Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Culturally modified tree (CMT) management in Nlaka’pamux territory : shaping First Nations participation… Perreault, Pamela A. 2002

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_2002-0203.pdf [ 5.01MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0075378.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0075378-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0075378-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0075378-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0075378-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0075378-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0075378-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0075378-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0075378.ris

Full Text

Culturally Modified Tree (CMT) Management in Nlaka'pamux Territory: Shaping First Nations Participation through Consultation by  Pamela A. Perreault B . S c . ( H o n s ) , U n i v e r s i t y of W a t e r l o o , 1 9 9 6  A T H E S I S S U M B I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THEDEGREE OF MASTER' OF SCIENCE  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES THE FACULTY OF FORESTRY D e p a r t m e n t of F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s M a n a g e m e n t  W e a c c e p t this t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  T H E UNIVERSITYO F BRITISH C O L U M B I A April 2002  UBC  © P a m e l a A . Perreault, 2002  I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the head of my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  (\p\\'2Jo 2 0 0 2 ]i  ABSTRACT  First N a t i o n s p e o p l e h a v e c o l l e c t e d life-sustaining m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d by the f o r e s t s of British C o l u m b i a s i n c e t i m e i m m e m o r i a l . In particular, e v i d e n c e of c o l l e c t i o n activities f r o m c e d a r ()is f o u n d in the f o r m of culturally m o d i f i e d t r e e s ( C M T s ) . T o d a y , C M T s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s b e c a u s e of their v a l u e a s v i s i b l e indicators of p a s t f o r e s t u s e . T h e r e f o r e , u n d e r provincial legislation (British C o l u m b i a Heritage Conservation Forest Practices  Act, a n d the  Code Act), they a r e m a n a g e d during forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g . T h e v a l u e of  C M T s e x t e n d s b e y o n d their contribution to the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , h o w e v e r , to i n c l u d e : a) legal e v i d e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title a n d b) s y m b o l s of cultural p r a c t i c e s c e n t e r e d a r o u n d the r e s p e c t for, a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of, p e o p l e ' s relationship with nature.  T h i s t h e s i s u s e s a c a s e s t u d y to a s s e s s the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s a n d C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s utilized by the Ministry of F o r e s t s to identify A b o r i g i n a l interests o n l a n d s c a p e a n d a v o i d unjustifiable infringement of A b o r i g i n a l rights. T h e o b j e c t i v e s of the c a s e s t u d y a r e to identify f a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s , d e t e r m i n e C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d e x p e c t e d m a n a g e m e n t o u t c o m e s a n d finally, to e v a l u a t e C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s in the c a s e s t u d y a r e a . T h e c a s e s t u d y is l o c a t e d in the F r a s e r C a n y o n of British C o l u m b i a , the traditional territory of the N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e . D a t a c o l l e c t i o n involved interviews, field r e s e a r c h that i n v o l v e d participant o b s e r v a t i o n of c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a n d r e v i e w s of t e c h n i c a l d o c u m e n t s , relevant policy a n d c a s e law.  T h e f i n d i n g s of the c a s e s t u d y s h o w that limited r e s o u r c e s , both f i n a n c i a l a n d s o c i a l l e a d to a lack of c a p a c i t y to d e t e r m i n e C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d r e d u c e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h e s t u d y a l s o s h o w e d that the e x e r c i s e of d e t e r m i n i n g C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e w a s a n important e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s for the w h o l e c o m m u n i t y a n d revitalized interest in cultural p r a c t i c e s a n d traditions a m o n g s t the y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , C M T m a n a g e m e n t  p r o c e d u r e s a s they w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d in the S o u t h A i n s l i e w a t e r s h e d w e r e not effective in m a i n t a i n i n g the cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e of C M T s i t e s . L o c a l First N a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d that C M T s i t e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d highly significant to the c o m m u n i t i e s b e c a u s e of their e d u c a t i o n a l a n d e c o n o m i c v a l u e s . H o w e v e r , the h a r v e s t i n g p r e s c r i p t i o n s i m p l e m e n t e d d u r i n g C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s d e s t r o y e d both the context a n d integrity of the s i t e s , thus d i m i n i s h i n g or e l i m i n a t i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l a n d e c o n o m i c v a l u e s that h a d b e e n a s s i g n e d the s i t e s prior to h a r v e s t i n g .  T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s utilized during C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s p r o v i d e d benefits to the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s in the f o r m of e m p l o y m e n t a n d training o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s still resulted in a l a n d s c a p e that w a s s t r i p p e d of cultural c o n t e x t a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e s e results indicate that further investigation into the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c o n s u l t a t i o n in the m a n a g e m e n t of r e s o u r c e s that h a v e traditionally b e e n g o v e r n e d a n d utilized by First N a t i o n s p e o p l e s is n e e d e d .  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS A B S T R A C T  ii  L I S TO F T A B L E S  vii  L I S TO FF I G U R E S  viii  ix  A B B R E V I A T I O N SA N DA C R O N Y M S A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S  x  1  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1  RATIONALE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF R E S E A R C H  2  1.2  RESEARCH OBJECTIVES  3  1.3  ORGANIZATION  4  2  RESEARCH  6  METHODOLOGY  2.1  JUSTIFICATION  6  2.2  T H E N L A K A ' P A M U X TRADITIONAL TERRITORY  7  2.3  2.2.1 Communities and Forest U s e  10  2.2.2 The Canyon Landscape  11  2.2.3 Nlaka'pamux Involvement in C M T Management: A C a s e Study  12  DATA COLLECTION  14  2.3.1 Interviews  15  2.3.2 Field Research  16  2.3.3 Document Review  18  2.4  DATA ANALYSIS  19  2.5  ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS  21  2.6  S C O P E A N D LIMITATIONS  22  3  D I S C O V E R I N G  T H E R O O T S  O F C U L T U R A L L Y  M O D I F I E D T R E E ( C M T ) M A N A G E M E N T  B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 3.1  2  4  C U L T U R A L L Y MODIFIED T R E E S (CMTS): A N E W C U L T U R A L R E S O U R C E  24  3.1.1 Cultural Resource Management (CRM) in British Columbia  25  3.1.1.1  Cultural Resource Management Policy  3.1.2 Culturally Modified Trees (CMT) and their Management  3.1.2.1 3.2  I N  CMT Management Procedures in the Vancouver Forest Region  25 27  29  3.1.3 Culturally Modified Trees and Aboriginal Rights  33  A B O R I G I N A L P A R T I C I P A T I O N IN T H E M A N A G E M E N T O F L A N D S A N D R E S O U R C E S  34  3.2.1 Historical Context  34  3.2.2 Indigenous Peoples in Forest Management: International Context  35  3.2.3 Aboriginal Peoples and A g e n d a Setting in Forest Management: National Context  36  iv  3.2.4 First Nations and Forest Management in British Columbia 3.3  38  A B O R I G I N A L R I G H T S A N D F O R E S T M A N A G E M E N T IN BRITISH C O L U M B I A  39  3.3.1 Aboriginal Rights and their Impact on Forest Policy Development in British Columbia  39  3.3.2 Managing "Public" Forest Lands in British Columbia  43  3.3.2.1  The Decision-Making Process in Forest Management  44  3.3.2.2  Consultation in Decision-Making  45  3.3.3 First Nations Participation through Consultation  48  3.3.3.1  The Duty to Consult  49  3.4  SUMMARY  50  4  C A S E S T U D Y  4.1  CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  52  4.2  C O N S U L T A T I O N IN C M T M A N A G E M E N T  54  4.2.1 Consultation within C M T Management Procedures  54  4.2.2 Site Tours as a Consultation Process  56  R E S U L T S A N D A N A L Y S I S  4.2.2.1  4.3  4.4  5  South Ainslie CMTs  56  4.2.2.2  Salvaging Opportunities  59  4.2.2.3  A Cultural Tour of the Nlaka'pamux Forest  59  4.2.2.4  Tsileuh Creek Access Tour  60  4.2.3 Summary  61  F A C T O R S INFLUENCING THE CONSULTATION P R O C E S S  61  4.3.1 Identifying the Intended Purpose of Consultation  61  4.3.2 Representing First Nations Interests  64  4.3.3 Coping with Limited Resources  66  4.3.4 Summary Analysis  68  CMT SIGNIFICANCE AND EXPECTATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT  69  4.4.1 Managing an Educational Resource  70  4.4.1.1  Providing Context for Significance Rating  72  4.4.2 Providing Evidence of Land U s e and Occupancy  74  4.4.3 Group Expectations from the Consultation Process  77  4.4.3.1  Job Creation and Training  77  4.4.3.2  Increasing Cultural Awareness  78  4.4.3.3  Increasing Inventory for Planning Purposes  4.4.4 Summary Analysis 4.5  2  79 79  C O N S U L T A T I O N WITH F I R S T N A T I O N S : A P A R T I C I P A T O R Y P R O C E S S O R T O K E N PERFORMANCE?  81  4.5.1 The Role of Consultation in Forest Management  81  4.5.1.1  Consultation as an "End"in the Management Process  83  4.5.1.2  Consultation as a "Means" for Management  84  4.5.2 C M T Management in Forest Development Planning  86  4.5.3 Summary Analysis  89  v  5  CONCLUSIONS  AND  CONSIDERATIONS  9  1  5.1.1 Considerations for C M T Management in Forest Development Activities  92  5.1.2 Recommendations for Future Research  93  R E F E R E N C E S  9  vi  4  LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1: S i g n i f i c a n c e rating s c h e m e a p p l i e d d u r i n g 1 9 9 8 A I A ( A d a p t e d f r o m G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s 1998) 13 T a b l e 2 : C a t e g o r i z a t i o n of s t u d y participants a n d n u m b e r of p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d in e a c h c a t e g o r y .  16 T a b l e 3: C u t b l o c k s u s e d a s field s i t e s to e x a m i n e C M T m a n a g e m e n t efforts in 1 9 9 9  17  T a b l e 4 : S a m p l e of s e c o n d a r y d o c u m e n t s u s e d to c o r r o b o r a t e d a t a c o l l e c t e d in interviews a n d during fieldwork  19  T a b l e 5: E v e n t listing of court d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d the d e v e l o p m e n t of British C o l u m b i a forest p o l i c y 40 T a b l e 6: H i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s effecting c o n s u l t a t i o n d u r i n g c a s e s t u d y b e t w e e n A u g - N o v 1 9 9 9  vii  53  LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1: M a p of N l a k a ' p a m u x Traditional Territory  10  F i g u r e 2: P h o t o of W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r s t a n d in the L o w e r F r a s e r C a n y o n , N l a k a ' p a m u x T r a d i t i o n a l Territory ( P h o t o b y P a m e l a P e r r e a u l t O c t . 1 9 9 9 ) 11 F i g u r e 3: F r a m e w o r k for m e t h o d s triangulation a n d d o m i n a n t d a t a s o u r c e s u s e d in e a c h m e t h o d . 14 F i g u r e 4 C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s u s e d in the V a n c o u v e r F o r e s t R e g i o n ( A d o p t e d f r o m M o o n 1997)  29  F i g u r e 5: T h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ( A d o p t e d f r o m P a t t e r s o n ef al. 1 9 8 4 )  45  F i g u r e 6: A r n s t e i n ' s l a d d e r of citizen participation ( A r n s t e i n 1 9 6 9 : 2 1 7 )  46  F i g u r e 7: F o r e s t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s utilized during 1 9 9 5 - 2 0 0 0 p l a n n i n g p e r i o d in British C o l u m b i a . 47 F i g u r e 8: E x a m p l e of a n A b o r i g i n a l rights s p e c t r u m a s d e s c r i b e d in Delgamuukw, 1 9 9 7  49  F i g u r e 9: S p e c t r u m of c o n s u l t a t i o n b a s e d o n D e l g a m u u k w , 1 9 9 7 ( e x a m p l e )  50  F i g u r e 10: First N a t i o n participation during C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s for c u t - b l o c k s o b s e r v e d in the c a s e s t u d y 55 F i g u r e 1 1 : C o n s u l t a t i o n during site tour #1 in the S o u t h A i n s l i e w a t e r s h e d ( P h o t o b y P a m e l a Perreault, A u g . 1999) 57 F i g u r e 12: P h o t o s of C M T c l u s t e r s after c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s o n C M T m a n a g e m e n t procedures (Photos by P a m e l a Perreault Sept. 1999)  76  F i g u r e 1 3 : C o n s u l t a t i o n a s it o c c u r r e d within the forest p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s for cut b l o c k s e x a m i n e d during the c a s e s t u d y 82 F i g u r e 14: T h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s for C M T m a n a g e m e n t a n d its relation to the A I A process  viii  88  ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS  AIA  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Impact A s s e s s m e n t  AIM  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Impact M e a s u r e s  AOA  Archeological Overview A s s e s s m e n t  BCCA  British C o l u m b i a C o u r t of A p p e a l  BCSC  British C o l u m b i a S u p r e m e C o u r t  CCFM  C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l of F o r e s t M i n i s t e r s  CMT  Culturally M o d i f i e d T r e e  CRM  Cultural R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t  FDP  Forest Development Plan  FNFP  First N a t i o n s F o r e s t r y P r o g r a m  FRBC  F o r e s t R e n e w a l British C o l u m b i a  FPC  Forest Practices Code  HCA  Heritage Conservation Act  IMA  Interim M e a s u r e s A g r e e m e n t  LRMP  Land and Resource Management Planning  MOF  Ministry of F o r e s t s  MSBTC  Ministry of S m a l l B u s i n e s s , T o u r i s m a n d C u l t u r e  NNTC  N l a k a ' p a m u x N a t i o n Tribal C o u n c i l  SCR  S u p r e m e Court Reports  TUS  Traditional U s e Study  RCAP  Royal C o m m i s s i o n on Aboriginal P e o p l e s  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  For their dedication to my chosen path and their support for my cause I would like to offer my sincere thanks to my committee: Gary Bull, Jo-ann Archibald, Madeleine Maclvor,  Charles  Menzies and David Tindall.  For their sustained friendship and partnership in my journey of self-discovery I would like to offer my heartfelt gratitude to Desiree Mou and Jonathan Stacey.  For their trust and interest in my academic dreams I would like to thank the participants in my research project.  And for their financial assistance which made this dream project a reality I would like to thank John Innes for funding provided through his FRBC Chair in Forest Management, the First Nations House of Learning for providing employment opportunities and scholarships,  and Garden River  First Nation for their continuous support throughout my years of academic explorations.  For their love and continued support for all my wanderings upon this beautiful earth I would like to thank my Family.  x  1  INTRODUCTION  "When people, that is, those that have gone, wanted to praise nature and the sun, they picked the most beautiful tree in the valley, and through that tree, hope carried on for another couple of hundred years. " 1  T h e f o r e s t s o f British C o l u m b i a h a v e p r o v i d e d life-sustaining m a t e r i a l s for First N a t i o n s p e o p l e s i n c e time i m m e m o r i a l , a n d t o d a y t h e s e f o r e s t s b e a r e v i d e n c e of this past forest u s e in the f o r m of culturally m o d i f i e d t r e e s ( C M T ) . T h e historical u s e of c e d a r for building m a t e r i a l s , c l o t h i n g a n d c e r e m o n y is well d o c u m e n t e d by S t e w a r t (1989) a n d T u r n e r ( 1 9 9 0 , 1 9 9 7 , 1 9 9 8 , 1 9 9 8 b ) , a n d w h i l e the s c a l e of forest u s e h a s c h a n g e d o v e r the last century, the v a l u e of c e d a r a n d other forest r e s o u r c e s to First N a t i o n s p e o p l e still r e m a i n s inextricably tied to their culture a n d the l a n d s c a p e .  F o r e s t r y - r e l a t e d conflicts in British C o l u m b i a h a v e b e e n a c o m m o n p h e n o m e n o n s i n c e the 1 9 8 0 ' s . C o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n First N a t i o n s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , g o v e r n m e n t a n d the f o r e s t industry s p r a n g f r o m a long history o f isolation, d i s p o s s e s s i o n of l a n d , a n d unilateral d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s that h a d direct i m p a c t s o n First N a t i o n s p e o p l e s ' a c c e s s to traditional territories (e.g. S o u t h M o r s e b y , M e a r s e Island a n d the S t e i n V a l l e y ) ( N o t z k e 1 9 9 4 : 96). A s Bell a n d A s c h ( 1 9 9 7 : 1) state: " T h e s u b j e c t of A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e ' s relationship with C a n a d a is a r i s i n g with i n c r e a s i n g regularity within p u b l i c d e b a t e . D e s p i t e C a n a d i a n s ' i n c r e a s e d s c r u t i n y of the s u b j e c t , no other s u b j e c t is a s p l a g u e d with m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c r e a t i n g a n e n v i r o n m e n t ripe with m i s j u d g m e n t , injustice, a n d distortion".  S i n c e the e a r l y 1 9 8 0 ' s , with the o n s e t o f litigation in pursuit o f r e c o g n i t i o n of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title, First N a t i o n s o f B . C . h a v e d e m a n d e d a g r e a t e r role in the m a n a g e m e n t of f o r e s t s a n d cultural heritage r e s o u r c e s . T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f British C o l u m b i a ' s Forest Practices Code Act (1995) a n d the a m e n d e d P r o v i n c i a l Heritage Conservation Act (1996) p r o m p t e d the Ministry o f F o r e s t s to c r e a t e a n A b o r i g i n a l rights policy that in turn h a s altered the role a n d responsibility o f First N a t i o n s p e o p l e in the m a n a g e m e n t of f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s .  1  From Hanna and Henry 1995: 134.  1  A n e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t of the Ministry of F o r e s t s Aboriginal Rights Policy (1997) is t h e Consultation Guidelines (1997). C o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s p e o p l e to a d d r e s s c o n c e r n s related to forest d e v e l o p m e n t o n c o n t e s t e d l a n d s e n s u r e s the rights of A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e a r e p r o t e c t e d .  Determining  where a b o r i g i n a l rights exist o n the land h a s recently b e c o m e a n important o b j e c t i v e of First N a t i o n s a n d g o v e r n m e n t . A s a result, the m a n a g e m e n t of C M T s , a s indicators of potential a b o r i g i n a l rights, h a s d e v e l o p e d into a critical e l e m e n t of forest m a n a g e m e n t a n d h a s l e d to i n c r e a s e d i n v o l v e m e n t of First N a t i o n s in forestry d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s .  RATIONALE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH  1.1  T h e r e c o g n i t i o n of culturally m o d i f i e d trees ( C M T s ) a s legitimate cultural h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e v a l u e s to b e m a n a g e d a n d c o n s e r v e d d u r i n g forest d e v e l o p m e n t h a s both c h a l l e n g e d a n d a d v a n c e d t h e relationship b e t w e e n First N a t i o n s , g o v e r n m e n t a n d forest c o m p a n i e s in British C o l u m b i a ( K l i m k o er al. 1998). L e g i s l a t i o n , ministerial p o l i c i e s a n d g u i d e l i n e s a r e continually e v o l v i n g to i n c o r p o r a t e n e w information r e g a r d i n g t h e identification, m a n a g e m e n t a n d s t u d y of cultural h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s s u c h a s C M T s . T h e i s s u e of m a n a g i n g cultural r e s o u r c e s is of particular i m p o r t a n c e in B C a s t h e q u e s t i o n of land o w n e r s h i p a n d jurisdiction h a s yet to b e s e t t l e d . A n u m b e r of different a v e n u e s h a v e b e e n u s e d in B C to negotiate a n d g a i n a c c e s s to l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s b y First N a t i o n s p e o p l e : t h e B C T r e a t y P r o c e s s , litigation, forestry joint-venture a g r e e m e n t s , M e m o r a n d u m s of U n d e r s t a n d i n g ( M O U ) a n d Interim M e a s u r e s A g r e e m e n t s (IMA's) . 2  T h e d i s p o s s e s s i o n of l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s f r o m B C ' s First N a t i o n s p e o p l e h a s p r o v i d e d t h e incentive for First N a t i o n s p e o p l e to e n g a g e in direct a c t i o n , protesting c o n t i n u e d u s e a n d exploitation of l a n d s w h e r e A b o r i g i n a l title h a d not b e e n e x t i n g u i s h e d . A s a result, g o v e r n m e n t a n d f o r e s t c o m p a n i e s h a v e b e c o m e a c t i v e participants in d e a l i n g with First N a t i o n s - f o r e s t r y related i s s u e s . T o d o o t h e r w i s e w o u l d risk  2 IMA's are only available to First Nations participating in the BC Treaty Process  2  g r e a t e r e c o n o m i c uncertainty for a n industry that s u s t a i n s all British C o l u m b i a n s ( B e r k e s a n d F a s t 1 9 9 6 ; S m i t h 1 9 9 8 ; T r e s e d e r a n d K r o g m a n 1999).  T h e nature a n d extent of cultural r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t o n forest l a n d s r e q u i r e s the i n v o l v e m e n t f r o m a b r o a d s p e c t r u m of ' e x p e r t s ' in the fields of forest m a n a g e m e n t , a r c h a e o l o g y a n d a n t h r o p o l o g y , law a n d First N a t i o n s culture. W h i l e the literature is riddled with a c c o u n t s of n o n - F i r s t N a t i o n s ' e x p e r t s ' reporting o n the life a n d culture of First N a t i o n s p e o p l e , the c o u r t s of C a n a d a h a v e ruled that c o n s u l t a t i o n with a p p r o p r i a t e First N a t i o n s p e o p l e to d e t e r m i n e the extent a n d nature of cultural p r a c t i c e s is e s s e n t i a l in d e t e r m i n i n g the p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title ( S m i t h 1 9 9 5 ; H o u s e 1 9 9 8 ; S t r o t h e r 1998). H o w e v e r , s i n c e the c o u r t s h a v e a l s o ruled that A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title c a n o n l y b e p r o v e n through the C o u r t s , d e t e r m i n i n g w h e r e " p o s s i b l e A b o r i g i n a l interests" lie o n l a n d r e m a i n s a c h a l l e n g e for g o v e r n m e n t , First N a t i o n s a n d forest c o m p a n i e s .  R e s e a r c h o n C M T s thus far h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d that a) C M T s a r e w i d e l y distributed t h r o u g h o u t British C o l u m b i a , in c o a s t a l a n d interior r e g i o n s a n d b) they a r e v a l u a b l e s o u r c e s of information for the s t u d y of A b o r i g i n a l a n d n o n - A b o r i g i n a l forest u s e ( M o b l e y a n d E l d r i d g e 1 9 9 2 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e not e x p l o r e d the relationship b e t w e e n C M T s , the First N a t i o n s p e o p l e w h o c r e a t e d t h e m a n d the forest m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s . T h e d i s c o v e r y a n d s u b s e q u e n t m a n a g e m e n t of C M T s in p r o p o s e d forest d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s h a s e c o n o m i c , political a n d potentially e v e n cultural i m p a c t s o n l o c a l First N a t i o n s . T h e t e n u o u s political a n d e c o n o m i c c l i m a t e of British C o l u m b i a n e c e s s i t a t e s the s t u d y of this relationship. T h i s is a c c o m p l i s h e d by w a y of a c a s e s t u d y in the traditional territory of the N l a k a ' p a m u x N a t i o n in the l o w e r F r a s e r C a n y o n of British C o l u m b i a .  1.2  RESEARCH OBJECTIVES  T h e g o a l of this t h e s i s w a s to u s e a c a s e s t u d y of culturally m o d i f i e d tree ( C M T ) m a n a g e m e n t in the F r a s e r C a n y o n of British C o l u m b i a to d e t e r m i n e h o w c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d the forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h e r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s u s e d to a c c o m p l i s h this g o a l w e r e to:  3  1. 2.  3.  1.3  identify f a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e d c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s during C M T m a n a g e m e n t procedures; d e t e r m i n e C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d participants' e x p e c t a t i o n s of the C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s ; and  e v a l u a t e results of C M T s m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s in the f o r e s t d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  ORGANIZATION  T h i s t h e s i s is o r g a n i z e d into 5 c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r 2 outlines the r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d in the study. T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s the justification for u s i n g the c a s e s t u d y m e t h o d , a l o n g with d e s c r i p t i o n s of three t e c h n i q u e s u s e d in d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s . T h e brief d e s c r i p t i o n of the c a s e s t u d y a r e a within the traditional territory of N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e i n t r o d u c e s the topic of C M T m a n a g e m e n t within the context of F o r e s t D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n n i n g in the F r a s e r C a n y o n . E m p h a s i s is p l a c e d o n the d e s c r i p t i o n of e v e n t s that led up to the point w h e n field investigations b e g a n in A u g u s t of 1 9 9 9 . C h a p t e r 3 is d i v i d e d into four s e c t i o n s . First, a n o v e r v i e w of cultural r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t ( C R M ) theory a n d p r a c t i c e is p r e s e n t e d , a l o n g with s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s relating to the m a n a g e m e n t of C M T s within the C R M f r a m e w o r k .  S e c o n d , a brief introduction to historical e v e n t s , international a n d national  a g r e e m e n t s a n d British C o l u m b i a forest legislation is p r o v i d e d to e s t a b l i s h the c o n t e x t within w h i c h First N a t i o n s p e o p l e h a v e justified their i n v o l v e m e n t in the m a n a g e m e n t of l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s . T h e legal f o u n d a t i o n u p o n w h i c h First N a t i o n s in British C o l u m b i a h a v e a r g u e d for i n c r e a s e d i n v o l v e m e n t in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s in forest m a n a g e m e n t is d i s c u s s e d in the third s e c t i o n , a n d the final s e c t i o n outlines the p r o c e s s by w h i c h the British C o l u m b i a Ministry of F o r e s t s a s a d d r e s s e d its legal obligations to c o n s u l t with First N a t i o n s in forest d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s .  C h a p t e r 4 p r e s e n t s the c a s e s t u d y results a l o n g with a n a l y s i s a n d interpretation.  T h e first three s e c t i o n s  a d d r e s s the s t u d y o b j e c t i v e s relating to e x p e c t a t i o n s of the c o n s u l t a t i o n s p r o c e s s , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e , a n d finally the results of c o n s u l t a t i o n a r e e x a m i n e d . T h e fourth s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s the findings of the c a s e s t u d y within the context of the b r o a d r e s e a r c h g o a l , w h i c h w a s to d e t e r m i n e h o w c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n a f f e c t e d the forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C h a p t e r 5 p r e s e n t s  4  conclusions and considerations for forest resources management and suggestions for future research are also provided.  5  2  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  "Indigenous methodologies tend to approach cultural protocols, values and behaviours as an integral part of methodology. They are factors' to be built in to research explicitly, to be thought about reflexively, to be declared openly as part of the research design, to be discussed as part of the final results of study and to be disseminated back to the people in culturally appropriate way and in a language that can be understood.' 3  T h i s c h a p t e r outlines the justification for u s i n g a c a s e s t u d y r e s e a r c h d e s i g n to i n v e s t i g a t e a n d e x p l a i n h o w c o n s u l t a t i o n in culturally m o d i f i e d tree ( C M T ) m a n a g e m e n t , i n f l u e n c e s t h e role of First N a t i o n s p e o p l e in f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . A c o m b i n a t i o n of three d a t a c o l l e c t i o n m e t h o d s w a s u s e d to c a p t u r e the v i e w s of study participants. T h e triangulation of c o l l e c t i o n m e t h o d s e n s u r e s that d a t a s o u r c e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t a n d reliable. D a t a a n a l y s i s o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h o u t the c a s e s t u d y a s interviews w e r e c o d e d a n d field n o t e s a n d interview n o t e s w e r e r e d u c e d to c o h e r e n t , c o d e d f o r m s .  2.1  JUSTIFICATION  T h e multi-disciplinary nature of this s t u d y r e q u i r e d a m i x e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h to e x a m i n e the interaction b e t w e e n First N a t i o n s , g o v e r n m e n t a n d forest c o m p a n y p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . This thesis presents data obtained using various sociological a n d anthropological methods of inquiry, with a n e m p h a s i s o n naturalistic o b s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d s . N a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n is the a c t of g a t h e r i n g d a t a u s i n g relevant h u m a n f a c u l t i e s , m a k i n g w h a t the investigator s e e s just a s important a s w h a t is h e a r d d u r i n g a n o b s e r v a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the o b s e r v e r w i t n e s s e s c o n n e c t i o n s , c o r r e l a t i o n s a n d c a u s e s a s they unfold during t h e flow of e v e r y d a y life ( A d l e r a n d A l d e r 1 9 9 4 ) . T h e s t r e n g t h s of naturalistic o b s e r v a t i o n a r e i n c r e a s e d w h e n integrated with other qualitative m e t h o d s s u c h a s interviewing a n d participant o b s e r v a t i o n ( A d l e r a n d A d l e r 1 9 9 4 ) .  A c a s e s t u d y r e s e a r c h d e s i g n w a s u s e d a s a f r a m e w o r k to e n s u r e that d a t a c o l l e c t i o n o c c u r r e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w h i l e retaining the natural context of the p h e n o m e n a u n d e r s t u d y ( F e a g i n et al. 1 9 9 1 ) .  3  L. T. Smith 1999: 15  6  T h e definition of ' c a s e study' is in s o m e w a y s highly d e p e n d e n t o n the a u t h o r offering the definition (Piatt 1 9 9 2 ) , s o for the p u r p o s e s of this t h e s i s Y i n ' s (1994) definition h a s b e e n a d o p t e d : A c a s e s t u d y is a n e m p i r i c a l inquiry that i n v e s t i g a t e s a c o n t e m p o r a r y p h e n o m e n o n with its real-life c o n t e x t w h e n the b o u n d a r i e s b e t w e e n the p h e n o m e n o n a n d the c o n t e x t a r e not c l e a r l y evident, a n d in w h i c h multiple s o u r c e s of e v i d e n c e a r e u s e d (13).  T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a c a s e s t u d y r e s e a r c h d e s i g n w a s a p p r o p r i a t e for a d d r e s s i n g the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s in this s t u d y Y i n ' s (1994) test for ideal c a s e s t u d y c o n d i t i o n s w a s a p p l i e d . C a s e s t u d i e s " a r e u s e d to a n s w e r " h o w " or "why" q u e s t i o n s p o s e d by the investigator u n d e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h e r e there is little to n o control o v e r the e v e n t s that will t r a n s p i r e , a n d w h e n the e v e n t that is b e i n g s t u d i e d is a c o n t e m p o r a r y i s s u e set within a real-life context" (Yin 1 9 9 4 : 1). T h e s t r e n g t h of a qualitative c a s e s t u d y is its " e m p h a s i s is o n a s p e c i f i c  case  [that is] a f o c u s b o u n d e d p h e n o m e n o n e m b e d d e d in its context.  T h e i n f l u e n c e s of the local c o n t e x t a r e not stripped a w a y , but a r e t a k e n into a c c o u n t [and] the possibility of u n d e r s t a n d i n g latent, u n d e r l y i n g , or n o n - o b v i o u s i s s u e s is s t r o n g " ( M i l e s a n d H u b b e r m a n 1 9 9 4 : 10).  T h i s s t u d y utilizes a " h o w " type r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n w h i c h d e a l s with a c o n t e m p o r a r y i s s u e in forest r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t . T h e e v e n t s that t r a n s p i r e d d u r i n g the s t u d y m a y h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d to s o m e d e g r e e by the p r e s e n c e of the investigator, but they w e r e in no w a y c o n t r o l l a b l e by the r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s . G i v e n t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , it w a s d e t e r m i n e d that the s t u d y w a s w e l l s u i t e d for a p p l y i n g a c a s e s t u d y r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . A s part of the first s t e p in the d e v e l o p m e n t of a c a s e s t u d y r e s e a r c h project a c a s e s t u d y a r e a w a s s e l e c t e d . T h e following s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a n o v e r v i e w of the s t u d y a r e a a n d a d e s c r i p t i o n of e v e n t s s p e c i f i c to the m a n a g e m e n t of C M T s that o c c u r r e d prior to the start of field investigations.  2.2  THE NLAKA'PAMUX TRADITIONAL TERRITORY  T h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s h a v e p l a y e d a vital a n d s u s t a i n i n g role in the lives of the N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e of the F r a s e r C a n y o n . Historically, they w e r e d e p e n d e n t o n the a b u n d a n t fish r u n s that e n t e r e d the F r a s e r R i v e r , a n d the m o u n t a i n g o a t a n d d e e r that inhabited the l u s h m o u n t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t .  7  P l a n t s f r o m the  rich v a l l e y b o t t o m s a n d a l p i n e m e a d o w s p r o v i d e d h e a l i n g m e d i c i n e s , f o o d a n d m a t e r i a l s for h o u s e h o l d i t e m s . T h e d i v e r s e e c o l o g y of the N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e ' s Traditional Territory h a s led to a diversified culture that reflects a n d r e s p e c t s the often contrasting c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l a n d s c a p e (British C o l u m b i a 1966).  It is e s t i m a t e d that a s of the early 1 9 0 0 ' s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y one-third of the N l a k a ' p a m u x p o p u l a t i o n w a s r e s i d i n g in the F r a s e r C a n y o n within the C a s c a d e m o u n t a i n r a n g e . T h e r e m a i n i n g two-thirds r e s i d e d e a s t of the r a n g e , with p e r m a n e n t v i l l a g e s in the v a l l e y s of the principal tributary of the F r a s e r , the T h o m p s o n , a n d a s m a l l e r tributary of the T h o m p s o n , the N i c o l a R i v e r ( F i g u r e 1). T h e N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e h a v e b e e n d i v i d e d into two g r o u p s b a s e d on " e c o l o g i c a l a n d m i n o r cultural a n d d i a l e c t i c d i f f e r e n c e s " , the L o w e r a n d U p p e r T h o m p s o n (Turner et al. 1 9 9 0 : 10). T h e c e n t e r of N l a k a ' p a m u x 4  country is the p l a c e w h e r e C o y o t e ' s s o n c a m e d o w n to E a r t h , n e a r the m e e t i n g point of the F r a s e r a n d T h o m p s o n R i v e r s (Lytton), a n d the river v a l l e y s that e x t e n d f r o m this j u n c t i o n g i v e the c o u n t r y its s h a p e , w h i c h in turn h a s s h a p e d the culture of the N l a k a ' p a m u x w h o h a v e r e s i d e d in the a r e a s i n c e t i m e immemorial.  T h e N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e a r e a part of the Interior S a l i s h l a n g u a g e family ( H a n n a a n d H e n r y 1995). T h i s l a n g u a g e family is d i v i d e d up into four m a j o r d i v i s i o n s : the N l a k a ' p a m u x , O k a n o g a n , the Stl'atl'imx (Lillooet) a n d S e c w e p e m c ( S h u s w a p ) . A l t h o u g h there is a c l o s e relation linguistically with other interior S a l i s h a n g r o u p s , the culture of the N l a k a ' p a m u x is distinct f r o m all o t h e r s . Diversity  within the  N l a k a ' p a m u x culture a l s o e x i s t s , in part b e c a u s e of the v a s t a r e a of l a n d a n d g e o g r a p h i c variation within the traditional territory o c c u p i e d by the N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e (British C o l u m b i a 1 9 6 6 ) .  