 . 8 2 3 0 . 8 7 6 0 . 9 1 9 1 . 7 7 0 1 .115 1 .378 1 .479 1 . 6 9 8 0 . 9 8 3 1 .303 1 .478 3 0 .895 1 .259 1.412 1 .215 1 . 663 1 .097 1 .254 1 .008 1 . 7 9 4 1.075 1.377 1 .278 4 1 . 055 1 .501 1 .008 1 .310 2 .272 0 . 9 3 1 1.282 1 .435 1 . 6 5 6 1.087 1.542 1 .721 SUBJECT - - - - - - 13 - - - - - - - 14 - - - - - - - - 15 - - - - - - -R I PE 5PE IOPE R I PE - 5PE - - IOPE R - I PE - -5PE - - IOPE -TR IALS 1 2 . 305 1 .351 0 . 9 1 4 1 .591 1 .625 1 .066 1 .338 1 .523 1 .472 1 .091 0 . 7 5 2 0 . 8 1 8 2 2 . 133 1 .183 1.552 1 .681 1 . 751 0 . 7 9 3 0 . 9 1 2 1 .526 1 .012 0 . 7 1 5 0 . 8 2 3 0 . 9 4 5 3 2 . 177 1 .206 1 .621 1 .198 0 . 9 4 6 1 .127 1 .326 1 .512 0 .885 1.095 0 . 8 1 3 0 . 8 6 8 4 1 . 893 1 .259 1 .544 1 .719 1 . 4 6 6 1.077 1 .397 1 .604 1 .625 0 . 6 7 6 0 . 7 6 5 0 . 8 7 6 SUBJECT - - - - - - - - - 16 - - - - - - - - - - 17 - - - - 18 - -• • - R I P E ' - 5PE IOPE " R ' I PE - 5PE IOPE - - R I PE -5PE - IOPE TR IALS 1 1 .242 0 . 8 8 8 0 . 9 6 7 1 .068 2 . 0 7 3 1 .533 1 .807 1 .855 1 . 469 0 . 9 2 8 1 .263 1 .233 2 0 .951 1 .028 0 . 9 7 3 1.057 2 . 1 7 4 1 .251 1 .604 1 .799 1 .772 1.282 1 .214 1 .289 3 0 . 9 3 8 0 . 7 5 2 1 .019 1 .055 2 . 162 1.382 1 .750 1 .875 1 . 7 0 9 1.047 1 .254 1 .401 4 1 . 013 0 . 7 2 9 1.022 1.017 1 . 8 1 9 1 .321 1 .656 1 .805 1 .410 1 .179 1 .104 1.332 K E Y : R = P r e E x e r c i s e I P E = I m m e d i a t e P o s t E x e r c i s e 5PE = 5 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e IOPE = 10 M i n s . P o s t E x e r c i s e * = E s t i m a t e d V a l u e RAW DATA TABLE FOR RESTING HEART RATE (BEATS/MINUTE) AND RECOVERY HEART BEAT COUNTS SUBJECT : :  - - RHR 1RB 2RB 3RB TRB RHR lRB 2RB 3RB TRB RHR lRB 2RB 3RB TRB 1 66 70 61 57 188 56 61 52 49 162 68 63 56 53 172 2 70 70 62 60 192 60 58 52 47 157 66 60 53 50 163 3 73 72 60 59 191 56 57 48 44 149 63 57 51 47 155 4 70 75 68 64 207 58 56 48 45 149 61 55 48 44 147 SUBJECT 4 - • -' -5 - - - - - - - -6 - -- — - - - - • RHR 1RB 2RB -3RB TRB RHR lRB 2RB 3RB TRB - - RHR -1RB 2RB 3RB TRB TRIALS 1 54 66 56 51 173 94 69 60 57 186 59 54 47% 44 145% 2 52 58 53 49 160 72 57 51 48 156 54 56 48 44 148 3 56 58 52 49 159 74 64 56 54 174 56 53 45 42 140 4 58 61 52 49 162 66 65 55 51 171 54 56 46 42 144 SUBJECT -8 RHR lRB 2RB 3RB TRB RHR lRB - 2RB 3RB TRB - RHR lRB - 2RB 3RB TRB 1 48 50 43 40 133 60 54 41 41 136 *57 45 39 39 123 2 56 49 42 41 132 54 51 42 41 134 58 51 42 40 133 3 58 48 43 40 131 54 49 39 37 125 56 49 40 41 130 4 60 48 43 43 134 52 50 42 39 131 56 39 35 34 108 KEY: RHR = R e s t i n g Heart Rate lRB = 1-1:30 Recovery Heart Beat Counts 2RB = 2-2:30 Recovery Heart Beat Counts 3RB = 3-3:30 Recovery Heart Beat Counts TRB = T o t a l Recovery Heart Beat counts * = Estimated Value RAW DATA TABLE FOR RESTING HEART RATE (BEATS/MINUTE) AND RECOVERY HEART BEAT COUNTS — C o n t i n u e d SUBJECT .- . 10 . . . . . 11 - • - - • . -• 12 RHR l R B - -2RB 3RB - TRB - " RHR l RB 2RB -3RB - TRB - - RHR " l R B - 2RB -3RB - TRB TR IALS 1 *54 35 35 35 105 58 55 50 47 152 68 55 49 48 152 2 55 35 32 33 100 54 50 45 44 139 64 53 45 44 142 3 52 36 31 37 104 54 47 43 43 133 60 51 45 41 137 4 52 31 32 31 94 57 54 48 44 146 52 46 42 39 127 SUBJECT 13 14 15 R H R l R B 2 R B 3 R B T R B RHR lRB 2RB 3RB TRB R H R - - 1 R B - 2 R B 3 R B • T R B 1 46 50 43 39 132 58 51 47 44 142 74 72 64 62 198 2 44 50 43 42 135 52 55 48 47 150 82 68 62 58 188 3 44 48 42 39 129 64 53 49 47 149 63 61 55 50 166 4 42 47 42 39 128 * 5 9 37 36 36 109 66 63 57 56 176 S U B J E C T . . . . . 1 6 - - - • - 1 7 . . . — . . . . . . 