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Vacuum deposited optical phase filters Graf, Stephen 1976

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VACUUM DEPOSITED OPTICAL PHASE FILTERS by Stephen •B.A.'Sc,  Thesis The  Graf  University  Submitted  Toronto,  F o r The  Of A p p l i e d  in  1970  In P a r t i a l Fulfilment  Requirements Master  of  the  Degree  Of  Science  Department of  Electrical  We a c c e p t to  The  this the  thesis  required  University  of  April,  (a)  Engineering  as  conforming  standard  British 1976  S t e p h e n G r a f , 1976  Columbia  Of  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  thesis  purposes  for  partial  freely  permission may  representatives.  be  It  Date  for  University  of  British  So  gain  Columbia  /pi  British for  extensive by  the  understood  of  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  of  granted  is  financial  fulfilment of  available  permission.  Department  The  this  shall  reference  Head  be  requirements  Columbia,  copying  that  not  the  of  copying  agree  and  of my  I  this  that  study. thesis  Department or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT The advantages of an o p t i c a l s p a t i a l phase f i l t e r constructed by thickness variations are put forward and a method of f a b r i c a t i n g such a device using vacuum deposition techniques i s detailed. The design and construction of a vacuum system to produce such a device i s outlined.  The system comprises  a vacuum chamber with a source holder f o r zinc s u l f i d e , an e l e c t r o n i c a l l y controlled shutter, an aperture,  and a  substrate and holder mounted on an x-y motion table driven by stepper motors.  The system i s controlled by a mini-  computer and measurements of thickness are made by an ellipsometer controlled by the minicomputer. Experiments conducted with the system determine the s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n and closed loop control c a p a b i l i t i e s to be adequate.  An analysis of the r e s u l t s of the tests  concludes that with further refinements i t seems f e a s i b l e to fabricate s p a t i a l phase f i l t e r s by using vacuum deposition  techniques.  - i i CONTENTS Page Abstract Table o f Contents L i s t o f Tables  i i i i i i  L i s t of Figures  iv  Acknowledgement  v  Introduction  1  Chapter I - Background  4  Chapter I I - Hardware and Software  12  Chapter I I I - R e s u l t s and C o n c l u s i o n s  32  References and B i b l i o g r a p h y  46  Appendix I - A program t o C a l c u l a t e Phase Changes Produced by Varying Thickness  47  Appendix I I - A Program t o C a l c u l a t e F o u r i e r Transform Twice  53  Appendix I I I - L i s t i n g o f the Software W r i t t e n f o r the PDP-8e.  56  LIST OF TABLES  Device 33 o f Computer I n t e r f a c e Scan of Aluminum Coated S u b s t r a t e  - ivLIST OF FIGURES Page 1.  Transmission and Reflection Optical Systems  5  2.  Angle of Incidence  6  3.  Spatial Fourier Transform Example  10  4.  Vacuum Chamber Details  13  5.  Ellipsometer Schematic  16  6.  Flowchart of Subroutine BAL  24  7.  Analyzer Scan of Squares 1-3  35  8.  P o l a r i z e r Scan of Squares 1-3  36  9.  P o l a r i z e r and Analyzer Scan of Square 4  37  Analyzer Scan f o r Squares Deposited While on Control -  39  10. 11.  P o l a r i z e r Scan f o r Squares Deposited While on Control  40  12.  A-V Plot (Experimental)  42  13.  &-«pPlot (Calculated)  43  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The  author wishes t o express h i s s i n c e r e thanks  and g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r L. Young f o r h i s s u p e r v i s i o n and f o r h i s p a t i e n c e which i s above and beyond t h e c a l l of duty.  S p e c i a l thanks i s due t o the author's  wife,  M a r g a r e t - E l l e n Graf, f o r h e r d i l i g e n t e f f o r t s i n t y p i n g and  proofreading. Acknowledgement i s a l s o due t o P r o f e s s o r B. P.  H i l d e b r a n d f o r suggesting the t o p i c , t o M. Thewalt f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n c a r r y i n g i t out, and t o Mr. J . Stuber of the machine shop i n the Department o f E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g f o r h i s e x c e l l e n t work.  -  1 -  INTRODUCTION This thesis i s an investigation of the p r a c t i c a l i t y of producing o p t i c a l phase f i l t e r s using vacuum deposition techniques. Consider an o p t i c a l system consisting of two p a r a l l e l planes separated by some distance.  The electromagnetic  f i e l d i n t e n s i t y i n one plane i s a function of the i n t e n s i t y i n the other plane.  To produce s p e c i f i c i n t e n s i t y functions  i n one plane from a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e n s i t y function i n the other requires, i n general, a complex valued f i l t e r to be placed between the two.  An example of such a f i l t e r i s a lens.  An i d e a l lens can be represented mathematically as a 1  m u l t i p l i c a t i v e factor of the form, exp - j c ( x + y ) 2  (1)  2  where c i s a constant and x, y are perpendicular reference axes.  I t i s desirable to be able to produce more complicated  phase functions than that of the lens.  In f a c t , the correc-  tions that must be made to a r e a l lens so that i t approximates the i d e a l more c l o s e l y require a much more complex phase function.  2  A simple form of phase f i l t e r was used by Tsujiuchi to correct lens aberrations and to produce o p t i c a l systems with two f o c i i .  The f i l t e r s used were very simple i n that they  consisted only of a pattern of h a l f wavelength retardations. Approximations  were made i n the calculations of the f i l t e r  pattern i n order to e a s i l y fabricate the devices.  - 2 -  Recently h o l o g r a p h i c techniques duce phase f i l t e r s . an amplitude power was  have been used to pro-  In the r e f e r e n c e d work the authors  4  hologram.  Less than ten per cent of the  d e f l e c t e d i n t o the beam that has  used  signal  the d e s i r e d  a l t e r e d phase.^ The most s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d method of producing of  a pattern  phase v a r i a t i o n would seem to be the use of a t r a n s p a r e n t  m a t e r i a l w i t h a p a t t e r n of t h i c k n e s s v a r i a t i o n . must have an index of r e f r a c t i o n d i f f e r e n t m i s s i o n medium so that the speed of l i g h t  The  material  from the t r a n s is different  i n the  filter.  Thus the t h i c k n e s s v a r i a t i o n s convert to phase v a r i -  ations.  With the a i d of an index matching l a y e r a phase  of and  t h i s type passes a l l of the a v a i l a b l e input s i g n a l power i s thus a s i g n i f i c a n t  type of f i l t e r .  The  improvement over the  holographic  t h i c k n e s s v a r i a t i o n type of phase  c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y be used i n many a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the of  filter  optical  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g and  c o n v e n t i o n a l photographic Researchers phase f i l t e r s  field  s p a t i a l f i l t e r i n g where  holograms are now  used.  at I.B.M. have produced t h i c k n e s s  which they c a l l  filter  Kinoforms.^  c o n s t r u c t e d by b l e a c h i n g computer generated  The  variation  devices  are  photonegatives.  Bleaching removes the dark m a t e r i a l i n the n e g a t i v e , l e a v i n g a t r a n s p a r e n t p a t t e r n of t h i c k n e s s . the i d e a l way  It i s p o i n t e d out that  of f a b r i c a t i n g such d e v i c e s would be to produce  the t h i c k n e s s d i r e c t l y and not r e l y on a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from  - 3i n t e n s i t y t o phase. In t h i s t h e s i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s made o f a method o f f a b r i c a t i n g a two d i m e n s i o n a l d e v i c e w i t h t h i c k n e s s v a r i a t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r use as a phase f i l t e r i n an o p t i c a l system. S t a r t i n g with a p a r a l l e l faced slab or substrate o f transparent  m a t e r i a l , a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l must be added o r  removed t o produce a t h i c k n e s s  v a r i a t i o n over t h e s u r f a c e .  Removal o f m a t e r i a l was n o t f u r t h e r explored,  although  developments i n l a s e r e t c h i n g techniques make i t l o o k f e a s i b l e . There are a number o f methods o f adding m a t e r i a l t o a subs t r a t e such as vacuum d e p o s i t i o n , s p u t t e r i n g and s c r e e n i n g . Of these,  vacuum d e p o s i t i o n seemed t o be the most p r o m i s i n g  technique and was s i n g l e d out f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Vacuum d e p o s i t i o n was chosen f o r f u r t h e r study f o r a number o f reasons. field  The technique has been used w i d e l y i n t h e  o f o p t i c s f o r v a r i o u s purposes such as a n t i - r e f l e c t i o n  f i l m s and m u l t i - l a y e r frequency s e l e c t i v e f i l t e r s .  The  m a t e r i a l s used i n vacuum d e p o s i t i o n have been s t u d i e d and y o  Q  -] Q  are w e l l documented. ' ' ' The  f o l l o w i n g chapters d e s c r i b e  i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y  the work performed t o  o f f a b r i c a t i n g phase f i l t e r s by  vacuum d e p o s i t i o n techniques.  Chapter I i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f  the proposed f i l t e r and the method o f p r o d u c t i o n . describes  the hardware designed and c o n s t r u c t e d ,  software w r i t t e n . and  conclusions  Chapter I I and the  Chapter I I I i s a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s  o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  -  4 -  CHAPTER I - BAC KGROUND A d i e l e c t r i c m a t e r i a l w i l l cause a phase change o f the l i g h t t r a n s m i t t e d through i t i n the f o l l o w i n g way.  Consider  F i g u r e 1(a).  The o p t i c a l system between the two f i x e d  ref-  erence planes  ZQ and z^ can be c o n s i d e r e d as a system w i t h a  t r a n s m i s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t T.  T =  (1+r  Q 1  1 r +  r  Q 1  1 2  r  -fr  1 2  0 1 +  r  e  1 2  )  _ j ( 9 +Q +Q )  (2)  2  i s the F r e s n e l r e f l e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t from medium i t o medium j .  The r e f l e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r p e r p e n d i c u l a r l y  polarized light i s  r.  (3)  and f o r p a r a l l e l  polarization  r.  0  ±  n^cosfi.  + n.cos0?  and 0^ are d e f i n e d i n F i g u r e 2.  (4)  The o p t i c a l path l e n g t h s  9.'s are g i v e n by  9  i X =  n  i  d  i  cos0  i  (5)  -  n  d  5  -  o  0  Figure  n  o  d  o  n  1  d  1  n  d  2  2  1(a)  + ik  d  Figure  i  1(b)  T r a n s m i s s i o n and. R e f l e c t i o n O p t i c a l Systems  - 6  Figure  2.  -  Angle of  Incidence  where?!is the wavelength o f the l i g h t , index o f the i ^ medium.  1  i s the r e f r a c t i v e  medium, and d^ i s the t h i c k n e s s o f the i ^  By v a r y i n g the t h i c k n e s s d^, the phase change  1  intro-  duced by the o p t i c a l system i s a l t e r e d . A s i m i l a r r e s u l t can be achieved by u s i n g the r e f l e c t i o n geometry o f F i g u r e 1 ( b ) .  The o p t i c a l system between the  two planes ZQ and z^ can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e f l e c t i o n coefficient  R  =  ( 1+r  Q 1  +  F  1  2  +  r  Q  1 r +  ^ ) (r  1  0  2  1  r  1  2  e-J  Q  1+  2 9  ^  2  e " J  2  9  1 )  (  g  )  1  The computer program i n Appendix I was used t o c a l c u l a t e the  phase changes produced by v a r y i n g the t h i c k n e s s o f the  d i e l e c t r i c layer.  The a r b i t r a r y zero o f phase change was  chosen t o occur when the d i e l e c t r i c l a y e r has zero t h i c k n e s s . Appendix I l i s t s the computed tric  change o f phase due t o d i e l e c -  thickness. For  the t r a n s m i s s i o n geometry, the o p t i c a l c o n s t a n t s  used i n the equations were chosen f o r a f i l m o f magnesium f l u o r i d e on g l a s s i n a i r .  F o r the r e f l e c t i o n geometry, the  c o n s t a n t s used correspond t o a f i l m o f z i n c s u l f i d e on aha aluminum backing i n a i r .  These c o n s t a n t s were chosen because  they r e p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l s t h a t have been f r e q u e n t l y used i n the  field  of optics.  A phase f i l t e r , being a d e v i c e which a l t e r s the phase of  a plane wave as a f u n c t i o n o f two dimensions, c o u l d be  -  8  -  used i n much the same manner as an i n t e r f e r e n c e hologram to s t o r e i n f o r m a t i o n and c r e a t e images.  T h i s p r o p e r t y can  be  demonstrated by u t i l i z i n g the F o u r i e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o p e r t y of  a lens.  A l e n s d i s p l a y s the two  dimensional  spatial  F o u r i e r t r a n s f o r m of the i n t e n s i t y of one of i t s f o c a l planes i n the other f o c a l p l a n e .  Thus, i f an image i s  p l a c e d i n the f o c a l plane of a l e n s , i t s F o u r i e r t r a n s f o r m would appear i n the o t h e r f o c a l p l a n e .  The F o u r i e r t r a n s -  form of a r e a l image i s i n g e n e r a l a complex v a l u e d f u n c t i o n . The amplitude  p a r t of such a f u n c t i o n can be  c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h a photographic  transparency.  easily  I f a phase  f i l t e r c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e p a t t e r n of  phase, one should be able to produce an image from  complex v a l u e d F o u r i e r t r a n s f o r m . p a r t of the f i l t e r , image.  Even without the  the  amplitude  i t should be able to produce a reasonable  T h i s experiment  was  s i m u l a t e d n u m e r i c a l l y by u s i n g  the F a s t F o u r i e r Transform program a v a i l a b l e on the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia I.B.M. 360  computer system.  A two d i m e n s i o n a l black-white image was then transformed  digitized  i n t o the s p a t i a l frequency p l a n e .  and  There  the i n d i v i d u a l s p a t i a l f r e q u e n c i e s were a l t e r e d by normali z i n g each amplitude intact.  to u n i t y w h i l e l e a v i n g the phases  T h i s s i m u l a t e s the e f f e c t of i l l u m i n a t i n g the phase  f i l t e r without amplitude plane wave. was  compensation w i t h a u n i t  amplitude  The F o u r i e r t r a n s f o r m of the a l t e r e d t r a n s f o r m  then taken.  T h i s corresponds  process w i t h a l e n s .  to the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  Taking the F o u r i e r t r a n s f o r m twice,  - 9 instead, of t a k i n g the transform i n the axes being The  and  inverted.  