The names used to describe First Nations groups by early anthropologists and explorers such as James Teit and Simon Fraser have recently undergone revisions to reflect more accurately the linguistic characteristics of the group (Turner et al. 1990). Historically, the Nlaka'pamux (as they refer to themselves today) have been known by three different names, the "Couteau" or "Knife" people during early fur trading days, the Nlakaipamux or Ntlakyapamuk by James Teit in the early 1900's and the Thompson, reflecting the name of the major river in their territory. However, the group has returned to their traditional name, the Nlaka'pamux. This is reflected in their political bodies (e.g. Nlaka'pamux Nation Tribal Council) and used by the people to describe their cultural affiliation, therefore, for the purposes of this thesis, the Nlaka'pamux people are referred to as such.  8  T h e c o n t e x t of this s t u d y is rooted in the traditional territory of the N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e of the L o w e r F r a s e r C a n y o n . T h e culture a n d land b o u n d a r i e s of the traditional territory h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d a n d r e c o r d e d by a n u m b e r of different p e o p l e s i n c e S i m o n F r a s e r arrived in the a r e a in 1 8 0 8 during his j o u r n e y to the c o a s t (Laforet a n d Y o r k 1 9 8 8 ; H a n n a a n d H e n r y 1 9 9 5 ) . J a m e s Teit, a S c o t t i s h e t h n o g r a p h e r w h o lived a m o n g the N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e at S p e n c e s B r i d g e , r e c o r d e d the following d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e d by a h e a d chief of the N l a k a ' p a m u x N a t i o n :  O n e post up the F r a s e r at [Fountain] - o n e d o w n the F r a s e r at S p u z z u m - o n e up the T h o m p s o n R i v e r at A s c h r o f t - o n e up the N i c o l a R i v e r at Q u i l c h e n a - o n e d o w n the S i m i l k a m e e n R i v e r at T c u t c u i l x a [near H e a d l e y ] . A l l the c o u n t r y b e t w e e n t h e s e p o s t s is m y c o u n t r y a n d the l a n d s of m y p e o p l e . A t Lytton is m y c e n t e r - p o s t . It is the m i d d l e of m y h o u s e , a n d I sit there. A l l the country to the h e a d w a t e r s of all the s t r e a m s r u n n i n g into the v a l l e y s b e t w e e n t h e s e p o s t s is a l s o m y territory in w h i c h m y c h i l d r e n g a t h e r f o o d . W e e x t e n d to m e e t the b o u n d a r i e s of the hunting territories of other tribes. All a r o u n d o v e r this country I h a v e s p o k e n of, I h a v e jurisdiction. I k n o w n o w h i t e m a n ' s b o u n d a r i e s or p o s t s . If the w h i t e s h a v e put up p o s t s a n d d i v i d e d up m y country, I d o not r e c o g n i z e t h e m . T h e y h a v e not c o n s u l t e d m e . T h e y h a v e b r o k e n m y h o u s e without m y c o n s e n t . A l l Indian tribes h a v e the s a m e a s p o s t s a n d r e c o g n i z e d b o u n d a r i e s , a n d the c h i e f s k n o w t h e m s i n c e long before the first w h i t e s c a m e to this c o u n t r y ( H a n n a a n d H e n r y 1 9 9 5 : ).  9  Figure 1: Map of Nlaka'pamux Traditional Territory.  2 . 2 . 1 C o m m u n i t i e s a n d Forest U s e  T h e G o l d R u s h of 1 8 5 8 i n t r o d u c e d forest extraction to the F r a s e r C a n y o n . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y b e t w e e n 1 8 8 0 a n d 1 8 8 5 reinvigorated forestry o p e r a t i o n s in t h e L o w e r C a n y o n ( M c C o m b s a n d C h i t t e n d e n 1 9 9 0 ) . T h e t o p o g r a p h y of the C a n y o n h o w e v e r restricted t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of timber s t a n d s north of Y a l e until the 1 9 5 0 ' s . T h e r e f o r e , b e t w e e n t h e m i d 1 8 5 0 ' s a n d 1 9 5 0 ' s m a n y First N a t i o n p e o p l e s w e r e e m p l o y e d either b y the railway c o m p a n y o r forest c o m p a n i e s c l e a r i n g the land a n d milling the t i m b e r s for c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e three N l a k a ' p a m u x c o m m u n i t i e s participating in this c a s e s t u d y ( S p u z z u m , B o s t o n B a r a n d B o o t h r o y d ) w e r e actively i n v o l v e d in forestry then a n d c o n t i n u e to b e s o today. T h e N l a k a ' p a m u x c o m m u n i t i e s t o d a y h a v e a n a v e r a g e p o p u l a t i o n of 7 0 p e o p l e living o n r e s e r v e l a n d s (Indian a n d N o r t h e r n Affairs C a n a d a 2 0 0 2 ) . T h e local l u m b e r mill e m p l o y s m a n y l o c a l First N a t i o n s 10  p e o p l e a n d s o m e a r e i n d e p e n d e n t l o g g i n g c o n t r a c t o r s . T h e location of t h e c o m m u n i t i e s a l o n g the F r a s e r R i v e r a n d H i g h w a y 1 b r i n g s m a n y tourists a n d travelers t h r o u g h their territory. T h e c r e a t i o n of the Stein V a l l e y P a r k in 1 9 9 5 e x p a n d e d e m p l o y m e n t opportunities b e y o n d forestry to i n c l u d e t o u r i s m related ventures s u c h a s park maintenance, merchandise sales.  2.2.2  TheCanyon Landscape  T h e m a i n tributaries a l o n g w h i c h the N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e r e s i d e a r e t h e F r a s e r a n d T h o m p s o n R i v e r s . T h e l a n d s c a p e a n d its r e s o u r c e s vary e x t e n s i v e l y b e t w e e n t h e s o u t h e r n a n d n o r t h w e s t e r n r e g i o n s of the territory. C o o l s u m m e r s a n d mild winters s u p p o r t the l u s h c o a s t a l e n v i r o n m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s o u t h e r n portion o f t h e territory. T h e forest that d o m i n a t e s this r e g i o n is m a d e up o f W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r (Thuja plicata), D o u g l a s fir (Pseudotsuga  menziesii), a n d W e s t e r n h e m l o c k (Tsuga heterophylla).  Plants  a n d a n i m a l s that w e r e o n c e a b u n d a n t in the region include h u c k l e b e r r y , s w o r d a n d l a d y f e r n , s a l m o n b e r r y , m u l e d e e r , m o u n t a i n goat, a n d b l a c k b e a r ( G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s 1 9 9 9 ) .  Figure 2: Photo of Western red cedar stand in the Lower Fraser C a n y o n , Nlaka'pamux Traditional Territory (Photo by Pamela Perreault Oct. 1999)  T h e n o r t h w e s t e r n r e g i o n of t h e territory is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y dry, hot s u m m e r s a n d c o l d w i n t e r s . P r e c i p i t a t i o n within this r e g i o n is g o v e r n e d by the r a i n s h a d o w effect of the C o a s t , C a s c a d e a n d C o l u m b i a M o u n t a i n r a n g e s . T h e r e d u c e d precipitation a n d the g r e a t e r e l e v a t i o n p r o d u c e a n o t i c e a b l e c h a n g e in  11  v e g e t a t i o n . T h e d o m i n a n t tree s p e c i e s f o u n d in this a r e a a r e P o n d e r o s a p i n e (Pinus  ponderosa),  L o d g e p o l e p i n e (Pinus contorta), a n d s p r u c e ( P / c e a engelmanni) ( G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s 1 9 9 8 ) . S a g e - b r u s h a n d other dry-soil plants c o v e r the o p e n l a n d s c a p e .  T h e N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e f i s h e d the F r a s e r R i v e r f r o m the s t e e p c a n y o n w a l l s d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g a n d late s u m m e r . M a n y First N a t i o n s p e o p l e f r o m the c o a s t t r a v e l e d into t h e c a n y o n d u r i n g the s u m m e r m o n t h s to fish the w a t e r s a n d d r y their c a t c h in c o n s t a n t , dry w i n d s that a r e u n i q u e to t h e c a n y o n e n v i r o n m e n t . F i s h w a s not t h e only m e a n s of s u b s i s t e n c e h o w e v e r , the fertile e n v i r o n m e n t a l o n g t h e c a n y o n a l s o p r o v i d e d roots, b e r r i e s , a n d m e d i c i n a l plants. D u r i n g the m o n t h s w h e n fish w a s not a v a i l a b l e , d e e r a n d b e a r w a s h u n t e d in t h e s u r r o u n d i n g m o u n t a i n s .  2.2.3 Nlaka'pamux Involvement in CMT Management: A Case Study A s a result of court c a s e s clarifying a b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title i s s u e s a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s flowing f r o m fiduciary o b l i g a t i o n , t h e role of the Ministry of F o r e s t s A b o r i g i n a l L i a i s o n O f f i c e r e x p a n d e d to i n c l u d e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the Ministry Aboriginal Rights Policy ( 1 9 9 7 ) a n d a s s o c i a t e d Consultation Guidelines ( 1 9 9 7 ) .  5  F o r e s t p l a n n i n g reflected the c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g j u r i s p r u d e n c e s u r r o u n d i n g  A b o r i g i n a l l a w . T h e opportunity to o b s e r v e the results of c o n s u l t a t i o n p o l i c i e s relating to forestry-First N a t i o n s i s s u e s w a s p r e s e n t e d in A u g u s t 1 9 9 9 .  F o r e s t D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n s ( F D P s ) a n d a s s o c i a t e d Silviculture P r e s c r i p t i o n s ( S P s ) for the 1 9 9 6 - 2 0 0 0 p l a n n i n g p e r i o d g u i d e d the h a r v e s t i n g activities a r o u n d the C M T s i n v e s t i g a t e d d u r i n g this c a s e study. In p r e p a r a t i o n for m a k i n g a d e c i s i o n o n cutting p e r m i t s , t h e C h i l l i w a c k F o r e s t District c o n t r a c t e d a n a r c h a e o l o g y firm to c o n d u c t a n a r c h e o l o g i c a l o v e r v i e w a s s e s s m e n t ( A O A ) of 1341 p r o p o s e d timber h a r v e s t i n g b l o c k s a n d a s s o c i a t e d a c c e s s r o a d c o r r i d o r s ( M i l l e n n i a R e s e a r c h 1 9 9 6 ) . A t t h e time t h e A O A report w a s written in 1 9 9 6 , thirteen C M T s h a d b e e n r e c o r d e d . T h e m o d e l d e v e l o p e d b y the a r c h a e o l o g y firm w a s a p p l i e d to the C h i l l i w a c k F o r e s t District.  5  The Ministry of Forests Aboriginal Rights Policy and Consultation Guidelines were originally developed in 1996.  12  S e v e r a l First N a t i o n traditional territories w e r e identified within the a s s e s s m e n t a r e a a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n w a s initiated at the o n s e t of the A O A . " T h e N N T C a n d their m e m b e r b a n d s did not a g r e e with the A O A a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e s s a n d r e f u s e d to participate in the project" ( M i l l e n n i a R e s e a r c h 1 9 9 6 : 6).  T h e following c o n c e r n s w e r e note in the A O A report: •  A O A s a r e c o n d u c t e d in too short a time a n d o n too s u p e r f i c i a l a b a s i s . T h e First N a t i o n s c o n s u l t e d d u r i n g this project c o n s i d e r traditional u s e s i t e s , a r c h e o l o g i c a l s i t e s a n d c e r e m o n i a l / s a c r e d s i t e s a s i n s e p a r a b l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , traditional u s e s t u d i e s s h o u l d b e c o n d u c t e d in c o n j u n c t i o n with a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t s . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l o v e r v i e w s a r e too c u r s o r y a n d s h o u l d b e s u b s t i t u t e d with strict i n v e n t o r i e s . " M e a n i n g f u l c o n s u l t a t i o n " r e q u i r e s m o r e definition, a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y m o r e time a n d effort on the part of the a r c h a e o l o g i s t a n d the Ministry.  • • •  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l o v e r v i e w s s h o u l d h a v e fieldwork build in the p r o c e s s for m o d e l testing. A t least o n e individual f r o m the relevant First N a t i o n ( s ) s h o u l d b e hired for the f i e l d w o r k ( M i l l e n n i a R e s e a r c h 1 9 9 6 : 6)  B a s e d o n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the A O A m o d e l d e v e l o p e d by M i l l e n n i a R e s e a r c h ( c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g y firm), a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s u r v e y s a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s ( A l A s ) w e r e r e c o m m e n d e d for a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 6 % of the p r o p o s e d cut b l o c k s a n d a s s o c i a t e d road a c c e s s c o r r i d o r s . In J u l y of 1 9 9 8 , G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s w a s s u b - c o n t r a c t e d by the N N T C , to c a r r y out A l A s in fifteen cut b l o c k s , three r o a d a c c e s s c o r r i d o r s a n d o n e l a n d i n g . A t the time of the A O A , 13 C M T s i t e s h a d b e e n identified, four of w h i c h a r e u s e d a s field s i t e s for this c a s e s t u d y .  O v e r a l l site s i g n i f i c a n c e w a s d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g three criteria: scientific s i g n i f i c a n c e , p u b l i c / e c o n o m i c s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e . T a b l e 1 b e l o w s u m m a r i z e s the r e a s o n s for a s s i g n i n g a n overall m o d e r a t e - h i g h s i g n i f i c a n c e rating to the C M T s i t e s .  Table 1: Significance rating scheme applied during 1998 AIA (Adapted from Golder Associates 1998).  Scientific Significance • • •  Evidence of past pattern of travel and forest use Potentially Datable Potential to study distribution patterns over the landscape  Cultural Significance  Public/Economic Significance • • •  Potential for interpretive activities Potential educational source Possible training grounds  13  • •  Validates ethnohistoric references Community concerns regarding continued logging in watershed  In 1 9 9 8 , G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s w a s c o n t r a c t e d to c o n d u c t A l A s o n 19 p r o p o s e d cut b l o c k s , o n e of w h i c h w a s u s e d a s a field site in this c a s e study. T h i r t e e n C M T s w e r e identified a n d a s s i g n e d a m o d e r a t e - h i g h overall s i g n i f i c a n c e . S c i e n t i f i c a n d P u b l i c / E c o n o m i c s i g n i f i c a n c e ratings w e r e justified for the s a m e r e a s o n s p o s t e d a b o v e in T a b l e 1 (with the e x c e p t i o n of r e d u c e d e c o n o m i c s i g n i f i c a n c e ) . T h e cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e rating w a s a s s u m e d to b e h i g h , but h a d not b e e n a s s e s s e d at the t i m e of the report.  2.3  DATA COLLECTION  D a t a c o l l e c t i o n b e g a n during the d e v e l o p m e n t of the c a s e s t u d y p r o t o c o l in J u n e 1 9 9 9 a n d e n d e d in J u n e 2 0 0 0 . T h e protocol d e v e l o p m e n t m a r k s the b e g i n n i n g of the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s (Yin 1994) a n d a s s u c h , all a s s o c i a t e d p r o c e d u r e s i n f l u e n c e d the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . F i g u r e 3 is a pictorial r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s within the c a s e study. D a t a w a s c o l l e c t e d v i a field r e s e a r c h , u n s t r u c t u r e d interviews a n d existing t e c h n i c a l d o c u m e n t r e v i e w s . T h i s p r o c e s s a l l o w e d for multiple interpretations to b e c a p t u r e d , therefore clarifying the m e a n i n g of a n o b s e r v a t i o n a n d s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h e r interpretation.  B y a c k n o w l e d g i n g that n o interpretations or o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e  perfectly r e p e a t a b l e , this p r o c e s s s e r v e s a l s o to "clarify m e a n i n g by identifying different w a y s the p h e n o m e n o n is b e i n g s e e n . " ( S t a k e 1 9 9 4 : 2 4 1 ) .  CMTs Managementin Nlaka'pamux Territory.  Interviews • • • •  First Nations Government Forest Industry Archaeologist  Document Review • Technical reports • TUS • Internal memos and letters  Field Research • Participant Observation • CMT photos  Figure 3: Framework for methods triangulation and dominant data sources used in each method.  M e t h o d s triangulation w a s u s e d to i n c r e a s e the validity of the c a s e study. T h e d a s h e d line in the f r a m e w o r k p r e s e n t e d a b o v e ( F i g u r e 3) r e p r e s e n t s a d i m i n i s h e d f o c u s o n d o c u m e n t r e v i e w s to e s t a b l i s h  14  t h e m e s or c a t e g o r i e s d u r i n g d a t a a n a l y s i s . Interviews a n d field r e s e a r c h w e r e the d o m i n a n t r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s u s e d to c o l l e c t d a t a , a n d d o c u m e n t r e v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d to l e n d s u p p o r t to t h e m e s e m e r g i n g f r o m t h o s e m e t h o d s . T h e following s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e h o w e a c h m e t h o d w a s u s e d within the c o n t e x t of the c a s e study.  2.3.1 Interviews T h e interview g u i d e a p p r o a c h a n d f o c u s g r o u p s e s s i o n s w e r e u s e d to interview s t u d y participants d e p e n d i n g o n availability a n d i n t e r v i e w e e p r e f e r e n c e . T h e interview g u i d e a p p r o a c h or u n s t r u c t u r e d interview w a s the d o m i n a n t m e t h o d u s e d to elicit information f r o m p a r t i c i p a n t s in all g r o u p s . T h i s w a s the p r e f e r r e d m e t h o d b e c a u s e it a l l o w e d the investigator to p r e - d e t e r m i n e t o p i c s a n d i s s u e s to b e c o v e r e d d u r i n g the interview p r o c e s s without s p e c i f y i n g the particular o r d e r in w h i c h the q u e s t i o n s w e r e to b e a d m i n i s t e r e d . A l s o , the u n s t r u c t u r e d nature of the interview a l l o w e d for c o n v e r s a t i o n to d e v e l o p a n d e x p a n d the interview b e y o n d the p r e - d e t e r m i n e d t o p i c s ( H e n d e r s o n 1 9 9 1 ; B a b b i e 1 9 9 5 ) .  F o c u s g r o u p interviews w e r e c o n d u c t e d with m e m b e r s of the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s participating in the study. E a c h f o c u s g r o u p interview w a s c o m p r i s e d of a s m a l l g r o u p of i n d i v i d u a l s w h o w e r e well i n f o r m e d a b o u t the r e s e a r c h project a n d h a d e x p e r i e n c e with or k n o w l e d g e of l o c a l C M T s .  Each focus  g r o u p s e s s i o n b e g a n with a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p i c t u r e s s h o w i n g C M T s , p o s t - h a r v e s t cut b l o c k s , a n d l o c a l c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s participating in the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h e s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n w a s u s e d to g e o g r a p h i c a l l y orientate the g r o u p both a s well a s to i n t r o d u c e t e r m i n o l o g y a n d c o n c e p t s that m a y not h a v e b e e n c o m m o n k n o w l e d g e to all f o c u s g r o u p participants.  T h e f o c u s g r o u p s e s s i o n s w e r e i n f o r m a l , w h e r e b y participants w e r e g i v e n the opportunity to s h a r e s t o r i e s , t e c h n i c a l information or s i m p l y sit a n d listen to the g r o u p ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n . E a c h f o c u s g r o u p s e s s i o n w a s r e c o r d e d u s i n g a portable t a p e r e c o r d e r . Flip c h a r t s w e r e a l s o u s e d to d i s p l a y f o c u s q u e s t i o n s a n d r e c o r d s a l i e n t points in the g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s . T o facilitate c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d d i s c u s s i o n , the following q u e s t i o n s w e r e u s e d to g u i d e the f o c u s g r o u p s e s s i o n s :  15  D o e s the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s b e t w e e n the g o v e r n m e n t , industry a n d the local N l a k a ' p a m u x c o m m u n i t i e s m e e t the C r o w n ' s obligation to a v o i d unjustifiable i n f r i n g e m e n t o n A b o r i g i n a l rights?  Consultation effectiveness  Are archaeological overview a s s e s s m e n t s ( A O A ) and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s (AIA) c o n d u c t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a d e q u a t e for a d v i s i n g the P r o v i n c e a n d forest industry a s to w h a t is culturally significant to y o u r c o m m u n i t y in p r o p o s e d forest d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s ?  Significance  3.  Consultation effectiveness  W h a t i m p r o v e m e n t s c o u l d b e m a d e in the p r o c e s s e s of  Enhancement/ constraints v.  "  Y  D i d the o u t c o m e of the forest m a n a g e m e n t p l a n for the S o u t h A i n s l i e w a t e r s h e d reflect the cultural v a l u e of the a r e a ?  c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d forest m a n a g e m e n t to better i n c o r p o r a t e y o u r c o n c e p t of cultural h e r i t a g e ?  '  Question objectives  Table 2: Categorization of study participants and number of people interviewed in e a c h category.  R e s p o n d e n t  N u m b e r o f R e s p o n d e n t s Interviewed per Category  C a t e g o r y  Ministry of Forests - Chilliwack Forest District [Respondent code G P 1 GP21 Members of the Nlaka'pamux First Nation [Respondent codes FN1-FN16] Forest company representatives [Respondent codes C1 - C3] Archaeologists [Respondent code A1-A3] Other people working outside of the c a s e study area, but who have working knowledge of C M T management procedures and/or policy [Respondent code 0 1 - 0 3 ] Total  2.3.2  2  16 3 3  3  27  Field R e s e a r c h  T h e s e c o n d c o m p o n e n t of the c a s e s t u d y w a s the c o l l e c t i o n of field d a t a f r o m within the c a s e study a r e a . Field r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d o b s e r v i n g a n d a n a l y z i n g the real-life situations of C M T m a n a g e m e n t ,  16  c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d forest m a n a g e m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s a s they o c c u r r e d d u r i n g a f o u r - m o n t h period in the fall of 1 9 9 9 ( T a b l e 3). Utilizing p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r t e c h n i q u e s , the a c t i o n s a n d activities of s t u d y participants w e r e r e c o r d e d in v a r i o u s f o r m a t s .  N o t e t a k i n g a n d p h o t o g r a p h y w e r e the d o m i n a n t m o d e s  of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , a s t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s w e r e e a s i l y u s e d u n d e r v a r i o u s w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s .  Table 3: Cut blocks used as field sites to examine C M T management efforts in 1999. Cut Blocks  Harvest Status Y e a r of AIA Assessment # of C M T s identified # of C M T s harvested  A  B  C  Harvested  Harvested  Proposed  1997  1997-1998  1999  152  249  13  46  18  N/A  Direct o b s e r v a t i o n of the i m p a c t of forest m a n a g e m e n t o n culturally m o d i f i e d t r e e s a s well a s the p r o c e s s e s w h i c h l e a d to the C M T m a n a g e m e n t plan a r e v e r y important to u n d e r s t a n d i n g the i m p a c t s of forest m a n a g e m e n t o n cultural r e s o u r c e a s well a s the role of l o c a l First N a t i o n s in the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d during field r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e d o b s e r v a t i o n s , p h o t o g r a p h s a n d d o c u m e n t s . F i e l d site visits r e p r e s e n t e d a " c a p t i v e s a m p l e " in w h i c h o b s e r v a t i o n opportunities w e r e b a s e d o n availability, 6  a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a n d r e l e v a n c e to the l o c a l First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s . A site visit w a s typically c o m p r i s e d of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m interest g r o u p s involved in m a n a g e m e n t p l a n n i n g a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s , s u c h a s local First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , forest c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a n d District M O F staff i n v o l v e d in mitigating the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s .  A reflective j o u r n a l w a s u s e d to r e c o r d p e r s o n a l thoughts at the e n d of the d a y w h i l e c o l l e c t i n g field d a t a . B u r g e s s ( 1 9 8 2 : 2) n o t e s , "field r e s e a r c h a l s o i n v o l v e s the activities of the r e s e a r c h e r , the i n f l u e n c e of the r e s e a r c h e r o n the r e s e a r c h e d , [and] the p r a c t i c e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s of d o i n g r e s e a r c h " . T h e j o u r n a l  Captive sampling or convenience sampling is sampling done on the basis of availability and ease of access (Yin  1994:76)  17  f u n c t i o n e d a s a r e c o r d of iterative p r o c e s s e s u s e d to c o l l e c t d a t a , refine interview q u e s t i o n s , a n d e x p l o r e c a u s a l l i n k a g e s . T h i s r e c o r d of e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , a s well a s the interpretation of t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n of d a t a c a p t u r e during the field r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s ( B a b b i e 1 9 9 5 ) .  T o g a i n a c c e s s to field s i t e s a n d c o m m u n i t y c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s a ' k e y informant' o r p r i m a r y c o n t a c t p e r s o n w a s identified. B y definition, a ' k e y informant' is s o m e o n e w h o is u s e d primarily a s a s o u r c e of information o n a variety of t o p i c s ( T r e m b l a y 1 9 8 2 ) . In this c a s e , a c o n s u l t a n t w o r k i n g for o n e of the B a n d s participating in the s t u d y a r e a w a s u s e d a s t h e p r i m a r y c o n t a c t . T h e e s t a b l i s h e d role of the p r i m a r y c o n t a c t p e r s o n w a s to introduce t h e investigator to political m e m b e r s of t h e c o m m u n i t i e s a s well a s to c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s with k n o w l e d g e of C M T s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t a n d direction w a s a l s o p r o v i d e d b y the p r i m a r y c o n t a c t .  2.3.3 Document Review A c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w of s e c o n d a r y d o c u m e n t s s p e c i f i c to t h e c a s e s t u d y a r e a w a s p o s s i b l e d u e to the following f a c t o r s : a) the s p e c i f i c s c o p e of the r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m (i.e. d e f i n e d b y a c a s e study) n a r r o w e d the s c o p e of s e c o n d a r y d o c u m e n t s to t h o s e pertaining to the l o w e r F r a s e r C a n y o n , b) C M T m a n a g e m e n t is a relatively n e w u n d e r t a k i n g in British C o l u m b i a , particularly in t h e F r a s e r C a n y o n , a n d a s a result there w a s limited n u m b e r of t e c h n i c a l d o c u m e n t s a v a i l a b l e to s u b s t a n t i a t e field o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d interview d a t a . T h e r e f o r e , the d o c u m e n t r e v i e w p r o c e s s w a s only u s e d to c o r r o b o r a t e d a t a c o l l e c t e d u s i n g other m e t h o d s . T a b l e 4 b e l o w d e s c r i b e s the t y p e s of d o c u m e n t s u s e d for this p u r p o s e .  18  Table 4: Sample of secondary documents used to corroborate data collected in interviews and during fieldwork.  Assessments/ Reports • AIA • AOA • TUS . AIM 1  Legislation/ Regulations •  Heritage Conservation Act, 1982  •  Ministry of Forests and Archaeology Branch Protocol Agreement Archaeology Branch Operational Procedures Protocol Agreement on C H R Management Ministry of Forests Consultation Guidelines B.C. Consultation Guidelines  2  3  4  •  • •  •  •  Operational • •  FDP SP  b  Others  Plans • •  Internal company memos First Nation documentation  Forest Practices Code Act, 1995 and  Regulations Crown Land Activities and Aboriginal Rights Framework • , Ministry of Forests Aboriginal Rights Policy, 1996 and 1999  •  T  2  3  Archaeological Impact Assessment Archeological Overview Assessment  4 5  Archaeological Impact Measures Forest Development Plan  Traditional Use Study  2.4  DATA ANALYSIS  T h e c o n s t a n t c o m p a r i s o n m e t h o d w a s u s e d to a n a l y z e qualitative d a t a c o l l e c t e d in the c a s e s t u d y (Lincoln a n d G u b a 1985). T h i s p r o c e s s involved p r e p a r i n g for a n a l y s i s by c o n v e r t i n g r a w d a t a ( e . g . field n o t e s , d o c u m e n t s , a u d i o t a p e s a n d j o u r n a l ) in partially p r o c e s s d a t a (e.g. w r i t e - u p s , transcripts a n d m e m o ' s ) , w h i c h w e r e then c o d e d a n d s u b j e c t e d to the a n a l y s i s s c h e m e p r o p o s e d by L i n c o l n a n d G u b a ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e k e y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of this analytic s c h e m e is the f o c u s o n e m e r g i n g c a t e g o r i e s , rather than o n c a t e g o r i e s set a priori. T h e c o n s t a n t c o m p a r i s o n m e t h o d u s e s inductive logic to d e v e l o p e m e r g i n g c a t e g o r i e s f r o m a m a s s of qualitative d a t a u s i n g two g e n e r a l p r o c e s s e s : a) unitizing, or simplifying text into units of information that will s e r v e a s the b a s i s for defining c a t e g o r i e s , a n d b) c a t e g o r i z i n g the units ( T a s h a k o k o r i a n d T e d d l i e 1 9 9 8 ) .  19  T h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s three e s s e n t i a l t a s k s : 1) 2) 3)  A l l units a r e brought t o g e t h e r into p r o v i s i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s that a p p a r e n t l y relate to the s a m e content; R u l e a r e d e v i s e d that d e s c r i b e c a t e g o r y properties to justify the i n c l u s i o n of e a c h unit a s well a s to p r o v i d e a b a s i s for a later test of replicability; a n d T o r e n d e r the c a t e g o r y set internally c o n s i s t e n t ( L i n c o l n a n d G u b a 1 9 8 5 : 3 4 5 )  C a t e g o r i e s that e m e r g e c a n b e either d e s c r i p t i v e or e x p l a n a t o r y . T h e p r o c e s s of c o n s t a n t c o m p a r i s o n a l l o w s the investigator to c o m p a r e a c r o s s c a t e g o r i e s w h i l e integrating the c a t e g o r i e s with their p r o p e r t i e s (rules). T h e credibility of the c o n c l u s i o n s will b e a s s e s s e d by m a k i n g s u r e that t h e y a r e c r e d i b l e to t h o s e individuals w h o s e realities a r e r e c o n s t r u c t e d or d e s c r i b e d within the c o n t e x t of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n a n s w e r e d by the s t u d y ( L i n c o l n a n d G u b a 1 9 8 4 ; T a s h a k k o r i a n d T e d d l i e 1 9 9 8 ) . T h i s will b e d o n e by p r e s e n t i n g the c a s e s t u d y in t h e s i s f o r m a t to all participating c o m m u n i t i e s , f o l l o w e d by a n oral p r e s e n t a t i o n to the N l a k a ' p a m u x N a t i o n T r i b a l C o u n c i l ( N N T C ) u p o n their r e q u e s t .  T h i s c a s e s t u d y is set up in a w a y that e n c o u r a g e s naturalistic study, that is, the r e s e a r c h e r " s e e k s out the natural o c c u r r e n c e s in natural s e t t i n g s , t h e r e b y identifying e x p r e s s i o n s of v a l u e " ( S t a k e 1 9 9 4 : 2 4 2 ) . H o w e v e r , it is important to note that d a t a a n a l y s i s w a s not s e p a r a t e d f r o m d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , rather d a t a a n a l y s i s b e g a n at the o n s e t of the c a s e s t u d y p r o t o c o l d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h w a s g r o u n d e d in a c o n t e x t p r o v i d e d by initial field visits a n d interviews with s t u d y participants.  T o a c h i e v e a significant level of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a p h e n o m e n o n , the c a s e s e l e c t e d m u s t in s o m e w a y r e p r e s e n t a p o p u l a t i o n of c a s e s ( S t a k e 1 9 9 4 , T a s h a k k o r i a n d T e d d l i e 1 9 9 8 ) .  Furthermore,  the p h e n o m e n o n of interest in the c a s e m u s t r e p r e s e n t the p h e n o m e n a g e n e r a l l y . T h a t is, "in the b e g i n n i n g the p h e n o m e n a a r e g i v e n [and] the c a s e s a r e the opportunities to s t u d y the p h e n o m e n a . " ( S t a k e 1 9 9 4 : 2 4 3 ) . W i t h t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s in m i n d this r e s e a r c h w a s c a r r i e d out with m e m b e r s of the N l a k a ' p a m u x N a t i o n in the lower F r a s e r C a n y o n o n British C o l u m b i a , a n d a s  20  s u c h reflects the g e o g r a p h i c a l a n d cultural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u n i q u e to this g r o u p within the Nlaka'pamux Nation.  T h e c a s e s t u d y a r e a w a s d e f i n e d u s i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n of g e o g r a p h i c , cultural, a n d political b o u n d a r i e s ( s e e F i g u r e 1).  T h e political b o u n d a r i e s ( R e s e r v e land b o u n d a r i e s ) of three  N l a k a ' p a m u x c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e initially u s e d to d e f i n e the context of ' c o m m u n i t y ' . G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , the c a s e s t u d y a r e a is l o c a t e d in the lower portion of the F r a s e r C a n y o n , a d i v e r s e transition z o n e b e t w e e n c o a s t a l a n d interior b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s .  T h e p h e n o m e n a , or i s s u e of interest, in this c a s e s t u d y w a s the m a n a g e m e n t of C M T s , in particular the participation of First N a t i o n s a n d their i m p a c t o n m a n a g e m e n t o u t c o m e s . W h i l e there w e r e m a n y other a r e a s within the p r o v i n c e u n d e r t a k i n g C M T m a n a g e m e n t , this a r e a w a s c h o s e n b e c a u s e of the following f a c t o r s : its proximity to V a n c o u v e r , m a k i n g it a c c e s s i b l e with m i n i m a l f u n d s , the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e not e n g a g e d in T r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s or litigation, therefore it w a s a s s u m e d that legal a n d political a g e n d a s w o u l d h a v e m i n i m a l effect o n a c c e s s to a n d reporting of i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g C M T m a n a g e m e n t in the a r e a p r o v i d e d a u n i q u e opportunity to learn a n d participate in c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s p r e - a n d postharvest.  2.5  ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS  E t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y w e r e a d d r e s s e d u s i n g two e s t a b l i s h e d p r o t o c o l s . First, the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n (project o b j e c t i v e s , m e t h o d s a n d r e s u l t s d i s s e m i n a t i o n ) w a s s u b m i t t e d to U n i v e r s i t y of British's E t h i c a l R e v i e w B o a r d . A s part of the E t h i c a l R e v i e w , written c o n s e n t f r o m e a c h First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t y w a s o b t a i n e d .  T h e s e c o n d p r o t o c o l u s e d w a s that of the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s . T h i s i n v o l v e d three important a s p e c t s : 1) a p r i m a r y c o n t a c t p e r s o n , 2) p u r p o s i v e s a m p l i n g u p o n the s u g g e s t i o n of c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s , 3) the option to r e v i e w written w o r k prior to s u b m i s s i o n , a n d 4) the option to h a v e s t u d y results p r e s e n t e d orally to the N l a k a ' p a m u x N a t i o n T r i b a l C o u n c i l . T o a v o i d  21  b u r d e n i n g m e m b e r s of all three c o m m u n i t i e s , a p r i m a r y c o n t a c t p e r s o n for the duration of the project w a s a g r e e d u p o n . T h i s p e r s o n f u n c t i o n e d a s both a project participant, that is h e w a s f o r m a l l y interviewed a n d r e c o r d e d d u r i n g field o b s e r v a t i o n s , but h e a l s o p r o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l help s u c h a s transportation to a n d f r o m field s i t e s a n d p r o v i d e d r e g u l a r u p d a t e s o n forestry activities in the c a s e s t u d y a r e a .  C o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s g u i d e d p u r p o s i v e s a m p l i n g to e n s u r e the p e o p l e that they felt held the g r e a t e s t k n o w l e d g e r e g a r d i n g C M T s a n d their m a n a g e m e n t w o u l d b e i n c l u d e d in interview a n d f o c u s g r o u p s e s s i o n s . T h e fourth a s p e c t of the r e s e a r c h protocol is o n e that w a s not c a p t u r e d by the university E t h i c a l R e v i e w P r o c e s s . T h e First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s e x p r e s s e d a n interest in the opportunity to participate in the interpretation of the d a t a , a s well a s the oral c o m m u n i c a t i o n of s t u d y results at the N a t i o n level. H o w e v e r , it w a s s u g g e s t e d that a n oral p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t h e s i s , in draft or final f o r m w o u l d r e c e i v e better r e s p o n s e than a written c o p y s u b m i t t e d o n its o w n . T h e r e f o r e , o n c e the c o n t a c t p e r s o n w a s i n f o r m e d that the t h e s i s w a s in draft f o r m , the option r e m a i n e d o p e n for the N N T C or m e m b e r B a n d s to r e q u e s t a n opportunity to r e v i e w the t h e s i s by w a y of a n oral p r e s e n t a t i o n .  2.6  S C O P E A N D LIMITATIONS  T h e s c o p e of the s t u d y w a s d i r e c t e d by a) the g e o g r a p h i c a l b o u n d a r i e s of the c a s e s t u d y a r e a , b) the n u m b e r of participants a v a i l a b l e within the s t u d y a r e a , a n d c) the p l a n n i n g t i m e f r a m e c a p t u r e d by the c a s e study. A s a result of n a r r o w i n g the g e o g r a p h i c a l b o u n d a r i e s of the s t u d y a r e a to cut b l o c k s a l r e a d y h a r v e s t e d or p r o p o s e d for h a r v e s t i n g within a two y e a r t i m e f r a m e , the s p e c i e s a n d t y p e s of C M T s d i s c u s s e d w a s greatly r e d u c e d .  T h e participants of the s t u d y w e r e c h o s e n in relation to their function within the C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s . T h a t is, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s u n d e r investigation w e r e t h o s e that a c t i v e l y participated in c o n s u l t a t i o n relating to the m a n a g e m e n t of C M T s . A n d finally, the s c o p e of the s t u d y w a s s h a p e d by the t i m e f r a m e allotted for d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . F i e l d w o r k w a s c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g  22  the fall of 1 9 9 9 a n d c e a s e d w h e n a c c e s s cut b l o c k s w a s d i m i n i s h e d d u e to w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s . B e c a u s e it w a s d e t e r m i n e d that c o n s u l t a t i o n efforts relating to C M T m a n a g e m e n t s p e c i f i c a l l y w a s the f o c u s of the study, only c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s that o c c u r r e d d u r i n g fieldwork w e r e d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g interviews a s they w e r e the only o n e s o b s e r v e d by the author.  