1 8 R H R 1 R B 2 R B 3 R B T R B R H R i i 1 R B - 2 R B 3 R B - T R B R H R 1 R B 2 R B 3 R B T R B T R I A L S 1 5 8 5 6 4 7 4 5 1 4 8 5 6 5 1 4 5 4 1 1 3 7 7 6 6 7 6 0 5 6 1 8 3 2 6 0 6 0 5 0 4 8 1 5 8 5 2 4 6 3 9 3 7 1 2 2 6 8 6 1 6 0 5 6 1 7 7 3 6 0 5 7 5 0 4 4 1 5 1 4 8 4 8 3 9 3 6 1 2 3 7 2 6 8 6 1 5 6 1 8 5 4 6 0 5 8 5 0 4 8 1 5 6 5 6 5 1 4 3 4 1 1 3 5 6 8 6 8 6 1 5 6 1 8 5 K E Y : RHR = R e s t i n g H e a r t R a t e 1RB = 1-1 :30 R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t s 2RB = 2 - 2 : 3 0 R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t s 3RB = 3 - 3 : 3 0 R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t s TRB = T o t a l R e c o v e r y H e a r t B e a t C o u n t s * = E s t i m a t e d V a l u e APPENDIX C OPERATIONAL DIRECTIONS 103 OPERATIONAL DIRECTIONS T h e s u b j e c t was l y i n g i n t h e s u p i n e a n a t o m i c a l p o s i t i o n . T h e l e f t arm o f t h e s u b j e c t was h y p e r e x t e n d e d b y p l a c i n g two 2 x 4 x 4 wooden b l o c k s u n d e r t h e arm - one a b o v e and one b e l o w t h e e l b o w j o i n t - s o t h a t t h e w e i g h t o f t h e arm r e s t e d on t h e s e wooden b l o c k s . T h i s h y p e r -e x t e n d e d p o s i t i o n a l l o w e d e a s y p i c k up o f t h e b r a c h i a l a r t e r i a l p u l s e p r e s s u r e as t h e a r t e r y was p u s h e d t o t h e s u r f a c e i n t h i s p o s i t i o n . T h e p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r was a p p l i e d t o t h e c r e a s e j u s t p r o x i m a l t o t h e l e f t e l b o w j o i n t a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e s t r o n g e s t b r a c h i a l p r e s s u r e p u l s e c o u l d b e f e l t b y t h e f i n g e r s o f t h e o p e r a t o r ( F i g u r e 4) . T h e p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r was t h e n s e c u r e d i n p l a c e b y a d h e s i v e t a p e and t h e arm t e n s i o n c u f f was moved i n t o p l a c e o v e r t h e p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r ( F i g u r e 4 ) . T h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e c u f f had t o be a d j u s t e d c a r e f u l l y as an e x c e s s o f p r e s s u r e c a u s e d t h e a r t e r y t o r o l l o u t f r o m u n d e r t h e t r a n s d u c e r and t o o l i t t l e p r e s s u r e g a v e no s i g n a l o f p i c k u p on t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e s c r e e n . T h e a d j u s t i n g o f t h e c u f f s l o w l y , w i t h t h e thumb and f i r s t two f i n g e r s g a v e t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s - an image on t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e s c r e e n . 104 6. Once the pressure cuff was i n place, the subject was instructed to l i e s t i l l and to relax completely as any movement at t h i s point affected the trace on the oscilloscope screen. Any interference i n obtaining a good trace was due to the exercise and to heavy breathing of the subject. 7. The trace was considered good when: a. I t was centered on the screen. b. I t covered as much of the screen as possible. c. Two pulse contours rather than one were projected on the screen at res t (desirable) and more pulse contours after the exercise period due to the increased frequency of the pulse. 105 N O T E : T h e s e n s i t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r was p l a c e d o v e r t h e s t r o n g e s t b r a c h i a l p u l s e ma rked a s an X i n t h i s f i g u r e . F IGURE 4 APPL ICAT ION OF THE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER AND CUFF 

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