program w r i t t e n to demonstrate t h i s e f f e c t i s  l i s t e d , i n Appendix I I .  The  i n p u t to the program i s the  d i g i t i z e d p a t t e r n of F i g u r e 3 ( a ) . is  i t s inverse, r e s u l t s  The  intensity function  spread by the'amplitude n o r m a l i z i n g .  b r i g h t areas, still  However, the 3(b),  as i n d i c a t e d by the p a t t e r n of F i g u r e  show a r e p r o d u c t i o n  of the o r i g i n a l .  The  r e s u l t s of  the computer experiment demonstrate the c a p a b i l i t i e s of a phase  filter. Vacuum d e p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t the m a t e r i a l to  deposited  be heated to the vapour s t a t e and  on the s u b s t r a t e . techniques,  then condensed  To produce a phase f i l t e r w i t h vacuum  i n v o l v e s the d e p o s i t i o n of a v a r y i n g  d i e l e c t r i c on the s u r f a c e of a s u b s t r a t e thickness  be  thickness  such t h a t  the  i s a f u n c t i o n of the p o s i t i o n on the s u r f a c e .  i n v o l v e s c o n t r o l l i n g the p o s i t i o n of d e p o s i t i o n and c o n t r o l l i n g the t h i c k n e s s  of  This  also  deposition.  P o s i t i o n o f d e p o s i t i o n can be c o n t r o l l e d by c o l l i m a t i n g the vapour from the d e p o s i t i o n source i n t o a narrow beam and  exposing the s u b s t r a t e  only to t h a t beam.  The  substrate  must then be moved about so t h a t the beam covers the e n t i r e surface.  Use  of t h i s method r e s t r i c t s the s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n  t o the f i n e n e s s of the beam. to measure the t h i c k n e s s  An e l l i p s o m e t e r was  of the d e p o s i t e d  available  layer.  The  measurements from the e l l i p s o m e t e r c o u l d be used to determine the t h i c k n e s s  of the l a y e r t h a t was  c u r r e n t l y being  deposited  -  10  -  *"*  ** ** ** **  ****************  ****************  *  O r i g i n a l Image  ** ** ** ** ** ** **  Figure 3(a)  *  ** * **  ** **** * * **** * *  * * * **** * * *  Second Transform  ****. *  ** ** Figure 3(b)  S p a t i a l F o u r i e r Transform Example  -  11  -  and thus i n d i c a t e when the l a y e r was t h i c k enough b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g to the next area. The e l l i p s o m e t e r  had been p r e v i o u s l y  automated by  c o n n e c t i n g i t t o a D i g i t a l Equipment C o r p o r a t i o n PDP minicomputer.  8-e  T h i s computer, was i d e a l l y s u i t e d to c o n t r o l  the p o s i t i o n i n g o f the s u b s t r a t e ness o f the d e p o s i t i o n simple to communicate  and to c o n t r o l the t h i c k -  a t any one p o i n t . the p a t t e r n  I t would a l s o be  o f phase r e q u i r e d  to a  minicomputer s i n c e the p a t t e r n would, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , be generated by a l a r g e  computer.  To f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y o f p r o d u c i n g phase f i l t e r s by vacuum techniques, a d d i t i o n a l apparatus had to be designed, c o n s t r u c t e d  and t e s t e d .  The c o n t r o l  s t r a t e g y had a l s o to be designed and implemented.  - 12 CHAPTER I I - HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE The t e c h n i q u e  o f vacuum d e p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s a chamber  equipped w i t h a pumping system t h a t c a n m a i n t a i n l o w e r t h a n 1 x 10  Torr.  pressures  I n t h i s chamber, t h e s o u r c e  m a t e r i a l t o be d e p o s i t e d must be h e a t e d t o a h i g h temperat u r e so t h a t i t v a p o r i z e s .  The s u b s t r a t e must be h e l d i n  p r o x i m i t y t o t h e s o u r c e so t h a t t h e vapour condenses on i t s surface.  F i g u r e 4 i s a s k e t c h o f t h e vacuum system  d e s i g n e d and b u i l t t o t e s t t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f p r o d u c i n g pattern of varying thickness  a  deposit.  The main s e c t i o n o f t h e chamber houses an x-y movement upon w h i c h t h e s u b s t r a t e i s mounted.  The x-y movement i s  d r i v e n by two s t e p p e r motors mounted w i t h i n t h e chamber and powered from an e l e c t r i c a l f e e d t h r o u g h on t h e s i d e o f t h e chamber.  The r e a r o f t h e chamber has a c o n n e c t i o n  to the  pumping system. The f r o n t s e c t i o n o f t h e chamber has a n g l e d a b a r r e l shaped n o s e p i e c e .  s i d e s and  The s i d e s , w h i c h form a "V"  w i t h an i n t e r i o r a n g l e o f 140 degrees, a r e f i t t e d  with  windows such t h a t a l i g h t beam e n t e r i n g t h e c e n t e r o f one window a t r i g h t a n g l e s would s t r i k e t h e s u b s t r a t e a t an a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e o f 70 degrees and r e f l e c t o u t t h e o t h e r window.  An e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c a l l y o p e r a t e d s h u t t e r i s f i t t e d  a l o n g t h e c e n t e r l i n e o f t h e chamber as c l o s e t o t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e windows as p o s s i b l e without  i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e passage o f l i g h t from  -  1 3 -  HI n  1  rn  1  3I_JLO_4-:—if i  1  A  5  7  8  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  -  Figure 4 .  e l e c t r i c a l feedthrough vacuum pump c o n n e c t i o n x-y motion t a b l e and d r i v e motors o p t i c a l windows shutter substrate holder collimator source h i g h c u r r e n t feedthrough Vacuum Chamber D e t a i l s  -  14 -  window t o s u b s t r a t e t o window.  Between the s h u t t e r and  s u b s t r a t e i s a mask w i t h a square a p e r t u r e .  The b a r r e l o f  the chamber c o n t a i n s the source.  i s a round  tantalum  The source  tube t h a t i s connected t o h i g h c u r r e n t  feedthroughs a t the end o f the b a r r e l .  electrical  The endpiece a l s o  c o n t a i n s an e l e c t r i c a l feedthrough f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f the s h u t t e r .  The source  s h u t t e r and mask a l l l i e along t h e  c e n t e r l i n e o f the chamber.  Thus, the source  i s only  able  to d e p o s i t m a t e r i a l on t h a t s e c t i o n o f the s u b s t r a t e v i s i b l e t o the source  through the mask and then,  o n l y when  the s h u t t e r i s open.  The motion o f the x-y movement p r e s e n t s  d i f f e r e n t areas o f the s u b s t r a t e t o the source. The windows a r e f i t t e d i n such a way t h a t the e n t i r e chamber c a n be p l a c e d between t h e two arms o f an e l l i p someter.  Thus, the t h i c k n e s s o f the area being  deposited  can be monitored i n s i t u . The chamber i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f helium-arc 316 s t a i n l e s s s t e e l .  welded type  The f r o n t s e c t i o n separates  from the  main chamber t o a l l o w s e r v i c i n g o f the s u b s t r a t e .  The two  s e c t i o n s are b o l t e d t o g e t h e r and s e a l e d w i t h a l a r g e "0" ring.  The source  and feedthroughs a r e mounted on a f l a n g e  t h a t i s b o l t e d t o the f r o n t end o f the b a r r e l s e c t i o n .  The  e n t i r e chamber i s mounted on a l a r g e aluminum p l a t e t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s l o c a t i n g the u n i t on the e l l i p s o m e t e r . The pumping system connected t o the r e a r o f the main chamber c o n s i s t s o f a mechanical r o t a r y pump f o r roughing from atmospheric p r e s s u r e s  and an o i l d i f f u s i o n pump f o r  higher vacuums.  This arrangement of pumps i s able to  adequately maintain a pressure of less than 1 x 10  Torr.  The chamber and x-y movement were designed f o r t h i s experiment.  The construction was carried out by Mr. J .  Stuber. The ellipsometer used to monitor f i l m thickness had been previously equipped to make measurements under control of a minicomputer.  An ellipsometer i s a device which measures  two o p t i c a l quantities c a l l e d A and r which are related to 1  the r e f l e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of an o p t i c a l system by tante  J A  (7)  =^£ Rs  where Rp i s the r e f l e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r p a r a l l e l polarized l i g h t and R i s the r e f l e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r perpendicular s polarized l i g h t . A schematic diagram of the ellipsometer i s given i n Figure 5.  The p o l a r i z e r and analyzer are polaroids and the  quarter wave plate i s a S o l e i l Babinet compensator that introduces a phase change of 90 degrees between the perpendicular and p a r a l l e l p o l a r i z a t i o n s of the l i g h t beam. The intensity of the l i g h t emerging from the analyzer i s given by I = IQ sin2(lP+A) - s i n 2 r s i n ^ - A ' ) 2  A i s defined by (  (8)  - 16 -  1  -  l a s e r l i g h t source  2  -  p o l a r i z e r with shaft encoder and drive motor  3  -  sample  4  -  quarter wave plate  5  -  analyzer with shaft encoder and drive motor  6  -  photomultiplier tube l i g h t detector  Figure 5.  Ellipsometer Schematic  - 17 tan A '  = sin£tan(2P-~)  (9)  where S i s the r e t a r d a t i o n of the q u a r t e r wave p l a t e , and i s the a n a l y z e r  s e t t i n g and P i s the p o l a r i z e r s e t t i n g .  Making a measurement w i t h the e l l i p s o m e t e r , or the e l l i p s o m e t e r , i n v o l v e s d e t e r m i n i n g l a r i z e r and a n a l y z e r  balancing  a c o m b i n a t i o n of  po-  s e t t i n g s t h a t produces a n u l l i n the  l i g h t i n t e n s i t y emerging from the  analyzer.  With the q u a r t e r wave p l a t e s e t at -45°  to the p l a n e of  i n c i d e n c e , at e x t i n c t i o n the r e l a t i o n s between & and P,  V  and A  A  and  are: ^  = 90°  - 2P  135° > P >  -45° ( 1 0 )  V = A  90° > A  >  0  and A  = 2P  - 90°  225° > P >  45°  V = 180°-  A  180° > A >  90°  A d e t a i l e d l i s t of a l l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f a n a l y s e r  and  p o l a r i z e r s e t t i n g s t h a t produce a n u l l i s g i v e n by 12  F.L.  M c C r a c k i n et a l . Becaus.e the s i g n a l from the p h o t o m u l t i p l i e r f a l l s i n s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s near a n u l l , i t was  not p o s s i b l e to  determine the p o s i t i o n of the n u l l d i r e c t l y . b o t h I v e r s u s A and  to  Fortunately,  I v e r s u s P c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are  symmetri-  c a l about the n u l l p o i n t .  I versus P i s symmetrical  S i s c l o s e to 90 degrees.  Thus, by d e t e r m i n i n g  provided  equal i n t e n -  s i t i e s on e i t h e r s i d e of the minimum, the p o s i t i o n of the  null  can be d e t e r m i n e d as the m i d p o i n t . Both the p o l a r i z e r and a n a l y z e r  are d r i v e n by  stepping  - 18 motors geared so that one step rotates the polaroid by 0.01  degrees.  The positions of the p o l a r i z e r and analyzer  are measured by a shaft encoder connected to the drive gearing i n each unit.  The two encoders are read by a multi-  plexed decoder to provide a f i v e d i g i t BCD output which ranges from 000.00 degrees to 3'59.99 degrees.  The analyzer  shaft encoder was mounted i n opposition to the scale engraved i n the analyzer so that the reading from the encoder must be complimented by 360 degrees to make i t compatible.  The  l i g h t i n t e n s i t y monitored by the photomultiplier i s read through a multiplexed  ten b i t analog to d i g i t a l  converter.  The ellipsometer had previously been interfaced to a PDP-8e minicomputer.  The shaft encoder and photomultiplier  were input to the computer and the computer was able to turn the stepper motors on the analyzer and p o l a r i z e r .  The i n t e r -  face was expanded so that the computer was able to rotate the stepper motors connected to the x-y drive i n the vacuum chamber.  The shutter was also operated through the computer  interface. Operator communication to the system was made v i a an ASR-33 teletype.  The teletype handler program operates the  teletype under interrupt control.  A l l input from the key-  board i s put into a buffer u n t i l i t i s used and removed by a program requiring input.  A l l p r i n t output i s put into  another buffer which the teletype handler t r i e s to keep empty by outputting the contents on the p r i n t e r .  Since teletype  input and output are performed on an interrupt basis, the  -  19 -  computer i s able t o c a r r y out c o n t r o l tasks i n the background while  s e r v i n g the t e l e t y p e .  A simple  o p e r a t i n g system was w r i t t e n t o a l l o w an  o p e r a t o r t o i n i t i a t e c o n t r o l a c t i o n s from the keyboard. When f i r s t  s t a r t e d , the o p e r a t i n g system i n i t i a l i z e s  and counters The  flags  used throughout t h e programs i n the system.  only other f u n c t i o n o f the o p e r a t i n g system i s t o check  the keyboard b u f f e r f o r i n p u t s and t r a n s l a t e these i n t o c o n t r o l programs t o execute. of two t r u n c a t e d ASCII c h a r a c t e r s .  inputs  Commands take the form The o p e r a t i n g  system  compares i n p u t s w i t h a t a b l e o f names i t r e c o g n i z e s .  Ifa  match i s made, the c o n t r o l program i n the address t a b l e corresponding  t o the name t a b l e i s executed.  programs a r e a l l subroutines  The c o n t r o l  t h a t r e t u r n t o the o p e r a t i n g  system when they have completed t h e i r  task.  For t h i s t h e s i s , i t was r e q u i r e d t o operate  the e l l i p s o -  meter and the s h u t t e r and x-y d r i v e i n the chamber. a h i g h e r l e v e l program was r e q u i r e d t o c o o r d i n a t e  Also  these  c o n t r o l s i n such a way as t o produce a d e p o s i t o f a r e q u i r e d thickness. polarizer"  Two commands t h a t were implemented were " s e t the (SP), and " s e t t h e a n a l y z e r "  (SA).  Either  command expected a f i v e d i g i t i n p u t from the keyboard t h a t represented  the p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e d o f the a n a l y z e r o r  polarizer.  These two programs f i r s t read the s h a f t encoder  to  determine the present p o s i t i o n o f the u n i t and then  output  the a p p r o p r i a t e number o f steps t o t u r n the u n i t t o  the r e q u i r e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e d the  - 20 least motion. The two commands to move the x-direction and y - d i r e c t i o n stepper motors on the x-y drive i n the chamber were given the names MX and MY respectively.  The programs associated with  these commands expected inputs from keyboard to indicate d i r e c t i o n of movement i n the plane and the distance of t r a v e l . Direction was  indicated by "F" and "R".  