T h e interpretation of d a t a a n d i n f e r e n c e s m a d e by the author a r e limited by the c o n t e x t of the s t u d y a r e a a n d the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . T h e r e w a s no c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s within or b e t w e e n the three First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s or three forest c o m p a n i e s i n v o l v e d in the study. B e t w e e n g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e c o n d u c t e d , with e m p h a s i s on First N a t i o n s a n d n o n - F i r s t N a t i o n s p e r c e p t i o n s of C M T m a n a g e m e n t a n d a s s o c i a t e d c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . T h e s i n g l e c a s e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n a l s o limits the theoretical p r o p o s i t i o n s flowing f r o m the study. W h i l e the c a s e s t u d y w a s in-depth a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e , there w a s no opportunity for c r o s s - c a s e c o m p a r i s o n s . T h e r e f o r e , c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g C M T m a n a g e m e n t a n d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c o n s u l t a t i o n in a c h i e v i n g m a n a g e m e n t o b j e c t i v e s will b e g e n e r a l i z a b l e to p r i n c i p l e s or c o n s i d e r a t i o n s for c o n s u l t a t i o n processes.  23  3  DISCOVERING THE ROOTS OF CULTURALLY MODIFIED TREE (CMT) MANAGEMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA "Great cedar trees, with clear, true grain, are becoming difficult to find as more of them succumb to the loggers saw, yet there is no other tree that can provide so generously, so totally and so beautifully'*  T h e b a s i s for C M T m a n a g e m e n t in British C o l u m b i a is e m b e d d e d in a c o m p l e x cultural, s o c i a l a n d political context. T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s the rationale for C M T m a n a g e m e n t in British C o l u m b i a , the role of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title c l a i m s , policy d e v e l o p m e n t reflecting the international a n d national a g r e e m e n t s for a c h i e v i n g s u s t a i n a b l e forest m a n a g e m e n t , a n d finally the duty of the C r o w n to c o n s u l t with A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s w h e n a n a c t i o n o n c o n t e s t e d land m a y infringe u p o n c l a i m s of a b o r i g i n a l rights or title. I s s u e s s u c h a s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e a s s e s s m e n t a n d m a n a g e m e n t , r o l e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of Ministries in the d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s , a n d the provincial r e s p o n s e to c o n s u l t a t i o n o b l i g a t i o n s a r e a d d r e s s e d .  3.1  CULTURALLY MODIFIED TREES (CMTS): A NEW CULTURAL RESOURCE  C u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t is a s m u c h a s o c i a l a n d political activity a s it is a scientific investigation ( T h o m p s o n 1 9 8 1 ) . Fitting (1982) points out that the c o n c e p t of cultural r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t e x t e n d s b e y o n d the b o u n d a r i e s of p h y s i c a l a r c h a e o l o g y , to i n c l u d e history, historic s i t e s , a n d ethnohistory.  This  h a s b e e n illustrated during the last d e c a d e of forest policy d e v e l o p m e n t w h e r e there h a s b e e n a n effort to integrate cultural heritage r e s o u r c e s into forest m a n a g e m e n t p l a n n i n g . W h i l e scientific investigation h a s i n f o r m e d p a s t p r a c t i c e s of s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l o g y in the f a c e of natural r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t , t o d a y ' s 8  efforts by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d First N a t i o n s to d e l i n e a t e First N a t i o n s r e s o u r c e u s e activities h a s f o c u s e d o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g in situ cultural r e s o u r c e v a l u e s into forest m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e s . T h e following s e c t i o n s will f o c u s o n the d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of cultural h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s  7  Stewart 1984: 19.  8  The practice of removing artifacts from their point of origin and preserving them in museums for later study.  a n d policy relating to C M T m a n a g e m e n t , a n d their i m p a c t o n forest d e v e l o p m e n t activity in British Columbia.  3.1.1 Cultural Resource Management (CRM) in British Columbia T h e definition of cultural h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s u s e d in the Forest Act is a d o p t e d for the p u r p o s e s of this t h e s i s . It is d e s c r i b e d a s a n "object, site or the location of a traditional s o c i e t a l p r a c t i c e that is of historical, cultural or a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the p r o v i n c e , a c o m m u n i t y or a n a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e " ( P a r t 1 S e c t . 1). T h e P r o j e c t P r i d e T a s k F o r c e ( 1 9 8 7 : 2 9 ) p r o v i d e s the following rationale for h e r i t a g e m a n a g e m e n t in British C o l u m b i a :  H e r i t a g e h a s high p e r s o n a l v a l u e relating to the c l o s e ties b e t w e e n natural a n d cultural e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d the individual. It p r o v i d e s u s with a f e e l i n g of identity, p l a c e , a n d well b e i n g by identifying w h e r e w e c a m e f r o m a n d h o w w e b e c a m e w h a t w e a r e today. H e r i t a g e p r e p a r e s u s for the future a n d for a d a p t i n g in a rapidly c h a n g i n g w o r l d .  T h e p r a c t i c e of cultural heritage r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t h a s u n d e r g o n e p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d p r o c e d u r a l c h a n g e s that h a v e c o n v e r s e l y i n f l u e n c e d its role in forest m a n a g e m e n t . W h i l e the e a r l y p r a c t i c e of a r c h a e o l o g y in B . C . f o c u s e d o n d o c u m e n t i n g cultural c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e , First N a t i o n s p e o p l e s ' n e e d s or c o n c e r n s w e r e o v e r l o o k e d , therefore limiting the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a a n d living First N a t i o n s p e o p l e (Trigger 1 9 8 0 ; D e P a o l i 1999). T h i s h a s c a u s e d First N a t i o n s to q u e s t i o n the o b j e c t i v e s a n d validity of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l w o r k (Biolsi a n d Z i m m e r m a n 1 9 9 7 ) .  3.1.1.1  Cultural Resource Management Policy  A r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d First N a t i o n s p e o p l e h a v e d e v e l o p e d p r o t o c o l s , a n d in s o m e c a s e s o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s to m e e t both the legal r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d cultural protocol for the protection of f o r e s t - b a s e d cultural heritage r e s o u r c e s s u c h a s burial s i t e s a n d culturally m o d i f i e d t r e e s . A P r o t o c o l A g r e e m e n t  9  for  the m a n a g e m e n t of cultural heritage r e s o u r c e s on forest l a n d s p l a n n e d for d e v e l o p m e n t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n the Ministry of S m a l l B u s i n e s s , T o u r i s m a n d C u l t u r e ( M S B T C ) a n d the Ministry of F o r e s t s ( M O F ) in 1 9 9 4 to facilitate the w o r k i n g relationship b e t w e e n the two m i n i s t r i e s .  It w a s a m e n d e d in 1 9 9 6  Ministry of Small Business, Tourism and Culture and Ministry of Forests Protocol Agreement on the Management of Cultural Heritage Resources. 1996.  25  to c o n f o r m to the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the Forest Practices Code Act and Operational Planning  Regulations  ( M S B T C 1 9 9 6 , K l i m k o et al. 1 9 9 8 ) .  T h i s a g r e e m e n t e s t a b l i s h e s the r o l e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the M i n i s t r i e s . T h e A r c h e o l o g y B r a n c h of the M S B T C is r e s p o n s i b l e for the d e v e l o p i n g policy r e g a r d i n g h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t , a s well a s r e v i e w i n g a n d i s s u i n g alteration p e r m i t s for a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . T h e M O F e n s u r e s that forest p l a n n i n g d o c u m e n t s h a v e b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d into A r c h a e o l o g y B r a n c h g u i d e l i n e s for t h e m a n a g e m e n t of heritage resources ( M S B T C 1996).  In 1 9 9 5 , British C o l u m b i a p a s s e d the Forest Practices Code Act ( 1 9 9 5 ) , w h i c h m a d e p r o v i s i o n s for cultural h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s f o u n d in f o r e s t e d l a n d s c a p e s . S e c t i o n 17 of t h e Code s t a t e s that a n y h o l d e r of a n a g r e e m e n t u n d e r t h e Forest Act (forest l i c e n s e e ) m u s t a s s e s s p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s for cultural h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s ( F P C 1 9 9 5 ) . O p e r a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s for forest r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d silviculture p r e s c r i p t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y state that if heritage r e s o u r c e s , k n o w n o r u n k n o w n , a r e u n c o v e r e d d u r i n g p l a n n i n g o r h a r v e s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s , a n a s s e s s m e n t of the h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s m u s t b e c o n d u c t e d (Operational Planning Regulations  1 9 9 5 ) . A forest l i c e n s e e is r e q u i r e d u n d e r S e c t i o n 17(2)(c) a n d 51 of  the Forest Practices Code Act a n d Operational Planning Regulation ( s . 2 6 a n d 6 3 ) to a s s e s s cultural heritage r e s o u r c e s in the p r e p a r a t i o n of o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n s , s u c h a s silviculture p r e s c r i p t i o n s .  T h u s , t h e relationship b e t w e e n a r c h a e o l o g y a n d forestry intensified d u r i n g the e a r l y 1 9 9 0 ' s d u e to a n u m b e r of f a c t o r s : a m e n d m e n t s m a d e to the Heritage Conservation  Act (HCA), protocol a g r e e m e n t s  b e t w e e n t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h a e o l o g y B r a n c h a n d the Ministry of F o r e s t s , t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the Forest Practices  Code of British C o l u m b i a , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e British C o l u m b i a T r e a t y P r o c e s s , a n d the  a c c e p t a n c e of culturally m o d i f i e d t r e s s a s legitimate heritage r e s o u r c e s b y p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h e o l o g i s t s ( K l i m k o et al. 1 9 9 8 ) . T h u s , the recognition of C M T s a s a cultural r e s o u r c e a n d t h e e x t e n d e d m a n d a t e of cultural heritage protection in forest d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s triggered t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s s p e c i f i c to C M T s .  26  3.1.2 Culturally Modified Trees (CMT) and their Management T h e integral role of t r e e s , s u c h a s c e d a r , in providing e s s e n t i a l m a t e r i a l s for daily life for First N a t i o n s p e o p l e is well d o c u m e n t e d in a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a n d a r c h e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s ( S t e w a r t 1 9 8 4 , T u r n e r 1990). H o u s e h o l d i t e m s , f o o d g a t h e r i n g m a t e r i a l s , c a n o e s a n d s h e l t e r w o o d w e r e all crafted f r o m w o o d a n d fibrous m a t e r i a l s f r o m v a r i o u s s p e c i e s of trees ( T u r n e r 1 9 9 0 , Laforet a n d Y o r k 1 9 9 8 ) . T r a d i t i o n a l h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s of w o o d a n d b a r k m a t e r i a l s f r o m live, often s t a n d i n g t r e e s r e s u l t e d in a n a c c u m u l a t i o n of v i s i b l e , d a t e a b l e , a n d f o r e s t - b a s e d cultural h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s n o w k n o w n a s culturally m o d i f i e d t r e e s or C M T s .  Culturally m o d i f i e d t r e e s , a l s o k n o w n a s culturally altered t r e e s ( H i c k s 1 9 8 4 ) , p e e l e d t r e e s , b a s k e t t r e e s , stripped c e d a r , b a r k - s t r i p p e d t r e e s ( M a c k 1985) h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s s i n c e the 1 9 5 0 ' s , but it w a s not until the m i d - 1 9 8 0 ' s that C M T s m a d e a n a p p e a r a n c e in a c a d e m i c literature ( E l d r i d g e a n d S t r y d 1 9 9 3 ) . T h e B . C . Ministry of F o r e s t s (1997:1) d e f i n e s C M T s for the p u r p o s e s of m a n a g e m e n t a s " a tree that h a s b e e n altered by native p e o p l e a s part of their traditional u s e of the forest".  In 1 9 9 7 , the Ministry of F o r e s t s p u b l i s h e d a C M T identification a n d r e c o r d i n g h a n d b o o k for f o r e s t e r s , First N a t i o n s a n d a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . T h i s field m a n u a l w a s p r o d u c e d by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d r e p r e s e n t e d a n a c c u m u l a t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e in both f o r e s t r y - b a s e d a r c h a e o l o g y a n d a c a d e m i a . In 1 9 9 8 , a s e c o n d edition of the h a n d b o o k w a s r e l e a s e d with u p d a t e d provincial policy information, a s w e l l a s m o r e information o n interior C M T s . A third edition, with substantially m o r e information o n interior C M T s is d u e out in 2 0 0 1 .  1 0  Literature o n C M T s h a s b e e n largely restricted to the fields of a r c h a e o l o g y a n d d e n d r o c h r o n o l o g y ; the i m p a c t of C M T s o n forest r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t h a s not b e e n d e b a t e d in printed literature.  P e r h a p s this  is d u e to the c o m p l e x i s s u e s of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title a s s o c i a t e d with the p r e s e n c e of C M T s in f o r e s t s ( B e r n i c k 1 9 8 5 ) . R e g a r d l e s s of the r e a s o n s for this lack of d e b a t e in literature, legislation r e q u i r e s  The CMT Handbook Version 2.0 was published again in March 2001 during the writing of this thesis and is available via the Web at http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/RIC/Pubs/Culture/CMT/CMTHandbook.pdf.  27  forest l i c e n s e e s to c o n d u c t a s s e s s m e n t s identify, r e c o r d a n d p r o v i d e m a n a g e m e n t o p t i o n s to mitigate the i m p a c t of l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s o n C M T s .  B e c a u s e C M T s a r e t h e m s e l v e s a part of the r e s o u r c e that  d e v e l o p e r s a r e after, their m a n a g e m e n t is c o m p l i c a t e d . A s B e r n i c k ( 1 9 8 4 : 1 0 ) points out " t r e e s a r e a different kind of h e r i t a g e site than w h a t r e s o u r c e m a n a g e r s u s u a l l y d e a l with...with t r e e s it is the a c t u a l h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e that [forest l i c e n s e e s ] a r e after".  M u c h of t h e r e c e n t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n in t h e f o r m of r e q u i r e d ' i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s ' s t u d i e s c o n t r a c t e d by m i n i n g , l o g g i n g a n d r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n c o m p a n i e s . T h o u g h archaeological work p r o c e e d s , m a n y sites have already b e e n d a m a g e d a n d s o m e completely d e s t r o y e d through e n c r o a c h m e n t b y r o a d s , r a i l w a y s , l o g g i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e a n d building c o n s t r u c t i o n ( T u r n e r ef al. 1 9 9 0 : 7 ) .  H i c k s ( 1 9 8 5 ) wrote the first j o u r n a l article o n C M T s in British C o l u m b i a a s a follow-up to his 1 9 7 6 g r a d u a t e w o r k o n culturally m o d i f i e d trees in the B e l l a B e l l a district of t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c o a s t . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e look at C M T s t u d i e s in British C o l u m b i a w a s u n d e r t a k e n b y S t r y d a n d E l d r i d g e (1993) after a n i n t e n s i v e C M T s t u d y o n M e a r e s Island in 1 9 8 5 . T h e s e articles f o c u s e d o n the p r o b l e m s of s a m p l i n g C M T s to d e t e r m i n e a g e a n d distribution.  E a r l y articles o n C M T s in British C o l u m b i a a p p e a r e d a s d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c s o r editorial n o t e s in The Midden ( B e r n i c k 1 9 8 4 ; S t e w a r t 1 9 8 4 , B e r n i c k 1 9 8 5 ; H i c k s 1 9 8 5 , T i r r u l - J o n e s 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e struggle to identify C M T s a s legitimate cultural heritage r e s o u r c e s w a s the d o m i n a n t t h r e a d in t h e s e e a r l y d i s c u s s i o n s . R e s e a r c h b y M a r g n e a n d M a t s o n (1984) briefly m e n t i o n s the d i s c o v e r y of c a m b i u m s t r i p p e d L o d g e p o l e p i n e (Pinus contorta) in the vicinity of their s t u d y a r e a . D a t a c o l l e c t i o n w a s limited to s c a r m e a s u r e m e n t a n d i n c r e m e n t b o r e s a m p l i n g for a g e d e t e r m i n a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a brief d i s c u s s i o n o n the difficulty of d e t e r m i n i n g a g e with this m e t h o d .  28  3.1.2.1  CMT Management Procedures in the Vancouver Forest Region  S t e p ! : Determining potential for C M T s Consultation and Protocol . AOA • F D P review . AIS  Step 2: Conducting A s s e s s m e n t s • •  AIA CMT inventory study  Step 3: Determining Significance • •  Cultural Scientific  Step 4: Management Prescriptions • •  Protection Mitigation  Figure 4 C M T management procedures used in the Vancouver Forest Region (Adopted from Moon 1997)  C M T m a n a g e m e n t is m o s t c o m m o n l y a c c o m p l i s h e d with the aid of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s ( A l A s ) a n d traditional u s e s t u d i e s ( T U S ) . A l A s a r e c o n d u c t e d u n d e r the s u p e r v i s i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s hired by forest l i c e n s e e s r e s p o n s i b l e for m a n a g i n g all forest r e s o u r c e s in a r e a s p r o p o s e d for d e v e l o p m e n t .  A l A s a r e c o n d u c t e d to d e t e r m i n e if a d e v e l o p m e n t project will h a v e a n  a d v e r s e i m p a c t o n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sites (e.g. forestry, m i n i n g , u r b a n e x p a n s i o n ) . T h e P r o t o c o l A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n the Ministry of F o r e s t s a n d the A r c h a e o l o g y B r a n c h s t a t e s that " a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s ( A l A s ) a n d Traditional U s e S t u d i e s ( T U S ) s h o u l d b e u n d e r t a k e n for F o r e s t D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n s . A l A s d e t e r m i n e i m p a c t s to a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sites a s well a s site s i g n i f i c a n c e , a n d a s s i s t forest l i c e n s e e s in d e s i g n i n g , p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g p r o p o s e d forest activities while m i n i m i z i n g i m p a c t s to a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s " ( M S B T C 1 9 9 7 b ) .  29  O n c e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s a r e identified a n d r e c o r d e d , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s m u s t then d e t e r m i n e their scientific a n d cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e , u s u a l l y through e t h n o g r a p h i c a n d historical investigation ( M S T B C 1 9 9 8 ) . A n important o p e r a t i o n a l c o m p o n e n t of the A I A a r e the m a n a g e m e n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , or A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Impact M e a s u r e s (AIM) p o s e d by the a r c h a e o l o g i s t to mitigate the i m p a c t of d e v e l o p m e n t activities o n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i m p a c t m a n a g e m e n t m e a s u r e s a r e i m p l e m e n t e d for o p e r a t i o n s a u t h o r i z e d t h r o u g h p r e - h a r v e s t silviculture p r e s c r i p t i o n s , cutting p e r m i t s , l o g g i n g p l a n s , a n d r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r m i t s . " T h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e i n t e n d e d to p r e v e n t , a v o i d o r r e d u c e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o f forest m a n a g e m e n t activities o n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s a n d i n c l u d e mitigation, c o m p e n s a t i o n , s u r v e i l l a n c e , monitoring a n d e m e r g e n c y i m p a c t m a n a g e m e n t " ( M S B T C 1 9 9 7 b ) .  T h e identification a n d distribution of C M T s is a field of s t u d y in a n d of itself, m o s t often c a r r i e d out by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d d e n d r o c h r o n o l o g i s t s a n d is not the f o c u s of this t h e s i s . H o w e v e r , s i n c e C M T s a r e u s e d a s a v e h i c l e for e x a m i n i n g First N a t i o n i n v o l v e m e n t in forest m a n a g e m e n t , a brief d i s c u s s i o n in the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of s t u d y i n g C M T s is w a r r a n t e d .  T h e identifying f e a t u r e s of a C M T a r e the s c a r s resulting f r o m tool u s e a n d fiber r e m o v a l . T h e C M T c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m p r o p o s e d by the M O F (1998) is b a s e d o n the type of m o d i f i c a t i o n p r e s e n t o n the tree. T h r e e m a i n g r o u p s of C M T s w e r e identified: b a r k - s t r i p p e d t r e e s (the m o s t c o m m o n ) , aboriginally l o g g e d t r e e s , a n d other m o d i f i e d t r e e s ( s u c h a s s a p or pitch c o l l e c t i o n t r e e s ) ( M O F 1 9 9 8 ) . S c a r s left f r o m h u m a n alteration a r e often i n d i s c e r n i b l e f r o m natural s c a r s ; t h e r e f o r e t h e p r e s e n c e of tool m a r k s u s u a l l y p r o v i d e s the c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e that the tree is in fact a C M T . F o r e x a m p l e , a t a p e r e d barkstrip s c a r o n a c e d a r tree a l s o r e s e m b l e s a type of s c a r that c o u l d b e m a d e w h e n o n e tree falls a g a i n s t a c e d a r , tearing off a strip of bark a s it s l i d e s d o w n the trunk of the tree. T o positively identify the tree a s a C M T , a n a r c h a e o l o g i s t look for: a) other s c a r e d trees in the vicinity, b) tool m a r k s at the b a s e of the s c a r , a n d c) site c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that m a y lend the a r c h a e o l o g i s t to b e l i e v e that traditional h a r v e s t i n g m a y h a v e t a k e n p l a c e in the a r e a (a c l o s e proximity to w a t e r is o n e p o s s i b l e indicator) ( M O F 1 9 9 8 ) .  30  D e n d r o c h r o n o l o g y , forest p a t h o l o g y a n d a r c h a e o l o g y p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l m e t h o d s for a g i n g a n d identifying h u m a n i n t e r f e r e n c e patterns ( E l d r i d g e 1996). E t h n o g r a p h y a n d historical r e s e a r c h a r e u s e d to d e t e r m i n e historical land u s e patterns of First N a t i o n s o c i e t i e s . S i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of the B C T r e a t y P r o c e s s , a n d v a r i o u s other land c l a i m p r o c e s s e s , the information g l e a n e d f r o m C M T s o n historical land u s e a n d o c c u p a t i o n h a s b e c o m e i n v a l u a b l e (Stryd a n d F e d d e m a 1 9 9 8 )  T h e t e m p o r a l a n d s p a t i a l distribution of C M T s a c r o s s the l a n d s c a p e v a r i e s , d e p e n d i n g o n cultural, e c o s y s t e m a n d historical i n f l u e n c e s . In British C o l u m b i a , C M T s h a v e b e e n u s e d to e s t i m a t e forest u s e a n d historical p o p u l a t i o n c h a n g e s of First N a t i o n p e o p l e s (Stryd a n d E l d r i d g e 1 9 9 3 ) . B y a g i n g C M T s , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d d e n d r o c h r o n o l o g i s t s h a v e b e e n a b l e to e s t a b l i s h a long tradition of c o n t i n u o u s u s e of the forest ( M o b l e y a n d E l d r i d g e 1 9 9 2 ) . T h e t e m p o r a l distribution of w o o d u s e p r o v i d e d further insight into population c h a n g e s in First N a t i o n s o c i e t i e s s i n c e the arrival of E u r o p e a n s .  C M T s a r e f o u n d in m a n y a r e a s of British C o l u m b i a , O r e g o n , W a s h i n g t o n , A l a s k a , Idaho a n d M o n t a n a ( B e r n i c k 1 9 8 4 ; M a g n e a n d M a t s o n 1 9 8 4 ; S t e w a r t 1 9 8 4 ; B e r n i c k 1 9 8 5 ; H i c k s 1 9 8 5 ; M a c k 1 9 8 5 ; TirrulJ o n e s 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e t y p e s of cultural m o d i f i c a t i o n s f o u n d , a n d the s p e c i e s of tree u s e d , v a r y a c c o r d i n g to the culture, e c o s y s t e m , a n d r e s i s t a n c e of the C M T to natural d e c a y p r o c e s s e s . T h e m o s t i m m e d i a t e threat to C M T s h o w e v e r is h u m a n i m p a c t , n a m e l y forest d e v e l o p m e n t activities.  G r o w i n g d e m a n d s o n forest r e s o u r c e s h a v e r e s u l t e d in conflict b e t w e e n e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , First N a t i o n s a n d the f o r e s t industry.  In British C o l u m b i a , cultural r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t h a s b e e n a r e a c t i v e p r o c e s s ,  m o s t often in r e s p o n s e to forest d e v e l o p m e n t activities that t h r e a t e n to d e s t r o y cultural s i t e s . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s that w e r e c o n d u c t e d o n M e a r e s Island in 1 9 8 5 (Stryd a n d E l d r i d g e 1993) a n d C l a y o q u o t S o u n d ( C l a y o q u o t S o u n d S c i e n t i f i c P a n e l 1 9 9 5 ) w e r e initiated by g o v e r n m e n t in r e s p o n s e to public protest a n d they m a r k the a p p e a r a n c e of a n e w strategy by First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a n d o t h e r s , to d e f i n e traditional cultural r e s o u r c e s a s " a r c h a e o l o g i c a l " s i t e s in the belief that legislation (Heritage Conservation Act) w o u l d p r o v i d e protection ( A p l a n d 1 9 9 3 ) a n d g u a r d a g a i n s t forest d e v e l o p m e n t activity.  31  3.1.2.1.2  Determining C M T Significance  C u l t u r a l l y m o d i f i e d t r e e s r e p r e s e n t a time w h e n the P e o p l e d e p e n d e d o n the r e s o u r c e s of the f o r e s t s for m o r e than j o b s a n d p a p e r m o n e y . T h e livelihood of m a n y f a m i l i e s r e v o l v e d a r o u n d h o u s e h o l d s u p p l i e s p r o d u c e d f r o m t r e e s , including clothing, matting, shelter, a n d b a s k e t s for berry p i c k i n g . In the e a r l y 1 8 0 0 ' s , b a s k e t s a l s o b e c a m e a major trading c o m m o d i t y that p r o d u c e d a n i n c o m e for m a n y First N a t i o n s f a m i l i e s (Laforet a n d Y o r k 1998). T h e t e r m "culturally m o d i f i e d tree" c a n b e u s e d to d e s c r i b e a w i d e variety of t r e e s that h a v e b e e n altered in s o m e w a y by First N a t i o n s p e o p l e ; f r o m t r e e s s t r i p p e d of their bark for b a s k e t m a k i n g m a t e r i a l s , to plank r e m o v a l t r e e s a n d burial s i t e s . T h i s i n t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s b e t w e e n the First N a t i o n s of the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t a n d c e d a r m a y d a t e b a c k a s far a s 3 0 0 0 y e a r s ( H e b d a a n d M a t h e w e s 1984).  T h e e x t e n s i v e u s e of W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a n d yellow c e d a r by P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t c o a s t First N a t i o n s p e o p l e a s d e p i c t e d by S t e w a r t (1984b) e x p l a i n s the v a s t n u m b e r of C M T s b e i n g f o u n d o n f o r e s t e d l a n d s . S t u d i e s in e t h n o b o t a n y h a v e u n c o v e r e d m a n y u s e s of t r e e s by First N a t i o n s p e o p l e , including m e d i c i n a l , c e r e m o n i a l , t e c h n i c a l , a n d e c o n o m i c u s e s ( T u r n e r 1 9 9 0 , 1 9 9 7 , 1 9 9 8 ) . M o r e recently, a b o o k d e d i c a t e d s o l e l y to the s t u d y of C M T s of H a n s o n Island, off the w e s t c o a s t of V a n c o u v e r Island h a s c a u s e d s o m e c o n t r o v e r s y , e s p e c i a l l y o v e r the distinction b e t w e e n naturally a n d culturally s c a r e d t r e e s ( G a r r i c k 1998).  A r c h e o l o g i s t s a r e continually refining their s a m p l i n g s t r a t e g i e s a s m o r e information a b o u t C M T distribution s u r f a c e s f r o m a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s , C M T i n v e n t o r i e s a n d T r a d i t i o n a l U s e S t u d i e s ( T U S ) . T h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d with dating C M T s h a s i n s p i r e d n e w d e n d r o c h r o n o l o g y r e s e a r c h , a i d e d by the latest in tree dating t e c h n o l o g y . Unfortunately for f o r e s t m a n a g e r s a n d First N a t i o n s l o c a t e d o n f o r e s t e d l a n d s s c h e d u l e d for d e v e l o p m e n t , there h a s b e e n v e r y little w o r k d o n e that directly a d d r e s s e s the m a n a g e m e n t of C M T s .  T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of C M T s to scientific fields of s t u d y s u c h a s a r c h a e o l o g y a n d d e n d r o c h r o n o l o g y r e s t s in their u n i q u e feature a s b e i n g both a cultural artifact a n d a living c o m p o n e n t of the f o r e s t e c o s y s t e m .  32  C M T s c a n p r o v i d e d a t e s a n d information relating directly to traditional s u b s i s t e n c e activities of local A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s ( M a c k 1 9 8 5 , B e r g l a n d 1 9 9 2 , R e f ) . H o w e v e r , like all other living t h i n g s , C M T s a r e s u b j e c t to the natural p r o c e s s e s of d e c a y a n d mortality.  T h i s natural p r e s s u r e , a l o n g with h u m a n  p r e s s u r e s of f o r e s t d e v e l o p m e n t , h a s a w a k e n e d the n e e d to c o n s e r v e this i n v a l u a b l e , n o n r e n e w a b l e , cultural h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e ( M a c k 1 9 8 5 ) .  T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of C M T s h a s b e e n articulated b y First N a t i o n s in a n u m b e r of different w a y s . B e l o w is a n p a s s a g e f r o m t h e N a m g i s N e w s l e t t e r (July 2001 :np). T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of identifying C M T s in the traditional territory s h o u l d not b e u n d e r s t a t e d . B y f o r m a l l y identifying C M T s in the traditional territory w e a r e a b l e to m a k e a link b e t w e e n p r e s e n t - d a y p r a c t i c e s a n d the historical u s e of the territory. T h i s h e l p s u s to m e e t the test s e t out b e t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t of C a n a d a in its 1 9 9 7 d e c i s i o n in t h e c a s e known a s Delgamuukw.  A r c h e o l o g i s t s a n d cultural r e s o u r c e m a n a g e r s r e c o g n i z e the n e e d to d e v e l o p m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n m a n a g e r s of t h e f o r e s t s a n d m a n a g e r s of the p r o v i n c e ' s cultural heritage. T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s , s u c h a s C M T s , h a s c h a n g e d o v e r time a n d reflects both the p h i l o s o p h i c a l c h a n g e s the field of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t a n d e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s felt b y First N a t i o n s to p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e of their distinct cultural identity in their a t t e m p t s to p r o v e A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title (Layton 1 9 8 8 , D e P a o l i 1999).  3.1.3 Culturally Modified T r e e s and Aboriginal Rights A s the definition of ' A b o r i g i n a l right' is d e b a t e d in t h e court of l a w the Ministry o f F o r e s t s , the forest industry, a n d First N a t i o n s h a v e h a d to d e a l with t h e i m m e d i a t e reality that First N a t i o n s p e o p l e h a v e b e e n b u r d e n e d with t h e responsibility of proving the e x i s t e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title, a n d g o v e r n m e n t t h e b u r d e n of infringement justification.  H e r e i n lies t h e c o n f l u e n c e of a r c h a e o l o g y a n d  forestry, a s the r u l e s of e v i d e n c e for proving a b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title f a v o u r s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of material e v i d e n c e to c o r r o b o r a t e oral e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d in court ( E l i a s 1 9 9 3 , C r u i k s h a n k 1998).  T h e i n c l u s i o n of C M T s a s cultural heritage r e s o u r c e s in B . C . h a s i n f l u e n c e d t h e relationship b e t w e e n forest m a n a g e r s , a r c h e o l o g i s t s , a n d First N a t i o n s like n o other cultural h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e in British  33  C o l u m b i a . T h e a c c e p t a n c e of A b o r i g i n a l a n d treaty rights by the F e d e r a l a n d P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , the o n s e t of British C o l u m b i a ' s m o d e r n - d a y treaty m a k i n g p r o c e s s , a n d legislative c h a n g e s affecting the p r a c t i c e of forestry in the P r o v i n c e h a v e all contributed to the i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n of A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s role in forest m a n a g e m e n t . C u l t u r a l heritage r e s o u r c e s , s u c h a s C M T s , e x e m p l i f y the very nature a n d s c o p e of historical A b o r i g i n a l forest u s e .  F o r forest m a n a g e r s , the v a l u e of C M T s lies in their c a p a c i t y to indicate the e x i s t e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l rights. A s a n indicator o f p o s s i b l e existing a b o r i g i n a l rights, it is important to b e a b l e to c o n s t a n t l y identify C M T s a n d p r e - d e t e r m i n e their location for m o d e l i n g p u r p o s e s . H e n c e the majority of r e s e a r c h o n C M T s is n o w d i r e c t e d at d e t e r m i n i n g the distribution of C M T s o v e r a l a n d s c a p e .  First N a t i o n s , a s c l a i m a n t s of A b o r i g i n a l rights m u s t b e p r e p a r e d to c a r r y t h e b u r d e n o f proof, a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s h a v e the potential for providing s u c h proof. T h e threat of forest d e v e l o p m e n t in a r e a s c l a i m e d a s traditional territory h a s i n c r e a s e d the p r e s s u r e o n First N a t i o n s to protect e v i d e n c e o f land u s e a n d o c c u p a n c y . " T h e r e is no longer a s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n a s to the s o u r c e of a b o r i g i n a l rights [but] there a r e still a b u n d a n t opportunities to c h a l l e n g e a n y c l a i m of a b o r i g i n a l rights" ( E l i a s 1 9 9 3 : 2 3 5 ) .  3.2 3.2.1  A B O R I G I N A L PARTICIPATION IN T H E M A N A G E M E N T O F L A N D S A N D  RESOURCES  Historical Context  T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f important historical d o c u m e n t s that link the right to g o v e r n l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s with the c l a i m of A b o r i g i n a l a n d treaty rights: the Royal Proclamation of 1763, the Constitution Act, 1867, a n d the Constitution Act,  the Oregon Treaty of 1846,  1982. T h e Royal Proclamation e x p o s e s two v e r y  important v i e w s of the t i m e , first that the Indians did p r a c t i c e s o m e f o r m o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p a n d selfg o v e r n m e n t , a n d s e c o n d that b e c a u s e of this land title a p r o c e s s for e x t i n g u i s h i n g title w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d . F u r t h e r to this, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 e s t a b l i s h e d t h e C r o w n s fiduciary obligation to A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e by a s s u m i n g the role of protector o f Indian interests, a n d the s o l e b e n e f a c t o r of the e x t i n g u i s h m e n t s o f Indian l a n d title ( R C A P 1 9 9 5 ; I s a a c 1999)  34  T h e b o u n d a r y dividing the territories of the U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d British C o l o n i e s w a s e x t e n d e d w e s t w a r d o v e r t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s in 1 8 4 6 with t h e s i g n i n g o f the Oregon Treaty, t h e r e f o r e m a r k i n g t h e a s s e r t i o n of British s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r the land n o w k n o w n a s British C o l u m b i a . T h e right for t h e p r o v i n c e of British C o l u m b i a to c l a i m title to land a n d m a n a g e a s s o c i a t e d r e s o u r c e s is e x p r e s s e d in s . 1 0 9 of t h e British North American Act ( n o w the Constitution Act) of 1 8 6 7 . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y for all l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s within the b o u n d a r i e s of the p r o v i n c e w a s g i v e n to the G o v e r n m e n t of British C o l u m b i a w h e n it e n t e r e d into C o n f e d e r a t i o n in 1871 ( B . C . T e r m s of U n i o n 1 8 7 1 ) . T h e Terms of Union a l s o i n d i c a t e that the c o n t i n u i n g role of t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t in g o v e r n i n g the lives of Indians a n d l a n d s r e s e r v e d for Indians (s. 13).  T h r o u g h o u t the history of C a n a d a , A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s h a v e a s s e r t e d their distinct rights to l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s . F o r the better part o f t h e last century, f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s , a s w e l l a s t h e judicial s y s t e m , did not s u p p o r t the a s s e r t i o n of t h e s e rights ( I s a a c 1 9 9 9 ) . T o q u a s h t h e s e a s s e r t i o n s , the g o v e r n m e n t of C a n a d a a m e n d e d the Indian Act in the e a r l y 1 9 2 0 ' s to i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s that p r e v e n t e d Indians f r o m obtaining l e g a l c o u n s e l in pursuit of rights o r l a n d c l a i m s . T h i s p r o v i s i o n r e m a i n e d in effect until 1 9 4 1 . T h e effects of this p r o v i s i o n w e r e particularly h a r s h in British C o l u m b i a w h e r e treaty m a k i n g to e x t i n g u i s h Indian land title c a m e to a n e n d shortly after f o u r t e e n s m a l l treaties o n V a n c o u v e r Island w e r e s i g n e d .  H o w e v e r , the Constitution Act, 1982 c h a n g e d this b y r e c o g n i z i n g a n d affirming e x i s t i n g a b o r i g i n a l a n d treaty rights in s . 3 5 ( 1 ) . A s I s a a c ( 1 9 9 9 : 1 ) s t a t e s " a b o r i g i n a l rights a r e t h e l e g a l e m b o d i m e n t o f A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e ' s c l a i m to their traditional l a n d s a n d to t h e activities, c u s t o m s , a n d traditions flowing t h e r e f r o m " . T h e o n g o i n g d e v e l o p m e n t of A b o r i g i n a l l a w is r e v i e w e d briefly in t h e next s e c t i o n , h o w e v e r the intention of the r e v i e w is to p r o v i d e a brief d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title definitions t h r o u g h c a s e l a w within the context of forest d e v e l o p m e n t in British C o l u m b i a .  3.2.2 Indigenous P e o p l e s in Forest Management: International Context T h e W o r l d C o m m i s s i o n o n E n v i r o n m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t p r o d u c e d a report titled Our Common Future (1987) that e x p l o r e d , in part, the state of I n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . T h e report e n c o u r a g e d the international c o m m u n i t y to a d d r e s s i s s u e s s u c h a s I n d i g e n o u s rights, culture a n d traditional 35  k n o w l e d g e . H o w e v e r , t h e m o s t n o t a b l e initiative to o c c u r within t h e international a r e n a w a s the " E a r t h S u m m i t " c o n f e r e n c e s p o n s o r e d b y the U n i t e d N a t i o n s in 1 9 9 2 . T h e international a g r e e m e n t s that r e s u l t e d f r o m this m e e t i n g i n c l u d e d t h e Convention on Biological Diversity, Agenda 21, and Guiding Principles on Forests ( W o r l d C o m m i s s i o n o n E n v i r o n m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t 1 9 9 2 , C l a y o q u o t S o u n d S c i e n t i f i c P a n e l 1 9 9 5 ; P . S m i t h 1995). T h e y r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a d d r e s s i n g i n d i g e n o u s rights, culture a n d traditional k n o w l e d g e in r e s o u r c e u s e a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n initiatives. T h e inequities b e t w e e n i n d i g e n o u s a n d n o n - i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s that w e r e highlighted in t h e s e international d o c u m e n t s during the e a r l y 1 9 9 0 ' s brought attention to the n e e d for g r e a t e r A b o r i g i n a l i n v o l v e m e n t in forest m a n a g e m e n t . A s a result, C a n a d a b e g a n to e x p l o r e the role A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e p l a y e d in t h e r e a c h i n g s u s t a i n a b l e forest management goals.  3.2.3 Aboriginal Peoples and Agenda Setting in Forest Management: National Context T h e f o r m a t i o n o f the C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l of F o r e s t M i n i s t e r s ( C C F M ) in t h e m i d 1 9 8 0 ' s m a r k e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a national strategy t o w a r d s a c h i e v i n g s u s t a i n a b l e f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t in C a n a d a .  Through  a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c f o r u m s , t h e state of C a n a d a ' s f o r e s t s a n d t h e future o f the f o r e s t s e c t o r w e r e e x a m i n e d , resulting in a National Forest Sector Strategy in 1 9 8 7 ( C C F M 1 9 9 8 ) . H o w e v e r , this strategy reflected a p r i m a r y c o n c e r n with s u s t a i n i n g timber y i e l d s , a n d little to i n c r e a s e o r alter the role o f C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s in g e n e r a l in f o r m i n g n e w forestry d i r e c t i o n s . It w a s not until t h e B r u n d t l a n d C o m m i s s i o n (the U n i t e d N a t i o n s W o r l d C o m m i s s i o n o n E n v i r o n m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ) in 1 9 9 2 that C a n a d a ' s c h a n g i n g attitudes a n d v a l u e s w e r e e x p r e s s e d a n d c o n s i d e r e d b y the C C F M .  A n e w national forest strategy w a s r e l e a s e d in 1 9 9 2 , Sustainable Forests: A Canadian Commitment a n d in it n e w forestry d i r e c t i o n s d e s i r e d b y C a n a d i a n s w e r e identified, a n d t h e result w a s a m a n d a t e that w o u l d e x p a n d forest m a n a g e m e n t b e y o n d e c o n o m i c v a l u e s to i n c l u d e s o c i a l a n d cultural v a l u e s ( C a n a d a 1998). O n c e forest m a n a g e m e n t o b j e c t i v e s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d , t h e next p h a s e i n v o l v e d d e t e r m i n i n g h o w to i m p l e m e n t , m e a s u r e a n d monitor s u s t a i n a b l e forest p r a c t i c e s .  In 1 9 9 5 t h e S t e e r i n g C o m m i t t e e o n C r i t e r i a a n d Indicators o f S u s t a i n a b l e M a n a g e m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s  F o r e s t s p u b l i s h e d Defining Sustainable Forest Management: A Canadian Approach to Criteria and 36  Indicators ( C C F M 1 9 9 7 ) . T h i s d o c u m e n t listed six criteria that r e p r e s e n t e d f o r e s t v a l u e s , e a c h with indicators that to b e u s e d to m e a s u r e the criteria (or v a l u e ) a n d track s u s t a i n a b l e f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t p r o g r e s s in C a n a d a . Included within the s i x criteria w a s ' S o c i e t y ' s R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ' (Criteria #6), w h i c h e n c o m p a s s e d the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of forest m a n a g e m e n t activities. T h i s criterion i n c l u d e d indicators s u c h a s the r e c o g n i t i o n of A b o r i g i n a l a n d treaty rights a n d A b o r i g i n a l participation of f o r e s t e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t initiatives ( C C F M 1 9 9 7 : 1 0 5 ) .  In 1 9 9 8 , the C C F M r e l e a s e d Canada's Forest Strategy for 1998 to 2003. T h i s " r e n e w e d plan of a c t i o n " w a s m e a n t to g u i d e efforts for a c h i e v i n g s u s t a i n a b l e forest m a n a g e m e n t by " d e a l i n g in a forthright m a n n e r with the c o n n e c t e d n e s s a m o n g e c o l o g i c a l , e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l a n d cultural a s p e c t s of forest u s e a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n " ( C C F M 1998:1). N i n e strategic priorities w e r e identified to g u i d e p o l i c i e s a n d a c t i o n s of g o v e r n m e n t , industry, n o n - g o v e r n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a n d c o m m u n i t i e s . A s with C a n a d a ' s criteria a n d indicators f r a m e w o r k , A b o r i g i n a l i s s u e s w e r e a d d r e s s e d . S t r a t e g i c direction n u m b e r s e v e n titled " A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s : I s s u e s o f R e l a t i o n s h i p " a c k n o w l e d g e d the long history of A b o r i g i n a l forest u s e in C a n a d a , constitutionally e n t r e n c h e d A b o r i g i n a l a n d treaty rights, a n d the potential i m p a c t s o f land c l a i m s o n forest m a n a g e m e n t . A f o c u s w a s p l a c e o n d e v e l o p i n g p a r t n e r s h i p s b e t w e e n A b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s , g o v e r n m e n t a n d industry.  T o m a k e the scientific c o m m i t m e n t s of the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t S t r a t e g y t a n g i b l e , the f o r e s t s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o l o g y c o m m u n i t i e s c a m e together u n d e r the s p o n s o r s h i p of the C C F M to d e v e l o p a c o u r s e of a c t i o n for i m p l e m e n t i n g the d i r e c t i v e s of the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t S t r a t e g y . W i t h i n the s e v e n t h e m a t i c a r e a s of s t u d y identified in the National Forest Science and Technology Course of Action ( 1 9 9 8 ) A b o r i g i n a l i s s u e s a r e a d d r e s s e d , reinforcing the important role of A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e in a c h i e v i n g s u s t a i n a b l e forest resource management.  T h e majority of C a n a d a ' s A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e live within p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t s . A b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s (Indian r e s e r v e s ) a r e m o r e often than not natural r e s o u r c e d e p e n d e n t c o m m u n i t i e s .  U p o n r e c o g n i z i n g the  significant i m p a c t that land c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t s w o u l d h a v e on r e s o u r c e a c c e s s a n d m a n a g e m e n t  37  jurisdiction, t h e g o v e r n m e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d the First N a t i o n s F o r e s t r y P r o g r a m ( F N F P ) , a division of the C a n a d i a n F o r e s t S e r v i c e . T h e F N F P w a s " d e s i g n e d to i m p r o v e the e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of status Indian c o m m u n i t i e s with full c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the principles of s u s t a i n a b l e f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t " ( F N F P 1998:5). T h e o b j e c t i v e s o f this p r o g r a m f o c u s o n e n h a n c i n g c a p a c i t y within First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s a n d p a r t n e r s h i p d e v e l o p m e n t b e t w e e n First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s a n d f o r e s t - b a s e d b u s i n e s s e s a n d g o v e r n m e n t a n d industry. T h i s p r o g r a m , a l o n g with o t h e r s , h a s p r o v i d e d f u n d s to First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s to d e v e l o p c a p a c i t y in a r e a s that h a v e e n a b l e d c o n s u l t a t i o n o n forestry-related i s s u e s , s u c h as C M T management.  3.2.4 First Nations and Forest Management in British Columbia In the late 1 9 8 0 ' s a n d e a r l y 1 9 9 0 ' s , a n u m b e r of historical e v e n t s took p l a c e within British C o l u m b i a that p r o p e l l e d t h e First N a t i o n s - f o r e s t r y i s s u e s to the forefront of p o l i c y - m a k i n g a g e n d a ' s : E n v i r o n m e n t a l protest, t h e l a u n c h of the British C o l u m b i a ' s m o d e r n - d a y tri-partite treaty p r o c e s s , n e w legislation g o v e r n i n g forestry p r a c t i c e s in the p r o v i n c e , a n d legal d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c l a i m s of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title ( d i s c u s s e d in S e c t i o n 3.3) a r e e x a m p l e s of s u c h e v e n t s . A brief d i s c u s s i o n of critical e v e n t s p r o v i d e s c o n t e x t for t h e f o r m a l c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s utilized in forest p l a n n i n g a n d t h e m a n a g e m e n t of culturally m o d i f i e d t r e e s in British C o l u m b i a .  In 1 9 8 5 , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s a n d First N a t i o n s p r o t e s t e d M a c M i l l a n - B l o e d e l ' s p r o p o s e d h a r v e s t i n g plan of M e a r e s Island off the w e s t c o a s t of C l a y o q u o t S o u n d o n V a n c o u v e r Island. T h e N u u - c h a h - n u l t h First N a t i o n s o u g h t a n injunction, c l a i m i n g a b o r i g i n a l title to M e a r e s Island. T h e injunction w a s g r a n t e d in 1985  1 1  a n d f o r e s t d e v e l o p m e n t w a s halted, a n d r e m a i n s s o still today. In 1 9 9 3 , First N a t i o n s ( N u u - c h a h -  nulth N a t i o n ) a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t b l o c k a d e d l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s in C l a y o q u o t S o u n d a n d t h e fight to s a v e B . C . t e m p e r a t e rainforest b e c a m e t h e f o c u s m e d i a w o r l d w i d e . T h e m o t i v e s for direct action differed b e t w e e n e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s a n d First N a t i o n s , but the N u u - c h a h - n u l t h N a t i o n c l a i m s to traditional l a n d s d i d not g o u n h e a r d . F o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s h a d b e e n inextricably tied to A b o r i g i n a l rights c l a i m s .  MacMillian Bloedel Ltd. V. Mullin ef a/.;Martin et al. v. R in Right of BC and MacMillian Bloedel Ltd. [1985] B.C.C.A. a.k.a. Meares Island case 1 1  38  3.3  3.3.1  A B O R I G I N A L R I G H T S A N D F O R E S T M A N A G E M E N T IN BRITISH C O L U M B I A  Aboriginal Rights and their Impact on Forest Policy D e v e l o p m e n t in British C o l u m b i a  S i n c e the e n t r e n c h m e n t of a b o r i g i n a l a n d treaty +rights in the Constitution Act,  1982,  there h a s b e e n a  s t e a d y flow of c a s e l a w d e v e l o p e d a r o u n d defining the nature a n d s c o p e of a b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title. In m a n y c a s e s , this l a w h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d a r o u n d natural r e s o u r c e extraction a c t i v i t i e s .  12  O f particular  interest to this t h e s i s is the d e v e l o p m e n t of forest policy a r o u n d the m a n a g e m e n t of cultural h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s ( s p e c i f i c a l l y culturally m o d i f i e d t r e e s ) a s a result of the l e g a l d e c i s i o n s that p l a c e d the b u r d e n of p r o v i n g the e x i s t e n c e of a b o r i g i n a l rights o n First N a t i o n s , a n d the b u r d e n of justifying infringement on s u c h rights o n the C r o w n in a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t of their fiduciary obligation to c o n s u l t r e g a r d i n g the potential e x i s t e n c e of t h e s e rights. T a b l e 5 b e l o w s h o w s the c h r o n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t of c a s e l a w pertaining to A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title s i n c e 1 9 7 3 . T h e evolution of B C legislation g o v e r n i n g the m a n a g e m e n t of l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s is a l s o p r e s e n t e d for the s a m e t i m e f r a m e .  12 For example: logging was addressed in Meares Island, fishing rights in Sparrow, Van der Peet, and mining and consultation was addressed in Halfway. 39  Table 5: Event listing of court decisions regarding Aboriginal rights and the development of British Columbia forest policy  C A S E  L E G I S L A T I O N ,R E G U L A T I O N A N D  L A W  • C a l d e r : Aboriginal title exists under common 1 law  973  1982  • G u e r i n : fiduciary obligation of the Crown is "trust like"  1984  • MearesIsland:  Injunction granted to halt 198 logging on Meares Island. Significant evidence (CMTs) of prior use and occupancy by First Nations studied and documented.  • Sparrow:  Established that the "trust like" relationship between the Crown and aboriginal peoples required the Crown to consult with aboriginal peoples  P O L I C Y  • Constitution Act s . ( 3 5 ) ( 1 ) : "existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of C a n a d a are hereby recognized and affirmed"  5  1990  1991  • V a n d e r P e e t : Aboriginal rights defined a s an activity that is an element, custom or tradition integral to the distinctive culture of the aboriginal group claiming the right.  1993  • Treaty Commission Act: B . C . enters a tripartite treaty making process with C a n a d a and B.C.'s First Nations people  1994  • P r o t o c o l A g r e e m e n t between the M O F and Archaeology Branch on the Management of Cultural Heritage R e s o u r c e s  1995  • Forest Practices Code Act.  1996  • M O F P r o t e c t i o n o fA b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s Policy; • M O FC o n s u l t a t i o nG u i d e l i n e s ; • Revision of the M O F and Archaeology Branch Protocol Agreement; • Operational Planning Regulations amended; Heritage Conservation Act amended  1997 Aboriginal rights are affirmed and the Sparrow test is reiterated. Aboriginal title is defined as "exclusive use and occupation of land" • Delgamuukw:  • S i s k a : Injunction sought by Nlaka'pamux Nation to protect traditional use areas in the Siska Valley. Injunction denied.  1998  • K i t k a t l a : C M T located in valley scheduled 1 for forest development, injunction sought by First Nation (denied)  • C r o w nL a n dA c t i v i t i e sa n dA b o r i g i n a l Rights Policy Framework (revised) • M O F C M T H a n d b o o k , Vancouver Forest Region  • B r i t i s hC o l u m b i aC o n s u l t a t i o nG u i d e l i n e s ; •  999  Revision of M O F C M T Handbook  • Revision policy; • Revision • Revision Procedures  40  of M O F Aboriginal Rights and Title of M O F Consultation Guidelines; of M O F C M T Management (Vancouver Forest Region)  T h e 1 9 7 3 Calder d e c i s i o n  1 3  e s t a b l i s h e d that A b o r i g i n a l title e x i s t e d in c o m m o n law, a n d w a s rooted in  " l o n g - t e r m o c c u p a t i o n , p o s s e s s i o n a n d u s e " of traditional territories (qtd. in K u l c h y s k i 1 9 9 4 : 6 2 ) . T h e i m p a c t of the Calder d e c i s i o n on C a n a d i a n law is p e r h a p s b e s t d e s c r i b e d by A s c h (1997) w h e n h e wrote that " s u c h is the p o w e r of l a w that this d e c i s i o n set in motion a c o u r s e that, ultimately, led g o v e r n m e n t s to m o v e f r o m a position w h e r e A b o r i g i n a l rights w e r e d e e m e d to exist to a p l a c e w h e r e both A b o r i g i n a l a n d treaty rights w e r e r e c o g n i z e d a n d affirmed in the 1 9 8 2 Canadian Constitution Act."  (iv)  M o r e t h a n a d e c a d e later, the S u p r e m e C o u r t of C a n a d a interpreted S e c t i o n 3 5 (1) of the Constitution Act,  1982,  for the first time in the  Guerin d e c i s i o n . T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t ruled that the M u s q u e a m 1 4  "Existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of C a n a d a are hereby recognized and affirmed" (Section 35 (1),  Constitution Act, 1982)  B a n d h a d l e g a l rights to their r e s e r v e l a n d s , a n d that t h e s e rights w e r e b a s e d o n pre-contact control and possession of land ( M o r s e 1 9 9 1 ; S a n d e r s 1 9 9 6 ) . T h e C o u r t a l s o further interpreted S e c t i o n 3 5 (1) to m e a n the C r o w n h a d a fiduciary obligation (or trust-like relationship) to C a n a d a ' s A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s , a n d a s s u c h the C r o w n ought to act in the b e s t interest of A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e w h e n d e a l i n g with i s s u e s o n land not s u r r e n d e r e d to the C r o w n t h r o u g h a treaty p r o c e s s . S i n c e the majority of l a n d in B . C . w a s not s u r r e n d e r e d to the C r o w n v i a treaty this d e c i s i o n h a d far r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s that affect all British C o l u m b i a n ' s .  A l t h o u g h A b o r i g i n a l rights w e r e affirmed in the Constitution Act,  1982,  the s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t of  A b o r i g i n a l rights r e m a i n e d u n c l e a r . T h e 1 9 9 0 Sparrow c a s e , a l t h o u g h not d e a l i n g with the breadth of A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , i n t r o d u c e d a test that w o u l d b e u s e d by the C o u r t s a n d g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s to 15  d e f i n e the nature a n d s c o p e of A b o r i g i n a l rights.  1 3  Calder v. Attorney General (B.C.), [1973] S.C.R. 313.  1 4  Guerin v. R., [1984] 2 S.C.R. 335.  1 5  The Sparrow case dealt with fishing rights only.  41  A c c o r d i n g to the Sparrow test, the first task in d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r or not a n A b o r i g i n a l right h a s b e e n infringed u p o n (unjustifiably or not) is to e s t a b l i s h if in fact a n A b o r i g i n a l right e x i s t s . H o w e v e r , the b u r d e n of proof r e s t s with the A b o r i g i n a l g r o u p c l a i m i n g s u c h rights. A t this time a n a b o r i g i n a l right w a s l o o s e l y d e f i n e d a s a n activity that w a s "integral to the distinctive culture of a n a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t y . " ( E m p h a s i s a d d e d : Ministry of A b o r i g i n a l Affairs 1997). In Delgamuukw (1993) the British C o l u m b i a C o u r t of A p p e a l held that e x t i n g u i s h m e n t s of A b o r i g i n a l rights did not o c c u r prior to 1871 ( B C j o i n e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n ) , a n d therefore c o n t i n u e to  Sparrow Test: 1. Is there an existing aboriginal right? 2. Does the proposed government activity interfere with the right because it: a) is an unreasonable limitation; b) imposes undue hardship; or c) prevents the holder of the right the preferred means of exercising it? 3. If the right is interfered with, the interference maybe justified if: a) there is a valid legislative objective, such as conservation; b) after conservation measures are taken, priority is given to First Nations; c) there is as little infringement as possible; d) in the c a s e of expropriation there is fair compensation; and  e) there has been  consultation  exist in British C o l u m b i a today.  F u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t of w h a t constituted a n a b o r i g i n a l right o c c u r r e d with the 1 9 9 6 Van derPeet d e c i s i o n  1 6  in w h i c h the S u p r e m e C o u r t of C a n a d a ruled that to constitute a n A b o r i g i n a l right, a n a b o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e or c u s t o m m u s t a) b e integral to the distinctive a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t y a n d b) h a s continuity with traditions, c u s t o m s or p r a c t i c e s of the s o c i e t y prior to E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t ( H a n n a et al. 1 9 9 9 : 12).  Because  E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t with First N a t i o n s p e o p l e o c c u r r e d at different t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t B C a n d C a n a d a , the e x i s t e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l rights c o u l d not b e g e n e r a l i z e d to all A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s , a n d w o u l d therefore h a v e to b e d e t e r m i n e d o n a c a s e - b y - c a s e b a s i s (Van derPeet)  T h e s e c o n d s t e p of the Sparrow test a d d r e s s e s the q u e s t i o n of infringement.  O n c e a n existing  A b o r i g i n a l right is d e t e r m i n e d , the C r o w n m u s t d e c i d e if the p r o p o s e d activity, s u c h a s forest d e v e l o p m e n t , infringes u p o n that right. If infringement o c c u r s a s a result of the p r o p o s e d activity, the C r o w n m u s t p r o v e justifiable infringement b a s e d o n the legal s t a n d a r d s of e v i d e n c e . It is in this final s t a g e that c o n s u l t a t i o n with effected First N a t i o n s is m e n t i o n e d a s p r o b a b l e justification for infringement.  R. v. Van derPeet [1996] 2 S.C.R. 507  42  F o l l o w i n g the l a n d m a r k court c a s e s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , the P r o v i n c e of British C o l u m b i a i m p l e m e n t e d Consultation Guidelines (1996) that d e s c r i b e a) the n e e d to c o n s u l t with First N a t i o n s o n a b o r i g i n a l rights a n d b) a d e t a i l e d p r o c e s s for c o n s i d e r i n g the potential of A b o r i g i n a l title in the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s . F o l l o w i n g the Delgamuukw (1997) d e c i s i o n , the g u i d e l i n e s w e r e a m e n d e d to i n c l u d e a d e t a i l e d m e t h o d to c o n s i d e r the potential for a b o r i g i n a l title in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . T h e s e g u i d e l i n e s , a l o n g with the Crown Land Activities and Aboriginal Rights Policy Framework ( 1 9 9 7 ) , g u i d e g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s in c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s with First N a t i o n g r o u p s  T h e Ministry of Forests Aboriginal Rights Policy w a s i m p l e m e n t e d in 1 9 9 5 , r e v i s e d in 1 9 9 7 a n d a g a i n in 1 9 9 9 to reflect the c h a n g i n g role of A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e in r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s . T h e Crown  Land Activities and Aboriginal Rights Policy Framework w a s e s t a b l i s h e d in 1 9 9 4 a n d r e v i s e d in 1 9 9 7 . T h i s policy is in effect at all t i m e s , a n d a p p l i e s g e n e r a l l y to all provincial m i n i s t r i e s a n d officers of the C r o w n o v e r s e e i n g activities a n d e c i s i o n s o n C r o w n l a n d s . T h i s p o l i c y d e s c r i b e s w h e n a n d h o w the 1 7  P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t will a v o i d unjustifiable infringement of k n o w n a b o r i g i n a l rights.  3.3.2 Managing "Public" Forest Lands in British Columbia C o n f l i c t o v e r natural r e s o u r c e u s e is inevitable w h e n the r e s o u r c e in q u e s t i o n is publicly o w n e d . A public r e s o u r c e h a s m a n y " s t a k e h o l d e r s " or interest g r o u p s with conflicting v a l u e s or o b j e c t i v e s that m u s t c o m p e t e for the a l l o c a t i o n a n d u s e of that r e s o u r c e . W h e n the g u i d i n g principle of the d o m i n a n t m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e is s u s t a i n a b l e timber h a r v e s t i n g , a s is the c a s e of f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t in British C o l u m b i a , the p r i m a r y objective, e x p r e s s e d through t i m b e r a l l o c a t i o n , m u s t b e r e c o n c i l e d with m a n y other v a l u e s h e l d by multiple interest g r o u p s (Smith a n d M c D o n o u g h 2 0 0 1 ) . W h e n the d e s i r e d r e s o u r c e , s u c h a s timber, b e c o m e s s c a r c e or i n a c c e s s i b l e , c o m p e t i t i o n i n c r e a s e s , a n d it is at this point that public policy p r o c e s s e s a r e i m p l e m e n t e d in a n attempt to alleviate t e n s i o n a n d conflict ( L . G S m i t h et al. 1997). O n e s u c h p r o c e s s is the public participation p r o c e s s in forest m a n a g e m e n t .  Province of British Columbia. 1997. Crown Land Activities and Aboriginal Rights Policy Framework. Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs, Province of British Columbia.  43  T h e r e a r e m a n y f o r m s of public or citizen participation p r o c e s s e s ; h o w e v e r , f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t h a s historically u s e d the c o n s u l t a t i v e public input m o d e l . In this a p p r o a c h , or typology, the m a n a g e r a s k s the p e o p l e to think a b o u t a plan that they a r e p r e p a r i n g to i m p l e m e n t , p r o v i d e f e e d b a c k a s to their c o n c e r n s a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e s e c o n c e r n s is offered in return ( G e r m a i n 2 0 0 1 ) . T h i s t o p - d o w n a p p r o a c h to forest m a n a g e m e n t is d e r i v e d f r o m the Forest Practices Code Act, w h i c h s t r u c t u r e s h o w the Ministry of F o r e s t s c o n d u c t s p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t . A c c o r d i n g to S e c t i o n 3 9 of the Code ( 1 9 9 5 ) , the h o l d e r of forest l i c e n s e a n d the Ministry of F o r e s t s m u s t m a k e a n o p e r a t i o n a l plan (e.g. F D P ) or a n a m e n d m e n t to a plan a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c for r e v i e w a n d c o m m e n t .  T h e i m p o r t a n c e of c o n s u l t a t i o n in forest m a n a g e m e n t h a s i n c r e a s e d o v e r the last d e c a d e a s a result of i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s of forestry p r a c t i c e s a n d legal d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title, a n i s s u e that is o f particular i m p o r t a n c e in British C o l u m b i a . H o w e v e r , w h a t h a s not b e e n a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s e d by the c o u r t s or forest policy m a k e r s is h o w c o n s u l t a t i o n activity is related to the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s it is m e a n t to s e r v e , in this c a s e C M T m a n a g e m e n t .  T h e District F o r e s t M a n a g e r , a s the statutory d e c i s i o n - m a k e r , forest c o m p a n i e s a s the p l a n n e r s , a r c h e o l o g i s t s a s m a n a g e r s of cultural r e s o u r c e s a n d First N a t i o n s w h o ' s interests or rights a r e that a r e infringed u p o n , n e e d to k n o w w h e t h e r or not the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s is h e l p i n g t h e m m a k e better d e c i s i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , a m e t h o d for investigation the relationship b e t w e e n c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g is n e c e s s a r y .  3.3.2.1  The Decision-Making Process in Forest Management  T h e objective of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s is to e n d up with d e c i s i o n s that g e n e r a l l y satisfy three criteria: a) they a r e s o u n d , b) s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t e d a n d c) m e e t a d e s i r a b l e i m p a c t ( P a t t e r s o n et al. 1992). A s F i g u r e 5 s h o w s , d e c i s i o n s a r e u s u a l l y m a d e in r e s p o n s e to a s t i m u l u s . C o m p l e x d e c i s i o n s require e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s involving r e s e a r c h , reflection a n d priority setting a n d in s o m e c a s e s criteria d e v e l o p m e n t . A s o u n d d e c i s i o n is o f little v a l u e if it is not i m p l e m e n t e d . T h e r e f o r e , s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the d e c i s i o n is a l s o r e q u i r e d . H o w e v e r , to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a d e c i s i o n is a " g o o d " 44  d e c i s i o n the resulting i m p a c t is e x a m i n e d a n d e v a l u a t e d a s to w h e t h e r or not the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the d e c i s i o n l e a d to the d e s i r a b l e i m p a c t ( P a t t e r s o n et al. 1992).  Impact  Decision-Making Process  Analysis  Figure 5: The decision-making process (Adopted from Patterson e r a / . 1984)  R e g a r d l e s s of w h e n d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s b e c o m e involved in the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , it is important that the p r o c e s s b e p l a n n e d out strategically. P a t t e r s o n et al. (1992) identify two important a s p e c t s of strategic p l a n n i n g that d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s s h o u l d k e e p in m i n d : first, d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s m u s t b e c o g n i z a n t of the w h o l e p r o c e s s , a n d s e c o n d , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d b e g i n with d e t e r m i n i n g w h a t the d e s i r e d i m p a c t of the d e c i s i o n is a n d w o r k b a c k w a r d s through the p h a s e s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s .  3.3.2.2 Consultation in Decision-Making A s the p u b l i c b e c o m e s m o r e i n f o r m e d a b o u t d e c i s i o n s m a d e in f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t a n d m o r e importantly the i m p a c t of t h o s e d e c i s i o n s o n the e n v i r o n m e n t , the d e m a n d for p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t in the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s g r o w s ( M c C o o l a n d G u t h r i e 2 0 0 1 ) . T h i s trend h a s b e e n w i d e l y s t u d i e d in natural r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t ( M o o t e et al. 1 9 9 7 ; T u l e r 1 9 9 9 ; G e r m a i n 2 0 0 0 ; M c C o o l a n d G u t h r i e 2 0 0 1 ) . M c C o o l a n d G u t h r i e (2001) a r g u e this trend is o c c u r r i n g a s a result of c h a n g i n g p u b l i c e x p e c t a t i o n s of the g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s e c o s y s t e m s p r o d u c e .  F o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t in British C o l u m b i a h a s u n d e r g o n e a p a r a d i g m shift f r o m s u s t a i n e d yield m a n a g e m e n t to s u s t a i n a b l e f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t ( T r e s e d e r a n d K r o g m a n 1 9 9 9 ) w h i c h h a s b r o a d e n e d the s c o p e m a n a g e m e n t o b j e c t i v e s to i n c l u d e d n o n - t i m b e r forest v a l u e s s u c h a s r e c r e a t i o n opportunities,  45  a e s t h e t i c s , cultural heritage v a l u e s a n d A b o r i g i n a l rights (Lui 1 9 9 4 ) . A s a result, g o v e r n m e n t d e c i s i o n s h a v e b e e n utilizing public participation p r o c e s s e s a n d institutional a r r a n g e m e n t s to inform d e c i s i o n m a k e r s of individual a n d g r o u p interests. O t h e r f a c t o r s influencing the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s include legal o b l i g a t i o n s flowing f r o m judicial r e q u i r e m e n t s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o b l i g a t i o n s resulting f r o m legislated m a n d a t e s and strategic higher-level plans, s u c h a s L a n d and R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t P l a n s ( L R M P ) .  T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r of m o d e l s in the literature u s e d to d e s c r i b e the l e v e l s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g authority or p o w e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s that e v o l v e f r o m certain k i n d s of public participation p r o c e s s e s . T h e c l a s s i c m o d e l u s e d to i n v e s t i g a t e d public participation in natural r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t p l a n n i n g is A r n s t i e n ' s l a d d e r of citizen participation ( A r n s t e i n 1 9 6 9 ) . T h i s m o d e l , r e p l i c a t e d b e l o w ( F i g u r e 7), u s e s eight b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s of citizen participation with e a c h c a t e g o r y , or rung o n the l a d d e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g the extent of c i t i z e n ' s p o w e r in d e t e r m i n i n g the e n d product of a participation p r o c e s s ( A r n s t e i n 1 9 6 9 ) .  Citizen control Degrees of citizen power  Delegated power Partnership Placation  Degrees of Tokenism  Consultation Informing Therapy  Non-participation  Manipulation  Figure 6: Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation (Arnstein 1969: 217)  A r n s t e i n ' s l a d d e r of participation c h a r a c t e r i z e s participation a s the redistributions of p o w e r b e t w e e n the p o w e r h o l d e r s a n d the p o w e r l e s s (Arnstein 1969). In forest m a n a g e m e n t , the level of citizen participation in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s h a s e v o l v e d f r o m n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n to d e g r e e s of t o k e n i s m .  46  Until v e r y recently, the only f o r m of citizen participation offered in forest d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s w a s public c o n s u l t a t i o n . A r n s t e i n (1969) d e s c r i b e s c o n s u l t a t i o n a s a p r o c e s s of i n v o l v e m e n t w h e r e p e o p l e ' s o p i n i o n is s o u g h t , p o s s i b l y influencing the p e r s p e c t i v e of the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r , but in no w a y d o e s the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s g u a r a n t e e direct input into the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ( M a t a k a l a 1 9 9 5 ; B u c h y a n d H o v e r m a n 2 0 0 0 ) . In British C o l u m b i a , a parallel public c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s is u s e d to a d d r e s s A b o r i g i n a l interests o n l a n d s s c h e d u l e d for d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e Ministry of F o r e s t s ' A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s P o l i c y is i m p l e m e n t e d with C o n s u l t a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s ( 1 9 9 7 , r e v i s e d in 1 9 9 9 ) for a d d r e s s i n g both the legal a n d fiduciary o b l i g a t i o n s of the C r o w n r e g a r d i n g First N a t i o n s interests a n d rights to l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s .  A s the d e m a n d for i n c r e a s i n g citizen p o w e r o c c u r s , there a r e a n u m b e r of f a c t o r s to c o n s i d e r w h e n t h o s e that hold the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o w e r b e c o m e i n v o l v e d in a c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s with g r o u p s that h a v e traditionally not held p o w e r to i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s a n d its o u t c o m e s . A n important factor i n f l u e n c i n g the w e i g h t of c o n s u l t a t i o n o n the o u t c o m e of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s is timing ( B u c h y a n d H o v e r v m a n 2 0 0 0 ) . T h a t is, if c o n s u l t a t i o n o c c u r s after the d e c i s i o n is m a d e , the p r o c e s s is s e e n a s m e r e l y a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e with little to no i n f l u e n c e at all o n the d e c i s i o n . F i g u r e 8 b e l o w illustrates the forest p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s in British C o l u m b i a with m a n d a t o r y a n d d i s c r e t i o n a r y c o n s u l t a t i o n procedures indicated.  