An "F" meant to the  r i g h t i n the x-direction and up i n the y - d i r e c t i o n when looking at the chamber from the source end.  "R"  i s the  opposite of "F". A l l four stepper motors, the shaft encoder multiplexer and the shutter switch were connected to device 33 i n the computer interface.  This device was a set of twelve  flip  f l o p s , one per b i t of the computer word as defined i n Table 1.  The I0P2 pulse from the computer output the  accumulator to bit  to set the f l i p f l o p s .  The I0P4 pulse was used  send a pulse to the stepper motors that had t h e i r enable set.  The pulse was  steered to the clockwise or counter-  clockwise input on the stepper motor c o n t r o l l e r s by the d i r e c t i o n b i t . Thus, any of the four stepper motors could be moved by f i r s t setting i t s enable and d i r e c t i o n b i t s with an I0P2 pulse and then sending an I0.P4 pulse f o r each step. Once the gating f o r a motor had been set, a routine l a b e l l e d STEP was used to output one step pulse to the motor. The motors used had a resonance at approximately 200 steps per second.  To run the motors at a speed above the resonance  required that they be accelerated from a stopped p o s i t i o n .  - 21 -  Device 3 3 o f Computer  Interface  Bit Position  Function  0  P o l a r i z e r motor d i r e c t i o n  1  P o l a r i z e r motor enable  2  A n a l y z e r motor d i r e c t i o n  3  A n a l y z e r motor enable  4  Y-axis motor d i r e c t i o n  5  Y - a x i s motor enable  6  X - a x i s motor d i r e c t i o n  7  X-axis motor enable  8  Unused  9  Unused  10  Shutter  11  S h a f t encoder  Table 1  control gate  - 22 Since timing was  generated by software, i t was not  to run more than one motor at a time. of device 33 was  convenient  The hardware status  stored i n a l o c a t i o n l a b e l l e d DIR.  Bit 9  of DIR was used f o r a f l a g to indicate that acceleration was required.  The routine STEP accelerated the motors by shorten-  ing the time between pulses from a maximum when the f l a g  was  f i r s t set to a minimum after a c e r t a i n number of pulses had been sent.  At t h i s time the f l a g was cleared.  The output of the multiplexed shaft encoder was to device 30 i n the interface.  connected  The shaft encoder was  always  set to read the analyzer when the analyzer motor was selected, and the p o l a r i z e r , when the p o l a r i z e r motor was selected. The I0P2 pulse was used to strobe the high order two BCD  digits  into the accumulator and the I0P4 pulse was used to strobe the three low order BCD d i g i t s .  These numbers were read by  a program named RDSFT and were stored i n locations SHFTH and SHFTL respectively. The output from the photomultiplier on the ellipsometer was measured by the computer with an analog to d i g i t a l converter, device 32 i n the interface.  The program, ANALG,  was responsible f o r reading the analog to d i g i t a l converter and converting the reading into v o l t s . To take a reading from the ellipsometer requires that the p o l a r i z e r and analyzer be positioned so that the output from the photomultiplier i s a minimum.  The  suggested  procedure i s to f i r s t balance, that i s , f i n d a minimum of, 11 the p o l a r i z e r . Then the analyzer i s balanced. The  23 -  -  p o l a r i z e r i s again balanced and f i n a l l y the analyzer i s balanced again.  This procedure can be commanded from the  keyboard with a BE input.  The procedure i s r e a l l y a combina-  t i o n of the two commands BA and BP which balance the analyzer and p o l a r i z e r respectively.  These two routines set the  gating f o r the appropriate stepper motors and then c a l l upon a common routine c a l l e d BALU. The routine BAL (see Figure 6 ) determines the p o s i t i o n of a minimum photomultiplier reading by f i n d i n g equal i n t e n s i t i e s around a minimum.  To avoid noise problems due  to low signal l e v e l s , the sum of many readings i s taken. F i r s t a running sum of readings i s taken by moving the motor one step, reading the photomultiplier and adding the reading to the sum.  The sum i s taken over sixty-four steps.  A  second running sum i s taken and compared with the f i r s t .  If  the second sum i s larger, the motor i s reversed and the routine restarted.  Otherwise, the f i r s t sum i s replaced by  the second and the second sum i s taken again and again compared with the f i r s t .  A f l a g i s set to indicate the  minimum has not yet been passed.  At some point the second  sum w i l l be larger than the f i r s t indicating that the minimum has been passed.  Another set of readings i s taken and t h i s  sum i s saved as the comparison on one side of the minimum. The motor i s reversed and run back two sets of readings.  The  next set of readings i s saved, reading by reading, along with the running sum.  From here on, every time the motor i s  stepped, the newest reading i s put at the beginning of the  - 24 FLOWCHART OF SUBROUTINE BAL  J  BAL  1-+BLFLAG  ENTRY POINT,  SET FLAG TO INDICATE MINIMUM' NOT BEING APPROACHED. STBL  TAKE A GROUP OF READINGS.  ASUM  O^E >OSCT  st  UM1  BALLP1  FIGURE 6  INITIALIZE POSITION COUNTER.  SAVE FIRST GROUP OF READINGS.  - 25 -  ASUM  SUM  SUM2  NO 2 ACOMP1 NO  TAKE ANOTHER SET OF READINGS.  SAVE SECOND SET.  IS MINIMUM BEING APPROACHED? YES ACOMPO SUM1 ^SUM2^  COMPARE SUCCESSIVE READINGS TO DETERMINE IF MINIMUM IS STILL BEING APPROACHED.  YES  POS1  REPLACE FIRST READING WITH SECOND AND ITERATE.  4 I BALLP1  - 26 -  CHANGE DIRECTION OF DRIVE MOTOR.  0 * BLFLAG  2  YES  SET FLAG TO INDICATE MINIMUM IS BEING APPROACHED.  ACOMP1  /^SUM1 ^ \ \ 2 SUM2X  CHECK I F STILL APPROACHING MINIMUM.  NO P0S2  ASUM  TAKE ANOTHER SET OF READINGS TO USE FOR COMPARISON.  -  SUM -»  27  SAVE COMPARISON OF READINGS.  SUM1  SUM  REVERSE DIRECTION OF DRIVE MOTOR.  AREV  STKL  -  AMOVE  \ 7 / •  MOVE NUMBER OF STEPS IN ONE SET OF READINGS. (STKL)  STKL  \  MOVE BACK A SECOND SET OF READINGS,  AMOVE  ASTORE  SUM SUM2  TAKE A SET OF READINGS AND SAVE EACH READING IN A FIRST-INFIRST-OUT STORE.  SAVE SUM OF ABOVE SET OF READINGS.  28 -  3*STKL POSCT .  SET POSITION POINTER TO INDICATE DISTANCE MOVED FROM START OF COMPARISON SUM.  ACOMP2  S U M 1 /  HAS EQUAL POSITION ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF MINIMUM BEEN REACHED?  NO POS3 POSCT+1 -> POSCT  ARDPTO /  ADVANCE POSITION COUNTER.  TAKE A READING.  PUT NEW READING IN STACK AND REMOVE OLDEST READING.  10  - 29 -  SUM2+NEW -0LD-*SUM2  UPDATE SET SUM WITH NEW READING.  MOVE MOTOR TO NEXT READING AND ITERATE.  ASTEP  AC0MP2  11 P0S4  REVERSE DRIVE MOTOR DIRECTION.  AREV  DIVIDE DISTANCE BETWEEN CURRENT POSITION AND COMPARISON. SUM POSITION IN HALF.  POSCT/2 -> AC  MOVE TO BALANCE POSITION.  AMOVE  ^  RETURN  ^  RETURN FROM BAL SUBROUTINE.  - 30 buffer and the oldest one i s removed.  The running sum i s  also adjusted by adding on the newest reading and subtracting  the oldest.  This running sum  i s compared with the  comparison sum and as soon as i t i s equal to or larger than the comparison sum,  the p o s i t i o n of the minimum can be  determined as the midpoint of the two sums. reversed and driven to the midpoint.  The motor i s  The analyzer  and  p o l a r i z e r positions and photomultiplier reading at the b a l ance point are printed on the teletype. The shutter i n the chamber could be operated  from the  keyboard with the two commands "open shutter" (OS), "close shutter" (CS).  These commands changed the state of  a f l i p f l o p on device 33 i n the interface. solenoid  flip  was  and  The  shutter  energized by a power t r a n s i s t o r driven by the  flop. Closed loop control of f i l m thickness was  accomplished  by s e t t i n g the analyzer and p o l a r i z e r to the positions at which a balance would occur i f the f i l m were the correct thickness.  The shutter was  then opened u n t i l the photo-  m u l t i p l i e r output dropped to a minimum. closed to stop the deposition process. was  The shutter  was  This procedure  commandable from the keyboard and given the name SB,  "stop on balance".  For noise immunity, the SB program uses  sums of readings instead of a single reading of the photomultiplier. A t y p i c a l sequence of commands that produces a deposit of a specified thickness is the following:  -  31  -  MX F 0 0 1 MY F 0 0 1 SA 4 7 . 2 1 SP  3 2 5 . 5 4  SB The MX and MY commands move the s u b s t r a t e t o a d e s i r e d p o s i t i o n and the SA and SP commands move the a n a l y z e r and p o l a r i z e r t o t h e balance p o s i t i o n .  The SB command f i n a l l y  opens the s h u t t e r and c l o s e s i t when a balance o c c u r s .  The  d i s t a n c e s f o r the MX and MY commands a r e i n u n i t s o f the mask aperture w i d t h so t h a t a d j o i n i n g areas c a n be reached by moving i n increments o f one. The  t e l e t y p e i n p u t program was w r i t t e n so t h a t the paper  tape reader  on t h e ASR 3 3 was enabled i f t h e r e was room i n the  input b u f f e r .  Thus, the o p e r a t i o n o f the system c o u l d be  c o n t r o l l e d w i t h commands s t o r e d on paper tape.  I n t h i s way  the t h i c k n e s s p a t t e r n o f t h e s u b s t r a t e c o u l d be generated on a l a r g e computer system where i t c o u l d be converted and p o l a r i z e r s e t t i n g s .  to analyzer  The l a r g e computer system would then  generate an ASCII paper c o n t r o l tape.  The p h y s i c a l p a t t e r n  c o u l d then be produced w i t h the hardware d e s c r i b e d by reading this  tape.  -  32 -  CHAPTER III - RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS To test the performance of the equipment, two experiments were conducted.  The f i r s t experiment consisted of  depositing material to study the deposition process and products.  The second experiment was a check of the closed  loop control of the system. The substrate used was an o p t i c a l glass f l a t , 2 5 x 2 5 millimeters.  The substrate was coated with a layer of  vacuum deposited aluminum to give i t a r e f l e c t i n g surface. The substrate was transferred to the x-y movable holder i n the vacuum chamber.  The chamber was evacuated i n prepara-  t i o n f o r deposition of zinc s u l f i d e . Before any depositions were made on the bare aluminum surface of the substrate, the surface was checked f o r uniformity.  This was accomplished by moving the x-y holder  so that the ellipsometer could take readings of d i f f e r e n t areas of the surface.  A map of the surface uniformity i s  given i n Table 2 . The x-y holder was then set to a corner of the substrate and the evaporation current turned on.  The shutter was  opened and zinc s u l f i d e allowed to deposit through the aperture onto the substrate.  The ellipsometer was used to  observe the evaporation process.  After a suitable thickness  of zinc s u l f i d e had been deposited, the evaporation was halted by c l o s i n g the shutter.  The x-y holder was then  moved a distance equal to the width of the aperture,  - 33 -  •  •  56.85  '  56.69  56.50  «  55.76  ! ' 46.18  !  46.18  46.16  |  46.21  •  | 1  ;  57.03  '  56.82  56.59  !  46.19  !  46.19  46.15  ;  57.41  |  57.30  57.00  !  46.17  !  46.18  46.21 —  |  57.76  |- 57.56  .57.42  !  46.11  !  46.10  46.17  55.85 46.24  \  56.57  I -  T  46.20 -  58.88  *  58.64  \  46.03  \  46.03  \  .  j  56.85 |  46.27 -  58.01  '  57.17  46.05  !  46.08  Top - P o l a r i z e r Bottom - Analyzer  Table 2.  |  -  —  '  |  Scan of Aluminum Coated Substrate  1  ! T  ]  - 34 1.59 m i l l i m e t e r s .  The s h u t t e r was then again opened t o  d e p o s i t onto an area adjacent t o the f i r s t . of  z i n c s u l f i d e d i f f e r e n t from the f i r s t  d e p o s i t e d on the second.  The procedure  A thickness  area was  then  was repeated f o r  a t h i r d time t o form t h r e e adjacent areas o f d i f f e r e n t thicknesses. A f t e r the t h i r d area, the s h u t t e r was c l o s e d and the x-y h o l d e r moved a t r i g h t angles a' d i s t a n c e twice the width o f the a p e r t u r e .  At t h i s p o s i t i o n , a thickness of  z i n c s u l f i d e was again d e p o s i t e d .  The h o l d e r was  p o s i t i o n e d a l i t t l e beyond the edge o f the l a s t  then  square  d e p o s i t e d and an e l l i p s o m e t e r r e a d i n g was taken.  The  h o l d e r was then moved a s m a l l d i s t a n c e , 47 micrometers, towards the square  and another r e a d i n g was taken.  This  process was repeated u n t i l the p r o f i l e o f the e n t i r e square was obtained.  The h o l d e r was then p o s i t i o n e d near  the area o f the t h r e e adjacent squares  and a s i m i l a r  scan  was made along the c e n t e r l i n e o f the t h r e e squares.  The  readings are presented g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e s 7, 8 and 9. The  second experiment was performed t o determine the  c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the c o n t r o l system.  F o r t h i s experiment  d i f f e r e n t areas o f the same s u b s t r a t e were used.  Suitable  v a l u e s o f p o l a r i z e r and a n a l y z e r readings were chosen from the f i r s t to  s e t of evaporations.  These readings were used  produce a c o n t r o l tape f o r the second experiment.  Four  areas adjacent t o one another were t o be evaporated upon. The vacuum system was prepared  and evacuated.  A f t e r the  (units of 4 7 JA m) Figure 7 .  Analyzer Scan of Squares  1-3  (units Figure  8.  o f 47JJ  Polarizer  m)  Scan o f Squares  1 - 3  - 37 -  F i g u r e 9-  Polarizer  and A n a l y z e r S c a n o f S q u a r e  4  - 38 evaporation current was turned on, the control tape was read into the computer and the computer was allowed to control the evaporations and movements of the x-y holder. The photomultiplier reading was observed while the process was taking place. The control system successfully found a n u l l on the f i r s t square deposited, halted deposition and went on to the next square.  On the second square, the n u l l was very  shallow and two shallow n u l l s were bypassed before manual intervention caused the process to proceed to the t h i r d and fourth squares.  The control system again successfully  detected n u l l s on these two areas and halted evaporation. After the fourth square, the evaporation current was turned o f f and the ellipsometer was used to scan the center l i n e of the four squares taking readings at short i n t e r v a l s . The scan i s graphically presented i n Figures 10 and 11. F i n a l l y , the holder was moved to a bare area and with the shutter open, continuous ellipsometer readings were taken. The A-f curve from t h i s data was plotted i n Figure 12. Using the average values of p o l a r i z e r and analyzer readings from Table 2, the o p t i c a l constants of the aluminum substrate, as viewed through the windows on the chamber, 11 were determined using McCracken's program. for  the index of zinc s u l f i d e , the A~f  Using values  curve f o r the f i l t e r  was calculated again using McCracken's program.  This curve  i s presented graphically i n Figure 13. The scan of the bare aluminum substrate indicated that  Analyzer  F i g u r e 1 0 . A n a l y z e r Scan f o r Squares Deposited While on C o n t r o l  Figure  1 1 .  Polarizer  S c a n f o r S q u a r e s D e p o s i t e d W h i l e on  Control  - 41 t h e s u r f a c e was  uniform;.to an e q u i v a l e n t t h i c k n e s s o f  angstroms o f z i n c Figure  sulfide  The •A and  13.  V  as  judged  f i t on  zinc  The  the  from  on aluminum.  " b a r e " aluminum i s n o t r e a l l y  aluminum  for this  bare  but  covered  curve f o r  i s probably  has  a coating  aluminum o x i d e w h i c h forms when aluminum i s e x p o s e d Therefore, and  the  ellipsometer  aluminum o x i d e l a y e r The  results  clusions. point  The  visual 2 and  i s a c t u a l l y measuring  ellipsometer  examination  experiment  of the  however, show c l e a r l y  t h i s was  substrate.  8 and  square  ellipsometer  r e a d i n g s and  The  the  aluminum  a r e d e f i n e d by  The  by  labelled  scan  does,  of the squares.  drastic  con-  squares  confirmed  squares  9 were u n e v e n .  the d e f i n i t i o n  edges o f t h e  of  to a i r .  i n d i c a t e mixed  scan of the d e p o s i t e d  d e p o s i t i o n s and  4 i n F i g u r e s 7,  that  as t h e s u b s t r a t e .  o f the f i r s t  to nonuniform  of  -  the c a l c u l a t e d  reason  20  t h e ^ ^ curve  r e a d i n g s f o r the  s u b s t r a t e , however, do n o t sulfide  -  The  changes i n  the c e n t e r s e c t i o n s  are  reasonably  smooth. The of the  ellipsometer  second  theoretical Again,  c u r v e drawn f r o m  experiment,  curve  for zinc  t h e most p r o b a b l e  aluminum o x i d e on deposited  zinc  on t h e d e t a i l s  F i g u r e 12,  cause  the bare  sulfide  sulfide  differs  for this  of d e p o s i t i o n  has  from  the  on aluminum, F i g u r e  substrate.  films  t h e measurements  i s the The  coating  13. of  i n d e x o f vacuum  b e e n d i s c o v e r e d t o depend  s u c h as r a t e  of  deposition,  8 temperature  and  bute  difference.  to the  pressure.  These f i n d i n g s  could also  contri-  Figure  12. A-V  Plot  (Experimental)  Figure  13.  A-f  Plot (Calculated)  - 44 The  computer c o n t r o l of t h i c k n e s s was  a limited, extent. algorithm  The  s u c c e s s f u l to  a c t u a l c o n t r o l mechanism  performed w e l l .  The  s h u t t e r was  and  automatically  c l o s e d to stop d e p o s i t i o n a f t e r j u s t p a s s i n g  the low  of a minimum from the e l l i p s o m e t e r r e a d i n g s .  A poor  s e l e c t i o n process caused values readings  of p o l a r i z e r and  to be chosen as s e t p o i n t s .  d i d not f a l l ' o n the curve of F i g u r e  The 12.  chosen The  point  analyzer readings  poor s e t -  p o i n t s were evidenced by the shallow minimum i n the e l l i p s o m e t e r output.  The  c o n t r o l system stopped  deposition  when i t came as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e to the s e t p o i n t s .  During  the d e p o s i t i o n of the square l a b e l l e d "D"  10  11, a sharp minimum was  observed and  i n Figures  as seen from l a t e r  a n a l y s i s , the c o n t r o l system came very c l o s e to the setpoints.  The  desired  s e t p o i n t s are shown as d o t t e d s t r a i g h t  l i n e s i n Figures The  and  10 and  11.  equipment b u i l t and  experiments made have only  t e s t e d the f e a s i b i l i t y of p r o d u c i n g phase f i l t e r s vacuum d e p o s i t i o n techniques.  To produce u s e f u l  with devices,  the s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n of the d e p o s i t i o n system must be i n c r e a s e d by an order of magnitude. apertures nisms.  and  The  This involves  smaller  c l o s e r t o l e r a n c e s on the p o s i t i o n i n g mecha-  experiments conducted have shown t h a t  r e s o l u t i o n used i s a t t a i n a b l e . be c a l i b r a t e d and  The  errors introduced  the  d e p o s i t i o n system must by the s u r f a c e  of the s u b s t r a t e must be accounted f o r .  condition  During the t e s t s  of t h i s t h e s i s , these f a c t o r s were ignored  as o n l y  relative  - 45 t h i c k n e s s of d e p o s i t was  aimed f o r .  measurement systems seem capable of them.  The  c o n t r o l and  of the tasks r e q u i r e d  Thus, i f f u r t h e r t e s t s to c a l i b r a t e the  were made, a b s o l u t e t h i c k n e s s v a r i a t i o n s should  system  be  achievable. In summary, a method of f a b r i c a t i n g o p t i c a l phase filters  has been i n v e s t i g a t e d .  P o s s i b l e uses of an  phase f i l t e r have been proposed.  The hardware to f a b r i c a t e  such a phase f i l t e r u s i n g vacuum d e p o s i t i o n was  designed  and c o n s t r u c t e d .  Software was  c o n t r o l p r o d u c t i o n of the phase f i l t e r s computer.  And  f i n a l l y , the f i r s t  produce the d e v i c e s .  The  not fundamental i n nature technique  to s o l v e .  optical  by a  techniques w r i t t e n to digital  steps were taken to  d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered were and r e q u i r e o n l y refinements  in  - 46 REFERENCES AND  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  Goodman, J.W.: I n t r o d u c t i o n to F o u r i e r O p t i c s , p. 80, McGraw H i l l , New York, 1968.  2.  T s u j i u c h i , J . : " C o r r e c t i o n of O p t i c a l Images by Comp e n s a t i o n of A b e r r a t i o n s and by S p a t i a l Frequency F i l t e r i n g " , Progress i n O p t i c s , Volume 2:133 (1963).  3.  I b i d , pp. 145-149.  4.  Upatnieko, J . , A. Vander Lugt and E. L e i t h : "Correction of Lens A b e r r a t i o n s by Means of Holograms", J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d O p t i c s , Volume 5:589 (1966).  5.  I b i d , p. 590.  6.  Lesem, L.B., P.M. H i r s h , and J.A. Jordan J r . : IBM Journ a l o f R e s i d e n t i a l Development, Volume 13:150 (1969).  7.  McCabe, L., and J . M e t a l s : 200:969 (1954)..  8.  Rood, J . L . : "Evaporated Zinc S u l f i d e F i l m s " , J o u r n a l of the O p t i c a l S o c i e t y o f America, Volume 41:201 (1951).  9.  H a l l , J . F . , and W.F.C. Ferguson: " O p t i c a l P r o p e r t i e s of Cadmium S u l f i d e and Zinc S u l f i d e from 0.6 Micron t o 14 Microns", J o u r n a l o f the O p t i c a l S o c i e t y of America, Volume 45:714 (1955) .  AIME T r a n s a c t i o n s ,  Volume  10.  H o l l a n d , L., and Steckelmacher, W.: 2:346 (1952).  Vacuum, Volume  11.  McCrackin, F.L.: A F o r t r a n Program f o r A n a l y s i s of E l l i p s o m e t e r Measurements, N.B.S. TN479, 1969.  12.  McCrackin, F.L., P a s s a g l i a , E., Stromberg, R.R., and S t e i n b e r g , H.L.: J o u r n a l o f Research o f the N a t i o n a l Bureau of Standards, 67A (1963).  - 47 -  •APPENDIX I  A P r o g r a m t o C a l c u l a t e P h a s e Changes P r o d u c e d .by V a r y i n g T h i c k n e s s  -  27 1 2 _3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 _15 16 17 13 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 ?7 28 29 30 31 32 tt 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 _5J 52 53 54 55 56 57  JAN. C C C C C C C C  DCO SCRC -  8  -  F O R T R A N  TO C A L C U L A T E R E F L E C T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T : : , * * * / * * */ * * * / » NO * * / * * NI * /  c  C C C C C :£ C  76 0 0 : 0 0  4  «  no  *  * *  OF FOLLOWING SYSTEM . _  —  itx  * * *  *  C O M P I L E R  Dl  * / * * /  ZO  N2 / " -  '.  _  Zl ;  :  COMPLEX C T H E T A , C T H E T 1 , C T H E T 2 , D P O , D P I . R 0 1 P , R 0 1 S . R12P. R12S COMPLEX NO, NI, N2, PHI. R l . R2. R3. R E F . CEXP, CMPLX C C  r.  C C C C  1 C C C C  INPUT  PflRQMFTFRt!  n=71-?0  N O . N I . N2 WL DINC '  A FIXFD DISTANCE REFRACTIVE INDICIES WAVELENGTH OF L I G H T INCREMENT AT WHICH TO .CAL R E F L C O E F  R E A D ( 5 . 1) NO. NI. N2. D. DINC, WL F O R M A T (9F13 O )  P R I N T OUT CONSTANTS  ?  W R I T E ( 6 , 2 ) NO. NI. N2» WL. F O R M A T ( 1 H 1 / I 1 OX • A H N O = ( . F 5 2 , 1H. , F 5 : 2 , 1 H ) , 1 / 1 0 X . 6 H N 1 = <, F5. 2, 1H. . F5. 2, 1 H ) , 2 / 1 0 X . 6 H N 2 = <. F5. 2, 1H, , F5. 2, 1H ), 3 / / 1 O X , 12HWAVELENGTH =, F6. O, 9HANGSTROMS, 4 / / / 5 X , 9 H T H I C K N E S S , 10X, 12HPHASE CHANGE, 5 /5X,11H<ANGSTROMS),9X,9H(DEGREES)/)  C PI-3. 14159265 C C C  INITIALIZE  VARIABLES  Dl=Q. C T H F T A = C M P L X ( C O S ( 0 . ), O. ) C C C C  C C C C 3  CALCULATE FRESENEL  COEFFICIENTS  CQ| I R F P ' { M n . N 1 . C T H F T Q . C T H F T 1 . R O l P . R O t S ) C A L L R F F L < N1, N2, C T H E T 1 , C T H E T 2 , R 1 2 P , R 1 2 S ) . •..  :  C A L C U L A T E DO DO=D-DI  ,  :  :  :  - 49 -  27  >  53 59 60 61 62 63 64 65  JAN.  C C  C C  c c  rft|  c  7 ?  r. C C  79 80 81 82 83 SA  85 86 87 88 89  F O R T R A N  DP0=2. * D O * P I * N O * C T H E T A / W L DP 1 =2. « P I « D 1 * N 1 «CTHET 1 /WL  c  7ft  DCO SCRC -  C O M P I  L E R  C A L C U L A T E O P T I C A L PATH LENGTHS  67 68 69 70 71 73 74 75 76 77  76 OO: OO  r' M ATF  PPPI P C T T H N  --  •-•—  —  - — —  COPFFT^TPNT  Rl-1. +R01P+R12P+R01P*R12P R2=R01P+R12P*CEXP<nPl*CMPLX(0. , - 2 . )) R 3 = l . + R 0 1 P * R 1 2 P * C E X P ( D P 1 * C M P L X < 0 . , - 2 . )> REF=<R1*R2/R3>*CEXP(DP0*CMPLX<0. , - 2 . ) )  -  r  C A L C U L A T E PHASE OF R E F L E C T I O N C O E F F I C E T N T  c  ANGLE=ATAN2(AIMAG<REF),REAL<REF)>*180. IF<ANGLE. LT. 0. ) ANGLE=ANGLE+360.  .  /PI  — —  r. C  c c  PRINT  RESULTS  - . .. -  WRITE(6.4) DI/ANGLE FORMAT<5X, F l O . 0» 8X, F 1 0 . 2 )  4  r. C  INCREMENT  C C  DI  D1=D1+DINC I F ( D 1 . LE. D) r-Ai 1 F X T T END  QO 91  • •  AND DO C A L U L A T I O N S  -  —,„_._.'-_  ,.  AGAIN  GO TO 3  • ' --  —  •'—  '-  _  — '  —  — • ~- - — ~—  —•-  ;  ;  •  •  :  :  :  •-  —"  - 50 -  27  \  92 93 94 95 96 97 93 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 11? 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136  JAN. C C C C C C C C C C C C C C  c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c  76  00: 00  DCO SCRC -  F O R T R A N  C O M P I L E R  A SUBROUTINE TO C A L C U L A T E THE PERPENDICULAR R P P I P T T i n n ) r n F F F T T F N T ^ AT a PO' 'NDARV  AND P A R A L L E L F R E S N E L  r  INPUT  PARAMETERS  N1,N2 THETA OUTPUT  I N D I C I E S OF R E F R A C T I O N ON E I T H E R COSINE OF ANGLE OF INCIDENCE  S I D E OF BOUNDARY  PARAMETERS .  .  .  ,  . . .  „.  PHI RP  COSINE OF ANGLE OF REFRACTION PERPENDICULAR R E F L E C T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T  RS  PARAI.I Fl  RFFI F H T T r i N  „  ...J  „  CflFNFF'TPIFNT  SUBROUTINE REFL<N1,N2, T H E T A . P H I , RP, RS> COMPLEX N l , N 2 , THETA, RS, RP, CSQRT, S I , SR, PHI  C A L C U L A T E S I N E OF ANGLE OF  INCIDENCE  SI=CSQRT<1. - T H E T A * T H E T A )  USE S N E L L ' S  ~.  LAW TO C A L C U L A T E S I N E OF ANGLE OF REFRACTANCE  SR=N1»SI/N2  CAI CIJI A T F  CriRTNP  H P OMRI F  H F  RFFROPTaMHF  •PHI=CSQRT<1. - S R * S R )  CALCULATE REFLECTION  COEFFICIENTS  RP=(N1*PHI-N2#THETA)/(N1*PHI+N2*THETA) RS= < N1 « T H E T A - N 2 * P H I ) / (N1 #THETA+N2*PH I )  RETURN END  -  "  "'  .  —  - 51 -  NO NI N2  = ( i . oo. o. oo> = =  ( (  2. 2 3 , 0: 0 0 ) 1. 2 0 . - 6 9 0 )  WAVELENGTH  =  THICKNESS (ANGSTROMS)  6238. A N G S T R O M S  PHASE CHANGE (DEGREES)  0. 20; 40: 60.  eo.  —  TOO: 120. 140. 160. 180. 200. 2.20. 240. 260. 280. 300. 320. 340. — — 360. 380. 400. 420. 440. 460. 480. 500. 520. 540. 560. — ' — 5 8 0 . •: 600 620. 640. 660. 680. TOO: 720. 740. 760. 780. 800. 820. 840. 860. 880. 900. 920. 94TX — 960.  -  —  356. 7 0 356. 5 0 356. 2 3 355. 8 9 355. 4 6 — 354. 2 9 353. 5 2 352: 61 351. 5 3 350.27 • 'ZAt>—  347. 345. 342 340. 337. ——333.  08 10 82 21 22 81  -  —  173. 6 5 171. 2 6 169. 17 : 167. 3 7 165. 81 1 f_A—A1——• 163. 3 3  -  -  -  -•-  -  —  ____  —'•—•  v.  ,  •  : :  •"-  ~  "zr  -  329. 325. 320. 315. 308. *3f)1  ~  93 53 57 00 80 OA x. y*r 294. 44 286. 3 3 277. 71 268. 71 259. 4 7 •— —^1 •e->J\J. J~- X 241. I O 232. 3 2 224. 0 2 216. 2 9 209. 19 202. 7 g 196. 9 5 191. 7 8 187. 18 183. 12 179. 54 :—t 7/-.—Art  -~  -  •,'  . •  •  .  .  •„;_-------  —  •-—-  •  ..„..  -—  —  r--  - 52  980. IOOO. 1020. 1040. 1060. 1080. 1100. 1120. 1140. 1160. 1180. 1200. 1220. 1240. 1260. 1230. 1300. 1320. 1340. 1360. 1330. 1400. 1420. 1440. 1460. 1480. 1500. 1520. 1540. 1560. 1580. 1600. 1620. 1640. 1660. 1680. 1700. 1720. 1740. 1760. 1780. 1800. 1820. 1840, 1860. 1880. 1900. 1920. 1940. 1960. 1980. 2000  —  162. 3 5 161. 5 3 160. 8 5 160. 28 159. 82 159. 45 159. 15 158. 9 3 158. 76 158. 6 5 153. 5 7 158. 5 2 158. 5 0 158. 5 0 153. 5 0 158. 5 0 153. 5 0 158. 48 153. 4 5 153. 38 153. 2 7 158. 12 157. 92 157. 6 5 157. 3 0 156.86 156. 3 3 155. 68 154. 9 0 153. 98 152. 8 9 151. 61 150. 12 148.39 t4*r39144. 0 9 141. 46 133. 44 135. 0 0 131. 08 126. 6 5 121. 6 5 116. 0 4 109. 7 9 102. 3 9 95. 34 87. 2 0 78. 5 5 69. 52 60. 2 8 51. 02 41. 9 3  - 53 -  APPENDIX I I  A Program t o C a l c u l a t e F o u r i e r Transform Twice  - 54 -  27  JAN.  1 2  C C C C C C C  DCO SCRC  F O R T R A N ^  C O  M P  I  L E R  A PROGRAM TO C A L C U L A T E A TWO DIMENSIONAL SPA U A L f - U U K J t K TRANSFORM, NORMALIZE THE TRANSFORM, AND T A K E THE 4 TRANSFORM A SECOND TIME. 5 6 .. ' ". 7 DIMENSION NA(64> , B ( 6 4 . 6 4 ) , C (64 >, ND (2 > S 9— —CT3MPCEX~A(64, 6 4 ) , A A A ( 6 4 , 6 4 ) , CMPLX N=64 10 ND(1)=N 11 ND<2)=N ' • • " ~ ~ " ~ ; 12 C 13 14 C vs— -c —DEFINE- "BRIGHT AREAS BY * , OTHERWISE BLANK. C 16 R E A D ( 6 , 1 0 4 ) BLANK, STAR 17 - • . • '• " • - .......... .j. •- -~— — c 18 19 C INPUT A PATTERN (BRIGHT AREA = 8 ) 20 C 2T-- c — DO 1 1 = 1 , 6 4 22 R E A D ( 5 , 101) ( N A ( J ) , J=T, N) 23 FORMAT (6411 ) " 24 101 .25 c . . . . . . . 26 c 27 -e - — I N I T I A L I Z E F I E L D TO 0. 28 c DO 1 J = l , N 29 A ( I , J)=CMPLX<0. , 0 . ) ....... 30 c 31 32 c SS- — e — — SET BRIGHT AREAS TO 1 . — 34 c I F ( N A ( J ) . EQ. 8) A ( I , J ) = C M P L X ( 1 . , 0. ) 35 CONTINUE 36 i 37 c 38 c 3 9 -— e — — •—DO F I R S T TRANSFORM (EXTERNAL SUBROUTINE) 40 C A L L F0UR2<A, ND, 2 , - 1 , + 1 ) 41 AM 1=0. 42 c 43 44 c CHANGE AX€S"FROM - 1 S O , 180 TO 0 , 3 6 0 c 46 c 45DO 10 1 = 1, N 47 48 K=I+32 " • • — . _ I F ( I . GT. 3 2 ) K = I - 3 2 49 DO 10 J = l . N 50 -5T-—L=J+32 I F ( J . GT. 3 2 ) L = J - 3 2 52 X=REAL(A(I, J ) ) 53 54 Y=AIMAG(A(I. J ) ) Z=SQRT(X*X+Y#Y) 55 IF(7. GT. AMI) AM1=Z 56 5 7 — r o —• AABtKTt:T=A( I, J )  r— ~ Tr  —  7 6 OO: 0 4  _  !  —•  1  v  :  :  :  . . .  '  -  27 JAN. 58 59 "SO 61 62 63 64 65 -6-6 67 68 69 70 71  —72 73 74 75 76 77  ~^TS  76 0 0 : 0 4  55  DCO SCRC -  -  F O R T R A N  C O M P I L E R  A2=. 