Legend (^)  Proposed plan Approved plan Discretionary  AOA)  (AIA)  Mandatory  Harvest Referral/ Review  Monitoring/ |> Compliance  Consultation  Figure 7: Forest planning process utilized during 1995-2000 planning period in British Columbia.  47  A n o t h e r factor to c o n s i d e r in the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s is r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of g r o u p interests.  Meaningful  c o n s u l t a t i o n i n v o l v e s f a c e - t o f a c e m e e t i n g s with a p p r o p r i a t e g r o u p r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , if not the d e c i s i o n m a k e r s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s f o r m of direct c o m m u n i c a t i o n is p r e f e r r e d to letters or p h o n e c a l l s a n d a l l o w s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a n opportunity to "air o n e ' s v i e w s " a n d h a v e t h e m c o n s i d e r e d ( S e w e l l a n d P h i l i p s 1979). In their r e s e a r c h , S e w e l l a n d P h i l i p s (1979) f o u n d that the opportunity to e x p r e s s o n e s v i e w s o n a n i s s u e is often r e g a r d e d a s highly a s the s a t i s f a c t i o n g a i n e d f r o m h a v i n g a d e c i s i o n m a d e in their f a v o u r . A r n s t e i n (1969) h o w e v e r d o e s not c l a s s i f y c o n s u l t a t i o n a s a f o r m of citizen participation u n l e s s the p r o c e s s i n c l u d e s m o n i t o r i n g a n d follow-up. T h a t is, if the c o n s u l t a t i o n is not e v a l u a t e d for its e f f e c t i v e n e s s in a c h i e v i n g the ' c o n s u l t e d ' g r o u p ' s g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s , or e v i d e n c e is not p r e s e n t e d to d e m o n s t r a t e h o w a n d w h e r e the ' c o n s u l t e d ' g r o u p ' s c o n c e r n s w e r e a d d r e s s e d in the m a n a g e m e n t o u t c o m e , distrust for the p r o c e s s is likely to d e v e l o p .  3.3.3 First Nations Participation through Consultation T h e f o c u s of this t h e s i s w a s o n the e v o l v i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s with First N a t i o n s that parallels the public participation p r o c e s s u s e d by the M O F in the forestry p l a n n i n g to inform the p u b l i c of forest d e v e l o p m e n t activities. T h e MOF's Aboriginal Rights Policy (1999) p r o v i d e s a f r a m e w o r k for carrying out c o n s u l t a t i v e activities with First N a t i o n s o n forestry related activities that m a y h a v e a potential i m p a c t o n existing A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title. W h i l e the policy explicitly s t a t e s that Ministry officials c a n neither c o n f i r m nor d e n y the e x i s t e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l rights, the legal o b l i g a t i o n s of g o v e r n m e n t w a r r a n t a m o r e s u b s t a n t i v e investigation into First N a t i o n s interests o n l a n d s s c h e d u l e d for d e v e l o p m e n t , h e n c e the d e v e l o p m e n t of the MOF  Consultation Guidelines  (1999).  First N a t i o n participation in forest r e s o u r c e s m a n a g e m e n t h a s b e e n strongly i n f l u e n c e d by policy guiding the information g a t h e r i n g p r o c e s s for forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g in British C o l u m b i a . T h e duty to c o n s u l t with First N a t i o n s h a s two s o u r c e s : j u r i s p r u d e n c e a n d the i d e o l o g y of s u s t a i n a b l e r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t that c a l l s for the incorporation of I n d i g e n o u s k n o w l e d g e in forest management.  In British C o l u m b i a , e m p h a s i s h a s b e e n p l a c e d o n the legal rationalization for First N a t i o n  participation in forest m a n a g e m e n t a n d this is reflected in the evolution of the Ministry of F o r e s t s C o n s u l t a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s (1999). 48  3.3.3.1 The Duty to Consult T h e 1 9 9 7 Delgamuukw  d e c i s i o n p r o v i d e s a detailed interpretation of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title a n d t h e  responsibility of t h e C r o w n to a v o i d infringement u p o n t h o s e rights. T h e C o u r t b e g a n by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d A b o r i g i n a l title. In d o i n g s o , the C o u r t i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t of a n "aboriginal rights s p e c t r u m " b a s e d o n t h e " d e g r e e of c o n n e c t i o n to l a n d " ( D a v i s a n d C o m p a n y 1 9 9 8 ) . T h a t i s , A b o r i g i n a l rights differ f r o m g r o u p to g r o u p , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d history of t h e c l a i m a n t . F i g u r e 4 b e l o w s h o w s a n e x a m p l e of a n A b o r i g i n a l rights s p e c t r u m that might b e e n c o u n t e r e d during forest d e v e l o p m e n t activities.  Degree of connection to land • Right to speak an Aboriginal language  Right to hunt on a specific tract of land  A right to the land itself (Aboriginal Title)  Figure 8: Example of an Aboriginal rights spectrum as described in Delgamuukw, 1997.  In a d d r e s s i n g t h e C r o w n ' s duty to c o n s u l t with First N a t i o n , the C o u r t d e t e r m i n e d that w h e n infringement o n A b o r i g i n a l title is in q u e s t i o n there is a l w a y s a duty to c o n s u l t .  T h e r e is a l w a y s a duty of c o n s u l t a t i o n . W h e t h e r the a b o r i g i n a l g r o u p h a s b e e n c o n s u l t e d is relevant to d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r the infringement of a b o r i g i n a l title is justified...the nature a n d s c o p e of the duty of c o n s u l t a t i o n will v a r y with t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In o c c a s i o n a l c a s e s , w h e n t h e b r e a c h is l e s s s e r i o u s o r relatively minor, it will b e n o m o r e than a duty to d i s c u s s important d e c i s i o n s that will b e t a k e n with r e s p e c t to l a n d s held p u r s u a n t to a b o r i g i n a l title. O f c o u r s e , e v e n in t h e s e rare c a s e s w h e n the m i n i m u m a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d is c o n s u l t a t i o n , this c o n s u l t a t i o n m u s t b e in g o o d faith, a n d with t h e intention of substantially a d d r e s s i n g the c o n c e r n s of the a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s w h o s e l a n d s a r e at i s s u e . In m o s t c a s e s it will b e significantly d e e p e r t h a n m e r e c o n s u l t a t i o n . S o m e c a s e s m a y e v e n require the full c o n s e n t of a n a b o r i g i n a l n a t i o n . particularly w h e n p r o v i n c e s e n a c t hunting a n d fishing regulation in relation to a b o r i g i n a l l a n d s . ( E m p h a s i s a d d e d , Delgamuukw v. R. P a r a 1 6 8 )  T h e r e f o r e , like t h e s p e c t r u m of A b o r i g i n a l rights, the d e g r e e of c o n s u l t a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e C r o w n a n d First N a t i o n s a l s o lies a l o n g a s p e c t r u m that is c i r c u m s t a n c e d e p e n d e n t ( F i g u r e 9)  49  Degree of infringement on Aboriginal title Discussion of decision  Meaningful consultation with affected Aboriginal group  Consent of Aboriginal group  Figure 9: Spectrum of consultation based on Delgamuukw, 1997 (example).  The court did little to a d d r e s s the s u b s t a n t i v e content of c o n s u l t a t i o n in the  Delgamuukw d e c i s i o n ,  but  s t a t e d , "in m o s t c a s e s [consultation] will b e significantly d e e p e r than m e r e c o n s u l t a t i o n " ( P a r a 168). T h e p u r p o s e of c o n s u l t a t i o n is to e n s u r e the protection of a b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title, a n d to p r o v i d e a legal m e c h a n i s m to e n s u r e that g o v e r n m e n t h a s a d e q u a t e information for t a k i n g t h e s e rights s e r i o u s l y in all d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s ( E a g l e 1 9 9 9 : 5). T h e r e f o r e , the c o u r t s h a v e held that " m e a n i n g f u l c o n s u l t a t i o n " with a f f e c t e d a b o r i g i n a l g r o u p s will m o s t likely b e the m o s t c o m m o n f o r m of c o n s u l t a t i o n . D e f i n i n g w h a t w a s m e a n i n g f u l c o n s u l t a t i o n is h a s b e e n left up to the p r o p o n e n t s of the c o n s u l t a t i o n process.  3.4  18  SUMMARY  As a result of the g o v e r n m e n t ' s recognition of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title, a n d the C r o w n ' s fiduciary obligation to C a n a d a ' s a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e , a n u m b e r of p o l i c i e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d in the forest m a n a g e m e n t s e c t o r to e n s u r e g o v e r n m e n t staff " a d d r e s s e d a b o r i g i n a l interests in o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s " w h i c h r e q u i r e d " r e a s o n a b l e s t e p s to identify potentially a f f e c t e d a b o r i g i n a l g r o u p s . . . p r o v i d e relevant information of p r o p o s e d forest m a n a g e m e n t activity, a n d r e q u e s t information f r o m t h e m [to] a s s i s t in the identification of a b o r i g i n a l interests" ( M O F 1 9 9 9 : n p ) .  T h i s , a l o n g with the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of f o r m a l c o n s u l t a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s in British C o l u m b i a ( P r o v i n c e of B C 1998; Ministry of F o r e s t s 1 9 9 9 ) h a s led to a n i n c r e a s e in First N a t i o n s participation in forestry d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s in British C o l u m b i a . T h e n e g l e c t of g o v e r n m e n t s to c o n s i d e r a b o r i g i n a l interests in  The National Aboriginal Forestry Association (NAFA) in partnership with the Forest Stewardship Council of Canada conducted a nation-wide survey of Aboriginal people, government representatives, NGO's and forest industry representatives to developed a draft protocol for meaningful consultation with First Nations in forest development projects (Smith et al. 2000).  50  p a s t forest d e v e l o p m e n t activities ( R C A P 1 9 9 6 ) h a s b e e n m i t i g a t e d , in part by the l e g i s l a t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s for First N a t i o n participation in forest m a n a g e m e n t ( S m i t h 1 9 9 8 ) .  51  4 CASE STUDY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS "If we cut down the tree [CMT] then no one will know about it. No one will ever know that we were here and what we did.. .If its all cut down, no one will know how to strip the trees properly, or they won't know the stories about the past" 19  The primary goal of this thesis was to determine how the consultation process used by the Ministry of Forests in the Fraser Canyon effected forest development planning in the attempt to manage for C M T s , and whether the management outcome met the expectations of consultation participants. In this chapter case study results are presented along with detailed discussion and interpretation. Excerpts from transcribed interviews, and interview and field notes are used to present points made by participants and identify various perspectives on the role and expectation of consultation in C M T management. The initial focus of the case study was on the consultation process leading up to the forest management decisions, however, early into the case study it became obvious that C M T management outcomes were an important factor that shaped participants' view of consultation and was therefore also explored.  4.1  CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  A number of themes and sub-themes emerged from interview and focus group data. Specific criteria were not set a priori as indicators of effective consultation; rather the methodological objective of the study was to allow the participant's point of view on consultation in C M T management to drive the research process and analysis. Cultural resource management issues, legal definitions of Aboriginal rights and title and the implementation of consultation guidelines defined the conceptual framework of the case study and the implementation of the research design.  The result of the case study indicate that the consultation process was affected by factors both internal and external to the First Nation communities that were engaged in the process. Internal factors such as limited resources, a lack of capacity and consultation objectives made the consultation process in C M T management procedures ineffective in meeting First Nation concerns regarding the maintenance of C M T  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 02. Interview notes. Sept. 1999.  52  s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e results f r o m the C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s in the S o u t h A i n s l i e w a t e r s h e d reflected this finding.  T h e r e w e r e a l s o a n u m b e r of 'historical e v e n t s ' that o c c u r r e d that i n f l u e n c e d the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s during the c a s e s t u d y p e r i o d . T h e s e a r e s h o w n in T a b l e 6 (highlighted by text b o x e s ) , a l o n g with the interview a n d field s t u d y d a t e s to p r o v i d e a context for d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y the interpretation of r e s u l t s .  Table 6: Historical events effecting consultation during c a s e study between A u g - Nov 1999. Jun 1999  MOF Aboriginal Rights and Title Policy and Consultation Guidelines  Interview with M O F Aboriginal Liaison Officer (Chilliwack B.C.)  released Jul 1999 Aug 1999  Sept 1999  I nterview Archaeologists  B l o c k a d e : Interfor is stoppedSite Tour #1 (South Ainslie Watershed) from logging Elaho Valley  Interviews at First Nation C Band office  Site Tour #2 (South Ainslie Watershed)  W e s t b a n k  land logs Crown for the second time  Westbank  First Nation begins^ logging Crown lands  Oct 1999  Interviews at First Nation B Band office  Interview forest company representatives  Site Tour #3 (Mohawkam Main line) Interview Archaeologists  Interviews at First Nation A Band office Nov 1999  B l o c k a d e : S i s k a stop loggingSite Tour #4 (Tsileuh Watershed) activity in watershed containing C M T s  I n t e r i o rA l l i a n c e  push for Boycott of B C forest products in international campaign  Note: Each month within the timeline is divided into thirds, thus the separation of events into three columns. T h e potential effects of t h e s e e v e n t s will b e d i s c u s s e d throughout the c h a p t e r a n d the final a n a l y s i s will b e c o n d u c t e d within the c o n t e x t of the c a s e s t u d y a n d the e x t e r n a l e v e n t s n o t e d a b o v e .  53  4.2  C O N S U L T A T I O N IN C M T M A N A G E M E N T  T h e role of c o n s u l t a t i o n in forest m a n a g e m e n t h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d b y A r n s t e i n ( 1 9 6 9 ) , M a t a k a l a (1996) a n d S m i t h (1997) a s a n " o p i n i o n g a t h e r i n g " o r "information s h a r i n g " p r o c e s s that f u n c t i o n s to inform the forest m a n a g e r , but it d o e s not g u a r a n t e e the incorporation of s u c h information into a m a n a g e m e n t p l a n . T h e current c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s u s e d by t h e M O F to a d d r e s s First N a t i o n - f o r e s t r y related i s s u e s , particularly the potential e x i s t e n c e of a b o r i g i n a l rights, is a c o m p l e x tripartite p r o c e s s involving g o v e r n m e n t , forest l i c e n s e e s , a n d First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s .  4.2.1 C o n s u l t a t i o n within C M T Management P r o c e d u r e s R e s o u r c e A c t i o n N e g o t i a t i o n s ( R A N ) f u n d i n g p r o v i d e d by Indian a n d N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s C a n a d a ( I N A C ) h e l p e d the three First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s in this s t u d y e m p l o y local o n - r e s e r v e First N a t i o n s p e o p l e to participate in m o s t s t a g e s of the C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s ( F i g u r e 10). T h e y w e r e m e m b e r s of the a s s e s s m e n t field c r e w s w h e r e they r e c e i v e d training in C M T identification a n d s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e s , a n d they w e r e a l s o a s k e d to d e t e r m i n e t h e cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e of C M T s i t e s . After m a n a g e m e n t p r e s c r i p t i o n s w e r e p r o p o s e d in A l A s , First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a l s o a t t e n d e d a p o s t - h a r v e s t C M T site (Site T o u r #1). A t this point fieldwork for t h e c a s e s t u d y b e g a n .  54  S t e p l : Determining potential for C M T s  C  N N T C did not participate in A O A but cutblocks were recommended for reconnaissance or AIA  Step 2: Conducting A s s e s s m e n t s R A N group members and community members participated on archaeology field crews during cut block a s s e s s m e n t s  Step 3: Determining Significance  _\|/  C C  R A N group members, community representatives and resident archaeologist in the N N T C were a s k e d to rate cultural significance of C M T s  Step 4: Management Prescriptions  ±  Field investigations began for the case study. R A N group members, archaeologist, forest company representatives and M O F personal attend post-harvest C M T site  Monitoring  Note: Monitoring is not identified in the procedures proposed by Moon (1998), however the guidelines for the Management of Archaeological R e s o u r c e s in British Columbia state the need to monitor a s s e s s m e n t recommendations. In the c a s e of Site Tour #1 in South Ainslie, the fieldwork related to aspects of monitoring and compliance.  Figure 10: First Nation participation during C M T management procedures for cut-blocks observed in the case study.  In the p a s t , the Ministry of F o r e s t s or the p r o p o n e n t of forest d e v e l o p m e n t a w a r d e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t c o n t r a c t s to c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . D u r i n g the 1 9 9 8 f o r e s t p l a n n i n g p e r i o d , post-  Delgamuukw,  the N N T C a n d the C h i l l i w a c k F o r e s t District r e a c h e d a n a g r e e m e n t o n A O A a n d A I A  inventory w o r k that w o u l d h a v e the F o r e s t District a w a r d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t r a c t s directly to the N N T C w h o w o u l d then s u b c o n t r a c t out the w o r k to p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . T h e Ministry of F o r e s t b e l i e v e d that this w o u l d i n c r e a s e First N a t i o n s i n v o l v e m e n t in forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g . First  55  N a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o u n d that this a r r a n g e m e n t a l l o w e d t h e m g r e a t e r control o v e r h o w a r c h a e o l o g i c a l w o r k w a s c o n d u c t e d in their traditional territory a s well a s contribute directly to t h e interpretation of t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . T h e following s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s o b s e r v a t i o n s m a d e d u r i n g site tours u s e d a s c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s during C M T m a n a g e m e n t in the F r a s e r C a n y o n .  4.2.2 Site Tours as a Consultation Process S i t e tours w e r e a t t e n d e d by all or a c o m b i n a t i o n of the following g r o u p s : First Nations representatives that i n c l u d e d m e m b e r s o f the R e s o u r c e A c c e s s N e g o t i a t i o n ( R A N ) t e a m a n d a h i r e d c o n s u l t a n t w o r k i n g o n b e h a l f of a local B a n d (non-First N a t i o n a n c e s t r y ) ; Forest company representatives i n c l u d e d forest e n g i n e e r s a n d c o m p a n y A b o r i g i n a l L i a i s o n officers; Ministry of Forests District Aboriginal Liaison Officer r e p r e s e n t i n g g o v e r n m e n t , a n d a consulting archaeologists f r o m t h e firm that c o n d u c t e d t h e A l A s . A total of four site tours w e r e a t t e n d e d b e t w e e n A u g u s t a n d N o v e m b e r of 1 9 9 9 .  4.2.2.1  South Ainslie CMTs  T h e p u r p o s e of the first site tour (Site T o u r #1) in A u g u s t of 1 9 9 9 w a s to i n v e s t i g a t e p o s t - h a r v e s t 20  c o n d i t i o n s of s e v e r a l C M T s i t e s identified d u r i n g a 1 9 9 8 A I A in t h e S o u t h A i n s l i e w a t e r s h e d .  T h i s site  w a s of particular i m p o r t a n c e to all g r o u p s b e c a u s e it r e p r e s e n t e d the c u l m i n a t i o n of m a n y m e e t i n g s a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e that took p l a c e o v e r t h e 1 9 9 5 - 2 0 0 0 forest p l a n n i n g p e r i o d .  2 1  C M T s within e a s y w a l k i n g  d i s t a n c e a l o n g t h e b o r d e r of the c u t b l o c k s a n d within t h e c u t b l o c k b o u n d a r i e s (identified with f l a g g i n g tape) w e r e visited b y participants. M u c h of the site tour w a s d o m i n a t e d b y t e c h n i c a l d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n g o v e r n m e n t a n d f o r e s t c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s relating to h a r v e s t t e c h n i q u e s u s e d in the site ( c a b l e v s . g r o u n d b a s e d h a r v e s t s y s t e m s ) , C M T s a m p l i n g s t r a t e g i e s , a n d p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d with b l o c k layout a n d the c o s t of r e - e n g i n e e r i n g ( d i s c u s s e d in the next s e c t i o n ) . D i s c u s s i o n s o n t h e a g e , c o n d i t i o n ( s n a g v s . live s t a n d i n g tree), a n d potential s u r v i v a l of the C M T s in t h e p o s t - h a r v e s t e n v i r o n m e n t a l s o o c c u r r e d . F i g u r e 11 is a p h o t o t a k e n during the site tour that d e p i c t s h o w c o n s u l t a t i o n in t h e field took s h a p e .  AIA documented in Golder A s s o c i a t e s 1999. 2 1  Field notes. Site Tour #1. A u g 29. 1999.  56  Figure 11: Consultation during site tour #1 in the South Ainslie watershed (Photo by P a m e l a Perreault, A u g . 1999)  A n u m b e r of c o n c e r n s w e r e r a i s e d by the First Nation during a n d after the first site tour. First, there w a s a f e e l i n g that the N N T C r e q u e s t to "not r e m o v e the C M T s " w a s t a k e n literally to o p t i m i z e the a m o u n t of w o o d t a k e n from the b l o c k , without c o n s i d e r i n g w h y the C M T s w e r e of s i g n i f i c a n c e to the First N a t i o n . T h e forest c o m p a n y a d o p t e d a "log a r o u n d " a p p r o a c h w h e n h a r v e s t i n g a r o u n d C M T s within the c u t - b l o c k b o u n d a r i e s . N o buffers w e r e left a r o u n d the C M T s to protect t h e m f r o m the n a t u r a l e l e m e n t s or retain the cultural context (which w a s not d e t e r m i n e d in the A I A ) a s well a s the e c o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t of the site. E v i d e n c e of w i n d - t h r o w w a s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t in two of the C M T s i t e s within t h e c u t - b l o c k . S e c o n d , the a m o u n t of d o w n e d w o o d , particularly c e d a r , left b e h i n d in the b l o c k a l a r m e d t h e First N a t i o n participants. T h e l o c a l First N a t i o n h a d p u r c h a s e d a s h i n g l e - s h a k e mill a c o u p l e of y e a r s prior, but the mill w a s not r u n n i n g b e c a u s e the First N a t i o n c o u l d not a c c e s s c e d a r to s u p p l y the mill. T h e r e w a s a l s o c o m e c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g potential C M T s that m a y b e found o u t s i d e the b l o c k b o u n d a r i e s .  57  T h e c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r c o n c e r n s to t h o s e of the First N a t i o n s . T h e nature a n d s c o p e of A l A s restricts a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to c u t - b l o c k b o u n d a r i e s , a n d a n y further investigation b e y o n d the b o u n d a r y m u s t b e a p p r o v e d by the p r o p o n e n t of the a s s e s s m e n t . A n u m b e r of d o w n e d c e d a r trees w e r e i n s p e c t e d c l o s e l y by the a r c h a e o l o g i s t a n d First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a s there w a s s o m e q u e s t i o n a s to w h e t h e r they w e r e C M T s . B e c a u s e the b o u n d a r y of the c u t - b l o c k h a d b e e n r e d e s i g n e d to a v o i d m o s t of the C M T s , there w a s a l a r g e n u m b e r of C M T s just o u t s i d e the c u t - b l o c k p e r i m e t e r . M o s t of t h e s e C M T s still r e m a i n e d s t a n d i n g , with context in tact, h o w e v e r there w a s a l s o s o m e e v i d e n c e of wind-throw. A n u m b e r of C M T s left within the l e a v e a r e a s or o u t s i d e the b l o c k b o u n d a r i e s w e r e in e x c e l l e n t condition a n d c o n s i d e r e d v e r y significant both for scientific a n d culture r e a s o n s ( e x a m p l e F i g u r e 11).  T h e forest c o m p a n i e s a p p r o a c h e d the b l o c k f r o m a v e r y different p e r s p e c t i v e . A s the p r o p o n e n t of the A I A a n d forest d e v e l o p m e n t , their c o n c e r n w a s w h e t h e r or not they h a d m e t the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of the A I A a n d the l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n s of the C r o w n . T h e y e x p l a i n e d the h a r v e s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s u s e d to get a r o u n d the C M T s a n d the "in h o u s e " training u n d e r t a k e n for C M T identification d u r i n g fieldwork.  The  e s t i m a t e d c o s t for C M T m a n a g e m e n t for o n e y e a r ' s worth of c u t - b l o c k s in the C h a r t a r e a w a s $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 . T h i s figure w a s largely a result of p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t i n g a r c h e o l o g i s t f e e s .  A n o t h e r i s s u e that w a s brought out during the field tour that w a s of a particular c o n c e r n to forest e n g i n e e r s , w a s the conflicting r e g u l a t i o n s of the W o r k e r s C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d ( W C B ) that required the r e m o v a l of d a n g e r t r e e s b e f o r e h a r v e s t i n g a n d the H C A legislation that r e q u i r e d p e r m i t s for altering or r e m o v i n g C M T s . T h e S o u t h A i n s l i e site h a d a n u n u s u a l l y high n u m b e r of d e a d s t a n d i n g girdled C M T s (scientific or cultural interpretations w e r e not reported during the A I A ) , t h e r e f o r e , the o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s u s e d to d e a l with t h e s e t r e e s w e r e mutually e x c l u s i v e . U n d e r W C B r e g u l a t i o n s , the C M T s h a d to b e r e m o v e d b e f o r e h a r v e s t i n g c o u l d t a k e p l a c e in the b l o c k , h o w e v e r , a c c o r d i n g to the  Conservation Act,  Heritage  a permit for site alteration w a s r e q u i r e d . T h e r e f o r e , r e g a r d l e s s of w h e t h e r or not the  C M T s w e r e g o i n g to b e h a r v e s t e d in the c u t - b l o c k , the forest c o m p a n i e s w e r e r e q u i r e d to call in a n a r c h a e o l o g i s t to a s s e s s t h o s e C M T s that w o u l d h a v e to b e r e m o v e d a c c o r d i n g to W C B s t a n d a r d s ,  58  t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g the c o s t of h a r v e s t i n g , or retain a n o - w o r k - z o n e a r o u n d e a c h d a n g e r tree. T h i s w o u l d result in a s u b s t a n t i a l reduction of v o l u m e r e m o v e d f r o m the a r e a .  4.2.2.2  Salvaging Opportunities  T h e p u r p o s e of the s e c o n d site tour (Site T o u r #2) w a s to investigate o p p o r t u n i t i e s for s a l v a g e o p e r a t i o n s within o n e forest c o m p a n y ' s c u t - b l o c k s . T h e a m o u n t of d o w n e d w o o d left b e h i n d in the cutb l o c k s a n d a l o n g a c c e s s r o a d s w a s a c o n c e r n e x p r e s s e d by First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s during S i t e T o u r #1. T h e f o r e s t c o m p a n y a n d First N a t i o n a g r e e d to try a n d c r e a t e a s a l v a g e a r r a n g e m e n t that w o u l d a l l o w the l o c a l N a t i o n to a c c e s s a certain portion of d o w n e d w o o d . A t this t i m e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y two w e e k s after first i n s p e c t i o n , it w a s n o t e d that m o r e C M T s h a d fallen o v e r , p r e s u m a b l y d u e to w i n d c o m b i n e d with natural d e c a y that w e a k e n e d the C M T . S o m e further investigation b e y o n d c u t - b l o c k b o u n d a r i e s w a s u n d e r t a k e n , but no C M T s w e r e f o u n d .  4.2.2.3  A Cultural Tour of the Nlaka'pamux Forest  T h e third site tour (Site T o u r #3) r e s u l t e d f r o m d i s c u s s i o n s h e l d d u r i n g S i t e T o u r #1. T h e p u r p o s e of the tour w a s f r a m e d by the local First N a t i o n a s a Ministry of F o r e s t s staff orientation tour to i n c r e a s e the cultural a w a r e n e s s of g o v e r n m e n t officials, forest c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a n d a r c h a e o l o g i s t s r e g a r d i n g the f o r e s t v a l u e s held by the local First N a t i o n s . T h e tour i n c l u d e d visits to p o s t - h a r v e s t C M T s i t e s in the S o u t h A i n s l i e w a t e r s h e d a n d a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of potential root c o l l e c t i n g a r e a s .  2 2  D u r i n g the root  h a r v e s t i n g d e m o n s t r a t i o n , s o m e participants w a n d e r e d a r o u n d the a r e a a n d d i s c o v e r e d s e v e r a l C M T s . T h e r e w a s n o prior k n o w l e d g e of the C M T s , h o w e v e r s i n c e they w e r e not c o n t a i n e d within a p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a , there w a s n o r e q u i r e m e n t to r e c o r d t h e m . T h i s d i s c o v e r y , h o w e v e r , s u p p o r t e d the First N a t i o n s r e q u e s t to the Ministry of F o r e s t s a n d forest c o m p a n i e s for f u n d s to c o n d u c t a b r o a d , l a n d s c a p e level C M T a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l inventory of the S o u t h A i n s l i e flats. T h e tour w a s c o n c l u d e d in the T s i l e u h C r e e k w a t e r s h e d , w h e r e there h a d b e e n m a n y d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the i m p a c t of l o g g i n g o n d e e r winter r a n g e . C o n s i d e r a b l e alterations h a d b e e n m a d e to the c u t - b l o c k layout to a c c o m m o d a t e  2 2  Cedar roots were collected to weave baskets. Turner et al. (1990) explains many uses the Nlaka'pamux had for the  cedar tree.  59  the c o n c e r n s , h o w e v e r the local First N a t i o n s w e r e not s a t i s f i e d with the a l t e r a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e the b l o c k w a s still not a p p r o v e d for cutting.  A n u m b e r of i s s u e s i n f l u e n c e d the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s r e g a r d i n g this particular w a t e r s h e d a n d the forest c o m p a n y . First, this b l o c k w a s b e i n g p l a n n e d u n d e r the n e w Ministry of Forests Aboriginal Rights and Title Policy a n d Consultation Guidelines (1999). T h e q u e s t i o n of A b o r i g i n a l title w a s n o w a c o n c e r n for the Ministry to a d d r e s s with First N a t i o n s a n d a m o r e stringent c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s w a s b e i n g a d v o c a t e d by the A b o r i g i n a l L i a i s o n Officer. S e c o n d l y , the S i s k a B a n d , j u s t north of the c a s e s t u d y a r e a s e t up a b l o c k a d e in the S i s k a w a t e r s h e d to protect cultural a r e a s , i n c l u d i n g C M T s a n d filed for a n injunction a g a i n s t l o g g i n g in the w a t e r s h e d . T h e forest c o m p a n i e s within the c a s e s t u d y a r e a w e r e c o n f i d e n t the s a m e w o u l d not h a p p e n to their o p e r a t i o n s , h o w e v e r there w a s a n a w a r e n e s s c r e a t e d a b o u t C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d the i m p o r t a n c e of identifying cultural l a n d s c a p e s .  A n o t h e r factor influencing the c o n s u l t a t i o n efforts of the forest c o m p a n y s e e k i n g a c c e s s to the w o o d in the T s i l e u h C r e e k w a t e r s h e d w a s the threat of a logging m o r a t o r i u m o n the m i d c o a s t , referred to a s the G r e a t B e a r R a i n f o r e s t . T h e forest c o m p a n y felt p r e s s u r e to g a i n a c c e s s to the c e d a r c o n t a i n e d in the w a t e r s h e d , h o w e v e r thirteen C M T s h a d b e e n d i s c o v e r e d a l o n g the p r o p o s e d r o a d a c c e s s , therefore efforts to a n r e a c h a g r e e m e n t o n a C M T m a n a g e m e n t strategy with the l o c a l First N a t i o n w e r e i n c r e a s e d . T h i s r e s u l t e d in the fourth a n d final site tour a t t e n d e d d u r i n g this c a s e study.  4.2.2.4 Tsileuh Creek Access Tour T h e fourth a n d final site tour (Site T o u r #4) took p l a c e in the T s i l e u h C r e e k w a t e r s h e d . T h e b l o c k visited h a d not yet b e e n a p p r o v e d for cutting a n d the p u r p o s e of the tour w a s to c o n d u c t additional s u b s u r f a c e tests ( s h o v e l t e s t s ) to further inform the A I A a n d a s s i g n cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e to the a r e a . D u r i n g this tour a n additional three C M T s w e r e identified a n d a trap w a s f o u n d a t t a c h e d to a tree in line with the C M T s d i s c o v e r e d d u r i n g a p r e v i o u s s u r v e y . T h e s h o v e l tests r e v e a l e d n o further a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e m a i n s .  60  4.2.3 Summary T h e r e w e r e a n u m b e r o f i s s u e s that w e r e identified d u r i n g t h e site tours that h a v e h a d a n effect o n C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s a n d o p t i o n s . First, the c o s t of p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s d i s c o u r a g e s forest c o m p a n i e s f r o m eliciting their s e r v i c e s to p r e p a r e a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e s u r v e y of the a r e a . T h e c o s t of C M T m a n a g e m e n t a l s o r i s e s w h e n other r e g u l a t i o n s b e c o m e p a r a m o u n t , s u c h a s the W o r k e r s C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d . S e c o n d , there w a s a l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g d u r i n g initial c o n s u l t a t i o n b e t w e e n First N a t i o n s a n d forest c o m p a n i e s . T h e First N a t i o n felt a s if they w e r e not m a d e fully a w a r e of w h a t the " l o g - a r o u n d " c o n c e p t m e a n t to the forest c o m p a n y . T h e r e f o r e , their a c c e p t a n c e of the silviculture plan w a s not fully i n f o r m e d . T h i r d , e v e n t s s u c h a s r o a d b l o c k a d e s in t h e E l a h o V a l l e y a n d S i s k a w a t e r s h e d h a d a t r e m e n d o u s effect o n the d e m a n d s that f o r e s t c o m p a n i e s will p l a c e o n First N a t i o n s . B e c a u s e m a n y of t h e l o c a l c o m p a n i e s w o r k in m a n y a r e a s of t h e p r o v i n c e , w h e n t h e r e is a restriction in l o g g i n g in o n e a r e a , the c o m p a n y tries to pick up the l o s s in a n o t h e r . T h e s e indirect p r e s s u r e s m a y g o u n n o t i c e d b y m a n y First N a t i o n s .  4.3  FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CONSULTATION PROCESS  T h e c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s that o c c u r r e d prior to A u g u s t 31 1 9 9 9 w e r e not o b s e r v e d in t h e c a s e study. Interviews with forest c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , First N a t i o n s a n d g o v e r n m e n t officials, a s well a s t e c h n i c a l d o c u m e n t s p r o v i d e d the d a t a to a d d r e s s p r e - h a r v e s t c o n s u l t a t i o n s for t h e S o u t h A i n s l i e w a t e r s h e d . T h e c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s that w e r e o b s e r v e d o c c u r r e d after mitigation m e a s u r e s h a d b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d a s part o f t h e Districts C M T m a n a g e m e n t p l a n . S i t e T o u r #1 w a s part of a strategy b e i n g d e v e l o p e d b y the A b o r i g i n a l L i a i s o n O f f i c e r to c r e a t e a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e cultural heritage m a n a g e m e n t policy for the F o r e s t District, in w h i c h C M T m a n a g e m e n t i s s u e s w o u l d b e a d d r e s s e d . H o w e v e r , c o n s u l t a t i o n s o b s e r v e d o n T s i l e u h C r e e k initiatives w e r e part of a p r o p o s e d silviculture plan for the w a t e r s h e d , a n d therefore p r o v i d e d a c o n t r a s t for a n u m b e r of important f a c t o r s that h a v e b e e n identified a s influencing the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s in C M T m a n a g e m e n t .  4.3.1 Identifying the Intended Purpose of Consultation T h e s p e c i f i c role a n d o b j e c t i v e s of c o n s u l t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g forestry-First N a t i o n i s s u e s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d b y g o v e r n m e n t to e n s u r e they m e e t their " l e g a l responsibility" to First N a t i o n s p e o p l e . British  61  C o l u m b i a h a s f r a m e d the i n v o l v e m e n t of First N a t i o n s in forest m a n a g e m e n t p l a n n i n g v i s - a - v i s legal d e c i s i o n s o n A b o r i g i n a l rights m a d e s i n c e 1 9 7 3 . T h e following q u o t e s f r o m Ministry of Forests Protection of Aboriginal Rights Policy (1997:1) illustrate this point. "It is the policy of the Ministry of Forests to prevent or justify the infringement of rights by proposed forest management activities while maintaining a timely approval process for forest activities."  