02#AM1 DO 5 0 1=1,N DO 5 0 J * 1 , N C C C C  49 50  e C C C  MAKE A L L I N T E N S I T I E S " ! :  '  "—  *  :  X=REAL(AAA(I,J)) Y=A I MAP (AAA ( I , J ) ) Z=SQRT<X*X+Y*Y> I F ( Z . EQ. O. ) GO TO 4 9 AAA (I, J ) =AAA ( T, J ) / Z I F ( Z . L T . A2) A A A ( I , J ) = 1. CONTINUE  "  —  —  "  :  DO SECOND TRANSFORM. C A L L FOLIR2 ( AAA, ND, 2 , - 1 , +1 ) AMAX=0. DO 3 I--1, N DO 3 J = 1 . N A<I,J)=AAA<I.J)  79 SO 81 C -82 C 83 C DETERMINE PEAK OF I N T E N S I T Y 84 C : " 85 X=R£AL<A(I,J)) 86 Y=AIMAG(A(I,J) ) 87 B(I,J)=SQRT<X*X*Y*Y) 88 I F ( B ( 1, J ) . GT. AMAX) AMAX=B<I,J) 89 3 CONTINUE -^9©WRITE (6, 103) AMAX 91 103 FORMAT( 1 OX, E l O . 3 ) 92 C 93 C 94 C SET A LEVEL 95 C —9* AA=. 01*AMAX — ^ ~ 97 104 FORMAT(2A1) 98 DO 4 1 = 1, N 99 DO 5 J = l , N 100 C 101 C -t02—e PRINT P I C T U R E MARKING ELEMENTS ABOVE L E V E L 103 C 104 C(J)=BLANK 105 I F (B (I, J >. GT. AA ) C ( J ) =STAR ^ ~ 106 5 CONTINUE 107 4 WRITE(6, 105) ( C ( J ) » J = 1 , N ) -+Oe * 0 5 — FORMAT(2X, 64A1 ) — 109 STOP 110 END ]  '  ~~~  - 56 -  APPENDIX I I I  L i s t i n g o f the Software W r i t t e n f o r the PDP-8e  - 57 837 6 007 7 0100 0101 0102 0103 0104 010b  010 6 0107 0110 0111 0112 0.1..L3  0114 0115 0116 0117 0120 0121 0122 0123 0124 0125 012 6 0127 01 3 0 0131 01 3 2 B l  J J  01 3 4 0135 0136 01 3 7 01 4 0 0141 0142 01 4 3 0144 0145 014 6 01 4 7 0 1 50 0151 0152 01 5 3 01 5 4 0155 0156 0157 01 60 01 61 31 6 2 ' 0 1 63 01 6 4 01 6 5 01 6 6 01 67 0170 017 1 0172 017 3 0174  0100 0101 •0102 0103 010 4 0 10 5 010 6 010 7 0110 0111 0112 0113 0 114 .0.1.1 5 0116 0 117 0 1 20 0121 0122 0123 0124 0 12 5 0126 0 1 27 0 1 30 0131' 0132 0 1 33 0 1 34 r* \ o c U  1  0  i  <J  J  36  0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0 1 00 7 7 00 0000 03 00 0000 00 00 0000 1177 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 000 3 40 1 0 0200 00 40 0000 0000  SHF'TH J  V  CH> POLCD, MZCD, M2XCD, K g * CD, U:-:CL, DECH.  r.\ f.\ r.\ fA  nIT i— C  0000  DESTH*  \C>  *>  C  /VARIABLES  0 0 0 DVML, DVMH, 0 0 MSDIGt D.NjiJM J> 0 0 ASUML. ASUMHJ 0 DIR, 0 STKL, 100 - 100 STKLC, 0 SUMH1 > SUMH2, 0 0 SUML1, SUML2, 0 STPC:\1T> 0 STSTX, 1177 AL, 0 AH, 0 0 3L> BH, 0 0 UL, SHFTLJ  T»I  0 3  4 0 10 200 40 0 0  ,  0  / /  + 200 / /  /INTERRUPT  SERVICE  /  0200 0201 0202 0203 0204 020 5 0206 0207 0 2 10 021 1 . 0 2 12 0213 0214 021 5 021 6 0217 0220 022 1 0222  3 3 7 0 • I NTSEH, 7004 3371 770 1 3372 6031 7 4 10 530 2 6041 7 410 5223 EXT I NT, 7 380 137 1 7 1 10 1 372 7 421 137 0 600 1 5400  OCA AC CUM RAL  /SAVE  AC  DC A L I N K  /SAVE  LINK  ACL DC A M Q S A V E KSF  SKP JMP  KK3RD  /TELETYPE?  TS F  SKP JMP T E L T P CLA C L L ._• TAD L I NK C L L RAR TAD  / I F NEITHER /THEN E X I T /RESTORE'LINK  L-JQSAVE  MQL TAD  / S A V E MQ /KEYBOARD?  AOCUM  ION JiMP I 0  / R E S T O R E MQ /RESTORE AC' /TURN INT ON /RETURN  / /  /TELETYPE  SERVICE  /  0223 0224  1 37 3 7 450  TELTP,  TAD T E L C N T SNA  /ARE T H E R E MORE / C H A R TO T / P E  - 58 0175 017 6 0177 0200 020 1 0202 020 3 0204 3205 020 6 . 0207 02 10 02 1 1 02 12 02 1 3 02 1 4 02 1 5 02 1 6 0217 0220 0221 0222 022 3 0224 0225 022 6 0227 02 3 0 0 2 31 02 3 2  . '.1 O '1 o w c o o  0225 022 6 0227 0 2 30 0231' 0232 0 2 33 0234 0235 02 3 6 0 2 37 0240 0241  5244 7 0 41  0242 0243 0244 0245 0246  604 6 52 1 3 7 201 33 6 4 60 4 2  0247  5 2 13  7 001 7041 3373 1012 7041 1 3 62 7 640 5241 1 3 63 30 1 2 1412  NO T E N D ,  CTHUP,  CTHUP  DCA TAD CIA TAD SZA JMP TAD DCA TAD  TELCNT TYPEPT  /NO /YES /DECREMENT CHAR /COUNTER /END OF BUFFER / A R E A REACHED?  ENDBUF CLA NOTEND STBUF TYPEPT I TYPEPT  TLS JMP CLA DCA  EXTINT IAC TFLAG  /NO /YES,RESET TO /START / G E T C H A R FROM /BUFFER /TYPE IT /EX I T / N O MORE CHAR /SET TFLAG / C L E A R TTY FLAG / T O STOP TTY /EXIT  •  TCF JMP  E X T IN T  / /  /PUT  CHAR  U1 B U F F E R  TO B E  TYPED  /  0250 0251 0252 0253 0 2 54 c\ o K  0000 341 1 23 7 3 1 373 13 63  IJ  ^ v>  BUFFER,  BUFLP1,  -7 .'.'.Vi 1  0234. 0235 023 6 02 37 0240 0241 0242 0243 0244 024 5 0246 0247 0250 0251 02 5 2 0253 0254 0255 025 6 0257 0 2 60 • 0 2 61 02 62 02 63 02 64 02 65 02 66 0 2 67  0256 0257 0 2 60 0261  1 1 3U 62 "I * 7 650 5253 60 0 2  0 2 62 0 2 63 0 2 64 0265 0266 0 2 67 0270 027 1 0272 0273 0274 027 5 0 27 6 027 7  1011 7041 13 62 7 640 5271 13 63 30 1 1 N0TED3, 13 64  0300 0 30 1  6001 5650  0270 027 1 027 2 0273  0302 0303  N  JMP CIA IAC CIA  7 640 527 6 600 1 5 650 3 3 64 60 40  CLTFLG,  0 DCA ISZ TAD TAD CIA TAD SNA JMP I OF  j. B U F P T TELCNT TELCNT ST3UK ENDBUF CLA BUI-LP]  TAD B U F P T CIA TAD E N D B U F SZA C L A JMP NOTEDB TAD S T B U F DCA B U F P T TAD T FLAG SZA CLA JMP C L T F L G I ON BUFFER JMP I DCA T F L A G SPF  I ON JMP  I  BUFFER  / C H A R IN A C / P U T CHAR IN B U F F / I N C R E CHAR C O U N T / C H E C K FOR F U L L /BUFFER. WAIT '/'IN L O O P U'N'TTL / T H E R E IS ROOM  / N O T F U L L . TURN / O F F I NT TO A V O I D /COMPLICATIONS / C H E C K FOR E N D / O F BUFFER AREA  "/NOT END / E N D - R E S E T TO /START /TEST. TFLAG / F L A G UP - MUST /RESTART TTY / N O T UP CONTINUE / E X I T - AC C L E A R /CLEAR TFLAG /RESTART T T Y BY / S E T T I N G TTY FLAG /TO RAISE INT. /CONTINUE / E X I T - AC C L E A R  / /  /KEYBOARD  SERVICE  /  0304 0305  60 3 4 3413 2374 1013  KY3RD,  KRS DCA ISZ TAD  I KYBDPT KBDCNT KYBDPT .  / R E A D KBD /STORE / I N C R E CHAR C O U N T / C H E C K F-OR END  59  -  02 7 4 0275  030 6 0307  7041  CIA  1 3 65  TAD  ENDK3F  027 6 0 2 77 0300  0 310 0 311 0312.  7 640 5314 13 6 6  SZA JMP TAD  CLA KlMEMD 3TKYBF  0301 0302 0303 0304  0 313 0314  30 1 3 137 4  DC A TAD  0315 0316 0317 0320 0321 0322  1 3 66 7041 13 65 7 650 5324 60 32  K Y 8 DP T KBDCNT STKY3F  0323 0324 0325  5213 7 20 1 3 3 67 '  0326  60 30  KG F  0 327  5213  JMP  930 5 030 6 030 7 0310 03 1 1 0312 03 1 3 0314 . 0315 031 6 0 3 17 0320 0321  KYNEND*  TAD CIA  5ET.KFL,  TAD SNA JMP KCC  ENDK3F CLA SETKFL  JMP CLA DCA  E X T I NT I AC KYFLAG  - /OF BUFFER /AND RESET /AT  AREA I F  END  /TEST FOR /BUFFER  FULL  /BUFFER FULL /NOT F U L L SET / R E A D E R RUN /EXIT /FULL  -  SET  KY F L A G  /CLEAR KBD FLAG /DO NOT S E T READER EXTINT  /RUN /EXIT  / / /TO  0322 0323 0324 0325 032 6 0327 0333  0 330. ' 0331 0332 . 0333  0331 ('53 3 2  0 33 4  0333 0334 03 3 5  0335 0336 0 337  033 6 0337  0000 137 4 7650 5331  REMOVE  / READ3*  A  0 TAD SNA JMP  CHARACTER  KBDCNT CLA .-2  I OF  FROM  /IF  KBD  BUFFER  BUFFER  I S  / E M P T Y * WAIT FOR /SOME INPUT / I N T O F F TO A V O I D / C Q M P L ' I C A T I OX'S /DECREMENT CHAR /COUNTER  CLA TAD DCA  CM A K3DCNT K3DCNT  0340 0341  7 2 40 1374 3374 10 14 7 0 41  TAD CIA  READPT  0340 0341  0 3 42 0343  1 365 7 640  TAD  ENDK3F CLA  0342 0343 0344  0344 0345 3 3.4 6  5347  JMP TAD DCA  KYND2  0345 0346  0347 0 3 50  1 3 67 7 640  TAD SZA  KY F L A G CLA  /WAS READER /STOPPED?  0347 03 53 0 3 51 0352 0353 03 54 0355 0356 0 3 57 3 3 60 0361 0362 0 3 63 0364 0365  0351 0 3 52  5355 1414  JMP TAD  FLAGUP I READPT  /YES /NO -  0353 0 354 0 3 55  6001 57 30 3367  ION JMP DCA  0356 0357 0 3 60  60 32 1414  03 66 0 3 67 037 0 037 1 0372  SZA  1 366 30 1 4 KYND2>  FLAGUP*  /CHECK  FOR  /BUFFER /IF  AT  END  AND END  S T KIT'S H READPT  KCC TAD I ON JMP  I READ3 KY FLAG I  READPT  I  READ3  GET  CHAR  / L E A V E IN AC /EXIT . /CLEAR KYFLAG /RESTART READER /GET CHARACTER . / L E A V E IN AC  0361 0 362 •  6001 5730 7177  E'M D 3 U F ,  7 177  0 3 63  6777  ST3UF*  6777  0364 0 365  0000 7 37 7  TFLAG* ENDK3F*  0 7 37 7  /END  7177  /BUFFER /START OF  /EXI T /END O F OUTPUT . /BUFFER /START OF OUTPUT /BUFFER  •  0366  7177  S T K Y 3 F*  OF  /BUFFER 0367 0370  0000 0000  KYFLAG* ACCUM*  0 0  OF  RESET  INPUT INPUT  - 60 0373  037 1  0000  LINK*  0  037 4 037 5 037 6 037 7 0400  0372 0373 037 4  3000 0000 0000  M3SAVE* TELCNT* K3DCNT* / /  0 0 0  *400  0401 0402  /  0403 040 4 0405 040 6 0407 04 1 0 041 1 0412 0413 0414 0 4 15 041 6 0417 0420 042 1 0422 0423 0424 0425 042 6 0427 0430 0431 0432  0400 0401 0402 0 40 3 0404 0405  00 00 7 20 0 1215 44 54 1214 4454  040 6  5 600  / /TO P R O D U C E A C A R R I A G E /FEED / CRLF* 0 CLA TAD K 2 1 5 JMS I A B U F F TAD K212 JMS I A B U F F JMP I C R L F  0407 0410  0000 7200  041 1 0412 0413  1216 44 54 5 637  0414 041 5 041 6  0 ? 1 '?. 02 1 5  / SPACE /TO P R O D U C E A / SPACE* 0 CLA TAD K 2 4 0 JMS I A B U F F JMP I SPACE K212*  CLEAR  /SPACE CHAR /TYPE IT / E X I T - AC C L E A R  212  0435 043 6  /SIMILAR  0240  0417 0420 0421 0422 0423  0000 7 300 3301 1 300 7 00 4  0445 0446 0447 0450 0451 0452 0453  0 424 0425  3301 1274  0426 0 427 0430 0431 0432  3305 1301 7004 2305 52 30  0454 0455  0433 0434  3301 7004  0456 0457 0460  0435 0 43 6 0437  0 4 61 0 4 62  0440 0441  0 4 63 0 4 64  0442 0443 0444 0445 0446  3374 1301 0273 127 6 4454 137 4  047 0 047 1  /CR CHAR /TYPE IT / L F CHAR /TYPE IT / E X I T - AC  LINE  /  0433 0434  04 65 0466 0 4 67  AND  /  Kg 15* 2T5 K240* 240 / / /TO U N P A C K A  0437 0440 0441 0442 0443 0444  RETURN  / PRINT*  TO 0 CLA DCA TAD  WORD PRINT  AND PRINT IT OUT P R O G R A M IN DEC M A N U A L  CLL STN BR NUMBER  RAL UNPACK*  DCA STN BR TAD H0TN3R DCA S T R O T TAD STN BR RAL STROT ISZ JMP . - 2 DCA S T N B R . RAL DCA L K P R T TAD .STNBR AND MASK TAD  71 10 2302 5225 5 617 / /  K 2 60 I ABUFF  JMS TAD CLL  LKPRT RAR  ISZ JMP JMP  DIGCTR UNPACK I PRINT  - 61 /TO P R I N T TH E N U M B E R NUMBER /DIGIT BCD  047 2 047 3 047 4 047 5 047 6 0477 0500  0447 0 4 50 0451 04 52  0000 3300 130 3 3302  0455 045 6 0 4 57  127 7 3274 1 30 4 3273 ' 4217  050 6 0507 0510 051 1 0512 0513 051 4  0 4 60  5 647  0515 051 6  0462 - 3300 1 277 0 4 63 3302 04 64 1303 0 4 65 3274 0 4 66 1275 0 4 67 3273 0470 421 7 047 1 047 2 5 661  . 04 53 04 54  0501 0502 0503 0504 0505  0 4 61  0517 0520 0521 0522 052 3 0524 052 5  0000  / PRTDC  0 DCA TAD DCA TAD DCA TAD DCA JMS JMP  *J ij tj *_»  0477 0 500  0007 0 2 60 77 74 0000  MAS K7 > * K 2 60> KC4, NUMBER ,  r.\ 7*/ 260 -4 0  05 35 0536 0537  0 50 1 0502 0 503  0000 0000 77 7 5  0540 0541  0 504 050 5  00 1 7 0000  STNBR, DIGCTR , KC3> MASK17 > STROT, / /  0 47 3 0 47 4 0475 047 6  0531 0532 • ~  0533 0534  000 0  0542 0543  /TO  0544 0545 054 6 0547 0550 0551  /IS / 050 6 0507 0510 0511 0512 0513 0514  0552 0553 0554 0555 0556 0557 0560 0561 0 5 62 0 5 63 0 5 64 0 5 65 05 66 0567 0570  '  0000 6323 6321  4453 742!  0 517 0 520 0 521 0522  7701 03 40 7012 7012 7 0 12 4453 44 53 3342  0523 0524 0525 0526  AC  AS  A  3  OF  DIGITS  /TO 3 / S E T NO O F B I T S / P E R D I G I T TO 4 /SET UP 4 B I T MASK  DIGCTR KC4 ROTNBR MA S K I 7 MASK PRINT I PRTDC  /USE PRINT / E X I T - AC  THE  AC  AS  CLEAR  A  /STORE NUMBER / S E T NO O F D I G I T S /TO 4 / S E T NO O F B I T S / P E R D I G I T TO 3 / S E T UP A 3 BIT /MASK /USE PRINT / E X I T - AC C L E A R  PRINT I PRTOC  0  0 0 -3 17 0  READ THE ANALOG IN THE AC  CHANNEL  0 6323 6321 JMP .-1 CLA CLL 6324 CM A  ANALG,  5310 7300 6324 7040  0515 0516  KC3  DCA D I G C T R TAD KC3 DCA R O T N B R TAD ' MASK7 DCA MASK JMS JMP  THE  /STORE / S E T NO  NUMBER  / / /TO P R I N T THE NUMBER IN /4 D I G I T O C T A L NUMBER / PHTOC, 0 DCA N U M B E R TAD KC4  / MASK, r.\ {>. Rf* O T ,'A N 3R  052 6 0527  IN  .  JMS I AMULT5 MQL ACL AND MK7700 RTR RTR RTR JMS JMS DCA  WHOSE  /CHANNEL SELECT / W A I T FOR F L A G  /READ /INPUT  IN  /LOGIC /MULT BY  OPPOSITE 5  /SPLIT RESULT / 2 WORDS /DIVIDE /BY  I AMULT5 I AMULT5 SH I GH  CODE  HIGH  64  /MULT BY /STORE  25  INTO  WORD  -. 62 0571 0572 0573 057 4 0575  0 527  057 6 0577  0 534 0535 0536  0 600 0 601 0602  0 533 0531 0532 0 5 33  7 701 0 341 4453 4453 0340  7010  0537  570 6  060 5  0 540 0 541 0542  7 700 0077 0000  0 610 061 1  MK7 7 I AMULT5  /GET  JMS AND  I AMULT5 MK7700  /MULT BY 2 5 / D I V I D E LOW  SHIGH  /BY 64 /PUT HALVES BACK / D I V I D E BY 2  BSw TAD RAR  7002 13 4 2  060 3 0604 0 60 6 0607  •  ACL AND JMS  JMP MK7700* MX7 7* SHIGH*  I  7700 77 0  /  / TO /FOR  I N I T I L I Z E THE THE OPERATING  POINTERS S Y S T EM  AND  FLAGS  /  INITZE*  0 CLA  0543 0 544  0000 7200  0545 0546 0547 0 550  1366 30 1 1 1366 3012  0 623 0624 0 625  1 3 67 30 13 13 67  6 0627 0630  0551 0552 0553 0 554 0 5'5 5 0556  0631 0632 0633 0634  0 5 57 0 5 6-0 0561 0 5 62  7 201  0635 063 6 0637  0 5 63 0 5 64 0 5 65  6032 6001 5743  05 66  KK1 7 7 7 *  67 7 7  0 5 67 0 570 0 57 1 057 2 0573  67 7 7 7 177 0 3 64 0 367 0 37 4 0373  KK2177* ATFLAG * AKFLAG * AKYCNT* ATLCNT*  7 177 TFLAG KYFLAG  0 57 4  0000  LKPRT*  0  0 647  HALF  /RESULT IS TO /MULT3Y C 1000/1024) /EXIT RESULT / L E F T IN AC  ANALG  0615 061 6 0617 0 620 0 621 0 622  0 640 0641 0642 0 643 0 644 0645 0 64 6  HALF  '/  0 612 0613 0614  0 62  LOW  TAD K K 1 7 77 DCA B U F P T TAD KK1777 DCA T Y P E P T TAD KK2177 DCA K Y B D P T TAD K K 2 1 7 7 DCA' R E A D P T •CLA IAC DCA I AT F L A G CLA IAC DCA I AK FLAG DCA I A T L C N T DCA I AKYCNT  30 1 4 7 201 37 70 377 1 3773 3772  KCC I ON JMP  I  INITZE  /INITILIZE /POINTERS  /SET  FLAGS  /CLEAR  /TURN /EXIT  COUNTERS  INTERRUPT ON - AC CLEAR  /  0650  /  0651 0652 0653 0654 0655  /  0656 0657  /  0 600  0000  0660 0661 0662  0601 0 602 3 603  6334 7200 1210  0663 0 6 64  0 604 0 605  0 665 0666  0 6 0 6" 0 607  700 1 7 440 5204 5 600  0 667  0610  KBDCNT TELCNT  *600 /  /  /PUT  . 6500  OUT  STEP 1 *  WT* '  PULSE  TO  STEP MOTORS  0 6334  /PULSE  TO  CLA TAD  WT  /WAIT  LOOP  IAC SZA JMP JMP  .-2 . I STEP1  /EXIT  -  6500  /DELAY  AC FOR  STEP  CLEAR A  RATE  - 63 /OF  0670 0 67 1 0 67 2  067 6  •den 07 0 0 0701 0702 0703 0704  0 623 0 62 4 0 625  07 0 5 070 6 0707 0 7 10 07 1 1 07 1 2 0 7 13 07 14 07 1 5 07 1 6 0 7 17 07 20 0721 07 2 2 0723 07 2 4 0725  07-53 0754 0755 0756 07 57 07 60 0761 07 62 07 07 07 07  63 64 65 66  0000 3225 6342 6341 5214 6344 70 40 7041 1 225 7 4 43 5214 5611 0000  WAIT*  0 D C A EM D T I M 6342 6341 JMP .-1 6344 CMA CIA T A D EN D T I M SZA  WLP1 *  . E N DT I M* /  JMP JMP 0  -  WLP1 1 WAIT  /  /READ  SHAFT  ENCODER  /  0626 0 627 0 630 0 631 0 632 0 633 0634  0000 7200 6302 3100 630 4 3101 5 62 6  RDSFT*  0 CLA 6302 DCA SHFTH . 6304 DCA SHFTL JMP I RDSFT  /READ AND STORE /2 MSD /READ AND STORE /3 LSD / E X I T - AC C L E A R  / /  /READ  0726 0727 07 30 0 7 31 07 32 0733 07 34  0745 0746 0747 07 50 07 51 07 52  STEPS/SEC  /  061 1 .0612 0 613 0614 0615 0616 0 61 7 0 620 0 621 0 622  067 3 0 67 4 0675  0735 07 3 6 07 37 0740 0741 07 4 2 07 4 3 07 44  400  /  '  0 63 5  0000  0 63 6 0 637 0 640 0 641 0 642 0 643 0 644 0645 0 64 6 0 647 0 650 0 651 0 652 0 653  7 300 631 1 02 52 7440 5236 7200 6301 3102 631 1 0253 3103 5 63 5 0040 0 0 37  DIGITAL  / RDDVM*  MASK40 * MASK37 *  MOLT  METER  0 CLA CLL 631 1 AND MASK40 SZA JMP CLA 6301 DCA 631 1 AND DCA JMP 40 37  .-4  DVML MAS.K37 DVMH I RDDVM  /READ HIGH WORD /TEST FLAG IN /BIT 6 /WAIT FOR FLAG. / T O GO DOWN /READ AND STORE / L O W WORD /READ AND STORE / H I G H WORD ( O N L Y /l BCD CHAR) / E X I T - AC CLEAR  / /  /TO  ACC E L E R A T E  MOTORS  /  0 654 0655 0 65 6  0000 7200 1110  STEP*  0 CLA TAD  DIR  /CHECK /(BIT  ACCEL 9  OF  FLAG  DI R )  0 657 0 660  0315 7 640  AND SZA  MSKD1 CLA  0 661  5 2 67  JMP  ACCST  0 6 62  1316  TAD  ACCSTP  0 6 63  7 640  SZA  CLA  /FLAG=1»START /ACCELERATION /FLAG=0* CONTINUE /ACCELERATION / C H E C K FOR E N D  0 6 64  5302  JMP  ACCNTU  /OF /NO  ACCEL - CONT  ACCEL  - 64 0 7 67 07 7 0  0 6 65 0 6 66  4200 5654  07 7 1 077 2  0667 0 670 0 67 1 0672  7001 7 440  JMS JMP ACCST*  IAC SZA JMP TAD CMA  STEP1 I STEP  /YES - STEP MOTOR / E X I T - AC CLEAR /START ACCEL / L E T MOTOR SETTLE  .-2 MSKD1  0 67 3  5 2 67 1315 7 0 40  07 7 6 07 7 7 1000 1001 1002 1003 100 4  0 67 4 0 67 5  0 110 3110  AND DCA  DI R DI R  /CLEAR FLAG IN /DIR TO CONTINUE  0 67 6 0 677 07 00 0 7 01  1317 331 6 1320 3321  TAD DCA TAD DCA  SKC1 6 ACCSTP  /ACCELERATIO-N /SET NUMBER OF /STEPS IN ACCEL  100 5 100 6  07 02 0703  4200 1321  1007 18 1 0 10 1 1 10 1 2 10 1 3  0 7 04 0705 07O6 07 07 0 7 10  1 322 3321 1321 70 0 1 7440  1014 1015  07 1 1 0 7 12  5307 231 6  0 7 13 07 14  5654 5 654 1000 0000  MSKD1* ACCSTP*  7 7 60  S K C 1 6*  JMP I JMP I 1000 0 -20  WT! *  5 70£  07 7 3 07 7 4 07 7 5  1016 1017 1020 10 2 1 1022 1023 10 2 4 10 2 5 102 6 1027 10 3 0 1031 1032  07 1 5 07 1 6 0 7 17 0 7 20 0 7 21 07 22  L: *-/  r.i  0000 0100  1042  JMS TAD  /SET ORIGINAL /EXTRA DELAY /STEP MOTOR  TAD ACTIME DC A W T I M E TAD WTIME I AC SZA JMP  /DECREASE EXTRA /DELAY TIME  ISZ  /INCREMENT /COUNTER  WTIME*  0  ACTIME*  100  ACCSTP STEP STEP  /WAIT  EXTRA  DELAY  ACCEL  / E X I T - AC CLEAR /MASK FOR FLAG /ACCEL STEP COUNT /NUMBER OF A C C E L /STEPS / 0 R I G I'NAL  EXTRA  /DELAY /TEMP STORAGE - /DECREASE J N DELAY  / /  /TO  1033 1034 1035 103 6 1037 1040 1041  ACCNTU*  WT1 WTIME STEP1 WTIME  COMPLIMENT  ANALYZER  READING  BY  3 60.00  /  0723 0724 0725 0726 0 7 27 0730  10 4 3 1044 1045 1046 1047 1050  0731 0732 0733 07 34  1051 1052 1053 10 5 4 1055 1056 10 5 7  07 37 07 40  10 6 0 10 6 1  0735 0736  0000 7200 1101 4442 7041  ANZCP*  0 CLA TAD JMS CIA  1345 4441 1105 3101 1 100 4442 7041  SHFTL .1 ADCBIN  TAD  K1000D  /1000(DEC)-SHFTL  I  ABNBCD  /CONVERT  TO  DNUMB SHFTL SH FTH I ADCBIN  /PUT BCD /BACK IN /CONVERT /(SHFTH)  RESULT SHFTL MSDS TO BIN  TAD TAD  MSDIG K35D  JMS TAD DCA  I ABNBCD DN U M 3 SHFTH .  /3 5(DEC)+CARRY /-SHFTH / C O N V E R T TO B C D /PUT BCD RESULT /IN SHFTH  0 7 41 0742 0743 07 44 0745  1 104 1346 4441 1 105 3100 5723 17 5 0  K1000D*  JMP I 1750  07 4 6  0043  K35D*  43  / /  10 6 5  /  *1000 /  LSDS TO BIN  JMS TAD DCA TAD JMS CIA  10 6 2 10 6 3 10 6 4  /CONVERT /(SHFTL)  ANZCP  /EXIT  -  AC  /l 000(DEC /35(DEC)  3CD  CLEAR  - 65 /CONVERT  1066 10 6 7 1070 1071 1072  1000 1001  0000 7 421  1073  10 0 2  7 70 1  1074  1 003 1004  0225 3224  103 5 100 6 -1007 1 01 0 1011 1012  7 701 022 6 7 112 7012 42 30 1224 3224  107 5 107 6 107 7 1 100 1 101 1102 1103 1 104  10 1 3 1014 1015  1105 110 6 1 107 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1120  ''  7 106 700 6 7 00 4  1021 1022  4244 1 224  1023 1024  5 600 0000 0017 0 3 60 7 400  1025 102 6 1027  1121 1122 1 123 1 "1 2 4 1 125 1126 I 127 II 30 1131 1 132 1133 1134  1030 1031 10 3 2 1033  1135 1136  1034 10 3 5  0000 3243  1137 1140  1036 1037 10 4 0 1041 1042  1243 7 104 7 104 1243 5634  1043  0000  1141 1 142 1143 1 1 44 1145 1146 1147 1 1 50 1151 1152 1153 1 1 54 1 1 55 1 156 11 5 7 1 1 60 1 1 61 1 1 62 1 1 63 1 1 64  DIGIT  BCD  IN  IN  AND DCA ACL AND CLL RTR JMS TAD DCA ACL AND CLL RTL RAL  OCNBR, MK17, MK3 6 0 , MK7 4 0 0 ,  AC  TO  BINARY  AC  0 MQL ACL  7 701 0827  10 1 6 1017 1020  3  RESULT  /LEAVE / DCBIN>  /SAVE  BCD  NO.  MK17 OCNBR  /SEPARATE /STORE AS  LSD BIN  MK360 RTR  /SEPARATE MIDDLE /DIGIT /RIGHT JUSTIFY  M U L T 10 OCNBR OCNBR  /MULT BY 10 . / A D D TO B I N  NO.  /SEPARATE MSD /RIGHT JUSTIFY  MK7400 RTL  JMS MLT100 TAD OCNBR JMP I DCBIN 0 17 3 60 7 400  /MULT BY 100 /ADD TO B I N NO. /EXIT - BIN IN AC /STORAGE FOR BIN / M A S K FOR LSD / M A S K FOR M I D DIG / M A S K FOR MSD  / /  00 00 42 34 7 104 5 630  /MULT NO. IN AC BY 10 / MULT 10, 0 JMS MULT 5 CLL RAL J M P I - M U L T 10  LEAVE  RESULT  /MULT /MULT  BY BY  IN  AC  5 2  / /  /MULT / MULT5,  NO.  IN  0 DCA TAD CLL CLL TAD JMP  MNBR, /  AC  BY  5  LEAVE  1044 1045  0000 4230  1046 1047  4230 5644  JMS JMP  IN  MNBR  /STORE  MNBH RAL  /MULT  HAL MNBR I MULT5  /MULT BY 2 /ADD NO. /IE 5X=2X+2X+X /TEMP  0  / /MULT AC BY / .MLT100, 0 JMS  RESULT  100  -  RESULT  IN  NO. BY  2  STORAGE  AC  M U L T 10  /MULT  BY  10  M U L T 10 I MLT100  /MULT  BY  10  / /  10 50 1051  0000 ,3342  /CONVERT B I N NO. IN AC /RESULT IN MSDIG (MOST /DNUM3 ( D E C I M A L N O . ) / 3N3CD, 0 DCA 3NBR •  TO 4 D I G I T S BCD SIG DIGIT) AND ON P A G E 0  /STORE  BIN  AC  66  -  -  1 1 65  1052  7103  11 6 6 1 1 67 117 0  10 5 3 10 5 4 10 5 5  310 4 1 342 1 344  1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 117 6 1 177 1200 1201  10 5 6 10 57  7 500 52 63  SMA JMP  10 60 1061 10 62 10 6 3 10 6 4  SZL JMP JMP  1065 10 66  7 430 52 63 5266 2104 7 100 5255 3342  1202 1203 1204  1 0 67 107 0 1071 1072  1 344 7 041 1342 3342  1207 1210 121 1 1212 1213 12 14 1215  107 3 1074 107 5 107 6 1 07 7 1 100 1101  7 300 3343 1 342 1 345 7 500 5302 5304  1216 1217 1220 1221 1222  1 102 1 103 1 104 1 105 1106  2343 527 6 3342 1 343 7 10 6  1223 1224 1225 1226 1227  •11-07 1110 1111 1112 1113  -700-6 3105 1 345 7 041 1 342  ISZ JMP DCA TAD CLL RTL DCA TAD CIA TAD  1230 1231 1232 1233 1234  1114  3342  DCA  BNBR  1115 1116 1117  7 300 3343 1342  CLL DIG • BNBR  1235 1236 1237 1240 1241 1242 1243  1 120 1121  KC10  /SUBT 10 /BIN NO.  JMP JMP  BK3 FNH3 DIG  /AC IS NOT NEG / I N C R DIG AND /SUBT AGAIN  1 125 1 126  134 6 7 500 5324 5326 2343 5320 3342  CLA DCA TAD TAD SMA  /AC  IS  1244  1 127 1 1 30  1 343 1 105  TAD TAD  DIG DNUM3  /PUT  NO. OF MID DIG  1131 1 1 32 1 133 1 134 1 135  7 106 700 6 3105  CLL RTL DCA  RTL  /DNUMB  134 6 7041  TAD CIA  KC 1 0  1253 1254  1136 1 137  1342 1 105  TAD  TAD  BNBR DNUMB  1255 1256 1257  1 1 40 1141  3105 5 650  DCA JMP  DNUMB I BNBCD  12 6 0 1261  1 142 1 143  0000 0000  BNBR,  1 144 1 1 45  6030 7 634  KC1000, KC100,  120 5 120 6  BACK,  FINISH,  MS D I G BN3R KC 1000 BACK  /CLEAR /SUST  1000  FROM  /BIN NO. / I F AC I S  NOT  NEG  ISZ CLL JMP DCA  MS DIG  /OR L I N K = 0 THEN /INCREMENT MSDIG /AND SUBT 1000 /AGAIN  BNLP1 BN3R  /IF  TAD CIA TAD DCA  KC 1000  BACK FINISH  3NBR BNBR  AC  IS  LT  0  / A N D L=l, THEN /HAVE SU3T 100 0 / O N C E TOO O F T E N / A D D 1 0 0 0 B A C K ON  /  BNLP2,  BK2, FNH2,  CLA DCA . TAD TAD SMA JMP JMP  CLL DIG BNBR KC 100 BK2 FNH2 DIG BNLP2 BNBR DIG RTL  /CLEAR / S U B T 100 FROM BIN / I F AC I S NOT NEG /THEN INCREMENT ' / D I G AND SUBT /AGAIN /AC  /OF DNUMB KC100  IS  NEG  -  SAVE  /PUT NO. OF SUBT / I N MSD POSITION  /ADD /TO  DNUMB 100 BIN  BACK NO.  BNBR  /  1 122 1 1 23 1 124  1245 1246 1247 1250 1251 1252  12 62 12 6 3  BN L P 1,  CLL DCA TAD TAD  '  BNLP3,  BK3, FNH3,  Din,  ISZ JMP DCA  BNLP3 BNBR  0 0 60 30 7 634  /CLEAR  /IN  FROM IF  NEG  -  SAVE SUBT OF  DNUMB /ADD /BIN  10  BACK  TO  NO.  /PART LEFT / O F DNUMB / E X I T - AC /STOR FOR / S T O R FOR /-1000 /-100  IS  LSD  CLEAR BIN DIG  NO.  - 67 1146  12 6 4 12 6 5  77 66  KC 1 0 * /  12 6 6 12 6 7  /  1270 127 1 1272 127 3  /  127 4 1275 127 6 1277 1300 1301 T302 1303 1304 1305 130 6 1307 1310  *1300  •  1300 1301 1 302  0000  T303 1304 130 5  7 0 41 1111 1 1 20 7 4 40 5312 1 1 20 30 1 0  130 6 1307  .  1310 1311 1312 1313 1314  131 1 1312 1313 1314 1315  1315 1316 1317 1320 1 321 1322 1323' 1 324 1325  1316 1317 1320 1321 13 8 2 1323 1324  3323 1018  / /TO S T O K E A S E T OF R E A D I N G S IN A S T A C K ADDITION / F I X E D L E N G T H S T A C K •- L A T E S T /REPLACES EARLIEST - I N P U T IN AC /OUTPUT L E F T IN AC / STACK* 0 /SAVE ADDITION DCA S V S T K l TAD ENDSTK / C H E C K FOR E N D O F CIA /STACK AREA AND TAD STKL /RESET TO START TAD STSTK / I F AT END SZA /STACK AREA IS J M P • +3 TAD DCA  7200 1410 . 3324  CLA TAD DCA  10 10 3325 1323 3725 1324  TAD DCA  5700 0-0-00  SVSTKl*  0000 0000  SVSTK2* ENDSK1 *  TAD DCA TAD JMP 0 .0 0  1325 132 6 1327  / / /TO-READ  1330 1331  ./OF TIMES /READINGS  1332 1 333  / SUM*  1334 1335 1336 1337 1340  1327 1330 1331  7200 1111 7041  0 CLA TAD CIA  1332 1333  3117 3107  1341 1342 1343 1344 1345  1334 1335 1336  3106 4347  1341 1342 1 343 1344 ,  1345 1346  I ENDSTK SVSTK2 ENDSTK EN DSK1  /REMOVE NO.FROM /STACK AND SAVE  SVSTKl I ENDSK1 SVSTK2 I STACK  STPCNT ASUMH  /CLEAR  DCA JMS  ASUML RDPTO  /READ  ASUMH  I  SUM  THE ASUML  COUNTER  STORAGE PHOTOMULT•  /ADD TO A S U M L /IF OVERFLOW /INCRE ASUMH /STORE SUM /STEP MOTOR /LOOP /EXIT  -  AC  CLEAR  / / /TO  1347 1350  0000 7 200  READ  /IN AC / RDPTO*  PHOTOMULTIPLIER  0 CLA  IT  NUMBER  SUM O F ASUMH*  DCA DCA  JMP  5726  STKL  /SET  ASUML  1277  /REPLACE IT WITH / I N P U T T H A T WAS /IN AC /PUT NO. REMOVED /IN AC EXIT  PHOTOMULTIPLIER  ASUML ASTEP JMS I I SZ S T P C N T JMP LPSUM  5335  TO  STKL  CLL TAD SZL ISZ DCA  2107 3106 443 3 2117  1355 1356 1357 13 6 0 1361 13 62  LPSUM*  ' 7 100 1 10 6 7430  /1200  AND KEEP A RUNNING STORED IN 2 WORDS*  0000  1337 1340  .  STSTK ENDSTK  THE  132 6  1346 1347 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354  / - 10 .  7 7 66  -  RESULT  LEFT  - 68 13 63 13 6 4 13 6 5 1366 1367 1370 137 1 1372  -  1 351  1 3 54  TAD  PHTOCD  /SET  1352 1353  4431 57 47  JMS JMP  I I  /USE ANALG / E X I T - RESUT  1354  0 0 17  PHTOCD*  AANALG RDPTO  17  * 1400 / /TO / .  1404 1405 140 6 1407 1410 141 1 1412  REVERSE  REV*  ELLIPSOMETER  0000 7200  1402 1 40 3  1110 021 6  TAD AMD  1404  70 40  CMA  140 5 140 6  021 6 3220 -  AND DCA  DI R MSKD1R  MSKD1R CHDIR  /STORE  COMP  DIR  /BITS 1110  TAD  DI R  1410  0217  AND  MSKDR2  1411  1233  TAD  FLGSET  1412  1220  TAD  CHDI R  1421 1422 1423 1424  1413 1414 1415 141 6  63 32  6332  3110 5 600 0005  MSKDIR*  1417  6772  MSKDR2*  1420  00 00  •DCA JMP 5  /CLEAR OLD DIR / B I T S AND FLAG /SET F L A G TO /ACCELERATE /SET CHANGED DIR /3ITS •/SET - F L - I P - F L O P S /RESTORE IN DIR / E X I T - AC C L E A R /MASK FOR DIR  DI R I REV •  '  6772  /BITS /TO C L E A R FLAG /AND DIR BITS /TEMP STORAGE  1421  0000  0 CHOIR* / / /TO SET ACCELERATION /FOR MOTORS / SETM* 0  1422  3234  DCA  1423 1424  1110 0232  TAD  Dl R  AND  MSKDR1  /DO NOT /SWITCH  1425  1233  TAD  FLGSET  /SET  •'  1434 1435 1436  MOTOR  -  144 6 1447  1426  1234  TAD  1450 1451 1452 1453 1454  1427 1430 1431 1432  6332 3110 5 621 200 0  MS.KDR1*  6332 D C A DI R SETM JMP I 2000  1455 1456  1433  1000  FLGSET*  1000  1434  0000  MOTOR* / /  0  1 457 14 60 1461  /SEPARATE /DIRECTION 31TS /COMPLIMENT DIR /BITS  1407  1443 1444 1445  MOTORS  0 CLA  1400 1 40 1  1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1420  1437 1440 1441 1442  -1N  /AC / C O D E FOR P T M /ANALG CHANNEL  /  1402 1403  1430 1431 1432 1433  CODE  / /  1373 137 4 137 5 1376 .1377 1400 1401  1425 1426 1427  PTM  MOTOR  FLAG  AND  FLIP  FLOPS  / C O D E FOR MOTORS /WAS IN AC /STORE IT CHANGE FF  FLAG  TO  /START ACCEL . / S E T MOTOR • /INFORMATION . /SET FLIP FLOPS /STORE IN DIR / E X I T - AC CLEAR /MASK FOR SWITCH /FLIP FLOP /TO SET FLAG /TEMP STORAGE  - 69 14 62 1463 14 64 14 65 1466 14 67 1470 1471 147 2 147 3 147 4 147 5 147 6 1477 1500 1501 1502 1503 1504 150 5 150 6 1507 1510 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517  -1-520 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1540 . 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1560  /TO  RUM MOTORS NUMBER 0!<• STEPS  IN AC  /  1435 143 6 1437 1 440 1441 1442 1 443  0000 7 041 3117 4433 2117 5240 5 63 5  MOVE..  0 CIA DCA STPCNT JMS I ASTEP IS?. STPCNT JMP .-2 JMP I MOVE  /SET  COUNTER  /STEP MOTORS /LOOP • / E X I T - AC  CLEAR  / /  /COMP0, COMP1, C0MP2, SET ADDRESSES FOR /THE JUMP IM CMpSM (FO>R USE IN BAL ROUTINE! /  1 4 44 0 12 5 1445 1307 3 30 5 144 6 1447 1 30 6 3304 1450 1451 52 66  COMP0>  CL TAD DCA TAD DCA JMP  APOSl S2LTS1 APOS0 S2GTS1 CMPSM  / I F SUM2 IS L E S S /THAN SUM1 THEN GO /TO POS 1 /OTHERWISE GO TO /POS 0  / /  1452 1'453 14 54 1455 145 6 1 457  7200 1 307 3305 1310 3304 5266  COMP1 *  CLA TAD A P O S l DCA S 2 L T S 1 TAD AP0S2 . ' DCA S2GTS1 JMP CMPSM  / I F SUM2 IS L E S S /THAN SUM1 THEN /GO TO POS 1 /OTHERWISE GO TO /POS 2  CLA TAD DCA TADr DCA JMP  / I F SUM2 'IS L E S S /THAN SUM1 THEN /GO TO POS 3 /OTHERWISE GO TO /POS 4  / /  i'4'63 '7200 1311 1461 330 5 1462 1 4 63 1312 1 4 64 330 4 5266 1465  CQMP2--  APOS3 S2LTS1 AP0S4 S2GTS1 CMPSM  / /  7200 14 66 1115 1467 3121 1470 1471 1113 1 47 2 3122 1 473 1116 3123 1474 1114 147 5 312 4 147 6 4447 1477 1 500 1126 1 501 7500 1502 57 0 5 5704 1503 1 504 0000 1 50 5 .0000 1 506 1 622 1507 1 625 1 633 1510 1511 1 660 1713 1512  CMPSM,  S2GTS1r S2LTS1i APOS0, APOSl, APOS2, AP0S3> AP0S4>  CLA TAD SUML1 DCA,AL TAD SUMH1 DCA AH . TAD SUML2 DCA BL TAD SUMH2 DCA BH JMS I ADPSUB TAD CH SMA JMP I S2LTS1 JMP I S2GTS1 0 0 POS0 POS1 P0S2 POS3 P0S4  /TO PERFORM /SUM 1-SUM2 IN /D0U3LE PREC1SI ON /AND T E S T RESULT  /(A-3=C> / T E S T RESULT /SUM2 L T SUM1 /SUM2 GT SUM1 /ADDRESS SET BY /COMP ROUTINES / L I S T OF /ADDRESSES  / /  /TO F I L L STACK ORIGINALLY /SUM OF THE READINGS  AND  KEEP A  - 70 1561 15 62 15 63 1 5 64 15 65 15 6 6 15 67 1570 1571 157 2 157 3 1574 157 5 1 57 6 157 7 1 600 1601 1602 1603 1 604 1 60 5 1 60 6 1 607 1610 161 1 1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 •1-617 1 620 1621 1 622 1 623 1624 1625 162 6 1 627 1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1 635 1 636 1637 1640 1641 1 642 1643 1 644 1645 164 6 1.647 1 650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657  /  STORE, 0000 7 200 1112 3117 1 120 3010 3 106 3107 STLP1, 4445 7421 7 70 1 1 5 2 6 34 10 7 7 01 1527 7 100 1530 1136 1531 1 532 310 6 1 533 7 430 1 5 3 4 2 107 1 535 44 33 1 53 6 2 1 1 7 1 537 5 3 2 3 1540 57 1 3  1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1520 1 521 1522 1 523 1 524 1 525  0 CLA TAD DCA TAD DCA DCA DCA JMS MQL ACL  STXLC STPCNT STSTK. ENDSTX ASUML ASUMH I ARDPTO  /SET  COUNTER  /SET  START  I  /STORE  ENDSTK  DCA ACL CLL TAD DCA  ASUML ASUML  SZL ISZ JMS ISZ JMP JMP  ASUMH I ASTEP STPCNT STLP1 I STORE  OF  STACK  /CLEAR / R E A D PTM /STORE  /ADD  IN  TO  STACK  ASUML  / I N C R E ASUMH /I F O V E R F L O W / S T E P MOTOR /LOOP /EXIT  -  AC  CLEAR  / /  /DOUBLE PRECISION / ( F R O M DEC MANUAL  ADD A+B=C INTRODUCTION  TO  PROG)  /  1 541 0 0 0 0 1 542 7 300 -1 5 4 3 11-2 1 1 544 1 123 1 545 3125 700 4 1'54 6 1 122 1547 1 5 50 1 1 2 4 1551 3126 1 5 5 2 57 41  DP A D D ,  0 CLA •TAD TAD DCA RAL TAD TAD DCA JMP  CLL •AL BL CL AH BH CH I DPADD  /EXIT  -  AC  CLEAR  / /  /DOUBLE • PRECISION / ( F R O M D E C :I N T R O .  SUBTRACTION TO P R O G • )  A-B=C  /  1 553 1554 1 555 1556 1557  DPSUS, 0000 7 300 1 1 23 7041 1121  3125 15 60 7004 1561 1 5 62 3 3 7 1 1 5 63 1 1 2 4 15 64 7040 1 5 65 1 1 2 2 1371 15 66 1 5 67 3 1 2 6 5753 1570 1 57 1 0 0 0 0  KPDPS,  0 CLA TAD CIA TAD . DCA RAL DCA TAD CMA TAD TAD DCA JMP 0  CLL BL AL CL KPDPS BH • AH KPDPS CH I DPSU3  / /  *1 6 0 0 / /  /EXIT  -  AC  CLEAR  - 71 1660  ELLIPSOMETER /TO B A L A N C E THE / BAL, 0 CLA IAC /SET F L A G TO /INDICATE START DCA B L F L A G /TAKE SET OF READS J M S I A SUM ST3L, /CLEAR POSITION DCA P O S C T /POINTER  1661 1662  1 600  1 663 1 664  1 60 1 1 602  0000 7 201 3323  1 665 1666 1 667  1 603 1 604  4724 3321  1670 1671 1 67 2 1673 1674 167 5 167 6 167 7 17 0 0 1701 1702 17 0 3 17 0 4 1705 1706 1707 1710 17 11 17 1 2 17 1 3 17 1 4  1 60 5 1 60 6 1 607 1 610 1611 1 612  1 107 3113  1 107  JMS TAD  ASUML SUML1 I A SUM ASUMH  1 613 1 614  3114 110 6 3116  DCA TAD DCA  SUMH 2 ASUML SUML2  1 323 7 440  TAD SZA  BLF'LAG  17 1 5 17 1 6 1717 1720 1721 1722 1723 17 2 4 1725 1726  1 625 "1"62 6 1 627 1 630 1631 1 632  1 61 5 1 61 6 1 617  1 1 1 1 1  620 621 622 623 624  1 633  1106 31 15 4724  TAD DCA TAD DCA 3ALLP1 *  JMP JMP  5727 57 30 4443 3323 5203  POS0,  JMS DCA JMP  7 200 11 1'4 31 13  POS1,  CLA TAD DCA  1116 3115 52 1 1 4724  TAD DCA JMP P0S2..  