T h i s policy w e n t into effect F e b r u a r y of 1 9 9 7 , a n d in D e c e m b e r of that s a m e y e a r , the S u p r e m e C o u r t of C a n a d a d e l i v e r e d the Delgamuukw d e c i s i o n that further e x p l a i n e d the nature a n d s c o p e of A b o r i g i n a l title, a s well a s related the C r o w n ' s duty to c o n s u l t with First N a t i o n s to the nature a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e of the c l a i m e d A b o r i g i n a l rights. T h e fiduciary obligation of the C r o w n w a s e x t e n d e d b e y o n d m e r e c o n s u l t a t i o n , to s o m e t h i n g m o r e " m e a n i n g f u l " (ibid). T h i s r e s u l t e d in a r e v i s i o n of the policy. In 1 9 9 9 , the Ministry of F o r e s t s i m p l e m e n t e d the Aboriginal Rights and Title Policy, a l o n g with e x p a n d e d Consultation Guidelines ( M O F 1 9 9 9 ) .  2 3  T h e fiduciary obligation of the C r o w n flowing f r o m s e c t i o n 35(1) of the Constitution Act w a s interpreted by the c o u r t s to m e a n the C r o w n m u s t justify infringement o n A b o r i g i n a l rights, therefore putting the o n u s o n the C r o w n to e n g a g e in c o n s u l t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g e x p e c t e d i m p a c t s of d e v e l o p m e n t activities o n s u c h rights. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m forest c o m p a n i e s s h a r e d this v i e w o n c o n s u l t a t i o n . If someone told me something [regarding CMTs in the cut block] then I would have to tell the District Manager. It is not the licensee's responsibility to consult. The MOF must be there - it's a tricky job.' "There needs to be a greater understanding of language. The MOF is the group in charge of the consultation. They have to facilitate the consultation in a meaningful way so that there is an understanding about what each party wants' 25  T h e 1 9 9 7 Ministry of F o r e s t s policy w a s u s e d for p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s w h e n C M T s w e r e identified in the c a s e s t u d y a r e a , a n d it w a s during this time that the M O F w a s taking a v e r y literal interpretation of the  T h e 1 9 9 7 P r o t e c t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s P o l i c y is u s e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s b e c a u s e it w a s t h e p o l i c y in p l a c e d u r i n g f o r e s t d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g f o r t h e c u t - b l o c k s u s e d a s f i e l d s i t e s for t h e c a s e s t u d y .  T h e 1 9 9 9 P o l i c y is u s e d w h e n d e a l i n g with i s s u e s  r e l a t i n g t o T s i l e u h C r e e k c o n s u l t a t i o n s b e c a u s e it w a s u s e d to p l a n f o r t h e c u t - b l o c k , a n d n o t t h e 1 9 9 7 p o l i c y . Ibid 25  F o r e s t c o m p a n y representative. R e s p o n d e n t 0 5 . Interview n o t e s . O c t . 1 9 9 9 .  62  legal d e c i s i o n s , particularly the Sparrow test, w h i c h c o n t a i n e d the justification for Infringement r e q u i r e m e n t s (ibid). T h e r e f o r e , a s l o n g a s forestry activities did not directly infringe u p o n the e x e r c i s e of identified A b o r i g i n a l rights, a c c o m m o d a t i o n s for First N a t i o n interests w e r e m e t .  H o w e v e r , after the Delgamuukw d e c i s i o n , the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s a n d f o r e s t c o m p a n i e s b e g a n to e n g a g e in c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s in o r d e r to a s s e s s i m p a c t s of forest o p e r a t i o n s o n a n u m b e r of forest v a l u e s that w e r e c o n s i d e r e d indicators of potential A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title. W h i l e the Delgamuukw d e c i s i o n m a d e Ministry of F o r e s t s m o r e a w a r e of their legal a n d f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n s , the forest c o m p a n i e s w e r e a l s o a d d r e s s i n g First N a t i o n interests in their o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y silviculture plans ( S P ) .  T h e silviculture p l a n r e p r e s e n t s a c u l m i n a t i o n of a s s e s s m e n t s , i n v e n t o r i e s , a n d "office r e v i e w s " c o n d u c t e d by the forest c o m p a n y to a c q u i r e a cutting permit for s p e c i f i c c u t - b l o c k s identified in p r e v i o u s l y a p p r o v e d F o r e s t D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t s a r e a n integral part of the S P , h o w e v e r the District M a n a g e r , a s the statutory d e c i s i o n m a k e r d e t e r m i n e s w h e t h e r or not a n A I A is n e e d e d . S h o u l d the District M a n g e r d e t e r m i n e that a n A I A is not n e e d e d , a n d i s s u e s a cutting permit for a c u t - b l o c k that is t h e n f o u n d to c o n t a i n C M T s , the forest c o m p a n y w o u l d c a r r y the c o s t d e l a y e d o p e r a t i o n s . A s a result, s o m e forest c o m p a n i e s h a v e o p t e d to e n g a g e in direct c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s in a n attempt to p r e - d e t e r m i n e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s s u c h a s C M T s .  "The MOF is responsible for consultation, not the licensee. But, the licensee is responsible for the plan therefore they must be apart of the consultation process to do effective planning.  First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s within the s t u d y a r e a a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the i n f l u e n c e of r e c e n t court d e c i s i o n s a n d legislative c h a n g e s o n the g o v e r n m e n t ' s c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s with First N a t i o n s . "When the Forest Practices Code came in, it opened the door for consultation.'  27  "When Delgamuukw came down there were so many interpretations of it. It pushed the forest companies to deal with the Bands.' 28  2 6  27  Forest company representative. Participant code 05. Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 06. June 2000.  63  T h e intent of c o n s u l t a t i o n , a s First N a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d it, did not h a v e a r i g h t s - b a s e d f o c u s . T h e c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s w a s v i e w e d by the First N a t i o n participants a s a n opportunity to learn about, a n d b e c o m e i n v o l v e d in, the forest m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s . A long history of l o g g i n g in the F r a s e r C a n y o n a s well a s a high d e p e n d e n c e by First N a t i o n s o n local forestry o p e r a t i o n s (mill w o r k a n d h a r v e s t i n g ) h a s m o s t likely d e s t r o y e d the v a s t majority of C M T s that w o u l d h a v e b e e n c r e a t e d in the C a n y o n . T h e First N a t i o n participants w e r e mindful of their d e p e n d e n c e o n forestry o p e r a t i o n s , h o w e v e r their interest in revitalizing cultural p r a c t i c e s c r e a t e d a d i c h o t o m o u s relationship b e t w e e n the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s a n d the forest c o m p a n i e s ; o n e that w a s n e c e s s a r y for e c o n o m i c s u r v i v a l , yet a l s o v i e w e d a s c o u n t e r intuitive to the g r e a t e r c a u s e of A b o r i g i n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  4.3.2 Representing First Nations Interests T h e r e w a s a p e r c e i v e d notion a m o n g the forest c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s that w e r e e n g a g i n g in direct c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s , a s w a s the c a s e in the T s i l e u h C r e e k w a t e r s h e d , that the First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o n f i e l d - c r e w s w e r e a b l e to m a k e i m m e d i a t e d e c i s i o n s o n b e h a l f of the B a n d . O n e First N a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a c k n o w l e d g e d that s h e h a d a lack of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g authority in the c o m m u n i t y , a n d that p e r h a p s a m o r e effective r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c o m m u n i t y w o u l d b e a c h i e v e d by h a v i n g C h i e f s a n d C o u n c i l o r s directly i n v o l v e d in the field investigation p r o c e s s .  "It should be the Band councilors and Chiefs involved in the fieldwork.. .sometimes it's ______ just too hard to explain to them what we saw' A n o t h e r a s p e c t of First N a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n relates to the political structure a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g authority within the N l a k a ' p a m u x N a t i o n T r i b a l C o u n c i l ( N N T C ) . T h i s notion w a s not i n v e s t i g a t e d e x t e n s i v e l y d u e to f u n d i n g a n d t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s , but s o m e participants (First N a t i o n s a n d n o n - F i r s t N a t i o n s ) i n d i c a t e d that there w a s a lingering d i s p u t e o v e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g authority within the N N T C a n d m e m b e r B a n d s . T h i s w a s p e r c e i v e d a s a contributing factor in c o m m u n i c a t i o n b r e a k d o w n b e t w e e n all  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 06. Transcription. June 2000.  64  g r o u p s during the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s .  A forest c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o v i d e d a n e x a m p l e of  m i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e N N T C , its tribal m e m b e r s a n d the f o r e s t c o m p a n y . The Nation [NNTC] did not really have a problem with the plans [silviculture prescriptions] but the Band did not want any of them [CMTs] cut down. But the Band never gave the companies any direction. The direction was from the NNTC. 31  T h e s a m e participant a l s o noted a c h a n g e in p h i l o s o p h y within the N N T C that i m p a c t e d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of C M T m a n a g e m e n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . The Band archaeologist and the hired archeology firm worked out a management plan for the CMTs but by the time they got to the CMTs located in our block there was a change of philosophy among the Nlaka'pamux, at least I think so. The NNTC wrote a letter stating that they did not want any CMTs cut down. 32  T h e s e q u o t e s w e r e s u p p o r t e d during s u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n s with First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  They  i n d i c a t e d that t i m e w a s n e e d e d to interpret the Delgamuukw d e c i s i o n a n d f o r m u l a t e a m a n d a t e r e g a r d i n g the strategy to b e u s e d f o r protecting A b o r i g i n a l rights. T h e c h a n g e in C M T m a n a g e m e n t p h i l o s o p h y is e v i d e n c e of the a g g r e s s i v e s t a n c e that the N N T C d e c i d e d to a d o p t .  T h e p e r c e i v e d role a n d responsibility of a r c h a e o l o g i s t s in the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s r e m a i n e d c o n s i s t e n t a m o n g the participant g r o u p s . F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n a s k e d a b o u t h o w c o n s u l t a t i o n o c c u r s a r o u n d C M T m a n a g e m e n t , o n e First N a t i o n r e s p o n d e n t r e p l i e d : 33  Usually the archaeologists take care of it [consultation] they write the [AIA] report A forest c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o m m e n t e d : Once we hand things over to the archaeologists, it [consultation] is out of our hands  34  Interview notes. Nov. 1999. Forest company representative. Participant code 05. Interview notes. Oct. 1999. Ibid Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 03. Interview notes. Sept 1999. Forest company representative. Participant code 04. Interview notes. Sept. 1999.  65  H o w e v e r , w h i l e the a r c h a e o l o g i s t w a s v i e w e d a s the o n e r e s p o n s i b l e for c o n s u l t a t i o n in C M T m a n a g e m e n t , in effect r e p r e s e n t i n g First N a t i o n s interests, the v a l u e s s y s t e m s by w h i c h C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e w e r e b e i n g j u d g e d w e r e v i e w e d a s different f r o m the l o c a l First N a t i o n .  " Our values are different, and it's not that person's fault. But it's just that they haven't grown up here. They come from other areas. That has always been one thing I noticed, that values are different between natives and non-natives' 35  A r c h a e o l o g i s t s w h o c o n d u c t e d the A l A s indicated that they h a d a t t e m p t e d to limit their role in C M T M a n a g e m e n t to the identification r e c o r d i n g a n d reporting of C M T s f o u n d d u r i n g A l A s or other reconnaissance surveys,  3 6  therefore limiting the i m p a c t of their o w n cultural or s o c i a l v a l u e s o n the rating  of C M T cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s w a s a t t e m p t e d by m a k i n g m a n a g e m e n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e ratings in c o n j u n c t i o n with m e m b e r s of the A I A t e a m that i n c l u d e d p r o p o n e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a n d First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m the R A N g r o u p . W h i l e the c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d e x p e r t s c a p a b l e of c o n s u l t a t i o n , First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c h a l l e n g e d the notion of o u t s i d e e x p e r t s a s s e s s i n g the v a l u e of C M T s , or other local r e s o u r c e s . T h i s l e a d to the final factor identified a s h a v i n g a direct i n f l u e n c e o n the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s , c a p a c i t y .  4.3.3 Coping with Limited Resources T h e r e s o u r c e s of First N a t i o n s h a v e b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g t a x e d a s g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y h a s d e v e l o p e d to i n c l u d e First N a t i o n c o n c e r n s in C r o w n land d e v e l o p m e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . T h e r e s o u r c e s ( h u m a n a n d financial) m a d e a v a i l a b l e to a d d r e s s r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t i s s u e s w e r e s p r e a d thin o v e r m a n y referrals f r o m the v a r i o u s M i n i s t r i e s a n d forest c o m p a n i e s .  3 7  W h i l e a m a j o r f a c t o r affecting the  c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s during A l A s w a s the financial limitations i m p o s e d o n a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d First N a t i o n s by p r o p o n e n t s , the participants e x p r e s s e d m o r e c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g their limited "in h o u s e " c a p a c i t y to a d d r e s s o p e r a t i o n a l i s s u e s s u c h a s the identification of C M T s a n d F D P r e v i e w a n d assessment.  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 06. Transcription. June 2000. 3 6  Archaeologist. Participant code 19. Field Notes. Sept 1999.  There were five forest companies operating within the case study area. This meant that some Band offices were dealing with up to five Forest Development Plan referrals per year. 3 7  66  T h e r e w a s a n o t e d d e p e n d e n c e of the B a n d s on o u t s i d e help for m a n a g i n g forestry related i s s u e s . W h e n a s k e d to identify f a c t o r s that participants felt w o u l d ultimately d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c o n s u l t a t i o n in C M T m a n a g e m e n t , First N a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s p o n d e d that the c a p a c i t y within the c o m m u n i t i e s to d e a l with forestry related i s s u e s w a s a m a j o r limiting factor.  "We need professional people to analyze the chad areas in this area. We need a native person from our area to be training in those things' 38  After the d i s c o v e r y of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 3 0 C M T s in the S o u t h A i n s l i e w a t e r s h e d , the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s a t t e m p t e d to s e c u r e f u n d i n g f r o m P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t to c o n d u c t a T r a d i t i o n a l U s e S t u d y ( T U S ) in the S o u t h A i n s l i e w a t e r s h e d , but the p r o p o s a l w a s t u r n e d d o w n . T h e y then a p p r o a c h e d e a c h f o r e s t c o m p a n y p r o p o s i n g to h a r v e s t in the w a t e r s h e d with a p r o p o s a l to e x t e n d the C M T investigation b e y o n d the b o a r d e r s of the c u t - b l o c k . T h i s p r o p o s a l w a s t u r n e d d o w n , a s it w a s not s e e n to b e in the b e s t interest of the forest c o m p a n i e s to invest in a s t u d y to l o c a t e m o r e C M T s o u t s i d e of the cut blocks.  C a p a c i t y i s s u e s within the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s w a s not the only c o n c e r n e x p r e s s e d b y First Nation r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . D u r i n g a f o c u s g r o u p s e s s i o n , a lengthy d i s c u s s i o n e n s u e d r e g a r d i n g k n o w l e d g e transfer through c o - o p o r intern p r o g r a m s offered by the Ministry of F o r e s t s . W h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of s u c h opportunities for First N a t i o n p e o p l e there w a s a n indication that the r e c i p r o c a l action in the k n o w l e d g e e x c h a n g e p r o c e s s w o u l d b e for g o v e r n m e n t a n d f o r e s t c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to s p e n d t i m e w o r k i n g within the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s .  "The MOF and forest companies need to be culturally sensitized. But not by putting a First Nations person into their offices. That is all wrong. They have to come out here and see what areas we are talking about. ' 3 9  It w a s p r o p o s e d by the f o c u s g r o u p that this w o u l d l e a d to a g r e a t e r cultural a w a r e n e s s within g o v e r n m e n t a n d f o r e s t c o m p a n i e s r e g a r d i n g f a c t o r s affecting the c o m m u n i t y ' s c a p a c i t y to e n g a g e in  38  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 06. Transcription. June 2000. Ibid  67  c o n s u l t a t i o n , a s well a s p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n for u n d e r s t a n d i n g the cultural v a l u e s that m a y i m p a c t forest operations.  In addition to the l a c k of cultural a w a r e n e s s , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a d m i t t e d that t h e r e w a s a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t of u n k n o w n f a c t o r s in C M T m a n a g e m e n t that h i n d e r the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s . B e c a u s e there w e r e v e r y f e w C M T s identified a n d r e c o r d e d prior to the d i s c o v e r y of the S o u t h A i n s l i e C M T s , there w a s little i n f e r e n c e to b e m a d e by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s r e g a r d i n g C M T distribution o v e r the l a n d s c a p e . A l s o , b e c a u s e m a n y C M T s a r e living a n d s o m e t i m e s thriving in their relatively u n d i s t u r b e d e n v i r o n m e n t s , k n o w l e d g e r e g a r d i n g tree growth a n d a s s o c i a t e d e c o s y s t e m c o n d i t i o n s that w o u l d f a c t o r into C M T s u r v i v a l in p o s t - h a r v e s t c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d contribute to c r e a t i n g a m a n a g e m e n t p l a n that e n s u r e d g r e a t e r C M T survival.  4.3.4 Summary Analysis T h e Sparrow c a s e s e t out the justification test for infringement o n A b o r i g i n a l rights, in w h i c h c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s w a s a d d r e s s e d . T h e 1 9 9 7 Delgamuukw d e c i s i o n further e l a b o r a t e d o n the c i r c u m s t a n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of c o n s u l t a t i o n , a n d a d d e d the notion of a n A b o r i g i n a l rights s p e c t r u m . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h A b o r i g i n a l rights m a y exist in a n a r e a , the d e g r e e to w h i c h the C r o w n is e x p e c t e d to c o n s u l t is directly related with the nature a n d extent of infringement resulting f r o m t h e p r o p o s e d activity. T h e Ministry of Forests Aboriginal Rights Policy ( 1 9 9 7 , a m e n d e d in 1 9 9 9 ) in c o n j u n c t i o n with the Consultation Guidelines ( 1 9 9 7 , a m e n d e d 1999) a r e f r a m e w o r k s for a s s e s s i n g both the potential e x i s t e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d justifying infringement o n s u c h rights. C M T s , a s both indicators of potential A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d cultural heritage r e s o u r c e s e m b o d y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that w a r r a n t e x t e n s i v e c o n s u l t a t i o n for their m a n a g e m e n t o n the l a n d s c a p e .  T h e intent of c o n s u l t a t i o n a s a n opportunity to contribute to the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s h a s not yet b e e n r e a l i z e d by the local First N a t i o n s for a n u m b e r of r e a s o n s . C a p a c i t y a n d uncertainty in d e c i s i o n m a k i n g authority contributed to the c o n f u s i o n of the c o m p l e x m a n a g e m e n t s c h e m e a l r e a d y in p l a c e . T h e s e r e s u l t s s h o w that there w a s a l a c k of c o n s u l t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s for C M T m a n a g e m e n t a n d the o b j e c t i v e s that w e r e in p l a c e w e r e n o n - t r a n s p a r e n t for all g r o u p s . T h e f o c u s h a d b e e n p l a c e d o n the  68  identification a n d r e c o r d i n g of C M T s a n d not long-term m a n a g e m e n t s t r a t e g i e s , a n e c e s s a r y c o m p o n e n t for the d e v e l o p m e n t of C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o t o c o l .  T h e p r o c e d u r e s of C M T m a n a g e m e n t require e x t e n s i v e r e s o u r c e s , both f r o m the p r o p o n e n t a n d the First N a t i o n . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e C M T m a n a g e m e n t w a s u n d e r t a k e n a s part of a n A I A the p r o p o n e n t of the A I A d e t e r m i n e d both the extent a n d intensity of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l investigation t h r o u g h the control of f u n d s . First N a t i o n s , without their o w n r e s o u r c e s or c a p a c i t y to c o n d u c t the A I A , w e r e restricted f r o m e x p l o r i n g alternative m a n a g e m e n t o p t i o n s .  4.4  C M T SIGNIFICANCE AND EXPECTATIONS FOR  MANAGEMENT  T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s h a s typically related to their c o n t r i b u t i o n s to scientific r e s e a r c h . H o w e v e r , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s h a v e b e g u n to e x p a n d their c o n c e p t i o n s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l v a l u e b e y o n d the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d to the political a n d legal l a n d s c a p e a s w e l l ( F o w l e r 1 9 8 2 ; W y l i e 1993). T h i s w a s reflected in the A I A report s u b m i t t e d during o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g activities u n d e r t a k e n by forest l i c e n s e e s within the c a s e s t u d y a r e a .  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l information c a n b e u s e d to c o m p l e m e n t oral h i s t o r i e s , p r o v i d i n g a m o r e c o m p l e t e picture of a b o r i g i n a l heritage. In addition, a r c h a e o l o g y s i t e s a r e b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y important a s legal e v i d e n c e , a s illustrated by the r e c e n t S u p r e m e C o u r t of C a n a d a ruling o n the Delgamuukw c a s e . 4 0  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s a r e rare a n d n o n - r e n e w a b l e s o u r c e s of information a b o u t h u m a n history, a n d m u c h of the information c o n t a i n e d in t h e s e s i t e s c a n n o t b e d e r i v e d f r o m a n o t h e r s o u r c e . S i n c e residential a n d c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s h a v e s e v e r e l y i m p a c t e d the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , the r e m a i n i n g s i t e s r e p r e s e n t a rapidly d i m i n i s h i n g information s o u r c e . 4 1  T h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e in addition to scientific s i g n i f i c a n c e for a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s a n d artifacts in m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s is e v i d e n c e of a n e v o l v i n g relationship b e t w e e n a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , First  Golder Associates Ltd. August 1999: 1  41Ibid 2 69  N a t i o n s a n d t h e m a n a g e m e n t of cultural r e s o u r c e s in British C o l u m b i a . T h e following results articulate v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d with C M T s a s e x p r e s s e d b y s t u d y participants.  4.4.1 Managing an Educational Resource First N a t i o n participants s t r e s s e d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e of C M T s w h e n a d d r e s s i n g q u e s t i o n s related to cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e . They [CMTs] have education value for our children and I think especially when they are closer to home and when they know that this is what their ancestors did. 42  T h e s c o p e o f e d u c a t i o n h o w e v e r w a s b r o a d a n d not restricted to First N a t i o n s p e o p l e . O n e First N a t i o n participant s t r e s s e d t h e role of C M T s in e d u c a t i n g p e o p l e o u t s i d e of t h e c o m m u n i t y , particularly t h o s e that w o r k in i n d u s t r i e s that involve First N a t i o n s p e o p l e s u c h a s forestry.  "Education and communication are really important, and that's between ourselves [Band members] and them [Ministry, forest companies and archaeologists]. Communication is needed because our lines are always getting crossed. ' A 3  F u r t h e r m o r e , First N a t i o n s participants e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e for c o n t i n u i n g t h e tradition of c e d a r stripping a s part of t h e cultural revival initiatives h a p p e n i n g within t h e c o m m u n i t i e s . "If we don't make CMTs now, what are the people in the future, say 50-70 years going to say? All the CMTs that are old now will be dead and gone in 50-70 years. All that knowledge will be gone. If we cut down the CMTs, and don't make new ones, or save the younger ones, that there will be nothing. How will the people in the future know what to do?" 44  "There are trees up there that were stripped 75 years ago, and those are just as important as the ones dated back to 1850, or the ones [we] did 2 years ago' 46  T h i s highlights t h e v a l u e of experiential learning held b y First N a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . O n e of t h e f o u n d a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of First N a t i o n s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s is t h e " r e c o g n i t i o n that w e learn by w a t c h i n g a n d d o i n g , reflecting o n w h a t w e a r e d o i n g , then d o i n g a g a i n . " ( C a j e t e 1 9 9 4 : 3 0 ) . T h u s , while  42 43  Nlaka'pamux representative Participant code 06. June 2000. Ibid  44  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 02. Sept. 1999.  45  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 09. June. 2000  70  the r e c o r d i n g of C M T s in d a t a b a s e a n d m a p format e n s u r e s that information a b o u t the C M T f e a t u r e s will b e p r e s e r v e d indefinitely, the v a l u e of the information is d i m i n i s h e d without the opportunity to e x p e r i e n c e the activity of bark stripping a n d the cultural p h i l o s o p h i e s that g u i d e the interaction b e t w e e n h u m a n s a n d the e n v i r o n m e n t . A s o n e First N a t i o n s participant s t a t e d :  "Yes they [CMTs] are important. They are a part of our history and one-day I would like to show my kids the trees and tell them all about it. I don't want to show them pictures of the trees, I want to show them the trees" 46  E x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g is a l s o a c o n c e p t utilized in e c o - t o u r i s m . T h e r e w a s s o m e d i s c u s s i o n a m o n g First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a b o u t the potential for e c o - t o u r i s m opportunities in a r e a s with C M T s . O n e First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t y h a d a l r e a d y started p l a n n i n g for a n interpretive c e n t e r to highlight a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s f o u n d c l o s e to the r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t y .  47  T h e r e w a s a l s o a n indication that C M T s , a n d the r e q u i r e m e n t s for c o n s u l t a t i o n in forestry h a s i n c r e a s e d the opportunities for a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to work directly with First N a t i o n s p e o p l e . T h i s a l l o w e d for a n e x c h a n g e of information. T h e a r c h a e o l o g y firm hired by the First N a t i o n to c o n d u c t the A I A a l s o c o n d u c t e d t e c h n i c a l skills w o r k s h o p s within the c o m m u n i t y , s u c h a s g e o g r a p h i c information s y s t e m s ( G I S ) u s e a n d C M T identification a n d r e c o r d i n g . W h i l e t h e s e w o r k s h o p s did not result in certification, e x p o s u r e to the t e c h n o l o g y i n c r e a s e d c o m m u n i t y a w a r e n e s s , particularly a m o n g the y o u t h .  48  Therefore,  a s a w a r e n e s s a b o u t C M T s i n c r e a s e s , s o to d o e s their s i g n i f i c a n c e .  W h i l e all participants i n d i c a t e d that l e a r n i n g a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g the historical u s e of c e d a r by the N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e w a s important in d e t e r m i n i n g C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e , it is a l s o a n important result of d e t e r m i n a t i o n of C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e . F o r the first t i m e , First N a t i o n s a r e b e i n g a s k e d to v a l u e the r e s o u r c e s f r o m w h i c h they h a v e b e e n d i s p o s s e s s e d o v e r the last 150 y e a r s . T h e l a c k of k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e n e c e s s a r y for a n in-depth e x a m i n a t i o n of the cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 03. Sept. 1999. Field notes. Oct. 1999. Field notes. June 2000.  71  h a s r e s u l t e d in c o m m u n i t y c o n s u l t a t i o n s with E l d e r s a n d traditional k n o w l e d g e h o l d e r s , m a n y of w h o m d o not live in the c o m m u n i t i e s y e a r r o u n d . T h i s h a s h a d a n i m p a c t o n the c o m m u n i t y ' s ability to m e e t referral a n d r e v i e w d e a d l i n e s .  T h e effect of residential s c h o o l o n cultural p r a c t i c e s a n d k n o w l e d g e t r a n s m i s s i o n within the First N a t i o n s g r o u p s participating in the c a s e study w a s a l s o d i s c u s s e d during f o c u s g r o u p s e s s i o n s . W h e n a s k e d to c o m m e n t o n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of C M T s to past, p r e s e n t a n d future g e n e r a t i o n s , the following c o m m e n t s were noted: "[CMTs] have education value for [First Nations people] because when you went to residential school you didn't see much of the culture...There are two generations of people here that went to residential school. The knowledge wasn't passed down our mothers and our mothers couldn't pass it down to us. ' . 4 9  "I didn't even know what a culturally modified tree was  until 3 or 4 years ago'  60  W h e n residential s c h o o l i n g b e c a m e a n o b v i o u s factor affecting the First N a t i o n s c o m m u n i t y ' s ability to a s s i g n cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e to a n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l site, a r a n d o m s u r v e y w a s c o n d u c t e d during f o c u s g r o u p s to d e t e r m i n e h o w m a n y p e o p l e a t t e n d e d residential s c h o o l s . W h i l e it w a s not e x p e c t e d that all participants w o u l d r e v e a l their past a s s o c i a t i o n s with residential s c h o o l i n g , a significant n u m b e r of First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n d i c a t e d that they h a d a t t e n d e d a residential s c h o o l at s o m e point in their lives, m a n y of w h o m w e r e m e m b e r s of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g authority within the c o m m u n i t i e s (i.e. B a n d Council).  4.4.1.1  Providing  Context for Significance Rating  In lieu of a u t o m a t i c protection g r a n t e d u n d e r the HCA, s i g n i f i c a n c e ratings often d e t e r m i n e the fate of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e rating s c h e m e h o w e v e r i n v o l v e s v a l u e j u d g m e n t s for the p u r p o s e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a n d it is not a n inherent property of a n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e ( R a a b a n d K l i n g e r 1977). C M T s w e r e not c r e a t e d with the intention of informing future g e n e r a t i o n s a b o u t First N a t i o n s  First Nations respondent. Transcription. June 2001. First Nations respondent. Transcription. June  2001  72  forest t e c h n o l o g y a n d r e s o u r c e u s e , but out of n e c e s s i t y . C e d a r b a r k w a s p r o c u r e d to c r e a t e the e s s e n t i a l s of that s u p p o r t e d e v e r y d a y life.  S i g n i f i c a n c e is not a static c o n c e p t , but o n e that is c o n t i n u o u s l y c h a n g i n g , a n d e x p a n d i n g a n d p e r h a p s b e s t e x p r e s s e d in t e r m s of s c a l e b e c a u s e it is relative a n d not a b s o l u t e . T h o m p s o n (1982) s u g g e s t s that the b e s t d e s c r i p t i o n of the term is 'relative i m p o r t a n c e ' . G i v e n this c o n c e p t of relativity, the context m u s t then b e d e f i n e d f r o m w h i c h the s c a l e of c o m p a r i s o n for d e t e r m i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of C M T s is to b e drawn.  A r c h a e o l o g i s t s e s t a b l i s h c o n t e x t for c o m p a r i n g the relative i m p o r t a n c e of C M T s t h r o u g h defining both political ( d e l i n e a t e d by F o r e s t Districts) a n d e c o l o g i c a l b o u n d a r i e s ( b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s ) . T h e political b o u n d a r i e s e s t a b l i s h the g o v e r n i n g authority, a n d the e c o l o g i c a l b o u n d a r i e s e s t a b l i s h p r o b a b l e limitations for finding certain s p e c i e s of t r e e s in a g i v e n a r e a ; a n d v a l u a b l e information for d e v e l o p i n g a n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l predictive m o d e l ( M o o n 1993).  A First N a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s u g g e s t e d that rarity b e c o n s i d e r e d w h e n a s s i g n i n g cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e to a site.  51  "The importance of cedar is related to the rarity of cedar in the area. Cedar grows in lower, moister areas and there are few areas like this in the Lytton area. Spuzzum would have more because they are in a different Biogeoclimatic zone' 62  T h i s q u o t e e x p a n d s the notion of rarity b e y o n d the p h y s i c a l b o u n d a r i e s a n d f e a t u r e t y p e s ( u s e d to a s s i g n a rarity v a l u e in scientific s i g n i f i c a n c e d e t e r m i n a t i o n ) of the F o r e s t District to i n c l u d e the cultural b o u n d a r i e s a s w e l l . In other w o r d s , certain C M T s m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d c o m m o n within a F o r e s t District, but the r a n g e of C M T s f o u n d m a y c o v e r only certain First N a t i o n s traditional territories. T h e S i s k a B a n d b l o c k a d e in the S i s k a w a t e r s h e d (near Lytton B . C . ) highlights this  Cultural setting is identified by place naming. The Lytton reference pertains to the boundary between Lower and Upper Nlaka'pamux groups. The Spuzzum reference indicates the most southerly boundary of the Nlaka'pamux traditional territory. See Figure 1 for boundary details. 52  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 17. April 2000.  73  point.  In a r e a s w h e r e c e d a r is rare, t h e C M T s will m o s t likely b e of h i g h e r v a l u e . T h i s is a n  important factor f o r t h e C h i l l i w a c k F o r e s t District to c o n s i d e r w h e n a s s i g n i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e ratings s i n c e there a r e ten different First N a t i o n g r o u p s c l a i m i n g traditional territories within t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o u n d a r i e s . Rarity m a y a l s o b e j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e relative n u m b e r of C M T s f o u n d within the traditional territory of the First N a t i o n b e i n g a s k e d to a s s i g n cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e .  4.4.2 Providing Evidence of Land Use and Occupancy T h e identification of First N a t i o n interests in forest d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d u s i n g A O A s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n with t h e M O F A b o r i g i n a l L i a i s o n Officer, a n d First N a t i o n c l a i m s to l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s . C M T s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d significant to all s t u d y participants b e c a u s e of their potential u s e a s indicators of l a n d u s e a n d o c c u p a n c y in A b o r i g i n a l rights c l a i m s . T h e fact that C M T s a r e d a t a b l e m a k e t h e m a n i n v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t i m e l i n e s f o r r e s o u r c e u s e that w o u l d o t h e r w i s e b e i m p o s s i b l e to d a t e d u e to natural p r o c e s s e s of d e c a y a s s o c i a t e d with forest b a s e d a r c h e o l o g i c a l s i t e s .  M o s t n o n - F i r s t N a t i o n participants identified C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e with their potential u s e a s e v i d e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l rights. A n industry r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m a d e the following s t a t e m e n t : Groups [First Nations] in treaty - they don't care a lot about the CMTs in general - but they are mostly concerned about the evidence. It is an emotional argument - that it's sacred ground [where the CMTs are located]. 53  Another stated: CMTs are just tool for them [First Nations] to lay a claim to it all  54  A n o t h e r industry r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m a d e a distinction b e t w e e n site s i g n i f i c a n c e b a s e d o n t h e rules of e v i d e n c e f o r litigation a n d t h o s e b a s e d o n v a l u e s inherent to the site, s u c h a s c o n t e x t . The Bands have to be very clear on why they want to preserve the CMTs. If it is just for evidence of use and occupation then recording the CMT should cover it. If the site itself has significance then it's a different story. 55  Forest company representative. Participant code 05. October 1999. Forest company representative. Participant code 04. October 1999. Forest company representative. Participant code 04. November 1999.  74  T h i s q u o t e i m p l i e s , that the p r e s e r v a t i o n of information, a n d not the C M T itself, will satisfy the r e q u i r e m e n t for p r o v i n g land u s e a n d o c c u p a t i o n . T h e r e is a l s o a n implication h e r e that a forest c o m p a n y w o u l d a p p r o a c h the m a n a g e m e n t of C M T s differently p r o v i d e d direction w a s g i v e n by the B a n d s o n h o w to p r o c e e d with h a r v e s t i n g . T h i s h o w e v e r is not the p u r p o s e of the A I A , a n d is a matter to b e dealt with in s t r a t e g i c m a n a g e m e n t p l a n n i n g for C M T s .  T h e result of C M T site e v a l u a t i o n s (AIA) b e f o r e h a r v e s t i n g o c c u r r e d r e s u l t e d in three o p t i o n s d e p e n d i n g o n the p r o p o s e d h a r v e s t i n g plan of the p r o p o n e n t : a v o i d a n c e a n d partial cut with s t e m s a m p l e s , a n d c o m p l e t e h a r v e s t of all C M T s .  H o w e v e r , to r e m o v e a C M T a S e c t i o n 12 permit u n d e r the HCA w o u l d  h a v e to b e o b t a i n e d by the forest c o m p a n y .  B e l o w ( F i g u r e 12) is a n e x a m p l e of the forest c o m p a n y ' s interpretation of "partial cut". T h e prescription i m p l e m e n t e d by the forest c o m p a n i e s left i s l a n d s of C M T s within cut b l o c k s in a c c o r d a n c e with their e v a l u a t i o n a s potential indicators of a b o r i g i n a l rights a n d p r o t e c t e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s . H o w e v e r , all First N a t i o n participants w h o o b s e r v e d the cut b l o c k s , or w e r e s h o w n p i c t u r e s of the a r e a , q u e s t i o n e d the v a l u e of the C M T s after h a r v e s t i n g .  75  Figure 12: Photos of C M T clusters after consultation with First Nations on C M T management procedures (Photos by Pamela Perreault Sept. 1999).  R e s p o n s e s f r o m the First N a t i o n participants w e r e u n a n i m o u s . T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the site w a s not r e t a i n e d . T h a t is, the e d u c a t i o n a l opportunities w e r e d e s t r o y e d a l o n g with the e c o l o g i c a l a n d cultural context of the site d u r i n g h a r v e s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s . First N a t i o n s participants r e a c t e d s t r o n g l y to the c o n d i t i o n s f o u n d in the cut b l o c k s after C M T m a n a g e m e n t m e a s u r e s w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d . "Why did they leave the tree in the middle of the cut-block like that? You leave any tree in the middle of a cut block and its going to fall over. You don't have to be a scientist to figure that out' 66  "Those ones [CMTs] just left standing on their own..  .that's just awful'  67  W h e n a s k e d w h e t h e r cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e of the C M T s i t e s w e r e t a k e n into c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e f o r e a p p r o v i n g the p r o p o s e d cutting p e r m i t s for the cut-block s h o w n a b o v e ( F i g u r e 12), the r e s p o n s e f r o m the  5 6  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 09. June 2000.  5 7  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 08. June 2000  76  forest l i c e n s e e s w a s that they h a d d o n e w h a t they w e r e told to d o by the First N a t i o n s . T h a t is, they f o l l o w e d the instructions g i v e n by the First N a t i o n s v i a a letter s e n t late in A u g u s t of 1 9 9 8 - no C M T s w e r e to b e cut d o w n . T h e following is a n exert f r o m the letter a d d r e s s i n g this i s s u e : "the p r o c e s s that w a s p r e s e n t e d to the N l a k a ' p a m u x N a t i o n o n F e b . 5...that f o c u s e d o n h a r v e s t i n g a minority of C M T s but p r e s e r v i n g a majority is not a c c e p t a b l e . A n y f o r m e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e or letters that m a y b e t a k e n a a p p r o v a l for r e m o v a l of C M T s a r e revoked'" 5 8  F u r t h e r to that, the District policy at the time w a s if the l i c e n s e e did not p r o p o s e to cut the C M T s d o w n , t h e n t h e y did not h a v e to d e a l with the cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e rating s c h e m e  5 9  a n d scientific s i g n i f i c a n c e  b e c o m e s the s o l e d e t e r m i n a n t of C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r e s c r i p t i o n s for cut b l o c k s c o n t a i n i n g . A s a result, o n e forest c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w a s u n d e r the i m p r e s s i o n that p r o v i d e d C M T s w e r e not cut d o w n or d a m a g e d , c o n s u l t a t i o n w a s not n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e they w e r e not in violation of the Heritage  Conservation Act. The law is quite clear regarding CMTs dated post-1846 - we do not have to consult.  60  T h i s s t a t e m e n t i m p l i e s that this forest c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e interprets the i n f r i n g e m e n t of A b o r i g i n a l rights to b e restricted to the r e m o v a l or d a m a g e of the C M T s t h e m s e l v e s , a n d not the d e s t r u c t i o n of the s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t or context of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l site.  4.4.3 Group Expectations from the Consultation Process  4.4.3.1 Job Creation and Training F e d e r a l f u n d i n g w a s s e c u r e d for the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a R e s o u r c e A c c e s s N e g o t i a t i o n ( R A N ) t e a m that h a d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s for the three B a n d s within the c a s e s t u d y a r e a . All m e m b e r s of the R A N t e a m r e c e i v e d training related to s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t . F o r t h o s e that participated in a r c h e o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t s , training w a s p r o v i d e d in forest n a v i g a t i o n , f o r e s t s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e s a n d C M T identification a n d r e c o r d i n g . S i n c e the 1 9 9 9 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l O v e r v i e w A s s e s s m e n t ( A O A ) for the  Correspondence. Letter from NNTC to Chilliwack Forest District Forest manager. Aug. 10, 1998. P a g e l . Government representative. Participant code 03. Interview notes. Sept. 1999 Forest company representative. Participant code 04. Interview notes. Oct. 1999.  77  2 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 5 forest d e v e l o p m e n t plan a r e a s involved the u s e of c o m p u t e r m a p p i n g t e c h n o l o g y , R A N m e m b e r s r e c e i v e d s o m e introductory G e o g r a p h i c Information S y s t e m ( G I S ) training p r o v i d e d by the consulting archaeologists.  61  A n o t h e r f u n c t i o n of the R A N t e a m w a s to investigate potential o p p o r t u n i t i e s for future w o r k in a r e a s that h a d b e e n h a r v e s t e d , s u c h a s silviculture a n d b i o - e n g i n e e r i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . B o t h p r o p o n e n t s of A l A s a n d the g o v e r n m e n t a s a result of rare C M T d i s c o v e r i e s d i s c u s s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s for r e s e a r c h a n d inventory projects in s o m e detail. Interest in future r e s e a r c h f r o m both the c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d the First N a t i o n s w a s e x p r e s s e d for o n e p r o p o s e d cut b l o c k that w a s not i n c l u d e d in this c a s e study. T h e C M T site, l o c a t e d o n a s t e e p r o c k y s l o p e ) c o n t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 8 6 C M T s r a n g i n g in a g e f r o m 5 9 to 2 1 5 y e a r s of a g e . T h e A I A strongly r e c o m m e n d e d that a m a n a g e m e n t s t r a t e g y b e d e v e l o p e d for the site involving the p r o p o n e n t , the B a n d a n d the N N T C ( G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s 1 9 9 9 ) .  4.4.3.2 Increasing Cultural Awareness A significant a m o u n t of a r c h a e o l g o i c a l investigation h a d o c c u r r e d within the v a c i n i t y of all three First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s in the c a s e s t u d y prior to the d i s c o v e r y of C M T s in 1 9 9 7 . O n e First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t y w a s in the p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p i n g a n interpretive c e n t r e for a m a j o r habitation site (pit h o u s e s depressions)  6 2  l o c a t e d just b e l o w the c o m m u n i t y o n the b a n k of the F r a s e r R i v e r . T h e d i s c o v e r y of  C M T s a d d e d to the m a n d a t e of the p r o p o s e d interpretive c e n t r e to i n c l u d e a c c e s s i b l e f o r e s t e d a r e a s within the r e a s o n a b l e d i s t a n c e to the c o m m u n i t y . T h e p u r p o s e of the interpretative c e n t r e w a s to i n c r e a s e cultural a w a r n e s s a m o n g c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s a n d p r o v i d e information for tourists. T h e location of the c o m m u n i t y a l o n g H i g h w a y 1 i n c r e a s e d their potential for e c o - t o u r i s m a n d cultural rediscovery programs.  T h e c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s b e t w e e n g o v e r n m e n t , forest c o m p a n i e s a n d First N a t i o n s u n d o u b t e d l y i n c r e a s e d the a w a r n e s s of all participant's political a g e n d a s a n d f i n a n c i a l a n d r e s o u r c e limitations.  Field notes. Field site tour #2. Nov. 1999. Pit houses are the traditional winter housing structures of the Nlaka'pamux people.  78  The  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e x c h a n g e of i d e a s a n d information w a s p e r c i e v e d to b e a two w a y p r o c e s s , b e t w e e n c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e s with r e s e s a r c h e r s , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d a n t h r o p o l o g s i t s in particular, h a d c r e a t e d a barrier b e t w e e n the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s a n d o u t s i d e " e x p e r t s " . H o w e v e r , m o s t R A N t e a m m e m b e r s , particularly A I A field c r e w m e m b e r s , w e r e i m p r e s s e d by the k n o w l e d g e of c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s .  4.4.3.3  Increasing  Inventory for Planning  Purposes  A n important responsibility of the forest p l a n n e r a n d m a n a g e r of p u b l i c l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s is to inform t h e m s e l v e s a b o u t p u b l i c c o n c e r n s r e g a r d i n g the m a n a g e m e n t a n d u s e of r e s o u r c e s . C o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s with First N a t i o n s u s e d to g u i d e C M T m a n a g e m e n t within the c a s e s t u d y a r e a p r o v i d e d information to b e u s e d at the d i s c r e t i o n of the District M a n a g e r in d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g forest plan a p p r o v a l s . A l t h o u g h this information m a y or m a y not b e c o n s i d e r e d in the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , the "role of the p l a n n e r a n d m a n a g e r is to better u n d e r s t a n d the distributive a s p e c t s of the c o n s e q u e n c e s of a proposed action" ( M c C o o l and Guthrie 2 0 0 1 : 311).  4.4.4 Summary Analysis T h e e x p e c t a t i o n s for c o n s u l t a t i o n differed b e t w e e n the g r o u p s participating in the p r o c e s s . First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e intersted in identifying potential e m p l o y m e n t a n d training o p p o r t u n i t i e s that w o u l d l e a d to g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m m e n t in forest m a n a g e m e n t o n traditional l a n d s . G o v e r n m e n t a n d a r c h e o l o g i s t s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l site inventory for the F o r e s t District, m a k i n g the predictive m o d e l m o r e a c c u r a t e . C M T inventories w e r e e x p e c t e d to contribute to a s e p a r a t e C M T predictive m o d e l that w a s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d for the C h i l l i w a c k F o r e s t District ( G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s 1 9 9 9 ) .  D e t e r m i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of C M T s i t e s p r o v i d e d little g u i d a n c e o n d e v i s i n g a m e a n i n g f u l a p p r o a c h to C M T m a n a g e m e n t that w o u l d result in o u t c o m e s that met the n e e d s a n d c o n c e r n s of the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s . T h a t is, the e c o n o m i c a n d cultural opportunities that w e r e identified a s significant for the C M T s i t e s in p r e - h a r v e s t c o n d i t i o n s w e r e d e s t r o y e d a s a result of h a r v e s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s g u i d e d by the C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s . A s w e l l , the s i g n i f i c a n c e ratings a s s i g n e d d u r i n g A I A w e r e a n indication of their v a l u e to the P r o v i n c i a l H e r i t a g e R e g i s t e r , not the v a l u e to l o c a l First N a t i o n s . T h e fact that C M T s  79  a r e t h e m s e l v e s the r e s o u r c e that p r o p o n e n t s of forest d e v e l o p m e n t a r e after m a k e s the d e v e l o p m e n t of clearly articulated m a n a g e m e n t p l a n s c r u c i a l to the s u r v i v a l of the r e s o u r c e s a s both s o u r c e s of scientific investigation a s well a s cultural interpretation.  A l t h o u g h s o m e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s , like C M T s , a r e fragile a n d e n d a n g e r e d just a s natural r e s o u r c e s ( e . g . old growth f o r e s t s ) , "they r e p r e s e n t a finite, n o n r e n e w a b l e , a n d u n i q u e a s p e c t of cultural h e r i t a g e " that c a n not b e r e p l a c e d on the l a n d s c a p e , r e g a r d l e s s of the a m o u n t of time that p a s s e s ( K e r b e r 1 9 9 4 : ) . T h e C M T s offer insight into forest u s e activities at a particular point in t i m e , p e r h a p s 2 0 0 y e a r s a g o . T h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d cultural c o n d i t i o n s c a n n e v e r b e r e p l i c a t e d .  First N a t i o n s a c k n o w l e d g e d that C M T s held potential a s indicators of A b o r i g i n a l rights, h o w e v e r m o r e c o n c e r n w a s e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g their potential a s e d u c a t i o n a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s for the local First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s . B e c a u s e site c o n t e x t is v e r y important to m a i n t a i n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a n d e c o n o m i c v a l u e of C M T site, long term p l a n n i n g a n d m a n a g e m e n t s t r a t e g i e s w e r e n e e d e d to a d v i s e the C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s e m p l o y e d by the forest c o m p a n i e s .  F o r e s t c o m p a n i e s w e r e a w a r e that C M T s h a d the potential of b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d a r c h e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s if they a r e d a t e d p r e - 1 8 4 6 , therefore d a m a g i n g the C M T c o u l d result in p e n a l t i e s u n d e r the  HCA.  A r c h a e o l o g i s t s r e c o g n i z e the potential of C M T s a s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s c a p a b l e of providing v a l u a b l e information that w o u l d contribute to a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of travel r o u t e s a n d r e s o u r c e s u s e , but they a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e their potential for providing v a l u a b l e e v i d e n c e of c o n t i n u o u s u s e a n d o c c u p a n c y , a n e l e m e n t of the test for proving A b o r i g i n a l t i t l e .  63  O p p o r t u n i t i e s for c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n  a n d information e x c h a n g e w e r e e m b r a c e d during A I A p r o c e d u r e s .  T h e i m p a c t s of residential s c h o o l i n g h a v e h a d a direct i m p a c t on the ability of First N a t i o n s to r e s p o n d to q u e s t i o n s e n t r e n c h e d in cultural k n o w l e d g e that is only recently b e i n g r e k i n d l e d t h r o u g h cultural revival  Delgamuukw v. British Columbia [1997]  80  initiatives. R e s e a r c h a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t s resulting f r o m c o n s u l t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d c h a n g e s to t h e cultural r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t legislation that r e s u l t e d in t h e protection o f in situ forestb a s e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e , h a s contributed to the i n c r e a s i n g a w a r e n e s s a b o u t cultural activities s u c h a s the c r e a t i o n of C M T s within First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s . In turn, this a w a r e n e s s h a s l e d to a n i n c r e a s e in C T M s i g n i f i c a n c e to the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s , thus t h e a s s e r t i o n b y the N N T C to protect all C M T s within their traditional territory.  4.5  CONSULTATION WITH FIRST NATIONS: A PARTICIPATORY PROCESS OR TOKEN PERFORMANCE?  T h e third a n d final o b j e c t i v e of the c a s e s t u d y w a s to e v a l u a t e t h e results of C M T m a n a g e m e n t in the forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . P a r t i c i p a n t ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f r o m c o n s u l t a t i o n a r e c o m p a r e d with the a c t u a l p r o c e s s a n d o u t c o m e s of d e c i s i o n s m a d e during the forest p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . It is not the g o a l o f this e v a l u a t i o n to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r not t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s w a s s u c c e s s f u l in m a n a g i n g for C M T s , rather it is p r o p o s e d that b y articulating limiting f a c t o r s in the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s First N a t i o n s , forest c o m p a n i e s , g o v e r n m e n t a n d c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s will better u n d e r s t a n d their role in d e s i g n i n g effective, m o r e m e a n i n g f u l c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o g r a m s . T h i s is n e e d e d to e n s u r e that forest m a n a g e m e n t p r e s c r i p t i o n s s a t i s f y t h e s e l f - d e t e r m i n e d n e e d s o f First N a t i o n s p e o p l e .  4.5.1 The Role of Consultation in Forest Management C o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s o n matters relating to C M T m a n a g e m e n t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g two distinct p r o c e s s e s in the forst m a n a g e m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s : a r c h a e o l o g i c a l investigation ( a s s e s s m e n t s ) a n d forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g ( F i g u r e 13).  81  o •  Legend Proposed plan Approved plan Discretionary Mandatory  Archaeological Process  V ^> Harvest Forest Planning Process  < Referral/ Review  Consultation  -J>  Monitoring/ Compliance Consultation  Figure 13:Consultation as it occurred within the forest planning process for cut blocks examined during the case study.  P h y s i c a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e m a i n s (features a n d artifacts) c a n help First N a t i o n s p e o p l e to m a i n t a i n , r e f o r m , d i s t i n g u i s h a n d revitalize their culture in the f a c e of industrial d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s that d e m a n d c l e a r e v i d e n c e of land u s e a n d direction for mitigative efforts. T h e m a n a g e m e n t of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s in the f a c e of forest d e v e l o p m e n t in British C o l u m b i a f o c u s e s o n o n e objective: "to a s s i s t the P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d forest industry in m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s that will e n s u r e effective m a n a g e m e n t of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s a s well a s optimal l a n d u s e " (Ministry of S m a l l B u s i n e s s T o u r i s m a n d C u l t u r e 1 9 9 6 : np). C o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s is o n e m e a n s b y w h i c h "effective m a n a g e m e n t " is d e f i n e d a n d o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d in h a r v e s t p r e s c r i p t i o n s .  B u c h y a n d H o v e r m a n (2000) p r o p o s e that public participation m o d e l s c o u l d b e a s s e s s e d b a s e d o n the participant's interpretation of participation a s either a n a p p r o a c h to forest m a n a g e m e n t or a s a m a n a g e m e n t tool. S t a t e d a n o t h e r w a y , c o n s u l t a t i o n c a n either b e v i e w e d a s a n " e n d " in itself or a " m e a n s " to a n e n d . T h e point of v i e w of c a s e s t u d y participants, a s interpreted t h r o u g h the a b o v e a n a l y s i s , is further c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to criteria s u g g e s t e d by B u c h y a n d H o v e r m a n (2000) in the remaining sections.  82  4.5.1.1  Consultation as an "End" in the Management Process  F i v e indicators a r e u s e d to d e t e r m i n e if participants interpret a c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s a s a n " e n d " o r a n a p p r o a c h to f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t . T h e y a r e : the v i e w of d e m o c r a c y h e l d b y t h e participant, the role of p o w e r a m o n g s t participants, timing of c o n s u l t a t i o n within t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , e m p o w e r m e n t of participants, a n d a n indication of a c h a n g i n g relationship pattern a m o n g participants ( B u c h y a n d H o v e r m a n 2 0 0 0 ) . N o t all indicators will b e a d d r e s s e d , a s c a s e s t u d y d a t a w a s not a v a i l a b l e to m a k e a direct relation.  Power: T h e role of p o w e r , o r control o v e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , w a s a central c o n c e r n to t h e First N a t i o n s p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e y v i e w e d t h e opportunity to participate in A l A s a s a n opportunity to i n c r e a s e their i n v o l v e m e n t in t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o v e r a l l . T h e level of participation in a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s directly i n f l u e n c e s t h e a m o u n t of control o n e c a n exert the in the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ( A r n s t i e n 1 9 6 9 ) . First N a t i o n s participants v i e w e d their i n v o l v e m e n t in C M T m a n a g e m e n t a s " i n c r e a s i n g " , relative to p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s with a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d forest c o m p a n i e s .  6 4  F o r e s t c o m p a n i e s , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d g o v e r n m e n t officials o n t h e other h a d d i d not e x p r e s s a n interest in i n c r e a s i n g p o w e r or control o v e r the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s , n o r w a s it a s s u m e d that m o r e control w a s n e e d e d . H o w e v e r , o n e g o v e r n m e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d i d state that a d e l e g a t i o n of s o m e control to First N a t i o n s o v e r the m a n a g e m e n t of their o w n cultural heritage w a s n e e d e d to e n s u r e o n g o i n g communication.  6 5  H e n c e , t h e direct a w a r d i n g of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t c o n t r a c t s to the N N T C .  Timing: T h e r e w a s little r e f e r e n c e m a d e to the timing of c o n s u l t a t i o n within t h e C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s . H o w e v e r , it w a s n o t e d in t h e 1 9 9 6 A O A report (Millenia R e s e a r c h 1 9 9 6 ) that the N N T C a n d m e m b e r b a n d s d i d not participate in the a s s e s s m e n t d u e to a l a c k of c o n f i d e n c e in t h e a s s e s s m e n t m e t h o d o l o g y . T h i s c h a n g e d b y 1 9 9 8 , w h e n t h e N N T C d e m a n d e d m o r e i n v o l v e m e n t in forestry d e c i s i o n s  Nlaka'pamux representative. Participant code 03. Sept. 1999. Interview notes. Government representative. Sept. 1999.  83  r e g a r d i n g activities that w o u l d i m p a c t o n A b o r i g i n a l rights, a s w a s laid out in the Delgamuukw d e c i s i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n in c o n s u l t a t i o n within the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s w a s e x t e n s i v e .  Changing Relationship: T h e r e w a s a definite e x p e c t a t i o n by all g r o u p s for the d e v e l o p m e n t of a n e w relationship b e t w e e n First N a t i o n s a n d g o v e r n m e n t . First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e x p e c t e d l e g a l d e c i s i o n s a n d legislation r e q u i r e m e n t s to f o r c e g o v e r n m e n t a n d forest c o m p a n i e s to d e a l with First Nations.  6 6  A s a result g o v e r n m e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e c o g n i z e d the n e e d to d e v e l o p policy that w o u l d l e a d  to a c h a n g e in the relationship pattern.  T h e c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s (different f r o m t h o s e w h o c o n d u c t e d the 1 9 9 6 A O A ) e s t a b l i s h e d a w o r k i n g relationship with the First N a t i o n s that reflected e x p e c t a t i o n s of the First N a t i o n s cited in the 1 9 9 6 A O A report.  67  T h e w o r k i n g relationship b e t w e e n forest c o m p a n i e s a n d First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e highly  d e p e n d e n t o n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T w o of the three forest c o m p a n i e s that participated in the c a s e s t u d y took a m o r e p r o a c t i v e role in m a n a g i n g for C M T s a n d d e v e l o p e d their o w n inventory a n d m a p p i n g d a t a b a s e for C M T s that w e r e d i s c o v e r e d in their cut b l o c k s . T h e r e m a i n i n g f o r e s t c o m p a n y d e p e n d e d s o l e l y o n the c o n s u l t a t i o n efforts of c o n s u l t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d g o v e r n m e n t representatives.  4.5.1.2  Consultation as a "Means" for Management  W h e n v i e w i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n a s a m a n a g e m e n t tool, or a " m e a n s " to a n e n d , participants f o c u s their attention o n the f o l l o w i n g : the growth of participation, benefits a n d c o s t s of the p r o c e s s , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the d e c i s i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m the p r o c e s s , a n d p r i n c i p l e s of g o o d p r a c t i c e ( B u c h y a n d H o v e r m a n 2 0 0 0 ) . A g a i n , not all criteria w e r e a d d r e s s e d by participants in the study.  Participation: T h e g o v e r n m e n t of British C o l u m b i a a c k n o w l e d g e d its role in negotiating treaties with First N a t i o n s p e o p l e of the p r o v i n c e s i n c e 1 9 9 1 , a n d d e c i d e d to e n g a g e in p u b l i c participation p r o c e s s e s that  66 67  Ibid Ibid  84  differ f r o m p a s t m a n a g e m e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s . R i s i n g conflicts o v e r the u s e of p u b l i c l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s a n d c o m m i t m e n t to s u s t a i n a b l e forest m a n a g e m e n t led to a c o m p l e x p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t p l a n n i n g s y s t e m . T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s e p a r a t e but parallel c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s for First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s s u p p o r t s the " s p e c i a l interest" of A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e in forest l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s . F o r e s t c o m p a n i e s a n d a r c h a e o l o g i s t s both e x p e c t e d c o n s u l t a t i o n to l e a d to m o r e First N a t i o n s participation in the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , in part d u e to the realization that g o o d forest m a n a g e m e n t p l a n n i n g w o u l d require input f r o m l o c a l p e o p l e , but a l s o b e c a u s e legislation a n d e v o l v i n g A b o r i g i n a l c a s e l a w w a r r a n t e d s u c h participation.  Cost/Benefit: C o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s require a s u b s t a n t i a l a m o u n t of r e s o u r c e s o n the part of all parties i n v o l v e d . F o r e s t c o m p a n i e s a n d g o v e r n m e n t participants r e p e a t e d l y m e n t i o n e d the f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n of C M T m a n a g e m e n t a n d a s s o c i a t e d c o n s u l t a t i o n activities. A r c h a e o l o g i s t s w e r e a l s o mindful of the c o s t of C M T m a n a g e m e n t .  First N a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o n the other h a n d f o c u s e d their c o n v e r s a t i o n s  a r o u n d a c q u i r i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to e n s u r e c o n s u l t a t i o n o c c u r r e d o n a r e g u l a r b a s i s a n d to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the c o m m u n i t i e s .  Intensive a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y s u s u a l l y c o v e r s m a l l a r e a s of l a n d , h o w e v e r in the c a s e of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Impact A s s e s s m e n t s for forestry p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s , s u r v e y s a r e often c o n d u c t e d o v e r a large a r e a of l a n d . A l t h o u g h A l A ' s a r e c o n d u c t e d o n a b l o c k - b y - b l o c k b a s i s , o n e A I A c o u l d c o v e r a s m a n y a s 15 cut b l o c k s , a s w a s the c a s e in the 1 9 9 8 A I A . . T h e r e f o r e , with e a c h b l o c k a v e r a g i n g 4 0 h a is s i z e , o n e A I A r e q u i r e d a r c h e o l o g i c a l field c r e w s to c o v e r 6 0 0 h a of f o r e s t e d l a n d . P r e s s u r e to c o n c l u d e a s s e s s m e n t s within b u d g e t restrictions i m p o s e d by p r o p o n e n t s limit the intensity of the s u r v e y , the a m o u n t of c o n s u l t a t i o n t i m e o u t s i d e of field s u r v e y s with First N a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , therefore s e v e r e l y limiting the t i m e a v a i l a b l e for site i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  68  Implementation: T h e t y p e s of c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s typically i m p l e m e n t e d b y the Ministry of F o r e s t s r a n g e d f r o m t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s to c o m m u n i t y m e e t i n g s . P r i o r to legislative c h a n g e s in the  Archaeologists representative. Participant code 20. Field notes. Oct 1999.  85  Heritage Conservation Act, a n d the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the Forest Practices Code in 1 9 9 5 , First N a t i o n s w e r e treated a s a n o t h e r " s t a k e h o l d e r " in the p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s . W i t h g r e a t e r clarity g i v e n to the nature a n d extent of A b o r i g i n a l rights ( e x p r e s s e d in c a s e law), the Ministry o f F o r e s t s d e v e l o p e d a n Aboriginal Rights Policy ( 1 9 9 7 , a m e n d e d in 1 9 9 9 ) a n d a l o n g within Consultation Guidelines ( 1 9 9 7 , a m e n d e d in 1 9 9 9 ) that p r o v i d e d a f r a m e w o r k for e s t a b l i s h i n g G o v e r n m e n t - F i r s t N a t i o n s r e l a t i o n s h i p s o n forestry related i s s u e s . First N a t i o n s c o m m u n i t i e s within the s t u d y a r e a did not a t t e m p t to e s t a b l i s h a c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o t o c o l of their o w n until 2 0 0 0 .  6 9  T h e protocol w a s m e a n t to clarify the w o r k i n g relationship  b e t w e e n forest c o m p a n i e s a n d First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s , a n d did not a d d r e s s the C r o w n ' s role in the consultation p r o c e s s .  First N a t i o n s c l e a r l y v a l u e d c o n s u l t a t i o n a s a n e n d in the m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s . T h e a p p r o a c h to m a n a g e m e n t w a s important to defining w h e t h e r or not the participant w a s s a t i s f i e d with the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s . F o r e s t c o m p a n i e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s v i e w c o n s u l t a t i o n a s a m e a n s to C M T m a n a g e m e n t . T h e A I A is the tool by w h i c h C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e is d e t e r m i n e d , therefore direct c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s is p e r c e i v e d to b e the j o b o f a r c h a e o l o g i s t s .  4.5.2 CMT Management in Forest Development Planning T h e A I A p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d First N a t i o n s p e o p l e in both a c o n s u l t a t i v e a n d fieldwork c a p a c i t y w h e r e they w e r e g i v e n the opportunity to p r o v i d e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for m a n a g e m e n t to mitigate the i m p a c t of forest d e v e l o p m e n t o n C M T s i t e s . T h e result of the m a n a g e m e n t p r e s c r i p t i o n , a s p l a n n e d by the forest c o m p a n y a n d a p p r o v e d by the District M a n a g e r , did not reflect the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the First N a t i o n s participants. T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e there w a s a n i n c r e a s e in c o n s u l t a t i v e activities b e t w e e n g r o u p s , a n d First N a t i o n s r e a l i z e d s o m e of the benefits o f controlling the contract for A I A w o r k , the results of the C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s did not m e e t the d e s i r e d o u t c o m e s of the First N a t i o n s . T o e x p l o r e w h y a s e e m i n g l y e x t e n s i v e a n d m e a n i n g f u l c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s led to results that w e r e not s a t i s f a c t o r y to all participant g r o u p s e x p e c t a t i o n s w e r e e x a m i n e d .  NNTC and A B C Lumber Co. 2000. Protocol Agreement.  86  A c c o r d i n g to the Ministry of Forests Protection of Aboriginal Rights Policy ( 1 9 9 7 : 1 ) the intent of g o v e r n m e n t w a s to " p r e v e n t or justify infringement on A b o r i g i n a l rights". T h e I m p l e m e n t a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s (later c a l l e d the Consultation Guidelines (1999) for the policy state that the M O F is r e s p o n s i b l e for e n s u r i n g that forest m a n a g e m e n t activities d o not unjustifiably infringe u p o n A b o r i g i n a l rights, a n d that m e e t i n g this fiduciary responsibility is best a c h i e v e d u s i n g a c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h i s i m p l i e s that w h e n c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s o c c u r s , it is the intent of g o v e r n m e n t to infringe u p o n A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d it b e c o m e s a q u e s t i o n to w h a t extent the g o v e r n m e n t c a n infringe.  C o n s u l t a t i o n c a n b e u s e d to c o m m u n i c a t e a d e c i s i o n , to g a i n s u p p o r t for a d e c i s i o n , or to motivate t h o s e affected by the d e c i s i o n to t a k e a s p e c i f i c a c t i o n ( P a t t e r s o n et al. 1 9 8 4 ) . In this c a s e s t u d y c o n s u l t a t i o n w a s u s e d a s part of the A I A p r o c e s s to d e t e r m i n e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of C M T s , but not the d e s i r e d o u t c o m e s of the m a n a g e m e n t p r e s c r i p t i o n . In fact, the A I A w a s u s e d to d e t e r m i n e the extent of infringement that w o u l d b e s u p p o r t e d by First N a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , the M O F policy d o e s not require that First N a t i o n s s u p p o r t or c o n s e n t to the p r o p o s e d activity that will result in infringement.  T h e m e r e fact  that a n effort to c o n s u l t o n the part of g o v e r n m e n t is c o n s i d e r e d to b e g r o u n d s for justifiable i n f r i n g e m e n t , a n d a n y a c c o m m o d a t i o n m a d e o n the part of the f o r e s t c o m p a n y to m e e t the c o n c e r n s of 70  First N a t i o n s is d i s c r e t i o n a r y .  