JMS  ASUMH SUMH 1  I ACOMP0 I ACOMP1 I ARE V BL FLAG STBL  'SUMH 2 SUMH1 SUML2 SUML1 BALLP1 I ASUM  /CHECK /CLEAR  FT.AG • FLAG  1 634 1 635  4443 1106  JMS TAD  17 3 4 1735 1736 1737  1 1 1 1  63 6 637 640 641  3115 1 107 3113 1111  DCA TAD DCA TAD  1740 1741 17 4 2  1 642 1 643 1 644  4444  JMS TAD JMS  1743 17 4 4 1745 17 4 6  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  64 5 64 6 647 650 651 652 653 654  47 2 6 7 200 1 107 3114  1753 17 5 4 1755  1 655 1 656  1756  1 657  1111 4444  1106  I AREV ASUML SUML! ASUMH  /OVER AGAIN / G O I N G TOWARD A / P U T S U M 2 'I'M'TO /SUM1  THROUGH SET OF TO  IT  3E  /COMPARISON /REV MOTORS /STORE READINGS /IN SUM1  /MOVE  BACK  I  /SETS  OF  TWO READINGS  STKL I AMOVE  ASTORE JM S I CLA TAD ASUMH DCA SUMH 2 TAD ASUML  /STORE NEXT SET /OF READINGS IN /STACK AND STORE / T H E SUM I N SUM2  SUML 2 STKL STKL  1 11 I 3321  DCA TAD TAD TAD DCA  STKL POSCT  /SET POSITION / P O I N T E R TO N O . /OF STEPS TAKEN /FROM COMPARISON  5731  JMP  I  /SUM /COMPARE  3116 1111 1111  Mli  / R E T U R N TO T A K E /SUM2 .AGAIN / G O I N G AWAY FROM /MIN AFTER HAVING  SUMH'l STKL AMOVE  A  /INDICATES THAT /A MINIMUM IS /BEING APPROACHED /COMPARE SUM1 /AND SUM2 / G O I N G AWAY FROM /MIN. REV MOTORS /CLEAR FLAG• START  /READINGS /USED FOR  1731 1732 1733  1750 1751 17 5 2  /OF READINGS AND /STORE IN SUM2 .  /PASSED /TAKE,A  17 2 7 1730  1747  /STORE READINGS /IN SUM1 (HIGH '/AND LOW) /TAKE ANOTHER SET  AC0MP2  SUM2  AND  -  17 5 7 17 60 17 61 17 62 17 6 3 17 64 17 65 1766 17 67 17 7 0 )77 1 17 7 2 17 7 3 17 7 4 17 7 5 1776 1777 2000 2001 . 2002 2003 2004 200 5 200 6 2007 2010 201 1 20 1 2 2013 20 1 4 '20TS 201 6 20 i 7 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2030 2031 2032 20 33 2034 2035 203 6 2037 2040 2041 2042 20 4 3 2044 2045 2046 ' 2047 20 50 2051 2052 20 53 20 54 . 2055  -  72  P0S3*  CLA  1 660  ' 7 230  1 661 1 6 62  2321 4445  ISZ JMS  1 663 1 664 1 665 1 666 1 667 1 670 1 671 1 672 1 67 3 1 67 4 1 67 5 1 67 6 1 677 1700 17 0 1 1702 1 703 1704 17 0 5 170 6 1707 17 1 0 17 11  7421 7701 47 2 5 3123 31 2 4 7 731 3121 3122 4447 1125 3121 1126 3122 . 1116 3123 1114 3124 4450 1 125 3116 1126 3114 •/<•/; 3 3  MQL ACL JMS DCA DCA ACL DCA DCA JMS TAD DCA TAD DCA TAD DCA TAD DCA JMS TAD DCA TAD DCA JMS  17 1 2  5731  JMP  I ACOMP2  17 1 3  4443  JMS  I AREV  17 17 17 17 17  14 15 16 17 20  7300 1321 7010 4444 5 600  CLA TAD RAR JMS JMP  CLL POSCT  1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 172 6 1727 17 3 0 1731  0000 3000 0000 1 326 1300 1513 1444 1452 14 63  P0S4*  POSCT* HLD3L1* BLFLAGJ A SUM* ASTACK* ASTOHE* ACOMP0* ACOMP1* AC0MP2*  POSCT I ARDPTO  /SL1M1 / H A V E NOT YET /COME TO S A M E / D I S T A N C E FROM M I N / A S C O M P A R I S O N SUM / I N C R E POS P O I N T E R /TAKE A SINGLE /READING /STORE  I ASTACK BL 3H AL AH I ADPSUB CL AL CH AH SUML2 BL SUMH2 BH I ADPADD CL SUML2 CH SUMH2 I ASTEP  I AMOVE I BAL  0 0 0 SUM STACK . STORE COMP0 COMP1. C0MP2  IT  IN  /SUBTRACT READING / R E M O V E D FROM S T A C K /FROM R E A D I N G PUT / I N STACK  /ADD R E S U L T /SUM 2  TO  /MOVE MOTOR O N E /STEP / C O M P A R E SUM1 /AND S U M 2 / I F SUM2 L T SUM1 / R E T U R N TO P 0 S 3 /OTHERWISE HAVE /FOUND B A L A N C E / R E V E R S E MOTORS / D R I V E TO M I D P O I N T / O F SUM1 A N D S U M 2  / E X I T - AC C L E A R /ELLIPSOMETER / U N I T L E F T AT /BALANCED POSITION /POSITION POINTER /BALANCE FLAG /ADDRESSES USED /BY BAL R O U T I N E  / /  *2000 / /  /TO /TO  STACK  SET DERI RED U N I T OF E L L I P S O M E T E R A REQUIRED POSITION  -73 205 6 2 0 57  2000  0000  20 60 2 0 61 20 62 20 63 20 64 2065 20 66 20 67 207 0 237 1 2072 2073 207 4  2001 2032 2003 2004  443 5  237 5 207 6  I  /READ  ARDSFT  SHAFT  ENCODER  7 630  F'W D RAL CLA  2035  4 4 51  JMS  I  203 6 290 7 2010 201 1 2 0 12 2013 20 1 4 23 1 5  110 1 3133 1 100 31 3 4 44 57 1125  TAD DCA TAD DCA  SHFTL DECL SHFTH  /CONVERT POSITION / F R O M B C D TO BINARY  TAD  DSCH I ADPDBN CL SH F T L CK  /STORE POS IN /SHAFT(LOW,HIGH)  DCA TAD DCA TAD DCA  SHFTH DESTL AL DEST'H AH  /TO D E T E R M I N E POS /OF UNIT /DETERMINE WHETHER / A N Z OH P O L I S TO /SET. IF ANZ  AANZCP  /COMPLIMENT  JMS TAD DCA  310 1 1126 3100 1 135 3121 1136 3122  2103 2104 2105  2023 20 2 4  2106 2107 2110 21 1 1 2112  2025 202 6 2027 23 33 2 0 31 20 32 523 6 2 0 3 3 . "1 1 2 5  2113 2114  0 JMS TAD CLL SZL  13 65 7 134  20 1 6 2 0 17 20 20 2021 2022  2077 2100 2101 2102  / SETEL,  1101 3123 1 100 3124 44 47 1126 7 643  SU3PT,  TAD DCA JMS TAD SZA JMP TA'D  • +4 CL CLA I SETEL CH CLA AHEAD  7 650 ' 5 630 1 126 7700 52 60  SNA JMP TAD SMA JMP  2122 2123 2124 2125 2126  2041 20 42  1 135 3123  TAD DCA  2043 2044 2045  TAD DCA TAD  2127 2130  204 6 20 47  1136 3124 1101 3121 1 100  DESTL BL DESTH BH SH F T L  2131 2132  2050 2 0 51  3122 13 66  DCA TAD DCA TAD  AL SHFTH AH BKWD  2133 21 3 4 2135  20 52 20 53 2054  3377 1 3 65 3366  DCA TAD DCA  BHLDK FWD BKWD  2136 2137 2140 2141  2055 20 5 6  1377 3365  TAD DCA  3HLDK FWD  2057 2 0 60  2142 2143 2144  2361 20 62 2 0 63  5227 1 126 3372 1 125 3371  JMP TAD DCA TAD DCA  SUBPT CH DMSEH  2145 2146 2147  2 0 64 23 65  TA'D DCA  CH AH CL  2150 2151 21 5 2 2153 2154  2 0 67 2070 207 1 2072 2073  3121 1373 3124 1374 3123  /PERFORM /(DEST-SHAFT)  SH FTH BH I ADPSUB CH CLA  20 34 2335 20 3 6 ' 20 37 2040  2066  360  • TAD SHFTL DCA B L  21 15 2116 21 17 2120 2121  1 126 3122 1 125  BIT  AHEAD,  TAD DCA TAD DCA TAD DCA  CL DMSEL  AL H180 BH L180 BL  /IS /0,  RESULT -VE, OR + V E ?  /IF  0  /IF  + VE  THEN  DONE  JUMP  /IF -VE INTERC H A N G E DEST AND / S H A F T AND DIR /CODES (FWD FOR  .  /BKD AND /VERSA)  VICE  /DO  AGAIN  SUBT  /STORE DEST-SHAFT /IN DM S E  /PERFORM /(DMSE-180.00) /TO D E T E R M I N E /SHORTEST DIRECTION /TO TRAVEL  - 74 81 5 5  20 7 4  4447  215 6 21 5 7 21 60 2161 21 62  20 7 5 207 6 207 7  1126 7 710 5326  21 63 21 6 4  2100 2101 2102  21 6 5 21 6 6 21 67 2170 217 1  2103 2104 210 5 210 6 2107  1375 3122 137 6 3121 1 372 3124  2172 2173 2174 217 5 217 6  2110 2111 2112 2113' 2114  2177 2200  2115 2116  2201 2202 220 3 2204 220 5 220 6 2207 2210 221 1 22! 2 22 1 3 2214  2117 312 6 4444 2120 2121 2126 5320 2122 1125 2123 4444 21 242125 5 600 13 6 5 2 12 6 44 52 2127 1 372 21 3 0 o-\ 3 i •7 4 5 0 5340 21 3 2 7041 21 33 21 34 3372 4444 2135  2215 221 6 2217 2220 222 1 2222 2223 2224 2225 222 6 2227 2230 2231 2232 2233 2234 2235 2236 22 37 2240 2241 2242  JMS TAD SPA JMP TAD DCA TAD DCA TAD DCA TAD DCA  1371 3123  JMS TAD  4447 13 6 6 4452 1126 7 4 50 5323 704 1  2136  2372  21 37 2140 2141 2142  5335 1 37 1 4444  JMS TAD SNA  MVEFWD,  ADPSUB  H 3 60 AH L 3 60 AL DMSEH BH DMSEL BL I ADPSUB BKV.'D I ASETM CH  JMP CIA  . + 6  DCA JMS ISZ JMP TAD  CH I AMOVE CH • -2 CL  JMS JMP TAD  I AMOVE I SETEL FWD I ASETM  JMS TAD SNA •JMP CIA DCA JMS ISZ JMP TAD JMS JMP  5 600  I  CH CLA MVEFWD  / I F - V E OR 0 /MOVE FORWARD /IF +VE /PERFORM /(360.00-DMSE)  /SET MOTORS TO /MOVE BACKWARDS /MOVE 10000COCT) /STEPS FOR E A C H / C O U N T I N CH  /MOVE  CL  /EXIT  -  STEPS . AC  CLEAR  DMSEH  / S E T MOTORS TO /MOVE FORWARD  •+ 6  /MOVE  AS  ABOVE  DMSEH I AMOVE DMSEH .-2 DMSEL I AMOVE I SETEL  / / /TO SET /STORED 2143 2144 2145 214 6  0000 1 1 30 44 52 1 1 30  2147 21 50 2151 21 52 2153  33 66 13 67  /NUMBER SETAN>  3365 4200 5743  2243 2244  / /  2245 224 6  /TO /  2247 2250 2251  2154 2155 2156  0000 1 127 4452  22 52 2253  21 57 21 60  1 127 3365  SET  SETPL,  T H E A N A L Y Z E R TO T H E P O S I T I O N BINARY IN D E S T H ^ D E S T L C A TWO W O R D DECIMAL)/ I N T H E R A N G E 0 TO 3 5 9 9 9 0 /GET ANZ CODE TAD ANZCD ASETM /SET GATING JMS I TAD ANZCD /SET FWD A N D B K W D DCA BKWD / C O D E S TO. B E U S E D TAD AN Z 2 /BY SETEL D C A FWD JMS S E T E L / E X I T - AC C L E A R JMP I SETAN .  POLARIZER  AS  0 TAD' POLCD ASETM JMS I TAD POLCD D C A FWD  ABOVE  /GET /AS  POL ABOVE  CODE  - 75 22 54 2255 2256 2257  2 1 61 21 62 21 63 2 1 64  .  1370 3366 4200 5754.  2 i 65  0300  / FWD*  21 6 6 21 67 2170 2171 2172 2173  0000 43 1 4 000 2 0000 000 0 0004  BKWO* ANZ2* P0L2* DMSEL* DMSEH* HI 8 0 *  2174  3120 0 0 10 6240 00 30  L180* H3 60* L360* BHLDX*  22.60 22 22 22 22 22 22 22  61 62 63 64 65 66 67  2270 227 1 2272 2273 2274 227 5 227 6 2277 2300 2301 2302 2303 2304 230 5 2306 2307 2310 23 1 1 231 2 23 1 3 2314  •  2175 2176 2177  TAD DCA  P0L2 BKWD  JMS JMP  I  SETEL SET PL  /EXIT  -  AC  CLEAR  0 0 43 1 4 2 0 0 4 3120 10 6240 0 *2200  / /  2200 2201 2202 220 3 220 4 2205  00 03 1 1 34 4442 3237 3240 4245 42 45 424 5 1243 3244  / T O C O N V E R T A TWO /BCD IN DECH* DECL / DPD3N* 0 TAD DECH  WORD B C D N U M B E R B I NARY IN CH*CL  BINARY  /CONVERT / W O R D TO  HIGH BIN  /MULT  2X2X2=8  1237  JMS DCA DCA JMS JMS JMS 'TAD DCA TAD  2315 231 6  2213 2214  3241 1240  DCA TAD  DPX5L DPX2H  2317 2320 2321 2322 2323 2324 2325  2215 221 6 2217  3242  DCA  DPX5H  42 5 5 1126  JMS TAD  DPX5 CH  /MULT  3242 1 125 3241 2244  DCA TAD DCA ISZ  DPX5H CL DPX5L CNT3HD  /NET RESULT IS TO /MULT DECH BY /1000C DECIMAL).  521 6 1 125 ,3121  JMP TAD DCA  .-6 CL AL  1 126 3122  TAD DCA  CH AH  TAD JMS  DECL I ADCBIN  2326 2327 2330 2331 2332  220 6 2207 22 10 221 1 2212  2220 2221 2222 2223 2224 2225 2226 2227 2230  2333 2334  2231 2232  1 133 4442  2335  2233 2234 2235  3123 3124 4450  2236 2237 2240 2241 2242 2243 2244  5 600 0000  2336 2337 2340 2341 2342 2343 2344 2345 2346 2347 2350 2351 2352  0000 0000 0000 7 775 0000  DPX2L* DPX2H* DPX5L* DPX5H* CNT3* CNT3HD* / / /DOUBLE /INPUT  I ADCBIN DPX2L DPX2H DPX2 DPX2 DPX2 CNT3 CNT3HD DPX2L  TO  DCA  BL  DCA JMS JMP  BH I ADPADD I DPDBN  •  BY  / S E T U P TO M U L T /BY 5X5X5=125  BY  /CONVERT /TO  PRECISION OUTPUT  '  DECL  BINARY  /ADD /EXIT  TO -  0 0 0 0 -3 0  AND  5  M U L T I P L Y BY 2 TN D P X 2 H * D P M 2 L  HIGH AC  PART  CLEA  — -  23 53 2354 2355  2245 2246  0000 1237  2356 23 57  2247 2250  23 23 23 23 23 23 23  2251 2252 2253 2254  60 61 62 63 64 65 66  2 3 67 •2370 237 1 237 2 2373 2374 237 5 237 6 2377 2400 2401 2402 2403 2404 240 5 240 6 2407 8410 24 1 1 2412 2413 24 14 241 5 241 6 2417 2420 2421 2422 2423 2424 2425  76 -  / DPX2,  0 TAD  DPX2L  7104 3237  CLL DCA  RAL DPX2L  1240 7004 32 40  TAD RAL DCA JMP  DPX2H  5 645  ONE  /EXIT  AC  LEFT  DPX2H I  DPX2  -  CLEAR  / / /D0U3LE  2255 22 5 6 2 2 57 22 22 22 22 22  60 61 62 63 64  22 65 22 66 2 2 67 2270  0000 1241 3237 12 4 2 3240  /INPUT .-/ DPX5,  42 45 4245 1237 3121 12 4 0  3123  227 4 2275  44 50 5655  0 TAD DCA  /SET  TAD DCA  DPX5L DPX2L DPX5H DPX2H  JMS JMS TAD  DPX2 DPX2 DPX2L  /X2 /X2  AL DPX2H AH DPX5L DCA B L TAD DPX5H DCA BH JM S I A D P A D D JMP 1 DPX5  3182 1241  227 1 2272 2273  P R E C I S I O N M U L T I P L Y BY OUTPUT IN DPX5H,DPX5L  DCA TAD DCA TAD  1242 31 2 4  5 IN  UP  / A D D ON /NUMBER  CH..CL  TO  X2  ORIGINAL  -  /EXIT  -  AC  CLEAR  / / / T O T U R N ON / ONSW* 0  POWER  TRANSISTOR  227 6  0000  22.7 7 2300 2 301 2332 2303  7200 1110 031 5 1316 6332  CLA T A D DI R AND MK2000 TAD M02000 6332  /CLEAR BIT 1 /OF DIR /SET BIT 1 OF /.SET GATES  2304 2305  3110 5 67 6  DCA JMP  /STORE CHANGE / E X I T - AC CLEAR  248 6  /  2427 2430 24 31  /  2432  230 6  0000  2433 2434 2435 243 6 2437  2 307 2310 231 1 2312 2313  7200 1110 0315 6332 3110  2440 2441  2314  570 6  2442 2443 2444 2445 2446 2447 2450  231 5 231 6  2 4 51  /ROTATE  DIR I ONSW  /TO TURN O F F / OFFSW, 0  POWER  CLA TAD DIR AND M K 2 0 0 0 6332 DCA D I R JMP  I  OFFSW  TRANSISTOR  /CLEAR /OF  BIT  MK2000, MC2000, /  /SET GATES /STORE CHANGE / E X I T - AC C L E A R  5777 '2000  /  *2400 / / /TO  BALANCE THE  1  DIR  / 5777 2000  DIR  POLARIZER  AND  TYPE  - 77 2452 24 53 2454  2400  2455 2456 2 4 57  2401 2402 2403  0000 7200 1 127 44 52  24 60 2461 2 4 62  2404 2405  4214 5 600  24 24 24 24  '/OUT THE BALANCE P O S I T I O N / 0 8ALP, CLA TAD POLCD /SET POL ASETM /CODE JMS I JMS JMP  /USE BALU / E X I T .AC  CLEAR  / /  63 64 65 66  /TO B A L A N C E THE A N A L Y Z E R AND /OUT THE B A L A N C E P O S I T I O N / 0000 ' 7200 1 1 30 44 52 4214  BALA,  0 'CLA TAD JMS JMS  2 4 67 ' 2 4 7 0247 1 247 2 247 3 247 4 247 5 247 6 247 7 2500  240 6 '2'4 0 7 2410 241 1 2412  2501 2502  2414 241 5 241 6 2417 2420 2421 2422  0000 4432 4432 444 6 1247 4 4 31 3 352  2510 251 1 2512 251 3 2514 251 5 251 6 2517 2520 2521 2522 2523  24-23 2424  443 5 1110  JMS TAD  2425 242 6 2427 ' 2430 2431  7 104 7 630 4451 1 100 4440  2432 2433 2434243 5 243 6  1 101 4440 4432 44 32 4432  CLL SZL JMS TAD JMS TAD JMS  2524 2525  2437 2440  1250 4454  2526 2527  2441 2442  1251 4454  2530 2531 2532  2443 2444 2445  4432 1 352 4437  2533 2534  2446 2447  5614 0017  2535  2450  0305  2536 2537 2540 2541 2542 2543 2544  2451  2545 254 6 2547 25 50  2503 250 4 2505 250 6 2507  BALU I BALP  2413  JMP  5 60 6 / / /TO /  ANZCD • 1 ASETM  /SET ANZ /CODE  BALU  /USE.BALU  I  /EXIT  BALA  B A L A N C E THE  BALU,  0 JMS JMS JMS TAD JMS DCA  JMS JMS JMS TAD JMS TAD  TYPE  UNIT  I ASPACE I ASPACE I ABAL CHI CD I AANALG ESIG •I -AR DS-F'-T DIR RAL CLA I AANZCP SHFTH I APRTDC SHFTL I APRTDC I ASPACE I ASPACE I ASPACE CE I ABUFF  JMS  CS I ABUFF  JMS TAD JMS  ESIG I APRTOC  I  ASPACE  -  SPECIFIED  AC  CLEAR  ABOVE  /TYPE 2 SPACES /BALANCE /READ /PHOTOMULTIPLIER /STORE READING /READ SHAFT ENCODER /I F A N Z T H E N C O M P /BY  3 60.00  /PRINT /SHAFT  OUT ENCODER  /PRINT  3  SPACES  / T Y P E ESC E R R O R /SIGNAL) /LEAVE /PRINT  CH1CD,  JMP I 0017  0323  CE, CS,  305 323  2452  0000  / / / T O DO A C O M L E T E B A L A N C E O F T H E / E L L I P S O M E T E R AND T Y P E OUT THE R E S U L T S 7 0 BALE,  2453 2454  1 1 27 4452  TAD JMS  POLCD I.ASETM  /SET POL /CODE  2455 2456  4446 1 130  JMS TAD  I ABAL ANZCD  /BALANCE /SET ANZ  SALU  /EXIT  SPACE OUT ES -  AC  CLEAR  POL ~  78 2551 2552 2553 2554 2555 25 5 6 2557 25 60 2561 2562 25 63 25 64 25 65 25 66 25 67 257 0 257 1 257 2 257 3 257 4 2575 257 6 257 7 2 600 2601 2602 2603 2 604 260 5 268 6 2 607 2610 261 1 2612 ' 261 3 2614 261 5 261 6 2617 2 620 2621 " 2622 2623 2624 2625 262 6 2627 2630 2631 2632 2633 2634 2635 2 63 6 2637 2640' 2 641 2 642 2643 2 644 2645 2646 2 647  4452 2457 44 4 6 24 60 2461 1 127 24 62 4452 2463 444 6 24 64 4432 4432 24 65 4432 24 66 44 35 24 67 1 344 247 3 44 54 247 1 2472 1345 44 54 247 3 2474 1346 4454 247 5 44 32 247 6 2477 1 1 00 4440 2500 1101 2501 4440 2 502 2503 4432 2504 4432 2 50 5 44 32 250 6 ' 1347 4454 2507 2510 1 3 50 44 54 251 1 2512 1351 4454 2513 2^14 44^2 'd 5 1 5 1130 4452 251 6 444 6 2517 2520 '1247 2 521 4431 3352 2522 2523 4435 2524 4451 2525 1 100 4440 2526 1101 . 2527 2530 4440 2531 4432 2532 4432 4432 2533 2534 1250 44 54 2535 2536 .1251 2 5 37. 