The infringement justification test described in Sparrow requires government to prove that consultation efforts fulfilled the Crowns fiduciary obligation.  87  Consultation  Decision-Making: Process  Result  Inventory Consultation  Prescription Mitigation AIA CMT MANAGEMENT  Figure 14: The decision-making process for C M T management and its relation to the AIA process.  T h e u n e x p e c t e d d i s c o v e r y of C M T s in the F r a s e r T S A , particularly in s u c h high n u m b e r s , p r o v i d e d the " s t i m u l u s " for the C h i l l i w a c k F o r e s t District to a d d r e s s i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g First N a t i o n s i n v o l v e m e n t in forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . F i g u r e 14 is a s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the role c o n s u l t a t i o n in the f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s .  T h e c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s a s it is u s e d by the M O F is a n information g a t h e r i n g p r o c e s s that d o e s not require forest c o m p a n i e s to a c c o m m o d a t e the d e s i r e d o u t c o m e s of m a n a g e m e n t that a r e reflected by the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e by First N a t i o n s p e o p l e . T h e d e s i r e d o u t c o m e s of the forest activity t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r the d e s i r e d o u t c o m e s of for C M T m a n a g e m e n t .  T h e A I A r e c o m m e n d s mitigation m e a s u r e s , a n d it is the responsibility of the District M a n a g e r to e n s u r e that the m e a s u r e s a r e f o l l o w e d in the silviculture p r e s c r i p t i o n . T h e 1 9 9 8 A I A ( G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s Ltd 1998) r e p o r t e d the C M T s to b e of m o d e r a t e to high scientific a n d cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h r e e options to mitigate the i m p a c t s of h a r v e s t i n g w e r e r e c o m m e n d e d : 1) a v o i d a n c e with 2 5 m e t e r buffers a r o u n d c l u s t e r s , 2) partial cut with s t e m s a m p l e s , 2 5 m buffers s u g g e s t e d , a n d 3) full h a r v e s t with s a m p l e s . A n interim A I A w a s p r o v i d e d to p r o p o n e n t s , the Ministry of F o r e s t s a n d First N a t i o n s for r e v i e w a n d  88  c o m m e n t . T h e N N T C indicated that they did not a g r e e with the O p t i o n 3 a s it w a s p r o p o s e d in the A I A , a n d r e q u e s t e d m o r e i n v o l v e m e n t in d e c i s i o n s affecting h a r v e s t i n g a r o u n d the C M T s .  A c c o r d i n g to d a t a a c q u i r e d through interviews a n d t e c h n i c a l reports, c o n s u l t a t i o n with First N a t i o n s e n d e d with the A I A a s s e s s m e n t . A n opportunity to r e v i e w silviculture p r e s c r i p t i o n s w a s p r o v i d e d ; h o w e v e r d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n s of h o w the l a n d s c a p e w o u l d look in p o s t - h a r v e s t c o n d i t i o n s w a s not effectively c o m m u n i c a t e d to the First N a t i o n participants. T h e First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n d i c a t e d that they w e r e told d u r i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n m e e t i n g s that the forest c o m p a n i e s w e r e g o i n g to "log a r o u n d " the C M T s . T h e First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s interpreted this to m e a n that site c o n t e x t w o u l d b e r e t a i n e d . T h i s w a s not the c a s e ( F i g u r e 12). T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of the A I A w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d in a silviculture p r e s c r i p t i o n , a p p r o v e d by the District M a n a g e r , a n d h a r v e s t i n g o c c u r r e d . G i v e n this i n v o l v e m e n t of First N a t i o n s in the A I A , a n d their c o n t i n u e d a s s e r t i o n for g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t a n d a c c e s s to f u n d s to c o n d u c t larger i n v e n t o r i e s : w h y did the h a r v e s t i n g results not m e e t the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the First N a t i o n s ?  First N a t i o n s e x p e c t e d that c o n s u l t a t i o n d u r i n g A l A s w o u l d l e a d to p r e s c r i p t i o n s that reflect their d e s i r e d o u t c o m e s . T h e r e f o r e , s i n c e they h a d a s s i g n e d e d u c a t i o n a n d e c o n o m i c s i g n i f i c a n c e to the C M T sites they thought the v a l u e of the s i t e s w o u l d b e r e t a i n e d . T h i s w a s not the c a s e . Mitigation efforts limited the i m p a c t of h a r v e s t i n g activities o n C M T s directly but it did not c h a n g e the h a r v e s t p r e s c r i p t i o n for cut b l o c k s . P r e s c r i p t i o n s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by the forest c o m p a n i e s a n d a p p r o v e d by the District M a n a g e r . B e c a u s e the p r e s c r i p t i o n did not a d d r e s s or a c c o m m o d a t e the retention of C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e in a posth a r v e s t e n v i r o n m e n t , the e x p e c t a t i o n for site s i g n i f i c a n c e retention c r e a t e d t h r o u g h the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s w a s not a c h i e v e d . T h e r e f o r e , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c o n s u l t a t i o n w a s r e d u c e d w h e n c o n s u l t a t i o n w a s i s o l a t e d to s i g n i f i c a n c e d e t e r m i n a t i o n in the A I A , a n d not e x t e n d e d to the d e s i g n of m a n a g e m e n t prescriptions.  4.5.3 Summary Analysis First N a t i o n s participants c l e a r l y v i e w e d c o n s u l t a t i o n a s a n " e n d " or a n a p p r o a c h to f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t . T h e belief that c o n s u l t a t i o n in C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s w o u l d l e a d to a n i n c r e a s e d i n f l u e n c e o v e r  89  d e c i s i o n s m a d e in forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g w a s s h a r e d by the First N a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s .  However,  the d e p e n d e n c e of First N a t i o n s c o m m u n i t i e s on o u t s i d e e x p e r t s (external r e s o u r c e s ) to g a i n a better u n d e r s t a n d i n g of forest o p e r a t i o n s a n d their potential i m p a c t o n c o m m u n i t y interests a l s o f o s t e r e d the v i e w that c o n s u l t a t i o n w a s a n opportunity to l e a r n , rather t h a n a n opportunity to e v o k e a s p e c i f i c m a n a g e m e n t o u t c o m e that reflected cultural s i g n i f i c a n c e .  G o v e r n m e n t a n d forest c o m p a n i e s v i e w e d the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s a s a " m e a n s " or tool for C M T m a n a g e m e n t . W h e n m a n a g i n g a public r e s o u r c e , there is a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y put o n the m a n a g e r to e n s u r e the p u b l i c s a r e i n f o r m e d a b o u t the activity they p r o p o s e . In the c a s e of C M T m a n a g e m e n t , the g o v e r n m e n t , a s statutory d e c i s i o n - m a k e r , s o u g h t the a c c e p t a n c e for the h a r v e s t i n g p l a n f r o m the First N a t i o n , h o w e v e r , a c c e p t a n c e w a s not a p r e r e q u i s i t e for i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a f o r e s t d e v e l o p m e n t plan a n d the efforts m a d e to c o n s u l t on First N a t i o n s - f o r e s t r y related i s s u e s b e c o m e the p r i m a r y f o c u s for d e t e r m i n i n g justifiable infringement.  T h e results of the C M T m a n a g e m e n t plan d e m o n s t r a t e that w h i l e First N a t i o n s w e r e a w a r d e d c o n t r a c t s to c a r r y out a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t s in their traditional territory their participation w a s m a r g i n a l i z e d to o n e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t of the F D P p r o c e s s , the A I A . T h e First N a t i o n a n d f o r e s t m a n a g e r s h a d c o m p e t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s for the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s , that in the e n d r e s u l t e d in d e c i s i o n s that did not satisfy the c o n c e r n s or n e e d s of the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t y . T h e e d u c a t i o n a l a n d e c o n o m i c v a l u e of the C M T sites w a s s t r i p p e d a w a y . In fact, their i n v o l v e m e n t in the c o n s u l t a t i o n d u r i n g A l A s h a d little effect o n the final harvest outcomes.  W h i l e the intent of the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s w a s not m e t in full e v i d e n c e s u c h a s the d e v e l o p m e n t of a protocol a g r e e m e n t a n d d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g s a l v a g e opportunities d e m o n s t r a t e that the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s did affect the w o r k i n g relationship b e t w e e n all g r o u p s i n v o l v e d in the p r o c e s s  90  5 CONCLUSIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS "What is more important than what alternatives indigenous peoples offer the world is what alternatives indigenous peoples offer each other.' 71  T h e N l a k a ' p a m u x p e o p l e h a v e o c c u p i e d the b a n k s of the F r a s e r R i v e r , utilized the r e s o u r c e s of the s u r r o u n d i n g m o u n t a i n s a n d w a t e r s s i n c e t i m e i m m e m o r i a l , a n d c o n t i n u e to d o s o today. After m o r e than a c e n t u r y of b e i n g e x c l u d e d for r e s o u r c e u s e d e c i s i o n s , the S u p r e m e C o u r t of C a n a d a d e t e r m i n e d that p r o p o n e n t s of d e v e l o p m e n t activities o n C r o w n l a n d m u s t b e i n f o r m e d of A b o r i g i n a l rights, a n d m a k e e v e r y effort to a v o i d unjustifiable infringement o n s u c h rights. T h e M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s , a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the C r o w n is r e s p o n s i b l e for d e t e r m i n i n g w h e r e s u c h interests m a y b e o n the l a n d s c a p e . T h e p u r p o s e of this t h e s i s w a s to e x a m i n e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s u s e d to inform C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s in the F r a s e r C a n y o n  W h i l e there is a n attempt o n the part of g o v e r n m e n t to identify a b o r i g i n a l interests, the g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s for inquiry a r e s h a p e d by policy a n d regulation a n d did not reflect the n e e d s , nor all the c o n c e r n s of the First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s . F a c t o r s s u c h a s the c o s t of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a n d n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i o n during the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s , off-loading of responsibility a n d the l a c k of i n c e n t i v e to d e v e l o p l o n g t e r m C M T m a n a g e m e n t s t r a t e g i e s h a v e s k e w e d the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s to f o c u s o n i m m e d i a t e i s s u e s s u c h e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d j o b training.  T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e attributed to C M T s through the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e s s reflected their v a l u e a s e v i d e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d interests in the l a n d ; h o w e v e r , First N a t i o n s e x t e n d C M T s i g n i f i c a n c e to their role a s e d u c a t i o n a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s for the p r e s e n t a n d future g e n e r a t i o n s of their c o m m u n i t i e s . J o b c r e a t i o n a n d s p e c i a l i z e d training in a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y a n d G I S t e c h n o l o g y directly b e n e f i t e d the c o m m u n i t i e s a n d a s the a w a r e n e s s of C M T s i n c r e a s e s in the c o m m u n i t i e s , s o too did their s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e i r v a l u e h o w e v e r d o e s not e n d with the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n s .  L.T. Smith 1999: 105.  91  A s e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , C M T a r e u s e f u l in r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e p a s t f o r e s t u s e r e c o r d ; e d u c a t i n g future g e n e r a t i o n s of N l a k a ' p a m u x forest u s e r s ; a n d they a r e a l s o , u s e f u l r e m i n d e r s of t h e k n o w l e d g e that h a s long g o n e . First N a t i o n s p e o p l e a r e r e c o n n e c t i n g to their l a n d s , their culture a n d their identity. T h e Nlaka'pamux people are no exception  T h e legally d e f i n e d m a n d a t e of the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s r e s u l t e d in h a r v e s t p r e s c r i p t i o n s that s t r i p p e d t h e C M T site of it originally d e f i n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e tree, a s a n indicator of a n A b o r i g i n a l right, m a y itself h a v e b e e n s p a r e d f r o m h a r v e s t i n g , but the e s s e n c e of w h a t is c o n t a i n e d in the a b o r i g i n a l right is r e m o v e d . W i t h o u t t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n for t h e s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t of a n A b o r i g i n a l right, m a n a g e m e n t g o a l s will b e ineffective. T h e l a n d s c a p e will e n d u p c o v e r e d with i s l a n d s of artifacts, v a l u a b l e a s m a r k e r s for s i t e - s p e c i f i c rights, but c o m p l e t e l y d e n u d e d of t h e g r e a t e r c o n t e x t in w h i c h the A b o r i g i n a l right w a s , a n d c o n t i n u e s to b e , p r a c t i c e d .  S i t e c o n t e x t a n d e c o l o g i c a l integrity w e r e f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d intrinsically v a l u a b l e to s i t e s that w e r e g o i n g to b e p r e s e r v e d for e d u c a t i o n a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s . T h i s h a d a n i m p a c t o n h o w C M T m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s w e r e v i e w e d in the forest d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . T h e e v i d e n c e f r o m the c a s e study, in particular t h e p o s t - h a r v e s t s i t e s l o c a t e d in S o u t h A i n s l i e , indicate that the protection of e v i d e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l rights d o e s not n e c e s s a r i l y e q u a t e to t h e protection of A b o r i g i n a l interests. Interests reflect the n e e d s of c o n t e m p o r a r y First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s , a n d a s s u c h g o b e y o n d the legal definition of a n A b o r i g i n a l right.  5.1.1 Considerations for CMT Management in Forest Development Activities F o r e s t p l a n n i n g d e a l s with s p a c e a n d t i m e d i m e n s i o n s of p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i o n . In forest m a n a g e m e n t p l a n n i n g , w h e r e p r o p o s e d a c t i o n s m a y h a v e l e g a l , political a n d cultural r a m i f i c a t i o n s , t h e interests of participating g r o u p s in the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a n d t h e l a n d s c a p e v a l u e s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e s e g r o u p s will reflect w i d e l y different definitions a n d m e a n i n g s of l a n d s c a p e s ( M c C o o l a n d G u t h r i e 2 0 0 1 ) . T h e i s s u e for the f o r e s t p l a n n e r is not s o m u c h  92  a c q u i r i n g t h e k n o w l e d g e of h o w the m e a n i n g of culture is c r e a t e d o r n e g o t i a t e d , but in k n o w i n g w h a t m e a n i n g s t h e i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s or c u l t u r e s a s s i g n to w h a t p i e c e s of the l a n d s c a p e .  T h e r e f o r e , b y involving First N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s in forest d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g b e y o n d the A l A s , the opportunity to b e c o m e " a part o f the forest p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , rather t h a n " r e a c t i n g to" a plan will benefit all g r o u p s . M e a n i n g f u l i n v o l v e m e n t will l e a d to a ) a n i n c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y to d e a l with t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s a r i s i n g f r o m cultural heritage r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t a n d b) a n e x p a n d e d s c o p e of investigation b e y o n d t h e c u t - b l o c k b o u n d a r y . B y i n c o r p o r a t i n g l o c a l information that m a y o t h e r w i s e not b e c a p t u r e d in A l A s , g o v e r n m e n t , forest c o m p a n i e s a n d First N a t i o n s m a y c r e a t e n e w opportunities for r e s e a r c h a n d further d e v e l o p m a n a g e m e n t t o o l s .  C o n t i n u o u s i n v o l v e m e n t o f First N a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s will a l s o e n a b l e training o p p o r t u n i t i e s in C M T identification a n d r e c o r d i n g a n d forest m a n a g e m e n t . F o r e s t c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s will benefit f r o m the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of effective w o r k i n g - r e l a t i o n s h i p s that g o b e y o n d the s p o r a d i c " c o n s u l t a t i o n " d r i v e n e n c o u n t e r s that o c c u r w h e n relying o n g o v e r n m e n t intervention.  5.1.2 Recommendations for Future Research A r e s u l t s - b a s e d c o d e will require c l e a r definition of d e s i r e d o u t c o m e s that will b e d e p e n d e n t o n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e C M T . T h e r e is a n e e d for r e s e a r c h o n m e t h o d o l o g i e s a n d s t r a t e g i e s that c a n b e u s e d b y First N a t i o n s c o m m i t t e e s to articulate m a n a g e m e n t g o a l s that will inform their c o m m u n i t i e s a n d interest g r o u p s o p e r a t i n g within their traditional territories.  Forest companies  a n d g o v e r n m e n t m u s t e x p a n d their definition o f A b o r i g i n a l interests b e y o n d t h e l e g a l a s p e c t s o f A b o r i g i n a l rights a n d title c l a i m s , a n d investigate w a y s of i n c o r p o r a t i n g rich d a t a s e t s into forest development plans.  C M T s h a v e l e g a l , cultural a n d e c o n o m i c v a l u e s that d e p e n d o n the retention of c o n t e x t a n d e c o l o g i c a l integrity of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h they w e r e c r e a t e d . T h e y a r e a n effective v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p a s t forest u s e that will contribute to the k n o w l e d g e of p r e s e n t a n d future g e n e r a t i o n s .  93  REFERENCES A d l e r , P . A . , a n d A d l e r , P . 1 9 9 4 . O b s e r v a t i o n a l T e c h n i q u e s . In: N . K. D e n z i n a n d Y . S . L i n c o l n (eds), H a n d b o o k o f Qualitative R e s e a r c h (pp. 3 7 7 - 3 9 2 ) . T h o u s a n d O a k s , C a l i f o r n i a : S a g e . A p l a n d , B r i a n . 1 9 9 3 . T h e R o l e s of the P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t in British C o l u m b i a A r c h a e o l o g y . B.C. Studies, 9 9 : 7-24. A r n s t e i n , S . R. 1 9 6 9 . A L a d d e r of C i t i z e n Participation. MP Journal ,_216-224. A s c h , M . 1 9 9 7 . Introduction. In: M . A s c h (ed), A b o r i g i n a l a n d T r e a t y R i g h t s in C a n a d a . V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U B C Press. B a b b i e , E . 1 9 9 5 . T h e P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l S c i e n c e (7 th ed.). W a d s w o r t h P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y . B e l l , C , a n d A s c h , M . 1 9 9 7 . C h a l l e n g i n g A s s u m p t i o n s : T h e Impact o f P r e c e d e n t in A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s Litigation. In: M . A s c h (ed), A b o r i g i n a l a n d T r e a t y R i g h t s in C a n a d a . V a n c o u v e r , B . C . : U B C Press. B e r g l a n d , E . O . 1 9 9 2 . Historic P e r i o d P l a t e a u C u l t u r e T r e e P e e l i n g in the W e s t e r n C a s c a d e s of O r e g o n . Northwest Anthropological Research Notes., 25(2), 3 1 - 5 3 . B e r k e s , F., & F a s t , H. 1 9 9 6 . A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s : T h e B a s i s for P o l i c y - M a k i n g t o w a r d S u s t a i n a b l e D e v e l o p m e n t . In: A . D a l e (ed.), A c h i e v i n g S u s t a i n a b l e D e v e l o p m e n t (pp. 2 0 4 - 2 6 4 ) . V a n c o u v e r : U B C Press. B e r n i c k , K. 1 9 8 4 . V i c t o r i a Still S t u m p e d by T r e e s . The Midden, 16: 1 0 B e r n i c k , K. 1 9 8 5 . Editorial. The Midden, 17(1): 2 B i o l s i , T., a n d Z i m m e r m a n , L. J . 1 9 9 7 . Indians a n d A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s : V i n e D e l o r i a J r . , a n d the Critique of A n t h r o p o l o g y . A r i z o n a : T h e University of A r i z o n a P r e s s . British C o l u m b i a . 1 9 9 5 . Forest Practices Code Act.  Victoria.  British C o l u m b i a . 1 9 9 6 . Heritage Conservation Act ( R S B C C h a p t . 187). V i c t o r i a British C o l u m b i a . Ministry of A b o r i g i n a l Affairs. 1 9 9 8 . C o n s u l t a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s : C o n s u l t a t i o n on A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s a n d Title. V i c t o r i a . British C o l u m b i a . Ministry of F o r e s t s . 1 9 9 7 . Consultation Guidelines. V i c t o r i a . British C o l u m b i a . Ministry of F o r e s t s . 1 9 9 7 . Protection of Aboriginal Rights Policy. V i c t o r i a British C o l u m b i a . Ministry of F o r e s t s . 1 9 9 9 . Aboriginal Rights and Title Policy. V i c t o r i a . British C o l u m b i a . Ministry of F o r e s t s . 1 9 9 9 . Consultation Guidelines. V i c t o r i a . British C o l u m b i a . Ministry of S m a l l B u s i n e s s , T o u r i s m a n d C u l t u r e a n d Ministry o f F o r e s t s . 1 9 9 6 . Protocol Agreement on the Management of Cultural Heritage Resources. V i c t o r i a . British C o l u m b i a . P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . 1 9 6 6 . Interior S a l i s h . V i c t o r i a , B . C . : Q u e e n ' s Printer.  94  British C o l u m b i a T e r m s o f U n i o n (1871) h t t p : / / s o l o n . o r g / C o n s t i t u t i o n s / C a n a d a / E n g l i s h / b c t u . h t m l 2002  J a n . 16  B u c h y , M . a n d H o v e r m a n , S . 2 0 0 0 . U n d e r s t a n d i n g public participation in forest p l a n n i n g : a review. Forest Policy and Economics, 1, 1 5 - 2 5 . B u r g e s s , R. G . 1 9 8 2 . F i e l d R e s e a r c h : A S o u r c e b o o k a n d F i e l d M a n u a l . L o n d o n , U K : G e o r g e A l l e n & U n w i n P u b l i s h e r s Ltd. Butler, W . B. 1 9 8 7 . S i g n i f i c a n c e a n d other F r u s t r a t i o n s in the C R M P r o c e s s . American Antiquity, 52(4), 820-829. Calder v. Attorney General of British Columbia [1973] S . C . R . C a n a d a . First N a t i o n s F o r e s t r y P r o g r a m ( F N F P ) . 1 9 9 8 . First N a t i o n s F o r e s t r y P r o g r a m A n n u a l R e p o r t 1 9 9 6 - 1 9 9 7 . Natural R e s o u r c e s C a n a d a a n d Indian a n d N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s . C a n a d a . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s ( R C A P ) . 1 9 9 6 . V o l u m e 2 R e s t r u c t u r i n g the R e l a t i o n s h i p (Part two). O t t a w a , O N : C a n a d a C o m m u n i c a t i o n G r o u p . C r u i k s h a n k , J . 1 9 9 8 . T h e S o c i a l Life of S t o r i e s : Narrative a n d K n o w l e d g e in the Y u k o n Territory. Vancouver, B.C.: U B C Press. D a v i s a n d C o m p a n y . 1 9 9 8 . T h e D e l g a m u u k w D e c i s i o n : Implications for the F o r e s t S e c t o r . V a n c o u v e r : F o r e s t r y Bulletin. Delgamuukw v. British Columbia [1993] Delgamuukw v. British Columbia [1997] 3 S . C . R . 1 0 1 0 E l d r i d g e , M . 1 9 9 6 . T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e of Culturally M o d i f i e d T r e e s . Draft R e p o r t . P r e p a r e d for V a n c o u v e r Forest Region and C M T Standards Steering Committee. Millennia R e s e a r c h . E l i a s , P . D. 1 9 9 3 . A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d A b o r i g i n a l C l a i m s R e s e a r c h . In: N . D y c k , a n d J . B . W a l d r a m (eds.), A n t h r o p o l o g y , P u b l i c P o l i c y a n d N a t i v e P e o p l e s in C a n a d a . M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Fitting, J . E . (1981). T h e S t a t u s of R e s c u e A r c h a e o l o g y in North A m e r i c a . In: R. L. W i l s o n a n d G . L o y o l a (eds), R e s c u e A r c h a e o l o g y (pp. 1 7 3 - 1 9 0 ) . W a s h i n g t o n D . C . : T h e P r e s e r v a t i o n P r e s s . G a r r i c k , D. (1998). S h a p e d C e d a r s a n d C e d a r S h a p i n g . W e s t e r n C a n a d a W i l d e r n e s s C o m m i t t e e . Vancouver, B.C. G e r m a i n , R. H . , F l o y d , D. W . , a n d S t e h m a n , S . V . 2 0 0 1 . P u b l i c P e r c e p t i o n s of the U S D A F o r e s t S e r v i c e P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n P r o c e s s . Forest Policy and Economics, 3, 1 1 3 - 1 2 4 . G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s Ltd. 1 9 9 8 . Archaeological Impact Assessments of Proposed Timber Sales Licenses and Forest Developments, Chilliwack Forest District ( P e r m i t 1 9 9 7 - 1 4 7 ) R e p o r t o n file at the C u l t u r e Library, Ministry of S m a l l B u s i n e s s , T o u r i s m a n d C u l t u r e , V i c t o r i a . G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s Ltd. 1 9 9 9 . Archaeological Impact Assessments of Proposed Developments in Portions of the Chilliwack Forest District ( P e r m i t 1 9 9 8 - 2 2 7 ) R e p o r t o n file at the C u l t u r e Library, Ministry of S m a l l B u s i n e s s , T o u r i s m a n d C u l t u r e , V i c t o r i a . G o l d e r A s s o c i a t e s L t d . 1 9 9 9 . Archaeological Overview Assessments of Nlaka'pamux Nation Traditional Territorial Lands in the Northern Chilliwack Forest District. R e p o r t o n file Ministry o f F o r e s t s ,  95  Chilliwack B . C . Guerin v. The Queen [1984] S . C . R . 3 3 5 H a d d o c k , M . 1 9 9 9 . T h e G u i d e to F o r e s t L a n d U s e P l a n n i n g . V a n c o u v e r , B . C . : W e s t C o a s t Environmental Law R e s e a r c h Foundation. H a n n a , D., a n d H e n r y , M . 1 9 9 5 . O u r T e l l i n g s : Interior S a l i s h S t o r i e s of the N l h a ' k a p m x P e o p l e . Vancouver: U B C Press. H a n n a , D., M c C u e , J . , S h a r v i t , C , S i m m o n s , G . a n d W a l k e m , A . 1 9 9 9 . T h e N a t u r e a n d S c o p e of the C r o w n ' s F i d u c i a r y a n d Constitutional O b l i g a t i o n s to C o n s u l t with A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s : W o r k s h o p Materials. Surrey, B . C . : E A G L E . H e n d e r s o n , K. A . 1 9 9 1 . Indepth Interviewing. In: D i m e n s i o n s o f C h o i c e : A Q u a l i t a t i v e A p p r o a c h to R e c r e a t i o n , P a r k s a n d L e i s u r e R e s e a r c h (pp. 7 1 - 8 5 ) . S t a t e University, P A : V e n t u r e P u b l i s h i n g . H i c k s , R. 1 9 8 5 . Culturally A l t e r e d T r e e s : A d a t a s o u r c e . Northwest Anthropological Research Notes., 19(1), 1 0 0 - 1 1 8 . H o u s e , R. D. 1 9 9 8 . A b o r i g i n a l c l a i m s a n d the forest industry: C l a i m s p r o c e s s e s a n d r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s in the c o u r t s . Forestry Chronicle., 74(3), 3 3 4 - 3 4 2 . Indian a n d N o r t h e r n Affairs C a n a d a . 2 0 0 2 . h t t p : / / e s d . i n a c . g c . c a / f n p r o f i l e s /  [ A c c e s s e d April 2 3 , 2002]  I s s a c , T . 1 9 9 9 . A b o r i g i n a l L a w (2nd ed.). S a s k a t o o n : P u r i c h P u b l i s h i n g . K l i m k o , O . , M o o n , H . , a n d G l a u m , D. 1 9 9 8 . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t a n d F o r e s t r y in British C o l u m b i a . Canadian Journal of Archaeology, 22, 3 1 - 4 2 . K u l c h y s k i , P . 1 9 9 4 . S p a r r o w . In: P . K u l c h y s k i (ed.), Unjust R e l a t i o n s : A b o r i g i n a l R i g h t s in C a n a d i a n C o u r t s (pp. 2 1 2 - 2 3 7 ) . T o r o n t o : O x f o r d University P r e s s . Laforet, A . , a n d Y o r k , A . 1 9 8 8 . S p u z z u m : F r a s e r C a n y o n H i s t o r i e s , 1 8 0 8 - 1 9 3 9 . V a n c o u v e r : U B C P r e s s . L a y t o n , R. 1 9 8 8 . Introduction: W h o n e e d s the p a s t ? In: R. L a y t o n (ed.), W h o N e e d s the P a s t ? : I n d i g e n o u s v a l u e s a n d a r c h a e o l o g y , (pp. 1-20). N e w Y o r k , N Y : R o u t l e d g e . L i n c o l n , Y . S . a n d G u b a , E . G . 1 9 8 5 . Naturalistic Inquiry. B e v e r l y Hills, C a l i f o r n i a : S a g e P u b l i c a t i o n s , Inc. L u i , J . 1 9 9 4 . T h e U s e o f L o c a l K n o w l e d g e a n d E x p e r t O p i n i o n in R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g . R e p o r t o n file, Ministry of F o r e s t s . V i c t o r i a . M a c k , C . A . a n d H o l l e n b e c k , B. J . 1 9 8 5 . P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n : U S D A F o r e s t S e r v i c e . M a g n e , M . P . R . a n d M a t s o n , R . G . 1 9 8 4 . " N o t e s o n C a m b i u m - S t r i p p e d L o d g e p o l e P i n e " . In: Athapaskan and Earlier Archaeology at Big Eagle Lake, British Columbia. [ U n p u b l i s h e d d o c u m e n t on file with R . G . M a t s o n , U B C A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t . ] M a t a k a l a , P . W . 1 9 9 5 . D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g a n d Conflict R e s o l u t i o n in C o - m a n a g e m e n t : T w o C a s e s f r o m T e m a g a m i , N o r t h e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f British Columbia. M c C o m b s , A r n o l d M . a n d C h i t t e n d e n , Wilfrid W . 1 9 9 0 . T h e F r a s e r V a l l e y C h a l l e n g e . T r e e l i n e P u b l i s h i n g H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s , B . C .  96  M c C o o l , S . F., a n d G u t h r i e , K. 2 0 0 1 . M a p p i n g t h e D i m e n s i o n s of S u c c e s s f u l P u b l i c Participation in M e s s a y N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s M a n a g e m e n t S i t u a t i o n s . Society and Natural Resources, 14, 3 0 9 323. Meares Island case. M a c M i l l i a n B l o e d e l Ltd. V . Mullin et al.;Martin et a l . v. R in R i g h t o f B . C a n d M a c M i l l i a n B l o e d e l Ltd. [1985] B . C . C . A M i l e s , M . B., a n d H u b e r m a n , A . M . 1 9 9 4 . Qualitative D a t a A n a l y s i s (2nd e d . ) . T h o u s a n d O a k s , C a l i f o r n i a : S a g e P u b l i c a t i o n s , Inc.  Millennia R e s e a r c h . 1996. Archaeology Overview Assessment for the Five Year Consolidated Forest Development Plan Blocks, Chilliwack Forest District. R e p o r t o n file Ministry o f F o r e s t s , C h i l l i w a c k B.C. Ministry of S m a l l B u s i n e s s T o u r i s m a n d C u l t u r e ( M S B T C ) . 1998. British C o l u m b i a A r c h a e o l o g y R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t Handbook. Archaeology Branch: Victoria, B . C . . M o b l e y , C . M . , a n d E l d r i d g e , M . 1 9 9 2 . Culturally M o d i f i e d T r e e s in the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . A r c t i c Anthropology, 29(2), 9 1 - 1 1 0 . M o o n , H . 1 9 9 7 . Cutlurally M o d i f i e d T r e e M a n a g m e n t W o r k s h o p : K a l u m F o r e s t District. M o o t e , M . A . , M c C l a r a n , M . P . , a n d C h i c k e r i n g , D. K. 1 9 9 7 . T h e o r y in P r a c t i c e : A p p l y i n g P a r t i c i p a t o r y D e m o c r a c y T h e o r y to P u b l i c L a n d P l a n n i n g . Environmental Management^(6), 8 7 7 - 8 8 9 . N l a k a ' p a m u x N a t i o n Tribal C o u n c i l ( N N T C ) a n d A B C L u m b e r C o . 2 0 0 0 . P r o t o c o l A g r e e m e n t . [ U n p u b l i s h e d d o c u m e n t ] O n file at the N N T C office, Lytton B . C . N o t z k e , C . 1 9 9 4 . A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s a n d Natural R e s o u r c e s in C a n a d a . C a p t u s U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s . P a r l i a m e n t of C a n a d a . Constitution Act, 1982. h t t p : / / w w w . b l o o r s t r e e t . c o m / 2 0 0 b l o c k / s c o n s t 8 2 . h t m 15,2002  Jan  P a t t e r s o n , R . A . , L o h i n , R. A . , a n d F e r g u s o n , D. S . 1 9 9 2 . C o n s u l t a t i o n : w h e n t h e g o a l is g o o d d e c i s i o n s . O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n C e n t r e for M a n a g e m e n t D e v e l o p m e n t . Piatt, J . 1 9 9 2 . " C a s e S t u d y " in A m e r i c a n M e t h o d o l o g i c a l T h o u g h t . Current Sociology, 40(1), 1 7 - 4 8 . R. v. Van derPeet [1996] 2 S . C . R . 5 0 7 R a a b , L. M a r k a n d Klinger, T . C . 1 9 7 7 . A critical a p p r a i s a l of " s i g n i f i c a n c e " in c o n t r a c t a r c h a e o l o g y . American Antiquity 42(A): 6 2 9 - 6 3 4 . S m i t h , L. G . , N e l l , C . Y . , a n d P r y s t u p a , M . V . 1 9 9 7 . T h e C o n v e r g i n g D y n a m i c s of Interest R e p r e s e n t a t i o n in R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t . Environmental Management, 21(2), 1 3 9 - 1 4 6 . S m i t h , L. T . 1 9 9 9 . D e c o l o n i z i n g M e t h o d o l o g i e s : R e s e a r c h a n d I n d i g e n o u s P e o p l e s . N e w N e a l a n d : U n i v e r s i t y of O t a g o P r e s s . S m i t h , P . 1 9 9 5 . A b o r i g i n a l Participation in F o r e s t M a n a g e m e n t : N o t J u s t A n o t h e r S t a k e h o l d e r . O t t a w a : National Aboriginal Forestry Association. S m i t h , P . 1 9 9 7 . A S e l e c t i o n o f R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s O n L a n d s a n d R e s o u r c e s f r o m t h e R e p o r t o n the R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s (1996). N A F A . O t t a w a , O N .  97  S m i t h , P . 1 9 9 8 . A b o r i g i n a l a n d T r e a t y R i g h t s a n d A b o r i g i n a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n : E s s e n t i a l E l e m e n t s of S u s t a i n a b l e F o r e s t M a n a g e m e n t . Forestry Chronicle, 74(3), 3 2 7 - 3 3 3 . S m i t h , P . V i v i a n P e a c h y , R i c k y B u r k h a r d t , S a r a T e i t e l b a u m a n d P a m e l a P e r r e a u l t . 2 0 0 0 . Draft P r o t o c o l F r a m e w o r k for M e a n i n g f u l C o n s u l t a t i o n with A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s o n F o r e s t M a n a g e m e n t in C a n a d a . N A F A / F S C C a n a d a . [ P a p e r in p r o g r e s s ] . S m i t h , P . , a n d M c D o n o u g h , M . H . (2001). B e y o n d P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n : F a i r n e s s in N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e D e c i s i o n M a k i n g . Society and Natural Resources, 14, 2 3 9 - 2 4 9 . Sparrow v. The Queen [1990] S . C . R . 1 0 7 5 S t e w a r t , H . 1 9 8 4 . C e d a r : T r e e of Life to the N o r t h w e s t C o a s t Indians. U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s . S t e w a r t , H . 1 9 8 4 b . Culturally M o d i f i e d T r e e s . The Midden, 16 (5): 7-9. Strother, R. C . 1 9 9 8 . T h e D e l g a m u u k w C a s e : Q u e s t i o n s of C o m p e n s a t i o n . Stryd, A . , and F e d d e m a , V . 1998. Vancouver, B . C . : David S u z u k i Foundation. S t r y d , A . H . a n d E l d r i d g e , M . 1 9 9 3 . C M T A r c h a e o l o g y in British C o l u m b i a : T h e M e a r e s Island S t u d i e s . B . C . Studies, 99, 1 8 4 - 2 3 4 . T a s h a k k o r i , A . a n d T e d d l i e , C . 1 9 9 8 . M i x e d M e t h o d o l o g y : C o m b i n i n g Qualitative a n d Quantitative A p p r o a c h e s (Applied Social R e s e a r c h Methods S e r i e s S a g e Publications. The Oregon Treaty, 7 8 4 6 h t t p : / / c c r h . o r g / c o m m / r i v e r / d o c s / o r t r e a t y . h t m  F e b . 2, 2002  The Royal Proclamation of October 11, 1763 h t t p : / / w w w . b l o o r s t r e e t . c o m / 2 0 0 b l o c k / r p 1 7 6 3 . h t m  J a n . 15,  2002 T h o m p s o n , R. H . 1 9 8 1 . A r c h e o l o g i c a l T r i a g e : D e t e r m i n i n g the S i g n i f i c a n c e o f C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s . In: R. L. W i l s o n , a n d G . L o y o l a (eds.), R e s c u e A r c h e o l o g y , (pp. 4 0 - 5 8 ) . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : T h e Preservation Press. T i r r u l - J o n e s , J . 1 9 8 5 . T e s t P i t s : A r e they c a u s e d by native logging or historic t r a p p i n g ? The Midden, 17 (3): 6 . T r e s e d e r , L., a n d K r o g m a n , N . T . 1 9 9 9 . F e a t u r e s of First N a t i o n s F o r e s t M a n a g e m e n t Institutions a n d Implications for Sustainability. Forestry Chronicle, 75(5), 7 9 3 - 7 9 8 . T r i g g e r , B. G . 1 9 8 0 . A r c h a e o l o g y a n d the I m a g e of the A m e r i c a n Indian. American Antiquity 45 (4): 6 6 2 678. T u r n e r , N . J . 1 9 9 7 . F o o d P l a n t s o f C o a s t a l First P e o p l e s . V a n c o u v e r , B . C . U B C P r e s s . T u r n e r , N . J . 1 9 9 8 . P l a n t T e c h n o l o g y of First P e o p l e s o f British C o l u m b i a . U B C P r e s s . T u r n e r , N . J . 1 9 9 8 . S a c r e d C e d a r T r e e of the K w a k w a k ' w a k w P e o p l e . In: M . C . B o l (ed.), S t a r s A b o v e , E a r t h B e l o w : A m e r i c a n Indians a n d N a t u r e (pp. 1 8 9 - 2 0 8 ) . C a r n e g i e M u s e u m o f Natural History & Roberts Rinehart Publishers. T u r n e r , N . J . , T h o m p s o n , L. C , T h o m p s o n , M . T. a n d Y o r k , A . Z . 1 9 9 0 . T h o m p s o n E t h n o b o t a n y . R o y a l British C o l u m b i a M u s e u m .  98  W o r l d C o m m i s s i o n o n E n v i r o n m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t . 1 9 8 7 . O u r C o m m o n F u t u r e . B u n g a y , Suffolk: Oxford University P r e s s . Y i n , R. K. 1 9 9 4 . C a s e S t u d y R e s e a r c h : D e s i g n a n d M e t h o d s (2nd e d . ) . ( A p p l i e d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s S e r i e s N o . 5) S a g e P u b l i c a t i o n s .  99  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0075378/manifest

Comment

Related Items