44 54 2540 4432 2541 1352 2 542 4437 2543 5652 2544 0320 2545 0317 03 14 2546 0301 2 547 2550 .031 6 2551 0332 2552 0030  CP* CO* CLC* CA* CM* cz* ESIG*  JMS I ASETM JMS I ABAL TAD POLCD JMS I ASETM JM S I ABAL JMS I ASPACE JMS I ASPACE JMS 1 ASPACE JMS I ARDSFT TAD CP JMS I A B U F F TAD CO JMS I A.3UFF TAD CLC JMS I ABUFF JMS I ASPACE TAD SHFTH JMS I APHTDC TAD SHFTL JMS I APHTDC JMS I ASPACE JMS I ASPACE JMS I ASPACE TAD CA JMS I A 3 U F F TAD CM JMS I A B U F F TAD CZ JMS I A B U F F JM S I ASPACE TAD AM ZC D JMS I ASETM JMS I.ABAL TAD CHI CD JMS ' I AAMALG DCA E S I G JMS I AHDSFT JMS I AAMZCP TAD SH FTH JMS I APHTDC TAD SHFTL JMS I APHTDC JMS I ASPACE JMS I ASPACE JMS I ASPACE TAD CE JMS I A B U F F TAD CS JMS I A B U F F JMS I A S P A C E TAD ESI G JMS I APHTOC JMP I BALE 320 317 314 • 301 316 332 0  / /  *2600  /CODE /BALANCE /SET POL /CODE /BALANCE /TYPE  3  ANZ  POL SPACES  /READ SHAFT /TYPE  ENCODER  "POL  /LEAVE A  SPACE  /PRINT OUT SHAFT /ENCODER ( P O L )  /LEAVE  /TYPE  3  SPACES  "ANZ"  / L E A V E A SPACE /oET ANZ /CODE /BALANCE ANZ /READ /PHOTOMULTIPLIER /STORE /READ SHAFT ENCODER /COMPLIMENT BY / 3 60.0O /PRINT OUT SHAFT /ENCODER (ANZ)  /LEAVE  3  SPACES  /TYPE " E S "  /LEAVE SPACE / T Y P E OUT ES / E X I T - AC  CLEAR  -  2650 2651 2652 2653 2654 2655 265 6 2657 2 660 2 661 2 662 2 663 2664 .26.65 2666 2667 2670 2 67 1 267 2 2 67 3 2 67 4 2 67 5 267 6 2 67 7 2700 2701  -  / /  /TO 600 601 602 603  0000 4432 4432 421 4  2 604 2 60 5  4 4 60 5 600  2 2 2 2  SET  THE  ANALYZER  0 JMS JMS JMS  I ASPACE I ASPACE RDFVE  JMS JMP  I I  THE  POLARIZER  0 JMS JMS JMS JMS JMP  I ASPACE I ASPACE RDFVE I ASETPL I. SETPR  FROM  THE  KEYBOARD  / SETAR,  '• .  ASETAN SETAR  / T Y P E TWO SPACES /READ A 5 DIGIT /BCD NUMBER /USE SETAN ROUTINE / E X I T - AC C L E A R  / /  /TO  SET  FROM  THE  KEYBOARD  / 2 60 6 2 607 2 610 261 1 2 612 2 613  0000 4432 4432 42 1 4 4 4 61 5 60 6  SETPR*  /TYPE  TW0  SPACES  /READ NUMBER /USE SETPL / E X I T - AC C L E A R  / /  2702  2 614  0000  27 0 3 27 0 4  2615 2 616  4455 7 42 1  8705 270 6 2707  2 617 2 62w 2 621  '7  27 10 27 1 1 27 12  2 2 2 2  27 1 3  79  622 623 624 ' 62 5  /TO R E A D A 5 D I G I T B C D /THE KEYBOARD / 0 RDFVE* AREAD3 JMS I  i  MQL ACL  4 4 54 7 70 1 1 300 7 1 0 6 700 6 3134  ACL TAD CLL RTL DCA  / fn  * vv  445 5 7421 7701 44 54  1  M  I  C  IT  AREADB  I  ABUFF  /TYPE  TAD TAD DCA  M2 60 DECH DECH I AREADB  /REMOVE  I  /TYPE  2633 2 634  1 300 1 1 34  27 2 3 27 2 4 27 2 5  3134 4455 7421  JMS MQL  27 2 6 2727  8635 2 63 6 2 637 2 640 2641  7 7 01 4454  ACL JMS  27 30 2731 27 3 2  2 642 2 643 2 644  ACL TAD  27 3 3 27 34  2 645 2646  7 701 1 300 7 110 7012 7012  2735 273 6 27 37 2740 27 41 2742 27 4 3 2744 2745  2 647 2650 2651 2652 2 653 2 654 2655 2656 2 657  3133 445 5 7421  DCA . JMS MQL ACL  27 4 6  2 660  7701 1300 7106 700 6 1 133  CHAR  I  DECH  27 21 27 2 2  7701 4454  /TYPE  FIRST  JMS MQL ACL JMS ACL  2 62 6  7701  /READ  FROM  /REMOVE A S K I I CODE /ROTATE 4 BITS /LEFT /STORE IN DECH /GET 2ND CHAR  M2 60 RTL  27 1 4 2715 27 1 6 2 7 17 . 27 2 0  2 627 2630 2631 2632  A3 UF F  CHARACTER  ABUFF  M2 60 RAR  CLL RTR RTR  DECL I AREADB  /ADD /GET  IT ASKII  TO DECH 3RD CHAR  /REMOVE  IT ASKI I  /STORE IN HIGH /ORDER 4 B I T S OF /DECL /GET 4TH CHAR  v  ABUFF JMS* I ACL T A D M2 60 CLL RTL RTL TAD DECL  /TYPE  IT  /REMOVE ASKII /STORE IN MIDDLE /4 B I T S OF /DECL  - 80 47 50 51 52  2 661 2 662 2663 2 6 64  3133 4455 ' 7421 7 701  27 5 3 27 5 4 27 5 5 27 5 6 27 57 27 60 2 7 61 27 62 27 63 27 64 27 65 27 6 6 2 7 67 2770  2665 2 66 6 2 6 67 2 670 2 671 2 67 2 2 67 3 2 674 2 67 5 2 67 6 2 67 7 27 00  4454 7701 1300 1 1 33 3133 4457 1126' 3136 1 125 3135 5 614 7520  27 27 27 27  277 1 27 7 2 27 7 3 27 7 4 277 5 27 7 6 27 77 3000 300 1 3002 300 3 3004 300 5 300 6 3007 30 1 0 30 1 1 30 12 3013 3014 30 1 5 30 1 6 3017 .3020 3021 3022 3023 3024 3025 302 6 3027 3030 3031 3032 3033 3034 30 35 303 6 3037 3040 3'041 3042 3043 3044 3045  i  M260, / /  DCA JMS MQL ACL  DECL I AREADB  /GET  JMS ACL TAD TAD DCA JMS TAD DCA TAD DCA JMP -260  I  /TYPE  ABliFF  M2 60 DECL DECL I ADPD3N CH DESTH CL DESTL I RDFVE  LAST  CHAR  IT  /REMOVE ASKII / S T O R E IN L O W / 4 B I T S OF DECL / C O N V E R T TO BIN /STOKE IN /DESTINATION /(DESTH,DESTL) / E X I T - AC C L E A R  *3000 / / /TO / 0000 3000 4432 300 1 3 0 0 2 . 44 55 300 3 7421 3004 7 701 4454 3005 4432 300 6 3 0 07 1 300 130 1 3010 7 640 301 1 3012 523 1 3013 7 701 1 302 3014 3015 30 1 6 3017 3020 3021 3022 3023 3024 3025 3026 3027 3030 3031 3032 3033 30 34 3035 3036 3037 3040 3041 3042 3043 3044 3045 3046  7 640 5222 1131 44 52 52 52 7701 1 303 7 640 5 600 1 304 4452 5252 1300 1 30 5 7 640 5 600 7 701 1 302 7 640 5244 1 1 32 4452 5252 7701 1303 7 640  MOV E  MOTR,  MOTORS  0 ASPACE JMS I AREADB JMS I MQL ACL ABUFF JMS I JM S I ASPACE TAD MOTINF T A D MX SZA CLA J M P YM ACL TAD M F SZA JMP TAD  MXR,  YM,  MYR,  FROM  JMS JMP ACL TAD SZA JMP TAD JMS JMP TAD TAD SZA JMP ACL TAD SZA JMP TAD JMS JMP ACL TAD SZA  CLA MXK M2XCD I ASETM RUMM MR CLA 1 MOTH M2XCDR I ASETM RUNM MOTINF MY CLA I  MOTR  KYBRD  /TYPE SPACE / G E T F'R C H A R /SAVE / T Y P E FR C H A R /TYPE SPACE /-I-NT-ERR0GATE X Y  /XY IS NOT X /XY IS X /INTERROGATE / F O R R E V .CHAR /FR IS N O T F' /FR IS F SET /MOTORS X - F O R /RUN MOTORS / L O A D FR /IS IT R  CHAR  /NO EXIT /YES - SET MOTORS /TO X-REV /RUN MOTORS /IS XY C H A R Y  /NO /YES  - E X I T G E T FR  CHAR  MF CLA MYR M2YCD I ASETM RUNM MR CLA  / /  S A M E FOR AS FOR X  Y  - 81  304 6 3047 30 5 0 30 5 1 30 52 30 53 30 54 3055 30 5 6 30 57 30 60 30 61 30 62 30 63 30 64 30 65 30 66 30 67 307 0 307 1 307 2 307 3 307 4. 307 5 307 6 307 7 3100 3101 3102 3103 3104  3105 3106 3107 3110 31 1 1 31 12 31 13 31 14 31 15 3116 31 17 3120 3121 3122 3123 3124 3125 3126 3127 3130 3131 3132 31 33 3134 3135 31 36 3137 3140 3141 31 42 3143 3144  -  3047 30 50 3051 30 52 30 53 30 54 3055 30 5 6 30 57 30 60 30 61 30 62 30 63 30 64 3065 30 66  5 600 1 306 44 52 4455 RUNM* 1307 7106 700 6 3310 4455 1307 1310 7421 7701 4432 '7 7 0 1 44 40  JMP I.MOTR TAD M2YCDR JMS I ASETM JMS I AHEADB TAD M260M CLL RTL RTL DCA SIXTN JMS I AREADB TAD M2 63M TAD SIXTN MQL ACL JMS I ASPACE ACL' JMS I APRTDC  30 67 3070  7731 4442  ACL JMS I ADCBIN  307 1 3072 307 3 307 4 307 5 307 6 3077 3100 3101 3102 3103 3104 3105 3106 3107 3110 3111 3112 31 13  7041 3310 1311 4444 231 0 5273 5 600 0000 74 50 7472 7-45'6 0 300 7 447 00 60 7 520 0000 2000 0330 0331  CIA DCA SIXTN TAD SIXTEN . JMS I AMOVE ISZ SIXTN JMP .-3 JMP I MOTR MOT IN Fi 0 MX* -330 MF* -306 MR* -322 M2XCDR, 300 Mr* -331 M2YCDR* 60 M2 60M* -2 60 SIXTM* 0 SIXTEN* 2000 MXC* 330 MYC* 331  /READ FIRST OF /TWO DIGITS TO /DETERMINE NO /OF 1/16" TO /PLATES  /SAVE /TYPE SPACE /TYPE OUT MOVEMENT OF PLATES /CONVERT MOVE/ENT TO BINARY /SET UP COUNTER . /STEP 1/16" /STEP REQUIRED /NO OF 1/16" ' /EXIT - AC CLEAR  / /  /TO MOVE X MOTOR /  3114 3115 3116 31 17 3120 3121  0000 7200 1312 3300 4200 57 14  MOTRX*  0  CLA TAD DCA JMS JMP  MXC MOTINF MOTR I MOTRX  /PUT "X" IN MOTOR / I'N FO /USE MOTR ROUTINE /RETURN  / /  /TO MOVE Y MOTOR /  31 22 3123 3124 3125 312 6 3127  0000 MOTRY* 7 200 1313 3300 4200 5722  0  CLA TAD DCA JMS JMP  MYC MOTINF MOTR I MOTRY  / /  *3200 /  /PUT "Y" IN MOTOR /INFO /USE MOTR ROUTINE /RETURN  - 82 /  3145 3146 3147  /TO /  0 JMS DCA DCA  FOR  A  BALANCE  31 5 0 3151 3152 3153 31 5 4  3200 3201 3202 3203 3204  0000 44 55 3237 3240 4 4 62  31 5 5 3156 3157 31 6 0  3205 3206 3207 3210 321 1  42 43 3241 42 43 3242 1 242  3 2 12 3213  7041 1241  CIA TAD  SMI  /SM1-SM2  3214 321 5  7 700 5223  SMA JMP  CLA UPHILL  /TEST RESULT /READS INCRESE  31 6 6 31 6 7 3170 317 1 3172  321 6 3217 3220 3221 3222  7 001 3240 1 242 3241 5207  3173 317 4  3223 3224  1237 7 640  IAC DCA TAD DCA JMP TAD SZA  DN F L A G SM2 SM1 LPSTP STPNO CLA  317 5 317 6 317 7 3200 3201  3225 322 6 3227  5231 1240 7 650  JMP TAD SNA  CNTST DN F L A G CLA  /NO B A L AGAIN /APPROACHING MIN  3230 3231  3802 3203 3204 320 5 3206  3832 32 33 3234 3235 3236  5235 3240 1 242  JMP DCA TAD DCA  ENDS TP DN F L A G SM2 SM) LPSTP I AOFFSW I STOP  /FIN INHED /CLEAR FLAG / R E P L A C E SMI BY /SM2 •/LOOP /CLOSE SHUTTER / E X I T - AC C L E A R  320 7 '3210 321 1 3212  31 61 31 6 2 31 6 3 31 6 4 31 6 5  321 3 32 14 3215 3216 32 1 7 3220 3221 3222 3223 3224 3225 322 6 3227 3230 3231 3232 3233 3234 3235 3236  .  STOP*  AND WAIT  SHUTTER  OPEN  JMS JMS DCA LPSTP*  UPHILL*  CNTST*  3 2'41  JMS DCA TAD  5207 44 63 5 600  ENDSTP*  JMP JMS JMP  3237 3240 3241  0000 0000 0000  STPNO* DNFLAG* SM 1 * ,  0 0 0  3242  0000  SM2*  0  / / /TO /  HEAD (SUM  /DETERMINE  I AHEADB STPNO DN F L A G I AONSW  /OPEN /READ /STORE /READ /SORE  RDP4 SMI RDP4 SM2 SM2  A N D SUM L E i<"T I N  NO  OF  /BALANCES /CLEAR FLAG SHUTTER PHOTOMULT ' READINGS AGAIN READINGS  /READS DECREASE /SET FLAG /REPLACE SMI  •  /BY SM2 /LOOP /LAST BAL?  PHOTOMULT AC)  4  TIMES  /  3243 3244 3245 3246 3247 3250 3251 3252 3253 3254 3255 3256  0000  RDP4*  12 55 3254 3256 4445 1256 22 54 5247 5 643 0000 7 7 74 0000  CNT4* M4C* SUMPTO*  0 TAD DCA DCA JMS TAD ISZ JMP JMP 0 -4 0  M4C CNT4 SUMPTO I ARDPTO  /SET COUNTER /CLEAR / R E A D PHOTOM  SUMPTO CNT4  / A D D TO /FOURTH  SUM TIME?  .-3 i'  /EXIT  RDP4  SUM  -  / /  *3400  3237 3240  /  3241 3242 3243  /TO I T E R R O G A T E /COMMANDS  /  /  KEYBOARD  AND  DECODE  IN. AC  - 83 3400 3401 3402 3403  445 6 4430 4455 7 421  32 50 3 2 51 3252 3253  3404 340 5  7 70 1 4454  340 6 3407  7 70 1 1246  32 54 32 5 5 3256  3410 341 1 341 2  32 57 32 60 3261 32 62 32 63 32 64 3265 32 66 32 67 3270 3271 3272  341 3 3414 34-1 5  7 002 3247 4455 7 481 7701 4454  327 3 327 4 327 5 327 6 3277  3427 3430 3431 3432 3433  3300  3434 3435  3244 324 5 324 6 3247  330 i 3302 3303 330 4 3305 330 6  341 6 3417 3420 3421 3422 3423 3424 3425 342 6  STSYS*  JMS  I  AIM  JMS JMS MQL  I I  ACRLF AREADB  I  ABUFF  ACL JMS ACL TAD 3SW DCA JMS  7 701 1246 1247 3247 1243 301 5 1415 7041 7450 5241 1 247 7 640 5224 10 15 1 244 3245  1 ADSTOR ADSTOR I ADSTOR I ACRLF STSYS  3 677 0040  STLST* ADLST*  3677 40  331 1 3312 3313 3314 3315  3445 344 6 3447  0000 7500 0000  ADSTOR* KC300* CHARAD* / /  0 -300 0  370B  ABE*  331 6 3317 3320 . 3321 3322  37 01 3702 3703  0805 0201 0220 2301  3323 3324  37 0 4 370 5  2320 1 530  3325 3326  370 6 3707  1531 2302  ASP* A MX* AMY * ASB*  3327 3330 3331  3 7 10  1723 0323 0000  AOS* ACS* AEND*  37 1 1 3712  ABA* A3P* ASA*  *3700 020 5 020 1 0220 2301  /.TYPE  SWAP 1ST CHAR 2ND CHAR  IT  /SUBT 300 / P U T I N LOW B Y T E / W I T H 1ST CHAR /SET ADDRESS OF /POINTER /GET COMPARISON /WORD. NEGATE /0 INDICATES END /OF LIST /COMPARE /I F N O T T H E S A M E /GET NEXT COMP /ADDRESS OF LOC /IS SUMM /SAVE ADDRESS /GET ADDRESS OF /COMMAND, SAVE IT /EXECUTE COMMAND / C R L F ENDS COMMAND /START OVER  /CODES FOR /COMPARISON  2320 1 530 1531 2302 1723. 0323 0  / /  3332 3333 3334 3335 333 6 3337 3340 3341 3342  /BYTE /SAVE /READ  TAD DCA JMS JMS JMP  3443 3444  A CHAR IT  CHARAD I AREADB  EMDLST CHARAD CLA .-6 LSTPT ADLST ADSTOR  3307 33 1 0  ENDLST*  /CRLF /READ /SAVE  KG300  JMP TAD SZA JMP TAD TAD DCA  3441 • 3442  /INITILIZE  /LOAD IT /TYPE IT /LOAD AGAIN /SUB 300  MQL ACL . J M S .1 A B U F F ACL TAD K C 3 0 0 TAD CHARAD DCA CHARAD TAD STLST DCA L S T P T TAD I LSTPT CIA SNA  1 645 3845 4 645 4430 5802  343 6 3437 3440  IT  37 .37 37 37 37  40 41 42 43 44  3745  2452 2406 2400 2600  BBE* 3BA, BBP* BSA*  *3740 BALE BALA ' BALP SETAR  2606 ' 3114  BSP* 3MX*  SETPR MOTRX  /ADDRESSES /OF SUBROUTINES  3343 3344 3345 334 6 3347 33 50 NO  37 4 6 37 47 37 50 37 51  3MY> BS3* BOS.. 3CS, / /  ERRORS  AANALG AANZCP ABA ABAL ABE A3NBCD ABP ABUFF ACCNTU ACCST ACCSTP AC CUM ACL ACOMP0 ACOMP1 AC 0MP2 AC RL F ACS ACTI ME ADCBIN ADLST ADPADD ADPD3N ADPSUB ADSTOR A EN D AH AHEAD AINIT AINTSR AKFXAG AKYCMT AL AMOVE AMULT5 AMX AMY ANALG ANZCD ANZ CP ANZ 2 AOFFSW AONSW AOS APOS0 APOSl AP0S2 APOS3 AP0S4 APHTDC APRTOC ARDDVM ARDPTO AHDSFT  3122 00 64 227 6 2306  84  00 31 0051 3701 004 6 3700 0041 370 2 00 54 07 0 2 0 667 07 1 6 0370 7 7 01 1727 17 30 1731 00 30 37 1 1 07 22 0042 3444 00 50 00 57 0047 344 5 3712 0122 20 60 00 5 6 0002 0 57 1 0 57 2 0 121 0044 00 5 3 3705 3706 .0 50 6 0130 0723 . 2 1 67 0063 00 62 '3710 1 50 6 1 507 1510 1511 1512 0040 0037 00 3 6 004 5 0035  MOTRY ASTOP ON s w OFFSW  AHEADB  00 5 5  AHEV ASA  004 3 3733  AS3 ASETAN ASETM ASETPL ASP ASPACE ASTACK ASTEP AS TOP ASTOKE ASUM ASUMH ASUML ATFLAG ATLC'NT AWAIT BACK BAL BALA BALE BAL LP 1 BALP 3ALU BBA B3E 33P 3CS. BH BHLDK SKWD BK2 3K3 BL BLFLAG 3MX 3MY 3NBCD BNBR .  3707 0 0 60 00 52 0 0 61 370 4 0032 172 5 0033 0 0 64 1726 1724 0107 013 6 3 570 0 57 3 00 34 10 63 1600 240 6 2452 1611 2400 2414 37 41 37 4 0 37 4 2 375i 01 a4 2177 2166 1102 1124 012 3 1 7 2.3 374 5 37 4 6 10 53 1142  BNLP1 BNLP2 BNL.P3  1055 107 6 1120  BOS BSA BS3 BSP  37 5 0 37 43 37 47 3744  BSW BUFFER BUFLP1  7 002 0250 02 53  BUFPT. CA. CAM CE CH CHARAD CHDIR CHI CD CL CLASWP CLC CLTFLG  0011 2 547 7 621 2453 012 6 3447 i420 2447 012 5 7721 2546 027 6  CMPSM  1466  CN CNTST  2 5 50  CNT3 CNT3HD CNT4  3 2 31 2243 2244 3254  CO COMP0 COMP 1  2 54 5 1 444 1452  COMP 2 CP CRLF CS  14 60 2544 0400 2451 0.244  C.i'HOP  CZ DCBIN  2551 1000  DECH DECL DE5TH DESTL DI G  0134 0133  DIGCTR DI H  0 502 0110  DMSEH DMSEL  2172 217 1 3840 0 10 5 1 541  DN F L AG DNUMB DPADD  0 136 0135 1 143  DPD3N DP S U B DPX2 DPX8H DPX2L DPX5 DPX5H DPX5L DvMH DVML  2200 1553  ENDBUF ENDXBF  ENDS T P ENDTIM  0 3 62 0365 3441 1325 0010 3235 0 62 5  ESIG EXTINT  2552 0213  FINISH  F"NH3  10 6 6 0355 143 3 1104 1126  FWD HLDBL1  21 65 1722  HI 8 3 H3 60 INITZE INTHPT INTSEH  2173 217 5 0543  KBDCNT KC F  0 37 4 60 3 0  KC 10 KC100  1 146 1 1 45  ENDLST ENDSK1 ENDSTK  FLAGUP FLGSET F"NH2  2245 2240 2237 22 5 5 2242 2241 0103 0102  0330 0200  KG 1 0 3 0  1.144  KG 3 KG 3 0 0 KG 4 KK1777  0 53 3  KK2177 KPDPS KY3DPT KY 3 R D KYFLAG KYN D2 KYNEND K1000D K212 K215 K2 49  344 6 3 47 7 0 56 6 0 5 67 1 57 1 0-31 3 3302 0 3 67 0 347 0314 07 45 3 41 4 0415  LKPRT LP STP LPSUM  041 6 047 6 07 4 6 0 37 1 3 57 4 3207 1 335  LSTPT L180  0015 2174  K2 63 K3 5D LINK  - 217 6 0 47 3 MASK 17' 3 5 0 4 MASK37 0 653 MASK40 3 652 L 3 60 MASK  MC233G MF MK1 7 MK2000  0 47 5 2 3 l 6 3102 102 5 2315  MK3 60 MK7 4 0 0  102 6 1027  MK7 7 MK7 7 3 0 MLT103 MM B R MOTINF  0 541 0 540  -  1344  MOTOR MOTR  10 4 3 3100 1434 3000  MOTRX MOTRY  3114 3122  MOVE MQA MQL  143 5 7 501 7 421  MQSAVE MR MSDIG MSKDIR MSKDR1 MSKDR2 MSKD1  0 37 2 3133 0104  M U L T 10 MULT 5 MVEFWD  1030 1034  MX MXC MXR MY MYC  1416 1432 1417 071 5  2126 3101 31 1 2 3022 3105 3113  - 88 MYR  30 44  M2XCD M2XCDR  0 131 3104  M2YCD M2YCDR M260 W2 6 0 M M4C NOTEDB is)0TEND NUMBER OCNBR OFFSW ONSW PHTOCD POLCD P0L2 POSCT POS0 POS1 P0S2 POS 3 P0S4 PRINT PRTDC PRTOC RDDVM RDFVE RDPTO RDP4 RDSFT READS READPT REV ROTNBR RUNM SETAN SETAR SETEL SETKFL SETM . SETPL  0 132 3106 27 00 3107 3255 027 1 0241 0 500 1024 230 6 227 6 1354 0127 2170 1721 1622 1625 1633 1 6 60 17 1 3 0417 0447 0461 0 63 5 2 614 1347 324 3 -0 62-6 0330 0014 1400 047 4 30 52 2143 2 600 2000 0 324 1421 2154  SETPR SHFTH SHFTL SHIGH SIXTEN SIXTN SKC16 SMI SM2 SPACE SPF STACK STBL ST3UF STEP STEP1  2 60 6 0100 0101 0 542 3111 3110 0717 3241 3242 0407 6040 1300 1603 0363 0 654 0 600  STKL STKLC STKYBF  0111 0112 03 66  STLP1 STLST  1523 3443  - 89 STNBR STOP  3 501 2200  STORE STPCNT STP.\'0 STROT STSTK  15i3 3117 3237 3 50 5 3 120  STSYS 3432 SUBPT 2027 SUM 132 6 SUMH1 3113 SUMH2 8114 SUML1 0115 .SUM!. 2 0.1 1 6 SUMPTO 32 5 6 SVSTKl 1323 SVSTK2 1324 SWP 7 521 S8GTS1 1534 S 2 L T S 1 153 5 TELCNT 037 3 TELTP 022 3 TFLAG 0 3 64 T Y P E P T 0 0 12 UNPACK 3 42 5 UPHILL 3223 WA I T 0 611 WLP1 3 614 WT 3 613 ,MT T M "Z" • CAl O •V * a i J i-. rj i * n-pi Vi I  m  L  r.\ "j r, r\ tt t C YJ  3031  1  

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